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Full text of "History of the city of New York"

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With a viev of New Amsterdam , ( now New York.) A . D . 1 6 a e 



HISTORY 



THE CITY OE NEW YOM: 



/ar 



DAVID T. VALENTINE, 



CLERK OF THE C0MMOi>r CODNCIL. 




NEW YORK: 

G. P. PUTNAM & COMPANY, No. 10 PARK PLACE. 

1853. 



Entered according to act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-three, 

By DAVID T. VALENTINE, 

in the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern 
District of New York. 






Mc6fsi>on & Bakbr, Printrrs, 25 Piwk t 
'"'incent Dill, Stereotj'per, 29 & 31 Beekman street. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The design of the author of this volume has been to trace tho 
progress of the city of New York in such a manner as to illustrate, 
to the reader of the present day, its gradual development, from a 
wilderness condition, through the maturing stages of a hamlet, a village 
and a city. It has been his study to follow, with minute attention, 
the different paths pursued in extending the habitations of the town, 
and to note the circumstances which operated to establish the lines of the 
early thoroughfares, and the laying out of the plan of that part of the 
city originally settled. The names, family circumstances, and "many 
biographical facts connected with the inhabitants of the town, in very 
early times, will be found amply referred to in the body of the work , 
and also in the Appendix. 

The author has availed himself of extensive private memoranda, 
gathered through the course of several years ; and also acknowledges 
his indebtedness to the principal historical works on this subject.*" 
Among others, to the valuable History of New Netherland, by Dr. 
O'Callaghan ; Dunlap's History ; Smith's History of New Tork • 
Watson's Annals, &c. He is also indebted to John Paulding, Esq., 
for minute information respecting early titles ; and to Edward De Witt, 
Esq., for the use of a valuable map of old farms, compiled in his 
office. The other maps and engravings are also furnished from authentic 
sources. 

The author is engaged in pursuing the subsequent history of tho 
dty, in a full and ample manner. 

DAVID T. VALENTINE, 

CLERK. OF COMMON COUNCIL. 

• The History of New York, by John R. Brodhead, Esq., which Irns obtftiuo#8Ufh high celebrity an an author ■ 
itativeaiid stundiird work, was i88\ied from the press at too late n period to be used by the author in coinpilin-r 
the eajly pan of this work. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I. 

THE ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF THIS ISLAND AND OF TUE ADJACENT 

COUNTRY. 

CHAPTER II. 

THE DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF MANHATTAN ISLAND. 

CHAPTER III. 

THE EARLY PROGRESS OF THE CITY. 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE FIRST INDIAN WAR (1642.) 

CHAPTER V. 

THE ORGANIZATION OF MUNICII^U. INSTITUTIONS, AND THE EVENTS OP TEE 

YEARS 1653, 1654 AND 1655. 
CHAPTER VI. 

THE rUOGRKSS OF THE CITY. 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE CONDITION OF THE CITY AT THE TIME OF THE CAPITUI^ATION TO THE 
ENGLISH, IN 1664. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED. 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED. 



VI COXTENTS. 

CHAPTER X. 

THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED. 

CHAPTER XI. 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OP SEVERAL OF THE EARLY RESIDENTS OP NEW 
AMSTERDAM, NOT ENUMERATED IN THE FOREGOING CHAPTERS. 

CHAPTER Xn. 

THE SURRENDER OF THE CITY TO THE ENGLISH, IN 1664, AND THE SUBSE- 
QUENT EVENTS, UNTIL ITS RECAPTURE IN 1673. 

CHAPTER Xni. 

THE RECAPTURE OP THE CITY BY THE DUTCH, IN 1673, AND ITS FINAL 
■ CESSION TO ENGLAND, BY TREATY, IN 1674. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

THE AFFAIRS AND CONDITION OF THE CITY BETWEEN THE YEARS 1674 

AND 1694. 

CHAPTER XV. 

REVOLUTION AND AFFAIR OF LEISLER, IN 1689. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

AFFAIRS OP THE CITY, FROM THE YEAR 1691 TO THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

N^ BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PRO.MINENT MEN IN THIS CITY, TOWARD THE 
CLOSE OP THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS FROM 1700 TO 1728. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS FROM THE YEAR 1728 TO 1750. 

CHAPTER XX. 

PROCrRESS OF THE CITY IN THE EARLY PART OP THE LAST CENTURY. 



CONTENTS OF THE APPENDIX. 



Page 

Descriptive parts of early grants and deeds on this island, specifying the local- 
ities to which they applied 307 

List of inhabitants who offered loans for erecting the city palisades iu 1653, . 313 

Tax and contribution list raised in 1655, to defray the debt for constructing 

the city defences 315 

List of the owners of houses and lots in the city about the year 1674, at the 
final cession to the English ; the property being classified according to 
its relative value, with the national descent of the persons named, and 
their estimated wealth 319 

List of members of the Dutch Church in this city in the year 1686 3:^1 

List of the inhabitants in the year 1703 344 

'^ List of citizens admitted as freemen of the city, between the years 1683 and 

1740 366 

^^ Map of farms on the island, and explanatory key 37il 

\ List of freemen continued from, and including the j'cnr 1740, to and includ- 
ing 1748 385 

Names of attorneys practicing in the city of New York, between the year 

1695 and the Revolutionary war 394 

Names of physicians and surgeons practicing in the city, between the year 

1695 and the Revolutionary war 396 

Names of schoolmasters teaching in the city, between the year 1695, and the 

Revolutionary war 398 



fflSTORY OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF THIS ISLAND AND OF THE ADJACENT 

COUNTRY. 

N The character of the Indians who occupied this country 
previous to the settlement of Europeans, will be regarded, 
in future times, as one of the most interesting topics con- 
nected with its history. Their appearance, customs and 
manners were so far distinct from those of other nations 
known to the civilized world, and their individual charac- 
ter had so little in common with the more restrained and 
law-abiding European, that they were, in the first stages 
of their acquaintance with the whites, classed by the latter 
among those wild and lawless races known as savages, 
who, it was supposed, had few, if any, of the affections 
and higher emotions of humanity, but rather were bound, 
by some mysterious link, to the lower and baser passions 
of the animal creation. Later experience, however, has 
shown, that under the advantages of education and moral 
culture, the American Indian is capable of high attainments 



HABITATIONS OF THE INDIANS. 



in all that distinguishes the best traits of human character, 
whether in a mental or a moral point of view. 

The Indians lived in villages containing from thirty to 
several hundred inhabitants, commonly situated on spots 
of ground naturally clear of wood, and having a fertile 
soil. To form their houses, they placed in the ground two 
rows of upright saplings, adjoining each other, and brought 
their tops together. Upon this frame-work was fastened 
a lathing of boughs, covered on the inside by strips of bark, 
with such nicety as to afford a good defence against' the 
weather. The interior of their huts was without flooring, 
the winter fires being constructed upon the ground, in the 
centre of the apartment, the smoke escaping through an 
opening in the roof. *The width of the houses was invari- 
ably twenty feet, but their length was greater or less, ac- 
cording to the number of families they were designed to 
accommodate ; some of them being five hundred feet in 
length, and occupied by twenty or thirty families, each 
having its allotted space; none were over one story in 
height. In time of war, their villages were surrounded by 
a fence or stockade of palisades, rising ten or fifteen feet 
from the ground, and fastened close together. 

These habitations were certainly sufficiently rude to have 
classed their builders among the most primitive architects; 
but they must not be regarded as affording the best indica- 
tion of the mechanical genius of the Indians. There being 
no individual ownership of landed property among them, 
and the exigences of their mode of life compelling them to 
change the location of their villages at certain intervals, 
these edifices must be considered as of a temporary charac- 
ter. It was a common occurrence among them, when their 
corn-grounds gave out, from over cultivation, to remove 



DRESS OF THE INDIANS. 9 

their settlements to some unoccupied and more fertile 
section. 

The Indians were fond of display in their dress, both 
sexes indulging in this taste to an extravagant degree. It 
is said, by the early Dutch settlers, that some of the highly 
ornamented petticoats of the Indian women were worth 
eighty dollars, in the currency of the present day. This 
garment hung from a belt or waist girdle, made of whalo 
fins or of the Indian money called sewant. It was made 
of dressed deer skin, highly ornamented with sewant. A 
mantle of skins Avas sometimes worn over the. shoulders. 
The hair of the women was long, plaited and rolled up 
behind, secured by bands of sewant; pendants hung upon 
their foreheads, necks and arms, and handsomely trimmed 
moccasins adorned their feet. 

The men wore upon their shoulders a mantle of deer- 
skin, with the fur next their bodies, the opposite side of 
the garment displaying a variety of designs in paint. The 
edges of the mantles were trimmed with swinging points 
of fine workmanship. The heads of the men were vari- 
ously ornamented; some wearing feathers, and others dif- 
ferent articles of a showy character. Their hair was 
straight, coarse, and of a jet-black color, being sometimes 
shaven close, except upon the top of the head. Arouud 
their necks and arms were ornaments of elaborate work- 
manship. They were accustomed to paint themselves iu a 
variety of colors and patterns, according to the peculiar 
taste of the individual. Their appearance, " in full paint." 
struck the eye of the European as grotesque and frightful. 

With respect to their physical proportions, they are de- 
scribed as being tall, small-waisted, having black or dark 
brown eyes, snow-white teeth, a cinnamon complexion, 



10 



EMPLOYMENTS OF THE INDIANS. 



and as being active and sprightly, though probably of less 
average strength than Europeans of the same size. 

The principal employment of the Indian, in time of peace, 
was the procurement of food. This consisted of several 
varieties of the fruits of the earth, in addition to the more 
substantial returns of the chase or of fishing. The country 
abounded with game, among which may be enumerated, in 
addition to the varieties still common in the country, several 
which have entirely disappeared, such as wild turkeys and 
elk. The waters furnished an abundance of fish, and the 
shores of the bay were full of oysters and other shell-fish. 
The cultivated fields produced corn, beans and other vege- 
tables, and wild fruits were abundant in the woods. 

The bow and arrow were used in hunting, with which, it 
is said, they could bring down the swiftest animals in their 
flight. The singular expertness displayed by the Indian in 
the use of this instrument, was a wonder to the white set- 
tlers, who would sometimes excite emulation among the 
young Indians by making up a purse to be shot for. It is 
said the lads could hit a shilling at forty to fifty feet distance, 
five out of ten shots. The Indians used various methods 
of fishing. They sometimes had hooks made either of fish 
bones or of thorns, which were attached to lines made of 
grass or sinews; they also sometimes fished after dark, 
after the manner called by them ivigwass, which is described 
as somewhat similar to that called " bobbing" at the present 
day. Their custom was to build a fire upon a platform laid 
across a canoe; and having persuaded their game toward 
the surface of the water by the bait which it had seized 
upon, the fish was secured by spearirg. The effect upon 
the beholder, of the half-naked Indians, in the lights, 
shadows and smoke of the pitch fire by which the wigwass 



FOOD OF THE INDIANS. 1.1 

was carried on, is described by European observers as being 
of a singularly wild character. The Indians also employed 
a great part of their time in gathering oysters and other 
shcU-tish, to lay up in store for winter provender. These 
were carried, in their canoes, to points nearest their habi- 
tations, where the business of opening the shells, drying 
the bodies and stringing them for preservation, was carried 
on by the women. It is within the observation of persons 
at the present day, that considerable spots of land, remote 
from the shore, are found covered with shells of various 
kinds. This fact may, without doubt, be traced to the In- 
dian times ; and it may be considered that where such 
deposits are found, an Indian village has at one time been 
in the neighborhood. Among other localities on this island 
where extensive deposits of shells were found, at the com- 
ing of the whites, was one on the westerly side of the 
ancient " Collect," (or the fresh water pond, occupying sev- 
eral acres, in the neighborhood of the present Halls oi* 
Justice, in Centre street.) Among the Dutch, this point 
of land was called the " Kalch-hook," or Shell Point, from 
the quantity of decomposed shells found there. The In- 
dians dwelt upon the shores of this pond, which formed a 
convenient harbor for their canoes, having access to the 
tide-waters through the outlet which ran toward the North 
river, nearly on the present line of Canal street. The 
name of the Kalch-hook was afterward applied to the 
fresh water pond itself, being abbreviated into the " Kalch" 
or " Collech," as it was afterward called. 

There were likewise several edible roots used by the In- 
dians as food; among them were the Jiopness (glycine apros;) 
the katniss (sagittaria sagittifolia;) the tawfio (arum vir- 
ginicum;) the tawkee (orantium aquaticum.) These roots 



12 



FOOD OP THE INDIANS. 



generally grew in low, damp ground, with a kind of pota- 
toes to them, and were roasted in the fire. The huckle- 
berries, found abundantly in the woods, were dried aud 
preserved; hickory nuts and walnuts were pounded to a 
line pulp, and being mixed with water, formed a pleasant 
drink, not unlike milk in sight and taste. 

The Indians were extensive cultivators of corn, beans, 
peas and pumpkins. Around their villages have been ob- 
served three or four hundred acres, bearing luxuriant 
products of these grains and vegetables. Hudson, in his 
account of his first visit to the shores of the North river, 
states that he saw, at one of the Indian villages, a quantity 
of corn and beans sufficient to fill three ships, and that the 
neighboring fields were burdened with luxuriant crops. 
The grounds cultivated by the Indians, were unfenced, as 
they kept no cattle against which to guard; the field labor 
was generally performed by the women, their implement 
being simply a wooden hoe. A variety of dishes were made 
from their field products, among which was yockeg, a mush 
formed of pounded parched corn, mixed with the juice of 
wild apples; suckaiash, made from corn and beans boiled 
together. Their corn was sometimes roasted upon the 
ears, and sometimes beaten up with pestles and boiled with 
water, which latter preparation was called suppaen. A 
variety of cakes were also made by them, said by Europeans 
to lie very palatable. 

In eating, they sat upon the ground, without a table, 
using neither knives or forks; a wooden spoon was, how- 
ever, used for some kinds of food. This style of eating 
gave their meals an appearance of voracity and uncleanli- 
ness, which was not suited to the tastes of their European 
neighbors. It is said they were capable of extreme absti- 



SUPERSTITIONS OF THE IXDIAXS. 



13 



nence from food; and that oftentimes, when setting out 
upon a journey of several days' duration, a small bag of 
parched corn, at their girdle, was their sole provision. 

The Indians were very superstitious, believers in dreams 
and observers of omens. The signs of the weather were 
objects of much attention among them; and the influence 
of the moon, with respect to the proper time to plant, was 
thought to be worthy of serious consideration. They be- 
lieved that the spirits of the dead visited the neighborhood 
of their villages during the hours of night, and that they 
could distinguish their voices, when they heard the wind 
whistling through the forests, or the cries of wild animals 
which approached the villages in search of food. The cry 
of the animal, commonly called the " painter," or wild cat, 
— which is an exceedingly mournful sound, resembling the 
crying of a child — was heard by them with a sense of awe 
and foreboding. But on the other hand, pleasant impres- 
sions were drawn from the cheering voices of the birds, 
which migrated toward the north, with the coming on of 
summer, as they then recognized the spirits of their best 
beloved friends, who were favored with a pleasant resi- 
dence among the good spirits in the regions of the south. 

When an Indian died, they placed the body in its gravo, 
in a sitting posture, defending it from contact with the 
earth by a siding of boughs, and also by a covering which 
was made secure against wild animals by a weight of stones 
and earth. At the side of the deceased, they placed vari- 
ous articles, to serve the traveler on the journey to the 
land of spirits. These were commonly a pot, kettle, plat- 
ter, spoons, some money and food. The men made no noise 
over the dead; but the women were loud in their lamenta- 



14 MEDICINE OP TECE INDIANS, 

tions,* and frequently visited the graves of their friends to 
testify their sorrow. 

• A common remedy for sickness among them was the use 
of vapor, or hot air sweating, and the cold bath. Con- 
nected with every village was a small arched cabin, en- 
tirely closed, except an opening sufficient to admit the 
body. Into this the patient crept, and was then brought 
to a state of high perspiration by means of heated stones 
laid around the cabin, to produce a hot vapor. Upon 
emerging, he was immediately plunged into cold water. 
There were also divers roots and herbs of medicinal proper- 
ties, the preparation of which was a matter of great study 
among the " medicine men" and elderly females. When 
all the appliances of medical skill failed, it was considered 
that the evil one had so fastened his toils upon his victim, 
that nothing less than assailing the enemy with his own 
arts could prove efficacious. The preparations for this 
extreme procedure, were formal and serious, while the 
performance consisted mainly of violent exhortations and 
threats against the tormentor, accompanied by contortions 
of the body, and personal infliction upon the doctors them- 
selves. These final remedies being only resorted to in 
extreme cases, were commonly followed by the death of the 
patient, leaving, however, to his friends the consciousness 
of having done all within their power to overcome the 
mighty conqueror of all. 

The science of warfare was the highest accomplishment 
of the Indian, but, as with all other people, a spirit of 
aggression was only indulged .by the stronger nations, to 
whom alone it was of any advantage. Like hunted deer, 
the poorer and less powerful tribes were sometimes forced 



INDIAN CUSTOMS OF WARFARE. 15 

to leave their villages as plunder to some marauding band, 
on a foray from some distant localit3\ The preparation 
for the war path was commonly opened by a feast and a 
dance, in which the whole tribe took part. The march 
itself was conducted in single file, the chief taking the 
lead. This form of march, which was the only one adapted 
to the narrow trail through the woods, has been, from this 
circumstance, commonly known as "Indian file." The 
approach toward the enemy was made with extreme care to 
avoid discovery, and the first signal of the assault was a 
general war-whoop, followed by an immediate onslaught. 
The extermination which commonly attended Indian fights, 
gave them a ferocious character to the whites, whose prin- 
ciples of warfare were based upon circumstances widely 
different from those of the Indians. It was a theory com- 
mon to both, to inflict the greatest possible punishment 
upon the enemy, but with the Indians the difficulty of 
escorting a large number of helpless prisoners, occasioned 
an indiscriminate slaughter, in many instances, of even 
women and children. This practice, however, was not 
without exceptions, and frequently persons of the other 
tribe were taken and adopted by the conquerors, being 
afterward treated, in all respects, as those of their own 
nation. In cases of prisoners, upon whom policy or 
revenge dictated the infliction of punishment, death by 
torture was sometimes resorted to. 

To die without displaying weakness or fear, was one of 
the highest virtues in the eye of the Indian, and was early 
inculcated in the minds of the children. An account given 
by an early writer, of an assault by a party of Dutch from 
this city, upon an Indian village in Westchester county, 
strikingly illustrates this characteristic. It was in the 



16 



FORTITUDE OF THE INDIANS. 



depth of winter, and the Christians, being led by a guide, 
came upon the town lying in a valley, sheltered from the 
north-west wind. The houses were built in three rows in 
street fashion. The narrator goes on to say: "The moon 
was then at the full, and threw a strong light against the 
mountain, so that many winter days were not brighter than 
it then was. On arriving there, the Indians were wide 
awake, and on their guard, so that our people determined 
to sm-round the houses, with sword in hand. They de- 
meaned themselves as soldiers, and deployed in small 
bands, so that we got in a short time one killed and twelve 
wounded, but they were so hard pressed that it was impos- 
sible for one to escape. In a brief space of time there 
were counted one hundred and eighty dead outside of the 
houses. Presently none dared come forth, keeping within 
the houses, and discharging arrows through the holes. It 
was then resolved to fire the houses, whereupon the Indians 
tried every means to escape: not succeeding in which, they 
returned back to the houses, preferring to perish in the 
flames, rather than die by our hands. What is most won- 
derful, is that among the vast collection of men, women 
and children destroyed, (some five or six hundred in num- 
ber,) not 0116 was heard to utter a cry." 

It is well known that the art of public speaking was 
highly cultivated among the Indians. Their discourse on 
public occasions, was grave, powerful and impressive, inso- 
much that many Europeans, who have heard them, have 
considered their oratory as distinguished for style and 
effect as any known in history. The Indian language 
differed in many respects in the various tribes, but its char- 
acteristics were generally similar. It was distinguished 
by sonorous and weighty phrases, several words being 



LANGUAGE OF THE IXDIAN9. 17 

joined together to complete a sentence in one expression. 
As an illustration of the sound of their language, arranged 
according to modern prosody, the following translation of 
the Lord's Prayer into the Indian tongue, has been handed 
down to us. 

" Soungwauneha, caurounkyawga, tehaeetaroan, sauhsoneyousat, esa. 
sawaneyou. okettauhsela, ehneauwoung, na, caurouakyawga, nughwon- 
shaugua, neattewehnesalauga, taugwaunautoronoantougsick, toantaugwel- 
eewheyoustaung, cheneeyeut, chaquatautehwheyoustaunna, toughsau. 
tiiugwaussareneh, tawautottenaugaloughtoungga, na^awne, sacheautaug- 
wass, coautehsalohaungaeckaw, esa. sawaunneyou, esa, sashautzta, esa, 
soungwasoung, chenneauhaungwa, auwen." 

While the orator addressed his audience, there was no 
interruption on their part, excepting a sound expressing 
their satisfaction, at points in the speech, resembling a 
gutteral pronunciation of the word "yah." The gestures 
of the speaker were animated, his voice loud, and the effect 
upon an observer, of the erect figure, naked arm and flow- 
ing mantle of the orator is described as very impressive. 
The matter of the discourse is found, in all the speeches 
which have been transmitted to us, to have been well 
adapted to the subject, embracing every style that might 
readilv touch the heart or affect the reason. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF MANHATTAN ISLAND. 

After the discovery of the Western Continent, by Chris 
topher Columbus, the attention of Europe seemed to be 
turned toward the southern part of the new world, where 
the gold was found emblazoning the garments of the abo- 
riginal inhabitants, holding a glittering temptation to the 
enterprise of adventurous spirits. Thus the cold regions 
of the north lay unvisited for more than a hundred years 
by any other than passing vessels, sailing along the coast, 
and making formal discoveries of its shores, to be mapped 
as the property of their royal employers. 

One of these vessels of discovery, commanded by Verre- 
zano, in the service of the French, is believed to have 
entered the south bay of New York, in the year 1525, and 
thus may have had a distant glimpse of the island which 
is the subject of our history; but by some it is doubted 
if his description of the harbor, which is not very explicit, 
is applicable to the bay of New York. 

The first discovery has been generally ascribed to Henry 
Hudson, an Englishman by birth, who, in the year 1609, 
being then in the service of the Dutch, sailed westward 
from the shores of Europe, in search of a north-west pas- 
sage to the East Indies. The vessel, commanded by Hudson, 
was a small yacht, called the " Half Moon," manned by 



HUDSON S DISCOVERY OF THIS ISLAND. 



19 



from sixteen to twenty men, partly of Dutch and partly 
of English birth. This vessel was not over eighty tons 
burthen, being designed for coasting. After traversing 
the American coasts, between Newfoundland and the 
Chesapeake bay, he turned his course northward again, 
designing to explore, leisurely, the extent of country thus 
passed by. On the 1st of September, 1609, he discovered 
the Highlands of Neversink, described by him as a " very 
good land to fall in with, and a pleasant land to see." The 
next day he rounded Sandy Hook, and the second day fol- 
lowing he anchored under the Jersey shore, in the south 
bay. 

The Indians flocking to the shore in great numbers, 
appear at once to have understood the designs of their 
visitors, for, whether by tradition or rumor from other 
lands, they seem to have been acquainted with the articles 
of trade, most in use, between the whites and the Indians, 
and were apt at driving a bargain. They offered tobacco 
and other products, in exchange for knives and beads. 
Their disposition seemed friendly, and the women presented 
such articles of food as they had prepared in that season. 

On the 6th of September, a boat's crew, dispatched by 
Hudson, to explore the coast further inland, entered the 
Narrows, and came in sight of Manhattan Island. They 
described the land, encircling the bay, as covered with 
trees, grass and flowers, and the air as filled with delightful 
fragrance. The return of this small party was unfortu- 
nate, as, from some unexplained reason, the boat was 
attacked by two canoes filled with Indians, and one of the 
crew, named John Coleman, was killed by an arrow pierc- 
ing his throat. It seems probable, from the course taken 
by Hudson, after this disaster, that the assault by the 



20 HIS RETURN TO HOLLAND, AND REPORT. 

natives was not without provocation, as friendly inter- 
course was still kept up between the parties. 

On the 11th of September, Hudson weighed, and sailed 
up through the Narrows. Having anchored in New York 
harbor, he was visited by the neighboring Indians, who 
made great show of love, giving presents of tobacco and 
Indian corn. He remained at anchor but one day, and on 
the 12th of September, took his course up the river, which 
has since borne his name. In his exploration to the head 
of navigation, near the present site of Albany, he was 
engaged about three weeks, and finally put to sea on the 
4th of October, making directly for Holland, with news 
of his discovery of this fine river and its adjacent country, 
which he described as offering every inducement for settlers 
or traders that could be desired. 

Beside the fertility of the soil, which was satisfactorily 
shown by the great abundance of grain and vegetables 
found in the possession of the Indians, a still more enticing 
prospect was held out to the view of the merchant, in the 
abundance of valuable furs observed in the country, which 
were to be had at a very little cost. Hudson had, there- 
fore, scarcely made publicly known the character of the 
country visited by him, when several merchants of Amster- 
dam fitted out trading vessels and dispatched them to this 
river. Their returns were highly satisfactory, and ar- 
rangements were immediately made to establish a settled 
agency here to superintend the collection of the furs and 
the trade with the Indians, while the ships should be on 
their long journey between the two hemispheres. The 
agents thus employed, pitched their cabins on the south 
point of Manhattan Island. The head man being Hend- 
rick Corstiaensen, who was still the chief of the settle- 



TRADERS ESTABIJSn THEMSKLVES HERE. 21 

ment in 1613, at which period, an English ship, sailing 
along the coast from Virginia, entered the harbor on a 
visit of observation. Finding Corstiaensen here, with his 
company of traders, the English captain summoned him to 
acknowledge the jurisdiction of Virginia over the country 
or else to depart. The former alternative was chosen by 
the trader, and he agreed to pay a small tribute to th 
Governor of Virginia, in token of his right of dominion, , 
The Dutch were thereupon left to prosecute their trade 
without further molestation. 

The government of Holland did not, however, recognize 
the claims of England to jurisdiction over the whole Amer- 
ican coast, and took measures to encourage the discovery 
and appropriation of additional territory, by a decree, 
giving to any discoverers of new countries the exclusive 
privilege of trading thither for four successive voyages, to 
the exclusion of all other persons. This enactment induced 
several merchants to fit out five small ships, for coasting 
along the American shores in this vicinity. One of these 
vessels, commanded by Captain Block, soon after its arrival 
on the coast, was accidentally destroyed by fire. Block 
immediately began the construction of another, of thirty- 
eight feet keel, forty-four and a half feet on deck, and 
eleven and a half feet beam, which was the first vessel 
launched in the waters of New York, She was called the 
" Unrest," or Restless, and ploughed her keel through the 
waters of Hell Gate and the Sound, the pioneer of all 
other vessels, except the bark canoes of the aboriginal 
inhabitants. 

The several ships dispatched on this exploring expedi- 
tion, having returned to Holland, from their journals and 
surveys a map of a large extent of country was made, ovei- 



22 CONDITION OF TUE FIRST SETTLEMENT. 

which the Dutch claimed jurisdiction, and to which they 
gave the name of "New Netherhiud." The owners of 
these vessels, as the reward of their enterprise, were 
granted the promised monopoly of trade hither for four 
voyages, to be completed within three years, commencing 
on the 1st of January, 1615. 

These merchants seemed to have been composed in part 
of those who had established the first trading post here, 
but having increased their number and capital, and en- 
larged their former designs of trade, formed themselves 
into a company under the name of the " United New Neth- 
erland Company." Corstiaensen was continued the princi- 
pal agent here, and they likewise established a post at the 
head of the river, on an island opposite the present site of 
Albany. Forts, of a rude description, (being merely 
inclosur(^ of high palisades,) were erected at both places. 

The privileges granted to the " United New Netherland 
Company," being, however, limited in respect to time, their 
establishment on this island, can hardly be considered as 
a permanent settlement; the cabins of the settlers were 
nearly of equal rudeness with those of their Indian neigh- 
bors; and but few of the luxuries of civilization found 
their way into their habitations. The great object of the 
settlement was, however, successfully carried on, and stores 
of furs were in readiness to freight the ships on their pe- 
riodical visits from the fatherland. No interruption of the 
friendly intercourse carried on with the Indians took place, 
but on the contrary, the whites were abundantly supplied 
by the natives with food and most other necessaries of life, 
Avithout personal labor and at trifling cost. 

The Indian tribes in the neighborhood of this trading 
post, were the "Manhattans," occupying this island; the 



PKEPARATIONS FOR AN EXTENSIVE COLONIZATION. 



23 



" Pachamies," the " Tankiteks," and the " Wickqueskceks," 
occupying the country on the east side of Hudson river, 
south of the Highlands; the " Hackingsacks," and the 
" Raritans," on the west side of the river and the Jersey 
shore ; the " Canarsees." the " Rockways," the " Merri- 
kokes," the " Marsapeagues," the " Mattinecocks," the 
Nissaquages," the " Corchaugs," the " Secataugs," and the 
" Shinecocks,'"' on Long Island. 

The trade of this colony of settlers was sufficiently 
profitable to render its permanency desirable to the " Unit- 
ed New Nctherland Company," as it is found that at the 
termination of their grant, in the year 1618, they endeavored 
to procure from the government, in Holland, an extension 
of their term, but did not succeed in obtaining more than 
a special license, expiring yearly, which they held for two 
or three subsequent years. 

In the mean time, a more extensive association had been 
formed among the merchants and capitalists in Holland, 
which in the year 1621, having matured its plans and 
projects, received a charter under the title of the " West 
India Company." Their charter gave them the exclusive 
privilege of trade on the whole American coast, both of 
the northern and southern continents, so far as the juris- 
diction of Holland extended. 

This great company was invested with most of the 
functions of a distinct and separate government. They 
were allowed to appoint governors and (ther officers; to 
settle the forms of administering justice; to make Indian 
treaties, and to enact laws. 

Having completed their arrangements for the organiza- 
tion of their government in New Netherland, the West 
India Company dispatched their pioneer vessel hither in 



24 ARRIVAL OF COLONISTS. 

the year 1623. This was the ship " New Netherland," a 
staunch vessel, which continued her voyages to this port, as 
a regular packet, for more than thirty years subsequently. 
On board the " New Netherland " were thirty families to 
begin the colony — this colony being designed for a settle- 
ment at the head of the river, the vessel landed her 
passengers and freight near the present site of Albany, 
where a settlement was established. The return cargo 
of the New Netherland was five hundred otter skins, one 
thousand five hundred beavers, and other freight valued at 
about twelve thousand dollars. 

It having been determined that the head quarters of the 
company's establishment in New Netherland, should be 
fixed on Manhattan island, preparations for a more exten- 
sive colony to be planted here were made, and in 1625 two 
ships cleared from Holland for this place. On board of 
these vessels were shipped one hundred and three head 
of cattle, together with stallions, mares, hogs and sheep 
in a proportionate number. Accompanying these were a 
considerable number of settlers, with their families, sup- 
plied with agricultural implements, and seed for planting; 
household furnituxe, and the other necessaries for establish- 
ing the colony. Other ships followed with similar freight, 
and the number of emigrants amounted to about two hun- 
dred souls. 

On the arrival of the ships in the harbor, the cattle 
were landed, in the first instance, on the island now called 
Governor's Island, where they were left on pasturage until 
convenient arrangements could be made on the main- 
land, to prevent their straying in the woods. The want 
of water, however, compelled their speedy transfer to 
Manhattan Island, where, being put on the fresh grass, 



ACT OF FREEDOMS AND EXEMPTIONS. 



25 



they generally throve well, although about twenty died, in 
the course of the season, from eating some poisonous vege- 
table. 

The settlers commenced their town by staking out a 
fort on the south point of the island under the direction 
of one Kryn Frederick, an engineer sent along with them 
for that purpose; and a horse-mill having been erected, the 
second story of that building was so constructed as to 
afford accommodation for the congregation for religious 
purposes. The habitations of the settlers were of the 
simplest construction, little better, indeed, than those of 
their predecessors. A director-general had been sent to 
superintend the interests of the company in this country, 
in the person of Peter Minuit, who, in the year 1626, pur- 
chased Manhattan Island from the Indian proprietors for 
the sum of sixty guilders or twenty-four dollars, by which 
the title to the whole island, containing about twenty-two 
thousand acres, became vested in the West India Com- 
pany. 

The success of the company proved itself, for a short 
period, by the rise in the value of their stock, which soon 
stood at a high premium in Holland. Various interests, 
however, were at work in the company to turn its advan- 
tages to individual account, and in 1628 an act was passed 
under the title of " Freedoms and Exemptions granted to 
all such as shall plant Colonies in New Netherland." This 
edict gave to such persons as should send over a colony 
of fifty souls, above fifteen years old, the title of " patroons," 
and the privilege of selecting any land, (except on the 
island of Manhattan,) for a distance of eight milse on each 
side of any river, and so far inland as should be thought 
convenient. The company stipulating, however, that all 



26, 



IXCREASE OP IMMIGRATION. 



the products of the plantations thus established should be 
first brought to the Manhattans, before being sent else- 
where, for trade. They also reserved to themselves the 
sole trade with the Indians for peltries, in all places where 
they had an agency established. 

With respect to such private persons as should emigrate 
at their own expense, they were allowed as much land as 
they could properly improve, upon satisfying the Indians 
therefor. 

These privileges gave an impetus to emigration, and 
assisted, in a great degree, in permanently establishing the 
settlement of the country. But from this era commenced 
the decay of the profits of the company, as with all their 
vigilance, they could not restrain the inhabitants from 
surreptitiously engaging in the Indian trade, and drawing 
thence a profit which would otherwise have gone into the 
public treasury. 




s 



^'^yp^ ^-r en/ .A/lri^ ycr7l^ 



W ': 




EX PLANATION 

// T/'^e J-ally/'Ort 

/S Tht F<;rtM/-c X. /-iwn/j. 






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\ trolls 






CHAPTER III. 



THE EARLY PROGRESS OF THE CITY. 



As the affairs of the city began to assume a settled con- 
dition, the public authorities and citizens turned their 
attention to the building of public and private edifices 
adapted to the \rants of the colony. 

The fort was probably the first permanent structure 
raised by the company on this island; the building erected 
for this purpose being a block-house, surrounded by red 
cedar palisades, constructed in 1626. In 1633, A^an Twil- 
ler, then the Director General, commenced the erection of 
a new fort, on a larger scale, being about three hundred 
feet long and two hundred and fifty feet wide, which was 
finished in 1635, at an expense of one thousand six hundred 
and eighty-eight dollars. 

The site of this edifice was on the blocks now inclosed 
by^ the streets called Bowling Green, Whitehall, Bridge 
and State streets. This extensive structure was, for the 
most part, a mere bank of earth, except the points, or ex- 
tended corners, which were of stone. It was at first occu- 
pied as the Governor's quarters and inclosed his residence, 
and the several offices connected with the government; the 
soldiers were also quartered there. 

The first church edifice, built exclusively as a place of 



28 ERECTION OF THE FIRST CHURCH. 

worship, was also commenced in the year 1633. This 
building was situated on the shore of the East river, at a 
short distance from the fort; its precise locality being on 
the present north side of Pearl street, about midway be- 
tween Whitehall and Broad streets. This structure was 
of wood, and without pretension to ornament. It was 
occupied as a place of worship for about ten years; but in 
the time of the Indian war, in the year 1642, it was con- 
sidered an unsafe place of meeting, from the well known 
practice of the Indians, in other exposed settlements, of 
attacking the settlers, while assembled in their churches, 
when the presence and affright of the females subjected the 
citizens to a battle at great disadvantage. Added to these 
cogent reasons, there seem to have been others of a differ- 
ent nature, as we are told by an ancient author that the 
proposition was discussed, in his presence, by some of the 
citizens, in the following manner : " It was a shame," said 
they, " that the English should see, when they passed, no- 
thing but a mean barn, in which public worship is per- 
formed. The first thing they did, in New England, when 
they raised some dwellings, was to build a fine church; we 
ought to do the same. We have good materials, fine oak 
wood, fine building stone, and good lime, made from oyster 
shells." 

A onntract was made to erect this edifice within the 
vvails of the fort; the church to be of rock stone, seventy- 
two feet long, fifty-two feet broad, and sixteen feet over 
the ground, at a cost of about one thousand dollars. John 
and Richard Ogden, of Stamford, Connecticut, were the 
contractors. A marble slab was placed in the front of the 
building, with this inscription : " Anno 1612. W^illiam 
Kieft, Directeur General ; Heeft de gemeente Desen Tempel 



ERECTION OP OTHER PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 2& 

doen bouwen" — the translation, in English, being thus : — 
"Anno 1G42. William Kieft, Director General; Hath the 
commonalty caused this Temple to be built." This tablet 
was discovered, buried in the ground upon the site of the 
fort, at the close of the last century. It was removed to 
the Dutch church, then in Garden street (Exchange place.) 
and placed in the belfry, for preservation. On the destruc- 
tion of the latter building by the great fire, in 1835, this 
ancient relic was lost or destroyed in the general ruin. 

The expense of erecting the church in the fort, was borne 
partly by the citizens ; a desirable opportunity haying- 
occurred for procuring subscriptions, on the occasion of a 
marriage of a daughter of Domine Bogardus. While the 
festivities were at their height, the list was handed round, 
and a considerable amount subscribed. 

The " Old Kirke," before mentioned, on the East river 
shore, continued in existence nearly a century after its 
abandonment as a place of worship, and was occupied as a 
place of merchandize and dwelling. 

Several other buildings, of a public character, were like- 
wise erected by the company, at an early period, among 
which were the Company's Bakery, Avhich was erected near 
the fort, on the present Pearl street, near Whitehall; the 
Company's Brewery, on the present Bridge street, north side, 
between Broad and Whitehall streets; a house for the 
preacher, Domine Bogardus, on the present Whitehall street, 
near Bridge street; a dwelling-house for the Fiscal, in the 
same neighborhood. The first church-yard, (to be referred 
to hereafter, more particularly,) was established on the west 
side of the present Broadway, a short distance above Morris 
street, on the level ground above the hill at the Bowling 
Green. 



30 



BROADWAY. 



In the year 1642, it was considered desirable to afford 
increased accommodation to travelers on their way from 
New England and other places, for which purpose " a fine 
stone tavern" was erected, fronting the East river. This 
building, which was among the first constructed east of the 
present Broad street, was located on the present north-west 
corner of Pearl street and Coenties alley. After the 
organization of a city magistracy in 1653, it was ceded to 
the city, to be used for the purposes of a " stadt buys," or 
city hall, and was thus occupied until the year 1700. 

Among the most substantial buildings erected at an 
early period, were the store-houses of the company. These 
were five in number, constructed of stone, adjoining each 
other, in a permanent and durable manner. These build- 
ings occupied a position facing westward toward the fort; 
an open space of over a hundred feet in width, originally 
lying between them and the fort. A part of this space 
was, however, afterward built upon, leaving a small street 
in front of the store houses, called the " Winkle street," 
or Store street, extending between the present Bridge 
and Stone streets. 

Two principal roads were established on this island at 
an early period. One extending from the fort northwards, 
through the interior of the island. For this, a space was 
left in front of the sally-port, or front gate of the fort, as 
a place for deploying and forming the soldiers, (occupied 
at present by the Bowling Green,) thence ascending the hill 
on the present line of Broadway, it pursued a northerly 
course, on a ridge, to the south point of the present Park, 
whence it followed the line of the present Chatham street 
to nearly the corner of Duane street. To avoid the steep 
descent there encountered — for a heavy hill thence de- 



TIIK KOAD TO THE FEKRY. 



31 



scended to a brook at the preseut Roosevelt street — it 
wound around to the right, making a circuit nearly on the 
present lines of Duaue, William and Pearl streets and 
thence again ascended up the present Chatham square, 
which was formed by the necessity of leaving a wide 
space for a circuitous ascent of the hill. A handsome and 
nearly level road- way, thence continued on the present line 
of the Bowery. 

The other road was that originally leading from the 
ferr}^ landing, between Long Island and this island. This 
ferry, from the earliest settlement, and for many years 
afterward, was from the present landing on the Brooklyn 
side, at Fulton Ferry, to the nearest point on this island, 
which was at the present Peck slip. Cornelius Dircksen, 
was the earliest ferryman of whom the records speak, and 
was, probably, the first person who regularly followed that 
calling. He owned considerable land near Peck slip in 
the year 1G42. From the ferry, the road ran along the 
East river shore, on the present line of Pearl street, as far 
as Hanover square. It continued its course, on the line 
of the present Stone street, to the fort. 

The west side of the road along the shore, was a favor- 
ite locality for out-of-town residences, it being an elevated 
hill. Avith a fine river prospect, and tolerable soil. Among 
the original grantees of land along this section, were the 
following : Henry Brazier, thirty-three acres near Franklin 
square, adjoining to Wolphert's marsh, which occupied the 
parts adjacent to the present Roosevelt street. Cornelius 
Dircksen, the ferryman, land near ihe present Peck slip. 
David Provoost, Philip De Tray, Cornelius Van Tienhoven, 
Laurens Cornclisen Vanderwel and Govert Loockermans. all 
these, who were prominent men in early times, were 



32 



FIKST GRANTS OF TOWN LOTS. 



grantees of the lands between the ferry and the present 
Maiden lane, along the west side of Pearl street. 

It was not until the year 1642, that any deeds or grants 
were made of town lots, and probably no title for lots 
below Wall street will date further back, through individ- 
ual proprietors, than that date. Previously, the settlers 
had been permitted to occupy building localities by un- 
written sanction, and these had been established with little 
respect to uniformity, except such as the natural geography 
of the island, at its southern extremity, suggested. Cir- 
cumstances, however, led to the adoption of certain lines 
of thoroughfares, which afterward, upon the survey and 
regulation of the town, became adopted as permanent 
streets, and have since remained so. 

Lots on the lower part of Broadway, then called the 
'' Great Highway," began to be laid out and granted to 
individuals in the year 1643. In that year, Martin Crigier 
received the grant of a lot on the west side of the street, 
opposite the present Bowling Green. The successive 
grantees of property on the same road, below the present 
Wall street, about the same period, were the following: To 
j9llerton ^ Loockerman, merchants, a lot on the east side 
of the road, above the present Beaver street. This lot 
contained one hundred feet in front, and two hundred and 
twenty -five feet in depth, the rear being bounded by a marsh, 
covering the present Broad street and adjacent parts. To 
Andreas Hudde^ an officer of the company, sixty-two feet in 
front, on the same side of the road, and about two hundred 
and twenty-five feet in depth. To Rutger Arentsen Van Seyl, 
also in the employ of the company, on the same side of the 
road, fifty feet front, same depth as above. To Cornelius Vol- 
kertsen, also in the service of the company, on the same side 



ORIGINAL GRANTS ON BROADWAY. 



of the road, and adjoining Van Seyl, one hundred and 
twelve feet front, same depth as above. To Thomas Sand- 
erson, on same side of the road, and next above Hudde, 
fifty feet front, same depth as the others. To Philip 
Geraerdy, a trader, a lot on the same side of the road, next 
above Volkertsen, one hundred feet front, and about the 
same depth. To Ja7i Jansen Van Jorcum, on same side of 
the road, about one hundred feet front. To Leendert 
Mrden, also in the service of the company, on the same 
side of the road, about fifty feet front and two hundred 
feet in depth. To Arien Pietersen Van Alkmaar, also in the 
service of the company, on the west side of the road, oppo- 
site the present Bowling Green, about one hundred and 
thirty feet front, and ninety-eight feet in depth. To Cosyn 
Gerritsen, a lot on the east side of the road, adjoining 
Rutger ^rtsen, about fifty feet front. 

These grants were the first on Broadway, and some 
years elapsed before they were generally built upon. It is 
evident, however, that at this early period, the speculative 
value of property on that street was fully appreciated by 
the early settlers, as not more than one or two of the 
original grantees ever occupied the property themselves, 
or did more toward improving than fencing them in, but 
in after years sold them to persons for building purposes. 
The grants above-mentioned were made prior to Stuyve- 
sant's arrival in 1647; previous to which period, the west 
side of the road, above the present Bowling Green and 
below Trinity church, was occupied solely by the burial- 
ground, and by the gardens and dwellings of Mr. Vande- 
grist and Mr. Van Dyck. Two lots above Van Dyck were 
granted by Stuyvesant to his sons Baltalazar and Nicholas 
William, each about one hundred feet front, running to the 
3 



34 



GRANTS ON PEARL STREET. 



North river shore. We may consider the grants above 
enumerated, as the beginning of Broadway in its character 
of a public street, it having previously been no more than 
a road through fields owned by the West India Company, 
under their Indian title to the island. 

It was before suggested, that the favorite building local- 
ities in the outset of this city, were those immediately 
adjacent to the fort; and one of the earliest being on the 
present line of Pearl street, between Whitehall and 
State streets. This had been occupied from the time that 
the fort was first laid out. The situation was convenient 
for the kind of buildings then customary, as some protec- 
tion was afi"orded from the cold northerly winds by the 
walls of the fort. Among the early occupants, ranging 
between the years 1643 and 1647, were the following, on 
the north side of the street, commencing at the present 
Whitehall street: Lamert Van Valkenbergh, Jan Evertsen 
Bout,. Barent Jansen, Michael Pauluzen, Anthony Jansen, u 
Jochem Pietersen, Cors Pietersen, Gillis Pietersen, Claes Jan- 
sen, Jo7-is Rapelje, Hans Hansen, Jan Snediger, Jacob Con- 
stable, Tryntje Jonas, Francis Doughty, and Paulus Hey mans. 
On the south side of the street were Rem Jansen, The 
Company^ s Bakery, Jan Cornelisen Coster, Claes Jansen Van 
JVaerden, Claes Jansen Ruyter, Cornells Tunizen. Jan Jansen 
Schepmoes, Jicrien Blanck. 

The early settlers upon Whitehall street, were as 
follows : In 1645, Tunis Tomassen Van J^aarden was 
granted the lot on the present south-east corner of White- 
hall and Marketfield streets, having a front on Whitehall 
street of about one hundred feet, and depth on Marketfield 
street of about seventy feet. In the following year, a 
grant was made to Roelof Jansen Haes, of the property 



GRANTS OX WHITEHALL AND BRIDGE STREETS. 



85 



fronting on the present Whitehall, Beaver and Marketfield 
streets, containing about ninety feet on Whitehall street, 
by seventy-five feet in depth on the other streets. Between 
Stone and Bridge streets, several lots were granted in 1646, 
extending, in depth, to a small street fronting the store- 
houses of the company. The occupants were Jan Hues, 
George Holmes, Robert Butler, Everardus Bogardus, Syhout 
Clasen, Isaac de Foreest. The western side of this street 
was the line of the fort. The street had, at this time, re- 
ceived no distinctive name, the property being described as 
east of the fort, <fcc. 

The present Bridge street, between Whitehall and 
Broad streets, was occupied by several residents, at an 
early period. In 1642-3, Hendrick Hendricksen Kip re- 
ceived a grant on the north side of the street, containing 
about ninety feet front and seventy feet in depth. The first 
private deed, on record, showing the value of property 
in those early times, was executed, in the year 1643, by 
Abraham Jacobsen Van Steenwyck, conveying to Anthony 
Jansen Van Fees, a lot next to Kip's, containing thirty 
feet front and one hundred and ten feet in depth ; the price 
paid being twenty-four guilders, equal to nine dollars and 
a half of our currency. This was as valuable property as 
any in the town, and the almost nominal value of land, in 
those times may may be thence inferred. Other original 
grantees of lots on this street, were Pietcr Van Linden, 
Abraham Verplanck, Anthony Jansen, and Hendrick, the 
smith. The street was then without a name. 

The present Stone street, as has been before mentioned, 
was the line of the first road laid out from the fort to the 
ferry. The early occupants of that part of the road be- 



36 



GRANTS ON STONE STREET. 



tween the present Whiteliall and Broad streets, were the 
following, their propertj' being generally described as on 
" the road :" Adam Rolantsen, one hundred feet front ; 
Arent, the smith ; Philip Gcraci-dy, a trader ; Oloff Skve7i- 
son Van Cortland, commissary ; Harman Meyndertsen ; 
Isaac De Foreest, brewer ; Gysbert Opdyck, commissary ; 
Pieter Cornelisen. From the character of these residents, it 
is to be inferred that this was one of the best streets of the 
town. Crossing the inlet, at the present Broad street, by 
a bridge, the part of the road between the latter street 
and the present Hanover square, was vacant on the south 
side, until the erection of the City Tavern, in 1642. On 
the north side, Jacob Wolfertsen Van Couwenhoven, a prom- 
inent citizen, established a large brewery ; his lot fronting 
on the road, on the inlet or present Broad street, and on a 
street in the rear. Beyond him lay vacant ground, a grant 
of which was made, in 1646, to Wessel Evertsen, containing 
a front of two hundred and twenty feet and depth of ninety 
feet. Beyond Evertsen, toward Hanover square, was 
land granted to Borger Jorisen, about one hundred and 
forty feet front and one hundred and thirty feet in depth. 
This individual gave a name to the present Old slip, 
which was, for over a century after the period now re- 
ferred to, known as " Borger Jorisen's Path," or Burgher's 
Path. 

Among the other thoroughfares, occupied at an early 
period, was the present Broad street, the names of some 
of the early inhabitants being as follows : Cornells Melyn, 
on the east side, between the road (Stone street) and the 
river shore (about the present line of Pearl street) — his 
premises being about ninety feet front and sixty-five feet 



GRANTS OX BROAD AND OTHER STREETS. 



37 



deep ; Michael Marshan, one hundred and forty feet front, 
seventy feet deep ; Martin Ael, seventy-five feet front ; 
Govert Loockermans, Gerrit Douwman, about forty-five feet 
front, on the west side of the street ; Willem Cornelisen, 
sixty-eight feet front, on same side ; Ahraham Rycken, on 
the east side, extending south from the present corner of 
Beaver street, about one hundred and twenty feet; Adrian 
Vincent, next adjoinging on the south, about ninety feet 
front; Tunis Kracy, on the west side, about sixty feet 
front ; Michael Picket. These were all below the present 
Beaver street ; above the latter point, the street was a 
marsh. A more particular history of this locality will be 
found under the description of the " Heere Graaft," in a 
subsequent part of this book. 

On the present Beaver street, between Broadway and 
Broad street, several settlers established themselves, at an 
early period, viz : Paulus Vanderheek, William Bredenhent, 
a tavern called the " Sign of the Lion," Evert Jansen, Pieter 
Mountfort, Jan Moimtfort. 

The present Marketfield street was also occupied as 
a public thoroughfare at a very early period ; one of the 
grantees being Claes Van Elslant, the town sexton, who 
resided there for many years. 

The North side of the present Pearl street, between 
Broad and "Whitehall streets, lay fronting the river shore; 
extending out into the river, on the line of the present 
Moore street, was a little wharf, built at a very early 
period. It was the only landing place in the city, but ex- 
tended not far beyond low water mark, and was only suit- 
able for the landing of goods, by means of scows and small 
boats, from vessels anchored in the stream. 



THE CITY IN 1642. 



The description of the progress of the town, given in 
this c}ia})tcr, will, it is supposed, be better understood from 
the following illustrative map, drawn by the author, from 
the best data in his possession . 




Note. — The upper cross road is the present Maiden Lane, then called 
T'Maagde Paatje." 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE FIRST INDIAN WAR. (1642.) 

It was suggested, in a previous chapter, that the influx 
into the country of settlers not connected with the West 
India Company, had a tendency to introduce competition 
in the fur trade, which the company had designed to 
monopolize for its own benefit. The private traders, by 
traversing the country into distant localities and over- 
bidding the company's oiScei-s, contrived to turn this 
profitable trade from the coflers of the government into 
their own pockets. After years of fruitless efibrt to 
restrain these illegal practices, the Directory in Holland, 
making a virtue of necessity, threw open the Indian trade 
to individual competition, simply endeavoring to counter- 
balance the sacrifices thus made, by increasing their duties 
on imports and exports. 

The cflect of this measure, was to open a scene in the 
country altogether novel, and of a pernicious tendency. 
For, then, nearly the whole population turned their 
thoughts toward the Indian trade, abandoning their former 
pursuits. The officers and agents, in the service of the 
company, resigned their places, and engaged in business 
on their own account. Mechanics left their trades, and a 
general competition ensued for the purchase of peltries. 
To make friends among the Indians was, therefore, the 



40 



INCIDENTS OF THE INDIAN TRADE. 



object of all ; and soon the natives began to enter as 
heartily into the tricks and mysteries of barter as the 
most expert traders among the whites. Their introduction 
into the families of the citizens, where they were invited 
to meals and lodgings; the common use of guns and ammu- 
nition, procured in trade, together with their ripening 
experience in the ways and customs of their white neigh- 
bors, gave them a rising notion of their own condition. 
They became exacting and close in their bargains, so that 
Van Tienhoven writes, " if they gave you a herring, they 
required a cod in return." They exacted civilities and 
attentions to an exorbitant degree, and were offended, if 
these were withheld. 

This unnatural and constrained condition of intercourse, 
could not last longer than the purpose for which it was 
originated could be subserved, and accordingly when it 
was no longer found profitable to indulge the Indians in 
these delicate attentions, the opposite extreme was pur- 
sued; the natives were reviled and thrown back with 
contempt; and in place of the former unnatural familiarity, 
a mutual hatred grew up between the two races. " Indian 
dog " became the common term of reproach of the whites 
upon their neighbors, while the natives, on the other hand, 
were equally loud in their expressions of derision for the 
Dutch. " They might be something on the water," said 
they, but are of no account on land. In their own country 
they have neither a great sachem or chief." 

The first Indian war gradually grew out of this state of 
feeling; and it is difficult to see how the government, 
under Kieft, which was greatly blamed, and finally super- 
seded, in consequence of the war, could have allayed the 
causes which seem to have been the preparatory incite- 



PREPARATION'S FOR UOSTILITIES. 



41 



ments to hostilities. It is, liowcvcr, apparent that addi- 
tional fuel was added to the embers thus ignited, by 
Kieft, who, desirous of participating, on behalf of his 
employers, in the general design upon the property of the 
Indians, undertook to enforce a contribution from the 
tribes under the form of a tax upon their corn. This 
movement set the natives in an uproar, and they replied 
in a general cry of contempt and sarcasm at this novel 
proceeding. " He must be a mean fellow," said they, for 
" he had not invited them to come and live here, that he 
should now take away their corn." 

Matters now looked so serious that the whites began to 
make preparations for hostilities, by furnishing themselves 
with guns and ammunition, and fortifying their exposed 
settlements. 

The first expedition from this city, against the Indians, 
was sent out in 1640, against the Raritans inhabiting the 
main behind Staten Island, who were alleged to have 
stolen some hogs from a settlement on Staten Island, an 
allegation which proved afterward to have been a mistake. 
This party of whites was composed of seventy men, under 
the command of Yan Tienhoven, the secretary. Arriving 
at the Indian villages, at an unexpected time, they com- 
menced slaughtering and plundering the inhabitants, and 
after putting several to death, and burning the crops in 
the Indian fields, they returned to their homes without 
loss. Smarting under this foray, the Raritans determined 
that the " Swannekins," as they called the Europeans, 
should have dead men instead of dead hogs to fight for, 
and accordingly made a descent upon the farm belonging 
to Captain De Vrics, on Staten Island, killed four of his 
planters, and burned his dwelling and tobacco house. 



42 PROGRESS OF THE INDIAN WAR. 

Kieft now determined to wage a war of extermination 
against the Raritans, and offered a reward of ten fathoms 
of wampum for every head of a Raritan, and twenty 
fathoms for the heads of those engaged in the murder of 
the people on Staten Island. This measure stimulated the 
cupidity of some Indians, who were inimical to the Rari- 
tans, and one of the Haver straw Indians soon after made 
his appearance at the fort, with the hand of a dead man 
dangling on a stick. It belonged to a chief who had been 
concerned in the Staten Island murder. After this, the 
troubles with the Raritan tribe ceased. 

Another murder in a different quarter, now called on 
the Dutch for vengeance. It was perpetrated in the pres- 
ent Westchester county, by a young Indian of the Weck- 
quaaskeck tribe, whose uncle had been killed nearly 
twenty years before, by the whites. Vengeance is con- 
sidered a virtue in the Indian philosophy, and this young 
man, having inherited this duty, called at the house of an 
aged settler, named Cornelisen, on pretence of making 
some purchases. The old man proceeded to get the goods 
from his chest, and the moment he stooped the Indian 
struck him dead, and withdrew after rifling the house of 
its contents. No satisfaction could be got by the Dutch 
for this outrage, and it became evident that the only safety 
of the whites lay in retaliatory measures. 

Governor Kieft, viewing the important nature of the 
step now proposed to be taken, sought the advice of the 
body of the people, whose interests and safety, were so 
directly concerned, and invited all the citizens to assemble 
in the fort to consider upon the proper course to be taken. 
This meeting, the first popular assembly, convened in this 
city, took place on the 28th day of August, 1641. Twelve 



PROGRESS OP THE INDIAN WAR. 



43 



men were cliosen by the people to act on their behalf, who, 
on the following day, resolved that war should be waged, 
if the murderer were still refused to be delivered up; that 
the attack should be made on the Indians in the harvest 
time, when the warriors were absent on their hunting 
expeditious; but meanwhile further efibrts should be made 
by kindness to obtain justice, which was accordingly seve- 
ral times sought for in vain. 

The harvest time being come, many obstacles arose, and 
operations were postponed until the year 1642, Avhen it 
was resolved to avenge the perpetrated outrage. There- 
upon spies looked up the Indians, who lay in their villages, 
suspecting nothing, and eighty men were detailed under 
Ensign Hendrick Van Dyck, and sent thither. The guide 
being come with the troops in the neighborhood of the 
Indian wigwams, lost his way in consequence of the dark- 
ness of the night. The ensign became impatient, and 
turned back without having accomplished any thing. The 
journey, however, was not without effect, for the Indians, 
who observed, by the trail, that they had narrowly escaped 
destruction, sought for peace, which was granted them on 
condition that they should either deliver up the mui'derer, 
or inflict justice themselves. This they promised to do, 
but without any result. 

Some weeks after this, Miantonimo, principal sachem of 
the Xarragansets, came toward this city, with one hundred 
men, passing through all the Indian villages, soliciting 
them to a general war against the English and the Dutch; 
thus exciting still further the enmity existing in the breast 
of the Indians. Hostilities were commenced against 
exposed settlements, and the community in the town began 
to be greatly alarmed, having the Indians daily in their 



44 



FLIGHT OF THE INDIANS. 



houses. The demands for justice for the repeated murders 
and depredations, were received by the Indians with sneers 
and laughter. 

It happened that at this time a band of Mohawks, the 
" kings of the forest," whose hunting grounds were toward 
Canada, made a descent upon several Indian villages on 
the Hudson river, below the Highlands, and drove the 
affrighted population from their homes, so that running 
from one enemy into the country of another, already pant- 
ing for vengeance, the Weckquaaskecks, hunted through 
the snow, half famished with cold and hunger, came for 
shelter to the neighborhood of this city, and built their 
lires on the outskirts of the town. 

The whites furnished them with provisions, to keep them 
from starving, for a fortnight; meanwhile, however, delib- 
erating upon the policy of availing themselves of the op- 
portunity thus afforded of wreaking their vengeance, so 
long held in contemplation. The savages, observing the 
portents of this design, scattered themselves in different 
directions in a new affright; a large number, however, 
settling themselves at the present Corlaer's Hook, and a 
still more considerable number on the opposite shore of 
the North river at Pavonia. Although a generous com- 
passion induced many of those among the Dutch citizens, 
who had previously counseled retaliatory measures, to take 
no advantage of the present afflicted condition of the 
Indians, yet the councils of a majority determined that the 
moment had now arrived to strike the blow of vengeance. 
Accordingly, in the middle of the night of the 25th 
of February, 1643, two parties set out from the city, one 
headed by Maryn Andriezen and Govert Loockermans, 
against the Indians at Corlaer's Hook, and another 



MASSACRE OF THE INDIANS. 45 

against the camp at Pavonia. " I remained at the direct- 
or's," says an eye-witness, " and took a seat in the kitchen, 
near the fire. At midnight I heard loud shrieks, and went 
out to the parapet of the fort and looked toward Pavonia. 
I saw nothing but the flashing of the guns. I heard no 
more the cries of the Indians." After the first cry of sur- 
prise, the Indians, as was their custom, made no exclama- 
tion in the process of their destruction. 

Eighty Indians were killed at Pavonia, and thirty at 
Corker's Hook. These were of all ages and sexes, and no 
barbarity was too shocking to be inflicted upon them. 
Thirty prisoners, and the heads of several of the enemy, 
who had been killed, were brought in by the return 
parties. 

These proceedings aroused the neighboring Indian na- 
tions to frenzy, and eleven different tribes proclaimed war 
against the Dutch. Every settler, upon whom they could 
lay hands, was murdered; the farm-houses and cattle were 
destroyed, and the country around Fort Amsterdam laid 
completely waste. All settlers, in exposed places, removed 
within the town, and the condition of the inhabitants 
l^ecame distressing in the extreme. 

In these circumstances, the whites came almost to open 
war among themselves. Those who had advised and con- 
ducted the late proceedings, were charged with having 
brought immeasurable evils upon the whole community, 
many having been rendered beggars by the retaliatory acts 
of the Indians, and each inhabitant, in whatever circumstan- 
ces he may hitherto have been, being now compelled to 
forego all other interests in the paramount duty of guarding 
the lives of the members of his family. Crimination fol- 
lowed recrimination; each tried to shift the responsibility 



46 QtJARKELS AMONG THE CITIZENS. 

from himself. Among others, Andriczeu, one of the lead- 
ers of the party that attacked the Indians at Corlaer'sHook, 
received a full portion of the obloquy. Hearing that 
Director Kieft joined in these aspersions, he presented 
himself at the fort, armed with a pistol loaded and cocked, 
and with a hanger at his side. Coming unawares into the 
Director's room, he presented his pistol at him, exclaiming, 
"what devilish lies are these you are reporting of me?" 
his pistol was, however, seized by one of the bystanders, 
and himself arrested and committed to prison. Within an 
hour after, the prisoner's son, accompanied by another 
person, entered the fort, and came into the presence of 
Kieft, who was walking up and down. On perceiving 
their approach, the director general retired, but was fired 
at by the young man, without effect. Upon this a sentinel, 
in return, discharged his gun at the intruder, and brought 
him down; his head was afterward affixed to a gibbet. A 
large crowd now collected at the fort, and demanded the 
release of Maryn Andriezen. This Kieft refused, offering, 
however, to submit the case to the citizens at large. Fi- 
nally, owing to the excitement and diversity of feeling in 
the community, the trial of Andriezen was transferred to 
Holland. It is not certain whether he was actually sent 
thither; if so. however, he returned and engaged in busi- 
ness here as usual. 

As the spring advanced, it became for the interest of 
both parties to cease hostilities, and accordingly a treaty 
of peace was concluded in May, 1643. But this was a hol- 
low truce, as the Indians still took every opportunity to 
rob and murder those whom they could assail. The farms 
at Pavonia, four in number, were burnt, not by open force, 
but by stealthily creeping through the brush, with fire in 



DESTRUCTION OF FARMS. 4T 

hand, and igniting the roofs of the buildings, which were 
constructed either of reed or straw. Several boats, com- 
ing down the Hudson river, with packs of furs, were 
boarded, and the traders killed. Nine Christians, in- 
cluding two women, were murdered in these captured 
vessels, one woman and two children remaining prisoners. 

A small force, consisting of five boys and one man, 
having been detailed for the defence of the colony on the 
present Jersey shore, near Elizabethtown, was attacked by 
a party of savages on the night of the 17th September, 
and were obliged, after some resistance, to retreat, and 
the premises were burnt; they escaped in a canoe, saving 
nothing but their arms. Another small party, which had 
been dispatched to the same quarter, to protect another 
farm, ivas visited by the Indians; who, finding the men 
unarmed, murdered all but one, a boy, whom they took 
away with them to Tappan; the farm buildings were de- 
stroyed. Aert Thunisen, a planter at Hoboken, having 
gone out on a trading excursion, was killed near Sandy 
Hook. At the eastward, the work of destruction was pros- 
ecuted with equal violence. Among the more conspicu- 
ous victims was the celebrated Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, 
who had taken up her residence near the present Stamford, 
Connecticut. All the members of her family, and a num- 
ber of other persons residing in the neighborhood, were 
murdered. 

At this period of general terror, the Dutch settlers, with 
women and children, gathered around " Fort Amsterdam," 
and lodged under its walls, in huts of straw. 

In this condition of things, the citizens having, at the 
request of Director Kieft, deputed to a committee the 
power to advise and act for the best, this committee re- 



48 



NEW EXPEDITIONS. 



solved to seek aid from the Euglish settlements, eastward, 
and also to set forth their condition to the government in 
Holland. In their memorial, dated in November, 1643, to 
the latter power, they state their circumstances in these 
words : 

" The inhabitants of New Netherland were pursued, in 
the spring, by the wild heathen and barbarous savages, 
with fire and sword. Daily have they cruelly murdered 
men and women in our houses and fields; and, with hatchets 
and tomahawks, struck little children dead in their parent's 
arms, or before their doors, or taken them far away into 
captivity. Cattle, of all descriptions, are destroyed and 
killed, and such as remain must perish, this approaching 
winter, for want of fodder. Every place almost is aban- 
doned." 

In this condition things remained through the winter, 
the most strenuous efforts being made, in the mean time, 
to secure aid from their English neighbors, in which they 
were successful to some extent. Several expeditions were 
sent out, at an early period. One composed of forty 
Dutch, under Captain Kuyter, and thirty -five English, un- 
der Lieutenant B.axter — the whole under the command of 
Councillor La Montagnie — went out against some Indians 
on Staten Island. They made a night approach to the 
place where they expected to come upon the Indians, but 
failed in their purpose, finding the village abandoned by 
its inhabitants. Their only booty was five or six hundred 
skepels of corn, with which they returned to the city, after 
burning the Indian village. The next expedition was 
directed against the Indians on the eastern borders of 
Westchester county, where they expected to find the 
natives unsuspicious of their approach. This party was 



RETURN TO THE CITY. 



49 



sent up the East river in three sailing vessels, and landed, 
in the evening, at Greenwich. They forthwith commenced 
their march, which they continued through the night, but 
missed their way ; upon returning, before morning, they 
were met by some Englishmen, who offered to guide them 
to a place where they could find Indians. This journey 
was more successful, and resulted in the death of eighteen 
or twenty of the enemy, and the capture of an old Indian 
and several women and children. 

The old Indian, thus made captive, promised, as the 
price of his liberty, to lead the whites to Weckqueskeech, 
and accordingly conducted a party of sixty-five men to the 
Indian castles, but found them all empty ; a matter of much, 
surprise to the whites, as these forts were of very strong 
construction, of plank five inches thick, nine feet high, and 
braced around with thick balk, full of port-holes. Two of 
these were burnt, and the other preserved as a place of re- 
treat, if the necessities of the campaign reduced them to 
that extremity. The party returned, having killed only 
one or two Indians, taken some women and children pris- 
oners, and burnt a quantity of corn. This detachment 
returned to Fort Amsterdam, without further operations 
at that time. 

The next expedition was sent out upon Long Island, 
where it was understood that Pennawitz, a chief who had 
alwaifTS professed friendship for the settlers, was engaged 
in secretly concocting a design to introduce his people, under 
the guise of friendship, into the houses of the Dutch, and, 
at one moment, to destroy the whole community. Against 
this trilie a detachment of one hundred and twenty men 
was dispatched, composed of Dutch citizens, under the 
command of Captain Kuyter; of Englishmen, under Cap- 
4 



50 



SUCCESS OP THE WHITES. 



tain Jolin Underbill; and of soldiers, under Sergeant 
Pieter Cock — tlie whole commanded by Councillor La 
Montagnie. This party proceeded, in three vessels, up the 
Sound, and having landed, marched to Hempstead. Having 
sent forward an advance party, who dextrously killed an 
Indian spy, the main body advanced, in two divisions, and 
the battle resulted in the death of one hundred and twenty 
Indians; the loss, on the part of the whites, being but one 
killed and three wounded. The party returned with several 
Indian prisoners; upon whom, in imitation of the barbarous 
custom of the natives, the people of the city inflicted their 
death by torture. One of them was hacked to pieces with 
knives, while the other was flayed alive, strips of flesh be- 
ing cut from his living body; and being chased into the 
present Beaver street, his head was finally cut off. 

The next expedition was dispatched under Captain Un- 
derhill, who had shown himself to be an efficient ally. 
This design was against the Indians in the neighborhood, 
whence the party, before spoken of, had recently returned, 
on the eastern borders of the present Westchester county, 
information having been received that the camping-place 
of the Indians could now be found. In this party, one hun- 
dred and thirty men were engaged, the second in command, 
under Captain Underhill, being Ensign Van Dyck. The 
party having landed at Greenwich, commenced their march 
over ground covered with snow. Being led by a trusty 
guide, they came upon the Indian village upon a moonlight 
night, finding the enemy, however, upon the alert. They 
surrounded the village, and commenced firing upon the 
people as they showed themselves, and finally drove the 
whole within the houses, whence they continued the battle. 
To terminate the fight the habitations were fired, and the 



END OP THE FIRST INDIAN WAR. 51 

. Avhole number, not already killed outside the houses, were 
consumed in the flames. The number was estimated at be- 
tween five and six hundred, including men, women and 
children, " from whom not a cry or groan escaped." The 
expedition returned to New Amsterdam, where a public 
thanksgiving was ordered for the brilliant success attend- 
ing the arms of the Dutch. This battle is said to have 
taken place on a part of Horse Neck, called Strickland's 
Plain, now in the bounds of Greenwich, Connecticut. 

This decisive event put an end to the war, the Indians 
having concluded to ask for peace. Accordingly, in April, 
1644, Mamaranack, chief of the Indians residing on the 
Kicktawank or Croton river; Mongackonon Poppenohar- 
ron, representing the Weckquaaskecks and Wockpeem; 
and the Wappings, from Stamford, presented themselves at 
Fort Amsterdam, and pledged themselves that they would 
not henceforth commit any injury upon the white people 
of New Netherland; and having further promised to de- 
liver up Pacham, a chief who had been very active against 
the Dutch, peace was concluded, the Dutch engaging, on 
their part, not to trouble the Indians, or molest them in 
their planting. Several of the Long Island tribes soon 
after appeared, by their chiefs, at the fort, and concluded 
a similar treaty. Other tribes followed, in the succeeding 
year, at which period the first open war, between the Dutch 
and Indians, may be said to have closed. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE ORGANIZATION OF MUNICIPAL INSTITUTIONS, AND THE EVENTS OF THE 

YEARS 1653, 1654 AND 1655. 

As time passed on, the citizens, whose homes had become 
settled in New Amsterdam; whose families were growing up, 
and many of whose relatives had found their last resting- 
place within its limits, began to feel an interest in the well-be- 
ing of the place, and a desire for its advancement, as respects 
appearance and general comfort. These sentiments, how- 
ever, could not be satisfactorily manifested, unless the 
people themselves were the ministers of their own bounty, 
for which reason it Avas desirable that the town should be 
incorporated, and its interests subjected to the management 
of its own inhabitants. Some effort toward this object 
had been made as early as the year 1642, by an application 
to the authorities in Holland for the establishment of mu- 
nicipal institutions in this town, similar to those of the 
father-land. No definite action, however, followed the 
urgent request of the inhabitants until the year 1652, 
when a separate magistracy was allowed to the city, and 
the town received a quasi incorporation, under the govern- 
ment of a schout, two burgomasters and five schepens. 
This organization, though not sufficiently independent of 
the general administration to satisfy the desires of the 




■City Hall of New Amstenlaai, in which the Schout, Burgomasters and Schepen< 
held their sessions. Built iu the year 1642. Taken down in the year 170(i. 
This building originally faced the East river, but at the period when this view 
was taken, a new street had been erected along the river, the two houses on the 
side? of the above view facing dii Coentics slip. 





The residence of Governor Stuyvcsant at the time of iii> death, situated on iiis 
fiirm or Hmvciv, 



ORGANIZATIOX OF THE FIKST MAGISTKACY. 53 

people, was still an approach toward independence, which 
at once gave a turn to the affairs of the town, of a highly 
beneficial nature. 

The powers of the magistrates were well-defined with 
respect to their judicial functions, having original juris- 
diction of civil and criminal cases, arising within their 
limits, subject to an appeal from their judgments, to the 
director general and council. Their municipal powers, 
however, were wholly undefined, and being created under a 
special authority, independent of the general government 
of the father-land, they cannot be said to have had any 
powers whatever, not subject to the controlling voice of 
the director general and his council; and this seems to 
have been the construction put upon their functions, in 
some cases which brought the subject under review. 
Nevertheless, for general purposes, it was conceded that 
the town magistrates were invested with similar powers to 
those of the like officers in father-laud; and Avere au- 
thorized to supervise the improvement of the town, to 
appoint their own officers, and to make general regulations 
for their observance. 

The magistrates were to be appointed, in the first 
instance, by the director general and his council, to hold 
office for one year; and in course of time they were privi- 
leged to advise the government as to the appointment of 
their successors, and to submit a nomination for his consid- 
eration. 

The separate organization of the town being thus estab- 
lished, it became necessary to have a city-hall or town- 
house for the use of the magistrates, to which purpose the 
city tavern, which had been built by the government in 
1642, was converted, and henceforth became known as the 



54 



CITY MAGISTRACY. 



" stadt huys." The magistrates held their court once a 
fortnight, the bell ringing for its opening at nine o'clock in 
the morning, and for its closing at 12 o'clock. If business 
was unfinished, they resumed their sessions after dinner, 
at one o'clock. The proceedings of the court were of a 
very simple character; the disputing parties generally 
appearing in person. A lawyer from Holland, (Dirck Van 
Schelluyn) settled in the city, soon after the establishment 
of this court, but his business was not lucrative. 

Provision had been made to compensate the Burgomas- 
ters, by a salary of three hundred and fifty guilders, (one 
hundred and forty dollars,) and the Schepens by a salary 
of two hundred and fifty guilders, (or one hundred dollars) 
per annum, but it does not seem that they ever availed 
themselves of their salary; indeed, it would appear that 
there were no funds from which their pay could be drawn, 
as the " chest," or treasury, was but poorly supplied, and 
the current expenditures for other purposes kept it at a 
very low ebb. At some seasons, and particularly during 
the progress of the survey of the town, (to be afterward 
adverted to,) their time was very much employed in city 
affairs, to the detriment of their personal interests; and 
looking about in vain for remuneration, they conceived the 
happy thought of applying to the general government, 
respectfully petitioning "for the arrears of their salary, 
so long forgotten, in order that once seeing the fruits of 
their labors they may be encouraged to still greater zeal." 
Governor Stuyvesant, however, gave no more favorable 
reply than his permission that they should draw their 
salary out of the city treasury, as he had nothing to do 
with the matter. 

Although the position of the town magistrates was one 



CITY MAGISTRACY. 



55 



of little emolument, it was, nevertheless, deemed a place 
of great honor and respectability. They enjoyed the title 
of " my lord," and an elevated place on all ceremonious 
occasions. On Sundays, they occupied a separate place in 
church, their state cushions being carried by the bell- 
ringer, from the city-hall, and placed in their pew. 

The first entry in the records of the magistrates of this 
city is a prayer, which, having been inserted at length in 
their minutes, is supposed to have been designed by them 
to go down to posterity, and is therefore given in full : 

" God of Gods, and Lord of Lords, Heavenly and 
most Merciful Father ! We thank thee that thou hast not 
only created us in thine own image, but that thou hast re- 
ceived us as thy children and guests when we were lost; 
and in addition to all this, it has pleased thee to place us 
in the government of thy people in this place. 

" O Lord, our God, we, thy wretched creatures, acknowl- 
edge that we are not worthy of this honor, and that we 
have neither strength nor sufficiency to discharge the trust 
committed to us, without thine assistance. 

" We beseech thee, oh fountain of all good gifts, qualify 
us by thy grace, that we may, with fidelity and righteous- 
ness, serve in our respective offices. To this end enlighten 
our darkened understandings, that we may be able to dis- 
tinguish the right from the wrong; the truth from falsehood, 
and that we may give pure and uncorrupted decisions; 
having an eye upon thy word, a sure guide, giving to the 
simple wisdom and knowledge. Let thy law be a light 
unto our feet and a lamp to our path, so that we may never 
turn away from the path of righteousness. Deeply impress 
on all our minds that we are not accountable unto men but 
unto God, who seeth and heareth all things. Let all 



56 CITY MAGISTRACY. 

respect of persons be far removed from us, that we may 
award justice unto the rich and the poor, unto friends and 
enemies alike; to residents and to strangers, according to 
the law of truth; and that not one of us may swerve 
therefrom. And since gifts do blind the eyes of the wise, 
and destroy the heart, therefore keep our hearts aright. 
Grant unto us, also, that we may not rashly prejudge any 
one, without a fair hearing, but that we patiently hear the 
parties, and give them time and opportunity for defending 
themselves; in all things looking up to thee and to thy 
word for counsel and direction. 

" Graciously incline our hearts, that we exorcise the 
power which thou hast given us, to the general good of the 
community, and to the maintenance of the church, that we 
may be praised by them that do well, and a terror to evil- 
doers. 

" Incline, also, the hearts of the subjects unto due obe- 
dience, so that through their respect and obedience our 
burdens may be made the lighter. 

" Thou knowest. Oh Lord, that the wicked and ungodly 
do generally contemn and transgress thine ordinances, 
therefore clothe us with strength, courage, fortitude and 
promptitude, that we may, with proper earnestness and 
zeal, be steadfast unto the death against all sinners and 
evil-doers. 

" Oh, good and gracious God, command thy blessing 
upon all our adopted resolutions, that they may be ren- 
dered effectual, and redound to the honor of thy great and 
holy name, to the greatest good of the trusts committed to 
us, and to our salvation. 

