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County of Passaic 

Mew Jersey. 







CoiTesponding Secretary New Jersey Historical Society; Chair- 
man of the Public Records Commission of the State of New 
Jersey; Editor of the New Jersey Archives; Member Congres 
InternatioEale des Americanistes; American Association for 
the Advancement of Science; American Historical Associa- 
tion; American Folk -Lore Society; American Numismatic 
and ArohKological Society; New York Historical Society; 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Genealogical Society of 
Fennsj'lvania; Princeton Historical Association; Correspond- 
ing Member of the New England Historic Genealogical Soci- 
ety, of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, 
of the Alabama Historical Society; Member Medico-Legal So- 
ciety, etc., etc. 

Author of History of Bridges in Passaic County, 1873; compiler 
and editor of Abstract of Minutes of the Board of Chosen Free- 
holders of the County of Passaic, 1837-1870, 187.5; author of His- 
tory of Koads in Passaic County, with Ofncial Ketm-ns of 
Roads, to 1837, 1876; History and Description of Cedar Lawn 
Cemetery, 1876; Historical Sketch of Passaic County, 1877: 
History, of Schools in Paterson, 1877; author (in part) of His- 
tory of Bergen and Passaic Counties, 1882; Josiah Hornblower, 
and the First Steam Engine in America, with Some Notices of 
the Schuyler Copper Mines at Second River, and a Genealogy 
of the Hornblower Family, 1883; Geological History of the Pas- 
saic Falls, 1893; compiler and editor of the Records of the First 
Presbyterian Society in Paterson, 1883; Records of the Pater- 
son Fire Association, 1893; Records of the Township of Pater- 
son, 1894; author of "The Indians of New Jersey," 1S94; Gene- 
alogy of the Doremus Family in America, 1897; Alexander 
Hamilton in New Jersey, 1897. Etc., etc. 



Geological History of the Passaic Falls. 

''At His word, the formless mass, 
This world's material mould, came to a heap; 
Confusion heard His voice, and wild uproar 
Stood ruled, stood vast infinitude confined; 
Till, at his second bidding, darkness fled, 
Light shone, and order from disorder sprung." — JMilton. 

" This world speaks plain for who has ears to hear." — Goethe. 

History of the geological formation of Northern New Jersey, particularly the region in and about Pat- 
erson. — The Red Sandstone. — Eruption of the Trapi Rock by volcanic action. — Description of the 
Trap Rock formation. — Causes of the extraordinary conformation at the Passaic Falls. — Origin and 
History of the formation of the Passaic River. — Effect of glacial action upon this region. — A Pre- 
historic "Lake Passaic." — Origin of Colt's Hill and Sandy Hill. — The Artesian well at the Pas- 
saic Rolling Mill. — Minerals found in and about Paterson. — List of Elevations at forty places in 
Passaic County. — Analyses of Trap Rock. ~ . . . . Pages 1-12 

The Aborigines. 

"The doomed Indian leaves behind no trace. 
To save his own or serve another race; 
With his frail breath his power has passed away, 
His deeds, his thoughts, are buried with his clay. 
His heraldry is but a broken bow, 
His history but a tale of wrong and woe, 

His very name must be a blank." — Sprague. 

Palaeolithic Man of New Jersey. — Origin of American Development. — The Lenni Lenape of New Jer- 
sey. — Whence came they.'' When did they arrive in New Jersey.' — Their Manners and Customs: 
Hospitality, food, drink, dress, implements and weapons, pottery, canoes, ornaments. Wampum : 
Its manufacture, its varied uses, value as currency. — W"ampum Belts. — Domestic Relations: Mar- 
riage Customs, Training of Children. — Punishment for Offenses. — Division of time. — Treatment 
of Diseases : Medicine Men, Priest-Physicians, Big Snake Doctors, Indian Surgery. — Natural 
Death not understood. — Burial Customs. — Languages of the American Indians : Description and 
Specimens of the Language of the Lenni Lenape. — Indian Religion: Ideas of the Creation ; the 
Indian and his Manito ; Religious sacrifices and festivals. — Indian Clairvoyants. — Indian System of 
Government : Tribes and sub-tribes ; Method of choosing Sachems. — Early Sachems of the Lenni 
Lenupe. — History of the Hackensack and other Indian tribes of Passaic County. — The Indian Ti- 
tle to Ihe Soil, and how it was extinguished in New Jersey. — Indian Place Names and their Defini- 
tions. — Migrations of the New Jersey Indians. , " " " ■ Pages 13-59 


The Settlement of Acquackanonk. 

Ghy arme, die niet wel kond aen u noodruft raken: 
Gy rijke, die't geluck in't voor-hoofd soecken wild: 
Verkiest Nieuw-neder-land, ('t sal niemand billik laken) 
Eer gy u lijd en maclit, hier vruchteloos verspild. 
Hier moet gy and'ren omu dienstb'ien arbeyd troonen, 
Daei- komt een guile giond, u werck met woecker loonen. 

Ye poor, who know not how your living to obtain; 
You affluent, who seek in mind to be content; 
, Choose you New Netherlaud (which no one shall disdain). 

Before your time and strength here fruitlessly are spent. 
There have you other ends, your labor to incite; 
Your work, will gen'rous soils, with usury, requite. 

— Jacob S teendam, 1662. 

First conveyance of land in Passaic County. — Indian Deed for Acquackanonk. — Description of Ac- 
quackanonk, and the Passaic Falls, in 1679. — The Acquackanonk Patent, 1685. — Subdivision of 
the Patent. — Map of Paterson in 1745, shownng the twenty-eight farms south of the Passaic Riv- 
er. — History of the Titles to those Farms down to 1800 or later. — Various ancient deeds, sur- 
veys, etc., 1707-1727. -.-.--. Pages 60-80 

The First Families of Patetison. 

When our children turn the page, 

To ask what triumphs nrark'd our age — 

What we achieved to challenge praise. 

Through the long line of future days — 
This let them read, and hence instruction draw: 

"Here were the many bless'd, 

Here found the virtues rest, 
Faith link'd with Love, and Liberty with Law; 

Here industry to comfort led; 

Her book of light here learning spread; 

Here the vparm heart of youth 

Was woo'd to temperance and to truth; 

Here hoary age was found. 

By wisdom and by reverence crown'd. — Charles Sprague. 

Biographical Sketches of the First Patentees and Earliest Settlers, with Full Genealogies of the First 
Families, Copies of Wills, Early Deeds and other Records. 

Genealogies of the Following Families : 

Pages. Pages. 

Post, - - - 135-153 Pier, - - - 188-189 

Van Riper, - - 153-182 Stagg, - -. - 191-196 

Speer, - - - 182-208 Westervelt, - - 208-212 

Sandford, - - 113-115 Van Blarcom, - 212-225 

Bradbury, - - 158-159 Lubbers, - - 20S-225 

Simmons, - - 177-17S Bookey, Bokee, - 225-226 








Van Wagoner, 


Van Winkle, - 



- 106-135 


The Settlement of Totowa. 

Thou hast histories that stir the heart 
With deeper feeling; while I look on thee 
They rise before me. I behold the scene 
Hoary again with forests; I behold 
The Indian warrior, whom a hand unseen 
Has smitten with his death-wound in the woods .... 

I look again — a hunter's lodge is built .... j 

And loud the Indian maidens laugh 

That gather, from the rustling heaps of leaves. 

The hickory's white nuts, and the dark fruit 

That falls from the grey butternut's long boughs. 

So centuries passed by, and still the woods 
Blossomed in spring, and reddened when the year 
Grew chill, and glistened in the frozen rains 
Of winter, till the white man swung the axe 
Beside thee — signal of a mighty change. — Bryant. 

The Totowa Patent, 1696. — History of the Subdivisions of the Totowa Patent, to 1820 or later. — 
Map of the Tract between Haledon Avenue and Marion Street, 1769. — Various Ancient Deeds 
and other Documents. -------- Pages 226-233 

Van Houten, 
Van Giesen, 





The Settlers of Totowa. 

How many are there of us, in this 

Discordant social wilderness. 

Whose thriftiest scions the power gain, 

Thro' meet conditions of sun and rain. 

To yield on the fairest blossoming shoot, 

A mellow harvest of perfect fruit? — 

How should his life grow full and ripe, 

There in the passionless haunts of Peace, 

Thro' trade, and tillage, and wealth's increase? 

— "Alice of Monnio2cik," by E. G. Stedman. 


Cool, " • 




Munn, - 

- 2S1-282 


Van Saun, 

- 288-297 



- 291-296 



Wagaraw and the Goffle. — The Settlement and the Settlers. 

Where are the graves where dead men slept, 

A hundred years ago ? 
Who, -when they were living, wept 

A hundred years ago ? 

By other men 

That knew not them, 

Their lands are tilled, 

Their graves are filled. 
Yet nature then was just as gay. 
And bright the sun shone as to-day, 

A hundred years ago. 

The Wagaraw Patent, 1696. — Indian Deed for Wagaraw, 1709. — History of Land Titles. 

Pages 297-3CO 
Pages. Pages. Pages. 

Ryersor:, - - 300-326 Wessels, - - 303-303 De Gray, - - 326-330 

The Garret Mountain Purchase. 

Thou who wouldst see the lovely and the wild 
Mingled in harmony on Nature's face. 
Ascend our rocky mountains. Let thy foot 
Fail not with weariness, for on their tops 
The beauty and majesty of earth, 
Spread wide beneath, shall make thee to forget 
The steep and toilsome way. — Bryant. 

The Garret Mountain Deed, 1711. — Origin of the Name "Garret" Mountain. — The Settlement and 
the Settlers. - - - - - -- - - Pages 330-332 


Pages. Pages. 

Doremus, . . . - . 332-382 Hopper, ------ 344-350 

Ackerman, ----- 333-339 Neafie, Nevius, - - . - 360-362 

Life in Old AcquACKANONK. 

We level that lift, to pass and continue beyond — 
Ages, precedents, poems, have long been accumulating 

undirected materials, 
America brings builders, and brings its own styles. 

" Leaves of Crass:'— Walt Whitman. 

Reminiscences of the "White House," on the River Bank, near East Side Park, 1700. — Wild animals 
and game at Sandy Hill, Wesel, on the site of the Passaic Rolling Mil!, etc. — Lonely lives of the 
Women. — The Whites and the Indians. — First Dwellings. — Interior Arrangements. — Inventories 
of furniture. — Festal Days: Christmas, New Year's, Paas, Pinkster. — Fish, Flesh and Fowl. — The 


Country Store. — The Storekeeper as the Country Banker. — "Store orders" in lieu of money and 
Wages. — Some Home Industries: Weaving cloth ; the Itinerant Shoemaker; Candle Making ; 
Every Man his own Carpenter ; Saw-Mills and Grist-Mills ; Home Brewing and Distilling. — 
First Foreign Settlers among the Dutch. — Early Mining Operations. — Local Superstitions : Cir- 
cumventing a Witch ; Shooting her with a Silver Bullet ; Effect of Changes of the Moon ; Trouble 
in "fetching Butter"; Locating hidden Watercourses ; Ghost Stories. — Boundary Disputes with 
Newark. .,...---- Pages 382-394. 

From the Cradle to the Grave. 

They that creep and they that fly, 
Shall end where they began. 
Alike tlie Busy and the Gay 
But flutter thro' life's little day, 
In fortune's colours drest: 
Brush'd by the hand of rough mischance, 
Or chiil'd by age, their airy dance 
They leave, in dust to rest. 

"(9« the Spring." — Gray. 

Something about Dutch Babies : How they were received, baptized, dressed and brought up. — "Trip 
a trap o' troontjes !" — "De Radjes ! De Radjes !" — Training ol Children and their Frolics. — Court- 
ship, and herein of " Bundling." — Wedding Days : Did people marry younger formerly than now .'' 
Curious statistics on the subject ; How Weddings were celebrated ; Some Wedding Costumes in 
the Olden Times. — Funeral Customs: Cost of Funerals in 1752, 1789, 1816, etc. Pages 395-399 

. The Earliest Roads and Bridges. 

I know each lane, and every alley green. 
Dingle, or bushy dell, of this wild wood. 
And every bosk}' bourn from side to side. 
My daily walks and ancient neighbourhood. — Milton. 

Indian Paths at Dundee, in 1678; at Singack, in 1696. — First Public Roads, 1693. — Road froin Ac- 
quackanonk to Pompton, in 1707. — First Roads in Paterson : Willis street (Park avenue), Vree- 
land avenue, Broadway, etc. — Fords and Bridges. — A Dutch Bill for the First Bridge across the 
Passaic River, at Paterson, in 1762. — History of this Bridge. — Great Floods in the River. — First 
Bridge at Acquackanonk. ------- Pages 399-403 

Human Slavery in Old Acquackanonk. 

God .... hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth. — Actsyi^W, 26. 

Through departing from the Truth as it is in Jesus, through introducing Ways of Life attended with unnecessary Ex- 
pences, many Wants have arisen, the Minds of People have been employ'd in studying to get Wealth, and in this Pursuit 
some departing from Equity have retain'd a profession of Religion, others have look'd at their Example, and thereby been 
strengthen'd to proceed further in the same Way: Thus many have encourag'd the Trade of taking Men from Africa, and 
selling them as slaves. — J0J171 JVoohnan, 1754. 

Laws regulating Negro Slavery in New Jersey. — Punishment of Slaves for Crimes: Whipping, Brand- 
ing, Hanging, Burning at the Stake.— The Whipping Post, for Blacks and Whites.— Treatment of 
Slaves generally humane.— Original Bills of Sales of Slaves in Passaic County, 1S01-1S23. 

Pages 403-40S 

■viii CONTENTS. 


Passaic County in the Revolution. 

V/e hold these truths to be self-evident : That all men are created equalj that they are endowed by their Creator with 
certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. — Declaration of Independejice. 

'Tis done ! and Britain for her madness sighs — 

Take warning, tyrants, and henceforth be wise, 
If o'er mankind man gives you regal sway. 
Take not the rights of human kind away. 

When God from chaos gave this world to be, 
Man then he form'd, and form'd him to he free. — Freneau. 

Agitation in the present Passaic County in i774' — Acquackanonk and Preakness join hands. — Sketch- 
es of some Revolutionary Leaders, i774~^775- — Washington's Retreat through Acquackanonk 
in 1776. — The British Pursuit; Depredations of the Hessians; List of the Inhabitants De- 
spoiled, and Inventories of their Losses. — A Second Hessian Invasion, November and December, 
1776. — Gen. Charles Lee's March through Ring wood and Pompton, December, 1776. — Acquack- 
anonk in December, 1776- — Some Military Movements in 1777) at Pompton, Ringwood, Totowa, 
Passaic Falls, Acquackanonk, etc. ; Another British Raid, with Some Account of the Sufferers and 
their Losses. — Military Movements in Passaic County in 177S : Washington marches from the Bat- 
tle of Monmouth northerly through Acquackanonk; Skirmish at Acquackanonk; Encampments 
at Wesel ; Lord Stirling and Gen. Winds at Acquackanonk. — Operations in 1779 : A British Raid 
through Paterson and Acquackanonk. — Washington marches through Poinpton and Ringvi^ood. — 
Washington's Headquarters at Preakness in 17S0 ; Location of the several Armj' Corps, from Wag- 
araw to Little Falls ; DescripHon of the Headquarters, and Incidents of the Encampment at Toto- 
wa. — The Line of Battle at Totowa. — Visit of the Marquis de Chastellux to the Headquarters at 
Preakness, and his Account of his Reception by Washington. — Camp-Life at Totowa and Preak- 
ness. — Extracts from Order Books, Journals, Diaries, etc. — American Farmers plundered by 
Friend and Foe. — Court Martial of Joshua Hett Smith (for suspected complicity with Benedict 
Arnold's Treason) at Mrs. Godwin's Tavern at Totowa Bridge (the Passaic Hotel). — Some Plans 
matured by Washington at Totowa that failed : Lee's Scheme to capture Arnold ; Projected Attack 
on Staten Island ; Attempt on New York City. — Fac Simile of letter written by Washington from 
Totowa, 17S0. — Revolt of the Jersey Brigade at Poinpton, 17S1. — The Army marches through 
Passaic County on the way to Yorktown. — The French Army marches through Pompton. — Clos- 
ing Days of the War, 1782-1783. — Washington's "Headquarters" at Pompton. — Sundry Incidents 
of the Revolution. .---.--. Pages 408-445 

Patriots and Tories. 

What heroes from the woodland sprung, 

When, through the fresh-awakened land, 
The thrilling cry of freedom rung, 
And to the work of warfare strung 

The yeoman's iron hand ! — Bryant. 

First Revolutionary Officers from Passaic Count}', 1 775-1 776. — Sketch of Captain Daniel Neil, of Ac- 
quackanonk, killed at the Battle of Princeton, 1777. — Abraham Godwin and David Godwin. — 
Robert Erskine, of Ringwood, and his great service to Washington as Chief Topographical Engin- 
eer of the Army. — William Colfax, Captain of Washington's Life Guard. — Col. Theunis Dey, of 
Preakness. — Major Robert Drummond, of Acquackanonk, and his service in the British cause. — 
List of Men who served in the American Army. — List of Passaic County Loyalists, or Tories. 

Pages 445-456 

History of Paterson. 


Geological History of the Passaic Falls. 

"At His word, the formless mass, 
This world's material mould, came to a heap : 
Confusion heard His voice, and wild uproar 
Stood ruled, stood vast infinitude confined ; 
Till, at his second bidding, darkness fled. 
Light shone, and order from disorder sprung." — Milton, 

" This world speaks plain for who has ears to hear." — Goethe. 

" TN THE BEGINNING GOD created the heaven and 
1 the earth." 
A huge molten globe at a white heat, flashing out 
light in all directions like a great sun, and whirling 
through space with an inconceivable velocity, but still held 
in place by a mysterious law which at the same time re- 
pelled it from and yet held it by unbreakable bonds within 
the attraction of gravity to the greater sun, of whose system 
it still formed a part, although no longer a portion of its in- 
tegral substance. And so through countless ages cours- 
ing on in its fixed path, its white heat creating an atmo- 
sphere of its own which gradually absorbed more and more 
of its fierce fires, until millions and hundreds of millions 
of years as we count time had elapsed, ere that white heat 
had subsided to a fiery red, and that to a dull glow, and at 
last a blackened mass appeared instead of that flaming ball, 
as the surface particles subsided into comparative quiet, and 
the original fires shrank further and further into the recesses 
of the planet that we call the Earth. 1 Five hundred mil- 
lion times had this fiery ball circled about the central sun 
of its system ere it parted with enough of its heat to permit 
its surface to cool and become hardened into the earth's 
crust. Millions of times more it sped on in its orbit, 

1 See Herbert Spencer's Essay on the Nebular Hj'pothesis of Laplace, 
in Illustrations of Universal Progress, New York, 1865, p. 239. (A new 
and revised edition was published in 1892.) Herbert Spencer's First 
Principles (second edition). New York, 1871, pp. 203-8, 382-6. Hum- 
boldt's Cosmos, New York, 1873, IV., 20-^1. A poetic conception of the 
Nebular Hypothesis, with some startling conclusions, is presented in 
Eureka: a Prose Poem, by Edgar A. Poe, New York, 1848. [The wri- 
ter's copy has numerous manuscript corrections and interlineations, in 
Poe's handwriting.] "The Chemical History of the Six Days of Crea- 
tion," by John Phin,C. E., New York, 1870, presents in very compact 
form the operation of chemical forces in the earth's creation. 

while its outer surface, through the alternate contraction 
and expansion of heat, rose here and fell there. 1 The con- 
densing vapors sank into the depressions and formed 
oceans, and the more considerable elevations rose above 
the surrounding waters and formed lonely islands in the 
vast waste, islands destined to become lofty peaks in the 
mountain chains that were to rise above the continents 
yet unformed. The atmosphere, which through many 
millions of years had been absorbing the substance of the 
molten planet lying nearest the surface, and hence was heav- 
ily charged with all the component parts of the earth, as it 
became changed into water retained the elements of the 
minerals which had once been fused into one liquid mass, 
and the seventy or eighty materials of which all rocks are 
formed. The water was still at a boiling heat, and as these 
materials were dropped on the shores of the vast oceans, 
especially at the bases of the solitary islands, the deposits 
were fused into crystalline rocks. The islands grew larger 
and larger, as the cooling of the earth's surface went on, and 
there was more contraction and elevation, and these peaks, 
with their accretions of ocean-made rocks, became elevated 
into the incipient Appalachian and Rocky Mountain chains. 
Through a tract thirty miles wide in Northern New Jersey, 
and very abundantly in the northern part of Passaic coun- 
ty, may be seen rocks deposited in those Archsean times — 
gneiss, schist, mica and granite. 2 

While the work of constructing the continent was going 
on a work of destruction had already begun, and the mighty 
waves of boiling water dashing again and again against 
the obtrusive rocks which had dared to lift their heads 
above the dreary wastes, crumbled and broke these rocks 
into many fragments, pulverized them into sand, and car- 

1 " Professor Helmholtz has calculated from the rate of cooling of 
lava, that the earth, in passing from 2,000" C. to 200" C, must have 
taken three hundred and,fifty millions of years. But the temperatiu'e 
when the Archsean period ended was probably not over 38° C. (100" 
Fah.), to reach which many scores of millions of years must have been 
passed. The era was long-y — Datias Geology^ third edition (1S80), p. 
149, note. 

2 Investigations under the direction of the New Jersey State Geolog- 
ical Survey in the Summer and Fall of 1891, indicated that the granite 
which appears in the limestone region of Sussex county, near the 
northern boundary of Passaic county, is of eruptive origin, having 
forced its way from lower strata, and that the heat communicated from 
its molten state has transformed the blue limestone prevailing in that re- 
gion into white limestone, and sometimes into marble. See Report of 
the State Geologist for 1891. 


ried the particles to other places to form new portions of the 
future continent, until, in the course of countless ages, this 
debris was piled up in many places to a depth of from 
thirty to forty or fifty thousand feet, all in level beds, 
stratum upon stratum, to form the layers of granite, gneiss, 
mica, quartz, syenite and schist that in general compose the 
Archeean rocks.l With the alternations of the earth's sur- 
face from time to time these level beds were upturned, bent, 
broken and displaced. The ocean was still at work rock- 
making, in which it was aided by the vast amount of car- 
bonic acid gas in the atmosphere. The old sedimentary 
beds of limestone became crystallized into granite, gneiss, 
syenite, etc., while the layers of clay accompanying iron ore 
were transformed into schist and quartz. Now sandstone 
was deposited and consolidated — deposited in the form of 
loose sand, and became consolidated into rocks, and 
North America slowly emerged from the waste of waters 
with something of its present outlines. The ocean pressed 
from the east and southeast against the new-formed land 
and crumbled the emerged rocks, and casting out from its 
own depths the accumulation therein deposited formed 
beaches along the shores of the primeval continent. 

An awful silence brooded over the virgin earth. There 
were no sounds. Had there been, there was no living thing 
to hear them. But in time the ocean began to teem with 
minute creatures whose shell homes were gathered up 
by the waters and deposited to form more limestone. The 
Highlands of New Jersey were islands or reefs in the sea, 
and checked the flow of the ocean over the interior contin- 
ent, still largely covered by waters. 

Another period of uplifting and upturning began. New 
rocks were formed and piled up by the action of sea and air 
to a thickness of twelve thousand feet, and the earth gradual- 
ly subsided to that depth under these vast accumulations of 
new material. Along the Hudson river, and perhaps in 
Northern New Jersey at the same time, a new deposit of 
limestone was made, to a thickness of four hundred feet, 
formed by the ocean grinding up the accumulation of shells 
within its limits. The continent still rose and fell as the 
bosom of Mother Earth heaved with the pulsations of the 
new life, and again the strata of the rocks were bent into 
arches and bold fle.xures, particularly in the regions north of 
New Jersey. 

"And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herb yield- 
ing seed, and fruit tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein 
is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so. "2 The 

1 Many attempts have been made to classify these Archaean rocks. 
In the Report of the State Geologist of New Jersey for 1886 (p. 77) it 
"was proposed to arrange them in three groups: 1. Massive Group; II. 
Iron (Magnetite) Bearing Group; III. Gneissic and Schistose Group. 
But in the Annual Report for 1889 (pp. 29-32) this classification was 
abandoned, and it was proposed to arrange them in four types, according 
to the character of the rocks, naming them, provisionally, from the 
locality in which the rock prominently occurs — Mount Hope, Oxford, 
Franklin and Montville. The Archaean series of New Jersey corresponds 
generally in the character of the rocks vnth the Laurentian system of 
Canada. These rocks cover 900 square miles in Northern New Jersey; 
the belt is from ten to twenty miles wide, and crosses the State in the 
general direction of N. soo.E; the strike of the rock (the direction of the 
upturned and exposed edges of the strata) is about N. 530 'S..—A7i7mal 
Kepcn-t^iZ'j'^^pp. 11-15. 

2 Genesis I, I r. Revised Version. 

monotonous white beaches were strewed with green sea 
weed, while in the interior a small ground pine tree arose 
above the earth. The warm and temperate seas that 
stretched from pole to pole were the only waters yet exist- 
ing, and the only living creatures within them were shell- 

Another age now dawned upon the earth. Again the 
ocean was engaged in rock-making — sandstone or gritty 
shale, particularly in the Appalachian ridge. Fishes now 
first appeared, of the shark tribe, and other fish, some of 
them ten or twelve feet long, formidable creatures armed 
with horns. Trees in abundant verdure covered the earth 
in forests and great jungles, over vast marshes. A shallow 
sea covered much of New York and New Jersey, and as the 
earth subsided, layer upon layer of sandstone and other 
formations was deposited, as the earth sank slowly beneath 
the waters. Rocky islands loomed up here and there, 
where are now the lofty Appalachian mountains. The con- 
tinent was covered with forests and marshes, vegetation sub- 
jected at long intervals to inundations of fresh or marine 
waters. The vegetation became less, as the sea rose again 
over much of the continent. There was a new era of the 
making of sandstone, while limestone was formed in the 
interior. The air was still surcharged with carbonic acid 
gas, hostile to the higher forms of life, but affording nur- 
ture to the rank vegetation that everywhere prevailed. 
As the growth in the marshes and jungles absorbed the 
carbon, storing it away for the use of man, who as 
yet was unknown, these beds of decaying vegetation sank 
again beneath the level of the sea, to have deposited on 
them sandstone and slate, and here and there layers of iron 
ore, then to rise again and receive new accumulations of 
vegetation, absorbing again the carbonic acid gas in the air, 
to sink once more and be covered as before, and so on and 
on for untold ages, until the first beds of anthracite and 
bittiminous coal were formed throughout the world. These 
jungles were the homes of reptiles that now appeared upon 
the earth — huge snakes, monstrous saurians, turtles and 
the like. 

Again the whole earth was submerged beneath the ocean. 
An Artesian well has been sunk at Atlantic City on the New 
Jersey coast to a depth of fourteen hundred feet, without 
reaching the Archaean rocks below. The clay at the bot- 
tom of this well is full of fossil foraminifera, indicating that 
it was deposited at a time when the ocean was teeming with 
life, though of a low order. 1 It has been estimated that 
the New Jersey coast is sinking at the rate of one or two 
feet in a century. 2 If this rate has continued from the time 
that this foraminiferous clay was deposited, from seventy to 
one hundred and forty thousand years must have elapsed 
since the clay at the bottom of this well was washed by 
the ocean waves. The thickness of the rocks deposited 
during the Palaeozoic time was fifty-five thousand feet. At 

1 Reports by Lewis Woolman on Artesian Wells at Atlantic City, in 
Annual Reports of State Geologist, 1S89 and 1890, and in Proceedings of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, March 25, 1890. In the 
last-named publication Mr. Woolman gives a list of 149 species of dia- 
toms found in the clay, from 383 to 658 feet below the surface. 

2 Geology of New Jersey, 1868, p. 362 ; Annual Report for 1881, p. 31. 


the rate of a foot a century, this must have taken more than 
five million years to accumulate. When it is considered 
that during this time there were such frequent alternations of 
elevation and depression of the earth's crust, it is evident 
that this estimate in years is far below the mark. During 
the Palaeozoic ages the New Jersey Highlands became prom- 
inent, and the first rivers on the new continent appeared^ — 
the Hudson, St. Lawrence and Connecticut. During the 
last of this period seven miles of subsidence took place 
along the Appalachian region, and elevations and depres- 
sions of the earth altered the character of the strata, turned 
the soft beds of coal into anthracite, while older rocks were 
changed to gneiss, mica, schist, slate and marble. As the 
earth became elevated the fury of the ocean became greater, 
and beat with increased power upon the shores of the conti- 
nent once more rising from its fierce embrace. 

The Palceozoic age was succeeded by the Mesozoic, ush- 
ered in by the Triassic period. Now the present sandstone 
was deposited, as the ocean slowly washed away the granite 
and gneiss of the Archeean ranges, and converted the 
rocks into sand, which in process of time, by the action 
of the elements, became solidified into strata of stone. 
Thus there was formed a belt of sandstone, from ten to 
thirty miles wide, along the base of the Appalachian 
range, from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. In New Jersey 
the Triassic belt is about twenty miles wide, extending 
across the State from the Hudson to the Delaware, covering 
an area of fifteen hundred and forty-three square miles. 
The sandstone and shale are all in uniform layers, with a 
prevailing dip toward the Northwest. At Paterson, how- 
ever, the dip of the sandstone in the quarries at Garret 
Mountain is N. 80 degrees W., and the amount of dip is 10 
degrees; at Seattle's quarry, at Little Falls, the direction of 
the dip is N. 50 degrees W., and the amount is the same as 
at Paterson, 10 degrees. Fossil bird-tracks and water-pit- 
tings found in the rocks near Pompton, and limestone peb- 
bles found in the same beds at Paterson,! show that the 
sandstone is of sedimentary origin, even if we did not see 
the same kind of rock in process of formation at most lake 
shores to-day. Not only were there great birds on the 
earth at this time, and monstrous lizards and other reptiles, 
from ten to forty feet long, but the earliest types of mam- 
mals appeared also. The vegetation covering the land con- 
sisted largely of cone-bearing trees, a distinct species of 
which existed in this vicinity, fossil specimens having been 
found at Little Falls. The deposition of these beds of 
sandstone and shale went on for ages, the earth gradually 
sinking under the mighty mass, until perhaps five or six 
miles in thickness had been formed.2 As the sandstone 
beds were deposited upon the irregular hills and mountains 

1 Fossils found in the sandstone quarries at Belleville in 1879 and 
since, seem to indicate that the formation belongs to the Upper Carbon- 
iferous, if not to an older ^^rioi.— Annual Report N. J. State Geologist, 
1879, p. 27. 

2 By observing the angle of dip at various points, and the out-crop- 
ping ends of the beds of sandstone, it is calculated that the formation 
must be at least 27,000 feet thick. The greatest depth (2,100 feet) ever 
reached in the sandstone was found in boring the artesian well at the Pas- 
saic Rolling Mill, at Paterson, in 1879-80. A detailed account of this 
well is given at the end of this chapter. 

of Archaean rocks beneath the waters of the ocean, they 
gradually subsided j the older rocks were probably rising at 
the same time ; these being vastly harder than the other, the 
beds of sandstone bent, and finally broke here and there in 
lines parallel with the Archaean ranges. 1 In many places 
one part of the bed went on sinking down the side of the 
granite hills, while the other portion of the bed remained 
stationary, and thus there was formed what geologists call 
a "fault" in the rock. Taking a comprehensive view 
of the earth's surface in the vicinity of Paterson at this 
period, we may imagine a horizontal bed of sandstone ex- 
tending at the same general level from New Brunswick or 
Princeton northeasterly to the present New York State line, 
and from the Hudson river twenty or thirty miles westerly 
to the present Archaean range. This is the sandstone now 
found in the quarries of Middlesex, Union, Somerset, 
Essex, Passaic and Bergen counties. We may imagine this 
sandstone bed gradually subsiding, and, in the neighbor- 
hood of Paterson, and along a line extending southeasterly 
for forty miles, resting upon a mass of rounded Archaean 
rock; the increasing weight of the ever-accumulating 
beds above gradually forced the sandstone to bend on 
each side of the immovable line below; it kept on bending 
until the breaking point was reached; then there was a 
fracture; the rock to the east and southeast slid down 
further, while the edge of the rock to the west of the break- 
ing line rose, forming a cliff, two, three or four hundred 
feet higher than the adjacent sandstone beds, and facing 
toward the east and southeast. The quarrying operations 
on the face of Garret Mountain show that there the sand- 
stone has a height of three hundred feet above the sea; 
the sandstone under Morris Mountain, and that in and near the 
Valley of the Rocks, at Riverside and at other points in Pater- 
son, is only from fifty to one hundred feet above tide-water. 
At Passaic, in the western part of the city, the sandstone is 
found at a depth of from thirty to sixty feet below the sur- 
face, or but little above tide level, while in the eastern sec- 
tion the sandstone is from one hundred to one hundred and 
twenty-five feet below the surface, or from eighty to one 
hundred feet below the level of the sea. This marked dif- 
ference in the position of the adjacent beds of sandstone 
certainly indicates a remarkable tilting in these beds, and 
probably a "fault" somewhere in this neighborhood, 
which might be caused in the manner described. 

While these sandstone beds were being formed, and in 
many cases while they were still in a plastic state, a strange 
thing happened. Up through fissures which extended down 
to the fiery interior of the earth, there poured forth a mass of 
molten rock, of a new kind, which we call "trap." This 
fluid rock penetrated between the layers of the sandstone 
in all directions, separating the beds widely. Every 
fissure, every opening, was thus filled with red hot lava, 
and wherever there was loose earth, or beds of broken 
shale beneath the beds of sandstone, this liquid mass found 
its way. Strangely enough, this igneous eruption appears 

1 There is strong reason for believing that some mighty external 
force was exerted on both the sandstone and the Arch.iean rocks to effect 
this deformation ; many geologists believe it was the power of the ocean > 
exerted from the east and southeast. 


to have been of the same character throughout the Triassic 
formation, from Nova Scotia to North Carolina, and is 
seldom found elsewhere. In New Jersey it covers an area 
of about three hundred and thirty square miles. The 
peculiarity of this formation has attracted the attention of 
geologists for more than half a century, and fully 
seventy writers have written nearly two hundred articles in 
attempting to elucidate the subject, i The beds of trap ap- 
pear m bands of from three inches to several hundred feet in 
thickness. The adjacent sandstone was baked into hard 
grit, while the steam accompanying or generated by the 
eruption gave the lava in many places the appearance of 
volcanic scorise or cinders, or turned it into bosses and 
rounded masses like fused boulders. The most striking 
instances of this were formerly to be seen on Marion street, 
between Totowa and Union avenues; the rock appeared to 
have been a mass of boulders, fused together by the action 
of fire and water, the form of each boulder-like boss or 
rounded mass distinctly shown by the lines of the green 
carbonates of copper permeating the whole.2 Occa- 
sionally the trap rock is divided by planes, parallel to the 
bedding, the texture of the rock above and below such 
planes of separation differing slightly, indicating that the rock 
was deposited by successive eruptions, each bed having time 
to cool before a new overflow occurred. Frequently cavities 
were formed in the hastily-cooled lava, and the steam or 
hot vapors caused these cavities to be filled with prehnite 
and other beautiful crystals, white, yellow or purple in 
color. In some places — as at Morris Mountain in Paterson, 
on the south side of the river, near Little Falls, and in a 
quarry at Orange — the later ou-tflows of lava have assumed 
a prismatic or columnar form, 3 like the basaltic columns at 

1 It may be remarked here that while tlie igneous origin of the trap 
rock has been accepted as a fact by geologists, mth few exceptions, 
Professor Henry Wurtz, of Hoboken, a distinguished chemist, was at 
one time inclined to believe that possibly it might be shown on further 
investigation that the trap was a metamorphic rock, and was formed 
in situ. In other words, that the sandstone upon vAich the trap rock 
is invariably found to be superimposed, has undergone a chemical 
change into trap rock, and that this change is still in progress. The 
writer had noticed that on the side of Morris iMountain, there was a point 
vsrhere it was difficult to tell where the sandstone ended and the trap 
rock began, and in 1872 he pointed this out to Professor Wurtz, who re- 
garded it as a striking confirmation of his conjecture that the trap rock 
was chemically-transformed sandstone. So far as the writer is aware, 
although he had some subsequent correspondence with Professor Wurtz 
on this subject, the Professor never concluded his contemplated experi- 
ments to determine whether or not his conjecture was demonstrably 
correct. It was a bold conception quite characteristic of Prof. Wurtz, 
who was an original thinker. Of late years the microscope has come 
into use in testing doubtful rocks, and by this means it has been deter- 
mined beyond a doubt just where is the Ime of demarcation between the 
trap and the sandstone, and that there has been no fusion between them, 
and no chemical metamorphosis of one into the other. The curious 
reader may find a presentation of Prof. V/urtz's idea in the Proceedings 
N. Y. Lyceum, Vol. I., 1871. 

2 This rock, formerly ten feet above the level of the street, has 
been blasted out and removed for use as road material ; the quarry is 
now eight or ten feet below the surface of the street. It is softer than 
•most trap rocks, and packs more readily. This quarry has been a 
favorite resort of mineralogists for years, and great quantities of most 
beautiful specimens thence now enrich the cabinets of institutions and of 
private collectors. 

3 A lithographic view of the columnar formation near Little Falls is 
^ven in the Annual Report of the State Geologist, 1882, page 53 ; the 

the Giant's Causeway in Ireland. At Morris Mountain the 
trap rock overlies the sandstone in a horizontal bed twenty-five 
feet thick, and above this rises the columnar formation to a 
height of fifty feet. 1 It has been conjectured"^ that as 
the fiery mass came up from the bowels of the earth, 
it . passed through beds3 of iron ore and of copper, 
bringing up copper in the form of green carbonates and 
sulphides, and iron as oxides, which became dissemin- 
ated like vapor through the rocks, the oxide of iron color- 
ing the sandstone red. But Professor William Morris 
Davis, of Harvard University, vyho has studied the red 
sandstone and trap formations in and about Paterson for the 
last ten years or more, with great care, in a letter to the 
author says "there is little ground for this belief, and 
many facts militate against it. Sandstones remote from 
volcanic or igneous rocks are often red, and on the other 
hand many sandstones near such rocks are not red. More- 
over, the sandstones overlying the last trap overflow are not 
less red than those below." It is difficult to believe that 
the sandstone at Paterson should have been colored in the 
manner suggested to the depth of two thousand feet, as at 
the artesian well at the Passaic Rolling Mill; and it seems 
improbable that the coloring of this formation should have 
been thus produced so uniformly throughout its fifteen 
hundred square miles of area. In a quarry near Haledon * 
the red sandstone is underlaid by a bed of sandstone nearly 
white. If the lava outflow was instrumental in dyeing the 
upper stratum red, why not this lower stratum also ? On 
the whole, it is more reasonable to assume that the red 
color of the sandsLone is an original characteristic as 
the sediment was deposited. V>'hy it is red is as 
yet little understood. The same may be said as to 
the origin of the traces of copper in the trap rock. 
It is certain that the indications of copper were 
strikingly marked in the trap rock at Marion street; 
they have been noticed elsewhere along the First 
Mountain, and have led sanguine people to believe that 

lithographic frontispiece to the Annual Report for 1884 gives three 
views of the basaltic columns at Orange. This tendency to a basaltic or 
columnar formation at the Passaic Falls was noticed as long ago as i8ig, 
by Samuel Akerly, in his "Geology of the Hudson River, and the ad- 
jacent regions : illustrated by a Geological Section of the Country, from 
the neighbourhood of Sandy Hook, in New-Jersey, northward, through 
the Highlands in New-York, towards the CatskiU Mountains." New 
York : 1820, p. 34. 

1 This hill is being fast carried away for road material. A view of 
the hill as it appeared in 186S is published in the Geology of New Jersey, 
1868, p. 103. 

2 Geology of N. J., 1868, p. 338. 

3 There are no true veins of iron ore in New Jersey ; the ore is always 
found in beds, indicating a sedimentary origin. The beds, however, 
have been usually so turned up in folds as to give them the appearance 
of veins. 

i On the upper High Mountain road, about a mile north of Haledon. 
First there is a layer of earth, about two feet ; then trap rock, thirty 
feet ; then two beds of red (or brown) sandstone, one lighter in color 
than the other, the two having a total thickness of about twenty-five 
feet ; then red shale, four feet, and then a bed of sandstone, light buff in 
color, closely resembling Ohio sandstone. This last layer has been 
opened for ten or fifteen feet, but its depth has not been ascertained. 
This quarry was worked as long ago as 1815, by Capt. John Ander- 
son ; it is now (1892) owned by the New Jersey Brownstone Company. 


untold wealth in the shape of copper lay beneath 
these rugged hills. The Palisades, First Mountain, 
Second Mountain and Preakness Mountain, or Black Oak 
Ridge, are all of this trap rock formation, now overlying the 
red sandstone; traces of a fourth ridge have been discovered 
within a few years. All these ridges are parallel, and all 
have a crescent form, somewhat roughly corresponding to 
the general trend of the chains of Archjean rocks to the 
northwest. The First Mountain, of which Garret Mount- 
ain is a conspicuous part, apparently began at Sicomac, 
beyond High Mountain, and extends southwesterly forty- 
three miles to Pluckamin, in Somerset county, its crest run- 
ning uniformly from four hundred and fifty to five hundred 
and fifty feet in height, the even crest being broken by a 
few depressions, and some peaks rising to a height of 
between six hundred and seven hundred feet. The Second 
Mountain extends from Pompton on the north, southeast- 
erly by way of High Mountain, and thence southwesterly to 
Mount Horeb, Somerset county, with an inward westerly 
curve to Bernardsville. The height of its crest varies but 
little from five hundred and fifty feet, except at the few 
gaps, and at such exceptional peaks as High Mountain (878 
feet) and at Caldwell (684 feet). The Third Mountain runs 
like the letter en laid horizontally, from Pompton to Mount- 
ain View, Montville and Pine Brook, the height being 
from three hundred and fifty to four hundred and fifty feet. 
The Palisades tower up in stately grandeur above the Hud- 
son five hundred and twenty feet near the New York State 
line, gradually diminishing in height, to disappear at Ber- 
gen Point, perhaps to reappear in the short trap ridge at 
Rocky Hill.l The Palisades and the First and Second 
Mountains terminate in hooks, turning inwards, or westerly, 
toward the concave side. 2 These hooks are believed 
by Darton3 to be entirely due to flexures of the rocks. 4 
Prof. Davis says "the cause of the curved trend of the 
trap ridges is sufficiently found in the unequal uplift of 
different parts and subsequent erosion to baselevel."5 

There has been much discussion among geologists as to 
whether these ridges of trap were formed simultaneously, 
or whether they are the result of successive outflows, at 
long intervals of time; and if they were not formed at one 
period, then which appeared first.6 Then there is another 

1 The heights here given are taken from the Topographical Atlas of 
New Jersey. 

.2 It is thought that the trap mountains of the Ramapo valley are a 
continuation of the First Watchung sheet. — The Relations of the Traps 
of the Newark System ui the New Jersey Reg-ioji^ by Nelson Horatio 
Darton, Bulletin No. 67, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. , 

3 As cited above. 

4 The curious outlines of the trap ridges are very clearly shown on 
the Geological Map of New Jersey accompanying the Annual Report of 
the State Geologist for 1881. The hook at the northerly terminus of tlie 
Palisades is in New York State. 

5 In a letter to the author. He adds : " There has not been given 
any good reason for refemng the curvature to the attitude of the rocks 
below, e.xcept so far as the uplift of the lower rocks accompanied the 
uplift of the Triassic formation." 

6 In the American Journal of Science, April, 1878, there was pub- 
lished an article by Israel C. Russell, " On the Intrusive Nature of the 
Triassic Trap Sheets of New Jersey," in which the writer relates how 

question of peculiar interest as bearing on the Geological His- 
tory of the Passaic Falls: V\'"ere these trap rocks formed by 
the intrusive flow of the lava between the layers of sand- 
stone and shale, the upper layers of the softer rocks being 
subsequently eroded or worn away ? Or, did the trap, in at 
least some places, overflow the sandstone, and become im- 
mediately exposed to the air, as at present? 

Let us see how the earth's surface in this neighborhood 
has changed since those early days. As already remarked, 
the Archsan ranges in Northern New Jersey were washed 
by the ocean, which dashed in wild waves against their 
base, ground the rocks into fragments and strewed them in 
the shallow water along the shore. Wind and rain aided in 
the erosion and denudation, and gradually the debris at 
the base of the mountains spread further and further out 
into the ocean, till a fringe of mud, and, in time, of sand- 
stone, was formed. This went on and on till there was an 
almost level plain (a peneplain 1) of sandstone, extending 
from the Archaean ridges on the west to and beyond the 
present Hudson river on the east. The territory of New 
Jersey has never been agitated by lofty volcanoes, belching 
forth flame and masses of rock ; but at certain periods, 
while the deposition of the red sandstone was going on, 
great fissures have opened in the crust of the globe, and 
through them there have welled forth fiery rivers of lava, 2 
spreading out over a large part of the surface of the newly- 
forming rock, before it had become fairly consolidated into 

he discovered, near Feltville, on the western slope of First Mountain, a 
spot where the trap rock was overlaid by a bed of sandstone and 
shale twenty-five or thirty feet thick. He regarded this as " indisputa- 
ble evidence that the igneous rocks, composing the First Newark 
Mountain, were intruded in a molten state between the layers of the 
stratified rocks subsequent to their consolidation." In a paper by the 
same writer, " On the Geology of Hudson County, New Jersey," read 
before the New York Academy of Sciences, April, 18S0, and published 
in its " Annals," he gives many additional reasons for this conclusion, 
and argues that Bergen Hill was at one time covered by sandstone and 
shale 7,000 to 8,000 feet thick. In 1882 Davis examined the rocks at Felt- 
ville more carefully, and discovered no traces of the alteration described 
by Rogers, Cook and Russell, but on the contrary found that the vesicu- 
lar, slag-like rock was overlaid by unaltered shales with an intervening 
trap breccia (angular fragments of trap) at some points. This breccia 
was alone considered satisfactory proof of the extrusive nature of the 
sheet, and he stated his opinion that it could only have been formed on 
the surface of a pre-e.xistent sheet of lava. — On the Relations of the Tri- 
assic Traps and Sandstones of the U. S.^ by W. M. Davis, in Bulletin 
Lyceum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, 1883, Vol. VII., No. 
9. In an article, " The Geological History of New York Island and Har- 
bor," in the Popular Science Monthly, October, 1878, Prof. J. S. Newberry, 
of Columbia College, assumed that the First and Second Mountains were 
covered with sandstone and shale to a depth of several hundred feet, at 
least. The late prof. George H. Cook, State Geologist of New Jersey, 
1863-1889, concluded that the trap rocks were " of older age than tlie red 
sandstone and shale in which they occur, and that they were intruded 
after those sedimentary rocks had been elevated to their present posi- 
tion," "although they may have overflowed for short distances, from 
the out-crop of their intrusive sheet." — Annual Reports , 1883,/. 22; 1886, 
/. 127. 

1 This word was coined by Davis. 

2 " The igneous rocks of New Jersey are remarkably uniform petro- 
graphically, as they are all basalts varying mainly in structure and 
development. The eruptions are fine grained generally, somewhat 
glassy, and the intrusives are coarser grained, generally being doleritic, 
in some cases inclosing considerable biotite and often near gabbro in 
structure." — Darton, ■a.s cited. 



stone. These streams continued for an incalculable length 
of time, and at irregular intervals, perhaps centuries apart. 
The first of these outflows in this part of New Jersey 
formed a bed of trap rock hundreds, possibly thousands of 
feet in thickness,! lying in a horizontal position above the 
sandstone.2 Then the earth's surface sank slowly below the 
ocean level, and a new bed of sandstone was deposited, of 
unknown depth, above the trap rock. New fissures were 
opened, and fresh streams of lava poured forth, spreading 
out over the most recent sandstone, and, where this had been 
worn off, then upon the former beds of lava.3 It was proba- 
bly at this time that the lava rising through a fissure 
that did not extend to the surface, forced its way between 
beds of sandstone, which, being subsequently worn and 
scraped off, left the bold escarpment of the Palisades. 4 
Neither the sandstone nor the trap was for a moment 
at rest. Born of the warring elements, both, true to their 
origin, were forever at strife with themselves and with 
each other. They were no sooner deposited than they 
strove to change their position. Then there was a Titanic 
struggle ! The sandstone exerted itself to the very base of 
its vast depth to gather strength to hurl off the enormous 
superincumbent mass of lava. The contest lasted for ages, 
is waging yet ! The victory thus far is with neither of the 
writhing combatants. The under one, it is true, uplifted 
itself, and at the same time with a gigantic effort heaved up 
the overlying beds of lava, which were in many places 
fractured in the struggle, and their rough edges exposed to 
the denuding influences of air and water. This tilting of 
the lava or trap rock beds has occurred more than once. 
The uplift has not been equal throughout the Triassic 
region; some parts of the trap have been raised higher than 
others. Nor has the erosion been always and everywhere 
at the same rate. In the mighty warfare of the rocks, 
"faults" have occurred in the lava bed at our famed 

1 The southern edge of the trap sheet, at Rocky Hill, is estimated to 
be fifteen hundred or two thousand feet thick. This would indi- 
cate an enormous depth originally, at Paterson, and a vast extension 
of its northern edge skyward. Only a fragment of this edge now re- 

2 There is no evidence of successive lava flows in First Mountain. 

3 In 1882 Prof. Davis found the base of the Second Watchung mountain 
resting on apparent tuff (tufa, volcanic rock) deposits on the west bank 
of the Passaic river a short distance below Little Falls, indicating that 
there had been a second overflow of lava. The conformable beds and 
the amygdular (having almond-shaped crevices) and ropy-surfaced rock 
of the First Mountain trap are exposed at Morris Mountain and at 
Garret Mountain. — Darton^ as cited. Prof. Cook called attention to the 
underlying bed of conglomerate at Morris Mountain, in his Report for 
1882 (p.36), and made some very suggestive remarks on its significance. 
What Prof. Cook said was always regarded with great respect by geol- 
ogists throughout the world. 

4 " The extrusive sheets are characterized by their deep vesicularity 
and alteration, or slag-like aspect of their upper surfaces, the unaltered 
and undisturbed condition of the enclosing strata, the presence of trap 
breccias at their bases, the evidence of successive flows, their relations 
to anterior tuff deposits, and their distinctive columnar structure and 
petrography. The intrusive sheets are characterized by irregular lower 
contacts in which the trap cuts across the ragged edges of the strata for 
greater or less distances, the intense alteration in the enclosing strata, 
the increased density and fineness of grain, and the bedded structure in 
the trap near the contacts, and the absence of vesicularity and breccias." 
— Darton^ as cited above. 

cataract, one part sinking and another rising, and so 
there have been fractures and fissures, which are ever 
widening, from the movements of the rocks, and the wear 
of the elements. The upturned edge of the trap rock has 
been eroded unevenly, as the texture of the lava itself 
varied, and other forces, yet to be named, were tirelessly, 
incessantly at work. 

And so it is that to-day, instead of a dull, uninteresting^ 
plain, we behold the beautifully-diversified landscape of the 
Triassic region of Northern New Jersey, of which the 
trap ridges of the Palisades and the First and Second 
Mountains, with the lovely intervening valleys, are such, 
conspicuous and delightful features, and amid which the 
most striking and fascinating spectacle in all its varied- 
natural scenery has been the Passaic Falls. 1 

When was the Passaic river first^ formed ? When did its 
waters first pour over the present cataract at Paterson? 
From the time the Archaean ridges lifted their heads above 
the ocean, the rains descending upon them have formed, 
channels wherein they might the more readily find their 
way back to the sea. As the Appalachian chain has- 
always sloped toward the southeast, the rivers of the. 
Atlantic coast have uniformly flowed in the same direction,, 
except where diverted by local causes. So this Triassic coun- 
try was plowed by water courses in that far off age, and 
they had their share in wearing away the rocks, both sand- 
stone and trap. The location of those streams it would 
not be easy to determine now, but they would naturally be 
in the valleys between the trap ridges, and would, as. 
naturally, flow toward the southeast. Take a map of New 
Jersey, and you will observe that all the rivers in this sec- 
tion have this course. There is a part exception — that por- 
tion of the Passaic river which, above the Big Piece meadows, 
flows northeasterly and northerly, but so reluctantly as to- 
suggest that it has been diverted from its true course, and 
might be easily persuaded to return to it. Although there 
is no direct evidence of it, the dip of the Cretaceous forma- 
tion in Central and Southern New Jersey indicates that it 
would, if extended, reach the base of Schooley's Mountain, 
and cover all the trap regions, and Prof. Davis believes, 
that was the case when, at the close of the Triassia 
period, this locality was submerged in the ocean. This 
submergence would be gradual, of course; so would be the. 
deposit of pulverized shells, and there is every reason for 
believing that the rivers could easily hold substantially to 
their old courses, perhaps rising to higher levels as the 

1 In this account of the origin of the present topography of the Trias- 
sic region the writer has adopted the views of Davis and of Darton, the 
most recent systematic investigators of this section of New Jersey.. 
These views are fully gi%'en in a paper on " The Geographical Develop- 
ment of Northern New Jersey," by William Morris Davis and J. Walter 
Wood, Jr., in Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History,. 
Vol. XXIV., November, 1889; "The Rivers of Northern New Jersey," by 
William Morris Davis, in the National Geographic Magazine, Vol. II., 
May, 1890, pp. 81-110; "The Relations of the Traps of the Newark 
System in the New Jersey Region," by Nelson Horatio Darton, in Bul- 
letin No. 67, of the U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, 1890. Par- 
ticular acknowledgment is due to Prof. Davis, who was kind enough to- 
revise the proofs of this part of this chapter, and to suggest some cor- 
rections and alterations from his own profound knowlege of this locality.. 

2 This e.xpresssion, ^'Jirst formed," is used advisedly. 


chalk deposits accumulated. In some cases the beds of 
rivers were determined by "faults" in the mountain ridges. 
The Pequannock is located on an ancient fault line, the 
beds of the corresponding rocks on the opposite sides of its 
valley differing a thousand feet. There is some reason for 
believing that a similar "fault" exists in the Wanaque 
valley. The Pequannock, Wanaque and Ramapo rivers 
found their way southeasterly across or through the trap 
•lidges to a point probably north of Paterson, and so formed 
what is now the lower part of the Passaic river. 
Another stream flowed through the ridge at Little Falls, on 
to and through the Great Notch (where traces of water 
action are still discernible), not unlikely carving out the 
■original channel of the primal Third river. The Rockaway 
found a more direct way to the ocean by uniting with the 
Rahway, and the more remote headwaters of the Passaic 
joined their nearest neighbor, the Raritan. All these 
-Streams were then, as now, forever seeking the lowest 
-channels, and were incessantly fretting away their banks. 
As they widened and deepened they "captured" the 
nearest tributaries. The original Passaic was a larger, 
'fiercer stream than others. It sought and discovered lower 
depths for its channel. It reached out and found other 
streams to add to its volume. Its appetite was whetted by 
-what it^'^fed on. After a while the river flowing through 
Little Falls and the Great Notch became its prey. Still 
-unsatisfied it extended its grasp, and in time seized upon 
the Rockaway, diverting it from its Rahway outlet. This 
history was repeated, till the upper part of the river, gorged 
to repletion, had barely current enough, or was too unwilling, 
to turn from its obviously natural course, and flow north- 
-ward to the sea by way of Paterson. 1 This predatory 
disposition of the ancient Passaic has led Prof. Davis to 
term it a "piratical " river. But however apt the phrase to 
characterize its youth, our lovely, tranquil stream has 
■atoned for its early indiscretions by thousands of years of 
most decorous behavior. 

It has been suggested above that the headwaters of the 
Passaic joined the main river somewhere north of the 
present Paterson. The sudden ending of the First Mount- 
ain at Garret Rock and at the Falls, to emerge again near 
Sicomac, suggests a "fault," or a subsidence in the lava 
bed, or else a softer texture of the rock that formerly filled 
this gap. The tilting up of the bed of lava here, and the 
exposure of its fractured edge,2 have aided in wearing it 
away more rapidly than otherwise would have been the 
•case. The river gladly leaped over this edge, as the 
shortest way to the ocean, and added its power to the 
atmospheric forces to back the cataract up stream, ever 
grinding and eating away the less hard portions of the rock. 

1 See Davis and Wood, as cited, on " The Geographical Development 
■of Northern New Jersey," and Davis on " The Rivers of Northern 
New Jersey." 

2 " A geological examination of the district leads to the conviction 
that the trap sheets, like the sedimentary beds between them, have 
formerly had a great extension upward along the plane of their dip, 
into the air, just as they still have an undetermined extension downward 
into the ground ; their present edges simply marli the lines back to 
which the sheets have been consumed by denuding forces of one kind or 
another." — Davis and Wood^ as above. 

until at last the water was half imprisoned in the narrow 
chasm where we now see it struggling desperately to es- 
cape, and compelled to turn sharply upon itself ere it 
regains its liberty. 

With the dawn of the Quaternary age there came another 
prodigious change over the northern part of the American 
continent. The surface of the globe was slowly elevated — 
moderately in this latitude, and several hundred feet as far 
north as Labrador.! For some reason as yet not under- 
stood'^ the earth in the higher latitudes, where a temperate 
climate had previously prevailed, was now subjected to a 
great precipitation of moisture, turning first into snow and 
then into ice ; this increased the condensation of moisture, 
and the ice went on forming, thickening and spreading out, 
from the Atlantic ocean to the Rocky Mountains, and from 
the Arctic regions as far south as Perth Amboy in New Jer- 
sey, its boundary in this State being generally a line drawn 
from Perth Amboy northwesterly to Rockaway and thence 
slightly southwesterly to the Delaware river near Oxford.3 
Its southern border extended westward in an irregular line, 
the Ohio and Missouri rivers roughly marking its lower 
terminus in the Mississippi valley. ■ Thus this great ice 
sheet covered an area of four million square miles in 
America. An area of half the size in Europe was buried at 
the same time under an icy covering. The slope of the 
frigid blanket in America was not uniform, but it was suffi- 
cient to give the whole mass a southern impetus.* Near 
Summit and Feltville, in New Jersey, about a mile from its 
edge, the thickness was probably a thousand feet. In the 

1 Warren Upham estimates the pre-glacial uplift in the vicinity of 
New York and Philadelphia at 1,200 feet above its present level. The 
famous Saguenay river below Quebec has a depth of from 300 to 840 feet 
below sea level ; its channel must have been eroded when the land in its 
neighborhood was 1,000 feet higher than now. — The Ice Age i7i North 
America, hy G. Frederick Wright, New York, i89i,pp. 577-8; Proceed- 
ings of the Boston Society of Natural History, XXIV.^ 453. 

2 It seems to be generally admitted now by geologists that elevation 
of the land is not enough alone to produce glaciation ; constant moisture, 
causing snow deposits, is more important. Nor is intense cold neces- 
sary, for some of the Alaskan and most of the Alpine glaciers descend 
to within 3,000 or 4,000 feet of the ocean's level. The various theories 
and the objections to them are clearly presented in Dr. Wright's " Ice 
Age in America," pp. 405-447, and in his " Man and the Glacial Period," 
1892, pp. 302-331. In an appendix to the former work (pp. 573-595) War- 
ren Upham exhaustively reviews the whole subject, and presents a 
very plausible hypothesis of his own. His copious references are a val- 
uable contribution to the bibliography of the subject. See also article by 
Prof. J. S. Newberry in the Popular Science Monthly, November, 1886, 
on " North America in the Ice Age." 

3 Its terminal moraine (the debris deposited at its margin) is very 
clearly shown on the Geological Map of New Jersey, 1886. 

■* The glacier moved into New Jersey from the northeast. Maps 
showing the general movements of the great ice sheet are given in the 
Sixth Annual Report U. S. Geological Survey, p. 205, and in Wright's 
Ice Age in North America, p. 175. The direction of movement was not 
uniform, but varied according to local and other conditions At the gap 
west of High Mountain, near Paterson, the glacial scratches on the trap 
rock are S. 30° to 40° W. ; at Second Mountain, west of Paterson, the 
direction is S. 80° W. ; on the Little Falls road, S. 75° W. ; at Paramus, 
near the Reformed church, S. 30° W. Particularly near the southern 
border of the ice sheet it would branch off in various directions, in- 
stead of having a single movement. — Annual Report State Geologist, 
1878, p. 10. It has been estimated that " the rate of motion of the gla- 
cier could hardly have exceeded a foot a day, and may have been in 
most parts no more than a foot a week." — Dana, as cited, 539. 



neighborhood of the Catskills the slope was only about 
seventeen feet to the mile, and further north the surface of 
the ice sheet approximated to a great level plain. 1 The 
average ascent in this part of the country was probably 
twenty-five feet per mile, for the first one hundred or two 
hundred miles,2 and the average thickness of the glacier 
throughout its entire extent was at least three quarters of a 
mile,3 while in some sections it may have been two miles or 
more. " The ice-current passed over the Green Mountains 
where they are from 3,000 to 5,000 feet in height in a 
course diagonal to that of their general direction, showing 
that such a mountain-chain made scarcely more of a ripple 
in the moving mass than a sunken log would make in a 
shallow river. "4 At the Delaware Water Gap, the valley 
was filled with a frozen river eighteen hundred feet deep, 
rising six hundred feet above the Kittatinny Mountains. 5 
This point was only about ten miles from the margin of the 
ice sheet, while Paterson is twenty miles north of the 
ancient terminal moraine. It is safe to assume that the 
glacier was quite two thousand feet thick over the present 
bed of the Passaic river, and rose fully fifteen hundred feet 
above Garret Rock as we now see it. 

The mighty power of this enormous mass, with a pres- 
sure of scores of tonsS to the square foot, can hardly 
be imagined. The vast forests that covered the earth 
were torn up by the roots and carried along by the 
resistless force of the Glacier, ground to bits, or deposited 
as mutilated logs in the depressions passed over. Loose 
soil and soft rock was relentlessly scraped off and carried 
along to be deposited here and there in wide depressions, 
or to be piled up on the mountain sides, two, three or five 
thousand feet above the level of the sea. Fragments of 
projecting cliffs were broken 6ff, weighing thousands of 
tons, at times as big as good-sized houses, and then were 
dropped upon lofty plateaus to be the wonder of men to- 
day.7 Other rocks were ground together and finally left be- 

1 Prof. John C. Smock, now (1892) State Geologist of NeAv Jersey, in 
American Journal of Science, vol. 125, 1883, p. 339. 

2 Warren Upham, in Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History, 
XXIV., 451. 

3 Wrigiit, Man and the Glacial Period, 330. 

■4 Wright, The Ice Age in North America, 166. 

5 Second Gelogical Survey of Pennsylvannia, Vol. Z, p. XIV. An 
admirable little sketch, "On the Glacial and Modified Drift" of New 
Jersey, is given in the State Geologist's Report for 1878, pp. 8^23, being 
the first detailed account published of the glacial action in New Jersey, 
although it had been referred to in the Report for 1877. The subject is 
treated at greater length in the Annual Report for 1880, pp.- 14-97. 
In the Report for 1891 (pp. 35-108), Prof. R. D. Salisbury, of the U. 
S. Geological Survey, writes very fully " On Drift or Pleistocene Form- 
ations of Nev/ Jersey," the paper being well illustrated. 

6 Dana estimates the weight of the ice at 450 pounds per square inch 
f or eveiy 1 ,000 f eet of thickness. — Manual 0/ Geology^ 539. This would 
be 48 tons per square foot where the thickness was. 1,500 feet, as it is 
estimated to have been on Garret Mountain, and 64 tons per square foot 
in the lower Passaic valley. Prof. Newberry, in the Popular Science 
Monthly, November, 1886, estimates the pressure of ice 1,000 feet thick, 
at 54,810 pounds to the square foot. 

7 Mount Washington presents many examples. Near Paterson, on 
High Mountain, 878 feet above tide water, the ledges show the south- 
ward movement of the ice, and there are many boulders from three to 
ten feet in diameter perched on the smooth ledges. Many in New 

hind as huge boulders. Even the hard trap rock about 
Paterson was scraped and ground away to an extent impos- 
sible to estimatel by this enormous Glacier, aided by the 
action of the frost and water flowing beneath the accumu- 
lating mass of ice. 

We owe to glacial action much of the beauty of the 
landscape in various parts of the country. It is believed 
that in pre-glacial times there were few waterfalls and fewer 
lakes, as to-day they are seldom found beyond the regions 
of glacial drift. The moving ice sheet occasionally mowed 
down the divide between watersheds, and on the other 
hand frequently choked up ancient watercourses. In this 
way it furthered the schemes of predatory rivers. It would 
seem probable that thus the united Pequannock-Wanaque- 
Ramapo river, which previously formed the headwaters of 
the Passaic, was diverted into the Pompton, and so went to 
swell the Third river, which then extended through the 
Great Notch and beyond Little Falls. But the same action 
which thus diverted these important tributaries from their 
old channel, in the course of ages choked up the gap at the 
Great Notch, and co-operated in the efforts of the Passaic 
to capture the headwaters of the Third river, and at the 
same time restored to its rightful owner the streams which 
for a while had fallen prey to its rival. The beautifully- 
rounded hills of earth, often gathered together like sheep 
huddling in a field ;3 the broad plains of alluvial soil, the 
lovely lakes that gem so many of our mountain tops, the 
valleys filled with . fertility, the long slopes adorned with 
richest verdure, and not infrequently the dancing brooks 
that leap down the hillsides and meander through green 
meadows — all are due to that vast ice sheet that once cov- 
ered the earth like a winding sheet. So often is death the 
gateway to life and loveliness. South of Paterson the soil 
is in many places underlaid with a deep bed of small 
rounded boulders and pebbles, overlaid by a bed of clay. 
These are also the result of glacial action. The long train 
of boulders lying on the ground east of the Erie railway, 
between Clay street and Lake View, have been brought 
scores, perhaps Jiundreds of miles, .and deposited there by 
the glacier of prehistoric days. There are few or no signs 
of any important alteration having been wrought at the Pas- 
saic Falls by glacial action, although undoubtedly frost has 
done much to wear away the edge of the lava sheet. But 
unlike Niagara, Minnehaha and most other cataracts, our 
own Falls do not owe their origin to the damming up of a 

England are described and illustrated in Wright's " Ice Age in North 
America," pp. 205 et seq. One weighs 2,300 tons; another, at Fall 
River, 5,400 tons; Mohegan Rock, Montville, Conn., 10,000 tons. Near 
Drakestown, Morris county, N. J. , a mass of blue limestone, 36x30 feet, 
was quarried for years, to a depth of 20 feet, before it was discov- 
ered to be a boulder, transported by glacial action from the limestone 
range to tlie northwest. — Annual Report State Geologist^ 1880, /. 30. 
Boulders of gneiss twenty feet long are found in the drift near Oldham 
brook, west of Paterson. They must have been carried ten or fifteen 
miles at least. 

1 "Along this whole -Appalachian border there were formerly Arch- 
aean highlands of indefinite height of which the stumps are all that now 
remain in the present hills and mountains." — Wright^ The Ice Age in 
North America, p. 43S. Their reduction in size is due to pre-glacial de- 
nudation even more than to glacial erosion. 

2 And hence called rochcs moutonnees. 


previous channel by glacial drift. The only ancient water- 
course possible between the First and Second Mountains 
was over the bed of trap. The river has formerly fiowed at 
a much higher elevation than now, and may have poured 
over the lava edge at any one of a dozen places between 
Garret Rock and the ridge west of Totowa, but it has 
always kept within those limits. It is very probable that 
during the Glacial age the river below the Falls was choked 
■up with debris, which was washed out at the close of that 
period. It is also likely that when the last ice had disap- 
peared, the river was plunging over the long stretch of prec- 
ipice, extending from the northerly extremity of the chasm 
through which it now pours, to the southerly extremity of 
the chasm or ravine adjoining the Little Falls road south of 
Spruce street. The water constantly wearing down the 
channel has found its present bed, wherein it has flowed 
certainly for two centuries; and perhaps for ten thousand 
years. 1 

As just remarked, the Glacial age2 was remarkable for the 
formation of lakes, sometimes by the erosion of valleys, 
making extensive basins, and in many cases by the depo- 
sition of debris, decomposed by the Glacier, which raised 
dams across the ancient beds of rivers, and so held the 
water back. Such a dam was piled up at the present Passaic 
Falls, extending from Totowa across the valley to Garret 
Rock. Through thousands of years it increased in volume, 
until the water rose to a height of three hundred and eighty 
feet above the sea, or more than two hundred feet higher 
than the bed of the river as it is now above the Falls. Thus 
a lake was formed, more than thirty miles long, two hun- 
dred feet or more in depth, and from one to seven miles in 
width. The ancient shingled beaches of this pre-historic 
"Lake Passaic," as it has been happily named, may still be 

1 The Niagara Falls have receded seven miles through the hard lime- 
stone in which the river has cut its channel. The most careful, accu- 
rate observations and measurements have led geologists to agree within 
the past few years that this recession has taken place since the glacial 
period, and probably within seven thousand ye&rs.—PVrig-hi^ Ice Age in 
North America, 458. 

2 It should be noted here that of late years geologists have generally 
agreed that there have been at least two Glacial periods in America. 
Mr. W. J. McGee, of the U. S. Geological Survey, in an address be- 
fore the Geological Society of Amenca, August, 1892, expressed the 
belief that there had been three successive ice sheets, separated by warm 
epochs ; the first ice age, he thought, " witnessed a reduction in the area 
of the land through oceanic submergence ; the other ice ages showed 
less submergence, but in none of them was the elevation much greater 
than is now presented along the coast." In 1891 Prof. RoUin D. Salis- 
bury, of the U. S. Geological Survey, discovered what he considered 
unmistakable evidences in New Jersey of drift deposited by an 
earUer Glacier than the one whose terminal moraine ends about the 
latitude of Amboy. — Annual Report State Geologist, 1S91, //. 102-8. 
A map showing the course of the ice sheet (the latest) east of the Mis- 
souri river is given in the Sixth Annual Report of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, 1884-85, p. 205. The results wrought by ice and floods, as 
described above in the text, may have been effected at one period 
or another, or by successive eras of glaciers and subsequent floods. It 
may be added that Dr. Wright doubts a succession of Glacial epochs, 
although willing to beUeve that there may have been occasional 
recessions of the front, lasting a few centuries.— r^^ /te ^^e /« A^ot-zA 
America^ 480 ; Man and the Glacial Period, 117. 

traced! by the careful observer at Totowa, in the sand hills 
above Browertown, on the Preakness mountains, at Bloom- 
ingdale, at Pompton, on the hills enclosing the lovely Wana- 
que valley as far north as Ringwood and Hewitt, through 
the Raniapo valley, and southerly to Liberty Corner, in 
Somerset county, including all of Pompton Plains, and the 
country about Chatham and Morristown. It was ten 
times the size of Lake Hopatcong to-day. At this period, 
the earth in this part of the country was sixty or sixty- 
five feet lower than it is now,2 so that the waters from 
this great lake leaped directly into the ocean, whose 
waves dashed against the gloomy cliffs at the present Pas- 
saic Falls. As the Glacier had pressed onward south- 
erly it had probably followed the course of the Passaic 
river, and so deposited along its banks vast quantities of 
valley drift — small boulders, coarse gravel, fine sand and 
clay, which were piled up in terraces, rising higher and 

Toward the close of the Glacial period, and with the in- 
coming of the Champlain epoch, there was a depression of 
the earth's surface,3 accompanied by a great thaw. As 
the melting of the ice increased, vast floods followed at 
irregular intervals. At length the lofty dam was swept 
away, and the imprisoned waters of the ancient lake 
rushed down across the trap edge to the country be- 
low. Finer sand was added to the summits of the terraces, 
with occasional layers of gravel, suggestive of periods of 
raging torrents succeeded by seasons of a long-continued 
even flow of water. During the Drift epoch fragments of 
fossiliferous rocks were carried from long distances and de- 
posited by the Glacier along its margin, or perhaps where it 
met the ocean.4 Thus by the combined action of ice and 
water were formed those singular terraces known as Colt's 
Hill (bounded by Ward, Main, Grand and Prince streets, 
and removed in 1890-91) and Sandy Hill (now bounded by 
Market, East Nineteenth, Clay, Chestnut and Vine streets). 
These hills had flat summits, one hundred and fifty-two feet 

1 "In a region where forests afford no obstruction, the observer has 
merely to bring his eye into the plane once occupied by the water sur- 
face, and all the horizontal elements of shore topography are projected 
in a single Une. This line is exhibited to him not merely by the dis- 
tinctions of light and shade, but by distinctions of color due to the fact 
that the changes of inclination and of soil at the line influence the distri- 
bution of many kinds of vegetation. In this manner it is often possible 
to obtain from the general view evidence of the existence of a faint 
shore tracing, which could be satisfactorily determined in no other way. 
The ensemble of a faintly scored shore mark is usually easier to recognize 
than any of its details." — G. K. Gilbert, " On the Topographic Features 
of Lake Shores," Fifth Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey^ 
1883-84,/. 122. 

2 As shown by beach marks at Mount Pleasant cemetery at Newark ; 
on the bluff at Navesink Highlands; in the gravel hill where the new 
Pennsylvania Railroad station at Trenton stands ; on the hills west of 
Shark river, and at other points. 

8 Probably 150 feet about Philadelphia, and increasing to the north. — 
Wrighf s Ice Age in North Atncrica, 414, 

4 Such fragments of rocks, generally sandstone, sometimes yellow and 
sometimes red or brown, containing fossils, .were found in excavating 
for the cellars of the buildings on the south-east corner of Broadway and 
Washington street ; in digging for the foundations for the new gas 
works near Lyon street ; in grading the Boulevard between Nineteenth 
and Twentieth avenues, and at other places in Paterson. 



above tide level. The Broadway Hill, the hill at East 
Eighteenth street and Seventh avenue, in Paterson, and 
the sandy hills at Haledon, are air of the same height — one 
hundred and fifty-two to one hundred and sixty feet; this 
similarity in height and material, at least as regards Colt's 
Hill, Sandy Hill and the hills of sand formation at or near 
Haledon, and at North Paterson, indicates an origin due to 
the same time and the same cause. 

Strange scenes were enacted about the shores of that 
pre-historic "Lake Passaic." The mammoth, twice the 
size of the largest elephant of to-day, and covered with red- 
dish wool and black hair, having tusks twelve feet long, 
curved upwards, roamed about the neighborhood, and occa- 
sionally encountered the still huger hairy mastodon. 1 The 
Greenland reindeer^ glided swiftly over open spaces across 
the ice, with the caribou, the bison and the musk-ox. 3 The 
industrious beaver set the precedent for the mighty bar- 
rier at the Falls, by damming up the streams that flowed 
into the Lake. Birds, five or six feet high, with formidable 
rows of teeth, coursed through the air, or preyed on the fish 
that swarmed in the waters, while the turkey placidly waxed 
fat with never a fear of Thanksgiving Day. 

But of all the beasts and birds that were wont to make 
their home near the shores of this great lake, scarcely a 
member of their species now exists, and the only evidences 
that they once roamed the earth or air, are the infrequent 
fossil remains occasionally brought to light by modern ex- 
cavations. Of "Lake Passaic" itself, the only vestiges 
left behind are the beach marks made by its waves on 
the pebbly shores, and the ponds which still exist in the 
deeper depressions of the old lake basin, such as Pompton 
Lake, Crystal Lake, 4 and perhjyDS Franklin Lake. At the 
close of this period, as the Glacial Lakes5 disappeared 
they generally found their way to the ocean by the old 
valleys and river channels,** and when these great bodies 
of water had gone the rivers shrank to something like their 
present size and into nearly their present beds, which, how- 

1 The tusk of a mastodon was found in the Trenton gravel, fourteen 
feet below the surface, in 1878. The remains of another were found 
more recently near Corona, Bergen county. Bones of the same huge 
beast have been found in a depression in a "fossil" glacier in Alaska — 
a glacier that has been stationary so long that it is covered four feet 
deep with earth in which forest trees are growing. 

2 Remains of the reindeer have been found near Vincenttown. 

3 Remains of all these animals have been found in the glacial drift in 
New Jersey. 

* Annual Report State Geologist, 1890, p. 60. 

B As evidence that the New Jersey lakes are all of glacial formation it 
is observed that the lakes of the State are confined to the Highland 
regions, generally in the " drift ; " there are no lakes in the State south 
of Budd's Lake, Morris county. 

6 There is no channel in the Passaic river for a mile or two below 
the Falls ; the river simply occupies a valley filled with glacial drift. The 
writer distinctly recollects that while bathing in the Passaic river when 
a boy one day about thirty years ago, near the present Clay street 
bridge at Newark, the tide being unusually low and the water very 
<:lear, he saw a well defined channel in the bed of the river, near the 
middle, ten or twelve feet wide, with steep banks about two feet high ; 
the channel of the old Mill brook was also distinctly visible, where it ran 
down the river bed and joined the river channel. These channels must 
have been worn down at a time when their banks were above water. 

ever, are always, in the Northern hemisphere, cutting into 
their right banks, leaving the latter higher and steeper than 
their left shores. 

After the period of vast floods already described, the 
earth began to rise once more, and New Jersey, which 
at this epoch did not extend south of a line drawn from 
Sandy Hook to Trenton, was slowly enlarged even beyond 
her present fair proportions, by the emergence from the sea 
of the beds of sand, marlyte, clay, shell limestone, compact 
limestone and green sand marl, which make up the southern 
counties, and which the jealous ocean is again seeking to 
reclaim as her own. There have been elevations and de- 
pressions of the earth's surface since the time when "Lake 
Passaic" poured its hundred square miles of water through 
its ruined glacial dam down into the valley of the Passaic, 
but there is every reason to believe that the Great 
Falls are to-day substantially as they were when that im- 
mense dam was burst asunder, and that the topography of 
the country about Paterson — of its hills, its valleys, its sand- 
hill terraces, its river, its principal water-courses — has 
undergone no change of note since that startling catas- 
trophe. 1 

It was by all the countless changes that have been 
briefly hinted at rather than described, that the country 
was prepared for human habitation. The rocky slopes of 
the trap rock descending to the river bed above the Falls, 
the underlying strata of sandstone, gravel and "drift" be- 
low the Falls, and the sandy soil covering most of the site 
of the Paterson of to-day, all tend to assure for a large 
population the best drainage and the purest water-supply 
— two of the most essential requisites to health. 

Nature is never at rest. 

The transitions that have so often taken place in the past 
did not occur suddenly, by "some mighty convulsion of 
nature," as the favorite phase is. Nor should we conclude 
that such changes have ceased for all time, and that the 
surface of the earth is to remain as it is forever. Not so. 
The globe we live on is still undergoing alterations as vast, 
and with as far-reaching consequences in store, as any in by- 
gone epochs. "We live in a universe of change: nothing 
remains the same from one moment to another, and each 

1 As already stated, geologists are substantially agreed that the last 
Glacial period ended from seven to ten thousand years ago. Through 
what length of time it continued is as yet largely a matter of conjecture. 
Some think fully a million years. The most conservative view is that of 
Prestwick (Geology, II., 533-4), who thinks 25,000 years would cover it. 
Dr. Wright believes (Man and the Glacial Period, 364) that "one hun- 
dred thousand years, or even less, might easily include both the slow 
coming on of the Glacial period and its rapid close." In an article in 
the Independent (New York) of November 10, 1892, Dr. Wright describes 
his discovery, in the Summer of 1892, of an ancient channel through 
which the waters of Lake Huron and its tributaries flowed via Lake 
Nipissing, Mattawan river and the Ottowa river into the St. Lawrence. 
This channel was formed after the Glacial era, and before the continent 
had subsided sufficiently to send the waters of the Great Lakes south- 
erly to form the present Niagara river. The most moderate estimate 
allows 7, OCX) to 7,500 years for the wearing back of the Niagara gorge 
to the Falls as they now are. Dr. Wright thinks the old channel via 
Lake Nipissing could have been formed in 2,000 or 2,500 years, and 
hence still beUeves that 10,000 years is enousrh to allow for the lapse of 
time since tlie disappearance of the continental ice sheet. 



recorded momcBt of time has its separate history."! The 
current transformations are proceeding with a deliberation 
befitting their magnitude. Geologists may differ as to 
whether it was seven thousand or seventy thousand years since 
the last Glacier disappeared, and as to whether the history 
of the earth dates back twenty-two million or one hundred 
and fifteen million years. The earth's crust may be rising or 
falling but a few inches in a year. The Passaic Falls may be 
wearing away at the rate of only two or three inches in a 
century. But what are centuries in the history of a 
universe, or in the eyes of Him in whose sight a thousand 
years "are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch 
in the night"? As Haeckel well says: "From a strictly 
philosophical point of view, it makes no difference whether 
we hypothetically assume for these processes ten millions 
or ten thousand billions of years. Before us and behind us 
lies Eternity.'''"^ As we stand and gaze upon that cataract 
and the volcanic rocks all about, seamed, and rent, and 
twisted, all telling of the wonderful power of the Creator, 
we feel what Bryant has so aptly expressed : 

My heart is awed within me when I think 
Of the great miracle that still goes on, 
In silence, round me — the perpetual work 
Of thy creation, finished, yet renewed 

Oh, there is not lost 
One of earth's charms :, upon her bosom yet, 
After the flight of untold centuries, 
The freshness of her far beginning lies 
And yet shall lie. 

Artesian Well at the Passaic Rolling Mill, 

The following is a tabular account of the specimens found in this 
well, with the deptlrs at which they were taken, in feet. The boring 
began in September, 1879, and v/as continued until November, 1880: 


65 feet. ...Red sandstone, fine 

iio feet Red sandstone, coarse 

182 feet Red sandstone, and a little shale 

400 feet Red sandstone, shaly 

404 feet Shale 

430 feet Red sandstone, fine grained 

540 feet Sandy shale, soft 

540 feet Soft shale 

563 feet Soft shale 

565 feet Soft shale 

585 feet Soft shale 

600 feet Hard sandstone 

605 feet Soft shale 

609 feet Soft shale 

613 feet Soft shale 

1,170 feet Selenite, 2 x i x i-i6th in. 

1 ,180 feet Fine quicksand , reddish 

1,180 feet Fine quicksand, reddish 

i,i8ofeet Pyrites 

1,370 feet Sandy rock, under quicksand 

1 ,400 feet Dark red sandstone 

1 ,400 feet Light red sandstone 

1,415 feet.... Dark red sandstone 

1,415 feet Light red sandstone 

1,415 feet Fragments of red sandstone 

1,540 feet Red sandstone, and a pebble of kaolin 

1 ,700 feet Light red sandstone 

1 ,830 feet Light red sandstone 

1,830 feet Light red sandstone 

1 ,850 feet Light red stone 

2 ,000 feet Red shale 

z,020 feet. . . .Light red sandstone 

2,050 feet 

2,100 feet Shaly sandstone 

At this depth the attempt to bore through the red sandstone was 
abandoned, the water being altogether unfit for ordinary use, and the 
character and amount of the saline impurities giving little hope of suc- 
cess by going deeper. The fact that the rock salt of England, and of 
some of the other salt mines in Europe, is found in rocks of the same 
age as this, raises the question whether it may not also be found here. 
About the end of December, 1880, the tubing was drawn out of the well 
and the bore was stopped by a seed-bag below 900 feet. The water 
then rose to within seventeen feet of the top. By putting dovim a pump> 
forty feet into the well it has been made to yield 100 gallons of water a 
minute for five hours, without lowering the surface materially. This 
water has been analyzed, and found to be slightly alkaline, agreeable to 
the taste, and to contain 13.5+ grains of mineral matter to the gallon, 
and this mostly carbonates of lime and magnesia. The analysis showed 
in a gallon (58,318 grains) : 

2.15 grains of magnesia. 
3.71 grains of lime. 

1.15 grains of soda, with very little potash. 
1.08 grains of chlorine. 
•55 grains of sulphuric acid. 
Not weighed , carbonic acid. 
The late Prof. Cook, State Geologist, assumed that these constituents 
are combined and exist in the water as : 

4.51 grains of carbonate of magnesia, 
95 grains of carbonate of lime, 
78 grains of common salt, 
37 grains of carbonate of soda, 
93 grains of sulphate of lime. 

" These constituents," said Prof. Cook, " are not such as to make the 
water unwholesome for drinking or for household uses, and they will 
probably deposit in boilers as a sandy or muddy sediment, and the 
water can be used for supplying steam-boilers without danger or incon- 
venience." The well was begun vrith an eight-inch bore, and was cased 
with a six-inch tube down to 1120 feet, and the bore from that down to 
2100 feet was four and one-half inches. 1 

List of Minerals Found in and about Paterson. 

Amethyst. (Quartz.) Silica — Little Falls. 

Analcite. Hydrous silicate of sodium and aluminum. — Paterson, 

Azurite. Hydrous carbonate of copper. — Passaic Falls. 

Datolite. Boro-silicate of calcium. — Paterson. 

Hematite. Sesquioxide of iron. — Little Falls. 

Pectolite. Pseudomorphs of quartz after this mineral occur in the 

quarries at Paterson. 
Prehnite. Silicate of aluminum and calcium. — Paterson, Little Falls 

and Browertown. 
Quartz. Silica.— Little Falls (amethyst). 

Quartz. Pseudomorphs of quartz after pectolite and other zeoUtes 
are reported by Joseph H. Hunt, M. D., as occurring in the 
quarries at Paterson. 
Stilbite. Hydrous silicate of aluminum and calcium. — Little Falls 

and Paterson. 2 
Prof. R. S. Tarr, of the Geological Department of Cornell University, 
a recognized authority on mineralogy, at the request of the author of 
this History for a list of the minerals found in and about Paterson, has 
kindly written as follows : 

1 So wrote that eminent physicist. Prof. Joseph Henry, Director of 
the Smithsonian Institution, a month before his death, in 1878. 

2 " History of Creation," New York, 1876, Vol. I., 129. 

1 Annual Report of State Geologist, 1880, pp. 163-5. 

2 The foregoing list is from the Geological Survey, New Jersey. Fi- 
nal Report of the State Geologist, 1889, Vol. II., Part I., pp. 3-24 b. 



" The follotving^ is, so far as I know, a complete list, but as I am 
acquainted with the re^on only in a general way, it may not be entirely 
correct. The list embraces all that are reported from there, but local 
collectors, who know every minute locality and are always on the watch, 
might be able to add some. Those marked * have been found in good 
cabinet specimens, possibly also the others." 



*Quartz pseudo- 
morphs, after pec- 
toUte, stilbite, dato- 
lite and apophyllite. 


•Amethyst *Chabazite Hornblende 

♦Analcite Chlorite *Laumontite 

'Apophyllite »Dalolite Limonite 

Augite Epidote Magnetite 

*Azurite Feldspar 'Malachite 

Bio'.ite Hematite 'Natrolite 

""Calcite 'Heulandite *Pectolite 

Doubtless many of the list given by Prof. Tarr have been found no 
nearer Paterson than the trap rock at Bergen Hill. Possibly all of them 
may reward the diligent collector in the quarry and other rock excava- 
tions in and about Paterson. 

The author has a distinct recollection of once finding, many years 
ago, Chalcopyrile (sulphide of copper and iron) under an overhanging 
mass of trap in the Valley of the Rocks. 

Asbestus was found some years ago in digging a well on Totowa. 

Lignite (mineral coal — carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) has been found 
on High Mountain, and probably elsewhere, in small, thin veins half an 
inch thick. 

Quartz (milky crystals) has been found in many of the excavations in 
the trap rock in and about Paterson. 

Some Surveyors' Bench-Marks in and near 
Paterson. 1 

Cemterville - Elevation, 179.50 ft. 

This bench-mark is on a small cut in a projecting stone, 4.6 feet above 
the ground, at the west end of the north abutment of the road bridge 
over the Morris Canal, i mile southwest of Centerville. The point is in- 
dicated by an arrow-head. 
H.-^wTHORNE Elevation, 42.83 ft. 

A cross cut on the outside corner of the east end of the coping of the 
north abutment of the New York, Lake Erie and Western railroad bridge 
over the Passaic river. 
Little Falls Elevation, 194.90 ft. 

A cross cut on the northeast corner of the stone sill of the main front 
door of the Reformed Church. 
Little Falls Elevation, 174.67 ft. 

A cross cut on the stone coping at the end of the iron railing on the 
west side of the Passaic river, Morris Canal aqueduct. 
Mountain View Elevation, 175.74 £'• 

A cross cut on the north corner of the west end of the coping of the 
circular wall at the north end of the west abutment of the aqueduct by 
which the Morris Canal crosses the Pompton river. 
Paterson Elevation, 108.51 ft. 

A cross cut on the south end of the sill of the Main street entrance of 
St. Boniface Church, at the southeast corner of Main and Slater streets. 
Paterson Elevation, 100.37 ft. 

This bench-mark is a cross cut on the corner-stone at the northeast 
corner of the Passaic county court-house. 
Paterson Elevation, 89.92 ft. 

A cross cut on the east end of the sill of the main front doorof the 
Market street IM. E, Church. 
Paterson Elevation, 95.94 ft. 

A cross cut on the north end of the sill of the main entrance of the 
First Presbyterian Church. 
Paterson Elevation, 175.96 ft. 

A cross cut on a projection in the lowest corner-stone at the southeast 
end of the west abutment of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 
railroad bridge over the Morris Canal, between Little Falls and Paterson. 
Richfield Elevation, 182.56 ft. 

A cross cut on the north end of the east -abutment of the bridge over 
the Morris Canal. The point is at the end of the limber on which the 
bridge rests. 

1 From Geological Survey, New Jersey. 
Geologist, Vol. I. (1888), pp. 262-3. 

Final Report of the State 

Other Elevations in and near Paterson. l 

Athenia. Rail at Erie station 134.0 

Bearfort Mountain, highest point in county 1490. 

Bloomingdale. Pequannock river at 284. 

Charlotteburgh. North rail at station 718.5 

Clifton. Rail at Erie station 66.3 

Cooper. Extreme west end of stone dam, outlet of lake 624.0 

Echo Lake. Top of boulder, 4 feet from comer fence of Brown's 

Hotel ggj.g 

Great Notch, bench on rock, west end of Notch 315.8 

Great Notch, centre of road, back of the forks 303.7 

Greenwood lake 618. 

High Mountain , north of Paterson 879. 

Hohokus. Erie track at station 197.S 

Little Falls. Passaic river, above dam 158. 

Little Falls. Passaic river, below Falls 118. 

Macopin lake 8go. 

Morris Canal — Plane 1 1 , near Bloomfield 176. 5 

" " — Lock 13, near Pompton 184.5 

(The " seventeen-mile level " js between these two points.) 

Newfoundland. South rail at railroad crossing east of station 774.7 

Passaic. Rail at main railroad station, N. Y. L. E. & W. R. R 57.4 

Passaic and Essex county line, post on Fairfield road near Singack. 190.3 

Paterson. Erie track at Market street 76.8 

'Paterson — Morris Canal 174.0 

* " — Garret Mountain — top of sandstone in quarry 406.2 

* " — " " — top of mountain above quarry 506.4 

' " — " " — second crest 523.5 

' " — Garret Rock 534.* 

Pompton. SiU of Reformed Church 208.0 

Pompton lake 202. 

Peckman river, at Stanley's mill pond igi.6 

Singac. Rail at crossing near station 169.6 

Smith's Mills. South rail at crossing 440.2 

'Wesel Mountain (U. S. Coast Survey Station, at Great Notch) 583. 

Analyses of Trap Rock.2 

High M't'n. 

Silica 51.8 

Protoxide of iron 12.9 

Alumina 15.7 

Magnesia 5.5 

Lime 9.8 

Soda 1.4 

Potash 0.3 

Water i 2.8 

Specific gravity 2.94 2.94 2.94 

The High Mountain rock analyzed is described as " a peculiar speci- 
men from the summit of the mountain, having the appearance of a gar- 
netifeious syenite." 

The Bergen Hill specimen was " a grey rock, with a bluish tinge 
of color, and forms the greater portion of the hill. The rock is hard, 
durable, of a very uniform grain, and is readily broken into blocks. The 
blocks of the Russ pavement are of this rock. It is composed of horn- 
blende and feldspar." 

The Rocky Hill specimen analyzed was " very hard and tough; dark 
yellowish grey in color ; crystalline in structure ; weathers to a light 
grey color." 

It will be observed that these specimens vary but little in composi- 
tion, although the High Mountain trap is extrusive, while the Bergen Hill 

1 From Geology of New Jersey, 1868, pp. 831 et seqq. , and Geological 
Survey, New Jersey, Final Report of the State Geologist (1888), Vol. I., 
p. 290. Barometric measurements are indicated by a *. These are taken 
from the former work. Mr. John T. Hilton, when City Surveyor of 
Paterson, ran some levels which indicated that the barometric height of 
Garret Rock, given here as 534 feet, was somewhere about 200 feet in 
excess of the actual height. The heights as given are compared with 
mean tide. 

3 From Geology of New Jersey, 1868, pp. 215-17. 

Bergen tunnel 

Rocky Hill 







10. 1 














and the Rocky Hill traps are intrusive. The average of a number oi 
analyses would show more accurately the differences between the rocks. 
But, as stated before, the greatest difference is in the structure of the two 
classes of trap. 

Native iron exists in trap rock, but only to a fraction of one per cent., 
so far as the specimens have been examined, and the particles are smaller 
than a pin's head. — See State Geologist's Reports for 1874, pp. 56-7 ; 
1883, pp. 162-3. The attraction has been so strong on the west side of 
"Garret Mountain, near the Notch, as to induce a considerable waste of 
time and labor in sinking " iron mines." 


The Aborigines. 

The doomed Indian leaves behind no trace, 
To save his own or serve another race ; 
With his frail breath his power has passed away, 
His deeds, his thoughts, are buried with his clay. 
His heraldry is but a broken bow. 
His history but a tale of wrong and woe. 
His very name must be a blank. 


From the time that men began to think, they have been 
wont to speculate on the unsolved problems: Whence come 
we? What are we? Whither do we tend? The olden 
Rabbis spent centuries in overlaying the Pentateuch with 
an amazing mass of mysticism, as where they said in the 

"And YHVH Elohim formed Adam, i. i?.,Man, there- 
fore is written: 'YHVH Elohim, created Adam,' with the 
full Name, like we have stated, that he is perfect and com- 
prises all. We have learned: On the sixth day Man was 
created at the time when the Kiseh, i. e., Throne, was per- 
fected, and is called Kiseh Throne; it is written: 'The 
Throne had six steps ' (I Kings, x, 19'), and therefore Man 
was created on the sixth (day) because he is worthy to sit 
on this Throne. And we have learned: When Man was 
created everything was established, everything which is 
Above [Ideal] and Below [Concrete], and all is comprised in 

On the other hand, such modern materialists as Haeckel 
will not tolerate the idea of a Creator, but insist that Man, 
in common with all animate beings, has developed from a 
simple cell, or bit of protoplasm. 

Whence came the cell ? Whence the protoplasm ? 

As widely different as these two views of the origin of 
Man, are the opinions of writers as to the origin of the cop- 

1 The Zohar, III., 48 a, Brody edition ; quoted in " Qabbalah. The 
Philosophical Writings of Solomon Ben Yehudah Ibn Gebirol or Avice- 
bron And their connection with the Hebrew Qabbalah and Sepher ha- 
Zohar," etc., by Isaac Myer, LL. B., Philadelphia, 1888, p. 424. The 
Sepher ha-Zohar, Book of Illumination, or Splendor, or ancient Qabba- 
lah, is a mystical, running commentary on the Pentateuch or Thorah, 
based on the Sod, or Secret Doctrine, which perhaps antedates the Chris- 
tian era. Many of the Rabbis believed the Hebrew text of the Penta- 
teuch had a secret, hidden meaning, for the Illuminati or Enlightened , 
and another meaning for the ordinary reader. 

per-colored natives of America. From a time soon after 
the discovery of this continent it was a favorite conjecture 
of students and travelers that in the new world the Lost 
Ten Tribes of Israel had found a refuge. 1 Innumerable 
volumes have been written in support of this view. Some 
travelers, from an imaginary resemblance of certain Indian 
words to those in other languages, have leaped to the con- 
clusion that they were allied to or descended from the 
Romans, the Greeks, the Chinese, the Welsh, or other 
nations, according to the fancy or whim of the hearer. But 
the old method of making the facts fit a theory has given 
way to the modern spirit of scientific research, which aims 
to be sure of its facts before it attempts deductions. Schol- 
ars are generally agreed that there are no data yet come to 
light which enable us to say when, whence or how the 
American continent was first peopled. Some scientists 
have inclined to the belief that the natives were autochthon- 
ous. That is, admitting the correctness of the evolution 
theory, the several races of men in different parts of the 
world were evolved independently from a common type of 
ancestor — the "missing link." The civilization of Peru 
and that of Mexico arose and developed independently of 
each other, and were widely different in character — in relig- 
ion, government, customs and language. That of Peru 
seems to have come from the South, possibly from islands 
now sunk in the Pacific; that of Mexico from the North. 
Were the Mound Builders an earlier and different race from 
the American Indians, or were they the Cherokees, who 
built mounds in Georgia and other Southern States within 
the last three centuries ? The study of anthropology and eth- 
nology is of the profoundest importance to us, who are all 
interested in leai'ning the origin, whence we may infer the 
destiny, of the human race. Anthropology and its attend- 
ant handmaidens. Ethnology, Archeology, Linguistics, 
Mythology, are every day bringing us nearer the solution of 
the ancient problem. 

One of the most important contributions to the history of 
man in America was the discovery in the Trenton gravel, 
in 1875, ^y -Dr. Charles C. Abbott, of Trenton, of certain 
rude stone implements inferior in make to those of the 
Indians. He and other explorers have since discovered 
many such specimens in situ at Trenton, several feet below 
the surface. These implements were found in such posi- 
tions as showed that the people who dropped them there 
must have lived near the close of the last Glacial epoch, if 
not before; that is, when the climate of this part of Amer- 
ica resembled the Arctic regions of to-day. In the same 
drift, as already mentioned, the tusk of a mastodon has 
been found. Bones of the Greenland reindeer, the walrus, 
the caribou, the moose and the musk-ox have come to light 
in the same region, together with some human remains. 
All these facts go to show that New Jersey was inhabited 
at this period, and by a race much lower in civilization than 
the Indians of the time of Columbus. The inferences are 

1 That eminent philanthropist, patriot and student, Elias Boudinot, 
LL.D., of Burlington, wrote such a work: " A Star in the West; or, a 
Humble Attempt to Discover the long lost Ten Tribes of Israel, prepar- 
atory to their return to their beloved city, Jerusalem." Trenton, N. J., 




strong that the Eskimo accompanied the advance of the 
great ice sheet, and probably retreated with it northward. 1 
Palaeolithic man appears to have inhabited Europe, as far 
south as Aquitaine, in France, during the Glacial period, and 
the Palaeolithic implements picked up in the Trenton gravel 
very closely resemble those found in France. This is regarded 
by many as substantiating Haeckel's view2 that America was 
first peopled from Asia via Bering Strait, which has been 
ascertained to be a feasible route. 3 But it is a curious and 
suggestive fact that so far not an arrow head, nor grooved 
ax, nor stemmed scraper has been found in the Trenton 
gravel, all the implements being of the very simplest make, 4 
showing that the primitive dwellers on the Delaware had not 
even reached that stage of civilization when the bow and 
arrow were known to them, 5 whence F. W. Putnam infers 
that these men belonged to a race distinct in type from the 
Eskimos,^ and earlier than they. It is evident that here 
we are getting back into a remote antiquity. "Whoever were 
the fashioners of these rude stone implements, it is certain 

1 Report on the Palasolithic Implements fiom the Glacial Drift near 
Trenton, by Dr. C. C. Abbott, Ninth Annual report of Peabody Museum 
of American Archseology and Ethnology, Cambridge, Mass., 1876, p. 35 ; 
The Stone Age in New Jersey, by Dr. C. C. Abbott, Washington, 1877 
(pp. 246-380, -with 223 figures of stone implements, from Smithsonian 
Report, 1877) ; Second Report on the Paleolithic Implements from the 
Glacial Drift, in the Valley of the Delaware River, near Trenton, N. J., 
by Charles C. Abbott, M. D., Salem, 1878 (pp. 225-257 from Eleventh 
Annual Report of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, Cambridge, 1878) ; American Naturalist, Salem, Mass., 1873, 
Vol. VI., p. 147, and 1873, Vol. VII., pp. 204-09; Primitive Industry : or 
Illustrations of the Handiwork, in Stone, Bone and Clay, of the Na- 
tive Races of The Northern Atlantic Seaboard of America, by Charles 
C. Abbott, M. D., Salem, Mass., 1881. In this handsome octavo volume 
of 560 pages Dr. Abbott gives fuller details of his discoveries of the relics 
of palaeolithic man in New Jersey. See also " The Argillite Implements 
Found in the Gravels of Delaware River," by H. W. Haynes, in Pro- 
ceedings Boston Society of Natural History, Januaiy, i88i, and other 
papers in the same Proceedings, and in the American Antiquarian, Vol. 
VI., p. 137, and Vol. X., p. 125; in Science, Vol. IV., pp. 469, 522, by 
Haynes, Prof. J. D. Whitney, Lucien Carr, Prof. F. W. Putnam, Prof. H. 
Carvill Lewis and others. " There is much to be said in favor of the 
theory that the Eskimos of the north are the lineal descendants of the 
pre-glacial men whose implements are found in New Jersey, Ohio and 
Minnesota."" — U'ri^/it ," The Ice Age in North America," p. 388. See 
also Abbott, in Science, 1883, Vol. I., 359, and Proceedingsof the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol. XXXVII. 

2 Haeckel's view is that the human race was first developed on a now 
sunken continent in the Indian Ocean, which he calls "Lemuria;" 
thence issued in successive migration the first few races, as they were 
developed, spreading over the earth. Among these were the Mongols, 
occupying all of Asia, e.xcept India, and also e.xtending into Northern 
Europe (the Finns, whence, according to other writers, the Finnians- or 
Fenians, the primitive inhabitants of Ireland); from the Mongols issued 
the Hyperboreans of Northwestern Asia and the Eskimos of the Arctic 
regions of North America (No. 8 in the scale), and from the Eskimos 
there issued (No. 9) the Americans. — History of Creation^ New York, 
1876, Vol. II., frontispiece. 

3 First Annual Report U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, 1877, pp. 95-8. 

* Essays of an Americanist, by Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, Philadelphia, 
1890; p. 53. 

6 "The Bow and Arrow Unknown to PateoUthic Man," by H. W. 
Haynes, in Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. XXIII. 

6 Wright's " The Ice Age in North America," 569. It has been con- 
jectured from the inferior maxillary bones found in caves in France 
that Palaeolithic man was speechless, but the latest investigators do not 
beUeve this. 

that they must have fished and hunted south of the Glacier, 
border while the whole country north of them was covered 
with an ice sheet. How long ago was that ? Not less than 
ten thousand years. Perhaps a thousand centuries. 1 Con- 
trary to the rule of human progress there is an abrupt, 
transition in the Trenton gravel, from the rude argillite 
implements of the paleolithic man to the skillfully-chipped 
flint arrow-heads of the neolithic period. Were the older 
people exterminated by the mighty glacial floods ? Or, 
were they driven away by the later comers ? Perhaps they 
had retreated with the Glacier centuries before their suc- 
cessors arrived on the scene. Certain it is, that this primi- 
tive people who hunted and fished in New Jersey during 
and before the existence of "Lake Passaic," and who often 
gazed with simple awe upon the mighty cataract which we 
call the Passaic Falls,'^ had vanished from this neighbor- 
hood ages before the first white man set foot on our shores. 
It may be that he has left unsuspected traces behind him,, 
and that the industrious explorer will find in the valley 
of the Passaic relics of this forgotten race, such as have re- 
warded the search in the Delaware drift. 

The same scientific method which has been applied of 
late years to the gathering of the facts concerning the geo- 
logical history of the earth, and the manners and customs of 
primitive man, has been more recently devoted to the study 
of the American races. One result has been to dismiss as 
unworthy of consideration all the fanciful hypotheses which. 
traced affiliations between the peoples of the eastern and 
western continents. Most modern scientists agree with the 
Marquis de Nadaillac : " The present peoples of America, 
like those of Europe, are the issue of the intermixture of 
several races. The crossings are true modifications of fund- 
amental types. The men of the primitive races have re- 
sisted these modifications ; they have not yet completely dis- 
appeared, and in spite of variations from one extreme to the 
other, an attentive study frequently enables us to recognize a 

1 In the Smithsonian Report for 1868, p. 33, Prof. Henry quoted 
with sympathetic approval the sentiments of the Bishop of London, 
uttered in a lecture at Edinburgh : " The man of science should go on 
honestly, patiently, diffidently, observing and storing up his observa- 
tions, and carrying hisreasoningsunflinchingly to their legitimate conclu- 
sions, convinced that it would be treason to the majesty at once of 
science and of religion, if he sought to help either by swerving ever so 
little from the straight line of truth." Many Biblical scholars believe 
that the chronology of Archbishop Usher, which has been printed in 
the margins of the Bible for the last two centuries (taken from his 
"Annals of the World," 1658), and which foots up 4,004 years as the 
precise age of the world to the time of Christ, is based on an erroneous 
interpretation of the patriarchal genealogies, which related to the found- 
ing of tribes or nations, instead of to the lives of individuals. The subject 
has been fully treated in this light by the Duke of Argyll, in " Primeval 
Man," pp. 91, ei sej.\ by Prof William Henry Green, of Princeton 
Theological Seminary, in numerous articles in periodicals, and by 
other competent authorities. See Lange's Commentary on Genesis, 
New York, 1869, p. 346 ; " The Prophets of Israel," etc., by W. Robert- 
son Smith, New York, 1882, pp. 147-9, 402- See also Geikie's " Hours 
with the Bible," New York, 1885, Vol. I., pp. 83-7. 

2 " Informer days, long before the sublime and stupendous Falls of 
Niagara became a place of fashionable resort, the Red Men would draw 
near to this awful cataract with timid steps, invoking most solemnly the 
Mi.ghty Spirit which they imagined must certainly reside there." — The 
Outlines of Primithie Superstitions, elc, by Rushton M. Dorman, Phil- 
adelphia, 1881, p. 300. 



predominant type."l "Doubtless, as with tlie ancient races 
-of Europe, those of America were made up of diverse ele- 
ments, of different varieties. A primeval dolichocephalic 
race appears in the first instance to have invaded the vast 
regions included between the two oceans. The men of this 
race were contemporary with the huge pachydermal and 
edentate animals ; and, as did their contemporaries in 
Europe, they passed through the various phases of the 
■ Stone Age. Other races arrived in successive migrations, 
the first of which doubtless dated from very remote ages, 
and brought about, amongst the ancient inhabitants of 
America, modifications, analogous to those produced in 
Europe by similar migrations. "2 

As that most accomplished investigator, Dr. Daniel G. 
■Brinton, says: "Anyone at all intimately conversant with 
the progress of American archseology in the last twenty 
years must see how rapidly has grown the conviction that 
American culture was homebred, to the manor born : that it 
was wholly indigenous and had borrowed nothing — nothing, 
from either Europe, Asia or Africa. The peculiarities of 
native American culture are typical, and extend throughout 
the continent. "3 

In his excellent work on the Primitive Superstitions of the 
American Aborigines, Dorman expresses the same opinion : 
■"American agriculture was indigenous. This is proved by 
the fact that grains of the Old World were absent, and its 
agriculture was founded on the maize, an American plant. 
Their agriculture and their architecture show an indigenous 
origin of their civilization, as does also their mythology. 
* * * Fear is the prevailing religious sentiment among 
all the tribes of America. Religion did not have much 
moral influence toward ennobling hearts or humanizing 
manners, but merely excited emotions of fear and increased 
fanaticism. Prayers were offered for material things, but 
touched not morals. Among the savage tribes we find very 
little evidence, if any, of a moral sentiment. "4 

Speaking of the Mexican and Central American ruins, 
Baldwin says: "The more we study them, the more we 
find it necessary to believe that the civilization they repre- 
sent was originated in America, and probably in the region 
where they are found. It did not come from the Old 
World. * * * 'Yhe culture and the work were wholly 
original, wholly American. "5 

Much has been written of supposed physiological re- 
semblances between the Americans and other races, but on 

1 Pre-Historic America, London, 1885, p. 480. 

2 lb., 516. In a paper " On the Origin of the Indian Population of 
America," by B. H. Coates, M. D., read before the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania, April 28, 1834, the learned author anticipated, although with 
far less knowledge of the subject than we possess to-day, the conclusion 
of scholars half a century later than his time : " The inference which 
most commands our confidence, is, 'that America, like other sections of 
the world, was peopled from several sources ; and that this was effected 
by numerous colonies, and in an antiquity so remote as to precede the 
records of history, the invention of most domestic mechanic arts, and 
the formation of widely diffused languages. " — See Memoirs Hist. Soc. 
Penn. , Vol. HI. , Part II. , p. 38. 

