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Full text of "The history of the Church Missionary Society : its environment, its men and its work"

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BV 2500 .A3 S8 v. 4 
Stock, Eugene, 1836-1928. 
The history of the Church 
Missionary Society 



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.^WlOFPMjf^ 



JAN H 1919 
THE V/V ■''..jS 

HISTORY 

OF THE 

CHURCH MISSIONARY 
SOCIETY 



EUGENE ''stock, D.C.L. 

FOKMERLY EDITORTAL SECRETARY, C.M.S. 



" Telling to the generation to come the praises of the Lord, and His 
strength, and His wondrous works that He hath done .... That they 
■might set their hope in God, and not forget the works of God, but keep 
His Commandments." — Ps. Ixxviii. 4, 7, R.v. 



SUPPLEMENTARY VOLUME 
THE FOURTH. 



LONDON 

CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

SALISBURY SQUARE, E.G. 

1916 

[A// rights reserved] 



PREFACE 



WHEN I first thought of writing the stoiy of the C.M.S. 
during tlie years that have elapsed since the Cente- 
nary, I had no idea of producing so large a work 
as a fourth volume of the History published in 1899 must 
necessarily be. I only contemplated a small book for popular 
use. I had at first no intention of reporting on the several 
Missions in order. My idea was a brief narrative of the Society's 
proceedings at home. This would include its reception of 
information from the field and of missionaries on furlough, so 
that any events abroad of exceptional importance would in 
this way be mentioned in the indirect form of news coming to 
Salisbury Square. But the book would, in the main, be the 
history of the Society, rather than of the Society's Missions, 
during the period. 

But this plan proved to be unworkable ; and it became 
obvious that the Missions must be dealt with separately if 
their story, however condensed, was to be intelligible. Still, 
however, I proposed onl}' a small volume for general circula- 
tion ; and I began writing on a very limited scale accordingl}-. 
But when some portions of the MS. were submitted to the 
Secretaries, they were not satisfied. They urged that India 
and China, in particular, called for much fuller treatment. 
Eventually it was decided by the Pubhcations Sub- Committee 
that I should attempt a Fourth Volume of the History on a 
scale similar to that of the previous three volumes. 

One result of the change of plan has been the delay of over 
a year in bringing out the work. My original idea was to stop 
at the Declaration of War, August, 1914, and to have the book 
out by Easter, 1915. The period I should treat would thus be 
just fifteen years from the Centenary, which was kept in 
April, 1899. As another year's work became necessary, it was 
also necessary to bring the narrative down a year or so later, 
and practically to produce a sixteen j^ears' history. But I had 
already made a number of statistical and other comparisons 
based on the idea of the " fifteen-year period " ; and it has not 
been possible to alter all these. The book, therefore, contains 



iv Preface. 

a good many references to the "fifteen-year period," although 
the events of the additional year and a half have been added. 
In fact, the narrative, in certain particulars, runs even into the 
early months of 1916, so that, in so far as those particulars 
are concerned, the period covered is little short of seventeen 
years. The result is that some slight inconsistencies may be 
detected here and there ; but I do not think they are of any real 
consequence. This explanation, however, should be borne in 
mind. 

In one respect this volume differs from its predecessors. 
Their title was, " The History of the C.M.S. : its Environment, 
its Men, and its Work " ; and many of the chapters practically 
embodied a sketch of the history of the Church of England for 
the hundred years reviewed, — a sketch which in fact gave 
much general information not to be found in any other pub- 
lished history. But in the present volume no attempt has 
been made to continue this sketch. The " environment " 
described in these pages is the environment in the Asiatic and 
African fields. The Church at home is only referred to so far 
as the Society's own history requires, chiefly in the 52nd and 
53rd chapters. 

On the other hand, more space is given than before to the 
development of the Society's own work at home. That 
development has been one of the chief features of the period 
reviewed, and many details are given to which there is but 
little corresponding in the previous volumes. I can quite 
anticipate that some of my friends in the mission-field may be 
disposed to inquire why more space should be given to the 
2)ersonnd of the home staff, to Salisbury Square methods and 
proceedings, to Local Associations, Summer Schools, Publica; 
tions, &:c., than to this or that important Mission. But I re- 
member how Alexander Mackay wrote from Uganda begging for 
more information in the periodicals about the home organization 
and work. Such information, he pleaded, was to the mission- 
aries in the field as interesting as missionary letters were to 
readers at home. The result actually was that for several 
years notices of local meetings, &c., were given three or four 
pages in each issue of the old IntdUnencer. Mackay 
would have appreciated the modern Gazette. He himself, 
within five months of the announcement of the new Gleaners' 
Union, in 1886, wrote from Uganda enthusiastically about 
it, and sent home a remarkable diagram, which he called 

* The letters " C.M.S." and " F.S.M." will be noticed. The latter refer to 
the February Simultaneous Meetings of 1886, which also Mackay had noted 
with interest. 



Preface. v 

" The Gleaners' Union Chart of Main Statistics " " by a 
Fellow Servant in the Mission." * It shows, on strict mathe- 
matical lines, the Society's progress in missionaries, stations, 
schools, converts, funds, &c. It was reproduced in the 
Gleaner ^ of July, 1887. Mackay evidently realized how much 
the Firing Line depends upon the Home Base — a lesson we 
have all been learning by hard experience in the present War. 

Since the greater part of this book was in type. Canon 
C H. Robinson's Hintorii of CJniHtian Missions has appeared. 
I regret that although I have read every line of that valuable 
work, I have not been able to make much use of it in my 
pages. It was too late, in fact, to do so, though I have 
gathered from it, and referred to it, here and there. 

I have added, by way of Appendix, a long chapter on the 
effects of the War upon the Missions, that is, sofai — for who can 
tell how far it may further affect them '? We can but commit 
them to the care and guidance of the Lord by Whose command 
they are undertaken, and Who will assurelly overrule all 
events to the accomplishment of His own wise and gracious 
purposes. 

To Him also I would humbly and reverently commit this 
book, with all its imperfections, in deep thankfulness for the 
high privilege, in old age, of recording the further history of 
one of the agencies employed by Him and His Church for the 
advancement of His Kingdom. 

E. S. 

April, 1916. 



THE FKONTIS PIECE. 

The portrait of the President, the Eight Hon. Sir John 
H. Kennaway, Bart., which appears as the Frontispiece to 
this volume, is from an oil painting by Miss C. Ouless, 
painted in 1915, and presented to the Society for the 
Committee Room at Salisbury Square. 



CONTENTS OF VOL IV. 

^art E, 
PRELIMINARY CHAPTERS. 

CHAPTER I. 

The C.M.S. Centenary. 

PAGE 

The L^nd Jubilee, Nov., 1898 -The Centenary, April, 1899— A Week 
of Meetings — Wednesday, the Centenary Day — The Times 
on the Centenary — Meetings in the Provinces— Meetings 
Abroad— The Centenary Fund — The Centenary Volume . 3 

CHAPTER II. 

The Outlook after the Centenary. 

Retrospect: C.M.S. Home Developments; the Church Waking 
w\) — The Outlook Abroad: Africa, India, China, kc. — The 
Committee's Bird's-eye View of the Period and Work — Pro- 
blem of Native Church Organization ..... 16 

CHAPTER III. 

Brief Survey of the Sixteen Year.*;. 

The Boer War : Unity of the Empire ; a Pattern for the Church — 
Colonial Co-operation — A Record Year for Recruits — Death 
of Queen Victoria — King Edward and King George — Other 
Centenai'ies — Archbishop Temple — C.M.S. Missionaries raised 
to the Episcopate — Pan-Anglican Congress and Lambeth 
Conference — Edinburgh Conference — Student Movement — 
Doubts in S.P.G. and C.M.S. Circles — Personal Changes — 
Home Developments — The Funds — Swan wick — The War . 21 



viii Contents. 

THE FOREIGN FIELD. 

CHAPTER IV. 

AntiCA : The Poaeks am> the Peoples. 

PAGE 

Retrospect of Public Events— Angrlo- German Agreements for 
Africa — Anglo-French Questions— Conquest of the Eastern 
Sudan — Developments in African Protectorates and Spheres 
of Influence — Boer and other Wars — Evil Influences : Congo 
Atrocities, Liquor Traffic, Slavery, &c.— Islam in Africa — 
Nigeria Protectorate — Uganda : the Railway, the Kabaka — 
British East Africa — The Eastern Sudan — Livingstone 
Centenary ........... 33 

CHAPTER V. 

Africa : Christian Missions. 

Missions in North Africa — In West and South- West Africa — In 
East and South Central Africa— In South Africa — Roman 
Missions ........... ^-2. 

CHAPTER VI. 

C.M.S. Missions: West Africa. 

Sierra Leone : the Bishops, kc. — Influence of the Colony — Diocese 
of Western Equatorial Africa — S. P. 6. on the Gold Coast— 
The C.M.S. Staff— Work of the Mission and the Native 
Church— The Niger: the Delta and up the River— Church 
Organization — Northern Nigeria : Advances and Repulses . -59 

CHAPTER VII. 

C.M.S. Missions: East Africa. 

British East Africa : Mombasa, Frere Town. &c. — German East 
Africa : Progress Prior to the War— British East Africa : the 
lutei-ior — Kikuyu District—Kikuyu Conference ... 75 

CHAPTER VIII. 

C.M.S. Missions: Uganda. 

The New Diocese of Uganda— Testimonies of Governors and 
Visitors — Four Christian King.s — Conversion and Death of 
Mwanga — Bones of Martyrs found — Bishop Wilkinson's Gifts 
— Progress and Extension of the Mis.sion — Educational and 
Medical Work — The Cathedrals— Baganda Clergy and Evan- 
gelists — Baganda Christians — Roman Mission — Churcli 
Organization : Synod Meeting — New Heresv — Advantage of 
one Church— The C.M.S. Staff— Bishop Tucker : Retirement 
and Death ; the Arclibishop's Tribute 83 



Contents. ix 

CHAPTER IX. 
C.M.S. Missions: Egvi'T and the Sudan. 

PAGK 

Plans for Gordon Memorial Mission — C.M.S. and the Government 
— Gordon College — Medical and School Work at Khartum — 
Bishop of London's Visit : the Cathedral — Lord Cromer's 
Invitation to C.M.S. — New Mission on the L'^pper Xile — 
Pro<rress in Egyi)t — Islam and Christianity — Coptic Church — 
Bishop Maclnues 105 

CHAPTER X. 

IsL.AM AND Mohammedan Missions. 

Books on Islam — Cairo and Luckuow Conferences — Student 
Christian Movement at Constantinople — Moslem Population 
of the World— Raymuud Lull, Henry Martyn, &c.— C.M.S. 
and other Missions — Keith Falconer, Bi.shop French, the 
Zwemers, Pfander— Malays and Afghans — Moslem Efforts in 
England ... * 115 

CHAPTER XI. 

C.M.S. Missions : Palestine. 

The Kaiser in Palestine— Young Tui-k Party— C.M.S. Staff- 
Women's Work, Medical Work, &c. — Bishops Blyth and 
Maclnues * . . 124 

CHAPTER XII. 

C.M.S. Missions : Turkish Arabia. 
Baghdad and Mosul— The Staff— A Work of Faith . . .129 

CHAPTER XIII. 

C.M.S. Missions : Persia. 

Persia in Recent Years — C.M.S. Staff — Julfa, Ispahan. Shiraz. 
Yezd, Kerman — Bahaism — The Bakhtiari — Bishops Stuart and 
Stileman — Death of Dr. Bruce — Other Missions . . . 131 

CHAPTER XIV. 

India: Its Rulers and its Religions. 

Lord Curzou and other Rulers — Soldiers' Gifts to Missions — Royal 
Interest — King George's Visit : His Public Profession ' of 
Religion— The Unre.st, its Causes and Limitations — The 
Renaissance— Opinions of Sir J. Buurdillon, Sir Mackworth 
Young, etc. — The Education Question : Failui-e of Secular 
Education — Power of Idolatry and Caste — The Dark Side of 
Hinduism — Modern Movements : Arya Samaj, &c. — Mi-s. 
Besant's College — The Moslems: Aligarh College — The 
Population of India — The Prospect 137 



X Contents. 

CHAPTER XV. 

India: Tjie Cukistiax Missions. 

I'Ar.E 
Statistics of Missionary Societies — Summary of their Work— The 
Indian Missionary Society — Statistics of Indian Christendom 
— Indian Estimate of Christian Progrress — The Mass Move- 
ments — Chai-acter of Indian Christians— British Opinion and 
Treatment of them — The Anprlo-Indians— Attitude of the 
Christian Church towards Indian Religions : Sir J. Bourdillon, 
B. Lucas, J. N. Faix^uhar, Prof. Hogg, Bishop Copleston, 
Bishop Whitehead, Prof. Cairns, &c. 158 

CHAPTER XVI. 

India : The Anglican Cjiukcii and Union Movements. 

The Anglican Episcopate— New Bishops— The First Indian Bishop 
— Plans for Synodical Organization — Dr. Motfs Campaign 
1912-13— The Memorable December of 1912— The National 
Conference — The National Council — The Futiu-e Indian 
Church— Bishop Whitehead's Views — Kikuyu anticipated . 180 

CHAPTER XVII. 

C.M.S. Missions— General. 

The C.M.S. Staff: its Inadequacy — Increase of Women — 
Deaths and Retirements— Indian Clergy— Baptisms— Higher 
Education — Literary Work Native Church Councils . . 195 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

C.M.S. Missions : Diocese of Lahore. 

The Field and the Men— R. Clark, Imad-ud-din, &c.— Growth of the 
Christian Community — Amritsar, Tarn Taran. Lahore, &c. — 
The Jhang Bar — Kashmir : School and Hospital — Peshawar and 
Bannu— Dr. Pennell— Baluch Mission— Sindh — Medical and 
Women's Work — New Church Council — Bishops Lefroy 
and Dm-rant— S.P.G. and Other Missions .... 202 

CHAPTER XIX. 

C.M.S. Missions : Diocese op Bombay. 

The Staff and the Work— Ruttonji Nowroji, Mrs. Soraliji— The 

Parsis and Moslems — The Bishops of Bombay— Other Missions 216 

CHAPTER XX. 

C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Nagpur. 

The Field and the Staff— Jabalpur, Bharatpur. Gond Mission— 
Bhil Mission : Famine ; Sickness and Death — The Bhil 
Christians -1^' 



Contents. xi 

CHAPTER XXI. 
C.M.S. Missions : Diocese of Luckxow. 

PAGE 

Tlie Field aud the Work— Deaths and Retirements — Native 
Clergy in Important Posts — Mr. Perfumi — St. John's 
College, Agra — Allahabad Hostel — Lectures to Educated 
Hindus— The Christian Community— The Bishops . . . 223 

CHAPTER XXII. 

C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Calcutta, 

Lack of Men — Baptisms — Calcutta: Colleges, etc. — The Old 
Church — K. C. Banerjea — Burdwan — Xadiya Di.strict — Mr. 
Monro's Mission — Santal Mission — Other Societies . . . 230 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
C.M.S. Missions: Dioceses of Madkas, Dorxakal, and 

TiNNEVELLY. 

Diocese of Madras — Bishop G-ell — Canon Sell and the Goldsmiths 
— The Satthianadan Family — Zion Church — Nilgiri Mission — 
Telugii Mission : The Mass Movement — Dummagudem — The 
Noble College — Diocese of Dornakal : Bishop Azariah's 
Work — Haidarabad — Tinnevelly : Mr. Walker, TinneveUy 
College. Women's Work, Tinnevelly Church — Bishops Morley, 
Williams, and Waller 237 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

C.M.S. Missions : Diocese of Tixavancore and Cochin. 

Christian Population of the Two States — The Anglican Bishops — 
Mission Staff and Native Clergy — Deaths — Ten Years' Con- 
firmations — Caste and Out-Caste — Educational Institutions — 
The Syrian Churches : Revival Movements, Syrian Bishops 
and Dr. Mott, Remarkable Meeting at Calcutta . . . 250 

CHAPTER XXV. 

The Ceylon Mission. 

Features of the Mission — Losses of Senior Missionaries — The 
Native Christians — Education Work : Trinity College, 
Kandy. tic. — Varied Agencies — Women Missionaries — Two 
Bishops Copleston -''i 



CHAPTER XXVL 

The Mauritius Mission. 

Retrospect of the Mission — Linguistic Difficulties — The Bishops 

and the Mission Staff — Gradual Withdrawal .... 2G(» 



xii Contents. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

CiiiXA : Mode UN Changes. 

I'AGK 

The Position in 1899 — Boxei* Massacres — Newspaper Opinions — 
China waking" up — China and Japan — The Opium Question -. 
Jolm Morley's Statement and its Issues — Deaths of the 
Emperor and Dowager Empress — Overthrow of the Manchu 
Dynasty — President Yuan Shih-Kai — British Emerg-ency 
Deputation at Shang-hai — Sir Hiram Maxim's Attack on 
Missions — Chinese Attitude towards Missions — The Request 
for Prayer 2H'.» 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

China: The Ciiklstian Missions. 

Griffith John and Hudson Taylor — Non-Roman Christendom in 
China — The Shang'hai Conference of 1907 and the Creeds — 
The China Mission Year Book — Literary Work, etc. — Statistics 
of Missions — Dr. Mott's Conferences — China Continuation 
Committee — Dr. Motfs and Mr. Eddy's Evang-elistic Meetings 
— Chinese Christians in England — The Anglican Church in 
China : Conferences ; Desire for Larg-er Unity . . . -So 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

C.M.S. Missions : Dioceses of Victoria and Kmangsi- 

HUNAN. 

The Staff and the Converts — South China — The Bishops of 
Victoria — Retrospect of the Hong- Kong' Mission — The 
F.E.S. Ladies — Extension of the Work : St. Stephen's 
College. &c. — Canton— Pakhoi — Kwangsi and Hunan : New 
Diocese ........... -97 

CHAPTER XXX. 

C.M.S. Missions : Diocese of Fl'kien. 

Diocese of Fukien — Retrospect of the Mission — Influence of the 
Stewarts — ^The Women Missionaries— Colonial Recruits — 
Continuity of the Work — Archdeacon Wolfe, Lloyd, &c. — 
Educational and Medical Agencies— Outlying Districts — 
Baptisms — The Native Christians— Union Agencies . . 3'».') 

CHAPTER XXXI. ** 

C.M.S. Missions: Diocese or Chekiang. 

"Mid-China" and "Chekiang" — Shanghai — Bishop and Arch- 
deacon Moule — Trinity CoUege, Ningpo — Chinese Clergy — 
Hangchow Hospital — Varied Work . . . . . 31t> 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Western China. 

Retrospect of the Mission — Notable Continuance of Original Staff' 
— Bislioj) Cassels and Mr. Horsburgh— Varieties of Work — 
Church Organization — China Inland Mission .... •>2-> 



Contexts. xiii 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Japan : The Nation and its Religion 

Political Events — Anfjlo-Japane.se Alliance — War with Russia — 
Death of the Emperor Mutsuhito — Bushido and its Influence 
— Shiutoism, Buddhism, Agnosticism — Recent Conferences on 
Morals and Relig-ion ......... .330 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Japan: The Christian Missions. 

The Japanese Christian Communities — Leakage and its Causes — 
Anti-Christian and Neologian Influences — Converts from the 
Upi)er Classes— Methods of Work: Classes for all Classes — 
Evangelistic Campaigns — Dr. Mott's Visits — World's Student 
Federation — The Nippon Seikokwai — The Episcopate — New 
Canadian Diocese — Central Theological College — The American 
Missions — Continuation Committee ...... 335 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

Japan: The C.M.S. Missions. 

The Staii' : Losses, Veterans, A;c. — Osaka and its Institutions — 
Women's Work — Other Stations in Central Japan — Tokyo — 
Diocese of Kiu-Shiu —Diocese of Hokkaido — The Ainu — Work 
among Japanese Soldiers — Literary Work — Chinese Students 
at Tokyo — Death of Gr. Ensor 350 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

The Nortii-West Canada Mission. 

Retrospect of the Mission — The Dioceses and the Bishojis — Bishop 
Bompas — Archdeacon McDonald — Other Veterans, deceased 
and living — Diocese of Rupert's Laud — Western Dioceses — 
Diocese of Keewatin — Diocese of Moosonee — The Eskimo : 
Peck and Greenshield — Diocese of Athabasca — Diocese of 
Mackenzie River — First Tukudh Clergyman —Herschel Island 
— Diocese of Yukon — Bishoi) Stringer— C.M.S. Reductions . 366 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

The British Columbia Mission. 

Retrospect of the Mission— Bishops Ridley and Du Vernet — 
Church Organization — The Staff and the AVork — Results of 
the Mission — Independent Testimonies — Evil Influences — 
Past and Future 383 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. * 

The New Zealand Missiox. 

Transfer of the Mission to the Colonial Church — Deaths of Veteran 
Missionaries — The Maori Clergy and People — The New Zealand 
CM. Association — Centenary of Samuel Marsden . . . 389 



xiv Contents. 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

Ecclesiastical Problems of the Mission Field. 
I. Native Church Organization. 

I'AGE 

One Object of Missions the Building up of the Church — The 
Memorandum of 1901 — C.M.S. Obligations and Limitations 
— Practical Steps towards forming Autonomous Churches — 
Relation of the Mission to the Infant Church — Two more 
Memoranda — A Common Mistake — Summary of the Subject . 393 

CHAPTER XL. 

Ecclesiastical Problems of the Mission Field. 
II. The Kikuyu Proposals. 

Divided State of Christendom — Its Effects (1) on Missions, (2) on 
Chui-ches founded by them — The position in East Africa — The 
Kikuyu Conference— The Scheme of Federation — The Bishop 
of Zanzibar — The Archbishop's Plan — His Questions to the 
Consultative Committee — Their Reply— The Archbishop's 
Statement — Opinions upon it — The Real Issue, a " Valid 
Eucharist " — Important utterances of the Lambeth Confer- 
ence of 1908 409 



THE HOME BASE. 

CHAPTER XLI. 
Personal : In Memoriam. 



Queen Victoria and King Edward — Archbishop Temple and tlie 
Bishops — Vice-Presidents of the C.M.S. — Secretaries, &c. — 
Prominent Members of the Committee — Clerical and Lay 
Friends — Women 127 

CHAPTER XLII. 

Personal : Committee and Officers. 

President and Treasui-er — Vice-Presidents — Committee — Secre- 
taries, &c. — Losses : Fox. Baring- Gould, Bi). Insrham. &c. — 
The Present Staff ^ . . .436 

CHAPTER XLIII. 

Salisbury Square. 

The House and its Enlargements — The New House. 1915 — Ad- 
ministration : Committees and Secretaries — Women's Share — 
Question of Women ou Committees — The Place of Prayer in 
the C.M.S. Life : Meetings. Services, Cycle of Intercession, iKrc. 447 



Contents. xv 

CHAPTER XLIV. 

AXXXVEKSAKV ANT) OtHER SeKVICES AXD MeETIXGS, 



I'AfiK 



St. Bride's Services — Preachers— Archbishop Davidson's Sermou 
— The Halls for Meetinfrs : Exeter. Queen's. Albert— Chair- 
men and Speakers— Three Speeches : Abp. Lang, Bp. Win- 
ning-ton-Ing-ram. Abp. Davidson 4.5;^ 

CHAPTER XLV. 

MiSSIOXAKIES AXD CANDIDATES. 

(1) Comparative Figures— (2) Interesting Recruits— (.3) Traininir 
Arrangements: Islington College, &c.. Training of Women— 

(4) Missionaries at Home : Deputation Work : the Children 

(5) Valedictory Proceedings ••.... 4t54 

CHAPTER XL VI. 

The Fixaxces. 

Position in 1899— The Next Fourteen Years : Growing Expendi- 
tui-e. Frequent Deficits, the Debentui-e Scheme— The Swanwiek 
Conference— The £10U,0(Mt— Plans for Advance— The Check 
of the War— View of Financial Progress .... 47(1 

CHAPTER XL VII. 

Home Orgaxizatiox. 

The Home Department— (1) Organizing Secretaries— (2) Local 
Associations: Membership, the new Diocesan. &c., Com- 
mittees—Some Instances of Progress— Comparison of Dioceses 
—Churches raising £300 a year— '• 0.0. M.'s "—Apportion- 
ment Proposal— (3j Hibernian Society— (-1) The Unions : Lay 
Workers'. Clergy, Ladies'. Gleaners' — (.5) '-Through Eve 
Gate": Loan Department. Exhibitions. "Africa and the 
East"— (6) Summer Schools -The Loudon '• School" of 1909 
and its Programme— (7) Study Circles . . , , \ 437 

CHAPTER XLVIII. 

Work amoxg Partictjlae Classes. 
(1) Among Men: Laymen's Union. Laymen's Movement, the 
Army, etc.— (2) Universities and Public Schools: Oxford and 
Cambridge. Campaigns. Student Movement. &c.— (3) Amon"- 
Women: Retrcspect of Former Agencies; How could the 
Younger Women be reached •:'-The Women's Department 
V i TT^ ;A.ctiyities-(4j Among the Young : Sowers' Band. 
i.P. U., cvc. ^ ^ -Tj 

CHAPTER XLIX. 

The Auxiliaries : Medical, Educatioxal, Ixdusteial. 
Medical Work: The Medical Mi-ssion Auxiliary-Educational: 
Value of Educational Missions; the Auxiliary- Industrial ■ 
Objects of Industrial Missions ... * 



o24 



Contents. 

CHAPTER L. 

TllK PlJiLICATIOXS. 



PACK 



The Editorial Secretaryship — The Intelligencer and the Revieio — 
The Gleaner, &c. — Mercy and Truth and the Gazette — Annual 
Report, ifcc. — Books — Hymn Book 530 

CHAPTER LI. 

The Colonial Associations. 

Colonial Associations and Missionaries in 1899 — Growth and 
Pi-esent Position — Canada and the M.S.C.C. — Australia: the 
C.M.A.'s and the A.B.M.— New Zealand— South Africa— West 
Indies — Distinctions Conferred 536 

CHAPTER LII. 

The Church axd the Society. 

The Archbishops and Bishops — The Church Congress — The 
S.P.G. Bicentenary — Bishop Montgomery — The Boai'ds of 
Missions — The Pan-Anglican Cong-ress — The Lambeth Con- 
ference of 1908 — The Day of Intercession — The Society's 
Evangelical Position 543 

CHAPTER LIII. 

Tjie Larger Co-operation : Ehin-burgii, and After. 

Retrospect : United Conferences — The Student Movement — The 
World Conference at Edinburgh — Debate on Unity and Co- 
operation — The Question of South America — The Continuation 
Committee — The New Review — The Board of Study — " Faith 
and Order " Conferences — Other Cases of United Work . . 556 

CHAPTER LIV. 

The Hour oe Setting Sun. 

Is it •' the Hour of Setting Sun " "? — Certainly a " Crowded Hour " — 
C.M.S. Progress— The Day of Opportunity— Dr. Mott on 
Present Needs — Books on Revival — Prebendary Fox on 
Changing Conditions and Unchanging Principles — Bishop 
Palmer on the Call to the Church for Sacrifice .... 56(3 

APPENDIX. 

The War and the Missions. 

The Plans of July, 1914'— The sudden Outbreak of War — Anxiety 
for German Missions — The Ajji^eal of German Divines — The 
Missionaries sailing : the FaJaba and the Persia — Missionaries 
and Home Officials join the Forces — Deaths at the Front — 
The Mission Fields : Africa, Palestine and Persia, India, the 
Far East— The real '• Holy War " 577 

Index to Vol. IV 603 

COKRKiENDA IN VOLS. L, II., AND III 664 



l?art S. 

PRELIMINARY CHAPTERS. 




CHAPTER I. 

The C.M.S. Centenary. 

The 2nd Jubilee, Nov., 1898— The Centenary, April, 1899— A Week of 
Meetings— Wednesday, the Centenary Day — The Times on the Cen- 
tenary—Meetings in the Provinces— Meetings Abroad — The Centenary 
Fund — The Centenary Volume. 

IHE fashion of celebrating Centenaries," said Bishop P-^Rt i- 
° John Wordsworth of Sahsbury in a sermon preached — 
a few years ago, " is by no means new. A trace of it '^^^*^"'' 
may be found in the ancient Roman state when at tenaries. 
the secular games, which occurred only at intervals 
of a hundred and ten years, the voice of the herald proclaimed in 
solemn words. Come and see Games which no one Uving hath, seen, 
and irhidi no one Uvini) u:ill see again. You have here the germ of 
the thought on which all observance of centuries rests, that such 
a period generally exceeds the life of the longest-lived man, and 
its passage offers a natural opportunity to look backwards over 
the road traversed." And he remarked, " The thankful temper 
w'hich is needed for true insight may be promoted by occasional 
detailed retrospects of past history." 

The Histori/ of the Charrli Mission ari/ Socidij did not include 
an account of the Centenary Commemoration. In fact Vols. I. and 
II. were published some weeks before it, and Vol. III. was in type, 
but was delayed by the Index, which ran to 160 columns of small 
type. The present volume, therefore, must begin with a brief 
summary of the proceedings of the memorable Centenary Week. 

But there must first be a reference to what was called the c.M.s. 
Second Jubilee. The Society's First Jubilee had been held, not at jubilee, 
the close, but in the middle, of the fiftieth year ; not in April, ^o^-- 1^^^- 
1849, when the fifty years were completed, but on Nov. 1st and 
2nd, 1848. It was thought well to repeat this plan at the 
Centenary ; to observe the Second Jubilee in the midst of the 
one hundredth year, while deferring the principal commemoration 
to April, 1899, when the hundred years should be completed. 
Accordingly, on Nov. 1st, 1898, there was a special service, with 
Holy Communion, at St. Bride's Church. An occasion so full of 
sacred memories of friends and fellow-w^orkers gone before could 
not be more appropriately fixed than for x\ll Saints' Day. The 
preacher was Bishop E. H. Bickersteth of Exeter, son of a former 

B 2 



4 The C.M.S. Centenary. 

PART I- Secretary of the Society. That father, the first Edward Bickersteth, 
Chapel, iiad himself preached one of the Jubilee Sermons, and had spoken 
at the Jubilee Meeting ; and the Bishop had, as a young clergy- 
man, been himself present at the meeting, and not only so, but 
had been the author of a hymn specially written for that occasion, 
" O brothers, lift your voices." Then in the afternoon, at Exeter 
Hall, the place where the First Jubilee Meeting had been held in 
1848, was held the Second Jubilee Meeting, the President, Sir 
John Kennaway, taking the chair. In choosing the speakers, it 
was felt to be appropriate that all should be men who had some 
link with the First Jubilee. The President, indeed. Sir John 
Kennaway, naturally took the chair, as. his predecessor, the Earl 
of Chichester, had done in 1848 ; but all the others had some kind 
of reminiscence of the fiftieth year. The Hon. T. H. W. Pelham 
spoke as a son of Lord Chichester ; the Rev. Canon Henry Venn, 
as a son of the great Honorary Secretary of those days ; the Rev. 
Canon C. V. Childe, as a son of the Principal of the Church 
Missionary College at the time ; the Revs. T. Y. Darling and R. 
Pargiter, as missionaries who were actually then in the field, in 
India and Ceylon respectively ; the Rev. W. Salter Price, as having 
himself been present at the Jubilee Meeting, being then an IsHngton 
student, and also as one of the first band of missionaries sent out 
in the year following, to India (and afterwards in East Africa) ; 
Bishop E. H. Bickersteth, the preacher of the sermon ; and the 
Author of this present work, who also, as a boy of twelve, had been 
present at the Jubilee Meeting. The meeting was opened with the 
Jubilee hymn above mentioned, and closed with the grand one 
whicli had closed the gathering of fifty years before, " All hail the 
power of Jesus' Name." 
I'liR cen- Five months passed away, and then came the Centenary. For 
tenary, the Commemoration in London the whole inside of a week was set 
apart — the week in which the middle day, Wednesday, was happily 
April 12th, the one hundredth birthday of the Society. The pro- 
gramme in outline was as follows :— 

Monday. — Day for Thanksgiving and Prayer. 
Tuesday. — Day for Review of C.M.S. Missions. 
Wednesday. — Centenary Day. 
Thursday. — Day for Review of Other Missions. 
Friday. — Day for Looking Forward. 
Saturday. — Day for the Children. 
MoNUAY : On Monday morning, the Holy Communion was celebrated at 
^-:f*;„ St. Bride's Church, when four hundred members and friends 
gathered round the Table of the Lord. An address was given 
l)y the Rev. Herbert 'James, Rector of Livermere, an old and 
valued friend, who had been the preacher of the Annual Sermon 
in 1890. His text was 1 Chron. xxix. 5, •' Who then is willing to 
consecrate his service this day unto the Lord ? " In the afternoon 
a prayer-meeting was held at Exeter Hall, which might have been 
called a Veterans' Meeting, for the Chairman, Bishop Royston, 



April, 1899. 



Bride's. 



The C.M.S. Crxte.xary. 5 

who bad been Hecretary at IMadras for the South India ^lissions Part i. 
and also Acting Secretary in Sahsbury Square l^efore becoming -ll! 
Bishop of Mauritius, was in his seventieth year, and both the 
speakers. Archdeacon Eichardson of Southwark and Canon Samuel 
Garratt of Ipswich, were over eighty. In the evening, a special ^'^^f^ 
service was held at St. Paul's Cathedral, attended by an immense 
congregation. Archdeacon Sinclair officiated ; the President and 
the Treasurer (Sir John Kennaway and Colonel Williams) read 
the Lessons, Isa. xlix. and Eev. vii. 9-17 ; and the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Dr. Temple, preached the Sermon, his text being 
Acts xiii. 2, " Separate Me Barnabas and Saul for the work 
whereunto I have called them." 

On the following five days there were fourteen great meetings. Bishops 
eleven at Exeter Hall, one at the Queen's Hall, and two at the'"^''*®^" 
Albert Hall. It was desired to include as many Bishops as 
possible, and the following were invited to preside or speak, besides 
the Primate : — Bishops Creighton of London, Westcott of Durham, 
Eandall Davidson of Winchester, Bickersteth of Exeter, Kennion 
of Bath and Wells, Glyn of Peterborough, Talbot of Eochester, 
Bardsley of Carlisle, Eyle of Liverpool, Moorhouse of Manchester, 
Jacob of Newcastle, Eden of Wakefield, Straton of Sodorand Man, 
G. H. Wilkinson of St. Andrews ; Knox, Suffragan Bishop of 
Coventry ; Tajdor Smith of Sierra Leone ; and Bishop Whipple 
of Minnesota. It was a disappointment that Bishop Creighton 
and Bishop Wilkinson could not be in London at the time ; and 
Bishop Westcott, on the very day before he was expected, had to 
telegraph that his doctor would not allow him to travel. The 
others all duly appeared. 

It should here be added that four Indian and two African Foreign 
clergymen came from the mission field to attend the Centenary, ^'^'®8at*»3. 
and all were allotted a part in the proceedings. The two Africans 
were — the Eev. James Johnson of Lagos, who was already well 
known in England, and who, only a few months later, before he 
went back, was consecrated to be an Assistant Bishop in the 
Diocese of W^estern Equatorial Africa ; and the Eev. Obadiah 
Moore, Canon of Sierra Leone, and Principal of the Grammar 
School there. The four Indians were — the Eev. William Seetal, 
pastor at Agra, ordained in 1881 — (he died in 1901, and was 
called by Mr. (iill, afterwards Bishop of Travancoi'e, " the pillar 
and leader of the Church in the N.-W\ Provinces ") ; the Eev. 
Solomon Nihal Singh, B.A., of St. Paul's Divinity School, Allaha- 
bad (now a Canon of Lucknow) ; the Eev. Ihsan Ullali, of the 
Punjab (now Archdeacon of Delhi) ; and the Eev. W. D. Clarke, 
B.A., Pastor of Zion Church, Madras.* 

Tuesday was the Day for Eeview of C.M.S. Missions. The ttospay: 
morning meeting was the one at which Bishop Westcott was to oi-^c'^r.H. 
have presided. His letter, read at the meeting, said that he had ^' i'^'''""^- 

* An interesting photographic group of these six men appears in the 
Centenary Volume, facing p. 20G. 



TlTP C.MS. Cr.h'TENARY. 



Part I, 
t!liap. Is 



Missionary 
Methods." 



C.M.S. at 
Home. 



Wednes- 
day: The 
Breakfast. 



" looked forward for months " to the occasion, and that lie had 
intended to speak " on some points in the message of hope which 
the advance of Foreign Missions in the century had brought to us 
— a fresli vision of the heavenly order, an enlargement of sympathy, 
a deepening of fellowship, an increase of spiritual knowledge, a 
strengthening of faith, in a word a new revelation of life that is 
truly life, a fulfilment of the closing word of the Lord's ministry 
— vevLK-rjKu — with the sure promise of a larger fulfilment." A 
chairman having to be found on the spur of the moment, Lord 
Kinnaird was invited, and kindly took the Bishop's place. 
Archdeacon E. Long, Eector of Bishopwearmouth, formerly a 
C.M.S. Secretary, gave the first address, on the principles that 
had guided the Society in the past in its successive advances to 
new fields of labour ; and then three pioneer missionaries in suc- 
cession told of the beginnings of three of the latest new Missions, 
viz.. Dr. Bruce of Persia, G. Ensor of Japan, and C, T. Wilson of 
Uganda. 

At the afternoon meeting the subject was Missionary Methods. 
Bishop Eden of Wakefield presided, and in a very able speech 
propounded tliree theses, viz., Method (1) is the economy of power, 
(2) lays down orderly lines for organized bodies of persons, (3) 
has to do with life rather than witli system. Eowland Bateman, 
of the Punjab, then spoke on Evangelistic Work ; C. W. A. Clarke, 
Principal of the Noble College, Masuhpatam, on Educational 
Work; W. Banister, of Fukien (now Bishop of Kwangsi and 
Hunan), on Women's Work ; Dr. Duncan Main, of Hangchow, 
on Medical Work ; Dr. Weitbrecht, of the Punjab, on Literary 
AVork ; and James Johnson of Lagos (now Assistant Bishop) on 
Native Church Work. 

At the evening meeting Bishop Davidson of Winchester (now 
Archbishop of Canterbury) presided, and spoke in the most 
enthusiastic way. The chief biisiness was a lecture on the Storj^ 
of the Society at Home, given by Canon Sutton, Vicar of Aston, 
who had been Home Secretary of the Society for some 3'ears, 
illustrated by lantern views, including many portraits of C.M.S. 
men of the past. At its close the Eev. G. F. Head, Vicar of Clifton, 
pointed the moral in an earnest address. 

Wednesday, as before said, was Centenary Day, exactly one 
hundred years since the memorable little meeting at the Castle 
and Falcon Hotel on April 12th, 1799, at which the Society was 
formed. The commemoration opened with a Breakfast at tlip vi'iij 
same hotfil, not indeed in the same room, as the building had been 
altered since then, and the original rooin had disappeared. After 
breakfast, a few words were spoken by the Hon. Clerical Secretary, 
Mr. Fox ; Bishop Whipple of Minnesota and Bishop Chadwick of 
Derry, representing the American and L-ish Churches; Canon 
Venn of Walmer, son of the foi'mer Hon. Secretary; and the 
President, Sir John Kennaway. 

For the gathei'ing wliich was par crccTlence the Centenary 



TiTF C.MS. Cf.ntrnaky. 7 

Commemoration two simultaneous meetings were avvanged. Up to I'arti^. 
that time no Society had met in tlie Albert Hall. It was regarded ^f^ ' 
as too large for regular speeches, though suitable for demonstra- ^^J^^^y "' 
tions at which it might not matter whether they were properly Meeting, 
heard or not. We have learned since then that a reasonably good 
speaker can be heard even in that Hall, but this was not realized 
at the time. Moreover, Exeter Hall had for nearly seventy years 
])een the home of Christian enterprises, and no one would have 
liked to hold a great official assembly anywhere else. But it was 
clear that the chief Centenary Meeting would fill it twice over ; so 
it was resolved to resort to the old original practice of the early 
days of the century, and to admit men only, providing a simul- 
taneous meeting elsewhere for their womenkind. Men, in fact, 
did come from all parts of the country for this one occasion, and 
at least 2500 assembled in Exeter Hall; one lady only being 
present, the wife of Bishop Whipple ; while at the same time an 
equal number of women, with a very few men, thronged the Queen's 
Hall. 

It was desired that the Exeter Hall gathering should not be in 
any sense an ordinary missionary meeting, however good, but 
rather an occasion for testimonies from eminent representatives of 
different phases of the life of the nation. The Archbishop would 
represent the Church at home, and Bishop Whipple the Church 
abroad ; and the Marquis of Salisbury or the Earl of Halsbury, it 
was hoped, the State ; Lord Wolseley or Lord EolDerts the Army, 
and Admiral Sir E. Fremantle the Navy ; the Earl of Northbrook, 
India, etc. However, although the Premier, the Lord Chancellor, 
the two great Generals, and the Admiral, all replied sympatheti- 
cally, all were from various causes prevented attending. But the 
two prelates, the ex- Viceroy of India, the Premier's son, and a 
leading representative of commerce and industry, did respond ; and 
after the President had taken the chair, Mr. Fox read the letters 
from the Premier and others, as well as telegrams of good wishes 
from many parts of the world. He also presented a Motto Text 
for the new Century : — 

" There hath not failed one word of all His good promise. . . . The 
Lord our God be with ns, as He was with our fathers ; let Him not 
leave us, nor forsake us. . . . That He may inclme our hearts unto 
Him ... to keep His commandments. . . . That all the peoples of 
the earth may laiow that the Lord, He is God ; there is none else " 
(1 Kings viii.'nO-tiO, R.V.). 

After the President's opening address, the Archbishop of Canter- The 
bury moved the first resolution. "With very deep emotion," he "^^^'^ ^^' 
said that he rose ; and his speech deeply moved the meeting. 
Then came Lord Northbrook. No one would call him a gifted 
speaker ; but his plain words w^ere exactly what the hundreds of 
plain laymen before him needed and would appreciate. He said 
he had i-ead the fourteen chapters on India in the two volumes of 



8 The C.M.S. Centenary. 

Part I. tjie Society's Hisfcoi-y then lately published — (he had not seen the 
— 1 ' eight in Vol. III.) — and entirely endorsed them, especially with 
reference to Native Church policy. Bishop Whipple followed, 
having crossed the iVtlantic expressly to attend the Commemora- 
tion. " With a full heart," he said, " I bring to this venerable 
Society the loving greetings of a sister Church." He pleaded with 
intense earnestness for greater oneness of spirit among Christians. 
" I have tried," he said, " for forty years to find the image of my 
Master upon the faces of those from whom I differ, and God has 
overpaid me a thousand-fold." Mr. (now Sir) C. E. Tritton next 
spoke briefly as a representative both of the House of Commons 
and of British business men ; and he was followed by another 
M.P. who had come in unexpectedly. This was Lord Cranborne, 
son of the Premier (and now Marquis of Salisbury). Sir E. Webster, 
the Attorney-General (afterwards Lord Chief Justice), had been 
coming to represent the Government, but at the last moment he 
was prevented, and Lord Cranborne came instead. His few fervent 
words will never be forgotten by those who heard them : — 

Lord Cran- " GentlemeD, we are proud of our Empire. . . . Sometimes we almost 
AiipeaK tremble at the weight of responsibility which is upon us, and sometimes 
we view with a certain shrinking the necessary bloodshed which the 
expansion of the Empire involves. Can it be justified ? Can this burden 
of responsibihty be defended '? Only upon one consideration : only 
because we believe that by the genius of our people, and by the purity 
of our religion, we are able to confer benefits upon those subject popula- 
tions greater than it has been given by God to any other nation to be 
able to afford ; and it is only because we know that in the train of the 
British Government comes the preaching of the Church of Christ that 
we are able to defend the Empire of which we are so proud. Therefore, 
gentlemen, I ask you to pledge this meeting to the Christianity of the 
British Empire. I do not care in what quarter of the globe it may be, 
I do not care what may be the political exigencies of the moment, I do 
not care what colleges of secular instruction you may establish ; but 
unless, sooner or later, in due and proper time, you carry with those 
institutions tlie definite teaclung of Christianity, you have done nothing 
at all." 

The last speech was by the Hon, Secretary himself, Mr. Fox ; 
after which Bishop Jacob of Newcastle offered prayer, and Bishop 
Whipple in a most solemn and touching form pronounced the 
Benediction. 
Queen's Meanwhile, the simultaneous meeting at the Queen's Hall was 

Meeting. goi^g on. It had been hoped that the Bishop of London 
(Dr. Creighton) would preside over it, but as already stat(;d he 
was unable to come, and the Society's veteran friend Dr. J. C. 
Eyle, Bishop of Liverpool, the oldest Bishop then on the Bench, 
was the appropriate occupant of the chair. It was, as he said, 
thirty-seven years since he had preached the Annual Sermon. 
Needless to sa^^ bis welcome was a warm one ; and he natuially 
laid stress on the Society's faithfulness to its evangelical and 



The cms. Cf.a^tenary. 9 

spiritual principles. The other speakers were Bishop Chadwick (^j^Jj* 
ol' Derry, representing the Church of Ireland all the more suitably —1 
after having given his own daughter to the Uganda Mission ; * Sir 
T. Fowell Buxton, G.C.M.G., who had been the Society's Treasurer 
until he was appointed Governor of South Australia ; the Dean of 
Norwich, Dr. Lefroy, whose speech was probably the most eloquent 
of that day, and perhaps of the whole week ; and Colonel E. 
Wilhams, M.P., the Treasurer. 

The Eveninc; Thanksgiviucf Meeting in tlie Albert Hall, which Thanks- 
filled the vast building to the topmost gallery, was of an unique Meeting 
character. The speeches were secondary, and were short. It ^^u^''^'^* 
was a gathering rather for praise and prayer. The programme 
was divided into five sections, viz. : (1) Thanksgiving for the 
Foundation of the Society, (2) for Extension at Home and Abroad, 
(3) for Labourers entered into Eest, and their Converts, (4) for the 
Supply of Men and Means, (5) General Thanksgiving. The fii'st 
section comprised the Old Hundredth, special thanksgivings, the 
(Janiaie Domino, and a brief word from the President. The 
second section comprised Mr. Fox's hymn, " O King of Glory, 
God of Grace," the reading of Deut. viif. 11-18, a Missionary 
Litany, and a short speech by the oldest member of the Com- 
mittee, Mr. Sydney Gedge, M.P. The third section comprised Arch- 
bishop Maclagan's hjmm, " The saints of God, their conflict past," 
the reading aloud of selected fragments of Scripture by three 
Indian clergymen, the Eevs. Ihsan Ullah, W. Seetal, and W. D. 
Clarke, a special thanksgiving offered by Mr. Fox, and a short 
address by Archdeacon Eyre of Sheffield. The fourth comprised 
Mr. Sheppard's hymn, " We scan the years swept from us," and 
a speech by Mr. Henry Thornton, President of the Notts Associa- 
tion, followed by the hymn, " God is working His purpose out." 
And the fifth consisted of the Tp Jhinu (the most impressive 
feature of the evening), a speech by Bishop Taylor Smith, the 
General Thanksgiving repeated by the whole company, and " All 
people that on earth do dweU." 

The "overflow meeting" that same evening quite filled 
Exeter Hall. Colonel Williams presided, and the speakers were 
Bishop Jacob of Newcastle, Mr. C. E. Walsh, Hon. Secretary of 
the New South Wales Association ; the Eev. James Johnson of 
Lagos (now Bishop) ; Dr. Dina Nath Prithu Datta, Govex-nnient 
Medical Oflicer in the Punjab ; and the Eev. E. A. Stuart, Vicar 
of St. Matthew's, Bayswater, now Canon of Canterbury. 

Thursday was again a day quite unique. The Society on that thuksday: 
day " looked not on its own things," but on " the things of others." iMisslons, 
It was the Day of Eeview of Other Missions : in the morning, Anglican, 
other Missions of the Church of England; in the afternoon, 
Scottish and Continental Missions ; in the evening. Missions of 
English and American non-episcopal Societies. 

At the morning meeting, the Bishop of Exeter, Dr. Bickersteth, 
* And a son also, afterwards. 



lO 



The cms. Centenary 



Part t. 
(iliap. 1. 



Other 
Missions, 
Non- 
-Anglioan. 



Friday : 
Looking 
Forward. 



llegions 
Beyond. 



pvesitled. The Bishop of Newcastle, Dv. Jacoh, who liad once 
heen cliaplain to Bishop Mihiiati of Calcutta, spoke on Missions 
in Asia, chiefly those of the S.P.G., and particularly those in 
India. For Africa Bishop G. H. Wilkinson of St. Andrews had 
heen invited, but, as he could not come, his place was taken by 
the Bishop of Eochester, Dr. Talbot, now Bishop of Winchester, 
who, after a brief notice of the S.P.G. Missions in South Africa, 
gave more fully the story of the Universities' Mission to Central 
Africa, of which he was chairman. Then, Missions in the Southern 
Seas, in x\ustralia. New Zealand, Melanesia, and New Guinea, 
were described by the Bishop of Bath and Wells, Dr. Kennion, 
who himself had been Bishop of Adelaide. And lastly, Bishop 
Whipple once more came forward, with an account of the 
missionary work of the sister Church in the United States. 

In the afternoon, the chairman was the Bishop of Manchester, 
Dr. Moorhouse. For the Established Scottish Church, Dr. 
Marshall Lang, an ex-Moderator of the General Assembly, and 
brother of the C.M.S. Lay Secretary, spoke ; and for the Free, Dr. 
George Smith, the brilliant author of the biographies of great Indian 
missionaries, Carey, Martyn, Duff, &c., and formerly editor of a 
leading Calcutta paper and Correspondent of the Timpx, — father, 
it may well be added, of Dr. George Adam Smith. Then M. 
Theodore Monod, the French pastor, described the work of the 
Paris Missionary Society, and Herr Wiu'z that of the Basle 
Society, of which he was Secretary. German Missions were to 
have l)een represented by Count Andrew Bernstorff, but he was 
prevented from coming as he had intended; and instead of them, 
the Bible Society's work was briefly set forth by its Vice-Chair- 
man, Mr. Henry Morris, a leading member also of the C.TM.S. 
Committee. 

The evening chairman was Bishop Straton of Sodor and Man. 
Wesleyan Missions were eloquently described by the Eev. F. W. 
Macdonald, Congregationalist Missions by Dr. Wardlaw Thompson 
and Dr. Barrett of Norwich, and Baptist Missions by the Rev. 
F. B. Meyer ; but the China Inland Mission and others of the 
same type, and the great American Presbyterian, Congregational, 
and Methodist Missions were left unrepresented. 

As Tuesday and Thursday had been days of information, 
Friday was to be a day of inspiration. " Looking forward " was 
the theme. The morning was given to two Bible readings, one 
by the Rev. Hubert Brooke on tlie Evangelization of the World, 
based on the first chapter of Haggai, and tlio other by the Rev. 
Evan Hopkins on the Second Coming of Christ, based on St. Matt, 
xxiv. 14. The chairman was Dr. Barlow, Vicar of Islington, 
afterwards Dean of Peterborough, who himself also gave in effect 
a sliort Bible reading on St. Peter's speecli in the Council of 
Acts XV. 

The afternoon meeting was one of the fullest of the week, the 
younger clergy gathering in great force to hear the Principal of 



The C.Jlf.S. Centenary. it 

Wycliffe Hall, Mr. Cb.avasse (now Bishop of Liverpool). The ^■^'^\ 
Bishop of Carhsle, Dr. J. W. Bardsley, was the chairman. The !:!fl 
suhject for this meeting was the Eegions Beyond. It was opened 
hy tlie Eev. H. B. Macartney of Melbom-ne, who at the time was 
Home Superintendent of the Bible Society. He asked, " What is 
a Eegion Beyond ? " " Where are the Eegions Beyond ? " and 
"Which of them shall the C.M.S. take up?" Then Dr. E. A. 
Knox, Bishop Suffragan of Coventry (now Bishop of Man- 
chester), spoke on " The Eegions Beyond : What are their 
Needs?" — to which question he gave a four- fold answer, viz., 
(1) The discovery of the Truth, (2) Deliverance from the conse- 
quences of the Past, (3) Faith in a Personal God, (4) Access to 
God. Then some of the actual Eegions Beyond were described 
in four ten-minute speeches, by Mr. A. B. Lloyd of Uganda, who 
had lately traversed Stanley's Pygmy Forest, and three Indian 
clergymen, the Eevs. W. D. Clarke, Ihsan Ullah, and Nihal Singh. 
The hymn, " A cry as of pain," was then solemnly sung, followed 
by a closing address by Mr. Chavasse on, " How shall we meet 
their Needs ? " — which question he answered in three phrases, 
" A Partnership in Clirist's Work," " in His Methods," and " in 
His Life," — an address of exceeding impressiveness. 

A dense crowd thronged the Hall on the last evening. The Solemn 
subject was, "The Claims of Christ on His People." The chair- jieethfg. 
man was Dr. Carr Glyn, Bishop of Peterborougli, whose opening 
address showed his deep sense of the solemnity of the occasion. 
The speakers were— the Eev. W. G. Peel, C.M.S. Secretary at 
Bombay, who had just been summoned home to be consecrated 
Bishop of Mombasa ; the Eev. S. i\. Selw^n, Vicar of St. John's, 
Boscombe; and Prebendary Webb-Peploe. It will be noticed 
how strongly " Keswick " was represented in the list of speakers 
on this concluding day ; Mr. Huioert Brooke, Mr. Evan Hopkins, 
Mr. Macartney, Mr. Selwyn, and Mr. Webb-Peploe, all lieing 
prominent front-platform men at the Convention, and Mr. Peel 
manifestly a teacher of the same "school." But in these latter 
years C.M.S. has owed much to " Keswick." The subjects allotted 
to the three speakers this evening were Spiritual Shortcomings, 
Spiritual Possibilities, and Spiritual Determinations, and the 
fervour and power of the Diree addresses could scarcely be 
exaggerated. There was no applause, and the meeting broke iip 
in solemn silence. 

This ended the general proceedings of the Commemoration. Children 
The Children's Day, Saturday, was a kind of supplement. The gau. 
Albert Hall was thronged with young folk, and the order was 
perfect, every place for every child having been carefully planned. 
The Bishop of Sierra Leone, Dr. Taylor Smith, presided, and the 
other appointed speakers were the Eev. E. A. (now^ Canon) Stuart, 
the Eev. E. N. (now Canon) Thwaites, the Eev. Canon Obadiah 
Moore, the African clergyman from West Africa ; but Mr. Moore 
was prevented by indisposition from attending, and Mr. Baylis, 



12 



The cms. Centenary. 



Part t. 
Chaj). 1. 



Tlie Times 
on the 
Centenary. 



the Secretaiy in Salisbury Square for tlie x\£rica Missions, took 
liis place. All the speeches were delighti'ul ; the children mani- 
fested keen interest in everything ; and the natural thought in 
many a mind was, How many of these boys and girls will take 
the missionary cause upon their hearts from this day ? and how 
many will live to see the Third Jubilee (if the Lord should tarry 
so long) ? and where will Missions be then ? 

When the Day of Intercession for Missions was first observed, 
in 1872, the Tlme^ article on it was an extraordinary exhibition of 
ignorance and pi-ejudice,* which elicited a private letter from 
Archbishop Tait to Mr. Delane, the famous editor. Very different 
was the tone of the Times in commenting on the C.M.S. Cen- 
tenary. It is worth while preserving some passages from its 
leading article : — 



" Men may ask, and even after this week will in all probability continue 
to ask, what is the good of Missions, and by so doing will display a 
strange blindness to the real character of the Christian religion. That 
faith may ultimately either succeed or fail, but in the meantime it is 
bound to be at once exclusive and inclusive, to announce alike to .Tews, 
Tiu'ks, infidels, and heretics the sic volo, sic juheo of the only way of 
salvation. Christianity, it has been reproachfully said, differentiates 
itself from all other religions, and then argues from the differences. Of 
course it does, and of course it must. It follows, on the theory of the 
thing, that every Christian Church, from the very nature of its belief, 
must take its part in the delivery to the world of this message. 

" After all, tliongh all due account be taken of the revival in Church 
activity which the Tractarian movement has produced at home, it was 
Charles Simeon and the Venns and their successors who taught English 
Christianity that it has duties abroad, and that they cannot be carried 
through without tlie best men and the requisite money. . . . 

" But the ordinary Englishman who looks upon Foreign Missions as an 
amiable cra/.e, serving to absorb the activities of the good old ladies of 
his acquaintance, will still put the practical question, " ^Yhat is the out- 
come of it all y " And we are free to confess tliat the Church Missionary 
Society has much to say for itself. In the first place, its history and its 
expansion establish the old truth that two cannot walk together except 
tliey be agreed, but that, being agreed, they can go almost anywhere 
and do almost anything. The gigantic celebration of this week is a 
triumph for clear and definite convictions maintained tlu-ough thick 
and thin. 

" Again, the oi'dinary Englishman appreciates success when it comes to 
him in the sliape of numbers. . . . When the Church INfissionary 
Society, which at the end of ten years could iind only a joiner and shoe- 
maker to send out, tells us tliat it has nearly eleven hundred l^'uropean 
}nissionaries to-day employed at its various stations, of whom sixty-six 
elect to receive no stipend at all, it has a fair answer of one sort to 
make. . . . When to this is added the fact the Society has a large number 
of ])roperly qualified medical missionaries, men and women, on its staff, it 
can certainly come to the ordinary Englishman with a bold face ; it can 



See Hist. C.M.S., Vol. II. p. 410; and Life of Abp. Tait, Vol. II. p. P.GO. 



The C.M.S. Centenary. 13 

k'U him that, whatever he may think of its convictions and its total of I'art I. 
converts and its vast voluntarj' contributions, he has to reckon with it tihap. l. 
as a civilizing and informing power, which would be still more powerful 
if the life of most Englishmen abroad conformed more closely to the 
conventions of the Englishman at home." 

Centenary Meetings and Services followed in all parts of the Provintia 
United Kingdom during the next two months. The Centonanj ^^^^^'"ss- 
Volume actually gives particulars (of course only a line, or two lines, 
in many places) of the observance in no less than 1624 towns and 
villages ; and as many of the towns include distinct parishes and 
suburbs which had their own separate meetings or services or 
both, and not a few had series of meetings through a whole week 
as in London, the number of gatherings of all kinds is beyond 
calculation. Liverpool, for instance, counts for o/if of the above 
1624, just as (say) Llangattoch-Vibon-Avel counts for one. It is 
interesting to notice that the Diocese of Norwich had by far the 
largest number of places obsendng the Commemoration, no less 
than 194 ; Winchester being second, with 96, and then Canterbm-y, 
St, Albans, Ely, and Salisbury, with over 70 each. But it is 
highly probable that a great many gatherings were never reported. 
It is not likely, for instance, that they were held in only thirteen 
places in Ireland. Many of the Bishops who had taken part in 
the London Commemoration preached and spoke also at other 
gatherings, both in their own dioceses and elsewhere, Archbishop 
Temple himself preaching and speaking at Manchester and at 
Wimborne ; and in addition to them the following Bishops are 
named in the reports as taking important parts locally : Bristol 
(Browne), Chester (Jayne), Chichester (Wilberforce), Durham 
(Westcott), Gloucester (EUicott), Hereford (Percival), Lichfield 
(Legge), Lincoln (King), Llandaff (Lewis), Norwich (Sheepshanks), 
Oxford (Stubbs), Eipon (Carpenter), St. Asaph (Edwards), St. 
David's (Owen), Salisbury (Wordsworth), Southwell (Bidding), and 
Worcester (Perow-ne) ; the Suffragan Bishops of Barrow (Ware), 
Beverley (Crosthwaite), Dover (Walsh), Derby (Were), Guildford 
(Sumner), Hull (Blunt), Reading (Randall), Shrewsbury (Sir L. 
Stamer), Southampton (Lyttelton), Thetford (Lloyd), Swansea 
(J. Lloyd) ; and Bishops Cramer-Roberts, Macrorie, and Mylne.* 
Many of these had never been at all identified with the Society ; 
and the same remark applies to a host of other leading men who 
took part, Canon Gore for instance, who preached at Westminster 
Abbey. In many places, the leading friends and workers of the 
S.P.G. took a cordial part in the proceedings ; and here and there 
a function was arranged on the broad basis of the Missionary Call 
to the whole Church of Christ, Chm'chmen of all schools, and 
Nonconformists, joining in the heartiest way. Cambridge and 
Nottingham were conspicuous in this respect. 

* It should be remembered that there was then no diocese of Birmingham, 
nor of Southwark ; and of course not of Chelmsford or ShclUcld or St. 
Ediuuudsbury. 



14 



The C.M.S. Centenary. 



Part 1. 
Chap. 1. 

The Cen- 
tenary 
Abroad. 



Tlie Cen- 
tenary 
l''und. 



There were also interesting Centenary gatherings abroad. 
Accounts of them were sent from several of the dioceses in 
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, many of the Bishops 
preaching and speaking ; among them Bishop Montgomery, then 
of Tasmania. Also from Sierra Leone, Lagos, Abeokuta, Ibadan, 
Bonny, Lokoja, and other places in West Africa : from East Africa 
and Uganda ; from Cairo, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Baghdad, Julfa- 
Ispahan ; from Calcutta, Allahabad, Lucknow, Agra, Jabalpur, 
Amritsar, Bombay, Madras, Masulipatam, Tinnevelly, Travancore, 
and a host of other districts, towns, and villages in India ; from 
Colombo and other places in Ceylon ; from Hong Kong, Canton, 
Foochow, Shanghai, and other cities in China ; from Metlakatla 
and elsewhere on the far-off Pacific coast. The most striking of 
all the commemorations seems to have been in Tinnevelly, lasting 
for three days, morning, noon, and night. The S.P.G. missionaries 
and Tamil clergy joined, and sent contributions to the local Thanks- 
giving Fund, by means of which a Centenary Hall was built at 
Palamcotta. Similar tokens of fellowship marked the celebrations 
in many other places. 

There wHs of course a Centenary Fund at home. It was in 
two parts. The three years preceding the Commemoration were 
devoted to what was called the Three Years' Enterprise, or " T.Y.E." 
During that period many special offerings were made, definitely for 
sending out more missionaries, and the then new method of the 
" O.O.M.'s " ("Our Own Missionary") received a great impulse. 
But apart from this, many persons put by, or collected, a weekly 
or montbly sum to make up a gift for general purposes. To give 
but one example : a National-schoolmistress in a mining district 
in the north of England asked the pitmen and their families to 
give her each one penny for Missions every month for three years. 
She obtained over 300 promises, atid every month she went round 
to all the houses to receive the pennies ; and at the end of the 
three years she sent up £50. These " T.Y.E." funds amounted 
to £65,616. Then the direct Centenary gifts came to £146,681 ; 
making a total of £212,297. No definite sum had been asked for 
in the Committee's statements ; but it was noticed that the Jubilee 
Fund of 1848-9 had realized a sum equal to two-thirds of the 
average annual income at the time, and it w^as hoped that a similar 
sum might be received at the Centenary. As the annual income 
was now about £300,000, two-thirds were actually contributed, and 
a little more. The details of the Centenary Contribution List are 
interesting, as all such details are ; but they cannot be enlarged on 
here. It should, however, be mentioned that a great many parishes 
not usually supporting the C.M.S. gave at least an offertory; also 
that there were offertories in twenty-four cathedrals, which amounted 
to £577; also that the contributions from "foreign parts," inde- 
pendently of the large sums raised in the Missions for local objects 
(as in Tinnevelly, before mentioned), amoimted to £3095. 

The allocation of the T.Y.E. and Centenary Funds was in 



The cms. Centenary. 15 

accordance with previous announcement. £30,000 was invested part i. 
to increase the Capital Fund to £100,000. £4500 was used to Chap.i. 
discharge an old mortgage on the CM. House. £8000 was devoted 
to a new Nursery Home attached to the Missionaries' Children's 
Home at Limpstield ; £36,000 was appropriated by the donors to 
" O.O.M.'s " or other speciiic objects; and all the rest, less the 
special expenditure incurred, went to assist the General Fund in 
the extension going on through the fom' years, 1898-1902, chiefly 
in the form of an increasing number of missionaries. 

Not the least interesting fruit of the Commemoration was the The cen- 
Centenary Volume ; and as that volume is little known to the \\^ume. 
C.M.S. circle, a brief account of it must be given. It begins witli 
a short introductory sketch of the Society's historj'', occupying 
thirty pages. There are then five Parts. Part I. is entitled 
" Before the Commemoration," and comprises an account of the 
Three Years' Enterprise, including the special committees of 
inquiry which sat through the three years examining all sections 
of the work and administration ; also a report of the " Second 
Jubilee " before referred to, with the speeches in full, in all thirty 
pages. Part II. consists of a full account of the Commemoration 
itself, in London, with the brief reports above noticed of the 
functions in the Provinces and abroad. All the speeches at the 
great meetings in the Centenary Week are given in full, and remain 
a valuable record, from which any speaker of to-day would gather 
" things new and old." This Part, the largest, occupies 170 pages. 
Part III. contains notes on the Centenary Funds, in fourteen pages. 
Part IV., which occupies 160 pages, is especially valuable for 
permanent reference. It contains all sorts of lists and tables : all 
the Office-bearers of the Society from the first ; the Preachers of the 
Annual Sermon, with their texts ; the story of the Periodicals ; the 
story of the various Unions at home, and of the Associations in 
the Colonies ; an account of the Society's colleges and other insti- 
tutions ; a note of the dioceses w^orked in, wdth lists of their 
bishops ; a complete list of all the C.M.S. missionaries and native 
clergymen ; an account of the educational antecedents of the 
missionaries, the Public Schools, Universities, and Colleges, whence 
they have been drawn ; separate lists of the Colonial missionaries, 
medical missionaries, missionaries raised to the Episcopate, etc. ; 
a bibliography of the translations and other literary works pro- 
duced by the missionaries ; a list of the languages used ; and 
tables and charts, statistical and financial. Lastly, Part V. is a 
supplement, separately paged, and occupying 233 pages, containing 
the full Contribution Lists of the Centenary Funds. The whole is 
a massive volume of 970 pages, a treasury of useful and inspiring 
information, which does 'the highest credit to the Editorial 
Department. 



Chaptee II. 



Tart I. 
Chap. 2. 

Survey of 
Past and 
Present in 
1899. 



The Outlook after the Centenary. 

Retrospect: C.M.S. Home Developments; the Church Waking up — The 
Outlook Abroad : Africa, India, China, &c.— The Committee's Bird's- 
eye "View of the Period and "Work- Problem of Native Church 
Organization. 



8 



HE Society resumed its ordinary work after the Cente- 
nary celebration with every token of encouragement. 
Not only had the Commemoration itself been successful 
beyond expectation, but the retrospect of the previous 
few years presented abundant cause for thanksgiving, 
and tlie outlook at home and abroad gave every reason for con- 
hdcnce and hope. In the twelve years 1887-99, the Society's 
missionaries had increased in number from 309 to 811, with the 
natural result that the Missions were extending in all directions. 
This was partly due to the large additions of women to the 
missionary staff", their number having risen in the same period 
from 20 to 281 ; but tlic ordained men had increased from 247 
to 106, and the laymen from 40 to 124. The Income had advanced 
from £203,000 to £303,000 (taking at each end an average of three 
years) ; and the Centenary Funds had wiped off past deficits. The 
" Three Years' Enterprise " which had been undertaken in 1896 as 
a preparation for the Centenary had animated old friends and set 
many new ones to work. The Unions, — Clerical, Lay, Ladies', 
Gleaners', — were all growing in numbers and influence. The 
Women's Department, now four years old, was everywhere enlist- 
ing new workers and equipping them by means of conferences 
and gatherings of all kinds. The Medical Mission Auxiliary was 
a distinct success, and was now not only supporting the fifty 
medical missionaries and a band of nurses, but was undertaking 
to bear in future all the cost of building new hospitals and 
dispensaries. Plans for the promotion of Educational, Industrial, 
and Literary work in the Missions had been formed. The Colonial 
Associations in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, — seven, six, 
and five years old respectively, — were sending to the C.M.S. fields 
zealous men and women, and supporting them. Lastly, the 
Ifislorij of the C.M.S. had been prepared, and published in three 
lai-ge volumes, and had met at once with a large sale.* 

* All these developments are more fully described iu later chapters of this 
book. 



The Outlook after the Cextenary. 17 

The Three Years' Enterprise had not heen confined to organizing part i. 
work in the country and the raising of funds for extension. It ' J^-- 
had included a close review of the whole range of the Society's 
activities, carried out by several special committees, with a view 
to discovering weak points and strengthening all the work. It 
seemed likely that the most fruitful result of this examination 
would be twofold, {(.i) further decentralization in the administration 
of the Missions, (li) the development of Native Church organization ; 
and in fact both expectations were eventually fulfilled. 

The animating prospect as the nineteenth century was nearing The Church 
its close was not confined to that branch of the great missionary ^'*'i°8"P- 
enterprise which was represented by the C.M.S. The Church of 
England did appear to be waking up gradually. The Lambeth 
Conference of 1897 had declared that the work of Foreign Missions 
" at the present time stands in the first rank of all the tasks we have 
to fulfil." Archbishop Temple's own keen sense of the Church's 
obligation to evangelize the w^orld had deeply impressed the 
assembled bishops ; and he was still employing no small part of 
his remaining energies in old age in the task of infusing the whole 
Church with the same consciousness of responsibility to give itself 
whole-heartedly to the fulfilment of its Divine Lord's command. 
Tlie Boards of Missions were slowly, and as yet not very ener- 
getically, extending their influence. The S.P.C.K. had kept — in 
very modest fashion — its bicentenary shortly before the C.M.S. 
commemoration ; and the other elder sister, the S.P.G., was 
already preparing for its own bicentenary in 1900-01. Two of 
the great Nonconformist Societies, the Baptist and the London, 
had already celebrated their centenaries ; the , Religious Tract 
Society had just done the same; and English Christendom 
generally was conscious that a period of no ordinary interest had 
arrived. 

The outlook abroad was not less encom-aging, and advance was Outlook 
called for in all the mission fields. In Africa, Great Britain was Afrilfa. * 
taking over from the Royal Niger Company the vast territories 
which were to become the Protectorate of Nigeria, as it had, only 
five years before, taken over from the British East Africa Company 
the equally important regions which that Company had been 
developing — the boundary line between the British and German 
spheres of influence having been settled in 1890. The Uganda 
Railway was in course of construction, and traders were already 
beginning to pour into the healthy districts which it was opening 
up. Lord Kitchener had been slowly but steadily advancing up 
the Nile; and the signal victory of Omdurman had just avenged 
Gordon by destroying the tyranny of the Khalifa, restoring peace 
to the devastated Sudan, and making Khartum a great centre of 
British influence. 

In some of these vast African fields, missionary extension was 
already the order of the day ; and, before twelve months had 
elapsed, there was advance in, or into, them all. Particularly, in 

c 



1 8 The Outlook after the Centenary. 

Parti, the Yoruba Country (now a part of Nigeria), the remarkable move- 
iap^„'. T^Q^^ jjj ^]j0 Jebu districts had begun, which was in the coming 
years to bring thousands into the Christian Church ; while in 
German East Africa, tribe after tribe was being reached, and in 
Uganda, Pilkington's suggestion of a " three years' enterprise " 
to extend the work within a radius of 200 miles from the 
capital was being rapidly acted on by teachers supplied by the 
native Church. So arduous had the episcopal work become in 
such a diocese as " Eastern Equatorial Africa " (as it was then 
called) that Bishop Tucker had arranged for its division ; and 
while he took the area, and the title, of Uganda, Mr. Peel, the 
highly-esteemed Secretary of the C.M.S. Missions in the dioceses 
of Madras and Bombay successively, had just been appointed to 
the area of British East Africa with the title of Bishop of Mombasa, 
— having jurisdiction also over the Society's Missions in German 
territory. The number of C.M.S. missionaries in West and East 
and Central Africa had risen from 43 to 149. 

Moslem The JNIoslem East was also being reinforced. Taking Egypt, 

East. Palestine, Turkish Arabia, and Persia together, the staff had 

increased from 20 to 80 in eleven years. For Egypt and Palestine 
in particular important plans were being formed ; while in Persia, 
entrance to the ancient city of Ispahan had just been effected, and 
in Turkish Arabia it was planned to occupy Mosul. 

India. In India, the Missions w^ere progressing without startUng events, 

but with the baptisms of adult converts averaging 2000 a year. 
The evangelistic, educational, medical, and zenana work was 
all going on with increasing dihgence ; but as the Native Christian 
community increased year by year, both its spiritual life and its 
ecclesiastical organization called for more and more attention. 
Special " Missions," similar to Parochial Missions at home, had 
been, and were being, held with marked tokens of blessing. 
Church organization, as yet only in the form of local Councils, was 
fostering gradual independence of the Society, but giving, con- 
fessedly, little prospect of the rise of a real Indian Church. The 
peculiar circumstances of India precluded rapid progress in this 
respect. Meanwliile, no less than four new bishops had just 
succeeded to vacant dioceses : Dr. Welldon to Calcutta, Dr. 
Whitehead to Madras, Dr. Macarthur to Bombay, and Dr. Lefroy 
to Lahore. 

China. In China, political events were perplexing. Germany had 

brandished her " mailed fist " to obtain " a place in the sun," and 
had annexed a large territory; Eussia had seized Port Arthur; 
and Great Britain had just occupied Wei-hai-wei. The young 
Emperor's attempts at reform in the administration of the country 
had been defeated by the energy of the old Empress. The 
growing enlightenment of the Chinese gentry was illustrated by 
the wide and imexpected success of a new Anti-Foot-binding 
Society ; but in so ancient and conservative a nation changes were 
not easy. Difficulties were being caused by the policy of the 



Tn-F. Outlook after thf Centenary. 19 

French Roman bishops in seeking secular rank and a share in the tart i. 
conduct of secular affairs. Local riots were sometimes alarming. !^ 
An S.P.G. missionary had been cruelly murdered in the North ; 
and in Fukien, C.M.S. and C.E.Z, missionaries narrowly escaped 
the fate that had overtaken their brethren and sisters at Kucheng 
four years before. But no one anticipated the terrible events 
that were to ensue on the Boxer rising in the following year. 
Meanwhile, the C.M.S. Missions were going on with distinct 
success in the provinces occupied by the Society. The youngest 
of them, in the great Western province of Szechwan, was 
already (bearing fruit. Plans were in course of formation for 
advancing from the South into Hunan. The appointment of the 
Eev. J. C. Hoare to the vacant bishopric of Victoria, Hong Kong, 
was viewed with thankfulness and hope. 

Progress in Japan had been slow in recent years. There had Japan, 
been a kind of half-patriotic reaction against Western influence, 
and Christianity was looked on as a disloyal religion. Yet a 
Christian had been elected President of the Diet. The Nippon 
Sei-kokwai (Japan Church) was quietly growing in influence. 
An experienced S.P.G. missionary, the Eev. H. J. Foss, had just 
become Bishop of Osaka, Bishop Awdry having been transferred 
to Tokyo. 

New Zealand was still a C.M.S. mission field, though the date Colonies, 
was approaching for the final transfer of the work to the Colonial 
Church. There had been a striking revival among the younger 
Maoris. (To-day, when we see the splendid share in the War 
which New Zealand, both colonist and Maori, is taking, we may 
well thank God for the Mission, to which the Colony owed its 
existence.) 

The Missions to the Red Indians and Eskimo in the North and 
West of Canada were still occupying over sixty missionaries, and 
costing £20,000 a year, although the popular notion, in Canada as 
well as in England, was that the C.M.S. " had withdrawn," or 
" was withdrawing." At Mr. Peck's Mission in Cumberland 
Sound no Eskimo had yet been baptized, but there were promising 
catechumens. Much farther north, within the Arctic Circle, Mr. 
Stringer (afterwards Bishop of Yukon) had lately occupied 
Herschel Island. Bishop Ridley was still faithfully labouring in 
his far-western diocese of Caledonia. 

In the Committee's first Annual Report after the Centenary was Bircrs-eye 
over — the Report for 1899-1900 — -they referred to the hundreds of the field 
annual letters received from the missionaries in all parts of the ^^,"rk.**® 
world, to which no Report, however full, could do justice. The 
paragraph may well be inserted here, as an attempt to give a 
l)ird's-eye view of the field and the work in a picturesque form. 
These letters, said the Committee, " are sent by the veteran 
of forty and fifty years' standing, and by the recruit reporting on 
his first years. They describe in simple language a vast amount of 



20 The OiJTLOOK after the Centexary. 

pakti. quiet, unobtrusive work. Tlaey picture to us the Missionary 
^^- Bishop with his staff of native clergy; the district missionary 
with his bands of evangehsts ; the educational missionary with 
his eager students, Christian and non-Christian ; the pioneer 
missionary pressing into hitherto unreached districts of Africa or 
China ; the medical missionary on the Afghan frontier or in the 
Persian city never before occupied for Christ ; the linguistic 
missionary reducing some barbarous tongue to writing, or revising 
some important version of the Bible ; the woman missionary 
among her zenana ladies, or in her girls' school, or instructing 
her Bible- women, or ministering to the sick in the Mission 
hospital, or visiting the poor and needy. They carry the reader 
from the Ganges to the Yukon ; from the Yangtse to the Nile ; 
from the Niger to the Tigris ; from the Skeena to the Min ; from 
the Himalayas to Ruwenzori : from Fujiyama to the Ghauts ; 
from Great Bear Lake to the Victoria Nyanza ; from Black- 
lead Island to Loo-choo ; from the innumerable villages of Bengal 
to tlie scattered wigwams of the Eed Indians ; from the myriads 
of China to the few hundred Eskimo of the Arctic Circle ; from 
ancient cities like Baghdad and Ispahan to the mushroom settle- 
ments of Klondyke ; from the timid simplicity of the Bhils and 
Gonds to the polish of Japanese civilization ; from the cold 
Buddhism of Kandy to the feverish idolatry of Benares ; from 
the humble coolie of Mauritius to the proud mullah of El Azhar 
University at Cairo ; from old names dear to our fathers, like 
Abeokuta and Palamcotta and Waimate, to names unknown in the 
Report ten years ago, like Toro and Chongpa and Dengdoi ; from 
a long-established colony like Sierra Leone to the latest spheres of 
British influence, Uganda and Hausaland and Khartoum." 
One of the One Subject considered by the special "review committees" 
ahealf.'"^ of the Three Years' Enterprise had been, as above indicated, tlie 
Organization of Native Churches. Provision had already been 
made for the Maori and the Red Indian Christians in what had 
))ecome white men's countries. They would naturally take their 
places as small contingents in the great Colonial Churches. But 
the real Native Church problem lay in Asia and Africa, where the 
future Churches would be predominantly native, and must eventu- 
ally become self-governing and independent, without (it would be 
hoped) ceasing to be in full communion with the Mother Church. 
To deal with this great problem was felt to be one of the most 
responsible tasks of the new century. " Valuable," said the 
Committee in the Report already cited, " as have been the Native 
Church Councils planned by tl:e foresight and wisdom of Henry 
Venn, something more is now needed. The native episcopate must 
be promoted — not only in West Africa ; and real Church Synods 
with lay members must be established — not only in Japan." The 
C.M.S. and the Central Board of Missions, nearly simultaneously, 
took up the question, with results to be stated by and by. 




CHAPTEE III. 

JiRiEF Survey of the Sixteen Years. 

The Boer War : Unity of the Empire ; a Pattern for the Church — 
Colonial Co-operation — A Record Year for Recruits^ — ^Death of Queen 
Victoria— King Edward and King George— Other Centenaries — Arch- 
bishop Temple —C. M.S. Missionaries raised to the Episcopate-— Pan- 
Anglican Congress and Lambeth Conference— Edinburgh Conference^ 
Student Movement Doubts in S.P.G. and C.M.S. Circles— Personal 
Changes— Home Developments— The Funds— Swanwick — The War. 

[HE sixteen years had only begun a few months when .'^if'^'''^- 
! England found herself unexpectedly engaged in a — '- 
great war. It was in the autumn of 1899 that the ^!f^^^|;^ 
President of the Boer Eepublic sent us bis memorable Empire 
ultimatum. The completion of the sixteen years has, 
in the mysterious providence of God, found us involved in a far 
greater war, indeed the greatest in the history of the world. The 
C.M.S. Committee headed their Eeport for 1899-1900 with these 
three texts : — 

" The hand of the Lord was to give them one heart." 2 Chr. xxx. 12 ; 
" All the people answered with one voice." Exod. xxiv. o ; 
" All the people arose as one man." Judg. xx. 8 ; — 

— observing that the year had " witnessed an example of oneness 
of heart, oneness of voice, and oneness of action " " unique in 
the history of the world." How much more truly and emphatically 
could this be said now ! In the case of the Boer War there was a 
minority, and not a weak or a voiceless one, that disapproved of it ; 
but now, is there a perceptible minority at all ? Still more signifi- 
cant now, therefore, is the application drawn by the Committee in 
]900 : — " Just such a spirit is what the Church of Christ needs to An Ex- 
achieve the object of her present existence. . . . When His servants ti™^church. 
flock in His Name to Heathendom in the same ardent spirit in 
wliich the Queen's soldiers flocked to South Africa — and not the 
soldiers only, but chaplains and doctors and nurses and members 
of the Army Service Corps, — volunteering eagerly and saihng at a 
fev/ hours' notice, whatever their home ties and difficulties, — then 
the Church will have risen to her high calling, and will be able to 
claim a far larger blessing upon all her manifold work at home and 
abroad." 

A conspicuous feature of the oneness of the British nation and 



Brief Survey of the Sixteen Years. 



Part i. 

Cliap. 3. 

Colonial 
Help. 



A record 
>"ear for 
JMissionary 
llecruits. 



Death of 

Queen 

Victoria. 



King 

Edward : 
a Ketro- 
spect. 



empire in 1900 was tlie co-operation of the great self-governing 
Dominions in the war. Their contingents were among the most 
effective branches of the Army, just as we find them to be to-day. 
And, said the C.M.S. Committee, " while Australians and Cana- 
dians have fought side by side with British troops in South Africa, 
Australians and Canadians have done admirable service in the 
mission field." In East Africa and Uganda, in Palestine and 
Persia, in India and Ceylon, in China and Japan, in New Zealand 
and on the Arctic Circle, fifty Australian and Canadian missionaries 
were already working side by side with their English and Irish 
brethren and sisters. 

It is an interesting coincidence, too, — if no more than a co- 
incidence, — that that first year of the Society's second century 
witnessed an accession of new missionaries which constituted a 
record. For the first and only time — for no subsequent year has 
equalled it — the recruits exceeded one hundred in number : fifty- 
two men and fifty-one women, not counting twenty-three more 
women taken over from the then just defunct Female Education 
Society. The year 1900 was notable in another respect in the 
same connexion. Ten years before, in August, 1890, a memorable 
Letter, sent to the Committee by a band of leading clerical 
members who found themselves together at Keswick, had called 
for an addition to the staff of one thousand missionaries. In 
August, 1900, the Society had sent out, in the ten years since that 
Letter was written, one thousand and two. 

The Boer War was still dragging its slow length along when the 
longest and most brilliant reign in English history came to its 
conclusion. The beloved and revered Queen Victoria died on 
January 22nd, 1901. " In the world-wide mourning for the 
venerated Queen," said the Committee in their next Eeport, " the 
Christians gathered out of many races by God's blessing on 
missionary labours have taken their full sliare. Indian Christians 
wept for their Empress, for the ' World's Mother,' as one old 
Punjabi woman called her. Chinese Christians, guiltless of geo- 
graphy, asked if Osborne were more than two days' journey off, 
and how they could get there. Throughout Uganda memorial 
services were held in the native churches. In Persia the Moham- 
medans joined the Christians to hear Bishop Stuart's funeral 
sermon. Even on the Yukon, in the furthest corner of North- 
West Canada, the news was known within five days, and the Red 
Indians gathered to praise God for Queen Victoria, and to pray for 
King Edward." 

Edward VII. ascended the throne, and the Committee took the 
opportunity to recall tlic fact that the year of the new king's birth, 
1811, had been a notable epoch in tlio history of Missions. That 
year saw the first landing in Africa of David Livingstone, the first 
Niger Expedition, the sailing of Bishop Solwyn to New Zealand, 
the war with China which opened that empire to British mis- 
sionary enterprise, the founding of the Telugu Mission by Noble and 



l^KiEF Survey of the Sixtee.v Years. 23 

Fox (two of the earliest missionaries from Cambridge and Oxford i'akt i. 
respectively), the formation of the Colonial Bishoprics Fund, the ^''"^''^' 
establishment of an Anglican bishopric at Jerusalem, and the 
appointment of Henry Venn as Secretary of the C.M.S. These 
retrospects are always encouraging, — which is one reason why the 
present volume is written at all. 

Such retrospects have Ijeen fostered during the sixteen years by oilier Cou- 
the numerous centenaries of important events that have occurred. 
In 1901, the venerable sister Society, the S.P.G., kept its 
Bicentenary ; and the call to Bishop Montgomery to leave his 
Tasmanian diocese to take the Secretaryship proved in its issues 
to be in itself an event sufficient to mark the epoch. .The C.M.S. 
signalized the occasion by publishing a sketch of S.P.G. history, of 
which the elder sister made large and grateful use. In 1904, the 
Bible Society, the valued fellow-worker of all the Missions, cele- 
brated its hundredth year ; and the C.M.S. headed its Annual 
Eeport with St. Peter's inspired utterance, " The Word of the Lord 
abideth for ever." Three years later was recalled the triumph of 
Wilberforce in 1807, when Great Britain abolished the slave trade. 
In 1913 came the hundredth anniversary of his second great 
victory in passing through Parliament the resolutions that definitely 
opened India to the messengers of the Gospel and established the 
bishopric of Calcutta ; and in the same year was celebrated the 
centenary of the birth of Livingstone. Not inappropriately did 
the Committee head one of their Reports with the words of the 
77th Psalm, " We will remember the years of the right hand of 
the Most High." 

Reverting to King Edward's accession, the C.M.S. Report, wliich 
commemorated Queen Victoria and welcomed the new Sovereign, 
was headed with the words, " Of Hk Kingdom there shall be no 
end." So the Angel Gabriel assured the Mother of King Jesus, 
and we know the word is true. The greatness of the contrast 
with earthly kingdoms was significantly emphasized by the short- 
ness of King Edward's reign. On May 6th, 1910, he was succeeded 
by King George V. Twice, therefore, in the sixteen years, was Two c;oro- 
the splendour of a royal coronation witnessed in Westminster nations. 
Abbey. On the former occasion the Committee headed their 
Report with the words of Heb. ii., — referring to the statement in 
the Eighth Psalm that God had put all things under man's feet, — 
" We see not yet all things put under him. But we see Jesus 
. . . crowned with glory and honour " ; and they asked, " Why 
not yet ? " " Is it because the Church is neglecting her primary 
and paramount duty '? ... Is it because Missionaiy Societies are 
told to ask for no more money ? "—and they thereupon quoted 
from Bishop Chadwick's poem, — 

Cut down the expenses, some folks say, 
The Church of Christ has too much to pay. 

The Bishop's scathing lines w^ere still mox-e applicable at the time 



24 



l^RiEF Survey of the Sixteen Years. 



I'ART I. 

Chap. 3. 



C.M.S. 
Missionaries 
raised to 
thie Episco- 
pate. 



Pan- 
Anglican 
Congress. 



when the second Coronation occurred ; but Archbishop Lang's 
sermon in the Abbey struck a higher note. His text was, " I am 
among you as he that serveth." So said the King of kings at the 
supper table in the upper room, just when He was taking the 
lowest place and washing the Apostles' feet. So, the Archbishop 
suggested, would King George give himself wholly to the service 
of his people. And so must it be with every Christian if there is 
to be an end of the " not yet," and "man," in the person of the 
Man Christ Jesus, is to be crowned King by the whole world. 

The Church as well as the State has seen important changes in 
the sixteen years. x\rchbishop Temple, full of years and honours, 
died on Dec. 23, 1902, having preached his last sermon on St. 
Andrew's Day, in behalf of Missions, in Canterbury Cathedral. 
His successor, Eandall Davidson, Bishop of Winchester, brought 
to the primatial chair a quite unique experience in Church affairs, 
and a devotion to the cause of world-wide evangelization not less 
real than that of his revered predecessor. He has only fulfilled 
the Society's confident expectation by the warmly sympathetic 
interest lie has constantly shown in its work. Only a short time 
earlier, Dr. Winnington Ingram had signalized his accession to the 
bishopric of London by appointing to the first prebend of St. Paul's 
at his disposal the Society's Honorary Secretary, the Eev. H. E. 
Fox, Among other elevations to the Episcopate there have been 
two of special interest and gratification to the Society, that of 
Dr. Handley Moule to Durham and that of Dr. Drury to Sodor 
and Man and Kipon in succession ; and if the Church Missionary 
College was honoured by the conferring of episcopal office on one 
of its old Principals, scarcely less was it honoured by the appoint- 
ment of another former Principal, Dr. Barlow, to the Deanery of 
Peterborough. The selection of the Bishop of Sierra Leone for 
the important office of Chaplain-General of H.M. Forces, while 
removing a valued fellow-worker from the mission field, gave 
Dr. Taylor Smith fresh opportunities of exercising his unique 
influence. 

No less than twenty-three C.M.S. missionaries have been raised 
to the Episcopate within our period. Bishops Peel, Elwin (the 
late), Hamlyn (S.P.G., Accra), Gwynne, Willis, in Africa; Bishop 
Maclnnes for Jerusalem, Bishop Stileman in Persia ; Bishops 
Gill, Durrant, and Waller in India ; Bishops Price, Molony, 
Banister, White, in China ; Bishops Andrews, Lea, Hamilton, in 
Japan ; Bishops Lofthouse, Holmes (the late). Stringer, Anderson, 
Robins, Lucas, in Canada, — had all been on the C.M.S. roll of mis- 
sionaries. To these should be added Bishop James Johnson, the 
African Assistant Bishop in West Africa ; while Bishop Azariah, 
the first native Indian bishop, had several close links with the 
Society. Bishop Waller is the 57th C.M.S. missionary raised to 
the Episcopate, not including the iVfricans or the Indian. 

One of the principal ecclesiastical events of the period was the 
Pan-Anglican Congress of 1908, suggested and planned by Bishop 



Brief Survey of the Sixteen Years. 25 

Montgomery. Many prominent members of the Society, and not i^AiiT i. 
a few of its missionaries, took an active part in the dehberations. ^ ' 
The influence of this unique gathering upon the mind of the 
Church was unmistakable, particularly in presenting an object 
lesson on the world-wide extension and work of the Anglican 
Communion. " Not," said the C.M.S. Committee, " that the 
Anglican Communion is identical with the Holy Catholic Church of 
our Creeds, but it is an important part of that Church as a visible 
organization, and it is contributing an important contingent 
to that true mystical body of Christ which is the blessed com- 
pany of all faithful people." The Pan- Anglican Thankoffering, 
which amounted to some £350,000, has proved a valuable help to 
Church enterprise overseas, and not least to the C.M.S. Missions. 
Its grants, direct or indirect, to those Missions, which have in the 
aggregate exceeded £50,000, have greatly facilitated development 
and extension, and this at the very time when the Society's own 
resources were proving inadequate to meet tlio insistent calls from 
all sides. 

The Congress was immediately followed by the fifth Lambeth i'iJ^t'i 
Conference, attended by 2J:3 bishops. Their Encyclical Letter to confer- 
the whole x\nglican Communion was a most stirring appeal for ^'^'^^• 
a spirit of self-sacrifice and consecrated service ; and this was 
followed up by a Letter from the Archbishops of Canterbury and 
York, referring to the Pan-Anglican Congress, and declaring that 
the Church at home could not " dare to be disobedient to the 
vision which it had seen." " Its life could not continue as if the 
great appeals of 1908 had not been heard." " A door of special 
opportunity " had been opened. " We are jealous for the honour 
of the Church of England that it may be among the first messengers 
of Christ to enter in." 

But even events like these were destined to be surpassed in Minburgh 

(.'OHiGr- 

importance by the memorable World Missionary Conference at cncc 
Edinburgh in 1910. Not indeed for the first time did the divided 
sections of Protestant Christendom meet on common ground to 
discuss the problems of their common work in the evangelization 
of the world, Not to speak of earlier gatherings in England 
and abroad before the period we are reviewing, the largest in 
numbers had been held in New York in 1900, the year following 
the C.M.S. Centenary, at which the Society was officially repre- 
sented. But the Edinburgh Conference differed from all its 
predecessors in the carefully balanced representation of different 
bodies, in its influential character, and in the permanent value 
both of its preliminary inquiries by select commissions and by its 
own reported discussions. On its first day the Archbishop of 
Canterbiu-y thrilled all his bearers by declaring that if only " the 
place of Missions in the life of the Church" was "the central 
place and no other," it might well be that there were some stand- 
ing in that hall that night " who should not taste of death till they 
saw the Kingdom of God come with power" ; and the practical 



26 Brief Survey of the Sixteen Years. 

I'AKT J. outcome of the Conference has done not a little towards the fulfil- 
tiiaiK 3. jjjQj^i; Qf those inspiring words. Under the strong leadership of 
Dr. Mott (who had been chairman of the debates), the Continua- 
tion Committee, formed to carry on the work and influence of the 
Conference, has given a fresh impetus to the whole missionary 
enterprise ; the remarkable Conferences held in India and the Far 
East, also with him as leader, have done much to draw together 
the scattered and separated regiments of the mission army ; and 
the new IntornationaJ Review of Jfis.na/is, edited by the Edin- 
liurgh Secretary, Mr. Oldham, is putting the study of missionary 
problems on a fresh scientific basis, 
stiideut It must not be forgotten that the way had been prepared for 

Movement, ^j^jg great Conference and its effects by the meetings and in- 
fluence of the Student Movement. That Movement had taught 
many of the ablest of our younger men and women, and, through 
them, not a few of the older leaders, that for purposes of united 
prayer and mutual help it is not necessary that all should think 
alike even on great and solemn theological questions, provided 
that all are loyal to Christ as the Son of God and the Saviour of 
the world. Those who were thus loyal found that without com- 
promising anything specially dear to them in doctrine or mode of 
worship, they could meet on common ground those who differed 
from them ; and the result has been notable both within the 
Church of England and in the wider fellowship of British 
Christendom. And meanwhile, the Student Movement has con- 
tinued to exercise its good influence in enlisting its members in 
the actual service of Christ at home and abroad. 
Doubts iu Some of the older members of the Missionary Societies within 
boths.P.G. the Church of England have not been able to view this tendency 
dides. " ' favourably. The S.P.G. was gravely taken to task for joinmg m 
the Edinburgh Conference at all, many of its members objecting 
to the Anglican Church conferring on equal terms with represen- 
tatives of Christian communions not regarded by them as Catholic, 
and thus fostering a " Pan-Protestantism " which (they thought) 
would be a hindrance to any possible union with the Eoman and 
Eastern Churches. On the other hand, the C.M.S. has been 
criticized by a section of its own supporters for compromising (as 
they thought) its traditional Evangelical position by joining in any 
way with Churchmen of other schools, and with the S.P.G. in 
particular. But the stream of tendency has been against the 
objectors on both sides. On the one hand, S.P.G. men have 
shown increasing friendliness with both non-episcopal societies at 
liome and with their missionaries abroad, and on the other hand, 
the influence of the Central Board of Missions and the Diocesan 
Boards of Missions — the latter the creation of the last sixteen 
years — has brought together at combined services and meetings 
Churchmen of all schools for united prayer and conference; 
gatherings which have distinctly fostered a wider missionary 
interest, and in particular have brought the work of the C.M.S. 



Brief Suki'ey of jhe SixTEE.\f Years. 27 

bel'oro large circles otherwise unreached. The respective positions pakti. 
and principles of the different Societies are better appreciated and *" i^-^- 
more frankly respected ; while the true fellowship of men and 
women who, while differing on various matters by no means un- 
important, serve the same Lord and equally seek the extension 
of His Kingdom, has been increasingly manifested. 

In the Report of 1903 the C.M.S, Committee expressed them- c.m.s. _ 
selves on these mtttters in the following words. After referring to ua the 
the loud calls for advance in the missionary enterprise, they .^,"J'i'^|ig 
said : — " Let the motive for going forward be considered. Is it cimrch. 
the glory and honour of a Society, or of a religious party, or even of 
a Church ? God forbid ! It is for the glory and honour of Him 
Whom we already ' see crowned,' but Who w^aits for the establish- 
ment of His Kingdom. The one grand object of Missions is that 
He may be exalted, and the Church Missionary Society wishes 
God-speed to every Mission, every Society, every Church that 
works for that oliject. Differences in this imperfect state there 
will be, and must be — differences of gift, of administration, of 
operation; differences of theological expression, of ecclesiastical 
pohcy, of evangelistic method. The Church Missionary Society 
has its own distinctive principles — the principles of the Apostolic 
Age, of the English Reformation, of the Evangelical Revival ; and 
on those principles it stands, and intends by the grace of God to 
stand. It maintains, and will maintain, its just independence — 
not independence of the Church or of its constituted authorities, 
but the reasonable independence of a body of loyal Churchmen 
banded together for the preaching of Christ in the world. At the 
same time, it declines to be turned aside, by groundless and un- 
worthy suspicions, from its ancient practice of friendly intercourse 
with other Societies, whether within the Chm'ch of England or 
within the wider range of Protestant Christendom ; and it rejoices 
to see, what its founders would have rejoiced to see — ' but died 
without the sight ' — the Church of England as a body, and its 
Episcopate in particular, fostering the missionary enterprise. Let 
the words of the great Bishop of Minnesota, at the C.M.S. 
Centenary Meeting, be recalled. ' I have tried,' he said, ' to find 
the image of my Master upon the faces of those from whom I 
differ, and God has overpaid me a thousand-fold.' " 

The sixteen years, of course, saw many changes in the Society's Personal 
home staff'. It has been a matter of true thankfulness that the '^'h^^ses. 
President and Treasurer of 1899, Sir John Kennaway and Colonel 
(now Sir Robert) Williams, are the President and Treasurer of 
1916 ; but in the Secretariat there have been many changes. 
These will Ijc fully detailed hereafter ; but it should be mentioned 
here (1) that the Home Department, after the successive retire- 
ments of Mr. Burroughs and Mr. Flynn, had the great advantage 
for some years of the joint administration of Bishop Ingham and 
Dr. Lankester ; (2) that Dr. Lankester eventually became Lay 
Secretary; (3) that when the state of Prebendary Fox's health 



28 



Brief Survey of the Slxteen Years. 



Part I. 
Chap. 3. 



Home Base 
develop- 
ments. 



compelled his retirement from the post of Hon, Clerical Secretary- 
after fifteen years' highly valued service, he was succeeded hy the 
Eev. C. C. B. Bardsley. 

In the general work of what has come to be called the Home 
Base, there has been striking progress in many departments. 
The Medical Mission Auxiliary has largely extended its influence, 
and now supports the whole of the Society's Medical Missions. 
An Educational and an Industrial Committee were formed soon 
after the Centenary, and the former, during the last few years, 
has done remarkable work in interesting leading educationists and 
University men in the colleges and schools maintained in many 
of the Missions. Women workers in the cause have .been multiplied, 
and for their benefit a great many highly profitable conferences 
and other gatherings have been arranged by the zealous and 
efficient Women's Department. Under the same inspiration a 
Girls' Movement has attracted the enthusiastic co-operation of 
many circles of the younger ladies. A Young People's Depart- 
ment has been gradually developed, and has had much success in 
banding together the children of our Christian families. The 
great Public Schools have been visited, with the cordial leave of 
the Headmasters. The Home Preparation Union has done im- 
portant service in preparing possible future candidates. The 
other Unions, for Clergy, Laymen, Gleaners, &c., have all made 
progress. Among quite new and important developments, the 
Summer Schools and the Study Circles, both of them imitations 
of American agencies, have been exceptionally successful ; while 
the older Missionary Exhibitions have been supplemented by 
kinematograph pictures of the various mission fields. 

In all these and many other ways, missionary information has 
been widely diifused, and missionary interest quickened; one 
result of which — indeed both a cause and a result — is the greatly 
enlarged demand for missionary l:)ooks, for which there is now a 
market not dreamed of twenty-five years ago. The C.M.S. publi- 
cations have multiplied, and have met with a large sale ; and the 
standard of missionary literature, from whatever source, has, in a 
literary sense, been distinctl)^ raised. 
The Funds. The effect of all this movement shoiild be seen in more 
numerous offers of service and in increased funds ; and there is 
more reason for thankfulness in these respects than is commonly 
supposed. Taken as a whole, the years 1899-1914 were a period 
of financial difficulty ; but this is not due to any real falling off 
in contributions. The average annual receipts on all accounts 
(except the Centenary Fund) for the first five years amounted to 
£353,611; for the second five years, to £388,177; for the third 
five years (omitting the Swanwick Fund), to £403,397. That 
shows a difference between the first and the third periods, roughly 
ten years, of £50,000 ; and in fact between the first year and the 
fifteenth year (again omitting Centenary Fund at one end and 
Swanwick Fund at the other) there is a difference of £82,633. 



Brief Survey of the Sixteen Years. 29 

Why, then, tlie continually reported deficits? Simply because Pauti. 
of the extended work resulting from the large increase of '-^ 
missionaries in the years preceding the Centenary, and in the '^'^® ^^'^" 
earlier years following. The Society was at length obliged to staff. 
direct retrenchments which caused much trial and difficulty in the 
mission field, and also to limit the number of new recruits. And 
the result has been that whereas in 1899-1906 the number added 
yearly to the roll averaged 80, it fell in 1911-12 to 41 ; while the 
total number of missionaries, w^hich rose from 811 in 1899 to 
1018 in 1906, fell to 942 in 1913, though it rose again to 975 in 
1915. ■"■ The knowledge that the number of recruits was being 
limited led to a diminution of offers of service, especially from 
men to be trained at the Church Missionary College. The general 
result is that the total number of missionaries on the roll in 1915 
is 164 more than at tlie date of the Centenary. But this increase 
is almost entirely due to the women ; and while we rejoice in the 
truly blessed work of our sisters — without whom, we must re- 
member, one half of the population in any mission field can 
scarcely be reached at all — the lack of advance in the number of 
men, and particularly of ordained men, is causing real difficulty in 
many of the Missions. 

It was in view of these circumstances, and especially in view of The 
the large accumulated deficit, that the Committee, in 1913, re- conference, 
solved to ask the frank counsel of representative friends. Much 
had been done, from 1906 onward, in more systematic organiza- 
tion of the members of the Society in Diocesan and Archidiaconal 
Associations ; and this enabled a real representation of the country 
to be secured. The three hundred friends who met at Swanwick 
in May, 1913, were for the most part (i.e. barring those who came 
from Salisbury Square) actually elected bj"^ these Associations, 
so that an independent judgment could be confidently looked for. 
The Committee were quite prepared to order still more drastic 
retrenchments if the country demanded it, and some experienced 
members fully expected this to be the sad but inevitable result. 
But after hearing the reports on the actual state of the Missions 
in such a day of opportunity, the Conference with practical 
unanimity called for a fearless policy of advance ; and the money 
required to clear off all past deficits and make it possible to go 
forward was, without any lead from the official members, spon- 
taneously appealed for by the independent members ; with a 
result which not only aroused an enthusiastic burst of sympathy 
from the whole country, but gave real encouragement to the 
sister Societies, as showing what God, in answer to prayer, could 
enable His servants to do. 

Believed in this unexpected way, through His gracious providence, 

* These figures do not include missionaries' wives, for reasons to be ex- 
plained by and by. The figure for 1915, also, does not include 25 accepted but 
not yet sailed when the figures were made up — a new inclusion in the last 
Report which would otherwise vitiate the comparison. 



30 Brief Survey of the Sixteen Years. 

Parti, from financial anxiety, the Society felt able to look forward with 

Chill *^ •/ ' •/ 

_■- ■ fresh courage, and to form definite Plans for Advance. All the 
mission fields called for advance ; all the Missions needed develop- 
ment ; given a due supply of men and means, there seemed no 
limit to the possibilities of extension. The Committee, indeed, 
were determined to move with due caution, watching for those 
providential tokens by which the will of God is often made known, 
and not allowing human enthusiasm to push the Society beyond 
the line of that Divine Will. They desired that it might be true 
of them, as of Israel of old, that " at the commandment of the 
Lord they encamped, and at the commandment of the Lord they 
journeyed," content to stand still when the " cloud " rested, and 
eager to follow when it moved forward. 
The War. Suddenly, just when all looked bright and hopeful, another 
cloud, the great War Cloud, darkened the heavens. Of the 
tremendous events that ensued this is not the place to speak ; but 
we may rightly in passing take encouragement from the issue of 
the other war which had darkened the opening of our period. 
That war lasted longer, and cost more, than we expected ; but the 
peace that at length put an end to it has resulted in the united 
loyalty of a new Dominion. Similarly, we shall hope and pray 
that the great War now waging may be followed by a peace 
which shall unite a new Europe in a firmer fellowship than ever 
before. 



THE FOREIGN FIELD. 




CHAPTER IV. 

Africa .- 'J'ite Powers and the Peoples. 

Retrospect of Public Events — Anglo-German Agreements for Africa — 
Anglo-French Questions — Conquest of the Eastern Sudan — Develop- 
ments in African Protectorates and Spheres of Influence — Boer and 
other Wars— Evil Influences : Congo Atrocities, Liquor Traffic, 
Slavery, &c. — Islam in Africa ^Nigeria Protectorate— Uganda : the 
Railway, the Kabaka— British East Africa— The Eastern Sudan- 
Livingstone Centenary. 

I HEN the Church Missionary Society celebrated its part ii. 
Centenary, the outlook in Africa was one that inspired ^'''J^"^- 
both thankfulness and hope. The Dark Continent was 
dark no longer — in the sense of being unknown. 
Dark it still was spiritually, for lack of the Gospel in 
immense portions of its vast area ; but it was at least accessible, 
from north to south, from east to west. The " Scramble for 
Africa " seemed practically over. Almost all its territories had 
been divided among the European Powers. 

Retrospect op Public Events. 

In the early 'eighties, Germany had suddenly developed an (jerman 
ambition to possess a colonial empire, and thus to secure a more Exte'nsion. 
conspicuous " place in the sun." There was nothing unnatural 
or improper in such an ambition ; and certainly Great Britain, 
considering her own immense development, had no right to think 
so. But the unexpected German occupation of various tracts in 
West and South-West Africa, and the claim to a protectorate over 
parts of East Africa regarded as belonging in a sense to the Sultan 
of Zanzibar, had alarmed other Powers, and the Berlin Congress 
of 1884-5 had been convened to settle the questions at issue. 
That Congress had virtually divided Africa into provisional "spheres spheres of 
of influence," each Power undertaking not to overpass the limits influence, 
laid down, while free to develop its own " sphere " at its own time 
and in its own way. 

But this agreement did not put an end to the difiiculties. France 
in West Africa, and Germany in both West and East Africa, had 
no hght task in influencing, and eventually governing, the tribes 
thus committed to them respectively ; and the unrest which 
ensued, and even serious risings, were not always dealt with wisely. 

D 



34 



Africa .• Tiif. Powers and the Peoples. 



Part II. Moreover, perplexing boundary questions arose between the Powers. 
ciaiK 4. rjij^g ,, gpijQj^.eg of influence " had only been roughly indicated ; and 
England had troublesome disputes with both France and Germany 
when it became necessary to draw exact lines. For instance, a 
straight diagonal line had been drawn from the East Coast to the 
Victoria Nyanza, marking off the " spheres " of Great Britain and 
Germany ; but this line, ruled arbitrarily across the map, ran right 
over the great mountain Kilimanjaro, and the Kaiser asked that 
it might 1)6 deflected a little so that the whole mountain might 
Anglo- come within the German territory. To this the British Foreign 
Agreement. Office agreed, unconscious that they were giving away the Switzer- 
land of East Africa.* But the line only went up to the Lake, and, 
two or three years later, in 1890, the further question arose, wdiicli 
way should the line cross the Lake and be prolonged on the 
farther shore ? If prolonged in exactly the same north-west direc- 
tion, it would cut Uganda in half. This time. Lord Salisbury 
consulted the C.M.S. before settling the point, and at the Society's 
suggestion the line was ruled across the Lake due west, thus leaving 
all Uganda in the British " sphere." It was only just in time, as 
Dr. Karl Peters, the German traveller, was actually seeking at 
the same moment to induce the king of Uganda to refuse the 
advances of the British East Africa Company and put himself 
under the Kaiser's protection.! The Anglo-German Agreement 
also gave England the protectorate of Zanzibar, in exchange for 
Heligoland, which Germany, not unreasonably, felt should belong 
to her. Another agreement, in 1899, settled the hinterlands, in 
West Africa, of the British Gold Coast Colony and the German 
Togoland. 
French England's difficulties with France about boundaries were in 

Questions. West Africa. Sierra Leone and the Gambia had been settled in 
1895. The Sierra Leone Colony received a hinterland about the 
size of Scotland ; and although outbreaks, with murders of mission- 
aries, had arisen there, owing to the suppression of slave-trading 
and human sacrifices, the country in 1899 was settled and pros- 
perous under the wise administration of Sir F. Cardew. But the 
whole enormous territory of the Western Sudan, lying behind, was 
recognized as belonging to France. On the Upper Niger, and in 
the Central Sudan, the questions were more complicated, but they 
were at last settled, for the time, in 1898, a few months before tlie 
C.M.S. Centenary ; each country conceding territory to the other 
at different points. (Further agreements were made in 1904.) 
"asiioda. A much graver controversy with France arose, also in 1898, in 

* A Foreign Office official, after this had been done, came to the CM. 
House for information about the district thus dealt with. He said the Kaiser 
wished for Kilimanjaro because a German had discovered it. This was true, 
but that German was John Rebmann, a G.]\I.S. missionary in Anglican orders. 

t The Company's difficulties in Uganda were a year later, in 1891 ; and it 
was not till 1892-4 that it fell to Lord Rosebery, first as Foreign Secretary in 
Gladstone's Government, and then as Prime ]\Iinister himself, to take the 
country definitely under British protection. 



Africa .• The Powers and the Peoples. 35 

another part of Africa. A French officer, Major Marchand, with part ii. 
a small force of Senegalese natives, had marched across the Sudan "-"'^^■*- 
from West to East, and having emerged on the Upper Nile, 
occupied Fashoda. This was in the territory formerly adminis- 
tered for the Khedive of Egypt by Gordon, and Great Britain 
demanded the furling of the French flag. The situation for a few 
weeks was extremely critical, but happily the Government of the 
Eepublic gave way. 

The importance of this last question arose from the victorious Conquest 
campaign of Sir Herbert (now Lord) Kitchener against the Khalifa, Eastern 
which had only just been brought to its successful conclusion. Sudan. 
Thirteen years had elapsed since the death of Gordon had brought 
the whole Eastern Sudan under the tyrannical and barbarous rule 
of the Mahdi. At last, quietly but resistlessly, Kitchener had 
advanced up the Nile ; on Sept. 2nd, 1898, he totally defeated the 
Dervish army at the battle of Omdurman; and on Sundaj', Sept. 4th, 
a solemn service w^as held at Khartum in memory of Gordon, in 
the palace he had once occupied. The great Christian hero was 
avenged in the way he would most truly have wished, by the 
freeing of the country for which he gave his life from a cruel 
despotism. The misery and devastation wrought by Mahdism in the 
once prosperous Sudan was thus brought to an end. The slave 
trade was at once abolished ; good government was restored ; and 
the foundations were laid for a flourishing future. After such a 
victory, achieved by such long patience and skilful preparation, it 
was impossible for England, with all her desire to be at peace 
with France, to yield the Upper Nile to Major Marchand's expedi- 
tion. And within a year, in November, 1899, the new Sirdar, 
Sir F. E. Wingate, completed the deliverance of the Sudan by the 
overthrow of the fugitive Khahfa and the remnant of his army. 

Both in East and in West Africa, the influence of Great Britain Deveiop- 
had been exercised at first, not by the Government, but by com- l"®'!*^^.'" 

• 1 • mi -r. •,• 1 T-i 1 » <• • r-t t , Kast Africa 

mercial companies. The British East x\trica Company and the 
Eoj'al Niger Company had both done excellent work. The former 
had not only effected much for the promotion of legitimate trade, 
the improvement of communications, and the enforcement of law 
and order, but had set free 4000 slaves, compensating the owners ; 
and in the far interior they had secured a footing in Uganda, 
Captain (now Sir Frederick) Lugard being their agent there.* But 
it had been all expenditure and no profit ; and the shareholders, 
as the chairman, Sir W. Mackinnon, said, had " taken out their 
dividends in philanthropy." Before our period begins, however, 
in 1895, they had handed over their territories and influence and 
plant to the British Government, and forthwith the Uganda Eail- 
way had been begun. When the C.M.S. Centenary was celebrated, 
it had covered half the distance to the Nyanza ; white settlers 

* It is interesting to remember that Sir F. Lugard's father, a clergyman 
at Worcester, was an Hon. Pistrict Secretary of the C.M.S. there for many 
years. 



36 Africa: The Powers and the Peoples, 

Part II. were already prospecting in the highlands thus reached, attracted 
chap^4. i^y ^YxQ healthy climate; and the future material prosperity of 
British East Africa appeared to be secured. Moreover, the 
telegraph had already been carried the whole way to Uganda, so 
that news which had formerly taken some months to reach 
England could now come in twenty-four hours. In Uganda 
itself, the troubles that had ensued on the insurrection fostered by 
the ex-king Mwanga, and the mutiny of the Sudanese troops, came 
to an end when both Mwanga himself, and Kabarega, the trouble- 
some king of Bunyoro, were captured, — which occurred within a 
few weeks of the Centenary. 

The transfer of the Niger territories by the Company there to 
the British Government was in course of arrangement when the 
Centenary was celebrated, and Nigeria, North and South, became 
Protectorates on Jan, 1st, 1900. This Company also had done ex- 
cellent work under the brilliant leadership of Sir George Goldie. It 
had given the Empire half a million square miles of the most fertile 
and thickly-populated portion of West Africa ; it had put down 
slave-raiding over a great area, and abolished slavery within its 
own jurisdiction ; and it had taken strong measures to check the 
evil trade in spirits. In this last respect it would have done more, 
had not the traders circumvented it by sending their liquor through 
the neighbouring French and German territories. It was hoped 
that the Brussels Conference, which met in the very month of the 
C.M.S. Centenary, would result in international agreements to 
minimize the evil by so raising the duties on liquor as to render 
the trade unprofitable ; but the effort to obtain these was successful 
only in a very limited measure. Meanwhile, in the older British 
Colony of Lagos, with its Yoruba hinterland, railway and tele- 
graphic communication was advancing, and law and order being 
consolidated. 

other parts go, in the three great portions of Africa in which the C.M.S. 

of Atrit'ti. . . 

was specially interested, West Africa and Nigeria, East Africa and 
Uganda, Egypt and the Eastern Sudan, there was in 1899 a 
hopeful outlook. British Central Africa, also, had been prospering 
under the able administration of Sir H. H. Johnston ; and the Capo 
to Cairo railway, planned and inspired by the genius of Cecil 
Rhodes, was already being pushed forward, the Kaiser agreeing to 
the scheme as it affected German territory. The death of Rhodes 
in 1902 removed the greatest of Anglo-Africans. In the Congo 
Free State, also, the railway had reached Leopoldville ; * but, on 
the other hand, the native population was suffering severely 
through the oppression and cruelty of King Leopold's agents, 
though the horrors of the rubber traffic had not yet been fully 

* The communication by rail or by river or lake steamer across Africa 
from west to east was completed in IMarcli, 1915. In that month the final 
link was forged by the railway from the Lualaba Itiver being carried to a 
point on Lake Tanganyika opposite to the terminus of the Gorman railway 
from the East Coast. 



AFRICA: The Powers and the Peoples. 37 

revealed. Portuguese territories, East and West, were afllicted i'akt 11. 
more or less in similar ways. Italy had its troubles in Eritrea ^ 'Ij'!: 
and Somaliland.* And in South Africa the difficulties between 
Boer and Briton were rapidly developing, although no one antici- 
pated what a serious war would be waging before the year came 
to an end. 

On that war it is not the business of this book to enlarge. Boer War. 
Suffice it to say that in October, 1899, President Kruger sent his 
ultimatum; that the disasters of November and December led 
to the sending out of Lord Koberts and Lord Kitchener; that 
Kimberley and Ladysmith were reheved in February, 1900, and 
the principal Boer army surrendered in the same month ; that the 
British flag was hoisted at Pretoria in June ; that the Transvaal 
was formally annexed in September ; that the miUtary genius of 
Generals Botha and De Wet prolonged the subsequent guerilla 
warfare for nearly two years ; and that they finally surrendered 
on May 31st, 1902. In due course the new "Union of South 
Africa " was formed ; the people of the conquered Boer States were 
admitted to the full rights of citizenship ; the day came when 
General Botha himself became Prime Minister ; and he has now 
won the admiration of the whole Empire in the present war-time 
by his suppression of De Wet's rebellion and his conquest of 
German South- West x\frica. 

Fighting on a smaller scale has not been absent during the other liuie 
sixteen years. In 1900 occurred the third Ashanti War. The ^^^' 
tirst had been in 1873-4, when Sir Garnet Wolseley's expedition 
rescued the Basel Society's missionaries from a cruel captivity. 
The second was in 1896, and was memorable for the death of 
Prince Henry of Battenberg.f This time. Colonel (now Sir James) 
Willcocks and a force of Indian and African troops fought their 
way to Kumasi, the capital, again set free a Basel missionary 
party, and annexed the whole country to the British Empire 
as part of the Gold Coast Colony. The C.M.S. Committee, in 
February, 1901, received one of the Basel men, Mr. Eamseyer, 
who had been twice a captive, and had been rescued both in 1874 
and in 1900. In 1900 there were several risings against the 
British rule in Nigeria, and the important Moslem town of Bida 
— a famihar name in Bishop Crowther's time — was assaulted and 
burnt by the British force. Other insurrections have from time to 
time since then given trouble there and in the Central Sudan ; 
Kano itself had to be bombarded and taken in 1903, a victory 

* In German East Africa there were serious insurrections, particularly (to 
come down a little later) in 1905, when a U.M.C.A. station was destroyed and 
the lives of its missionaries were endangered, while a Roman Catholic bishop 
and four priests were killed. 

t It will be remembered that Canon Taylor Smith (now Bishop and 
Chaplain-General), who was then Diocesan Missioner :at Sierra Leone, and on 
the C.M.S. staff, accompanied this expedition ; that to him Prince Henry 
committed his last messages and personal effects ; and that he was summoned 
home by cable from Queen Victoria to report thereon. 



3S 



Africa .• The Powers and the Peoples. 



Part ll. 
Chap. 4. 



which delivered the Hausa people from the Fulani yoke ; and 
Yola, 500 miles up the Binue liver, was taken in 1902, to stop 
slave-raiding and outrages on traders. Meanwhile, again and 
again has Somaliland, on the eastern side of the continent, heen 
the scene of some of Britain's "little wars." 

A passing allusion may be made to two public events of import- 
ance in North Africa. Morocco, one of the small portions of 
the continent still nominally independent, has frequently been a 
source of trouble to the European Powers, and to England in 
particular ; and the visit of the Kaiser, and his subsequent attempt 
to get a footing for German aggression at Agadir on the north- 
west coast, led to dangerous controversy. It is now recognized 
that the country, adjoining as it does the French dominions in 
Algeria, is a " sphere " for the dominant influence of France. 
Tripoli has since been annexed by Italy, though not without much 
difficulty from the Arab tribes ; and Turkish rule was thus practi- 
cally put an end to in Africa. Even her shadowy suzerainty over 
Egypt is now a thing of the past. 



Evil Influences at Work. 