" Hear and answer us. Oh gracious God, in these our pe- 
titions, and in all that thou seest we need, through the 



EXPECTED ATTACK FROM THE ENGLISH. Ol 

merits of Jesus Christ thy beloved son, in whose name we 
conclude our prayer." 

Events happened soon after the organization of the city 
magistracy, which for a time delayed the promised improve- 
ment of the town. War having been declared between 
the English and Dutch nations in the year 1652, it was 
expected by the inhabitants and government of this city, 
that some attempt would be made to settle the long-dis- 
puted pretensions of the English to the country occupied 
by the Dutch, by force of arms, and the prudence of mak- 
ing needful preparations for this emergency was manifest 
to all; the fort was therefore repaired, the citizens were 
enrolled in four companies, and the city was placed under 
military guard. The small forces of the Dutch were, 
however, so inadequate to meet the superior number which 
could be mustered in the New England colonies, should 
an assault be determined upon, that it was evident all 
attempt at defence would be fruitless, unless some artifi- 
cial defences were thrown up, to maintain the town against 
an approach on the land side. It was therefore determined 
to construct a line of works along the outskirts of the 
town, from the North to the East river. About forty of 
the principal inhabitants ofi'crcd a loan of over two 
thousand dollars for carrying on this Avork, which was 
commenced about the 1st of April, IGoo. 

Commissioners having been appointed to superintend 
the work, it was decided to build it in the following man- 
ner : posts or palisades, twelve feet in height and seven 
inches in diameter, to be set in the ground, and sided up 
on the outside with boards; on the inside of the stockade 
a ditch, two feet wide and three feet deep, to be dug, the 
ground being thrown up against the fence — thus making 



58 



ERECTIOX OF THE FIRST CITY WALL. 



a platform of sufficient height to permit the assailed to 
overlook the stockade. The work was completed about 
the 1st of May, 1653. It extended along the East river 
shore, from near the present head of Coenties slip, on the 
line of Pearl street, and crossed the cultivated fields to 
the North river, its line being marked by the present north 
side of Wall street. All trade and business was at a 
stand-still during its progress, every citizen lending a 
helping hand. 

During the whole of this summer (1653) the people were 
under arms, not knowing the moment when an attempt 
would be made against the city. Rumors from New Eng- 
land were rife, of organizations and preparations going on 
there, to join in the attempt. It woukl seem, however, that 
the energetic measures adopted by the Dutch Governor, 
and the attitude assumed by his people, were effectual in 
deterring the inhabitants of New England from pursuing 
their designs without aid from their home government. 
The year 1653, therefore, passed over without any attempt 
having been made against this city. 

With the opening of the following year, the Dutch 
found the danger still more imminent than in the previ- 
ous season, as Cromwell, who was then in power, had 
been persuaded to dispatch a fleet to America, consisting 
of four ships, the avowed destination of which was against 
this city. The fleet, touching at New England to raise 
additional forces, remained there a short period, and in the 
month of June found itself, in force, nine hundred men and 
a troop of horse. Their arrival at New England, and the 
extensive preparations going on there, it may readily be 
conceived, caused intense excitement in this city. The 
commotion was very great, and occasioned not the less 



PEACE BETWEEN ENGLAND AND HOLLAND. 59 

disorder from the circumstance that many of the inhabit- 
ants counseled the surrender of the town, without blood- 
shed; but Governor Stuyvesant bore down on tliis class of 
citizens the whole force of his displeasure; and in spite of 
murmurs, anxieties and misgivings, the preparations for 
war went on, amid the removal of women and non-combat- 
ants, goods and valuables, beyond the reach of the missiles 
of destruction. 

By a providential accident, as the English fleet was 
about to set sail for this city, a vessel was observed coming 
iuto their harbor, which turned out to be the bearer of 
news of peace concluded between England and Holland. 
On receipt of this intelligence in New Amsterdam, a day 
of thanksgiving was set apart, on which to offer up thanks 
for their happy deliverance from the devastating evils of 
a war. 

By the termination of these difficulties, the people of 
New Amsterdam were relieved from the apprehensions to 
which they had been subject, and were left to arrange the 
pecuniary liabilities in which they had become involved. 
The settlement of these matters went further toward 
alienating the minds of the people from their superiors 
than any which had previously occurred. The West India 
Company had originally agreed to take all needful measures 
for the defence of the country at its own expense; but 
Stuyvesant caused a tax to be laid on the people, to defray 
the debt thus incurred, which amounted to about two 
thousand five hundred dollars. 

The people of this city were, during a few succeeding 
years, relieved from the apprehension of an invasion on 
the part of the English; but in the year following that last 
spoken of, the note of war was sounded from another 



60 EXPEDITION TO TUE DELAWARE. 

direction. A colony of Swedes, seeking along the Ameri- 
can coast a spot whereon to plant themselves, and finding 
none more promising than the head of Chesapeake Bay, 
where a small Dutch colony was already established, ex- 
pelled that colony from its quarters, and settled themselves 
in its place. This proceeding having been communicated 
by Stuyvesant to his superiors in Holland, he received 
orders to move, with all his disposable forces, against the 
intruders; and due preparations having been made, on the 
oth of September, 1655, the governor, at the head of his 
forces, set out on this expedition, which resulted in full 
success. 

But while the city was thus left nearly destitute of forces, 
and slumbering without any other fear than that which 
might arise for the welfare of their friends on the expedi- 
tion to the south, the amazement and dismay of the inhab- 
itants may be imagined, when, on the morning of the 15th 
of September, before day-break, the town was awakened to 
find itself in possession of the Indians. These, to the 
number of nearly two thousand men, in sixty-four canoes, 
having drawn up on the shore, spread themselves through 
the streets of the town, offering, however, no violence. 
Hastily rising from their slumbers, the inhabitants gathered 
themselves in the fort. Messengers were sent, to learn 
from the Indians the occasion of their visit; but they gave 
little satisfaction, pretending that they were in search of 
some Indians from the north, whom they supposed to be 
concealed in the town. This answer, however, was evi- 
dently evasive, and that some other motive induced so 
strange a visit, was apparent. It soon became manifest 
that they had come hither to obtain vengeance for the 
death of one of their women, who, having been discovered 



FORAY OF INDIANS. 



61 



by Hendrick Yan Dyck, stealing peaches from his orchard, 
on the shore of the North river, a few rods below the 
present Rector street, had been shot at and killed by him. 
Every effort was now made to pacify the natives, and to 
make amends, by apology, for the mishap; and finally, to- 
ward evening, the Indians were persuaded to leave the 
city, and take quarters, for the night, on Nutten Island 
(now Governor's Island,) whither they accordingly de- 
parted. Soon after nightfall, however, the fires of subdued 
passion again getting the mastery, they returned in a body, 
and seeking out their victims, they wounded Van Dyck, 
in the breast, with an arrow, and cut down his neighbor. 
Captain Vandiegrist, with an axe. But the citizens, having 
congregated in the fort, made a desperate assault upon the 
Indian band, and drove them to the shore, into their canoes, 
leaving three dead, and carrying with them several wound- 
ed; the citizens lost two killed and a number wounded. 
Passing over the North river, the Indians killed all the 
inhabitants of Pavonia except one family; on Staten 
Island, between twenty and thirty settlers fell victims. In 
all, twenty-eight farms were destroyed, with their cattle 
and crops, over one hundred Christians were killed, and 
one hundred and fifty taken captive. 

The whole country was in alarm, and the country people 
flocked to the city from all quarters. The Indians were 
hovering around the outskirts of the town, and threaten- 
ing universal destruction. The inhabitants made prepara- 
tions for a desperate warfare, raising the city palisades to 
a still greater height, to prevent the " over-loopen" or 
escalading of the Indians, and mustering all their availa- 
ble forces under arms. But Governor Stuyvesant, on his 
return from the south, profiting by the experience of his 



62 QUIET RESTORED. 

predecessor, pursued the most peaceful means of establish- 
ing quiet in the country, and by presents instead of blows, 
succeeded in effecting the release of the captives, and in 
restoring amicable feelings between the races. The Indian 
tribes, engaged in this foray, were those inhabiting the 
country south of the Highlands, on both sides of the North 
river. 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE CITY. 



After the quiet of the country was restored, aud events 
appeared to justify the inhabitants- in the expectation that 
no further apprehension need be felt with respect to the 
designs of England against the Dutch possessions in Amer- 
ica, the progressive welfare of the city received the atten- 
tion of the magistrates. 

The city then contained several thoroughfares, irregu- 
larly laid out, having been adapted to the nature of the 
ground in its original state, diversified by hills, valleys., 
marshes and streams; all the thoroughfares being yet in 
the condition of country roads, without pavement or other 
improvement. To establish some regularity with regard 
to the streets, Av^as a primary object, with which intent a 
survey of the town had been ordered in 1654; but the more 
stirring events of that year had caused the subject to drop 
for that time. In 1656, however, this survey was com- 
pleted; and the city was laid down upon a map, and con- 
firmed by law, " to remain, from that time forward, without 
alteration." 

Most of the houses were then built of wood, and many 
of them in such a rude manner as to have chimneys made 
Af boards, and merely plastered, and roofs thatched with 



64 



CITY SURVEYED, AND STREETS FIRST NAMED, 



reeds; these were ordered to be improved, so as to avoid ^ 
the danger of fire. When new lots were granted by the 
public authorities, which were only to actual settlers, 
and upon condition that they should be improved without 
delay, the magistrates were strict in enforcing perform 
ance of the conditions; and as several persons had previ- 
ously received grants of large lots, for gardens, which 
they were now disposed to keep in their original condition, 
for speculative purposes, these were ordered either to sell 
or build on their lots, and in case of refusal, the lots were 
taxed. The burgomasters also enacted orders against 
casting filth into the streets; for the removal of hog pens 
and hay barracks from the fronts of the streets; and for 
the building of fences so as to leave no lots open on the 
highway. 

The streets established by this original survey of the 
city, were named as follows: TMarckvelt; De Heere straat; 
De Hoogk straat; De Wall; T' Wafer; De Perel straat; 
Aghter de Perel straat; De Brouwer straat; De Winckel 
straat; De Brugh straat; De Heere graft; De Prince graft; 
De Prince straat; De Bever graft; T. Marckvelt steegie; 
De Smee straat; De Smifs Valey. The locality of these 
streets, with particulars of their early history, will be 
found in a subsequent part of this book. 

In the year 1658, stone pavements were first laid in the 
streets of this city; the street earliest improved in this 
manner, being the present Stone street, between Broad 
and Whitehall streets. The pavement of Bridge street 
followed, in the same year; and within the subsequent two 
years several of the other streets, most used, and situated 
in low ground, were likewise paved. These pavements 
were of cobble stones, without foot-walks for passengers — 



WHARF ^\iOXQ THE EAST RIVER SHORE. 65 

the gutter, for carrying off the water, running through the 
middle of the street. 

Among the most important improvements of that day, 
was that undertaken for the protection of the shore along 
the East river, from the washing of the tide. This work 
had been partially done by the inhabitants whose lots 
fronted on the water, but so imperfectly as to occasion the 
necessity of a general ordinance. At some places rough 
stone walls had been built along the shore; at others, 
planks had been driven into the ground, and at others, no 
improvement had been made. It was designed to extend 
the whole distance below Wall street, on the present south 
line of Pearl street. The general ordinance under which 
this work was constructed, was as follows: " Whereas, the 
sheeting in front of the city hall, and before the city gate, 
(at Wall street,) on the East river, and some other places 
thereabout, is finished, and some is also begun by others, 
therefore, for the uniformity of the work, all who have 
houses on the water side, between the city -hall and the 
gate are ordered to line the banks with plank, according 
to the general plan and survey; to be completed between 
this and 17th December, 1656." 

Up to the period of which we now write, there had been 
but one wharf in the town; the ships were in the custom 
of mooring in the East river, and sending their cargoes 
ashore in scows. This wharf, which was on the present 
line of Moore street, running out from Pearl street, was 
of small dimensions, extending but little further into the 
stream than low water mark, and scows were compelled 
to come up at the head of the pier. We find mention of 
this wharf first in 1614, though it had, probably, existed 
from the first settlement of the town. To this pier an 
5 



66 ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC MARKETS. 

addition was made, in the year 1659, by an extension of 
fifty feet. The vicinity of this place was the centre of 
trade for many years, several of the principal merchants, 
in the times of the Dutch, occupying the present north 
side of Pearl street, between Broad and Whitehall streets. 

The first establishment of public markets may be set 
down at this period. Some attempt, without permanent 
success, had been previously made toward this object, and 
the custom had, until this time, commonly prevailed of 
" country people bringing their products to town, and retail- 
ing them from door to door, or waiting at convenient 
localities for transient custom. In the spirit of progress, 
which prevailed in 1656, it was enacted that " whereas, 
divers articles, such as meat, pork, butter, cheese, turnips, 
cabbage, and other country produce, are from time to time 
brought here for sale by the people living in the country, 
and oftentimes wait at the strand, (foot of "Whitehall street) 
without the people living out of that immediate neighbor- 
hood knowing that such things are for sale in town; there- 
fore, it is ordered that from this time forward, Saturday in 
each week shall be appointed as market day, the articles to 
be brought on the beach, near Mr. Hans Kiersted's house, 
of which all shall take notice." The house of Dr. Kiersted, 
here referred to, occupied the present north-east corner of 
Pearl and Whitehall streets. The country market, or 
place for the standing of country wagons, remained at 
this place for many subsequent years. 

In the year 1658, a meat market was established, and a 
small house erected for that purpose on the plain in front 
of the fort, or the present site of the Bowling Green; and 
in 1659 a great yearly fair for the sale of cattle, was estab- 
lished in this city, the exchange or meeting-place for the 



OUTSKIRTS OF THE CITY. 



67 



buyers and sellers being at the present Bowling Green. 
The cattle were ranged along the west side of Broadway, 
posts having been driven in front of the church-yard, (near 
Morris street) to which the animals were fastened. This 
great fair commenced annually, on the 20th of October 
and closed the last of November; its continuance, there- 
fore, being about six weeks. It was the principal season 
of trade in New Amsterdam. Strangers from all the 
neighboring country, extending to the English settlements 
in Connecticut and on Long Island, being then attracted 
to the city. During that time no stranger was liable to 
arrest for debt, and every encouragement was given, to 
induce the assemblage of a large concourse of people. 
This yearly fair continued to be held in the city for more 
than thirty years subsequently. 

With respect to the condition of the island, beyond the 
immediate limits of the city — there were,. at this time, a 
considerable number of farms under cultivation, but the 
greater portion of the island still lay without iuclosures, 
used as commons for the running of cattle. A part of 
these common lands lying in the neighborhood of the fresh- 
water ponds, on and adjacent to the present Park, was 
fenced in and appropriated to the pasturage of the cows 
belonging to the inhabitants of the town. These were 
driven forth in the morning, through the gates of the city, 
along the present Broadway, and through Pearl street and 
Maiden lane, and were returned in the evening. A person 
named Gabriel Carpesy, residing on the present William 
street, near Hanover square, followed, for some years, the 
business of a herdsman, and was employed by many of the 
inhabitants to take charge of the morning and evening 



68 



UPPER SECTION OF THE ISLAND. 



journeys of their cattle. The manner of collecting the 
droves was by perambulating the several streets, and 
blowing a horn at the gates of the inhabitants, whose 
business it then was to have their cows in readiness to be 
turned out to join the drove. On the return, at evening, 
the animals, accustomed to their own domicil, left their 
company and * awaited at their gate the attention of 
the family, the herdsman blowing his horn as he passed 
along. 

There was a large portion of the island without inclos- 
ure, and generally covered by woods, in which were 
running a large number of domestic animals, of every 
kind and all genders, placed there to multiply and to 
replenish the land. These animals were the property 
of individual owners, the marks of whom were branded 
upon them, at certain seasons, by officers specially 
authorized for that purpose. On these occasions, public 
notice was given by the " brand-masters," and the animals, 
with their young, were driven into one section of the 
island, where the whole being branded anew, were turned 
loose again into the woods. 

The road to Harlem, in those times, lay mostly through 
the woods, and was in a condition hardly fit for travel in 
many seasons. Some years subsequently, (1671) a new 
road was found necessary, the first having become im- 
passable. The village of New Harlem, as it was then 
called, was composed of a community of farmers, the 
flat and fertile section in that vicinity, having been 
early chosen as the most desirable farming lands on this 
island. A small tavern stood on the banks of Harlem 
river, from which boats took passengers to the opposite 



THE •' BOUWERY." 69 

shore. This tavern was the occasional point of excursion 
for riding parties from the city, and was generally known 
as the " Wedding-Place." 

On the road to Harlem, near the Governor's farm or 
" Bouwer}^," a small settlement of three or four houses 
sprung up, about the time of Governor Stuyvesant, a 
tavern having been set up there by a Mr. Jansen. This 
place became a resort to pedestrians from the town, the 
road having been handsomely laid out, of unusual width, 
and greatly improved under Stuyvesant's direction. One 
or two small taverns were on the road between the town 
and the " Bouwery," the principal of which was that of 
Wolfert Webber, near the present Chatham square, who 
was, probably, the earliest settler on that road between 
the city and Harlem. Webber's house was built in the 
year 1648, and had been the centre of many scenes of stir- 
ring incident, having frequently been assaulted and robbed 
in times of Indian troubles. 

The only other hamlet or village on the island, was at 
" Sapokanican," afterward called Greenwich, and now in 
the Eighth and Ninth Wards of this city. Plantations 
were established here soon after the settlement of the 
island, and at the time of Governor Stuyvesant, a few 
houses formed a small village there. 

It was before observed that several plantations on this 
island, were under cultivation by individuals. The West 
India Company also owned several large farms which they 
had selected and reserved to themselves, soon after the 
settlement of the island. One of these, commonly called 
the Company's Farm, lay on the present west side of 
Broadway, between Chambers and Fulton streets, and 



X 



70 FARMS. 

extending to the North river shore. It was confiscated 
by the English, and became afterward known as the 
King's Farm. Subsequently it was ceded to the Trinity 
Church. Three other farms were let out to tenants. 
They lay along the high road, at present known as Chat- 
ham street and the Bowery. 




'/^''•^z 



:m 






>.</«'j*^A»«^>*w<s^wUii]rr>'wga^f'«M« 







l>yo.' 






. about J6'ff7 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE CONDITION OF THE CITY AT THE TIME OF THE CAPITULATION TO THE 
ENGLISH IN 1664. 

To illustrate the early condition of the city, it is pro- 
posed to adopt the period at which the rule of the Dutch 
terminated, after the city had been under their auspices 
between thirty and forty years, and had grown up to 
be a considerable town, of about fifteen hundred inhabit- 
ants; and for the purpose of presenting the Dutch city in 
its precise aspect, we shall conduct the reader through 
every street, and particularize the seyeral residents. 

It has been observed that the boundary of the city was 
principally defined by the stockades erected, in 1653, on 
the present line of Wall street; and also, that along the 
west side of the road, on the shore of the East river, on 
the present line of Pearl street, several of the citizens had 
established their residences, at a very early period. This 
road, between the city gate and the ferry, at the present 
site of Peck slip, was known as " De Smit's Yaley," or 
" The Smith's Valley. The origin of this name is ascribed 
to the circumstance that Cornelius Clopper, a blacksmith, 
established himself on the present corner of Maiden lane 
and Pearl street. Here he intercepted the country people 
from Long Island, and pursued a profitable business; mak- 



72 smit's valley. 

ing his shop a point of sufficient attention to give a dis- 
tinctive appellation to the road on which it lay. The 
" Smit's Valley" was, for a long period, the common name 
of that part of the town lying between Wall street and 
the present Franklin square; it was, in subsequent years, 
known as the " Valey," " Yly" or " Fly." At the period 
here referred to, the road ran along the shore, near the 
high water mark, and there were, consequently, no build- 
ings on the east side. The inhabitants were — 

Thomas Hall. The residence of Mr. Hall was on a hill 
near the present Beekman street. He was an Englishman 
by birth; but having joined, with others from New Eng- 
land, in an attempt upon the Dutch colony at the mouth of 
Delaware river, had been taken prisoner, and sent to this 
city. Himself and companions were leniently treated by 
the authorities, and were permitted to enjoy the rights of 
Dutch citizens. Mr. Hall and his partner, in the year 
1639, established a tobacco plantation at " Deutle Bay," 
(Turtle Bay,) on the East river. In the year 1654, he pur- 
chased the property on which he afterward resided. He 
died in the year 1670, leaving no children. His widow 
sold the property to William Beekman; it consisted of a 
considerable farm, the present Beekman street running- 
through it. Mrs. Hall, after the death of her husband, re- 
sided in Wall street, and died in the year 1686. 

Abraham Verplanck occupied premises next below those 
of Mr. Hall, his property lying in the neighborhood of 
the present Fulton street. Mr. Verplanck had, at this 
time, become somewhat advanced in years, having been a 
resident of this place from a very early period. He had 
married a step-daughter of Jan Jansen Damen, a man of 
note in the early times in this city. His wife died in the 



SMIT S VALLEY. 



73 



year 1671; lie survived her many years, and died at an ad- 
vanced age. Mr. Verplanck left two sons, Guleyn and 
Isaac, and several daughters. The latter son established 
himself in Albany; Guleyn, having served his clerkship 
with Allard Anthony, an eminent merchant of this city, 
engaged in business about the year 1656, and married 
Hendrica Wessells. He died in 1684. 

Lambert Huyhertson Mol. Next adjoining the premises 
of Mr. Yerplanck, was the residence of this gentleman ; 
who, in company with his brother, carried on the business 
of ship-builders. 

Abraham Lamberzeii Mol, occupied the premises ad- 
joining. 

John Vinje, (pronounced Vangee.) This citizen resided 
near Maiden lane, at some distance back from the road, on 
property originally granted to Jan Jansen Damen, in 
1644. The Damen farm extended between the North and 
East rivers, and between Wall street and Maiden lane. 
Mr. Vinje was one of the heirs of Damen's property; he 
was a married man, but had no children. On his decease, 
in the year 1691, his name became extinct in this city. 

Stoffel Elsworth, was a boat-builder of respectable stand- 
ing, who resided on this street many years. 

Joost Carelzen, a ship-carpenter; his premises being a 
short distance above Maiden lane, where he resided nearly 
fifty years. 

Henry Brazier, came to this city many years previous to 
the time now referred to. In 1644 he patented thirty- 
three acres of land, near the present Franklin square, ex- 
tending down to the meadow called Wolfert's Yalley, in 
the vicinity of the present Roosevelt and adjacent streets. 
He resided, for many years, in the Smith's Yalley, near 



7-1: SMIT's ViUXEY. 

Maiden lane, and died at an advanced age, in 1691, leaving 
a widow and three sons, Abraham, Henry and Isaac. 

Widow Lawrenzen and Pieter Lawrenzen, occupied two 
small houses adjoining Mr. Brazier. 

John Adriance, a ship-builder, occupied the adjoining 
premises, which fronted on Maiden lane. 

Cornelius Jansen Clopper, who had long resided on the 
corner of Maiden lane, was considered, in his day, as one 
of the wealthy citizens. At his death he left two sons — 
Johannes and Cornelius — and four daughters. 

Pieter Harmenzen, a ship-carpenter, occupied premises 
fronting on Maiden lane. 

Pieter Jansen, also a ship-carpenter, occupied premises 
on Maiden lane. 

Martin Clasen, a blacksmith, in good circumstances, re- 
sided near Maiden lane. 

Jan Jansen Bush, a tailor, adjoining the above. 

James Wei. 

Augustyn Heermans, a native of Bohemia, came to this 
town about the year 1633, in the employment of the West 
India Company, and afterward engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. He held several offices of importance, and ac- 
quired a large real estate in this city. Mr. Heermans had 
cultivated a taste for drawing, and, in 1656, made a sketch 
of this city, a copy of which is given on the map fronting 
the title page of this work. His residence embraced an 
orchard and an extensive garden, situated on the west side 
of the present Pearl street, covering the line of Pine street. 
After the surrender of the town to the English, he removed 
to Maryland, where he had extensive interests; his son, 
Ephraim, remained here to close his father's business, and 
held, for some time, a clerkship in the City Office. The 



UOOGH STRAAT. 



75 



property now spoken of was sold to George Heathcott, 
an English merchant, who established his residence in this 
city. 



We have thus far traced the road from Franklin square 
to Wall street, and have come to the " Water-poort," or 
Water gate, being the entrance within the line of the city 
palisades, on the present line of Wall street. This gate 
was a heavy wooden structure, which was closed at bell- 
ringing in the evening (9 o'clock,) and opened at sunrise in 
the morning. 

After we have thus entered within the fortified limits of 
the city, we have still the water upon the left hand, and a 
line of buildings upon the right, not very compactly built. 
This was the beginning of what was, at the period now 
referred to, called the " Hoogh straat," or High street; 
which name was then applied to a part of the original road 
along the water side, extending between Broad and Wall 
streets, the line being now marked by the north side 
of Pearl street, between Wall and William streets, and 
both sides of Stone street, between William and Broad 
streets. 

Jinnckin Litschoe occupied the first house within the city 
gate. Daniel Litschoe, her late husband, was one of the 
earliest emigrants to this city, having come hither in the 
military service, as ensign. Having married a widow in 
this place, he established an inn at the spot now spoken 
of, then on the outskirts of the town. His tavern became 
the resort of the country people from Long Island, who 
visited the city, and approached it along the road at the 
water side. Mr. Litschoe having died about the year 



76 



HOOGH STRAAT. 



1660, his widow continued the business for a number of 
years, but having become advanced in life, sold her proper- 
ty. She died in the year 1679, leaving a sou by her 
former marriage, and a daughter of Mr. Litschoe. His 
name, therefore, became extinct among his descendants. 

John Lawrence occupied the adjoining premises, in which 
he carried on business as a merchant. Mr. Lawrence was 
an Englishman by birth, and one of three brothers who 
emigrated to this country in the time of Charles I. He 
resided, for some time, at Flushing, Long Island, of which 
he was one of the patentees, and afterward engaged in 
business in this city. He became a prominent man in 
public life, and held various offices of importance. In 
the years 1673 and 1691 he was mayor of the city. He 
died in the year 1699, at the age of eighty years and 
upward. 

Jindries Joghmizen, a sail-maker, occupied the adjoining 
premises, containing thirty-one feet front and eighty-one 
feet in depth. He died about the year 1675. 

Abraham Lubberts, residing next adjoining; he subse- 
quently removed to Elizabethtown, N. J. 

Reinhout Reinhoutsen occupied the adjoining premises, 
forty feet front and one hundred and eighty feet in depth. 
After the surrender to the English, he sold his property, 
and removed elsewhere. 

Govert Loockermans, the original patentee of property in 
this neighborhood, resided on the present north side of 
Hanover square. He was a shipping merchant and general 
trader, and one of the wealthiest citizens of his time. He 
died in the year 1671, leaving his widow, Mary, and three 
children. One daughter married Cornelius Dircksen; 
another married, first, Pieter Cornelisen Vanderveeu, 

A\\ oH. D^<i V*l. ntvsr l^olc 

ai-tKe old Ch. R,e.ojY(^&? 



nOOOn STRAAT. 



77 



and secondly, Jacob Leisler; and one son, Jacob. The 
widow died in 1678; her son Jacob, who was a physician 
soon after sold the property to his brother-in-law, Jacob 
Leisler, and left this part of the country, establishing him- 
self at St. Mary's, Maryland, where his father had acquired 
large possessions. 

Johannes Pieterscn Van Brugh occupied the adjoining 
premises, one of the best in town, near the corner of the 
present William street. Mr. Van Brugh was, in early 
life, connected with the establishment of the West India 
Company, in this city, and married a daughter-i»=kAV^ of 
Domine Bogardus. He held various stations of a public 
nature, and was one of the leading citizens of his day. 
Ho died in the year 1699, leaving several children. 

The present north-west corner of Hanover square and 
William street was then a vacant lot, owned by Borger 
Joris, a blacksmith, who was the grantee of property at 
and adjacent to this spot, at a very early period. From 
him came the name once applied to the present William 
street and Old slip, of " Borger Joris' Path" — afterward, 
for many years, known as " Burgher's Path." Joris, after 
many years residence in this city, removed to Long 
Island. 

Continuing down " Hoogh straat," between the present 
William and Broad streets, on the present line of Stone 
street, we find the following inhabitants : 

Warner Wessells was a hatter by trade. His mother, 
Mettie Wessells, kept an inn in this city for many 
years. 

Dirck Janscn Vandeimiter, a ship-carpenter, died in 1686. 

Jeremias Jansen. 

Ahram Clock occupied the south-west corno" A the 



78 



HOOGH STRAAT. 



present Stone and William streets, extending to Pearl 
street. He died soon after the period now referred, to, 
leaving a widow, Tryntje, and several children. 

Isaac Bedlow was engaged, in this city, in mercantile 
pursuits, from an early period, and became one of the most 
extensive traders. He died in 1672. 

Evert Duyckink came to this country at an early period, 
in the service of the West India Company, in whose em- 
ployment he resided, for some time, on the Connecticut 
river. On his return to the city, he procured the grant of 
a lot on the south side of the present Stone street. He 
died about the year 1680, leaving a widow and several 
children. 

Christopher Hooghland was, in his youth a clerk for 
Govert Loockermans, in the mercantile trade, and com- 
menced business on his own account about the year 1658. 
He died in the year 1686, having previously occupied 
several public stations of importance. His widow and 
children subsequently resided on the south-east corner of 
Broadway and Maiden lane. 

Abigail Vcrplanck. 

David Joghimsen, a sloop captain and trader on the 
North river, died in the year 1682. 

Asser Levy subsequently purchased the property of Mrs. 
Litschoe, near the gate, and continued the old tavern at 
that place. He died in the year 1682; his family, soon 
after, removing to Long Island. 

Barcnt Coerten, a merchant, in good circumstances, died 
in 1689. 

Arien Huyherzen. 

Wessell Evertsen, the original patentee of between two 
and three hundred feet in front, on the north side of this 



HOOGH STRAAT. 



79 



street, (then, in 1546, a road,) had built a dwelling, in the 
year 1662, in which he resided. 

Arent Isaacksen, a shoemaker, resided on the south side 
of the street. 

Cornelius Jansen. 

Cornelius Pluvier, a baker, had recently established his 
residence in this city, where he acquired a considerable 
property, and left several descendants. 

Cors Jansen. 

Hendrick Asueris, 

Johannes Jfcvius was in early life, engaged in mercantile 
pursuits, and married a daughter of Cornelius de Potter, 
a shipping merchant in this city. In the year 1655 he was 
appointed one of the city magistrates, and, in 1658, on 
the resignation of Jacob Kip, Secretary of the Court of 
Burgomasters and Schepens, Mr. Nevius was appointed his 
successor, and held the office until after the surrender to 
the English, when he retired from public life, and subse- 
quently resided at the ferry landing on Long Island. 

Pieter Jansen Schol. 

JVicholas de Meyer, a merchant, married, in the year 
1655, Luda, a daughter of Hendrick Vandyck, formerly 
Attorney General. Mr. de Meyer held several stations of 
public trust, among others, that of mayor of the city, in 
1676. He died in the year 1690, leaving six children. 

Hugh Barenzen Clem. 

Walraven Ckarhout, a merchant. 

Frerick Hendricksen, a cooper. 

Alexander Stultke. 

Sybout Clasen, a carpenter, then residing on the south 
side of the street, near Broad street, was among the early 
emigrants. He married in the year 1646, and resided ad- 



80 



HOOGH STRAAT. 



joining Domine Bogardus. He removed to the place now 
spoken of, in 1654, and died in the year 1679, in prosper- 
ous circumstances. 

Adrian Van Laar, a tanner and shoemaker. 

Aldert Coninck, a tailor, resided on the North side of the 
street, his premises being twenty-one feet front and ninety 
in depth. 

Jacob Van Couwenhoven was one of two l^rothers, (the 
other being named Pieter,) -etep/sons of Wolfert Gerritsen. Vitn C 
In 1645 a grant was made to Mr. V. C, of property on ''•' 
the present north east corner of Stone and Broad streets, 
where he erected extensive buildings of stone, and engaged 
in the brewing business. His business operations were 
not prosperous, and his property became encumbered with 
mortgages; he, however, held its possession until his death, 
in the year 1670. 

Joannes Van Couivenhoven resided on the same premises, 
afterward a prosperous brewer. 

Lambert Barenzen. 

Hendrick Vandewafer, soon after this period, removed 
to the vicinity of the present Franklin square, where he 
died. The property of the family, at that place, con- 
sisting of about eight acres, gave the name to the present 
Vandewater street. 

Lawrence Vanderspeigle, a man of considerable property, 

Walter Salter removed from this city in 1666. 



CHAPTER y III. 

CONDITION OF THE CITY AT THE TIME OF THE CAPITULATION TO TIIE 
ENGLISH IN 1664, CONTINUED. 

We have thus far, in the previous chapter, conducted our 
readers within the city walls, through the ancient " Hoogh 
straat," which, as has been stated in former parts of this 
book, was originally the line of a road from the fort to the 
ferry, along the river shore. At the period of which we 
are now writing, there had been constructed a street, facing 
the water between Broad and William streets, on the 
present line of the north side of Pearl street. This street 
was called the " Waal," from the circumstance of the river 
shore being faced with a siding of boards, to prevent the 
washing of the tide on the street — its history being as 
follows : After the conclusion, on the part of the authori- 
ties, to build a city tavern, in the year 1642, its site was 
selected close to the shore, south of the road to the ferry. 
The building was of considerable dimensions and cost; 
and this place was chosen for its situation, as giving a good 
appearance to the town from the harbor. The building was 
erected near high water mark, on the present north-west 
corner of Pearl street and Coenties alley. After the or- 
ganization of the city magistracy, in 1653, this building 
was ceded to the city for the purposes of a city -hall, and 
6 



THE WAAL. 



was used as such until the year 1699. A view of this 
building at about the time of its demolition, when the 
liver had been encroached upon, by filling in, and other 
buildings erected opposite the city-hall, is given on 
another page. 

On the shore of the river, other buildings were, in 
course of time, erected, to correspond with the line of the 
city tavern, thus forming the street called the " "Waal." 
It having been found necessary to protect the shore in 
front of the city-hall against high tides, which sometimes 
approached the building, a stone wall was at first con- 
structed, and the street filled in. The tide still washing 
between the crevices, it was resolved, in 1654, to drive 
plank into the shore, and to make a uniform " sheet-pile" 
between Broad street and the city-hall, in which the indi- 
vidual lot owners were compelled to join. This work was, 
soon after, still further extended, to Wall street; and, in 
the year 165G, an ordinance was adopted, in the following 
words : " Whereas, the sheet-piling, in front of the city- 
hall and before the water-gate on the East river, and in 
some other places thereabout, is finished, and some is also 
begun by others; therefore, for the uniformity of the work, 
all who have houses and lots between the city-hall and the 
water gate, are ordered to line their banks with plank, ac- 
cording to the general plan and survey, to be completed 
before the 17th December, 1656." But even after this im- 
provement, the road along this part of the shore was fre- 
quently in an impassable condition. In the year 1671, 
(some years after the period to which our present descrip- 
tion relates,) a " strooke," or foot path, was paved with 
stone, from Broad street to the city-hall; and in the follow- 
ing year (1672,) it was resolved that " Whereas, the high- 



THE ORIGINAL CITY-HALL. 83 

way at the water side, between the city-hall and Tryntje 
clock/' (at Hanover square) " is so washed away that pas- 
sengers are in danger of mischief; Ordered, that the owners 
of property shall cause a foot-path, of six feet wide, to be 
made." 

This is, perhaps, a proper place to give a brief history 
of the first city-hall, to which reference has been made. 
Its principal use was for the sittings of the Burgomasters 
and Schepens, and for the prison. It was built originally 
at the cost of government, as a city tavern, but was pre- 
sented to the city in 1655. The chamber occupied for the 
sitting of the magistrates was on the south-east corner 
of the second story, the prison chamber being in the rear, 
on the other side of the house, facing a yard which extended 
to " Hoogh straat." Upon the roof was a cupola, in which 
was hung a bell, in the year 1656, which was rung for the 
assembling of the magistrates, and also on occasions of the 
publication of proclamations, which was done in front of 
the hall. The bell-ringer, for a number of years, was one 
Jan Gilliscn (familiarly called " Koeck.") This ancient 
edifice, which was substantially built of stone, stood until 
the year 1699, 1700, nearly sixty years, when it gave place 
to the city-hall at the head of Broad street, in Wall street. 
The old building — having survived the nationality of its 
founders, and witnessed some generations of their descend- 
ants, living under foreign laws and speaking a foreign lan- 
guage within its walls — was sold, to one of the citizens, 
for one hundred and ten pounds sterling; and probably its 
stones are still to be discovered in the foundations of some 
of the adjacent buildings. 

We shall proceed to mention the inhabitants living on 
the street at this period (1665,) called the " Waal," ex- 



84 



THE WAAL. 



tending on the north side of the present Pearl street, be- 
tween Hanover square and Broad street. 

Guilliam D'Honeur (William D'Honeur,) in early life 
followed the trade of a glazier; but finding the superior 
profits of the peltry trade, engaged in that business, and 
also opened a store of general merchandize. He occupied 
a fine house, the lot extending through to Hoogh straat. 
Mr. D'Honeur died in 1689, leaving, it is believed, no chil- 
dren to perpetuate his name in this city. 

Hendrick Hendricksen Obe commenced business in this 
city as a tavern-keeper. He was the first constable of this 
city, under the English, having been appointed in 1665, 
and continued during the two subsequent years. 

Balthazar de Hart. Mr. de Hart was a wealthy mer- 
chant, who commenced trade here about the year 1658. 
His business was principally in shipping, and was connected 
with the West Indies and settlements on this coast. He 
had three brothers residing in this city, Daniel, Matthias 
and Jacobus. The former, a physician, married, but died 
without children; from the other brothers numerous de- 
scendants of the name are found among us. Balthazar de 
Hart was a bachelor, but left, at his death, several illegiti- 
mate children in this city, for whom he provided liberally, 
out of his large estate. Among other extensive tracts 
owned by this gentleman, was the land called Haverstraw, 
on the Hudson river, which he purchased originally from 
the Indians. He died in the year 1672. 

Caret Van Brugh was commissary in the service of the 
West India Company. His premises were adjoining the 
city-hall, where his wife carried on a small trade in mer- 
chandize. Mr. Van Brugh acquired considerable real es- 
tate in this city. 



THE STREET CALLED '' THE WATER. 



85 



Gerrit Jatisen Stavast and Claes Jansen Stavast left the 
city the following year. 

Ha?is Stein, a deputy jailor, resided, for a period, in the 
city-hall; but is not found to have continued in this city 
after the surrender to the English. 

Syhrant Jansen (sometimes called Galma) was a carpen- 
ter. His premises were twenty-five feet front on the water, 
extending back to Hoogh straat. 

Cornelis Jansen Van Hoorn occupied the adjoining prem- 
ises, and is understood to have been a hatter. 

Adolph Pietersen was a carpenter, of considerable prop- 
erty. His premises were of a good description, extending 
through to " Hoogh straat." 

Jacob Hendricksen Varrevanger, a physician, who had al- 
ready been established here many years. He acquired a 
considerable property, principally real estate. 

Rynier Rycken occupied the premises nearest to Broad 
street, which had been granted to him as early as the year 
1646, his lot being then described as " on the ditch," He 
was among the principal inhabitants, with respect to 
wealth, and lived to a venerable age. 



We have thus finished our brief description of the in- 
habitants on the " Waal," or sheet-piled street; and in con- 
tinuation of the same thoroughfare, we shall cross the 
bridge over the canal, running up Broad street, and con- 
tinue our description of what was then called " The Water," 
and sometimes " the Water-side," designated at present as 
the north side of Pearl street, between Broad and White- 
hall streets, the history of which is as follows : The first 
church built in this city was erected in 1633, on the present 



86 THE STREET CALLED "THE WATER-SIDE." 

north line of Pearl street, about the middle of the block 
between Broadway and Whitehall street. This church 
presented its prominent front to the water; but the 
entrance was mainly from the rear, at the present Bridge 
street, which was then a wagon road, leading to the bridge 
across the ditch at Broad street. It was a frame build- 
ing, of very plain appearance, and in 1642 was abandoned 
as a place of worship, and turned into a store, being 
owned and occupied, at one period, by Allard Anthony, 
a prominent merchant. Several other buildings were 
afterward erected on a line with the " Old Kirk," along 
the water, and formed a thoroughfare which, at the time 
of which we are writing, was a prominent place of busi- 
ness. The first public wharf or dock built in this city, 
for the landing of goods, extended out into the river in 
front of this street, on the present line of Moore street, as 
far as Water street. 

Hans Dreper occupied premises on the north-west corner 
of Broad and Pearl streets, where he kept tavern. His 
premises extended twenty-two and a half feet on Broad 
street. He commenced business here in the year 1656; in 
1666 or 7 he removed to Albany. 

Frans Janscn Von Hooghten was a carpenter, and had 
been established in this city for several years; his premises 
extended through to Bridge street. 

JYicholaf} Jameji, a baker, occupied the adjoining premi- 
ses, containing in front, on Pearl street, two rods and five 
feet, (about thirty feet;) in rear, on Bridge street, about 
the same; in depth, about fifty feet. 

Samuel Edsall, was an Englishman, originally a hatter, 
but gave up that calling for the more profitable one of a 
merchant, which he followed with success, his trade ex- 



THE STREET CALLED "THE WATER-SIDE." 87 

tending to all the neighboring settlements and marts. Mr. 
Edsall married a daughter of his neighbor Metje "Wessells, 
He built here a brick house about the year 1660, where he 
afterward resided when his business did not call him into 
foreign parts. Mr. Edsall lived in this city many years 
after the period to which we now refer, and left descend- 
ants who have perpetuated his name to this day. 

Joannes Be Witt. Mr. De Witt, an eminent flour mer- 
chant and miller, had not been long a resident of this city 
at the period to which we now refer. He died about the 
year 1668, leaving a widow named Jannetie, who married 
again in the year 1670, Matthias De Hart, a wealthy mer- 
chant of this city. 

Jurien Jansen Van Auweryck, a cooper. 

Herman Wessells, a son of Metje Wessells, and brother 
of Warner Wessells, occupied the adjoining premises. He 
died about the year 1668. His widow " Greetje," after- 
ward married Gerrit Huygen Deklyn. 

Timotheus Gahry, commenced business in this city as 
early as 1665, as agent for his brother Daniel, a merchant 
in Amsterdam. He was a man of education, and filled 
several civic offices. He was not as successful in his busi- 
ness affairs as some of his neighbors, but continued his 
residence here until a very advanced age. 

Metje Wessells, was the widow of an old citizen. She 
kept one of the most respectable public houses in the city, 
patronized by the magistrates on occasions of public 
import. Her daughters married respectable merchants of 
this city. 

Pauhts Richard was of French descent; his father resid- 
ing in France, but was concerned in some commercial rela- 
tions with Holland, which induced the settlement of his 



88 THE STEEET CALLED " THE WATER-SIDE." 

son in this colony. He came here but a short time pre- 
vious to the period to which we now refer. His premises 
were near the corner of Whitehall street. The property 
was afterward, (1667) purchased by him of the owner, Mr. 
Steenwyck, containing about twenty feet in front and sixty 
feet in depth. He subsequently purchased property in 
Broadway, where he lived to an advanced age, and died 
a wealthy man. His son Stephen became a prominent 
merchant, and married a daughter of Johannes Van Brugh. 
Paul Richard, a descendant, was mayor in 1735. 

Laurens Be Silk. This gentleman was born in the old 
country, but came out here with his father, Nicasius De 
Sille, a widower. The elder De Sille was a man of edu- 
cation, who was sent here in the year 1653, as a member 
of Governor Stuyvesant's council, upon a salary of one 
thousand two hundred guilders, or about four hundred 
dollars per annum. He married here Tryntje Crcezens, 
with whom he lived in good understanding for some years, 
but finally, in the year 1658, differences had grown up 
between them, so that they separated, and he applied for a 
divorce, which, however, was not decreed. The premises 
formerly occupied by them wexe on the south-east corner 
of Broad street and Exchange place; which property, it 
appears, was owned by Mrs. De Sille before her marriage. 
She resided at this place after the separation, while he 
removed to New Utrecht on Long Island. The property 
on Exchange place was of considerable extent, and em- 
braced a large garden and orchard. Laurens De Sille 
married a daughter of Captain Martin Crigier, a promi- 
nent citizen. The descendants of the family are understood 
to bear the name of Sill, at the present day. 

Hans Kierstede occupied the adjoining premises, and the 



PEARL STREET. 89 

last on the block. He was a pliysician, and was one of the 
early settlers in this place, being one of the surgeons of 
the West India Company in 1638. In 1646 this property 
was granted to him by Governor Stuyvesant, and he was, 
probably, one of the first settlors on that block. The lot 
was about eighteen feet in front by sixty in depth. He 
married, first, Sara, a daughter of Annetje Jans and step- 
daughter of Domine Bogardus, and secondly, Jannetje, 
daughter of Govert Loockcrmans, an eminent trader. In 
1666, Dr. Kiersted died, leaving his widow surviving, and 
eight children, Hans, Roelof, Blandina, Jochem, Luicas, 
Catherine, (married Johannes Kip) Jacobus and Rachel. 
The descendants of the family are numerous, many of them 
having followed the profession of the ancestor to whom 
we now refer. 



Continuing on the present line of Pearl street, between 
Whitehall street and the Battery, we find 
^ Peter Wolferzen Van Couwenhovcn, who was a -ist^p-son 
of one of the earliest pioneers in this country, (Wolfert 
Gerrisen;) he was the youngest of two brothers, both con- 
spicuous citizens in their day. Mr. Van Couwenhoven 
commenced business in this city at an early period, as a 
general trader and brewer. He was Schepen of the city 
for six years; and lieutenant of the militia company, in 
which position he rendered active service against the In- 
dians in the neighborhood of Esopus. Mr. Van Couwen- 
hoven was married to a lady of French descent, who died 
in 1666, and was buried in this city. It seems that for 
some unexplained reason, Mr. Van Couwenhoven was in 
bad favor with the English, who had just taken the city: 



90 PEARL STREET. 

and also in equal disfavor with some of his ancient neigh- 
bors and countrymen, who had joined the English cause, 
and held ofl&ce under that government. His fall seems to 
have been decided upon by a conspiracy of those in power, 
and for that purpose, knowing the high spirit of Mr. Yan 
Couwenhoven, the Sheriff, Allard Anthony, presented a 
formal charge against him of selling a half pint of brandy 
to an Indian for sixteen stuyvers, which was not ac- 
cording to the established price. The defendant denied 
retailing any liquors at all, and demanded proof, but the 
court ordered him to give bail for his good behavior, and 
to appear at the next Court of Assizes, (a high coiirt, held 
at periodical intervals) to answer the complaint. Mr. Van 
Couwenhoven refused to give bail, and the sheriff was 
ordered to imprison him, which was accordingly done. The 
Court of Assizes came on, and the judges gave judgment 
against the defendant. The course of proceedings thus 
taken, was exceedingly annoying to the defendant, although 
the fine was a trifle, and he pronounced the judgment to be 
unjust. For thus saying, he was charged by the sheriff with 
speaking words in contempt of the high CTourt of Assizes, 
and he was ordered to pay a fine of thirty guilders wampum, 
(about three dollars) and to take heed to speak no more like 
words for the future. These proceedings drove Mr. Yan 
Couwenhoven from the ancient home of his fathers to New 
Jersey, at a place then called " Aghter Coll," (behind the 
Coll,) the present situation of which is at Elizabeth town, 
of which place Mr. Yan Couwenhoven became one of the 
earliest settlers. At the time of which we are writing, 
(16G5) Mr. Yan Couwenhoven's residence was still in the 
city, on the north-west corner of Pearl and Whitehall 
streets. 



PEARL STREET. 



91 



Hendrick Jansen Vandervin was a merchant in good 
standing, who acquired considerable real estate in this 
city. He held the office of Schepen, and was a prominent 
dignitary in the Dutch Church. 

Jaques Cosseau was a Frenchman by birth, who had been 
engaged in trade between Eochelle and Amsterdam, and 
about the year 1658 or 1659, emigrated to this country, 
and established himself on the north side of Pearl street. 
He became one of the most extensive shipping merchants 
in the city. He was a public-spirited man, and true to the 
interests of his adopted city, for the benefit of which his 
means were liberally furnished. Mr. Cosseau was married, 
but is believed to have left no children. He died about 
the year 1682. 

Pieter Aldrich, was a merchant of respectable connec- 
tions, who, however, was but a temporary resident here. 

Thomas Coninck. 

Henry Bush, a cutler. 

Gerrit Van Tright, a merchant, engaged in shipping and 
general trade, acquired a large estate. He afterward 
purchased property on the west side of Broadway, oppo- 
site the Bowling Green, to which he removed his residence 
and store. 

Pieter Cornelisen. 

Claas Bordingh, was a respectable mariner, occupying 
a good house at this place. He was a politician of some 
influence, and though several times nominated, is not found 
to have been appointed to any crown station. He con- 
tinued his residence on this street for many years subse- 
quent to this period. 

Jan Gerritsen Van Buytenhuysen, a baker. 

William Kock. 



92 PEABL STREET. 

Etienne Guineau. 

Walewyn Vanderveen, a merchant; married, about the 
year 1656, the widow of a trader named Vandewater, by 
whom he acquired a considerable property. 

Thomas Franzen, cartman. 

Jurien Blanch resided on the south side of Pearl street, 
his premises having a front of about thirty feet; in rear 
twenty-eight feet; depth about one hundred feet on the 
other side; this property was granted to him in 1647. Mr. 
Blanck was in this country as early as 1633, and was by 
profession a mariner. He was called the " schipper," or 
ship-captain, and for many years sailed a vessel out of 
this port, on the coasting trade. He left descendants in 
this city, who have perpetuated his name to the present 
time. 

Pieter Jacobs Marius occupied premises on the south 
side of Pearl street, where he carried on trade as a mer- 
chant. His dealings were extensive with Boston and 
other ports on the coast, and he acquired a considerable 
estate, though commencing poor. He was an alderman 
for several years, and lived to an advanced age in this 
city. 

Thomas Lamhertzen., a carpenter, occupied the premises 
adjoining Mr. Marius, on the south side of Pearl street; 
containing about fifty feet front on the street, fifty-six feet 
in depth on east side, next Mr. Marius, and thirty-eight 
or forty feet in depth on west side. Mr. Lambertzen con- 
tinued his residence here until about the year 1678, when 
he removed to Bedford, Long Island. His premises in 
Pearl street were sold, in 1684, to Philip Smith, an inn- 
holder, for one hundred and fifty pounds. 

Thomas Lawre7is, a baker, continued his residence on 



leisler's residence. 93 

this street for many years subsequently. He was a man 
of property. 



Having gone through the line of Pearl street to the 
present Battery, wc shall continue our course of the cir- 
cumference of the town by describing a few scattered 
buildings which were south of the fort, and in the neigh- 
borhood of the present Battery. 

Jacob Leisler occupied premises on the present west side 
of Whitehall street, between Pearl and State streets. In 
front of his house was a vacant space used as a market 
stand for country wagons. Mr. Leisler was originally 
from Frankfort, and came to this country in the year 
16G0, as a military officer in the service of the government. 
He married the wealthy widow of Pieter Corneliscn 
Vandcrveen, who had deceased in 1661. She was a 
"o daughter of Gpve rt _Loocker manSj a man of large for- 
tune. The widow of Mr. Loockermans, at her decease in 
s^^<^16Y7, left her property to her three children; subsequently 
^ Mr. Leisler purchased the interests of his brother-in-law 
and sister-in-law in that part of their estate lying in this 
province; and he was rated among the wealthiest in- 
habitants of the city. In the year 1678, while on a 
voyage to Europe, Mr. Leisler was taken prisoner by the 
Turks, to whom he paid a ransom of two thousand and 
fifty pieces of eight, for his freedom. The name of this 
citizen is well known in the history of New York, from 
his connection with the revolution of the year 1689, an 
account of which will be found in a subsequent part of 
this volume. His execution, on a conviction of treason, 
took place in May, 1691. He left two children, Jacob and 
Mary, the latter of whom married Jacob Milbornc, who 



94 



RESIDENTS NEAR THE PRESENT BATTERY. 



suffered death with his father-in-law; she subsequently 
married Abraham Gouverneur, a prominent citizen. The 
widow of Mr. Leisler subsequently resided in this city, 
near Hanover square, for many years, and his son, Jacob, 
who for a time resided in another part of the country, 
finally returned to this city and engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. 

Arien Appel, a merchant, was tenant of property belong- 
ing to Governor Stuyvesant, adjoining the premises of Mr. 
Leisler, on the present Whitehall street, between Pearl 
and State streets. 

Daniel D'Honde Coutrie, a temporary resident here, 
occupied a fine mansion erected by Governor Stuyvesant, 
on the present corner of Whitehall and State streets. 

Simon Barenzen. 

Jan Schouten. 
— Isaac. Greveraat, a merchant, came to this city at an early 
period, and married v Elizabeth, a daughter of Skipper 
Jurieu Andriezen. Mr. Greveraat was a Schepen of this 
city in 1644, and in the year 1671 was appointed Schout 
of Esopus. He died, leaving three children, Andrew, 
Henry and Elizabeth. 

Jail Everzen Bout resided on premises adjoining Mr. 
Greveraat. He arrived in this country in the year 1634, 
having formerly been in the employment of the West 
India Company, in Holland, whence he was sent by Mr. 
Pauw, patroon of Pavonia, to superintend his colony on 
the west side of Hudson river, opposite this city. He was 
the first settler (1638) of the present town of Bergen, New 
Jersey, where he resided for several years. In the time 
of the Indian wars, he was driven thence to this city. In 
the year 1658, he sold his plantation at " Gamoenepa" 



RESIDEXTS NEAR THE BATTERY. 95 

(Communipaw) to Michael Jansen, for three thousand two 
hundred dollars. He passed the close of his life on a 
farm granted to him, at Gowanus, where he died in the 
jearierO. , 

Pieter de Rymer resided on the east side of Whitehall 
street, north of Bridge street. 

Jan Dircksen Meyer. 

Lodowick Post, a trader, resided on the present White- 
hall street, near the fort. 



CHAPTER IX. 

CONDITION OP THE CITY AT THE TIME OF THE CAPITULATION TO THE 
ENGLISH IN 1664, CONTINUED. 

We have now come to the part of the town anciently 
called " T'Marckvelt," or the Marketfield, so called from 
the circumstance of the line of buildings facing the open 
space now in part occupied by the Bowling Green. It 
was then, however, an uninclosed space lying in front of 
the fort, and occupied at stated intervals for a fair or 
market, to which the country people brought their cattle 
for sale. The buildings forming the street called the 
" Marketfield," commenced on the east side of the present 
Whitehall street, above Stone street, and extended as far 
as the present Beaver street; and on the opposite side they 
occupied the west side of the present Broadway, running 
toward Morris street. The number of buildings fronting 
on the " Marketfield" at that period, being ten or eleven. 
V Metje Greverant, a widow, occupied a small house on 
the east side of Whitehall street, north of Stone street. 

Jonas Barteltzen, a store-keeper, occupied premises on 
the east side of Whitehall street, between Stone and Mar- 
ketfield streets. Mr. Barteltzen, became afterward a man 
of considerable property. Amongst other real estate 
owned by him was a house, barn and plot of ground on 



T MARC'KVELT. 



97 



the east side of Broadway, north of Wall street, contain- 
ing two hundred and twenty-nine feet in front, and about 
one hundred and fifty feet in depth. 

Lyshet Ackermans occupied a small house adjoining Mr. 
Barteltzen. 

Frerick Arenzen occupied the south-west corner of the 
present Whitehall and Marketfield streets. Mr. Arenzen 
was a turner by trade, and came here about the year 1656, 
when, finding little employment at his trade, he engaged 
himself in service to a drayman, but soon left his employer 
and married. He afterward, in his trade, became a pros- 
perous citizen, and owner of a valuable real estate. 

Allard Anthony, a merchant, occupied premises on the 
north-east corner of the present Whitehall and Marketfield 
streets. He was one of the most active and conspicuous 
citizens of his day in the civil walks of life. No citizen 
exercised greater influence in the community, yet none was 
more unpopular with the majority of the people. Mr. 
Anthony's mercantile transactions were, at one period, 
tolerably extensive. He was the consignee of a large firm 
in Holland, and carried on a considerable domestic trade; 
but it seemed to be his fortune to fall out with those with 
whom he was most intimately connected. Amongst oth- 
ers, he had a high dispute with Abraham Verplanck, whose 
son Gulian had been in Anthony's service as clerk. The 
elder Verplanck went so far, at one period of the difii- 
culty, as to commit a personal assault upon Anthony. He 
also maintained a long law-suit with the heirs of a mer- 
chant named Vandewater, of whom he had been the 
agent, and to whom he refused to render any account. In 
the latter years of his life he held the ofiice of Sheriff, in 
the execution of the duties of which he was exacting and 



98 



T MARCKVELT. 



severe, so that he was commouly called, among the lower 
classes, " tlie hangman." 

Mr. Anthony, soon after the period now referred to, 
removed his store to the " Old Church," on the present line 
of Pearl street, north side, between Broad and Whitehall 
streets. He died in the year 1685, leaving his wife, Hen- 
rietta, surviving, and one son, Nicholas, who, having pre- 
viously proved disobedient to his father in his marriage, 
was cut off with a shilling. This son died ten years after, 
having been sheriff of Ulster county. Many of the famil}' 
are to be found at the present day. 

Anthony De Milt, occupied premises on the present 
south-east corner of Whitehall and Beaver streets. He 
carried on the business of a baker, at this place for many 
years. In 1673 he was appointed sheriff, which office he 
held for one year. Mr. De Milt died in 1689, leaving five 
children, Isaac, Maria, Anna, Pieter and Sarah. His wife, 
Elizabeth Van Der Liphorst, had previously deceased. 
From this person the numerous families of that name now 
among us are descended. 



This was the extent of the east side of the " Market- 
field." On the opposite side, beginning at the corner of 
Broadway and Battery place, we have 

Annetje Kocks, a widow, who occupied the premises on 
the corner of Battery place — a large and fine house. 

Martin Crigier, a notable citizen of that period, occupied 
the premises next above Mrs. Kocks. He was one of the 
earliest emigrants to this city, and the original grantee of 
this property, which was patented to him in 1643, but had 
not been built upon until 1659, after which he resided on 



t'marckvelt, 99 

this spot, having previously lived on the "graft" at Broad 
street. Mr. Crigier, it is understood, was originally in 
the service of the West India Company; after his separa- 
tion from which, he engaged in the business of a trader 
and sloop captain on the North river, between this city 
and the settlements at Esopus (Kingston) and Albany. He 
was an efficient officer in the several Dutch wars; in 1659 
he commanded an expedition against the Swedes on the 
Delaware river, and also commanded in the expedition 
against the Esopus Indians, in the year 1663. 

Mr. Crigier had several children. His son, Francis, a 
merchant at the Delaware Bay settlement, died in 1665 ; 
one of his daughters married Laurens de Sille, a merchant 
of this city. The name of Mr. Crigier is perpetuated, 
through his descendants, to the present day. 

Francois Boon, a merchant of French birth, occupied, at 
this period, the premises next north of Mr. Crigier; the 
lot being thirty-two feet front, bounded on the east by the 
street, on the north by the property of Cornelius Van Ruy- 
ven, on the west by the North river, and on the south by 
the premises of Martin Crigier. This property he pur- 
chased, a short time previous, of Mr. de Hart, and in the 
year following that of which we now write (1666,) he sold 
it to Gerrit Van Tright, who established himself in busi- 
ness there. Mr. Boon was formerly a resident at Fort 
Orange, or Albany. He married there, against her parents' 
wishes, Lysbet, a daughter of Cornelis Segers Van Voor- 
hout, who resided on one of the islands in the Hudson 
river, called Castle Island. After the surrender of the 
city to the English, Mr. Boon removed from this country, 
and became a resident of the island of St. Christopher, 



100 THE FIRST CHUECH-YARD. 

being connected with merchants here in the shipping busi- 
ness between this city and that island. 

Cornelius Van Ruyven came to this city with Governor 
Stuyvesant, as his secretary, in the year 1647, being then 
a young bachelor. He soon after married a daughter of 
Domine Megapolenis, and set up trade in the dry goods 
and general store business. 



We have now come to the street, at that period, called 
the "Heere straat," or principal street, now Broadway; 
beginning at a point nearly opposite the north side of the 
Bowling Green, and extending to the " land gate," at Wall 
street. 

We may here remark that the first church-yard of this 
city, and the spot where the ashes of most of the inhabit- 
ants of New Amsterdam now lie, was situated on the west 
side of Broadway, on the rise of ground above the Bowling 
Green, and not far north of the present Morris street. This 
ancient church-yard had become, at this period, very full; 
as ten years previously (1656) Governor Stuyvesant pro- 
posed to abandon it as a place of burial, the fence having 
fallen, and the whole become dilapidated through age; and 
as a substitute, he proposed tearing down several old houses 
which then stood south of the fort, and to make a burial- 
place there. This, however, did not meet the views of the 
citizens, who suggested the establishment of the burial- 
place on the hill west of the fort, near the windmill, (part 
of present Battery,) which they represented as " a good 
hillj clear of timber." Between the conflicting proposi- 
tions, no action in the matter was then taken; but about 



THE HEERE STRAAT, OR BROADWAY. 101 

the period of which we now write (1665,) a new fence was 
set up around the old grave-yard, which had, for some 
time previous, laid quite open to the encroachment of ani- 
mals along the street. About ten years subsequently 
(1676,) the old church-yard was divided up into four lots, 
twenty-five feet front by a hundred feet in depth, and sold 
at auction, a new burial-place being established near the 
present Trinity Church. 

Lucas Andriezen, on the west side of Broadway, was a 
sloop captain on the North river. He had long been estab- 
lished in this country, and afterward became a man of con- 
siderable property. 

Dirck Wiggerzen, a carpenter, occupied the next adjoin- 
ing premises, on the north. 

Paulus Leenderzen Vandiegrist had a line house and gar- 
den, being the next habitation north of the church-yard, 
and about midway between Morris and Rector streets, on 
the west side of Broadway; his property extending, in the 
rear, to the river shore. Mr. Yandiegrist was one of the 
early pioneers; we find his name among property-holders 
in 1614, and in 1646 he commanded one of the four ships 
composing the fleet of Governor Stuyvesant, at his arrival 
here. He Avas a prominent trader, and a man of wealth; 
he was likewise an eflficient military commander, being cap- 
tain of one of the city companies, and doing service in 
several military and naval expeditions; he filled prominent 
stations also in the councils of the city and province. His 
place of business was on Pearl street, near Broad. After 
the capitulation of the city to the English, Captain Van- 
diegrist commenced preparations for removing to Holland. 
In 1671 his agents here sold the property on Broadway to 
Francis Rombouts, an eminent merchant, who became 



102 



THE HEERE STKAAT, OR BROADWAY. 



mayor of the city in after years. It was then described as 
a house, garden and orchard on the west side of Broadway, 
between John Hawkings and Hendrick Van Dyck. (The 
house of Mr. Hawkings, which had then been recently 
built, was erected on a lot sixteen feet front, part of which 
had been within the old church-yard. It was afterward 
owned and occupied by Mr. West, the city clerk.) The 
widow of Mayor Rombouts resided on the Vandiegrist 
place more than thirty years subsequent to the purchase by 
her husband. Mr. Vandiegrist had a brother in this city, 
who continued his residence here, and left descendants. 

Henry Van Dyck occupied premises next adjoining Mr. 
Vandiegrist, on the north; the house being considerably 
inferior to that of Mr. Vandiegrist, but having a large 
garden attached, upon which he afterward erected two or 
three houses. Mr. Van Dyck came to this city at a very 
early period, in the service of the West India Company, 
in which business he acquired a considerable property. 
After Stuyvesant's arrival, Van Dyck officiated, for a 
period, as attorney-general, or public prosecutor; but on 
account of some differences between himself and the gov- 
ernor, he soon after resigned, and retired from public life. 
He died in the year 1688, leaving his wife, whose maiden 
name was Duvertie Cornelisen, and several children living. 
One of his daughters married Nicholas de Myer, a mer- 
chant, who was subsequently mayor of the city; another 
married John Cooley, a merchant. 

The property north of Mrs. Van Dyck was vacant. 

Governor Stuyvesant, soon afterjiis arrival, granted to 

(s(. \Nw- his son, Nicholas William Stuyvesant, a plot next north of 

>»*''^ ^^al- ^^^ Dyck, containing ninety-three feet front and about 

^^ two hundred and forty-eight feet depth, to the North river, 



TEDE HEEKE STRAAT, OR BROADWAY. 103 

and a lot next beyond, of the same size, to his son, Baltha- 
zar Stuyvesant. The north bound of the latter was ad- 
joining what was then the garden of the West India 
Company, which was in the vicinity of the present Trinity 
Church-yard. 



Commencing on the cast side of Broadway, at Wall 
street, we shall follow the street to its lower extremity. 

Jacob Swart occupied a small house nearest to Wall 
street. 

Thomas Major occupied a small house; the lot contained 
about twenty-five feet front and sixty-five feet depth. 

Jlhraham Pieterzen, molenaar, (or the miller,) occupied 
the adjoining premises. 

Gerrit Fullwever, a butcher. 

Pieter Simkam, a tailor. 

Jan Fries. 

Jan Gillisen, called " Koeck," the town bell-ringer. 

Jan Hendricks Van Gunst, a butcher. 

Peter Ebel, a temporary resident. 

Paulus Turck, a tailor. 

Albert Jansen, a carpenter. 

Martin Hoffman, a trader. 

Jiltje Unstaplcs, a widow. 

Jan Joosten, a trader and boatman on the North river. 

Adam Onclebagh, a tailor. 

Pieter Jansen. 

Adrian Andriezen. 



The part of Broadway above described, it will be ob- 
served, applies to that section lying below Wall street, or 
" within" the city, as it was termed. At the head of the 



104 



BEYOND THE GATE ON BROADWAT. 



present Wall street, in Broadway, then stood one of the 
two city gates; the other being at the foot of Wall street, 
on the present Pearl street. The one on Broadway was 
called the " land gate," as contradistinguished from the 
other, which was commonly known as the " water gate." 
These gates were of wood, and were nightly closed, iv 
times of trouble, by the city watch. Beyond the " lanci 
gate" lay the farm originally granted to Jan Jansen Da- 
raen, in the year 1644, by Governor Kieft. This farm 
extended, with some slight variations, from Wall street to 
Maiden lane, from the North to the East river. In very 
early times, Damen became a trader in this city, and was 
one of the most active and prominent citizens of his time; 
he acquired a considerable estate. Having procured the 
grant of this farm — which was a rolling piece of land, 
forming a sort of ridge, falling off toward Wall street on 
the south ai^ Maiden lane on the north — he erected a sub- 
stantial house, and fixed his residence there. Mr. Damen 
had previously married the widow of Guleyn Vinje (Van- 
gee,) whose maiden name was Adriana Cuvilje; she had 
then several children, the issue of her first marriage. Mr. 
Damen left no direct issue; and upon his death, which hap- 
pened soon after his settlement on this farm, his widow 
succeeded to the property, and survived him several years. 
Her four children coming into the inheritance of the prop- 
erty, a division was made among them in 1659. Her son, 
John Vinje, has been mentioned on a preceding page; her 
daughters married neighbors — Maria having become the 
wife of Abraham Verplank; Rachel married Cornells Van 
Tieuhoven, and Christina married Dirck Volkertson. 

At the period to which we now refer (1665,) the resi- 
dents above Wall street were as follows : 



BEYOND THE GATE ON BROADWAY. 105 

Cornells jlertzen, a farmer, was tenant of a large farm, 
house and garden, east from Broadway, a short distance 
above the city gate, on the old Damon farm. Mr. Aertsen 
had previously been the tenant of Governor Stuyvesant's 
farm, on the Bowery, and had long supplied the families 
of the city with country produce. He died two or three 
years subsequent to this period. 

Peter StotUenburgh, at this period, was tenant of a small 
house on the same property. This property had been 
thrown into one of the shares of the heirs of Mrs. Cuvilje; 
the orchard was about one hundred and fifty feet distance 
from the street, and was approached by a lane on the 
present line of Cedar street. The property ran north and 
south about four hundred feet, and cast and west about one 
hundred and thirty feet; it was subsequently purchased by 
Mr. Stoutenburgh. He left, at his death, several children 
— Tobias and Isaac; Wyntie, who married Evart Byvank; 
Jannetie, who married Albert Ringo; Engeltie, who mar- 
ried William Waldron. 

Gerrit Jansen Roos occupied the premises next above 
Mr. Stoutenburgh. He was a relative of the Vinje family, 
by marriage. He was a carpenter by trade, and died, at 
an advanced age, in 1698, leaving a considerable property. 

Dirck Siecken, a husbandman, occupied premises on 
Broadway, a short distance from Wall street. 

The only other house on Broadway, besides those enu- 
merated, was a small dwelling inhabited by a Frenchman, 
whose name is unknown. 



Continuing our course around the city, we shall follow 
the present line of Wall street, the southerly side of which 



106 THE " CINGLE," OR CITY WALL. 

was occupied by several dwelliogs, generally of a small 
size. The northerly side of the street was the line of the 
city wall, above which lay the fields belonging to the heirs 
of the Damen estate. 

On the south side of Wall street, in 1665, we find 

Jan Jansen Van Langendyke, who occupied small premi- 
ses. He died in 1691. 

Jan Teunizen occupied a small house; he was a miller. 
The wind mill of Mr. Teunizen was situated at some dis- 
tance from the limits of the city, on the public road; the 
precise spot being near the present north-west corner of 
Chatham and Duane streets. The land attached to the 
mill was about two hundred and fifty feet square. This 
ancient windmill was standing sixty years afterward. Mr. 
Teunizen removed to Long Island the year following that 
to which we now refer, and sold his wind mill to William 
Aertsen, of this city. 

Jan Videt, a French tailor, occupied a small house. 

Abraham Kermer. 

Greetje, chimney-sweep. 

Jacob Jansen. 

Dirck, a wool-spinner. 

Barent Egbertzen, a tailor, occupied a small house, the 
lot being twenty-one feet front and seventy-seven feet deep, 
which he sold, in 1608, to Jacob Leisler. 

Pieter Jansen. 

Dirck Van Clyff. This gentleman was, at this period, a 
merchant of considerable property. The Van Clyff farm, 
adjacent to the present Cliff street, afterward belonged to 
him, and was the place of his residence at the time of 
his death. It was pleasantly situated upon an elevated 
hill, overlooking the East river, near the present John 



THE "CINGLE," OR CITY WALL. 107 

street. Dirck Van Clyff died in 1694, leaving his Avidow, 
Geesie Hendricks, and several children surviving. 



Having thus far been engaged in tracing the circuit of 
the town, we shall turn our attention to several streets in 
the interior. 



CHAPTEE X. 

THE CONDITION OP THE CITY AT THE TIME OF THE CAPITULATION TO THE 
ENGLISH IN 1664, CONTINUED, 

The Heere Graft, was that part of the present Broad 
street, between Beaver street and the river, which then 
ran along Pearl street. The centre of this street was 
originally a brook, forming the natural outlet of a marshy- 
section occupying a considerable space above Beaver street. 
Lots had been granted at an early period along the sides 
of this outlet, which, from time to time, was deepened and 
somewhat improved. Its condition being, however, a 
serious detriment to the street, it was determined, in the 
year 1657, to side the banks of the drain with plank, at 
the expense of the owners on the street. This proposition 
met with great opposition from those who were to be 
assessed, they alleging that it was a public improvement, 
in the expense of which the whole city should bear a part. 
The work, however, was proceeded with, and finished in 
the year 1659, at an expense of two thousand seven hun- 
dred and ninety-two florins, or about one thousand dollars. 
The collection of the assessment was enforced by the 
imprisonment of several of the delinquents. 

A similar improvement was made in that part of the 
present Broad street, above Beaver street, which became 
known as the "Prince Graft.." 



THE " HEERE GRAFT." 109 

In 1671, an ordinance was passed to improve the graft 
in the following manner: From the shore of the river 
upward to the bridge at Stone street, to be repaired, of the 
same width and in the same manner as before; from the 
bridge upward to the corner of Beaver street, to be im- 
proved in a manner which had been tried by Mr. De 
Peyster, and found of service; from Beaver street up to 
the house of Mr. Kip, (near Exchange place) in the same 
manner as before. 

In the year 1676, the inhabitants of the Heere Graft, 
were ordered forthwith to fill it up level with the street. 

The inhabitants on the " Heere Graft," (or the present 
Broad street, between Beaver and Pearl streets,) in 1665, 
were as follows: 

On the east side, the property between the present Pearl 
and Stone streets, was owned by Cornells Melyn, who had 
a few years previously returned to Holland. That between 
the present Stone and South Willianj streets was owned 
by Jacob "Wolferzen Yan Couwenhoven, referred to among 
the residents on Hoogh straat. 

Thomas Davidson, was an Englishman who, coming 
hither to seek his fortune, purchased a schooner in the 
year 1661, and with a negro slave to assist him in naviga- 
tion, commenced his trips on the Hudson river, to the 
settlements of Esopus and Albany. He purchased of 
Adrian Vincent a lot on the north-east corner of Broad 
and South streets, about twenty-five feet front upon which, 
having built a dwelling-house, he resided at the time now 
spoken of. Mr. Davidson died in the year 1688. 

Adrian Vincent was an early emigrant from Holland, 
but of French descent. He was employed, for a consider- 
able period, in the public service. The property on the 



110 HEEEE GRAFT. 

east side of Broad street, between the present South 
William street, (then a mere lane) and the present Beaver 
street, (then a road) was originally granted to two persons, 
one of whom was Adrian Vincent, and the other Abraham 
Rjcken. They were intended as garden plots. That of 
Rycken extended from Beaver street south about one hun- 
dred and twenty feet front on the ditch, forty feet on 
Beaver street, and fifty-six feet on the south adjoining 
Vincent. The grant to the latter extended from Rycken's 
land to the present South William street, having about 
eighty-five feet front on the ditch. The former of these 
grants was made as early as 1616. The latter somewhat 
earlier. Mr. Vincent had, at the time of which we now 
write, (1665) sold part of this property and now occupied 
a narrow front. Next to Vincent's property, on the north 
side of the present South William street, was a horse-mill, 
which had long stood there. Mr. Vincent's descendants 
are numerous at the present day. 

Simon Felle, was a Frenchman, who is found to have 
been here in the year 1654, having then some concern or 
interest in a barque trading with this place. He married 
Annekin, a daughter of Adrian Vincent, and built a house 
upon part of the property which had been originally 
granted to his father-in-law. 

Albert Reuninck occupied the adjoining premises. 

Jacobus Backer was a merchant, in good standing. He 
occupied about fifty-one feet front on the east side of Broad 
street, part of the lot originally granted to Rycken, near 
Beaver street. His warehouse adjoined his residence. Mr. 
Backer was Schepen of the city for several years, and held 
other prominent places of trust in the community. In 
1660 Mr. Backer left this city to reside in Holland, his 



HEERE GRAFT. 



Ill 



business being still carried on liero b}'^ liis wife, Marga- 
ret. The new arrangement would not seem to have pros- 
pered, as his property, which had been mortgaged before 
his departure, for eight thousand pounds tobacco, was 
foreclosed by the creditors in 1670, to whom liis wife was 
unable to make payment. The property was sold out at 
private sale in 1671, to Balthazar De Hart; but Madam 
Backer continued her residence there for many years 
subsequently. 

Jochem Beekman, a shoemaker, occupied the next ad- 
joining premises, which were on the south-east corner of 
Broad and Beaver streets. His front on Broad street was 
about thirty-six feet, on Beaver street about forty feet. 
Mr. Beekman was not among the earlier emigrants of his 
name, with whom he does not seem to be a family connec- 
tion. He was, however, made a citizen as early as the 
year 1657. 

JVicholas Dupuy occupied the premises on the west side 
of Broad street, between Beaver and Marketfield streets, 
about forty-four feet on Broad street. He died in 1691. 

Pieter Vaii JVaarden was situated on the south-west 
corner of Broad and Marketfield streets, his premises con- 
taining about twenty-two feet front. He died a short time 
subsequent to this period, but his widow remained there 
for a number of years. 

David WesseUs occupied the premises next south. He 
was an old resident. His front on the graft about twenty- 
three feet. 

Coenraet Ten Eyck. Mr. Ten Eyck was a tanner and 
shoe dealer and manufacturer. He occupied the next 
adjoining premises, about twenty-seven feet front. The 
tan-pits of Mr. Ten Eyck were on the same side of the 



XJ.Z Hll.t!;Kl!> UivAri. 

street, above Beaver street, where he owned a number 
of lots, the ground being marshy and suitable for tan- 
ning purposes. Mr. Ten Eyck was considered one of 
the influential citizens as early as 1653. His business 
was prosperous, and enabled him to build a fine house at 
the place to which we refer. The tannery and business 
were caVried on, after his death, which took place in 1680, 
by his three sons, Dirck, Tobias and Coenraet. 

Pieter Winster was a shoemaker, occupying the next ad- 
joining premises, formerly occupied by K. Reinoutsen. 

JYicholas Verbraack was skipper (ch^ptain) of the ship 
" New Albany," sailing out of this port. 

Claes Pauluzen. Mr. P. sold his property, on the west 
side of the Heere graft, in 1666. 

Bartholdus Maan was a merchant, who had been a long 
time in business in this city; he died the following year. 
The business was afterward carried on by his son, Richard. 
Numerous descendants of this family are found among 
us at the present day. 

Lucas Dircksen, a tavern-keeper, occupied the adjoining 
premises, on or near the north-west corner of Broad and 
Stone streets. He had long been a resident here. 

Simon Jansen Romeyn, a merchant, occupied premises 
between Bridge and Stone streets, on the west side of 
Broad street; containing about seventeen and a half feet 
front and forty feet depth. He was a man in good circum- 
stances. His descendants are numerous. 