8 Essays of an Americanist, 60. 

■4 Dorman, as cited, pp. 387, 390. 

•6 Ancient America, by John D. Baldwin, New York, 1872, pp. 184-5. 

this subject Dr. Brinton may be a.gain quoted : " The anato- 
my and physiology of the various American tribes present, in- 
deed, great diversity, and yet, beneath it all is a really re- 
markable fixedness of type. * * * These variations are 
not greater than can be adduced in various members of the 
white or black race. In spite of them all, there is a won- 
derful family likeness among the tribes of American origin. 
No observer well acquainted with the type would err in 
taking it for another. * * * We reach therefore the 
momentous conclusion that the American race throughout 
the whole continent, and from its earliest appearance in 
time, is and has been one, as distinct in type as any other 
race, and from its isolation probably the purest of all in its 
racial traits."! 

Another writer, in concluding an able paper on the Astro- 
nomy of the Red Man, says : "Inquiry into the astronom- 
ical knowledge of the Red Men, their arithmetic, division of 
time, names of months and days, shows that their whole 
system was most peculiar; and if not absolutely original, 
must antedate all historic times, since it has no parallel on 
record. * * * Assuredly, the astronomical knowledge of 
the aboriginal Americans was of domestic origin ; and any of 
the few seeming points of seeming contact with the calen- 
dars of the old world, if not accidental must have taken 
place at an exceedingly remote period of time. In fact, 
whatever may have come from the old world was engrafted 
upon a system itself still older than the exotic shoots. "2 

Says that eminent scholar. Prof. Reville : "The social 
and religious development of Central America was in the 
strictest sense native and original, and all attempts to bring 
it into connection with a supposed earlier intercourse with 
Asia or Europe have failed. "3 

The most civilized nations of to-day point to their high 
development in language and literature as the most strik- 
ing evidence of their progress in culture. Compilers of 
grammars always take the verb "love" as the best example 
of a regular conjugation, from which it has been inferred 
by some scholars that the word has acquired the regular 
form because it represents a great elevation in the human 
soul, and a perfect attainment in expressing the emotions. 
But the language of the Klamath or Modoc Indians of 
Oregon conjugates the verb in three persons and numbers 
with all the finest shades of meaning known to the Greek 
grammar, 4 and Dr. Brinton has shown from a comparison 
of several American with European languages that in them 
all, the words used to express the conception of love are 
based upon the same fundamental notions. "They thus 
reveal the parallel paths which the human mind everywhere 
pursued in giving articulate expression to the passions and 
emotions of the soul. In this sense there is a oneness in all 

1 Essays of an Americanist, pp. 39-40. 

2 " Some account of the Astronomy of the Red Man of the New 
World," etc., by William BoUaert, in Memoirs read before the Anthro- 
pological Society of London, 1863-4, London, 1865, Vol. I., p. 278. 

3 Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as illustrated by the 
Native Religions of Me.tico and Peru (Hibbert Lectures, 1884), by 
Albert Reville, D. D., of the College of France ; London, 1884, p. 11. 

* Grammar and Dictionary of the Klamath Language, by Albert S. 
Gatschet, U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, 1892. 



languages, wliicli speaks conclusively for the oneness in the 
sentient and intellectual attributes of the species."! 

The quotations cited are the conclusions reached by ripe 
scholars after careful study, in the scientific spirit and 
method, of the American races — their physical characteris- 
tics, their languages, legends, myths, astronomy, manners 
and customs. Examined in tliis way, the legend of Ta-oun- 
ya-wa-tha, so musically related by Longfellow, loses some 
of its picturesqueness, perhaps, but the character of that 
hero stands out boldly as one of the noblest statesmen the 
world ever saw. Where before his time did man ever 
dream of a confederation which should embrace all the 
nations of the earth in one mighty republic, and thus do 
away with war forevermore ? This was the dream of Hia- 
watha, and by his nobility of character, his self-sacrificing 
devotion, his energy and shrewdness, he established the 
Iroquois Confederation of Five Nations, which has main- 
tained its existence for more than four centuries, and in the 
Council of which the name of Hiawatha is still preserved as 
one of the original members. Here in the wilds of America, 
forty years before Columbus saw the new continent, was 
thus founded one of the first and purest republics on the 
face of the earth.3 No wonder that the story of his life 
appeals to our tenderest emotions as we read the " Song of 
Hiawatha : " 

How he prayed and how he fasted, 
How he lived, and toiled, and suffered, 
That the tribes of men might prosper, 
That he might advance his people. 

Thus, too, the innumerable legends of Michabo or Mani- 
bozho resolve themselves into a Light-myth: "Michabo, 
giver of life and light, creator and preserver, is no apothe- 
osis of a prudent chieftain, still less the fabrication of an 
idle fancy or a designing priestcraft, but in origin, deeds, 
and name the not unworthy personification of the purest 
conceptions they possessed concerning the Father of All. 
To Him at early dawn the Indian stretched forth his hands 
in prayer ; and to the sky or the sun as his homes, he first 
pointed the pipe in his ceremonies, rites often misin- 
terpreted by travellers as indicative of sun worship." 3 

1 Essays of an Americanist, 431. 

2 " Systems of Consang'uinity and Affinity of the Human Family," by 
L. H. Morgan (Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge), p. 151 ; " The 
Iroquois Book of Rites," by Horatio Hale, Philadelphia, 1883, pp. 21 et 
seqq. The name Hiawatha is rendered by Hale " he who seeks the 
wampum belt; " by L. H. Morgan, " He who combs," and by Albert 
Cusick (a living Indian), " One who looks for his mind, which he has 
lost, but knows where to find it." This suggests the persistence of pur- 
pose which Mr. Hale ascribes to him. — The Iroquois Trail, by W. M. 
Beauchamp, S. T. D., Fayetteville, N. Y., 1892, p. 67. "Like similar Iro- 
quois names the final syllables are pronounced %aat-ha.\)Y the Indians, 
and by the Onondagas it is commonly called Hi-e-wat-ha." — lb., i^^/. 
Beauchamp does not think this "Lawgiver of the Stone Age" lived 
much before 1600. — Ib,,i-i^\ Joitrna.1 0/ Avierican Folk-Lore, IV., 295- 
307. Dr. Brinton and most Americanists preferably accept what Morgan 
and Hale say about the Iroquois. The most popular account of Hiawa- 
tha is that given by Henry R. Schoolcraft, in " Algic Researches," 1839, 
and in "The Myth of Hiawatha," etc., Philadelphia, 1856; it was from 
this account, confusing Hiawatha with the myth-god Michabo, that 
Longfellow drew his material for his beautiful poem. 

3 Myths of the New World, etc., by Daniel G. Brinton, M. D., New 
York, 1868, p. 169; American Hero-Myths, by Daniel G. Brinton, M. D. , 
Philadelphia, 1882, pp. 38, 41 ; "Iroquois Book of Rites," 36. 

Michabo was the Great Light, or the Great White One, 1 
born of a virgin mother.8 Was this so very different from 
the worship of the ancient Aryans, who prayed to the 
Sky-Father — Dyu patar — Dyaush-pitar — Jupiter?3 Moreo- 
ver, we are told that Michabo was one of four broth- 
ers — Wabun, Kabun, Kabibonokka and Shawans — the 
East, West, North and South, and the winds blowing 
from those cardinal points. Among the most diverse of the 
American races similar legends are preserved, evidently re- 
lating to the four points of the compass, and the unceasing^ 
warfare between the Sun and Moon, Light and Darliness, 
Good and Evil.* The vague and pathetic stories that are 
handed down from age to age, of the time when their people 
had a great prophet, a white man, with a long beard, who 
has promised to come again and restore that mythical 
golden age to which all races fondly look back, are only va- 
riations of the same Light-myth, possibly modified by some 
historic basis of truth, which may even have been derived from 
a vanished race. The tales of the miraculous conception of 
the Light, and even of an immaculate conception, which 
horrified the early European missionary priests, and the 
figure of the cross, so often found carved on the massive 
stone buildings of the Mayas, the Aztecs, and other Central 
American nations, and frequently depicted by the rude 
Indian of the north on his buffalo robe or on prominent 
rocks, are all very reasonably ascribed to the same wide- 
spread cult among the natives of this continent. 5 

1 In Algonkin, micJii, great ; wabos, hare. Whence, the Great Rabbit 
or Hare ; but the root wab yields the words wabi, wape, wotiipi, 
•waubish, oppai, dialectic forms for " white"; the same root yields other 
words for morning, east, dawn, light, etc. — Myths of the Neiu Worlds 

2 lb., 166. 

3 Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as illustrated by the 
Religions of India (Hibbert Lectures, 1878), by F. Max Muller, New York, 
1879, pp. 138, 2og. "We, too, feeling once more like children, kneeling in 
a small dark room, can hardly find a better name than : ' Our Father^ 
which art in Heaven.'" — /b., 209. History of the People of Israel, by 
Ernest Renan, Boston, 1888, p. 40. 

* Brinton and Dorman , passim ; Reville, 38. 

5 Brinton, as cited ; The Religious Sentiment, by D. G. Brinton, New 
York, 1876, pp. 62-72 ; Reville, as cited, 38, 65-9, 204. Dorman, however, 
insists that Manabozho is the deification of some former distinguished 
ancestor. — Primitive Sjtperstitioas, 82. This is improbable. Of late 
years there has arisen a school of writers who are imbued with a single 
idea, and would have us believe that all the symbolism in every religion, 
ancient and modern, in the Old World, and the New, in the tropics and 
in the coldest climates, has but one meaning, which is expressed in 
India by the Ung-yoni ; in Ireland by the famous round towers and the 
Irish cross ; in Egypt by the pyramids ; in Mexico by the pyramidal teo- 
callis and the calendar stone ; in Central America by the stone cross and 
the image of Centeotl (the Goddess of Agriculture, holding in her arms 
an infant, the male Centeotl, the maize) ; in North America by the 
snake dance and sundry totems; by the sacred " groves" of Palestine , 
Assyria, and Chaldea; by the " garter " which formed the occasion for 
the motto, Honi soit qtd mat y pense : by the brazen serpent in the Wild- 
erness, and therod of Aaron ; by theDruid circles at Stonehenge and else- 
where ; by the priest's stole and his chasuble ; by the campanili of Italy, 
and the spires of modern Christian churches — in short, by every object 
in nature and art to which a lively, not to say prurient, fancy can impart 
a questionable significance. See Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian 
SymboHsm, by Thomas Inman, M. D. , New York, 1884 ; Primitive Sym- 
boUsm, etc., by Hodder M. Westropp, London, 1885; Crux Ansata, etc., 
London (privately printed), i88g ; Cultus Arborum (Tree Worship), etc. , 



The similarity that exists between the races of the Old 
World and the New, in respect to the character of their 
stone implements, their pottery and architecture, their 
social customs and their religious myths, are explained hy 
the parallelism in the development of mankind. The in- 
habitants of neither hemisphere borrowed from the other. 
The civilization of America was developed on independent 
lines. So were the American languages. This proves that 
"the first races on this Continent must have separated from 
the primitive stock at a very early period. But the fact 
that the development was so similar in character proves 
likewise that the Americans had the same physiological and 
mental structure as their European relatives, and is addi- 
tional evidence of the truth of Paul's declaration, that 
"God hath made of one blood all nations of men for to 
dwell on all the face of the earth." As Roger Williams 
quaintly puts it, " More particular : " 

Boast not proud English, of thy bir'.h and blood 

Thy Brother Indian is by birth as Good. 

Ox one blood God miide Him, and Thee, and All. 

As wise, as faire, as strong', as personall.l 

When the whites came to America they found that one 
great family of Indian nations — the Algonkins^ — occupied 
the country from frozen Labrador to sunny Savannah, and 
from the shores swept by the Atlantic's surges to the snow- 
pi ivately printed, 1890; Serpent and Siva Worship and Mythology, by 
Hyde Clark and C. Staniljmd Wake, New York, 1877 ; Serpent Worship, 
etc. , by C. Staniland Wake, London, 1S88 ; The Rosicrucians, Their Riies 
and JNIysteries, etc., by Hargrave Jennings, London, 1879. Some of 
these writers combine great industrj' in the collection of facts with a 
mar\^elous creduUty and riotous imagination in the interpretation of 
them. There is no sense in seeking a far-fetched explanation for an 
object or a rite when a more obvious, simple meaning is at hand. In that 
amusing and interesting v.ork, " Sacred Mysteries among the Mayas and 
Quiches, 11,500 years ago, their relations to the sacred mysteries of 
Egypt, Greece, Chaldea and India ; Free Masonry in Times Anterior to 
the Temple of Solomon," by August Le Plongeon, Nev/ York, 1886, the 
writer gravely asks us to believe that the uraeus figured in Egj'ptiaa sculp- 
ture on the heads of the royal family, was so worn because when dis- 
tended in anger the asp took the shape of the isthmus of Yucatan, 
where lived the Mayas, v.'hom he assumes to have been ancient relatives 
of the Egj'ptians ! 

1 A Key into the Languages of America, etc. , by Roger Williams, 
London, 1643; reprinted. Providence (R. I.), 1827, p. 61. The writer 
concludes each chapter with some verse, having a pious application, 
under the head " jMore particular." 

2 " The term Algonkin may be a corruption of agomeeg^uin^ people of 
the other shore." — BrinioHy "Myths of the New World," p. 27, note. 
The Narragansett Indians spoke of England or Europe as Acawmenoa- 
kit^ "from the land on the other side." — Roger Willimiis^ as cited, p. 28. 
This would correspond with the Cree akaiiiik^ from the other side of the 
water. But may it not be derived from the Cree root kona (k being substi- 
tuted for g), French neige, snow ; and kiiviknw, French il est errant, sans 
residence, or homeless, referring to the wanderings of this people in the 
frozen regions of the far North ? The Algonkins collectively were called 
by the nations west, north and south by the name of IVapanachki^ 
Apenakiy Openagi^ Ahenaqtiis or ASe/takis^ " Eastlanders," a name still 
retained by a small tribe in Maine. The word comes from the Cree 
root 7uab^ white, whence luapan^ dawn or day, luapaiiok ^ at or from the 
east. The Delawares in the far West still retain a tradition of the an- 
cient confederate name, and speak of themselves as O-ptiA-narke. See 
Brinton's Lenape, pp. ig, 256; Lacombe's Dictionnaire de la Langue des 
Cris, sub voce; Heckewelder, p. xli; Lenape-English Dictionary, sub 

capped Rocky Mountains. The only exception to this un- 
disputed sway was the territory occupied by the Iroquois, 
or Five Nations, in Central and Northern New York, and 
southerly along the Susquehanna valley to Virginia. 
Among the innumerable independent nations of the Algon- 
kins was one which its members proudly called the Le7iape, or 
Lenni LeiMpe '^ ■ — "oLir men,"2 "Indian men, "3 "the 
Indians of our tribe or nation,"* "the original or pure 
Indian. "5 The Lenape occupied most of New Jersey — at 
least the southern part, which they called Sckeycchbfi (pro- 
nounced Shay-ak-bee), " long land v,-ater;" probably re- 
ferring to the waters enclosing the Southern peninsula of the 
State.'? It is improbable that the Indians had any general 
name for the whole territory now known as New Jersej', and 
it is quite likely that S cheyechbi merely designated the shore 
of the Delaware Bay. 

Whence came the Lenape ? When did they first occupy 
New Jersey? Questions more easily asked than answered. 
As already remarked, they were one of the many nations 
belonging to the great Algonkin stock. This is shown by 
the similarity in physical structure, in language, customs, 
religious cults and myths, their agriculture, pipes and im- 
plements. Many modern scientists incline to the belief 
that the language spoken by the Crees (inhabiting the 

1 Lenapi is pronounced Len-ah-pay , the accent on the second syllable, 
which has a nasal inflection. See " The Lenape and their Legends," by 
Daniel G. Brinton, M. D., Philadelphia, 1S85, p. 35; "On Algonkin 
Names for Man," by J. Hammond Trumbull (From the Transactions of 
the American Philological Association, 1871), p. g. 

2 Brinton, as just cited, p. 33. 

3 History of the Mission of the United Brethren among the Indians in 
North America, by George Henry Loskiel, translated from the German 
by Christian Ignatius La Trobe, London, i7g4, p. 2. 

4 Trumbull, as just cited. The phrase "our Indians" is used 
in the early Pennsylvania records in such connection as to suggest that 
it is a translation of the Indian Lenapi. It is first used in i6go ; again 
in i6g4 and in 1712. — Penn. Col. Records., /. , 334, 436 ; //. , 557. In 1693 a 
delegation of these same Indians declared: "although wee are a 
small number of Indians, yet wee are men & laiow fighting ; " the 
word " men " here appears to be a translation also. They were called 
" Delawares " as early as 1694, and again in 1709, 1712, 1715, by which 
time the name had evidently become established. — 7^.,/., 447; II.,^tg, 
510, 546, 557, 599, 603. In 1712 the Delawares were also called " Our 
Nation." — /^.,//., 559. In 1728, in one paper Gov. Patrick Gordon, of 
Pennsylvania, refers to them as " our Indians," and as " Our Lenappys 
or Delaware Indians." — Penn. Archives., /., 230. They still use the name 
Lenape. — Morgan^ s Systevis of Consa^igutnity^p, 289. 

5 A Lenape-English Dictionary, edited by Daniel G. Brinton and the 
Rev. Albert Seqaqkind Anthony, Philadelphia, 18S8, p. 63 ; A Synopsis 
of the Indian Tribes within the United States, etc. , by Albert Gallatin, 
in Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society, 
Cambridge, 1836, Vol. II., p. 44. 

6 An Account of tlie History, Manners, and Customs of The Indian 
Nations who once inhabited Pennsylvania and the neighbouring States, 
by the Rev. John Heckewelder, in Transactions of the Historical & Lit- 
erary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, etc. , Philadel- 
phia, 1B19, Vol. I., p. 32 ; reprinted as Vol. XII of Memoirs of the Histo- 
rical Society of Pennsylvania, v^itli introduction and notes by the Rev. 
William C. Reichel, Philadelphia, 1876, p. ,51. The references hereafter 
to Heckewelder will be to the latter edition. This devoted JMoravian 
Missionary spent most of his life, from 1771 to 1810, as an evangelist 
among the Indians, especially among the Delawares and Monseys. 

r The Lenape and their Legends, 40. 



southern shores of Hudson's Bay) has probably preserved 
most fully the characteristics of the parent language in 
use among the common ancestors of all the Algonkin 
nations. 1 The migration legends of the Lenape apparently 
indicate a northern origin of their nation, although it has 
been commonly interpreted otherwise. Their people, they 
say, resided many hundred years ago in the far West. 
Resolving to migrate eastward, they came, after many 
years, to the Namaesi Sipu,^ where they fell in with the 
Meng-we,^ who had likewise emigrated from a distant 
country, and had struck this river higher up. The region 
east of the river was inhabited by a warlike people, who 
had many large fortified towns. These people called 
themselves Talligeu or TalligewiA They refused to per- 
mit the Lenape to settle among them, but allowed them to 
pass through their country to the East. However, when 
-they saw the many thousands of the Lenape they took alarm 
.and made war on them. After many years of contest, the 
Talligewi abandoned their country, and retreated to the 
South. The Lenape and the Mengwe occupied the country 
for hundreds of years, gradually spreading out, till in time 
the former migrated, in small bodies, further South, and 
finally settled in New Jersey and along the Delaware river 5 
And bay. Such is the legend as gathered by Heckewelder 
from the Lenape themselves. 6 

In 1822 the eccentric Rafinesque procured in Kentucky 
an original Lenape record, pictured on wood, giving some 
primitive legends of that people. This record is called the 
Walam Olum, or Red Score,_ from the fact that it was 
doubtless painted in red on wood or prepared bark, whence 
U has been sometimes called the Bark Record. The 
•original is not known to exist. What is preserved is a 
manuscript copy made in 1833 by Rafinesque. Of this, 
imperfect extracts have been frequently printed, but the 
first accurate reproduction — figures and text — ^was published 
in 1885 by Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, under the title : "The 
Lenape and their Legends ; with the Complete Text 
and Symbols of the Walam Olum." After describing the 
creation, the record goes on to say : 

1. Pehella wtenk lennapewi tulapewini psakwiken woli- 

wikgun wittank talli. 
After the rushing waters (had subsided) the 
Lenape of the turtle [clan] were close together, in 
hollow houses, living together there. 

2. Topan-akpinep, wineu-akpinep, kshakan-akpinep, 


1 lb., p. 10. 

2 Heckewelder interprets this to be the Mississippi, or fish river. 
The name might be applied with equal propriety to most rivers. The 
Creeks called the Mississippi Wcokiif/ie^ muddy-water, from zie-wv, 
water, and o/ihu/ke, muddy. — Brinton, " The National Legend of the 
Chahta-Muskokee Tribe," Morrisania, N. Y. , 1870, p. 10. 

3 The Iroquois and the Five or Six Nations were called Mengwes or 
Mingoes by the Dela wares. 

i The Tsalaki or Cherokees, the letters ^and ?- being frequently inter- 
changed in Indian tongues, and especially among different tribes of the 

6 Called by the Delawares or Lenape the Lenapewihittuck, " the 
rapid stream of the Lenape." 

5 Heckewelder, pp. 47-51. 

It freezes where they abode, it snows where they 
abode, it storms where they abode, it is cold where 
they abode. 

8. Wemiako yagawan tendki lakkawelendam nakopowa 
wemi owenluen atam. 
All the cabin fires of that land were disquieted, 
and all said to their priest, "Let us go." 

17. Wulelemil w' shakuppek, 

Wemopannek hakshinipek, 
Kitahikan pokhakhopek. 
On the wonderful, slippery water. 

On the stone-hard (icy) water all went. 

On the great Tidal Sea, the mussel-bearing sea. 

20. Wemipayat guneunga shinaking, 

Wunkenapi chanelendam payaking, 
Allowelendam kowiyey tulpaking. 
They all come, they tarry at the land of the spruce 
pines ; 
Those from the west come with hesitation. 
Esteeming highly their old home at the Turtle 

And so the record goes on to say : 

"Long ago the fathers of the Lenape were at the 
land of spruce pines." 

A long succession of Chiefs (Sakimas) followed : Beau- 
tiful Head, White Owl, Keeping-Guard, and Snow Bird, 
"who spoke of the South, that our fathers should possess it 
by scattering abroad." Then many more Chiefs (each 
probably representing a period of twenty-five years), among 
them Tally-Maker, "who made records;" and Corn 
Breaker, "who brought about the planting of corn." From 
time to time southern and eastern migrations are noted ; 
then the war with the Talligewi, "who possessed the east ;" 
then, "all the Talega go south;" "they stay south of the 
lakes." The Lenape spread south and east to the seashore, 
winning their way by frequent wars.l 

Dr. Brinton thus summarizes the narrative of the 
Walam Olum : At some remote period the ancestors of the 
Lenape dwelt probably at Labrador. They journeyed 
south and west to the St. Lawrence, near Lake Ontario. 
Next they dwelt for some generations in the pine and 
hemlock regions of New York, fighting often v/ith the 
Snake people, and the Talega, agricultural nations, living 
in fortified towns, in Ohio and Indiana. They drove out 
the former, but the latter remained on the Upper Ohio and 
its branches. The Lenape, now settled on the streams in 
Indiana, wished to remove to the East to join the Mohe- 
gans and others of their kin who had moved there directly 
from northern New York. So they united with the Hurons 
to drive out the Talega from the Upper Ohio, which was 
not fully accomplished for many centuries, some Cherokees 
lingering along-there as late as 1730.2 Other writers think 
the Lenape migrated from the woody region- — Shinaking — 
"land of the spruce pines," or "fir trees" — ^north of Lake 

1 The Lenape and their Legends, pp. 181-217. 

2 lb., 163. 



Superior, and crossed the Detroit river — Messti-^ sipi, or 
"Great River" — and so came into Northern Ohio.2 

It is not to be expected that vt^e shall ever determine the 
periods of the successive wanderings and sojournings of the 
Lenape in the course of their migration south and east. 
Allowing twenty-five years as the average life of each Chief, 
we would have five hundred years as elapsing from the time 
the nation set out on their southward journey till they ac- 
quired the art of planting corn; about five hundred years 
more ere they reached the upper St. Lawrence, and encoun- 
tered the Talligewi ; about seven hundred years more when 
they reached the "great sea," the "Mighty Water;" one 
hundred and fifty years more, when " the whites came on 
the Eastern sea ; " about three hundred years more, when 
"from north and south, the whites came." Here we have a 
total of two thousand one hundred and fifty years as cover- 
ing the whole period of the migrations of this people. The 
more adventurous spirits were of course always pushing on 
ahead of the great body of the nation. From the crude 
data at hand, and making due allowance for the delibera- 
tion with which an entire nation must have moved, it is 
probable that the advance guard of the Lenape reached 
New Jersey at least as early as the eighth or ninth century, 
or one thousand years ago. 3 

On the other hand, the testimony of archseology demands 
a far greater antiquity to account for the innumerable traces of 
primitive human habitation within the bounds of S cheyechhi. 
All along the New Jersey shore shell-heaps, refuse 
thrown up by the aboriginal villagers through unknown cen- 
turies. Some of them have accumulated on the fast ground, 
but are now several feet below the ocean level, in swamps, 
and in some instances covered with earth to a depth of six 
feet. Estimating that the New Jersey coast is subsiding at 

1 In the Delaware inechen, big, large; or macheu^ great. The gut- 
tural ch is softened to m. In the Cree, misaiv (inanimate form), great. 

2 Horatio Hale, in American Antiquarian, 1883, p. 117. Prof. Cyrus 
Thomas regards these migration legends of the Lenape as strongly con- 
firmatory of his theory that at least part of the ten thousand mounds in 
Ohio and part of the thousands in adiacent States were built by the 
Cherokees (the Tallega or Tallegewi), whose territory was invaded ot's 
Northern Ohio by the Lenape and the Hurons, by whom they were finally 
driven southward, where (in Georgia, at least) they still built mounds in 
the sixteenth century. See articles by Prof. Thomas : " The Cherokees 
probably Mound-Builders," in Fifth Annual Report U. S. Bureau of 
Ethnology, 1883-4, pp. 87-109; "Cherokees probably Mound-Builders," 
in Magazine of American History, Vol. XI., 1884, pp. 396-407; "The 
Problem of the Ohio Mounds," U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, Wash- 
ington, 1889. In an admirable paper by Judge M. F. Force, " Some 
Early Notices of the Indians of Ohio. To what Race did the Mound- 
Builders Belong ?" Cincinnati, 1879, the writer inclines to the view that 
the Mound Builders were attacked by invading tribes from the north- 
west, and concludes that they were flourishing about a thousand years 
ago, and earlier and later. In David Cusick's " Sketches of Ancient 
History of the Six Nations," etc., Lockport, N. Y., 1848, he says (p. 19) 
it was perhaps about 2,200 years before Columbus discovered America 
that the northern Indians "almost penetrated the Lake Erie," and that 
the ensuing wars lasted about 100 years. 

3 The Cherokees had a tradition in 1669-70 that they reached Georgia 
more than four hundred years before, which would be about the close of 
the twelfth or the early part of the thirteenth c^xiXMry .—Discoveries ^ &c. , by 
John Lederer, London, 1672, quoted by Thomas in Mag. Am. Hist., as 
cited above. This would allow them four or five hundred years to make 
their way gradually South, after their first encounter with the Lenape. 

the rate of two feet in a century, as calculated by Prof. 
Cook, the evidence is strong that the beginnings of these shell- 
heaps must date back far beyond a thousand years, and that 
the aborigines must have occupied this land long before: 
they began to throw up these piles of kitchen refuse so sys- 
tematically.! But there are no signs that any race since pal- 
aeolithic man has inhabited New Jersey other than the 
Indians whom the whites found here, and so it is very prob- 
able that David Cusick's vague tradition of the period of 
the encounter of the Northern Indians with the Tallegewi 
is nearer the truth than the estimate based on the imperfect 
record of Chiefly successions of the Lenape, and that it was 
"perhaps about two thousand two hundred years before the 
Columbus discovered the America, "2 that the Northern 
nations began their migration to the South and East, and 
hence fully three thousand years since the Lenape saw the 
shining sea, from S cheyechbi. 

Whatever the wanderers may have learned from their 
long contact with the Tallegewi there is no indication that 
they ever patterned after them in the building of mounds, 
for none have been found in New Jersey. It is pos- 
sible that Some terraces supposed to be of natural origin 
may prove to be the handiwork of man. But there is no 
reason to believe that the Lenape ever reached that stage of 
development when it would have been possible for them to 
have organized, disciplined and supported an industrial 
force capable of constructing such vast mounds as are scat- 
tered over the prairies of the West. 

The earliest white travelers in this part of the country 
looked upon the natives as simply savages, but little 
different from the wild beasts whose skins they wore» 
Hence they did not trouble themselves to study their insti- 
tutions, religion, mythology or traditions. That has been 
done of late years better than was possible then. How- 
ever, for descriptions of the actual manners and cus- 
toms of the people, as far as they were obvious to the 
casual observer, the accounts given by the first visitors 
to these shores are of value. So we read that the Indians 
of New Jersey (and the same was true of the aborigines 
generally) were well built and strong, with broad shoulders 
and small waists ; dark eyes, snow-white teeth,3 coarse, 
black hair, of which the men left but a single tuft (scalp 
lock) on the top of the head, convenient for an enemy's 
scalping knife, and which the women thrust into a bag be- 
hind. There were few or none cross-eyed, blind, crippled, 
or deformed.4 " They preserved their Skins smooth by 
anointing them with the Oyl of Fishes, the fat of Eagles, 
and the grease of Rackoons, which they hold in the 
Summer the best antidote to keep their skins from blister- 
ing by the scorching Sun, and their best Armour against the 

1 Abbott's Primitive Industry, as cited, pp. 448-450. 

2 Cusick's Six Nations, as cited, p. 19. 

3 The New and Unknown World, or Description of America and the 
Southland, by Arnoldus Montanus, Amsterdam, 1671, reprinted in N. Y, 
Documentary History, Vol. IV. , 76. 

■4 Wassenaer's Historic van Europa, Amsterdam, 1621-32, reprinted 
in N. Y. Documentary History, Vol. III., 22. 



Musketto's * * * and stopper of the Pores of their Bodies 
against the ^Yinter's cold."l 

The men painted or stained their bodies, using colors 
extracted from plants or finely-crushed stones, or found 
along the seashore.2 The women, not having the advantage 
of Christian training, and being therefore less wise than their 
white sisters, were wont to paint their faces ; and in gen- 
eral they adorned themselves more than did the men, for a 
proud squaw*5 would sometimes display her charms set off 
by a petticoat ornamented with beads to the value of one 
hundred dollars or more. 4 

As they lived mainly by hunting or by fishing, their huts 
or wigwamsS were temporary structures, which could be 
moved or abandoned as occasion or convenience required, 6 
a practice which militated against the development of per- 
manent buildings of durable materials, and also against the 
cultivation of orchards.'' Unlike the Iroquois, the New 
Jersey. Indians did not commonly build large wigwams or 
"long houses" for several families, but merely small huts 

1 A tvfo Years Journal in New- York, etc., by C[harles] \V[olley], 
London, 1701 ; reprinted, New York, i860, p. 28. Mr. Wolley was Chap- 
lain in the Fort at New York, 167S-80. 

2 A Short Description of the Province of New Sweden, etc. , by Thomas 
Campanius Holm, translated from the Swedish by Peter S. du Ponceau, 
and published in Memoirs Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, 1834, Vol. III., Part I., p. 119. History of the Mission of the 
United Brethren among the Indians in North America, by George 
Henry Loskiel, translated by Christian Ignatius La Trobe, London, 
X794, p. 48. Loskiel's book is a record of the Mora^'ian mission work 
among the Indians, 1733-87. Although v/ritten in Germany, it presents 
the best and fullest account v.'e have of the Delaware Indians, having 
been compiled vrith great care from the reports of the pious missionarj^, 
David Zeisberger, transmitted by him to the head of the Moravian 
church, at Herrnhut, Germany. 

3 In the Lenape language the word for woman is oc/ii^!ie?i, pronounced 
och-quay-oo, or, by softening the guttural, os-quay-oo, which was 
readily modified into squa or squaw. Kik-ockqiieu^ a single woman; 
kikey-ockqueiiy an elderly woman ; 'wztskiochg ue ^ a young woman ; och- 
gueunk^oi a woman ; wila^uiockqueu^s. rich Avoman. See Zeisberger's 
Indian Dictionary, English, German, Iroquois (die Onondaga) and Al- 
gonquin (the Delaware), printed from the Original Manuscript in Har- 
vard College Library, Cambridge, 1887; A Lenape-Engiish Dictionary, 
as cited. The Cree root is iskm^ whence iskweiu (or iskiuayoo)^ woman ; 
oskiskiveiu^ a young woman. 

* Montanus, 76, 80 ; Heckevpelder, 203. 

5 As might be expected ot an idea necessarily universal among the 
Indians, the Algonkins nearly everjT.-here used the same word for 
" house." Zeisberger gives it as luiizuain, pronounced week-wawm, in 
his grammar, and -Miguoa/n (pronounced the same) in his dictionary 
of the Delaware or Lenape language. It is given as xuigJnvaiu^in the 
" Indian Interpreter," a sort of trader's jargon, compiled in 1684 for the 
use of the whites in Southern New Jersey in their intercourse -R-ith the 
Indians, and recorded in the Salem Town Records, Liber B, in the 
Secretary of State's office, Trenton. There are 237 words entered in this 
book, evidently v.ritten by an Englishman, therefore. the letters must be 
given their English sounds. The list is published in the American 
Historical Record, Vol. I., 1872, pp. 308-11. The same word is used by 
the Chippeways north of Lake Superior, at this day. The Cree root is 
•uiiki, " his house ;" whence -wikiui, the house. 

6 Representation of New Netherland (1649), translated by Henry C. 
Murphy, New York, 1849, p. 20 ; Remonstrance of New Netherland [the 
same work], translated by E. B. O'CaUaghan, M. D., Albany, 1856, 
p. 14 ; Roger Williams's "Key," p. 53. 

'i Loskiel, p. 71. 

for a single family.! As William Penn vnote, in 1683 : 
" Their Houses are Mats, or Barks of Trees, set on Poles, in. 
the fashion of an English Barn, but out of the power of the 
Winds, for they are hardly higher than a' man ; they lie on 
Reeds or Grass. "2 Sometimes young trees would be bent down 
toward a common centre and the branches interlaced and 
fastened together as a framework, and covered with bark, 3 
so closely laid on as to be very warm and rain-proof. 4 
Others would construct a circular, wattled hut, with either 
angular or rounded top, thatched and lined with mats 
woven of the long leaves of the Indian corn, or with rushes 
or long reed-grass, or the stalk of the sweet-flag, a 
vent-hole in the top serving for the escape of smoke.5 Some 
would take the trouble to dig a pit, two or three feet deep, 
then erect their hut within, and pack the earth tightly 
around on the outside. If very partictilar, they would cover 
the floor with wood,6 but usually they slept on skins or 
leaves spread on the bare'ground,7 a fact which inspired the 
muse of Roger Williams to singS : 

God gives them sleep on Ground, on Straw, 

on Sedgie Mats or Boord : 
When English Softest Beds of Dowae, 

sometimes no sleep afloord. 

From this humble lodging no one was ever turned away 
— not even strangers. Their generous hospitality was 

1 Loskiel, p. 53. Dr. Brinton says of the Algonkia tribes: "we do not 
find among them the same communal life as among the Iroquois. Only 
rarelj' do v;e encounter tlie ' long house,' occupied by a number of kin- 
dred families. Among tlie Lenapes, for e.xample, this was entirely 
unknown, each married couple having its own residence." — The Ameri- 
can Race, by Daniel G. Brinton, A. M., M. D., New York, 1891, p. 76. 
In his valuable work, " The Houses and House-Life of the American 
Aborigines" (Contributions to North American Ethnologj-, Vol. IV.), the 
late Lewis H. iMorgan concluded that during the Older Period and the Mid- 
dle Period of barbarism, as represented, the former by the Indians of this 
part of the country, and the latter by the Aztecs, " the family was too 
v.'eak an organization to face alone the struggle of life, and sought a 
shelter for itself in large households composed of several families. The 
house for a single family was exceptional throughout aboriginal America, 
while the house large enough to accommodate several was the rule. 
r.Ioreover, the habitations were occupied as joint tenement houses. 
There was also a tendency to form the households on the principle of 
the gentile [pronounced gen-ti-le] kin , the mothers with their children 
being of the same gens or clan." See Second Annual Report U. S. 
Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-81, pp. xviii-xix. 

2 Letter dated Philadelphia, August 16, 1683, printed in " The Present 
State of His Ma-esties Isles and Territories in America," etc. [by Rich- 
ard Blome], London, 1687, p. 98. 

3 A Geographical Description of the lately discovered province of 
Pennsylvania, by Francis Daniel Pastorius [1685], in Memoirs Hist. Soc. 
of Penn., Vol. IV., Part IL, p. 96. 

i An Historical Description of the Province of West-New-Jersey in 
America, etc. , by Gabriel Thomas, London, i6g8; reprinted (lithographed) 
New York, 1848, p. 5. 

5 Wassenaer, as cited, p. 20 ; Smith's History of New Jersey, Burl- 
ington, 1765, p. 65. 

6 Traces of such earth excavations and wooden floors have been 
found at Greenwich, Cumberland county. See Annual Report of 
State Geologist for 1878, p. 125. It is not improbable, however, that 
huts of this description were either erected by whites, or by Indians in 
imitation of the first white settlers. — N. V. Doc. Hist., IV., 23. 

7 Wassenaer, p. 20. 

8 "Key," p. 40. 



always noted with admiration by travelers. 1 "If an Eu- 
ropean comes to see them, or calls for Lodging at their 
House or Wigwam, they give him the best place or first 
cut."2 "None could excel them in liberality with the little 
they had, for nothing was too good for a friend," says 
the historian Samuel Smith,3 paraphrasing William Penn. 
"Give them a fine Gun, Coat, or other thing, it may 
pass twenty hands, before it sticks ; light of heart, strong 
■ affections, but soon spent ; the most merry Creatures that 
live. Feast and Dance perpetually ; they never have much, 
nor want much : Wealth circulateth like the Blood, all parts 
partake ; and though some shall want what another hath, 
yet exact observers of Property."* Thomas says : " If three 
or four of them come into a Christian's House, and the 
Master of it happen to give one of them Victuals, and none 
to the rest, he will divide it into equal Shares among them : 
And they are also very kind and civil to any of the 
Christians ; for I myself have had Victuals cut by them in 
their Cabbins, before they took any for themselves." 5 
An Indian in need of food or lodging would not hes- 
itate to enter the lodge of another, especially of the 
same tribe, and would expect as a matter of course to 
reciprocate as occasion offered. ^ The guest would be 
given a seat on a mat in the middle of the wigwam, 
and would be invited to help himself out of the 
earthen pot, which in the beginning never knew the potter's 
wheel, and in its later existence was totally unacquainted 
with the cleansing properties of soap and water. Meat and 
fish and vegetables were all alike cooked in the same 
vessel, without salt or other seasoning than hunger, for the 
Indians were abstemious, and seldom ate more than two 
meals a day, and then only when hunger prompted.7 Some 
squaws, of course, were more skillful than others, and knew 
how to prepare Indian cornS in a dozen different ways 9 ; but 

1 Heckewelder, loi ; Pastorius, g6 ; A Brief Description of New 
York, etc. [1670], by Daniel Denton, London [1701], reprinted, New 
York, 1845, p. 20, 

2 William Penn, in Richard Blome's "Present State," etc., as cited, 
p. 98. 

3 History of New Jersey, p. 141. 

4 William Penn, as cited, p. gg. Writing- home from New Perth 
(Perth Amboy, N. J.) in 16B4, one of the early Scotch settlers says : 
" And for the Indian Natives they are not troublesome any Way to any 
of us, if we do them no harm, but are a very kind and loving people ; the 
men do nothing but hunt, and the women they plant Corn, and work 
at home : they come and trade among the Christians with Skins or 
Venison, or Corn, or Pork. And in the summer time they and their 
Wives come down the Rivers in their Cannoes, which they make them- 
selves of a piece of a great tree, like a little Boat, and there they 
Fish and take 03'sters." See "The Model of the Government of the 
Province of East-New- Jersey in America," etc., by George Scot, Edin- 
burgh, 1685, p. 200, quoted in East Jersey under the Proprietary Gov- 
ernments, etc., by William A. Whitehead, second ed., Newark, N. J., 
1875, p. 439 ; ist ed., 1846, p. 302. 

5 Thomas's West Jersey, 4. 

6 Wassenaer, 21. 

1 Loskiel, 68 ; Heckewelder, 193 ; Campanius, 121. 

8 Algonkin tribes so widely separated as the Micmacs of Nova 
Scotia, and the Piegan Blackfe'et, use the same word as tlie Lenape for 
Indian corn: the f^rsl-ndLrri^d pe~askn-viuji-ul\ the second, esko-tope^ and 
the last y«4f«<;;« (Campanius) , or c/iajy«(?w« (Zeisberger). The word is 
composed of the root ask or aski^ "green," and the suffix mun or ?«/?;, 
^n edible fruit, abbreviated in the Delaware to in. — Brinton's Lenapi., 49. 

9 Loskiel, 67. 

the Indian's ordinary breakfast and dinner was maize pounde d 
in a mortar till it was crushed into a soft mass and then boiled. 1 
This was his ach-poan, softened by the Indians of Southern 
New Jersey into as-poan, whence the Dutch sapaen or sup- 
paen (sup-pawn), the Swedish sappan, and the Virginia 
"corn-pone," sometimes tautologically called "pone 
bread." Another favorite dish was Indian corn beaten and 
boiled, and eaten hot or cold, with milk or butter ; this 
they called A^asaump, whence the word "samp."2 Corn 
was often boiled whole, when it was called msich- 
qziatash,^ a word which looks like "succotash." Or, it 
was well mixed "with small beans of different colors, 
which they plant themselves, but this is held by them as a 
dainty dish more than as daily food.""* William Penn 
further remarks on their cookery : "their Maiz is sometimes 
roasted in the Ashes, sometimes beaten and boiled with 
Vv'ater, which they call Homine ; they also make Cakes, not 
unpleasant to eat ; they have likewise several sorts of Beans 
and Pease, that are good nourishment. "5 

Their thirst was quenched by drinking the broth of meat 
they boiled, or by draughts of pure water, 6 for they had no 
intoxicating liquors, their only stimulant being tobacco, the 
smoke of which they inhaled,'!' as they enjoyed their pipes. 8 
Owing to their lack of intoxicants. Van der Donck 
remarks, "although their language is rich and expressive 
it contains no word to express drunkenness. Drunken men 
they call fools. * * * The rheumatic-gout, red and 
pimpled noses, are unknown to them ; nor have they any 
diseases or infirmities which are caused by drunkenness." 9 
Unfortunately, the savages soon acquired a passionate fond- 
ness for liquor, which has been the greatest curse the white 
man has brought upon them. Their Chiefs again and again 
implored the white rulers to prohibit or at least restrain the 
devastating traffic, 10 but cupidity on the one side and weak- 

1 Montanus, 79-80 ; Description of the New Netherlands, by Adriaen 
Van der Donck, Amsterdam, 1656, translated and printed in the N. Y. 
Historical Society's Collections, New Series, New York, 1841, Vol. I., p. 
193 ; Beskrifning Om De Swenska Forsamlingars Fornaoch Narwarande 
Tilstand, Uti Det sa kallade Nya Swerige, etc., Ugifwen Af Israel Acre- 
lius, Stockholm, 1759, p. 59, translated and published, with notes, by Wil- 
liam ]\I. Reynolds, D. D., Philadelphia, 1874, as Memous of the His- 
torical Society of Pennsj'lvania, Vol. XI. , p. 65. 

2 Roger Williams, as cited, p. 33. 

3 Ibid., 32. 

4 Representation of New Netherland, p. 21. 

5 Richard Blome's " Present State," etc., 98. 

6 Loskiel, 74 ; Van der Donck, 192. 

7 Brinton's Lenape, 4g. Dr. Brinton says tobacco was called by the 
Delawares kscha-tiy (Zeisberger) , scka-ta (Campanius) , or skuaie (Salem 
Interpreter), which he thinks are from the root ^ta or 'cia?n, " to drink," 
the smoke being swallowed like water. — fiid. , 49. 

8 The Delaware word for pipe was appaa&e, the modern Delaware 
being a'pa/wiun, which closely resembles the hopoacan of Zeisberger 
(say 1750), and the hapockon of the Salem Interpreter of 1684. See Brin- 
ton's Lenape, 50 ; Am. Hist. Record, I., 30g. Their pipes were made of 
red marble, steatite, blue slate, sandstone or clay, often brought from 
the Mississippi or beyond. See Loskiel, 51, 100; Abbott's Primitive In- 
dustry, 317-340. 

9 Van der Donck, as cited, 192. 

10DeVrie3,in N. Y. Hist. Soc. Collections, 2d Series, i84i,Vol. I., 
267; Smith's N. J., 52; Pa. Col. Records, II., 141; Loskiel, lot ; Good 
Order Established in Pennsilvania & New-Jersey in America, etc., by 
Thomas Budd, 1685, reprinted. New York, 1865, p. 63. 



ness on the other made vain all efforts in that direction.! 

The men provided the fish and game, v\rhile the women 
cultivated the fields, raised corn and other vegetables in 
great quantities, and preserved them during the winter in 
pits2 or barracks. Sometimes they would have a supply of 
provisions stored up sufficient to last them two years, a fact 
which shows that they were not always as improvident 
as they have been assumed to be. 3 They often postponed a 
war until crops could be gathered, as they depended largely 
on their vegetables for their sustenance. 

Trained from their infancy* in feats of dexterity and 
agility, as well as to endurance, they of course excelled in 
the craft of wood or water. They cheerfully placed these 
talents at the service of the whites for a trifling recom- 
pence,5 and proved valuable aids in subduing the native 
wilds, and many of their customs have been kept up by the 
whites to this day.6 They were found trusty messengers be- 
tween the Dutch settlements on the Delaware and New 
Amsterdam, and swift ones, too, a dusky savage undertak- 
ing (in 1661) to take a letter from Christina (Newcastle, 
Del.) to Manhattan in four or five days, for the munificent 

1 The sale of liquors to the Indians was prohibited by the Director 
and Council of New: Netherlands, by ordinances passed 18 June, 1643 ; 21 
November, 1645 ; 1 July, 1647 ; 10 March, 1648 ; 13 May, 1648 ; 28 Aug- 
ust, 1654 ; 20 December, 1655 (on the Delaware river) ; 26 October, 1656 ; 
12 June, 1657 (prohibits the giving or selling) ; 9 April, 1658. See Laws 
and Ordinances of New Netherland, 1638-1674, compiled and translated 
by E. B. O'Callaghan, Albany, 1B68, sub annis. The English enacted 
similar prohibitions i March, 1665; 22 September, 1676; in Penn- 
sylvania JO December, 1682, and frequently thereafter. See Duke 
of York's Laws, etc., Harrisburg, 1879, pp. 32, 75, in. In New 
Jersey, an act was passed in 1677 imposing a penalty on any person who 
should " draw strong drink for the Indians, and not take effectual care to 
prevent any disturbance that may happen by any such means to any of 
their neighbours." But the pious and thrifty rumsellers of that day had 
a horror of " sumptuary" legislation, and 1682 they got this act modified 
by a new law, which with an amusing affectation of holy scruples set out : 
" Forasmuch as brandy, rum and other strong liquors, are in their kind 
(not abused but taken in moderation) creatures of God, and useful and 
beneficial to mankind, and that those creatures which God bestows, are 
not more to be denied to Indians in moderation than the Christians," 
etc., etc. In 1692 the Legislature regretfully confessed that the " notion 
of selling strong liquors in moderation " had been a failure, and there- 
upon rigidly prohibited the furnishing of any kind of intoxicating liquors 
to the Indians, under penalty of five lashes on the bare back, ten for the 
second offence, fifteen for the third, and twenty for any further offence. 
— Oi-ants and Concessions^ Philadelphia [1758], 125, 137, 258, 316 ; reprint- 
ed, Somerville, N. J., 1881. Other enactments on the same subject will 
be found in Kinsey's Laws, 1732, and in Nevill's Laws, 1752 and 1761. 

" They preserve their crops in round holes, dug in the earth at 
some distance from the houses, lined and covered with dry leaves or 
grass." — l^oskiel^(A. What was this but a silo ? 

3 N. Y. Col. Documents, XII., 292. During the second Esopus war, 
1645, the Dutch cut down 215 acres of maize and burned above 100 pits 
fuU of corn and beans. — N. V. Doc. Hist.., IV.., 47. 

4 Loskiel, 75. Mr. WoUey says he had been informed that an Indian 
boy of seven years could shoot a bird on the wing with a bow and 
a.rYow. ^Journal., p. 71. 

5 Loskiel, 16. A Brief Account of East : New : Jarsey in America : 
published by the Scots Proprietors Having Interest there, Edinburgh, 
1683 ; reprinted, Morrisania, N. Y. , 1867, p. 21. 

6 That of burning the grass off the meadows in the spring, for 
instance ; a practice of the Indians in order to dislodge the small vermin, 
and to stimulate the growth .of young grass for the deer to feed 
on. — Loskiel., 55. 

reward of "a piece of cloth or a pair of socks."! The dis- 
tance would be one hundred and twenty miles in a straight 
line, and by the ordinary paths must have been nearly or 
quite half as far again. 

They dressed in the skins of wild animals, which they 
skillfully cured. Their implements were of stone — flint 
arrow heads ; jasper arrow heads have been found on Gar- 
ret Mountain, which must have been brought from a dis- 
tance ; quartz, slate, shale and other materials were used 
for the same purpose. Axes, scrapers, knives, chisels 
(celts), fish-spears, club-heads, net-sinkers, pestles, pipes, 
plummets, drills, mortars, spear-heads, some of them finely 
wrought, and made of chert, flint, quartz, jasper, granite,, 
slate and other stones, have been found in vast abundance 
in New Jersey, especially in the southern part of the State. 
In Mercer county alone Dr. Abbott has collected upwards 
of twenty thousand specimens of Indian handiwork in this 
line.3 Oval knives, admirably adapted to the cleaning of 
fish, have been found along the Passaic and Hackensack 
rivers. Many of the New Jersey implements show a degree 
of skill superior to that of many other tribes. The Indian 
workman acquired great proficiency in fashioning knives and 
other articles out of flint by dexterous percussion or steady 
pressure. Holes were bored in the hardest stones, doubt- 
less by swiftly revolving a pointed stick or bone or other 
stone in the article to be penetrated, perhaps using a bit 
of cord to aid the revolution, by twisting and untwisting, 
and sand to increase the trituration. 3 The native copper 
found near the Raritan was highly prized, and was ham- 
mered into shape for weapons or tools of various kinds. 
Their pottery was made of clay and pounded shells, mixed 
and fashioned by hand, and burned in the fire. There was 
usually but little attempt at ornamentation, and very seldom 
were colors used. Soapstone pots were highly prized, and 
were brought in the rough from great distances and fash- 
ioned by the purchaser to his or her individual taste. 4 

In making a canoe they would fell a tree by the use of 
their stone axes — which they could do almost as readily as 
the whites with -their implements of iron^ — or by burning 
into the trunk at the base. This they would trim off by the 
same means, shape it by scraping and by fire, and then 
would hollow it out by fire, just as did our own Aryan an- 
cestors ; or, in later times, they would skillfully cover a 
framework with bark, and so form a vessel large enough to 

IN. Y. Col. Docs., XII., 344. 

2 Dr. Abbott's collection of palaeolithic and neolithic implements, or- 
naments, etc., found by him in New Jersey, is now (1893) owned by the 
Peabody Museum of Archeeology and Ethnology at Cambridge, Mass., 
where it is arranged in glass cases and displayed to good advantage. 

3 Every boy knows how to whirl a stick swiftly by twisting and un- 
twisting a cord about it. In the museum at Zurich may be seen a " re- 
storation " of the simple contrivance on this plan wherewith the ancient 
Lake-Dwellers of Switzerland bored holes in stones, using a bit of cow's 
horn, with the point cut off, as the borer, sand and water being dropped 
into the hole bored ; in this way a core can be easily cut out of the 
hardest stone. 

* Dr. Charles C. Abbott, Primitive Industry, passim. 
6 Wolley, 52 ; Representation of New Netherland (1649), translated by 
Henry C. Murphy, New York, 1849, p. 19. 



contain twenty rowers, or to bear two thousand pounds of 
freight, and yet so light that two or four men could carry it.l 

They had learned to make a coarse cloth from the fibre 
of nettles and other plants, which they twisted upon the 
thigh with the palm of their hands, and wove with their 
fingers. They made rope, purses and bags2 of the same 
thread. For needles they used small bones or wooden 
splints, with which they were quite dexterous.3 

Like all uncivilized peoples, the Indians were very fond 
of ornaments, either for use or for the adornment of the 
person, and they were in the habit of bartering articles 
which they had for those which they had not. Flat or 
hemispherical stones, with holes bored through them, 
whereby they could be suspended around the neck, were 
very common, scores of them being pictured in Dr. Abbott's 
"Primitive Industry." Shells were used in the same way. 
We may readily imagine the steps by which the size of these 
ornaments was reduced until a mere bead was formed, per- 
haps in imitation of bits of hollow bone or wood or reeds, 
previously used for the same purpose. The dwellers along 
the seacoast had the advantage over the tribes in the inter- 
ior, in the greater abundance of material suitable for mak- 
ing these beads, and in time became expert in their produc- 
tion. When the whites came, and we know not how long 
before,4 a standard form appears to have been set- 
tled upon, and the beads were ground down to the thick- 
ness of a large straw, about a third of an inch in length, 
smoothly polished, bored longitudinally with sharp stones, 
and strung upon thongs or the sinews of animals.5 The 
fineness was tested by passing it over the nose, the absence 
of friction being satisfactory px'oof of its good quality. 6 
These beads were formed from pieces broken out of the in- 
side of the periwinkle, the conch, the hard clam or other suit- 
able shell.'!' The white beads were called wamptim, and the 
blue, purple or violet beads were called siickatihock^ ; in time 
they were distinguished simply as white wampum and black 
wampum. The latter being the less plentiful, and perhaps 
more esteemed from its richer color, was twice as valuable 

1 Loskiel, 32, 103. 

2 They appear to have had something like an approach to a standard 
measure for com, in the shape of bags, called denoias. — Remonstrance of 
New Netherlands 13. The Lenape word is Memites: 

3 WoUey, 52 ; Abbott's Primitive Industry, passim. 

* Morgan says these beads came nearer to a currency than any other 
species of property among the Indians, and that their use as such reach- 
es back to a remote period on this continent. 

5 Van der Donck, as cited, 206; Roger Williams's "Key," 130; A 
Brief Description of New York, etc. , by Daniel Denton, London [1701], re- 
printed. New York, 1845, p. 8. On pp. 42-7 of the reprint is an excellent 
note on wampum, by Gabriel Furman. Daniel Denton was in New 
York in 1670. 

6 Campanius, 132. 

7 Van der Donck, 206 ; WoUey, 32; Denton, 8; Loskiel, 27 ; Roger 
Williams, 128; The Breeden Raedt (printed in 1649), reprinted in N. Y. 
Doc. Hist., IV., 82. [This last-named work was reprinted also in 1854, 
for Mr. James Lenox, in connection with the Vertoogh (Remonstrance 
or Representation) of New Netherland, both being translated for 
the purpose by Henry C. Murphy. His translation of the Breeden Raedt 
is (1893) in the possession of the writer hereof]. 

8 Roger Williams, 130. 

as the former. By the Dutch they were commonly called 
sea-want, the etymology of which is obscure ; but this is said 
to have been the generic name for the beads, both 
white and black. 1 However, at an early day the word 
■wamptim came into general use for the article. In 
Massachusetts it was called wainpam-peak, ■wa??iptim- 
feag,'^ -ivampompeage or simply peag or peagne. Among 
the New Jersey Indians it was called wapapi (white 
wampum) and geqiiak or w' sukgehak (.black wampum). 
The former word is derived from the root wompi (Iroquois) 
or wap (Delaware), "white;" the latter from sukeu, 
"black," and perhaps /(JyJ^?<f?^, "clam" or "mussel." Al- 
though its nranufacture was widely spread, at one time the 
Indians on Long Island, especially on the Sound, almost 
monopolized its production.3 Used first merely for orna- 
ment, twined around the head, neck or waist,4 it came to 
be so much in demand by all tribes that it assumed the 
character of a currency, and when the whites first settled 
here they used it in trade also, having no other money, not 
only in their dealings with the Indians but among them- 
selves.5 Some white men tried to make wampum, but 
their crude product was promptly rejected as counterfeit. 
With his hand or a split stick for a vise, a sharp stone for a 
drill, and another stone for his grindstone, a skillful Indian 
could grind, bore and polish thirty-five or forty of these 
beads in a day, worth ten or fifteen cents.6 "Wampum 
being in a manner the currency of the country," as remarked 
by a writer of New Netherland in 1634,^ the watchful Gov- 
ei'nor and Directors of the Colony tried to regulate its value 
from time to time by sundry enactments. In 1641 it was 
declared that "very bad wampum" was circulated, and 
"payment is made in rough unpolished wampum which is 
brought hither from other places, and the good polished 
wampum, commonly called Manhattan wampum is wholly 
put out of sight or exported, which tends to the express 
ruin and destruction of this country ; " wherefore it was or- 
dered that unpolished wampum should pass current at the 
rate of five for one stuyver (two cents), and well polished 
wampum should remain as before, at four for one stuyver, 
strung. 8 In 1647 loose wampum continued current, al- 

1 Gabriel Furman, in note to Denton, as above, p. 42. 

2 A Summary, Historical and Political, of the * * British Settle- 
tlements in North-America, by William Douglass, Boston, Printed : 
London, re-printed, 1755, I., 177; History of New England, by John 
Gorham Palfrey, Boston, 1859, Vol. I., 31. "Peag" doubtless means a 
fathom. " Piuckquat being si.xtie pence, they call Nquittompeg, or 
Nquitnishcausu, that is, one fathom, 5 shillings." — Roger WiUia}nSyZS 
cited, 129. The Cree for fathom is peyakonisk^ the first syllable being 
pronounced very much the same as peag. 

3 WoUey, 32. " The greatest part of the wampum, for which the 
furs are traded , is manufactured there [on Long Island Sound], by the 
Natives," wrote CorneHs van Tienhoven in 1650. — N. Y. Col. Docs., I., 

* Remonstrance of New Netherland, 13 ; Roger Williams, 131. 

5 Wampum circulated among the whites in New England as early as 
1630. See Second Annual Report U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, i88o-8t, p. 

6 Lindstrom, quoted by Campanius, 131. 

f N. Y. Col. Docs., I., 87. See also ib. , 303, 336, 425. 
8 Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland, as cited, 26. 



though many of the beads were imperfect, broken or un- 
pierced ;l it kept on depreciating in quality and value till 
1650, when beads of stone, bone, glass, mussel-shells, horn 
and even of wood were in circulation. The authorities 
thereupon prohibited the use of loose wampum unless 
strung on a cord, and fixed the value of the good article at 
six white and three black for a stuyver, while the "poor 
strung" was rated at eight white and four black per stuyver, 
and "there being at present no other currency," wampum 
was made legal tender to the value of twelve guilders — about 
five dollars — the bakers, tapsters and laboring men having re- 
fused to take it in pay.2 By 1657 it depreciated to one 
bead to the farthing, or eight per stuyver, and in 1658 it was 
still lower, and the shopkeepers were loth to take it at all. 
But Director General Petrus Stuyvesant and his Council or- 
dained that half a gallon of beer viztst be sold for six stuy- 
vers in silver, nine stuyvers in beaver, and twelve in wam- 
pum ; a coarse wheaten loaf of eight pounds, at fourteen 
stuyvers in wampum ; a rye loaf of the same weight at 
twelve stuyvers in wampum, and a white loaf of two pounds 
at eight stuyvers in wampum. 3 Athough wampum con- 
tinued to depreciate in value, it was in quite general use 
as a currency for a century longer. 

Wampum had another and very important function. 
Doubtless by means of some conventional arrangement of 
the beads, the significance of which is not now under- 
stood, strings of wampum served a mnemonic purpose. 
The messenger from one tribe to another, or from the 
Indians to the whites, would sometimes carry as many as 
thirty strings of wampum, which he would lay down one 
after another as he delivered the respective points of his 
message. Arranged in belts, the black and white sometimes 
forming pictures or figures, they conveyed a meaning per- 
fectly comprehensible to the Indian. As Montcalm 
wrote in 1757 : "These Belts and Strings of Wampum are 
the universal agent among Indians, serving as money, 
jewelry, ornaments, annals, and for registers ; 'tis the 
bond of nations and individuals ; an inviolable and sacred 
pledge which guarantees messages, promises and treaties. 
As writing is not in use among them, they make a local 
memoir by means of these belts, each of which signifies a 
particular affair, or a circumstance of affairs. The Chiefs 
of the villages are the depositaries of them, and communi- 
cate them to the young people, who thus learn the history 
and engagements of their Nations. * * * Their length, 
width and color are in proportion to the importance. of the 
affair to be negotiated. Ordinary Belts consist of twelve 
rows of 180 beads each. "4 A belt of white wampum, with 

1 lb., 80. 

2 lb., 115 ; Records of the City of New Amsterdam in New Nether- 
land, edited by Henry B. Dawson, Morrisania, N. Y.^ t867, Vol. I., 37-8 ; 
The Dutch Records of New York, printed in Old New York, Vol. II. 
(March, i8gi), 469-70. 

3 Laws and Ordinances, etc., as cited, 359. 

4 N. Y. Col. Docs. , Vol. X. , 556. Oneof the belts kept by the Onondagas 
contains 10,000 beads. — Second Annual Report U. S. Bureau of Ethno- 
logy^ 1880-81, p. 232. This and other wampum belts are illustrated in 
this report. The belt given by the Indians to William Penn at the 
famous treaty at Shackamaxon in 1682 is in the possession of the 

two hands joined, in black, was a signal of peace and unity j. 
if of black, it meant a warning or reproof j if black, marked 
with red, it was a declaration of war. When the Senecas 
wished the Delawares to join them in fighting the French, 
they sent a belt of wampum expressing their desire. The 
Delawares, after due deliberation, returned the belt, there- 
by declining the invitation. 1 

The exceeding fondness of the Indians for wampum made 
its manufacture a profitable industry down to within a few 
years, and less than half a century ago many a family in 
Bergen county earned a livelihood by making wampum for 
the traders on the frontieTS.2 

In their family relations the Delaware Indians seem to 
have been happier than the Iroquois and many other tribes. 3 
They married very young — the girls at thirteen or fourteen, 
and the lads when seventeen or eighteen.4 Exogamy was 
the rule among all the North American Indians, as is and 
has been the case among nearly all peoples in a state of bar- 
barism. 5 No young brave was permitted under any cir- 
cumstances to marry a dusky maiden of his own sub-tribe. 
"According to their own account, the Indian nations were di- 
vided into tribes, for no other purpose, than that no one 
might ever, either through temptation or mistake, marrj' a 
near relation, which at present is scarcely possible. "6 The 
young women inclining to marriage would wear a headdress 
indicative of the fact, as they sat by the pathway, usually 
covering the face and often the whole body, so that they 
could not be recognized,'' until the favored suitor appeared. 
The negotiations for the maiden's hand were carried on 
ynXh. her nearest relations, to whom the suitor would send a 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and is depicted with the utmost 
exactness in the Memoirs of that Society, Vol. VI., Philadelphia, 1B58, 
at p. 207. The belt is 26 inches long and nine inches broad, consisting 
of 18 rows of beads, i66 beads in each row, or about 3,000 in all. "Ac- 
cording to an Indian conception, these belts can tell, by means of 
an interpreter, the exact rule, provision or transaction talked into 
them at the time, and of which they were the exclusive record. A 
strand of wampum consisting of strings of purple and white shell beads, 
or a belt woven with figures formed by beads of different colors, 
operated on the principle of associating a particular fact with a 
particular string or figure ; thus giving a serial arrangement to the facts 
as well as fidelity to the memory." — Ancient Society^ by Lewis H. 
Morgan, Nev,' York, 1878, p. 143. Among the Iroquois (and probably 
among other tribes) there were trained intei-preters, called "Keepers of 
the Wampum," whose business it was to explain the meaning of these 
belts.— 73. 

1 Loskiel, 27, 28. 

2 A description of the process as carried on in Bergen county in 1845 
is given in Historical Collections of the State of New lersey, etc., by 
lohn W. Barber and Henry Howe, New York, 1845, p. 72. It is 
there said that females made from five to ten strings of wampum, a foot 
long, in a day, which they sold readily to the country merchants for 
12X cents a string. 

3 Loskiel, 60. 

* William Penn, as cited, 98. 

5 Primitive Marriage, by I. F. Mc Lennan, passim. 

6 Loskiel, 56. " When a lad courts a girl he buys her generally in a 
neighboring village. — IVassenaer, as cited, 230. 

7 William Penn, as cited, 97-8; Journalof New Netherland,i64i-7, re- 
printed in N. Y. Doc. Hist., IV., 81. 



present,! sometimes supplemented by a gift of wampum to 
the girl. 2 If the relatives were unfavorable, they returned 
the gifts, but if agreeable, the maiden was led to the young 
brave's hut without further ceremony, and her friends would 
march in solemn procession to the dwelling of the young 
couple, with presents of Indian corn, beans, kettles, dishes, 
baskets, hatchets, etc. 3 These unions, generally formed 
merely from inclination or convenience, were seldom lasting, 
and the man and woman would separate on slight provoca- 
tion, and enter into new relations.* Instances, however, 
are recorded where there were the sincerest attachments ; 
men and women would carry besons (love-philtres), to pre- 
serve the affection of one they lovedS ; and when this affec- 
tion was lost they would take poison to destroy the life no 
longer brightened by the light of love.6 In cases of separa- 
tion, the children followed the mother, as they were always 
considered as belonging to her tribe.''' Although a plural- 
ity of wives was permissible, it was not commonly indulged 
in by the Delawares.8 Loskiel ungallantly says this was 
because "their love of ease rendered domestic peace a most 
valuable treasure. "9 It is very evident, however, that in 
such a crude stage of existence few men were able to sup- 
port more than one family, which fact would be sufficient 
explanation of the non-prevalence of the custom.!* 

The women bore children easily. H They immediately 
washed them, and "Having wrapt them in a Clout, they 
lay them on a strait thin Board, a little more than the 
length & breadth of the Child, and swaddle it fast upon 
the Board, to make it streight ; wherefore all Indians have 
flat Heads ; and thus they carry them at their Backs" ;!2 
but when engaged in household work, the mother would 

1 Loskiel, 57. 

2 WoUey, 49. 

3 Loskiel, 57 ; Wassenaer, 20. 

< Loskiel, 58 ; Journal of New Netherland,as cited, 81 ; Heckewelder, 
154. The advantages of this system were thus expounded (in 1770) by 
an aged Indian who had lived much in Pennsylvania and New Jersey : 
" Whue man court, court — may be one whole year ! — may be tv.'o year 
before he marry l^well ! — may be then got very good- wife — but may be 
not — may be -inry cross ! Well, now, suppose cross !— scold so soon as 
get awake in the morning ! scold all day ! scold until sleep ! all one; he 
must keep her. White people have law forbidding throwing away wife, 
be she ever so cross; must keep her always. Well, how does Indian 
do ? Indian when he see industrious squaw, which he like, he go to her, 
place his two forefingers close aside each other, make two look like one 
— look squaw in the face — see her smile — ^which is all one she say, Yes ! 
so he take her home— no danger she be cross ; no, no ! Squaw know too 
well what Indian do if she cross — throw her away and talce another! 
Squaw love to eat meat! no husband, no meat! Squaw do everything 
to please husband; he do same to please squaw. Live happy!" — 
Heckeiuelder^ 162. 

5 Loskiel, 58. 

6 William Penn, as cited, 99 ; Heckewelder, 259-60 ; Loskiel, 58. 

7 Journal of New Netherland, as cited, 81; Heckewelder, 259 ; Los- 
kiel, 61. 

8 Campanius, 126 ; Loskiel, 58. 

9 Loskiel, 58. 

10 Morgan's Ancient Society, 160. 

11 William Penn, as cited, 97 ; Loskiel, 61. 

12 William Penn, 97. The reference to Flat Heads was more applic- 
able to the Iroquois. 


"hang this rude cradle upon some peg, or branch of a 
tree."i In order to make the infants rugged, they were 
frequently plunged into cold water, especially in severe 
weather.'-^ A name was given to the child in his sixth or 
seventh year, by the father, with much ceremony'^ ; when 
he attained to manhood he was given another name, from 
some incident of his prowess, or other circumstance. 4 
There was a superstitious reluctance among them to have 
their names uttered aloud, and they were usually spoken of 
by indirection. This is one reason why they preferred, in 
their intercourse with the whites, to use a name given by the 
latter. The name of a dead Indian was never mentioned. 5 
Every boy was trained up in all his father's craft of 
field and wood and water. At the earliest age, as already 
remarked, he would be taught to use the bow-and-arrow, 
?nanhtai -fi how to fish with the hook-and-line — the line, 
Tvendainakan, twisted from the strands of the wild hemp, 
ackhallop, or of the milk-weed, pichtokenna ; the hook, aman, 
of bone, armed with bait, azoauckkon, made of either we- 
cheeso, the earth-worm, or the waiik-chelachces, the grass- 
hopper.'*' He likewise acquired the art of spearing fish with 
a forked, pointed pole,8 and of trapping them by means of 
a brush-net, which will be described hereafter. In fishing, 
he learned to make and to use canoes, amochol, either 
the dug-out, preferably made of the sycamore, called 
canoe-wood, amochol-he, or of birch bark, loiqita, and 
hence called iviqua-ainocJtol. As he grew older he learned 
to wield the stone hatchet, the fma-hican (from deniapechen 
or tcjiiapecJien, to cut, and Mean, an implement), more 
familiarly known to English readers as the "tomahawk." 9 
At the age of sixteen or eighteen the Indian lad under- 
went a trying "initiation," prefaced by a long fast and 
accompanied by ceremonies well calculated to test his men- 
tal and physical stamina.!" Doubtless the Delawares had 
secret societies, such as exist among many if not most of the 
Indian tribes to-day, but the existence of which has only 
coine to be known of late years. 

Now he was expected to distinguish himself in the hunt, 
either singly, or when a large number of men gathered in 
the autumn to form a line and drive the deer before them,, 
called a/'w(?r/^/a/(?;z.!l This was regularly practised by the 
Indians near Paterson, who would form their line on Garret 
Mountain, from the river to the summit, and drive the deer 

! Loskiel, 61. 

2 Campanius, 123 ; William Penn, 97. 

3 Loskiel, 62. 

4 Morgan, Ancient Society, 79, 80 ; Loskiel, 62. 

« Carrick Miller, on "Pictographs of the North American Indians," ia 
Fourth Annual Report U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, 1882-3, 171 ; N. Y. 
Col. Docs., XII., 524 ; Thomas, West Jersey, 6 ; Denton, 9-10. 

6 Lenape Conversations [with the Rev. Albert Seqaqlcind Anthony, 
a highly educated Delaware Indian, in Ontario, Canada], by Dr. Daniel 
G. Brinton, in American Folk-Lore Journal, I., 38. "The bow-string 
is tsc/iipan\ the arrow ^allunik." — li. 

7 lb. 

8 Douglass, Summary, 155. 

9 Lenape Conversations, 38 ; Zeisberger's Dictionary, passim. 

10 Heckewelder, 245 ; Loskiel, 63. 

11 Lenape Conversations, as cited, 39. 



northerly and eastwardly toward the Falls, where they must 
either subnrit to capture, or in their wild terror plunge over the 
cliffs rising above the present back-race. The narrow point 
of rock projecting toward Spruce street, between the chasm 
and the back-race, was in the early days known by the 
•whites as the Deer's Leap, from this ancient Indian custom. 

When a mere boy the Indian lad would be permitted to sit 
in the village council house, and hear the assembled wis- 
dom of the village or his tribe discuss the affairs of state, 1 
and expound the meaning of the keekq' (beads composing 
the wampum belts), whether the belt handed forth at a 
treaty, the nochkunduwoj.gan ("an answering)", or the belt 
of ratification, aptuwwoagan ("the covenant"). 2 In this 
-way he early acquired maturity of thought, and was taught 
the traditions of his people, and the course of conduct cal- 
culated to win him the praise of his fellows. When he got 
old enough to go on the war-path, he was taught the war- 
whoop, kowamo, and how to hurl the war-club, apecJi ''lit or 

The American Indians were all passionately fond of games, 
and were mostly inveterate gamblers. Among the Lenape 
a popular fireside game was qiid-quallis. A hollow bone 
was attached by a string to a pointed stick, which was held 
in the hand, and the bone was thrown up by a rapid move- 
ment, the game being to catch the bone, while in motion, 
on the pointed end of the stick. In another game, the 
players arranged themselves in two parallel lines, forty feet 
apart, each armed with a reed spear or arrow. A hoop, 
taiitmusq, was rolled rapidly at an equal distance between 
the lines, and the successful player was he who hurled 
his spear through the hoop in such a way as to stop it. 
Mazi/miii'di was a third game ; it was played with twelve 
fiat bones, one side white, the other colored, placed in 
& bowl, thrown into the air and caught as they fell ; those 
falling with the white side uppermost were the winning 
pieces. 4 

"The Girls," says William Penn, "stay with their 
]\Iothers, and help to Hoe the Ground, Plant Corn, and 
carry Burthens ; and they do well to use them to that Young, 
which they must do when they are Old ; for the Wives 
are the true Servants of their Husbands ; otherwise the 
Men are very affectionate to them. "5 

What an eloquent tribute to the character of the Lenape 
Pastorius gives: "They cultivate among themselves a 
most scrupulous honesty, are unwavering in keeping 
promises, insult no one, are hospitable to strangers, and 
faithful even to death to their friends."^ Another witness, at 
a much later date, testifies: "In former times they were 
quite truthful, although oaths were not customary among 
them. But it was not so in later times, after they had more 

1 Loskiel, 28, 63 ; Heckewelder, 116. 

2 Lenape Conversations, 39. 

3 lb., 39. 

■4 Essays of an Americanist, 186. 

s Richard Blome's " Present State," etc., as cited, 97 ; Loskiel, 62. 
6 Pastorius, as cited, in Memoirs Hist. Soc. Pa., IV., Part II., p. 
Heckewelder, 277. 

intercourse -with Christians.'''''^ Says Thomas : "They are so 
punctual that if any go from their first Offer or Bargain 
with them, it will be very difficult for that Party to get any 
Dealings with them any more, or to have any farther 
Converse with tliem."2 William Penn tried the Golden Rule 
in his dealings with the Lenape, and from his practical ex- 
perience of its workings gave this advice: "Don't abuse 
them, but let them have Justice, and you win them." 3 
In their primitive state, ere civilization had introduced to 
them a thousand comforts, conveniences and luxuries of 
which they had never dreamed, their wants were few, and 
covetousness was unknown. An Indian who heard the 
word for the first time asked what it meant, and when told 
that it signified a desire for more than a man needed, 
replied : " That is a strange thing.^''^ 

On the other hand, all the early records show that they 
never forgot and rarely forgave an injury, and imitated the 
wild beasts they hunted, in their cruelty and ferocity in 
reeking vengeance on a foe. 

In other words, notwithstanding many excellent traits, 
in which the Lenape were superior to the Iroquois, they 
were still barbarians, and preserved many of the instincts 
that had belonged to their state of savagery. Their crude 
idea of justice was not unlike that which prevailed among 
the Hebrews in the time of Moses : " Eye for eye, tooth for 
tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, "5 with a provision for 
adjustment on a money basis, such as was allowed by the 
earlier Roman law,6 and in that of England within the his- 
toric period. 7 In short, it rested on the two-fold principle 
of retaliation and restitution or pecuniary compensation. S 
There was no question of ethics involved, nor had Indian 
society yet reached that stage where an injury done to the 
individual was a delict, a crime or a sin against the tribe, 
although there are occasional instances in the early records 
where the tribe felt a certain responsibility for the acts of 
rash members.9 By their unwritten code, the thief was com- 
pelled to restore the article taken, or its value, and if he, re- 
peated the offence too often he was stripped of all his goods. 1" 
Where one man killed another, it was left to the dead man's 
relatives to slay the offender, U but unless this was done 

1 Acrelius, 53. 

2 Thomas's West-New Jersey, 6. 

3 Richard Blome's " Present State," etc., as cited, 104. 

* The History of Pennsylvania, in North America, etc., by Robert 
Proud, Philadelphia, 1798, Vol. II., 304. 

5 Exodus XXI, 24. 

6 Studies in Roman Law, etc. , by Lord Mackenzie, 3d ed. , Edinburgh, 
1870, pp. 366, 367 ; The Pandects ; a Treatise on the Roman Law, etc. , by 
J. E. Goudsmit, LL. D. , London, 1873, pp. 344 et seqq. • 

7 Kembla's " Anglo-Saxons," I., T77, quoted in Ancient Law, etc., by' 
Henry Sumner Maine, New York, 1877, p. 358. 

8 Cf. " The Old Testament in the Jewish Church," by 'W. Robertson 
Smith, M. A., Edinburgh, 1881, p. 336 ; Heckewelder, 329. 

9 Sir Henry Sumner Maine believes that the earliest written laws of 
the Romans were based on the idea of tort — a wrong done the State, 
which was equivalent to a sin. — Ancient Lam, '-^iyd. 

10 Wassenaer, 28. 

11 lb., 28. " All through the East, there are regularly fi.Ked tariffs for 
blood-cancelling; as if in recognition of the relative loss to a family, of 



•within twenty-four hours, it was usual to accept a pecuniary 
compensation,! in which case one hundred fathoms of 
wampum would be paid for a man, and twice as much for a 
woman, the distinction being due to tlie fact that she might 
bear children. 2 

Time was divided by moons — gischuch ; they had but 
twelve lunar months in the year, gacktin : 

Anixi gischuch (Squirrel month), January. 

Tsqualli gischuch (Frog month), February. 

M'choamowi3 gischuch (Shad month), March. 

Quitauweuhewi gischuch (Spring month), April. 

Tauwinipen (Beginning of Summer), May. 

Kitschinipen (Summer), June. 

Yugatamoewi gischuch, July. 

Sakauweuhewi gischuch (Deer month), August. 

Kitschitachquoak* (Autumn month), September. 

Pooxit (Mouth of vermin), October. 

Wini gischuch (Snow month), November. 

M'chakhocque (Cold month, when the cold makes the 
trees crack), December. 5 

Periods less than moons or months were counted by 
nights or "sleeps."6 Instead of reckoning by years, they 
usually counted from certain seasons — as from one seeding 
time to the other, or "so many winters after" a particular 
event -^ the time of day was calculated by the sun's height in 
the heavens. As the muse of Roger Williams puts it, 
"More particular," and very haltingly : 

They have no helpe of Clock or Watch, 

And Sunne they overprize. 
Having tiose artificial! helps, the Sun 

We unthankfuUy despise. 8 

Although, as the same writer observes, "By occasion of 
their frequent lying in the Fields and Woods, they much 
observe the Starres, and their very children can give Names 
to many of them, and observe their Motions, "9 we have no 

one or another of its supporting members." See " The Blood Covenant 
a primitive rite and its bearings on Scripture," by H. Clay TrumbuU, D. 
D., London, 1887, p. 260. The person who slew the murderer was not 
so much an avenger, as a restorer, a balancer, of the poise between the 
families of the slayer and the slain. There are frequent instances 
in American history, apparently supporting this view, where captives 
have been adopted in the place of sons slain fn battle. 

1 Van der Donck, 212. See Exodus xxi, 30. 

2 Loskiel, 16. 

3 In the Minsl or Monsey dialect, <:/2zoij.-«/.^Heckewelder, 362. 
* Big Snake month, from kitschi^ big, and achg-ook, snake. 

5 A Grammar of the Language of the Lenni Lenape, or Delaware 
Indians, translated from the German iSIanuscript of the late Rev. David 
Zeisberger, for the American Philosophical Society, Vol. III., New 
Series, Philadelphia, 1830, p. log. Loskiel gives different names for 
some of the months: April, planting month; May, when the hoe is 
used to the corn ; June, when the deer become red ; July, the time 
of raising the earth about the corn ; August, when the com is in 
the milk ; October, the harvest month ; November, hunting month ; 
December, when the bucks cast their antlers. — History of the Mission^ 
etc., 31. 

6 Loskiel, 31 ; Douglass's Summary, as cited, 157. 
7' Loskiel, 31 ; Heckewelder, 307 ; Douglass, 157. 

8 Key, 58. 

9 lb. , 79. 

account of their identification of any but the polar star, by 
which they had learned to direct their course. 1 The knowl- 
edge of astronomy appears to have originated with pastoral, 
and not with nomadic, peoples. 

The red man, by reason of his adventurous pursuits, was 
peculiarly subject to wounds and to diseases that follow ex- 
posure and irregular living. In his treatment of external 
injuries he was surprisingly successful, having a precise 
knowledge of the particular roots and herls most efficacious 
in each case and how to apply them ; these remedies were 
often used internally also.2 Bishop Ettwein says : 3 
" There are a few Indians in general who have an actual 
Knowledge of the Virtues of Roots and Herbs, which they 
got from their Forefathers, and can cure certain Diseases, 
but they seldom communicate their Secrets, until they see 
they must soon die. Their Medicine or Beson is not for a 
white Man's Stomach, it is allways in great Portions. 
They have for a Bite of each particular Snake a particirlar 
Herb. Roberts' Plantain, called Ccesar's Antidote is com- 
monly used for the Bite of a Rattle Snake, the Herb bruised 
and some of the Juice taken inwardly and the rest laid oa 
the Wound." But the Indian's favorite remedy for disease 
and fatigue was the sweat-bath. Whether the warrior suf- 
fered from exhaustion or rheumatism, loss of appetite or 
small-pox, fever or consumption, he hied to the Pimoacnn — 
the sweat-house. This was a sort of oven, usually built on 
the side of a bank, covered with split bark and earth, 
lined with clay, a small door being on one side. Here 
two to six men could huddle together, over some red-hot 
stones, on which water was then poured, till they ceased to 
"sing." In this way clouds of steam were raised. The 
men at the same time drank hot decoctions, inducing a pro- 
fuse perspiration, and heightening the effect, after the man- 
ner of a modern Russian bath. From this oven they plunged 

1 Loskiel, 30; Heckewelder, 308. Thomas (as cited, p. 6) says: 
" They are great Observers of the Weather by the Moon." The name 
given to the North Star, Lmvanndwi a/ank, is evidently a literal transla- 
tion from the English. 

2 Loskiel, 107-14; William Penn, as cited, 95 ; Thomas, Pennsylva- 
nia, 18, ig ; 16., West Jersey, 3 ; Wassenaer, 22. Heckewelder relates 
some astonishing cures of dangerous wounds, pp. 224-7. He says : 
"There is a superstitious notion, in which all their physicians participate, 
which is, that when an emetic is to be administered, the water in which 
the potion is mixed must be drawn up stream, and if for a cathartic 
downwards." — lb., 224, 228. And again : " I firmly believe that there is 
no wound, unless it should be absolutely mortal, or beyond the skill of 
our own good practitioners, which an Indian surgeon (I mean the best of 
them) will not succeed in healing." — !i., 22g. 

3 The Rev. John Ettwein, born in Germany in 1712, and who came to 
this country in 1754, to serve as a Moravian missionary among the Dela- 
ware Indians, and who was a Bishop at Bethlehem, Pa., from 1794 until 
his death, in 1802, wrote and sent to Gen. Washington in 1788 " Some 
Remarks and Annotations concerning the Traditions, Customs, Lang- 
uages, &c, , of the Indians of North America, from the Memoirs of the 
Rev. David Leisberger [Zeisberger], and other Missionaries of tlie 
United States," which paper was published in the Proceedings of the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, September, 1845. (These Proceed- 
ings for 1845 were afterwards bound up in a volume entitled Bulletin 
of the Hist. Soc. of Pa., Vol. I.) The quotation is from p. 38 of this 



into the cold river, causing a vigorous reaction. 1 Unfortu- 
nately, the cold water dip was apt to prove fatal in cases of 
small-pox and other eruptive fevers.2 Disease in general 
was attributed to some evil spirit getting into the sick man, 3 
and if the malady did not yield to the ordinary remedies, 
or the sweat-bath, the patient had a choice of one of two or 
three different " schools " of medicine. 

David Brainerd, the devoted missionary among the Dela- 
ware Indians in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, gives us a 
glimpse of the Potoaws, who were one class of priests and 
physicians. He says : 

" These are a sort of persons who are supposed to have a 
power of foretelling future events, or recovering the sick, at 
least oftentimes, and of charming, inchanting or poisoning 
persons to death by their magic divinations. Their spirit, 
in its various operations, seems to be a Satanical imitation 
■of the spirit of prophecy with which the church in early ages 
was favoured. Some of these diviners are endowed with the 
spirit in infanc)' ; — others in adult age. — It seems not to de- 
pend upon their own will, nor to be acquired by any en- 
deavours of the person who is the subject of it, although it 
is supposed to be given to children sometimes in conse- 
quence of some means which the parents use with them for 
that purpose ; one of which is to make the child swallow 
a small living frog, after having perfoi^med some supersti- 
tious rites and ceremonies upon it. They are not under the 
influence of this spirit always alike, ^-but it comes upon them 
at times. Those who are endowed with it, are accounted 
singularly favored."^ One of these Po'Maws was converted 
under the teaching of Brainerd, and gave him a curious 
account of his pre-natal experiences, and of his subsequent 
constant direction by a spirit. "There were some times," 
he told the missionary, "when this spirit came upon him in 
a special manner, and he was full of what he saw [in his pre- 
existent state] in the great man. Then, he says, he was all 
light, and not only light himself, but it was light all around 
him, so that he could see through men, and knew the 
thoughts of their hearts. * * * j\iy interpreter tells me, 
that he heard one of them tell a certain Indian the secret 
thoughts of his heart, which he had never divulged. The 
case was this, the Indian was bitten with a snake, and was in 
extreme pain with the bite. Whereupon the diviner, who 
was applied to for his recovery, told him, that such a time 
he had promised, that the next deer he killed, he would 
sacrifice it to some great power, but had broken his prom- 
ise. Now, said he, that great power has ordered this snake 
to bite you for your neglect. The Indian confessed 'it was 

1 Heckewelder, 225; Wolley, 45; Denton, 9; Brinton, Essays of an 
Americanist, 187 ; Montanus, 82. 

2 Douglass, 174. 

3 Denton, 10; Loskiel, in. 

■4 Memoirs of the Rev. David Brainerd ; Missionary to the Indians on 
the Borders of New-York, New-Jersey, and Pennsylvania: chiefly taken 
from his own diary. By Rev. Jonathan Exlwards, of Northampton. In- 
cluding his journal, now for the first time incorporated with the rest of 
his diary, in a regiilar chronological series. By Sereno Edwards 
Dvvight, New Haven, 1822, pp. 178, 237, 348. This is the best edition of 

SO, but said he had never told anybody of it."l This instance 
of the power of the Powaw — doubtless a shrewd guess, 
perhaps based on some involuntary utterance of the sick 
man — was well calculated to impress the simple Indian. 
Nevertheless, though with manifest reluctance, Roger 
^Yi^iams confesses that these powaws "doe most certainly 
(by the helpe of the Divell) worke great Cures, though most 
certaine it is that the greatest part of their Priests doe 
merely abuse them and get their Money, in the times of 
their sicknesse, and to my knowledge long for sick timcs.'''"^ 

The name of this class of physician-priests is evidently 
allied to the Cree root, pawamiw, the dream. 3 They might 
be compared with the "healing clairvoyants" of the present 
day. So far as they were honest in their pretensions — and 
most of them were impostors — they were self-deluded, 
throwing themselves into a condition of hypnotism. Not 
infrequently they were epileptic. 4 These conclusions are 
reasonably inferred from the meagre accounts we have of 

But the Indian "doctor" or "medicine man" J>a7- excel- 
lence was the Metei0 or MedeuS> The Cree word is mitew, a 
sorcerer, medicine man, diviner.1' This priest-physician 

lib., 350. 

2 Key, 158. 

3 Lacombe, 545. 

4 Cf. Spiritualism and allied causes and conditions of Nervous 
Derangement, by William A. Hammond, M. D. , New York, 1876, 
Chapters iii, v,- x, xiii, xv; The Magic of the Middle Ages, by 
Viktor Rydberg, New York, 1879 ; La Sorciere : the Witch of the Middle 
Ages, by J. Michelet, London, 1863; Three Books of Occult Philosophy, 
written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa, of Nettesheim, Counseller to 
Charles the Fifth, Emperor of German}- : and Judge 01 the Prerogative 
Court. Translated out of the Latin into tlie English Tongue, by J. F., 
London, 1651, Book i. Chap, lx ; Henrici Cornelii Agrippae ab Hettes- 
heym De incertiludine & vanitate scientiarum declamatio invectiva,etc., 
M. D. XXXI, " De divinationibus in genere," Caput xx-xii ; Henrie 
Cornelius Agrippa, of the Vanitie and vncertaintie of Artes and Sciences, 
Englished by Ja. San. Gent. , Imprinted at London, etc. , Anno 1569,1. 50 ; 
Some Higher Aspects of Mesmerism, by Edmund Gumey and Frederic 
W. H. Myers, in Proceedings of the Society for Ps5'chical Research, De- 
cember, 18S5, London, 1SS3, pp. 401 et scqq. Since the above was 
written, the author has met with an article in the Popular Science 
Monthl}^ for September, 1886, on " Indian Medicine," by G. Archie 
Stockwell, M. D. , in which the writer expresses his contempt for the 
Indian treatment of diseases as being the merest fetichism. But he says : 
" All medicine-men of the first rank are clairvoyants and psychologists 
(mesmerists, if you like) of no mean pretensions, as a rule capable of 
affording instruction to the most able of their white confreres ; and 
to be a medicine-man at all demands that the individual be not only a 
shrewd student of human nature capable of drawing deductions from 
matters seemingly the most trifling, but also an expert conjurer 
and wizard. I have repeatedly known events in the far future to be 
predicted with scrupulous fidelity to details, exactly as they sub- 
sequently occurred ; the movements of persons and individuals to be 
described in minutiae who had never been seen, and were hundreds of 
miles away, without a single error as to time, place, or act." 

i " The word is derived from meteohei, to drum on a hollow body ; 
a turkey cock is sometimes called jitcteu^ from the drumming sound of 
his wings. The ancient medicine men used drums." — Lendpe-English 
Dictionary^ 83. Dr. Brinton thinks the word is derived from w' 'ieh., 
heart, as the centre of hfe and emotions. — The Lcmipi^ etc., 71. 

6 Heckewelder, 230. 

7 Dictionnaire et Grammaire de la Langue des Cris, as cited, 463. 



■would prepare his roots and herbs with great ceremony, 
all the while chanting prayers and incantations. The 
quantity and quality of the medicines, as well as of the 
incantations, and their efficacy, likewise, depended on the 
size of the present given the meteu on his appearance. 1 
Having prepared the medicine, the physician would breathe 
on his patient, -apply the decoction externally as well as 
internally, and then "howle and roar, and hollow over them, 
.and begin the song to the rest of the people about them, 
who all joyne (like a Quire) in Prayer to their Gods for 
them. "2 Sometimes the doctor would array himself in a 
bearskin, with a rattle in his hand, a gourd full of stones or 
beans, which he would shake violently as he came to the 
patient's hut, making hideous noises, and playing all 
sorts of juggling tricks. With^ great assumption of gravity 
he would describe the disease and its location, prescribe a 
diet suited to the malady, and foretell the result. If he 
succeeded, well ; if he failed, he would give some 
plausible explanation of his want of success. 3 As his object 
was to drive out the sick spirit, he resorted to every ex- 
pedient to that end. Often he succeeded, but in many 
cases the patient's spirit was frightened out of him at the 
same time by the fantastic and disgusting tricks, the alarm- 
ing feats of legerdemain, 4 and the diabolical clamor that 
were inseparable features of the medicine man's treatment. 
" Sometimes the physician creeps into the oven, where he 
sweats, howls and roars, and now and then grins horribly at 
his patient, who is laid before the opening, frequently 
feeling his pulse. "5 Crude petroleum was a favorite medi- 

1 Heckewelder, 232 ; Loskiel, no. 

2 Rog'er Williams, 159. 

3 Loskiel, in. 

* " I would not like to hazard the assertion, in this enli;jhtened age, 
•that there is such a thing as magic or supernatural agency among 
the Indians, but I must confess myself unable, as all have done who 
have witnessed these exhibitions, to account for [them] satisfactorily ; 
one of those Indians who pretends to have an intercourse with spirits, 
will permit himself to be bound hands and feet, then wrapped closely in 
a blanket or deer's hide, bound around his whole body with cords and 
thongs, as long and as tightly as the incredulity of any one present may 
see fit to continue the operation, after which he is thrown into a 
small lodge. He begins a low, unintelligible incantation to the 
gods and increases in rapidity and loudness until he works himself up 
into a great pitch of seeming or real frenzy, at which time, usu- 
ally three or four minutes after being put in, he opens the lodge and 
1.hrovv3 out the thongs and hides with which he was bound vsithout 
a single knot being untied or fold displaced, himself sitting calm 
and free on the ground." — The Ojibiuay Conquest^ a tale of the Nm-th- 
ivcsi, by Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh, or G. Copway, Chief of the Ojibway 
Nation, New York, 1850, p. 86. In the article on "Indian IMedicine," 
already cited, the writer describes an instance of this kind, where 
he personally bound a famous Ojibway "medicine man" with power- 
ful strips of green moose-hide, drawing them so tightly about his naked 
form that the blood threatened to burst from the imprisoned flesh, 
employing knots and turns innumerable, such as had been suggested by 
naval experience ; then he was lifted into a small tent erected for 
the purpose in the midst of an open prairie. Instantly a vast variety of 
noises was heard to the accompaniment of the prisoner's low chant, and 
presently he appeared at the door of the tent, unbound. Thethongs 
could not be found, but he pointed to a tree a mile away, and on going 
thither, there were the bonds, apparently intact ! 

* Loskiel, in. 

cine, especially for external complaints, but it was also 
taken internally.! 

Another class of medicine-men in the vicinity of New 
York is described by Wassenaer, in 1624. These men 
were called Kitzinacka,^ evidently Kitschii, great, ackgook, 
snake. 3 Their practice was not unlike that of the tneteu. 
"When one among them is sick," says our old Dutch 
chronicler, "he visits him, sits by him and bawls, roars and 
cries like one possessed." We have no other details of the 
"practice " of the Big-Snake Doctor. No doubt it was con- 
nected with the awe in which the serpent was held by the 
American tribes in general. 4 The serpent figured in their 
materia medica, and on the principle similia similibiis ciu-an- 
tiir, when a man was wounded by a snake, the fat of the 
serpent itself, rubbed into the wound, was thought to be 
efficaciotis. The flesh of the rattlesnake, stewed into a kind 
of broth, was another remedy, and the skin, shed annually 
by that snake, was dried and pounded fine, and used inter- 
nally for many purposes.5 

Indian surgery was of the crudest description, but very 
successful. " They are perfect masters in the treatment of 
fracttires and dislocations," says Loskiel. "If an Indian 
has disljcated his foot or knee, when hunting alone, he 
creeps to the next tree, and tying one end of his strap to it, 
fastens the other to the dislocated limb, and lying on his 
back, continues to pitU till it is reduced."*) Even to this day 
the Lenape resort to an operation similar to trephining for 
severe headaches. A crucial incision is made in the scalp 
on or near the vertix, and the bone is scraped. 7 

To the simple savage, living always in close contact with 
nature, so thoroughly in touch with her fresh and life-giving 
qualities, health was the normal condition of man. When 
the form that had once been so vigorous and animated lay 
still and cold, it was a mystery he could not fathom. Dr. 
Brinton says that "in all primitive American tribes, there is 
no notion of natural death. No man 'dies,' he is always 
'killed.' Death as a necessary incident in the course of 
nature is entirely unknown to thein. When a person dies 
by disease, they suppose he has been, killed by some 
sorcery, or some unknown venomous creature. "8 Hecke- 
v/elder says he has often heard the lamentable cry, Matia 
'ajitigi angebi, "I do not want to die. "9 It was different 
when they met death at the hands of an enemy, either in 
battle, or even by dreadful torture. There they encoun- 
tered their fate face to face. There was none of that 
mystery about it which was so dreadful to the untutored 
mind. They could hurl defiance against their visible foes, 
and utter never a arroan. 

lib., 118. 

2 Wassenaer, as cited, 20. 

3 Lenapa-English Dictionary, sub voces. 
* Dorman, as cited, 263-266. 

5 Loskiel, 112. 

6 Loskiel, 114. 

7 Essays of an Americanist, 188. 

8 Essays of an Americanist, 143. 

9 Brintou's Lenap^, 70. 



When a person died a natural death, the relatives were 
loud in their cries of grief, which they kept up for some 
days, until the time of burial. The body was attired in the 
best garments of the deceased, the face painted red, and 
the corpse interred in a grave some distance from the village 
or huts of the survivors. In the vicinity of New York, at 
least, and probably among the New Jersey Indians gener- 
ally, the body was placed in a sitting position, the face 
toward the east ;1 the pipe, tobacco, bow and arrows, knife, 
kettle, wampum, a small bag of corn, and other personal 
property of the deceased that might be useful to him on his 
long journey to the spirit land, were placed in the grave 
with him. 2 At the head of the grave a tall post was erected, 
indicating who was buried there. If it was a Chief, the 
post was elaborately carved with rude figures telling some- 
thing of the dead ; and if he was a war Chief or a great 
warrior, his valiant deeds were set forth with care upon a 
post painted red. In the case of a medicine man, his 
tortoise shell rattle or calabash was hung on the post. 3 The 
grave was enclosed with a fence and covered over, to keep it 
secure from intrusion, the grass was neatly trimmed, and 
the friends looked after it for 3'ears. Even when far 
removed from their old homes, they would repair at least 
once a year to the graves of their dead, to see that 
they were preserved. 4 It is a shocking fact that the valuable 
furs in which the Indian hunter was often buried, some- 
times tempted the whites to plunder the grave and rob the 
dead, occasioning an indignant protest upon the part of his 
tribe.5 When a prominent Indian died far from home, they 
would carry his bones back to his former abode, after 
a considerable lapse of time, and bury them beside his 
kindred. 6 

Their dread of the mystery of death led them to speak 
of it by circumlocution or some euphemism, as " You are 
about to see your grandfathers, "7 or, as among the whites, "If 
anything should happen." Probably because they had a 
vague belief that the spirits of the dead haunted their 
former home, Roger Williams says that in case of a death 
the Indians would remove their wigwam to a new spot.8 It 
is a thought that appeals strongly to the imagination — that of 
the Indian warrior returning in spirit to hover over his form- 
er home, to linger about his grave, a thought so beautifully 
expressed by our own Jersey poet, Freneau : 

By midnight moons, o'er moistening dews, 

In vestments for the chace array'd, 
The hunter still the deer pursues, 

The hunter and the deer, a shade ! 

1 Denton, as cited, 9 ; Wolley, 50 ; Vanderdonck, 202 ; Wassenaer, 20, 

2 Denton, Wolley, Vanderdonck and Wassenaer, as just cited ; 
Thomas, West-New-Jersey, 2, 3 ; William Penn, in -Blome's Present 
State, loo-ioi ; Loskiel, 119 ; Heckewelder, 268-276 ; The Life and Times 
of David Zeisberger the Western pioneer and aposile of the Indians, by 
Edmund de Schweinitz, Philadelphia, 1871, pp. 196-8. 

3 Loskiel, 119. 

* Denton, 9 ; Vanderdonck, 202 ; Thomas, 3 ; William Penn, loi. 

5 N. Y. Col. Docs. , XII. , 524. 

6 Thomas, 3. 

^ Schweinitz, Life of Zeisberger, as cited, 475. 
8 Key, 56. 

And long shall timorous fancy see 

The painted chief, and pointed spear. 
And reason's self shall bow the knee 

To shadows and delusions here.l 

The friends of a deceased person blackened their faces, 
in token of their grief ;2 but the active mourning, so to- 
speak, was left to the female relatives, who would repair 
daily to the grave, for a time, at morn and eve, to utter 
their cries of lamentation. A widow mourned a whole year, 
dressing without ornaments and seldom washing herself. 3 
The men did not alter their dress nor manner of living, nor 
did they mourn for any set period,* but before marrying 
again they were expected to make an offering to the kindred 
of the deceased wife, "for Atonement, Liberty, and Mar- 

It is impossible to tell how many languages were spoken 
in America when the whites first came hither. At the 
present time, there are in America north of Mexico, fifty- 
eight distinct linguistic families, as described in the admir- 
able report of Major J. W. Powell, the Director of the 
U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, and depicted with vivid 
clearness on the map accompanying his paper in the 
Seventh Annual Report of that Bureau. Of these, curi- 
ously enough, there are no less than forty families in 
the narrow strip between the Rocky Mountains and the 
Pacific coast — a fact which militates strongly against any 
theory that the Indians are of Tatar or Mongolian origin. 
Of these fifty-eight distinct families, the Algonkin, as 
already remarked, occupied a very large territory ; to be 
precise — almost the whole of the Dominion of Canada south 
of Lat. 60 degs. N., and east of Long. 115 degs. W. ; and 
most of the United States as far South as Lat. 35 degs. N., 
east of the Mississippi. The territory lying around Lakes 
Erie and Ontario, on both sides of the St. Lawrence as far 
down as Quebec, and in Central Pennsylvania, was oc- 
cupied by the Iroquois, who were thus intruded within the 
vast domain of the Algonkins. According to Major 
Powell's classification, there are thirty-six6 well defined 

1 First published (in book form) in" The Miscellaneous Works of Mr. 
Philip Freneau ; containing his Essays, and additional poems," Phila- 
delphia, M Dec LXXXVIII^ p. 189. There was a sUght change in 
punctuation and use of italics in the lines as republished in " Poems 
Written between the Years 1768 & 1794, by Philip Freneau, of New 
Jersey," Printed at the Press of the Author, at Mount-Pleasant, near 
Middietown-Point, M, DCC, XCV, p. 89. They are cited here from the 
third collected edition of Freneau's Poems, " Poems written and pub- 
lished during the American Revolutionary War, and now republished 
from the original manuscripts ; interspersed with translations from the 
ancients, and other pieces not heretofore in print," by Philip Freneau, 
Philaladelphia, 1809, 1. , 141. Thomas Campbell, in his poem, "O'Con- 
nor's Child ; or, The Flower of Love lies bleeding," uses these lines : 

" Now o'er the hill in chase he flits — ■ 
The huiite?' and the deer a shaded 

2 Thomas, 'West Jersey, 6. 

3 Loskiel, 121 ; Ettwein, 38. 

4 lb. 

5 William Penn, as cited, 99. 

6 Dr. Brinton makes but twenty-nine, in his work on " The Ameri- 
can Race," New York, 1891, p. 80. Among the best-known were 
the Abnakis, Nova Scotia and south bank of the St. Lawrence river ; 
Arapahoes, head waters of Kansas river ; Blackfeet, head waters 



tribes of the Algonkin stock, numbering about 95,600 per- 
sons, of whom about 60,000 are in Canada and the re- 
mainder in this country. Included in these tribes are the 
Delawares and Munsees, about 1,750 persons, 1 descendants 
of the former native inhabitants of New Jersey and Eastern 
Pennsylvania. All the languages spoken by the Algonkin 
tribes have marked resemblances, indicating a common 
origin, and in a general way it may be said that the tribes 
• of that stock nearest to the Crees speak languages or dialects 
most closely resembling the tongue of that people, which 
has certain tmmistakable signs of greater purity and 
antiquity than the others. It maybe said to bear the same 
relation to the other Algonkin languages that the Sanscrit 
was formerly supposed to hold to the Aryan. The stu- 
dent of any of the Algonkin tongues finds it a great help 
to have at his side Howse's Cree grammar, a work held in 
very high esteem by scholars for its scientific precision ; 
Lacombe's Dictionnaire de la Langue des Cris (his gram- 
mar, attached to the dictionary, does not stand so high as 
Howse's), and Cuoq's Lexique de la Langue Algonqviine. 
The study of the comparative grammar of allied languages, 
and of the etymology of words as traced through different 
families of the same linguistic stock, is of obvious ad- 
vantage in tracing the various shades of meaning of a word, 
and its original significance, whereby light is often gained on 
obscure points in history, and the primitive manners and 
customs, myths and religious beliefs of a people. The ear- 
lier travelers and writers who attempted to describe the 
American race — or races — did not recognize fully this sep- 
aration of the Indians into distinct families, speaking lang- 
uages totally different, and many later writers have also ig- 
nored this important fact. In reading the narratives of 
explorers it is important to note carefully what region they 
traversed, and hence what particular linguistic stock or 
family they are describing. Colden's famous and invalua- 
ble History of the Five Nations is of very slight use 
in the study of the Lenape of New Jersey. Adair's ac- 
count of the Muskoheegan Indians of the Southern States 
is equally valueless for the sanre purpose. These various 
stocks spoke languages radically different. There is no 
more resemblance between the Cree and Tinne — spoken by 
•two peoples geographically contiguous — than there is be- 
tween the French and the Chinese.2 Still, there are cer- 
tain features, certain modes of thought, of expression, com- 

of Missouri river ; Cheyennes, upper waters of Arkansas river ; Chipe- 
ways or Ojibways, shores of Lalie Superior; Crees, southern shores 
of Hudson's bay; Illinois, on the Illinois river; Kickapoos, on upper 
Illinois river; Miamis, between Miami and Wabash rivers; Micmacs, 
NoA'a Scotia ; Mohegans, on lower Hudson river ; Manhattans, about 
New York bay; Nanticokes, on Chesapeake bay; Ottawas, on the 
Ottawa river; Passamaquoddies, on Schoodic river; Pottawattomies, 
south of Lake Michigan ; Sacs and Foxes, on Sac I'iver; Shawnees, on 
Tennessee river. Cf. Brinton's "American Race," p. 80: Powell 
on "Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico," in 
Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, i8gi, 
pp. 48-50. 

mon to all or most American languages, which indicate a 
common origin of the peoples using them, notwithstand- 
ing the superficial differences between them. There is no 
gender in the American tongues ; words are animate or in- 
animate, the distinction being not always one of fact. 
There are no relative pronouns, few or no conjunctions ; no 
articles ; very few adjectives or prepositions. Many objects 
were spoken of always in connection with their relations to 
other objects. Instead of saying "arm," "thigh," " hand," 
the Indian would say "my-arm," "your-thigh," "his-hand." 
Words apparently disconnected were run together and in- 
corporated into each other, a part of one being united with 
another, and thus new words were formed, new ideas ex- 
pressed. The Indian who saw a cow for the first time de- 
scribed it in his own tongue as "animal-that-walks-on-flat- 
split-foot." The Delaware word for horse means "the four- 
footed-animal-which-carries-on-his-back."l Although lack- 
ing in facility of precise expression, according to our ideas, 
in many instances the American langtiages avoid confusions 
common to us. While they had little use for words to con- 
vey abstract ideas, or metaphysical, theological or scientific 
terms, missionaries have often found it entirely practicable 
to explain the mysteries of religion and theology in native 
words. The two examples just given show how concrete 
objects were often described. Certain words were used, as 
"indifferent themes," sometimes corresponding to our 
nouns, sometimes to verbs, sometimes to adjectives, ac- 
cording to their connection. If used in a verbal sense, a 
change in the root would indicate that the action was sup- 
positive, instead of positive. Many other peculiarities 
show that the American languages differ in structure from 
those of the eastern hemisphere.2 They are more primitive 
than the Aryan languages, and hence arises their interest 
for the ethnologist, who has here the opportunity of study- 
ing the earlier methods of expression used by mankind ; 
and so of analyzing the mental processes of man in his 
primitive state. The light thus gained on the history of the 
development of the human race in mind, in manners and 
customs, in ways of obtaining a living, in civilization, relig- 
ion and government is of the greatest value and fascinating 
in its interest.3 Prof. Whitney says with truth: "Our 
national duty and honor are pectiliarly concerned in this 

. 1 According to the report of the U. S. Indian Commissioner for 18 
• and the Canadian Indian report for 1888. 