Many evils have afflicted the peoples of Africa for centuries 
past ; l3ut it cannot be denied that the contact with them of 
European " civilization," while it has delivered them from some of 
those evils, has brought others in its train. British public opinion 
is not always sensitive enough to the sufferings caused to the black 
man by his intercourse with the white man ; but it was thoroughly 
aroused by the dreadful atrocities connected with the rubber traffic 
in the Congo State, first revealed by the Baptist missionaries 
and then confirmed by other witnesses. Individual cases of 
oppression and cruelty have occurred in other parts of Africa, l)ut 
the guilty parties, when discovered, have been punished. In the 
Congo regions the brutality was systematic and official. Lord 
Lansdowne made representations to the other Powers concerned 
in 1903, and Sir Edward Grey again and again protested; but no 
real change came until the death of King Leopold, whose agents 
it was that were responsible for the atrocities. But since the 
terrible sufferings of Belgium through the German invasion, and 
the noble conduct of Iving x\lbert, all Christian Englishmen desire 
to forget the past. Moreover, the Congo State was not alone 
in its shocking conduct to the natives. In 1906 the German 
Reichstag had to listen to a succession of horrible charges against 
German officers in Togoland, Cameroons, and East Africa, brought, 
not by English missionaries, but by their own countrymen. The 
acts of which they were accused were as bad as anything on the 
Congo, though not on so large a scale. Portuguese slavery, too, 
or what was equivalent to slavery, was responsible for much ill- 
trcatmcnt of the natives. But the Congo horrors wore insisted 



Africa: The Powers and the Peoples. 39 

on with persistent courage and energy by a naan who had the ear i^akx u. 
of the British pubHc and of the authorities, Mr. E. D. Morel ; and 
whatever else may be forgotten, we cannot forget his great services 
in this matter. 

It is much to be wished that Mr. ^lorel had been equally zealous J^^^j^f^;}^"'' 
for the right in regard to another grievous evil from which iVfrica Traffic, 
has suffered. While Englishmen were being roused to indignation 
by the Congo atrocities, they were almost entirely ignorant of the 
frightful injuries being done to the Negro populations of British 
West African possessions by the liquor traffic ; and in the strenuous 
battle which Bishop Tugwell has so bravely waged against it, he 
has had against him all the influence of Mr. Morel and his news- 
paper, the Afiiran Times. Nothing in recent years has been more 
sad than the attempt in so many quarters to deny or minimize 
the evil. One governor, at a public meeting at Lagos, referred to 
what he called " the liquor phantom " ; which led to a striking 
protest on the spot by Bishop Oluwole, who said, " A phantom is 
an airy nothing : you cannot see it, you cannot handle it. But we 
do see thousands of cases of gin and demi-johns of rum," &c. 
Most of these came from Germany, and, in one month in 1901, 
175,000 gallons of rum w^ere landed from a special line of steamers 
from Hamburg. The increased duties arranged by the Brussels 
Conference of 1899 quite failed to check the traffic ; almost equally 
unsuccessful was the similar Conference of 1906 ; and in 1912, the 
Powers could not agree on any further steps, although the imports 
had in six years risen from 4,700,000 to 6,830,000 gallons — that is, 
for all the West African Colonies. Meanwhile, in 1909, a Govern- 
ment Commission had been appointed to report on the whole 
subject ; but it consisted of two officials and two traders, and 
missionaries w^ere only allowed to give evidence ; the result, 
naturally, being unsatisfactory and misleading. Chiefs of interior 
towns who, knowing the real facts, wished to prohibit the sale in 
their own districts, were afraid to risk the displeasure of the British 
authorities by doing so ; and Bishops Tugwell and Johnson had to 
undergo nmch unmerited reproach for the stand they bravely made. 
However, in 1912, new^ regulations were made, authorizing the 
prohibition in certain areas of the sale of liquor to natives ; and it 
is hoped that gradually the evil may thus be dealt with.* But 
the quantity of spirits imported has gone on increasing. A Gold 
Coast missionary applied to the Customs for a case of Bibles which 
had come for him, and was told that 16,000 cases of rum and gin 
would have to be removed before his one case could be reached ! f 
Every one who is intei-ested in this subject should read Sir Harry 

♦ In the CM". Revieto of Dec, 1909, and Jan. and March, 1910, the Report of 
tho Commission, and the evidence given hefore it, was most ably examined 
and discussed by Mr. Furness Smith ; and in the number for Dec, 1910, there 
is an account of Mr. Morel's violent attack on Bishop Tug\vcll, the C.M.S., an 
the Native Races and Liquor Trafhc United Committee. 

t See CM. Review, July, 1915, p. ii'6. 



40 Africa .• The Powers and the Peoples. 

I'ART II. Johnston's article on " Alcohol and the Empire " in the Con- 
!l!f!l * tempornnj Revmv of May, 1915. It is distressing to hear that since 
the War began, British traders are taking over the traffic in spirits 
hitherto chiefly in German hands. 
African Another cause of suffering in Africa, perhaps the greatest of all, 

^' has been slavery and the slave trade. The sea-going traffic is now, 
thank God, a thing of the past ; but there is still a good deal of 
servitude not very distinguishable from the old practice. Bishop 
Tucker waged a persistent war with what seemed to be the 
remnants of slavery in Zanzibar and the island of Pemba, British 
possessions since 1890 ; and for some years with little effect. But 
at length, in October, 1907, the legal status of slavery was finally 
abolished throughout the British East Africa Protectorate ; and 
further steps followed to secure the freedom of existing slaves, the 
Government paying £10,000 as compensation to their owners. 
Livingstone's "open sore" was at last put an end to, so far at 
least as Great Britain was concerned. In Uganda there had been 
no need for the strong arm of England to suppress the evil. The 
Christian chiefs there had done it of their own free will fourteen 
years earlier, in 1893, before even the first hoisting of the Union 
Jack, and simply on the ground that the divine law is, " Thou 
shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." * In Nigeria, the excellent 
plan, in itself , of governing through native admmistration and "on 
native lines," has involved the recognition of a certain kind of 
domestic slavery which cannot be wholly or speedily suppressed ; 
but it has lately been much modified by Sir E. Lugard's repeal 
of a certain " Native House Rule Ordinance," and the 
abuse of the system would no doubt be sternly dealt with. 
Other European Powers, it is to be feared, are less pledged than 
Great Britain to abolition, and grave cases have from time to time 
been reported from the French Congo and from Portuguese teiTitory. 
Stanley the traveller was entertained at Zanzibar by the officers of 
H.M.S. London, at their mess. In his address to them he said, " You 
will never stop slavery in Africa until you mark the country with 
the sign of the Cross. Wherever the missionary goes slavery is 
doomed," This was reported by the naval chaplain who was 
present.f 

A Danger to There was for a short time a risk of the Baganda people being 
gai a. jj^^uced to furnish a contingent to a service which might easily 
have developed into a kind of slavery. When the lucrative mining 
operations on the Rand were revived after the subjugation of the 
Transvaal, and much more labour was called for than South Africa 
could conveniently supply, the suggestion was made that the natives 
of Equatorial Africa should be hired for the purpose, and the 
Baganda were specially recommended. Sir Henry Stanley- 
vehemently protested. " Lot not the Baganda," he said, " be 

* See the thrilling account bv Bibhop luckcr, Eighicen Years in Uganda, 
Vol. I., p. 261. 

t CM. Intell., June, 1901, p. ITU. 



Africa : The Powers and the Peoples. 41 

taken from their homes to perish in the mines, hut he left to I'aRt 11. 
spread the truth which they have learned, and to become to 'J^ 
Africa what England has been to the world." The C.M.S., the 
L.M.S., and the Scottish Societies approached Lord Lansdowne, 
and he promised that a beginning should be made only in the 
countries south of the Zambesi ; in which limitation Mr. Joseph 
Chamberlain, then Colonial Secretary, concm'red. Nevertheless 
a deputation from the Eand went to Uganda to enlist labourers ; 
but happily not a single man could be induced to go. Eventually 
Chinese labour was sought for ; and it will be remembered that the 
cry of " Chinese slavery " had, whether justly or not, no little 
influence in deciding the General Election in England in 1906. 

Although the British Government, of course, does not interfere African 
with the religion of the African people, it does take measures to '^Sduibm. 
put down barbarous customs. But this is not easy in such 
populous countries ; and infanticide, human sacrifices, and even 
cannibalism have been heard of from time to time, both in Nigeria 
and in the hinterland of Sierra Leone. In the latter country there 
are what are called " Human Leopard Societies " and "Alligator 
Societies," the superstitious rites of which involve the shedding 
of blood and participation in the sacrifices by eating some small 
portion of the victim. There is no doubt that the practices have 
some connexion with the appeasing of spirits, which is supposed 
to be more surely effected where the sacrifice is a valuable one, 
such as human life. But this is not the place for an account of 
African Paganism.* 

Concerning Mohammedan influence in Africa a few words must islam in 
be said. Its methods are well explained in two articles by the m/thods, 
Eev. G. T. Manley in the (\M. Reuicw of Oct., 1913, and Jan., 
1916. He expounds the stages of Moslem advance. First, a few 
traders from a Moslem state in the north settled in a Pagan 
disti-ict, and opened up a trade route thither. Then the Moslem 
king raided the district and carried off slaves, and presently 
introduced Moslem law and customs and dress. Then the 
prestige thus acquired influenced the younger men of the con- 
quered tribe, and Islam became fashionable. And then it was a 
short step to adopt circumcision, repeat the short creed, recite 
short prayers five times a day, and otherwise live as before, 
without dropping any of the superstitions and unmentionable 

* There are many books on this subject. Among the best known accounts 
are the late Miss Mary Kingsley's writings, but her prejudice against Missions 
affects her evidence. Among recent works may be mentioned Mr. Roscoe's 
Baganda (Macmillan), Mrs. Fisher's On the Borders of Pijgimj Land 
(Marshall Bros.), INIr. Kitching's On the Back Waters of the Nile (Fisher 
Unwiu), and Mr. J. H. Weeks's Aviong Congo Cannibals (Seeley). Three 
singularly illuminating articles bv Bishop ^Yillis of Uganda appeared in the 
CM. Bcvieiv of Sept., 1911, and"' Jan. and Feb., 1912, entitled, "The Mind 
of the African," " The Appeal," and " The Response of the African." For 
the interior of East Africa see Dr. Crawford's account, C.M.S, Bcport, 1906, 
p. 63, and Mr. McGregor's, CM. Bcvicw, Jan., 1909. 



42 Africa: The Powers and the Peoples. 

J'AiiT II. immoralities already prevailing. Sometimes the Pagan tribe 
J-J. ■ would fight the intruder and expel him ; otherwise, in a generation 
or two, the whole population would be Mohammedan. Trade, 
marriage, conquest, prestige, — these were the four causes of 
success. But there have been more rapid and more barbarous 
methods. Dr. Walter Miller, the C.M.S. missionary in Northern 
Nigeria, whose knowledge has been repeatedly spoken of highly by 
Sir P. Lugard, wrote in 1904, " Islam has spread very little in 
modern times by conversion, but rather (r/) by wiping out, whole- 
sale, huge populations, and then repopulating the wrecked districts 
with Mohammedan communities ; [h) by so harrying the heathen 
people by capturing their women and children while in the farms 
outside the fortified towns, that to avoid this the tribes accept 
Mohammedan rule and pay tribute, but retain their heathen 
customs ; (c) through the desire of some of the chiefs to acquire 
prestige." Of course British rule prevents the old slave-raiding, 
and peaceful methods now prevail. The Moslem, writes another 
missionary, the Eev. A. W. Smith, enters the door "as merchant, 
tailor, leather- worker, charm-maker." He " observes ostentatiously 
all the details of Mohammedan ritual," and " the average African 
is nothing if not imitative." No moral change is demanded, and 
none follows. Mohammed " made it easy." " k Mohammedan 
once illustrated the difference between the demands made by 
Islam and Christianity respectively by pointing to his own loose, 
roomy garments, and contrasting them with the tight and 
hampering garments of the Christian missionary." 

tioub^^*'^'^^" ^^® ^®^T '^^^^6 and interesting Eeport of Commission IV. of the 
Edinburgh Conference, drafted by Professor Cairns, suggests 
another cause for the spread of Islam among animistic peoples, 
based on Dr. J. Warneck's account of its influence in the East 
Indian archipelago. " To the animist the world is peopled by 
many unseen beings, who are envious of the living, and who, 
unless propitiated, strike them with disease or calamity. Hence 
the message of one Almighty God comes as good tidings of great 
joy. Because God is One . . . and because He is x\lmighty, He 
can protect the worshippers. . . . Have we not here a clue to the 
rapid spread of Islam among the animistic peoples ? " 

?,!:!.r'"°' Of the advance of Islam in both West and East Africa there is 

no doubt. The constant increase of mosques in the towns and 
villages tells its own story. At Lagos itself a new mosque was 
built in 1913 at a cost of £12,000; but that, naturally, is ex- 
ceptional. At its inauguration the headmaster of the Government 
school for Moslems spoke of British rule as " the star in the 
heavens which guided Islam to the shore of liberty." The notion 
undoubtedly prevails that the Government favours Islam, and this, 
with the Moslem support of polygamy, sufficiently accounts for 
the welcome it meets with. Much the same condition of things 
prevails in both British and German East i\.frica. But the best 
European rulers know well that Islam does not tend to the peace 



gress, 



Africa . The Powers and the Peoples. 43 

and order and loyalty of the people they have to govern. 'In |'akt 11. 
German East Africa the authorities begged the missionaries to ^-f-l 
give the children a Christian education on that account ; and one 
of the Governors of British East Africa, Sir Percy Girouavd, in a 
speech on board a liner in 1910, said that the Government and 
the missionary must combine to combat the advance of Moham- 
medanism. 

It is fashionable to praise Islam and sneer at Christian Missions, its iiesuits. 
]Mr. Morel does not sneer, and he would give Missions a free 
hand among Pagan tribes ; but he urges the British authorities to 
prohibit them in Moslem districts, and argues that Islam is more 
suited to the African than Christianity, (1) because it is less of an 
alien faith — which means that it can tolerate barbarous customs ; 
and (2) because it allows polygamy and thus tends to the increase 
of population — which is by no means clear, and rather seems to be 
the contrary of the fact.* Very different has been the opinion of 
the best observers. Livingstone said, " Heathen Africans arc 
nuich superior to the Mohammedans, who are the most worthless 
one can have." M. Mage, the French traveller in Senegambia, 
said, " Islam is at the bottom of the weight of ills under which 
Africa is suffering." Schweinf urth , one of the greatest of African 
explorers, pronounced the iiiallams, the Moslem wandering teachers 
who had been called " single-minded missionaries " by a lecturer 
at the Eoyal Institution, to be "incarnations of human depravity." 
Capt. Orr, E.A., in his important work, llie Making of Nurthcrii 
JVif/p.ria,^ takes a middle line. "Even if it be true," he says, 
" that Islam lays a dead hand on a people who have reached a 
certain standard of civilization, it is impossible to deny its quicken- 
ing influence on African races in a backward state of evolution." 
" Not," he adds, " that the spread of Islam amongst Pagan tribes 
is wholly beneficial. Its appeal to his sensual nature is not without 
its effect. The very civilization which Islam brings teaches its 
vices as well as its virtues." I If it be remarked that Christian 
civilization does the same, which in a sense is true, the answer is 
that the vices of Islam are an inherent part of it, whereas the vices 
of Christians are the antithesis of real Christianity. 

More about the C.M.S. Fields. 

Concerning three parts of iVfrica which are not only under 
British rule or influence but are C.M.S. fields of work, viz., Nigeria, 
British East Africa and Uganda, and Egypt and the Eastern 
Sudan, something more must be said. 

* In his book on Nigeria, 1911. This work is well reviewed, and answered, 
in tlie International Bevieio of Missions, April, 1912. See also Contemp. Rev,, 
Oct., 190G. 

t Macmillau, 1911. 

X It is the testimony of missionaries who know the languages, and there- 
fore the customs, of the peoples better than most officials or traders, that 
Mohammedans introduce grosser immoralities than pagan tribes had tolerated, 
and for which the pagan penalty would have been death. 



44 Africa: The Powers and the Peoples. 

Part II. It is a fact worth noting that witliin a few months of the 
lap^ . Centenary, and hefore the twentieth century opened, these three 
Tiiree new m-eat territories all received new chief administrators of special 
experience and high character. A few days hefore Christmas, 
1899, Sir H. H. Johnston, who had governed British Central 
Africa very successfully, arrived in Uganda as " Special Com- 
missioner, Commander-in-chief, and Consul-General." On the 
following New Year's Day, 1900, Colonel (now General Sir F.) 
Lugard assumed the office of High Commissioner of Upper 
Nigeria. And even a little before this, Sir F. E. Wingate had 
l)ecome Sirdar of the Eastern Sudan on Lord Kitchener's recall 
and commission as Chief of the Staff in South Africa. 
Sir 1,'. Lugard's appointment was particularly interesting. It was he 

^'/TrK "^ ^^'^^ ^^^*^ restored peace and order in Uganda, when he was only 
there as agent of the British East Africa Company ; and now he 
was to take his energy and good judgment to West Africa. And 
the sequel is still more interesting. At that time Upper or Northern 
Nigeria was a protectorate by itself. Southern Nigeria and Lagos 
wero both separate governments. The three territories are now, 
from January 1st, 1914, provinces under one administration ; and 
the first Governor-General of the whole vast region is Sir Frederick 
Lugard. 
Nigeria: its Nigeria, as the whole Colony and Protectorate are now called, is 
imijortance. both in size and population, next to India, the largest and most 
important of British tropical dependencies. It is in area live 
times the size of the British Isles, and equal to Germany, Italy, 
and Holland together. Its population, estimated at from 15 to 
17 millions, is double that of British East Africa, Uganda, and 
Nyasaland together, and three times that of the Union of South 
Africa ; and in density, while South Africa has 12-6 to the square 
mile, and Uganda about the same, Nigeria has 45'4 ; or, taking 
Southern Nigeria alone, 98*4.* No wonder King George V. tele- 
graphed on the day of the proclamation uniting the whole country 
under the one Governor-General, " I wish to convey to the Emirs, 
Chiefs, and all the inhabitants of the New Protectorate and the 
Colony my best wishes for their future happiness. Pray assure 
them of the great interest I take in all that concerns their welfare, 
and express my earnest hope that great prosperity may be in store 
for them." "j" 
Material So, after good service elsewhere, particularly at Hong Kong, Sir 

Progress, p Lugard has come back to rule a country of which he himself 
reduced a large portion to order sixteen years ago. He has seen 
the immense development that has marked the interval. In 
particular, the railway now extends from Lagos to Kano, a 
distance of 670 miles. In its earlier stages it was of course a 
great wonder ; and it proved a help to the Missions as well as to 

* For further comparisons sco C.M.S. Gazette, July, 1913, p. 205. 
t Soc Bishop Tugwell's Address to the Synod of Western Equatorial Africa, 
CM. Review, Oct., I'Jll. 



Africa -. The Powers and the Peoples. 45 

trade. In January, 1900, when a new church was to be dedicated part ii. 
at Abeokuta, only sixty miles from the coast, the Governor of Lagos, ^"^"'P" "*• 
Sir W. Macgregor, arranged for a train to go up in one day and 
return two days later. In the following October, the British 
authorities invited the Alake (chief " king ") of Abeokuta, and four 
other " kings," to visit Lagos. For a " king " to leave his own 
territory was an innovation indeed, but they came down by 
the special train provided, and stayed five days ; and at tlie 
request of the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir G. C. Denton, a special 
service for them was arranged at Christ Church, when ]^)ishop 
Oluwole preached on Ps. Ixxii. 11, " Yea, all kings shall fall down 
before Hun, all nations shall serve Him." But all this is ancient 
history now. It would be more up-to-date if a similar visit from 
the far greater Mohammedan potentates in the Central Sudan, and 
their use of the railway which has now pierced their territories, 
had to be recorded. Meanwhile, another railway, roughly parallel 
to this one, but farther east, is to start from a terminus near 
Bonny, which is to be called Port Harcourt after the late 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, and run northwards till it 
strikes the Binue Kiver, and thence on towards Kano, thus 
providing an alternative route to the interior. Other railways 
are in progress. Moreover, Lagos, the Liverpool of West Africa, 
as it has been called, is now an accessible port. Until lately, the 
liners and other large vessels had to lie out at sea while small 
steamboats crossed the bar between them and the harbour with 
exports, imports, and passengers. Now, ships of 8000 tons can 
enter and lie alongside the quays. The population of Lagos at 
the last census in 1911 was 73,766. Of these, 21,155 were Chris- 
tians, 36,018 Mohammedans, and 16,953 Pagans. 

The importance of these facilities for communication and trade commercial 
is shown by the remarkable success of the indigenous industries ment..°'' 
in West Africa. The exports of palm oil and kernel have grown 
immensely in recent j-ears. " No one," says Mr. Morel, " can 
study the ramifications of this great trade, built up by the volun- 
tary labour of black men, women, and children, without reflecting 
that the industry of these misunderstood and sneered-at Africans, 
whom a cheap ignorance describes as lazy, is feeding crushing- 
mills at Liverpool, Hamburg, Magdeburg, Bremen, and on the 
Ehine, providing freight for steamers all over the world ; enriching 
European and American undertakings . . . paying the wages of 
tens of thousands of white workers." Cocoa, which is produced 
in otlier parts by means of foreign capital and imported labour, 
is produced in the Gold Coast Colony and Ashanti by the natives 
without capital or machinery, and beats competitors in the race. 
Economic servitude, therefore, as Mr. Morel argues, " reposes 
upon nothing but selfish greed. Morally it is outrageous. Eco- 
nomically it is proven unsound." * 

* See Mr. Morel's article in the Ninclrcnth Ceniury of IMarcb, 1914. 



46 Africa: The Powers and the Peoples. 



Part II. 

(Jhap. 4. 

SirH. H. 
Johnston 
ill Uganda. 



The 

Uganda 

Kailway. 



Material 

l>rogress i 
Uganda. 



Reverting to the commencement of the year under review, let 
us now cross the continent to British East Africa and Uganda. 
Simultaneously, as we have seen, with Colonel Lugard's accession 
to the administration of Northern Nigeria, Sir Harry Johnston 
began his work in Uganda as Special Commissioner. Let it at 
once be here noted that Uganda proper, the old kingdom of Mtesa 
and Mwanga, is now called by its native name " Buganda," while 
the name " Uganda " means the whole Uganda Protectorate, 
including Buganda, Busoga, Bunyoro, Toro, Kaviroudo, and many 
other states and districts all round ; and although this official 
distinction only dates from 1910, it is observed throughout 
these pages. 

On Sir H. Johnston's way to Buganda he passed through 
Busoga, where Bishop Hannington was murdered ; and he said to 
the Basoga chiefs, " Long ago we English were like the Kavirondo 
people and wore no clothes, and smeared our bodies with paint, 
but when we learned Christianity from the Romans, we changed, 
and became great"; and he advised them to do the same. And 
one of his first acts on arrival in Buganda was to attend the 
Christmas Day service in the great church on Namirembe Hill, 
conducted, not by Bishop Tucker or Archdeacon Walker, but by 
two Baganda clergymen. 

The Uganda Railway reached the Victoria Nyanza on Dec. 20th, 
1901, at a spot to which was given the name of Port Florence 
(but only for a time ; the local name, Kisumu, is now used). It 
had taken five years and a half to complete the 583 miles. The 
difficulties had been enormous. The latter half of the route was 
mountainous, " rising to 7700 ft. near mile 350, falling to GOOO ft. 
near mile 425, again rising to 8300 ft. at mile 490, and finally 
falling 3700 ft. at the terminus on the Lake." An ai-my of 20,000 
labourers had been brought from India, fed, housed, clothed, 
equipped ; and all materials and stores had come from India or 
England. Man-eating lions had attacked the labourers repeatedly, 
and carried oft" some ; and in the unhealthy districts near the 
coast tliere had been much sickness. The cost had been 
£5,550,000. But the rails, though laid, were not ready for traffic 
for another year. Meanwhile steamers were built and launched 
ply between the railway terminus at Port 
port of Buganda, Entebbe. For it must be 
the Victoria Nyanza is as large as Ireland. 
Not a mile, therefore, of the Uganda Railway is in Uganda. Our 
newspapers generally write of incidents occurring in the countries 
through which it passes as " in Uganda." But the Uganda 
Railway is a Railway to Uganda, just as the Brighton Railway is a 
railway to Brighton, and not in Brighton. 

From that time the various outward signs of civilized life in 
Uganda multiplied greatly. Brick houses were built for the 
chiefs, and in 1902 it was noted that they sat at table for meals 
and used plates and knives ai:id forks, and that one chief had even 



on the Lake, to 
Florence and the 
remembered that 



AFRICA: The Powers axd the Peoples. 47 

dared to allow his wife to dine with him. Shops of all kinds Part it. 
were opened, many of them kept by Indians of the Bania caste — !^ " 
the traders. Bicycles soon arrived ; and subsequently motors. 
Planters from Europe and India took up estates, and employed 
many hundreds of labourers; and the cotton and rubber indus- 
tries have been growing ever since. In 1913, among the features 
of " civili^cation " reported were three hotels, restaurants, and a 
kinematograph theatre ! — (of course for Kampala, the British 
headquarters).* 

It was during Sir H. Johnston's Commissionership that arrange- The young 
ments were settled for the future government of the country. ^" '*'"'■ 
Mwanga's younger son, Chwa, who had been baptized by the 
name of Daudi (David), was appointed his successor, wdtli the 
title " His Highness the Kabaka of Uganda." There was to be 
a Council of twenty chiefs, three of whom would be Regents 
during the Kabaka's minority ; and of this Council the Katikiro, 
Apolo Kagwa, was to be President. The administration of the 
country would thus be largely in native hands, the Commissioner 
representing the British Crown and having the ultimate authority. 
The Kabaka was then four years old, and his birthday, Aug. 8th, 
was celebrated on Aug. 14th, 1900, by a service in the " cathedral." 
In 1910 he was confirmed by Bishop Tucker, and in the same 
week was publicly installed as Kabaka, being then fourteen j^ears 
of age. The greatest care was taken about his education, and not 
the least important part of it was his visit to England in 1913, 
under the charge of his official tutor, Mr. Sturrock. In 1914 he 
attained his majority, and formally took his position as Kabaka 
on Aug. 8th, taking also the oath of allegiance to King George Y. 
On Sept. 19th he was married to a daughter of one of the Baganda 
clergy, the Rev. Yonasani Kaidzi. Her name is Airini Dulosira 
(Irene Drusilla). She was in the Gayaza Boarding School for 
nine years, and head girl for over a year ; and she was the best 
English scholar of her day. She is described by a lady missionary 
who had some part in her education as " a most charming lady." 

The Kabaka's " investiture," an ancient national ceremony 
called " Confirming the King in his Kingdom," and answering 
to our coronation, took place on Nov. 7th, on a hill at Budo, nine 
miles from the capital. For the first time in the history of Uganda 
it was a Christian ceremony, solemnized by a Christian bishop."j" 

Uganda owes much to tiie Katikiro, whose real ability is as The Kati- 
marked as his genuine Cliristian character. He was one of the ^"'^' 
earliest converts in Mtesa's day, and was a sufferer at Mwanga's 
hands in the persecution of 1886. He visited England in 1902, 
being an invited guest to King Edward's coronation. He was 

* Some interesting figures showing the material prosperity of Uganda, 
taken by Bishop Willis from tlie Government reports, will bo found in the 
C.M.S. Gazette of Nov., 1915, p. 336. 

t Sec the extremely interesting account by Dr. J, H. Cook, in the CM. 
Review of February, 1915. 



48 AFRICA: The Powers and the Peoples. 

Part II. accompanied by his secretary, Ham Mukasa, who wrote an 
-^ ■ exceedingly interesting book on their experiences en route and in 
this country, which was translated into English by the Eev. E. 
Millar, and piablished by Hutchinson.* Ham Mukasa and his book 
were referred to appreciatively by Colonel Sadler at a meeting of 
the Colonial Institute in December, 1904. It was a graceful act 
of King Edward to include the Katikiro in the birthday -honom-s 
of 1905, when he was appointed a K.C.M.G., and became Sir 
Apolo Kagwa. He was an able administrator during the Kabaka's 
minority ; and his care for the Christian instruction of the people 
is evidenced, inter alia, by the Bible class for chiefs held weekly in 
his house, with an average attendance of sixty, f 
British British East Africa is the country between the Uganda Pro- 

Protecto-^'^ tectorate and the East Coast. Its port, Mombasa, on a small 
rate. island in an inlet, whence the Uganda Eailway starts, was for 

some years the capital ; but the headquarters of the Government 
are now at Nairobi, on the much higher and healthier ground 
halfway between the coast and the Victoria Nyanza. Mombasa 
harbour is a fine one, but British steamship companies were slow- 
to avail themselves of its advantages, and for several years German 
liners carried the trade of the country. To C.M.S. friends 
Mombasa is historically interesting, as the place where the first 
missionary on the coast, J. L. Krapf, landed in 1844, and was the 
first to hear from Arab traders of the great mountains and lakes 
of the interior; and in its neighbourhood lived his comrade 
Eebmann, thirty years without coming home. Together with 
the mixed Swahili (coast) people, partly AraJD in origin and 
Mohammedan in religion, and the descendants of the former 
slaves from the interior tribes, there is an increasing contingent 
of Indian traders, who are more and moi'e settling on the coast. 
In the interior there are numerous nations and tribes, some, as 
the Wa-kikuyu, of the Bantu race, and others, as the Masai, of 
Hamitic origin. The Government estimates the population by 
the number of huts (ascertained for th.e hut-tax), reckoning an 
average of four people to the hut. 

The wliole of the Protectorate is now organized under British 
administrators ; and white emigrants from Europe are making 
their homes in the highlands accessible by the railway. Mr. 
Joseph Chamberlain, who as Colonial Secretary visited East 
Africa in 1902, was greatly struck with the prospects of the 
Tw9 East country. Colonel Kenyon, R.E. (a member of the C.M.S. Com- 
pictures. mittee), after a visit to the country in 1913, wrote, " From what- 
ever point of view the traveller looks at East Africa and Uganda, 
he finds them teeming with interest. To the sportsman or 
naturalist the herds of hartebeest and wildebeeste, of Thomson s 
gazelle and of zebra, the flocks of ostriches, the groups of giraffes, 
seen from the train as he journeys from Mombasa to Nairobi and 

* See extracts in the CM. Intell., Jan., 1905. 

t Two of the Katikiro's sons arc now at Mr. Prasev's College in Ceylon. 



Africa: The Powers axd the Peoples. 49 

the Nyanza, appeal strongly. The entomologist and botanist find part ii. 
abundant scope for their studies in the butterflies and beetles, the P" ^' 
flowers and trees everywhere. The numerous types of mankind, 
varying from the naked savage of Kavirondo to the polished chief 
or clergyman of Uganda, attract the attention of the anthropologist. 
The student of medicine and sanitation finds abundant occupation 
in his investigations of plague and sleeping sickness ; while the 
politician and historian have fascinating subjects in the past 
history and future prospects of these wonderful Protectorates." * 
A railway jom'ney through East Africa was humorously described 
l)y Sir Charles Eliot, the Commissioner in the earlier years of the 
present century, as reminding the traveller of Piniclis " Pre- 
historic Peeps " : — " Near the stations the ostrich and the barn- 
door fowl almost intermingle. The obstinate rhinoceros, which 
assimilates new ideas more slowly than other beasts, disputes the 
passage of the train in a narrow cutting and derails it, though he 
perishes in the attempt. A troop of more intelligent elephants 
occasionally occupy a station, and in their curiosity ravage the 
booking-office and take tickets, which cannot be accounted for 
afterwards." 

With a view to promoting industries in East Africa and Uganda, African 
two companies were estabhshed in 1903-06, chiefly through the '^^ "^^* 
energy of Mr. (now Sir) T. F. V. Buxton, whose friends rallied round 
him to find the necessary capital ; viz., the East African Industries, 
Ltd., and the Uganda Company, Ltd. This is not the place for 
details of the work done, but it is clear to all readers of the 
occasional notices in the C.M.S. publications that real good 
has been effected.f Three laymen who had been upon the 
Society's staff were allowed to take service under one or other of 
these companies. One, Mr. Kristen E. Borup, was a Danish 
Canadian, and it was under his superintendence that the cathe- 
dral in Uganda was built which was afterwards burnt down. 
Another was Mr. Hugh Savile, a son of the venerable Colonel 
Savile of Bristol ; and the third was Mr. J. A. Bailey, whose wife 
(Miss Harvey) was the first woman missionary sent by the Society 
to East Africa. By means of this industrial work the dignity of 
labour was being slowly but surely learned. In 1908 an Industrial 
Exhibition was held in Uganda, at which there were 4000 exhibits. 

Eeverting once more to the beginning of the century, and turning The 
our attention to the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, we find the Sirdar, f^din"^" 
Sir F. E. Wingate, and the representative of Great Britain in 
Egypt, Lord Cromer, grappHng with admirable skill and uninter- 
rupted success with the grave problems before them. In due 
course Lord Cromer was succeeded by Sir Eldon Gorst, and he by 
Lord Kitchener ; but Sir F. Wingate has continued at his important 
post throughout the period under review. In Egypt, the Anglo- 

* CM. Review, Jan., 1914. Of Mombasa an excellent account was given 
in the Review of May, 1911, by the Rev. G. W. Wright. 

t See especially Mr. Buxton's article in the CM. Review, Jan., 190'J. 

E 



50 



Africa: The Powers and the Peoples. 



Part ll. 
Chap. 4. 



French Agreement of 1904 delivered the British Government from 
many difficulties, and set England free to develop her own policy, 
which was, in one sentence, to see that the country was governed 
in no other interest than that of the people to be governed. 
Materially, the progress in prosperity, both in Egypt and in the 
Sudan, was marked year by year. The construction of the great 
dam at Assuan, completed in 1902, added largely to the national 
resources, and emphasized afresh the dependence of Egypt upon 
its historic river.* The railway to Khartum, and the regular 
steamers from Khartum plying over a thousand miles to the 
borders of the Uganda Protectorate, made communication easy 
from the Mediterranean to the very heart of Africa ; and the 
opening of the branch line to the Red Sea at the new town called 
Port Sudan brought the whole country into closer touch with 
the outside world. But still more important was the promotion 
of justice in the Egyptian courts and of education | for the people ; 
while in the Sudan the deliverance of the unhappy peasants from 
the shocking barbarities of the Khalifa's rule, and the establish- 
ment of law and order generally, gave the whole world an object 
lesson of the beneficial influence of British protection. Mr. (now 
Bishop) Gwynne wrote in 1903 : — 

" The people who five years ago were of all men tlie most wretched, 
aud were under the rule of perhaps the most bloodthirsty tyrant the 
world has seen since Nero, are now contented and happy aud doing well. 
Where ruined houses banked up by mud and sand showed all that re- 
mained of the city of Gordon, now stand magnificent buildings, finelj'- 
built houses and shops, well-planned streets. Instead of the arbitrary 
aud cruel injustice and oppression when every official had his price to be 
bribed, now are established justice, liberty, and righteousness, never even 
dreamed of in all the history of the peojile. . . . The chiefs of dejjart- 
ments are earnest God-fearing men, and set a high tone to the rest of our 
countrymen." 

On the other hand, the Gordon College at Khartum, with its 
endowment of £100,000, and its first-rate education for Moham- 
medans, could only be regarded with partial approval by Christian 
people, who felt that the encouragement of Islam and the ex- 
clusion of the Bible involved a policy singularly inappropriate as 
a memorial to a great Christian hero. J But the fact is that, as a 
chaplain at Assuan, Canon Oldfield, said three or four years ago, 
British domination has, in a sense, " re-established Islam." While 
the Mohammedans are protected by a Christian Government against 
Christian " proselytism," Mohammedan officials are sent freely 
into Pagan districts where all their influence is exerted to induce 

* See a full account of this great undertaking in the CM. Intcll. of 
April, 1906. 

t A good account of the problems of education in Egypt was given by Dr. 
Sailer of the American Presbyterian Church in the International Bcvieio of 
Missions, July, 191'J. 

X Sec further, Chap. IX., p. 105, where the action of the C.M.S. is 
described. 



Africa: The Powers and the Peoples. 51 

the people to embrace Islam. When King Leopold of Belgium p-uit ii. 
died, a large Pagan territory known as the Lado Enclave, between *^"''f£^'*- 
the Upper Nile and the Congo State, which had been leased to 
liim l)y Great Britain, reverted to British rule; and Mohammedan 
soldiers and school-teachers were at once sent in, to keep order 
and to open schools.* 

Thus we have taken a rapid and cursory survey of public events 
in Africa both before and since the C.M.S. Centenary, of some of 
the evils that have afHicted or are afflicting the African peoples, 
and of the political and material progress of certain parts of Africa, 
Nigeria, East Africa and Uganda, and the Eastern Sudan, in 
which the C.M.S. is especially interested. The Missions carried 
on in those and other parts will occupy our attention in the 
following chapters. 

Only three years ago w^e were celebrating the centenary of the Centenary 
birth of Livingstone, which almost coincided with the fortieth stoneV°^' 
anniversary of his death (May, 1873), that death which was the 
starting-point and the inspiration of so much good that has since 
Ijeen done in Africa. Florence Nightingale used to call him the 
John Baptist of the nineteenth century. John the Baptist did not 
live to see the Church baptized with the Holy Ghost in accordance 
with his inspired announcement ; and Livingstone died alone, 
with no apparent prospect of an answer to his prayers. What 
would John have said if he had seen the Council of Jerusalem 
listening to St. Paul and St. Barnabas as they told of the spread 
of the Gospel among the Gentiles ? And what would Livingstone 
say if ho could join to-day in the worship of an African congre- 
gation in the great Presbyterian church at Blantyre or in the 
cathedral of Uganda ? f 

* Reference may here be made to au interesting article by IMr. Buxton in 
the CM. lievinv of July, l'J07, in which the benefits of British influence are 
set forth, gathered partly from the last Report sent to the Government by 
Lord Cromer before his retirement ; and in which the patronage of INIoham- 
medaiiism and the position of the Coptic Church are commented on. Also to 
a review by ]\Ir. Baylis of Lord Cromer's Modern Egypt, in the CM. 
Rcvieio of J uly, 1908. 

t See article on Livingstone in the CM. Bevieio, March, 1913, the time of 
his centenary. 



CHAPTEE V. 

AFRICA: Christian Missions. 



Part ] r . 
Chap. 0. 



Missions in 
tljc Xortli. 



West 

African 

Missions. 




Missions in North Africa- In West and South-West Africa In East and 
South Central Africa — In South Africa — Roman Missions. 

[EFOEE entering on the history of the C.M.S. Missions 
in Africa in the sixteen years, wc must just glance at 
the general position of missionary enterprise in the 
Dark Continent. There has been considerable exten- 
sion and development in the period, but we cannot 
attempt to examine the details. A few figures, however, gathered 
chiefly for convenience from the admirable Statistical Atlas com- 
piled for the Edinburgh Conference of 1910 will suffice for our 
purpose. That Atlas divides the Continent into seven parts, 
North-East, North-West, West, South-West, South, South Central, 
and East. We will briefly look at these separately, and notice in 
passing some of the prominent Missions. 

I. North- Ead Africa (Egypt, Eastern Sudan, Abyssinia, &c.). 
The principal work in this great area is that of the American 
Presbyterians, chiefly in Egypt. They had, when the figures were 
made up, 124 missionaries, and nearly 600 native workers. The 
C.M.S. , the Egypt General Mission, and a Swedish Society in 
Abyssinia, are at work, and a dozen other smaller organizations. 
The whole number of missionaries is given as 296. No figures are 
given of converts, because the large majority of the Christians 
connected with the American Mission are from the Coptic Church, 
and therefore not within the "Edinburgh" purview; but the 
influence of this Mission has been great. Mention should also be 
made of the Nile Mission Press, a most useful independent agency. 

II. Nortk-Wed J /Hm (Tripoli to Morocco). Ten societies are 
named, but the only one of any size is the undenominational 
North Africa Mission, with just half the whole number of workers, 
74 out of 151. Only one returns its converts, the Central 
Morocco Mission, with 50 baptized persons. 

III. West Africa (Senegal to Nigeria). Twenty-nine Societies 
were at work, with a total of 518 missionaries, the largest being 
the Basel Mission and the C.M.S., with 79 and 75 missionaries 
respectively. The North German Society (Gold Coast and Togo) 
had 50 ; the English Wesleyans (all along the coast) 45 ; the 
Sudan United Mission, 19 (much enlarged since then) ; the S.P.G. 
(Accra), 10. Sixteen. American Societies are named, several of 
them working in the American Negro Colony of Liberia, where the 



AFRICA: CllR/ST/AN' AT/SS/ONS. 53 

Methodists and Baptists are tlie strongest, but where tlie Negro Part it. 

Bishop Ferguson has a considerable Church, the clergy numbering ^'^f£_-''- 

26. The native workers numbered 2538, the Wesleyans having 725, 

and the C.M.S. 513. The ])aptized Christians are given as 122,580, 

and the whole number of adherents as 248,702. Of the former, the 

C.M.S. is credited with 43,700 and the Wesleyans with 31,000 ; l)ut 

the latter's total of adherents is given as the largest, being 120,000. 

The C.M.S. did not return its outer circle. Among these Missions, 

that of the Basel Society on the Gold Coast and in Ashanti holds a Gold Coast. 

high place. Its missionaries, of whom Eamseyer should be specially 

named, were twice rescued by British expeditions, as already 

mentioned. The S.P.G. Mission in the Gold Coast Colony is 

interesting as a revival, in 1904, after nearly a century's interval, 

of what was the first Mission in West Africa, begun as long ago as 

1751. The Colony is now ecclesiastically the diocese of Accra. 

IV. Sovth-West Afric(t (Cameroons to German S.-W.A.). This area The Congo, 
includes the important Congo Missions. The Societies numbered '''^"'' 

18, the missionaries 645, the native workers 2217, the baptized 
Christians 45,000, the total of adherents 103,000. The Continental 
Societies have been strong in the German possessions, the Basel 
and the Ehenish being the largest, with 84 and 75 missionaries 
respectively. The EngHsh Baptist Society had 64, the " Brethren " 
51 (including Arnot's Garanganze Mission and Mr. D. Crawford's), 
the Eegions Beyond Mission 38. The S.P.G., which has stations 
at Walfisch Bay and other places on the coast, is credited with 6. 
Of the adherents the American Presbyterians (South) are credited 
with the largest number, 26,500, though they had only 18 mis- 
sionaries ; the English Baptists with 12,500 ; the Ehenish Mission 
with 13,000; the American Baptists with 11,000. The old Baptist 
Mission in Cameroon was an interesting one, and had one name 
much honoured, that of Alfred Saker ; but when Germany annexed 
the country, the English missionaries were rather ruthlessly turned 
out. The story of the Baptist Missions on the Congo is a very 
pathetic one. Heroic pioneers like Comber, McCall, and Craven 
died on the river in the earliest days, and Grenfell and Bentley did 
notable service. F. S. Arnot, the leading missionary of the 
" Brethren," became widely known as a missionary traveller of 
the first class. The recent death of Dr. H. G. Guinness, head of 
the Eegions Beyond Missions in Africa and elsewhere, is a real 
loss to the whole missionary enterprise. 

V. Ka^t Africa (British, German, Portuguese), Twenty Societies u.m.c.a. 
are named, with 630 missionaries ; the C.M.S. having 170, the fn^East^'^ 
Universities Mission 73, the Africa Inland Mission 59, the S.P.G. Africa. 
(Lebombo diocese, Portuguese territory) 19. The German 
Missions were naturally strong in the German territory, the 
Berlin Society having 64, the Moravians 55, the German East 
Africa Society 48, the Leipsic Lutherans 30. The native Chris- 
tian figures are comparatively small outside the C.M.S., which 

had 2159 workers out of a total of 2962, and 68,000 baptized 



54 Africa: Christian Mrssioxs. 

PART II. Cliristians out of 83,000, due of course to tlie Uganda Mission. 
Chap. 5. ^^g U.M.C.A. is credited with 4574 baptized Christians, the 
S.P.G. with 1700, the Berlin Society with 1668. But when the 
total of adherents is given, the position is different. The U.M.C.A. 
adds 11,587 to its 4574, making 16,161. The American Episcopal 
Methodists add 11,296 to their 1377 baptized, making 12,673. 
But the C.M.S. is only credited with its baptized Christians, 
whereas in Uganda alone the catechumens and outside adherents 
are tens of thousands. This, however, only illustrates the exceed- 
ing difliculty of making statistical tables. The Church of Scotland 
Mission is a small one, then only six missionaries and eleven 
Christians ; i)ut it is now famous owing to the Kikuyu Conference. 
The Universities Mission, undertaken in 1859 at the instigation of 
Livingstone,* is one of exceptional interest. Its bishops have 
Some almost all been men of mark ; Mackenzie, who died in the earliest 

Ea^stTfn^ca. days ; Tozer, who courageously moved the headquarters from 
South Africa to Zanzibar, a step much criticized, but which 
events have abundantly justified ; Steere, one of the most sagacious 
of missionary bishops, who built the cathedral on the site of the 
old slave-market ; Smythies, intrepid traveller and zealous occupier 
of new ground; Maples, drowned in Lake Nyasa ; Eiehardson, 
nine, and now Weston. This Mission, the work of which is now 
organized in three dioceses, has a certain advantage in avowing 
definite principles and methods. It represents advanced High 
Churchmanship even more distinctively than the C.M.S. represents 
the opposite school. | 

VI. Boidh Ceniral Africa (Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Bochuanaland, 
&c.) Twenty-two Societies are named, with 403 missionaries, 
3093 native workers, 29,000 baptized Christians, and a total of 
adherents 92,600. The U.M.C.A. had 45 missionaries in this area, 
and the S.P.G. 12; the L.M.S. and U.R Scottish Church 41 
each ; the Established Scottish Church 28 ; the Paris Missionary 
Society (Barotselaudj 32 ; the South African Dutch Church 56. 
Of the native workers, 1450 belong to the two Scottish Missions, 
and 900 to the Dutch Mission. Of the baptized Christians, just 
half belong to either the U.M.C.A. or the U.F. Mission, over 7000 
to each ; over 2000 each to the Church of Scotland and the Dutch 
Church ; the L.M.S. and Wesleyans coming next. Of the total 
adherents, the U.M.C.A., the U.E. Mission, and the Wesleyan 
Mission have each between 13,000 and 17,000; the L.M.S. 10,000. 
Scottish The United Free Cliurch of Scotland Mission, on the Western 

Missions. j,j^g Q^ Lake Nyasa, is one; of great interest and mai'ked 

* Livingstone's great speech in the Seuate House at Cambridge was on 
Dec. 4tb, 1857. On Dec. 4th, 1907, a meeting was held in the same place to 
celebrate the jubilee of the event, when striking speeches were delievered b}' 
Archbishop Davidson, Bishops Talbot and Boyd Carpenter, Mr. Weston (now 
Bishop of Zanzibar), Sec. 

t The History of the Mission, by A. Moorshead, is published at the U.M.C.A. 
office. 



Africa : Christiax Missions. 55 

success. Founded at Livingstonia by Dr. Stewart aud Dr. Laws, part ii. 
it has had its vicissitudes hke others ; but it has been a notable ^ ^ ' 
civihzing as well as Christianizing influence, backed by the African 
Lakes Company which was formed by Scottish merchants to do 
the secular work ; and it has been distinctly prosperous in the 
organization of the native Church."' The Church of Scotland 
Mission is famous for its splendid church at Blantyre, probably 
the finest in Africa. Both the Scottish Missions do excellent 
industrial work. They have recently combined to form one 
Church, to the great benefit of both Missions. It is now called 
" The Church of Central Africa, Presbyterian." 

VII. South Africa (the Union, with Basutoland and Swaziland). Many 
In this field are the lai'gest aggregates of Societies and missionaries in'south 
and native Christians. Fifty- one organizations are named, but Africa, 
seven of these are individual Anglican dioceses, helped by the 
S.P.Ci., but returning their statistics separately. There are also 
nine other South African societies, nine British, ten x\merican, 
twelve Continental, four others. The total of missionaries given 
is 1585, of whom more than one third, 566, belong to South Africa 
itself, including 177 to the seven Anglican dioceses, and 201 to 
the Dutch Church. The Continental Societies supply 508, the 
Berlin contingent being 167, the Hermannsburg 99, and the Paris 
Society 43. Great Britain sends 221, more than half (123) from 
the U.F. Scottish Church, and 44 Wesleyans (Anglicans are 
included in the diocesan returns). And America sends 151. 
The total of baptized Christians is 621,880, of whom 158,720 
are credited to the South African Wesleyans ; 156,000 to the 
Anglicans ; 114,500 to the Berlin and Hermannsburg Missions; 
30,000 to the Dutch S. African Church ; and betw^een 17,000 and 
22,000 each to the Congregationalists, the English Wesleyans, 
the LJ.F. Scottish Church, the Ehenish Mission, and the Paris 
Mission. It should be mentioned that the South Africa General 
Mission, a British organization, is reckoned with the local South 
African societies. Its figures are 61 missionaries, and 1254 
baptized Christians. The totals of adherents are in large figures : 
the Methodists of various connexions claiming 377,000, the Anglican 
Church 206,000, the Dutch Church 137,000, the Congregationalist 
Missions 94,000, the Hermannsburg Mission 86,000, the Berlin 
Mission 48,000 ; the total being 1,145,000. 

Of these South African Missions a full and careful historical 
account was published in 1911, by Mr. J. Du Plessis, a South 
African himself, and a member of the Dutch Keformed Church. f 

* See Mr. Donald Eraser's admirable book for study circles, The Future of 
Africa, which though dealing with Pagan Africa as a whole, is obviously the 
outcome of Nyasaland experience ; also his interesting book on the Mission 
itself, Wiiining a Primitive People (Seeloy) ; also two articles on the Church, 
Int. Rrv. Misn., April, 1913, and TJie East and The West, April, 1915. Dr. 
Stewart's " Duff Lectures " (1903) are a book of much value. 

t A History of Christian Missions in South Africa. Longmans. It was 
roviowod in the CM. Bev., July, 1912. Another book of great value on South 



56 



Africa : Citrtsttan Missioxs. 



Part IT. 
Chap. 5. 

South 

African 

Problems. 



I.nvpdali^. 



French Mn. 



Dutch 
Cliiircli. 



Kafir 
Clergy, 



Testimony 
of Govern- 
ineut Com- 
mission. 



His book is valual^le for reference, but its just influence is marred 
by its quite inadequate — we might say prejudiced — notices of the 
Anghcan Church and its work and the S.P.G. Missions. More- 
over, its standpoint is too much that of tlie average colonist as 
against the native, and certainly not that of missionaries like 
Moffat and Livingstone, Bishop Callaway and Stewart of Love- 
dale. But South African missionary problems are among the 
hardest in the world. With some seven millions of natives, 
including very superior tribes of the Bantu races, and with a 
dominant white minority, the position is full of difficulty, of which 
the Ethiopian Movement of recent years is but one illustration. 
And the divisions of Christendom are nowhere more conspicuous 
than in South Africa. Not only are the Roman Catholics, the 
Anglicans, the Presbyterians, the Methodists, the Congrega- 
tionalists, the Lutherans, and the Dutch Church, all there in 
strength, but a host of minor rehgious societies are also at work. 
The " Edinburgh " spirit of comity and co-operation, however, is 
said to be growing. Among the most interesting Missions have 
been that of the Free Church of Scotland with its centre at the 
great educational institution of Lovedale, that of the L.M.S. in 
Bechuanaland (with memories of Moffat and Livingstone), and 
that of the Paris Society in Basutoland under Casalis and Coil- 
lard, and its extension in Barotseland. The Dutch Church of the 
Colony has important Missions, which owe no little inspiration 
to the spirit and influence of that great Christian teacher and 
writer, Dr. Andrew Murray. Among the Anglican dioceses, now 
eleven in number, and mostly colonial, St. John's, Kaffraria, is 
conspicuous for its Kafir clergy ; indeed Mr. Du Plessis * says 
that the x\nglicans and the Wesleyans have made larger use of 
native agency than others, the German and other Continental 
Societies being specially cautious in this matter. Zululand also is 
an interesting Anglican field. 

A few years ago a Government Commission on native affairs 
declared that bringing the natives into the Christian Church had 
been proved to l^e the best way of securing their moral and social 
improvement. Another Commission, appointed to inquire into 
the so-called "Black Peril," reported in 1912 strongly in favour of 
missionary work. "The evidence," it said, "of the effect of 
Christian teaching and education on the character of natives is 
very strong. These unquestionably exercise an enormous influence 
for good. . . . The Commission is convinced that the restraining 
and directing influence of the Christian religion and education, 



African problems is Black and "White in South-east Africa, by Maurice S. 
Evans, C.M.G. (Longmans) ; and Mr. Evans has also contributed an impor- 
tant article on the subject to the Int. Rev. Miss, of April, 1915. The Anglican 
Church in South Africa is described by Bishop Hamilton Baynes in oiie of 
Mowbray's Handbooks of English Church Expansion, 1908 ; also by H. Moore 
in The Land of Good Hope, published by S.P.G. 

* In an article in the International lieineio of Missions, Oct., 1912. 



AFRICA: Christian Missions. 57 

if imparted on proper lines, is absolutely essential. Thei'e is part ii. 
abundant testimony of tbe l^enefit derived from these agencies, ^'^^5- 
which should receive the fullest possible encouragement in the 
interests of the white as well as the black races." Viscount 
Gladstone declared at a meeting in Tjondon on Feb. 2nd, 1915, 
that " there was not a single responsible person connected with 
the Government of South Africa who would not l)ear witness to 
the fact that missionary effort was the greatest possible help to 
the civil Government." 

According to the Census of 1911, the white nominally Christian Black and 
population of the States of South Africa within the Union was ^^i"*^*- 
just over 1,300,000. The black population was about 5,200,000, 
of whom about one-hfth were supposed to be professing Christians. 
Of the whites, nearly 700,000 belonged to the Dutch Eeformed 
Churches, while the Anghcans were 255,000, leaving some 350,000 
for all the rest. The " native " Anglicans, Bantu or " coloured " 
(i.e. mixed race), were 277,000, making 532,000 Anglicans alto- 
gether. Three years later, in 1914, the number was estimated to 
be 550,000. But these figures do not include the South African 
territories not in the Union. Connected with the Church of 
South Africa there were in 1914 fifteen bishops (for twelve 
dioceses) and just 600 other clergymen, of whom 91 were of the 
Bantu race. Of the clergy, 180 were on the S.P.G. hst, as main- 
tained or assisted by its funds. Most of these figures are taken 
from an article by Bishop Gibson,* w^hich gives an interesting 
account of the Church and its work and claims. The Bishop's 
appeal at the end is particularly moving, almost as much so as tliat 
of the present Bishop of Bombay's never-to-be-forgotten paper at 
the Manchester Church Congress in 1908.t Bishop Gibson quotes 
from the ('.M.S. Gazette these words uttered by Philip Snowden, 
the Labour leader : " If the Church of England is ever to regain 
her hold upon the masses of this country, it can only be by some 
tremendous act of self-renunciation " ; and he calls on the Church 
at home to " strip herself " " to win the heathen world for the 
living Christ." One parish in South Africa itself, St. Peter's, 
Mowbray, certainly sets a bright example, raising from a con- 
gregation composed chiefly of people of limited means, £1100 a 
year for C.INI.S. Missions. 

The Eoman Catholic Missions in Africa are extensive. And J^°^f,"g 
they are mostly modern. Little that is satisfactory remains of 
the great enterprises of the 15th and 16th centuries. The Portu- 
guese possessions in both South-West and South-East Africa are 
not distinguished for their Christian civilization. According to 
the statistics carefully compiled from Eoman sources for the 

* In The East and The Went for Oct., 1914. Reference may also be made to 
an article by a layman, ]\Ir. T. C. Collett, describing in a very interesting way 
what he personally saw of the Church's work in Zululand. See Tlic East and 
The West, July, 1914, also a previous article in Oct., 1913. 

t See the last chapter of this book. 



58 Africa .- Citristtan Missions. 

Part II. Statistical Atlas from which have been gathered the figures of 
lap^j. pj-Q^Qg^ant Missions, there were 1500 priests in Africa, belonging 
to twenty different societies and religious orders ; the largest body 
iDeing the White Fathers (French), of whom there were 234 in 
Central Africa ; and next, the Fathers of the Holy Ghost, 187 in 
number. There were 1200 lay brothers, the Franciscans having 
320 in the North, and the Oblates 343 in the South ; also 3300 
sisters, just half being in the South. Only 41 native African 
priests are reported, all in Egypt and Abyssinia. (Two Baganda 
have lately been oi'dained.) The converts number nearly half a 
million, nearly half of these being in the central districts. The 
recently published Atlas Hierarchicus, a German Eoman Catholic 
work, does not differ widely from these returns, but its figures are 
a year or two later, and include Madagascar. They are, mis- 
sionary priests, 2078 ; native priests, 94 ; converts, 945,000, of 
whom over 200,000 are in Madagascar. 

A fair comparison of these figures with those of Protestant 
Missions is hardly possible, because the methods of reckoning are 
so difficult. But, quanium valeat, the totals of Protestants in the 
Edinburgh Atlas may he given. They are, including (as above) 
Madagascar, ordained missionaries, 2358 ; native ministers, 1544 ; 
converts, 1,022,476, of whom 120,460 are in Madagascar. 




CHAPTEE VI. 
C.M.S. MISSIONS: JJ'EST AFRICA. 

Sierra Leone: the Bishops, &c. — Influence of the Colony Diocese of 
Western Equatorial Africa— S. P. G. on the Gold Coast— The C.M.S. 
Staff— Work of the Mission and the Native Church— The Niger : the 
Delta and up the River— Church Organization— Northern Nigeria : 
Advances and Repulses, 

I. Sierra Leone. 

JE begin our brief review of the sixteeii years in the {'.j^''"- 
African mission field witli Sierra Leone, the first -^ 
scene of the Society's labours. It has a missionary ^^^^1 
history as heroic and pathetic as any in the world, 
but it has long since ceased to occupy a prominent 
place in C.M.S. Eeports. The larger West African fields are far 
from the little Colony with its limited hinterland surrounded on 
all sides save seaward by French territory. The pastoral work 
has long been entirely done by the local Church ; the missionary 
work in the hinterland has been gradually taken over by it ; and 
the Society now only subsidizes it and the bishopric with grants 
of money, and provides the higher education (and two or three 
other small agencies). 

The Colony itself lias an area of 4000 square miles, with a 
population of 75,000, The Protectorate beyond has an area of 
27,000 square miles and a population of 1,328,000. In the 
Colony, 52 per cent, are Christians, 15 per cent. Moslems, and 
33 per cent. Pagans. In the Protectorate, about one million ai'e 
Pagans, and almost all the rest Moslems. 

The past liistory of tiie Colony and the Mission have repeatedly of"/*"'"^' 
been recalled within the sixteen years by the occurrence of cen- Mission and 
tenaries and jubilees. In 1904 was celebrated the Imndredth tit''ciuirch. 
anniversary of the arrival of the first C.M.S. missionaries in 1804. 
In 1907 came the centenary of Wilberforce's triumph in the 
abolition of the slave trade. In 1913 was kept the jul)ilec of the 
self-governing and self-supporting Church. It is interesting to 
remember that on the second of these occasions there was a 
simultaneous but little noticed commemoration in London, wlien 
a party of West Africans in this country assembled at West- 
minster Abbey, and, in the presence of representatives of the 
NVilberforce and Buxton families, deposited wreaths on tlie graves 



6o C.M.S. Jlf/ss/o.vs : West Africa. 

PART II. or monuments of Wilborforce, Zachary Macanlay, and Granville 
™ ■ Sharp. On the third occasion Mr. (now Sir) T. F. V. Buxton, great 
grandson of the first Sir Fowell, was himself present at Sierra 
Leone, having visited the Colony for the purpose ; and he reported 
very favourably on the Colony and the Church.* In various 
West gatherings of these kinds, the Governors of Sierra Leone at the 

Governors <^^iff6i'6nfc periods took a cordial part. Indeed the Colony owes 
much to the good men who have successively represented the 
British Crown. Sir F. Cardew, Sir C. King Harman, and Sir 
Leslie Probyn should be especially mentioned. These men have 
known that all along the West African littoral, on the Gold 
Coast, and in the vast territories of Nigeria, Sierra Leone men 
have been in the front in the extension of British influence and 
commerce. In December, 1910, the Duke and Duchess of Con- 
naught visited Sierra Leone. He read to the assembled notables 
a message from King George to his " ancient and loyal Colony," 
which referred to Sir Leslie Probyn's Eeports with satisfaction, 
and expressed the King's " trust " that his African subjects might 
be " blessed with peace, happiness, and prosperity." 
Three When our sixteen-year period began. Dr. Taylor Smith was still 

iiishops. Bishop of Sierra Leone. He had been a worthy successor of 
Bishop Ingham, and his happy spirit had given him an influence 
quite unique, especially enabling him to promote love and 
harmony in the diocese. But in 1901 he was appointed Chaplain- 
General of the Forces, and left Africa, to his own unfeigned regret. 
Of liis great work in the Army this is not the place to speak. He 
was succeeded by the Eev. E. H. Elwin, a C.M.S. missionary in 
the Colony. Bishop Elwin did excellent service for a few years, 
and died at his post in 1909. The Acting Governor, Mr. Haddon 
Smith, C.M.G., said, " The Colony has lost in Bishop Elwin a man 
of broad views who understood the people. Sir Leslie Probyn 
and myself have lost a great personal friend." Mr. Denton wrote 
a touching In Memoriam of him, mentioning especially his " radiant 
sunniness." f Dr. Walmsley, Vicar of St. Ann's, Nottingham, was 
African appointed his successor. Many of the African clergy have died 
during our period, some after lengthened periods of service. The 
Ptev. George Nicol, a son-in-law of Bishop Crowther, had been 
ordained in 1850, and died in 1907. The senior Archdeacpn 
to-day, the Yen. G. J. McCaulay, was ordained in 1863. There 
are now 36 African clergymen in the Colony and Protectorate, seven 
of whom are engaged in the Society's educational work, and the 
remainder are pastors or missionaries of the independent Church. 
The names of McCaulay, Johnson, Bickersteth, Wilson, Nylander, 
Taylor, During, etc., appearing in the list, remind us that their 
progenitors were early converts who at their baptism took the 
names of missionaries or missionary supporters. Their training 

* Mr. Buxton's account appeared in the CM. Rcvic7V, IMay, 1913. 
t CM. Review, Jan., 1910. Bishop Elwin's own account of Sierra Leone 
appeared in the C.M. Rev., Nov., 1904. 



(Mergy. 



C.M.S. Missioxs: West Africa. 6i 

was at Fourah Bay College, which is the most important educa- JPakt ii. 
tional institution on the whole West Coast.* Seventeen of them 'i^^- 
are graduates of Durham University, to which that College is 
affiliated ; and six others have the " L.Th." from the same source. 
The University in 1913 conferred the honorary degree of M.A. 
on Archdeacon McCaulay and Canon Moore. A noteworthy event 
of 191-4 was the ordination of a Krooman, J. R. Saho, believed 
to be the first of his tribe admitted to the ministry of the Church. 
For the College, and the Grammar School, and the Annie Walsh 
Girls' School, the Society is still responsible. 

Although the bulk of the work at Sien-ra Leone is now done Ijy ^'.'6'.''''i 
the African Church, the good service of the few English mis- aries. 
sionaries mvxst not be forgotten. Mr. Alley, who retired in ill 
health in 1905, had laboured 27 years. Mr. Rowan and Mr. 
Hewitt, both clergymen of the Church of Ireland, were successive 
Principals of Fourah Bay College for a few years. The latter, 
and five other missionaries, have been transferred to other fields, 
and are still at work there : Mr. Alvarez, who was a well-known 
Oxford man more than twenty years ago, and was for some years 
an intrepid pioneer in the hinterland of the Colony, is now Secre- 
tary in Northern Nigeria ; Mr. Hewitt and Mr. Caldwell are in 
China ; Mr. Garrett, who was Principal of the Grammar School, 
is in Uganda ; Miss Richards is in Travancore (where her father 
worked so long) ; and Miss C. J. Elwin went to India under the 
C.E.Z.M.S. Death has not failed to exact its tribute in a country 
once called " the white man's grave " ; five members of even so 
small a statf have fallen : Bishop Elwin, Mr. Hensley, Mr. 
Kinahan, Mr. F. Wilson (whose wife was a daughter of David 
Livingstone), and Mrs. Castle. All the more must w;e thankfully 
note that all but one of the present staff have served throughout 
our period : Mr. Denton, the Secretary, and Mrs. Denton ; Miss 
Bisset, head-mistress of the Annie Walsh School, who has been 
actually thirty years at Avork there ; and, of her two helpers, one, 
Miss Pidsley, has served 17 years, though the other. Miss Lowe, 
is a recent recruit. The Christians attached to the Anglican 
Church in Sierra Leone diocese now number about 16,000. In 1911 
there were 77 adult baptisms, and 459 of children of Christian 
parents. There were -lOOO children in the schools. The contri- 
butions to Church funds amounted to £5800. 

When the present Bishop, Dr. Walmsley, had been a year in Bishop ^ 
the Colony, he wrote an extremely interesting account of his first imprel-^^ ^ 
impressions, f About the Church life of the Negro Christians he *io°s- 
wrote very impressively : — 

" As to Church life generally it is hard to speak. How much more 
shall be required of us, us with all our ages of Christian life aud tradition, 



* A full account of the College and its work, by Mr. Denton, appeared in 

the CSI. Intell. of Aug., 1905. 
t Printed iu the CM. Review, May, 1912. 



62 C.M.S. MISSIONS: West Africa. 

Pakx II. than of this native Church, still so young ! We still have need to go on 
Chap^o. to TeA.6io'T7)s, full growth ; how much more must they ! What long train- 
ing is needed before the whole man is brought into subjection to the 
obedience of Christ, before men learn that religion is not merely or 
chiefly a matter of the emotion but of the will ! And how often do I feel 
when one laments some terrible lapse, how terribly much harder is 
iyKparna for that one who has given way than for me. I know I must 
not condone the sin, but how much does one feel for the sinner ! . . . 
AVhat a wonderful word that is of St. Paul's, uXiKpiveia, transparency 
of motive and of life, more readiness to endure hardness, more true sense 
of proportion ! . , I tremble at the sight of the large congregations, the 
numbers of communicants, the enthusiastic missionary meetings. It is 
not hypocrisy — though where are there not hypocrites ? — but it is a 
failure of all that Christ claims of heart and will and life. We here, as at 
home, need a fresh outpouring of the Spirit." 

Sierra It is unquestionable that the influence of Siena Leoneans on 

fluence"^' ^^® West African coast generally has not always been good ; but 

while we hear much of their inconsistency and low standard of 

living, we are rarely given the facts on the other side. Here is 

one, reported by the Bishop : — 

" Two ladies, wives of officers from Northern Nigeria, over 1000 
miles away, came on shore [at Sierra Leone] from the mail-boat which 
was staying here a few hours on its way home. They said they must 
if possible see the Annie Walsh School. They had not seen it before, 
nor known of it otherwise, but they said there was a young woman, the 
wife of a government clerk from Siei-ra Leone, living with her husband 
near them in the bush, and the}' often asked her how it was that her 
home was what it was, with Christian atmosphere and ideals, and her 
answer always was, ' The Annie Walsh School ' ; and they must see the 
school that had ti'ained that young wife." 

That excellent School celebrated its jubilee in Nov., 1915. 
'I'he Hiutcr- Of the hinterland, the Protectorate as distinct from the Colony, 
laud. the Bishop also wrote nuich that was interesting. It reaches to 

the sources of the Niger, near which is the town of Falaba, a name 
famihar to us now as being that of a British mail steamer sunk by 
a German submarine. Pagan tribes cover the whole territory, but 
there is an increasing Moslem element. Mr. Alvarez did impor- 
tant work there until his transfer to the Niger. The Missions are 
now the charge of the Church. There are altogether some 300 
miles of railway, and traders, both white and black, have settled 
at the interior stations. 

Sierra Leone will always be a name dear for its hallowed asso- 
ciations, and the Church there will ever command our warm and 
prayerful sympathies. Critics of it should read Lady Knutsford's 
Life of Zachary Macaulay, the Governor in its earliest days. 
They might appreciate more correctly the really great work done 
in the Colony.* 

* Sec an article on Zachary Macaulay, by the present writer, CM. Intell., 
Sept., 1901. Also a review, in the CM. Rev., I^ec, 1910, of A Transformed 
Colony, a book by Mr. T. J. Alldridgc, I.S.O., for many years Government 
Commissioner ou the Coast. 



C.M.S. Missioxs : West Africa. 63 

II. Nigeria. l^}l 

Very much larger is the field of the Society's other West African Yorubaand 
Missions. To reach them we must proceed a thousand miles east- sions. 
ward, along what used to be called the Guinea Coast. Passing 
Liberia and the Gold Coast Colony, German Togo and French 
Dahomey, we come to the Colony of Lagos and its hinterland, in 
which, since 1844, has been carried on the C.M.S. Yoruba Mission. 
Then farther on, we come to the Delta of the Niger, and enter 
the field of the Niger Mission, so long associated with the name 
of Bishop Samuel Crowther. Ascending the Eiver a few hundred 
miles, we enter the great Central Sudan. That vast region is now 
nearly all divided between England and France (German posses- 
sions just touching it), and it is only within our sixteen year period 
that the exact boundary line has been settled, as before explained. 
The Colony and hinterland of Lagos, the Niger territories, and 
that part of the Sudan under a British Protectorate, are now 
united under the one name of Nigeria, and Nigeria is now divided 
into the Northern and the Southern Provinces. The Government 
divisions have been changed two or three times, and readers are 
apt to be confused. 

The whole territory also forms the Diocese of Western Equa- (ves^ern*^^ 
torial Africa. The name is rather a clumsy one, but it was given Equatorial 
by Archbishop Benson to correspond with Eastern Equatorial * ^^^' 
Africa on the other side of the Continent. That eastern diocese, 
however, has been divided into the two dioceses of Mombasa and 
Uganda, and we may well expect that in time the western diocese 
will also be divided. Meanwhile, Bishop Tugwell carries the burden 
of the whole great field, with its immense population and numerous 
languages, helped by assistant l^ishops of African race. Of these, '^ggi^t^'ut 
at the beginning of our period, there were tw^o, Bishops Phillips ijishops. 
and Oluwole, who had been selected by Bishop Hill for the office 
in 1893. A third was added by the consecration, in 1900, of 
Bishop James Johnson, whose long experience and high character 
marked him out for episcopal position. He had been ordained in 
1863, and had laboured faithfully as a pastor at Sierra Leone and 
at Lagos, and as superintending missionary at Abeokuta, and every- 
where had been noted for his high standard of spirituality and 
zeal. He was consecrated in Lambeth Palace Chapel by Arch- 
bishop Temple on Feb. 18th, and on April 30th he preached the 
C.M.S. Annual Sermon at St. Bride's — the only non-European 
who has been accorded that high privilege.* Bishop Phillips died 

* Old readers of C.^I.S. publications will remember " Sarah Forbes 
Bonetta," a child of a local Yoruba chief, who was kidnapped by the Daho- 
mians, rescued by Capt. Forbes, R.N., and educated in England at the ex- 
pense of Queen Victoria. She married a well-known African merchant at 
Lagos, l\Ir. Davies, and the Queen became godmother to her daughter. That 
daughter, who became Mrs. Kandlo, and her two children, were taken by 
Bishop Johubou to Windsor in July, lUOO, aud received most graciously by Her 



64 C.M.S. Missions: West Africa. 

Part li. in 1906, liououLcd for his simple goodness and faifchl'ul lal)Ours ; 
f^ ■ but the other two have continued their important labours, Bishop 
Oluwole in the Yoruba Country, and Bishop Johnson in the Benin 
district of the Delta, and have rendered essential service to Bishop 
Tugwell and the whole Church. 
s.i'.G.on There was also for a short time (1904-09) an English assistant- 
Coast? bishop for the Gold Coast Colony, which was then under Bishop 
Tugwell's jurisdiction, and in which the S.P.G. was reviving, after 
many years' interval, a Mission originally begun in the 18th cen- 
tury. This was Bishop Hamlyn, who had been a C.M.S. 
missionary at Lagos. In 1909 a new diocese was formed for that 
Colony, with a title derived from its capital, Accra ; and Bishop 
Hamlyn became an independent diocesan bishop. He has since 
been succeeded by Bishop O'Eorke. The first African clergyman 
there (since Philip Quaque in the 18th century) was ordained in 
1915. 

The extension of the British Protectorate over the important 
regions of the Central Sudan invited a fresh outlook over those 
great territories, generally known as Hausaland (more correctly, 
the Hausa States). It was Hausaland which J. A. Eobinson and 
G. Wilmot Brooke had essayed to enter in 1890. Although their 
deaths, within a few months of each other, had put an end for a 
time to their heroic enterprise, neither they nor their colleagues 
ever doubted that the Christian Message would one day be pro- 
claimed in those lands ; and now Bishop Tugwell himself resolved 
to invade them once more in the name of the Lord. In January, 
1900, he and four comrades left Lagos on this new expedition ; w' ith 
what result we W'ill see presently. 
C.M.S. Mis- The mission staff of the Diocese in 1899 comprised thirteen 
clergymen, nine laymen, eight wives, and twenty other women ; 
total 50. The figures for 1915 are 24 clergymen, 12 laymen, 
17 wives, and 25 other women ; total 78. Of the 50 of 1899, 
22 are still at work. Bishop Tugwell has served 25 years," and 
Mrs. Tugwell (who as Miss White went out in 1894) 21. The 
oldest missionaries now are Mrs. Wood, w^ho as Miss Green w^ent 
out in 1888, and has continued as a mother in Israel since her 
husband's death; another widow who has remained in the Mission 
for w^hich her husband gave his life, Mrs. Fry, who as Miss Leach 
went out in 1893 ; and Mrs. Melville Jones, who as Miss Higgins 
went out in 1889. Others who have also exceeded twenty years 
are Archdeacon Melville Jones (1893), Archdeacon Dennis 
(1893), the Eev. J. McKay (1893), Mrs. McKay (Miss Grover, 
1893), the Eev. H. Proctor (1892), Miss Thomas (1891), Miss 

INIajesty, only six raonths before her death. See his own account of the inter- 
view, G.'M. Gleaner, Sept., 1900. 

* At the Synod Meeting in May, 1915, an address and handsome present 
were given to Bishop Tugwell, on completing twenty-one years of his episco- 
pate, which is already seven years longer than that of any other English 
bishop in West Africa. ^ 



Biou Staff. 



CMS. Miss/ONS : IViiST Africa. 65 

Warner (1892). The rest of the twenty-two still at work should part 11. 
be named, if only to suggest thankfuhicss for health preserved in ^''j|j^*'- 
a West African climate : — Miss Boyton (1895) ; Miss Holbrook 
(1896) ; Eev. and Mrs. J. C. R. Wilson (formerly on the Congo), Rev. 
S. R. Smith, Rev. H. F. Gane, Mrs. Dennis (1897) ; Dr. Miller, 
Eev. J. D. Aitken, Mrs. A. W. Smith (nee Blackwall) (1898). 

The INIission suffered the following losses by death : — the Rev. Losses by 
T. Harding, the senior missionary, who had served almost thirty KeUre-'*"*^ 
years, and who was found dead in December, 1912, in a remote meut. 
village, on his knees, like Livingstone ; the Revs. J. C. Dudley 
Rvder * (one of the first Hausaland party, 1900), G. T. Fox \ (son 
of^'the C.M.S. Hon. Sec), E. Fry, J. S. Owen, E. A. Wise, and A. Field 
(lost in the Falah(C); Messrs. Coleman and Dear; Mrs. Harding 
(before her husband), Mrs. Gane (his first wife, nee Hamlin) ; Misses 
Duncum, Hickmott, Philcox, Squires. J Dr. Stones has been trans- 
ferred to Egypt and the Rev. J. L. Macintyre to Palestine ; the 
Rev. J. H. Linton to Persia ; Misses E. F. Fox (daughter of the Hon. 
Sec.) and M. L. H, Warner to the Punjab ; Miss Downer, to Uganda. 
The Rev. P. A. Bennett went as a C.C.C.S. chaplain to East 
Africa. The Rev. Dr. A. E. Richardson has become a well-known 
member of the Church Army. Dr. Jays and Mr. Theodore Lunt 
both failed in health, the latter immediately on reaching Africa ; 
their home services are familiar to us all. Miss Maxwell, a 
specially esteemed honorary missionary from Scotland, was for 
some years the leader of the band of women at Onitsha on the 
Niger ; and she has paid them occasional visits since, a most 
welcome service. The Colonial Associations sent one recruit to 
this Mission, in the person of Miss Alice Wilson, of New Zealand, 
who worked on the Niger for thirteen years. 

The C.M.S. staff has in recent years been recruited from West, 
Jamaica, a committee, with the Archbishop of the West Indies tilfcrent^""' 
at its head, having been formed in the island for the selection and 
training of candidates. These men are of course of African descent, 
and their native climate is tropical. One of them was ordained by 
Bishop Oluwole in 1913, the Rev. W. A. Thompson. 

Of the actually " native " clergy, the senior (except Bishop African 
J. Johnson and Archdeacon Crowther) passed away three years ^ ^^°^' 
ago. This was the aged Yoruba pastor of Ibadan, the Rev. Daniel 
Olubi, baptized in 1848, ordained in 1871, and known to old 
readers of the C.M.S. publications as Mr. Hinderer's assistant. The 
senior now is the Rev. Nathaniel Johnson, pastor of the principal 

* A most touching account of his deat4i will be found iu the C.M.S. Report, 
1001, p. 69. 

t See Dr. Harford's In INIemoriam of him, CM. Review, IMay, 1912, p. 307. 
Dr. Miller wrote in the Diocesan Magazine, "Two men, both young, both 
truly gentle, loveable, holy men, C.M.S. missionaries, now lie buried iu the 
Hausa country. Both were Trinity men, both at Ridley, both as curates 
under Mr. Lilliugston ; and both lives were sacrificed for Kauo — Claude 
Dudley Ryder and George Fox." 

I Also Miss E. Dennis, who died Dec. 19, 1915. 



66 C.M.S. MISSIONS: West Africa. 

Part II. church under the Lagos Church Council, St. Paul's, Breadfruit, 
lf£l ■ ordained in 1876. He is one of four brothers, of whom one 
was the late Archdeacon Henry Johnson, and another Dr. Obadiah 
Johnson, still a leading medical man at Lagos. One of the clergy, 
the Rev. Thos. Adesina Jacobson Ogunbiyi, paid a visit to Egypt 
and Palestine and England in 1912, and wrote interesting notes 
of his journey in the Diocesan Magazine. 
Moslems on Two of the Special difficulties of the Missions in Nigeria were 
noticed in the previous chapter, viz., the liquor traffic and the 
advance of Islam. The increase of mosques in the Yoruba Country 
and other parts of Southern Nigeria is a cause of much anxiety. 
The Christian stand against polygamy has always been a difficulty, 
even within the Church ; and the Moslem laxity in this respect 
attracts many who realize that the old idolatry and superstition 
must fall before advancing civilization, and who have to choose 
between Islam and Christianity. At the same time, there has 
been a growing dissatisfaction with their own religion among the 
younger and more intelligent Mohammedans. Not knowing Arabic, 
they have been reading Sale's English version of the Koran, and 
find it quite different from what their own Imams tell them ; and 
some have then been led to read the Bible. So doing, they cannot 
miss the significance of the contrast. 
Chtistiau Meanwhile, the horrors of the old Paganism in the Niger 
ou Pagans, territories, though undoubtedly lessened under the influence of 
British rule, have by no means ceased. Infanticide, human 
sacrifices, and even cannibalism, are still heard of in the remoter 
districts. But public opinion in the large Yoruba towns would 
condemn such things. Christianity influences the whole country 
indirectly, as the local kings and chiefs fully realize ; and that 
indirect influence is not limited to social improvement. For 
instance, the Alake or principal chief of Abeokuta, who visited 
England in 1904, is actually a frequent attendant at church, 
although he makes no definite profession of Christianity ; and ho 
has more than once asked for a day or a week of prayer in some 
special circumstances of need. This Alake, whose name is Badobo, 
is a son of Sagbua, the famous chief who originally welcomed 
Townsend and Crowther to Abeokuta in 1846, and to whom Queen 
Victoria sent a Bible. That Bible perished in a fire, and King 
Edward, when Badebo came to England, gave him another to 
replace it.* 
The Native Notwithstanding all dilficulties both from the outward environ- 
Commu- ment and from the natural aversion of the human heart from 
^^^'- a religion that asks for devotion to a holy God, the Mission in 

Nigeria has continued to prosper, through the divine blessing, 
in all its departments. In sixteen years there have been 34,000 
baptisms of adult converts after due individual instruction ; and 
the yearly return has continually increased, the number in the 

* Sec the account of the reception of the Alake by the C.M.S. Committee, 
CM. Inldligcnccr, July, lUOd. 



i 



CMS. Missions: West Afhica. 67 

first of tlie sixteen years being 460, and in tlae last of them 5860. tart ii. 
The last total of the Christian communities connected with the '^^^*'- 
Anglican Chm'ch ^Yas, baptized members, 51,750 ; catechumens, 
22,900 ; making over 74,000 adherents. There are now 71 African 
clergymen, of whom 57 are supported by the native Church ; and 
784 African lay agents, of whom 473 are similarly supported. 
The contributions of the Christians amounted in 1914 to £22,418. 
In seven years ( as reported to the Synod in May, 1914) the number 
of churches had increased from 101 to 358, and of other buildings 
for worship, from 1G7 to 315. The general progress is strikingly 
illustrated by the facts stated in connexion with the 21st anni- 
versary of Bishop Oluwole's consecration, June 29th, 1914. His 
single sbaro in the work as an Assistant Bishop had included the 
ordinations of fifty deacons and fifty priests (of course, partly the 
same individuals), and the confirmation of 13,000 people. Three 
years before this. Bishop Oluwole gave the Synod an interesting 
review of fifty years' history of the Colony and the Mission, which 
was printed in the CJl. Review for November, 1911.* 

The C.M.S. Missions in this great diocese are for convenience 
grouped in three divisions, practically continuing the old practice 
of the Society's Reports, viz., the Yoruba Mission, the Niger 
Mission, and the Northern Provinces Mission. Under the first 
of these three divisions, one of the most notable advances in 
recent years has been in the Jehu country, where the Mission 
was undertaken, and is carried on, by the Lagos Church itself. 
At the very beginning of our period, Mr. (now Bishop) Hamlyn 
compared that district to Uganda ; and the resemblance has been 
much greater since then.f The pastoral care of the converts I'astorai 
in the Yoruba section of the Mission (of which the Jehu work is 
a part) is now almost all carried on by the local Church Councils, 
while the schools are still chiefly in the Society's hands. But 
the English ladies exercise an influence upon the African women Work of 
and girls, both by visiting and by teaching, which cannot be l^v^flnc^ 
measured. The Church in the Yoruba Country is deeply indebted 
to Mrs. Wood, Mrs. Fry, Miss Boyton, Miss Thomas, and many 
others. The Training Institutions are of great importance in 
supplying catechists and pastors ; and also school teachers, male 
and female, for there is everywhere a demand for education, and 
the Government by a new educational code has lately recognized 
the importance of religion. This view was expressed in these 
striking words : — 

" The exampleH of India and China, as well as of Africa, appear to 
demonstrate that purely secular education, and even moi'al instruction 



* Sec also tils latest survey of the work, given to the Synod in May, l'J15, 
and printed in the CM. Rev., Oct., 1915. 

t See Archdeacon Melville Jones's article on the Mass Movement, CM. llcv., 
Feb., 19U. 



68 



C. A/. S. JUissioNS : J Vest A fkica. 



Tart II. 
Chap. 6. 



'The Oyo 
1'raining 
College. 



Lagos 
Bookshop. 



Desire for a 
Higher Life. 



divorced from religious sanction, among races who have not the atmo- 
sphere which centuries of Christian ethical standards have produced in 
Europe, infallibly produce a class of young men and women who lack 
reverence alike for their parents, their social superiors, their employers, 
or the Government. ... It I'einains more than doubtful how far the 
African is capable of being restrained by moral precepts divorced from 
the incentive of religious sanctions." 

This is very satisfactory. Of course the Government makes no 
distinction of creed or denomination. Only what may be called 
" common CInistianity " is meant. 

The Training College at Oyo, under Archdeacon Melville Jones, 
is naturally one of the most important agencies in the Mission. 
Bishop Tugwell reports that since its establishment in 1896, the 
total number of students has been 240, of whom 85 are now at 
work, and 124 are at present under training. Of the 85, ten have 
been ordained ; two are tutors in the College ; 23 are catechists ; 
and 50 are schoolmasters or Scripture readers. Every student 
has to take his full share in the work of cooking, washing, garden- 
ing, &c., &c., so that the cost to the Mission is reduced to a 
minimum, and when the student goes into work he can shift for 
himself, — so that " the dignity of labour is daily and hourly 
emphasized." 

One of the agencies in this Mission, which has a success almost 
vmique in C.M.S. experience, is the Lagos Bookshop, with its 
branches at interior towns. It pays its way and leaves a profit. 
In the year ending March, 1914, it sold no less than 5227 English 
and 11,512 Yoruba Scriptures, 12,000 Yoruba Prayer Books, 13,945 
hymn books, besides a large amount of general literature. The 
printing press produced a Yoruba History of Lagos and other 
works, and prints a weekly paper. The Nigerian Pioneer. A 
Eevision Committee is engaged on the Yoruba New Testament, 
and much new translational work is being done by different 
missionaries in various languages. 

The general movement in favour of Christianity is not the 
result of a sense of sin or of a desire for a Saviour. The people do 
aim at a " higher life," but this phrase in their lips too often means 
something very different from its meaning in ours. They want 
social advancement, and they see that the old heathenism is out of 
character with it. But this feeling must be taken advantage of. 
If it leads to inquiry, that inquiry will certainly open the eyes of 
some. Accordingly we read, " Every nerve is being strained in the 
Mission to cope with the situation, and the number of teachers is 
gradually increasing. But much has to be left undone because of 
the lack of agents. In one district alone only six of the twenty- 
five churches have a resident teacher ; in another there are 
but seventeen agents to work fifty-five churches which supply 
seventy towns and villages ; in a third, there are congregations 
numbering between 300 and 400 with no resident teacher, dependent 
on two visits a month from one living fifteen miles away ; and so 



C.ilf.S. iM/ssioA'S: West Afkica. 69 

on,"* ]\t;ich will depend upon the spiritual life of the regular part 11. 
congregations. A " mission," conducted by the Eev. and Mrs. F. 'j^''- 
Trevelyan Snow in 1913-14, seems to have been attended with real 
blessing ; and at a Convention on " Keswick " lines held at Lagos 
in 'July, 1914, more than 1000 requests forjprayer were handed in. 
This Convention was planned by the Eev. T. A. J. Ogunbiyi, after 
his visit to Palestine and to England. After all, it is the power of 
tlie Spirit of God in the Church that is the great need, as every- 
where else. I 

Tlie Niger Delta Pastorate, under Archdeacon D. C. Crowther at Niger Delta 
Bonny, continues self-supporting, and its adherents have increased ^^ oj^^^te. 
year by year, now numbering nearly 9000, with six native clergy- 
men. The senior pastor (except the Archdeacon), the Picv. J. Boyle, 
died in 1909. j The visits of Bishop James Johnson, who has general 
oversight of all the work in the Delta, including the Brass District 
and also Benin, v^ have been much appreciated. Eeaders of the 
early history of the Niger Mission will remember that nearly half- 
a century ago the king of Brass, whose name was Ockiya, invited 
Bishop Crowther to start a mission there. Its history has been 
chequered, but it is interesting to record that in 1911 a son of 
Ockiya was ordained by Bishop Johnson. A Theological Institu- 
tion was opened in 1912 as a memorial to Bishop Crowther, 
costing the Native Christians £1200, The late Eev. Dr. x\llan, 
who visited West Africa in behalf of the Society in 1902, brought 
back an interesting collection of relics and curios illustrative of the 
old idolatiy and cannibalism of the Delta, which he presented 
to the University of Oxford, and they can be seen in the Universit}' 
Museum. But a much greater token of missionary success is that 
at the notorious juju-town to the north-east of the Delta, where 
the enormities were so glaring that the British authorities destroyed 
the oracle, there is now a congregation (Presbyterian) of a 
thousand souls, with a former juju priest as one of the leaders. 

The work up the Niger, between the Delta and the confluence On the 
of the Kworra and Binue Eivers, may be regardQd as the Mid >jiger? 
Niger Mission, Its centre has always been Onitsha, the oldest 
station on the river, first occupied in 1857. In Bishop 
Crowther's time there was little to encourage in these districts, and 
his mission agents themselves were not satisfactory ; but a 
complete change has come over the whole work in recent years. 
English and African missionaries are labouring side by side, and 

* From the C.M.S. Report, 1914. 

t There are some interesting papers on West African questions in the Pan- 
Anglican Keports, Vol. IV., Section D ; among them, Bishop J. Johnson on 
Missions and Native Customs (S. D. 3 (f)) ; Bishop Oluwole on Pastoral Care of 
Converts (S. D. 2 (i)). and on Ev.angelistic Work (p. 24) ; Archdeacon Melville 
Jones on Equal Evangelization of Sexes (p. 146). 

+ He had lately returned from England, where he was a conspicuous figure 
at the " Africa and the East " Exhibition. " He had endeared himself to all " 
who were engaged in it. 

§ On Benin, see Bishop Johnson's Ileport, CM. Review, Nov., 1913. 



70 C.M.S. M/ss/OA'S: West Africa. 

Part II. the influence of Christian women from England has been most 
ciap^o. j^g^pf^i^ g^QJ-, j^g jyfjgg ]\Iaxwell, Miss Warner, Miss Hornby, Miss 
Martin, Miss Holbrook, Miss E. Dennis — to name only those of 
oldest standing. Their work is the more important because 
tliroughout the Ibo Country the men largely outnumber the 
women among the Christians — which leads to perplexing marriage 
questions and other difficulties. In this middle Niger district, 
and in the north-eastern part of the Delta which adjoins it, 
lie the spheres of Archdeacon Dennis, the Eevs. S. E. Smith, 
G. T. Basden, J. C. E. Wilson, H. Proctor, and J. D. Aitkcn, Mr. 
Cheethara, and others who have done no less zealous service, 
though for a shorter time ; while Dr. Druitt's Medical Mission has 
naturally been one of the most effective agencies. Sir P. Lugard 
laid the foundation stones of the Dobinson Memorial Dispensary 
and the Hill Operating Theatre (m memory of Archdeacon Dobin- 
son and Bishop Hill), near Onitsha, in February, 1913. Onitsha 
has now its own Church Council, and in 1907 the Christians 
sent to the Society £257 in commemoration of the jubilee of the 
station. Towns and villages all over the territory on both sides of 
the river have now their little bands of converts, including the 
Ijaw and Sobo countries, where Mr. Proctor, Mr. Aitken, and Mr. 
Eeeks have been doing good work. The first confirmation in the 
Ijaw District was held by Bishop Tngwell in January, 1915. The 
demand for more teachers is persistent, and the openings are most 
inviting. There is, in fact, almost a " mass movement," con- 
stituting a most urgent call for reinforcements. Mr. Aitken re- 
ported only a year ago that in a few months he had registered 
2000 people who had thrown away their idols.* 
ciHirch The Church Councils at Lagos, Abeokuta, Ibadan, and other 

tion^"'^'^' centres, and the Delta Pastorate, have prepared the way for the 
complete synodical organization of the diocese. In 1906, at a 
large meeting of clergy and laity at Lagos, a draft constitution was 
approved,! and the Synod has met yearly from that time. All 
licensed clergy in priests' orders are members of it, and lay dele- 
gates from the congregations. Subject to certain conditions of 
parochial organization, the right of representation depends on the 
support of the clergy. A congregation raising £200 is entitled 
to four delegates, and smaller contributors in proportion ; and 
poor congregations may combine to secure a delegate jointly 
elected. The Synod appoints a Diocesan Board to assist and 
advise the Bishop ; and Patronage Boards are formed on the Irish 
and Colonial system. District Councils deal with local affairs. 
The four chief ones above mentioned are now financially and 
administratively independent of the C.M.S. ; while others, which 

* A sketch of the Ibo Mission for 50 years from its commencement in 1857, 
l)y the Rev. G. T. Basden, appeared in the CM. Rcvicir of March, 1907, with 
a striking diagram-map. 

t This constitution is fully described in an interesting article by Mr. Baylis 
in the C. M. Review, March, 1907. 



C.M.S. Miss/oxs : West Africa. 71 

still partially depend on it for funds, have chairmen appointed part it. 
by the Mission who in case of need could exercise a veto. The ^^^^^- *'• 
reports of the proceedings of the Synod have shown an excel- 
lent spirit, and no little practical wisdom in the administration 
of the Church. In 1906, six bishops on the West African coast 
met and discussed the possibility of forming an ecclesiastical 
province. They adopted resolutions in favour of it, and also agreed 
upon important regulations touching marriage, discipline, educa- 
tion, etc. But the way has not opened for the full development 
then contemplated.* 

Northern Nigeria. 

We must now take up the Mission in Northern Nigeria Advance 
separately. Bishop Tugwell's first attempt to extend it into the state?''^"^^ 
Hausa States, in 1900, met with a repulse. At first the outlook was 
promising, the party being well received at the important town of 
Zaria, and the good knowledge of Hausa attained by Dr. Miller 
during a preparatory visit to Tripoli proving very useful; but 
althougli they reached the still more important city of Kano^ 
a great centre of trade said to be older than London ! — they were 
immediately expelled by the Mohammedan Emir there. Later, Repulses 
they were also expelled from Zaria, and after almost a year in ^,"[[163'"'" 
Hausaland they were compelled to return to the Niger, f Subse- 
quently, the murder of an English officer, and the protection of 
the murderer by the Emir of Kano, led to General Lugard having to 
march against that city ; and for some time the British authorities, 
while showing personal kindness to the missionaries, declined to 
permit their advance. But Dr. Miller and others — including the 
Eevs. G. P. Bargery, F. H. Lacy, and W. P. Low :J:— were again 
and again at Gierku and other places, and while distressed at the 
" loathsome mixture " of Pagan superstition and Moslem bigotry 
which they encountered — lantern pictures of the Crucifixion being 
received with peals of laughter, — they persisted year after year ; 
Dr. Miller giving much time to Bible translation in the Hausa 
language, whose "wonderful beauty and wealth" charmed him. 
The first convert was a lad who had been on pilgrimage to Mecca, 
and had been disillusioned there. After two years with Dr. IMiller 
he was sent to the Training Institution at Oyo, and there he was 
baptized by Bishop Tugwell in x\ugust, 1904, In 1905 the Mission 

* The whole history of the native Church in West Africa, and the possi- 
hilities of further development, were discussed by Archdeacon Melville Jones 
in the Int. Rev. Miss., April, 1912. 

t The letters from this first Hausaland party appeared in the C.]\r. Intcll. 
and CM. Gleaner of 1900. 

X Mr. Low was mentioned in an official dispatch for his "gallant conduct" 
when an outbreak occurred in which the British officer in command was 
killed. He was the first to hear the news, and made a hazardous journey by 
bicycle and horse to the place, where, knowing the language of the people, 
he had a chief share in restoring order. 



C.M.S. nr/ss/o.YS: West Africa. 



Part li. 

Chap. 6. 

First eon- 
verts. 



New Cam- 
bridge 
ISIission. 



again advanced to Zaria. Inquirers now came forward, one l)y 
one, and in April, 1907, two Mohammedan mallams were baptized. 
Dr. Miller wrote, " Many arp l)eginning to seek after God ; many 
are convinced, but dread what it involves to be a Christian." 

In 1907 an interesting new Mission in the Bauchi highlands, 
where the population is Pagan, was begun in the following circum- 
stances. About the year 1904 a small band of young Cambridge 
men whose hearts had been moved by the call from unevangelized 
races, associated themselves in an effort, independent of any other 
organization, to plant a Mission in some place which had never 
been reached l)y the Gospel of Christ. It was to be interdenomi- 
national, and to seek for support from none beyond themselves. 
The missionary members of the party were to be maintained, if 
necessary, by the other members of the Band who were unable 
to go abroad. It was a noble ideal, but the practical difficulties 
which arose in reducing it to action were soon manifest. Two 
members of the Band, which came to be known as the " C.U.M.P." 
(Cambridge University Mission Party), were sons of Prel^endary 
Fox, the C.M.S. Hon. Sec, (one a curate with Canon Lilhngston 
of Hull, the other in training for the medical profession). The 
Band were thus naturally led to consult Salisbury Square, and the 
result was an affiliation with the Society, by which a district in 
the Niger Mission was assigned to the Party, whose missionaries 
supported by it sliould be on the roll and under the regulations of 
the C.M.S., subject in special cases to the approval of the C.U.M.P. 
Committee. The first to go out in 1907 was the Eev. J. W. Lloyd, 
son of a well-known supporter of the Society in South Wales. 
The next in tlie same year was the Eev. G. T. Fox, and work was 
shortly begun at Panyam among the Pagans of the Bauchi high- 
lands. A third member of the Party, the Eev. C. H. Wedgwood, 
followed, and before long a new station was opened at Kalnvir. 
Two wives and three other members of the C.U.M.P. have since 
been added, the Eev. L. N. Green and Dr. J. C. Fox in 1909, and 
the Eev. E. Playward in 1911 ; but Mr. Green has since retired. 
It was a great sorrow when Mr. G. T. Fox died before the closed 
gates of Kano in 1912. 

The missionary success of this little Band has been large. 
Besides winning the confidence of suspicious tribes, and trans- 
lating portions of the Scriptures into two new languages, it has a 
record of baptisms remarkal)le in view of difficulties and dis- 
couragements whicli have come as often from tlie white man's 
influence as the black man's prejudice ; and strong foundations 
have been laid for the wider and higher upbuilding which will 
surely follow. Bishop Tugwell went to Kabwir in April, 1915, 
and confirmed 22 persons, including seven young married couples. 

In 1910 Dr. Miller had leave from the British authorities to visit 
Kano again, and took with him his Christian mallams. One of 
these mallams subsequently went alone to another town, in a 
district closed against white missionaries. But Kano had again 



CMS. Missioxs: Wfst Africa. 72, 

to he abandoned, and it ia only now that there is at last a prospect part n. 
of the Mission being allowed to approach the city. It must be '— 
borne in mind that these northern provinces are in fact protected 
native States, similar to the native States of India. The British Moslem 
ofiticials are, as in India, called Eesidents, and tlie actual adniinis- BrS '''"'' 
tration is partly in native hands ; whereas in Southern Nigeria oniciais. 
the officials are called Commissioners, and there are no " sultans " 
or " emirs." This no doubt accounts in part for the Government 
restrictions on missionary work ; yet it must be frankly added 
that some of the Eesidents are confessedly opposed to Christian 
effort in Moslem districts.* But Dr. C. H. Eobinson, who himself 
visited the Hausa country after his brother J. A. Eobinson's death, 
considers that the best hope for West Africa would be " the con- 
version of the Hausas and of one or two other races in the 
interior, who possess a strength of character which is not to be 
discovered amongst the peoples in the coastal districts." t Mean- 
while, at Zaria and elsewhere, there have been fm-ther baptisms, 
and the converts have shown steadfastness and zeal. An interest- Christian 
ing recent development is the gathering of 115 Christians and ^ '"''"*'■ 
inquirers into a new village by themselves, which is called Gimi. 
Dr. Miller reports warmly on this experiment. Among recent 
recruits to the Hausa Mission is a New Zealand clergyman, but 
an Oxford man, the Eev. Leonard S. Kempthorne, son of the 
Eector of Nelson Cathedral. 

All this while, good work has been going on in the older parts Lokfjjaand 
of the Northern Nigeria field, at Lokoja, and in the Nupe country, "'"'' 
and at Bida, the scenes of many visits by Bishop Crowther in 
former days. Quite recently, the hitherto unpromising outlook has 
much changed, and a widespread spirit of inquiry is now visible, 
almost like that in the Ibo or the Yoruba Country, People are 
l)uilding clmrches and schools for themselves, and begging for 
teachers. Mr. Alvarez, who was transferred from Sierra Leone to 
Northern Nigeria in 1901, has been in principal charge, to the great 
advantage of the work. The Bishop also appointed Mr. Macintyre 
Archdeacon, but he has l)een invalided home, and will prol)ably 
work in Egypt or Palestine. 

Other ]\Iissions have begun work during these years in Northern ?.*}j'^y,,j, 
Nigeria, the most important being the Sudan United Mission, an 
interdenominational organization. Their principal field of labour 
is up the Binue, mainly among the Pagan population. From time 
to time all the Missions, including the C.M.S., have met in 
conference and discussed matters oif common interest in the prac- 
tical arrangements of the w^ork and such subjects as the liquor 
traffic and polygamy.t Bible translation has also been done in 

* See Dr. Miller's article, "Northern Nigeria: Two Outlooks," in tbo 
CM. Rev., July, 1909. 

t History of Christian Missions, p. 299. 

% An interesting account of one such Conference at Lokoja over which 
Bishop Tugwell presided, appeared in the C.ilf. Revieio, Nov., 1910, under the 
title, " Where Niger and Binue Meet." 



74 



C.M.S. M/ssw.vs : Wesi' Africa. 



Paet II. 

chap. (i. 



Testimony 
of Lugard 
and John- 
ston. 



coi"nl)inatioii ; * but in Ilausa almost everything is the work of Dr. 
Miller. Similar gatherings, it should be added, have taken place in 
Southern Nigeria. Of course the Eoman Catholic Missions always 
stand aloof from such co-operation ; and their influence in Nigeria 
is unhappily rendered doubtful by their laxity regarding heathen 
customs. 

This brief account of the Society's West Africa Missions may 
be fitly concluded by quoting utterances of Sir F. Lugard and 
Sir H. H. Johnston. The former, in his Eeport to Government in 
1906, wrote as follows touching the friendly attitude of the Emir of 
Zaria : — 

" This friendly attitude and the remarkable results achieved are 
probably and almost entirely due to Dr. IMiller's exceptional tact and 
personal influence, together with his absolute mastery of the Hausa 
language. . . . The Resident . . . cannot too warmly express his grati- 
tude to Dr. Miller. . . , The Emir himself has apparently fomaed a 
close friendship with Dr. Miller, and invites a frank expression of his 
opinions on social abuses which come under his notice. I believe that a 
verj' great deal of good has resulted." 

And Sir H. H. Johnston, in a review of Mr. E. D. IMorel's book 
on Nigeria, expressed disagreement with that gentleman's criticisms 
on some of the C.M.S. work, and added, " In fact, the C.M.S. for 
good or for ill, has done more to create British Nigeria than the 
British Government." 

Lastly, let it be suggested that the Weslpru, Equatorial Afrira 
Diocesan Magazine, a monthly periodical admirably edited by 
Mr. Watson of Newcastle, should be read by all who are interested 
in West Africa, f 

* See Archdeacon Dennis's very interesting acconut of the Union Ibo 
Bible, completed in 1912 after seven years' labour, CM. Rev., Apiil, 1912. 

I To be bad from Mr. W. Watson, 15, Grosvenor Place, Ncwcastle-ou-Tyne. 
Price 2/6 a vcar. 



CHAPTEE VII. 

C.M.S. MISSIONS: EAST AmiCA. 

British East Africa: Mombasa, Frere Town, &c.— German East Africa: 
Progress Prior to the War— British East Africa : the Interior — Kikuyu 
District— Kikuyu Conference. 

|N the same year in wliicli the C.M.S. kept its Centenary, part n. 
the proposed division of the Diocese of Eastern Equa- ^'^^ • ■ 
torial Africa, over which three bishops, Hannington, Diocese of 
Parker, and Tucker, had presided, was carried out, and ""^ ^"' 
the two dioceses of Mombasa and Uganda came into 
being. Bishop Tucker retained Uganda, and the Eev. W. G. Peel 
was consecrated for Mombasa on St. Peter's Day, 1899. For 
nearly twentj^ years Mr. Peel had worked in India, and had been 
Secretary at both Madras and Bombay ; and his varied experience 
and high reputation pointed him out as the right man for a post 
of peculiar difficulty.* 

The Diocese of ^klombasa comprises extensive territories in both 
British and German East Africa, inhabited by numerous tribes 
speaking different languages and dialects, and without anj- of tlie 
comparatively advanced organization of a kingdom like Buganda. 

British East Africa— The Coast District. 

The neighbourhood of ]\rombasa itself, the port of British East Frere Town: 
Africa, liad been the scene of the labours of Krapf and Pvebmann, sppct'^"" 
the first missionaries in that part of the world (1844) ; and when 
the Society revived the old INIission in 1874, it was primarily' to 
receive freed slaves, rescued by British cruisers from the Arab 
slave slups then infesting the coast. This work was undertaken 
at the request of Sir Bartle Frere, who negotiated the treaty witii 
the Sultan of Zanzibar which eventually brought the East African 
slave trade to an end ; and the settlement, founded by the Eev. W. 
Salter Price, was named Frere Town accordingly. The success of 
Mr. Price's work was strikingly illustrated when, ten years later, 
a fresh cargo of rescued slaves was brought in ; the men who 
received and attended to them and taught them being their prede- 
cessors of ten years before. Besides Frere Town itself, use was 
also made of the old station of Eabai, fifteen miles inland, where 
* P.S. — April, 1916. Bishop Peel's death is a heavy loss to the IMissiou. 



76 



CJf.S. MissjojYS: East Africa. 



Part IT. 
Chap. 7. 



The East 

African 

Cliristians. 



Tnlanil 
Missions : 
'I'aita, <Vc. 



Mombasa 
lowii. 



Eebmann had lived nearly thirty years in the old days ^Yith his 
handful of converts ; and thither gathered large numbers of fugi- 
tives from the domestic slavery of the country, wlio were ransomed 
by the British East Africa Company compensating the owners. 
Evangelistic work was also carried on among the neighbouring 
tribes ; Giriama and Jiloi'e became famihar names in C.M.S. publi- 
cations ; and the patient and prayerful labours of Douglas Hooper, 
H. K. Binns, W. E. Taylor, and many others, and of a succes- 
sion of devoted women, bore definite fruit. 

Bishop Peel had heard much that was unfavourable about the 
Mission before he reached Africa, but lie was encouraged beyond 
expectation by what he saw. His long Indian experience had 
taught him the mistake of judging a people only just come out of 
the darkest superstition and the grossest immorality by a standard 
scarcely applicable to our home population with all the advantages 
of its environment. And the development of trade on the coast 
had brought a motley multitude in which the little bands of native 
Christians, with all their real imperfections, were comparatively as 
lights in the darkness. Archdeacon Binns, in 1910, with a local 
experience of thirty-five years, wrote of the village of Eabai, " The 
change in the country is marvellous. The difference in the attitude 
of the whole people towards the religion of Christ, the growtli in 
grace of many, the happy Christian homes, the sight of Christian 
mothers taking their little ones to church daily, the voices raised 
in prayer at our prayer meeting, the attendance of so many at the 
Lord's Table — these things cause me to thank God and take 
courage." Eecently there has been a hopeful movement among 
the suiTounding ti^ibes, particularly in the Digo Country to the 
soutli ; and the whole number of baptized Christians in the Coast 
district exceeds 1400, besides a large number of catechumens. 
Further inland are the Missions in the Taita country, where ]\Ir. 
Wray lalaoured so patiently for thirty years, until he became in an 
unusual degree the father as well as pastor of a people transformed 
fi'om the most degrading heathenism. •■ Excellent work has been 
done by IMr. Yladimir Vassil Verbi, a Bulgarian by birth, but now 
in English orders, with his wife and her sister (who went out in 
1896-7 as the Misses Mayor) ; also by Mr. Maynard, one of the 
zealous missionaries of the New South Wales Association. 

Mombasa itself is mainly a Mohammedan town, and the work 
has been as difficult as at (say) Peshawar; but here also there 
are now very hopeful signs, such as more than one hundred men 
in baptism and confirmation classes, and the first baptisms of 
immigrants from India. Among the developments of our period 
have been the Mzizima Hospital, worked by Dr. Shepherd, the 
Buxton High School, opened by Mr. Victor Buxton in 1904, and 
the East African Industries Company, formed l)y the same valued 
friend for the good of the people, of course independently of the 

* Sec the remarkable testimony of an English officer, CM. Gleaner, .Jan., 
191G. 



i 



C.Jf.S. Jf/.ssioxs: East Africa. yy 

Mission."" But the chief outward and visible sijL;n of the Christian i;aktii. 
occupation of the coast is the new cathedra], built as a memorial '.^ 
to Bishops Hannington and Parker and the Eev. Henry Wright, 
which was dedicated on May 31st, 1905. It is an imposing structure 
with a strikingly Oriental effect. It is a notable fact that while The four 
many older mission fields, and colonial dioceses too, are as yet t'^'^^ech-^i'' 
without central churches that can be dignified with the name of Africa, 
cathedrals, the comparatively young dioceses in East and Central 
Africa have four, viz., Uganda, Mombasa, Zanzibar, and Likoma. 
The latter two are of course fruits of the Universities' Mission ; 
and the Likoma cathedral, on an island in Lake Nyasa, was, like 
that in Uganda, to a large extent built by the native Christians 
themselves. 

The death of one African clergyman, the Rev. W. H. Jones, Afiicau 
should be mentioned. Some sixty years ago he was rescued from •^^^^^'^'^y- 
a slave-ship by a British cruiser, and taken to Bombay, whence 
he was sent, as were others, to the C.M.S. Mission at Nasik, 
where he was educated and baptized. In 1861 he and another 
ex-slave, Ishmael Semler, were sent to Mombasa to work under 
Eebmann. Both were ordained by Bishop Hannington in 1885. 
Jones accompanied Hannington on his last journey, and brought 
back the news of his murder, the returning caravan being preceded 
by the flag inscribed with the word Ichabod, which has been 
shown at missionary exhibitions all over England. He died in 
1901. 1 Semler is still at work after fifty years on the coast.J A 
third African, J. E. Deimler, was ordained by Bishop Tucker in 
1896, and a fourth, Lugo Fussell Gore, by Bishop Peel in 1903. 

Gekman East Africa. 

Turning to German East Africa, we find ourselves in a growing |^ernian 
and deeply interesting Mission, though one of the least familiar to Mpapua,' 
C.M.S. members and friends. When the first party for Uganda *^'' 
went up country in 1876, one man was left at a place called 
Mpwapwa,§ some 250 miles from the coast, recommended for an 
intermediate station by Captain Cameron, who had latel}- made 
one of the earliest journeys across Africa. In the two neigh- 
bouring districts of Ussagara (or Ukaguru) and Ugogo, the work 
has been carried on ever since ; and the name of Mpwapwa has 

* An interesting account of the East African Industries, by Mr. Buxton, 
appeared in the CM. Rev., Jan., 1909. See also Col. Kenyon's article, 
Jan., 1914. 

t Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, when he visited East Africa in 1902, was much 
interested in Jones, and in the IMission generally. 

X The Eev. G. W. Wright says, " In spite of his years Mr. Semler confronts 
the mixed crowd in the market-place with boldness and vigour " ; and adds 
the interesting fact that in working among the Indian immigrants at Mom- 
basa he was assisted for a time by a convert of Dr. Pennell's from the Afghan 
Frontier, Sheikh Allah Bakhsh, who was one of the medical students at 
Bannu. 

§ This was the old spelling. It is now spelt Mpapua, 



78 



C.M.S. Missions: East Africa. 



Pakt II. 

Chap. 7. 



Bishop 

Peel's 

journeys. 



Should this 
Mission be 
given up ? 



Other 

Missions. 



Recent 
Progress. 



been familiarized at home through its adoption by the first of 
the bands of young laymen formed to promote Missions in our 
parishes. The Mpwapwa Band of St. James's, HoUoway, has had 
many imitators. 

British and Australian and Canadian missionaries have worked 
together in these districts, and Bishop Peel's letters describing his 
visits to the country have been of singular interest. It was here 
that he started his plan of self-sacrifice on the simplest scale, each 
Christian family, on sitting down to its principal daily meal, taking 
a certain quantity of the food and putting it aside then and there 
as God's portion. In 1899 there were 200 baptized converts. The 
returns for 1914 give 1300 baptized and nearly 4000 catechumens. 

When the Society was faced with heavy deficits a few years 
ago, the question was gravely considered whether this work could 
be handed over to another Society. There would be a distinct 
advantage in concentrating upon British East iVfrica ; and there 
were active German Missions in the German territories, while the 
U.M.C.A. was at Zanzibar and in the adjoining districts to the 
south. But in view of the whole past history, and of Bishop Peel's 
reports, it was felt impossible to abandon such a work ; and this 
decision has been rewarded by the definite progress that has been 
achieved in the last three or four years. 

In the CM. Review of March, 1913, the Kev. Dr. T. B. R. West- 
gate, a C.M.S. missionary from Canada, gave particulars of all 
these Missions. His figures were for 1912, and were taken from 
the German official Adressbuch. The C.M.S. was credited with 
20 missionaries and 1053 Christians; the U.M.C.A. with 32 mis- 
sionaries and 4149 Christians ; five German Societies together, 
with 225 missionaries and 10,500 Christians; the three Eoman 
Catholic Missions with 315 missionaries and 34,000 Christians. 

Meanwhile, far away to the west, at the south end of the Victoria 
Nyanza, there was a small Mission in the country of Usukuma. 
Although in German territory, and nominally in Bishop Peel's 
jurisdiction, this had been worked from Uganda ; and it had its 
own historic interest as being at the place where Alexander Mackay 
died. But its isolation, and the neighbourhood of the Africa Inland 
Mission, led to the two C.M.S. missionaries being transferred to 
Uganda in 1909, and the handful of converts being committed to 
the care of the A.I.M. 

Bishop Peel's letter received early in 1914 was accompanied by 
a remarkable little map of the Mission in Gerlnan East Africa, 
constructed by his daughter on the spot.* It shows that the 
district allotted by the comity of Missions to the C.M.S. extends 
some 250 miles east and west, and about 100 miles north and 
south ; and in that area there are no less than 370 dots of different 
shapes indicating stations, out-stations, &c. In every one of these, 
the Bishop wrote, reading and writing wore being taught, in some 

* tice CM. Review, Sept., l'Jl-1. 



1 



C.M.S. Missioxs: East Africa. 79 

cases three times a week, iu others only once a fortnight ; and in part ii. 
every one there were somr converts under instruction for baptism, ^'^ifP^^- 
it might be one hundred, it might be half a dozen. In the joint 
report, signed by Archdeacon Eees and Mr. Doulton, the 370 
become 405, showing that the map actually understated the facts. 
The Mission had profited much by the Pan-AngUcan grant, out of 
which good school-buildings had been erected. Some particularly 
interesting illustrations of work and its fruits are given. Such are 
"the celebration of Holy Communion for three or four Christians 
in an isolated station by the light of a hurricane-lantern, with 
the verandah of a native beehive hut for a sanctuary, and the 
missionary's beast of burden eating his corn a few yards away" ; 
the special service on Sunday mornings for old people at Berega, 
and the Bishop addressing 170 of them, but no hymns as they 
could not sing ; the simple medical work which a convert named 
Danieli, trained by Dr. Baxter, carried on during the doctor's fur- 
lough, " under Miss Spriggs's superintendence " ; the spirit of the 
catechumens, who regard it as their obvious duty " to take the 
Christian message anywhere " ; and " the tiny god-houses, once 
much in evidence in gardens, now scarcely ever seen." In other 
reports, several individual native teachers have been highly 
spoken of. Mr. Doulton, for instance, wrote of the " faithful- 
ness " of one, his "example to the flock," "his true witness for 
Christ by life and word." 

During Bishop Peel's visit to German East Africa in 1913, he Laympn 
ordained three lay missionaries of long experience, Mr. J. H. o'^'^'^"^'^''- 
Briggs, Mr. D. Deekes, and Mr. E. W. Doulton, giving them 
deacons' and priests' orders on successive Sundays ; and he 
appointed the Kev. D. J. Eees Archdeacon. Mr. Deekes, it will 
be remembered, was the one missionary with Alexander Mackay 
when he died in 1890. Mr. Doulton is a Sydney man, sent by the 
New South Wales Association, and was one of the first to offer 
when the C.M.S. Deputation went to Australia in 1892. 

All through these past years the German authorities were not <:crman 
only vigorous in developing the country, — the railway from the ^'^'^""''"^°- 
coast already nearing Tanganyika, — but also were courteous and 
friendly to the Society's missionaries in their territory. Latterly 
they urged the missionaries to push forward the education of the 
people, avowing their preference for Christian employes rather 
than Mohammedans, while if the former class were not available 
the latter must be taken. A remarkable testimony to the success 
of the C.M.S. schools among the Wagogo w^as given by First 
Lieutenant Styx, a German official, in 1907. The upper classes 
were being taught German ; but the rehgious instruction was 
given in Kigogo, the native language, which the Mission had 
reduced to writing for the first time.* In 1910 the German 
authorities ordered all chiefs, and their heirs, to learn to read 

♦ Sec CM. Giuette, Sept., 1907. 



8o C.M.S. MISSIONS: East Africa. 

Part H. and write. A Swahili seminary was lately opened, -the Berlin 

ciiap^/. gQcJQty^ w^Q Moravians, and the C.M.S. working together, — ^which 

should facilitate ,the general adoption of Swahili as the Ungua 

franca for the whole country. This was arranged in 1911, when 

Missions' Inspektor x\xenfeld visited East Africa.* 

It must be regretfully added that the chief difdculty of the 
Mission has been with the Eoman missionaries, who, as in so many 
other parts of the world, have passed by Pagan tribes as yet 
imreached in order to induce the Anglican Christians to join 
them. 

So far, until the War broke out. The only information since 
received is given in the Appendix. 

British East Afeica : Interior. 

Ad\ ancu of We must now go northward again into British East Africa, still 
iiaiiwaj"^''' i'^ ^^6 diocese of Mombasa. The advance of the Uganda Eailway, 
and the inviting highlands and fine climate through which (after 
the first 100 miles) it passed, naturally attracted, not only 
European settlers and sportsmen, but also Swahili traders from 
the coast, who are all Moslems, and who everywhere spread their 
religion. Several Christian Missions, however, have been estab- 
lished during the period under review in the Ukamba and Kenia 
provinces, the principal ones that are Protestant being those of 
the C.M.S., the Church of Scotland, and the Africa Inland Mission, 
the latter an interdenominational organization with bases in both 
England and the United States ; and the Eoman Catholics are 
also strong. About 1900 there begins to appear in the C.M.S. 
Kikuyii Eeports the now famous name of Kikuyu, which is the central 
District. ^^^ healthy district in which is situated Nairobi, now the capital 
of British East Africa. Mr. A. W. McGregor, who had worked 
at Taveta with Mr. Steggall, w^as commissioned in that year to go 
forward and prospect with a view to a C.M.S. Mission among the 
Wa-Kikuyu, one of the largest tribes in the country. He found at 
Nairobi the headquarters of the railway, and a fine field for 
missionary work ; and there also, shortly afterwards, the C.C.C.S. 
located a chaplain for the European community. In 1902 Mr. 
McGregor was joined by the Eev. H. Leakey, and in the following 
year he went forward into the Kenia Province, a country dominated 
by the mighty mountain of that name. Mr. G. Burns, of the 
New South Wales Association, followed at Nairobi ; and other 
stations have since been opened. Canada sent two brothers, the 
Eev. E. W. Crawford and Dr. T. W. Crawford ; and other mission- 
aries have since been added. Meanwhile the centre of the Church 
of Scotland Mission had been fixed near a station on the railway 
twenty miles from Nairobi, to which had been given the properly 
tribal and district name of Kikuyu.f Mr. McGregor's station, 

* Sec CM. Review, Feb., 1914, p. 107. 

t An excellent account of the Kikuyu country aiid its people, by Mr. 



C.M.S. Missions : East Africa. 8i 

Weithaga, is progressing well. The British authorities have part ii. 
chosen two of the Christians to be chiefs of districts ; and one of *" ^^'• 
them signalized his appointment by strong measures against drink 
and immorality. Mr. McGregor writes that the Kikuyu people 
are distancing all the other tribes : — 

" Kikuyu workmen are now found engaged in all kinds of employment 
to the satisfaction of their employers. Perhaps no other tribe in East 
Africa save the Baganda can show such a record of service by members 
of their tribe. Kikuyus are found working in the engineering workshops, 
at the carpenter's bench ; as High Court interpreters, in the ^Medical 
Department of the Government ; as clerks in government oflices ; in the 
post office as telegraphists, &c." 

Of the country round INIount Kenia a most interesting account Mount 
is given by Mrs. Crawford — who as Miss Grimes is so well known 
through her sacred poetry, and who has been a pioneer missionary 
to new tribes with her husband, the Canadian doctor — in her 
excellent book, Bij the Equator's Snowy Pealc* At Kahuhia, where 
the British Government station is called Fort Hall, the veteran 
Douglas Hooper, though almost a wreck physically, continues his 
devoted labours for the Africa which called him from Cambridge 
thirty years ago ; working largely through the energies of his wife 
as a medical missionary. It is a happy thing that he is now 
being joined by his son (the child of his first wife, "Edith Baldey"), 
the Eev. H. D. Hooper, who was born in Africa. In some of 
these districts the celebrated warlike tribe, the Masai, are met 
with. The results of the work cannot be compared with those in 
Uganda, but the returns of 1914 give some 330 baptized Christians 
and about 500 catechumens. 