Tunis Kray, a tavern-keeper, occupied premises between 
Bridge and Stone streets, about twenty -five feet front. Mr. 
Kray was the original grantee of this property, in 1647; 
he built his house in 1655. He held several subordinate 
public ofi&ces, among which was measurer of apples and 



PRINCE GRAFT. 113 

onions brought to market; tally master of the bricks and 
tiles imported from Holland. His wife was also superin- 
tendent of the market. 

Amh-osius de Weerham, a carpenter by trade, became a 
cartman. 



We shall continue our description of Broad street, north 
of Beaver street, as far as the present Exchange place; 
which part was known as the " Prince graft." The part 
of the present Broad street, above Exchange place, was 
a common, lying open, and commonly known as the 
" Schaape waytie," or sheep pasture, which was, at that 
period, unoccupied by any buildings. The centre of the 
Prince graft, for a considerable distance above Beaver 
street, was occupied by an open drain, somewhat smaller 
than the part b.elow, in the Heere graft. It was before 
observed, that in this neighborhood the ground was orig- 
inally marshy, and part of it is found, in some of the most 
ancient grants, to be termed " the swamp." One or two 
hundred feet north of Beaver street, on the west of Broad 
street, the diagonal course of a brook seems to be pointed 
out in the grants, as running in a course nearly parallel 
to the present line of Beaver street. 

On the west side of the street, several shoemakers estab- 
lished themselves, for the convenience of tanning, that 
being, in those limes, a legitimate part of their trade. At 
the period to which we now refer, there were but few 
dwellings on this street. 

Cornells Barents, a baker, lived on the west side of the 
street, on or near the north corner of Beaver street. 

Boile Roelofsen, next adjoining. 



114 PRINCE GRAFT. 

JVicJiolas Delaplaiyie, next above, was the ancestor of the 
present family of that name. 

Beyond him were situated Cocnraet Ten Eyck's tan 
pits. Mr. T. owned here a considerable parcel of land. 

Jacob Mens. 

Paulus Andriezen. 

Ahel Hardenbrook, a shoemaker, came here in 1661 ; he 
married, and commenced business on the Prince graft; his 
tan pits Avere on the premises. Mr. H., and other shoe- 
makers, were joint owners of a bark mill, to grind their 
bark, used in tanning. This property was on the north- 
west corner of Broad street and Exchange place; contain- 
ing, on Broad street, eighty- three feet; on Exchange place, 
one hundred and one feet; on New street, eighty-three feet. 
Soon after the period now referred to, Mr. Hardenbrook 
removed to High street. 

Thomas Lodowycksen was captain of a barque, sailing to 
Delaware Bay. 

Johannes Hardenbrook was a merchant. 

Jacob Kip was a son of Hendrick Kip, one of the oldest 
settlers, who, at this period, was still living in this city. 
Jacob was the first clerk or secretary of the city magis- 
trates, to which office he was appointed, at a youthful age, 
in 1653; he resigned in 1658, and turned his attention to 
brewing, and subsequently to the business of a merchant. 
He married the widow of Guleyn Verplanck, by which 
marriage he added to his property, which was very consid- 
erable. He lived to an advanced age. 

Jan Arenzen. 

Rutger , a drayman. 

Frerick Hendricksen de Boogh was the captain of a vessel 
on Hudson river. He died in 1686. 



BROUWER STRAAT. 



115 



Claes Tysen, cooper. 
Denys Isaacsen. 
William Abrahams. 

Bay Croosvelt (sometimes called Crossfield) was a hatter, 
living on the east side of the street, near Exchange place. 
Williani Deturnier. 



The Brouwer straat was the name given to that part of 
the present Stone street, between Broad and Whitehall 
streets. It was among the earliest streets built upon, and 
was the line of the first road laid out along the East river, 
the ancient grants commonly terming it " the road," while 
its neighboring thoroughfares Avere described with refer- 
ence to their situation, as " east of the fort," " south of the 
fort," &c. The name of " Brouwer straat," or Brewer's 
street, was given to it from the circumstance of two or 
three breweries having been erected upon it. It was the 
first street in this city paved with stone, the ordinance for 
which passed in 1657. It afterward came to be called 
Stone street, probably from this circumstance. 

Frederick Philipse resided on the north side of this 
street, near Whitehall street. He is celebrated as being 
the richest man of his time in this country. The first 
mention of Mr. Philipse's name, in the ancient documents, 
occurs in 1655, when, on an occasion of public exigency, 
contributions being called for, Mr. Philipse tenders twenty 
guilders. This sum was far below those of the wealthy 
class of burghers, and it is supposed that he was then a 
young man, who had, in common with the other citizens of 
that period, wended his way hither, to seek his fortune in 
the wilds of the west. After trying several pursuits, he 



116 BROUWEB STRAAT 

seems to have settled in that which aflforded the best re- 
turns for the adventurous youth, viz : the Indian trade in 
furs. But his fortune was more rapidly increased by his 
marriage with Margaret Von Hardenbrook, the widow of 
Pieter Rudolphus, a trader, who had been established here 
during a number of years, and died in 1661. From this 
period the fortune of Mr. Philipse rapidly increased under 
his prudent management and eminent business talent, and 
was still further augmented, after the death of his first 
wife, by his marriage with Catharine, one of the daughters 
of Oloff Stevenson Van Cortland, a wealthy citizen. This 
lady had, in addition to her patrimonial fortune, inherited 
that of her first husband, John Dervall, a rich merchant 
of this city. Thus, by a fortuitous chain of circumstances, 
the united avails of several large individual fortunes cen- 
tred in Mr. Philipse, and he stood far beyond his compeers 
in point of wealth. In the later years of his life, Mr. 
Philipse resided on his estate of Philipse Manor, the manor 
house being situated near Tarrytown, Westchester county. 
He filled several prominent official stations in the govern- 
ment, at different periods. He died in the year 1702, leav- 
ing several children. Philip died in the West Indies ; 
Adolph resided for many years in this city; Eva married 
Jacobus Van Cortland, and Annetje married Philip 
French. 

Rinier Williamson, a baker, occupied the premises adjoin- 
ing Mr. Philipse, on the north side of Brouwer straat. 
His lot was about thirty-one feet front and ninety feet in 
depth. Mr. Williamson was, at this period, but recently 
i&stablished in business. He married Susannah, a daughter 
of Aert Teunisen, a farmer at Pavonia, who was killed by 
the Indians some years previously, and grand-daughter of 



BROUWER STRAAT. 117 

Sybout Clasen, a carpenter, one of the old inhabitants. 
He became a man of considerable property. 

Mattheus De Vos, occupying the adjoining premises, had 
been a resident here for many years. In 1656 he was 
keeper of the city-hall, and was soon after appointed mar- 
shal. He exercised the office of public notary, and fre- 
quently appeared in the Court of Burgomasters and 
Schepens as attorney for litigant parties. He married the 
widow of Philip Geraerdy, a trader of considerable prop- 
erty; he continued in the business of notary, drawing 
deeds, wills, &c., for many years afterward. The property 
on Stone street, occupied by him at this period, belonged 
to the estate of his wife's first husband; it contained forty- 
five front and one hundred and twenty five feet depth. 

Jeronimus Ehbingh. Mr. Ebbiugh was a trader, his 
principal business being carried on along the Hudson river, 
at Esopus and Albany, which places he was accustomed to 
visit, at stated intervals, to gather his furs and peltry. He 
was a man of large property, partly acquired by his mar- 
riage to the daughter of De Laet, one of the original 
patentees of Rensselaerswyck. His support of the Church 
was a commendable trait in his character, and he was a 
church-warden for many successive years. Mr. Ebbingh 
had been in this country a long period; as early as 1658, 
he was chosen as " an old and suitable person for the priv- 
ilege of the great citizenship. He frequently held office 
among the city magistrates; a few years after the period 
above referred to, he settled in Esopus, or Kingston. He 
sold his house in this city in 1676, to Mr. Philipse, for two 
hundred and ten beaver skins, the value of which was 
about seven hundred dollars ; the lot contained about 



118 



BKOUWER STRAAT. 



twenty-six feet front and one hundred and eight feet 
in depth. 

Isaac de Foreest was one of the early settlers, having 
come here about the year 1636. He was the original grantee 
of considerable property in the neighborhood of his pres- 
ent residence, and also of a farm at Harlem; among other 
property owned by him was the " old kirk," or old church, 
in Pearl street, which Avas sold, after his death, to Alhird 
Anthony; the property in Stone street was granted in 
1645, and was built upon by him. In 1658, being then an 
" old and suitable person, who had been a resident here 
more than twenty years, and had made many improve- 
ments," he was privileged with the " great citizenship." 
He took an active part in public aflairs, and in the im- 
provement of the town, having, for some years, been one 
of the magistrates. He died a few years subsequent to 
the period to which we now refer, leaving his widow, 
Sarah, surviving, and several children, who have perpetu- 
ated his name to the present day. 

Oloff Stevenson Van Cortland was one of the prominent ^*' 
citizens of New Amsterdam. He came to this city in 1637, 
attached to a military company. In the summer of that 
year, he was transferred to the civil service as commissary 
of cargoes, at a salary of thirty guilders, or about twelve dol- 
lars per month; in 1618 he left the company's service, and 
embarked in the brewing business at the place now referred 
to. He was a politician of influence. In 1650 he was 
president of a body called the " Nine Men," representing 
the citizens at large; as such, he opposed the policy of 
Governor Stuyvesant with considerable effect. Stuyvesant 
retaliated by turning the " Nine Men" out of their pews in 



BROUWER STUAAT. 



119 



church, and tearing up the scats. Mr. Van Cortland became 
one of the most considerable men in town, and acquired 
a large property, amongst which was a plot on the west side 
of Broadway, two hundred and thirty-eight feet front, ex- 
tending to the North river, and adjacent to the present 
Cortland street. He held various offices of distinction, 
and took a lively interest in the advancement of the city. 
Mr. Van Cortland died in the year 1683, and his property 
was apportioned among his children in the year 1G84. lie 
had several children — Stephanus, who married Gertruyd 
Schuyler; Maria, who married Jcremias Van Rensellaer; 
Catharine, who married, first, John Derval, and secondly 
Frederick Philipse; Cornelia, who married Brandt Schuy- 
ler; Jacob, who married Eva Philipse; Sophia, wdio mar- 
ried Andrew Teller: and John, who died unmarried. 

Jan Janaen Van St. Obin, an old resident on this street. 

Isaac Kip was a sou of Hendrick Kip, one of the early 
emigrants. He married a daughter of Gillis Pietersen, 
who resided on the site of the present Wall street, his 
house fronting the public road along the East river, now 
Pearl street. The city palisades on the northerly line of 
Wall street, were constructed a few feet above Pietersen's 
house. It being found convenient to have a passage «long 
the palisades, the heirs of Pietersen were requested, in 
lt)o6, to narrow their garden so as to allow the passage of 
a wagon-way next the wall. They refused this, and finally, 
the city, in 1G5T, purchased the house and lot of the Pieter- 
sen's, which was much dilapidated, for al>out two hundred 
dollars, and demolishing the buildings, threw the lot into 
the public street, now Wall street. Isaac Kip was a 
trader, doing business along the Hudson river, at the va- 
rious settlements upon its banks. 



120 



WINCKEL STBAAT. 



Frerick Gysbertsen was a merchant. He took the sur- 
name of Vandenbergh, by which his descendants are now 
known. 

Hubert Hendricksen. 

Evert Pieterzen was a schoolmaster, having been em- 
ployed in that capacity by the Dutch West India Company. 
He continued teaching here for many subsequent years, 
but the era of Dutch school-teaching declined after > the 
permanent establishment of the English in authority; the 
principal inhabitants bestowing on their children an Eng- 
lish education. 



We have now come to a street which has disappeared 
from the modern maps of the city. It was anciently 
known as the " Winckel street," or street of the stores; 
the origin and site of which may be described as follows : 
After the establishment of the West India Company in 
this city, their great trading interests required the erection 
of extensive edifices for the storage of their goods. For 
this purpose they erected five stone buildings at a short 
distance from the fort and under the immediate protection 
of its guns. These buildings occupied a line facing east- 
wardly toward the fort, between the present Stone and 
Bridge streets, running parallel with the present Whitehall 
street. In course of time the open space between the 
stone houses and the present Whitehall street, was granted 
out in building lots, the depth between Whitehall street 
and the line in front of the stores, being about sixty feet, 
leaving a passage-way which was called the '' Winckel 
straat." Of course only the westerly side of this street 



BRUGH STR^VAT. 121 

was built upon by individuals. The persons residing there 
at the period now referred to were 

Hendrick Jansen, a baker, who had long been a resident 

of this city. 

Arent Juriensen Lanh'Tnan, kept a small store for retail- 
ing fruits and vegetables. 

^ Johannes De Peyster, a merchant of wealth and respecta- 
bility, had long been established in business at this place. 
He subsequently purchased property on the east side of 
Broad street, above the present South William street. He 
held various offices in the magistracy and the church, and 
was the ancestor of a long line of descendants, distin- 
guished for their public spirit and activity in the affairs 
of the city. In 1677 he was appointed deputy-mayor, but 
finding his knowledge of the English language inadequate 
to the proper performance of the duties, he resigned his 
place. After a long life of activity and usefulness, he 
died, previous to the year 1686, leaving his widow, Cor- 
nelia, who survived him many years, and several children, 
two of whom, Abraham and Johannes, afterward filled the 
mayoralty chair of this city. 

Mighiel Esnel. 

^gidius Luyck was, at this period, a school-master. He 
was a man of learning and piety, and at times officiated as 
a preacher in the Dutch church. Mr. Luyck, in 1673, held 
the office of Burgomaster of the city. 



The " Brugh straat," or Bridge street, still retains its 
name; the circumstance from which it was derived being, 
that it led to the bridge crossing the ditch at Broad street. 

Cornells Steenwyck occupied the corner of the present 



122 



BRUGH STRAAT. 



Bridge aud Whitehall streets. His business was that of a 
general merchant or store-keeper, in which pursuit he 
amassed a large property, and was, at the time of his 
death, esteemed the second person, in point of wealth, in 
the province. The wife of Mr. Steenwjck was Margaretta 
De Riemer, whom he married in this city. His mother-in- 
law, a lady of excellent character, married, after her first 
widowhood, Domine Samuel Drissius, the Dutch clergyman 
in this city. The property of Mr. Steenwyck, on the 
corner of Bridge and Stone streets, consisted of a good 
stone house, occupied in part by his store, and in part for 
his dwelling. It was worth from four to five thousand 
dollars of the present currency. Attached was a kitchen 
of two stories and a cellar. In the main house was the 
dwelling room, furnished with twelve rush-leather chairs; 
two velvejr rjefeairs with fine silver lace, one cupboard of 
French nut-wood, one round table, one square table, one 
cabinet, thirteen pictures, a large looking-glass, a bedstead, 
(containing two beds and the necessary linen) five alabas- 
ter images, a piece of tapestry-work for cushions, a flow- 
ered tabby chimney cloth, a pair of flowered tabby (curtain 
calico) window curtains, a dressing box and a carpet. In 
the room called the " foreroom" was a marble table, eleven 
pictures, seven Russia leather chairs, a crumb cloth, three 
muslin curtains and a clock. The kitchen furniture was 
of an abundant character; the rest of the house was occu- 
pied by his merchandize. 

Mr. Steenwyck, in the course of his life, was conspic- 
uous in public position, and probably exercised a greater 
influence on the public mind in this city than any other man 
of his time. He frequently was a member of the city 
magistracy, as well under the Dutch rule as subsequently 



BRUGH STRAAT. 123 

under the English. He was mayor of tlie city for five 
years, (viz., in 1668, 69-70-82-83,) and in the year 1671, 
during the temporary absence in Virginia of the governor 
of the province, (Lord Lovelace) he was deputed to con- 
duct the government. Mr. Steenwyck died in 1684. His 
widow afterward married Domine Henricus Selinus, the 
Dutch clergyman. 

Barent Jacohsen Cool was in this city as early as the year 
1633, and held an office in the service of the West India 
Company. 

Jacob Vermont. 

Jacob Tunisen De Kay was a haker. Ho was a promi- 
nent man in the Church, and was in high esteem as a man 
of probity and honor. Mr. De Kay died in the possession 
of a large property. He left several children, among 
them two sons, Jacobus and Tunis, from whopi the present 
families of that name are derived. 

Hendrick Hendricksen Kip, a tailor, was one of the early 
emigrants. In 1612 a grant was made to him of property 
east of the fort, containing forty-four square rods. Mr. 
Kip was always an active politician, and in particular was 
a determined opponent of Governor Kieft's administration. 
At his death he left three sons surviving, viz., Isaack, 
Jacob and Hendrick, from whom the family of that name 
are derived. 

Jan Jldrianzen. 

Hendrick WiUiamsen, a baker, occupied the present 
north-west corner of Bridge and Broad streets, having a 
front of sixty- three feet on Broad street. He purchased 
the property of Joost Tunizen, a baker, in the year 1658. 
After taking his deed, he fancied the lot to be somewhat 
short in size, and having summoned Tunizen to court, 



124 



BEAVER GRAFT. 



demanded that he should measure the property. To this, 
Tunizen replied that he did not measure other people's 
property, but Williamsen might measure it himself, if he 
desired so to do; which position was sustained hj the 
court. Under these circumstances, Williamsen preferred 
a new complaint, charging that in the time of the Indian 
war both himself and Tunizen had grain at the mill at 
Newtown, and some of the enemy making a descent on the 
mill, carried off part of the grain from Tunizen's sacks, 
upon which the latter filled up his sacks from those of 
Williamsen's. This complaint, however, having no proof, 
was likewise thrown out. On the improvement of the 
ditch in Broad street, an assessment was laid on the 
property owners, in 1660, which Williamsen, among others, 
refused to pay, maintaining that he was not benefited more 
than the rest of the citizens. As the delinquents made an 
obstinate resistance to the magistrates, Governor Stuyve- 
sant ordered them to be locked up in the prison room, to 
be kept there until they repented. Before nightfall, the 
parties prayed to be released, promising to pay at an early 
period. In 1660, Mr. Williamsen built a mill at Gowanus. 
He continued his residence here for many years. 

Pieter Jansen, a mason, died four or five years subsequent 
to the period now referred to. 

Pieter JVys, a wine merchant. 



The present Beaver street, between Broadway and Broad 
street, known at this period as the " Beaver graft," 
was originally called " The Company's Valley," and was 
the course of a ditch running through the centre of the 
present street. It is frequently referred to, in the original 



BEAVER GRAFT. 



125 



grants of lots along the Company's Valley, as " the old 
ditch." Commencing at the premises on the north side of 
the street, nearest to Broad street, we have 

Jacob Leunizen, a carpenter, who had been long a resi- 
dent of this city. 

Tujiis Tomassen Quick occupied the adjoining premises. 

Thomas Sanderson, a smith, had been long a resident; as 
early as 1643 this property was granted to him. It was 
described as lying on the west end of the ditch (on Broad 
street;) in front, on the south side, four rods one foot; on 
the west side, six rods three feet; on the east side, six rods 
five feet. 

Egbert Meinderzen, a butcher, hired premises owned by 
Paulus Yanderbeeck. This property he purchased the 
following year, and sold it again in 1672. It was on or 
near the easterly corner of New street; in front thirty-two 
feet, and in depth about one hundred and fifty feet; easterly 
from him lay a vacant lot, belonging to the deacons of 
the poor. 

Egbert Wouterse?i owned the property on the north-west 
corner of the present Beaver and New streets. He was 
one of the earliest emigrants, and in 1647 received a grant 
of land called Apopcalyck, on the west side of the North 
river. Mr. Woutcrsen died about the year 1680. His 
heirs, in 1683, sold off many lots in New street, which had 
before that been unoccupied. 

John Jansen Van Brestede was a cooper. He was ap- 
pointed marker of beer barrels in 1658, and in 1667 in- 
spector of pipe staves. His two sons, Andrew and Simon, 
followed the same calling; the family, in later years, have 
been known as Bresteede. The common ancestor of this 



126 



PRINCE STRAAT. 



name, to whom we now refer, died, it is supposed, about 
the year 1675. 

Dirck Storm removed from this street in the year 1666. 

Hendrick Van Bommel, a tailor, had been, for a number 
of years, a resident here. He held the place of public 
crier, in performance of which duty he was accustomed to 
go to the corners of the several streets, and after ringing 
a hand-bell for some time, for the purpose of calling the 
attention of the inhabitants, he proclaimed, with a loud 
voice, the subject of public notice, (such as that there 
would be a special meeting of the court — that there would 
be a public auction — that there were pigs in the pound 
to be redeemed, and other matters of like general in- 
terest.) 

Roelof Jansen Van Meppelen, a butcher. 



Proceeding on the present Beaver street to that part of 
it which lies east of Broad street, we find but three houses 
upon it at this period. It was then known as "De Prince 
straat." 

Albert Pietersen Swart. 

Daniel Verveelen, a brewer, originally resided at Fort 
Orange, or Albany. The family of Verveelen was one of 
the earliest emigrating to this country; their descendants 
are numerous at the present time. 

Gerrit Manate. 



The street now known as Marketfield street was origin- 
ally called " the oblique road;" and afterward, upon the 



MAIUKVKLT STKKGIE. 127 

streets being named, was designated as tlie " Marckvclt 
stcegie," or the " Marlvetfield patli." Tlie lots between 
this street and south side of Beaver street, were first 
granted to individuals about the year 1G46. Roelof Jansen 
Haas was given" the front ou the present Whitehall street, 
and extending about seventy-five feet toward Broad street; 
next him was Claes Van Elslant, whose front on Beaver 
and Marketfield streets was about one hundred and fifty 
feet; next him was Evert Jansen, whose front was about 
one hundred and ten feet. The inhabitants of the " Marck- 
velt steegie," in IG60, were as follows : 

Claes Van Elslant, senior, was one of the earliest emi- 
grants; he came hither in the service of the West India 
Company, in the capacity of a clerk. He was an active 
and intelligent young man, and rendered good service in 
the wars and expeditions of early times. Mr. Van Elslant 
settled a family at this place, and was appointed court mes- 
senger, and held various other offices of a subordinate 
character, among which was that of the town sexton and 
undertaker. He lived in the time that the old grave-yard 
in Broadway, above Morris street, was the receptacle of 
the dead of this town; and probably, judging from the du- 
ration of his official career, he officiated at most of the 
burials in that ancient cemetery, which was abandoned 
about the same time that the ancient sexton departed this 
life. Mr. Van Elslant died about the year 1670. His 
son, Claes Van Elslant had, for many years, held the places 
of court messenger, formerly occupied by his father, who 
had become unfitted, by age, for the discharge of the active 
duties of the place, and after the death of his father he 
was likewise appointed, in 1670, the town sexton and un- 
dertaker, and also auctioneer of sales. 



128 



SiffiE STRAAT. 



Isaac Ahrahamson. 

Andries Clasen. 

John Van Gelder, a grain measurer. 

Elsie Barens. 

Lambert Hendricksen Van Campen, a tavern-keeper. 

Jan Adamzen. 

Jan Meinderzen, cartman. 



That part of the street, now known as William street, 
between Wall and Pearl streets, was then called the " Smee 
straat;" having formerly been known as " the glass-maker's 
street," and subsequently as " Smith street." At the period 
now referred to, it contained a few houses. We are unable 
to give the reason, with positive certainty, why the name 
Smee straat was applied to this street, unless from the 
circumstance that Jan Smeedes, a glass-maker, was one 
of the first, if not the very first settler upon the present 
line. He owned considerable land, and resided on the 
east side of the street, a short distance north of the 
present Pearl street and Hanover square. The common 
pronunciation, in Dutch, of Smeede's straat, would be 
the same by which it was known at the period now 
spoken of. 

Meindert Barenzen, cooper. 

Geetje Jans. 

Andries Rees, an inn keeper. 

Jan Roelofsen. 

Joris Dopsen, an innkeeper. 

Immitje, widow of Frans Clasen. 

William Vanderschuyr. 



SMEE STRAAT. 



129 



Andries Jindriezen, a mason. 

Cornelius Hendricksen, drummer, owned the premises on 
the south-west corner of Wall and William streets, con- 
taining twenty-six feet on Wall street and thirty feet on 
William street. This property he sold in 1699. 

Gerrit Jansen Van Jiarnhan. 



CHAPTER XI. 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF SEVERAL OF THE EARLY RESIDENTS IN NEW 
AMSTERDAM, NOT ENUMERATED IN THE FOREGOING CHAPTERS. 

Maryn Andriezen originally settled on the patroon Van 
Rensselaer's estate, about tlie year 1632. He subsequently 
engaged in the North river trade, and established himself 
in New Amsterdam, where he owned a considerable prop- 
erty near the present Pearl and Wall streets. Mr. An- 
driezen was a man of violent passions, and in common 
with many other traders whose pursuits had brought them 
in constant commerce with the savages, he regarded that 
race with feelings of antipathy. Being a resident of the 
city at the time of the Indian war in 1642, he was fore- 
most in counseling violent measures against the savages, 
and an efficient minister in their destruction. The de- 
plorable results of that war to the Dutch, raised a high 
feeling in the community against the violent counselors 
whose impetuosity had brought about so many disasters. 
These persons endeavored to shift the responsibility of 
their acts from one to another, and the governor (Kieft) 
charged Andriezen with the odium of these misfortunes. 
The latter, upon hearing this, visited the fort, and present- 
ing himself in the council-room, assaulted the governor, 
then sitting in council. He was seized by those present, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHKS. 



131 



and lodged in prison. Several of his friends, headed by 
his son, soon after came to demand his release, and at- 
tempted to force an entrance to effect their object, when 
young Andriezen was shot down by a sentinel. The 
prisoner was afterward sent to Holland for trial, but is 
subsequently found residing in New Amsterdam. Mr. 
Andriezen died in this city a few years afterward, hi? 
widow, Lysbet Tysen, surviving him many years, having 
subsequently married Geerlief Michielsen. 

Isaac Mlerton, one of the New England pilgrims, arrived 
at Plymouth, in the May Flower, in 1G29. He soon after 
engaged in the coasting trade, principally between the 
Dutch settlements and those of New England, and estab- 
lished extensive interests in the town of New Amsterdam, 
having formed a business connection with Govert Loock- 
ermans, a thriving Dutch trader. Mr. Allerton was a 
resident of this city for a considerable period, and in 1643 
was one of the representatives of the citizens in the coun- 
cil called " the eight men," and held other offices under the 
Dutch administration. His trade increasing, he engaged 
in shipping, himself sailing on most of the principal 
voyages, extending along the Virginia coast and to the 
West Indies. The tobacco trade principally occupied his 
attention. His sou Isaac attended to his father's business 
in this city during his absence on trading voyages. Mr. 
Allerton, senior, died in the year 1659. After his affairs 
in this city were closed, his son removed to New England. 

Everardus Bogardus, doraine, the first established cler- 
gyman in this city, arrived here in 1633. A church, con- 
structed of wood, was erected for him on the present north 
side of Pearl street, between Whitehall and Bioad streets. 
This edifice being exposed to an assault, should the Indians 



132 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



surprise the community while at their devotions, was aban- 
doned in the time of the Indian war of 1642, at which 
time a church was erected within the walls of the fort, 
where Domine Bogardus afterward officiated. He married 
in this city the widow of Roelof Jansen, one of the earliest 
settlers. This lady owned, in right of her former hus- 
band, a farm on the North river, in the neighborhood of 
the present Canal street, containing sixty-two acres, which 
had been granted to Mr. Jansen in 1636. At the time of 
her marriage to Domine Bogardus she had four children, 
and by Domine Bogai^dus she had also four children. 
This farm was, in the year 1671, conveyed by the heirs, 
with the exception of one of her sons, Cornelius, to Gov- 
ernor Lovelace, and became afterward the property of 
Trinity church. Her son Cornelius, not having joined in 
the conveyance, his heirs claim one-eighth interest in this 
valuable property, which has been the subject of litigation 
for many years, and is well known as the " Anneke Jan's 
suit." The residence of Domine Bogardus in this city 
was on the present Whitehall street, east side, between 
Bridge and Stone streets. Having embarked on board the 
ship Princess in the year 1647, on a visit to his father-land, 
the vessel was cast away on the English coast, and Mr. 
Bogardus, with more than eighty others, perished. He 
was succeeded in the pastoral charge of the Dutch congre- 
gation in this city by the Rev. Johannes Backerus. It is 
to be remarked that the original name of the family was 
Bogard or Bogaert, the termination us, assumed by him 
being then a common custom among clergymen and other 
professors of learning, as giving a classical distinction to 
the ordinary name. The name of his successor was orig- 
inally " Backer," or as it would be called in English, the 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 138 

Rev. John Baker. Subsequently, in this city, the Rev. 
Messrs. Megapolensis, Drissius, Selinus and others, held 
the pastoral charge of the congregation. 

William Beeckman was born at Hasselt in 1623, and 
came to this city in 1647, at the commencement of. Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant's administration, being then in the 
employment of the company. He married Catharine, a 
daughter of Ei^^dcuidc Hendricks do Boogli, captain of a 
Hudson river trading vessel, and a lady of great personal 
attractions. In 1652 he purchased of Jacob Van Corlaer 
his plantation at Corlaer's Hook, where he resided for 
some time. At an early age he filled the office of Schepen 
of this city, and other municipal offices of distinction. In 
1658 Mr. Beeckman was appointed vice-director of the 
Dutch colony at the mouth of the Delaware river, where 
he resided until the year 1663, when he was transferred to 
the settlement at Esopus in this State, of which district he 
was appointed sherift". After officiating there for several 
years, he removed to this city. In 1670, he purchased the 
farm formerly owned by Thomas Hall, and then occupied 
by his widow in the vicinity of the present Beekman street. 
and fronting on the road along the East river shore, (now 
Pearl street.) This property then lay between the farm 
formerly belonging to Cornelis Van Tienhoven on the 
south, and Bestevaar's swamp on the north. It covered 
several of the present blocks in that vicinity. Mr. Beeck- 
man here continued the brewing business, which had 
formerly been established by Mr. Hall. He resided at 
that place, in high repute among the citizens of his day 
until his death, which occurred in 1707, at the advanced 
age of eighty-five years. His descendants at the present 
dav are numerous. 



134 



BIOORAPinCAL SKETCHES. 



William Breedenbent, under-sheriff in 1633, was the orig- 
inal grantee of a lot, and among the first settlers on the 
north side of the present Beaver street, between Broad and 
New streets. 

George Baxter, an Englishman, was appointed, by Kieft, 
in 1642, his English secretary, and was a conspicuous 
character in the different negotiations with New England, 
for several years. In 1646 he patented lands at Canarsie, 
on Long Island, where he resided for some time. He was 
continued as English secretary by Stuyvesant, but soon 
turned against the Dutch, and became concerned in in- 
trigues to subvert the Dutch authority, and was suspected 
to have acted the part of a spy in his intercourse with the 
Dutch. Being a magistrate at Gravesend, he was dismissed 
from office in 1654, and soon after hoisted the English flag 
at Gravesend, and, in company with several of his neigh- 
bors, proclaimed the jurisdiction of Great Britain. He 
and the others were then seized and sent to prison ftt New 
Amsterdam; here he lay over a year, when, through lenity, 
having been removed from the dungeon to a more comfort- 
able apartment, he seized an opportunity to escape. His 
property was, however, confiscated. Baxter now became 
more active than ever in his efforts to free Long Island 
from the dominion of the Dutch, and, in 1663, appeared 
before the ministry in England, to give an account of the 
affairs of New Netherland. He afterward returned to 
New Amsterdam with the English forces which captured 
the city in 1664; he subsequently removed to Nevis, in the 
West Indies. 

y Jaques Cortelyou was originally the agent of the Hon. 
Mr. Van Werckhoven, a magistrate of Utrecht, in Holland, 
who, in the year 1651, purchased several large tracts, for 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKKTCIIES. 



135 



the purpose of planting colonies in New Netherland. 
Cortelyou was a man of good education, and was offered 
the place of Sheriff of New Amsterdam, in 1051, but de- 
clined to act. He was the first surveyor of the city, and 
made the first map of the town in lG5l!, at the time the 
streets were first established. In 1057 he became the 
patentee of New Utrecht, so named after the city of -which 
his patron, Van Werckhoven, was a magistrate, and him- 
self probably a native. 

Johannes Delamontagnie, doctor, arrived in this country 
in the year 1637, being then about forty-five years of age. 
He was appointed, by Governor Kieft, the following year, 
as a member of his council, an office the second in author- 
ity in the government. Mr. Delamontagnie (whose name 
was sometimes abbreviated to " Lamontagnie'' and " Mon- 
taguie") was a French Huguenot, and sought these shores 
to escape the rage of religions persecution in France. He 
purchased a farm, of about two hundred acres, at Harlem, 
on this island, which he named the " Vredendal," or Valley 
of Peace, paying therefor seven hundred and twenty dollars. 
It lay east of the present Eighth avenue, and between 
Ninety-third street and the Harlem river. In 1644 he 
commanded a party from this city, against the Indians on 
Staten Island, and soon after another, against one of the 
Long Island tribes at Scout's Bay. At the time of Mr. 
Delamontagnie's arrival here, he was a widower, with four 
children. One of his grand-sons, named Vincent Dela- 
montagnie, was born on 22d of April, 1657, and died 26th 
of May, 1773, at the age of one hundred and sixteen 
years. 

Samuel Di'issius, domine, was sent out from Holland 
in the year 1652, to assist Domine Megapolensis, then 



136 



BIOGRArillCAL SKETCUKS. 



the officiating- Dutch clergyman in this city; he was, at that 
time, about forty years of age. Soon after his arrival he 
married Lysbet Juriaensea, widow of Isaac Grcveraat, for- 
merly a Dutch trader in this city, by which marriage he 
acquired a considerable property; his own salary was 
about six hundred dollars. The residence of Mr. Drissius 
was on the present north side of Pearl street, between 
Whitehall and Broad streets (next to corner of Whitehall 
street;) the lot was about twenty feet front, and extended 
to Bridge street. He subsequently removed to the west 
side of the present Broad street, near Wall, his premises 
embracing a large garden. Mr, Drissius officiated as 
clergyman here until his decease, about the year 1681; he 
left no children, and bequeathed his property, one half to 
his wife and one half to his sister, Mrs. Jane Slade, of 
London. 

Jan Jansen Damen, a trader, settled originally at Fort 
Orange, or Albany, about the year 1631, but subsequently 
removed to New Amsterdam, where he took a prominent 
part in the public affairs of his time. He was the original 
grantee of a large farm, extending from the North to the 
East river, and bounded partly on Maiden lane. The city 
wall cut through a part of this property, when erected in 
1663, and laid the grain fields open; it then belonged to 
his heirs. Having visited the father-land, on public busi- 
ness, in the year 1651, Mr. Damen died on his return. 
Some further account of his family will be found in other 
parts of this book. 

Philip De Truy, court messenger or marshal, was one of 
the early settlers. He resided on the road called the 
Smith's Valley, now Pearl street, north of Maiden lane, 
where he owned a considerable property. 



BIOGRAPUICAL SKETCnES. 



137 



Arnoldus Van Hardcnburgh, a tradei', was among' the 
earliest inhabitants, and occupied a conspicuous position 
among the merchants of his day. 

Pietcr Hartgers came to this country in 1643, in the ser- 
vice of the company, and first settled at Fort Orange, 
or Albany. He married Fytje, daughter of Annetje Jans. 
Having engaged in trade on his own behalf, he established 
a temporary place of business on the present Broad street. 
He died in Holland, in 1670. 

Andries Hudde was one of the officers employed by the 
West India Company in this city, from a very early period. 
He was a considerable property-holder as early as 1636. 
He held the office of first commissary of wares. In 1646 
he was transferred to the Dutch settlements at the mouth 
of the Delaware river, to superintend the company's com- 
mercial interests in that quarter. He afterward (1655) 
was appointed secretary and attorney-general of that col- 
ony. Hudde having died, his property in this city, on 
Broadway, east side, above Beaver street, sixty feet front 
and two hundred and twenty feet in depth, was sold to Mr. 
Aertsen, in 16GT. 

George Holmes, an Englishman who had settled in New 
England, went thence, in 1635, with thirteen or fourteen 
others, to make a settlement on the Delaware river, where 
the Dutch had established a colony. They were, however, 
made prisoners by the Dutch, and sent to New Amsterdam. 
Holmes then expressing his willingness to become a sub- 
ject of the Dutch, was permitted to establish himself in 
trade here, as other citizens. He received a grant of land 
for a tobacco plantation; "in breadth, from Deutcl Bay, 
(Turtle Bay) along the East river to the hill of Schepmoes, 
where the beach tree lies over the water, and in depth one 



138 BIOORAPmCAL SEETCHES. 

hundred rods into the woods." He also received the grant 
of a town lot, near the fort, on the present Whitehall 
street. He died here, and left several children. The 
property was afterward sold to Cornelius Steenwyck. 
. / Wolfert Gerritsen, one of the earliest Dutch settlers, 
who, with his family, permanently remained in the colony, 
came here in 1630, in the service of Patroon Van Rensse- 
laer, and acted as overseer of the farms in the colony. 
Subsequently entering the service of the company at New 
Amsterdam, a residence was built for him by the company 
in 1633, near the fort; it is believed, on the present north- 
west corner of Pearl and Whitehall streets. In 1686, in 
company with three other prominent officials (Governor 
Van Twiller being one,) he purchased from the Indians a 
tract of ten to fifteen thousand acres, on Long Island^ 
near the present town of New Utrecht, where he afterward 
resided for many years, and where, it is supposed, he died. 
His *fee^*-6ons, Jacob Wolphertsen Van Couwenhoven and 
Pieter Wolphertsen Van Couwenhoven, were, for many 
years, among the most prominent citizens of New Am- 
sterdam. 

Philip Geraerdy, a trader, was among the earliest set- 
tlers, and received a grant, in 1643, of a house lot on the 
north side of the road now called Stone street, between 
Whitehall and Broad streets. He was also the original 
grantee of a lot on the east side of Broadway, between 
Beaver street and Exchange place, one hundred and ten 
feet front and about two hundred and thirty feet in depth. 
His property was inherited by Jan Geraerdy, who after- 
ward resided at the homestead, in the present Stone street. 

Michael Jansen emigrated from Broeckhuysen, to this 
country in 1636, and first settled at Rensselaerswyck. He 



BIOGRAPUICAIi SKETCnES. 139 

was accompanied by his wife and two children. Turning 
his attention from farming pursuits to the fur trade, he 
amassed a considerable fortune, and, in 1G4G, removed to 
the vicinity of New Amsterdam, having purchased the plan- 
tation of Jan Evertsen Bout, called Gamoenepa (Commu- 
nipaw,) on the west side of New York Bay. The Indian 
wars which devastated the settlements contiguous to this 
city, compelled Mr. Jansen, in the year 1G55, to remove 
his family, for greater safety, within this city, where, 
although not privileged as a citizen, he was permitted, in 
consequence of his having lost his all by the Indian war, 
to open a tavern. This business he followed until the 
occurrence of a more settled condition of Indian affairs, 
when he returned to the Jersey shore, and re-erected his 
farm buildings, and renewed his farming operations. He 
was one of the first magistrates in that part of the present 
State of New Jersey. 

Jochem Pietersen Kuyter had, previously to emigrating 
to this country, been a commander in the Danish service, 
in the East Indies; he came hither, from Darmstadt, in the 
year 1639, accompanied by his family. His intention 
being to turn his attention to farming, he procured a grant 
of a large farm at Harlem, on this island, and engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, on a large scale. He also had a 
house in this city, on the present north side of Pearl street, 
on the block between Hanover square and Broad street, 
where he engaged in trade to some extent. Mr. Kuyter, 
from an early period, took a prominent part in the ])ublic 
affairs, and may be said to have been the leading man of 
his day on the side of the citizens' party, or that part of 
the community in favor of extending privileges to the 
people, and of restraining the arbitrary powers claimed by 



140 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



the officers of tlie West India Company, His opposition 
to Kieft's administration was one of the leading causes of 
its downfall. Upon Stuyvesant's advent to power, he was 
courted by the two factions, existing under the former ad- 
ministration; he chose to favor that of Kieft, as necessary 
to sustain the prerogatives of his own power, and caused 
Kuytcr and others to be brought to trial for seditious con- 
duct. He was found guilty of having threatened Kieft 
" with his finger;" which, with other similar acts of con- 
tempt, were adjudged worthy of exemplary punishment, 
and he was sentenced, in 1647, to be banished for three 
years, and to pay a fine of about sixty dollars. He sailed 
for Holland, and immediately brought the matter before 
the authorities there, and procured a reversal of the 
judgment. He then returned to this city, and continued 
to reside on his farm until the year 1654, when he was 
unfortunately murdered by the Indians. A commission was 
at that time on its way from Holland, appointing him 
sheriff of this city. The widow of Mr. Kuyter married 
again, and died within a year after his death. The patro- 
nymic name of Kuyter was Pietersen, by which he Avas 
commonly known. 

Cornelis Melyn, of Antwerp, arrived in this city in 1639; 
in 1640 he procured an order in Holland that a grant of 
the whole of Stateu Island (except a farm which had been 
previously granted to another) be made to him, which was 
done in 1642; he had previously established his residence 
there, and settled a number of persons upon the island. 
Mr. Melyn was, at that time, of middle age; his daughter 
married Jacob Schellinger, a merchant of this city. The 
Indian war of 1643 completely frustrated all Melyn's de- 
signs for the establishment of a settlement on Staten Island, 



141 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCUKS. 



and made him one of the leaders of the party opposed to 
Kieft's government, to which the evils of that "war were 
ascribed. During that war he resided in this city, having 
procured the grant of a lot on tlie llecre graft, which may 
now be particularly pointed out, as extending on the 
east side of Broad street, between Stone and Pearl streets, 
with sixty feet depth on both those streets. The op- 
position of Melyn to Kieft's administration was very 
violent. On Stuyvesant's arrival, in 1647, Kieft brought 
charges against Melyn and others, of seditious conduct; 
he was convicted, and sentenced to seven years' banish- 
ment and to a fine of one hundred and fifty dollars. He 
appealed from this sentence, and went to Holland; where, 
having brought the matter to the attention of the authori- 
ties, the sentence was virtually reversed, and Melyn re- 
turned to this city; here the differences between Melyn and 
Stuyvesant were renewed, and continued for several years, 
he meanwhile residing on Staten Island. The Indian 
troubles having been revived, an assault was made upon 
his plantation; himself and whole family were taken pris- 
oners, and all his buildings, crops and farming utensils 
wei-e destroyed by the natives. In 1059 he made over his 
property in Staten Island to the government, and removed 
to Holland. It is believed that his sons, Jacob and Isaac, 
afterward resided in this city. 

Johannes Megapoknsis, doinine, at the age of thirty-nine 
years — with his wife, Macktelt Williamson, aged forty-two 
years, and his children, Ilelligond, Derrick, Jan and Sam- 
uel, aged fourteen, twelve, ten and eight years — was sent 
from Holland, by Mr. Van Rensselaer, in the year 1G42, 
to officiate as minister of the gospel at Rensselaersvvyck. 
Having resided there until the year 1640, and at that time 



142 



BIOGRAl'IilCAL SKETCHES. 



diflferences having arisen to make him dissatisfied with his 
residence there, he was preparing to return, with his family, 
to Holland; but the church at New Amsterdam being then 
vacant, by the departure of the Rev. Mr. Backerus, Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant prevailed on Domiue Megapolensis to 
establish himself in New Amsterdam. His wife had previ- 
ously left the country, and it was with difficulty he was 
persuaded to remain. His salary was fixed at four hun- 
dred and eighty dollars per annum. Domine Megapolensid 
resided here for many years subsequently; he owned con- 
siderable property on the present east side of Broad street 
and on Beaver street. He was living as late as 1663; but 
his subsequent history is not known to us. 

Lady Moody and her son, Sir Henry, having left the 
New England colonies On account of religious persecution, 
— she having laid herself open to the charge of heresy, in 
maintaining the erroneous doctrine that infant baptism was 
a sinful ordinance — took refuge, in the year 1642, among 
the Dutch, and, for a short time, resided in this city. She 
soon afterward purchased a considerable tract on Long 
Island, in the present village of Gravesend; her plantation 
was, at the time of the Indian war in 1643, attacked by the 
Indians; but having a guard of forty men, escaped injury. 
She died previous to the year 1660. Her son, Sir Henry 
Moody, for a time, resided at Gravesend, but removed, it is 
believed, to Virginia. He was appointed, in 1660, ambas- 
sador from that colony, to negotiate with the authorities 
of New Netherland respecting some commercial regula- 
tions, and remained in this city a considerable time, resid- 
ing at the tavern kept by Litschoe, on the present north 
side of Pearl street, a few doors below Wall street. He 
departed, leaving an account due for his board, to defray 



BIOGRAPniCAL SKETCHES. 



143 



which his library, left at the house, was ordered to be sold. 
After his death, which occurred in 1G62, the baronetcy, 
created in 1621, became extinct. 

Gyshert Opdyck, employed at an early period in the 
service of the company in this city, resided here for some 
time, and procured the grant of a lot on the north side of 
the road, now called Stone street, between "Whitehall and 
Broad streets. He was also the original patentee of 
Conynen Island or Coney Island. In 1G38 he was sent 
as commissary in the company's service to the settlements 
at the mouth of the Delaware, and was not subsequently a 
resident of this city. 

David Provoost was in the service of the company in this 
city from an early period, and in 1638 acted as commissary 
of provisions. . He was afterward placed in charge of the 
establishment at Fort Good Hope, or New Haven, where 
in 1616, he was engaged in altercation with the English 
settlers. He was the original grantee, in 1639, of a 
considerable parcel of land on the present west side of 
Pearl street, near Fulton street, where he resided for some 
time, and afterward removed to Long Island. He died in 
the year 1656, leaving his widow surviving, named Marga- 
ret, (l)orn Jellisen or Gillisen) and several children, who 
afterward became prominent citizens; and his descendants 
are now numerous in this state. 

Pieter Rudolphus, who became a prosperous merchant in 
this city, was one of the few eminent citizens of early 
times, who did not owe his advancement, in some degree, 
to a connection with the West India Company. Mr. Ru- 
dolphus conducted a large trade here for several years. 
He was a leading man among the citizens of that day, and 
although of a comparatively youthful age, was several 



144 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

times nominated for the city magistracy, but did not 
receive the sanction of Governor Stuyvesant. He died 
about the year 1660; and the fortune left to his widow, 
Margaret Hardenbrook, became the foundation of the 
most extensive private fortune in this country. His widow 
married Frederick Philipse, at that time a young man of 
small means residing in this city. Mr. Philipse succeeded 
to the mercantile business of Mr. Rudolphus, and by 
prudent management amassed immense wealth. 

Joris Rapelje, it is said, came to this country as early as 
the year 1625, and settled at Wallabout, on Long Island, 
where his daughter Sara, the first white child born within 
the limits of this State, was born on June 9th, 1625. Joris 
Rapelje resided for a considerable period of time in this 
city, on the present north side of Pearl street, between 
Whitehall and State streets, his lot containing about 
twenty-six feet front and one hundred feet deep. In 1637 
his property on Long Island was confirmed to him by a 
deed from Kakapeteyno and Pewichaas, the Indian chiefs 
of that section. His land was known in the Indian lan- 
guage as " Rinnegachonck." 

Mam Roelantsen, the first schoolmaster in this city, 
arrived here in the year 1633. He resided on the north 
side of the road, now called Stone street, between White- 
hall and Broad streets, having there a house and garden, 
the latter fronting about one hundred feet on the road. 

Cornelis Schut, a merchant, resided here for some time, 
without, however, establishing his permanent residence in 
this country. He was a man of influence in Holland, and 
connected with some of the partners in the West India 
Company. Mr. Schut having fallen out with Governor 
Stuyvesant, to whom he became personally inimical, for 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCUES. 145 

the purpose of undermining Stuyvcsant's influence with 
the Directory in Holland, wrote to some of his friends in 
that body, adverting in severe terms upon the governor's 
character. This coming to Stuyvesant's ears, he prosecuted 
Schut for libel, and having no proof at hand, called on 
him to answer whether he had written such letters. Schut 
refused to answer; he was therefore placed in charge of an 
officer, who was told to bring him daily before the court 
until he should answer yes or no. This dispute between 
two magnates was a theme for sport among the inhabit- 
ants, who had a great taste for things of this kind, and we 
lind Schut to have been escorted on his daily visits to the 
city-hall by a crowd of people who demanded of him if he 
was going to give in yet. This irritating state of things 
was not to be endured, and Schut demanded to be released 
on bail, but his application was denied, and finally, to 
relieve himself of his dilemma, by advice of his friends, 
he sent to the governor, acknowledging that he had writ- 
ten some harsh things in a time of bad feeling, but 
regretted it. The governor received the apology, but 
demanded that it should be made publicly in court, and 
further requested that if Mr. Schut could say any thing 
against him, he desired to hear it, that he might clear 
himself before the community against secret libellers. Mr. 
Schut, therefore, signed a public refutation of his asper- 
sions, and having declared that he knew nothing ill of the 
governor, the matter dropped. Soon after this period, 
(1650) he departed for father-land. 

Cornelis Jacohson Stille resided on a farm eastward ol 
the present Chatham square, called the " Eowery, No. 6." 
He died about the year 1680. His son, Jacob Cornelisen 
10 



146 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Stille, born in this city, married in 1671, Aaltje Fredericks, 
and occupied the farm after his father's death. 

Cornelis Van Tienhoven was employed, from a very early 
period in this city, in the company's office. In 1633 he 
was book-keeper of wages, which place he held until 1638, 
when he was promoted to the office of secretary of the 
colony. He afterward held the office of " fiscall," or pub- 
lic prosecutor, and schout or sheriff of New Amsterdam. 
Van Tienhoven married Rachel, a step-daughter of Jan 
Jansen Damen, and established his residence on a planta- 
tion, which was granted to him, on the west side of Pearl 
street, above Maiden lane, his land extending toward 
Broadway. He was a man of great subtlety of mind and 
strength of will, and may be said to have controlled the 
policy of government under the early governors; and al- 
though not holding the same sway under the more vigorous 
character of Stuyvesant, still maintained an influence with 
that functionary, second to no other man in the province. 
He advocated an aggressive policy against the Indians, and 
brought on a war of the most devastating character to the 
inhabitants. He was by far the most unpopular man in 
office; but nevertheless continued his successful career in 
power, in spite of the strenuous efforts of the citizens to 
have him unseated. To follow his personal history would 
cover the whole political history of the country until the 
time of his disappearance from the stage of action. It 
was at length found impossible to disregard the public 
clamor; and although sustained by all the force of Stuy- 
vesant's personal influence, the Directory in Holland dis- 
missed him from office in 1656. His spirited nature could 
not brook the triumph of his enemies, and he either 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



147 



absconded or committed suicide, the former of which seems 
probable. His hat and coat were found floating in the 
river, which was the last vestige seen of him in New Am- 
sterdam; his property was administered upon as if he were 
dead. His wife, Rachel, continued her residence here for 
several years, and died, in this city, in 1663, leaving three 
children, Lucas, Joannes and Jannckin. Lucas practiced 
physic in this city until his death, in 1714. 

Jacob Van Corlaer was in the service of the company in 
this city, as early as the year 1633, as one of their clerks. 
He received a grant of about two hundred acres of land 
at Harlem, on this island, where, however, he did not long 
reside, but sold it, in 1639, to a merchant of Holland. He 
next procured the grant of a farm near the present Cor- 
lear's Hook, in this city, to which point he gave the name 
it now bears. After leaving public employment he engaged 
in school teaching in this city, which pursuit he was fol- 
lowing in 1658, soon after which period he either died or 
left the city, having previously sold his land, partly to 
William Beekman. 

JYicholas Verlett was a trader, and resided on the west 
side of the present Whitehall street, between Pearl and 
State streets, which property he purchased in 1658; his 
store, fronting the wharf, he afterward (1669) sold to Jacob 
Leisler. Mr. Yerlett also owned a farm in the vicinity of 
the present Chatham square. He was, from early times, a 
prosperous merchant here, principally in the tobacco trade 
with Virginia. In 1658, being then " an old and suitable 
person," he was invested with the " great citizenship." On 
his retirement from active trading pursuits, he settled in 
Bergen, New Jersey, where he owned a large plantation, 
and was a masristrate. 



148 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Adrian Vanderdonck, of Breda, was appointed, in 1641, 
sheriff of Rensselaerswyck, which office he held for several 
years. After being superseded in office, he removed to 
this city, and about the year 1646, received a patent for a 
tract, called by the Indians Nepperham, now known as 
Yonkers; bounded by Spuyten-duyvel creek on the south, 
the Bronx river on the east, the Saw Mill creek on the 
north, and the Hudson river on the west. He resided, 
however, in this city, and took a conspicuous part in public 
affairs, being one of the leading men in opposition to Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant, and a delegate to Holland on the part 
of the opposition party. He died in the year 1655, leav- 
ing to his wife the property at Yonkers. He was the 
author of a description of New Netherland, as it was 
in 1650. 

Lubbertus Van Dindage. This gentleman, who was a 
lawyer, was schout-fiscaal or attorney-general of New 
Netherland in 1633, under Van Twiller's administration. 
Having disagreed with the director-general in respect to 
his conduct of the government, he was dismissed from 
office by Van Twiller in 1636. His salary was withheld 
from him, and he was ordered to proceed to Holland, to 
justify his conduct. For several subsequent years, Mr. 
Van Dinclage resided in Holland, but continued to impor- 
tune the Directory for satisfaction of his demands, wrong- 
fully withheld by Van Twiller. In 1644 Kieft, then being 
in authority in New Netherland, and his administration 
having become unpopular in this country, and ruinous to 
the interests of the company, in consequence of the Indian 
war, which was ascribed, in a great measure, to his 
indiscretion, Van Dinclage was provisionally appointed 
director-general of New Netherland, to supersede Kieft; 



BIOGRAl'illCAL SIIKrCUES. 149 

but before the appointment was consummated, by delivery 
of his commission, Petc.i Stuyvesant who had been di- 
rector of the company's colony in the West Indies, returned 
to Holland to be cured of a wound in the knee, received 
in an action among the islands; and his vigorous char- 
acter and talents being highly appreciated by his su- 
periors, it was concluded to invest him with the appoint- 
ment to New Netherland, and Yan Dinclage's commission 
was consequently annulled. He was, however, appointed 
vice-director under Stuyvesant, and entered upon his 
office in 1647. After two or three years' concert of 
action, Van Dinclage became dissatisfied with Stuyvesant's 
course, and joined the party in opposition. He was imme- 
diately expelled from the council; he refused to acknowl- 
edge the power of Stuyvesant to supersede him, and 
insisted upon taking his seat at the government board. 
Upon this, Stuyvesant directed a military sergeant and file 
of soldiers to take him from the room; and he was accord- 
ingly dragged out and placed in a guard-house, where he 
remained for several days. Upon his release he was 
ordered home, to report to the authorities in Holland; but 
he had meanwhile retired to Staten Island, where he set 
at defiance the missives of the director-general. He em- 
ployed himself at Staten Island as agent of the Lord 
Vandercapellen's colony. He died about the year 165G. 

Van Schelluyne Dirck was, previous to his emigration to 
this country, a notary at the Hague. Having in 1650 
received a license to practice his profession in New Neth- 
erland, he established himself in this city. His practice 
here was hardly remunerative, although he was the only 
professional attorney in the city, and he turned his atten- 
tion to farming, having purchased a plantation of Isaac 



^ 



150 THE DUTCH GOVERNORS. 

Deforest at Midwout on Long Island. In 1655, he was 
appointed conciergerie, or bailiflf, of the city, and resided 
for a time in the city-hall. He resigned that place in 
1656, and continued the exclusive practice of his profes- 
sion until the year 1660. He then removed to Rensselaers- 
wyck, of which colony he was appointed secretary. Some 
of his descendants are residing at Albany at the present 
time. 

Cornelius Pietersen Vanderveen, an eminent trader, mar- 
ried Elsie, daughter of Gov^rt LoecK-ermans. Mr. Yan- 
derveen resided in Pearl street, near Whitehall street. In 
1658, being then described as " an old and suitable per- 
son," he was made a great burgher of this city. He was 
a Schepen of the city, and held other offices of trust in 
the Church and in the community. Mr. Vanderveen died 
in the summer of 1661, and left a considerable property. 
His widow subsequently married Jacob Leisler. 



THE DUTCH GOVERNORS. 

Peter Minuit, of Wesel, in the kingdom of Westphalia, 
arrived in this city in the year 1624. The name of Gov- 
ernor Minuit is identified with this city as having nego- 
tiated on behalf of his employers, the purchase of Manhat- 
tan Island from the Indian proprietors. This island 
estimated to contain twenty-two thousand acres, was 
bought in the year 1626 for the sum of sixty guilders, or 
twenty-four dollars; and the title thus became vested in 



TUE DUTCH GOVERNORS. 



151 



the West India Company. Governor Minuit established 
his residence in a block-house on the south point of the 
island, around which he raised a defence of red cedar 
posts or palisades of sufficient height to prevent the 
Indians from scaling the inclosure. The principal inci- 
dents of Minuit's history in this place were those connected 
with the trading affairs under his charge. He, however, 
was in some correspondence, respecting the territorial 
limits with the New England Pilgrims, who first landed in 
that country during his administration. The imports into 
New Netherland, in 1624, amounted to ten thousand six 
hundred and fifty-four dollars, and the exports (solely of 
skins and furs) to about eleven thousand dollars; in 
1625, the imports were three thousand six hundred and 
fifty-five dollars, and the exports to fourteen thousand 
nine hundred and twenty-four dollars; in 1626, the im- 
ports were eight thousand four hundred and ninety-four 
dollars, and the exports about nineteen thousand dollars; 
in 1627, the imports were twenty-three thousand four 
hundred and four dollars, and the exports five thousand 
and ninety-two dollars; in 1631, the last year of Minuit's 
government, the imports were about twenty-three thousand 
dollars, and the exports twenty-seven thousand two hun- 
dred and four dollars. 

Governor Minuit having been recalled from the govern- 
ment, he left this city, on his return to Holland, in the 
spring of the year 1632, in the ship Union. This vessel 
was forced, by stress of weather, to put into the port of 
Plymouth, where she was seized by the English, on the 
ground that the Dutch were illegally appropriating to 
themselves the country and trade belonging to the English, 
" interloping between the plantations of Virginia and New 



152 



THE DUTCH GOVERNORS. 



England." Minuit was, however, allowed to depart, and 
on his passage homeward, stopped at London, where he 
brought the aggression to the notice of the Dutch ambas- 
sadors. The vessel was finally released, but saving and 
without prejudice to his Majesty's rights. 

Wouter Van Twiller, of Nieuwkerke, the second Dutch 
governor, had previously been employed as a clerk for the 
"West India Company. He was a relative of Mr. Van 
Eensselaer, one of the prominent directors of the company, 
and the owner of a large tract in New Netherland, to 
which family connection he probably owed his appoint- 
ment. He arrived at Fort Amsterdam in April, 1633, in 
the company's ship, the Salt Mountain (De Soutberg,) of 
about two hundred and eighty tons burden, manned by 
fifty-two men, and carrying twenty guns. Accompanying 
the director came one hundred and four soldiers, the first 
military force detailed for New Netherland. 

The administration of Van T wilier is notable for several 
interesting facts in connection with the city. It was in 
his time that the first clergyman was settled here, in the 
person of Domine Everardus Bogardus, who, it is supposed, 
came out at the same time with the governor; the first 
schoolmaster, Adam Roelantsen, came to this city about 
the same time; a church was built during his time, of wood, 
on the present Pearl street, near Broad. Van Twiller 
caused the block-house and palisades which had been erected 
by his predecessor, to give way to a fort of more imposing 
structure, which was finished in 1635. His administration 
lasted until the year 1637, and was marked by no impor- 
tant events affecting the interests of the city, other than 
those above-mentioned. He became the purchaser, from 
the Indian proprietors, of " Pagganck," or Nut Island, 



THE DUTCU GOVERNORS. 153 

known in after years as Governor's Island, which con- 
tained one hundred and sixty acres of land; he also pur- 
chased two islands in Hell-gate — the greater containing 
about two hundred acres, called " Tenkenas," the smaller 
about one hundred and twenty acres, called "Minnahan- 
ock." They became known afterward, from one of their 
Dutch proprietors, as " Barent's" great and little islands, 
whence the name of " Great Barn" island, which the larger 
now bears; the other is known as Randall's Island, from 
one of its subsequent proprietors. In Governor Van 
Twiller's time this city had not attained a condition beyond 
that of a hamlet of thatched cottages, placed without much 
regard to uniformity of thoroughfares. 

William Kiefi arrived in this city on the 28th of March, 
1638, in the ship Herring. The chief incidents connected 
with the progress of the city, during his administration, 
were the following : 

In 1642 a stone tavern was built on the present Pearl 
street, opposite Coenties slip, afterward ceded to the city, 
and established as the city-hall. 

A new church, of stone, was built within the fort. 

Building lots were granted to settlers on different 
thoroughfares in the city. 

An Indian war prevailed for several years. 

The citizens were first allowed a voice in the conduct 
of the public affairs, and were permitted to delegate a 
body of representatives called " The Eight Men," to 
advise the government in the emergencies of the Indian 
troubles. 

The administration of Kieft became unpopular in this 
country, and unprofitable to his employers, mainly owing 
to the Indian war. It was computed tlint the country had 
cost the West India Company, between the years 1626 and 



154 



THE DTJTCn GOVEBNORS. 



1644, over and above the returns received from thence, 
over two hundred thousand dollars; and at the conclusion 
of the war in 1645, it was computed that there were, in 
this city, not more than one hundred men, exclusive of the 
company's officers and servants. 

Governor Kieft having been superseded in office, set sail 
from this city in July, 1647, on board a ship called the 
Princess. He was accompanied by several prominent citi- 
zens, among whom was Domine Bogardus, who had obtained 
permission to visit the father-land, leaving his family here. 
On the passage home, the pilot mistook the channel, en- 
tered the Severn, and the ship was cast away on the coast 
of Wales, near Swansea. All on board, consisting of 
eighty-one persons, were lost, and of the cargo nothing was 
saved but a few furs. 

Peter Stuyvesant, the fourth Dutch governor, arrived in 
this city on the 11th May, 1647. He had previously been 
the director of the Dutch colony at Curacoa, and having 
become involved in a dispute with the neighboring Portu- 
guese settlement on the island of St. Martin, he laid seige 
to the capital, and in the course of his operations at that 
place, was wounded in the knee, so severely as to make 
amputation necessary, his lost limb being supplied with a 
wooden one. Stuyvesant was a man of great force of 
character, and probably the most_fiitedj of_anyjofjiis^j)re- ^'^^\ 
decessors, to conduct the affairs of a remote settlement, ^"^ 
where the machinery of government was necessarily of a 
very inadequate character to control and keep in order the 
elements of a society whose interests were manifestly in 
conflict with those of the trading company which exercised 
the functions of government. Like those of his predeces- 
sors, his administration was one of disputation, opposition 
and turmoil between the governors and the governed; but 



THE DOTCU GOVERNORS. 



155 



the arbitrary character of Stuyvesant carried him vigor- 
ously through, to the conclusion. 

The era of his administration is full of important inci- 
dents concerning the rise and progress of this city, several 
of which we will briefly recapitulate. 

In 1647, Domine Johannes Backerus, formerly a clergy- 
man at Curacoa, superseded Domine Bogardus in the 
pastoral charge of the Dutch Church. 

In 1648, a general fair was established in this city, to 
continue ten days, commencing yearly on the first Monday 
after the feast of St. Bartholomew. 

In 1648, a weekly market was established in this city, to 
be held on ]\Ionday. 

In 1649, Domine Backerus having resigned and returned 
to Holland, Domine Johannes Megapolensis was appointed 
in his place. 

In 1652, the city was incorporated. 

In 1653, the city was inclosed by palisades, on the line 
of Wall street. 

In 1657, a " a burgher-recht" or citizenship was estab- 
lished. 

In 1657, the city was surveyed and the streets regulated 
and named. 

In 1657, several of the streets were paved, the first in 
the city. 

In the year 1664, the city having capitulated to an 
English force, Governor Stuyvesant visited Europe to 
confer with his superiors. He returned to this city in the 
year 1668, and lived here for the four succeeding years, on 
his farm or " Bouwery." He died in the year 1671, and 
was buried at his chapel in the Bowery, or present St. 
Mark's Church. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE SURRENDER OP THE CITY TO THE ENGLISH IN 1664, AND THE SUBSE- 
QUENT EVENTS, UNTIL ITS RECAPTURE IN 1673. 

The English had, from the earliest settlement on the 
Hudson river, asserted that the occupation of the country 
by the Dutch was a usurpation, the country being properly 
an appendage of Virginia; but the claim was not main- 
tained to extremity, and the Dutch and English colonies 
on this coast had grown up together — their respective 
limits, though not precisely defined, being between them- 
selves generally recognized. 

But as time passed on, it became yearly more apparent 
to the inhabitants of New England that the continued 
occupation of the territory then held by the Dutch, must 
prove more and more detrimental to the interests of their 
own section. The importance of the question was pressed 
by them, at every opportunity, upon the administration 
of the government in England; but the unsettled condition 
of that country, in and about the times of the civil war, 
had occupied the attention of the home government, to 
the exclusion of minor questions of colonial policy. 

No sooner, however, had King Charles II. become fairly 
seated on his throne, than this subject received the atten- 
tion of his government, and the disputed territory, occu- 
pied by the Dutch (together with other tracts on the 



AN ENGLISH FLEET ENTERS TUE HARBOR. 



157 



American coast) was granted, by the king, to liis brother 
James, Duke of York. The date of this patent was on 
the 12th of March, 1664. An expedition was immediately 
fitted out, against the city, consisting of two frigates of 
forty and fifty guns, and a fly-boat of forty guns; the force 
of men being about six hundred. The rumor of this expe- 
dition reached New Amsterdam, and some effort was made, 
on the part of the government and of the citizens, to 
put the city in a condition of defence. The fleet having 
touched at New England, and procured reinforcements, set 
sail for New Amsterdam; but being separated by stress of 
weather, one of the vessels entered the harbor, though 
several days before the others, in the month of August, 
1664; and as soon as they were all come up, Governor 
Stuyvesant sent on board a civil message, to inquire the 
objects of such an expedition within a friendly port. The 
English commissioners ansAvered this message by a letter, 
informing the governor that his majesty of Great Britain, 
whose right to these parts was unquestionable, and know- 
ing how much it derogated from his dignity to suffer any 
foreigners, how near soever they might be allied, to usurp 
a dominion without his royal consent, had commanded him 
to require a surrender of the country possessed by the 
Dutch; concluding by a formal demand for the delivery of 
the fort into the hands of the English, and assuring the 
governor that all submissive inhabitants should be secured 
in their liberty and estate, while those who opposed his 
majesty's gracious intention, must expect all the miseries 
of a war, which they should thereby bring upon them- 
selves. 

Governor Stuyvesant, having promised to return an 
answer to this summons on the following morning, con- 



158 



DELIBERATIONS ON A SURRENDER. 



vened his council and the city magistrates, to advise with 
them on the emergency. 

It had long been manifest to the inhabitants of New 
Netherland, that the government of the Dutch West India 
Company was not conducive to the best interests of its 
subjects. The company was a commercial association, and 
without those intimate ties which should bind a govern- 
ment to its people. It sought not merely that which, in 
ordinary cases, is considered the only claim of the govern- 
ment upon the governed, namely, a respectable support of 
its necessary agents, but endeavored to realize a margin 
as a dividend among the stockholders. Thus, in the form 
of high duties, in restrictions upon individual trade, in 
monopolizing many of the sources of mercantile profit, and 
in various other contrivances, fettering progress and 
restraining enterprise, the people were heavily burdened, 
and were in almost constant altercation with the public 
authorities. 

At the assembly, called by Stuyvesant, after he had 
communicated the demand of the English commanders, the 
magistrates requested to see the letter itself, for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining more fully what terms had been 
offered by the enemy. This request, however, was refused 
by Stuyvesant, and after a stormy debate, he dissolved the 
sitting. The magistrates thereupon called a public meet- 
ing at the city-hall, and having been fortified in their 
position by an expression of public opinion, they, on the 
following morning, waited on the governor and informed 
him that they could give no advice, nor promise any 
support on the part of the citizens, unless they were 
informed of the full nature of the terms offered. Stuyve- 
sant, angry at the state of insubordination thus manifested, 



THE ENGLISH INSIST ON A SURKENDER. 159 

tore the letter in pieces in their presence, and sent a 
positive refusal to accede to the demand of a surrender. 

The English were, however, well informed of the condi- 
tion of affairs in the city, and sanguine of a bloodless 
victory, notwithstanding the unyielding position taken by 
Governor Stuyvesant. They published a proclamation in 
the following words : 

" Forasmuch as his majesty hath sent us, by commission, 
under the great seal of England, among other things to 
expel or reduce to his majesty's obedience all such foreign- 
ers as, without his majesty's leave and consent, have seated 
themselves amongst any of his dominions in America, to 
the prejudice of his majesty's subjects and diminution of 
his royal dignity; we, his said majesty's commissioners, do 
declare and promise that whosoever of any nation soever, 
will, upon knowledge of this proclamation, acknowledge 
and testify themselves to submit to his majesty' govern- 
ment, as his good subjects, shall be protected in his majes- 
ty's laws and justice, and peaceably enjoy whatsoever God's 
blessing and their own honest industry have furnished 
them with; and all other privileges with his majesty's 
English subjects. We have caused this to be published, 
that we might prevent all inconvenience to others, if it 
were possible, and at the same time to clear ourselves from 
the charge of all those miseries that may any way befall 
such as live here, and will not acknowledge his majesty 
for their sovereign, whom God preserve." 

This artful proclamation being followed by vigorous 
measures to recruit forces in the country, and a final order 
to the admiral having command of the squadron, to weigh 
anchor and bring his ships before the city, satisfied Stuy- 
vesant that to delay the surrender would be a useless waste 



160 



CAPITULATION TO THE ENGLISH. 



of time. He cliose, however, on tlie 25tli of August, to 
send a delegation to the English, with a letter, in which 
he states that, although he had made up his mind to stand 
the storm, yet to prevent the spilling of blood he had sent 
several of his friends to consult, if possible, upon an ac- 
commodation. But the English refused to treat upon any 
other proposition than a surrender; and on the following 
day commissioners met at Governor Stuyvesant's mansion, 
in the Bowery, where the terms of capitulation were 
agreed upon. 

By these articles the Dutch inhabitants were confirmed 
in their property and liberty. If any chose to leave the 
country, they were permitted to do so. The ships of the 
Dutch merchants were permitted to trade with the Neth- 
erlands; the people were to be allowed liberty of con- 
science in religious matters ; they were exempted from 
impressment to serve in war against any nation whatso- 
ever; their customs of inheritance were to be sustained; 
they were allowed to choose inferior officers and magis- 
trates, together with other privileges of a liberal char- 
acter. 

Colonel Richard Nichols then took possession of the 
government, for which he bore a commission from the 
Duke of York. The peaceful submission of the population 
to the change of government was so manifest, that he felt 
himself justified, within a few days, in discharging the 
greater part of the forces with which he entered the har- 
bor; he, however, had previously disarmed the population 
of the town. His measures were well calculated to conciliate 
the minds of the people; and although there were some 
outbreaks in the town, no attempt was made to instigate 
a rising of the population against the new government. 



SOBMISSION TO THE NEW GOVERNMENT. 161 

A sufficient illustration of tlie fact that the change of 
government was not unacceptable to the Dutch population 
of this city, is furnished in the following petition of the 
city magistracy, (being the same persons who had been in 
office before the surrender,) written on 22d November, 
1664, within three months after the capitulation, asking 
for additional privileges to the city: 

" To his Royal Highness the Duke of York, by the grace 
of God, our most gracious Lord, greeting : 

" It hath pleased God to bring us under your R. H.'s 
obedience, wherein we promise to conduct ourselves as 
good subjects are bound to do, deeming ourselves fortunate 
that his Highness hath provided us with so gentle, wise 
and intelligent a gentleman for Governor as the Hon'ble 
Col. Richard Nichols, confident and assured that under 
the wings of this valiant gentleman we shall bloom and 
grow like the cedar on Lebanon, especially because we are 
assured of His Royal Highness' excellent graciousness and 
care for his subjects and people. 

" The Schout, Burgomasters and Schepens of this City 
New York on the Island of Manhattan, Your Royal High- 
ness faithful subjects and humble liegemen, hereby request 
that his Highness would be pleased to benefit and favor 
this place with the same rights and privileges that his 
Majesty our King and most gracious Lord is conferring on 
all his subjects in England, that is that ships of all nations 
may come hither and take into England the products of 
our own Country, and may sail thence back again free and 
without impost on condition of paying the Kings duty. 
But inasmuch as this place hath been some years impover- 
ished by onerous recognitions which we have been here- 
tofore obliged to pay. We therefore through regard for 
11 



162 



PETITION TO THE DUKE OF TORE. 



this our Commonalty and the prosperity of his Highness 
our most gracious Lord's lands in this Province, and not 
only for our, your Royal Highness humble loyal subjects 
eternal praise but also as a general renown for his Royal 
Highness throughout all Christendom, pray that no more 
be paid here for five or six years than ships and goods pay 
which come from other places out of England, or even 
from England to Boston, or any place in New England, or 
else go to their own countries, which being so long free 
of all burdens, or at least paying but few, we doubt 
not but his Royal Highness will at the close of these 
years learn with hearty delight the advancement of this 
Province, even to a place from which your Royal Highness 
shall come to derive great Revenue, being then peopled with 
thousands of families and having great trade by sea from 
New England and other places out of Europe, Africa or 
America. And in order that every thing may be taken in 
hand with greater pleasure, zeal and courage, we respect- 
fully request that all privileges and prerogatives which 
his Royal Highness may please to grant this place in addi- 
tion to those inserted and conditioned in the capitulation 
on the surrender of this place may be made known by 
letters patent from his Royal Highness, and his Majesty 
of Great Britain our Lord, not only in the United Provin- 
ces but also in France, Spain and other Hanse and Eastern 
places. 

" Praying then his Royal Highness to be pleased to 
take the interest and welfare of this country into serious 
consideration, and if his Highness would please to vouch- 
safe to write a letter to us his dutiful subjects, he will 
oblige us more and more to pray for his Royal Highness 



POLICY OF TUE ENGLISH GOVERNOR. 



163 



our most gracious Lord, that God the Lord may spare 
your R. H. in long continued health and prosperity. 

" We are and remain your Royal Highness dutiful Sub- 
jects, Schout, Burgomasters and Schepens. 
" By order. 

"JOHANNES NEVIUS, Secretary." 

While Governor Nichols was scrupulous in recognizing 
and maintaining the rights and property of the individual 
inhabitants, in accordance with the terms of the surrender, 
his measures were stringent, on the other hand, to eradi- 
cate all vestiges of the former power, by a general confis- 
cation of the effects of the West India Company. This 
property, being sold at auction, became distributed among 
individual purchasers, who thus became personally inter- 
ested in the stability of the new power. He also issued 
new patents, or confirmed those formerly issued by the 
Dutch Governors, for lands throughout the city and 
country, thus connecting the new government with all the 
titles to real estate, adjusting apportionments among heirs, 
and giving the impress of his acts to the validity of heavy 
interests. The name of the city was changed to that of 
New York. 

Governor Nichols did not interfere with the established 
magistracy of the city, for several months after the sur- 
render, but on June 12th, 1665, deeming the period to have 
arrived when the English forms of municipal government 
could be introduced without affecting the sensibilities of 
his Dutch subjects, he issued the following proclamation : 

" The governor's revocation of the form of government of 
New York, under the style of Burgomasters and Schepens. 

" By virtue of his Majesty's letters patent, bearing date 
the 12th day of March, in the 16th year of his Majesty's 



164 DUTCH FORMS OF MAGISTRACY ERADICATF.D. 

reign, granted to his Royal Highness, James, Duke of 
York, wherein full and absolute power is given and 
granted to his Royal Highness, or his deputies, to consti- 
tute, appoint, revoke and discharge all officers, both civil 
and military; as also, to alter and change all names and 
styles, forms and ceremonies of government; to the end 
that his majesty's royal pleasure may be observed; and for 
the more orderly establishment of his Majesty's royal 
authority, as near as may be, agreeable to the laws and 
customs of his Majesty's realm of England. Upon mature 
deliberation and advice, I have thought it necessary to 
revoke and discharge, and by these presents do revoke and 
discharge the form and ceremony of this his Majesty's 
town of New York, under the name or names, style or 
styles, of Schout, Burgomaster and Schepens. And also, 
for the future administration of justice by the laws estab- 
lished in these, the territories of his Royal Highness, 
wherein the welfare of all the inhabitants, and the preser- 
vation of all their due rights and privileges, granted by 
the articles of this town upon surrender, under his Majesty's 
obedience, are concluded, I do further declare that, by a 
particular commission, such persons shall be authorized to 
put the laws in execution; in whose abilities, prudence and 
good affection to his Majesty's service, and the peace and 
happiness of this government, I have especial reason to 
put confidence; which persons so constituted and appointed, 
shall be known and called by the name and style of Mayor, 
Aldermen and Sheriff, according to the custom of Eng- 
land, in other of his Majesty's corporations. 

" Given under my hand and seal at Fort James, in New 
York, the 12th day of June, 1665. 

"EICHARD NICHOLS." 



ENGLISH FORMS OF MAGISTRACY ESTABLISHED. 