2 Bishop Faraud, quoted in Essays of an Americanist, 395. 

lib., 321. 

3 So long ago as 1867, Prof. William Dwight Whitney, of Yale Col- 
lege, in his lectures on " Language and the Study of Language," re- 
marked that the " incorporative type is not wholly peculiar to the lang- 
uages of our continent ; " that a trace of it was to be found in the Hunga- 
rian, and notably in the Basque. — O/. «V., 349, 354. See also "Races 
and Peoples: lectures on the Science of Ethnography," by Daniel G. 
Brinton, A. M., M. D., New York, 1890, p. 143. This fact has led some 
scholars to venture the hazardous conjecture that possibly the Basques 
are of all European peoples of to-day the most likely to have pre- 
served traces of a common ancestry with the American race. 

3 The interest and importance of this study, in its relations to an- 
thropology, are very clearly set forth by Dr. Brinton in several of his ad- 
mirable papers collected into the volume of " Essays by an Americanist ;" 
see also " The Development of Language, a paper read before the Cana- 
dian Institute," by Horatio Hale, Toronto, 1888 ; " On Algonkin Names 
for Man," by J. Hammond Trumbull [From the Transactions of the 
American Philological Association, 1871]. 



matter of the study of aboriginal American languages, as 
the most fertile and important branch of American archaeol- 
ogy. * * Indian scholars, and associations which devote 
themselves to gathering together and making public linguis- 
tics and other archreological materials for construction of 
the proper ethnology of the continent, are far rarer than 
they should be among us. "1 But there is no lack of litera- 
ture on these subjects now, and every year is adding to our 
store of knowledge, and perhaps demolishing old theories. 
The newer students are satisfied to gather facts, and are 
more chary of conclusions than their predecessors. Already 
we have a far greater body of original texts in the American 
languages — dealing with their popular traditions, myths, re- 
ligion, folk-tales, religious songs and dances, ceremonies, 
initiation rites into medicine lodges and other secret socie- 
ties, etc. — than can be found in the whole of the ancient 
Greek and Latin literature put together. 2 The various so- 
cieties mentioned, besides others, are constantly adding to 
the mass, while the United States Bureau of Ethnology is 
accumulating a priceless treasure of original material, the 
result of the well-directed labors of scores of intelligent, in- 
dustrious and zealous workers. 

The literature of the Lenape may be thus summarized, 
from Filling's Algonquian Bibliography: translations from the 
bible, and bible history, thirteen titles ; dictionaries, seven, 
of which one was printed in 1887 and one in 1889 ; lists of geo- 
graphic names, six; grammatic comments, eleven; grammatic 
treatises, two ; hymns and hymn books, six ; translations of 
the Lord's prayer, twelve (two by Trumbull) ; lists of numer- 
als, fifteen ; lists of proper names and translations, seven ; 
vocabularies, forty-seven. A grammar was compiled with 

1 Whitney, as cited, 332. Since this was written something has been 
done to remove this reproach. The Peabody JMuseum of Archxology 
and Ethnology, at Cambridge, Mass., has accomplished a great deal in 
the way of original research in these departments. The University of 
Pennsylvania has established a chair of American Archaeology and Lin- 
guistics ; Clark University, Worcester, Mass. , has founded a chair of An- 
thropology, and other institutions have turned their attention in the 
same direction. It still remains true, in the year 1893, that the only so- 
cieties in the world devoted e.xclusively to the study of the American 
races are foreign, and principally composed of Frenchmen : the Socicti 
A7ni.'r2caine de F^-ance^ at Paris, and the Congrcs Internatioiialdes Ajjic'ri- 
canistes. According to tlie Compte Rendu of the latter for 1891 , out of six 
hundred members about half were French, and only twenty-five or thirty 
were citizens of the United States. The American Folk- Lore Society is 
doing good work by publishing in its quarterlyyi77/r?;rt/ original contribu- 
tions to the literature of the religious cults of the aborigines. The In- 
ternational Folk-Lore Congress has necessarily included within its scope 

, thf origin and significance of American popular tales and their relations 
to the primitive worship of the people. The Anthropological Society of 
Washington, D. C. , naturally gives special prominence to American 
archaeology, mythology and linguistics ; selections from the papers read 
are published in the American Anthropologist^ a quarterly journal. The 
American Association for the Advancement of Science has one Section 
(H) devoted to American Anthropology. 

2 For the past twelve years James Constantine Pilling has been occu- 
pied in preparing for the Bureau of EJinology a series of bibliographies 
of American languages. Those so far published are Eskimo, 1887, pp. 
116, titles cir. 650 ; Siouan, 1887, pp. 87, titles cir. 300; Iroquoian, 1888, 
pp. 208, titles 949; Muskhogean, 1889, pp. 114, titles 521 ; Algonquian, 
1891, pp. 614, titles 2,245 ; Athapascan, 1892, pp. 125, titles 544. Many of 
these titles are repeated once or more in the several catalogues, but 
there are probably 4,000 separate titles in all in the lists of these five 
linguistic stocks. 

infinite care by the devoted missionary, David Zeisberger, in- 
the latter part of the eighteenth century ; it was translated 
in 1816 by Peter S. Duponceau, and published in the Trans- 
actions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. III., 
New Series, in 1827, filling one hundred and fifty large 
quarto pages. It is not such a grammar as an accomplished 
philologist would prepare in the last decade of the nine- 
teenth century, but it is the only one we have of the lang- 
uage, and gives a very full and comprehensive exposition of 
the structure and idioms of the Lenape tongue. The intro- 
duction and notes by the translator (pp. 65-96) add much to 
its value. Zeisberger's dictionary of the English, German, 
Onondaga and Delaware languages, also prepared more 
than a century ago, was published in 1887, in a volume of 
two hundred and thirty-six quarto pages. It contains about 
four thousand Delaware words, of the Minsi dialect. The 
original manuscript is in the library of Harvard University. 
Another manuscript dictionary of the Delaware (the Unami 
dialect), believed to be the work of the Rev. C. F. Dencke, a 
missionary to the Indians in Canada, who died in 1839, is 
in the Moravian Archives at Bethlehem, Pa. It has been 
carefully edited by Dr. Brinton and the Rev. Albert Seqaq- 
kind Anthony (a native Delaware missionary), and published 
in 1889, in a handsome small quarto volume of two hundred 
and thirty-six pages, giving about three thousand seven hun- 
dred words. These three works — the grammar and the two 
dictionaries — are the principal sources of information re- 
garding the language spoken by the New Jersey Indians two 
centtiries ago. The only really philosophical analysis of the 
language is given by Dr. Brinton, in his " Lenape and their 
Legends," already so freely quoted in this work. As illus- 
trating the peculiar mode of expressing ideas by modifica- 
tions of a single theme, he gives this example of the com- 
binations of the root ni, I, mine : 

I. In a good sense : 

Nihilleu, it is I, or mine. 

Nihillatschi, self, oneself. 

Kihillapcwi, free. 

Nihillapewit, freeman. 

Nihillasowagan, freedom, liberty. 

Nihillapeuhen, to make free, to redeem. 

Nihillapeuhoalid, the Redeemer, the Saviour. 

II. In a bad sense. 

Nihillan,'^ he is mine to beat, I beat him. 
Nihinan,'^' I beat him to death, I kill him. 
Nihillowen, I put him to death, I murder him.. 
Nihillowet, a murderer. 
Kihilh-we'cui, murderous. 

III. In a demonstrative sense. 

ne ; plural, nek or nell, this, that, the. 
Nail, nan, nanne, nanni, this one, that one. 
Nill, these. 
Natiinga, those gone, dead. 

1 Accent on the first syllable. 

2 Accent on the second syllable. 



IV. In a possessive sense. 

Nitaion, in-my-having, I can, am able, know how. 
Nitaus, of-my-family, sister-in-law. 
Nitis, of-mine, a friend, companion. 
Nitsck ! my child, exclamation of fondness. 

Thus the same root is used to express ideas so opposite 
as freedom and slavery, murder and Saviour. 
■ , The inseparable pronoitns, n, k, and w or ti or o, in the 
first, second and third persons, respectively, are used as pre- 
fixes with words expressing objects and actions, for ex- 
ample : 

Nooch, my father. Noochena, our father. 

Kooch, thy father. Koochuwa, your father. 

Ochwall, his or her father. Ochziwawall, their father. 
Hacki, earth ; hakihacan, plantation. 

N'^ dakihacan, my planta- A^'' dakikacajttiia, our planta- 
tion, tion. 
JCdakikacan, thy planta- K'' dakihacanena, your planta- 
tion, tion. 
W dakihacan, his planta- W dakihacanoiuawall, their 
tion. plantation. 

These inseparable pronouns are the same for nouns and 
verbs, and are used in the nominative, possessive and accu- 
sative cases, and in both numbers, without change. Vowel 
changes, accent and emphasis played an important part in 
the spoken language, effecting great differences in the mean- 
ing of words otherwise apparently the same. Students of 
the Indian languages often doubt if there is any iixed rule 
of accent or pronunciation. There appears to have been a 
tendency among the Lenape to place the emphasis on the 
penult in words of two syllables, and on the antepenult in 
words of more than two syllables, but so far as this was the 
practice, it was modified by the laws altering the mean- 
ing of a word through the emphasis. Changes in the conso- 
nants are also frequent among Indians, even of the same 
tribe. Not only were there permutations of consonants of 
the same class, but often of labials into dentals, of liquids 
into sibilants. Zeisberger says the Delawares (meaning 
those in the northern part of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 
the Minsis) had no /"nor ?■ in their language, and those con- 
sonants have no place in his grammar and dictionary ; nor 
are they found in the Lenape-English dictionary which has 
been cited in these pages. On the other hand, Campanius, 
the Swedish missionary in West Jersey, says that the Indi- 
ans in that section had no / in their language ; that they 
called themselves Renni reiiape, instead of Lenni Lenape. 
But it is hardly safe to accept these statements as absolutely 
correct in either case. Names of places and of persons show 
that the sound of r was not unknown in Northern New Jer- 
sey, nor the sound of / in West Jersey. Allowance must be 
always made for the accuracy with which persons hear and 
distinguish between the sounds of a foreign tongue. 

The careless assumption that the Indian languages under- 
go great and constant changes in brief periods, because they 
are spoken and not written tongues, finds emphatic contra- 
diction in the case of the Lenape. We have the numerals 
as recorded by Campanius in 1645, in the Swedish alphabet; 

by Thomas, in 1695, in English ; by Zeisberger, about 1750, 
in German, and by Lieut. Whipple, on the Pacific railroad 
survey, in 1855, when he found a party of the Delawares in 
Kansas. From a comparisonl it will be seen that, allowing 
for the differences in pronunciation by the different record- 
ers, the Indian words have undergone practically no change 
in two hundred and fifty years : 

I Ciutte 

Zeisberger. Whipple. 

1750 1855 

Ngutti Cote 

Nischa Nisha 

Nacha Naha 

Newo Neewah 

Palenach Pahlenahk 

Guttasch Cottasch 

Nischasch Nishasch 

Chasch Hasch 

Peschkonk Pesco 

Tellen Telen. 


2 Nissa Nisha 

3 Naha Natcha 

4 Naevvo Neo 

5 Pareenach Pelenach 

6 Ciuttas Kootash 

7 Nissas Nishash 

8 Haas Choesh 

9 Paeschum Peshonk 
10 Thaeren Telen 
It would be difficult to find two persons unfamiliar with 

the Indian language, who, hearing these numerals uttered 
by a Delaware to-day, would write them down more nearly 
alike than they are given above as taken from the different 
authors named. 2 

A careful comparison of the Lenape with other Algon- 
quian languages shows that it has departed from the purity 
of the parent stock. These changes have been effected 
partly by environment, partly by climatic influences, and 
possibly in part by long contact, either as neighbors or as 
conquerors, vsdth tribes who occupied New Jersey before 
their own arrival from their home in the Far North. A 
closer study of the language may some day throw more 
light on the share these several influences have had in the 
modification of the Lenape. 

In his grammar Zeisberger gives paradigms of eight con- 
jugations of verbs, through the active, passive, personal and 
reciprocal forms, positive and negative, with the five or six 
transitions of each mood. A single specimen must suffice : 

Ahoalan, to love 

N'dahoala, I love. N'dahoalaneen, we love. 

K'dahoala, thou lovest. K'dahoalohhumo, you love. 

Ahoaleu or W'dahoala, he 

loves. Ahoalewak, they love. 

The past tense is formed in the singular by adding cp to 
the verb, and in the plural by adding ap, and the future 
tense by the use of the suffix tsch. The negative is formed 
by the prefix atta : Atta n'doahawi, I do not love. The pas- 
sive by the suffix gussi : N'dahoalgussi, etc. In the nega- 
tive form, past tense, Atta w'dahoalgussiwipannik, they 

1 Made in Brinton's Lenape and their Legends. 

2 Jan de Laet, who was the first to describe the New Netherlands, in 
1625, gives the numerals thus: i. Cotte; 2. Nysse; 3. Nacha; 4. Wyue 
(probably a typographical error for Nyue) ; 5. Parenag ; 6. Cottash ; 
7. Nysas ; 8. Gechas ; 9. Pescon ; 10. Terren. He says this was accord- 
ing to the language of the Sanhikans (about Trenton). See Johannes de 
Laet Antwerpiani Notae ad Dissertationem Hugonis Grotii De Origine 
Gentium Americanarum, etc. Amstelodami, 1643, p. 174. The pro- 
nunciation should be according to the Dutch. 



were not loved ; in the future : Atta n'dahoalgussiwuneen- 
tsch, we shall not be loved. In.^ the fourth transition : 
K'dahoalohhummowuneen,! we do not love you. 

It must not be infei'red that the Lenape was as elegant or 
as copious as the Greek, or Latin, or English ; but it is evi- 
dent from what has been said that it had a very elaborate 
construction. Its very richness or redundancy of inflections, 
however, is regarded by scholars as a sign of its primitive- 
ness. This is another reason why its study should inter- 
est us, as it represents a stage in the development of human 
language thousands of years older than our own vernacular. 
It shows the mental process of men in a state of barbarism ; 
how objects, facts, ideas were apprehended by them. This 
mental process may be illustrated by a specimen of the Len- 
ape language (in the Unami or West Jersey dialect), as giv- 
en by Dr. Brinton, in his Lenape and their Legends, from 
an unpublished manuscript in the library of the American 
Philosophical Society, at Philadelphia, the passage being 
the parable related in Matthew xxil, 1-5 : 

1. Woak Jesus wtabptonalawoll woak lapi nuwuntschi 
And Jesus he-spoke-with-them and again he-began 

Enendhackewoagannall nelih woak wtellawoll. 

parables them-to and he-said-to-them. 

2. Ne Wusakimawoagan Patamauwoss (wtellgigui) 

The his-kingdom God it-is-like 

mejauchsid Sakima, na Quisall mall'nitauwan 
certain King, his-son he-made-for-him 


3. Woak wtellallocalan wtallocacannall, wentschitsch nek 
And he-sent-out his-servants the-bidding the 

Elendpannik lih Witachpungewiwuladtpoaganniing 
those-bidden to marriage 

wentschimcussowoak ; tschuk necamawa schingipawak. 
those-who-were-bidden, but they they-were-unwill- 


4. Woak lapi wtellallocalan pili wtallocacannall woak 
And again he-sent-out other servants and 

(panni) (penna) 

wtella (wolli ) ; Mauwiloh nen Elendpannik, (schita) 
he-said-to-them those the-bidden 

Nolachtiippoagan 'nkischachtiippui, nihillalachkik 
the-feast I-have-made-the-feast they-are-killed 

Wisuhengpannik auwessissak nemastschi nhillapannik 
they-fattened-them beasts the-whole I-killed-them 
woak weemi ktakocku 'ngischaclitilppui, peeltik lih 
and all I-have-finished come to 


5. Tschuk necamawa mattelemawoawollnenni, woak 

But they they-esteemed-it-not and 

ewak ika, mejauchsid enda wtakihacanniing, napilli 

went away certain thither to-his-plantation-place other 
nihillatschi (M'hallamawachtowoaganniing) 
(Nundauchsowoagannilng ) 


The following is the Lord's prayer in Delaware (Minsi 
dialect), from Zeisberger's Spelling Book (1776) and Histo- 

1 In the citations from Zeisberger the letters should be sounded as 
in German ; the apostrophe indicates a breathing. 

ry of our Lord (l8c5). Pronounce a like aw in law ; e like 
ay in say ; i like ee ; 21 like 00 or 021 'n\ yott ; ch nearly like 
Scottish ^'/^y y like English i in in; g like ^ in gay. For 
the termination of the verbal noun, here printed -wdgan, 
Zt\ihe.xgs.r "has -uioaga?t ; Heckewelder, W(7^a;z. The trans- 
lation is by Heckewelder : 

(Ki) Wetochemellenk, (talli) epian awossagame : 

Thou our-Father there dwelling beyond the clouds 

Machelendasutsch ktellewunsow^Jgan ; 

Magnified (or praised) be thy name. 

Ksakimawi?gan pejewiketsch ; 

Thy kingdom come-on 

Ktelitehewflgan leketsch talli achquidhakamike elgiqui 

Thy-thoughts (will, intention) come-to-pass here upon (or, 

leek tulli awossagame ; 

all-over-the) earth, the same as it is there in heaven 

(or, beyond the clouds) 
Milineen juke gischquik gunigischuk achpoan ; [bread 

Give-to-us on (or, through) this day the-usual (or, daily) 
Woak mi\velendamau(w)ineen 'ntschanauchsowtfgannena, 
And forgive us our-transgressions (faults) the same-as 

elgiqui niluna miweledamauwenk nik 

we-mutually-forgive-them who (or, those) who 

tschetschanilawemquengik ; 

have-transgressed (or, injured) us 
Woak katschi npawuneen li achquetschiechtowoganink ; 
And let-not us-come-to-that that we-fall-into-temptation 

Schukund ktennineen untschi medhikink ; 

But (rather) keep-us free from all-evil 

Ntite knihillatamen ksakimawcJgan, woak ktallewussowagan. 

For thou-claimest thy-kingdom and the-superior-power 

woak ktallowilissow^gan ; (ne wuntschi hallemiwi) li 

and all-magnificence. From henceforth 

hallamagamik. Amen. 

ever (always). Amen.l 

In his introduction to Zeisberger's grammar2 the learned 
Duponceau enthusiastically declares : " There is no shade 
of idea in respect to time, place and manner of action 
which an Indian verb cannot express, and the modes of ex- 
pression which they make use of are so numerous, that 
if they were to b'e considered as parts of the conjugation of 
each verb, one single paradigm might fill a volume." One 
of his examples is this : 7i^mitzi, I eat (in a general sense); 
n! jnamiizi, I am eating (at this moment, now); n' sckingiwi- 
poma, I do not like to eat with him. 

The greatest singer of the nineteenth century has de- 
clared that man, in his vain efforts to voice the loftiest 
aspirations of the human soul, is but 

An infant crying in the night. 
An infant crying in the light, 
And vinth no language bnt a cry ! 

When Tennyson was thus at a loss, what wonder if the 
untutored savage of primeval America had but shadowy 
notions of the origins of men and things, of the future 
life, the spirit land, and of the mysterious influences which 
he felt were constantly shaping his destinies for good or ill 
— in short, of religion ? 

1 Quoted from Notes on Forty Algonkin Versions of the Lord's 
Prayer, by J. Hammond Trumbull, Hartford, 1873, P- 49- 

2 P. 84. 



The Algonkins everywhere regarded the turtle as the 
creator of all things, doubtless because of its amphibian 
character. According to the traditions of the Lenape, the 
turtle supports the earth — which was considered an island 
— onitsback.l In 1679, an Indian, eighty years old, called 
Jasper or Tantaque, living at Hackensack or at Acquacka- 
nonk, described the origin of the world thus : " He first 
drew a circle, a little oval, to which he made four paws or 
' feet, a head and a tail. 'This,' said he, 'is a tortoise, 
lying in the water around it,' and he moved his hand round 
the figure, continuing, ' this was or is all water, and so at 
first was the world or the earth, when the tortoise gradually 
raised its round back up high, and the water ran off of it, 
and thus the earth became dry.' He then took a little 
straw and placed it on end in the middle of the figure, and 
proceeded, ' the earth was now dry, and there grew a tree 
in the middle of the earth, and the root of this tree 
sent forth a sprout beside it and there grew upon it a man, 
who was the first male. This man was then alone, and 
would have remained alone ; but the tree bent over until its 
top touched the earth, and there shot therein another 
root, from which came forth another sprout, and there 
grew upon it the woman, and from these two are all men 
produced. "2 

Another aged Indian, called Hans, living near Bergen, 
said that "the first and great beginning of all things, was 
Kickcron or Kickerom, who is the origin of all, who has not 
only once produced or made all things, but produces every 
day. All that we see daily that is good, is from him ; and 
everything he makes and does is good. He governs 
all things, and nothing is done without his aid and direc- 
tion. 'And,' he continued, 'I, who am a Captain and 
Sakemaker among the Indians; and also a medicine-man, 
and have performed many good cures among them, ex- 
perience every day that all medicines do not cure, if it do 
not please him to cause them to work.' " Being told of 
what Tantaque had said of the tortoise, how it had brought 
forth the world, or that all things had come from it : 
" That was true, he replied, but Kickeron:m-s.A& the tortoise, 
and the tortoise had a power and a nature to produce all 
things, such as earth, trees, and the like, which God wished 
through it to produce, or have produced. "3 

Living so close to nature as did these dusky sons of the 
forest, it is not strange that they looked upon the earth as 

1 Heckewelder, 253. The same myth exists among- the Mayas of 
Central America, and among the Hindoos. The Iroquois have a 
whimsical tale to the efifect that a big fat tunle so blistered his 
shoulders in walking fast one hot day that he finally walked out of his 
shell altogether; the process of transformation went on, and in lime he 
became a man, who was the progenitor of the Turtle clan. See " Myths 
of the Iroquois," by Mrs. Erminnie A. Smith, in Second Annual Report 
U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-81, p. 77. 

2 Journal of a Voyage to New York and a Tour in Several of the 
American Colonies in 1679-80, by Jaspar Dankers and Peter Sluyter. 
Translated by Henry C. Murphy, Brooklyn, N. Y., pp. 150-51. 
[Memoirs of the Long Island Historical Society, Vol. I.] 

3 lb., 267-8. " As for Kikeron, the eternally active, hidden spirit of 
the universe, * • we may, with equal correctness, translate it Life, 
Light, Action or Energy. It is the abstract conception back of all these. ' ' 
— Brinton^s Lendp^^ 133. 

their universal mother. The Miusis had a legend that in 
the beginning they dwelt in the earth under a lake, from 
which they accidentally discovered a way to the surface — 
to the light. The other Lenape tribes had the same story, 
except as to the lake. 1 "They had some confused Notion 
of the Flood, and said : All men were once drowned, 
only a few got on the Back of an old big Tortoise, 
floating on the Water ; that a Diver at last brought them 
some Earth in his Bill, and directed the Tortoise to a small 
Spot of Ground, where they alighted and multiplied again. 
Therefore has the great Tortoise Tribe the Preference 
among the Tribes. "2 This deluge myth is known to all the 
Algonkin tribes, and to most others in Ainerica. "Others 
say, the first Person had been a Vv'oman, which fell from 
Heaven * * * and bore Twins, which peopled this 
Country."^ Or, as heard by Lindstrom, a Swedish engi- 
neer, about 1650, this woman bore a son, who grew up to be 
a wonderfully wise and good man, who performed many 
miracles, and at last went up to heaven, promising to re- 
turn.'' These legends are regarded by Dr. Brinton as varia- 
tions of the myth so universal among the most widely-dis- 
persed races of mankind, wherein the ever-recurring phe- 
nomena of light and darkness are personified.5 It would 
seem that such an idealization of familiar phenomena could 
be possible only among a people far more advanced in cul- 
ture than our New Jersey Indians, and it is to be regretted 
that we have not more definite information on this point re- 
garding their beliefs. 

It is certain that they held in veneration fire and light, 
and their common source, the sun ; and by a natural de- 
duction, the sun's place of rising — the east. "They di- 
rected their Children in their Prayers to turn their face to- 
wards the East, because God hath his dwelling on the 
other Side of the rising Sun."S Another author writ- 
ing half a century earlier than Bishop Ettwein, in describ- 
ing the sacrifices made by the Indians, in which they burned 
tobacco, says : Ex qua re, quia sicubi fumus adscendit in 
altum; ita sacrif.culus, duplicata altiori voce, ICannaka, 
kannakS, vel aliquando hoo, hoo, faciem versus orientem 
convertit."'? "Whereupon, as the smoke ascends on high, 
the sacrificer crying with a loud voice, Kannaka, hiinnaka, 
or sometimes koo, hoo, turns his face toward the East." 
Loskiel, indeed, says fire is considered as the first parent of 
all Indian nations, and he minutely describes the sacrifice 

1 Heckewelder, 249, 250 ; Ettwein, 30, 31. 

2 Ettv/ein, 30. 

3 lb., 31. 

■I Campanius, 139; Essays of an Americanist, 182-3. 

5 The Myths of the New World, as cited, Capters v, vii, vni ; Ameri- 
can Hero-Myths, as cited, passim ; The Religious Sentiment, by Daniel 
G. Brinton, New York, 1876, Chap. v. 

6 Ettwein, 30. 

^ Dissertatio Gradualis, De Plantatione Ecclesiae Svecanae In America, 
Quam, Suffragante Ampl. Senatu Philosoph. in Regio Upsal. Athenaso, 
Prceside, Viro Amplissimo atque Celeberrimo Mag. Andrea Brorwall 
Eth. & Polit. Prof. Reg. & Ord. In Audit. Gust. Maj. d. 1+ Jun. An. 
MDCCXXXI. Examinandam modeste sistit Tobias E. Biorck. Ameri- 
cano-Dalekarlus. Upsahoe Literis Wernerianis, p. 28. Biiirck evid- 
ently beheved himself to be a poet and a hnguist, for he dedicates his 



in its honor. "Twelve manittos attend him as subordinate 
deities, being partly animals and partly vegetables. A 
large oven is built in the midst of the house of sacrifice, 
consisting of twelve poles, each of a different species of 
wood. These they run into the ground, tie them together 
at the top, and cover them entirely with blankets, joined 
close together. The oven is heated with twelve large 
stones made ret hot. Then twelve men creep into it, and 
remain there as long as they can bear the heat. Mean- 
while an old man throws twelve pipes full of tobacco upon 
the hot stones, which occasions a smoke almost powerful 
enough to suffocate the persons" in the oven.l The recur- 
rence of the number twelve evidently refers to the months 
into which the year is divided. "In great danger, an 
Indian has been observed to lie prostrate on his face, and 
throwing a handful of tobacco into the fire, to call aloud, as 
in an agony of distress, 'There, take and smoke, be pacified, 
and don't hurt me.' "2 

The Lenape, in common with the Americans in general, 
were firm believers in a future life, and in rewards for the 
good. David Brainerd gives the best account of their 
views : " They seem to have some confused notion about a 
future state of existence, and many of them irnagine that 

Dissertation to Count Charles Gyllenborg, in this sort of English, refer- 
ring to the Swedes in " Pennsilvani-Wood : " 

How Swedish Church is planted there, 

Of Swedish Priests and Sheeps, 
On both they Sides of de la IVare, 

Among great many Heaps, 
Of diverse Sects and Indians, 

Is now. My Lord, the Same, 
I am perswaded of my Brains, 

To offer Your great Name. 
Tobias Eric Biorck was born in New Sweden, being the son of Ericus 
Bjorck(so he signed his name) and Christina (daughter of Peter Stalcap, 
also a native of the Swedish colony) his wife. Eric Bjorck was a tutor at 
Westmania, Sweden, when he was commissioned by King Charles XI. in 
1696 as one of three missionaries for New Sweden. He was ordained at 
Upsal, sailed 4 August, and from London on 4 February following, arriv- 
ing at Christina, Del. , in June, 1697. In 1698 he secured the erection of a 
new church, where he ministered until 1713, when he V\ras succeeded by 
Andrew Hesselius. On 12 August, 1713, he was appointed Provost of the 
Swedish Lutlieran congregations in America, but having been given a de- 
sirable charge in Sweden b)- the King, he sailed 29 June, 1 714, with his wife 
and five children (Tobias among them) — "the first American family given 
back to Sweden." Hedied in 1740. — ^/orc/S, as cited, 11-20; Acrclius, 198, 
264-274 ; Annals of the Swt-des on the Deta-ware^ by the Rev. Jehu Curtis 
Clay, Philadelphia, 1835, 54-95,152 ; History of ike Original Settlevietits 07i 
the Delaiuare, etc. ^hy Benjamin Ferris, Wilmington, 1846, 153-166,179-80. 
He read the service for some time in the English church at Appoquim- 
inick, and in an address by the clergy in Pennsylvania to the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel was declared to be "a gentleman of great 
worth, learning and piety and upon whose qualifications we could make 
a very large and just enconium." — Historical Collections relating to iJie 
American Colonial C/iurch, edited by William Stevens Perry, D. D., 
Volume II. — Pennsylvania, Printed for the Subscribers, MDCCCLXXI. , 
61, 63. From the prefatory letter of Andrew Hesselius, published in 
the Dissertatio Gradualis of Tobias Biorck, as well as from his own 
poem, partly quoted above, it seems that Tobias designed coming to 
America as a missionary ; but no record of him in that capacity has been 

1 Loskiel, 42 ; Ettwein, 37 ; The Journal of a Two-iVIonths Tour, etc. , 
by Charles Beatty, A. IM. , London, 1768, 85-6. Mr. Beatty was a pious 
missionary, and a zealous and intelligent observer of the manners and 
customs of the Delawares and their kindred, the Shawnese. 

2 Loskiel, 45. 

the chichung,'^ i. e., the shadow, or what survives the body, 
will at death go southward, and in an unknown but curious 
place, will enjoy some kind of happiness, such as, hunting, 
feasting, dancing and the like. What they suppose will 
contribute much to their happiness in that state is, that 
they shall never be weary of those entertainments."^ And 
he adds, with an unusually sagacious attempt to compre- 
hend and explain an Indian myth in a common-sense way : 
" It seems by this notion of their going southward to obtain 
happiness, as if they had their course into these parts 
of the world from some very cold climate, and found the 
further they went southward the more comfortable they 
were ; and thence concluded, that perfect felicity was to be 
found further towards the same point. "3 An intelligent 
Indian once told him " that the souls of good folks would 
be happy, and the souls of bad folks miserable." By 
" bad folks " he meant "those who lie, steal, quarrel with 
their neighbors, are unkind to their friends, and especially 
to aged parents, and, in a word, such as are a plague to 
mankind." Not a bad definition that ! 

Notwithstanding the belief in a future state of existence, 
it had little influence on the daily life of the Indian. 
"That which occupies the attention of the savage mind re- 
lates to the pleasures and pains, the joys and sorrows 
of present existence. * * * Life, health, prosperity, 
and peace are the ends sought.''^ Not so diiferent, after all, 
from the whites who in 1776 declared that "life, liberty 
and the pursuit of happiness " were the grand ends to be 
aimed at by all governments. But the mysteries of life and 
death, and the belief in a future state, undoubtedly had 
their effect on these primitive people in leading up to the 
conception of a supernatural influence, or rather influences, 
expressed in the word Maiiitfi — the Wonder-worker j6 sig- 
nifying some - spiritual and mysterious power thought to 
exist in a material form.'' This influence resided in every 
animal, tree, rock or other object which the lively fancy or 
the fears of the savage endowed with supernatural power 
over his fortunes. According to Wassenaer,8 their "fore- 
fathers for many thousand moons " had told them of good 
and evil spirits, to whose honor, he supposed, they burned 
fires or sacrifices, as they wished to stand well with the good 
spirits. Biorck gives an amusing account of how they 
viewed their manitos : " As for their religion, if religion it 
can be called," saj's he, "they acknowledge two Gods 
or spirits, which they call Manetto's. One they call the 
ruler of celestial affairs, the other of terrestrial. The former, 
because he is good, they neither worship nor fear ; but the 

1 From the root isctiitsch, indicating repetition, or a man's double, or 

2 Brainerd, as cited, 346. Cf. William Penn, as cited, loi ; Loskiel, 36. 

3 lb., 346. 

< Powell, in Seventh Annual Report U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, 1891, 
xxxvn, .xxxviii. 

5 Pronounced vaah-nee-to, the accent on the second syllable. 

6 Heckewelder MSS., cited in Brinton's Lenap^, 219. 
f Dorman, as cited, 226. 

8 Op. cit., 19. 



latter, because he is evil, they perversely esteem to be 
both feared and adored."! The testimony of Van der Donck 
iends to corroborate this account of the politic conduct of 
the wily Indian. God, they said, "will not punish or do 
any injury tj any person, and therefore takes no concern to 
himself in the common affairs of the world, nor does 
he meddle with the same, except that he has ordered the 
devil to take care of those matters." Hence, they were 
•obliged to fear the devil, and try to preserve his friendship, 
even by sometimes casting apiece to him in the fire. 2 There 
is a touch of human nature in this frank philosophy that 
shows the rude savage to be akin to his white brother of the 
nineteenth century. As David Brainerd observed, there 
was no appearance of reverence and devotion in the 
worship of these invisible powers, and "what they do of 
this nature, seems to be done only to appease the supposed 
anger of their deities, to engage them to be placable to 
themselves, and do them no hurt, or at most, only to 
invite these powers to succeed [prosper] them in those en- 
terprises they are engaged in respecting the present life. So 
that in offering these sacrifices, they seem to have no refer- 
ence to a future state, but only to present comfort. "3 Some 
further particulars concerning the nianito are given by 
Loskiel : "They understand by the word manitlo, every 
being, to which an offering is made, especially all good 
spirits. They also look upon the elements, almost all 
animals, and even some plants, as spirits, one [no one?] ex- 
ceeding the other in dignity and power. * * * fhe 
maniitos are also considered as tutelary spirits. Every 
Indian has one or more," revealed to him in a dream.4 

From the various accounts which have come down to us, 
and from what we now know of the laws governing hui'gan 
development, it is evident that the Indian's conception of 
manito was simply that of a mysterious influence, in general, 
whether for good or evil, manifesting itself through a thou- 
sand instrumentalities. The definite conception of a Great 
Spirit {Kitscki Manito) or of an Evil Spirit was undoubtedly 
derived from the whites. 

Every Indian carried about with him as an amulet or 
charm a figure of the animal or object which represented 
his particular manito — a figure of the sun or moon or other 
object, or a mask of a human face, carved in wood or stone 
or bone ; this was tied up in a bag and hung about his neck 5 
— a custom that prevails among most nations to-day. 

The manner of worship of the Indians horrified the early 
missionaries, who forgot the descriptions in Hebrew and 

1 Biorck, as cited, 27. The author gives a hideous Avoodcut of a 
" Manetto Indianorum" — a nondescript creature with a body hke a hz- 
ard, two fore-legs with distended claws, and a head something like a 
horse's, breathing forth volumes of vapor or smoke. 

2 Van der Donck, as cited, 216. 

3 Brainerd, 347. 

4 Loskiel, 39-40 ; Dorman, 22 ; Biorck, 27 ; Roger Williams, Key, 110. 

5 Loskiel, 39 ; Biorck, 27-28. Pictures of two of these mask manitos 
or charms worn by Minsi or Muncey Indians are given opposite page S3 
of the " History of the Ojebway Indians ; with especial reference to their 
conversion to Christianity." By Rev. Peter Jones, (Kahkewaquonaby,) 
Indian Missionary, etc. London : 1861. One of sandstone, found at 
Trenton, is pictured in Abbott's Primitive Industry, p. 394. 

classical lore of the sacred and festive dances among the 
peoples of Europe and Asia. Brainerd was intensely grieved 
one Sunday morning when he tried to get the Indians to- 
gether that he might instruct them from the fascinating 
pages of the Shorter Catechism, "but soon found they had 
something else to do, for near noon they gathered together 
all \.h.e.v!: po7i)ows, or conjurers, and set about half a dozen of 
them playing their juggling tricks, and setting their frantic 
distracted postures, in order to find out why they were then 
so sickly. * '' In this exercise they were engaged for sev- 
eral hours, making all the wild, ridiculous and distracted 
motions imaginable ; sometimes singing ; sometimes howl- 
ing ; sometimes extending their hands to the utmost stretch, 
and spreading all their fingers, — they seemed to push with 
them as if they designed to push something away, or at least 
keep it off at arm's-end ; sometimes stroking their faces with 
their hands, then spurting water fine as mist ; sometimes sit- 
ting flat on the earth, then bowing down their faces to the 
ground ; then wringing their sides as if in pain and anguish, 
twisting their faces, turning up their eyes, grunting, puffing, 
&c. " To the saintly young missionary all this savored only 
of the devil, and he became so impressed with the weird 
spectacle that he really began to half expect Satan himself, 
to appear ; so, he says — and there is a queer pathos in his 
naive confession : " I sat at a small distance, not more than 
thirty feet from them, though undiscovered, zvith my bible in 
my hand, resolving, if possible, to spoil their sport, TvaAprevent 
their receiving any answers from the infernal ivorld. They 
continued their hideous charms and incantations for more 
than three hours, until they had all wearied themselves out ; 
although they had in that space of time taken several inter- 
vals of rest, and at length broke up, I apprehended, without 
receiving any answer at all."'^ 

Certain sacrifices were held at stated periods. A family 
feast was held once in two years, to which all the relatives 
and neighbors were invited. After dinner the men and 
women engaged in a solemn dance, while a singer walked 
up and down, rattling a small tortoise-shell filled with peb- 
bles, and chanting an appropriate recital. At another feast, 
ten or more old men or women wrapped themselves in tan- 
ned deer-skins, and with faces turned toward the east ut- 
tered prayers. 2 The festival in honor of fire has been de- 
scribed. They also had sacrificial dances in honor of the 
first-fruits (the green-corn dance), hunting, fishing, and 
other special occasions.3 The earliest description we have 
of any of these sacrifices is found in Biorck's little book, 
which is so rare, and has been so seldom (if ever) referred 
to by other writers on the American Indians, that some 
extracts may be worth giving : 

"A hut having been constructed, with due ceremony, 
and covered with bark and skins, is surrounded by several 
persons. The priest places some tobacco on stones, heated 
with fire, and directly another follows and pours water on 
them. Whereupon, as the vapor ascends on high, the priest 

t Brainerd, 235-6. 

2 Loskiel, 40-41 ; Ettwein, 36. 

8 Biorck, 2S. 



cries with a loud voice, Kdnniika, kannaka, or sometimes 
hoo, hoo, and turns his face toward the east. While some 
are silent during the sacrifice, ceVtain make a ridiculous 
speech, while others imitate the cock, the squirrel and other 
animals, and make all kinds of noises. During the shout- 
ing, two roasted deer are distributed, one with bread from 
maize, cooked by the magicians, called by them Katikis. 1 
But the sacrificing priest eats nothing." So much for the 
hunting or deer sacrifice. 

The first-fruits sacrifice he describes as witnessed by the 
Rev. Andrew Hesselius :2 "The families gather the first- 
fruits of roots, which grow in swamps, not unlike nuts, called 
Tachis, or by the English, hopjiuts. These are first dried in 
a pot in the sun, or placed over the fire in a copper vessel, and 
cooked during the day. While this cooking is going on, and 
some are dancing in a circle, an Indian woman advances, her 
hair streaming down upon her shoulders, and with a spoon (or 
tortoise shell) stirs up the mass repeatedly, and throws a 
certain portion into the fire, which act is greeted with a 
shout by the approving dancers circling about. Piece by 
piece they devour the food thus prepared for them on this 
occasion. "3 

The same author adds that "this and other sacrifices of 
the Americans they call, from a native word of their own, 
Khiticka, i. e., a festive gathering, or a wedding." Every 
important event in the life — or death — of the Indian was 
celebrated with dance and song. "The Cantico," says 
Penn, "is perfoi'med by round Dances, sometimes Words, 
sometimes Songs, then Shouts ; two being in the middle 
that begin, and by singing and drumming on a Board, direct 
the Chorus ; their Postures in the Dance are very antick and 
differing, but all keep measure. This is done with equal 
earnestness and labour, but great appearance of Joy." 4 
When a young Indian warrior was being butchered by inches 
by the Dutch soldiers in Fort Amsterdam, in 1644, with 

1 " Inter vocifirendum hospitibus distributi sunt s cervi cocti, una cum 
pane ex frumentum, (quod nos vulgo vocamus triticum Turcicum) Majis 
pisto, illis Kankis nominato." 

2 Andrew Hesse'.ius, Master of Philosophy, was commissioned in 
1711 bj' Charles XII. , King of Sweden, to be a missionary to New Sweden, 
to succeed Pastor Eric Bjorck, and was in charge of the church at Chris- 
tina from 1713 until 1723, when he returned to Sweden. He labored earn- 
esdy for the conversion of the Indians, though without success. In 1725 
he published "A Short Relation of the present condition of the Swedish 
Church in America." A letter written by him in excellent English to 
Tobias Biorck occupies three pages of the latter's little book. He died 
in 1733. — Acrelius^ i-]-2.-i^\ Jehu Curtis Clay\ as cited, 94, 102-3, ?i2-i3, 
152; Benjamin Ferris, zs cited, 179-181. While in this country he fre- 
quently preached in the vacant English churches, "fluently and mth 
good success." — Hist. Coll. Ant.Col. Ck. in Penn.., as cited, 123-4, 128-9, 

3 Biorck, 29. Cf. Ettwein, 36-37; Roger Williams, in-112 ; Hist. 
Ojebway Indians, as cited, 95-96; Thomas, Pennsylvania, 2 ; William 
Penn, as cited, loi ; Brainerd,235; Wassenaer, 20, 29. The Rev. Charles 
Beatty, in his " Journal of a Two-Months' Tour " among the Delaware 
and Shawnee Indians west of the Allegheny mountains, London, 1768, 
and Edinburgh, 1798 (the latter edition being published as an appendLx 
to Brainerd's Journal), describes these several festivals quite minutely. 

* WiUiam Penn, as cited, loi; also in "The Life of William Penn; 
with selections from his correspondence and auto-biography," by Samuel 
M. Janney, Philadelphia, 1852, p. 233 ; also in Penn. Archives, I., 69. 

revolting cruelties which caused the squaws to cry shame f 
he "desired them to permit him to dance the Kinte kaye^ 
a religious use observed by them before death," and con- 
tinued to dance and chant his death-song till he dropped 
dead under the knives of his inhuman captors.l A pleasanter 
picture is that given by Van der Donck, in 1653," who says : 
"Feast days are concluded by old and middle aged with 
smoking, by the young with a kintecazu, singing and danc- 
ing. "2 In 1663, during the war between the Dutch and the 
Esopus Indians, we are told that the latter "kintecoyed 
and deliberated" how they might best attack New Amster- 
dam,3 and that they "made a great uproar every night, 
firing guns and kintekayi7ig.''''^ As the surest way to get the 
Indians together, it was proposed by one of their own tribe 
in 1671 to "cause a kiiiticoy to be held."5 In 1675 the 
Indian sachems of New Jersey were highly pleased with the 
promises and presents of Gov. Andros, and "they return 
thanks and fall a kintacoying with expressions of thanks, 
singing ketion, kaion."^ No doubt the gestures of the partici- 
pants in these ceremonial dances, though " antic " and 
"ridiculous" to the white spectators, had a conventional 
symbolic significance perfectly understood by the Indians. 

The serpent, with other animals, was held in reverence 
by the aborigines,'' and natui-ally its mysterious movements 
and fatal bite caused it to be regarded with peculiar 
awe. That it was worshiped by the Americans in general 
is certain, but the only testimony regarding the attitude 
of the Lenape toward it is the vague account of Wassenaer, 
who describes the Kitzinacka (Big-Snake) as a priest who 
had no house of his own, but lodged where he pleased, or 
where he last officiated ; was a celibate, and ate food pre- 
pared only by a maiden or an old woman.8 He tells else- 
where how the Indians placed a kettle full of all sorts 
of articles in a hole in a hill. "When there is a great 
quantity collected, a snake comes in, then they all depart, 
and the Manittoii, that is the Devil, comes in the night and 
takes the kettle away, according to the statement of the 
Koiitsinacka, or Devil hunter, who presides over the cere- 
mony. "9 

IN. Y. Doc. Hist., IV., 67. 

2 Van der Donck, as cited, 203 ; Cf. Denton, 11. 

3 N. y. Col. Docs., XIII., 299. 

4 N. Y. Doc. Hist., IV., 43 ; N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 334. 
6 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIL, 483. 

6N. Y. Col. Docs., XII., 524; 2 Penn. Archives, VII., 769. Id 
Zeisberger's dictionary he gives the word gentgeen., to dance (gintkaan,- 
in the Lenape-English dictionary) ; gentge., a dance, gentgaat, a dancer. 
This would seen to be the origin of the word. But in the Lexigue de la 
Langue Algonguine, by J. A. Cuoq, Montreal, 1886, we have the root 
kinda-, qui enfonce, who breaks open, tlirusts, routs ; whence ki7tdaacka^. 
which would convey the idea of violent pushing and jostling in the wild 
dance. Not unlike this is the root kinika-, pell-mell, also suggestive of 
the characteristics of the kintacoy. Dr. Brinton (Lenape, p. 72) thinks 
the word is derived from a verbal found in most Algonkin dialects with 
the primary meaning to sing. 

'' Biorck, 27. 

8 Wassenaer, as cited, 20. 

9 Wassenaer, 29. This custom is attributed by Wassenaer to the 
Sickenanes, who were an Algonkin tribe near or upon the Connecticut 
river.— A^. Y. Col. Docs., I/.^i^g. 



As the Indians regarded every ill, whether to life, health 
or prosperity, as the work of a manito, the functions of 
priest and physician were united in one person, called, as 
we have seen, a Powazv (dreamer, clairvoyant), a Medeu 
(medicine man, conjurer), or Kitsinacka (Big-Snake doctor). 
"Some of these diviners" (or priests), says Brainerd, "are 
endowed with the spirit in infancy ; others in adult age. It 
seems not to depend upon their own will, nor to be 
acquired by any endeavours of the person who is the sub- 
ject of it, although it is supposed to be given to children 
sometimes in consequence of some means which the parents 
use with them for that purpose."! Usually, however, the 
boys were initiated into the order at the age of twelve 
or fourteen years, with very trying ceremonies, fasting, 
want of sleep, and other tests of their physical and mental 
stamina.2 Although we have no account of such a custom, it 
is very probable that among the Lenape, as among the 
kindred Ojibways to this day, there were successive initia- 
tions into higher degrees in the Big Medicine Lodge, 
according to the skill or prowess of the aspiring medicine- 
man. 3 Loskiel says that old men, unable to hunt, some- 
times became physicians (and priests), "in order to procure 
a comfortable livelihood ; " others who had been instru- 
mental in curing the sick, were regarded as supernaturally 
endowed, and had to join the ranks of the priesthood, but 
very many declared, and perhaps believed, that they had 
been called in a dream to separate themselves from their fel- 
lows. 4 

Brainerd gives a vivid description of one of these sham- 
ans : "Of all the sights I ever saw among them, or indeed 
anywhere else, none appeared so frightful or so near akin 
to what is usually imagined of infernal powers, none ever 
excited such images of terror in my mind, as the appearance 
of one who was a devout and zealous reformer, or rather, re- 
storer, of what he supposed was the ancient religion of the 
Indians. He made his appearance in his pontifical garb, 
which was a coat of bearskins, dressed with the hair on, 
and hanging down to his toes ; a pair of bearskin stockings 
[leggings], and a great wooden face painted, the one half 
black, the other half tawny, about the color of an Indian's 

1 Brainerd, 348. 

2 Loskiel, 47 ; Gookins's Historical Collections of New England, in 
I Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., I., 154. 

3 For a detailed account of " The Midewewin or ' Grand Medicine 
Society,' of the Ojibwa, by W. J. Hoffman, see Seventh Annual Report 
U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, 1891, 143-300. Mr. Hoffman 
says there are several classes of Shamans or mystery-men among 
the Ojibways: the Jessakid, who is commonly called a juggler, but 
by the Indians is defined as a " revealer of hidden truths," or a seer and 
prophet ; the VVabeno, or dreamer, especially inspired by evil manidos ; 
the Mashkikikeivunini^ or medicine-men , whose specialty is in herbs ; 
the Mide^ in the true sense of the word, is a Shaman, though called by 
various writers a powow, medicine-man, priest, seer, prophet, etc. The 
Midev/iwin — Society of the Mide or Shamans — consists of an indefinite 
number of Mide of both sexes, and is graded into four degrees. The 
Rev. Peter Jones, in his " History of the Ojebway Indians," already 
cited, gives a brief account of these priests and their initiation, and 
some extraordinary instances of their pov/er in foretelling events. See 
pp. 143-152, 269. 

< Loskiel, 109, no, 112. 

skin, with an extravagant mouth, cut very much awry ; the 
face fastened to a bearskin cap, which was drawn over his 
head. He advanced toward me with the instrument in his 
hand, which he used for music in his idolatrous worship ; 
which was a dry tortoise shell, with some corn in it, and 
the neck of it drawn on to a piece of wood, which made a 
very convenient handle. As he came forward, he beat his 
tune with the rattle, and danced with all his might, but did 
not suffer any part of his body, not so much as his fingers, 
to be seen. No one would have imagined from his appear- 
ance or actions, that he could have been a human creature, 
if they had not had some intimation of it otherwise. When he 
came near me, I could not but shrink away from him, 
although it was then noonday, and I knew who it was ; his 
appearance and gestures were so prodigiously frightful. He 
had a house consecrated to religiotts uses, with divers im- 
ages cut upon the several parts of it. I went in, and found 
the ground beat almost as hard as a rock, with their fre- 
quent dancing upon it."l 

The intrepid Zeisberger himself was awed by the appar- 
ent wonder-working powers of these Indian priests. "He 
disbelieved the stories he heard of what they could do 
until several of them who had been converted unfolded 
to him things from their own past experience which forced 
him to acknowledge the reality of Indian sorcery. He de- 
scribes three kinds of Indian magic : namely, the art to 
produce sudden death without the use of poison ; the matta- 
passigan, a deadly charm by which epidemics could be 
brought upon entire villages, and persons at a distance sent 
to their graves, and the witchcraft of the kimochzve, who 
passed through the air by night, casting the inhabitants into 
an unnatural sleep, and then stealing what they wanted. "2 
Brainerd makes the curious statement that when one of 
the most remarkable of these powows was converted to 
Christianity, he lost his power, "so much so that he no 
longer even knew how he used to charm and conjure, and 
could no longer do anything of that nature if he were ever 
so desirous of it."3 On the other hand, an 0]\hvfa.Y Jossakid 
who performed marvelous feats, said thirty years later, when 
a Christian and on his death-bed, that the wonders seen were 
all the work of the spirits, whose voices he heard, and whose 
messages he repeated. He was evidently sincere, even if 
self -deceived. 4 

The Lenape had not reached the stage of progress where 
the priestly office was separated from that of the physician, 
as among some of the American races. Nor were the priests 
or shamans a class by themselves. Anyone was eligible to 
enter the profession, as stated by Loskiel. Although Brain- 

1 Brainerd, 237-8. Similar accounts are given by Loskiel, in, and 
Heckewelder, 235-6. See also Hoffman, as cited. 

2 Zeisberger MSS., cited by De Schweinitz, 340-341. Cf. also Diary 
of David Zeisberger a Moravian Missionary among the Indians of Ohio 
translated from the original German manuscript and edited by Eugene 
F. Bliss, Cincinnati, 1885, II., 99, 436, etc. 

3 Brainerd, 305. 

4 Kitchi-Gami. Wanderings round Lake Superior. By J. G. Kohl, 
London, i860, 280. This is one of the best and most interesting books 
ever written on Indian life. 



erd and other missionaries found great difficulty in convinc- 
ing them of the error of their ways, they were themselves 
tolerant of the religious beliefs and practices of others. 
"They have a modest Religious perswasion," says Roger 
Williams, "not to disturb any man, either themselves, 
English, Dutch or any in their conscience, and worship." 1 
And although the priests tried to incite their dupes to the 
massacre of Zeisberger and his fellow missionaries, the 
Grand Council of the Delawares in 1775 decreed religious 
liberty."^ There was not so much merit in this toleration as 
would appear at first sight. With the Indian, his religion 
was not a matter of conscience ; there was no principle of 
right and wrong involved in his belief or practice. No ele- 
vation of life or thought was connected with it — nothing 
but the idea of material gain. It is true that we are some- 
times told of individuals who had a perception of moral and 
ethical principles, as in the case of Ockanickon, a sachem 
who died about l68o at Burlington, and was buried among 
the -Friends there, by his own desire. Addressing his 
nephew, he said: "I would have thee love that which is 
good and to keep good company, and to refuse that which is 
evil. * * Always be sure to walk in a good path, and 
never depart out of it." And then he lapses into pagan- 
ism : "Look at the sun from the rising of it to the setting 
of the same."3 It is not at all clear just what the old chief 
meant by "good" and "evil," nor whether he attached any 
ethical significance to the words. The few instances where 
it appears that some individual of the race had glimpses of 
a higher conception of life than his fellows', shows all the 
more strikingly that the religion of nature — of belief in 
present earthly prosperity as the highest good — had scarcely 
begun to undergo the transition into the religion of the 
spirit — the perception of the truths which pertain to eternity. 
The Indian had not yet learned that 

There is a light above, which visible 

Makes the Creator unto every creature. 
Who only in beholding Him has peace. < 

The peculiar system of government which prevailed 
among the primitive inhabitants of North America was 
never understood by the early writers. Indeed, it is only 
within the past twenty or thirty years that patient investi- 
gation by scholars has revealed the principles underlying 
that complex institution. The study of the general subject 
of marriage has led to the conclusion that it was the found- 
ation of social and governmental organization. Promiscuity 
of cohabitation was followed by a segregation of neighbors 
into groups, where the men held their wives in common — 
polygeny ; and where the women held their husbands in 
common — polyandry. The children were also segregated 
into groups, where the young men called each other broth- 
ers, and the young -^omen called each other sisters ; the 
sisters of the young men would be the wives of another 
group, the latter being the brothers of the wives of the 

1 Key, 113. 

2 Life of Zeisberger, by De Schweinitz, 422. 

3 Good Order Established inPennsilvaniaand New-Jersey in America, 
by Thomas Budd, as cited, 64-65 ; quoted in Smith's Hist. N. J., 149. 

4 Dante, Paradiso, xxx, 100-102 (Longfellow's translation). 

first group. In time the family was developed, with a sin- 
gle head, either father or mother, the former being the pat- 
riarchal form of family government, and the latter the mat- 
riarchal form. Obviously, all the members of all these 
groups and families were allied by the ties of kindred — 
either by affinity or consanguinity. In time it was usual 
for them to refer their origin to some remote ancestor, 
either male or female, and to call themselves after the 
name of that supposititious person. In this way there was 
developed the gens (kin'), composed of bodies of consang- 
uineal kindred, and this was the basis of social and govern- 
mental institutions' among the Indians when the whites 
came to this country.! The gens reached its highest devel- 
opment among the Greeks and Romans. Its rise, progress 
and decay are traced clearly in Jewish history. Tacitus de- 
scribes it among the ancient Germanic tribes. It undoubt- 
edly had its influence in the organization of the village com- 
munities and hundreds among the Anglo-Saxons in England, 
and traces of it still survive among the native races of Ire- 
land. But nowhere is the opportunity of studying this 
ancient human institution presented to us so favorably as 
among the uncivilized tribes of our own land. 

The Lenape of New Jersey were divided into three 
sub-tribes2 or gentes, as follows : 

I. The Minsi, Monseys, Muncees, Montheys, Munsees or 
Minisinks ("people of the stony country," or "mountain- 
eers"), who were known as the Wolf Tribe, and occupied 
the country about the upper Delaware valley, in New Jer- 
sey, New York and Pennsylvania. " The Wolf is a rambler 
by nature," said they, "running from one place to another 
for his prey, yet they consider him their benefactor, as it 
was through him that the Indians got out from under the 
earth. Therefore the wolf is to be honored and his name 
preserved forever amongst them. "3 All accounts go to 
show that the Minsis were the most intractable of all the 
Lenape — the most ready to go to war, and the most averse 
to the missionaries. 4 

II. The Unami, or Wonameys ("people down the river "), 
who were known as the Tortoise Tribe, and were the neigh- 
bors of the Minsi, south of the Lehigh. As the Tortoise 
was regarded as the progenitor of mankind, and bore 
the earth on his back, the Tortoise Tribe always took the 
lead in governmental affairs,^ which in fact was the rule 
among all Algonkin tribes, and among many if not most 
others in North America. 

1 Morgan, Systems of Affinity and Consanguinity, as cited ; Ancient 
Society; McLennan, Primitive Marriage; Herbert Spencer ; J.W.Pow- 
ell, Proceedings American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
1880, 6S7 ; in Transactions of the Anthropological Society of Washington, 
1S83, 194, and in the several Annual Reports U. S. Bureau of Ethnology. 

2 Dr. Brinton insists that these divisions were neither gentes nor 
phratries, but simply sub-tribes. — Leitdpc^ 40. 

3 Heckewelder, 52, 253. 

■* The Minsis spoke a harsher dialect than the other gentes of the 
Lenape, resembling somewhat that of t'ne Mohegans and the Wampanos. 
— Ettivtin^ 31. As to their attitude toward the missionaries, cf. Brain— 
erd, Jones, Zeisberger (Life, and Diary), Loskiel and Memorials of the 
Moravian Church , passim. 

' Heckewelder, 97 ; Essays of an Americanist, 133. 



III. The Unalachtigo, or Wunalachtiko ("people who 
live near the ocean"), who were known as the Turkey Tribe. 
"The Turtle is stationary, and always remains with them," 1 
they said, probably indicating more sedentary habits on the 
part of that gens than was true of the others. They occu- 
pied the southern part of New Jersey, Delaware and North- 
ern Virginia. 

Such is the classification given by the earlier writers. 
'But Morgan says the MunseyS were a distinct gens or tribe, 
divided into the same three gentes — the Wolf, the Tortoise 
and the Turkey, and with the same rules as to descent, in- 
termarriage and the office of sachem. The Mohegans, who 
occupied that part of New York bordering on New Jersey, 
had the same gentes, and the same rules as to intermarriage, 
inheritance, descent and the election of sachem, showing 
that they, like the Munseys, were closely allied to the Dela- 
wai-es or Lenape. 2 

In i860 Morgan closely studied the organization of the 
Delawares, at their reservation in Kansas. He found that 
each gens was divided into twelve sub-gentes, each having 
some of the attributes of a gens, and these sub-gentes were 
designated by personal names, in nearly or quite every case 
those of females, apparently the eponymous ancestors from 
whom the members of the gentes respectively derived their 
descent. The sub-divisions were as follows :3 

I. Wolf. Took-seat. 

1. Ma-an-greet, Big Feet. 

2. Wee-sow-het-ko, Yellow Tree. 

3. Pa-sa-kun-a-mon, Pulling Corn. 

4. We-yar-nih-ka-to, Care Enterer. 

5. Toosh-war-ka-ma, Across the River. 

6. 0-lum-a-ne, Vermilion. 

7. Pun-ar-you, Dog standing by Fireside. 

8. Kwin-eek-cha, Long Body. 

9. Moon-har-tar-ne, Digging. 

10. Non-har-min, Pulling up Stream. 
ir. Long-ush-har-kar-to, Brush Log. 
12. Maw-soo-toh, Bringing along. 

2. Turtle. Poke-koo-iin-go. 

1. O-ka-ho-ki, Ruler. 

2. Ta-ko-ong-o-to, High Bank Shore. 

3. See-har-ong-o-to, Drawing down hill. 

4. Ole-har-kar-me-kar-to, Elector. 

5. Ma-har-o-luk-ti, Brave. 

6. Toooh-ki-pa-kvvis-i, Green Leaves. 

7. Tung-ul-ung-si, Smallest Turtle. 

8. Lee-kwin-a-i, Snapping Turtle. 

9. We-lun-ung-si, Little Turtle. 
10. Kwis-aese-kees-to, Deer. 

The two remaining sub-gentes are extinct. 

3. Turkey. Pul-la-ook.^ 
I. Mo-har-a-la, Big Bird. 

1 Heckewelder, 253. 

2 Morgan, Ancient Society, 173. 

3 lb., 172. 

4 According to Bishop Ettwein, writing in 1788, in Eastern Pennsyl- 


2. Le-le-wa-you, Bird's Cry. 

3. Moo-kwung-wa-ho-ki, Eye Pain. 

4. Moo-har-mo-wi-kar-nu, Scratch the Path. 

5. O-ping-ho-ki, Opossum Ground. 

6. Muh-ho-v,'e-ka-ken, Old Shin. 

7. Tong-o-na-o-to, Drift Log. 

8. Nool-a-mar-lar-mo, Living in Water. 

9. Muh-krent-har-ne, Root Digger. 

10. Muh-karm-huk-se, Red Face. 

11. Koo-wa-ho-ke, Pine Region. 

12. Oo-chuk-ham, Ground Scratcher. 

Bishop Ettwein gives the only detailed account we have 
of the manner of choosing the Chiefs of the various gentes : 

"Each Tribe has a Chief. The Chief of the great Tor- 
toise is the Head, but the Tortoise Tribe cannot make or 
chuse him ; that is the Work of the Chiefs of the other 
Tribes, and so vice versa. None of the Chief's sons can 
follow him. in his Dignity, because they are not of that 
Tribe, but the Son of his Sister, or his Daughter's Daught- 
er's Son may follow him. The Candidate is commonly in 
the lifetime of a Chief appointed, to be learned and informed 
in the affairs of the Chief. The Election and Appointment 
is made in the following Manner : After the Death and 
Burial of a Chief, the 2 other Chiefs meet with their Coun- 
cellors and People ; the new Chief being agreed upon they 
prepare the Speeches and necessary Belts. Then they 
march in Procession to the Town where the Candidate is, 
the two Chiefs, walking in front, ' sing the intended 
Speeches, and enter the Town singing ; they go on to the 
East Side into the Council House and round the several 
Fires prepared, then sit down on one side of them, upon 
which the Town's People come in, shake hands with them 
and place themselves over against them. One of the Chiefs 
sings a Speech, signifying the aim of their Meeting, condoles 
the new Chief about the Death of the old one, wiping off his 
Tears, 1 &c., and then declares him to be Chief in the place 
of the Deceased. He gives the People present a serious ad- 
monition to be obedient unto their Chief and to assist him 
wherever they can with 2 Belts. 2 Thereupon he addresses 
also the Wife of the Chief and the Women present to be 
subject unto the Chief with a Belt.3 He then tells the 
Chief his Duties, and the new Chief promises to oi^serve 
them. All is sung. 

" The Head Chief with two others, has to take care of 
the National Concerns, to cherish the Friendship witli 
other Nations. None can rule or command absolute, he 
has no Preference, nobody is forced to give him anything, 
but he is commonly well provided with Meat, and the 
Women assist his Wife in Planting, that he may get much 
corn, because he must be hospitable, and his House open 

vania, the three tribes (gentes) were: i. The great Tortoise, Pach- 
oango ; 2, The Wolf, Pluohsic ; 3. The Turkey, Blaeu (Bloeu, a turkey 
cock, according to Zeisberger). PuUaook (or Blaeu-ook, as Ettwein 
would give it) is the feminine. 

1 A universal figure of speech among the Indians. 

2 That is, he emphasizes these points of his speech by presenting two 
belts of wampum. 

3 See next-preceding note. 



to all. They are generally courteous and conversable. 
He has the Keeping of the Council Bag with the Belts, &c., 
and his House is commonly the Council House and there- 
fore large. 1 

" The chief Duty of a Chief is to preserve Peace as long 
as possible ; he cannot make War, without the consent 
of the Captains, and also cannot receive a War Belt. If he 
finds his Captains and People will have War, he must yield 
to them, and the Captains get the Government. But as 
the Chief cannot make War, so the Captains cannot make 
Peace. If a Captain receives a Proposition for Peace, he 
refers it to his Chief, and says : / am a Warrior, / cannot 
make Peace. If a Captain brings such a Proposition to his 
Chief and he likes it, he bids him to sit down, and takes 
the Hatchet from him, and a Truce begins. Then the 
Chief says to the Captain ; as thou art not used to sit still, 
to smoke only thy pipe, help me in that good Work, I will 
use thee as a Messenger of Peace among the Nations : and 
thus the Warriors are discharged. 

" Captains are not chosen. A Dream or an enthusiastic 
Turn for War, with which an old conjuror joins, persuading 
the man that he would be a lucky Captain, is his call, upon 
which he acts. After he has been 6 or 7 times in Vrar so 
lucky as to lose none of his Company, or got for each one 
lost, a Prisoner, he is declared Captain. If the contrary 
happens, he is broke. There are seldom many Captains, 
yet always some in eachTribe."^ 

The Chief here spoken of was the Sachem of his tribe — 
a name derived from the root oki, signifying above (in space, 
and hence in power). 3 Notwithstanding what has been said 
above regarding the election of a Sachem, it is clear that the 
office was in a sense hereditary. The descent was in the fe- 
male line, in order to keep the rule within the gens. As 
the children belonged not to the gens of the father, but to 

1 See also N. Y. Doc. Hist., III., 82. 

2 Ettwein,34-36; Loskiel, 130-131,142, 155. The System of government 
here described, and the method of choosing and installing a chief, is much 
tlie same as among the Iroquois, fully detailed by Morgan in his League 
of the IroquDis, and in Ancient Society; by Hale, in Iroquois Book of 
Rites, and by J. W. Powell in his admirable account of the Wyandottes, 
in First Annual Report U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, and in Proceedings 
American Association for the 'Advancement of Science, for 1880, 675- 
683. Among the Wyandottes each gens had a council of four women, 
who elected the chief from among the male members of their own gens. 
Earlier writers who had not penetrated the reserve with which the Indi- 
ans conceal their public and private aifairs, have declared that "the Al- 
gonkins knew nothing of regular government ; they had no system of 
polity ; there was no unity of action among them ; the affairs even of a 
single tribe were managed in the loosest manner. " — De Schweinitz^ Life 
of Zeisb::rger, 39. "There is little authority known among these na- 
tions, " says Wassenaer. " They live almost all free. In each %'illage. in- 
deed, is found a person who is somewhat above the others, and com- 
mands absolutely when there is war, when they are gathered from all 
the villages to go on the war path. After the fight his superiority 
ceases. " — ^V. Y. Doc. Hist. , III. ,29. " The Sackema possesses not much 
authority and little advantage unless in their dances and other ceremo- 
nies. "—:/»z(r»«/ <j/" A''?w Netherlands., 1641-7, in N. V. Doc. Hist.., IV., 4. 

3 The Lenape and their Legends, 46. The Minsis used the word 
k'htai, the great one.— /i5. , 47, note. Mr. Anthony says the modern Del- 
aware word is -wojaiiwe, used instead of the older sakiiiza. See Len ape- 
English Dictionary, 167. Zeisberger, in his dictionary (p. 36), gives the 
phrase, IVaJauvje n kakkey^ I am a Chief. 

that of the mother, the sons of a Sachem could not succeed 
him ;1 but his brother, or a son of his sister, was eligible to 
the succession, 2 and in electing a new Sachem he was chosen 
from among them. This custom was probably a survival of 
a primitive matriarchal rule. The common chiefs were 
chosen for their personal merit — their bravery, wisdom or 
eloquence, and the office was non-hereditary.3 "When a 
person was elected sachem or chief his name was taken 
away, and a new one conferred at the time of his installa- 
tion. "4 A Sachem or chief could be deposed at any time by 
the council of the tribe ;5 and his office was also vacated by 
his removal to another locality, as in the case of Mattano, 
Chief of the Nyack Indians, who in 1660 removed to Staten 
Island. 6 The government of the tribe was a democracy ; 
the Sachem or Chief who attempted to lead his people 
against their will must needs have a powerful mastery over 
his fellow men, or he fared ill." At the same time, the 
earlier patriarchal or matriarchal influences were so strong 
that the free impulses of the savages were held much in 
check, and deference was paid even to an unpopular Chief. 
The Sachem was permitted to exercise a certain authority in 
the naming of his prospective successor, whom he chose 
from among the most eligible young men of the tribe, and 
instructed in the duties and responsibilities of the office. 8 
If they proved unworthy, he would set them aside and choose 
another,^ and perchance tirey would fall a victim to his 
vengeance if he suspected them of treachery to the tribe. 10 

There were occasional deviations from the rule, the se- 
lection of the Sachem failing of ratification by the tribe, as 
we shall see in the case of Oratamy, Sachem of the Hack- 
ensack Indians. Sometimes, either because of her descent, 
or for some special trait which marked her out, a woman was 
chosen to rule over the tribe as a Squaw-Sachem, and the 

1 Uncas, a famous Connecticut warrior and sachem, was the son and 
grandson of Sachems, and was succeeded by his son. — See " History of 
the Indians of Connecticut from the earliest known period to 1850, " by 
John W. DeForest, Hartford, 1852, pp. 66-7 ; " An Historical A.ccount of 
the Doings and Sufferings of the Christian Indians in New England, in 
the years 1673, 1676', 1677, " etc., by Daniel Gookin, in Transactions Am- 
erican Antiquarian Society, II., 445. This is an e-xceptional case. 

2 JMorgan, Ancient Society, 173. 

3 lb., 71. 

4 lb., 79. 

5 lb., 74. 

6 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIIL, 147, 167. 

7 For instances, see Penn. Col. Records, III., 97; N. Y. Col. Docs., 
XIIL, 371. 

8 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIIL, 361 ; Loskiel, 134. 

6 In the dying speech of Ockanichon, about 1681-2, at Burlington, N. 
J., he is reported to have said : " Whereas Sehoppy and Swanpis were 
appointed Kings by me in my stead, and I understanding by my Doctor, 
that Sehoppy secretly advised him not to cure me, • • ♦ anj 
I see that they were given more to Drink, than to take notice of my last 
words, » « » therefore I refused them to be Kings after me 
in my stead, and have chosen my Brother's son lahkurosoe in their stead 
to succeed me. " — BudiVs Good Order, etc., 66,- Smith's N.f., 149. 

10 In 1731, Sassoonan or AUummapees or Alommabi, King of the Del- 
awares, stabbed and killed his nephew, Sam Shakatawlin, his presump- 
tive successor, because he was suspected of favoring the whites too 
much. — Penn. Col. Records, ///. , 403-5/ Moravian Memorials, /. , 121, 



verdict of history is that their sway was quite as wise and 
firm as that of the sterner sex.l The position of woman 
among the Indians was far from unfavorable ; she was secure 
in tlie possession of her property and of her children, and 
had a voice in the selection of Chiefs. This independence 
was due largely to the gentile organization of the tribe ; a 
woman had the support of all the members, male and female, 
of her gens.2 

The Council of each tribe was composed of the Sachem 
and the other Chiefs, either experienced warriors, or aged and 
respected heads of families, elected by the tribe.3 The ex- 
ecutive functions of the goverment were performed by the 
Sachems and Chiefs, who were also members of the Coun- 
cil. The latter body was legislature and court combined, 
having a strict and most decorous procedure.* Here mat- 
ters pertaining to the welfare of the tribe were discussed, 
whether of peace or of war ; offences against good order in 
the tribe were considered, and the accused tried with de- 
liberation and the utmost fairness. As already remarked, 
crimes committed against individuals were not regarded as 
sins, or torts against the tribe ; they were usually settled 
between the persons or families concerned, or in the gens, 
upon the principle of lex talionis.^ The evolution of the 
crude law of the gens and then of the trilje went on for cen- 
turies and perhaps for ages ere there arose upon its base 
the fair fabric of moral obligation, of ethical compulsion 
— of Right, as distinguished from Expediency.^ The rela- 
tions with other tribes and confederations were talked 
over in the Council, and a course of action formu- 
lated. As the whites became more numerous, they in 
various ways undermined the authority of the Chiefs,'!' who 
were compelled to admit that they could not alway restrain 
the impetuosity of their wari-iors, wainuapiesjes, or of their 

1 " In the New England Pocanoket, Mount-Hope, or King Philip's 
AVar, anno 1675, there is mentioned the squaa-sachem of Pocasset, and a 
squaa-sachem among the Naragansets." — Douglass /., 160. Shaumpi- 
shuh, sister to Momaugin, the Chief of the Quinnipiacs, was the sachem- 
squaw of Guilford, Conn. See De Forest's Indians of Connecticut, p. 52. 
In 1650, there was a Squaw Chief living at Catskill, N. Y. See N. Y. 
Col. Docs., XIII., 26. 

2 See report of address by Prof. Otis T. Mason, in American Anthro- 
pologist, luly, 1888, pp. 295-6. 

3 Morgan, Ancient Society, 71 ; Loskiel, 130 ; i Penn. Archives, II. , 

■4 I. W. Powell, Proceedings American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, 1880, pp. 687-8 : Budd, Good Order, etc., 62 ; N. Y. Col. 
Docs. , XII. , 380 ; Zeisberger's Diary, II. , igg, 214. 

5 Historical Collections of the Indians in New England, by Daniel 
Gookin, written in 1674 and pubhshed in 1792 in Collections of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society, I., 149 ; Loskiel, 15-16 ; Kitchi-Gami, 269 ; 
Zeisberger's Diary, II., 525. 

6 " A rigor di termini la morale comprende anche il diritto, come il 
tutto la parte ; ma nell' evoluzione dell' umana condotta, considerata 
sotto 1' aspetto fisico, biologico, psicologico e sociologico, il diritto pre- 
cedette la morale come manifestazione esteriore dei modi di giudicare essa 
condotta: modi concretati dapprima in vaghe consuetudini, poscia in 
norme fisse o leggi." See paper by Dr. Vincenzo Grossi on Law and 
Morals in Ancient Mexico, Compte-Rendu Congres International des 
Americanistes, at Berlin, 1B88, pp. 350, 372; and Sir Henry Sumner 
Maine, on Ancient Law, as cited. 

7 Kitchi-Gami, 270. 

young men — the "barebacks ;"1 but in theory the decision 
of the Council was absolutely binding upon every member of 
the tribe, and a breach of its mandates was punishable 
with death. Describing a Council which he attended, 
William Penn says : "Their order is thus : The King sits 
in the Middle of a half-moon, and hath his Council, the old 
and wise on each hand ; behind them, or at a little distance, 
sit the younger Fry in the same Figure ; having consulted 
and resolved their business, the King ordered one of them 
to speak to me. * ■* During the time that this person 
spoke, not a man of them was observed to whisper or smile; 
the Old Grave, the Young reverent in their deportment : 
They do speak little, but fervently and with elegancy."^ 
Their rhetorical figures were mostly suggested by natural 
objects, at times rising to flights of genuine eloquence. At 
a conference with the whites, in 1649, Pennekeck, the 
"Chief behind the Col," that is, of the Hackensack Indians, 
said the tribe called the Raritanoos, formerly living at 
Wiquaesskeck, had no Chief, therefore he spoke for them, 
in the Indian tongue. "I wish you could see my heart," he 
exclaimed, as he threw down two beavers, "then you would 
be sure that my words are sincere and true. "3 At a confer- 
ence held at Easton, in 1757, Teedyescung, Chief Sachem 
or King of the Delawares, said : "By this Belt of Wampum 
I take you by the hand and lead you up to our Council Fire, 
and desire you will not listen to the singing of Birds in the 
Woods,"* — that is, give no heed to the tales of enemies. 
In 1758 Governor Francis Bernard, of New Jersey, persuaded 
the Minisink Indians to come to Burlington for a conference, 
instead of to Easton as was their wont. The spokesman for 
the dusky statesmen told the Governor: "It is not agree- 
able to Our Chief Men and Counsellers to have a new 
Council fire kindled or the Old one removed to this side of 
the River from Pennsylvania, where it hath always been 
kept Burning. The Reason is this : we know the Strength 
of the Water, and that when the Wind and tide is strong it 
Roars that we cannot hear ; so that it is proper we should 
have the Council fire on the other Side of the River nearer 
to us. "5 The Indians were fond of referring to the 
"covenant chain" between them and the whites. "Since a 
Chain is apt to rust, if it be not oiled or greased, we will 
grease it with Bevers grease or Fatt yt the smell thereof will 
endure for a whole year."6 The Delawareshavingin 1725 be- 
come subordinate to the Five Nations, were not allowed to 
make war without the consent of the latter ; wherefore they 
were called "women. "^ When they won their independence, 

1 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIIL, 167, 172. 

2 Quoted i^ Robert Blount's Present State, etc., as cited, 102-3, and 
in Proud's Hist. Penna., I., 257. 

3 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 25. 
■* I Penn. Archives, III., 216. 

5 Penn. Col. Records, VIII., 158. 

6N. Y. Col. Docs.,V.,663. 

7 Loskiel, 125-6; Heckewelder, 58-70; Gallatin, Transactions Am. 
Antiq. Soc, IL, 47, 48, 78; 1 Penn. Archives, III., 216; Penn. Col. 
Records, III., 334; IV., 481, 579; VL,37; Vin.,156; N. Y. Col. Docs., 
V. ,623. The subject is exhaustively treated by Dr. Brinton, in his 
Lenape and their Legends, Chap. V. 



there was a curious ceremony, "the taking off of the petti- 
coat," in 17561- and again in 1795.2 

Bishop Ettwein tells us that the "Chief of the Tortoise is the 
Head." He was commonly spoken of by the whites as the 
"King" of the Delawares. Theearliest Chief who stands out 
pre-eminent above his fellows is Tamanend or Tamanee, 
whose name first appears in a deed dated the 23d day of the 
4th month (June), 1683, for lands in Bucks county, Pennsyl- 
vania. 3 In 1694 he was present with other Delaware Indians at 
a meeting of the Governor and Council of Pennsylvania, at 
Philadelphia, when he said, as quaintly recorded in the of- 
ficial minutes : "Wee and the Christians of this river Have 
allwayes had a free rode way to one another, & tho' some- 
times a tree has fallen across the rode yet wee have still re- 
moved it again, & keept the path clean, and wee design to 
Continou the old friend shipp that has been between us and 
you."4 Three years later (July 5, 1697) he joins in a deed 
for a tract of land near Neshaminy, " Extending in Length 
from the River Delaware, so farr as a horse can Travel in 
Two Suirmer dayes." The instrument begins thus: 
"Know all Men That we Taminy Sachimack and Wehee- 
lano my Brother and Weheequeckhon alias Andrew, who is 
to be king after my death, Yaqueekhon alias Nicholas, 
and Quenameckquid alias Charles my Sonns," etc. 5 
Although these are the only actual glimpses we have 
of the man, tradition supplies all that would else be lacking, 
and declares that he "never had his equal. He was in the 
hic^hest degree endowed with wisdom, virtue, prudence, 
charity, affability, meekness, hospitality, in short with every 
good and noble qualification that a human being may pos- 
sess. He was supposed to have had an intercourse with the 
great and good Spirit ; for he was- a stranger to everything 
that is bad."6 Countless legends have grown up about his 
name, and, in a spirit of drollery, he has been dubbed a 
Saint, in emulation of foreign heroes with less claim to a 
place in the calendar, and as "St. Tammany" is the first of his 
race to be thus honored." Having attained to a great age — 
he was spoken of as "the Tamanend of many days" — he 
is believed to have found a final resting place at or near 
Doylestown, Bucks county, Penn.8 

1 N. Y. Col. Docs., VII., ijq; Memoirs Penn. Hist. Soc, I. (ed. 1864), 
gg. In 1758 the Delawares still acknowledged that they -were a "woman 
nation," and could not act ■s\'ithout the Senecas. — i Pemi. Archives^ III., 
505. The Minisinks were at the same time declared to be "women," who 
could not make treaties for themselves. — Penn. Col. Records., VIII., 


2 Zeisberger's Diary,II., 40g. 

3 I Penn. Archives, I. , 64. In the Walam Olum it is recorded : 
Wcniinitis tatiienend sakimanjp mkohaiauii. 

All being friendly, the Affable was chief, the first of that name. 

It is impossible to conjecture with any approximation to accuracy when 
this first Tamanend became the Sachem of the Lenape. The Chief of 
the same name in William Penn's time was the third of the name. See 
the Lenape and their Legends, ig6-7, 22g. Heckewelder says the name 
means "affable." 

* Penn. Col, Records, I., 447. 

5 I Penn. Archives, 124. 

6 Heckewelder, 300. 

T See " The History of Tammany Society," in Valentine's Manual 
for 1865, pp. 84g et seqq. 

8 Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania, in the Olden Time, etc., 
by John F. Watson, Philadelphia, 1870, II., 172; History of Bucks 

In 1716, Sheekokonickan was the Chief of the Nation, and 
is the second mentioned as such in the early records. 1 It does 
not appear when, where or how he died, but in 1 718 the 
honor was borne by one whose name is variously written 
Allomabi, Allummapees, Alomipas, Olomipas, Olumpies, 
who was also called Sassoonan, "one who is well wrapped 
up. " He was even then an old man, and sickly, and prob- 
ably wore extra clothing on that account. In 1731, as al- 
ready stated, he stabbed and killed his nephew, in a drunken 
brawl. His grief and remorse were so great that he refused 
to eat for a time, and his life was in danger.2 For many 
years he represented his people in their conferences with 
the English, by whom he was held in high esteem. His 
death, in 1747, seems to have made quite a stir not only 
among the Delawares, but among the Six Nations and the 
whites as well. 3 

Teedyescung or Tadeuskund was born near Trenton about 
the year 1700, one of a family of spirited sons. About 
1730 they located at the forks of the Delaware, going further 
west until they joined their kinsmen, the Munseys. Coming 
under the Christian influence of the Moravian Brethren, he 
was baptized in 1750. But in 1754 the Munseys came down 
and urged him to become their King and lead them to war. 
After the defeat of Braddock, amid the general uprising of 
the savages, Teedyescung was swept into the war by an ir- 
resistible impulse of race pride, patriotism and ambition, 
and during 1755 and 1756, as King of the Delawares and 
Munseys, led his dusky warriors in many a destructive foray 
upon the white settlements. In July, 1756, he attended a 
Council at Easton, with the Governor of Pennsylvania. At 
this time he declared that he represented not only the Dela- 
wares, as their King, but the Six Nations and three others, 
making ten in all. This was explicitly contradicted, how- 
ever, by the Six Nations, at Easton, in 1758. In February, 
1758, he attended a conference held "in the Great Meeting 
House at Crosswicks, N. J., between the Government of 
New Jersey, and the Indians inhabiting within the same," 
when the Cranbury, Crosswicks, Ancocus, Raritan, "South- 
ern " and "Mountain" Indians presented their claims for 
lands then occupied by the whites.4 He was a brave 
warrior and a sagacious counsellor, impatient of control, yet 
a subject of the Indian's worst enemy — the " fire water" of 
the whites, and died a miserable death, being burned in his 
lodge, April 19, 1763.5 There were those who believed his 
wigwam was purposely set on fire by the Iroquois, who hated 
him for his influence with the English, and who also feared he 
might restore the Letiape to their pristine dignity and power. 

County, Pennsylvania, by W. W. H. Davis, Doylestown, 1876, pp. 63, 
73 ; Magazine of American History, XXIX., 255. 

1 Penn. Col. Records, II., 613. Is this name derived from Schiiu, 
orphan, and Ockonickan, the name of the Indian King who died about 
i68r-2 at Burlington ? 

2 Penn. Col. Records, III., 404-5. 

3 Penn. Col. Records, III., 318-321, 334, 404 ; IV., 53-4, 443-6, 742 ; V., 
212,222, 533; I Penn. Archives, I., 224, 266, 772; Moravian Memorials, 
121, 127. 

4 I Penn. Archives, III., 341-6. 

5 Penn. Col. Records, VII. , 199, 204-20; VIII. ,96,190-195 ; Moravian 
Memorials, 217-226, 339-364. 



It was a curious coincidence tliat he had been baptized 
'Gideon, and that as he went to and fi-o with his retinue of 
warriors he was often styled the "War trumpet."! He was 
the last of the Delaware Kings east of the Allegheny moun- 

An amusing but very important feature of the conferences 
with the Indians v/as the exchange of presents. The wily 
savages saw no sense in giving valuable skins of beaver, 
•otter or deer without receiving a corresponding return. If 
their presents were not reciprocated they quietly picked them 
up and carried them off — whence the expressive phr'ase, 
"Iidian giver." The authorities soon learned the full signi- 
ficance of the custom. When an Indian ambassador from 
his tribe presented a bundle of furs in token of his good 
faith, he naturally expected the whites to give a like token 
of their sincerity. So it came to be a regular practice at 
such conferences for the Governor to cause the value of the 
Indians' gift to be carefully computed, and then to make them 
a present of like or greater worth.2 

When the Delawares went to war, they were painted 
hideously, to strike the utmost teiTor into their enemies. 3 
How then could they distinguish friend from foe, when thus 
disguised? By their totems. "The totem is a symbolic 
device, generally an animal, which represents that all those 
having it have descended from one common ancestor. It has 
developed into the heraldic device of the family."* The 
practice seems to have beenuniversal among North American 
tribes,5 if indeed it was not prevalent throughout the Viforld. 
When an Indian built a hut he painted on the outside in a 
conspicuous place a rude figure of his totem, and any passing 
Indian of the same tribe (and hence of the same totem) was 
privileged to claim aid as of a brother. Their bodies were 
painted or tattooed with the same symbol, and so were their 
war-clubs.6 Among the Delawares, "the Turtle warrior 
draws either with a coal or paint here and there on the trees 
along the war path, the whole animal carrying a gun with 
the muzzle projecting forward, and if he leaves a mark at 
the place where he has made a stroke on his enemy, it will 
be a picture of a tortoise. Those of the Turkey tribe paint 
-only one foot of a turkey, and the Wolf tribe, sometimes a 
wolf at large with one leg and foot raised up to serve as a 
hand, in which the animal also carries a gun with the muzzle 
forward. "7 

The three principal tribes of the Letiape inhabiting New 
Jersey were subdivided into very many smaller tribes or 

1 Heckewelder, 302-305 ; Loskiel, II., 124, 182. 

2 Acrelius, S3, 103; Penn. Col. Records, II., 555, 559; N. Y. Col. 
Docs., XII., 524; 2 Penn. Archives, VII., 769. Many other instances 
could be cited. 

3 Loskiel, 147. 

< Dorman, 237. "In the Ojibwa dialect the word fotevi, quite as often 
pronounced dodaim, signifies the symbol or device of a gens ; thus the 
figure of a wolf was the totem of the Wolf gens." — Morgan, Ancient 
Society, 165. And see Brinton, American Hero Myths, 40; Abbott's 
Primitive Industry, 72, 384. 

5 Brinton, Myths of the New World, 231 ; Second Annual Report U. 
S. Bureau of Ethnology, 166. 

6 Heckewelder, 54. 

7 lb., 253. • 

clans, who generally settled along the rivers and bays, 
and were usually called by the whites after the streams on 
which they were located, instead of by any proper tribal 
or family designation. Hence the names which have 
come down to us are descriptive of localities rather than of 
tribes. Some of these sub-tribes mentioned by early wri- 
ters and in the old records are as follows : 

Kechemeches, 500 men, above Cape May. 

Manicses, 100 bowmen, tv/elve leagues above the former. 
(Doubtless the Mantas or Mantes, on Salem creek.) 

Sikonesses, six leagues higher up. 

Asomoches, 100 men. 

Eriwoncck, 40 men. 

Ramcock, 100 men, five miles above the last. (Probably 
living on Rancocas creek.) 

AxioH, 200 men, four miles higher up. (Probably As- 
siscunk creek.) 

Cakefar, 150 men, " tenne leagues over land." 

Mosilian, 200 men, below the Falls. 1 

Raritans, Raritanoos, Raritangs, 1200 men, with two 
sachems.3 This tribe formerly lived at Wiquaesskeck (near 
Dobbs's Ferry, Westchester county, N. Y.)3 but we have no 
account of why or when they removed to the fertile valleys 
of Central New Jersey. They were a warlike people, diffi- 
cult to placate. In 1634 the Dutch made a treaty of peace 
with them, but hostilities broke out at intervals, and in 1640 
the savages attacked a sloop sent up their river with .sup- 
plies, and tried to kill the crew and' capture the vessel and 
cargo.4 Foiled in this attempt, they made a raid on Staten 
Island, killing four tobacco planters and firing the buildings. 
The exasperated Dutch authorities at New Amsterdam 
thereupon passed an ordinance (in 1641), offering the other 
Indians ten fathoms of wampum for every Raritan's head, 
and twenty fathoms for the head of each of those who had 
killed the Staten Island planters.5 Perhaps another reason 
for this barbarous act of reprisal was the greed of the whites 
for the fertile fields and meadows of the Indians, a writer in 
1650 declaring that " the Raritanys had the handsomest and 
pleasantest country that man can behold ; it furnished the 
Indians with abundance of maize, beans, pumpkins and 
other fruits. "6 Harrassed by the Manhattans and the 
Dutch, and tempted by the offers of would-be purchasers, 
the thrifty savages seem to have sold their fair domain 
in 1650 and again in 1652, to two different parties. 7 

Neighbor to the Raritans were the Ne-wesinghs, also 
called Na-ussins, Newasons, Neversinks or Navesinks, who 

1 Letter of Master Robert Evelin, who was in New Jersey about 1635, 
quoted in Smith's N. J., 29. For notices of the Mantas, see N. Y. Col. 
Docs., XII., 346, 414, 462 ; and De Vries, as cited, 253. 

2 A Description of the Province of New Albion, etc., 1648, by Beau- 
champ Plantagenet, quoted in Smith's N. J., 30. This little pamphlet, 
on account of its extravagant statements, is not worthy of implicit cre- 

3N. Y. Col. Docs.,Xin.,25. 

4 lb., 7. 

5 Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland, 28. 
6N. Y. Doc. Hist., IV., 22. 

T N. Y. Col. Docs., XIIL, 2S-34. 



■were said to own the land from Barnegat to the Raritan. 1 
In 1650 they were but few in number ;- their Sachem then was 
Ouz-zeech.2 In 1660 the Dutch demanded the surrender of 
some Indians accused of murdering the whites, and who had 
taken refuge with the Raritans and Newesings, but the 
Sachems replied that "they could not seize and surrender 
the delinquents, without placing themselves in danger of 
being massacred by their relations,"3 which was regarded by 
the Dutch authorities as merely an evasion, but was never- 
theless the truth, punishment for murder not being an affair 
of the tribe, but only of the family or gens, as already 
shown. The English and the Dutch eagerly sought to buy 
the lands of the Newesings in 1663, and in Decem- 
ber of that year the latter succeeded in persuading the 
Indians to sell only to the Director-General and Council of 
New Netherland. This agreement was made by the " chiefs 
Matanoo, Barrenach, Mechat, brother to and deputed by 
Pajpemoor, empowered by Pasachynom, Menarhohondoo, 
Sycakeska and the aforesaid Pojpemoor, all chiefs and 
owners of the lands in the Newesinghs ;" also Piewecher- 
enoes alias Hans. To this important document Matano, 
Mechat, "Pieweherenoes, alias Hans the savage," and Bar- 
renach affixed their marks, that of the last-named being a 
very fair outline of a tortoise, indicating that the chief be- 
longed to the Unami tribe.4 There were still a few of the 
Newesings in their old hunting grounds in 1670.5 

Naraticons, occupying the southern part of New Jersey. 

Sanhicans, inhabiting the country about Trenton. Dr. 
Brinton says the name is a contraction of assaii-kican, a 
stone implement, referring to the manufacture of such arti- 
cles so extensively carried on in that neighborhood. 6 

Hackensacks. — The Raritan country extended northerly 
to Weequahick (Bound or Dividing) Creek, the dividing line 
between Newark and Elizabeth. The country north of this 
creek, and from First Mountain to the Hudson river, was 
occupied by the Hackensack Indians, who were principally 
settled along the river of that name. Being in such close 
proximity to New Amsterdam, they naturally came much in 
contact with the whites, and we find numerous references to 
them in the early records. They appear to have been 
peaceable, for the most part, and were frequently interces- 
sors for the warlike Raritans on the south, and the Esopus, 
Tappan and other Indians on the north. The first convey- 
ance on record by the Hackensack Indians was made in 
1630, for " Ilobocan Hacking," the grantors being Arro- 
meauw, Tekwappo and Sackwomeck. The site of Jersey 
City (Ahasimus and Aressick) was sold about the same time 
by Ackitoauw and Aiarouw, for themselves and the other 
proprietors, Winym, Matskath and Camoins.'!' These con- 
veyances were doubtless made by some villagers living on 

1 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 311. 

2 WoUey, 54. 

3 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 163, 190. 

4 lb., 314-316. 

5 Denton, 15. 

6 Lenape and their Legends, 44 ; De Vries, 253 ; Acrelius, 57. 
1 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., I, 2. 

these tracts, as it does not appear that the deeds were auth- 
orized by the tribe. The Hackensack Indians seem to have 
been quiet and comparatively industrious. They raised 
large quantities of provisions, probably manufactured wam- 
pum, had their principal seat in the neighborhood of the- 
present village of Hackensack, and an important settle- 
ment at Gamoenipa (Communipaw), whence they were 
ready to trade with the Dutch, or to make war upon 
Manhattan, whichever the inhabitants of that island pre- 
ferred. It is not unlikely that they were in the habit of 
holding their weird "Kinte-Kaey" at Yantacaw, or Third 
River. (Where the Dutch first saw this Indian dance, up 
among the Highlands, the place is still known as the Dans- 
Kammer, or dancing hall. Rip Van Winkle was mistaken 
when he imagined he saw there the ghosts of Captain Kid's 
pirates ; they were the spirits of departed Indians, revisit-^ 
ing the " pale glimpes of the moon, " to indulge once more 
in their mystic " Kinte-Kaey. ") Undoubtedly the Hacken-^ 
sacks taught the first settlers many things about fishings 
hunting, the cultivation of maize and its subsequent utiliza- 
tion in the favorite form of suppaen, which soon became fa- 
miliar to every Dutch youngster in the land. We may well 
believe, too, that the thrifty Dutch vrouws learned many a. 
new thing in domestic economy from the squaws, expe- 
rienced in housewifery peculiar to the New World. The 
farmers who yearly burn the grass off the Hackensack 
meadows learned that practice and its benefits from the 
" Wilden. " The cupidity of the early settlers led them to 
sell liquor to the Indians and countless evils ensued. One 
day in 1643, over at Pavonia, an Indian who had become in- 
toxicated through the Dutch plying him with liquor, was- 
asked if he could make good use of his bow and arrow in 
that state ? For answer he aimed at a Dutchman thatching; 
a house and shot him dead. An Englishman had been 
killed a few days before by some of the Indians of the 
Achter Col village. The whites were exasperated and de- 
manded the surrender of the murderers, which, of course, 
was refused, being contrary to the Indian custom. Some of 
the whites trespassed on the Indians' cornfields, and when- 
resisted shot three of the savages dead. A war seemed im- 
minent, and in alarm many of the Indians fled for protection 
to the neighborhood of the Fort on Manhattan Island. The 
Dutch took advantage of this opportunity, and on the night 
of February 25, 1643, O"^ party slaughtered their unsuspect- 
ing guests on the Island, while another party went over to- 
Pavonia and attacked the Indian village there, when the 
women and children were asleep. 1 The ferocity displayed by 
the whites was never exceeded by the savages. Says a con- 
temporary chonicler : "Young children, some of them. 
snatched from their mothers, were cut in pieces before the 
eyes of their parents, and the pieces were thrown into the 
fire or into the water ; other babes were bound on planks 
and then cut through, stabbed and miserably massacred, so 
that it would break a heart of stone ; some were thrown 
into the river, and when the fathers and mothers sought 
to save them, the soldiers would not suffer them tct- 

1 N. Y. Doc. Hist., IV., 6-7 ; N. Y. Col. Docs., I., 150-151 ; XIII., lOw- 



•come ashore but caused both old and young to be 
-drowned. Some children of from 5 to 6 years of age, as also 
■some old infirm persons, who had managed to hide them- 

jselves in the bushes and reeds, came out in the morning 
to beg for a piece of bread and for permission to warm 
themselves, but were all murdered in cold blood and thrown 
into the fire or water. "i As the total result of the night's 
butchery, about eighty Indians were killed and thirty made 

"■prisoners.2 Eleven tribes arose to avenge this cruel slaughter, 
but were no match for the well-armed whites, and a thou- 
sand Indians were slain. 3 Peace was concluded April 22, 
1643, "Oratamin, Sachem of the savages living at Achkinhes 
hacky, who declared himself commissioned by the savages 
of Tappaen, Rechgawavi anc, Richtawanc [Sleepy Hollow] 
and Sintsinck," answering for the Indians.4 The ink was 
scarcely dry on this paper before Pachem, "a crafty man" 
■of the Hackensacks, was running through all the villages, 
urging the Indians to a general massacre. 5 More trouble 
followed, but in 1645 another treaty was made between the 
whites and the savages, Oratamy, chief of Achkinkehacky, 
making his mark thereto. Pacham and Pennekeck joined 
in its execution. In 1649 a number of leading Indians made 
further propositions for a lasting peace, the principal 
speaker being Pennekeck, "the Chief behind the Col," in 
the neighborhood of Communipaw — probably a considerable 
-village of the Hackensacks. The Chief Oratamin was pres- 
ent but said nothing. However, his superiority was recog- 
Tiized by the gift of some tobacco and a gun, while the 
■"common savages" received only " a small present worth 
about twenty guilders."^ During the ten years, 1645-55, 
there were occasional encounters between Indians and 
whites, ten or fourteen of the latter being killed in that 
period in the vicinity of New Amsterdam. The whites were 
■continually encroaching on the natives, and in the neighbor- 
hood of Pavonia a considerable settlement of Dutch had grown 
up. The Indians became restive as they saw tlieir lands slip- 
ping away from them, and finally seem to have planned the 
extirpation of the invaders. Very early on the morning of 
September 15, 1655, sixty-four canoes, filled with five hun- 
dred armed savages, landed on Manhattan island, and the 
warriors speedily scattered through the village. Many al- 
tercations occurred between them and the Dutch during the 
■day. Toward evening they were joined by two hundred 
more savages. Three Dutchmen and as many Indians were 
killed. The savages then crossed over to Pavonia and to 
Staten Island, and in the course of three days destroyed build- 
ings and cattle, killed about fifty whites and carried off 
eighty men, women and children into captivity. In this 
outbreak the Indians of Hackensack and Ahasimus were 
conspicuous actors. It was the last expiring effort of the na- 

1 Breeden-Raedt, printed at Antwerp in 1649 ; reprinted in N. Y. 
-Doc. Hist., IV., 65 et seqq. 
2N. Y. Doc. Hist., IV., 7. 

3N. Y. Col. Docs.,1.,151. ^ 

■4 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 14. 
*N. Y. Doc. Hist., IV., 8. 
■e N. Y. Col. Docs. , XIII. , 23. 

tives near New York to check the resistless advance of the 
S wannekins, as they caMed the Dutch. 1 However, for a time 
the Indians believed they had the advantage, and proceeded to 
profit by it with great shrewdness. They brought some of 
their prisoners to Pavonia, and treated with the whites for 
their ransom, demanding cloth, powder, lead, wampum, 
knives, hatchets, pipes and other supplies. Pennekeck, 
chief of the Indians of Achkinkeshaky, finally sent fourteen 
of his prisoners over to the Dutch authorities, and asked for 
powder and lead in return ; he got what he wanted, and 
two Indian prisoners besides. The negotiations con- 
tinued, until Pennekeck had secured an ample supply 
of ammunition, and the Dutch had received most of 
their people back again. To the credit of the savages it 
should be said that no complaint was made of the treatment 
of their captives, and they kept all their promises. 2 The 
authorities of New Netherland were greatly disturbed by this 
brief but destructive war, and as a precaution against the 
recurrence of such an event advised the erection of a block- 
house of logs, in sight of the Indians, near Achkinheshaky. 3 
Affairs seem to have gone smoothly between the Dutch and 
the Hackensacks thereafter. 

On March 6, 1660, the treaty of peace was renewed with 
the Indians on the west side of the Hudson, Oratamy, chief 
of the Hackinkasacky, taking part in the negotiations. He 
was also present May 18, 1660, when peace was concluded 
with the Wappings, and a few weeks later interceded for the 
Esopus Indians, and had the satisfaction of attending at 
the conclusion of a peace with them, on which occasion he 
was accompanied by Carstangh, another Hackensack chief. 4 
Naturally enough, the Esopus Indians looked upon him as 
their friend, and when, a year later, some of their people 
who had been sent to Curacao, had now been recalled, they 
asked that they "might be delivered at their arrival to 
Oratam."5 On March 30, 1662, Oratam, chief of Hacking- 
hesaky, complained to the Dutch authorities of the illicit 
sale of brandy to the savages in tlieir country, and there- 
upon he and Metano were empowered to seize the brandy so 
offered for sale, and the traders having it.6 On June 27, 
1663, these two chiefs were called to a conference with the 
whites, who were then at war with the Esopus Indians, and 
agreed to keep the peace, but declined to accede to some 
dishonorable proposals made by the authorities. "Oratam 
said, he was very glad, that we would keep quiet here and 
that the war would only be made at the Esopus ; he had 
not a single spark in his heart, that was bad."'i' All the 
accounts we have of him go to prove the truth of this sim- 
ple declaration. Two ■weeks later, the chiefs of several 

1 A Brief and True Narrative of the Hostile Conduct of the Barbarous 
Natives towards the Dutch Nation, translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan, 
Albany, 1S63; N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 49, 55. 

2 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 45-48. 

3 lb., 53. 

* lb., 148, 167, 171, 180. 

5 lb. , 202. 

6 lb., 21 8. 

^ lb., 262. 



tribes north of the Hackensacks came to New Amsterdam, 
at the summons of Oratam, who was again accompanied by 
Karstangh. The new comers ratified all that had been said 
and done by the aged chief of the Hackensacks, thereby 
manifesting the respect and confidence in which he was 
held by his neighbors. 1 The whites were still crowding the 
Indians, but in view of former experiences the authorities 
preferred to acquire the land of the Indians peaceably, if 
possible, and so urged the Hackensacks to sell the hook of 
land behind the Kil van Kol. Oratam gave the politic 
reply that "most of the young men of the tribe were out 
hunting, so that he had not been able to speak with them, 
but he had talked with the old warriors, who said that they 
would not like to sell, preferring to keep a portion of it to 
plant, for they dared not go further inland for fear of being 
robbed by their enemies." " He said further, that there was 
land enough both for the Dutch and the Indians, divided by 
the Kil, and that it was as good as the land on the Esopus. " 2 
The reference is probably to the land west of the Passaic 
river, for which some New England people had been nego- 
tiating since l66i, with a view to settling on the site of the 
present city of Newark. 3 In his office of peacemaker, Ora- 
tamy again appeared at Fort Amsterdam the following 
month (August 15, 1663), with three Minisink chiefs, who 
protested their wish to live quietly.4 In November of the 
same year he asked for peace with the Wappings and the 
Esopus savages, with whom the whites were at war.5 The 
treaty was delayed, however, by the failure of the Esopus 
Indians, on one pretext or another, to release their Christian 
captives. With Kastangh, Hans and others, he was again 
at Fort Amsterdam on February 23, 1664, in relation to the 
peace with the Esopus Indians. "He presents an otterskin 
as a sign that his heart is good, but he does not know yet, 
how the heart of our [the Dutch] Sachems is. " He evi- 
dently felt the burden of his great age, for "he gives an- 
other otterskin and says Hans shall be sachem after him 
over the Hackingkesack and Staten Island savages. If after 
his, Oratamy's death, we had anything to say to the savages, 
we should send for Hans, as we now send for Oratam. He 
asks for a small piece of ordnance, to be used in his castle 
against his enemies. "^ His "castle" was doubtless a pali- 
saded hut, on the banks of the Hackensack river. The 
long-wished-for peace with the Esopus Indians was at length 
concluded, May 16, 1664, and Oratamy, chief of Hackingke- 
sacky and Tappaen, and Matteno, chief of the Staten Island 
and Nayack savages, became securities for the peace,-and 
pledged themselves and their men to go to war with either 
party who should violate it." 

When the English conquered New Netherland, in 1664, 
they were careful to cultivate the friendship of the Hacken- 

1 lb., 276. 

2 Ib.,2So. 

3 lb., 281. 

4 lb. , 290. 

5 lb., 305,314, 320-323. 

6 lb., 361. 

1 lb. , 377, 386. The Nayack Indians referred to were on Long Island , 
opposite Staten Island. 

sack chief, and Gov. Philip Carteret wrote two letters itt 
1666 to Oralon, as he called him, in relation to the proposed 
purchase of the site of Newark. 1 The Hackensack chief 
was very old at this time, and unable to travel from Hack- 
ensack to Newaj-k, to attend the conference between the 
whites and the natives.2 And so fades from our view this 
striking figure in the Indian history of New Jersey. Pru- 
dent and sagacious in counsel, he was prompt, energetic 
and decisive in war, as the Dutch found to their cost when 
they recklessly provoked him to vengeance. The few 
glimpses we are afforded of this Indian Chieftain clearly 
show him to have been a notable man among men in his day, 
and that he was recognized as such not only by the aborig- 
ines of New Jersey, but by the Dutch rulers with whom 
he came in contact. The name of such a man is surely 
worthy of commemoration, even two centuries after his 
spirit has joined his kindred in the happy hunting grounds 
of his race. 

The Indian deed for Newark, July 11, 1667, is from 
" Wapannuk, the Sakamaker, and Wamesane, Peter Cap- 
tamin, Wecaprokikan, Napeam, Perawae, Sessom, Maraus- 
tome, Cacanakque, and Hairish, Indians belonging now to 
Hakinsack,"3 from which it is to be inferred that Oratamin 
had died during the year,4 and had been succeeded by 
Wapamuck, instead of by Hans, as he had anticipated. 

Among the witnesses to this instrument was Pierzuim, 
"ye Sachem of Pau," or Pavonia — probably one of the com- 
mon chiefs, the head of a family at or near the latter place. 
In August, 1669, Pereivyn — doubtless the same person — is 
mentioned as having been "lately chosen Sachem of ye 
Hackingsack, Tappan and Staten Island Indians," and 
called on the Governor at New York "to renew & ack- 
nowledge ye peace between them & ye Xtians " there.5 

When the Dutch reconquered New Netherland, in 1673, 
" the Sachems and Chiefs of the Hackensack Indians with 
about twenty savages " came forward and asked " that they 
might continue to live in peace with the Dutch, as they had 
done in former times, " to which the authorities cordially 
agreed, and presents were exchanged in confirmation of the 
treaty. 6 

An Indian named Knatsciosan wounded a Dutchman at 
Bergen, April 11, 1678; Governor Carteret and his Council 
met there April 24, with the Sakamakers of the Hacken- 
sacks : Manoky, Mandenark, Hamahem, Tanteguas and 
Capeteham, and the assault was settled on a pecuniary 

1 N. J. Archives, I., 55-56. 

2 Affidavit of Col. Robert Treat, in Elizabethtown Bill in Chancery, . 
New York, 1747, p. 118. 

3 East Jersey Records, in the office of the Secretary of State, at Tren- 
ton, Liber No. i, fol. 69. The deed is printed in Records of the Town of 
Newark, New Jersey, Newark, 1864, 278-80. 