It was with the view to avoiding as far as possible the puzzling Kikuyu 
of such relatively simple and ignorant people with the differences ' '^"''^^''^"*^^- 
that separate Christians, and of preparing the way for the future 
formation — if God bless the plans — of an united Christian Church, 
— that the Kikuyu Conference of 1913 was held which has led to 
so much controversy at home. But this important matter is 
noticed at lengtli in Chap. XL. 

Varied translational work has been accomplished in the different Literary 
parts of this great diocese. The important language is that of the '^^ ' 
coast, Swahili, which the Government are fostering as a general 
medium of communication. At Mombasa much has been done 
in the form of it spoken there, which is regarded by some as 
differing sufficiently from the Swahili of Zanzibar to require a 
distinct version of the Bible and Prayer Book. Both the New and 

McGregor, appeared in the CM. Review, Jan., 1909. Also see his int'^resting 
letter in the Gleaner of Oct., 1915. 

* Published by the C.M.S. The retirement of Dr. and Mrs. Crawford, 
owing to the latter's ill-health, is a great loss to the Mission. Bishop Peel's 
account of the country appeared in the CM. Intell. of Aug., 1906. 

Q 



staff. 



82 C.M.S. Missions: East Africa. 

pakt it. Old Testament, nncl the Prayer Book, in this dialect, have been 
oiap^,. j.gyjggj . commentaries on the Gospels written; the Pilgrim's 
Progress begun ; a S^Yahili magazine edited. Mr. Binns and 
Archdeacon Hamshere have been thus busily occupied. In the 
language of the Taita country, Ki-sagalla, Mr. Wray produced the 
four Gospels, most of the Prayer Book, a hymn-book and two or 
three smaller books. There has been a joint committee for Kikuyu 
translation ,, In German East Africa, Australian and Canadian 
missionaries have revised the New Testament in the language of 
Ugogo. As everywhere, the Bible Society and the S.P.C.K. have 
printed and supplied these various translations. 
Tiie^c.M.s. In 1899 the missionary staff of the Diocese of INIombasa com- 
prised 15 clergymen, 15 laymen, 18 wives, and 20 other women ; 
total 68. The figiu-es for 1915 are 25 clergymen, 3 laymen, 23 
wives, and 18 other women ; total 69. The change in the clerical 
and lay numbers is explained by the fact that several of the laymen 
have been ordained since. Of the whole 68 of 1899, 30 are still 
on the staff. The deaths have been only five. Only one man has 
been taken, a young layman who died almost immediately on land- 
ing. Three men lost their wives, Mr. Hamshere, Mr. Briggs, and 
Mr. Doulton, each of whom had married one of the women 
missionaries. All three have married again, this time also women 
missionaries. Also the wife of the Eev. A. E. Steggall died. But 
several men have retired who might in the African climate be 
called veterans. Dr. Baxter and Mr. Wray would be veterans in 
any Mission, with 36 and 30 years respectively ; and Messrs. 
Burness, Cole, Taylor, England, Wood, and Luckock, Mr. and 
Mrs. Bailey, and Miss Brewer, all served over 20 years. Among 
the thirty of 1899 still at work, Mr. and Mrs. Binns have 
nearly 40 years to their credit, Mr. Douglas Hooper 30, Messrs. 
Deekes, Briggs, Archdeacon Hamshere, Doulton, ]\IcGregor, 
Maynard, VerlSi, Mrs. Burns, Mrs. Leakey, Mrs. Deekes, and the 
Misses Deed, Wilde, Ackerman, and Lockett, 20 years or more. 

Among those who have retired, Mr. Taylor will be remembered 
for his linguistic w^ork ; Mr. Wray for his long and patient service 
at Taita, before referred to ; Dr. Baxter, and Messrs. Cole, Beverley, 
and Wood, for equally patient labour in Ussagara ; Mr. Steggall as 
for several years the missionary at Taveta, the place at the foot of 
Mount Kilimanjaro recently captured by the Germans ; Dr. 
Edwards as the first medical missionary at Mombasa ; Mrs. Bailey 
(Miss M. Harvey) as having been the first of the modern band of 
women missionaries of the Society. 

Australia is well represented in this diocese. New South Wales 
has sent Mr. Doulton, Mr. Burns, Misses Miller and Jackson;! 
Victoria has sent Mr. Maynard, Miss Dixon, and Miss Good (now 
Mi'S. Doulton). Canada also has sent good men, the brothers 
Crawford (before mentioned) and the Rev. Dr. Westgate. 

On the effects of the War on the Mission, see the Appendix. 



CHAPTEK VIII. 
C.M.S. MISSIONS: UGANDA. 

Note. — The name of Uganda is noio tised only of the whole Protectorate. 
The old kingdom is officially called by its local native name, Buganda, which 
is only a small part of the Protectorate. Busoga, Bukedi, Bimyoro, Toro, 
Ankole, and other native kingdoms, are in Uganda, but not in Buganda. The 
people are called Baganda, Banyoro, Batcro, dc., and one individual is a 
Mnganda, a Mutoro, dc. The languages are Luganda, Lunyoro, dc. The 
term TVaganda, which teas common in earlier days, is the Szvaliili or coast word 
for the people, and ccrrrespotids with Baganda. 

The New Diocese of Uganda — Testimonies of Governors and Visitors- 
Four Christian Kings — Conversion and Death of Mwanga — Bones of 
- Martyrs found — Bishop Wilkinson's Gifts — Progress and Extension 
V of the Mission — Educational and Medical Work— The Cathedrals — 
■^ Baganda Clergy and Evangelists — Baganda Christians — Roman 
Mission— Church Organization: Synod Meeting — New Heresy — 
Advantage of one Church— The C.M.S. Staff— Bishop Tucker: 
Retirement and Death ; the Archbishops Tribute. 

HE formation of the new Diocese of Uganda, by its part ir. 

separation from the rest of Eastern Equatorial Africa, ^'^^^• 

coincided in time with local events of importance T})^ °^^^' . 

which gave promise of a new period of peace and Uganda. 

progress. These events, the suppression of the 
Sudanese ]\rutiny, the capture and exile of the two kings, Mwanga 
and Kabarega, the near approach of the Uganda Eailway, the arrival 
of Sir H. II. Johnston as Special Commissioner, and the arrange- 
ments made by him for the future government of the country, 
through the Kabaka, the Katikiro, and the Council of Chiefs, have 
already been noticed. A new era had arrived; and, as the C.M.S. 
Committee said in their Eeport, " The Christianity of Uganda, 
having survived the horrors of barbarism, had now to be tested by 
the enticements of civilization and trade." It was good that at 
such a juncture Bishop Tucker should be relieved of the charge of 
the varied work carried on in the immense areas of Britisli and 
German East Africa, and thus be able to devote himself wholly, 
as he did with so much untiring energy and good judgment, to 
the care of the expanding Uganda Mission and growing Baganda 
Church. 




84 



C.M.S. MissioA^s: Uganda. 



nors, 



PART II. The results of the work were conspicuous. Su' H. Johnston, in 
Chapes, j^-g g^g^ official Eeport,-'= said, " The rapid spread of Christianity 
Testimonies over Uganda is one of the greatest triumphs to which the advocates 
of Christian propaganda can point; . . . the difference between 
the Uganda of 1900 and the blood-stained barbarous days of 
Mtesa and INIwanga is really extraordinary, and the larger share 
is due to the teaching of Anglican and Eoraan Catholic mission- 
aries." His successors have said much the same. Colonel Hayes 
Sadler, who followed in 1902, said before he left England that he 
had read the accounts of the Mission " with amazement " ; and 
on his return two years later he said, " Now I have seen the work 
I am still amazed." Colonel Sadler proved a most sympathizing 
ruler, and when he left in 1904, a letter was addressed to him by 
the Bishop, Archdeacon Walker, and the Eev. Henry Wright Duta 
(Secretary of the Mengo Church Council), in which, after express- 
ing their sense of the wisdom of his administration, they said : — ■ 
" Your interest, not merely in the material development of the 
country, but in the intellectual and spiritual well-being of the 
people over whom you have been placed in the providence of God, 
we shall ever gratefully remember." Other Commissioners, Mr. 
G. Wilson for instance, and Sk H. Hesketli Bell, have also been 
friends to all good work. The latter, after leaving, wrote as follows 
to Bishop Tucker : — 

" Any success that may have attended my administration has been 
largely due to the good feeling and harmony that has prevailed among 
us all, aud to the generous appreciation which we have all felt for each 
other's work. No one admires more than I do the wonderful results 
obtained by the C.M.S. in Uganda, and my heartiest good wishes accom- 
pany the continued progress of the work." 

Visitors, too, have l)orne frank testimony to what they have 
seen. Mr. Herbert Samuel, who is now a member of the British 
Cabinet, wrote to tlie Wpstminx/er Gazette in 1902 a most graphic 
account, beginning, " It is profoundly impressive to attend a 
Sunday service here." Mr. Winston Churchill, when Under 
Secretary for the Colonies in 1907, visited Uganda, t and on his 
return, on two or three public occasions, expressed his admiration. 
" Coming into that community in the heart of Africa, it seemed to 
him as if he had come to a sort of centre of peace and illumination 
in the middle of barbarism and darkness ; as if he had come into 
a new world where all the hopes and dreams of the negrophile 
and philanthropist -had at last been fulfilled." This was said at a 
great meeting of laymen at the Church House, arranged by the 
C.M.S. Lay Workers' Union ; but Mr. Churchill did not confine 
his praise of the Mission to audiences sure to be sympathetic. 
Almost immediately on arrival home he addressed the National 

* Extracts were given in the CM. Intcll., Nov., 1900. Sir H. Johnston's! 
book on Uganda was described at length in the CM. Intcll., Dec, 1902. 
t See a full account in the CM. Rev., Feb., 1908. 



and of 
British 
.Statesmen, 



C.M.S. Missions: Uganda. 85 

Liberal Club, and told the crowd of members there that while "in vart n. 
some parts of the Empire he had found the official classes dis- ^'^^^• 
trustful of missionary enterprise," " in Uganda he found them 
very grateful." And no wonder ! After referring to the " naked 
savages " met with en route through East Africa, he said, " Once 
in Uganda, you were in another world. You found clotlied, 
cultivated, educated natives. You found 200,000 who could read 
and write, a very greaC number who had embraced the Christian 
faith sincerely, and had abandoned polygamy in consequence of 
their conversion." 

Equally striking was the testimony of Mr. Eoosevelt, who was and of 
in Uganda in 1910. He pointed out the " immeasurable advance " Roosevelt, 
of even an imperfect Christianity upon the " Stygian darkness " 
of Paganism, thus rebuking " those who complain of or rail at 
missionary work in Africa " because of the " shortcomings " of 
native Christians. His article on the subject was written for the 
DaUij T('h>(jrai)h, and appeared in that paper on July 22 in that year. 
He wound up thus, " The result is astounding. . . . What has 
been accomplished by Bishop Tucker and those associated with 
him makes one of the most interesting chapters in all recent 
missionary history." 

Naturally Sir Henry Stanley watched the development of Death of 
Uganda with almost paternal gratification. In 1901 he wrote to st'i'iiiey. 
the three leading chiefs who were Eegents a remarkable letter, in 
the coui'se of which he said, " Your prayers and oux'S ascend and 
meet at the throne of God, and with one blessing He blesses you 
and us." He died in 1904, thankful for having had so large a 
share in opening up Africa. ■■ 

One remakable testimony of quite a different kind is worth Indian 
recording. After the capture and exile of the rebel kings, in 1899, io°diers in 
the Indian troops that had been sent to put down the insurrection Uganda. 
returned to India. Some of them, Mohammedans, who were then 
posted at Quetta, went to the missionary there and asked for the 
Christian Scriptures, that they might discover what had produced 
such a people as they had seen in Uganda. They had actually 
found black xlfricans in the local military force who knelt in 
prayer night after night ! — a thing to impress the Moslem mind. 

The Uganda Mission has been so closely associated with the ciiristian 
general history of the country for many years past that it is not ^{jjfining 
easy to separate the story of the Mission from that of the kingdom, countries. 
The education, installation, marriage, and investiture of the young 
Kabaka have been noticed in the previous chapter. But he is not 

* The general facts about Stanley's visit to Uganda in 1875, and his 
challenge to Christendom to send a Mission there, — which led to the G.M.S. 
enterprise, — ^are well known. But some deeply interesting additional par- 
ticulars will be found in the CM. hitdligenccr ot July, 1904, which appeared 
soon after Stanley's death. They were taken from an original communication 
from the Katikiro of Uganda printed in Uganda Notes (the local organ of the 
Mission), and from an article by Stanley himself in the CornhiU Magazine of 
Jan., rJUl. 



86 C.M.S. Missions: Uganda. 

PAETii. the only local "king "who has puhlicly confessed Christ. Four 
^^' kings of countries outside Buganda proper are also Christians. 
(1) The king of Toro, Daudi Kasagama, was baptized before our 
sixteen-year period, in 1896. (2) The king of Koki, Kamswaga, 
was baptized in 1900, taking the name of Edward Hezekiya ; and 
his wife, who was named Keziya. They were confirmed by 
Bishop Tucker when he visited Koki a few months later. (3) The 
king of Ankole, Kahaya, was baptized in 1902, with his wife and 
several chiefs. Ankole, or Nkole, is the farthest part of the 
Uganda Protectorate, and borders on German territory ; and the 
whole story of the entrance there is very interesting. Mr. Clayton 
and Mr. (now Bishop) WilUs were the early missionaries. (4) The 
king of Bunyoro, Andereya, a son of Kabarega, was a devout and 
energetic Christian before his selection to succeed a weak ruler 
who had followed Kabarega, " No one in Bunyoro," wrote Mr. 
Lloyd, " has done more for the advancement of Christ's Kingdom 
than Andereya." An interesting account of his " coronation " was 
sent by Mr. Fisher. The king himself read the Lesson, 2 Chron. 
vi. 1-20; and the Eov. H. W. Duta preached " an appropriate and 
solemn sermon." * 
(:oiivpr.siou More remarkable are the conversion and Ijaptism of those who 
of'Mwaugii. have been prominent enemies of the Gospel. That Mwanga 
himself was one of them is a signal illustration of the power of 
divine grace. He had been sent as a prisoner, with his wife, 
down to MomJDasa. While there he taught her to read, and 
asked for a Swahili Bible ; and Mrs. Burt visited him, and found 
him familiar with the New Testament. Subsequently he was 
moved to the Seychelles Islands, and there he died in 1903 ; but 
he had been bai)tized first, and was believed to be truly peni- 
tent. The Kev. H. W. Duta, the leading Muganda clergyman, 
preaching in the cathedral after the news was received, pictured 
Mwanga's arrival in heaven, and Bishop Hannington meeting him 
with the usual salutation of the country, " How do you do, my 
friend?" His remains were conveyed back to Uganda, and 
interred beside those of his father Mtesa.f To the Seychelles also 
fnd^Luba ^"^^-Im^'po^' t^ie king of Bunyoro, was banished, and to him his 
Christian son and successor Andereya sent a Bunyoro evangelist 
to teach him of Christ, with the result that in 1909 he was 
baptized by the Bishop of Mauritius (Dr. Gregory) when on a 
visit to those Islands, which are within his jurisdiction. A chap- 
lain there, Mr. Pickwood, wrote that he was " a dear old man." 
The same happy change cannot be reported of Luba, the chief 
of Busoga who murdered Hannington at Mwanga's order. He 

* Sec C.M.S. Gazette, Jan., 1909. 

t It is interesting to notice tliat Mwanga's mother is a Christian. When 
she was baptized does not appear, but she was confirmed in 1905, along with 
ten of her household. Miss G. Bird wrote of a prayer meeting in that year 
at her house, adding, " We simply marvelled at the grace and power of God 
in changing one who had been so hard." 



C.M.S. M/ss/oxs: Uganda. ?>7 

became friendly and helped in church building, but his heart paktii. 
never seemed to be touched, and he died in 1906. But his son ^^f;£i • 
was baptized in that same yeai', and baptized, it was deeply 
interesting to hear, by Hannington's son, who had joined the 
Mission three years before ; and a daughter of Luba also was 
received into the Church in 1909. Mr. J. E. M. Hanningtou has 
also discovered the exact spot where his father was murdered in 
1885.--'- 

Along with these striking links with the past may be mentioned The Bones 
the discovery of the bones of the three boy martyrs who had Martyrs."^ 
been roasted to death by Mwanga in 1885. They were acciden- 
tally found on May 22nd, 1905, during a visit of the then Bishop 
of Zanzibar, Dr. Hine, who was taken to see the place where the 
boys had suffered ; and he, being himself a doctor, pronounced 
the bones to be those of lads of their age.f x\nother episcopal 
visitor, Dr. Wilkinson, the Bishop of London's Suffragan for Bishop ^ 
Northern Europe, generously presented a granite Celtic cross to (jifts'"*'^"^ 
Ije erected on the spot, and also gave the money to build a chapel 
for the King's School at Budo (see infra) in memory of the three 
martyrs, sending from England four stained glass windows com- 
memorating the event. This cross was unveiled by Bishop 
Tucker during the second meeting of the Synod of the Church 
in July, '1910. Within the following week or two he solemnly 
interred with Christian rites the remains of the king who had put 
those boys to death, and also laid his hands upon the young 
Kabaka in the ancient rite of Confirmation. Could any coinci- 
dence be more significant and touching ? Do not the three 
events thus strangely associated represent in brief the whole story 
of Uganda '? 

Another deeply interesting occasion of remembering the past •"^'^^j^^^':^'^'^ 
was on Nov. 29th, 1912, when Bishop Willis dedicated a new church of Mackay's 
at Natete, on the site of Alexander Mackay's house, and where ^'o^ise. 
the earliest baptisms in Uganda took place. Fifty-seven men and 
six women who had been baptized there in those days, were seated 
in front. The Katikiro had made a list of those still alive who 
were baptized there, 14:1 men and 25 women, including two of 
the three regents, seven head chiefs, twenty-five other chiefs, and 
eleven clergymen. The Kev. H. W. Duta preached, and in his 
sermon pointed to difi"erent parts of the church : " There stood 
Mackay's bed ; here stood his smithy ; and in that corner (by the 
Holy Table) was the boys' room where I slept." 

We now turn to the general work of the Mission. The English Progress of 
staff in 1899 comprised eighteen clergymen, eleven laymen, iietro- 
seven single vv'omen, and four missionaries' wives. There were ^'P'^'^*'^- 

• See C.J/. Rev., Oct., 1913, p. 6-10. 

t Bishop Tucker's account of the discovery appeared in the CM. Intell. 
of Sept., 1905. Bishop Mine's account of his visit was printed in Central 
Africa, the organ of the U.M.C.A., in the same month, and was copied 
into the CM. Intell. of October. 



88 C.M.S. JI//ss/OjVS : Uganda. 

PARTji. ten native clergymen and over 900 native teachers, all sup- 
!!!^ ■ ported by the Church, as has always been the case. There 
were 17,000 ))aptized Christians, and a much larger number of 
adherents. The adult baptisms in the preceding year were 2724. 
Almost all these were in Buganda proper, the work in Toro and 
other surrounding districts being still quite young. In 1901, at 
the Brighton Church Congress, Bishop Tucker reviewed the ten 
years of his episcopate, showing that the baptized Christians had 
increased from 200 to 30,000, and the places of worship from one 
to 700, of which thirty-live were in the capital and its suburbs. 
On the tenth anniversary of his consecration, April 25th, 1900, he 
liad held his one hundredth confirmation, and had up to that time 
laid his hands on 7580 candidates, 
rioscnt Now it was the results to about these dates that elicited the 

testimonies of governors and visitors already cited. But subse- 
quent years have largely added to the figures just given. In 1915 
the baptized Christians numbered 107,000. If the 7500 catechu- 
mens are added, we have a definite Christian population con- 
nected with the Anglican Church of over 114,000. But the 
" adherents " number many thousands more ; making a probable 
total of over 200,000. The adult baptisms in the year were 7392. 
There were forty-two native clergymen and over 3000 teachers, 
all supported without drawing on C.M.S. funds, 
tn^o'^ u'^" ^^^^ geographical extension also has been remarkable. When 
Fields. Pilkington was in England in 1896, at the time that the " Three 
Years' Enterprise " was launched, he proposed a " T.Y.E." for 
Uganda, with a view to reaching the surrounding districts within 
a radius of 200 miles from the capital. But the actual extension 
has been much wider than that, eastward, westward, and north- 
ward, — not southward because that way lies the great Lake, 
which (as before stated) is as large as Ireland. In Koki and 
Ankolo to the south-west, in Toro to the west, in Bunyoro to 
the nortla-west, in the Nile (or Northern) Province to the far 
north, in Busoga, Bukedi, and Kavirondo to the north-east and 
east, the work has been extending and developing ; wliile the 
development of tlie districts within Buganda proper, and of the 
central institutions, has been equally notable. 
tiie'Ex?cn- Extremely interesting have been the reports year by year of the 
sion. advancing tide of Christianity in the outlying regions; but it is 

impossilile to give details here. Among the pioneers who have 
been especially energetic may be named Mr, A. B. Lloyd, Mr. 
Fisher, Mr. Clayton, and Mr. Kitching. Mr. Fisher has opened 
no less than nine new centres of work. Bunyoro, where he 
and his excellent wife laboured for some years, has presented 
a remarkably changed aspect, largely owing to the devotion 
of the king, Andereya, as already mentioned. Busoga, which for 
some years was a discouraging held, has recently been the scene 
of what may almost be called a mass movement. " Thousands of 
people clamouring for teachers"; "chief after chief persistently 



C.M.S. Missions: Uganda. 89 

begging that ca man may be sent, offering to erect any necessary I'abt n. 
buildings and to supply tbe teacher with food"; "crowds of — 1 
inquirers, who are searchingly examined before admission as 
catechumens " ;— such are some of the reports. Toro has become 
almost an independent Mission, sending forth its own evangelists 
into neighbouring districts. It was here that the first pygmy 
convert from Stanley's Great Forest was instructed and baptized. 
Ankole was the first sphere of Mr. Willis, now the Bishop of 
Uganda ; and Kavirondo was the second — a country with a people 
quite different from the Baganda, naked and barbarous, and yet 
teachable. The Bukedi Country is towards the slopes of Mount 
Elgon, and here the work is in its earliest stage.* Far to the 
north, in the Nile Province, Mr. Lloyd and Mr. Kitching began 
work in the Acholi district, among the Gang people, in 1904 ; 
and though the occupation was not continuous, a few converts 
were baptized ; and this mission has since been revived at a place 
called Gulu, where (wrote Mr. Fisher) " the people want nothing, 
wear nothing, and do nothing." Baganda evangelists have even 
gone as far as Gondokoro, a name so familiar to all readers of 
African travels, and near where the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan used 
to begin. The latest intelligence from this distant field is very 
encouraging. j 

One field, the Sesse Islands in the Lake, which at one time gave |!^^Py'| 
so much promise, and where Mr. Gordon laboured, will not now 
be found in the returns at all. This is owing to the sleeping sick- 
ness, which ravaged the Islands, and the Government removed 
the survivors to the mainland. Touching accounts came of 
Baganda Christians, men and women, who volunteered to go to 
the Islands and teach and care for the sick and dying, knowing 
that it meant death to themselves, which in fact it did.t Great 
efforts have been made by the Government to grapple with this 
mysterious disease, and at length with considerable success. Two 
years ago it was reported that the annual death-rate from it had 
fallen from 8000 to 500. 

Another extension for a short time was among the Nandi An un- 
people, living on a high plateau east of Kavirondo, and approached ExtcnHou. 
from a station on the railway. The strange customs of this tribe 
were noticed in the C.M.S. Eeport of 1911, where there are 
further references to the periodicals. Mr. Herbert sought for two 
years to gain influence among them, but they did not even care 
for learning to read, and in 1912 he was transferred back to 
Buganda, where men were urgently needed, and the work was 
suspended for a while. 

This was the extreme east of the field. At the extreme west, 

* Bishop Tucker's exploratory visit to Jlouut Elgon was described iu the 
C..1/. Intdl., April, 1904. 

t See CM. Gazette, Nov., 1'J15. 

X See particularly the account of thirteen women who thus went, in the 
CM. Gleaner of March, I'JIO. 



90 C.M.S. Missions: Uganda. 

vart]]. more than 500 miles distant, on the edge of Stanley's great forest, 

wp. ^. .^YQ^.jj ^Yjjg bgtr^in some years ago by native evangelists from Toro, 

< ut'cdn • - '^^^^ Bishop Tucker took a long journey to the village of Mboga in 

linn 1898 to see the little band of converts gathered in. His account 

cjiuiTii. q|.' ^j^jg visit, in the 32nd chapter of his great book, is one of 

the most interesting in all its pages. The Christians have 

repeatedly undergone severe persecution, and it is believed that 

200 of them were attacked and slain by a heathen tribe in 1910. 

In 1913 Mr. Lloyd visited them, and found " a splendid number 

of young men and women who to all outward appearance are still 

faithful and trying to follow Christ." Owing to a readjustment of 

the boundary line between the British Protectorate and the Congo 

Free State, Mboga has lately fallen to the Belgians, and these 

Christians get no sympathy from their Roman Catholic rulers ; 

but they are visited by volunteer teachers from Toro. 

j'Aiuca- The work of the English missionaries at the capital and other 

Wnki. chief stations is mainly educational and supervisory. In addition 

to about 350 elementary schools scattered over the country, which 

are taught by native teachers, there are the High School for 

the sons of chiefs and others who can pay the fees, w^orked for 

some years by Mr. Hattersley, and of which Mr. Eraser, now of 

schoor tiic I"^^iitly, had charge for a time; the King's School at Budo,'"' for 

Eabaka au some time Under the brothers Weatherhead (and still under one 

old boy. Qf them), for a higher and partly English education,t of which 

school the Kabaka likes to call himself " an old boy " ; the 

Normal School for training school teachers ; and the Theological 

Hall, for training lay readers and, in its highest department, 

candidates for ordination. In this last-named work, Mr. Roscoe 

and Archdeacon Walker did great service in former years. And 

then the Girls' High School at Gayaza, which is of the greatest 

importance, as well-taught and well-disciplined women are one 

of the chief needs of the country, and women school-teachers are 

much wanted. Mrs. Albert Cook has rendered specially useful 

service by her lectures to women and girls on the duties of wives 

and mothers and on moral questions. The Government grant for 

C.M.S. schools in Uganda was £850 in 1913. 

iv'Lngefists ^o"}© fresh progress has been made in the last three or four 

'pi^oi,<.,o years in systematizing what may be called the educational ladder, 

particularly in that department which is concerned with the 

training of evangehsts, pastors, and teachers. Promising young 

men who seem fitted for definite Christian work arc first prepared 

for it locally by actual practice under the guidance of regular 

evangelists. From among them the picked men, spiritually and 

educationally, are chosen by the district councils and trained for 

* It is interesting that near Budo there is a church standing on the site of 
I\Iackay's workshop. See Col. Kenyon's account, CM. Beview, Jan., 1914. 

t A particularly interesting article on the "View-point of a Muganda Boy," 
by the Rev. H. T. C. Weatherhead, appeared in the CM. Rev., March, 1911. 
See also an article by Mr. H. W. Weatherhead in the CM. Bev., June, 1907. 



Teachers. 



C.iM.S. J//ss/OjVS: Uganda. 91 

a "diocesan junior certificate." Step by step the best of them tart lu 
go up, until they are ready for entrance into the Theological Hall, 'JlTl 
with a view to becoming lay readers with the bishop's license ; and 
again, those who desire it present themselves for further testing 
for the theological course for Holy Orders, which occupies two 
years. And all through, practical evangelistic work alternates 
with the study of the Bible and Prayer Book. Schoolmasters and 
teachers go through similar though of course not identical stages ; 
and schoolmistresses also, but the supply of these is inadequate, 
owing to the early age for marriage. General education also is 
arranged in grades more or less similar. This brief summary 
will suffice to give some little idea of the amount of responsible 
work to be done.* 

The Society early saw the importance of industrial training in in.iiisiriai 
the Mission, and for some years excellent work was done under "^ ^" 
a Swedish-Canadian lay missionary, Mr. Kristen Eskildsen Borup. 
Brick-making, building, carpentr}-, rope-making, printing, book- 
binding, were taught; and the first " cathedral " was one outcome 
of this. But in 1904, after a visit paid to Uganda by Mr. (now Sir) 
T. P. V. Buxton, a philanthropic company was formed to carry on 
this work apart from the Society, though in friendly relations with 
it. This was in every way a better plan than the Mission itself 
inevitably drifting into trade ; but some amount of industrial 
training is still usefully given in the principal schools. A highly 
successful Industrial Exhibition was held in 1908. 

Not less important has been the expansion of the Medical Medical 
Mission. There are hospitals at Men go and in Toro, with 
345 and 78 beds respectively, and five branch dispensaries in other 
places. Great has been the influence, both bodily and spiritual, 
of Drs. A. E. and J. H. Cook and their colleagues. The building 
of the first regular hospital synchronized with the C.M.S. Cen- 
tenary and the commencement of our sixteen-year period, and it 
was opened by Sir H. Johnston in May, 1900. It was at that 
time the finest building in Uganda. Two years later, during a 
very heavy storm, it was struck b}^ lightning and burned to the 
ground, but happily, owing to the energy of the attendant " boys " 
in removing the patients, without loss of life. The Katikiro gave 
utterance to the right moral when he said, " If God has allowed 
our hospital to perish, it is that we must build a bigger and better 
one." This " bigger and better one " in due course superseded 
the temporary buildings used in the interim, being opened on the 
second anniversary of the fire, Nov. 28th, 1904. In the last few years 
the in-patients have numbered over 2000 a year, and the visits 
of the out-patients over 60,000. A branch hospital for European 
patients was built and equipped in 1912, being a gift from Mr. 
Theodore Walker of Leicester, a member of the C.M.S. Committee, 
in memory of his wife, with whom he had visited the Mission. 

* A full account of the " Educational Problem in Uganda," by Bishop Willib, 
appeared in the CM. Rev., Nov. and Dec, 1915. 



92 



C.Jlf.S. Missioxs: Uganda, 



The Call.e 
druls. 



Cathedral 
Services. 



TART 11. Tliere is also a separate building for Indian patients ; and 
!!!?■ ■ another distinct block, for isolation cases, was opened by Mr. 
Eoosevelt, when he visited Uganda in 1909, and was named the 
Eoosevelt block ; also a dispensary, given by Mr. Wellcome, of 
the well-known firm of druggists. Burroughs and Wellcome. The 
amount taken in fees in 1913 was Es40,000, a large part being 
from the European patients. In the same year the electric light 
was installed. The Toro hospital, under Dr. Bond, received 600 
in-patients in 1914, and 24,000 visits of out-patients. 

Fire also destroyed the cathedral in 1910. It 'was the fourth 
central church erected at the capital. The first, put up in 1890, 
was replaced in 1892 by a larger one, which was blown down 
in 1895 ; and the next one lasted nine years. These were in fact 
huge native huts, constructed with reeds, and thatched. The 
immense building planned and erected by Mr. Borup, the Swedish- 
Canadian missionary before mentioned, was also the work of the 
native Christians, and thoroughly African in style, though more 
substantially built, partly of brick. It held 4000 people, and is 
familiar to English friends through photographs. It was conse- 
crated on June 21st, 1904 ; and the offertory on the occasion is 
worth noting : thirteen cows, four goats, 125 eggs, 130 fowls, 75,000 
cowries, 3100 rupees, 1064 pice; the whole representing £85. 
Many impressive services had boon held in these successive build- 
ings ; for example, the yearly anniversary of the Christian victory 
over the Moslem usurpers in 1889 ; the annual Day of Intercession 
for Missions, St. Andrew's Day, and the annual Empire Day ; the 
memorial service for Queen Victoria, and the Coronation service 
for King Edward ; also a week of special services in 1906 for the 
revival of spiritual life ; all these being attended by thousands 
inside and outside the great building." But on Sept. 23rd, 1910, this 
^*'Yb'*'i'r' '^'^^^''^^ '^^^° ^'^^'^ struck by hghtning and destroyed. King George 
ing. ""' immediately telegraphed a warm message of sympathy; and the 
people, headed by the Katikiro, forthwith made plans for a new 
cathedral that should not be so liable to destruction in that way. 
It was estimated to cost £20,000, and the chiefs proposed to raise 
half that sum on the spot, while Bishop ■ Tucker, who was in 
England at the time, appealed for the balance of £10,000, which 
was quickly subscribed by sympathizing friends who felt that such 
a gift from the Church at home was a true way of showing thank- 
fulness to God for His spiritual Church raised up in Uganda. 
Many difficulties have arisen in carrying out the plans, but the 
building is now gradually rising. The foundation-stone was laid 
by the Kabaka on Nov. 8th, 1915. The growing material prosperity 
of the country, however, has caused a great advance in the cost 
of everything, and larger funds will now be necessary. 

* On Sunday, Nov. 8th, 1908, there was a special service to celebrate King 
Edward's birthday, when the " kings " of Toro, Bunyoro, and Aukole, who 
had travelled long distances for the purpose, together with the young Kabaka, 
attended. Mr. Koscoc described the striking scene. (C.Jl/.S. Gazette, Feb., 1009.) 



C.M.S. Missioxs: Uganda. 93 

The important translational and literary work of the Enghsh pakt ii. 
missionaries must not be forgotten. The Bible and Prayer Book, 'J^ 
and the " Pilgrim's Progress," with various reading-books, &c.,had Literary 

o o ' o ' ' Work. 

been produced in Luganda (the language of Buganda) before our 
period, Walker and Pilkington having been especially useful in this 
department. Since then, the Scripture and Prayer Book versions 
have been revised ; commentaries on the Gospels and the Thirty- 
nine Articles, and manuals of Church History, ttc, have been 
prepared ; the first version of the whole Bible in Lunyoro (the 
language of Toro and Bunyoro) has been completed ; and a large 
amount of preliminary work has been done in several languages 
and dialects used in the outlying parts of the Protectorate. Mr. 
Eowling, Mr. Crabtree, Mr. Maddox, Mr. Baskerville, Mr. Kitching, 
and others, have been engaged in this important but little noticed 
department of missionary service. Miss Chadwick and the Eev. 
H. W. Duta were presented by the Bible Society in 1901 with 
well-bound copies of the Luganda Bible, which they had revised. 
A notable first start in really indigenous literature was made, quite 
at the beginning of our period, by Ham Mukasa, tlie clever A native 
Secretary who accompanied the Katikiro to England in 1902. He [jfr"""''"" 
actually prepared a Commentary on St. Matthew's Gospel. Arch- 
deacon Walker wrote, " Ham's attempt is valuable, because it 
shows us how to express ourselves in a way the people will under- 
stand ; it is illustrated with native proverbs. In many places the 
commentary seems very short and deficient. [How could it be 
other\vise !] Still it is most interesting to get such a view into 
the mind of one who has" been taught. . . Possibly there are some 
who could not stand a much stronger dose." 

The pastoral and evangelistic work is now almost entirely carried Work of 
on by the Bagauda clergy and teachers, except in the newer and clergy.'"^ 
outlying districts. Among so large a body, there are of course 
great varieties in character and efficiency, and a percentage of sad 
failures is inevitable, if experience in all Church history is a guide. 
But the testimonies of Bishops Tucker and Willis, and of the most 
experienced missionaries, regarding them are truly a cause of 
profound thankfulness to God. In particular, several of the clergy 
have been spoken of in the highest terms. Of one of them a 
senior missionary wrote in 1905, " Whether we consider his 
private or his public life, tlirough all runs one great desire, that 
God and His Truth shall reign in the land. After many years of 
friendship and close intimacy I cannot better sum up his life than 
by applying to it Francis Xavier's great motto, Ad majorem Dot 
(jloriam." Of the Rev. Apolo Kivebulaya, of Toro, we read that 
in earlier days he was " beaten, imprisoned, put in the press-gang, 
and had his house burnt down and all his property destroyed," 
yet, said Bishop Tucker, " he has borne it all with a smile upon 
his face and a song upon his lips." And in 1912 it was said that 
the large ingathering of converts was chiefly due to " the work of 
Baganda pastors and catechists " ; " their zeal is a real inspiration," 



94 



C.M.S. Missions: Uganda. 



TART II. 

Chap. 8. 



The oldest and most influential of the clerg}-, Henry Wright 
Duta, died in 1913. He was one of tlie first converts baptized in 
1882,* and suffered with others in Mwanga's persecution. He was 
one of the first lay-readers, and one of the first deacons and priests. 
He had been universally respected, and had done specially good 
work when assisting Pilkington and others in Bible translation and 
revision. Of the other five first ordained by Bishop Tucker in 
1893, two are still on the roll after more than twenty years, viz., 
Yairo Mutakyala and Yonathani Kaidzi (named evidently after 
Jair or Jairus, and Jonathan). The other two, Nikodemo Seb- 
wato and Zakaria Kizito, were great chiefs. The former, who 
was the Sekibobo (special title of the chief of the province of 
Kyagwe), was (in Archdeacon Baskerville's words) " the faithful 
friend, adviser, and helper in the Mission " for two years, and then 
died. The latter, who was the Kangao or chief of the large 
province of Bulemezi, was one of the three regents appointed to 
rule the country during the Kabaka's minority. 

Altogether, forty-nine ordinations to the diaconate have been 
reported, forty-six of them by Bishop Tucker and three by Bishop 
Willis. The number on the list in 1915 is thirty-nine, of whom 
six are deacons. Only -three deaths have been reported, viz., of 
Duta and Sebwato as above, and of Nuwa Kikwabanga, one of the 
second band ordained, in 1896, who died of sleeping-sickness in 
1905. He went to the coast with Stanley in 1889, and returned to 
Uganda in the following year, with Bishop Tucker's first party, 
which included Pilkington and Baskerville. Archdeacon Walker 
wrote of him, " Nuwa was a good man, and one of the first I knew 
in Uganda. He saved H. W. Weatherhead's life during the 
Nubian mutiny by carrying him away and hiding him in a 
swamp." 

A new outlet for the zeal of the Church is now provided. The 
new Sudan INIission is working not far from the northern boundary 
of the Uganda Protectorate, and an appeal has been made to the 
Church of Uganda to join in it. At the last Synod meeting, w^hen 
the Eev. A. Shaw of the Sudan Mission was present and explained 
the case, four of the Baganda clergy offered to go. One was 
chosen, the Rev. Yosuwa Kiwavu, a senior man, ordained in 1899, 
who has been working with exemplary devotion in Busoga for 
fifteen years. Two boys from the King's School at Budo, " who 
could have commanded almost any salary they liked to ask in 
Uganda," also offered and were accepted. Eventually a party of 
twelve was made up, including five teachers, two wives, and two 
boy-servants. " The Bishop's eyes," wrote one missionary, " were 
full of tears " of thankfulness. 

Many of the unordained evangelists and teachers have been 

* He had gono down to the coai5t with Mr. Pearson, and was baptized by a 
member of the Universities' Mission on Easter Monday, April 10th, 1882. 
This was a few days later than the first baptisms in Uganda itself on March 
18th. Duta returned to the interior Avith Hannington's first party. 



C.M.S. Missions : Uganda. 95 

highl}' spoken of in the letters. In TIip End find Tlie ir^.s/ of part ii. 
Oct., 1914, Mr. Roscoe gave a clear and interesting account of the ^'''j^^- 
gradual development of the native agency. It began in the Baganda 
healthiest of all waj'S, with the voluntary efforts of the early and°^^ 
converts to win their relatives and friends. Then the Christian Teachers, 
chiefs sent young men out to their different clans, arranging for 
their food and lodging. Then the missionaries formed plans for 
their training. As the numbers increased, it was found that the 
evangelists needed also allowances for clothing, &c. ; which led 
to the commencement of the Native Church Fund, with regular 
collections at the Sunday services. And so the system has 
developed, until there are now more than 3000 of these men, 
including school teachers, and over 200 women. In many parts 
of the country they have been the pioneers, and when the mis- 
sionary has arrived he has found " synagogues " (as the smaller 
places for worship are called), and little schools, and congre- 
gations, all ready for further pastoral care. But the voluntary 
efforts of the Christians are by no means superseded by these 
more systematic plans. To mention only one case which chances 
to be reported, " Queen " Esther of Toro lately took the women's 
confirmation class in that district during the illness of the regular 
teacher. Meanwhile the spreading education enables young men 
to obtain posts under Government, in which much higher pay is 
given than the simple allowances of the Church ; a clerk or inter- 
preter getting as much in a month as an evangelist gets in a year ; 
and j\Ir. Roscoe expresses thankful surprise that so many have 
resisted the temptation thus presented to them, though it can 
scarcely fail to compel the Church to revise its scale of pay. 
A few years ago this scale was thus described : " The senior 
clergy have a house and garden and 27 rupees (36s.) a year, while 
licensed lay readers receive 16 to 18 rupees, and teachers from 
six to fourteen a year" ; but there has been an increase since then. 
In 1914 there were 458 men and 102 women under training for 
future service, at seventeen different centres. 

Concerning the Baganda Christians generally, the accounts are, ^h?,,^?^^"' 
naturally and inevitably, of a mixed character. The missionaries tians. 
on the whole do not use the language of such occasional visitors 
as have been above cited. These visitors see the outside of things, 
which is in every way impressive and gratifying. The missionaries 
see behind the scenes, and moreover judge by a higher standard, 
in fact a standard never applied by ordinary judges to whole 
populations. Church attendance and other externals of religion 
are satisfying enough ; but the moral standard is low, and, in 
Mr. Rowling's words in 1902, " We are finding exactly as St. Paul 
did, that after a few years the Christians need to be stirred up to 
the practical side of Christianity." The bitter tonic of persecu- 
tion," wrote Mr. Chadwick in 1903, " has been replaced ])y the 
insidious leaven of conventionality, wath its resulting insincerity." 
But we have to remember " the hole of the pit whence they were 



96 



C.M.S. Miss/oxs: Uganda. 



Part IT 
Chap. 8. 



Vice and 
Virtue. 



Moral In- 
fluence of 
Chris- 
tianity. 



digged." Mr. Weatherhead wrote in 1909 confirming the state- 
ment of a well known writer in South Africa, that " the most 
reprobate character in England is but an infant in vice by the side 
of the quite young African boy or girl " ; and Mr. Blackledge 
wrote in 1905, " Christianity has worked wondrously. Whereas 
before its advent there was not a pure man or woman, and purity 
in the home was a thing unheard of, yet now we know from the 
closest personal acquaintance that there are hundreds of pure 
men and women, and hundreds of pure homes." Naturally, also, 
the advent of trade and traders, and the employment of large 
numbers of men by the Government, have increased the wealth 
of the people, and it has Ijeen remarked how important for them is 
the prayer, " In all time of our wealth, Good Lord, deliver us." 

At the beginning of 1913, a few months after the return to 
Uganda of Mr. Willis as the new Bishop, he set about a careful 
and searching inquiry into the moral condition of the Church, 
visiting the central churches in order, and examining the teachers 
and workers. The information thus obtained was both saddening 
and cheering; saddening as revealing a great deal of sin, but 
cheering as showing that the sin was recognized and deplored. 
Then in the summer came the meeting of the Synod, which 
gravely and earnestly discussed what measures should be taken. 
It was eventually resolved to follow the lines indicated by our 
Lord in St. INIatt. xviii. : first, private efforts to deal with the 
evil ; then the action of the local Church Council, through visitors 
using personal influence and calling the people to prayer ; and 
only when these plans failed, the drastic step of excommunication. 
One practical measure has been the formation of branches of the 
Mother's Union at the different centres. Meanwhile, so far as 
outward crime is concerned, the influence of Christianitj'- has 
been unmistakable. " While trade and plantations and cotton 
ginneries are increasing rapidly," wrote Mr. Chadwick in 1913, 
"... the police reports show no increase of crime. . . . The 
year has brought record numbers in schools and churches and a 
record minimum in the courts. The Baganda have to a great 
extent been fortified to stand amid the astonishing changes." 

From Mr. Chadwick also came, at the same time, a significant 
illustration of the effect of both the educational and the moral 
influence of Christianity. At Entebbe, the post on the Lake 
nearest to the capital, there is a large and increasing European 
community, official and mercantile. Until lately, almost every 
head servant or clerk was a Mohammedan Swahili from the coast. 
No one would employ a Muganda in any position of trust. This is 
now entirely changed. " Now nearly all the servants and oflice 
boys, and a growing number of the clerks, are Baganda ; and the 
great majority are Christians, at least in name. It is largely due 
to the training in our schools, both intellectual and moral." 

The changes in the social life of the people are great. The 
horrible barbarities of the days of Mtesa and Mwanga are things of 



C.iU.S. Jll/ss/oxs: Uganda. 97 

the past ; but the proofs of them remain. " Even now we sec part ii. 
men and women without hands, noses, hps, eyes, ears, teeth," '—L 
wrote ^tr. Blackledge in 1904. The position of women is no ^°'"'^ ^'^•^• 
longer that of " a mere machine for cultivating, cooking, and child- 
bearing." Home life is beginning to be understood and valued. 
" The treatment of children in a Christian home is a wonderful 
contrast to what it used to be in tlie old days." " The dignity of 
labour is now recognized by a people who once left almost all 
work to women." '•" 

We have l)ecome accustomed to regard Uganda as a Christian Buganda& 
country. To what extent is this true? First, we must distinguish \vqfic[J*" 
between the old kingdom, now officially called by its native name i^ ciiris- 
Buganda, and the Uganda Protectorate, which includes the sur- 
rounding countries. Take Buganda alone. According to the last 
Government census (1911) the population was about 660,000. Of 
these, 127,000 declared themselves as belonging to the Anglican 
Church ; 155,000, to the Koman Church ; 55,000 as Moslems ; and 
221,000 as still cleaving to the old heathen hthare superstition. 
But almost all the leading chiefs and their families and clans pro- 
fess Christianity in one of its two forms, and neither the Moslems 
nor the lubare section exercise influence, while from the latter 
converts are continually l)eing made. If, therefore, we are to 
judge Buganda by the standard of the historians who write of the 
" conversion " of European nations in the Dark Ages, Buganda is 
a ( 'hristian country ; and certainly there is no other great mission 
field (not reckoning South Sea Islands) that has so clear a right to 
the name. But the population of the Uganda Protectorate was 
reported as 2,900,000, of which number Buganda has only one- 
fifth. f In the outlying countries, Toro, Ankole, Bunyoro, Busoga, 
Bukedi, and the still larger territories beyond, some 70,000 were 
entered as Anglicans, and about the same number as Roman 
Catliolics ; and as there were only some 20,000 jNIoslems, the great 
bulk of the population was Pagan. Clearly the Uganda Pro- 
tectorate has no claim to be called a Christian country. 

The Roman Church has three missions, one Fi'ench (the "White The Roman 
Fathers), one Enghsh (from Mill Hill), and one (in the Northern '^^''''°"- 
Province) Austrian. The staff of the two former has comprised 159 

* I\Ir. Blackledge's article here cited appeared in the CM. Intelligencer of 
July, IQCl. In the same number there was an equally interesting account of 
village life by Miss Tanner. The work of the women missionaries among the 
Baganda women and girls was described in two excellent articles by Miss A. L, 
Allen in the CM. Review of July, 1912, and by ]Mrs. A. G. Eraser in the 
Internal. Rev. Mi><». of July, 1914. (IMrs. Fraser, now of Trinity College, 
Kandy, was, as Miss Glass, a missionary in Uganda. One of the most graphic 
accounts of the journey to Uganda, when the railway was only half con- 
structed, was written by her in the CM. Gleaner of July, 1900.) In Vol. V. of 
the Pan-Anglican Congress Reports, there is an interesting paper on the 
Training of Women Converts for Home Life, by the late Miss Robinson 
(p. 2G0). 

t Details of population were given iji the CMS. Gazette, Jan., 1914, p. 18. 

H 



98 CMS. Missions: Uganda. 

Part II. priests and la}' brothei'S and 41 nuns.* They have at last ordained 
tiap^8. ^^yQ q{ their converts to the ministry of the Church. It is only 
riglit to say that their numbers are largely swollen ])y the custom 
of baptizing the young children of heathen parents. The original 
plan of the British authorities, by which the Anglican and Roman 
Missions were to be confined to the districts allotted to them 
respectively, soon proved unworkable, as was to be expected. 
Baganda Christians often moved from one district to another, 
and neither Church was willing to lose touch with its own people. 
There has long been no such geographical division, and the two 
bodies are intermingled, though there are districts where the one 
or the other is exceptionally strong. At the capital, the Roman 
Catholic headquarters are on Rubaga Hill, and the Anglican 
cathedral on Namirembe Hill (i.e. the Hill of Peace). 
Noreiigious There is a tradition in the newspapers that the "Catholics and 
Protestants " were always engaged in faction fights, and even had 
open war at one time. There never was anything of the kind. 
The "French party" and the " English party" did fight once, in 

1892, but the quarrel had nothing to do with rehgion ; it was 
a revolt of the former party against Captain Lugard's influence, 
some time before the Union Jack was hoisted. It is mentioned 
here because in 1908 Bishop Tucker had to write to the Timps 
protesting against the unwarranted legend (Timr'.'^, May 1st). 
There has been no strife since the Protectorate was settled in 

1893, and, wrote the Bishop, " the only rivalry that exists between 
them to-day is that of good works." 

Organiza- ^^^ conspicuous feature of the C.M.S. Uganda Mission has 
tiou. " been the successful organization of the Church. From the first. 
Bishop Tucker set himself to prepare the way for a self-sup- 
porting, self-governing, and self-extending Church. On his first 
visit in 1890, when he only stayed a few weeks in the country, 
he appointed six lay readers. In 1892, on his second \'isit, he 
commissioned ten more, and ordained six deacons. And he de- 
termined that none of these, or any others, should be paid with 
C.M.S. money. The Christian community was to maintain them 
all ; and thus was laid the foundation of self-support. Self-exten- 
sion came, one may say, by direct divine inspii'ation. The re- 
markable spiritual movement among the Christians in 1893 led to 
hundreds of volunteer evangelists going forth into all parts of the 
country to preach Christ. But self-government was more difficult 
to attain. Bishop Tucker would not separate the Church from 

♦ Catholic Missions of June, 1914, says that the White Fathers had then 118 
priests, 14 " brothers coadjutors," 1168 native cateciiists, 34 European nuns, 
and '• a teaching congregation of black nuns who swarm throughout the 
country." There were two seminaries >vith 82 and 83 students, a college for 
chiefs' sons, and 715 elementary schools. (Quoted in CM. Eev., Oct., 1914.) 
But many Frenchmen have been called to France for the army. The Mill 
Hill Mission has thirty-one priests and seven nuns. The total R.C. baptisms 
from the first is stated to have been 148,890. The adherents are probably 
250,000. (See C.M.S. Gazette, March, 1915, p. 82.) 



C.Jf.S. jU/ss/oxs: Ugaxda. 99 

tlie Mission. lie would not give the pastoral care of the little con- partii. 
gregations to Baganda pastors, while keeping the evangelistic and ^''"'P' ^' 
educational departments of the work in the separate hands of the 
Mission, and absorbing some of the best natives as mission agents 
apart from their Church. The Church, he felt, must be one, and 
the missionaries must be members of it, and not a body apart. 
This plan was new, and quite naturally grave differences found 
expression. The Bishop had to wait some years before he could 
fully achieve his purpose. But at last, in 1909, the constitution 
he had drafted, which had been approved by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, was adopted at a special meeting at Mengo, at- 
tended l)y forty clergymen (white and black), and 250 lay delegates 
(nearly all black). It provided for a Synod, a Diocesan Council, 
Parochial and District Councils, Women's Conferences, Tribunals 
of Appeal and Reference, Boards of Education and Missions and 
Theology and Church Estates. All the English missionaries 
came under the Synod. Its funds, chiefly contributed by the 
Church, were to be supplemented from the Bishop's Diocesan 
Fund; but no C.M.S. grants were to be asked for, beyond the 
stipends and equipment of the missionaries and the necessary 
buildings for their work. The " Church Estates " are lands about chnroh 
ninety-two square miles in extent, allotted in 1900, when the Funds." '^" 
government of Uganda was arranged by Sir H. Johnston, to " the 
three missionary societies " (two B.C., one Anglican) in trust for 
the native Churches.* 

The Synod of 1913 took measures for increasing the Church 
funds, especially in view of the necessary rise in the pay of the 
teachers. A diocesan guild was formed called the Bazimbi 
(builders') Bands, to combine the Christians in " building," not 
only material churches like the cathedral, but the true spiritual 
Church of Christ. Every adult Christian was urged to contribute 
at least one rupee a year to this new fund, and every child half a 
rupee, all such contributors being enrolled in the Bands. At a 
still more recent meeting of delegates to promote the completion 
of the cathedral, it was agreed to call upon chiefs to give thirty 
per cent, of their rents to the fund ; men earning good pay, five 
per cent, of their wages; unskilled workmen, 75 cents (l.s.) per 
annum ; women, 25 cents ; and children 10 cents, — until the 
cathedral is finished. The previous year's Synod, 1912, had 
formed a plan for raising endowments by means of industrial 
work on the Church estates, using these for coffee and cocoa 
plantations. The Pan-Anglican grant of £4000 to the diocese, Pan-Angii- 
which was partly invested by Bishop Tucker to serve as an *^''^° ^'''^"^" 
endowment, is administered by the local Board of Missions, as it 

* Bishop Tucker's paper at the Middlesbrough Church Congress gave a 
good account of the Church system. It was printed in the CM. Rev., Dec., 
1912. A more detailed account, from the diocesan magazine, appeared in the 
CM. Eev., July, 1913. 



100 



CMS. MISSIONS: Uganda. 



Part II. 
Chap. 8. 

A Baganda 

Synod 

Meeting. 



was given with tlie special aim of extending the barrier against 
the Mohammedan advance.* 

Uganda Notes, the locally-printed organ of the Mission and the 
Church, gives in its number for August, 1915, a particularly inte- 
resting account of the meeting of the Synod in June ; and one or 
two points are worth putting on permanent record. It seems 
that some diflieulties had arisen through the Baganda members 
not understanding the difference between legislation and adminis- 
tration. In tlieir own domestic administration they have " an 
extraordinary system of appeal." A man witli a grievance can 
carry it from court to court up to the Kabaka himself, and he has 
no fees to pay ! So in matters of Church discipline, for instance, 
they thought they could appeal to the Synod, which only meets 
once a year, forgetting that the Synod itself had appointed a 
Diocesan Council (as well as District and Parochial Councils, as 
above mentioned) to deal with administrative matters ; and junior 
members who had no seats in that Council liked to be " al)le to 
stand up and air their views " before their seniors in an assembly 
of 400 picked men, — oblivious, too, of the value of time ! On this 
occasion, we are told, after " a very long oration from a junior 
member," the Katikiro himself rose, and said, " My friend has 
spoken at great length; I will only speak in few words." Even 
when a vote had been taken, some one would exclaim, " But I 
don't understand it ! " However, the senior chiefs and clergy 
spoke excellently ; the Bishop was very patient, and carefully 
explained that the Synod had no jurisdiction in certain matters, 
such as the duties of the clergy and the regulations of colleges 
and schools ; and all passed off happily. The " Book of Church 
Laws " was revised and adopted ; and there was manifestly " a 
real desire on the part of the whole Synod to do what was best 
for the Church." 

It may fairly be said that, whatever differences of opinion there 
may 1)6 on some points of the constitution, in no other modern 
Mission has a real indigenous Church, incJnditiij the foieuin mkm)ii, 
been launched in so complete a manner. And it should be well 
noted how greatly the task has been facilitated by the fact that 
Uganda had not half a dozen or more competing Missions, each 
with its relatively small band of Christians holding no communion 
with each other. It is easy to see that the completeness and 
strength of the Church would have been greater if all the Chris- 
tianity of Uganda had been included in it. The equal numbers 
and rival influence of the Roman Missions have prevented that. 
But the w^ork of Church organization has been much easier than 
it can ever be in fields where several independent Christian com- 
munions are gathering their separate flocks. The Bishop of 
Uganda has had a part in the Kikuyu plans because his diocese 
includes a slice of British East Africa, in which several Missions 



On the Uganda Board of Missions, see C.M.S. Gazette, March, 1915, p. 81. 



CM.S. Missions: Ugaxda. loi 

are at work ; '• but in the Protectorate of Uganda there is no need taut ii. 

for such arrangements, because the Church of the non-Eoman ^-— ' 

Christian community is one and undivided. It is evident that 

while any largo body of Christians in Central Africa, even 

if denominationally divided, is the best bulwark against the 

ever advancing tide of Islam from the north, the bulwark is 

the more firm and effective in Uganda because it consists of 

only two Churches instead of ten or twelve as in some fields. 

This point is very cogently expounded by Bishop Willis in an 

article w^iich appeared in The Kasf and The West of April, 1914, 

and which gives a full account of the Church organi2;ation. 

A striking testimony to the excellence of that organization in ^ V^^^'^^^'v- 
Uganda is borne by the Eev. Norman Maclean, of the Estab- Episcopacy 
lished Church of Scotland, in his fascinating book, Africa in Trans- '° ^^"''*- 
forinaiion. He sees in the C.M.S. Church Council system the virtues 
of Presliyterian polity, and admires the combination of it with the 
Episcopate. "This," he says (p. 228), "is part of the secret of 
the power of the Church of Uganda. Bishop Tucker has blended 
Episcopacy and Presbyterianism into a perfect organization. In 
so doing he has laid down the lines on which the Christian Church 
should be organized in Africa. A Church that has the democratic 
power which Presbyterianism can give, and has also the initiative 
and unity which the historic Episcopate gives, is the ideal Church 
for the African." 

But we may be sure that the great Enemy of mankind will ^^^'-^^ 
never let a Church like this alone. We are " not ignorant of his 
devices." It has already, as we have seen, suffered through the 
power of the flesh ; and now it has the pain of suffering by the 
spirit of schism, the very thing to injure the influence of an united 
Church. One of the chiefs adopted views which are practically 
those of (so-called) " Christian Science," and on the strength of 
Deut. xviii. 11, where the Luganda w^ord for "charmer" is 
oinii.satL'o, the ordinary word for "doctor," a number of Christians 
joined him in refusing medical aid and in protesting against public 
prayer for doctors and hospitals. They then proceeded to call 
themselves " The Church which does not drink medicine," and to 
administer baptism indiscriminately, without test or examination, 
receiving polygamists, itc. Large numbers were influenced, and 
the Synod, to counteract the movement, resolved to set about " a 
campaign of instruction and enlightenment." The result has been 
that many have been brought back, and have Ijecomo proper 
candidates for baptism ; and one of the leaders, having disregarded 
a certain Government regulation, was arrested by Ham Mukasa 
(who is now Sekibobo, i.e. chief of Kyagwe), and convicted l)y the 
Kampala Court. But the schism is still a serious one, and earnest 
prayer for the whole Church is called for. 

* The exact boundary line between the two dioceses of Uganda and Mom- 
basa is indicated in the royal warrant authorizing the division, under the 
" Bishops in Foreign Countries Act," ISil. See C.M.S. Gazette, J.xu., 1013, p. 16. 



102 



C.Jl/.S. J//SS/OXS: Ugaxda. 



PART II. 
C^liap. 8. 



'.I'lio C.M.S. 



Remark- 
able success 
of the first 
])ar(ies of 
Women. 



Some 
^■ctcraIlS. 



Some 
Dcatlis. 



The present European staff of the Mission comprises 37 clergy- 
men, 11 laymen, 32 wives, and 33 other women ; total 113, a good 
increase on the 40 of ]899, though far short of what is now 
m-gently needed. Of those forty of 1899, fourteen men and seven 
women arc happily still engaged in the work. The fourteen are 
Archdeacons Baskerville and Buckley ; the Kev. Messrs. Black- 
ledge, Leakey, Lewin, Lloyd, Millar, Eowling, Skeens, Tegart, 
A. Wilson, and F. H. Wright; Dr. Albert Cook, and Mr. Fletcher. 
The seven women include all the five who formed the first party of 
women sent out in 1895, the Misses Furley, Chadvvick, Pilgrim, 
and Thomsett, and Mrs. Bowling (then Miss Browne). That step 
was felt a grave one at the time. It was before the railway was 
l^egun, and not a few shook their lieads over such a project. 
Certainly no one expected that after twenty years all live would 
still be at work. We may indeed thank God for such a manifesta- 
tion of His providential care. Moreover, three more went up in 
the following year ; and two of these are the others of the seven, 
Miss Timpson (now Mrs. Albert Cook) and Miss G. E. Bird. The 
eighth was Miss Taylor, who married Mr. Maddox, and retired 
with him in 1912. 

But some of the men of 1899 who are not now on the list 
should also be mentioned, as they include veterans who have 
indeed ])orne the burden and heat of the day. Such were Arch- 
deacon Walker and Mr. Gordon, who at one time (1888) were the 
only two men in Uganda, and then were expelled by the Moham- 
medans. Such was Mr. Eoscoe, the senior of all except Gordon, 
and now the well-known author of some of the best books on 
Africa. Such were Mr. Hattersley (also the author of an excel- 
lent book, The Barianila at Home), Mr, Maddox (and Mrs. Mad- 
dox), Mr. Clayton, Mr. Fisher, Mr. H. W. Weatherhead. All 
these had served from 15 to 26 years ; and the retirements of 
several of them are quite recent. Nor, on the other hand, should 
we ignore the services of some who joined near the beginning of 
our period and are still at work ; such as the present Bishop, Mr. 
Kitching and Mr. Chadwick (now Archdeacons) : Dr. J. H. Cook, 
Dr. Bond, Mr. Casson,* Mr. H. T. C. Weatherhead, Mr. Daniell, 
Mr. Ladbury, Miss A. E. and Miss A. L. Allen, Miss Brewer, 
Miss Pike ; also Mrs. Blackledge, Mrs. Skeens, Mrs. Bond, Mrs. 
Dillistone, who were missionaries before they were married. So 
were Mrs. Fisher and Mrs. Clayton, whose retirements with their 
husbands were only recent. Excellent work has been done by 
many others with shorter periods of service. 

The deaths are not numerous for so large a staff and for x\frican 
service. Mr. Martin Hall, who was drowned in the Lake in 1900, 
had only served five years, but the loss of so good a man was 
deeply felt. So was the loss of Mr. Johnson, in 1909, after eight 
years' work ; f and of Mr. Innes,| in 1910, after eleven years. 

* Mr. Casson lias just been obliged to retire owing to his wife's health. 
t See CM. Bcv., Nov., I'JOD. % Ibid., Nov., 1910. 



C.J/.S. Missions: Uganda. 103 

Messrs. Farthing and Kemp died quite early, and so did the first part ii. 
Mrs. Bond, and Mrs. Owen, and Misses Holdgate and Eeed. Chap. 8. 
Mrs. Britton died soon after her marriage, but she had served 
seven years as Miss Jacob. Miss Kobinson put in ten years of 
valuable ^vork, and was then invalided home, and died soon after 
her resignation. Eleven in all. They rest from their labours, 
and their works do follow them. 

Bishop Tucker, after an episcopate of twenty-one years, retired Bistop 
in 1911. His health had seriously suffered from his incessant notirenleiit 
travelling, both in Africa and to and from Africa and England. «°^ ^^^^th. 
His decision, under medical advice, was taken in this country; 
and then he went out to Uganda to pay a farewell visit. In five 
weeks' touring there he confirmed 900 candidates, and ordained 
seven deacons, making the forty-six Baganda whom he had 
admitted to the ministry of the Chm-ch. The most affectionate 
regret was manifested by the people at his retirement. He did 
not come home to an idle life. Not only did he as Canon of 
Durham throw himself into tlie practical work of that diocese, but 
he was always ready to take long journeys to tell of God's work in 
Uganda. He was appointed by the Archbishops a member of the 
important Committee on Faith and Order, and it was actually at 
the door of the Jerusalem Chamber, where that Committee was 
meeting on June 15th, 1914, that he was suddenly struck down, and 
passed away within an hour in the adjoining Westminster Deanery. 
Few Bishops have left such a record of work done in extending 
the Kingdom of God. Of the greater part of his episcopate a 
valuable account remains in his book, Eiijliteen Years in Uganda. 

At the Memorial Service held at St. Bride's Church on Jiine Ardi- _ 
19th, the Archbishop of Canterbury delivered a noble eulogium on Eu/ogy! 
him.* These few lines must be extracted : — 

" We have watched and reverenced for more than twenty years a life 
of memorable witness to the power of God set forth in the leadership of 
a simple, strong, devoted man who went forth to tell it out among the 
heathen that the Lord is King, and to whom it fell to leave a record 
upon the Church's story whereto few like records can be foimd. Compare 
him in his equipment of learning or eloquence with some of his contem- 
poraries and friends, and his light may pale before theirs. But reckon 
aright his gift of unfaltering vision — his power of seizing with tirm grasp 
a gi-eat opportunity and using it for Christ with straightforward, manly 
simplicity ; remember these things, and you wiU again thank God Who 
gave us such a man at such a time for such a task. In the annals of the 
Church's mission field, from the days of the Apostles to our own, you 
will hardly find an • occasion ' so critical, so grave, so vast in possi- 
bilities, as that which arose in East Africa four and twenty years ago. 
And is there anywhere a nobler record of devotion tlian the story of the 
dauntless baud who, under the leadership of Alfred Tucker, went out to 
' redeem the time ' to ' buy up the opportunity ' for Christ V " 

♦ Printed in full in the CM. Review, July, 1914. Archdeacon Walker'u 
KccoUcctious appeared in the August number. 



I04 



C.JI.S. Missions: Uganda. 



PAllT II. 
Cliap. 8. 



Kabaka's 

Letter. 



Tlie imw 
liishoi). 



And the young Kabaka wrote to Sir Victor Buxton, — 

" We are all iu moiu-ning here in Uganda. The loss to this country is 
very great. lie never ceased to think of us and to help us as much as 
he could. All native Christians in Uganda are very grieved, and this 
was evidenced by the large crowd that attended the Memorial Service 
held in the pro-catliedral. May God Almighty help and comfort poor 
Mrs. Tucker in her sorrow." 

The Archbishop of Canterbury, on Dr. Tucker's retirement in 
1911, appointed as his successor the Eev. J. J! WilHs, one of the 
missionaries, who liad been Archdeacon of Kavirondo ; and he was 
consecrated on the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul, 1912. 
Uganda thus received a bishop ah-eady famihar with the country, 
the people, and tlie language. Bishop Willis has become widely 
known through his prominent part in the Kikuyu controversy, 
and it is the barest truth to say that he has won golden opinions 
even from many who could scarcely be expected to sympathize 
fully with his policy. 

As wo turn from East and Central Africa, we again recall the 
fact that only three years ago we were celebrating the centenary of 
the birth of Livingstone, which almost coincided with the fortieth 
anniversary of his death. It is by noting such facts that we 
become able to appreciate the wonderful changes in the Dark 
Continent. The Lord indeed hath done great things for us, 
whereof we are glad. 

On the effect of the War on the Uganda Mission, see the 
Appendix. 




CHAPTER IX. 
('.M.S. .}[issiONS: Egypt and the Sudan. 

Plans for Gordon Memorial Mission C. M.S. and the Government — 
Gordon College— Medical and School Work at Khartum— Bishop of 
London's Visit : the Cathedral -Lord Cromer's Invitation to C.M.S. 
—New Mission on the Upper Nile Progress in Egypt— Islam and 
Christianity Coptic Church — Bishop Maclnnes. 

UR preceding chapter recorded the advance of the tart ii. 
Uganda Mission northwards towards the border of ^'•^J^''- 
the Eastern Sudan. We shall, therefore, take that 
great country next in our survey before descending 
the Nile to Egypt, although Egypt is of course the 
base of the Sudan Mission. 

I The Eastern Sudan. 

When the Centenary took place, the Society's hope that the Gordon's 
lands to which Gordon had invited the Mission would one day be opened^by 
open to the messengers of the Gospel had just been revived by yl*^^®"*"^'^ 
Lord Kitchener's decisive overthrow of the Khalifa at Omdurman, 
and the occupation of Khartum ; but that hope had for the moment 
been disappointed. The victory of Omdurman was on September 
2nd, 1898, and on Lord Kitchener's return to England, a C.M.S. 
deputation waited on him to inform him (1) of Gordon's original 
plans, (2) of the Gordon Memorial Fund, raised in 1885 and not 
yet used, (3) of the Society's desire now to send a Mission to 
Khartum. A Nottingham Vicar, the Rev. LI. H. Gwynne, had 
already offered for the enterprise, and it was proposed to send also 
a young Cambridge man, the Rev. Douglas M. Thornton, who 
was specially interested in Africa and Mohammedanism, with a 
medical missionary. 

But permission was refused, on the ground that nothing must _^"^i|^^g°jf^^ 
be done to arouse Moslem fanaticism. In February, 1899, in the Missions 
House of Laymen, Sir John Kennaway moved a resolution declaring *-" Moslems, 
the duty of Chi'istian England in the matter, which was eloquently 
supported by Lord Cranborne, the son of the Prime Minister, and 
now himself Marquis of Salisbury, and carried unanimously ; and 
Sir Richard Temple, almost the last survivor of the great Punjab 
band whose fearless Christian action in that newly conquered 



io6 C.M.S. M/ss/OAS: Egypt 'AND the Sudan. 

Takt II. province has set so bright and successful an example, said he 
^^ ■ " could not understand " the Government's attitude. So the ques- 
tion stood when the period under review opened. 

Lord Kitcliener, however, olTered, as an alternative, facilities 
for passing southward of Kiiartum into the Pagan districts of the 
Upper Nile ; and the Committee resolved to take advantage of this 
opening, encouragement to do so being afibrded in the following 
autumn by Sir F. E. Wingate's victory over the Dervish army, and 
the death of the Khalifa himself. As it turned out, however, 

Partial Khartum, or rather Omdurman, was occupied first. Just at that 
penmg. (^j^jfj \^^Q Government withdrew the prohibition of the residence of 
foreign traders tliere, and Mr. Gwynne, accompanied by Dr. Harpur, 
the medical missionary at Cairo, wore naturally allowed also to go 
there, though they were forbidden to speak to Moslems on religion. 
They gladly seized the opportunity, and found useful occupation in 
making acquaintance with the country and people. Mr. Gwynne 
found a sphere also in ministering to the British soldiers, and the 
first Cliristian service ever held in the city w^as the service on 
Christmas Day held in the building which had been the ]\Iahdi's 
house.* The Coptic Christians also sought the help of the 
missionaries. A Bible Society colporteur was allowed to open a 
bookshop ; but notices were posted up forbidding any attempt to 
change the religion of the people. 

coUc'"c^'^"" Meanwhile, the great scheme of the Gordon College was 
formed and carried out. When Lord Cromer laid the foundation 
stone, l\e proclaimed religious liberty in the following terms ; — 

" The Queen aud her Christian subjects are devotedly attached to their 
own rehgiou, but they also know how to respect the religion of others. 
The Queen rules over a larger number of Moslem subjects than any 
SoA-ereign in the world, and they live contented under her beneficent 
rule. Their religion and religious customs are strictly respected. You 
may feel sure that the same principle will be adopted in the Sudan. 
There will be no interference whatever with yoiu- religion." 

" Interference " — of com^se not ! Who would wish for it ? But 
two questions might l)e fairly put : (1) Had the Queen in India 
forbidden Christians to offer the greatest of all blessings to their 
Moslem fellow-subjects ? (2) Have the British representatives in 
the Sudan always shown their " devoted attachment " to their own 
religion ? 

But the Gordon College w^as duly built and opened, the Koran 
being regularly studied and the Bible absolutely excluded. In 

* In an article in the Nmcteenih Century ol August, 1900, Mr. Arnold Ward 
criticized Mr. Gwynnc's Christinas Day sermon because, in a Mohanmiedan 
city, it was on the Incarnation. The criticism was replied to in the CM. 
Intelligencer of September. " What else could he have preached about, on 
such a day? Docs Mr. Ward keep Christmas Day himself? If so, why?" 
There was a further note on the subject in the following December. Mr. Ward, 
in the Times, however, pleaded well for liberty for missionaries. (See C.M.S. 
Eeport, 1901.) 



I 



C.J/.S. J//SS/O.VS: Egypt and rim Sudan. 107 

1901 the Committee drew up a strong but Ccareful ]\Icmorandum, part ii. 
which was signed by the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Temple), ^''^j^'-^- 
and presented to the Government. They expressed hearty con- c.m.s Me 
currence with the prmciples ol oEDcial niipartiahty and respect tor to cioveru- 
all rohgious convictions, but tliey contended that the poHcy adopted "^•="*- 
was inconsistent with that principle, and with the religious liberty 
which England professed. A Christian nation, they urged, while 
giving all due respect to the religious convictions of others, could not 
rightly suppress its own, nor would non-Christian people respect it 
for doing so. They set forth the experience of the Christian rulers 
in India as proving the perfect safety of a frank profession of the 
Christian faith. They realized in this case the need of due caution, 
and expressed readiness to submit to all restrictions really neces- . 
sary, but urged that such restrictions should only be temporary. 
This Memorandum was published in the newspapers, and excited 
much attention.* The reply came from Lord Lansdowue, as 
Foreign Secretary, and stated that it was " at present impossible 
to indicate any time when the restrictions in force could with 
safety be removed." 

But the Society could and did rejoice at the general influence 
of British rule on the country. Mr. Gwynne's letter about it was 
quoted in a previous chapter. The Sirdar was Sir F. E. Wingate, 
and of him and other heads of the administration Mr. Gwynne 
added admiring testimony. 

Permission had meanwhile been given for medical work to be Medical 
begun at Omdurman, provided that religious discussion was allowed, 
excluded. Dr. A. C. Hall carried it on for two years, and his skill 
and kindness made him, wrote Mr. Gwynne, " a living epistle," 
read, loved, and esteemed by the Sudanese. " The work he accom- 
plished was the breaking down of prejudice and the softening of 
the hearts of the people." His death in 1903 was a heavy loss. 
His widow, who as ^liss Eva Jackson had been some years in the 
Egypt Mission, has continued w^orking at Omdurman and Khartum 
ever since. A hospital has now been built, the site having been 
granted by the Government. 

In that year, 1903, the prohibition against private Christian con- ^^![J*Qjg 
versation was withdrawn, though public preaching w^as still for- iiUowed. 
bidden, and is forbidden to this day. Leave was also given to 
open a Christian school for girls at Khartum, provided that 
Mohammedan children should not be obliged to receive religious 
instruction. In point of fact, scarcely any of the Moslem parents, 
though plainly informed, made any objection. The school was 
visited by Princess Henry of Battenberg in 1904.t Other girls' 
schools were subsequently opened, in one case in response to a 
definite request from the people ; and they have been carried on 
with equal frankness and equal freedom. And the medical mission 

* It was printed in the CM. Tntelligcnccr, Sept., I'JOl. 

t The girls presented an address to Bishop Gwynne in I'JOS, concluding 
with a beautiful prayer, for which see C.M.S. Report, 1909, p. 86. 



Tart II. 
Chap. 9. 



Itisliop 
G Wynne. 



Kli;irtinn 
Ciithcdral. 



Bishop of 
London at 
Khartum. 



Lord 
Cromer 
and C.M.S. 



Kcw Mis- 
sion to 
Pafjans of 
Upper Nile, 



1 08 C.Jl/.S. Missions: Egypt axd the Sudan. 

at Omdurman continued its useful career. These unpretending 
agencies can only be regarded as preliminary to more vigorous 
work when it becomes possible. 

In 1904 Mr. Gwynne was appointed Archdeacon by Bishop 
Blyth of Jerusalem, whose jurisdiction extended to Egypt and the 
Sudan ; and in 1908 he was consecrated Bishop Suffragan for the 
Sudan. Altliough no longer on the C.M.S. roll, he continued to 
give support and encouragement to its work, to its great advantage. 

Although the Government has seemed so unduly careful of 
Mohammedan feeling, and so little disposed to take a reasonable 
stand as a Christian nation, it is a satisfaction that -the outward 
and visible sign of a Christian profession is now conspicuous at 
Khartum in the new cathedral. The foundation stone was laid by 
Princess Henry of Battenberg in February, 1901. King Edward 
gave £200, and our present King (then Prince of Wales) £100, to 
the building fund. The cathedral was consecrated by the Bishop 
of London on January 26th, 1912, the twenty-seventh anniversary 
of Gordon's death. In his sermon the Bishop justly urged that 
the true way to insure that Gordon had not died in vain was to 
" turn the Africa for which he gave his life into a true and lasting 
heritage for the Kingdom of God." 

On the occasion of this visit the Bishop inspected the small 
work permitted to the C.M.S., and wrote to his own Diocesan 
Magazine, " The ever-plucky C.M.S. has opened schools for girls " 
(at Omdurman). " After the opening a Moslem brought up his 
wife, half veiled of course, to introduce her to me, and to say 
how much good the school had done her." " I addressed in 
Bisliop Gwynne's garden at Khartum a delightful gathering of the 
C.M.S. missionaries and the American Presbyterians, who were 
asked to meet me together." "Bishop Gwynne is a missionary 
to his linger-tips." 

But we must go back a few years, to see how the extension of 
the Mission south of Khartum came about. 

In December, 1901, Lord Cromer wrote officially to the Society 
proposing definite arrangements for its undertaking a jMission to 
the Pagan population farther south, which the Government have 
all along been ready to favour. The country was to be divided 
l)etween the Austrian Eoman Catholic Mission, the American 
Presbyterian Mission, and the C.M.S., the White Nile from 
Eashoda to the Uganda border being allotted to C.]\I.S. Needless 
to say, the Committee warmly responded and issued an appeal for 
men and means.* 

In October, 1905, a party of six left England for the Sudan. 
They were joined at Khartum by ]\[r. Gwynne, and Dr. Albert 
Cook left Uganda about the same time and travelled north 
to meet them, to help in starting the Mission. They settled 

* For Lord Cromer's letter, the Committee's Appeal, and other information, 
see the CM, Intcll., Feb. 1906; also the July number, for Lord Cromer's 
official statement of his policy, published in the Blue Book. 



^ 



C.M.S. iMissio.vs: Egypt axd the Sudax. 109 



amoncj the Jiong tinhe (then called the Dinka, which if? an Arabic part ii. 
corruption of the name), about a thousand miles south of Khar- — '- 
toum. As in so many cases, however, the new Mission was at 
first very discouraging. The population proved to be very thin, 
owing to the devastation of the ]\Iahdi's regime, and sickness drove 
several men home.* In 1908 it was actually suspended for a 
short time ; but Bishop Gwynne went up again in 1909, and he 
assured the Committee that they had not realized how much pre- 
paratory work had been done in teaching the people, healing their 
sick, and studying the language. One missionary, the Eev. k. 
Shaw, had borne the burden and heat of the day. More recently 
the work has much developed at JMalek, the station for the Jieng 
tribe, and the first converts are being gathered in. 

The Sirdar, Sir F. Wingate, was now urging the Society to To Jiens,' 
move forward also into the country west of the Eiver, called the "■'"^'"^'''''"'''' 
Lado Enclave, which had been leased to King Leopold of Belgium, 
but on his death had reverted to the Sudan Government. This 
seemed the more important because Moslem officials and soldiers 
were being sent from Egypt among the Pagan population, and 
Mohammedan schools were being opened. 

Early in 1911, Bishop Gwynne and Mr. Shaw, accompanied by 
Mr. C. T. Studd, who was desirous of opening an independent 
Mission somewhere in the heart of Africa, visited the new territory ; 
and in 1912-13 two new stations were established in or near it, 
one, Lau, among the Cheech Jieng, and the other, Yambio, among 
the Azandi, a tribe which the German traveller, Schweinfui'th, 
called the " Nyam Nyam." \ Mr. Studd's " Heart of Africa " 
Mission is among a similar tribe about 100 miles farther south- 
west, in the Belgian Congo ; and, about 100 miles to the south- 
east, the Africa Inland Mission have since begun work. 

Besides Mr. Shaw, six clergymen are now engaged in this 
Southern Sudan Mission, J of whom four are British, the Revs. 
C. A. Lea- Wilson, H. P. Davies, A. G. King, W. Haddow ; and 
two Australian, the Revs. K. E. Hamilton (Victoria), and E. C. 
Gore (N.S. Wales). Also three laymen, Messrs. Scamell, Thomas, 
and Ewell. Mr, Scamell has his wife with him, the first woman 
missionary in that remote part of Africa. Mr. Hamilton also 
is bringing his wife from Australia. § Mr. Shaw has lately visited Help from 
Uganda, asking the Church there to help in the Sudan Mission ; ^'^"^ '^' 

* Full accounts of those early days appeared in the CM. Intell. of 1906. 

t Sec an account of the Azandi in the CM. Review of March, 1915, by 
Dr. Stones of Old Cairo, who went i;p the Nile to visit the new field. 

X The term " Eastern Sudan " is used to cover the whole territory from 
Egypt to Uganda, thus distinguished from the Central and Western Sudan. 
"Southern Sudan"' is part of it, and practically means the Pagan territory. 

§ Mr. Lea-Wilson has also now taken a wife out with him. She is a 
daughter of the late Rev. W. B. Collins of the North India jMission, and 
g.-and-daughter of the Rev. W. IL Collins, who (with J. S. Burdon) founded 
the old C.]\r.S. Peking Mission (transferred to S.P.G. in 1880). 



no C.M.S. iM/ssioxs: Egypt AND the Sudan. 



]'AKT IT. 
Cliap. 0. 



Progress in 
KgJ'pt. 



Dr. Pniii. 



The new 
Men of 
3899 at 
('aire. 



Tlie Orient 
and Occi- 
dent. 



and one well-trusted Mugaiida clergyman and a band of teachers, 
&c., were chosen to go with him (see p. 94). 

Egypt. 

We now descend the Nile, northward into Egypt. The good 
work which had gradually been developed in Cairo and Old Cairo 
from the time of the British occupation (1882) was being faith- 
fully carried on in 1899, viz., the services, the schools, the hospitals, 
the village visiting, kc. ; and there has been no slackening of it 
during the period under review. Women missionaries have 
done excellent service, both in the schools and in visiting. The 
medical w^ork has gone on without break. Dr. Harpur, after 
thirty years' labour, is as untiring as ever, living in the Delta and 
itinerating with his dispensary among the villages. The work at 
Menouf and other places is growing fast, and promises well.* The 
Rev. W. W. Cash and Misses Cay and Lewis are also engaged in it. 
Another medical man of much spiritual influence joined from 
AustraUa, Dr. Pain, son of the Bishop of Gippsland, but he died in 
1913 from acute cerebro-spinal meningitis caught from one of 
his patients. But his death brought two Moslems to confession 
of Christ and baptism. So highly was he esteemed in Australia 
and New Zealand that friends there had raised over £2000 to 
enlarge the new hospital at Old Cairo, in which he was working. 
Its foundation stone was laid by Sir Algernon Coote in March, 
1905 ; and it was visited by Lord Kitchener in 1913. The other 
medical men have been Drs. Lasbrey, Stones, and Hargreaves ; 
and Dr. Lloyd, one of the first Sudan party, at Omdurman. 

Three men joined just before and after the Centenary year, whose 
names are now well-known : the Rev. Douglas Thornton, whose 
large heart and vigorous initiative made him a power at once, 
whose death in 1907 was deeply and widely mourned, and whose 
inspiring biography | has secured that he, being dead, yet speaketh ; 
the Rev. W. H. T. Gairdner, who has become a high authority on 
Islam, and who was selected to write the story of the Edinburgh 
Conference in 1910 — a brilliant literary effort ; and the Rev. 
Reunie Maclnnes, who succeeded Mr. Adeney as secretary pn his 
lamented death in 1903, and has now become Anglican Bishop in 
Jerusalem. After Mr. Thornton's death, Mr. Gairdner was joined 
by the Rev. R. F. McNeile (a Balliol scholar, and Senior Student 
of Christ Church). 

Mr. Thornton and Mr. Gairdner began an important work in 
setting forth the Christian message before the educated Moslems 
and the students at the famous El Azhar University, partly through 
meetings for frank discussion, and partly through the medium 
of a paper called Oriont ami Occident, which has now appeared 
regularly for ten years, and has a large circulation among Moham- 
medans and Christians. Other literary work was undertaken, 

* Sco Mr. Cash's interesting article, CM. Rev., Feb., 1914. 
t By Mr. Gairdner. Published by Hodder & Stoughton. 






CMS. M/ssioxs : Egypt AND the Sudan. hi 

and the liookshop proved useful for disseminating the truth, part ii. 
Since then, the Nile Mission Press, an independent institution, ^'i^-'- 
fn-st started hy the energy of Miss A. Van Sommer, has done great 
siMvice on these hnes.* Besides direct efforts to influence the 
Moslems, friendship has been cultivated with the Copts, which 
is in accordance with the spirit in which the work for tlie Eastern 
Churches was done by the Society a century ago. Evangelistic 
meetings in the Coptic churches, with the cordial co-operation 
of l)isliops and priests, have been held in Upper Egypt. f Mr. 
Gairdner and Mr. McNeile have continued this varied work to the 
present day. 

In 1899 there were on the staff four clergymen, of whom two The c.m.s. 
were soon transferred to other Missions, and the other two, ' 
Mr. Adeuey and Mr. Thornton, have died ; three doctors, of whom 
one, Dr. Hall, died, and the others, Drs. Harpur and Lasbrey, are 
still at work ; four wives, of whom Mrs. Harpur and Mrs. Hall 
remain, the latter continuing after her husband's death ; and 
eleven other women, of whom one died (Mrs. Lasbrey, nee Waller, 
sister of Bishop Waller), two retired, and all the rest remain on 
the staff, though not all in Egypt. The six still in Egypt are 
Mrs. and Miss Bywater, and the Misses Adeney, Cay, Crowther, 
and Sells.! Of these, Dr. and Mrs. Harpur have served thirty 
years, Mrs. and Miss Bywater 25 years, and Mrs. Hall and 
Miss Cay only a year or two less. Two other women w^ent out in 
the Centenary year, Misses Braine-Hartnell and Western. Then 
followed Miss Thora Bird, Principal of the Cheltenham Training 
College for Schoolmistresses, who rendered important service, 
both at Cairo and Khartum, until her lamented death in 1910. 
The Misses Bywater, McNeile, Williams, Jackson, and Tristram 
have been engaged in school work ; and the Eev. A. J. Toop has 
the Boys' Boarding School. 

x\ltogether, no less than 55 names have been added to the list 
in the fifteen years, but of these, 17 were for the Southern Sudan. 
Tlie figures for 1914 for Egypt and Khartum are, clergymen 5, 
laymen 7 (5 doctors), wives 7, other women 20, total 39. (Or, 
including the Southern Sudan, clergymen 12, laymen 10, wives 9, 
other women 20, total 51.) 

* Miss Van Sommer conducts an excellent quarterly periodical, Blessed be 
Egypt (Isa. xix. 25), which gives regular accounts of the Missions in the 
country. She has also started a " Fellowship of Faith for the Moslems," which 
was suggested by the late Mr. Cleaver, of the Egypt General Mission, after Dr. 
Zwcmer's address at Keswick in July, 1915. Mr. Cleaver died soon after, and 
the "Leaders" of the " Fellowship" are Dr. Zwemer and Bishop Stileman. 

t Mr. Thornton's accounts of his visits to Upper Egypt appeared in the 
CM. Review of Aug. and Oct., 1907. See also Mr. McNeile's article in the 
Rev. of July, 1911. At a meeting in the Palace at Salisbury, arranged by 
the late Bishop John Wordsworth, an influential Copt expressed much 
gratitude for the C.M.S. influence on his Church. A pleasant account of 
Egypt and the Missions, by Miss M. C. Gollock (who spent a winter there), 
is published by the C.LI.S. — River, Sand, and Sun. 

X ]\Iiss Crowther has now retired, to bo married, after nearly twenty years' 
service. Mrs. Bywater has lately died. 



112 C. M.S. MISSIONS: Egypt AiVD the Sudan. 



Part II. 
Chap. 9. 

Islam re- 
established 
by Britain. 



Moslem 
Converts. 



Bisliop of 
London at 
C'airo. 



Conference 
at Cairo. 



What have been the results of all this good work ? We cannot 
expect in a Moslem country anything like mass movements as in 
some other Missions. Not only are Moslems everywhere the 
hardest of non-Christians to influence, but in Egypt, to quote 
again Canon Oldfield's phrase, British dominance has "re- 
established " Islam. For instance, both in Egypt and in the 
Sudan, the official weekly rest day is Friday — quite a needless con- 
cession, as no Moslem objects to working after his attendance at 
mosque — and hard upon the Coptic Christians who have to work 
on Sunday, to say nothing of Enghsh Christians having to do the 
same. This is just one illustration of what experience shows 
to be a mistaken pohcy. Due respect to other religions, and 
complete impartiality in the treatment of their votaries, ought not 
to require the practical abandonment of the open profession of 
Christianity. Egypt is now, since December, 1914, a British Pro- 
tectorate, and the shadowy suzerainty of Turkey no longer exists. 
It is earnestly to be hoped that the new regime may not per- 
petuate the old system. 

Nevertheless, there has been year by year a succession of 
individual conversions, and because they are relatively few they 
can be descrilied by the missionaries more in detail than in a 
Mission where hundreds or thousands of JJaptisms take place every 
year. In this respect the Egypt Mission resembles the C.M.S. 
older Missions in their earlier stages, when individual cases were 
reported and published at great length. The difference is that 
it is unsafe to give details of conversions of Mohammedans, on 
account of the danger they would cause to fresh inquirers even in 
a land under British rule. But now and then it has been possible 
to give particulars, as in the case of a son of a sheikh at Jerusalem, 
who was converted at Cairo in 1906, and avowed his faith before 
Lord Cromer and several high Egyptian officials. In the last 
year of our period, organized and persistent eiTorts were made 
by the Moslems of Cairo to induce the converts to apostatize, and 
to the sorrow of the missionaries, their efforts were successful in 
two cases. 

The Bishop of London, when he was in Egypt, met all the 
C.M.S. workers at Cairo for a service of prayer in the mission 
hospital, which he wrote of as " splendid," " manned by three 
excellent doctors and a staff of nurses." He addressed a meeting 
of 2000 Copts : " Never shall I forget it, when my temperature 
was 101 ; and what I could see by its effect to be a splendid 
address in Arabic by Mr. Gairdner." 

Of course Church organization is premature with only a hand- 
ful of converts, but a Church Committee was formed in 1908 ; 
and in 1909 the Christians, and others from neighbouring countries, 
held a Conference at Cairo for the promotion of spiritual life ; 
from which Conference two letters were written, one to " Fellow 
Moslem Converts," and the other to " our Moslem brethren in 
all lands." Mr. Gairdner wrote in 1914, "We are trying all we 



C.M.S. AI/sswjVS: Hgypt and the Sudax. 113 

can to develop our tiny Native Churcli. Delinite financial schemes i'^'^'^ ij- 
are put before it, for wliich it assumes real responsibility. The — '- 
subscriptions (from Orientals only) reached £45 last year." 

In 11)06 an important Conference of missionaries to Moliam- 
medans, and others specially interested, was held at Cairo, 
^vhich is further noticed in the next chapter. In 1911, Dr. 
Mott held meetings of the Student Christian Movement in 
Cairo, which were attended by 2000 men — in itself a proof of 
the stir which recent years have shown to be in both Moslem 
and Coptic minds. A branch of the Student Movement was 
formed, chiefly of course among the Copts. A training school 
has l)een established for missionaries preparing for work among 
Mohammedans, at which the Arabic language and the Koran and 
other Islamic books are scientifically studied. Dr. Zwemer and 
Mr. Gairdner have been the leaders in this movement. 

The vigorous and influential American Presbyterian Mission other 
continues its extensive operations in Egypt ; and the Egypt 
General Mission, of which the late Mr. Cleaver was the excellent 
Secretary, is also doing good work. 

Egypt and the Eastern Sudan are at present, as already indi- 
cated, within the jurisdiction of the Anglican Bishop at Jerusalem. 
Bishop Blyth, therefore, exercised episcopal authority over the 
Mission nearly through our period,* with Bishop Gwynue as his 
Sutfragan for the Sudan from 1908. His resignation and death 
occurred in 1911. The Society rejoiced much at the appointment B'^i'PP 
as his successor of Mr. Maclnnes, who was consecrated on 
Oct. 28th of that year, and whose fifteen years of service in Egypt 
have fitted him in a special degree for the responsibilities of one 
of the most important posts in the Anglican Communion. The 
selection of Mr. Maclnnes by the Archbishop of Canterbury was 
received with general approval, and the Bishop of London preached 
the sermon at his consecration. He is the youngest son of a late 
well-known friend and Vice-President of the Society, Mr. Miles 
Maclnnes, M.P. ; his brother John is an honorary assistant 
secretary in Salisbury Square ; and his wife is a sister of two 
C.M.S. missionaries, the Eev, E. S. Carr of Tinnevelly and Dr. 
D. W. Carr of Persia. One of the new Bishop's first acts was 
to confer on his colleague, Mr. Gairdner, the canonry of St. 
George's Collegiate Church, Jerusalem, which w^as vacated by 
his own consecration as bishop. 

It is particularly satisfactory that Bishop Maclnnes is on very ^^P^jjj^ 
friendly terms with the Coptic Church in Egypt. There is much 
that is lacking in that representative of ancient Christendom. The 
Bishop of London, in his Diocesan Magazine, wrote of its members 
as having " a very nominal Christian life," and as " looked after 
(or neglected, as tlie case may be) by an often ignorant and ill- 
educated priesthood." But it never w^as the C.M.S. policy, in the 
old Egypt Mission ninety years ago, to encourage them to join the 

* Seo further, p. 128. 



114 C.M.S. Missions: Egypt and the Sudan 

pakt II. Anglican Church ; rather, to help them in their spiritual life by 
— ' Scriptural teaching, in the hope that gradually a new spirit might 
be manifested in their own Church, Bishop Maclnnes, in an address 
after his consecration to the Council of the " Jerusalem and the 
East Mission " (which Bishop Blyth had formed), said that if 
Coptic Christians applied for admission to the English Church, 
the reply was, " No ; we will do all we can for you, but we must 
ask you othcially to become full members of your own Church by 
being received as communicants, attending the services, and doing 
all you can to bring about necessary reforms, while at the same 
time getting whatever spiritual strength and advice you can 
from us." 

The purpose of the C.M.S. Egypt Mission is the evangelization 
of the Moslems ; and this is another reason for not seeking 
Coptic proselytes. It is a grievous consequence of centuries of 
oppression that converts from Islam and members of the old 
Churches do not fraternize ; and a Coptic section in the Mission 
Church might tend to discourage Mohammedan inquirers. 

But the policy thus indicated makes it easier to work for the 
spiritual uplift of the Copts ; and Bishop Maclnnes has been 
w^armly welcomed by their Patriarch, and also by the Armenian 
Archbishop in Egypt. Douglas Thornton would have rejoiced at 
At D. M. _ this. When dying he expressed a wish to be as much identified 
Funeral"."^ "^^'ith the Egyptian Christians in his burial as possible. At his 
funeral, " his oldest fellow- worker in Egypt, Nikola Effendi 
Gabriel, read the Psalm ; and the Lesson was read by Bulus 
Effendi Gabriel, his Coptic friend, and the delegate of the Coptic 
Society of Faith, in which he had taken an exceptional interest. 
At the grave, Sheikh Skandar AlDd-el-Masih, the first convert 
from Islam baptized l)y Mr. Thornton, read the prayers before the 
committal ; and Khalcel Effendi Tadrus, catechist in Old Cairo, 
read the closing prayers. Then four of his friends gave touching 
tributes at the grave-side ; one, the Eight Eev. the Metran of 
Keneh, who specially represented the Patriarch. In the waning 
light of the evening, his friend and companion, the Eev. W. H. T. 
Gairdner, gave the blessing." 

On the effect of the War on the Mission, sec the Appendix, 




CHAPTER X. 

Islam and Mouammedan Missions. 

Books on Islam— Cairo and Lucknow Conferences -S. CM. at Constan- 
tinople Moslem Population of the World — Raymund Lull, Henry 
Martyn, &c.— CM.S. and other Missions— Keith Falconer, Bishop 
French, the Zwemers, Pfander -Malays and Afghans —Moslem 
Efforts in England. 

|T is not within the plan of this book to enlarge upon pakt ji. 
non-Christian religions ; not, therefore, necessary to '^ "' 
introduce a chapter on Mohammedanism before giving 
a brief notice of Missions to Mohammedans. The 
books for students rightly do this, and all that is Books ou 
needed here is to mention a few of them to which the ordinary 
reader may be referred. The two recent works most convenient 
and suitable for that purpose are Islam : A Challenge to Faith, l^y 
Dr. Zwemer, and The Reproach of Islam, by the Rev. W. H. T. 
Gairdner ; the former published by the Student Volunteer Move- 
ment in America, but easily ol^tainable in England ; and the latter 
l)y the British Missionary Societies jointly, including the CM.S. 
Both writers are experts on the subject. Dr. Zwemer has been a 
missionary at Muscat in Arabia, and is well known as one of our 
highest authorities on all subjects connected with Mohammedanism. 
Mr. Gairdner is the CM.S. missionary in Egypt before mentioned, 
and the author of Edinhargli, 1010, the brilliant account of tlio 
World Missionary Conference. Both books are excellent : Dr. 
Zwemer's the fuller and more complete ; Mr. Gairdner's marked 
by rare eloquence and " the art of putting things." In the former, 
the cliapters are on (1) The Origin and Sources of Islam, (2) Its 
Prophet, (3) Its Spread, (4) Its Creed, (5) Its Practice, (6) Its 
Ethics, (7) Its Divisions, (8) Present Condition of the Moslem 
World, (9-12), the Missions, &c. In the latter the chapters are 
(1) Extent of Islam, (2) Whence came it ? (3) How came it '? 
(4) What is it ? (5) How works it '? (6-8) How save it ? Men- 
tion should also be made of Tiie Faith, of Islam, by Canon Sell, 
C.M.S., Madras, a standard and valuable book ; * Dr. St. Clair 
Tisdall's Ileti;/io/i of the Crescent ; Sir W. Muir's (short) Life of 
Mohammed; Dr. Zwemer's Arabia, the Cradle of Islam ; and the 

* Also Cauou Sell's Rclicjious Orders of Islam, and Outlines of Islam. 



ii6 



Islam and Mohammedan Missions. 



Taut JI. 
Chai). 10. 



Ertinbmgli 
Report ou 
Islam. 



Eev. W. A. Eice's Crumdcn^ of I he Tirentk'th Ctinlurij. J-'>ut those 
who desire to keep in touch with the whole Mohammedan ques- 
tion, and with the current history of Missions to Mohammedans 
should by all means read The JlosJcm World, a quarterly periodical 
edited by Dr. Zwemer. In the principal missionary periodicals 
also there are from time to time valuable articles on various 
branches of the subject. In the International Review of Missions, 
for instance, there was in 1912-13 an important series on the 
Vital Forces of Christianity and Islam, by seven high authorities, 
viz., Mr. Gairdner, of Egypt; Dr. Shedd, of the American 
Presbyterian Mission in Persia ; Professor Stewart Crawford, of 
the Syrian Protestant College, Beirut ; Pastor Gottfried Simon, 
missionary in Sumatra; Professor Siraj-ud-Din, of the Forman 
College, Lahore, himself a convert from Islam ; Canon Dale, of the 
U.M.C.A., Zanzibar ; and Dr. Duncan Macdonald, Professor at 
Hartford Theological Seminary. These have since been published 
in a small volume.* Some other articles in periodicals are 
mentioned in a note below.f 

Tlie Chapters on Islam in Vol. IV. of the " Edinburgh " 
Reports, prepared for the Commission on "the Missionary Mes- 
sage in Relation to non-Christian Religions," by Professor Cairns, 
are among the ablest in that remarkable volume. Presenting 



* Edited by Dr. Zwemer. Oxford Univ. Press. It was reviewed by Bishop 
Lefroj' of Calcutta in the Int. Bev. Miss., April, 1915. 

t In the Int. Rev. Miss. : — Islam in the Sudan, by Prof. Westermann of 
Berlin, Oct., 1912 and July, 1913. The Balkan War and Christian Work 
among Moslems, by Dr. Bliss of Beirut, Oct., 1913. The Present Attitude of 
Educated Moslems towards Christ and the Scriptures, by Dr. Zwemer, 
Oct., 1914. 

In The East and The West : — The Cross and the Crescent in the Balkans, 
by Dr. C. R. D. Biggs, Jan., 1913. New Light on Islam, by Prof. D. S.. 
Margoliouth, April, 1913. Mohammedanism in Malaya, by a doctor there. 

In the Cil/. Review. IMoslem and Christian Views of God : An Imaginary 
Dialogue, by W. H. T. Gairdner, March and May, 1909. (Most interesting.} 
The Social Condition of Women in Moslem Lands, by Dr. Emmeline Stuart, 
Aug., 1909. The ]\Ioral Condition of Moslem Lauds, by Dr. Walter IMiller, 
Nov., 1909. Islam and Christianity in Relation to Missionary Effort, by the 
Rev. C. T. Wilson, June, 1911. The Koran and the Scriptures, by the Rev. 
A. E. Day, Sept., 1914. Turkey and Islam, by Dr. Weitbrecht, Dec, 1914. 
The Church's Obligation to Islam, by Missions-Direktor Axenfeld of Berlin, 
Dec, 1914. The Moslem World, by Rev. J. H. Linton, Feb., 1915. Also in 
this Review (June, 1910) was printed Bishop Knox of Manchester's powerful 
C.M.S. Sermon at St. Bride's on the Crisis of Christianity and Islam; also 
(June, 1914) Bishop Lefroy's admirable speech on Missions to Moslems at 
the C.M.S. Annual Meeting. 

In the Moslem IForW .---Islam not a Stepping Stone to Christianity, by 
Bishop Peel, Oct., 1911. C.M.S. Missions to Mohammedans, by the Author of 
this History, April, 1912. Islam in the Sudan, by W. I. W. Roome, April and 
July, 1914. 

Also, in Vol. V. of the Pan-Anglican Reports there are some valuable 
papers ; particularly by Professor IMargoliouth (marked S.D. 4 (g)), the Rev, W. 
II. T. Gairdner (S.D. 4 (h)). Dr. Tisdall (p. 170), and the Rev. F. Baylis (p. 183), 
Mr. Baylis's paper is particularly important on the relations between Islam 
and the Eastern Churches. 



Islam a.vd Mohammedan Missions. 117 

the evidence collected from missionaries in all parts of the part ii. 
Mohammedan world, Dr. Cairns, in pp. 122-155, summarizes it t^'iap-io. 
in a masterly way, and s^-oncludes that " it can be only by helping 
men to realize the depth of their need that the missionary can 
prepare men for a recognition of tlie greatness of grace." In- 
cidentally lie remarks that " there seems to be much less theolo- 
gical unrest among missionaries in Moslem lands than among 
ministers at home ; and their practical view of the need of adapt- 
ing the Gospel to the mind of the East is much less drastic than 
the theoretical view of scholars at home." Then, under" General 
Conclusions" (p. 214), he points out the parallels between the 
work of Missions to-day and tliat of the Apostolic Age ; and as 
regards Islam, that our conflict is much the same as that of the 
Apostolic period with Judaism, " which was essentially legalistic 
in its whole conception of the relations between God and man." 
This he draws out very clearly (pp. 236-244) ; and while paying 
all due respect to Moslem monotheism, he gathers from " the 
entire mass of evidence from all the fields " the "vital necessity" 
of the great truth that Christ is " God manifest in the flesh." 
" Everywhere this is what arouses opposition, Imt everywhere it is 
irlidt v'iiis Dien.'" 

But perhaps of all recent utterances on the Mohammedan Dr. Zwemor 
Problem the most impressive was Dr. Zwemer's address at ti^ig "^ Keswick, 
last Keswick Convention (1915). One may boldly say, not merely 
that it appeals to missionary circles, but that ever// Eiif/lishmnn 
should read it* 

Two important Conferences on Missions to Mohammedans have Cairo and 
been held in recent years, one at Cairo in 1907, and the other at coniv'r-^^ 
Lucknow in 1911. Sixty-two missionaries attended at Cairo, ences. 
representing twenty-nine difterent Societies, some coming from 
long distances ; and others sent papers to be read. Among the 
C.M.S. men contributing were Dr. Weitbrecht and INIr. Goldsmith 
of India, .Mr. Walshe of China, Dr. :Miller of Africa, Dr. Tisdall 
of Persia, and of course the missionaries in Egypt and Palestine. 
There were 180 delegates (besides visitors) at the Lucknow Con- 
ference, which was naturally attended largely by missionaries in 
India ; but it was world-wide in its outlook. Dr. Zwemer was 
chairman, and among the speakers were Bishop G. H. Westcott 
of Lucknow and Bishop Lefroy of Lahore. Important papers by 
women were a feature, among them Dr. Emmeline Stuart of 
Persia, Miss Cay of Egypt, Miss Trotter of Algiers, Miss de 
S6Uncourt (now Principal of Westfield College), Miss A. Van 
Sommer, and several American ladies. A Eussian lady from 
Moscow was a speaker. There was an Egyptian delegate, Mitri 

* To be had of ]\Ir. Oliver, Secretary, Nile Mission Press, 16, Southfield 
Road, Tunbridge Wells ; 50 copies for 2s. 6fZ. Since the above was written, 
Dr. Zwemer's new work, Mohammed or Christ, has appeared, an admirable 
book on the activities of Islam all over the world and the importance of 
counter-acting them. 



U8 



Islam and Mohammedan Missions. 



PART II. 

Cliaj). U). 

Student 
Confer- 
ence at 
Constanti- 
nople. 



Moslem 
Population 
of the 
World. 



Christen- 
dom and 
the 
Moslems. 



Kavnmnd 
Lull. 



El'fencli, and several Indians, including Canon Ali Bakbsh. Both 
the Eeports are mines of valuable information.'*^ 

Another Conference of great interest was that of tlie Student 
Movement held at Constantinople in 1911, at a time when it was 
hoped that the Young Turk party, which had gained chief power, 
would prove to be an instrument of reform and revival. That 
hope, it is needless to say, came to nothing. But the Eeport of 
the Conference is a valuable book,")" and shows how great are the 
possibilities of the Near East whenever the Turk is out of the 
way. 

"Various estimates have been made of the Mohammedan popu- 
lation of the world. They vary from 175 millions to 300 millions. 
Dr. Zwemer and Mr. Gairdner both accept (the former with a 
slight alteration) an estimate made for the Cairo Conference of 
1907, wliich w-as midway between the two extremes, just under 
223 millions. Of these it was estimated that no less than 161 
millions were under Christian rule, Great Britain having 63i 
millions in Asia and nearly 18 millions in Africa. Under Moslem 
rule, Turkey, Persia, Arabia, &c., 38 millions; and under other 
non-Christian rule, 24 millions, the bulk in China. But Turkey's 
recent losses in Europe and Africa would alter some of the figures, 
increasing the number under Christian rule. A later estimate by 
Dr. Zwemer and Prof. Westermann gives a total of 201,300,000, 
of whom 107,000,000 are under Christian rule, leaving only 34 
millions under Moslem or other non-Christian rule. The one 
great field where Islam is advancing seriously is Africa, as before 
stated ; Imt it is also extending in China, though the Cairo estimate 
of 20 milhons is probably excessive ; and even in Japan there are 
Moslem missionaries. 

The Mohammedan World has been, until recent years, much 
neglected by the missionary societies, indeed by the whole 
Cbristian Church. Tlie Crusades were an enterprise of splendid 
enthusiasm, but their object was the liberation of the Holy Land 
from Moslem domination, not the conversion of the Moslems. 
Eaymund Lull, the one great missionary to them in the Middle 
Ages, rightly expressed the true spirit and method in his memor- 
able words, " The Holy Land can \)Q won in no other way than 
as Tliou, O Ijord Christ, and Thy Apostles won it, l)y love, by 
prayer, by shedding of tears and blood." % He was martyred in 

* The Cairo Report is entitled The Mohammedan World of To-Day, and the 
Lucknow Report Islam and Missions, both published by Fleming Revell. 
Accounts of both Confercnocs appeared in the CM. Review, the Cairo one 
by Dr. Tisdall iu April, 1907, and the Lucknow one by Dr. Weitbrecht in 
April, 1911. 

t Published by the World's Student Christian Federation. 

X Dr. Zwemcr's book on Raymund Lull is the best popular account of him. 
See also the same writer's article on him in the CM. Eevicw, June, 1915 ; Dr. 
Weitbrccht's in The East and The West, and Dr. Barber's in the Int. Bev. 
Miss., both in July, 1915 ; all in commemoration of the sixth centenary of bis 
martyrdom. Dr. Barber has also published a book entitled Raymvnd Lull 
the Illuminated Doctor. 



Isr.AM ANT> MOITAMMKDAX ]\TlSSIONS. I 19 

1315, just GOO years ago, and he had uo successor, thougli the vartii. 
I'Vanciscans made some efforts to carry the Gospel to the East. <''>-iP;_io. 
IVancis Xavier proclaimed Christ at the Court of the Mogul Francis 
I'jiiiperors Akhar and Jahangir, and wrote a hook for the Moslems ^='^^''*'''- 
there, entitled, A Mirror for Sliowimj the Truth; but his work was 
mostly among the Tamils of South India. And then we have to 
leap over two centuries and a half, and come to Henry Marty n, Henry 
" Saint and Scholar, First Modern Missionary to Mohammedans," Mai+yn. 
as Dr. George Smith well calls him in the title to his fascinating 
biography, — the centenary of whose death we conmiemorated in 
1912.* Martyn was not only the first to witness for Christ in 
modern times in Persia, but was the instrument in India of the 
conversion of Abdul Masih, the influential Mohammedan after- 
wards ordained by Bishop Heber ; and Abdul Masih was in fact Abdul 
the first C.M.S. missionary in India, for he was supported at Agra '^**"' 
by a grant from the C.M.S. before any white missionary had been 
sent by the Society. f 

But the C.M.S. had thought of the Mohammedans before that. c.M.s. mid 
In its very first year the Committee reported inquiries about ('ii^,?^'i\ps."' 
" Persia, and the Arabic-speaking peoples of the East." And in 
1815, the year of Waterloo, just a century ago, tliey commis- 
sioned a Fellow of St. John's, Cambridge, W. Jowett, to visit the 
East and inquire into the condition of the Oriental Churches, with 
tlie definite ulterior view of carrying the Divine Message to the 
■Moslems. This object, they thought, could be best attained 
through a revival of the Eastern Churches, which ought to have 
done that work, but had not done it. Good influence was gained 
in many places, but the Churches as a whole refused to awake to 
their responsibility. Mr. Gairdner, in TIip ReproKch of Islam, 
speaks of these Eastern Churches as " communities of Christians 
scattered like islands in the sea of surrounding Islam," " eloquent 
only of the coming in of Islam as a flood." % In after years, how- 
ever, certain of their members, attracted by the purer Gospel 
brought to them from the West, attached themselves to the 
Anghcan Church, and from among tliese most of the native agents 
now employed in Egypt and Palestine have been obtained. The 
great Missions of the American Board (Congregationahst) and the American 
American Presbyterians, in Turkey, Syria, Egypt, and Persia, ^^"'^'^"'^ 
have been carried on with the same general object, Init with more 
definite eftbrts in forming Pi'otestant congregations. They have, 
liowever, made a fair number also of converts from Islam, § The [i-^^-S- -"jt' 
direct attempts of the C.M.S. to reach the Moslems in the Near nopie."" '" 

* See Bishop Stileman's Sermon at Trinity Church, Cambridge, Oct. IGth, 
1912, in CM. Rev., Dec, 1912. 

t See Hist. C.M.S., Vol. I., p. 183. 

X An excellent brief account of these Churches, Greek, Armenian, Jacobite, 
Copt, &c., by the Rev. P. Baylis, appeared in the CM. Review of Jan. and 
Feb., 1910. 

§ The chief authority on these and other JMissiona in the Near East is 
Dr. Julius Richter's able booiv. 



I20 



Islam and Mohammedan Missions. 



PART II. 
ChilJ). 10. 



N(^\v C.M.S- 
Missions. 



Otlier 

Missions. 



Ion Keith- 
Falconer. 



Bishop 
J<'i-('iicii. 



The 
/w(!mprs. 



O.M.S. it) 
lii(|i:i. 



Pfander. 



East liegan with a Mission at Constantinople in 185G, after the 
Crimean War; two remarkal)le German missionaries, Koelle (who 
had l)een in West Africa) and Pfander (from India) heing sent 
there. Several Turks were hrought to Christ and haptized, hut 
after eight years the Sultan suppressed the Mission and (it was 
helicved) made away with the converts. The Society's modern 
Egypt Mission dates from the British occupation in 1882, and the 
Turkish Arabia Mission from the same year. Persia had heen 
visited by Dr. Bruce in 1869, and his mission adopted in 1875.* 

Besides these C.M.S. efforts, the North Africa Mission, the Egypt 
General Mission, and several smaller associations, are working 
also in these countries on undenominational lines ; and the London 
Jews Society has important and fruitful work of its own in Pales- 
tine, Persia, and North Africa. In Arabia, tlie Free Church of 
Scotland jNTission at Aden was founded by that brilliant young 
Cambridge Professor, Ion Keith-Falconer, in 1885, in response to 
a call from General Haig, who had travelled about seeking for 
openings; and the C.M.S. left that field, which it had temporarily 
entered on, transferring its missionary, Dr. Harpur, to Egypt. 
Keith-Falconer died in less than two years, but his work is still 
carried on. Then came the heroic Bishop French, who, having 
resigned the bishopric of Lahore, resolved to devote the rest of his 
life to evangelizing the Moslems of Western Asia ; but within a 
few months he died at Muscat in Arabia. f The mantle dropped 
liy him was taken up by the two Zwemers and other missionaries 
of the American (Dutch) Eeformed Church, and their Mission is 
carried on to tliis day. Peter Zwemer died early, but Samuel may 
now be regarded as the most prominent leader in Christian effort 
among the Moslems. His wife was an Australian missionary of 
the C.M.S. at Baghdad. Eaymund Lull, Henry Martyn, Pfander, 
Bruce, French, Keith-Falconer, Zwemer, are a noble succession 
indeed. Two only of them came home to die. Lull, Martyn, 
French, Keith-Falconer, P. Zwemer, passed to their reward from 
the midst of the people they sought to save. 

In India also the C.M.S. Missions to Mohammedans have been 
the most conspicuous, especially along the Afghan Frontier. In 
the Punjab, which is largely Moslem, the American Presbyterian 
Mission at Lahore was first, and it joined in the original invitations 
from tlie great Christian representatives of British rule, Henry 
and John Lawrence and others, to the C.M.S. to join in the 
enterprise (1852). At Agra, as already mentioned, Abdul Masih 
had been preaching forty years earlier; also Pfander (originally 
sent ])y the ]iasle Mission to Persia, and thence expelled when 



* Pull accounts of theso and other enterprises in the Mohammedan East 
will be found in the Histonj of C.M.S., chaps. 17, 24, 41. 75, 94, 104. 

t The Biography of Bishop French, by the Rev. H. A. Birks, is a valuable 
work, now out of print, but to be found in many libraries. A short sketch of 
his career, entitled An Heroic Bishop, by the present writer, is published by 
Hodder and Stoughton. 



IST.AM AND MOIfAMMF.DAN MISSIONS. 121 

EuRsia conquered tlie nortli-western province), wlio joined the part ii. 
CM. 8. in India, and proved to be indisputably one of the greatest t;hap^io. 
of missionai'ies to INIohammedans. He preached in Delhi, which 
afterwards became an S.P.G. station, and is now the centre of the 
important Cambridge and S.P.G. Delhi Mission, which works 
largely among Mohammedans as well as Hindus. At Lucknow, 
too, and at Calcutta and Boml)ay and Madras and Haidarabad, the 
C.M.S, seeks the evangelization of the Moslems ; and in Ceylon. 
r>ut all these Missions will come further under our notice in the 
chapters on India. 

In Africa the C.M.S. and many other Societies are face to face 
with advancing Islam. This work has already been enlarged 
upon. 

But perhaps the most successful of all Missions to Moslems are other 
those in the Malay Islands, Sumatra and Java,"' chiefly of the Missions. 
Ehenish Missionary Society, which has there 200 missionaries and , 
about 100,000 converts. Some of these have been won from 
Paganism, but the majority from Islam, In the north-western 
provinces of China, also, the China Inland Mission and other 
Societies have enrolled Moslem converts ; and in Central Asia, 
under both Chinese and Russian governments, German and 
Swedish missionaries are at work. The Eusso-Grcek Church, too, 
is stated to have worked zealously for the conversion of the 
Mohammedans of Turkestan. 

Afghanistan is the most wholly closed of Moslem lands. Per- The 
haps the Providence of God will open the door when we are ready -^'-'>="'^- 
to enter in. Meanwhile the C.M.S. Missions on the Frontier 
have baptized noble Afghans, the firstfruits of a vigorous race 
which should give a worthy and welcome contingent to the 
Church of God. Even where the living preacher cannot enter, 
the written Word of God finds its way ; and the Christian hospital 
on the borders receives its patients from the closed territories 
be3'ond, and sends them l)ack with healed bodies and with hearts 
at least touched by the sympathy of the servants of Jesus Christ. 

But " Mohammedan Missions " may mean Missions of as well Moslem 
as io Mohammedans. We have seen the activity of Moslem ci^isten°" 
missionaries in iVfrica. They are to be met with in many countries t'on^- 
in Asia. They have even come to Europe, and boast of their success 
in England itself. A word or two must be added on this point, as 
very curious mis-statements are current among Mohammedans in 
India and elsewhere. 

Some five and twenty years ago it was reported by native news- 
papers in the Punjab that several hundred Englishmen, with a 
bishop at their head, had embraced Islam at Liverpool. In 1891 
Dr. Weitbrecht went to Liverpool to inquire about it, and Dr. At 
Martyn Clark made further inquiries. The results were published '^®'^°° • 
at Calcutta, and their appearance led the principal Mohammedan 
leaders to disavow the transactions reported. It appears that a 
* See article on " Islam and Animism," G. M. Eev., May, 1913. 



122 Islam and Mohammedax M/ssroNS. 

PART II. solicitor named Qnilliam, wlio professed to have embraced Islam, 
ciiap^io. iij^f]^ taken a small house in Liverpool, held services in it on 
Fridays, and claimed to have thirty adherents. Some time after- 
wards Mr. Quilliam disappeared, and nothing more was heard of 
tlie matter. But in 1911, an American missionary magazine stated 
that there was " a beautiful mosque " at Liverpool, with " schools, 
library, museum, book store, hall for lectures, and hospital," and 
that 1000 persons had joined, who were now giving their children 
Turkish or Arabic names. The Eev. J. F. Hewitt, of the G.M.S. 
Bengal Mission, went to see the " mosque," and with great 
difficulty found the place. " I don't know about a mosque," said 
a policeman, " but there is a house where Quilliam used to hold 
meetings before he went away. I used to see the old man go in 
and out. I never saw more than eight people go in for a meeting." 
He showed Mr. Hewitt the house, " empty and. dirty, with broken 
windows," " rateable value £30 at the most." There was a small 
notice-board, " with a tiny crescent affixed to each corner." So 
much for Islam at Liverpool ! 
\t Woking. But there is one real mosque in England, near Woking, built by 
Dr. Leitner, formerly Principal of the Oriental College at Lahore, 
for the use of Moslem students in London, but now used, with the 
house adjoining, as the headquarters of a new Moslem Mission to 
the English, headed by an Indian pleader, Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din. 
There is a monthly periodical, Muslim India and Islamic Eerieiv, 
and meetings are held at various places from time to time. Much 
is naturally made of the recent profession of Islam by an Irish 
Peer, Lord Headley, who was previously a Deist. It is quite 
possible that some of the many people who want a religion but 
will do anything rather than submit to the just claims of Him Who 
died for them, will be beguiled into Mohammedanism. But will 
they find holiness in it ? or purity ? or peace ? * 
Bisiinp This chapter cannot be closed more significantly than by 

Awmi'ent. extracting from Bishop Lefroy's speech at the C.M.S. Annual 
Meeting in 1914 the following story : — 

" I was visiting an outlying part of the Lahore diocese which 
can only be reached after five days' riding, while the best means 
of transport was on camels, and as I rode along I had a good deal 
of conversation with the Mohammedan driver of the camel, wiio 
was seated in front of me. One day he turned round and quite 
spontaneously said to me : ' Sahib, why do our teachers call the 
Lord Jesus Christ the living Apostle ? ' I said, ' Why, they call 
Him that because in that particular respect they have got hold of 
the real truth and are bound to teach it.' Then I spoke of the 
crucifixion of our Lord, His resurrection, and His ever-living 
presence in heaven. After that I said, ' What about your prophet 
Moliammed ? Is he alive or dead ? ' Of course the man replied he 
was dead. ' Do you know where his grave is? ' I asked, and ho 

* The above particulars arc from the Moalrm World, July, 1911, and April, 
1914. In the latter number Dr. Weitbrccht tells much about the new Mission. 