165 



The first commission issued under this form of magis- 
tracy, bears date on the same day, (12th June, 1665) and 
ordains " that the inhabitants of New York, New Harlem, 
with all other his Majesty's subjects and inhabitants upon 
this island, commonly called and known by the name of 
Manhattan Island, are and shall forever be accounted, 
nominated and established as one body politic and corpo- 
rate, under the government of the Mayor, Aldermen and 
Sheriff," and appoints, for one whole year, commencing 
from the date thereof, certain persons as such magistrates; 
" giving and granting unto them, or any four of them, of 
whom the Mayor or his deputy to be always one, and upon 
equal division of voices, to have always the casting and 
decisive voice, full power to rule and govern, as well all 
the inhabitants of this corporation, as any strangers, 
according to the general laws of this government, and 
such peculiar laws as are, or shall be thought convenient 
and necessary for the good and welfare of this his 
majesty's corporation ; and also to appoint such under 
officers, as they shall judge necessary, for the orderly 
execution of justice," enjoining all persons to obey their 
lawful orders. 

This was a more specific grant of powers than had 
hitherto been vested in the town magistrates, and has been 
called Nichols' Charter. The bench of civic functionaries 
received the fostering care of the Duke of York, and 
assumed many of the forms and ceremonies of municipal 
corporations in England. In the year 1670, the Duke 
sent the members seven gowns, to be worn on state 
occasions, and a mace, to be carried by a mace-bearer at 
the head of their processions. A seal of the city was also 
presented to the corporation at the same time. A city 



166 



PEEPARATIONS FOR DEFENCE AGAINST THE DUTCH. 



livery was worn by beadles and other subordinate officers 
of the city, the colors being blue, tipped with orange. 

It was at this time that jury trials were first established 
in this city. 

The administration of Colonel Nichols was, in the main, 
peaceful, and undisturbed by any events of importance. 
In the year following the capture of the city, (viz., in 1665) 
war having broken out between the states of Holland and 
England, it was expected in this city that some attempt 
would be made by the government of the Dutch " father- 
land" to recover the territory of New Netherland ; and 
the rumor that one of the famous Dutch admirals, De 
Ruyter, had actually set sail with a large squadron for 
this place, caused great commotion in the city, and revived 
amongst a portion of the population, the national spirit, 
which had been permitted to slumber for some time pre- 
vious. Colonel Nichols made vigorous preparations for 
the enemy, and determined to repair and extend the old 
city fortifications, and to place them in defensible condi- 
tion. For the purpose of observing the tone of the public 
mind amongst his Dutch subjects, he called a public meet- 
ing, and inquired what the people were willing to do 
toward repairing the works. The general feeling, how- 
ever, was rather in favor of permitting events to take 
their own course, and of leaving the great powers to 
pursue the contest on their own resources. A majority 
of the citizens excused themselves from an active partici- 
pation in the quarrel, some saying they thought the place 
strong enough; others that they could not work unless 
their arms were restored to them. Some of the leading 
citizens were, however, disposed to assist the English 
governor, in his preparations for defence; and among 



GOVERNOR LOVELACE. 



167 



these none was more distinguished than Cornelius Steen- 
wyck, a wealthy Dutch merchant. The Dutch fleet, 
however, being otherwise engaged, failed to make its 
appearance before this town, and the rupture between the 
European powers, was soon after temporarily healed. 

Colonel Nichols, after governing the province about 
four years, prepared for his departure, having solicited 
and obtained his recall. His administration had proved 
as popular among the inhabitants as, from the circumstan- 
ces, could have been anticipated. The stringent measures 
which his position had demanded in the first instance, had 
been gradually mitigated, as the European political at- 
mosphere indicated a settled condition, and at the time 
of his departure, the Dutch inhabitants in New York were 
in no respect under greater restraint than English subjects 
of their American colonies. Out of respect for him, the 
citizens organized two militia companies, the officers of 
which, being among the most respectable Dutchmen, 
received their commissions from him. These, accompanied 
by the great body of citizens, complimented him by a 
respectful leave-taking, and Colonel Nichols departed for 
England in August, 1668. 

Colonel Francis Lovelace, an English officer, succeeded 
Governor Nichols in the province. He was a man of 
great moderation, and the people lived very peaceably 
under him until the events of the year 1673, which we 
shall proceed to narrate. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE RECAPTURE OF THE CITY BY THE DUTCH IN 1673, AND ITS PINAL 
CESSION TO ENGLAND, BY TREATY, IN 1674- 

The temporary truce between the Dutch and English 
nations was destined to still another rupture; one of the 
consequences of which was that the city again became, 
though only for a short period, subject to the dominion of 
the States of Holland. 

War against Holland having been declared by the King 
of England, in the year 1672, the Dutch, soon after, fitted 
out a small fleet, to cruise on the American coast, with 
instructions to inflict such injuries upon the English settle- 
ments and commerce as should be found practicable. 

The authorities here were apprised of some such purpose 
on the part of the Dutch; but the governor. Col. Love- 
lace, seems to have made light of the matter, and to have 
furnished no adequate resources to meet such an emergency, 
paying indeed so little regard to the subject that he did 
not hesitate to leave the city for distant parts of the coun- 
try, on visits of friendship or business, confiding, mean- 
while, the command of the fort to Captain John Manning. 

While so absent, in February, 1673, a rumor reached the 
city of the appearance of an enemy's fleet off the coasts 
of Virginia; and Manning forthwith sent an express to 



BECAPTITRE BY THE DUTCH. 169 

the governor, who was then visiting at Mr. Pell's residence, 
on the western borders of "Westchester county. The gov- 
ernor immediately returned to New York, and mustered 
forces in the city and the neighboring counties, to the num- 
ber of four or five hundred men; no enemy, however, 
appeared, and the recruits were suffered to disband and 
return to their homes. In the early part of July, the gov- 
ernor again departed for Connecticut, and had been but a 
few days absent when two ships were observed off Sandy 
Hook, having the appearance of men-of-war. A dispatch 
was immediately sent to the governor, and hasty attempts 
were made by Manning to collect recruits — drafts being 
made upon the officers of the country militia, and the 
drums beating up for volunteers through the streets of the 
city. The returns, however, to this summons were unavail- 
ing in the country places, and those in the city who joined 
the recruiting parties were principally of Dutch descent; 
who, instead of strengthening the forces in the fort, pro- 
ceeded to spike up the guns on the battery, in front of the 
city-hall. Meanwhile the enemy's ships sailed into the 
bay, on the 29th of July, 1673, and Manning found himself 
in a helpless condition. His soldiers, in the fort, did not 
number, he says, over fifty men, exclusive of officers, and 
not one half of these had ever put their heads over the 
ramparts, and the common cry was " where are the coun- 
try people ? what shall we do for men ?" 

The Dutch ships having anchored, Manning — who ap- 
pears to have been wholly wanting in resolution and spirit 
to meet this occasion — immediately sent messengers to the 
ships, to inquire " why they came in such a hostile manner 
to disturb his Majesty's subjects in this place ?" These 
messengers, while on their way, met a boat from the enemy; 



170 



RECAPTURE BY THE DUTCH. 



the boats passed each other without commuiiicatioii — one 
continuing its journey to the ships, the other approaching 
the city. The latter proved to convey a trumpeter, 
bearing the following message to the English officer in 
command : 

Sir : — The force of war now lying in your sight, is 
sent by the High and Mighty States and his Serene High- 
ness the Prince of Orange, for the purpose of destroying 
their enemies. We have sent you, therefore, this letter, 
together with our trumpeter, to the end that upon sight 
hereof you surrender unto us the fort called James, prom- 
ising good quarter; or, by your refusal, we shall be obliged 
to proceed, both by land and water, in such manner as we 
shall find to be most advantageous for the High and Mighty 
States. 

" Dated in the ship Swanenburgh, anchored betwixt 
Staten and Long Island, the 9th of August (30 July, 0. S.) 
1673. Signed by Cornelis Evertsen and Jacob Benckes." 

To this summons an answer was returned by Manning, 
acknowledging its receipt, and informing the Dutch admi- 
rals that he had already dispatched messengers to commu- 
nicate with them, upon the return of whom he would give 
a definite answer to their summons. 

The ships immediately after weighed anchor and stood 
up the bay, anchoring opposite the fort, and word was sent 
to Manning, giving him half an hour to answer their sum- 
mons. The latter demanded until the following morning, 
at 10 o'clock; but his request was refused, with the final 
reply that but half an hour would be given before the 
opening of a fire upon the fort, and that the hour-glass 
would be immediately turned up. As the stated time 
elapsed without any communication, ten guns were turned 



RECAPTURE BY THE DUTCH. 



171 



to leeward, and a heavy cannonading was commenced, 
whicli killed and wounded a number of men. Soon after, 
the Dutch landed their forces, to the number of six hundred 
men, under Captain Anthony Colve, who formed, prepara- 
tory to their marching into the town, on the commons in 
the vicinity of the present Park, being amply provided 
with granadoes and the materials for a storm. Upon this. 
Manning, who had remained passive, neither having fired 
a gun at the enemy's ships, nor made any attempt to oppose 
the lauding of the troops, sent three of his subordinates 
with a communication for the officer in command. Not 
having any definite proposals to make, two of the messen- 
gers were detained and placed under the Dutch standard, 
while the third. Captain Carr, of Delaware, was permitted 
to return to the fort and inform the commander that but a 
quarter of an hour would be given him to comply with 
their summons. This gentleman, instead of performing his 
mission, took himself out of the city without delay. The 
quarter of an hour having elapsed, a trumpeter was sent 
for an answer to the summons, supposed to have been de- 
livered; he was informed that since the persons had been 
sent to make conditions, the commander of the fort had 
received no communication from them, and knew not what 
to say. The Dutch officer, on the return of the trumpeter, 
exclaimed, in a passion, " this is the third time they have 
played the fool with us ; march !" The Dutch troops, 
headed by Captain Colve, and escorting in their front the 
two commissioners, commenced their march down the road 
now called Broadway. As they came near the fort. Man- 
ning sent out an officer, tendering its surrender upon the 
following conditions : 

1. That the officers and soldiers should march out with 



RECAPTURE BY THE DUTCH. 



172 



their arms, drums beating, colors flying, bag and baggage, 
without hindrance or molestation. 

2. Thereupon the fort should be delivered up, with all 
military arms and ammunition. 

These terms were acceded to by Captain Colve, and the 
ceremony of the English troops vacating the fort having 
been witnessed, the Dutch continued their march down 
Broadway, and took possession of the fort. The country 
thus became once more a part of the dominion of the States 
of Holland. 

It is understood, from documents of that day, that the 
Dutch fleet had not been specially destined for the capture 
of this city, to which its strength was entirely inadequate, 
had the available forces of the colony been brought up. 
The Dutch were, however, informed, while at Sandy Hook, 
by some of the inhabitants of Long Island, whose national 
prejudices were still friendly to the glory of their father- 
land, that the city could easily be taken, and had thus been 
persuaded to carry the undertaking through with a high 
hand. The conduct of Captain Manning received the 
most extreme censure on the part of all the English inhab- 
itants in this and all the colonies of New England. To be 
fired at for hours without returning a shot, and finally to 
be overborne with such passive non-resistance, was a rank- 
ling thorn in the side of the English. After they again 
came in possession of the government, Manning was tried 
by court-martial for cowardice and treachery; he was con- 
victed, his sword broken over his head in front of the city- 
hall, and himself incapacitated, from that time forward, from 
holding any station of trust or authority under his majesty. 

The Dutch commanders, for the purpose of organizing 
their government, gave a commission to Captain Anthony 



RESTORATION OP DUTCH FORMS OF GOVERXMEN'T. 



173 



Colve to be governor; and in the early part of August, 
1673, having changed the name of the city of New York 
to that of New Orange, issued their proclamation organ- 
izing municipal institutions, to conform to those of the 
father-land. This document was in the following words : 

" The commanders and honorable council of war in the 
service of their High Mightinesses the Lords States Gen- 
eral of the United Netherlands and his Serene Highness 
the Lord Prince of Orange, etc. Health. 

" Whereas we have deemed it necessary, for the advan- 
tage and prosperity of our city. New Orange, recently 
restored to the obedience of the said High and Mighty 
Lords States General of the United Netherlands and his 
Serene Highness the Lord Prince of Orange, to reduce the 
form of government of this city to its previous character 
of schout, burgomasters and schepeus, as is practiced in all 
the cities of our father-land, to the end that justice may 
be maintained and administered to all good inhabitants, 
without respect or regard to persons — Therefore we, by 
virtue of our commission, in the names and on behalf of 
the High and Mighty Lords States General of the United 
Netherlands and his Serene Highness the Lord Prince of 
Orange, have elected, from the nomination exhibited by 
those in office, as regents of this city, for the term of one 
current year. 

As Schout, Anthony De Milt. 

( Johannes Van Brugh, 
As Burgomasters < Johannes De Peyster, 
( Egidius Luyck. 

WiLLEM BeECKMAN, 

Jeronimus Ebbingh, 
As Schepens ^ Jacob Kip, 

Laurens Vanderspeigle, 
Geleyn Verplanck. 



174 colve's charter. 

Which, above uamed schout, burgomasters and schepens 
are hereby authorized and empowered to govern the inhab- 
itants of this city, both burghers and strangers, conforma- 
bly to the laws and statutes of our father-land, and make 
therein such orders as they shall find advantageous and 
proper to this city. (Here the paper is destroyed.) And 
the inhabitants of this city are well and strictly ordered 
and enjoined to respect and honor the above named re- 
gents, in their respective qualities, as all loyal and faithful 
subjects are bound to do. 

" Done at the fortress William Henry, this 17th August, 
A. D. 1673. - 

JACOB BENCKES, 

CORNELIS EVERTSEN, Jr. 

NICHOLAS BOES, 

A. COLVE, 

A. V. VAN ZEYL." 

In January, 1674, Governor Colve having been left in 
sole authority, made a further ordinance, prescribing more 
particularly the functions of the city magistrates, by which 
the court was allowed civil jurisdiction to the amount of 
fifty beavers, without appeal; in judgments above that 
amount, an appeal lay to the governor and council. Their 
jurisdiction, in criminal cases, extended to those involving 
capital punishment; they were allowed municipal powers 
in the enactment of ordinances (subject to the approval of 
the governor,) " for the peace and quiet and advantage of 
the city." 

During the short period in which the Dutch held the city 
for the last time, the principal occurrences were those occa- 
sioned by the active eiforts made by Governor Colve to 
place the city upon a defensive footing, in apprehension of 



CITY CEDED TO THE ENGLISU. 175 

a renewed attempt on the part of the English, to recover 
its possession. Among the measures taken for this 
purpose, was the repair of the city palisades and the 
works of the fort. Around the latter was clustered a 
number of buildings and inclosures, used for gardens and 
orchards, situated on the present Whitehall and Pearl 
streets. Twenty-one of these premises were ordered to be 
removed, and the owners were compensated by grants of 
other lots in place of those thus taken, and by pecuniary 
remuneration for the value of the buildings. Orders were 
made against exporting provisions from the city during a 
period of eight months; the citizen companies and watch 
were drilled and brought into military condition; the 
sloops, sailing on the Hudson, were restricted from making 
their customary trips, and no more than two at a time were 
allowed to be absent, the others meanwhile awaiting at 
this city any exigency that might occasion their service. 

The Dutch, however, enjoyed their authority but a short 
time, as on the 9th of February, 1674, a treaty of peace 
between England and Holland was signed, the sixth arti- 
cle of which restored this country to the English. The 
terms of this article were, in substance, " that whatsoever 
countries, islands, ports, towns, castles or forts, have or 
shall be taken on both sides, since the time that the late 
unhappy war broke out, either in Europe or elsewhere, 
shall be restored to the former lord or proprietor in the 
same condition they shall be in when peace itself shall be 
proclaimed." 

It was not, however, for several months subsequent to 
the time of this treaty, that the final surrender of the city 
was made to the English. On the 10th day of November, 
1674, this event took place, and the last act of Dutch 



176 



FINAL DELIVERY OF THE CITY TO THE ENGLISH. 



authority was thus performed. This event was not dis- 
tasteful to the great body of the citizens, whose national 
sentiment had, in a measure, given way before the obvious 
advantages to their individual interests of having a settled 
authority established over them, with the additional privi- 
leges of English institutions, which were then considered 
of a liberal tendency. The Dutch soldiers, before their 
departure for father-land, were abusive to the citizens, and 
attempted some demonstrations expressive of their want 
of sympathy with the inhabitants; but these were promptly 
repressed, and the Dutch forces, with their vigorous com- 
mander. Governor Colve, set sail from these shores soon 
after the arrival of the English. 








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CHAPTER XIY. 

THE AFFAIRS AND CONDITION OF THE CITY BETWEEN THE YEARS 1674 
AND 1689. 

The Duke of York, immediately upon the final cession 
of New York to the dominion of England, by the treaty 
with the Dutch, procured a confirmation of his former 
title to the country, and appointed as governor of the 
province. Sir Edmond Andros, Seigneur of Saumarez, to 
whom the fort and government were surrendered by Gov- 
ernor Colve, on the 10th of November, 1674. 

The general extent and condition of the city at about 
this period was as follows; and it will be observed that 
the town, during the time of the English, had considerably 
increased in population. 

" The Smith's Valley," by which name that section of the 
city along the East river, between Wall street, and the 
present Franklin square was still known, contained twenty- 
four buildings. 

" The Water-side.'' The street thus called, formed, an- 
ciently, in the times of the Dutch, a part of " Iloogh 
straat" (viz., between Wall street and Hanover square.) It 
included the street called the "Waal," and the street called 
the " Water." The line of buildings called the " Water- 
side" faced the East river, on the present north line of 
12 



178 CONDITION OF THE CITY AT ABOUT THE YEAR 1674. 

Pearl street, between Wall and Whitehall streets. It con- 
tained forty-two buildings, occupied, generally, by mer- 
chants, and was the principal business street in the city. 

Pearl street. The street so called was the same anciently 
known as the " Perel straat," occupying the line of the 
present Pearl street, on both sides of the way, between 
Whitehall and State streets. It contained twenty build- 
ings, generally of a very good character. 

Broadway. The name of the ancient "Heere straat'' 
had been changed within a year after the first capture of 
the city by the English, to that of Broadway. This street 
had not yet attained a position in the thoroughfares of ^the 
town, to which it succeeded in a few subsequent years. 
It was remote from the business parts of the town, and as 
the merchants in those times had no separate residence 
from their places of business, it is found that the parts 
of the town near the wharf and along the East river, 
where the ships commonly anchored, were the favorite 
dwellings of the merchants. It was within twenty years 
after this period that Broadway took rank among the 
fashionable quarters of the town, and became the place 
of residence of several professional men and public 
characters. At the time now spoken of, this street ex- 
tended from the Bowling Green to Wall street and con- 
tained about forty-five buildings, generally of an inferior 
class, with the exception of those on the west side of the 
street, opposite the present Bowling Green, which were 
of a superior character. 

The Marketfield. The street so called was anciently 
called the " Marckvelt." It occupied the present White- 
hall street, south of Beaver street. In 1676 it contained 
twelve houses of the better class. 



STREETS OP THE CITY IN 1674. 179 

The Walls, anciently called the " Stadt-wall," occupied 
the present south side of Wall street, the north side being 
the line of the city palisades. The street, at this period, 
contained fifteen buildings, generally of an inferior de- 
scription. 

The High Street. A part of the ancient " Hoogh straat," 
retained this name. The thoroughfare known as High 
street, at the period now referred to, was the present Stone 
street, between Hanover square and Broad street. It 
contained twenty-eight buildings, some of them among the 
best in the town, and others of an inferior description. 

The Smith street. The street so called was the ancient 
'' Smee straat," or the present William street, between 
Wall street and Hanover square. The buildings, about 
twenty-six in number, were generally of an inferior class. 

Mill street lane. The street called by this name was not 
occupied by residences in the time of the Dutch, but was 
nevertheless an open lane, commonly called the " Slyck 
Steegh," or dirty lane. A horse mill, one of the earliest 
buildings of that character in the city, still stood on the 
north side of this street, next to the corner of Broad street. 
The street is now called South William street. It con- 
tained, at the period referred to, six inferior dwellings. 

Smith street lane, a small street, contained ten buildings 
of an inferior character. 

The Heere graft — Beaver graft — Prince graft. These 
continued to be known by their ancient names, and were 
considerably improved from their former condition under 
the Dutch. 

Marketfield street. The ancient " Marckvelt steegie" had 
received this name, which it still bears. 

Stone street. The name of former " Brouwer straat" 



180 



GRANT OF THE FLOUR MONOPOLY. 



had been changed to this name; the site being that of the 
present Stone street, between Broad and Whitehall streets. 
It contained, at this period, eleven buildings of a good 
character, though the street was gradually losing the 
prominent position it formerly held. 

Brugh straat and Winkle straat still retained their ancient 
names. 

Having, on the 17th October, 1675, settled the English 
forms of magistracy, as they had formerly existed under 
the title of " mayor, aldermen and sheriff," the governor 
took measures to advance the material interests of the 
city. The principal scheme devised for this purpose, was 
the establishment of a monopoly to the inhabitants of this 
city in the bolting of flour, and the exportation of sea- 
biscuit and flour. All places in the interior being prohib- 
ited from pursuing these branches of trade, under pain of 
forfeiture of the contraband articles. The bolting act was 
passed in the year 1678, and existed until the year 1694, 
when, by the great efforts of the other counties on Long 
Island and along the Hudson river, its repeal was effected. 
At the time of the passage of this act, the city contained 
three hundred and forty-three houses, and between the 
enactment and its repeal, over six hundred buildings were 
erected on this island. 

The revenue from exports and imports, from two thou- 
sand pounds, increased to over six thousand pounds per 
annum. 

The shipping which, in the year 1678, belonged to this 
port, was no more than three ships and fifteen sloops, and 
other sailing vessels, increased to sixty ships and one hun- 
dred and two sloops and other vessels. 
In 1678 not over four hundred head of cattle were 



IMPUOVEMENTS IN THE CITY. 



181 



annually killed in the city. In 1694 nearly four thousand 
were killed. 

Lands which had been of little value advanced, during 
this period, to ten times their former price. 

Of the nine hundred and eighty- three buildings in the 
city, in the year 1694, six hundred depended in some man- 
ner upon the trade in flour, 

The immense importance of this monopoly to the city, 
induced the greatest exertions on the part of the inhabit- 
ants to prevent the repeal of the " bolting act," but without 
effect. 

During the administration of Governor Andros, some 
improvements, indicating the progress of the city, oc- 
curred; among which were the following: In 1677 the 
first public wells in the streets were constructed. These 
were six in number, and were erected in the middle of the 
streets. In the same year the old church-yard on the west 
side of Broadway, near Morris street, was sold off in 
building lots. In 1676 the ditch through the centre of the 
Heere graft, or present Broad street, was filled up and the 
street made level. In the same year, the tan pits which 
had formerly occupied the sides of the Prince graft, or the 
present Broad street, between Beaver street and Exchange 
place, were filled up. 

The administration of Governor Andros was generally 
unpopular in the colony; and the ancient historians, both 
of this province and of New England, where he afterward 
was governor, concur in transmitting him to posterity 
" under the odious character of a sycophantic tool to the 
Duke of York, and an arbitrary tyrant over the people 
committed to his care. He knew no law but the will of 
his master, and Kirk and Jefferies were not fitter instru- 



182 DIVISION INTO WARDS. 

ments than he to execute the despotic projects of James 
the II." 

Col. Thomas Dongan succeeded Andros in the govern- 
ment, having arrived in this city on 25th of August, 1683. 
He was a Roman Catholic in his religious tenets, which 
was the occasion of much remark on the part of the Prot- 
estant inhabitants of the colony. His personal character 
was in other respects not objectionable to the people, and 
he is described as a man of integrity, moderation, and 
genteel manners, and as being among the best of the 
governors who had been placed in charge of this province. 
He remained in power until the revolution in the govern- 
ment in 1689. 

Among the earliest acts of his administration, was the 
division of this city into six wards, the boundaries of 
which were designated by an order dated in the year 1683, 
as follows: 

The South Ward 

" To begin at the corner house of James Matthews," (on 
the present north-west corner of Pearl and Broad streets) 
" by the water-side, and so northward along the Heere 
graft, to the house of Simon Jansen Romeyn" (on the 
present south-west corner of Broad and Beaver streets;) 
" thence westward, up the Beaver graft, to the corner house 
of Barent Coersen" (on the present south-east corner of 
Beaver and Whitehall streets;) " from thence south, along 
the fort, to the water side, including Pearl street, to the 
house of James Matthews, Esq." 

The Dock Ward 

"To begin at the house of Mr. Stephanas Van Cortland, 
by the water side" (on the present nortli-east corner of 



DlVISIOy IXTO WARDS. 183 

Broad and Pearl streets;) " so northward, to the corner 
house of Geesie Denys" (on the present south-east corner 
of Broad and Beaver streets;) " and from thence eastward, 
to the house of David Provoost" (on the present south-west 
corner of Beaver and William streets;) " and thence to the 
house of Tryntje Clock" (on the present north-Avest corner 
of Pearl and William streets;) " and so westward, to Mr. 
Van Cortland's again." 

The East Ward 

" To begin at the house of Thomas Lewis" (on the present 
north-east corner of Hanover square and William street; 
" thence northward, to the house of Lawrence Huys" (on 
the present south-east corner of Wall and William streets;) 
" thence, along the wall, to the corner house of Miriam 
Levy" (on the present south-west corner of Wall and Pearl 
streets;) " and so to Thomas Lewis's again; with all the 
houses in the Smith's Fly and outside the gates, to the 
south side of the Fresh Water." 

The JVorth Ward 

" To begin at the house of Arien Johnson Hagenaer" (on 
the present north-east corner of Beaver and New streets;) 
" thence cast, along the Beaver graft and Prince street, to 
the house of Christian Laurier" (on the present north-west 
corner of Beaver and William streets;) "so north, to the 
house of Gcrrit Hendricks" (on the present south-west 
corner of Wall and William streets;) " thence west, to the 
corner of the New street; and thence south, to Arien John- 
son's again." 

The Wed Ward 

" To begin at the house of Thomas Coker" (on the present 
north-west corner of Broadway and Battery place;) " so 



184 



DIVISION INTO WARDS. 



northward, to the gate"' (at the present Trinity Church;) 
" thence eastward, along the wall, to the corner of the 
New street; thence south, to the house of Peter Bresteede" 
(on the present north-west corner of Beaver and New 
streets;) " thence west, to widow of Jan Jansen Bresteede" 
(on the present north-east corner of Broadway and Beaver 
street;) " and so to Thomas Coker's again." 

The Out Ward 

" To contain the town of Harlem, with all the farms and 
settlements on this island, from north of the Fresh Water." 

The citizens of these several wards were empowered 
annually to elect an alderman and a common-councilman, 
to represent them in the city council. 

On the 22d of April, 1686, the charter, commonly known 
as " Dougau's Charter," was granted to the city. By this 
instrument the ancient municipal privileges of the Corpo- 
ration of New York were confirmed, and other franchises 
of an important character were granted to the city. 

Considerable improvements were made in the city in 
Governor Dongan's time. 

The city wall, erected in the year 1653, had run through 
the farm granted in 1644 to Jan Jansen Damen, and nearly 
the whole distance between Broadway and Pearl street, 
along the north side of the wall, was still in the possession 
of Damen's heirs; a division of the farm, into several par- 
cels, having, however, been previously made among them. 
In the year 1685 the following conveyances were made by 
several of the heirs to Mr. John Knight, one of Dongan's 
suite, viz : by Abraham Verplanck and his wife, of one 
hundred and five feet front, along the wall, and eighty feet 
in depth; by Pieter Stoutenburgh, assignee of one of the 



WALL STREET. 185 

heirs, one hundred and lifty-six feet front, and eighty feet 
depth; by John Yinje and wife, one hundred and seventy- 
three feet eleven inches front and eighty feet depth; by 
Lucas Van Tienhoven and wife, seventy-seven feet four 
inches front and eighty feet depth; by Jacob Kip and Avifc, 
one hundred and eighty-two feet four inches front and 
eighty feet depth; by Van Tienhoven and Smith, three 
hundred and eighteen feet nine inches front and eighty feet 
depth— the whole extent thus granted, fronting on the 
present north side of Wall street, amounting to over one 
thousand feet. 

This purchase was probably a speculative movement, in 
which some of the high functionaries of government were 
concerned; as it was found that immediate measures were 
taken by the provincial authorities to demolish the old 
fortifications, and thus bring the lots into marketable con- 
dition. A survey of the line proposed to be established 
as the north side of Wall street, was ordered in the same 
year, and the street ordered to be laid out thirty-six feet 
in width. In 1688, Governor Dongan having determined 
" to enlarge the city, and if occasion should require, to lay 
the city fortifications further out," appointed commissioners 
to examine the existing condition of the old fortifications 
on the line of Wall street; from whose report it appears 
that the half-moon, or fortification on the shore of the 
East river, was mostly washed away — the gate, which had 
extended across the present Pearl street, was completely 
decayed and fallen down — the " curtain" or palisades from 
the gate to the artillery mount, on the present north-west 
corner of Wall and William streets, which had formerly 
been constructed of double stockades, and a ditch, with 
breast-work within of salt sods, was all down, the ground 



186 A NEW STREET ALONG THE EAST RIVER. 

laid out in lots, some of which were already built upon. 
The artillery mount had no guns — the walls were in an in- 
different condition — the sod-work out of repair — the ditch 
and stockades in ruins — and a small old house in the mid- 
dle of the mount in a state of dilapidation. The " cur- 
tain," from the artillery mount to the land-gate mount on 
the present north-east corner of Broadway and Wall 
street, which had also been formerly a double stockade, 
with a ditch'and breast-work, was completely in ruins, the 
land being laid out in lots; the land-gate mount was in a 
state of decay, and the gate across Broadway ready to fall 
down; the line of fortifications, extending from the gate to 
the " locust trees," near the shore of the North river, was 
all down; the King's Garden, at the locust trees, was in a 
ruinous condition, and the " pasty mount," near the present 
corner of Exchange place and Lombard street, was rapidly 
going to decay. The curtain, from the pasty-mount to the 
point of the merry-mount of Fort James (near the present 
corner of Bowling Green and State street) was completely 
ruined. 

The property on Wall street having come into the pos' 
session of an influential party, the street was afterward 
favored by the erection of the city-hall, on the site of the 
present custom house, and of Trinity Church, facing its 
westerly extremity, and soon became one of the principal 
streets in the city. 

In the year 1687, measures were first taken to build a 
new street in the East river, between the present White- 
hall street and Old slip, on the present line of Water street. 
The corporation sold these water lots on the condition that 
the purchasers should make the street toward the water 
(the present Water street,) and protect it against the wash- 



VESSELS BELONGING TO THE CITY. 



18T 



ing of the tide by a substantial wharf along the fronts of 
their lots. This improvement, however, was not finished 
within a number of years subsequently. 

From a return of vessels belonging to the port of Ncav 
York, in the year 1684, the following list is made out : 

Barques — the " Dolphin,' the " James," and one belong- 
ing to Jacob Leisler, 

Brigantines — the *' Delaware Merchant," one belong- 
ing to John Stoughton, and one belonging to Frederick 
Philipse. 

Sloopa — owned by Frederick Philipse, John De Bruyn, 
John Joosten, Lucas Andriezen, S. Burden, "William Mer- 
ritt, Martin Crigier, John Peete, Thomas Lewis, Nicholas 
Garret, George Heathcott, Captain Brockholst, Brandt 
Schuyler, John Delavall, Jacob Teller, Johannes Beek- 
man, Colonel Morris, Francis Richardson, William Framp- 
ton, John Potbaker, Johannes Provoost, " The Star," Jo- 
chem Staats, Abraham Staats, Gabriel Thompson, Jonathan 
Marsh. 

There were, besides, forty-six open boats. 



CHAPTER XV. 

REVOLUTION AND AFFAIR OF LEISLER IN 1689, 

One of the most exciting events in the history of New 
York, was that of the revolution, or usurpation of the 
powers of government by a portion of the citizens, of whom 
Jacob Leisler was one of the most responsible leaders, and 
became the principal sujfferer at its close. 

In those times the great battle between Protestantism 
and Catholicism was being waged throughout the Chris- 
tian world; and in the American colonies, which were the 
refuge of many Protestants who had been compelled to fly 
from their native land, for safety, the theme was one of 
engrossing interest. 

As this government was then under the King of Eng- 
land, the character of the reigning power in that country 
was an object of the deepest solicitude to the people of 
New York, The elevation, therefore, of King James II. 
to the throne, which took place in 1G8G, was not well re- 
ceived by our people, as his predilections were suspected to 
be favorable to the Catholic cause, although he had made 
many promises to the contrary, previous to his acces- 
sion to the throne. It was not, therefore, without some 
exasperation of feeling that the people of this province 
saw the king disappointing the expectations of his Protest- 
ant subjects, by the appointment, throughout his dominions, 



THE REVOrATTION OF 1689. 189 

of various ofi&cers of tlie opposite creed. In New York, 
the governor (Dongan) was one of tliis class, and the sub- 
ordinate offices were partly filled by persons of the same 
character; although this favoritism for Catholics was not 
exclusive, as the majority of the members of the governor's 
council were old inhabitants, whose religious principles 
were settled in the faith of the Dutch Reformed Church. 
But the state of public feeling could not easily brook the 
apprehension that their religious freedom might be indi- 
rectly subverted by reason of the avenues of official power 
and patronage being in possession of their opponents; and 
hence, during the reign of King James, the people of this 
province were restive, and took such opportunities as 
offered themselves, of testifying their opposition to the 
government, not by open resistance to the exercise of its 
powers, but by a system of secret agitation and discussion. 

This state of public feeling was not peculiar to New 
York, but was equally manifested through the great body 
of the people of Great Britain, and in other of her colo- 
nies; and it resulted in a movement, on the part of the 
Protestants of England, to revolutionize the government of 
that country, for which purpose the next Protestant suc- 
cessor to the throne, after James, was fixed upon as the 
means of carrying this revolution into effect. This person 
was Mary, who had married William, Prince of Orange, 
and was then residing with her husband, in Germany. The 
project was successfully carried into operation, and the 
new king and queen were triumphantly placed upon the 
throne; King James fleeing his country, and taking refuge 
on the soil of France. 

The news of this event, which was received in the Amer^ 
lean colonies in the spring of 1689, was the signal for the 



190 THE REVOLUTION OF 1689. 

overturning of the existing powers on this side the ocean. 
In New England the people seized upon their governor, 
Sir E. Audros, and sent him to England. In New York 
Dongan did not risk the t^afety of his person by attempting 
to hold fast the reins of government, but betook himself 
on board a ship lying in the harbor, and departed the 
country within a short time. 

It was now a great question among the people how the 
government should be carried on, pending the interval 
which must elapse before advices should arrive from the 
home government; and here arose the first intestine diffi- 
culty among the people themselves; for although the great 
fact of the Protestant succession, and the legitimacy of the 
government of William and Mary, was almost universally 
recognized among the inhabitants of New York, yet it 
was maintained by a portion of the people, headed by those 
Protestants who had held official station under Dongan, 
that the colonial government was not subverted by the 
revolution in England, but in the absence of the abscond- 
ing governor, his powers were inherited, until further 
orders, by his second in authority; and that the lieutenant- 
governor, Nicholson, and the former council, were legally 
invested with the powers of government. 

On the other hand, a large party of the extreme revolu- 
tionists maintained, that by the overthrow of the late king 
and the abandonment of the country by Governor Dongan, 
the whole machinery of his government was totally over- 
thrown; and none claiming to hold official station, by 
virtue merely of appointment from the subverted authori- 
ties, could legitimately continue the exercise of their 
functions. 

This, it is certain, was a somewhat subtle question, and 



REVOLUTION IN 1639, 191 

when submitted to the great body of the people, would be 
more apt to be decided by their prejudices than by mere 
legal logic. In this state of uncertainty, therefore, it was 
resolved, by a la,rge body of the inhabitants, to take pos- 
session of the fort, for the purpose of securing the physical 
possession of the government in favor of William and 
Mary, leaving the political powers still an unsettled ques- 
tion. Accordingly this party, availing themselves of the 
arrangement which had already been adopted by general 
consent, of temporary occupation of the fort by the several 
militia companies, concluded, by a concerted action among 
the captains of the companies, that one of their number, 
commanding a corps entirely favorable to their party, 
should take permanent possession of the fort, and hold it 
until orders from the government in England should 
establish a legitimate authority in the land. The person 
fixed upon, for carrying this design into effect, was Jacob 
Leisler, a merchant of good standing and wealth, and 
probably the man in the highest repute, in the community, 
of any of that party. 

This act took place on the 2d of June, 1689, and was the 
signal for the sudden departure of Lieutenant Governor 
Nicholson and the breaking up of his council. Leisler then, 
on the 3d of June, issued a public manifesto, declaring that 
the fort was held only until the arrival of a person prop- 
erly constituted by the authorities in Great Britain, to take 
in hand the administration of the government, and would 
then be immediately delivered up; and that he daily ex- 
pected news of some more definite arrangement, to be 
received from England. 

But this expectation was disappointed; and while wait- 
ing in vain for the arrival of orders which should supersede 



192 REVOLUTION IN 1GS9. 

the loose system then existing, it became apparent that 
some measures were imperatively necessary to constitute a 
magistracy and other officers, for the purpose of maintain- 
ing order and government in the country. How, therefore, 
to meet this responsibility, became a serious question with 
the party which had thus far carried out its views; for a 
great opposition existed among the friends of those who 
had been obstructed in their claims to the exercise of their 
official functions, and who still maintained a considerable 
party, resting its principles upon the basis of law and 
order, and charging that the acts of the revolutionists 
were uncalled for, and were calculated to breed confusion 
and a mutinous spirit in the community. 

In this emergency the successful party, by means of a 
Committee of Safety, representing much the largest por- 
tion of the community, resolved to confer, on the part of 
the people, absolute power upon Mr. Leisler, to conduct the 
government for William and Mary, according to his dis- 
cretion, under the title of commander-in-chief : this com- 
mission was dated 16th August, 1689. With respect to 
the city government, the Committee of Safety ordered a 
popular election of the mayor, sheriff, clerk and members 
of the common council; and at this election, which took 
place in October, 1689, a magistracy, composed wholly of 
friends of Leisler, was elected. But the opposition party 
denied the"legality of the election, and refused to transfer 
the seal and charter and other insignia of the city. 

By this election and the recent proceedings of the Com- 
mittee of Safety, the commotion in the city was greatly 
increased, and feelings of intense hatred, dividing friends, 
relatives and families, centred in the hearts of the diflcr- 
ent factions. Each party charging the olhc:- with evil 



REVOLUTION IX lt>89. 193 

designs against the welfare of the country; their personal 
feelings meanwhile becoming more embittered by the ela- 
tion or shame arising from the success or failure of the 
measures pursued by each for the humiliation and defeat 
of the other. Yet no greater diiference is found to have 
actuated these parties than the question as to who should 
carry on the government, for on the great political ques- 
tion of the day they were entirely agreed. 

The party opposed to Leisler, being headed by the mem- 
bers of the late government, and supported by most of the 
wealthy and aristocratic portion of the community, while 
Leisler's friends, though composed of many of the best men 
in the city, were generally of moderate fortunes and of 
less conspicuous social condition, they severally became so 
distinctly marked by these circumstances, that they have 
been properly classified into the " aristocratic" and " popu- 
lar" parties. To his opponents Leisler gave the name of 
the " grandees;" and as the ascerbity of feeling increased, 
he classed them indiscriminately as " Papists" and " King 
James' men." On the other side they applied equallycon- 
temptuous terms to the successful party; calling them a 
rabble, men of no note, merely seeking to plunder the pub- 
lic treasury. 

But words alone did not suffice to evince the exaspera- 
tion of feeling prevailing on both sides; for Leisler's oppo- 
nents sought, by every means, to check the progress of the 
government, and bring it into trouble. A conspicuous 
man, among the opponents of Leisler, was Nicholas Bayard, 
a member of the late council, and colonel of the city 
militia. On the 20th of October, Bayard issued his orders 
to the captains of the two companies under his command, 
13 



194 REVOLUTION IN 1689. 

stating that inasmuch as Leisler had usurped the govern- 
ment, in an illegal and hostile manner, without the least 
authority from their Majesties, William and Mary, he felt 
it his duty, as a member of the council and as a colonel of 
the militia, neither of which were in any manner vacated 
or superseded, to command the captains to desist from aid- 
ing or abetting Leisler and his associates, or from permit- 
ting any of the soldiers to be employed in his service; but 
on the contrary, to submit to the commands of the govern- 
ment established by law, as they should answer to the con- 
trary at their peril. Bayard was then in Albany, whither 
also several other of the principal men in opposition to 
Leisler had retired, beyond the reach of his arm. They 
so far affected the minds of the leading men in that part 
of the country, as to bring the magistrates and a great 
portion of the people into their own views; and when 
Leisler, actuated probably by the desire to wreak his ven- 
geance upon his indefatigable opponents, sent an armed 
force, ostensibly to garrison the fort, and assist in main- 
taining the cause of the Protestant succession, his people 
were refused admission into the town, and his title to ad- 
minister the government was denied. This proceeding 
was an unfortunate one for Leisler, as it was not called for 
by any circumstances then existing, the whole country hav- 
ing declared for William and Mary. It evinced a personal 
feeling inconsistent with the moderate and temperate exer- 
cise of functions to which his title was at least questiona- 
ble. But notwithstanding the repulse met with from the 
magistrates of Albany, Leisler prepared to enforce sub- 
mission to his commands; and after a seige the fort was 
taken, and the leaders of the opposite faction hastily dis- 



REVOLUTION IN 1689. 195 

persed themselves throughout New England; their estates 
being confiscated, and all the evils of a conquered people 
being inflicted upon them. 

These fugitives, under the exasperation of feeling wliich 
■ their circumstances were calculated to produce, were now 
moving, with all the energy of desperation, to incline the 
minds of the governments and people of the several New 
England colonies, which had hitherto regarded Leisler's 
proceedings with favor, to refuse their further countenance 
of his government. 

Matters were thus situated when, in December, 1689, a 
messenger arrived in Boston, bearing a missive from the 
English government, addressed as follows: " To Francis 
Nicholson, Esq., or in his absence, to such as, for the time 
being, takes care for preserving the peace and administer- 
ing the laws in his majesty's province of New York." 
This letter was dated in July previous, at which time the 
advices in England were that Nicholson was in pos- 
session of the government. The opponents of Lcisler, 
who were then in New England, first heard of the arrival 
of the messenger, and of the nature of the direction of the 
missive borne by him. Not knowing its contents, how- 
ever, and desirous of availing themselves of any thing 
contained therein, which might assist in fortifying the 
position of their party, it was resolved that the members 
of the late council should venture once more within the 
limits of New York, and endeavor to obtain the delivery 
of the packet into their own hands, on the ground that 
they were still, in a legal point of view, the officers who. 
in the absence of Nicholson, " took care for preserving the 
peace and administering the laws in his majesty's province 
of New York." Accordingly, Colonel Bayard and Fred- 



196 KEVOI-UTION IN 1689. 

erick Pliilipse, another member of the late Council, secretly 
introduced themselves into the city, and awaited the at- 
tendance of the messenger, having sent for him and made 
their pretensions known. But the arrival of the messen- 
ger, was presently ascertained by the party in power, and 
he was conducted to the fort, where he found Leisler in 
command. After some deliberation, the messenger reliev- 
ed himself of his delicate duty, by delivering the package 
to those whom he found actually in power, not considering 
it within his functions to distinguish between the relative 
claims of the contesting parties. Leisler received the 
package, which contained an authority to the person to 
whom it was addressed to take the chief command, as 
Lieutenant Governor, and to appoint a council to assist 
him in conducting the government. 

Accordingly, Leisler, on the 11th December, 1689, 
assumed the title of lieutenant-governor, and appointed a 
council of eight persons, representing the different parts 
of the province. It was generally considered among the 
people, that Leisler's claims to the government were 
strengthened by these occurrences, and his commissions for 
the appointment of magistrates and other officers, which 
were then issued throughout different parts of the province, 
were acknowledged by most of the people, and the affairs 
of the government immediately assumed a condition of 
system and order. 

But the leaders and principal men of the opposite fac- 
tion were doubly incensed by the result of the late occur- 
rences, and in a riot, they attempted to seize Leisler in the 
street; he was, however, rescued by his friends, and then 
causing the drum to beat to arms, he pursued the rioters, 
and threw many into prison. Still, however, the leaders 



REVOLUTION IN 1689. 197 

themselves, working iu secret places, used the most extreme 
measures to breed dissension among the people. Deter- 
mined now, under the sanction of his newly acquired title, 
to exterminate his opponents, Leisler issued, on the 17th 
of January, a warrant for the arrest of Nicholas Bayard, 
Stephanus Van Cortlandt, William Nichols and others, on 
the charge of high misdemeanors against his majesty's 
authority in this province. In pursuit of Bayard, the 
officers having the process, broke into his dwelling, and 
learning of his flight to a neighboring house, followed and 
seized him; Nichols was likewise arrested, and the others 
escaped. Leisler threw the prisoners into close confine- 
ment, and on the following day (18th January, 1690) called 
a Court of Oyer and Terminer, to try them for treason. 
Being now in the power of his enemies, and under the im- 
pending danger of a trial for his life. Bayard resorted to 
supplication, acknowledging his errors, promising to be- 
have himself for the future with all submission, praying 
that his former acts might be attributed to passion, &c. 
In this abject condition the prisoners were not pursued to 
the extremity of the law, but nevertheless remained in 
prison until the arrival of the new governor, a period of 
fourteen months. 

Meanwhile Leisler continued the issue of warrants for 
the arrest of the leading malcontents, and soon eradicated 
from his province the presence of all who could hinder the 
progress of his government. Nevertheless, while an appa- 
rent tranquillity reigned within his domain, storms were 
brewing without. Driven from their homes, the leaders 
of the opposite party were constantly busy in concocting 
measures for their final triumph. They succeeded in gain- 
ing many friends among the leading characters in the New 



198 REVOLUTION IN 1689. 

England colonies, and were actively engaged in bringing 
their case to the view of their majesties' ministers in Great 
Britain, aggravating and exaggerating the real state of 
things in New York into an actual rebellion against the 
dominion of Great Britain. 

While these active opponents were scheming the over- 
throw of Leisler's government, he himself was so much 
occupied with the internal affairs of his province as to find 
all his energies employed, during the spring and summer 
of the year 1690, in counteracting the movements of the 
French and Indians along our western settlements. It 
was in the early part of the year 1690 that the murderous 
assault upon Schenectady was made by a party of French 
and Indians. They entered the town at midnight, and 
having made their arrangements, the war-whoop was cried 
as a signal for general slaughter. All the houses, except 
one, were burnt, and most of the people murdered, a few 
escaping on foot, through a deep snow, to Albany. For 
retaliation of this assault, Leisler, joined by others of the 
New England colonies, engaged themselves in maturing an 
expedition against Canada; but its result was unsuccessful. 
Other expeditions, in which the success was considerable, 
were fitted out, under Leisler's auspices, against the French 
marine. Several vessels were captured by these expedi- 
tions; but upon the whole, it must be admitted that Leis- 
ler's administration was unsuccessful, while at the same 
time it is apparent that his motives were pure and patriotic. 

With all the mishaps of fortune within the past two 
years, a still more extraordinary accident was destined to 
produce a state of confusion and tumult in New York, far 
exceeding any which had yet been experienced, the occa- 
sion of which was as follows : The government in Eng- 



REVOLUTION IN 1G39. 199 

land nad been persuaded to send out a new governor to 
this province, in the person of Colonel Henry Sloughter, 
who, with several ships and a considerable command, set 
sail from England; but, by some misfortune, the vessels 
were separated, and the first arrival of any part of the 
fleet at New York was that of the ship Beaver, in Janu- 
ary, 1691, containing Major Richard Ingoldsby, the second 
in command, and his troops. The commissions for the 
new government, Averc, however, in the possession of 
Sloughter; nor could Ingoldsby produce any papers what- 
ever, authorizing him to act either for Sloughter or on 
his own behalf, in taking or receiving possession of 
New York. 

Inasmuch as it was pretty certainly ascertained that the 
arrival of the new governor would be followed by the 
re-establishment of the old council and their party into 
power, and the disgraceful prostration of Leisler and his 
friends, it may be imagined that the arrival of a part of 
the expected armament was the occasion of a high degree 
of excitement in the city. Leisler was willing to resign 
the helm of government to his properly constituted suc- 
cessor; but consistency and self-respect constrained both 
him and his party to maintain the legality of their pre- 
vious course, and in retiring from the position thus far 
occupied, to do so with the dignity of conscious rectitude. 

But now, with the arrival of Ingoldsby, Leisler's oppo- 
nents raised themselves from their prostrate condition, and 
were clamorous for the immediate transfer of the fort to 
the possession of Ingoldsby. Yet Ingoldsby could show 
no authority to change the government, or to receive the 
fortress into his possession. How, therefore, was Leisler 
to act? If h<3 delivered the government to any but a 



200 REVOLUTION IN 1689. 

auccessor legally appointed to supersede himself, he indi- 
rectly admitted the illegality of his own pretensions to act 
by authority of the English government; while, if he 
refused admission of the king's soldiers into the fort, he 
was, in a manner, insulting the forces of the king whom 
he professed to serve. 

He therefore, while proffering Ingoldsby quarters in the 
town for his soldiers, refused to deliver the fort to any 
one but a person holding authority from the king's govern- 
ment to receive it. 

Under these circumstances Ingoldsby, feeling his dignity 
as an English officer somewhat touched by the refusal to 
give him (quarters in the fort, and led, moreover, by the 
excited state .of the populace to enter somewhat sympa- 
thetically into the arena -of the political contest, became a 
willing instrument in the hands of the party opposed to 
Leisler. 

On the 30th January, 1691, he issued a proclamation, 
requiring the people to aid and assist him in overcoming 
all that stood in opposition to his majesty's command, and 
proclaiming further that " we shall deem and account all 
such as stood in opposition, to be rebels against their 
majesties," &c. On the following day Leisler issued his 
manifesto, reciting the demand of the fort by Ingoldsby, 
and his proclamation, and protesting, in behalf of the 
king and queen, against the proceedings of Ingoldsby and 
his accomplices, for whatever bloodshed should ensue, and 
forbidding Ingoldsby to commit any hostile act against 
the fort, city or province, at his utmost peril. And there- 
upon he called upon the militia forces to be in arms and 
ready upon call. 

These vigorous measures induced Ingoldsby, on the fol- 



REVOLUTION IN 1639. 201 

lowing day (Feb. Isfc) to address a letter to Leisler, saying 
that lie had read the protest, which seemed to hiui of a 
dangerous tendency; and explaining that what had been 
done by himself was simply to insure the prescrvalion oi" 
the peace. 

It was an extraordinary circumstance that Sloughler 
was nearly two months wandering on the ocean after the 
arrival of Ingoldsby; and during all that time the popu- 
lation were momentarily on the verge of civil war. 
Every day's suspense added to the fuel of impatience 
which now burned in the hearts of all the inhabitants. 
Leisler gathered large forces within the fort in readiness 
for swooping upon the opposite faction, should a blow be 
struck at the integrity of his power; while the other 
faction, by every provocation of insult and daring, sought 
to place the burden of the first blow upon Leisler and his 
friends. 

Thus were things situated when, on the I9th of March, 
1691, the missing vessel was seen coming into the harbor, 
and it became evident that the troubles of the times were 
approaching a climax of some sort. Slough tcr imme- 
diately landed; called together his new council which was 
composed of the enemies of the Leislcrian party, and pro- 
ceeded to the city-hall, where he published his commission 
in the presence of a large body of the people; and having 
sworn in the members of the council, he directed lugoldsb}' 
to demand possession of the fort. This took place at 
eleven o'clock at night. Leisler was awaiting the sum- 
mons, but with a pertinacity somewhat unreasonable under 
the circumstances, he desired to send a letter by one of his 
officers, directed to Slough ter in person; this officer, who 
had seen Sloughter in England, was also desired to observe 



202 REVOLUTION IN 1689. 

if this was the same man, and no counterfeit, got up by 
Leislcr's opponents for the purpose of surreptitiously 
getting possession of the government. The officer, there- 
fore, witli somewhat misplaced formality, expressed his 
satisfaction to Sloughter, to find that he was the person 
he had seen in England; to which the governor tartly 
replied, that it certainly was true that he had been seen in 
England, and now intended to make himself observed in 
New York. He then commanded Ingoldsby to proceed a 
second time to receive the fort into his possession. 

Lcisler now, to be still further ceremonious, sent two 
of his principal officers, one of whom was the mayor, who 
accompanied Ingoldsby on his return the second time, and 
were commissioned, it is supposed, to tender the transfer 
of the fort, and make some explanations; but they were 
not allowed to speak, and were handed over to the guards; 
and Ingoldsby was again sent to demand the possession 
of the fort. This summons, being delivered very late at 
night, was ineffectual, and Sloughter thereupon dismissed 
his council until the next morning. 

On the following morning, Leisler addressed a letter 
of the following purport to the governor. Dated 20th 
March, 1691. "May it please your excellency: this his 
majesty's fort, being besieged by Major Ingoldsby so far 
that not a boat could depart, nor persons be conveyed out 
of the same, without being in danger of their lives, which 
has so occasioned that I could not be so happy as to send 
a messenger to give me certainty of your excellency's safe 
arrival; but the joy I had by a full assurance from Ensign 
Stoll of your excellency's arrival, has been somewhat 
troubled by the detention of two of my messengers. I 
see here well the stroke of my enemies, who are wishing 



REVOLUTION IN 1689. 20b 

to cause me some mistakes at the end of the 103'alty I owe 
to my gracious king and queen, and by i^uch ways to blot 
out all my faithful service till now; having, by my duty 
and faithfulness been vigorous to them. But I hope to 
avoid such an error. 

Please only to signify and order the major to release 
me from the charge of his majesty's fort, and that I may 
deliver to him the arms and stores belonging thereto, aud 
give him directions to treat me in a manner suitable to one 
who shall give your excellency an exact account of all his 
actions and conduct ; who is, with all respect, 

Your Excellency's most humble servant, 

JACOB LEISLER. 

Accordingly, Nicholson was despatched to take posses- 
sion of the fort; and having fulfilled that part of his duty, 
proceeded to the discharge of his additional orders, which 
were to release Bayard and Nichols, who still remained 
prisoners in the fort, and to arrest Leisler and such of his 
accomplices as were with him, and to bring them before 
the governor and his council. 

Bayard and Nichols shortly after appeared, and were 
sworn in as members of the council; and having taken 
their seats, Leisler and eleven of his principal friends were 
brought in prisoners, and once more the great leaders of 
the factions were brought face to face. The prisoners were 
all committed to the guards. 

The governor, in the course of a day or two, discovered 
the condition of the public pulse, which was, on all side^, 
beating at fever heat, and not unwilling, from these and 
other reasons, to rid himself of the responsibility of acting 
on the case of the prisoners, readily acceded to a proposi- 



204 REVOLUTION IN 1689. 

tion of the members of his council, to transfer the case 
from a military to a civil court ; and accordingly, on 
the 23d of March, issued an order for an examination of 
the prisoners, preparatory to transferring them from the 
guards to the common prison. 

On the following day (24th March) the government 
called a special Court of Oyer and Terminer, to be held 
immediately; and on the 26th, Leisler and his companions 
were committed into the hands of the sheriff, by two of 
the city magistrates, on the charge of traitorously levying 
war against the sovereign, and of other high misde- 
meanors. 

The Court of Oyer and Terminer met about a fortnight 
afterward, and the prisoners being called on to plead, 
they refused to acknowledge the validity of the court, or 
to plead to the indictment. The principal charges against 
Leisler and his friends, were as follows : 

The disruption of Nicholson's council. 

Imprisoning many innocent people. 

Proscribing and forcing others to fly. 

Seizing and forfeiting goods of merchants and others. 

Levying taxes without due authority. 

Raising forces and keeping the fort against Ingolds- 
by; and 

Denying the surrender to Governor Sloughter. 

The result of the deliberations of the court was the con- 
viction of the prisoners, as mutes, and their sentence to 
death. This conclusion was made known to the public 
toward the latter part of April,, and caused great tumults 
and riots in different parts of the province, and also in 
New England. 

It was very evident that the leaders of the party now in 



REVOLUTION IN 1689. 205 

power, and forming the council of the province, would not 
be satisfied with any vengeance less than the death of 
Leisler. Governor Sloughter, a dissolute and unprincipled 
man, made some effort to screen himself from the pressure 
of these urgent applicants, and pretended, for a few days, 
to be determined to submit the case to the government in 
England, before complying with that last official duty ap- 
pertaining to his office, the signing of the death warrant. 
But on the 14th of May, the council requested the governor 
to carry the sentence into effect, and thus allay the ferment 
in the public mind, which was every day increasing. On 
the 16th, which was Saturday, the assembly, by a majority 
vote, joined in the recommendation, and on the same day 
Leisler and his son-in-law, Jacob Milborne, were brought 
out for execution. On the gallows, Leisler made a speech 
to the following purport : 

" The great, wise and omnipotent creator of all things, 
visible and invisible, who, from the time of our first com- 
ing ashore in this vale of tears, misery and affliction, hath 
to this present moment protected us, be magnified, praised 
and glorified forever. Amen. 

" Gentlemen and Brethren : — I hope, through the 
grace and fear of the Lord Jesus, that we are not insensi- 
ble of our dying condition; but like penitent mortals we 
submit our lives and all that appertains to us, into the 
hands of divine protection, prostrating ourselves before 
the foot-stool of that immaculate Lamb of God who taketh 
away the sins of the world; hoping that, through His mer- 
itorious death, our iniquities may be done away with, and 
our pardons sealed on earth before we go hence; humbly 
imploring that not through our own merits of justification, 
but throuirh the merit of Him that is willing to save our 



206 REVOLUTION IN 1689, 

souls, we may become precious in the eyes of God, and 
live forever in the Kingdom of Eternal Glory, when time 
shall be no more. 

" It is true that we have, at the request of the principal 
part of the inhabitants of this province, and in opposition 
to the wi.-hes of our families, taken in hand great and 
weighty matters of state, requiring, it is true, more wise, 
cunning and powerful pilots than either of us could claim 
to be; but considering that in the time of this distracted 
country's greatest necessity, no persons could be found, 
that were in any capacity of uniting us against a common 
enemy, who would take the helm — we, for the glory of the 
Protestant interest, the establishment of the present gov- 
ernment, and the strengthening of the country against all 
foreign attempts, thought it a serviceable act that our poor 
endeavors should not be wanting in any thing that was 
needful. 

" We will not deny that many excesses have been com- 
mitted, oftentimes against our will, between the time of 
our undertaking and the arrival of Governor Sloughter; 
and oftentimes we wished, during our unhappy abode in 
power, to see a period put to the distracted aflairs such as 
then were raging, and perhaps as to some of which we 
were not faultless. Of such as we have injured, we hum- 
bly beg forgiveness, desiring them every one, with Chris- 
tian charity, to bury all malice in our graves. And here, 
before God and the world, we do declare, as dying sinners, 
that we not only forgive the greatest and most inveter- 
ate of our enemies, but according to the pattern of our 
dying Savior, we say ' Father forgive them, for they know 
not what they do.' So far from revenge do we depart this 
world, that we require and make it our dying request to 



REVOLUTIOX IN 1689- 207 

all our relations and friends, that they should, in time to 
come, be forgetful of any injury done to us or either of us; 
so that, on both sides, the discord and dissension (which 
was created by the devil in the beginning) may, with our 
ashes, be buried in oblivion, never more to rise up for the 
trouble of future posterity. The Lord grant that the 
offering of our blood may be a full satisfaction for all the 
disorders to this time committed, and that, forever after, 
the spirit of unity may remain among our brethren on 
earth. 

" All that for our dying comfort we can say, concerning 
the point for which we are condemned is to declare, as our 
last words, before that God whom we hope before long to 
see, that our sole aim and object in the conduct of the gov- 
ernment was to maintain the interest of our sovereign lord 
and lady, and the Reformed Protestant Churches in these 
parts. If there be any that think otherwise, (as from 
scandalous reports and misrepresentations we must believe 
there are,) we shall not trouble them with many argu- 
ments, being persuaded that every good Protestant of 
this country, who has been acquainted with our transac- 
tions, can, from his conscience, aver the falsehood and 
maliciousness of such aspersions. As for Major Ingolds- 
by's coming to demand the garrison after his arrival, had 
he, but in the least, produced any testimonial of his author- 
ity to receive the same and discharge us, we would as 
readily have delivered the fort as he could ask it; but as 
these things are past and gone, they are not worth noting. 

" The Lord, of his infinite mercy, preserve the king and 
(lueen from traitors and deceitful enemies; God be mer- 
ciful unto, and bless with peace and unity these their 
kingdoms, unto which we belong; God preserve this prov- 



208 EEVOLUTIOX IN 1689. 

ince from enemies abroad and spiteful wretches at home; 
God bless the governor of this place; God bless the coun- 
cil, assembly and government now established, that they 
may all be united to propagate their majesties' interest, the 
country's good, and the establishment of piety. The Lord 
of heaven, of his infinite mercy, bless all that wish well to 
Zion, and convert those that are out of the way; let his 
mercies likewise administer true comfort to all that are 
desolate, grieved, oppressed, in misery or other afflictions, 
especially the souls of that poor family unto which we for- 
merly belonged. Our only comfort in this case is that God 
has promised to take care of the widows and the fatherless. 
Recommending them all, this dying moment, into the hands 
of one that is able and willing to save those that seek him; 
desiring them to put their perpetual confidence in the mer- 
cies of one that never failcth, and not to weep for us that 
are departing to our God; but rather to weep for them- 
selves that are here behind us, to remain in a state of 
misery and trouble. 

" Gentlemen, you will all, I hope, Christian-like, be char- 
itable to our distressed families that are to remain with 
you. Join with us in the prayer for the preservation of 
our immortal souls in a kingdom of never dying glory, 
unto which, God, of his infinite mercy, bring us all. Amen, 
Amen." 

Milborne made a short prayer for the king and queen 
and present ofiicers of the province. Then, turning to Mr. 
Livingston, one of the leading men of the opposite party, 
who had been to England on a mission respecting the state 
of the country, he said, " You have brought about my 
death, but before God's tribunal I will implead you for the 
same." Turning to his father-in-law, he said, " We are 



REVOLCTION IN 1689. 209 

thoroughly wet with rain, but in a little time we shall be 
washed with the Holy Spirit.'' The sheriff asked him 
whether he would not bless the king and queen; " He an- 
swered, " It is for them I die, and for the cause of the Pro- 
testant religion, in which I was born and bred." 

Leisler, turning to his son-in-law, said, " I must now die, 
but why must you also ? You have been in our service 
merely." He also declared anew that his actions had been 
for the cause of William and Mary, the defence of the 
Protestant religion, and the good of the country. 

When the handkerchief was put about his head, he said, 
" I hope my eyes shall see our Lord Jesus Christ in heaven; 
I am ready ! I am ready !" Milborne exclaimed, " I am 
ready; Father, into thy hands I recommend my soul." 

During the performance of this ceremony the rain was 
drizzling down upon the assembled multitude; and a more 
wretched and distracted community than the city then con- 
tained, could hardly be imagined. 

Four years afterward (1695) the Parliament of Great 
Britain reversed the attainder, for treason, of Leisler, and 
restored his property to his heirs. Some further account 
of the personal and family history of Mr. Leisler, has been 
given in another part of this book. 



14 



CHAPTER XVI. 

AFFAIRS OF THE CITY FROM THE YEAR 1C91 TO THE CLOSE OF THE 
CENTURY. 

Governor Sloughter having undertaken a journey to 
Albany, a few days after the death of Leisler, he concluded 
a treaty with the Iroquois Indians, and returned to New 
York; but his turbulent administration was destined to a 
speedy termination, as he died, suddenly, on the 23d July, 
1691. Suspicions were entertained that unfair means had 
brought about his end, but a post-mortem examination 
confuted these ideas, and his death was reported by the 
physicians to have occurred from natural causes. His 
remains were interred in Stuyvesant's vault, next to those 
of the old Dutch governor. 

His successor, for a temporary period, was Major Rich- 
ard Ingoldsby, the second military officer in the garrison, 
who remained in office until the 29th of August, 1692, 
when he was superseded by Colonel Benjamin Fletcher, 
who had been commissioned as governor of the province. 

On the 2d of April, 1698, Governor Fletcher was super- 
seded by the arrival of Richard, Earl of Bellamont, who 
remained in office until his death, which occurred in this 
city on the 5th of March, 1701. He was interred under 
the chapel in the fort. 



IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CITY, 1690 TO 1700. 211 

Several improvements of importance took place in the 
city during the ten years previous to the close of the sev- 
enteenth century. 

It having been determined to fill in the shore along the 
East river, which had hitherto not been encroached upon, 
the corporation sold the water lots from the city-hall at 
the present Coentics slip, to the present Fulton street. 
The lots were laid out with a front of about forty feet 
each, the conditions of the sale stipulating that the build- 
ings erected, should cover the entire front with one build- 
ing; the gable end, or front toward the street, to be of 
brick or stone, and the building to be at least two stories 
in height. Provision was also made for the erection of a 
wharf along the water side, of thirty feet in width, which 
should be a free street. This was the origin of the pres- 
ent Water street in the parts above designated. The lots 
which extended in depth from the present Pearl to Water 
street, sold at average prices of twenty pounds each, and 
were principally purchased by merchants. 

The title of the corporation to the land under water was 
contested in the first instance by the owners along the 
shore, but an examination of the original patents, except 
in one or two instances, failed to show a right in the indi- 
vidual owners, beyond high water mark. This scrutiny 
of the ancient patents, however, raised a question as to 
the ownership of the present vacant space in Hanover 
square, which was found to be covered by the patent to 
Govert Loockermans, (who formerly resided on the north 
side of Hanover square,) and was therefore claimed by his 
heirs. As the claimants desired to build on the vacant 
ground, which would close up the fine open view upon the 
water, then enjoyed by the residents on Hanover square, 



212 



STKKETS LAID OIT AS FAR AS MAIDEN LANE. 



their claim was strongly contested, and it was attempted 
to be set up, in opposition to their right, that this open 
ground had laid in common for many years, and that the 
public had acquired a title by adverse possession. Many 
of the ancient inhabitants of the city, in the early times 
of the Dutch, were called upon to state their remembrance 
of this place. Among others, the venerable Johannes 
Van Brugh, and his wife, the daughter of the first Dutch 
clergyman, Domine Bogardus, who still resided (1G93) at 
their ancient residence on the present north side of Hano- 
ver square. He remembered the place to have been in 
common for forty-six years, and his wife for a still longer 
period, viz., fifty-six years, which carried her recollection 
back to the year 1637. 

It was during this period, also, that streets were first 
laid out above Wall street, as high as Maiden lane. This 
latter street, however, was a very ancient road, having 
been established as such in the earliest times of the Dutch. 
Its course through a valley, was the easiest route of pas- 
sage from the two great highways along the north and 
East river sides, and was from the first used as such. This 
road was, in the times of the Dutch, known as " T'Maagde 
Paatje," or the Maiden's Path; and formed the northerly 
boundary of the farm granted in 1644, to Jan Jansen Da- 
men. When this farm came to be divided among the heirs 
of Damen, some parts of it along the Maiden's Path were 
sold off to speculators. These parcels were described 
in the ancient deeds as the " Claver Waytie," or Clover 
Pasture, etc.; and came afterward into the market as 
building lots. The " Maagde Paatje," about the period 
now referred to, received its present name of Maiden 
Lane. 



ERECTIOX OF PUBLIC BLILDINGS AND CHURCHES. 21o 

Wc may also, indicate, among other improvements of 
this period, the erection of several public buildings of a 
class hitherto unexampled in New York. Among other 
prominent buildings of a public character, erected durinc 
this period, was the city-hall. The old "stadt huys," 
which had stood since the year 1642, and had attained an 
age of over half a centun*, was far gone to decay, and in 
the year 1697 was considered in such a dangerous condi- 
tion that the judges refused to hold their courts therein; 
and the common council, also, were compelled to change 
their sessions room to the house of George Kiscarrick, ad- 
joining the city-hall, where they hired a room at the rate of 
twelve pounds per annum. The authorities, having come 
to the determination to erect a new building for civic pur- 
poses, the site fixed upon was in Wall street, opposite 
Broad, the same position now occupied by the Custom 
House. The estimated cost of the new building was three 
thousand pounds, but probably exceeded that sum. In 
August, 1699, the ancient " stadt huys," at the head of 
Coenties slip, was sold at auction and struck off at nine 
hundred and twenty pounds, to John Rodman, a merchant. 

Another prominent building erected during the period 
now spoken of, was the first Trinity Church, on the site 
of the present edifice so called. The date of the erection 
of this building was in 1696. It was destroyed by the 
great fire in this city, during the time of the Revolution- 
ary war. 

The Dutch congregation also erected a new church 
edifice on a street called the " Tuyen," O'- Garden street, 
on the north side of the present Exchange place, between 
Broad and William streets. The ground was purchased 
in the year 1691; soon after which the building was 



214 



THE BATTERY. 



commenced. The engraving on the opposite page gives a 
view of the condition of the neighborhood of this church, 
the spire of which is observed above the buildings. The 
two corners here seen are the present north-east and south- 
east corners of Broad street and Exchange place. 

Another indication of the progress of the city toward 
its present condition, may be ascribed to the period referred 
to, in the commencement of what is called the Battery, at 
the south point of the island. This part of the city had 
anciently been known as the " Schreyer's Hook," a number 
of rocks, called the " Capske," having long presented 
their heads above the water, and probably being now 
beneath the made ground of the present Battery. War 
existing between France and England in 1693, and a 
report having arisen that the enemy contemplated a visit 
to this city, the governor determined to " erect a plat- 
form on the outmost point of rocks under the fort, whereon 
to build a battery to command both rivers. The works 
then constructed extended from the present Whitehall 
street, westward two or three hundred feet, and were 
commonly known as the Whitehall Battery. 

We may point out another indication of the progress of 
the city, in the fact that the lirst attempt to light the 
streets was made in November, 1697; the ordinance for 
which was as follows : 

" The Board, taking into consideration the great incon- 
veniency that attends this city, being a trading place, for 
want of having lights in the dark time of the moon in the 
winter season, it is therefore ordered that all and every of 
the housekeepers within this city shall put out lights in 
the windows fronting the respective streets of the city, 
between this and the 25th of March next, in the following 



STKEKT LAMI'S, WATCH, &G. 



215 



manner : Every seventh house, in all the streets, shall, in 
the dark time of the moon, cause a lantern and candle to 
be hung- out on a pole — the charge to be defrayed equally 
by the inhabitants of said seven houses." 

During the same period a night watch was established, 
composed of " four good and honest inhabitants of the 
city, whose duty it shall be to watch in the night time, 
from the liour of nine in the evening till break of day, 
until the the 25 th of March next; and to go round the 
city, each hour of the night, with a bell, and there to 
proclaim the season of the weather and the hour of the 
night." 

It was stated, in a former chapter, that the old city pali- 
sades, along Wall street, had been for many years in a 
state of dilapidation, and their removal was resolved upon 
shortly previous to Leisler's usurpation. That occur- 
rence, however, put a stop to the movement; and the break- 
ing out of a war between France and England, innnediately 
subsequent to the establishment of order in the country, 
and the apprehension of invasion induced the authorities 
to make some repairs to these ancient works. It is be- 
lieved, however, that in the year 1609 their final demolition 
was accomplished. 

The appearance of the city, about the close of the seven- 
teenth century, is described by Madame Knight, an Eng- 
lish lady, as of an agreeable character — " the buildings, 
brick generally, in some houses of divers colors and laid 
in cheques, being glazed, they look very well." Of the 
insides she remarks that " they were neat to admiration." 
The fire-places had no jambs, but their backs ran flush 
with the walls; the fire-places were of tiles, and extended 
far out into the rooms, in some instances to the width of 



21u 



CONDITIOX OF THE STREETS, 



five feet. The ladies of the ancient Dutch families wore 
caps, leaving the ears bare, and an abundance of ear-rings 
and other jewelry. 

Most of the streets in the lower part of the city were 
paved to the width of ten feet from the fronts of the houses, 
on each side of the way. The centre of the street was 
left without pavement, for the more easy absorption of the 
water, as there were then no sewers in the city. The kind 
of pavements used were pebble stones. There were no 
side-walks for foot passengers as at present, but in some 
places brick pathways, called in early times " strookes," 
were laid for that purpose. 

There were several wells in the centre of the streets, for 
the use of the public. One of these, called " De Riemer's 
Well," was situated in the centre of the present Whitehall 
street, near Bridge. Another called " Ten Eyck and Vin- 
cent's Well" was situated in the centre of the present Broad, 
between Stone and South William streets. Another called 
" Tunis De Kay's Well," was situated in the centre of 
Broad street, a short distance above Beaver street. An- 
other called the " Frederick Wessell's Well," was situated 
in the centre of the present Wall street, west of William. 
Another called the " Well of William Cox," was situated 
near the present head of Coenties slip, xlnother called 
" Mr. Rombout's Well," was situated in the centre of 
Broadway, near Exchange place. Another called " the 
Well of Suert Olphert's," was situated in the same neigh- 
borhood. 

There were two public markets for flesh and one for fish 
in the city. The flesh markets were situated, one on the 
present site of the Bowling Green, and the other in the 
centre of the present Hanover square, which was then a 



SHIPPING OF THE CITY IN 1701. 



21^ 



green, adorned by several large trees. The fish market 
was at the present Coenties slip. 

The great dock of the city extended between the present 
Coenties slip and Whitehall street, as may be observed on 
the map of 1695. The annual rates of dockage were as 
follows : For vessels of one to five tons, six shillings; of 
five to ten tons, nine shillings; of ten to fifteen tons, 
twelve shillings; of fifteen to twenty-five tons one pound; 
of twenty-five to fifty tons, one pound ten shillings; over 
fifty tons, two pounds ten shillings. 

At the close of the seventeenth century, there were 
about seven hundred and fifty dwelling houses within the 
limits of the city, beside a considerable number of planta- 
tions and buildings in other parts of the island. The 
population of the city was composed of about four thou- 
sand five hundred whites, and seven hundred and fifty 
blacks, including slaves and freemen. The names of the 
inhabitants, from the census of 1703. are alphabetically 
arranged in the index, and arc referred to as giving a 
complete view of the population at that period. 

To give a general view of the amount of shipping out 

of this port at the close of the seventeenth century, we 

furnish a list of the arrivals during the year, from June, 

1701, to the end of May in the following year ; 

1701. June. Hliip Lark, from Fayal. 

" SIoo]! Morning Star, from Barbadoes. 

" " Albcrmarlo, from IJoston. 

" '■ Phoenix, from Jamaica. 

July. " Albermarle, from Boston. 

" " Friendship, from Boston. 

" " Mary, from Antigua. 

" " Sawyer, from Boston. 

" " Hope, from Jamaica. 

" Ship Hope, from London. 



218 SHIPPING OF THE CITY IN 1701, 2. 

1 701 . July. Sloop James, from Jamaica. 

" " Cornelia and Betty, from Barbadoes 

August " Swan, from Antigua. 

" " Oallopatcli, from Barbadoes. 

" " Auue, from Boston, 

" Brig Industry, from Jamaica. 

" Sloop Rachel, from Nevis. 

" " Mary and Sarah, from Boston. 

" " Jacob, from Jamaica. 

" " Friendship, from Philadelphia. 

" " Sawyer, from Boston. 

" " Loyal York, from Carolina. 

" Brig Francis, from Jamaica. 

" Sloop Bonata, from Carolina. 

" " Flying Horse, from Barbadoes. 

" Pinke Blossom, from Jamaica. 
September. " John, from Jamaica. 

" Brig Bristol, from the Bermudas. 

" Sloop Joseph and Betty, St. Christopher. 

" " Mary and Sarah, from Boston. 

October. " Friendship, from Boston. 

" " Welcome, from Nevis. 

" " Restoration, from Barbadoes. 

" " Sawyer, from Boston. 

" Brig Catharine, from Barbadoes. 

" Sloop Rachel, from Boston. 

" " Catharine, from Madeira. 

" " Rebecca, from Rhode Island. 

" Brig John Adventure, from Barbadoes. 
November. " Dolphin, from Loudon. 

" Sloop Friendship, from Philadelphia. 

" " Primrose, from Surinam. 

" Pinke New York, from England. 
December. Sloop Mary, from Boston. 

" " Catharine, from Madeira. 

" Ship New York Merchant, from London. 

1702. January. Sloop Rachel, from Boston. 

" Ship Catharine, from Madeira. 

" Sloop Hannah and Ruth, from Boston. 

" Ship Endeavor, from London. 



MERCHANTS. 



219 



1702. February. Sloop Adventure, from Boston. 

" Brig Nanfan, from Carolina. 

" Sloop Endeavor, from Boston. 

" Calley John and Miehaol, from Bristol. 

March. Sloop Unity, from Nevis. 

" Shallop St. Maria, from Isquebad. 

" Brig Anne, from Jamaica. 

April. Sloop "Welcome, fi'om Nevis. 

" Brig Joseph, from Antigua. 

" Pinke Orange-tree, from W. I. 

" Ship Charles, from London. 

" Brig Increase, from Antigua. 

" Sloop Loyal York, from Virginia. 

" " Restoration, from Barbadoes. 

" Brig Prosperous, from Surinam. 

". Sloop Catherine, from Antigua. 

" " Sawyer, from Boston. 

" Ship Prince Lewis, from London. 

May. " Elizabeth, from London. 

" Sloop Boncta, from Surinam. 

" " Jacob, from Barbadoes. 

" " Rachel, from Boston. 

" " Hopewell, from Jamaica. 

" " Flying Horse, from Jamaica. 

Among the principal merchants in the city at the close 
of the seventeenth century, were the following: Thomas 
I>urroiighs, Walter Thong, Benjamin Faneuil, Thomas Da- 
venport, Cornelius Lodge, Charles Lodwick, Isaac I)c 
Peyster, Rip Van Dam, Lawrence Reade, Elias Boudinot, 
Philip French, Abraham De Peyster, David Provoost, jr., 
NichoLas Bayard, Stephen Delancry, Richard Willet, Peter 
Van Brugh, Brandt Schuyler, Augustus Jay, George 
Banckor, Thomas Noell, Adrian Hooghland, John Choi- 
well, Benjamin Blagrave, Frederick Philipsc, Robert 
Walters, Ebenezer Wilson, David De Robles, Wm. ]\[orris, 
John Van Home, Abraham Wendell. Garret Van Home, 
Matthew Ling, John Theobalds, Abraham Van Home. 