■4 In that excellent work. History of the Indian Tribes of Hudson's 
River, by E. M. Ruttenber, Albany, 1872, the author says Oritany " is 
spoken of in i6S7,as very aged, and as delegating his authority in a meas- 
ure to Perro." This statement is evidently based on a careless reading 
of Col. Robert Treat's affidavit, cited above, wherein the deponent says- 
that in 1666 Oritany was very old. 

5 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIIL, 428. 

6 lb., 476 ; N. J. Archives, I., 131-2. 



basis. 1 This last named chief was one of the witnesses to the 
deed for Newark, in 1667. He joined in a deed for land 
near Lodi in 1671.2 It was from this same Sachem that the 
first purchases of lands within the present county of Passaic 
were made, in 1678, and in 1679. In the former deed he is 
described as Captehan Peeters,^ Indian Sachem; in the latter 
as Captahem, " Indian Sachem and Chief. "4 In a deed for 
■.land in 1678, Manschy, Mendawack, Hanrapen, Tanteguas 
and Capesteham (a variant for Capteliam) are mentioned as 
" Sackamakers of Hackensack, "o and are the last of whom 
record has been found. 

The Saddle River tract, from Lodi north to Big Rock, in 
Bergen county, which was doubtless part of the territory of 
the Hackensacks, was sold April 9, 1679, by Arrorickan, 
claiming to be the Sachem of the tract, and who was joined 
in the conveyance by Mogquack and Woggermahameck.6 

With the increase of the white settlements the Indians 
were crowded back into the interior — among the mountains 
of Northern New Jersey, into the Minisink country, and 
gradually beyond the Alleghanies. In 1679 there was but a 
single Indian family in the whole territory embraced within 
the limits of Passaic, Clifton and Paterson south of the Pas- 
saic river.7 In 1688 a prominent resident of the present Hud- 
son county declared that he had seen no Indians in a long 
time. 8 True, in 1693 the Hackensack and Tappan Indians 
were said to be threatening an attack on the whites, 9 but they 
were then far removed from their former hunting grounds. 

In 1710 Memerescum claimed to be the " sole Sachem of 
all the nations of Indians on Remopuck River and on the west 
and East branches thereof on Saddle River Pasqueck River 
Narashunk River Hackinsack River and Tapaan, " and 
joined with Waparent, Sipham, Rawantaques, Maskainapu- 
lig, Taphome and Ayamanngh (a squaw) in conveying the 
upper or northwestern parts of the present Bergen and Passaic 
counties. 1" 

Wappings, Pomptons, Pequannocks. — North of the Hack- 
insacks were the Tappans, and then the Esopus Indians. 
The Wappingers occupied the east side of the Hudson river 
and the northern shores of Long Island Sound. H They were 
frequently at war with the whites, especially the Dutch. 
Oratamy was repeatedly called on to intercede for them 

1 East Jersey Records, Liber 3, fol. 144. 

2 Liber B of East Jersey Deeds, in Secretary of State's office, Tren- 
ton, fol. 79. 

3 Liber A of Deeds, in Secretary of State's office, Trenton, fol. 242. 

4 Liber No. 1 of East Jersey Deeds, in Secretary of State's office, 
Trenton, fol. 128. 

5 Liber No. 3 of East Jersey Deeds, fol. 143. 

6 Liber No. i of E. J. Deeds, fol. 129. 

7 Dankeis and Sluyter, as ciied, 269. 

8 Elizabethtown Bill in Chancery, 117. 

9 Calendar N. Y. Hist. MSS. , II. , 233. x 

10 East Jersey Deeds, Book I, f. 317. 

11 Ruttenber, 83-84. 


with the authorities at Fort Amsterdam.! It is prob- 
able that in time they were driven west, and occupied the 
country about Pompton, for at the treaty of Easton, in 1758, 
the " Wapings, Optngs or Pomptons" are mentioned. 2 
The name is evidently derived from the root wab, east, and 
indicates their eastern origin. The Indian names affi.xed to 
every mountain, hill and stream, and to every striking fea- 
ture in the landscape for miles about Paterson indicate that 
the country had been peopled by the aborigines for cen- 
turies. If the Wappings or Opings who were apparently 
identified with the Pomptons in 1758 were the remnants of 
the warlike Wappingers of a century earlier, they were 
doubtless welcomed by the Pompton Indians when driven 
west of the Hudson. We have no account of the Sachems 
of the Pomptons in the seventeenth century. The earliest 
mention of them is in a deed in 1695 ^O"^ lands at Pomp- 
ton, conveyed by Tapgan, Oragnap, Mansiem, Wick- 
wam Rookham, Paakek Siekaak (or Paakch Sehaak), Wa- 
weiagin, Onageponk, Neskilanitt (Mek:quam or Neskeglat),, 
Peykqueneck and Ponton — that is, Pequannock and Pomp- 
ton Indians — and laiapogh. Sachem of Minissing.3 This 
instrument indicates that the Pequannock and Pompton 
Indians recognized the supremacy of the Minsi tribe, to- 
which they and all the other sub-tribes of Northern New 
Jersey belonged. 


Since mention has been made of Indian deeds for land, 
it may be well to say something of the practice in New 
Jersey in extinguishing the Indian title to the soil. 
When the Swedes settled in West Jersey in 1638 "a 
purchase of land was immediately made from the Indians," 
a deed was drawn up and signed by the grantors and 
"was sent home to Sweden to be preserved in the royal 
archives. " That the Dutch recognized the Indian title is 
evidenced also by an ordinance of the Director General and 
Council of New Netherlands, passed July i, 1652, wherein 
it was set out that many of the inhabitants, " covetous and 
greedy of land, " had bought directly from the Indians, 
whereby the price had been raised "far above the rate at 
which the Director General and Council could heretofore 
obtain them from the natives ; yea — (and here, we fear, is the 
real gravamen of the offence aimed at) yea, some malicious 
and evil disposed persons have not scrupled to inform and 
acquaint the Indians what sum and price the Dutch or whites 
are giving each other for small lots !" The implied keenness- 
of the Indians in taking advantage of the current rates for 
land corroborates the declaration of the early traveler al- 
ready quoted, " that there were no fools or lunatics among 
them. " In 1664 King Charles II. granted to his brother, 
the Duke of York, afterwards King James IL, the territory 
embracing New Jersey, with full powers of government, but 
the grant apparently implies that only the subjects of the 

1 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIIL, 46, 167, 180, 364, 375. 

2 Smith's N. J. , 479. 

3 East Jersey Deeds, Liber E, f. 306. 



King and adventurers seeking the new country were included 
under this authority, and not the aborigines. As evidence 
of what the understanding really was we may refer to the 
purchases made from the Indians of the site of Elizabeth- 
town in 1664 ; of the site of Newark in 1666-7 '> New Barba- 
does Neck in 166S ; lands on the Raritan in 1669, and many 
other like instances. In 1674, Sir George Carteret, then 
owner of East Jerse)', pledged himself to purchase the land 
from the Indians for the settlers from time to time, as re- 
quired. It was not until 1676 that William Penn became 
interested in New Jersey, his first real estate venture on this 
side of the Atlantic, and it was six years later ere he set foot 
in America. He then found the practice of acquiring title 
in the first place from the Indians an old-established custom 
in this part of the new world. The subsequent Proprietors 
of New Jersey from time to time urged upon their agents 
here the importance of securing the Indians' title to the 
whole province, and in 1682 the Legislature passed an act 
" to regulate treaties with the Indians," providing that no 
person should buy lands from the Indians without a written 
authorization under the seal of the Province ; the grant was 
to be to the Proprietors, who promised to reimburse the 
purchaser, and the deed was to be duly registered.! in 
practice, however, the Indian deeds appear to have been al- 
ways to the buyer, who on presentation thereof to the 
Proprietors could then purchase the title of the latter to 
the land. The actual title to the soil, however, was de- 
rived from the English sovereign, who claimed it by right of 
discovery and conquest. The Indian title was a legal nulli- 
ty, being merely that of occupancy, and was not to the fee.2 
Among the Indians themselves, there was no ownership in 
severalty. The land occupied by a tribe was owned by the 
tribe in common, although the cultivation of maize and plants 

1 Learning and Spicer, 182, 196. 

2 " The title acquired by the grant from the Indians [for the site of 
Nevvfark] was a nuUitj'. As a conveyance of landsit was null and void. 
By the law of nations, established by the consensus of all civilized na- 
tions, and by the common law, title to the soil is obtained by discovery 
or conquest. By the English common law the title to lands in this State 
■\vas vested in the English Crown ; and it is a fundamental principle in 
English colonial jurisprudence that all titles to lands within this colony 
passed to individuals from the Crown, through the colonial or proprietary 
authorities." See charge of the Hon. David A. Depue, of the Nevf Jer- 
sey Supreme Court, in the case of The Mayor and Common Council of 
the city of Newark vs. George Watson et al. , in the N. J. Supreme Court, 
Essex Circuit, May term, 1892, p. 258 of printed case. In the case of 
Martin et als. vs. Waddell, in the Supreme Court of the United States, 
the validity of the Indian title to the soil of New Jersey was also in ques- 
tion, and Chief Justice Taney held (January Term, 1842): "The English 
possessions in America were not claimed by right of conquest, but by 
right of discovery. According to the principles of international law, as 
then understood by the civilized powers of Europe, the Indian tribes in 
the new world were regarded as mere temporary occupants of the soil ; 
and the absolute rights of property and dominion were held to be- 
long to the European nations by which any portion of the country was 
first discovered. " — 16 Peters^ U. S. Reports, 367. The first case raising 
this question in the Supreme Court of the United States was that of 
Fletcher vs. Peck, February, 1810, when Chief Justice Marshall said ; 
" The majority of the court is of opinion that the nature of the Indian 
title, which is certainly to be respected by all courts, until it be legitimate- 
ly e.xtinguished, is not such as to be absolutely repugnant to seisin in fee 
on the part of the State. " — 6 Cranch, 142-3. See also Vattel's Law of 
Nations, Chap. 18. 

tended to introduce individual proprietorship in cultivated 
land.l Each nation had its own particular boundaries, subdi- 
vided between each tribe. 2 These boundaries were generally 
marked by mountains, lakes, rivers and brooks, and encroach- 
ments by neighboring tribes were strictly resented, whether on 
their lands or on their fishing orhunting rights.3 At the same 
time, there were common highways — Indian paths — through 
the territory of the several tribes and sub-tribes, and which 
in later years were widened into the public roads of the 
whites. The Indians had free access by these paths from 
the ocean to the interior, and the routes pursued from the 
sea to the ancient Council Fire at Easton figure numerously 
in the early records as the " Minisink paths." 

With the gradual disappearance of the red man from 
Scheyechbi, the few who were left became more and more 
helpless. The saintly David Bramerd gave his life in his 
efforts to improve the spiritual and moral condition of the 
remnants of the Lenape in New Jersey and Pennpylvania, but 
was hindered by the prejudice and suspicions of the whites 
on the one hand, and the evil example they set on the 
other.4 Although the early Proprietors professed a solici- 
tude for the religious welfare of the natives, it was not until 
Brainerd began his mission in 1742, that any effort was made 
in that direction. It is not to the credit of American Chris- 
tianity that he was set apart for this work by the Society in 
Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. He gathered 
the scattered Indian families together at Crossweeksung 
(Crosswicks — house of separation),^ where he established a 
little church and school, with a view to getting the natives set- 
tled in one body,** but in 1746 they removed to Cranbury. 
He also formed a congregation at Bethel. When he left his 
beloved Iirdians in the spring of 1747, to go home to die, his 
work was taken up by his brother John. The title of the 
Indians to the lands at Crosswicks was attacked by Chief 
Justice Robert Hunter Morris, and although the Brainerds 
raised money to perfect the title, the natives were discour- 
aged. In 1754 an effort was made, doubtless through 
Brainerd, to sectire a tract of 4,000 acres in New Jersey, for 
the permanent settlement of the Indians. In 1756 a tract of 
3,000 acres was selected, and arrangements made for its 
purchase by the Scotch Society supporting Brainerd. In 
^7S7> "The New Jersey Association for Helping the 

1 Morgan, Ancient Society, 530. 

2 Guy Johnson to Dr. William Robertson in 1775, in Magazine Ameri- 
can History, XXVIII., 376. 

3 Heckewelder, 30, 129; i Penn. Archives, III., 344; Loskiel, 129; 
Douglass, I., 155 ; Penn. Col. Records, VII., 325. 

4 Brainerd's Life, as cited, 174, 247, 275, 298, 342 ; N. J. Archives, VI. , 
406-7; VIII., 140. The Swedish naturalist, Peter Kalm, who lived at 
Raccoon, New Jersey, for four years, about 1745-9, relates an anecdote, 
on the authority of an old Swede, illustrating the difficulty of attract- 
ing the Indians to any kind of a "talk" without liquid refreshments: 
" As a sermon was preached in the Swedish church at Raccoon, an 
Indian came in, looked about him, and, after hearkening to the preacher, 
said : ' Here is a great deal of prattle and nonsense, but neither brandy 
nor cyder,' and went out again." — Travels into North A7nerica, etc., 
by Peter Kalm, London, 1771, II., iiS. 

6 Beatty's Journal; A Star in the West, etc., by Elias Boudinot, 
Trenton, N. J., i8i6, p. 278. 
6 Brainerd, 201, 226, 274. 



Indians" was formed by a number of Friends in West Jer- 
sey, who subscribed £175 toward buying a tract of 2,000 
acres for the natives. The Indian War of 1755 following 
Braddock's defeat, and the incursion of savages on the 
northern frontier of New Jersey, disquieted the public mind 
too greatly to permit the furtherance of any project for the 
permanent settlement of any considerable body of Indians 
in the Province. Indeed, the Christian congregations at 
, Cranbury and Bethel felt constrained to appeal, December 
2, 1755, to the Governor for protection against the whites 
and the hostile savages. The Governor and his Council de- 
cided that "for the Safety of other His Majestys Subjects as 
of the sd Indians themselves," every Indian should be regis- 
tered, with their " Names & Natural Descriptions of the 
Persons as fully and Particularly as they can with the 
Number and Residence of their Family," provided the 
Indians should declare and prove their loyalty to the 
English King, whereupon they should be given a certifi- 
cate, and a red ribbon to wear on the head. Any Indian 
lacking such certificate might be committed by any jus- 
tice of the peace, until he could find security for his good 
behavior. 1 The natives were naturally restive under such a 
drastic law, and Teedyescung demanded that the authori- 
ties should " throw down the Fence that confined some of 
his Brethren and relatives in the Jerseys. "2 A conference 
was held with the Indians at Crosswicks early in 1756, at 
which pledges were made in their interest, and the Legisla- 
ture in 1757 took steps to redeem them.3 Harcop, John 
Keyon and six Indians in the county of Bergen (probably 
about and north of Pompton) sent three belts of wampum to 
the Governor and Council, in March, 1756, in token of their 
loyalty, and of their desire to be included in the treaty of 
Crosswicks. 4 The Legislature in 1757 appointed commis- 
sioners with power to inquire into the Indian claims to New 
Jersey, with a view to their settlement.5 

Another conference was held at Crosswicks in February, 
1758, at which Teedyescung, King of the Delawares, was 
present, with a large number of Indians inhabiting the Pro- 
vince, and some progress was made toward adjusting the 
differences between the whites and the red men. 6 Still fur- 
ther advance was made in August, 175S, at a conference held 
at Burlington, when the Indians asked that a tract of land in 
Evesham township, Burlington county, be bought for the oc- 
cupancy of all .the Delaware Indians living south of the 
Raritan river, in exchange for which they agreed to release 
all the rights of the natives to lands in New Jersey. 7 The 
Pompton Indians did not attend this conference, although 
invited by Gov. Bprnard.8 Within three weeks the Legisla- 
ture appropriated £1,600 to carry the project into effect, and 
the land was bought (August 29, 1758), a tract of 3,044 

1 N. J. Archives, XVI., 565-7, 571-3. 

2 Penn. Col. Records, VII., 334. 

3 Nevill's Laws, II., 125. 
<N. J. Archives, XVII., 4. 

5 Nevill's Laws, II., 128. v 

6 Smith's N. J., 442. 

7 Penn. Col. Records, VIII., 156; Smith's N. J., 449. 
« Penn. Col. Records, VIII., 140. 

acres, being the same as selected by John Brainerd in 

A most memorable conference was held at Easton in 
October, 1758, attended by the Governors and other digni- 
taries of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and upwards of hve 
hundred Indians, half of them women and children. Teed- 
yescung welcomed the Governor of Pennsylvania in the 
figurative language of his race : " According to our usual 
Custom, I with this String wipe the Dust and Sweat off your 
Face, and clear your Eyes, and pick the Briars out of your 
Legs, and desire you will pull the Briars out of the Legs of 
the Indians that are come here, and anoint one of them with 
your healing Oil, and I will anoint the other." The Mun- 
sies or Minisinks were present — Egohohowen, with men, 
women and children ; the Wapings or Pumptons — Nimhaon, 
Aquaywochtu, and men, women and children ; the Che- 
hohockes or Delawares and Unamies — Teedyescung, with 
three interpreters, and men, women and children. All the 
grievances on the part of the English and the Indians 
were fully rehearsed, among them the continual encroach- 
ments on the lands of the natives. Teedyescung graphically 
phrased it thus: "I sit here as a Bird on a Bow ; I look 
about and do not know where to go ; let me therefore come 
down upon the Ground, and make that my own by a good 
Deed, and I shall then have a Home for Ever." At this, 
time the treaty made at Burlington was approved, and deeds 
were executed by five Indians, appointed by a Council of the 
Delaware Nation, for all of New Jersey south of Paoqualin 
mountain, at Delaware river, to the Falls of Laometung, on 
the North Branch of Raritan river, and down that river to 
Sandy Hook ; and from the chiefs of the Munseys and Wap- 
pings, or Pumptons, sixteen in numbei", for all of New Jer- 
sey north of the line just described. These deeds were ap- 
proved by the leading men of the tribes interested, and by 
the Six Nations, and thus the last foot of land in New 
Jersey owned by the Indians was fairly bought from them 
and fairly paid for — a record unequaled in any other State 
in the Union. 2 

It was estimated that there were about three hundred In- 
dians in the Province at this time, of whom about two hun- 
dred located on the reservation at Evesham, which Gov. 
Bernard felicitously called " Brotherton."3 John Brainerd 
was appointed superintendent in 1762,4 and the authorities 
exercised a certain amount of supervision over their dusky 
wards. In 1796 their condition had become so unsatisfac- 
tory that the Legislature concluded to lease the tract, and 
apply the proceeds for the benefit of the Indians. In l8or 
the Brotherton Indians were invited by the Mauhekunnaks 
(Mohegans), another Algonkin tribe, then settled at New 
Stockbridge, near Oneida Lake, to "pack up their mat" 
and to "come and eat out of their dish," adding that "their 

1 AHinson's Laws, 1776, p. 220 ; Liber O of Deeds, Secretary of State's 
office, Trenton, fol. 394 ; Smith's N. J., 449 et seqq. ; Fragmentary His- 
tory of the New Jersey Indians, by Samuel Allinson, N. J. Hist. Soc. 
Proceedings, Second Series, IV., 31. 

2 Smith's N. J., 455 et seqq. ; Penn. Col. Records, VIII., 174-223. 

3 N. J. Archives, IX., 174-6. 
< lb., 355. 



necks were stretched in looking toward the fireside of their 
grandfathers till they were as long as cranes." The remnant 
of the New Jersey Lenape concluded to accept this invita- 
tion, and the Legislature ordered their land to be sold, 1 
which was done, and the proceeds used to defray the ex- 
penses of their removal, the balance being invested for their 
benefit. In 1822 the New Jersey Indians removed to Green 
Bay, Wisconsin, the Legislature of this State appropriating 
the fund ($3,551.23) then remaining to the credit of the 
Brotherton colony, for the purchase of their new home and 
their transportation thither. In 1832 there were but forty of 
them left, at Green Bay, and concluding to remove further 
West they again appealed to the New Jersey Legislature for 
aid, claiming compensation for the rights of fishing and 
shooting, in New Jersey, which they had reserved in the 
treaty of 1758. Their spokesman was Bartholomew S. Cal- 
vin, son of Stephen Calvin, a West Jersey schoolmaster in 
the last centur)', and who %vas one of the Delaware inter- 
preters at the great council at Easton. The Legislature, by 
act passed March 12, 1832, appropriated $2,000, the sum 
asked by the Indians, for a final extinguishment of all the 
Indian claims in New Jersey. In acknowledgment, Calvin 
wrote a letter to the Legislature, in the course of which he 
said : " Not a drop of our blood have you spilled in battle 
— not an acre of our land have you taken but by our con- 
sent. These facts speak for themselves and need no comment. 
They place the character of New Jersey in bold relief, a 
bright example to those States within whose territorial limits 
our brethren still remain. Nothing save benisons can fall 
upon her from the lips of a Lenno Lenape."2 

In 1768, at the council held at Fort Stanwix, the Indians 
bestowed upon Governor William Franklin, of New Jersey, 
the name S agorigh-uieyogsta, meaning the " Great Arbiter or 
Doer of Justice," in recognition of his and his people's 
justice in putting to death some persons who had murdered 
Indians in this Province. 3 

These two incidents form a proud tribute to the fairness 
of the whites in dealing with the Indians of New Jersey. 


Ye say they all have pass'd away, 

That noble race and brave ; 
That their light canoes have vanish'd 

From off the crested wave ; 
That, mid the forests where they roam'd 

There rings no hunter's shout ; 
But their name is on your waters. 

Ye may not wash it out. 

Ye say their conelike cabins, 

That cluster'd o'er the vale, 
Have disappear'd, as wither'd leaves 

Before the autumn's gale ; 

1 By Act passed December 3, 1801. Some particulais concerning this 
tract, and a curious litigation as to its subsequent taxation, are given in 
N. J. Archives, IX., 357-8, note. 

2 This brief summary of the movements of the Brotherton Indians af- 
ter leaving New Jersey is condensed from the account by Samuel AUin- 
son, just cited. See, also, Barber and Howe's Historical Collections of 
New Jersey, 1845, pp. 510-11; minutes of the New Jersey House of As- 
sembly, 1832, passim. 

3 N. Y. Col. Docs. , VIII. ,117. 

But their memory liveth on your hills, 

Their baptism on your shore, 
Your everlasting rivers speak 

Their dialect of yore.l 

The study of local nomenclature often opens up a mine 
of historical information. While this is not so true of 
Indian place-names as of those conferred by the whites, 
there is a natural curiosity regarding the meanings of the 
names of hills, valleys, rivers and streams all about us. 
The first systematic attempt to interpret the geographical 
names which the aborigines have left behind them was in a 
paper entitled : 

Names which the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians, who once in- 
habited this country, had given to Rivers, Streams, Places, &c., &c., 
within the now States of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Vir- 
ginia; and also Names of Chieftains and distinguished Men of that 
Nation ; with the Significations of those Names, and Biographical 
Sketches of some of those Men. By the late Rev. John Heckewelder, of 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Communicated to the American Philosophical 
Society April 5, 1822, and now published by their order; revised and 
prepared for the press by Peter S. Du Ponceau. Pp. 351-396, Transac- 
tions American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1834. 

It is from this work that most of the interpretations of 
aboriginal place-names in New Jersey have been copied 
from time to time. Unfortunately, Mr. Heckewelder took 
his names of places in this State from maps, with their 
usual errors, and hence gives Makiapier, instead of Mako- 
pin ; Bomopack, for Ramapo or Ramapock ; Pegunock, for 
Pequannock ; Muscomecon, for Musconnetcong. He was 
also unfamiliar with the localities named, wherefore many 
of his conjectural interpretations are clearly wide of the 

Another manuscript list of Lenape place-names in New 
Jersey, etc., by Heckewelder, copiously annotated by the 
Rev. William C. Reichel, was published at Bethlehem, 
Penn., in 1872. 

In a note to the writer, in 1881, Dr. J. Hammond Trum- 
bull says: " Heckewelder's guesses are absolutely worth- 
less. He had a good speakitig knowledge of the Delaware 
mission dialect, but was incapable of analyzing compound 
names even in that dialect, and was seldom correct in his 
interpretations of place-names in any other." 

Dr. Trumbull has himself written the best work on the 
subject, brief and incomplete as it is : "Indian Names of 
Places etc., in and on the borders of Connecticut: 
with interpretations of some of them. By J. Ham- 
mond Trumbull. Hartford: 1881." This writer says: 
"Every [Indian] name described the locality to which 
it was affixed. This description was sometimes purely topo- 
graphical ; sometimes historical, preserving the memory of 
a battle, or feast, the residence of a great Sachem, or the 
like ; sometimes it indicated some nattiral product of the 
place, or the animals that resorted to it ; occasionally, its 
position, or direction from places previously known, or from 
the territory of the tribe by which the name was given. 
* * * The same name might be, in fact it very often was, 
given to more places than one. * * * "phe methods of 
Algonkin syntliesis are so exactly prescribed, that the omis- 

1 Mrs. Lydia H. Sigoumey. 



•sion or displacement of a consonant or (emphasized) vocal, 
necessarily modifies the signification of the compound 
name, and may often render its interpretation or analysis 
impossible. Yet almost every term used in the composi- 
tion of place-names appears under many and vifidely-diifer- 
ing forms, in some of which it becomes so effectually dis- 
guised as to defy recognition." The place-name? in the 
southern part of New Jersey were first reduced to writing 
by the Swedes, while those near New York are given to us 
according to the Dutch pronunciation. To approximate to 
the correct sound of the word it is necessary to know by 
whom it was first written down ; allowance must be made, 
also, for the illiteracy of the writer. A knowledge of the 
facts and circumstances of the locality is also important, to 
avoid gross blunders in the interpretation. Many place- 
names are simply translations of the earlier Dutch or 
Indian appellations, a fact that is often helpful in getting at 
their meaning. The fanciful and romantic had little place 
in aboriginal terminology, which was, indeed, usually ex- 
ceedingly matter-of-fact in its significations. In the follow- 
ing attempts at interpreting a few Indian names of localities 
the foregoing principles have been held in mind. 

Arquackanonk, Aqtienoiiga, Hockquackanonk, etc.l — The 
first mention of the name, in 1678, applies it to a place "on 
the Pisawack river" ; namely, the tract now known as Dun- 
dee, in the city of Passaic, just below the Dundee dam. 
In 1679 the name was used to describe a tract of land in 
Saddle river township, Bergen county ; in the same year 
it was used to designate the old territory, which included 
all of Paterson south of the Passaic river, and the city of 
Passaic. The Dutch name for the neighborhood along 
the Passaic river at the head of navigation was S looter- 
dam,^ a dam with a gate or sluiceway in it. This sug- 
gests the meaning of Acquackajtonk. It was the custom 
of the Indians, when shad came up the river, to run 
& dam of stones across, running from shore to shore at 
an angle to a converging point, leaving an opening in the 
middle, in which they placed a rude net of bushes, in which 
the fish would get en tangled. 3 The Indian word ach-qiwa- 
ni-can signifies a bush-net ; taking the first two syllables, 
adding the connective and euphonic k; haiine, a rapid stream, 
and the suffix onk, meaning place, we ha.Ye Ach-quoa-k-han- 
-onk — a place in a rapid stream where fishing is done with a 
bush-net. Suggesting the above to the late J. Gilmary 
Shea, LL. D., he proposed as a modification : Acquonan, 

1 This name has been a stumbling-block to scriveners ever since the 
first attempt to reduce it to English spelling. Here are some of the varia- 
tions, gleaned from the records: 1678 — Aquickanucke, Haquicqueenock ; 
j[679 — Haquequenunck, Aquegnonke, Ackquekenon ; 1680 — Hockqueka- 
nung ; 1682 — Aqueyquinunke ; 1683 — Aquaninoncke, Hockquecanung ; 
1684 — Aquaquanuncke ; 1685 — Aquickanunke, Haquequenunck; 1692 — 
Acquicanunck ; 1693 — Acquiggenonck, Hockquickanon ; 1604 — Hack- 
■quickanon : 1696 — Aqueckenonge, Achquickenoungh, Aquachonongue, 
Achquickenunk, Hacquickenunk ; 1698 — Aqueckkonunque, Aquoechon- 
onque, Achquikanuncque, Achquickenunck ; 1706 — Acquikanong ; 1707 
^Hockquackonong, Hockquackanonk; 1714 — Achquegenonck ; 1736 — 
Haghquagenonck. A few years ago a Jersey City newspaper con- 
densed this sonorous Indian polysyllable into Quacknic. 

2 Now often written Slaughter-dam. 

3 Loskiel, 93. 

Achquoanican, a bush-net, they take with a bush-net, and 
gan unk, the locative "near where," " or in the direction 
of where. " Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, one of the few living 
scholars profoundly versed in the Indian languages, has 
kindly favored the vmter with this definition : £kwi, be- 
tween, below or under ; aki, land ; n, euphonic and con- 
nective ; onk, locative termination ; hence the free render- 
ing would be : "The place where the land is between or 
under. " The interpretation given first above is undoubted- 
ly the correct one. 

Assenmaykapuck (1710) — "land called," near the "Big 
Rock," in Bergen county, four or five miles from Paterson. 
From achsitn, stone ; machen, big ; puck, locative suffix : 
"place of the Big Rock." 

Assenmaykapzclig (1709) — " spring called," — " the north- 
eastmost head of a spring of the river called Peramp- 
seapuss." The word may be incorrectly written for assen- 
maykapuck. If applied to a spring, the last two syllables 
may be ixovn. pilkik, clean, pure, and the meaning would be 
" pure Big Rock spring." 

Asacki (1681) — a small tract of land near Lodi. 
Big Rock (1709) — a translation of the Indian name, Pam- 
maikaipuka, from pemapuchk, rock ; and niachcu, big. 

Campgaiu — a neighborhood in Bergen county ; meaning 
uncertain ; perhaps the last syllable is from kaaka, a wild 
goose ; or gawi, a hedgehog. It is not unlikely a personal 
name (that is, of some Indian), applied to the locality. 

Ca7ttciqtia (1686) — a personal name applied to a creek 
flowing into the Hackensack river. 

Claverack — Dutch for packqziechen, a meadow ; a level 
stretch of land in Acquackanonk township. 

Comimtnipaw, Gamoenipa (1643) — * village on the New 
Jersey shore, opposite New York ; perhaps Ixoxn gamunk, on 
the other side of the river ; and pe-atcke, water-land, water- 
place ; meaning a principal landing-place from the other 
side of the river. 

Crosszvicks, Crossweeksiing (1709) — house of separation. 
Espatbigh, or Ispatingh (1650) — a hill ; back of Bergen, 
or about Union Hill. 

Goffle, a Dutch word, properly written Gaffel, the fork ; 
doubtless a translation of the Indian lalchatiwiechen, fork of 
a road, referring to the forking of the two roads at that 
point — one going toward Pompton, and the othei toward 

Hackensack — Heckewelder defines it thus: " the stream 
which discharges itself into another, on low level ground ; 
that which unites itself with other water almost impercept- 
ibly. " But this is a characteristic of most rivers, and is not 
peculiar to the Hackensack. A more plausible derivation 
would be from haki, earth or place ; «, euphonic and con- 
nective ; gischi, already, now ; achgook, snake : a country 
full of snakes, referring to the most striking feature in the 
landscape. Snake Hill ; or from haki, place ; kitsdiii, great ; 
achgook, snake : the land of the big snake. The fable that 
the name is derived from the incident of an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to carry "eggs in a sack" is not sustained by any 
rules of etymology or philology. 

Hoboken — probably from hopoacan, a pipe. 



Hohokus — possibly from ho, a shout ; and hokes, some 
kind of a bark of a tree. 

Horseneck — probably from the Indian achsiii or assiii, a 
stone ; and aki, place ; a stony place. 

Krakeel val — the Dutch name of the Oldham brook, 
meaning a noisy or quarrelsome stream ; doubtless a trans- 
lation of the Indian name, and either referring to its turbu- 
lence, or to some fight that took place on its banks in pre- 
historic days. 

Kinderkimack (1686) — in Essex county ; meaning un- 

Maa eway (1709) — an Indian field so called, in the Ram- 
apo valley, now known as Mahwah. 

Macopin — pioperly Macopan — {xo\a.niacopa7zackhan, place 
■where pumpkins grow. 

Alaggagtayak (Magahktyake, Mawaytawekgke) 1710 — an 
Indian field so called, on the west side of Pasqueck river. 

Mainating (1710) — a little red hill or mountain in the 
Ramapo valley. 

Mangcutn (1709) — a river tributary to the Pequannock. 

Maracksi (1734) — a large pond, now called Iron Works 
pond, north of Pompton, back of Federal Hill. 

Menehenicke (1678) — the island in the Passaic river be- 
low the Slooterdam (now Dundee dam); from menacK lien, 
island ; and ock or aki, locative suffix : island, or island 

Moonachie — a neighborhood in Bergen county near the 
Hackensack meadows ; from vionachgeu, ground-hog ; or 
miinhacke, badger. 

Narashunk (1710) — a tributary of the Ramapo. 

Pamaraquemq (1709) — a tributary of the Pequannock. 

Pami-apo, Pemmerpough (1731) — probably from pema- 
~j>uchk, big rock. 

Para7npseapus (1710) — or Perampseapuss, an Indian name 
for Saddle river ; perhaps from ploeii, by a permutation of 
consonants changed Vli\.o peroeti, a turkey ; and aniatschipuis, 
a buzzard or turkey buzzard. There is a local tradition that 
the name Paramus, sometimes pronounced Perrynius, 
means "place of wild turkeys." The termination seapits or 
sipiis means river, so that the word appears to mean "turkey 

Parkamus (1740), Paramus — near Ridgewood, Bergen 
county ; doubtless a contraction from Parampseapus. 

Pascack (1740), Pasqueck (1710) — a river in the Ramapo 
valley ; probably ixova. paehgeeche?i, where the road forks. 

Passaic^ — the largest river in New Jersey. Heckewelder 
says the word means "valley." But it has always been ap- 
plied only to the river, not to the land. It is doubtless de- 
rived from the Yoot pack, " to split, divide." In New Jer- 
sey the gutteral ck was softened into an s, as in Pascack, and 
other names. The termination ic is probably that of the 
suppositive form of the verb ; hence the meaning is: "where 
it divides, " referring, most likely, to the separation from the 

1 Some variations in the spelling of this name are amusing: 1666 — 
Passaic, Passaicli; 1676 — Pesayak; 1679 — Passawack, Pisawick, Pisaick; 
1682 — Pasawicke,Passaiack; 1686, Pissaik; 1695 — Passaya; 1713 — Pas- 

Hackensack.l It is possible that it refers to the split or 
chasm in the rocks at the Falls ; but the root pack is most 
generally applied in Algonkin dialects to the forks or 
branches of streams. 

Pcckamin — a river in Little Falls township, flowing into 
the Passaic a mile or two above Paterson. It is sometimes 
written Peckman's river. The name is Indian, ixom. pakikm, 
ox pakihmin, cranberries, indicating that those berries once 
grew in the low lands overflowed by this variable stream. 
The termination Jtiui appears in many geographical names ; 
it means any kind of small fruit. 

/"^^z/a^wofy^ (Peaquaneek, 1709 ; Pagquanick, Pequanac, 
Packanack, etc.) — a name first applied, in 1695, to some In- 
dians, and in 1709 to a river, a tributary of the Passaic. It 
was very early used to designate the Pompton Plains. It is 
ixoxa. paiiqiC lui-auke, land made clear for cultivation. There 
are several places of this name in Connecticut. " The name 
occurs, curiously disguised, in Tippecanoe (Ky. and Ind.), 
which is a corrupted abbreviation of kehti-paquonunk, 'at 
the great clearing,' the site of the Indian town on the 
Wabash river. "2 

Pompton — Heckewelder defines it : Pihmto?n, crooked 
mouthed, for which there is no basis. The Delaware for 
oblique is pimeu; pihm is to sweat. The name may be 
personal, not geographical ; if the latter, it not unlikely re- 
fers to the fact that there was a natural reef which formed 
an open or wide space {pokque, clear, open), where Pompton 
Lake now is. The meaning is not at all clear. 

Preakness (Parikenis, 1751) — a name applied to the 
Second Mountain, and to the valley west of that mountain. 
Toward Little Falls, this mountain was called by the Dutch, 
early in the last century, the Hat teberg, or Deer mountain, 
which may be the meaning of the Indian name, ixoxa pilhik, 
clean, pure ; or pilsit, chaste, and awclemiiktinecs, a young 
buck ; or a combination of pit, changed into Pir or Per,. 
and ukunees — Per-ukunces, Preakness, a young buck. It is 
quite possible that some of these Indian names were given 
to places or localities by an earlier race than the Lenape,. 
which would readily account for the difficulty of interpret- 
ing them by the dictionaries or vocabularies of the latter's 

Rahway — a river separating the townships of Rahway and 
Woodbridge ; usually written Rawack or Rahwack in the 
earliest records ; possibly from the Algonkin nawakwa, in 
the middle of the forest. 3 

Raikgha-waik (1709) — "a small creek," apparently in 
the Saddle River valley. 

Ramapo — one of the three rivers uniting at Pompton to 
form the Pompton river, a tributary of the Passaic. Hecke- 
welder suggests its derivation from Wttlomopeck, round pond 
or lake ; or from lomowopek, white on the inside. The ear- 
liest record of the name (1710) gives it as ,Remopuck ; it 

1 This interpretation has the approval of Dr. D. G. Brinton, in a note 
to the writer, who had suggested this derivation^ in preference to Hecke- 
welder' s. 

2 Trumbull, Indian Names in Connecticut, 55. 

3 Cuoq's Le.xique de la Langue Algonquine, 264. 



■was also written Romopuck, Ramopuck and Ramapock, 
from which it has been gradually softened into the musical 
Ramapo. There was a sub-tribe o£ Indians at or near 
Ridgefield, Conn., who called themselves the Ramapoos, 
and who sold their lands in 1708, wandering forth noone 
knows whither. 1 The termination pock is most probably 
from the sufifiK -paug, pond or lake. The first two syllables 
■ may be, as Heckewelder suggests, from wuliim (by a per- 
mutation of consonants pronounced Rwn or Rom), round ; 
or possibly from the Algonkin root nom, oil or grease, giving 
the meaning round pond, or oily pond. These interpreta- 
tions are unsatisfactory. 

Rockaway — one of the principal tributaries of the Passaic 
river. The meaning is obscure. 

Saddle River — a tributary of the Passaic, into which it 
flows a short distance below Slooter-dam. A deed in 1671 
speaks of "Warepeake a run of water so called by the In- 
dians but the right name is Rerakanes by the English Sadie 
river." Here is a curious bit of light on the differences 
among the aborigines themselves as to the correct appellation 
of their own streams. The different names may have been 
given to different parts of the river. In 1682 it was referred 
to, in a deed, as "Sadler's brook ;" in 1685, as "Sadler's or 
Saddle river." Warepeak is probably from vnilit, smooth, 
pleasant ; and pe-aitke, water-land, water -place : a pleasant, 
smooth stream, or fine land watered by a stream. A tract 
on the Hackensack river, above New Barbadoes, was called 
Warepeek in 1671. An explanation of the kind that is in- 
vented to fit the facts, would have us believe that the name 
Saddle River was given to the ancient township of that 
name, stretching along the eastern and northern shores of 
the Passaic, from Garfield to Little Falls, because the 
township had much the shape of a saddle. Unfortunately 
for this explanation, the name was applied to the river for a 
century before the township had any existence. 

Secazicus — tract of land on Hackensack meadows, includ- 
ing Snake Hill; it has been very plausibly conjectured that 
the name means "place of snakes," but it is not easy to get 
any such derivation from the Lenape dialects. In the ear- 
liest records it is written Sikakes, which appears to be the 
diminutive form of the word. It might be derived from the 
Algonkin root sek, fright ; and -aki, land or place — a land of 
terror, on account of the numerous snakes ; or from kitchi, 
great, and achgook, snake — the land of the Big Snake. The 
Dutch called it S langenberg. Snake Hill. 

Sicomac — a neighborhood in Bergen county. As a com- 
ponent of local names, the Delawai-e ka?nikox kamike means 
generally an enclosure, natural or artificial. In New Eng- 
land it usually takes the form -komiik, -commiic. The first 
syllable is probably a contraction of kitchi, great, and the 
meaning is "a large enclosed place." Local tradition says 
it was a burying ground. When the Indians sold that 
region, they expressly reserved Schickamack — with a char- 
acteristic regard for the graves of their ancestors.2 

1 De Forest, Indians of Connecticut, 359. 

2 There was an Indian burying-ground (Tauwundin) on the west 
bank of the Passaic river, near President street, in the city of Passaic. 
The writer has been informed by ex-Judge Henry P. Simmons, of that 

Singack — a neighborhood about five miles southwest of 
Paterson ; it is commonly called by the old people "The 
Singack." The name is from schinghacki, a flat country, 
whence is derived schingask, a boggy meadow. The name 
given to this neighborhood describes it accurately ; it is a 
flat country, along the Passaic river, and is frequently over- 
flowed in times of freshet. A tributary of the Passaic in 
the same neighborhood was referred to, in a deed in 1696, 
as "Spring brook, called by the Indians Singanck." 

S lank — a name applied in the neighborhood of Paterson 
to a small body of water setting back like a bay along the 
shores of a river. It is doubtless of Indian origin, from 
sihilleii, the freshet abates, the river subsides ; ka/inek, a 
flowing river, -whcnct sihilleu-kannek, contracted into .f/aw,^ — 
the back-water from a freshet, and in time applied as above 
stated to a permanent body of water forming a bay or gulf 
along the shores of a river. 

S linker Val — mentioned in a deed in 1696, as the 
"Slinker fall brook," a tributary of the Passaic near Third 
river. The name is Dutch, de slinker val, the left(-hand), 

S uccasunna — a locality in Morris county famous for the 
iron ore mined there since 1715. This fact suggests the 
origin of the name, from sukeit, black ; achsun, softened in- 
to assin or assun, stone ; and ink or itnk, locative suffix : 
suk-assun-ink, the place where the black stone is found. 
The Indian word for iron is sukachsin, black stone. 

Totowa (written also Totua, Totohaw, Totowaw, Totaway, 
etc.) — the name of a tract of land extending from Clinton 
street, Paterson, southwesterly to the line of Little Falls 
township, and from the Passaic river westerly to the base 
of the Preakness mountain. The word is pronounced Tow- 
tow-ah, with the accent on the first syllable. Heckewelder 
applies the name to the Passaic Falls, which are embraced 
in the tract, and derives the name from "Toiauwei, to sink, 
dive, going under water by pressure, or forced under by 
weight of the water." As in .= many other of Hecke- 
welder's conjectural interpretations, his definition is not 
rightly applied. Totowa is a tract of several thousand 
acres of land, and the Falls were not called by that name 
until seventy years after the purchase of the land by the 
whites. The Delaware word for a water-fall is sokpehellak 
(cataract), or sookpehelleu, the water tumbles down from a 
precipice ; for a lai"ge or great fall, kschuppehella gahenna. 
Clearly, the name does not describe the Falls. In a 
note to the writer Dr. Brinton says the name "appears 
to be certainly the Delaware tetauwi, it is between." This 
correctly describes the tract. It is between the river and the 
mountain. Moreover, it may have been regarded as neutral 

city, that about 1830 the field was full of indentations, showing where 
the Indians had been buried, in a sitting posture. Many relics were ex- 
humed from these graves. The aborigines were wont, for many years 
after they had left these parts, to return with the remains of some dis- 
tinguished member of their tribe to lay them beside the bones of his 
fathers. There was a place called Shekomeko, in New York, near the 
borders of Connecticut, where was an Indian burying ground, evidently 
giving its name to the locality. See A Narrative of the Mission of the 
United Brethren among the Delaware and Mohegan Indians, etc., by 
John Heckewelder, Philadelphia, 1820, pp. 21, 28. 



ground, bet-cveen Aht Hackensacks and the Pomptons.l It is 
with diffideiice that the author ventures to suggest another 
interpretation. The savage dweller in the ancient wilder- 
ness about the Falls was above all things superstitious. He 
lived in a state of double consciousness, as it were, and to 
his untutored mind it was difficult in the extreme to disting- 
uish between the real and the unreal. What wonder if as 
he gazed upon that mighty cataract hurling itself with re- 
sistless force and with unceasing, bewildering motion down 
through those black rocks, split asunder for its passage ; 
■what wonder, we say, if his fancy, ever on the alert to per- 
ceive supernatural influence, should conjecture that here 
dwelt a mighty spirit, the very symbol of energy — of the 
power to do — expressed by the Algonkin root -t7va or -to ; or 
the Cree totawexvfi having almost precisely the pronuncia- 
tion of our own Totowa ? The Indian never dreamed of 
harnessing that mighty energy, and compelling it to do his 
bidding. He left it to the white man to accomplish that 
mighty feat. 

Wanaque — a river and a valley — a very beautiful one, 
too — in Passaic county, about thirteen miles northwest of 
Paterson. The word is pronounced, and until within a few 
years was always written, Wynockie, which doubtless ap- 
proximates to the sound of the Indian word. Wanaque is 
perhaps more musical, and looks more pleasing to the eye. 
The name occurs in that form in some of the earliest deeds. 
An obvious derivation would seem to be from xvinak, sassa- 
fras, from the root won or -win, expressive of a pleasurable 
sensation, the leaves of the sassafras being sweet ; and -aki, 
place, land : the sassafras place. A more poetic derivation 
would be from the Algonkin root Wanki, peace, repose. 

Wagara — the name of a small stream east of Paterson, 
flowing into the Passaic river, near the Wagara or River 
street bridge. The word is pronounced by the old Dutch 
people W^agharagh, accent on the first syllable. The name 
may refer to the location of the neighboring land, as being 
at the bend of the Passaic river — from zuoaketi, crooked or 
bent ; and -aki, land, place : the country at the bend of the 
river. The territory on the opposite side of the Passaic was 
called by the earliest Dutch settlers De Bogt, the Bend, 
which may have been suggested by the Indian Wagara. 
This is one of the most pleasing of our place-names, and by 
all means should be preserved. 

1 Ex-Judge Henry P. Simmons, of Passaic, who was born in 1 815, and 
has a remarkably good memory, says he always heard the "old people" 
say that the Hackensack Indians owned the country known as Acquack- 
anonk, and that the Pomptons owned the land north and west of the 
Passaic river, at Paterson. This tradition is corroborated by the deeds 
which have been cited. 

2 cited, 407. Lacombe gives these forms : mayi-totawew, il 
lui fait mal ; miyo-totawew, il lui fait du bien. See his Cris Dictionnaire , 

Watchung (1677) — Wesel, Garret or First Mountain f 
from wachtschu or wadchu, hill, mountain ; and the locative 
suffix tittk, place where : mountain place. In the Minisink 
dialect taachiink signifies high. 

Watsessing — the Indian name for the country about 
Bloomfield, is from the same root -wadchu, hill ; achsiin,. 
assin, stone, and the locative suffix ink or unk : a stony hill. 
There is a whimsical local tradition that the name indi- 
cates that the place was formerly the seat of the Ward fam- 
ily ; this has been invented to explain the early name. Ward 
sesson, which is simply a corruption of the aboriginal ap- 

Wequahick — the creek between Newark and Elizabeth ; 
from ekwi, between, Wiquajek, at the end, or at the head of 
a creek or run. The English name is Bound Creek, evi- 
dently a translation of the Indian. 

Wieramitts (1740) — a tract in Bergen county; usually 
pronounced Weary-mus. The meaning is not clear. 

Winbeam — the name of a mountain overlooking the 
Wanaque valley. In some of the old deeds it is written 
Wimbemus, which would suggest a derivation from wimb, 
heart of a tree ; -bi, tree ; moschiwi, bare, open : a solitary 
tree on a bleak mountain top. 

Winocksark (1686) — a brook running into Saddle river. 
Not unlikely from the same origin as Wanaque. 

Yanticaiu ; also written Yauntakah (1677), Yantico, etc. 
— the Indian name of Third river, flowing into the Passaic 
and forming the southern boundary of Acquackanonk town- 
township. Dr. Trumbull suggests as the meaning of the- 
name Yantic, in Connecticut, a derivation from yaen-tuky 
extending to the tidal-river, which would correctly describe 
the Yanticaw. Possibly the name is a corruption of kinte- 
kaey, the Indian ceremonial dance, which may have been 
celebrated habitually in some secluded vale along that 
charming stream. An Indian Chief of the Hackensack 
tribe, called Cantaqua or Tantaqua, and after whom a trib- 
utary of the Hackensack was called Cantaqua's creek, may 
have given his name to this river also. 

Yawpaw — a locality in Bergen county, a few miles from 
Paterson ; probably named from the Minisink sachem lao- 
apogh, of whom mention has been made. A definition sug- 
gested by Dr. Trumbull for a somewhat similar name (Yau- 
bucks) seems applicable here — yatoi-pogs, on one side of the 
small pond. 

This attempt to give life to the Indian names about us, 
by interpreting their meaning, so that they may be to us 
something more than mere words, is attended with obvious 
difficulties. The suggestions here made may stimulate- 
others to further and more successful efforts, which shall tend 
to illustrate the truth of the Homeric saying : "Words are 
winged, and will soon fly away unless fastened down with 
the weight of meaning." 




Reference has been made to this compilation of Lenape words and 
phrases, written down evidently by a trader, in West Jersey, in 
1684, and recorded in the Salem Town Records, Liber B, for the use of 
the inhabitants. This vocabulary was printed in the American Historical 
Record, July, 1872 (Vol. I., pp. 308-11), but with many typographical 
errors. Through the kindness of the Hon. Henry C. Kelsey, Secretary 
of State of New Jersey, in whose office this interesting record remains, 
the following transcript of the "Indian Interpreter" has been carefully 
' compared with the original : 





Pal en ah 






Tellen oak Cutte 

Tellen oak Nisha 

Tellen oak Necca 

Tellen oake Newwa 

Tellen oak Fallen ah 

Tellen oak Cuttas 

Tellen oak Neshas 

Tellen oak Haas 

Tellen oak Pescunk 

















Kec-loe Keckoe kee Wingenum 


Kake, or Sewan 



Wepeck a quewan 











































Cat Fish 




Tallow or suet 

Grease or any fat 

Wilt thou buy 

I will buy 

What wilt thou have or what 

hast thou a mind to have 
Say what thou hast a mind to 
I have a mind to 
Hat or Cap 

Coat or V/oollen Cloak 
White Match Coat 
Cloth or Shirt 

Stone, Iron, Brass, &c. 
Kettle or Pot 

Pair of Scizzors 

Pipe ^ 

Rum &c. &c. 
Thou good friend, or good be to 

thee, friend 
Whence comest thou 






















Kee Wingenunune 


Me matta Wingenun 

Sing Koatum 


Me mauholume 

Kemannis kin une 


Keeko gull une 

Keko Meele 

Cutte Wickan Cake 

Nee Meele 

Cutte steepa 

Cutte Gull 


Singa Ke natunum 

Singa Kee petta 


Necka Couwin 

Singa ke petta 

Tana Ke natunum 


Incka or Kisquicka 



Tana Hatta 

Quash matta die con 

Kacko pata 

Cuttas Quingquing 


Matta Olet 

Matta ruti 

Husko Seeka 

Husko Matit 

Ke run a matauka 

Jough Matcha 

Undoque matapa 

Tack taugh or tana Ke matcha 


Keeko larense 



Matta ne hatta 

Nee hatta 

Cutte hatta 







Wild Cat 

Meat or flesh 

Drink or Ale 
Small Beer • 

Do you like this 

I do not care for it 
I do not care, I will cast it away. 
Aye or Yes 
I will buy it. 
Wilt thou sell this 

How many Guilders for this 
What wilt thou give for this 
One fathom of Wampum 
I will give thee 
One stiver or farthing 
One Guilder or Si.x pence 
I will leave this in pawn 
When wilt thou fetch it 
When wilt thou bring it 
After three sleeps or three days- 

When wilt thou bring it. 
When wilt thou fetch it 

To day. This day. A Day 
By and by 
To morrow 
When hadst thou it 
Why didst thou lend it 
What hast thou brought 
Si.K Ducks 
It's Good 
It's bad 

It's good for nothing 
It's very handsome 
It's very ugly 
Thou wilt fight 
Get thee gone 
Sit yonder 
Whither goest thou 
Yonder (a little way) 
What is thy name 
Yonder (farther, a great way) 
What hast thou 
I have nothing 
I have 
One Buck 
A Doe 

A skin not dressed 
A skin dressed 



Ne mathit wingenum 



Match poh 

Raa Munga 





Ke Cakeus 


Husko Opposicon 



Maleema Cacko 

Abij or bee 

Minatau < 




Husko lallacutta 

Ke husko nalan 

Chingo Ke matcha 



Husko taquatse 

Ne Dogwatcha 


Ahalea coon hatta 


Suckholan tisquicka 





Tana Ke wigwham 

Hockung Kethaning 

Tana matcha ana 

Jough undoque 


Hitock nepa 

Mamamtuikan, Mama-do-Wickon, 


Keenhammon _ 




Oke cowin 

Kee catungo 


Ne nattunum huissi 


Attoon attonamon 

Matcha pauluppa shuta 


Mockerick accoke 

Husko Purso 




We will be quiet 

Come hither or come back 

To come 

He is come or coming 





The door 

Thou art drunk 

Beyond thyself 

Much drunk 

A great deal 

A little 

Give me something 


A little cup to drink in 



let it alone 

I am very angry 

Thou art very idle 

When wilt thou go 

Make haste 


Its very cold 

I'm very cold , I freeze 

Snow or Hail 

Have abundance of Hail, Snow 

and ice. 
A rainy day 
The Spring 
Ye Summer 
The Fall 

Where is thy house 
Up ye River 
Where goes ye pate 
Go yonder 
There stands a tree 

Peach or Cherry 

Flour or Meal 
Grind it 
Bag or Basket 
It's broke 

A North West Wind 
Ye ground vrill bum and be de- 
A chamber 
Where I 

I look for a place to lie down 
And sleep 
For I am sleepy 
To morrow 
I will go a hunting 
In ye v\-oods 
Going to look a Buck 
I have caught a Buck 

Rattle Snake 
Very sick or near death 
A sore, hurt, cut, or bruise 
Ye Small Pox 
Ye ague 


Singuape Kock in hatta 




Nee Tuttona 



Singa Mantauke 

Ne holock 

Ne rune husce huissase 

Opche huissase 

Ne olockotoon 

Kockoke lunse une 




Mamole hickon 





Rena Moholo 

Taune Ke hatta 

Ne taulle Ke Rune 

Ne Maugholame 

Ke kemuta 

Matta ne Kamuta 

Taune maugholame 

A B undoquo 

B C Sickomelee 


Hockung Tappin 


Renus leno 











Kins Kiste 




ToUe muse 



















Passica catton 

Hold thy tongue 

Be quiet, the earth has them, they 

are dead. 
Grass or any green herb 
The ground 
A plantation 
My country 
A Plain, even, smooth 
Path or Highway 
When we fight 
Do hurt 
We are afraid 
Always afraid 
We run into holes 
What dost thou call this 
Looking Glass 
A pair of Bellows 
A Cradle 
Book or paper 
Table, Chair or Chest 

Great Boat or Ship 
Where hast thou it 
I will tell thee 
I bought it 
Thou hast stole it 
No I did not steal it 
Where didst thou buy it 
Yond of A B 

B C will give me so much for it 

The Devil 
A man 
A lad 
A Boy 
A Brother 
A Cousin 
An old woman 
A little girl 

Maid ripe for marriage 
Sucking child 
Monk or woman 
The head 
The hair 
The eyes 
The nose 
The mouth 
The Teeth 
Ye ear or hearing 
The neck 
The hands 
Two hands 
The back 
The belly 
The legs 
The feet 
A day 
A week 
A month' 
A year 
Half a year 




































The Sea 










said ma 





No, not 










Zeisberger. Whipple. 

1778 1855 

German English 

Orthography. Orthography. 











nooch (my) 

















(pi.) howitow 






























chitto, kitte 

ktee (thy) 































The Minisink and Pompton Indians had nearly all left New Jersey by 
the middle of the last century, gradually drifting westward to and be- 
yond the Mississippi, although some of the former found their way to 
Canada. In 1S22 there was published, at New-Haven, "A Report to 
the Secretary of War of the United States, on Indian Affairs, compris- 
ing a narrative of a tour performed in the Summer of 1820, under a com- 
mission from the President of the United States, for the purpose of as- 
certaining, for the use of the Government, the actual state of the Indian 
tribes in our country," by the Rev. Jedidiah Morse, D. D. It is an octa- 
vo volume of four hundred and ninety-six pages, and is a most valua- 
ble document. Dr. Morse gives these particulars of the New Jersey In- 
dians : 

Brothertons, near Oneida Lake ; adopted into the Six Nations.l 
Delawares, a few, at Cattaraugus, New York; 80 near Sandusky, 
Ohio; 1800 west of the Mississippi river, on Currant river; a town of 
Delawares twenty miles south of Chicago ; si.xteen miles north of the 
centre another town ; between them, two villages ; another town on 
White river ; in all, five towns containing about 1,000 souls, Delawares^ 
Muncies, Mohegans, Nanticokes, etc. In 1802 a council was held at 
Wappecommehhoke, on the banks of the White river, between the 
Delawares and delegates of the Moheakunnunk nation, at which the- 
former accepted the propositions of the latter, including civilization. 
Tatepahqsect, of the Wolf clan, was the speaker and principal Sachem 
of the Delawares; his head warrior was Pokenchelah. In i8i8 the 
Delawares numbered about 800 on the banks of the White river, their 
principal town being Wapeminskink, or chestnut tree : their principal 
chief was Thahutooweelent, or WiUiam Anderson, of the Turkey tribe. 2 
The latest statistics of the Indians who once inhabited New Jersey are 
given in the Seventh Annual Report of the U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, 
for 1885-6. According to these figures there were then living about 
1,750 Delawares, more than half of whom were in Indian Territory, in- 
corporated with the Cherokees; about 200 Munsees, more than half on 
the Thames, in Ontario, a few at Green Bay, Wis., a few with the 
Onondagas and Senecas, in New York, and others in Kansas. Those in 
Ontario still preserve accurate traditions of localities in New Jersey, 
and, as already stated, the little remnant in Kansas have not yet forgot- 
ten the tales told by their grandfathers of what their ancestors had said,, 
and thought and done in the far-away times when they hunted and fished 
along the shores of Sclieycchhi. 

1 Morse, 24 ; Appendi.x, 76. 

2 Morse, Appendi.x, 87, 108, 236, no. 




The Settlement of Acquackanonk. 

Ghy arme, die niet wel kond aen u noodruft raken : 
Gy rijke, die 't geluck in 't voor-hoofd soecken wild : 
Verkiest Nieuvv-neder-land, ('t sal niemand billik laken) 
Eer gy u tijd en macht, hier vruchteloos verspild. 
Hier moet gy and'ren, om u dienstb'ren arbej'd troonen, 
Daer komt een guile grond, u werck met woecker loonen. 

Ye poor, who know not how your living to obtain ; 

You affluent, who seek in mind to be content ; 

Choose you New Netherland (which no one shall disdain), 

Before your time and strength here fruitlessly are spent. 

There have you oiher ends, your labor to incite ; 

Your work, will gen'rous soils, with usury, requite. 

Door-aderd, met veel killen : die het Land, 

En 't Bosch verfrisschen. 
Die van 't gebergt, en heuvels neder-vlien : 
En 't Molen-werk, bequame plaatsen bien 
Op d' oevers van u slromen. Waard te sien : 

Gepropt met Visschen. 
En Prik, en Aal, en Sonne-vis, en Baars : 
Die (blanken geel) u Taaff'len als wat raars) 
Vercierea kan : ook Elft, en Twalft niet schaars, 

Maar overvloedig. 

And streams, like arteries, all veined o'er. 

The woods refreshing ; 
And rolling down from mountains and the hills. 
Afford, upon their banks, fit sites for mills. 
And furnish, what the heart with transport fills, 

The finest fishing. 
The lamprey, eel and sunfish, and the white 
And yellow perch, which grace your covers dight ; 
And shad and striped bass, not scarce, but quite 


WITH sucli "spurring verses" as these did Jacob Steen- 
dam, the first poet in the New Netherlands, depict in 
glowing colors the charms of the New World, for the bene- 
fit of his fellow-citizens in Holland, anxious to better their 
condition. The former verse is part of a poem written 
in 1662 ; the other is of earlier date. The Indian war of 
1655 was the final test of strength between the whites and 
the red men in the neighborhood of New York. There- 
after, the planting of new settlements went on apace, and 
immigration from the mother country poured into the land 
which the enthusiastic Steendam in a most exalted fit of 
inspiration declared to be 

Het La7id, daar Melk en Honig vloeyd : 
Dit is 't geweest, daar 't Kruyd (als dist 'len groeyd) : 
Dit is de Plaats, daar Arons-Roode bloeyd : 
Dit is het Eden. 

It is the land where milk and honey flow ; 
Where plants distilling perfume grow ; 
Where Aaron's rod doth budding blossoms blow ; 
A very Eden. 2 

1 Anthology of New Netherland or Translations from the early Dutch 
poets of New York with Memoirs of their Lives by Henry C. Murphy, 
New York mdccclxv, 52-3, 69-70. 

2 lb., 64-5. 

As the Indians receded further and further West, the 
whites followed eagerly on their trail, anxious to secure the 
most available land. We may be sure that adventurous 
spirits lost no time in penetrating the Passaic (or North- 
west Kil, as the Dutch called it) to the great cataract of 
which they must have heard wonderful tales told by the ab- 
origines. There is a tradition that the first settlers of Ac- 
quackanonk took up the land eleven years before they got a 
patent for it.l This would fix the date as early as 1674. 
It is not probable, however, that there was any actual set- 
tlement at that time. The first conveyance of lands within 
the present limits of Passaic county bears date April 4, 1678, 
being for the Indian title, and is sufficiently curious to tran- 
scribe in full : 

I underwritten Captehan peter Beareup by this to Hartman Michiel- 
sen a great island lying in the river of pisaick near by aquickanucke by 
the Indians called Menehenicke — I Captehan Peeters freeholder of the 
above written Island, Beare this to Hartman Michielsen up to him in full 
freehold in knowledge of tlie truth Have I this wth my owne hand 
under set in witness of this underwritten witnesses. Communipau in 
New Jersey this fourth day of April one Thousand six hundred and sev- 
enty and eight — and was marked by Captehan Peeter his mark and the 
witnesses was marked by Nappeemeeck his mark, and Derricke Klaese 
Braecke his mark, and Johannes Michielsen and Els'as Michielsen. 2 

A clue to this fearful and wonderful English is given in 
the appended note in the record : "This was recorded by 
the Coppy translated out of Duth. " The expression "Beare 
up" is a crude translation of the Dutch "overdraagen," 
carry over, or transfer. Michielsen obtained a patent for 
this island from the East Jersey Proprietors, dated January 
6, 1685. He was then described as of "Communipa, in the 
county of Bergen, planter." The patent was for "a small 
island of upland lying and being upon Pisaick River near 
Aquiackanunke in the county of Essex in said Province 
Comonly called and known by the name of Hartman's 
Island Containing about Nine acres Litle more or less," in 
fee simple, "provided always and upon condition that the 
said Hartman Michielsen his heirs and assigns shall and do 
well and truly (yearly and every year forever hereafter) pay 
or cause to be paid unto the said Proprietors their heirs and 
assigns on every five and twentieth day of March or within 
fourteen days after the chief or quit rent of one fatt henn in 
Lieu and stead of all other services and demands whatso- 
ever." We fear that the owners of that island cannot pro- 
duce many receipts for said "one fatt henn." 

The first conveyance from the Proprietors of East Jersey 
for lands in Passaic county bears date July 15, 1678, and is 
in the name of Sir George Carteret, then Lord Proprietor 
of East Jersey, to Xtopher Hoagland, merchant, of New 
York, for two tracts of land at Haquicquenock, on the Pisa- 
wack river, described as follows, in what appears to be a con- 
temporary copy of the original Dutch deed, 3 here trans- 
lated : 

First — one hundred and fifty-eight acres of land beginning at a stake 
planted by a small fall or a small brook ; thence running north as the 

1 So ex-Judge Simmons, of Passaic, was informed by his Grand- 
mother Van Wagoner, who said she had often heard the fact mentioned 
by the " old people " in her young days. 

2 E. J. Deeds, in Secretary of State's office, Liber A, f. 242. 

3 In the possession of ex-Judge Simmons, of Passaic. 



Jit'-le fall or brook luns 42 chains to a tree in the swamp (low ground), 
marked on four sides standing by the little fall or brook ; thence running 
east northeast 18 chains to a stump marked on four sides standing by 
the [Indian] path ; thence running south 29 chains to a stake marked on 
four sides standmg by the Indian burial place ; thence running east thirty 
chains along the bank of the river past an Indian hut ("een Wilde 
huysje") ; tlience running south 35 chains to the point of the neck; 
thence running northwest by west 40 chains to the slake place of begin- 
ning; bounded south and east by the Pisawack river, west by a small 
brook or fall, and north in part by land not yet surveyed, and in part by 
the said river. 

Also 120 acres lying adjoining on the west side of the above mentioned 
brook or fall, beginning at the tree in the low ground, standing in the 
swamp, marked on four sides, thence running west southwest 34 chains 
to two while oak trees, marked ; thence running south 40 chains ; east 
northeast 34 chains along the said brook on top of the hill or mound ; thence 
running along the brook to the first mentioned tree ; bounded on the 
north, south and west by land not surveyed ; east by a small stream. 

In all 278 acres.l Consideration — a yearly rent of half a penny per 
acre, payable March 25, 1680, or an equivalent thereof in current pay- 
ment of the country — 11 s. 7 d.2 

These two tracts embraced the Dundee section of Pas- 
saic, and a little more : bounded on the north by Monroe 
street ; on the west by Lexington avenue, extending south 
to where was a large rock, near the junction of River and 
Grove streets ; on the south by a line drawn parallel with 
Monroe street ; on the east by Passaic river. The brook or 
"fall" (Dutch, val) mentioned is Vreeland's brook, also 
used as the Dundee tail-race. Reference has been already 
made to another Indian burying-ground, which was thirty or 
forty acres in extent, near President street. The patent to 
Hoaghland was called " Stoffel's Point," Stoffel being the 
Dutch abbreviation for Christopher. Hoaghland agreed, 
February 16, 1679-80, to sell this tract to Hartman Mich- 
ielsen, who paid him £70 therefor, but he died (February 
4, 1684)3 before giving the deed, which was subsequently 
(April 23, 1696) given to Michielsen by Dirck Hogeland, 
mariner, of New York, son and heir of Christopher Floagh- 
land.4 Michielsen sold a one-fourth interest in the prop- 
erty to his brother, Johannes Michielse, in consideration 
of £17 10 s., by deed dated April 28, 1698.5 

The first conveyance for lands within the present bounds 
of the city of Paterson was the Indian deed for Acquacka- 
nonk, and was in the following language, carefully tran- 
scribed from the record, as the original deed is not known 
to exist : 

Know all men by these Presents that I Captahera Indian Sachem and 
Chief , Owner of a certain tract of Land Lying and being upon Pisawyck 
River knowne by the name of Haquequenunck, Have for my Selfe ray 
Heires and Assignes, in the Prsence and by the aprobation and consent 
of Memiseraen, Mindawas, Ghonnajea, Indians and Sachems of the said 

1 In George Scot's " Model of the Government of the Province of 
East-New-Jersey in America," printed in 1685, he speaks of Hoogland's 
Island as containing 1,000 acres ; " if it be not an Island, it is tyed by a 
very narrow shp of Land to the Continent." See Whitehead's East 
Jersey, 2d ed., 405. It is evident that the real estate e.xaggerator is 
not a modern creation. 

2 Liber 2, Bullen's Patents, Perth Amboy, designated as Carteret's 
Conveyances, f. 4 ; Liber 2 of Warrants, Perth Amboy, p. 88. 

3 History and Genealogy of the Hoagland Family in America, by 
Daniel Hoogland Carpenter, New York, iSgi, 58. 

4 E. J. Deeds, Secretary of State's office, f. 585. 
-5 lb., f. 603. 

Contry, for and In Consideration of a certain Prcel of goods. Blankets, 
kettles powder and other Goods to my Content and Sattisfaction In hand 
paid, by Hans Dederick,GerretGarretson, Walling Jacobs and Hendrick 
George, The Receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge to have received 
to my Content and Satisfaction given, alienated bargained and sold unto 
the said Hans Dedericks, Gerrit Gerritsen, Walling Jacobs, Hendrick 
George and their Associates all and singular the abovementioned tract 
of land and the meadows adjoining beginning from the northernmost 
bounds of the Towne of Newark from the Lowermost part thereof to the 
uppermost as fare as the steep Rocks or Mountaines, and from thence to 
Run [blank] all along the said Pisawick River to the White Oak Tree 
standing neere the said River on the north side of the small brook, and 
from thence run up (blank) to the steep Rocks or Mountains, Which said 
tree was marked by the said Captaham In the prsence of La Prairie 
Surveyor General. (With habendum, covenants and warranty.)! 

This important instrument was signed, sealed and de- 
livered by Captahem, and attested by the other Sachem.s, 
March 28, 1679, in the presence of Governor Philip Car- 
teret. The marks of the several Indians do not appear to 
have any significance, as of their totems, but are merely 
scrawls. Within two weeks, or on April 9, 1679, Christo- 
pher Hooghland, Capt. Jacques Cortelyou, of Nyack, oppo- 
site Staten Island, Capt. Elbert Elbertse, Capt. Richard 
Stilwell and others, bought from the Indians the Saddle 
River tract, "being the tract of land called Aquegnonke 
lying and being upon Pasawack river together with all the 
meadows adjoining and the Seven Small islands thereunto 
adjacent and being bounded on the South with the creek 
that divides It from Capt. John Berry's Land, on the west by 
Pasawack river, on the north by a creek called Patackpaen, 
running from thence north around a great Rock Lying near 
the high lands, and from thence to the aforesaid Capt. 
Berries creek and the land of the above named Christopher 
Hoghland." The consideration was " two hundred fathom 
of White wampum, Ellevan Guns, fifty pound of powder, 
six blanckets, three cloth Coates, six fatham of Red broad 
Cloth twelve fathem of Duffield, seven small kettles and 
one Great one, ten hatchets, ten Hoes, one pair of men's 
shoes, ten paire of stockings, one Anker of rum, twenty 
knives one Auger and one drawing knife. "2 

We have a contemporary account of this real estate 
speculation by two Labadist missionaries who had come 
from Holland to America with a view to establishing a col- 
ony here. Under date of October 28, 1679, they write : 

While we were in the village of Bergen, a person came to us who was 
willing to take us up through the North-west kil^ where we were inclined 
to go, because of Jaques of LonglslandS and his associates, had bought 
for a trifle, a piece of land there of twelve thousand morgens (24,000 
acres) and he had related wonders to us about it ; and that above his 
land, and above the falls which are more than an hour's distance from 
it, there was another tract still better, which was corroborated by almost 
every one, especially in Bergen, whose inhabitants were very well ac- 

1 E. J. Deeds, in Secretary of State's office. Liber No. i, f. 128. 

2 lb., f, 129. See also N. J. Archives, XIII., 142. There is a tradition 
that Cortelyou, who was a surveyor, was riding through the Acquacka- 
nonk country once upon a time, when he met an Indian who owned it, 
and negotiated with him for its purchase. The simple savage was 
greatly struck with the appearance of the white man's handsome saddle, 
and agreed to give the land in exchange therefor, which was done. 
This is evidently another story invented to account for the name Saddle 

8 Jacques Cortelyou, of Nyack, L. I. 



quainted there, and some of whom had bought a large piece of land 
close by. The before mentioned tract was considered by them the best 
in all New Netherlands. « » ♦ They said this piece of land was 
very large, and could be increased to twenty-five or thirty thousand 
morgen^ which the Indians were disposed to sell, and we could buy for a 
small price. 

Again, under date of Tuesday, March 5, 1680, these 
same chroniclers write : 

Ackquekerwn is a tract of land of 12,000 i7torgen^ which Jaques of 
Najack, with seven or eight associates, had purchased from the Indians, 
the deed of which we have seen, and the entire price of which amounted 
to 100 or 150 guilders in Holland money, at the most. It is a fine piece 
of land, the best tract of woodland we have seen e.Kcept one at the 
south. It is not very abundant in wood, but it has enough for building 
purposes and fuel. On one side of it is the Northwest kil, which is navi- 
gable by large boats and yathts thus far, but not beyond. On the other 
side, there is a small creekl by which it is almost entirely surrounded, af- 
fording water sufficient, both summer and mnter, to drive several mills. 
"When we reached here, we took our provisions and whatever was loose 
out of the boat into a hut of the Indians,2 of whom there is only one 
family on this whole tract. 

Wednesday , lilarck 6. — We went out in the snow to look through the 
woods, and along the little stream, to see whether it would be worth the 
trouble to erect a saw-mill there for the purpose of sawing timber for 
sale, as Jaques had supposed. But although we found the stream suit- 
able for mills, we did not discover proper wood sufficient for the pur- 
pose. The soil seemed to promise good, and the place as well situated 
as it can be to make a village or a city. The land on both sides of the 
Northwest kil is all taken up, and the prospect is that the whole region 
"will soon be inhabited. It is already taken up on the south side as high 
as the falls.3 

The journey thus far had been made under the guidance 
of the aged Indian Chief, Hans, who had been beguiled to 
leave his wigwam at Achter Col, behind Constable's Hook, 
near Communipaw, and his seawant-making, on the vague 
promise of a good blanket, of which he stood greatly in need. 
He was the same Indian whose profound explanation of the or- 
igin of things has been quoted ; he was doubtless also the 
same Chieftain whom Oratamin desired and expected to 
succeed himself. The adventurous travelers now concluded 
to brave the unknown dangers of a trip to the Great Falls 
of the Passaic, of which they had heard much, and accord- 
ingly started off, in the rain, under the guidance of Hans. 
The account of this first journey to the Falls by white 
men, of which we have any record, is worth transcribing 
here -A 

The rain gradually increased, with snow, and did not hold up the 
whole day. After we had traveled good three hours over high hills, we 
came to a high rocky one, where we could hear the noise of the water, 
and clambering up to the top, saw the falls below us, a sight to be seen 
in order to observe the power and wonder of God. Behind this hill the 
land is much higher than on the other side, and continues so as far as is 
known. A kil or river runs through this high land between the hills, 
formed by several branches coming down from still higher land. This 
river, running along the valley to seek the sea, comes to this hill where 
it runs over a large blue rock, which is broken in two, obliquely with the 
river. One part is dry, which is the hill before mentioned ; the other is 
where the river, running over a crevice or fissure between both, appears 
to be eight or ten feet vride, having on either side smooth precipices like 
■walls, but some parts broken between them. The river finding this 
chasm pours all its water into it headlong from a height, according to 

1 Saddle river. 

2 Probably referring to the Indian wigwam on the west side of the 
river, on " Stoflel's Point." 

3 Dankers and Sluyter, 261-72. 
•* lb., 264-271. 

. guess, of about eighty feet;l and all this pouring water must break upon 
the undermost piece of stone lying in the crevice, which causes a great 
roaring and foaming, so that persons standing there side by side, have 
to call out loud before they can understand each other. By reason of the 
breaking of the water, and the wind which the falling water carries with 
it, there is constantly spray ascending like smoke, which scatters itself 
like rain. In this spray, when the sun shines, the figure of a rainbow is 
constantly to be seen trembling and shaking, and even appearing to 
move the rock. The water in this fissure runs out on the south ; and 
Uiere at the end of the rock or point, it finds a basin, which is the begin- 
ning of the lower kil. This point is, I judge, about one hundred feet 
above the water, and steep like an upright wall. When the fish come 
up the river, this basin is so full of all kinds of them, that you can catch 
them with your hands, because they are stopped there, and collect 
together, refreshing themselves, and sporting in and under the falling 
fresh water, which brings with it from above, bushes, green leaves, 
earth and mire, in which they find food. The water runs hence east and 
northeasi2 to Ackquekenon. The Indians come up this river in canoes 
to fish, because it is one of the richest fisheries they have ; but the river 
is not navigable by larger boats, though in case the country were 
settled, the navigation could be improved. 3 The falls lie among high 
hills, especially on the south, so that the sun does not penetrate there 
well except in summer. We found heavy ice there at this time, although 
it had all thawed away below. When I saw this ice at a distance, I sup- 
posed it was the foam. I took a sketch as well as I could, very 
hastily, for we had no time, and it rained and snowed very much. What 
I did is not very happily done. I regret I could not crayon it, for it is. 
worth bein.g portrayed. -1 Night coming on, we had to leave. We were 
very wet and cold, especially in the feet. It was dark, and slippery ' 
walking on such precipices, and crossing little streams. Tired and 
weary, wet and dirty, we reached the place where we had started from, 
about eight o'clock in the evening, and went into the hut of the Indians, 
having to-day rowed constantly from early dawn until one or two 
o'clock, and then walked, through heavy weather, twenty-four to 
twenty-eight miles. S 

It was into this wilderness, so graphically described, with 
all its attendant dreariness, that the friends and neighbors of 
Hartman Michielsen had decided to venture, to found there 
new homes, and to make the waste places glad with the ac- 
companiments of civilization. It is possible that Elias- 
Michielsen, a brother of Hartman, settled at Stoffel's Point be- 
fore the other patentees. Family tradition says that the Vree- 
lands were the hrst whites to occupy the new land, and that 
the first white man's house in Acquackanonk stood on the 
south side of Passaic street, in the city of Passaic, about on 
the site of the New York Steam Engine Company's Works. 6 
We may well believe that the determination of the patentees 
to remove into the iiiterior country excited no little commo- 
tion in the classic precincts of Communipaw and Paulus 
Hook, aitd was the theme of evening gossip for many a long 
month ere the eventful day arrived which was to see the sun- 
dering of ties of kindred and of friends. It was probably a 
fair day in the Indian summer of 1682 when the eight or ten 
families which had resolved to set up for themselves new 
homes along the Passaic above Newark took leave of their 
relatives at Bergen, and embarked on the frail craft, already 

1 A very good guess ; the height is about seventy feet. 

2 Southeast. 

3 A far sighted suggestion, which still seems as distant from realiza- 
tion as it was then. 

* This sketch has not been preserved. Judging by other works of the 
same amateur artist the loss is not material. 

5 This distance should be divided by the figure 2. 

6 Ex-Judge Simmons, of Passaic, is the authority for the tradition^ 



■laden with their lares and penates, which were to transport 
them to the projected settlement.! There were no roads as 
yet through the wilderness ; no bridges spanned the broad 
rivers, and so the only recourse was to make the journey by 
water. Sailing early in the morning, and favored by wind 
and tide, they might possibly have reached their destination 
before nightfall. Allowing, however, for the ordinary mis- 
haps of such a voyage, and taking into account, also, the 
'natural deliberation with which the Dutch moved, especial- 
ly in such numbers, it is most likely that they had to camp 
-on shore the first night, and reached Acquackanonk by noon 
of the next day. Doubtless the men had erected comfort- 
able log cabins, fit for dwellings and if need be fortresses as 
well, during the previous summer ; so on the arrival of the 
vessels from Bergen they could at once remove the goods to 
their rude houses, and two or three days of energetic work 
by the sturdy Dutch vrouws saw everything "to rights, " so 
far as the more immediate home comforts were concerned. 
The Newark people were much vexed that the Dutch should 
have secured the fair domain of " Hockquekanung, " and 
were fain to console themselves with an addition to the 
westward of their town, at Poquanock.2 The new settlers 
on the Passaic let nothing disturb them, but went on as 
quietly and systematically as if they had resided there for 
years. Elias Michielsen was appointed one of the justices 
of the peace for Essex county, on March 24, 1682-3, •'^ which 
may or may not indicate that he was already a resident of 
Acquackanonk. But the new settlement was unmistakably 
recognized by the action of the Governor and Council on 
December 3, 1683, when it was ordered that a warrant "be 
issued forth for the Choyce of a Constable by the Inhabi- 

1 In the late William A. Whitehead's " East Jersey under the Propri- 
etary Governments," isted. (1846), p. 49; 2d ed. (1875), p. 56, it is stated 
in a foot-note that there were Dutch settlers at Acquackanonk as early as 
1640, the Albany Records, Vol. II., p. loi, being cited in support of that 
statement. From the account that has been given in these pages of the 
Indian wars up to 1655 it is obviously extremely improbable that any 
while settlers would have ventured as far as Acquackanonk as early as 
1640. In order to ascertain precisely what foundation there was for this 
assertion, the writer addressed a letter on January 23, 1874, to the late E. 
B. O'Callaghan, M. D., who for many years prior to that time had been 
the Historiographer of New York, and had translated all or most of its 
original Dutch records and manuscripts, requesting an e.xact transcript 
of the entry in question in the Albany Records, cited by Mr. Whitehead. 
Under date of February 7, 1874, Dr. O'Callaghan wrote : "The transla- 
tion by Vanderkemp [who was employed about 1820 to translate the 
Dutch records in the office of the Secretary of State at Albany], in Vol. 
2, p. joi, of Albany Records, is wrong, and has misled Mr. Whitehead. 
It seems that one Edward Griffin had come in 1640 to New Amsterdam 
(New York) from Maryland, and Gov. Calvert had sent on a requisition 
for his rendition on the ground that he was a 'fugitivefrom Service,' In 
rebuttal. Griffin proved by the evidence of Henry Pennington, oiHacke- 
mac [Maryland], thathe was a freeman, and he was therefore discharged. 
Vanderkemp translated, or rather converted ,//«(:/; tv/Mc into Ac/cgtiacke- 
nack. Hence the blunder. I retranslated the volume, and whilst point- 
ing out, corrected the error, the particulars of which I now communi- 
cate. The trial of Griffin is to be found in Vol. 4, p. 75, of original 
Dutch MSS., to which I further refer." This is one of many inst- 
ances that could be given of the readiness of Dr. O'Callaghan to aid the 
historical researches of others. 

2 Newark Town Records, 78. 

3 N.J. Archives, XIII., 40. 

tants at Aquaninoncke and New Barbadoes necke the warrt 
to bee sent to Captn Sandford." On the same day, "ffor 
the better setling and Exerciseing the IMilitia in every 
County within this province," it was ordered " that there 
bee one Major and so many Captaines Commissionated in 
Each County as there bee Inhabitants to make vp Compa- 
nyes. It's ordered that Maior Sandford appoint an officer 
to exercise the Inhabitants of Aquaninocke."! The bound- 
ary between Acquackanonk and Newark (which then extend- 
ed northerly to Tliird river) seems to have occasioned some 
dispute between the two towns, the Newark people on 
March 22, 1 683-4, appointing another committee on the sub- 
ject, with instructions " to make no other agreement with 
them of any other Bounds than what was formerly."^ 

Possibly it was this standing difference that led the in- 
habitants to take steps — which ought to have been taken 
immediately after securing the Indian deed — to obtain a 
Patent from the Proprietors for their land. Accordingly we 
read in the Journal of the Governor and Council, under 
date of May 30, 1684 : 

" The peticion of Hans Dedricke Elias Mekellson and 
Adrian Post in behalfe of themselves and other Inhabitairts 
of Aquaquanuncke setting forth they had purchased by 
order of the late Governor Carteret^ A Tract of Land Con- 
taineing 5520 Acres wch is to bee Devided amongst fourteen 
ffamelys of them there settled — pray they may have a gen'- 
all Pattent for the same, — It's ordered that the Indian sale 
being Recorded — Arrerages of Rent paid that a pattent bee 
made and granted them att one halfe penny pr Acre yearely 
Rent. "4 

It was nearly ten months later ere the Patent was taken 
out, that important instrument bearing date the sixteenth 
day of March, in the year 1684, according to the Old Style, 
then in vogue, when the year began on the twenty-fifth day 
of March ; the date of the Patent would be, according to 
our New Style, 1685. It was as follows : 

This Indenture made the sixteenth day of March Anno Dm. one 
thousand six Hundred & Eighty ffour and in the seven and thirtieth 
yeare of the Raigne of our Soveraigne Lord King Charles the second 
over England etc.: Between the Lords Proprietors of the Province 
of East New Jersey of the one part and Hans Didericke, Garrett 
Garretson, Walling Jacobs, Elias Machielson, Hartman Machielson, 
Johannes Machielson, Cornelius Machielson, Adrian Post, Urian Toma- 
son, Cornelius Rowlafson, Syraon Jacobs, John Hendrick Speare, Cor- 
nelius Lubbers, and Abraham Bookey, of the other part Witnesseth that 
the said Lords Proprietors as well for and in Consideration of the summe 
of ffifty pounds sterling moneyes in hand paid by the said Hans Diderick 
Garrett Garretson, Walling Jacobs, Elias Machielson, Hartman Machiel- 
son, Johannes Machielson, Cornelius Machielson, Adrian Post, Urian 
Tomason, Cornelius Rowlafson, Symon Jacobs, John Hendrick Speare, 
Cornelius Lubbers, & Abraham Bookey, to the Governor of the said 
Province, to and for the use of the Lords Proprietors thereof, the same 
being in full payment and discharge of all Arreares of Quitt Rents for the 
Lands hereinafter granted the Recept whereof the said Governor doth 
hereby Acknowledge and thereof and of every part and parcell thereof 
doth acquitt and discharge thera and every of them and the heires and 
Assignes of them and every of them As also for the Rents and ser- 

1 lb., 116. 

2 Newark Town Records, 94. 

3 Referring to the Indian purchase. 
4N. J. Archives, XIIL, I SI. 



vices hereinafter Reserved — have Aliened granted Bargained and sold 
and by these presents doe Alien grant Bargaine and sell unto the said 
Hans Diderick, Garret Garretson, Walling Jacobs, Elias Machielson, 
Hartman Machielson, Johannes Machielson, Cornelius Machielson, 
Adrian Post, Urian Tomason, Cornelius Rowlafson, Symon Jacobs, John 
Hendrick Speare, Cornelius Lubbers, and Abraham Bookey, and to their 
heires and Assignes a Certaine tract of Land scituate Lyeing and being 
upon Pisaick River in the County of Essex and called and knowne by the 
name of Acquickenunck Beginning att the Northermost bounds of the 
towne of Newark and soe Runeing from the Lowermost part to the up- 
permost part thereof as far as the steepe Rocks orraouniaines and from 
the said Lowermost part along Pisaick River to the great ffalles thereof 
and soe along the steep Rocks and mountaines to the uppermost part of 
Newarke bounds afores'd as it is more plainly demonstrated by a Chart 
or Draught thereof made by the Late Surveyor generall together w'th 
all the Rivers ponds Creekes, Isles Islands (Hartmans Island w'ch partic- 
ularly belongs to Hartman Machielsen onely Excepted) and also all In- 
letts Bayes swamps marshes meadowes pastures ffields fEencesl woods 
underwoods ffishings hawkings huntings ffowleings and all other appur- 
ten'ces whatsoever thereunto belonging and app'taineing (halfe part of the 
gold and silver mynes2 and the Royalty of the Lords Proprietors also 
Excepted) To have and to hold the said Tract of Land and P'misses 
and every part and parcell of the same to them the said Hans Didenck, 
Garrett Garretson, Walling Jacobs, Elias Machielson, Hartman Machiel- 
son, Johannes Machielson, Cornelius Machielson, Adrian Post, Urian 
Tomason, Cornelius Rowlafson, Symon Jacobs, John Hendrick Speare, 
Cornelius Lubbers, & Abraham Bookey, their heires and Assignes and to 
the use of them their heires and Assignes forever to bee holden in fEree 
and Common Soccage of them the Lords Proprietors their heires and 
Assignes as of the seignory of East Greenwich yeilding and paying 
therefore yearely unto the said Lords Proprietors their heires or Assignes 
the Chiefe or quit Rent of ffourteen pounds of starling moneyes or the 
value thereof yearely for the said Tract of Land upon every Sive and 
twentieth day of March forever hereafter in Liew and stead of the half 
penny per Acre mentioned in the Concessions and in Liew and stead of 
all other services and demands whatsoever the ffirst payment to bee 
made upon the fiive and Twentieth day of March w'h shall bee in theare 
of our Lord one thousand six hundred Eighty and six And the said 
Hans Diderick, Garrett Garratson, Walling Jacobs, Elias Machielson, 
Hartman Machielson, Johannes Machielson, Cornelius Machielson, Ad- 
rian Post, Urian Tomason, Cornelius Rowlofson, Symon Jacobs, John 
Hendrick Speare, Cornelius Lubbers, and Abraham Bookey — doe hereby 
for themselves their heires and Assignes Covenant promisse and agree 
to and w'th the said Lords Proprietors their heires and Assignes Tliat 
they their heires and assignes shall well and truely pay or Cause to bee 
paid unto the said Lords Proprietors their heires or Assignes the said 
yearely Chiefe or Quit Rent of ffourteen pounds starling moneyes or 
the value thereof for the said Tract of Land att or upon the ffive and 
twentieth day of March every yeare forever hereafter to the Receiver 
generall w'ch shall from ty me to tyme bee appointed by the said Lords 
Proprietors their heires or Assignes w'out fraud Covine or delay 
Provided allwayes that if the said yearely Chiefe or Quit Rent shall 
bee behinde and unpaid in part or in all att any of the days or tymes 
upon w'ch the same is to bee paid as afores'd that then and soe often it 
shall and may bee LawfuU to and for the said Lords Proprietors and their 
heires by their or any of their servants Agents or Assignes tenn dayes 
after such neglect or non payment of the said Chiefe or Quit Rent into 
the aforesaid Lands w'th the appurtenances or into any part or par- 
cell thereof to Enter and there to distraine and the distress or distresses 
there taken to lead drive Carrey away impound and in their Custody to 
detaine untill the said yearely Chiefe or Quit Rent soe being behind and 
unpaid together w'th all Costes and Charges of such distress and im- 

1 Reference is probably here made to the improvements made by 
some of the patentees, who had been in possession under their Indian 

2 Gold and silver mines were called " royal mines," and under the 
Enghsh common law belonged to the king, as part of his prerogative of 
coining. In the grant by King Charles II. of New Jersey to the Duke of 
York, mines and minerals were included, as also in the conveyance by 
the Duke to Berkley and Carteret. 

pounding shall bee fully paid and Contented to the said Lords Proprietors 
their heires and Assignes. 

IN WITNESS whereof the Dept Governor of this Province and the 
Major part of his CounccU for the tyme being to one parte have sub- 
scribed their names and affixed the Common seale of the said Province 
and to the other part thereof thereof the said Hans Diderick, Garrett 
Garretson, Walling Jacobs, Elias Machielson, Hartman Machielson, Jo- 
hannes Machielson, Cornelius Machielson, Adrian Post, Urian Thoma- 
son, Cornelius Rowlofson, Symon Jacobs, John Hendrick Speare, Corne- 
lius Lubbers and Abraham Bookey have Interchangeably sett their 
hands and scales the day and yeare inrst above written.l 

Tho : Codrington 

Wm. Sandford Gauen laurie Isaac Kingsland Beniamine Price 

Henry Lyon 
Ja Emott Dept Sect 

[Endorsed on the back :] 

Memorand'm. — That it was mutually agreed by and between all the 
said partyes to the w'in mentioned pattent before the .signeing and 
sealeing of the same that a Neck of Land lyeing w'in the bounds of this 
pattent Containeing Two hundred and seventy Eight Acres called and 
knowne by the name of StofEels point formerly pattented to one Chris- 
topher Houghland and since sold to the w'in named Hartman Machiel- 
son and Company bee also excepted out of this pattent and it's hereby 
accordingly Excepted — 

Tho : Codrington Gauen laurie 

Isaac Kingsland 
Ja Emott Dept Secrt Beniamine Price 

Lords Proprietors of East New Jersey ji-l Tract of Lan^ 

Hans Didericke & Company j °f ^^Ta^l'liew fe^s™;^" °' 

Entred upon the Records of the province of 

East New Jersey this sixteenth day of Marc'n Anno 
Dm 1684 in Lib. A in fol — cbdiij 

^ me 
Ja Emott Dep Secrt 

1 A brief statement of the origin of land titles in New Jersey may not 
be out of place here ; Charles II. , King of England, by royal patent, 
dated March 12, 1664, granted to his brother, James, Duke of York, 
afterwards James II. , King of England, the territory now known as New 
England, New York and New Jersey, with powers of alienation and of 
government. By deeds of lease and release, dated June 23-4, 1664,- 
James, Duke of York, conveyed the territory now known as New Jersey,, 
to John Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret, in fee simple. By deed 
dated March 18, 1674, Berkley conveyed in fee simple the undivided half 
of New Jersey to John Fenwick, in trust for Edward Byllynge. On July 
30, 1673, the Dutch captured the Enghsh fort at New York, and New 
Jersey and New York came under Dutch rule once more. On February 
9, 1674, the Dutch surrendered New Jersey and New York to the Eng- 
lish, on the conclusion of peace. To remove any doubts as to the effect, 
on the former grant, of this change of rulers, King Charles II. gave a new 
royal grant to his brother James, of New England, New York and New 
Jersey, under date of June 29, 1674, and the Duke conveyed, by deeds of 
lease and release dated July 28-9, 1674, to Sir George Carteret the 
eastern half of New Jersey, and by similar deeds of lease and release 
dated August 5-6, 1680, conveyed to Edward Byllynge, William Penn 
and others. West Jersey, which had been previously conveyed by Fen- 
wick and Byllynge to Penn and others. Sir George Carteret, by his will. 
dated December 5, 1678, proved January 28, 1680, devised his property to 
his executors in trust for the payment of his debts, and they, by deeds 
of lease and release dated Feburary 1-2, 1682, conveyed East Jersey to 
William Penn and eleven other persons, who in turn immediately con- 
veyed an equal interest to twelve other persons, so that there were then 
twenty-four Proprietors of East Jersey, whose title was confirmed by 
patent of the Duke of York, dated March 14, 1683. All titles to land in 
East Jersey, with the exception of a few granted by Governor NicoUs, of 
New York, are derived from these twenty-four Proprietors, who also ex- 
ercised powers of government until 1702. Contrary to a somewhat pre- 
valent impression, no grants for land within New Jersey were ever made 
by the King to private individuals. The King never owned a foot of 
land in New Jersey after he made the grant to the Duke of York, except 



The original of this important document is engrossed on a 
great sheet of parchment, twenty-seven inches wide and seven- 
teen inches deep ; it is in a perfect state of preservation, in the 
possession of ex- Judge Simmons, of Passaic, who has kindly 
permitted the above copy to be made from it and carefully 
compared with the original. 1 The seal of the Lords Pro- 
prietors is impressed on a piece of red wax an inch and 
three quarters in diameter and three sixteenths of an inch 
thick, enclosed jn a round iron box ; a stout cord passes 
through the box and seal, and at the other hand is looped 
through the parchment, so that the box hangs just free of 
the document. About a third of the seal is gone. 

While the order of the Governor and Council was to grant 
a patent for 5,520 acres of land, the rent named in the 
patent implies that 6,720 acres were conveyed. In fact, the 
tract actually comprised about ten thousand acres, to wit : 
Acquackanonk township, as it remains at this day, 5,500 
acres ; Passaic, Second and Third wards, 500 acres ; all of 
the Third, Fourth and Fifth wards of Paterson, nearly all 
of the Sixth and Eighth wards, and about half of the Seventh 
ward, or about 4,000 of the 5,357 acres in the city of Pater- 
son, being included in this ancient conveyance. The wester- 
ly line in Paterson ran from the mouth of a brook near the 
foot of Prospect street to Garret mountain, or perhaps to the 
"steep rocks" back of the present upper raceway. In the 
early deeds it was usual to make a liberal allowance for 
"highways and barrens ;" the number of acres specified re- 
ferred only to the arable land. The Governor and Council 
probably considered that the really good land included in 
the patent was not more than 5,520 acres, the rest being for 
the most part sandy, swampy or rocky. 

It was the custom in those days when a company bought 
a large tract of land for settlement, to partition off to each 
partner a home-lot large enough for his immediate use, the 
remainder lying in common, to be divided up from time to 
time as necessity seemed to require. This rule obtained in 
the settlement of Acquackanonk. Fourteen lots were laid 
off, fronting on the Passaic river, with a breadth of about 
ten chains, and extending back toward the mountain a dis- 
stance of one hundred chains. These were called the 
"Hundred Acre Lots," as appears by numerous references 
in the old records. Lot Number i began near the Yantacaw 
river, and Lot Number 14 was near the present Main avenue 
bridge, at Passaic. Subsequently, lots were laid out west 
of these, ten chains wide and five chains deep, which were 
allotted to the owners of the " Hundred Acre Lots," so that 
these fortunate individuals held farms of one hundred and 
fifty acres each, extending from the river back to the Speer- 
town road. About 1695, '^^ increase of population calling 

of lands under tide-v/ater, or riparian lands, which ultimately fell 
to the State. Similarly, the State of New Jersey has never owned any 
lands, except riparian lands, unless by purchase or escheat. 

1 The copy herewith printed follows all the peculiarities of the original 
as closely as ordinary typography will permit. The patent was printed in 
the History of Bergen and Passaic Counties, published at Philadelphia 
in 18S2, on p. 378, from a certified copy from the record in 1855, but there 
are hundreds of variations between the copy as there given and as here 


for a new division of the common lands, a second parcel of 
fourteen lots was laid out, much smaller than the first, and 
extending north to about the corner of Main avenue and 
Prospect street. Perhaps about this time fourteen "Dock 
Lots " were allotted, along the river bank, where the com- 
merce of the neighboring country was concentrated for 
nearly a century and a half. These "Dock Lots" were 
especially important to the first settlers, for the shipping of 
produce and the reception of supplies of all kinds, commun- 
ication between Acquackanonk and New York being exclu- 
sively by water for fully three-quarters of a century after the 
settlement.! Another tract of fourteen lots, very irregular 
in shape, was surveyed off soon after the last, embracing the 
territory on both sides of Lexington avenue in Passaic, and 
beginning about at the corner of Main avenue and Prospect 
street, and extending northerly to Ackerman's lane, Clifton. 
According to tradition, which finds a confirmation in occa- 
sional references in old deeds, and in a map of Revolutionary 
date, this new allotment was called "Gotham," or the 
" Gotham Patent." But it was not a patent, being merely a 
sub-division of the Acquackanonk patent. Moreover, the 
"Seven Wise Men of Gotham," who "went to sea in a 
bowl," as related by the veracious chroniclers of their adven- 
tures, were not Dutchmen, but Englishmen, or the gazetteers 
err in locating that ancient town. As it is not likely that 
the Dutch settlers would call one of their tracts after a place 
in England, it is safe to conclude that the name given to the 
new allotment was Goutum, after a village now containing 
about three hundred inhabitants, an hour's journey from 
Leeuwarden, the capital of Friesland, in North Holland, 2 
and doubtless endeared to some of them by family associa- 
tions. Goutttm would be readily corrupted into Gotham by 
the descendants of the first settlers, or by new-comers of 
English origin. 

When the foregoing lots were partitioned off, there was 
left an odd triangular plot, which it was concluded to conse- 
crate to religious uses and the interment of the dead, a 
church being organized about 1693, and a modest building 
erected in 1698 for public worship. 3 Dominie Guiliaem 
Bertholf was at the time the schoolmaster at the village 

1 For some account of the history of the Dock Lots see the case of 
Kip vs. Blarcom, N. J. Law Reports, 4 Zabriskie, 854; 2 Dutcher, 351. 
The management of this cause celebre was assigned, by agreement of the 
parties in interest, to Henry P. Simmons, of Passaic, and in the course of 
its tedious progress through the courts to a final successful issue for 
him, he accumulated an invaluable mass of old documents bearing on 
the early history of Acquackanonk. They could not have fallen into bet- 
ter hands, for none appreciated their worth as he did. 

2 Het Koningrijk der Nederlanden, voorgesteld in eene reeks van 
naar de natuur geteekende schilderachtige gezigten, en beschriven door 
J. L. Terwen, Gouda, 753. " The Kingdom of the Netherlands, setforlh 
in a series of beautiful views, sketched from nature, and described by J. 
L. Terwen ;" printed at Gouda, in Holland. There is no date, but the 
writer's copy was imported from Holland in 1874 (for use in the pre- 
paration of this History, which was already in contemplation), and the 
book then seemed of recent origin. It is a handsomely-printed large octavo 
work, of 820 pages, profusely illustrated with fine steel-plate views of 
towns, buildings and other objects of interest. It is a sort of history, 
gazetteer and guide-book combined, making a valuable work. 

3 The author has the autograph receipt of the mason, VVillem Stagg, 
dated 1698, for stone work in the erection of the church. 



("durpe") of " Acquiggenonck," as lie writes it, and was 
called to the pastorate of the congiegation in 1693, in con- 
nection with the Reformed Dutch church at Hacken- 
sack. The quaint old hexagonal church edifice first erected 
at Acquackanonk has been replaced twice since those days 
of yore, each time by a larger and handsomer building. 1 

In the meantime, the new settlement had been receiving 
the attention of the Legislature, which in 1688 passed 
acts establishing a court for the trial of small causes, 
and also for building a pound, for the benefit of the "out 
plantations " of Acquackanonk and New Barbadoes.2 

About 1701 a new apportionment of lots was called for, 
and fourteen more lots were laid out, from Goutum northerly 
to a line in the neighborhood of what is now Twenty-first av- 
enue, Paterson, and extending from the Passaic river on the 
east to Garret mountain on the west, the lots being ten 
chains wide and from one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
chains in depth. This new allotment was called Wesel, 
after a town on the Lippe river, in Westphalia, near the 
borders of Holland. It is not unlikely that some of the 
families occupying the new neighborhood had pleasant recol- 
lections of the old Westphalian town, which they desired to 
perpetuate by giving this name to the new locality. The 
name has been generally, but erroneously, written "Weasel," 
or "Weazle." 

The old trouble with the Newark people, about the bound- 
ary line, cropped out again in March, 1709, when both parties 
appealed to the Governor and Council, who ordered a new sur- 
vey of the line to be run. On this occasion the people of 
Acquackanonk were represented before the Governor and 
Council by May Bickley,3 one of the most eminent lawyers 
of his day, while Thomas Gordon,* another prominent 

1 The parsonag-e originally stood on the same plot. It was leased, 
April 25, 1772, for the term of six years, to Timothy Day, of Achqueghe- 
nonk, for ^17 New York money per annum. Day covenanting not to 
allow on the premises " any Drunkenness or frolicldng on any Day of 
Publick worship during the sd Term." — Origijial Lease, Siimnons MSS. 
This parsonage property was sold in 1798 to Cornelius Van Winkle, of 
Paterson, for ;£550. The original parchment deed is among the Simmons 
MSS. A tract of fourteen acres on the east side of Main avenue, oppo- 
site the church, was set apart for the use of the congregation; it was 
leased for many years, then was divided (prior to 1770) into fourteen nar- 
row lots all fronting on the King's highway, which were leased and ul- 
timately sold. 

2 N. J. Archives, XIII., 183, 186. 

3 May Bickley was Attorney General of New York in 1706-12, being 
also Recorder of New York city, 1709-12. He was admitted to the New 
Jersey bar in 1705. Having an uncomfortable way of getting the best of 
his enemies, they once got him indicted in 1708 for "barratrie," but the 
indictment wasnol pros'd. He died at New York, April 2, 1724. — iV. J. 
Archives, XIII., 324, note. 

•* Thomas Gordon, a near relative of the Duke of Gordon, was of 
Pitlochie, Scotland, where he was the leader of the Gordon clan, and was 
held- in warm regard by James II. Owing to political troubles he came 
to New Jersey in 1684, having previously acquired a Proprietary right in 
the soil, to which he subsequently added largely. He settled near the 
present Scotch Plains, so called because so many of his countrymen set- 
tled there with him. In 1692 he was appointed to various judicial and 
other positions, and si.x years later was made Attorney General of East 
Jersey, which office he held until 1703. He was Attorney General of New 
Jersey 1715-19, and a member of the Governor's Council, 1710-22, dying 
in the latter year. — Whitehead's Perth Avtboy, 60-65; N. J. Archives, 
XIII., 273,425, 561. 

lawyer, looked after the interests of Newark. The records 
fail to enlighten us as to the issue of the dispute. 

Most of the patentees having died by 1714,1 it was con- 
cluded in that year to allot the unpartitioned lands among 
those entitled thereto, a committee being appointed for that 
purpose. The following is a fac simile of what is apparent- 
ly a contemporary translation from the original Dutch re- 
port submitted by the committee. It is a pity that its Eng- 
lish is not as faultless as its chirography. Probably the only 
way to get at the exact meaning of this important document 
would be to translate it literally into Dutch, and then make 
a new translation into modern and intelligible English. 
However, it is obvious that the committee attempted to 
make a fair partition of all the lands remaining in common, 
between the surviving patentees, their heirs and assigns, 
also confirming the subdivisions already made.2 

For some reason not now understood, this last division 
was not satisfactory to some of the owners of the common 
lands. It is probable that the matter was under discussion 
a long time before the partition was made, so that the dis- 
sentients were ready to go to law at once, in order to have a 
partition made that would be more agreeable to them. The 
suit was instituted in the Essex County Common Pleas, the 
lands in question then lying in that county. John Bradber- 
rie, John Hendrick Speare, Cornells De Riemer, Hendrick 
Speare, Adrian Post, Garret Post and Hendrick Garritson 
were the plaintiffs, and the defendants were John Courier 
(possibly an error for Curtis), John Sip, Christopher Steen- 
mets, Harmanus Garretson, Hessel Pieterse, Michiel Vree- 
land, Jacob Vreeland, Claese Vreeland, Dirck Vreeland, 
Dirck Vreeland, Jun., Rineer Cornelissen Van Houten (not 
Van Hood, as given below), Thomas Uriansen, Roelof Cor- 
nelissen Van Houten, Symon Jacobs, Cornells Lubbers, 
Francis Post and Peter Paulessen. There have been tradi- 
tions among the descendants of the old families that there 
was such a lawsuit, but the only evidence of it that has been 
discovered is the following quaint summons in partition :3 

1 A parchment deed in the possession of Henry P. Simmons, of Pas- 
saic, dated March 12, 1712-13, recites that Hans Diederick, Garret Gar- 
ritson, Walling Jacobs, Elias Machielson, Hartman Machaelson, Adrian 
Post, Jurian Thomason, Cornelius Roelofson and Abraham Bouquee 
were then dead. 

2 John Verkerk, who made the maps referred to, and many others in 
this vicinity, was a son of Roelof (Janse) Verkerck, born in 1654, and who 
came to this country in 1663, and lived in a stone house torn down about 
1880, near New Utrecht, Long Island. His son, who signed his name 
John Verkerk, owned and occupied his father's house on New Ut- 
recht lane. He was employed as a surveyor on Long Island and vicini- 
ty. — Register of the Early Settlers of Kin^s County, Long- Island, N. Y, , 
etc., by Teunis G. Bergen, New York, 1881, 370. 

3 This curious historic relic was found by the writer in 1873 at the bottom 
of a barrel of waste paper, in a junk-shop in Passaic. The barrel and con- 
tents had been sold at the "vendue" of the effects of Richard Alyea, who 
lived on the Bergen county side of the Passaic river, near the Wesel 
bridge, and died April 20, 1873. His wife, Rachel, was a daughter of 
Simeon Van Riper, a descendant of the "Thomas Urison" named in the 
summons. The seal affixed to this instrument shows the figure of an 
Indian's head and arm, with a tomahawk in his uplifted hand — an appro- 
priate symbol in a partition suit. 