Islam axd Mohammedax Missions. 123 

answered, ' "\'es, it is in ^fedina.' I asked him also wliether parttt. 
lie knew a further fact, and found that he did not, namely, that <'i>:n>jJo. 
alongside that tomb of Mohammed there is reserved to this day an 
empt}'- space, — that space is for another grave, and according to 
Mohammedan legend that grave will be occupied by our Lord 
Jesus Christ when He comes again to the world, as they them- 
selves ])elieve He will, in preparation for the last Judgment. We 
are not concerned with that futile legend that Christ will be buried 
there, but surely the continued existence of that empty grave 
space speaks with wonderful force of the present life of our Lord 
and Master. Then I went on to say to my driver : ' If you want 
help to conquer your sin, to fight against temptation, or help of 
any kind, do you think it w^ould be better to turn to the dead 
Mohammed or to the living Christ '? ' He did not like this 
question, so I said : ' Supposing you wanted any help to-day for 
feeding your camel or cleaning it, would you rather turn to a dead 
man or to a living one '? ' " 



CHAPTEE XI. 

C.M.S. MISSIONS: Palestine. 



Part 1 1. 
Chap. U. 




Young 
Turk Party. 



C.M.8. 
Staff. 



The Kaiser in Palestine— Young Turk Party— C.M.S. Staff— Women's 
Work, Medical Work, &c. — Bishops Blyth and Maclnnes. 

T is interesting, and indeed suggestive, to find, on 
looking back to the Eeports at the time of the 
Centenary, that tlie great event in Palestine in the 
year reviewed in 1899 was the visit of the German 
Kaiser, and that the Sultan of Turkey presented to 
him the plot of holy ground on which the Virgin Mary is said 
to have slept the night before her " Assumption," which property 
the Kaiser handed over to his Roman Catholic subjects. It was 
during that journey, no doubt, that the foundations were laid of 
the dominant influence in Turkey which has drawn the Porte into 
the present War. What maj^ be the issue for the Land of Israel 
is so far known onlj^ to Him Who appointed that land to be the 
scene of the Incarnation. 

The Turkish Ptevolution in 1908, and the proclamation of 
religious liberty by the Young Turk party which then gained the 
upper hand at Constantinople, gave hopes of a real change in the 
environment of the Palestine Mission. The immediate results 
seemed to warrant this hope. At Jerusalem, before immense 
crowds, Jewish rabbis, Moslem sheikhs, and Christian priests, 
made impassioned speeches expressing their fraternization. At 
Nazareth, the Syrian pastor , of the C.M.S. congregation was 
in\ated to address the Mohammedans from the pulpit of the 
mosque. P>ut Islam proved true to its real nature, and speedily 
all things returned into their old condition. The war of 1911 
l)etween Turkey and Italy aroused all the ancient bigotry, and 
one Effendi, " a perfect gentleman," said, " If Clirist does not 
worship as a Moslem when He comes again, we will kill Him." 

Reverting to the commencement of our fifteen-year period, the 
staff in 1899 comprised 12 clergymen, 6 laymen, 14 wives, and 29 
other women ; total 61. Within the period 58 have been added to 
the list ; but the total in 1914 was only 52, viz., clergymen G, laj'- 
men 7, wives 10, other w^omen 29. In 1904 the total was 08, but 
Palestine has since suffered by retrenchment. 

In 1899 the faithful old German missionaries, who had long 
been the chief agents of the Society in the Mohammedan East, 



C.M.S. Mission^: Palestine. 125 

■were still alive. Fallscheer, Zeller, and Wolters, who were then partji. 
at work, died respectively in IDOi after 36 years' labour, in ^'''"''- ^^- 
1902 after 46 years, in 1910 after 50 years ; and Klein, who had 
retired in 1903, after 52 years ; all four much respected, and Klein 
famous as the discoverer of the Moabite Stone.* Of the English 
missionaries, the two leaders, the Eevs. J. E. Longley Hall and 
C. T. Wilson, were the seniors, and both presently retired after 
30 and 27 years' service respectively. Mr. Wilson, it will be 
remembered, was one of the first two missionaries in Uganda. 
His brother, the Kev. D. M. Wilson, and the Eev. C. A. Manley, 
rendered ten years' service before retiring. The Eev. H. Sykes, 
who succeeded Mr. Hall as Secretary, happily still holds that 
position, and is now not far short of 30 years' service ; and Mr. 
Ellis has only two years fewer. The Eevs. P. Carpenter and S. C. 
Weljb joined in 1901, and are still on the statf. 

But the special feature of the Palestine Mission for more than Wompn 
five and twenty years has been the number of women mis- aries'.°°' 
sionaries. It had risen from one in 1887 to twenty-nine in 1899 ; 
then came the winding-up of the Female Education Society, and 
the transfer of nine of its ladies in Palestine (besides others else- 
where) to C.M.S. ; and in 1901 the number was 40, besides 
15 wives. It has since receded to 29 and 10 wives, as above 
stated. Several of these have given twenty years' service. The 
senior E.E.S. lady. Miss Jacomb, had been thirty years in the 
Palestine Mission before joining the C.M.S. She died, deeply 
respected, in 1902. Another lady, who had for thirty years 
worked on her own account at Jaffa, Miss C. A. Newton, on her 
death in 1908 left her well-known hospital there to the Society, 
with a fund for its maintenance. Two of her sisters have been 
zealous workers on the C.M.S. staff. Two Scottish sisters, the 
Misses E. C. and A. Wardlaw-Eamsay, who had worked together 
at St. Paul's, Onslow Square, w^ent to Palestine as honorary mis- 
sionaries, the one in 1889 and the other a few years later after a 
time in East Africa. The elder died at Jaffa in 1913, deeply 
lamented. Another woman who died after fourteen years' service 
was Miss Esther Cooke ; and another. Miss Bedells, in 1915, 
after twenty-three years ; f and equal periods (or more) stand to 
the credit of some who have retired, Misses Welch, M. Brown, 
Jarvis, Tindall, Brodie, Eeeve, Lewis, Nuttall, F. E. Newton, Scott. 
But the following have laboured all through our period and are 
still on the staff: Miss Elverson, 27 years; Misses Wenham, 
Brownlow, Eoberts, each 20 years ; and Misses Watney, Tiflin, 
Hassall (from Sydney, great grand-daughter of Samuel Marsden), 
Newey, Hicks, Eosenhayn, McConaghy, Lawford. Mrs. Ellis, 
too, has been in the Mission 24 years, having (as Miss Low) 
joined in 1891. 

* There was a worthy In ]\Iemoriain of Mr. Wolters, hy two of his fellow 
missionaries, iu the CSl. Review, April, 1910. 

t See Dr. Wright's notice of Miss Bedells, CM. Eeview, August, 1915. 



126 



C.M.S. MISSIONS: Palestine. 



PAKT II. 
Chap. 11. 



Women's 
AVork. 



Meilical 
Work. 



Pastoral 
Work. 



The work of these women missionaries lias consisted mainly of 
visiting the women of the country in towns and villages, and also 
in girls' schools, and nm^sing in the hospitals. The transfer to 
C.M.S. ranks of the E.E.S. ladies gave to the Society the Orphanage 
at Nazareth, of wiiich ]\liss Newey has been Superintendent, and 
in which many tourists in Palestine have taken so much interest ; 
and also added Bethlehem to the list of stations, where a girls' 
boarding school has been worked (since Miss Brown left) by a 
sister of Mr. McNeile of Cairo. In 1913, Bethlehem was the 
scene of a Conference of Women, native and foreign, belonging 
to various Missions, at which all the addresses were in Arabic. 
No one who reads the Eeports can doubt that multitudes of 
native women have learnt to know that Christ is the one Saviour, 
although in the case of Moslems, baptism is scarcely, if ever, 
possible. Nor can it be doubted that the boys' schools have done 
really good missionary work ; particularly the Bishop Gobat 
School, under Mr. Elhs and the Kev. S. C. Webb ; also the English 
College for young men, under the Eev. W. Stanley and the late 
Mr. J. E. Eobinson. Both of these institutions are at Jerusalem. 
At Kefr Yasif there has been a Training Colony for teacliers. 
Village schools are only allowed in villages solely or partly 
inhabited by Christians, not where there are only Moslems. 

The medical work of the Mission has been important. During 
the whole of our period, and for some years before that. Dr. 
Sterling, w^ho is also a clergyman and a Canon of St. George's, 
Jerusalem, has been doing remarkable work at Gaza ; and similar 
service for the same time has been rendered by Dr. Gaskoin 
Wright at Nablus, who has lately had with him Dr. Ethel R. 
Grifliths. There are also the late Miss Newton's Hospital at 
Jaffa, already mentioned, worked for a time by Dr. Keith, and a 
smaller one at Salt, where have been Drs. Brigstocke and Charlotte 
Purnell. These four hospitals have 180 beds between them, and 
many patients have learnt that Christ is the Saviour of the soul, as 
well as Healer of the body. For some years there was also a 
medical mission at Kerak in the land of Moab, but it has not been 
continued. The Rev. H. G. Harding, now Organizing Secretary of 
the C.M.S. Medical Mission Auxiliary at home, and the Rev. Sydney 
Gould, a Canadian doctor and clergyman, who is now secretary 
of the Missionary Society of the Canadian Church, have taken 
part in this work. A medical woman, Dr. Rachel Apps, who 
promised to be a real power, died after a year's service in 1909. 
The Bishop of London, who saw some of the C.M.S. work in 
Palestine in 1912, and whose genial presence was highly appre- 
ciated by the missionaries, w^rote, " The fact which emerges from 
a visit to the Near East is the wonderful influence of JMedical 
Missions." 

The Anglican congregations, numbering 2350 souls, are minis- 
tered to by some nine pastors, and are under a Church Council, 
formed in 1905. Of one of these clergymen, the late Rev. Chalil 



C.M.S. MissiOA^s: Palestine. 127 

1 Jama], who died in 1907, Bishop French, who visited him at Salt pabtu. 
in 1889, wrote : " Mr. Jamal is something hke Bishop Dupanloup ^^'^-ii- 
in his excellence and in catechizing ; a real lamp burning and 
shining in tlie midst of the wild Bedouin. He is a little Elisha 
there, minus the she-bears, though his rough hair and dress 
almost call Elijah to mind." 

Baptism of Moslems is not unknown in Palestine, though the 
converts are relatively few. In some cases they have been sent 
to Egypt for safety. Bishop Eidley, who visited the Mission in 
1908, said, " The baptism of a convert under the Turk is a signal 
for imprisonment, and probably his martyrdom will follow. 
J)espito treaties freedom of conscience is not tolerated. . . . 
Not long since a sheikh entered a mission school, dragged out 
one of the pupils and beat her almost to death." Among those 
who found Christ in the Jafla Hospital was an Afghan, but he was 
shot afterwards by a Moslem, whom he declined to prosecute, and 
ho was brought back to the hospital, where he was baptized at 
his own request before he died. 

Indirect results, however, are by no means small. Dr. Sterling 
in 1910 declared that he saw a considerable change in the condi- 
tion of the people, the result in his opinion of the influence of the 
mission schools and hospitals, even upon the Moslems, and of 
a distinct awakening in the Greek Church due to the same 
influence. 

There have often been suggestions that the Society should with- should 
draw from Palestine as unfruitful soil, and when retrenchments withdraw? 
, became inevitable this Mission w^as marked out for such treatment, 
in order to save the larger fields, but it is quite certain that the 
public opinion of the C.M.S. constituency would not tolerate with- 
drawal ; and while we rejoice at the large ingatherings of other 
Missions, we may equally rejoice at the testimony which has been 
borne in the land in which the early triumphs of the Gospel were 
followed by such sad failures on the part of the Christian Church. 

When the period under our review began, the Anglican Bishopric Bishop 
at Jerusalem had been held for twelve years by Dr. Popham ^'i'^'^- 
Blyth, who had been appointed in 1887 by the two x\rchbishops 
and the Bishop of London in accordance with the trust deed 
made when the bishopric was founded in 1811. Bishop Blyth 
continued in the see fifteen years more, but resigned in 1911, and 
died on Nov. 5th, at the age of eighty-two. He had earnestly 
upheld and acted on the principles laid down from the first, which 
included friendliness with the Greek and other Oriental Churches 
already represented in the Holy City, and episcopal supervision of 
Anglican congregations and Missions not in Palestine only, but in 
other Eastern lands, Syria, Cyprus, Egypt, &c. The whole work 
of the Chm-ch of England in those countries has prospered during 
his episcopate, his own " Jerusalem and the East Mission " being 
an important addition to the Societies, particularly the C.M.S. and 
the L.J.S., previously at work. These two Societies had from the 



Macluues. 



128 C.JII.S. MISSIONS: Palestine. 

PiVRTii. tirst grantod £300 a year each to supplement the episcopal income 
Chap. 11. partly provided from the original endowment, and it is well known 
that in the case of the C.M.S. this grant led to some painful con- 
troversy. Moreover Bishop Blyth found himself unable to approve 
some parts of the C.M.S. work, and his criticisms had to be 
referred to the Archbishop of Canterbmy and other Bishops. 
These matters are fully explained in the Historij of the CM. 8., 
and need no further reference here. But throughout our present 
period friendly relations were cordially maintained, and the 
Bishop's personal interest in the work and kindness to the mission- 
aries were much appreciated. St. George's Collegiate Church at 
Jerusalem, with its schools, &c., remains a visible and very fine 
memorial of his episcopate.* 
Risiiop On Bishop Blyth's retirement, the Archbishops and the Bishop 

of London appointed as his successor the Eev. Rennie Maclnnes, 
Secretary of the C.M.S. Egypt Mission. Of him personally a 
previous chapter has spoken. He may be fully trusted to main- 
tain the traditions of the see, and to show the utmost sympathy 
with all the good work for Christ done by many varied agencies in 
the immense area within his jurisdiction. The importance of the 
bishopric has greatly increased in recent years. British dominance 
in Egypt and Cyprus has created a demand for more chaplains 
for the English communities. The Missions to Jews and Moham- 
medans have grown. The educational and medical agencies 
benefit the Eastern Christians. And the extension of British rule 
over the J^jastern Sudan has made effective the jurisdiction of the 
bishopric 2000 miles into the heart of Africa, the vast field for 
which Dr. Gwynne is Suffragan Bishop. He acts also as Arch- 
deacon ; and there are three other Archdeacons, for Egypt, Syria, 
and Cyprus. t 

On tlie effects of the War upon the Palestine Mission, see the 
Appendix. 

* One of Bishop Blyth's missionaries should be specially mentioned here, 
Miss M. A. H. Allen, one of the daughters of Archdeacon Allen of Lichfield, 
who had worked some years at Zanzibar as a member of the U.M.C.A., and 
while there showed kindness to the earliest C.M.S. womeia missionaries in 
East Africa. She was an Arabic scholar, and did good work afterwards in 
Palestine and Egypt. Miss B. J. Mien of the C.M.S. Japan ]\Iission was her 
sister, and Miss A. E. Allen of Uganda is her cousin. 

t An excellent summary of the history and work of the Jerusalem Bishopric 
appeared in The East and Tlie West for Oct., 1914, written by Dr. E. W. G. 
Masterman, a medical missionary under the L.J.S., and now one of the 
recognized authorities on Palestine. There is a quarterly magazine called 
Bible Lands, the organ of the Bishop's Mission, edited by Canon Parfit (a 
former C.IM.S. missionary at Baghdad), and to be had at the Church House, 
Westminster. 




CHAPTEE XII. 
('.M.S. MISSIONS: Turkish Arabia. 

Baghdad and Mosul— The Staff— A Work of Faith. 

AGHDAD was originally occupied as an outpost of the tart li. 
Persia Mission in 1883, with a view to reaching ^^^'^i- 
Persian pilgrims to the Shiah shrines at Kerbela and Baghdad, 
other neighbouring places. But it has since proved 
to be an important centre of general work. " Turkish 
Ai'abia," as Mesopotamia has been officially called, appeared for 
the first time as an independent Mission in the Centenary year. 
Another of its cities, Mosul oni the Tigris, near the site of ancient Mosul. 
Nineveh, from which an American Mission had lately retired, was 
to be occupied as soon as possible, also, like Baghdad, for medical 
work ; and this plan was carried out in 1901. 

The medical missionary at Baghdad had been Dr. Henry Medical 
Marty n Sutton, one of the three brothers Sutton of Eeading who 
gave themselves to foreign mission service (two to C.M.S. and one 
to S.P.G.) ; but he retired in 1903. Drs. Sturrock, Brigstocke, 
Griffith,* Johnson,! and Stanley, have been in charge at various 
times of one or both of the two stations ; Dr. Johnson, who had 
previously worked at Kerak for ten years, having the longest 
period, from 1908 until now\ Another, Dr. Radcliffe, was drowned 
in the Euphrates while bathing. For the last six years Baghdad 
has had a woman doctor. Miss S. E. Hill, M.B., B.S., Lond., a 
daughter of the late Bishop Hill of West Africa. One of the 
clerical missionaries there for a time, Mr. Parfit, claimed to have 
ridden the first bicycle ever seen in Mesopotamia (1901), which 
he thought " deserved to be put on the roll of C.M.S. agents for 
the service it had rendered to the missionary cause." J Other 
missionaries, men and women, have served for a time, but the 
climate has again and again shortened their periods of work. 

* Mrs. Griffith's book, Behind the Veil in Persia and Turkish Arabia, will 
interest ail readers. 

t Au article on Baghdad, by Dr. Johnson, appeared in the Moslem World, 
July, 1912. 

X It was Mr. Parfit who, fifteen years ago, obtained a house, interpreter, 
&c., for the English engineer who brought the machinery for the oil-fields in 
South Persia, now so valuable to the British Admiralty. lie told this at a 
meeting of the Jerusalem and the East Mission Fund, of which he is now 
Secretary, in June, 1914. 

E 



I30 



C.M.S. Missions: Turkish Arabia. 



Pakt II. 
Chap. 12. 

Deaths. 



A Work of 
Faith. 



The first lady sent out. Miss Valpy, had died before our sixteen 
years began, and so had the wife of Mr. Parfit. Miss Kelsey also 
died of cholera in 1904. Miss Lavy, a trained nurse, was drowned 
on her voyage out after furlough, in 1910, through the ship 
foundering oti" the Scilly Isles. An Australian lady had to be sent 
home seriously ill ; but another lady sent from Australia in 1896, 
Miss Martin, who had previously worked some years in Palestine 
under the F.E.S., has continued to this day,* and so has Miss 
Butlin, who went out in 1900. Indeed it may be said that upon 
these two ladies has fallen a large part of the burdens of both 
stations during the whole of our period, they being the only two 
missionaries on the staff all the time. The staff now comprises 
two clergymen, the Eev. E. E. Lavy, who retired for a time to 
qualify as a doctor, and the Key. P. V. Boyes; Drs. Johnson 
and Stanley ; three wives, and five other women. 

This Mission, like others in Mohammedan countries, is emphati- 
cally one of faith. Its good influence upon the people is unmis- 
takable, and its beneficent treatment of bodily ills is highly 
appreciated, but conversions are few. The courage and zeal of 
some, however, have cheered the missionaries, as in the case of 
a man baptized as far back as 1891, to whom the Turks, having 
failed to shake his faith by imprisonment, gave a military appoint- 
ment with a good salary, in the vain hope of succeeding that way. 
Meanwhile, the bookshop has put forth the Scriptures and other 
Christian books, so in one form or another Christ is preached, 
and therein w^e may rejoice. Of one of the Christian catechists, 
Abbo Hasso, who died early in 1915, Miss Martin wrote, " He was 
universally respected for his absolute faithfulness, not only by the 
Christians of all sects, but by the Moslems and Jews. His name 
will always be honoured for his sincere devotion to his Lord and 
Saviour." 

The War has shown us the immense importance of this Meso- 
potamian region ; and it is encouraging to know that Sir W. 
Willcocks and mother high government officials have expressed 
their appreciation of the Society's work there. 

Arabia still remains closed to the Gospel, but at its four corners 
is waved the banner of Christ : at these Mesopotamian stations 
on the north-east ; at Muscat on the south-east, W'here Bishop 
French in spirit took possession of the land, and laid his bones 
upon the rocky shore, and where Dr. Zwemer established an 
important American Mission ; at Aden on the south-west, where 
the Scottish Presbyterian Mission was founded by Ion Keith- 
Falconer ; and in Gilead on the north-west, at the C.M.S. station 
at Salt (and for a time in Kerak in Moab). Surely the time will 
come when " Arabia's desert ranger to Him shall bow the knee." 

On the effect of the War upon this Mission, see the Appendix. 

* A remarkable narrative of Miss ]\Iartin's eleven days' ride across the 
desert, with a partv of Turkish soldiers as her only companions, appeared in 
the CM. Intell. of Dec, 1904. 




CHAPTER XIII. 
C.M.S. MISSIONS: Persia. 

Persia in Recent Years— C.M.S. Staff— Julfa, Ispahan, Shiraz, Yezd, 

Kerman — Bahaism The Bakhtiari— Bishops Stuart and Stileman 

—Death of Dr. Bruce— Other Missions. 

ERSIA has been one of the storm-centres of the world ^^^'^ ^■ 
during the greater part of the period under review. — 
Without laying stress upon the internal troubles, f^cii^ ^^ 
including the assassination (a little earlier) of one Years. 
Shah, the dethronement of another, and the attempt 
— only partially successful — to establish some kind of Parliamentary 
Government, we cannot forget that the growing influence of Russia 
was for years a cause of anxiety to Englishmen, in view of the 
important British interests in the Persian Gulf. It was a relief 
when the Agreement of 1907 defined the respective " spheres of 
influence " of the two protecting Powers, and reduced to a minimum 
the chances of friction ; and one good result of the present War is 
the alliance of Great Britain and Russia, following on the Triple 
Entente. The Indo-European telegraph, which passes through 
Persia and employs a good many English there, is an important 
British interest ; and so are the valuable oil-fields of the Anglo- 
Persian Oil Company, upon which our Admiralty largely depend 
for the motive-power of many of our modern war-ships. The 
peace and prosperity of Persia are much to be desired on imperial 
grounds. 

Notwithstanding the internal misgovernment of the country, 
the brigandage that renders travelling dangerous, the defective 
means of communication — bad roads and no railways, — there has 
appeared to be some improvement even in Persia. Bishop Stileman, 
whose admirable account of the present position, in 7'he East and 
The West, of April, 1915 no student can afford to miss, expresses 
the opinion that liberty of thought and intelligent interest in the 
welfare of the State have been increasing. This has not been due 
to the " dead hand " of Mohammedanism, which has in fact brought 
nearly to ruin one of the fairest lands in Asia, but to the freedom 
of intercourse with the outside world, and particularly with 
Christian Powers; and if the Christianity of the Powers is not 
very conspicuous, it at least does not suppress material and 
social progress as Islam does. Even the motor-cars and bicycles 



132 



C.M.S. Missions: Persia. 



Pakt II. 
Chap. 13. 



C.M.S. 
Stafi. 



Bishop 
Stuart. 



Women 
Mission- 
aries. 



now to be seen in Persia are the small outward tokens of a 
freshening air in an atmosphere of long-continued dulness and 
gloom. And there is always " the Charm of the East," as 
Mr. Eice expressed it in a delightful article in the CM. Review 
of March, 1909. Not a little of reviving breeze has come through 
the influence of the Christian Missions. 

The C.M.S. Persia Mission, like other missions in Mohammedan 
lands, is conspicuous for the importance of the medical missions 
and women's work. Both have exercised a distinct civilizing and 
humanizing as well as spiritual influence. But in briefly noticing 
the members of the Society's staff, we must first make mention of 
the leading ordained missionaries of the period. Going back as 
usual to 1899, we find that Bishop Stuart, the veteran of India and 
New Zealand, who had resigned his see of Waiapu to give himself, 
like his old comrade French, to missionary work among the 
Mohammedans, was in his fiftieth year of active service, and had 
ten more years before him. All who bore Persia on their hearts 
w^ere mourning the death of Henry Carless, concerning whom 
Bishop Stuart wrote, " Henry Martyn's solitary grave at Tokat in 
the north-west, and now Henry Carless's lonely grave on the 
south-east, seem between them to claim all Persia for Christ." 
Another clergyman, from Australia, the Eev. A. R. Blackett, of 
Melbourne, was at Kerman ; Dr. Tisdall, now so well known as 
one of the most accomplished scholars in the Church, was engaged 
in his important literary work; Mr. Eice was just about to occupy 
Shiraz ; Mr. Malcolm was at Yezd, and Mr. Stileman was 
Secretary. The figures then were, clergymen 6, laymen 2, wives 
5, other women 10 (including Bishop Stuart's daughter, not then 
on the official list), total 23. In 1914 they were, clergymen 7, 
laymen 8, wives 11, other women 22, total 48. 

Mr. Stileman and Mr. Eice have continued in the Mission,"' 
and so have the two medical men of 1899, Drs. Carr and White. 
Among the fifteen women (married and unmarried), only six are 
still in the Mission, including the daughter and two nieces of 
Bishop Stuart (and another daughter has joined since). The 
others are Mrs. Carr, and Misses Braine-Hartnell and Stirling. 
In the last year of our period two women have died, namely 
Mrs. White, who went out as Miss Davies-Colley in 1893, and 
Miss Mary Bird, w'ho was the first woman missionary sent to 
Persia in 1891. | Both deaths have been a great sorrow to the 
]\lission. Some who liave been added to the staff in our period 
are already almost veterans, as the Eev. A. K. Boyland, who joined 
in the Centenary year itself, and has married one of Bishop Stuart's 
nieces, who was in Persia before him ; also Mrs. Eice and Miss 

* But Bishop Stileman has been obliged by ill-health to retire, since this 
was written. See p. 136. 

t Mrs. Rico has written a memoir of Miss Bird, which has been published 
by the C.M.S. It is a striking picture of a most attractive personality. Miss 
Bird was a grand-daughter of B. M. Bird, a distinguished Indian civilian, and 
a cousin of JMrs. Isabella (Bird) Bishop, the famous traveller. 



C.J/.S. Miss/oxs: Persia. 133 

Briglity, dating from the same year ; and the Rev. W. H. Walker, part ii. 
who dates from the next year, 1900. Others who have joined chap^is. 
later and are still on the list, are the Revs. H. B. Liddell and J. H. 
Linton (the latter having previously been in West Africa) ; 
Drs. Dodson, Marrable, and Schaffter (a son of the Rev. H. J. 
Schaffter of Tinnevelly), Messrs. Biddlecombe (since ordained) 
and Allinson. Of the women w'ho have joined since, and are 
still with us, four are medical, Dr. Winifred Westlake, Dr. Lucy 
Molony, Dr. Catherine Ironside, and Dr. Alicia Aldous (now Mrs. 
Linton). Others, with ten years' service, are Misses Biggs, Ward, 
Macklin, and Thomas ; Miss Skirrow had that term of service also, 
but then retired. 

The pastoral and educational work at Julfa, the Armenian work at 
suburb of Ispahan, has gone on regularly, but an important J"^*^' 
advance was achieved when some of it could be moved across the 
river into the city itself, four miles off. For only four or five 
years before the Centenary had the residence of any European in 
Ispahan been permitted, but Miss Bird had before that courage- Access to 
ously ridden in weekly on her mule from Julfa and carried on her i^P^hau. 
simple dispensary work (she was not a qualified doctor), despite 
the threat of the mullahs to kill her. Just before the Centenary, 
however. Dr. Carr ventured to hire a house and live in it, using 
it for a mission dispensary; and a few months later, when he 
came aw'ay ill, Bishop Stuart moved into it. His niece, Dr. 
Emmeline Stuart, had already begun a regular dispensary for 
women. The British Minister, Sir H. M. Durand, being on a 
visit to Ispahan, inspected it, and expressed his admiration for the 
" brave ladies " who were " devoting themselves to the relief of 
suffering." Subsequently a new hospital was built, through the 
liberality of friends in New Zealand, particularly the late Arch- 
deacon S. Williams. There are now two hospitals, for men and 
women respectively, with 188 beds between them, which were 
occupied in 1914 by 2012 patients, while there were 41,580 visits 
of out-patients. In 1910 the first Christian church in Ispahan in 
modern times was built, at the cost also of the Williams family, 
and was dedicated by Bishop Stuart shortly before he finally left 
Persia. It stands between the two hospitals, with a door on each 
side for patients and their friends, and a curtain divides the men 
from the women, in deference to Persian feeling ; while a third 
door admits outsiders from the street. The boys' and girls' high 
schools, each with a liundi'ed pupils, are also now in the city ; and 
tlie boys' school, wluch is attended by many sons of high ofticials 
and other Persian gentlemen, is actually under the shadow of the 
great mosque. A new building for it, erected as a memorial to 
Bishop Stuart, was opened in April, 1915, in the presence of the 
Persian Deputy Governor of Ispahan, the British Consul General 
presiding. 

Another advance during the period was the occupation of shiraz 
Shiraz, the city with sacred memories for us all, as the place 



134 CMS. MISSIONS: Persia, 

Part IT, "where Henry Mai'tjm had his painful discussions witli the 
ciiap^i3. mullahs." Special interest is attached to tlie reports from Mr. 
Eice and others who Itave heen there for a few years. f At 
first there was much readiness to hear the Word of God, the 
mullahs heing afraid to oppose hecause the Persian Prince who 
was Governor was a strong man, and had actually joined Bishop 
Stuart in the church at Ispahan to pray for the Shah. When this 
Governor left, their opposition revived, but the Persian school and 
services were carried on ; and while Mr. Napier INIalcolm was 
there, Mrs. Malcolm, who was a qualified doctor, did useful 
medical work, .which at one time saved them from expulsion. J 
Unhappily the lack of reinforcements has left Shiraz without a 
resident missionary during the last five years, 
Yezdand From Yezd and Kerman, 200 and 400 miles from Ispahan 
I'espectively, to the south-east, the results have often l^een much 
more encouraging, and often very interesting. In 1902, Major 
Sykes told the Eoyal Geographical Society that " thanks to the 
unwearying devotion of Dr. White of the C.M.S., the tone of the 
people of Yezd had been changed from fanatical opposition to 
Europeans into adopting a friendly attitude." On one occasion 
the Governor of Yezd sent Dr. White in liis own carriage, with 
four horses and six armed out-riders, 250 miles, to attend the wife 
of another Governor, the journey taking eight daj^s each way. In 
three separate years riots led to the Governor's flight, and all 
Europeans might each time have been murdered, but for the fact 
that the ringleaders had l^een patients in the hospital, and out of 
• gratitude protected them. Yezd is the chief centre in Persia 
of the Parsi community, the remnant of the old followers of 
Zoroaster, some 8000 in number ; and it was a Parsi merchant 
who provided the first building for the hospital, which is now used 
for women, while a new one for men has been erected recently. 

As in other Mohammedan lands, the converts only come out one 
by one, but they have been more numerous in Persia than else- 
where. Year by year deeply interesting cases have been reported 
of both men and women. The Persian congregation at Ispahan 
has gradually grown to 200 or 300, and there have been many 
Mohammedan converts at the Easter Communion.§ 

* In 1905 Mr. Stileman was in the very house occupied by Martyn in 1812, 
and conversed with the grandson of the Persian gentleman who received 
!Martyn there. The centenary of Martyn's death was celebrated at Yezd on 
Oct. 16th, 1912, by a special service, at which the British Consul and all the 
Europeans were present. Bishop Stileman was in England at the time, and 
preached on Henry Martyn's career on the same day at Holy Trinity Church, 
Cambridge. The sermon was printed in the CM. Bevicio, Dec, 1912. 

t And particularly from Mrs. Rice. See, for instance, her article on the 
Women of Persia, in the CM. Eevleiv, Oct., 1910. 

X Mr. Malcolm wrote his experiences in his interesting book. Five Yearn 
in a Persian Toicn, published by Murray. 

§ On Christmas Day, 1914, nearly 800 people crowded the church, and an 
overflow service was arranged elsewhere for 180 women for whom there was 
no room ; but of course these were not all converts. 



C.M.S. Missioxs: Persia. 135 

As is well known, Persia is the home of what is now called p^rt ti. 
Bahiiism, the strange offshoot from Mohammedanism which has chap. i:{. 
lately put forward pretensions to he the best religion for the world, Bahuism. 
and has enlisted adherents, not only in Asiatic countries, but even 
in Europe and America among those many persons who are ready 
for any kind of religion provided it is not Christianity. The 
original Babi movement has developed into the Bahrd movement, 
so named from the second leader (after the original Bfib was 
executed in 1850), Baha Ullah ; and Baha Ullah's son, Abdul Baha, 
has visited England and other Western lands and proclaimed the 
new faith. This is not the place to enlarge upon Bahaism, but 
readers may be referred to the important article on it, by IMr. Eice, 
in Thp East and The West, Jan., 1913 ; and Dr. S. G. Wilson of the 
American Presbyterian Mission in Persia, described it both in the 
same periodical in -Tuly, 1914, and in the CM. Revieic of Jan., 
1915.* 

In recent years the condition of the country has been very bad. condition 
" With every branch of the Government full of bribery and corrup- " ®'^^'"^' 
tion ; commercially bankrupt ; with facilities for divorce, plurality 
of wives, and the abomination of temporary marriages, and the 
growing use of opium, Persia is a standing illustration of the 
powerlessness of Islam to regenerate the people." The grant of a 
constitution in 1906 seemed to make things worse, for every town 
asserted its own independence. Travelling has been dangerous, 
and robberies frequent.f Again and again the missionaries were 
attacked by brigands when travelling, and relieved of their posses- 
sions. Dr. Emmeline Stuart, being much respected for her 
medical work, was offered a military escort when she was leaving 
Ispahan for her furlough in 1908, which involved her riding on a 
gun carriage by day and sleeping under its shelter by night for 
ten days ; but two years later she was assailed by robbers in the 
city itself and searched for money, while a dagger was held at her 
throat. 

The missionaries regard themselves as safe enough with some ^3^],^!^.,^; 
of the troublesome wild tribes, the Bakhtiari for instance, for they 
have visited them and won their respect. Dr. Carr, Dr. Emmeline 
Stuart, Dr. Lucy Molony, and Dr. Catherine Ironside, liave spent 
weeks with them at different times, giving medical treatment to 
their sick. On one occasion Dr. Carr found a Bakhtiari chief 
dying, and by his bedside a copy of Sired Firstfruifs, the story of 
a Christian Arab martyr, originally written in Arabic by a Chris- 
tian Arab. 

The venerable Bishop Stuart continued to the last an intrepid ^1^1°^ 
traveller. In the early years of our period he made frequent 

* See also CM. Rev., Dec, 1912, p. 709; Feb., 1913, p. G8 ; Aug., 1913, 
p. 513. A book on Bahaism is included in the Islam Series published by the 
Christian Literature Society for India. 

t See, for example, the letters of ^Fr. Biddlecombe and Mv. Rice in the 
CM, Ecvicio, April, 1912. 



136 



CMS. Missions: Persia. 



PART II. 

Chap. 13. 



journeys with his daughter to outlying cities and villages. In 
1901 he went to New Zealand to see his relatives and friends 
there. From there he came to England, and retui'ned to Persia 
at the close of 1902. In 1905 he again went to New Zealand, 
again came hack to England, and again returned to Persia in 
1907. In 1910 he at last came home finally, in the sixtieth year 
of his missionary career ; and on March 15th, 1911, he entered into 
rest. Is there any quite parallel case to such a life ? Surely 
Edward Craig Stuart deserves a very high place on the roll of 
Christian Missionary Bishops. 

Bishop Stuart's status in Persia was not that of a hishop with 
territorial jurisdiction. He was only a missionary in episcopal 
orders. But on his death, the Archbishop of Canterbury arranged 
that Persia should be the recognized sphere of an Anglican Bishop ; 
and Mr. Stileman, who was a missionary of more than twenty 
years' standing, was chosen to be its first occupant. He was con- 
secrated on July 26th, 1912. It is a sad disappointment that his 
health proves not to be equal to his continuance in the office. 
His loss to the Mission will be great indeed. There is an interest- 
ing account by him of certain confirmation candidates in Persia, 
in the CM. Revmv of August, 1915. 

Persia has been a recognized C.M.S. mission field for just forty 
years. But its founder had been in the country as a pioneer five or 
six years before ; and that pioneer has passed away in this present 
year 1915. Dr. Eobert Bruce was called into the presence of his 
Lord on March 6th. To his devotion and (one may say) persist- 
ence the whole enterprise, under God, is due. He went to Persia 
to revise Henry Martyn's Persian New Testament. He laboured 
there twenty-four years, and eventually gave the nation the whole 
Bible, and the greater part of the Prayer Book, the Bible Society 
and the S.P.C.K. co-operating respectively. His memory should 
be honoured indeed.* He invited the London Jews' Society to 
undertake regular Jewish mission work, which has been by no 
means fruitless. Bishop Stileman tells us that he has confirmed 
nineteen Jewish converts, ten men and nine women, in the past 
two years. 

Tliere have been two otlier Missions in Persia. The American 
Board (Congregationalist) began its work in the northern provinces 
in 1833, but transferred it to the Presbyterians in 1871. Their 
centre is the capital, Teheran, and they have fine medical and edu- 
cational agencies. The Archbishop's Mission to the Assyrian 
Christians, lately abandoned, was mainly in Turkish territory, but 
that mission had congregations within the Persian borders, and 
its revived life was due to the influence of the Mission. 

On the: effect of the War upon the Persia Mission, see Appendix. 

* See the In Memoriam articles in the CM. Rcvieiv of April and May, 1915, 
by Archdeacon A. K. Monle and Bishop Stileman. 






CHAPTER XIV. 
INDIA: Its Rulers and Its Religions, 




Lord Curzon and other Rulers— Soldiers' Gifts to Missions— Royal 
Interest— King George's Visit : His Public Profession of Religion — 
The Unrest, its Causes and Limitations — The Renaissance — Opinions 
of Sir J. Bourdillon. Sir Mackworth Young, &c. — The Education 
Question : Failure of Secular Education — Power of Idolatry and 
Caste— The Dark Side of Hinduism — Modern Movements : Arya 
Samaj, &c.— Mrs, Besant's College— The Moslems: Aligarh College 
— The Population of India — The Prospect. 

British Eule and Rulebs. 

fN the year of the C.M.S. Centenary India received a partii. 
new Viceroy. On Jan. 6th, 1899, Lord Curzon took over f'liap^i-*- 
the reins of government. Of the brilHant Viceroyalty The New 
of the next few years this is not the place to speak ; of Tsm. 
but we may gladly remember that when it came to an 
end the Charch Afissioiiari/ Reriew felt able to set before its readers 
a fine though discriminating appreciation of it. Mr. R. Maconachie, 
to whose interesting " Indian Notes " from time to time that 
periodical is mucli indebted, contributed that appreciation in Sep- 
tember, 1907. The Rfripw had even before that quoted from 
Lord Cui'zon's farewell speech at Bombay his noble words, " Oh 
that to every Englishman in this country as he ends his work 
might be truthfully applied tlie phrase, ' Thou hast loved right- 
eousness and hated iniquity.' No man has, I believe, ever served 
India faithfully of whom that could not be said." 

Before Lord Curzon had entered on his high ofiice, his book on 
the Far East liad revealed an imperfect recognition of the objects 
and principles of Missions ; and in India he was never regaixled 
as their friend and supporter. And Mr. Maconachie was con- 
strained to point out in the Viceregal speeches many passages to 
which no representative of an Empii-e which professes to be 
Christian ought to have given utterance. The extracts given are 
very remarkable. Lord Curzon expressed to Hindus a hope that 
they would "remain true to their religion." To Moslems he said, 
" Adhere to your own religion, which has in it the ingredients 
of great nobility and of profound truth." And to Buddhists, " I 
beg of you not to be diverted from the old practices of your 
venei^able and famous religion." Such utterances as these go far 



138 



INDIA: Irs Rulers and Its Religions. 



Part ll. 
(;hap. 14. 



Lords 
Minto and 
Hardinge. 



Other 
Governors, 
Ac, 
friendly to 

Missions. 



Soldiers* 
Gifts to 
Missions. 



beyond the rightful official neutrality, and the strict personal 
impartiality, ^vhich have been maintained by other Britisla rulers 
in India who nevertheless have avowed not only their faith in 
Christ but their longing desire that all India should enjoy the 
blessings of Christianity. 

In England, however, since his return, Lord Curzon has 
repeatedly given important testimony to the character and work of 
the missionaries. Of their devotion in times of plague and famine, 
he said in 1908, " They stood literally between the dead and the 
living, and set a noble example of the creed of their Master." 
When Dr. Arthur Neve read a paper on his Himalayan travels 
before the Eoyal Geographical Society, Lord Curzon, who pre- 
sided, spoke of him in the warmest terms ; and he wrote stronglj' 
to Mr. Holland of the value of the Hostel system as worked by him 
at Allahabad. 

Not less appreciative was his successor, Lord Minto, to whose 
wisdom and courage India owes in no small measure the reforms, 
or rather developments, of administration which have so gratified 
the people and done so much to allay the growing unrest. And 
Lord Hardinge, himself a severe sufferer from that unrest — having 
been wounded by a bomb at Delhi on Dec. 23rd, 1912 — has again 
and again shown cordial sympathy with the mission agencies ; as 
also did his lamented wife, who, her husband having laid the first 
stone of the new C.M.S. church at Simla, paved its chancel with 
marble and presented it with a new Holy Table.* 

Other Governors, Lieut. -Governors, Chief Commissioners, kc, 
&c., have been kind friends of Missions, and some of them whole- 
hearted fellow-workers. Without distinguishing between these 
two circles, outer and inner, some names gathered almost at 
random from the Eeports may be mentioned. Sir Charles Elliott, 
Sir P. Cunningham, Sir W. Mackworth Young, Sir Andrew Eraser, 
Sir H. Deane, Sir F. Younghusband, Sir J. Digges La Touche, Sir 
J. A. Bourdillon, Sir A. Havelock, Lord Ampthill, Sir P. P. Lely, 
Sir A. Lawley, Sir J. Hewitt, Sir J. Meston, Sir C. Eivaz, are only 
a few of those named as visiting colleges and hospitals, presiding 
at prize distributions and other gatherings, expressing hearty 
appreciation of the work, and assisting it in many other ways. < 
Lord Kitchener's name appears once ; and Lord Roberts's two 
prefaces to Dr. Pennell's own book and the biography of him will 
not be forgotten. Some of those just mentioned, and many others, 
have sei'ved on the Corresponding Committees which have adminis- 
tered the Society's work in the different provinces. Eegular sul)- 
scriptions and anonymous donations are received from officials 
and civilians. Eor instance, at Quetta, a Colonel and a Major 
each maintained a missionary ; a Captain gave £200 a year ; and 
a number of English soldiers gave Es 20 a month to keep a bed 
in the mission hospital. A curiously interesting contribution was 
the gift l)y Capt. Wyndham to the hostel at Allahabad of the whole 
* Lord Chelmsford may be expected to be no less appreciative. 



India : lis Rulers and Its Religions. 139 

proceeds of tlie Aerial Post organized at tlie time of the Exhibi- part ii, 
tion there in 1911,— Es 2300. Earlier than this, in 1906, at that 'i"^". 
same city, the English and " Anglo-Indian " community, hearing 
of the retrenchments which the Society had at that time been 
obliged to order, formed a missionary association, and undertook 
the support of the Indian agents in the district. 

There have been three piiblic manifestations of royal interest in Roy-ii . 
India in our period. In 1905-06 Prince George and Princess Mary india. 
of Wales took a tour round India, and though they did not have 
an opportunity of meeting important bands of Indian Christians, as 
the Prince's father did in 1874-5, they did come into personal touch 
with a few of the missionaries, particularly at Benares.* In 1908, 
when just fifty years had elapsed since Queen Victoria took over 
from tlie East India Company the direct government of India, 
King Edward addressed a Message to the princes and people of the 
land. But these were small things compared with the visit of King King 
George and Queen Mary as Emperor and Empress in 1911-12, six vfa'it^*''' 
years after their tour as Prince and Princess of Wales. The 
effect of it lias been great indeed. It called forth everywhere a 
wonderful enthusiasm, showing how^ pai'tial was the unrest which 
had caused us all so much anxiety ; and we do not doubt that it 
did much to stimulate the loyalty which the War has so splendidly 
revealed.f 

Above all, the happy influence of the royal visit was seen in the His public 
unmistakable satisfaction of the people at the pubUc profession of oPReifg'io,, 
their religion by their supreme earthly rulers. Indians are 
emphatically a religious people, and there never was a greater 
mistake in British policy than when its representatives suppressed 
their own religious convictions — or rather their religious connexion, 
for tliere was often little sign that they had any convictions. 
" Indians prefer," says the present Bishop of Bombay, " tliat we 
should beheve in our own religion, and practise it. They cannot 
understand a man without a religion ; they suspect he does not 
practise the religion he professes to have." So when tlie only 
public function at Delhi on Sunday was a Christian service, and 
when on a long journey, partly of necessity taken on a Sunday, 
the King stopped the train at the time of divine service that he 
might alitend it in a tiny village church, the people realized that 
they had a Sovereign not ashamed of his faith, and were glad of 
it, although the faith was not their own. A Sikh chief actually 
sent to the Bishop of Lahore a gift to the church as a thankoffer- 
ing for the King's open acknowledgment of his own religion. | 

* See CM. Intell, April, 1906. 

t Very eloquent and picturesque articles on the King's visit appeared in the 
CM. Rpvieio of Feb., ]\Iarch, and April, 1912, by the Revs. Dr. Hooper and P. 
Ireland Jones. The latter enlarged especially on the dramatic announcement 
that Delhi was to be the new capital; 

X In an American book a lady who was at Delhi tells how an Indian asked 
her if she saw the King-Emperor kneel in prayer, adding, " I would rather 
have scon that than anything else in Delhi." Then his face changed : " How 



140 India .■ Its Rulers and Its Religions. 

The Unrest. 

ci^^. 14*. I't'6 King's visit to India was the best response to the unrest 
— whicli had prevailed during the previous few years, chiefly in 

in india.^^ Bengal and the Punjab. In Bengal it was called the Swadeshi 
liiovement,* which may be roughly rendered, using a very modern 
English phrase, as the " boycott " of things British. But how 
came it to arise ? Various answers may be given, and have been • 
given, to this question. Perhaps the ultimate cause was the 
beneficence of British rule, and the consequent peace and pros- 
pei4ty of the country. One is reminded of Deut. xxxii. 15, 
" Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked." Of coiu'se grievances were 
urged against the Government, and against British administration 
generally ; but these were not the cause of the unrest, only the 
excuse for it. And bearing in mind that cause and occasion are 
two very diiferent things, we may see one' occasion, at least in 
Bengal, in the division of that province by the separation for 
administrative purposes of its eastern portions from those of 
the centre and west. This was undoubtedly very unpopular 
for a time, for reasons not worth considering here and now, 
seeing that the partition was practically reversed after the 
King's visit, when a new and quite different partition was 
arranged. The Government system of secular education — about 
which more presently — is generally recognized as, if not exactly 
the cause of the unrest, yet largely responsible for the spirit of dis- 
content that prevailed. But behind all these there was a " subtle 
spirit " which had for some years been " hovering about the large 
cities of the Asiatic Continent, leading to a Pan-Asiatic renais- 
sance." t It was in part a revolt against the dominance of the 
"West, and was encouraged both by the difficulty England had 
found in subduing the Boers and by the greatness of the Japanese 
victory over Eussia. But it was much more than that. Future 
historians will undoubtedly perceive that the term ronakmin-e was 
as true of the movement in Asia in the twentieth century as of the 
inovement in Europe of the fifteenth ; and the Rev. C. P. Andrews 
rightly entitled his brilliant l)ook on India for Study Circles The. \ 
lleiuiifi^ancc in India. 

Its limited It is important, however, to bear in mind how small a section 
of the Indian population was affected by the unrest. Probably 

is it that all his officials do not do the same ? " " Perhaps," she said, " they 
do in private." " Ah ! " he rejoined, " hut he knelt in puhlic." {CM. Rev., 
Feb., 1913, p. 71.) 

* Mr. Wigrani writes, " Swadeshi is violent Protection of home-grown 
commodities, things belonging to the drsJt. J)<'.s/^ = country; Swa= own 
(as Lat. .•iuus)." A touching appeal to Bengali Christians, warning them 
against " Swadeshi," was written by Mr. K. N. Basu, M.A., a teacher in the 
C.M.S. High School at Calcutta. See CM. Jlcv., May, 1907. 

t From a paper read before the Calcutta Missionary Conference, July, 1907, 
by the Rev. H. Anderson, Secretary of the Baptist IMission ; printed in the 
C.M: Revieic, Dec, 1907. j^ 



Range. 



IxDiA: Its Rulers a. yd lis Religions. 141 

live-sixtlis of the tlivee hitndred millions of souls never even knew I'aut 11. 
that there was any unrest, or any gi'ievance to cause it. " They ^'"'p- ^^- 
are simple peasants engaged in the cultivation of the soil. Their 
wants are not social and political, but material, and if the rain 
falls in due season, and simple justice is done to them in their 
village and domestic affairs, they ask for nothing more." So 
wrote Sir James Bourdillon in 1909 ; * and he added that the 
other sixth of the population consists mainly of the more 
prosperous, more intelligent, and better educated section, in- 
cluding " almost all the native princes, the landholding and 
mercantile classes, and the ai'my," for the most part loyal and 
sensible. But a small fraction remains, " composed mostly of J.^'? 
lawyers, schoolmasters, and journalists, with a sprinkling of the fraction, 
other classes and a considerable following of students, who by 
dint of perseverance and clamour make themselves heard, and 
would fain deceive the world into thinking that they represent the 
people of India." In fact, the very term " Indian people " is a 
misnomer. In the many languages of the Indian peoples there is 
not even a word for " nation." The very idea of " national " 
rights and interests is a result of the unifying influence of British 
rule ; and the leaders of the " national " movement can only com- 
municate with one another by using the English language which 
they have almost all learned at government or mission schools. 
Such unity as India is now beginning to realize is due entirely to 
the one British rule. 

But although the agitators are only a " microscopical minority " 
(as Lord Dufferin called them), they can easily influence the 
ignorant and superstitious masses, if only they can find " fuel " 
for the "flame " they seek to kindle ; and in Bengal the partition 
provided the fuel for a time. If they fail to find it, they can 
manufacture it out of their own evil imaginations ; and as Sir 
Andrew Fraser fully explains in bis interesting book, Amomj 
Indian R'ljalta (iml Rijofs, unscrupulous agitators may at any time 
stir up an excitable people to riot by disseminating falsehoods 
among them. There lies the peril. 

Moreover, it has been pointed out tliat " there bus always been Uuresi uot 

unrest in India, but mostly of a religious character. Deep in the 

thought of India is the implication that all individual existence is 

an evil. The doctrine of Karma and transmigration teaches that i^P]^*."'"'. 

man is ever reaping that which he has sown, and until the round " 

of births and re-births ceases there is nothing but unrest." f This 

is not the place to enter on the vast subject of Indian religion 

and philosophy. J On the doctrine of Karma an illuminating 

* In an able article in the CM. Review, Aug., 1909. The peasant life of 
India is well described in S. K. Datta's book for Study Circles, The Desire of 
India, Chap. ii. 

t Rev. J. P. Ellwood, in CM. Revieio, Sept., 1911. 

X For the ordinary reader there is now no better cxpUuiatioii than in 
Andrews's " study book," Tli,c Renaissance in India. But there is nothing now 



new. 



142 



India: Its Rulers and Its Religions. 



Part II. 
Chap. 14. 



Religious 
Sanction 
claimed for 
Crime . 



Sedition 
must De 
suppressed, 



but not to 
deter us 
from 
generous 
action 



book has been written by Professor Hogg of Madras, to which the 
reader may be referred.* But it may be noted that the agitators 
of Bengal have sought even to justify murder by references to 
Hindu sacred books, as Sir Valentine Chirol's famous Letters to 
the Times pointed out. That able writer considered that some of 
the misguided students who have committed political murders 
would have been incapable of so doing if they had not found that 
they could invest their acts with religious sanction. They even 
cited — by a false interpretation — the Bhagavad Gita (the Lord's 
Song), " the loftiest production of Hindu religious thought," in 
which the doctrine of bhakti, or loving faith in and devotion to a 
personal God, as contrasted with karma (works and consequences), 
is set forth as the true way of salvation. f Bengal has had a suc- 
cession of high-minded and generous-spirited Governors, and not 
least noble among them was Sir Andrew Fraser ; yet there were 
four different attempts to assassinate him, which through God's 
mercy all failed. | 

In the face of all this we cannot be surprised at Lord Morley's 
language (in 1909), when he was in the very midst of the reforms 
and developments that signalized his tenure of the India Office 
and Lord Minto's Viceroyalty, " We are face to face with probably 
the greatest and most difficult problem of government with which 
our race has ever yet had to contend." Lord Curzon and Lord 
Cromer, a little earlier (1907), had agreed in saying that while 
" sedition must be firmly suppressed," we are " not to be deterred 
from adopting such reforms as are calculated to satisfy the aspira- 
tions of all moderate and reasonable men." And so King Edward's 
Message to India in 1908, on the fiftieth anniversary of the transfer 
of direct administration from the East India Company to the 
Crown, expressed the resolute determination of Great Britain : — 

" It is a paramount duty to repress with a stern arm guilty conspiracies 
that have no just aim. These conspiracies I know to be abhorrent to the 
loyal and faithful character of the vast host of my Indian subjects, and I 
will not suffer them to turn me aside from my task of building up the 
fabric of security and order." 

Mr. Maconachie, who has written much that is valuable in the 
CM. Review on the India he so devotedly served,§ while strongly 
condemning the agitators, gently reminded us that something is 

in these modern expositions. Tlie. Trident, the Crescent, and the Cross, hy the 
Rev. J. Vaughan, of Calcutta, published forty years ago, and now out of print, 
was as good as any. A series of quite popular articles based on it appeared 
in the CM. Gleaner in 1878. 

* See also an article on " Karma and the Problem of Unmerited Suffering," 
by the Rev. J. P. S. R. Gibson, of Trinity College, Kandv, CM. Review, 
Sept., 1913. Also one by Mr. Padfield, CM. IntelL, March, 1900. 

t See CM. Bevieiv, Sept., 1911, p. 528. 

X See CM. Bevieiv, Dec, 1908. 

§ Mr. IMaconachie not only has the experience of many years' service under 
Government, but he had the advantage of correcting old views by visiting India 
again in 1903-4.. See his interesting article in CM. IntelL, Aug., 1904. 



India: Its Rulers and Its Religions, 143 

needed ou our side. He headed one of his " Indian Notes " (Jan., part 11. 
1908), " Wanted— courtesy ! " " Something helpful, towards paci- chap. 14. 
fication," he declared, " can be done by every Englishman resident Courtesy to 
in India." " The idea of [an educated Indian], who in England indianl" 
would be received in a drawing-room on equal terms, being com- 
pelled to stand or sit on the floor when visiting an English official 
in India seems quite an anachronism. Yet have not some cases 
of this occurred?"* In which connexion we cannot but recall 
the perplexity caused to the Indian mind by the Sermon on the 
Mount. " Blessed are the meek " — " and yet, how could I offer a 
greater insult to the Sahib than to call him a ' meek man ' ? " It 
must certainly be admitted that not by " meekness " have EngHsh- 
men " inherited the earth." f 

The Eenaissance. 

But although, on the one hand, Indians may have real grievances, Unrest, in 
and although, on the other hand, shocking crimes have disgraced ^few^BiTtif 
the agitators, many of the best friends of India have taken a larger as testified' 
and more hopeful view of the " unrest," indicated already by the jien!^ '"^ 
word " renaissance." " India," wrote Sir W. Mackworth Young 
in 1909,1: "is undergoing the throes of a new birth." The Kev. 
A. E. Johnston, formerly Principal of the Divinity College at 
Allahabad, whose loss by death we have only lately been 
lamenting, w^rote of " the New Spirit in India." § The Eev. 
J. P. Haythornthwaite, for many years Principal of St. John's 
College, Agra, speaks of " the New Ideahsm," which he suggests as 
" a convenient expression for denoting the subtle and many-sided 
character of that remarkable life-movement frequently described 
simply as Nationalism." || Bishop Lefroy, now Metropolitan of 
India, speaks of "the stirring into a new life" w^hich is "the 
inevitable outcome of England's work in the past," and towards 
which " a sympathetic attitude is essential." The Eev. H. G. Grey, 
Principal of Wycliffe Hall, and formerly of St. John's College, 

* " Young Indians cannot, and will not, bear things that were done as 
a matter of course by Englishmen a generation ago. One slight but not 
unimportant index of this growth of self-respect is their dislike to be called 
' the natives,' as though they were an inferior race of beings. . . . Instances 
of British high-handedness are now resisted with resentment where before 
they would have been passively accepted. Each insult to British Indians in 
the Transvaal and other colonies is recorded at length in the Indian news- 
papers, and made the talk of the bazaars." — C, F. Andrews, The Renaissance 
in India, p. 171. 

t In this connexion, there is the cognate subject of the intercourse between 
the missionaries and the other Englishmen in India. Various opinions 
touching that intercourse are held. It uaay suffice here to refer to a judicious 
article by the Rev. E. F. E. Wigram in the CM. Intell. of March, 1906. ' 

t In an important address on the National Movement in India, delivered 
at Canon Christopher's Oxford Breakfast in 1909, and printed in the CM. 
Revieiv, April, 1909. 

§ CM. Review, Sept., 1011. 

11 Ibid, Oct., 1912. 



144 INDIA: Its Rulers and Its Religions. 

I'AiiT Ji. Lahore, says : " The present unrest is indicative of the strength ol" 
chai>^i4. ^]-,Q j-jQ^^, forces at work in the land . . . and that they may go on 
more mightily is the desire of every lover of India." Mr. Fraser 
of Trinity College, Kandy, says, " The National Movement is the 
expression of the growing self-consciousness of the peoples . . . 
It is rooted in the very depths of Eastern religious patriotic feeling." 
Mr. Holland of Calcutta says, " At bottom it is nothing else than 
the desire to make India the best, the greatest, the noblest she can 
be." Mr. Slater of the L.M.S., a man of long experience, says, 
" It is all a sign of progress, and progress in the right direction."* 
And the National Indian Congress, notwithstanding some wild 
utterances at its meetings (as might be expected), seeks to set a liigh 
moral standard, and has certainly grown more sane and reason- 
able year by year, as is admitted by some not prepossessed in its 
favour. 
Tiic new These are significant testimonies, and highly encouraging. 

Idealism, y^^ Haythornthwaite's account of the position is particularly 
clear and interesting. He describes the " New Ideahsm " as "a 
great aspiration in several directions — political, industrial, social, 
educational, and religious." He carefully distinguishes between 
the Extremist and the Progressive parties, [ii') Politically, while 
the former want an India free from British control, the latter only 
look for the gradual development of representative government, so 
that India may no longer be a "dependency," but, like Canada 
and Australia, an integral and responsible part of the Empire. 
\b) Industrially, while the former organized the Swadeshi move- 
ment, boycotting English goods, the latter, perceiving the folly 
of this in India's own interests, only desired that, in Lord 
Lamington's words, fiscal policy should not be governed by 
British trade interests, (c) Socially, the Extremists would retain 
and revive the power of caste, but the Progressives aim at welding 
all classes and creeds into one united people; in connexion with 
which Mr. Haythornthwaite happily quotes Burns : — 

It's coming iii for a' that, 

That man to man, the warld o'er, 

Shall brithers be for a' that. 

And he mentions some social arrangements at his College at Agra 
designed to foster this spirit of brotherhood, (d) Educationally, all 
parties condemn the past sj'stem of government education, but 
have not solved the problem, [p) Religiously, the Progressives have 
j{^ perceived the importance of the spirit of service and self-sacrifice, 

uokiiaie. which JNIr. Gokhale, their highly-respected leader, sought to foster 

♦ The opinions of Bishop Lefroy, Mr. Grey, Mr. Fraser, Mr. Holland, and 
IMr. Slater, were quoted by Sir W. Mackworth Young in the Oxford address 
above cited, and arc taken from it. Here may be mentioned an important 
book by ]\Ir. Slater, The lliijlicr Hinduism in Uelatioii to Cliristianity. It was 
reviewed by Mr. Padfield in the CM. Intell. of Jan., 1903. Also India's 
Froblcm, Krishna or Christ, by the Ilcv. J. P. Jones, reviewed Sept., l'JU3. 



India .• Its Rulers axd Its Relic ioxs. 145 

by his " Servants of India" Society;* but Mr, Playthornthwaite pabtit. 
shows ]iow Christianity alone can meet the real needs of India, and ^'''"^'' ^*- 
satisfy the aspirations of her peoples ; and he cites Professor 
Eudra, the able Indian Principal of St. Stephen's College, Delhi 
(connected with the S.P.G. Mission), as declaring that " in Christ 
India's children would gain the full fruition of their newly-found 
national consciousness. A great Indian Church would hecome 
possible, and therefore a great Indian nation." 

Sir James Bourdillon entitles his article, already quoted from, sir j. 
" The Opportunity of the Unrest in India." He approves of Mr. on the"'"" 
Holland's phrase, " Capture the National Movement for Christ," Umest, 
so far as it goes ; but his motif is a still larger one. The National 
Movement, he obser^'es, is but a part of the " Unrest." " Our 
aim," he finely says, " should be to dix-ect and control the Unrest 
in India as the turbulent volume of the Nile is tamed and con- 
trolled and transformed into a million rivulets of irrigation, bear- 
ing everywhere life, fertility, and blessing to the desert." " The 
idea," he adds, " is inspiring, and though with men it may seem to 
be chimerical and impossible of achievement, yet ' with God all 
things are possible.' " His chief practical suggestion is that we 
should win the hearts of the women, whose domestic influence is 
so potent in India, and also capture the education of the children ; 
concerning both of which more by and ])y. Sir W. Mackworth and sir w. 
Young, in the address already referred to, noticing some of the ^^- ^"""f-'- 
recent developments in India pointing towards a higher life, takes 
much the same line. He lays special stress on Social Eeform, 
refen-ing to " a few ardent souls among cultured Indians " who are 
" working hard to create a public opinion in favour of the relaxa- 
tion of caste, the emancipation and education of women, the re- 
probation of early marriages and enforced widowhood," &c. He 
was addressing a great gathering of Oxford men, and he rightly The Cause 
added, " The cause of India's women is not a woman's cause. If %}^wnf' 
ever there was a subject in w^hich the best manhood of Christian 
England is called upon to take a keen interest, it is this ; for what 
Englishman is there who knows not that to the dignity and purity 
of womanhood we owe the deepest debt for that which is best in 
our social evolution '? . . . Win the women of India, and you will 
win the men ! " Young India feels this deeply ; and as their women 
become educated, and come fortli out of the zenana to engage in 

* This Society was founded by Mr. Gokhale in 1906. Its objects are " to 
train national missionaries for the service of India, and to promote the true 
interests of the Indian people." Its members " frankly accept the British 
connexion as ordained, in the inscrutable dispensation of Providence, for 
India's good," and they recognize that " self-government within the empire 
and a higher life for their countrymen " constitute a good which " cannot be 
attained without years of earnest and patient effort and sacrifices worthy of 
the cause." Meanwhile, the Society's work " must be directed towards build- 
ing up in the country a higher type of character and capacity," and to this 
end it will " train men prepared to devote their lives to the cause of the 
country in a religious spirit." (Year Book of Indian Missions, 1912, p. GO.) 

li 



146 



India .• Its Rulers and Its Religions. 



Paut II. 
Chap. 14. 



social work, they are but reviving the ancient freedom of woman 
in Indian life which was interrupted by the Mohammedan purdah 
system, and restoring the romantic chivalry pictured in the best 
of Indian classics, the Eamayana,* We must not fail to recognize 
the fact that the political concessions of recent j^ears have done 
much, not perhaps to cure the unrest among the disloyal section 
before referred to, but to prevent its extension by satisfying the 
loyal majority. The admission to the Viceroy's Imperial Council 
of representatives of many sections of the people made a deep im- 
pression. At its first meeting under the new scheme, in 1910, 
Bengali, Mahratta, Sikh, Pathan, — Hindu, Moslem, Parsi, Jew, — 
were all there. It was a generous and a successful beginning. 



The Educational Problem. 

On the Education Question something more must be said, as it 
has been much under discussion during our period. There has 
been a general consensus that for the unrest and agitation the 
Government educational system was in no small measure respon- 
sible. For both the open and the secret agitators were almost all 
men so educated. Bishop Welldon said at Oxford in 1901, " The 
inevitable and actual result of Britisli government in India was to 
destroy native beliefs ; the secular education itself had this effect." 
" English education," said the Times in the same year, " instead of 
promoting mutual understanding between rulers and subjects, has 
created a disappointed class, and so far it must be regarded, from 
the political standpoint, as rather worse than a failure " In 1908, 
several Indian Chambers of Commerce addressed to the Secretary 
of State an open letter, which affirmed that many government 
schools were " notoriously nurseries of sedition,' because the 
secular system had no moral influence. That had come to pass 
which Dr. Duff, the greatest educationist in India, f had predicted 
long before, when addressing the General Assembly of the Church 
of Scotland. " If you give the people knowledge without religion, 
it will be the greatest blunder, politically speaking, ever committed. 
Shaken out of the mechanical routine of their own religious 
observances, without moral principle to balance their thoughts, or 
guide their movements, they become restless agitators." ]\Iost 
true are Lord Curzon's words — " We are sharpening the wits of 

* The chapter on Indian Womanhood in The Renaissance in India is one 
of the most interesting in the hook. Miss de S^lincourt, now the Principal of 
Westfield Collogo, who worked in India for some years, is quoted (p. 231) as 
saying that ton years had witnessed a groat change in the educated Indian mind 
about women, and that " champions of the woman's cause are now springing 
up on every side." See also an article on Indian Womanhood, by IMrs. J. F. 
Hewitt, in the CM. Bevicir, Dec, 1913, and another by Miss K. M. Bose, 
in the Int. Bev. Miss., April, 1914. 

t Dr. Duff's career, and his influence in India, are sketched in the History 
of C.M.S., Chap. 21, Vol. 1., pp. 302, 311 ; and Chap. 59, Vol. II., p. 490. Hi's 
Life by Dr. George Smith is a book of extraordinary interest. 



India .- Its Rulers and Its Religions. 147 

the people without forming their characters." Admitting that part ii. 
Government must be officially neutral, there are many ways ^^'^^- ^^ 
in which the obvious difficulty may bo surmounted ; particularly The true 
by encouraging local and unofficial efforts, giving grants-in-aid to 
colleges and schools according to their efficiency, whether 
established by Hindus, Moslems, or Christians, instead of multiply- 
ing secular institutions. This, in fact, was Sir Charles Wood's 
original design in the famous Educational Despatch of 1854, but it 
was never properly carried out.* 

One notable result of the mistake has been that non-Christian christian 
parents have continually chosen Christian schools or colleges for poplar, 
their sons rather than those of the Government, avowedly because 
the religious teaching had a moral influence upon them.f While 
they dislike the Christian teaching, they know it is not pressed 
on the pupils in unfair ways, and the prohibition of a change of 
religion under a certain age protects them. Missionary educa- 
tion is indeed a valuable evangelistic agency ; almost all the higher 
class of Indian Christians are the fruit of it; but the fruit is 
generally gathered after school days are over. It is a striking 
fact that at the time of the most serious agitation, when the 
Swadeshi movement was active, the Christian colleges were the 
one British agency not boycotted. Many cases of the preference 
for Christian schools appear in the Eeports of our period ; and 
one still more striking. In Tinnevelly Town, which is dominated 
by the great temple with its huge revenues and its army of 
priests, the only mission agency is the C.M.S. College. When the 
uni'est was at its height in 1907, a mob, instigated by the agitators, 
broke the College windows and furniture ; but a band of men, also 
non- Christian, gathered round ]\Ir. Schaffter, the Principal, and 
defended him from the attack. Yet that College has given several 
converts to the Church, and numbers amongst its " old boys " the 
Bishop of Doruakal. 

Happily the King's visit to India was made the occasion of New PoUcy 
starting a wiser policy. An official manifesto issued in the fol- George's"^ 
lowing year, confirming the largely increased grants announced "^'^'t- 
by himself at Delhi, lamented the tendency to develop the intel- 
lectual at the expense of the moral and religious faculties, 
laid stress on the formation of character, and announced large 

* On the Indian Education question, the following articles are worth 
noting for reference : — By Sir Andrew Fraser, in the Int. Rev. Miss,, July, 
1912, and July, 1913 ; hy the Rev. J. P. Haythornthwaite, in The East and 
The West, Jan. and July, 1913, and in the CM. Rev., July, 1911; by the 
Rev. A. P. Ealand, in The East and The West, April, 1915 ; and by the Rev. 
W. C. Peun, Principal of the Noble College, on "The Hope of India," in the 
CM. Rev., Sept., 1909. The history of educational plans and measures is 
sketched in The Renaissance in India, Chap. ii. See also Note on p. 157. 

t In a Hindu biography of a religious leader, it is acknowledged that he 
was " morally bad," but it is mentioned as an " extenuating circumstance " 
that at that time ^' feiwmissionaries were preaching." (Renaissance in India, 



148 



INDIA: Its Rulers and Its Religions. 



PART II. assistance to voluntary effort ; which policy lias since been illus- 
chap. 14. trated by handsome grants to C.M.S. colleges and hostels. The 
Government cannot teach religion itself, and it is best that it 
should not do so ; but it now realizes how essential religious 
education is, and hence the liberal treatment of religious institutions, 
— of course not Christian only, but also Hindu and Moslem. At 
the same time, the educational standard and plant which the 
Government demand in order to recognize and aid an institution 
is constantly being raised ; and it is severely trying the resources 
of the missionary societies to take advantage of the proffered help. 
It is not from mission colleges that the vast majority of the 
agitators come. The pupils, with rare exceptions, become the 
most loyal of the people. When Sir Curzon Wylie was murdered 
in London, it was an Indian from a mission hostel that seized the 
assassin. And the moral effect of the athletics cultivated in the 
mission colleges is great. Again and again have C.M.S. pupils 
carried off prizes in the sports open to all. They learn, as we 
say, to " play the game." 



Hinduism and its Developments. 

While secular education has tended to destroy faitli in any 
religion, it has not largely affected the outward observance of 
religious rites. These, in fact, are more or less connected with 
caste, and caste retains its mighty power even over the graduates 
of the Indian Universities. There is now and then a loosening of 
its bonds in the North, and even in the South this may ])e noticed. 
Yet it was from Bengal that a letter in 1906 mentioned the fact of 
University graduates, teachers in a secular college, worshipping 
the food they were just about to eat, and ceremoniously bathing 
during the eclipse of the moon. It was at the great temple of 
Kali at Calcutta that the most seditious meetings were held ; and 
it came out at the trial of certain anarchists that in an institution 
where the manufacture of bombs was secretly taught, lectures 
were also given on the Vedas and Upanishads. As a missionary 
tersely put it, " The sacred books were studied in the morning, 
and the art of assassination in the evening." Meanwhile the 
degradation of the popular religion has been as conspicuous as ever. 
There is no diminution of the glaring immorality that flourishes in 
the temples, no material change in what Miss Wilson-Carmichael 
calls " Things as they are," notwithstanding a proclamation by the 
Bombay Government against it in 1909. The "white-slave " traffic 
of England is a small thing in comparison. Infanticide is still 
common, and even " sati," though forbidden by law, is not extinct, 
several cases having been reported during the last few years.* Mr. 
Holland, whose whole temperament is to seek for whatever is good 
in Hinduism, wrote in 1906, after visiting a camp of " holy men " at 

* See, e.g., CM. Rev., April and Sept., 1914, pp. 257, 577 ; Feb., 191G, p. 125. 



L\D/A: Its Rulers and Its Religions. 



'49 



tlie great mela at Allahabad, " Never till now have I known what part ii. 
llinduism means. I simply did not know it existed. Degradation <-'''"!'• 14. 
imspoakable that cannot bo exaggerated. No missionary de- Uegrada- 
scription of the blackness of idolatry can approach the reality. . . . ^""ji'uism 
These sadhiis are at once the living representatives of philosophic 
Hinduism and the personification of all that is most degraded in 
Hinduism." 

This indictment comes not only from missionaries, h. few Mr. Oman's 
years ago, Mr. Campl)ell Oman, an Oriental by descent, and a ^'^^'^*'°^^'^*' 
professor of science in a government college, published a book 
entitled The Brahman.s, Theists, and Moslems of India. His word- 
pictures are drawn from personal experience, and his disposition 
is to defend, as far as he can, Eastern customs from the criticism 
of the West. He actually argues that the temple prostitution, 
being " sanctifiod by religion, and under recognized control, is 
morally less harmful" than the vice of Western cities. But his 
descriptions as an eye-witness of the orgies of certain types of 
religious w'orship are of such a kind that a reviewer* recommends 
"squeamish people" not to read them, although they do not, and 
dare not, give the whole. Moreover he affirms the prevalence of 
drunkenness, of which we are accustomed to think the Hindus 
are guiltless ; but Mr. Natarajan, a contributor to the Year Boole 
of Indian Missions for 1912, says there is a reaction against this, 
and that the younger educated men are total abstainers, the 
habitual drinkers being men past middle age. " Is this Hinduism," 
asks the reviewer, " the religion of the educated gentlemen whom 
we meet in our English colleges and elsewhere ? " Evidently the 
popular picture of "the Hindu as a mystical saint, rapt in the 
contemplation of the eternal mysteries, living a simple and self- 
denying life, and undistracted by the passions that sway the 
minds of worldly men," is true in a very limited sense, and of a 
very small minority. Mr. Oman affirmed that in Bengal religion 
is " a morbid, emotional affection " which " tends to sap the man- 
hood of the people and to effeminate the race " ; and the Times, confirnied 
referring to this book in a leading article (in 1907), asked : — ^imes 

" Is it too severe an iudictnient of a people amongst whom the most 
popular cult is that of the goddess Kali or Durga, the great goddess of 
death and destruction, who delights in bloody sacrifices "? Is it too 
severe an indictment of a people among whom such licentious rites as 
those of the Durga imjali are largely practised not only by the masses, 
biit even b3' many of the educated classes '? Is it too severe an indict- 
ment of a social system iinder which special sanctity attaches to the caste 
of Kulin Brahmans, whose privileges include the most outrageous and 
degrading form of polygamy ? " 

And how far mere material progress wdll affect idolatry may be 
illustrated by two facts referred to a few years ago in a Madras 

* This book was reviewed by Mr. Manlcy iu the CM. Review, April, 1908 ; 
and from that article the above is taken. 



150 



India -. Its Rulers and Its Religions. 



Part li. 

Chap. 14. 



Modern 
Move- 
ments. 



Bralmio 
Samaj. 



Arya 
Samaj. 

India 
borrows 
from the 
West. 



newspaper, viz., a procession of the god Ganesha mounted on a 
bicycle, and the cult of the motor-car as an incarnation of the 
Spirit of the Ages ! 

Past history shows that every time some new religious system 
has found an entrance into India, the ancient Hinduism, while not 
seriously shaken from its predominant position, has been so far 
affected that some great teacher has put forth fresh views of 
doctrine and life, which have not only brought disciples to him, 
and perhaps inaugurated a new religious body, but also have 
modified in some way the general Hindu teaching. Mr. Johnston, 
in his article on the New Spirit, illustrates this historical fact, 
and further shows how the same effect has been produced by the 
advent of Christianity. The Brahmo Samaj of Bengal was the 
first attempt to combine the new light thus introduced with the 
old religion ; but its influence has not been conspicuous during 
the period under review.* The Census of 1911 showed a total of 
5500 members, an increase of 1000 in the decade. Its much 
respected leader, Protab Chunder Mozumdar, died in 1905. 
Another body, however, the Arya Samaj, founded about 1875 by a 
Mahratta Brahman named Dayanand Saraswati, has grown rapidly 
in power, particularly in the North, and its members numbered 
243,000, an increase in the decade of 166 per cent, f It is much more 
hostile to Christianity than its more moderate and dignified fore- 
runner. It is an attempt to drop some of the excrescences of later 
Hinduism, and to go back to the teaching of the Vedas, the oldest 
of the Hindu sacred books. But its leaders are quite oblivious of 
the fact that their own knowledge of the Vedas is due to British 
research. It seems that Dr. Mill, the Principal of Bishop's 
College eighty years ago, was the first to reveal to the pundits 
of Calcutta the relative dates and characters of their own sacred 
books ; and the fact is that Max Miiller and Monier Williams did 
more to introduce the Vedas to the modern Hindu than the 
Brahman priests of Benares. Even the Bhavagad Gita (before 
mentioned), which is now in the hands of every one who can 
read, was a rare book within the lifetime of men now in India, 
and was barely known to a few pundits a century ago. 

The Ayra Samaj does not realize this ; on the contrary, one of 
its members has declared that all the great religions, Christianity 
included, have been derived from ancient Hinduism. J But it pays 
Christianity the sincerest form of flattery by imitating its methods 
of promulgation. It establishes schools and orphanages, distributes 
tracts, and sings hymns, some of them translations of familiar 
Christian hymns ilike " Lead, kindly hght." It teaches the unity 



* The story of the Brahmo Samaj, of its founder. Ram Mohun Eoy, and 
its great loader, Keshub Chunder Sen, was told in Chap. GO of the Historij 
of G.M.S., entitled " Babus, Brahmos, Borderers," Vol. II., pp. 501-518. 

t On the Arya Samaj, see Mr. Snell's article on the Census in the CM. 
Rev., April, 1915. 

J J. N. Farquhar, in the Tiil. llco. Miss., July, 1914. 



India: Its Rulers and Its Religions. 151 

of God, denounces idolatry, and professes, though not very truly, pam ii. 
to disregard caste. It has oven begun to admit outcastes into its '!^ 
fold, a proceeding which may tend to check the " mass movement " 
among them in a Christian direction. Its great college at 
Hardwar, in which Western science is combined with ancient 
Indian literature, aims at high moral principles and conduct. It 
has also the Dayanand College at Lahore, another important 
institution doing good work in its way (though not free from 
the taint of sedition). But all the while, the Arya Samaj is the 
most bitter antagonist of the Gospel. Indeed, its social work is 
only undertaken to help forward its religious influence. And it 
claims to have " effectually checked conversions to both Christi- 
anity and Islam " " by keenly criticizing popular Islam and popular 
Christianity " and " mercilessly exposing their weak points." ■• 

In the Bombay Presidency there is the Prarthana Samai, which otiior 
IS more on the lines of the Brahmo Samaj and is identified with 
the Social Eeform movement. Its leading founder was Justice 
Eanade, the first native Fellow of Bombay University, and a man 
of high character and great learning. At Poena also is the 
Fergusson College, whose Principal, a Marathi Brahman, Mr. 
Paranjpye, was Senior Wrangler at Cambridge, and in which one 
of the teachers w^as Mr. Gopal Krishna Gokhale, the Indian 
member of the Viceroy's Legislative Council, whose recent death 
has been so widely lamented, f 

Movements like these must tend to shake the supremacy and 
exclusiveness of the Brahmans. According to ancient Hinduism, 
they alone have the right, or the capacity, to teach religion. But 
many modern leaders of new sects are not Brahmans ; nor are 
conspicuous " holy men " like Swami Yivekananda, the apostle 
of " the new Vedanta," a strange mingling of Christian philan- The new 
thropy and Hindu philosophy, who anticipated in some of his ® "^^ '"" 
views the more recent National Movement. In a Madras lecture 
he declared that Christianity was " a very patchy imitation of 
Hinduism." He appeared at the great Parliament of Keligions at 
Chicago in 1893, and when he returned to India he was enthusi- 
astically received by the student classes as a national hero, and 
was acclaimed as having converted the West. But Mr. Johnston 
says that he was actually expelled from a Hindu temple as an out- 
caste who had presumed to represent Hinduism as if he were a 
Brahman. 

It is right to recognize the good elements in the National 
Movement, and the varied fruits of the " renaissance." But a 
sympathizer like Mr. Andrews acknowledges the dark side. " A 
close survey," he says, " reveals many dire failures, and nmch that 

* Lajpat Rai, iu Conkmpoiari/ Review, May, 1910. 

t Mr. iMaconachie paid a tribute of respect and appreciation to the late Mr. 
Gokhale in the CM. lieu., June, 1915, p. 370. All the above movements aro 
described in Mr. J. N. Farquhar's recent book on Modern Religious Move- 
ments in India ; and more brielly in Tltc iicnaiasancc iii, India. 



152 



INDIA: Ij's Rulers and Its Religions. 



PAiiT u. is still dark and even revolting in the teaching and practice ol' 
Chap. 14. so^ie of the new sects. There are those who love darkness rather 
than light, and such are impelled, when light comes into their 
world, to a more desperate denial of its revelations and resistance 
to its demands." * 
View of Professor Cairns, however, in his masterly review of Indian 

Uakns!°^ Eeligion for the Eeport of Commission IV. to the Edinburgh 
Conference, — a Eeport based on the letters to the Commission 
from many leading missionaries, — is of opinion that modern 
" Vedantism, in one or other of its forms, is a more formidable 
and all-pervading influence than either of the theistic Samajes." 
He sees in it a striking parallel with " the all-pervading Hellenism 
which conditioned all the labours and the thought of the later 
years of St. Paul and St. John, and, in a still greater degree, the 
labours and the thought of the Fathers." And he significantly 
alludes to features of Hellenism alongside of its noble philosophy : 
" its beautiful but poisonous mythology, its corrupt sexual morality, 
its cruel system of slavery." But this is too large a subject to be 
entered on here.f 

One movement belonging to our period which has little indeed 
to commend it is the Theosophical Society, with the establishment 
of the Central Hindu College at Benares by Mrs. Annie Besant. This 
College has been financed by wealthy rajahs, who have given it 
lands and money munificently. Painful indeed has it been to find 
English men and women engaged as its professors and teachers, 
and instructing Indian boys and girls in what is essentially 
Hinduism, though in a more or less occidental dress. One of 
these English ladies died there, and her body was duly burnt on 
the bank of the Ganges, the ashes being scattered on its waters. 
Idolatry, astrology, charms, incantations, are defended as good 
" magnetism " ; and Mrs. Besant herself has discussed and excused 
in her magazine the legendary immoralities of Krishna. | Her 
teaching is in the main that of Colonel Olcott and Madame 
Blavatsky, which was so mercilessly exposed thirty years ago ; § 
and the whole enterprise has been unveiled by Miss E. E. McNeile, || 
and by Mr. Farquhar in his book on Modern Eeligious Movements 
in India. The stricter Brahmans never viewed Mrs. Besant's 
Society and College favourably, and in 1904 a public lecture was 
delivered at Benares, with the title, " The Theosophical Bubble 
Pricked." Moreover, the National Movement is not with her. 
Many of its members object to this new " foreign intrusion." " We 
do not want to bind round our necks a chain of new superstitions, 

* lienaissmicc in India, p. 143. 

t See Vol. IV. of the Edinburgh Reports, pp. 217, 245, &c. ; and p. 276. 

X The Bcnaissancc in India, p. 149. 

§ Old readers of the CM. Intelligencer will not have forgotten the late 
Bev. G. Knox's crushing articles, culminating in the one entitled, " The 
Collapse of Koot Hoomi," in Jan., 1885. 

II In The East and Tlie West, April, 1913, and Jan., ]914. See also her article 
in the CM. Review, Nov., 1908. 



INDIA: Its Rulers and Its Religions. 153 

having just dibcarded our own." * The recent unsavoury case in partH. 
the law-courts, arising out of Mrs. Besant putting forward an ^h^P^i*- 
Indian boy as " the Star in the East " and as a second Christ, 
suggests the kind of morality inculcated, j 

Another English lady meanwhile came forward to rescue the ^'4M'*^ 
beauty and purity of Hinduism from the unhallowed cavils of 
Western Christendom, and " Sister Nivedita," whose real name 
was Miss Margaret Noble, seemed for a short time to have even 
surpassed Mrs. Besant in influence. But observe, it is always to 
the West that Hinduism has to look for its champions. 

The attitude towards Christianity of many educated Hindus is A Hindu 
illustrated by an article which appeared a few years ago in the "^^ ^"*' 
Fortnijihthj Rrricir. The writer was Mr. P. Venkata Eao, described 
as " a Hindu scholar of considerable reputation, who in the course 
of a long life had heard and read much about Christianity," and 
had been asked by missionaries why he was not a Christian ; and 
the article, headed, " Why I am not a Christian," was his answ^er 
to these queries. His reasons were, in brief, (1) the untrust- 
worthiness of the Bible, as shown by modern critics, (2) the 
impossibility of miracles, (3) the incredibility of the doctrine of 
Sin and the Fall, (4) the doctrine that the w^orld is governed by 
a Being all-powerful, all-wise, and all-good, which he could not 
believe. The Eev. E. F. Pearce, of Calcutta, reviewing this ^^^.^^,_. 
apoloiii(i,% showed (1) that its arguments w^ere all from European Reply, 
sources. " Critics of Missions sometimes tell us that Indian 
Christians are Westernized ; but no Christian ever adopts an 
attitude so fundamentally Western as this Hindu assailant of 
Christianity." (2) That the writer does not believe in a personal 
God at all, whereas the Vedas he professes to cleave to consist 
largely of hymns to personal deities ; so he is really no more a 
Hindu than a Christian ; (3) That he is compelled again and again 
to recognize much good in Christianity, although he professes to 
think it absurd ; — " an evidence," observes Mr. Pearce, " of the 
tremendous power which Christianity is gaining over the minds 
of Hindus." 

This power, in fact, impresses all thoughtful observers. The ^^j^.^**° 
"New Spirit" before refen-ed to owes its principal impetus to aaity. 
Christianity. And the moral and social evils of India are being 
ever more and more recognized, and even denounced, by the very 
men who nevertheless oppose the Gospel which w^ould remedy them. 
The modern educated Hindu cares for the sick poor, and builds hos- 
pitals for them. He advocates the relaxation of caste, the elevation 

* The Renaissance in India, p. 47. 

t The trial was reported in the Times of May Sth, 1913. It, and the subse- 
quent proceedings, were duly noticed in the C.M. Review of July and Nov., 
1913, Jan., Feb., March, July, Dec, 1914. See also Miss McNeile's articles in 
The East and The West before referred to. 

X In the C.M. Review, Nov., 1909, whence the above particulars are taken. 
The article in the Forttiighilij was in Sept. of that year. 



154 



India: Its Rulers and Its Religions. 



PART II. 

Chap. 14. 



But slow 
Change of 
Opinion. 



of the depressed classes, the education of women, the re-marrying 
of widows, the abohtion of child-marriage. He is ashamed of the 
revelations of the Census, the nine millions of " wives " or widows 
under fifteen ; of the fact that the large majority of the " husbands " 
were not boys betrothed early, but grown men ; and of the shocking 
evils which these figures imply. Moreover, he cannot forget that 
Hinduism never moved to remedy them until Christianity led the 
way, and that, even now, the general public opinion will not 
tolerate effective action against them. For instance, although young 
India condemns child-marriage and advocates the re-marriage (or 
rather, real marriage) of child-widows, and although such re- 
mari-iage is now legalized, scarcely any practical change has 
ensued. Out of the millions of Hindu widows, only some 200 
(of those of am) age) are married each year.* And while the poet 
and philosopher Eabindra Nath Tagore declares that " the regene- 
ration of India directly and perhaps solely depends upon the 
removal of the condition of caste," f the caste system remains almost 
as despotic as ever. And even our modern educated Hindu, while 
he respects Christianity, seeks for Western excuses for rejecting 
its claims upon himself.J 



The 

Moliam- 

luedans. 



strange 
Rumouis. 



SkG. K. 
Scott- 
Moncrieff 
on Moslem 
Bigotry. 



The Mohammedans. 

We have been concentrating our attention almost entirely upon 
the Hindus. But we must not forget the Mohammedans, who are 
a most powerful section of the Indian peoples. In North-West 
India they are the great opponents of the Gospel. At Peshawar 
a year or two ago certain Moslems essayed to show the victorious 
progress of the true faith of Islam by affirming that it was fast 
spreading in England, that one princess and several of the nobility 
had declared themselves Mohammedans, that Canon Sell, the 
C.M.S. Secretary at Madras, whose wTitings on Islam are so 
important, had embraced it, and that the Principal of the Edwardes 
College at Peshawar had been recalled home to try and stem its 
progress ! Although there have been a great many converts from 
Islam in India, the difficulties they meet with are great. Sir G. K. 
Scott-Moncrieff, writing in his valuable book Eastern Missions from 
a Soldier's Standpoint (1907), says : — 

" Of course the law of the laud gives, as far as it can do ao, religious 
liberty, and no one can be punished in a court of justice on the plea of 
conversion to another faith. But let a nian once pass the line which 
divides respect for the religion of the ruling race from acceptance of its 
teaching, and he will then find all the power of bigotry and persecution 
directed against him in every possible way. I know of two cases where 

* licnaissance iii India, p. I'J'J. 

t Ibid., p. 185. 

X Mr. Waller (the new Bishop of Tinuevelly) sets forth in an iufccresting 
way the attitude of various classes in North India towards Christianity in the 
CM. Bcuiciu of March, 1909. 



India: Irs Rulers and Its Religions. 155 

Christiau subordinates in the Public Works, both converts from Islam, Pakt II. 
were the victims of cleverly concocted conspiracies, got up by their former Wiap^ll. 
co-religionists, with evidence so skilfully ' cooked ' as to be on the face 
of it incontrovertible, and yet to one who knew the men incredible. 
Both conspiracies were quite successful in achieving the ruin of the 
victims. I have known the case of a young chief, about to be baptized, 
who was kidnapped, stripped, and beaten, after bribes had been found 
useless ; and a young Mohammedan friend of mine, who was as fully 
persuaded of the truth of the Gospel as ever a man could be, implored 
me to take him to England, there to be baptized, for he said that life in 
his country would be an impossibility." 

The Mohammedans of India long resisted the temptation to 
accept government education, and Census after Census showed 
how behindhand they were. In ilhteracy they still continue to 
be more conspicuous than the Hindus, but in recent years they 
have done better. The change in their views, or at least the The Aiigaiii 
lessening of their prejudice, is largely due to Syed Ahmad Khan ^"'I'^se. 
(afterwards Sir Syed), a noble of Delhi who was a firm ])oliever 
in the advantages of British rule, and had been loyal in tlio days 
of the Mutiny. He was an ardent Moslem, but he l')elieved that 
education would promote and not hinder the influence of Islam. 
He founded the great College at Aligarh, assisted by inauy 
Englishmen who desired the enlightenment of the Moslem 
population. The college has been a strong centre for the new 
party of liberal Mohammedans that gradually grew up. It has 
succeeded in bringing the Sunnis and the Shiahs together for 
daily worship as they have not been brought together anywhere 
else in the Moslem world ; and Mr. Haythornthwaite tells us it 
" has produced a distinct type of student who can be readily 
recognized because of his manly bearing, courteous manners, and 
disciplined character." •■ Its influence is not confined to India. 
" Students from Java and the Malay Peninsula, from Kabul and 
Turkestan, from Mombasa and Zanzibar, have spread from thence 
the new Islamic thought." | Dr. Mott was invited to address the 
men when he was in India in 1912, and he wrote, " Nowhere did 
I have a more enthusiastic reception."' 

It may be doubted whether the higher education of men can fhe Begum 
raise the whole community so long as women are excluded from of Bhopai. 
its benefits and the purdah system is maintained. But when an 
enlightened Moslem female ruler like the Begum of Bhopai 
proposes to establish a Women's College at the new city of Delhi, 
we see that even in Islam the "New Spirit" may appear. And 
it has one great advantage in Ijeing without caste. INIoreover, the 
Mohammedans of India, who were formerly regarded as the least 
loyal of the population, have greatly changed in recent years. 
Lord Minto's reforms pleased them ; and the enthusiastic way in 

* The East and The West, July, 1913, p. 325. The college was described 
in the CM. Inicll. of Oct., l'J05 by Mr. Mylrea, and in July, 1906 by Mr. 
Pombciton. 

t RcnaissaJicc in India, p. 127. 



156 



India: Its Rulers and Its Religions. 



I'AUT 11. whicli they have rallied to the British cause in the present War is 
chap^i4. highly significant and encouraging. 



Poinilation 
of India. 



Hapid 

Christian 

Advance. 



The population of India by religion in 1901 and 1911, as 
recorded ))y the Census, was as follows : — 



Religion. 


1901. 


1911. 


Increase 
per cent. 


Hindu . . 

Mohammedan 
Buddhist . 
Animistic . 
Christian . 
Sikh . . . 
Jain . . . 
Parsi . . 
Jewish . . 
Unclassified 






207,147,026 

62,458,077 

9,476,759 

8,584,148 

2,923,241 

2,195,339 

1,334,148 

94,190 

18,228 

129,900 


217,586,920 

66,623,412 

10,721,449 

10,295,168 

3,876,196 

3,014,466 

1,248,182 

100,100 

20,980 

37,108 


5-04 

6-66 

13-13* 

19-94* 

32-24 

37-37* 

- 6-44 

6-27 

15-09 

- 70-98* 








294,361,056 


313,523,981 6-51 



It will be seen that the percentage of increase among the 
Christians is much the largest (except among the Sikhs, which 
is explained in the footnote). Deducting the Europeans and 
Eurasians, the numbers of Indian Christians was as follows at 
four Census periods :— 



In 1881 . 


. 1,506,098. 


Increase 22*0 per cent 


In 1891 . 


. 2,036,178. 


,, 33'9 ,, 


In 1901 . 


. 2,664,313. 


30-7 


In 1911 . 


. . 3,574,770. 


34-2 „ 



These figures will be further set forth in detail hereafter.f 
How can this chapter be more fitly concluded than by quoting 
Mr. Maconachie's eloquent *ivords ? : — ■ 

" If wc can denationalize the idea of Christ, if we can convince these 
peoples, mostly gentle, and gifted with such great spiritual possibilities, 
that it is the World's Savioiu: Who is being presented to them by Ikitish 
brothers rather than conquerors ; if in our progressive development of 
liberal ideas of government we can also convince them that we are really 
seeking their whole good rather than merely our own worldly advantage, 
that we are holding our power unselfishly on behalf of the ignorant and 
helpless masses, associating Indians with Englishmen steadily more and 



* N.B. — The large increase of the Sikhs is due to the inclusion with them 
in 1911 of another sect. The increase of the Animists is due to more correct 
classification ; and this also causes the diminution of the unclassified. The 
Buddhists are almost entirely in Bui-ma. 

■ t On the non-Christian populations shown by the Census, see an article by 
]Mr. Snell in the CM. Review, April, 1915 ; and on the whole subject, one by 
Mr. S. K. Datta in the Int. Rev. Miss., Oct., 1914. 



INDIA: Its R[rLF.RS AND ITS ReTJGIOXS. I 57 

more in tlic discharge of our great trusteeship, — then we may humbly Tart II. 
trust that, trying to do God's will, we shall be owned and used and Chap^l4. 
preserved of God." * 

And Mr. Kudra's, the Principal of St. Stephen's College, Delhi. 
It is interesting to see that the experienced British civil officer, 
and the learned Indian Christian, are one in their aspirations : — - 

" I regard the ultimate victory of Christianity as certain, if only the The 
Person of Christ Himself is raised high before the eyes of India without victor''^" 
any intervening Western medium. To that Person, as the one centre of sure?'^ 
unity of races aud classes, we Indians, both Christians and non- 
Christians, are lookmg more and more for our inspiration, guidance, and 
life." t 

And tlie victory of Christianity will not expel the Indian 
classics from India. What Homer and ^schylus and Plato, 
Cicero and Virgil and Tacitus, have heen to Christian Europe, 
tliat the Vedas and the Bhagavad Gita and tlie Eamayana will be 
to Christian India. Matthew Arnold's picture will not continue 
the true representation of India : — 

The East bowed low before the blast, 

In patient, deep disdain ; 
She let the legions thunder past, 

Then plunged in thought again. 

But A. H. Clough will prove right, — 

For while the tired waves, vainly breaking. 

Seem here no painful inch to gain. 
Far back, through creeks and inlets making. 

Comes silent, flooding in, the main, 

♦ CM. Review, Jan., 1909, p. 8. 

t The East and The West, July, 1913, p. 307. 



;NoTE TO Page 147." 

It is not possible to treat the great subject of Educational Missions 
adequately here. Particular G.M.S. Colleges, &c., will be noticed under the 
different Missions. The following recent articles, &c., in the missionary 
periodicals should be referred to for further information : — By the Rev. W. E. S. 
Holland, im the CM. Revieiv, July, 1909, and in The East and The West, Jan., 
1912; and by the Rev. N. H. Tubbs, in the CM. Bev., March, 1909. On the 
Education of Women, there were important articles bv Miss E. R. McNeile 
in the C.ilf. Rev., Feb., 1910, and Nov., 1913, and by Miss McDougall in the 
Int. Rev. Miss., Jan., 1914, and The East and The West, July, 1914, 



CHAPTER XV. 
India .- The Christian Missions. 

Statistics of Missionary Societies— Summary of their Work — The Indian 
Missionary Society — Statistics of Indian Christendom — Indian Esti- 
mate of Christian Progress — The Mass Movements — Character of 
Indian Christians — British Opinion and Treatment of them — The 
Anglo-Indians — Attitude of the Christian Church towards Indian 
ReHgions : Sir J, Bourdillon, B. Lucas, J. N. Farquhar, Prof. Hogg, 
Bishop Copleston, Bishop Whitehead, Prof. Cairns, &c. 



Part II. 
Chap. 15. 




INDIA is the greatest of the mission fields, judged by 
the number of missionaries and of converts, though 
China is greater if judged by the population to be 
reached. The latest available and complete statistics 
are contained in the Year Booh of Indian Missions 
for 1912, and these are late enough to serve our present purpose. 
It must be explained that they include Burma and Ceylon. 

It is easy both to over- and to under-estimate the value of 
statistics. There is nothing, it is said, so misleading as figures, 
except facts. In India, a native Christian community of three 
and a half million sounds large, but we have to remember that 
the great l)ulk of these are in the farthest south, and are the 
descendants of converts of past centuries, not, therefore, the fruit 
of modern Missions. On the other hand, it is admitted on all 
hands that mere figures quite fail to reveal the wide and increasing 
influence of Christianity. So that, both ways, we liave to weigh 
results as well as to count them. 

But we will first examine the statistics of the missionary workers 
and their work. 



The Mis- 
sionary 
(Societies. 



Statistics of Workers and Work. 

Tlie number of Protestant Missionary Societies, large and small, 
working in this great field, as stated in the tables referred to, is 
no less than 136. Of these, 41 are British, 41 American and 
Canadian (which are reckoned together), 8 Australasian, 12 Con- 
tinental, 22 Local (having their home base in the field), and 12 



I 



India .■ The Christian Missions, 



M9 



" Independent " or " International." Their missionary forces com- pabt ii. 
prise (or rather comprised) 2076 men and 3124 women, total 5200 ; *"'^tE: ^^ 
and their Indian workers, 28,320 men and 10,138 women. The 
tables give the "ordained" and "unordained" men separately, 
but as some of the denominations have uncertain standards for 
" ordination," the men are here all counted together. 
The following are the principal Societies ; — 



Foreign. 



Indian. 



Bi'itish — - 

Church Miss. Soc. . 
.Ch. of E. Zenana Soc* 
Soc. Prop. Gosp. . 
Lond. Miss. Soc. . 
Wesl. Miss. Soc. . 
Bapt. Miss. Soc. . 
i^stab. Ch. Scot. . 
Uu. Free Ch. Scot 
Salv. Ai-mv . . . 



American — 

Meth. Episc. Ch. 
Bapt. Union. . 
Presb. Bd. N. . 
A. B. C. F. M. . 
Un. Presb. Bd, 



Men. 
230 

103 
152 
80 
75 
32 
89 
70 



162 

160 

64 

37 

29 



Women. Total. 
271 501 



Continental — 
Basel Miss. Soc. . 
Gossner Miss. . . 
German Ev. Lnth. 



89 
50 
35 



162 
98 
91 

110 

136 
92 

131 
80 



316 

240 

100 

59 

68 



80 
42 
49 



162 
201 
243 
190 
211 
124 
220 
150 



478 

400 

164 

96 

97 



169 
92 

84 



Men. 
3594 

1466 
1643 
1542 
839 
247 
2016 
1901t 



3240 
3240 

652 
1225 

329 



Women. 
1122 
850 
444 
361 
444 
216 
425 
300 



1943 
582 
150 
537 
116 



826 41 

319 55 

552 134 



These seventeen Societies have thus together 3582 missionaries, 
leaving 1618 divided among the other 119 Societies. 

The Protestant Societies employ, in addition to the 38,458 
Indian Christians, 3575 non-Christians, chiefly as teachers of 
secular subjects in schools.^ 

The Eoman Catholic Missions in India are described in the Roman 
Year Book by Father Hull of Bombay. He states that there are ^"*^'°°s- 
2653 bishops and priests, of whom 1700 are Indian, and 953 
European. The Atlas Hierarcliicus published in 1914 gave the 
numbers 1258 foreign and 1230 Indian. The lay brothers and 
the sisters are stated in the Edinburgh Conference Atlas to be 517 
and 2933. 

* As in tlie above table some of the Societies are credited with the numbers 
of their Women's Auxiliaries, although these are separate in the Year Book, 
the C.E.Z.IM.S. women should for purposes of comparison be added to the 

c.i\r.s. 

t This figure probably includes women, 

J In an important article in the Int. Rev. Miss., July, 1912, Canon (now 
Bishop) Waller explained why this is done. 



I Go 



Jndia : TiiK Christian Missions. 



PART IT. Separate tables are given in the Year Book of the educational 

chap^i5. 'vvork of the Societies. The following are the totals : — 

Educa- 

tioaal 

Missions. 



Roman 
Schools. 



Medical 
Work. 





Institutions. 


Pupils. 






Male. 


Female. 


University Colleges . . . 


38 


5,488 


51 


Theological Instns. . . . 


87 


1,841 


11 


Training Instns 


127 


1,904 


1,173 


High Schools 


283 


62,604 


8,400 


Boarding Schools .... 


880 


22,193 


17,566 


Industrial Schools .... 


160 


5,752 


3,373 


Elementary Schools . . . 


13,184 


298,937 


147,608 



The 38 colleges (at the time, as stated) included, C.M.S. C ; 
S.P.G., L.M.S., U.P.Ch., 4 each ; Ch. Scot., Wesleyan, 3 each ; 
Baptist 1 ; total British, 25. American, 13. Others have been 
added since. 

The scholars taught l:)y the chief British Societies 
follows : — '"■ 



are as 





Colleges and 


Theol. and 


Boarding and 


Elementary. 




High Schools. 


Training. 


Industrial. 




Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


C.M.S. . . . 


13,771 


552 


404 


32 


2,939 


391 


35,548 


10,082 


C.E.Z.M.S. . 


— 


60 




15 


— 


787 


— 


8,961 


S.P.G. . . . 


5,568 


450 


131 


71 


2,149 


1,653 


27,482 


7,281 


L.M.S. . . . 


5,084 


824 


74 


81 


580 


697 


25,922 


11,753 


W.M.S.. . . 


5,094 


203 


132 


44 


1,449 


1,631 


48,603 


30,100 


B.M.S. . . . 


688 


404 


166 


109 


151 


550 


8,395 


5,628 


Ch. Scot. . . 


982 


— 


53 


— 


— 


— 


8,498 


861 


U.F.Ch. Scot. 


5,574 


257 


15 


30 


646 


678 


8,219 


7,367 



The Eoman Catholics have 23 theological seminaries, with 697 
students ; 135 colleges and high schools, with about 12,000 
scholars ; and over 4000 other schools, with 206,000 scholars. 
The French, Belgian, German, and Italian Jesuits have separate 
colleges at different cities. 

The Year Book also gives tables of the medical work. The 
number of mission hospitals is given as 204, and the dispensaries 
as 405 ; but some must be quite small, to judge by the figures for 
the C.M.S., which are larger than the Society itself reports. The 
numbers of beds should have been stated, as the true index of the 
work. The qualified doctors, male and female, are given as 278 ; 

* An official review of the Progress of Education in India during the five 
years 1907-12, by Mr. H. Sharp, C.I.E., has some striking illustrations of the 
share in education taken by the Missionary Societies. For instance, as 
regards female education : "In the United Provinces, the female Hindu 
population is 19,172,597, the Mohammedan 3,192,086, and the Indian Christian 
77,131 ; but the figures for girls in Anglo-Vernacular Secondary Schools are : 
Hindus 404, Mohammedans 138, Christians 2668. 



Work. 



INDIA: The Christiax JMissioxs. i6i 

those " witliout inedical degree " as 126 ; and the trained nurses p.uitii. 
as 294. The in-patients are given as 70,000, and tlie out-patients ^''''^i^- 
as almost three milUons ; but the latter figure evidently means, 
not separate individuals, hut the visits paid by them. The largest 
figiu'es of institutions are those of the C.E.Z.M.S., which is 
credited with 19 hospitals and 37 dispensaries ; also of nurses, 75 
in number. But the United Free Scottish Church has the largest 
number of doctors, 30 qualified and 13 others, and of [visits of] 
out-patients, 508,000 ; while the C.M.S. stands first as regards 
in-patients, 8535. The importance of indicating the size of the 
hospitals by the number of beds is shown by comparing two 
American Societies. The Baptists have 18 hospitals with 979 
in-patients, while the Presbyterians have 8 hospitals witli 3773 
in-patients. 

The Principal Societies and theiu Fields. 

A few particulars may be added concerning the principal works 
of the leading Societies, leaving the C.M.S. Missions for fuller 
treatment by and by. 

The S.P.G. is represented in almost all the divisions of India. s.p.Cr, 
Bishop's College, at Calcutta, founded nearly a century ago by 
Bishop Middleton, has always been its work. In Bengal and 
Assam, many towns and villages are occupied. Assam has now 
a bishop of its ow^n. Dr. Pakenham Walsh, an S.P.G. missionary 
from the south. In the Chota Nagpur district there is a very 
interesting and expanding Mission among the aboriginal Kols ; 
and liere is the Dublin University Brotherhood, with its numerous 
" Lady Associates." In the United Provinces, Cawnpore is the 
most important station, with a large and able staff. Even greater 
is the Delhi Mission, just within the Punjab (but now, since the 
King's visit, a separate division), the centre of a very large and 
widely extended work, educational, medical, evangelistic, &c. 
The Cambridge Delhi Mission is associated w^ith the Society, 
supplying a goodly band of devoted men and women, under Canon 
Allnutt as the Head. St. Stephen's College, one of the finest 
institutions in India, has an Indian Principal, Mr. Eudra, son of 
a former C.M.S. Indian missionary in Bengal. In the Bombay 
Presidency there is (besides the capital and several other towns 
and districts) a large and fruitful Mission at i\.hmednagar. But 
the Society's largest work is in the South, in Madras Diocese and 
Tinnevelly, among the Telugu and Tamil people, where, besides the 
missionaries, there are some eighty Indian pastors. Trichinopoly 
and Tanjore are the old mission districts of the days of Schwartz. 
Nazareth, in Tinnevelly, is a Christian village of great interest. 
In Burma, in the Diocese of Eangoon, the S.P.G. is the only 
Anglican Society, and it has extensive work among Burmese, 
Karens, and Tamils. The Society has about 150 Indian clergymen 
altogether. 



l62 



India .• The Christian Missions, 



PARTI 

Chap. 15 

Other 

Anglican 

Missions. 



L.M.S. 



B.M.S. 



W.M.S. 



Salvation 
Army. 



Presby- 
terian 
Missions. 



Of the other Anglican Missions in India, the largest is the 
Church of England Zenana Society, with its 160 women mission- 
aries, working in most parts of the country except the United 
Provinces and the Bombay Presidency, — which fields, by arrange- 
ment, are served by the sister Women's Society, the Zenana 
Bible and Medical Mission. That Society is not exclusively 
Anglican, Init a large proportion of its 150 women are Anglicans, 
and work in association with the C.M.S. Missions, as do the 
G.E.Z. missionaries. There are also two Brotherhood Missions 
(besides those already mentioned which are associated with 
the S.P.G.), viz., (1) the Oxford Mission to Calcutta, with (in 
the tables) 14 men and 11 women, who are doing fine work 
at Calcutta and in Eastern Bengal, and (2) the Society of St. 
John the Evangelist (Cowley Fathers) in the Bombay Presidency, 
which does not return its statistics. The Scottish Episcopal 
Church has a Mission at Chanda in the Central Provinces ; and 
the Canadian Church has taken over the C.M.S. Kangra Mission 
in the Punjab. 

The London Missionarj^ Society represents theCongregationalists 
of England, and works in Calcutta, Benares, Almora, and other 
places in the North ; among the Kanarese, Telugu, and Tamil 
people in the Madras Presidency ; and in South Travancore. It 
has had some exceptionally able missionaries. 

The Baptist Missionary Society, of which William Carey was 
the founder and the first missionary, has for its headquarters in 
the North the famous station of Serampore. The College there is 
the only one in India entitled to grant degrees in divinity. The 
Society also occupies Delhi, where particularly friendly relations, 
with a certain amount of co-operation, are maintained with tlie 
S.P.G. 

The Wesleyan Society has done more than most Missions for 
the poorer English and Eurasians in the Presidency cities. Its 
most interesting mission to the non-Christian population is in 
Mysore. But it is particularly strong in Ceylon. 

The Salvation Army, under Commissioner Booth-Tucker, has 
also worked largely among the English and Eurasians ; also 
among criminals ; and among the out-caste native population. 
Its social work is particularly interesting and important. In the 
Punjab, Gujarat, and Travancore it has large bodies of native 
Christians. 

The two Scottish Presbyterian Churches, Established and 
United Free, have combined some of their work in India, to its 
great advantage. Their great colleges at the chief Presidency 
cities have been among the most important in India, particularly 
the Madras Christian College, so long under the brilliant princi- 
palship of Dr. W. Miller. Specially interesting also is the work 
at Darjeeling and Kalimpong, in the Eastern Himalayas ; and 
the Mission in Eajputana, carried on by the old " U.P.'s" until 
tlieir union with the Free Church. 



fxDiA : The Christian Missioxs. 163 

The English and Irisli Presbyterians are also represented, the F^''^^^- 
latter having a considerable Mission in Gujarat. '— '*' 

The Welsia Calvinists, who are counted among Presbyterians 
ecclesiastically, have an interesting Mission in Assam and the 
Khasia Hills. At the time of the Welsh Eevival, a similar 
spiritual movement sprang up there, which bore much fruit. 

The Friends' Foreign Mission Association works in the Central smaller 
Provinces. ^°'^'''- 

There are several small free-lance British Missions; and the 
" Open Brethren," represented by a body called " Christian 
Missions in Many Lands," are credited in the tables with 135 
missionaries and over 5000 converts. 

■ Of the American Societies, the oldest is the American Board American 
(" A.B.G.F.M."), corresponding to the L.M.S. in England as virtually s°'=''<^'^'- 
though not necessarily Congregationalist. It celebrated in Novem- 
ber, 1913, the centenary of the arrival of its first missionaries at 
Bombay. Its principal Missions are among the Marathi people in 
that Presidency, particularly at Ahmednagar, and among the 
Tamils of Madm'a in the South ; also in Ceylon. 

The American Baptists have the fruitful Mission in Burma 
which was founded by Judson a century ago. They also work 
in Assam and Eastern Bengal; while their Telugu Mission is 
famous for its great mass movement in the Ongole district under 
Dr. Clough at the time of the disastrous famine of 1877. 

The American Methodist Episcopal Church is perhaps the most 
pushing Christian organization in India, and almost the largest, 
though much of its work is younger than that of others. 
Beginning in Oudh and Eohilkand, it has gradually spread over 
many parts of India, under the inspiring leadership of its bishops, 
the late Dr. Thoburn, and the present brothers Eobinson. It is 
regarded by many, however, as too ready to baptize quickly. But 
it works also among the European and Eurasian populations ; and 
its mission presses occupy a particularly useful sphere. 

The American Presbyterians have two or three societies at 
work in India. The Presbyterian Board North works in the 
Punjab and the United Provinces. It was the first Christian 
body to enter the Punjab on its annexation, and the names of 
Newton and Forman, and Ewing, at Lahore are universally 
honoured. The United Presbyterians also have active work in 
that province. 

The Christian and IMissionary Alliance works in Berar and 
Khandesh ; and there are several smaller free-lance Missions.* 

The American (German) Lutherans have considerable Missions 
in the Telugu country. 

The American (Dutch) Eeformed Church Mission, which works 

* lb should be mentioned that the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States, which is so prominent in China and Japan, has no Missions in 
India. All India being covered by Church of England dioceses, our sister 
Church finds no room for bishops of its own ; and it does not work without 
them. 



164 INDIA: The Christian Missions. 

PART II. west of Madras, is notable for the Scudder family, eleven men of 
Chap^i5. ^i;jiQ]^ ]^j^yQ lal)oured in it. 

Colonial The Canadian Presbj^terians have a Mission in Central India, 

Societies, with its headquarters at Indore ; and the Canadian Baptists in the 
Telugu Country. (The Anglican Canadian Mission has already 
been mentioned.) There are no less than seven different Baptist 
Missions from Australasia. These Canadian and Australian 
Societies have about 130 missionaries together, men and women, 
in India. 
Coniinentai The Continental Lutherans have large Missions. The most 
societies. ij^poj,fca^t js the Mission begun in 1844 in Chota Nagpur, 
organized by Pastor Gossner of Berlin.* The S.P.G. Mission in 
that district is the result of a secession from it of missionaries and 
Indian Christians who appealed in '18G9 to Bishop Milman to 
receive them. The Leipzig Mission in the Tamil Country is 
notable for declining to observe " missionary comity." There are 
also Lutheran Missions from Schleswig-Holstein among the 
Telugus, from Denmark in the Madras Presidency, and from 
Sweden in the Central Provinces. 

The Basel INIission is in the Kanarese Country south of BomJjay, 
and down the Malabar coast. It is famous for its successful 
industrial work. 

The Moravians, always to the front in the most unpromising 
fields, have a Mission in the Himalayas, north of the Punjab, 
where Til^etans are met with. 

There have been interesting movements of late in the direction 
of a certain measure of union among some of tlie Presbyterian 
and Congregationalist Missions (see p. 191). 
s"*'il^t^es Here should be mentioned the two independent missionary 

societies which have been established by Indian Christians, not, of 
course, those only in C.M.S. districts. The first was in Tinnevelly, 
and dates from 1903. It sent its own evangelists some hundreds 
of miles away into the Telugu part of the Nizam's territory, the 
State of Haidarabad, to them a foreign country with a foreign 
language. The district so occupied is now in the diocese of 
Bishop Dornakal, and Bishop Azariah himself was one of the mis- 
z.mai. sionaiies. It has now four missionaries and several Telugu 
agents. But a larger enterprise is the National Missionary 
Society of India, founded in 1905, "f of which Bishop Azariah was 
the first secretary and Eaja Sir Harnam Singh the President, and 
which sent as its first missionary a son of the late Eev. Dr. John 
Williams of Tank, the well-known Indian medical missionary, 
into the villages of the Punjab. Both societies have been growing 
in efficiency and in estimation. They have sent forth several men 
into different parts of India, and have baptized some liundreds of 

* See the War Appendix for recent news. 

t A full statement of this Society's aims, basis, constitution, &c., by 
Mr. Sherwood Eddy, appeared in the CM. Intell. of March, 190G. 



T.\fDiA : The Christian Missions. 



165 



converts ; and the Bishop of Madras had confirmed bands of 
Telugu candidates before Bishop Azariah was consecrated. The 
National Missionary Society had in 1914 " five fields of labour, 
24 missionaries of wliom 13 were graduates, a Christian com- 
munity of 600 converts, and an annual income of nearly 
Es 45,000; " * and it was issuing one English and four vernacular 
periodicals, in Urdu, Hindi, and Tamil. Mr. E. S. Ilensman, B.A., 
a Tamil Government' ofticial, and brother-in-law of the Eev. W. D. 
Clarke, Tamil pastor of Zion Church, Madras, resigned his appoint- 
ment in 1911 to become an honorary secretary of the Society. 



Part ll. 
Chap. 15. 



Statistics of Indian Christians. 

We will next take the statistics of Indian Christendom. As we Indian 
have already seen, the census of 1911 showed a total of 3,574,770, ^^ '^°''' 
an increase of 34 per cent.f One notable feature of the last 
returns was that for the first time the Protestant Christians out- 
numbered the Eoman Catholics, as the following talile shows :— 

1901. 1911. 

Protestant ....... 

Roman Catholic . . . 

Syrian 

Others 



867,167 


1,435,175 


,122,508 


1,393,720 


571,320 


728,291 


103,318 


17,584 



The large reduction in " Others " merely means that more 
accuracy was obtained on the last counting. It will be seen that 
while the Soman Catholics increased in the decade by 24 per cent., 
the Protestants increased by 65 per cent. The various increases of 
the Protestant Churches and denominations are shown in the 
following table : — 



Denomination. 


Actual number. 


Anglican ....... 

Baptist 

Lutheran 

Methodist 

Presbyterian 

Congi-egationalist .... 

Salvationist 

Minor DenoTTiinations . . 
Unspecified 


1901. 

213,042t 

216,915 

153,768 

68,455 

43,064 

37,313t 

18,847 

23,119 

92,644 


1911. 

332,807 

332,171 

216,842 

162,367 

164,069 

134,240 

52,199 

12,896 

27,584 


Totals 


867,167 


1,435,175 



"Int. Rev. Miss., Jan., 1914. Somo interesting notices of these Indian 
Societies have appeared from time to time in the C.M.S. Gazette, particularly 
Nov., 1909, May, 1911, :\Iay, 1913. 

t The Cjensus Reports are reviewed by Mr. Sncll in three articles in the 
CM. Review of 1915 : in February, the statistics of Christianity in India ; in 
April, of the non-Christian Religions; in August, the social conditions. 

+ It must be explained that in the Government returns in 1901, the 



1 66 



India .- The Christian Missions. 



PAET II. 
Chap. 15. 



Geographi- 
cal Distri- 
bution of 
Denomina- 
tions. 



Until lately we have always understood that the great bulk of 
the Indian Christians were in the South. That is still the case 
with the Roman Catholics, Init the Protestant Christians are now 
rapidly increasing in the North too, as the following figures 
show : — 

NorWi (Bengal, Assam, Bihar, U.P., Eajputana, 

Punjab, etc.) 546,563 

Central (with Bombay, Haidarabad, &c.) .' . . 120,586 

South (Madras, Travancore, Mysore, &c.) . . 633,606 

Burma 134,420 

1,435,175 

When we look further into the distribution of the denominations 
among the different provinces in 1911, we find interesting facts 
revealed. Of the Anglicans, two-thirds are in the South. The 
Baptists ai"e mostly in the South and in Burma, in both districts 
chiefly fruits of American Missions ; the English Baptists are in 
Bengal and its neighbourhood. The Congregationalists are almost 
all in the South, chiefly in Travancore. The Lutherans are 
about half in the South (German and American), and nearly the 
other half are the Gossner Mission in Chota Nagpur. The 
Methodists are chiefly the American Episcopal, and these mostly 
in the United Provinces. The Presbyterians mostly belong to the 
American Missions in the Punjab and the Welsh Calvinists in 
Assam. The Salvationists are strong in the Punjab, Bombay, and 
Travancore. Taking them the other way, we may say that the 
Christians are chiefly as follows : — in Assam, Presbyterians or 
Baptists ; in Bengal, Baptists or Anglicans ; in Bihar, Anglicans or 
Gossner ; in Bombay, Anglicans, Congregationalists, or Metho- 
dists ; in Burma, the great majority Baptists ; in Madras, four- 
fifths either Anglicans, Baptists, or Lutherans ; in the Punjab, 
two-thirds Presbyterians ; in the United Provinces, four-fifths 
Episcopal Methodists ; in Travancore, Congregationalists or 
Anglicans. 