220 



PRIVATEERING. 



Isaac De Riemer, Stephen Jamaine, 0. Van Cortland, 
Gabriel Minvielle, John Morris, Paul Droilhet, Daniel 
Cromelinc, Caleb Cooper, Edward Antill, Thomas Roberts, 
Bartholomew Fuert, Matthew Clarkson, Win. Bradford, 
(books,) Henry Jordan, Samuel Bayard, John'Corbett, John 
Provoost, Daniel Plowman, Charles Woolley, William 
Peartree, Jacob Van Cortland, John Lewis, Claes Evert- 
sen, Robert Hooper, C. De Peyster, Samuel Rodman, 
Jacob Morris, John Morris, Robert Lurting, John Tudor, 
jr., Gerrit Onclebagh, William Smith, William Bickley, 
John Cruger, Derrick Wcssells, Isaac Gouverneur. 

With respect to the shipping interests and maritime 
affairs of the city at this period, the repeal of the bolting 
act in 1694, which has been referred to in a previous 
chapter, was a serious blow to New York, as many of the 
established houses in the city suspended their shipping 
traffic, and a number of persons of the maritime profession 
were thrown out of employment. The occurrence, how-" 
ever, of the war with Prance afforded an opening for the 
employment of vessels and men in privateering, which 
became among the most profitable risks on the ocean in 
that day. 

The public countenance given to privateering, and the 
adventurous character of these expeditions, had a tenden- 
cy to encourage licentiousness in the followers of the sea- 
faring life. Many of those who engaged in privateering, 
when their expeditions proved fruitless were not disinclined 
to prey upon friendly vessels, and thus to engage in piracy; 
and it is not without considerable proof that several of the 
highest functionaries in the government in New York 
countenanced these lawless characters, and shared in the 
spoils of their depredations. 



SLAVE TRADE. 



221 



Another species of maritime adveiiUire, then engaged in 
by several of our most respectable merchants and capitalists, 
was the slave trade. Slaves had been held in this city 
from the earliest period of the Dutch settlement; and it is 
said that the lirst importation of negroes in America was 
by a Dutch vessel, which brought them from the African 
coast and sold them in Virginia. This trade was facili- 
tated by the Dutch possessions on the coast of Guinea, 
where they were easily procured from the African kings 
for a small consideration. This trade, in the time of the 
Dutch, appears to have been carried on by transient 
traders, and to have constituted no part of the business of 
resident inhabitants of this city. The visits of slave ships, 
however, in search of a market, were of frequent occur- 
rence from an early period, and many of the inhabitants 
were in this manner provided with domestic servants and 
farm lal)orevs. The Guinea negroes, when first imported, 
were of less value than those born in this country, from 
the risks attending acclimation, and the necessity of tu- 
toring them in the language and customs of the country. 
And not unfrequcntly, their first change, from the confined 
quarters of a slave ship to the novel scenes of their new 
homes, were of a fatal effect upon their health. In 1055, 
the cargo of the " White Horse" was sold in this city, and 
the stock of negroes being sold at auction, several were 
found to have been infected with some fatal disorder. The 
first instance observed of this character, was that of a girl 
bought by Nicholas Boot. While being led home, along 
the road, on the shore of the East river, she fell, opposite 
Litschoe's tavern, crying " Ariba;" she was taken up, and 
proceeding a few paces further, again fell, her eyes being 
fixed in her head. Her owner coming up, asked what was 



009 



SLAVE TRADE. 



the matter? Upon wliicli, she cried, " moa, moa;" some 
of the by-stauders said, " she is drunk, it will soon pass 
away ; she is sound at heart." At the city gate she was 
put in a wagon, and taken to her master's house, but died 
in the evening. 

In after years, as has been stated, the slave traffic be- 
came a prominent branch of the shipping trade out of this 
port. The journal of a young man (afterward mayor of 
this city,) sent out as supercargo and agent of merchants 
in this ciiy, is interesting from its detail of the manner of 
conducting this traffic, as well as the mishaps to this par- 
ticular adventure. The MS. is copied as follows : 

An Account of a Voyage to Madagascar in the skip " Prophet Daniel," 
Henry Appel, Commander. 

On the 15th of July, 1698, we weighed anchor, bound for the island 
of Don Mascourena. 

3d October. We found ourselves under the island of St. Thomas, and 
went in to water and to clean the ship. 

4f/i October. Captain Appel came on board and told me he would not 
go on board again before certain of the people were out of the ship, and 
that I must find money to pay their wages ; so that I was forced to sell 
some rigging for such use, before Captain Appel would come on board. 
He left one man at this place called Whiler, a very troublesome fellow. 

1th October. Sailed from St. Thomas. 

20th February, 1699. The captain and mates judged themselves to 
leeward of the island Don Mascourena. 

Sunday, 13th. July. We arrived at Mattatana, (whither we had been 
obliged to turn our course,) and I went on shore to trade for negroes, but 
the harbor proving bad we were forced to remove from that place ; I 
having purchased fifty slaves at St. Mattatana. 

24th Augiist. Arrived at Fort Dolphin. 

24:th August. I acquainted Mr. Abraham Samuel, the king of that 
place, of my arrival, and came with him to a trade. 

12th September. I went with Mr. Samuel twenty-five miles up in the 
country, and on the second day after, I got the miserable news that our 
ship was taken Ijy a vessel that came into the harbor the night before ; 



SLAVE TRADE. 



223 



whereupon I mad(! all the liaste down I could. We got some of the sub- 
jects of Mr. Hamuel to assist us, and fired upon the pirate for two days, 
but could do no g'ood ; then I hired two men to swim off in the night to 
cut their cables, but Mr. Samuel charged his men not to meddle with them, 
(as I was informed) said Samuel having got a letter from on board the 
pirate, in which I suppose they made great promises, so that he forbid 
us, on our lives, to meddle with any of the said pirates. It appears that 
the manner in which they took us was as follows : When their ship 
came to an anchor in the harbor, they desired our boat to give them a 
cast on shore, tiiey having lost their boat, and pretended to be a merchant 
ship, and had about fifty negroes on board. At night the captain of the 
pirate desired that our boat might give him a cast on board of his ship, 
which was done ; and coming on board he desired the men to drink with 
him ; and when our men were going on board their ship again, he stopped 
them by violence ; and at about nine o'clock at night they manned the 
boat and took our ship, and presently cari'ied away all the money that 
was on board, rigging, and other things that they had occasion for, and 
then gave the ship, and negroes, and other things that were on board, to 
Mr. Samuel. The name of the pirate captain was Evan Jones ; the 
others were, 'Robert Moore, master ; John Dodd, quarter-master ; John 
Spratt, boatswain ; Thomas Cullins, llobin Hunt, from Westchester, 
New York, and othci's. Mr. Abraham Samuel took likewise away from 
me twenty-two casks of powder and forty-nine small arms ; likewise all 
the sails belonging to the " Prophet," which were on shore, and then sold 
the ship again to Isaac Ruff, Thomas AVells, Edmund Conklin and Ed- 
ward Woodman, as it was reported, for fourteen hundred pieces of eight. 
The purchasers designed to go from Fort Dolphin to the island of Don 
Mascourena, thence to Mattaf ana, upon Madagascar, and so for America. 
Captain Henry Appel, Jacobus Meencn and Isaac Lowrens went along 
with them. Some days after there arrived at Fort Dolphin a small pinke, 
called the Vine, Thomas Warrent, master, from London, which took in 
slaves at Fort Dolphin, and was bound for Barbadoes, in which I took 
my passage, and was forced to pay for the .same sixty-six pieces of 
eight, and two slaves. 

Saturday, 18th November, 1699. I departed from Fort Dolphin, witli 
four of the people that belonged to the " Prophet Daniel," in the afore- 
said pinke Vine, for Barbadoes, leaving on shore, of the ship's company 
only a mulatto boy, called Gabriel. 

22d December. We arrived at the Cape of Good Hope, where the 



224 



RIDD S PIRACY. 



vessel took in water and provisions, and departed on the IGth January 
following. 

Februari/ 2d, 1700. We arrived at St. Helena, and departed on the 
eighth of the same month. 

February Vuh. We arrived at the island of Ascension, got turtle and 
fish, and departed on the following day. 

March 2Uh. We arrived at Barbadoes. 

April \1th. Departed fi-ora Barbadoes, in the pinke " Blossom," Robert 
Parkins, commander, bound for New York. 

Mat] llth; 1700. I arrived in New York ; and that I may not be cen- 
sured an ill man, and it may not be thought that I have saved any thing 
that belongs to the owners of said ship, I do declare, that I have not, di- 
rectly or indirectly, saved any thing that belongs to them, nor wronged 
them of the value of a farthing, but on the contrary have done all possi- 
ble to serve their interest that I could. 
Signed, &c. 

The slave trade, being a legitimate pursuit, and followed 
as a regular branch of foreign trade, for many years, both 
previous and subsequent to the period now referred to, 
was exceedingly profitable, though somewhat hazardous, 
owing to piratical adventurers, who followed them into 
their remote trading places, and often, as in the instance 
above related, robbed them of their stores and money used 
in the purchase of the negroes. This practice became so 
great a pest to the mercantile interests, that efforts were 
made by influential merchants of New York to induce the 
English ministry to assist them in fitting out a cruising 
vessel, properly armed, to act against the pirates. Col. 
Robert Livingston, of New York, an active and influential 
citizen, brought this matter before the English govern- 
ment ; and introduced Captain William Kidd, of New 
York, as an efficient and well-known commander, whose 
fitness for such service was well understood in New York. 
He was a man of family, and had resided in this city for 
several years. It was proposed io engage in this enter- 



KIDD .S PIRACY. 



225 



prise on the footing of a private adventure, although it 
was also desirable, for some purposes, that the scheme 
should receive the official countenance of the government. 
The King, Lord Somers, the Earl of Romney, the Duke of 
Shrewsbury, the Earl of Oxford and Lord Bellamont, 
joined in making up the necessary expense of a propoi- 
vessel ; Col. Livingston also contributing a proi)ortion. 
The profits were to be divided among the owners of the 
ship, allowing a liberal share to Kidd. A commission was 
issued, December 11, 1695, under the great seal of England, 
directed " to the trusty and well-beloved Captain William 
Kidd, commander of the ship Adventure Galley." He set 
sail from Plymouth, in April, 1696, and arrived on the 
American coast, where he continued for some time, occa- 
sionally entering the harbor of New York, and visiting 
his family in- the city. He was considered useful in pro- 
tecting our commerce, for which he received much ap- 
plause, and the assembly of the province voted him the 
sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, as a complimentary 
return for his services. 

Soon after this he left this vicinity for more active ope- 
rations on the cost of Africa, and it was not long ere the 
astounding news arrived that Kidd had commenced the 
trade which he had been engaged to subvert, and had com- 
mitted several piracies. The report of these facts coming 
to the public knowledge in England, the circumstance was 
made the subject of a violent attack upom the government 
by the opposition party, and in the excess of party zeal, it 
was alleged that the king himself, and those concerned in 
the expedition, were privy to the piratical adventure, and 
sharers in its profits. This charge having some color ot 
foundation, from the actual circumstances of the case, 
15 



226 



KIDD S PIRACY. 



made the question a subject of State inquiry; and thus the 
name of Kidd, though perhaps personally less obnoxious 
to the odious characteristics of his profession than many 
others in history, became, from its association with a parti- 
san warfare, between the great men of the state, the most 
famous among the pirates of the world. The noblemen 
engaged in the enterprise underwent the form of a trial 
for their lives, but were acquitted. 

The principal scenes of Kidd's piracies were on the 
eastern coast of Africa, at Madagascar and the vicinity; 
where he captured and rifled several vessels, without, how- 
ever, so far as we have been informed by history, commit- 
ting extreme cruelties upon his captives. The only person 
proven to have been killed by him, being a seaman of his 
own, named William Moore, whom he accidentally slew, 
by hitting him with a bucket, for insubordination. Kidd 
having amassed a fortune by this cruise, shaped his course 
homeward, seeming, with a strange fatuity, to have supposed 
that no information of his depredations in those remote 
parts of the world had reached the scenes of his home. He 
brought his vessel into Long Island Sound, in the year 
1699; and went ashore at Gardiner's Island, then owned 
and occupied by Mr. John Gardiner, to whom, from some 
undiscoverable motive, he made known his desire to bury 
a quantity of treasure on the island, and did accordingly 
deposit in the ground a considerable quantity of gold, 
silver, and precious stones, in the presence of Mr. Gardi- 
ner; but under strict injunctions of secrecy. This deposit 
consisted of eleven hundred and eleven ounces of coined 
gold, two thousand three hundred and fifty ounces of silver, 
seventeen ounces of jewels and precious stones, sixty-nine 
precious stones, fifty-seven bags of sugar, forty-one bales 




# 



kidd's piracy. 22 i 

of merchandise, seventeen pieces of canvas, one large load- 
stone, &c. Having thus disburdened his ship, he departed 
for Boston, with the design, it is supposed, of selling his 
vessel. While there, however, he was recognized in the 
street, and apprehended. He was sent to England for 
trial, and indicted for the murder of William Moore, 
before spoken of; and, being convicted, Avas hanged in 
chains, at Execution Dock, May 12, 1701. The Avife of 
Kidd continued her residence in this city after his death: 
herself and daughter living in seclusion in a habitation on 
the east side of the town. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

BIOGRAPIIICAI. SKETCHES OF PROMINENT MEN IN THIS CITY, TOWARD THE 
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 

William Atwood, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, in 
the time of Governor Bellamont, resided in this city but a 
short period; after the death of that nobleman, he presided 
at the trial of Nicholas Bayard, for treason, and exhibited 
the strongest prejudice against the accused, who was con- 
victed. The party of Mr. Bayard coming into power 
shortly afterward, Atwood fled the country, to escape the 
retaliating power of his political adversaries. 

JYicholas Bayard came to this city while a youth, soon 
after the arrival of Governor Stuyvesant, of whose wife 
he was a relative. In 1665, he was appointed clerk of the 
Court of Mayor and Aldermen, and kept the minutes in 
both the Dutch and English, being conversant with both 
these languages. He afterward engaged in business as a 
brewer and merchant, establishing his residence on the 
present north side of Stone street, near Hanover square. 

Mr. Bayard was an active politician, and soon rose 
to the highest offices in the province. In the time of 
Leisler's movement against the government of Dongan, 
Mr. Bayard was a member of the Governor's Council, and 
took the most conspicuous part in opposition to Leislei 



BIOGRAIMIICAL SKETCHES. 229 

and the revolutionists. He was banished the province 
among other of his adherents; but ventured, for the pur- 
pose of securing certain documents of 'importance to his 
party, to return secretly to the city, where his presence be- 
coming known, search was made for him at his own house; 
he however, made his escape, and fled to a friendly neigh- 
bor's, whither he was pursued and taken. He was held for 
treasonable acts, and lay open to a trial for his life; but 
suing for his pardon, the prosecution \yas suspended; he 
was still, however, held in confinement for more than a 
year. Upon the overthrow of Leisler, Bayard was rein- 
stated in all his former honors; and now, in turn, urged 
the prosecution of Leisler with the greatest energy. His 
counsels, with those of others, succeeded in bringing Leisler 
to the scaffold. About ten years subsequently, (1702,) the 
Leislerian party being again in power. Bayard was tried 
under an act of the province, for treasonable designs, in 
late proceedings, and was condemned to death. An oppor- 
tune change in the state of the political powers of the 
government occurred, how^evcr, and he was released from 
imprisonment, and his condemnation annulled. 

Mr. Bayard died in the year 1711, leaving his widow, 
Judy, surviving. His son Samuel, inherited his large 
property. 

Balthazar Bayard. Mr. Bayard soon after his arrival 
in this city married a daughter of Govert Loocker- 
mans, a wealthy merchant. He soon after engaged in the 
business of brewing, in which vocation he continued for a 
number of years, and acquired a large property. He sub 
sccjucntly established his residence on the west side of 
Broadway, opposite the present Bowling Green. He wa.--; 
an alderman at one period. 



230 



BI0GRA?1IIC.\L SKETCHES. 



Jacob Boelen, a merchant, residing on the west side of 
Broadway, above Liberty street, represented the North 
Ward several years, as alderman. 

Anthony Broclcholst, a captain in the army, and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of his majesty's forces in New York, 
established his residence in this city, with his family, about 
the year 1680, on the present Stone street, betwen White- 
hall and Broad ,-treets. He soon after engaged in the 
mercantile trade, and his family became connected, by 
marriage, with the principal families of the province. 

John Hendrick Bruyn. Mr. Bruyn was a merchant, re- 
siding in one of the best houses in town, on the present 
north side of Pearl street, between Whitehall and Broad 
streets. He was alderman for several years. 

Martin Clock, was a son of Abraham Clock, one of the 
early Dutch settlers. Mr. Clock occupied, for a time, the 
ancient homestead of his family, on the present north-west 
corner of Pearl street and Hanover square. He was by 
trade a cooper. He subsequently retired from business 
and removed to a farm on this island, and for some years 
represented the Out Ward in the Common Council. 

Thomas Coker, represented the West Ward for a short 
period in the Common Council. His residence was the 
present No. 1 Broadway, corner of Battery place. 

Abraham Corbett, a distiller, purchased, in 1680, for 
sixty pounds sterling, a house and lot on the east side of 
Broadway, two or three doors south of Exchange pl^ce, 
which he gave to his son John. Afterward, in 1685, John 
executed a life lease of same to his father and mother. Here 
Mr. Corbett erected a fine tavern, to which the name of 
the " Royal Oak " was given, and he employed himself in 
its superintendence. He represented his ward, at one period, 
in the Common Council. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKKTCIIKS. 



231 



William Cox, a flour inercliant of considerable property, 
resided in the neighborhood of Hanover square. He had 
previously resided on Saw-mill Creek, on the East river 
side of the island, where he had purchased a considerable 
property, with a grist-mill and farm. He represented the 
Out Ward, as alderman, in 1G83. Mr. Cox died in lOSlL 

Tunis De Kay. This citizen was a son of one of the 
old settlers. He married Helena, a daughter of Johannes 
Van Brugh, an eminent merchant of this city. He estab- 
lished himself in the mercantile business on the west side 
of the present Broad street, above Beaver street, Avhere his 
father had formerly owned a considerable property. 

Stephen Delancey, a French Huguenot of Caen, in Nor- 
mandy, emigrated to this country in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century, and afterward engaged in mercantile 
pursuits in this city. He married, in the year 1700, Anne 
Van Cortland. He was a prominent man in public affairs, 
and acquired considerable wealth. His place of business 
was that formerly occupied by Stephanus Van Cortland 
on the present north-cast corner of Broad and Pearl streets. 
In the latter years of his life, Mr. Delancey resided on the 
west side of Broadway, a short distance above Trinity 
Church, in one of the finest mansions in the city. He died 
about the year 1735, leaving several children. His son, 
James, was one of the most eminent men of his time, being 
at one period in executive charge of the province. His 
son, Oliver, a loyalist in the time of the revolution, was 
made a brigadier general in the British arni}'. He repre- 
sented his ward, for some time, in the Common Council. 

Peter Delanoy, mayor in 1(388, 9, was a merchant, who 
came to this city from Holland, about the year 1G51. He 
was an active adherent of Leisler, and was elected mayor 



282 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



by the popular suffrage, being tlie first person chosen to 
that office by the people. 

Thomas Delavall, mayor in 1666-71-78, became first 
known as a resident here after the capture by the English 
in 1061. He was then a captain in the English service, 
and held a command under Colonel Nichols; but it would 
seem that he had been before that time in America, as wu 
find some transactions of his which took place prior to 
the year 1664. Captain Delavall immediately after the 
surrender of the place to the English, took a prominent 
part in the administration of public affairs. He purchased 
a farm at Harlem, and also a residence in the city on the 
present south-east corner of Broad street and Exchange 
place, his premises embracing an orchard and large gar- 
den. Captain Delavall visited England in 1699, where he 
had a conference with the Duke of York, who sent by him 
to the mayor and aldermen a mace of the mayoralty office, 
and gowns for the aldermen. Ho died in this city in the 
year 1682, leaving a considerable estate. His son John 
Delavall and several daughters (married to eminent mer- 
chants of this city,) succeeded to his property. 

Johannes De Peyster, mayor in 1698, was the son of an 
eminent merchant of the same name, who had been among 
the earliest and most prominent citizens in the time of the 
Dutch. The subject of this sketch married a daughter 
of Gerrit Bancker, of Albany. He died about the year 1719. 

Abraham De Peyster, mayor in 1691, 2, 3, was also a son 
of Johannes De Peyster. The subject of this sketch was a 
prominent merchant and the owner of a large estate. His 
domestic establishment in 1703 consisted of seven whites, 
and nine black slaves. Colonel De Peyster lived to an 
advanced age in this city. 



BIOGRAPUIOAL SKKTCIIK9. 



233 



Isaac De Riemer, Mayor in 1700, was a merchant and a 
member of an old family of this city. He marne^T.a 
daughter of William Teller, a wealthy merchant, formerly 
residing' in Albany. 

William DervalL mayor in 1G75, was originally a Boston 
merchant, who had been somewhat interested in the trade 
with New Amsterdam, and about the year 1G6T, removed 
here and engaged in trade. His brother John accompa- 
nied him, and they set up a store, principally of dry goods. 
William married a daughter of Thomas Delavall, (a 
wealthy citizen who had been mayor of New York) and 
occupied a fine residence near the present corner of White- 
hall and State streets. 

Rev. Gualterius {Walter) Dubois. This gentleman, who 
was installed a pastor of the Reformed Dutch Church in 
this city, in October, 1G99, was born in the year 1671, at 
Street-kerf in Holland; his father, Domino Petrus Dubois, 
being then pastor of the church at that place. The sub- 
ject of this sketch Avas educated at the University of Ley- 
den, and passed his examination before the Classis of 
Amsterdam in 1607, soon after which he received a call to 
this city. He served faithfully in his pastoral duties in 
this city for upward of fifty years. He preached for the 
last time on the afternoon of 29th September, 17-51. After 
service he returned home, and was seized Avith illness in 
his study, whicli ])rought him to his sick chamber, where 
he languished until Tuesday of the following Aveek, wlien 
he expired, having attained the age of about eighty years. 
He was succeeded in his i;ninistry by the Kev. Lambert u^ 
De Rondo. 

William Dyre, mayor in 1680, was at an early period a 
resident of one of the New England colonies, enffaffed in 



234 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

mercantile pursuits. In the year 1653, at a time of hostili- 
ties between England and Holland, Rhode Island fitted 
out an expedition against New Amsterdam, which was 
placed under the command of Captain John Underhill and 
William Dyre; the former having direction of the land 
forces, and the latter of the ships. This expedition, how- 
ever, faih^l in its object, the forces never approaching the 
capital of the Dutch province. Upon the final accession 
of the English authority in this city, in 1674, Captain Dyre 
established his residence here, and held the office of col- 
lector of customs. He purchased several acres on the 
easterly side of Broadway, between Maiden lane and Wall 
street, and resided there during his stay in the city. He 
subsequently sold the property to Mr. Lloyd, of Philadel- 
phia, who realized a profitable increase from the rise of 
the property in value. Mr. Dyre removed from this city 
to Jamaica (W. I,) where he died about the year 1685. 

James Emoft, a lawyer of eminence, resided on the east 
side of Broadway, above Wall street. He was distin- 
guished in the state trials of that era. 

Philip French, a merchant, residing on the east side of 
Broad street, near the present Exchange place, was origin- 
ally from Kelshall, Suflolk county, England, where his 
family were extensive landholders. He married, in this 
city, Anneken, daughter of Frederick Philipse. Mr. French 
was a prominent politician, and held a high social position 
in this city. He died in the year 1707, leaving three 
daughters; his name, therefore, has not been perpetuated 
among his descendants. 

Abraham Gouverneur was descended of a Dutch family in 
this city. He was clerk of the city council for some time, 
and afterward engaged in business as a merchant. He 



BIOGKAi'llICAI- SKKTCHES. 



235 



married, in the year 1699, Mary, the widow of Jacob Mil- 
born, and daughter of Jacob Lcisler. Mr. Gouverneur 
subsequently engaged prominently in public life, and was 
conspicuous among the friends of the Leisleriau party. 

John Har pending, although never in public life, was a 
well-known and highly esteemed citizen. lie acquired a 
respectable fortune by industrious application to his busi- 
ness of tanner and shoemaker; in 1670 he resided in High 
street, on the present Stone street, east of Broad street. 
His probity and high moral principle was in such high 
esteem that he was frequently appointed, by some of the 
wealthiest inhabitants, as executor of their estates, and in 
the affairs of the Dutch Church he always enjoyed a prom- 
inent position. Mr. Harpending, in conjunction with five 
other persons of his own trade, purchased a tract of sev- 
eral acres, east of Broadway and north of Maiden lane, 
for many years known as the Shoemaker's Pasture. This 
property was divided in the year 1695, and a large number 
of lots fell to his share; out of this he bestowed on the 
Dutch Church the ground upon which the present " North 
Dutch Church," on William and Fulton streets, is situated. 
The present John street, it is said, was so named in com 
pliment to Mr. Harpending. He died in this city, at an 
advanced age. 

James Graham was an alderman in 1680 and '81. In 
1683 he was appointed recorder, and was the first who held 
that office; he afterward was appointed attorney-general 
of this province. His subsequent career in public life was 
of the most prominent character, having filled several high 
legislative stations in this city and province. Mr. Gra- 
ham's residence in this city was on the east side of Broad- 
way, south of Exchange place. He removed, in the later 



li-J'O 13I0GRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

\ 

years of liis life, to the estate of Mr. Morris, at Morrisa- 
uia, which he took on lease, and where he dispensed his 
hospitalities on a munificent scale; he died in the year 
1701, leaving six children. A singular incident occurred 
in the year 1682, putting the life of Mr. Graham in immi- 
nent jeopardy. From the evidence it appeared that Graham 
had often expressed his desire to cultivate an acquaintance 
with Captain Baxter, an English officer, recently arrived, 
in commission; and a party of several friends, including 
Graham and Baxter, met to spend a social afternoon at 
the public house of Dirck Van Clyflf, in " the Orchard," 
(near the present John and Cliff streets.) About nine 
o'clock in the evening, the company being about to dis- 
perse, Graham paid the reckoning, and was called aside by 
Baxter, a little from the company, but in their sight. The 
persons present saw Baxter seemingly kiss Graham, when 
the latter immediately called out that he was stabbed. 
The wound was under the collar bone, about four inches 
deep. Baxter was bound over to await his trial in case 
of Graham's death, but the wound did not prove to be 
mortal. 

George Heathcote, born in Middlesex county, England, 
came to this country as captain of a merchant ship, about 
the year 1678. He purchased the seat of Mr. Heermans, 
one of the early Dutch merchants, on the present west side 
of Pearl street, the present Pine street running through 
the propci-ty, which embraced extensive grounds. He 
established himself in mercantile trade, on a large scale, 
l)rincipally with the West Indies, where he at times 
resided. He acquired a large property, and being a bach- 
elor, invited his nephew, Caleb Heathcote, to take up his 
residence in this country; and upon his death, at his last 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKKTCIIES. 



2o7 



residence in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, in 1710, be- 
(lueathed his large property to his nephew, who became 
one of the most considerable men in the province. 

John Hutchins kept the tavern, afterward the site of the 
City Hotel, in Broadway, corner of Thames street. His 
house was the head-quarters of the party opposed to 
Leisler and his friends, and Mr. Hutchins was a conspicu- 
ous member of that party. He represented his ward for 
several years, as alderman. Having become, in the year 
1702, implicated with Colonel Bayard, in getting up certain 
addresses of libelous character, upon the existing govern- 
ment, a state prosecution was instituted against them. 
and, upon conviction, they were sentenced to death, lie 
was, however, released on bail, and subsequently, with the 
change of parties in power, the judgment was annulled. 

John Inyan, a merchant of high standing, resided neai- 
the present north-east corner of Whitehall and Bridge 
streets, in a brick building of a good class. He held the 
office of alderman of the Dock Ward in 1G83, and had 
previously been a prominent man in public life. He left 
the city soon after the year above-mentioned. 

Jacob Kip, a son of Hendrick Kip, one of the early in- 
habitants in the time of the Dutch, was the first secretary 
of the Court of Burgomasters and Schepens; resigning 
this place, he engaged in the brewing business. He mar- 
ried the widow of Guleyn Verplanck. His residence was 
in Broad street, near the present Exchange place. 

Thomas Lewis, a mariner in early life, established his 
residence in this city, soon after the surrender to the Eng- 
lish. In 1668 he purchased of Burgher Joris, his property 
on the present north-east corner of Hanover square and 
William street, about forty feet front, on Hanover square, 



288 



BIOGRAPIIICAI, SKETCHES. 



and one hundred and forty feet in depth. He established 
himself in the mercantile business at that place, and resided 
there until his death. Mr. Lewis was a man of property, 
and in good esteem; he held the office of alderman for 
several years. He died in the year 1684, leaving a widow 
and five children. One of his sons, (Thomas) married, in 
1094, a daughter of Mrs. Lcisler. 

Charles Lodoioyck, mayor in 1694, was a merchant in 
good standing. Being one of the militia captains in this 
city at the time of Leisler's revolution, he took a conspicu- 
ous part in that movement; he subsequently was lieutenant- 
colonel of the New York Regiment. xMr. Lodowick 
removed, toward the close of his life, to England, where 
he died. 

James Matthews, a merchant of English birth, estab- 
lished himself in business on the present north-westerly 
corner of Broad and Pearl streets, and acquired a consid- 
erable property. He died in the year 1686. 

William Merritt, mayor in 1695, 6. T, came to this city 
about the year 1671, as a ship captain. He established 
himself in the trade of a merchant. He was elected to 
the common council for several years, and subsequently to 
the office of Mayor. 

Gabriel Minvielle, mayor in 1684, was a Frenchman by 
descent, but lived in early life in Amsterdam, Holland; in 
the year 1669 he established himself as a merchant in this 
city, and carried on an extensive foreign trade. He mar- 
ried Susannah, a daughter of John Lawrence, a wealthy 
merchant, and fixed his residence on the west side of 
Broadway, in a fine mansion near the Bowling Green. 
Ml'. Minvielle died in 1702, leaving no children: and his 
family and name thus became extinct in this city. 



BIOGRAFHIC.U, SKETCHES. 



239 



Leivis Morris, a wealthy merchant, who established his 
residence in this city in the year 1674, was an Englishman 
by birth, but had resided for some years in the West 
Indies. Plis only brother, Richard, had resided in this 
city for several years engaged in trade, and had purchased 
the estate of Morrisania, in Westchester county, and 
acquired other extensive interests. His death, leaving an 
in infant child (Lewis, afterward governor of New Jersey.) 
occasioned the visit of his brother to this city, and his sub- 
sequent permanent establishment here. The sul)ject of 
this sketch, commonly called Colonel Morris, resided on 
the south side of Bridge street, next to the corner of 
the present Whitehall street. He died in the spring of 
1691. 

Matthias Jficoll, mayor in 1072, was descended of an 
ancient and honorable family at Islippe, Northampton- 
shire, England, and was by profession a lawyer. After 
the capture of this city in 1664, he took a prominent part 
in public ajBfairs, and was appointed secretary of the prov- 
ince, being the first who held that office under the English; 
he was also appointed to preside with the justices of the 
different ridings in the Court of Sessions. In 1672 he was 
appointed, by the governor, to the office of mayor, which 
he held for one year. In 1683 he was appointed one of the 
justices of the Supreme Court, in which capacity he offici- 
ated, for the last time, in Queens county, September 12th, 
1687. He died at his residence on Cow Neck, Long 
Island, December 22d, 1687, where his wife, Al)igail, is also 
buried. One of the sons of Mayor Nicoll, William, was 
bred to the bar, and became one of the leading citizens 
of his time in this city. The descendants of the family 
are numerous on Lone: Island. 



240 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Sucrt Olplierts. This citizen was by trade a mason. He 
had acquired a considerable property by his business, and 
resided on the east side of Broadway, second door below 
Exchange place. He represented his ward in the common 
council, and was a prominent man in public life. At an 
advanced age (1697) he married the venerable widow of 
Cornelius Clopper, who had formerly resided on the corner 
of Pearl street and Maiden lane. This lady died within 
two or three years. 

William Peartree, a merchant of this city, had formerly 
resided in Jamaica. He acquired a large estate in this 
province, and held the office of mayor in 1703, 4, 5 and 6. 
He resided on the north side of Beaver street, between 
Xew street and Broadway. Colonel Peartree died in the 
year 1714, leaving no male descendants. His daughter, 
Frances, married William Smith, an eminent merchant of 
this city, and was the mother of William Smith, Esq., the 
historian of New York. 

William Pinhorne, a merchant of good education and 
property, established himself in this city after the surren- 
der by the Dutch, and acquired a large estate. His name 
is conspicuous among the opponents of Leisler and his 
party, and he is shown to have been among the most active 
political characters of his time. In the year 1691 Mr. 
Pinhorne was appointed recorder of this city, and in sub- 
sequent years was a member of the governor's council, and 
held other distinguished public stations. 

David Provoost, mayor in 1699, was a son of David Pro- 
voost, one of the earliest settlers in this city (some account 
of whom is given on a former page.) The subject of this 
sketch commenced trade as a merchant, about the year 
1666. He married a daughter of Johannes Depeyster, an 



BI00RAJ'I1ICA[- SKETCHES. 



241 



eminent niei'chant, and for many years held a conspicuous 
position among his fellow citizens. 

John Robinson, a merchant of large estate, established 
himself in this city after the surrender to the English. 
About the year 1080 he purchased thirty-eight and a quar- 
ter acres of land on a stream then called Saw-mill Creek, 
on this island, emptying into the East river; the mill dam 
at this place threw the water back about fifteen hundred 
feet, and gave an ample supply of water. He here erected 
a grist-mill, and became a large dealer in flour, the expor- 
tation of which was then monopolized by the inhabitants 
of Xew York. The place of business of Mr. Robinson, in 
this city, was in the Smith's Valley, or the present Pearl 
street, above Wall. He held the office of alderman for 
some time. 

Francois Rombouts, mayor in 1670, was a Frenchman by 
birth, but his parents having emigrated to Holland, Mr. 
Rombouts, in the year 1654, being then a merchant's clerk, 
was sent to this country on a commercial expedition. He 
met here with some misfortunes, which prevented his 
return, and he established himself in business as a mer- 
clmnt in this city. In the year 1658, he enrolled himself 
among the burghers or citizens, as he had then already 
been a resident here for several years. His trading ope- 
rations as a merchant soon became extensive. He married 
in the city, and fixed his residence on the west side of 
Broadway, below Rector street, his ground there embrac- 
ing a large garden and orchard. Mr. Rombouts died in 
1691, leaving one child, a daughter. His name thus be- 
came extinct among his descendants. 

Lucas Santen, came to this city in 1684, with a com^ 
mission as collector of the port. He died here in 1692. 
16 



242 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



Brandt Schuyler, a sou of one of tlic early settlers of 
that name, established himself in mercantile business on 
the corner of the present Stone and Broad streets. He 
was connected with the wealthy families of that day, and 
occupied a prominent position among his fellow-citizens. 
He was elected alderman of the South Ward in the year 
1691, and for several years following. 

William Smith, a merchant, established himself in this 
city about the year 1690, and married Francis, a daughter 
of Colonel William Peartree. His dwelling was situated 
on the west side of Broadway, opposite the Bowling Green. 
He occupied several prominent official stations in the 
province, among others that of a member of the provincial 
council. 

Samuel Staats, a physician, was descended of an old 
Dutch family, originally settled at Albany. Doctor Staats 
was conspicuous in the times of the so-called rebellion, as 
a friend of Leisler. He held a prominent position in pub- 
lic life at that time, and subsequently was a member of the 
provincial council. 

JYicholas William Stuyvesant, a son of the Dutch director, 
Petrus Stuyvesant, was born in this city in the year 1648. 
He married, first, Maria, daughter of William Bcekman ; 
second, Elizabeth Slechtenhorst. by whom he had two sons 
and one daughter. After the death of Governor Stuyve- 
sant, in 1671, the subject of this sketch resided on the 
estate of his late father, on the Bowery road, and upon the 
death of his mother in 1684, he came into the inheritance 
of a large estate. Mr. Stuyvesant represented his ward as 
an alderman in 1687, and was in other respects engaged in 
public life. He died in the year 1698, leaving his widow 
surviving and three children, Petrus, Gerardus and Anna. 



BIOORAPUICAI. SKETCHES. 243 

William Teller, a wealthy merchant, formerly residing 
at Albany, took up his residence in New York, in the later 
years of his life. He resided in the present William 
street, near Exchange place. Mr. Teller died about the 
year 1700. 

Cornelius Van Borsum, a merchant of considerable es- 
tate, residing on the north-westerly corner of the present 
Whitehall and Pearl streets, was a son of the ancient 
ferryman of that name, in the times of the Dutch. Mr. 
Van Borsum died in the year 1682, leaving his widow, 
Sarah, surviving, and several children. His widow died 
in the year 1693. This lady named Sarah was a step- 
daughter of Domine Bogardus. She mairied first. Doctor 
Kierstede of this city; secondly, Elbert Elbertsen, and 
thirdly, Cornelius Van Borsum. 

Stephanus Van Cortlandt, mayor in 1677-86-87, was a 
son of Oloff Stevenson Van Cortland, an ancient and con- 
spicuous citizen of the early Dutch times. Stephanus Van 
Cortland was the first mayor of this city born in America, 
the date of his birth in this city being 7th May, 1643. In 
1671 he, married Geertruyd Schuyler, of Albany, and en- 
gaged in mercantile trade on the line of the present Pearl 
street, near Broad, then facing the East river. His first 
appointment as mayor, was at the age of thirty-four years, 
and was a high compliment to his intelligence. After a 
life of business and political activity, Mr. Van Cortland 
died in the year 1701, at the age of fifty-eight years. His 
wife was then living, and also eleven children, viz., John. 
Margaret, (wife of Samuel Bayard) Ann, Olive, Mary, 
Philip, Stephanus, Gertrude, Elizabeth, Katherine and 
Cornelia. He left a large estate, amongst which was an 
extensive property south of the Highlands, afterward 



244 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



called Van Cortland Manor. This was composed of two 
extensive tracts, one known by the Indian name Meauag-h, 
consisting of the neck jutting into the river opposite Hav- 
erstraw, and another called Appamapagh, upon a creek 
more inland. 

Jacobus Van Cortland, the second son of the Dutch Bur- 
gomaster, Olofi" Stephenson Van Cortland, was an eminent 
merchant of this city. He was born in this city on the 
7th July, 1668, and married in 1691, Eva, daughter of the 
wealthy citizen Frederick Philipse. He was elected to 
represent the Dock Ward in the common council for seve- 
ral years, and subsequently (1710-1719) held the ofiice of 
mayor. He died in the year 1739. 

Rip Vail Dam, was descended, it is supposed, from 
Jacob Van Dam, who, was a prominent man in New 
Netherland in Governor Stuyvesant's time. The subject 
of this sketch engaged in mercantile pursuits in this 
city, some years , subsequent to the final cession of the 
country to the English, His business was prosperous, and 
he engaged in building vessels for his business purposes 
during several years. His launching place being in the 
rear of the present Trinity church-yard. In 1693 Mr. Van 
Dam entered public life as assistant alderman of the South 
ward, to which office he was several times re-elected. In 
the later years of his life Mr. Van Dam was for many years 
a member of the governor's council. In the year 1731. 
while holding a seat in the council, and being then the 
oldest member, the governor (Montgomerie) died, and Mr. 
Van Dam, in virtue of his position succeeded to the office. 
and administered the executive government for about one 
year, when his successor arrived from England. xV law- 
suit of an exciting character ensued between IMr. Van 



BIOORAPIIIOAL SKETCHES. 



24{ 



Dam and his successor, respecting the salary and perqui- 
sites of his late station; the whole provincial community 
taking sides with one or the other of the contestants. 
Mr. Van Dam resided in this city for several years subse- 
quent to this period. 

Guleyn Verplanck was a son of Abraham Yerplanck, one 
of the earliest inhabitants of this city. He served a 
mercantile clerkship with Allard Anthony, and subse- 
quently engaged in business. He married a daughter of 
Madam Wessells. Mr. Verplanck was an active man in 
public affairs. He held the office of schepen in 1674, and 
alderman in several successive years. He died in the 
year 1684. 

Isaac Van Vleck. This gentleman purchased a brewery 
at the upper end of the present Broad street, in 1670, for- 
merly belonging to Picter Wolfertsen A^an Couwenhoven, 
where he afterward resided until his death, and conducted 
a prosperous brewing business. He represented his ward 
during several years as alderman. Mr. Van VIcek died 
in the year 1695. 

William Vcsey, the first rector of Trinity Church, was 
invited hither from England, and preached his first sermon 
on Sunday, loth March, 1697. In March of the following 
year he married Mrs. Mary Reade, a widow, then residing 
in this city. Mr. Vcsey continued his service in the 
church for many years subsequent to this period; and died 
while still pastor in 1746. He was succeeded by the Rev. 
Mr. Barclay. 

Robert Walters, a merchant of this cit}^ married one of 
the daughters of Jacob Leisler, and was, although at this 
period a young man, an active participant in public affairs. 



246 



BIOGKAi'UICAL SKKTCIIES. 



He subsequently held the office of mayor, and member of 
the provincial council. 

Thomas Weaver, attorney-general of the province in the 
time of Governor Bellamont, resided in this country but 
a short time, having taken an active part against the anti- 
Leislerian party, he was compelled, upon the reinstate- 
ment of that faction in power, to fly from this province. 

Samuel Wilson, a merchant of great wealth, established 
himself in New York soon after the cession to the Eng- 
lish, his residence being on the south side of the present 
Wall street, near Pearl. Mr. Wilson was a prominent 
citizen, and active in public life. He died in the year 
1689, leaving a widow and two sons. 

Thomas Wiliett, mayor in 1665-7. Captain Willett, the 
first mayor of New York, was an Englishmau, who emigrat- 
ed to America with the pilgrims, and arrived at Plymouth 
in the year 1629. He soon after engaged in trade with 
the neighboring settlements, and was one of the pioneers 
of the carrying trade on the Sound, between this city 
(then New Amsterdam) and the English settlements. He is 
found to have acquired landed interests in this city as early 
as the year 1645, and probal.)ly had a temporary residence 
here at that period. In subsequent years, when questions 
of territorial boundary arose between the Dutch and their 
English neighbors, he was an efficient and active negotia- 
tor between the respective parties, as he had acquired a 
knowledge of the Dutch language from his constant inter- 
course with them. On the conquest of this city by Col. 
Nichols, in 1664, it was the policy of that officer to con- 
ciliate the Dutch inhabitants by the appointment of magis- 
trates as nearly as possible unobjectionable to the Dutch, 



\ 

iilOGlX.WmCAh SKETCUES. l!4"i 



Ibi- which purpose Captain Willott was chosen as the head 
of the magistracy. After his retirement from ofiice, hav- 
ing become advanced in age, he removed to his farm in 
Ilehoboth, now in the town of Seekonk, Bristol county, 
Mass., where he died August 4, 1674. 

Captain Willett married, July 6, 1636, Mary, a daughter 
of John Brown, of Plymouth, by whom he had the follow- 
ing children : Thomas, Hester, Eebecca, James, Andrew, 
Samuel and Hezekiah, the last of whom was murdered by 
the Indians, during Philip's War in 1676. Captain Willett 
left considerable property in the province of New York, 
and his son Thomas resided here, and became one of the 
leading citizens of his time. The ashes of Mayor Willett, 
lie buried in an humble grave-yard in the town of Seekonk, 
Mass., a place seldom visited by the footsteps of man; a 
plain monument marking the spot where his remains arc 
interred. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

PCIU.IC AFFAIRS FIJOM 1700 TO 1725. 

The divisions which had so greatly perturbed the cova- 
numity during the exciting administration of Leisler, had 
left their stamp upon the public mind so deeply that their 
influence can be distinctly traced during many subsequent 
years. 

During the administration of the Earl of Bellamont, 
the adherents of Leisler had been favored by the counte- 
nance of the government, and the rival party had conse- 
quently been powerless. By the death of that governor, 
however, a prospect of brighter fortunes was opened to 
the latter faction; and at the election for the city, in the 
fall of 1701, a severe contest took place for the supremacy 
in the city government. 

The common council was, at that time, composed of the 
mayor, recorder, six aldermen and six assistants. If the 
vote in the common council were equal, the mayor had a 
casting vote. Mr. Noell, the mayor elect, was an " anti- 
Leislcrian," while the recorder, Mr. Abraham Gouvcrneur, 
was a " Leislerian." The strife to gain a majority of the 
common council was severe, and the votes, in some of the 
wards, very close. There were six wards, and as the 
aldermen made the returns of the election, every alderman 




French I'mto-lanl Cluuli. iTcclcd in Ihe year ITOL in tlie present Pine .street 
near Nast^au street. 




<;oiiiitrv huii.=c near Kip's Vny. on tiie \'.:\<\ rivir. I'joeleil al dut tl'.e year IWU). 



COXTKSTED KI.Et'TIOS OF 1701. 2411 

returned the candidate of his own party elected. Three 
of these returns were undisputed, viz : 

Dock Ward — Philip French, alderman, and Robert Lur- 
tino;, assistant — " anti-Leislerian." 

Out Ward — Martin Clock, alderman, and Abraham 
Messier, assistant — '" Leislerian." 

J\^orth Ward — Jacob Boelen, alderman, and Gerrit Ou- 
clebag, assistant — " Leislerian." 

The aldermen of the other three wards, who were last 
year of the Leislerian party, and who had been candidates 
for re-election, returned themselves elected, viz : 

East Ward — Johannes Depeyster, alderman, and Abra- 
iiam Brazier, assistant. 

West Ward — David Provoost, alderman, and Peter AYil- 
iiams Roome, assistant. 

South Ward — Nicholas Roosevelt, alderman, and Hen- 
drick Jellison, assistant. 

It being apparent, from the close and perhaps doubtful 
nature of the vote, that the elections of these wards would 
l)e contested, and that the new mayor — who it was well 
known would be of the opposite faction — would refuse to 
swear in the members according to the returns, they 
departed from the usual course, and all the Leislerians 
])rocured themselves -to be sworn in by the retiring mayor, 
who was of their party. 

On the usual day for initiating the mayor and meml)ers 
of the common council (14th October, 1702,) Mr. Noell, 
the new mayor, was, according to custom, sworn before the 
governor and council, in the fort, and thence proceeded, 
with the customary solemnities, to Trinity Cliurch, where 
an approi)riate sermon was preached for the occasion by 
the Rev. Mr. Vesey; from thence, attended by the recorder 



"2o0 CONTESTED ELECTION OF 1701- 

and the several contesting aldermen and assistants, and 
other citizens, he proceeded to the city-hall, and after the 
ringing of the bell, published his commission. He afterward 
took the mayoralty chair, when Mr. De Riemer, the late 
mayor, presented him with the city charter and seal. Mr. 
Gouverneur, the recorder, then placed himself on the bench, 
at the side of the mayor, as did also Messrs. Depeyster, 
Provoost, Roosevelt, Boeleu and Clock, and their assist- 
ants, Avho had all been sworn by the old mayor. Mayor 
Noell then ordered the clerk, Mr. Sharpas, to proceed in 
swearing the members elect, and he called those who had 
the returns. They all replied, however, that they liad 
been sworn already, except French and Lurting, of the 
South Ward, to whom the oatk was then administered, and 
they took their seats at the board. 

There were then writs of mandamus handed to the 
mayor, which had been issued out of the Supreme Court, 
commanding him to swear Brandt Schuyler, alderman, 
and Johannes Jansen, assistant, of the South Ward ; 
John Hutchins, alderman, and Robert White, assistant, of 
the West Ward ; William Morris, alderman, and Jeremiah 
Tuthill, assistant, of the East Ward. Upon the reading 
of one of these, in the court room, there being a large 
crowd of citizens present, a general clamor ensued; some 
affirming that the members were not legally sworn by the 
old mayor, others maintaining the contrary. The ferment 
and uproar rose to such a height that a general conflict 
was impending; and the mayor rose and dissolved the meet- 
ing, upon which the multitude dispersed without collision. 

As all the Leislerian party had refused to be sworn by 
Mayor Noell, he declined to sit with them as a common 
council; and as there could not legally be a scrutiny of 



CONTESTED ELECTION OF 1701. 251 

the disputed elections except by order of the common 
council, it was apparent that the city would Le without a 
government, unless some other measures were taken. Mr. 
Noell took it upon himself to order a scrutiny of the elec- 
tions in the several wards, and appointed four persons in 
each ward, two of each party, to conduct the investigation. 
The " Leislerians" appointed on these committees, how- 
ever, refused to serve, and their party refused to recognize 
or take any part whatever in a scrutiny thus ordered — 
maintaining that it was wholly irregular; the common 
council alone, being, by law, the judges of the qualifica- 
tions of its own members. But the persons of the " anti- 
Leislerian" party, who had been thus appointed, proceeded 
with their labor, and returned the names of all the voters 
in the disputed wards, with the party for which they sev- 
erally voted. 

The report was as follows : 

South Ward. 

Legal votes for Schuyler and Jausen 53 

Illegal " " " 6 

59 

Legal votes for Roosevelt and Jelliseu 40 

Illegal " " " 7 



47 



West Ward. 



Legal votes for Hutcliins and White 71 

Ulesral " " '• 7 



Legal votes for Provoost and Roome 38 

Illegal " " " 2 



252 COXTKSTED ELKCTIOX OF 1701, 

I 

East Ward. 

Legal votes for Morris aud Tuthill 89 

lUegal " " " 11 

100 

Legal votes for De Peyster aud Brazier 72 

Illegal " " " 24 

% 

The committees of scrutiny therefore came to an oi.'.p()- 
site conclusion from that of the former returns, and instead 
of all " Leislerians," reported the election of all their own 
party. Acting upon the reports thus made, Mayor Noell 
proceeded, on the 11th of November, to swear in the mem- 
bers so reported to have been elected. He left his house, 
attended by those gentlemen and by Alderman French. 
When they came to the city-hall, all the Leislerians joined 
them, and went into the chamber, taking their seats on the 
bench of magistracy, by his side. Mr. Noell insisted that 
they had no right to sit there, but stated that he should 
offer no violence to remove them. He then proceeded to 
swear in the other members; upon which those on the 
bench loudly protested against such proceeding. Never- 
theless, the clerk administered the oaths amid the uproar, 
and the newly sworn members also took their seats on the 
bench; and thus the whole twenty were sitting there 
together, all determined to take part in the transaction of 
business, if any thing were done. The mayor then ad- 
journed the board for a fortnight. 

On the 23d of December the common council was finally 
organized, in consequence of the judgment of the Supreme 
Court, which gave the seats of the South and West Wards 
to the anti-Leislerian members, and of the East Ward to 
the Leislerians; so that there was an equal division of the 



CORXBLRY — LOVELACE — UUNTER. 253 

aldermen and assistants between the two parties — and the 
mayor and recorder being also of opposite parties, the 
board stood equally divided. 

The governor, appointed to succeed Bellamont, was Ed- 
ward Hyde, commonly called Lord Cornbury, a son ol" 
the Earl of Clarendon. He arrived in this city in May, 
1702, and his countenance was at once given to the anti- 
Leislcrian party. The administration of Lord Cornbury 
is allowed to have been disgraceful to his personal charac- 
ter. His private debts, contracted with traders and 
mechanics in this city, were numerous; and by his position 
in the government, no legal process could reach him. He 
refused to adjust these trifling matters, and abused his 
creditors. By these and similar practices, and by his gen- 
eral habits of arrogance, joined to his political tendencies, 
he became greatly obnoxious to the people, who drew up a 
complaint against him, which received the attention of the 
government in England, and he was superseded in the year 
1708. As soon as the process of the law was thus enabled 
to reach him, his creditors threw him into the custody of 
the sheriff, and lie remained in New York until the death 
of his father, when, succeeding to the earldom of Claren- 
don, he returned to England, leaving several poor trades- 
men unsatisfied in their just demands. 

John, Lord Lovelace, Baron of Hurley, was appointed 
to the gov'crnment in the spring of 1708, but did not 
arrive here until the 18th of December following. His 
administration was not destined to long continuance, as in 
May, of the following year (1709,) he died of a disorder 
contracted in crossing the ferry, at his first arrival in 
Xew York. 

In June, 1710, Brigadier Huxter arrived in this city, 



254 EXPEDITION AGAINST CANADA. 

with a commission as governor of the province. This gen- 
tleman was a native of Scotland, and when a boy had been 
placed to apprenticeship with an apothecary. He left 
this employment, and went into the army, and being a man 
of wit and personal beauty, recommended himself to Lady 
Hay, whom he afterward married. 

An occasion of considerable excitement in this city, 
during the administration of Governor Hunter, was a pro- 
ject set on foot against the French, in Canada. Tliis expe- 
dition was secretly organized by the English ministry, 
with a view to surprise the French; but the measure was 
so inadequately arranged that its result was utter failure. 
In June, 1711, the fleet, destined for the project, arrived 
off Boston, and the governor of New York immediately 
convened his assembly, and advised them that the co- 
operation of this province was called for in recruiting 
soldiers and furnishing contingencies. The house was so 
well pleased with the design upon Canada, that they voted 
an address of thanks to the queen, and sent a congrat- 
ulatory address to the commander of the forces. In a 
few days' time an act was passed for raising forces; and 
bills of credit, for forwarding the expedition, were struck 
to the amount of ten thousand pounds. 

While the preparations were making at New York, the 
fleet, consisisting of twelve men-of-war, forty transports 
and six store ships, with forty horses, a fine train of artil 
lery, and all manner of warlike equipments, sailed for 
Canada from Boston; the design being to form a junction 
with the land forces from New York, in the river St. Law- 
rence. About a month afterward the colonial troops, to 
the number of four thousand men, raised principally in 
New York, with some assistance from Connecticut and New 



KXPEDITIO.N AGAINST CANADA. 255 

Jersey, arrived at Albany, on their way to the place of 
junction with the fleet. 

On the 14th of August the fleet arrived in the mouth of 
the St. Lawrence river. Fearing here to lose the company 
of the transports, the wind blowing fresh. Sir Hovedon 
Walker, the admiral, put into Gaspy Bay, and continued 
there till the 20th of the same month. Two days after he 
sailed from thence the fleet was in the utmost danger, for 
they had no soundings, were without sight of land, the 
wind high at south-east, and the sky darkened by a thick 
fog. In these circumstances the fleet brought to, by the 
advice of the pilots, who were of opinion that if the ships 
lay with their heads to the southward, they might be 
driven by the stream into the midst of the channel; but 
instead of that, in two hours after they found themselves 
on the north shore, among rocks and islands, and upon the 
point of being lost. The men-of-war escaped; but eight 
transports, containing eight hundred souls, ofiicers, sol- 
diers and seamen, were cast away. Two or three days 
being spent in recovering what they could from the shore, 
it was determined, at a consultation of sea officers, to re- 
turn to some bay or harbor, till a further resolution should 
be taken. On the 14th of September they arrived at 
Spanish River Bay, where a council of war, considering 
that they had but ten weeks' provisions, and judging that 
they could not depend upon a supply, unanimously con- 
cluded to return home without making any further at- 
tempts; and they accordingly arrived at Portsmouth on 
the 9th of October, when, in addition to their misfortunes, 
the Edgar, a seventy gun ship, was blown up, having on 
l)oard above four hundred men, besides many persons who 
came to visit their friend?. 



256 GOVERMOR BURNET. 

The great mistake of this expedition was the inadequate 
supply of provisions, which was totally insufficient in view 
of the accidents to be anticipated from the character of 
the project. Its unfortunate result left this province in a 
much worse condition than before. The enemy harrassed 
the frontier settlements, and threatened a general descent 
upon the country. The public debt was greatly increased, 
and the resources of the province were overburdened. 

In the elections, following soon after, the governor found 
himself in a minority, and the exertions of government to 
bring the subject of the public debt before the assembly, 
were unsuccessful; indeed no attention was paid to this 
subject until the summer of 1714. The necessity of action, 
however, became so obvious that no longer delay could 
ensue, and a long session was devoted to that single affair. 
Innumerable were the demands presented against the gov- 
ernment; the total amounting to about twenty-eight thou- 
sand pounds, for which, in the end, bills of credit were 
issued. 

Governor Hunter remained here until the year 1719, 
when his state of health and his family affairs called him 
to England, whence he did not return. 

The successor to Governor Hunter was William Buk- 
NET, Esq., who arrived in New York in September, 1720. 
He was a son of the celebrated Bishop Burnet, and was 
personally a gentleman of considerable talent and popular 
manners. He became connected with the resident inhabit- 
ants of this city by more intimate ties than those of official 
relationship, having married, not long after his arrival, 
Miss Van Horn, daughter of one of the principal merchants 
of the city. 

The administration of Governor Burnet would probably 



INDIAN TRADE. 



257 



have been more popular if his views had been less compre- 
hensive, and more inclined to favor the existing, rather than 
the ulterior, benefit of the province. Even at this period 
a prominent interest of the trading part of the community 
was, as it had been from the first settlement of the country, 
connected with the Indian traffic. The white population, 
in its gradual progress, had pushed back the natives from 
the shores of the Hudson into the interior wilds; but nev- 
ertheless, the Indians finding behind them the streams and 
forests, still abounding with the beaver, the otter and 
other animals, furnishing desirable skins, continued their 
visits to the white settlements, with peltries for traffic. A 
large amount of goods, of European manufacture, thus 
found a profitable market. The great obstacle to a monop- 
oly of the Indian trade arose from the French, in Canada, 
whose settlements were more remote than those of New 
York, and who therefore had the advantage of intercept- 
ing the " far Indians" in their trading journeys, and of 
appropriating to themselves a great proportion of the 
coveted traffic. It was the practice, however, of the French 
to purchase their trading goods in New York; the articles, 
most in demand among the Indians, being such as were of 
English manufacture. By reason of this custom nearly all 
the goods used in the Indian trade came from England 
through New York; and the only advantage to be desired 
was that of a monopoly of the direct trade with the In- 
dians, instead of a partially intermediate one through the 
French. It was evident that by refusing to sell English 
goods to French traders, the latter would be greatly crip- 
pled in their operations, and many of the Indians would 
be diverted from intercourse with them. To effect this 
result, the government resolved, in the first place, to pro- 
17 



258 INDIAN TRADE. 

hibit sales of goods to the French ; and secondly, to pursue 
their own advantage by encouraging young men of New 
York to push their adventures into the far wilderness, and 
thus establish an intercourse with the more remote nations 
of Indians. 

Soon after the establishment of this policy (about the 
year 1720,) the youths of our principal families engaged in 
enterprises of this character. The nature of their under- 
takings is described, in an interesting manner, by Mrs. 
Grant, from whose work we extract the following : 

" The ' boy' (as such the young men were commonly 
called,) in commencing life, demanded of his father forty 
or fifty dollars, a negro boy and a canoe. He arrayed 
himself in a habit very little differing from that of the 
aborigines into whose bounds he was about to penetrate, 
and commenced Indian trader. The small bark canoe in 
which the adventurer embarked himself, his fortune and his 
faithful squire {who was generally born in the same house, 
and predestined to his service,) was launched, and he set 
out upon his journey. The canoe w^as entirely filled with 
coarse strouds and blankets, guns, powder, beads, &c., 
suited to the various Avants and fancies of the natives. 
One pernicious article was never wanting, and often made 
a great part of the cargo; this was ardent spirits, for which 
the natives too early acquired a relish, and the possession 
of which always proved dangerous and sometimes fatal to 
the traders. The Mohawks bring their furs and other 
peltry habitually to the stores of their wonted friends and 
patrons; but it was not in that easy and safe direction that 
these trading adventures extended. 

" The canoe was generally steered toward the Canadian 
frontier. They passed by the Flats and Stonehook in the 



INDIAN TRADE. 



259 



outset of tlieir journey. Then commeuced their toils and 
dangers, at the famous waterfall, called the Cohoes, ten 
miles above Albany ; where three rivers, uniting their 
streams into one, dash over a rocky shelf, and falling into 
a gulf below, with great violence, raise clouds of mist, be- 
decked with splendid rainbows. This was the Rubicon 
which they had to cross before they plunged into pathless 
woods, ingulfing swamps and lakes, the opposite shores of 
which the eye could not reach. 

'' At the Cohoes, on account of the obstruction formed 
by the torrent, they unloaded their canoe, and carried it 
above a mile farther upon their shoulders, returning again 
for the cargo, which they were obliged to transport in the 
same manner; this was but a prelude to labors and dangers 
incredible to those who dwell at ease. Further on, much 
longer carrying places frequently recurred, where they had 
the vessel and cargo to drag through thickets, impervious 
to the day, abounding with snakes and wild beasts, which 
are always to be found on the side of rivers. 

Their provision of food was necessarily small, from 
fear of overloading the slender and unstable conveyance, 
already crowded with goods. A little dried beef and 
Indian corn meal was their whole stock, though they for- 
merly enjoyed both plenty and variety. They were obliged 
to depend, in a great measure, upon their own skill in 
hunting and fishing, and on the hospitalities of the In- 
dians; for hunting, indeed, they had small leisure, their 
time being sedulously employed by the obstacles that 
retarded their progress. In their slight and fragile canoes 
they were often obliged to cross great lakes, on which the 
wind raised a terrible surge. 

Afraid of going into the tracks of the French traders, 



260 INDIAN TRADE. 

who were always dangerous rivals, aud often declared 
enemies, they durst not follow the direction of the St. 
Lawrence, but, in search of distant territories and unknown 
tribes, were wont to deviate to the east and the south- 
west, forcing their painful way toward the source of riv- 
ers " unknown to song," whose winding course was often 
interrupted by shallows, and oftener still by fallen trees, 
of great magnitude, lying across, which it was requisite 
to cut through with their axes, before they could proceed. 

" When the toils and dangers of the day were over, the 
still greater terrors of the night commenced. In this, 
which might literally be styled the howling wilderness, 
they were forced to sleep in the open air, which was fre- 
quently loaded with humid evaporation of swamps and 
redundant vegetation. Here the axe must be employed 
to procure the materials of a large fire, even in the warm- 
est weather. This precaution was necessary that the flies 
and mosquitoes might be expelled by the smoke, and that 
the wolves and bears might be deterred by the flame from 
encroaching on their place of rest. 

" The traders steered through the pathless forests with- 
out compass or guide of any sort. In those gloomy days, 
when the sun was not visible, or in winter, when the 
falling snows obscured his beams, they made an incision 
on the bark on the diff"erent sides of a tree. That on the 
north was found invariably thicker than the other, and 
covered with moss in much greater quantity; and this 
never-failing indication of the polar influence, was to 
those sagacious travelers a sufiicient guide. They had 
indeed several subordinate monitors. Knowing as well 
as they did the quality of the soil, by the trees or plants 
most prevalent, they could avoid a swamp, or approach 



INDIAN TRADE. 



261 



with certainty to a river or liigli ground, if sucli was their 
wish, by means that to us would seem incomprehensible. 

" When at length they arrived at the place of their 
destination, these daring adventurers found occasion for 
no little address, patience, and indeed courage, before they 
could dispose of their cargo, and return safely with the 
profits. It is utterly inconceivable how a single season 
spent in this manner, ripened the mind and changed the 
whole appearance, nay the very character of the counte- 
nance of these demi-savages, for such they seem on return- 
ing from the forests. Lofty, sedate and collected, they 
seem masters of themselves and independent of others." 

The policy of Governor Burnet, in excluding the 
French trade, drew upon him the opposition of several of 
the New York merchants, (led by Mr. Delancey) wliose 
trade was directly affected by the measure, and who en- 
deavored, by various schemes, to induce the government 
in England to direct the repeal of the act. They were 
unsuccessful at that time, but being a powerful interest in 
the city, they led an opposition to Governor Burnet, which 
finally succeeded in procuring a majority in the assembly; 
and so far harrassed his government that, at his wish, he 
was relieved from the charge of the province, and trans- 
ferred to Massachusetts in 1728. In the year 1729 the act 
prohibiting the French trade was repealed; but the wisdom 
of Governor Burnet's policy was afterward admitted, when 
its results were better appreciated. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS FROM THE YEAR 1728 TO 1750. 

The successor of Governor Burnet was John Montgom- 
ERiE, Esq., who entered upon his official duties on the 15th 
of April, 1728. This gentleman was of Scotch parentage, 
and had been bred a soldier; but had latterly, before his 
appointment to this government, been favored by the king 
witli a civil office in the royal family, having served as 
groom of the chamber to the Prince of Wales, who, on 
becoming king, rewarded him with the emoluments and 
dignity of governor of New York. His character, how- 
ever, was better suited to his former domestic dignity than 
to the control of political elements which had for years 
furnished an overabundant task for abler predecessors. 
His good humor, however, for the moment, had the effect 
to please the people of New York; and during his short 
administration, having complacently permitted the affairs 
of the government to go on, without much interference on 
his part, his administration presented no particular mark 
of assault. The principal act by which his name was ren- 
dered interesting in the history of this city, was the grant 
of an amended city charter, in the year 1730, in which 
many privileges were more specifically enrolled, particu- 
larly those relating to the Long Island Ferry. 



RIP VAN DAM. 



263 



Governor Montgomerie died on the 1st of July, 1731, 
much lamented. 

By the death of Mr. Montgomerie, the chief functions 
of government devolved, until the appointment of his suc- 
cessor, upon Rip Van Dam, a merchant, bred from his 
early youth in this city. Mr. Yau Dam had, in the course 
of trade, acquired a considerable fortune. He had long- 
taken an active interest in public affairs, and at the period 
referred to, was the oldest member of the governor's coun- 
cil, and ex officio the second officer in the government. The 
office, thus devolved upon him, was held until the 1st of 
August, 1732, a period of thirteen months, when he deliv- 
ered the seals of government to his successor. 

Colonel "William Cosby, the new governor, had for- 
merly been governor of Minorca; and having lately 
returned to England, had become somewhat distinguished 
by his activity in behalf of these colonies. The auspices, 
therefore, under which he entered upon the government of 
this province, were favorable to his popularity, and much 
good was anticipated by our people from his appointment. 
His preliminary arrangements for his departure hither 
were, however, of a character which sufficiently evinced a 
radical defect in those qualifications suited to a satisfac- 
tory administration of government over a people jealous, 
to a peculiar degree, of the designs of their superiors. 
Mr. Van Dam had, from the circumstances attending his 
former position in the council, been invested with all the 
powers, duties and rights of the executive authority, and 
had been allowed by the assembly to draw the full salary 
from the public funds, to the amount of al)out two thousand 
pounds. Governor Cosby, before his departure from Eng- 
land, in the spirit which then deplorably affected the mem- 



264 



GOVERNOR COSBY. 



bers of tlie home government in their dealings with 
colonial matters, had procured an order upon Mr, Van 
Dam to pay over to him one half of the fees and emolu- 
ments of the office during his late exercise of the chief 
authority; and accordingly, soon after his arrival, he made 
a demand upon Mr. Van Dam for payment of that propor- 
tion. The latter, however, refused to comply with the 
demand; alleging, in addition to the evident partiality of 
the order of the home government, that even if it were 
legal, yet it could only be construed as an order to divide 
the emoluments of the office during the time he exercised 
its functions; and inasmuch as Colonel Cosby had, while 
in England, and before assuming his duties, been allowed 
the receipt of a very considerable amount of fees, in antic- 
ipation of his actual incumbency of the office, that these 
should be included with the ordinary salary, as the emolu- 
ments of the office — in which point of view he claimed a 
balance, due to himself, of a large sum of money. 

The pertinacity with which both parties maintained 
their positions soon found a responsive feeling among the 
people, and Mr. Van Dam was fully supported by the pub- 
lic sympathy. The issue was at once recognized to be 
between the favoritism of the British court, and the prop- 
erty of their colonial subjects; and it was suggested that 
if, by an ex post facto order, the government could divest 
any of its colonial officers of the salary earned and already 
appropriated to individual use, and direct its amount to be 
divided with one who had never performed any service for 
it, there was little stability in the rights of British sub- 
jects. But the great and fundamental basis of the popular 
feeling on this subject, was the manifest distinction thus 
made between inhabitants of the colonies and those of 



zenger's weekly journal. 265 

England; the inferiority of the former, in the estimation 
of the home government, being too glaring to be glossed 
over or concealed from the public apprehension. 

It is needless to follow the course of the legal proceed- 
ings consequent upon this dispute. It is sufficient to say 
that by suppressing the ordinary avenues of justice, and 
other equally violent acts on the part of the governor and 
his friends, the cause of Van Dam was lost, and he was 
decreed to pay the half of his salary to Colonel Cosby. 
Popular feeling, however, was too strongly excited to be 
allayed by the mere termination of the controversy; and 
in every possible manner the people expressed their con- 
tempt of the government, ridiculed and lampooned their 
chief officials, and circulated ballads, of a libelous charac- 
ter, upon them. 

At that period there were two newspapers published in 
this city; one in the interest of the court party, called the 
JVeio York Gazette, and the other in the interest of Van 
Dam, called Zenger^s JVew York Weekly Journal. The 
latter was, of course, the vehicle of much vituperation of 
the opposite party, and furnished a weekly entertainment 
to the public, which was eagerly relished. So much did 
the government feel the effect of these paper bullets, that 
it was resolved, in council, that Zenger's papers Nos. 7, 
47, 48, 49, and also two certain printed ballads, were de- 
rogatory to the dignity of his majesty's government, and 
that they should therefore be burnt by the common hang- 
man; further ordering the mayor and magistrates of the 
city to attend the ceremony. The corporation, however, 
refused to comply with this order, and the edict was car- 
ried into effect with but a meagre assemblage of spectators. 
The provincial assembly was also equally averse to joining 



266 



TfClAL OF ZEXGER. 



the governor in his warfare upon his paper adversaries; 
and, upon the whole, the latter were not only in full vigor, 
but the enemy seemed, for a time, to be disconcerted, and 
at a loss how to stem the tide so strongly setting against 
them. 

In this emergency it was resolved to crush the editor of 
the paper under a weight of legal proceedings; and 
accordingly seizing him upon the charge of libel, he was 
lodged in jail, where he continued upward of eight months. 
Preparatory to his trial, which took place in the year 
1735, the court party took every possible measure to pro- 
cure a conviction, and even went so far as to dismiss his 
eminent counsel from the bar. The other party were 
equally active on their own behalf, and secretly engaged 
Mr. Andrew Hamilton, an eminent barrister of Philadel- 
phia, who, on the day of trial, unexpectedly made his 
appearance by the side of the prisoner. 

The trial came on before a court and jury, the former 
of which were deeply allied with the government, and the 
latter were chosen from the body of the people. The libel 
complained of was an article of the following substance : 
" The people of this city and province think, as matters 
now stand, that their liberties and properties are precari- 
ous; and that slavery is like to be entailed on them and 
their posterity, if some past things be not amended." 
There was no issue as to the fact of the publication of the 
article, that being admitted. The theory then maintained 
by the prosecution was, that the jury must give a verdict 
against the prisoner; but Mr. Hamilton insisted that he 
might justify the libel by giving the truth in evidence. 
This, however, was ruled against him by the court, and 
there being no evidence in the case, he proceeded to sum 



DEATH OF GOVERNOR COSBY. 267 

up on behalf of his client; his great point being to impress 
upon the jury the conviction that they were judges of the 
law as well as the fact, and that they were not to be guided 
by the court as to the condition of the law, but were left 
the sole arbiters of the whole case. The counsel for the 
prosecution, on the other hand, labored to convince the 
jury that it Avas only for them to find the fact whether the 
words were published or not, leaving the court to deter- 
mine whether the words so published were libelous in 
law. 

The speech of Mr. Hamilton was a remarkable display 
of eloquence, and completely confirmed a jury, probably 
already strongly impressed with the prevailing sentiment 
of public opinion, who rendered a verdict of not guilty^ 
amidst the cheers of the multitude. The city corporation 
honored Mr. Hamilton with a public entertainment, and 
presented him with the freedom of the city, in a gold box. 

It was at this period that the dawniugs of a revolution- 
ary spirit began to be observed, in an intense though latent 
fire, in the body politic. 

Soon after the decision in the case of Zenger, Governor 
Cosby was taken ill; and after a lingering sickness, he ex- 
pired on the Tth of March, 1736. Previous to his dissolu- 
tion, he called the members of his council together, in his 
sick-room, and declared the suspension of Mr. A^'an Dam, 
•as a member of the council. 

This proceeding — the efi'ect of which, if legal, was de- 
signed to oust Mr. Van Dam from the succession to the 
executive authority, occasioned another serious clash be- 
tween the two parties in which the people were divided, 
and, for a time, the adherents of each section presented an 
opposing front to each other: and both Van Dam and 



268 



THE NEGRO PLOT. 



George Clarke, upon the latter of whom the mantle of 
government had fallen by the late proceedings, assumed 
the exercise of the chief authority, each appointing per- 
sons of their own party to the several subordinate offices. 
A collision, however, was happily avoided, until the arri- 
val of a despatch from England, which confirmed the 
authority of Mr. Clarke. 

The administration of Lieutenant Governor Clarke con- 
tinued until the year 1743. The most exciting event 
which occurred in the city, during his administration, was 
the negro insurrection of 1741, designated at the time as 
the " diabolical plot of the black seed of Cain, to destroy 
this city and set themselves up as its rulers." 

The imaginations of the citizens of New York had long 
been in the custom of indulging in apprehensions of a 
rising of the slaves, and other colored people in this city, 
against the whites. Some evidences of an attempt of this 
kind were furnished in 1712, at which period several ne- 
groes were executed on the charge of insurrection, and 
since that period, as well as previously, stringent laws had 
been enacted, to prevent assemblages of the negroes in 
any considerable numbers, and restraining them from com- 
V)inations with each other for insurrectionary purposes. 
These laws, however, were not, it seems, sufficient to effect 
their object, and the negroes, with their characteristic 
impulsiveness and imaginative hopes, were accustomed to • 
indulge in dreams of bettering their condition by placing 
themselves in the condition of their masters, with all tlic 
enjoyments of independence, wealth and unbounded license 
in the gratification of their desires. It is, therefore, not 
surprising that with such inadequate proof, so great a 
panic should have been produced among the white inhabit- 



THE NEGRO PLOT. 269 

ants, as we are about to relate, and such direful and ter- 
rible retribution visited upon a great many poor blacks, 
some at least of whom were innocent. 

The development of this affair arose out of the follow- 
ing circumstance. On the 28th of February, 1741, a rob- 
bery was committed at the house of a merchant named 
Robert Hogg, on the present corner of Broad and South 
William streets. In the eflForts of the police to detect the 
perpetrator suspicions were directed to one John Hughsou, 
who kept a low negro groggery, from the circumstance 
that a servant girl, named Mary Burton, hinted to a 
neighbor that her employer was in the habit of receiving 
stolen goods in his house from negroes. Upon this suspi- 
cion Hughson was arrested, and Mary Burton, having been 
promised a reward for appearing against him, was detained 
as a witness. 

Hughson kept a notorious bad house; among other 
inmates, being a white woman, commonly called Peggy 
Gary, who was used to entice the negroes to that house, 
and was rewarded by the blacks with valuable presents, 
which doubtless they had to steal. This depraved woman 
was also arrested, and it was proved against her that a 
black, named Caesar, belonging to Mr. Vaarck, had left in 
Peggy's room several articles of dry goods, and also some 
money. It was satisfactorily proven, in fact, that Cajsar 
was one of the robbers. He was therefore arrested, as 
was also another negro named Prince; and Hughson then 
confessed that he had received a part of the stolen goods. 

Thus the matter stood on the 18th of March, the prison- 
ers being fully committed for trial on the charge of bur- 
glary and receiving stolen goods. On that day, about noon, 
the governor's house in the fort was discovered to be on fire; 



270 



THE NEGRO PLOT. 



and that building, together with the chapel and other build- 
ings in the fort, were all burnt. It was supposed by the 
governor, that the fire was accidental, and arose from the 
carelessness of a plumber. The next fire in the city was 
that of "Warren's house, near the fort, which arose from 
the chimney having first caught, and a spark falling on tlic 
roof. This, however was soon extinguished. The follow- 
ing week the store-house of Mr. Van Zandt took fire, as is 
stated, from a smoker's carelessness. No material damage, 
however, ensued. Within the following three days, two 
alarms of fire occurred, but no harm was done. These 
accidents were certainly sufficiently remarkable, in a small 
town, to attract attention. No less than five fires within 
two weeks, although in no one could the occurrence be 
traced to incendiarism. It was sufficient, however, to 
excite remark; and some suspicion was fixed upon some 
Spanish negroes, formerly sailors on a Spanish ship, which 
had been taken as a prize and brought into New York, 
where the negro sailors were condemned, and sold to 
slavery among the inhabitants. 

Soon after, another chimney took fire, and also the house 
of Mrs. Hilton, near the Fly Market, was discovered to 
be on fire in the roof, but was soon extinguished. The 
commotion and excitement in the town now became 
intense, and was increased by the burning of the roof of 
Philipse's store-house. The magistrates were now called 
together, and the general feeling being against the negroes, 
many were arrested and thrown into prison. 

On the 11th of April the common council ofi'ered a 
reward of one hundred pounds and a full pardon to any 
conspirators for the discovery of the incendiaries, for it 
was now sufficiently manifest that there was some mis- 



TUE NEGRO PLOT. 



271 



chievous cause for this singular coincidence of accidents. 
Meantime many people removed, with their goods and 
valuables, from the city, and amid the general consternation 
it is not surprising that the negro population, thus brought 
under the ban of suspicion, and observant of the general 
consternation, should have conceived, in their simple habit 
of thought, that indeed a revolution was effected, and that 
the common property was open to their plunder, as the 
lawful spoils of victory; so that there is little question 
that great thefts occurred, and that several other incen- 
diary attempts were made by them in this city, and in 
other parts of the country in this vicinity. 