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e£ irut ( ^^fJ %^.Se) Jan 7 >V^ 

Province of > 
New-Jersey / 

Essex: ss: Anne by the Grace of God Queen of Great Brittain, 
France & Ireland Defender of the faith &c: To our Sheriff of 
our sd. County of Essex Greeting, Wee Comand you that if John 
Bradburry, John Hendrick Spire, CorneUus De Rimer, Hendrick Spire, 
Adrian Post, Garrett Post, and Hendrick Garretson, all of sd County 
Yeomen shall secure you their suit to prosecute that then you Sum- 
monds John Courter John Sip, Christopher Stymers, Harmanus Garret- 
son, Hassell Peterson, Michiell Freeland, Jacob Freeland, Clause 
Freeland, Direck Freeland, Direck Freeland Jun. , Rineer Cornelius- 
on Vanhood, Thomas Urison, RoolifE Cornelison Vanhood, Symond 
Jacobs, Cornelius Lubbers, Frances Post, and Peter Paulson all of 
sd County of Essex yeomen that they & Every of them be & Appear 
before our Justices of our Court of Common Pleas to be held at Newark 
for sd County Immediately after our Court of Generall Quarter Sessions 
of ye Peace which begins on ye second tuesday In August next Doth 
End & Terminate, To shew why Whereas the sd John Bradburry, John 
Hendrick Spire, Cornelius De Rimer, Hendrick Spire, Adrian Post, Gar- 
ret Post, Hendrick Garretson, and John Courter, John Sip, Christopher 
Stynmets, Hermanus Garretson, Hassell Piterson, Michiell Freeland, 
Jacob Freeland, Claus Freeland, Direck Freeland, Direck Freeland, 
Jun. , Rineer Corneliuson Vanhood, Thomas Urison, RoolifE Cornelison 
Vanhood, Symond Jacobs, Cornelis Lubbers, Frances Post, and Peter 
Paulson Together and for Individed Do hold A Certaine Tract of Land 
•with the Appurtenances on Pissaik River In the sd County of Essex 
Called Achquickenunck, They ye sd Defendants partition thereof 
between them ye sd Defendants and ye Aforesd Plaintiffs According to 
Law and ye Custom of Great Brittain to be made Do Contradict and 
that to be done they do not permitt, lest Justly as is said, and have you 
then & there this Writt, witness Isaac Whitehead Esqr : our Judge of 
our sd Court at Newark aforesd the nineteenth day of May In the thir- 
teenth year of our Reigne. 

He. NorrisS Clerk 

1 The attorney of the plaintiffs. The summons is in his handwriting. 

2 Henry Norris was a resident of Elizabethtown, then in Essex county. 
He was clerk of the county for many years, and until his death in 1719. 

The records of the Essex Common Pleas covering this 
era are missing, so that nothing has been learned of the 
suit beyond what the summons reveals. 

The most important division made in 1714 was of the 
territory now comprising the greater part of the city of Pat- 
erson, being all that was left of the original patent, lying 
north of Wesel and south and west of the Passaic river. 
This great tract was divided into two nearly equal portions, 
separated by York avenue, now East Eighteenth street, 
which was therefore called the Divars lijn, the cross-line or di- 
vision line. So late as 1892 there was still standing, just 
east of the Paterson Iron Works, a fence which was the last 
visible sign of this ancient and historic division. The tract 
lying east of East Eighteenth street, and extending to the Pas- 
saic river, was sub-divided into fifteen parcels, the division 
lines of which were parallel with what is now Park avenue. 
In the same manner, the tract west of East Eighteenth 
street, or the Dwars Lijn, was sub-divided into thirteen 
parcels, Broadway being in the line between two of these 
farms, and the other dividing lines running parallel with 
Broadway. The northernmost of these farms west of the 
Dwars Lijn ran west to the river ; those south of the present 
line of Broadway ran to the "steep rocks" of Garret moun- 
tain. Each of these farms, on both sides of the Dwars Lijn, 
was estimated to contain seventy-four acres ; but it is evid- 
ent that these acres must have been of the Dutch sort, or 
morgens, equivalent to two English acres. This apportion- 
ment or sub-division was called by the old people the 
"Bogt Patent," or the Patent in the Bend — of the river, 
alluding to the fact that the river swept around on two sides 
of it. As already explained, it was not a patent, but merely 



a sub-division of the remainder of the lands lying in com- 
mon of the great Acquackanonk patent. In time, the name 
" De Bogt" came to be applied mainly to the land lying di- 
rectly in the bend of the river, now known as Riverside. 
The only map of the sub-division of this territory known to 
exist at the present time is a somewhat crude one, appar- 
ently copied from the original about 1745, showing 
the owners of the several farms about that time, instead of 
as they were in 1 7 14. As this is the oldest known map of 
any part of the present city of Paterson it has been thought 
desirable to reproduce it, and it is given on the next page. 

This map, blotched with ink, and corroded with time, 
is evidently a rough copy of the original. The centre 
line, running north and south, represents the Dwars Lijn, or 
cross-line, now East Eighteenth street. A note on the map 
says " the course of the lots is west 22 degrees northerly." 
The course now is about sixteen degrees from due east and 
west. A few notes as to the owners will make the map more 
intelligible to the reader of to-daj'. On the east side of the 
Dwars Lijn, or between East Eighteenth street and the 
Passaic river on the east, the owners were : 

No. I — Frans (Francis) Post; south of People's Park. 
This lot afterwards was in the possession of John F. Post. 
By deed Oct. 26, 1789, for £27, Powles Powlesse conveyed a 
triangular piece of S^ acres in the west end of the whole 
tract to Peter Marselis. 

No. 2 — Hessel Pieterse. Walling Jacobs, one of the 
patentees, by deed dated October 14, 1702, conveyed to 
Hermanns Gerritse a twenty-eighth part of the undivided 
lands of Acquackanonk ; Hermanns Gerritse by will devised 
the same to his son Gerrit, who by deed dated March 19, 
1747, released to Hessel Pieterse this lot, and other lands. 

No. 3 — Abram Van Riper. Abraham Van Houten re- 
ceived a half interest in this Lot, and other property, July 
I, 1782, from his brother Cornelius, heir-at-law of his moth- 
er, Jannetje Van Houten, widow of Helma-gh D. Van Hou- 
ten, and daughter of Abram Thomasse Van Riper. John 
R. Van Houten, of Totowa, with his wife Elizabeth, 
conveyed an equal half part of the Lot, June i, 1791, for 
£212 ($530) to Peter Merselis, "bounded east on land of 
Hartman Jn. Vreeland, westerly on the division line, north 
and south on Edo Merselis." 

No. 4 — Elias Vreeland. 

No. 5 — Arie (Adrian) Post.l 

No. 6 — John Van Blarcom ; his northerly line was the 
present Willis street. He was a descendant of Cornelius 
Lubbers, one of the patentees. 

No. 7 — Simeon Van Winkle, eldest son of Symon Jacobs, 
one of the patentees. This farm extended from Willis 
street on the south to Thirteenth avenue on the north, and 
from East Eighteenth street oji the west to the river on the 
east. Simeon appears to have died intestate, leaving a 
large number of heirs, children and grandchildren. There- 
upon, Thomas Smith, Henry Gerritse and John El. Vree- 
land were appointed commissioners to lay out his lands in 

1 These first five lots ended on the east some dis 
land avenue. 

jnce short of Vree- 

small lots, which they proceeded to do, by a map and re- 
port dated May 16, 1782, still in existence.l The map was 
the work of Hessel Pieterse. According to this map and 
report. Lot No. 7 was divided into eleven farms, each being 
the full width of the whole Lot, or 10.27 chains. The 
small lot next to the river, containing 7.33 acres, with the 
old homestead, was allotted to Albert Ackerman and Rachel 
his wife ; No. 2, next west, 6.87 chains on Willis street, con- 
taining 7 acres, was allotted to Jacob Van Winkle ; No. 3 
to No. 10, both inclusive, each had a frontage of 8.79 
chains, and contained 8.96 acres. They were allotted as 
follows : No. 3, to Philip Berry and Catherine his wife ; 
(No. 4, to Sophia Van Dyke f) No. 5, to Gerrit Van Giesen j 
and Helena his wife ; No. 6, to Adrian Van Houten and 
Mary his wife ; No. 7, to Jacobus Post ; No. 8, to Jacob H. 
Vreeland and Getty his wife ; No. 9, to Abraham Cadmus ; 
No. ID, to Peter Mead and Jane his wife. No. 11, next to 
East Eighteenth street, had a frontage on Willis street of 
8.24 chains, and an area of 7.97 acres. It was allotted to 
Simeon S. Van Winkle. 

No. 8 — Magiel (Michael) Vreeland : from Thirteenth av- 
enue to Twelfth avenue. This farm remained in the fam- 
ily until about 1870. 

No. 9 — Simeon Van Winkle, eldest son of Symon Jacobs, 
one of the patentees. This farm extended from Twelfth av- 
enue to Eleventh avenue, and from East Eighteenth street to 
the river. As stated in relation to Lot No. 7, commission- 
ers were appointed to lay out this farm in small lots, and 
they divided it into ten such lots, by the map and report re- 
ferred to above. Beginning on the west, at or near East 
Eighteenth street, they laid out a lot of 9.56 acres, having 
a frontage of 9.80 chains on Thirteenth avenue, and a 
depth, from south to north, of 10.25 chains. This was No. 
12, and was allotted to Gerrit Van Giesen and Helena his 
wife. No. 13 to No. 19, both inclusive, had a width, from 
east to west, of 9.86 chains, and an area of 10.04 acres. 
They were allotted as follows : No. 13, to Peter Mead and 
Jane his wife ; No. 14, to Simeon Van Winkle ; No. 15, to 
Abraham Cadmus; No. 16, to Jacob Van Winkle ; No. 17, 
to Jacob H. Vreeland and Getty his wife ; No. 18, to Jaco- 
bus Post ; No. 19, to Adrian Van Houten and Mary his 
wife. The rest of the farm, 18.20 chains on the south, and 
somewhat more on the north, was divided fi'om east to west, 
into two lots, the southern, 10.21 acres, being allotted to 
Philip Berry and Catherine his wife, and the northern, hav- 
ing a depth of 7.90 chains and an area of 10.21 acres also, 
was allotted to Sojshia Van Dyke. 

No. 10 — Abraham Van Riper. This Lo; was inherited by 
the two daughters — Jannetje and Elizabeth — of Abraham 
Thomasse Van Riper. Jannetje and her husband, Hel- 
magh Van Houten, died seized of an equal undivided half 
interest in this Lot and other lands. Cornelius H., their 
oldest son and heir-at-law, by deed of bargain and sale, 
July I, 1782, conveyed to his brother, Abraham, an equal 
half part of said real estate, in fee simple. The remaining 

1 The original map and report were in the possession of tlie late 
Jud;je Henry H. Voorhis, of Paramus, Bergen county; the author is 
indebted to William Pennington, Esq. , for the use of a copy of the map. 



S. of 23d Ave, 

22d Ave. 

Near2ist Ave, 

waus St. 

13th Ave, 

200 ft. S. of 
Clay St. 

Near 5 th Ave. 

Near 3d Ave. 



half interest of Cornelius in this Lot was sold by Joseph 
Crane, Sheriff, to satisfy a judgment of £750 in favor of 
John Condict, to Albert Ackerman, by deed, July 7, 1783, 
for £210. By deed July 10, 1783, Abraham H. Van Houten 
quit-claimed to Albert Ackerman and Cornelius Van 
Winkle all his interest in said Lot. Ackerman caused the 
Lot to be partitioned between him and Elizabeth Van Hou- 
ten, wife of John Roelof Van Houten, dividing it into two 
equal tracts lorgitudinally, from East Eighteenth street 
to the river. By deed, August 3, 1784, Johannis (John R.) 
Van Houten and wife, conveyed their half to Albert Acker- 
man, of Paramus. 

No. II — Henderic (Henry) Spier. In 1783 this Lot was 
in the possesion of Jacob Simeon Van Winkle. 

No. 12 — Michael Vreeland. This Lot was bought. May 
II, 1786, by John Neahe, from Cornelius John Van Riper, 
Jury Van Riper, John Van Riper and Gerrit Van Riper. 
By deed April 8, 1795, for £1,600, Neafie and Trintje his 
wife, he being then of Franklin township, Bergen county, 
conveyed Lot No. 12 to John H. Van Blerkum, of Paterson. 
/ No. 13 — John Bradberry. Cornelis Gerritse, Cornelius 
Van Riper and Jacob Van Riper bought this lot from 
Abraham Berry and William Berry, the heirs of Richard 
Bradberry (probably a son of John Bradberry), by deed 
April 20, 1772. The grantees partitioned between them- 
selves, Gerritse taking the eastern third. Jacob C. Van 
Riper quit-claimed, April 15, 1778, to Simeon John 
Van Winkle and John H. Gerritse. In his will Cor- 
nelis Gerritse devised his share of Lot No. 13 to his 
daughter, Elizabeth, wife of Henry John Garrison. The 
will was lost, but the heirs agreed to carry its provis- 
ions into effect. Accordingly, Gerrit John Gerritsen 
and Margaret his wife (daughter of Cornelis), and Sim- 
eon John Van Winkle and Claesje his wife (another 
daughter of Cornelis), released an equal half part of the 
share of Lot No. 13 which had been owned by Cor- 
nelis Gerritse, by deed dated Oct. 14, 1779, to Henry 
John Gerritsen (his wife Elizabeth being then deceased) 
for life, with remainder in fee to his son John Gerrit- 
sen, heir-at-law of the said Elizabeth. The same day 
Henry John Gerritse (Henery Gerritse) and Gerrit John 
Gerritse and Margaret his wife released their interest to 
Simeon John Van Winkle and Claesje his wife. The latter 
joined in a conveyance, June 29, 1 781, to John Van Winkle, 
of Bergen county ; the next day he re-conveyed it to Simeon 
John Van Winkle, in whom the fee was thus vested. On 
March 12, 1788, John H. Gerritse and Margaret his wife re- 
leased to Simeon John Van Winkle and Claesje his wife, 
and on May 15, 1801, for $45, conveyed to Simeon a plot of 
an acre and a half, of Lot No. 13, evidently their home-lot. 
The other two-thirds interest in Lot No. 13 was conveyed. 
May 2, 1788, by Jacob Cornelis Van Riper and Abigail his 
wife, to John Neafie ; the latter conveyed the same, April 8, 
1795, to John H. Van Blarcom. 

No. 14 — Henderic Gerretse (Henry Garrison) : at River- 
side. Henry Garrison, Esq., of Wesel, Simeon John Van 
Winkle and John H. Garrison are declared (recital in a 
deed) to have stood "jointly possessed of certain tracts of 

land in Essex county, by virtue of the last will and test- 
ament of Henry Garrison, "deceased, as well as by a 
deed of release from Garrit Stimas," dated July 23, 
1 75 1. Henry John Gerritse and Gerrit John Gerritse and 
Margaret his wife, by deed Oct. 14, 1779, released this Lot, 
with other property, to Simeon John Van Winkle and 
Claesje his wife. The latter released, June 29, 1781, to 
John Van Winkle, of Bergen county, who the next day con- 
veyed to Claesje, declaring that she was entitled to said lot 
by virtue of the will of her father, Cornelis Gerritse. John 
H. Garrison and Margaret his wife released March 12, 1788, 
and on Feb. 12, 1795, Henry Garritse released to Simeon 
John Van Winkle and John H. Garrison. It may be easier 
to understand these conveyances if it is borne in mind that 
Cornelis Gerritse (b. July 2, 1723) and Henry Garritse, sen., 
sometimes called Henry John Garritse (b. Aug. 17, 1727), 
were brothers, sons of Johannis, who was a grandson of 
Gerrit Gerritse, one of the fourteen patentees. Still another 
deed for this Lot was given, April 15, 1806, by John H. 
Gerritse and Margaret his wife, to John S. Van Winkle and 
Simeon Van Winkle. These several conveyances merged 
Lot No. 14 in what was afterwards known as the Riverside 

No. 15 — Michael Vreeland. By deed dated Oct. 14, 1779, 
Henry John Gerritse and Gerrit John Gerritse and Margaret 
his wife released to Simeon John Van Winkle and Claesje 
his wife Lot No. 15, with other property. Simeon John 
Van Winkle and Claesje his wife released to John Van 
Winkle, of Bergen county, June 29, 1781, and he conveyed 
the next day to Simeon John Van Winkle. By deed March 
12, 1788, John H. Gerritse and Margaret his wife quit-claim 
to Simeon John Van Winkle and Claesje his wife. Another 
deed for this Lot, describing it by metes and bounds, and 
declaring it to contain 1575 acres, was given April 15, 1806, 
by John H. Gerritse and Margaret his wife to John S. Van 
Winkle and Simeon Van Winkle. Gerritse describes it 
as " all that my farm and plantation whereon I now dwell." 
By this deed this Lot was also merged in the Riverside 
farm. The southern line of Lot No. 15 was between 
Fourth and Fifth avenues, or thereabout. 

The owners of the farms laid out west of East Eighteenth 
street, and extending to the steep rocks, or to the river, 
were : 

No. I — Michael Vreeland : in the neighborhood of the 
Paterson Iron Works. From the shape this was called the 
Drie Hoek, or triangular Lot. It remained in the family 
until the middle of this century. 
No. 2 — Elias Vreeland. 

No. 3 — Henry Post. Frans Post bought of Hans Dide- 
ricks, one of the patentees, a half interest in the undivided 
lands of Acquackanonk, by deed dated April 4, 1696 ;l and 
by deed dated April 26, 1698, he bought a half interest of 
Cornelius Lubbers,^ another of the patentees. He was al- 
ready settled at Acquackanonk when he bought of Dide- 
ricks. By his will, dated September 8, 1724, he devised all 

i E. J. Deeds, Book F, f. 222. 
2 E. J. Deeds, Book G, f. 107. 



his lands to his sons, Adrian, Jacobus, Johannes, and Hen- 
drick, to be equally divided between them. Adrian, Jaco- 
bus and Johannis, by deed dated March 14, 1731, released 
this lot to Hendrick, who by his will, dated May 27, 1777, de- 
vised to his son Henry, who conveyed a tract of forty- two 
acres and forty-one hundreths to the Society for Establish- 
ing Useful Manufactures,! by deed dated June 7, 1792. 

No. 4 — Jacobus (James) Post ; a son of Frans Post, just 
■ .mentioned. His brothers, Adrian, Johannis and Hendrick, 
by deed dated May 30, 1740, released this lot to Jacobus, 
who by will dated October 26, 1765, devised the same or a 
part to his son, John F. Post.2 John I. Post and wife con- 
veyed 122.22 acres of this Lot and Lot No. 3, to the S. U. 
M., June 27, 1792. The tract so conveyed included Colt's 
Hill, and extended across the width of the two lots. On 
April 20, 1793, Post and wife conveyed to the Society 22 
acres in the eastern end of these lots, and 12 acres in the 
vicinity of Vine street. 

No. S — Hessel Pieterse and Gerrit Van Wagenen. Wal- 
ling Jacobs by deed dated May 6, 1689, conveyed to Jan 
Harmsse Van Barkeloo a lot of land in Acquackanonk, to- 
gether with half his interest (one-twenty-eighth part) in the un- 
divided lands. Van Barkeloo and his wife, Grietje Abrams 
Cornelisse, by deed dated May 20, 1695, conveyed the same 
to Hessel Pieterse. By these conveyances, and those re- 
corded in the case of Lot No. 2 east of the cross-line, Pie- 
terse and Gerrit Van Wageningen became vested as tenants 
in common in an equal undivided interest in a fourteenth 
part of the undivided lands. By deed dated March 19, 
1747, Pieterse released to Van Wageningen this lot. The 
latter, by his will, dated July 17, 1769, proved August I, 
1770, devised to his son Hermanis, "a Lott of Land in the 
Bought in the Patent of Achquechnonk," the lot in question. 
In his will, dated August 21, 1789, proved April 8, 1794, 
Harremanis Van Wagenen does not mention this lot, al- 
though many other tracts are enumerated with great par- 
ticularity ; from this it is inferred that he had previously 
disposed of Lot No. 5. 

No. 6 — John Van Blarcom ; his northeidy line was about 
three hundred feet north of Willis street. It would about 
pass through the corner of Market and Union streets. 
John Van Blarcom received this property by deed from 
his father Guisbert Van Blarcom, who bought it from Cor- 
nells Van Houten, a son of one of the patentees. John de- 
vised his property to his sons Henry, Nicholas and Anthony. 
Henry and Nicholas released to Anthony by deed dated 
December 14, 1786.3 John Van Blarcom lived in a stone 
house at the southwest corner of Willis street and Vreeland 
avenue, afterwards occupied by Cornelius C. Vreeland, and 
now covered by Chitty's greenhouses. 

No. 7 — Abram Thomasse ; his northerly line was Broad- 
way. He was a grandson of Urian Thomassen, one of the 
patentees, from whom he acquired the property. His 

1 MS. Notes of Peter Colt, of abstract of titles of the Society for Est- 
ablishing Useful Manufactures, perhaps about 1794. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Ibid. 


brothers released to him ; he died intestate, leaving two 
daughters, Jannetje and Elizabeth ; the former married 
Halmagh Van Houten, and the latter John R. Van Houten. 1 
After the death of h'er husband, Jannetje and her oldest son 
Cornelius, released to Abraham Van Houten (a younger 
son of Jannetje), by deed dated July 27, 1773, a tract of 24 
acres out of this Lot, probably lying next west of No. 92 
Broadway, and running to the river at the end of Broadway. 
By deed July i, 1782, Cornelius H. Van Houten, as the old- 
est son and heir-at-law of Helmagh Van Houten and Yan- 
natie his wife, both then deceased, released to his brother 
Abraham a half interest in all the real estate whereof their 
parents had died seized. Abraham sold a quarter of an 
acre (2.26x2.26 chains, or 150 feet) out of the northeast cor- 
ner of his land to Abraham Godwin, who kept tavern there 
for some years — the plot of late years known as the "Bap- 
tist church block," including Lots 82, 84, 86, 88 and go 
Broadway, and 40 feet more taken for the opening of Wash- 
ington street about 1869, with a depth of 150 feet. This 
plot was sold to the S. U. M., November 5, 1792, by Jabes 
Johnson, administrator of Abraham Godwin, deceased, for 
£90 N. J. money, equivalent to about $200. It would fetch 
more now. Abraham Van Houten, Cornelius Van Houten 
and John R. Van Houten, and their respective wives, deeded 
to the S. U. M., July 3, 1792, a tract of 45.29 acres of this 
Lot. The tract extended from Huntoon's mills westerly to 
the river, and from a line 140 feet south of Van Houten 
street to the northern boundary of the whole Lot. At the 
western end it ran to and across Broadway, down to the riv- 
er west of Mulberry street. John R. Van Houten and wife, 
by deed July 3, 1792, conveyed to the S. U. M. a tract of 
12.57 acres out of this Lot, immediately east of the last 
mentioned parcel, and extending nearly to Summer street. 

When between seventy and eighty years of age. Van 
Houten married, in 1820, his second wife, Rachel, widow 
of Adrian J. Post, who at one time kept the "Peace and 
Plenty" tavern, at the northwest corner of Willis street 
and York avenue (East Eighteenth street). By will dated 
February 16, 1825, he devised his real estate to his son 
Abraham, then three months old. He died May 15, 1825. 
His son, Abraham, died in 1849, having devised his real 
estate to his mother, Rachel Van Houten. She died Feb. 22, 
1863, leaving her property (by will dated Oct. 20, 1857) to her 
children and grandchildren — Adrian and Elizabeth, children 
of John Post (b. 1803), George Post (b. 1805) and Caty (b. 
1813), wife of John R. Van Houten. In 1881 the Chancellor 
appointed John Reynolds and Thomas M. Moore Trustees 
of the estate, who proceeded to sell the land. Prior to this, 
no deed had been given for this land, outside of the family 
owning it, in two centuries. Van Houten owned twenty- 
seven acres at the east end of Lot No. 7, beginning about 
300 feet west of Carroll street. It was enclosed with a post 
and rail fence until 1881, and cultivated as a corn-field. 
Covered as it now is with elegant residences, that "farm" 
is worth several million dollars. Van Houten also owned a 
piece of this same lot, from about Washington street vvcst- 

1 MS. Notes of Peter Colt, ut supra. 



erly to within eighteen feet of Prospect street, which he 
laid out about 1810 in lots 30x100 -feet. In 1813 he sold 
lots on Van Houten street near Main at $200 each. In 
1795 he occupied a stone house on the south side of Broad- 
way nearly opposite Mulberry street. In 1818 he bought 
and thereafter occupied a stone house (the site now of a 
large brick house, next to the Broadway Reformed church), 
on the north side of Broadway, where he had a garden patch 
of seven acres. No record has been found of the partition 
between the daughters of Abram Thomasse (Van Riper). 
Elizabeth, the widow of John Van Houten, conveyed, Octo- 
ber 29, 1808, a part of this tract, 24.93 chains (1650 feet) 
fronting on Broadway, beginning "nearly opposite to the 
house of Catalyntje Van Winkle," or near Summer street, 
and running westerly to Huntoon's mills, or nearly opposite 
Bridge street, with a depth of 12.55 chains for a distance of 
612 feet, (9. 28 chains) west from the beginning, and of 6.50 
chains the rest of the way. The grantee was Jane Van 
Giesen (her daughter), wife of Richard Van Giesen. The 
same day she conveyed to Elizabeth (another daughter), 
widow of Adrian Van Houten, late of Totowa, a tract of 
13.70 (really somewhat more) acres immediately east of 
that just described, and extending to Abraham Van Hout- 
en's line. This tract was conveyed, June 15, 1835, by Albert 
Van Saun and Jane his wife (daughter of Mrs. Adrian Van 
Houten), and Aaron A. Van Houten (a son of Mrs. Ad. 
Van Houten) and Hannah his wife, to Freeman Dodd, of 
New York, who sold it off in small parcels and-city lots. 

Mrs. Ad. Van Houten also received from her mother a 
deed, Oct. 29, 1808, for a small tract of 4.96 acres, having 
a frontage of 5.90 chains (or 389 feet) on Broadway, a 
short distance east of Washington street. This plot she 
had laid out in lots, 30x100 feet, on April 4, 1814, by 
Thomas Wills, surveyor, and sold them at first at $160 per 
lot. A part of the tract received from her mother was sold 
by Mrs. Van Houten, March 5, 1825, for $480, to Albert 
Van Saun, namely, the wide lot on which the Messrs. Sam- 
uel Van Saun Muzzy, Edward H. Muzzy and Henry Muzzy, 
and their two sisters, great-grandchildren of Albert Van 
Saun, erected in 1892 the Muzzy building. No. 92 and No. 
94 Broadway. This plot has continued for two centuries in 
the uninterrupted possession of the descendants of Urian 
Thomasse, one of the patentees of Acquackanonk. 

Mrs. Van Giesen divided the first mentioned tract (grant- 
ed to her) between her two. daughters — Elizabeth, wife 
of Henry G. Doremus, and Mache, wife of Halmagh 
Van Houten (parents of John R., Richard A., Henry and 
Ralph Van Houten). Mrs. Doremus received the portion 
from Straight street nearly to Summer street, and Mrs. 
Halmagh Van Houten received that part between the Hun- 
toon mills and Straight street. These deeds were dated 
August 31, 1 8 10. 

No. 8 — Henderic Spier ; immediately north of Broadway, 
which formed its southern boundary. Hendrick Spier was 
a son of the patentee, and this lot had been awarded to him 
at the allotment of 1714, although in all probability it was 
no longer his when this copy was made. John Hendricksen 
Spier, the patentee, and Mary his wife, by deed dated Feb. 

15, 1708-9, conveyed to Hendrick Jansen Spier, their son, 
for £150 N. Y. money, a lot at Wesel containing 100 acres, 
and their interest in a twenty-eighth of the Acquackanonk 
patent. How the title passed from Hendrick Spier has not 
been ascertained, but in 1768 the lot belonged to Abraham 
Godwin, who mortgaged it. In 1772 he conveyed it to 
William Swan, of Paramus. The tract extended from 
Broadwa)' northerly to half way between Godwin and Tyler 
streets. In 1792 it belonged for the most part to Simeon 
Van Winkle, who was a son of Jacob Van Winkle. Sim- 
eon Van Winkle conveyed to the Society, April 30, 1793, 
a tract of 15 acres on Broadway just east of Bridge street, 
running along the old brook ; also a tract of 20 acres on 
Broadway, somewhat east of Carroll street. Jacob S. Van 
Winkle, a son of Simeon, owned a plot of twelve acres, front- 
ing on Broadway and running back nearly to Division street, 
and from Lake street westerly to the Dickerson property. 
This plot he mapped out in building lots, April i, 1794. 
Simeon conveyed to his son Edo, January I, 1801, Lot No. 
2, containing 9.56 acres, apparently west of Main street, 
near Bank street ; on July 9, 1802, he sold him his store prop- 
erty, on the northeast corner of Broadway and Main street, 
about 150 feet square, for $750, say $100 per city lot. On 
August 31, 1805, he conveyed to Cornelius S. Van Winkle and 
John S. Van Winkle, seven acres near Main and Bank streets; 
to Edo, four acres near Lake street ; and to Jacob S., 12 acres 
probably north of Division street ; and on March 5, 1805, ^^ 
Edo, 15 acres immediately west of East i8th street. Abra- 
ham Van Houten owned seven acres near the Erie Railway. 
Cornelius (Walling) Van Winkle owned several acres near 
Mulberry street, and Abraham Godwin still owned a plot of 
several acres about the Passaic Hotel. In a mortgage made 
by Godwin June 23, 1768, to John Leak, of New York, 
reference is made to a survey of the Lot, March 14, 1743-4. 
Was this survey made when Godwin bought the tract ? In 
a mortgage made by Jacob Van Winkle and Caty his wife, 
to Martin John Ryerson, June 23, 1787, on a part of this 
Lot, on Broadway, the tract mortgaged is said to have been 
conveyed to Van Winkle, April 26, 1787. 

No. 9 and No. 10 — Derrick (Richard) Van Houten. By 
deed dated April 22, 1696, Abraham Bockee conveyed to Pe- 
ter Powelse, "late of the town of Bergen," and presumably 
then of Acquackanonk, a half interest in the patent of Ac- 
quackanonk. 1 These two lots were doubtless allotted to 
Powelse in the new division. His son, Paulus Peterse, of 
Acquackanonk, yeoman, by deed of bargain and sale, dated 
June I, 1741, conveyed them to Derrick Van Houten, for 
the consideration of £150, proclamation money of New Jer- 
sey. The conveyance includes "all and singular the Erec- 
tions and Buildings houses Outhouses Barns Stables 
fences," etc., 2 from which it is to be inferred that the prop- 
erty had been built upon and occupied previous to this con- 
veyance. No. 9 extended from half way between Godwin 
and Tyler streets northerly to about half way between Ful- 
ton and Lawrence streets ; No. 10 extended still further 

1 E. J. Deeds, Book F, f. 230. 

2 Unrecorded deed, Nelson MSS. 



northerly to Lyon street. Dirck Van Houten was the son 
of Jacob Van Houten. His sister or his daughter Jannetje 
married Walling Van Winkle, which possibly accounts for 
the fact that the latter's son, Cornelis, owned most of these 
two Lots, about 300 acres, in 1792. By deed, May 18, 1793, 
Cornelis Van Vv'inkle conveyed to the S. U. M. a tract of 
100.49 acres in the western end of Lot No. 9, reserving for 
. himself, however, 30 acres out of the plot. By deed dated 
December I, 1809, Jerry C. Van Riper conveyed to the S. 
U. M. a tract of 10.46 acres north of Edo Van Winkle's 
house-lot ; this seems to have been a part of Lot No. 9. 

A tract of 14.30 acres, the eastern end of Lot No. 10, was 
conveyed by Derrick Ja. Van Houten to Jacob Van 
Winkle, by two deeds, March 16, 1772, and Feb. 21, 1774, 
and by him devised to his two sons, Simeon and Jacob, who 
equally divided by releases, dated July 9, 1786. Simeon 
conveyed his half to Jacob, May 24, 1788, and the latter 
conveyed, Feb. 24, 1794, to Martin Ryerson, John F. Post, 
Jr., and Simeon Van Winkle. They conveyed, to Rynier 
Blanchard by deed June 20, 1796, and Blanchard the same 
day conveyed to Simeon Van Winkle. By deed Jan. 29, 
1800, Simeon conveyed the property to Jacob I. Van Houten. 
Jacob Van Houten (son of Dirrick?) and Yanneke his wife 
conveyed to their son, Jacob Van Houten, jr., April 12, 
1784, the remainder of this Lot. Jacob conveyed a tract of 
about 30 acres to Isaac Vanderbeck (probably the same 
tract sold in 1802 by Van Blarcom to Godwin), and an acre 
and a half to John Toers. He held the rest of the Lot so 
late as July 12, 1792, when he mortgaged it to John F. Post. 
Cornelius (Walling) Van Winkle sold to the S. U. M. two 
parcels of Lot No. 10, by deed May 18, 1793, one of 102.29 
acres, and the other of 27.51 acres. The Society also 
bought of Jacob Van Houten, November 10, 1792, a tract of 
55.60 acres, out of Lot No. 10. Abraham Van Blarcom sold 
to Abraham Godwin, Aug. 18, 1802, 34 acres in the same 
Lot, extending the whole width of the Lot, from north to 
south, and from the tract sold by Van Houten on the east 
to the Passaic river on the west. Part of this Lot was de- 
vised by Cornelius (Walling) Van Winkle to his daughter 
Tiny (Christina), wife of Adrian Van Houten, of West 
street ; her son, Edward Van Houten, still owned part of it 
at the time of his death, within a few years, and his chil- 
dren remain in possession of a portion at this time. 

No. II and No. 12 — Adrian Post. He was a son of 
of Frans Post, who was a br jther of the patentee. The two 
lots extended from Lyon street northerly about to Seventh 
avenue, a distance of just half a mile — forty chains. The 
two lots were surveyed as one plot, in 1730, as appears from 
the following document :1 
May the 27th 1730 
Att the Request of Adirean Post I have Surveyed a peice of Land Ly- 
ing at Acquackenongh Begining at the North west Corner of Peter Pou- 
elsons Land by pasaick Revier by the Division fence where formerly 
stood a stake from thence along pasaick Revier North Eleven degrees 
east 7 Chains then North Eight Degrees west seven Chains then North 
seventeen Degrees west seven Chains then North thirty five Degrees 
west Nine Chains then North Nine Degrees East seven Chains then 
North forty three Degrees East Eight Chains to a stake standing by an 

1 In the possession of William Pennington. 

old tree then East ten Degrees south sixty Chains to asaxefrackl sapling 
marked on four sides then south Nineteen Degrees west thirty Nine 
Chains and thirty five Linlcs to a stake standing on the midle Rhode 
then west ten Degrees North forty Eight Chains to the first [place] 
where it begun. Containing acording to Survey one hund[red and] 
Eighty Acres English measure 

Surveyed per me 

Richard Edsall 

Upon the death of Adrian F. Post, these two lots were 
partitioned between his two sons — Frans (b. Feb. 26, 1718) 
and Peter (b. Sept. 6, 1722). The survey was made by Hes- 
sel Peterse, probably about 1770. He laid out the entire 
tract in three parcels: No. i, at the eastern end, 39.35 
chains from north to south, and 21.40 chains from east to 
west, was allotted to Frans Post; No. 2, extending along tlie 
southern line of the entire tract, or of Lot No. 11, from the 
west line of No. i to the river, having a depth from north 
to south of 10.60 chains for a distance of 16.20 chains, and 
of 13.90 thence to the river ; this was also allotted to Frans 
Post ; No. 3 was allotted to Peter Post. It had most of the 
river front. Its northern line was. on a course E. 10 deg. S. 
Beginning in the northwestern corner of Lot No. i, allotted 
to I'rans Post, it ran along his western line S. 21 deg. W. 
27.50 ch.; W. 10 deg. N., 16.20 ch.; S. lof deg. W., 2.30; 
W^. 10 deg. N., 12.90 ch. to the river ; thence down stream 
to the northern boundary of the whole tract, and along the 
same E. 10 deg. S. to the beginning.3 

No. 13 — Cornelis Gerritse (Cornelius Garrison) ; part of 
the Riverside tract. This lot was probably apportioned in 
1714 to the father of Cornelis. The chain of title is some- 
what similar to that of Lots 13, 14 and 15 East. Cornelis 
Gerritse devised his real estate to his children, and the will 
being lost they agreed to divide the real estate as therein 
directed, and executed mutual releases accordingly. Hen- 
ry Gerritse, Esq., of Wesel (who had married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Cornelis Gerritse), his son, John H. Ger- 
ritse, and Simeon Van Winkle (who had married Claesje, 
another daughter of Cornelis), being jointly possessed of 
this Lot and other lands, by virtue of the last will and testa- 
ment of Henry Gerritse, deceased, as well as by a deed of 
release from Gerrit Stimas, July 23, 1751 : Henry Gerritse, 
Esq., quit-claimed this Lot to Simeon John Van Winkle 
and John H. Gerritse, by deed Feb. 12, 1795. Simeon 
John Van Winkle (known as "Simeon of the Boght," to 
distinguish him from Simeon Jacob Van Winkle, of Broad- 
way and Lot No. 8 West), was the father of John S. Van 
Winkle ; he in turn was the father of Cornelius Van Winkle 
(who was named after his great-grandfather), who sold to 
the Riverside Land Improvement Company in 1867. 

An attempt has been made to indicate, by notes on the 
margin of the map, the boundary lines between the several 
farms. In many cases these are merely approximations ; in 
a general way they are correct. When we consider that 
John Verkerk lacked the advantages of modern scientific 
instruments; that he was plotting more than 4,000 acres 
into twenty-eight farms of equal size, in a new country, 

1 A sassafras sapling. 

2 The diuars lijn^ or York avenue (East Eighteenth street). 

3 These data are taken from the original survey, in the possession of 
William Pennington. 



through which he had to cut his way as through a wilder- 
ness; over hills, through valleys and swamps, it is a marvel- 
ous tribute to his accuracy to find that the most recent 

measurements differ very little from the distances and 
courses indicated on this ancient map of Paterson. 

An Interesting Old Deed. 

In 1712 the surviving patentees of Acquackanonk released to each 
other the farms then actually in their possession. But one of these 
deeds is on record — that to Cornelius Machielsen (Vreeland). The only 
one of the original deeds known to exist was found about twenty years 
ago by Judge Simmons, of Passaic, in overhauling the roof of the old 
Van Wagoner house near the draw-bridge at Passaic. It was tucked 
carefully away, as if for concealment, under the ridge pole of the house, 
and looks as if it had been there for a century or more. It is hand- 
somely engrossed on a sheet of parchment twenty-seven-and-a-half 
inches wide and twenty-three inches from top to bottom. The two sur- 
veys annexed are on sheets of parchment each twelve and a half by ten 
inches; the diagrams are as clear and distinct as when made. The deed 
and the surveys have been rotted away at the middle fold , so that many 
words are missing. In the following copy the missing words are conjec- 
turally supplied in brackets : 

This Indenture made the Twelfth Day of March in the Twelfth Year 
of the Reign of Our Soveraign Lady Anne by the Grace of God of Great 
Brittain France and Ireland Queen Defender of the Faith &c Annoq. 
Domini One thousand Seven hundred and Twelve Between Johannes 
Machielson of Comunapong in the County of Bergen in the Province of 
New Jersey Yeoman, Cornelius Machielson of Comunapong aforesaid 
Yeoman, John Hendrick Spier of Achquechenoungh in the County of 
Essex in the Province aforesaid Yeoman, and Cornelius Lubbers 
of Communapong aforesaid. Yeoman, of the One Part And Sy- 
mon Jacobson van Winkel of Achquechenoung aforesaid Yeoman 
of the other part Witnesseth Whereas By Indenture of Bar- 
gain and Sale bearing Date the Sixteenth Day of March Anno 
Domini One thousand six hundred and Eighty four and in the Sev- 
en and thirtieth Year of the Reign of the late King Charles the Second 
over England &c. made or mentioned to be made Between the Lords 
Proprietors of the Province of East New Jersey of the One Part, and 
Hans Diederick, Garret Garretson, Walling Jacobs, Elias Machielson, 
Hartman Machielson, Johannes Machielson, Cornelius Machielson,Adrian 
Post, Urian Thomason, Cornelius Roelofson, Symon Jacobs, John Hen- 
drick Spier, Cornelius Lubbers, and Abraham Bouquee of the other part. 
They the said Lords Proprietors for the Considerations therein men- 
tioned, Did Alien Grant Bargain and Sell unto the said Hans Diedericks, 
Garret Garretson, Walling Jacobs, Elias Machielson, Hartman Machiel- 
son, Johannes Machielson, Cornelius Machielson, Adrian Post, Urian 
Tomassen, Cornelius Roelofson, Symon Jacobs, John Hendrick Spier, 
Cornelius Lubbers, and Abraham Bouquee, and to their heirs and As- 
signs, A certain Tract of Land Scituate laying and being upon Pisaick 
River in the County of Essex and called and known by the Name of 
Achquechenung, Beginning at the Northermost bounds of the Town of 
Newark and so running from the lowermost part to the uppermost part 
thereof as far as the Steep Rocks or Mountains, and from the said low- 
ermost part along the Pisaick River to the great Falls thereof and so 
along the Steep Rocks and Mountains to the uppermost Part of Newark 
bounds aforesaid, as it was more plainly demonstrated by a Chart or 
Draught thereof made by the then late Surveyor General, Together 
with all the Rivers Ponds Creeks Isles Islands (:Hartmans Island 
which particularly belonged to Hartman Machielson only Excepted:) and 
also all Inletts Bays Swamps Marshes Meadows Pastures ffields 
ffences Woods Underwoods ffisheries Havvkings Huntings ffowlings 
and all other Appurtenances whatsoever thereunto belonging and apper- 
taining (:half part of the gold and silver mines and the Royalty of the 
Lords Proprietors also Excepted:) To Hold the said Tract of Land and 
premisses and every part and parcel of the same to Them the said Hans 
Diederick, Garret Garretson, Walling Jacobs, Elias Machielson, Hart- 
man Machielson, Johannes Machielson, Cornelius Machielson, Adrian 

Post, Urian Thomason, ComeUus Roelofson, Symon Jacobs, John Hen- 
drick Spier, CorneUus Lubbers, and Abraham Bouquee, their Heirs and 
Assigns, And to the uses of Them their heirs and Assigns for ever, To 
be holden in free and common Soccage of them the Lords Prop.rietors their 
heirs and Assigns as of the Seignory of East Greenwich Yielding and pay- 
ing therefore Yearly unto the said Lords Proprietors their Heirs or Assigns 
the Cheife or Quit rent of fourteen Pounds of Sterling money or the Value 
thereof Yearly for the said Tract of Land upon every five and tvrentieth 
Day of March for ever hereafter in liew and stead of the Half Penny per 
Acre mentioned in the Concessions and in lieu and stead of all other 
Services and Demands whatsoever. As in and by the aforesaid recited 
Indenture, under the respective hands of Gauen Laurie the then Deputy 
Governour of the said Province of East Jersey, Thomas Codrington, 
William Sandford, Isaac Kingsland, Benjamin Price, Henry Lyon, the 
then major part of his Council, and James Emott Deputy Secretary of 
the said Province, and under the the Common Seal of the [Province of 
East New Jersey and] are Entered upon the Records of the said Prov- 
ince of East New Jersey the Day of the Date thereof in Liber A page 
(164) the relation being thereunto respectively had may more fully and at 
large appear And Whereas [the said Johannes Machielson, Cor]neUus 
Machielson, John Hendrick Spier, Cornelius Lubbers, and Symon Ja- 
cobson van Winkel, parties to these Presents are the same Johannes 
Machielson, Cornelius Machielson, John Hendrick Spier, Cor[nelius 
Lubbers and Symon Jacobson van Winkel named] in the before recited 
Indenture of Bargain and Sale and are now the only five surviving par- 
ties to whom the above mentioned Tract of Land and premisses was 
Granted and Conveyed by the before [mentioned Indenture (all the other 
of] said Grantees therein named being since deceased :) by means 
whereof They the said Johannes Machielson, Cornelius Machielson, 
John Hendrick Spier, Cornelius Lubbers and Symon Jacobson van Win- 
kel are [and have become seized] of or Intituled unto all and singular 
the before mentioned Tract of Land and Premises Granted and Con- 
veyed by the before Recited Indenture as aforesaid as Joj-nt Tenants by 
Survivorship And Where[-as the said Johannes] Machielson Cornelius 
Machielson John Hendrick Spier Cornelius Lubbers and Symon Jacob- 
son van Winkel befng so Seized as aforesaid have severally and res- 
pectively taken upon them to Cultivate and Improve [several portions 
of] the before mentioned Tract of land and premisses which They have 
allotted Lo each other separately and respectively by mutual Agreement 
amongst themselves, and particularly the said Symon Jacobson [van 
Winkel] has been at great Charges and Expences in Cultivating and Im- 
proving two certain pieces or parcels of Land hereinafter mentioned and 
being the Letts No. 4. and 13. Part of the aforesaid Tract of Land and 
premises. It hath [been ag]reed by and between the said parties to these 
Presents That the same pieces or parcels of Land so Cultivated and Im- 
proved by him the said Symon Jacobson van Winkel should be layd out 
Surveyed and divided for him the said [Symon Jacobson] van Winkel his 
heirs and Assigns for ever separately as a Part of His Dividend and 
Share of the aforesaid Tract of Land and Premisses by Vertue of the 
afore recited Grant from the said Lords Proprietors [and the said] pieces 
or parcels of Land have accordingly been laid out Survej'ed and Divided 
for him the said Symon Jacobson van Winkel by William Bond Surveyor 
as foUoweth vizt. All that Tract piece or parcel of Land Scittuate, lay- 
ing and [Being in the town]ship of Achquechenung in the County of Es- 
sex in the Eastern Division of the Province of New Jersey Marked with 
Number Four, Beginning on the Westside of Pissaick River and runs up 
into the Woods North [Ninety-fivel degrees] West Ninety three chains 

1 Doubtless a clerical error for iighty-five degrees, which is the 
course indicated on the map accompanying the survey, although in the 
return it is given as ninety-Jive degrees. 



Sixty four links And is in the breadth Parallell from the ffront to the Rear 
Nine chains sixty seven Links : And Contains One hundred Acres of Land 
or thereabouts, Bounded Southerly by the Lott of [Aalt Jurians Nor]th- 
erly by John Spieres Lott, Easterly by the River Passaick and Westerly 
by Land not yet layd out: As Also all that Tract, piece or parcel of Land 
Scituate, laying and being in the Township County and Province [afore- 
said Marked with] Number Thirteen Beginning on and running from the 
Westside of Pissaick River up into the Woods North Forty seven de- 
grees West Ninety seven chains Forty six Links and is in breadth Paral- 
lell, Ten chains [forty six Links and contains one] hundred Acres of Land 
or thereabouts. Bounded Southwesterly by the Lott of John Hendrick 
Spier, South easterly by Pissaick River, NorthEasterly by the Lott of the 
Widow Post and Northwesterly by Lands [not yet surveyed as by a re]- 
turn of said Survey and Draught or Scheme thereof under the hand of 
the said William Bond hereunto annexed may more fully appear. Now 
THIS Indenture Witnesseth That for the [reasons aforesaid and] in 
pursuance of the aforesaid Agreement As also for and in Consideration of 
the Summ of ffive shillings apiece Current Money of New Jersey to them 
the said Johannes Machielson, Cornelius Machielson [John Hendrick 
Spier and] Cornelius Lubbers respectively in hand paid by the said Sy- 
mon Jacobson van Winkel at and before the Ensealing and Delivery of 
these presents the Receipt whereof they Do hereby respectively ack- 
no[wledge and themselves to be] therewith fully satisfyed and of every 
part and parcel thereof Do acquitt release and discharge the said Symon 
Jacobson van Winkel his heirs Executors Administrators and Assigns by 
these Presents [and for certain other] Considerations them the said 
Johannes Machielson Cornelius Machielson John Hendrick Spier and 
Cornelius Lubbers hereunto especially moving They the said Johannes 
Machielson Cornelius Machielson [John Hendrick Spier and Corn]elius 
Lubbers Have Remised released ratifyed and confirmed And by these 
Presents Do for them and their respective Heirs remise release ratify and 
for ever quit-claim unto the said Symon Jacobs[on van Winkel now in his 
peace]able possession and Seizin being and to l;is heirs and Assigns for 
ever All those the aforesaid two several pieces or parcels of Land or 
Lotts (No. 4. and 13.) so separately layd out Surveyed divided and al- 
lotted [unto the said Symon Jacobson van] Winkel as aforesaid accord- 
ing to the Boundaries thereof in the Said Sur\'ey hereunto annexed men- 
tioned Containing [in the] whole about Two hundred Acres of Land 
English Measure be the same more or less To[gether with all the] Riv- 
ers Ponds Pooles Creeks Inletts Bays Swamps Marshes Meadows Pastures 
ffieldsffences ffishings Hawkings [Huntings ffowlings] and all other Priv- 
iledges and Appurtenances whatsoever unto the same or to any [part or 
parcel thereof belonging or in any wise] appertaining And all the Estate 
Right Title Interest Use Possession Reversion Remainder Claim and 
[Demand whatso]ever which they the said Johannes Machielson Cornel- 
ius Machielson John Hendrick Spier [and Cornelius Lubbers or any] of 
them [now have] or which hereafter They or their Heirs or any of them 
can or may claime to [have in or to either of] the said two pieces or par- 
cels of Land hereby released and confirmed as aforesaid or any part or 
parcel thereof with the Appurtenances so that neitlier they the said 
Johannes Machielson Cornelius Machielson John Hendrick Spier and 
Cornelius Lubbers or any of them their or any of their [heirs or assigns 
shall or may have any] Interest Use Possession Reversion Remainder 
Claim or Demand to of or in the said Premisses or any part or parcel 
thereof at any time hereafter can or may claim challenge or require But 
of and from [all manner of] Right Estate Use Interest and Demand 
thereunto or unto any part thereof to be had they the said Johannes 
Machielson Cornelius Machielson John Hendrick Spier and Cornelius 
Lubbers and their heirs be altogether Barred and for ever Excluded by 
these presents. To Have and to Hold the aforesaid tvi'o several 
pieces or parcels of Land or Lotts No. 4; and 13: so laid out Sui-veyed 
and divided in Severalty as aforesaid and every part and parcel thereof 
with all and singular the Appurtenances unto him the said Symon Ja- 
cobson van Winkel his heirs and Assigns for ever To the only proper use 
and behoof of him the said Symon Jacobson van Winkel his heirs and 
Assigns for ever. And the said Johannes Machielson Cornelius 
Machielson John Hendrick Spier and Cornelius Lubbers for themselves 
severally and respectively and for their several and respective heirs Ex- 
ecutors and Administrators Do hereby Covenant promise and grant to 
and with the said Symon Jacobson van Winkel his heirs Executors Ad- 
ministrators and Assigns and to and with every of them by Uiese Pres- 
ents in the manner and form following That is to say That he the 

said Symon Jacobson van Winkel his heirs and Assigns and ev- 
ery of them shall and lawfully may from time to time and at all 
and every time and times hereafter for ever freely quietly and peace- 
ably have hold occupy possess and enjoy the said two several pieces 
or parcels of Land and premisses above mentioned hereby released 
and allotted or mentioned or intended to be hereby released and 
allotted as aforesaid and eveiy part and parcel thereof with the Ap- 
purtenances without the lawful Lett Suite Trouble Vexation Eviction 
Disturbance or other Hinderance or molestation whatsoever of them 
the said Johannes Machielson Cornelius Machielson John Hendrick 
Spier and Cornelius Lubbers their heirs Executors Administrators or 
Assigns or any of them or of any other person or persons whatsoever 
any thing having or lawfully claiming of in or out of the said premisses 
or any part or parcel thereof by from or under them or any of them 
And that tliey the said Johannes Machielson Cornelius Machielson John 
Hendrick Spier and Cornelius Lubbers and every of them their and ev- 
ery of their heirs and Assigns and all and every other person or persons 
whatsoever any thing having or lawfully claiming in the said premises 
hereby Released and Allotted as aforesaid or any part or parcel thereof 
by from or under them the said Johannes Machielson Cornelius Machiel- 
son John Hendrick Spier and Cornehus Lubbers shall and will from time 
to time and at all times hereafter at the reasonable request Costs and 
Charges in the Law of the said Symon Jacobson van Winkel his heirs 
and Assigns well and truly make [do enter into] acknowledge Execute and 
suffer or to cause to be made done [entered into] acknowledged executed 
and suffered all and every such further and other reasonable Act and 
Acts, Device and Devices, Conveyances and Assurances in the Law 
whatsoever for the further better more perfect Assurance Surety and 
Sure Making releasing conveying and assuring the said two several 
pieces and parcels of Land and premisses above mentioned hereby re- 
leased and allotted or mentioned or intended to be hereby released and 
allotted with the appurtenances unto the said Symon Jacobson van 
Winkel his heirs and Assigns for ever as by him the said Symon Jacob- 
son van Winkel his heirs and Assigns or his or their Council learned in 
the Law shall be reasonably devised advised or required. In Witness 
Whereof the Parties above named first to these present Indentures have 
hereunto Interchangeably Set their hands and Seales the Day and Year 
first above written. 

This is the mark of 
Johannes Machielson (L. S.) X 

John Hendrick Spier (L. S.) 
Cornelius Machielson (L. S.) 

This is the mark of 
[Endorsed :] Cornelius Lubbers (L. S.) 

Signed Sealed and Delivered 
in the presence of 
This is the true Mark of 

Klaes Hartmanse Vrelant. 

John Conrad Codwise. 

{Annejced to the Deed.) 
The Return and B[oundaries of a certain] Tract of Land Surveyed and 
Layd out for Symon Jacobson [van Winkel] Scituate laying and being in 
the Township of Achquechenung in the County of Essex [and] Eastern 
Division of the Province of New Jersey — vizt : 

No. 4. Beginning on the [west] side of Passaick River and Running 
up into the Woods North ninety five degreesl West ninety three chains 
Sixty four links and is in Breadth parallell from the ffront to the [Rear] 
nine chains sixty seven Links and Contains one hundred Acres of Land 
English Measure Bounded Southerly by the Lott of Aalt Jurians North- 
erly by John Hendrick Spier and Easterly by the River Pisaick and 
Westerly by Land not yet layd out.S 

Surveyed October 27th, 1709. 

By Wm. Bond Surveyor. 

{Annixed to the Deed.) 
The Return and B[oundaries of a certain tract] of Land Surveyed and 
Layd out for Symon Jacobson van Wink[el scitua]te laying and being 

1 lb. 

2 Apparently one of the Lots at Wesel. 



in the Township of Achquechenung in the County of Essex in the 
Eastern Division of the Province of New Jersey — vizt. 

No. 13. Beginning on the Westside of Pisaick River and Running up 
into the Woods North forty seven degrees West ninety seven chains 
forty Six Links And is in Breadth Parallell ten Chains forty six Links 
and contains One hundred Acres of Land Bounded Southwesterly by 
John Heudrick Spiers Lott South Easterly by Pissaick River North East- 

erly by the Lott of the Widow Post and North Westerly by Lands not 
yet Surveyed.l 

Laid out October 27th, 1709 

By Wm. Bond2 Surveyor. 

1 Apparently one of the first Hundred Acre Lots. 

2 Surveyor General of New York for some years. 

Receipts for the Quit-Rents. 

In the Patent for Acquackanonk it was stipulated that a quit-rent of 
£n should be paid annually by the patentees. The following re- 
ceipts (from the originals in the possession of Judge Simmons) are of in- 
terest as showing the changes in ownership from time to time : 

Achqueckenunck 10 October 1707. 

Received then of Hermanns Gerritse, Thomas Juriaanse, Hessel 
Peterse, John Spier, Comelis Lubberse, John Sip, Jacob Vreeland, 
Hendrick Gerritse, Adriaan Post, Peter Pauelse, Christopher Steenmets 
Aart Juriaanse, Johannes Marinus, Frans Post, John Juriaanse, Michiel 
Vreeland, Jacob Van Winckel, Simon van Winckel, Dirk Vreeland, 
Sanders Egberts, Gerard Post, Abraham van Giesen, Abraham Bockee, 
Claas Vreeland, & Cornells de Remus, owners of the Achqueckenunck 
Pattent, & living upon the land therein mentioned, the sum of 
Seventeen pounds, ten Shillings New York money in full for a years quit 
rent for the sd Pattent, w'ch is (as by s'd pattent may appear) fourteen 
pounds Sterling a year, w'ch s'd years quit rent was due the 25th of 
IMarch last past to w'ch time all is cleard for the above mentioned pat- 
tent. I say reed for the use of the Proprietors of the Eastern division 
of New Jersey by me 

Peter Sonmans Rec'r. Gen'U. & Agent. 

£t7 : 10 : — 

Achqueckenunck ^mo September 1709 
Received then of Hermanns Gerritse, Thomas Juriaanse, Hessel 
Peterse, John Spier, Cornelis Lubberse, John Sip, Jacob Vreeland, 
Hendrick Gerritse, Adriaan Post, Peter Pauelse, Christopher Steenmets, 
Aart Juriaanse, Johannes Marinus, Frans Post, John Juriaanse, Michiel 
Vreeland, Jacob van Winkel, Simon van Winckel, Dirk Vreeland, 
Sanders Egberts, Gerard Post, Abraham Van Giesen, Abraham Bockee, 
Claas Vreeland & Cornelis de Remus owners & Pattentees of the 
Achqueckenunck pattent & living upon the land therein mentioned the 
sum of Thirty five pounds New York money being in fuU for two years 
quit rent for the sd Pattent, w'ch is (as by the sd Pattent appears) four- 
teen pounds sterling (allowance being made for 25 "^ Cto for Sterling 
money) a year, w'ch sd two years rent was due the 25th of March last 
past, to w'ch time all is cleard & paid for the above mentioned pattent. 
I Say reed for the use of the Proprietors of the Eastern Division of New 
Jersey by me 

Peter Sonmans Rec'r. Gen'll. & Agent. 
^£35 : — : — 

Achquequenunck 23 June 1711. 
Received then of Hermanns Gerritse, Thomas Juriaanse, Hessel Pe- 
terse, John Spier, Hendrick Spier, Cornelis Lubbertse, John Sip, Jacob 
Vreeland, Hendrick Gerritse, Adriaan Post, Peter Pauelse, Christopher 
Steenmets, theHeirsof Aart Juriaanse, Johannes Vreeland, Francis Post, 
John Juriaanse, Michiel Vreeland, Jacob van Winkel, Simon van Winkel, 
Dirk Vreeland, Sanders Egberts, Roelof Cornelisse, Gerard Post, Abra- 
ham van Giesen, John Broadberry, Claas Vreeland, & Cornelis de Remus 
owners & Pattentees of the Achquequenunck Pattent & living upon the 
land mentioned therein the Sum of thirty five pounds New York money, 
being in full for two years quit rent for the sd pattent w'ch is (as by the 
sd Pattent appears) fourteen pounds Sterling (allowance being made of 
the 23 i^Cto for Sterling money) a year : w'ch sd two years rent was due 
the 25th of March last past, to wch time all is cleared & paid for the 

above named pattent. I say reed for the use of the Proprietors of the- 
Eastern division of New Jersey by me 

Peter Sonmans Rec'r. Gen'll & Agent. 

Achquequenunck 25 Aprill 17x2. 
Received then of Hermanns Gerritze, Thomas Juriaanse, Hessel Pe- 
ersze, John Spier, Hendrick Spier, Cornelius Lubbertze, John Sip, Jacob 
Vreeland, Hendrick Gerriue, Adriaan Post, Peter Pauelse, Christopher 
Steenmets, the Heirs of Aart Juriaanse, Johannes Vreeland , Francis Post,. 
Harmen Juriaanse, Michiel Vreeland , Jacob van Winkel, Simon van Win- 
kel, Dirk Vreeland, Sanders Egberts, Roelof Cornehsze, Gerard Post, 
Abraham Van Giesen, John Broadberry, Claas Vreeland & Cornelius de 
Remus owners & Pattentees of the Achquequenunck Pattent, & living 
upon he land mentioned therein the Sum of Seventeen pounds ten Shill- 
ings New York money being in full for a years quit rent for the sd pat- 
tent wch is (as by the sd Pattent appears) fourteen pounds Sterling (al- 
lowance being made of 25 ^ Cto for Sterling money) a year, wch sd years 
rent was due the 2sfh of March last past, to wch lime aU is cleard & pd 
for the above named pattent. I Say reed for the use of the Proprs of the. 
Eastern division of New Jersey by me 

Peter Sonmans Recr. Gen'll & Agent. 


NB tho its mentioned yt the Heirs 
of Aart Juriaanse have pd because a 
generall receit ought to be given, 
the sd Heirs have not pd for this nor 
five years before. 

Achquequenunck 17 April 1713 — 
Received then of Hermanus Gerritze, Thomas Juriaanse, Hessel Peter- 
ze, John Spier, Hendrick Spier, Cornelis Lubberze, John Sip, Jacob 
Vreelant, Hendrick Gerritze, Adriaan Post, Peter Pauelse, Christopher 
Steenmets, the Hehs of Aart Juriaanze, Johannes Vreeland, Francis 
Post, Harmen Juriaanze, Michiel Vreelandt, Jacob van Winkel, Simon 
van Winkel, Dirk Vreelandt, Sanders Egberts, Roelof Coruelisze, Gerard 
Post, John Broadbury, Claas Vreeland & CorneUs Doremus, owners & 
Pattentees of the Achquequenunck pattent, & living upon the land men- 
tioned therein the Sum of Seventeen pounds ten shillings New York 
money being in full for a years quit rent of the sd Pattent, being (as by 
the sd pattent appears) fourteen pounds Sterling (the Sterling money 
being computed at the rate of 25 ^Cto.) a year, wch sd years rent was due 
the 25th of March last past, to wch time all is cleard & pd for the sd Pat- - 
tent. I Say reed for the use of the Proprietors of the Eastern Divison 
of New Jersey by me 

Peter Sonmans Rec'r Gen'll & Agent. 
^17; 10:^ 

NB tho its mentioned yt the heirs 

of Aart Juriaanse have pd, because a 

generall release ought to be given, 

the sd heirs have not pd for this nor 

sLk years before. 

Achquequenunck 20th May 1719 — 
Received then of Hermanus Gerritze Thomas Juriaanse Hessel Peter- 
se, John Spier Roelof Jacobus, Adrian Sip, Jacob Vreelandt, Hendrick 



Gerritze, Adrian Post, Peter Pauelse, Christopher Steenmets, Jurria Al- 
tese, Derick Vreelandt, ffrancis Post, Harman Juriaanse, Michiel Vree- 
landt Simon Van Winkel Derick Vreelandt Roelof Cornelisze, Gerrard 
Post, Claas Vreeland Hendrik Doremus, Hendrick Spier Owners & 
Patentees of Achquequenunk & liveing upon the Land mentioned in that 
patent Ninty Seven pounds ten shillings money of New York which when 
seven pounds ten shillings Due by Sanders Egbert & John Broadberry is 
paid will be in full for Six Years Quitrents due from the 25th day of 
March 1713 to the 25 of March last past which said Quitrents being to be 
paid at the rate of fourteen pounds Sterling a year is computed at the 
rate of 25!? Ct into New York money. 

Memd. That Jurria Altese has 
paid the arrears above mentioned 
due by the Heirs of Aart Jurriaanse. 
Mr. Broadberry has pd 3 :i5 : — 

Commissioners by Act of Assembly : John Hamilton 

for raiseing of Money for running : Geo. Willocks 

ye Lines of Division between New : John Harrison 

York & New Jersey &c. 

East New Jersey : Acquackenunk : September 7th : 1726. 

Received from Dirck Vrelandl, Arry Sip, Elias vrelandt, Dirck hart- 
man Vrelandt, Jacobus van Winkle, Rolefe Jacobus, Hendrick Speer, 
Michael vreland, Rolefe Comelusse van houtten, harmanus Gerrietse, 
Thomas & harman Jurryson Jerry Altse , Francis Post Hendrick Ger- 
lietse, Peter Paulusse, Hendrick DeRemus Gerrit Post, Jacob Speer & 

hessel Peterson one Hundred and Twenty four Pounds Eight shillings 
&c. money at : 8 pr oz : in full for Seaven years quit Rent for the several 
Persons above named which be Came Due the 25 of march Last Past I 
say Received by me for the Use of the Proprietors of Eastern Devission 
of New Jersey &c. 

Richard Ashfield Rec Genl. 
£z2^ : 8 : 3- 

East New Jersey Acquackenunk May 17th 1727 — 
Received from Messrs : Harmanus Gerrietse Michael Vreland Rolef 
Comeluson van Houten Jacob Vrelandt Harman Jurrison Aderaien 
Post for his father frans Post Hendrick DuRemus Arry Sip Dirck Vre- 
landt Jacob Speer Class Vreland Christofell Stymets EUias Vrelandt 
Gerrit Post Peter Paulusse Dirck hartmans Vrelandt Jacob marrenus 
Abraham & Simon van Wenkle and Hendrick Speer the Sume of fifteen 
pounds four shillings it being in full for their several Shares in the Pat- 
tent of Acquackenunk which became due the twenty fifth day of merch 
Last past all which perticular Shares being Cleared to that day I Say Re- 
ceived in behalfe of genaral Proprietors of East Jersey by me 

Richard Ashfield Rec'r Gen'll. 
£ 15—4— 

By the terms of the patent, these quit-rents are still due. It is prob- 
able that none were paid later than 1745. The Proprietors of East New 
Jei sey are not likely to attempt their collection at this late day. 

A Survey and Return, 1713. 
The oldest survey and return by Verkerk in this region is the follow- 
ing,! given in his own Dutch, which is not strictly grammatical : 

Uyt Geleyt en Gemeeten een Loet Lant Voor Hessel Pitersen :no. 12: 
en begint an dekiel an de suj-t sey Van Vrans poest by een berke stratiel 
an vier seyyen Gemerckt en loept van daer West seisten Grades suyye- 
lyck Vyfennegentig kettens en Van daer noerden negen Graden oestel- 
eyck drie kettens en twintig schalmen en van daer noerden ses en Vertig 
Graden Westeleyck 54 kettens en van daer suyyen 44 Graden Westeleyck 
9 kettens en 80 schalmen en Van daer suyyen 46 Graden oesteleyck 60 
kettens en Van daer suyyen 9 Graden Westeleyck 8 kettens en Van daer 
oest 7 Graden noerdeleyck 97)^ ketten en Van daer tot de plaes daer het 
eerst begonnen is en stuyt met de suyt sey thuegen dierk Vrelant en loet 
en met de noerdt bey thuegen Vrans poesten loet ost by de kiel West by 
Lont dat nek niet Gemeten is En is Groet 200 ackers 
Anno 1713 Gemeten by my 

Jan Verkercke 

Laid out and surveyed a lot of land for Hessel Pieterse : No: 12 : and 
begins at the river on the south side of Frans Post at a birch sapling 
marked on four sides and runs from thence West si.xteen degrees south- 
erly ninety-five chains and from thence north nine Degrees easterly 
three chains and twenty links and from thence north forty-si.x Degrees 
Westerly 54 chains and from thence south 44 Degrees Westerly 9 chains 
and 80 links and from thence south 46 Degrees easterly 60 chains and 
from thence south 9 Degrees Westerly 8 chains and from thence east 7 
Degrees northerly g/^rf chains and from thence to the place where it 
first began and bounded on the south by line of Dirck Vreeland's lot and 
on the north by line of Frans Post's lot east by the river West by lands 
not yet surveyed and is 200 large acres. 

Anno 1713 Surveyed by me 

Jan Verkercke 

1 Simmons MSS. 




The First Families of Paterson. 

■When our children turn the page, 
To ask what triumphs mark'd our age — 
What we achieved to challenge praise. 
Through the long line of future days — 

This let them read, and hence instruction draw: 
"Here were the many bless'd. 
Here found the virtues rest. 

Faith link'd with Love, and Liberty with Law; 
Here industry to comfort led ; 
Her book of hght here learning spread ; 
Here the warm heart of youth 
Was woo'd to temperance and to truth ; 
Here hoary age was found. 
By wisdom and by reverence crown'd.l 

IT is fitting that we pause for a time to ask who were the 
men that first dared to plant their rude hamlets in this 
■wilderness? Whence came they? !.What where they ? Thus 
can we best comprehend the course of the modest settlement 
as it developed into the prosperous and wealthy agricultural 
community which occupied the whole of the patent, and had 
built up a flotirishing commerce with distant neighborhoods, 
ere its first centennial had arrived. The mental traits of 
those earliest pioneers in this region strongly leaven the 
character of the population of Paterson and its vicinity to- 
day, and thousands who have gone out from old Acquacka- 
nonk to distant States have carried with them characteris- 
tics inherited from the original fourteen patentees, which 
have influenced in no small degree coininunities where the 
sonorous old Indian name was never heard. Who where 
the patentees ? 2 

It may be noted that of all the purchasers of Acquacka- 
nonk only three. Post, Spier and Bookey, had proper sur- 
names. At this period patronymics were almost unknown 
among the Dutch. Children were called by their father's 
Christian name, adding se or sen to indicate tjie fact. This 
custom, while it had its advantages in tracing family genealo- 
gies, is nevertheless often very puzzling to the historian, as it 
is obvious there might be a dozen men named Michiel, each 
of whose sons would be called Michielsen. 

Among the purchasers of Acquackanonk named in the 
Indian deed, but not among the patentees from the Lords 
Proprietors, was 

1 Charles Sprague. 

2 To those familiar with the admirable and very complete Genealogies 
given in the History of Hudson County, New Jersey, by Charles H. 
Winfield, published in New York in 1874, it is but just to the writer of the 
present work to state that the following genealogical data of the Acquack- 
anonk patentees were compiled , for the most part in December (Decem- 
ber 5-30), 1873, and were then written out and laid aside for future use. 
jNIr. Winfield's work was published some months later, or the writer 
would have been saved a great deal of labor by availing himself of the 
painstaking industry of that gentleman. Mr. Winfield's book ought to 
be owned by every member of the Vreeland, Van Wagoner and Van 
Winkle families in Passaic county. 

Hendrick George. 

Although he did not settle in Acquackanonk, it was evi- 
dently his intention to do so,^and a brief notice of him will 
not be out of place. He wasjhe ancestor of the very num- 
erous Brinckerhoff family in this part of the country. Ac- 
cording to that very ^excellent authority, the late James 
Riker, Jr. :1 

This respectable and extensive family is of Flemish extraction , and 
was anciently located in the city'of Ghent, in the Netherlands, where its 
members are mentioned as free born citizens or patricians of that city, 
and among whom Andries Brinckerhoff, senator and syndic in 1307, is 
particularly noticed in the annals of those times. From Ghent the fam- 
ily extended itself in the sixteenth century to Holland, Friesland, and 
Lower Saxony, probably compelled to make this remove by the galling 
severity of the Spanish government, which, during that century, forced 
into exile thousands of the inhabitants of Ghent and other places in 
Flanders. In the above mentioned provinces the Brinckerhoffs became 
established, and their descendants enjoy much distinction there at the 
present day. 

Joris Dericksen Brinckerhoff, the'ancestor of the entire American 
family, was from the county of Drent or Drenthe, in the United Prov- 
inces, and having lived some time at Flushing, a sea-port in Zealand, 
emigrated to this country in 1638, and with his wife Susannah (%vhose 
maiden name was Dubbels), settled in Brooklyn, where Mr. Brinckerhofi 
obtained a grant of land by brief dated Jlarch 23, 1646. He was a man of 
worth, and v/as an elder in the Brooklyn church at the time of his death, 
which happened January 16, 1661. His widow survived many years. 
His children were Derick, Hendrick^ Abraham and Aeltie. 

Hendrick Jorisse (son of Joris, or George) was a dele- 
gate from Flatbush to the convention from the Dutch towns 
which met July 6, 1663, at New Amsterdam, to encourage 
resistance to the English, and was a member of a like con- 
vention held February 27, 1664, at Flatbush, to send dele- 
gates to Holland. 2 As schepen of Midwout (Flatbush) he 
witnessed to a declaration, January 15, 1664, regarding the 
aggressions of the English. 3 With a ready adaptability to 
circumstances, we find him on March I, 1665, representing 
his town at Hempstead, in the first Assembly under English 
rule,* while on the re-occupation of New Netherland he is- 
appointed (August, 1673) by Governor Colve to his former 
office of schepen of Midwout.5 In 1670 he was named in the 
Indian deed for Flatbush.6 In 1675 he was assessed for "l 
poll, 3 horses, 11 cows, 3 ditto of 2 years, 5 ditto of I year, 
£124 ; 17 morgens of land and valley (meadow), £34." "^ 
By deed dated May 30, 1677, he bought from Claes Jansen 
de Backer (Nicholas Jansen, baker) a tract of 47 morgens of 
land at Communipaw, which had been given by the West 
India Company (who bought from Michael Pau) to Jan 
Evertse Bout, by him sold to Michiel Jansen in 1648, (deed 
1656) and by his widow to his brother, Nicholas Jansen, De- 
cember 20, 1667.8 He probably settled on this farm at once, 

1 Annals of Newtown, in Queens County, New- York, etc., by James 
Riker, Jr., New York, 1852, 290. 

2 History of New Netherland ; or, New York under the Dutch, by E. 
B. O'Callaghan, M. D., New York, 1855, II., 502. 

3 N. Y. Col. Docs., II., 480. 

* N. Y. Civil List, 1869, 26, 32. 

5 lb., 577. 

6 Bergen's Kings County Settlers, 49. 

7 N.Y. Doc. Hist., IV., 99. 

8 E. J. Deeds, Liber No. i ; History of the Land Titles of HudsotL 
County, N. J., 1609-1871, by Charles H. Winfield, New York, 1872, 50. 



for in 1683 he was appointed by the Legislature of East Jer- 
sey to be one of six tax commissioners for Bergen county, 
his name being curiously transformed in the records to Ivo- 
riss.l He bought a tract of land on the eastern bank of the 
Hackensack river, at English Neighborhood, June 17, 1685, 
where he took up his final residence. 2 He and his wife head 
the list of members of the Hackensack Dutch church, com- 
. piled in 1686 by Dominie Taschemaker, and in the same 
year he was elected and installed elder of that church, "for 
the east side," probably of the tlackensack river. He was re- 
elected to the same office in 1694, at Acquackanonk, when 
the united congregation of the two places met at the latter 
settlement.3 The Legislature in 1692 named him as one of 
the two treasurers to receive Bergen county's quota of puVdic 
taxes, which were to be paid at his house, indicating his 
prominence in the community. 4 The last mention that has 
been found of him is in a deed dated February 24, 1708, 
whereby he conveyed his Communipaw property to his son 
Cornelius. 5 

His children were : L Geertje, b. Feb. 20, 1670 ; IL 

Margrietje, b. June 13, 1671 ; IIL Cornelius, b. ; m. 

Margrita Sibese (dau. of Siba or Sibes) Banta, Oct. 31, 

1702 ; VI. Jacobus, b. ; m. Angenitje Hendrickse 

Banta, April 17, 1708 ;6 VII. Dirck, b. . In uniting 

with the Hackensack church in 1699, Cornells and Dirck 
were both enrolled under the name Blinkerhof. Margrietje 
and Jacobus joined the church under the same name, the 
former in 1701, and the latter eight years later.''' The word 
Blinkcrt means a sand-hill, and is applied to the numerous 
downs along the Holland coast. Near Haarlem is a con- 
spicuous hill of this sort, called distinctively de Blinkert, 
and famous for a great victory won by the Hollanders in 
1304.8 The termination Jiof means a court or garden ; 
hence the word Blinkerhoff means a garden on a sandhill. 
The name is usually written Brinkerhoff in this vicinity. 

I. Hans Diedericks 
is the first of the grantees named in the Acquackanonk 
patent. The notices we have of him are but few, the earli- 
est being on the occasion of his marriage with Grietje 
Warnaerts, the widow of Adriaen Hendr. Zips. Diederick 
is there spoken of as from Isleven.9 Of this union there 
was born Hester, bap. Nov. 22, 1665,9 who m. Dirck Epke 

1 The Grants and Concessions, and original constitutions of the Pro- 
vince of New Jersey, the Acts passed during the Proprietary Govern- 
ments, etc., collected by Aaron Learning and Jacob Spicer, Philadelphia 
(1758), 275. 

2 Riker's Annals of Newtown, 297. 

3 Records of the Reformed Dutch Churches of Hackensack and 
Schraalenburgh, New Jersey (Collections of the Holland Society of New 
York, Vol. I. Part I.), I., 289, 290. 

4 Leaming and Spicer, 324. 

5 Winfield's Hudson County Land Titles, 50. 

6 Winfield's History of Hudson County, 527. 

7 Hackensack Church Records, 3, 4, 5. v 

8 Terwen, 75. 

9 Records of the Reformed Dutch Church in New Amsterdam and 
New York (Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical 
Society, Vol. L), edited by Samuel S. Purple, M. D., New York, 1890. 


Banta, and was received with him into the Hackensack church 
May I, 16S9.I Oil the day his daughter was baptized 
Diedericks took the oath of allegiance to the English, at 
Bergen, where he held the office of constable at the time. 2 
On March 12, 1668, he received from Gov. Philip Carteret a 
confirmatory patent for five tracts of land at Bergen and 
vicinity.3 He was licensed, February 13, 1670-71, to keep 
a "house of entertainment at Bergen. "4 On the temporary 
resumption of the Dutch sway in New Netherland Died- 
erick was appointed, September 4, 1673, lieutenant of the 
Bergen militia, he being selected by the authorities at New 
Amsterdam from the number proposed by the community. 5 
He was given his old office of constable again on March 0, 
1675-6.6 His military efficiency was recognized under the 
English rule, as he was commissioned lieutenant March 4, 
1679, of "a foot company under Capt. Berry within the cor- 
poration of Bergen and the out plantations adjacent ;"^ and 
again on January 10, 1683-4, he was appointed captain of a 
"foot company of the trained band, of Bergen. "8 He was a 
deputy to the Legislature from Bergen at the session of 
November 5, 1675,9 being re-elected May 22, 1680, and in 
April, 1686.10 In the will of Engelbert Steenhuis, dated 
December 13, 1677, Hans Diedrick is named as one of the He was one of the purchasers of Acquackanonk 
from the Indians, March 28, 1679, and was likewise one of 
those who petitioned the Governor and Council, May 30, 
1684, for the granting of the patent. • Nevertheless, he does 
not appear to have removed from Bergen to the new settle- 
ment, for in November, 1683, the Legislature appointed him 
one of the commissioners for Bergen, to "set, lay out and 
appoint all necessary highways, bridges, passage, landings 
and ferries" in that country. 12 He was already in the 
commission of the peace for Bergen, having been ap- 
pointed by the Governor and Council, March 24, 1682-3, and 
four days later selected as one of the three persons to hear 
and determine small causes in the town of Bergen, beingreap- 
pointed to the latter office December 5, 1683, 13 on which day he 
was designated by the Legislature as one of six persons toas- 

The citations hereinafter made from the Records of this church will be 
from this sumptuous volume, or from the current volumes of the New 
York Genealogical and Biographical Record, published by said Society, 
and which has been printing the records of the New York church for 
the past twenty years, preliminary to issuing them in three separate 
volumes of Collections, of v/hich only the first has been furnished at this 

1 Hackensack Church Records, 2. 

2 N. J. Archives, I., 49. 

3 Winfield's Hudson County Land Titles, 117. 
■4 E. J. Deeds, Liber No. 3, f. 39. 

5N. Y. Col. Docs., IL, 597. 

6 N. J. Archives, I., 177. 

7 E. J. Deeds, Liber No. 3, f. 165. 

8 Book C of Patents, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 71. 

9 Leaming and Spicer, 93. 

10 N. J. Archives, I., 306; XIII., 143. 

11 E. J. Deeds, Liber No. 3,f. 142. 
13 Leaming and Spicer, 257. 

13 N. J. Archives, XIII., 41, 48, 119 ; Book C of Patents, 9, 15, 21. 



sess the munificent total of eleven pounds on Bergen county, to 
defray the public charges of the Colony, and to be payable 
in wheat, Indian corn and merchantalile pork at specified 
prices. 1 He was elevated to a Judgeship in the Bergen court, 
November 28, 1684.2 These numerous references all show 
that up to 1686 he was still of Bergen. By deed dated 
April 4, i6g6, Diedericks, being then of the town of Bergen, 
conveyed to ffrancis Post, of the township of Aqueckenonge, 
consideration £31 5s. current money of the Province, a 
" certaine parcell of Land Lyeing and being in the township 
of Aqueckenong, betwixt Adrian Post, and Urian Thomas 
being of the Hundred [acre] Lotts, and is Number two, to- 
gether with the full and Absolute Right and privilege to the 
halfe of the fourteenth part of the Comonage according to 
the whole purchase of Aqueckenonge," etc. He signs his 
name Hans Dedrik. The witnesses were Claes Aarent 
Toers, Hessell Pieterse and Edward Earle, jun. It was 
acknowledged March 2, 1696-7, before Enoch Macheilse. 3 
By deed dated November 6, 1696, Diedericks conveyed to 
his son-in-law, John Adrianse Sip, of the town of Bergen, 
consideration £5, New York money, Lot Number Eleven 
in Achquickenunk, together with his remaining half interest 
in the fourteenth part of the whole patent.4 Diedericks 
died September 30, 1698, and was buried at Bergen.5 He 
left a son. Wander, whose son Johannis Dideriks was re- 
ceived into the Acquackanonk church March 31, 1726.6 
The name Didericks means "son of Theodore." 
The last recited deed explains the introduction of the 
numerous Sip family into this neighborhood. John Adri- 
aense Sip was not the husband of a daughter of Diedericks, 
but was his step-son. He was baptized May 24, 1662, being 
the son of Adriaen Hendrickszen Sip, of Breda, in North Bra- 
bant, and Grietje Warnarts of Schonevelt, who were mar- 
ried February 4, 1656. John m. April 23, 1684, Johanna 
Idens Van de Voorst^ (bap. April 16, 1666, dau. of Ide Van 
Vorst, of Ahasimus, who is said to have been the first white 
male child born and married in NewNetherland).8 He was 
appointed ensign of the Bergen militia, Nov. 10, 1692, on 
the nomination of the people of the town. 9 He had child- 
ren : I. Arie, b. Oct. 25, 1684; m. Gerritje Helmigse, 
April 19, 1711; removed to Acquackanonk ; II. Hilligond, 
bap. Aug. 28, 1687 ; m. Johannis Walingse Van Win- 
kle, Sept. 30, 1710 ; III. Ide, bap. Aug. 28, 1687 ; d. in in- 
fancy ; IV. Margaret, bap. Aug. 17, 1690 ; m. John Ger- 
ritse Van Wagenen, May 22, 17 13 ; V. Annetje, bap. Feb. 
22, 1693; '^^^ Gerrit Hermanns Van Wagenen, Oct. 3, 1713 ; 
VI. Ide, b. Sept. 3, 1695 ; m. 1st, Ariantje Cornelissen 
Cadmus ; 2d, Antje Van Wagenen, May 23, 1725 ; VII. Jo- 

1 Learning and Spicer, 275. 

2 Book C of Patents, 90. 

3 E. J. Deeds, Book F, f. 222. 

4 lb., 303. 

" Winfield's Hudson County Land Titles, 118. 

6 Acquackanonk Church Records, in MS. 

7 N. Y. Dutch Church Records, passim. 

8 Valentine's N. Y. Manual, 1862, 768. 

9 Liber C of Patents, 381. 

annis, b. May 10, 1698; VIII. Cornelius, b. Sept. 27, 1700, 
d. itnm. ; IX. Abraham, b. April 11, 1704; X. Hendrick, 
b. Sept, 30, 1706; XL Lena, bap. Dec. i, 1708; m. John 
Van Horn ; d. May 19, 1 750.1 

II. Gerrit Gerritse (Garrison — Van Wagoner). 

An interesting document relating to this patentee is a cer- 
tificate of character, still preserved in the family of one of 
his descendants, in Jersey City, and of which this is a trans- 
lation : 

We, burgomasters, schepens and councillors of the city of Wagen- 
ing, declare by these presents, that there appeared before us Hendrick 
Elissen and Jordiz Spiers, citizens of this city, at the request of Gerrit 
Gerritsen and Annetje Hermansse,his wife. They have testified and cer- 
tified, as they do by these piesents, that they have good knowledge of 
the above named Gerrit Gerritsen and Annetje Hermansse,hiswife,asto 
their life and conversation, and that they have always been considered and 
esteemed as pious and honest people, and that no complaint of any evil 
or disorderly conduct has ever reached their ears ; on the contrary, they 
have alwaj's led quiet, pious and honest lives, as it becomes pious and 
honest persons. They especially testify, that they govern their family 
well, and bring up their children in the fear of God, and in all mod- 
esty and respectability. 

As the above named persons have resolved to remove and proceed to 
New Netherland, in order to find greater convenience, they give this 
attestation, grounded on their knowledge of them, having known 
them intimately, and having been in continual intercourse with them for 
many years, living in the same neighborhood. 

In testimony of the truth, we the burgomasters of the city , have caused 
the private seal of the city to be hereto affixed. 

Done at Wagening, 27th November, i66o. 
By the ordinance of the same. 

J. Aquelin.2 

V/ageningen is an ancient town in Gelderland, about three 
hours (ten miles) from Arnhem. Situated on the banks of 
the Rhine, in a picturesque country, fertile and thoroughly 
cultivated, it has been a centre of trade and population, and 
hence the seat of many a fierce contest, since the ninth cen- 
tury. In 1240 it was fortified by Count Otto II. van Geld- 
er, who provided it with walls and stout gates. Neverthe- 
less, in 1421 it was -captured, plundered and burnt. After 
various vicissitudes it was in 1572 reunited to the States of 
Holland, and is to this day one of the pleasantest and 
quaintest towns in Holland. The population is about 5,000, 
and the growth of the place has necessitated the removal, 
for the most part, of the ancient fortifications.3 It was from 
this town that Gerrit Gerritsen and Annetje Hermansse his 
wife, with one child, Gerrit, two years old, and armed with 
the above certificate, set sail, in the ship Faith, Jan Beste- 
vaer captain, the fare for the three being ninety florins — 
about thirty-six dollars. They arrived at New Amsterdam 
December 23, 1660 — a remarkably quick passage for those 
days.4 In the same ship were Hendrick Jansen Spiers, wife 
and two children, and Lubbert Gerritsen, also destined to 

1 Winfield's Hist. Hudson County, 525. 

2 Annals of the Classis of Bergen, etc., by Benjamin C. Taylor, D. 
D., New York [1857], 70-71 ; Valentine'sN. Y. Cor. Manual, for 1861, p. 
699, gives the same, but spells the name of the witnesses "Speiers," and 
the name of the city " Wagennin.'' The paper was then in the possession 
of Hartman Van Wagenen, of South Bergen, N. J. 

3 Terwen, 568-9. 

* Winfield's Hist. Hudson County, 482. 



have an interest in Acquackanonk, besides four other men 
and two small families. 1 

Gerritse appears to have settled in Bergen immediately 
after his arrival, for on October i6, 1662, Director-General 
Petrus Stuyvesant in council appointed him one of the three 
schepens (magistrate, or alderman with magisterial and 
judicial powers) for Bergen. 8 In the same year Gerritse was 
one of the petitioners for the settlement of a clergyman at 
Bergen, and pledged himself to contribute six florins yearly 
toward his support. 3 On June 18, 1663, he was named by 
the council as one of the three commissioners empowered to 
enclose the settlement at Gemoenepa with long palisades, 
for the safety of the houses and barns of the settlers against 
Indian incursions, and to assess the cost thereof upon the 
inhabitants.4 Twelve days later he received a commission 
as ensign of the militia at Gemoenepa5 — not a very impos- 
ing array of warriors, we may be sure. We find him re- 
corded as one of the witnesses at the baptism, November 
22, 1665, of Hester, the child of Hans Diedericks.6 On the 
same day, he with other inhabitants of Bergen took the 
oath of allegiance to King Charles II. of England. T Gov- 
ernor Philip Carteret gave him a patent. May 12, 1668, for 
four parcels of land in and about Bergen, about one hun- 
dred acres in all, one of them being at Marion.8 On the re- 
capture of New Netherland by the Dutch, Gerritse was 
again (Aug. 18, 1673) constituted one of the schepens of 
Bergen, on the nomination of the people. 9 When Engelbert 
Steenhuis was making his will, December 13, 1677, he se- 
lected his trusty neighbor, Gerrlt Gerritse, as one of his 
executors. 10 As we have seen, he was one of the purchasers 
of Acquackanonk from the Indians, March 28, 1679. Gov- 
ernor Andros, of New York, having usurped the do- 
minion over New Jersey, in 1680, Gerritse was elect- 
ed one of the officers of Bergen, and was confirmed 
by Gov. Andro.s and his council. H The patentee never 
settled at Acquackanonk, but always remained at Com- 
munipaw. By deed dated January 30, 1698-9, "Geret Ger- 
etse van Wageninge senior of the town of Bergen, "for the con- 
sideration of £45 New York money, conveyed to Cristoffle 
Stynmets, of the county of Essex, " a Certaine lott lying in 
the township of Aquechonenque it being of ye old Lotts 
& marked number 6 together with ye Just half of all ye right 
title & privileges belonging or in any wayes pertaining 
to ye fourteenth part of ye Commonage of ye abovesaid 
town of Aquoechononque according to ye patent thereof 
granted & ye several agreements by ye patentees & their as- 

IN. Y. Doc. Hist., III., 35. 

2 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 231. 

3 lb., 233. 
* lb., 252. 

5 lb., 268. 

6 N. Y. Dutch Church Records. 

7 N. J. Archives, I. , 49. 

8 Winfield's Hudson Co. Land Titles, 120-121. 
9N. Y. Col. Docs., II., 578. 

10 E. J. Deeds, Liber No. 3, f. 142. 

11 N. J. Archives, I., 320. 

sociates as also ye house or home Lot belonging to ye above- 
said lott of Land belonging," etc. This deed was witnessed 
by Johannes Stymets, Gerrit Gerritse "de /ong/i" (the 
younger, or junior), and Edward Earle, jun.l According 
to the Bergen Church Records, the patentee died April 6, 
1703; his wife died before him, September 7, 1696.2 

S econd Generation. 
Their children were : 

I. Gerrit, b. in 1658 ; m. Neesje Pieterse, of Best, in 
Gelderland, May 11, 1681. He settled at Penibrepock ; was 
appointed one of the judges of the Bergen court, Aug. 31, 
1681,3 and lieutenant in the militia company, Nov. 10, 1692, 
"having been chosen by the freeholders of Bergen accord- 
ing to their charter as a person fit and capable to serve and 
bear the office of lieutenant of the foot company consisting 
of the inhabitants of said corporation. "4 He was one of 
the numerous signers to the petition in .1700, to the King, 
asking to have the Colony of New Jersey taken imder the 
Royal protection, and complaining of the ill treatment of 
the Proprietors.5 By deed dated June 10, 1720, he and his 
wife conveyed to their son Abraham "a certain small lot of 
land on Haghquagenonck being lot number 6, as it is de- 
lineated on a map made for that purpose. "6 This was prob- 
ably one of the small lots laid out in the rear of the Hun- 
dred Acre lots. The date of his death is vmcertain. 

II. Jannetje, bap. March 19, 1662. 

III. Fytje, bap. Dec. 30, 1663 ; m. Cornelius van Vorst, 
Nov. 27, 1693 ; d. May 19, 1734. 

IV. Hermanus, bap. March 10, 1667, named after his 
mother's father, which is the origin of this name in this vi- 
cinity ; m. Annetje, dau. of Waling Jacobs (Van Winkle), 
Oct. 6, 1690. Through this marriage he came into the pos- 
session of a large interest in Acquackanonk. There is in ex- 
istence'*' a curious document in the peculiar but distinct 
handwriting of Dominie Guilaem Bertholf, dated April 10, 
1693, in which the Dominie sets out that Walling Jacobs has 
leased to his son-in-law, Hermanes Gervetse, a lot of land 
at Acquackanonk, containing four morgens, "beginning on 
the river east of the King's highway, the full breadth of the 
lot and so upwards excepting the church yard," and being 
the lot then occupied by Gerretse. This was the homestead 
where still stands the old Van Wagoner house, opposite the 
draw-bridge at Passaic. The rental was to be the tenth 
schepel (bushel) of all the corn raised, and in case Gerretse or 
his wife survived the father-in-law, the property was to go to 
the survivor, at a valuation to be fixed by two of the neighbors. 
However, by deed dated October 14, 1702, Walling Jacobs 

1 E. J. Deeds, Book G. f. 46. 

2 The Bergen Dutch Church Records, printed in Winfield's Hudson 
County Land Titles, 401, 402. The references hereinafter to these re- 
cords will be as printed in that work, in which eighty-eight pages of 
births, marriages and deaths are given, arranged alphabetically. 

3 Winfield's Hist. Hudson Co., 483. 

4 E. J. Deeds, Liber C, f. 380. 
N. J. Archives, II., 326. 

6 Recital in deed in E. J. Deeds, K 2, f. 373. 

7 Nelson MSS. 



conveyed to Harmanus Gerretse a lot lying between the lot of 
Adrian Post on the southwest and the church lot on the north- 
west, together with a half interest, or one-twenty-eighth part, 
of the undivided lands.l By deed dated November 27, 1711, 
he and eight others of the owners of Acquackanonk bought 
of Peter Sonmans a tract of 2,800 acres of land on the 
southeast side of the Passaic river, extending from the Falls 
to Peckamin river,2 as we shall see hereafter. Hermanns 
Gerretse was elected a Deacon in the Acquackanonk church 
in 1698 and in 1702, and an Elder in 1708, 1715, 1727 and 
1732.3 He devised his interest in Acquackanonk to his son 

V. Aeltje, bap. April 14, 1672 ; m. Wander Diedricks, 
(son of Hans Diedricks), Nov. 27, 1693 ; d. Dec. 22, 1754. 

VI. Hendrick, bap. Oct. 25, 1675 j m. Margrietje Straat- 
maker, April 3, 1701. He was elected Deacon in the 
Acquackanonk church in 1708, and Elder in 1726 and 1739. 
His, name appears among those who signed the petition to 
the King for redress against the oppressions of the Pro- 
prietors, in 1700. By deed dated June 23, 1718, John Corta 
and Marietje his wife, of Essex count)', conveyed to Henry 
Gerritse, of the same county, for £100, a tract on the Passaic 
river on the north side of Gerrit Post, g.31 chains wide and 
running back 107 to 109 chains, bounded on the north by 
Gerrit Juriance' lot ; also fifty acres immediately in the rear 
of the first lot, making 150 acres in all. 4 He probably lived 
at Wesel. He had Lot No. 14, East, and Lot 13, West, 
in the Bogt, assigned to him in the subdivision of 1714. 
He is doubtless the same Hendrick Garrison who is referred 
to'' in 1761 as the owner of the grist mill and saw mill then 
standing at the foot of the present Mulberry street. Pater- 
son. He had been dead three years at that time, but the mill 
still belonged to his heirs. He wrote his name Hejidrick 
Gerritse, which, modified into Garrison, has been retained 
by his descendants. His will, dated Sept. 9, 1743, proved 
Nov. 20, 1758,6 gives a very good idea of the form of those 
instruments in his day : 

In die Name of God Amen the ninth day of September in the year of 
Our Lord one thousand Seven hundred & fourty three I Hendricli Ger- 
retse of the Precinct of Acquacknong in the County of Essex and Prov- 
ince of New Jersey Yoman being Sick &. weak in bothy but of perfict 
mind & memory thanks be given unto God therefor calling unto mind 
the mortality of my Body &l knowing that it is appointed for all men 
once to dye do make & ordain this my last Will & Testament that is to 
Say First of all I give & recommend my Soul into the hands of God that 
gave it and for my Body I recommend it to the Eartli to be buried in a 
Christian like and decent manner according to the discretion of my Ex- 
ecutors and as touching Such Worldly Estate wherewith it hath pleased 
God to bless me in this life I give devise & dispose of the Same in man- 
ner and form following. Item I give and bequeath the use and im- 
provement of all my Real & Personal Estate unto my well beloved Wife 

1 This deed was recorded (in 1802) in Essex County Deeds, Book F, 
P- 330. 

2 E. J. Deeds, Book K small, f. 25. 

3 Acquackanonk Church Records. 
* E. J. Deeds, Liber B2, f. 22. 

5 Essex County Roads, A, f. 142 ; History of Passaic County Roads 
and Bridges, 15. 

C Rc-corded in Book G of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, 
f. 19. 

Margeriet during the time She remains my Widow and after her discease 
I give my Real Estate as foUowetli. First I give to my Son Garret fifty 
Shillings current money of New Jersey as a barr for ever to his being 
Heir at Law Item I give to my Son Garret and to his Heirs & Assigns 
for ever all that Tract of Land whereon he now lives with the house out 
houses barn & all appurtenance thereunto belonging he paying a Lega- 
cie of one hundred pounds current money of New Jersey to be equally 
Devided among my five Daughters hereafter in named. Item I give to 
my Son John and to his Heirs & assigns forever the one moiety or half 
of all that Tract or parcill of Land whereon he now lives called & 
known by the name of the boght with the House outhouses barn and all 
appurtenances thereunto belonging, The other half or moiety of Said 
Land I give to my Son Cornelius and to his Heirs & assigns forever with 
the House outhouses barn and all appurtenances thereunto belonging, 
the Said John & Cornelius each of them paying a Legacie of fourty & 
five pounds of tlie like money aforesaid to be Desnded among my five 
Daughter aforesd. Item I give to my Son Henry & my Son Abraham 
all that Farm or Tract of Land whereon I now live being two hundred 
acres more or less with all the Houses outhouses & barn with all appur- 
tenances to the Same belonging also I give to my Sons Henry & Abra- 
ham that Lot or piece of Land lying over the Mill brook containing 
about fourty & four Acres more or less also that piece or Tract of Land 
or Woodland lying in the mountains to be equally Devided between 
them they paying a Legacie of fifty pounds piece or one hund pounds 
between them money aforesd. to be Devided among my Said Dau^jhters 
aforesd. Item all the undivided Land within the Precinct of Acquack- 
nong if any should be or fall to my Share I give to my five Sons Garret, 
John, Cornelius, Henry & Abraham toe them & their Heirs & assigns 
for ever to be equally Devided among them. Item all the Legacies 
aforesaid to be payd by my Sons aforesaid in Six years after the discease 
of my v.'ell beloved Wife my Son Garret one hundred pounds current 
money aforsd. my Sons John & Cornelius each fourty and five pounds 
of the like money aforsd. and my Sons Henry »& Abraham One hundred 
pounds between them money aforesd. I give to my five Daughters to 
be Devided in five equal parts, one fifth part thereof to my Daughtrs 
Gesie the Wife of Marinas Vanwinkell, one fifth part to my Daugter 
Antie the wife of Jurie Pieterse, one fifth part to my Daughter Janetie 
the Wife of Adrian Post one fifth part to my Daughter Margriet and the 
o'her fifth part to my Daughter Lena the Wife of Thomas Jurianse or 
Thomas VnRipe. Item all my Personall Estate after the discease of my 
well beloved Wife I give to my five Sons and my five Daughters to be 
equally devided amongst them in ten equal parts, one tenth part thereof 
to my son Garrett one tenth part toe my Son John, one tenth part to my 
Son Cornelius one tenth to my Son Henry one tenth part to my Son. 
Abraham, one tenth part to my Daughter Gesie one tenth part to my 
Daughter Antie one tenth to my Daughter Janetie one tenth part to my 
Daughter iMargreit and the other tenth part to my Daughter Lena. And 
if any Mines should be discovered in any part of any of the aforesd. 
Tracts or parcils of Land then it is my Will that Such Mine or Mines 
shall be & remain for the use of my five Sons and my five Daughters to 
them their Heirs & assigns for ever. And Whereas my Son Garret owns 
the one half of the brew Kittle it is my Will that he have free liberty to 
brew & make use of all the utensils thereunto belonging with the privi- 
edge of the House where said Kittle now stands in. And I do hereby 
nominate & appoint my sd. dear Wife & my Sons Garret John Cornelius 
Henry and Abraham Executors of this my last Will & Testament and do 
hereby revoke all former and other Wills by me heretofore made In 
Witness whereof I have hereunto put my hand and Seal the day and 
year above written. 

Signed Sealed, published & Declared Hendrick Gerretse [L. S.] 

by the sd. Hendrick Garretse as & for 
his last AVill and Testame.nt in the pres- 
ence of us who Subscribe our names 
as Witnesses hereto in his presence, 
John Low, Abraham Low, Cornelius Low minr. 

VII. Johannes, b. January II, bap. March 16, 1678; m. 
Catlyntje Helmigse (Van Houten), Nov. 4, 1703; d. Sept. 
30, 1756. He was Deacon of the church at Acquackanonk 
in 1724, and Elder in 1726 and 1733. 

Gerrit Gerritse, of Pemerpock, bought, Nov. 6, 1 713, for 



£210, a ninth interest in the Saddle River patent, which ac- 
c6unts for the numerous Garrisons in the Slooterdam neigh- 

Third Generation. 

Children of Gerrit Gerritse and Necltje Pieterse : 

I. Elizabeth, b. ]\Iarch 3, 1682 ; d. Jan. 24, 1707, at 

II. Pieter, b. Oct. 4, 1684; m. 1st, Vrouwtje Hesselse, 
March 26, 1709; 2d, Antje Aeltse, both being then of 
Acquackanonk, June 22, 1733. He was elected a Deacon in 
the Acquackanonk church, 1726, and Elder in 1728. 

III. Gerrit, bap. March 20, 1687; m. Marietje Ger- 
brants, Dec. 23, 1713 ; both were enumerated among the 
members of the Acquackanonk church in 1726, of which he 
was chosen Deacon in 1727, and Elder in 1728 and 1731 ; 
d. Jan. I, 1737. 

IV. Annetje, bap. Nov. 13, 1689; m. Johannes Neesje, 
of Staten Island, Oct. 9, 1710. 

V. Johannes, bap. Feb. 22, 1693 ; m. Margrietje Sip, 
May 21, 1713. He was elected Deacon in 1724, and Elder 
in 1726 and 1733. 

VI. Abraham, bap. Feb. 2, 1695 ; m. Rachel Hesselse, 
March 14, 1719. As stated above, his father and mother 
by deed dated June 10, 1720, conveyed to him a "small lot" 
in Acquackanonk, being Lot No. 6; Dirrick Gerbrants and 
wife, Peter and Johannis Gerritse, all of Haghquagenonck, 
by deed dated February 19, 1730, released "to their brother 
Abraham two small lots of land above Wagraw being 
known by Number One and Number Eight being part of 
a tract of land formerly bought of Richard Ashfield, de- 
ceased." Abraham, of Haghquagenonck, by deed dated 
April 8, 1736, conveyed to Jacobus Gerretsen, of Pemerpogh, 
yeoman, three tracts of land, apparently in the vicinity of 
Haledon : Lot No. 6, 120 acres ; Lot No. 10, 67 acres ; and 
part of Lot No. 8, 72 acres, in all 259 acres. 1 He bought a 
tract of 600 acres (Lots g, 10 and 15) near the Ponds, Feb. 
14, 1735, where the Berdans, Bogerts and others of his 
Slooterdam neighbors, had purchased, about 1732, from 
Willocks and Johnston, two of the East Jersey Proprie- 
tors, an extensive tract of land, and had laid it out in 200- 
acre plots. That whole region was often called Pompton. 
By the following instrument he appears to have been set- 
tled at Pompton in 1737: 

Know all Men by these Presents that I Abram gerritse of poumtan 
In the Countjf of bergen yeoman for In Consideration of the Sum of teen 
Pounds of Current lawfull Mony of East New jersy to Me In hand paid 
by Jacob oldwater of Slotter Dam In the County aforesaid yeoman 
whereof I Do hereby aclcnowledge the Recept and Myself therewith 
fully and entirely satisfied have bargained sold set over and Delivered 
and by these presents In plane and open Marked according to the just 
and Due form of law In that Ctiase Made and provided Do bargin set 
over and Deliver unto the said Jacob oldwater of Slotter Dam at the 
Dwelling Place of Pieter gerritson the brue house with the Coupper Mass- 
ing toub and the other utensels belonging to that sd bruehouse to have 
the Six parth & the Sixth part of working tob and the Malt kiell to have 
the sevcnt parth to have and to hold the said bargined premises unto the 
said Jacob oldwater his executors administrators and assigns to the only 
proper use and behoof of the sd Jacob oldwater his executors adminis- 
trators and assigns for ever and I the sd abram gerritson for My self My 

executors and administrators the said bargined premises unto the sd 
Jacob oldwater his Executors administrators and assigns against all and 
all Maner of person shall and will warrant and for Ever Defend by these 
presents In witness whereof together with the Delivery of the bargeined 
premises I have hereunto set My hand and seal the twelft Day of april 
In the teenth year of his Majestys Reign anno Qe Dom. 1737 
Sined sealed and his 

Delivered In the Presence abram X gerritson [L. S] 



Philip Schuyler 

George Ryerse jur. 

Arent Schuyler 
Note the words sixth parts of 
wase interlined before the Delivery 

VII. Lea, bap. May 13, 1697. 

VIII. Jacob, bap. Nov. 19, 1699 ; m. Lea Gerritze (Van 
Riper), May 22, 1719; d. Sept. 23, 1775. Ch. Neesje, bap. 
Jan. 7, 1722. 

Children of Hermanns Gerritse and Annetje Van Winkle: 

I. Gerrit, m. Annetje Sip, Oct. 3, 1713. 
Hendrick Gerretse and Margrietje Straatmaker had 
children : 

I. Gerrit, m. Jannetje van Houte. 

II. John. Was probably the father of Henry, who m. 
Elizabeth, dau. of Cornells Gerritse. 

III. Cornelius, m. Claesje Peterse, dau. of Hessel Pie- 
terse, in 1737. He lived on Lot 13, West, at Riverside. 

IV. Henry. Was probably the father of Henry, b. Aug. 
17, 1727, who m. Catharine Paulussen. 

V. Abraham. 
VI. Geesje, m. Marinus Van Winkle, Sept. 2, 1721. 
VII. Antje, m. Jurrie Peterse, June 7, 1729. Ch. Mar- 
grietje, b. Aug. 20, 1730. 

VIII. Jannetje, m. Adrian Post, Feb. 23, 1739. He was 
b. in New York. 
IX. Margaret. 

X. Lena, m. Thomas Jurianse, Jan. i, 1 741. 
Children of Johannes Gerritse and Catlyntje Helmigse :1 
I. Aeltje, b. Sept. 6, 1705. 
II. Helmich, b. Feb. 18, 1703 ; m. Marietje Brinker- 
hoff, Sept. 26, 1736; d. July 19, 1747. Ch., Cornells, bap. 
April I, 1744. 

III. Gerrit, b. Oct. 7, 1710; d. Aug. 21, 1738. 

IV. Cornelius, b. ; m. ist, Catrina Sickels, Oct. 

17, 1742; 2d, Helena Prior; d. before September, 1768. 
By his father's will he received a farm at "Wenaghke," on 
which he wa^ living in 1752. 

V. John, m. Marytje Gerretsen, 1737. Ch., Johannes, 
b. June 6, 1749. 

VI. Jacob, b. ; m. Jannetje Van Houten, Oct. 

17, 1742. 

VII. Antje, b. ; m. Ide Sip, May 23, 1725; d. 

Jan. 25, 1749. 

VIII. Jannetje, b. Feb. 22, 1721 ; m. Hendrick DeMott, 
Oct. 30, 1740. 

Cornelius van Wagenen, bachelor, b. and living at Staten 
Island, m. Helena Bon, spinster, b. in New York and living 
at Acquackanonk, June 9, 1744. 

1 E. J. Deeds, Book K 2, f. 373. 

1 From Winfield's Hist. Hudson Co., 484. 



Fourth Generation. 1 
Pieter Gerritse and Vrouwtje Hesselse had children : 

I. Gerrit, b. Nov. ii, 1711 ; m. Egje Neefjes, of Ac- 
quackanonk, May 22, 1732 ; he then lived at lapogh. 
II. Elizabeth, b. Aug. 5, 1713. 