Of the Anglican Christians, 151,000 are in Madras, which 
includes the Telugu and Tamil Missions of both C.M.S. and S.P.G. ; 
59,000 in Travancore and Cochin, all C.M.S. ; 32,000 in Bihar, 
chiefly S.P.G. in Chota Nagpur and C.M.S. in Santalia ; 29,000 in 
the Punjab, the majority C.M.S., but including the S.P.G. Delhi 
Mission ; 18,000 in Bengal, both Societies and the Oxford Mission ; 
12,000 in Bombay, both Societies ; 10,000 in Burma, S.P.G. ; 
9000 in Haidarabad, mostly C.M.S. ; 6000 in the U.P., mostly 
C.M.S. ; 3000 in Assam, S.P.G. ; about 5000 in the remaining 
provinces. One of the compilers of the Census Eeport states 
that the Anglican Missions, unlike some others, " are strict in the 

" unspecified " were thrown into the Anglican total, which was thereby unduly 
swollen. Moreover, two-thirds of these were known to belong to the L.M.S. 
in Travancore, and the omission of these from the Congregationalist total 
reduced it unduly. This has been put right in 1911, though there are still 
some slight uncertainties. 



India .■ The Christian Missions. 



167 



the Society 
,1 Statistics. 



matter of conversious, and will not take in anybody of whom they pakt ii, 
are not sure that he has truly begun to believe in the creed they ^^^21}^ 
preach to him" ; and of the C.M.S. in particular he observes that 
the Society " prefers fewer converts, but real ones, to many." 
The foregoing figures are from the Census Eeport. For 
dili'erent Societies we must go to the Year Book. It gives 
figures of the Indian Christian community in three columns, viz., 
(1) Communicants, (2) Baptized Adherents, including Communi- 
cants, (3) Total Christian community. The variety of usage 
regarding communicants is so perplexing that the figures give no 
correct impression, so they may be passed over. The other two 
returns are subjoined, for the principal Societies : — 



British — 

Baptist Miss. Soc. 
Church Miss. Soc. 
London Miss. Soc 
Soc. Prop. Gosp. . 
Wesl. Miss. Soc. . 
Estab. Ch. Scot. . 
U. F. Ch. Scot. . 
Welsh Calv. Soc. 
Salvation Army . 

American — • 

Baptist Soc. . . 
A.B.C.F.M. (Congt.) 
Evang. Lutheran 
Meth. Episcopal . 
Presbyterian (North) 
Do. United . . . 
Do. Dutch Eef. 



Canadian — 

Baptist .... 
Presbyterian . . 

Continental — 
Basel Mission . 
Gossner's Mission 
Germ. Evang. Luth 
Schleswig-Holstein 



Baptized 
adherents. 



10,852 
165,809 

25,000 
110,068 

30,000 

15,946 
9,307 

25,114 



135,000 
20,100 
39,152 

185,000 

33,850 

32,000 

6,725 

7,314 
4,000 



Total Christian 
community. 



29,647 

185,816 

116,575 

116,000 

48,000 

102,834* 

10,789 

28,437 

34,095 

355,000 
39,617 
50,130 

227,247 
36,978 
45,406 
11,298 

15,000 
15,000* 



17,767 


19,018 


70,865 


92,000 


21,166 


22,000 


4,000 


12,577 



The Outlook apart from Statistics. 

But statistics give no true idea of the real progress of Chris- judian 
tianity in India. The thoughtful Indian is more impressed by its of^p^gre^s. 

* N.B. — In the cases of the Established Church of Scothind and the 
Canadian Presbyterian Church, the larger figure is in the first column and the 
smaller in the second, in the Year Book. Assuming this to be an accidental 
mistake, the figures arc here transposed ; but this does not make them at all 
clear. There is something unexplained. 



1 68 India .- The Christian Missions. 

Part ii. progress than we at a distance arc. We count the heads of 
Chap^is. baptized converts. He does not trouble himself with figures ; but 
he realizes the change of feeling which is a certain precursor of 
far greater and more rapid changes in the future. Very numerous 
have been the evidences of this in the past few years. The self- 
denying labours of the missionaries when plague and famine were 
ravaging the country, at the commencement of our period, led to 
the Indian Mi'ssciKjer, the organ of the Brahmo Samaj, using this 
language : " Verily at this threshold of the twentieth century, 
Christian philanthropy comes to us with healing balm for the 
many afflictions of mankind. This humanity of Jesus' followers, 
and not their dogmas, will surely establish the throne of their 
Master on the love and reverence of humanity." When the 
Bishops met in conference at Calcutta in 1900, a large meeting of 
non-Christians in the Town Hall adopted an address to them, in 
which occur the following words : — 

" You are trying to win the heart of India by infusing into it the 
gospel of love and goodwill. The Bible, which you have brought to the 
country, is an inestimable boon, and the sweet and sacred name of your 
beloved Master, which has already reA'olutionized the world, is unto us a 
benefaction the true value of which we cannot yet adequately conceive. 
. . . Our country cannot do without Christ." 

Signs of When the National Congress met at Calcutta in 1907, it was 

Chr^tf-*' ^""^ opened with a remarkable prayer, copied from Christian models, 
anity. and expressing in Christian language the need of the guidance of 

the Holy Spirit, though the name of Christ Himself did not 
occur in it. When an All-India Convention of Eeligions, attended 
by 400 delegates, met at Allahabad in 1911, the prayers and 
addresses of Christian Indians were the only ones attentively 
listened to. The audience talked and laughed during a Sanscrit 
prayer, but they stood up in reverent silence during the Christian 
prayer. A secular kinematograph company which toured the 
Punjab in 1911 found that their most successful pictures were 
some representing the life of Christ, which were received with 
reverent appreciation by large crowds. The language and tone of 
the best non-Christian Indian newspapers — that is, the papers 
conducted by Indians — are also significant in this respect. They 
freely acknowledge the progress of Christianity, and its uplifting 
power. TItp Indian Social Rofoiiner, published at Bombay, is par- 
ticularly mentioned as "extraordinarily generous " in its references 
to Christianity. 
Individual Individual utterances are equally significant. A famous " holy 
timonies.^'^' ^^^^ " '"^^ Benares said to an inquirer, " There is one book that 
can tell you all you want to know, the Bible." A Brahman 
in Bengal, dying among his own people, with no Christian near 
him, was reported by a Hindu who was ])resont to have had con- 
stantly on his lips one name, Jesus. A Hindu judge told a C.M.S. 
missionary that ho kept a copy of the Psalms open before him at 



India: The Christian Missions. 169 

Psalm XV., as his own guide, and for the benefit of tlie money-lenders pakt li. 
who brought their victims into court. Others have testified to the !fl 
integrity of the Christians. One Hindu said, " Christianity changes 
men's lives ; if a man becomes a Christian he ceases to take 
bribes " ; a large landowner said his Christian labourers were much 
more industrious than others ; another thanked the missionary 
for making his people Christians, as now his cattle were safe. 
We are not surprised, therefore, when a Brahman says, " The 
Christian religion must win in the long run," or when an Arya 
tract deplores the " sapping of the foundations of Hinduism " by 
Christianity, and that " unbelief and Christianity are making steady 
progress " ; or when the Hon. Sir Narayan G. Chardavarkar, a 
Judge of the Bombay High Court, speaking in 1911, says : — 

" India is beiug converted ; the ideas that lie at the heart of the 
Gospel of Christ are slowly but surely permeating every part of Hindu 
society, and modifying every phase of Hindu thouglit." 

On the other hand, it must be borne in mind that a very large 
proportion of Indian Christians are from the low caste or out-caste 
population ; and some authorities affirm that the real Hindu 
peoples are as yet scarcely touched. The low castes and out-castes 
are counted as Hindus, but they know little of true Hinduism, and 
the religion of large numbers of them is rather Animism, and 
should be so reckoned.* This brings us to one of the conspicuous 
features of the present position, the mass movements. 

The Mass Movements. 

These mass movements have been very noticeable in the last The Mass 
few years ; and the Bishop of Madras has again and again called meu^. 
the attention of the whole Church, as well as of the Missionary 
Societies, to the urgent need of supplying evangelists and teachers 
to deal with them, even at the cost of reducing the staff and the 
cost of colleges and high schools. f He has no doubt that if 
these are forthcoming, the accession even of millions to the 
Christian Church may be confidently looked for in the near 
future. It was of the Telugu Country that he first spoke ; but 
when he visited North India in 1913, he said that the Punjab was 
a still more hopeful field ; and indeed in many parts of India the 
same demand for Christian teachers comes from multitudes of the 

* The counting of the out-castes as Hindus involves a serious political 
diliiculty. The Mohammedans object to the Hindu population being thus 
artificially augmented in Government reckonings, especially in a province like 
the Punjab, where they and the Hindus are nearly equal in number. 

t The Bishop opened his courageous campaign with an able article in the 
Nineteenth Century mid After, Dec, 1909 ; and an important address by him 
is printed in the CJI. Eev., Aug., 1912. Sec also an article by the Kev. "W. P. 
Hares iu the CM. iit'i;., Jan., 1913. On the " untouchables," as the out-caste 
people arc called, see articles in the CM. Bcv., April, 1913 and July, 1915, by 
the Rev. W. S. Hunt, and Dec, 1913 by the Rev. A. I. Birkctt ; also one by 
the Rev. A. F. Painter iu The East and The West, April, 1912. 



1 70 India .• The Christian Missions. 

PART II. "depressed classes." To them Christianity is a "lift" socially, 
!fl ■ and their motives are of course mixed ; but the opportunity is the 
same for Christian effort on a large scale. It is deeply to be 
deplored that the response has been so inadequate ; yet it is 
largely to these movements that the recent increase of the 
professing Christian population is due. 
Difficulties Two dangers are visible in this state of things, as the Eev. 
Position. ^- ^- Hall has lately pointed out : * on the one hand delay, 
on the other over-haste. People are declaring themselves Chris- 
tians without having been taught, as is shown by the fact that the 
Census of 1911 reports many thousands more " Christians " in 
the Punjab than are claimed by all the Missions together. It was 
even reported that certain persons were going about offering to 
baptize people for a fee, from E 1 to Es 5 per head. This shows 
the urgency of the case, and the danger of delay. On the other 
hand, baptism before sufficient instruction means, as Mr. Hall 
says, " an ignorant Church, unable to read the Bible, only half 
weaned from idolatry, a prey to superstition, and a real stumbling- 
block to future progress." Unhappily some of the Missions 
have deliberately adopted the policy of baptizing uninstructed 
people ; f while the Salvation Army, and some of its imitators, 
enrol converts without baptism at all, thus encouraging the high- 
caste man who is convinced of the truth of Christianity, but afraid 
of being expelled from caste and family, to plead that he can 
be a Christian without baptism. It must be mournfully added 
that some of the Missions imitate the Eoman Catholics in what 
is colloquially called " sheep-stealing," enticing the converts of 
the more regular Missions to come out and join them, and 
employing (actually on higher pay) agents dismissed by other 
Missions for bad conduct. 
Will Low- Another danger which has been feared from the large accession 
cSistianity ^^ low-caste and out-caste people to the Church is lest the higher 
repel High castes should be hindered thereby from joining a body composed 
largely of those who a few years ago ate carrion and were clothed 
in rags. Apparently the result is the exact contrary. So striking 
is the improvement of these people through their becoming Chris- 
tians, that caste people are drawn to inquire into the cause of it ; 
and some have actually been converted in this way. There are 
now clergymen from the " pariahs " (as we call them generically) 
who read the Greek New Testament and Hebrew Bible, and have 
passed tlie Oxford and Cambridge Preliminary Theological Exami- 
nation with credit ; and in schools and classes caste people may 
be seen sitting in a class taught by an out-caste teacher. For 
instance, the 13ishop of Madras wrote in 1909, { " Only a few 

* CM. Bcv., May, 1014. 

t Professor Griswold, of the American Presbyterian College at Lahore, 
discusses this subject in The East and The West of Jan., 1915, and rather 
favours speedy baptisna. 

j In the article in the Nineteenth Century before referred to. 



India: The Christian Missions. 171 

years ago the mission high school in this town [EUore] was four part 11. 
times emptied of all its Hindu scholars because a single Christian •-'•^l^i''- 
boy from the out-caste classes was admitted as a pupil ; yet here, 
now, I find out-caste teachers teaching Brahman boys." 

Indian Christians : Character and Eeputation. 

As regards the general character of the Christians, the same character 
has to bo said of all mission fields. There is much improved out- chrisUans. 
ward conduct ; there is regular attendance at church, and so 
forth ; but there is a lack of spirituality, and in particular an 
absence of earnest desire for the conversion of others, besides not 
a few cases of open 'sin. Hereditary Christianity, of which there 
is of course now a large amount, differs entirely in the cases of 
individual converts and of village communities " coming over " 
on, maase or nearly so. The individual convert is very often a 
man who has suffered much for Christ, and is a most true 
disciple ; but it does not at all follow that his children will be like 
him ; so that hereditary Christianity in this case means deteriora- 
tion. But when a whole body of low-caste or out-caste people 
desire to be Christians from mixed motives, and after due instruc- 
tion are baptized, they may have little of true Christianity in them, 
while their children, iwho will have a Christian education, will 
distinctly rise in character ; and in this case hereditary Christianity 
means progress. Mr. Holland wrote in 1910 :— 

" It would seeua that ui India the diffusion of Cliristiau ethics and 
enlightenment is to precede baptism. In Great Britain it has followed 
baptism by centuries. Amongst the low-castes, as over so large a part 
of medisEval Europe, it is often a case of baptized Paganism. With the 
higher castes and educated classes it is unbaptized Christianity." 

Yet while the missionaries themselves are often discouraged by Real 
the faults and failings of the converts, they feel constrained to between*^" 
acknowledge the real difference between them and the non-Chris- cimstians 
tian population. One, whose standard was a high one, wrote in Heathen. 
1901 of Tinnevelly, where is the largest body of Native Christians : — 

" I am not blind to the weaknesses and sins among us. The light 
view of sin, the ' cheap ' idea of forgiveness ; the fatal facility for lying 
and deceit, and the passion for money and the law courts ; the blindness 
to the truth of the keeping power of Christ ; all these I see ; but yet I 
firmly believe that Christianity has struck its roots into the hearts of 
the people, and has an uplifting, enlightening, and emancipating power 
amongst us." 

And he described the people as " with a strong vein of Old 
Testament theology in their nature, understanding the law better 
than the Gospel ; yet containing an inner core of souls whose hearts 
have been drawn by the higher influence of the Holy Spirit, and 
who, by life, preaching, and literature, are spreading the healthy 



172 



India .- The Christian Missions. 



I'ARTII. 
Chap. 15. 



influence abroad." A multitude of individual cases of Christian 
grace and example occur in the Reports, and it would be only by 
reading the whole of them — an almost impossible task — that one 
could get a perfectly just estimate. Moreover, there are many 
cases reported of persecution courageously borne. It is not only 
the individual high-caste convert who is persecuted. The humblest 
out-caste villagers often have to suffer. Their cattle are stolen, 
their wells stopped, their neighbours' cows turned into their fields 
to graze on the springing crops ; themselves dragged on false 
charges before Hindu officials who are only too glad to have an 
excuse for punishing them ; and so forth. Yet these trials have 
been patiently borne. 

About the time of the Welsh Eevival in 1905, there were in- 
dications here and there in India of similar movements. Much 
was said in some quarters in England of the " showers of blessing " 
on the Indian Christians. The late Rev. T. Walker, who, it is 
needless to say, was in fullest sympathy with such movements, 
and whose own work aimed earnestly at fostering them, made 
extensive inquiries, and reported thereon in an extremely interest-, 
ing article in the CM. Revieic (May, 1907).* He thankfullly 
recognized unmistakable signs of the working of the Spirit of God 
in a few places, but concluded that " there had not been enough 
to justify us in saying that a great Eevival was abroad in India." 
Mr. Walker, Mr. Eddy, and others have held many " special 
missions " and conventions for Indian Christians, which have 
been attended by much blessing. The Rev. A. H. Bowman also, 
who was for a time Incumbent of the English-speaking congrega- 
tions successively at Bombay and Calcutta under the C.M.S., did 
excellent work of the same kind.' The Student Movement also 
has strongly influenced some of the best and ablest of the 
younger educated Christians, and diverted into right channels the 
nationalistic feelings and aspirations which have tended to undue 
independence. 

But one good point is the liberality of some at least of the 
people. It is true that the self-support of. the Church is as yet a 
long way off, particularly in the North ; and the contributions of 
the congregations cannot compare with those in West Africa or 
in Uganda. Still, about £13,600 was contributed by the C.M.S. 
Indian Christians in 1913, and this was more than double the 
amount in 1899. Some particular illustrations recorded are 
interesting ; for instance, in the Dummagudem district of the 
Telugu Mission, the converts regularly give the firstfruits of 
their produce to the service of God, and in one village in 1907 the 
Christians brought the first-born calves of their herds, each saying 
as he presented his calf, " I liere offer this first-born to the Lord 
in acknowledgment of His goodness to me." In 1911 a little 
congregation at Faizabad sent Rs 30 to the fund for rebuilding 
the cathedral in Uganda. But there is no doubt much truth in 
* Sec also CM. IiUeU., Feb., I'JOG. 



INDIA: The CiTRiSTi AX Missions. 173 

Archdeacon Ibsau Ullali's report in 1913, " The Church is Hke an part ii. 
infant a foot and a half in height. TJiis small infant loves its cradle, ^ "^^-I-j- 
and is given its feeding-bottle loy its English benefactors. Out of the 
cradle it cannot even walk without crutches. These are the mis- 
sionaries and tlie Western money." And he adds that the Church, 
reversing our Lord's words, considers it " more blessed to receive 
than to give." Still there is some progress in self-support. For 
instance in 1911 the C.M.S. grant-in-aid to the Tinnevelly Church 
Council, which had been Es 26,000 in 1892, but had been gradually 
reduced, ceased altogether, being no longer required. 

Is all this progress welcomed liy the Imlk of the British British 
community in India ? We are all familiar with the common ilidfan" "^ 
complaints against Christian servants. Such complaints usually cinistians. 
come from those who have not troubled to inquire whether the 
servants in question are really Christians, or whether they only 
pretend to be l)ecause tliey suppose (erroneously !) that it will 
commend them to a " Christian " employer. Of course there are 
bad Christian servants in India as well as in England, but there is 
ample evidence on the other side also." One letter said, " Life is 
worth living now; we have just got Christian servants." In 
another letter, in 1909, came two testimonies ; a young sub- 
lieutenant praised his Indian servant " in glowing terms," and an 
English official had a clerk who was exceptionally efficient and 
devoted to duty, but had no idea he was a Christian till he 
happened to see him at church. 

But as regards educated Christians of high or middle caste, one Unsympn- 
of their keenest trials is the treatment of them too often by Treatment. 
English Christians (so-called). It may suffice to cite one "^ Converts, 
illustration, from Tlie B,"nai><sanrp in India (p. 193) : — t 

"What treatment did you receive within the Church after you 
became a Christian '? " 

" That was ahuost the hardest part of all. It was so unexpected. I 
was a new convert, and had seen Uttle of Christians. I had read in the 
New Testament the commandnients of love and brotherhood. I had 
also suffered so much that I thought, ' Now surely my troubles are over ; 
I am among Christ's followers.' I knew that all Enghshmen were 
Cliristians, and the missionary who baptized me treated me as a brother. 
And so, in my ignorance, when I met an Englishman, at first, I would go 
up to him and say, ' I am a Christian ' ; but I was received with cold 
looks and sometimes with abuse, and would be told to ' get out.' Here 
and there I found a true Christian ; but the majorit}- of the English I 
have met seem to regard me as belonging to a lower caste. ... It 
seemed just 'caste' over again. I have suffered slights harder to bear 
from those who should have been my brother Christians than from my 
relations who outcasted me." 

* See the Rev. J. P. llaythornthwaite's article in the CM. Intell., June, 
1902, and the Rev. T. Bomford's in the CM. Rev., May, 1909. 

t See also an article by a Retired Indian official in TJie East and The West, 
of Jan., 1915, on the Attitude of Europeans in India towards the Spread of 
Christianity. • 



174 



India -. The Christian Missions. 



PART IT. 
Cliap. 15. 



Bishop Diivraut, in his speech at the C.M.S. Annual Meeting 
in 1913, gave an admirable illustration of the opposite treatment. 
He was preaching to tlie European congregation at Delhi, and the 
chaplain in charge gave out that on the following Sunday there 
would be no Communion Service there, but all communicants were 
invited to go instead to St. Stephen's mission church (S.P.G.) and 
join their Indian fellow Christians at the Holy Communion. No 
less than 130 went, " including some Members of Council." 

But the Indian Christian community will win its way to respect 
and brotherly treatment in time. It is too large now to be ignored, 
much less despised. There has for some years been an Indian 
Christian Congress meeting annually at Madras ; but it only 
touched the southern provinces. In December, 1914, however, 
the first All-India Conference of Indian Christians assembled at 
Calcutta, delegates to it gathering from all parts of India and 
Burma. Eaja Sir Harnam Singh was to have been chairman, l)ut 
the death of his son. Captain Indrajit Singh, a doctor in the 
British Army in France, prevented it, and Dr. George Nundy, of 
Haidarabad, took his place. Among the subjects discussed were 
Higher Education, Village Christians, Marriage and Divorce, the 
Law touching Indian Christians, Ac. 

It does not fall within the province of this History to treat of 
the great importance of Christian work among the Eurasians (or, 
as they are now officially called, Anglo-Indians). But a word of 
commendation must be said in passing of the Indian Church Aid 
Association, which takes them specially under its wing. Bishop 
Copleston is President of the London Council, and Mr. H. P. K. 
Skipton Secretary. 



Sir J. BouT' 

rtillon's 

Warning. 



The Christian Attitude towards Indian Eeligions. 

On one other important subject a few words must be said. We 
liave seen a little of the attitude of the people of India towards 
Christianity.* But what is the attitude of the Christian Church 
towards the Indian religions '? This question has been, during the 
period under review, a subject of frequent and important discussion. 
Almost every writer and speaker on India has in these latter years 
deprecated strong denunciations of Hinduism and the readiness to 
see and to expose the worst side of it. In comparing our own 
religion with that of others, says Sir James Bourdillon, " let us 
compare like with like. Let us not single out for comparison all 
that is bad in heathendom and all that is good in Christianit3^ It 
is as unfair to take as a type of the religions of India the 
abominations of Tantric-worship as it would be to take the moral 
and religious life of a London slum as typical of the Christianity of 
England." " The days," he adds, " of militant and aggressive 
proselytism are past; we need no longer the sternness of a 

# See previous chapter. 



LvniA : The Christian Missions. i ; 5 

Terfcullian, hut the tenderness of an Augustine or a Francis." * It part 11. 
is douhtt'ul ^Yhether there was in past tlaj'S so much " militant ^'^^^='- 
proselytism " as it is now the fashion to impute to tliem ; and if 
the liarbarities of Hinduism loomed large in printed Reports, we 
liave to remember that Jagannath and sati and other alwminations 
wex'e then rampant as they are not to-day. Nevertheless, all agree 
that Sir James's warning is right. It is all to the good that our 
missionaries should try, as in fact they do try, to understand the 
genuine religious feelings of the people among whom they work, 
and to appreciate whatever makes for good in their systems ; only, 
did Schwartz and Carey and Duff and French ever do otherwise ? 

A singular influence has been gained by one C.M.S. missionary. Pundit 
the Rev. J. J. Johnson of Benares, familiarly known as Pundit Johnson. 
Johnson, by his thorough mastery of the Sanskrit language and 
literature. He has the ear of the most learned pundits and " holy 
men " as very few other missionaries have gained it ; and tlie 
accounts of his tours in various parts of India and his conversations 
with the Brahman priests are extraordinarily interesting. \ The 
Brahmans appreciate his courtesy and respect his learning, and 
are quite ready for friendly religious discussion, 

]jut it is quite another thing to follow Mr. Bernard Lucas in Mr. b. 
minimizing the value of all that has been done in past years, and Books.'' 
in proposing to substitute " evangelizing " (in his sense) for 
" proselytizing " (in his sense). His interesting book. The Eiiipiro 
of Christ, has gained for him the ear of the thoughtful Christian 
public ; but there is much in it which would call for serious 
criticism if this were the place to offer it. J And still more gravely 
should we have to deprecate the teaching of his later w^ork, Ow 
Task in India. "Evangelizing" cannot properly mean anything 
but preaching glad tidings, and if St. Paul is any authority on the 
question what the glad tidings are, they are the definite statement 
of certain historic facts about Christ as a Saviour from sin. 
Well, you tell those tidings ; you show how truly " glad " they 
are ; a Hindu believes them, and is himself " gladdened " ; what 
then ? Don't, says Mr. Lucas, in effect, bring him into the 
community of believers by the rite that Christ ordained : that 
would be "proselytizing," which is quite wrong. Certainly the 
emasculated "gospel" with which the missionary is to "evan- 
gelize " is not very likely to produce believers, so of course the 
risk of " proselytism " would be very small. A remark of Dr. Fruit not, 
Mott's is very much to the point. He tells us that " the Principal n.^t^'''^*®'*' 
of a Christian college, ' in Asia,' had said that 'he did not expect c^atherea. 
to have conversions in his college in this generation, but simply to 
do the work preparatory for making conversions possible in the 
next generation'"; whereupon Dr. Mott drily observes, "It need 
not he pointed out that this attitude and practice is not liliely to result in 

* CM. Eev., Aug., 1909. 

t See CM. IntelL, Jan., 1905, |May, 1906 ; CM. Rev., Feb., 1915. 

1 It was reviewed by Mr. Snell in tbe CM. Rev. of Sept., 1908. 



176 India: The Christian Missions. 

Part II. Ihe, dedred co/irersiouf! in the next c/enera/ion." * Dr. Orr, the Presliy- 
uhap. 15. j^Qj-i^j^^ miBsionary in Eajputana, very rightly condudes his review 
of Mr. Lucas's iDOok (to the actual merits of which he bears full 
testimony), " The only final and absolute failure of Christian 
evangelism can be when the dominant Christian note of appeal 
and urgency is lost." t And Canon (now Bishop) Waller, in liis 
review of it,{ while expressing much sympathy with the spirit it 
exhibits, is obliged to correct some of its statements, and to 
" deplore " many of the suggestions. But he rightly hopes that 
missionaries may be stirred up to examine their methods and seek 
more effectively " to present Christ clearly to the soul of India." 
Mr. Another book, of much greater value, is Mr. J. N. Farquhar's 

Book.'^^'^'^ 6Vo/r« of Hinduism, the argument of which he further expounded 
in an article in the Internaiiomd Review of Missions (July, 1914). 
In the book Mr. Farquhar " gathers the beliefs of the people 
round the social system, and shows how each in turn acted on 
the other." So Bishop Waller describes it, and he adds : — 

" Ouly writers who treat of the problems of life as related to religion, 
and of religion as influencing (and solving) those problems, writers who 
will take us down to root principles as Mr. Farquhar has done, will 
prove to have made a permanent contribution to the Science of Religion, 
and, what is more important, to have contributed to the uplifting of 
humanity." § 

In the Review, Mr. Farquhar's suggestion is that Christianity 
fulfils Hinduism very much as it has fulfilled Judaism ; that is, as 
the New Testament fulfils the Old. The analogy is a fallacious 
one, and Mr. Farquhar foresees the objections to it, but he man- 
fully essays to meet them, not very successfully, however. Pro- 
fessor Hogg, of Madras, whose whole tendency is to appreciate 
whatever is good in Hinduism, reviews The Groion of Hindu isvi in 
the same periodical (Jan., 1914), and wliile praising it as a " dis- 
tingished book " with " a great purpose," is evidently not satisfied 
with the argument. He acutely says : " Doubtless Christ fulfils 
what is good in Hinduism. But then He leaves out much of 
what was in Hinduism, and He fulfils much of what was never 
in Hinduism. . . . What Christ fulfils is not Hinduism, but the 
need of which India has begun to be conscious, the need of which 
He has made her begin to feel conscious." " The message, ' You 
need Christ now,' is really more telling than, ' Christ fulfils your 
old religion.' " || 

* The Present World Situation, p. 180. See also Dr. Mott's powerful 
address delivered at the meeting of the National Conference at Calcutta in 
Dec, 1912, printed in the CM. Eevieiv, May, 1913. 

t Int. Miss. licv., April, 1914, p. 373, 

+ CM. Rev., April, 1914. 

§ CM. Rev., Jan., 1914. 

il It should here he added that one of the most encouraging statements of 
the position and prospects of Christianity in India was an article by Mr. 
Farquhar in the Contemjjorary Eevieio of May, 1908. 



India: Tiik Christian Missions. 177 

Bishop Copleston, lately Metropolitan of India, in his Third i'akt ii. 
Charge to the Diocese of Calcutta, deals with an important part of *-'''^p- J^^- 
the suhject in a masterly way.* He puts the question, How far lUsiiop 
is Hinduism a preparation for the Gospel ? How far are its 01?' ^^ °° 
"sacred books " an "ethnic Old Testament " ? He distinguishes Hinduism, 
between " the philosophical part of Hindu thought and teaching, 
represented mainly by the Upanishads and the Vedanta," and 
" the more practical or devotional part, the religion of ' bhakti,' 
represented by the Eamayana of Tulsi Das, and by the cult of 
Krishna or Eama." He confines himself to the former, and gives 
to the above questions " an emphatic negative." " I am not 
saying that such teachings contain nothing that is good and true ; 
far from it. What I insist on is, that they do not contain those 
specific truths which are calculated to prepare the way of Christ, 
but that, on the contrary, their characteristic teaching is singularly 
calculated to make the reception of the Gospel difficult." This he 
proceeds to prove in detail ; and the proof is complete. 

The present Bishop of Madras, Dr. Whitehead, dealt with Bisiioi> 
another subject in a lecture delivered at Haidarabad,| viz., the onNat'iuuai 
demand for a " National Christianity." This demand, he observes, phnsti- 
found expression at the Edinburgh Missionary Conference in ' 
speeches by delegates from India, China, and Japan ; and he 
reminds us that a similar demand, for an " Oriental Christ," has 
been made by the Brahmo Samaj, by the mouth of its late leader, 
Babu Protab Chunder Mozumdar, who argued that Christ was 
an Oriental, and only Orientals could understand Him. The 
Bishop adds that when another leader adapted the Lord's Prayer 
for Brahmo use, he changed the opening words into " a thoroughly 
Indian form," " Our Mother which art in Heaven." Of course 
we are all agreed that much more might be done, and ought to be 
done, to " clothe the Christian life and spirit in an Indian form." 
But the Bishop points out that the New Testament says nothing 
of a " National " Christianity, and on the contrary lays great 
stress upon the Universality of Christ, the Universality of the 
Gospel, the Universality of the Church ; and on these points he 
reasons very cogently. 

An article by the Eev. J. F. Hewitt, who was for several years Mr. Hewitt 
an evangelistic missionary in Bengal, discusses " the Presentation s^ntation*^' 
of Christ to the Hindu " in a very interesting way. J He describes ^^ Christ, 
the Bengali peasants as they actually are, and their vague belief 
in a Supreme Being as practically issuing in a tenacious devotion 
to the local idol. Loyalty to ancestral tradition naturally resents 
"wholesale denunciation," which "only arouses bigoted opposi- 
tion." " Kindly humour, sweet reasonableness, a gentle leading 
towards higher thoughts," he commends ; " but we must beware 
of an over-sensitive toleration which encourages superstition." 

* This part of the Charge was printed in the CSl. Itevieiu, Sept., 1913, 
t Printed in the CM. Review, Jan., 1911. 
X CM. Review, March, 1913. 

N 



178 



India .• The Christian Missions. 



PABT II. 
Chap. 15. 



India and 
yt. John's 
(Jospel. 



llcporl by 

J'lofestior 

Cauus. 



Then lie refers to the pundit class, and speaks of Berkeley's 
philosophy as invaluable in dealing with " Maya " theories, " lead- 
ing up in Berkeley's inimitable style to the doctrine of a personal 
God." And then the students, with their Western education, 
whose " immemorial custom compels their pul)lic acknowledgment 
of doctrines they disbelieve, and often demands the worship of 
images they repudiate." Mr. Hewitt proceeds to indicate briefly 
the way in which St. John's Gospel can be used with such men : 
chap. i. pointing to the real divine Avatar; chap. iii. to a spiritlial 
new birth for even the " twice-born " Brahman ; chap. iv. to 
" worship in spirit and in truth," and to Christ's attitude to caste 
(" Give Me to drink," spoken to an outcaste woman) ; chap. ix. to 
the falsity of the Hindu doctrine of pre- existence ("which did sin ? ") ; 
chap. xii. to the sacrificial aspect of the Atonement (ver. 32), 
" comparing its nature and effects with the Vedic sacrifices and 
the present-day sacrifices of the Saivites " ; chaps, xiv.-xvii. to 
" the doctrine of the indwelling Spirit and the abiding Christ " ; 
while " the all-prevalent view that ' God is everything and every- 
thing is God' wall meet its corrective in chap. xvii. 20-23." 
" Thus," concludes Mr. Hewitt, " with thought and care our own 
incomparable creed may be built up from the apparent errors of 
another system, which after all has developed or retained many a 
great truth and noble view, and which it will be easier to lead 
onward to perfection than to force back to negation." Bishop 
Westcott, it will be remembered, used to say that Europe would 
never imderstand St. John until Indian Christians expounded it. 

Lastly, brief reference must again be made to Professor Cairns's 
Eeport for Commission IV. to the Edinburgh Conference. The 
letters from leading missionaries which he cites show that many 
have felt the need of modifying the form in which they present 
Christian truth to the Hindu mind ; but there seems to be an 
almost unanimous conviction that the great central facts of 
Christianity must be affirmed as strongly as ever. A mystical 
Hindu cares little about historical fact, but Prof. Cairns well 
remarks that " the mysticism of Christianity presupposes the 
historical revelation ; there could have been no Pentecost had it 
not been for the life and death and resurrection of the Son of God." 
Most of the missionary correspondents seem to be represented by 
one who insists that " the fact of the Incarnation is, and must be, 
the basis of all Christian teaching " ; and he proceeds to quote 
Brownin" : — 



I yay the acknowledgment of God in Christ, 
Accepted by thy reason, solves for thee 
All questions in this world and out of it, 
And has, so far, advanced thee to be wise. 



Professor Cairns notes that the " generous recognition of all that 
is true and good in other religious" does not in the least imply a 
weakening of the conviction of " the absoluteness and finality of 



India-. The Christian ]\Iissions. ijg 

Christ." Nowhere iii the evidence before him did he find " the pakt ii. 
shghtest support for the idea that Christianity is only one rehgion ^^^i^- 
among others, or that all religions are simply different ways of 
seeking the one Father." " One massive conviction animates the 
whole evidence, that Jesus Christ fulfils and supersedes all other 
religions." He also quotes some answers from Indian correspond- How 
ents touching their own conversion, and very encouraging they f,"^*" . 
are. One writes of " the sudden dawning of a new relationship come to 
to God, through Christ, as implied in the word Saviom\" Another ^'^"■***- 
writes, " What finally helped me to accept Christ as my personal 
Saviour was the sense of my sins, Christ's claim to save men from 

their sins, and the testimony of Dr. P to the fact that Christ 

had forgiven him his sins." A third one is named. Canon Nihal 
Singh (C.M.S., Allahabad), who says, " It was the sense of sin 
that forced me to accept Christ as my Lord and Saviour. I found 
no remedy for my sins but the Lord Jesus Christ, Who shed His 
blood for me." 

" This chapter cannot be concluded without a tribute of admira- i??v. . 
tion to Dr. Julius Richter's comprehensive and masterly Hidorij of Book. 
3Iissmi.^ ill India, which has been translated into Enghsh by 
Sydney H. Moore, and published by Oliphant. It was reviewed 
in the CM. Eerie/r of October, 1909, by Mr.^Manley. The book is 
exceedingly appreciative of C.M.S. work, but to other Anglican 
Missions, the S.P.G. in particular, justice is scarcely done. It is, 
however, an indispensable guide to the history and problems of 
Indian Missions. 

Among the Pan-Anglican Papers on Missions in India the 
following are to be specially noted for reference, all in Vol. V. of 
the Eeports, belonging to Section D : — 

Among the Preliminary Papers, inserted iu the appendices : On 
Evangelistic Work among AVomen, by Deaconess Ellen Goreh, marked 
S.D. 2 (a) ; on Industrial Work, by the Rev. G. H. Westcott (now Bishop) 
of Lucknow), S.D. 2 (b) ; ou the De%'elopment of the Native Church, by 
the Rev. W. 1). Clarke of Madras, S.D. 2 (k) ; on Missionary Education, 
by Mr. S. K. Rudra, S.D. 2 (1) ; on Medical Missions, by Dr. A. C. 
Lankester, S.D. 2 (n) ; on Mission Work and National Customs, by the 
Rev. E. H. M. Waller (now Bishop of Tinnevelly), S.D. 3 (1) ; on the 
Comity of Missions, by Dr. Weitbrecht, S.D. 4 (e). 

Among the papers read at the Congress : On Village Itineration, by 
the Bishop of Madras, p. 19 ; on Education, by the Rev, W. E. S. 
Holland, p. 31 ; on Medical Missions, by Dr. E. F. Neve, p. 45 ; on 
Industrial Missions, by Bishop Foss Westcott, p. 55 ; on Indian Women, 
by Dr. Datta and Mrs. Ball, pp. 128-9 ; on Village Populations and the 
Educated Classes, by Bishop Eoss Westcott and the Bishop of Madras, 
pp. 150-153 ; on the Presentation of Truth to the Hindu Mind, by the 
Rev. G. T. jManley, p. 173 ; on the Comity of Missions, by the Bishop of 
Travancore, p. 162 ; on Caste, by the Rev. H. Pakeuham Walsh (now 
Bishop of Assam), p. 117. 



CHAPTEE XVI. 

India .- The Anglican Church and Union 
Movements. 



I'AKT II. 

Chap. 16. 



The Anglican Episcopate — New Bishops— The First Indian Bishop — 
Plans for Synodical Organization— Dr, Motts Campaign 1912-13 — 
The Memorable December of 1912 — The National Conference— The 
National Council -The Future Indian Church— Bishop Whitehead's 
Views- Kikuyu Anticipated. 

E must now turn our attention to some important 
events of tlie last few years in connexion with the 
Anglican Church in India, and with the whole cavise 
of Christianity there. Most significant are the events 
now to be recorded, in view of the possibilities of a 
future united Indian Church. 




"New 

Bishovs 
ill 1890. 



Further 
Chauges. 



The Bishops ; The First Indian BisHor. 

And first, as regards the Anglican Episcopate. There have 
been many changes during our period. Bishop Welldon landed 
at Calcutta to succeed the retiring Metropolitan, Bishop John- 
son, in the same month that Lord Curzon arrived as the new 
Viceroy, January, 1899, three months before the C.M.S. Centenary. 
Dr. Welldon had only accepted the post on the clear understanding 
that he had a free hand to encourage and support Missions in 
India, and he fulfilled this purpose with his whole heart. There 
had also been other changes at that time. The venerable Bishop 
Cell had resigned the Bishopric of Madras, and had been suc- 
ceeded by Bishop Whitehead, who had been Head of the Oxford 
Mission at Calcutta ; and Bishop Mylne's place at Bombay had 
been taken by Bishop Macarthur — both before the Centenary. 
Bishop Matthew of Lahore had only lately died, and the Eev. 
G. A. Lefroy, Head of the Cambridge Delhi Mission, was con- 
secrated for that Diocese in November, 1899. 

In due course other changes ensued in these high ofiices. 
Bishop Welldon 's health did not allow of a long period of service, 
and on his retirement in 1901, Dr, Copleston, who had been 
Bishop of Colombo since 1876, was translated to Calcutta, to thei 
genuine satisfaction of the C.M.S. He proved, as was expected, ; 
a true Father in God during the twelve years of his service there. 



1 



LvDiA: A. XG Lie AN Church AND Union Movements. i8i 

Ou his retirement in 1913, Bishop Lefroy of Lahore was trans- part ti. 
lated to Calcutta, as Metropolitan, to the Society's great satisfac- ^'^i^^*''- 
tion. At Bomhay Bishop iNIacarthur was succeeded hy Bishop 
Pym in I'JOl:, and he hy Bishop Palmer in 1908. Moreover in 
1905 there were three other changes, Bishop Williams for Bishop 
Morloy in Tinnevelly, Bishop Poss Wostcott for Bishop Whitley 
in Chota Nagpur, and Bishop Gill for Bishop Hodges in Travancore 
and Cochin. Meanwhile one new diocese was formed in 1903 for 
Central India, with its see at Nagpur ; and the Eev. Eyre Chatter- 
ton, an S.P.G. missionary, and head of the Duhlin University 
Mission in Chota Nagpur, hecame its first Ijishop. Then in 1910 
Bishop Clifford, who had won all hearts hy his work and influence 
in the Diocese of Lucknow, retired, and Dr. G. H. Westcott 
succeeded him ; and in the same year the Rev. R. S. Fyffe, of the 
S.P.G., became Bishop of Rangoon. On Bishop Lefroy 's trans- 
lation to Calcutta in 1913, the Rev. H. B. Durrant, of the C.M.S. 
Agra Mission, Principal of St. John's College, was appointed to 
Lahore. A new diocese has lately been formed for Assam ; the 
first Bishop being the Rev. H. Pakenham Walsh, who was an 
S.P.G. missionary in the South. And on the lamented death of 
Bishop Williams of Tinnevelly, in June, 1914, the choice of the 
Indian Episcopate fell upon Canon E. H. M. Waller, who had 
been C.M.S. Secretary in the United Provinces, and afterwards in 
Salisbury Square. 

We have now a century of the Indian Episcopate to look back Retrospect 
upon. Bishop Middleton was consecrated for Calcutta on May 8th, Kpiscop.ate. 
1814 ; and the Centenary of the event was celebrated by a special 
service and meeting in London. The C.M.S. H/sfar// has a good 
deal about him and his successors. Bishops Heber, D. Wilson, 
Cotton, Milman, and Johnson. All made their mark in various 
ways, as no doubt Bishops James and Turner also would have 
done if their lives had been longer spared. It is certainly a record 
of which any see might be proud, to have had seven bishops suc- 
cessively who died at their post. Bishops Johnson, Welldon, and 
Copleston did not, but neither did they come home to rest. Bishop 
Johnson did good service as chairman of the Board of Missions. 
Of the tw^o living men it would be impertinent to say anything. 

But the most interesting development of the Episcopate is the The first 
consecration of the first native Indian Bishop. Bishop Whitehead nisimi). 
of Madras had long felt the importance of making a beginning, 
and an opening occurred, without interfering with the existing 
sees, thi'ough the extension of the C.M.S. Telugu Mission into 
the Nizam's territory of Haidarabad, and also of the Tinnevelly 
Missionary Society before mentioned. INEoreover the leader of the 
latter Mission, the Rev. V. S. Azariah, was considered by Dr. 
Whitehead to have distinct qualifications of character and 
experience for the episcopate. Many difficulties arose in bringing 
the plan to a successful conclusion, but all were happily over- 
come, and on December 29th, 1912, Mr. Azariah was consecrated 



1 82 India: Anglican Church and Union Movements. 



Part II. 
Chap. 16. 

"Kikuyu" 

in Calcutta 
Cathedral. 



Bishop 
Azarinii. 



He joins in 
consecra- 
ting an 
JDnglish 
Bishop. 



at St. Paul's Cathedral, Calcutta, eleven Bishops laying their hands 
upon him, and the Governor of Bengal, Lord Carmichael, being 
present.* Canon Hensley wrote, " It seemed as though India 
had taken possession of the cathedral, by far the majority present 
being Indian Christians. Christian sadhus in long saffron robes 
and bare feet, Tamils, Telugus, Singhalese, Burmese, Bengalis, 
Punjabis, kc, pressed forward to the common Holy Table with 
English men and women, ' all one in Christ Jesus.' " Did all these 
Indians belong to the Anglican Church ? Surely not, considering 
how many of various Christian communions were at that time at 
Calcutta, Was not that Communion Service, then, an anticipation 
of Kikuyu ? 

Bishop Azariah's father, the Eev. Thomas A'^edanayagam, was a 
C.M.S. Tamil pastor in Tinnevelly ; his mother had been matron 
of the Elliott Tuxford Girls' School there ; and he himself, born 
Aug. 17th, 1874, was educated in the C.M.S. College in Tinnevelly 
Town and at the Madras Christian College, where he went 
through his B.A. course, but was struck down by influenza on the 
day w^hen he should have been examined. He was associated 
with the Y.M.C.A. at Madras, and with Mr. Eddy conducted 
missions and conventions in many parts of India and Ceylon. In 
1905 he attended the Y.M.C.A. Conference in Japan. He was 
practically the founder of the Tinnevelly Missionary Society. He 
was ordained in 1909 by Bishop Whitehead. He visited Great 
Britain in 1910, and was present at the Edinburgh Conference. He 
took the title of Bishop of Dornakal, a place in Haidarabad State, 
which, though conventionally under the jurisdiction of Madras, is 
not strictly part of that diocese. But Bishop Azariah is also a 
Suffragan Bishop under Bishop Whitehead, which is in fact his 
official status, and he holds confirmations in that capacity in any 
part of the Telugu and Tamil countries. 

Interesting as Bishop Azariah's own consecration was, another 
event made in a sense a deeper impression, at least upon the 
British community in India. This was wlien Bishop Durrant was 
consecrated at Simla in August, 1913, for then the congregation, 
wliich in that month comprises hundreds of influential Englisli 
men and women, saw with their own eyes an Indian Bishop 
joining with English Bishops in laying hands upon an English- 
man. To many it was the final proof of the unity of the Church. 



Plans for Synodical Action. 

To establish that unity more firmly by forming Synods which 
should include English and Indians on equal terms had long been 
the desire of the Bishops and otlier leaders ; but there were many 
difficulties, particularly connected with the State establishment of 

* Cauon Sell's Kcrmon on the occasion was printed in the CM. Rcvinr. 
March, 1913. 



India -. A xglican Church and Union Mo vements. i 8 3 

the Anfjlican Chnrch in ludia. IMeanwhile, for some years the p.\bt ii. 
Bishops bad met yearly at Calcutta to consider the problems of ^ ^i^i^- 
the whole Church, and these gatherings had proved very useful. 
Several Diocesan Conferences also had met regularly. But 
it was deeply felt that more was needed. The clergy and the 
laity of the Church, both British and Indian, must in some way 
be called together. Informal Diocesan Conferences had been 
lield, but something more regular and permanent, and more 
definitely representative, was desired. The Diocese of Bombay, 
in 1912, took an important step forward. Bishop Palmer being 
earnestly set upon progress in the matter. A Conference met 
wliicb had been carefully planned. All tbe clergy in priests' 
orders, both English and Indian, were members ; and every con- 
gregation or group of congregations with a clergyman in charge, 
sent lay delegates, English and Indian, proportionately to the 
number of communicants ; with the result that the clerical and 
lay members were almost exactly equal in number. One of the 
papers read was by Canon Heywood, the Secretary of the C.]\I.S. Canon 
Western India Mission. He frankly faced the risks and possible stateT° 
dangers of synodical organization. " Synods in the past," he said, yj^^' 
" have been by no means uniformly wise and considerate in their 
action, and a majority is sometimes tempted by its own power to 
go too far and too fast " ; and in an Indian Synod grave racial 
difficulties might arise. Nevertheless, he warmly advocated the 
scheme outlined by the Bishop, and read extracts from the C.M.S. 
Memorandum of 1901 on Native Churches in support of it.* The 
paper is altogether a masterly one, and deserves reading again 
and again. One paragraph may be subjoined : — 

" Are we going to organize the Church of England in India? I speak 
as one who loves the Church of England with all my heart. I thank 
God for her witness all down the centuries since first the Gospel came to 
Britain. I thank God for the Reformation, when so many abuses that 
had crept in were swept away. I thank God for His continued mercies 
to her in the present day, and that He allowed me to be brought up 
from infancy under her care. But I am sure that it is not the Church 
of England that we are to organize in India. . . . 

" Wliat then do we need ? We need a Church in India adapted to the 
land, and adaptable to the peoples who sojourn here : a Church which 
holds fast to the fundamentals as laid down in the Lambeth Conference, 
a Church which draws largely from the rich treasury of our Prayer-book, 
hut provides for the needs and aspirations of the peoples here ; a Church 
whicli has the wisdom, claimed by the Church of England in the Preface 
of our Prayer-book, to keep tlie mean between the two extremes of too 
much stiffness in refusing, and of too much easiness in admitting any 
variation from it." 

At the end of that same year, on Dec. 30th, 1912, the Bishops g^^J^'JI^^n, 
met at Calcutta as usual, but this time not alone. Forty " asses- 
sors," clergymen and laymen, English and Indian, sat with them 

* In the CM. Revierv of June, 1912, Canon Heywood gave an account of 
the Conference ; and his own paper was also printed in full. 



184 INDIA: Anglican Church AND Union Movements. 

Part II. in a three days' Conference, to consider the whole question of 
^'^ ■ synodical government. These assessors nnanimously advised that 
the Church lie named " The Chiu-ch of India in commmiion with 
the Chiu'ch of England " ; and the Bishops, " in view of the advice 
received from the assessors," resolved that " it is desirahle to take 
steps at once for the introduction tlu'oughout the [ecclesiastical] 
Province of full synodical government, alike provincial and 
diocesan, on the hasis of consensual compact, where such govern- 
ment does not already exist." These last words were evidently 
put in because the Diocese of Colombo, i.e. Ceylon, though in the 
ecclesiastical Province, is not " established " like the Church in 
India, and has a regular synod as its governing body. 

Arrangements were accordingly planned for tlae election of 
Synods in all the dioceses ; and in July, 1914, the Metropolitan 
(Bishop Lefroy) and the Bishops of Madras and Bombay (White- 
head and Palmer) met at Bangalore, and considered the draft con- 
stitutions prepared in six of the dioceses, viz., Bombay, Luckuow, 
imfc Nagpur, Chota Nagpur, Travancore, and Eangoon. Subsequently, 

(■ R-c .p( . ]iowever, legal opinions were obtained, which indicated that any 
action to form what might be regarded as an independent Church 
would be a breach of the law, the original dioceses of Calcutta, 
Madras, and Bombay having been established by Act of Parlia- 
ment ; and when the Bishops, twelve in number, held their annual 
meeting at Calcutta in March, 1915, they were compelled to yield 
to the awkwardness of the situation, and to resolve that full 
synodical government, both diocesan and provincial, was " at 
present impossible." 

This was what many onlookers had foreseen, but it was none the 
less disappointing. In the circumstances, the Bishops resolved 
that, in lieu of the full scheme, " a Provincial Council, consisting 
of Bisliops, representatives of the clergy, and representatives of 
the laity, should be established as soon as possible " ; while the 
"Episcopal Synod" already working was "to maintain its inde- 
pendent existence." It is hoped that the first Provincial Council 
may be formed in 1916, Of course it will be a purely voluntary 
body, with no legal powers ; but perhaps its real moral weight 
may be none the less on that account. 
Importance Yet tliis arrangement fails at one important point. The Cliurch 
"Church of I'emains tlie Church of England in India. It is not the Church 
India." of India. And the Indian Anglican Christian will have learned 
]:)y the check, itself encountered by the praiseworthy effort of the 
Bishops, how hard it is to constitute the Church he longs for. 
Very true are the words of Mr. Wigram of Lahore, the newly 
appointed Secretary for India at the home headquarters of the 
C.M.S., in writing to friends in England when he was in full hope 
that the original scheme would be worked out : — 

" Even the convert finds it hard to get up any enthusiasm abovit the 
corporate aspect of liis Christianity so long as lie has to be told lie is a 



India -. A nglican Church and Union Mo vements. i 8 5 

member of the Cliurcli of England, a foreign organization to him, which Part II. 
be does not imderataud, and which awakens no enthusiasm in him. How ^-h ap- 16. 
much more will the uon -Christian feel that Christianity represents some- 
thing altogctlier outside his patriotic aspirations, and stands or falls witli 
the fortunes of English rule here! lUit wlien there is an autonomous 
Church of India, in communion, indeed, with the Mother Chiu'ch, but 
making its own Canons, and electing ultimately its own ]3ishops, the case 
will be wholly changed." 

But tlie difficulties are not small. Not only, as already men- R-'^f^'y^^gg 
tioned, were the three original dioceses estabhshed by Acts of 
Parliament, but some of the others are at least " established " in 
the sense that the Bishops are appointed by the Crown. A con- 
sideraljle number of the clergy are government chaplains, many 
of whom have no particular desire, to put it in a mild way, for 
Indian bishops or for Synods largely Indian in membership. 
Moreover, as Mr. Holland says in the article before referred to, 
" There are in India large bodies of English visitors wdth only a 
passing interest in the country, such as the British garrison, who 
would probably prefer to belong to congregations of the Church of 
England in India rather than to be attached to a Church of India 
which had a hierarchy and liturgy and life dominantly Indian in 
character." Yet " all are agreed that there must be no racial line 
of division in the Church." The problem is really a difficult one. 
And there would be serious questions touching property. Can a 
legally consecrated English cathedral or church be transferred to 
an Indian Church, however closely allied as belonging to the 
Anghcan Communion ? And what of endowments and trusts '? 

The Larger Unity ; Dr. INIott's Conferences. 

"Meanwhile a still larger problem looms ahead. Simultaneously i>r. Mott's 
with the efforts of the Bishops, another important movement has ca*inpaign, 
])een in progress. The World Missionary Conference of 1910 at 19^'--13- 
Edinlnirgh formed a Continuation Committee to carry on its work 
and influence, and that Committee called upon its chairman. Dr. 
John E. Mott, to visit the ^fissions abroad with a view to bringing 
the missionaries together in conference and forming plans for 
more effective work in the non-Christian world, in the light of the 
evidence collected at Edinbvirgh and in the spirit there manifested. 
And in pursuance of this proposal Dr. Mott went to India first. 

This is not the place for the details of the truly remarkable 
gatherings that ensued. Plans were laid and preparations made 
with rare foresight and skill; and within less than six weeks, in The pro- 
November and December, 1912, Conferences were held at Colombo, f'eJ'ences. 
Madras, Bombay, Jabalpur, Allahabad, Lahore, and Calcutta, 
followed by a National Conference for all India at Calcutta. Each National 
Conference was attended by delegates only, and the number was enc"J."* 
strictly limited to 50 or 60, to facilitate practical discussion and 
business. All Churches and Missions were represented except the 



1 86 IXDTA: ANGLTCAX CmiRCTT AND U XION MOVEMEXTS, 



Part it. 
t:iiap. 10. 



Dr. Motf i? 

personal 

Work. 



Anglican 
Members of 
the Con- 
ferences. 



Church of Rome, which never joins in anything of the kind.* Ex- 
clusive Anglicans, exclusive Lutherans, and exclusive" Brethren," 
who have scarcely ever joined before, were present ; also the 
Syrian Churches in Travancore, and the Salvation Army. At 
each Conference the subjects for discussion were the following : — ■ 
The Occupation of the Field, the Indian Church and Indian 
Christian Leadership, the Training of Missionaries, Christian 
Education, Christian Literature, Mass Movements, Medical 
Missions, Women's Work, Co-operation between Missions, and 
the European and " Anglo-Indian " Community. The " Findings " 
at all the local Conferences were submitted to the final National 
Conference, which also agreed upon its own " Findings " and 
summed up the whole. 

Dr. Mott himself presided over all the Conferences, with his 
incomparable strength, good judgment, and large-heartedness. 
But his work was not confined to them. At every place there 
were great evening meetings of students (of all religions or no 
rehgion) in the largest halls and theatres, to hear addresses from 
him and Mr. S. Eddy.f From Allahabad Mr. Holland wrote of Dr. 
Mott, " That he was altogether equal to the double strain proved 
that by the grace of God he was a man of iron. On the last day, 
having been in Conference work from 7.0 a.m. to 4.0 p.m., even 
using for work the intervals for meals, he was speaking con- 
tinuously at meeting and after-meeting from 6.0 to 10.30 p.m., 
with but three intervals of seven, twenty (for dinner), and ten 
minutes ! " J 

It is historically interesting to note the Anglican elected 
membei's of the Conferences : — 

At Madras : Bishop Whitehead, Bishop-designate Azaviah ; of the 
C.M.S., Canon Sell, Revs. E. S. Can-, W. D. Clarke (Tamil), W. S. Hunt, 
R. W. Peachey, Miss R. E. Howard ; of the S.P.G., Revs. Canon G. H. 
Smith, A. F. Gardiner, G. Hibbert-Ware ; of the C.E.Z.M.S., Miss P. 
Grover ; also, Messrs. P. ApiDaswamj', M. D. Devadoss, E. S. Hensman, 
P. T. Tharyan. 

At Bombay: Bishop Palmer; of the C.M.S., Revs. Canon Hevwood, 
Canon Joshi, L. B. Butcher, H. W. Lea-Wilson, C. W. Thovne, Miss S. 
Sorabji, Mr. P. Bunter ; of the S.P.G., Miss Latham; also Mr. B. N. 
Athavale. 

At Jabalpur : Bishop Chattorton ; of the C.lVf.S., Revs. E. A, Henslev, 

* But Dr. Motfc, at the suggestion of the Governor of Madras, had an 
interview with the Roman Archbishop of Madras, who (wrote Dr. Mott) 
" showed deep interest in the cause of Christian unity," and declared that 
"the most helpful means of promoting it were, first, prayer; secondly, the 
exercise of gentleness and courtesy ; thirdly, we must see more of each 
other." 

t Mr. Sherwood Eddy, whose name not infrequently occurs in these 
pages, has been the American Secretary of the Y.M.O.A. at Madras. He has 
for some years done a igrcat work as a lay preacher in India, China, and 
Japan. It is interesting to know that his wife was I\Iiss Jlaud Arden, daughter 
of a devoted C.M.S. missionary in India and Organizing Secretary in England. 

X The East mul The West, July, 1913, p. 271. 



IXDIA : AiVCL/CAX ClIURCH AND UNION JSIOVF.MF.NTS. I "^"J 

F. E. Keay, Mr. E. :\r. :\rodak ; of the O.E.Z.I^I.S., :\[iss C. A. Hall ; of tlie Part II. 
Scottish Eiaiscopal Church, Rev. C. D. Philip. Cl.ap^ic.. 

At Allahabad : Bishop G. II. Westcott ; of the C.^I.S., Revs. Canon 
Durrant (now Bishop of Lahore), S. J. Edwin, F. W. Hinton, W. E. S. 
Holland, J. J. Johnson, C. G. Mylrea, J. Qalandar, W. V. K. Treanor, N. 
H. Tubbs, J. A. F. Warren, IMrs. Birney; of the S.P.G., Revs. A. Cros- 
thwaite, B. H. P. Fisher, Ahmad Shah ; also, Mr. B. ]\Iohun, Mr. R. K. 
Sorabji. 

At Lahore: Bishop Lefroy; of the C.M.S., Archdeacon Ihsan Ullah, 
Revs. Canon Ali Bakhsh, Canon E. F. E. Wigram, C. M. Gough, E. Guil- 
ford, C. E. Tyndale-Biscoe, Dr. A. C. Lanlvester ; of the 8 P.G., Principal 
S. K. Piudra, Deaconess Mary Cooke; of the C.E.Z.^M.S., ]\Iiss K. M. 
I lose, ]\riss M. E. Jaclcson ; of the Canadian Church, Rev. 11. H. A. 
Ilaslam ; also. Dr. D. N. P. Datta, Pandit Ganpat Lai ^lisra. 

At Calcutta : Bishop Copleston, Bishop Foss Westcott ; of the C.^M.S., 
Revs. R. F. Pearce, E. T. Sandys ; of the S.P.G., Revs. J. C. Forrester, 
j;. Gee, A. Logsdail, P. L. Singh, Mr. J. C. Choudhary ; of the Oxford 
.Mission, Rev. Canon E. F. Brown ; of the C.E.Z.M.S., Miss R. Phailbus, 
Miss E. G. Sandys. 

Then, of the National Conference: — 

Bishops Lefroy, Foss Westcott, Whitehead ; Bishop-designate Azariah ; 
of the C.M.S., Revs. Canon Heywood, W. E. S.Holland, Dr. A. C. Lan- 
kester; of the S.P.G., Rev. R. Gee; of the C.E.Z.IM.S., Miss K. IM. 
Bose ; also, ]\Ir. B. N. Athavale.* 

That month of December, 1912, at Calcutta, was certainly one The 
of the most memoralile in the history of Indian JNIissions. The Deeembe/ 
National Conference was held on Dec, 18th-21st. It was followed "^ i^^-- 
by a National Student Conference at Serampore, Carey's old 
station, which was attended by 200 Christian student delegates 
from 72 colleges in all parts of India, some travelling 2000 miles 
for the purpose. They were addressed, not only by Dr. Mott 
and Mr. Eddy, but by Christian Indian leaders like ]\Ir. Azariah, 
Mr. Appaswamy, Dr. S. K, Datta, and Mr. K. T. Paul. At 
the close of this there was a Syrian Church Unity Confer- 
ence, wliicli will be noticed in the chapter on Travancore. On 
Dec. 29th was the consecration of Bishop Azariah. On Dec. 30th- 
Jan. 1st was held the Anghcan Conference of Bishops and delegates 
already noticed. And in the midst of all these consultations there 
came a striking incident of real missionary work : Bishop Azariah a notable 
left the Anglican Conference to go to Serampore, where, on ^^ '^'"* 
Dec. 31st, " with the assistance of a Quaker and a Presbyterian," 
and in the presence of students from all parts of India, he 
" baptized, in the river Hooghly, two high caste M.A. students of 
Calcutta University," " whose final decision to accept Christ had 
lieen taken during the evangelistic addresses of Dr. Slott and Mr. 
Eddy given a few days before." This took place close by Henry 
^Martj'n's Pagoda, " reminding one of his remark that he would 

* It is possible that among the representatives of the Y.]\I.C.A. and other 
interdenominational bodies there may be Anglicans, but the lists do not give 
tboir denominations. 



i88 INDIA: Anglican Church AND Union Movements. 



Pakt II. 
Chap. 16. 



Iiupressious 
of that 
Week. 



as soon expect to see a man rise from the dead as to see a 
Brahman converted " ; and at " the very spot where Carey bap- 
tized his first convert in the river Hooghly on the last Sunday of 
1800." 

Deeply interesting were the accounts that came of those 
memorable days. Dr. Horton, the distinguished Congregationalist, 
was visiting India at the time, and he wrote a remarkal^le letter 
to the Times, which vpas read with keenest interest and thankful- 
ness in England, — but, it must be added, with great alarm by 
those Churchmen who have always dreaded the unifying influence 
of " Edinburgh." Two of the most encouraging communications 
were articles by the Bishop of Madras in the Iiiteriidtional Review 
of Missions, and Mr. Holland in The East and The West.'^ Both 
wrote enthusiastically, and so did others in private letters. Some 
of the younger Indian leaders commented on the statesmanship 
and progressive outlook of the more elderly missionaries, while 
many of the missionaries admitted that they had never realized 
that the Indian Church had already produced so many Indian 
leaders who were the equals and peers of the foreign missionaries. 
Lord Carmichael, the Governor of Bengal, who received the dele- 
gates at Government House, spoke of the National Conference as 
in some respects the most important gathering ever held in India. 

The " Findings " of the final National Conference were of 
exceptional importance. The Bishop of Madras w^ote very 
warmly of them. Naturally he was particularly interested in 
those on Mass Movements, the reports on which subject he pre- 
sented himself. The Conference strongly urged their importance. 
Also he was thankful that the Conference did not neglect the 
European and " Anglo-Indian " (i.e. Eurasian) Community, but 
declared that " its presence and influence represents a vital factor 
in the problem of the evangelization of India," and that " every 
effort should be made for the realization of the oneness in Christ 
Jesus of Western and Eastern Christians." The important 
"Findings" on the Indian Church and Indian Cliristian Leader- 
ship, which were submitted from a sub-committee by Mr. iVzariah, 
are summarized by Bishop Whitehead as follows : — 

" The desire on the pai-t of many leaders of the Indian Christian com- 
munity for a comprehensive Church ; the demand that the Indian 
Church, while continuing to receive and absorb every good inHnence 
which the Church of the West may impart to it, yet in respect of forms 
and organization should have entire freedom to develop on such hnes as 
will conduce most to the natural expression of the spii'itual instincts of 
Indian Christians ; the recognition of widespread indications of a true 
spirit of sacrifice and service in the Indian Church, and the conviction 
that, whenever capable and spiritually minded men and women are 
discovered, Churches and Missions should make a real and unmistakable 
advance by placing Indians on a footing of complete equality, in status 
and responsibility, with Europeans ; the emphasis laid on the principle 

* Int. Rev. Miss., April, 1913 ; E. d W., July, 1913. 



LxDiA: ANGf.icAN Church AND Union Movements. 1S9 

that the work carried on by foreign missionary societies should be Part II. 
gradually transferred, as opportunities offer, to the Indian Church ; and '-'l "U'- l<j. 
the opinion expressed that in view of the importance of this principle 
all positions of responsibility made available for Indian Cliristians should 
be related to Church organizations rather than to those of foreign 
missionary societies ; — these are views and opinions now made part of a 
definite, well-considered programme, and deliberately adopted, after a 
careful and searching criticism of every phrase and word, by the most 
representative body of missionaries in India which it would be possible 
to assemble. . . . We have often talked and written about developing 
the Indian Church. . . The Indian Church has now become a matter of 
practical politics." 

Still more notable were the " Findings '.' on Co-operation and 
Unity, submitted by Bishop Lefroy, who had just been appointed ^ishop 
^Metropolitan of India, and whose responsibility to the whole Report!' 
Church was enhanced by that fact. They declared that difficulties 
liad often occurred between different Missions touching (1) de- 
limitation of territory, (2) transfer of mission workers, (3) scales 
of salaries, (4) treatment of persons under discipline, and desired 
that special attention be paid to these matters in the different 
areas, with a view to "comity and co-operation." Moreover it 
was felt to be desirable " that spiritual hospitality be offered to 
persons of whatever denomination who may find themselves in 
an area in which the ministrations of their own Communion are Kikuyu 
not available," — which plainly anticipates " Kikuyu " ; * and other pate"." 
suggestions for conference and co-operation were added. The 
scene was thus described in an account sent to the Society, and 
printed in the G.M. Review of February, 1913 : — 

" Perhaps the most inspiring sight in the whole Conference (it certainly 
was so to us) was the Bishop of Lahore, Dr. Lefroy, the Metropolitan-elect, 
standing on the Chan-man's left (Dr. Mott), presenting the Report of the 
Sub-committee on Co-operation. Very much of it we believe was di'afted 
by his own hand, and as we heard lairn read out the calm, clear, and 
practical proposals for the correlation and co-ordination of Christian 
activities of every kind, we could not but thank God and feel that under 
the Spirit's guidance a real step forward had been taken towards the ful- 
iihnent of ovu- Lord's great prayer that we might be one. . . . 

" One very suggestive detail in the Report was the recommendation that 
the various Churches should offer '■spiritual liospitality'' to members 
of other communions within their areas who were out of reach of the 
ministrations of their owii Churches, When this Report, after being 
taken clause by clause and slightly amended, was put to the Conference 
for acceptance as a whole, the Chairman asked us, instead of merely 
raising our hands as usual, to vote by rising to our feet, and before we 
sat down again a brother led us in thanksgiving and prayer, which was 
offered from the hearts of all." 

It was with the express object of preventing these recommenda- Permanent 
tions from becoming a dead letter, that the Conference proposed planned, 
the establishment of Provincial Representative Councils and of a 

* See Chap. XL. p. 413. 



190 India: Anglican Church and Union Movements. 

ijAi^T 16 National Missionary Council. Bishop Whitehead calls this last " a 
1-1 ' fact of immense significance." Such Councils, he declares, " must 
necessarily lead to large measures of co-operation ; they will 
render violations of comity almost impossible ; they will make the 
experience of every large Mission available for the whole of India ; 
they will enable the Christian ai'my to concentrate its forces as it 
has never done before on strategic centres ; and above all they 
will foster and intensify the spirit of unity and brotherhood." 

In pursuance of this plan Kepresentative Councils were quickly 
arranged for eight provincial areas, viz., Bengal and Assam, Bihar 
and Orissa, United Provinces, Punjab, Bombay, Middle India, 
Madras, and Burma ; also a National Council, " advisory and con- 
sultative but not legislative or mandatory," to consist (as after- 
wards amended) of three elected delegates from each of eight 
divisions of India, and eighteen others to be co-opted by them. 

A highly satisfactory body was eventually formed, comprising 
some of the most prominent men of the different Churches and 
Societies. A few changes naturally ensued in the two or three 
years that have since elapsed ; but the list for 1915 includes the 
Metropolitan (Bishop Lefroy of Calcutta) as Chairman, Dr. S. K. 
Datta as Vice-chairman, the Rev. W. E. S. Holland as Treasurer, 
and the Rev. H. Anderson and Mr. E. C. Carter as Secretaries ; 
also the Bishops of Bombay, Chota Nagpur, Dornakal, and 
Madras ; and the Rev. A. J. Harvey, Canon E. A. Hensley, and 
Dr. A. C. Lankester, of the C.M.S. ; also Mr. K. J. Saunders, who 
had worked with Mr. Eraser at Trinity College, Kandy. Three 
ladies are members ; and of the men, four at least are Indians, viz., 
Bishop Azariah, Dr. Datta, Mr. S. C. Mukerji, and Mr. K. T. Paul.* 

Possibilities of Future Union. 

I'.ui wiwt This great movement, the result of the memorable Edinburgh 
Viidiau ' ^^ Conference, was designed to facilitate the Evangelization of the 
chmcii ? "World by bringing the Missions into closer mutual fellowship, and 
enabling them to work more definitely as allies, co-operating where 
possible, and avoiding causes of rivalry and friction. The Edin- 
burgh Conference itself had no ulterior purpose. But both at 
Edinburgh and in the mission field it was natural — one may say 
inevitable — that men's minds should be led by these efforts for 
co-operation to look beyond them, and to consider their bearing 
upon the future Indian Church. Must it perpetuate our Western 
divisions '? Was there no hope, one day, of one united Church ? 

This question, indeed, was not now asked for the first time. 
Men of vision had faced it before, and had realized its immense 
importance. There had been co-operation between some of the 
Missions, though only to a limited extent even within the same 
ecclesiastical connexion. Not only were the two principal 

* For the last meeting of the Council, iu Nov., l'J15, ace CM. Eeview, 
Feb., 1916. 



INDIA: Anglican Church AND Union Movements. 191 

Anglican Societies, the S.P.G. and O.M.S., working quite indepen- v^"^ n 
dently, but there were separate and in a sense rival Presbyterian ' ^ 
Missions, Methodist Missions, &c. The Eoman Church itseh, '^^^^^ll^,^, 
with all its boasted unity, worked through different societies and operatiou. 
religious orders, which did not always manifest much readiness to 
co-operate with one another. Still, there were cases of co- 
operation even between different denominations. For instance, 
the great Madras Christian College, belonging to the Free Church 
of Scotland, was supported to a small extent by the C.M.S. and the 
Wesleyan Society, each undertaking to provide one professor. 
The friendly relations, extending even to a certain local co- 
operation, between the S.P.G. and Cambridge Delhi Mission and 
the Baptist Mission in that city, was a still more striking case. 
But these things had little direct bearing on the great question, 
What of the future Indian Church ? 

There had been some attempts at union or federation among a Loc^ii^and 
few of the local native Christian denominations ; but it is needless Efforu 
to give particulars here. One important and apparently lasting 
interdenominational effort has been the establishment of the 
South India United Church, comprising congregations connected 
with several British and American Societies, Congregationalist, 
and Presbyterian ; and a Presbyterian Alliance of different Missions 
was formed at Allahabad in 1911. The Anglican congregations 
had taken no part either in these or in other similar schemes ; nor 
had the Lutherans ; nor had certain of the Baptists. It is quite a 
mistake to suppose, as some do suppose, that it is only Anglican 
Churchmen who (besides the Eomanists) raise obstacles to union. 
As far back as 1872, when John Barton of the C.M.S. read a paper 
at the Allahabad Missionary Conference on the Future Indian 
Church, advocating union, a Bengali Methodist minister declared 
that he for one would never let his Methodism be absorbed ; he 
hoped to be a Methodist in heaven.* 

In a very interesting article in the Iniernalioiial Revie/r 0/ Qpj,\""fi^ 
Jlissions (April, 1912), the Eev. J. H. Maclean, of the U.F. Scottish sum- 
Church at Madras, discussed the whole subject, and gave '"'^'^'^''"'^* 
particulars of various schemes and proposals. He pointed out 
four different attitudes or classes of opinion. (1) Some care little 
or nothing for organic union at all. They are content with the 
existing variety of denominations, and only desire spiritual fellow- 
ship. Many non-episcopalian Christians are of this class. (2) At 
the opposite pole are those who, like the Eomanists, the higher 
Anglicans, the higher Lutherans, and the " close " Baptists or 
" Brethren," insist that all must join the only true Visible Church, 
while not agreeing what Church that is. Nos. 3 and 4 arc between 
these two extremes : (3) Some, says Mr. Maclean, have for their 
motto some such words as those of Bishop Palmer of Bombay, 
" Not compromise for the sake of peace, but comprehension for 

* " Some Christians give the impression that they have a very small 
Christ."— J. B. Mott, Present World ISituation, p. 141. 



192 India: Anglican Church and Union Movements. 

Part II. the sake of truth"; they arc ready for definite sacrifice in the 
'—1 ■ cause of organic union, but not for intercommunion between 
separated bodies, — the position of many moderate or evangehcal 
Anghcans ; and (4) Some, viz., a fair number of Anghcans, as 
well as Presbyterians and Methodists, are ready for intercom- 
munion meanwhile, but earnestly desire organic union eventually. 
This is a very true account of the varying opinions and desires. 
Attitude Now Bishop Whitehead of Madras has taken a special interest 

of Madras. -^^ these questions. He was the first Anglican bishop to join in 
one of the United Decennial Conferences, at Madras in 1902. In 
1911, in his Diocesan Magazine, he made certain tentative pro- 
posals for union, on the basis of what is called the " Lambeth 
Quadrilateral " (i.e. the Canonical Scriptures, the Apostles' and 
Nicene Creeds, the two Sacraments, and the Historic Episcopate), 
but with extremely liberal suggestions regarding the Episcopate ; 
and these proposals were discussed in the Harvest Field (the 
leading Methodist periodical in India) by Mr. Sherwood Eddy, the 
American Y.M.C.A. Secretary, the Eev. H. Pakenham Walsh 
(S.P.G., now Bishop of Assam), and others. Then, at Calcutta, 
at the memoralile period already referred to, Bishop Whitehead 
delivered a remarkable address to the delegates to the National 
Conference, which he afterwards published. Mr. Holland, who 
was present, described it in TItc East and The WeH (July, 1913). 
His Appeal The Bishop declared that some of the best authorities among 
Episcopate, High Churchmen in England were not now prepared to Imse the 
importance of the Episcopate in the Church of Christ upon the 
theory that " the historic succession of the ministry is necessary 
as a channel of divine grace " ; basing this statement partly on an 
article by Dr. Headlam in the Fraijer-Book Dictioiiarij, and on one 
by Dr. Frere in the Church Qaarterlij Review. At the same time 
he made what Mr. Holland calls " a passionate appeal " for the 
Episcopate, on the ground both of its ancient historic character 
and of its practical usefulness. " This appeal," writes Mr. 
Holland, " made a profound impression. Coming away by train 
next day some of the most venerated leaders of non-episcopal 
Chiu'ches in India confessed that the Bishop's statement imposed 
on them a new and solemn responsibility to reconsider their 
attitude to episcopacy. For, though the Bishop's position would 
not pass unchallenged, it at least opened to them an avenue of 
approach, which they could take without doing dishonour to the 
Spirit of Christ that was in them." 

But seed sown like this does not spring up to the harvest at 
once. Quite naturally, when the subject was discussed in various 
religious papers in India, all sorts of difficulties and objections 
were urged. Yet such discussions are all to the good, iDecause 
they keep the need and the desirableness and the possibilities of 
union before the minds of Christian men. The remarkable thing 
is that so little was heard in England about it ; l)ut home contro- 
versies loom large, and hide much more important matters in the 



f.vDiA: Anglican Church AND Union Movements. 193 

mission Held, — unless, indeed, there be a Bishop of Zanzibar to part 11. 
charge his brother-bishops with heresy, and a queer name hke ^^^^^- ^^- 
" Kikuyu " to head the cohimns of newspapers and appear in large 
letters on their posters. 

Bishop Whitehead has acted, so far as it is at present possible, i^ut- "ot 
consistently with his own words ; and, moreover, he is not Kikuyu. ° 
ashamed of " Kikuyu." In fact, in his Diocesan Magazine, Feb., 
191-i, he printed the whole " Kikuyu " scheme, and wrote, " I do 
not think there is anything in it that differs in principle from what 
has been done in India during the last thirty or forty years." 
Here is an illustration from the same magazine (April, 1914) : — * 

" On Friday, Jan. 9, I left Madras by the mid-day train for Arkonam, 
where I held a confirmation at 5 p.m. in the mission church belonging to 
the Established Church of Scotland, which was very kindly lent to me 
for the pvirpose by Mr. Silver, the missionary in charge. I am glad to 
say that the relations between the Church of Scotland missionary and 
the English chaplain in charge of the Europeans are luortliy of Kikuiju. 
Mr. Silver holds an English service for the European residents every 
Siuiday, except when Mr. Brown visits the station, once in a month, 
when he kindlj' lends his church to Mr. Brown for the H0I3' Communion 
and Evensong." 

The spirit thus displayed is not new. In June, 1908, Bishop 
Whitehead gave an account in his magazine of a tour in the 
S.P.G. Telugu districts. At one place he found both S.P.G. and 
L.M.S. missionaries at work, with happy mutual relations. At 
another L.M.S. station, at the request of the missionaries, he held 
" an English service " in their mission chapel. " It was delight- 
ful," he wrote ; " while Churchmen and Nonconformists are 
engaged in bitter strife at home, what a happiness that in the 
mission field we can meet as friends and join together in 
worship ! " 

Again, in 1914, the Bishop Avas one of the speakers at the gj^ appeal 
C.M.S. Annual Meeting, and he pleaded earnestly for union among atb.M.s. 
Christians :— ''^''^"'°- 

" When I first went to India thirty years ago I was strongly opposed to 
co-operation with bodies outside the Church of England. Thirty years' 
experience has made me a complete convert. ... If we are to do the 
work as God calls us to do it, we must have co-operation now ; and God 
grant that we may have unity at no distant time. Not merely for the 
sake of a theory, but in the name of those millions of souls who through 
oiu: divisions are being kept outside the Christian Church, kept apart 
from the saving truth of the Gospel, I appeal to you all here in England 
to study the thmgs that make for peace and unity." t 

Bishop Palmer, of Bombay, has also used notable words on the views of 
general subject of union. In a paper read by him, at the request uonibay. 
of American missionaries, at a Conference arranged by them in 

» See the CM. Rev., April, 1914, p. 238, and, June, 1911, p. 331. 
t Ibid., June, 1914, p. 347. 

O 



194 I-^^DiA: Anglican Church AND Union Movements. 

pakt II. 1909, he said that if it were " half true " that if all foreign mission- 
chap^ie. a^rieg jgft India, the Indian Christians would at once form one 
united Church, then we are " heavily responsible for thwarting 
our Lord's purpose." " There is," he said, " only one spirit in 
which I can look upon our disunion, and that is in the spirit of 
contrition. Disunion has been caused by my father's sins and 
your fathers' sins, and it is maintained by my sins and your sins." 
And he added, " I want to know from my brethren now separated 
from me what are the things on which they lay most stress, from 
which they believe that they gain most life. It may be that I lack 
those things, and that I lack them precisely because those who 
have them abundantly are separated from me." Of course he 
went on to remind his " separated brethren " that they too might 
have something to learn from him. But assuredly this is a fine 
illustration of the spirit in which the whole question should be 
approached. Since then. Bishop Primer has joined the National 
Council before mentioned, although he acknowledges that a large 
number of his clergy would have preferred his not doing so 
(see p. 218). 
Some United gatherings for prayer and spiritual uplift are not new, 

CfTtheriugs. ^"^^ ^^ recent years several of the bishops have taken part in them. 
There is a remarkable annual Convention at Sialkot in the Punjab, 
attended by 2000 people, mostly Indian Christians. The Simla 
Convention has naturally been more for the white population ; 
and of its meeting in 1912 an interesting notice appeared in the 
C.M.S. Gazette (Oct., 1912). Bishop Lefroy, then of Lahore and now 
Metropolitan of India, was one of the speakers, and another was 
Mr. H, B. Durrant, w^ho has succeeded him. Among others were 
Mr. E. T. Archibald, of the Children's Special Service Mission, 
and Commissioner Booth-Tucker, the head of the Salvation Army 
in India. A missionary meeting was held at the residence of the 
Lieut.- Governor of the Punjab, at the invitation of Lady Dane. 
Among the subjects of addresses were " Christ the Magnet of the 
Human Heart," and " Christ the Alchemist of Human Life." 
Notwithstanding all differences, very real as some of them are, 
men cannot help drawing together when they draw near to their 
common Lord and Master. To adopt Bishop Lefroy's words in 
his farewell sermon when leaving Lahore for Calcutta, " India 
is conscious of the deep trouble of division, and longs for some 
one to heal these chasms and cleavages, and really make her 
one ! " Yes, and if Christianity is to do that, Christians must 
themselves be united. 




CHAPTEE XVII. 
IXDiA : c.M.S. Missions— General. 

The C.M.S. Staff: Its Inadequacy— Increase of Women— Deaths and 
Retirements— Indian Clergy— Baptisms— Higher Education— Literary 
Work— Native Church Councils. 

\N examination of the lists of foreign missionaries in 1899 paut ir. 
and 1914 reveals the extent of change in the Society's '^'^!£:i^- 
India Missions. Out of 208 men and 39 women on c-M.s. staff 
the roll in 1899, 72 men and 14 women remained in '" ^'"^'''' 
1914. The total figures in 1914 were 174 men and 
107 women, showing a net decrease of 34 men and a net increase 
of 68 women. This does not count the wives, except that one of 
the fourteen women of 1899, still at work in 1914, had married a 
missionary in the interval. Several other of the present wives 
were in India in 1899, but as missionaries of the C.E.Z.M.S. or 
the Z.B.M.M. 

With regard to the increase of women missionaries, it is to be 
remembered that in the early years of the Society's new policy of 
accepting offers from women, dating from 1887, they had been 
sent to other fields where the three Women's Societies did not 
work, India being regarded still as supplied by those Societies. 
Gradually, however, the demand for women was so great from 
India that the C.M.S. was obhged, while still availing itself to the 
utmost of the good work of the C.E.Z.M.S. and Z.B.M.M., to add 
some of those who wished to serve in India and preferred C.M.S. 
connexion. The Female Education Society, when wound up in 
1900, also added several women to the C.M.S. staff. 

The largest number of men was in 1903 and 1906, in each of iieduued 
which years it was 212, reckoning clergymen, doctors, and other "^b«^«- 
laymen. Altogether the clergy were most numerous in 1899 and 
1903, when there were 170 ; the doctors most numerous in 1911, 
when there were 19 ; and the other laymen in 1907, when there 
were 30. The diminution altogether is very lamentable, especially 
that the clergy have dropped from 170 to 142.(148 in 1915). As 
the whole number of C.M.S. ordained missionaries is now larger 
than in 1899,* it is clear that other Missions have gained at the 

* This requires explanation. The whole number of C.M.S. ordained (white) 
missionaricK stands in the Kcport of 18'J9 as 402, and in 1915 as 425, or 
rather 414 (omitting the 11 not yet sailed), which seems au increase of only 



196 



India -. C.M.S. Missions — General. 



Part II. 
Chap. 17. 



Increase 
of Womeu. 



nadequacv 
of Stall 
illustrated. 



Deaths in 
the Field. 



expense of India. All the divisions of the Missions have suflered 
except one. It must, however, be added that there are now some 
twenty University "short-service men" at work in North India 
colleges, which may fairly be set against the decrease ; but there 
are none in the South, nor are they available for general evange- 
listic work."' There is also a gratifying increase in the number of 
Indian clergymen. 

On the other hand the large increase in the women mission- 
aries is a cause for much thankfulness ; and it must not be for- 
gotten that the missionaries' wives (125, a slight reduction) are 
almost all doing excellent work also ; eight of them, for instance, 
are qualified doctors. The immense importance of women's work 
can only be realized when we remember that without it one half 
of the population remains untouched. And the ignorance of 
multitudes of them is startling. One woman, on being told that 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, had come into the world, asked, " Is 
He staying at the hotel, Miss Sahib ? " 

The diminished staff is all the more deplorable when we see the 
need of its being largely increased. For instance, when retrench- 
ments were ordered in 1906, it was pointed out, as one illustration 
of the position, that out of fifty administrative districts in the 
United Provinces, each containing a population of a million, 
seventeen were without an ordained foreign missionary, and nine 
had only one each. To provide one missionary for each 50,000, 
925 more would be required. Six of the districts were regarded 
as definite spheres of the C.M.S., and these, with a population of 
nine and a half millions, had four English missionaries. Two of 
these districts, Gorakhpur and Basti, had between them nearly 
five millions of people, equal to the population of London, and 
greater than that of Uganda, and were worked by three English 
missionaries. In another district, there were 5000 villages to be 
visited by one man. That was nine years ago, and there has been 
no improvement since. 

The losses of missionaries by death in the field have removed 
from the hst several well-known and honoured names : among 
them Eobert Clark, the pioneer Church missionary to the Punjab, 
who almost completed his fifty years of service, dying in 1900 ; f 
his able and vigorous wife, who survived him eight years and 
died also in the field ; | H. E. Perkins, formerly Commissioner of 
Amritsar, who on retiring from government service took Holy 



12. But during the period many men still working in N.-W. Canada have 
come off the C.M.S. list, and some in Japan and India have been transferred 
to the Church of Canada's IMissions. The real net increase of ordained 
missionaries is about 50, and yet India (apart from Ceylon) has 22 less in 1915 
than in 1899. See further, p. 465. 

* The Calcutta Diocesan Record lately called attention to the intellectual 
quality of C.M.S. men in recent years, and gave a list of nine double-firsts, 
and several college Fellows, &c. 

t See CM. Intcll, July, Oct., Nov., 1900. 

% Sec CM. Rev., Oct., 1907, p. 639. 



India: CMS. Mrssioxs— General. 197 

Orders, and gave some years of valuable work to the Punjab pakt ii. 
Mission ; '■' Alexander and Harrison of the Telugu Mission, after C'hap^i?. 
54 and 42 years' service respectively ; Kember of Tinnevelly and 
J. H. Bishop of Travancore, after 45 years ; H. D. Goldsmith, 
Principal of the Divinity School at Madras ; H. F. Kowlands and 
Mrs. Daeuble, killed by the earthquake of 1905 ; C. S. Thompson, 
pioneer missionary to the Bhils ; T. Walker of Tinnevelly, faithful 
and fervent conductor of " missions " ; P. H. Shaul, of the first 
band of Associated Evangehsts in Bengal ; Col. Freeman, who 
gave himself to preach the Gospel to the Parsis of Bombay ; Dr. 
Pennell, the medical missionary of Bannu, and his mothei', who 
for several years worked wnth him ; and four other doctors in 
the Punjab. Also Mrs. Thomas of Tinnevelly, after sixty-one 
years among the people as wife and widow ; two Misses Baker of 
Travancore, granddaughters of the first Henry Baker (one of the 
earliest English missionaries in India), and daughters of the 
second, who had worked many years in the Girls' School there ; 
and Miss S. Bland, formerly of the old F.E.S., who died in 1914 
after nearly forty years in India. Among the younger women, two 
ought to be named, as daughters of successive Secretaries of the 
Society, Miss K. C. Wright and Mrs. Eleanor Carr (nee Wigram). 

But India lost also by retirements, especially of veterans: — .Losses by 
T. E. Wade, 46 years ; Ellwood, and Beutel (last but one of 
the old German missionaries), 42 years ; Baumann, J. Brown, 
and Richards, 40 years ; R. Bateman, Archdeacon Caley, Eales, 
C. A. Neve, W. A. Roberts, and Dr. Weitbrecht, 34 to 36 years ; 
Lash and Latham, over 30 years ; W. H. Ball, Dr. H. M. Clark, 
Bishop Hodges, -J. H. Knowles, and J. Stone, 24 to 27 years ; 
also H. G. Grey, twice withdrawn from India to take the Principal- 
ship of Wycliffe Hall, Oxford ; C. W. A. Clarke, Principal of the 
'Noble College ; J. P. Haythornthwaite, Principal of St. John's 
College, Agra (now Organizing Secretary in London) ; also Mrs. 
Durrant, who went out in advancing years and worked earnestly c.M.s.Men 
with her daughter for twelve years ; also H. J. IMolony, called B^^hops**^ 
away to be Bishop in Chekiang, China. Bishop Gill of Travancore, 
Bishop Durrant of Lahore, and Bishop Waller of Tinnevelly are 
happily not lost to India. Of the foregoing. Ball, Roberts, Wade, 
Ellwood, and Mrs. Durrant have since died. 

The following C.M.S. missionaries have received from the Kaisar-i- 
Government the Kaisar-i-Hind medals for important services to Medallists, 
the people of India : The first class, gold. Canon Sell of Madras, 
the late Dr. Pennell of Bannu, Dr. A. Neve of Kashmir, the 
Rev. E. Guilford of Tarn Taran, and the Rev. G. E. Tyndale- 
Biscoe of Kashmir ; the second class, silver. Dr. A. C. Lankester 
of Peshawar, Dr. Holland of Quetta, the Rev. A. Outram of the 
Bhil Mission, the Rev. E. D. Price of the Gond Mission, Miss 
Askwith of Tinnevelly, Mrs. Cain of Dummagudem, and the late 
Miss Bland of Agra. 

* See CM. Intell, Oct., 1900. 



198 



India .- C. M. S. Missions— General. 



Part II. 
Chap. 17. 



Hon. 

Canons. 



Indian 
Clergy. 



The following have lieen appointed by the Bishops Honorary 
Canons of the respective dioceses : the late W. H. Ball, and P. T, 
Cole, of Calcutta ; E. Sell, M. Goldsmith, and the late F. W. N. 
Alexander, of Madras ; the late W. A. Eoberts, and E. S. Heywood, 
of Bombay ; H. U. Weitbrecht, E. P. E. Wigram, E. Guilford, of 
Lahore ; W. Hooper, H. B. Durrant (now bishop), and E. H. 
M. Waller (now bishop), of Lucknow ; E. A. Hensley, of Nagpur. 
The Indian clergy have in the fifteen years increased in number 
from 142 to 206.* During the period, 146 have been ordained, and 
on the other hand there have been many deaths. Amongst those 
who passed away were the Eev. Dr. Imad-ud-din, the distinguished 
Mohammedan maulvi ; the Eev. Kharak Singh, the Sikh who had 
become a Hindu and served in the loyal Indian Army in the Mutiny 
campaign ; the Eev. Euttonji Nowroji, a Parsi, for many years the 
highly respected pastor at Aurungabad, after forty-four years' 
service ; the Eev. W. SeetaL of Agra, " pillar and leader of the 
Church " in the United Provinces ; the Eev. Eam Charan Dass, 
the first pastor in the Santal Mission (though himself a Hindu) ; 
the Eev. I. Venkatamayya Eazu, the friend of General Haig, who 
gave up government service and laboured many years on the 
Upper Godavari ; Archdeacon Koshi Koshi of Travancore, made a 
D.D. (like Imad-ud-din) for literary work, after forty-three years' 
service, and his successor. Archdeacon Oomen Mamen, after forty- 
eight years' ; and several valued pastors in Tinnevelly, particularly 
the Eev. Samuel Paul, honoured by the Government with the title 
of Eao Sahib for important literary work ; the Eev. A. Vedanayagam 
Thomas, learned in the classics and in seven different languages ; 
the Eev. M. H. Cooksley, "medical pastor" at Mengnanapuram, 
after forty-two years' service ; and the Eev. Paramanandham 
Gnanakan Simeon, B.A., for over twenty years pastor of Suvise- 
shapuram, who, wrote Bishop Wilhams, "left behind him a bright 
record of wholehearted devotion and unflagging zeal." Two other 
deaths of eminent Indian Cl^ristians must be mentioned : Profes- 
sor Samuel Satthianadan, a Cambridge graduate. Professor of 
Philosophy in Madras University and Deputy Director of Public 
Instruction, who was perhaps the leading Christian at Madras; 
and Mrs. Sorabji, of Poena, widow of the Eev. Sorabji Kharsedji, 
a Parsi clergyman, and mother of the brilliant daughters so well 
known in England and America, and herself a woman of great 
ability and influence. 

Two Indian clergymen are Archdeacons, the Yen. Ihsan Ullah 

deacons and in the Diocese of Lahore, and the Ven. Jacob Chandy in Travan- 

Canons. gQj,Q . ^-^^ ^j^g following are Canons of the different cathedrals : — 

the Eev. D. L. Joslii, of Bombay; the Eev. Nihal Singh, of Lucknow; 

the Eev. Ali Bakhsh, of Lahore ; tlie Eev. D. Anautam, of Madras. 

The Indian lay teachers, men and women, have increased from 

2780 to 3850. Probably about half of these are in the employment 

* The increase is really greater by seven, as retired Indians arc not now 
counted, as they used to be. 



Indian 
Arch 



Indian lay 
Teachers. 



INDIA: CMS, Missions — General. 199 

of the Church Councils (1300 in Tinnevelly and Travancore), and pakt ii. 
the rest directly under the Society. They have, no douht, their ^'hap. 17. 
faults and limitations. Those engaged in any one hranch of the 
work, pastoral, evangelistic, or educational, are often not ready 
to help in other branches ; * and some are apt to be more polemical 
than spiritual in their teaching. But a great many are highly 
spoken of. 

Notwithstanding the inadequacy of the missionary force, the Adult 
number of baptisms in these latter years has largely increased, i^aptisms. 
The total number of adult baptisms reported in the fifteen years 
was 46,500. The average per annum to 1907 was 2500, and since 
then 3600 ; the most striking increase being in the Punjab, where 
the yearly average has risen from 220 to 830. These figures will 
assuredly surprise many readers who have little idea of the extent 
of the Society's work in India, or of the fruits it is gathering ; and 
it must be remembered that every one of these adult converts has 
been carefully instructed before baptism, and in most cases had a 
probation of many months. And in the South, where a large 
majority of the Christians are found, and where many thousands 
of them are of the second and third generation, the baptisms of 
children, which are not included in the foregoing figures, are even 
more numerous. The total number of baptized Christians in statistics of 
India connected with the C.M.S. in 1899 was 120,295. The figure ^''"-'^tians. 
for 1915 is 199,068. If catechumens are added, the former figure 
becomes 133,749, and the latter 221,423. 

With numbers Jike these we cannot look for many detailed individual 
narratives of individual conversions. Of the immense majority we sions. 
know nothing ; and of the interesting notices of the small minority 
that do come, many cannot get into print for lack of space. The 
question is sometimes asked. Why are there now no touching 
narratives of baptisms of Brahmans who have suffered the loss of 
all things for Christ's sake, as there used to be ? The answer is that 
the conversions of Brahmans are far more numerous than formerly. ^ 

Just a few (of Brahmans or others) may be mentioned in the 
Eeports, perhaps with a couple of lines each ; but in former years, 
each of those cases would have occupied several pages, and been 
told of at meetings all over the country. Such for example as the 
nephew and heir of a chief Nawab, giving up wealth and high 
prospects for Christ's sake ; the government ofiicials baptized at 
Madras in the presence of hundreds of wondering non-Christians ; 
the Mohammedan doctor at Haidarabad ; the young athlete in 
South India, who had carried off four first prizes in an inter-school 
contest, baptized by a senior missionary who (having been born in 
India) was rescued as an infant from a riot headed by the athlete's 

* Mr. Wigram writes, " Something has been done to remedy the defect. 
For example, a good deal of thought has been given to the problem of keeping 
the bazaar-preaching catcchist fresh for what might otherwise become a 
monotonous and depressing routine by giving him an hour or two of Bible 
teaching in the mission school." 



200 



INDIA: CMS. Missions— General. 



Part II. 

Chap. 17. 



Importance 
and Deve- 
lopment of 
Higher 
Education. 



Tlie new 
Hostels. 



Literary 
Work. 



grandfather ; the devil-priest in Travancore brought l^y his two 
Christian sons ; the young man in Mr. Holland's Hostel appointed 
to a government office in the remote swamps of Eastern Bengal, 
to baptize whom Mr. Holland and Mr. Tubbs travelled 1300 miles ; 
the two Brahman boys in a Tinnevelly school, whose conversion 
was " like an electric shock through the town " ; the Hindu hermit 
who in previous years had persistently annoyed the Christians in 
church by energetic drumming outside ; the young Brahman at 
Masulipatam, cursed by his mother, and baptized amidst great 
excitement ; and the two Afghan martyrs (p. 212). 

The increased number of baptisms is due chiefly to the 
" mass movements " before referred to. But a Church needs 
educated leaders ; and it is therefore of great importance not to 
neglect the educational work which reaches the upper classes of 
India. It is good to ol:)serve that there has been large development 
during the fifteen years. Although most of the existing institu- 
tions are of long standing, several have raised their standard in the 
16-year period. There are now five First-Grade Colleges, the Noble 
College at Masulipatam, St. John's at Agra, the Edwardes College 
at Peshawar, St. Paul's College at Calcutta, and St. Andrew's at 
Gorakhpur ; and two Second-Grade Colleges at Tinnevelly Town, 
and Kottayam in Travancore. There are thirty-five High Schools 
for boys, and seven for girls ; fifty-two Middle Schools for boys, 
and twenty-four for girls ; eleven Industrial Schools for boys, and 
five for girls ; three Primary Boarding Schools for boys, and four 
for girls ; two " purdah " schools for girls ; and about 1400 
elementary schools, girls', boys', and mixed. There are normal 
classes and theological classes in most of the divisions of the 
Mission (hnguistic or otherwise), as at Lahore, Clarkabad, Poena, 
Allahabad, Calcutta, Madras, Masulipatam, Palamcotta, Kottayam, 
and for the Santal, Gond, and Bhil Missions. Another class is 
Hostels, which are attached to most of the colleges and schools 
(except the elementary), and which take boys away from debasing 
influences and give more opportunities for moulding character. 
The Oxford and Cambridge Hostel at Allahabad is an important 
new institution, founded by Mr. Holland in 1900 for students of 
any creed at the government or other independent colleges there. 
This is a new method for influencing the upper classes, and is 
highly approved by the government educational authorities. This 
Hostel, and a few other institutions, have been much helped by the 
" short-service men," who have gone out from our Universities, 
not directly as missionaries, but engaged by the institution on its 
own funds. At St. John's, Agra, there have been eight or ten 
men of good University standing working together. 

Much good literary work has been done by the Society's 
missionaries and some of the Indian clergy. Eevision of Indian 
Versions of the Old and New Testaments are always going on. 
Hymn books and minor pu))lications are continually being l^rought 
out in almost all the leading languages. But the most interesting 



IxDiA: CMS. Missions— Gexrral. 201 

enterprise of the kind in our period has been the production of part ii. 
Commentaries under the auspices of the bishops as arranged by — 
them at their Synod in 1900. The plan is to write the Com- The new 
mentary in English, and then have it translated into the various [arie"."^"' 
vernaculars by men competent in each case. Dr. Wcitbrecht 
wrote on St. T^Iatthew, Bisliop Waller on the Eevelation, the late 
Eev. T. Walker on the Acts and Philippians ; also the Eev. H. 
Pakenham Walsh, of the S.P.G. (now Bishop of Assam), on 
St. John's Epistles. The Philippians and Revelation have been 
translated into Hindi by Dr. Hooper and Pundit Balmukand, into 
Marathi l)y Canon Joshi, and into Urdu by the Eev. Malcolm Jan ; 
Philippians also into Telugu by Canon Anantam, and into Tamil 
by Mr. Walker himself. St. Matthew has been translated into 
Urdu by Dr. Weitbrecht, and into Hindi by Dr. Hooper, Mr. 
Walker's Acts and Bishop Waller's Eevelation have been trans- 
lated into Marathi, by Canon Joshi ; and Bishop Pakenham 
Walsh's Epistles of St. John into Marathi l)y the Eev. D. K. 
Shinde, and into Tamil by Mr. G. S. D. Pillay. The Eev. A. 
Crosthwaite (S.P.G.) has WTitten the Commentary on 2nd Corin- 
thians, and the Eev. W. H. G. Holmes, of the Oxford Mission at 
Calcutta, is preparing one on the Epistle to the Hebrews. Mr. 
Walker was engaged on the Apocryphal Books at the time of 
his lamented death. Dr. Hooper has also written an independent 
Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, and translated it into 
Hindi. These and other branches of the work, including the 
medical missions, will be further noticed under the different 
districts. 

The Native Chiu'ch Councils in the different provinces and ^^"*'^'| 
districts have continued for the most part working on the lines (-ounciis. 
previously laid down ; but there has been some modification of 
the old plans in the North. In the Punjab, a new scheme w^as 
arranged in 1904, with a view to uniting all the work, European 
and Indian, pastoral and evangelistic and medical, under one 
administration. There is a Central Council composed of clerical 
and lay delegates, and certain official members, with the Bishop as 
Chairman ; also District Councils and Pastoral Committees, This 
does not seem to differ much from the older system ; but it is so 
planned as to bring the different nationalities and different depart- 
ments of work into closer co-operation. In the United Provinces, 
the new body, formed in 1911, is called the Diocesan Council, and 
comprises the Bishop and the Archdeacon of Lucknow, and- 
delegates from the Missionary Conference, the Central Indian 
Church Council, and the Diocesan Board of Missions. All these 
plans are but preparatory for the future regular Synods for all 
India.* 

* A series of articles on the various Church Councils in C.M.S. INIissions in 
India appeared in the CM. Revieio of July, Aug., Sept., 1909, contributed by 
Messrs. Bhaul, Butler, Cole, Grey, Waller, Carr, and Meadows. 



CHAPTEE XVIII. 

C.M.S. MISSIONS: Diocese of Lahore. 

Punjab and Sindh Mission. 

The Field and the Men— R. Clark, Imad-ud-din, &c.— Growth of the 
Christian Community— Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Lahore, &c.— The 
Jhang Bar— Kashmir : School and Hospital— Peshawar and Bannu 
—Dr. Pennell— Baluch Mission— Sindh— Medical and Women's 
Work— New Church Council— Bishops Lefroy and Durrant— S.P.G. 
and Other Missions. 

Si8 1^^^^^ ^®^*^ ^^ ^^^^ Punjab and Sindh Mission is the 
— M^ ^0! Diocese of Lahore, which comprises the civil Province 

Millon/''" ^m ^ of ^l^e Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province, 
^^_ jgj also Sindh (which is under the Bombay Government), 
and Baluchistan, and protected States like Kashmir. 
The North-West Frontier Province was separated from the Punjab 
and put under a separate administration in 1900. The Delhi 
district was under Punjab administration from the time of the 
Mutiny until King George's visit in 1911, when it was separated in 
view of Delhi becoming the capital of India. No mission field 
presents greater variety of spiritual soil than this great diocese, 
and none calls for more skilful diversity of operation. 

itsjiistoric And no Missions have greater liistorical interest ; for one thing, 
because of their many links with some of those brilliant English- 
men who have served the British Crown in India, the Lawrences, 
Kobert Montgomery, Herbert Edwardes, and a host of others. 
The succession of rulers not ashamed of their Christian faith has 
still been kept up. It may suffice to say that, as our period 
opens, we find Sir W. IMackworth Young at the head of the 
Government. 

E.obeit The history, too, is not a long one. The C.M.S. Mission in 

1899 was not yet half a century old, and the missionary who 
began it, and had taken a leading part in almost all its develop- 
ments, Eobert Clark, was still the chief leader, looked up to by 
all his colleagues. He was a Cambridge Wrangler, and the con- 
temporary there of Bishops G. Vj. Moule, Royston, and Speechly, 
Christopher and David Fenn, and other devoted missionaries. 
He was the first at Amritsar, the first at Peshawar, the first in 
Kashmir ; and he started most of the varied agencies in the 



Interest. 



Clark. 



CUTS. MissroNS : Diocese of Lahore. 203 

Punjab. But he died on May 16th, 1900, universally honoured part ii. 

and revered.* Mrs. Clark survived until IQOT.j chap^is. 

Of the 97 names on the list in 1899 (including 34 wives), 31 bosses by 

,.,, . 1 , ,1 ,1 ,1 ^ -1 1-1 Death and 

are still on it, but there are three others on it now which were Ketire- 
then on the C.INI.S. roll elsewhere, and eight who were already in "'^nt. 
India in other connexions. The losses in the fifteen years include, 
by death in the field, among others, Mrs. Grime, the experienced 
head of an important Girls' School at Amritsar ; H. P. Eowlands, 
killed in the earthquake at Kangra ; Dr. Pennell of I>annu, and 
Drs. Barton, Barnett, and Browne ; also Dr. Smit, formerly of 
the S.P.G. in Tinnevelly, who was drowned at Fort Munro in 
1900; also Miss Nevill, and Miss A. Eobinson.J The losses by 
retirement include Eowland ]jateman, T. R. Wade (since dead),§ 
W. Thw^aites, F. Papprill, J. H. Knowles, Dr. Weitbrecht, Drs. 
S. W. Sutton and Summerhayes, C. E. Barton (since dead), 
R. Sinker, H. G. Grey, W. F. Cobb, A. H. Storrs, C. H. A. Field, 
J. Tunbridge, Dr. Adams, H. F. Beutel, T. E. Coverdale, Dr. 
Henry Martyn Clark, Miss Edgley (since dead),|| the Misses 
Farthing (one since dead), kc. Some of these have been already 
referred to in the previous chapter, and others will be in due 
course. The Rev. R. H. A. Haslam, of Toronto, is lost to the 
C.jNI.S., though not to India, owing to the transfer of the Kangra 
District to the Missionary Society of the Canadian Church. 

Among the new names in the period should be mentioned those ^ew 
of the Rev. P. Ireland Jones, who had been Secretary at Calcutta, 
and also for two or three years in Salisliury Square, and who was 
Secretary of the Punjab Mission for most of the time under review^ ; 
Dr. H. T. Holland, the medical missionary at Quetta, brother of 
W. E. S. Holland; two brothers Wigram (Marcus and Loftus), 
the latter a doctor w^hose health did not permit him to stay long 
in India, and who is now Principal of Livingstone College ; Miss 
E. P. Fox, daughter of the late Hon. Sec, now married to the 
Rev. C. F. Hall ; and Miss INI. Gomery, a doctor from ^Montreal. 

In numbers the clergymen and the laymen (mostly doctors) are 
the same, 36 and 17, the wives have risen from 34 to 42, and the 
other women from 10 to 32 ; total increase, from 97 to 127. 

The Indian clergy have increased from 15 to 23, notwithstand- f^f^j^^^^J^* °^ 
ing several deaths. Dr. Imad-ud-din, whose loss was especially ciergj', 
severely felt, died only three months after his friend and spiritual 
father, Rol)ert Clark. He w^as the famous Mohammedan moulvie 
whose remarkable conversion has often been narrated. He had 
for many years a high reputation as a Christian preacher and 

* Sec CM. hifdligcnccr, July, Oct., Nov., 1900, and CM. Revicir, Dec, 1907. 
His life was written by his adopted sou, Dr. H. Martyn Clark (published by A. 
Melrose, London, 1907). 

t Sec CM. Rcvieiv, Oct., 1907, p. G39. 

X Also Miss Van der Pant, a most promising missionary nurse, who died 
after a few months' service in 1905. 

§ See Dr. Weitbrecht's In jMemoriam of Mr. Wade, CM. Rev., Dec, 1914. 

II See Mr. Grey's In Memoriam of Miss Edgley, CM. Rev., April, 1915. 



204 



C..U.S. M/SSIOXS: DiOCRSF. OF Laiiorf. 



Pakt II. 

Chap. 18. 



and 
Laymen. 



Indian 
Clergy at 
Lahore 
Cathedral. 



Numbers 
of Native 
Christians. 



writer, and was invited to attend the Chicao-o Parliament of 
Eeligions in 1893, but declined, and sent a paper instead, and a 
list of about 100 IMoslems of standing who had become Christians. 
He preached the Urdu sermon at the consecration of Lahore 
Cathedral. Archbishop Benson conferred on him the D.D. 
degree. He was baptized in 1866, and ordained in 1868,* 
Another valued Indian clergyman, also a convert from Islam, 
was the Eev. Qasim Khan Nehemiah. He was baptized in 1864, 
along with Moulvie Safdar Ali, and ordained in 1887. The Rev. 

D. J. McKenzie wrote : " He was a reverent and devoted servant 
of Christ. His great forte was perhaps individual dealing with 
non-Christians." Tlie Rev. T. Howell, who died lately, had been 
the much-esteemed pastor of the Lahore congregation, and " a 
doughty champion in Mohammedan controversy." He was the 
chosen comrade of George Maxwell Gordon, the " Pilgrim Mis- 
sionary," forty years ago. To these must be added the names of 
two Indian laymen, both converts of Dr. Duff at Calcutta, whose 
service was given to the Punjab : Babu I. C. Singha, the Nestor 
of Indian Christians in the Punjab, who was the first head-master 
(for 18 years) of the Baring High School at Batala ; and Babu 
R. R. Raha, who was for many years superintendent of the 
Punjab Religious Book Society at Lahore. 

The way in which the Indian clergy in the Punjab are rightly 
put to the front was strikingly illustrated on the Day of Inter- 
cession for Missions in 1906, Nov. 29th. The whole service in 
Lahore Cathedral was conducted by Indians. The Revs. T. Howell 
and Aziz-ud-din read the prayers ; the Revs. Paras Nath and 
Fazl-ud-din read the Lessons ; and the Rev. Wadhawa Mull 
preached the sermon. There was a large congregation of both 
English and Indians. f 

The Indian Christians connected with the G.M.S. Punjab and 
Sindh Missions in 1899 numbered, baptized 5353, catechumens 
809. The corresponding figures in 1915 are 20,400 and 4007. 

The Secretaryship of the Mission has been held since Robert 
Clark's death by H. G. Grey, Dr. Weitbrecht, P. Ireland Jones, 

E. Wigram, and now C. M. Gough, Dr. Weitbrecht and Mr. 
Wigram were successively appointed Canons of Lahore Cathedral 
by Bishop Lefroy ; and now Mr. Guilford, by Bishop Durrant. 

* The story of Dr. Imad-ud-din's conversion has often been published. The 
Histcy>->j of C.M.S. has many references to him and his work. See also CM. 
Intell., Dec, 1900. His Chicago paper was printed in the C.Iif. IntelL, Aug., 
1893. 

t Bishop Durrant gives an interesting account of a gathering of Indian 
clergy and lay workers at Tarn Taran in March, 1914, which was attended by 
eighteen out of the twenty G.M.S. Indian clergymen of the diocese, the one 
ordained agent of the National Indian Missionary Society, and lay workers of 
both Societies and of the S. P.O. and the Canadian Church Mission. It was 
partly a Conference and partly a Retreat ; and the following subjects were 
discussed : Revival of the Indian Church through the revival of its leaders ; 
Conduct of Christian Worship ; Devotional Life of Clergy and People ; How 
to Win Souls for Christ ; IIow to Shepherd the Flock. 



C.M.S. J//SS/O.VS: Diocese of Lahore. 205 

The Punjab. p.uitii. 

Chap. 18. 

In the Punjab Proper, Amritsar continues to l)e the most Amritsar. 
varied centre of work, evangelistic, educational, medical. The 
Eev. D. J. McKenzie has for some years been the missionary in 
general charge. There are the Alexandra Girls' High School, 
the Boys' High School, and several other educational agencies, the 
medical mission, etc., with the care of the Indian congregation 
and the evangelistic preaching. The medical missionary. Dr. 
Browne, died in 1913. He was much valued and beloved : " the 
most selfless missionary the Punjab has known in this generation," 
wrote Mr. Wigram.* The Rev. G. Brocklesby Davis, M.D., 
both clergyman and doctor, has shared in the work. Sir G. K. 
Scott-Moncrieff wrote of Amritsar in 1902, " The C.M.S. work here 
is splendid. . . . Nothing in the Report or periodicals gives one 
any adequate idea of the reality.'' 

At Tarn Taran is still Mr. Guilford, whose whole missionary Tam 
career of 33 years has been spent there, and who continually adds ■'^''™"- 
to the universal respect in which he is held l^y the people. When 
he and Mrs. Guilford in 1907 returned to Tarn Taran after furlough, 
shouting crowds, triumphal arches, fireworks, and festivities, lasting 
four days, attested the honour in which they were held by Moslems 
and Hindus as well as by Christians. So great is Mr. Guilford's 
influence that in this sacred Sikh city he gives a weekly lecture on 
the New Testament to the students of the Sikh Theological Col- 
lege, at the request of the authorities. He has richly deserved the 
gold Ivaisar-i-Hind medal conferred on him by the Government. j 
The Narowal District with its thousands of Christians, where Karowai. 
Mr. Bateman was the moving spirit for so many years, has been 
cared for by Mr. Gough and Mr. Hares. For some years it was 
disappointing, the Christians manifesting little spiritual life, and 
Bishop Lefroy expressed grave anxiety about them. But in 1909 
he noted a great improvement, and wrote, " I have not observed in 
any place such striking signs of progress." % At Batala, where are Bataia. 

* See the Rev. J. A. Wood's In Memoriam of him, CM. Rev., Oct., 1913. 

t In the C.M.S. Gazette of July, 1010, there was a striking account of a visit 
of 120 of the village Christians from the Tarn Taran district to Lahore Cathe- 
dral, marching in with their banner, "shouting" the 122nd Psalm, and being 
addressed by Bishop Lefroy. It was as if some Essex peasants marched into 
St. Paul's. 

X A notable baptism took place at Narowal on Whit Sunday (May 19th), 1907. 
The Rev. Ihsan Ullah (now Archdeacon of Delhi) had the high and happy 
privilege of baptizing his brother, a leading man in the town, and vice-president 
of its anjuvian (assembly), who had been studying the Bible for 22 years. He 
was baptized with his wife and four children, retaining his Mohammedan 
name of Rahmat Ullah (" the mercy of Clod"). His Moslem friends tried to 
prevent the baptism, and after ho had been received into the Church they cast 
him out altogether, and sent orders all round the country that their people 
were to have nothing to do with him. His eldest son is now a professor in 
the C.M.S. College at Peshawar. Archdeacon Ihsan Ullah, who had been 
an ordained clergjonan twenty years before this, told the story of his 



2o6 C.M.S. Missions : Diocese of Lahore. 

Part II. the important "Baring" and "A.L.O.E." Schools, the former for 

c lap^ . Qin^j^igtian boys, and the latter for non-Christians, Mr. A. G. Clarke 

and Mr. Force Jones (who was for a year or two in Uganda), 

have carried on the work. It is interesting to find that Mr. S. K. 

Datta, so well-known in England as a Travelling Secretary of 

ciaikabad. the Student Movement, is an old " Bariug-ian." Clarkabad, the 
industrial Christian village planned by Robert Clark, and named 
after him, has often caused much anxiety, but it has worked much 
more satisfactorily of late years under Mr. Gough's and Mr. H. E. 
Clark's superintendence. In fact it is now the principal workshop 
for the output of trained teachers for the village districts affected 
by the mass movement. The Bishop Lefroy Training School was 
established there for this purpose, as will appear presently. 

Muitau. Multan, long a most discouraging field, has been more fruitful 
lately. Miss Wadsworth (formerly F.E.S.), and Dr. Eleanor 
Dodson (formerly of the Ludhiana Mission), have laboured there 
patiently for many years. So too did Dr. Wilhelmina Eger (also 
F.E.S.) till her retirement — if it may be called so, but she is still 
in the field, helping as far as her health allows. The Rev. A. H, 
Abigail has lately built there what is stated to be the finest school 
in the whole Mission. 

Laiiure. But Lahore is now the official centre as the capital and the 

see-city. The Divinity School has greatly developed since the 
days of its founder. Bishop French, and training men for Holy 
Orders is but a small part of its activities.* There is a Hostel for 
students generally ; and for most of the time under review there 
was an Industrial School for training Christian artisans. Canon 
Wigram was long the head of all this work, and the Rev. J. A. Wood 
and others have rendered important service ; particularly the Rev. 
J. Ali Bakhsh, also a Canon of Lahore, a convert from Islam who 
has given lectures in many parts of India, and was in England a 
few years ago. A student from whom much was expected, 
Surendra Nath Mukarji, B.A., died in 1902 to the sorrow of all. He 
was a Bengali by parentage, but a Punjabi by birth and training ; 
" a leader in everything pure, manly, and of good report " ; "a first- 
class cricketer, and equally strong in independence of character." 
Archdeacon Ihsan Ullah has lately taken charge of the increasing 
city congregation, in succession to the late Rev. T. Howell. At 
Lahore also is the Book Depot, a most important agency for years 
past. It was one of the many good gifts to the Mission of the late 
Rev. F. H. Baring, a former missionary, son of Bishop Baring of 
Durham, and a munificent benefactor. Dr. Weitbrecht gave much 
good service in connexion with it ; and his literary work has been 

own conversion at the Luckuow Conference. See C.M.S. Gazette, April, 
1911. 

* In 1903 a reunion of former students of the Lahore Divinity College was 
held for the first time, thirty years after its foundation by INIr. French. More 
than fifty were found to bo alive and at work. Twenty-seven came together, 
of whom seventeen were converts from Mohammedanism, including nine 
clergymen. 



C.J/.S. Missions: Diocese of Lahore. 207 

very important.* Lahore is also a centre for women's work, paktii. 
under Mrs. luglis and Miss Lighton (sister of Sir Eobert Lighton). ^^^i®- 

Another Indian clergyman, the Eev. Wadhawa Mull, has the Asrapur. 
station of Asrapur (" Place of Hope "), first stai-ted by the late 
H. E. Perkins ; and he has made it famous in the country by his 
annual conference or Prem-Sangat, at which Hindus, Mohamme- 
dans, and Christians meet together, and give addresses in turn on 
their respective faiths, but no open controversy is alio wed. | No 
less than 600 people have been baptized at this village in the last 
four years. Bishop Whitehead of Madras visited Asrapur when 
he was in the Punjab in 1913, and wrote warmly of it. One thing 
he said must be quoted : — 

" I was very much struck by the way in which the first Lesson was read. 
The catechist, instead of reading out of a book, simply told the story of 
the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah in the language of the people. 
The congregation were far more attentive than they would have been 
had he read the Lesson. . . . [In this way doubtless] minor inaccuracies 
and local touches would crawl into the stories, . . . but the advantage 
gained would far outweigh these defects." 

But the principal centre of interest in the last few years in the Jiiaug Bar. 
Punjab is the district called the Jhang Bar, part of a country 
about 180 miles by 60 lying between the Elvers Eavi and Chenab, 
south-west of Lahore, reclaimed and irrigated by the Government, 
and into which thousands of " colonists " have poured. One 
village, with 3000 acres of land, was allotted at the instance of 
Colonel Montgomery, the Settlement Commissioner, for Christian 
settlers only. Another Christian centre is called Batemanabad 
after the veteran missionary who began the extensive work now 
carried on. Archdeacon Ihsan Ullah, the Eevs. T. Holden, H. E. 
Clark, Ali Bakhsh, Jawahir Masih, and the .Misses Farthing, have 
borne their part in caring for the Christians and evangelizing the 
non-Christians. The settlers are mostly of the Chuhra class, and 
outside the regular castes, and it is among them that there is 
so striking a mass movement.J There are some 8000 Christians 
in this district connected with the C.M.S., while the Scottish and 
American United Presbyterians have a larger number, and the 
Salvation Army is also at work ; but the latter causes much trouble, 
as also do the Eoman Catholics, by enticing Christians from other 
Missions, C.M.S. included. Important as this district has proved, 

• See a valuable letter of his, CM. Intell., Aug., 1902. 

t See the deeply interesting reports by IMr. Wadhawa JiluU in the CM. 
Review, Sept., 1908, and Oct., 1909. He has lately enlarged his church for the 
growing congregation. I had the privilege of laying the first stone of it, when 
I visited Mr. and Mrs. Perkins there in 1893. Miss Kheroth M. Bose, of the 
C.E.Z.M.S., an Indian lady with a medical qualification, conducts a small 
hospital. She has been awarded a silver Kaisar-i-Hind medal. — E.S. 

i On the mass movement see Chap. XV., p. 169 ; also Bishop Whitehead's 
articles, CM. Review, Aug., 1913, and The East and The West, July, 1913. 
See also Mr. Bateman's report, CM. Intell, Fob., IQOl, and Mr. Hall's article, 
CM. Eev., May, 1911. 