In this condition of things, a Grand Jury met on the 
21st of April, 17-11, who were especially charged to un- 
ravel the mystery, and search out the persons in the 
conspiracy. Several negroes were already in jail on 
suspicion; many, in the height of terror, proposed to make 
revelations accusing others, under the hope of thus speedily 
procuring their own release, and there seemed a prospect 
of learning something of importance. The girl, Mary 
Burton, now remembered several circumstances which took 
place at her master's house, in conversation among the 
negroes and other frequenters, and gave her testimony 
that Cmsar, Prince and Cuffee used frequently to meet at 
Hughsou's and talk about burning the fort, and then the 
whole town; that Cajsar should be governor, and Hughson 
king; that a great many people had too much money 
and others too little, and that a fair distribution should 
be made; that they would fire the town in the night, and 
when the white people came to extinguish it they would 
kill and destroy them. 

After this girl had given her testimony, the Grand Jury 



272 



THE NEGRO FLOT. 



called in Peggy Gary. She, however, said that she knew 
nothing, '• and if she should accuse any body of any such 
thing, she must accuse innocent persons and wrong her owii 
soul." She was, howevei-, soon after tried for receiving 
the stolen goods, and convicted. She thereupon asked to 
be examined again, and then said, that in the previous 
December, at another tavern, where she then resided, she 
saw meetings of negroes, and named Cuffee, (Philipse's;) 
Brash, (Jay's;) Dick, Ccesar, (Pintard's;) Patrick, (English's;) 
Jack, (Brestede's;) Cato, (Moore's;) who, she says, swore to 
burn the fort, to steal, rob and bring .the plunder to the 
t^avern-keeper, whose name was Romme. This story, when 
the wretched woman was afterward brought to the gal- 
lows, she averred to be a fabrication, and it does not seem 
to have received credit among the people. 

All the negroes, named by Peggy, were arrested, and 
denied their guilt, and being brought before Mary Burton, 
she acquitted them of being among those whom she had 
seen. They were, however, locked up, and in this state of 
jeopardy, the negroes began to accuse each other, each 
hoping thereby to save himself. 

The first victims to the gallows were Ccesar and Prince, 
who were hanged on the 11th of May, upon a gibbet, 
erected on a small island in the Collect, or Fresh Water 
Pond, in the rear of the present Chambers street and 
Park. They died very stubbornly, without confessing any 
thing about the conspiracy, but denying all knowledge 
of it. 

.'j. trial was then had of ITughson, his wife, and Peggy 
Cary, all whites, on an indictment for conspiring to burn 
the town, etc. The principal witness against them was 
Mary Burton, who swears, in addition to the testimony 



THE NEGRO I'LOT. 273 

She had before given, that she saw a negro give Hughson 
twelve pounds, in Spanish money, to buy guns, which he 
did and hid them away in the garret of his house, but they 
could not be found or traced. The prisoners were con- 
victed and hanged on the 12th of June. 

Two negroes, Quack and Cuffee, were tried, a negro boy 
named Sawney appearing as evidence against them, lie 
stated that Quack asked him to set the fort on fire, and 
Cuffee told him he would set fire to one house, Curacoa Dick 
to another, and so on until the whole town was burnt — that 
their object was to kill all the gentlemen and take their 
wives. A negro named Fortune also appeared as a witness, 
and stated that Quack, some time previously, took him to 
the fort, and told him that he intended to burn it, and after 
the fire, the last witness, (Sawney) told him he was the one 
who set fire to the fort. Sawney was thereupon called up 
again, and admits that he was frightened into a promise to 
burn the slip market, and that he was, among others, sworn 
to secrecy. Quack and Cuffee were convicted, and were 
sentenced to be burnt alive. 

On the 3d of May, about o o'clock, they were brought 
to the stake, surrounded with piles of wood. The specta- 
tors were very numerous. They at first refused to make 
any confession, but upon being questioned by their masters, 
they said that Hughson was the contriver of the plot; 
that the confederate negroes had voted Quack to be the 
proper person to set fire to the fort, as his wife was a ser- 
vant there, which he had accordingly done with a lighted 
stick. 

On the 6th of June seven other negroes, named Jack. 
Cook, Robin, Ccesar, Cuffee, Cuffee and Jamaica, were tried, 
found guilty, and executed the following day, excepting 
18 



2/4 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Jock, who promised further disclosures, and was pardoned. 
He implicated fourteen others. 

On the 11th of June three negroes, named Francis, Al- 
bany and Curacoa Dick, were sentenced to be chained to a 
stake and burnt to death. On the 15th of June, Ben and 
Quack were condemned to be burnt, and three others 
hanged. Five of the Spanish negroes were also convicted. 

A proclamation of pardon to all who Avould confess and 
discover, was now made by the authorities, and many 
negroes availed themselves of the promised indemnity to 
unfold the details of the conspiracy. 

But now, another white man was brought forward upon 
the charge of joining in the conspiracy. The person thus 
implicated was Ury, a Catholic priest, who had been en- 
gaged in school teaching in this city. An indictment was 
found against this person, in which he was charged with 
having counseled, procured, &c., a negro slave. Quack, to 
set fire to the king's house in the fort. Also, that being a 
priest made by the authority of the pretended See of Rome 
he did come into this province and city of New York, 
after a time limited by a law against Jesuits and Popish 
priests, and did there remain for the space of seven months, 
&c. Ury pleaded not guilty. Upon his trial, wiiich took 
place in July, 1711, Sarah Hughson deposed that she had 
often seen him at her father's house; that she had seen him 
make a ring with chalk on the floor, and make all the 
negroes then present stand round it, and he used to stand 
in the middle of the ring, with a cross in his hand and 
swear the negroes. It was proven by a confectioner that 
Ury had inqmred of him for wafers. It was also proven 
that he could read English and Latin; and other evidence 
of a similar character was taken against him. The result 



THK NEGRO PLOT. 275 

was a conviction, and he was hanged on the 29th of 
August 1741. 

The execution of Urj'' was the last recorded of the long 
aeries of capital punishments inflicted upon the real and 
pretended participators in this conspiracy; and the 24th 
of September was set apart for a thanksgiving, for the 
escape of the citizens from destruction. 

During the progress of this affair, one hundred and 
fifty-four negroes were committed to prison; of whom 
fourteen were burnt at the stake; eighteen hanged; scventy- 
one transported, and the rest pardoned or discharged for 
want of proof. Twenty white persons were committed, of 
whom foiu- were executed. 

" At this time," says an intelligent writer of that 
period, " New York contained a population of about twelve 
thousand souls, of whom one sixth were slaves. If a plot 
in fact existed for the destruction of the city and the mas- 
sacre of its inhabitants, and if that plot was conducted b}- 
Ury, it certainly betrayed greater imbecility of intellect 
and want of caution and arrangement, together with less 
union of action, than could have been expected from one 
who was evidently, if we believe his own account, a man of 
classical education and profound erudition. It seems, in- 
deed, probable that the evidence of Mary Burton, by whom 
many of the prisoners were implicated, was little to be re- 
lied on; and had the prosecution continued much longer, she 
would perhaps have accused many more of the white citizens 
of New York as being concerned in the plot. Daniel Hors- 
manden, Esq., recorder of the city, published at the time a 
history of this conspiracy, and labored hard to prove its 
existence and extent. But it is evident that the hostility 
to Catholicism, which the British government so industri- 



276 



THE NKGRO PLOT. 



ously inculcated, tinctured his mind, and gave it a bias 
unfriendly to the fair development of truth, or to the full 
and impartial examination of facts and circumstances. 
The negroes were without defence; all the counsel of the 
city were arrayed against them, and volunteered their ser- 
vices, on behalf of the crown, on the trial of these unfor- 
tunate slaves. The want of education and utter ignorance 
of these infatuated wretches, easily made them the victims 
of craft and imposition; the hopes of life and the promise 
of pardon influenced some of them to make confessions. 
Yet falsehood was so ingeniously and artfully blended 
with truth that it was not an easy task to separate one 
from the other. It must, however, be admitted that many 
circumstances aided the opinion tliat the plot in fact ex- 
isted; and if the people were mistaken in this, it was an 
error into which they might naturally fall at the moment 
of confusion and distress, and under the attending circum- 
stances." 

The places of execution of these convicts were as fol- 
lows : The gibbet of John Hughson and his companions 
was erected on the East river shore, about the present cor- 
ner of Cherry and Catharine streets; where, according to 
the popular belief of that day, their " spooks" or spirits 
were sometimes seen by travelers in the night. The stakes 
at which the negroes were burnt were set up in a hollow, 
affording a full view from the surrounding hills, in the 
vicinity of the present Five Points. The common gallows 
of that time, where most of the negroes were hanged, was 
on a small island in the Fresh Water Pond, in the present 
vicinity of the corner of Centre and Pearl streets. 




7, '?'!■' r'j} (j 



llci^i. 



f I 'I ' 



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To Lae Ii:jncjTjr sL^ e 
RIP VAl-T DA3!(r Hsor 
.'■'-.-ileni 0-' tM Ji/Icycsty's Council for hke Trovince. o/' 27ti<i York . Thvs Ticm 

obtdiP.rJ: Sf.rv' W^ Sur^e^J^ 



CHAPTER XX. 

PROGRESS OF THE CITY IN TUE EARLY PART OF THE LAST CENTURY. 

In previous chapters we have followed the growth of 
the city prior to the year 1700, at which period the streets 
had been laid out as high as Maiden lane. The property 
between the present Broadway and Pearl street, on the 
west and east sides, and between Maiden lane and near 
the present line of Fulton street, on the south and north 
sides, was then in fields, and embraced two estates; one 
commonly called " The Shoemakers' Land," and the other, 
" Vandercliff's Orchard." 

The " Shoemakers' Land" was bounded very nearly by 
the present Maiden lane, Ann street, Broadway, and a line 
on the east, between William and Gold streets. The origin 
of the name by which it was thus commonly distinguished, 
arose from the circumstance previously referred to; that 
an exclusion of all tan-pits from within the limits of the 
city was ordered, by reason of which the settlement of 
tanners and shoemakers, who had almost exclusively oc- 
cupied the old swamp grounds along the present Broad 
street, above Beaver street, were driven to other quarters, 
and seeking the nearest convenient locality, beyond the 
city walls, established their tan-pits along Maiden lane, 
which was a marshy valley. An association of four shoe- 



278 



THE SHOEMAKERS LAND. 



makers (at that time tanning their own leather,) purchased 
the property now referred to, and carried on their trade in 
this vicinity. The increasing extent of tlie city calling for 
a survey and division of these lands into town lots, a map 
was made, of which the following is a copy : 

DIVISION MAP OF THE SHOEMAKERS' LAND. 




The original owner,' 
Conraet Ten Eyck, Jacob 
hams, John Harpending, and 
Carsten Luersc. 

Owners at the time of the division, W9G : 
Charles Lodwick, John Harpending, Carsten 
Luersc, Abraham Pantfort,, (Jacob Abra- 
hams,) and Heiltje Cloppers. 

The price of lots on this tract, from the year ITOO to 
1720, averaged about thirty pounds of the currency of that 
day. The tanners subsequently removed their business to 
the borders of the Fresh Water Pond, north of the present 
Park, and to Beekman's Swamp. 



taxdercliff's farm. 279 

The " Vandercliff Farm," which lay between the Shoe- 
makers' Pasture and the road along the East river (now 
Pearl street,) and south of the present Beekman street, 
nearly to Maiden lane, came, at an early period, into the 
possession of Henry Rycken, a blacksmith, who, iu the 
year 1681, sold it to Dirck Vandercliff who resided on 
the property until his death. His widow, Geesie, caused 
it to be divided into lots, for sale, the average prices being 
from twenty to thirty pounds. The streets laid out 
through the property were originally named as follows : 
Cliff street, South street. Golden street, and Rudder 
street. 

On the west side of Broadway, above Trinity Church, 
the principal building was the King's Arms Tavern, on the 
site of the old City Hotel (viz : between Thames and Lib- 
erty streets.) This building was erected, about the close 
of the seventeenth century, by John Hutchins, who had 
formerly kept the tavern on the south-west corner of the 
present Wall and Broad streets, opposite the old city-hall. 
The tavern of Hutchins was the most fashionable public 
house of the city, and was the head-quarters of the auti- 
Leislerian party of that day; it having been built princi- 
pally through the loans of Nicholas Bayard, and a few 
other leaders of that political sect. The grounds of the 
tavern were extensive, running down to the North river 
shore, and having also a garden plot on each side of the 
house. The building itself was not of great size; upon 
the roof was a balcony, arranged with seats, and command- 
ing a beautiful view of the bay and environs of the city. 

North of the tavern a few scattered buildings were situ- 
ated, on the west side of Broadway, the principal of which 
was the store of Alderman Jacob Boelen, north of Liberty 



280 



BROADWAY. 



street. The present Cortland street — which took its name 
from the proprietor, it being a part of the estate of Burgo- 
master Van Cortland — was not yet opened, although pre- 
parations were being now made for that purpose; the same 
may be said of the present Dey street, the name of which 
was derived from Teunis Dey, an owner of property in that 
vicinity. Mr. Dey's property was three hundred and nine 
feet front on Broadway, and about eight hundred feet in 
depth to Hudson river, containing about five and a half 
acres; beyond this lay the "King's Farm," a large estate, 
so called, which had, upon the first settlement of the island 
by the Dutch, been set apart for the uses of the West 
India Company, then the proprietaries of the island. It 
is supposed to have been confiscated by the English, upon 
taking the city, atid to have been appropriated to the con- 
querors. The title, at the period here referred to, was in 
Trinity Church, which corporation began, about the year 
1720, to lay out the south part of the farm into lots. At 
that time the extent of Broadway was to its junction with 
Chatham street, the road continuing on the line of the 
latter street. It was in contemplation, however, to extend 
Broadway, in a straight line, through the commons along 
the fence of the King's Farm, which was bordered by a 
fine row of trees, on the present west side of Broadway. 
On the line of Broadway, at the lower end of the common, 
was a rope- walk, erected by Dugdale and Searle, by per- 
mission of the corporation, which occupied that place for 
more than twenty years. The streets laid out in the King's 
Farm, extending from Fulton to Chambers street, were 
named after leading officers of Trinity Church. Vesey 
street was so called, after the Rev. William Vesey, rector 
of Trinity Church; Barclay street, after the Rev. Mr. 



THE COMMONS. 



281 



Barclay, who succeeded Mr. Vesey as rector; Robinson 
street, after a leading citizen; Murray street, after a dis- 
tinguished lawyer of this city, and one of the officers of 
the church: Warren street, after Sir Peter Warren, com- 
mander of the British naval forces at this station, who 
married Miss Delancey, of this city, and resided here for 
many years; Chambers street, after John Chambers, Esq., 
a lawyer born in this city, and for many years a leading 
citizen in civil and church affairs. 

The Commons of this city originally formed nearly a 
square, lying generally between the present Broadway and 
Nassau streets on the east and west, and between Ann and 
Chambers streets north and south. It was traversed diag- 
onally by Chatham street, then the post-road; thus forming 
a triangle on the east side, a part of which was appropria- 
ted by Colonel Dongan (governor in 1686,) and was occu- 
pied for many years as a place of amusement, and called 
the Vineyard. The Commons, now inclosed as the Park, 
was a waste and open place; it was sometimes called, 
even in the last century, the VJackte, or " Flat.'' The his- 
torical reminiscences connected with this public place, now 
some miles within the outskirts of the city, but once the 
pasture grounds to which the morning and evening droves, 
from the village of New Amsterdam, pursued their daily 
peregrinations, are interesting to the observer of ancient 
memorials. It was here that the impetuous Dutch troops, 
under Anthony Colve, having landed from the ships in the 
North river, formed in military array, preparatory to their 
charge down Broadway, upon the English in the fort, 
opposite the Bowling G-reen. It was here the conferences 
between the Dutch officers and the commissioners, sent out 
by Manning to treat of terms, were held, and where the 



282 



THE COMMONS. 



Dutch, disgusted with the prevarication of the English, 
and eager for the assault, cried " They shall fool us no 
more — march !" It was here that the scenes of festivity 
and frolic were commonly enacted, on occasions where a 
crowd was congregated. Five times in each year a public 
bonfire was lighted up in the eveuiug, at the expense of the 
city authorities, to celebrate their holidays; these stated 
evenings were the 5th of November, the 6th of February, 
the 8th of March and 13th of April; the first anniversary 
being that of the gunpowder plot, which was a stated 
occurrence; the other anniversaries were the king's birth- 
day, the coronation, &c., <fec., and varied under difl^erent 
monarchs. On these occasions wine was freely distributed 
to the people, at public expense, the general cost to the 
authorities, of one of these entertainments, averaging 
fifteen pounds. The citizens also contributed to the dis- 
play by throwing fire-balls, burning tar barrels, &c. The 
Commons was, for many years, the place of public execu- 
tion, a gallows standing permanently, not far from the 
present Hall of Records. The first public building erected 
on the Commons was a powder-house, built on the present 
site of the Hall of Records, and then considered so remote 
from neighbors as to cause no fears of damage in case of 
explosion; it was subsequently, however, removed, in the 
year 1728, to a small island in the Fresh Water Pond. The 
first poor-house erected in this city, was in the year 1734. 
Previously to that period the paupers in the town were 
generally dependent upon private charity, although, in 
cases of great necessity, the city authorities dispensed 
some provison by special resolution. At the period refer- 
red to, however, an ordinance was passed, reciting that 
" Whereas the number and increase of the poor in this city 



THE KALCU-HOCK. 283 

is very great, and there has not yet been any provision 
made for the relief and setting on work of poor needy 
persons and idle vagabonds, sturdy beggars and others, 
who frequently commit great depredations, and having 
lived idly, become debauched and thievish. For a remedy 
it is ordered that there be built a good, convenient house, 
on pan of the unimproved lands of the corporation, on 
north side of the lands, late of Colonel Dongan, commonly 
called the Vineyard; the house to be fifty-six feet long, 
twenty-four wide, and two stories high, with a cellar. The 
location of this building was afterward established on the 
Commons, on a part of the site of the " Old Alms House," 
in the rear of the city-hall, now occupied by the various 
courts. The house was furnished with four spinning- 
wheels, some leather and tools for shoemaking, knitting- 
needles, flax, &c., for the employment of the inmates. In 
the year 1742, Joseph Paulding leased a part of the Com- 
mons, and established a large brick kiln. 

North of the Commons lay the Fresh Water Pond, com- 
monly called, in early days, the " Kalck-hock," (abbrevia- 
ted into " Collck.'') This, however, was not the original 
name of the pond itself, but was given, in the times of the 
Dutch, to a point of land on the shore of the pond, the 
site of an old Indian village. The Kalck-hock point con- 
tained about forty-eight acres of land. As to the value of 
property in this vicinity, at the beginning of the last cen- 
tury, we may instance that a part of it, containing about 
eleven acres, was sold, in the year 1703, for about one 
hundred pounds of the currency of that day, or less than 
twenty- live dollars per acre. The Fresh Water Pond- was, 
in some places, very deep, and had the common reputation 
of having no bottom, a fallacy which was sufficiently deter- 



284 



15F.F.KMAN S SWAMP. 



rained by filling- in its basin, and establishing the streets 
which now cross its ancient site. In early times this pond 
was the resort of the angler, and contained an abundance 
of fish. As late as the year 1734, by the desire of several 
citizens, a law was passed by the common council " for 
preserving the fish in Fresh Water Pond;" imposing a fine 
upon any person casting his net therein, or catching fish 
there by any other manner than that of angling. When, 
by the progress of the city, the tanners were driven from 
their ancient localities, in Broad street and Maiden lane, 
tan-pits were established on the borders of this pond, and 
remained there for many years. In the year 1732, Mr. 
Anthony Rutgers, having in view the prospective value of 
property on the confines of the town, made a purchase of 
the swamp through which one of the streams ran from this 
pond and emptied into the North river. 

In the gradual progress of improvement in the first half 
of the last century, the property of Mr. Beekman, which 
lay south of the region now known as the " swamp," in 
the vicinity of Ferry and the neighboring streets, and em- 
braced the blocks between the present Nassau and Pearl 
streets, on the east and west, and from Fulton, on the 
south, to the swamp, which furnished its northern boun- 
dary, came into requisition for building purposes, and was 
laid off into lots, the present Beekman street running 
through the property. The swamp itself was originally 
a low ground, covered by bushes, and was known in early 
times as the " Kripple-bush," or tangled briars. This 
place, containing several acres, was sold, about the year 
1734, to Jacobus Roosevelt, for the sum of two hundred 
pounds. The grant was from the corporation, who claimed 
title to it, althougli they refused to give a warranty deed. 



WHITEHALL. 285 

as the heirs of Jacob Leisler — who had received a patent 
for land north of the present Spruce street, and bordering 
upon the swamp — claimed the property as coming within 
their patent, a claim which, we believe, was never satisfac- 
torily adjusted. Mr. Roosevelt, however, laid off the 
property into about fifty lots, and it became the seat of 
several tanneries, and still monopolizes the leather busi- 
ness of the city. 

While noticing the progress of the city in its upper sec- 
tion, we may observe that the high road on the present 
line of Pearl street, between Franklin square and Chat- 
ham street, which had been early established through open 
lands, without much regard to specific boundaries, avus 
regulated and established as a road, on its present lines, in 
the year 1735. 

Returning now to improvements made in the lower parts 
of the city, and along the river shores, within the years 
from 1700 to 1750, we have to note the following : 

It has been observed that a battery was erected toward 
the close of the previous century, coA^ering a part of the 
public grounds now known as the Battery, near Whitehall 
slip. This name arose from a large dwelling standing on 
the present corner of Whitehall and State streets. This 
building is supposed to have been erected by Governor 
Stuyvesant, in the time of his administration. It after- 
ward came into the possession of Governor Thomas Don 
gan, in whose time it became known as the Whitehall. It 
was occupied, at different intervals, by merchants. At- 
tached to the premises were a bake-house, bolting-house 
and warehouse, erected in the time of the great flour 
speculation referred to in a previous chapter. Governor 
Dongan afterward became Earl of Limerick; lie was still 



286 



THE BOWLING GREEN. 



living in England in the year 1715, at which time he sent 
over a kinsman to sell this and other property still belong- 
ing to him in this country. Adjoining this property was 
the store of Jacob Leisler, in which he carried on business 
in his lifetime, from which circumstance that part of the 
present Whitehall street, between State and Pearl streets, 
was at one period ( about 1720) known as Leisler street. 
But this name gave wa}", in the year 1731, to the common 
appellation of that section, " Whitehall," and the street 
was afterward known by that name. On the opposite side 
of Whitehall street, in the block bounded, at present, by 
Whitehall, Pearl, Moore and Water streets, there had, 
previous to the year 1730, been an open space, anciently 
called " The Strand," and commonly used as a market 
place or strand for country wagons. In 1732, the city 
corporation divided the ground into lots, and sold it at 
auction, as follows: Three lots to Stephen Dclancey for six 
hundred pounds; one to David Clarkson for one hundred 
and fifty-six pounds; one to John Moore for two hundred 
and seventy-six pounds; one to Robert Livingston for one 
hundred and seventy-five pounds, and one to Anthony 
Rutgers for two hundred and thirty-nine pounds. 

The vacant space in front of the fort lay without inclos- 
ure or pavement, and was used as a parade; market place; 
for public assemblages; a place for bonfires, and other uses 
of a similar nature, until the year 1732, at which period it 
was leased to John Chambers, Peter Bayard and Peter 
Jay, residents on the west side of Broadway, who applied 
for permission to inclose it and make it ornamental for the 
purposes of a bowling green. The lease was for eleven 
years, at the rent of a pepper-corn. Some years afterward 
pavements were laid around it. On the west side of 



GREENWICH AND WASUINGTON STREETS. 



287 



Broadway, opposite the Bowling Green, the ancient Dutch 
houses, with their gable ends to the street, still occupied 
much of the space until about the 3'ear 1730, when they 
were demolished to give place to a superior class of build- 
ings. The finest mansion, for many years, on the west 
side of the city, was erected about the middle of the last 
century, by Archibald Kennedy, collector of the port, on 
the corner of Battery place. 

In the year 1723, tlie corporation having the right to 
lands under water around the island, offered for sale the 
lands between high and low water mark, " from the house 
of Mr. Gaasbeck, near the fort, to the green trees, com- 
monly called the locust trees, near the English church; or 
from the present Battery to Rector street. This proposi- 
tion lay under consideration for several years; the various 
interests of the inhabitants residing along the west side 
of Broadway, as well as the proper regulation of the city 
in the part thus proposed to be gained from the water, 
requiring some consideration. In November, 1729, it was 
ordered, "for the better utility of trade and commerce, 
increasing the buildings within the city, and improving the 
revenue of the corporation," that two streets should be 
surveyed and laid out along the Hudson river, from the 
south side of Colonel Gaasbcck's property, to the south 
side of that of Mr. John Rodman, one street of forty feet 
in width at high water mark, and the other of thirty feet 
in width at low watermark; the high Avater mark to be the 
centre of one street, and the low water mark to be the 
centre of the other. It was also ordered that three slips 
should be established, one opposite the present Morris 
street, another opposite the present Exchange place, and 
another opposite the present Rector street. The streets 



288 MARKETS. 

established by these ordinances were the present Green- 
wich and Washington streets, from Battery place to Rector 
street. Many years, however, elapsed before they were 
built upon. 

On the East river side of the city the lots were in 
greater demand than on the North river side; and in the 
year 1750, Queen street was quite populous on both sides, 
nearly up to Peck slip. 

A notable feature of the city, at the era now referred to, 
was the number of public markets in the city. One was 
situated at the foot of Broad street ; another at Coenties 
corner, now Coenties slip, (a name derived from the 
familiar and traditionary appellation of an owner of 
property on the " corner." This was Mr. Conraet Ten 
Eyck, one of the early inhabitants, familiarly called 
"Coentje.' The grand children of Mr. Ten Eyck pro- 
cured an extensive water privilege in the year 1740, at 
their property on Coenties corner. Another market was 
at the foot of Wall street; another at Burgher's Path, or 
present Old slip; another, commonly known as the Fly 
market, a name derived from the original name of its 
locality — the Valley, Vly or Fly — was at the foot of 
Maiden lane. Another was at Rodman's slip, above 
Maiden lane. In short, at the foot of each street along 
the East river shore, was a market. In the centre of the 
city, also, were several market places. Broad street, from 
Wall street to Exchange place, was a public stand for 
country wagons. A market was also erected in the centre 
of Broadway, opposite the present Liberty street. 

An intelligent traveler, (Professor Kalra) visiting this 
city in 1748, thus describes his visit : 

'' At about eight o'clock in the morning (Oct. 30,) after 



APPEAKANCE OF THE CITY IN 1748. 289 

crossing over from Elizabethtown to Statcu Island, we 
arrived at the place where we were to cross the water in 
order to come to the town of New York; we left our 
horses here, and went on board the yacht. We were to 
go eight English miles by sea; however, we landed, about 
eleven o'clock in the morning, at New York. We saw a 
kind of wild ducks, in immense quantities, upon the water; 
the people called them blue-bills; they were very shy. On 
the shore of the continent we saw some very tine sloping 
corn-fields, which at present looked quite green, the corn 
being already come up. We saw many boats, in which the 
fishermen were busy catching oysters. To this purpose 
they make use of a kind of rakes, with long iron teeth, 
bent inwards; these they used either single or two tied 
together, in such a manner that the teeth were turned to- 
ward each other. 

" About New York they find innumerable quantities of 
excellent oysters, and there arc few places which have them 
of such an exquisite taste aad of so great a size; they 
are pickled, and sent to the West Indies and other places. 
Oysters are reckoned very wholesome; some people as- 
sured us that they had not felt the least inconvenience 
after eating a considerable quantity of them. It is like- 
wise a common rule here that they are best in those months 
that have an r in their name — such as September, October, 
&c., but that they are not so good in other months; how- 
ever, there are poor })eoplc who live all the year long upon 
nothing but oysters, with bread. 

" Lobsters are likewise plentifully caught hereabouts, 
pickled, much in the same manner as oysters, and sent to 
several places. I was told of a very remarkable circum- 



290 APPEARANCE OF THE CITY IK 1748. 

stance about these lobsters, and I have since frequently 
heard it mentioned. The coast of New York had already 
European inhabitants for a considerable time, and yet no 
lobsters were to be met with on that coast; and though 
the people fished ever so often, they could never find any 
signs of lobsters being in this part of the sea. They were 
therefore continually brought in great well-boats, from 
New England, where they are plentiful. But it happened 
that one of these well-boats broke in pieces, near Hell- 
gate, about ten miles from New York, and all the lobsters 
in it got off. Since that time they have so multiplied in 
this part of the sea that they are now caught in the great- 
est abundance. 

" Among the numerous shells which are found on the 
sea-shore, there are some which, by the English here, are 
called clams, and which bear some resemblance to the 
human ear. They have a considerable thickness, and are 
chiefly white, excepting the pointed end, which both with- 
out and within has a blue celor, between purple and violet. 
They are met with, in vast numbers, on the sea-shore of 
New York, Long Island and other places. The shells con- 
tain a large animal, which is eaten both by the Indians 
and Europeans settled here; a considerable commerce is 
carried on in the article with such Indians as live further 
up the country. When these people inhabited the coast 
they were able to catch their own clams, which, at that 
time, made a great part of their food; but at present this 
is the business of the Dutch and English, who live in the 
neighborhood. As soon as the shells are caught, the fish 
is taken out of them, drawn upon a wire, and hung up in 
the open air, in order to dry by the heat of the sun; when 




RTH AMERICA. 

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APPEARANCE OF THE CITY IN 1748. 291 

this is done, tlic tlesh is put into proper vessels and carried 
to Albany, upon the river Hudson; there the Indians buy 
them, and reckon them one of their best dishes. 

" New York, the capital of a province of the same name, 
is situated under 40"^ 40' north latitude and 4' west longi- 
tude from London, and is about ninety-seven English miles- 
distant from Philadelphia. The situation of it is extreme- 
ly advantageous for trade; for the town stands upon a 
point which is formed by two bays, into one of which the 
river Hudson discharges itself, not far from the town. 
New York is therefore, on three sides, surrounded with 
water. The ground it is built on is' level in some parts 
and hilly in others. The place is generally reckoned very 
healthy. 

" The town was first founded by the Dutch; this, it is 
said, was done in the year 1023, when they were yet mas- 
ters of the country; they called it New Amsterdam. The 
English, toward the end of the year 1(364, taking posses- 
sion, gave the name of New York to both the city and 
country. In size it comes nearest to Boston and Philadel- 
phia; but with regard to its fine buildings, its opulence and 
extensive commerce, it disputes the preference with them. 

" The streets do not run so straight as those of Phila- 
delphia, and have some times considerable bendiugs; how- 
ever, they arc very spacious and well built, and most of 
them are paved, excepting in high places, where it has 
been found useless. In the chief streets there are trees 
planted, which in summer give them a fine appearance, and 
during the excessive heat at that time, afford a cooling 
shade. I found it extremely pleasant to walk in the town, 
for it seemed quite like a garden. The trees which are 
planted for this purpose are chiefly of two kinds; the 



292 



APPEARANCE OP THE CITY IN 1748. 



water beech is the most numerous, and gives an agreeable 
shade in summer by its large and numerous leaves. The 
locust tree is likewise frequent; its fine leaves and the 
odoriferous scent which exhales from its flowers, make it 
very proper for being planted in the streets, near the 
houses, and in gardens. There are likewise lime trees and 
elms in these walks, but they are not, by far, so frequent as 
the others. One seldom meets with trees of the same sort 
adjoining each other, they being in general placed alter 
nately. 

" Besides numbers of birds of all kinds which make these 
trees their abode, there are likewise a kind of frogs which 
frequent them in great numbers during the summer. They 
are very clamorous in the evening, and in the nights (espe- 
cially when the days have been hot, and a rain is expected.) 
and in a manner drown the singing of the birds. They 
frequently make such a noise that it is difficult for a person 
to make himself heard. 

" Most of the houses are built of bricks, and are gener- 
ally strong and neat, and several stories high; some have, 
according to the old architecture, turned the gable end 
toward the street, but the new houses are altered in this 
respect. Many of the houses have a balcony on the roof, 
on which the people sit in the evenings, in the summer 
time; and from thence they have a pleasant view of a great 
part of the town, and likewise of part of the adjacent 
water, and of the opposite shore. The roofs are commonly 
covered with tiles or shingles, the latter of which are 
made of the white fir tree, which grows higher up in the 
country. The inhabitants are of opinion that a roof, made 
of these shingles, is as durable as one made of white cedar. 
The walls of the houses are whitewashed within, and I did 



APPEARANOK OF THK CITY IN 174S. 293 

not anywhere see hangings, with Avhich the people in this 
country seem in general to he little acquainted. The walls 
are quite covered with all sorts of drawings and pictures, 
in small frames. On each side of the chimneys they usu- 
ally have a sort of alcove, and the wall under the window 
is wainscoted, with benches near the window. The al- 
to ves, as well as all of the wood-work, are painted with a 
hluish-gray color. 

'' Toward the sea, on the extremity of the promontory, 
i? a pretty good fortress, called Fort George, which 
entirely commands the port, and can defend the town, at 
least from a sudden attack on the sea side. Besides that, 
it is secured on the north, or toward the land sid'c, by a 
palisade; which, however, (as for a considerable time the 
people have had nothing to fear from an enemy) is in many 
places in a very bad state of defence. 

" There is no good water to be met with in the town it- 
self: but at a little distance there is a large spring of good 
water, which the inhabitants take for their tea, and for the 
uses of the kitchen. Those, however, who are less delicate 
on this point make use of the water from the wells in 
town, though it be very bad. This want of good water 
lies heavy upon the horses of the strangers that come to 
this place, for they do not like to drink the water from the 
wells in the town. 

" The port is a good one — ships of great burthen can lie 
in it quite close up to the bridge; but its water is very 
salt, as the sea continually comes in upon it, and therefore 
is never frozen except in extraordinary cold weather. This 
is of great advantage to the city and its commerce; for 
many ships either come in or go out of the port at any 
time of the year, unless the wind be contrary. The har- 



294 APPEARANCE OF THE CITY IN 1748. 

bor is secured from all violent hurricanes from the south- 
east by Long Island, which is situated just before the 
town; therefore only the storms from the south-west are 
dangerous to the ships which ride at anchor here, because 
the port is open only on that side. New York probably 
carries on a more extensive commerce than any town in 
the English North American provinces; at least it may be 
said to equal them. Boston and Philadelphia, however, 
come very nearly up to it. The trade of New York extends 
to many places, and it is said they send more ships from 
thence to London than they do from Philadelphia. They 
export to that capital all the various sorts of skins, which 
they buy of the Indians — sugar, logwood and other dye- 
ing woods; rum, mahogany, and many other goods which 
are the produce of the West Indies. Every year they 
build several ships here, which are sent to London, and 
there sold; and of late years they have sliipped a great 
quantity of iron to England. In return for these they 
import from London stuffs and every other article of Eng- 
lish growth and manufacture, together with all sorts of 
foreign goods. England, and especially London, profits 
immensely by the trade. 

" New York sends many ships to the West Indies, with 
flour, corn, biscuit, timber, boards, flesh, fish, butter, and 
other provisions, together with some few of the fruits that 
grow here. Many ships go to Boston, in New England, 
with flour and corn, and take in exchange flesh, butter, 
timber, difi'erent sorts of fish, and other articles, which 
they carry further, to the West Indies; they now and then 
take rum from thence. There is also some trade with 
Philadelphia. Some times ships, wanting freight in Eng- 
land, take in coals for ballast; which, when brought here, 



APPEARANCK OF THE CITY IN 1748. 295 

sell for a pretty good price, as many persons use them both 
for the kitchen and parlor fires, considering them cheaper 
than wood. 

" I cannot make a just estimate of the ships that an- 
nually come to this town, or sail from it. But I have found 
that from the 1st of December, in 1729, to the 5th of 
December, in the next year, two hundred and eleven ves- 
sels entered the port of New York, and two huudred and 
twenty-two cleared it; and since that time there has been 
a great increase of trade here. 

" There are two printers in the town, and every week 
some gazettes, in English, are published, which contain 
news from all parts of the world. • 

" The winter is much more severe here than in Philadel- 
phia; the snow lies for some months together on the 
ground, and sledges are made use of. The river Hudson 
is about a mile and a half broad at this point, and the tide 
ebbs and flows six or seven feet; yet the ice stands in it 
not only one, but even several mouths. It has sometimes 
a thickness of more than two feet. 

'• The inhabitants are sometimes greatly troubled with 
mosquitoes; they either follow the hay, which is made 
near the town, in the low meadows, which are quite pene- 
trated with salt water, or they accompany the cattle when 
brought home at evening. I have myself experienced and 
have observed in others, how much these little auiuialcuiaj 
can disfigure a person's face during a single night; for the 
skin is sometimes so covered over with little blisters, from 
their stings, that people are ashamed to appear in public. 

" The water-melons, which are cultivated near the town, 
grow very large. They are extremely delicious, and are 
better than in other parts of North America, though they 



296 APPEARANCE OF THE CITY IN 1756. 

fire planted in the open fields, and never in a hot-bed. I 
saw a water-melon at Governor Clinton's, in 1750, which 
weighed forty-seven English pounds, and another at a 
merchant's in town of forty-two pounds weight. How- 
ever they were reckoned the largest ever seen in the 
country." 

The Rev. Mr. Burnaby, who visited the city about the 
same period, says: 

" The inhabitants of New York, in their character, very 
much resemble the Pennsylvanians. More than half of 
them are Dutch, and almost all traders. They are there- 
fore habitually frugal, industrious and parsimonious. 
J3eing,' however, of different nations, different languages, 
and different religions, it is almost impossible to give 
them any precise or determinate character. The women 
are handsome and agreeable, though rather more reserved 
than the Philadelphia ladies. The amusements are balls 
and sleighing expeditions in the winter, and in the summer 
going in parties upon the water and fishing, or making 
excursions into the country. There are several houses, 
pleasantly situated up the East river, near New York, 
where it is common to have turtle feasts. These happen 
once or twice in a week. Thirty or forty gentlemen and 
ladies, meet and dine together, drink tea in the afternoon, 
fish and amuse themselves till evening, and then return 
home in Italian chaises, (the fashionable carriage in this 
and most parts of America, Virginia excepted, where they 
chiefly make use of coaches, and these commonly drawn 
by six horses,) a gentleman and lady in each chaise." 

The following is the description given of this city in 
the year 1756, by Mr. Smith, the historian : 

" The island is very narrow, not a mile wide at a me- 



ArPEARAXCE OF THE CITV I\ 1756. 297 

dium, and about fourteen miles in length. The south-west 
point projects into a fine spacious bay, nine miles long and 
about four in breadth, at the confluence of the waters of 
Hudson river and the strait between Long Island and the 
northern shore. The Narrows at the south end of the bay 
is scarce two miles wide, and opens the ocean to full view. 
The passage up to New York from Sandy Hook, a point 
that extends farthest into the sea, is safe, and not above 
five and twenty miles in length. The common navigation 
is between the east and west banks in two or three and 
twenty feet water. But it is said that an eighty gun ship 
may be brought up, through a narrow, winding, unfre- 
quented channel, between the north end of the east bank 
and Coney Island. 

'■ The city has, in reality, no natural basin or harbor. 
The ships lie off in the road, on the east side of the town, 
which is docked out, and better built than the west side, 
because the freshets in Hudson river fill it in some winters 
with ice. 

" The city of New York consists of about two thousand 
five hundred buildings. It is a mile in length and not 
above half that in breadth. Such is its figure, its centre 
of business, and the situation of the houses, that the mean 
cartage from one part to another does not exceed above 
one quarter of a mile, than which nothing can be more ad- 
vantageous to a trading city. 

" It is thought to be as healthy a spot as any in the 
world. The east and south parts in general are low, but 
the rest is situated on a dry elevated soil. The streets are 
irregular, but being paved with round pebbles, are clean, 
and lined with well-built brick houses, many of which are 
covered with tiled roofs. 



298 APPEARANCE OF THE CITY IN 1756. 

" No part of America is supplied with markets abound- 
ing witli greater plenty and variety. We have beef, pork, 
mutton, poultry, butter, wild fowl, venison, fish, roots and 
herbs of all kinds in their seasons. Our oysters are a 
considerable article in the support of the poor. Their 
beds are within view of the town. A fleet of two hundred 
small craft are often seen there at a time, when the weather 
is mild in winter; and this single article is computed to be 
worth annually ten or twelve thousand pounds. 

" This city is the metropolis and grand mart of the prov- 
ince, and, by its commodious situation, commands also all 
the trade of the western part of Connecticut and that of 
New Jersey. No season prevents our ships from launching 
out into the ocean. During the greatest severity of the 
winter, an equal, unrestrained activity runs through all 
ranks, orders and employments. 

" Upon the south-west point of the city stands the fort, 
which is a square, with four bastions. "Within the walls 
is the house in which our governors usually reside, and 
opposite to it brick barracks, built formerly for the inde- 
pendent companies. The governor's house is in height 
three stories, and fronts to the west, having from the second 
story, a fine prospect of the bay and Jersey shore. At the 
south end there was formerly a chapel, but this was burnt 
down in the negro conspiracy of the spring of 1741. Ac- 
cording to Governor Burnet's observation, this fort stands 
in the latitude of 42'-' 42' north. 

" Below the walls of the garrison, near the water, we 
have lately raised a line of fortifications, which commands 
the enti-auce into the eastern road and the mouth of Hud- 
son's river. This battery is built of stone, and the merlons 
consist of cedar joists filled in with earth. It mounts 



APPEARANCE OF TDK CITY IX 175G. 299 

ninety-two cannon, and these are all the works we have 
to defend ns. About six furlongs south-east of the fort 
lies Nutten Island, containing about one hundred or one 
hundred and twenty acres, reserved by an act of assembly 
as a sort of demesne for the governors, upon which it is 
proposed to erect a strong castle, because an enemy might 
from thence easily bombard the city, without being annoyed 
either by our battery or the fort. During the late war a 
line of palisadoes was run from Hudson's to the East river 
at the other end of the city, with block houses at small 
distances. The greater part of these still remain as a 

* 

monument of our folly, which cost the government about 
eight thousand pounds. 

" The inhabitants of Now York are a mixed people, but 
mostly descended from the original Dutch planters. There 
are two churches in which religious worship is performed 
in that language. The old building is of stone,* and ill 
built, ornamented within by a small organ loft and brass 
branches. The new churchf is a very heavy edifice, has a 
very extensive area, and was completed in 1729. It has 
no galleries, and yet will perhaps contain a thousand or 
twelve hundred auditors. The steeple of this church 
aflfords a most beautiful prospect, both of the city beneath, 
and of the surrounding country. The Dutch congregation 
is more numerous than any other; but, as the language 
becomes disused, it is much diminished; and unless they 
change their worship into the English tongue, must soon 
suffer a total dissipation. They have at present two min- 
isters, the reverend Messrs. Ritzma and De Ronde, who 
are strict Calvinists. Their church was incorporated on 
the 11th of May, 1696, by the name of the minister, elders 
and deacons of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church of 

* Garden street Church. t The present Post OflSee. 



300 APPKARANCE OF THE CITY IX 1756. 

the city of New York; and its estate, after the expiration 
of suudry long leases, will be worth a very great income. 

" There are besides the Dutch, two Episcopal churches 
in this city, upon the plan of the established church in 
South Britain. Trinity Church was built in 169G, and 
afterward enlarged in 1737. It stands very pleasantly 
upon the banks of Hudson's river, and has a large ceme- 
tery on each side, inclosed in front by a painted paled 
fence. Before it a long walk is railed off from the Broad- 
way, the pleasantest street of any in the whole town. 
This building is about one hundred and forty-eight feet long, 
including the tower and chancel, and seventy-two feet hi 
breadth. The steeple is one hundred and seventy-five feet 
in height. The church within is ornamented beyond any 
other place of public worship among us. The head of the 
chancel is adorned with an altar piece, and opposite to it, 
at the other end of the building, is the organ. The tops 
of the pillars, which support the galleries, are decked with 
gilt busts of angels, winged. From the ceiling are sus- 
pended two glass branches, and on the walls hang the arms 
of some of its principal benefactors. The aisles are paved 
with flat stones. The present rector of this church is the 
Rev. Henry Barclay, formerly a missionary among the 
Mohawks, who receives one hundred pounds a-year, levied 
upon all the other clergy and laity in the city, by virtue 
of an act of assembly, procured by Governor Fletcher. 
He is assisted by Dr. Johnson and Mr. Auchmuty. 

" "This congregation, partly by the arrival of strangers^ 
but principally by proselytes from the Dutch churches, is 
become so numerous that, though the old building will 
contain two thousand hearers, yet a new one was erected 
in 1752. This, called St George's Chapel, is a very great 



APPEARANCK OP THE CITY IN 1756. 301 

edifice, faced with hewn stone and tiled; the steeple is 
lofty but irregular, and its situation in a new, crowded 
and ill built part of the town. 

" The revenue of Trinity Church is restricted, by an act 
of Assembly, to five hundred pounds per annum; but it is 
possessed of a real estate at the north end of the town, 
which, having been lately divided into lots, and let to 
farm, will, in a few years, produce a much greater in- 
come. 

•' The Presbyterians, increasing after Lord Cornbury's 
return to England, called Mr. Anderson, a Scotch minister, 
Co the pastoral charge of their congregation. And Dr. 
John Nicol, Patrick Macknight, Gilbert Livingston and 
Thomas Smith, purchased a piece of ground and founded 
a church in 1719. Two years afterward they petitioned 
Colonel Schuyler, who had then the chief command, for a 
charter of .incorporation to secure their estate for religious 
worship, upon the plan of the Church of North Britain; 
but were disappointed in their expectations through the 
opposition of the Episcopal party. After several years' 
solicitation for a charter, in vain, and fearful that those 
who obstructed such a reasonable request, would watch an 
opportunity to give them a more effectual wound, those 
among the Presbyterians, who were invested with the fee 
simple of the church and ground, conveyed it, on the 16th 
of March, 1730, to a committee of the Church of Scotland. 
This committee gave the Presbyterian inhabitants of New 
York a right to pursue religious worship in the church. 
Mr. Anderson was succeeded, in April, 1727, by the Rev. 
Ebenezer Pemberton, a man of polite breeding, pure 
morals, and warm devotion, under whose labors the con- 
gregation greatly increased, and were enabled to raise a 



302 APPEARANCE OP THE CITY IN 1756. 

new edifice in 1*748. This was built of stone, and railed 
off from the street. It was in length eighty feet, and in 
breadth sixty. The steeple raised on the south-west end 
is, in height, one hundred and forty-five feet. 

" The French Church, by the contentions of 1724, and 
the disuse of the language, is now reduced to an inconsid- 
erable handful. The building, which is of stone, is nearly 
a square — plain, both within and without. It is fenced 
from the street, has a steeple and a bell, the latter of which 
was the gift of Sir Henry Ashurst of London. The 
present minister, Mr. Carle, is a native of France, and 
succeeded Mr. Ron in 1754. 

" The German Lutheran churches are two. Both their 
places of worship are small; one of them has a cupola 
and a bell. 

" The Quakers have a meeting-house, and the Moravians, 
a new sect among us, a church, consisting principally of 
female proselytes from other societies. Their service is in 
the English tongue. 

" The Anabaptists assemble at a small meeting-house, 
but have as yet no regular settled congregation. 

" The Jews, who are not inconsiderable for their num- 
bers, worship in a synagogue erected in a very private part 
of the town, plain without but very neat within. 

" English is the most prevailing language among us, but 
not a little corrupted by the Dutch dialect, which is still so 
much used in some counties, that the sherifi"s find it diffi- 
cult to obtain persons sufficiently acquainted with the 
English tongue, to serve as jurors in the courts of law. 

" In the city of New York, through our intercourse with 
the English, we follow the London fashions; though by the 
time we adopt them, they become disused in England. Our 



/ 

APPEARANCE OF TITE CITY IN ]7o6. 303 

affluence during the late war, introduced a degree of lux- 
ury in tables, dress and furniture, with which we were 
before unacquainted. But still we are not ?o gay a people 
as our neighbors, at Boston, and several of the southern 
colonies. The Dutch counties, in some measure, follow 
the example of New York, but still retain many modes 
peculiar to Hollanders. 

" The city of New York consists principally of mer- ^ 
chants, shop-keepers and tradesmen, who sustain the repu- 
tation of honest, punctual and fair dealers. With respect 
to riches, there is not so great an inequality among us, as 

^ is common in Boston and some other places. Every man 
of industry and integrity has it in his power to live well, 
and many are the instances of persons who came here 
distressed by their poverty, who now enjoy easy and plen- 
tiful fortunes. 

"New York is one of the most social places on the con- / 
tinent. The men collect themselves into weekly evening 
clubs. The ladies, in winter, are frequently entertained, 
either at concerts of music or assemblies, and make a very 
good appearance. They are comely and dress well, and 
scarce any of them have distorted shapes. Tinctured 
with a Dutch education, thej^ manage their families with 

^becoming parsimony, good providence, and singular neat- 
ness. The practice of extravagant gaming, common to 
the fashionable part of the fair sex in some places, is a 
vice with which my country women cannot justly be 
charged. There is nothing they so generally neglect as^ 
reading, and indeed all the arts for the improvement of the 
mind, in which, it must be confessed, the men have set 
them an example. They are modest, temperate and chari- 
table, naturally sprightly, sensible and good-humored; and, 



304 API'EARANCE OF TUE CITY IN 1756. 

N by the help of a more elevated education, would possess 
all the accomplishments desirable in the sex. Our schools / 
are in the lowest order; the instructors want instruction, 
and through a long, shameful neglect of all the arts and 
sciences, our common speech is extremely corrupt, and the 
evidences of a bad taste, both as to thought and language, 
are visible in all our proceedings, public and private. 
" The people, both in town and country, are sober, 

\j industrious and hospitable, though intent upon gain. The 
richer sort keep very plentiful tables, abounding with 
great varieties of fish, flesh, fowl, and all kinds of vegeta- 
bles. The common drinks are beer, cider, weak punch 
and Madeira wine; for desert we have fruits, in vast plenty, 
of different kinds and various species. 

" The inhabitants are in general healthy and robust, 
taller, but shorter-lived than Europeans, and both with 

. ^ respect to their minds and bodies, arrive sooner to an age 
of maturity. Breathing a serene, dry air, they are more ^ 
sprightly in their natural tempers than the people of Eng- 
land; and hence instances of suicide here are very uncom- 
mon. The situation of New York, with respect to trade, 
is very advantageous; but our merchants are compared to 
, a hive of bees, who industriously gather honey for others 
— non vohus mellificatis ape& — for the profits of our trade 
centre chiefly in Great Britain; and for that reason, me- 
thinks, among others, we ought always to receive the gen- 
erous aid and protection of our mother country. Our 
importation of dry goods, from England, is so vastly great 
that we are obliged to betake ourselves to all possible arts* 
to make remittances to the British merchants. It is for 
^ this purpose we import cotton from St. Thomas and Suri- 
nam, lime juice and Nicaragua wood from Curacoa, and 



ityof NEW-Tv 



0>ftr of an oruji. 



cale 1320 t4> H of ti MiU 



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€ 



x^^'- 
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nEFKnBXCE. 



Ill,' I'.Tl 

Triiiili' tliiinl, 
01,1 l')iit,li<liiii,li 
I'rciii/i Oiiiriii 
A'.ir liuJih ri,ui;J, 
I'lr-'brU-ritin Ahr/iiiil 

HiitiLtv or. 

lUiptisI W. 

iulluruiv <'liiii4h 
./cirA- Sriuiijvtjin' 
.*•' (iivnfe :« fhapfl 
Moniyimi Mit liini 
UfW lAUhrnLiv Xictting 
Oovrnorx House 
Si'in-fari'f Offur 
i iishiin lloiist' 
I ill r Li rill ff."!!'!! d: t'::Sui>?li 
aiy lUiIl' 

lifiiriifi Siiifarlli>usi- 
K.rilmiiifi' 
Fij-li Mtiihil 
Old fUfiMarl^l 



HI. Mr, 1 1 Ma rt- 

II. Flir 1 

!■: liiiiiiil.' I 

/.l <>.-=m-ii,i I 

H Hiiifl'i.ili tti .'iiiuwl 

I.; UiiMl h />.'.' 

It, M'-Cmiit^it-' .luifuilliiiii' 

17 M''tiili tirUyilii Iti-" 

IH sun lliiiiKi 

W IffJeiv Lir\i)slen<- 

■JO. <(■ l.iij/pnjiii'"it'' W 

il.Tlw'Vatuiii.-'UHi""'''' 
■>:' HiiIktI Oruth />'• 
•JS.Jii'liuiUni /'■'• 

M .liiiiu'S Huifiu) D". 
i'.;..rii"L,<tki ' l>" 
' JoHaiJ" Blaise II" 
^'..Jnvf lUiria Oniiuid 
iS I'fOiUi'Uj.; 

:!■/ i;>m;Iii u-: 

M III O.J. 

:ii. c.iiis 



Plan or till' C itv of .NEW-Tv 



iToni an actual vSin-voy. Anno 

.V/«/> ill Iht pOi!.i.-^iiti. ul' III, r.:i,ni:ill.ii, ,/ Ti i/n/i f/lnrc/l 



//. l:fL'l> I,' 'n of II MiU . 




Doniuii 3I1)( 1 LV. 

Itv V. iVIaoistlmUtv 




F.n" /loi.i,A.\n h',i^</. 

MA YOU. 




APPEARANCE OF THE CITY IN 1756. 305 

logwood from the bay, &c. ; and yet it drains us of all the 
\ gold and silver we can collect. It is computed that the 
annual amount of the goods purchased by this colony, in 
Great Britain, is in value not less than one hundred thou- / 
sand pounds sterling; and the sum would be much greater 
if a stop was put to all clandestine trade. The item of t^a 
is a very important one, as our people, both in town and 
country, are shamefully gone into the habit of tea drink- 
\^ ing; and it is supposed we consume, of this commodity, in 
value near ten thousand pounds sterling per annum. 
" The money used is silver, gold, British half-pence and 
N^ bills of credit. Twelve half-pence, till lately, passed for 
a shilling; which, being much beyond their value in any 
of the neighboring colonies, a set of gentlemen, seventy- 
two in number, on the 22d of December, 1753, subscribed 
a paper engaging not to receive or pass them except at 
the rate of fourteen coppers to a shilling. This gave rise 
to a mob, for a few days, among the lower class of people; 
but some of them being imprisoned, the scheme was car- 
ried into execution, and established in every part of the 
province." 



20 



APPENDIX. 



DESCEIPTIVE PARTS OF EARLY GRANTS AND DEEDS ON THIS ISLAND, 
SPECIFYING THE LOCALITIES TO WHICH THEY APPLIED. 

1637. '' Land near Sapokanikan," afterward Greenwich, in the present 

Ninth Ward. 

1638. " Land behind Corlear's laud," at Harlem. 

1639. " Land in the ' Smith's Valley,' " present Pearl street, near Bcek- 

man street. 
'■ ■' Land at the little brook, called the Old AVreck," on the East 
river side. 

1641. " Laud betwixt the two creeks, where the water is running over 

the stones" — unknown. 
" " Land in the Smith's VaUcy," present Pearl street, near Fulton 
street. 

1642. " Land on the East river, near the brook," in the vicinity of the 

present Roosevelt street. 

1643. " Lot east of the fort," on the present Bridge street. 

" " Lot on the shore of the East river, eiist of the fort," at the 
present Hanover square. 

" " Lot south-cast of the fort, along the ri^er," the present Pearl 
street, near Broad street. 

" " Lot north of the fort," the present west side of Broadway, oppo- 
site the Bowling Green. 

" " Ijot on the cast side of the great highway," the present east side 
of Broadway, below Exchange place. 

" " Lot in the Smith's Valley," present Pearl street, near Fulton. 

" " Lot on the great highway," on Broadway, near the Bowliug 
Green. 



308 APPENDIX. 

1643. " Lot on the south end of the Company's Valley, north-east from 

the fort," on the present north side of Beaver street, west of 

Broad street. 
"■ " Lot on the common highway," east side of Broadway, north of 

Beaver street. 
" " Lot along the public highway," on the east side of Broadway, 

north of Beaver street. 
" " Lot east of the fort," on the present Stone street, east of White- 
hall street. 
" " Lot south of the fort," on the present Pearl street, west of 

Whitehall street. 
" •' Lot on the common ditch," on the east side of Broad street, 

between Peavl and Stone streets. 
" * " Lot on the public highway," east side of Broadway. 
" " Lot next Hendrick Kip," extending ft"om Bridge to Stone street. 

1644. " Lot on the common ditch," on the present Broad street. 

" " Lot southerly from the fort," on the present Pearl street, west 
of Whitehall street. 

1645. " Land called the Otter track," at Harlem. 

" " Lot on the west side of the ditch," Broad street. 

" " Lot on the common highway," Broadway. 

" " Lot on the road," present Stone street, east of Whitehall street. 

" " Lot north of the fort," west side of Broadway, opposite the 
Bowling Green. 

" ■' Lot north-east of the fort," Broadway and Beaver street. 

" " Land at the East river," at pi'csent Franklin square. 

" " Lot on the ditch," present Beaver street, east of Broad street. 

" " Farm called Bylvelfs Bowery," toward Corlear's Hook. 

" •' Lot behind the public tavern," on the present Stone street, be- 
tween Broad street and Hanover square. 

" " Land north of the fresh water," in present Fourteenth Ward. 

" " Land on the Swamp," in vicinity of present north-west corner of 
Beaver and Broad streets. 

" " Bouwery No. 5," or Pennebacker's Bowery, east of Chatham 
square. 

" •* Bouwery No. 6," east of Chatham square. 

" " Lot behind the public inn," on present Stone street, east cernei- 
of Broad street. 

« " Lot north-east of the fort, on the road," the present south-east 
corner of Beaver and Whitehall streets. 



APPENDIX. 309 

1645. " Lot along the ditch, corner of the road," houtli-wost corner of 

Broad and Beaver streets. 
" •' Land next Cornelius Dircksen, the ferryman," at the present 
Franklin square. 

1646. " Lot close to the Fiscal's kitchen, and next the yard of the 

preacher," present Bridge street, east of AVhitehall street. 
" Lot on the great public highway," Broadway. 
" Lot east of the fort, between the stone houses and the fort," on 

the present Whitehall street, between Bridge and Stone 

streets. 
" Lot on the ditch, adjoining the swamp," near the present north- 
west corner of Beaver and Broad streets. 
" Lot along the public road, near the garden of Jan Dameu," the 

present Broadway, near Wall street. 
" Land in the Smith's Valley," the present Pearl street, near 

John street. 
" Lot east of the fort, opposite the five stone houses," the present 

AVhitehall street, between Stone and Bridge streets. 
" Lot along the road, near the brew-house of the Company," on 

the present Stone street, between Whitehall and Broad 

streets. 
" Schout's Bouwery." 
" Lot south of the fort," the present north side of Pearl street, 

west of Whitehall street. 
" Lot on the strand, next the Company's warehouse," the present 

north-east corner of Pearl and Whitehall streets. 
•' " liOt south-west of the fort, on the. strand," the present State 

street, near Pearl street. 
" " Land at Sapokanikan," aft (n- ward Crcenwich, in Ninth Ward. 
" Lot along the P]ast river, near the old church," on the present 

north side of Pearl street, betwec'n Broad and Whitehall 

streets. 
" " Lot on the ditch, bounded in rear by a trench in the marsh," 

on the prownt north side of Beaver street, west of Broad 

street. 
" " Lot on the uortlwast side of the ditch, ' present Beaver street, 

west of Broad street. 

1647. " Lot between Claes Do Ruyter and the Company's bakery," on 

the south side of Pearl street, west of Whitehall street 



310 APPENDIX. 

1645. " Plantation south of the marsh of Domine Bogardus," in the 
present Fifth Ward. 
" " Lot on the common ditch," the present Broad street, west side, 

near Stone street. 
" " Land called Flatland," near Harlem. 

" " West side of the great public road, next the garden of the Com- 
pany, west side of Broadway/' near Rector street. 
1651. " Lot on the strand of the East river," present Pearl street, east 

of Broad street. 
1657. " Heere graft-," lower part of Broad street. 
" " Prince graft," Broad street, above Beaver street. 
" " Brouwer straat," Stone street, between Broad and Whitehall 

streets. 
" " Brugh straat," Bridge street, between Broad and Whitehall 

streets. 
" " Markvelt steegie," Marketfield street. 
" " Markvelt," Whitehall street, east side, between Stone and Beaver 

streets ; and Broadway, west side, between Battery place and 

Morris street. 
" " Heere straat," Broadway, south of Wall street, to Beaver street. 
" " Hoogh straat," Stone street, between Broad street and Hanover 

square ; and Pearl street, from thence to Wall street. 
" " De Waal," Pearl street, north side, from Broad street to Hano- 
ver square. 
" " The Water," Pearl street, north side, between Whitehall and 

Broad streets. 
« u Perel straat," Pearl street, between State and Whitehall 

streets. 
" " Winckel straat," (now closed.) then running between Stone and 

Bridge streets, east of Whitehall street. 
« <t Pi-iuce straat," Beaver street, between Broad and WiUiam 

streets. 
" " Smee straat," William street, 'between Wall street and Hanover 

square. 
" " Smith's Valley," Pearl street, east of Wall street. 
" " The Wall," Wall street. 
1665. " Maagde Paetje," Maiden lane. 
" " Broadway." 
" " Smith's VaUey," Pearl street, above Wall street. 



APPEyOlS. 



311 



1666. " Hecrewegh," Chatham strcoi:, along tlio Park. 

" " High street," Stone street, between Broad and Wilh'am streets. 
" *' House and land outside the Umd gate,'' Broadway, above Wall 

street. 
" " Land called the Clavcrwatie, south of the ^laagde Paetje," 

south of Maiden lane. 

1667. " The Wall," Wall street. 
" " Breedwegli," Broadway. 

" " Slyck Steegh," South William street. 
1672. " Broadway." 

" " Tuyen street" (Garden street,) Exchange place. 
" " Markvelt lane," Marketfipld street. 

" Cingle," Wall street. 
" " Schreyer's Hook," State srtreet, south of Pearl streel^. 
" " Smith street," William street, between AVall street and Hanover 

square. 
" " The land at the ferry," near Peck slip. 
" " Waal or Strand," Pearl street, north side, between Broad street 

and Old slip. 
" " Brewer or Stone street," Stone street, near Broad street. 
" " Great graft," Broad street, south of Beaver street. 
" " Kalch-hook," north of the Park. 
1677. " The water side," present north side of Pearl street, between 

Wall and Whitehall streets. 
" " The Marketfield and Broadway," Wliitehall street, north of 

Stone street ; and Broadway, to Wall street. 
" " The Walls," Wall street. 
" " The Schaape Avaytie," or the sheep pasture, present Broad street, 

between Exchange place and Wall street. 
" " The High street," present Stone street, between Broad street 

and Hanover square. 
" " The Smith street," the present William street. Ijelow Waif 

street. 
" " Mill street lane," tbe present South William street. 
" " The Smith street lane," formerly " Schaape waytie," or shcc]) 

path. 
" " The Heere graft," Broad street, below Beaver street. 
" " Hie Beaver graft," Beaver street, between Broadway and Broad 

street. 
" " Field street," Marketfield street. 
** " Stone street," Stone street. 



312 APPENDIX. 

1677. " Markvelt i^trcet," Whitehall street, above Bridge street. 

" " Winkle street," between Stone and Bridge streets. 
1680 " Land at the outlet of the fresh water little creek on the East 
river, bounded by Woltcrt's meadow," near the present foot 
of Roosevelt street. 
" " Smith's Fly," before described ; see also map of 1695, and sub- 
sequent maps, for the several designations of the streets at 
the periods to which they refer. 



313 



LIST OF INHABITANTS 

WHO OFFERED LOANS FOR ERECTING THE CITY PALISADES IN 160:>- 

Mynheer Wcrcldioveu Trader ^80 

Joannes Van Beeck " 80 

Joannes Van Brugh '' 80 

Joannes Depeyster " 40 

Coi-nelis Steenwyck' " 80 

G overt Loockeimans " 60 

Oloff Stevenson Van Cortland. .Brewer 60 

Jacob Schellinger Trader 80 

Pieter Prins " 40 

Anthony Van Hardenburgh .... " 80 

Joannes Nevius " 40 

Gulian Wys " 80 

Pieter Buys " 40 

A. &: J. Iveyser " 40 

Paulus Schrick " 40 

Jacob Gerrits Strycker Tailor 80 

Francois Fyn Trader 40 

Mattheus de Vos Notary 40 

Adrian Bloniniaert Ship captain 40 

Evert Tesselaer's Clerks 80 

Jacobus Backer Trader 60 

Nicholas Boodt " 40 

Isaac De Foreest Brewer 40 

Abram Geenes Trader 40 

Jacob Stcendam " 40 

Anthony Clasen Farmer 20 

.'an Jansen, jr Builder '20 

Borger Joris Blacksmith 40 

Jan Vinje Brewer 20 

Arent Van Ilattem Trader 40 



314 



Martin Crigior Trader §^10 

P. L. A'andiogrist " 40 

Maximiliixn Van Gbeol " 40 

Allard Anthony " 40 

Abraui Dolauoy " 40 

l>anicl Litsohoe Tavern-keeper 40 

Philip Geraerdy Trader 20 

Egbert Van Borsum Tavern-keeper 40 

irondrick Kip Tailor 40 

#2020 



315 



TAX AND CONTRIBUTION LIST, 

BAISED IN 1655, TO DEFRAY THE DEBT FOR COXSTRCCTIXG THE CITY 
DEFENCES. 



[This list embraces all the taxable inkiljitauts of the city at that tiDio. 
The several amounts are given in the currency of the present day in 
round numbers. Several included in the iist were non-residents, but held 
taxable interests in the city.] 



Petrus Stuyvesant SCO 

Cornelis Van 'J'ienhoven 40 

Allard Anthony 40 

Oloff Stevenseu Van Cortland. 40 

Joannes Nevius 20 

Joannes De Peyster 20 

Jacob Strycker 12 

Jan Vinje 12 

Jacob Kip 8 

Martin Crigier 20 

P. L. Vandiegrist 24 

Domine Megapolensis 20 

Domine Drissius 20 

Cornelis "V an Ru^n-en 12 

P. W. Yancouwenhoven 40 

Daniel Litsehoe 20 

Johannes Van Brugh 40 

Cornelis Steenwyck 40 

Joost Van Beeck 20 

Skipper Bestenaer 40 

Govert Loockormajis 40 

Pieter C. Yanderveen 24 

Pieter Jacobus Buys 32 

Jacobus Backer 40 

Rynier Rycken 24 

Abram Nickels 28 



Al<m. Dclanoy 31 C 

Pieter Schabanck 10 

Elbert Elbertsen 10 

Rynier Stoffelseu 10 

Heudrick Jausen Vaudervin . . 24 

Jacob Messerau IQ 

Dirck Cla.sen Boot 10 

Jacob Onnosel 12 

Isaac Mense 12 

Pieter Rudolphus 1.5 

Daniel Verveele (Ft. Orange). 10 

Cornelis Martenzen IG 

Abm. Goozcn 4 

Arent Herkoff IG 

Rbt. Vastrick (Ff.rt Orange) . 16 

Jeremias A^an Rensselaer do. 12 

Jan Jansen, jr 8 

Frerick Warner 12 

Laurens Heyn 14 

Nicholas Staelback 7 

Gerrit Banker 8 

Cornelius De Bruyn 10 

Nicholiis Boot 10 

Alex'r d' Injossa 10 

Joannes Withart 20 

Adrian Blommsert 14 



316 



'APPENDIX. 



Nicholas Beverlodt $12 

Cornelis Schut 40 

Teunis Pietersen Tempel (i 

Nicholas Van Holstyn 12 

Marcus Vogelsang 16 

Cornells Van Schel 12 

Paulus Shriek 8 

Gysbert Van Imbroceken. ... 10 

Syraon Jauseu 4 

Barent Van Marrcl 10 

Pieter d'Maker 

Jan Jansen Van Schol 10 

Frerick Gysbertsen 12 

Jacobus Crap 4 

Pieter Tonneman 4 

Skipper of the Speckled Cow . 60 
Skipper of the New Amsterdam 60 

Skipper of the Whitehorse. . . 60 

Jurien Blauck 8 

Olaes Carsten Noormau ■ 4 

Isaac Kip 8 

Andries De Haes 8 

Tomas Fredricksen 3 

Jan Gerritsen 3 

Andries Hoppen 

Tomas La«\bertsen 8 

Evert Coerten 4 

Jacob Boreera 

Maryu Luycken 6 

Claes Bordingh 8 

Jan d'Cuyper 10 

Pieter Van Naerden 5 

Lodowick Pos 6 

Jan Paulizen Jaquet 8 

Jan Dircksen's wife 8 

Jan Peeck 8 

Frerick Hendricksen 4 

Reinhout Reiuhoutsen 6 

Pieter Jacobs Marins 8 

Pieter Oornelisen 8 



Adrian Wouterzen $ 

Abraham Pietersen 3 

Andries Jochcmsen 4 

Michael Pauluzen's wife 6 

Egbert Van Borsuni 12 

Aage Bruynsen 

Hendrick Kip 5 

Roelof Jansen 4 

Jan Perie 4 

Jacob Veets 3 

Ryndert Pietersen 8 

Claes Tysen 5 

Frans Clasen 3 

Coenraet Ten Eyck 8 

Isaac De Foreest 6 

Abram Clock 6 

Dirck Van Schelluyne 5 

Aldert Coninck G 

Auken Jansen 

Sybrant Jansen Galma 4 

William Brouwer 

Hay Volkertsen 4 

Hans Steyu 6 

William Pietersen d'Groot. . . G 

Jan Gerritzen Brouwer 5 

Albert Jansen 6 

Claes Van Elslant 6 

Mighiel Tadens 7 

Waruaer Wessells 10 

Saloman Pietersen 4 

Cornelis Jansen Clopper G 

Myndert the Cooper 4 

C. De Ruyter and H. Douwson 6 

Laurens d'Drayer 6 

Abram La Cuya 40 

Jossep d'Coster 40 

David Freere 40 

Fusilador Dandrade 40 

Jacob Cowyn 40 

Jacob Barsimsen 3 



317 



Asser Laurens $3 

Abram Ycrplanck 8 

Hans Kierstede 6 

Adolpli Picterseu o 

Gerrit Fullwever 6 

Frerick Flipzen 8 

Borger Joriseii 8 

Egbert Wouterzen 8 

Jacob Steendam 10 

Hendriok Willcinsen ........ 10 

J acob Huges 3 

Willem Beekman (exempt) 

Joost Tunizen 10 

Carel Van Brngh 14 

Tuuis Kray 8 

rietcr Kock 8 

Jan Guraerdy 8 

Rendel Huit 4 

Jan J. Schepmocs 8 

Adrian Van Ticnlioven 10 

Adrian Keyser 

Evert Duycbingh G 

Jan Hendrickscn 4 

Abraham Jacobsen 5 

Jan Ryersen 3 

Jan Adrianzen 7 

Pieter Harmenzcn 

Caspar Steinmots 4 

Allart Trumpeter's wife 4 

Sybout Clasen 8 

Adrian Vincent ;"> 

Teuui.s, the mason 3 

Thomas Hall 10 

Gabriel Barenzen Dc Hacs. . . 4 
Resolvert Waldron (exempt). 

Jochem Beekman 4 

Claes Paulizen : . . . . 4 

Isaac Allerton 25 

Claes^ Pieterzen 3 



Albert Kalckbuj-s 

Jan Jansen Van Ham 

Gerrit Jansen Roos 

Harmen Sybrantzen (exempt.) 

Joost Goderis 

Jan Cornelizen, Clyn & S. Abels 

Jan Scryver 

Symon Felle 

Jan Rutgerzen 

Arcnt Isaac.=!Ou 

Cornells Van Langvclt 

Ryudert Jansen Van Hooru . . 

Henry Van Uyck 

Samuel Edsal 

Frans Janrsen Van Hooghten . 

Claes Ilendricksen 

Lourcas Jansen 

Barent Meynderts 

Jan Jansen Van St. Obyn. . . 
The Provoost of Citizens .... 

Thomas Willet 

Matliys (,'apita 

Hendrick Pieterseii 

David Wessells 

Tliomas Marschal (exempt.) 

Hendrick A'' an Bomnif^l 

Jacob Clomp 

Pieter Jansen 

Lambert Iluj'bertscn Mol .... 

Andries Van Sluys 

Laurens Laurenzen 

Pieter StoutenbuTgh 

Dirck Holgersen 

Claes Tyson 

Ryudert De Vrics 

Aert Willemsen Bromsen. . . . 

Audrles Audriezen 

Aryen Symonsen 

Lucas Audriezen 



.S3 
3 
4 



10 



3 
5 

12 



24 
C 
4 
4 



318 



APPENDIX. 



Claes De Jongb $8 

Dirck Clasen, Corey a Brother 16 

Hen'k Hendrickseu (drummer) 4 

Jacob Hendrickseu Varv anger 12 

Jacob Leeuderseu Vandiegrist 40 

Jacob Van Couwenhoven .... 40 

Heudrick Kip 10 

SchipperWm. Tomazcn (house) 10 

Sauder Leenderzen. " 10 



William Teller, (house) ^10 

Arent Van Corlaer " 10 

Albert, the Noorman " 8 

Ficter Hartgers, " 10 

i'^lip Pieterzeu, " 10 

Rut. Jacobsen, " 10 

Christian Barenzen 6 

Audries Clasen (exempt) 

Arent Lourenzen 2 



:\i~-5=^# 




319 



LIST OF THE OWNERS 

OF HOUSES AND LOTS IN THE CITY, ABOUT THE YEAR 1674, AT THE FINAL 
CESSION TO THE ENGLISH ; THE PROPERTY BEING CLASSIFIED ACCORD- 
ING TO ITS RELATIVE VALUE, As' FIRST, SECOND, THIRD AND FOURTH ; 
WITH THE NATIONAL DESCENT OF THE PERSONS NAMED GIVEN TO ILLUS- 
TRATE THE CONDITON OF THE POPULATION AT THAT ERA AND THEIR ES- 
TIMATED WEALTH.* 



On the west side of the present Pearl street, between Franklin square 
and Wall street ; known, at that time, as The Smith's Vallci/.- 

Ovut-r. Cliias of property. Xntiomil descent. Estimated weftlth. 

Henry Brazier Third Dutch $1,500 

William Beekman First " 10,000 

Abraham Verplanck Third " 3,000 

William Rodney " English 1 .000 

Derrick Xorman Fourth Dutch ' 

John Lawrence '• English 1,500 

Christopher Elsworth Third Dutch 1,000 

Joost Carelzen Fourth " 500 

Lambert Clomp Third " 500 

Jo,<e])h Hollaker Fourth English 500 

Henry Ricks Second " 500 

Henry Lamberts Fourth Dutch 500 

Peter Ijawrence " " 500 

JohnYinje First " 2,500 

John Bolasser Second English 1,000 

Abraham Lamberts Mol " Dutch 1,200 

Henry Vaiidewater " ....:.... " 1,500 

Albert Cornelis Third " 500 

Corn(.>lis Clopper First " 10,000 

* The estinwte of the wealth i>f the eeveral inhabitants of Nen' York, at thia period, is oot based upon any 
wngle document, but is compiled fVom various souroos ; and is only desrgtK'd by tho author to b« ceosiderfd as an 
a^^>roKiinute estimate, foraied f>om the Wst evidences \\-ithiD his reach. 



320 APPKNDIX- 

Owiier. Cli%88 of property. National descent. EstiniateJ wealth. 

Evert Everts Second Dutch $1,000 

Elizabeth Clasen Fourth " 

Dirck Evertsen Floyd Second " 1,000 

John Johnson Slott Third " 1,200 

Martyn Meyer First *' 1,500 



On the present west side of Pearl street, between Wall and William 
streets, then a part of the street called The Water Side. 

Owner. Claea of property. National descent. Estimateil wenlth. 

Ann Litschoe Second Dutch $1,500 

Widow Dchart First " 15,000 

John Lawrence •' English 10,000 

Heirs A. Jochemsen 'i'hird Dutch 

Oarsten Tjcersen Second " 7,500 

Cornelius Dirle First English 3,000 

Jacob Loockerman.s Second Dutch 3,000 

Widow Loockerraans " " 4,000 

Jacobus Dehart First '• 7,000 

Joannes Van lirugh •' " 15,000 

Thomas Lewis " English 1 0.000 

On the present Old Slip, between Stone and Fcarl streets, then a part 
of the street called The Water Side : 

Owner. Class of property. N'ational <Iescent. Estirantert wealth. 

P]vert Duychink Second Dutch $3,000 

' On the present northerly side of Pearl street, between Old slip nntl 
Broad street, then a part of tlie street called The Water Side 

Owner. CAiisa of property. N'ational descent. Estimat.-d wealth. 

Tryntje Clock Third Diitdi $1,000 

John Shackerly First English 3,000 

Widow of B. Joris Second Dutch 1 ,500 

Thomas Wandell Third " 1 .200 

John Darvall Second English 5.000 

Charles Van Brugh Third Dutch 1.000 

LodowyckPost " " 1,000 

Gov. Lovelace First English 



APPENDIX. 321 

Owner, CInss of property. National deaceot. EatimnteU nciilili. 

Rinier Johnson Second Dutch .^1 ,200 

Cornelis Jansen Van Horn " " 5,000 

Albert Bush " " 1 ,'200 

Sybout Claseu " " 1,000 

ytephanus Van Cortland First " 5,000 

On the present north side of Pearl street, between Broad and White- 
hall streets, then a part of the street called Tlie Water Side . 

Owner. Class of property. National descent. liliitimated woallJj. 