III. Hessel, b. Dec. 11, 1715; m. Catrina Bon, Oct. 19, 
1739. Children: Peter, John and Hessel. They owned 
and perhaps lived on a large tract of land which had be- 
longed to their father, at the GofBe, afterwards sold by them 
to Francis Van Winkle, who owned it in 1783. 

IV. Peter, b. March 29, 1719. 

V. Johannis, b. Nov. 14, 1721 ; m. Geertje Ryerse. 
VI. Neesje, b. March 11, 1724; m. Geurt Claesen, Dec. 
8, 1744. 

VII. Fromvtje, b. Feb. 6, 1727; m. Jacob Van Winkle, 
Oct. 8, 1749. 

VIII. and IX. Lea and Helena, twins, b. August 10, 

X. Gerretje, bap. March 12, 1732. 
The foregoing sons of Peter Gerritse and Vrouwtje Hes- 
selse were called by their acquaintances "Pietem's Gat," 
"Pietem's Piet," and "Pietem's Hans." Moreover, by 
reason of his hard-headed obstinacy, "Pietem's Gat" was 
likewise called S pijker-kop Gat, or "Nail-headed Gat," his 
caput being popularly supposed to be as hard as a nail-head. 
This family settled on the Slooter dam side of the river. 
The family tradition is that they owned an extensive tract 
on the east side of the river, which was divided into Lots. 
The first lot, somewhat north of the Wesel bridge, was a 
small one, running northerly to where there was formerly a 
grist mill, built by Jacobus Post, who married into the Gar- 
rison family, and sold by him to Zabriskie. Lot No. 2 be- 
gan at the Van Horn cemetery. Lot No. 3 came next, ex- 
tending to the Broadway bridge, and was owned by Gerrit 
Gerritse, grandson of Pieter. Lot No. 4 and Lot No. 5 
came next north of the Broadway bridge, and were divided 
between the three sons of Peter. The division did not suit 
"Spijker-kop Gat," and he justified his peculiar cognomen 
by declaring that he would not be called by the same name 
as the rest of his family, and he accordingly took the name 
Van Wagoner !2 The Berdans had the next two farms ; the 
Bogert farm came next. No. 8, extending to the Small Lots 
line, where the land was divided into small lots, as disting- 
uished from the Great Lots along the Slooterdam road. 
■Hence the name of the locality known as "Small Lots." 
As previously stated, however, it was Gerrit Gerritse (sec- 
ond generation), who bought an interest in the Saddle Riv- 
er tract, in 1713. He was the grandfather of " Pietem's 

Peter Gerritse, widower, m. Antje Aeltse, maiden, June 
2, 1733. Both were of the Acquackanonk church. It is not 

1 These data are gleaned almost exclusively from the Acquackanonk, 
Hackensack and Totowa Church Records, no attempt being made to 
trace those who did not remain in this vicinity. 

2 Conversation with the late Henry D. Garrison, of Hamburgh ave- 
nue, June 12, 1873. Mr. Garrison was a man of superior intelligence and 
had a remarkably good memory. 

certain that he was the father of the above children, but it 
seems likely. 

Children of Gerrit Gerritse and Maritje Gerbrants: 
I. Maritje, b. April 17, 1715. 
II. Leeja, b. Jan. 8, 1720. 

III. Gerrebrant, b. Sept. 21, 1723. He was small and 
crooked, and remained an old bachelor so long that his rel- 
atives began to think they had a sure lien on his real estate; 
but to their surprise and disappointment he married, at an 
advanced age, taking a Van Riper for wife. A compromise 
was effected with his family, his wife taking a smaller plot 
than the others. 1 

IV. Neesje, b. April 17, 1728; m. Hendrick Van Wag- 
enen, of the Ponds, Dec. 15, 1754. 

V. Metje, b. March 2, 1732; m. Jacobus" Post. 

Children of Johannis Gerritse and Margrietje Sip: 
I. Gerrit, b. June 29, 17 14. 

II. Annatie, bap. Jan. 12, 1718. 
III. Johannis, b. Feb. 27, 1721 ; m. Mareitje Gerrise 
van Wagenen. Ch. Joannes, b. June 6, 1749. 
IV. Cornelius, b. July 2, 1723. 

V. Jacobus (van Wageninge), b. April 27, 1725 ; m. 
Rachel Van Winkle. 

Hendrick Gerritse, presumed to be the son of Henry, 
son of Hendrick Gerritse and Margrietje Straatmaker, 
was b. Aug. 17, 1727 ; m. Catharine Paulussen, Decem- 
ber 3, 1747. The record reads : Hendrick Van Wagen- 
ingen J. m. geb : en woonachtigh op Weesel : met Catha. 
Pauluszen J. D. geb: en woonaghtigh aldaar. That is: 
"Hendrick Van Wageningen, bachelor, born and living at 
Wesel, to Catharine Paulussen, spinster, born and living at 
that place." He m. 2d, Jane Post, March 11, 1761, born and 
living at Wesel. He always signed his name Henery Gerritse. 
He lived in a stone house still standing, on the west side of 
the Wesel road just north of the road leading to the Erie 
railroad station at Clifton. He took an active part in 
the Revolution, from 1774 onwards, as one of the rep- 
resentatives of Essex county in the Provincial Con- 
gress and in the Legislature, being the first member of 
the Legislature ever elected from Acquackanonk. 2 By 
deed dated March 7, 1805, ^e released to his son, Henry 
Garritse, Jun., and to John H. Gerritse, son of the latter. Lot 
No. 4 below the bridge, near Acquackanonk church. Lot 
No. 9 upon the dock. Lot No. 6 along the river to Adrian 
Van Houten's, Lot No. I to the west of the Van Houtens, 
with all his interest in the undivided lands in Acquacka- 
nonk patent. 3 By his will, dated June , 1802, 

proved Sept. 17, 1808, he devised to his son Henry, 
for life, with remainder to the latter's son, John Gerritse, 
one-half of his farm at Wesel, where he then lived, 20a 
acres, known as the homestead lot ; also half of his wood 
and mountain lot, lying near the Great Falls, about 180 

1 Conversation with Henry D. Garrison, ut supra. 

2 He was one of the two members elected by Esse.-c county in 1772^ 
that Assembly continuing until the Revolution. He was re-elected in 
1776, 1782, 1783, 1784, 1785, 1786, 1787, 1788. 

3 Unrecorded deed, G. Van Houten MSS., p. 70. 



acres ; also half of the land at Horseneck ; also the part of 
the house then occupied by his son Henry. The other half 
of the above real estate he devised to his grandson, John, 
son of Henry. He gave to each of his granddaughters — 
Caty, wife of Henry Kip, and Jane, wife of Gerrebrandt 
Van Houten, all his personal estate, besides $250 each, to be 
.paid by John. He appointed his son Henry, and his grand- 
son John, executors. 1 From this will it is inferred that his 
second son, John, was not living at this time. - 

VII. Abraham, b. July 26, 1729. 
VIII. Hermanns, b. March 14, 1731. 
Abraham Gerritse and Rachel Hesselse had children : 
I. Hendrick, b. March 5, 1729. 
II. Neesje, b. Sept. 13, 1731. 
Gerrit Hermanusse Gerritse and Annetje Sip had child- 
ren : 

I. Annetje, b. Sept. 12, 1714 ; m. Joris E. Vreeland ; 
d. Feb. 28, 1782. 

II. Hermanns, b. Feb. 4, 1717 ; m. Geertruy Van Hou- 
ten, of Totowa, Dec. 29, 1 741. He lived at the Notch. He 
wrote his name Harremanis Van Wagenen. 

III. Helena, b. Dec. 3, 1720; m. Arent Schuyler (b. Feb. 
23, 1715, son of Philip Schuyler), Oct. i, 1741. Ch., I. 
Philippus, b. Sept. 18, 1743; 2. Gerrit, b. July 31, 1748. 

IV. Catrina, b. Dec. 28, 1722. 

V. Jenneke, b. Sept. 12, 1725 ; m. ; she was 

dead, leaving children surviving, when her father made his 
will, July 17, 1769. 

VI. Johannis, b. Nov. 18, 1728. He occupied the old 
Van Wagoner homestead at the Passaic bridge. His father 
in his will made an equal division of his several farms be- 
tween Hermanns and Johannis, with the provision that in 
case Jphn died without issue all the lands devised to him 
should devolve upon Hermanns in fee simple. John died 
unmarried, in 1770 or 1771.2 

Gerrit Hermanusse Gerritse signed his name Gerrit Van 
Wagening. His will was dated July 17, 1769 ; proved Au- 
gust I, 1770. He provided that his wife Sarah should have 
a good and comfortable support, to be found by his two 
sons, Hermanis and John, as also a negro wench to wait on 
her, and also all the goods which belonged to her before 
her marriage. Hermanis, for his birthright, the choice 
of one milch cow out of testator's stock of cattle ; to each of 
his daughters, £roo; his brewery and utensils to John. 

Gerrit Hendricksen Gerritse and Jannetje Van Houten 
had children : 

I. Hendrick, bap. May 31, 1728 ; m. Annaetje, dau. 
of Marijius Van Winkle, in 1751 or 1752. Letters of ad- 
ministration de bonis non cum testamento annexo were 
granted unto Michael Vreeland and Peter Simmons, admin- 
istrators of the estate of Henry G. Garritse, late of the 
county of Essex, deceased, under date of Feb. 23, 1791. 
II. Klaertje, b. Sept. 29, 1731. 

1 Essex County Wills, Book A, f. 69. 

2 Will, as cited ; also Opinion of David Ogden, a famous lawyer of 
his day, dated August 28, 1771, in Simmons MSS. 

Cornelius Gerritse and Claesje Peterse had children: 
I. Margaret, m. Garret John Garritse. 
II. Claesje, m. Simeon John Van Winkle. 
III. Elizabeth, m. Henry John Garritse. 
Hessel Van Wagenen, bachelor, m. Jannitje Post, maid- 
en, Oct. 8, 1747. Both were of the Acquackanonk church, 
Gerrit Van Wageninge, widower, m. Saertje van Winkels, 
maiden, June 11, 1753. Both were of the Acquackanonk 

Fifth Generation. 
Jacob Van Wagenen and Rachel Van Winkle had child- 
ren : 

I. Annatje, b. Feb. 15, 1750. 
II. Margrietje, b. March 9, 1754. 
III. Geesje, b. Dec. 21, 1756. 
Hermanus Van Wagening and Geertruy Van Houten had 
children : 

I. Garret, to whom by his will he gave the choice of 
one of his (the testator's) cows for his birthright, as the 
oldest son. 

II. Roelof, b. March 17, 1750 ; he was devised the 
Notch farm, 200 acres. He m. Saertje Jurians, June 17, 

III. Johannis, bap. Dec. 14, 1755. He died before his 

IV. Sophia, m. Richard Van Riper, and had children : 
Richard, Harmanus, John and Ruleff. 

In his will, dated Aug. 21, 1789, proved April 8, 1794, 
Harremanis Van Wagenen devised to his sou Garret his 
farm at the Notch, and to Ruleff the farm he then lived on 
(near the Passaic draw-bridge) ; to Garret, Ruleff and So- 
phia a tract of land on Onion river, near Lake Champlain ; 
to Ruleff his weaving loom and wheelright's tools. The rest 
of his real estate he seems to have divided equally (specify- 
ing each tract) between his two sons. Garret and Ruleff. 

Henry Gerritse and Catharine Paulussen had children : 
I. Henry, bap. at Hackensack, February 12, 1749. 
He was appointed by the Legislature to the office of Col- 
lector of Essex county, in 1781, at a time when great en- 
ci'gy) diligence and prudence were required in the dis- 
charge of the duties of the office. The currency was fluc- 
tuating in value from day to day, and the money-chest was 
eagerly sought by British soldiers and their sympathizers. 
It was years after the war before he could exact an account- 
ing from his subordinates, for whose delinquencies he was 
responsible to the State. 1 He was an active business man, in 
various lines. His neighbors selected him to attend to their 
affairs while living, and to administer upon their estates 
after their death. In 1770 (deed dated March 12) he bought 
from John J. Ludlow the south half of Lot No. 10 to the 
southward of Wesel brook, on the Wesel road. 2 He was 
called Henry Garritse, jun. He was appointed by the 
Legislature one of the justices of the peace of Essex county, 
Nov. 25, 1783, Dec. 14, 1784, June r, 1786. Hem. ist, Hille- 

1 His papers relating to the office — correspondence, etc. , are carefully 
preserved among the G. Van Houten MSS., pp. 38-46. 

2 Unrecorded deed, lb., 88. 



gont, dau. of Walling Van Winkle; ?d, Aunaatje (Hannah) 
Lisk, wid. of Marynus Gerretse, Nov. 22, 1801. In his will, 
dated Oct. 20, 1809, proved Nov. 9, 1809, he devises all his 
real estate in Acquackanonk, with the dwelling house, barn 
and outhouses appertaining thereto, also hi= salt meadow in 
Bergen county, to his wife Hannah, for and during her wid- 
owhood. "Item. I give and devise unto my beloved wife 
Hannah Garritse the best feather bed and bedding with the 
best suit of curtains. Chest of drawers. Tea-table, small chest 
■with legs, half doz. linin sheets, one doz. pillow bears 
(cases?), two of the best milch cows, four sheep, all her 
wearing apparel together with all the household furniture 
she now possesses that she had at the day of her marriage 
with me to be disposed of by her in any manner she may 
think proper and that for her own use." All the rest of his 
property he gave to his wife Hannah, and to his two daugh- 
ters — Caty, wife of Henry Kip, and Jane, wife of Gerre- 
brandt Van Houten — share and share alike. After his 
■wife's death, all his real estate was to be divided between 
his two daughters. To his "beloved son John H. Gerritse," 
he left $5, probably because he was already amply pro- 
vided for by his paternal grandfather.! His personal estate 
was inventoried, Nov. 8, 1809, ^' $2,170.06.2 

II. Johannes, b. Nov. 9, 1752; probably died young 
and unm. 

The Acquackanonk and Totowa church records give the 
following additional entries : 

Gerrit Van Wagenen, bachelor, b. and living at Pemre- 
pock, m. Margrietje Van Winkle, of Acquackanonk, April 
24, 1746. Ch., I. Lea, bap. Dec. 13, 1747; 2. Helena, b. 
March 18, 1759. 

Gerr't G. Van Wagenen m. Rachel Westervelt of Slooter- 
dam, Dec. 17, 1758. Ch., Antje, b. August 13, 1759. 

Abraham Gerritse, bachelor, b. at Slooterdam, and living 
at the Ponds, m. Annatje Roome, maiden, living at Pomp- 
ton, Sept. 24, 1753. 

Hendrick G. Gerritse (he wrote his name Henry G. Gar- 
ritse) and Annaatie Van Winkle (dau. of Marinus) had 
children : 

I. Garret, b. Jan. 14, 1753. 
II. Marinus, b. Dec. 19, 1 754. 

III. John, b. March 12, 1759. 

IV. Abraham, b. Sept. 26, 1762. 

In his will, dated Jan. 28, 177S, proved May 13, 1775, 
Henry G. Garritse gave his " oldest son. Garret Garretse, 
three pounds New York Currency for his Primogeniture" ; 
to John, £100 New York currency ; to Abraham, his (testa- 
tor's) dwelling house and barn with ten acres adjoining Pe- 
ter Paulesse's west line ; to Garret and Marinus, the rest of 
his real estate. Robert Drummond, Michael. Vreeland and 
testator's wife, executors. 3 

Johannis Gerritse and Geertje Ryerse had children: 
I. Johannes, b. Nov. 12, 1769.- 
II. Antje, b. Aug. 20, 1772. 

1 Essex County Wills, Book A, f. 218. 

2 G. Van Houten MSS., 14. 

3 Liber L of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 396. 

III. Gerrit, b. Aug. 22, 1777 ; d. in infancy. 
IV. Jacob, b. Aug. 22, 1777 (twin with Gerrit) ; sup- 
posed to have m. Grietje Cadmus. Ch. John, b. Jan. 19, 

V. Gerrit, b. Feb. 18, 1780 ; m. Mary Romaine (dau. 
of Ralph Romaine). Ch. Bregie, b. Dec. 5, 1815 ; John G., 
Ralph, Abram, and four others. 

Sixth Generation. 

Roelof Van Wagoner and Saertje (Sarah) Jurians had one 
child : 

I. Hermanns, b. May 8, 1795 ; m. Jane Edsall, Dec. 
17, 1812. During the war of 1812 he joined the American 
army at Sandy Hook, caught the camp fever and died there 
in the fall of 1814, at the early age of ig. 

Henry Garritse, jun., and Hillegont Van Winkle had 
children : 

I. Catharina, b. April 7, 1772; m. Henry P. Kip, 
jun., of Rutherford, Dec. 11, 1790. 

II. Jannetje, b. Dec. 19, 1774; m. Gerrebrandt Van 
Houten, of Water street, Paterson, Jan. 30, 1791 ; d. in 
1855. When she was a child between five and six years old 
Washington called at her father's house, and attracted by 
the remarkable beauty of the little girl, took her on his knee 
and told her he would fetch her "a doll with bright black 
eyes just like her own." Alas ! the doll never came. She 
was a woman of very superior ability. A portrait of her, 
taken about 1820, is in the possession of her great-grand- 
daughter, Mrs. William Nelson. 

III. Johannes, b. March 2, 1780 ; m. Polly, only child 
of Elias J. Vreeland, of Wesel, June 19, 1800. He was 
generally called and wrote his name John H. Garritse ; 
sometimes John H. Garritse, jun., to distinguish him from 
John H. Gerritse, born and living in the Bogt, son of Hen- 
ry Gerritse who m. Elizabeth, dau. of Cornells Gerritse. 
He died intestate, and letters of administration were grant- 
ed, May 6, 1817. 

Seventh Generation. 

Hermanns Van Wagoner and Saertje Jurians had one 
child : 

I. Johannis, b. January 13, 1815, three months after 
his father's death in the army. 

John H. Garritse (son of Henry Garritse, jun.) and Polly 
Vreeland had children : 

I. Hillegont, b. Nov. 6, 1801 ; m. John Merselis, of 
Market street. Among her descendants this ancient Ger- 
manic name is contracted into Hiley or Hilletje. 
II. Elizabeth, b. Dec. 22, 1803. 

III. Jenneke, b. May 31, 1806. 

IV. Catliarina,^b. Sept. 28, 1810. 

John H. Gerritse (son of Henry John Gerritse and Eliza- 
beth, dau. of Cornells Gerritse) m. Nov. 11, 1787, Margrietje 
Van Rypen, a maiden b. and living at Slooterdam. Chil- 
dren : 

I. Elizabeth, b. July 16, 1789. 
II. Simeon, b. Dec. 9, 1791. 
III. Hendrick, b. Nov. 19, 1793, d. in infancy. 



IV. Hendrick, b. Nov. 20, 1796. 
V. Margrietje, b. Sept. 6, 1799. 
John H. Gerritse, widower (perhaps the man just men- 
tioned), m. 2d, Maragrietje Post, widow, April 3, 1803, and 
had one child, Susanna, b. April 25, 1812. 

Gerret G. van Wagenen, b. and living at Slooterdam (a 
grandson, it is understood, of S pykerkop Gat), m. Helena 
'Schoonmaker, maiden, b. at Esopus and living at Wesel, 
Jan. 5, 1791. She was a daughter of the Rev. Henricus 
Schoonmaker, pastor of the Acquackanonk church at the 
time. Children : 

I. Helena, b. Jan. 30, 1792. 

II. Cornelius Schoonmaker, b. July 8, 1798. He was 
for many years the leading surveyor in and about Paterson. 
He was the father of Isaac Van Wagoner, a prominent law- 
yer. Surrogate of Passaic county, 1870-75 ; of Garret Van 
Wagoner, Judge in St. Louis, Mo., many years; and of Mary 
A., wife of Abraham A. Fonda, City Surveyor of Paterson, 

III. Fytje, b. Dec. 17, 1800. 

IV. Garret, b. Aug. 15, 1805 ; Judge of the Passaic 
County Courts, 1866-71, and member of the Assembly in 
1865 and 1866. 

In the church records the surname of the same person 
was entered sometimes Gerritse and sometimes Van Wagen- 
en ; occasionally with, and more frequently without a dis- 
tinguishing middle initial, indicating whose son he was. 
Thus we have Gerret Van Wagenen, Gerrit Gerritse and 
Garret H. Garretse, husband of Catharina Van Bussen, 
whose children were: I. Annaetje, b. Jan. 13, 1775 j 2. 
Abigail, b. Oct. 25, 1777; 3. Annatje, b. Dec. I, 1782. 
The old Dutch people were persistent in trying to keep 
certain names in the family ; it is not unusual to find three 
children, one after another, given the same baptismal name, 
the first and second having died. Here are some other ex- 
tracts from the records : 

Johannes Van Wagenen and Rachel Traphagen, m. July 
23, 1876. Children — i. Gerret, Nov. 13, 1786; 2. Fytje, 
Sept. 7, 1793. 

Hendrick M. Gerritse and Thyna Doremus, m. Dec. 27, 
1804: Children — l. Annaatje, Dec. I, 1805; 2. Hendrick, 
June 18, 1811; 3-. Catharina, July 21, 1813. 

Henricus I. Gerritse and Myntje (Jemima) Hopper, m. 
June 21, 1806. Children — I. Antje, Feb. 27, 1807 5 2. John, 
July 9, 1S09 ; 3. Gerrit, Dec. 15, 1811. 

Marynus Gerretse and Annaatje Lisk : Children — I. Hen- 
drick, April 8, 1780; 2. Johannes, Dec. 14, 1781 ; 3. Trynt- 
je, July 24, 1793. 

Pieter Gerretse and Priscilla Cadmus : Children — I. Ger- 
ret, bap. Jan. 22, 1769 ; 2. Jannetje, b. July 16, 1780. 

John Garretse and Antje Toers, m. May I, 1783. Child- 
ren — I. Annaatje, June 11, 1784; 2. Cathalyntje, Feb. 15, 
1786; 3. Hendrick, Oct. 27, 1787. 

Johannes Gerritse and Antje Van Winkel : Child — Jo- 
hannis, Dec. 7, 1790. 

Gerret Gerritse and Grietje Gerritse : Child — Marritje, 
Sept. 27, 1791. 

Pieter Gerritse, widower, m. Jannetje Van Vechten, wid. 
of Ad. Post, Aug. 5, 1781. 

Helmich Van Wagenen m. Fietje Van Duyn, Jan. 15, 

Helmich Gerritse m. Maria Van Aalen, Feb. 25, 1792. 

Gerrit GerritsQ m. Maragrietje Van Rypen, July 12, 1794. 

Peter Van Wagenen m. Sarah Plum, Sept. 25, 1796. 

Jacob Gerritse m. Lea Wesselse, Feb. 6, 1803. 

John G. Gerritse m. Elizabeth Van Giesen, Mar. 31, 

Jacobus Van Wagenen m. Grietje Cadmus, Sept. 21, 

Henry G. Gerritse m. Margerit Blair, Feb. 9, 1812. 

John I. Gerritse, jun., m. Mary Brouwer, Mar. 21. 1813. 

Peter H. Gerritse and Eva Romyn had children: I. 
Geertje, b. April 30, 1789; 2. Joannes, b. Aug. 24, 1791. 

Garret G. Garretse (probably a son of Gerrit G. Van 
Wagenen and Rachel Westervelt, and a grandson of Gerre- 
brant, son of Gerrit Gerritse and Maritje Gerbrants) m 
Marritje Doremus, April 17, 1791. Children — I. Gerrit, b, 
Nov. 5, 1791 ; 2. Rachel, b. Oct. 15, 1794; 3. Marragrietje, 
b. Jan. I, 1797; 4. Hendrick, b. Aug. 30, 1799; 5. Come 
lius, b. Nov. 24, 1801; 6. Gerrebrant, b. Nov. 19, 1805; 7. 
Simeon, b. Nov. 19, 1809. 

Garret Joh. Gerritse and Margrietje C. Doremus had 
child : Marretje, b. Sept. 3, 1784. 

III. AND XL Walling Jacobs and Symon Jacobs 
(Van Winkle). 
According to the Dutch system of nomenclature in the 
seventeenth century, it is proper to infer that these two men 
were sons of a man whose Christian name was Jacob. It is 
also safe to assume, from the customs of the time, that Wal- 
ling and Symon were the names of members of the family 
of a preceding generation. In the annals of that century 
we have two men living in the neighborhood of Bergen, one 
called Jacob Waling, and the other called Simon Waling, 
and in the generation after them we find their names per- 
petuated among a family known in later years as the Van 
Winkles. In view of these facts, and in the absence of ev- 
idence to the contrary, the writer assvtmed twenty years ago, 
that Jacob Waling was the common ancestor of this family 
in this vicinity.l It is true, that Jacob Waling is spoken of 
as from Hoorn, and that Simon V/aling is referred to as 
from the Bilt — van de Bilt ; but the Van Horns of Hudson 

1 The author submitted these conclusions in. January, 1874, to the late 
Dr. E. B. 0'Callaghan,who, in a very kind letter in reply, doubted their 
correctness, taking the view that Jacob Walingen van Hoorn could not 
have been the ancestor of the van Winkels, nor could Simon Waling van 
de Bilt have been related to either Jacob Waling van Hoorn, or to the 
van Winkels. After the publication of Winfield's History of Hudson 
County, the author informed jVIr. Winfield of the above views regarding 
the ancestry of the van Winkels, but Mr. Winfield was of the same opin- 
ion as Dr. O'Callaghan. At that time the records of the Dutch church 
in New York had been very imperfectly published ; since then, they have 
been printed with great care in the N. Y. Genealogical and Biographical 
Record, and we have tlie dates of baptisms of three of the children of 
Jacob Waling, as will be seen hereafter. These baptisms establish be- 
yond all reasonable doubt the fact that Jacob Waling was the founder of 
the van Winkel family in tliis region. 



county do not trace their ancestry to the former, nor do 
the Vanderbilts claim Simon Waling as their progenitor. 
Assuming that the two men were brothers, it is not unlikely 
that Simon may have migrated from Winkel — a small vil- 
lage in the northern part of North Holland — to Hoorn, one 
of the principal seaports of the same province, on the Zuid- 
er Zee, and thence down to de Bilt, another little village, 
near Utrecht. Jacob perhaps made his way to Hoorn at the 
same time, and as both brothers became somewhat identi- 
fied with the places where they had made new homes, the 
one was called Jacob, van Hoorn, and the other Simon, van 
de Bilt. In later years, desiring to be identified with their 
ancestral home, their descendants took the name or were 
called van Winkel, after the little village whence Jacob and 
Simon originally came. Simon was one of a large party of 
settlers who came out from Holland, in the ship Rensselaers- 
luyck, in which they sailed October I, 1636, and located at 
Rensselaerswyck, New York, under the direction of the Pa- 
troon of that colony. 1 He was still there in 1644, when he 
was assessed 24 schepels of wheat and 26 schepels of oats 
for the tenth due to the Patroon.2 He entered into an agree- . 
ment, October 7, 1648, to purchase Peter vander Linden's 
plantation on Manhattan island, for 175 guilders (about 
$70). 3 A few months later he appears to have been settled at 
Pavonia, about Paulus Hoeck, where he was found dead, on 
March 9, 1649, and from the arrows and wounds in his 
head he was naturally supposed to have been killed by the 
Indians, probably by the Raritans, or by some of a more 
southern tribe. His house was plundered of about 300 
guilders in string sewant, four beavers and five otters, with 
some cloth and friezes. It was conjectured that this theft 
drew him from his house in pursuit of the marauders, as he 
was found lying dead on the ground, wilh a small ladder in 
his hand, about a pistol shot from his door. The body was 
carried across the river to Manhattan, where the affair cre- 
ated so much excitement that the Governol- and Council de- 
cided to make no further stir about it, and to do what they 
could to reconcile the whites and the Indians. Still, it was 
included as one of the counts against the natives in justifi- 
cation of the massacre of 1655, i' making the deeper im- 
pression because it was the first fatal affair following after 
the peace of 1645.4 These are the only notices we have of 
Simon Waling. His life in the New World was brief, and 
his end a tragic one. 

The first mention we have of Jacob Walingen is under 
date of January 12, 1639, when he made a declaration that 
David Peterson (de Vries), of Hoorn, skipper, had in the 
year 1636 threatened to leave Cicero Pierre at Cayenne and 
Virginia.S This suggests that Jacob may have accompanied 
de Vries on the voyage in question, or that they were ac- 

1 O'Callaghan's New Netberland, I., 436. 

2 lb., 472. 

3N. Y. tlist. MSS.,1.,335. 

4 Valentine's N. Y. Manual, 1863, 547-8 ; A Brief and True Narra- 
tive, etc., 1655-6, reprinted at Albany, 1873, 5-6 ; Remonstrance of New 
Netberland, 28 ; N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 49. 

5N. Y. Hist. MSS.,1.,5. 

quaintances at Hoorn. In 1641 he and Jan Evertsen Bout 
were appointed on a committee of twelve men to suggest to 
the authorities the best means to punish the Indians for 
murders they had committed. 1 He appears to have made an 
unsuccessful attempt to locate a colony at the Fresh River 
(the Connecticut), the English refusing to grant the petition 
of his company to take up land, of which the New England- 
ers afterwards took possession themselves.2 A patent was 
granted to him, October 23, 1654, for "25 m.orgens of land 
across the North River, between Gemoenepae and the Kil 
van Kol."3 He was admitted to the rights of a small Burgh- 
er of New Amsterdam, April 17, 1657.* He must have died 
soon after, for his widow, Tryntje Jacobs, married Jacob 
Stoffelsen (widower of Vrouwtje Ides), August 17, 1657, by 
whom she had two children — Stoffel, bap. December 19, 
1660, and Tryntje Jacobs, bap. Jan. 28, 1665. On June 17, 
1668, she was again married, this time to Michael Tades, 
(widower of Annetje Eduwarts).5 Surviving him, she for a 
fourth time entered the state of matrimony, on March 15, 
1671, Casper Steenmets, a widower, being her next choice. 
She died May 11, 1677, and Steenmets succeeded to her 
rights, as the widow of Stoffelsen, to a tract of land on Erie, 
Grove and South streets and Jersey avenue, Jersey 
City.6 She was the third wife of Steenmets, his first having 
been Dorothea Aestens, and his second, m. March 31, 1651, 
Jenneken Gerrits, spinster, from Zutphen. His son, Chris- 
topher Steenmets, subsequently became interested in Ac- 
quackanonk, and his descendants are nujnerous in this re- 

S econd Generation. 

Jacob Waling and Tryntje Jacobs had children : 

I. Grietje, b. about 1645 ; m. Elias Michielse (Vree- 
land), of Gemoenepa, Aug. 30, 1665. Her descendants vrill 
be found under her husband's name, on a subsequent page. 
II. Jacob, bap. Oct. 16, 1650 ; m. Aeltje Daniels, wid., 
Dec. 15, 1675; 2d, Grietje Hendricks HoUinge, March 26, 
1695, who d. Sept. 20, 1732 ; he d. Nov. 20, 1724. 

III. Waling, b. about 165 1 ; m. Catharina Michielse 
(Vreeland), March 15, 1671. He never seems to have held 
any public office, and the notices of him are but few in the 
records. The belief is that soon after 1700 he lo- 
cated on the east bank of the Passaic, opposite and below 
the draw-bridge, where he had an extensive farm, embrac- 
ing much of the present Rutherford, which he had bought 
in 1682, or earlier, from John Berry. T In 1707 a road was 

1 N. Y. Civil List, i86g, 5. 

2 Remonstrance of New Netherland, 28 ; N. Y. Col. Docs., I., 332. 

3 N. Y. Hist. MSS., I., 381 ; O'Callaghan's New Netherland, II., 588. 

4 The Register of New Netheriand; 1626 to 1674. By E. B. O'Cal- 
laghan, LL.D. ; Albany, 1865, 182; N. Y. Hist. Soc. CoUectious, 
1885, 24. 

5 N. Y. Dutch Church Records, passim. 

6 Winfield's Land Titles of Hudson County, 46, 349, 402. At a meet- 
ing of the Governor and Council at Newark, May 28, 1673, "A commit- 
tee had examined the petition of Casper Steenmets in behalf of Trenica 
Wallens his wife to the second farm at Harsimus, granted March 5, 1665, 
to Jacob Stoffelsen then husband of Tryntje Wallings." — E.J. Deeds, 
Liber 3,/. 82. 

1 Recital in E. J. Deeds, Liber A, f. 40. 



laid out from "the place called the Pole-Fly to Wallen Ja- 
cobson's," indicating that he was then on the east side of the 
Passaic. Some of his descendants occupy part of this Ber- 
gen county tract to this day. Although he is spoken of as 
"of Acquackanonk in the county of Essex," it is to be borne 
in mind that the bounds of Acquackanonk were sometimes 
construed to extend across the river into the present Bergen 
county. However, while Waling may have established a 
home with his brother Symon and their neighbors, along the 
western shores of the Passaic river, upon one of the Hund- 
red Acre Lots, we find him, as stated on a previous page, 
conveying away a half of his interest in Acquackanonk, by 
deed dated May 6, 1689, to the heirs of Abram Cprnelisse 
van Waggim. As this is the oldest document known to ex- 
ist, next to the Patent itself, relating to the conveyance of 
land within the bounds of Acquackanonk, it is given here- 
with in its quaint and somewhat peculiar Dutch. The com- 
mas at the end of words indicate a contraction, usually for 
the letter e or the letter n : 

Compareerde voor my Claes Arentse toers Klerck jn d' Jurisdicy' 
Bergen jn oost nieu Jarsey d' Eersame Walinkh Jacobse van Winckel 
woonachtich op Achquickanonck jn d' County van essex d' welck' By 
desen bekend' opdraege' geceedeert' en getransporteert' t' hebben, aend' 
Erfgenaemen van Wylen Abram Cornelisse van Waggim Salr: een Lott 
Landt geleegen jn d' Buurte van Achquichanonck jn d' nieuw' Lotinge 
geteekent No. 8 synd' d' Heift van het Veertiend' gedeeltjn d' Buurte 
van Achquichanonck Welck' Lott Landt hy voor desen Bekend' verkoght 
te hebbe' aend' voorn. Abram Cornelisse voor d' Somm' van ^^j^ftich £ 
of tweedingsent gulders en d' Bekend' van alles ten dancke voldaen en 
Betaelt t'weisen d' Laetst' penninck met den Eersten, soo dat d' Compar- 
andt het voorn: Lott Landt by desen Cedeert e' transporteert e' opdraeg- 
aend' gemelte Erfgenamen van Abram Comeliss' van Waggim of te aeu 
desselfs successuers ofte die naemaels dese haerlieden acty mocht' ver- 
krygen, jn een Volkomen possessy e' Eygendom met alle d' Laste e' 
gerechticheden tot het selve Lott Landt Verhaarend' haerde' dat de Com- 
parandt daer Ewich reght of acty, of of pretensy aen is Belioudend' 
roaer desis daer van voor hem selfs of successuers oft' di' namaels syn 
acty mochte verkrj-gen van nu en ten Eeuwigen daegen beloovend' dit 
transpoort \'ast e' onverbreekelycic te houden doen houden alles ondert 
verbandt' van alle Reghten e' reght' In oiccord' deses heeft Comparandt 
dit met syn Eygen handt onderteykent e' geseegelt Actum Bergen jn 
oost Nieu Jarsey den 6 mey 1689 

Getekent en gesegelt jn onse precenty .walin Jacobsen [L. S.] 

Als getuygen 
R. Van: Giesen In kennis van my Claes Arentse 

Jan Arent toers klerck 

[Endorsed :] 

transpoordt en opdraght 

van Walingh Jacobse 

aende Erfgenamen 

Wylen Abram 

Cornelisse van WagCgim] 

Appeared before me, Claes Ai-entse Toers, Clerk in the jurisdic- 
tion of Bergen in East New Jersey, the Hon. Waling Jacobsen van Wink- 
el, living at Acquackanonk in tlie county of Essex, who by these pres- 
ents acknowledges that he has transferred, assigned and conveyed unto 
the heiress of the late Abram Cornelissen van Waggim, deceased, a lot of 
land lying within the precinct of Acquackanonk, in the new allotment, 
marked No. 8, being the [or " his "] Half of the Fourteenth 
share in the precinct of Acquackanonk, which Lot of land be ac- 
knowledges to have heretofore sold unto the aforesaid Abram Cornelissen 
for the sum of fifty pounds or two hundred guilders, and he also ac- 
knowledges the said obligation to be paid and satisfied, the last penny 
with the first, so that the grantor by these presents assigns, transfers 
and conveys the said Lot of land unto the said heiress of Abram Cornelis- 
sen van Waggim or to her successors or to her heirs after her, so that 
they may be vested with the complete possession and ownership , with 

all of the appurtenances and rights in, of and to the said lot of land per- 
taining, so that the appearer forever hereafter shall have no claim, or 
deed, or title or pretense to ownership therein, but for himself and his 
successors binds himself and them, from now to eternity, that by no act 
of his can or may this conveyance be challenged, but shall be observed, 
done and kept by everyone bound by every right and justice. In ac- 
cordance therewith the appearer has with his own hand subscribed and 
sealed this instrument. Done at Bergen in East New Jersey the sixth 
of May 1689 

Signed and sealed in our presence Walin Jacobsen [L. S.] 

As witnesses 

R. Van : Giesen In the cognizance of me Claes Arentse 

Jan Arent Toers, Clerk 

[Endorsed :] 

Assignment and Transfer 

from WaJingh Jacobse 

to the Heiress 

of the late Abram Cornelisse van Wag[gim] 

Abram Cornelissen van Waggim was doubtless a son of 
Cornelis Abrahams, an agriculturist from Gelderland (and 
probably hova. Wageningen), who migrated to this country 
in the Gilded Otter, which sailed from New Netherland 
April 27, 1660.1 The Grietje Abrams, or Grietje Cornelis 
mentioned below, was in all likelihood his daughter and sole 
heiress. She and her husband — the first Barkalow occur- 
ring in the history of this neighborhood — joined in the fol- 
lowing deed : 

Compareerde voor my Claes Arents' toers Klerck jnd' Jurisdicy' van 
Bergen jn oost nieu Jarsey d' Eersame' Jan Harmiensen van Borkeloo 
en grietje abrams ge eghte [ woonacht de eygenaer een stuck] 

Landt' synd' wettige -Erfgenamen van wylen : Abram Corn[eliss' van 
Waggim] en By deses Bekende' en verklaert' opgedraegen [geceederten 
getrans]poorteert' te hebben , gelyck sylieden [opgedrjaegen , cedeeren' 
en transpoorteeren by desen Aen en ten behoev' van Hossel Pieterse 
woonachtich op Achqueghanonk jnd' County van essex, een stuck Landt, 
geleegen jnd' Buurte van Achqueghanonck jnd' County van essex jnd' 
nieuwe Looting', geteekend' No. 8 synd' de Helft van het veertiend' 
gedeelt' jnd' gemelte Buurte sodanick als het d' Comparant' van d' 
Eerst' Eygenaer Walingh Jacobse de' 6 mey 1689 getranspoorteert is, 
welck Lott Landt sylieden Bekenne voor desen verkoght te hebben aend' 
gemelte hessel pieterse voord' somme van tweentsestigh pont tien schel- 
ling', oft' vyfentwintigh gulden hondert Nierlants gelt volgens Coop- 
brief gedateert den 12 maert 1693;; e' Bekenne' By desen van alle' ten 
dancke voldae' en Betaelt te weesen, de Laetste peninck met de' eerste soo 
dat Comparant' het voorn : Lott Lant, By desen opdraegen', cedeeren en^ 
transporteeren aend' gemelt Hessel Pieterse, en aen syn successuers en 
erfgenamen, ofte die namaels dese syne Acty mochte verkrj'gen, in een 
ware volcomene' possessy, en eygendom met alle de Laste en geregh- 
ticheede, tot het selve Lott Landt Behooren sender dat sy cedent' daer 
Eewige Acty Reght, of tytel, of pretensy aen syn Belioudend', maer 
desisteerende dae' van, voorhaerlieden selfs en voor haere successuers, en 
erfgenamen, voor nu en ten eeuwigen daegen, Beloovend' dit transpoort 
vast bondich en onverbreekelyck te houden en doen houden, alles on- 
dert verbandt van alle' Rechten, en Rechteren, In oiccord' deses hebben 
de Comparant' dit met haer eygen handen onderteykent, Actum Bergen 
In oost nieu Jarsey den 20 iMey 1695 

Jan Harmiensen van berkello [L. S.] 
Getekent, en geseegelt, en geleesert 

jn onse presenty als getuyg' 
Johanniss thomassin 
dit ist merck van 

Cornelis Thomasse 
jan arent den[to?]ers 
[Endorsed :] 

Transpoort van J[an] 
Harmese van Borcoloo 
Hessel Pieterse ' 

den 20 mey 1695 

IN. Y. Doc. Hist, m., 37. 

dit ist merck van 
Grietje X Cornelis [L. S.] 

In kennis van myn 

Claes Arentse toers Clerck 



Memor-indum, on the ii day of february in 

the Year of our Lord One Thousand [Seven Hu]ndred & fifty Three 
Johannes Thomasse one of the [subscribing! Witnesses to the within 
Deed, being duly Sworn before [me Uzal] Ogden one of the Judges of 
the Inferiour Court of Common Pleas for the County of Essex, maketh 
Oath that he Saw John [Harmien]sen van Borkeloo, and Griety Cornel- 
ius otherwise called Grietje [Abram]s his Wife Seal & Deliver the within 
Instrument as their Voluntary Act and Deed. — 

Taken & Acknowledged & Sworn 
the Day & Date above 
before me — 

Uzal Ogden 

Appeared before me, Claes Arentse Toers, Clerk in the jurisdiction of 
Bergen, in East New Jersey, the Honorable (or honest) Jan Harmiensen 
van Berkelool and Grietje Abrams, his wife [ the owner of a piece 

of] land being the lawful heiress of the said Abram Cornelissen van 
Waggim, and by these presents acknowledges and declares that she has 
transferred, given and conveyed unto and in behalf of Hessel Pieterse, 
living at Acquackanonk in the county of Essex, a tract of land lying 
within the precinct of Acquackanonk, in the new allotment, known as 
No. 8, and the half of the fourteenth share in the said precinct, in the 
same manner as was conveyed to the appearer by the former owner, 
Walingh Jacobse, the 6 May, 1689, which lot of land by these presents she 
acknowledges to have sold unto the said Hessel Pieterse, for the sum of 
sixty-two pounds ten shillings, or one hundred and twenty-five gulden, 
Netherlands money, pursuant to a contract dated IMarch 12, i69>t?, and 
she acknowledges by these presents to have received full satisfaction and 
payment, the last penny with the first, so that the grantor by these pres- 
ents conveys, gives and grants the aforesaid lot of land to the said Hes- 
sel Pieterse, and to his successors and heirs, so that henceforth 
by this his deed may be acquired, in a true, perfect possession and 
ownership, with every custom and right, so that the said lot of land thus 
granted, shall belong forever, with every right, title or claim to him be- 
longing, without the let or hindrance of her, or her successors and 
heirs, from now to the day of judgment, promising this convey- 
ance to keep firmly and inviolably, and to do and fulfill everything here- 
in obligated, with every right and justice. In pursuance whereof the 
grantor has subscribed these presents vrith her own hand. Done at 
Bergen in East New Jersey the 20 IVIay, 1695. 

Jan Harmiensen van berckello [L. S.] 

Signed, sealed and read 
in our presence as witnesses 

Johannis Thomasse this is the mark of 

Grietje Cornells [L. S.] 

In the cognizance of 
Claes Arentse toers Clerk 

this is the mark of 

Cornells Thomasse 
jan arent den [to?]ers 
[Endorsed :] 

Transfer from Jan 
Harmiensen Van Borcoloo 

Hessel Pieterse 

the 20 May 1695 

It is a curious fact that these deeds seem to have been 
lost sight of within half a century after their delivery, and 
in 1756 Peter H. Peterse, son of Hessel Peterse, the grantee 
in the deed named from Van Berckelloo, took legal steps to 

1 Jan Harmansen van Berckelloo was doubtless a son of Harman 
Janse, who emigrated to this country, with his brother, Willem Janse, in 
1662, and bought a house and lot in New Utrecht, Long Island, Feb. 17, 
1667, where he resided thereafter. — Bergen^s Kings County Settlers^ 2t. 
The family derive their surname from Borculo, in Gelderland, Holland, 
a town and district where a magnificent court was established as early 
as 1190, which was maintained with varjMng fortunes so late as 1850, 
when it was sold by the crown to various individuals. Borculo proper 
has a population of about 1200, but with three villages embraced in the 
district, about 4,000. — Terwen, 598. 

perpetuate such testimony as was available, regarding his 
right to the lands so bought by his father. The following 
papersl tell the story of this proceeding, being now brought 
into place with the original Dutch deeds, for the first time 
in nearly a century and a half : 
Mr. John Van Winckle 

You are hereby desired to take Notice, that I intend to examine Mich- 
ael Van Winckle and John Walense Van AVinckle upon Oath, before 
Samuel Nevill, Esq., one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the 
Province of New Jersey, concerning what they know or can declare 
touching their Father, Walense Van Winckle's Selling and Conveying a 
Tract of Land at Aquahenonck to Abraham Cornelius Vanwackum, and 
what they further know relating to the said Land ; at the House of John 
Walense Van Winckle, To-morrow Morning, about Seven of the Clock 
being Saturday the 12th Day of June, 1756. This Notice is therefore 
given to you, that you may be present, and ask them any Questions you 
think proper: They being very antient men, and their Testimony, as I 
believe, material in that Affair. 

Peter H. Peterse. 
June nth 

[Signature of] 

Hessel Petersie 
Be it Remembered, That on the Twelfth day of June, 1756. personal- 
ly appeared before me, Samuel NeviU, Esq., one of the Justices of the 
Supreme Court of Judicature for the Province of New Jersey, Hessel 
Petersie,2 who being first duly sworn upon the Holy Evangelists, de- 
clareth and saith. That he served a Copy of the within Notice upon John 
Van Winckle Son of Jacob Walense Van Winckle upon Friday the nth 
Day of June 1756, at the House of the said John Van Winckle. In Wit- 
ness whereof I have hereunto set my Hand the Day and Year above 

Samuel Nevill 

New Jersey, Ss. 

Michael Van Winckle, of New Barbadoes Neck in the County of Ber- 
gen, and Province of New Jersey, Yeoman Aged Seventy Nine, deposeth 
and saith, That Walling Jacob Van Winckle was this Deponent's Fath- 
er ; That he this Deponent very well remembers, That his said Father 
Walling Jacob Van Winckle sold to one Abraham Cornelius Van Wagum 
One Eight and Twentieth Part or one Half of his the said Walling Ja- 
cob Van Winckle's Right to the Aquahenonck Patent, together with a 
Lot of Land Numb. 8. in the New Allotments now lying in a Place called 
Weeselle, as also all his Right, Claim, and Title to the said Eight and 
Twentieth Part of the said Patent, the same in Twenty Eight Parts to 
be divided. And this Deponent further saith. That he hath often heard 
his said Father say, and declare. That he had sold to the said Van Wag- 
um all his Eight and Twentieth Part or One Half of his Right to the 
Aquahenonck Patent aforesaid ; and that the said Patent hes in the 
County of Essex in the Province aforesaid. And this Deponent further 
saith. That since the said Bargain and Sale between the said Walling Ja- 
cob Van Winckle and the said Abraham Cornelius Van Wagum as afore- 
said, he this Deponent never heard his said Father lay or pretend any 
Claim to the said Eight and Twentieth Part of the said Patent, or to any 
Part or Parcel thereof. And further this Deponent saith not. 
Sworn this Twelfth) Mighiel Van Winkel 

Day of July, 1756. / 

Samuel Nevill. 
New Jersey, Ss. 

John Van Winckle, of New Barbadoes Neck in the County of Bergen 
and Province of New Jersey, Yeoman, Aged Seventy Three, deposeth 
and saith, That Walling Jacob Van Winckle was this Deponent's Father ; 
That he this Deponent hath often heard the said Walling Jacob Van 

1 From the Nelson MSS. These papers are all in the handwriting of 
Judge Nevill. 

2 Son of Peter Hessel Peterse. 



Winckle say and declare, That he the said Walling had sold to one Abra- 
"ham Cornelius Van Wagum One Eight and Twentieth Part of the 
Aquahenonck Patent, or One Half of his said Father's Right to the said 
Patent, together with the Lot of Land Numb. 8. in the New Allotments, 
now lying in a Place called Weeselle in the County of Essex, and Prov- 
ince aforesaid. And this Deponent further saith. That he never heard 
his said Father lay or pretend any Claim to the said Eight and Twenti- 
eth Part of the said Patent, or to any Part or Parcel thereof, after the 
said Bargain and Sale as aforesaid. And further this Deponent saith 

Sworn this Twelfth) his 

Day of July, 1756. J John X Van Winckle 

Before Samuel Nevill. 

It has been previously stated that Walling Jacobs con- 
veyed the other half of his Acquackanonk patent, including 
the Lot which may have been occupied by him, to his son- 
in-law, Harmanus Gerritse, October 14, 1702, the particular 
Lot being "between the lott of Adrian Post on the south 
west and the Church Lott on the northeast." 

It is not cigar where Walling lived after he had sold the 
tracts mentioned above. In his will, dated November I, 
1707, proved Sept. 12, 1729, he describes himself as of Ac- 
quackanonk ; he appoints^ his wife, Catharma Van Winkle, 
to be sole executrix, and gives her all his estate, real and 
personal, during her life ; after her death, his oldest son, 
Jacob, to have twenty shillings, New York money, and to 
inherit and hold the house lot of six acres then occupied by 
him. ; his second son, Machael Van Winkle, to have the 
second house lot of six acres, being "the middle side of the 
three house lots j" the third son, Johannes, to have "the 
third or northeast house lot, whereupon the house, barn and 
orchard stands, containing also six acres, the overplus value 
of the house and barn to be appraised and divided among 
his brothers and sisters ;" Jacob also to have the third of 
testator's lands, being the southwest side of said land ; the 
other two-thirds to be divided between Michael and Johan- 
nes. "The positive appraisement of all the abovesaid land 
and immovable property to be £375. The mention of the 
abovesaid land shall be understood only for the five hun- 
dred acres of land lying on Passaic river between the lands 
of Tades Machielson and the King's land."! Walling 
Jacobs was elected an Elder in the Acquackanonk church in 
1696, and again in 1701. 

IV. Symon, bap. Aug. 24, 1653 ; m. Annetje Sip, Dec. 
15, 1675. Symon had barely attained his majority ere he 
appeared in court to vindicate his reputation, the proceed- 
ings being thus recorded : 

1674, July 7 : Symon Jacobse complaining by petition that he is gross- 
ly calumniated by the false accusation of Dirck Gerretse, as if the peti- 
tioner had committed a very shameful and scandalous action, requesting 
justice against the accused, etc. 

Ordered : The Magistrates of the town of Bergen are ordered legally 
and publicly to summon Dirck Gerretse within 14 days, and to proceed 
against him according to law, on petitioner's complaint, or else to put 
their previous judgment against him into execution. 2 

As the records are silent regarding the outcome, we 
may hope that the difference between neighbors was am- 

1 Book B of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 133. The 
reference is doubtless to the tract bought of Berry in 1682. What is 
meant by the " King's land " is not clear. There was no vacant land in 
that neighborhood at this time. 

2 N. Y. Col. Docs., II., 729 ; N. J. Archives, I., 151. 

icably adjusted. In 1709 Symon was chosen Elder in the 
Acquackanonk church. By the recitals in the deed given on 
pages 76-77, it appears that Symon Jacobs had been allotted 
two tracts of land out of the Patent — No. 13, apparently 
just north of Van Houten's lane, near Passaic Bridge ; and 
No. 4, apparently at Wesel. Symon lived on the former 
farm. By deed dated May 18, 1722, he conveyed to his son 
Marinus, nearly all of this farm, describing it as a tract "at 
the rear of the lot on which I now dwell, beginning four 
chains from the rear of the said house lot, thence running 
north 40 degs. westerly 93 1-2 chains; south 44 degs. west- 
erly 10.26 chains; south 46 degs. easterly 93 1-2 chains, and 
thence to the beginning, containing 96 acres ; bounded 
southerly with John Spier, easterly with my own land, 
northerly with Arie Post." By the same deed he also con- 
veyed to his son Marinus an equal half of all his interest in 
the undivided lands within the patent. It is probable that 
he divided all his lands among his sons the same day. By 
deed bearing the date just mentioned he conveyed certain 
lands to his son Abraham, together with "one-half of all 
the undivided lands and rights of lands in the limits of 
Aughquakenunk."! To his son Simeon Van Winkle, of We- 
sel, he gave a deed the same day for £80, 10 s., for "all that 
tract or tracts of land, scituate lying and being at Wezel 
aforesaid already divided or to be divided lying on the north- 
ward side of Hendck Spiers land at Wesell aforesaid es- 
teemed 150 acres be the same more or less. "2 About a 
month before he attained to the age of seventy-five years, 
Symon executed another deed, July 29, 1728, in which he 
sets otit the interesting fact that he is the last survivor of 
the fourteen patentees, and accordingly claims to be entitled 
to all the undivided lands in Acquackanonk, by right of sur- 
vivorship, the patentees having been joint tenants. In this 
deed he releases to his four sons — Jacob, Simeon, Marinus 
and Abraham — all his interest in the undivided lands of Ac- 
quackanonk. There is no deed on record from him for 
lands in the Bogt, or within the present limits of Pater- 
son. It is probable that he gave to his son Jacob, by 
deed bearing date May 18, 1722, Lot 9, East, in the Bogt 
subdivision, and to Simeon a deed for Lot 7, East, in the 
Bogt, as Simeon was occupying the latter Lot in 1719. Ja- 
cob probably had a farm given to him at Wesel, adjoining 
that given to Simeon, and subsequently effected an exchange, 
by which Jacob got two farms at Wesel, and Simeon had 
two farms in the Bogt — -Lot 7 and Lot 9, East. The vener- 
able survivor of the Acquackanonk patentees had not much 
longer to live after the conveyance of 1 728. His will, dated 
June 19, 1722, was proved February 24, 1732, which indi- 
cates approximately the time of his death. Having pre- 
viously conveyed all his real estate to his several sons, he 

1 Recital in unrecorded parchment deed, dated January i, 1795, from 
Francis Van Winkle, son of Abraham, son of Symon. Unfortunately, 
the precise lands conveyed to Abraham are not described, and the deed 
to him has not been found. The parchment deed referred to is in the 
possession of Judge Simmons. With a view to increase its interest, 
someone has clumsily changed the Sate to 1695, but the fraud is trans- 

2 Unrecorded deed formerly in the possession of the late Judge Hen- 
ry H. Voorhis, of Paramus, Bergen county. 



simply disposed of liis personal estate by will, and after the 
usual pious formula provides : 

Item, I give and bequeath unto my dearly beloved Wife Anna by 
Name the sole use and Improvement of my whole Estate during her 
Naturall Life Item My Will is that after the Decease of my said Wife 
all my personall Estate (Excepting my wearing apparrell which I dis- 
pose of Equally Among my Seven Sons) be Equally Divided among my 
Twelve Children (vizt.) Jacob Aria Johannes Gideon, Simeon Marinus 
Abraham Margaret Trintie Rachell Altie and Leah tlie Same Equall 
Twelfth part to be received possessed and Enjoyed by them and Each 
of them Respective^ and to their heirs and Assigns forever And I do 
hereby Authorize Constitute and appoint my Sons Johannes Van Winck- 
le Gedieon Van mnckle Johannes Cowman Joint Executors of this my 
last Will and Testament.l 

He signed his name Symon Van Winckel. His sons Jo- 
hannes and Gideon only qualified as executors, his son-in- 
law, Johannes Koeiman, either declining, or perhaps being 
dead or out of the Province. 

V. Annetje, the youngest child of Jacob Walings and 
Trintje Jacobs, was baptized Jan. 2, 1656, and m. Johannis 
Steynmets, Dec. i, 1676. 

Marritje Jacobse Van Winkel, vsdfe of Jan De Maree, 
joined the Hackensack church, on certificate from the French 
church, April 5, 1696. Query : Was she a daughter of Ja- 
cob Walings? or of Jacob Jacobse Walings? 

Third Generation. 

Jacob Jacobse had children : 

I. Jacob, b. Sept. 19, 1676 ; m. Egie Pauls, March 
6, 1703. 

II. Margrietje, b. Oct. 22, 1678; m. Abraham Vree- 
land, Oct. 28, 1699. 

III. Daniel, b. July 28, 1681 ; m. 1st, Rachael Straat- 
maker, of Hoboken, May 16, 1707 ; she died March 12, 
1708 ; he m. 2d, Jannetje Cornelisse Vreeland, Sept. 3, 
1709; he died Jan. 10, 1757. 

IV. Johannis, b. June 25, 1686, at Bergen ; m. Sitske 
Hendrickse Banta, April 19, 1712; removed to Belleville. 

V. Simeon, b. Jan. 22, 1689 ; m. Jannetje Alger, of 
Hackensack, May 27, 17 10. 

VI. (Son), b. April 11, 1692; d. in inf. 
VII. Hendrick, b. Jan. 20, 1696 ; m. Catrintje Waldron, 
May 26, 1726; d. May 28, 1767. 

VIII. Trintje, b. Jan. 4, 1697 ; m. Meyndert Gerbrantse, 
May 26, 1715; d. July 21, 1753. Ch., Jacob, bap. Jan. 12, 

IX. Teunis, b. Dec. 21, 1698 ; d. in inf. 
X. Samuel, bap. Jan. 5, 1705; d. May 2, 1754. 
Waling Jacobse and Catharina Michielse had children : 
I. Annetje, m. Hermanns G. Van Wagenen, Oct. 6, 

II. Jacob, m. Geertruyt Brickers, of Alban)', Oct. 30, 
1697. Jacob was elected Deacon in the Acquackanonk 
church in 1704 and 171 1. 

III. Michael, bap. June 13, 1677; d. unm. ; his will 
was dated May 21, 174S. 

IV. Trintje, bap. March 25, 1680 ; m. Egbert Sander- 
sen (b. at Staten Island, but living at Acquackanonk), Sept. 
16, 1710; his name was sometimes written Xanders. His 

1 Book B of Wills, Secretary of State's oiEce, Trenton, f. 492. 

children were called Egbertse. In his will, dated Feb. 16,. 
1748, "alias nine," (that is, 1749, New Style), proved Aug. 
7, 1749, he describes himself as of Newark, and names his 
children — Waalens Egbertsen, John Egbertsen, Peter Eg- 
bertsen, Elsie, wife of Cornelius Doremus, Antje Egbert- 
sen. 1 

V. Johannis, m. Hillegont Sip, Sept. 30, 1 710. He 
was elected Deacon in the Acquackanonk church in 1723 
and 1732, and Elder in 1737 and 1743. 

VI. Sarah, m. Gerrit Van Vorst, May 22, 1714. 

VII. Abraham, bap. April 22, 1690; his iiame is not 
mentioned in his father's will of Nov. i, 1717. 

Jacob, Michael and Johannes divided the tract of 500 
acres of land on the east side of the Passaic river', by mutu- 
al releases. By deed dated Feb. 28, 1707, Bartholomew 
Feurt and Magdalena his wife conveyed to Jacob Walingsen 
Van Wincle a tract between Berry's patent and Kingsland's 
patent, running back to Berry's creek.2 In 1717 the road on 
the east bank of the river was laid out, from Jacob Waling's 
southerly to Arent Schu5'ler's; also a road between the 
farms of Jacob and Johannes ; the former of the two broth- 
ers objected, and induced the Legislature"to pass an act in 
1719, vacating the latter road3 — a fact indicating the influ- 
ence of the family, and the development of the settlement. 

Symon Jacobse and Annetje Arianse Sip had children : 
I. Margrietje, bap. 1676; m. Martin Winne, Oct. 30, 
1697. He was b. in Albany in 1675 ; d. at Bergen, July 8, 
1737. His widow m. Cornelis Breyhandt (Bryant), of Hack- 
ensack, Dec. 7, 1700. Children — I. Annaetje, bap. June 
28, 1702; 2. Johannis, bap. Aug.* 27, 1704 (removed to 
Springfield, N. J.) ; 3. Hendricktje, bap. April 24, 1709; 
4. Simon, bap. April 2, 1710; 5. Andries, bap. Jan. 3, 
1 714. 

II. Jacob, b. Aug. 9, 1678, bap. April 18, 1682 ; was a 
member of the Acquackanonk church in 1726; m. ist, Jac- 
omyntje Mattheuse Van Nieuwkerck, April 21, 1701 ; 2d,. 
Catharina Bekling, maiden, of Acquackanonk, Nov. 24, 
1734. He probably dwelt upon one of the lots of 150 acres, 
at Wesel, with a 44-acre lot in the rear, as the land was laid 
out that way in that neighborhood. His will, dated Maixh 
28, 1750 (witnessed by John D. Vreelant, John Van Vegh- 
ten and James Billington), was proved May 9, 1750. All 
the executors qualified. This instrument is unusual in its 
provisions : 

My Will is that all my Estate both Real and Personal be put up to 
Sale at Publick Vendue in three weeks or thereabouts (if found conven- 
ient) after my Decease and the Effects arising therefrom to be put into 
the hands of JMr. Samuel Bayard Junr : of the City and Province of New 
York one of my hereafter named Executors who Shall put the Same to 
Interest which Interest shall be equally Divided the one half to my true 
and loving Wife Catheren and the other one equal half part to my 

1 Book E of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 319. 

2 L^nrecorded deed, which in 1874 was mth many other papers in the 
possession of the late Daniel Van Winkle, of Boiling Spring (now Ruth- 
erford). Among the papers were five letters, from 1736 to 1743, written 
in Dutch, from Hester Slinerlant to her brother (probably Michael 
Slingerland) , and sent from Holland. 

3 History Passaic County Roads and Bridges, 11 ; N. J. Archives, 
XIV., 88, 89, 92; Nevill's Laws, I., 91. 



Daughter Hannauche to them their Heirs and Assigns for ever as also 
the Principal Sums arising as aforesd if they my Said Wife and Daugh- t 
ter their Several Heirs and Assigns Should Stand in need who is also 
hereby Impowered to Call their Several Shares out of his the Said Sam- 
uel Bayards Hands And he the Said Samuel Bayard to Detain for himself 
and for his own use Ten pounds per year and every year yearly So long 
as he Shall continue putting the aforementioned Principal Sums out at 
Interest for his Trouble for so doing and if my said Daughter should Die 
before She arrives to lawful age then and in such Case my said loving 
Wife Catherine to receive the full Principal and Interest of the whole of 
my said Estate to her my said wife her Heirs and Assigns for ever Also 
my Will is that my Executors or either of them that takes the Trouble to 
Gather or Collect the Several Sums for which my said Estate was Sold to 
be allowed three Shillings per day for every Day he is about the Said 
Collection. But should my said Wife and Daughter Dye before and 
without Bequeathing their Several Shares to any one Then and in Such 
Case my Will is that the aforesd. Effects to be Enjoyed and Possessed 
by the Eldest Daughter of my Brother Simion Son Abraham Van Win- 
kle named Ann her Heirs &c And I do also Constitute Ordain and ap- 
point my said true and loving Wife Catherene the aforenamed Mr. Sam- 
uel Bayard and my loving Brother Marrinus Van Winckle the Sole Ex- 
ecutors of this my last Will and Testamentl 

The following advertisement shows that the executors 
were punctual in carrying out the testator's directions : 

To be sold at publick vendue, on Thursday the 7th of lune next en- 
suing, at the Dwelling-House of the late Jacob Van Winckle, deceased, 
at Weesel, in the Precinct of Acquechenong, in the County of Essex, 
East New Jersey : 

A Dwelling-House and Barn, with two Allotments of Land, adjoin- 
ing to each other, containing about 194 Acres, with a good Orchard, al- 
lowed to be of the best Lots in Acquechenong Patent, and lying upon 
the main County Road, from Newark to the Highlands; the most part 
being clear'd, and is extraordinary good tillable and pasture Land, well 
"water'd ; the Remainder well wooded, sufficient for maintaining Fence, 
and support of Fire-wood, and other L'ses of the said Farm ; situate 
very pleasantly upon Pasayck River, and about two miles and half from 
Acquechenong Church, and a Lauding: There is also three or four 
Grist-Mills, and as many Saw-Mills, within about a Mile and half of said 
Farm. The Title for said Lands is good and indisputable. Also at the 
said Time and Place, vrill be sold at. public Vendue, Horses, Cows, 
Sheep and Hogs, and all sorts of Utensils for farming, a Dutch Waggon, 
and Turner's Tools, and several sorts of Household goods, &c. The 
Conditions of Sale, may be seen at the said Time and Place of Vendue. 
The Vendue to begin at 10 o'clock Aforenoon, and continue the ne.xt 
Day, or Days following, until ended. 

Marinus Van Winckle, and) t, 
Katherine Van Winckle. / ^^'^^• 

N. B. All Persons having any Demands upon the Estate of the said 
Jacob Van Winckle, deceased, are desired to bring in their Demands to 
the said Executors, in order to be adjusted, and paid as soon as possible ; 
and all Persons that are indebted to the said Estate, are desired to make 
Payment, and save Trouble.2 

III. Johannis, b. Aug. 18, 1682 ; m. ist, Antje Sanders, 
Oct. 14, 1704; 2d, Magdalena Spier. About 1720 he re- 
moved from Acquackanonk to the new settlement of Spring- 
field, west of Elizabethtown, being the first Dutchman to 
settle among the New Englanders in that region. 3 Some of 
his children appear to have been pioneers also in the settle- 
ment of New Britain, still further west of Elizabethtown, 
and it is probable that others were among the first settlers 
at Gansegat,4 or Fairfield, where the Van Winkles were nu- 
merous in the middle of the last century. For taking an 

1 Liber F of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 26. 
- The N. Y. Gazette Revived in the Weekly Post Boy, May 14, 1750. 
3 Hatfield's History of Elizabeth, 567. 

•4 Gansegat — Goose-gut, or place where the wild geese were wont to 
gather in great flocks. 

active part on the popular side, in the dispute with the East 
Jersey Proprietors, he was indicted with a score of others by 
the Essex county grand jury, in 1745, for rioting. The in- 
dictments were removed by certiorari to the Supreme Court, 
where they still slumber.! His will was dated at Eliza- 
bethtown, June 13, 1759, that ancient borough at that time 
including Springfield within its limits. The instrument was 
proved August 4, 1759. By it he disposed of his property 
as follows : 

Imprimis it is my will and I do order that in the first place all just 
debts and funeral charges be paid and satisfyed. Item I give and be- 
queath unto Magdalen my dearly and beloved wife the sum of one hun- 
dred pounds current lite money of the province aforesaid. Item I give 
unto my son Simeon Vanwinkle the sum of five shillings current lite 
money of the province aforesaid. Item I give unto my two sons Alex- 
ander and Jacob Vanwinkle the sum of five pounds each current money 
as aforesaid Item I give unto my two sons Abraham and iSIerrinus 
Van Winkle the sum of five shillings each. Item I give unto the children 
of my son John Vanwinkle deceas'd the sum of five pounds current 
money as aforesaid to be equally divided amongst them. Item I give 
unto my grandson John Tunis the sum of fifteen pounds current money 
as abovesaid. Item I give unto the children of my daughter Catharine 
Marsh deceas'd the sum of five pounds current money as aforesaid to be 
equally divided amongst them. Item I give unto my four daughters 
Hannah, Mary, Leah and Rachel the sum of five pounds each current 
money as aforesaid. Item I give unto my [wife] Magdalen the sum of 
one hundred pounds current money as aforesaid. Item I give unto my 
daughter Sarah Daley the the sum of fifty pounds current money as 
aforesaid. Item my will is and I do ordain that after what I have given 
as abovesaid is all settled and paid the then remainer of my estate shall 
be equally divided amongst every legatee as mentioned in the above 
will and testament part and part alike, lastly I ordain and appoint my 
trusty friends Simeon Briant and Joshua Horton the e.xecutors of this 
my last will and teslament.2 

IV. Simeon, bap. Aug. 6, 1686; m. ist, Prientje Van 
Giesen ; 2d, Antje Pietersen, wid., March 3, 1734. 

Simeon lived on Lot No. 7 East, in the Bogt or Paterson 
subdivision. His house was of stone, whitewashed on the 
outside — some say it was plastered outside also — whence it 
was known far and wide as De IVitte Hitis — the White House 
— and is so referred to in deeds and other records of that 
day. This house was one story high, 103 feet long, and 
was situated on the west bank of the Passaic river, at the 
foot of the hill, where there was a ford across the river, safe 
for the passage of horses and vehicles for more than a cen- 
tury. There was a "driftway" allowed in the apportion- 
ment of 1 7 14, to be opened between Simeon and his next- 
neighbor on the south, Jan Van Blarcom, and on September 
18, 1719, this was formally laid out as a public highway, the 
Essex surveyors viewing "a spot of Ground allowed by the 
owners of Aquikonong for a road, and the surveyors finding 
the sd land to be sufficient, lay the sd Road beginning at the 
River near the house of Simon Vanwincle Junr, running by 
the side of his Land to the Pompton Road ; all this road to 
be two Rods wide. "3 This was the east end of Willis 
street. The "Pompton Road" referred to was Vree- 
land avenue. Simeon availed himself of a fine spring 

1 N. J. Archives, VI., 245 ; VII., 457. 

2 Liber G of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 276. 

3 Bergen County Roads, A, 36 ; History Passaic Coimty Roads and 
Bridges, II. 



near his house to establish a tanneryl and currying 
shop, which he carried on for many years. Simeon was the 
father of twelve children by his first wife, and of eight by 
his second wife, who moreover had three of her own. 
If they all lived in the one house, there n^iist have been a 
good deal of "bundling" in those narrow quarters. Wheth- 
er from pride, or as a matter of convenience for a man who 
might be excused if he occasionally failed to recall the names 
of so numerous a brood of children, Simeon inscribed the 
initials or the names of his progeny on the door-posts, and 
when that space gave out he set in the front wall of his house 
a broad square stone, with smooth surface, on which he 
carved the initials of eight more of his children. And what 
a roll-call there was as he summoned his troop at dusk, to 
see that none were missing : Abraham, Johannes, Simeon, 
Jacob, Antje, Feytje, Saertje, Trientje, Rachel, Janneke, 
Leena, Marregrietje, Geertje, and others who died young and 
whose names have not come down to us. Even in those 
days, when big families were common, Simeon's great brood 
was unusually large, and gave him an added reputation. 
The situation of his house, at a public ford across the river, 
and his occupation, also made hiin widely known through- 
out this region. He died in 1775. The house was occupied 
for some years later, but ^'arly in the present century was 
abandoned, and left to go to decay, and the school-boys who 
attended the "Old Bellows" near the present Wesel bridge, 
persuaded themselves th-at it was haunted, and feared to go 
near it at night. About 1828 it was torn down by Henry Do- 
remus, and the material was used in the building of a new 
house on the other side of the river, the stones being car- 
ried over on the ice during the winter. The broad flat 
stone having the initials of eight of Simeon's children was 
set in the wall of the new house, and until within a few 
years was plainly visible ; but in making an addition to the 
residence some time ago, the stone was brought within the 
sittirig room, and Mr. Peter Doremus,2 the present owner, 
son of Henry Doremus, had it plastered over. It is said that 
the door-posts of the ancient White House were built into 
the cellar walls of the Doremus house. The will of Simeon 
is as follows : 

In the name of God Amen I Simeon Van Winkle of Achqueghenonck 
in the County of Essex being- Weak in Body but of perfect Mind and 
Memory (blessed be God therefore) dc this nineteenth Day of April in 
the fifteenth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord George the third 
by the Grace of God King of Great Britain &c. and in the Year of our 
Lord One thousand seven Hundred and Seventy five make and Publish 
this my last Will & Testament in manner following (that is to Say) Im- 
primis I Recommend my soul into the Hands of Almighty God who gave 

1 The tannery was at the foot of the hill, directly in the line of Willis 
street extended, the road making a slight detour to the north, down the 
side of the hill, and striking the river a short distance north of Vvfhere the 
street would have reached the river if continued directly east. The re- 
mains of the old tan vats may yet be discerned. The White House was 
on the north side of the road, at or near the foot of the hill. It had an 
open attic, and a kitchen and chimney at each end. It was not deep, 
probably only one room from front to rear. There was a wide hall in 
the centre. 

2 Mr. Doremus says the initials had dates appended as follows : 
A Dec. 17H ; A 1712 ; S 1714 ; 11715; F1717; L1719; S 1720 ; I 1723. 
These initials would seem to stand for Abraham, Antje, Simeon, Jacob, 
Feytje, Lena, Saertje, Johannes. 

it me and my Body to the Earth from Whence it came in hopes of a Joy- 
ful resurrection through the Merits of my Saviour Jesus Christ and as 
for that Worldly Estate wherewith it has pleased God to bless me in this 
Life I Give and Dispose thereof as follows First my Will is that all my 
Just Debts and funeral Expenses be well and truly Paid and Discharged 
Item I Give to my well beloved Wife Antye one of my Beds Bedsteads 
with all the furniture thereunto belonging also all the Wearing Appear- 
el belonging to her Body also the one equal fourteenth Part of all my 
Household furniture also one Hundred pound New York Money to be 
Paid to her by my Executors herein after Named out of my Movable 
Estate Item I Give and Bequeath to my Son Abraham ten shillings for 
his Birth right Item I Give to my Son John also ten Shillings out of my 
Estate Item it is my Will and Order that all my Real Estate whether in 
the County of Bergen Essex or Elsewhere Shall be equally divided be- 
tween all my Children hereinafter Named to wit Abraham, Simion, and 
Jacob and my Daughter Antye, Feytye, Saertye Trientye, Rachel, Yen- 
neke, Leena, Marregrietye, Geertye and my Grand Daughter Marritye the 
Daughter of Abraham Cadmus Share and Share alike that is to Say I 
Give and Bequeath to each of them & to their Heirs and Assigns forever 
the one equal thirteenth part of all my Real Estate abovesd. Item it is 
my Will and Order that all my personal Estate (Except such part as is 
hereby Given to my sd. Wife Antye) shall also be equally Divided among 
all my Children to Wit Abraham Simion Jacob, Antye, Fytye Saertye, 
Trientye Rachel Yenneke Leena Marregrietye Gurtye and my sd. Grand 
Daughter Marritye Share & Share alike that is to Say I Give to each of 
them & their Heirs the one equal thirteenth part of all my Personal Es- 
tate abovesaid (Except as before Excepted) and I do Nominate Consti- 
tute and Appoint my friends Jacobus Post & Hessel Peterse Executors 
of this my last Will & Testament & do hereby Disannul and Revoke all 
former Wills by me made Ratifying and confirming this to be my last 
Will & Testament In Witness Whereof I the sd. Simeon Van Winckel 
have hereunto Set my Hand and Seal the Day and Year first above 
Written. 1 

Signed Sealed Published & Declared Simion Van X Winckel 

by the said Simion Van Winkle as and mark 

for his last Will & Testament Cornel- 
ius Van Riper, Hendrick Post Michael H. Seal. 

V. Trintje, b. April 2, 1688; m. Isaac Enogse Vree- 
land, March 23, 1706. Ch. — Simon, bap. June 5, 1709; An- 
netje, bap. March 30, 1712. 

VI. Rachel, bap. Oct. — , 1690 ; m. Johannis Koeiman 
(b. at Albany, but living at New York), March 6, 1708. 

VII. Arie, b. at Constable's Hoeck ; m. Annetje (b. at 
Wyhaecke — Weehawken), dau. of Tades Michielse, Oct, 27, 


VIII. Aeltje, m. Jurian Tomasse Van Ripen, June 12, 
1 7 14. 

IX. Gideon, m. Jannetje Koeiman (b. at Albany, living 
at N. Y.), March 13, 1708. 

X. Abraham, m. Maritje Van Dyke, of Second River, \ 
Nov. 2, 1 732. ,• ■' 

XL Leah, m. Isack Tomesen, Aug. 4, 1722. 
XII. Marinus, m. Geesje Hendrickse Vaar Wageninge, 
Sept. 2, 1721. His will, dated May 10, 1762, was proved 
Sept. 28, 1767. He devised all his real estate to his wife 
Geesie, and his daughters — Rachel, Margaret, Annatie, Jan- 
netje and Catrientje ; the four daughters first named re- 
leased, Dec. 23, 1767, to their mother, and to their sister Ca- 
trientje, and her husband, Abraham T. Van Riper, the farm 
on which their father had lived, being Lot No. 13, which 
had belonged to Symon Jacobse, the father of INIarinus. 

1 Liber L of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 378. 



Geesie, by deed Oct. 28, 1771, released her interest to 
her daughter Catrientje and the latter's husband. 

Fourth Generation. 

Daniel Jacob-Jacobse had children : 
I. Metje, b. Dec. 31, 1710. 
II. Aeltje, b. April 13, 1712; m. Cornelius Van Ripen, 
.June 29, 1728; d. July 19, 1776. 

III. Son, bap. Dec. 12, 1714; d. in inf. 

IV. Jaunetje, m. Jacob Diedricks, Nov. 26, 1738. Ch., 
Daniel, b. Oct. 14, 1740. 

V. Margaret, m. Johannis Van Ripen, Sept. 5, 1742 ; 
d. Sept. 18, 1754. 
VI. Fitje. 
VII. Rachel, m. Zacharias Sikkels, widower, of Bergen, 
June 29, 1734. 
VIII. Antje. 
Johannis Jacob-Jacobse had children : 

I. Hendrick, b. March 20, 1714; m. Maritje Jurianse, 
Aug. 22, 1739. 

II. Jacob, b. March 9, 1716. 

III. Johannes, b. July 3, 1719 ; m. Mareyte Gerritszen, 
dau. of Gerret Tomasse (Van Ripen), Aug. 22, 1739. 

IV. Agnietje, b. Dec. 16, 1723; bap. March 16, 1724. 
V. Daniel, b. Dec. 16, 1723; bap. March 16, 1724; m. 

Sarah Brass, of Acquackanonk, June 29, 1757. 
VI. Aeltje, b. Nov. 25, 1726. 
Hendrick Jacob-Jacobse had children : 

I. Jacob, m. Rachel Cammenga, April 28, 1753 ; d. 
Dec. 17, 1778 ; she d. Sept. 18, 1772. 

II. Joseph, d. in inf., Nov. 22, 1738. 

III. Daniel, b. Jan. i, 1735; m. Aeltje Van Ripen, mar- 
riage license dated Jan. 28, 1760; d. Dec. 19, 1823. 

IV. Hendrick, b. Jan. 23, 1736 ; m. ist, Jannetje Brow- 
er. May 18, 1759 ; 2d, Sarah Speer ; d. Dec. 19, 1827. 

V. Johannis, b. May 9, T739 ; d. before his father, 
■without issue. 

VI. Joseph, b. June 4, 1740; m. Jenneke Vreeland, 
wid. of Henry Newkirk, May 26, 17985 d. Aug. 4, 1809, 
without issue. 

Jacob Waling- Jacobse had children : 
I. Wyntje, m. Gerbrant Gerbrantse. 
II. John, his heir-at-law, who was living in New York 
in I7S3- 

Johannis Waling-Jacobse had children : 

I. Catrina, m. Pieter Hessels Pieterse, Oct. 31, 1733; 
d. March 23, 1783, aged 69 years, I mo., 25 days ; he d. 
just two days later, aged 75 years and 2 days. They are 
interred in a family burying ground adjacent to the Wesel 
road, a few hundred feet north of Cedar Lawn cemetery. 
II. Annatje, m. Johannis Sip, Dec. 12, 1744. 
III. Waling, m. Jannetje Van Houten (bap. Feb. 24, 
1719, dau. of Jacob Van Houten, of Totowa), June 8, 1743. 
His will, dated May 29, 1774, was proved March 23, 1784. 
Johannis Symon-Jacobse had children : 

I. Simeon, m. Annatje Bosch (b. at Tappan), Oct. 19, 


II. Alexander, m. Antje Van Winkle; probably re- 
moved to Gansegat. 

III. Jacob, m. Annatje Van Noostrand ; d. Aug. 5, 
1834, aged 86 years, 4 months, 24 days ; she d. Feb. 18, 
1829, aged 75 years, 2 months. 

IV. Abraham, m. Jacomyntje Newkirk, of Acquacka- 
nonk, June 2, 1739; d. Jan. 23, 1796, in his 85th year. 

V. Marinus, m. Maria Evertson (b. at Hackensack), 
Jan. 15, 1742; d. April 28, 1S02, aged 86 years; shed. June 
29, 1820, aged 102. He was a private in Major McDonald's 
company in the French war of 1761. 

VI. John, m. Jannetje Van Ripen, July 3, 1745 ; he d. 
before his father, leaving issue, but not in this vicinity. 
VII. Catharine, m. Marsh. 

VIIL Hannah. 

IX. Mary. 

X. Leah. 

XL Rachel. 

XII. Sarah, b. July 14, 1735 ; m. Dale}'. 

Simeon Symon-Jacobse (Simeon of the White House) had 
children : 

I. Abraham ; he is not mentioned in the partition 
made by the heirs, through commissioners, in 1782, as re- 
lated on page 70 ; it is said that he released to the other 
heirs, which would explain the absence of his name from the 
map and report -of the commissioners. His eldest daughter 
was named Ann. 

II. John, b. 1723; m. Janneke Reyersen (b. at New 
York, living wthin the bounds of the Acquackanonk church), 
Dec. 5, 1746. The Gerretses bought of Richard Ashfield a 
tract of land at Wagaraw, and by deed dated Feb. 9, 1730, 
released a large part of the tract to Gerrit Gerritse, who on 
June 8, 1743, conveyed 212 1-2 acres to Simeon Van Winkle, 
of Essex county, for £215. It is understood that this Sim- 
eon was he of the White House, father of John. The latter 
having married one of the Reyersens at Wagaraw, naturally 
settled in that neighborhood. By deed Oct. 26, 1774, Sim- 
eon conveys to John, for £144, "the tract where said John 
now lives, at Wagaraw, containing 212 1-2 acres," being the 
same tract bought by Simeon from Gerritse. It may be add- 
ed here that Johannes S. Van Winkle, of Bergen county 
(the same John, son of Simeon), by deed dated May 24, 
1783, conveyed the said tract to Simeon J. Van Winkle, of 
Essex (his son). The conveyance by Simeon to John proba- 
bly accounts for the fact that by his father's will John had 
no share in the real estate devised by his father. He had 
been already provided for liberally in that respect. John 
lived to the great age of 93 years, dying in January, 1816. 

III. Simeon. 

IV. Jacob, m. Froutje Gerritsen, Dec. 8, 1749. (She 
was b. Feb. 6, 1727, dau. of Gerrit Pieter-Gerrit-Gerrit-Ger- 
ritse. The name Froutje, Vrouwtje, etc., is the Dutch for 
Sophronia). Soon after his marriage he bought Lot No. 8, 
West, in the Bogt or Paterson subdivision, lying on the 
north side of Broadway, and lived in the old stone house 
now known as the Passaic hotel. Like his father, he was a 
tanner, and established himself in that business in a favor- 
able swamp through which flowed the Dublin spring brook. 



The vats were in the middle of what is now Main street, 
near Fair, and along the east side of the present Main 
street, between Fair and Division streets. It is related that 
a belated and somewhat befuddled wayfarer one night, years 
before the Revolution, in making his way home fell into one 
of the vats, and spent the night floundering around in the 
fragrant depths, under a vague impression that he was 
swimming across the river. The story mightily amused the 
Dutch people for many a long day. It is here preserved as 
a specimen of the humor that tickled the fancy of our pre- 
decessors of a century and a half ago. In excavating for a 
sewer in Main street, about 1869-70, some of the frame- 
work of one of the ancient vats was brought to the surface, 
as sound as when it was put down. The tannery is no 
longer in existence, but the ?ale of leather is still carried on 
upon its site. 

V. Antje ; she is not mentioned in the partition of 
1782, and probably had died before then. 

VI. Feytje (Sophia), m. Van Dyke. 

VII. Saertje ; not named in the partition of 1782. 
VIII. Trientje, m. Philip Berry. Children— John, Phil- 
ip, Elenor, m. Arie Van Vorst. Trientje lived until the be- 
ginning of this century. _ Her husband died in 1788. 

IX. Rachel, m. Albert Ackerman, of Paramus, June 17, 
1748. She had outlived him when she joined the Hacken- 
sack church, Aug. 3, 1801. 

X. Janneke, b. Oct. 9, 1728; m. Peter Mead. 

XL Leena, b. Feb. 24, 1730 ; m. Gerrit Van Giesen. 
XII. Marregrietje, m. Henry Doremus, who learned his 
trade as tanner and currier with her father. Children — I. 
Geertye, b. Aug. 22, 1775 ; 2. Hendrick, b. March 21, 1781. 
XIII. Geertje, m. Jacob H. Vreeland. 
As the will of Simeon mentions Marritje, dau. of Abra- 
ham Cadmus, and the partition of 1782 allots parts of Sim- 
eon's farm to Jacobus Post, and to Adrian Van Houten and 
Mary his wife, it is evident that there were other daugh- 
ters who had died, leaving issue. 

Arie Symon-Jacobse had children : 

I. Tades (Theodorus), m. ist, Catharina Bord (b. at 
Raritan, but living at Acquackanonk), Dec. 17, 1736; 2d, 

Theodosia Earle, wid. Van Buskirken, June 30, 1760. 

She m. 3d, Thade Van Eydestyn, widower, Jan. 19, 1783. 

II. Antje, m. Joris Bord, Jan. 10, 1730. Children — i. 
Helena, b. June 29, 1730; 2. Arie, b. June 14, 1732; died 
young and unm. ; 3. Catherine ; 4. Jannetje. 

III. Johannes, m. Jane [?sister of Michael Slingerland]. 
In his will, dated March 27, 1778, he describes himself as a 
a " Farmer of the county of Bergen." The will was proved 
March 27, 1779. He gives to his wife "all my Moveable 
Estate Excepting four Negroes Wenches Quack Pol Nance 
Prince also one large dutch Bible, I also give her the whole 
use of all my lands and Effects During her Widowhood." 
After her decease, his house and four acres of land to 
Michael Slingerland, with a span of horses and his loom ; 
the remainder of his estate he devised to his brothers and 
sisters, and to the children of such as were dead. "Note, 
the Bible & Blacks to be Equally divided Among my 

Brothers and Sisters Children." Adrian Post, miller (at 
Slooterdam), Hessel Peterson and his wife Jane, executors 
and trustees. 1 The testator seems to have had no children. 
IV. Michael. 
V. Marinus. 
VI. Casparus, m. Lidia Van Winkle. 

VII. Hannah, m. Bush. 

Gideon Symon-Jacobse had children : 

I. Lidia, m. Casparus Van Winkle. Ch., Gideon, b. 
May 27, 1756. 

II. Maritje. 

III. Ariantje. 

IV. Annatje, m. Samuel Stivers. 

V. Rachel, b. 1727 ; m. Jedediah Dean. 
Abraham Symon-Jacobse had children : 
I. Simeon. 
II. Fransois, m. ist, Susanna, dau. of John Forester, 
Oct. 3, 1777; 2d, Elizabeth Douwe, wid., Feb. 5, 1785. 

III. Feytje. 

IV. Antje. 

Abraham devised his lands to his children ; the others 
released to Francis. 

Marinus Symon-Jacobse had children : 

I. Annatje, b. Feb. 20, 1730 ; m. Hendrick G. Van 
Wagenen, whose children have been named on a previous 

II. Margrietje, bap. Feb. 9, 1725 ; m. Cornelius E. 

III. Rachel, m. Jacob Van Wagenen. 

IV. Jannetje, m. Michael E. Vreeland, Dec. 28, 1755. 
V. Catrintje, m. Abraham T. Van Ripen, Nov. 16, 


The various church records give these additional data : 

Antje Van Winkel m. Peter Van Woegelum, on certificate 
from Bergen, Dec. 14, 1709. 

■ Geertruy Van Winkel and Johannis Diedricks had ch., 
Jacob, b. Feb. 12, 1728. 

Joanna Van Winkel m. Staets Bos (both of Acquackan- 
onk), Jan. 8, 1726. Children — i. Josua, b. Nov. i, 1727 ; 
2. Catrina, b. Sept; 4, 1729 ; 3. Joanna, b. Jan. i, 173 1 ; 4. 
Isaac, bap. Dec. 19, 1736; 5. Machiel, bap. Sept. 5, 1742; 
6. Johannis, b. Dec. 5, 1749. 

Simon Van Winkel m. Elizabeth Degraw, March 21, 1738. 
Children — i. Simeon, bap. Nov. 19, 1738; 2. Jan, bap. July 
6, 1740. 

Magiel Van Winkel, of Acquackanonk, m. Zietske Van 
Horn, Sept. 23, 1743. Ch., Arie, bap. March 25, 1750. 

Simeon Van Winkel, living at New Brittanje, m. Geertruy 
Kuuk, maiden, of Acquackanonk, June 5, 1727. Children — 
I. Marynus, bap. June 5, 1741, at Gansegat ; 2. Geertruy, 
bap. Feb. 15, 1747. 

Marytje Van Winkel and Gerrit Van Wagenen had ch., 
Leah, bap. Dec. 13, 1747. 

Johannis Van Winkle, of Acquackanonk, m. Jennike Van 
Bos, Dec. 8, 1748. 

Eghie Van Winkle m. Henry Fielding, April 2, 1752. 

1 Liber 21 of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 66. 



Claesje Van Winkel m. Jacob Banta, at Schi-aalenburgh, 
Sept. 29, 1754. Children — I. Hendrick, b. Jan. 17, 1755, 
d. Feb. 7, 1757 ; 2. Tryntje, bap. Dec. 3, 1758, d. Nov. 7, 
1759 ; 3. Annaetje, b. March 23, 1763, m. Frederick Mabie; 
4. Tryntje, bap. June 2, 1765, -d. Sept. 8, 1772 ; 5. Rebec- 
ca, b. Jan. 10, 1768, m. Henry Clapp ; 6. Jakob, bap. Aug. 
30, 1772, d. Nov. I, 1772.1 

Antje Van Winkel, of Acquackanonk, m. Dirck Bourdan, 
of Hackensack, June 9, 1738. 

Jacob Van Winkel, bachelor, b. and living at Second Riv- 
er, m. Margaretha Heyl, b. at Ramapo, and living in Han- 
over county (Hanover, Morris county, N. J.), 1736. 

Abraham Van Winkel, bachelor, m. Rachel Van Rype, 
maiden, Feb. 17, 1753. 

Helena Van Winkel, b. at Second River, m. Gysbert 
Peek, b. in New York, Nov. 9, 1754. 

Fifth Generation. 

Hendrick Johannis-Jacob-Jacobse had child : 

I. Jurian, b. April 22, 1740. 
Jacob Hendrick- Jacob-Jacobse had children : 

I. Daniel, b. July 21, 1758 ; m. Antje, dau. of Johan- 
nis Winne, Oct. 26, 1802 ; d. June 13, 1830 ; she d. Aug. 

25, 1843- 

II. Abraham, m. Antje Clendenning, Sept. 9, 1780 ; he 
was then living in New York ; d. at Bergen, Nov. 24, 1823. 

III. Catrintje, b. June I, 1763 ; d. Sept. 8, 1793, unm. 

IV. Joseph, b. May 18, 1768; d. Jan. 27, 1775. 
V. Leah, b. Nov. 7, 1770 ; d. Sept. 18, 1772. 

Daniel Hendrick- Jacob-Jacobse had children : 

I. Jurriaen, b. Feb. 22, 1761 ; m. Antje Sip, marriage 
license dated Aug. 31, 1783 ; d. May 3, 1837. 

II. Catrintje, b. Jan. 30, 1765 ; m. Jacob Merselis. 
III. Hendrick, b. Nov. 27, 1774 ; m. Catlyntje Van 
Wagenen, Jan. 10, 1801 ; d. Dec. 13, 1848. 

Hendrick Hendrick-Jacob-Jacobse had children : 
I. Catrina, b. Jan. 26, 1772. 
II. Raegel, b. March 29, 1775, d. in inf. 

III. Raegel, b. Feb. 13, 1777; m. Martin Winne, April 

I, 1797- 

IV. Johannis, b. Nov. 7, 1778; m. Geertje, dau. of 
John Diedricks, Jan. 3, iSoo. 

V. Jacob H., b. Feb. 20, 1789 ; m. Mary Smith. 
Waling Johannis-Waling-Jacobse had ch. : 
I. John, m. Eva Kip, Oct. 24, 1747. 
II. Hillegont, b. Sept. 25, 1749 ; m. Hendrick Gerritse 
Van Wagenen, jun. 

III. Jacob, m. Elsie, dau. of Henry Kip. 

IV. Cornelius, bap. Nov. i, 1747; m. Annaetje Van 
Rypen. He removed to Paterson about 1773, and lived in 
the old stone house still standing, in River street, a short 
distance west of West street. He owned six acres of land 
from the river southerly to Broadway, also the grist and saw 
mills at the foot of Mulberry street, which he operated for 

twenty years or more. He also kept a country story in a 
red frame building, about thirty feet long and twenty feet 
deep, on the north side of the road, next to the mill.l It 
was used at one time by Chauncey Andrews as a turning shop, 
but was afterwards converted into a dwelling-house, and re- 
moved to the south side of the road. Cornelius was famil- 
iarly known as "Walling's Case." 

V. Waling, b. Sept. 22, 1753; m. Pietertje, dau. of 
Derrick Van Ripen, Feb. 7, 1783 ; d. Jan. 17, 1832 ; she 
was b. Nov. 16, 1758 ; d. Jan. 4, 1846. 

VL Maritje, b. Sept. 11, 1757; m. 1st, Isaac Housman; 
2d, Christian Zabriskie. 

VII. Helmich, b. June 22, 1761 ; m. Marritje, dau. of 
Adrian Post, Jan. 3, 1784 ; d. May 5, 1822 ; she d. April 13, 
1821, aged 61 years, 8 mos., I day. 

Jacob Johannis-Symon-Jacobse had children : 
I. Johannis, b. Sept. i, 1772. 
II. Jacob, b. Oct. 17, 1774. 

III. Jannetje, b. March 6, 1782. 

IV. Isaac, b. April 30, 1786. 

Abraham Johannis-Symon-Jacobse had children : 
I. Geertruy, b. Feb. 15, 1747. 
II. Jacob, b. Jan. 9, 1 75 1. 

III. Simeon, b. Dec. 22, 1755. 

IV. Helena, b. Feb. 28, 1758. 

Marinus Johannis-Symon-Jacobse had children: 

I. Arie, m. Margaret Van Wagenen ; d. Dec. 3, 1828, 
aged 84 years. 

Johannis Simeon- Symon-Jacobse had children : 

I. Simeon, b. Dec. 12, 1749 ;2 bap. Jan. 11, 1750; m. 
Claesje, dau. of Cornells Gerritse. He was called "Sim- 
eon of the Bogt," to distinguish him from Simeon of Broad- 
way. He lived in a stone house at Riverside, destroyed by 
fire about 1880. He died in 1828. 

II. P'rans, m. Esebel Archebel (Isabel Archibald), an 
Irish girl, a marriage that was regarded with surprise and 
disfavor by the Dutch girls generally. He lived at the Gof- 
fle, where he bought a tract of 31.71 acres from Peter, John 
and Hessel Gerritsen, heirs of Hessel Gerritsen, north of 
his father's place, along the Deep brook. In 1784 he built 
a saw mill in partnership with John C. Garrison, John I. 
Ryerson and Jacob Snyder, the last named being a carpen- 
ter living at the GofHe, who probably did the carpenter 
work on the mill, in consideration of which he received a 
three-eighths interest in the mill, which he released to Van 
Winkle, March 9, 1792, for £21. This mill was on the Deep 

1 A Frisian Family. The Banta Genealogy. Descendants of Epke 
Jacobse, who came from Friesland, Netherlands, to New Amsterdam, 
February, 1659. By Theodore M. Banta. New York, 1893, 66. 

1 These particulars about the store kept by Cornelius Van Winkle 
were communicated to the author about 1876, by the late Smith Kinsey. 
son of Judge Charles Kinsey, of Paterson. Mr. Kinsey had a very clear 
recollection of what he had seen, and of what he had heard from older 

2 This date was obtained in a curious way. When the First Reformed 
Dutch church was built on Main street, in 1S27-8, John S. Van Winkle, 
one of the most influential members of the church, placed in the corner 
stone a memorandum of the date of his father's birth, and ot his chil- 
dren. When the old church was destroyed by fire in December, 1871, 
this paper, discolored by fire and badly frayed by water, was found in 
the bo.K that had been in the corner stone. 



brook ; the Van Karcom mill is on the same site. Frans 
was a pewholder in the Totowa church. He appears to 
have been a soldier, for in his will, dated July 22, 1826, 
proved July 24, 1830, he bequeaths to his son David his 
"holster pistols and sword and brown mare's colt." He 
devised two-thirds of his estate to his wife Isabel, for life, 
and the remainder to his four children. 1 

Jacob Simeon-Symon-Jacobse had children : 

I. Simeon, b. April 4, 1752; m. Antje, dau. of Edo 
Merselis ; she was b. March 28, 1755. He continued his 
father's business as tanner and currier, perhaps moving 
the tannery a little further up Main street, and ex- 
tending it across to the present West street. He lived in a 
stone house on the northeast corner of Main street and 
Broadway, standing about eighteen feet back from both 
streets, with a picket fence in fi-ont, and a row of poplar 
trees before it along Broadway. The dwelling was one story 
high, with large open attic under a high pitched roof ; the 
hall was in the centre, facing Broadway, with two rooms 
on each side. This was called the "homestead," and per- 
haps had been built by Simeon. In addition to the tanning 
and currying business, he ran a distillery, between the house 
and the tannery. After the founding of Paterson, and the 
opening of lower Main street, he started a store in a frame 
building north of his house, for the convenience of the 
people of the town and his own profit, which he carried on 
for some years. He was also a harness-maker and farmer — 
altogether, a man of many parts. 

II. Pieter, bap. December 25, 1754. He was one of 
the most remarkable men of his day, and his fame spread 
far and wide. This was because of the extraordinary size 
of his head, which was so monstrous, that he was unable to 
support it unaided. A chair was fashioned especially to re- 
lieve him as much as possible from the great weight — a 
rocking-chair, with arms, the seat a foot high ; a board stood 
up from the back, on the top of which was fastened a hick- 
ory half-hoop, like a barrel hoop, and as he sat in his chair 
his head rested within this support, so that he was fairly 
comfortable. He could not move about, but was fain to 
content himself sitting in his chair. His mother had 
brought with her, when married, a colored slave, and after 
Peter's birth this woman was assigned to wait upon him con- 
stantly. She died about 1833, at the age of 107 or 108 years. 
His deformity attracted the more attention, as he was a 
man of good faculties, intelligent, and able to take part in 
any discussion on the affairs of the day. 2 It was said that 
he could repeat a chapter in the Bible, after hearing it read 
once. Surgeon James Thacher, of the American army, who 
saw him in July, 1780, after a trip to the Passaic Falls, thus 
describes him : 

In the afternoon we were invited to visit another curiosity in the 
neighborhood. This is a monster in the human form. He is twenty- 
seven years of age, his face from the upper part of the forehead to the 
end of his chin, measures twenty inches, and round the upper part of his 
head is twenty-one inches, his eyes and nose are remarkably large and 

1 Bergen County Wills, D, 44. 

2 Conversation with the late Cornelius H. Post, of Water street, in 
1874; also with the late Samuel A. Van Saun, of Church street. 

prominent, chin long and pointed. His features are coarse, irregular 
and disgusting, and his voice is rough and sonorous. His body is only 
twenty-seven inches in length, his limbs are small, and much deformed, 
and he has the use of one hand only. He has never been able to stand, 
or sit up, as he cannot support the enormous weight of his head ; butlies 
constantly in a large cradle, with his head supported on pillows. He is 
visited by great numbers of people, and is peculiarly fond of the com- 
pany of clergymen, always inquiring for them among his visitors, and 
taking great pleasure in receiving religious instruction. General Wash- 
ington made him a visit, and asked, " whether he was a whig or tory ?" 
He replied, that " he had never taken an aciiz'e part on either side."l 

Washington was greatly pleased with this felicitous reply, 
and some years later, when the Baron Steuben had invited 
him to dine with him, in company with a gentleman from 
New York, whose loyalty during the Revolution had been 
very questionable, upon the Baron making some apology for 
his guest. General Washington laughingly declared, "Oh, 

Baron, there is no difficulty on that point. Mr. is 

very like the big headed boy at Totowa, he never has taken 
an active part."'^ 

When Gen. Lafayette revisited Paterson, in 1825, he 
stopped for a moment at the Passaic hotel, to greet Gen. 
Godwin, and inquired about the "big headed man," remark- 
ing that he recollected the house solely on account of having 
there seen that remarkable phenomenon. 

Samuel Dewees, of Pennsylvania, who served in the Rev- 
olutionary army as a fifer boy, gives the following account 
of Peter. As he was writing from recollection, sixty years 
after the event, his narrative must be taken with allowances 
for errors and exaggerations : 

When we lay 4 or 5 miles from (I think it must have been the) Passaic 
Falls, in Jersey (although it is possible that it was near to Trenton Falls 
in York state) the soldiers went frequently to see the falls, and then a 
great curiosity which was not far from the falls. There was a poor fam- 
ily that had in it a son, who was said to be upwards of thirty years old, 
I went with some of the soldiers to see him, and beheld the most won- 
derful sight that I ever did behold in all my life. His body was chunkey and 
about the size of a healthv boy of ten or twelve years old and he laid in 
a kind of cradle, but his head (although shaped like to a human head), 
was like a iJour barrel in size, and it was common for one soldier to de- 
scribe it to others by comparing it to a flour barrel. It had to be Ufted 
about (the body could not support it) whenever and wherever it had to 
be moved to. His senses appeared to be good, and it was usual for us 
to say, " he can talk like a lawyer." He would talk to every person that 
visited him. All the soldiers that visited him and that had any money, 
would always give him something. It was said that General Washing- 
ton when he went to see him gave his father the sum of four or five hun- 
dred dollars as a present to aid in his support. Although I have here 
attempted a description of his person and appearance, it beggared every 
description I can give, as no person can conceive truly his appearance 
but those that seen him.3 

The value of this account is in its description of what De- 
wees saijo. He was very young, illiterate and credulous. 

1 A Military Journal during the American Revolutionary War, from 
1775 to 1783, describing interesting events and transactions of this per- 
iod, ■with numerous Historical Facts and Anecdotes, from the original 
manuscript, etc., by James Thacher, M. D., late Surgeon in the Ameri- 
can army, Boston, 1823, 243 ; 2d ed., Hartford, 1854, 233. In copying the 
above extract into the Historical Collections of New Jersey, published 
in 1844, the compilers of that work have added seven inches to the length 
of Peter's face. Dr. Thacher says it was twenty inches long. 

2 lb., 528; 2d ed., 433. 

3 A History of the Life and Services of Captain Samuel Dewees, a 
native of Pennsylvania, and Soldier of the Revolutionary and last Wars, 
etc., by John Smith Hanna, Baltimore, 1844, 174. 



Peter was not the object of charity that he imagines, as his 
family was well-to-do, and he had every care and comfort. 
It is no wonder that Grootkop Pietem, or Big-Headed Peter, 
as he was commonly called, should have been considered 
quite as much an object of curiosity, by visitors to the Falls, 
as the famed cataract itself. His extraordinary affliction, 
accompanied by his cheerful disposition, won him friends, 
and the admiration of all who saw him. He was naturally 
an object of the tenderest solicitude on the part of his pa- 
rents, brothers and younger sister. His father made special 
provision for him in his will. As the will was proved 
June 6, 1785, and Simeon and Jacob divided the real estate 
July 9, 1786, it would seem that Peter died between these 
two dates, having lived more than thirty-one years. He 
was probably buried in the Totowa churchyard, between 
Ryle avenue and Hamburgh avenue. 

III. Vroutje, bap. Oct. 30, 1757 ; m. Martin I. Ryer- 
son, son of Johannes Ryerson, of Pompton, Aug. 16, 1778. 
They were married by license dated Aug. 8, 1778. A por- 
trait of her is in the possession of her descendants, at Bloom- 
ingdale. She used to say that she was born in the Passaic 

IV. Jacob, m. Catelyntje Neeffe. He lived on the 
north side of Broadway, near the west side of Summer street, 
which was described in a deed in 1795, as "the middle cross 
street that runs from Jacob Van Winkle's well northerly." 
"Jacob's well" had the usual old-fashioned sweep attached, 
near the Broadway front of the premises. He died in 1790, 
intestate, and his widow, Caty, was appointed administra- 
trix, March 25, 1 790.1 She continued to occupy the place 
until her death, between 1830 and 1836. In June, 1850, the 
house was struck by lightning and partially destroyed. By 
a curious freak, the lightning passed around a stove in the 
house, killing a boy on one side, while a lad on the other 
side was unhurt. 

The will of Jacob Van Winkle, senior, was witnessed by 
Abraham Van Houten, Cornelius Van Winkle (the owner of 
the grist mill at the foot of Mulberry street), and Hessel 
Peterse. The two first named proved it at Newark, June 6, 
1785. Simeon Van Winkle, Jacob Van Winkle and John P. 
Garretson qualified as executors ; his daughter Vroutje 
failed to qualify. The will is as follows : 

In The name of God amen I Jacob VanWinkel of the Township of 
Achqueghenonck in the County of Essex and state of New Jersey Cord- 
wainer being in Good health of Body and perfect mind and memory 
blessed be God therefore do this fourteenth day of March in the Year of 
our Lord one Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy Eight make and 
publish this my last will and Testament in manner and form following 
that is to say. Imprimis I Recommend my Soul into the Hands of Al- 
mighty who Gave it me and my Body to the Earth from whence it Came 
in hopes of a JoyfuU Resurrection through the Merits of my Saviour Je- 
sus Christ and as for that worldly Estate wherewith it has pleased God 
to bless me in this Life I Give and dispose thereof as follows. First my 
■ will is that all my Just Debts and funeral E.xpenses be paid and Dis- 
charged by my Executors herein after named out of my Estate. Item I 
Give and Bequeath to my Eldest son Simion five Pounds for his Birth 
Right. Item I Give to my beloved Wife Vrontye one of my Beds Bed- 
steads with all the furniture thereunto belonging to her her Heirs and 
Assigns forever. Item it is further my will that my said Wife Vrontye 
shall possess and enjoy all my Estate both Real and personal during the 

1 Liber 36 of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 41. 

time she doth Continue to be my widow And after the death or lemar- 
riage of my said Wife I Give and Bequeath all my Real Estate whether 
in the County of Essex Bergen or elsewhere unto my three sons namely 
Simion Peter and Jacob, that is to say I Give and Bequeath to my said 
son Simion to him his Heirs and Assigns forever the one Equal third 
part of all my Real Estate afsd. Item I Give and Bequeath also to my 
said son Peter the one equal third'^ part of all my Real aforesaid dur- 
ing his Lifetime. Item I Give and Bequeath also to my said son Jacob 
the other Equal third part of all my Real Estate abovesaid which I Give 
to him my said son Jacob his Heirs and Assigns forever. Item I Give to 
my said son Simion and to his Heirs and Assigns one of my Negroes. 
Item I Give to my said son Peter One of my Negroes, and also one of 
my Negroe Wenches. Item I Give to my said son Jacob one of my Ne- 
groes to him his Heirs and Assigns. Item I Give to my daughter Vrontye 
her Heirs and Assigns One of my Negro Wenches. Item it is also my 
Will that if in Case my said Daughter Vrontye shall Joine in Wedlock 
that then my said Wife shall Give to my said Daughter a Suitable Dowry 
out of my personal Estate and further it is my vrill and order that after 
the death or Remarriage of my said Wife all the Remainder of my Per- 
sonal Estate shall be equally Divided Amongst all my Children to wit 
Simion, Peter, Jacob, and my Daughter Vrontye share and share alike, 
and further it is my Will and order that my said Wife shall possess and 
enjoy all the Real and Personal Estate herein above mentioned and Giv- 
en to my said son Peter during her lifetime and shall also possess and 
enjoy all the personal Estate belonging to her Sister Lecya2 during her 
lifetime. And further it is my will that my said Wife shall find my said 
son Peter and her said Sister Lecya a Suitable Decent and Comfortable 
Support of Life, during her Natural Life, and after her Decease it is my 
Will and order that my two sons to wit Simion and Jacob shall find the 
said Peter and Lecya a Suitable Decent and Comfortable Support of 
life during their Lifetime, and after their decease all the Estate Real and 
Personal belonging to my said son Peter and the said Lecya shall then 
Devolve to my said sons Simion and Jacob to them their Heirs and As- 
signs forever to be equally Divided between them share and share alike. 
And further it is my Will and order that my two sons Simion & Jacob 
and each of them shall pay unto my said Daughter Vrontye her heirs or 
assigns the sum of One Hundred Pounds New York Currency and that 
on or before the Expiration of two Years after the Death of my said 
Wife, but in Case it should so happen that my sons Simion and Jacob 
should be Debarred of their Real Estate hereby Given to them by virtue 
of a former Survey or otherwise, then and in such Case my said Daugh- 
ter her Heirs shall be Debarred of all Claim and Demand of the said 
One Hundred Pounds of each of my said sons which is to be paid to her 
by virtue of this my Last Will. And I do hereby nominate Constitute 
and Appoint my two sons Simion and Jacob, ard my Brother in Law 
John P. Gerritse Executors, and my Daughter Vrontye Executrix of this 
my last will and Testament. And do hereby Revoke & Disannul aU. 
former wills by me made Ratifying and Confirming this to be my last 
will and Testament. In Witness whereof I the said Jacob V. Winckel 
have hereunto set my hand and Seal the day and Year first above Writ- 
ten. The Word (Third) between the Sixteenth and Seventeenth lines 
from the top was Interlined before the Sealing hereof .3 

Jacob Van Winkel [L. S.] 