208 



C.M.S. Missioxs : Diocese of Lai/ore. 



Paiit II. 
Cliap. 18. 

Needs of 

Village 

Missions). 



Simla and 
Kotgur. 



Kaugra 

Canadian 

Mission. 



it remains true that baptisms have been more numerous in tlie 
older districts of Narowal, Tarn Taran, and Batala ; over 1000 
adults in 1914. For these Village Missions the urgent need is for 
more evangelists and teachers ; and happily a grant of £2000 
made by the Bishops in India, out of the apportionment to them 
from the Pan-Anglican Thankoffering, has made it possible to 
open the institution at Clarkabad above referred to, called the 
Bishop Lefroy Training School, for the training of the humble but 
useful class of village readers. The people to be influenced are 
mostly the Chuhras, who are not as a body sweepers and 
scavengers, although those become so who drift into the towns. 
The great majority have been, probably for centuries, the serfs of 
the landowners, cultivating the land for them, and receiving pay 
largely in kind. 

On the lower Himalayas are the hill-stations of Simla and Kotgur. 
At Simla the Indian congregation consists mainly of clerks and ser- 
vants of the English officials and others. In the Kotgur Valley are 
found in the schools very winsome high-caste boys, who attracted 
the sympathies of Mr. S. E. Stokes, the American gentleman who 
made so deep an impression in England a few years ago, and who 
was lor a short time on the C.M.S. staff. Two veterans, Mr. Red- 
man and Mr. Abigail, after 34 and 25 years' service respectively, 
are in charge of these two places. The new church at Simla, and the 
connexion with it of the Viceroy and Lady Hardinge, have already 
been mentioned. Another hill station, Kangra, has (as before 
mentioned) been transferred to the new Mission of the Canadian 
Church. It was here that the disastrous earthquake of 1905 
occurred, when two C.M.S. missionaries, the Rev. H. P. Rowlands 
(son of W. E. Rowlands of Ceylon) and Mrs. Daeuble (widow of 
a veteran German clergyman) were killed, and also another German 
lady working under C.M.S. auspices, while others had narrow 
escapes, and much property was destroyed. 



Srinagar 
School, 



Kashmir. 

At Srinagar, in Kashmir, the interest is divided between 
the educational and the medical work. Mr. Tyndale-Biscoe's 
famous school seems to grow continually in efficiency, particularly 
in its influence upon the character of the boys, making them 
manly, unselfish, active in all sorts of social service. There have 
not been more than two or three definite conversions, and we 
pray and wait for more, but meanwhile a standard of practical 
Christian living is being set up which must have great indirect 
results. It is good to hear of one of the young converts of the 
period, Samuel Bakkal, B.A., B.T., returning to Srinagar to work in 
his own school.* A girls' school has also been opened for the boys' 



* Mr. Bakkal has siuco been with the Y.M.C.A. in France, ministcriuf 
the needs of the Indian soldiers. 



to 



CMS. MISSIONS: Diocese of Lahore. 209 

sisters." The brothers Arthur and Ernest Neve, with thirty-three part 11. 
and twenty-eight years' experience respectively, still carry on the '^''^^p- ^^- 
hospital, which is a blessing to multitudes ; and their high reputa- and 
tion as mountaineers is not to be despised as a missionary asset. °^^' * ' 
Lord Curzon's eulogy of Dr. Arthur Neve at the Eoyal Geogra- 
phical Society has already been mentioned. Each of them has 
published an attractive and high-class book : Dr. Arthur Neve's 
Thiiiij Yfiars in Kashmir,^ and Dr. Ernest's Bpijond the Pir Panjal.X 
Drs. Cox, S. Clark, and Eawlence, and Miss K. Knowles, also 
a qualified doctor, have shared in the work.§ Miss Knowles is 
referred to as doing " magnificently devoted work among women 
in the city." Xt Islamabad there is a Women's Hospital, at the Islamabad, 
head of which is a Canadian lady, Dr. Minnie Gomery, assisted 
by Miss Newnham, a niece of the Bishop of Saskatchewan. The 
general evangelistic work of the Mission was under the charge of 
the Eev. J. H. Knowles for many years until his retirement in 
1907, when Mr. Lucey took it until last year. Mr. Knowles had 
also done important service in the translation of the Bible into 
Kashmiri. The Old Testament was presented to the Maharaja in 
full Durbar in 1900. 

The Frontier Province, 

Passing on to the new Frontier Province, we find three centres 
of work, Peshawar, Bannu, and Dera Ismail Khan. At Peshawar, Peshawar, 
the chief agencies are the Edwardes College, the School, and the 
Hospital. Of the two former the Eev. H. J. Hoare was for many 
years a most able Principal, || and he has lately been succeeded by 
the Eevs. J. A. Wood in the College and F. C. Long in the 
School, the latter a recruit from New Zealand. Of the Hospital 
Dr. A. C. Lankester has long been in charge. Among others 
who have helped in this and other branches must be mentioned 
the Eevs. W. Thwaites, A. E. Day, C. Field, and T. Bomford, the 
brothers Wigram (iVIarcus and Loftus), and Drs. Cox and Starr. 
The Hon. Montague Waldegi-ave (son of the late Lord Eadstock, 
and brother of the present baron) was also for some years 
associated with the medical mission as a volunteer, and the Eev. 
Aziz-ud-din, an Afghan convert, has likewise done good service. 

* Mr. Tyndale-Biscoe's Reports, published separately, are extraordinarily 
interesting. See also his accounts in the CM. Revieto, Feb., 1906, and April, 
1910, and in the Int. Rev. Miss., Jan., 1914. Also Mr. Lucey on Education 
in Kashmir, CM. Rev., Jan., 1913. 

t E. Arnold, 191.3, 12/6. 

X Fisher Unwin, 1911, 12/6. Cheap edn., 2/6, published by the C.M.S. See 
also his articles in the CM. Rev., July and Sept., 1914. 

§ An American visitor has lately given the hospital a small quantity of 
radium, worth many hundreds of pounds. 

'\ Mr. Hoare preached a striking sermon on India's claims in St. Paul's 
Cathedral on St. Andrew's Day, 1914. The sermon was printed in the CM. 
Rev., Feb., 1915. The story of the college was told in the C.M.S. Gazette, 
Oct., 1908. 



2IO CMS. Ilf/ssioxs: Diocese of Lahore, 

Part II. Another Afghan clergyman, the Rev. B. R. Gauri, worked among 
chap^is. Moslems at Haidarabad, and died there of smallpox in 1911, only 
a few weeks after his ordination. The Rev. Imam Shah, a Moslem 
convert ordained more than forty years ago, is still the pastor of 
the congregation. Among his new converts last year was a learned 
Mohammedan, an Arabic and Persian scholar, who only accepted 
Christianity after much reading and research. The house sur- 
geon at the Hospital, Dr. Nazir Ullah, is not an Afghan but a 
native of Kafiristan, whence he was stolen when he was a boy, 
and eventually came into the mission school and was brought to 
Christ. He much wished to carry the Gospel to his native country, 

Eaflristan. but it is now part of Afghanistan, and strictly closed ; nevertheless, 
he went in 1913, and, despite efforts to get him to deny his faith, 
and real danger to his life owing to his firmness, he returned 

Peshawar Safely.* Both the College and Hospital have had new buildings 

College and and large developments : the Government giving good grants to 
the former, and a fine site to the latter. The new" Hospital, a 
just reward to Dr. A. C. Lankester for many years' good work, was 
opened in 1905 by the Chief Commissioner, Sir H. Deane, and the 
new College in 1910 by the Bishop of Lahore. f The College has 
. had a great struggle lately to maintain its position in the teeth of 
the opposition of a lavishly-furnished Mohammedan institution ; but 
it has come through successfully. Dr. George Adam Smith, the 
brilliant Scottish Professor and divine, visited Peshawar in 1903-4, 
and wrote, " I was greatly impressed by the work of the C.M.S. at 
Peshawar. I saw with my own eyes much more than I expected. 
. . . For one like myself, who has long been familiar with 
Cln-istian Missions to Moslems in Egypt and Asiatic Turkey, the 
recent cases of conversion at Peshawar are very remarkable, and 
the means by which they have come about open great hopes for 
the future." In 1914 Dr. A. C. Lankester was lent to the Govern- 
ment for a time to make investigations throughout India with a 
view to taking measures for the prevention of tuberculosis, and he 
is still engaged in that work.J 

Bannu: Bannu was the scene of the devoted labours of the late Dir. 

Dr.Peimeii. pennell. Since Pilkington was killed in Uganda in 1897, no 
missionary career and no death in the field have so appealed to 
the mind and sympathy of the whole Church as Pennell's. He 
had been a iDrilliant medical student, " the most distinguished of 
his year," said a well-known London physician. He took gold 
medals at his examinations for both the M.B. and M.D. degrees. 
He owed much to his mother, a very remarkable woman ; and 

* See CM. licviciv, Oct., 1913, p. G42, and Mercij and Truth, March, 1914. 

t See Bishop Lefroy's address on this occasion, on the services rendered by 
Mission Colleges, CM. Rev., March, 1910. 

X Dr. A. G. Lankester preached in Christ Church, Simla, on Sunday, Oct. 5th, 
1913, on " The Medical Missionary Motive," from the one word " Inasmuch " 
(St. Matt. XXV. 40). The Viceroy and Lady Hardinge were present. The 
sermon was printed in the CM. Eevietv, Feb., 1914. 



C.Jll.S. MISSIONS: Diocese oe Lahore. 211 

when he dedicated himself to a missionary career, she resolved to Part ii. 
go out with him. They hoth exercised rare influence over the * ''i^'^- 
wild frontier tribes that resorted to his hospital at Bannu ; and 
many converts from Mohammedanism were the result.* Pennell 
was also a very able educationist. He once took the football team 
of his school for a tour round India, and they played matches 
at Calcutta, ko,. At another time he journeyed on a bicycle 
through North India, in ascetic garb, and living like a fakir on 
what the people gave him unasked, — which afforded him unique 
opportunities of setting forth the Gospel of Christ. f He and his 
colleague Dr. Barnett both died of blood-poisoning, caught while Deaths afc 
operating, in March, 1912. | His mother died at Bannu in 1908. ■'^'^""'^• 
His own book, Amomj Vie Wild Tribes of Ike Aftjliaa Frontier, 
and the Life of him by his accomplished wife (one of the Sorabji 
family of Poona), to both of which Lord Eoberts, w^ho was a 
I'elative of his, contributed the preface, remain a valuable record 
of unique service. Besides the Bannu Hospital, there is a branch 
one at Thai, bearing the name of Lord Eoberts, opened by the 
Deputy Commissioner in 1909. § The hospital at Bannu, now 
enlarged as a Memorial to Dr. Pennell, has been under the charge 
of Dr. Cox, and Mrs. Pennell has resumed the work among women 
which she did in her husband's lifetime as a fully-qualified doctor 
with a London degree. Mr. Marcus Wigram being now the clergy- 
man in charge, his wife, who also has a London medical degree, 
gives additional help. The hospital has sustained another great 
loss by the death of Sister Ella Fagg in April, 1915. Mr. Wigram 
writes, " She was unrivalled in her knowledge of and love for the 
rough Afghan women." || 

At Dera Ismail Khan also there is medical work in which Drs. Deraismaii 
Somerton Clark and S. Gaster, and now Dr. A. J, Turner, have 
been engaged. At an out-station close to the frontier, Sakhi 
Sarwar, there is an Indian medical man. Dr. Khairuddin, a former 
student of the Lahore College. In the " intense solitude" of the 
work there, writes Mr. Wigram, " he has been cheered by more 

* One of his converts has since been working as an evangelist at Mombasa, 
among the Indian immigrants in East Africa. See p. 77. 

t See his own narrative of this tour, in the CM. Intelligencer, of May, July, 
Aug., Sept., 1905. 

X See Dr. Harford's In Memoriam, CM. Rev., June, 1912, and I\Ir. 
Maconachie's review of his biography, April, 1914. 

§ The Indian doctor in charge of the Lord Roberts Hospital, Mihr Khan, 
was killed by a party of raiders in Feb., 1915. 

11 See Dr. Cox's notice of Miss Fagg, C.M. Rev., July, 1915. It is interesting 
to add that she was the eldest daughter of a lady now living at Capetown, who 
has done notable service to the missionary cause. Thirty-five years ago, as 
Miss Foster, she was working at Foochow under the old Female Education 
Society, and was the instrument of the conversion of Mrs. A Hok, the Chinese 
lady who came to England to plead for her country. It was she also who 
persuaded the C.E.Z.M.S. to send women missionaries to China. After her 
marriage she went with her husband to Tasmania, and there the present 
writer met her in 1892. She sent three or four women to China from there ; 
and a younger daughter is now at Kutien working under the C.E.Z.M.S. 



212 C.J/.S. Missions : Diocese of Lahore. 

Part II. than one conversion and baptism." Another out-station, Tank, was 
Chap. 18. |.j^g pQgj. £qj^, ijjany years of an Indian doctor, the Eev. John 
WilUams, and afterwards of his son, Dr. Nathaniel Williams. Dera 
Kium'^^'''^' Ghazi Khan, where at George Maxwell Gordon's instance the 
Baluch Mission was begun in 1879 by A. Lewis and Dr. Jukes, and 
where the medical work was for some years carried on by Dr. 
Adams and others, has been swept away by the overflowing of the 
Indus. It has, indeed, been rebuilt ten miles off as the head- 
quarters of the district, but lack of workers has prevented the 
re-establishment of the hospital. 

In this Frontier Province, with its bigoted Moslem population, 
there has never been any mass movement. But it is not without 
conversions one by one, and baptisms have been reported of 
moulvies and of stalwart Pathans from the hills. The Christians 
in 1914 numbered 323.* 



Baluch Mission. 

The Mission to the Baluchis was begun, as already stated, at 
Dera Ghazi Khan, and medical and evangelistic work was carried 
on until three or four years ago, when the city had to be aban- 
doned altogether owing to the inundations ; but meanwhile in 
1885 the Eev. H. G. Grey and Dr. S. W. Sutton went forward 
into the heart of Baluchistan, where the British Government had 
Quetta. occupied Quetta as a military station ; and highly interesting and 
important work has been done there ever since. The Eevs. A. E. 
Ball and A. D. Dixey have been the evangeUsts during most of 
our period ; and the medical mission has been worked by Drs. 
Summerhayes, Holland, Cox, Gaster, and S. Clark. The Hospital 
suffered a great loss in 1910 by the death-of the evangehst attached 
to it, Barkhurdar Khan,f of whom Mr. Uall wrote, " As a contro- 
versialist he stood in the first rank " ; and Dr. Holland said that 
he preached Christ " not only with liis lips, but also in his daily 
hfe." Both Afghans and Baluchis have been baptized, and also 
Afghan Chinese employed in the government offices. Two Afghan con- 
Martyrs. ^^^^^ siiffered martyrdom for their faith in 1907-8, both being 
caught just over the Afghan frontier, and on refusing to apostatize 
being cruelly put to death. Their names were Abdul Karim and 
Nasirullah Khan, both converts from Islam. The latter was buried 
in a Moslem cemetery, and Dr. Holland and Mr. Ball wished to have 
a brief service over the grave. This was impossible in daylight, 
as it would have caused a disturbance ; but the head police official, 
himself a Mohammedan, took them and two other converts to the 
grave at night, carrying a lantern, and the two missionaries oflered 

* See Mr. Field's article on the religion of the Pathans, CM. Rev., Aug., 
1908. 

t An interesting account of his and his brother's baptism appeared in the 
Annual Report of 1896-7, page 241. 



C.U.S. Missions: Diocese of Lahore. 213 

a short prayer each. Dr. Holland wrote, " It was one of the most I'art ii. 
touching funeral services at which I have ever been present." ciiai>^i8. 

Mr. Dixey has done very important work by his itinerations in in Kaiat. 
the semi-independent territory of the Khan of Kalat ; * and an 
Indian Christian doctor there, an old boy of the Baring High 
School at ]}atala, helped in a branch dispensary. Quetta also 
oifers many opportunities of usefulness among the troops. 

SiNDH. 

Sindh, with its three stations, Karachi, Haidarabad, and Sukkur, Karachi, 
has for half a century proved a particularly hard field ; but the 
educational and evangelistic work has not ceased to be carried on 
faithfully by the brothers Abigail, Mr. A. E. Redman, Mr. Day, 
and others. f Mr. Ireland Jones has been at Karachi the last 
three or four years, since he gave up the Secretaryship of the 
whole Punjab and Sindh Mission ; and he has infused fresh 
vigour into the High School. Sukkur is now under the charge of 
a Sindhi clergyman, one of the dominant " Amil " class, the Rev. 
Tulsidas Mansukhani, trained at the Lahore College. At Shikarpur Shikarpur. 
there is an eye-hospital, built and equipped by a Hindu banker, 
which has been visited from time to time by Dr. Holland of Quetta, 
who has performed operations at the rate of a hundred a day. The 
banker died in 1913, but left a lakh of rupees (over £6000) to 
endow the work, and his heir has renewed his agreement with the 
Mission. Mrs. Pennell and other doctors were there in Jan. and 
Feb., 1915, saw thousands of patients, performed 2164 operations, 
and sold 1200 copies of the gospels. The sale of Sindhi gospels 
is, indeed, a highly encouraging feature of the Sindh Mission ; and 
there are already the beginnings of a real movement towards 
Christianity, partly owing to the immigration of some affected by 
the movement in the Punjab. 



It will have been seen that Medical Missions form a large part The 
of the C.M.S. work in the Punjab. In the Hospitals at Amritsar. jifssionsof 
Multan, Srinagar, Islamabad, Peshawar, Bannu, Dera Ismail the Punjab. 
Khan, and Quetta, there are 750 beds, and 10,700 in-patients 
were received in 1913, besides many thousands of out-patients. 
Twenty-one qualified doctors, men and women, are engaged in 
the work, and ten English nurses. It is worth noting that while 
in the sixteen largest hospitals in London the average cost per 
bed is £90, in these Indian hospitals, furnished as they arc with 
all modern requisites, it is only £10. 

* See Mr. Dixcy's interesting narrative in tlio CM. Intelligencer, March, 
1905, and his articles on Baluchistan generally, CM. iv'cu., Nov., and Dec, 1908, 
April, 1911, Aug., 1916 ; also his visit to the Persian Gulf, Oct., 1907. 

t Sec Mr. Redman's article in the CM. Rev., Nov., 1909. 



214 



C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Lahore. 



Part II. 
Chap. 18. 



Women's 
Work. 



New 

Punjab 

Council. 



Bishops 
Lefroy and 
Durraut. 



Although the C.M.S. has now thirty women missionaries (be- 
sides wives) serving in the Punjab, this Province has always been 
regarded, as regards women's work, as a field of the C.E.Z.IM.S., 
and a very important share in the enterprise does that society 
take with its fifty missionaries, at Amritsar and in the surround- 
ing districts, at Peshawar, in Kashmir, in Sindh, and at Quetta. 
Zenana and village visiting, medical work, and schools, are carried 
on upon an extensive scale. There are twelve hospitals with 320 
beds. The work everywhere is closely associated with that of the 
C.M.S. One most devoted C.E.Z. missionary died in 1914, Miss 
S. S. Hewlett, for thirty years superintendent of St. Catherine's 
Hospital at Amritsar, with its many beautiful auxiliary works. 
Several who are still working are veterans of many years' stand- 
ing. Misses Tuting, F. Sharp, Eeuther, Jackson, Dawson, John- 
son, Warren, Carey, Werthmiiller, have been out more than 
twenty years. 

The new Council, which combines English and Indians in the 
administration of the Mission, has been referred to in the general 
chapter on India. Fuller information concerning it was given by 
Mr. Grey in an interesting article in the CM. Revieiv of August, 
1909. The old Corresponding Committee still continues, not only 
as an integral part of the Council, but also, for the supervision of 
the personal relations of the English missionaries with the Home 
Committee. It comprises the Bishop as Chairman, and several 
independent lay members, soldiers and civilians. Two or three 
Indians have served on it, including Dr. D. N. Prithu Datta, a 
Medical Officer under Government, who has been for many years 
a prominent Christian in the Punjab, and represented the Diocese 
of Lahore at the Pan -Anglican Congress. He was a convert in 
the Narowal School under Mr. Bateman forty years ago. 

During the larger part of the period under review, the Bishop of 
Lahore, Dr. Lefroy, has been a highly-respected Father in God 
to all the missionaries and mission agencies. The unfeigned regret 
expressed at his departure for the Metropolitan See of Calcutta 
was followed by thankful satisfaction when Canon H. B. Durrant, 
C.M.S. missionary at Agra, and Principal of St. John's College 
there, was appointed to the vacancy. He was consecrated, as 
before mentioned, at Simla, in August, 1913. One of his colleagues 
at Agra said of him that he should be classed with Duff and Carey 
and French as one of tlie very few missionaries who " have really 
gone deep into the heart of India." ''■ 



* A particularly interesting account was given by the Punjab Mission News 
of Bishop Durrant's first ordination, on St. Thomas's Day (4th Sunday in 
Advent), 1913. The ordinands comprised one Englishman, Hamlet Clark, 
son of Robert Clark, for the C.M.S. ; two Canadians, W. A. Earp and F. S. 
Ford, for the Canadian Church ]\Iission at Kaugra; and three Indians, 
J. Williams, Peter Buta Singh, and Mohammed Hussain, the first the son of 
a former C.M.S. Indian medical missionary and descended from converts of 
Xavier's time, for work under the National Indian Missionary Society ; the 
second a Sikh convert ; and the third a Moslem convert, — these two for the 



C.J/.S. Missions: Diocese of Lahore. 215 

In the Diocese of Lahore the S.P.G. has one Mission of the part 11. 
first class, that in Delhi and in the surrounding district. It was ^^ 
started in 1854, wrecked in the Mutiny of 1857 (when the mis- _^j,^"Q{,ijgj 
sionaries were killed), and revived when peace was restored. In iviissions. 
1877 the Camhridge Delhi Mission joined it, of which E. Bicker- 
steth, afterwards Bishop in Japan, was the first Head. He was 
succeeded by G. A. Lefroy, now Metropolitan of India. The 
present head is Canon S. S. Allnutt. The whole work, educa- 
tional, evangelistic, medical, &c., is splendidly organized. The 
S.P.G. and Cambridge Missions together have a stafi' of 20 men 
and 30 women. St. Stephen's College has an Indian Principal, 
Mr. S. K. Eudra. The S.P.G. is also represented at Simla, at 
Rawal Pindi, at Jammu in Kashmir; and St. Hilda's Society, 
which is affiliated to it, has tw^enty deaconesses and other women 
at Lahore and elsewhere. 

In Delhi there is also an old and strong Mission of the Baptist 
Missionary Society ; with which, as before mentioned, the S.P.G. 
Mission has been on most friendly terms, with co-operation in 
some of the educational work. 

The oldest Mission in the Punjab proper is that of the iVmerican 
Presbyterian Board, which entered the country directly it w^as 
annexed by Great Britain, and subsequently invited the C.M.S. to 
share in the work of evangelization. Its headquarters are at 
Ludhiana, but its College at Lahore is one of the finest in India. 
There its distinguished missionaries, Newton and Forman, laboured 
for many years ; and the present Principal, Dr. Ewing, enjoys the 
unique honour of being a Companion of the Indian Empire, 
though an American citizen. Another American body, the United 
Presbyterians, has extensive village work and the largest number 
of Christians. There are also the Episcopal Methodists, the Estab- 
lished Church of Scotland, and the Salvation Army. The Eoman 
Church is represented by the Jesuits and Belgian Fathers. 

P.S. — The Eev. Eowland Bateman, whose retirement is men- 
tioned in this chapter, died on March 7th, 1916. He was one of 
the noblest of missionaries in India. 

C.M.S. " The candidates hailed from three continents, and the unifying 
power of the Christian Church could hardly be better illustrated than in thus 
bringing together in one common rite one Englishman, two Canadians, and 
three Punjabis. Nor would the natural gulf that severed the three Westerners 
from the three Easterners have been much more complete than that which 
would have severed the three Easterners from one another but for their 
common Christian faith." (C.M.S. Gazette, March, 1914.) 



CHAPTEE XIX. 



Part U. 
Cliap. I'J. 

Bombay 

C.M.S. 

Staff. 



Bislioi) 
Peel. 



Mauiiuid. 




C.M.S. MISSIONS: Diocese of Bombay. 

Western India Mission. 

The Staff and the Work— Ruttonji Nowroji, Mrs. Sorabji— The Parsis 
and Moslems— The Bishops of Bombay— Other Missions. 

HE C.M.S. Mission in the Bombay Presidency, or 
rather in the Diocese of Bombay (for Sindh, which 
is in the Presidency, is in the Diocese of Lahore) 
has always been one of the smaller and weaker of 
the Society's Missions in India. That it is the only 
one which has a larger number of clergymen in 1914 than it 
had in 1899 is a fact which inspires hope that it may grow larger 
as the years go by. In 1899 there were 11 clergymen, 3 laymen, 
and 11 wives, total 25 ; in 1914, 14 clergymen, no laymen, 10 
wives, and seven other women, total 31. The Mission has had 
its share of losses in the fifteen years, and only Canon Heywood, 
Mr. Thorne, and Mr. Whiteside (these two having lately rejoined 
after some years at home) remain of the men of 1899. Its first 
loss occurred just as the Centenary was being kept, as Mr. Peel, 
who had been Secretary for seven years (after previous service 
at Madras), had just been selected for the new Bishopric of 
Mombasa (formed, with Uganda, out of the previous Diocese of 
Eastern Equatorial Africa). His departure was a real loss to 
India. His spiritual power had been recognized by Bishop Mylne, 
who had more than once appointed him to give addresses at the 
" Quiet Days " for the clergy of the Diocese. Mr. Peel was suc- 
ceeded as Secretary by W. A. Eoberts, and he in 1905 by K. S. 
Heywood, who still holds the ofdce. Both these brethren were 
successively appointed Canons by the Bishop, as also was the 
Eev. D. Lucas Joshi, the most prominent of the Indian clergy 
in the Diocese, whose father was a Brahman convert. The 
women's work has been mainly done by the Zenana Bible and 
Medical Mission, but the C.M.S., as above shown, has now also 
a few women of its own. 

The stations occupied have been the same as before, except 
that the headquarters of the work of the Malegam District are 
now at Manmad, which is on the railway. It should also be 
mentioned that Aurangabad, which is in the Haidarabad State, 



C.il/.S. Missions: Diocese of Bombay. 217 

and was therefore, until recently, regarded as within the jiirisdic- I'art II. 
tion of the Bishop of Madras, although as a C.M.S. station linked ^'i>i^i^- 
with Bombay, is now by the Bishops' arrangements included in 
the Bombay diocese.* 

The work in Bombay, and at Nasik, Manmad, Poona, and iTogressof 
Aurangabad, has gone on steadily. The baptized Christians have ^'^*^ '^"»^^- 
risen in number from 3100 to 4500, and whereas in 1899 there 
were 91 adult baptisms, the number in 1913 was 233. The Indian 
clergy have increased from eight to eleven. One of them, the 
Rev. Daya Prasad Kashav Shinde, who was a delegate from the 
diocese to the Pan-Anglican Congress, was stabbed in the streets 
of Nasik in 1913, and severely wounded. Both Brahmans and 
Mohammedans manifested much sympathy. The Divinity School 
at Poona, where the Indian workers are trained, was for some 
time conducted by the Rev. L. B. Butcher, who was Secretary of 
the Student Movement in England twenty years ago. 

Schools continue an important agency, particularly the Robert Schouis. 
Money School at Bombay, the Emmanuel School for Girls, also at 
Bombay, and the St. Helena's School (a mixed school) at Poona. 
At Poona there is now also an Union High School, worked 
jointly by the C.M.S. and the two Scottish Presbyterian Churches. 

Nearly half the Christians in the whole C.M.S. Mission are 
villagers in the Aurangabad District. The Mission there was for 
twenty years carried on by the Rev. Ruttonji Nowroji, during iiuttonji 
which time he baptized over 2000 converts and their children. -^'^^'^J^- 
He was a Parsi, baptized in 1856, and was highly respected, not 
only by the Indian population generally, but by the British 
officers and civilians. He retired in the hrst year of our period, 
but survived until 1910. | 

The Parsi community also gave the Church the Rev. Sorabji 
Kharsedji and his able and devoted wife, parents of the brilliant 
sisters and brother now so well-known in India, England, and 
America. Mr. Sorabji had died before our period, but his widow .Mrs. 
carried on her important Victoria High School at Poona in con- ■''"''^'^J'- 
nexion with the Z.B.M.M., which Society does excellent work 
in Western India. She died in 1910.J One of her daughters has 
the St. Helena School for Parsis, under the C.M.S. But the 
Parsis, perhaps the most advanced section of the population, have Work 
always been among the hardest to reach with the Gospel message. Parsis^ 
Colonel Freeman, who on retiring from the Army joined the Society 
in 1894: to give himself to work among them, died in the first year 
of our period. The Rev. Hector McNeile, a son of the famous 
Hugh McNeile of Liverpool, and father of several influential sons 

♦ Bishop Whitehead's journal of his farewell visitation of the Aurangabad 
district was printed in the CM. Revieiv, Sept., 1910. 

t See the striking In Momoriam of him, CM. Hcv., Feb., I'Jll. 

i See the In Memoriam of her, in the same number. Her son, Mr. R. K. 
Sorabji, is a lawyer at Allahabad. He made a powerful speech at the C.M.S. 
Anniversary in 1907. Sec the C.M.S. Gazette of June in that year. 



2l8 



C./lf.S. Missions: Diocese of Bombay. 



Part II. 
Chap. I'J. 



IVIosleui 
Converts. 



The 

Bishops of 
Bombay. 



Bishop 

Pahiier's 

Views. 



Otlier 

Missions. 



and daughters to-day both at home and in the mission field, also 
joined the Mission for seven years in middle life to work among 
English-speaking Indians, among whom the Parsis would be 
conspicuous; but he, too, was disappointed by the defection just 
after he reached Bombay of a Parsi convert baptized ten years 
before. On the other hand, there have been several converts from 
Mohammedanism, in one year (1904) fourteen being baptized. 
Lectures to Moslems have been given at Bombay and Poena, 
and pubhc discussions held. In 1910 Maulvi Ahmed Masih, of 
the S.P.G. Delhi Mission, was the Christian champion. A new 
Converts' Home for men has lately been opened at Bombay by 
Canon Joshi, to which many inquirers and catechumens have 
been brought. In 1914, no less than fourteen of them were 
baptized, including seven Brahmans, a Moslem, and a Parsi. 
Some of these were old boys of the Eobert Money School. 

The Western India Mission is in future to include the Bhil 
Mission, as explained farther on (p. 222). 

Bishops Macarthur, Pym, and Palmer have successively taken 
much interest in the Mission. .Under the auspices of the present 
Bishop a Central Board was formed in 1910, composed of elected 
representatives, " to give titles to clergy, to recommend their loca- 
tions to the Bishop, to settle matters of finance, &c." A regular 
Diocesan Synod has since been planned, and a draft constitution 
been drawn up by a committee, on which Canons Heyw'ood and 
Joshi and Mr. Butcher have served.* "When one of the Eepre- 
sentative Councils designed to carry on the work of Dr. Mott's 
"Edinburgh" meetings (see p. 190) was formed for Bombay, 
Bishop Palmer joined it, although, as he acknowdedged, nearly one 
half of the clergy of the diocese would have preferred his not doing 
so. He wrote, " I believe that at the moment the limits of actual 
co-operation are very narrow, because we do not think sufficiently 
alike and do not know each other well enough. . . , However 
convinced a member of any Christian community may be that his 
community is the only true Church, I defy him to deny that it 
loses by the absence from its membership of many men and women 
whose Christian graces and powers he is constrained to admire." f 

The S.P.G. also works in the Diocese of Bombay, particularly 
in the Ahmadnagar district. The Cowley Fathers occupy Poena, 
and associated with them are the Wantage and All Saints' Sister- 
hoods. The American Board (A.B.C.F.M.) is the oldest of all the 
Missions, dating from 1814, and has lately celebrated the centenary 
of its work. The Episcopal Methodists, the United Free Church 
of Scotland, and the Z.B.M.M., are also well represented. The 
important Wilson College of the Scottish Mission at Bombay is 
named after that great missionary, Dr. John Wilson. In Gujerat 
the chief Mission is that of the Irish Presbyterians. The Eoman 
Church is strong in this part of India. 

* See further, p. 183. 

t For further illustrations of Bp. Palmer's views and attitude, see p. 193. 




CHAPTER XX. 
C.M.S. MISSIONS: Diocese of Xagpue. 

Central Province, &c. 

The Field and the Staff Jabalpur, Bharatpur, Gond Mission— Bhil 
Mission : Famine ; Sickness and Death— The Bhil Christians. 

I HE Central Province comprises largo territories in the partii. 
middle of India under the direct government of the C"'''2£l"'^' 
British Crown. Central India is the name given to ^f^'l^^^ ^^ 
the aggregate of protected native States, some quite Nagpur. 
small, within and around that extensive area; and 
Rajputana, to the west, is another large territory comprising 
smaller States. The British districts now form the new Diocese 
of Nagpur, established in 1903, and Bishop Chatterton's jurisdic- 
tion extends to Anglican congregations or Missions in the native 
States. 

The C.M.S. Missions are— (1) at Jabalpur and a few other The Field 
places in the Central Province itself; (2) at Bharatpur, the ^"^5/^ 
capital of a small State in Rajputana, but only 30 miles from 
Agra, — these for the regular Hindu and Moslem population ; 
(8) at Mandla and other places, also in the Central Province, for 
the aboriginal Gond tribe ; (4) on the borders of Rajputana and 
Gujerat, for the aboriginal Bhil tribe. In 1899 the staff consisted 
of nine clergymen, four laymen, and four wives ; in 1914, of 
twelve clergymen, one layman, ten single women, and twelve 
wives. But the work has extended a good deal in the fifteen 
years, and so far as men are concerned the staff is relatively 
smaller. There are now, however, five Indian clergymen, and 
the Indian teachers have increased from 27 to 104. Of the 
workers of 1899, nine are still on the C.M.S. roll, and of the 
present workers nine were on the roll in 1899 ; but the two nines 
are not identical, as there have been several exchanges with the 
United Provinces. There have been two deaths, of C. S. Thompson 
and Mrs. Fryer. The other principal loss occurred when Mr. 
Molony was appointed Bishop for Chekiang in China. 

In the earlier years of our period, famine, cholera, and plague 
devastated the whole country, and much of our missionaries' time 
and strength was occupied with efforts to relieve the suffering 
people. The Jabalpur Mission is an old one established in 1855. Jabalpur, 
It has been mainly educational, and its High School has earned a 



220 C.MS. Missions: Diocese of Nag pur. 

Part II. good reputation ; * but in 1903 the uuml)er of boys fell from GOO 
Chap. 20. ^Q g-j. Q^yijjg t^Q ^i^g plague, which at that time was very severe in 
North India. Village itineration has also been carried on, and 
the work is generally of much the same character as in the rest 
of North India. The Rev. E. A. Hensley (appointed Canon of 
Nagpur by the Bishop) has been in charge the greater part of the 

Katiii- time. Katni-Murwara is a newer station, occupied in 1900 by an 

Murwara. ^^^g^j-ajian Missionary, Mi-. Holloway. Subsequently Mr. Hack, 
who is well-known in this country for his kinema lectures at 
C.M.S. meetings, was there, and was singularly successful in 
interesting Enghsh folk in that neighbourhood, and also in getting 
access to the small native States generally not open to mission- 
aries. The C.E.Z.M.S. has a good staff at Jabalpur and Katni- 
Murwara. At the latter place a sister of Mr. Bardsley, the present 
Honorary Secretary, has laboured twenty years. 

iiiiaratpur. Bharatpur was occupied by Mr. Paterson in 1902, and gradually 
a small congregation was gathered, chiefly of high-caste people. 
When the plague was severe, the Indian doctors and police so 
abused their power that the town revolted, and insisted that Mr. 
Paterson should be appointed Plague Commissioner ; and the 
result was extraordinary. The daily death rate dropped from 33 
to three, and in less than a month the plague w^as wiped out. In 
later years Mr. F. D. O. Roberts, a missionary of the Kurku 
Mission who had joined the C.M.S., Avas in charge, and the work 
continued hopefully. " One of its greatest assets," he wrote in 
1915, " is the good example of British officers attending divine 
worship, and their sympathetic support." The congregation 
yearly draw up a budget of their Church expenses, which includes 
allotments to C.M.S. , Bible Society, and Jews' Society. This 
Mission owes much to Miss Fowler, an honorary missionary of 
many years' standing, though only on the C.M.S. roll from 1910. 

Mbsiuii -^^^ ^o\^<X Mission had been started in 1879 by the Rev. H. D. 

Williamson, and had given much promise when our period began. 
Mr. Molony and Mr. E. D. Price were in charge, and there w^ere 
four lay evangelists, two of them Australians. The year was a good 
one, there being 66 adult baptisms. Then came the famine, and 
hospital, leper asylum, orphanage, &c., were the agencies most 
actively at work. In subsequent years the trials were different. 
Many Gond Christians were led away by the enticements of Hindu 
festivals, and excommunication was for a time more frequent than 
baptism. Yet when Mr. Molony left for his new work as Bishop 
in China, he could report that during his 17 years' labour among 
the Gonds tlie Christians had increased from 60 to 600. What 
appeared to be a real revival of true religion had just taken place, 
solemn and without excitement, but bearing practical fruit. There 
is now a great demand for village schools. One feature of the 
Gond country is the peril from wild beasts. Mr. E. D. Price was 
badly mauled. Mr. Price is now tlie senior missionary to the 
* See Mr. Kcay ou " Character Building," CM. Rev., May, 1915. 



C.iM.S. Missions : Diocese of Nag pur. 221 

Gonds. The next to him, Mr. Hodgkinson, contributed an paet ii. 
interesting account of the Mission in 1914.* c'hap^20. 

BhTl Mission. 

The Bhils are a wild tribe in the jungles of Eajputana and the The Bhiis. 
native States north of Bombay, Sir James Outram, the Bayard 
of India, had tamed some of them and made them good soldiers, 
but none of them had ever heard the Gospel. The Mission was 
undertaken in 1880 at the instance of E. H. Bickersteth (after- 
wards Bishop of Exeter), who gave £1000 for the purpose. Just 
then the Society was in great financial difficulty, but one of the 
men kept back for lack of funds, C. S. Thompson, was accordingly work and 
sent, and for 20 years he laboured with a self-sacrificing devotion s'^xiwmn-' 
never surpassed in any mission field. The Bhils in their forests son. 
and jungles kept out of his way : was he not a new government 
official, sent either to tax or to kill them ? Very slowly their con- 
fidence was gained, partly through the dispensary and the 
schools. But when the 20 years were nearly over, at the begin- 
ning of our period, there w^ere only 16 Christians. Then the 
famine ensued, more severely in Eajputana than anywhere else. 
Mr. Thompson wore himself out in his desperate efforts to save 
life, and lost his own. Cholera had followed in the wake of the Famiup ami 
famine, and he was struck down when far out in the jungle, and *^'>°'''''-'- 
died under a tree, May 19th, 1900. 

Other missionaries also suffered, including those who came from 
distant parts to help the little band, one of whom was Mr. Foss 
Westcott of the S.P.G., now Bishop of Chota Nagpur. Among 
the C.M.S. men was Arthur Outram, who as grandson of Sir 
James was appropriately working among the Bhils. f He and his 
wife, w4io had emulated Thompson in the unshrinking devotion 
with which they fought the famine and tlie cholera, were " carried 
out of the country just in time " to save their lives. Dr. Browne, 
who came from the Punjab, found J. C. Harrison " in a state of 
collapse from lack of food " ; and Browne and his wdfe both fell 
ill, as also did E. P. Herbert. One of the rescuers at this terrible 
time was a Christian soldier. Sergeant J. S. McArthur of the King's 
Own Borderers, then at Cawnpore. 

They did not suffer in vain. Contributions for relief came from b'»'1* 
all parts of India, and from England and America, and thousands [ast! '°' 
were thus kept alive ; and from that time the Mission advanced. 
The people came to see who were their true friends, and what was 
the motive of such self-sacrifice ; and in 1902 87 converts were 
baptized after long and careful instruction. Many orphans also 
were taken charge of and brought up as Christians. In 1904 the 
Hindu revenue collector in the State of Idar said, " I marvel at 

* See CM. Rev., Nov., 1914. 

t Mr. Outram. was awarded the silver Kaisar-i-Hind medal for his famine 
services. 



222 C.M'.S. Jlf/SS/O.VS: DlOCESE OF N AG PUR. 

Part n. the change wrought in this people. I knew these jungles as good 
^^^L" ■ hiding-places, whence the Bhils came out to slay and loot. Now 
there is peace and quietness." " Nothing," he added, " hut 
Christianity could bring about such a transformation." Eevival 
meetings in 1909 issued in the putting away of many heathen 
customs.* 

For some years Mr. Birkett has been the chief missionary, and 
Mrs. Birkett, being a qualified doctor, has rendered most useful 
service, Eajput chiefs resorting to her hospital as well as the Bhil 
peasants. The Orphanage has been superintended by Miss Bull, 
who has been more than 20 years in work of the kind, in earlier 
years at Benares. f The Eev. G. C. Vyse and Miss Eose Carter 
have been in the Mission all through our period. Mr. Vyse was 
ordained on the spot on the occasion of one of Bishop Chatterton's 
much-valued visits. 

i^'>'\ The Bhil Mission, or rather the Bhil Church, is worked on 

exceptionally simple lines. Mr. Birkett, in the CM. Review,\ 
described it as illustrating the methods urged by Mr. Eoland Allen, 
in his notable book on Missionary Methods. No one interested in 
the subject should miss Mr. Birkett's letter and article. The first 
Bhil Church Council was held in May, 1907. Mr. Birkett wrote : 
" The Bhils overcame their shyness, and many stood up to speak. 
We had no Church questions before us, but they discussed the 
formation of bands of voluntary workers to evangelize the 
heathen, the simplification of the language of the Prayer Book, 
and Bhil marriage customs. ... It made them feel that they 
were united with the whole Church." 

Bhji. By recent arrangement between the Bishops of Nagpur and 

iransfeired Bombay, the Bhil Mission is now to be in the latter's jurisdiction. 

to Bombay, jj. jg nearer to Bombay than to Nagpur and Jabalpur, and the 
language of the country is Gujerati, which is largely spoken in 
Bombay Diocese. 



Christian The Christians at Jabalpur and the other stations among the 

commu- jjin^us have increased in our period from 280 to 884, besides 73 
at Bharatpur ; in the Gond Country, from 360 to 650, not, how- 
ever, all Gonds, but including Hindus of the town stations; and 
in the Bhil districts, from 16 to 480. 

other The S.P.G. has a Mission at Ajmere under an Indian clergyman. 

Missions, rjij^^g 'Rqy. Tara Chand was in charge for many years. The Scottish 
Episcopal Chui'ch has a Mission at Chanda. The U. F. Chui-ch 
of Scotland is at Nagpur. The American Episcopal Methodists 
are active here as everywhere ; and there are several smaller 
Missions, British and American and German and Swedish. 

* An interesting account of a Bhil Christian mela, with a "baby show," 
written by Mrs. Hensley, appeared in the C.M.S. Gazette, Sept. 1908. 

t Miss Bull, alas ! was lost in the torpedoed Persia on Dec. 30th, 1915. 

X CM. Bev., Sept., 1912, p. 569. Mr. Birkett also commented on Mr. Allen's 
book more fully in Dec, 1912. 






CHAPTEE XXI. 
CJI.S. MISSIONS: Diocese of Luc know. 

United Provinces. 

The Field and the Work— Deaths and Retirements— Native Clergy in 
Important Posts— Mr. Perfumi— St. John's College, Agra -Allahabad 
Hostel— Lectures to Educated Hindus— The Christian Community— 
The Bishops. 

(HE territory in Northern India, now officially called partii. 

I' the " United Provinces of Agra and Oudh," was in *^''i'2£i^^ 
1899 still the "North-West Provinces." The name Area of the 
North- West had been given to it sixty years earlier, 
before the annexation of the Punjab had extended 
British India far further, and it had retained the title for fifty 
years more despite the consequent inappropriateness. The change 
to the present title came in 1902. In the following year came 
also an ecclesiastical change. A new diocese was formed for the 
Central Province and the territories comprised in the name 
Central India, which had been under the jurisdiction of Calcutta ; 
and the C.M.S, Missions in the area of the new diocese, which 
had been linked with those of the North-West Provinces, were 
now put under a new Corresponding Committee, with the new 
Bishop of Nagpur, Dr. Eyre Chatterton, as Chairman. 

The Society's Missions in the United Provinces have a greater Unity of 
unity than those in Bengal or the Punjab. Practically all the ^^^ Work, 
work runs on the ordinary lines, and only two languages, Hindi 
and Urdu (which is in a sense a dialect of Hindi) are used. 
One result is that the missionaries can change places readily as 
furloughs and retii'ements occur and new men arrive, which is an 
advantage, although it prevents the identification of a man with 
a particular station, and makes the movements of one and another 
hard to trace in the Annual Eeports. Mr. Zenker, the last of the 
noble band of C.M.S. German missionaries, has, during the whole 
time, continued at INIuttra, and now looks back over fifty years' 
service ; and Mr. J. J. Johnson, the expert in Sanskrit lore, 
remains at Benares after thirty-five years, though he has travelled 
from time to time to other parts of India to meet and confer with 
Brahman pundits. Dr. Hooper, who joined the mission fifty-three 
years ago, still lives in the hills, at Mussoorie, diligent as ever in 
literary work ; and four ladies have all through our period been 



224 CJI.S. JII/SS/OjVS : DlOCESE OF LUCKNOIV. 

Part II. working at the same stations, Miss Bedford at Benares, Miss 
ciiap^2i. sti-atton at Muttra, Miss A. F. Wright at Agra (and before at 
Amritsar), and Miss Luce at Azamgarh, after 23, 23, 25, and 18 
years ah-eady. But almost all the rest have been in different 
places at different times. The Sikandra Orphanage has had six 
heads in the fifteen years, and Jay Narayan's School at Benares 
apparently as many. On the other hand the nearly continuous 
work of Mr. Haythornthwaite and Mr. Durrant at St. Jolm's, 
Agra, and of Mr. Carpenter and Mr. Waller in the Divinity School 
at Allahabad have been a great advantage. The Secretaryship of 
the whole Mission was held by Mr. Gill until his appointment to 
the Bishopric of Travancore, and for short periods by Mr. Wright, 
Mr. Hall, and Mr. Warren, until Mr. Waller took it ; and he has 
now been followed by Mr. Harvey. It should be mentioned here 
that the Secretary has to manage Z.B.M.M. affairs as well as those 
of C.]\I.S. Another office which is sometimes combined with the 
Secretaryship is the Chairmanship of tlie Indian Church Council, 
involving visits to distant congregations. 
The stafT: Of tlie 88 names on the list in 1899 (including 33 wives) only 28 
Ketir'e- ""'' Were still on it in 1914, but eleven others on the present hst are of 
ineiits. persons then in India, either in other C.M.S. Missions or in other 
connexions, including zenana missionaries since married to C.M.S. 
men. Three of those on both lists do not stand for continuous 
work, but belong to men or women who have rejoined after some 
years of absence. Some of the apparent losses during the period 
are not real ones, as they include Bishops Gill and Durrant and 
Waller, and "Mr. Holland and two or three others only moved to 
other Missions. Mr. Haythornthwaite, too, is now in office at home. 
Among the real losses are eight by death, including A. H. Wright 
after 45 years' service, and Miss Bland after nearly 40 years' ; also 
W. B. Collins and H. V. Birney, who had worked over 20 years.* 
Among the retirements were those of A. W. Baumann (35 years), 
W. Latham (32 years), J. P. Ellwood (40 years f), J. W. Hall (27 
years, besides service as Organizing Secretary at home), and 
W. McLean and AV. G. Proctor (23 years each), also of J. M. 
Ghallis, and A. E. Bowlby, who did good service, though not 
for such long periods ; also J. N. Carpenter and J. A. P. Warren 
(24 and 22 years), and Miss Bedford and Miss Luce (23 and 
19 years) ; also Mrs. and Miss E. Durrant, the mother and sister 
of the present Bishop of Lahore. Mrs. Durrant was a sister 
of P.ishop E. H. Bickersteth of Exeter, and widow of a former 
Director of the CM. Children's Home.. She went out with 
her daughter in advancing age in 1894, worked earnestly for 

* Also, in ]\Iay, 1915, the Rov. A. E. Johnston passed away at a nursing home 
in Dublin. He was a brilliant Dublin University man, who worked for 14 
years ending in 1902, chiefly at the Allahabad Divinity School. He was then 
invalided homo ; but in 1913 he went out again, to Gorakhpur. He was, how- 
ever, soon sent homo again ill. See Mr. Durrant's In Memoriam of him, 
CM. liev., July, 1915. f Since deceased, 191G. 



C.M.S. Hfiss/ONS: Diocese of Luc know. 225 

twelve years, and then retired in weak health, and died in 1911. Part II. 
Among other ladies who did excellent work for some years were ^^^^2lP" 
Miss Tottenham, daughter of Captain Tottenham of Mildmay, 
and Miss Major, a highly-esteemed honorary worker. The net 
loss is only two, from 88 to 86 ; but the clergy are reduced from 
37 to 27, while the women missionaries have increased from 18 to 
32, besides which some marriages to Z.B.M. ladies have added good 
zenana visitors and school teachers to C.M.S. ranks. The Women's 
Work in the United Provinces is mostly done by the Z.B.M. M. 
The C.E.Z.M.S. had two or three ladies, but transferred them to 
the C.M.S., and the C.M.S. gained five more by taking over 
members of the defunct F.E.S. Among the ladies always belong- 
ing to C.M.S., Miss Anna B. Davis should be mentioned, who 
has with great devotion lived among the people as a Christian 
sister. 

Among the gains of the United Provinces was the transfer from Lucknow 
Bengal of two men who bad worked together at Bhagalpur, Mr. Moslem 
C. G. Mylrea and Mr. S. E. Morse, in 1903-4. The former was •^'''''"'"• 
commissioned to begin a new mission to Mohammedans at Luck- 
now,""' and the latter took the High School there. This city was 
the scene of the important conference on Mohammedan Missions 
held in 1911. 

The diminution in the number of English missionaries has been Indian 
partly compensated for by the appointment to posts previously ^'**'^^,'", 
occupied by them of Indian clergymen of good standing, some of Posts. ' 
whom have been trained in an " English class " at the Allahabad 
Divinity School. Such are the Kev. Canon Nihal Singh, B.A., 
Allahabad District; Eev. J. Qalandar, B.A., Faizabad ; Kev. S. J. 
Edwin, B.A., Principal of the Divinity School ; Eev. J. S. C. 
Bannerjee, B.A., Bulandshahr ; Eev. J. N. Mukand, B.A., Mussoorie 
and Dehra Dun. 

Among the new recruits of the period one must l)e especially Rev. l.c. 
mentioned, tbe Eev. L. C. Perfumi. He was a Carmelite monk Perfumi. 
working as a missionary in Travancore. His experience of the 
C.M.S. Indian Christians there corrected the unfavourable account 
he had received of them from his Eoman colleagues, and a new 
estimate of the character of Protestant missionaries was gained by 
intercourse with Mr. J. H. Bishop. His mind gradually opened 
to the truth, and a terrible railway accident and other incidents 
brought him nearer to his Divine Lord. Eventually he came to 
England, was received by Prebendary Fox, was for a term at 
Wycliffe Hall under Mr. Grey, and was received into the Anglican 
Church by Bishop Moule of Durham ; and in 1904 he returned 
to India as a C.M.S. missionary, and has done most devoted and 
faithful work in the villages of the Meerut district, from the low- 
caste population of which many converts have lately come. 

In the Agra, Bulandshahr, Aligarh, and Meerut districts there S.^^"""^' 

* See Mr. Mylrea's article on Lucknow as a Mohammedan centre, in the 
Moslem World, Jan., 1913. 



226 C.M.S. MISSIONS: DiOCESE OF LUCKNOW. 



PART II. 
Chap. 21. 



Meerut. 



Agra. 



Girls' 

Schools. 



St. John's 
College. 



has been a movement among the low-caste or out-caste people.* 
So numerous have been the candidates for baptism that the 
catechists have had to neglect their usual village preaching in 
order to instruct them ; and some 700 were baptized after 
careful examination and preparation in 1914. The Meerut Mis- 
sion kept its Centenary in 1915, with " most inspiring " services 
and meetings. " There were lots of British Territorials present." 
Agra is interesting as the scene of the earliest O.M.S. work in 
India. In 1813 Daniel Corrie arrived there as East India Com- 
pany's chaplain, accompanied by Henry Martyn's convert, Abdul 
Masih. This influential ex-Moslem was supported by a grant 
from the C.M.S. , before any Enghsh missionaries were sent out. 
He made a good many converts at Agra. He was afterwards 
ordained l:)y Bishop Heber. Tiie Centenary of that work being 
begun was kept by the Indian Christians of Agra on June 10th, 
1914. But Agra generally stands in our thoughts for educational 
w'ork, and very remarkably has it progressed in that respect during 
our period. The Queen Victoria School for Christian Girls, under 
Miss A. P. Wright, has achieved important spiritual results.! Miss 
Wright was for a few years assisted by her late sister. Miss K. C. 
Wright. The elementary girls' schools superintended by Miss 
Bland came under the C.M.S. when the P.E.S. was " wound up," 
and well rounded off the female educational work. But St. 
John's College shows the most striking development. Under 
Mr. Haythornthwaite's principalship, department after depart- 
ment was added to it, and munificent gifts (many thousand pounds) 
from the Eev. Arthur Davies, a member of the staff, together with 
handsome government grants, made possible a complete range of 
new buildings, which were opened by the Viceroy, Lord Hardinge, 
on Jan. 9th, 1914. J St. John's is now the largest of C.M.S. educa- 
tional institutions. There are some 300 students in the College, 
now under Mr. Davies, and over 600 boys in the Coilegiate School 
under Mr. Norman Tubbs.^i A district, twenty-two miles by ten, 
with a large village population, has been assigned to the school, to 
interest the Christian boys in evangelistic work. It has been in 
charge of the Rev. Dina Nath, a Brahman by birth. || The 
missionaries have been singularly successful in engaging Oxford 
and Cambridge men for the staff on the "short service " system, 
and as many as a dozen have been at work, some with first- 
class degrees and some with the honour of being " Old Blues " 

* See Mr. Tubbs's letter, CM. Rev., Nov., 1914. 

t Miss Wright gave an account of her school in the CM. Rev., Jan., 1911, 
in an article entitled, "Our Younger Indian Sisters." 

X See CM. Rev., May, 1914, p. 2G1. On the recent expansion of the 
College and its great work, see Mr. Haythornthwaite's article, March, 1914 ; 
also Mr. Davies, on "Character Building," May, 1915. See also Mr. Tubbs's 
article on "The Indian Student," CM. Rev., March, 1909. 

§ A remarkable speech by Mr. Tubbs on his work, at the Albert Hall in 
May, 1913, was printed verbatim in the C.M.S. Gazette, June, 1913. 

II Mr. Dina Nath has been with the Y.M.C.A. in France, ministering help 
to the Indian soldiers. 



C.J\f.S. MISSIONS: Diocese of Lucknow. 227 

— no superfluous qualification in India. One brilliant and singu- Part ii. 
larly lovalile Oxford man, Mr. Drew, who had been Principal of a ^'''^£i-i- 
non-Christian College at Madras, but had there found Christ, was 
on the staff for a year or two, and died at Agra, in 1914, deeply 
lamented. An equally brilliant pupil of his, Mr, J. B. Eaju, who 
was in the same post before him, was converted through his influ- 
ence, and after a sojourn himself at Oxford, displaying great 
talents of mind and speech, has gone out to take again the vacant 
place at St. John's.* 

The other C.M.S. College in the United Provinces is St. Andrew's Gorakhpnr. 
at Gorakhpur, which has been " Second-Grade " but is now becom- 
ing " First-Grade " like St. John's. It also has a large Collegiate 
School attached to it. For most of our period the Principal was 
Mr. E. J. Kennedy, who has lately gone to Calcutta to assist in the 
College there. The present head is the Eev. Dr. Garfield Williams. 
There are High Schools at several other stations. The one at 
Jaunpur lost its head-master, Eai Sahib P. N. Ghosh, in 1912. 
We hear little of these Indian lay schoolmasters, so we may well 
note what was said of him. He had filled his post forty-eight 
years. " His devoted life of service and his wonderful example of 
zeal and self-sacrifice have been an inspiration to the whole 
Christian Church in India." His funeral was an extraordinary 
sight, Hindus and Moslems vying with the Christians in paying 
their respect to his memory. 

A new development of the period has been the Oxford and Hostel at 
Cambridge Hostel at Allahabad, planned and worked for some '^ ^ ''' • 
years by the Eev. W. E. S. Holland. Other Hostels are for 
pai-ticular classes of boys (generally Christians) in the C.M.S. 
Colleges and High Schools, but this one was established as an 
independent institution where the Society had no educational 
agencies (except the Divinity School), with the definite object of 
receiving youths studying at the government and Hindu Colleges ; 
and 100 of these are in residence. Many more would come if 
tliere were roora for them. The influence aimed at is not gained 
through the medium of secular teaching, but personally and 
socially, not excluding the athletics so important in India for the 
morale of the students ; and the Christian instruction takes the 
form of Bible reading with individuals alone, such only as ask for 
it, which the great majority do. Mr. Holland and his colleagues 
have therefore spent many hours on most days in this personal 
and individual teaching. The result upon the student's mind is 
manifest, and though there has so far been only one baptism, it 
cannot be doubted that good fruits will be gathered in course of 
time, perhaps after some years and in distant places, as has so 
often been the case with College and High School students. 
This Hostel has succeeded, like St. John's College, in enlisting 
"short-service men," some of whom have become full missionaries 
afterwards. The Government educational authorities highly 
♦ See Mr. Raju's article on Mr. Drew, CM, Rev., Jan., 1915. 



228 CJf.S. Missions : Diocese of Luckxow. 

Chap "V ^PP^'Ove of tlie Hostel system in the interest of the moral guardian- 
— " ' ship and improvement of the students, and large grants have heen 
made for the huildings erected by Mr. Holland from time to time. 
The foundation stone of the final block was laid in 1910 by the 
Metropolitan of Calcutta, Dr. Copleston, assisted by eight other 
Bishops, when they met to arrange the allocation of the Pan- 
Anglican grant to India. Since Mr. Holland's removal to Calcutta, 
the Wardens have been the Eevs. A. C. Pelly and V. G. H. Shaw.* 
Biviiiity rj}\-^Q Divinity School at Allahabad represents, of course, a totally 

different branch of educational work. Under Mr. Carpenter and 
Mr. Waller it has continued its former excellent service. Canon 
Nihal Singh rendered important help for a time, and so did the 
Eev. J. Qalandar ; and now the Principal is an Indian clergyman, 
the Eev. S. J. Edwin, B.A., with the Eev. E. T. Howard assisting. 
European Allahabad also supplies an illustration of the way in which the 
tion. *'" European and "Anglo-Indian" community can be interested in 
the Missions in their neighbourhood, and help to support them. 
In 1907 an Allahabad Missionary Association was formed, which 
has done much in this way.f And here must be mentioned the 
very great services rendered to the Mission by Sir George Knox, 
Judge of the High Court, a brother of the Bishop of Manchester. 
He has been a true friend for half a century. 
toeduca\ed ^ different class of measures for influencing non-Christian 
Indians. students and old students with the Gospel message, and also 
Christians with Christ's claim on them for service is public 
lectures and addresses, such as the Eev. G. T. Manley gave during 
his two years in India in 1902, or Dr. Mott and Mr. Sherwood 
Eddy in their tours round the country. Mr. Manlej^'s lectures on 
Science and Eehgion drew great audiences ; and all these efforts 
combine in producing that Christian element in the atmosphere of 
educated thought and feeling which is silently working a real 
revolution in India. Lectures and addresses were also given at 
Allahabad (and probably other places) by the present P>ishop of 
Winchester (Dr. Talbot, then Bishop of Southwark) J and Bishop 
Taylor Smith during their visits to India in 1909-11. Special 
mission services for the deepening of spiritual life were held by 
Mr. Walker of Tinnevelly in 1905. But, naturally, addresses by 
Indian or other Asiatic Christians are still more effective ; and 
among those who have given them were two Japanese Christians, 

* Concerning the Hostel system see Mr. Holland's article in the CM. Eev., 
July, 1909. On the actual work at Allahabad see his journal letters, 
CM. Eev., May and June, 1910; and Mr. Norman Tubbs's, March, 1909. 
For the account of the first convert, see Mr. Tubbs's narrative. May, 1908. A 
very interesting account, also, of a tour taken by Mr. Holland and Mr. Tubbs 
as Christian fakirs, accompanied by three Indian Christians, appeared in the 
CM.fi. Gazette, Feb., 1910. They greatly enjoyed the experience, living 
exactly like the natives, but did not think it would be a wise course as a 
permanence. 

t See CM.S. Gazette, April, 1908, p. 114. 

X Bishop Talbot gave a most interesting address to the C.M.S. Committee 
on June 7th, 1910, describing his visits to the Missions in India. 



C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Luc know. 229 

the Rev. Dr. Motoda, a clergyman of the Nippon Sei-kokwai i'art ir. 
(Anglican), and the Rev. T. Harada, a Congregationalist, who ^':^.- • 
made a great impression in 1905 by their testimony to the influence 
of Christianity in Japan. 

The Indian Christians in the United Provinces connected with Theiudiau 
the C.M.S. have increased during the period from 4400 to 7700. commu" 
The adult baptisms in the fifteen years have been about 1900. ^Jty- 
It is an illustration of the little detailed information that comes 
from the greatly extended line in all the C.M.S. Missions, and of 
the consequent misconception that baptisms of Brahmans and 
Mohammedans are now rare, that in 1907 Mr. McLean reported 
that during the sixteen years he had then been at Agra twenty- 
three Brahmans and twenty-nine Mohammedans had been bap- 
tized in that district alone. The Indian clergy have increased 
from eight to fifteen. The large area over which the congrega- 
tions are scattered has been a disadvantage to the Church Council 
system. It is hoped that the new organization referred to in the 
previous chapter may be more successful. 

The United Provinces have beyond their northern borders the iS'epai. 
country of Nepal, which no missionary is allowed to enter. But 
the Gospel has been carried thither by a Gurkha soldier, a bands- 
man, who has undergone severe persecution from his fellows. He 
has attached himself to the C.M.S. Gorakhpur Mission, and has a 
letter of commendation from the Bishop of Lucknow.* 

Of other Missions in the United Provinces the strongest, by far, other 
is that of the American Methodist Episcopal Church, especially ^'°"^- 
in Oudh. The London Missionary Society has worked in and 
.near Benares for nearly a century. The Baptists and Wesleyans 
are also there. At Allahabad the American Presbyterian Board 
has an important college. The chief S.P.G. Missions are at 
Cawnpore and Roorkee. The former is a great centre of valuable 
work, with a large staff of men and women. It is only second to 
Delhi as a great concentrated Mission. 

As an illustration of combined work may be mentioned the new Language 
North India Language School for Missionaries. At its second 
session, in 1914, at Lucknow, sixty missionaries assembled, repre- 
senting twenty different societies. The majority were American Pres- 
byterians and Methodists, but the C.M.S. sent two, and the S.P.G. 
three. The lecturers were both European and Indian ; the former 
being Mr. Mylrea of the C.M.S. and Mr. Greaves of the L.M.S. 

Bishop Clifford, who had been Bishop of Lucknow, that is of ^.'sjiopf , 
the United Provmces, smce 1893, tollowmg on a service oi nearly westcott. 
twenty years in Bengal under the C.M.S., retired in 1910, having 
lal)oured in India thirtj^-six years. He was a true friend of the 
Mission and the missionaries, and his departure was deeply felt. 
His successor, however, Bishop G. H. Westcott, was warmly 
welcomed, and has been no less a valued leader and fellow- helper. 

* See the Rev. J. F. Pemberton's interesting account, CM. licv., Jan., 1915. 



CHAPTEE XXII. 

C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Calcutta. 

Bengal and Bihab. 

Lack of Men— Baptisms— Calcutta : Colleges, &c.— The Old Church— 
K. C, Banerjea— Burdwan— Nadiya District— Mr. Monro's Mission 
— Santal Mission— Other Societies. 

pakt II. H*;j£"J}^'j ;HE Missions in this Province comprise— (1) Calcutta, 
chap^22. |0 ^jM ^^4t]^ Burdwan; (2) the Nadiya District; (3) the 

Field and D^ ^M Santal Mission ; (4) Bhagalpur. The two latter are 
^^^ ^M ^ow in the new Province of Bihar and Orissa. Cal- 
cutta is naturally a centre for important institutions. 
The Nadiya and Santal Missions are rural. Burdwan and Bhagal- 
pur are isolated towns. 

No C.M.S. Mission in India has suffered more from the lack of 
adequate reinforcements in recent years. Losses have been heavy, 
and they have only partially been replaced. In 1899 the staff 
comprised 32 clergymen, 7 laymen, 21 wives, and 5 other women, 
total G5 ; in 1914 of 25 clergymen, 4 laymen, 20 wives, and 9 
other women, total 58. Five of the 1899 band have been trans- 
ferred^ to other parts of India. The reduction of the men from 39 
to 29 is serious. On the other hand the Indian clergy have risen 
from 15 to 29, and the lay teachers from 336 to 376. 

All the work, evangelistic, educational, pastoral, has gone on 
much as in previous years, and there is little to report tliat is of 
special interest. This does not mean that there is no progress, 
but it cannot be exactly stated in figures, as in several years tlie 
returns were very defective, no douljt owing to the multitudinous 

Baptibius. work falling on the diminished stall In ten out of the fifteen 
years the adult baptisms were 1540, and if for the other five years, 
for which no figures came, we may venture to take the same 
average, — and this having regard to the particular years missing 
is a low estimate, — we have 2500 for the whole period. Of these, 
1600 would be in Santalia, 550 in and around Calcutta, 180 
in the Nadiya district, and 170 in the Bhagalpur district. Many 
cf the congregations being old ones, the baptisms of children were 
numerous ; and the total increase of the baptized Christians w'as 
from 11,000 to 15,000. 



C.J/.S. Missions: Diocese of Calcutta. 231 

Calcutta and Burdwan. paetii. 

Chap. 22. 

At Calcutta, naturally, the institutions loom largest. And one caicuttii. 
of them may be said to be the most important development 
of the Bengal Mission in the fifteen years. This is St. Paul's 
College. The Society had a College at Calcutta in former years, ^oijfg,^^ ^^'^ 
founded in 1866 by Mr. Barton, of which Dr. Dyson was long school.^ 
Principal ; but it was closed in 1880 for lack of men to carry it on, 
the building being used for the Divinity School. It was revived 
on a small scale in 1900-2, and for some years it did a quiet but 
good work under the Kev. R. F. Pearce. In 1908 new buildings 
for it were opened by Bishop Copleston, and in 1914, further 
enlargement by Lord Carmichael, Governor of Bengal. It is now 
a first-grade college; and there is hostel accommodation for 125 
students. In the meanwhile, the Divinity School was conducted 
by Mr. Lockett, and justified its existence by the number of 
Bengali clergy and evangelists whom it trained, as shown by the 
figiu-es already given. Subsequently Mr. Pearce was transferred 
from the College to become Principal of this Divinity School, and 
it was proposed to close the former and have merely a Hostel 
instead as at Allahabad. To set this going Mr. Holland came 
to Calcutta, and the result of his energetic representations was a 
resolution to continue the College and have the Hostel too. He 
took the Principalship, and obtained from Government no less than 
£10,000 for new buildings ; and now St. Paul's College, as it is 
called, is worked by him and three Cambridge men on the C.M.S. 
staff, with the prospect of " short-service men " to help as at 
Allahabad. St. Paul's School, formerly known as the Christian ciuistiau 
Boys' Boarding School, has long been one of the best agencies f°hooi. 
in the Mission. It was for several years the work of Mr. C. B. 
Clarke, and then of Mr. Ealand, who, after being sent home ill, 
with great devotion went out for a year at the risk of his health 
and was then again invalided home. Its repeated success in 
athletic competitions not only gave it a high reputation, but showed 
the superior stamina and morale of Christian boys. In 1903 it 
won the Elliott Cliallenge Shield, and the five cups, open to all 
Bengal, and most of the prizes also, although the boys were only 
nine in number among 82 competitors. This is justly regarded as 
real missionary work. 

The Girls' High School was for many years most liappily ^y^^®°'^ 
carried on by Miss Neele, but she retired in 1901 after 37 years' 
sei'vice. Her assistant, Miss Alice Sampson (one of four daughters 
given to India by the late Rev. J. E. Sampson of York), succeeded 
her, and has been at the helm ever since, and she is now the 
senior C.M.S. missionary in Bengal, having 32 years to her credit. 
She is assisted by two women graduates, one from Girton with a 
Dublin Degree, and one from Melbourne University. Two women 
who have done good service all through our period are Miss 
Wolley and Miss Farler (the latter now in Santalia). But the 



232 CMS. Missions: Diocese of Calcutta. 

Part II. bulk of the women's work in the Bengal Mission is done by the 
chap.22. C.E.Z.M.S., which has more than 30 ladies on its statf, some of 
whom have served 20 and 30 years. Miss Dawe, Miss Hensley, 
Miss Evans, Miss Harding, Miss Sandys, Miss Bristow, Miss 
Boileau, bear well-known and honom'ed names. 
Evaiige- Evangelistic w^ork has not been neglected in Calcutta, as the 

IS ic or -. ^-i^^^-jjjgj^. Qf jjaptisms already mentioned shows ; but with a small 
staff its difficulty is enhanced by the variet}^ of languages spoken 
in the city. Bengali, Hindi, and Hindustani-speaking people 
must all be dealt with separately. Hindustani is the Mohammedan 
tongue ; and the special Moslem Mission, formerly associated with 
the name of the Eev. Jani Alii, was for some years carried on by 
the Rev. A. Stark, a devoted Eurasian or Anglo-Indian missionary 
who died in 1903. The variety of work may also be illustrated 
from the following note of some of the baptisms in one year : — A 
Brahman devotee and his whole family ; two young high-caste 
Bengalis ; three Moslems from the Punjab, one of them an 
Afghan ; a Nepalese woman ; two men in the Leper Asylum ; six 
inmates of the Home for homeless women. When Bishop 
Welldon confirmed 100 Indian candidates on one day in the 
cathedral, there were, doubtless, even more varieties among them. 
Ta-tuiiii The Christian congregations in Calcutta and its suburbs are 

under the pastoral charge of Indian clergymen, some of whom 
are also prominent in the educational institutions, and one in 
literary work. Tw^o are graduates of Calcutta University, the Eevs. 
Joseph Pran Nath Biswas, B.A., and Kedar Nath Basu, M.A." 
The Old For the "Old Church," with its English-speaking congregation 

and varied parochial activities, the Society had for many years 
provided an incumbent, and when our period began, the Rev. 
Herbert Gouldsmith, now Rector of Bishopwearmouth and Canon 
of Durham, occupied the post. Afterwards the Rev. Stuart H, 
Clark, a son of Robert Clark of the Punjab, was in charge. The 
patronage has, since 1907, reverted to the local Trustees, and 
the C.M.S. is no longer responsible. This sphere of service, a 
very interesting one, is now filled by the Eev. F. B. Hadow, who 
was for a short time a C.M.S. missionary in the Anglo-Egyptian 
Sudan, and, before that, had been an Assistant Secretary at home 
for Work among the Young. 
Tiie . Tlie Secretaryship of both the C.M.S. and C.E.Z.M.S. Missions 
tjccietaiies. ^^.^^ j^^j^ -^^ ^^^^ earlier years of our period by W. H. Ball, whom 
Bishop Welldon appointed a Canon of the Cathedral. He retired 
in 1908, and died at home in the following year. Since then the 
Rev. E. T. Sandys, a missionary of 25 years' standing, lias filled 
the ofiico. He is a son of Timothy Sandys, who laboured at 
Calcutta from 1830 to 1871, and liis mother was a sister of Bishop 

Mr.is-.c. ^''^^^^■t- 

Baueiji. ' The death in 1907 of the acknowledged leader of the Bengali 

* There was an interesting article on the Evangelization of Calcutta by the 
licv. E. T. Sandys, in the CM. Bev., July, 1909. 



C.M.S. iMissioA's : Diocese of Calcutta. 233 

Christians of all Churches and denominations, Mr. Kali Charan Parx 11. 
Bauerji, must not be passed over without notice. He was an ap^--- 
M.A. of Calcutta University, a distinguished barrister, and a 
devout and large-hearted Christian. He was for neai'ly twenty 
years one of the most highly respected members of the Indian 
National Congress ; and Mr. Andrews says that " if his health had 
not failed, he would have been elected President by the votes of 
Hindus and Mohammedans." " His life falsifies the statement 
tliat an Indian who becomes a Christian is lost to the national 
cause." * 

Burdwan, which is a town 70 miles from Calcutta, has always Buidwau. 
been a discouraging field. The climate is especially trying, and 
since the days of J. J. Weitbrecht (1830-52) the missionaries 
have constantly had to be changed owing to their health failing. 
Miss Harding, of the C.B.Z.M.S. at the neighbouring village of 
Mankar, seems alone to have been able to last many years. It is 
not missionaries only who suffer. Mr. C. B. Clarke wrote in 
1907 : " There seems no hope of continuity in our work. In my 
three years here I have seen five judges, four collectors, four 
doctors, and three station-masters." And in that very year the 
Commissioner, Mr. J. H. Bernard (a member of the Calcutta 
Corresponding Committee) and his wife and sister all died within 
36 hours. There is a small congregation of 70 souls. 

Nadiya District. 

The Nadiya or Krishnagar district is a country with hundreds The Nadiya 
of villages and a teeming population, among whom there are some ''^ '^°^' 
5700 Christians connected with the C.M.S., scattered in 65 
villages. They are ministered to by nine Indian pastors ; and 
there are 14 brick churches, and 35 schools used also for worship. 
Bishop Lefroy confirmed 337 candidates in 1914. The people 
are externally prosperous, being mostly very small farmers ; and 
though their Cliristian life is not of the highest type, Mr. Bradburn 
testified that they are " immeasurably superior to their non- 
Christian neighbours and are looked up to by them. ... As for 
the w^omen, the difference between Christians and non-Christians 
of the same status is so great as to make a comparison almost 
impossible." One of the chief difficulties of the Mission is the 
constant efforts of the Eoman Catholic missionaries to entice the 
people away by almost open bribery. At the time of the unrest in 
Bengal, there w^ere efforts by the agitators to influence them, but 
the Indian teachers were loyal, and enabled them to resist. 

The missionaries liave been chiefly engaged in the schools of "^^^ ^taff. 
various kinds, boarding, high, industrial, training, and an orphan- 
age, and the evangelistic work is not vigorous, as may bo gathered 
from the fact of there being only (as it appears) about 170 adult 
baptisms in the fifteen years. It was in this district that the first 
* Bcnainsancc in India, p. 116. 



234 C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Calcutta. 

PABTii. bands of Associated Evangelists worked which were started in 
Lfl ■ 1889 ; but tliat branch of the Mission has not been maintained. 
All the first three members of the band, Lefeuvre, Donne, and 
Shaul, and those who followed them, were gradually absorbed in 
the regular work of the stations, Mr. Shaul laboured 20 years, 
and died in 1909 from the after-effects of a blow on the head 
received in a riot three years before. Mr. Noakes, at one time the 
leader of the band, is now, after 20 years' service, in charge of the 
Training Institution at Krishnagar. Mr. Kamcke and Mr. 
Hickinbotham have other work. Of other missionaries in the 
Nadiya district, Mr. Bradburn, who did such good work in foster- 
ing the employment of Christian boys in the East India Eailway 
workshop, came home after 22 years' service,* and Mr. Charlton 
and Mr. Hewitt also retired after careers of similar length. Mr, 
Butler, who retired in 1910 after an equal span of work, and 
became a Vicar in Dorset, has lately gone back to India. Mrs. 
Charlton, who was a daughter of the Eev. T. Eichardson, the 
founder of the Bible and Prayer Union, died in the district in 
1902. She was buried in Indian fashion, without a coffin, in the 
Indian dress she loved to wear. No more devoted missionary has 
by hfe and word preached Christ in India, 
'^- , There was one important extension in the sixteen years. In 

Mission, 1905, Mr, J. Monro, the former Chief Commissioner of Police in 
London, who had started an independent family mission at 
Eanaghat in the south part of the Nadiya district, on his return to 
England transferred it and its buildings and plant to the Society, 
together with his son, the Eev, Dr, C. G. Monro, and two ladies ; 
but Dr. Monro retired after six years' further service. His medical 
mission, which had been highly successful, is now an integral part 
of C.M.S. work ; and the women's side of it is done by a qualified 
doctor from Melbourne University, Miss E. Good, and a trained 
nurse_, both sent by the Victoria Association. A medical man sent 
from Canada, Dr. Archer, has, after a few years' service, joined the 
new Mission of the Canadian Church at Kangra in the Punjab. 

Bihar: Santal Mission, kc. 

f/ission • "^^^ ^^^^^ country known as the Santal Parganas, in which is 

the staff, carried on the Mission to the aboriginal Santals, is now in the new 
Province of Bihar. This is another village mission, worked in 
much the same way as that in the Nadiya district. It has lost all 
the missionaries of 1899— the veterans J. Brown and Blaich, and 
Marcus Brown, Etheridge, Jackson, and Hughesdon — excepting 
Mr. Cole (made Canon of Calcutta by Bishop Welldon) with his 42 
years' experience, and Mr. Jessop, who was sent out by Mr. E. 
CUfford of the Church Army in 1888, and joined the C.M.S, in 
1895. Among the missionaries who have gone out in our period 

* I\Irs. Bradburn, who as Miss Hightou was a C.E.Z. missionary, had died 
a few years earlier. She was a sister of the second Mrs. H. E. Fox. 



C.M.S. Missions. ■ Diocese of Calcutta. 235 

are the Eev. and Mrs. H. E. Holmes, both graduates of Melbourne paktij. 
University, sent forth by the Victoria Association. He is now ^ ^p^-- 
chairman of the Church Council. 

The Santal Christians connected with the C.M.S. have increased The 
in the fifteen years from 4000 to 6500 ; the adult baptisms, as christians, 
already stated, having been about 1600. The majority of the 
Christians are now settled in the distant colony of Santalpur, in 
British Bhutan, far to the north. There were seven native 
pastors in 1914, and in Feb., 1915 Bishop Lefroy ordained two 
more. The earliest Santals ordained died within our period, 
except one who, unhappily, had to be deprived of his orders 
by the Bishop in 1905. But before this there was a Hindu by 
bu'th, Eam Charan Dass, in fact the first convert in the Santal 
country in 1864, who was ordained in 1876 as the first pastor 
for the people then rapidly joining the Church ; and he too died 
in 1908. 

The other C.M.S. Mission in Bihar has its headquarters at the uhagaipur. 
important town of Bhagalpur on the Ganges, where the work is 
of the usual evangelistic, educational, and pastoral character. Mr. 
Mylrea and Mr. Morse were working there in the earlier years 
of our period, and since then the Eevs. J. A. CuUen and H. Perfect 
have been the missionaries in charge. A very able man of 
singular linguistic attainments, a Polish Jew, the Eev. Max 
Gerson, was at Bhagalpur for a time for Mohammedan work ; 
but he died after an operation for appendicitis in 1911. 

A very striking picture of the extent of Bihar and the paucity 
of missionaries was given by Mr, Morse in 1904. He imagined -^J^j.y"pof^'. 
an Indian Missionary Society sending missionaries to England, parisou. 
Two men are located at Derby and open a school, an orphanage, 
a dispensary, and a leper asylum. At Nottingham there are 120 
converts with a lay agent to minister to them, and one of the Derby 
men visits them once a month. And there is an out-station at 
Keswick, near the borders of a closed heathen country called 
Scotland (Nepal), where a few converts are visited about every 
two months. If England is not converted very quickly, is there 
any wonder ? 

The S.P.G. Missions in and around Calcutta are carried on other^^ 
mostly by Indian clergymen ; but Bishop's College, under Dr. lu Bengal. 
Gee, is an important institution now nearly a century old.* The 
Oxford Mission is an independent body, which has worked nobly 
both in the city and in Eastern Bengal. f The present Bishop of 

* See Hist. C.M.S., Vol. I., p. 188 : also an article by the present writer on 
Bishop Daniel Wilson, CM. Intell., Sept., 1902. It has now been transformed 
from a university college into a central Anglican Theological College under 
the Bishops ; and there are arrangements under which C.M.S. students may 
have the benefit of it. 

t An interesting History of the Oxford Mission for its first twenty years, 
by Mr. G. Longridge, was published in 1901, and reviewed in the C. M. Intell. 
of May in that year. 



236 C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Calcutta. 

P^T II. Madras, Dr. Whitehead, was its Head for some years. It carries 
'— on a valuable paper called The Epi2)}ianij, which appeals with force 
and success to the educated Hindu. Most of the chief British 
Missionary Societies are represented at Calcutta ; and the Baptists 
have taken a leading place ever since the days of Carey. The 
great College founded by Dr. Alexander Duff is now happily 
carried on by the Established and United Free Churches of 
Scotland in combination. The Established Church has also an 
interesting Mission at Darjeeling and Kalimpong. 

The largest S.P.G. Mission in this part of India is in the Chota 
Nagpur district among the aboriginal Kols ; but the German 
Gossner Mission is still larger.* Chota Nagpur has a bishop of its 
own, now Dr. Foss Wostcott. The Scottish U.F. Church and 
the "Indian Home Mission" (originally Swedish) are working 
among the Santal people. Several smaller Missions are in the 
new Province of Bihar. 

It may here be added that the S.P.G. has a Mission in Assam, 
with a new bishop. Dr. Pakenham Walsh. The Welsh Calvinists 
have also interesting work there, and in 1905 had a revival parallel 
with that in Wales. 

* On the efiect of the War upon this Mission, see Appendix. 




CHAPTER XXIII. 
C.M.S. MISSIONS: Dioceses of Madras, Dornakal, 

AND TINNEVELLY. 

Diocese of Madras— Bishop Gell— Canon Sell and the Goldsmiths— The 
Satthianadan Family — Zion Church — Nilgiri Mission — Telugu 
Mission: The Mass Movement— Dummagudem The Noble College 
—Diocese of Dornakal : Bishop Azariah's Work— Haidarabad— 
Tinnevelly : Mr. Walker, Tinnevelly College. Women's Work, 
Tinnevelly Church— Bishops Morley, Williams, and Waller. 

HE South India Missions of the C.M.S. comprise five partii. 

different fields, viz., (1) the city and environs of '-'h^P- -3. 

Madras ; (2) the Nilghiri Hills ; (3) part of the The Field. 

country of the Telugu-speaking people ; (i) Tinnevelly; 

(5) Travancore and Cochin. Numbers 1 and 2 are 
usually taken together, and this order we will follow ; the other 
three separately. Numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 are in the legal Diocese of 
Madras, but Tinnevelly is now a conventional diocese with 
Madura. Part of the Telugu Mission is in the new Diocese of 
Dornakal, which lies outside the legal limits of the Diocese of 
Madras. Number 5 is an independent diocese. 

The venerable Bishop Gell resigned the bishopric of Madras in Bishop 
the Centenary year, after 37 years of active episcopal service. He ^^'^' 
did not leave the country, but died at Coonoor three years later. 
His was the longest episcopate in India ; and he had ordained 
more clergy of the native races than any other bishop in the 
world. He was deeply revered for his high Christian character ; 
and a non-Christian paper, the Hindu, called him " a saintly 
personage, shedding a benign influence all around, . . . witness- 
ing to the beauty of his faith." Bishop Whitehead, who succeeded 
him, has proved equally a true Father in God, and in particular 
has been conspicuous for his large-hearted sympathy with all 
Christian work. 

In the Diocese of Madras the S.P.G. has extensive Missions other 
among both the Telugu and the Tamil peoples. Its Telugu work '*^"'°^- 
is chiefly in the Cuddapah and Kurnool, districts. Its Tamil 
work is spread all over the country south of Madras, and is in 
fact the continuation of the old S.P.C.K. Missions of the eighteenth 
century, particularly in the Tanjore and Trichinopoly districts. 
The Trichinopoly College is an important institution. 



238 CMS. MISSIONS: Diocese of Madras, ^^c. 

Part II. The largest Telugu work is that of the American Baptists, 
ohap^23. ^j-,gj,g there has been a great mass movement for several years. 
Also the Canadian Baptists and the American Lutherans have 
important Missions ; and the L.M.S. one of very old standing. 
In the Tamil countiy are the Wesleyans, the Leipsic Lutherans, 
the American (Dutch) Eeformed Church, and (in Madura) the 
A.B.C.F.M. Tinnevelly is divided between the S.P.G. and C.M.S. 
In the Kanarese country the Basel Mission is the most 
important, known for its great industrial work. In Mysore the 
Wesleyans are strong, and the L.M.S. The American Episcopal 
Methodists have spread over many of these districts. 

Special mention should be made of the Madras Christian College 
of the U.F. Church of Scotland, which under Dr. W. Miller gained 
immense influence over South India, and to which the C.M.S., and 
other Societies, have made a regular contribution. Also of the 
new Christian College for Women at Madras, begun in 1915 under 
the Principalship of Miss Eleanor McDougall ; in which six British 
Societies, one Canadian, and five American are co-operating. 

Madras. 

Canon Sell. One of our real veterans, Edward Sell, who in 1899 had been 
34 years in India, was then Secretary for all the Southern 
Missions, and has continued so since, to the thankful satisfaction 
of the Society. As is well-known, he is one of the first authorities 
on Mohammedanism, and one of his numerous works on that 
subject, The Faith of Islam, is a classic. He received the gold 
Kaisar-i-Hind Medal in 1905. He was appointed by the new 

The Bishop a Canon of Madras Cathedral in 1901, along with Mr. 

Goldsmith. Malcolm Goldsmith, whose length of service is only seven years 
less. Mr. H. D. Goldsmith, who was for over 20 years Principal 
of the Divinity School at Madras, died in 1907 at Bangalore, quite 
suddenly, having been taking part in open-air preaching only a 
few hours before. He had gone to Bangalore with a view" to 
permanent work among the Moslems of Mysore. Notwithstand- 
ing much opposition, large audiences attended his public lectures ; 
but his death brought that campaign to a close. An Indian 
agent, however, is still there. Meanwhile, the Divinity School, 
under Mr. E. A. L. Moore, has continued to prepare excellent 
men for the ministry, many of whom have taken good places in 
the Oxford and Cambridge Theological Examinations, including 
first classes " with distinction in Hebrew." 

Harm Besides the Divinity School, the one institution in Madras for 

which the Society is responsible is the Harris School for Moham- 
medans, originally started in 185G in pursuance of a legacy from 
an aunt of Lord Harris for the purpose. For some years it was 
Mr. Sell's sphere of labour, and an able Tamil clergyman from 
Ceylon, J. S. Peter, was headmaster. Canon M. Goldsmith is 
now Principal. All the rest of the missionary work is in the 



Scliool. 



C.lM.S. AflSSIONS: DiOCF.SF. OF MADRAS^ C-C. 239 

hands of the Indian Church Council, of which the Rev. W. D. Part ii. 
Clarke is Chairman. Mr. Clarke, ^Yho is a Tamil, has been Pastor ^•''^^^s. 
of Zion Church for twenty years, having succeeded his father-in- ^° j^^f^^^ 
law, the highly-esteemed W. T. Satthianadan, in 1893. The church. 
Christian cause in Madras owes much to the Satthianadan family. 
Of Mrs. Clarke's two ))rothers, one was pastor of another of the 
C.M.S. congregations in Madras ; and the other was Professor The Sat- 
Samuel Satthianadan (M.A., LL.M., LL.D.), of the Presidency ^^^^'Ify^^" 
College, who was a Cambridge man and one of the most influential 
Christians in India, and was well-known in England and America. 
He did much literary work, particularly in T/io Christian Patriot, 
a leading Indian newspaper of Madras.* He was President of the 
Y.M.C.A. ; connected with the chief religious societies ; one of the 
founders of the National Missionary Society ; and the first Indian 
Christian given a seat on a C.M.S. Corresponding Committee. He 
was twice married : first to the first Indian woman novelist, Miss 
Krupabai Khisty, and secondly to the first Indian woman accorded 
the M.A. degree in Madras University, Miss Karnalo Krishnamma. 
Both brothers died in 1906,— the Professor, in Japan, on his way 
home from delivering lectures at Harvard and Yale Universities. f 

Of Zion Church, which is entirely self-supporting, and which is Zjon 
the centre of all kinds of good work, most interesting accounts 
are sent to England regularly by Mr. Clarke. The Preachers' 
Association may be specially mentioned, which consists of laymen 
who voluntarily go out on preaching tours. After the C.M.S. 
Centenary, the Indian Christians raised a thankoffering of some 
£250, and with this fund repaired and enlarged an old school 
and made it a Centenary Hall, in which many public meetings 
have since been held. In another hall, built as a memorial to Public 
W. T. Satthianadan, a remarkable meeting was held when Queen Jn'^Madras. 
Victoria died, a notice of which is worth quoting even in so con- 
densed a summary as this : — 

" The Archdeacon of Madras presided. The Eev. John Satthianadan 
spoke of the Queen as a child ; the Rev. J. S. Peter dwelt on her virtues 
as a wife ; ]\Ir. E. S. Hensman [whose wife, also, is a Satthianadan] 
described her qualities as a mother ; Mr. P. T. Tharyan, her benevolence 
and sympathy for the poor aud distressed ; IMr. Paul Peter expatiated 
on her qualities as a sovereign ; Professor S. Satthianadan presented her 
as an ideal woman ; and the Rev. H. G. Goldsmith as a Christian." 

Other meetings in Madras have been reported from time to 
time ; among them revival meetings conducted by Mr. Sherwood 
Eddy, Dr. J. R. Mott's Students' Conventions, lectures to educated 
Hindus by Bishop Whitehead, and the Tamil Christian Congress 
held periodically for all denominations, which also is in fact a 
Convention. But most important was the Decennial Missionary 

* A very interesting and instructive article by him on the Native Christian 
Community in India appeared in the CM. Intell. of Sept., 11X)0. 
t See Mr. Clarke's In Memoriam of him, CM. Jntell., July, 1906. 



240 C.Jlf.S. Missions : Diocese oe JIFadkas, &^c. 



Part ll. 
Chap. 23. 



Bank 
Failure. 



Christians 
at Madras 
University. 



Dr. Mur- 

•lonh. 



Conference, which having ah-eady been held at Allahabad, Calcutta, 
and Bombay, met at Madras in December, 1902. It was notable 
for the presence of Dr. Whitehead, the first Anglican Bishop to 
attend any of these great united gatherings. 

Another event of the period must be referred to which caused 
much distress. This was the failure of Arbuthnot's Bank, by 
which the Church Councils and many individual Christians lost 
considerable sums. The calamity, however, brought the Christian 
community to its knees, not only in prayer, but in fresh dedica- 
tion ; and several developments of good work were the result. 
Although Zion Church lost Es 5000, w^hich had been raised for 
the enlargement of the church, the congregation, instead of 
murmuring, set to work and raised another Es 5000 for tlie 
purpose. 

The number of Christians at Madras, connected with the 
C.M.S., was, 2140 in 1899, and has increased to 2800. The 
number of adult baptisms in our period is reported as 710, but 
about a third of these would be in the Nilgiri and Wynaad 
districts. 

The reports of the Madras University give striking evidence of 
the educational progress of the Christians of South India. In 
1907, out of 8370 persons who had graduated up to that date, 
667 were Christians, or one-twelfth ; whereas the proportion of 
Christians to the population at that time was one in 35. And 
be it remembered that the great majority of them are low-caste 
people. 

The death must be mentioned in passing of Dr. Murdoch, 
Secretary of the Christian Vernacular Literature Society, a well- 
known figure at INIadras, who did more than any other man to 
promote the production of Christian and useful books in Indian 
languages. 



The Hill 

Missions. 



The Nilgiri and the Wynaad. 

In the Nilgiri Hills and in the Wynaad, both far to the south- 
west but separated by 70 miles, good work has been carried 
on from Ootacamund as a centre. Mr. Lash was in charge for 
several years, but he retired in 1909 after 35 years' service, chiefly 
in Tinnevelly. Mr. A. N, C. Storrs was also in charge for a time, 
and in later years Mr. Moorhouse. There have been several 
baptisms year by year, especially among various aboriginal hill- 
tribes. Of these the chief is the Toda tribe, and the first Toda 
convert to Christianity was baptized in 1904, a fruit of the faithful 
work of Miss Ling of the C.E.Z.M.S., a veteran of over thirty 
years' service, to whom has been awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind gold 
medal. A year or two later some Toda women were received into 
the Church, also owing to her efforts. Many converts have 
been gathered in the Wynaad, about 200 of them through the 
labours of a specially devoted lay evangelist, Mr. Devasagayam 



CAf.S. J//ss/Oj\'s .- Diocese of Madras, e-c. 241 

Satthianadhan, who died in 1912, and to wlioni a most striking part 11. 
testimony was borne by Mr. Moorhouse. There are some 1600 '^'^t^i^s. 
converts altogether. This Mission is little known to the C.M.S. 
circle, but has very interesting points. 

Telugu Mission. 

The C.M.S. Telugu Mission, in the country between the Elvers xeiugu 
Kistna and Godavari, has, from its foundation by Eobert Noble The'Retro- 
and H. W. Fox in 1841, illustrated the combination of two different spect. 
missionary methods. Noble, during the whole of his unbroken 21 
years' service, conducted the High School now called the Noble 
College, which has yielded an unusual number of high-caste con- 
verts, perhaps 25, mostly Brahmans. Fox began the extensive 
village work which, in recent years, has added thousands of 
Christians to the Church. But converts must be weighed as well 
as counted. Many of those gained in the Noble College have 
been the leaders of the Christian community, some as clergy and 
some as lay members. Only in recent years have low-caste or 
out-caste villagers taken a good place as leaders and teachers. 
That they now do so is a cause of great thankfulness ; and the 
strong appeals of the Bishop of Madras for the vigorous evan- 
gelization of the " depressed classes " are largely based upon his 
experiences among these peasants. 

But the C.M.S. has failed to respond to this appeal, so far as The staff. 
British missionaries are concerned. The sixteen clergymen and 
two laymen of 1899 (with seven wives) have become in 1914 
twelve clergymen and no laymen, but with nine wives and one 
single woman. Of the 25 workers of 1899, eight remained in 1914. 
The losses by death have included the veterans Alexander and 
Harrison, after 54 and 42 years' service respectively ; Goodman, 
22 years ; * and two promising recruits, Maule and Hamshere, both 
Gospellers at the London ordination, like so many of their Islington 
fellow-students; and by retirement, J. E. Padlield (30 years), 
J. Stone (24 years), C. W. A. Clarke (now of Scarborough, 21 
years), H. W. Eales (35 years). 

The Indian clergy, however, have increased from 17 to 42, and Indian 
the lay teachers from 290 to 620. Of the earher ordained men, "^'^'^y- 
Brahmans from the Noble College, only three remained in 1899, 
Ganugapati Krishnayya, ordained in 1871 ; Atsanda Sabbarayadu, 
ordained 1885; and Dhanavada Anantam, ordained 1889; also 
two of the first three humble Mala Christians admitted to the 
ministry, Marumudi David and Kandavilei Peter, ordained together 
in 1884. Of Marumudi David, who died in 1911, Mr. Panes wrote, 
" In Hfe and work he was an example to us all." Only one of all 
these is on the hst to-day, Mr. xlnantam, who has been engaged 

* See the In Memoriam articles in the CM. Bev. ou I\Ir. Harrison in Nov., 
1909, and on Mr. Alexander and Mr. Goodman, in Oct., 1911. 

R 



242 CMS. MISSIONS: DiOCESE OF MADRAS, c.-C. 

Pakt II. in important educational and literary work, and has been appointed 
^^LS ' by Bishop Whitehead a Canon of Madras Cathedi-al. 

The increased number of Indian clergy and teachers has enabled 
both the evangelistic work and the pastoral care of the converts 
to be supplied, however inadequately, and the result is seen in the 
growth of the Church. There were 9200 adult baptisms in our 
period, and the total numbers increased from 11,700 to 28,000, 
besides some 7000 catechumens. At the same time the workers 
are not numerous enough, so great is the demand from the villagers 
Mass Muve- themselves to be taught. In one district alone there were 5000 
^^^ ' applicants from villages widely scattered, very few of whose names 
it was possible to put down, as there was no one available to send 
and instruct them. Some Missions would have counted them all 
and left them without teaching, but the larger English INIissionary 
Societies never do that. Great numbers, however, have been 
received, instructed, and after a probation, sometimes of two years, 
baptized, as the figures given above show. There was an interest- 
ing baptismal service at Khammamett in February, 1910, when 
the present Bishop of Winchester (then of Southwark) was touring 
the district with Bishop Whitehead, and himself baptized 35 of 
the 127 admitted that day. It should be added that similar in- 
gatherings have occurred in the S.P.G. Telugu districts, and they 
have been much larger in the field of the American Baptists. 

One promising feature is the coming forward of the Sudras in 
the villages, who, though counted low^-caste in North India, are 
comparatively high-caste in the South, particularly the Vellalas. 
Only a few years ago the movement was almost wholly among 
the Malas and Madigas, but w^hen in 1907 Bishop Whitehead 
visited the country, he baptized 102 Sudras at one time ; and two 
months later 76 more were admitted, while hundreds besides 
were asking to be taught. The Bishop's confirmation tours 
have also been occasions of much blessing. Striking pictures 
are drawn of candidates walking 30 and 40 miles to be present, 
carrying tlieir children in then' arms.* In this work Mr. Panes, 
Mr. Eales, Mr. Peachey, and Mr. Tanner have had a large 
share, succeeding to that once carried on by Alexander, Harrison, 
and Stone. The Ellore, Bezwada, and Kaghavapuram districts 
have all been affected by the movement. 
Dumma- Dummagudem, where Mr. and Mrs. Cain have laboured for 40 

gudem. years, is in a different part of the country, and quite isolated. It 
was occupied with a view to reaching the Koi aborigines, but they 
have proved timid and suspicious, and the bulk of the 1600 Chris- 
tians now in the district are Telugu Malas. The veteran mission- 
aries are assisted by two C.E.Z. ladies, and since Eazu's death f 

* See Bishop Whitehead's own accounts, in the CM. IntelL, March, 1905, 
and cm: Bev., Dec, 1910, Aug., 1912. 

t The Rev. I. Venkatamaj'j'a Eazu, who began this Mission under General 
Haig more than half a century ago, died in 1906. A most interesting account 
of him was sent by Mr. Cain. Sec CM. Bcv., Feb., 1907. 



CMS. Missions: Diocese of Dornakal. 243 

by another Indian pastor. Mrs. Cain, who as Miss Davies was pabt ii. 
sent from Melbourne by the late Mr. Macartney forty years ago, !^" ' 
has been successful in promoting industrial work among the 
women, and the Government have conferred on her the silver 
Kaisar-i-Hind medal. The Bishop of Dornakal visited this remote 
station (for the Bishop of Madras) at Christmas 1914, and con- 
firmed 135 candidates. 

The Noble College at Masulipatam, the Training Institution The Noble 
there, the High Schools at Ellore and Bezwada, and the many other ° ^^^' 
schools of various kinds, have all pursued their usual course. The 
Training Institution, so long the work of Mr. Padlield, and latterly 
of Mr. Panes, is juat now superintended by the Kev. Kantayya 
Ganugapati, a graduate of Madras University, whose stipend, it is 
interesting to notice, is provided by the New Zealand CM. Associa- 
tion ; and Bezwada High School was conducted for a time by 
Canon Anantam. Since Mr. C. W. A. Clarke's return home in 
1907, Mr. Penn has been Principal of the Noble College, assisted 
by Mr, G. E. Ennis. Mr. Sherwood Eddy has more than once 
rendered valuable service by coming from Madras to give addresses 
to the students ; and when Mr. Manley was in India, he too 
visited the Noble College and spoke on the Atonement and on his 
own conversion. The latter lecture caused keen inquhies as to 
what he was before, " a Hindu or a Mohammedan," and it was a 
useful lesson for the students to learn that nominal and real 
Christianity are two very different things. The baptism of a 
Brahman student in 1905 caused great excitement and bitterness, 
but not the emptying of the school as in former times. Eugby 
School still maintains a " Eugby- Fox Master " in the Noble College, 
raising over £300 a year for the purpose, as it has done for five 
and thirty years. A curious fact is mentioned in connexion with 
the High School at Ellore. An old soldier, now a local Eajah, — 
not a Christian, — has translated the Gospels of St. Matthew, St. 
Luke, and St. John into " rhythmical Telugu," with a preface 
which a Christian might have written.'"' 

The Sharkey Memorial School for Girls (a " middle school ") is 
superintended by the only C.M.S. woman missionary in the Telugu 
Mission, Miss Staunton Batty. The rest of the women's work is 
done by about a dozen ladies of the C.B.Z.M.S. 

Diocese of Doenakal. 

The Diocese of Dornakal has a special interest as the sphere of New 
the first Indian bishop. It comprises a large area in the south- Dornakal. 
eastern part of the native State of Haidarabad, the State some- 
times called the Nizam's Dominions. Within the diocesan area 
there is a population of two millions, mostly Telugu-speaking. 

The C.M.S. Mission in the diocese has for its centre the town 

* C.l/.S. JXejiorl, rjlo, p. 156. 



i'44 C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of DornaKal. 

i^ART II. of Khammamett, which was occupied as an extension of the 
Chap^23. rpQi^,^.^^ Mission in 1888. Mr. Panes, Mr. Peachey, Mr. Tanner, 
and Mr. Woodhouse were successively missionaries in charge ; 
and in 1913, wlien the Diocese of Dornakal was formed, Mr. Crans- 
wick, of the New South Wales Association, was there. There 
were live Telugu pastors under him, and 100 lay teachers, working 
in 75 villages. The baptized Christians were then 3384, with 1451 
catechumens. The returns a year later were, baptized 4271, 
catechumens 2372 ; and there were seven pastors and 115 lay 
teachers. Mr. Cranswick has gone back to Australia, and the 
Eev. Anthony B. Elliott has succeeded him. 

The Tinnevelly Missionary Society, of which Bishop Azariah 
was himself virtually the founder some years ago, is also working 
in the diocese ; and there is a small Diocesan Mission at the 
Singareni Collieries, which is conducted by a Tamil missionary 
supported by St. Mark's, Wellington, N.Z. 

The Bishops in India have appealed for an endowment for the 
Bishopric of Dornakal of Es 100,000 (£6660), and one-fourth of 
this was raised immediately in India. They thought it important 
that the first Indian bishop should not look for his maintenance to 
English Missionary Societies. 
Wuik of Bisiiop Azariah held his first ordination on Fel). 16th, 1913, when 

Azariah. eight Indians received deacons' orders. The accounts that have 
come of his work and influence have given full assurance that God 
has blessed liim and made him a blessing ; and this not in his 
own diocese only, for besides being an independent bishop in a 
country not under direct British rule, he is also assistant-bishop 
to the Bishop of Madras, and in that capacity travels all over 
South India.* Mr. Cranswick, while still working under him, 
wrote most warmly of " our dear bishop." He wrote in November, 
1913, " He has been a constant help and inspiration. It is always 
a joy to do work with and for him.*' He described an eighty miles' 
journey to visit a Sudra village where there were inquirers. " The 
people came to us in great crowds, and sat in the moonlight 
enraptured by the story of Christ. ... I enjoyed very much the 
Bishop's beautifully simple parabolic teaching to these babes in 
Christ." The Bishop and Mr. Cranswick went together to a 
Y.M.C.A. Camp for Telugu young Christian men, and " lived a 
common life with seventy of them " ; also to Haidarabad and 
Secunderabad to conduct conventions. Mr. Cranswick also de- 
scribed a first Diocesan Summer School, held at Khammamett, 
and attended by all the clerical and lay workers in the diocese. 
It lasted six days, services, meetings, and classes going on all day 
from 7 a.m. Bishop Azariah preached every night, gave lectures 
on preparation for baptism, and conducted Bible classes, — helped 
in these last by two Indian clergymen. Mrs. Azariah took 
women's meetings, along with two C.E.Z. ladies. After the 
school was over there was a baptismal service in the river, when 

* See p. 182. 



CJf.S. MISSIONS: Diocese of Tlwxevellv. 245 

115catechuniens were received into the Cluii'ch. Tlie clei'gy were partit. 
in the water two hours. " Tlie scene was indeed an x\postolic and '^''i^-'^- 
primitive one. . . . We Europeans almost felt that we formed the 
one discordant feature. . . . The Rev. A. Andrew, of the S.P.G. 
Telugu Mission, greatly assisted by interpreting for those who 
were not able to speak in Telugu." * In January, 1915, the Bishop 
of Madras visited the diocese, and took part in a similar baptismal 
service ; and he wrote, " It was, I imagine, very like that by the 
banks of the river Jordan, where John was baptizing." \ 



Haidakahad. 

It remains to speak of Haidarabad, the capital of the Nizam's Haida- 
territory. There was formerly a Madras Diocesan Mission there, 
and Mr. M. Goldsmith had been lent to that Mission for a time to 
carry it on, its purpose being to reach educated Mohammedans ; 
but it was transferred to the C.M.S. in 1901. Mr. Goldsmith was 
Assisted for a time by Canon Ali Bakhsh, whom we have met in 
the Punjab. Another Moslem convert, an Afghan, B. R. Gauri, 
was ordained for this post in 1911, but died in a few weeks of 
smallpox. Interesting baptisms have occurred from time to time ; 
among them a Mohammedan doctor and his family, and the son 
of a Persian merchant at Bushire. In 1903, an Oxford man, the 
Rev. Norman Miller, was sent to join this Mission, but he died 
soon after reaching Haidarabad. He was a very choice man, and 
his loss was deeply felt.J His place was taken in 1905 by the 
Rev. G. E. Brown, a graduate of Sydney University, sent by the 
New South Wales CM. Association, who has taken charge of 
the Mission since Canon Goldsmith returned to the Harris School 
at Madras. § 

TiNNEVELLY. 

Tinnevelly as a mission field is divided, as is well known, Tinneveiiy. 
between the C.M.S. and S.P.G. The S.P.G. work at Nazareth 
and Tuticorin is very interesting. The C.M.S. Mission has in our 
period gone on its way steadily and quietly, with scarcely any 
changes other than those of the mission staff. In 1899 the C.M.S. '^^^^ ^^aff. 
had ten clergymen, one layman, ten wives, and three other women, 
every one of them with some years' experience. In 1914, five of 
the ten clergy were still at work, and the one layman, and there 
were two clerical recruits. Of the three women, one remains and 
eight others have joined ; but of these, three were already in the 

* See the whole account, CM. Rev., IMay, 1914. 

t See C.M.S. Gazette, May, 1915. 

X See the memorial notices of him, by the Rev. G. Foster Carter, of Oxford, 
and Canon Goldsmith, in the CM. Intelligencer, IMay, 1904. 

§ An article by Mr. Brown on the work among Mohammedans at Haidara- 
bad appeared in the Moslem World, Jan., 1912. 



246 CMS. MISSIONS: D iocf.se of Tinnevelly. 



Part II. 
Chap. 23. 

Deaths. 



Rev. T. 
Walker. 



Women's 
Work: 



country under the C.B.Z.M.S., and have been transferred to 
C.M.S. 

The Mission has lost by death, from the staff of 1899, the Eevs. 
T. Walker, T. Kember, and J. C. M. Hawkins, Mrs. Thomas, and 
Mrs. E. S. Carr ; also the Eev. H. E. L. Newbery, who went out 
in 1901, and died in 1903, Mrs. Thomas was the venerable widow 
of the Eev, John Thomas, who founded the Megnanapuram 
Christian village in 1838, o.nd died in 1870. She never left that 
interesting home, and survived him thirty years, " a mother in 
Israel " to the last. Her daughter continued with her, and is 
now herself the mother in Israel, having superintended the Elliott 
Tuxford School for nearly half-a-century. Mrs. Eleanor Carr, 
who was a daughter of Mr. Wigram, the C.M.S. Honorary Secre- 
tary, joined the Punjab Mission in 1891, and afterwards married 
Mr. Carr and came to Tinnevelly. Mr. Kember had laboured in 
Tinnevelly 45 years, and had long been Principal of the Pre- 
parandi Institution for training catechists and pastors, the work 
formerly done b}' Bishop Sargent. But the greatest blow of all 
was the death of Mr. Walker in 1912, when at the height of his 
usefulness after 27 years' service. He had been Chairman of the 
Tinnevelly Church Council, almost an episcopal post, with nearly 
50 clergymen under him and hundreds of lay teachers ; but he 
had handed this charge to Mr. Carr, and given himself to evange- 
listic work, to training Tamil candidates for ordination, and to 
holding special missions in many parts of India, for which service 
his high spiritual character specially fitted him.* He had also 
done fine literary work by contributing to the Indian Church Com- 
mentaries those on the Acts and the Epistle to the Philippians.f 
He died while actually taking a convention at Masulipatam.j 
The Mission also lost heavily by the retirement of Mr. Arthur 
Storrs and Mr. E. A. Douglas ; and four other workers were 
transferred to other Missions. 

Tliree members of the Mission have held the same posts all 
through our period : Mr. Carr and Miss Thomas, as already men- 
tioned, and Mr. Schaffter as Principal of the College in Tinnevelly 
Town. Mr. Key worth, who has now been in India 40 years (but 
the first ten under the Christian Literature Society) was for most 
of the time leader of the itinerating band of evangelists, and Mr. 
Breed was for several years in cliarge of the outlying district of 
North Tinnevelly. But Mr. Ardill and Mr. Scott Price have been 
in turn in various posts during the furloughs of others. 

The C.E.Z.M.S. has had about a dozen ladies in Tinnevelly, 

* See a very impressive paper by him in the CM. Intel!., Aug., 1903. 

t See an account of these Commentaries, CM. Rev., Jan. and Feb., 1913. 

i Sec the remarkable memorial notices by Mr. Carr, ]\Ir. Cranswick, and 
Bishop Williams, CM. Eer., Nov., 1912. An admirable biography entitled 
Walker of Tinnevelly has been compiled by his fellow-worker, Miss Wilson- 
Garmichael, and has lately been published by IMorgan and Scott. It is a 
beautiful picture of a beautiful life. See the Rev. G. B. Currant's review of 
it in the CM. Eev., Feb., 191G. 



C.Jf.S. Missions: Diocese of T/nxevellv. 247 

One of tbeni, Miss Wilson-Ccarmichael, is well-known for her p^i^tti. 
remarkal-jle l)ooks, Things m Theij Are, Lofi/s Jluih, Sec, and for !!£l" " 
her beavitiful work in rescuing and caring for " temple children." ^^^^^ 
Another, quite a veteran now, Miss Swainson, has been thirty College, 
years in India, and her work for the deaf and dumb has gained 
her the silver Kaisar-i-Hind medal. But one of the most important 
examples of women's work in all India, the Sarah Tucker Institu- 
tion, an old C.M.S. school re-organized and enlarged by Mr. Lash 
aliout 1870, and carried on for several years by the C.E.Z.M.S., 
was taken over again by the C.M.S, in 1901 ; three of the ladies, 
Miss Askwith, Miss Naish, and Miss Walford coming on to the 
Society's staff, and being joined in the following year by Miss 
E. B. Howard. Miss Walford is now Principal. The Institution 
is now a " Second-Grade College," and is much valued by the 
Government educational authorities for its training of Christian 
school-mistresses; and it has several subsidiary departments. 
Miss Askwith, now detached from the Sarah Tucker College, is a 
veteran of 34: years' standing, and a Kaisar-i-Hind medallist for 
her splendid educational and philanthropic work, especially among 
the blind, in connexion with which she has been a pioneer in the 
matter of types and codes. This work she is still carrying on. 

Most of the institutions are at Palamcotta : the Sarah Tucker, 
the Preparandi Institution, the High Schools, Model Schools, 
Blind Schools, ko. ; and there, too, is done all the multifarious 
work connected with the numerous pastorates scattered over the 
province. But there is one institution in Tinnevelly Town, where 
the great temple of Siva is, viz., the Tinnevelly College, a " Second- Tmneveiiy 
Grade College " with its High School attached, and altogether ° ^^^' 
nearly 1000 young men and laoys under instruction. Here Mr. 
Schatfter has laboured for 35 years, and the wonder is that the 
College should have produced converts to Christ in that purely 
heathen town dominated by that temple. Yet so it is, case after 
case having been reported. But the influence of such institutions 
is much wider than the number of baptisms would suggest. Let 
one illustration be given. In the debating society of the College its re-^^ 
the subject on one occasion was " Doctors." One student influence, 
declared it was the highest of professions, being hke the work of 
Christ ; whereupon another said, " But who can be compared 
with Christ ? Did He ever try a case and fail ? How about the 
doctors ? Did He ever charge one cash for healing the sick ? 
How about the doctors ? " Both speakers were Brahmans, and 
both were loudly applauded ; and this is the estimate of our Lord 
which is gradually permeating India, and will one day work a 
tremendous revolution. The gradual effect upon the Brahman 
mind is shown in another way. Mr. Schaffter vn-ote in 1900 that 
while, 20 years before, a separate bench had to be provided for 
the Brahman boys to sit on, he had just seen " a pariah Christian 
student, a first-class matriculate, walking down the chief Brahman 
street with a Brahman student on each side, one with his arm 



Church. 



248 CMS. Missions: Diocese oe Tinnkvelly 

Part II. locked in tlio. Christian's, the otlier holding an umln-ella over the 
t;iiapj23. pg^j-tjy^ \)Qi\x intent on a note-l:>ook on the lesson of the day which 
the Christian was carrying." 

One feature of the school's influence is illustrated by the 
following : Mr. Schaffter's son, Dr. C. M. Schaffter, has joined the 
C.M.S. Persia Mission. Before he left Tinnevelly, the masters 
and boys gave him a pleasant " send-off," and made speeches in 
eight languages, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kanarese, Marathi, 
Persian, Hindustani, Sanskrit. " Many of the students cannot 
understand eacli other's mother-tongue, but English is their 
common language." 

There are " middle schools " in outlying towns and villages, aa 
well as the ordinary " vernacular schools." Two Brahman boys 
in one of them were baptized in 1905, to the amazement of the 
community.* 
The Native The Church in Tinnevelly has continued to grow. It comprises 
' *""^"'" some 96,000 Christians,! of whom 32,000 are in the S.P.G. dis- 
tricts (including some 9000 in Madura). | The 48,000 baptized 
Christians in the C.M.S. districts in 1899 have grown to 64,600, 
with' 5000 catechumens. The adult baptisms in our period were 
10,388. The Indian clergy now number 72, of whom 43 are 
connected with the C.M.S., which is a faUing off from the 49 of 
1899, the deaths not having been balanced by the new ordina- 
tions.§ The C.M.S. lay agents have increased from 940 to 1040, 
and there appear to be about 500 belonging to the S.P.G. The 
Church Council system, as re-arranged by Mr. Barton when he 
visited Tinnevelly in 1890, has worked very well, and in 1911 the 
Council released the Society entirely from grants to the pastoral 
work of the Church, as the local contriluitions, about £2500 a 
year, were sufficient to maintain the clergy, catechists, and 
teachers, and the Church expenses. The Church contributes 
regularly to the Bible Society, S.P.C.K., and Jews' Society, and 
in 1905 'it sent a special offering of £500 to the C.M.S. Many of 
the pastors are now veterans in the service of the Church. The 
Chairman of the Dohnavur Circle Committee was ordained forty 
years ago. 

Two or three of the native clergy who have died have been 
noticed in a previous chapter (p. 198). In another chapter (p. 164) 
was mentioned the Tinnevelly Missionary Society and its work in 

* For the work of the Children's Special Service Mission among the 
Christian children of Tinnevelly, see ]\Ir. R. T. Archibald's interesting account, 
CM. Intelligencer, April, 1905. 

t The figures of the Societies. The Indian Church Directory gives 100,000 
as the total. 

X The Kev. J. A. Sharrock, of the S.P.G., has written an interesting book 
on the ]\lissions in Tinnevelly and the Tamil country generally, entitled South 
Indian Missions, published by the S.P.G. 

§ There has been a lack of new ordinations owing to the closing of the 
Divinity School on Mr. Walker's death. It is now being reopened. 



C.MS. MissioA'S: Diocese oe Tixnrvelly. 249 

the Telu<]!u Country,"' and also tlie fact that the new Bishop of tartii. 
Doruakal, Mr. Azariah, is a Tinnevelly man, and was educated ^'"^''' ~^' 
\\\ the Tinnevelly College. f The remarks, however, as to the 
spiritual condition of the Christian Church in India apply in a 
general way to Tinnevelly. Certainly the Tinnevelly Christians 
liave had unusual advantages through the frequent " missions " 
held by Mr. Walker, and also by Mr. Eddy. 

The present Bishop of Winchester, Dr. Talbot, visited Tinnevelly Bishop 
when lie was in India in 1910, l)eing the first English diocesan TfnneveUy. 
bishop ever seen there. A crowded meeting was held in the Cen- 
tenary Hall at Palamcotta, when the Rev. Manikam Asirvatliam, 
one of the senior pastors, read an address sketching the history 
of the Mission. " The Bishop's reply was full of sympathy and 
appreciation. Plain practical truths, sound wholesome advice, all 
marked by sincere Christian love, ran through the Bishop's 
speech, and caused it to make a deep impression on the hearers." 

Lord Pentland, Governor of Madras, in response to an address Lord 
from the Christians of Tinnevelly when he visited Palamcotta in 
March, 1914, spoke warmly of the " splendid work " of the Mission, 
particularly of the philanthropic ettbrts of Miss Askwith and 
Miss Swainson ; and congratulated the Church on its own 
Missionary Society, and on tlie appointment of the Bishop of 
Dornakal.j' 

It remains to add that Bishop Morley, who presided over the Bishops 
conventional diocese of Tinnevelly from its formation in 1896, wnifa^iis, 
retired in 1904 in consequence of Mrs. Morley's health. He was '""' Waller, 
much esteemed by all the people, and at a crowded meeting in a 
new hall, which had been built to commemorate the C.M.S. 
Centenary, a handsome gift was presented to him by the 
Christians of both the C.M.S. and S.P.G. districts. He was suc- 
ceeded by Archdeacon A. A. Williams of Madras, who, after a ten 
years' episcopate, in which he won the same esteem, died in 
1914. § He is succeeded by the Rev. E. H. M. Waller, already 
mentioned as one of the C.M.S. missionaries in the United 
Provinces, and for the past two or three years one of tlie 
Secretaries in Salisbury Square. During the interval the Bishop 
of Dornakal has exercised episcopal functions all over Tinnevelly. 
Mr. Waller was consecrated at Calcutta on Advent Sunday, Nov. 
28th, 1915. 

* Concerning this Society, see the CM. Intelligencer, Jan., 1905, and the 
CM. Review, Sept., 1908. The latter account, a most interesting one, is bj' 
Mr. Azariah himself, now the Bishop of Dornakal. 

t A graphic account of the visit paid by Bishop Azariah to Tinnevelly soon 
after his consecration appeared in the CM. Review of November, 1913. The 
enthusiasm of his welcome was quite extraordinary. 

X See the whole speech, CM. Rev., Oct., 1914. 

§ See the In Memoriam of Bishop Williams, CM. Rev., Sept., 1914. 



OHAPTEE XXIV. 




Retrospect 
of the 
Mission. 



Tlie 
Bisliops. 



CJLS. MISSIONS: DIOCESE OF TBAVANCOBE AND COCHIN. 

Christian Population of the Two States— The Anglican Bishops— Mission 
Staff and Native Clergy — Deaths — Ten Years' Confirmations— Caste 
and Out-Caste — Educational Institutions — The Syrian Churches : 
Revival Movements, Syrian Bishops and Dr. Mott, Remarkable 
Meeting at Calcutta. 