Isaac Morland First English §5,000 

James Matthews " " 6,000 

Nicholas Jansen " Dutch 1,500 

(julian A^orplauck " " 8,000 

Kaniuel Edsall " " 2,500 

John Hendricks Bruyn •' " 10,000 

Allard Anthony " " 3,500 

Lucas Tienhoven " " 3,500 

Widow Bedlow " " 1,000 

Mary Jacobs " " 1,000 

Elizabeth Drissius " " 8,000 

Faulu.s Richards Second French 1 0,000 

Peter Bayard " Dutch 2,500 

On the west side of the present AVhitehall street, between Pearl and 
State streets, then also a part of The Water Side: 

Owner. Class of property. N.'Hiona! deBoenl. t^tiniated weallb. 

Jacob Ixisler First Dutch §30,000 

William Darvall " English 30,000 

On the present Stale street, near Whitehall street, then also a part of 
I'lie Water Side. 

Owner. Class of property. NiitionHl descent. ICsliiuated weullli. 

.John Shumis Fourth Dutch 

.lohii Everts La.salras " " 



On the present Pearl street, between Whitehall and vState streets, then 
known as Pearl street: 

Owner. Class of property. Naiion&l descent. Katinmled wenlth. 

Christopher Ifooghland Second Dutch §8,000 

Garret Uregnon " " 50C 

21 



322 APPENDIX. 

Owner. Claaa of property. National descent. EBtimated wealth. 

Anna Van Borsum First Dutch $3,000 

Henry Sellepon Second " 

William Cook Fourth English 

John Schouten Second Dutch 1,000 

Henry Araits " Spanish .... 

Jacob Vandewater " Dutch 2,500 

Pieter Jacobs Marius " " G,000 

Thomas Lamberts " " 

Andrew Clare Third English 

Thomas Lawrens Second Dutch 4,000 

Jurien Blanck " " 1,000 

Warner AYcssells " " 2,.500 

William Allen " English 1,000 

Nicholas Bordingh " Dutch 3,000 

Andrew Bresteede " " 1,000 

Michael Smith " English 1,000 

Isaac Greveraet " Dutch 5,000 

Cornelis Van Borsum First " 10,000 



On the present east side of Whitehall street, between Pearl and Beaver 
streets, then known as a part of Tiie Marketfield and Broadway .■ 

Owner. Class of property. National descent. Estimated wealth. 

Cornelis Steenwyck First Dutch .$50,000 

Richard Man Second " 4,000 

Peter de Rymer " " 3,000 

Mettle Greveraet Fourth " 

Frederick Philipse Three small houses. " 

Jacob Tunis De Kay Second " 8,000 

Barent Corten Third " 4,000 

John Stevens First English 2,000 

William J. De Champ Third French 5,000 

Frederick Areuts Second Dutch 2,000 

On the present east side of Broadway, between Beaver and Wall 
streets, then known as a part of TJlc Marketfield and Broadway .■ 

Owner. Class of property. N^Uional descent. Estinanled wealth. 

Widow Bresteede Second Dutch §1 ,000 

Jaques Cosseau Third French 3,000 



APPENDIX. 



323 



Owner. Class of property. NationAl desceDt. EetimaUd wi-ulth. 

Isaac Abrahams Fourth Dutch » 

Walter Hayes Third English 

Garret the Miller " Dutch 

Captain Lockwood Fourth English 

Suert Olpherts Second Dutch ^5,000 

a. (larrit^s Fourth 

John Hendricks Van Guust Third " 1,000 

Abraham Whorley " English 2,000 

John Meyndcrse " Dutch 1,000 

Governor Lovelace Second English 

Evert Arisen Third Dutch 1,000 

-^Isaac Greveraat " " 

William Vandcrseheuren Second " 2,000 

Derrick Wcssells Third " 1,000 

John Van Gelder " " 2,000 

JohnWatkins " English 1,000 

Philip Polers Second " 1,000 

William Lawrence •• " 2,000 

George Cook Third " 2,500 

Harraan Smeeman " Dutch 1.000 

PaulusTurck " " 1,000 

Albert Leenders " " 1,000 

Samuel Leete " Engli.sh 2,000 

On the present west side of Broadway, between Battery jilace and 
Rector strect.s, then known as a part of Tlie Marketfield and Broadway: 

Ownier. CI.ibs of property. Nationiit descent. Kstininted wealth. 

Anna Cox First Dutch S!.'),000 

Martin Crigier Second " 5,000 

Oorrit Van Tright " " 6,000 

Gabriel Minviolle First French 15,000 

Balthazar Bayard " Dutch 7.000 

Lucas Andrews Second " 2.500 

John Joostcn " " 4,000 

Robert Darkins " English 5,000 

Arnold Fabritius Fourth ........ .French 

Pieter Simkam Third Dutch 1,000 

nendrick Van Dyck. Second " 5,000 

Humphrey Davenport First English 2,500 



324 APPENDIX. 

Oivner. Claas of property. National descent. EBtimated wealth. 

Richard Blake First English ^G,OUO 

Pieter Kiug Third " 3,000 

Francis Lee " " 3,000 

William Vredenburgh " Dutch 1,000 



On the present Broadway, above Wall street; then also called 
Broadway : 

Owner. Claaa of properly. National descent. Estimated wealtli. 

Garrit Roos Third Dutch S2,500 

Pieter Stoutenburgh " " 5,000 

George Cobbett " " 1,000 

Domine Haronbrisk " 



On the south side of the present Wall street, between Broadway and 
Pearl street, then known as The Walls .• 

Owner, Class of property. National di'S^'ent. Estimated wealth 

Matthias Janes Fourth Engli.sh 

Anna Hall " " .$1,000 

Barse Lott " " 

Robert Story Third " 5,000 

J ohn Johnson Landyke Fourth Dutch 

Jacob Smith " English 

Mrs. Gibbs " " 

Zachariah Sluce Third " 1,000 

Cornelius Johnson " " 

Frederick Hays " " 1,000 

Derrick Smith Second Dutch 

Jarvis INIarshal Third English 1,000 

Adrian Dircksen " Dutch 

Gilbert Elberts Fourth " 

Henry Brazier Third " 

Samuel Wilson First ' . . .English 20,000 



ArpKxnix. 325 

On the north side of the present Stone street, between William and 
Broad streets, then known as a ])art of T/ie High street .- 

Owner. Class of iiropertv. Kntiona! iksrent. Eslimatcil wealth. 

Coenraot Ten Eyck, jr Second Dutch $2,000 

Nicholas Bayard First Dutch 15,000 

David Johnson Second Eng-lish 

John Harpending '• Dutch 3,000 

John Johnson Landvko Third " 1,000 

Evert AYessells. . . . .' " " 1,000 

Widow Myndorts " " 

William D'lToneur First French 2,500 

Nicholas De Meyer " Dutch 10,000 

Barent Coerten Second '• 8,000 

JoJm Cooley First English 4,000 

Barent Coursfield Second Dutch 

Jacol) Abrahams '• " 5,000 

Abel Hardenbrook " " 2,500 

Est. of J.W. Yan Couwenhovcn. . First " 



On the present south side of Stone street, between William and Broad 
streets, then known as a part of The High street .• 

Owner. CIhas of property. National descent. Eatimntcd wealth. 

Evert Duyckink Fourth Dutch 

Henry Wessells Second " .^2,000 

Peter Yaudewater First " 2,000 

Peter J. Yan Workondum Fourth " 

Carel Yan Brugh Third " 1,000 

Geertruyd Ibeer Fourth " 

Sigismundis Lucas Third " 1,000 

Lawrence Ilulst " " 1,000 

Augustyn Blydenburgh Second '' 2,000 

George Johnson Fourth " 

Evert Pietersen Second " 

Adolph Pietersen " " 2,500 

Riuier Willemsen " " 6,000 



326 



On the present William street, between Hanover square and Wall 
street, then known as Tlie Smith street ; 



Class of property. 



National descent. Estiuiated wealth. 



Fourth Jewish 

Dutch 

Third English !52,000 

Dutch 



Abel Ilardenbrook Third Dutch 

Bernardus Hessel " " 

Jacob Israel 

John Smeedes 

John Ray 

Garret Hendricks " 

Andrew Rees Fourth 

Emetje Dircks " 

James Woodruff " 

Pieter Heermans " 

Arthur Strangwide " 

Andrew Andrews Third Dutch 

Andrew Hendricks " " 

Henry Volkertsen Fourth " 

Frederick Harmens " " 

Albert Trumpeter " " 

John Andross " " ..... 

Robert Whitty First English 6,000 

Tymen Van Borsum Third Dutch 1,000 



.Dutch . 
. English . 
.Dutch . 
. Eno'lish . 



Elias Provoost " 

John Henry " .... 

John Cornells " 

John Pieters Rosch " .... 

Christian Lauries " 

John Johnson Fourth " 

David Provoost Second " 

John Peters Third " 

Thomas Lewis " English . 



1,000 

English 1,000 

Dutch 1,000 

Dutch 1,000 

Dutch 1,000 



3,000 



On the present South William street, then known as The Mill 
street lane: 

Owner. Class of properly. National descent. Estimated wealth 

Henry Van Dusbury Fourth Diitch 

John Hendrick Van Bommel Third " 

Jacob Melyn " " 



APPENDIX. 



327 



Owner. Cliiba of property. Xatioiml descent. Estinmted wealth. 

Hau.s Goderis Third Dutch 

Carsten Jansen Fourth '' 

The Old Mill House " " 



On the present Beaver street, between AVilliain and Broad streets, then 
known as The Smith street lime: 

Owner. • Ola&i of propc-rty. National descent. Fatiiimtod weiillh. 

Pieter Wessells Third Dutch 

Nicholas Bayard '• " 

Jolin Bush '• " 

Kicliard linker Fourth English 

Aiubrosius de Wecrhain Third Dutcli 

Thomas Yardeu '• Eng-lish 

Barent Gerritson '• Dutch 

John Laugstreete " " 

John Coersen Fourtli '• 

Albert, the Trumpeter " '• 



On the present Broad street, cast side, between South William street 
and Broad street, then known as a part of T!te Hecre Graft and Princes' 
Graft .■ 

Own^r. Clasa of |)roperty. Xationnl descent". Kstinmtc*! weaUli. 

Adrian Vincent Third Dutch i$l,500 

Johannes De Peyster Second " 10,000 

John Vincent Third " 1,.500 

Anna Vincent " " 

Claes Lock " " 2,r)00 

William Bogardus " " 

Dick Clascn •' " L.'iOO 

:\rargaivt Backer First " 2.000 

Jochcm Beckman Third " 1,000 

Johannes Vervaelen First " .3,000 

Margaret Provoost Fourth " 1,-500 

William Waldron Tiiird English 

Alexander Watts Second English 2.000 

Abraham Furuiss " " 3,000 



328 



APPEXDIX. 



Owner. Class of properly Xational dosconl. Eslimiitcd wcnlth. 

\Villiain White Third English 

Otto Grim " Dutch -IpLOOO 

Mrs. Do Silla " " 2,000 

William Norwood Second English 2,500 

Henry Gerrits First Dutch 2,500 



On the present west side of Broad street, between Wall and Beaver 
streets, then known as a part of The Sheep Pasture and Princes' Graft : 

Owner. ('laas of property. National (Ifsceril, Estimated wealth. 

Frederick Hendricks Fourth Dutch ^1,000 

The Bark Mill '• 

Mrs. Drissius (four houses) " Dutch 

Jacob Tunis Quick " " 

George Walgrave " English 1,000 

Isaac Van Vleck Second Dutch 3,000 

Jacob Kip First " 8,000 

Daniel AValdron Third '• 

Jacob Mens " " 

Thomas Taylor " English 

Peter Wiuster '• Dutch .... 

Conraet Ten Eyck First " 5,000 

Beetje Tunis Third '• 

Nicholas Delaplaine " " 3,000 

Boile Roelofs Second '■ . . . 2,000 

Oornelis Barens " " 2,000 

Henry Yan Borsum Third " 1,000 

Jacob Leunis " " 1,000 

Etienne Guiueau Fourth " 



On the present Beaver street and Marketfield street, (between Broad 
street and the Bowling Green) and on the west side of Broad street, south 
of Beaver street : 

Owner. Class of property. National descent. Estimated wealll). 

Nicholas Dupuy Second Dutch ^2,500 

Egbert Woutcrsen Third " 3,500 

H. J. Yaudervin " " 5,000 



AI'l'EXDIX. 



329 



Owner. Clma of property. N'aliotiftl dcscont. Estimated vcalth. 

Henry Bosch Second Dutch 

Andrew Clau.s Thu-d Dutch 

Samuel Davis " P^nglish 

James Roy " " SLOOO 

Henry Van Bommel " Dutch 

Lawrence Corlvolt " English 1,000 

Jacob Tormont " " 1,000 

Peter Guilliam Second " 1.500 

Jlenry Jansen " Dutch 3.000 

Arien JoiHon Third '• 

Andrew Clasen Fourth " 

Jacob Tunisen De Kay Second " 10.000 

Isaac Deschamps " .* French 5.000 

Hugh Bayrouta Third Dutch 

Paulus Richards Second French 

Lambert, tlie tailor Fourth Dutch 

John Adams •' Kiiglish 

Mettie Jansen Third Dutch 

David, the Turner Second " 

Derrick Ten Eyck •' " §3,000 

Pieter Van Wordcn Third " 

William Merritt First English 5,000 

Jaques Cos.seau Second French 2,000 

Peter Abrahamsen. ...^i.j.uk4.t^, Third. Dutch 

Christopher Van Laar " " " 1 .500 

Hannah Kiersted Second " 5.000 

Laurens Vanderspeigle First " 

John Johnson Moll Third " 3.000 



On the pi'CseffEStone street, between AVhitehall and Broad streets, then 
known as Stone street. 

Owner. Chwa of property. Nulional doscjiil. Kat'iniiled wonltii. 

John Sharpe First English .$5,000 

Oloff Stevensen Van Cortland. . . " Dutch 30.000 

Sarah De Foreest Third " 3,000 

Mr. Palmer First English 5,000 

Frederick Philipse " Dut.-h 150.000 

John Rider " Endish 5,000 



330 



APPENDIX. 



Owner. CI11S8 of [iropertj-. National Jefcent. Estiinated wealth. 

Christian Pieters Tliird Dutch 

Symon Barouts •' " $1,500 

Cusper Steinmets •' " 1,000 

John Johnson " " 

Laurens Vantlerspeigle Second " 10,000 



On the present Bridge street, and a small street between Bridge and 
Stone street, now closed, then known as Tlic Marckvdt street and Winkle 
street : 

Owner. • Class of property. National descent. Ketimated wealth. 

Henry Williams . .• Second Dutch 32.500 

Otto Gerritsen Third " 1,000 

Jeremias Jansen •• " 1.000 

Anthony Jansen Second " 3,000 

Abraham Jansen Third " 1,200 

Henry Kip " " 2.500 

John Derricks Meyer " " 2,000 

Andrew J. Meyer " " 

Pieter J. Mories Fourth '' 

William Walsh " " 

Fi'cderide Gvsberts Second " 3,000 



331 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE DUTCH CHURCH IN THIS CITY, IX THE YEAR l<Mi. 
(From the MSS. of Domine Selj-nus, by Rev. Dr. De Wilt, of this city,) 



BREEDWEG. (BROADWAY.) 

Arentje Cornelis, Imys vroir (wife of) Albert Bareutp. 

Paulus Turck, en zyn huys vrotc, (and his wife) Aeltje Barentg. 

Maria Turck, hriys vrow van, Abraham Kermer. 

Conrad Ten Eyek, en zyn liuys vrow. ^Vunotje Daniels. 

Oerrit Jansen Roos, " '• Tryntje Arents. 

Tobias Stoutenburg'h, " " Annetjo Van Hillegorn. 

Marretje Cornelis, //. v. van, Elias Post 

Juriaen Blanck, en zyn h. v., Hester A'anderbeeek. 

Johannes Van Celdcr, en zyn li. v., Jannekcn Montcrack. 

Peter Willcmse Roonie, " Hester Van Gelder. 

Willem Vanderschuren, " Grietje Plettenberi^h. 

Annetje Berding, h. v. van Cornelis Crigier. 

Tryntje Cornelis, wcduwc van (widow of) Christian Pietersen 

Hendrick Obe, en zyn h. v., Aeltje Claes. 

Evert Aertsen, '• " Marretje Herck. 

Willem Aertsen, " " Styntje Nagel. 

Olphert Suert, " '• Margaretta Clopper. 

Helena Pietersen, h. v. van Abraham Mathysen. 

Guert Gerritsen, en zyn h. v., Elizabeth (,'oriieiis. 

Suert Oiphertsen, " " Ytie Roelofse. 

Anneken Mauritz, wednwe van Domine A"an Nieuwenhiiysen. 

Tryntje Bickers, h. v. van Walter Heyers. 

De Heer Francois Rorabout, en zyn h. v. Helena Teller. 

Isaac Stevensen, en zyn h. v., Margaretta Van Veen. 

Lucas Andriezen, " " Aeftje Laurens. 

Gerrit Van Tright, " " Maria Vandegrift. 



832 



AI'PKNDIX. 

i>allbazar Bayard en, zijii h. v. Marretjc Loockormaus. 

Blandiua Kicrstede, /;. v. van Pieter Bayard. 

Rachel Kicrstede. 

Jan Pecck, en zijn li. v., Elizabeth Van Imburgh. 

Grysbert Van Imburgh. 

Tryntje Adolph, h. v. van Thomas Hoeken. 

Elizabeth Lucas, iveduive van Jan Stephensen. 



BEURS STRAAT. 

(Exchange street , present Whitelmll street.) 

Margaretta Pietcrs, /(. v. van Frederick Arentse. 

Jacob Teller, en zijn h. v., Christina Wessells. 

Jacob De Kay " " Hillegond Theunis. 

Sara Bedlo, //. v. van Claes Borger. 

Pieter De Rieiner, en zijn h. v., Susanna de Foreest. 

Isaac De Riemer. 

Margaret De Riemer, wcduwe van Hecr Cornclis Steenwyck. 

Andries Grevenraet, en zyn h. v., Anna Van Brugh. 



PAERL STRAAT. 

[Pearl street, between State and Whitehall streets.) 

Jan Willemsen, en zyn h. v., Elizabeth Frederick. 

Martin Origier. 

Tryntje Cregier, wcduive van Stoftel Hooghland. 

Margaretta Blanck, //. v. van Philip Smith. 

Gerrit Hardenberg, en zyn k. v., Jat^pje Scliepmoes. 

Sara Hardenberg. 

Isaac Grevenraedt, " " Marritjc Jans. 

Hendrick Jillisen Meyort, en zijn h. v., Eisje Rosenvelt. 

Andries Brosteede, " " Annetjc Van Borsum. 

Aeltje Scliepmoes, weduwe van Jan Bvertsen Kett^lta.". 

Susanna Marsuryn, " Claes Bordingh. 

Gerrit Van Gelder. 

I'ieter Le Grand, en zijn h. v., Janneken De Windel. 

Jan Scliouton, " " Sara Jans. 

Elizabeth Schouten. 



333 



Dirck Teunizeu, ea zya h. v., Catalina Fraiis, 
Waruer Wessclls, " " Elizabeth Cornells. 
Nicliokis Blanck, h. v. van Justus AVilvelt. 
Claesje Blanck, " Victor Bicker. 

Tryntjc Claes, weduwe van J nristen Blanck. 
Pieter Jacobsen Marias, en zijn h. v., Marratjc Bceck. 
Acltje Wiilemse, weduwe van Pieter Corneiiscn. 
Thomas Laurenzen, en ztjn h. v., Marretje Jans. 
Cornelis Yau Langvelt, en zijn h. v. Maria Gi'oenlaet. 
Tryntjc Michaels, h. v. van Andries C/la-«cn. 



LANG STRALf. 

[Almig the Strand. This embraces the lino elsewhere described as the 
water side, viz : The west side of Whitehall street, between State and 
Pearl streets ; the north side of Pearl sti'cet and Hanover square, between 
Whitehall and Wall streets.) 

Rebecca Delavall, /(. v. van Willianl Dcrvall. 
Elsje Thymens, " .lacob Leisler. 

Susanna Leisler. 

Daniel Yeenvos, en zijn It. v., Chri-^tina Yandiegrist. 
■Tacob Leenderzen Yandiejrrist. en zi/n li. v.. llebeoca Frederick. 
Nicholas Yandiegrist. 
Rachel Yandiegrist. 
Rachel Kip, //. v. van Lucas Kier;>tede. 
Oeletjc Janf?, " Paulus Richard. 

- Elizabeth Grevcnraedt, vednu'e van Domine Drissiu,-;. 
Pieter Delanoy, en zijn li. v., Elizabeth Do Potter. 
Catharina Bedlow. 

Frederick Gy.sbert.sen Yaudenbergh, en zijn ii. v.. >raria Lubberts. 
Jannetje Ticnhoven, /;. f. van John Smit. 
Henrietta Wessolls, werfuwe van AUard Anthony. 
Maria Wessells. 

Benjamin liUinck, en zijn li. v., Judith Kdsall. 
Jacobus Kip, ' •• " Hendrickje Wessells. 

Maretje AVe.ssells, weduwe van Nicholas Jansen (Backer.) 
Deborah De ]\[eyer, h. v. van Thomas Crvimdall. 
Albert Bosch, en zyn v. /(.. Elsje Blanck. 



)3-l APPENDIX. 

Aniui Maria Jans, h. v. van Cornelirf Jaiiseu Van Tloorn 

Hlllegoiid Oornelis, '• Olphert Kreeftberg. 

Vrouwtje Cornelis. 

Pieter Janseu IMessier, ea zijn h. v., Marretje Willenise 

Couraet Ten Eyck, " " Belotje Hercks. 

Tobias Ten Eyck, " " Elizabeth liegeman. 

Benjamin Hegeman. 

Hernianus Berger. 

p]ngeltje Mans, weduwe van Borger Jorisen. 

Johannes Borger. 

Lucas Tienhoven, en zyn h. v., Tryntje Bording. 

Cornelis Verduyn, " " Sara Hendricks. 

Albert Clock, " " Tryntje Abrahams. 

Martin Clock, " " Elizabeth Abrahams. 

Geesje Barense, weduwe van Thomas Lewis. 

Catharina Lewis. 

Johannes Van Brugh. en zijn h. v.., Catharina Koelofs. 

Cornelia Beeck, h. v. van Jacobus De Hart. 

Margaretta Hendricksen, //. v. van John Robertson. 

Carsten Leursen, en zyn h. v., Geertje Quick. 

Aeltje Gysberts, h. v. van Zacharias Laurens. 

Francytje Andries, " Abraham Lubberts. < 

Annetje Van Borsum, weduwe van Egbert Van Borsum. 

Pieter Vandergrief, en zyn h. v., Janueken Van Borsum. 

Robert Sinclair, " " Maria Duycking. 



LANG DE WAL. (WALL STREET.) 

Willemtje Claes, /(. v. zan Gysbert Elbertse. 

Neeltje Gysberts. 

Adrian Dircksen, en zyn h. v., Elizabeth Jans. 

Heyltje Delachair, /(. v. van John Cavalier. 

Anna Maria Van Giesen, h. v. van Johannes Jansen. 

Marritje Pieter-s, " Jacob Pieterseu. 

Bernardus Hassing, en zyn h. v. Neeltje Van Couwenhoven. 

Gcertruyd Jansen. h. v. van Jan Otten. 

Neeltje Van Tuyl. 

Sophia Claes, " Rutger Parker. 



APPENDIX. 



335 



Gerrit Corneliscn Yan "Westeen, en zijn h. v. Wyntje Stoutenburg. 

Urseltje Duytman, weduwe van Johannes Hardenbrook. 

Metje Hardenbrook, li. v. van Evert Heudricksen. 

Casparus Hardenbrook. 

Harmaniis Van Borsum, en zyn h. v. Wybrug Hendricks. 

Claertje Dominicus, h. v. van Jan Pietersen Slot. 

Grerritjc Quick. " Leendert De Graw. 



NIEirW STRAAT. (xEW STREET.; 

Jannekm Jans, /*. v. van Isaac Abraliamsen. 
Daniel Waldron, ed zyn h. van Sara Kutgers. 
Adriaentje Jans, It. v. van Vincent Delamontagnie. 
Marritje Waldron, " Hendrick G«rritsen. 

Aefje Roos, " Johannes Van Gelder. 

Heyman Kouing, en zyn h. v. Merritje Andries. 
Metje Davids, u'eduwe van Abraham Kermer. 
Jan "Willemsc Roome, en zyn h. v. Maria Bastiacus. 
Annetje Ackerman, h. v. van Daniel Pietersen. 
Arent Fredericksen, en zyn h. v. Sara Thcunis. 
Jurriaen Nagel,. " " Januetje Phillipsen. 

Willeim Peers " " Greetje Kierse. 



BEVER STRAAT. (bEAVER STREET.) 

Between Broadway and Broad street. 

Jacob Kolve. 

Jannekin Lucas, h. v. van Jacob Van Saun. 

Jacob Phoenix, en zyn k. v. Anna Van Vleck. 

Engeltjc Hercks, /;. v. van Jan Everts. 

Hendrick Bosch, en zyn h. v Egl)ertje Dirckscn. 

Catalina De Vos, h. v. van Xicholas Depuy. 

Jacob De Koninck. 

Henricus Selyns. 

Hendrick Boelen, en zyn h. v. Anneken Coert. 

Cornelia Vandercuyl, " " Elizabeth Arents. 



\j 



336 



Sara Waldron, h. v. van Laurens Colevelt. 
Abraham Dclanoy, en zyn h, v. Cornelia Toll. 



MARCKVELT STKAAT. (mARKETFIELD STREET.) 

Jan Adamsen, (Metzelaer,) en zyn h. v. Geertje Dircksen. 
Harman De Grauw, " " Styntje Vansteenbergcr. 

Dirck Jausen De Groot, " " Rachel Philipso. 

Baetje Jans, huysvrou van Pieter Meyer. 
Arent Leenderts De Grauw, en zyn h. v. Maria Hendricks. 



BROUWERS' STRAAT. 

Now the part of Stone street between Whitehall and Broad streets. 

De Hear Frederick Philipse. 

Johanna Yan Swaanenberg. 

Anna Blanck, h. v. van Joris Bi'ugerton. 

Jannekcn De Kay, h. v. van Jeremias Tothill. 

Isaac De Foreest, eji zyn h. v. Elizabeth Vandcrspeigle. 

Sara Philipse, weduwe van Isaac De Foreest 

Jan Dircksen, en zyn h. v, Baetje Kip. 

De Heer Stephanus Van Cortland, en zyn h. v. Geertruyd Schuyler. 

Jacobus Van Cortland. 

Juffi'ou Susanna Shriek, h. v. van De Heor Anthony Brockholst. 

Sara Vandcrspeigle, h. v. van Rip Van Dam. 

Johannes Vandcrspeigle. 

Ariaentje Gerritsen, h. v. van PictcnJ racn. 



BRUGH STRAAT. (BRIDGE STREET.) 

Otto Gerritsen, en zyn h. v. Engeltje Pieters. 

Jeremias Jansen, " " Oatharina Rapelje. 

Metje Grevenraet, weduwe van Anthony Jansen. 

Abraham Kip. 

Abraham Jansen, en zyn h. v. Tryntje Kip. 

Maria Abrahams. 

TIartman Wessells, en zyn h. v. Elizabeth Jan Cannon. 

Andries Meyer, " " Vrouwtje Van Vorst. 

Jan Dervall, " " Catharina Van Cortland. 



W 



APPENDIX. 337 

HEEREN GBACHT, WBSt Zljde. (bROAD STREET, lOBSt Side.) 

Carel Lodowick. 

Johannes Provoost. 

Brandt Schuyler, en zyn h. v. Cornelia Van Cortland. 

Hans Kierstede, " " Janneken Loockerman.';. 

Evert Areutzen. 

Isaac Arentzen. 

Maria Bennett, h. v. van Jacobus Verhulst. 

Pieter Abraliamsen Van Duwrsen, en zyn h. v. Hester Webbers. 

Helena Fiellart. 

Harmentje Dircksen, //.. v. van Thomas Koock. 

Dirck Ten Eyck, en zyn h. v. Aet'je Boclen. 

Dr. Johannes Kerfbyl, en zyn It. v. Catharina Hug. 

Margaretta Hagen. 

Ancckje Jane, weduwe van Pieter Van Naerden. 

Tryntje Pieters. 

Hendrick Jansen Van Vimlen, en zyn h. v. Sara Thomas. 

Boele Roelofsen, " " Bayken Arentye. 

( 'Ornelis Quick, " " Maria Van Hoogh ten. 

Thcunis De Kay, " " Helena Van Brugh. 

Agmetje Bouen, //. v. van Lodowick Post. 

(ierrit Ijcydecker, en zyn. h. v. Nccltje Vandercuyl. 

Hendrick Kermer, " " Annetje Thomas. 

.Jan Jansen Moll, " " Engeltjc Pieters. 

Jacob Boelen, " '• Catharina Clark. 

Dirck Frangen, " " Urseltje Schepmoes. 

Elizabeth Jacobsen, h. v. van Wybrant Abrahamsen. 

C. Madalo^na Dumstcede, h. v. van Hermanns Wessells. 

Johannes Kip, en zyn h. v. Catharina Kiersted. 

Styutjc Paulus, weduwe van Paulus Jurrisen. 

Isaac Van Vleck, en zyn h. v. Catalina Delanoy. 

Mietje Theunis, h. v. van Jan Corsen. 

Rutger Willemscn, eii zyn h. v. Gysbertje Mauritz. 

Magdaleentje Rutgers, /(. v. van Joris Walgraef. 



DiACONiES nuYS, ( Dcucon's lioxme for the poor, in Broad street.) 

Willem Jansen Roome, en zyn h. v. Marritje Jan. 
Gecrtje Jans, /(. v. van Reycr Stofl'elsen. 



338 APPENDIX. 

Jauuetje Hendricks, h. v. van Cregera Golis. 
Albert Ouynen, en zyn h. v. Tryntje Jans. 
Elizabeth Jacobs, weduwe van Jacob Mons. 
Clara Ebel, h. v. van Pieter Ebel. 



HEEREN GRACHT, OOSt Zycle. (bROAD STREET, COSt Side.) 

Hendrick, Arentse, en zyn h. v. Catharina Hardenbrook. 

Anna Thyssen, h. v. van Hendrick Reuiers. 

Marritje Coruelis, " Fraus Clasen. 

Anna Wallis, " Wolfert Webber. 

Albertus Ringo, en zyn h. v. Jannetje Stoutenburgh. 

Jan Delamontagnie, " " Annetje Waldron. 

Jannetje Van Laer, h. v. van Simon Bresteede. 

Catharina Cregiers, weduwe van Nicasius De Sille. 

Leendert De Klyn, en zyn h. v., Madalena Wolsura. 

Magdalena Pieters, h. v. van Joris Jansen. 

Hugh Barentsen De Kleyn, en zyn h. v., Mayken Bartels. 

Pieter Stontenburg. 

William Waldron, en zyn h. v., Engeletje Stoutenburg. 

Maria Bon, h. v. van Jillis Provoost. 

Grietje Jillis, " David Provoost. 

Catharina Yanderveen, h. v. van Jonathan Provoost. 

Jan Willemse Fering, en zyn h. v., Catharine De Meyer 

Griesje Idens, weduwe van Pieter Nuys. 

Jacob Mauritzen, en zyn h. v., Greetje Vandiegrist. 

Willem Bogardus, " " Walburg De Silla. 

Kmertje Hendricks, h. v. van Claes Leet. 

Cornelia Lubberts, " Johannes De Peyster. 

Paulas Shriek, en zyn h. v., Maria De Peyster. 

Jan Vincent, " " Annetje Jans. 

Arent Isaacsen, " " Elizabeth Stevens. 



HOOGH STRAAT. (hIGH STREET.) 

Now the part of Stone street, between Broad and Wilham streets. 

Rynier Willemsen, en zyn h. v., Susanna Arents. 

Tryntje Arents. 

Geertruyd Reyniers. 

Adolph Pieterseu De Groot, en zyn h. v., Aeftje Dircksen. 



APPENDIX. 339 

Annetje De Groot. 

Maria De Groot. 

Evert Keteltas, en zyn h. v., Hillegond Joris. 

Anua Hardeubrook, h. v. van John Lillie. 

Johannes Hardenbrook. 

Jacob Abrahamse Santvoort, en zyn h. 'o., Madalena Van Vleet. 

Laurens Hoist, en zyn h. v., Hilletje Laurens. 

Janneken Van Dyck, k. v. van Jan Cooley. 

Elizabeth Cooley. 

Bareut Coerten, en zyn h. v., Christina Wessells. 

Sara Ennes, It. v. van Barent Hibon. 

Heer Nicholas De Meyer, en zyn h. v. Lydia Van Dyck. 

Elizabeth De Meyer. 

Christina Steentjens, h. v. van Guillame D'Honneur. 

Claes Janscn Stavast, en zyn h. v. Aef je Gerritsen. 

Evert Wessells, " " Jannetje Stavast. 

Laurens Wessells, " " Aefje Jans. 

Auneken Duychink, h. v. van Johannes Hooghland. 

Geertruyd Barents, weduwe van Jan Hibon. 

Francis Goderus, en zyn h. v., Rebecca Idens. 

Jan Janscn Van Langendyck, ch zyn h. v., (irietje Wessells. 

Jan Ilarpendinck, en zyn h. v., Maykcu Barents. 

Gerrit Duyckinck, " " Maria Abeel. 

Christina Capoens, h. v. van David Jocherasen. 

Anna Tebelaer, " Elias De Windell. 

Marriatje Andries, " Jan Bresteede. 

ITcndrick Wessells Ten Broeck, en zyn Ii. v., Jannetje Bresteede. 

Geertruyd Bresteede. * 

De Heer Nicholas Bayard, ■• " Judith Verleth. 

Francina Heermans. 

Evert Duyckiug, en zyn k. v., Hcndrickje Simons. 

Cytie Duycking, h v. van Willem Bleek. 

Antony De Mill, en zyn h. v., Elizabeth Vanderliphorst. 

Peter De Mill. 

Sarah De Mill. 

De Heer Abraham De Peyster, en zyn h. v., Catharina De Peyster. 



SLYCK STRAAT. (dITCH STREET.) 

Now South William Street. 
Jac Hendrick Van Bommel, en zyn h. v., Annetje Abrahams. 

• ►lib \\-^-' 



340 



Geertruyd De Haes, h. v. van Jan Kreeck. 

Emmerentje Laurens, weduwe van Hendrick Oosterhaven. 

Eeendert Oosterhaven. 



PRINCEN STRAAT. (PRINCE STREET.) 

(Nov; Beaver street, between Broad and William streets.) 

Jan Laugstraten, en zyn h. v., Marretje Jans. 

Albertje Jans, h. v. van Jan Janseu Van Quistkout. 

Hendrick De Foreest, en zyn h. v. Temmetje Flaesbeck. 

Barent Flaesbeck, " " Marretje Hendricks. 

Susanna Verletts, /(. v. van Jan De Foreest. 

Metje Pieters, li. v. van Jan Pietersen. 

Nicholas Jansen, en zyn h. v. Jannekeu Kiersen. 

Annetje Jans, h. v. van William Moore. 

Ambrosius De Weerham, en zyn h. v., Areentje Thomas:. 

Susanna De Negrin, h. v. van Thomas De Meer. 



KONINCK STRAAT. (kING STREET.) 

Elsje Berger, h. v. van Jan Sipkens. 

Cornelius Plnvier, en zyn h. v. Nealtje Van Couwenhoven. 

Frederick Hendricksen, en zyn. h. v. Styntje Jans. 

Geesje Schuwrmans, weduwe van Bruin Ilage. 

Elizabeth Schuwrmans. 

Jacob Fransen, en zyn h. v, Madalena Jacobs. 



SMIT STRAAT. (sMITH STREET.) 

Noiv William street, below Wall street. 

Cornelia Roos, weduwe van Elias Provoost. 
Jan Vinje, en zyn h. v. Wieske Huypkens. 
Asueris Hendricks, en zyn h. v. Neeltje Jans. 
Hester Pluvier, h. v. van Thymen Fransen. 
Jan Meyer, en zyn h, v., Anna Van Vorst. 
Pieter Jansen, ." " Elizabeth Van Hooghteu. 



APPENDIX. 341 

Jan Janseu Van Flemburg, en zyn h. v., Willemtje De Klyn. 

Laurens Hendi-icks; '• " Marrctje Jans. 

Hendrick Van Borsura, " " Marrctje Cornclis. 

Jannetje Coruelis. 

Tbymcn Van Borsum, en zyn h. v. Grectje Focken. 

Wyd Timnier. 

Grcetje Langendyck, weduwe van Birck Bey. 

Jannetje Bey, h. v. van Frans Cornelisen. 

Jan Pietersen Bosch, en zyn h. v. Jannetje Barents. 

Jannetje Frans, /;. v. van Willem Buyell. 

Bavid Provoost, en zyn h. v. Tryntje Laurens. 

Tryntje Reymers, weduwe van Meendert Barenzen. 

Marrctje Pietersen, k. v. van Jan Pietersen. 



SMITS' VALYK. (sMITll'S VALI.KY.) 

Along the road, on tlie East river shore, above Wall street. 

Elizabeth Lubberts, weduwe van Birck Fluyt. 

Jan Jansen Tan Langendyck. 

Pieter Jansen Van Langendyck. 

Herman Jansen, en zyn h. v. Breechie Elswart. 

Tryntje Hadders. h. v. van Albert Wantcnner. 

Hilletje Pieters, weduu-e van Cornelis Clopper. 

Johannes Clopper. 

Margaretta Vermeulen, weduivc van Hend'k Vandcwatcr. 

Adrientje Vandewater. 

Abraham Moll, en zyn //. v. Jacomyntje Van Barlebcck. 

Fytje Sipkens, h. v. van Roelofse. 

Wilhelmus Be Meyer, en zyn h. v. Catharina Bayard. 

Jacob Swart, en zyn h. v. Tryntje Jacobs. 

Sara Joosten, /;. v. van Isaac Be Mill. 

Birck Vandercliff, en zyn h. v. Geesje Hendricks. 

Styntje Jans, //. v. van Joost Carelse. 

William HoUaker, en zyn h. v. Tryntje Boelen. 

Anna Maria Engelbert, h. v. van Clement Elswaart. 

Wilhelmus Bcekman, en zyn h. v. Catharina Be Boog. 

Johannes Beekman, " " Aeltje Thomas. 



342 APPENDIX. 

BUYTEN DE LANT POORT. (bEYOND THE LAND GATE.) 

On the present Broadway, above Wall street. 
Anneken Schouten, h. v. van Theunis Dey. 



OVER HET VERSCH WATER. (bEYOND THE FRESH WATER,) 

Or above the ancient pond called the Kalch-hock. 

Wolfert Webber, en zyn h. v. Geertruyd Hassiug. 
Keeltje Cornelis, h. v. van Dirck Cornelisen. 



Rebecca Idens. 
Barbara Emanuel. 
Marretje Anthony. 
Josyntje Thomas. 
Wyntje De Yries. 
Geetje Cozyns. 
Vrouwtje Gerritsen. 
Appollonia Cornells. 
Marietta Jacobs. 
Maria Delamontagnie. 



Arie Cornelisen, en zyn h. 

Franciscus Bastiaense, " 

Solomon Pieters, " 

Anthony Saileyren, ' " 

Francois Vanderhook, " 

Daniel De Clerk, " 

Cozyn Gerritsen, " 

Jan Thomassen, " 

Pieter Jansen, " 

Jacob Kip, " 

Maria Kip. 

Juffrou Judith Isendoorn, weduwe van De Heer Petrus 3tuyvesant. 

Nicholas Wm. Stuyvesant, en zyn h. v. Elizabeth Slechtenhorst. 

Marritje Jacobs, //,. v. van Gysbert Servaes. 

Abraham Van de Wostyne. 

Catalina Van de Wostyne. 

yn h. V. Ida Adrianse. 

" Beletje Anaense. 

" Margrietje Gerritse. 

" Grietjc Jans. 

" Elsje Hendricks. 



Abel Bloetgoot, en 
Pieter Jacobsen, " 
Jan De Groot, " 
Jacob De Groot, " 
Jillis Mandeville, " 
Grietje Mandeville. 
Egbert Toekensen, " 
Johannes Thomassen, 



Elsje Lucas. 
Aef je Jacobs. 



Johannes Van CouwenHoven, en zyn h. v. Sarah Frans. 



^V 



O'^^ 



APPENDIX. 

AEN DE GROOTE KILL. (bY THE BIG CREEK.) 

Conradus Vantlerbeeck, en zyn h. v. Elsje Jans. 

Claes Emauuels, ) _ 
^ ^ ^ . t negroes. 

Jan De Vries, J 



343 



ARME BOUWERY. (pOOR FARM.) 

Arnout Webber, en zyn h. v. Janneken Cornells. 
Margarotta Meyrout, li. v. van Heudrick Martense. 
Abraham Rycking. 

AVyntjo Teuuis, h. v. van Herck Tiebout. 
Anuetjc Claes, h. v. van Tunis Coruelisen. 



344 



APPENDIX. 



LIST OF INHABITANTS 



OF THE CITY IN 1703. 



Heads of Families. Family and Domettic Household. 

Abrahamsen, Andrew 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Abrahamsen, Abraham 2 females, 3 children, 1 negro child. 

Adams. Rebecca 1 female, 2 children. 

Adams, Thomas 1 male, 3 children. 

Adolph, Derrick 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Adolph, Widow 1 male, 3 females, 1 child, 1 negro child 

Aker, Cornelius 1 male, one female, 4 children, 1 negro child. 

Akerson, Thomas 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Alkfield, Widow 1 female, 2 children. 

Allie Mrs 1 female, 2 children, 1 negress, 1 negro child. 

Ameker, Mrs 1 female. 

Anderson, Edward 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Anderson, Isaac 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negress. 

Audei'sou, Eobert 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. [negro child. 

Anderson, William 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 2 negroes, 1 

Anen, John 1 male, 2 females, 2 children. 

Angevine, Zachary 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, [gro children. 

Antill, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 2 negresses, 2 ne- 

Appell, William 1 male, 1 female. 

Arisen, William 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro, 1 

Attell, William 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. [negress. 

Backer, Cornelius 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Bakeman, Charles 1 male. 

Baker, Captain 1 male, 1 negro child. 

Balch, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, I child. 

Banker, Johannes 1 male. 

Bant, Johannes 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 



APPENDIX. 



345 



Heads of Families. Family and Domestic HonMhold. 

Baunt, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Barbaric, John 2 males, 1 female, 6 childi-en, 3 negresses. 

Barclay, William 1 male, 3 females, 2 children, I negress. 

Barns, Benjamin 1 male, 1 female. 

J5arr, John 2 males, 1 female, 4 children. 

Barteloo, Daniel I male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Bassett, Mrs 1 female, 3 children. 

Bason, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. [negro children. 

Ikiyard, Balthazer 5 males, 1 female, 1 negro, 1 negress, 4 

Bayard, Nicholas 1 female, 1 child, 2 negroes, 1 negro child. 

Bayard, Samuel 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro, 1 ne- 

Bayard, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negress. [gross. 

Beard, James 

Beedie, Jan 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Beekman, Samuel 1 male, 1 female, 6 children. 

Beekman, William 1 male, 1 child, 2 negroes, 1 negress. 

Bellens, Philip 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Bennett, Jacob 1 male, 2 females, 4 children. 

Bentcll, John 3 females. 

Berry, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Bicker, Victor 1 male, 2 females, 1 child. 

Bickley, William 2 males, 1 negress, 2 negro children. 

Bill, Benjamin 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negress. 

Blackgrove, Mrs 1 female, 4 children. 2 negroes, 2 negi-esses, 3 

Blagge, Edward. 1 male, 1 child, 2 negresses. [negro children. 

Blank, Juricn 1 male. 

Blank, Mary 1 female, 1 child. 

Blank, Garret 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro. 

Blatchford, Nicholas 1 male, 1 female. [negro child. 

Bloom, Aaron 1 male, 2 females, 6 children, 1 negress, 1 

Bloom, Frerick 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Blower, James 1 male, 1 female. 

Bocketts, Francis 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Bockho Peter 1 male, 1 female. 

Boelen, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 5 children, 1 negress, 3 

Bogardus, Everardus 1 male, 2 females. [negro children. 

Bogert, Derrick 1 male, 1 female. 2 children. 

Bogert, Eleazer 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

BoEfert, Johannes 1 male, 1 female. 



346 



APPENDIX. 



Heads of Fainiliee. Family and Domestic HousehoM. 

Bogert, William 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Borgeran, Wicr 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Bolt, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 9 children, 1 negress, 1 ne- 

Bolsou, Cornelius 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. [gro child. 

Boulero, James 1 male, 1 female. 

Bonan, Simon 1 male, 1 female. 

Bonan, Amon 1 male, 1 child, 1 negress. 

Bond, Widow Peter 2 females, 2 children, 1 negro child. 

Bookhout, Mattys 1 male, 1 female. 

Boot, Catharine 1 female. 

Borditt, Captain 2 males, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro. 

Bordis, Heudrick 1 male, 1 female, 6 children, 1 negro. 

Bos, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Bos, Jan Pietersen 2 males. 

Bos, Hendrick 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Boseit, Mrs 1 female. [child. 

Boudinot, Elias 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negress, 1 negro 

Boudinot, Widow 1 male, 4 females, 2 children, 1 negro, 2 

Boutons, Sampson 4 males, 3 children. [negresses. 

Bowring, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Bradford, William 2 males, 1 female, 5 children, 2 negresses. 

Brazier, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Brazier, Joseph .1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Borger, Joris 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Brassan, Evert 1 male, 1 female, 7 children. 

Brass, George 1 male, 1 female, 6 children. 

Bratt, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro. 

Bratt, Isaac 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Bridges, Margaret 1 female. 

Brimer, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Britt, Roger 1 male. [negress. 

Bresteede, Andries 2 males, 4 females, 6 children, 2 negroes, 1 

Bresteede, Simon 1 male, 1 female, 5 children, 1 negro. 

Brockman, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Broughton, Samson Shelton.2 males, 5 females, 1 negro. 

Bronod, John 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro, 2 negro 

Brown, Widow 1 female, 4 children. [children. 

Brown, Widow 2 females, 1 child. 

Buckley, Lieut 1 female, 4 children. 



APPENDIX. 



347 



Heada of Families. ramily and Domcrtic Household. 

Burger, Antje 1 female, 6 children. 

Burger, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Burger, Garret 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Burger, ITarraanus 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Burger, Johannes 1 male, 2 females, 4 children. 

Burger, ISIr 2 males, 1 female, 5 children, 2 negroes, 1 

Burgess, Samuel 1 female, 3 children, 1 negress. [negrcss. 

Bures, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negress. 

Burley, EdM'ard 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Burroughs, Thomas 1 male, 1 female, .3 children, 1 negro, 1 

Bu.sh, Jurian 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. [negress. 

Bush, Widow 1 male, 3 females, 2 children. 

Bush, Widow 1 male, 2 females. 

Bush, Bernard 1 male, 1 female, 3 chikken. 

Bush, Jasper i male, I female, 2 children, 1 negro, [child. 

Byner, Mrs 2 males, 2 females, 1 negro, 1 negress, 1 negro 

Canoon, John 2 males, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro child. 

Carelse, Joseph 1 male. 1 female. 

Carelse, Jan 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Carrebil, Jacob 1 male, 1 female. 

Carkman, Hend'k 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negress. 

Carroll, Thomas 1 male, 2 females, 3 children, 1 negress. 

Carpenter, Daniel 2 males. 2 females, 1 child. 

Carter, Mr 2 females. 

Casall, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 negresses. 

Cavice, Johannes P 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Chambers, William 1 male, 2 females, 3 child'n, 1 negro, [children. 

Child, Thomas 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 3 negroes, 2 negro 

Cholwell,Mr 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 2 negresses, 1 

Christiaense, David 2 males, 1, female. 3 children, [negro child. 

Clapp, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 chikVn, 2 negroes, 1 negress. 

Cloberry, Mrs 1 female, 2 children, 1 negress, 1 negro child. 

Clock, Martin 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 2 negresses. 

Clock, Albert 2 males, 1 female, 5 children, 1 negro, 1 

Clopper, Cornelius .1 male, 1 female, 3 children. [negress, 

Clopper, Widow 2 males, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro child. 

Coesart, David I male, 1 female, 3 children. [negro child. 

Coer.sens. Mr 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 2 negresses, 1 

Coleman, Henry 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Colett, James 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 



348 



APPENDIX. 



Iltjails of Families. raniily and Domestic Housohold. 

Collie, Widow 2 males. 

Collura, Mary 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro. 

Collier, Elizabeth 1 female. 

Colyer, Jochem 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Conant, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro child. 

Cool, Barent 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

CooiJer, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 2 negro children. 

Corbett, Captain 3 males, 3 females, 2 children, 2 negroes, 2 

Corburn, Thomas 1 male, 1 female. [negresses. 

Cornelius, Tunis 2 males, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro. 2 

Coi'nelius, Jacob 2 males, 1 female, 2 children, [negro chikVn. 

Cornelius, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro child. 

Cosyn, Garret 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Craft, Johannes 1 male, 1 female. 

Craunell, Eobert 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Crigier, Martin 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Cragror, Captain 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negress. 

Crommelin, Mr 1 male, 1 child. 

Crow, Hugh 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro child. 

Cure, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Cuyler, Mrs 1 male, 2 females, 1 child, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Danly Nicholas 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Darkins, Robert 2 males, 2 females, 2 children, 1 negro, 2 ne- 

Davenport, Mr; 2 males, 1 female, 1 negro child. [gresses. 

David, Joshua 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Davis, Agnes 1 female, 2 children. 

Davis, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro child. 

Davis, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 2 negroes. 1 ne- 
gress, 3 negro children. 

Davis, Anthony 1 female, 2 children, 1 negress. 1 negro child. 

De Boogh, Gerrit 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

De Boogh, Isaac 1 male, 1 female. 

De Bower, Nich 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

De Bross, James 1 male, 1 negro. 

De Bronts, Capt. 1 male, 2 females, 1 negro. 

De Champ, Widow 1 male, 2 females, 1 child, 4 negresses, 2 ne 

De Graw, Jaunetie 2 females, 1 child. [gro children 

De Graw, ITarman 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Do Graw, Leonard 1 male, 3 females, 6 children. 

De Hart, Matthias 2 males, 2 females, 3 children. 



APPENDIX. 



349 



Heads of Familiea. Family nnJ Domestic Household. 

I)e Fauy, Dr 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Dc Foreest, Widow 1 male, 1 female, 7 children, [gro children. 

De Kay, Jacobus 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 4 negroes. 2 ue- 

T)e Kay, Widow 1 female, 5 children, 1 negro, 1 negrcss. 1 

negro child. 

Delucena, Jew 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro, J ne- 

gress. 1 negro child. 

Delancy, Stephen 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 3 negroes. 2 

negresses, 2 negro children. 

Delamontagnie, Saml 1 male, 2 females, 8 children, 1 negro. 

Delamontagnie, John 1 male, 1 female, .t children. 

Delaplaine, Nicholas 1 male. [gresses, 1 negro child. 

De Marques, Isaac 1 male, 2 females, 2 children, 1 negro, 2 ne- 

Demill, Isaac 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Deiutant, Robert 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Demskin, Daniel 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Denisou, Charles I male, 1 female, 1 negress. 

Depeyster, Abraham 1 male, 2 females, 4 children, 5 negroes, 2 

negresses, 2 negro children. 

Depeyster, Widow 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro, 1 negress. • 

Depeyster, Johannes 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro. 2 ne- 

grcsses, 2 negro children. 

Depeyster, Isaac 1 male, 1 female, -6 children, 3 negro children. 

Depeyster, Cornelius 1 male, 2 females, 4 children, 1 negress, 1 ue- 

Deportee, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. [gro child. 

De Reimer, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro. 2 ue- 

Dc Robelas, Widow 4 females, 4 children, I negress. [grochild'n. 

Devy, John 1 male, 1 female, ") children, 1 negress. 

Deveune, Jan 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Devor, John 2 males, 6 children. 

Devous, Daniel 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Dewint, Levinus 1 male, 1 female, 1 negro child 

Dircksen, Evert 

Dircksen, Cornelius 2 males, 1 female, 4 children. 

Dickter, Joseph 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Dohneare, Johannes ] male, 1 female, 5 children, 1 negro, J ne- 
gress, 3 negro children. 

Doley, Philip 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Dolsie, Andries 1 male, 1 female. 1 child. 

Douwe, Andrew 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 



350 



APPENDIX. 



Heads of Fdniilies, Family and Domestic Household. 

Dowdier, "Widow 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Drinnez, Henry 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Droilhett, Paul 1 male, 1 female, 6 children, 2 negresses. 

Druelef, Benjamin 3 males, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro, 1 ne- 

Dubois, Madam 3 females. [gi'ess, 1 negro child. 

Dubois, Walter 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, ] negress. 

Dublett, John 1 male, 2 females. 

Duuken, George 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 2 negresses. 

Duychink, Garret 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro, 1 ne- 
gress, 2 negro children. 

Duychink, Widow 2 females, 8 children, 4 negroes, 1 negress, 2 

Dyckman, John 1 male, 1 female. [negro children. 

Dyer, Thomas 1 male. 

Dyer, John 1 male, 2 females, 2 children. 

Ebbetts, Daniel 2 males, 1 female. 

Ebou, Johaimes 2 males, 1 female, 4 children. 

Edwards, Robert 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Echeles, William 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 2 negroes. 

Elberts, Albei-t 1 male, 3 females, 4 children, 1 negro. 

Ellison, Thomas 1 male, 4 females, 4 children. 

Ellison, John 2 males, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro, 2 ne- 
gresses, 1 negro child. 

Ellison, Robert 1 male, 2 females, 2 negresses. 

Elliott, Elizabeth 1 female. 

Ellsworth, 1 male, 5 children, 2 negroes, 1 negress. 

Ellsworth, Christopher 1 male, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Ellsworth, George 1 male, 1 female, 6 children, 2 negroes. 

Ellsworth, Widow 1 female, 3 children. 

Ellsworth, William 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. [negress. 

Emott, James 1 male, 2 females, 3 children, 1 negro, 1 

Evans, Thomas 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Everson, Mr 2 females, 2 children, 1 negro. 

Evarts, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Evert, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negress. 

Everts, Wessell 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Fagett, Widow 3 females. 

rariiandus, William 1 male, 1 female. [negro child. 

Farree, Lewis 1 male, 3 females, 4 children, I negress, 1 

Fargoe, Daniel 1 male, 1 child. 



APPENDIX. 



351 



Honda of Families. Family and Domestic Houiohold. 

Farmer, Anthony 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 4 negroes. 

Fauconnier, Peter 1 male, 3 females, 4 children, 1 negro, 1 nc- 

Fancout, Andrew 1 male, 1 female. [gres.s. 

Fielding, Nicholas 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Fisher, William 1 male, 1 female, 6 children, 1 negro. 

Finch. Captain 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Fleming, Richard 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Floraii, Mr 1 male, 1 female. 1 child. 

Flower, Carny 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Fordyce, Margaret 2 females. [negro children. 

Forkell, Captain 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negress, 4 

Foster. William 1 male, 1 female, o children. 

Francen, Emanuel 2 males, 2 females, 1 child. 

French, John 1 male, 2 females, 3 children. 

French, Philip I male, 1 female, 3 children, 3 negroes, 2 

negresses, 2 negi-o children. 

Froiise, Widow 2 females, 4 children. 

Funnell, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Gandenoa, Giles 1 male, i female, 1 negi-o child. 

Gai-rets, Nicholas 3 females, 4 children. 1 negro, 1 negro child. 

Garabrant, Francis 1 male, 2 females, 2 children, 2 negroes. 

Garners, Isaac 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Gerrits, Cornelius 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Gillin, Christopher 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Gillison, Hendrick 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Glcaves, Thomas 1 male, 1 female, .5 children, 2 negroes, 2 

Glencross, Mr 1 male, 1 female, [negresses, 1 negro child. 

Gonfrey, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negress. 

Goderis, Francis 2 females, 4 Children, 1 negrcns. 

Gomaz, Mr 2 males, 2 females, 4 child'n,l negro. 1 negress. 

Goiiverneu;*, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro child. 

Gravenrod, Andrew 1 male, 1 female, 5 child'n, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Gracklin, 

Grans, Gerard 1 male, 1 female, ft children. 

Grassett, Augustus 1 male, 1 female, 1 negress. 

Green, Richard 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Green, Richard 1 male, 1 female. 

Griggs, 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. ^ 

Gunosen, 1 male, I female, 1 child. 



352 



APPENDIX. 



Heads of Families. Family mul Domestic Ilouseliold, 

Gurney, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 chikl, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Hagers, William 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Hains, Thomas 1 male, 1 female. 

Halgrave, Widow 1 female, 1 child. 

Hallar, Garret 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Hardin, Michael 2 males, 3 females, 1 negro child. 

Hardin, Thomas 2 males, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro child. 

Hardbrow, Bernardus 1 male, 5 children, 1 negro. 

Hardenbrook, Johannes .... 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro child. 

Hardenburgh, Mr Imale, 1 female, 5 child'n, 1 negro,! negress. 

Haring, Michael 1 male, 1 negro. 

Harks, Mary 2 femalas. 

Harman, 

Harpending, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negi'O child. 

Harris, Mr 2 males, 1 female, 1 child, 2 negresses. 4 

negro children. 

Harris, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro. 

Hart, Bartholomew 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 2 negroes, 1 negress 

Hases, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Haywood, AVilliam 2 males, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro child. 

Hedding, Lawrence 1 male, 2 females, 1 negro child. 

Heermans, Peter 2 males, 1 female, 1 child. 

Hendricks, 1 male, 3 females. 

Hendricks, Swerez 1 male, 1 child. 

Herrick, Jan 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Heme, Annetje 1 female, 1 child. 

Heslook, Jan 1 male, \ female, 1 child. 

Hewson, Leendert 1 male, 3 children, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Hill, Jan 1 male, 2 females, 6 children. 

Holding, Harman 1 male. 

Honan, Mr 1 male, 2 females, 1 child, 1 negress. 

Hooper, Mr 1 female, 2 children. [gress, 1 negro chila. 

Hooghland, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 2 negroes,! ne- 

Hooghland, Christopher. . . .1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Hooghland, Johannes ! male, 2 females, ! child, 1 negro, ! negress. 

Howard, Widow 3 females, ! child, 4 negro children. 

Huck, Thomas 2 males, 1 negro. 

Huddleston, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 2 negresses. 

Hudson, Margaret 1 female, 2 children. 



APl'KNDIX. 



353 



Heatls of Kiimiliep. Fatnily «inl Domestic HonBehold. 

Hutchins. John L male, 1 female, 2 negresses, 1 negro child. 

Hyev, (Jarret 2 males, 2 females, 2 children. 

Isaacs, Joseph 1 male, 1 female, 4 child'n, 1 negro. 

I ves, Thomas .1 males, 1 female, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

. Jacobs, Cornelius 2 females, 6 children, 1 negress, 1 negro ciiild. 

.Jackse, Feter 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro,l negress. 

Jackson, William 4 males, 1 female, 2 child'n, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Jamaine, Nicholas 1 male, 1 female, 5 negresses, 1 negro child. 

Jameson, David 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro, 2 ne- 

Jansen, Johannes 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. [gresses. 

Jansen, Widow 1 female. 

Jansen, Hendrick 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Janeway, 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 5 negroes, 1 ne- 
gress, 1 negro child. 

Jaudon, Daniel 2 males, 1 female, 4 children. 

•fay, Augustus 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro. 

Johnson, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 1 negro. 

Johnson, Abraham 2 males, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Jones, Roger 2 males. 

Jones. (iriflQn 1 male, 1 female. 

Jones, Jan 1 male. 

Joosten, Johannes 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. [negro child. 

Jordan, AVidow 1 female, 6 children, 1 negro, 1 negress, 1 

Joris, Stintje 1 female. 

Juter, Isaac 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Kage, William 1 male, 2 females, 1 negress. 

Kenning, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Kcnne, Johannes. 1 male. 

Kettletas, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Kettletas Garret 

Kill. Enoch 1 male, 1 female. 

Kidd. Widow 2 females. 

Kierstcde, Hans 1 male, 1 female. 1 child. 

Kierstedc, Widow 2 females, 6 children, 1 negro. 

Ivierstede. Widow 1 male, 1 fc^male, 1 child, 1 negro child. 

Kingston, John 1 male, 1 female. 

Kiaing, Mr 1 female. 8 children, [gresses, 1 negro ci\ild. 

Kip. Mr 2 males, 2 females, 1 child. .') negroes, 2 n«- 

Kip, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro child. 

23 



354 



APPENDIX. 



Heads of Families. Family and Domestic Household. 

Kip, Catharine 1 female, 8 children, 2 negroes, 2 negresses, 

1 negro child. 

Kip, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro, 1 ne- 

gress, 2 negro children. [negresses. 

Kip, Isaac 1 male, 2 females, 6 children, 2 negroes, 2 

Koeck, Jan 1 male, 1 female, 6 child'n, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Koning, Jan 1 male. 

Lamb, Alexander 1 male, 1 female, 6 children. 

La Mereaux, Andrew 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Lagram, Jan 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Lansin, Garret 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Lamas, Walter 1 male, 1 child, 

Lansing, John 

Laroux, Bartholomew 2 males, 1 female, 6 children, 1 negress. 

Larye, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Lastly, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Latham, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Law, Andrew 2 males, 3 females, 2 children. 

Lawrence, Widow 1 female, 5 children. 

Lawrence, Andrew 1 male, 1 female, 6 children. 

Leathing, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Lees, Mr 2 males, 1 female, 1 negress. 

Lees, Widow 1 female, 1 child. 

Leigh, James 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Leiree, Boult 1 male, 1 female. 

Ledham, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children 

Leenderts, Albert 1 male. 

Leersten, Carsten 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Legrand, Mr 1 male. 

Leslie, John 1 male, 1 female. [negress. 

Leveridge, Samuel 1 male, 3 females, 4 children, 2 negroes, 1 

Lewis, Leonard 1 male, 2 females, 7 children, 1 negro, 1 ne- 
gress, 1 negro child. 

Lewis, Mr 1 female, 6 children, 1 negress. 

Leyros, Joost .1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Lillie, Widow 3 males, 4 females, 6 children, 1 negress. 

Lindslay, Mrs 1 female. 

Ling, Mr 2 males, 3 negresses. 

Lloyd, William 1 female, 2 children. 



APPENDIX. 



355 



HfHds of Families. I'Hniily ami Domestic Household. 

Lock, Captain 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Lock, Edward 1 male, 1 iemale, 3 children. 

Lodge, Cornelius 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Loeter, Sarebs 1 male, 4 females, 2 children. 

Logall, David 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negress. 

Longstreet, Johannes 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Loockerman, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 3 negroes, 3 ne- 

gresses, 2 negro children. 
Loockerman, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro, 1 negress, 

1 negro child. [gress. 

Locherest, Samuel 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro, 1 ne- 

Loring, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 2 negresses. 

Lorteen, Nicholas 1 male, 1 female. 

Loukes, Augustus 1 male, 1 child, 1 negro, 1 negro child. 

Lowrican, Harman 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Lourier, Christian 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Louries, Annetje 1 female. 

Lourier, Cornelius 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro. 

TjOw, Peter 2 males, 1 negress. 

Lucas, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Ludlow, Gabriel 1 male, 1 female. ehild'n, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Lurting, Robert 2 males, 3 females, G children, 1 negress, 1 

Lysenner, Widow 2 females, 1 child. ] negro child. 

Lysoner. Mr 1 male, 2 children, 2 negresses. 

Ijcvy, Moses 3 males, 2 females. 2 children, 1 negr&ss, 1 

Macdougal, Da\id 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. [negro child. 

Macrschalk, Andrew 1 male, 2 females, children. 

Man, Adrian 4 males, 1 female, 4 children. 

.Many, James 1 male, 3 children. 

Mumbroits, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Manshares, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Marins. Cornelia 1 female. 5 children. 

Marks. Peter 1 male, 1 female. 

Martens, Samuel 1 male, 1 female. 

Martens, John 1 male, 1 child. 

-Martens, Ryer 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Marie, Anne 1 female, 1 child. 

Marshall, Edward 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negress. 

Markener, Margaret 4 females. 



356 APPENDIX. 

Heads of FamiliM. Family ftnd Domebtic Household. 

Marshett, Mrs 1 female, 1 child. 

Marston, Nathaniel 1 male, and others. 

Materbe, Nicholas 1 male, 1 female. 

Matthews, Captain 1 female, 5 childi-cn, 1 ncgress, 1 negro child. 

Maurice, Jacob 2 males, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Maynard, George 1 male, 1 female. 

Maynard, Daniel 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Meet, Jan 1 male, 1 female, C children. 

Meinderse, William I male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Merritt, Meyer 1 male, 2 females, 3 children. 

Merritt, Mrs 1 female, 2 children. 

Mesier, Hendrick 1 male, 1 female. 

Mesier, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 5 child'u, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Mettalaer, Abraham 2 males, 1 female, 6 children, 1 negro, 1 

Meyer, Hendrick 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. [negress. 

Meyer, Andrew 2 males, 2 females, 3 children, 1 negress. 

Meyer, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Milne, Robert 1 male, 1 female. 

Minthorne, Philip 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Minvielle, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 1 negress. 

Minvielle, Mrs 1 female, 1 child, 2 ncgresses. 

Minvielle, David 1 male, 2 females, 1 child, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Moll, Engeltere 1 female, 3 children, 

Moll, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Mollts, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Mousett, Mr 1 male, 2 females, 3 children. 

Montayne, Hester 1 female, 4 children . 

Montayne, Peter 1 male, 3 females, 1 child. 

Mooney, Henry 2 males, 1 female. 

Moor, 2 males, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro. 

Morgan, Mrs 1 female, 4 children, 1 negress. 

Morehouse, John 1 male. 

Morris, Archibald 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Morris, Captain 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro, 2 ne- 

gresses, 1 negro child. 

Morrisgreen, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Morrayn, Peter 1 male. 1 female, (5 children, 1 negro. 

Moss, William 1 male. 2 females, 4 children. 

Mussett, Mrs 1 male, 1 female. 



APPENDIX. 357 

Heads of Families. Family and Domestic Household. 

Mylcr, Paul 1 male, 1 fbinalo, 3 children, 1 negress. 

Nanclaft, Widow 1 female, 3 children,! ncgress, 2 negro chl'n. 

Nanfan, Jolin 1 male, 1 negro. 

Narbree, Jan 1. male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Nasseros, William 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Narrosseri, William 1 female, 5 children. 

Nessepot, Widow 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Newkirk, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 5 children, 2 negresses. 

Nieuwenhnysen, Wilhelmus.2 males, 2 females, 1 negro child. 

Novered, Captain 1 female, 3 children, 1 negress. 

Now, Elias 1 male, 3 females, 4 children, 1 negro. 

Obco, Onerro 5 females. 

Octon, William 1 male, 1 female. 

Onolebagh, Garget 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Outnian, James 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Palding, Joseph i male, 1 female, 4 child'n, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Parmcntier, Peter 1 male, 2 females, 2 children. 

Parmentier, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Pasco, 1 male, I female, 2 negro children. 

Peartree, Colonel 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 2 negroes, 2 ne- 

gresses, 2 negro children. 

Pearce, William. 1 male, 3 females, 5 children. 

Peecke, John 1 male, 2 females, 7 children. 

Pell, William ; . 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Pell, Evert 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Pells, Christopher 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro, 1 ne- 
gress, 1 negro child. 

Pell, Thomas 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Pell, William 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Pendston, Captain 1 male, 1 female, 1 chQd, 1 negro. 

Peroa, John . . 1 male, 3 females. 

Peters, Dr 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Peterslot, John : . .1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Peterbaus, Widow 1 male, 2 females, 3 chikbvn, 1 negro child. 

Peterow, Widow 1 female, 6 children, 1 negro. 

Petram, John and Elias. . . .2 males, 1 female, (i children, 1 negro, 1 ne- 
gress, 1 negro child. 

Philips, Samuel 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Philipse, Widow 1 female. 1 child. 1 negro, 2 negresses, 

3 negro children. 



I 

358 APPENDIX. 

]Ifii-la of Ftiinilieti. Family and Domestic Household. 

Pierson, 

Pietersen,'Johu 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Pitt, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Pluraley, Elizabeth 2 females, 1 child, 1 negress. 

Phivier, Neeltie 2 males, 2 females, 5 children. 

Podveuton, Robert 1 male. 

Potter, Catharine 1 female, 2 children, 1 negress. 

Poulee, John 1 male, 2 females, 4 children. 

Provoost, Benjamin 1 male, 11 children. 

Provoost, David, jr 1 male, 5 children, 2 negroes, 1 negress. 

Provoost, David, sen 1 male, 2 females, 2 children, 1 negress. 

Provoost, Johannes 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Provoost, William 1 male. 1 female, 4 children. 

Provoost, Hettie I female, 6 children, 2 negroes. 

Provoost, Widow 1 female, 6 children, 2 negroes. 

Puddington, Robert 1 male, 2 females. 

Quick, Annez 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negress. 

Quick, Marre 1 female, 1 child. 

Quick, Cornelius 1 male, 1 female, 6 children, 1 negress. 

Rabi, Mrs 1 male, 2 females, 2 children. 

Rambert, Elias 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Reyersen, Bettie 2 females, 1 child. 

Reed, Archibald 1 male, 1 female. 

Reade. Mr 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negress. 

Reight, A 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Reindersen, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro, 1 negress. 

Remsen, Mangel 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 2 negroes. 

Riersen, Joris 1 male, 2 females, 8 children, 2 negroes, 1 ne- 
gro child. 

Richards, Stephen 1 male, 2 females, 3 children, 1 negress. 

Rightman, Peter 1 male, 1 female, .5 children. 

Ringo, Albert 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Rishey, Dennis 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Risoe, Rinier 2 males, 2 females, 2 children. 

Ritman, 2 males, 2 ibmales, 3 children, 1 negro, 2 ne- 

Ritvire, Mr 1 male, 1 female. " [gro children. 

Robeson, Jochem 1 male, 1 i'emalo, 2 children. 

Roberts, Thomas 1 male. 

Roberts, Daniel 3 males, 1 female. 



APPENDIX. 



359 



Heads of Families. Family aod Domestic Household. 

Robertson, G 2 females. 

Robinsou, William 1 male, 1 female. 

Rollwagou, Catharine 2 females, 1 negro, 1 negro child. 

Rombouts, Mrs 3 females, 1 negress, 2 negro children. 

Roome, Peter Willemse. . . .1 male, 1 female, 8 children. 

Roome, John Willemse 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Rose, Lj'dia 3 females, 1 child. 

Roosboom, William 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Rous, Peter 1 male, 3 children. [negro child. 

Russell, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negress, 1 

Rutgers, Herman 2 males, 1 female, 1 child, 2 negroes. 

Rutgers. Anthony 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negress. 

Backett, Richard 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 3 negroes, 1 ne- 
gress. 

Sanderson, Thomas 1 male, 1 female, 2 children,! negro child. 

Sanders, Widow 3 females, 1 negress, 3 negro children. 

Sailor, Widow 1 female, 1 child, 2 negroes, 1 negress, 1 ne- 

Sandford Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. [gro child. 

Scott, John 1 male, 2 females, 1 child, 1 negro child. 

Scouten, Sarah 1 male, 2 females, 5 children. 

Selecot Catharine 1 female. 

Selwood, Mr 1 male. 

Sewalls, AVidow 1 male, 2 females. 

Shackerly, William 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Shackmaple, John 1 male, 2 females. 

Sharpas, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negress. 

Shelwood, William 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. [child. 

Shelly, Captain 1 male, 2 females, 1 negro, 1 negress, 1 negro 

Shumau, Simeon 1 male, 4 children. 

Sadman, Captain 2 males, 1 female, 2 children, 4 negi'oes, 2 

uegrcsscs, 4 negro children. 

Sickles, William 1 female, 3 children. 

Sickles, Thomas, 1 male, 1 female. 

Simcam Deborah 1 female, 1 child [gress, 1 negro child. 

Sinkeler, Mr 2 males, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro, 1 ne- 

Skelton, Robert 1 male, 2 females, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Slay, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Slevett, Michael 2 males, 2 females, 1 child, i negress. 

Slick, Derrick 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 



360 APPENDIX. 

Heads of FamilieB. Furaily and Domeelic Ilousoliold. 

Smith, Mrs 3 females, 4 children. 

Smith, Widow 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro. 

Smith, Joseph 1 male, 2 females, 4 children. 

Smith, Bernardus 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Smith, Bernardus 1 male, 1 female, 10 children. 

Smith, William, (Alderman) .1 male, 1 female. 2 negroes, 4 negresses, 6 

negro children. 

Smith. English 1 male, 2 females, 1 child. 

Smith.t Sergeant 1 male, 1 female. 

Sokane, Samuel 1 male, 2 females, 4 children. ' 

Solomon, 1 male, 2 females, 2 children. 

Solomon, 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Spencer, James 1 female, 2 children. 

Splinter, Abraham 2 males, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro child. 

Staats, Doctor 1 male, 9 children, 1 negress. 

Stanton, George 2 males, 1 female, 4 children, 4 negroes, 2 

■ negresses, 2 negro children. 

Stanton, William 1 male, I female, 2 children. 

Stevens, Mrs 2 females, 4 negroes, 1 negress. 

Stephens, John 2 males. 

Stephens, John I male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Stokes, William 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Storr, Doreman 1 male, 1 female, 1 negro. 

Stouteuburgh, Isaac 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. [gress. 

Stoutenburgh, Tobias 2 males, 2 females, 4 children, 1 negro, 1 ne- 

Stukey, Widow 1 male, 2 females, 2 children. 

Suerts, Olphert 1 male, 1 female, 5 children, 1 negro, 1 ne- 
gress, 3 negro children. 

Swart, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Saveer, John 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Sweer, Tillet 1 male, 1 female. 

Sweetman, Dennis 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Symes, Captain 1 male, 2 females, 2 children, 1 negro. 1 ne- 
gress, 1 negro child. 

Syms, William 1 male, 1 female. 3 children. 

Taylor, William 1 male, 1 female. 4 child'n, 2 negroes,! negress. 

Taylor, Widow 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro, 1 negress, 2 

negro children. 

Tenbrook, Hannah 2 males, 1 female, 1 child. 



APPENDIX. 



361 



Heads of Families. Family «nd Domestic Household. 

Ten Eyck, Derrick 3 males," 1 female, 2 children, 12 negroes, 1 

Ten Eyck, Han 2 males, 3 females, 2 children. [negress. 

Ten Eyck, Conrad 4 males, 3 females, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Ten Eyck, Geesje 1 female, 1 negress. 

Ten Eyck, Jacob 2 males, 2 females, 1 child, 1 negro child. 

Terree, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Theobalds, John 1 male, 5 children, 2 negroes, 1 negress. 

Thibaud, Johannes 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. [child. 

Thomas, 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro, 1 negro 

Thomas, Edmund 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Thompson, John ' 1 male, 2 females, 5 children. 

Thorn, John 1 male, 1 female. 

Thouet, Peter 1 mule, 2 females, 2 negro children. 

Thwaites, Daniel 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Ten Brook, Andrew 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Teilho, Vansent 1 male, 1 female, .o children. 

Tichtor, Susannah 1 female, 1 child. 

'I'iebout, Anneuez 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Tiebout, Johannes 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

'i'oy. Mr 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Tuder, Captain 1 male, 1 female, 5 children, 1 negress. 

Tuder, Affey 1 female, 1 child, 1 negress. [gro child. 

Tuder. Captain 2 males, 5 females, 6 children, 1 negeess, 1 ne- 

Tun?edes, 2 males, 4 females, 2 children, 1 negro, 5 no- 
Turk, Paulus 1 male, 1 female. [gro children. 

Turk, Paulus, jr 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Turse, James 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Trevett, Captain 1 male, 2 females. 

Trevor, Daniel 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

TJrielant, Johannes 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Yalo, Steven 1 male, 2 females, 4 children. 

Van Areu, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro, 1 ne- 
gress, 2 negro children. 

Van Bussing, Widow 1 female, 1 negro. 

Van Bos, Wyburgh 1 female, 1 child. 

Van Breukelen, Jannetje. . .3 females. 

Van Br ugh, Widow 1 female, 1 negro. 

Van Caver, Garrett I male, 1 female. 2 children. 1 negress. 

Van Cortlant, Widow 2 males, 2 females, 3 children, 5 negroes, 2 

negresses, 2 negro children. 



362 



APPENDIX. 



Heads of Familiea. Family and Domestic llouaeliold. 

Van Cortlant, Jacobus 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 2 negroes, 2 

negresses, 1 negro child. 

Van Couwenhoven, Francis . 2 males. 

Van Crouger, Captain 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro child. 

Van Dam, Mr 2 males, 2 females, 5 children, 3 negroes, 2 

negresses, 1 negro child. 

Vandemark, 1 male, 2 females, 1 child. 

A^anderbeeck, Ratie 1 female, 2 children. 

Vanderbeeck, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Vandcrbeeck, Conrad 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. [gress. 

Vandeubergh, Derick Imale, 1 female, 2 children, 2 negroes, 1 ue- 

Vandenboogh, Solomon. . . .1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Vandewater, Widow 1 female, 3 children. 

Vandewater, Abraham 1 male, 1 female. 

Vandewater, Jannetje 1 female. 

Vandewater, Evert 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 ntgro child. 

Vandewater, Johannes 1 male, 2 females, 2 children. 

Vandemeyer, Laire 1 female, 4 children. 

Vanderhull, Hendrick 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Vanderwel, Abraham 1 male, 1 female. 

Vauderhuyden, Mattie 1 female, 2 children. 

Vandeschnyr, Margaret .... 1 female. 

Vandervoort, Cornelia 1 male, 1 female. 