Sixth Generation. 
Daniel Jacob-Hendrick-Jacob-Jacobse had children : 

I. Cornelius, b. Aug. 6, 1783 ; m. Margrietje Van 
Ripen, Aug. 16, 1807 ; d. Aug. 4, 1852. Children — I. Gar- 
ret V. R., b. Dec. 30, 1807, m. Ann Westervelt ; d. Jan. 18, 
1857; 2. Ann, b. Dec. 24, 1S09 ; m. John G. Van Winkle, 
April 6, 1826; 3. John, b. July 3, 1812; m. Sarah, dau. of George 
Tise, Nov. 27, 1834; 4. Daniel, b. April 19, 1817 ; d. Aug. 
31, 1868; 5. Cornelius, b. Dec. 25, 1S19; d. Oct. 7, 1821 ; 

6. Catherine V. R., b. Jan. 22, 1823; m. Chandler; 7. 

Rachel, b. Jan. 12, 1826 ; m. Lewis Chandler, Aug. 22, 1848. 

1 Interlined in the original. 

2 A clerical error in the record, for Leeya, b. Aug. 10, 1729. 

3 Register of Wills No. 27, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 354. 



II. Aeltje, b. April il, 1786; m. 1st, John Mandeville, 
March 29, 1807; he d. March 28, 18157 she m. 2d, Stephen 
Vreeland, Nov. 29, 1828; d. March 4, 1846. 

III. Jacob D., b. Oct. 8, 1788; m. Antje Vreeland, Dec. 
31, 1812 ; d. Dec. 6, 1864. Children — i. Rachel, b. Dec. 
I, 1813 ; d. Jan. 12, 1815 ; 2. Jacob, b. Oct. 6, 1815 ; m. 
Maria Sip, Nov. 6, 1834; 3. Michael, b. March 27, 1817; 
m. Ann Robinson, Oct. — , 1838; 4. Ann W., b. March 7, 
1820 ; m. Peter Sip, April 25, 1839 ; 5. Daniel, b. June 27, 
1822 ; 6. Gitty, b. Oct. 15, 1823. 

rV". Rachel, Jan. 25, 1791; d. Oct. 20, 1821, unm. 
V. John, b. Jan. 10, 1795 ; d. Aug. I, 1801. 

VI. Daniel, b. May 18, 1798; d. April 23, 1818. 

Abraham Jacob-Hendrick-Jacob-Jacobse had children : 
I. Joseph, m. Ann Cubberly, Nov. 23, 1805 ; d. Nov. 

28, 1827, vsrithout issue, aged 46 years, 3 mos., 21 days. 

II. Jacob, m. Sarah, dau. of Jasper Cadmus, Feb. 7, 
1808 ; d. Sept. 7, 1869, aged 86 years. Children — I. Abra- 
ham, b. June II, 1808; m. Harriet, dau. of Joseph Budd ; 
d. April 2, 1870 ; 2. Catherine, b. Feb. 22, 1810 ; m. James 
Holmes, Oct. 5, 1827; 3. Jasper, b. May 24, 1812 ; 4. 
Rachel Ann, b. Feb. 2, 1814 ; m. 1st, Henry Doremus, Dec. 
25, 1832 ; 2d, Dyer Williams, June 18, 1837. 

III. Walter, b. March 26, 1787; m. Phebe Tuers, May 
21, 1807; d. Feb. 7, 1868. 

IV. Abraham, b. Feb. 6, 1791; m. Mary Gordon. 
Children — I. Joseph, b. July 9, x8lo ; 2. Hannah, b. July 

29, 1811 ; 3. William G., b. Jan. 27, 1815. 

V. Eleanor, b. Feb. 6, 1791 ; m. ist, Abraham Tuers, 
Jan. 29, 1809; 2d, Benjamin F. Welsh; d. Feb. 17, 1859. 

VI. Rachel, b. July 22, 1793; m. Peter Prine, Feb. 11, 

VII. Nancy, b. July 16, 1795 ; m. 1st, Peter Garrabrant, 
Feb. 15, 1814; 2d, John Metzger. 

VIII. Catherine, b. Jan. 11, 1798; m. Daniel Welsh, 
Feb. 13, 1815. 

Jurriaen Daniel-Hendrick-Jacob-Jacobse had children : 
I. Garret, b. Dec. 16, 1783; m. Cornelia Vreeland, 
Oct. 3, 1801 ; d. Aug. 30, 1814. 

II. Daniel, b. May 13, 1787; d. July 3, 1798. 

John Waling-Johannis-Waling-Jacobse had children : 

I. Jacob, bap. March 26, 1749 ; m. . . Children 

— I. Jacob ; 2. Isaac. Their father's father devised to them 
(by will dated March 17, 1808, proved Aug. 20, 1808) his 
homestead, in Bergen county, near the Passaic draw-bridge, 
with 100 acres of land, besides other land, comprising half 
of his estate ; Isaac's share to be charged with the board, 
washing, clothes, etc., of his father Jacob for life, Jacob to 
pay £16 and Isaac £3 yearly toward their father's support. 1 
Isaac m. Caty Oldis, and died in 1831, without issue, devis- 
ing all his estate to his wife during her widowhood ; then 
half to John Van Stay Van Winkle, son of his brother John, 
and in case of his death before 21, then to testator's uncle's 
son, Isaac Van Winkle, jun. ; the other half to his brothers 
in law, Francis Oldis and Garret S. Oldis, and his brother 

Jacob's son, Isaac Jacob Van Winkle. His will was dated- 
March 30, 1830; proved Sept. 15, 1831.I 
II. Willemyntje, bap. June 2, 1751. 

III. Isaac, bap. Dec. 25, 1753; d. in inf. 

IV. Catrina, b. May 16, 1759. 

V. Antje, b. Sept. 15, 1761 ; d. in inf. 
VI. Antje, b. Feb. 6, 1765. 
VII. Isaac, b. Dec. 7, 1767 ; m. Hester Van Gieson. 
Children — i. Helena, b. May 12, 1800 ; 2. Elizabeth, b. 
Dec. 10, iSoi ; 3. Eva. b. Oct. 28, 1803; 4. Jannetje, b. 
D€C. 7, 1805 ; 5. Catharina, b. Oct. i, 1807 ; 6. Joris, b. 
Dec. 12, 1809 ; 7. Isaac, b. Sept. 18, 1811 ; 8. Salome, b. 
Sept. 4, 1813 ; 9. Daniel, b. March 9, 1816 : Daniel lived 
in a stone house on the road leading from the Rutherford 
station southerly along the edge of the Hackensack mead- 
ows. He owned most of the land on which Rutherford is 
built. He afterwards lived where the village of Garfield 
now is. 

VIII. Eva, b. Oct. II, 1772. 
IX. Waling, b. July 2, 1784; m. Sally Garrabrant^ 
Children — i. John; 2. Peggy, m. John Jerolamon ; 3. Jen- 
nie, m. Garret Jurianse. 
X. Myrtle. 
XI. Gertye. 
John in his will also names a grandson, Henry Winstay 
Van Winkle. 

Cornelius Waling-Johannis-Waling-Jacobse had chil- 
dren : 

I. Waling, b. Dec. 2, 1774; m. Jannetje Post, Feb, 
23, 1800. Ch., Cornelius, b. Dec. i, 1800; m. a dan. of the 
Rev. Wilhelmus Eltinge ; ch., Wilhelmus, who m. a dau. of 
Garret Van Wagoner. Jannetje Post, wid. of Waling, m. 2d,. 
Cornelius Bogert of Paramus. 

II. Stynye (Christina), bap. Feb. 16, 1777; m. Adrian 
Van Houten, May 3, 1801. They lived on the southwest 
corner of West and River streets. 

III. Johannes, b. May 26, 1779; m. Arreyauntje Mer- 
selis. Ch., Johones, b. May 20, 1807. 

IV. Jannetye, b. Aug. 12, 1787. 
V. Yannetye, b. Feb. 21, 1790. 
Waling Waling-Johannis-Waling-Jacobse had children : 
I. Waling, b. Dec. 30, 1783; m. ist, Catharina Van 
Voorhees, who d. April 28, 1826 ; 2d, Eunice Lingford ; d. 
Sept. 29, 1832. 

II. Claasje, b. Nov. 25, 1785; m. John M. Ryerse, 
March 2, 1806 ; she was his widow in 1822. 

III. Jannetje, b. Oct. 5, 1790; m. John Kip, Dec. 22, 

IV. Fitje, b. Jan. 26, 1793; d. Dec. 17, 1793. 
Waling, the father of these children, devised to his 

daughters, Claasje and Jane, his farm of 68 acres, part of 
the real estate of Derick Van Riper, his father-in-law, situ- 
ate in Acquackanonk and Bloomfield ; his homestead farm 
of 250 acres in New Barbadoes, he devised to his son Wal- 
ing. His- will was dated June 15, 1822 ; proved June 13, . 

I Bergen County Wills, A, 215. 

1 Bergen County Wills, D, 144. 

2 Bergen County Wills, D, 258. 



Helmich Waling-Johannis-Waling-Jacobse had children : 
I. Waling, b. July 2, 1784; m. Margrietje Ackerman, 
Sept. 6, 1805. Ch., Helmich, who lived at Clifton, and had 
three children. 

II. Geertje, b. Sept. 28, 1786; m. John I. Sip; d. 
April 19, 1808. Ch., John. 

III. Jannetje, b. March 19, 1789; m. Samuel H. Berry. 

IV. Elizabeth, b. April 7, 1792 ; d. Aug. 27, 1818. 
V. Adrian, b. Oct. r, 1794; d. Oct. 20, 1818, unm. 

VI. John, b. Aug. 17, 1797; m. Rachel Ann, dau. of 
the Rev. Peter D. Froeligh, pastor of the Acquackanonk 
church, 1816-25, and of the Seceder church at that place, 

VII. Michael, b. at Lodi, Oct. 13, 1800; m. Agnes, dau. 
of Henry I. Kipp, June 20, 1822. 

In his will, dated Aug. 28, 1821, proved May 25, 1822, 
Helmich devised to his son John the "farm known by the 
name of the Post farm lying at Wesel" ; also eight acres of 
woodland out of his homestead farm ; and to his son Jlichiel 
"all the residue of my homestead farm on which I now live 
which was bequeathed to me by my father Waling Van Win- 
kle, deceased."! 

Arie Marinus-Johannis-Symon-Jacobse had children : 

I. Marinus, b. Feb. I, ; m. Grietje, dau. of Jurie 

Jurianse. Children — i. Jurie, d. unm. ; 2. Mary Ann, m. 
1st, John Snyder; 2d, Richard Riker. 

II. Jacobus, b. Feb. 7, 1776; m. ist, Jannetje Van 
Winkle, Dec. 25, 1799 ; 2d, Maria Demarest, March 20, 
1834. Ch., Jacob, b. May 6, 1802; m. Ann Van Blarcom, 
June 4, 1823. 

III. John, b. April 30, 1780 ; d. in inf. 
IV. Helena, b. Jan. 23, 1782. 

V. John, b. April 30, 1784; m. . Children — 

I. Jacob ; 2. Benjamin ; 3. Hannah. 

VI. Maria, b. Oct. 17, 1793; m. Edo Merselis, Aug. 5, 

Simeon Johannes-Simeon- Symon-Jacobse had children : 
I. Johannes, b. Nov. 12, 1784; m. Jannetje Kip, March 
24, 1805. (She was b. Jan. I, 1788, daughter of Pieter Kip 
and Willemyntje Van Winkel, of Boiling Spring.) John S. 
Van Winkle lived on his grandfather's place at the GofHe, 
replacing the old house in 181 1 by a larger stone dwelling, 
still standing, on the north side of the Godwinville road, a 
mile or two from Paterson. He also carried on the grist 
mill near his house. Early in the morning of Wednesday, 
January 9, 1850, his residence was the scene of a dreadful 
tragedy — a double murder, the first that had occurred dur- 
ing the thirteen years of the existence of Passaic coun- 
ty. The story of the shocking crime was thus told in a lo- 
cal newspaper of the day : 

At last our County has been the scene of a wilful and most atrocious 
murder. Last Wednesday morning our citizens were astounded by the 
intelligence that John S. Van Winkle and his wife had been the victims 
of some murderous hand, at their farm house, some three miles from 
this place, in the adjoining township of Manchester. Crowds of our cit- 
izens went to the spot, and those who saw the horrid sight, represent it 
as awful beyond degree. 

1 Bergen County Wills, B, 365. 

The circumstances of the case appear to be as follows : About 2 or 3 
o'clock on that morning, Judge Van Winkle was aroused from his sleep 
by a scream from his wife, and raising up and stretching out his hand, 
he touched the face of a man standing by his bedside, from whom he re- 
ceived a blow on the face with a hatchet. Mr. V. W. got out from his 
bed and grappled with the fellow on the floor, and succeeded at last in 
wresting the hatchet from him and struck him several blows about the 
head , when the villain grasped him around the neck and inflicted a stab 
under the arm and another fatal one in the abdomen , nearly severing the 
intestines. Mr. V. W. then fell on the floor, his bowels protruding, and 
his cries of murder having aroused the rest of the inmates of the house, 
the assailant fled. Mr. V. W. heard him ascending the stair leading to 
the garret, after leaving the room where the victims lay. A boy from. 
the house aroused several of the neighbors, who immediately came to 
the house and found Mrs. V. W. lying on the floor dead, having one stab 
in the left breast, and another in the thigh, severing the crural artery, 
and Mr. V. W. laying also on the floor with the stabs as we have above 
described, and several bruises on the face as if from a heavy blow. He 
was perfectly calm and sensible, and described the murderer as a short, 
thick set man , wearing a shirt over his clothes. 

Upon examining the premises, a ladder was found standing against 
the house at the north end , (which had been carried several rods from 
Mr. V. W's grist mill,) and reaching within a few feet of a window. — la 
the snow which fell in the early part of the night, were seen fresh tracks 
indicating that one person alone had been engaged in the murderous 
foray. Upon consultation, the persons present determined to separate 
and search in every direction for the assailant. 

A man named John Johnson was captured near the scene 
of the murder on his way to the railroad station at Godwin- 
ville (now Ridgewood on the Erie railroad). The paper 
goes on to say : 

Johnson denies all knowledge of the murder, and pretends that since 
Sunday night he knows nothing, and recollects nothing of his doings un- 
til his arrest. On that Sunday night he was at the house of James Van 
Blarcom, a mile or so from this town,l and on this side of the river, but 
he left that place about 10 o'clock. On Monday morning the inmates of 
Mr. Van Blarcom's house missed a pair of boots, a vest, a shirt, a pair 
of spectacles, a hatchet, and a knife ; all of these were found on John- 
son's person marked with blood, e.xcept the knife and hatchet which 
were found at Judge Van Winkle's house. The knife had been sharpened 
and used by Mr. Van Blarcom's son-in-law on that Sunday morning. 

Johnson had worked for Mr. Van Blarcom, and was in the employ of 
one of his sons-in-law up to the Saturday night before the murder. He 
had worked for Judge V. W. some time ago , and we have heard that 
about that time he was taken from Jail (where he was lodged on some 
complaint) by Judge V. W. , who felt and acted toward him with friendly 
sympathy. It is rumored that when the articles were missed at Mr. V. 
B.'s, Johnson was suspected of the theft, and that the depot was watched 
for the purpose of detecting him should he attempt to leave the place. 

Johnson told the woman at the station that he was an Irishman, but 
in his examination he said he was an Englishman, as his dialect proves 
him to be. We understand that he hails from Liverpool, and says that 
he is 34 years of age. He claims that he is innocent, and declares that 
he will be out of Jail in a few days. To this hope there will be a fatal 

Judge Van Winkle was one of our oldest citizens — long a Judge of 
the Common Pleas : and a man of prudence and wealth. 

The wealth has probably been the murderer's object. 

This is the first murder ever committed in our county, and we trust 
that such feelings of horror as this has excited may never again e.xist 
among us for any cause whatever. The deed is done ; the two mur- 
dered victims are in their graves and circumstances indicate a fearful 
retribution for the suspected prisoner.2 

The county courts did not convene until Tuesday, March 
5, after the tragedy. Johnson was indicted the following 
Saturday, tried on Monday and convicted after twenty min- 
utes' conference by the jury, and on Monday, March 18, was 

1 In East Eighteenth street, near Eighth avenue. 

2 Paterson Intelligencer, Wednesday, January 16, 1850. 



sentenced to be hanged on April 30, He persisted to the 
last in declaring that he had no recollection of the murder. 
He made the curious observation that he was the only man 
in the county who knew the day of his death — a quaint re- 
flection that seemed to divert him not a little. The execu- 
tion took place on April 30, 1850, in the jail yard, in full 
view of thousands who gathered on Garret Mountain and 
on house-tops to witness the gruesome spectacle. 

II. Elizabeth, b. : m. John Post, miller, just 

below the Dundee dam ; she died young, before 1805. 

Simeon Jacob-Simeon-Symon-Jacobse had children, all 
born in the house corner of Broadway and Main street : 

I. Jacob, b. Dec. 6, 1776; removed to New York, 
■where he was living in 1805. 

II. Edo, b. Oct. 14, 1779; m. ist, Jannetye Vander- 
hoof, May 26, 1805 ; 2d, Jannetje Van Houten, wid. of Hen- 
ry H. Post, Dec. I, 1811. 

III. Peter, b. June 27, 1782; m. Phebe, eldest dau. of 
Gen. Abraham Godwin, Oct. 20, 1805. ^^ went to New 
York before 1805 and engaged in mercantile business. He 
passed the remainder of his life in that city, and died there, 
in 1820 or 1822, after which his family returned to Paterson. 

IV. Cornelius, b. Jan. 13, 1785. He went to New York 
prior to 1805, and became a printer noted for the excellence 
of his work. His printing office was in Greenwich street, 
and afterwards in Liberty street. In 1818 he published a 
Printer's Guide,! which is a model typographical production 
— good paper, clear type, superior ink, perfect "registei"," 
and in every respect a first-class piece of work. He also 
published, l8lg-2o, the first American edition of Irving's 
Sketch Book, in seven numbers, which is also a tyjjograph- 
ical gem. 2 

There is a tradition in the family to this effect : Corne- 
lius was in the habit of taking a nap in his office after his 
noon-day lunch. One day, as he was sitting in his chair, 
enjoying his post-prandial doze, his head thrown back and 
his cavernous mouth wide open, Washington Irving dropped 
in, and with the familiarity of an old acquaintance roused 
him from his slumbers, with some humorous allusion to the 
appearance of his countenance, his wide open jaws suggest- 
ing a great j-ij> across his face. Some desultory conversa- 
tion followed about Irving's work, particularly his legend of 
the Dans Kammer in the Catskills ; Irving said he was still 
puzzled as to the name to be given the hero of the tale. 
"Well," said the printer, "Why don't you name him after 

1 The title is: The Printer's Guide ; or, an Introduction to the Art of 
Printing; including an Essay on Punctuation, and Remarks on Ortho- 
graphy. By C. S. Van Winkle, New York : Printed and published by 
C. S. Van Winkle, Printer to tlie University of New York. 1818. i6mo. 
Pp. xii., 13-230, and 54 pp. of specimens of type. 

2 The title of the first number reads thus : The Sketch Book of Ge- 
offrey Crayon, Gent. No. I. [Quotation, three lines.] New York: 
Printed by C. S. Van Winkle, No. 101 Greenwich street. 1819. The 
copyright is dated May 15, 1819, and is in Van Winkle's name as propri- 
etor of the book. No. II was copyrighted July 26, 1819; No. Ill on 
Aug. 11; No. XV on Oct. 12; No. V on Dec. 16; No. VI on Feb. 10, 
1820; No. VII on Aug. 12, 1820. The preface to No. I is dated London, 
1819. It would appear that the modest author had so little confidence 
in the success of his work that he sold (or gave) the copyright to Van 
Winkle, who assumed the risk of the venture. 

me — 'Rip' Van Winkle?" "Do you mean it?" cried the 
author. "Of course I do," replied the good natured print- 
er. And hence the name of the most popular of Washing- 
ton Irving's characters in the "Sketch Book." So Corne- 
lius S. Van Winkle had in more senses than one a proprie- 
tary interest in this work. 

V. Johannis, bap. Oct. 14, 1787. He likewise re- 
moved to New York city before 1805. He always dressed, 
in the quaint style of the colonial days. 
VI. Yannike, bap. March 27, 1 791. 
Jacob Jacob-Simeon-Symon— Jacobse had child : 

I. Jacob, b. Nov. 21, 1784; m. Elizabeth Vanderhoof,. 
March 2, 1806. Ch., Catterine, b. Oct. 5, 1806. 

Johannes Simeon-Johannis-Symon-Jacobse had children : 
I. Catharine, b. June 9, 1777. 
II. Sarah, b. Nov. 11, 1779. 

III. Benjamin, b. Jan. 22, 1781. 

IV. Marytje, b. April 5, 1783. 

Jacob Abraham-Johannis-Symon-Jacobse had children :. 
I. Abraham, b. Dec. 2, 1792. 
II. Jacobus, b. April 17, 1796. 

III. John, b. March 12, 1799. 

IV. Josua, b. June 20, 1801. 

V. Stephanes, b. Dec. 15, 1803. 
VI. Paulus, b. March 31, 1806. 
VII. Rachel, b. April 9, 1809. 
VIII. Selly, b. July 20, 1811. 
IX. Maria, b. July 4, 1814. 
Theodoras Theodorus-Arie-Symon-Jacobse had children ^ 
I. Elizabeth, b. Sept. 13, 1783. 

II. Theodosia, b. March 25, 1785 ; m. Andreas Bos- 
kerck, July 17, 1803. 

III. Catherine. 

IV. Jenneke, b. May i, 1789. 
V. Rachel. 

VI. Annaatje, b. March 8, 1794. 
VII. Thina, b. Sept. 30, 1796. 
VIII. Pieter, b. Aug. 21, 1801. 

The will of Theodorus was dated Nov. 9, 1808, and 
proved Feb. 25, 1809. He was unusually considerate of his. 
wife, for those days, providing that in case of her re-mar- 
riage she should share equally with his children in his es- 
tate. 1 

Johannis Jacob-Johannis-Symon-Jacobse had children : 
I. Benjamin Vanderlinda, b. Dec. 29, 1793. 
11. Annaatje, b. Sept. 27, 1797. 

III. Jacob, b. Sept. 8, 1800. 

IV. Johannis, b. Jan. 22, 1806 ; bap. March 2, 1806, at 
which time his father was dead. 

The following data are gleaned from the Acquackanonk, 
Totowa and Hackensack church records : 

Lucas Van Winkel m. Lena Van Wagenen, Oct. 29, 1780. 
Children: I. Sietje, b. Aug. 7, 1784; 2. Rachel, b. Sept. 
15, 1781; 3. Lena, b. June 18, 1787; 4. Rachel, b. Feb^ 
21, 1790; 5. Jacobus, b. March 26, 1797. 

1 Bergen County Wills, A, 239. 



Joseph Van Winkel and Lea (or Lidia) Wood had child- 
ren : I. Pryntje, b. April 24, 1794; 2. Egbert, b. Sept. 29, 
1 801. 

Isaac Van Winkel m. Helena Schoonmaker, Aug. 21, 
1796. Ch., Johannes Wanshair, b. March 4, 1797. 

Jacob Van Winkle, sen., bachelor, m. Jenneke Van Win- 
kel, June II, 1780. Children — I. Simeon, b. Sept. 26, 
1783; 2. Lena, b. May 8, 1785; 3. Jenneke, b. June 9, 
1788; 4. Myntje, b. April 19, 1793. 

Jacob Van Winkel and Elsye Keep had ch., Jannetje, b. 
Dec. 9, 1776. 

Johannes Van V/inkel, jun., m. Sarah Van Winkel, April 

IS. 1787- 

Jacobus Van Winkel and Margrietje Toers had children — 
I. Annetje, b. Oct. 24, 1788; 2. Jacob, b. June 11, 1790; 
3. Tietje, b. Jan. 15, 1794; 4. Lena, b. May 7, 1797; 5. 
Margrietje, b. March 23, 1801. 

Johannis Van Winkel and Gerritye Sip had children — I. 
W^aling, b. June 6, 1772; m. Selly Gerrebrantse, Oct. 29, 
1797; 2. Hehnigh, b. Dec. 14, 1777; rn. Antje Van Houten, 
Aug. 19, 1804; ch., Johannes, b. Feb. 22, 1805. 

Johannes Van Winkel and Cattelynlje Ryerson had ch., 
Cattelyntje, b. Nov. 5, 1777. 

Johannes Van Winkel and Elizabeth Ryerson had child- 
ren : I. Maria DeBoos, b. April 5, 1793 ; 2. Johannes Jores 
Ryerson, b. Nov. I, 1795. 

John Van Winkel and Tiesje Vreeland had ch., Annatje, 
b. March 29, 1800. 

Seventh Generation. 

Waling Helmich-Waliiig-Johannis-Waling-Jacobse had 
children : 

I. Helmich, b. Feb. 16, 1806; m. Catharine Camp- 
bell, dau. of Donald Mclntyre, of New York, . 

He gave the writer the following sketch of his life, on June 
I, 1881 : 

Before I was married I started a grocery and general coun- 
try store at Franklin, Essex county, near Kingsland's paper mills. 
Most of Kingsland's operatives dealt with me, but' it was not a "mill 
store." About this time the Duncans had a small hat shop along the 
river, about two miles below Belleville ; they then engaged in the cot- 
ton business at Franklin, where they subsequently failed. I remained 
at Frankhn about four years. Then I went into the paper business with 
Kingsland at the old Curds Mill, which was subsequently burned down. 
Kingsland sold out to Curtis and rebuilt his paper mills where the 
Kingslands now are. I was with him two or three years until he re- 
built. I then, in April, 1833, came to Paterson, and bought out Lemuel 
White, who had a grocery in Van Houten street, wheie Nathaniel Lane 
was later. I remained on that site two years, removing thence to where 
Henry Van Gieson subsequently kept store for so many years, on Main 
street, east side, near Broadway. It was then an old frame building, a 
mere shanty. It was kept by Samuel B. Hazard at that time ; I bought 
him out. I occupied that stand for about ten years, when I removed to 
the south-west corner of Main and Ellison streets, where I remained un- 
til I went out of business. 

Mr. Van Winkel was aldermair from the east ward of Pat- 
erson, 1864-68; he was deputy tax receiver for about ten 
years before his death, which occurred Feb. 15, 1885. His 
widow died Nov. 11, 1886. He lived for many years on the 
north-west corner of Church and Van Houten streets. 
II. Richard, b. Jan. 21, 1811. 
III. Marritje, b. Aug. 3, 1813. 

Waling Waling-Waling-Johannis-Waling-Jacobse had 
children : 

L Dirck, b. March 28, 1805. 
II. Jannetje, b. Sept. 11, 1807. 

III. Sophia, b. Feb. 6, 1810. 

IV. Nicasie, b. Nov. 17, 1812. 
V. Richard, b. Oct. 16, 1816. 

VL Petrina, b. 1818. 
VII. Rachel Ann, b. 1820. 
VIII. Catharine, b. 1822 ; d. in inf. 
IX. Claertje, b. 1823. 
X. Catharine Jane, b. 1826. 
John Simeon-John-Simeon-Symon-Jacobse had child- 
ren : 

I. Cornelius, b. Sept. 9, 1806; m. Catharine Leah Van 
Dien, of Paramus, March 4, 1809 ; he d. May 25, 1873 ; she 
d. August 5, 1870, aged 70 years. He owned the Riverside 
farm, where he lived until he sold it to the Riverside Land 
Improvement Company, after which he resided on the south- 
west corner of Ellison and Hamilton streets. He was 
greatly interested all his life in the First Reformed church, 
of which he was a zealous and generous supporter. Child- 
ren — I. John H., b. Feb. 11, 1827; d. July 27, 1828; 2. 
Anna, m. Helmas Romaine ; 3. John H., b. Sept. 29, 
1846; d. April 6, 1851 ; 4. Simon Peter. 

II. Peter, b. June 23, 1810 ; he was killed, April 29, 
1828, by being thrown off a horse he was leading to water 
near his father's mill. 

Frans Simeon-John-Simeon-Symon-Jacobse had child- 
ren : 

I. David, m. Brache (Bridget) Decker, of Macopin, 
and died at the age of 85. Children — i. John, d. in inf. ; 
2. Lettie, m. John Smith, and lived in Passaic street, Pater- 
son, many years; 3. Jennie, m. Chauncey Andrews, jun.,, 
Paterson ; 4. John ; 5. Margaret, m. John Osbon, of Sad- 
dle River ; 6. Caty, m. Anthony Sheffield, of Mahwah ; 
7. David. 

II. Elenor, b. March 14, 1797; m. Richard Myers. 

III. Elizabeth, m. John Myers, who lived at the top of 
GofHe hill. He had no fear of snakes, and one day, as 
the men who were mowing expressed a dread of the numer- 
ous copperheads, he declared that he would catch them in 
his hands as fast as they could find them. The third one he 
seized was too quick for him, and as he failed to grasp it as 
high up the neck as he intended, it buried its poisonous 
fangs in his hand. He applied a poultice of plantain 
leaves, salt and hoarhouno to the wound, and drank freely 
of a decoction of plantain leaves and milk. Although his 
arm had been greatly swollen, up to the shoulder, he was 
out of danger the next day. 

IV. Jane, m. John Zabriskie, who d. young, leaving 
her with one child, Mary, who m. John Van Blarcom, whose 
sons, Daniel and John Frank, live in a house erected on the 
site of the former residence of Francis Van Winkle. 

Jacob Simeon-Jacob-Simeon-Symon-Jacobse had child- 
ren : 

1. Jacob, m. Polly Helms. Ch., Peter, b. Nov. 2^ 



II. Henry, who went to spa. 
There were other children, who did not remain in this vi- 

Edo Simeon-Jacoh-Simeon-Symon-Jacohse had children : 
I. Antje, b. Feb. 27, 1806; m. John Thomson, a 
machinist, of the firm of Thomson & Evans, who carried 
on the Union Works, on the north side of Market street, 
near Spruce street. He was afterwards, for thirty years, 
superintendent of the Ellicott MHls, Md. He and his wife 
died the same day, in 18S4 or 1885. They were m. Nov. 9, 

II. Elizabeth, b. Sept. 3, 1807; m. David Burnett, a 
newspaper editor and publisher, printer, bookseller, bank 
cashier, etc., a prominent and highly esteemed citizen for 
more than half a century ; she d. in 1883. 

III. Edo, d. in inf. 

IV. Mary, m. Treadvvell Ketcham, formerly in the gro- 
cery business on Main street, in Paterson, but for many 
years past a resident of New Haven, Conn. 

V. John E., b. Feb. 25, 1814; m. Rebecca Oldis (b. 
Nov. I, 1818, dau. of John G. Oldis and Aletta Van Voor- 
his), of Paramus, June 19, 1S38 ; her husband d. in 1889, 
and she in 1890. He was a machinist and inventor, whose 
work will be noticed in a later chapter. He lived in the 
house occupied by his father, on the northwest corner of 
Broadway and Carroll street. 

\T. Isaac, who accidentally fell down a well and was 
killed, at the age of three years. 

VII. Catharine, b. March I, 1816; m. May 12, 1842, 
Henry Clark, a prominent hardware merchant for many 
years, at the northwest corner of Main and Ellison streets ; 
she d. Sept. 9, 1877. 

Peter Simeon-Jacob-Simeon-Symon-Jacobse had child- 
ren : 

I. Henry, m. Maria, eldest dau. of Peter Jackson, a 

leading merchant at Acquackanonk (now Passaic, where she 
was b. June 22, 1807), June 20, 1827. He was the author 
of a novel, "which obtained no great success," but which, 
so competent a critic as Parke Godwin says, was "marked 
by considerable originality and force." 

II. Adolphus, m. Van Winkle, granddaughter 

of Walling Van Winkle, who lived where the late David 
Anderson's house now stands in Passaic. 

III. Edgar S., b. Aug. 3, 1810, at his father's residence 
in Marketfield street. New York city; attended school in 
Paterson, and then at Nassau Hall Academy, a famous 
school in its day, at Acquackanonk, presided over by Dr. 
Lambert Sythoff ; studied law with John P. Jackson, of 
Newark (whose sister Maria had m. Edgar's brother Hen- 
ry), and afterwards with William Slosson, of New York, in 
which city he was admitted to the bar in 1831, and for near- 
ly half a century was one of the shining lights of his pro- 
fession. He was a widely read man, cultivated the muses, 
and found time amid the cares of an exacting practice, for 
the amenities of life. He d. Dec. 9, 1882. He m. in 1835, 
Miss Beach of Litchfield, Conn. A charming, appreciative 
sketch of him was read by his friend, Parke Godwin, before 
"The Column," a literary society of New York, in January, 

IV. Peter Godwin, b. in New York city, Sept. 7, 1808. 
On the return of his family to Paterson, in 1822, he entered 
into partrership with Abram H. Godwin, and the firm kept 
a store for several years, at the southwest corner of Main 
and Van Houten streets, and also at Oldham, near Benja- 
min Brundred's machine shop. In 1835, he removed to 
Parkersburg, Va., practising law until 1852, when he be- 
came treasurer and afterward president of a railroad com- 
pany. He took an active part in politics, and when West 
Ylrginia was formed, he was elected United States Senator 
by the Unionists, in 1883, serving until 1869, being a mem- 
ber of some of the most important committees in the Sen- 
ate. He d. at Parkersburgh, West Va., April 15, 1872. He 
m. a dau. of William P. Rathbun, of Hohokus, but previ- 
ously a famous merchant of New York. 

The following data are from the various church records : 

Annaetje Van Winkel, maiden, of Wesel (probably dau. 
of Jacob-Symon-Jacobse), m. Rynier Van Giesen, widou'er, 
of Hackensack, Oct. 31, 1760. 

Annaetje Van Winkel, maiden, m. Hendrick Van Blar- 
coni, both of Acquackanonk, Nov. 20, 1763. 

Catharine Van Winkel, maiden, living at Wesel, m. Phil- 
ip Berry, widower, b. and 1. at Hackensack, April 15, 1761. 

Jacob Van Winkel and Hilegond Bruyn had children : 
I. Johannes, b. Sept. 6, 1754; 2. Jacob, b. Dec. 15, 1760. 
The sponsors on the latter occasion were Rynier Van Gie- 
sen and Antje his wife. 

Jacob Van Winkel, jun., m. Anna Kingsland, March 17, 

Jacob Van Winkel m. Antje Koejeman, Jan. 8, 1S15. 

John Jacob Van Winkel m. Elizabeth BrinkerhotI, June 2, 


Simeon Van Winkle, of Bergen county, having died intes- 
tate, Simeon Van Winkle (presumably his son) was appoint- 
ed administrator, Aug. 15, 1793.1 

IV., v., VI., AND VII. Elias, Hartman, Johannes 
AND Cornelius Michielsen (Vreeland). 

The progenitor of the Vreeland family in this vicinity was 
Michiel Jansen (Michiel, son of John), van Broeckhuysen, 2 
who sailed from Holland October I, 1636, in the ship Rens- 
selaerswyck, accompanied by his wife and two children. 3 On 
the same vessel was Symon Waling van de Bilt, whose rela- 
tives, as we have seen, were, with the sons of Michiel Jan- 
sen, among the first Patentees of Acquackanonk. Mauritz 
Jansen came over on the same vessel with Michiel Jansen, 
but there is nothing to indicate that they were related. 
Michiel came to America in the capacity of a farm servant 

1 Liber No. 33 of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 169. 

2 Broekhuizen and Broekhuizenvorst are two villages with an aggre- 
gate population of 900, on the west bank of the river Maas, in the north- 
eastern part of the Duchy of Limburg, which is the most southeastern 
province of Holland. — Terzven, 492. These small villages and towns in 
Holland are shown vrith great clearness on the Nieuwe Kaart van het 
Koningrijk der Nederlanden, benevens de Nederlandsche Bezittingen in 
andere Werclddeelen, a map on a very large scale, published (fourth edi- 
tion) at Leyden, by D. Noothoven van Goor, in 1S64. 

3 The fare for himself and two children was 140 florins 16 stuyvers, or 
about $56. — See Annals of Albany, by Joel Munsell, Albany, 1871 , 
IV., 33- 



{boere-knecIW) in the employ of the Patioon of the Colonic 
of Rensselaerswyck.l Under date of June l6, 1643, Arent 
van Curler writes from "At the Manhattans," to the Lord 
Patroon Van Rensselaer, in Holland: "Regarding the dia- 
mond ijiet crystal) near Michel Jansen's house, of which 
your Honor writes that I should send over some more speci- 
mens thereof, I have spoken about it to Michiel Jansen, and 
to several others, to engage them to buy it. But they will 
not do so, apparently because they fear for the labor, and 
it will terminate badly."2 It is most likely that Michiel was 
surreptitiously dabbling in the fur trade about this time, the 
profits of which were all his own, whereas, diamonds, if 
found, would belong to the Patroon of the Colony. The 
next mention of Michiel is in connection with some court 
proceedings, Sept. 29, 1644: "Michel Jansen vs. Laurens 
Cornelissen, for the recovery of 90 guilders due by plaintiff's 
man-servant, whom the defendant carried from the Colonic 
(Rensselaerswyck) without consent j defendant denies that 
he knew the man to be a hired servant ; plaintiff maintains 
that defendant ought to have delivered the man over to the 
fiscal at Manhattans, and not carried him elsewhere ; judg- 
ment for the plaintiff. "3 A contemporary writer says that 
"Jansen made his fortune in a few years at Rensselaers- 
wyck, but not being able to agree with the authorities there, 
finally removed to the island Manhattan in the year 1646." * 
In view of his contemplated departure from the Colony, he 
gave a power of attorney, Nov. 4, 1644, to Arent van Curler 
to settle all his accounts with the Patroon.5 He was still 
there, however, in 1645, when he was assessed "20 schepels 
wheat, and 20 schepels oats, and 2 schepels peas," for the 
Patroon's share of the produce.6 Adriaen van der Donck 
(a prominent settler at Rensselaerswyck, and one of the 
most intelligent men in New Netherlands — the first lawyer 
there, also), had some negotiations with Jansen, at the house 
of Dominie Megapolensis, "about hiring him his bouwerie 
for so long as his lease was concerned, for which purpose 
they had come together at the aforesaid place. * * * * 
Michiel would first insist, as was right, that he should have 
nothing to do with former questions and -losses, but every- 
thing must be given to him clear, so van der Donck and I 
fell to talk about the late burning of his house"^ (the house 
was burned Jan. 17, 1646). He appears to have leased tbe 
West India Company's bouwerie or farm on Manhattan 
Island about this time, and removed thither. He was to 
have gone to The Hague on business connected with the Rens- 
selaerswyck Colony, but as his accounts were not settled, he 
having a disputed claim against the Colony, Jan Evertsen 
Bout went in his stead. Bout had a farm in Pavonia, form- 
erly the property of Michael Pauw, and which the Company 

1 Van Tienhoven's "Answer to Remonstrance," etc., Nov. 29, 1650 ; 
Albany, 1856, £4. 

2 O'Callaghan's New Netherland , I. , 459. 
3N. Y. Hist. MSS.,1.,91. 

* Van Tienhoven's "Answer to Remonstrance," etc., p. 65. 
6N. Y. Hist. MSS.,1.,30. 

6 O'Callaghan, I., 472. 

7 lb., 469. 

had bought for fl26,ooo, and which having been ravaged by 
the Indians in 1645, the Company presented to Evertsen, 
who sold it to Michael Jansen with "a poor, unfinished 
house and some few cattle," for fl8,ooo. 1 Jansen paid for 
the farm in instalments ; he and Bout agreed concerning the 
balance due, June 9, 1655, and it was not until the whole 
consideration was paid that he received his deed (dated 
Sept. 9, 1656). The farm comprised several acres or more, 
south of Communipaw avenue, Jersey City.2 Jansen had 
not definitely abandoned his proposed trip to Amsterdam, 
and in view of his contemplated voyage thither, he was 
given a power of attorney by Sander Leendertsen, June 10, 
1647, to receive money from the West India Company. 3 

He seems to have attained much prominence immediately 
in his new location. In 1647 Director-General Stuyvesant 
and his Council, in view of pressing difficulties between the 
people and the Indians, invited the citizens to choose 
eighteen of the most expert and reasonable persons, from 
whom the Director and Council would select Nine Men "as 
is customary in the Fatherland," to give their advice when 
called on, and to assist in promoting the welfare of the 
country. ' The eighteen having been elected by the people 
of Manhattans, Breukelyn, Aniersfoort and Pavonia, the 
Director-General and his Council, by proclamation dated 
Sept. 25, 1647, selected Nhie Men of the best known, most 
honorable and respectable, choosing three merchants, three 
citizens and three farmers. Michiel was one of the last. 
These Nine Men constituted a sort of court also, three (one 
of each class) sitting every Thursday, month and month 
about, to hear civil causes. Six of these Nine Men were to 
retire annually, and twelve men having been nominated by 
the Nine, the Director and Council selected the six new 
members. 4 In February, 1649, while Jansen was still in of- 
fice, the Nine Men having decided to send a delegation to 
Holland, "considered it necessary to make out a series of 
memoranda, in order to draw up a proper journal from them 
when occasion allowed. This task devolved on one Adriaen 
Van der Donck, who, in accordance to a resolution which 
was adopted at the same time, was lodged in a room in one 
Michiel Jansen's house. One day when Van der Donck 
was abroad, the Director-General seized this rough draft 
with his own hand, and placed Van der Donck, the day fol- 
lowing, under arrest. "5 Nevertheless, the "Remonstrance" 
was completed under date of July 28, 1649, signed by eleven 
persons, including Michiel Jansen, and sent to Holland. It 
was accompanied by a petition for a municipal government 
for New Netherland, dated July 26, 1649, and signed by 
the same parties, IMichiel Jansen and the others. 6 The mes- 

1 Van Tienlioven's "Answer to Remonstrance," p. 65. 

2 Winfield's Hudson County Land Titles, 51, 52 ; Valentine's Hist. 
N. Y., 139. 

3N. Y. Hist. MSS.,1.,37. 

4 O'Callaghan, II., 37-9 ; History of the State of New York, by John 
Romeyn Brodhead, First Period, 1609-1664. New York, 1853, 476. 

5 Remonstrance of New Netherlands, 48 ; Van Tienhoven's Answer, 
63 ; N. Y. Col. Docs., XIV., 113. 

6 N. Y. Doc. Hist., I., 386; Brodhead's N. Y., I., 505; N. Y. Col. 
Docs., IV., 28-36; N. Y. iMan., 1851, 409; O'Callaghan, II., 121 ; Val- 
entine's N. Y., 52. 



sengers who bore this important document to Holland were 
fortified by a certificate of their appointment, signed by 
Michiel Jansen and the other Nine Men.l Michiel Jansen 
served as one of the Nine Men in 1650, for the last time. 
Under date of May 4, 1653, Michiel Jansen deeded to Her- 
man Smeeman "25 morgens of land with the house and all 
that is thereon, together with 25 morgens of land belonging 
to Oloof Stevens Van Cortland, charged with a yearly rent 
of 38 guilders" (Manhattan Island). 2 On November 27, 
1654, a patent was issued to Michiel Jansen for 26 1-3 mor- 
gens of land at Pavonia, a patent being issued at the sam^e 
time for 40 morgens of land at the same place to Claes Jan- 
sen B.icker (Nicholas Jansen, baker), his brother. 3 The 
full entry is as follows : 

Pdtrus Stuyvesaiit etc. -ivith the Honble Council declare, that we 
have to-day, date underwritten, granted and conveyed to Michijl Jan- 
sen a parcel of land, situate at Pavonia back of his own land, 80 rods 
wide running N. E. into the woods on the N. W. 200 rods in lengi)! along 
the land of Claes Jansen Backer, thence N. E. 80 rods, altogether 26 J^ 
morgens. With the express conditions, etc etc. Done at Fort A:nster- 
datn in N. N. the 27th of Novbr 1654. 

In the raid made by the Indians on Sept. 15, 1655, on 
Manhattan Island and Pavonia, Michiel Jansen's family 
alone escaped. * Nevertheless, he felt constrained to remove 
his family for greater safety across the river once more, 
where, although not privileged as a citizen, he was permit- 
ted, Nov. 22, 1655, in consequence of his having lost his all 
by the Indian war, to open a tavern, and the authorities gave 
him a lot "between the old church and the Gracht." His 
petition on this occasion sets out in simple and touching 

language his misfortunes : 

To the Noble, Worshipful Direct- 
or-General Petrus Stuyvesant 
and the Right Honorable Council 
of New-Netherland. 
Shows with great humility and due respect Michiel Jansen, farmer 
and former resident here, that during the last unexpected disastrous 
co.iflict with the Indian natives of this country, he was bereft not only 
of what he had earned here with God's blessing during a period of 17 
5'ear3, but also of all, what he, the petitioner, had brought to this coun- 
try and what had been sent to him. AU of which has been cruelly 
burned or taken away by the aforesaid Indians, so that he, the petition- 
er, has now no means in this world to live on with his wife and si.x 
children, but as he desires to gain a living, like the other inhabitants of 
this place, by doing something or another, wherefore he first needs be- 
sides God's blessing your Hgnorable Worships' good favor, he, the pe- 
titioner, therefore addresses himself respectfully to your Honorable 
Worships praying that in consideration of the above stated facts your 
Honorable Worships will favor him with a lot within the city next to 
Abraham Clock, 30 to 36 feet wide, whereas the same would be very 
useful to him, the petitioner, for what he intends to undertake for the 
maintenance of his family; which doing etc shall remain as ever your 
Honorable Worships' obedient subject.5 

Machiel Jansen 

The Gracht was the ditch or canal running through the 
centre of what is now called Broad street, and the lot in 
question was on the north side of the present Pearl 
street, just south of Broad street. 6 He was also appointed, 

IN. Y. Col. Docs., I., 258. 
2N. Y. Hist. MSS., I.,378. 
3N. Y. Col. Docs, XIII., 37. 
< O'Callaghan, II.,29i. 
5N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 61. 

6 N. Y. Hist. MSS., I., 159, 160; Valentine's Hist. N. Y., 28, 69, 86, 
108, 139 ; N. Y. Col. Docs., VIII., 649. 

Feb. 21, 1657, one of the measurers of lime and grain,l and 
on April 13, 1657, was admitted to the small burgher right. 2 
He followed his business as tapster until a more settled 
condition of Indian affairs, when he returned to his Pavonia 
farm, re-erected his farm buildings, and renewed his former 
operations. He' was one of the witnesses to the Indian deed, 
January 30, 1658, for the Bergen tract.3 In l65o he had a 
house and lot near the corner of William and Beaver streets, 
in New York.* Bergen having been incorporated in 1661, 
Michiel Jansen, Herman Smeeman and Caspar Stynmets 
were named as the first magistrates of the first court of jus- 
tice erected within the limits of the present State of New 
Jersey, and of the earliest organized municipal government 
with'n this State. •> 

In December, 1662, he joined his neighbors in asking the 
authorities for "a God fearing man and preacher" at Ber- 
gen, for whose support he subscribed twenty-five florins. 8 
He died before the ensui:ig June, when his widow and other 
residents of Gemoenepa requested the Director General and 
Council to enclose their settlement at that place with long 
palisades as a protection against the Indians.'' 

The wife of Michiel Jansen was Fitje Hartmans, or 

daughter of Hartman ; hence the latter name among 

her descendants. In the record, in the New York Dutch 
church, of the baptism of Johannes, the mother's name is 
given as Fytie Wessels, and one of the witnesses was Anna Wes- 
sels. From this entry it seems probable that Fytie Hartman 
belonged to the family now known as Wessels. On the occa- 
sion of the birth of Cornells, in 1660, the mother's name is 
not given, but the witnesses were Warnar Wesselszen and 
Hendrickje Wessels. In 1679 the Labadist missionaries, 
Dankers and Sluyter, give this account of a visit to the aged 
widow, at Gemoenepaen, in the course of a voyage from 
Brooklyn : "Our old woman at the house (in Brooklyn) told 
us of another good woman who lived at this place (Gemoen- 
epaen), named Fitie, from Cologne, and recommended us 
to visit her, which we did as soon as we landed. We found 
her a little pious after the manner of the country, and you 
could discover that there was something of the Lord in her, 
but very much covered up and defiled. We dined there and 
spoke to her of what we deemed necessary for her condition. 
She has many grandchildren, all of whom are not unjust." 8 
This is really warm praise, from two of the most censorious 
of dissatisfied travelers. Fitie sold her husband's house 
and lot south of Prince street, in New Amsterdam, October 
I, 1663.9 She was a member of the Bergen church in 1664- 
When the English acquired possession of New Jersey, Gov. 
Carteret gave her a patent on May 12, 1668, for the tract of 

1 New Netherland Register, 116. 

2 lb., 176. 

3 N. Y. Col. Docs., VIII., 707. 

* Valentine's N. Y. Manual, 1865, 666. 

5 O'Callaghan, II., 428 ; Brodhead, I., 691. 

6 N. Y. Col. Docs. , XIII. , 232. 

7 lb., 252. 

8 Dankers and Sluyter, as cited, 155. 

9 Valentine's N. Y. Manual, 1865, 704. 



land acquired by her husband at Bergen ;1 by will she de- 
vised all her lands (107 acres) to her children — Elias, Enoch, 
Johannes, Hartman, Cornells, Jannetje and Pryntje — who 
partitioned June 26, 1701.2 She died September 21, 1697. 

Second Generation, 
Michiel Jansen and Fytje Hartmans had children : 

I. Claes came to this country with his father; m. An- 
•netje Maria Gerbrants, of Norden in Embderlant, April 14, 
1657. No record has been found of him beyond this fact. 

II. Elias was a carpenter; m. Grietje Jacobs (Van 
Winkel), of Hasymes, Aug. 30, 1665 ; although a Dutchman, 
he cheerfully took the oath of allegiance to the King of 
England, on the downfall of the Dutch sway, Nov. 22, 1665, 
at which time he was one of the magistrates of Bergen ;3 on 
the brief resumption of Dutch rule over New Netherland, 
in 1673, he was appointed schepen of Bergen,* a fact which 
was, perhaps, the cause of his rejection by the New York 
authorities, who assumed jurisdiction over New Jersey in 
1680, the Bergen people having again elected him one of 
their local officers. 5 He was appointed by the New Jersey 
Assembly one of the judges of Bergen in 1673, 1674, 1677 
and 1680; ensign in Capt. John Berry's "trained band" of 
Bergen militia, July 15, 1675 ;6 and was elected to the As- 
sembly as one of Bergen's deputies, in 1675, 1683, 1693-4-5, 
1699 and 1707. The records of the Legislature show that 
he was quite a prominent member of the House, serving 
frequently on committees of conference with the Governor 
and Council. He was elected and commissioned, March 
28, 1683, one of the justices of the peace for Essex county, ^ 
indicating that he was then settled at Acquackanonk. In 
1684 he petitioned for the Acquackanonk patent,8 and is 
named in that instrument as one of the grantees. In 1692 
and 1693 ^^ East Jersey Legislature appointed him one of 
the commissioners to assess the Provincial tax in Essex 
county. The act calls him McKilson.9 He was again com- 
missioned a justice of the peace, Oct. 10, 1692 :10 on May 25, 
1693, he was appointed lieutenant in the foot company for 
the inhabitants of Acquackanonk and New-Barbadoes ;ll he 
was commissioned, Aug. 29, 1693, one of the judges for the 
small cause court of the same two settlements ;12 in 1694 he 
was appointed by the Legislature one of the road commis- 
sioners for Essex county, his name being written "McChil- 
son," by the Scotch clerk of the Assembly. 13 He was again 
commissioned, Dec. 26, 1699, justice of the peace for Essex 

1 Winfield's Hudson Co. Land Titles, 52. 
2E. J. Deeds, I.,i3i-7. 
3 N. J. Archives, I. , 49. 
* lb., 125. 

5 lb., 320. 

6 E. J. Deeds, Liber B 2, 117. 

7 E. J. Patents, C, 11. 

8N. J. Archives, XIIL, 131. 

9 Learning and Spicer, 322, 335. 
10 E. J. Patents, C, 163. 
U lb., 180. 

12 lb., 203. 

13 Learning and Spicer, 346. 

county.l He was elected one of the first elders in the Ac- 
quackanonk church, in 1694, and was re-elected in 1698 and 
1703. In a deed executed by his children, dated June 24, 
1711, he is spoken of as "late of Acquackanonk, deceased." 2 
By deed dated April 26, 1698, Elias received from his broth- 
er Hartman, for £17 los, a one-fourth interest in the tract 
bought by the latter from Christopher Hoogland, and known 
as Stoffel's Point, the portion conveyed to Elias being thus 
described: "the poynt lyeing next to the Grantor his land 
being Number 3, as layd out by the sd Hartman & Elias 
Michielse together with Johannes & Cornells Michielse, as 
also a house Lot Lyeing Betweene the brook & the three 
layd out by the above nominated persons it being Number I 
house Lot as also a Lott lyeing on the next south of the 
Abovesaid brooke being Also Number i it lyes next the Riv- 
er together with the equal undivided fourth part of that 
which is not yet appropriated. "3 It is understood that he 
lived on this tract so conveyed to him, at what is now known 
as Dundee, in the city of Passaic. He first occupied a small 
stone house near the south side of Passaic street, a short 
distance east of the Dundee canal ; this was replaced by a 
larger stone house, near the site of the other, but the 
foundations of the first house were plainly visible seventy 
years ago.* 

III. Enoch, bap. Oct. 24, 1649 ; m. 1st, Dircksje Mey- 
ers, of Amsterdam, June 3, 1670 ; he was then living in New 
York ; she d. Oct. 5, 1688 ; he m. 2d, Grietje Wessels, wid. 
of Jan Jansen Langedyck, of New York, Sept. 16, 1691 ; she 
d. Nov. 20, 1697 ; he m. 3d, Aaf je Van Hoorn, Jan. 13, 
1705 ; he d. Aug. 17, 1714. He was a member of the Leg- 
islature in 1675, 1688 and 1707. He was commissioned en- 
sign of the Bergen militia, July 4, 1681 ; associate judge of 
the Bergen court, in 1673, 1674, 1681, 1682 and 1683 ; one 
of the assessors of Bergen, in 1682 ; highway commissioner 
for Bergen county in 1683 and 1694 ;5 assessor in Essex 
county in 1692 and in 1694 ;6 and assistant judge of the Ber- 
gen county common pleas in 1705. He bought, March 13, 
1685, of Edward Ball, fifty acres of land at Second River, and 
on June 29, 1686, he bought of Edward Rigg, of Newark, a 
tract of sixty acres adjoining the former, on the Passaic riv- 
er,'!' and made other purchases of land in that town, on 
which some of his descendants subsequently lived. He was 
never directly interested in the Acquackanonk purchase, nor 
did he live in this vicinity, but on the bluff where the New 
Jersey Central railroad crosses the Morris canal at Cavan 
point, Hudson county.8 In his will, dated April 12, 1715, 
proved Nov. 13, 1719, he describes himself as of "Naitsionk 
alias Pembrepogh, Bergen county. "9 

1 E. J. Patents, C, 314. 

2 E. J. Deeds, I, 307. 

3 E. J. Deeds, F, 588. 

4 Conversation, Sept. 28, 1893, with Elias (son of Jacob John) Vree- 
land, formerly of Passaic, but now of East Orange, N. J. 

5 Learning and Spicer, 257, 346. 

6 lb., 322. 

t E. J. Deeds, E, 1B3 ; F, loi. 

8 Winfield's Hist. Hudson County, 443. 

9 E. J. AViUs, A, f. 142. 



IV. Hartman, bap. Oct I, 1651 ; m. Marietje, dau. of 
Dirck Claese Braecke, in 1672. He was a wheelwright by 
trade ; lived at Rechpokus on lands inherited by his wife. 
As stated on page 60, Hartman was the first white purchas- 
er of lands within the present Passaic county, the Indian 
deed to him bearing date April 4, 1678, and being for the 
island in the Passaic river opposite Dundee. On Feb. 16, 
1679-80, he contracted with Christopher Hoogland for the 
purchase of the Dundee tract, known as Stoffel's Point, for 
£70; he did not receive the deed until April 23, 1696. It 
is probable that he bought the Dundee tract, not for him- 
self alone, but for his three brothers as well, who were af- 
terwards interested in the Acquackanonk patent, for, as we 
have seen, he conveyed to his brother Elias, April 26, 1698, 
a one-fourth interest in the tract ; and on April 28, 1698, he 
conveyed to his brothers Cornelius and Johannes, each a 
one-fourth interest in the same lands ;l the consideration in 
each case was £17 los, being just one-fourth of the original 
purchase money, eighteen years before. It is safe to infer 
that interest would have been added, if the brothers had not 
advanced their share of the cost at the time of the original 
purchase. In 1692 the Legislature appointed him one of 
the commissioners to receive taxes in Bergen. 2 In- 1700 he 
was one of the signers of the petition to the King for re- 
dress against the East Jersey Proprietors.^ He d. Jan. 18, 
1707, intestate, and letters of administration were granted 
on his estate, July 30, 1724, to his sons and heirs-at-law, 
Claes and Derick, both being described as of the county of 
Bergen. 4 

V. Ariaentje, bap. March 8, 1654. 

VI. Johannes, bap. Oct. I, 1656; m. Claesje, dau. of 
Dirck Claese Braecke, May 14, 1682. John Vreeland, ship 
carpenter, was admitted to the rights of a freeman in New 
York, Sept. 6, 1698, probably the same man.5 In 1700 he 
signed the petition to the King for redress against the East 
Jersey Proprietors. 6 He bought a tract of 6 3-4 acres of 
land at "Beefle Point," on Passaic river, within the bounds 
of Newark, from Caleb Ball, of the latter place, Feb. 4, 
1707-8, and on June 2, 1709, he bought from John Johnson, 
of Newark, a tract of salt meadow in Newark, "near the 
mouth of Maple creek island.'''^ In these conveyances he is 
described as "Johaixus Michielson alias Johanus Vrelandt 
of Communipon." By deed April 28, 1698, Hartman 
Michielse conveyed to Johannes, his brother, one-fourth of 
the Hoogland tract, or Point Patent, "it being Number 4, 
as also a house lot lying on the other side of the road oppo- 
site Elias Michielse's and as much in quantity as Lot Num- 
ber 2,"8 etc. By deed March 10, 1712, Cornells Michielse, 
of Communipong, Symon Jacobs and John Hendrick Spier, 

1 E. J. Deeds, F, 602, 603. 

2 Learning and Spicer, 337. 

3 N. J. Archives, I., 326. 
i E. J. Wills, A, f. 296. 

« N. Y. Hist. Soc. Collections, 1885, 70. 

6 N. J. Archives, I., 326. 

7 E. J. Deeds, I, 372, 373. 

8 E. J. Deeds, F, 603. 

of Acquackanonk, and Cornells Lubbers, as four of the five 
survivors of the Acquackanonk patentees, released to Jo- 
hannes Michielse, the other survivor. Lot No. 7, in the 
first Acquackanonk division, being one of the Hundred Acre 
Lots fronting on the Passaic river: "beginning at the west 
side of the Passaic river at a stake just below a small run 
of water and running into the woods north 48 degs. east 77 
chains; south 42 degs. west 11. 78 chains; south 48 degs. 
east 92.93 chains to Passaic river, and thence up stream to 
the beginning, containing one hundred acres. "1 He also 
owned one of the 44-acre lots back of Wesel ; also what was 
perhaps the most northerly of the Wesel Lots, lying be- 
tween the Passaic river and Lots 3, 4 and perhaps 5, as 
shown on the- map reproduced on page 71 ante, or a large 
part of the lands lying between Vreeland avenue and the- 
river ; also the tract on which his son Dirck was living iu 
1750, "bounded south on lands of Chrisioffel Stymets, 
north on lands belonging (in 1750) to heirs of Thomas Ju- 
riance alias by a certain lane or highway and east upon Pas- 
saic river, containing two hundred acres ;" this must have 
included one of the first Hundred Acre Lots fronting on 
Passaic river, and one of the second or "doubling" Lots, 
also of one hundred acres, immediately northwest of it; 
also "one Lot behind Thomas Juriance containing fourteen 
acres ;" also "a lot in the Eight Hundred Acre part being 
Number 5," 6.80 chains broad ; also a lot to the east of the 
cross line. No. 11, being 8.20 chains broad; also a lot 
on the west side of the cross line, being No. 10, likewise 
8.20 chains broad, as surveyed by John Verkerk ; also one- 
fourth of the undivided lands behind Bradbury's (near the 
southerly line of Acquackanonk) ; also a lot lying in the 
Point, bounded east and north by the Passaic river, west (in 
1750) by a lot of Jacob Vreeland; also another. lot in the 
Point, bounded south by Jacob Vreeland, north by Enoch 
Vreeland. 2 These various tracts contained in the aggregate 
upwards of six hundred acres, indicating that Johannes 
must have been a man of superior ability, to acquire so ex- 
tensive and so valuable an estate. He devised all his real 
estate to his two sons, Dirck Vreeland and Elias J. Vreeland,. 
who subsequently (June 7, 1750), divided the same between 
themselves. 3 Johannes died June 26, 1713. 

VII. Cornells, bap. June 26, 1658; d. in inf. 
Y'lII. Cornells, b. June 3, 1660; m. Metje, dau. of Dirck 
Claese Braecke, May 12, i68i.4 On March 17, 1696, he 
bought a tract of land at Pembrepogh, on which he after- 
wards lived ; on April 28, 1698, his brother Hartman con- 
veyed to him, for £17 10 s., one-fourth of the Dundee tract, 
or Stoffel's Point, described thus: "Lot Number I, a house 
lot lying next to the grantor his lot on the other side of the 

1 E. J. Deeds, G3, 399. 

2 Most of the foreg-oing data as to the possessions of Johannes are 
taken from recitals in a deed dated June 7, 1750, from his son Elias to 
his other son, Dirck; E. J. Deeds, G3, f. 403. 

3 Deed last cited. 

■i In the N. Y. Dutch Church Records is the entry of a marriage of 
Cornelis Michielsen, widower of Neesje Ysenbrants, to Lysbeth Jacobs, 
widow of Wibrant Abrahamszen, both living in New York, April 12, 
1692. This is obviously not the same Cornelis mentioned in the text. 




same being marked Number 4, and also another lot lying 
on the west side of the brook next to Johannes Michielse 
being marked Number 3, together with the equal fourth of 
that which lieth undivided. "t The brook referred to in 
the deeds from Hartman, cited above, is the Vreeland brook, 
now used in part as a tail-race for the Dundee canal. The 
lots lying on the west side of the brook, and allotted to Jo- 
"hannes and Cornells, were called the "Overbrook Lots." 
Cornells bought from the Proprietors of East Jersey, April 
27, 1696, a tract of 150 acres of land lying between Hack- 
ensack bay and the Passaic river, for which he was to pay 
a yearly quit-rent of £15.2 Pie was one of the last two sur- 
vivors of the fourteen Acquackanonk patentees, his death 
not occurring until May, 1727; his wife d. Aug. 17, 1724. 

The three brothers, Hartman, Johannes and Cornells, 
married three sisters, daughters of Dirck Claese Braecke, 
and after the death of Braecke, the three brothers divided 
up his real estate between themselves, Sept. i, 1696.8 

IX. Jannetie, m. Dirck Teunissen van Vechten, whose 
father succeeded Michiel Jansen as occupant of the farm at 
Greenbush, in 1646. He settled on the Raritan, in the 
neighborhood of Somerville, where his descendants are 
known as Van Veghten, Veghte, etc. 

X. Pryntje, m. Andries Claesen, March 25, 1688; d. 
April 21, 1711 ; he d. Aug. 7, 1710, leaving three sons, who 
were known as Andriessen, since changed to Anderson. 

The children of Michiel Jansen. were called Michielsen in 
their earlier years, but later were quite generally known by 
the name of Vreeland. Just why they took or were given 
the latter name is not at all clear. 4 

Third Generation, 
Elias Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Michiel, bap. April 7, 1666 ; m. Marytje Toers, 
Nov. 27, 1691. He lived on the Wesel road, probably a 
short distance south of Crooks avenue. He and his brother 
Jacob bought of Robert Young a tract of 300 acres imme- 
diately south of the Acquackanonk line,, in what is now 
Bloomfield or Montclair township. By deed Jan. 16, 1792, 
Jacob Elias Vreeland conveyed to Elias Jacob Vreeland, 

1 E. J. Deeds, F, 602. 

2 E. J. Deeds, F, 372. 

3 lb., 407. 

4 Vreeland is the name of a village of 650 inhabitants, on the river 
Vecht, in the northern part of the Province of Utrecht, in Holland, and 
about halt way between Utrecht and Amsterdam. It is a notable place, 
both for its history and for its charming surroundings. Being on the 
direct route of commeice for Weesp, Naarden, Muiden, Loenen, etc., it 
is a remarkably active, bustling village. The environs are peculiarly at- 
tractive, and the landscape in the vicinity presents a most pleasing pros- 
pect. A castle was erected there in the thirteenth century, which was 
destroyed in 1529. In 1680 the lord of the manor began to rebuild it, but 
the structure never got above the foundations, and even they can scarce- 
ly be seen at the present time. — Terwcn^ 134. It may be added that the 
name Vreeland is from z/r^fi?4", peace or quiet, and latid^ land, country, 
field ; hence, "Peace-land." The name may have been given by Mich- 
iel Jansen to his farm at Communipaw when he returned thither after 
the Indian war of 1655, the intention being to emphasize his belief that 
peace had come to stay. It will be remembered that Jansen came from 
Broekhuizen, in the Province of Limburg, and not from Vreeland in the 
Province of Utrecht. 

both being of Acquackanonk, half of this tract, or 158 acres, 
"bounded southwest and west by land of Harmanus Van 
Wagening, east by the old line between Newark and Ac- 
quackanonk, southeast by land of John R. Ludlow." The 
Province of New Jersey having sent a detachment of sol- 
diers to join in the war against Canada, then held by the 
French, in 1747, one of the Jerseymen wrote home from Al- 
bany that the troops had been equipped with guns that broke 
or bent readily, and with beef and flour unfit for use. A very 
clever and sarcastic reply was published in the papers of the 
day, dated "From my House near Wesel," and signed "M. 
Vrelandt," in which the writer suggested that the arms had 
been bought by the Quaker members of the Legislature, 
who thus satisfied their scruples against giving aid to the 
war, and had the co-operation of those who sympathized 
with the rioters, as the authorities could no: use such weap- 
ons effectively against the people, etc. 1- From certain allu- 
sions in the letter it would appear that some person familiar 
with English history had a hand in its composition, not un- 
likely James Billington, a schoolmaster of the neighborhood 
about that time. Michiel's will was dated Nov. 4, 1750, the 
witnesses being Gerret H. Gerretson, Adrian'Post, Jr., and 
James Billington. It was proved Dec. 29, 1750, his sons, 
Michiel and Elias, qualifying as executors. Following is 
the will : 

In the name of God Amen I Michael Vrelandt of the Precinct of 
Acquechenong in the County of Essex in the Eastern Division of the 
Province of New Jersey yeoman being very Sick and weak of Body but 
in perfect mind and memory blessed be God therefore and Calling to 
mind the mortality of my Body and knowing it is appointed for all men 
once to Dye Do make and Ordain this my last Will and Testament First 
and principally Recommending my Immortal Spirit in the hands of my 
Great Creator trusting in the Merrits of my blessed Saviour for Pardon 
and remission of my Sins and an happy Admission in the Regions of 
Bliss and Immortality. Item I Will Order and direct that all my just 
Debts and Funeral Expences be paid of and discharged by my Execu- 
tors hereafter named as Soon as conveniently may be after my Decease. 
Item I Give Devise and bequeath to my Eldest Son George Vrelandt for 
divers Causes to my Self best known the Sum of five Shillings for his 
Proginilure or Birthright Item I Give Divise and bequeath to my Son 
Michael all my Horses and likewise my young Negro Wench Betty to 
him his Heirs and Assigns for ever he my said Son Michael his Heirs or 
Assigns paying or Cause to be paid at the expiration of the end of Sev- 
en years after my Decease the full Sum of thirty five pounds light cur- 
rent money of New Jersey unto the Seven Children of my Daughter 
Margaret Deceased to be equally Shared between them Share and Share 
alike or to their Several Heirs or assigns. Item I Give Devise and be- 
queath to my Said Son Michael his Heirs Executors and Administrators 
the one equal half part of all my Cattle and Sheep And the other one 
equal half part I Order and Direct to be Divided in five equal parts four 
equal parts Share and Share alike to my four Children and the other 
fifth part to the Seven Children of my Said Daugh- Margaret Deceased, 
to be Shared to them equally alike. Item I Give Devise and bequeath 
to my Said Son Michael his Heirs Executors and Administrators my oth- 
er two Negro Wenches named Old Betty and Mary to hold to him his 
Heirs and Assigns forever. Item I Give Devise and bequeath to my 
Said Son Michael his Heirs and Assigns for ever All the Rest and residue 
of my Estate both Real and Personal. And Lastly I do hereby nomin- 
ate Constitute and appoint my loving Sons Michael and Elias Vre-' 
landt and Mr. John Low or either of them in case of refusal or Death to 
be Executors or Executor of this my last Will and Testament hereby 
Revoking and Disallowing all former and other Wills by me at any time 
heretofore made Declaring this to be and Contain my last Will and 

1 N. J. Archives, XII., 341, 347, 357. 



Testament In Testimony whereof I have hereto Set my hand and Seal 
this fourth day of November Anno Domini One thousand Seven hundred 
and fifty.! 

Michael X Vreland 
II. Jacobus, bap. April 8, 1668 ; d. in inf. 

III. Feytje, bap. Dec. 25, 1669; m. John Thomaszen, of 
New York, June 24, 1689 ; she was then 1. at "Acquecken- 
enenck," according to the marriage record. He was a 
tailor ; was one of the signers of the petition to the King, 
in 1700, at which time he was probably settled at Elizabeth- 
town, where he died in December, 1712, leaving his wife, 
Feytie, and five children : Elias, Edward, Margaret, David 
and Esther.2 

IV. Trintje, bap. March 16, 1672 ; m. Louerens Van 
Galen (widower of Anna De Masuer), July 13, 1700. Chil- 
dren — I. Joanna, b. Aug. 21, 1701 ; 2. son, b. Oct. 12, 1703 ; 
3. daughter, b. Feb. 4, 1706; 4. Maria, b.. May 31, 1708; 
5. Catrina, bap. April 3, 1711. 

V. Rachel, b. Dec. 30, 1674 ; d. in inf. 
VI. Ragel, b. INIarch 8, 1676. 
VII. Jacob,' b. Aug. 9, 1678, at Gemoenepan ; m. Antje 
(Joanna, one record gives it) Louwerense Toers, maiden, b. 
at Bergen, Sept. 17, 1703. By deed March 25, 1719, he 
bought from John Johnston, one of the East Jersey Propri- 
etors, the right to 160 acres of land, to be taken up out of 
any of the unsurveyed lands in East Jersey ; and by deed 
dated the same day, he bought from James Alexander, 
another Proprietor, the right to 123 acres of land. 3 By 
virtue of the former deed he "took up" one tract of 40 acres 
on the southeast side of Third river, and another tract of 
seventeen acres on the northwest side of said river, the sur- 
vey being dated February 24, 1721. Under the second deed 
he had surveyed for himself and John Bradbury a tract of 
1475- acres, "beginning at a certain remarkable Rock well 
known and marked on the northwest side with the letters 
I B and on the southeast ward side with the Letters T S 
the said rock lies' one chain and twenty-five links from a 
brook Called and well known by the name of Stinkers brook," 
etc.4 The other heirs of Louwerens Toers, by deed April 30, 
1734, quitclaimed to Vreeland a large tract in the southern 
part of the Saddle River patent, conveyed Aug. 24, 1695, 
by William Nichols, to Lowerense Arent Toers, and by 
Toers devised, by will dated May 24, 1707, unto his child- 
ren. 5 

In a deed in 1711, ISIichiel, Jacob and Rachel were all 
described as of "Acquecinunck ;" Feytje and her husband 
were of Elizabethtown, and Trintje and her husband were 
of Communipaw. 

Enoch Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Elsje, bap. Nov, 12, 1667; m. Feb. 13, 1688, Ed- 

1 Recorded in Liber E of Wills, Secretary of State's ofSce, Trenton, 
page 500. 

2 Hatfield's Elizabeth, 273. 

3 E.J. Deeds, B2,fE. 32,36. 

* Records of East Jersey Proprietors, at Perth Amboy, Liber Q of 
Warrants, 234, 235. 

«E. J. Deeds, B2,f. 141. 

ward Earle, jun., bachelor, from Maryland, and who settled 
at Secaucits in 1676. Children — I. Edward, bap. April 22, 
1690; m. Elizabeth Frans ; 2. Enoch, b. May 28, 1692; 
m. 1st, Anna Maris; 2d, Grietje Vander Hoeff, Aug. ig, 
1737; 3. Hannah, b. March 26, 1695 > ™- Pieter Stouten- 
burgh; 4. Marmaduke, b. Oct. 6, 1696; m. Marus or Maris; 
5. Johannis, b. Sept. 8, 1698 ; 6. Willem, bap. Oct. 13, 
1700; m. Maria Frans, June 14, 1723 ; 7. Elsje, bap. Dec. 
7, 1701 ; m. May 24, 1729, George Simmons, from Philadel- 
phia ; 8. Philippus, b. May i, 1703 ; 9. Jammesyn (Thom- 
assyn), b. Oct. — , 1704; 10. Silvester, bap. Aug. 10, 1707; 
m. Magtel Zabriskie (Martha Sobreesko, the Acquackanonk 
church records give it), Oct. 8, 1733 ; 11. Tiodora, bap. 
April 10, 1709; 12. Nataniel, bap. Nov. 26, 1710; m. 
Fransintje Banta, Aug. 19, 1737. In the will of Enoch 
Michielse, dated April 12, 1715, he mentions his "daughter 
Elsie now widow of Edward Earle lately deceased." Elsie 
m. 2d, Hendrik Meyer, June 24, 1716, by license of the 
Governor, dated May 8, 1716. No record has been found of 
any issue by this marriage. 

II. Catharina, bap. May 15, 1673; m. Aert Elbertszen, 
May 27, 1692. (In the Bergen church records the name is 
given Aert Albertse, and the date June 26, 1692). Child- 
ren — I. Dirckje, bap. Nov. 5, 1692; 2. Elbert, bap. Dec. 
17, 1693 ; 3. Enoch, bap. July 14, 1695 ; 4. Johannes, bap. 
March 27, 1698; 5. Abraham, bap. April 28, 1700; 6.- 
Wessel, bap. Jan. 28, 1702; 7. Benjamin, bap. Sept. 12, 
1703; 8. Benjamin, bap. June 2, 1705. 

III. Michiel, bap. Jan. 27, 1675 ; d. unm. In his fath- 
er's will he is bluntly declared to be "an idiot," and pro- 
vision is made for his support, clothing, -etc. 

IV. Johannes, bap. April 7, 1677; m. June 8, 1 701, Ma- 
ria Beger, says the record, an error for Cregier, she being. a 
dau. of Martin Cregier, Jr., of Albany, N. Y., and his wife 
Jannetje Hendrickse Van Doesburgh. 

V. Abraham, bap. June 22, 1678; m. Margrietje Ja- 
cobse Van Winckel, at Bergen, Oct. 28, 1699. He was one 
of the signers of the petition to the King, in 1700 ;l he was 
a member of the Acquackanonk church in 1726, but lived 
"in the limits of Newark," just south of the Acquackanonk 
line. His vvill, dated Dec. 10, 1734, was witnessed by Jo. 
Cooper, Jacob Vanwinkle and William Williamse ; it was 
proved January 8, 1747-8, probate being granted to Jacob 
Vreeland and Jehonas (Johannes) Vreeland, as executors. 
The document was as follows :2 

In the Name of God Amen this Tenth day of December Anno Dom 
One thousand Seven hundred & thirty four I Abraham Vreelandt in the 
Limmits of Newark in the County of Esse.x and Eastern Devision of New 
Jersey Yeoman being aged & infirm of Body but of sound & perfect 
Mind & Memory thanks be Given unto God therefor And Calling unto 
Mind the Mortality of my Body & knoi\ing that it is appointed unto Man 
once to Die do make and Ordain this my Last Will & Testament (that is 
to Say) first & principally I Give & Recommend my Soul into the hands 
of God that Gave it & my body I Recommend to the Earth to be Buried 
in decent Christian manner at the Discretion of my Executors hereafter 
named And as Touching such worldly Estate wherewith it hath Pleased 
God to bless me in this Life I Give Devise & Dispose of the same in the; 

1 N. J. Archives, I., 326. 

2 Liber E of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 168. 



following Manner and Form- Imprimis my Will is that all my just 
Debts & funeral Charges be fully and Justly paid. Item I Will Bequeath 
and Devise unto my Son Enoclc Vreelandt by Name the Sum of one hun- 
dred & thirty five Pounds & one Shilling the which Sum he hath hereto- 
fore Receiv'd of me as Borrowed & Receiv'd as may appear by a Bill 
under his hand & Seal bearing Date the twenty second day of December 
Anno Dom. 1732. the said Sum I Give to him his heirs & Assigns forev- 
er, the same to be as his full Legacy out of my Estate (except there 
should appear to be more for Each of my Children then he his Equal 
■ Proportion.) Item I Give, Bequeath & Devise unto my Son Jacob 
Vreelandt by Name one Acre & a half of Land at the North East Corner 
of my Plantation on which he the said Jacob hath built him a house 
the same with the Improvements made thereupon he Allowing for the 
Same the Sum of thirty Shillings for the same & to be & Remain to 
him his Heirs & Assigns forever Item I Give Bequeath and Devise 
unto my Son Johannes Vreeland a certain Slip of Land Call'd the 
fish Place Beginning at the North East Corner of tlie Land of Tunis Pier 
by Posayack River thence running Northwest with the sd Tunis his Line 
to the highway, thence Northerly along the highway to the said Posay- 
ack River on which Tract he the said Johannes hath built him a house 
bounded on the highway West of the said Posayack River East, he the 
said Johannes AUowmg the Sum of three Pounds for the Same & to be & 
Remain to him his Heirs & Assigns forever and my will is that he my said 
Son Johanus shall from Time to Time & at all times hereafter Give free 
Liberty & Priviledge to all my other Sons for fishing in the Season there- 
of. Item I Will Bequeath and Devise unto my Son Simeon by Name all 
that one certain Tract of Land of me the said Abraham Vreeland which 
I had of the Sons of John Fransoy by Assignment of two Several Deeds 
of Saill under the hands and Seals of Hendrick Fransee, France Fransee, 
Barnt Fransee & Abram Fransee bearing Date the Nineteenth day of 
November Anno : one thousand Seven hundred and thirty [three] Also 
another Tract of Land Adjoyning to the aforesaid Tract on the Southerly 
Side thereof Runing from the said Tract to a Place Commonly Call'd & 
known by the Name of the Long Meadow bounded Northerly with ye 
aforesd Plantation Easterly with Jacob Vrallmonl Westerly with ye Land 
of Thomas Pier & Southerly vrith the said long Meadow all the several 
Tracts of Land to be And Remain to him Also one other Tract of Land 
Laying by the third River formerly belonging to Jacob Vanwinkle junr 
& Conveyed to me sd Abraham Vreelandt by Simeon Vanwinkle by As- 
signment of a Deed of Saill bearing date ye 17th day of October Anno. 
1715. the whole of ye said Tract ye Meets & Bounds may more at Large 
appear by the sd Deed of Sail Referrence being thereunto had, the Sev- 
eral tracts above mention'd to be & Remain to him ye sd Simeon & to 
his Heirs and Assigns forever he Allowing for the Same one hundred & 
thirty & five Pounds. Item I Will, Bequeath and Devise unto my Son 
Isaac Vreeland one Acre and a half of Land on the West Side of ye 
Highway begining opposite to a Landing near ye North End of ye 
Land before Given to my Son Johanus thence Runing Westerly till it 
Comes just through the Swamp thence Northerly by the West Side of 
the said Swamp so far as that with a direct Line Easterly to the High- 
way shall Include the said one Acre & a half Acre of Land the same to be 
and Remain to him the said Isaac his Heirs and Assignes forever he the 
said Isaac Allowing for the same the Sum of thirty Shillings. Item I 
Give Bequeath and Devise unto my two Youngest Sons Abram Vree- 
land and Hendrick Vreeland three Acres of Land where I now Dwell 
Bounded Easterly with the Highway and E.Ktending Westwardly so far 
as to Include the Houses & Barns the same to be equally divided be- 
tween them the said Abraham & Hendrick as They shall Agree and in 
Case they Cannot Agree in ye Devision to be Left to two of their Broth- 
ers to Devide for them and They to Rest Satisfyed with the Devision so 
made and the same to be and Remain to them their Heirs and Assigns 
forever They and Each of Them Allowing for ye same the Sum of fifty 
Pounds a peice. Item I Give Bequeath and Devise unto my only 
Daughter Derickee by Name the Sum of one hundred and thirty five 
Pounds to be paid to her by my E.xecutors after my Decease together 
■with the Wareing Appariel Left by her Mother the abovesaid Sum to be 
paid to her out of my Personal Estate and in Case the Personal Estate 
shall not Amount to that Sum then the same to be made up to her by my 
four named Sons Equally and in Case my Personal Estate shall amount 
to more, then and in such Case the Superplus shall be Equally Devided 

1 Urallmon or Joralemon. 

among all my Surviving Children Item My Will is and I do hereby 
Will and Bequeath all the Risidue of my Lands and Meadows Either in 
the Limitts of Newark or elsewhere to be equally Devided among my 
five Sons (viz:) Jacob Vreeland, Johanus Vreeland, Isaac Vreeland, 
Abraham Vreeland and Hendrick Vreeland Each one of them Allowing 
either in Land or otherwise what is Sett upon their Land or houses be- 
fore Given to them and Each of them as above Mention'd, And the same 
after such Devision made to be Equall for Quanty and Quallity and the 
same to be and Remain to them their Heirs & Assigns forever And my 
Will is that if any of my abovenam'd Sons shall be minded to Sell his or 
their Parts or Shares of said Land that then they shall Give the Refusal! 
thereof to their Brethren And in Case one or more of my said Children 
should be Removed by Death before he or She shall Come to Possess 
his or her Part and without Issue then and in that Case that Part or 
Share or Shares shall be Equally Devided among my Surviving Child- 
ren- And Lastly I Doe hereby Nominate, Authorise and Appoint my 
Trusty and well beloved Sons Jacob Vreeland and Johanus Vreeland 
Sole Executors of this my Last Will & Testament and Do also hereby 
Revoke Disanull and make void all and any other Will and Wills 
Bequest and Bequests heretofore by me made Willed & Be- 
queath'd and E.xecutor or Executors by me in any wise Named, Ratti- 
fying, Allowing & holding for firm and Vallid this & no other to be 
my Last Will & Testament In Wittness whereof I have hereunto Sett 
my hand and Seal the Day & Year first within written. 
Signed, Sealed, Publish'd, Pronounced 
and Declared by the said Abraham his 

Vreeland as his Last Will & Abraham A Vreeland 

Testament in the Presence of Us Mark L. S. 

ye Subscribers 

Jo Cooper-Jacob Vanwinkle. William X Williamsee 

Abraham did not wait until his death for the carrying into 
effect of some of the provisions of his will, for on Dec. 11, 
1734, he conveyed to his son, Simeon, laborer, "the tract 
which I bought of the sons of John Frans (French), lately 
deceased, by two deeds, dated December 19, 1733 ; also 
tract by Third River, formerly belonging to Jacob Van Win- 
kel, junior, and conveyed to me by Simeon Van Winkel 
Oct. 17, 1715."! 

VI. Fytie, bap. Feb. 22, 1680 ; m. Perigrine Sandford, 
grandson of Major William Sandford and Sarah Whartman 
Sandford, of New Barbadoes, Bergen county. 2 

1 Essex Transcribed Deeds, A, 4. 

2 William Sandford, of the Island of Barbadoes, in the West Indies, 
bought from the East Jersey Proprietors, July 4, 1668, a tract of land ly- 
ing between the Hackensack and Passaic rivers, extending from their 
junction about seven miles northerly, to Sandford's Spring (Boiling 
Spring, now Rutherford) ; the purchase was made partly in trust for 
Major Nathaniel Kingsland,also of Barbadoes, and Kingsland took two- 
thirds of the tract, Sandford reserving the other third. They gave the 
name New Barbadoes to their purchase. Sandford located at East New- 
ark (now Harrison), or a short distance north, his settlement being known 
as Santfort. He was appointed captain of militia, July 15, 1675 ; he was 
offered a seat in the Governor's Council, in 1669, which he declined, but 
subsequently served in the Council, in 1683-6. Honors were heaped 
upon him while holding this office : he was appointed, March 24, 1682-3, 
one of the justices of the peace of the quorum throughout East Jersey ; 
also attorney-general ; one of the judges of the court of common right, 
Aug. 14, 1683, and again on May 27, 1685 ; and major, Dec. 3, 16S3, with 
"authority to exercise the inhabitants of Aquaninock." — Whitehead's E. 

J.^ 116 ; IVinJield's Hudson Co. Land Titles.^ 324 ; N.J, Archives., XIII. ^ 
passim. By will dated Jan. 3, 1690, proved Sept. r, 1692, he devised all 
his estate to his wife, Sarah Whartman, and states that they had been 
married on board the pink Susannah, in the river of Surinam, March 27, 
1667. Their children were : 

I. Nedemiah, m. ist, Richard Berry; 2d, Thomas Davis. Her 
first husband was probably the only son (who left issue) of Major John 



VII. Isaac, b. at Pemmepock, bap. Jan. 14, 1683 ; m. 
Trintje Simese Van Winckel, March 23, 1706; both lived at 
Acquackanonk at the time; he was a' member of the Ac- 
quackanonk church in 1726. 

VIII. Enoch, bap. Aug. 4, 16S7 ; m. Maria St. Leger, 

Berry of Barbadoes, Gentleman, to whom Gov. Philip Carteret and 
Council granted, June lo, 1669, a tract of 10,000 acres in Bergen county, 
"towards the head of Pesawack Neclc, now called New Barbadoes, begin- 
ning at the East end of Captain Sandford's bounds at the great spring 
called Sandford's Spring, and thence with tlie whole breadth of the neck 
between Hackingsack and Pesawack Rivers, six miles up into the coun- 
try," including the present village of Hackensack and beyond. The 
fullest sketch yet published of iSIajor Berry is by Thomas Henry Edsall, 
now of Denver, Col., in the N. Y. Genealogical and Biographical Rec- 
ord, XV., 49-57. Richard Berry probably came from Barbadoes with 
liis father. He was appointed, Dec. 3, 1683, high sheriff of Essex coun- 
ty, and represented New Barbadoes and Aquickanuc in the Assembly in 
iggg_7_8, and 1695. By deed June 14, 1682, William Sandford, in consid- 
eration of the marriage intended between his daughter Nidemia and 
Richard Berry, conveyed to said Berry and his own daughter Nidemia, 
"one negro man Wall and his wife Nance, as also at the day of my de- 
cease an equal part with the rest of my children that shall then be liv- 

ino-." E. J. Records, A, f. 40. Richard died before his father, whose 

will (dated May 16, 1712, proved February 16, 1714-T5) devised one-third 
of his estate to his son Richard's children: i. Charity; 2. Richard ; 3. 
Mary ; 4, Sarah ; 5. William. These were the ancestors of the Berry 
family in this vicinity. 

II. Katherine, m. Dr. Johannes Van Inburgh (Van Emburgh). 
Children— I. Rachel, bap. Nov. 15, 1696, m. Wessel Wesselze, Aug. 12, 
1714; 2. Willem Sandford, bap. Feb. 26, 1699; 3. Maritje, bap. Dec. 8, 
1700, m. Jan Sandford, and had ch. Catryna, bap. June 7, 1724; 4. Jo- 
hannes, bap. March 28; 1703; 5. Cataryna, bap. Aug. 12,1705; 6. 
Elizabeth, bap. Jan. 18,1708; 7. Perregreyn, bap. Dec. 10, 1710, m. 
Cornelia Provost, and with her joined, in 1740, the Reformed Dutch 
church of the Navasink, now known as the Brick Church, Marlborough, 
Monmouth county, N. J. 

III. William, m. Mary Smith, Feb. i, i6g6. (The Hackensack rec- 
ord says " Sara Smidt," but in chronicling the baptism of their first 
child in November, i6g6, gives the mother's name as "Mary Smit.") 
She was a daughter of Lieutenant Michael Smith, who had an extensive 
plantation near Overpeck creek, Bergen county; was Heutenant in 
Capt. Berry's Foot Company in 1677, and in 1683 was appointed high 
sheriff of Bergen county ; his wife was Francina Berry, dau. of Maj. 
John Berry ; she survived Lieut. Smith, and m. 2d, Major Thomas Law- 
rence. William Sandford's will was dated February 24, 1732 ; witnessed 
by Jno. Cooper, Gisbert Van Emburgh, Maria Tomasson. Codicil the 
same month ; witnessed by John Hill, Francis Harrison, Johannes Van 
Emburgh. Proved April 16, 1733, when John King and Mary Sandford, 

testator's widow, qualified as e.xecutors ; Richard Bradberry, the other 
executor, did not quahfy. Will recorded in E. J. Wills, B, 415 etc. Chil- 
dren : 

I. William, bap. Nov. — , 1696 ; m. ist, Rachel Davids; 2d, Cath- 
erine . Will dated Feb. 22, 1749; witnessed by James Still, 

John Sandford, John Sergeant; John Low and John Vanderpool, 
executors. Will proved April 7, 1750 ; recorded in E. J. Wills, £,408 
etc. John Vanderpool refused to act, and only John Low qualified 
as executor. Will names children : 

i. William, to whom testator devised his whole plantation of 
300 acres, and 150 acres of meadow ; but in case he died without 
issue, then to all testator's surviving children. William Sand- 
ford, jun., died intestate, and letters of administration were 
granted May 31, 1750, to Samuel Plum of Essex county, princi- 
pal creditor.— £./. fFz7/i, E,f. 440. 

ii. Mary, m. Samuel Pennington, son of Judah. Issue : 

1. Judah, b. 1749; d. May 20, 1785. 

2. Rachel, b. 1752 ; d. July 2, 1753. 

3. Anna, b. 1753 ; m. Crane ; d. April 15, 1837. 

4. Rachel, b. 1754; d. July 8, 1764. 

wid., Oct. 22, 1709; she was probably a dau. of Cornells 
Janszen and Anna Maria (Jans) Van Home ; she was bap. 
July 23, 1681. Enoch was commissioned captain in Col. 
Parker's regiment in 1724, and appears to have lived at In- 
ian's Ferry (New Brunswick), in 1732, when he bought a 

5. Mary, b. 1756 ; m. Williams ; d. Jan. 29, 1825. 

6. WiUiam Sandford, b. 1757; Lieutenant of artillery in 
the Revolution ; member of the New Jersey Assembly, 1797- 
8-9; of the Council, 1801-2; Governor, 1813-14 ; U. S. District 
Court Judge, 1815, until his death, September 17, 1826, at New- 
ark. He was the father of i. William Pennington, b. 1790; 
Governor, 1837-43 \ Congressman, 1859-61 ; Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, 1860-61; d. February, 1862; 2, 
Aaron S. Pennington, b. January 17, 1800; a leading lawyer 
of Paterson many years ; d. August 25, 1869. ■ 

7. Nathan, b. ; d. about 1810. 

8. Judah, b. ; will proved June 13, 1785; names no 

wife or children, but gives his property to oldest brother, Wil- 
liam ; second brother, Nathan ; oldest sister, Anna Crane ; 
youngest brother, Aaron ; youngest sister, Mary ; father, 
Samuel ; youngest brothers, Samuel and Aaron. 

9. Samuel, b. 1765 ; d. March 6, 1835. 

10. Aaron, b. 1770; d. December 25, 1799. 

iii. Sarah; she was bequeathed her father's Silver Tankard, 
three cows and a steer calf. 
iv. Elizabeth. 
V. Frances, 
vi. Rachel, 
vii. Catherine. 

2. Michael, m. Maritie Dey, and had issue : i. Maria, bap. Dec. 
22,1722; 2. Anna, bap. Jan. 25, 1725; 3. Johannes, bap. May 13, 
1733. This Johannes was perhaps the John Sandford who served 
as a private in the Revolutionary war, afterwards volunteered in 
the war of 1812, and who lived at Bloomingdale, Passaic county, 
and was the father of Peregrine Sandford, of Paterson, for forty 
years justice of the peace, common pleas judge, etc. 

3. John, m. Maritje Van Inburgh, and had ch., Catryna, bap. June 
7, 1724. 

4. Peregrine, m. Fytie Vreeland. By will, dated Nov. 6, 1740, 
witnessed by Jonathan Sergeant, John Cochran and Thomas Turner, 
and proved June 14, 1750 (recorded in E. J. Wills, E, 43B), heap- 
pointed his loving brother Michael, his loving friend John Low, and 
his loving wife F.ytie, executors; the last-named alone qualified. 
He devised his whole estate to his wife Fytie for life, or in case of 
her re-marriage then until his youngest child should come to the 
age of eighteen years, with remainder in equal shares to his five 
children, namely : 

i. Enoch. 

ii. William, who lost an arm accidentally, as thus described 
in the Neiv York Weekly Journal ^oi Nov. 3, 1739: "We hear 
from Newark, that the Son of Peregrine Sandvoord unhappily 
got his Fingers in between the cogg'd Rollers of a Cyder Mill, 
which drew in his Arm up to the Elbow, before he could be res- 
cu'd by him that tended the Mill ; they were oblig'd to cut off 
his Arm above the Elbow." In his father's will it was provided 
that William, " being deprived of one of his arms," was to have 
;£6o laid out for his education. 

iii. Jane. 

iv. Aphie (or Aghie). 

V. Elizabeth. 

5. Robert ; 6. Richard ; 7. Frankie ; 8. Jenne ; g. Anne ; 10. Mary. 
IV. Grace, m. Barnt Cosens. Children — i. Mary ; 2. Sarah. 

V. Elizabeth ; m. Capt. James Davis. 
Mary Sandford, of New Barbadoes Neck, m. Hendrick Dey, b. at 
Bergen, May 20, 1731. Children — i. Anna, bap. Aug. 26,1733; 2. Wil- 
lem, bap. April i, 1739; 3. Jan, bap. July 26,1741 ; 4. Elizabeth, bap. June 
12, 1743 ; 5. Annaetje, bap. May ig, 1745 ; 6. Abraham, b. Nov. 6, 1750; 



tract of land at that place for £665.1 He had previously 
(April 28, 1727) sold for £800 to John Van Nuise, of Flat- 
lands, L. L, a tract of 100 acres on the present Neilson, 
Liberty and New streets, New Brunswick. 2 He is said to 
have been connected with the Reformed Dutch church at 
New Brunswick, '3 although his name is not recorded in the 
list as given by Dr. Steele. 

Enoch Michielse had no children by his second wife ; but 
his third wife, Aafje or Aagtje (he calls her Apke in his 
■will) Van Hoorn, bore him the following : 
IX. (Son), b. March 6, 1705. 
X. Jacob, bap. March 28, 1705 ; d. in inf. 
XI. Fitje, b. Feb. 2, 1707. 
XII. Jacob, bap. Oct. 18, 1708; d. March 6, 1732, unm. 

XIII. Joris, bap. Oct. 18, 1708, apparently a twin with 
Jacob ; d. in inf. 

XIV. Joris (George), b. Sept. 25, 1710; m. ist, Annetje 
Van Winkel ; 2d, Annetje Van Wagenen, of Acquackanonk ; 
d. June 21, 1795. He owned and lived in a house west 
of Cavan Point, in the present Hudson county ; he 
was appointed judge of the Essex oyer and terminei", Dec. 
17, 1744; he was one of the members of the Legislature 
from Essex county in the T3th and 14th Assemblies, elected 
in 1743 and 1744, from which it is inferred that he then re- 
sided in that county; in 1754 he was elected a member of 
the Assembly from Bergen county. By deed April 14, 1748, 
Gerret Hennion and Mary his wife, conveyed to Joris Vree- 
land, of Pemmerpoch, husbandman, a tract of 127 acres at 
Perekenys, bounded east by Jacob Gerretson, west by Jo- 
hannes Hennion and Jacob Gerretson and partly by lands of 
Daniel Hennion; also a tract of 31 acres at Preakness, and 
a third tract of 46 acres. He added to his possessions at 
Preakness on July i, 1754, on which date John Doremus con- 
veyed to him a tract of 55 acres which he had bought from 
Richard Ashfield (one of the East Jersey Proprietors), adjoin- 

7. Sarah, b. Feb. 12, 1753. The last two or three children were appar- 
ently baptized in the neighborhood of Pompton. 

Major Sandford was undoubtedly of English descent or birth. There 
are many families in and about Paterson bearing this name, who 
are of Dutch descent, their name being originally Zandvoort, the mean- 
ing being the same in both cases. The Sanfords of R. I. have the arms 
ermine, on a chief gu., two boars' heads, couped,or; crest, a demi- 
eagle, displayed. These are the arms of the Sandfords of Northumber- 
land county, England. The New York Sandfords claim connection with 
the English family of Sandford, of Sandford in Salop county, whose 
arms are : quarterly, per fess, indented, az. and ermine ; crest, a falcon, 
wings endorsed, preying on a partridge, proper ; motto, N'ec iemere, 
nee timide. — America Heraldica^ etc., by E. de V. Vermont, New York 
[1886], 178. 

iWajor Sandford's widow made her will June 8, 1708, proved June 23 , 
1719- — E- J- JVilh, A, f. 126. She devised to her dau. Katherine, 300 

1 E. J. Deeds, K large, 254. 

2 Historical Discourse delivered at the celebration of the 150th Anni- 
veisai-y of the First Reformed Dutch Church, New-Brunswick, N. J., 
October i, 1S67, by Richard H. Steele, D. D. , pastor of the church. New 
Brunswick, N. J., 1867, 20, 209 ; Bergen's Early Settlers of Kings Coun- 
ty, 352-3- 

3 Forty Years at Raritan. Eight Memorial Sermons, with Notes for 
a History of the Reformed Dutch Churches in Somerset County, N. J., 
by Abraham Messier, D. D., pastor of the chiu-ch at Raritan. New 
York, 1873, 206. 

ing a large tract of Doremus. By deed June 5, 1758, Thom- 
as Brown, gentleman, of New York, and John Ball and 
Fytje his wife, of Manachquay, released to George Vreeland, 
of the'latter place, the farm formerly of Lawrence Van Bus- 
kirk, at Manachquay. 1 

XV. Helena, bap. Jan. 14, 1713. 

XVI. Elias, bap. March 4, 1715 ; he lived at Pemmero- 
pogh, and d. April 2, 1747, without issue. 

XVII. Benjamin, bap. Dec. 11, 1717; d. Aug. 26, 1736. 

Aghtie Vrelandt, widow of Enoch (Michielse) Vrelandt, 
in the county of Bergen, gave a deed, June 12, 1731, to her 
son Jacob and George, for a ti-act of land on Hudson's river; 
and on the same day she conveyed to her sons Elias and Ben- 
jamin, when they should come to the age of 21 years, a 
tract of 320 acres on Raritan river, purchased by her of Rut 
Van Horn. 2 

By a deed dated May 14, 1742, Johannes Stegg (Stagg) 
and Hendrickje his wife, Jacob Stegg, mason, and Antje 
his wife, all of Bergen county, and Abraham Stegg, of Or- 
ange county, N. Y., and Marietje his wife, conveyed to Elias 
E. Vreeland and George E. Vreeland, both of Bergen coun- 
ty, a tract of 216 acres at New Barbadoes, "beginning at 
Waling Jacobs his line and running southeast being in 
breadth twenty chains and in length 108 chains ;" also two- 
thirds of a tract of meadow conveyed to John Stegg by Bar- 
tholomew Feurt, Feb. 27, 1707. This tract was conveyed 
by John Berry to Margaret Stegg, in 1693 ; she conveyed to- 
her two sons, John and William, Feb. 15, 1698, and they 
divided the tract equally between themselves, Nov. 12, 
1711; William and wife conveyed to John, Dec. 5, 1720 i 
John, by will, dated Dec. 25, 1738, devised half of the tract 
to his two sons, Abram and Jacob, and the other half to his 
son George ; George conveyed to John his half, Feb. 15, 
1739-40; John, Jacob and Abram, with the consent of their 
respective wives, convey the same as stated above, to Elias 

acres of woodland and 100 acres of meadow ; to William, the farm on 
which she then lived, 300 acres, with meadow, etc. , for life, with remain- 
der to his son William in fee, and in case of the latter's death then to 
her son William's sons Michael and Peregrine, her grandsons ; to dau. 
Elizabeth, wife of James Davis, 300 acres of woodland adjoining Cath- 
arine, with 100 acres of meadow on Passaic river ; to dau. Grace, wife 
of Barn Cosens, ^20 N. Y. money; to Grace's daughters, Mary and 
Sarah , ;£50 each to be paid them at the age of 18; to Katherine and 
Elizabeth each ^100, "to be paid withm three j'ears after my decease, in 
merchantable cedar bolts at £s per 100, delivered on ye meadow." Her 
dau. Nedemiah is left nothing, but if she or her children by Richard Ber- 
ry should sue and recover anything from the estate of William Sandford, 
husband of testatrix, then the costs should be paid by her heirs. 

In the burying ground of Christ Episcopal Church at Belleville, op- 
posite the ancestral domain of their family, are interred the following 
Sandfords: Michael Sandford, d. June 29, 1853, aged 81 years, 6 
months and 5 days ; Gitty, wife of Michael Sandford and dau. of Pe- 
ter Cadmus, d. Oct. 9, 1816, aged 44 years, 6mos. , 18 days; Hannah, 
wife of Michael Sandford, d. March 4, 1837, aged 66 years; Peter 
Sandford, d. Jan. 2, 1830, aged 91 years, 10 months, 16 days; Eleanor 
Sandford, consort of Peter Sandford, d. Nov. 8, 1828, aged 88 years, 7 
months, 17 days; John P. Sandford, d. Jan. 29,1826, aged 61 years, 2 
months, 19 days; Rachel Sandford, wife of Jacob Ogden, d. Jan. 2,^ 
1818, aged 73 years, 2 months, 11 days. 

1 E. J. Deeds, I2, 452, 451 and 449. 

2 Bergen County Deeds, B, 169, 172. 



and George Vreeland.l This tract was in the neighborhood 
of Moenachy, and is still occupied in part by the Vree- 

Elias, by will dated Feb. 26, 1747, devised his farm at 
New Barbadoes Neck to his brother Joris, in fee, on condi- 
tion that the latter should within three months after testa- 
tor's death pay to his executors £450 ; otherwise the farm 
should be sold and £450 of the proceeds invested for the 
benefit of his sister Fytje during life, and thereafter to her 
children. The will was witnessed by Frans Couvenho- 
ven, Abraham Van Deursen and S. Johnson, and was proved 
April 25, 1748; the executors named (Michiel Vreeland, son 
of Hartman Vreeland, dec'd, Johannes Vreeland and Cor- 
nelius Gerrebrantse, all of Gemoenepagh) having renounced, 
letters of administration were granted, July I, 1748, to Isaac 
Lyon, at the request of Fytje Sandford and children. 2 

Hartman Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Claas, b. April 6, 1675; m. ist, Annetje, dau. of 
Hans Harmanse (van Borculo), then of New Utrecht, Long 
Island,3 afterwards of Constaple's Hoeck, May 24, 1697 ; 
shed. Nov. 26, 1698; he m. 2d, Elsje Pieterse, Aug. 19, 
1699. He was a member of the Acquackanonk church in 
1726, and was elected elder in 1707 and 1713. 

By deed Dec. 19, 1728, Claas Vreeland conveyed to Thomas 
Juriansen, both being of Acquackanonk, "a tract of land be- 
ginning at the rear of Thomas Juriansen's land the lots num- 
bered as they begin Number one from said Thomas Jurian- 
sen's land which said piece of land being a small lot of land 
Number 13 containing breadth of 7.20 chains and to begin 
a chain from Are Sip's line who lies on the north side of 
said land and bounded on the south side by Derrick Vree- 
land two rods only excepted between the said Vreeland and 
aforesaid tract of land bounded easterly by the Lot 
of land No. 12 belonging to John Sip and westerly by 
the Lot of land No. 14 belonging to John Bradbury." This 
tract was probably near Third River. 

The Vreelands owned extensive tracts of land in the pres- 
ent townships of Caldwell, Franklin, Belleville, Bloomfield 
and Montclair, then included partly "in the limits of the 
town of Newark," and partly in Acquackanonk. Some of 
these lands remain in the family to this day. Claas evi- 
dently lived near Third River. His will is dated April 
27, 1754 ; witnessed by John Wanshaer, Christophel Van- 
rypen, and Metye Vanreypen ; proved Oct. 25, 1757. It 
is as follows : 

In the name of God Amen I Niholaes Vrelandt of the Presinct of Ac- 
quechenong in the County of Essex in the Eastern Division of the Pro- 
vince of New Jersey Jeoman being in health of Body and in perfect mynd 
and memory blessed be God therefore and calling to mind the mortality 
of my Body and knowing it is appointed for all men once to Dye do 
make and ordain this my last Will and Testament First and principally 
recoraending my Imortal Spirit in the hands of my Great Creator trust- 
ing in the Merrits of my blessed Saviour for Pardon and remission of my 
Sins and an happy admission in in the Regions of Bliss and immortality 
Item I Will Order and Direct that all my just Debts and Funeral Ex- 

1 E. J. Deeds, K2,f. 323. 

2 Liber E, of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f. 196. A 
copy of the will would occupy two pages of this volume. 