EAVANCOEE and Cochin are two semi-independent 
protected States, and the rulers have shown enlighten- 
ment in their policy in many ways. Nowhere in India 
has caste feeling heen stronger, bnt there is an official 
toleration of Christianity which much struck Sir 
Valentine Chirol of the Times when he visited the two States in 
1906. The fact is that, owing to the existence of the ancient 
Syrian Church, tliere is a larger Christian population in Travan- 
core and Cochin than in any other part of India, and the Syrians 
are among the best educated and most prosperous of the people. 
Out of a population of 4,-347,000, about one-fourth are professing 
Christians, and of these, 705,000 are Syrians or " Romo-Syrians " ; 
this latter term signifying those who, though belonging by descent 
to the ancient Church, have joined (or their forefathers joined) the 
Church of Rome; and 288,000 Romans whose forefathers were 
heathen. The Protestant Christians, 158,000, include 82,000 
Tamil-speaking people in the South, who are the fruit of the 
L.M.S. Mission, and the C.M.S. Malayalam people in the North 
and in Cochin, reckoned by the Census of 1911 as 56,000. The 
remainder are partly Salvationists, many of them seceders from 
the L.M.S., and partly attached to various free-lance Missions, 
which cause much bewilderment. 

The Travancore and Cochin Mission is one of the Society's 
oldest, having been begun in 1816 at the request of the British 
Resident, Colonel Munro, with a view to reviving the life of the 
ancient Syrian Church. When, after twenty years, that purpose 
was still unfulfilled, the Mission turned to the non-Christian 
population, and from that time it prospered ; and the result has 
been much spiritual movement within the old Church also. 

The Anglican Bishopric of Travancore and Cochin was founded 
in 1879. The first Bishop, Dr. Speechly, was succeeded in 1890 
by Bishop Hodges, who was still in office when our period 
commenced. He had been Principal of the Noble College at 



C.jlf.S. MISSIONS: Travancore and Cochin. 251 

Masulipatain, and of Trinity College at Kandy. He retired in part 11. 
1905, and was succeeded bj- the Kev. Charles Hope Gill, whom ^1" 
we have already met as C.M.S. Secretary in the United Provinces. 

In 1899 the mission staff comprised twelve clergymen, with ten The c.M.s. 
wives, and three women missionaries. In 1915 there were nine ^*'^'^* 
clergymen, with five wives, and eight women missionaries. Of 
the 25 of 1899, eight remained in 1914. The diminution of 
numbers has been more than compensated for by the increase of 
Indian clergy from 24 to 34 notwithstanding several deaths ; and 
the laj'' teachers have also increased from 557 to 687. 

The losses in the mission staff by death have cut off several P^^S^^^ 
links with the early years of the Mission. Just before our period Family, 
began, Mrs. Henry Baker had died, the widow of the second 
Henry Baker. Her daughter, who was carrying on the Girls' 
Boarding School, also died in 1901. From the beginning the 
Baker family have been conspicuous in the mission ranks. The 
first and second Henry Baker, and both their wives, had died 
before the Centenary, and three of the former's daughters had 
been wives of other missionaries. In 1899 there were two Bakers 
on the staff. Misses M. F. and Isabel, daughters of the second 
Henry Baker; and when the former died in 1901, another of her 
sisters, Annie, joined, but she also died in 1912. It is hard to 
measure the indebtedness of the Mission to all these ladies. Mrs. 
Bellerby also, formerly of the C.E.Z.M.S. in Ceylon, died in 1912. 
But the greatest loss came by the death in 1913 of the veteran 
.7. H. Bishop, a Cambridge man sent out in 1867, and one of the J-H- 
most faithful and humble-minded of missionaries." Among the '^'"^p* 
Indian clergy who have died were Archdeacons Koshi Koshi and ^"g^gy 
Oomen Mamen, both good and able men, each after about half-a- 
century's service. Mr. Koshi received from the Archbishop of 
Canterbury the D.D. degree for his important work in the revision 
of tlie Malay alam Bible, f Also the two next in seniority, the Revs. 
Jacob Tharian and Kunengheri Koratha, the latter of whom had 
done much translational work in Malayalam, including parts of the 
S.P.C.K. Commentary; also the Rev. Ampallur Ezekiel David, 
Mr. Ijishop's much-valued colleague. In 1906 was reported the 
death of a Brahman convert, S. Satiadasan, whose baptism in 1876 
was recorded in the CM. Intelligpncer in several pages of large 
type. Brahman baptisms were much rarer in those days. 

The losses by retirement include, besides Bishop Hodges, three 
veterans of over 30 years' standing, W. J. Richards, J. Caley, and 
C. A. Neve (brother of the Neves of Kashmir), all three men of 
great influence, not only in the Mission itself, but also among the 
Syrian Christians ; also A. F. Painter and C. E. R. Romilly, after 
24 and 20 years' service. 

Of tlie present staff one, P. Bower, wlio went out with J. H. Veterans. 

* See the Rev. W. S. Hunt's In IMemoriam of him, CM. Bev., Oct., 191.3. 
t See the very interesting accounts of him by ]\Ir. Painter and Dr. Richards, 
CM. IntelL, March, 1900. 



2^2 C.A/.S. Missions: Travancorf. axd Cochin. 



Part li. 
Chap. 24. 



Work of 

Native 

Church. 



Ten years 
Confirma- 
tions. 



Caste and 
Out-i-aMe. 



Bishop in 18G7, can look l)ack on nearly half-a-centuiy's labour, 
and Archdeacon J. J. B. Palmer, INIr. Bellerby, and Mr. P. N. 
Askwith, have over 20 years at their credit. 

The greater part of the regular pastoral and evangelistic work is 
in the hands of the Native Church. Nowhere has the Church 
Council system worked better than in Travancore. There has 
been continuous progress in numbers. The 32,000 baptized 
Christians in 1899 have become 52,000 in 1914, besides 4000 
catechumens. The adult baptisms in the period have numbered 
15,546. A striking comparison was made so long ago as 1900. 
Ten years had then elapsed since Bishop Hodges and Bishop 
Tucker had ])een consecrated together. Everybody knew of Bishop 
Tucker's wonderful confirmations in Uganda. There had been 
7580 in the ten years. How many candidates had Bishop Hodges 
confirmed in Travancore ?^ — 7461 ! But how few had noticed that ! 
It was a reminder that while Christendom is rejoicing in the 
triumphs of the Gospel in new Missions, the older ones, almost 
unnoticed, are gathering equal fruit. 

About two-thirds of the Christians connected with the C.M.S. 
are of out-caste origin. Nowhere else in India could one have so 
truly called these " depressed classes " the " oppressed classes," 
and this has undoubtedly helped to foster what has been almost a 
mass movement.* A grant from the Pan-Anglican Thankoffering 
has been most useful in meeting this movement. Mr. Hunt 
writes : "In some twenty stations land has been acquired, chiefly 
for sites for buildings ; over sixty schools have been built or 
improved, and others have been furnished or equipped ; thhty 
teachers' houses have been built, as also two hostels ; scholarships 
have lieen provided for 36 boys at the Cambridge Nicholson 
Institution, and for 58 boys and girls at boarding schools." 

But caste converts are not few. At an interesting confirma- 
tion at Trichur in 1902, out of 70 candidates, only nine were 
of the " depressed classes." Travancore is famous for the com- 
plexity of the caste system, and representatives of many castes 
were confirmed that day. Brahmans join the Church 5'ear by 
year ; and many more are sufiiciently convinced to do so if 
they dared. One Namburi Brahman — a very exclusive section 
— in a great rehgious discussion among high- caste men, boldly 
defended both the character and religion of Christ, and within a 
few weeks died in great suffering from some unknown (though 
not unsuspected) cause. Another Brahman in a railway carriage 
confessed to Mr. Bower that while outwardly a Hindu, he was at 
heart a Christian, and would be baptized but for his wife and 
children. A third, a Namburi, after listening to a Christian 
evangelist addressing a crowd at a festival, rose and confirmed 
what had been said, and then, to show what he thought of caste, 
actually touched a low-caste man standing by, to the disgust of 
the Hindus who saw him. 

* See an article by the Rev. W. S. Hunt, CM. Rev., July, 1915. 



C.J/.S. Missions: Travancore and Cociiix. 253 

In former years much interest was taken by friends in England paktii. 
in the Arrian Mission among the aborigines in the Ghat mountains ; ^^^;J^'*- 
and the first station there, Mundakayam, was a familiar name, ^y^'^^ 
This work is now under the Melkavu Church Council and its four "'^'°"' 
Indian pastors : the Christians in the area administered by that 
Council being about 5000. Certain districts are the field of the 
" Church Mission " under the Councils. Special mission services 
arc also conducted by the Diocesan Missioner, the Eev. T. Kuru- 
wella Joseph, who is highly spoken of. 

One of Bishop Gill's Archdeacons (Mr. Palmer being the other) 
who succeeded Archdeacons Koshi Koshi and Oomen Mamen is 
the Eev. Jacob Chandy, who was ordained in 1875. He is the 
son of a clergyman of the same name, who was the second man 
to be ordained in Travancore, in 1847, and who was originally a 
Syrian Christian. 

The regular stations of the C.M.S. Mission are Kottayam, liduca- 
Pallam, Tiruwella, and Allepie in Travancore ; and Trichur and work. 
Kunnankulam in Cochin. At Kottayam are the two chief educa- 
tional institutions — the College, a " Second-Grade College " in 
official parlance, at which a good education is given to Christians 
and non-Christians (the hostel for the former has lately had new 
buildings), and the Cambridge Nicholson Institution, for the 
training of clergy and evangelists and teachers. Both enjoy the 
great advantage of having Principals who have been so for many 
years — Mr, Askwith of the former, and Archdeacon Palmer of the 
latter. The Cambridge Nicholson Institution, originally founded 
in memory of a Fellow and Tutor of Emmanuel, Cambridge, who 
w^as once Secretary of the CM. Association there, celebrated its 
Jubilee in 1909. In the 50 years it had trained 75 clergymen 
and 700 school teachers, including under both heads many 
Syrians for the service of their own Church. Also at Kottayam 
is the Girls' Boarding School, now called the Baker Memorial 
School in memory of the three generations of Bakers who have 
conducted it. The name was given to it in 1903 when the new 
buildings were opened which had been erected at the cost of the 
memorial fund. Miss Isabel Baker is now in charge, assisted by 
three other ladies, two of them graduates, one of London and one 
of Melbourne. Then at Pallam is the Buchanan Institution, a 
Girls' Training School, founded to do for Travancore what the 
Sarah Tucker Institution has done for Tinnevelly. The Rev. E. Bel- 
lerby was for several years at the head of it. Miss Kate Richards, 
daughter of Dr. Richards, has been in charge lately. There are 
other High Schools and numerous schools of lower grades at the 
different stations. Some difficulties have arisen of late years 
owing to new measures taken by the Travancore Educational 
authorities which put obstacles in the way of Christian teaching. 

An important agency in the Mission is the Kottayam Press. 
It is employed, not only locally, but also by the Bible Society, 
Religious Tract Society, and Christian Literature Society ; and 



254 C.M.S. Missions: Travancore and Cochin. 



Part II. 
Chap. 24. 



it prints thousands of copies of Scriptures as well as other 
books. 



Divisions 
in the 
Syrian 
Church. 



Walker's 
Meetings. 



Winds of 
Doctrine. 



The Syeian Chukches. 

There have been important movements among the Syrians in 
recent years. The early C.M.S. missionaries a century ago were 
received with open arms, and there was for a time good prospect 
of revival and reform ; and though the forces of corruption and 
superstition proved too strong for a general reformation in the 
Church, many of both the priests and the people sought to revivify 
the stagnant waters. The result was much ecclesiastical dissen- 
sion and division, and eventually the Church divided into two parts 
— the old Jacobite and the new Eeformed.* In the latter section 
there has been much spiritual movement, and at the invitation 
of the last and the present Syrian Metropolitans, Mr. Walker, of 
Tinnevelly, conducted year by year special missions and Conven- 
tions for the promotion of spiritual life, without in any way touch- 
ing the ecclesiastical connexion. Deeply interesting accounts 
came of the tens of thousands who attended those gatherings, 
including many of the old Jacobite Syrians as well as those of 
the Eeformed Church. It was manifest that the Holy Spirit was 
at work. Mr. Walker suppressed all mere excitement, and only 
strove and prayed for such conversions as issued in the putting 
away of sin and the steadfast purpose to lead a new life. His 
difficulties were not from the Syrians, and still less from the 
heathen, but from the Plymouth Brethren, Salvationists, and 
other irresponsible free-lances, who did their best to cause con- 
fusion and mar the work.f Naturally many of the people were 
" tossed to and fro and carried about with every wind of doctrine " ; 
and in 1907, when revival movements occurred in many parts of 
India, some extravagances took place in Travancore. It is always 
in these ways that the Enemy of mankind seeks to damage a real 
work of grace. Meanwhile, the old Jacobite Church also shows 
signs of revival, and in 1911 invited two S.P.G. missionaries — the 
Rev. H. Pakenham Walsh (now Bishop of Assam) and the Rev. 
C. F. W. Hatchell — to give Bible readings and spiritual addresses. 

The Anglican Bishops have maintained friendly relations with 
both the Old Jacobite and the Reformed Churches. The autho- 
rities in both recognize the good work which the C.M.S. Mission 
has done both by counsel and sympathy and by its work in build- 
ing up the Christian community from the Hindu population. 
A good sign of the influence of the Mission and the Anglican 

♦ In 190i, sorae English newspapers were misled by a Syrian who came to 
England and charged the C.M.S. with having property that really belonged to 
the old Church. The charge was quite without foundation, but in case of 
need it may be well to state that a full account of the case was given by the 
llev. A. P. Painter in the CM. IntelL, May and August, 1904. 

t Even the deluded followers of " Pastor Kussell " have latterly appeared on 
the scene. 



C.M.S. Missions: Travancore and Cochin. 255 

Church is the adoption by the Eeformed Church in 1910 of a paet ii. 
" foreign mission district " in the Kanarese country to the North, ^'^^p- -•*• 
in connexion with the National Missionary Society of India, and Relations 
the sending thither of three missionaries, one of them a graduate Syrian and 
of Madras University, who refused the episcopate in order to ch^dTel 
devote himself to this work. Mr. Walker wrote, " The Syrian 
Church, after the supineness of centuries, is now beginning to 
catch the first sun-glow of a rising missionary spirit." 

In 1909, the Patriarch of Antioch, the ecclesiastical head of the 
old Jacobite Church, visited India, and w^as received by the 
people with much reverence. Bishop Gill and i^rchdeacon Palmer 
called on him, and he, with the local Metropolitan, Mar Diony- 
sius, retm'ned the call. In the same year, the Metropolitan of the 
Eeformed Syrian Church or " Church of St. Thomas," died, and 
Bishop Gill was invited to give an address at the funeral, in which 
he testified to the late prelate's soundness in the faith and holy hfe. 
His successor, Titus II. Mar Thoma, received most of his educa- 
tion at the Cambridge Nicholson Institution, 

But the most remarkable incident in the recent history of the J^^-.^^ 
Syrian Churches of Travancore was their Conference with Dr. Dr. kott. 
Mott when he visited India in 1912-13. Some of the leaders 
approached him with a request that he would receive deputations 
from the different bodies and give them counsel and help towards 
greater unity and closer co-operation. But he had regretfully to 
tell them that, owing to his crowded programme of incessant 
Conferences and other w^ork in all parts of India, he could not 
possibly visit Travancore, and that their only chance was to meet 
him at Calcutta, nearly 2000 miles away. Yet they actually J,j°'"co^i'. 
went ! — Mar Dionysius, the Jacobite MetropoUtan, with five of his ference at 
leading men; Mar Thoma, the Metropolitan of the Eeformed ^^••=''"''- 
Church, with several of his workers ; representatives of the Syrian 
members of the Anglican Church, headed by Bishop Gill; and 
two delegates from a small recent seceding body. They duly 
arrived at Calcutta. They were represented in the National Con- 
ference. They attended at the consecration of Bishop Azariah. 
And they had a two days' Conference of their own, with Dr. Mott 
as Chairman and Mr. Eddy as Vice-chairman. Dr. Mott himself 
wrote of it : — 

" The discussions during the two days were characterized by such 
wonderful frankness, unity, and constructive work as to be inexplicable 
to those familiar with the sad state of friction hitherto existing between 
the bodies concerned, on any other ground save that of the over-master- 
ing power of God in answer to prayer." 

The result was a unanimous agreement to unite in Christian 
camps, local conferences for deepening spu'itual life, apologetic 
lectures to educated non-Christians, and missions to the depressed 
classes ; to co-operate with the National Missionary Society — *' a 
highly significant action," wrote Dr. Mott, " because during long 



256 C.M.S. J//SS/O.VS: Tkavancork and Cochin. 

paet II. centuries the Syrian ( 'liurcli had not heen missionary " ; to conihine 
«. iap^.24. -j^ ^ college, and in training workers; to refer cases of dispute to 
arl^itration ; " to forgive and forget the past, and to regard each 
other as brothers in future." 

Mr. Holland wrote of the " amazing sight " when "two vene- 
rable figures, clad in strange and gorgeous robes that made them 
resemble Moses and Aaron of the coloured-picture Bible," ap- 
peared in the National Conference, having come all the way to 
Calcutta " to confer on unity with the Anglican Bishop of Travan- 
core under the presidency of Dr. Mott. . . . Within the Syrian 
Church, hitherto so self-centred and aloof, are stored immense 
possibilities for India's evangelization. . . . We shall see fresh 
things. The days are full of hope ! " 
AnoUicr Then in April, 1915, a remarkable gathering of 2000 Christians 

Gathering, of the different Churches in Travancore and Cochin met at Kotta- 
yam ; and while six Syrian Bishops were on the platform, the 
Anglican Bishop Gill was the chosen president. Many practical 
subjects were discussed, and a proposal was made that the various 
questions at issue between the Syrian parties should be submitted 
for arbiti-ation to the Anglican Bishops of Calcutta, Bombay, 
Madras, and Travancore. Organic union is not yet, perhaps not 
for a great while ; but it is good indeed to see this new spirit of 
Christian unity. 

Meanwhile it is good news that a remarkable series of con- 
ventions was held in Travancore in January, 1916, by Bishop 
Pakenham Walsh and Mr. Sherwood Eddy ; which were attended 
by many thousands of Christians, Syrian, Anglican, and of minor 
denominations ; also that of thirty-three Indian Christian students 
admitted into the C.M.S. College at Calcutta in July, 1915, eighteen 
w^ere Syrians, from that remotest province of Travancore. It may 
well be that the ancient Church has yet an important part to play 
in the building up of Indian Christendom. 




CHAPTER XXV. 
The Ceylon Mission. 

Features of the Mission— Losses of Senior Missionaries — The Native 
Christians — Education Work : Trinity College, Kandy, &c — Varied 
Agencies— Women Missionaries — Two Bishops Copleston. 

[HE Mission in the Island of Ceylon, being one of the part ir. 
oldest of C.M.S. Missions, has for many years gone ^^ap^^o. 
steadily and quietly on, without much in its work to special 
make it very conspicuous ; but it has special features features nf 
of its own, and it has achieved important developments Mission. '^" 
within our period. Other Missions have geographical divisions 
with distinct languages, but in Ceylon the double staff necessitated 
by the two languages, Singhalese and Tamil, work mainly in the 
same areas. In Colombo, and in Kandy, and all over the central 
hill country, the work is carried on in both languages ; but at 
Cotta, only six miles from Colombo, and at Baddegama and 
Dodanduwa in the south-west, it is only in Singhalese, and in 
the Jaffna Peninsula at the north end of the island, only in Tamil. 
Again, Ceylon has been almost unique in respect of the interesting 
stories of converts it has provided. Not that they have been 
especially numerous, for the work has rather been exceptionally 
slow ; nor yet that the converts themselves have been conspicuous 
people ; but while the external circumstances have been usually 
what we might call common-place, the illustrations of divine 
grace have often been very touching. 

During the fifteen years Ceylon has had another quite excep- Deaths of 
tional feature. The deaths of its senior missionaries have been so "^«*^'"'»°s- 
numerous that it has now only two, and their two wives, who were 
at w^ork in 1899 and are nov/ of thirty years' standing. In one 
year, 1901, the Mission lost its three oldest imen then actively afc 
work, Higgens, Coles, and Dowbiggin, after 50, 4:0, and 31 years' 
service respectively. Two years later it lost Ireland Jones, who 
was not on the list of 1899, having retired before that after 34 
years' service ; but he, in 1900, had returned to the Mission, and 
added three more years to his missionary career. Of two other 
veterans, one, J. D. Simmons, retired in 1901 after 11 years' work, Simmons 
and has died since ; and the other, W. E. Eowlands, who was 
at home for some years, joined the Mission again in 1907, and is 
there still ; his actual years in the work, though not continuous, 

s 



158 



The Ceylon Mission. 



Ireland 
Jones. 



Coles. 



IJ^^T II- being now 30. Six others died in the field during our period, 
l£l" ■ besides some who passed away after retiring. The oldest of all 
these, E. T. Higgens, had been one of six men who were com- 
missioned at one time, June 20th, 1851, whose names are worth 
recording. Two were pioneers of the Punjab Mission, E. Clark 
and T. H. Fitzpatrick. Two were Germans from the Basle 
Seminary, though in English Orders, H. Stern and P. A. Klein, 
the latter a pioneer in Palestine and in the revived Egypt Mission. 

c. c. I'enn. The sixth was C. C. Fenn, who went with Higgens to Ceylon, 
afterwards became the much- esteemed Secretary of the Society at 

Higgens. home, and only passed away in 1913. Higgens himself, after many 
years of evangelistic work among the Singhalese, and a few years 
of home service as Organizing Secretary, had been Secretary in 
Ceylon for 20 years, and for a large part of that time also pastor 
of the English-speaking congregation at Galle Face Church. He 
came home in 1900, and died in the following year. 

Three of the other Ceylon veterans removed by death had also 
worked among the Singhalese, Ireland Jones, Coles, and Dowbiggin. 
Jones w^as a T. C. D. man, who was deeply respected both in 
England and in Ceylon, and took a leading part in the ecclesiastical 
settlement made with Bishop Copleston in 1881. He was chair- 
man of the Singhalese Bible Eevision Committee. His son, Philip 
Ireland Jones, is the well-known missionary in India. Stephen 
Coles was an admirable trainer of pastors and teachers; and his 
mastery of the language made him a leading reviser of the Singhalese 
Bible. He actually died in the chair at a Prevision Meeting ; '"' and 
his successor was Bishop Copleston himself, afterwards Metro- 
politan of India, and now Chairman of the Central Board of 
Missions. It may be parenthetically added that the revision of 
both Bible and Prayer Book was completed in 1908, after 20 years' 

Dowbiggin. work. Dowbiggin had the unusual experience of working at one 
station, Cotta, all through his quiet but faithful missionary career. 
He died at sea on his way home for furlough. A fourth, J. D. 
Simmons, was a diligent evangelist among the Tamil population. f 
His son, S. M. Simmons, has lately retired after 23 years' service. 
Among the others who passed away in the fifteen years, Pilson, 
Eyde, and Garrett represented severally the three Universities of 
Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin. Pilson died within a year or 
two of reaching the field. Eyde w^as 14 years in the Mission, and 
Gai'rett 21 years. Both were excellent missionaries, and the latter 
was well-known at home as well as abroad for his Hibernian 
fervour. 

The staff. In 1899 the Ceylon Mission had 20 clergymen and 2 laymen, 
with 16 wives, and 19 other women, total 57. In 1914, 19 
clergymen, '1 layman, 17 wives, and 17 other women, total 54. 
That does not seem a serious falling off, and it is not due to any 
neglect of Ceylon, for in the 15 years no less than 50 names have 

* See the In Memoriam, CM. Inicll., Nov., 1901. 

t See Mr. Rowlands's In IMemoriam of him, C.^^. Revieiv, June, 1914. 



The Ceylon Missiox. 259 

been added to the list ; but the important educational work has tart ii. 
been largely reinforced, so the evangelistic missionaries are pro- ^*^25. 
portionately fewer. The leakage by retirement has been large. 
Of the 57 of 1899, 13 remain. But the present list includes Mr. 
Rowlands, already refen-ed to, an old veteran, though not in the 
Mission in 1899 ; and also Mr. Finnimore, who had previously 
served in another C.M.S. Mission. 

The native clergy have increased from 17 to 22, although several 
deaths have been reported ; and the lay teachers from 625 to 882. 
One of the Tamil clergy who died, the Rev. G. Champion, had 
l)een 66 years in C.M.S. service, 45 of them in Orders ; and another, 
A. Gnanamuttu, 55 years, 25 of them in Orders. A Singhalese 
pastor, Johannes Perera'Kalpage, died in hospital from the effects 
of a crushed finger. 

The Census of 1911 showed a population of 4,110,000 in Ceylon, Census of 
of whom 60 per cent, were Buddhists (the Singhalese), 23 per '^•'i''°"- 
cent. Hindus (the Tamils), 10 per cent. Christians, and 7 per 
cent. Mohammedans. Of the Christians the great majority were 
Roman Catholics. The Protestant Christians were 70,000, of whom 
41,000 were Anglicans. These include the white population. The 
Anglicans were reckoned as 28,800, the Wesleyans as 15,000. 
The Anglicans include many independent congregations uncon- 
nected with either of the Missionary Societies. The S.P.G. counts 
2900 baptized members. The C.M.S. figures in 1914 are 13,480, 
an increase of over 4150 on the 9330 of 1899. There were 2906 Baptisms, 
adult baptisms in the fifteen years. This cannot compare with 
the results among the similar people in South India, but the 
Singhalese, being Buddhists, are harder to influence than the low- 
caste Hindus ; and of the Tamil converts from Hinduism, large 
numbers of the baptized belong to India, and return home after 
a time, which reduces the Ceylon figures and increases those of 
South India. 

The general character of the Native Christians is very much the character 
same as we have seen in India. They are far from perfect, but they chrMia^ns. 
are conspicuously different from the heathen ; and while the 
missionaries are often disappointed with them, there is always 
the minority of devoted and fervent servants of the Lord. At 
least they cannot be called " rice Christians," except (as Mr. 
Butterfield remarks) in a sense just opposite to that usually meant 
by the phrase ; that is to say, "the Tamil house-wife, when putting 
the rice into the cooking-pot for the morning and evening meals, 
places a handful of the grain on one side for God." In the Tamil 
Coolie Mission three native pastors are supported by the converts. 
A great many striking instances of self-denial in this respect 
are mentioned in the reports. Still better is it to see that 
out of fifty-four persons baptized in one year in one station, the 
'majority were "won by "the consistent lives and earnest words of 
Christian neighbours." The accounts of conversions are again and conver- 
again most encouraging. Sometimes they are of the best type of ^'°°*" 



26o 



The Ceylon Mission. 



PART II. 

Chap. 25. 



Buddhists or Hindus or Moslems, as in the case of the thoughtful 
and earnest Buddhist priest who really desired the good of his 
people, and failing to find the right influence in his own religion, 
turned to Christianity, and found it at once ; or the prosperous 
Afghan merchant, fluent in half-a-dozen languages, visiting 
Colombo m the way of his trade; — and sometimes of the worst: 
now a demon priest, then a gambler and drunkard ; — but more 
generally the ordinary villager. It is not surprising to find that 
one district is fruitful which is supported by a band of City men in 
London who meet regularly to pray for it. 

The persecution of converts is often bitter, and now and then 
successful in preventing their baptism or drawing them back even 
after they have just publicly confessed Christ ; but for the most 
part it has been borne with exemplary steadfastness. It has, 
however, been found necessary to open Converts' Homes for 
women and girls who desire to leave all for Christ and find home- 
life impossible. Buddhist and Hindu parents have, in several 
cases, expressly allowed their daughters to come to these Homes. 
For them the lace industry has been developed. Younger children, 
though sent to the elementary day schools, are often forbidden 
to attend Sunday schools. Hostility to the Mission has been 
fostered by the Buddhist revival of the last few years. Buddhist 
schools (supported by government grants), Buddhist newspapers 
with large local circulation, Buddhist tracts and books freely dis- 
tributed, Buddhist open-air preaching, have been industriously 
used to oppose and discredit Christianity ; and, which is especially 
grievous, the increasing habit among English professing Christians 
of couphng Buddha with our Lord as two great reformers.* At 
the same time, let it be frankly acknowledged that, as the late 
Mr. Ferguson, C.M.G., editor of the Ccijhni Ohserver, expressed it 
in his paper, Buddhist imitations of Christian work have included 
a fresh teaching in Buddhist schools of such virtues as truth, 
temperance, purity, &c., while " the example of cleanliness, 
sobriety, and honesty given by the Christian village communities 
is telling widely upon their heathen neighbours." \ 

The pastoral care of the congregations has been almost entirely 
the work of the native clergy. In 1910 a new system was intro- 
duced, giving them and their congregations a much more inde- 
pendent position than before. This has done not a little to foster 
self-support ; and now not only are the clergy supported by the 
Church funds, but, in several cases, the elementary schools have 
been taken over, and in a few the evangelistic agency also. The 
result has been a freer spirit in the people, a considerable increase 

* In the CM. licvicw of Sept., l'.)12, ]\Ir. Senior, of Trinity College, Kandy, 
closcribed a Buddhist meeting he attended at the Dor6 Gallery in Bond Street, 
Avhen a paper was read to 200 people by Mrs. Rhys Davids. 

t In Vol. V. of the Reports of the Pan-Anglican Congress, there is an able 
paper by Bishop R. S. Copleston on the Presentation of Christian Truth to 
Buddhists (p. 177). 



The Ceylon Mission. 261 

iu their contributions, and a corresponding saving to tiie Society. Paktu. 
Kepresentatives of both clergy and laity have also now seats on the ^ 
Missionary Conference which administers the Mission. 

One sti'iking feature of the Ceylon Mission is the success of its Educationa 
educational work. It is the general testimony of the missionaries W'"'''- 
that the great majority of the converts come directly or indirectly 
from the schools. Many statements to this effect occur in the 
Eeports of the period. The strength of the Mission has, un- 
doubtedly, been thrown into school work, although the ordinary 
evangelistic efforts in preaching and visiting are put forth among 
both Singhalese and Tamils. And it is in this department that 
the developments of the 15 years are seen. The number of 
scholars in the schools has increased from 1600 to 20,000. Of 
course the majority of these schools are elementary, ])ut there are 
23 of a higher class, with over 3000 pupils. One of the most 
important of these is a new agency within the 15 years, while the 
development of another is quite the most conspicuous feature of 
the period. The former is the Ladies' College at Colombo, started Ladies' 
by Miss Nixon, B.A. of the Royal University of Ireland, in 1900, ^""'^S'^' 
with the assistance of Miss E. Whitney of Montreal. It began 
with two pupils, and ended its first year with twelve, representing 
Tamil, Singhalese, Jewish, and English homes. But after three 
years there were 140 girls, mostly of the upper-classes of native 
society, though including some Europeans of different nations ; 
and, religiously. Christians, Jews, Moslems, Buddhists, Hindus, 
and Parsis. The buildings had to be enlarged, and there was 
attached to the school a preparatory department for the little 
brothers of the pupils. The number of girls now is 228, and there 
is a Christian hostel attached to the School. The late Rev. C. L. 
Burrows gave £1000 for this extension. Among the w^omen 
since engaged in this work have been Miss Browne, B.Sc, of the 
University of Wales, and Miss Horsley, of Newnham College, also, 
for a time, Miss A. Wardlaw Ramsay (see p. 125). Miss Nixon has 
lately retired, after fifteen years' important service ; and so also has 
Miss Horsley. Cotta, also, is a station noted for its schools of 
various kinds, which are often visited by sympathizing friends on 
their way to or from the Far East or Australia, when the great 
liners that convey them stop for a few hours iu the Colombo 
Harbour. Training schools for teachers are also provided, of four 
different kinds for men and for women in both the languages, and 
these supply the needs not only of the mission schools but also, 
partly, of the government schools. In 1906 compulsory education 
was planned by the authorities, with a Conscience Clause (modified 
for mission schools) ; and this rendered the training of teachers 
an important department in missionary work. 

The educational institution whose development has excited the Trinity 
keenest interest is Trinity College, Kandy. Under Mr. Napier- K^nd^y; 
Clavering, Mr. Ryde, and Mr. Carter, the School had been_ an 
institution delightful to visit, as the present writer can testify ; 



262 



The Ceylon Mission. 



Part II. 
Chap. 25. 



but the principalship of Mr. Fraser since 1904 has carried its fame 
over the world, owing to his vigorous initiative and wide reputa- 
tation. Mr. Fraser went to Uganda in 1900, but his health failed 
there, and in 1904 he was sent to Ceylon. In 1906 much alarm 
was caused by his being at first said to have sleeping-sickness, 
which in Uganda has wrought such ravages, but by God's 
mercy he was completely cured. He was the first lay Principal 
of Trinity College, but he was ordained in 1912. He has succeeded 
in getting able men from our Universities to join him, and the 
efficiency of the School has been greatly enhanced by the co- 
operation of Mr. Senior, Mr. Walmsley, Mr. Gibson, Mr. Campbell, 
and Mr. Saunders, and of some able Indian graduates of Calcutta 
and Madras ; while Mrs. Walmsley, who is a B.Sc. of London 
University, and Mrs. Fraser, who at Newnham took a good place 
in the History Tripos, have also rendered good service. In 
addition to their College duties some of these have done important 
literary work. The boys, numbering about 430, of whom 120 
are boarders, are largely of good social standing ; and of the 90 
ruling Kandyan families 63 were (in 1912) represented. Efforts 
have been successfully made to enlist them in social service 
on the hnes adopted by Mr. Tyndale-Biscoe in Kashmir ; * and 
the morale fostered by athletics is very manifest. Of this a 
striking illustration was mentioned by Mr. Fraser in 1906. In 
the swimming races two boys were competitors in the final. One 
of them came and begged for a postponement for a quarter-of-an- 
hour. It turned out that he wanted to rub down his rival, who 
had got cramp. But higher results than these are achieved. 
There are conversions and baptisms year by year. In 30 years 
up to 1910, 50 boys had been baptized. In the last year reported 
on there were thirteen, one of them from a Mohammedan family 
of distinction in North India, and one a Burmese boy who was 
football captain. It is interesting to hear that two sons of the 
Katikiro of Uganda are now in the school. Of course the 
Katikiro knew Mr. Fraser when he was in Uganda. 

A new effort is a " Training Colony " for evangelists, near 
Kandy, started by Mr. Gibson, which is in a sense an offshoot 
from Trinity College. Candidates for ordination are not now 
trained in Ceylon, but are sent to Madras or Kottayam. 

The other important High School for boys is St. John's College 
at Jaffna, under Mr. Jacob Thompson, which is also doing excellent 
work. The senior prefect of 1912 was baptized in 1913. 

At Dodanduwa, a fishing village on the south-west coast, there 
has been an Industrial School with an interesting origin. The first 
of the missionaries sent to C.M.S. Missions by the newly formed 

* The inculcation of patriotism and social service is shown in the eagerness 
of the boys to enlist for the war. No loss than 28 representatives of the 
College have joined the Forces of the Empire. They have also been com- 
plimented by the Ceylon Legislative Council on their initiative in house- 
planning and sanitation. 



The Ceylon Mission. 263 

Associations in Australia in 1892 was an energetic lady, Miss Helen Part ii. 
Phillips. She was located to Ceylon, and after a few months at '^-'• 
Kandy she moved to Dodanduwa, and quickly made friends with p\^.*,j"g- 
the women and children. Presently she started a lace making 
industry, and the lace gained prizes at exhibitions, some being 
even sent to the Paris Exposition of 1900, and there obtaining 
a diploma and the only medal given for Ceylon lace ; which led 
to orders from other distant countries, including China. By and 
by, industrial schools were opened for both girls and boys, and 
under Mr. Ptu'ser's charge the latter learnt the trades of tailor, 
printer, and joiner, and earned good Government grants as w^ell 
as Government custom for printing. Some were Christian boys 
from neighbouring districts, and for them a hostel w^as built, the 
money being sent from Australia ; and conversions and baptisms 
of elder boys and girls have been reported from time to time. 
Miss PhilHps retired in 1905 in ill-health, after 13 years of self- 
sacrificing work. Her departure led to the gradual decay of 
the girls' department ; and Mr. Purser, on his ordination in 1911, 
removed to Baddegama. 

This last named station, Baddegama, has a long history, the g^^^^j^^^ 
Mission having been founded by E. Mayor, the father of the three 
well-known brothers Mayor, of St. John's, Cambridge, who were 
born in the mission house. One of them, who became Latin 
Professor, was startled in his old age by a visit from a Singhalese 
Christian, a scholar of Selwyn College reading for the Theological 
Tripos, whose father (or grandfather) had been one of E. Mayor's 
converts, and who himself had been baptized in the same mission 
chvu-ch as the Professor. Mr. Balding was, for some years, the 
missionary at Baddegama, w^hich is the centre of work in the 
south-west of the Island, Dodanduwa being an out-station 
from it. 

In the Central Districts of Ceylon are carried on two extensive J^^^Hiii 
evangehstic missions which bear the names of the Singhalese 
Itinerancy and the Tamil Coolie Mission. They occupy, roughly- 
speaking, the same area, seeking to reach the tw^o sections of the 
population. The Singhalese of this hilly country are called Kandyans. 
Kandyans, and are quite different from the Singhalese of the 
plains. Higgens originally began systematic itineration among 
them, and Ireland Jones and others followed him. For many 
years Garrett was the most conspicuous in the w^ork ; also S. M. 
Simmons, son of J. D. Simmons ; and at Anuradhapura, the famous 
place of ]3uddhist pilgrimage, an honorary lay missionary. Major 
Mathison, laboured for several years. Three divisions of this 
Mission have latterly been superintended by Mr. Shorten, Mr. 
T. S. Johnson, and Mr. Phair, the last named a son of Archdeacon 
Phair of Manitoba. The Tamil Coolie Mission, founded in 1855, Tamil 
under the auspices of the British owners of what were then coffee ^""'^"'''• 
estates (now tea), and largely supported by their contributions, 
aims at the coolies on these plantations, who are Tamils, mostly 



264 



The Ceylon Mission. 



Part II. 
Chap. 25 



Work at 
Jaffna. 



Women's 
Work. 



from South India. The veteran W. E. Eowlands has long had a 
leading part in this work, and still has ; and Mr. Booth and Mr. 
Butterfield also have large districts.* Mr. Finnimore, formerly of 
South India and Mauritius, rejoined the Society in 1909, and is 
now in the Tamil Coolie Mission. Both these evangelistic 
missions have borne fruit in many baptisms year after year. 

Important work among Tamils is also done in the Jaffna 
peninsula, at the north end of the Island. This is another very 
old Mission, dating from 1818. Its schools are particularly 
efficient. St. John's College has been already mentioned. Tamil 
graduates of Calcutta and Madras Universities have done excellent 
work. The English Tamil-speaking missionaries have borne a 
good deal of transference from one part of the field to another, 
taking in turn the charge of the Society's operations at Jaffna, in 
the Central District, and at Colombo : among them Mr. Horsley, 
Mr. Pickford, Mr. Ilsley, Mr. Hanan, and Mr. Butterfield. The 
three first named have retired after from 26 to 30 years' service. 

The Society has given Ceylon its full share of the women who 
have joined during the last twenty-five years. More than 40 have 
been at work during our sixteen-year period for longer or shorter 
times. Five Singhalese workers of 1899 are still on the staff, namely, 
Miss A. Higgens, daughter of the veteran, who has nearly com- 
pleted 30 years' service ; Miss Josolyne and Miss Gedge, 20 years; 
Miss Earp (sent from South Africa by the Association there), and 
Miss S. H. Townsend, 18 years ; and one Tamil worker, daughter 
of the late J. D. Thomas, who was in C.E.Z. ranks nearly 30 
years ago, is now the wife of the Eev. T. S. Johnson. Her 
mother, Mr. Thomas's widow, continued in the Mission after his 
death, and retired in 1909 after 45 years. Among other Singhalese 
workers should be mentioned Miss Denver, who retired in 1911 
after 20 years' service, but still remains in Ceylon and helps as 
she can,t and Miss Leslie Melville, still at work after 15 years ; 
and of the Tamil workers. Miss E. S. Young, who retired after 
20 years. Several other women have rendered excellent service 
for shorter periods. The C.E.Z.M.S. also has nine ladies working 
at Kandy and Gampola. Its Clarence Memorial School for the 
daughters of Kandyan chiefs is one of the most attractive mission 
agencies in Ceylon. It was visited in 1901 by our present King 
and Queen, then Duke and Ducliess of Cornwall and York. 

At Colombo, the capital, and the great port of call for liners of 
the Capital. ^ kinds, the work is typified by the services in the principal 
mission church at Galle Face, opposite the well-known hotel. 



Colombo 



* A picturesque and impressive article by Mr. Butterfield should be noted, 
which appeared in the CM. Ecview of Sept., 1912, entitled "The Shadow of 
the Peak " (i.e. Adam's Peak, in the centre of the Island). In the Reviciu of 
July, 1914, Mr. Butterfield described the Tamil Coolie Mission, and Mr. 
Shorten the Singhalese Itineranc}-. 

t Miss Denyer has lately returned to England, and finally retired,^a real 
loss to the Mission. 



The Ceylon Mlssiox. 265 

They are in four languages, Singhalese, Tamil, Portuguese, and Part 11. 
English, each tongue having its own congregation. The British ^-•' 
residents have always been liberal supporters of the whole Mission, 
both by money gifts and by personal service in the administration 
and the school work. The English-speaking native community 
is also large, and presents an inviting sphere of work. The 
Incumbency of the Church is, therefore, an important post. It 
is usually held by the Secretary of the Mission, and on Mr. 
Higgeus's retirement the Eev. A. E. Dibben succeeded to the 
double office. He had joined the Singhalese division of the 
Mission in 1890, so he has now been a quarter of a century in 
the work. Sometimes, however, as at present, another missionary 
has taken charge of the church ; and, of course, both Singhalese 
and Tamil-speaking men are needed. But the large use of the 
English language has facilitated the holding of " special missions " 
and Conventions, and much blessing has attended the visits for 
such purposes of Mr. Walker of Tinnevelly, Mr. Eddy of Madras, 
and Dr. Mott. In 1907 it was noted that a visit from a missionary 
of the S.P.G. resulted in definite spiritual fruit. 

In 1902 the Bishop of Colombo, Dr. E. S. Copleston, was Two 
transferred to the See of Calcutta as Metropolitan of India. His copieston. 
departure from Ceylon, after an episcopate there of 26 years, 
was universally regretted. Old differences had long since been 
gladly forgotten, and clergy and laity alike, British and Singhalese 
and Tamil, had learned to revere him as a true Father in God. 
Under the constitution adopted in 1886, when disestablishment 
took place, the Church had the right of election of his successor ; 
but the Synod determined to request the Archbishop and three of 
the Bishops in England to choose a Bishop for them. Their 
choice fell on Dr. Copleston's brother, the Eev. E. A. Copleston, 
who w^as already a clergyman in the Island ; and he was conse- 
crated on August 30th, 1903. The new constitution has continued 
to work quite satisfactorily, and the oneness of the Church, com- 
prising diflerent races and different theological colours, is more 
and more recognized. At the Meeting of the Synod in 1912, it The Synod, 
was stated that it comprised 95 clei'gymen, of whom 33 were 
Europeans, four of Dutch descent, and 58 Singhalese and Tamils : 
and that of 179 lay delegates, 27 were Euro;^eans, 24 burghers 
(i.e. of mixed descent from the old Dutch possessors), and 128 of 
the two native races. An object lesson is thus provided of the 
successful working of a Church predominantly but not exclusively 
native. We may w'ell thank God for it, and invoke His best 
blessing on the whole cause of the Gospel in Ceylon. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 
The Mauritius Mission. 

Retrospect of the Mission Linguistic Difficulties — The Bishops and the 
Mission Staff— Gradual Withdrawal. 



Pakt II. 
Chap. 26. 

Island and 
People. 



Bishop 
Koyston. 



Many 
iianguiiaf 




HE Mauritius Mission is the smallest of the Society's 
enterprises. The island is about the size of Herts, 
with a population of 375,000. There are no aborigines, 
and it was first peopled by Erenchmen from the 
neighbouring Island of Bourbon. These, and the 
Negro slaves they acquired before the era of emancipation, are 
Eoman Catholics. But for the sugar plantations coolies in large 
numbers have been imported from India, who have for many 
years largely out-numbered the Creoles ; and not only so, but 
some of those who have remained in the island when their terms 
of service were over have become a very prosperous section of the 
population. 

It is among these coolies that the Society has chiefly worked. 
The Mission was undertaken at the request of the first Anglican 
Bishop, Dr. Ryan, in 1854. Its origin and early story are very 
interesting, and are related in the History of the G.M.S.* It 
prospered greatly for many years, especially during the eighteen 
years' episcopate of Bishop Royston, who had been C.M.S. 
Secretary of Madras, and also temporarily in Salisbury Square, 
and who, after a long life of devoted service, has only been taken 
from us in 1915. j Some thousands of Hindi, Bengali, and Tamil 
coolies were baptized, many of whom went back to India when 
their terms of engagement were over. Hence the figures of 
Native Cliristians ih the returns for any particular year have never 
given any adequate idea of the work done. And that work has 
been accomplished in circumstances of unusual difficulty owing 
to the variety of languages spoken, English, French, the Creole 
patois, vai-ious African dialects, Malagasy, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, 
Telugu, and Chinese. Bishop Royston described a service at the 
consecration of St. Paul's Cliurch at the capital, Port Louis, in 
1864, thus : " The commencing Consecration Service was in 
English ; Morning Prayer, Psalms, &c., in Bengali ; Yenite, 

* Archdeacon Buswell wrote a Jubilee historical sketch in 190G, which 
appeared in the CM. Intell. of Septeuiber that year. 

t See the In Memoriam of him, CM. Review, March, 1915. 



The Mauritius Mission. 267 

Jubilate, and Hymns in Hindustani ; one Ijesson in Tamil and part ii. 
the other in Bengali ; the sermon partly in English, partly in !L- 
French, with a Bengali translation of the greater part ; while the 
elements of the Holy Communion were administered in all these 
languages according to the vernaculars of the recipients." And 
Archdeacon Buswell says that he still, when administering, has to 
look at each communicant in turn to see what language he should 
use. 

Bishop Walsh (late Bishop of Dover) who had followed Bishop 
Eoyston in 1891, had retired shortly before our sixteen-year period 
began, and had been succeeded by Bishop Pym. The latter was 
transferred to Bombay in 1904, and then a well-known and much- 
respected S.P.G. Missionarv in Madagascar was appointed, the Bishop 
Rev. F. A. Gregory, son of the Dean of St. Paul's, who has been Gregory, 
a good friend of the Mission ever since. When the C.M.S. 
Centenary was celebrated, the mission staff comprised Archdeacon c.m.s. 
Buswell, a veteran who had gone to Ceylon in 1862 and been '^^^*'^- 
transferred to Mauritivis in 1866 ; V. W. Harcourt, also a veteran, 
who went to Tinnevelly in 1867 and Mauritius in 1891 ; C. A. 
Blackburn, w^ho had been ordained in the Island as a Chaplain 
and had joined the Mission in 1883 ; the wives of the three ; and 
two single women. Miss Helen Wilkinson and Miss Penley. But 
just as the period opened, on May 1st, 1899, the little band lost one 
of its members, Mrs. Buswell, who, as Miss A. H. C. Wilkinson, 
had gone out in 1896. She was a sister of the Eev. D. H. D. 
Wilkinson, and cousin of Miss Helen Wilkinson just mentioned ; 
both being honorary workers. Five other women were sent out 
in the next three or four years, Misses Gwynn (also honorary, and 
with the experience of having been Hon. Secretary of the Y.W.C.A. 
at Clifton), Heaney (transferred from Ceylon), Bagley, Smyth, and 
North. And a son of Archdeacon Buswell joined as a layman, 
and was afterwards ordained. 

The general direction of the Mission w^as in the hands of Mr. Archdeacon 
Buswell all through our period, and he is still in charge after 53 i^usweii. 
years of missionary service. Mr. Blackburn had a district to 
superintend, and worked faithfully till his retirement in 1910. 
Mr. H. H. Buswell was Diocesan Inspector of elementary schools 
and took part in evangelistic w^ork. Mr. Harcourt had the Boys' 
Orphanage at Plaisance; but he retired in 1907 after 40 years' 
service, and died in January, 1914, as did also Mrs. Harcourt. 

The pastoral work has been arranged in six districts, the Native 
Christians being much scattered among the villages. There have 
generally been three or four " native" clergy to minister to them. 
At the beginning of our period there were four, two Tamil-speaking 
and two Hindi-speaking. The two former, who are still on the 
staff, were John Ernest and lyanar Frank Chorley, converts from 
heathenism, and were sent to India to finish their training in Tinne- 
velly ; and one of the latter, Samuel Susunkar, also a convert from 
lieathenism, was also sent to India for training at St. Paul's 



268 



The Maurii'ius Mission. 



Part II. 

Chap. 'IKt. 



Native 
Christians. 



C.M.S. 

withdraws 

gradually. 



Seychelles 
Islands. 



Divinity College, Allahabad. Mr. Susunkar had the great trial of 
losing his wife and son by the plague in 1899. He was afterwards 
transferred to India to work in the United Provinces, and is now 
in the Meerut district. Two other men have lately been ordained, 
Solomon Toolsy and James Nursimooloo Yerriah. 

In recent years the work has not prospered as it did in earlier 
days. The constant moving to and fro of the Indians between the 
Island and India is one difUculty, and the open immorality of the 
people is another. Archdeacon Bus well describes the field as " a 
bad ward in the great hospital that claims and engages the great 
Physician's care." There used to be an average of 80 or 100 adult 
baptisms yearly, but for several years past the number has been 
from 10 to 20 ; the total in the 15 years being only 264. The 
Archdeacon, however, attributes this to a much greater strictness 
in accepting candidates for baptism. The Christians in 1914 
numbered 1600, which is considerably less than it was 20 years 
ago ; but one cause of this, as already stated, is the ebb-tide, so to 
speak, to India ; and another is that the reduction of the C.M.S. 
grant has removed some from the Society's care. There have 
been many individual conversions of deep interest. 

In 1907, when retrenchments were necessary, it was resolved to 
withdraw gradually from the Island ; and no new workers have 
since been sent. There now remain only the Archdeacon and five 
ladies, Misses Wilkinson, Penley, Gwynn, Bagley, and North. 
Miss Heaney retired, and Miss Smyth was transferred to India. 
The Bishop now commits some of the congregations to the 
Chaplains in the Island ; but Archdeacon Buswell takes the 
services in languages not spoken by them whenever possible. 
The Society's grant was continued for a time, but has since been 
reduced to one half, and the expenditure for 1914 was about £750 
against £1600 in 1899. It is now reduced to £350, and in five 
years is to cease altogether. 

The S.P.G. also has work in Mauritius. It has three mission- 
aries and six native clergymen. Its Native Christians are about as 
many as those of the C.M.S. 

There was formerly an outlying Mission at Mah6 in the Sey- 
chelles Islands, which are in the Diocese of Mauritius, and Arch- 
deacon Buswell has visited those islands to take the chaplain's 
duty in his absence. In 1900 he found there King Prempeh of 
Ashanti, who had been exiled there by the British Government 
after the war in which Prince Henry of Battenburg took the illness 
of which he died ; and the Archdeacon had interviews with 
Prempeh, and set tbe Gospel before him. Two or three years ago 
he was baptized by the then chaplain. Two other African kings, 
who were likewise exiled to the Seychelles in 1901, have also been 
baptized there, namely Mwanga, ex-king of Uganda, and Kaba- 
rega, ex-king of Bunyoro (see p. 86). May we not apply to the 
Diocese of Mauritius Psalm Ixxxvii. 5 — " This and that man was 
born in her '' ? 




CHAPTER XXVII. 
China -. Modern Changes. 

The Position in 1899— Boxer Massacres— Newspaper Opinions China 
Waking up — China and Japan — The Opium Question : John Morley's 
Statement and its Issues -Deaths of the Emperor and Dowager 
Empress — Overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty — President Yuan 
Shih-Kai — British Emergency Deputation at Shanghai — Sir Hiram 
Maxim's Attack on Missions- Chinese Attitude towards Missions — 
The Request for Prayer. 

I HEN the period under review commenced, China was part 11. 

absorhing much of the world's attention. Germany, Chap. 27. 

France, and Russia had secured spheres of influence, china and 

and Great Britain, for fear of exclusion from some of ^'^^ Powers. 

the most important markets of the world, thereupon 
obtained Wei-hai-wei ; all of them by what the C.M.S. Report 
called " the novel and agreeable fiction of lease." At the same 
time the young Emperor, guided by a party of far-seeing states- 
men, had initiated various promising reforms ; but the old Dowager 
Empress, by an audacious coup d'etat, had again installed herself 
as Regent, had rescinded the Emperor's decrees, and had executed 
some of his best counsellors. 

Meanwhile trouble w^as caused in many parts of China by — it is Roman 
grievous to say — the policy of the Roman Catholic missionaries. poUcy."^ 
Their habit of interposing on behalf 6f their people engaged in 
law-suits or charged with offences against the laws, and of getting 
French consular pressure Ijrought to bear on the magistrates, was 
not only inexpedient in itself, but also tempted those who were 
not Roman Catholics at all to pretend that they were in order to 
get similar protection. Then, just at this time, they claimed from 
the Chinese Government certain definite grades of rank and 
privilege. For instance, a bishop was to be equal to a Viceroy of 
a province ; a priest equal to a magistrate, and so on. In order 
to be fair, the Peking authorities offered similar honours and 
rights to Protestant missionaries ; but they, including the Anglican 
Bishops, unanimously refused them. 

The general unrest in the country was sadly illustrated by Boxer 
murders of missionaries. On the last day of the year 1899, an S.P.G. ^^"'■'^®"' 
missionary, Mr. Brooks, was brutally done to death by what was 
stated to be " a seditious society known as the Boxers," but which 



2/0 



China : Modern Changes. 



Part IT. 
Chap. 27. 



Siege of the 
Legations. 



Excesses of 
"Ctois- 
tian" 
Troops. 



Boxer 

Massacres. 



Effect on 
the Journa- 
lists. 



called itself the League of United Patriots ; and it was believed 
that it was they who had been responsible for the murder of two 
German Eoman Catholic priests in 1897, which had led to the 
German occupation of Kiaochow. Presently, in June, 1900, two 
more S.P.G. men, Mr. Norman and Mr. Eobinson, were murdered 
by them ; also the Chancellor of the Japanese Legation, and the 
German Minister himself. Then came the famous siege of the 
Foreign Legations at Peking. In its large enclosed area a consider- 
able number of Europeans, including missionaries, and also many 
Chinese Christians, had taken refuge. For two months they were 
attacked night and day, and when communication ceased with 
the outside world, it was feared in England that all had perished. 
Obituary notices appeared in the newspapers of Sir Claude Mac- 
donald, the British Minister, Sir Robert Hart, and others who 
were supposed to be dead. The relieving force, however, com- 
posed of troops of several European nations, at length arrived on 
August 15th, and rescued them ; but the victory was clouded by 
the excesses committed by some of these troops — not the non- 
Christian Indians under British command, nor the non-Christian 
Japanese, but one or two of the so-called Christian contingents. 
The Times Shanghai Correspondent specially referred to " the 
wanton raiding of harmless people by the Germans," a significant 
sentence now ; and he added the sad words, " As a moral force 
our religion has certainly suffered in Chinese eyes, a natural result 
of the bloodthirsty inhumanities committed by the troops of more 
than one Power." 

Meanwhile terrible events were taking place in some of the 
northern provinces ; particularly in Shansi, where the Governor, 
Yu-hsien, a man already conspicuous for his hatred of foreigners, 
massacred a large body of missionaries on one day. Altogether 
133 Protestant missionaries and 48 children, and 49 Roman 
Catholic missionaries, lost their lives, and many others only 
escaped after terrible perils and privations. The China Inland 
Mission especially suffered, losing 58 missionaries and 20 children. 
All Christendom was aghast. The silver lining to the cloud was 
the faithfulness and courage of the men and women so cruelly 
treated, and still more the steadfastness of the Chinese Christians, 
both Protestant and Roman Catholic, of whom it is believed that, 
" at the lowest computation," 30,000 were barbarously slaughtered, 
facing torture and death fearlessly rather than deny their Lord 
and Saviour. And the result in one respect has been remarkable. 
Prior to that memorable year, it was a commonplace among many 
journalists that there were no Christians in China, or if there were 
a few, they were scoundrels. But since that year newspapers with 
any self-respect have scarcely ever dared to make such a state- 
ment. In fact, our leading papers indignantly repudiated the 
charge, made in some anti-Cbristian quarters, that all the troubles 
had been caused by missionary indiscretion ; and one extract may 
here be given from a letter written by a special correspondent 



China: Modern Changes. 271 

of the Morniiiri Post, who himself visited the scene of the worst part 11. 
massacres in the following year :— ^'^'^i'- -"• 

" Here, on the very spot of martyrdoms still fresh in our memory, I oUheMorn- 
have been enormously im^jressed not only with the splendid bearing of '"!' ^<'*^ 
the missionaries themselves in their ahnost inconceivable sufferings — 
sufferings of which we are still learning through letters brought in during 
the last few days from Shan-Si — but also with the extraordinary evidence 
of courage on the part of the native Christians, who passed through a 
worse ordeal even than their foreign teachers. The foreigners had to die, 
but in several cases the natives might have saved their lives by renounc- 
ing their faith. The best answer to those who scoff at the results of 
missionary endeavours in China is the fact th^it there were martyrs 
among the Chinese Christians in Shan- Si last summer." 

Moreover, as Archdeacon A. E. Moule expressed it, " Native 
Christian servants were no longer vilified as utterly distrusted by 
English ladies from Peking to Singapore, for had they not risked 
and lost tlieir lives to save the lives of their mistresses and their 
children ? " Indeed, the Spectator declared that the only guarantee and of t.ho 
for the safety in China of Europeans, traders, or travellers, would ''>>^^«'^''- 
be the existence of a large body of Chinese Christians. " Ten 
millions of Christian natives in China or India would be for the 
white Christians an effective unpaid guard." 

The Boxer massacres were confined to four of the northern 
provinces, in none of which the C.M.S. was at work. But there Alarms^ 
was little doubt that in Mid-China and Fukien, at least, the Dish-fcts.' 
missionaries would have shared the same fate had it not been for 
the courageous conduct of certain of the Viceroys, who braved 
the wrath of the Empress, and indeed risked their own heads, by 
disobeying her orders, which, as it afterwards turned out, w^ere to 
kill all the missionaries."^ i\t Hangchow the day and hour had 
actually been fixed for the attack on the Foreign Missions, but the 
officials were on the alert, and it never came off. At other places 
there w-as great alarm, and apparently real danger, and most of 
the C.M.S. missionaries were ordered by the Consuls to leave. 
Very solemn services and prayer meetings were held by the 
Christians ; and at Ningpo the Eev, Sing Tsae Sing (now Arch- 
deacon) gave a touching address to the catechists and the College 
students, caUing on them to be faithful and wise stewards. In 
the Chuki district, churches, mission houses, and houses of the 
Christians w^ere burnt down ; but no lives were lost.f 

At home, the C.M.S. joined with other Societies in gatherings Should 
for prayer ; and after the worst was over, set itself to reassure the ^°e°risks in 
many friends who doubted whether women should run such terrible China? 
risks, whatever men might do. A special meeting was held at the 
Queen's Hall on February 28th, 1901, when the speakers were 
seven C.M.S. women missionaries. The gist of their addresses 

* One of the good Viceroys was actually put to death. It was said that he 
had altered the word " kill " in the instructions to " protect." 

t Large parts of the successive numbers of the CM. Tntell. in 1900 and 1901 
were devoted to events in China. Many details will be found there. 



2/2 China .- Modern Changes. 

Part II. may be indicated by the pregnant question with which one of them 
^!fl * conchided her speech, — " Are only men to receive the Gospel, and 
not the women ? " In point of fact, hundreds of women had 
worked for years in China in perfect safety. Indeed, a little 
before, while the distressing news of the massacres was still 
coming, Mrs. Isabella Bishop, at the Newcastle Church Congress, 
declared, on the basis of her experience of Asiatic travel, that " the 
raw material out of which the Holy Ghost fashions the Chinese 
convert, and oft-times the Chinese martyr, was the best stuff in 
x\sia," and that " the service required all our best and ablest men 
and loving women of discretion." * 
Question of The Peace negotiations between the European Powers and 
tion^^*'"^'^' China issued in a protocol on September 6, 1901. The compensa- 
tion required from China was enormous, the only quite moderate 
demands being those of England and Japan, and of the United 
States, which had between them borne the main brunt of the 
lighting. The Tiynes' correspondent contrasted the reasonableness 
in this respect of the Protestant Missions with the immense sums 
paid to the Roman Catholics. It will be remembered that the 
C.M.S. declined all compensation for the Kucheng massacre five 
years before. The indemnity was a cause of great suffering 
among the masses of the people. The mandarins and other 
officials squeezed out of them more than double the amounts 
due, and put the balance in their own pockets. 
The new Reforms of all sorts were now announced, most of them the 

Position, same that the Emperor had previously decreed, but which the 
Dowager Empress had stopped. The best of the Viceroys took up 
the task with great energy, and took leading missionaries into 
Yuan Shiii- council. One of these was Yuan Shih-Kai, the new Governor of 
■^^'- the Province of Chihli, who is now President of the Republic. He 

applied for advice to the Rev. T. Richard, a leading Baptist mission- 
ary, who was Secretary of the Society for the Diffusion of Christian 
and General Knowledge.! But the Peking Court proved incorri- 
gible. Some of the worst Viceroys, who had been conspicuous for 
hostility to foreigners, and to missionaries in particular, received 
new appointments ; and the result was more unrest, fresh risings, 
and additional murders. Two C.I.M. men were killed in Hunan in 
1902, the Governor of the Province being privy to it. In 1905 four 
of the American missionaries were murdered in the southern 
province of Kwangtung, and in 1906 two Englishmen and six 
French Roman Catholics in Kiangsi. There was in fact no hope 

* When the Bev. Lord W. G. Cecil visited China in 1907, he was accom- 
panied by Lady Florence, who knowing the severe criticism at Shanghai clubs 
and on board P. & 0. steamers on the wicked policy of exposing white women 
to death or worse, made it her business to inquire closely into the whole 
matter, including the pitiable condition of Chinese women. The result was 
that her husband wrote warmly of the " heroism " of the women mission- 
aries, and wished "ten thousand useless idle women in England" would 
at least appreciate them. 

t Now the Christian Literature Society for China. 



China .• Modern Changes. 273 

of permanent tranquillity while the old Empress was at the Part ii. 
head of affairs. chap^2-. 

Meanwhile, there wxre two events outside China which were to 
have great influence upon her future. In 1901 the Siberian Railway- 
was completed, stretching from Moscow to Vladivostock and Port 
Arthur, though it was not ready for ordinary traffic until two years 
later. And in 1901 came the War between Russia and Japan, with Japan and 
its wonderful revelation, not merely of the extraordinary skill ofwax.'** 
the Japanese in applying to their own purposes the science and 
mechanics of the West, but, still more, of the spirit of enthusiasm 
and self-sacrificing patriotism glowing in the heart of her people. 

All this while, China was slowly waking up from the long torpor Effect in 
of ages, and the new movements among her people were suddenly 
quickened by the astonishing successes of Japan in that war. On 
the one hand there was the new thought that, after all, the East 
could beat the West. On the other, there was fear and jealousy of 
Japan's gi'eatness. The Chinese had been terribly humiliated by 
the capture of Peking by the allies in 1900, and now they found 
one of those alhes, her own Eastern rival, Japan, overthrowing the 
vast power of Russia. And doing this actually on Chinese ground, 
for the final battle of Mukden was fought over the tombs of the 
ancestors of the reigning Manchu Dynasty. No w^ouder that China china 
was now" persistently asking for the Western influences which had ^*=*'^"g "!'• 
done so much for her brilliant neighbour. Railways, telegraphs, 
post-offices, daily newspapers, were multiplying.* Above all, educa- 
cation became the summam honum. Indeed it always had been in 
Chinese eyes ; but those eyes were now open to the futility of the 
old learning, and, for the new and more useful learning, China must 
look to the West or to Japan. But the new educational arrange- 
ments were grotesquely hopeless. It was easy to abolish the old 
cells and all that they stood for ; easy to turn temples into schools ; 
easy to appoint "professors"; but if the "professors" knew 
nothing of what they were supposed to teach ; if there w^ere no 
books or other appliances ; and if the chief apparent value of the 
new schools was to provide berths for poor relations — ! Still, here 
and there, students were examined in Herbert Spencer, in Free 
Trade and Protection, in the Monroe Doctrine, in the conditions of 
foreign agriculture and commerce, in banking and taxation, in 
Egyptian and Babylonian lore. No wonder the mandarins were 
ordering the Enrydoincdid Britannica and calling for a Chinese 
translation of it ! It must, however, be added that students were 
advised to read the Christian Sacred Books, and to understand the 
diflerence between Romanism and Protestantism. And now came 
in, very efi"ectively, the work of the Society for the Diffusion of 
Christian and General Knowledge of which Dr. Richard was the 

* The progress in the pcast twelve years has been extraordinary. There are 
now 5000 miles of railway open. In 1902 the Post Office dealt with twenty 
million letters, which was regarded as wonderful. But in 1914 there were 
6'J2 millions. 

T 



2/4 



China : Modern Changes. 



Part 11. 
Chap. 27. 



Japan iu 
China. 



China in 
Japan. 



Confucian 
lie viva! . 



Cliinese 
.Mandarins 
in Kngland 



Uprising 

against 

Opium. 



leading spirit, and to which also the C.M.S. had lent its well- 
equipped missionary, the Eev. W. G. Walshe. This Society has 
rendered inestima])le service to education in China. 

The influence of Japan now became great in China. Japanese 
became prominent in Government employment, particularly iu 
military affairs ; and also they went all over the land on trade 
enterprises. This tended rather to supplant than to foster direct 
Western influence. If Japan could outdo the proud European 
nations, could not China do as much or more '? Certainly the 
cause of Christianity was unfavourably affected, for it was argued 
that European dominance in the world was evidently not due to 
European religion ; besides which translations into Chinese of 
European infidel books, supplied from Japan, began to circulate 
widely. But Young China soon perceived that the quickest way to 
rival Japanese education and civihzation was to go to Japan itself, 
and many thousands of keen and ambitious Chinese students 
flocked to Tokyo, some at their own charges and some sent by 
Provincial Authorities. It became important to place Chinese- 
speaking missionaries there, with a view to influencing men sure 
to be prominent by and by in their own country, and the C.M.S. 
Committee directed the Eevs. L. Byrde and W. H. Elwin to pro- 
ceed to Tokyo. We shall see something of what they did there 
in another chapter.* 

Meanwhile the awakening went on. Material progress was 
rapid, but the change in China's ideals was still more significant. 
There seemed little feeling manifested at the destruction l)y 
thousands of the idols when temples were transformed into schools. 
An Imperial edict elevating Confucius to a position of equality 
with Heaven and Earth, the supramundane powers inferior only to 
Shang-ti, the Supreme Euler, indicated no respect to Buddhist or 
Taoist idolatry ; rather the contrary. A movement had already 
begun against the cruel foot-binding custom which had so long 
inflicted frightful suffering on the women. The Chinese Govei'u- 
_ ment sent a band of Special Commissioners round the world to 
examine into and report upon Western civilization. They saw 
much that interested them in England, and among other attentions 
paid to them was a reception at Lambeth Palace. An address 
was presented to them by seventeen Chi'istian Societies w^orking 
in China, including the C.M.S.f 

Above all, an extraordinary uprising took place against the 
opium curse ; and iu September, 1906, an Imperial edict directed 
that within ten years the use of opium must cease throughout 
China, and that during those years the cultivation of the poppy 
was to be steadily reduced. All smoking dens were to be closed 
at once, and all opium-smoking officials must resign office. Anti- 
opium Societies were formed, and eagerly joined ; enthusiastic 
public meetings were held ; bonfires were raised for the destruction 

* See the chapter on Japan, p. 363. 

t See CM. Intdl., May, 1906, pp. 369, 395. 



China: Modern Changes. 275 

of pipes ; villages voluntarily abandoned the practice, and sent part ii. 
for the medical missionaries to treat those ^Yho suffered tortures ^'"'P' "'^- 
through the sudden disuse of the pipe. 

And what was England doing to help China to rid herself of British 
the curse, for the introduction and extension of which England a^l^ut^ 
was so largely responsible ? Up to 1906, nothing ! Archbishop Opium. 
Temple was one of the few leading men who cared anything 
about it. He promoted a memorial to the Prime Minister in 1902, 
which declared that it was " unworthy of a great Christian Power 
to be commercially interested in the supply of opium to China" ; 
and in the same year, only a few weeks before his death, he held 
a meeting on the subject at Lambeth Palace.* But nothing moved 
the Government, and Parliament took no interest in the question. 
It was left to a small band of faithful men to go on praymg. At 
last, as it were in a moment, and quite unexpectedly, the answer 
to those prayers came. On May 30fch, 1906, a resolution was moved House of 
in the House of Commons " that the Indo-Chinese opium trade is awllkes •"* 
morally indefensible," and that the Government be asked to take Volley''* 
steps to bring it to a speedy close. Mr. John (now Lord) ]\Iorley, ' '' '^ "^ 
who had become Secretary of State for India in the new ^linistr}', 
expressed agreement with the Eesolution, and declared that both 
the Home and Indian Governments were prepared to make " some 
sacrifice " for the restriction of the trade. To the thankful surprise 
of many whose hearts were sore with long waiting, and who had 
been for years branded by most of the newspapers as faddists and 
fanatics, the Eesolution was carried unanimously ; and those very 
papers executed a happy volte-face and applauded Mr. Morley's 
declaration. The Government did not lose time in taking practical 
steps. An agreement was made with China to reduce the qriantity Anglo- 
of opium shipped from India gradually; while China's ^(^/?«y/(/t'.s Agreement, 
in suppressing the consumption and the growth of the poppy was 
tested. Many felt that more ought to be done. England had 
forced the drug upon China, and ought to put an end to the trade 
at once at any cost ; but the agreement did, at all events, enable 
China to prove her sinceritv, for she took much more drastic steps AboiiUou 
than had been thought possible, insomuch that by a new agree- rated, 
ment in 1911 England undertook speedier action. f China herself 
pressed for this continually. For instance, in 1909 there was an 
International Conference in Shanghai, at which a leading states- 
man, Tang Kai Sun, delivered a powerful speech on the subject. 
He afterwards came to England, and at a meeting in London he 
again spoke eloquently. :|: Unhappily the very success of the 
Chinese Government in putting down the production of opium at 
home led to the stocks brought from India accumulating at 

* See CM. Intell., Nov., 1902. 

t The position in 1911 was very lucidly explained by Bishop Price of 
Fukien in an article in the CM. Review of May in that year. 

X These two speeches were printed in the C.Ji. Review of Aug., 1909, and 
Feb.. 1910. 



276 



China .• Modern Changes. 



PART II. 

Chap. 27. 



No more 
Indian 
Opium for 
Cliina. 



GrievoiLS 
position at 
Shanghai. 



Deaths of 
young 
Emperor & 
Dowager 
Empress. 



Kew 

Assemblies. 



Shanghai in the charge of merchants anxious to sell. The 
revenues of India had been so elastic that the Indian Government 
was in no way embarrassed by the loss of the opium duty ; and 
therefore England might well have paid the merchants to have 
destroyed the opium, and thus shown a tardy repentance for a 
great national crime. 

This, which might have been done, was not done ; but yet we 
may thank God that at last, on May 7th, 1913, the British 
Government announced that no more opium would be sent to 
China. Mr. Montagu, the Under-Secretary for India, said he 
felt in a proud position to represent a Government which under 
the existing treaty was entitled to add £11,000,000 to the Indian 
revenue by sending the agreed quantity of opium to China in the 
next three years, yet intended to refrain from doing so ; and refer- 
ring to the request of the President for the prayers of Christians, 
he added that this act would prove the real sympathy of England 
for China. Since then, no less than 14 of the 28 provinces have 
earned the right to exclude opium altogether, by having suppressed 
its cultivation within their own areas. But the problem of the 
accumulated stocks still remains ; and, to the disgrace of the 
Foreign Community at Shanghai, the opium dens under their 
control have increased since 1905 from 87 to 563, while in the 
native city they are all closed. 

Meanwhile great political changes have come to pass in China. 
On November 14th and 15th, 1908, within a few hours of each 
other, the nominal and real rulers, the Emperor and the Dowager 
Empress, passed away. The latter, that remarkable woman, had 
really governed the country for 47 years, and her death was 
bound to bring about great changes. The most startling, how- 
ever, did not come at once. But the general movement towards 
modern ways continued. In 1909, Provincial Assembhes elected 
by popular vote were inaugurated ; opium smokers, be it observed, 
having been disfranchised. They discussed the eradication of 
superstition, the abandonment of foot-binding, the prevention of 
disputes between Christians and non-Christians, educational 
measures, and such like practical subjects. The progress of 
Christianity was marked by the return of many Christians as 
members.* In the Fukien Province, the Vice-President, the 
Secretary, and the Chairman of the Executive Committee were 
all Christians. Moreover, the political and social changes, as well 
as the many signs of material progress, were welding tlie nation 
together, and causing the up-growth of a national sentiment. 
With such immense masses of people there was, of course, always 
a widely-spread reactionary spirit. Nevertheless the general 
advance was unmistakable, j 

* The Rev. A. A. Phillips was present at the National Assembly on Nov. 20th, 
1911, and a graphic letter from him appeared in the CM. Review, Feb., 1912. 

t The outlook in China at this time was treated in a series of articles in 
the C.M.S. Gazette by Mr. Baring-Gould. See Nov. and Dec, 1908, Jan. and 
Feb., 1909. 



China: Modern Changes. 277 

But at length, in October,' 1911, came the great Eevolution, part 11. 
which presently put an end to the rule of the Manchu Dynasty, ^'^^p- ^^' 
On February 12th, 1912, the final abdication was signed and the Republic 
Repui)lic proclaimed. The leader, and provisional President, was proclaimed: 
Yuan Shih-Kai, who had saved the lives of Europeans at Peking President, 
in 1900, had succeeded the great Li Hung Chang * as Viceroy of 
Chihli in 1901, but had been dismissed by the young Emperor's 
Regent. The queue, the badge of dependency imposed on the More Re- 
Chinese by the Manchus, was abolished ; the Western calendar °""^" 
was adopted ; trial by jury was instituted ; infant beti'othals, 
female infanticide,! and foot-binding were discarded. Complete 
religious liberty was proclaimed. The Parliament of the Republic 
met in April, 1913. In September China entered the Postal 
Union. Such a Revolution could not be achieved without great 
difficulties. Various revolts have occurred since, and much unrest 
has prevailed throughout the country ; but so far Yuan Shih-Kai 
has overcome all opposition. In October, 1913, he was formally 
elected President of the Republic, and was further recognized 
officially by the European Powers. He immediately dissolved Yuan's 
the Assembly, and in May, 1914 he promulgated an amended ^" o^racy. 
constitution, which practically concentrated all power in his 
hands. It is in fact a strong conservative reaction.! There 
seems to be no doubt that industrial and commercial prosperity 
has increased under Yuan's rule.§ On the other hand, the heavy 
expense of the army, rendered necessary by the insurrections in 
the country (particularly that under the brigand chief " White 
Wolf "), has hindered the carrying out of the government plans 
for promoting education. || 

All these political events have greatly quickened the interest of .T.R.Motfs 
the Christian Church generally in the position and prospects of '^' *' 
Christianity in China ; and some remarkable incidents of our 
period have further fostered that interest. Among these may be 
specially mentioned Mr. (now Dr.) J. R. Mott's visits and the 
memorable gatherings of students organized in connexion with 
them. His first tour in China was in 1896, and he has been three 
times in our period, in 1901, 1907, and 1913. In 1912 the Delegation 
Associated Chamber of Commerce at San Francisco sent a party Itates!"'*^*^ 
of twenty-five business men to China to inquire into the openings 
for extended trade. One-third of the number were indifferent to 
Missions, and one-third definitely hostile. They found themselves 

* A very mterestiog sketch of the career of Li Hung Chang appeared in the 
CM. Bevieiv of Jan., 1915. 

t On female infanticide see an article in the CM. Review of Oct., 1914. 

J Sir John Jordan, British Minister at Peking, spoke warmly of Yuan at 
a dinner in London in Oct., 1913. See CM. Ecvieiv, Dec, 1913, p. 768. So 
did Dr. IMain, see ibid., March, 1914, p. 194. And so did Dr. Morrison, the 
Tillies, Correspondent, see ibid., Sept., 1914, p. 577. 

§ Some particulars were given in the Int. Rev. Miss, of Jan., 1914, p. 13. 

II The acceptance by Yuan of the Imperial throne, lately announced, will 
probably be, if confirmed, a further guarantee of peace and progress. 



278 



China : Modern Changes. 



Part II. 

Chap. 27. 



British 
Delegation . 



obliged to include Missions in their inquiries, and eventually the 
whole twenty-five united to testify in their official report to the 
great and beneficial work done. 

But we must go back a little. In 1907 occurred the visit of 
four Englishmen delegated by the China Missions' Emergency 
Committee, a body formed to watch the opening in the Far East. 
These four were the Eev. Lord W. G. Cecil, Sir Alexander Q. 
Simpson of Edinburgh, Professor Macalister of Cambridge, and 
Mr. Francis Fox, — a very strong and influential band. Their 
report was decisive as to both the importance and the value of 
Missions. One passage must be quoted : — 

" During the course of our several visits in China we were profoundly 
impressed with the wonderful openings that seem everywhere to exist 
for the spread of the Gospel, and though at the same time we could not 
but he painfully aware of the appalling mass of ignorance, darkness, and 
misery in which the vast majority of the millions of China are immersed, 
we also could not fail to recognize how wide-spread and far-reaching 
already are the intluences of Christianity. 

" We would also impress on our countrymen that the work has, as a 
whole, been done with great and extraordinary efficiency, and that the 
results have exceeded the laiost sanguine estimate of the most competent 
spectators. We would also warn people that hostile criticism often 
emanates from a real ignoi'ance, on the part of those who live in the 
ports, with regard to the internal conditions of China, and of the diffi- 
culties that Ijeset mission work in the very peculiar circumstances of 
Chinese life." 

Lord William Cecil gave his impressions more fully in his 
brilliant letters to the Times,'" and in his admirable book, Ohaiujiii^ 
Cldnn, probably the best w-ork on the subject ever published. f 

It was a happy thing that the visit of these gentlemen coin- 
conference ^i^^^d with the great Conference of Missionaries at Shanghai 
" in April and May, 1907, which deeply impressed them. This 
Conference was attended by some 600 missionaries from all parts 
of China, and an equal number of friends and visitors. ;{: High 
Chinese officials welcomed the gathering, and just then the excellent 
Viceroy Chang Chili Tung gave orders that the New Testament 
was to be taught along with the Chinese classics to the 40 millions 
of people under his administration. It was noteworthy that this 
Conference was held exactly one hundred years after the sailing of 
the first Protestant missionary for China, Eobert Morrison, but it 
must not be inferred that the Missions had been going on all 
through the century. Morrison himself could only be at Canton 
as an agent of the East India Company, and his great work was 
the first Chinese version of the Bible. Open missionary w^ork 
was not possible until 1842, after the Opium War. After 65 years, 

* The Times, Sept. 7, 14, 21, 28, 1907. 

t This book was reviewed at length, with extracts, iu the CM. Beviciu of 
Sept., 1910. 

X An interesting account of the Conference, by Bishop Price, appeared in 
the CM. Beviciv of Aug., 1907. 



Shanghai 



'onference, 
1907. 



A Retro 
Hpect. 



China .• Modern Changes. 279 

therefore, the Conference was able to report that there were ^j^'^'^"* 
170,000 full members of the various Protestant Mission Churches, !£l 
representing a community of half-a-million. Certain discussions 
will be referred to in the next chapter. 

But nothing could dispel the ignorance or allay the malignity of Hiram _ 
hostile anti-Christian critics. In 1910 a violent attack on Missions ^ttack.^ 
was made in a Eationalist Press publication by Sir Hiram Maxim, 
who affirmed that missionaries had done " an infinite amount of 
harm in China without making a single convert," and that they 
were " and always had been, the greatest liars on the face of the 
earth," and presently he reiterated his charges in the Mornintj 
Post. Of course adequate answers were quickly forthcoming. indepfin-_^ 
Sir W. Caine Hillier, K.C.M.G., Adviser to the Chinese Govern- monieshr 
ment, who had spent 40 years in the Far East, said, " There '"''P'y- 
never was a more friendly feehng in China towards missionaries 
than now, and it is richly deserved." He added, " There is no 
garbling of statistics, the Missionary Societies publish honest 
statements of fact " ; and, " I know scores of Chinese whom I 
believe to be sincere Christians." Strong testimonies appeared in 
the Shanghai Alprcurij. Dr. Morrison, the well-known T imps' Cor- 
respondent at Peking, said at a meeting of the Authors' Club that 
" the more he saw the missionary work in China the more he 
admired it," and he praised in the warmest terms the " hundreds 
of high-minded English gentlemen whose word was their bond, 
living simple and pure lives, absolutely trusted, working solely for 
the good of the people, undiscouraged by failure, manly and 
courageous." * 

The good feeling of the more intelligent Chinese towards ^^'^Jl^p^g,;,,^ 
Christians and Christian Missions has been illustrated over and towanis 
over again in recent years. At one time, though multitudes of the 1^^,^^™^^ 
poorer people loved and trusted the missionaries, the upper class 
was hostile ; but this is not so now. For example, when the 
Literary Chancellor in 1910 wrote to America for teachers to be 
sent for the new schools and colleges, he specially asked for 
members of the Y.M.C.A. Medical missionaries are, naturally, 
looked upon with special favour, but all who will help in educa- 
tional progress have a hearty welcome. The efforts of Christian 
men to help forward the new Universities, and to establish 
Universities on Christian lines themselves, are highly appreciated. 
Such efforts have been made at Nanking, at Chentu, in Shantung, 
and elsewhere ; and also at Hong Kong. Well-known English 
books have been translated, even fiction, for instance, Robinson 
Crusoe, Treasure Island, Uncle Tom's Cabin, Ivanhoe, and Sherlock 
Holmes. One Chinese newspaper, the Daily Rqmblic, has been 
printing as its serial story the Pilgrim's Progress. At Shanghai 

* See the whole speech, CM. Revicio, Dec, 1910. In 1912 Dr. Morrison was 
appointed Political Adviser to the President. Dr. Duncan Main wrote, " We 
are delighted: it means much for China." See C.3L Review, 1912, Sept., 
p. 516, and Oct., p. 637. 



28o China: Modern Changes. 

-Part II. there is a publishing house which claims to be " the largest and 
t£l" ■ most up-to-date Press in Asia." Its warehouses cover 64,000 
square feet and it employs 800 men. Its manager (who was 
murdered two years ago) was a Christian ; and no anti-Christian 
book has issued from its press.* It may be added here that in 
1913 the three Bible Societies, British, Scottish, and American, 
circulated more than five million copies of Scriptures in China. 

fienfry and Socially, also, there is a great change. When Bishop and Mrs. 

eiftert*ain Ingham were leaving China after their tour in 1909, the Chinese 

Bishop gentry of Hong Kong entertained them at a banquet, at which, so 
the Bishop was informed, for the first time in the history of the 
Empire, mothers and wives and sisters sat at table in public with 
their sons and husbands and brothers. The account of this dinner 
and the speeches, in the Bishop's charming book. From Japcm to 
Jerusalem, is extremely interesting. t 

More A good deal of unrest and even of rebellion in vai'ious localities 

has, naturally, resulted from such vast political and social changes. 
Even murders of missionaries have occurred here and there. In 
1911 two Swedes were killed in Shansi, and in 1912 the Eev. 
F. Day, of the S.P.G., lost his life while humanely intervening to 
prevent looting. Many of the mandarins, as might be expected, 
have shown that they are as rapacious as ever. Expenditure on 
the army has hindered the development of education, and many 
government colleges and schools have been closed. J But the 
authorities welcome the efforts of the Missions to do this work ; 
the general missionary outlook has been increasingly hopeful. 
The President, Yuan Shih-Kai, has done his best to make reli- 

Yuan and gious liberty a reality. On February 26th, 1912, when there was 

ciuist'ians!^ a large gathering of Christians at Peking for a Thanksgiving 
Service for the new Eepublic, he sent them a special message 
affirming that Missions " had won golden opinions from all classes 
of society," and trusting that as "members of one great family" 
they would all exert themselves " with one heart and one soul " to 
promote the happiness and prosperity of China. In the following 
year, when the Assembly met, — in which, by the way, sixty of the 
members were Christians, — he sent the now famous telegraphic 

Request for message to all parts of the country requesting the prayers of the 
rayer. Christian Churches in China on April 27th for the Eepublic, the 
President, the Government, and the National Assembly then meet- 
ing. § It is said that the suggestion was originally made by the 
Foreign Secretary, Mr. Lu, who was a Eoman Catholic. Any way 
the day was observed, not in Cliina only, but all over the world ; || 

* Seo China's Millions, Fob., 1914. 

t Sec also CM. Review, March, 1910. 

J On the troubles at this time in Western China, see CM. Reviciv, Feb., 
1912. 

§ On this remarkable event see the important comments of Bishop Cassels 
and Archdeacon A. E. Moule in the CM. Rcvicio, June, 1913. 

II See, for instance, the interesting telegrams that passed between the 
Church of Ireland and President Yuan, in Chap. XLVII. 



China: Modern Changes. 281 

and it is worth noting that the announcement in the British p^t n. 
Parliament that no more opium would be shipped from India was ^'•'• 
made within a fortnight of the day. 

It is true that Yuan has in certain ways revived the cult of 
Confucius, which the Assembly had discouraged; and that he 
liimself, like the Emperors of old, has offered the annual sacrifice 
on the Altar of Heaven. This, no doubt, contradicts any idea that 
he had been personally drawn towards Christianity, but it does 
not imply hostility. Were he really hostile, he would scarcely 
have appointed a Baptist missionary to be tutor to his sons,* or 
allow a niece of his to be baptized. It is probably the spirit of 
Gallio. And as for the people generally, any reaction is not of 
Confucian doctrine, but rather of social and domestic idolatry. 

Quite a large number of the present higher officials in China christians 
are Cbristian men, including some in the army. For instance, ^{^^y"''"'^*' 
when 2000 troops were sent from Peking a little time ago to put 
down insurrection and brigandage, their commander, Major- 
General Feng, was a Christian, and at once identified himself 
with the Church. Some other officers and two doctors with the 
force were also Christians. 

A notable article on the effect of the Eevolution on Eeligion in ^jj^^erman 
China, by Dr. R. Wilhelm, a German missionary in Shantung oifcon-''^ 
Province, appeared in the Internafional Review of Missions of fucianism. 
October, 1913. He pointed out that Confucianism was identified 
with the old regime of despotic government and the divine right 
of kings. Therefore, when the Manchu rulers, after the sup- 
pression of the Boxer movement, were obhged to welcome the 
reforms and developments necessary for China in these changing 
times, they at the same time fostered the cult of Confucius more 
strongly than ever, as the one conservative influence left to them. 
This was not of good omen for the prospects of Chi'istianity, and 
it tended to the Chinese Christians becoming thrown into the 
arms of the revolutionary party. So when the Revolution 
ensued, and the Manchu autocracy was followed by the Re- 
public, Confucianism collapsed as a State religion ; even the 
sacred enclosure of the Altar of Heaven at Peking was secu- 
larized ; and the Confucian books wex'e banished from the lower 
schools, as teaching high doctrine inconsistent with the new 
freedom and the supremacy of the people. Dr. Wilhelm further 
states that the three rehgions, Confucianism, Buddhism, and 
Taoism, thereupon adopted constitutions like a non-established 
Christian Church. A famous Buddhist priest said, " With an 
Empei'or we did not need a Church, but now under the Repubhc 
we must organize one." This was all favourable to the progress 
of Christianity, which seemed to be on the popular side. But then 
we have to bear in mind that the Revolution was practically the 
work of a comparatively small number of enlightened students, 
and that a reaction among the masses was a very likely thing to 
* Two of Yuan's sous have been at Cheltenham College. 



282 



China .• Modern Changes. 



Pakt II. 
Chap. 27. 



Books on 
China. 



happen. And so as a matter of fact it has happened, since Dr. 
Wilhelm wrote. Perhaps Yuan saw that the Assembly was too 
democratic an arrangement for China, and therefore seized more 
autocratically the reigns of government, and in a sense revived 
the cult of Confucius ; and this would naturally mean some set- 
back to the increasing influence of Christianity, if it were not for 
Yuan's personal allegiance to the principles of religious liberty.* 

Books on China are very numerous. It may suffice, for 
ordinary students of Missions, to • mention here Mr. Marshall 
Broomhall's Chinese Empire, Mr. Bitton's Regeneration of New China, 
Mr. Cochrane's Survey and Atlas, Mr. Douglas's Confucianism and 
Taoism, Mr. Eddy's New Era in Asia, Dr. A. H. Smith's Uplift of 
China; also Archdeacon Moule's books mentioned on p. 318. 



Great, 
Cliangps ir 
.1 Chinese 
City. 



Since the above was in type, an article has appeared in the 
CM. Gleaner (Jan., 1916), by the Eev. LI. Lloyd of Foochow, 
which illustrates the external changes of China by noticing some 
in that city : — 

" I well remember when we landed here in 1876, how we were caxTied 
through the narrow, malodorous, crowded tunnels called streets in 
China. Then the shops were lighted with tiny oil lamps, which only 
seemed to make the darkness more profound, and the shopkeepers put 
up their shutters as soon as it became dusk. Now the larger shops are 
a blaze of electric light and full of goods of all sorts from Europe and 
Japan, while the streets, totally dark in the old days, are now also 
lighted by electricity. Then a policeman did not exist. Now we have 
a large police force in khaki, arined with swords and staves, and although 
they are more likely to run away from a disturbance than to quell it, 
they show that China is getting into line with other nations. Then the 
streets reeked of opium fumes, and the opium dens numbered thousands 
in Foochow alone. No7u that smell no longer mmgles with the many 
other odours of a Chinese thoroughfare, and the opium dens are turned 
into ordinary shops. Then one hardly ever saw a respectable Chinese 
girl or woman whose feet were not crushed out of shape by tight 
bandaging. Noiv we meet them everywhere emancipated froin this 
foolish custom. 

" Most prominent of all changes is the altered attitude of the people 
towards foreigners generan3'^ and towards missionaries in particular. 
Formerly we were disliked, and all sorts of evil things were laid to our 
chai'ge ; while the entrance of a missionary into a new neighbourhood 
was often accompanied by real danger to life and property. This hostile 
attitude is now almost entirely a thing of the past. Missionaries find a 
ready welcome everywhere." 



* Yuan's own explanation of the rccmdcsccrcB of Confucianism is interest- 
ing. It appears in a mandate issued by him in Sept., 1914, and will be found 
in a footnote on p. 13 of the Int. licv. ilfis.s. of Jan.. 1915. 




CHAPTEE XXVIII. 

China -. The Christian Missions. 

Griffith John and Hudson Taylor -Non-Roman Christendom in China - 
The Shanghai Conference of 1907 and the Creeds— The China Mission 
Year Book— Literary Work, &c.— Statistics of Missions— Dr. Mott's 
Conferences "China Continuation Committee— Dr. Mott's and Mr. 
Eddy's Evangelistic Meetings— Chinese Christians in England -The 
Anglican Church in China : Conferences ; Desire for Larger Unity. 

|E now turn to the Missions in China. And we must TARTir. 
begin by otfering a passing tribute of thankful re- ^"i^-**- 
membrance to two really great missionaries who Griffith 
have passed away within our period, Griffith -John g^J^^g^^'^ 
and Hudson Taylor. Dr. Griffith John, of the Taylor. 
L.M.S., was one of the noblest men engaged in the work of the 
Lord in China.* Hudson Taylor was unique, for his simple and 
unquestioning faith in the promises of God and his entire dedica- 
tion to the cause of Christ. He was the founder and leader of 
what is now the largest Mission in China, one which did a work 
which like himself was unique, a pioneer work by which all other 
Missions have profited. The China Inland Mission only celebrated 
its Jubilee in 1915, rendering all praise to God for His great and 
rich blessing. 

Non-Eoman Christendom is represented in China by about 120 Piofpstanf, 
different bodies ; not all different denominations, indeed, for the ii/chi'na!' ^ 
number would include the three or four separate Anglican 
Societies, and there are different bodies of Presbyterians, for 
instance, and of Methodists, and so on, and a very large number 
of small free-lance undenominational Missions. So thoughtful 
observers like Dr. Mott urge each group, the Anglican, the 
Presbyterian, &c., to combine its own varieties first, and thus 
greatly reduce the number of distinct bodies. This is what the 
Anglican bishops have been doing ; the Presbyterians have done it 
already ; and others are feeling their way to similar combinations. 
If there must still be separate organized Churches, half-a-dozen 
are better than fifty, leaving out the small bodies. More complete sii.ingiiai 

1 '' Tc? M j_ ji 01 1 • Conference, 

union is much more chrhcult, as was seen at the bliangliai 1907. 
Conference of 1907. Nothing could be more delightful than the 
fellowship manifested there, so long as questions of the Creeds 

* See the review of Dr. Wardlaw Thompson's account of his work (written 
in his lifetime), CM. lievicw, Feb., 1907. He died in 1912. 



284 



China .■ The Christian Missions. 



Part II. 

Chap. 28. 



Question of 
the Creeds. 



Chivn. 
M ission 
Year 
Book. 



Chinese 
women 
Doctors, 



Union 
Agencies. 



were not touched ; but directly they were touched controversy 
arose, inevitably. A resolution was proposed, " That unanimously 
holding the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the 
supreme standard of faith and practice, and holding firmly the 
Catholic faith summarized in the Apostles' Creed and sufficiently 
stated in the Nicene Creed, . . . we gladly recognize ourselves as 
already one body," &g. A most " difficult and anxious " discussion 
ensued. Some objected to the word " Catholic," and to satisfy 
them " Apostolic " was used instead. The Baptists and some 
similar bodies, and the undenominational bands, held out against 
accepting any formal creed at all ; but at last the following words 
were accepted, not without much regret on the part of the 
Anglicans, Presbyterians, and Methodists : " While acknowledging 
the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed as substantially express- 
ing the fundamental doctrines of the Christian faith, the Conference 
does not adopt any Creed as a basis of Church unity." Moreover, 
there was no unanimity as to the ideal being o/ie Churc/i, and 
proposals indicating that as the true aim had to be withdrawn. 
Many people, both at home and abroad, rather prefer separate and 
independent denominations.* It ought, however, to be added that 
in later years — for this was in 1907 — the desfre for unity has 
grown, as will appear presently. 

The China 3fission Year Book for 1914 contains a mass of 
interesting information on the various Missions and on the pro- 
gress of the work. The political history of the year, the religious 
aspect of affairs, the Confucian revival, evangelistic work in 
different provinces, the work among women and children, Church 
organization, social service, work among the blind, medical work, 
Christian literature, union and co-operation, &c., are treated by 
competent writers. Particularly interesting are summary accounts 
of German and Scandinavian Missions in China. Women's work 
is described by four writers, one of them a Chinese lady doctor 
with an English name. Miss Mary Stone, M.D. She mentions 
" Dr. King of Tientsin, Dr. Hu King-eng of Foochow, Dr. Ida 
Kahn of Nauchang, Dr. Hwang of Shanghai, Dr. Li Bi-chu of 
Nguchen, Dr. Tsao of Nanking," all qualified women doctors 
practising among women and children. She also tells of nursing 
work, school work, philanthropic and temperance work, and 
" home-making " — this last not the least important. In the 
chapter on Union and Co-operation, there is a long list of institu- 
tions and other agencies now worked in combination by different 
Societies. Several cases of this kind will appear in the next 
chapter. Among the most interesting are the union of the S.P.G., 
the English Baptists, and the American Presbyterians in working 
the new Christian University in Shantung, each body having its 
own chapel for worship in its own way ; f and the union of the 

* See Bishop Price's article before referred to. Also Archdeacon A. E. 
Moule's, CM. Bcvieio, Jan., 1913. Mr. Byrde (May, 1913) sets forth both sides, 
t See CM. Review, March, 1914, p. 139. 



China: The Christian Missions. 285 

S.P.Ct., the L.M.S., and the American Methodists in a Medical part ii. 
College at Peking. Chap^2s. 

Another interesting chapter is on Chinese Christian Literature. Chinese 
A long list is given of new hooks published during the year by tJhristian 
the Christian Literature Society ; and the North China, Central 
China, West China, South China, Fukien, and Manchuria Eeligious 
Tract Societies, have been actively at work, their circulation in 
the year having exceeded three million copies. The production 
or revision of versions of the Bible, in Wenli, Mandarin, and 
several local vernaculars, has gone on steadily ; and the circula- 
tion of the existing versions. Bibles, Testaments, and portions, by 
the British and Foreign, the American, and the National Scottish 
Societies, was nearly six millions. A large Bible Dictionary is 
nearly completed. There are already Commentaries on all parts 
of the Bible ; two or more on every separate book. The writer 
on this section (Commentaries), the Eev. G. A. Clayton, Wesleyau 
missionary, observes that some of them are not sufficiently " ser- 
monic " ; that is, the Chinese ministers and teachers who use them 
want less of critical discussions and more of homiletic suggestions. 
They would value commentaries like the old-fashioned English 
ones of Barnes and Matthew Henry. Works by Bishop J. C. 
Hoare, the American Bishop Graves, and Dr. DuBose, the 
eminent American divine, he especially commends ; but says that 
" the outstanding commentary is Faber's Mark." 

The Year Book gives full tables of the statistics of the Protestant 
Missions. The notes enable us to see the extraordmary difficulty 
of getting accurate figures, chiefly on account of the large number 
of very small unorganized missionary bands. We must take the -^tatisticsof 
figures as approximately correct. The denominational groups penomfua^ 
are given as follows : — *^"^"' 



Anglican . . 
Baptist . . 
Congregational 
Lutheran . 
Methodist 
Presbyterian . 
China Inland Mn 
]\riscellaneous 



Men. Wives. Other women. Total. 

211 137 272 626 

195 177 126 567 

109 88 65 263 

221 171 107 503 

272 207 267 753 

363 288 252 898 

408 297 371 1076 

162 81 112 500 

1941 1441 1572 5186 



It will be seen that none of the horizontal additions are right 
except the C.I.M. Of course a single Society would present no 
difficulty. 

The " men " in the above table include both " ordained " and 
unordained. The printed tables distinguish, between the two 
classes, but the minor denominations are so uncertain as to what 
is " ordination " that it is safer not to separate them here. 



286 



China .- The Christian Missions. 



Part II. 
Chap. 28. 



and 1)y 
.Societies, 



Statistics of 
Chinese 
Christians 
by Deno - 
mluatiou, 



The number of separate societies or bands is over 120, and it is 
needless to examine the many very small ones. But it is interest- 
ing to note some particulars of the larger organizations. The 
C.I.^I. in the above table has to stand by itself, because it com- 
prises members of all the denominations, and these are not dis- 
tinguished. In Szechwan Province, for instance, there is a large 
C.I.M. staff of members of the Church of England under Bishop 
Cassels, but these are evidently not included in the Anglican 
figures. About 280 of its missionaries belong to various small 
affiliated Societies in Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Finland, and 
a further large number are from Canada and Australia. 

The principal British Societies are as follows : — 



C.M.S 

Loudon Miss. Soc. . 
Weslevan Miss. Soc. 
English Presb. Ch. . 
l^aptist Miss. Soc. . 
United Free Ch. Scot. 

s.r.G 

Ch. E. Zenana Miss. 



IMen. 

110 
60 
62 
40 
45 
27 
2S 



Wives. Other women. Total. 



80 
48 
33 
28 
35 
18 
12 



The principal American Societies : — 



Presbyt. Ch. North . 
Meth. Episc. Ch. . . 
Baptist For. Miss. . 
Southern Bapt. Conv 
Prot. Episc. Ch. . . 
Am. Board C.F.M. 
Presb. Ch. South . 
Meth. Ep. Women's Soc. 
Chr. and Miss. Alhance 



145 
91 
57 
57 
63 
49 
52 

27 



107 
80 
59 
52 
43 
40 
44 

19 



The two chief Canadian Societies : — 

Methodist 70 58 

Pi'esbyterian .... 36 36 

Of the Continental Societies the largest is- 
Basel Mission ... 40 28 



165 
23 
16 
32 
11 
17 
13 
48 



101 
58 
35 
41 
40 
42 
26 

119 
31 



33 
24 



355 

126 

111 

100 

91 

62 

53 

48 



353 
229 
151 
150 
149 
131 
122 
119 
77 



161 
96 






3 



It should be observed that if the Women's Society of the 
American Methodist Episcopal Church were added to the Men's 
Society it would make the total for that Church 348, just equal 
to the Presbyterian Church (North). Similarly, for practical 
purposes, the C.E.Z.M.S. figure might be fairly added to the 
C.M.S., making 403. The smaller associations of all sorts, nearly 
one hundred in number, have about 1350 missionaries between 
them. 

In reckoning up the Chinese Christians, the compilers have 
evidently had great trouble, owing to the different methods 
adopted by different bodies. The detailed figures are most 



China .- 7^ he Christian Missions. 287 

perplexing, and the only column that is worth quoting from is 
the one which gives the totals of professing Christians, whether 
haptized or not, hut excludes mere " adherents." These totals 
are thus arranged denominationally : — 

Auglicau 85,641 

Baptist 31,389 

Congregational 28,167 

Lutheran 3.'j,99;'> 

Methodist 8;i,120 

Presbyterian 101,185 

China Inland Mission 35,745 

Miscellaneous 4,967 



Part If. 
Chap. -^8. 



356,209 



Of the individual Societies, the following have the largest and by 



hgures : — 

Am. Meth. Epis. Ch. 
China Inland Mn. 
Am. Presb. Ch. North 
C.M.S 



United Meth. Miss. . 
English Presb. Ch. . 
London Miss. Soc. . 
United Free Ch. Scot. 
Irish Presb. Ch. . . 
Amer. Bapt. South . 



41,223 
35,745 
33,331 
21,621 
21,595 
20,990 
16,037 
15,342 
14,691 
12,225 



Amer. Boai'd . 
Meth. Ep. Ch. South 
Amer. Prot. Ep. Ch. 
Basel Mission . . . 
Amer. Bapt. North . 
Canadian Presb. Ch. 
English Bapt. Mn. . 
Wesleyan Miss. Soc. 
Amer. Presb. South . 
S.P.G 



12,130 

11,789 

11,176 

10,780 

8,200 

7,951 

6,733 

6,480 

3,461 

2,585 



The Year Book also gives particulars of the Eoman Catholic Roman 
Missions, gathered from the CkiUndrier Aiiiiuaire for 1914. The ^^*'''*i""=*- 
most important are those of the Missions Etrangeres of Paris, 
the Franciscans, the Lazarists, the Milan Society, the Belgian 
Society, the Spanish Dominicans, and the Jesuits. There are 
50 European hishops and vicars-apostolic, 1423 European priests, 
746 Chinese priests ; 1,531,216 baptized Christians, and 452,695 
catechumens.* 

The Protestant Missions were nearly all represented at Dr. i)r. Motrs 
Mott's Conferences in 1913, held in the course of his great tour fer"uces. 
before referred to. In China they were held at Canton, Shanghai, 
Tsinan, Peking, and Hankow, and then the National Conference 
of Delegates from these local Conferences was held at Shanghai 
iri March. Under Dr. Mott's powerful chairmanship resolutions 
were adopted which cannot be enlarged on here, but which will 
certainly do much to unite the Missions in a closer fellowship, and 
minimize the inevitable disadvantages of denominational divisions. 'pi,g Yii\<i- 
The " Findings " of this Conference are included in an important »"««. 

* In The East and The West of May, 1908, the Kev. F. L. Norris, of the 
S.P.G. , now Bishop in North China, gave a grave account of the " bitterness 
and actual hatred" of the Boman CathoUca towards Anglican missionaries 
and Christians. 



288 



Chixa : The Christian Missions. 



PJlRT II. 

Chap. SiS. 



Spiritual 
Hospitality. 



B.C. aad 

Greek 

Missions, 



Title of 
whole body 
of Chris- 
tians. 

Members of 
the Na- 
tional Con- 
ference. 



Views of 
Members. 



volume prepared by Dr. Mott, and described by Mr. Baylis in the 
CM. Review of March, 1914. The Conference recognized that 
"the movement towards Cliurch unity must be a gradual evolu- 
tion," but they recommended (1) " the uniting of Churches of 
similar ecclesiastical order planted in China by different Missions," 
(2) the organic union of Churches which already enjoy inter- 
communion in any particular area, large or small," (3) " federa- 
tion, local and provincial, of all Churches willing to co-operate in 
the extension of the Kingdom of God." Also, " that spiritual 
hospitality be offered to persons bringing proper certificates from 
the Churches of wliich they are members," " so far as consistent 
with conscientious convictions." The phrase " spiritual hospi- 
tality," as the Kikuyu controversy shows, is understood to 
include admission to the Lord's Table. The generous spirit of the 
Conference is shown by a resolution that missionaries and Chinese 
Christians " should cultivate friendly relations with the Eoman 
Catholic and Greek communions with a view to breaking down 
such prejudices as now exist." And they adopted a " common 
title " for the Christian Churches in China generally, Chung Hua 
Chi Tu Chiao Hui, which is translated " The Christian Church in 
China." 

The membership of the National Conference is worth noting, 
as indicating roughly the proportions of the different Churches, 
Societies, and nationalities engaged in the work. The number 
of members was 117, of whom 34 were Chinese. There were 34 
British, 39 American, three from British Colonies, seven Con- 
tinental, and three whose nationality is not clear ; and possibly 
two or three of the British may be Colonial. Ecclesiastically, 
there were 19 Anglicans, 20 Presbyterians, 21 Methodists, 10 
Baptists, 14 Congregationalists, and the 7 Continental Protestants ; 
while the rest were of smaller denominations or (like the six 
C.I.M.) uncertain. Fourteen members were women, including 
three Chinese ladies, Dr. Mary Stone, Miss F. Y. Tsao, and 
Miss Dora Y\\. The Anglicans included seven C.M.S., three 
S.P.G., eight American Church, and the Bishop of Victoria. 
The other bishops were Price of Fukien, Scott of North China, 
Iliff of Shantung, Huntington and Roots of the American Church. 
The C.M.S. representatives were Bishop Price, the Revs. A. A. 
Phillips and J. R. Stewart, Drs. Bradley and Duncan Main, 
Miss J. C. Clarke, and the Rev. Yli Hyien-ding; of the S.P.G., 
Bishops Scott and Iliff, and the Rev. F. L. Norris, who is also 
now a bishop. The American Church representatives included 
two bishops, five clergymen (three of them Chinese) and one 
deaconess. 

Three interesting articles on these Conferences appeared in the 
TntenKtIional Retuetr of JIis,sio/>s for July, 1913, by Mr. Bondfield, 
the Bible Society's representative in China, Bishop Bashford of 
the American Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Rev. Ch'eng 
Ch'ing-yi of Peking, whose delightful speeches in perfect EngUsh 



Chixa : The Christian Missions. 289 

will be remembered l^y friends who were at Edinburgh. Mr. part ii. 
Bondtield l)ears testimony to the ability and spirit of the Chinese ^'""'" "^' 
members, not only of the National Conference, but of the local 
Conferences and of various committees. " They easily held their 
own " ; and at the same time they evidently realized more than 
they had done the importance of the Missions and the native 
Churches working in close union and harmony. Mr. Ch'eng says, Rev.ch'eng 
" The Conferences helped the Chinese workers to see more clearly Ch'iug-yi. 
tliac they are working w'ith, not for, their missionary friends. All 
are serving one common Lord with one common end in view. . . , 
Christian fellowship must always bear a twofold meaning — the 
one is friendship and the other partnership." That last sentence 
is a pregnant one indeed. Bishop Bashford explains the iufiuence 
of the gathering on questions of comity and co-operation. The 
debates and " Findings " will tend, he says, to " save China 
from that petty ecclesiastical rivalry, leading to the multiplica- 
tion of denominational churches in every town, which has con- 
stituted one of the weaknesses of Protestantism." Mr. Ch'eng 
well says, " The time is passed from the period of the China 
Mission into the period of the China Church, and it will slowly 
but surely pass from the period of the Church in China to that of 
the Church of China." * 

But the chief practical outcome of the Conference was the China Con - 
appointment of a China Continuation Committee of fifty, carefully roiumittee. 
chosen to represent (1) different Provinces, (2) different eccle- 
siastical connexions, (3) different methods of w^ork. The Anglican 
members chosen were Bishop Iliff (S.P.G.) ; Bishop Price, Dr. 
Main and Miss Lambert (C.M.S.) ; Bishop Roots, Dr. Pott, and 
the Revs. Hwang Sui-ch'iang and Hu Lan-t'ing, of the American 
Church. This Committee has already done important work. It 
has appointed special committees, («) on Survey and Statistics, 
(/y) on Theological Education, (c) on Evangelistic Campaigns, 
(</) on Christian Literature, (e) on Uniform Terms, a Union 
Hymn-book, a Book of Prayers, and a China Church Year Book, 
(/) on the Training of Missionaries, — all of which reported to 
an Annual Meeting in May, 1914. Further committees were 
then appointed on Church Union, on Sunday Schools, and on 
Business Efficiency. Bishops Price and Roots are two of the 
chairmen. The Treasurer is Mr. Cheng-Ting Wang, son of a 
C.M.S. pastor at Ningpo, and ex- Vice-Speaker of the Provisional 
Parhament.t 

The Continuation Committee meetings have much enhanced 
tlie admiration of the missionaries for the ability and judgment 
of their Chinese colleagues. " We know now, as never before," 
wrote Dr. J. C. Gibson, the distinguished Presbyterian missionary, 
" that the Chinese Church is richly gifted in its leaders. . . . The 

* In his very interesting article on the Church in the Int. Rev. Miss, of 
July, 1912. 

t See Miss Joynt's notice of him, CM. Rev., Oct., 1914, p. G31. 

U 



290 



China -. The Christian Missions. 



Part ii. 

Chap. 28. 

Dr. Motfs 
Evange- 
listic Worlv 



Cxreat 
gathering 
of Chinese 
Students. 



Conferences have knit together in mutual respect the Chinese and 
the foreign labourers." * 

It must not be supposed that all this external organization is 
the purpose and end of the efforts put forth. Everything is 
subordinated to the one supreme object of proclaiming the Gospel 
Message in China and building up the Church of Christ. Dr. 
Mott is the last man to forget this. He was not content with his 
Conferences in 1913. His great influence has always been witli 
students, and he held also a sei'ies of extraordinary gatherings in 
the Chinese cities, to which crowds of the cream of Young China 
flocked, and heard the claims of Christ put before them with a 
cogency which few can emulate. Many hundreds signed cards 
promising to read the New Testament, and not a few expressed 
their resolve to follow Christ as their Saviour and Lord. Mr. S. 
Eddy was with Dr. Mott at some meetings, and he has continued 
the work since, with results that assure us of the special blessing 
of God upon his efforts. At Foochow over sixty weekly Bible 
classes were started, as well as a social service scheme and a 
sanitary campaign ; and Bishop Price led a campaign to other 
cities in Pukien. At Hangchow the chair on one occasion was 
taken by the Foreign Secretary of the Province. Similar success 
was experienced elsewhere.! And in the interior, several Societies, 
notably the China Inland Mission, report an increased number of 
baptisms. While the Chinese authorities are eagerly seeking the 
co-operation of the Missions in education, the evangelistic work is 
going on with increasing energy and increasing fruits. 

Of Mr. Eddy's later meetings Mr. Pakenham- Walsh of Foochow 
writes as follows in the Fukien Diocesan Magazine : — 

" The President Yuan Shih-Kai received Mr. Eddy, the leading evan- 
gelist, in person, listened to the general plans being made for the 
meetings, and spoke with the Christian teacher of the great moral needs 
of China. The Vice-President invited some of his personal friends in the 
capital and asked the evangelist to address them in his own house. The 
President caused a great pavilion to be erected in the " Forbidden City " 
in the heart of Peking and there on that exclusive spot were held the 
Christian meetings. At Changsha the Governor of Hunan, not long ago 
the most anti-foreign and anti-Christian province in the Empire, ordered 
a meeting place to be prepared near the Confucian temple. At Wuchang 
the Governor built a pavilion in the Heroes' temple, a place entirely for- 
bidden to foreigners only a year before. In Fulvien the Governor of the 
province sent a letter to the magistrates of the twelve p)rincipal cities, 
telling them to provide all that was necessary and to co-operate in 
making the meetings a success, and he also sent to Mr. Eddy a personal 
message of welcome to Foochow. At Nanking the Governor lent the 
tlieatre, and in the company of the nhlitary Governor attended the first 
meeting, and the Christian evangelist drove to the theatre along a three- 
mile road lined with troops, while the wife of the Governor took the 



* Int. Rev. Miss., Jan., 1914, p. 19. Mr. Oldham's surveys of the year, in 
the January numbers, give an admirable sketch of the current history. 
t Sec CM. Bevietv, Aug., 1913; Feb., May, July, 1915. 



CiiixA: The CirkisriAN Missions. 291 

chaii' at another meeting attended by 3000 women, It was the same all Part II. 
through the provinces, and the Chinese Press also lent its valuable assist- t;iiip- -)*• 
ance, so that full reports of the meetings and the main gist of the ' 

Christian addresses were circulated far and wide throughout the land. 

" No wonder then that the meetings were well attended, In Peking 
the Minister of Education gave a half-holiday and the government 
schools were closed, with the result that 4000 students attended the first 
meeting. At Nanking the theatre seating 2500 was filled twice each 
afternoon. At Hong Kong the audience averaged over 4000 a night. At 
Fooehow 8000 business men attended on the first day. In Amoy Mr. 
Eddy was presented with an address of welcome by the officials, the 
gentry and the Chamber of Commerce, and on the opening day more than 
.5000 men assembled to hear the Christian preacher in a mat shed specially 
erected in an open square of the city. The same willingness to listen to 
the Christian evangelist was everywhere manifest, so that in the thirteen 
cities in which meetings were held there was a total attendance of over 
120,000, representing probably more than 50,000 different individuals ; 
some no doubt attended two or three times. Of these it is estimated that 
over 90 per cent, were non-Christians, and most of them cams from 
sections of the community to a great extent unreached by the ordinary 
missionary machinery. For this widening of the Church's influence, for 
tliis readiness to listen, unique in the history of Christian Missions in 
China, may we not humbly and devoutly thank God ? " 

From another account furnished by the Secretary of the 
Y.M.C.A., the following additional and remarkable facts are 
gathered : — 

" At Peking (see above) 4000 students attended the opening meeting. 
On the third night more than 1000 signed the cards expressive of a desire 
to learn more about Christ. At another meeting, 1700 of the gentry and 
business men asked for reserved seats, and 850 of them joined Bible 
classes. At another, specially for inquirers ready to face the question of 
decision for Christ, there were among them an ex-governor, two generals, 
one of Yuan's private secretaries, the director of the National Bank, and 
three prominent officials who had already been baptized. Twelve Chinese 
newspapers published reports of the meetings. 

"At Changsha (Hunan), the President of the leading Government 
College took the chair. Mr. Eddy had come in response to a wire from 
fifteen non-Christian principals of colleges and schools. Three thousand 
students were admitted by ticket, and 1000 signed the cards. At the 
close the Governor's band played, ' God be with you till we meet again.' 
Mr. Eddy also visited the Governor's yamen (office), and addressed his 
staff and the leading ofHcials of the Province. 

" At Wuchang (see above) the pavilion was erected at the expense of 
the Military Governor, who provided tea for the 2000 students attending. 

" At Hangchow, the largest theatre was granted free of charge. While 
2500 students and business men crowded the building, 2000 more waited 
outside for another hour. The Military Governor gave a dinner to 
Mr. Eddy, who gave an address on ' Christ the Hope of CJhina.' The 
young Governor of the Province, a General in the Army, was present, 
and also a Secretary of State, who at a great public meeting avowed his 
decision to become a Christian." 

The Student Vohinteer Movement in China had started, and student 
developed, before these special campaigns took place. It had its Khina?*^ 



292 China .• The Christian Missions. 

PART II. beginning at the Shantung Union College in 1910, with the 

Chap^28. jgfi^ite purpose of influencing young Christian men to enter the 

ministry. Its success in that respect has been remarkable. 

Several hundreds of men are now in the different theological 

colleges. There is a strong Executive Committee, of which 

the American Bishop of Hankow, Dr. Eoots, is a member. 

Naturally the movement is much helped by the energy of the 

Y.M.C.A., which is working in more than thirty of the largest 

cities, and has a membership of over 11,000 young Chinese. 

About one hundred Chinese secretaries are at work in the ditierent 

branches. 

Keswick It must also be mentioned that the Keswick Mission Council 

tious.*^ li^s more than once sent a deputation to China to hold Mission 

services and conventions. Prebendary F. S. Webster went in 

1907. Mr. Walter Sloan has been two or three times. 

Chinese Here it may be conveniently, though parenthetically, mentioned 

fi^E^nghmd. that there is now a magazine published in London, which is the 

organ of the Chinese Christians in England. It is conducted chiefly 

by young men, and two or three women, all Chinese, belonging 

to the Student Movement. It is called, " The East in the West," 

and is printed in English, appearing twice a year, with sixty- four 

pages. Among the contributors to a recent number were Mr. 

K. L. Chau, B.A., Mr. Chau Kwan-lam, B.A., and Mr. M. T. Z. 

Tyan. The motto on the cover is the text, " I am not ashamed 

of the Gospel of Christ," printed in the original Greek.* Is there 

any more unexpected and surprising fruit of the awakening of 

China and the reality of the Christianity that has taken root 

there than this ? 

Mr. Chan's A Speech by Mr. K. L. Chau, the Secretary of the Chinese 

speedi. students' Christian Union, delivered at the Jubilee Meeting of the 

China Inland Mission in June, 1915, illustrates the extraordinary 

clearness and order with which Chinese speakers in English 

arrange what they wish to say. This w^as noticed in Mr. Cheng's 

speeches at Edinburgh, and Mr. Chau's speech presents the 

same feature. He said China had just now four enemies and 

four friends. The four enemies : (1) Eevival of Confucianism, 

(2) Absorption in Pohtical Economy and Science, (3) Putting 

Education above Eeligion and everything else, (4) Enshrining 

Nationalism or Patriotism as the national god. The four friends : 

(1) " Our leaders see the need of Christianity," (2) Era of religious 

freedom, (3) Unifying influence of railways, (4) " China is 

governed by students." But the whole speech should be read.-j- 

The In conclusion, we must look a little more closely at the work of 

chuld^° our own Church in China. Ecclesiastically it has made decided 

China. progress. In 1899 there were five bishoprics, viz., Victoria, 

* See Mr. Lunt's account, CM. lieviav, April, 1914. Au interesting 
account of a gathering of the Chinese Students' Christian Union at Swanwick 
in August, 1915, is given by INIr. \V. H. Elwin in the CM. lieview of November, 

t Printed in China's Millions for July, 1915. 