Vanderspeigle, Jacobus 1 male, 1 female, 7 children, 1 negress. 

Vanderspeigle, John 2 males, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro child. 

Vanderspeigle, Hendrick ... 1 male. 

Van Dircksen, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Van Dusen, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Van Dyck, Francis 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

Van Dyke, Armje 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Van Dyck, Orseltje 2 females, 1 child. 

Van Dyck, Mr 1 female, 1 child. 

Van Ecker, Mrs 1 female. 

Van (ielder, Johannes 1 male, 1 female, 1 children. 

Van Gelder, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Van Gelder, Harmanus 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Van Gesen, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

Van Gesen, Johannes 2 males, 3 females. 

Van Gesen, Mr 1 male, 2 females, 2 children. 



APPENDIX. 



363 



Heada of Families. Family and Domestic Household. 

Van Hook, Evert 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Van Hook, Lawrence 2 males, 2 females, 4 children, 1 negro. 

Van Horn, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negro, 1 negress, 

1 negro child. [negres.^. 

Van Horn, Garret 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 2 negroes, 1 

Van Horn, Widow 1 male, 3 females, 1 negress. 

Van Horn, Jan 1 male, 1 female. [gress, 1 negro child. 

Van Horn, John 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 3 negroes, 1 ne- 

Van Imbroecken, Gysbert . . 1 male. 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro. 

Van Nostraud, Antre 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro. 

Van Ostrom, Hendrick 

Van Rost, Johannes 1 male, 1 female, 5 children, 1 negro child. 

Van Schaick, Rebecca 1 male, 1 female, 2 negroes, 1 negress. 

Van Schaick, Widow 6 females, 3 children, 1 negro, 1 negress, 2 

negro children. 
Van Schaick, Hendrick .... 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Van Sart, John 1 male, 1 female, 1 negro child. 

A'an Strip, John 1 male, 1 female. 

Van Sune, Jacob 1 male, 1 female, 1 negro child. 

Van Tienhoven, Lucas 1 male, 1 fe'male, 2 children. 

A'an Tienhoven, Nicholas ... 1 male, 1 female, 1 negress, 2 negro children. 
Van Tilburgh, Johannes .... 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Van Tilburgh, Bareiit 1 male, 2 children. 

Van Tilburgh, Jan 1 male, 1 female. 

Van Tilburgh, Widow 1 female, 3 children. 

Van Tilburgh, Peter 2 males, 1 female, 1 child, 1 negress. 

Van Tyle, Mrs 2 females, 2 children, 1 negro. 

Van Tright, Garret 1 male, 2 females, 1 child. 

Van Vechten, Johannes. . . .1 male, 1 female. 3 children. 

Van Vecle, John James. . . .1 male, 1 female, 1 negress, 1 negro child. 

Van Velson, Aiges 1 male, 1 female, 4 children. 

Van Vlarden, Aaron 1 male, 1 female, .*) children. 

Van Veelen, Cornelius 2 males, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro child. 

Van Vo,5, Widow 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro, 1 negress, 2 

negro chil<b'eii. 

Van Wagensen, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro. 

Van Zandt, John 2 males, 1 female, 2 negroes, 1 negress. 

Varick, 2 males, 2 females, 4 children. 

Venel, Bartholomew 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 



364 



APPENDIX. 



Heatla of Fniuilies. Family and Domestic Household. 

Verplanck, Widow 3 females, 5 children, 1 negress. 

Vesey, Garret 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negro. 

Viene, Nieste 2 females, 1 child, 1 negro. 

Vietch, Samuel 1 male, 2 females, 1 child, 2 negro children. 

Villat, David 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Vincent, Francis 2 males, 1 female, 3 children, 1 negro. 1 

negress, 1 negro child. 

Vredenburgh, G 1 male, 1 negro boy. 

Wadersen, Joseph 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Wadersen, William 1 male, 2 females. 

Wackham, Mary 4 females, 1 negro child. 

VValdron, Rutger 3 males, 1 female, 2 children. 

Waldrou, Daniel 1 male, 1 female, 5 children. 

Walsh, William 1 male, 2 females, 3 children. 

Walls, Robert 1 male. [child. 

Walton, William 1 male, 2 females, 1 child, 1 negro. 1 negro 

Wandell, Abraham 1 male, 2 females. 

AVandell, Johannes 1 male, 5 children. 

AVaters, Mr 1 male, 1 female, 3 children, 2 negresses. 

Watson, John 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 1 negro. 

Weaver, Madam 2 females, 3 children, 1 negro, 2 negresses, 1 

negro child. 

Webber, Arnout 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Webber, Wolfert 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Webrand, Abraham 1 male, 1 female, 2 children . 

Wells, Susannah 1 female, 2 children. • [gresses. 

Wenham, Thomas 1 male, 1 female, 2 children, 2 negroes, 3 ne- 

Wessells, Widow 2 males, 3 females. 

Wessells, Francis 2 males, 2 females, 5 children, 5 negroo,s. 

Wessells, Lawrence 1 male, 1 female,4 child'n, 3 negroes, 1 negress. 

Wessells, Peter 1 male, 1 female, 4 children, 1 negress. 

Wessells, Harman 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

White, Robert 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. 

White, Catharine 2 females, 2 children. 

White, William. 1 male, 1 female, 1 child. 

White, William, jr 2 males, 1 female. 

Whitt, John 1 male, 3 children. 

Wickham, p]lizabeth 4 females. 

Williams, ^Vrthur 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 



APPENDIX. 



366 



Heads of Fftmiliea. Fntnily nnd Domestic I{ou>ebold. 

Williams, George 1 male, 1 female. 

Willett, Richard 2 males, 1 female, 1 negress, 1 negro child. 

Wilson, Captain 1 male, 1 female, 5 children, 1 negress. 

Wilson, Ebenezer 3 males, 4 females, 4 children, 1 uegTO, 1 iie- 

Windeford, Jolm 1 male, 1 female, 3 children. [gress. 

Witten Los 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Wooley, Charles 3 males, 1 negro. 

Wouterzen, Garret 1 male, 1 female, 2 children. 

Wright, Alida 1 female, 2 children. 

Wright, Joseph I male. 1 female, 1 child. 

Wyncoop. Benjamin 2 males, 1 female, 1 child. 

W'ynans, Garret 1 male. .1 lemale. 

Yelvorton. Antiene 1 female, 3 children. 



366 



APPENDIX. 



LIST OF CITIZENS OF NEW YORK, 

ADMITTED AS FREEMEN OP THE CITY, BETWEEN THE YEARS 1683 AND 1740. 







(A) 




1695. 


Aske, Benjamin, 


1726. 


Anthony, Nicholas, 


i< 


Apple, Hendrick, 


1721. 


Abrahamsen, John, 


1696. 


Abeel, John, 


1731. 


Alexander, James, 


" 


Allison, Thomas, 


" 


Abeel, David, 


1698. 


Aerentse, Feter, 


1735. 


Anderson, Jochem, 


" 


Ariantse, John, 


(< 


Allen, Thomas, 


1700. 


Atwood, William, 


(( 


Apple, John, 


" 


Atwood, Leigh, 


« 


Anderson,' Edward. 


1701. 


Allison, Robert, 


1737. 


Amerman, Albert, 


1705. 


Allaire, Alexander, 


11 


Amerman, Dirck, 


1710. 


Aspiuwall, Joseph, 


" 


Alsteyn, Abraham, jr 


iim. 


Anthony, Henricus, 


" 


Aspinwall, John, 


" 


Arden, James, 


(1 


Anderson, Peter, 


1720. 


Allaire, Lewis, 


" 


Alsteyn, Johannes, 


(1721. 


Anthony Allard, 


1738. 


Axson, William, 



(B) 



1683. 


Burling, Edward, 


1696. 


Bickley, Wra., jr.. 


1687. 


Boudinot, Elias, 


11 


Bancker, Evert, 


1691. 


Blydenburgh, Joseph, 


" 


Bradford, Samuel, 


" 


BIydenburgh, Benjamin, 


1698. 


Bogardus, Everardus 


1694. 


Bickley, William, sen., 


1. 


Boudinot, Elias, 


1695. 


Brooke, Chidley, 


II 


Boudinot, Peter, 




Buckley, John, 


11 


Bresteede, Simon, 


" 


Basford, John, 


« 


Budyan, Arthur, 


" 


Brevoort, Hend'k I., 


(I 


Blanck, Nicholas 


(( 


Blanck, Jurien, 


(( 


Bogaert, Olaes, 



■ :" ■ ■ \ ^ 




7' 



;^'iV;i'. , . V;.. ^ ■"-/;''' 




t I T 



^..i 



jLlllillli P I ^ Ma ,__ » i w s) «i w * V 



#; 




CiTY HA-Lli.W-ATir, ^>^ 



?--^l*'3 












•x^^- 






^^t^'l- 










... . "•,< .■•»■■, 










kt 



HOT m j^f'i&^'^^.'-J^**.^- . 



^ r»»i1i\ . '. 



SUuftztei/tU fAtJf X ejireou/.yo/tlul'ai'k.x'a.i erected many yecui\i arde.ce.SE>xi to Ihr yt/frK-tui. 
70.vnla.tLnn.. Ji Tuts .siru:^ ieen.- aZU.n>A, and *,' /iui» Jtnaifn a.i the. jTalO of RfCorriU^- 



APPENDIX. 



367 



1C98. 


Burger, Harmanns, 1734. 


Beekman John, 


" 


Beekman, John, 


Burger, Nicholas, 


<( 


Brazier, Abraham, 


Blackledgc, I'hiliji. 


(( 


Brevoort, Elias, 1735. 


Bender, Matthias. 


1700. 


Broughton, Sampson Shelton, " 


Bowne, Robert, 


(( 


Broughton, Sampson, " 


Benson, Benjamin. 


1701. 


Benson, Harmanus, " 


Bonee, Francis, 


" 


Bayard, Jacobus, " 


Beek, William, 


1702. 


Benson, Samson, " 


Bant, Peter, 


u 


Bissell, William, " 


Bant, John, 


« 


Borrow, John, " 


Boree, Isaac, 


170G. 


Bradhurst, Jonathf\r, " 


Barheit, Andries, 


1708. 


Bickley, May, " 


Brewer, Cornelius, 


" 


Bradford, Andrew, " 


Brisner, James, 


1713. 


Brock, Abraham, " 


Beekman, William 


171.5. 


Beekman, Gerardus, " 


Benson, Sampson, 


171G. 


Burnett, John, " 


Brown, Samuel, 


1 


Byvanck, Anthony, 1736. 


Bevens, John, 


1717. 


Bedlow, Isaac, " 


Brown, Thomas, 


1720. 


Burnet, William, " 


Brown. William J. 


" 


Bedlow, Peter, « 


Bloom, John, 


1722. 


,Brouwer, Scbrant, " 


Brown, James, 


1724. 


Boelen, Abraham, " 


Bayard, Samuel, 


t( 


Beekman, William, 1737. 


Blanchard, John, 


1725. 


Bradhurst, Samuel, " 


Brass, Adolph, 


1727. 


Blagge, Edward, " 


Bissett, John, 


1729. 


Browne, John, " 


Bant, AVilliam, 


'• 


Boyle, Solomon, " 


Bush, Peter, jr., 


1731. 


Benson, Sampson, " 


Brevoort, Elias, 


'• 


Brinkerhoff, Joris, " 


Bogaert. Cornelius 


« 


Bancker, Adrian, " 


Brevoort. Henry, 


(1 


Byvanck, Evert, " 


Bant, Martin, 


1732. 


Beekman, Henry, " 


Benson, Robert, 


1733. 


Bayard Stephen, " 


Boeke, Abraham, 


1734. 


Burger, Johannes, " 


Bant, Peter, Jr.. 


« 


Bayard, Nicholas, " 


Burger, Renier, 


(( 


Byvanck, John. 1738. 


Burger, Caspar, 


II 


Brazier, John, " 


Bush, Barent, 


« 


Beekman, Charles, " 


Bartlett, William. 


i( 


Bogaert, Arie, " 


Boeke, Isaac, 



368 



APPENDIX. 



1738. Bowyer, Samuel, 

" Brouwer, Everardus, 

1739. Bell, Samuel, 

" Burger, Daniel, 

" Bogert, John, jr., 

" Bicker, Victor, 

" Benson, John, 

" Burn, George, 



1739. Bailey, Nicholas, 
Bedlow Isaac, 
Beekmau, Gerardus, jr., 
Byvanck, Evert, 
Burris, Abraham, 
Benson, Abraham, 
Burger, John. 



(C) 



1693. 


-^^hambers, Thomas, 


T734. 


Carr, William, 


1695. 


Clarksou, Matthciw. 


1 7.35. 


Cregier, Simon, 


1696. 


Cuyler, Johannes, 




Constable, John, 


1698. 


Clarke, Thomas, 




Cazalct, John, 


•' 


Cuck, Jacobus, 




Cooke, Dirck, 


" 


Clock, Albert, 


■' 


Cosby, William, 


« 


Couwenhoven, Cornelius, 


<f 


Clopper, John, 


" 


Crigier, Martin, 


" 


Cure, John, 


1699. 


Couwenhoven, Joh's, 


11 


Cowley, Joseph, 


" 


Crosevelt, Bay, 


" 


Campbell, James, 


1700. 


Cooper, Caleb, 


1736. 


Cavalier, John, 


" 


Cozens, Barne, 


" 


Child, Francis, 


1701. 


Cholwell, John, 


'^ 


Cousine, William, 


" 


Cornelisen, Johannes, 


1737. 


Crookc, Charles, 


1702. 


Cobra, James, 


" 


Crooke, Gabriel, 


" 


Cornbury, Viscount, 


" 


Clarke, Robert, 


" 


Crug-er, John, 


" 


Clopper, Andrew, 


'• 


Crawford, Patrick, 


" 


Cannon, Peter, 


1711. 


Chardavoyne, Stephen, 


" 


Orolius, William, 


1716. 


Crannell, Robert, jr., 


" 


Crolius, Peter, 


1724. 


Cuyler, Henry, 


(( 


Colegrove, William, 


" 


Cortland, Philip, 


1738. 


Clopper, Cornelius, 


1727. 


Campbell, Archibald, 


" 


Cohen, Abraham, M 


" 


Olarkson, David, 


If 


Charlton, James, 


" 


Clarkson, Matthew, 


(( 


Cregier, John, 


1728. 


Chambers, John, 


'• 


Cook, Richard, 


1729. 


Ohanning, William, 


" 


Colwell, William, 


1730. 


Clock, Martin, 


1739. 


Croker, John. 


1734. 


Cox, John, 







369 



(D) 



1692. 


Droilhet, Paul, 


1728. 


1698. 


De Peyster, Isaac, 


1730. 


" 


De Klyn. Leonard H., 


1731. 


" 


Delamontagnie, John, 


" 


i< 


Dnychink, Evert, 


1734. 


" 


De Peyster, Johannes, 


" 


1699. 


De Hart, Matthias, 


" 


" 


Duychink, Garret, 


1735. 


1700. 


D'llarriette, Benjamin, 
De Witt, Daniel, 


„ 


1701. 


Davenport, Thomas, 


" 


1702. 


Dcnnc, Clu'istopher, 


" 


" 


Davis, William, 


1736. 


1708. 


Delucena, Abraham, 


1737. 


1712. 


Dugdale, William, 


" 


1713. 


Dupre, James, 


" 


1715. 


Delamontagnie, John, jr., 


" 


1717. 


Duane, Anthony, 


" 


1721. 


Dyer, John, 


1738. 


1724. 


De Foreest, Barent, 


" 


1726. 


Dart, Thomas, 
Delamontagnie, Isaac, 


1739. 



De Witt, John, 
De Peyster, Isaac, 
Delancey, James, 
Duychinck, Gerardus, 
De Foreest, Henry, 
Dobbs, Adam, 
De Foreest, Isaac, 
De Riemer, Steenwyck, 
De Foreest, Nicholas, 
De Boogh, John, 
Davy, James, 
De Foreest, Jesse, 
Dunscomb, Samuel, 
Delancey, Stephen, jr., 
Delancey, John, 
De Hart, Balthazcr, 
Duncan, Thomas, 
Droite, William, 
De Mill, Joost, 
Dever, William, 
Dobbs, William, 
Dobbs, Charles. 



(E) 



1691. 


Ellison, John, 




1735. 


Eager, Richard, 


1698. 


Ernott, James, 




" 


Eckerson, John, 


" 


Euwatse, John, 




1737. 


Euwatse, John, 




Ellis, Jo.seph, 




" 


Elsworth, John, 


1700. 


P^vert^, John, 




i( 


P^astham, John, 


" 


Ebbets, Daniel, 




1738. 


Earle, Marniiuluke, 


1715. 


Elsworth, George, 


sen.. 


" 


Eustie, Thomas. 




Els worth, George, 


jun., 


" 


Elsworth, Theophilus, 


1717. 


Euwatse, Euwatse 


!, 


1739. 


Ebbets, Richard, 


1721. 


Eyres, Nicholas, 




" 


Elsworth, George, 


1722. 


Ellison, John, 




'< 


Edmonds, William, 


1725. 


Elsworth, Theophilus, 


11 


Earle, John. 






24 







370 



(F) 



1696. 


Fletcher, Governor, 


1735. 


Farmer, Jasper, 


1698. 


French, Philip, 


1736. 


Field, Thomas, 


1699. 


Faneuil, Benjamin, 


1638. 


Fresnau, Andrew, 


1715. 


Fell, Thomas, 


« 


Frazier, Thomas, 


1717. 


Foster, Benjamin, 


(( 


Fleming, Thomas, 


1734. 


Fell, Christopher, 


1739. 


Fosseur, Matthias. 


1735. 


Fine, Frederick, 


(G) 




1696. 


Gracie, Matthew, 


1728. 


Gouverneur, Nicholas. 


1698. 


Graham, James, 


1731. 


Goelet, Philip, 


" 


Graham, Augustyn, 


1734. 


Gardiner, Isaac, 


a 


Goelet, Jacobus, 


" 


Grant, AVilliam, 


a 


Gouverneur, Abraham, 


1735. 


Goelet, Raphael, 


u 


Gouverneur, Isaac, 


" 


Gombauld, Moses, 


1707. 


Gasherie, John. 


« 


Garnier, Isaac, 


1718. 


Graham, John, 


- 1736. 


Gale, William, 


1714. 


Garland, Thomas, 


« 


Gilbert, Aaron, 


1721. 


Glover, William, 


1737. 


Gilbert, John, 


1726. 


Goelet, Jacob, 


1738. 


Gardner, Daniel, 


1727. 


Gomez, Daniel, 


" 


Gasherie, John, 


1728. 


Gilbert, Thomas, 


1739. 


Gilbert, William, jr. 


(( 


Groesback, John, 







(H 



1683. 


Holland, Samuel, 


1698. 


Hardenbrook, Beruardus, 


1692. 


Hea,thcote, Caleb, 


1699. 


Heermans, Folkert, 


1695. 


Hamilton, Andrew, 


1708. 


Hammond, William, 


" 


Honan, Daniel, 


a 


Harrison, Francis 


1696. 


Hooghland, Adrian, 


1710. 


Hunter, Robert, 


1698. 


Hyer, Walter, 


1714. 


Holland, Henry, 




Hyer, Gerrit, 


u 


Hyat, John, 




Hyer, William, 


1719. 


Harrison, Robert, 




Hooghland, Johannes, 


1725. 


Hays, Jacob, 




Hardenbrook, Johannes, 


1729. 


Hunt, Obadiah, jr.. 




Hardenbrook, Johannes, 


" 


Hillyer, John 







APPENDIX. 




1731. 


Harrison, Francis, 


1737. 


Henley, Charles, 


1734. 


Hiiggcf'ord, Thomas, 


u 


House, William, 


(1 


Hawksluirst, "William, 


« 


Hayward, Thomas, 


(( 


Hanus, Joseph, 


" 


Hazard, Nathaniel, 


a 


Harris, Robert, 


« 


Hyer, Aaron, 


1735. 


Hopson, Samuel, 


(1 


Hyer, Garret, 


" 


Hiuman, John, 


i( 


Hyer, Walter, 


" 


Hays, David, 


« 


Hyer, Frederick, 


i( 


Hays, Judah, 


1738. 


Houghton, Richard, 


" 


Hartell, Christian, 


" 


Hibon, Peter, 


1736. 


Hayes, William, 


" 


Ham, Anthony, jr., 


" 


Harduian, Jonathan, 


« 


Ham, Uriah, 


1737. 


Hogg", Robert, 
Hitchcock, William, 


1739. 


Harris, Richard. 



371 



(J) 



1695. Jamain, Nicholas, 
" Jane way, William, 

1696. Jamison, David, 
1700. Jay, Augustus, 
1702. Johnson, John, 

1731. Jamison, William, 

1732. Jay, Peter, 



1734. Johnson, Simeon, 

" Jacobs, Samuel, 

1736. Jarratt, James, 

1737. Jenkins, Henry, 

" Johnson, Jacobus, 

1738. Jones, James, 

" Jones, Thomas. 



(K) 



1695. Kemblo, John, 

1698. Kiersted, Cornelius, 

" Kip, Petrus, 

" Kip, Isaac, 

" Kiersted, Jacobus, 

" Kiersted, Hans, 

1702. Kiersted, Jacobus, 

1710. Kearney, Thomas, 

1720. Kip, Isaac, 

1724. Kip, Jacobus, 

1730. Kip, Samuel, 

1734. Kip, Abraham, 



1734. Kip, Petrus, 

1735. Keeling, James, 
" Kip, Jacob, 

" Kermer, Henry, 

1737. Kip, Richard, 

" Koning, Johannes, 

" Kiersted, Jacobus, 

1739. Kingston, John, 

" Kiersted, Luke, 

" Killmaster, James, 

" Ketchum, William. 



375S 




APPENDIX. 








(L) 




1688. 


Le Boytcaux, Gabriel, 


1731, 


Lamb, Anthony, 


1698. 


Liug, Matthew, 


1734. 


Lynch, Peter, 


<( 


Le Chevalier, John, 


11 


Legi'ange, Christian, 


1696. 


Lansing, Garret, 


1735. 


Lewis, Samuel, 


1698. 


Lewis, Leonard, 


" 


Legrange, Johannes, jr.. 


(i 


Lewis, Thomas, 


<i 


Lyusen, Gideon, 


" 


Low, Albert, 


(1 


Lyne, James, 


(1 


Low, Peter, 


11 


Lamberts, Lawrence, 


1701. 


Leisler, Jacobus, 


1736. 


Langdon, Richard, 


1708. 


Lynch, Anthony, 


1737. 


Lynsen, Daniel, 


<f 


Lovelace, Lord, 


(( 


Letellier, Lawrence, 


« 


Lyndsey, John, 


<i 


Leslie, John, jr., 


1709. 


Livingston, Robert, 


1738. 


Leisher, Charles, 


1716. 


Livingston, Gilbert, 


" 


Lyell, William, 


1722. 


Le RoLix, John, 


" 


Lush, John, 


1724. 


Le Roux, Charles, 


« 


Lawrence, Stephen, 


1727. 


Lowry, James, 


11 


Lane, William, 


1728. 


Lurting, George, 


11 


Lane, Henry, jr., 


1730. 


Lucas, Friend, 


" 


Lawrence, Henry, 


<( 


Lindesay, John, 


1739. 


Le Roux, Bartholomew 


i( 


Lodge, Abraham, 


" 


Lloyd, John. 


1731. 


Lurting, Robert, 







(M 



1695. 


Matthews, Peter, 


1699. 


Moutagnie, Thomas, 


11 


Morris, John, 


1708. 


Mompesson, Roger, 


11 


Monsey, Thomas, 


1710. 


Martiudale, James, 


11 


Mills, James, 


1712. 


Maxwell, James, 


1696. 


Morehead, William, 


1714. 


Matthews, Fletcher, 


1698. 


Merritt, William, 


II 


Minvielle, David, 


" 


Merritt, John, 


1716. 


May, William, 


" 


Morris, William, 


1724. 


Messier, Peter. , 


" 


Mesier, Abraham, 


1728. 


Montgomery, John. 


<i 


Meyer, Hermanns, 


" 


Murray, Joseph, 


11 


Meyer, Johannes, 


1730. 


Moore, John, 


(1 


Mesier, Peter J., 


1734. 


Marston, Nathaniel, jr., 


(1 


Maerschalck, Andries, 


" 


Marshall, John, 



APPENDIX. 



373 



1734. Macrsclialck, Peter. 
" Moore, Benjamin, 

" Meyer, Jacob, 

1735. Miller, Caleb, 

" Marrell, Robert, 

" Meyer, Andrew, 

" Mattock, Isaac, 

" Maerscbalck, Abraham, 

" Meyer, Andrew, 

" Ming, Thomas, 

1736. Mills, James. 



r,3'i 



1738. 



1739. 



Milliner, William, 
Maerscbalck, John, 
Morss, Gerrit H., 
Maerscbalck, Francis, 
Mann, John, jr., 
Mills, Abraham, 
Myer, Johannes, 
Mears, Judah, 
Maguire, Matthew, 
Murphy, Nicholas, 
Machade, Aaron. 



N) 



1683. 


Nessepot, Jasper, 


1722. 


North, William, 


1698. 


' Noell, Thomas, 


1724. 


Nixon, Thomas, 




Nerberry, John, 


1725. 


Nesbitt, James, 


1699. 


Nessepot, Jasper, jr.. 


1727. 


Noble, John, 


1700. 


Nisbett, Robert, 


1730. 


Nicolls, Richard, 


1701. 


Nanfau, John, 


1734. 


Norwood, Richard 


1715. 


NoxoD, Thomas, 


1736. 


Noble, Thomas, 




1739. 


Noble, Richard, 



1698. Olpherts, Suert, 

" Onclebagh, Gerrit, 

1701. Outman, Johannes, 

1713. Oostrander, Johannes, 



(0 



1732. Ootbout, John, 

1737. Gates, Samuel, 

1738. Owen, Jeremiah. 



1683. 


Paulding, Joost, 


(JP) 
1698. 


Pell, Thomas, 


1695. 


Phipps, Benjamin, 


" 


Provoost, Benjamin 


1698. 


Palmer, Thomas, 


11 


Provoost, David, 




Paxton, Alexander, 


" 


Phoenix, Jacob, 




Provoost, Jonathan, 


1699. 


Provoost, William, 




Provoost, Johannes, 


" 


Parmyter, Parenlis. 




PeU, William, 


1701. 


Peartree, William, 




Provoost, Jacob, 


" 


Parkinson, Robert, 



3Y4 




APPENDIX. 




1710. 


Peck, Ueojamin, 


1837. 


Proctor, William, 


1716. 


Paulding, Abraham, 


" 


Phoenix, Jacob, jr., 


1724. 


Penny mau, Joseph, 


a 


Pelletrau, Paul, 


1725. 


Piutai-d, John Lewis, 


(I 


_ Provoost, David, jr., 


1732. 


Perot, Philip, 


(( 


Provoost, John, 


" 


Phoenix, Alexander, 


a 


Provoost, Giddes, 


1735. 


Pepper, Mark, 


11 


Popelsdorf, William, 


" 


Palmer, Thomas, 


" 


Plowman, Peter, 


" 


Paulding, Joseph, 


(( 


Price, John, 


If 


Pell, Samuel, 


1738. 


Provoost, Robert, 


1736. 


Parcell, William, 


" 


Parcell, Abraham, 


" 


Peeck, William, 


1739. 


Provoost, Peter Praa, 


1737. 


Peisley, Jonathan, 


<( 


Peet, William, 


i( 


Perfect, James, 


(1 


Parent, Lewis. 


(( 


Peffer, John, 







(Q) 



1734. Quey, Edward, 


1738. 


Quick, James, 


1737. Quackenbush, Benj., jr.. 


1739. 


Quick, John. 


" Quick, Abraham, 







(R 



1691. 
1696. 



1698. 



1699. 
1700. 
1708. 

a 

1710. 

<( 

J 712. 



Reade, LawTence, 
Rutgersou, Harman, 
Raudell, William, 
Rodriques, Isaac, 
Roosevelt, Nicholas, 
Roos, Gerrit Jansen, 
Roomc, John Willemse, 
Rutgers, Anthony, 
Robertson, William, 
Regnier, Jacob, 
Robinson, Joseph, 
Roy, John, 
Reill, Joseph, 
Robinson, Robert, 



1724. 
1725. 
1728. 
1732. 
1733. 
1734. 



1735. 



1736. 



Roos, Garret, 
Rutgers, Petrus, 
Robinson, Charles, 
Robins, John, 
Rynders, Barent, 
Roome, William, 
Rutgers, Hermanns, jr., 
Rutgers, Henry, 
Richardson, William, 
Roome, Luke, 
Row, Henry, 
Rout, Thomas, 
Roome, Lawrence, 
Richard, John, 







APPENDIX. 




1736. 


Rice, Lawrenec, 


1738. 


Rigby, Thomas, 


1737. 


Eoosevelt, John, jr., 


" 


Richardson, William, 


a 


Ilustou, Peter, 


'• 


Rutgers, Anthony, jr. 


1738. 


Khuel (jrustavus, 


" 


Rousby, William, 




Rodriques, Isaac R., 


>l 


Ruft'head, James, 




Roome, Lawrence, 


1739. 


Roome, Arnout, 




Roberts, John, 


" 


Roosevelt, Nicholas, 




Redding, Jeremiah, 


" 


Richards, Samuel, 




Ratsey, Robert, 


1740. 


Roosevelt, Nicholas. 



375 



(S) 



1691. 


Staats, Samuel, 


1729. 


Stevens, John, 


1695. 


Sharpas, William, 


1731. 


Smith, William, 


li 


Smith, Joseph, 


1732. 


Slidell, Joshua, 


" 


Schuyler, Aaron, 


1733, 


Symcs, Julni, 


1696. 


Stevens, John, 


1734. 


Schuyler, Myndert, 


1698. 


Suert, Olpherts, 


" 


Scott, Robert, 


" 


Sickles, Zachariah, 


1735. 


Sands, Nathaniel, 


« 


Sanders, Robert, 


u 


Stoutenburgh, John, 


« 


Sinkani, Peter, jr.. 


" 


Stoutcnburgh, Peter, 


li 


Schenck, Johannes, 


11 


Swan, Richard, 


1701. 


Smith, William, 


" 


Shatford, Daniel, 


" 


Symcs, Lancaster, 


" 


Shadwick, Israel, 


1702. 


Schuyler, Garret, 


(( 


Schuyler, Peter, 


li 


Scott, John, 


(1 


Schuyler, Adoniah, 


a 


Stuckey, Andrew, 


1736. 


Sackett, Joseph, jr.. 


1707. 


Sharpas, Charles, 


" 


Shurmer, John, 


1708. 


Staples, John, 


" 


Smith, John, 


" 


Stevens, John, 


1737. 


Sloan, Andrew, 


1712. 


Salisbury, Humphrey, 


" 


Symes, Lancaster, 


1715. 


Sebring, Frederick, 


" 


Smith, Josiah, 


1719. 


Schermerhorn, Arnout, 


i( 


Steward, John, 


1721. 


Smith, William, jr., 


(( 


Smith, John S., 


1724. 


Santford, Cornelius, 


11 


Schultz, Benjamin, 


1725. 


Schuyler, Dirck, 


. " 


Stevens, John, 


1726. 


Scott, John, 


(( 


Sebring, Cornelius, 


1728. 


Schuyler, Harmanus, 


" 


Snyder, Jacobus P., 


" 


Seymour, John, 


" 


Sa^e, John, 



6H) 




APPENDIX. 




1737. 


Sickles, Thomas, 


1739. 


Sloover, Jacob, 


1738. 


Smith, Patrick, 


" 


Sprainger, Charles, 


" 


Scandliog, Patrick, 


" 


Scott, Francis, 


" 


Schultz, John, 


" 


Sipkins, John, 


" 


Smith, Peter, 


" 


Somersdyck, Jacob. 


1739. 


Saunders, John, 







(T) 



1695. 



1C9S. 



1699. 

1701. 
1702. 

1708. 
1710. 
1716. 
1724. 



Trowbridge, Caleb. 
Toose, Michael, 
Tnder, John, jr., 
Tuder, Nicholk, 
Tiebout, Tunis, 
Tuder, John, sen.. 
Ten Eyck, Dirck, 
Ten Broeck, Hendricks, 
Ten Eyck, Oonraet, sen., 
Ten Eyck, Conraet, jun., 
Tiebout, Johannes, 
Turnbull, Thomas, 
Thong, Walter, 
Thong, Benjamin, 
Targee, James, 
Tudor, Thomas, 
Teller, Charles, 
Ten Eyck, Conraet, 
Teller, Andrew, 



1732. 


Tienhoven, Oorneliu? 


1734. 


Tiebout, John, 


1735. 


Turck, Asueris, 


" 


Tittle, Edward, 


1737. 


Troup, Robert, 


It 


v' Tillou, Peter, 


" 


Ten Eyck, John, 


" 


Ten Eyck, Richard, 


1738. 


Ten Eyck, Samuel, 


" 


Thomas, Nicholas, 


" 


Tiebout, Albertus, 


" 


Taylor, Moses, 


1739. 


Tanner, John, 


K 


Thompson, John, 


II 


Ten Eyck, Andrew, 


II 


Ten Eyck, Jacob, 


" 


Thome, James, 


II 


Turner, James. 



(V) 



1698. Viele, Cornelius, 

'• A^an Home, Abraham, 

" Van Home, John, 

" Vande water, Elias, 

" Van Nostrand, Jacob, 

" Van Vorst, Johannes, 

" Van Gelder, Abraham, 

" Van Gelder, Johannes, 



1699. 



1701. 



1702. 



Vredenbergh, Isaac, 
Vandewater, William, 
Vaudewater, Cornelius, 
Van Cortland, OlofF, 
Van Naerden, Johannes P^ 
Van Horne, John, 
Vanderspeigle, Jacobus, 
Van Lacr, Abraham, 



APPENDIX. 



377 



1713. Van Clyflf, Habrant, 

1719. V^au Borsum, Philip, 

1723. Vcrplaiick, Guliau, 

1724. Vau Geldor, Hermanus, 
" Vauderspeijjle, Henry, 

1724. Vaudam, Richard, 

1725. Van, Borsum, Egbert, 
1728. Van Solinger, Johannes. 

1730. Van Zandt, Johainies. 

1731. Van Wyck, Abraham, 

1732. Varian, Isaac, 

1 733. Vandiegrist, Henry, 

1734. Van Home, Abraham, jr. 
" Van Duerscn, Peter, 

1735. Vanderspeigle, Lawrencot 
" Van Wyck, Johannes, 

" Vau Gelder, Henry, 

" Van Hook, Cornelius, 



1735. 



1736. 
1737. 



1738. 



1739. 



Van Duersen, Gilbert, 
Vau Wageneu, Garret, 
Van Duerseu, William, 
Vau Gelder, David, 
Vanderspeigle, John, 
Vredenburgh, John, 
Vonck, Cornelius, 
Van Gelder, Abraham, 
Van Vorst, John, 
Van Xorden. l*eter. 
Vandewater, Hendrick, 
Van Duersen, John, 
Van Ranst, Cornelius, 
Van Dam, Isaac, 
Van Home, George, 
Vauderhoven, Cornelius, 
Van Wyijk, Theodorus. 



(W) 



1G95. 


Willett, Richard, 


1734. 


Wessells, Wessell, 


1C98. 


Wynkoop, Benjamin, 




Williamse, John, 


" 


Walton, William, 




AN^aldron, William, 


« 


Walters, Robert, 


« 


Waldron, John, jr.. 


1G99. 


Wcssells, Francis, 


1735. 


Wood, Isaac, 




Weaver, Thomas, 


" 


Ward, Josepli, 


1702. 


Waldron, Johannes, 


" 


AVillett, Thomas, 


a 


Waldron, Samuel, 


(( 


Wessells, Lawrence, 


« 


Wooley, Charles, 


" 


White, Peter, 


1722. 


Weaver, Samuel, 


" 


Waldron, Peter, 


" 


Weeks, James, 


a 


Williams. Richard, 


1723. 


AValton, John, 


1736. 


AVnllace. John. 


1724. 


Warner, Gilbert, 


1737. 


Witts, George, 


" 


Walter, John, 


(1 


Wyley, James, 


1725. 


Willemse, Frederick, 


(( 


Waldron, Daniel, 


1726. 


Wynkoop, Cornelius, 


K 


Watts, John. 


'• 


Wendovor, Thomas, 


I< 


Wortcndyke, Cornelius, 


1731. 


Warren, Peter, 


(( 


Warner, Thomas, 



378 



1737. Wilson, Joseph, 
Walter, John F., 

" Wessells, Peter, 

1738. Wood, William, 
Wells, Obadiah, 

" Wilson, Alexander, 



1738. Ware, Thomas, jr., 

" White, Anthony, 

" Wright, Jonas, 

" Wyley, James, 

" Walton, William, jr. 



1696. 
1735. 



Young, Thomas, 
Young, James, 



(Y. Z.) 



1736. Yelverton, Anthony, 
1723. Zenger, John Peter. 



APPENDIX. 379 



KEY, 



EXPLANATORY OP THE OLD FARM MAP IN THE LOWER PART OP THE 

CITY. (See Map.) 



TiiK line of high water was the limit of all the estate bounded by the 
water. All the land under water, between the original high and low 
water marks, was granted to the Corporation of the city of New York 
by the charter. 

1. The walled city of New Amsterdam. The Indian name for the 
extreme point of the upland was Kap-se, (Benson.) 

1 a. The land lying just without the gates of the city was laid out into 
town lots, and granted to various persons. 

1 h. The garden of Peter Stoutenburgh. 

1 c. The ground of John Van Gue. 

2 & 2i This plot of ground was, at a very early period, appropriated 
to the use of the English Church, and subsequently granted to the church 
imder the designation of " The Rector and Inhabitants of the city of New 
York, iu/;ommunion with the Protestant Episcopal Church of the State 
of New York." By the charter of May 6, 1697, the church was incor- 
porated by the name of " Eector and Inhabitants of the city of New 
York, of the Protestant Church of England, as by law established." The 
same religious denomination also acquired the title to " The' Burial 
Place," lying between No. 2 and a line a little south of Thames street. 

3 & 4. A tract of land conveyed to William Dyre, afterward of Thomas 
Lloyd, and a portion of it. East Broadway, more recently of Thomas 
Ellison. 

3h. The ground of " Trentzi, the widow of Christopher Hoogland," 
1G96. 

5. Mesiers Millot. 

6. Thonvas Dey, afterward of Janalvie Ryers. 

7. The Shoemakers' Pasture, (the Dutch Church property is comprised 
in this tract.) 

8. Van.lercliff 's Land. 

9. Beekman. 

10. Beekman's Pasture. 



380 APPENDIX. 

11. The Common. 

11 a. " The Vineyard.'' 

11 b. Waste land granted to Corporation of New York by its charter ; 
part of the Common. 

12. The King's Farm, granted to the Episcopal Church, by letters 
patent from Queen Anne, 22d November, 1705. 

122. The Negro Burying-ground, or " Teller's property." 

13. Estate of Governor Jacob Leisler, forfeited in 1691, upon convic- 
tion of his attainder, and afterward restored to his heirs by the act of 
Parliament reversing the attainder. 

14. Greppel Bosch, anglice, a swamp or marsh covered with wood, to 
this day called " The Swamp." 

15. Granted to various persons, in lots, by patents. 

16. Cherry Garden, formerly the property of Richard Sackett. This 
gentleman, or one of his family, afterward " located" on Lake Ontario, 
and gave name to the village of Sackett's Harbor. 

IT. Webber & Loockerraan's patent, called also " The Roosevelt 
Farm." 

18. The Jane way estate. 

19. Kolk Hock. 

20. Kolk, anglice, the deep, or the unfathomed ; corrupted into Collect. 
Also known as Versh water, or fresh water. 

20 a. Powder-house lot. 

21. Pond south of the Powder-house, called the " Ldttle Kolch." 

22. John Kingston's estate. 

23. Doyer estate. 

24. Delancey. 

25. The Dominies' Hook, a tract of land, over sixty-two acres, known 
also as the Dominies' Bouwerrie, was acquired by a ground brief from 
Governor Stuyvesant, bearing date July 4, 1654, confirmed by Governor 
R. Nichols, 27 March, 1667, and was conveyed by the " children and law- 
ful heirs of Armctie Rolofs, late widow Dom'is Bogardus, to the Rt. 
H'ble Coll Francis Lovelace, and was afterward granted to the English 
('hurch." The Church also claims this as part of their grant from 
(Jueen Anne. 

2G. Lispenard meadows. 

27. Rutger's farm. 

28. Romaine. 

29. Gouverneur's estate. 

30. Ives' estate. 



APPENDIX. 381 

31. Laight. 

32. Byvauck. 

33. Stoutcnburgh. 

34. Delancey. 

34. o The land on the westerly side of Pearl street, extending to Greppel 
Bosch, between Ferry and Rose streets, belonging to Belthazer Bayard, 
and was conveyed by him, in 1683, to Theophilus Elsworth. In 1741, it 
was divided into three parts, one of which was set off in severalty to 
Geesic, widow of Hendrick Vandewater, one other to Theophilus ]']ls- 
worth, and the other to Margrittie, the widow of Johannes Cloppcr. 

35 a b. Delancey 's east and west farms. This estate was I'urfeited to 
tlie people by the attainder of Chief Justice James Delancey, during the 
war of the American Eevolution, laid out into city lots, and conveyed by 
the Commissioners of Forfeitures. 

3G. Bayard's west and east farms. 

37. Old Jan's laud, so called from Aaueke Jans, afterward belonging to 
the English Church. 

38. The farm of p]lbert Herring. 
38 a b. 

39. Bleecker's estate. ~ 
^ 40. Alderman Dyckmau's estate. 

41. Tucker. 

42. Van Cortland. 

43. The Laendert farm, (so called from Laendert Arenden, one of the 
early proprietors.) 

44. Brown and Eckford. 

45. Abijah Hammond. 

46. Brown and Eckford. 

47. The Minthorne farm. 

48. P. Stuyvesant. 

49. ]\rorgan Lewis, John Flack, and others. 

50. P. Stuyvesant. 

51. Stuyvesant. 

52. Stuyvesant, Peter's field. 

53. Richard Pero. 

54. Richard Pero. 

55. Belonging to the Sailor's Snug Harbor. 

56. The Brevoort estate. 

57. The Springier estate. 

58. Thomas Burling. 



382 



APPENDIX. 



59. Samncl Burling, afterward Cowman. 

60. Samuel and Thomas Burling, afterward Cowman. 
6i. Samuel and Thomas Burling. 

62. Anderson's place. 

63. Tiebout Williams. 

64. Krom Messie, so called from the resemblance of its outlines to the 
shape of a shoemaker's cutting knife, since corrupted into " Grammercy," 
by which name the small inclosure or " Park," within its limits, is still 
known. 

G5. Rose Hill farm. 

66. Estate of John Watts. 

67. The estate of Sir Peter Warren, called Greenwich, " The Indian 
name, according to Benson, of the point of laud extending into the Hud- 
son, was Sapokauigan." 

67 a. Isaac Yarian's estate. 
67 b. Gilbert Coutant. 
67 c. Estate of Ireland. 

67 (i. Estate of George Clinton and J. J. Astor, called " Greenwich 
place." 

68. Estate, formerly Yellis Manderville, afterward the property of 
George Clinton and John Jacob Astor. 

69. Part of the estate of Tellis Manderville, conveyed to John 
Staples.- 

70. Part of the estate of Tellis Manderville, conveyed to Rem 
Rapelye. 

71. Part of the estate of Yellis Manderville, conveyed to Samuel 
Boyd. 

72. Part of the estate of Yellis Manderville, conveyed to Bishop 
Moore. 

73. Estate of Bishop Moore, late of Dr. Clement C. Moore. 

74. Clarke estate. 

75. Bosson Bouwerie, or, more properly, Bosch Bouwerie (woodland,) 
formerly (1705) the property of Elbert Hereman ; all west of Seventh 
avenue belonged latterly to the estate of Henry Eckford. 

76. Known as the " Horn estate," originally patented (1670) by Sir 
Edmond Andros to vSolomon Peters,'a free negro, whose widow and heirs 
conveyed it to John Horn and Cornelius Webber, and held by Horn's 
descendants until a very recent date. 

77. Formerly the estate of Isaac Varian, the northerly seventeen and 
half acres purchased by him from the executors of John De Witt, to 



ArPKXDIX. 



383 



whom the same was conveyed by Jacob Horn iu 1751 ; the southerly ten 
acres purchased from Adam Vanderburgh. 

78. Estate of Samuel Franklin. 

79. The old Alms-house lot, part of N. Y. Commons. 

80. Casper Samlcr, who also owned 81, 82, 83 and 844. 

81. Isaac Cross and others. 

82. Coulthard. 

83. Anderson & Grenseback. 
84. 

844. Scheifelin, part, and Samler. 
85. 

86. Kip's Bay fpm. 

87. Murray Hill estate. 

88. Estate of John Thompson. 

89. John Slidell (formerly President of Mechanics' Bank.) 

90. Richard Dikeman and othc •. 

91. Samuel Van Norden. 

92. Estate of James A. Stewavf. Stewart street divided it in the 
centre, running westerly from Bloomingdale road, parallel with the north- 
erly and southerly boundary lines of this tract. That part of this tract 
formerly fronting on Broadway, together with Nos. 97, 98 and 99, formed 
the farm of Peter Van Ordcns ; that part lying on Fitz Roy Road, was 
part of Jacob Ordens' farm. 

93. John Slidell. 

94. Henry Jackson. 

95. Peter Hatterick. 

96. Aycrigg. 
96i Shute. 

97. Freeman. 

98. Arden estate. 

984. Estate of Citizen Genel 

99. Estate of Cornelius Ray. 

100. Estate of Richard Harrison, Esq., a distinguished lawyer, some 
fifty years since, late the property of the Hon. David S. Jones, now de- 
ceased. 

101. The property formerly of Decatur, now, or late, of James Boor- 
man, Esq. 

102. Late of George C. Schropel. 

103. Formerly of Thomas Tibbett Warner, afterward of Rem Rapelya 
103 a. Late of Samuel Watkins. 



384 



APPENDIX. 



103 b. Late of Isaac Moses. 
103 c. Late of Cboniical Bauk. 

104. Estate of I. Moses. 

105. Codman. 

106. John B. Murray. 

107. Glass-house farm. Estate of George Rapelye, formerly belonging 
to Sir Peter Warren ; at the northerly boundary line was the Great Kill, 
30 called. 

108. Samuel N. Norton. 

109. James Boggs. 

110. Incleberg. 

111. " Grange," the country scat of John Murray, jr. 

112. Murray Hill estate. 
113. 

114. " Ogdeu Place farm," partitioned, in 1838, among heir>< of William 
Ogden, formerly part of New York Commons. 
115. 

116. Incleburgh, 
117. 
118. 
119. 

120. Estate of Thomas Buchanan. 

121. Casper Smith estate. 

122. Turtle Bay farm, " formerly belonging to the Winthrops, the 
small cove or bay, called formerly " Deutel Bay," from which the present 
name is corrupted. " When the Iiead of the cask was further secured with 
pegs, tliey could say the cask was ' ge deutelt.' The pegs were short, but at 
the base, broad ; the bay tiarrow at its entrance, broad at the bottom ; the 
supposed resemblance between the bay and tlie peg, the supposed origin of 
the name." 

123. 



APFENDIS. 



385 



LIST OF FREEMEN, 

COi\TINUP;D from, and including the year 1740. TO AND 
INCLUDING 1748. 



Elias Chardavoyue, 
Johu Bill, 
Thomas Taylor, 
Thomas Carter, 
Alexander Willie, 
Peter Burger, 
Henry Rousby, 
John Kip, 
Joseph Montanie, 
Thomas Corbett, 
Jacob Sickells, 
Thomas Iligby, 
William Dean, 
John Allen, 
Isuiic King, 
Gabriel Ludlow, 
Roger French, 
Bartholomew Ryan, 
llendrick Van Geldei, 
Samuel Hazard, jr, 
Edward Wheeler, 
Frederick Webber, 
Abraliam Anderson, 
Cornelius Dyckman, 
Hendrick Van Vleckeren, 
Nicholas Kortright, 
Johannes Bass, 
Tunis Somerdyke, 



Jelles Mandeville, 
Jacobus Van Orde, 
Isaac Webber, 
Arnout Webber, 
Cornelius Webber, 
Hugh Crawford, 
John Atkinson, 
Samuel Waldron, jr., 
John Nagell. jr., 
Benjamin Waldror; 
-Jacob Dyckman, ji- , 
.,\.braham,Meyer, jr., 
Johannes Meyer, jr., 
'I'homas Child, 
John Williams, 
Aaron Bussing, 
John Sickles, 
Arent Myer, 
Adolph Meyer, 
John Anderson, 
Abraham Kerse, 
John Kerse. 
Daniel Horsmauden. 
Richard Heather, 
Peter Galatian, 
Isaac Levy, 
Michael Henderson, 
William Chapell. 



25 



.386 



William Drew, 
Thomas Beer, 
Jolin Merritt, 
Thrimas Allen, 
Frauds Becket, 
John Oovenlioven, 
Joshua Amy, 
Edward Townsend, 
Duncan Reed, 
Peter Knickabaker, 
Jacobus Van Alst, 
John Ryan, 
John Willse, 
Silvauus Simmons, 
Gabriel Sprung, 
William Whitfield, 
Peter Van Brugh, 
Thomas Alsop, 
Matthew Houseman. 
Thomas Alsop, jr. 
Benjamin Blagge, 



APPENDIX. 



1741 



John Lamb, 
Moses Lopez, 
John French, 
Thomas Timpson, 
Francis Roake, 
Benjamin Kiersted, 
James Manners, 
Peter Lassier, 
Aoraham Pit, 
Jacob Bennet, 
Lewis Nodine, 
John Cocks, 

Adam Mott, 

Thomas Dods, 

William Bowne, 

Johannes Remseu, 

John Waldron, 

Barent Sebring. 

Daniel Van Duerse, / 

George Brewster, 

Wendell Ham. 



Benjamin Hedger, 
Samuel Weaver, jr., 
Thomas Grant, jr., 
Benjamin Pedrick. 
Vincent Montanie, 
Benjamin Jackson, 
Samuel Bowne, 
Adolph De Grove, 
Abraham Bokee. 
Joseph Paulding, 
Edward Marriner, 
Robert McAlpin, 
Richard Byficld, 
Christopher Stymess, 



7 42. 

John Smith, 
Francis Baldwin, 
Alexander Forbes, 
Adam Beckman, 
James Eckland, 
Peter Demarest, jr., 
John Leake, 
Paul Francis Cabe, 
John Kinniston, 
Peter Charlton, - 
Richard Smith, 
Cornelius Copper, jr., 
Wood Furman, 
Solomon Hayes, 



B8T 



Maynard Burt. 
Benjamin Stout, 
John ytout. 
Kdward (jrahani, 
George Thorne, 
Thomas tloUock, 
Alexander Stewart, 



James Romljart, 
J ohn Brevoort, 
Klias Brevoort, 
William Baldwin, 
.luhn Myor, 
John Alwyiie, 
Jolin Myer, 
Thomas Dobsoii. 



4 3 



Simon J^anibcrti;, 
Richard Outenbogert, 
Abraham Forbes, 
Isaac Bhmck, 
Henry Whitfield, 
Philip Smith, 
Joho Yizien, 
Francis Wessells, 
Lawrence Myer, 
Josejjh Simpson, 
Dennis Hicks, 
Abraham Outorkirk 
Isaac Vangeldcr, 
Francis Bishop, 
John Rivers, 
Joseph Montagnie. 
Henry Angell, 
(Tcorge Willis, 
John Smith, 
Ari King, jr., 
Matthew Wool, 
Daniel Raveau, 
('harles Frazer, 
Thomas Lennington. 
Isaac Morris, 
r)illion Bogert. 
•lame? Scott, 
James Napier, 
James Warner. 



Samuel Pell, 
William Beiinet, 
John Dally, 
Abraham Pells, 
John Elsworth, 
John Latham, 
John Connelly. 
Peter Bogert, 
William Pearsee, 
Alexander Campbell 
Benjamin Payne, 
John Christie, 
Patrick Phagan. 
John McUie, 
Peter Clopper, 
(ierardus Beekman. 
Anthony Schuyler. 
John Peek, 
(Jerardus Phoenix, 
'I'homas Moone, 
Levy, Saraviel, 
George Xicolls. 
John Branigen, 
Zacharias Sickles, 
Isaac Tan Hook, 
John (-oriielius, 
Abraham Lott, 
Hugh Wont worth. 
John Delamontagnic. 



888 



APPKNDIX. 



Andrew Cannon, 
Simon Van Sise, 
Cornelius Van Sise, 
Daniel Van Vleckeren, 
Peter Colwell, 
Abraham Pinto, 
John Halden, 
Enoch Hunt, 
Peter Vandewater, 
Jacobus Van Orden, 
Samuel Brower, 
Robert White, 
Abr'aham Wheeler, 
Asher Mott, 
William Page, 
Lambert Losie, 
William Blake, 
Governor George Clinton, 



William Woynet, 
Abraham Lave, 
Coline Vangelder, 
John Delanoy, 
Henry Van Maple, 
AVilliam Van Dalson, 
Lancaster Graen, 
John Beekman, 
William Ellis, 
Abraham Delaniontagnie, 
Aaron Bussing, 
James Delanoy, 
John Defour, 
Edward Laight, 
Daniel Bennett, jr., 
Cornelius Ewoutse, 
Edward Willet, 
Abraham Bargeau, 
Tobias Ten Eyck. 



1744. 



Alexander Bates, 
Daniel Bloom, 
Philip Cockrem, 
Daniel Hazard, 
Andrew Carroll, 
Cornelius De Groot, 
Matthias Earnest, 
Jonas Melick, 
William Donaldson, 
W^illiam Wood, 
Uhomas Bond, 
Abraham Darie, 
Peter Fonk, 
Regnier Hopper, 
Anthony Glin, 
Peter Trueman, 
Jr.hn Dies, 
John Mordinar 



John Waghorne. 
Harnianus Alstyne. 
Jonathan Hazard, 
Thomas Brookman, 
John Campbell, 
George Peterson, 
Samuel Birdsall, 
Marti nus Cregier, 
George Dobbins, 
Johannes De Graff, 
Lauchlin McLean, 
Gregory Crouch, 
Cornelius Quackinbush, 
Richard C. Cooke. 
John Steel. 
Abraham Abrahams, 
Andrew Gibbs, 
William Taylor, 



APPENDIX. 



389 



Isaac Abrahams, 
John Van Varick, 
John Benin, 
Juhn Outeubogert, 
Ca-sper Stymets, 
James Jacksou, 



John Hanion, 
Abraham Dclauoy 
James Man, 
Peter Lossee, 
Charles Allen, 
Ebenezer Larasou. 



17 4 5 



Henry Bell, 
John Murra, 
Richard Bidder, 
Henry Turck, 
John Carpenter, 
William Sells, 
Thomas Wilson, 
Daniel Agar, 
Abraham Frere, 
Lawrence Van Buskirk, 
James Brown, jr„ 
David Griffith, 
Jasper Drake, 
Peter Rerasen, 
David Davies, 
John Carman, 
George Coesart, 
John Smith, 
Isaac Stagg, 
Elijah Muller, 
Bartram Burd, 
Nathaniel Lawrence, 
John HoUem, 
James Cox, 
Elliott Allchurch, 
Stephen Crossfield, 
Daniel Ruff, 
Samuel Johnson, 
Daniel Latham, 
John Xicoll, 
Thorajis Bowman, 



Jacob Parcell, 
John Aogevine, 
John Beekman, 
James Lowns, 
Albertus Bush, 
John Ackley, 
Peter De Joncourt, 
Matthew Areson, 
Benjamin Van Buskirk, 
Ricnard Sibley, 
James Man, 
Solomon Furman, 
Drake Palmer, 
John Cole, 
Garret Davies, 
Isaac Douw, 
James Wheeler, 
Daniel Schureman. 
Peter De Witt, 
Jacob Hallett, 
William Creed, 
Lawrence Van Wye, . 
Benjamin Daly, 
Alexander Munro, 
Alexander Mowatt, 
Charles Gardner, 
William Weeks, 
Joseph Latham, 
Enoch Vrelandt, 
Peter Bergeau, 
James Tnlford, 



390 



APPENDIX. 



Thomas Burnton, 
'I'homas Cope, 
Samuel i>rughman. 
Joost Goderus, 
(Jornelius Myer, 
John Grant, 
John Griffiths, 
Abraham Remsen, 
John Young, 
William Cadogan, 
John Lake, 
Barnaby Savage, 
Ilcndrick Powelse, 
John Burnet, 
i'eter Giraud, 
John Carr, 



Joseph Bowman, 
Samuel Carter, 
John Post, 
Benjamin Watson, 
John Downs, 
Lawrence Yanderhoof. 
Joris Remsen, 
Andrew Yarick, 
Andrew Ramsey, 
Bryan Nevin, 
Cornelius Tiebout, 
Richard Trueman, 
Elisha Parker, 
John Exeen, 
Charles Phillips, 
John Marffesen. 



1746 



Donald McCoy, 
Francis Child, jr., 
Thomas Kendall, 
William Cannon, 
Caleb Lawrence, 
Lawrence Burrus, 
Abraham Delafoy, 
Malcolm Campbell, 
IT ugh Rogers, 
Jacob Cole, 
Gilbert King, 
Andrew Gotier, 
John Zenger, 
John Roome, jr., 
( 'ornclius Yan Clyf^ 
Ticitnis Jacobs, 
.fohn Quackenbos, 
George Johnson, 
Samuel Demaree, 
.Facobus Yan Wye. 



Edward Earle. 
John Lasher, jr., 
George Ridout, 
William Bonus, 
Charles Nicoll, 
Alexander Allaire, jr.. 
John Ayscough, 
Jonathan Hazard. 
John Bullfinch, 
Charles Berry. 
Johannes Man, 
Myer Myers, 
George Walgrave. 
Casparus Herts. 
John Johnson, 
William Wilson. 
Charles Walpole, 
William Webb, 
Nicholson Anderson, 
Abraham Brinckerhoof. 



391 



John Davenport, 
Thomas Ludlow, 
Peter ]\£ontanie, 
John Ellison, 
Matthew Van Alstyne, 
'I'honias Leppel, 
llendrlck Wcssells, 
Joseph Meeks, 
Hamilton Huestou, 
Albert Van Brunt, 
John Brandt, 
Samuel Tingley, 
Samuel Babington. 
Edward Nicoll, 



Henry Ludlow, 
William Searle, 
John Lyons, 
John Ewoutse, 
Jacobus Buys, 
Reginald 31achersti, 
William Anderson, 
John Van Gelder, 
William Peters, 
John Waddell, 
Joseph Griswold, 
John Cross, 
Adrian ilan, 
Johannes Hansen. 



1 74 



Jacob C. Foster, 
Abraham Brower, 
Richard Wool, 
Nicholas Bogart, 
J olm Estcnbrook, 
James Clarke, 
William Haysham, 
Timothy Sloan, 
John Doty, 
Matthew Hopper, 
Charles Johnson, 
William Ross, 
Daniel Dunbibbin. 
John Ebbcts, 
(lilbcrt Forbes, 
tJeremiah Leuw, 
Hans J. Huber, 
Jsaac Verveelen, 
Aaron Stockholm, 
Jolm Jeffrey, 
David Jones, 
William White, 
Henry Shaver, 



Luke Mathewman, 
Francis Davison, 
James Sample, 
Jonathan Wheeler. 
Simon Roberts. 
Jacob Smout, 
William Kingsland, 
Benjamin Luqueer, 
Johanties Covenhoven, 
Francis Manny, 
Ari Brinckerhoof, 
John McCIean, 
Duncan Brow, 
Volkert Vanhoore, 
Joseph Forbes, 
Thomas Emmans, 
Ulrick Brouwer, 
John Amerman, 
Thomas Pearse, 
Anthony Dobbins, 
Johannes Douw, 
James Nash, 
Abraham Cuvler. 



392 



Henry Shaddine, 
James Welch, 
Joseph Tompkins, 
Thomas Ackerson, 
Alexander Griggs, 
Cardan Proctor, 
Philip Philipse, 
Abraham Eight, 
Aftu Burtis, 
John Price, 
Peter Kcteltas, 
Humphrey Davenport, 
Abraham Emott, 
John Lee, 
Hugh Mulligan, 
Francis Davis, 
Robert Elliott, 
Edward Annely, 



Hugh Gill, 
Moses Garrison, 
Joseph Seaman, 
John Dc Gray, 
Daniel Dunscorab, jr., 
Peter Ridout, 
John McEvers, jr., 
Archibald McEwen, 
Christopher Myer, 
John Van Cortlandt, 
William Slow, ' 
Jacob Beudt, 
John McQuary, 
Abraham De Foreest, 
Alexander McCoy, 
Abraham Brazier, 
Elias De Grucher, 
Thomas Fferdon, 



John Tuder, 
Elijah Hofferman, 
Andries Tenbrook, 
William Nicholson, 
David Brower, 
John McEven, 
Richard Jeffery, 
Thomas AVillis, 
John Kindell, 
James Carr, 
Matthew Oakee, • 
Isaac Hay, 
Jacob Van Wormer, 
Henry Suydam, 
Joseph Veal, 
Bartholomew Crannell, 
Peter Teats, 
Gulian Varck, 
Ralph Thurraan, jr.. 



17 4 8. 

Anthony Rutgers, 
Henry Bryant, 
Joseph Williams, 
John Milligan, 
Malcolm McEwen. 
Johan Jury, 
Thomas Heysham, 
Robert Carr, 
X| Ralph Steel, 

Martin us Weytman, 
Jonathan Ogden, 
Lawrence Van Boskirk, 
Jacob Buys, 
Hendrick Remsen, 
John Waters, 
Gideon Carstaing, 
Hugh Williams, 
Jacob Roome, 
William Dobbs, 



393 



Williiim Pentinimer, 
Roger Magraw 
John Burgiss, 
Andrew Hoyer, 
John Christce, 

His P^x. Gov. Shirley, (Mass.) 
Johannes Durie, 
Gilbert Ask, 

Robert James Livingston, 
Jacobus Bleecker, 
John Turck, 
Teunis Ticbout, jr., 
.Tames Tucker, 
George Marschalck, 
Jacobus Rosevelt, 
Abraham Van Wyck, jr., 
Henry Beckman, 
Henry Cregier, 
^ Wiert Banta, 
Isaac Bertrand, 
Francis Hendricks, 
James Stephens, 
James Downs, 
William Kippin, 
John Lawson. 
William Allison, 
Philip Hogan, 
Adam Phafer, 
Simon Franks, 
John Marshalk, jr., 
John Williams, 
Matthew Morris, 
Robert Northhouse, 
Abraham Bussing, 
John Abrahams, 



Joseph Smith, 
John Parcell, jr., 
Jacob Gardinier, 
Christopher Godlieb, 
James Gordon, 
James Colwells, 
Isaac Ryckman, 
Samuel Ryckman, 
Nicholas Stuyvesant, 
John AVelsch, 
Jacob Roosevelt, jr., 
Garret De Graf, 
Lawrence Lawrence, 
Isaac Rosevelt, 
Gerardus Duychink, 
Edward Williams, 
Jacob King, 
William Vandewater, 
Garret De Graius, 
AVilliam Heyer, 
James Johnson, 
Peter Hyer, 
John George, 
William Savory, 
Thouia.s Bevin, 
William Kelley, 
William Lee, 
Thomas Si)aiham, 
Baltus Hyer. 
William Livingston, 
John Forrest, 
Jacobus Myer, 
John Mayfield, 
John Crum, 
Joseph Hildreth. 



394 



NAMES OF ATTORNEYS 

FKACTICING IN THE OITV OF NKW YORK, BETWEEN THE YEAR ItiJ;), AND 
THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 

1G97. David Jamison, Gent. 

1G98. James Emott, Gent., Attorney at Law. 

1701. Thomas Weaver, llsq. 

1702. John Bridges, LL.I)., in suit of Governor Cornbury. 
Robert Milwood, 

1708. May Bicldey, 

" Jacob Regnier, 

" Roger Mompesson, Chief Justice. 

1718. Tobias Boel. 

1728. Joseph Murray, 

•' John Chambers. 

1730. Abraham Lodge, 

" Richard Nicholls, 

'• James Alexander, 

" William Smith. 

1740. Daniel Horsmanden, Recorder. 

1743. Lancaster Graen, 

1745. Elisha Parker, 
John Burnet, 
Samuel Clowes. 

174G. William Searle. 

1747. John McEvors, jr., 

" John Van Cortlandt. 

1748. Bartholomew Crannell, 
" William Livingston. 

1749. John Alsop. 

1751. Augustus Van Cortlandt, 

" Lambert Moore. 

1763. Whitehead Hicks. 

1768. Benjamin Kissam. 



APPENDIX. 

1768. Benjamin Helme, 
'• liudolphus Kitzeraa, 
" Johu McKessou. 
17G9. Richard Harrisou, 
'■ Philip liviogstou, jr., 
Thomas Joues, 
Philip J. Livingston, 
John William Smitli, 
John D. Crimshire, 
David Matthews, 
Samuel Jones. 



395 



396 



NAMES OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 

PKACTICING IN THE CITY, BETWEEN THE YEAR 1695 AND THE BEVOLU- 
TIONARY W^B. 



1695. 


Joha Miller, Chirurgeon, 


•' 


Lewis Giton. " 


1698. 


Hugh Farquhar, " 


a 


Ooruelius Vide, " 


a 


Jacobus Kiersted, " 


a 


John Nerberry, " 


ii 


Jacob Provoost, " 


ii 


Hartman Wessells, " 


'• 


Haus Kierstede. " 


1699, 


Petei" Bassett, " 


1702. 


Philip Rokeby, Governor's Physician. 


" 


Thomas Flynu, Chirurgeon, 


" 


David Law, '• 


» 


Giles Gardineau. 


1703. 


James Targee, Apothecary. 


1708. 


Peter Buretel, Chirurgeon. 


1714. 


Robert Drake, Barber Surgeon. 


1715. 


John Dupny, Chirurgeon, 


" 


Gerardus Beekman, " 


" 


Richard Bishop, Barber Surgeon. 


1723. 


Jacob Moene, Chirurgeon. 


1724. 


William Beekman, " 


1728. 


Johanues Van Solingen, Chirurgeon. 


1732. 


Archibald Fisher, Chirurgeon. 


1742. 


William Blake, Surgeon. 


1745. 


William Bonus, " 


1746. 


John Ayscough, Physician. 


1747. 


John Milligan, Doctor of Physick. 


1748. 


William Allison, Surgeon. 



APPENDIX. 

1748 Thomas Sparham, Surgeou. 

1749. Richard Stillwell, Physician. 
" Alexander Connolly. '• 

1750. Josiah Patterson, Surgeon, 

" Joseph Hinchman, Physician. 

1756. Thomas Parscll, Surgeon, 

1757. Thomas Walter, 

1761. Benjamin Lindner, Physician 

1765. John Miller, Surgeon, 

" Englebert Kemmera, Surgeon 

17G9. ^Nfeladiy Treat, " 

Donald McClcan, " 

" Philip Kenning, " 

" John Stiles, Physician. 

1770. Isaac Guion, " 



397 



398 



NAMES OF SCHOOLMASTERS, 

TKACHING IN THE CITY, BETWEEN THE YEAR 1659 AND THE REVOLU- 
TIONARY WAR. 



1G95. David Vilaut. 

1G98. Alexander Faxton, 

" Joliaunes Sclianck. 

1701. Robert Parkinson. 

1702. John Selwood, 

'■ Peter Bontecon. 

1703. Dan Twaites, 
"' John Stevens. 

1715. John Conrad Codwiso. 

1721. George Browning, 

" AVilliam Glover. 

172.3. John Walton. ' 

1724. Jonathan Shcrer. 

1725. Peter Finch. 
1728. Edward Gatehouse. 
1735. Peter Stoutenburgh 

" Daniel Shatford. 



17.3G. 


John Cavelicr. 


17.37. 


Charles Henley. 


1740. 


Thomas Allen. 


1742. 


Edward Marriner. 


1744. 


Abraham Delanoy. 


1746. 


Malcolm Campbell. 


1747. 


Charles Johnson, 


" 


Archibald McP]vven. 


1748. 


Joseph Hildreth. 


1751. 


Huybcrt Van "Wagoner, 


" 


John Nathan Hutchius. 


1753. 


Garret Noel. 


1765. 


Henry Peckwell. 


1768, 


John Young. 


1770. 


Stephen Van Voorhis. 


1770. 


Jacob Tyler. 


1774. 


James Gilleland. 



INDEX. 



rAge 

Arrival of Colonists ; 24 

Attorneys practicing in the city, between the year 1695 and the Revolution . . 394 

Bakery, Company's 34 

Battery commenced 214 

extended 285 

298 

Beekman's Swamp 284 

Bowling Green 286 

Bouwery, the Governor's Farm 69 

Broad street, its origin, (see Streets.) 36 

Broadway established as a road, {see Streets.) 30 

" first grant of lots on, in 1643 32 

" its condition prior to 1647 33 

" extent of, in early part of last centiii"y 279 

Buildings, public, erected in Governor Van Twiller's time 29 

" great increase of, owing to the flour monopoly 181 

" number of, in the city, in 1700 217 

Burial-groiuid, first establishment of 29 

" " its locality 29 

" " description of 100 

127 

'• demolished in 1677 181 

Canadian expedition of 1711 254 

Cattle, herding of 67, 68 

number killed in 1678 and 1694 180 

Church, the first building in use for 25 

" the " Old Kirke" 86 

Church-yard, {see Burial-f^ound.) 

" Trinity, erected in 1696 213 

" Garden street church (Dutch,) erected 213 

Churches in the city in 1736, with descriptive notices 299 

Church members of Dutch congregation, in 1686 "..... 331 

City gate, at Pearl and Wall streets , 75 



400 INDEX. 

« Page ■ 

City gate at Broadway • . 

City Charter of 1686 184 

City Hall, or Stadt buys, the first edifice so called 53 

in 1664 81,83 

erected in Wall street, (1700) 213 

" old one, in Coentics slip, sold 213 

City, first settlement of the island 20 

" commencement of settlement vinder the West India Company 24 

'• commencement of the fort 25 

" its early progress 27 

" the first grant of town lots 32 

" organization of municipal institutions 52 

" magistracy established 53 

*' defences, erection of the first wall 57 

" surveyed and streets named, in 1656 63 

" condition of, in 1656 63 

" general condition of, at the close of the Dutch rule, in 1664 71 

" surrender of, to the English, in 1664 156 

" government chacged from Dutch to English forms 163 

" events in, from 1604 to 1673 163 to 167 

" recapture of, by the Dutch, in 1673 168 

" events in, dui-ing the last period of the Dutch authority 168 to 176 

. " final delivery of, to the English 176 

" wards iirst established 182 

" monopoly of flour trade granted to the inhabitants, and great increase 

of prosperity 180 

" improvements in Governor Dongan's time 184 

" improvements, 1690 to 1700 211 

" appearance of houses 215 

" progress of, in the early part of the last century 277 

' ' appearance of, in 1748 ... 28S 

" description of, in 1766 296 

Colonists, act of freedoms and exemptions in favor of 25 

Commons, description of 281 

Company— the United New Netherland Company organized 22 

" the West India Company organized 23 

Corlaer's Hook, slaughter of Indians at 44 

Currency in 1756 .*^. 305 

Dutch lose the city in 1664 ••• • 156 

" recapture the city in 1673 168 

Dock, pubUc, (1695).... 217 

Election of 1701.... : 248 

English claim the country, at its first settlement 21 

" capture the city, in 1664 156 



INDEX. 401 

Fair for cattle, established annually 66 

farms belonging to West India Company tig 

Karm of Damen, along "Wall street, sold in lots Igt 

Farm map of the island, and key (De Witt's) 37!) 

P'ashions of 1756 302 

Ferry, the original ferry landing 31 

Fort staked out by Kryn Frcderigeh . 25 

" a new one commenced in 1633 27 

Freemen of the city, admitted between 1683 and 1740 366 

" '• " " 17-10 and 174S ,.... 385 

Fresh Water Pond, (see Kalch-hook.) 283 

Garden of the West India Company, location of 103 

Governor Minuit 150 

" Van Twiller 152 

" Kieft 153 

" Stuyvesant. 154 

" Nichols 160 

" Lovelace 167 

" Andres 181 

" Dongan 182 

" Sloughter 201 

" Fletcher 210 

" Bellamont 253 

" Cornbury 253 

" Lovelace 253 

" Hunter 253 

" Burnet 256 

" Montgomerie 261 

" Cosby 263 

Greenwich, Indian name of 69 

Hamilton, Counsellor 267 

Harlem 68 

Houses, description of, in 1718 292 

Improvements in time of Governor Andros 181 

" " " Dongan 184 

1690 to 1700 211 

Indians, their habitations S 

" dress of 9 

" their physical condition 9 

" their employments 10 

" their food 10 

" their customs of eating 12 

" their customs of burial 13 

" their customs of warfare 14 

' ' their language 17 

" their recception of Hudson 19 

26 



402 INDES. 

Page 

ludians, different tribes residing near this island 22 

war with the Dutch, in 1642 39 

" slaughter of, at Corlear's Hook and Pavonia 45 

•' truce concluded with, in 1643 46 

" continue the war 47 

" defeated, and end of the war 50, 51 

" assault the city, in 1655 60 

Inhabitants, names of principal, (1635.) ^ 313 

tax list of, 1635 315 

of the city, 1703 344 

" 1674, and estimates of their property 319 

Kalch-hook, its origin 11 

" further account of 283 

Kidd's Piracies 221 

Lamps first put out in the streets, 1697 214 

Lands, riso in value of 181 

Leisler's government, 1689 J 88 

Lots, the first grants of, to settlers 32 

« price of, 1720 2^8 

Manhattan Island, its discovery and settlement IS 

Market, first establishment of 66 

Markets, 1695 216 

" at a subsequent period 288 

' ' abundant supply of 298 

J^ames of ancient localities 307 

xMegro plot, in 1741 268 

New Nelherland named 22 

New York, name of, given, in 1664 163 

Newspapers in 1748 295 

Oysters, abundance of 289 

Park, account of 281 

Pavement first laid in the streets, 1658 W 

Piiysicians and Surgeons practicing in the city, between the year 1695 and 

the Revolution 396 

Pirates 222 

Political excitement of 1701 248 

Political events arising out of dispute between Van Dam and Cosby 253 

Privateering 220 

Roads, earliest established 80 

Revolution of 1689 188 



INDEX. 



403 



Schoolmasters teaching in the city, between the year 1695 and the Revolution 39S 

Sexton of the city iu times of the Dutch 127 

Settlement first made on Manhattan Island 20 

" condition of the early colony 22 

Ship New Netherland, and other vessels, arrive i 24 

Shipping in 1678 and 1694 : ISO 

" list of vessels, 1684 187 

1701 217 

Shoemakers' Pasture 278 

Slave Trade 221 

Social customs of New York 303 

Streets established, by survey, in 1656 63 

" names of those first established 6-1 

" first paved in 1658. . . 64 

" name of, in 1674 ; 177 

" laid out as far as Maiden lane 212 

" first lighted in 1697 214 

" nature of pavements 216 

" laid out above Maiden lane 278 

•' appearance of, in 1748 291 

" Beurs straat 332 

Beaver " 37,124,126,327,335 

" Beaver graft 124, 179 

" Borger Joris' Path 36, 77 

Bridge 35, 64, 121, 180, 330, 336 

" Brugh straat 121, ISO 

" Broad " 3(), 113, 181, 327, 328, 337 

Broadway 32, 33, 103, 104, 198, 322, 323, 3:il 

" Brouwer straut 115 

" Chambers 281 

Cortland '. . . 280 

Dey 280 

" Greenwich 287 

" Hanover square 77. 221 

Heere Graft 108, 179,327 

" Heere straat 100 

High street , 179. 325 

" Hoogh straat 75. 77 

" Maiden's Path, or Lane 212, 278 

Markctfield 37, 96, 126, 168, 179, 327, 233 

Marckvelt Steegie.. 126 

Mill street lane 179, 326 

" Murray 281 

" New a35 

Pearl 34, 37, 65, 85, 89, 178, 179, 322, 336 

" Prince Graft 118,113, 169, 327 

" Prince straat 126 



404 APPENDIX. 

Page 
Street — Robinson 281 

■' Sheep Pasture 328 

Smith 128, 179, 32fi 

" Smith street l;ivie 179 

Smith's Valley 31, 71, 177, 319 

« South William 326 

Stone 35, G4, 77, 115, 179, 325, 329, 336 

Vesey 280 

Wall 105,179,184,324,334 

Warren 281 

" Washington 2S7 

Water side a5, 177, 320, 333 

Water street 186, 211 

" Whitehall 34^ 93, 285, 321, 322 

William 128, 326 

Winekel 120. 180 

Surrender of the city to the English in 1664 156 

Swamp, Beekman's 284 

Tax laid to defray cost of city defences, 1655 59 

Tavern erected in 1642 30 

Traders, their early visits to Hudson's river 20 

Trade, Indian, manner of conducting 257 

Trade of city, 1748 294 

Trees in streets 292 

Ury, John, execution of 274 

Vandam, Rip, Lieutenant-Governor ^ . 263 

Vandereliff' s Farm 279 

Wall of .palisades and earth, erected on line of Wall street 56, 64 

" condition of, in 1688 185 

War, between the Indians and Dutch in 1642 39 

' ' between England and Holland 57 

" with Swedes on Delaware river 60 

Wards, first established in the city 182 

Watch 215 

Water Gate on Pearl street 75 

Wells, public, first established in 1677 181 

" description of 216 

West India Company, organized 23 

" " " act of freedoms and exemptions 25 

Wharf, location of the first 37 

" extended 65 

" or siding of boards along Pearl street 65, 82 

Zenger, trial of 265 

" his New York Weekly Journal 265 



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