China: The Christian Missions. 293 

the Colonial bishopric for the British possession of the island of part ii. 
Hong Kong; three other English bishoprics, North China (S.P.G), chap^:28. 
Mid-China and Western China (C.M.S.) ; and one American at 
Shanghai. The five have now become eleven. Three more 
English Sees have been established, Shantung (S.P.G.),Fukien, 
and Kwangsi and Hunan (C.M.S.) ; two American, Han- 
kow and Anking ; and a new bishopric of the Canadian 
Church, Honan. These developments involved a change in the 
bishopric of INIid-China. The English and American Churches 
had provided episcopal supervision for their Missions indepen- 
dently of each other, and " Mid- China " seemed to include the 
area worked by the Americans. It was therefore arranged that 
the English missionary diocese should be for Chekiang Province 
only, the great belt of country watered by the Yangtze being 
regai'ded as the American field. The leading C.M.S. missionaries 
regretted the virtual exclusion of the Society from that important 
area, particularly the Province of Kiangsu, in which Shanghai is 
situated ; but although the C.M.S. Mission had been developed 
to a small extent in Shanghai itself, the /Americans were stronger 
in that city and Province, and they were the natural occupants. 
The large English community at Shanghai, however, w^as to Ensiisii 

• • . . . Churf'h at 

remain under the Bishop of Chekiang, and their church is still shanghai, 
conventionally called the " Cathedral," while the C.M.S. Chinese 
congregation with its pastor retains its connexion with the Society, 
though looking to the American Bishop for episcopal ministrations.* 

The personnel of the episcopate has changed materially. Bishop The 
Cassels of Western China is the only English Bishop who held 
his office before 1899. Bishop Hoare, who had succeeded Bishop 
Burdon in the previous year, was unhappily drowned in 1906, 
as will appear hereafter, and to the vacant diocese of Victoria the 
Archbishop of Canterbury appointed the Eev. G. H. Lander, of 
Liverpool. Bishop G. E. Moule retired from the See of Mid- 
China in 1908, and was succeeded by the Rev. H. J. Molony, 
C.M.S. Missionary in India, as Bishop of Chekiang. To the new 
Sees of Fukien (1906) and Kwangsi and Hunan (1909) two other 
missionaries were appointed, Bishop Price (from Japan), and 
Bishop Banister (from Hong Kong). The Bishopric of Shantung 
was established in 1901, and Bishop Iliff succeeded to it in 1903. 
The American Bishop of Shanghai, Dr. Graves, has held the See 
since 1893. The Bishop of Hankow (1901), Dr. Roots, succeeded to 
it in 1904 ; and Bishop Huntington took the new See of Nanking 
in 1912. To the new Canadian bishopric of Honan (1909) a 
Canadian missionary of the C.M.S., the Rev. W. C. White, was 
consecrated. Lastly the veteran Bishop Scott, who went as an 
S.P.G. missionary to China in 1874, and was consecrated Bishop 
for North China in 1880, has lately retired (1913) after 40 years' 
missionary service, and has been succeeded by the Rev. F. L. Norris, 

* The agreement between the English and American Churches in 'this 
matter was printed in the C.iV/. Review, Oct., 1908. 



294 



China .• The Christian Missions. 



PART II. 

Chap. -2.S. 



Anglican 
statistics. 



iHiiwcopal 
Con- 
ferences. 



Tiio new 
Anglican 
(Uiinese 
Church. 



also an S.P.G. missionary since 1889, who was at Peking during 
the siege in 1900, and published a very interesting narrative of it. 

The Chinese C/n/rchnn/n's Year Booh gives the Anglican figures 
for China as follows : bishops 11 ; foreign clergymen 148 ; other 
foreign workers, 557, including the wives ; Chinese clergymen 99 ; 
other workers 1452 ; baptized Christians 31,323 ; baptisms in 
1913, adults 2102, children 1280 ; hospitals 29, dispensaries 21.-"- 
These figures differ from those before quoted from the General 
Year Book. These no doubt include the C.I.M. Anglicans, which 
the others do not. It should be added here that the new Mission 
of the Church of Canada in Honan, which, being as yet small does 
not get mentioned in the tables given above, comprises Bishop 
White and four other clergymen ; two doctors, a man and a 
woman, and a nurse ; two wives, and two other women. 

The first united Conference of Bishops had been held two years 
l)efore the Centenary, in April, 1897, and was attended by Bishops 
Moule, Scott, Cassels, and Graves, and the then Bishop of Korea. 
Important resolutions were adopted touching Chinese names for the 
Christian religion, the Anglican Communion, and the three Orders 
of the Ministry ; on the Lord's Day ; the Chinese Prayer Book, &c. 
This was the beginning of tentative arrangements for the forma- 
tion of an Anglo-Chinese Church. From time to time the bishops 
have met since, f and in April, 1907, a real step forward was taken. 
A Conference was held at Shanghai, attended by seven bishops, 
and by two clergymen from each diocese, and discussed the 
question of the organization of the Anglican Church in China. 
This meeting was held immediately before the General Missionary 
Conference already referred to, which Conference most of them 
also attended. They also addressed a brotherly letter to all 
Christians. I Then in April, 1909, a more formal Conference of 
the Anglican Communion was held, to which, for the first time, 
Chinese clergymen and laymen were invited. It was attended by 
six English and two American bishops, together with 26 clergy- 
men (12 of them Chinese) and 16 Chinese laymen, delegates from 
the dioceses. They adopted for the Church the name " Chung 
Hua Sheng Kung Hui " ; also a provincial constitution and canons, 
subject to the approval of the mother Churches.*? In April, 1912, 
the new General Synod met, and was attended by 10 bishops, 
39 clergymen (19 Chinese) and 32 laymen (28 Chinese).|| It was 
noted as an interesting fact that of the Chinese members one had 

* The figi.ires in the Year Book for 1915 are 153 foreign clergymen, 573 
other foreign workers, 103 Chinese ordained, and 1G66 unordained ; and 
34,75G baptized Christians. 

t Tlie Resolutions of, Oct., 1899, were printed in the C.]\[. Intcll., March, 
1900. 

X This letter appears in full in a Pan-Anglican Paper by Bishop Graves, see 
note on p. 296. 

§ Archdeacon W. S. Moule described the Conference of 1909 in the CM. 
T'cvicw of Jime in that year. 

II See CM. lieview, July, 1912, p. 386 ; also Bishop Price's account, CM. 
Beview, Oct., 1912. 



China .■ The Christian Missions. 295 

been a Buddhist priest, one a Taoist priest, and one a Mohamme- i'art 11. 
dan. It was reported that the authorities of the Churches of ^'**^-^' 
England and America had approved of the draft Constitution 
suhmitted to them, and it was now finally adopted.* 

At this last Conference another fraternal letter was addressed i>psiros for 
to all Christians in China, announcing the establishment of the u'n^ty. 
new General Synod, and expressing earnest desires for an even 
larger unity.f This larger unity is unquestionably desired by 
intelligent Chinese Christians. They are inclined to resent the 
infliction upon them of our English Western divisions. Bishop 
Eoots, of the x\merican Church, called attention to this in a striking 
letter to the "Edinburgh" Commission on Federation and Union, 
in which he pointed out the grave risk run by the Missions if they 
did not recognize and even foster the desire of the Chinese Chris- 
tians for union. He said : — 

" The alternative to this requirement seems to be that we forfeit our 
position of leadership among the Christian forces of China. ... If the 
missionaries cannot supply this demand for leadership in the practical 
development of Christian unity amongst the Chinese Christians, that 
leadership will undoubtedly arise outside the ranks of the missionaries, 
and perhaps even outside the ranks of the duly authorized ministers of 
the Christian Church in China." J 

In fact, the Chinese Christians realize, as some in England 
and America do not, that the spiritual unity of Christians of 
dilferent communions, rightful and delightful as it is, is insufficient. 
If the world, as our Lord said, is to be brought to believe in Him, 
there should be a visible union which the world can understand. 
If China could set an example of such union, the effect would bo 
felt all round the globe. 

Nowhere is more light thrown on the religious outlook of China 
than in the valuable Fourth Volume of " Edinburgh " Eeports, on 
the Missionary Message in Eolation to non-Christian Eehgions. 
The Commission on that subject sent out an ably-drafted set of 
questions to missionaries and others, and the answers received 
are in this Eeport reviewed and summarized with singular skill 
by Professor Cairns, the Chairman of the Commission ; besides Professor 
which, the " general conclusions " that follow are set forth in Siigtoifin 
a masterly way. " From all quarters," we are told, including China. 
Chinese Christian correspondents, " there comes the testimony 
that the thing which China needs to-day beyond all else is moral 
power." " She has possessed for ages a noble system of morality, 
of which she is justly proud, but the general complaint is that 

* The first meeting of the regular Synod thus formed was held at Shanghai 
in April, 1915. A Board of IMissions was appointed, with a view to the Church 
undertaking definite missionary work ; preliminary steps were taken towards 
the establishment of a Central Theological College ; and plans were initiated 
for an early commencement of a Chinese Episcopate. 

t See Bishop Banister's article, " Can there be One Church for China?" 
written a few years earlier, and printed in the CM. Eeincw, July, 1907. 

X Quoted in Vol. VIII. of the Edinburgh Reports, p. 84. 



296 China .- The Christian Missions. 

Taut II. there is no power to realize it." One conclusion is that two of 
tiiap^28. j.]^Q three great religions — not named, but evidently Buddhism 
• and Taoism — are " practically moribund," " so far as the educated 
classes are concerned." But " the immemorial ancestor worship " 
is as strong a force as ever, and is so " inwoven into the very 
texture of Chinese society " that " for a man to become a Christian 
is well-nigh to become an outlaw." Christianity is not opposed by 
" any very earnest and formidable religious thought," but by " the 
, universal resisting forces of moral laxity and religious indifference, 

reinforced by national pride." Modern science is destroying the 
old superstitions : " for a while there may be the present bizarre 
blend of old and new — spells performed at the launch of ironclads 
to ward off demons, and so forth, — but this can only be transi- 
tional." And " the great danger ahead is that the naturalism and 
agnosticism of the West may find here a congenial soil." Our 
hope can rest on nothing but the power of the whole full Gospel 
of Christ ; and the answers of the missionaries to the questions 
show that while many have learned to modify somewhat the 
"form" in which it is presented, the "substance" is the old 
Message. " The most important and vital element in the Christian 
Gospel," writes one with fifty years' experience, "is that Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, died for our sins." And, as Professor 
Cairns sums up, the Church will conquer to-day exactly as the 
Early Church overcame " that ancient world of dying faiths and 
decadent moralities." 

Note. — The following articles on China, in two leading missionary 
periodicals, should be noted : — 

In the Int. Rev. Miss. : — " The Chinese Church in Relation to its Immediate 
Task," by the Rev. Ch'eng Ch'ing-yi, July, 1912; "The Opportunity and Need 
for the Mission School in China," by Dr. Hawks Pott, Oct., 1912; "The 
Position and Prospects of Confucianism in China," by Dr. P. J. Maclagan, 
April, 1914 ; " The Christian Church in Changing China," by Dr. A. H. Smith, 
Jan., 1915 ; " The Importance of Making Christianity Indigenous," by Mr. 
Chengting T. Wang (formerly a member of Yuan Shih-Kai's Government and 
Vice-President of the National Senate, and now Secretary of the Chinese 
Y.M.C.A.), Jan., 1916. 

In The East and The West : — " The New Life in China," by Dr. A. J. Brown, 
Jan., 1912; "The New China and the New Education," by Leslie Johnston, 
Jan., 1912; "The Responsibility of the Chinese Church towards the New 
China," by the Rev. N. Bitton, Oct., 1912; "The Chung Hua Sheng Kung 
Hui," by the Rev. L. B3'rde, Jan., 1913; "China and Medical Missions," by 
Dr. Aspland, April, 1913 ; " China and the Missions of To-morrow," by the 
Rev. Frank Norris (now Bishop), Jan., 1914 ; " The Chinese Revolution in 
Relation to Mission Work," by Bishop Huntington, April, 1914. 

Also the following Pan-Anglican Papers, printed in Vol. V. of the Reports 
of the Congress of 1908 : — On Education, by Archdeacon Barnett. p. 33 ; on 
Ancestral Worship, by Archdeacon A. E. Moule, p. Ill ; on Training Native 
Workers, by Archdeacon W. S. Moule, p. 207; on the Comity of Missions, by 
Bishop Graves, p. 164 ; and, in the Appendix, on Educational Work, by 
Dr. Hawks Pott [S.D. 2 (o)] ; on the Relation of IMissions to National Customs, 
by Archdeacon A. E. Moule [S. D. 3 (c)], and by Rev. F. L. Norris [S. D. 3 (g)] ; 
on the Comity of Missions, by Bishop Cassels [S. D. 4 (d)], and another by Bishop 
Graves [S. D. 4 (f)]. Bishop Graves's paper gives in full the letter addressed 
hy the bjshops to the Christians of other denominations in China in 1907, 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

G.M.S. MISSIONS: Dioceses of Victoria ,c- Kwangsi 

& Hunan. 

The Staff and the Converts— South China— The Bishops of Victoria- 
Retrospect of the Hong Kong Mission— The F.E.S. Ladies Exten- 
sion of the Work: St, Stephen's College, &c.— Canton— Pakhoi— 
Kwangsi and Hunan : New Diocese. 

E now take up the C.M.S. work in China more in detail, part ii. 
We shall find definite advance and development in the ^^^^- ^^• 




sixteen years. The missionary force has been largely Growth of 
increased. In 1899 it comprised 44 clergymen, 24 the Mission, 
laymen, 43 wives, and 69 other women, total 180. 
For 1915 the figures were 80 clergymen, 35 laymen, 85 wives, and 
115 other women, total 315. These include 26 doctors and 21 
nurses. The increase of the ordained missionaries is especially 
good. Then in 1899 there were 26 Chinese clergymen and 332 
lay teachers, while in 1915 there were 50 clergymen and 960 
lay teachers. 

China holds an exceptionally good place among the C.M.S. 
mission fields for the comparatively small number of deaths and 
retirements. Of the 180 of 1899 no less than 111 were still on the 
list in 1915, an unusual proportion. But this is, no doubt, partly 
due to the fact that China was largely reinforced in the years just 
before the Centenary, so that there have been fewer really old 
veterans. Yet when we come to the Fukien Mission, we shall find 
an almost unique company of veterans there. The losses by death 
in our period have included Bishop and Mrs. Burden, Bishop and 
Mrs. G. E. Moule and one daughter, and Bishop J. C. Hoare ; 
only six other men missionaries, two of them doctors, Horder 
and Squibbs ; and 12 other women, including Mrs. Wolfe, Miss 
Vaughan, and two veterans of the old F.E.S. , Miss Johnstone and 
Miss Eyre." These and others are noticed more particularly in 
subsequent chapters, and also some of the Chinese clergy who 
have died. 

The growth of the Native Christian community also will be And^oMhe 
shown in those chapters, l)ut it may be mentioned here that while commun- 
in 1899 there were 11,227 baptized Christians, the corresponding ity. 
figure for 1914 is 20,194, with 3300 catechumens. The statistical 

* The death of Archdeacon Wolfe, which has occurred since the above was 
in type, is further noticed on p. 306. 



29<S C.J/.S. J//ss/OA'S: Diocese of Victoria. 

Part i(. returns from some parts of tlie field have not always come regu- 

idvP^- . jg_piy^ }3^(; apparently there have been over 14,000 adult baptisms 

in the sixteen years. These figures suggest a large leakage, for it 

is not likely that the deaths did more than balance the infant 

baptisms, which are not here included. 

The C.M.S. Missions are in the following areas : — (1) " South 
China," the Diocese and missionary jurisdiction of Victoria, Hong 
Kong, including the British Colony of Hong Kong and the 
Chinese Provinces of Kwangtung and Yunnan, population 33 
million ; (2) the Provinces, and Diocese, of Kwangsi and Hunan, 
population 28 milhon ; (3) the Province and Diocese of Fukien, 
population 12 miUion ; (4) The Province and Diocese of Che- 
kiang, population 19 million ; (5) the Province of Szechwan, 
which is the Diocese of Western China, population 23 million. 

The figures of population are estimates. It will be understood 
that several other Societies are in all these Provinces, and that 
each of them, as well as the C.M.S. , actually work only in certain 
districts in each case. 

South China Mission (Diocese of Victoeia). 

™oc(^e of South China in 1899 meant (1) the Island of Hong Kong, which 
Hong Kong, politically, at least, is not China at all, but a small British Colony, 
Bishop and (2) the mainland south of 28°, which had been ecclesiastically 
allotted to the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Victoria — so 
named after the capital of Hong Kong. Bishop Burdon, after a 
fourteen years' episcopate and forty-five years altogether in China, 
had retired shortly before the Centenary, and had been succeeded 
by Bishop J. C. Hoare, who had been twenty-three years a C.M.S. 
missionary in Mid-China, and was consecrated in June, 1898. 
Bishop Burdon did not return to England at once, but went to 
Paklioi, to work still among the Chinese people he had learned to 
love. But in 1900 he came home, and he died in 1907. He had 
been a true and untiring missionary, and had been the pioneer of 
several extensions in other parts of China, notably at Peking, now 
the centre of the S.P.G. iMission ; besides which he had done 
important translational work. 
Bishop His successor, Bishop Hoare, actually died a few months before 

him, being drowned (with his students) while crossing from Hong 
Kong to the mainland in a violent typhoon on September 18th, 
1906. His (to human eyes) premature death was a great sorrow. 
He had done splendid service at Trinity College, Ningpo, and his 
short episcopate was full of most energetic work.* The Arch- 
Bisiiop bishop of Canterbury then chose Canon G. H. Lander, of Liver- 
pool, for the vacant bishopric, and he was consecrated on 
St. Peter's Day, 1907.t 

* See further, under the Chekiang Mission. See also the In Memoriam of 
him in the CM. Revieiv, Nov., 1906. 

t Bishop Lander wrote an interesting review of his first three years in 
China, in the CM. Review, Dec, 1910. 



Burdon. 



Lander. 



C.J/.S. Missions: Diocese of Victoria. 299 

The huge area in China proper under the ecclesiastical jurisdic- part 11 
tion of the J3ishop of Victoria had been divided shortly before ^'^■'^ ■ 
Bishop Hoare's death, by the formation of the new bishopric of New Dio- 
Fukien ; and in 1909 it was further reduced by the formation of ^esc 
another new diocese— Kwangsi and Hunan. It still, however, com- 
prises the great Province of Kwangtung, and part of the Province 
of Kwangsi south of the West Eiver, and of other provinces south 
of latitude 28^ but in these latter there was until quite recently no 
Anglican work. 

The " South China Mission" of the C.M.S. originally meant two ^'■[{•;fP<''=t 
missionaries, sometimes only one, on the little Island of Hong Mission. 
Kong. The Society w^as content for many years to concentrate 
its efforts in China on the two Provinces of Chekiang and Fukien. 
When Bishop Burdon was appointed to the See of Victoria in 
1874, he was naturally anxious to extend the work; and two 
advanced movements ensued. The Eev. E. Davys, who joined as 
an independent missionary, established at his own expense several 
tentative stations on the mainland opposite in the Province of 
Kwangtung, and in course of time these were taken over by the 
C.M.S. as out-stations. Also in 1886, at the Bishop's urgent 
request, a medical missionary, Dr. Horder, was sent to Pakhoi, a 
port in the south-west of that Province. 

So when the Centenary came, the work comprised, at Hong Work at^^^^ 
Kong, a Chinese congregation of some 400 • souls, with its own in 1899. 
pastor, a Boarding School for rescued slave girls, an Anglo-Chinese 
Day School for boys, a few elementary schools, a Training Class 
for teachers and evangelists, wath the ordinary evangelistic teach- 
ing and visitation ; also the care of some 200 Christians scattered 
in towns and villages in Kwangtung, and the Hospital at Pakhoi. 
The mission staff comprised six clergymen, three laymen, eight 
wives, and seven other women, many of them still in the pre- 
liminary language-learning period. The Eev. W. Banister was 
Secretary, and teacher of the Training Class ; Mr. Hipwell had 
charge of schools ; the Eev. C. Bennett superintended the main- 
land work (but he retired a few months later) ; Drs. Horder and 
Hill, and the Eev. E. B. Beauchamp, were at Pakhoi ; and the 
Eevs. G. A. Bunbury and A. Iliff * were newcomers. But our figures 
also include the Eev. and Mrs. L. Byrde, who w^ere then reckoned 
in " South China," though about to begin work in what is now the 
new diocese of Kwangsi and Hunan. Of the seven women 
missionaries. Miss Hamper had been out eleven years, and Miss 
Jones and Miss Finney six years ; and the other four were new 
recruits,— worth naming, however, as all four are still at work. 
Misses Bolton, Havers, Bachlor (from Sydney), and Amy Smith 
(from Melbourne, now Mrs. Wicks). Miss Jones also is still in 

* Mr Iliff was a brother of the Bishop of Shantung. He had beenan 
enc'ineer in America, and had been ordained by the Bishop of New Mexico. 
He was afterwards chaplain of the Missions to Seamen at Hong Kong, and 
joined the C.M.S. there. 



.-^oo 



C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Victoria. 



Part ll. 
Chap. 29. 



'I'lip l-'.B.S. 
J^adics. 



New Mis- 
sion at 
Kowloon. 



St. 

Stephen's 

f'hiirch. 



the field, and Mr. and Mrs. Ilipwell (she having been a C.]\I.S. 
worker as Miss K. Power). Mr. Banister, of course, is now the 
Bishop of Kwangsi and Hunan ; Dr. Hill is now the Society's 
Pliysician at home. Dr. Horder, Mr. Beauchamp, Mr. Iliff, and 
Miss Finney are dead. Miss Hamper retired after 17 years' 
service. Mrs. Horder and Mrs. Beauchamp are sisters of Mrs. 
Ost, who was with her husband at Hong Kong in former years ; 
also of the wife of Bishop Molony of Chekiang. They were four 
daughters of the Eev. S. D. Stubbs, all of whom married 
missionaries. 

In 1899, therefore, we count 24 workers. In 1914 we find 70 
(in the two dioceses, which we must take together to make the 
figures right), namely 22 clergymen, 5 laymen, 20 wives, and 23 
other women, and of these 70 workers 12 were in the field in 
1899. This great advance illustrates the energy with which a 
Resolution of the Committee in 1898, to go forward in China, has 
been acted upon, even in times of retrenchment and the keeping 
back of recruits. No less than 68 names were added in the 15 
years to the list of what was regarded as a " small Mission." 

In the Centenary year, the accession to the C.M.S. of the mission- 
aries of the F.E.S. (just then closed as before stated) added four 
experienced women to the Hong Kong staff, and the agencies they 
were superintending. Miss Johnstone, who had gone out so far 
back as 1874, had a Christian Girls' Boarding School, and she con- 
tinued on the staff until her death in 1909. Other work, including 
the training of Bible women, was done by Miss Eyre (1888), who 
also continued until her death in 1912 ; * Miss Baker (1894), who 
retired in 1909 ; and Miss Fletcher (1892), who is still in the field. 
A total of 93 years has thus been given to China by these four 
F.E.S. ladies. The figures, with some of those above, are signifi- 
cant of much patient and faithful service. 

Another development of the Centenary period arose out of the 
cession to Great Britain of a small territory on the mainland, add- 
ing to the city of Kowloon (which was already British) an area 
comprising over 400 villages. Mr. Hipwell first occupied the city 
in 1900, and subsequently it was the scene of the labours of several 
of the women missionaries, notably Miss A. K. Storr, Miss Hollis, 
and two of the Australians, Miss Bachlor and Miss Barber. The 
Victoria Home, Miss Hamper's refuge for rescued girls, was 
moved from Hong Kong to Kowloon. Much good spiritual work 
has been done, both among the inmates of this Home, many of 
whom have been baptized, and in the district generally. 

The Chinese congregation at St. Stephen's Church had been 
gradually built up by Chinese pastors. The Rev. Fong Yat Sau, 

* Archdeacon Barnett wrote of Miss Eyre, "The blow to the work is simply 
terrible. The deepest sympathy has been expressed. The whole Colony is 
grieving .for her loss." Government officials, prominent citizens, and hun- 
dreds of Chinese attended the funeral service. See C.M.S. Gazette, Dec., 
1912, p. 373. 



C.M.S. Jl/iss/oivs: Diocese of Victoria. 301 

who was in charge in 1899, had been a catechist among his part il. 
countrymen in Austraha, where he was known as Matthew A Jet. ^*"^^" "^" 
He was ordained by Bishop Burden in 1883, and proved an earnest 
clergyman. In 1903, owing to advancing years, he resigned and 
moved to Kowloon, and ever since he and his wife have continued 
to shepherd the smaller congregation there without pay. Bishop 
Ingham, after visiting the place in 1910, wrote that he was " one 
of the most trusted men in China," and "does untold good." * His 
successor at St. Stephen's, the Eev. Pok Ts'ing-Shan, has also 
been highly spoken of. Bishop Hoare gave a regular constitution 
to that congregation for its self-government. f 

The educational institutions in Hong Kong have considerably Educa- 
developed in recent years. St. Paul's College, which belongs to !,'°h,',„^"'^^ 
the diocese, is an old institution, having been founded by Bishop kong. 
G. Smith in 1850, the cost being mainly borne by that ardent 
friend of the C.M.S., the late Eev. V. J. Stanton (father of the 
present Divinity Professor at Cambridge). The design was to 
train Chinese evangelists, but there was, for many years, not much 
result in this respect. Bishop Hoare lent part of the buildings to 
the C.M.S. for the Training Class carried on by Mr. Bunbury, and 
this class sent forth a succession of excellent men, but it was 
afterwards moved to Canton. X The Eev. A. D. Stewart, the 
eldest son of E. W. Stewart, who went out in 1905, has latterly 
had an Anglo-Chinese School there mainly for Christian boys.§ 

St. Stephen's College is a higher class school, mainly for non- 
Christians, which was conducted for many years by the Eev. 
E. J. Barnett, formerly of Melbourne, where he was Secretary of 
the C.M.S. Association. He originally went to Hong Kong in 
1898, to study the language with a view to work among the 
Chinese in Australia; but he stayed on, and presently joined the 
Mission. He was appointed Archdeacon by Bishop Lander in 
1909, and has been Secretary of the whole Mission. His excellent 
speeches in England a year or two ago are not forgotten. The 
College has been a great success. Several tutors have come from 
Australia, graduates of the Universities there. Enlarged buildings sir F. 
were opened by the Governor, Sir E. Lugard, in 1909, the cost, amf Uw 
£3000, being all paid by the scholars' parents. The College *-!""•?!?«'. 
prepares youths for the new Hong Kong University inaugurated 
by Sir F. Lugard in 1912, of which King George is Patron. 
There are some 200 students, and there has been more fruit in 

* See also the uotice of bim by the Eev, J. D. Dathan, Naval Cbaplaiu, in 
tbo C.M.a. Gazette, Sept., 1907, p. 274. 

t Three more Chinese were ordained in Dec, 1914, by Bishop Lauder, the 
Revs. Wong Tang Ng, Tsung Yat Sung, and Lei Kau Yaii. 

X See Mr. Bunbury's interesting article on the Training of a Chinese 
Preacher, CM. Eev., April, 1910. 

§ See Mr. Stewart's most encouraging account in the CM. Eev., Jan., 191G. 
Sixteen of the staff are baptized Christians. There is " a positive torrent of 
applications for admission," many boys coming from schools where the Bible 
is not taught. 



302 



C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Victoria. 



Part II. 
Chap. 29, 



Extension 
to Canton. 



How a 

Steamer 
vva.s .saved, 



conversions to Christianity tlian in most colleges in India. Year 
by year boys havo avowed their faith in Christ, and have been 
baptized. Archdeacon Barnett has been succeeded by the Eev. 
W. H. Hewitt, who was transferred a few years ago from West 
Africa. Some years ago the Chinese asked for a similar institu- 
tion for girls, and the St. Stephen's Girls' College is the result, 
which has 100 students, and which has been worked by Miss 
Cardon and Miss Griffin. Some changes have lately been made 
in both tho Boys' and the Girls' Schools, and several excellent 
ladies are engaged in different branches of the educational work. 
One, ]\Iiss Bendelack, sent by the Victoria Association, has had the 
Girls' High School. In connexion with the University the Society 
has also a Hostel for Christian students, called St. John's Hall, now 
conducted by the Rev. C. B. Shann. It should be mentioned that 
the educational institutions are not all the Society's property. Some 
liave local trustees, though the C.M.S. missionaries work them. 

The evangelistic work in the villages of the Kw'angtung Province 
has been developed and extended all through our period. Canton 
was occupied as a centre, but the C.M.S. , recognizing its importance 
in the Missions of other Societies, did not at first propose work in 
the city. But the late Mr. Iliff, Mr. Hipwell, Mr. Blanchett, Mr. 
Jenkins, Miss Jones, Miss Dunk, and several other missionaries 
have itinerated regularly over extensive districts, and particular 
towns have been occupied at different times, so that the whole 
work has become important, and the Committee hope to develop 
it. New premises were obtained in 1914. The area is large and 
the distances are great. Of four pastorates, one is 1300 square 
miles, with 700 towns and villages. The last figures for the whole 
of the Canton District are 1250 baptized Christians and 700 
catechumens. The pastoral care of them has been taken by the 
Revs. Mok Shan-Tsang and Wan Ha-Po. "Pastor Mok " is 
described by Bishop Ingham as a " personality," " full of energy 
to the finger-tips." Miss Dunk's influence was curiously illustrated 
two years ago. A British river steamer she was travelling on was 
boarded by pirates, and the ship's officers owed their lives to her 
knowledge of the language and people, which enabled her to 
dissuade the assailants from violence. The Colonial Government 
presented her with a Bible and a clock in recognition of her 
services. The same steamer has been attacked since and the crew 
murdered — there being no Miss Dunk on board to protect them ! 

Gradually school work has been developed in several places. 
The Training Class for evangelists formerly carried on at St. Paul's 
College became a separate institution. Trinity College, Canton, 
having been moved in 1910. New buildings for it, some miles 
from the city, were erected in virtue of a grant to Bishop Lander 
from the Pan-AngHcan Thankoffering, and opened in 1912 ; and 
Mr. Bunbury continued Principal until his recent retirement. 
The Class has sent forth many good men into the work, and the 
first to be ordained was Wan Ila-Po in 1911. A band of the 



C.J/.S. J/jss/OA'S: DiocESK OF KivANGsi ::sr' Hunan. 303 

students was with Bishop Iloare when he was drowned in 1906, part ii 
and perished with him. It is now part of a Union Theological '^''^-*^- 
College at Canton. 

The work at Pakhoi, far away to the West, has also much Pakhoi. 
extended. The hospital with its 200 beds is under the manage- 
ment of Dr. Bradley, assisted by Drs. Gordon Thompson and 
Baronsfeather. There is also a Leper Asylum. Miss Bolton has 
been chief nurse all through our period. Miss Havers, ]\Iiss 
George, and other ladies have been zealously engaged in general 
mission effort. Mr. Blanchett and Mr. Hipwell have superintended 
the evangelistic and school work. An interesting advance was 
made in 1902, when Mr. Norman Mackenzie, stepson of Arch- 
deacon Barnett, went forward to Limchow City, twenty miles 
inland, which had been visited before, but had always shown great 
hostility to the Christian preacher. In 1905 four American 
missionaries were brutally murdered, and in 1907 the C.M.S. 
mission house was wrecked, and Mr. and Mrs. Wicks, who had 
settled there, narrowly escaped death. They have persevered, 
however, all these years, and there are now over fifty Christians 
in that hostile city. Meanwhile, a further advance is being made Extension 
into the great province of Yunnan, in which enterprise the j^ev. ^"^ """'"'■ 
R. Lankester, son of the Lay Secretary, is to have a part. 

South China is evidently a fruitful field. It is with thankfulness A fmitiui 
that the Society has been able to send more and more labourers "''^'' 
into this part of the great harvest. The 680 baptized Christians 
and 160 catechumens of 1899 have become 2670 and 860. So far 
there are only four Chinese clergymen, but the lay teachers of 
both sexes number 77. It is a significant token of progress that 
in several places ancestral halls have been converted by the people 
into churches. 

Church organization, as is natural in a Mission of such recent chnrcii 
expansion, is not in a forward state, except the local constitution Ijon!"'^''" 
of St. Stephen's, Hong Kong ; but there is already a Chinese 
Synod of the Diocese, preparatory to one which shall combine 
British and Chinese members of the Church. Meanwhile the 
spirit of the Edinburgh Conference has found expression in the 
formation of a Protestant Christian Council for the Province of 
Kwangtung, for conference and co-operation between the different 
Missions working there. This is already illustrated by the new 
Union Theological College. 

The Kwangsi and Hunan Mission. 
Kwangsi and Hunan are two great Provinces north-west and Provinces 
north of Kwangtung. Hunan had always until lately been of all afufHiiilau. 
the Provinces the most hostile to foreigners, and the approaches 
to it by different Missions from its northern border on the 
Yangtze had up to recent years been generally unsuccessful. 
The C.M.S. had made no attempt, as the Province lay far from 
its own mission fields. But Mr. Byrde had been strongly urghig 



PaktIL 

Chap. 29. 

Byrde's 
pioneer 
work. 



Extension 
ill Uiiuaii. 



New 
diocese : 
Bishop 
Banister. 



304 C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Kwangsi ^ Hunan. 

the Society not to neglect altogether the great central districts 
of China, where the chief language of the Empire, Mandarin, was 
spoken ; and when tlie Committee yielded to this appeal, he himself 
hecame pioneer in the new enterprise. In the Centenary year itself 
Mr. and Mrs. Byrde went up the Canton Eiver, 200 miles beyond 
Canton, to Wuchow, just within the Province of Kwangsi ; and 
from thence they proceeded up the Kwei Eiver to Kweilin, a great 
city, the then capital of Kwangsi, but near the border of Hunan ; 
this latter journey occupying 37 days. They had then to live 
for four months in a boat, as no house could be obtained. When 
at last they succeeded in hiring one, they were threatened with 
attack, but a proclamation by the authorities quieted the people, 
and soon many inquirers came forward. Presently Mr. P. J. 
Laird, a young man who had been in the Navy and the London 
Police, was sent to join them ; but after a few months the 
American Consul on the coast ordered the retreat of two or three 
American missionaries who shared the house with them, and they 
all had to leave. Mr. Byrde wTote that the year was one of 
" blighted hopes," but the following year he characterized as of 
" brighter hopes," for they were able to return, and found their 
belongings in the house quite safe under official seal. From that 
time the work went on regularly. The earliest inquirers proved 
unsatisfactory, but others came forward, and the first two converts 
were baptized in 1902. 

Meanwhile the Province of Hunan having become open to 
missionaries, several Missions had entered it from the North ; 
and in 1903 their representatives met in conference at Changsha, 
the capital, to arrange the bounds of respective districts. Mr. 
Byrde attended it, Mr. Laird having already occupied one of the 
chief cities, Yungchow, invited there by the Chinese themselves. 
The district in which the C.M.S. is now working is an extensive 
area on the Eiver Siang, including the three cities of Yungchow, 
Hengchow, Siangtan, the last named having previously been a 
station of the American Episcopal Church. Mr. Byrde then took 
up his residence at Yungchow, and the other two cities were also 
soon occupied, men and women being sent year by year. Among 
these were the Eevs. F. Child, J. Parker, T. C. Ibbotson, J. Holden, 
P. Stevens, J. L. Bacon, T. Goodchild (transferred from Mid 
China), and six women missionaries, three of whom married three 
of tlie men. In 1914 the baptized Christians numbered 280, and 
there were 76 catechumens.* 

In 1909 the two Provinces, Kwangsi and Hunan (at least, tlie 
greater part of them), were formed into a new missionary diocese, 
as before stated, and Archdeacon Banister became the first Bishop. 
He has pushed forward the Church organization, and the first 
Synod of the still quite small Clmstian community has lately been 
held.t Mr. Byrde has been appointed Archdeacon. 

• The Women's Work in this Diocese is now undertaken by the C.E.Z.M.S. 
t See CM. lieview and C.M.S. Gazette, July, 1915, p. 44G. 




CHAPTEE XXX. 

CM. 8. MISSIONS: Diocese of Fukien. 

Diocese of Fukien Retrospect of the Mission Influence of the Stewarts 
The Women Missionaries Colonial Recruits Continuity of the 
Work -Archdeacon Wolfe, Lloyd, &c.— Educational and Medical 
Agencies -Outlying Districts— Baptisms— The Native Christians- 
Union Agencies. 

HE Fukien Mission has its centre at the capital of the p^RTIT 
Province, Eoochow, on the Eiver Min. To the north Chap. 30. 
of that Eiver he the cities and districts of Lienkong, 
Loyuan, Ningteh, and Funing. Farther inland and c.m!s" 
to the north-west are the city and district of Kutien ; Mission, 
farther on still, Kienning and Kienyang ; and, on the border of 
the next Province, Kiangsi, the city of Chungan. South of the 
Min are Futsing (formerly Hok-chiang) and Hinghwa, cities and 
districts. Besides the capital, three of these cities are prefectural, 
and have "fu" after their names, namely, Funing-fu, Kienning-fu, 
and Hinghwa-fu.* All of them, except Chungan, which was only 
occupied in 1913, had been the scenes of the Society's labours for 
some years before our period began. 

When the C.M.S. Centenary took place, Bishop Hoare had been 
in the diocese of Hong Kong nine months. Fukien was then in- 
cluded in his jurisdiction, and he frequently visited the Province, 
and gave much wise counsel, besides confirming many hundreds 
of Chinese candidates. His much-lamented death in 1906 has 
already been noticed. Only a few months before it occurred, the j^ew 
Fiikien Province had been cut off and made a new missionary rtipcet^e : 
diocese ; and the new Bishop, the Eev. H. McC. E. Price, was con- pHce.^ 
secrated in February, 1906. Mr. Price had been fifteen years a 
missionary in Japan, and, before that, two or three years at Sierra 
Leone. 

On May 13th, 1900, a special sermon was preached by Bishop Retrospect 
Hoare in the English Church at Foochow ; and on the next day ^js^on. 
four meetings were held in that city for different classes of people, 

* Several of these names, or the spelling of them, have been altered in 
recent years. Loyuan is the old Lo-Nguong, Ningteh the old Ning-taik, 
Kutien the old Kucheng, Funing the old Hokning, Futsing the old Hokchiang. 
The Province is now spelt Fukien, and the capital Foochow. 



3o6 C.M.S. MISSIONS: Diocese of Fukien. 

Part IT. the language spoken at them being Chinese. The design of these 
c'hap^so. gatherings was to celebrate the Jubilee of the C.M.S. Fukien 
Mission. That Mission was started in 1850, but for eleven years 
no result was to be seen, and for many years after that the work 
was on a small scale. Coming to the year 1875, just half-way 
between the commencement and the Jubilee celebration, how 
many missionaries do w^e find at work? Exactly one, with his 
wife, the Eev. and Mrs. J. E. Wolfe. They had only had three 
or four comrades, and these had died or left. In the next seven 
years six men were sent out- -Stewart, Lloyd, Dr. Taylor, Banister, 
Notable Martin, and Shaw, making seven with Wolfe. When the Jubilee 
Con inm y. ^^ ^^ Mission was celebrated, six out of these seven were still 
at work, the only exception being Stewart, killed in the Kutien 
massacre ; and all those six were still in the mission field two years 
ago : Wolfe after 53 years' service,* Lloyd 38, Taylor 36, Banister 
(now Bishop of Kwangsi and Hunan) 34, Martin 33, and Shaw 32. 
Mr. Shaw has since retired. Moreover, Mrs. Wolfe (who died in 
1913), Mrs. Lloyd, Mrs. Taylor, and Mrs. Banister, went out with 
their husbands, and Mrs. Shaw only a few years after him. 
Except in New Zealand, there has been no continuity like this 
in the history of the Society. 
Wompii Another notable fact. The earliest of the women missionaries to 

aries'.°" whom the Fukien Mission owes so much were sent out by the old 
Female Education Society. Miss Houston was the pioneer more 
than 40 years ago. Her successor, Miss Foster, appealed in 1881 
to the C.M.S. to send out women, but that was not the Society's 
practice in those days. Then she applied to the C.E.Z.M.S., and, 
although its w^ork was then only in India, it was eventually per- 
suaded to respond. Mr. and Mrs. E. W. Stewart were at home in 
1885, and from their Irish friends obtained the first offers of 
service ; and in 1886-8 seven ladies went forth as C.E.Z. mis- 
sionaries. Meanwhile the F.E.S. had sent out Miss Bushell in 
1883, and she was joined by Miss Lambert in 1889 ; and they 
carried on the Girls' Boarding School, while the C.E.Z. women 
visited towns and villages. When the C.M.S. began to engage 
women missionaries in 1887-8 it at first meant to refrain from 
sending any to Fukien, counting that as a C.E.Z. and F.E.S. field; 
but the appeals were so insistent that it yielded in certain 
circumstances, and three women had gone before 1890, namely. 
Miss G oldie. Miss Boileau, and Miss Power. Now the notable 
fact is this, that (1) those three ladies are still at w^ork, Miss 
Power being now Mrs. Hipwell, of the South China Mission ; 

Ari'lideacon * Since the above was in tyi^e, news has been received of the death of 
\Volfe. Archdeacon Wolfe. He was a noble missionary indeed. He sailed for China 

in December 1861, so his full period of service is fifty-four years. He was 
appointed a Vice-President of the Society three or four years ago, the only 
case of a missionary actually in the field (unless a bishop) who has received 
that distinction. See Mr. Martin's In Memoriam of him, CM. Bev., Jan., 
1916 ; also those by Archdeacon Moule, Mr. Lloyd, &c,, in Feb. number. 



C.J/.S. Jf/ssio.vs: Diocese of Fukien. 307 

(2) both Miss Bushell and Miss Lambert, who joined the C.M.S. part ii. 
when the F.B.S. was "wound up," are still at work; (3) two of ^— 
the first C.E.Z. seven are still at work. All these have at least a 
quarter-of-a-century's service to their credit, Miss Bushell, indeed, 
exceeding 30 years. And there are other women who have been 
out at least 20 years, the Misses Mead, Codrington (who was 
wounded in the Kutien massacre), Nisbet, Burroughs, Johnson, 
Bryer, A. B. Cooper, Hook, Lea. Barr, Wedderspoon, all of the 
O.E.Z.M.S. ; and the Misses J. C. and J. E. Clarke, C.M.S. ; and 
besides them, three daughters of Archdeacon Wolfe, who have been 
at work longer than that, though only one has been over 20 years 
on the regular C.M.S. staff. Nor must we forget Mrs. Phillips, 
who went out (as Miss Hankin, C.E.Z.) more than 20 years ago. 

It w^as in 1890 that Mrs. A Hok, the second Chinese lady, and Mrs.AHok. 
the first Chinese Christian lady, to cross the ocean — 'One, too, with 
the " superlative beauty " of feet two inches long — came to this 
country to plead for her people and to beg for women workers. 
After addressing a hundred meetings in all parts of England, she 
went back disappointed, having only secured one recruit."' But 
since then the C.M.S. has sent to the Fukien Province alone 
70 women (besides wives), and the C.E.Z. M.S. many others ; and 
there are now about 100 at work. 

In all this we see the abiding fruits of the unique influence influence 
exercised by Mr. and Mrs. Stewart. Truly they " being dead Mrs.'st^" 
yet speak." They sowed seed in Ireland, to say nothing of Eng- '"'art. 
land, which is bearing a harvest to this day. During the last 
20 years the Church of Ireland has sent into the mission field 
a much larger proportion of its men and women than the Church 
of England ; and so far, at least, as the Fukien contingent is 
concerned, it is in the main a result, direct or indirect, of the life 
and the death of those two saints. Since they were murdered, 
fourteen Irish clergymen and doctors, and eight Irish women 
missionaries, have gone to the C.M.S. Fukien Mission alone, and 
other women have gone out under the C.E.Z. M.S. Most of the 
C.M.S. workers have been connected with the Dublin University 
Fukien Mission, which has much the same relation to the Society 
as the smaller Dublin University Mission to Chota Nagpur has to 
the S.P.G. 

To the Stewarts' influence is also largely due the Australian 
contingent to the Fukien Mission. The first two members of it 
were the sistei's Saunders, who were murdered witli the Stewarts 
in 1895. Then followed their bereaved mother, filled with the ^^J'^i^^^^.g 
holy resolve to avenge their deaths by telling Chinese women of 
the Saviour. She went out in 1897, has never left China again, 
and died there in the year 1915. Very touching have been 
her letters. For years she worked actively among the people, 
but latterly has been able to do little more than be a witness to 

* See p. 211, for a reference to the lady who was the instrument of Mrs. 
A Hok's conversion. 



Canada. 



308 C.J/.S. Mjssions: Diocese oe Fukien. 

Part II. the power of Divine grace. She and her daughters went from 
Chap. 30. ]\Xel bourne, and are reckoned, therefore, to Victoria, though not 
actually sent by the Victoria Association. In fact, they went 
j!i>cniits at their own charges.* Meanwhile the New South Wales Associa- 
'["str la ^^°^^ began in 1895 by sending a great-granddaughter of Samuel . 
Marsdeu, Miss Amy Isabel Oxley; and she was followed by 
Misses Bibb, Newton, and Suttor in 1897, and within the period 
reviewed by Misses Marshall, Kendall, Mullens, and Pownall. 
Victoria has sent Misses Molloy, Searle, Nicholson, Mort, Sears, 
and Bond. Of these fourteen only three have retired. Misses 
Molloy, Suttor, and Sears, after 11, 17, and 7 years' work respec- 
tively. All the rest are still at work, three of them married to 
missionaries. 
and from Canada also has helped the Mission. The Rev. J. R. S. Boyd 

joined it in 1895, and laboured till his retirement in 1911 ; the 
Rev. W. C. White in 1897, becoming Bishop of the new Diocese 
of Honan in Central China in 1909; and Dr. Mabel Hanington, of 
St. John, New Brunswick, in 1903, who is still in the Mission. 
The staff We will uow come to our more usual reckonings touching the 
iIcTw."'"' st^ff ^^ ^^® beginning and end of our 15-year period. In 1899 
there were 16 clergymen, 6 laymen, 13 wives, and 31 other 
women, total 66. In 1914 the figures were 25 clergymen, 9 lay- 
men, 22 wives, and 54 other women, total 110, which includes 
13 doetors, male and female, and 13 nurses (and to these figures 
we ought to add 48 for the C.E.Z. ladies). Of the 66 of 1899, no 
less than 50 are still in the mission field, a most unusual pro- 
portion. They include, besides those already named, Mr. Phillips 
(27 years), Mrs. Phillips (Miss Hankin, C.E.Z.), Mr. and Mrs. 
Woods, Mr. and Mrs. Muller, Mr. and Mrs. Pakenham-Walsh, 
Drs. Mackenzie and Pakenham, Mr. Nightingale, and the Misses 
Andrews, Harrison, Leybourn, Massey, Oatway, Thomas, Burton, 
Forge (2), and Dr. Mabel Poulter. 

In fact, of that sixty-six only two have died, Mrs. Saunders 
(just mentioned), and Mrs. Wolfe herself, who lived until 1913, 
being only one year short of her half-century of married life in the 
mission field. f Of workers sent out by the C.M.S. in our period 
four have died, namely, Mr. J. Blundy, Avho had been a Church 
Army Evangelist, and was 11 years in the Mission ; Misses Mer- 
chant and Hitchcock (10 and 7 years), and Mrs. Hind (5 years). 
Also Dr. Mackenzie had the great trial of losing two wives, both of 
whom had been C.E.Z. missionaries. 
Cfiiitimiity The lengthened and uninterrupted (save by furloughs) careers 
Work. o^ so many of the missionaries give us another exceptional 
feature of this Mission. There have not been nearly so many 
changes as elsewhere from one station to another, which are 
usually caused by deaths and retirements as well as by furloughs. 

* See the touching In Memoriam of Mrs. Saunders, CM. Bevieiv, August, 
1915. 

t And now also Archdeacon Wolfe. Sec p. 306. 



C.M.S. Jlf/ss/ONS: Diocese of Fukiex. 309 

It is manifest that, however inadequate the staff, it has sufficed ^i^^^ n. 
for the requirements of the work more uninterruptedly than in any '— 
other Mission. Only by a careful analysis of the distribution of 
the forces year by year can the extent of this feature be realized. 
It is natural that the w^orkers in the central institutions at Foo- 
chow should always be there; natural, also, that the valuable 
Irish contingent sent by the D.U.F.M. should in the main (though 
not exclusively) be found in the Funing District especially allotted 
to that Mission. But besides this, we find Mr. Shaw and Mr. 
Nightingale always in the Hinghwa District (and Dr. Taylor for 
several years) ; Mr. Boyd (of the Canadian Association) and Mr. 
Woods always at Kutien ; and Mr. Phillips and Dr. Pakenham 
always at Kienning ; while as to the women, the same group of 
Australians, Misses Searle, Newton, and Marshall, and (till_ her 
marriage) Miss Oxley, always in the Lienkong District ; Misses 
Oatway, Andrews, McClelland, Tatchell, Dr. Mabel Poulter, and 
Misses Mort and Suttor (from Australia) always in the Futsing 
District ; Misses Boileau, Nicholson, and Scott, and Dr. Mabel 
Hanington always in the Ningteh District ; the sisters Forge 
always at Hinghwa ; and Misses Eamsay and Coleman always at 
Kienyang. In the case of Hinghwa, this would be accounted for 
by a dialectical difference, and perhaps also at Kienyang ; but 
the general effect — and there are other cases besides these — is 
very significant, and we may well thank God that the numbers 
available have permitted it. It should be added that in some 
districts, as Loyuan, Kutien, and Kienning, the C.M.S. has located 
no women ; the work there being done by the C.E.Z. contingent.* 

Taking a rapid glance at the different sections and departments Archdeacon 
of the Mission, we find three of the oldest veterans at Foochow 
in 1915, one, the senior of all, Archdeacon Wolfe, in his 83rd 
year. Very wonderful is the retrospect of his life. He, too, was 
one of Ireland's gifts to the Mission. He reached China in 1862, 
a few months after the baptism of the first four converts by his 
predecessor, who, dying in the next year left the care of them to 
the newcomer. Few missionaries have had such experiences as 
his fifty-four years brought to him. When his 70th birthday was 
kept in 1903, a presentation was made to him by the Chinese 
Christians, who called him the " Fukien Moses." f Mrs. W'olfe's 
death has been already mentioned. Three daughters are actively 
at work in the Mission. The Eev. LI. Lloyd, who went out with ^^^^^^^^"^^ 
his wife in 1876 with Mr. and Mrs. Stewart, and whose delightful ' 
personahty is familiar to a wide circle of C.M.S. friends at home, 

* The C.M.S. Gazette of Jan., 1915, gives a summary of the women's work 
of both the Societies. Between them there are 30 women's schools and 
classes, one normal school, twelve girls' boarding schools, three schools for 
the blind, one school for boat girls, and one orphanage ; also twenty-two 
hospitals and dispensaries, and fifty-one nurses. 

t In the CM. Review of Jan., 1912, he told his recollections of his fifty 
years' experience in China. 



310 CMS. Missions: Diocese of Fukien. 

vkki II. has been for many years Secretary of the Mission for both C.M.S. 
Ciap^so. ^^^ C.E.Z.M.S. He has also been much engaged in hterary work, 
particularly the revision of the Old Testament in the Wenli 
Version. Then the Eev. J. Martin,* who went out in 1881, has 
had the Theological Class for many years, and from it have been 
supplied pastors for the Chinese congregations scattered over the 
Province, and also lay evangelists. Both he and Mr, Lloyd have 
been Chaplains to the British Community, which has its own 
church in the Foreign Settlement on Nantai Island in the Eiver 
Min ; and both have from time to time had to superintend country 
districts not supplied with missionaries who had passed the language 
examination. Both also have done important literary work. Mr. 
Martin has lately been contributing to the Chinese edition of Dr. 
Hastings' Bible Dictionary. And besides these duties, there are 
numerous committees to be attended, schools to be examined, &c. 
Mr. Muller, the Assistant Secretary, has given material help in 
several of these duties. He and his wife are in China at their own 
charges. Having ascertained that their income would support 
th§m there as well as at home, they gave their lives to the work, 
and have already continued in it eighteen years — an admirable 
example ! 
Educa- Then there are the Educational Institutions. A very complete 

institu- educational ladder, as we may call it, has been organized in this 
tioiis. Mission. Promising boys from the numerous day schools at the 

country stations are taken into the boarding schools of the chief 
stations, and thence in due time to the High School at Foochow. 
Those suited to be teachers go eventually to a Normal Class and 
by and by are sent to carry on small village day schools. From 
among these after a time are chosen the men fitted for spiritual 
and evangehstic work, and these come to the Theological Class at 
Foochow. In the w^ork of the Class (or College as it is sometimes 
called) Chinese clergy have taken part, among them the Eevs. 
Ngoi Kaik-Ki (a " literary man " who was ordained as long ago 
as 1881), and the Eev. Ding Ing-Ong, who has been Vice-Principal 
for many years. It is now a part, or branch, of the " Union " 
Theological College, in which three Missions take a share ; some 
AngUcan teaching being given separately. Mr. Bland, who retired 
in 1912 after IG years' service,! was for several years in charge of 
the High School, and latterly Mr. Hind, of the D.U.F.M., has 
occupied the post. From the D.U.F.M. also came Mr. W. S. 
Pakenham-Walsh, a son of a former Bishop of Ossory, and 
brother of the recently consecrated Bishop of Assam ; wdio took 
charge in succession of the High School, the Theological Class, 
and the group of schools in one compound which together bear the 
title of Trinity CoUege. One of these is St. Mark's Cohege, which 
is Anglo-Chinese, and was established in 1907 in response to the 

* Mr. ]\Iartin is the fatbcr of Lieut. Cyril Martin, wlio lately won the 
D.S.O. and the Victoria Cross. 

t Mr. Bland is now Secretary in Dublin of the Hibernian C.M.S. 



C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Fukien. 311 

new demand in China for English education ; and ifc has now 120 part II. 
hoys, Christians and noii-Christians, mostly paying good fees. ^ ap^30. 

Female education also begins with the village schools, and, for Female 
the best girls, goes on to the boarding schools at the chief stations. Education. 
Of these the highest is the school at Foochow founded by Miss 
Houston as before mentioned, and carried on for many years 
by Misses Bushell and Lambert, assisted latterly by Miss D. 
Stubbs, B.A. It has 250 scholars. In its chapel Bishop Ingham 
found four girl " churchwardens " in white and pink uniforms, from 
12 to 7 years of age. There are also women's schools for adults 
at several stations. Bible-women are trained at the Stewart 
Memorial School opened in 1902, and teachers at the Normal 
School, both at Foochow; the former being under Miss Goldie, and 
the latter under Miss Craig, B.A., a former member of the D.U.F.M. 
There are, further, special Schools for the Blind at Foochow and 
Kutien. The former was started some years ago by Miss Oxley at 
the village of Dengdoi in the Lienkong District, and was moved, 
when she married Dr. Wilkinson, to Foochow, where his work lay. 
It has enlisted much sympathy and help in Australia. Miss M. E. 
Wolfe has been at work in it latterly. Baptisms and confirmations 
of its inmates have been especially interesting. In addition to all 
these institutions the C.E.Z. ladies have an important upper class 
boarding school at Foochow, a large school on Nantai Island, 
and others also at the towns occupied by them. Altogether the 
C.M.S. has 390 schools with 4600 scholars, and the C.E.Z.M.S. 70 
schools with 620 scholars. 

The central institutions are all (or nearly all) on the Island of 
Nantai. But the huge native city, which is four miles off, is also a 
centre of important work — pastoral, evangelistic, and medical. 
There Dr. Wilkinson has his hospital, and there also is the im- Medical 
portant Medical School under Drs. Taylor and Churchill, now (like geh^'i.'" 
the Theological College) an " Union " institution. Older friends of 
the Mission will remember that Dr. Taylor began work of this kind 
more than 30 years ago at Funing, and the Chinese doctors he 
has trained are now at work in many parts of the Province. The 
Reports speak here and there of the good work of Dr. Ngoi 
Ngoing-Li, Dr. Ding, and others. One was ordained in 1889, and 
became the Rev. Wong Hung- Huong. These native doctors, and 
the students, have especially shown their practical Christianity in 
times of plague, when the ordinary Chinese " doctors " will not 
go near the victims. There is now also at Futsing a regular other 
Training School for Chinese nurses. The general medical work is ^^^^^^ 
carried on at many of the stations. There are hospitals at Funing, 
•Futsing, Hinghwa, Ningteh, and Kienning, which have been under 
Drs. Samuel and Mary Synge, Mackenzie, Lawson, Scatliff, 
Walker, Pakenham, and Matthews ; and for women by Dr. Mabel 
Poulter, Dr. Mabel Hanington, and Dr. Eda Curtis (wife of Rev. 
J. Curtis). There are altogether 800 beds, and in 1913 there 
were 8000 in-patients. The C.E.Z.M.S. has also three hospitals^ 



!I2 



C.M.S. MISSIONS: Diocese gf Fukien. 



Part II. 
Chap. 30, 

Outlying 
Districts. 



Failing: 

the 

D.U.F.M. 



Southern 
districts. 



North-west 
Kienning. 



and both Societies have several branch dispensaries. Good work 
is also done at the Leper Settlements. 

Old students of the Fukien Mission find considerable changes in 
the apparent relative importance of the districts in the Reports. 
Lienkong, Loyuan, Ningteh, and Kutien used to be the places 
of which we heard most. Good work is still done in them, but 
tlie main interest is now elsewhere. The northern Funing District 
has the relatively strong D.U.F.M. to care for it, with five doctors 
(two ordained and two women),* three other clergymen, five 
other women, and two pastors. South of the Min are two Missions 
of which we read and hear more — Futsing and Hinghwa. The 
Futsing District has an interesting feature in the visitation of the 
islands off the coast. They, and the coast villages, were for some 
time the scene of diligent evangelistic work by Miss Harrison, 
while the nurses attached to Dr. Mabel Poulter's hospital. Misses 
Leybourn, B. Thomas, and Andrews, carried their medical know- 
ledge and treatment to the homes of the people, and Miss M. E. 
Wolfe gathered the female converts to a Women's School. Here 
Miss Little's Boat Mission on the Min may be mentioned in 
passing, though it properly comes under the heading of Foochow. 
Hinghwa has a distinct dialect, which involves a sepai-ate arrange- 
ment for the training of evangelists and Bible- women. Mr, Shaw's 
work there has been particularly successful in fostering self- 
support. At Sienyu, in this district, the farthest southward 
point of the whole Mission, where Mr. Nightingale has been at 
work throughout our period, there was a Chinese clergyman, the 
Eev. Ting Ching-Seng, now retired in advancing age (he was 
ordained in middle-fife in 1889), who used to write what are 
called "characteristic letters" to the " great Enghsh Committee," 
whom he invited to " cast their lightning glance on his work." 
That " lightning glance " would see in most of these districts the 
various branches of missionary enterprise, pastoral, evangelistic, 
educational, and medical. But in Hinghwa they are limited to 
such work as is necessary to prepare the Church there for inde- 
pendence ; for this district is recognized as in the American 
Methodist sphere, and the C.M.S. is only concerned with the 
native Church planted some years ago. 

^ Particular interest has always attached to Kienning, the " fu " 
city of the north-west, the "Jericho " of the Province, with high 
walls of prejudice and hatred of the " foreign devil." Again and 
again in earlier days did both missionaries and Chinese evangelists 
fail in their efforts to gain access to it. The evangelists on one 
occasion were hung up by their queues and then turned out of the 
city naked. The first who actually spent a night within the city 
were two C.E.Z. ladies, iMiss Newcombe and Miss Johnson, on 
October 31st, 1890. Mr. Phillips and Dr. Rigg soon followed, but 
mot vvith revolting treatment, and the latter narrowly escaped 
death in a pit of unmentionable filth ; and they only succeeded in 

• Two of these, Dr. and Mrs. Synge, have retired since this was written. 



C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Fukiex. 313 

occupying the city in 1894. But in 1899, just as our period part ii. 
l)egins, they were expelled, and one of tlie Cln-istiaus (for there ' ^^^— ^' 
were converts already) was murdered. One of the Chinese 
Christian doctors trained in the Mission, Dr. Ngoi Tek-Ling, got 
in again to the hospital ; and this time the authorities behaved 
well, punished the murderers, and pacified the people. Dr. Rigg's 
retirement in 1901 was a great loss, but he had done thirteen 
years' valuable and specially hard service. His son, the Eev. 
J. E. Rigg, joined the Mission in 1913, but ill-health compelled an 
early return home. Dr. Pakenham of the D.U.F.M., who took his 
place, has continued at Kienning to this day, as also has T\Ir. Phillips. 
The medical mission is now strengthened by Dr. Matthews, of 
Sydney University, sent out by the N.S. Wales CM. Association, 
whose wife is a sister of the late Dr. Pain of Cairo. Some of the 
most experienced C.E.Z. ladies have worked in Kienning or in 
the neighbouring district for many years, notably Miss F. Johnson 
(one of the two who slept in the city that memorable night), Miss 
Bryer, and the late Miss Rodd. A new church, to replace the one 
destroyed in the riot, was built by the mandarins at their own 
cost, and was dedicated by Bishop Hoare in 1901 ; and he con- 
firmed 99 candidates at five centres in the Kienning district. 
Since then the work has gone on with little interruption, and the 
Christians now number 750. The change in Kienning was 
strikingly manifested during the unrest caused by the Revolution 
in 1911, when the British Consul insisted on all missionaries 
leaving the interior stations. The Kienning mandarins and people 
urged them to stay, and indeed wired to the Consul, earnestly 
begging that this might be allowed ; but the order was not with- 
drawn, and had to be obeyed. 

Kienyang, still farther to the north-west, is occupied by the Kienyang. 
Rev. C. W. Reeves, who joined Mr. Phillips as a lay evangelist in 
1902. Mrs. Reeves, who as Miss Brooks was in the Mission six 
years before him, and the other ladies of this station before 
mentioned, find plenty of women's work to do. Another lay 
evangelist, Mr. Blundy, occupied the city of Sung-ki in 1906, 
despite the efforts of a " Society for the Prevention of Missionaries " 
formed by the people ; but his death, already mentioned, has left 
the post vacant. The farthest station of all, Chungan, among the 
famous Bohea Hills, on the border of the Kiangsi Provinc3, was 
started by Miss Harrison and Miss Nettleton. 

What, it will be asked, is the tangible result of all this work ? Baptisms 
The answer is not as entirely satisfactory as in some other leakage, 
mission fields. The increase in the number of baptized Christians 
in the 15 years is from 8230 to just 10,000, which is not large, 
and also reveals considerable leakage, for in 1906 the number was 
12,000. The figures of 1899 also included 11,000 catechumens, 
casual inquirers being counted. This practice was only continued 
for a year or two after that, for in 1903 the number given was 
only 1400. In 1914 it was 1200. In the years 1903-5 the adult 



314 



CMS. Missions: Diocese of Fukien. 



Part II. 
Chap. 30. 



Character 
of Chinese 
Christians, 



P.t'al and 
Noniiual. 



l^aptisms had been unusually numerous, averaging 900 a year, and 
Bishop Hoars confirmed over 2000 candidates ; and one cannot 
help suspecting that the Chinese pastors, who have a large share 
in baptizing converts, may have been too sanguine. The avei'age 
of the past six years has been only 400, which suggests that more 
caution has been exercised ; and meanwhile there must have 
Ijeen many cases of back-sliding, and even of apostasy. Moreover 
the number of Chinese clergy has not increased. It was 18 in 
1904, and it is 18 now, the deaths and retirements having balanced 
the additions ; and the Eeports state that there is little readiness 
on the part of the best young men to enter the service of the 
Church, when they can get much higher pay in secular occupa- 
tions. It is not for us to censure them, seeing that the Church 
at home has suffered in the same way. But when we note that 
there are eleven Church Councils in Fukien, which administer the 
affairs of 67 pastorates having 274 places of worship (in 1910), we 
see the need of more of what we should call parochial clergy. 
Persecution still has to be faced by converts, but there are 
fewer instances of it in recent years. The great political changes, 
however, of the past three years, and the consequent unrest, 
account to a lai^ge extent for the indifference latterly so perceptil)le 
among the people. 

Concerning the general character of the Christians the testi- 
monies of Bishops Hoare and Price are interesting. The former 
wrote in 1904 : — 

" They know nothing of the many controversies which have rent the 
Church of Christ in times gone by. They know nothing of Cah'inism or 
Arminiauism, but yet they will without hesitation ascribe the fact that 
they are members of Christ to the Grace and Calling of God. They know 
nothing of the controversy about justification by faith, but yet they do 
know that they are sinners, that Christ has died to make atonement for 
their sins, and that by Him every one that believeth is justified. And 
they have a very real belief in the power of the Holy Spirit to help them 
in the temptations and trials of their lives. And as to those lives, what 
shall I say ? Not infrequently we have to lament over their falls, but 
more frequently are we permitted to rejoice over their victories." 

And he went on to remark that in some respects they stood on 
a higher level than ourselves. " The drunkard, the opium-smoker, 
or the man that played for money, would be put under Church 
discipHne by the Christian Church without hesitation." Bishop 
Price was less favourable. In 1907 he wrote : " It is a real 
mistake to think of this Mission as advanced in the spiritual 
knowledge and character of the converts, or in its Christian 
worship, or in the efficiency of its pastorate." " The converts," 
he added, " need more careful instruction in Christian truth and 
morals." 

The real fact is this, that, as elsewhere, at home and abroad, 
there is a nucleus of real and spiritual Christians, with a large 
amount of nominal Christianity round about. Apparently the 



CMS. MsssiONS: Diocese of Fukien. 315 

Chinese, thougli not a specially emotional people, would respond Paet ii. 
to the teaching and prayerful influence of fervent and experienced ^ ^^' ^^' 
nmsioners. Much glad testimony was borne a few years ago to 
the manifest blessing vouchsafed to the mission services held by 
a Chinese voluntary lay preacher, Mr. Diong of Loyuan. He 
toured round the stations for some months in 1905-6, and every- 
where there were tokens of genuine revival. And the picked men 
elected by the congregations to represent them in the Provincial 
Church Council appear to have been chosen, not for their education 
or social position, but for their Christian character. " A poor 
ignorant Chinese labourer," wrote Archdeacon Wolfe in 1900, 
" stands up in a large meeting and startles you with a speech full 
of spiritual thoughts worthy of your learned professors at home, 
the difference being that these thoughts are expressed with greater 
simplicity and warmth by these Christian Chinese." 

Bishop Price has pushed forward the Church organization, (iiunrii 
The Constitution for the Diocesan Synod and the District Councils, [''.f,'"'"''*' 
i*cc., was drafted in 1907, and revised and adopted in 1908. The first 
Synod was held in February, 1910, when the tentative constitution 
and canons of the newly formed Church of China as a branch of 
the Anglican Communion were examined and approved. Also 
Church finance was discussed, and a scheme adopted for a Central 
Clergy Sustentation Fund, comprising a Current Expenses Fund 
and an Endowment Fund. 

Meanwhile the principles of wider unity and co-operation have Union 
not been forgotten, and the spirit of " Edinburgh " has been -'^S''"'''^^- 
abundantly manifested. The following practical steps towards 
closer co-operation between the different Christian bodies have 
been taken. (1) The Medical College at Foochow, of which 
Dr. Taylor is the head, is a combined Institution with which the 
American Missions, Congregationalist and Methodist, are asso- 
ciated as well as the C.M.S. ; (2) a Language School for young 
missionaries was begun in 1913, though since temporarily sus- 
pended for lack of men with time to work it ; (3) a Theological 
Class has been found possible, for lectures in such fundamental 
doctrine as is common to orthodox Christians — not to supplant 
the C.M.S. Theological Class, but supplemented by it ; (i) there 
is a Sunday School Union ; (5) and an Educational Association ; 
(6) the Missions combined to arrange the special meetings held by 
Mr. Eddy ; (7) Bible Schools for all Christian workers (like our 
Summer Schools) have been held at some of the chief stations. 
Thus what can be done is done to minimize tlie evils of our 
unhappy divisions. 



CHAPTEE XXXI. 
C.M.S. MISSIONS: Diocese of Ciiekiang. 



Part II. 
Chap. 31. 




Slianghai 
])ast and 
pieseiit. 



Mid-China" and " Chekiang "—Shanghai — Bishop and Archdeacon 
Moule — Trinity College, Ningpo — Chinese Clergy — Hangchow 
Hospital Varied Work. 

HE iicame Chekiang, applied to the Diocese, stands for 
what we used to call Mid China. This now super- 
seded name, however, only dated from 1879, when 
(as before explained) the diocesan arrangements were 
clianged, and the Eev. G. E. Moule was appointed to 
the " Mid-China " Bishopric. The more recent arrangements 
with the American Church have abolished that title, and the 
English episcopal jurisdiction is limited to the Province of 
Chekiang — with a single exception. 

The exception is Shanghai (as before stated). It was at this 
great treaty port that the C.M.S. began its China Mission in 1845. 
But at Ningpo (occupied 1848) the development was more rapid, 
and in time other cities in Chekiang became centres of important 
work. Shanghai remained the business basis ; and a Chinese 
congregation was also gathered, for which the first Chinese clergy- 
man, the Eev. Dzaw Tsang-lae, was ordained in 1863, but he died in 
1867. For two or three years the small work was supervised by 
the American Church missionaries; but in 1882 Mr. Arthur 
Moule, whose location had previously been at Ningpo, went to 
Shanghai as Secretary of the whole Mission, and was appointed 
Archdeacon by his brother. Under him vigorous efforts were 
made to develop the work in and around the great city; but 
extension in it and in the Kiangsu Province is now left to the 
Americans. The congregation has its own pastor, the Eev. Dzing 
Kyi-Doh ; and the important Anglo-Chinese School, which has 
its own trustees, is still conducted by its experienced Principal, 
Mr. W. A. H. Moule. The Eev. C. J. F. Symons has been 
Secretary for many years, and is now assisted by an accountant, 
Mr. J. A. Bailey, who was for some time in a similar capacity in 
East Africa, and whose wife was (as Miss Harvey) the first 
woman missionary at Mombasa. There is also at Shanghai the 
church of the large English mercantile community, designed by 
Sir Gilbert Scott, which serves as a Cathedral for the Bishop of 



C.J/.S. Miss/OiVS: Diocese of Chekiang. 317 

Chekiang, although the Bishop resides at Ningpo, the great bulk part ii. 
of his work being in the Chekiang Province. Shanghai is the ^^^'^' ^^' 
headquarters of the American Church Mission, and the resi- 
dence of one of its bishops ; and the great St. John's College 
is one of the finest missionary institutions in China.* Also 
the China Inland Mission has a great central house there, pro- 
vided for it by the munificence of one of its own members. 
The Y.M.C.iV. building with its great hall, and the l^ible Society's 
depository, are other outward and visible signs of Christian 
enterprise. 

With the Chekiang Mission the name of Moule will be for ever Bishop 
associated. Bishop G. E. Moule first went out in 1(S57, and his jVouic. 
brother Arthur in 1861. At one time they were quite alone in the 
Mission. George was the first missionary of any Society to take 
up his permanent residence in an interior city, Hangchow, which 
he did in 1864 ; f and in Hangchow he lived, as missionary, and 
then as bishop, and even after lie had resigned the l)ishopric, until 
the end of 1911 ; and when he then came to England it was with 
the intention of returning to die in China. But within a month 
or two he passed away at Auckland Castle, the residence of his 
brother, the Bishop of Durham, on March 3rd, 1912, aged 84, 
after a missionary career of 54 years. J During the eight years of 
our period before his resignation he travelled literally thousands 
of miles (several times 3000 in one year) within the Province of 
Chekiang, and everywhere his wise as well as affectionate super- 
vision was of the greatest value. He was also doing important 
literary work, revising the Prayer Book in classical Chinese. He 
resigned in 1907, and on January 28th and March 6th respectively 
he and Mrs. Moule celebrated their 80th birthdays ; on January 12th 
their golden wedding ; and on February 16th the 50th Anniversary 
of their arrival in the Mission ; the occasions being signalized by 
presentations to them from the Chinese Christians. ^Irs. Moule 
died in the following year. Their son, Henry W. Moule, and two 
daughters, joined the Mission in Hangchow. The elder daughter, 
who read the Bible in Greek, Latin, French, German, and Chinese 
(both classical and mandarin) died in 1901. § The other two are 
still on the staff. 

The Bishop's brother, Archdeacon A. E. INIoule, went out in Archdeacon 
1861, and laboured until 1894, when he was invaUded home, and jiouie. 
remained in England some years. With great difliculty he 

* See CM. Bcviciu, Feb., 1914, p. 130. 

t Towards the end of 1914, the Hangchow Mission celebrated its jubilee. 
In the CM. Review of May, 1915, Archdeacon A. E. Moule tells again the 
story of its beginning ; Dr. Strange describes the astonishing recent changes 
in the city (electric light, &c.); and Mr. Gaunt gives a deeply interesting 
account of the work of Mr. P^ddy and others among Hangchow students. 

I See Archdeacon A. E. Moule's In Memoriam of the Bishop, CM. Revieiv, 
April, 1912 ; and Mr. Horsburgh's touching tribute, in July of the same year. 

§ See the touching In Memoriam of her, by her parents, in the CM. Gleaner, 
April, 1902. 



311 



C.M.S. J//SS/O.VS: Diocese of Chekiang. 



I'ART II. 

(Jhap. ai. 



Fduileen 
Moulcs. 



Bishop 
Molony. 



IVfission 
Staff. 



induced the doctors to let him and Mrs. Moule go liack in 1902 ; 
but once again joyfully finding himself at the city wliich had so 
long been his home, Ningpo, he stayed on until 1908, engaged in 
his archidiaconal duties and in literary work, translating Goulburn's 
Personal Eelif/ion and other books. After a short visit home he 
once more went out in 1909, but returned in the following year 
to the Shropshire parish which was awaiting him. Finally '? 
"We must not say it, for he would gladly go again if he were 
needed in China. Four of his sons have been C.M.S. mission- 
aries, and three are still on the Chekiang list ; the fourth was in 
Japan ; and a fifth has in China rendered help on occasion, 
though not on the staff. Nor ought we to omit a sixth who is 
now a learned and much-valued ofiicial in the house of the Bible 
Society. If we add wives, we find that no less than fourteen 
Monies have done service to the missionary cause. And what 
would Dorchester and Cambridge and the Diocese of Durham say 
of yet others ? Archdeacon A. E. Moule's literary distinction is 
well known. His books have been many, and all are valuable, 
particularly Half a Centur// in China, The Splendour of a Great 
Hope, Neif China and Old, and 2''he Chinese People. His articles in 
the C.3I. Intellif/encer and C.3f. Review have been very numerous 
and always important. 

When Bishop Moule resigned the See in 1907, it was felt that 
a missionary ought to succeed him, and that in the circumstances 
of the diocese a missionary of experience from another field would 
be a desirable accession. From the names submitted to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, he chose that of the Rev. H. J. Molony, 
who had worked some years in Central India ; and he was con- 
secrated on Jan. 25th, 1908. He took with him to China as his wife 
a sister of the wife of one of the Chekiang .missionaries, the Rev. 
J. B. Ost, — one of the four sisters Stubbs mentioned in a previous 
chapter, who was the widow of a young missionary in India, 
Mr. Goodwin. When Archdeacon A. E. Moule finally left China 
in 1910, Bishop Molony appointed his son, the Rev. Walter S. 
Moule, and also the Rev. Sing Tsae-Seng, to be Archdeacons, that 
he might have the advantage of reports from both English and 
Chinese eyes and pens. The latter had been for many years under 
the former, as a tutor in Trinity College, Ningpo. 

We now turn to the usual figures of the period for the Chekiang 
Mission. In 1899 there were 16 clergymen, 5 laymen, 13 wives, 
and 21 other women, total 55. In 1914, 16 clergymen, 13 laymen, 
25 wives, and 24 other women, total 78. Of the 55 of 1899, 31 
are still in the ranks ; and 66 have been added to the hst in 15 
years, of whom 24 remain. There have been only four deaths in 
the field — Mrs. G. E. Moule, her daughter Adelaide, Miss Vaughan, 
and Mrs. Robbins. Miss Vaughan was a specially devoted mis- 
sionary. She was one of the ladies who offered to the C.M.S. 
in 1887, and it was in fact the offers of that year which led the 
Society to include single women definitely in its ranks. She was 



C.M.S. Missioxs: Diocese of Chekiaxg. 319 

the daughter of a well-known Brighton clergyman, James Yaughan. part ir. 
She was not only an honorary missionary, not only bore the cost t^^ap^ai. 
of a new High School for girls at Hangchow, hut bequeathed to 
the Mission a large portion of her estate. ■"' Among the retire- 
ments of the period, mention should be made of the Eevs. A. 
Elwin and J. B. Ost, each with more than thirty years' service ; 
and the Eev. W. G. Walshe, Dr. Smyth, Miss E. Onyon, and 
Miss L. H. Barnes, after 14 to 23 years. 

Of the present staff, Dr. Duncan Main and Mrs. Main and the 
Eev. G. W. Coultas have served 30 years or more, and 20 to 30 
years have been given by the Eev. and Mrs. C. J. F. Symons, 
Dr. and Mrs. Kember, Mrs. Coultas, three brothers Moule and 
the wife of one (the present Archdeacon), and the Misses J. F. 
Moule, Maddison, Wells, Isabella Clarke, Turner, and Goudge. 

Australia has not sent so many women to Chekiang as to 
Fukien, but there are four from the Victoria Association, Misses 
Hughes, M. M. and E. J. Clark, and Furness ; f and Dr. Strange, 
who first went to India under the Poena and Village Mission, 
joined the C.M.S. in 1910, representing the New Zealand 
Association, 

When our period opened, the Chekiang Mission had just lost J-<-'-ii"»i'e. 
the important services of the Eev. J. C. Hoare, appointed Bishop 
of A^ictoria, Hong Kong. In a retrospect of his 23 j'ears at 
Ningpo, Mr. Hoare remarked that when he first went out in 1875 
there was only one Chinese clergyman in the Mission (and he had 
only just been ordained), while there were in 1898 sixteen, who 
had gradually relieved the English missionaries of almost all the 
pastoral work. This progress was, in fact, mainly due to his own 
services. He started Trinity College, Ningpo, when he first went Trinity 
out, and most of the Chinese clergymen, and many evangelists and xhigo.*^' 
teachers, had been trained by him. Upon his moving to Hong 
Kong, Mr. Walter iloule, who had been his lieutenant, succeeded Arciideacon 

■ • • . 1 . n Walter 

him as Principal, and has continued in that post to this day, to Moule, 
the great advantage of the College. The Eev. W. Eobbins is his 
Vice -Principal. Fifteen more men have been ordained, or one for 
each year, and there are now 24, In 1905 it was stated that 
61 old Trinity College boys were then working in the diocese, 
14 in holy orders, 16 as lay evangelists, 27 as lay schoolmasters, 
and four as medical evangelists. In that same Eeport Bishop 
INIoule mentioned the papers, " stiff ones," set by two of the 
Chinese clergy for the students, on Leviticus, Isaiah, Eomans, and 
the Prayer Book, and the " really beautiful work " done by one of 
them. In 1911 a Pan-Anghcan grant of £1000 enabled new 
buildings to be added ; and in 1913 the work was thus described : 
" a Theological Class with five students, a Normal Class with nine, 
a Middle School with 39 pupils, a Higher Elementary School with 

* See the In Memoriam of Miss Vaughan, CM. Revietv, May, 1908. 
+ And in 1915 the New South Wales Association sent three, two Misses 
Mcintosh and Miss Montgomery. 



320 



C.M.S. Missions : Diocese of Ciiekiang. 



Part II. 
Chap. 31. 



The Chinese 
Clergy. 



Two 

ChinesR 

Laymen. 



55, and a Lower Elementary School with 24 boarders and 65 day 
scholars ; all being Christians except 40 of the Lower Day School." 
A chapel has been supplied as a memorial to Bishop Hoare. 

Several of the native pastors have died, and very interesting 
have been the testimonies to their high character and good work. 
The oldest of all, the one who was already ordained when Mr. 
Hoare went to China, the Eev. Sing Bng-Teh, was originally an 
artist, and was baptized in 1857. He died in 1899, leaving nine 
Christian sons and daughters, seven of whom were engaged in 
spiritual work.* Three daughters married other Chinese pastors. 
One son, the Rev. Sing Tsae-Ling, manifested great courage and 
faithfulness during the Boxer troubles in 1900, when all the 
missionaries had been ordered to the coast. He fell ill immedi- 
ately after, and died. Of one of his brothers-in-law, the Rev. Song 
Vi-Sing, Mr. Elwin wrote, " He is a man of remarkable ability, and 
knows the love of Christ — a man to be loved as a brother." Of 
the senior after Sing Eng-Teh's death, the Rev. Wong Yiu-Kwong, 
who died in 1911, Bishop G. E. Moule wrote, " Wong was one of 
the most interesting preachers I ever listened to. He could quote 
Scripture accurately memoriter on almost any topic." f Of another 
pastor, the Rev. Sing Teh-Kwong, who died in 1902, Archdeacon 
A. E. Moule wrote, " His Bible knowledge, his prayerfulness, his 
true following of Christ, made us all respect and love him." X In 
1912 Bishop Molony wrote, " Our leading Chinese clergy, notably 
Archdeacon Sing of Ningpo and Pastor Yu of Hangchow, are 
developing into strong spiritual leaders. Some of our younger 
clergy, too, give me increased satisfaction." § A deeply interesting 
account of special mission services conducted by Pastor Yu (Rev, 
Yu Hyien-Ding) at Taichow, in 1913, was sent by Bishop Molony.|| 
Of the 24 Chinese clergymen, 14 are in parochial charges, seven in 
evangelistic or semi-pastoral work under the Mission, two as 
masters at Trinity College, and one under the Chinese Missionary 
Society. 

Two other Chinese Christians who died should be mentioned : 
Matthew Tai, an earnest evangelist and clever artist, whose very 
original illustrations of the Parables were much admired when 
reproduced in the GUfiner some years ago ; % and Dr. Li, a medical 
man who conducted evangelistic and revival services with great 
power and manifest blessing, but died, to the sorrow of all, at the 
age of 34.** 

* See CM. Intell., Jan., 1900. 

t See the Bishop's account of him, CM. Rcvicio, April. 1911. 

X Sec CM. Intell., June, 1903. Of another, a young man, the Rev. Tseng 
Tsae-Seng, an In Memonam by the Kev. H. W. Moule appeared in the 
CM. licviciv, June, 1908. 

§ On the Chinese clergy of the diocese generally, Bishop Molony wrote in 
an article iu the CM. Review, April, 1911. 

II See CM. Review, October, 1913. 

*l See Archdeacon A. E. Moule's In Memoriam of him, CM. Revieio, July, 
1908. 

♦* See CM.S. Gazette, Feb., 1909, p. 54. 



C.Jl.S. Miss/oxs: Diocese of CnEKr.iyG. 321 

The other educational institutions include the Anglo-Chinese pakt ii. 
School at Shanghai already alluded to, which has done most useful ^^^^- '^^- 
work under its headmaster, Mr. William Moule ; a similar hut much schools, 
younger school at Shaohing, the city which Marco Polo called 
" the Venice of China" ; and about 30 other boys' schools ; with 
altogether some 1000 scholars ; and for women and girls, the 
Mary Vaughan High School at Hangchow, and about 20 other 
boarding and day schools, with some 450 pupils ; and classes for 
Bible women, &c., at two or three of the stations. Mr. Henry 
IMoule, Mr, Gaunt, and Mr. Percy King have worked the English 
Boys' Schools ; and Miss J. F, Moule, Miss Maddison, Miss Turn- 
bull, Miss Frewer, Miss Morris, Miss Weightman (M.A., Liverpool 
Univ.), and the Misses Clark of Melbourne, the Girls' Schools. 
The Girls' Boarding School at Ningpo, and the Boys' High School 
at Shaohing, have had new buildings erected by means of other 
Pan-Anglican grants. 

Among other important branches of the work are the medical Medical 
missions. Dr. Duncan Main's name is known all over the world; ""^ " 
and excellent service has been rendered by Drs. Kember, Babing- 
ton, Cole, Beatty, Evans, Strange.* Drs. Kember and Cole are 
sons of much esteemed missionaries in India. Mrs. Babington 
and Mrs. Evans are nurses, as well as Miss Morris and Miss 
Furness. Dr. Smyth, who shared in this work from 1893 to 1906 
should not be forgotten, nor his two wives, one who had as Miss 
Stanley done devoted service, and who was lost in the wreck of the 
P. k O. steamer Aden in 1897, t and the other a daughter of the 
Eev. Charles Bullock. There are hospitals at Ningpo and Taichow, 
with 70 and 50 beds respectively ; and the great hospital at 
Hangchow with 250 beds and all sorts of ramifications. Twelve Hangchow 
different departments are counted in it, including general hospitals, 2°*?'*^^- 
women's and maternity hospitals, leper refuges, convalescent 
homes, medical training schools, &c. A new maternity hospital 
and training school was started in 1906 at the request of a Chinese 
lady philanthropist, who, with some of her friends among the 
gentry, undertook its support. The influence of this great institu- 
tion has been wide indeed, as has been testified by such observers 
as Mrs. Isabella Bishop and Lord Wilham Cecil; an influence not 
merely philanthropic, but productive of many conversions to 
Christianity. Specially valuable has been the training of the 
Chinese doctors, nurses, kc. Dr. Main expressed grateful appre- 
ciation of their faithfulness in guarding the hospital, and carrying 
on the work so far as they could, during the Boxer troubles. His 
graphic letters give us a vivid glimpse of the work and toil of him- 
self and his colleagues. :J: One message, in 1906, was, " Wards full, 

* Also Dr. Score-Brown, now retired. 

t In the same wreck perished Mrs. Collins (wife of a Fukicn missionary who 
himself had been drowned in a Chinese river) with her two children, and two 
ladies of the C.E.Z.M.S. 

X A specially important one, on IMedical Education in China, was printed in 
the CM. Review, October, 1910. 



322 C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Ciiekiang. 



I'ART IT. 

Chap. 31. 



Vilh.C; 
Wuik. 



AVoinen's 
Work. 



Chinese 

Missionary 

Society. 



heat 91°, mosquitoes numerous, helpers few, strength failing, faith 
increasing — pray for us " ; and we all know his happy motto, 
" Keep Smiling." It may here be added that Dr. Score-Brown, 
having been lent to the Chinese Government for plague work in 
Manchima in 1911, was awarded the highest honour open to a 
civilian, the Order of the Double Dragon. 

Equally interesting and fruitful has been the village work 
carried on by itinerations from Ningpo, Taichow, Shaohing, and 
Hangchow as centres. We read of Kwun-hae-we, Zkyi, and 
other places round Ningpo, and we quite fail to realize the im- 
mensity of the work. Take one section of the outlying field near 
Ningpo, the Sanpoh plain. Archdeacon A. E. Moule wrote in 
1906 that it had seven districts with 102 villages and 100,000 
souls ; at four centres there w^ere churches or mission chapels, 
and schools at three, and the Christians were scattered all over 
the district ; for their care there were one pastor and two elderly 
evangelists, and in preaching to the heathen a missionary doing 
non-pastoral work " might spend a lifetime in this one little corner 
of China's smallest province." Among the missionaries engaged 
in this evangelistic work, or in the superintendence of the Chinese , 
workers employed in it, have been the Eevs. H. W. Moule (the 
Bishop's son), G. W. Coultas, E. Thompson, T. C. Goodchild 
(now in Hunan), H. Barton, W. H. Elwin, W. J. Wallace, W. 
Browne, and several younger men ; and the Misses Vaughan 
and L. H. Barnes (up the Tsien-tang River from Hangchow), 
Misses I. Clarke, Turner, Hughes, Green, Turnbull, Wells, Stott, 
Onyon, and many others. The Chekiang Mission owes very 
much to the women missionaries ; not excluding the wives, among 
whom the Reports have specially mentioned those two mothers in 
Israel, the late Mrs. George Moule and Mrs. A. E. Moule ; also 
Mrs. Walter Moule, Mrs. Goodchild, and Mrs. W. H. Elwin; 
though no doubt others have been eqvially zealous. Mrs. Elwin 
is a daughter of Prebendary Fox, and Mrs. W. Moule of Mr. 
Henry Wright, the former Honorary Secretary of the Society. 
The latter has been 27 years in the held. In 1901 she received 
from the elder schoolgirls at Ningpo who were members of the 
Sowers' Band, a present of 30 dollars to send to her sisters in 
India, the Misses A. F. and (the late) K. C. Wright, for the new 
buildings of their school at Agra. 

The evangelistic work has been helped by the formation in 
1901 of a Chinese Church Missionary Society, supported and 
worked entirely by the Chinese Christians. It was founded by 
tliree young doctors who had been at both Trinity College and 
Dr. Main's medical school. Among its original rules, as drawn 
up l)y the members, there was one affirming their loyalty to the 
Anglican Church, and another declaring that the new Society's 
operations would be carried on " until the coming of Jesus 
Christ." They took up a new district where no missionary had 
yet worked, and engaged two evangelists, both 'of whom were 



C.M.S. M/ss/oYS: Diocese of Chefcfang. 323 

ordained in 1904, theEevs. Tsong Tsae-Seng and Tsong Kying-Fu. tart ii. 
They had to meet the same opposition as the foreign missionaries, ^'''•^•_3i- 
and in 1906 the house and chapel at one of their stations was 
attacked, and Tsong Kying-Fu and his family barely escaped 
with their lives. In due time converts were baptized, and when 
presented for confirmation were found by Bishop Moule to be 
well-prepared. 

Two other branches of the work must be 'just noticed. First, jinorts to 
efforts to reach the upper classes. Nothing is more effective in J^^^ge^PP^' 
this respect than the influence of the doctors, whose fame leads to 
invitations to attend mandarin famiUes ; but with their hospitals, 
Ac, their time is limited. In 1905 Miss Joynt, sister of Canon 
Joynt, was asked to make it her special business to seek to influence 
the Chinese ladies. The accounts of her skill and patience in this 
work are deeply interesting. Among most useful devices, if such 
a w'ord is allowable, was the giving of lessons in English, provided 
the English Bible is used ; and another was teaching calisthenics 
in an upper class girls' school with of course the same condition. 
In this way the seed is sown, and there are many signs of an early 
and abundant harvest. 

The other branch is Literary Work. Here too Miss Joynt has Literary 
done good service. She has been lent by the Mission to the '^ork. 
Christian Literature Society for China "" and has translated or 
adapted several books, including a Memoir of Mrs. Fry, Carlyle's 
Heroes, Turton's Truth of Christianity, and a Primer of Sanitation, 
as well as contributing to a Chinese Women's Magazine. The 
Mission had also lent the Eev. W. G. Walshe for some years to 
the same Society, and he became a real expert in Chinese literature. 
His own contributions have included Chinese versions of books on 
both secular and Church history, Paterson Smyth's Hoir ice Got 
Our Bible, the Life of Queen Victoria, books on Natural History, 
Astronomy, &c., besides much editorial work. Similar service has 
been rendered by the Monies. Bishop G. E. Moule translated the 
Prayer Book into Classical Chinese. Archdeacon A. E. Moule 
translated the Bishop of Durham's Jesus and tlie Resurrection, and 
wrote commentaries on Genesis and Hebrews. Mrs. A. E. Moule 
translated Christian stories and allegories. Mr. Walter Moule 
wrote Expositions of the Articles, Exodus, Leviticus, and the 
Epistles to the Eomans and Ephesians. But Mr. A. J. H. Moule 
has all along been fully engaged in work of this kind, both while 
in China and at home. Among his more important contributions 
have been a Commentary on the Old Testament, which has 
already had a large sale, and the earlier volumes have gone into 
new large editions ; also a Commentary on the Gospels, an English 
History, a Chinese Phrase Book with 35,000 phrases, and trans- 
lations of Edersheim's Bible History and several of the recent 
books by the Bishop of Durham, Dr. Grifiith Thomas, &c. This 

* Formerly cfiljed the Society for the Difiusion of Christian and General 
Knowledge. 



324 C.M.S. M/ss/o.YS: DiocESE OE Chektang. 

Part II. is work of the most valuable and enduring kind, and will do much 
t lajr^ . 1^^ ^^ cause of Christianity in China. 

Baptisms. As for the visible results of the whole work, we find that the 
baptized Christians have increased in the period from 2287 to 
5623. It is not possible to give the total number of adult 
baptisms, because in several of the years the returns were ex- 
tremely defective ; but if the average of the years in which they 
were properly sent may be applied to the other years, the total 
Tiie chinpi^c ought to be between 2800 and 3000. The reports of the 
ciiristians. d^aracter of the Christians are much the same as elsewhere, 
sometimes very encouraging, sometimes the contrary. As an 
organized Church the Chinese Christian community in the Che- 
kiang Mission appears to be rather exceptionally efficient. The 
cimrdi Missionary Society has been already mentioned. The Church 
tion?"'^'*' Councils are well spoken of. The Diocesan Synod has met from 
time to time and discussed regulations suggested by the Anglican 
Bishops in China (who had begun their periodical meetings before 
our period commenced), touching Order, Discipline, and Marriage, 
and the Chinese terms for the Orders of the Ministry. In 1912 
this Synod was formally constituted in connexion with the whole 
Anglican Church in China. The Anglican Christians in Chekiang 
are also represented in the Chekiang Federation Council which 
comprises all Protestant Missions in the Province. Under its 
auspices a Summer School was held in 1912 for spiritual workers 
of all kinds, ordained and unordained, which was attended by 200 
men. In 1911 a " Church Congress " was held at Taichow, of 
which Mr. Thompson sent an interesting account."^ Mr. Sherwood 
Eddy's meetings at Hangchow in 1914 were largely attended, the 
Chinese authorities aiding in several ways (see p. 291). The 
Commissioner for Foreign Affairs came out on the Lord's side, 
and was baptized in the Presbyterian church. 

* In the CM. Review, Oct., 1911. 




CHAPTER XXXII. 
C.MX MISSIONS: Diocese of Western China. 

Retrospect of the Mission— Notable Continuance of Original Staff- 
Bishop Cassels and Mr. Horsburgh— Varieties of Work Church 
Organization — China Inland Mission. 

I HE Western China Mission was started in 1891 on ^^^^ n. 
the earnest representations of the Rev. J. H. Hors- *l!!l "' 
burgh, who, having been a member of the Mid China Retrospect 
Mission, had travelled to the great Western Province chi'na***'^" 
of Szechwan, and desired to see the C.M.S. follow- Mission, 
ing the example of the C.I.M., sending a purely evangelistic 
mission into some remote and unoccupied part of China. He 
himself, with Mrs. Horsburgh, headed the expedition, which com- 
prised also one clergyman (Mr. Oliver Jackson), three laymen 
(Messrs. Phillips, Callum, Vardon), and five single women (Misses 
Garnett, Mertens, Wells, Entwistle, Lloyd) ; and three other lay- 
men not at first on the C.M.S. staff but taken on afterwards 
(Messrs. Hickman, Knipe, Beach). Four other women went out 
the following year (Misses Casswell, Snell, Thompson, Kelly). It ConUmiod 
is remarkable that of the sixteen men and women who thus joined original 
Mr. and Mrs. Horsburgh, twelve are still in the field after twenty- ^^^^^^^ 
four years. Two died, early. Misses Entwistle and Lloyd, both of 
them women of humble station, but both having proved themselves 
highly promising missionaries ; and two only have retired, in one 
case after fifteen years' work. Few missionary parties have such 
a record as that, and the names deserve to be specially noted. 
Messrs. Phillips, Callum, Hickman, and Knipe have purchased to 
themselves a good degree and been ordained. Mr. Beach has 
remained a layman, but as an engineer has been of the greatest 
service in adapting Chinese houses to the use of Europeans, 
l)esides being a zealous evangelist. 

Coming on to the Centenary year, we find the staff comprising 
four clergymen, nine laymen, eight wives, and ten other women. 
Of these 31, eighteen remain in China, and there have been four 
deaths. The figures for 1915 are 17 clergymen, 7 laymen, 19 
wives, and 13 other women, total 56. 

The field of this Mission is a portion of the Province of Szech- ^f^^f '^•'* 
wan, lying north and west of the portion occupied by the Church Mission. 



326 C.M.S. Missioxs: Diocese of Western China. 



Part II. 
Chap. 32. 



Bishop 
Cassels. 



Mr. Hors- 
biirgli. 



Early 
Difficulties. 



Present 
Staff. 



of England section of the C.I.M. Its size may be roughly indi- 
cated in this way. If Mienchow,* the headquarters station, may 
be represented by London, then Southampton may stand for the 
southernmost station, Sintu ; Shrewsbury for the westernmost, 
Mowchow ; and York for the northernmost, Lungan. The others 
are between these ; perhaps we may put Chungkiang at Dorking, 
Mienchuh at Basingstoke, Anhsien at Luton, Chongpa at Cam- 
bridge, Shihchuan at Leicester. But besides these there are 15 
walled cities and 50 large market towns in the C.M.S. district still 
unoccupied, to say nothing of a multitude of villages. The whole 
Province is larger than the British Isles, and the population as large. 

In 1895 the Province became the missionary Diocese of Western 
China, and a much-respected member of the C.I.M., the Eev. 
W. W. Cassels, was appointed Bishop. His jurisdiction, there- 
fore, includes both the Anglican section of that Mission and the 
C.M.S. Mission. His residence is at Paoning, a " f u " city east- 
ward from the C.M.S. district. He has to spend about one 
hundred days in the year in actual journeying. 

When our period opened, Mr. Horsburgh had just retired. The 
Mission had been begun and carried on upon the lines he had laid 
down. No native a.gents had been engaged on foreign pay, and 
no church building had been erected at the Society's cost. It was 
his wish to try the experiment of throwing everything on the 
converts, except, of course, the personal expenses of the mission- 
aries. But he could not accept for himself a bishop's license with 
its necessary limitations, and preferred to be an independent 
friend of the Mission rather than a member of it. The Society 
deeply regretted the necessity for this separation ; but nothing 
has ever interrupted Mr. Horsburgh's cordial fellowship and 
co-operation both abroad and at home. 

Great difficulty had at first been experienced in getting a foot- 
hold in the cities and towns of the C.M.S. district, and the mission- 
aries had been much indebted to those of the C.I.M. for hospi- 
tality meanwhile. But before our period opened, most of the 
cities above named had been peacefully occupied for some few 
years, and zealous evangelistic work had been carried on. In 
1899 there were 32 baptized Christians and five catechumens. 
There were no native agents until 1904, when four were engaged. 
These have gradually increased to 32 ; but the ordained, pastorate 
is still in the future. 

Of the staff in 1915, seven of the men were graduates, the Univer- 
sities of Cambridge, London, Durham, Edinburgh, Liverpool, and 
Sydney being represented. Tlie Sydney man, the Eev. J. R. 
Stewart, was a son of R. W. Stewart, j and one of the women was 



* Curiously enough its uame is Mienyang for telegraphic purposes. 

t One of the Society's heaviest losses through the War has been the death 
of J. 11. Stewart. He was devoting his furlough time to chaplain's work at 
the Front in France, and was killed by a shell while conducting a funeral 
service. He was a missionary of rare promise. 



C.M.S. M/6SI0NS : Diocese of Western China. 327 

his sister Mildred, who was wounded in the Kutien massacre, and part ii. 
who has lately been married to the Eev. E. C. Taylor, one of two ^'''i^^-- 
brothers iu the Mission, H. H. and R. C. Taylor, of Durham and 
Cambridge respectively, both of whom have had ministerial experi- 
ence in England. Another Cambridge man, the Eev. H. J. Howden, 
is lent to the West China Eeligious Tract Society for literary work. 
Three of tlie women are from the Victoria Association, and one 
other was sent temporarily by the New South Wales Association. 
A medical missionary. Dr. Squibbs, did excellent service for 
thirteen years, but died while on furlough in 1909. Another, Dr. 
Lechler, is the grandson of one of the early German missionaries 
of the Society in Tinnevelly. Three of the laymen and one of the 
women had served in West Africa for a few years, and although 
failing in that climate were able to begin again in China. Another, 
!Mr. W. Hope Gill, a Cambridge man, had been a lay missionary 
of the C.I.il., but after joining the C.M.S. was ordained by 
Bishop Cassels. He is a brother of the Bishop of Travancore and 
Cochin. He went with the British Field Force to Peking in 
1900 as interpreter, and it is interesting now to read his eulogy of 
the Indian troops in that Force. He was finally invalided home 
in 1905, after 20 years in China. 

The evanglistic w^ork has been carried on with zeal and patience. Varied 
Although there has been no large ingathering, there have been W"'^'^- 
about 600 adult baptisms, and the returns in 1914 gave 638 
baptized Christians and 375 catechumens. The schools are 
almost all elementary, for both boys and girls, 31 in number, with 
600 scholars ; but there are higher class boarding schools, with 
33 boys and 41 girls, at Mienchow, the headquarters of the 
Mission, conducted by the Eevs. P. J. Watt and W. Munn,* and 
Misses Casswell and Mannett. At that city is the only regular 
medical mission, under Dr.Lechler,f but there are small dispensaries 
everywhere. There also is a women's training class. The train- Training 
ing of men to be teachers and evangelists (and eventually clergy) is "^ •^g''"^^- 
not done at a C.M.S. station, but at the Diocesan College at 
Paoning, where Bishop Cassels resides and superintends that 
work, assisted by the Eev. H. H. Taylor, and also by the Eev. 
W. H. Aldis of the C.I.M. Men are there trained for both C.M.S. 
and C.I.M. There is also an Anglican Hostel at Chengtu, the 
capital of the Province, which lies south of Sintu, just as (referring 
to the illustration above) Ventnor lies south of Southampton. 
This Hostel is iu connexion wath the new" Chengtu Union 
University, and has been the work of Mr. Stewart and of tlie Eev. 
E. C. Taylor, who have thus been brought into touch with both 

* Mr. Muun must be mentioned iu another counexiou. His articles in the 
CM. Revieiv on Chinese Hymns (Aug., 1911) and Chinese Music (Sept., 1912), 
are exceptionally interesting; also one on Education (July, 1912) and one on 
Woman in China (April, 1913). 

t In 1914, the mandarin and city elders presented the hospital with a 
laudatory inscription. 



328 C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Western China. 

Part il professors and students. Mr. Stewart taught English in some of 
idp^ "• the new Government schools, and gave lectures on ethics and 
religion to large numbers of upper class men. 
c.i.M. The C.I.M. work is more advanced than that of the C.M.S.* And 

Work. although everything in the Diocese is, of course, relatively young, 
cimrch Bishop Cassels has begun diocesan organization. Parochial and 
tion.""^'*' District Councils have been formed, and an elected Diocesan 
Council, which in administering the Church Sustentation Fund 
is exhibiting the capacity of Chinese for business. The account of 
its meeting in July, 1914, is most interesting. The outline of 
the Bishop's address on adaptation of the Prayer Book would be 
a good model for use in many missionary dioceses. As a signi- 
ficant outward and visible token of progress, a " cathedral " has 
lately been built and dedicated at Paoning.t Special revival meet- 
ings held in 1910 by a C.I.M. missionary from Shansi Province, 
Mr. Lutley, and a Chinese evangelist, Mr. Wang, were accom- 
panied with much blessing; and the work of Bible and Tract 
Society colporteurs has resulted in wide distribution of Christian 
literature. 
On the Interesting attempts have been made from time to time to reach 

'nht-Z ° ^^6 border tribes on the frontier of Tibet and the Tibetans them- 
selves. It will be remembered that Mrs. Isabella Bishop travelled 
to that wild country, and the " Mr. K. " of her book was the 
C.M.S. lay missionary (but since ordained) Mr. Knipe. Songpan, 
in the north-west corner of the C.M.S. district, is not far from the 
border, and both Mr. Knipe and Mr. Kitley have stayed there for 
some months. But in 1906 a more convenient town, further 
south, but also near the border, Mowchow, was occupied by 
Mr. Kitley. Mr. Beach has lately had this outpost as his 
sphere of labour. Songpan was destroyed in a Tibetan Eaid 
in 1911. 
Troubles This ]\Iission has had its full share of trouble and peril in the 

I'ruvhice. frequent times of unrest in China. When the Boxer rising 
occurred in 1900, the British Consul at Chungking on the Yangtze, 
the nearest Consular station, wrote requiring that all the mission- 
aries in Szechwan Province should retire to the coast ; and a 
similar order was sent to the American missionaries by their 
Consul. Mr. Phillips, the Secretary of the C.M.S. Mission, called 
his brethren and sisters to Mienchow for prayer and conference, 
and then they left in boats, reaching Chungking, 250 miles, and 
then Ichang, 500 miles farther, safely. From there two steamers, 
Japanese and German, took them down to Shanghai ; but Miss Eosa 
Lloyd stayed en route at Hankow to nurse some C.I.M. mission- 
aries who had narrowly escaped with their lives, and similar work 
fell to her when she reached Shanghai. She only survived the 
strain a few weeks, and thus laid down her own life in helping 

* There is one Cliinese clergyman, ordained by Bishop Cassels in l'J15, 
working under the C.I.M. 

t See CM. Bevicic, April, 1915, p. 118. 



C.M.S. Missions: Diocese of Western China. 329 

others, a service characteristic of all her nine years' career. When ^rt ii. 
peace was restored, and it was possible to go back. Bishop Cassels 1!L "' 
and three of the C.M.S. men were wrecked in the dangerous 
rapids of the Yangtze, and lost all their provisions, money, and 
personal effects. 

Other risings have occm'red of a less serious character; but 
during the Eevolution in 1911 robber bands assailed several cities 
occupied by the Mission, and again the British Consul ordered 
the missionaries away for a time. When the revolt against the 
new President occurred in 1913, prominent Chinese men took 
refuge at the mission house, thinking themselves safer there, as 
the rising was not against the foreigner but against the authorities ; 
and at Mienchuh the Chief Mandarin and his family were thus 
sheltered for some weeks. 

The spelling of Chinese names is always a difficulty, but there 
seems now an agreement that what has here been adopted is 
correct. The Western Province has almost regained its former 
spelling in " Szechwan," casting off the temporary intrusion of 
" Sichuan." 

Note. 

The visit of Mr. Bardsley and Mr. Bayhs to the Far East in 
1912-13 has not been referred to in these chapters on China. 
Their Eeport to the Committee was naturally occupied with many 
facts regarding the different C.M.S. Missions, and many questions 
of missionary pohcy ; and it was only printed for private circu- 
lation. But it should be added here that the visit proved a great 
encouragement to the missionaries, and has strongly stimulated 
in the C.M.S. circle at home a deep sense of the claims of China 
to the extension and development of the Missions. The two 
secretaries were happily at Shanghai when the National Con- 
ference under Dr. Mott was held (p. 287), and attended it as 
visitors. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

JAPAN: The Nation and its Religion. 



Part II. 
Chap. 33. 

The year 
1899 me- 
morable in 
Japanese 
History. 



Anglo- 
Japanese 
Alliance. 



Marquis 

Ito. 




Political Events— Anglo-Japanese Alliance — War with Russia— Death of 
the Emperor Mutsuhito — Bushido and its Influence — Shintoism, Budd- 
hism, Agnosticism — Recent Conferences on Morals and Religion. 

|HE year in which our review begins, 1899, was a 
memorable year in the history of Japan. The new 
constitution, with its Houses of Parhament and its 
decree of rehgious Uberty, was ten years old ; and 
now at last the ardent desire of the Japanese people 
was attained by their admission into the comity of nations. The 
new ti-eaties with Foreign Powers came into force on July 17th, just 
three months after the C.M.S. Centenary. What is called extra- 
territoriality came to an end ; that is to say, Japan was no longer 
to occupy the same position as Turkey and China, where foreigners 
are only responsible to their own Consular Courts ; and in future 
the Britons and Americans and Germans and Russians were to be 
subject to Japanese law. On the other hand, the country was 
thrown open to them without passport restrictions. Moreover, 
Christianity received a certain official acknowledgment, by the 
Government making regulations for the registration of churches 
and clergy. 

Then, a year or two later, came the special Anglo- Japanese 
Alliance, signed by Lord Lansdowne as Foreign Secretary on 
January 30th, 1902, which was welcomed in Japan with great 
enthusiasm. A notable example of this occurred at Sapporo, the 
remote capital of the northern Island of Hokkaido. A public 
meeting was called to celebrate the alliance, at which " God Save 
the King " was sung, and an address was given at the Mayor's 
request by the only British subject in the city at the time, an 
Irish woman missionary of the C.M.S., Miss Ahce Hughes. It 
was just at that time that the Marquis Ito, the greatest of Japanese 
statesmen, visited ]^]ngland. Forty years before, in 1863, in the 
days when no Japanese was allowed to leave his country on pain 
of death, Ito had run the risk, escaping in an English sailing ship, 
and serving as a seaman before the mast, that he might see the 
Western World with his own eyes. It was he who had taken the 
most prominent part in the mighty revolution by which Japan 
had opened her long-closed doors and come forth as a modern 



Japan: The Nation and rjs Rkl/gion. 331 

world-power ; it was lie who had drafted the constitution of 1889 ; Part ii. 
it was he who had closed the war with China by the Treaty of Shi- !lll_ ' 
raonoseki in 1895 ; it was his policy that had brought Japan into 
the family of nations by the abolition of extra-territoriality ; and 
now he saw the completion of his work by tlie treaty with Great 
Britain. It is sad to remember that he was afterwards (1909) 
murdered by a Korean. Geographically the appropriateness of the 
Anglo-Japanese treaty is curious. A glance at the map of the 
Eastern Hemisphere shows at each end of the long stretch of 
European and Asiatic Continent a group of islands, the two nearly 
equal in size and corresponding in position. The British Isles 
and the Japanese Isles face one another across the largest land area 
on the surface of the globe. 

The material progress of Japan continued remarkable. For 
instance, fifteen years earlier it had been a criminal offence to 
build a sea-going vessel, and now Japanese liners were competing 
on equal terms with those of Europe and America ; and the 
Japanese fleet of warships took its place among the navies of the 
world. The great test came in 1905 with the war with Eussia, War witu 
when both by land and sea the youngest of modern Powers over- "*"'''" 
threw the tremendous forces opposed to her. It was a revelation 
to the world, not merely of her extraordinary capacity and skill, 
but still more of the national spirit of patriotism that gloried in 
self-sacrifice ; a spirit not less conspicuously shown when a 
reasonable peace was followed by what may fairly be described 
as a real shaking of hands between the combatants. Of the effect 
of that war on the Missions, more hereafter. 

Then in 1912, the death of the Emperor Mutsuhito recalled the Death of 
wonderful history of the sixty years of his life and the forty-five of MutsuWtd. 
his reign. He was one year old when the first partial opening of 
the door of the long-closed empire took place in 1853 ; fifteen 
when he ascended the throne ; and sixteen when the great 
Eevolution of 1868 abolished the Shogunate and restored the 
Mikado's real sovereignty.* The C.M.S. Committee passed a 
minute, which was communicated to the Japanese Ambassador in 
London, expressing condolence with the Eoyal House and tlie 
nation, and acknowledging the loyalty of the deceased Emperor to 
the principle of religious liberty. He had, in fact, accepted a 
Bible from his Christian subjects, and had given £1000 to 
the Y.M.C.A. towards the expenses of their work for the soldiers 
in the war with Eussia ; but there is no reason to suppose that 
he regarded the Christian reUgion as having any message for 
himself. He was, in fact, a devout Shintoist. His death closed 
what the Japanese term the " Era of Enlightenment " {Meiji), 
and ushered in the new " Era of Great Eighteousness " (Taisho). 

It is not to be wondered at that so much admiration has been Bushido, 
lavished upon Bushido, the "Soul of Japan." The " knightly ^j^epSoui of 
way," as the word means, corresponds fairly with our " chivalry," 

♦ The last of the Shoguns died in 1913. CM. Review, Jan., 1914, p. Go. 



332 Japan: The Nation and its Religion. 



Its real 
failure. 



pakt II. and expresses itself in our familiar French phrase, " noblesse 
'tlil ■ oblige." Dr. Grifiis, the brilliant American author of some of the 
exc^'n'^^*'^'^ best books on Japan, speaks of " the superb system of chivalry, 
manners, self-mastery of the body, and culture of the spirit, called 
Bushido " ; and, of the Samurai whose code of honour it especially 
was, as " the consummate white flower of Japanese civilization." 
The " Japan spirit," Yamaio damaahu, was certainly exhibited in 
the Army in the Eussian War. The Rev. G. H. Moule, a son of 
Archdeacon A. E. Moule of China, who has written the best popular 
book on Japan,* tells of soldiers, billeted in the town where he was, 
" helping in the house-work, nursing and amusing the children, or 
like children themselves strolling hand in hand along the crowded 
streets." " As far as I remember I never met a drunken or dis- 
orderly soldier throughout that period." And when they returned 
victorious, " one heard no word of scorn or hatred of the enemy. 
There was no sudden loosening of the self-restraint that the 
nation had so long practised, no unseemly bragging to stain the 
hour of triumph." But Dr. Griffis sadly acknowledges that 
Bushido fails to cure the social evils which flourish beneath the 
veil of outward refinement ; and the Rev. J. T. Imai, probably the 
ablest of the Japanese Christian clergy, and now Principal of 
the Central Theological College, said a few years ago that Bushido 
" could never have originated institutions like the Red Cross 
Society, or such ideas as humanity to prisoners, generosity to the 
conquered, refraining from loot, and respect for female virtue." 
"These," he added, "were recognized as right, only when the 
Bushido spirit came in contact with Christianity." f And the 
Hon. Kenkichi Kataoka, the first Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, used to say that Bushido was no longer able to 
meet the moral needs of his countrymen ; while a well-known 
writer. Dr. Nitobe, wrote that Bushido's days were numbered, and 
that only Christianity could influence " the irresistible tide of 
triumphant democracy." The suicide of General Nogi, the hero 
of Port x\rthur, on the death of the Emperor, though acclaimed by 
the Japanese people generally as a glorious consummation of the 
" Era of Enlightenment," was felt by the more thoughtful to 
belong rather to the Past than to the Present. Mr. G. H. Moule 
points out, not only the weakness of Bushido, but also its inevit- 
able decay as democratic principles gain ground. 

Meanwhile, both the official and the popular religions of Japan, 
Shintoism and Buddhism, of both of wliich Mr. Moule gives an 
admirably clear account, have rather increased in activity during 
our period.^ Buddhism, indeed, is much despised by official and 

* The Spirit of Japan, written for tho United Council of Missionary Edu- 
cation, and published by the different Societies, including the C.M.S. 

t An imjjortant article on " Bushido : Its Virtues and Its Defects,' by the 
Rev. G. H. Pole, appeared in the CM. Intelligencer of Oct., 1905. 

J See an able article by the llev. Oliver Knight, in the CM. Review of Jan., 
1912. .\ new book entitled Tlie Faith of Japan is highly commended in the 
Int. Her. Miss, of April, 1915. The author, Dr. Tasuku Harada, is President 



Shinto and 

Bu(l(liii»t 

Kevivai, 



Japan: The Nation and its Religion. 333 

educated Japan. Count Watanabe, though himself by profession Paet 11. 
a Buddhist, said in 1900, " When I ask myself how many modern ^^^p- 33. 
Buddhists have religious life in their souls, I answer — none." 
Shinto they do respect ))ecause it seems to them to foster loyalty 
and patriotism. " The Government," wrote the Eev. 0. Knight in The real 
1911, "wants neither Buddhism nor Christianity; it only wants p^^^jf-g^*'. 
Japan ; nor does it even want Shinto, except in so far as that cult Japan, 
will help to increase and crystallize the national spirit." Professor 
Cairns, in the Keport of Commission IV. of the Edinburgh Con- 
ference (p. 230), ably enlarges on this circumstance, and observes 
that " the student of classical and also of feudal history will recog- 
nize parallels to the spirit of that history in the ethics of modern 
Japan, in the dominance of society over the individual, the worship 
of ancestors, the deification of the ruling house," &c. But, he 
adds, it is extraordinary that " this antique world of thought " 
should be retained " along with the eager acceptance of Western 
methods and ideas." " It is as if Lacedsemon had been suddenly 
reorganized on American principles." 

Idolatry and superstition are, no doubt, still rife among the 
millions of peasants in the country districts who are Buddhists 
of different sects, and who are as yet untouched by missionary 
effort, — as indeed are the majority of even the 800 towns with a 
population of over 5000. But the upper classes, and particularly Widespread 
the students, to a large extent boast of their freedom from religious diflference." 
beliefs and obligations. In 1910 it was reported that inquiry being 
made of the religious profession of 400 students in a certain 
College, four declared themselves Christians, 15 Buddhists, one 
Shintoist, and one Confucianist, while 46 were avowed atheists, 
260 agnostics, and the remainder had not made up their minds on 
the subject. Again, in 1912, a Religious Census was taken in the 
Imperial University at Tokyo, among 5000 students, which showed 
8 Shintoists, 50 Buddhists, 60 Christians, 1500 atheists, and 800 
agnostics ; the rest, " No religion." The great statesman already 
referred to, Marquis Ito, though he put two Christians into his 
Cabinet in 1900, avowed his belief that " religion is quite un- 
necessary for a nation's life." He acknowledged that in Japan 
there was " almost universal atheism," but it was " no peril to 
the community." "Japan," he said, "looks for the function of 
religion being fulfilled by culture and science." But the Western 
ideals of liberty, education, culture, justice, are, as has been well 
said, " branches of the tree of righteousness and truth." Eastern 
nations, Japan among them, " are teai'ing down the branches 
hastily to plant them, and they have not got the stem from which 
the sap flows." * 

of the Doshisha College at Kyoto, and was one of the Japanese Christian 
delegates to the Edinburgh Conference. He contributed an able article on 
Christianity in Japan to the first number of the Int. Rev. Miss., Jan., 1912. 
Dr. Tisdall's book, The Noble Eightfold Path, is most valuable ; see CM. 
Intell., June, 1903. 
* " The Day of Opportunity," by M. C, Gollock, in the CM. Rev., Nov., 1908. 



334 



jfAPAX: The Nation and its Reiigion. 



Part II. 

Chap. 33. 



Highpr 
iMoralit y 
aimed at, 



and 

Religion 
believed 
necessary. 



An " Imperial Eescript on Education," first issued in 1890, still 
lias great influence, being annually read in all schools while the 
scholars reverently bow their heads towards the Emperor's 
portrait hanging on the wall. The Christians generally felt no 
compunction at thus bowing ; but eventually the Government, to 
obviate any idea of religious worship being involved, slightly 
modified the wording of the Rescript. There has lately been a 
further concession to Christian schools. They can now have the 
status of " Middle Schools " without, as before, having to relegate 
religious teaching to hours outside the regular course.* 

The best Japanese do want to see a higher morality prevailing. 
They deplore the vicious life of many students, and the lack of 
commercial integrity. Count Okuma himself is cited in the Edin- 
burgh Conference Report (Vol. IV., p. 116) as saying that " the 
old religions and old morals are steadily losing their hold, and 
nothing has yet arisen to take their place," and that some who 
have abandoned the old code of ethics seem to be " neither 
possessing nor Ijeing governed by any ideas about morality, public 
or private." And this led, first, to the formation of societies 
for considering the problem, and, secondly, to a remarkable 
Conference being summoned by the Government to meet in 
February, 1913, to consider what steps could be taken towards 
" sound progress in things spiritual, and the improvement of social 
conditions." This Conference included representatives of Buddhism 
and Shintoism, and also of Christianity, which was for the first 
time recognized as entitled to a voice in such discussions. Seven 
of the members represented seven different Christian Communions, 
the Roman Catholics, the Russo-Greek Church, the Anglicans, the 
Presbyterians, the Methodists, the Congregationalists, and the 
Baptists. The x\nglican was Dr. Motoda. Several members of 
the Japanese Cabinet attended. There was a general agreement 
that religion was necessary as the basis of national morals, and 
that the votaries of each religion must work in their own way " to 
elevate the morality of the nation." The convening of such a 
meeting at all was regarded as the reversal of a policy adopted by 
a previous Cabinet, which had tended to the exclusive patronage 
of Shintoism ; and it has been repeated since. 

The present War will have taught acute onlookers like the 
Japanese that a mere profession of Christianity by a great nation 
is no security for Christian morals. There must be a strong 
infusion of real religion if there is to be real morality. Let Japan 
catch the true spirit of Christianity, and the " splendid national 
traits " and " sterling quality of character " of which Mr. G. H. 
Moule gives some striking illustrations t will give her the first 
place in the Far East. 

* See GJ>I.S. Gazette, July, 1915. 
. t r/ie S'pirit of Japan, pp. 249-260. 




CHAPTER XXXIV. 

JAPAN: The Christian Missions. 

The Japanese Christian Communities— Leakage and its Causes -Anti- 
Christian and Neologian Influences— Converts from the Upper Classes 
— Methods of Work : Classes for all Classes— Evangelistic Cam- 
paigns— Dr. Mott's Visits— World's Student Federation— The Nippon 
Sei-kokwai — The Episcopate — New Canadian Diocese — Central 
Theological College— The American Missions— Continuation Com- 
mittee. 

jjOLlR eras in the history of Missions in modern Japan, pakt ii. 
said the C.M.S. Annual Eeport of 1913, had now passed, ^hapji. 
From 1859 to 1872 was an era of open hostility on 
the part of the Japanese Government ; from 1872 to 
1889, of sufferance; from 1889 to 1899, of liberty; 
from 1899 to 1912, of equality. And now a fifth era, of recog- 
nition, had dawned. 

But it cannot be said that the last few years have been a period statistics 
of great advance in the number of Japanese Christians. In 1901 Missions, 
the general statistics showed a total of 130,000 ; the Roman Church 
having 56,000, the Russo-Greek Chur