3 Bergen's Kings County Settlers, 21. 

pences be payd of and discharged by my Executors hereafter named as 
soon as conveniently maybe after my Deceese Item I Give Devise and 
bequeath to ray Eldest Son Hartman Vreeland for divers Causes to my 
Self best known the Sum of five Shillings for his Proginiture or Berth 
Right Item I Give Dvise and bequeath to my Son Hassel all that Trackt 
or Parcel of Land it being part of my Home Lot Begining by the 
Noordeest korner of harmen Juryansens Land by the Kings highway 
thance Wasterly along saed yuryansens Land Ten Chean thance with 
a dirict Lyne to the Southwesterly Corner of John Wanshaers Land 
thance along saed Wanshaers Land to the Kings highway thance to the 
please of begining to him his Heirs and assigns for ever Item I Give 
Devise and bequeath to my Son Dirrik my Joung Nigro Wench Isebel 
to him his Heirs and assigns for ever. Item I Give Devise and Bequeath 
to my Sons ElyasVreelandt and Dirrik Vreeland thear Heirs and assigns 
fore ever all the remaender of my real Estaet thea my Sons Elyas Vree- 
landt an Dirrik Vreelandt paying all my just Depts my Son Dirick to 
have my oeld hoemsted my Son Elyas to have it whar he now lives But 
tha must Devyd Soe that tha have thear equel Shear in the Mado Land 
and in the WoodLand and the Cleer Land Item I Give and bequeath to 
all my Sevin Childerin all my remeander of my Personell Esteat to be 
equelly Devyded amongst them all If it should so hapin that I should 
Dye furst I Give Power to my Wife Aelse of my hoel Estaet to use 
okepy and poses tel har Disses. And Lastly I do hereby nominate con- 
stitute and appoint my loving Sons Elyas and Dirrik Vreelandt and Mr. 
Michael Vreelandt or either of them in case of refusal or Dath to 
be Executors or Executor of this my last Will and Testement hereby re- 
voking and disallowing all former and other Wills by me at any time 
heretofore made Declaring this to be and Contain my last Will and 
Testament. In Testimony whereof I have hereto Set my hand and Seal 
this tweenty Sevinth day of April ano Domene One thousand Sevin 
hundred and fifty foure 1754.I his 

Necholaes x Vreelandt L. S. 
By a deed (unrecorded) dated August 22, 1724, Claes Vre- 
land and Dirk Vreland, of Achquechenonk, yoemen, and 
Michael Vreland of Gemoenepa, conveyed to Enoch Vre- 
land, of Achquechenonk, the island of upland granted to 
Hartman Michaelse by Gawen Lawrie and others, by 
patent dated January 6, 1685, and also the tract granted to 
Christopher Hoogland by Governor Philip Carteret, by 
patent dated July 15, 1678, and by Dirk Hoogland, son and 
heir to Christopher, conveyed to Hartman Michaelse, ex- 
cepting such portion as Hartman Michaelse had disposed 
of. The deed recites that the tract in question was then 
in the possession of Enoch Vreeland. 
II. Aeltje, bap. Oct. 8, 1677. 

III. Michael, b. Dec. 31, 1678; d. Jan. 14, 1692. 

IV. Dirck, b. April 3, 1681 ; m. Margrietje Diedricks 
Banta, of Hackensack, Oct. 17, 1702 (she was a dau. of 
Hendrick Epke Banta and Angenitie Hendricks, and was 
bap. Nov. 18, 1682) ; Dirck lived at Acquackanonk, and 
was elected deacon of the church there in 1720 and elder in 
1724. His will, dated November 8, 1769, was proved Dec. 
9, 1773, and probate granted to Dirck Vreeland, executor. 
It is as follows : 

In the Name of God Amen I Dirk Vreeland Senr. of Acquacknung in 
the County of Essex and Province of New Jersey being of sound mind 
and Memory do this Eighth day of November in the year of our Lord 
One thousand seven hundred and sixty Nine make this my last Will and 
Testament in manner and form following that is to say Imprimis I will 
that all my Just debts and funeral Charges be first paid by my Executor 
herein after named out of my Personal Estate. Item I give unto my 
daughter Claasie Sixty six Pounds thirteen Shillings and four pence cur- 
rent money of the Province of New York to be paid unto her, her Ex- 
ecutors Administrators or assigns six years after my death by my son 

1 Recorded in Liber F, of Wills, Trenton, pages 464 &c. 



Michael Vreeland. Item I give and devise unto my said son Michael 
Vreeland his heirs and assigns forever All my Right, title, Interest and 
Estate whatsoever in and to all the Lands Tenements and Heredita- 
ments contained in the Patent called the Point patent and in and to the 
one equal Moiety or half Part of the Commons or undivided Lands in 
the Patent called the Acquacknung Patent in case and on Condition that 
the said Michael his heirs or assigns shall and do within the Space of 
two years after my death give full and sufficient Security unto ray said 
daughter Claasie her Executors Administrators or assigns for the pay- 
. ment of the said Sixty six pounds thirteen shillings and four pence in 
manner aforesaid and also within the space of two years after my death 
well and faithfully pay and discharge all and every sum and sums of 
money whatsoever which shall then be due or unpaid on all and every 
Bond Bill Note or Obligation whatsoever wherein I or my son Dirk 
Vreeland are joined or Stand Bound with him the said Michael 
for the proper debt of the said Michael to Hendrick Kipp Dirk 
Van Houte or to any other person or persons whatsoever. And 
■if my said son Michael shall for the space of two years after my 
death Neglect or Refuse to give the Security aforesaid or to pay and dis- 
charge all and every sum and sums of money which shall or may be 
due on every Bond Bill Note and Obligation whatsoever aforesaid ac- 
cording to the true intent and meaning of this my Will, then my Will is 
that my said son Michael shall have five Pounds of Current money of 
.New York out of my whole Estate and no more any devise, Gift, 
Clause or thing in this my will contained to the contrary in any \vise not- 
•withstanding And then and in such case I give and devise unto my son 
Dirk Vreeland his heirs and assigns forever all my Right title and Inter- 
est in and to all the Lands above given and devised unto my son Mich- 
ael Subject Nevertheless to the payment of the said Sixty six pounds 
thirteen shillings and four pence to my said daughter Claasie her Exec- 
utors Administrators or assigns in manner and form as above given to 
her &c. Item I give unto my said son Michael his Executors Adminis- 
trators and assigns full and free liberty to have take and carry away or 
Remove the Dwelling house and Barn he Built on that part of my Farm 
whereon he lately lived, provided he, his Executors Administrators or 
assigns do and shall take away and Remove the same off from my said 
Farm within three years after my death and also give sufficient Security 
to my Executor herein after named to do and perform the Condition of 
the above devise to him according to the true intent and meaning of 
this my Will and not otherwise. Item I give and Bequeath unto my 
•daughters Hester and Maragritie the sum of Sixty six pounds thirteen 
shillings and four pence of like Current money aforesaid each to be paid 
six years after my death by my son Dirrik Vreeland, And it is my will 
that in case there shall at the time of my death be any money due or un- 
paid on a Certain Bond or Obligation wherein I was jointly Bound with 
and for John DeVoisne the former husband of my said daughter 
Hester to John Wansoort, then my said son Dirk shall deduct out of 
said Sixty six pounds thirteen shillings and four pence above given to 
Hester so much as shall so be due or unpaid as aforesaid on said Bond 
to Wansoort and shall pay and discharge the same in full of said Bond 
and the Remainder only he shall pay unto my said daughter Hester six 
years after my death in full of the Legacy given to her as aforesaid. 
Item I give to my said daughter Maragritie the Negro Girl named Saar, 
daughter of my Wench called Nance. Item I give and devise unto my 
said son Dirk Vreeland his heirs and assigns forever All the Farm where- 
on I now dwell together with all the houses, Outhouses, Barns, Brew- 
ery with the Brewing Utensils belonging thereto and also all the Re- 
mainder of my Lands, Meadows and Real whatsoever and wheresoever 
together with all and singular the hereditaments and appurtenances 
thereunto belong or appertaining. Excepting and Reserving to my son 
Michael the liberty aforesd. of taking and Removing of from oft my 
farm aforesaid the house and Barn Built by him on that part whereon he 
formerly lived provided he Removes the same in manner aforesaid with- 
in three years after my death and gives the Security aforesaid for per- 
forming the Conditions of the above devises to him according to the 
true intent and meaning of this my wiU. Item it is my will that a Cer- 
tain Bond bearing even date with this my Will given to me by my said 
son Dirk Vreeland Conditioned for the payment of One hundred and 
thirty three pounds si.x shillings & Eiglit pence Current money of New 
York shall be Null and Void to all intents and purposes whatsoever upon 
his paying unto my said daughters Hester and Maragritie their Lega- 
cies of SLxty sLx pounds thirteen shillings and four pence each as above 

mentioned. Item it is my Will that all the Lands and Real Estate above 
devised to my said son Dirik shall be subject to the payment of said Leg- 
acies to Hester and Maragrietie so as to secure the Payment thereof. 
Item my will is that my old Negro man named Frank shall live with and 
be maintained by such of my Children above named as shall from time 
to time Chuse to live with. Item I give to my son Dirk my Negro Girl 
named Nance daughter of my Wench called Nance Item I give and 
Bequeath all the Remainder of my Personal Estate unto my four Child- 
ren above named v^iz : Michael, Dirk, Hester, Claasie and Maragrietie to 
be equally divided Share and Share alike. Lastly I do Nominate, Con- 
stitute and appoint my said son Dirk Vreeland Sole Executor of this my 
last Will and Testament hereby Revoking and making Void all former 
& other Will and Wills by me made declaring this and no other to be my 
last Will and Testament. In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my 
hand and Seal the day and Year above Written. 1 

Signed, Sealed, Published and de- 
clared by the above named Dirk Vreeland the 
Testator as and for his last Will & testa- 
ment in presence of. N. B. the word November 
being first wrote on a Razure. 
Mary Gouverneur, Charles Ogden, Lewis Ogden 

Dirk X Vreeland Senr. 
mark L. S. 

V. Fitje, b. Feb. 21, 1683 ; m. Dirck Paulusen, of 
Gemoenepa, Aug. 19, 1699 ; they lived at Acquackanonk. 
Ch., Antje, bap. Sept. 9, 1711. 

VI. Aagtje, b. Oct. 28, 1684; m. Cornells Bllnkerlioff, 
then of Midwout, L. I., (son of Abraham Jorise Brincker- 
hoff) May 24, 1708; d. Feb. 20, 1761. Children — I. Ma- 
ritje, b. Feb. 27, 1709; 2. Claesje, b. Dec. 31, 1710; 3. 
Hendrick, b. Dec. 13, 1713; Aege, b. March 23, 1715. 
VII. Dedricksje, b. Nov. 27, 1685. 
VIII. Marietje, b. Nov. 23, 1687; m. Thomas Freder- 
icks, alias De Cuyper, April 27, 1711. 

IX. Jannetje, b. July 22, 1691 ; m. Gerrit Thomaszen 
(Van Riper), June 19, 1718. Her descendants will be found 
under the Van Riper Genealogy. 

X. Michael, b. Dec. 26, 1694 : m. Elysabet Gerrits 
(Van Riper), May 30, 1717; d. April 6, 1766; he lived at 
Gemoenepa. His will, March 19, 1762, was witnessed by 
Hendrick Blinkerhof and John Van Home, and was proved 
Feb. 4, 1768; his son, Hartman Vreeland, and grandson, 
Robert Sickles, qualified as executors. The will is as fol- 
lows : 

In the Name of God amen The Ninthteent day of Mart and in the 
year of our Lord One Thousant Seven hundered Sixty & two I Machiel 
Hanmanse Vreeland of Gemoenepa in the County of Bergen in the 
Provence of East niw Jersy Yoman being weak in body but of sound and 
perfect mind memory & understanding blessed be God therefore Know- 
ing that it is appointed all men once to die do therefore make and de- 
clare this my last will and Testament revoking all other and former 
Wiles I make this my last in manner and form following First I Com- 
mitt my Soul in the hands of my most merciful! God & Saviour and my 
body to be buryed at the Disscretion of my Executors hereinafter named 
and as for and touching the Dissposition of my Real & Personal Estate 
wherewith it hath pleased God to bless me after payment of my just 
Debts and funeral Expences by my Executors herein after named in 
manner and form following: Imprimis I give devise & bequeath unto 
my well Beloved Son Hartman Vreelandt the sum of twelve Pounds 
Currant money of niw york to be Reised out of my Real or Personal Es- 
tate wherewith I do hereby utterly E.xclude and bar him from all other 
and future Claim or Pretence as being my Eldest son and heir at Law, 
Item I will devise and bequeath unto my well beloved Wife Elizabeth 

1 Recorded in Liber L of Wills, Secretary of State's Olfice, Tren- 
ton, pages 44 &c. 



Vreelandt the full Possession & Profits of my whole Estate during the 
thim she remains my widow. Item after the_Death or Remarriage of my 
said Wife EHzabeth Vrelandt or if she Consents to it before I give de- 
vise & bequeath unto my Eldest son Hartman Vreelandt & to heirs and 
Assigns forever the whole right that I have Purchased from Claes Ro- 
myn with the Hereditaments & Appurtenances thereunto belonging Cit- 
uate lying and being at a place called Weesel where he now Uvis on for 
his portion Item I will Devise and bequeath unto my son Gerret Vree- 
landt and unto his heirs and Assigns for ever the whole right that I have 
Purchased of Jacob Symonse van Winckle & one other Pise Joyning to 
the same with the both of Hendrick Veldman Cituate lying and being at 
the afforesaid place called weesel with the Hereditaments & appurtenan- 
ces thereunto belonging f oi his portion and he has full power to mil at to 
one of his Brother or Sisters Shildren and none other: Item I will devise 
and bequeath unto my son Claas Vreelandt and unto his heirs and As- 
signs forever the Land Laying on the south south side of Regpokes 
Island with the House Barne Woodland and atid all the Hereditaments 
and appurtenances thereunto belonging upon this Proviso or Condition 
that he shall pay unto his Brothers and Sisters the Sum of three hund- 
dred and fifty Pounds Currant Mony of New york or to thare heirs or 
Assigns but in case my son Claas Vreeland shold die before my Grant 
Child Machiel Vreeland son of aforesaid Claas Vreeland lives to be of 
the Age of Twenty one Years than and such Case what is before willed 
& bequeathed unto his Father Claas Vreeland shall devolve upon his son 
the said iNIachiel Vreeland but if my aforesaid Grant Child Machiel Vree- 
land should die under the Age of Twenty one years and my son Claas 
Vreeland should have male issue then that aforesaid part of my Es- 
tate is to devolve upon him or them but in Case he leaves no male but 
Female issue in such Case I do Expressly will devise and bequeath that 
the aforesaid Inheritance made under those Several Conditions shall Re- 
volve and become the Property of my tv/o sons Namely Hartman and 
Gerret Vreelandt they paying unto the Daughter or Daughters of Claas 
Vreelandt the Sum of Six hundred Pounds for her or their Portions 
Item I give devise and bequeath unto my Daughter Beletje Vreeland and 
unto her heirs & Assigns for ever my two lotts of Land in the Boght the 
one Called the Drie Hook and the other lays between Simeion van 
Wincldes Land and the Boght aforesaid and also two hundred Pounds 
Mony out of my moveables Item I give and bequeath unto my Daugh- 
ter Marritje Vreelant and other lott of Land lying in the Right of Sad- 
dle River with the Hereditaments & Appurtenances and four hundred 
Pound Mony out of my moveable Estate ; Item It is my will & desire that 
every unmarried Child of mine shall receive out of my Estate a Com- 
pleat out sett on the day of their Marriages Item I give and bequeath to 
my son Gerret Afforesaid after the Death or Remarriage of my said 
Wife my two Negro boys named Tom further is my will and desire that 
after to payment of the before mentioned mony out of my moveable Es- 
tate to my two Daughters belitje & Marritje Vreeland the overplush 
shall be Equally divided amongst my Children Share and Share alike and 
my son Claas is to pay the three Hundred & fifty Pounds in ten years 
after the Death or Remarriage of my Wife every year one tenth part 
thereof untill the whole is paid and also to allow my son Gerret the free 
use and Liberty of a Room in my House as long as my said Wife shall 
live or he remains unmarried, Item Notwithstanding what is before or- 
dained & directed it is my will and desire that if any of my Children or 
Child should die without issue then the Estate I have hereby Willed and 
bequeathed him or them who shall so die without issue shall Revolve on 
the Survivor or Survivors of them Lastly I do by these Presents Nom- 
inate Constitute & appoint my loving wife afforesd. and my sons Hart- 
man and my Shisters son Robbert Sickels to be my sole Executors of 
this my last Will and Testament, desiring them to se these presents duly 
& faithfully Complyed to & Performed ordering and directing that if 
any of my Children should Attempt to talce advantage of any Imperfec- 
tion herein by Law or otherwise it than is my Positiveorder & Direction 
he she or thy be utterly & totally Excluded from any and every part or 
persell of my whole Estate & to be deemed as Refractory, In Witniss 
whereof I have hereunto satt my hand & seal at Gemoenpa this Eaigh- 
teen day Marts Ano q Dom. One Thousant seven hundred & sixty 

Machiel Har (seal) tmanse Vreeland, 

Notwithstanding the dire threat contained in the last 
clause of this remarkable instrument,! which seems to have 
taken a year in its composition (compare the first two and 
last two lines), some of his children did provs "refractory," 
and the will was agreed to be invalid in law — whether 
from its peculiar chirography, from its uncertainty, or from 
the lack of three subscribing witnesses, does not appear. 
Hartman, as the oldest son and heir-at-law, under the Eng- 
lish law of primogeniture then prevailing in the Province^ 
became vested with all the testator's lands, including the- 
Lots mentioned in the will,2 he doubtless making proper 
compensation to the other children in consideration of -their 
relinquishing their claims. Moreover, his sons Michael 
and Cornelius, by deed dated May 4, 1787, did a graceful act. 
in releasing unto their uncle Claas, of Gemoenepa, farmer,, 
the tract of land south of Regpokes island, devised to him. 
by his father, they "being willing," says their deed, "to 
show the regard they have unto equity and good conscience 
and being also willing and desirous to quiet the mind of the 
said Claas Vreeland and to restore it to peace and tran- 
quility."3 How much is suggested in that last sentence. 

XL Arriantje (Adriana, it is given in some of the rec- 
ords), b. July 19, 1698; m. Zacharias Sickles, Dec. 3, 1719; 
d. Dec. 2, 1731. Children — I. Robert; 2. Geertruy, b. 
Feb. 14, 1729. 

XIL Enoch, m. Jannetje Van Blerkum. 

Johannes Michiel— Jansen had children : 

L Michiel, b. Sept. 14, 1684; d. Jan. 27, 1710. 
IL Dirck, bap. Oct. 11, 1686; m. May 12, 1716, Sit- 
ske (b. April 14, 1695), dau. of Derrick (or Dirck) Epke 
Banta and Ester, dau. of Hans Dedricks, one of the Ac- 
quackanonk patentees. Dirck Vreeland and Sitske his wife 
were members of the Acquackanonk church in 1726. As. 
stated on page no, ante, his brother Elias released to him 
most of the lands owned by their father, the deed being 
dated June 7, 1750. Dirck had one child: Klaesje, b. April 
25, 1729; m. Edward Earle, of Bergen county, November 

3. 1747- 

IIL Fitje, bap. Oct. 28, 1688; d. Jan. 27, 1710, unm. 

IV. Enoch, bap. Oct. 28, 1688; m. Mercy . 

V. Aagtje, bap. April 22, 1690 ; m. Cornells Helmig- 
sen Van Houten, April 19, 1711. Her descendants will be- 
found in the Van Houten Genealogy. 

VI. Helena, m. Johannes Helmigsen Van Houten, June 
17, 1719; d. March 15, 1774. Her descendants will be 
found in the Van Houten Genealogy. 
VIL (Child), b. June 28, 1697. 
VIII. (6th dau. and 13th child), b. July 19, 1698. 
IX. Jannetje, m. Martin Winne, a mason by trade, Dec. 
21, 1716; he d. July 8, 1737. Children — Levinus, m. An- 
netje Sip, Oct. 8, 1749; d. May 31, 1802; 3. Antje, b. 
April 15, 1723; m. Robert Sickles, Oct. 8, 1749; 5. Ma- 

1 Recorded in Liber I of Wills, Secretary of State's office, Trenton, 
f. 266. 

2 See recitals in deed dated May 4, 1787, recorded in Bergen County 
Deeds, Liber E, p. 37. 

3 Bergen County Deeds, E, 37. 



ritje, b. March 6, 1730. No record has been found of the 
. others. 

X. Elias, m. Marietje Van Hoorn, May 11, 1723. It 
is believed that he lived on the Wesel road, or "the road 
leading from the Great Falls to Acquackanonk," some dis- 
tance south of Crooks avenue. He owned Lot No. 4, East, 
and Lot No. 2, West, in the Bogt subdivision, and also one 
of the Wesel Lots, between Vreeland avenue and the river. 
His will, dated Sept. 22, 1767, was witnessed by the Rev. 
David Marinus, pastor of the churches at Acquackanonk 
and Totowa, by his near neighbor, Pelrus Poulisse, who 
also lived on the Wesel road south of Crooks avenue, and 
by Hartman E. Vrelandt. It was proved March 20, 1775, 
■on which day probate was granted to John Vreelandt and 
Derick Van Ryper, executors. Following is the will : 

In the Name of God Amen this twenty second Day of September 
Anno Domini One thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty seven I Elyas 
Vreland of Wesel in the County of Essex and Eastern Division of New 
Jersey beinj aged but of Sound Mind and Memory thanlcs be to God 
therefore but calling to Mind the Mortality of my Body and that it is ap- 
pointed unto Man once to Dye do make & Ordain this my last Will and 
Testament in the following manner and form and first and principally I 
Recommend my Soul into the Hands of God that gave it my Body to be 
Buried in a Christian decent Manner And touching such Worldly Estate 
wherewith God hath been pleased to bless me in this Life I Give Devise 
and Dispose of the same in the following Manner Imprimis my Will is 
that all my Just Debts and funeral Expences be Paid and Discharged 
Item I Give & Bequeath unto my beloved Wife Marytje Vreland the Use 
and Improvement of all my Estate for her Comfortable Support during 
the Time She Remains my Widdow Item I Give and Bequeath unto my 
Son John Vreland my large Bible for his birth Right Item I Give and Be- 
queath unto my Daughter Neeltie VanRype forty Acres of Land in the 
County of Bergen adjoining to the Land of Isaac thomasse VanRyper 
land to be and Remain unto her and unto the Heirs descended from her 
Body & their Heirs & Assigns forever Item I Give Devise and Bequeath 
unto my two Daughters Cleajiel VanRype & Jannitje Drummond a 
Lott of Land in the Bought of Wesel Containing Seventy five Acres be 
the Same more or less as also a small Lott back of Wesel Containing two 
Acres & three Quarters more or less to be equally divided between my 
two Daughters aforesaid to be and Remain unto them & unto the Heirs 
desended from their Bodys and unto their Heirs and Assigns forever all 
my other Lands Swamps Meadows Tenements with their Improvements 
& Appurtenances I Give Devise & Bequeath unto my Son John Vreland 
& unto his Heirs and Assigns forever Excepting a Lott of Land at We- 
sel Bridge Containing forty four Acres which I Give Devise and Be- 
queath unto my Grandson Elyas Vreland the Son of my Son John Vre- 
land to be & Remain unto him his Heirs & Assigns forever Item it is my 
Will that if any of my Children abovesaid should depart this Life Heir- 
less that is to Say without any Child or Children desended from their 
Body that then & not otherwise their Share of Land by me to them De- 
vised Shall devolve upon them of my Children or their Heirs, who 
Shall then Remain alive Item my Will is that my Negro Man Bonk Shall 
have his Choice to live with whom of my Children he please the Re- 
mainder of my Moveable & Personal Estate I dispose of in the follow- 
ing Manner my Will is and I Bequeath unto each of my three Daugh- 
ters abovesaid the Sum of Fifty Pounds current Lawful Money of Nevp- 
York & all the Remainder of my Moveable and Personal Estate to be 
-equally divided among my four Children John Vreland Neeltje Van Ry- 
per Claasie Van Ryper and Jannetje Drummond Share & Share alike 
to be & Remain unto them their Respective Heirs & Assigns forever 
. and I do Nominate Constitute and Appoint my Son John Vreland & my 
Son in Law Derick Van Ryper Executors of this my last Will and Testa- 
ment and do by these presents Revoke & DisanuU and Make Void all 
other Will or Wills Bequest or Bequests by me made holding for firm 
this to be [my] last Will & Testament,2 
Elias Vreland Seal 

1 Claesje. 

2 Liber L of Wills in Secretary of State's office, Trenton, f, 336. 

The "Lott of Land in the Bought of Wesel Containing 
Seventy five Acres," was Lot No. 4, East, shown on page 
71, ante. The "small Lott back of Wesel," was doubtless 
one of the wood lots under Garret mountain. 

Mary, wife of Elias Johannes Vreeland, was b. April 11, 
1701, dau. of Rutgert Van Horn ; she d. Sept. 23, 1791, 
aged 90 years, 6 months and 18 days, accordiiig to her tomb- 
stone in the Acquackanonk Reformed Church cemetery. 

XL Johannis, b. July l, 1705 ; m. Antje Diedricks in 
1725 ; d. Feb. 11, 1783 ; she d. Sept. 19, 1780. 
XIL Jacob. 
XIII. Joris, m. Elsje Meet, of Pegqueneck, Dec. 28, 
Cornells Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Aagtje, b. April 18, 1682 ; m. Roelof Helmigse 
Van Houten, April 21, 1701 ; d. Aug. 14, 1708. 

II. Dircktje (Cornelisse), m. Frans Johannisse Spier, 
March 17, 1705. 

III. Fitje, bap. July 22, 1685 ; m. Louerense Van Bus- 
kirk, Sept. 18, 1709 ; d. Oct. 19, 1756. Children — I. Cor- 
nells, m. Beelitje Van Wagenen ; d. Sept. 4, 1753; 2. Metje, 
m. John Lagrange; d. May 6, 1748; 3. Jannetje, m. Jacob 
Van Horn; d. Jan. 10, 1792; 4. Filje, m. John Roll, of 
Staten Island, Oct. 14, 1758 ; 5. Anna, m. Thomas Brown, 

April 16, 1747 ; d. Sept. , 1756. 

IV. Michael, bap. Feb. 23, 1687 ; d. in inf. 
V. Jannetje, bap. Nov. 21, 1688; m. Daniel Van Win- 
kel, Sept. 3, 1709; d. April 12, 1769. 
VI. Neeltje, bap. July 23, 1690. 
VII. Michael, b. Sept. 18, 1694 ; m. Jenneke Helmigse 
Van Houten, Oct. 23, 1718 ; he was commissioned justice 
of the peace of Bergen county, Sept. 26, 1745, and judge of 
Essex county in 1768.I He lived on the Wesel road, near 
Vreeland avenue. 

VIIL Metje, b. Oct. 3, 1698. 

Fourth Generation. 

Michiel Elias-Michiel-Jansen had children : 
I. George. 

II. Michiel. He seems to have been engaged in ship- 
ping, besides carrying on his farm. His will, dated August 
25, 1789, witnessed by Benjn. Helme, Ilarman Van Riper 
and Cornelius Doremus, was proved Feb. 8, 1790, by the 
three executors named therein. His wife had apparently 
pre-deceased him. He disposed of his property thus : 

Item I give devise and bequeath unto my loving son Michael all my 
real estate Whatsover and wheresoever the same may be at the time of 
my decease to hold the same to my said son Michael his heirs and 
assigns forever. Item I give to my said son Michael all my stores and 
Hogs and all my farming utensils as also all my grain and my weavers 
loom, and implements thereunto belonging, to hold the the same to him 
my said son Michael his heirs and assigns forever. Item I also give to 
my said son Michael all my right title and interest of in and to all those 
certain bonds and notes which my brother Elias assigned to me and 
Thomas Post. Item I also give to my said son Michael all my right 
share and interest of and in the sloop Farmer and also my right share 
and interest of and in the scow now building at second river. To hold 
the same to him my said son Michael his heirs and assigns forever. 

1 Book C of Commissions in Secretary of State's office, Trenton, ff. 
104, 32X. 



Item I also give to my son Michael my two guns and my chest with 
drawers, as also my three Negroes by name Sam Peter & Tom to hold 
the same to my said son Michael his heirs and assigns forever. Item I 
give to my Daughter Geertye a chest with drawers which I got by her 
mother Item I also give to my said daughter Geertye my negro woman 
named Leay, and her son Sam now living with my said Daughter, to 
hold the said negro Woman and her son unto my said daughter Geertye 
her heirs and assigns. And Whereas one half of the Cattle and sheep 
upon my farm and two old working oxen is the property of my son 
Michael and the other half of the Cattle and sheep is my property I do 
therefore hereby give my one half of the said cattle and sheep unto my 
said son Michael and to my daughter Geertye to be equally divided be- 
tween them share and share alike. Item it is my will and I do hereby 
give unto my said son Michael and to my said daughter Geertye my 
negro man named Harry (now living with Thomas Post) my negro 
woman named Mary my negro girl also named Mary my negro woman 
named Betty and my negro boy named Jack, and all the rest & residue 
of my personal estate unto and between my said son Michael and my 
daughter Geertye to be equally divided between them share and share 
alike and further it is my will that in case my executors hereafter named 
shall think it most Adviseable to sell and dispose of the said Negro man 
named Harry, and Negro woman and girl named Mary and negro 
woman named Betty and Negro Boy named Jack, and the rest and resi- 
due of my personal estate as above mentioned ; then I do hereby 
request that they Would Sell and dispose of the same to the best advan- 
tage, and the monies arising out of the sale thereof to be equally divided 
between my said son Michael and my daughter Geertye their heirs and 
assigns, and it is my desire that my just debts and funeral e.xpences be 
paid and satisfied out of that part of my estate which is to be divided 
between my two children. Item Lastly I do hereby nominate consti- 
tute and appoint my son, Michael my son in law Adrian Post, and my 
friend Henry Garritse esqr. to be executors of this my last Wiil and tes- 

III. Margaret, m. , and had seven children, who 

survived her in 1750. 

IV. Elias, living in 1750. 
V. . 

Jacob Elias-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Johannis, b. 1713 ; he m. Gouda Easterly when he 
was past sixty years old ; he d. July 28, 1797. His wife is 
said to have been a native of Holland ; she spoke English 
very brokenly. She was exceedingly corpulent, weighing 
something like three hundred pounds. She d. March 16, 
1833, aged 88 years, 5 months and some days. She and her 
husband lived in the old stone house at Passaic, which had 
been built by Jacob's father, as related on p. 109. John 
owned most of the land in Passaic south of Passaic street, 
besides much land elsewhere. 

II. Elias, m. , and lived at Stone House Plains. 

Johannis Enoch-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Maria, bap. Nov. 29, 1702; II. Catharina, bap. 
Nov. 19, 1704; III. Enoch, bap. Jan. 22, 1707; IV. Mar- 
tinus, bap. April 3, 1709. These were all bap. in N. Y. 

Abraham Enoch-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Enoch, b. March 14, 1700; his will, dated May 14, 
1777, proved June 24, 1777, names his wife Rachel and son 
Daniel, who had a son John. 
II. Jacob. 
III. Johannis. 

IV. Simon, m. Rachel Eidenstein (or Ydelstein), Dec. 
19, 1756. Issue: I. Isaac, bap. Feb. 26, 1758; doubtless 
d. in inf., as he is not mentioned in his father's will ; 2. 

1 Recorded in Book No. 30 of Wills, Trenton, pages 325 &c. 

Tryntje, bap. June 21, 1761. Simon's will is dated May- 
29, 1761 ; proved Feb. 9, 1765 ; he left his property in fee 
to his prospective child (Tryntje), and in case of its death, 
then to his own brothers and sisters — Enogh, John, Abra- 
ham, Lea and Anna, probably all that then survived.! 
V. Isaac, d. in 1756. 
VI. Abraham. 
VII. Hendrick, probably d. yotmg. 
VIII. Derrickee, probably d. young. 

IX. Lea, m. Nicasie Kip, Nov. 11, 1750. Issue: I. 
Hendrick, b. July 30, 1751, d. in inf.; 2. Trintje, b. Oct. 
21, 1754, d. in inf.; 3. Izaac, b. May 14, 1756; m. Maria 
Banta, Nov. 22, 1779; 4. Trintje, b. Sept. 30, 1758; m. 
Joh. Mauritius Goetschius ; 5. Hendrik, b. May 18, 1760 ; 
6. Petrus, b. Nov. 5, 1762. 

X. Anna, m. Robert Bagley. 
Enoch Enoch-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Enoch, bap. Oct. 4, 1710; II. Cornelus, bap. Jan.. 
28, 1713; d. Aug. 26, 1736; III. Efje, bap. Aug. 12, 1722. 
These were all bap. in N. Y. 

Joris Enoch-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Aagtje, b. Sept. 18, 1733 ; m. Helmig Van Houten ;- 
marriage bond dated May 4, 1753. 

II. Enoch, b. Sept. 22, 1737 ; d. in inf. 

III. Garret, b. May 17, 1739 ; d. Jan. 26, 1 75 1. 

IV. Enoch, b. Feb. 18, 1741 ; m. Cornelia Kip in- 
1764 ; removed to New Barbadoes. In deeds and other 
records he is sometimes described as Enoch J. or Enoch Jo. 
(Joris), or Enoch G. (George) Vreeland. By an agreement, 
dated June 13, 1785, John Enoch Vreeland, of Achquegenonk, 
gave leave to Enoch G. Vreeland, of New Barbaboes, and 
his heirs and assigns, " to Erect a dam from a certain Grist 
Mill [heretofore Purchased of the sd John E. Vreeland] to 
the Land of the sd John E. Vreeland sufficient to stop the 
Course of the Water to suport sd Grist Mill," etc. 

V. Jacob, m. Jenneke Cadmus ; removed to Staten 

VI. Johannis, b. Sept. 21, 1749 ; m. Helena Garra- 
brant, June 21, 1778 ; d. Oct. 27, 1824 ; his only child, 
Joris, b. Jan. 10, 1779, d. in inf. 

VII. Garret, b. Nov. I, 1751 ; m. Jannetje Katmis (Cad- 
mus); d. Feb. 13, 1825. 

VIII. Effje, m. 1st, Jacob Van Wagenen ; 2d, John Vree- 

IX. Lena, b. May 20, 1756 ; m. Garret Van Ripen ; d. 
March 7, 1846. 

X. Jenneke, b. Dec. i, 1758 ; m. ist, Henry Newkirk ; 
2d, Joseph Van Winkle, May 26, 1798 ; d. June 28, 1847. 

XL Annatje, m. Michael Vreeland ; d. Feb. 23, 1803. 
Claas Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Hartman, b. March, 1698. He owned land at Con- 
staple's Hoeck, devised to him by his grandfather, but lived 
at Acquackanonk, and afterwards in Morris county, where 
he died intestate. He m. Jannetje Jacobus, wid. , Sept. 
15, 1733. His eldest son, Claas, was appointed administra- 
tor, April II, 1760.2 

1 Recorded in Liber H of Wills, Trenton 492.. 

2 Liber G of Wills, Trenton, p. 289. 



II. Ilassel, m. Elizabeth Stilwell, b. at Woodbridge, 
but living at Acquackanonk, Nov. 13, 1742. Issue: r. Els- 
jin, b. July 2, 1752; 2. Elizabeth, b. April 2, 1754; 3. Hart- 
man, b. July I, 1759. 

III. Dirrik. 

IV. Elyas. He probably lived near Third River. 1 
There were three other children, probably girls. 
Dirck Hartman-Michiel-Janseu had children : 

I. Hartman, b. Jan. 24, 1704; m. Lea Peterse, Oct. 
23, 1731, both being described as of Acquackanonk at the 
time. In his will, dated April 13, 1773, witnessed by Peter 
H. Peterse, David Rietan and Roeluf Van Houten, proved 
Oct. 16, 1782, Hartman disposes of his property and pro- 
vides for his wife's support in this manner : 

Item I Give to my Beloved wife Leeya the full possession & Enjoy- 
ment of my Dwelling Room Kitchen the half of my Cellar and t!ie half 
of my upper Room also the Equall third part of all my Household furni- 
ture Also the Choise of all my Negro Wenches also tv/o Milk Cows & 
two Sheep During the time She doth Continue to be my widow & If in 
Case my sd Cows should happen to Die then & in Such Case my will & 
order is that my three Sons herein after Named Shall then Supply ray 
said wife with another Cow so that She may be possessed of two INIilk 
Co«-s During her Widowhood Item I Give to my son Peter my Bible 
for his Birth right I Give & Bequeath also to my Said Son Peter his heirs 
& assigns forever all my lands wi thin the Bounds of Said Achqaeghenonck 
Patent also forty four Acres of my Lott v.-hich Lays between the Lotts 
of Henry Garritse & Tuenis Spier in the Jlountain to the westward of 
weezel Said fourty four Acres Shall begin at the East End of my sd Lott 
& from thence westerly with die full Breadth of my LotL so far as to 
make the full Complement aforesaid Item I Give & Bequeath to ray 
Son Jacob his heirs and Assigns forever forty four Acres of my Lott 
which Laj's betv.-een sd. Lots of Henry Garritse & Tuenis Spier in the 
Mountain to the westv,-ard of Weezel aforesaid Said forty four Acres 
Shall begin at the v.-est End of my Lott at Passaick River and from thence 
Easterly with the full Breadth of my Lott So far as to make the full 
Complement aforesaid Item I give & Bequeath to my Son John his 
heirs & assigns forever all the Remainder part of .my Land Laying in 
Said Mountain to the Westward of Weezel Containing forty, four Acres 
be it more or Less Item I Give to my Daughter Catrina my Negro 
Winch Named Izabel but it is my will that She Shall pay for sd. Wench 
the Sume of fifteen pounds that is to say to my Son Jacob five pounds 
to my Son John five pounds & to My Said Grandson five pounds & that 
at the Expiration of Ten Years after the Death of me & my sd. ivife 
Item my will is that in a Reasonable time after my Decease all the Re- 
mainder of my moveable Estate Shall be Equally Di\ided Amongst all 
my Children & Sd. Grandson Share & Share alike & it is also my will 
that after tire Death or Remarrage of my said wife All the moveable Estate 
hereby Given to her Shall then be Equally Divided amongst all my 
Children aforesaid Share & Share alike Item it is my will & order that 
my son Peter his heirs Executors or Administrators Shall Supply or 
Give to my Said Wife two Bushells of Wheat Eight BusheUs of Rye 
four Bushells of Indian Corn four Bushells of Buck Wheat Sixty Six 
pounds weight of Good pork thirty foure pounds weight of Good Beef 
foure pounds weight of Clean flax Six pounds weight of tow &. two 
pounds of money Yearly & Every Year During her Widowhood & Shall 
also Suport my Sd. wife SufSciently with firewood & Shall also pro- 
vide Good hay & pasture for Said Two Cows & Sheep During her 
widowhood Item it is also my Will & order that my tv/o Sons Jacob 
& John & Each of them & Each of their heirs Executors & Adminis- 
trators Shall Supply or Give to my said Wife two Bushells of wheat 
Eight Bushells of Rye four Bushells of Indian Corn foure Bushells of 
Buck Wheat Sixty Six pounds wt. of Good pork thirty foure pounds 
weight of Good Beef four pounds Weight of Clean flax Six pounds 
weight of tow & two pounds of Money Yearly & Every Year During 
her widowhood. 3 

II. P..achel, b. July 16, 1707 ; m. Niclas Romein, 
widower, living at Pompton, April 14, 1733 ; she lived at 
Wesel at the time. They both joined the church at Hack- 
ensack on confession of faith, Sept. 6, 1741. Issue : Jan, 
bap. March 10, 1734. 

III. Martje, b. April 7, 1709; m. Jurjaen Aeltse, May 
13, 1727. Issue : Gerrit, b. Dec. 30, 1730. 

IV. Hester, b. Feb. 25, 1712; m. ist. May 10, 1739, 
Johannes Dideriks, widower, b. at Bergen, and living at 
Acquackanonk ; 2d, May 29, 1745, John De Vaunce, M. D., 
of Essex county. (In her father's will this name is written 
De Voisne, and he appears to have been dead, before her, 
in 1769.) 

V. Dirk, b. Nov. 16, 1715 ; m. Oct. 8, 1741, Neesje 
Neefjes, b. at Acquackanonk, and living at Slooterdam ; 
she was b. Oct. 22, 1723, dau. of Johannes Neefje and 
Antje Gerritse. 

VI. Johannes, b. Oct. 12, 1719; m. Feytie Vreeland, 
Dec. 22, 1743. 

VII. Antje, b. July 4, 1722 ; ni. Aug. 23, 1739, Jacob 
Stech, son of John Stech (Stagg), b. at New Barbadoes 
Neck. Issue: i. Margrietje, bap. Feb. 24, 1743; 2. Jan, 
bap. Aug. 5, 1750. 

In his will, Dirck also mentions 

VIII. Michael, m. Aaltje Van Giese. In his will, dated 
August 28, 1782, proved Oct. 20, 1S04, witnessed by Tunis 
Joralenion, Abraham Van Gieson and. John Devaucene, 
Michael describes himself as of Newark township (now 
Franklin, on the Third river). 1 He provides as follows: 

I give and bequeath unto Altje my dear and loving wife a sufficient 
and decent maintenance to live in my dwelling house & to have her sup- 
port out of my real estate to be provided for her by my son John during 
her natural life or her remaining my widow. 

Item I give to my well beloved son John [in fee] my dwelling house I 
now live in, with all the lands orchards, buildings mills & every thing 
thereunto belonging as also the saw mill.2 Item I give to my four child- 
ren lohn, Anatie, Scitche, and Hendrickea one certain piece of land lying 
on the north side of the Stinchers brook containing or allov^ed for tliirty 
acres to be equally divided between them [in fee] as also each an equal 
share in the remaining part of my personal estate. 

He appointed his son John, Capt. Abraham Speer and 
Tunis Joralenion, executors ; they renounced, and Jacob 
Ryker and Flenry Brown were appointed administrators with 
will annexed.3 The family tradition is that Michiel was 
born in the old stone house, built about 1716, still standing 
on the west bank of the Passaic, some distance below Pas- 
saic Bridge, and in 1894 occupied by Mr. Levi H. Alden, 
brick maker. 

His children were : I. Johannis, b. May 31, 1755 ; m. 
Jannetje Speer, dau. of John Speer, and carried on his 
father Michiel's grist mill at Third River, until his death 
in 1821 ; his wife died in 1845, aged So years ; 2. Zietje, 
b. July 5, 1757; 3. Hendrickje, b. Nov. 19, 1762; 4. 
Annaetje, b. -. John Vreeland, son of Michael, had is- 
sue : I. Johanna, b. Oct. 5, 1777 ; 2. Michael, b. Jan. 12, 

1 Essex Transcribed Mortgages, A, 13. 

2 Recorded in Book 24 of Wills, Trenton, f. 312. 


1 Essex Transcribed Mortgages, A, 13. 

2 This saw mill was in the present village of Franklin, on Third river, 
where he also had a grist mill and 70 acres of land. 

3 Essex Wills, A, 35. • 



1782; 5. Teunis, 1). Sept. 22, 1782, d. in inf.; 4. Tennis, b. 
Oct. 29, 1787; 5. Abraham, b. Sept. 22, 1789, d. in inf.; 
6. Elias, b. April 16, 1790; 7. Hendrick, b. Jan. 19, 1793; 

8. Anne, b. Dec. 12, 1793, m. Van Winkle; 9. 

Cathalyntje, b. Feb. 3, 1796; 10. Elias, b. Aug. 23, 1799; 
II. Abraham, b. cir. 1800, m. Elizabeth (b. 1800, d. 1879), 
dau. of John Mason, an Englishman, and had a son, War- 
ren, b. 1822; 12. Ralph ; 13. Magdalen, m. John Oldham, 
an Englishman. 

By deed, June 18, 1771, Michael D. Vreeland conveyed 
to Johannes H. (should be M.) Vreeland a tract of eight 
acres on Third river, which was again conveyed. May 10, 
1804, l^y Michael I. {i. e. the son of Johannes and grandson 
of Michael D. Vreeland) to James Van Riper. 1 
IX. Claasje. 
X. Maragrietje. 

Michael Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Hartman, m. Marritje Gerbrant, Nov. 20, 1739. He 
lived at Wesel, on the farm bought by his father from Claes 
Romeyn. As it is through Hartman and his brother and 
sisters that the Vreelands derived title to most of their lands 
in Paterson, his will is given in full herewith: 

In the name of God amen I Hartman M. Vreeland of Achqueghe- 
nonck in the County of Essex and in the Eastern Division of the Prov- 
ince of New Jersey Husbandman being weak in Bodj' but of perfect 
mind and memory Blessed be God therefore do this fourth day of Nov- . 
ember in the year of our Lord one Thousand Seven Hundred and Sev- 
enty Six make and publish this my last Will and Testament in manner 
and form foUomhg that is to say. Imprimis I Commend my Soul into 
the Hands of Almighty God who gave it me and my body to the Earth 
from whence it came in hopes of a Joj-ful Resurrection through the 
Merits of my Saviour Jesus Christ and as for that Worldly Estate 
wherewith it has pleased God to Bless me in this Life I Give and Dis- 
pose thereof as follows. First my Will is that all my Just Debts and 
Funeral Expences be paid and Discharged out of my Personal Estate. 
Item my Will is that my beloved wife JIarritye shall Possess and Enjoy 
all my Estate both Real and Personal During the time she doth Con- 
tinue to be my Widow, and after the Death or Remarriage of my said 
Wife I give to my son Michael five Pounds for his Birth-right Item I 
Give and Bequeath also to my said son Michaiel Vreeland and to his 
Heirs and Assigns forever all those two Lots or Parcels of land which 
formerly did belong to Derrick Dey and by Exchange of Land now in 
my Possession Situate n-ithin the Hmits of Achqueghenonck Patent To- 
gether mth all the Buildings and privileges thereunto belonging, also 
the one Equal Half part of all my Land laying in the Moun'ain to the 
Westward of Weesel in the County abovesaid. Also five Acres of 
Wood Land which is part of ray Lot of Land which I now Dwell upon 
that is to say on the West side of the Road leading to the Great Falls 
and is to Join upon the Land of Richard Yates. Item I Give and Be- 
queath to my son Cornelius Vreeland and to his Heirs and assigns for- 
ever the one Equal Half part of my Sv.'amp or Mowing. Ground which 
Joins upon the Drift Road leading from Cornelius Van Houtens to the 
Main Road to wit the Southermost Half part tliereof. Item I Give and 
Bequeath to my sd son Michaiel Vreeland and to his Heirs and Assigns 
forever fifteen Acres of Land and Swamp which is also part of my Land 
I now Dwell upon that is to say on the West side of said Main Road, 
and is to begin at the said Drift Road and Runingfrom thence Northerly 
so far until it makes the full Complement of fifteen Acres (Excepting the 
Equal half of said Swamp or Mowing Ground hereby Given to my said 
son Cornehus and one of the Lots formerly belonging to Dirrick Dey as 
above mentioned) and the North bounds of sd. fifteen Acres is to be 
with a Parrellel line to said Drift Road. And the Remainder of all my 
Land or Real Estate whether in the County of Essex Bergen or Else- 
where I Give and Bequeath to my son CorneUus Vreeland and to his Heirs 

1 Essex Transcribed Deeds, A, 471. 

and Assigns forever that is to say all my Real Estate hereby Given to my 
said Two sons shall Devolve to them after the Death or Remarriage of my 
said Wife. And in Case myl Real Estate v/hich was formerly the property 
of my Father Michael Vreeland Deceased (not above mentioned) and by 
virtue of his last Will and Testament should become the property of my 
Estate at any time hereafter then and in such Case it is my Will and I 
order that all such Real Estate shall be Equally Divided between my 
said Two sons their Heirs or assigns share and share alike. Item I 
Give and Bequeath to my said son Cornelius all my Farming L^tensils 
and all my Horses and my Loom. Item I Give to my said sons Mich- 
ael and CorneUus all my Negroes. Item It is my will that all my Cattle 
shall be Equally Divided between all my Children share & Share alike 
and my Negro Wenches, and all the Remainder of my personal Estate I 
Give and Bequeath to my three Daughters namely Jenne, Elizabeth and 
Beetye to be Equally Divided^ between them share & share alike that 
is to say all my Personal Estate hereby Given to my Children above- 
named shall Devolve^ to them after the Death or remarriage of my said 
Wife. And further it is my mil and order that my two sons and each 
of them shall pay or cause to be paid unto my three Daughters above 
named the sum of One Hundred Pounds Current money of New York 
and that at the Expiration of Six Years after the Death or Remarriage 
of my said Wife. And I do hereby nominate & appoint my two sons above 
named to be Executors of this my last Will and Testament and do 
hereby Revoke and Disannul all former Wills by me made Ratifying 
and Confirming this to be my Last Will and Testament. In Witness 
whereof I the said Hartman JI. Vreeland have to this my last Will and 
Testament Set my Hand and Seal the day ?jid Year first above Written. 
N. B. the words, be Equally Dirided, between the Twenty ninth and 
Thirtieth, and the word. Devolve, between the Thirtieth, thirty first 
lines from the top was first Interlined before the Sealing hereof. 

Hartman Vreelant L. S. 

Signed Sealed published and Declared by tlie said Hartman M. 
Vreeland as and for his last VVill and Testament in the presence of John 
Oothout, Cornelius Van Reiper, Hessel Peterse.3 

Hartman's tv/o sons divided up the land that came to 
them under their father's will, by various deeds. 

II. Garret, lived at Communipaw; d. Feb. 8, 1748, uiam. 

III. Claas, bap. March 30, 1724; m. ist, Catlyntje Sip, 
May 13, 1757 ; 2d, Antje (Nancy), dau. of Stephen Bassett 
(who had a tannery on the Wesel road a short distance 
north of the Clifton road), Dec. 13, 1760 ; he d. Feb. 9, 
1802; she was b. March 29, 1736; d. March I, 1819. 

IV. Beelitje, b. March 19, 1733 ; m. Cornelius Sip, 
July 4, 1761 ; d. .Oct. 26, 1789. Children : I. Antje, b. 
May 20, 1763, d. June 22, 1763 ; 2. Elizabeth, b. May 3, 
1764, d. in inf.; 3. Ide, b. May 3, 1764, d. in inf.; 4. Ide, 
b. Jan. 4, 177I, d. in inf. 

V. Maritje, m. Sickles. Issue : Robert. 

Enoch Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Michael, b. May 23, 1730; m. ist, Jannetje Van Win- 
kele, both of Acquackanonk, Dec. 28, 1756 (an error in the 
record, for 1755) ; 2d, Marritje Bru}Ti, wid., Jan. 7, 17S1 ; 
she m. 3d, John Gendor, June 25, 1785. Michael lived at 
Claverack (near Athenia), in Acquackanonk, and was called 
Michael Enochse Vreeland, but signed his name Michel 
E. Vreeland. He died intestate, in 1784, whereupon 
Henry Garritse, jun., and his son, Michael En. Vreeland, 
jun., were appointed administrators. His personal estate 
was appraised Sept. 22, 1784, by Garrit I. Speir and Cor- 

1 Query: any? 

2 Interlined in the original. 

3 Proved April 13, 1783 ; probate granted to Michael H. Vreeland and 
Cornelius H. Vreeland, April 14, 1785; recorded in Book 27 of Wills, 
Trenton, pages 292, &c. 



nelious Degraw at £lo6, 2s, 3d. As a curiosity of its kind, 
and for the liglit it gives on the manner of living in those 
days, this inventory is reproduced herewith from the orig- 
inal in the author's possession, having been carefully pre- 
served, with other papers relating to the estate, by the de- 
scendants of Henry Garritse, jun. 

SEPTEMBER, ye 22nd, 1784. 

A True and Perfect Inventory taken of the moveble estate of Michael 

En VreelanJ Decesed, and apraised by Garrit I. Speir and 

Cornelious Derjrav/. 

the brcon mare ;C6-o-o 

the fox colt 7-0-0 

the bae mare 3-0-0 

the black mare 4-0-0 

the Raa cow 5-0-0 

the rad in wite cowl 4-10-0 

the Rad in wite hiffir 3-0-0 

the rad hiffir 4-10-0 

4 Sheep 3-4-0 

I waggon 6-0-0 

I loom 3-0-0 

I Quellon weel in wolpen bar 

in rak2 o-io-o 

4 barrels 0-16-0 

2donsjforks 0-7-0 

1 canth hook 0-1-6 

2 crakels 0-3-6 

I pith fork 0-1-6 

1 fann 0-2-0 

I Scat t rand o-i-o 

1 plagges SlayS 0-6-0 

3barrels ^{^o-io-o 

I washen tob 0-3-0 

I hock Set 0-3-0 

1 ash tob 0-2-0 

z milk lobs 0-4-0 

2 Shorns o-.-o 

2 cellers 0-.-. 

3 pals o-.-o 

I barrel o-.-o 

1 wood bole 0-3-0 

2 Stone pots 0-3-0 

7 casks 0-7-0 

I wash tob 0-4-0 

I lie cask o-.-. 

I cask o-.-o 

3 wood bols 0-.-. 

I milk tob o-.-o 


4 bees hife with bees in 

honny ;£3-o-o 

6 emty bees hife 0-6-0 

I Spout o-i-o 

I grin Stone 0-8-0 

I cask 0-6-0 

6 emty bees hife 0-5-0 

5 barrels 0-5-0 

1 Side o-i-i 

2 hek eels* 0-4-0 

I Scaft O-I-O 

I tray 0-1-6 

I garter loom 0-1-6 

I bell i . 0-0-6 

1 cross cut Saw o-io-o 

2 Snicks 0-14-0 

2 augers ;£o-6-o 

2 plains 0-4-0 

1 plain 0-1-6 

2 gutters O-IO-O 

4 Smoodin plains 0-4-0 

4 Small aggesS 0-6-0 

I fo.x trap 0-16-0 

1 Spliten nifc 0-3-0 

2 bris Vv'imbals o-i-o 

I trowel 0-1-6 

I Stone pick o-i-o 

17 Shisels 0-7-0 

5 gouges 0-2-0 

I hammer o-i-o 

I gimle O-I-O 

icumpes., O-I-O 

— tiles 0-1-3 

— beads plains 2-0-0 

I han Scaw i-o-o 

I drawen nife 0-3-0 

I squar 0-2-0 


14 spools £0-7-0 

I rattel 0-3-0 

1 lanter 0-1-6 

2 reed in gars 0-16-0 

2 fr>'en pans o-io-o 

2 puts 0-16-6 

I par of tongs in ash sufels 0-3-6 

3 trammels 0-16-0 

I par of hand Irons 0-8-0 

I draser o-i-o 

I Schest 0-4-0 

1 washen cettel 0-18-0 

2 basket o-i-o 

I agges. 0-5-6 

I narrow acks 0-2-0 

1 haf a bushel 0-0-0 

3 puts 0-14-0 

2 lookin glass £0-14-0 

I bad in bolster in pillers 2 

blanket 4-0-0 

I bad in 3 blanket 0-10-0 

I bad Stad 0-6-0 

I cradle 0-3-0 

I dye tob o-i-o 

I woolen weel £0-4-6 

1 Red and white cow. 

2 Quilling wheel, warping bar and rack. 

3 Pleasure sleigh. 

* Qy: hetchels? or axles? 

4 adze. 

I cobberd 5-0-0 

I table £0-6-6 

3 pickters 0-2-6 

I cask 0-2-0 

4 chars _. 0-7-0 

1 bad in bolsters 0-8-0 

1 blanket 0-16-0 

2 green bla.nkets i-o-o 

I Spree 0-1-0 

I bed in bol Stres in 3 piilers 

3 blankets 1-4-0 

I bad Stad 0-6-0 

1 Sattel bad 0-8-0 

2 bols O-I-O 

7 puter plats 0-7-0 

4 puter platters o-i-o 

I tea put, 3 cups in caserl o-.-. 

3 puter basens 0-4- . 

I puter pint mog o-i-o 

2 arten Platters £0-1-0 

1 candel Stick 0-0-6 

2 arten basens o-i-o 

I puter bole 0-1-0 

4 basket 0-2-6 

I bible 0-7-0 

I arten basen 0-0-6 

thirteen hundred in thirty 

of shingles 8-0-0 

I Plow Share 0-6-0 

I Spad 0-5-0 

I Wages O-I-O 

I washen cetel 2-0-0 

I pare of Smood Irons 0-4-0 

I cotten Sheet 0-8-0 

3 bridles in line 0-2-0 

I clefen bolte 0-2-6 

3 clefen bolte in hook 0-3-6 

I nak yok 0-2-6 

I Ey of in acks 0-0-6 

1 Stobbea hoe 0-2-0 

2 hoes 0-2-0 

I pare of wol cars 0-0-6 

t brod acks 0-0-6 

I hammers 0-0-6 

Garret Speer, 
Cornelius DeGraw. 

£106. .2. .3 

The goods and chattels thus inventoried were sold at 
auction, according to the following "articuls," the prices 
and purchasers being given herewith, copied verbatim et lit- 
eratim from the "List of the Vandue :" 

Articuls of the Vandue held here this 27th Day of October 1784 of tlie 
moveble Estate of Michael En Vreland Decesed all persons Byingat this 
Vandue To the Value of ten Shillings or Vnder to pay Redy Money and all 
Above ten Shillings to have three Months Credit By Giving Security if 
Required and if Sd person Neglecting to Give Immediate Security then 
Sd goods to be put up at Vandue agin and Sd persons to make Good all 
what falls Short of his Bid the money to be New york Currency and to 
be paid to Henry Garritse 

This Vandue Ajumd till the 5th of November 1784 

A Stear to Be Sold for Redy money Not Belonging to the Estate- 

Again Ajurned to the 22nd of November 1784 

A List of the Vandue held hear this 27 : of October 1784 

two Sider Barral Michael Vreeland Junr £0-6-0 

two Sider Barrals Michael Vreeland Junr 0-2-3 

tvf o Sider Barrals Aron Skyler 0-3-3 

three Dito Dito Aron Skyler 0-5-3 

two Dito Dito Michael Vreeland Junr o-i-o 

two Dito David Sandford 0-0-7 

one Seder Cask Jacob Bush 0-7-6 

one Lye Cask Michael Vreeland Junr 0-2-0 

one Seder Cask David Sandford 0-1-3 

one Seder Cask Michael Vreeland Junr 0-1-7 

two Seder Cask Jacob Bush 0-6-0 

one tar Barral and Sundries Sander Cokkefare x 0-0-7 

one Churn and Celer Peter Hougwout 0-3-6 

one Tunnel Sander Cokkefare 0-2-1 

two Milk Casks Peter Kougwout 0-3-6 

one Churn Sander Cokkefare 0-3-4 

two pail Michel Vreland Junr 0-3-10 

two Seder Casks Jacob Garritse .x 0-3-0 

one Celor and Cask Michal Vreland Junr 0-5-0 

two pails Michel Vreland Junr 0-4-0 

one tub Sander Cokkefare 0-5-1 

one tub Michel Vreland Junr 0-3-0 

two Empty Bee hives Enoch Vreland x 0-2-0 

two Erthen pots Adrian a Post x 0-4-1 

two Bee hives Abraham R Van Geson 0-2-6 

1 " In " stands for 
'.' caser," saucer. 

'and;" "puts," pots; "arten," earthen; 



two Bee hives Enoch Vreland x o-i-o 

two Bee hives Abraham R Van Gesen 0-2-0 

two hives Michel Vreeland junr 0-0-4 

four hives Michel Vreeland Junr , 0-2-0 

one hive with Bees Aron Skyler 1-4-0 

one hive with Bees Aron Skyler 1-8-0 

one hive with Bees Garrit Wouters 1-10-6 

one hive Bees Garrit Wouters 1-10-3 

one Iron pot Peier Simmons x 0-1-6 

one Grind Stone Capt Sigler 0-17-0 

one Spade Michel Vreeland Junr 0-5-6 

tv/o hows Jacob Bush 0-4-0 

one Iron pot John parrot 1-0-6 

one Lanteran John Garrabrant 0-1-0 

two woodden trays Enoch Vreeland x 0-0-6 

one Woodden tray Garrit Wouters 0-5-3 

one Woodden tray Garrit Spear 0-1-7 

one Dito and ladle Michel Vreeland Jun 0-6-6 

one tong & Shovel Michel Vreeland Junr 0-9-2 

one pair of hand Irons Michel Vreland Junr 0-15-2 

one pair of tramels Michel Vreeland Junr 0-5-10 

one trammel Adrian post x 0-5-0 

one trammel John parrot x 0-5-6 

one Woollen Wheel Abraham Movrerson 0-1-4 

one Rack John J Spear c-i-o 

tv/o Chairs Abraham Mowerson 0-4-6 

two Chairs Garrabrant I Garrabrants 0-3-6 

one f ether Bed Boulsters and pillers Mary Vreeland 3-4-6 

two Blankets one Bed and Boulster Cornelious Degraw 3-5-6 

one Green Rug- Michel Vi'eeland Junr i-i-o 

one Green Rug Mary Vreeland 1-15-0 

two Baskets Henmer Ludlow 0-4-8 

one Basket Henmer Ludlow 0-2-9 

one Slaw Bonk Garrit Spear o-i-^-o 

Six plains Jacob Garritse 0-12-8 

three Augers Cornelious E Vreeland ; 0-5-0 

one Auger Phelip Van Rypen c-6-0 

one Auger Christian Intiresl 0-2-6 

4 Adgses Christian Intiresl 0-12-1 

a percel of plains William King Junr 0-10-2 

one Carpenters plow William King Junr 0-8-0 

one Dito John Garribrants 0-2-1 

one Snick Christian Interest 0-6-0 

one Snick John El Vreeland 0-12-6 

a percil of plains William King Junr ' 0-8-0 

one plain William King Junr 0-3-0 

I trouel and pick John Garribrants 0-2-5 

I tennent Saw Jacob Garritse 0-16-6 

I percil of tools John A Post 0-13-9 

I Rasp Jacob Buck 0-1-6 

one hand Sav,r Cornelious E Vreeland 0-13-6 

one Red Cow with one horn Aron Skyler 5-0-0 

one Red Heffer Aron Skiler 4-7-0 

one old Cow Michel Vreeland Junr —0-0 

one heffer Aron Skyler •'-a-o 

■4 Sheep Cornelious Degraw 3-J4-0 

I Black mare Michel Vreeland Junr 6-10-0 

13C0 Shingles Henmer Ludlovi- @ 20 | ^ hundred 13-0-0 

This Vandue Ajurnd till the 5th of November 1784 

one Bay mare Halmah Van Winkle ;£i-i4-o 

I hand Saw John Sip Junr 0-7-0 

I Dito John Sip Junr 0-8-6 

I Dito Henmer Ludl6w 0-6-1 

I Square Henmer Ludlow ^ 0-2-8 

I Carpenters Adgs Henmer Ludlow 0-6-7 

1 Dravv' knife John Sip Junr 0-^-6 

I hollow Draw knife Michel Vreeland 0-2-0 

I post Ax John A post 0-5-9 

I how Henmer Ludlow 0-0-6 

I Broad Ax Henmer Ludlow 0-6-0 

1 frovv Cornelious Degraw , , 0-4-6 

I Neck Yoak Elias Smith 0-5-T 

I Wevers Loom Abraham R. Van Gesen 5-19-0 

3 Clevises Garret Spear 0-3-11 

I Sive Rand Garret Spear 0-0-3 

I half Bushel Jery Garrabrants o-i-i 

I Crackel John A post o-i-o 

I Crackel Garrabrant I Garrabrants 0-1-9 

1 pitch fork Henry Garritse Junr 0-2-0 

I Large Clevis John Sip Junr 0-2-3 

I Cant Hook John El Vreeland o-i-o 

I dung fork John El Vreeland 0-4-1 

1 Leadi ng lines Garrabrant J Garrabrants 1-3-0 

I Brown Mare Jery Garrabrants 6-0-0 

I Reed and Gears Morinus Van Rypen 0-9-6 

1 Read and Gears Robert Blare x 0-2-8 

2 Baskets Stephen fordum Answerd by M Vreeland Junr 0-2-0 

1 plow Share Michael Vreeland Junr 0-2-0 

2 hammers Michel Vreeland Junr 0-2-3 

I plow Share Michel Vreeland Junr 0-0-6 

I Soap Cask Michel Vreeland 'Junr o-i-i 

I Sithes John Sip Junr 0-1-3 

I Sive Garret Spear 0-0-9 

I Vi''ooding tray Michel Vreeland Junr 0-0-6 

I Test Sander kockafare o-i-o 

I Candle Stick Michel Vreeland Junr 0-0-4 

3 picktures Garrit Spear 0-0-6 

I Witewood Chist Garrabrant I Garrabrants 0-4-3 

1 pair of Smooding Irons Michel Vreeland junr 0-4-3 

Agurnd to the 22nd of November 1784 

I Dung fork Michel Vreeland Junr 0-2-5 

I fan Michel Vreeland Junr 0-4-0 

Sundries Michel Vreeland Junr o-i-io 

I Plesure Slay John Spear 0-5-1 

1 Wheelbarrov/ Garrit Spear 0-2-1 

I fox trap Cornelious E Vreeland i-o-o 

1 Bell Cornelious E Vreeland 0-2-0 

2 Little Looms Jacob El Vreeland x o-i-o 

I Cradle 2 Axes Crisiian Interest 0-1-6 

14 Spools Cristian Interest 0-4-r 

I Duch Bible Enoch C Vreeland x r-o-o 

I puter pint mug Henry Garritse Junr 0-2-3 

I puter Bole Michel Vreeland Junr o-o-io 

7 puter plates Michel Vreeland Junr 0-7-3 

1 pair of Wool Cards Michel Vreeland Esqr 0-0-8 

I puter Bason &c Cristian Interest x 0-2-0 

I puter Bason Nicolus A Garrabrants 0-3-9 

I puter Bason Michel Vreeland Junr 0-6-1 

I puter platter Nicolus A Garrabrants < 0-4-0 

I Dito Cristian Interest ' 0-8-0 

I Dito Michel Vreeland Junr 0-16-6 

1 puter Tea pot Michel Vreeland Junr 0-4-0 

2 Erthen Boles Michel Vreeland Junr o-i-i 

1 Erthen Bason Morinus Vreeland 0-0-7 

2 Erthen Dishes Michel Vreeland Junr 0-0-7 

1 Erthen Bason Nicholes A Garrabrants o-i-o 

2 Erthen Dishes Mornus Vreeland , 0-1-3 

2 Wooding Boles Michael Vreeland Junr o-o-io 

8 Spoons Michel Vreeland Junr 0-1-6 

I Bottle Case Michel Vreeland Junr o-i-o 

I Iron pot Michel Vreeland Esq 0-12-0 

I Iron pot Peter Simmons 0-2-0 

I Iron pot r/Iichael Vreeland Junr o-io-o 

I Brass kettle Sander kockafare i-io-o 

I Tea kittle Michel Vreeland Junr 0-3-2 

I Copper kittle Michel Vreeland Junr 3-S-0 

I Slate Henry Garritse Junr 0-2-4 

I Looking Glass Jane kockafare 0-4-7 

I Iron Widge Michel Vreeland Junr 0-1-2 

Some of the accounts against Michael are amusing read- 
ing : 



Mr. Michail E Vreeland Bought at Vendue held at Capas Zaboiske 
October ye 8th 1754 

£ s d 

To two Locks 00-02-00 

To one Chezil 00-01-03 

To 3 Gimletts 00-00-10 

To AUom 00-00-07 

To I Knife oo-co-io 

To Cask Nails 00-04-00 

[Endorsed ;] 

Jenuary 31 1755 
then Receved of mycal e Vreeland the juste and foo! Sum of nine Sh 
and Six pence in fool for the Vandue of Casparres Zeabous!<y I Say Re- 
ceved by me 



Febriwari 12 Dayh 1759 
Geresift Van Mechiel E Vreland De som Van Siieven en Dartig pont 
twee Schellengen en Ses pens in Vol Van alle Rekeningen 

Bey Myn Chrisstoffel Van Norstrandt 

onfangen Van michil Enaaec Vriland de Somm Van 16 Scelinge de 
Vanalle Requeninge tot desse dage de 13 Juny 1759 

DocTER Joannes DeVaaeeue 

Jeneary Ye 23th, 1762 
Recn of Micheal A Vreelandt In bhalfe of John Reerson the Som of 
Aten Shillins An Ninepence Reed bi Me 

Micheal M Vreelandt 

November de 20: 17S7 
ontfangen Van raagiel enogse Vreelant de Som Van dne pont lien 
Schellengen en voUen ont fangen bij mij 

David van boskerck 

1770 Mikel freland this Is to let yo no i'>3t my acont Is 6- 0-0 

and your Crad Is 4-14-9 

Sr be plesed to help me to the balans Dont fal to prvent trobel for 
I am in grat wont no moor at present from your frend to serve 

Nathaniel Kingsland 

To I mug Syd 0-0-4 

To I Gill Rum 0-0-4 

To 2 Deners 0-3-0 

To 2 Horses on Hay o-i-o 

I promos to Pay unto Horremoas Van Bussen the Jest & full Sume 
of fortten Pound on Demand with LawfuU Entrest from the Datee as 
witness my hand & Sele this 14 of June 1773 

Michiel E Vreeland 
in the Presents of 
Rob Drummond 

Reed the Sum of ;^22-i6-3 in full of the above Note 

Desember 20th 1780 
Receaved of Micel E freeland the Sum of twelve Shiling hard muney 
for worke that, my Wife did 


Michel freland Debto Febwary 26 17S3 For liquor 0-3-0 

to John Garrabrants 
Personly appeared Before me Isaac Dod one of the Justices of Peace of 
the County of Essex John Garrabrant and made oath that the within ac- 
count is Just and true 

Sworn Before me the 6 Day of may 1785 

Isaac Dod 

august 12 1779 work don for mikel enugf Vreeland 

to makeing 5 pair of Shoes 00-15-00 

to makeing 2 pair of Shoes oo-ii-oo 

to the mending 8 pair of Shoes 00- 8-00 

Reed of Henry Garritse Junr the above Account in full by me 

Eldrick Van Riper. 

Personly appeared Before me Isaac Dod one of the Justices of Peace 
of the County of Essex mercy Perry and Being Duly sworn saith that the 
following articals were Given By michel E freeland in His Life time to 
the following Persons Viz Casha and Jane freeland His Daughters to 
Casha were Given 

one Bed Spred one Looking Glass one Copper Cittle two puter Platers 
one puter Bason one Iron Pot one set of Curtains 

to Jane one Gum Curbord one Bed Spred one Iron Pot one small 
Brass Cittle two Puter Platers one Puter Bason'one Bed and Beding 
one Looking Glass 
Sworn Before me the Second Day of nouvember 1784 

Isaac Dod 

This gift by Michael to his daugliters subsequently elic- 
ited the following terse legal opinion by a distinguished law- 
yer, afterwards of New York : 

Michael Vreeland in his Life time before Mercy Purey said he intended 
to give his Daughters some particular Things, which he mentioned but 
never did actually give them, altho' he lived some time after — ^The Ques- 
tion is, whether the Daughters shall have those things or they shall go to 
the administrator for the Payment of the Debts of the Intestate — 

They clearly go the Administrator — for 

ist A Gift of this Kind cannot pass by Intendment 

2d Allowing He did really give them, yet if there is not sufficient 
Estate, they must go in payment of Debt for it is a Rule of Law — A 
Man must be just, before he is Generous — 

So there can be no Doubt, but Michael N. Vreeland, as Administrator, 
can dispose of those Goods — 

J. O. ?Ioffman 

New Ark Novr gth 1784 

II. Johannes, m. ist, Antje Van Blerkum, b. and liv- 
ing at New Barbadoes, Dec. 21, 1755 ; 2d, Charity . 

His will, dated May 8, 1810, was proved Feb. 14, 1811 ; 
witnessed by Halmagh Van Winkle, Aaron A. Van Houten 
and H. Blair. He devised all his lands to his son Enoch 
in fee. 1 

III. Cornelius, m. Maragrietje Van Winkle (dau. of 
Marinas Van Winkle), marriage bond dated Nov. 28, 1747. 
Ch., Marinis, b. July 21, 1755 ; m. Geesje Van Winkle, Aug. 

14, I77S- 

Elias Johannes-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. John, b. Atig. 30, 1730 ; m. Jennike Post, Jan. 20, 
1754 ; d. Sept. 26, 1808 ; she d. Oct. 14, 1819, aged 86 
years, 11 months, 21 days. Issue : Elias, b. April 13, 1755 ; 
m. Elizabeth Post, and had ch. Polly, b. July 10, 17S4. 
II. Neeltye, m. Gerrit (?) Van Rype. 

III. Claesje, m. Derrick Van Rype,' Nov. 30, 1755. 

IV. Jannetje, m. Robert Drummond, Apiil i, 1759. 
Some account of Drummond will be found in the Chapter 
on the Revolution. 

Michael Cornelis-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Metje, b. Dec. 28, 1720; m. Abraham Van Tuyl, 
Dec. 8, 1738. 

II. Jannetje, b. Nov. — , 1722; m. Joris Cadmus; d. 
Nov. 12, 1766. 

1 Essex County Wills, A, 271. 



III. Cornelius, b. Jan. , J726 ; m. Catrintje Cad- 
mus ; removed to English Neighborhood. Issue : I. Jo- 
hannes, bap. Aug. 3, 1766. 

IV. Helmagh, b. Feb. 20, 1728; m. ist, Neeltje Van 
Horn ; marriage bond dated April i, 1752 ; 2d, Jannetje 
Sip ; removed to Staten Island ; his ch. returned and set- 
tled at Centreville, near Bergen Point. 

V. Aagtje, b. Feb. 14, 1732. 
VI. Abraham, b. Aug 16, 1734. 
VII. Dirck, b. March 11, 1737; m. and removed to 
English Neighborhood. During the Revolutionary War he 
vifas accused of disaffection, and Major Hayes was ordered 
to arrest him, July 11, 1777 ; he v?as confined in the Jail at 
Morristown ; John Mead became his bail, and he vi^as re- 
leased Aug. 20, 1778.1 Issue : I. Michael, b. March 12, 
1760; 2. Elisabet, b. June 18, 1769. 
VIII. Jacob, b. March 11, 1737 ; removed to Fort Lee. 
IX. Michael, b. June 24, 1739; m. Annatje Vreeland ; 
d. Dec. 5, 1804. 

X. Johannis, b. March 2, 1742 ; m. Neeltje Hoog- 
landt, April 29, 1767 ; d. July 30, 1823 ; she b. Nov. 13, 
1747 ; d. Sept. 24, 1819. She was a dau. of Christopher 
Hooglandt (son of Harmanus, son of Christoffel, the 
original patentee of the Point, or Dundee tract). Her 
mother was Neeltje, dau. of Albert Coerte Van Voorhis, of 
Flatlands, L. I. 

Fifth Generation. 

Michiel Michiel-Elias-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Michael, probably lived on the east side of the 
Passaic river, near the site of the present Dundee dam. 

II. Geertye, m. January 19, 1755, Adrian A. Post, mil- 
ler, at the site of the present Dundee dam. The name 
Geertye or Gitty has been perpetuated in each succeeding 
generation to the present day. She d. March 15, 1820, 
aged 87 years, i month, I day. Some account of her descend- 
ants will be found in the Post Genealogy. 

Johannis Jacob-Elias-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Jacob, b. Feb. 23, 1775 ; m. Phebe V/alls, Feb. 
14, 1796 ; d. Nov. 5, 1859. She was b. March i, 1779 ; d. 
April 8, 1848, and was buried at Parsippany. She was 
the dau. of James Walls (d. Oct. 28, 1799, in his 70th year), 
a blacksmith, of Rockaway, Morris county, and Ann Walls 
(d. Oct. 24, 1805, in her 65th year). Jacob John Vreeland 
was a farmer. He owned extensive tracts of land in Ac- 
quackanonk, at Stone House Plains in Bloomfleld town- 
ship (where his father had 100 acres), and elsewhere. At 
the time of his death he lived at Lodi, Bergen county. His 
will, a voluminous instrument, dated Nov. 13, 1854, was 
proved Nov. 17, 1859.2 

II. Gouda, b. Nov. 21, 1777 ; m. John Deeths. Issue : 
I. John George, b. Jan. 16, 1797 ; 2. Martinus Easterly, b. 
Nov. 25, 1798. 

III. Catharina, b. April 11, 1782. 
IV. Maria, b. March 29, 1785. 

1 Minutes Council of Safety, 84, 273. 

2 Recorded in Bergen County Wills, H, 92. 

Elias Jacob-Elias-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Jacob, b. 1733 ; m. Antje Post, Dec. 2, 1758 ; d^ 
Dec. 7, 1803, aged 69 years, 11 months, 13 days. 
Enoch Joris-Enoch-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Jacob, bap. Dec. 25, 1765 ; m. Marritje Vreeland, 
Sept. 2, 1787. He was called " Enochse Jawkob " — 
Enoch's Jacob. He lived on the Wesel road, and had a 
grist mill on the Wesel brook. Issue : I. Enoch, b. April 

5, 1788 ; 2. Cornelia, b. March 4, 1791 ; 3. Antje, b. June 
16, 1792 ; 4. John, b. Oct. 30, 1794 ; m. Ann ^ — ; 5. An- 
naatje, b. Feb. 27, 1797 ; 6. Henricus, b. March 6, 1799 ;■ 
7. Jannetje, b. Aug. 25, 1801 ; 8. Joris, b. Nov. 4, 1803 ; 9. 
Marritje, b. Dec. 25, 1805 ; 10. Gerritje, b. Jan. 4, 1808. 
Enoch owned at Dundee, north of Passaic street. His 
brother John afterwards bought out Enoch and lived on the 
place. Enoch carried on his father's mill on the Wesel. 
brook for a time, but subsequently sold it to his brother 
John. The latter is described in deeds as John J. E. Vree- 
land, and sometimes as John Jacob En. Vreeland. 

II. Annaatje, bap. Dec. 18, 1768. 

III. Hendrick, bap. April 4, 1774 ; m. Lea Terhune, 
Dec. 23, 1798. Issue : i. Rensje, b. Sept. 9, 1799 ; 2. 
Antjcj b. Dec. 13, 1801 ; 3. Elizabeth, b. March 31, 1804 ; , 
4. Johannes, b. Dec. 3, l8o5 ; 5. Nickasie, b. Dec. I, 1808 >. 

6. Dirick, b. Sept. 13, 1811 ; 7. Paulus, b. Feb. 5, 1814 ; 8. 
Rachel, b. July 23, 1816. 

The church records give the following children of Enoch 
Jo. Vreeland (probably the same) and Jannetje or Jennicke 
Merselis : 

IV. Joris, b. Sept. 27, 1780. 

V. Edo, b. March 16, 1783 ; m. ist, Antje Vreeland,, 
Jan. 29, 1807 ; she d. April 27, 1816, aged 28 years, 7 
months,- 6 days. He m. twice afterwards. He kept tavern 
for many years at the foot of the hill at Boiling Spring 
(Rutherford). Issue : i. Enogh, b. Oct. 5, 1807 ; m. 
Matilda Bogert, of Hackensack ; 2. Maragrietje, b. Aug. 4, 
1809 ; m. David Cadmus, of Slooterdam ; 3. Elias, b. July 

2, 1811 ; m. Ann Terhune, at the GofHe, Nov. 3, 1831 ; they 
lived at Saddle River, removed to Sicomac, and in 1842 to tlie^ 
Goffle, where their children live ; 4. Joris, b. Sept. 10, 1813 ; 
m. Ann Yereance, of Boiling Spring ; 5. Jane, m. Walling 
Van Winkle, of Passaic ; 5. Catharina, m. Cornelius Van- 
Houten, of Slooterdam ; 7. Getty, d. in inf. ; 8." Christine, 
unm. ; 9. Edo ; 10. Cornelia Elizabeth, d. in inf. 

Garret Joris-Enoch-Michiel-Jansen had children: 
I. Joris, d. Nov. 7, 1786, in inf. 
II. Jacob, b. June 25, 1781 ; m. Catlyntje Brinkerhoff, 
Jan. 21, 1801 ; d. in 1866. Previous to his death he re- 
moved to Rocky Hill, N. J. 

III. Annatje, b. Feb. 15, 1784; d. Nov. 14, 1786. 

IV. George, b. July 12, 1787 ; m. ist, Catharine New- 
kirk, June 17, 1809 ; 2d, Maria, dau. of Moses Schoon- 
maker and wid. of Abraham Collerd, Dec. — , 1857 ; 3d,. 
Josephine Griffith, Dec. 8, 1872. 

V. Jannetje, b. March 14, 1790 ; m. George DeMott, 
Oct. I, 1808 ; d. July 14, 1826. Issue : l. Garret ; 2. Jane ; 

3. Maria ; 4. George Vreeland j the last named carried on 
the bottling business in Cincinnati, Ohio, 1845-46, and irt 



Jersey City, 1847-70. He was a member of the Assembly 
from Hudson county, 1857-58. In 1863 he bought a large 
tract of land at Clifton, whither he removed in 1869, and 
for many years has been President of the Clifton Land and 
Building Association, and mainly instrumental in the de- 
velopment of that beautiful suburb of Paterson and Pas- 
saic ; member of the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Pas- 
saic county, 1878-92, chairman of its finance committee 
many years, and one of the most valuable members the peo- 
ple of the county have ever had in that Board. 

VI. Dirk (Richard), b. Dec. 24, 1792 ; m. Margaret, 
dau. of Michael Demott, Dec. 9, 1815. 

Claas Michiel-Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had children : 
I. Michael, b. July 31, 1758; m. Geertje, dau. of 
Daniel Sickles, Sept. 16, 1781 ; d. March 10, 1825 ; she d. 
July 2, 1815. By his Uncle Garret's will, dated June 16, 
1766, proved March 23, 1784, he received land at Acquack- 

II. Antje, b. Feb. 28, 1762 ;m. Jurrie Van Ripen, of 
Slooterdam ; marriage bond dated June 20, 1787. 

III. Elisabeth, b. May 30, 1764 ; m. Cornelius Van 
Ripen, marriage bond dated Jan. 20, 1787; d. April 8, 1788. 

IV. Sarah, b. Oct. 7, 1766 ; d. in inf. 

V. Sally, b. Sept. 14, 1769 ; m. Jacobus Van Buskirk, 
Dec. 16, 1787 ; d. Aug. 12, 1832. 

VI. Beelitje, b. April 17, 1774; m. John Westervelt, of 

VII. Stephen, b. May 31, 1778 ; m. ist, Jenneke Vree- 
land, Dec. 16, 1797 ; 2d, Elizabeth Van Ripen, Oct. 14, 
1817 ; 3d, Altje Van Winkle, wid. of John Mandeville, 
Nov. 29, 1828 ; 4th, Ellen Schoonmaker, of Flatbush, L. I. ; 
she d. Feb. 14, 1849 ; 5th, Rachel Van Winkle, wid. of 
Thomas Van Ripen ; she d. Jan. 29, 185 1 ; 6th, Hannah W. 
Gross, widow ; d. Aug. 31, 1865. 
VIII. Maritje. 

Dirk (probably the son of Claas-Hartman-Michiel-Jansen) 
va. Fytje Van Wagenen, and had issue : 

I. Dirck (Richard), b. April 16, 1765. 
II. Hermanns, b. Oct. 27, 1766; m. Annaatje Sip, Nov. 
23, 1797 ; she d. May 12, 1842, aged 64 yrs., 4 mos., 8 days. 

III. Johannes, b. Jan. 12, 1774; probably d. young. 

IV. Roelof, b. Nov. 23, 1784; m. Marytje Ryker. Issue: 
Dirick, b. July 25, 1812. By his will, dated Nov. 10, 1818, 
proved Dec. 9, 1819, Roelof devised all his estate, both real 
and personal, to his wife, Mary, in fee.l 

Dirk, father of the four children just mentioned, died in- 
testate, whereupon application was made to the Essex County 
Orpans' Court, dated Dec. 3, 1803, ^"'^ signed by Hermanns 
Vreeland, Richard Freeland and Rulef Vreeland,2 stating 
that their father's estate had descended to them (from 
which it appears that Johannes had died young), and asking 
for a partition of the same. John Sip, James Van Riper 
and Garret Van Houten were appointed commissioners, 
and with the assistance of Abraham Willis, surveyor, made 

1 Essex County Wills, C, i. 

2 It was not unusual for brothers to spell this name differently ; in 
deeds the name of the same person is sometimes written Vreeland, and 
sometimes Freeland. 

a report and map partitioning the lands among the three 
sons. The distillery and cider house, which stood on the 
river bank, near the premises now owned by Levi H. Alden, 
was reserved, however, to the use of the three sons, a fact 
which by no means inured to their future benefit. Her- 
manns received among other property, a tract of 93. 16 acres 
"at a place called the Plains, whereon the house stands ;" 
also a wood-lot "on the east side of the new road leading 
to Blatchley's Bath," 8.12 acres, where he lived, in a stone 
house still standing, near the corner of Bloomfield avenue 
and Van Houten's lane, Acquackanonk, and where he also 
had a distillery of his own. He left no children. In his 
later years, after the death of his wife, he had his 
wife's sister, Mrs. Trientje Van Houten, keep house 
for him. Richard received, among other property, a tract 
of 36|- acres at the upper end of the homestead, and 
Roelof received an equal portion of the homestead farm. 
The report of the commissioners is dated April 7, 1804. 
Roelof mortgaged his property in 1816, and it was sold by 
the sheriff, under foreclosure, by deed dated May 13, 1819, 
to Ezekiel Wade. 

Hartman Dirck-Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had children : 
I. Peter, b. June 9, 1732 ; m. Lea Doremus, April 
17, 1763. He lived at Wesel, and died prior to 1801, intes- 

II. Jacob, prob. m. Geertye Van Winkle, and had 
issue : I. Hartman, b. Nov. 2, 1774, d. in inf.; 2. Hartman, 
b. March 15, 1777; 3. Geertye, b. Nov. 29, 1779 ; 4. Jacob, 
b. Feb. 22, 1783. 

III. John, prob. m. Annaatje Vreeland, and had issue : 
I. Aaltje, b. June 21, 1769 ; 2. Lea, b. May 5, 1771. 

IV. A dau. whom. Speer, and had ch., Teunis ; 

she was d. when her father made his will, April 3, 1773. 
V. Catrina, b. Jan. 18, 1753. 
Dirck Dirck-Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had children: 
L Fytje, b. Aug. 16, 1751. 
II. Metje, b. Oct. 31, 1754. 
III. Leya, b. Sept. 17, 1758. 
IV. Gerrit, b. June 3, 1761. 
V. Catrina, b. April 23, 1763. 
Johannes Dirck-Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had children : 
I. Margrite, b. May 3, 1750. 
II. Anna, b. March 29, 1753 ; d. in inf. 

III. Anna, b. April 17, 1755. 

IV. Rachel, b. Jan. 12, 1758. 
V. Zophia, bap. May 4, 1760. 

In a deed. May 20, 1771, in which he describes himself 
as a carpenter, John conveys to Abraham T. Van Riper 
Lot No. 4, in the Hundred Acre tract, seven and a half 
chains in breadth, bounded south by land of Dirck Vree- 
land, and north by land of Roelif Jacobusse, then in posses- 
sion of Gerrit Thomasse.l 

Hartman Michael-Hartman-Michiel- Jansen had children : 

I. Michael, m. ist, Gerretje Van Houten ; 2d, 

Leentje (Lena) Romein, spinster, living at Hackensack, 

June 19, 1790 ; she d. April 24, 1829, aged 68 years, 7 

months, 18 days ; her tombstone, in the family burying 

1 Essex Transcribed Deeds, A, 378. 



ground on the Wesel road, a short distance south of Market 
street,! bears the sentiment : 





Michael Hartman Vreeland lived in a stone house be- 
tween the Boulevard and the Passaic river, a short distance 
south of Twentieth avenue. Until 1893 the cellar excava- 
tion was still plainly visible to passengers on the New York, 
Susquehanna and Western railroad. In that house his 
children were born, and there he died, in May, 1S04. He 
had a tannery on the brook running, through his lands. In 
his will (dated January 14, 1804, witnessed by Peter Merse- 
lius, Henry Post and John C. Vreeland ; proved May 22, 
1804), he describes himself as of Wesel.3 Pie authorizes 
his executors (his v/ife Lena, his son Hartman and his 
friend Abraham Willis) to sell the following lands in 
order to pay debts: "One Lot lying at Wesel, being 
cleared, bounded on the east by land of the heirs of Michael 
Vreeland, deceased, on the south by land of Cornelius 
Vreeland, Esq., 3 on the west by land of Encrease Gould, 

Esq., and on the north by lands of Henry I. Speer and 

Hopper, containing eighteen acres more or less ; also one 
lot of land adjoining the house lot of said Henry I. Speer, 
bounded easterly and northerly by lands of the said Henry 
I Speer, and southerly by lands of Cornelius Vreeland, Esq., 
and westerly by lands of Encrease Gould, Esq., containing 
seven acres more or less." 

He disposed of the rest of his property as follows : 

To my daughter Jane [in fee], all the household furniture and wearing 
apparel of her mother Gerritje, deceased, with two silver table spoons 
and silver sugar tongs and five silver tea spoons, which are the goods of 
her said mother brought with her, and I give to my three children, 
Mary, Hartman and Michael, each iwo silver table spoons. 

To my loving v,fife, Lena Vreeland, during her lifetime or widow- 
hood , the use of all my estate both real and personal for the maintenance 
of herself and of my children. ... 

To my son Hartman Vreeland, [in fee], the west end of my lot of land 
lying in the Bouth whereon the said Hartman is now building, to extend 
the full width of the lot from the Boughth road and eastwardly nine- 
teen chains. 4 

I give and bequeath to my son Michael Vreeland, his heirs and as- 
signs forever, the remainder of the ab. said lot extending eastwardly the 
full width of my lot and the lot of my brother Cornelius Vreeland — also 
all that lot lying on the north side of the public roadS adjoining the west 

1 This burying ground is in the rear of the venerable stone residence 
occupied (in 1893) by ex-Judge John N. Terhune. On October 17, 1872, 
the author copied the inscriptions on tv/enty-two headstones standing 
there ; as many more graves had no other mark than a rude field-stone. 

2 Recorded in Essex County Wills, A, 15. 

3 His brother, 'Squire Vreeland. 

4 On the northeast corner of Broadway and East Eighteenth street, 
afterwards occupied by Hartman's son-in-law, Albert Van Houten. 
The house which Hartman was building in 1804, stood directly across 
Broadway east of East Eighteenth street. It was removed to a site 
about two hundred feet south when Broadway was widened and 
straightened, about 1868-70, and was subsequently fitted up by Mr. 
John J. Brown for a private school, which was carried on for many 
years by Mrs. George C. Tallman. The tract mentioned in the will was 
part of Lot No. 8, East, shown on the map on page 71. The " Boughth 
road " was substantially the present East Eighteenth street. 

s Willis street (now Park avenue). 

end of Isaac Kip's lot that I have heretofore purchased of Samuel 
Seeley, containing 8.g5 acres. Also one other lot that I purchased of 
Jacob H. Vreeland adjoining the west end of the last mentioned to the 
east end of John I. Post's land, and on the south the aforesaid road, 
containing 8.96 acres.l Item. I give and bequeath to my two above 
mentioned sons, Hartman and Michael Vreeland, their heirs and assigns 
forever, to be equally divided between them, share and share alike, all 
that my meadow lot and wood lot lying partly on the north side of the 
Long Meadow, bounded east by land of Peter Merselius, south by land 
of John Merselius, west by land of the Society, north by land of said 
Society and John I. Post, containing about forty-three acres more or 

Item. I give and bequeath to my three younger sons, namely, John, 
Nicholas and Cornelius, children by my last wife, to them, their heirs 
and assigns forever, all that my house that I now dwell in and the lot 
thereunto belonging, with also all and singular the residue of my lands 
not hereinbefore mentioned, lying in several lots as the same was 
divided between my brother Cornelius Vreeland and myself, at a place 
called the Three Corner Lot,3 to be equally divided between them my- 
three sons, share and share alike, but if either or any of them should 
die before they become of age and without heirs, then my will is 
that his or their share or shares shall fall to the survivor or survivors 
of them the said John, Nicholas and Cornelius. 

Item. My will further is that my son Hartman pay to my daughter 
Mary, wife of Jacob Van Riper, the sum of one hundred dollars, and 
that at seven years after the death or remarriage of my said wife Lenah. 
And that my son Michael pay to my daughter Jane the sum of one 
hundred dollars, and that at seven years after the death or re-marriage 
of my said wife Lenah, which said sums I order to be paid as above to 
my said two daughters their heirs and assigns. 

Item. My will further is that my three younger sons, namely, 
John, Nicholas and Cornelius, or the survivor or survivors of 
them, pay to my daughter Elizabeth, the sum of one hundred dollars, 
and that within three years after the youngest of them shall become of 
age. . . . 

Item. I give and bequeath (after the death or remarriage of my v/ife) 
to my sou Michael, his heirs and assigns forever, my negro man Sam. 

Item. I give and bequeath to my daughter Jane, at her marriage my 
little negro wench named Jealles, aged about tv/o months. . . . To my 
three youngest sons, John, Nicholas and Cornelius, my little Negro boy, 
Harry, aged seven years. . . . To my son Nicholas, my bay colt. . . . 
II. Cornelius ; he was born in the stone house formerly 
standing on the east side of the Bottlevard, between 
Twentieth and Twenty-first avenues ; he subsequently built 
and occupied _ the stone house near the corner of Twenty- 
first avenue and East Forty-seond street, now owned by 
Peter A. Van Houten. He was a man of superior educa- 
tion, and held the office of justice of the peace for many 
years, being usually described in deeds as Cornelius Vree- 
land, Esq. He m. Elizabeth Vreeland. He was stricken 
with paralysis abottt seven years before his death, and was 
bed-ridden thereafter. He carried on his father's tannery, 
and also had a saw-mill on the brook near the corner of the 
jjresent Boulevard and Twentieth avenue. His will is dated 
July 29, 1824; codicil. May 31, 1826 ; proved Oct. 15, 1827; 
witnessed by Bryant Sheys (who taught in the old Wesel 
school-house about this time), Robert Blair, jtm., and Wil- 
liam W. Smith. Following is an abstract of the will : 

To wife Elizabeth all my real and personal estate to be used by her 
during her natural life, and the use of a certain legacy bequeathed to 
her by the last will and testament of her aunt, Vrouwtje Banta, except- 

1 These two lots would appear to be Lots 8 and 9, in the subdivision 
of Lot 7, East, as shown on pages 70 and 71. 

2 Apparently part of Lot No. 2, West, shown by the map on page 71 ; 
in the neighborhood of Clay street, east of Madison avenue. 

3 The Dree Hoek Lot, being Lot No. i. West, on the map on page 71- 



ing the farming utensils. . . . hereinafter devised to my son Jacob. All 
the rest of the personal property (except so much as is devised to my 
son Jacob) to be divided between my children then living share and 
share alike. 

Whereas my daughter Mary, who was the wife of Cornelius Dore- 
mus, died leaving children, it is my will that such children shall take the 
part which would have gone to her. 

To my son John for life, that part of the homestead beginning at the 
.easterly side of the old road leading to Paterson, at the corner of David 
Blair's lot, thence following the direction of the road southerly until it 
intersects the line of the general direction of the first fence, thence 
along said line to the first angle in the fence. . . . Also lot of land on 
the westerly side of said road beginning directly opposite to the general 
direction of the fence ... in a parallel line with the division fence be- 
tween my land and the land of John MerseUs to the line of Peter Mei selis 
. . . and at the decease of John to be equally divided between the 
children of said John then Uving, in fee. Also to my son John, in fee, 
two acres of the mountain lot, to be taken off the north side of the end 
of the lot from the river the half breadth of the lot on the river, and 
running back along the line of Edo Merselis sufficiently far to make up 
said two acres. 

To the children of my son John, which are now or may be here- 
after born, in fee, that part of the homestead whereon I now live, 
. beginning thirty-five feet north from the middle of the stone bridge and 
running from thence easterly in a line parallel with the division between 
my land and the land of David Blair.l Also a lot on the westerly side of 
said road leading to Paterson. Also the lot of land near Hartman 
Post's, designated and known as Lot No. 5 on map by Abraham Willis, 
February 21, 1801, in the division between my brother Michael and 

To my son Hartman Vreeland in fee, the quarry known as lot No. 7. 
on said map ; also ten acres of mountain land. 

To my son Cornelius, the lots of land I bought of Abraham Van Blar- 
com of Paterson, e.xcept the house lot in which the said Cornelius lately 
lived, and except twelve feet easterly from the well of water on said lot. 2 
Also to him the one equal half of the land in the Boght, together with 
the house and lot of land whereon he now lives, which I bought of 
Nicholas Van Blarcom.3 Also to Cornelius my right in the pew in the 
Reformed Dutch Church in Totowa. 

To the children of my son Michael, in fee, one half of the land in the 

To the children of my daughter Mary, who was the wife of Cornelius 
H. Doremus, the lot of woodland lying between Encrease Gould and 
Peter Simmons, containing seven acres, at the end of the drift-way.'* 

To my son Jacob the remainder of the homestead where I now dwell. 
Also half of the mountain land. 

It is my will that if my executors should come into possession of any 
property not disposed of, it shall be divided between Jacob and Hart- 
man, whether in Essex or Bergen. 

To my son Jacob the house and lot of land in Paterson in which my 
son Cornelius formerly lived, the front of the lot extending from the 
west end of the house easterly twelve feet, past the well of water on 
the lot, which said lot I bought of Abraham Van Blarcom.2 

To my grandson Cornelius I. Vreeland, in fee, all that certain lot of 
land where he the said Cornelius is now [May 31, 1826] building a new 
house on the said lot of ground on the main road. 5 

'Squire Vreeland and his wife died the same day. 
III. Jennie. 
IV. Elizabeth. 

1 This tract, about 60 acres, was afterwards partitioned among the 
four children of John Vreeland, into farms of about equal sizes, e.xtend- 
ing from Vreeland avenue to the river, between Eighteenth and Twen- 
tieth avenues. 

2 On the north side of Park avenue, near the Baptist church. 

3 On the south side of Park avenue, a short distance west of Vreeland 

■* Now Crooks avenue and Hazel street. 
' On Vreeland avenue. 

V. Beeltje, m. David Blair, an Irishman, who came to 
this country about 1769, with his brother Robert. His 
marriage bond was dated March 17, 1783. The marriage of 
his daughter to an Irishman was so distasteful to Beeltje's 
father that he would scarcely speak to her afterwards. 
Blair kept tavern in a stone house on the west side of Vree- 
land avenue, about two hundred yards north of the brook, 
or near Eighteenth"avenue. He built a frame addition, in 
which he carried on weaving, in a small way. Issue : 

1. Marretje, b. Feb. 7, 1785 ; m. Uriah Van Riper, a 
tavern keeper at Passaic. 

2. Henry, b. Nov. i, 1787 ; m. Ryerson of Wana- 

que, and had ch., David. Henry had charge of Peter Jack- 
son's store at Pompton for some years. His wife dying, he 
became very despondent, and was found dead in the store 
one morning about 1820, with his throat cut. 

3. Hartman, b. Jan. 26, 1790 ; probably d. young. 

4. Peggy (Margaret), b. June 4, 1792; m. Henry G. 
Garrison, Feb. 9, 1812 ; she d. March 17, 1858 ; he d. May 
4, 1851, aged 68 years, 3 mos. 18 days. Issue : I. Garret, 
b. Sept. II, 1812 ; 2. David, b. Sept. 4, 1815 ; 3. John, b. 
Aug. 31, 1819 ; 4. Henry, b. Sept. 29, 1821 ; 5. Margaret, 
b. Dec. 3, 1823 ; 6. Robert Blair, b. July 18, 1826. 

Henry G. Garrison and Peggy Blair, his wife, are buried 
at Sandy Hill. His tombstone has this remarkable verse : 

Go home my wife and children dear 

For I am not dead but sleeping here 

Afflictions here long time I bore 

Physicians were all in vain 

I will remain here till Christ appear 

To meet in heaven again. 
On Peggy's tombstone is the familiar quatrain : 

Weep not for me my children dear 

I am not dead but sleeping here 

My debt is paid my grave you see 

Prepare yourself to follow me. 

5. Robert, b. March 3, 1802; taught school for some 
years at Passaic ; d. unm. 

6. Jane, m. Peter Curtis Mead, of Pompton. 
Michael Enoch-Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had children : 

I. Geesje, born May 13, 1756; m. ist, Marynus Vree- 
land, Aug. 14, 1775 ; 2d, George Van Eydestyn, widower, 
May 28, 1787. Issue: Lena, b. Oct. — , 1789. 
II. Michael, b. Aug. i, 1762. 
III. Johannes, b. Feb. 16, 1766. 

IV. David, b. Sept. 20, 1768; prob. the David Vree- 
land who m. Sally Brower and had issue : I. Mariah, b. 
Feb. 19, 1814 ; 2. Jacob, b. Nov. 10, 1815 ; 3. Rachel, b. 
July 27, 1818 ; 4. Catharine, b. March 4, 1820. 
V. Jannetje, b. Nov. 2, 1771. 
Johannes Enoch-Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had children : 
I. Jannitje, b. July 18, 1756; d. in inf. 
II. Janitje, b. Nov. 7, 1757 ; m. Bush. 

III. Marritje, b. Aug. 26, 1761 ; d. in inf. 

IV. Lena, b. Feb. 27, 1764 ; m. Johannis Pier, Jan. 26, 


V. Johannes, b. Dec. 29, 1765. 
VI. Marretje, b. April 23, 1768. 
VII. Enoch, b. Nov. 25, 1769. 
VIII. Henricus, b. Feb. 24, 1774. 



IX. Anne, m. Cornelius Pier as her second husband, 
Aug. 14, 1785. 

Sixth Geiieration. 

Jacob Johannis-Jacob-Elias-Michiel-Jansen had children : 
I. John, b. Feb. 14, 1797 ; m. Dec. 19, 1818, Rachel 
Sigler (b. Sept. 16, 1798) ; d. May 18, 1835. 

II. Mary, b. Nov. 2, 1798 ; m. Ebenezer Kitchel, Oct. 

12, 1819 ; d. Sept. 25, 1825. 

III. James, b. Dec. 11, 1800 ; m. Sarah Lawback, of 
Athenia, Dec. 9, 1822 ; d. Nov. 9, 1847, without issue. 

IV. Jacob, b. Oct. 2, 1802 ; m. Susanna Taylor, of 
Stony Brook, Morris County, Aug. 6, 1825 ; d. Dec. 15, 

V. Martin, b. Sept. 29, 1805 ; m. Jane Terhune, of 
Hackensack, dau. of Peter Terhune, May 15, 1826 ; d. Dec. 
22, 1883. Issue : I. John ; 2. George j 3. Martin ; 4. Peter ; 
5. a dau. 

VI. Jane, b. Dec. 20, 1807 ; m. John W. Campbell, son 
of William Campbell, of Hackensack, Jan. i, 1823 ; d. Dec. 
19, 1874. Issue : John Walls, b. Aug. 9, 1825. 

VII. Phebe, b. Dec. 12, i8i2 ; m. Cornelius C. Jorale- 
mon, a boat builder, near Belleville, and son of Cornelius 
Joralemon, July 4, 1833 ; d. May 21, 1891. Issue : i. 
Nellie, b. June 8, 1834 ; 2. Jacob, b. Dec. 8, 1835, a physi- 
cian, settled in the West. 

VIII. Elias, b. Jan. 19, 1818 ; m. Oct. 4, 1838, Rachel 
Van Houten, dau. of Henry C. Van Houten (of Slooter- 
dam, but aftervfards of Manchester, Paterson, where he 
died May 12, 1877, aged 92 years, 9 mos., 8 days). Elias 
is still living (1893), at East Orange, N. J. Issue : Cyrus, 
b. Dec. 10, 1858. 

Jacob Elias- Jacob-Elias-Michiel-Jansen had children : 
I. Elyas, b. Aug. 23, 1759 ; lived at Stone House 
Plains, and was called "Jake's Elias." Hem. March 8, 
1787, Margrietje Post, dau. of Adrian Post, the miller, of 
Slooterdam ; he d. May 30, 1839 ; she d. Feb. 14, 1854, 
aged 86 years and six days. 

II. Elizabeth, b. Dec. 17, 1766; m. John R. Ludlow, 
for many years a leading merchant at Acquackanonk, Nov, 
25, 1787; he subsequently removed to Newtown, L. I., 
where he m. 2d, Catalyna, dau. of Dow Ditmars and Maria 
Jotinson, dau. of John Johnson, of Jamaica, L. I.; John R. 
Ludlow died at Newtown, L. I. Issue : i. Richard, b. 
Sept. 13, 1788; 2. Jacob, b. Jan. i, 1791; 3. John, b.Dec. 

13, 1793; graduated from Union College in 1814; from New 
Brunswick Theological Seminary in 1817; pastor First Re- 
formed church, New Brunswick, 1818; Professor in the New 
Brunswick Theological Seminary, 1819; pastor First Re- 
formed church of Albany, 1823-1834; Provost of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, 1834-1852; Professor in the New 
Brunswick Theological Seminary, 1852, until his death, 
Sept. 8, 1857, at the house of his son. Dr. G. Livingston 
Ludlow, in Philadelphia; he was one of the most eminent 
divines of the century; 4. Gabriel,, bap. July 2, 1797; grad- 
uated from Union College in 1817, and from the New Bruns- 
wick Theological Seminary in 1820; pastor at Neshannock 
many years; m. Susan, dau. of Jacob Rapelje and Maria 

Ditmars (dau. of Dow Ditmars), of Jamaica, L. I. ; 5. 
Hanmore (so the baptismal record reads), b. April — , 1800; 
m. Sarah Ann, dau. of Cornelius Suydam, of Newtown, L. 
I. ;1 6. Antje, b. Aug. i, 1802. The Ludlow farm at Pas- 
saic was a short distance below Passaic Bridge, and extended 
from the river westwardly to the Dwars line, at Blachley's 

III. Johannes, b. Nov. 14, 1770; m. Jane Van Wagon- 
er; through her he acquired the present Hamilton farm, of 
160 acres, at the Notch, besides woodland; this he sold and 
bought his brother Enoch's property, whereupon Enoch re- 
moved to Esopus, N. Y., his wife's place of residence. 
John Jacob Elias had no children by his first wife. He m. 
2d, Margaret Bogert. Issue: I. Geoige; 2. Louisa, m. 
Benjamin Watson. John Jacob Elias Vreeland was short 
and stumpy — of a rugged, gnarly frame, wherefore the 
Dutch people called him "Knuts" Vreeland, signifying that 
he was as unyielding as the knot of a tree. Not unlike Ja- 
cob E. Vreeland, who lived past 94 years, and who on be- 
ing threatened with a suit by David Roe for driving into the 
latter's carriage, sturdily replied: "I pays no debts, and I 
fears no consequences." He was not sued ! 

Michael Hartman-Michael-Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had 
children : 

By his wife Gerretje Van Houten : 

I. Marretje, b. Dec. 31, 1766 ; m. Jacob Van Riper. 
II. Hartman, b. June 25, 1770; he lived on the corner 
of Broadway and East Eighteenth street ; he m. Thynie 
Post, Dec. 15, 1793. 

III. Cornelius, b. Nov. 10, 1777 ; d. in inf. 

IV. Michael. 

V. Jannetje, b. June 30, 1787. 
By his second wife, Lena Romyn : 
VI. Johannis, b. April 22, 1791 ; removed to the Gen- 
essee country. New York. 

VII. Nicholaes, b. April 6, 1793 ; removed to the Gen- 
essee country. New York. 

VIII. Betje, b. Sept. 20, 1796; d. unm.. May 4, 1849; ^he 
was an invalid, helpless from rheumatism, for about two 
years before her death. 

IX. Cornelius, b. June 17, 1800 ; he was a lame man, 
never married; his sister Betje kept house for him on the 
southeast corner of Vreeland avenue and Willis street, in a 
small stone dwelling Still standing in 1894. He did not 
long survive her, dying Dec. 28, 1849. His tombstone in- 
forms us that 

Affliction sore long time he bore 
Physicians were in vain 
Till God alone did hear his moan 
And eas'd him of his pain. 
Cornelius Hartman-Michael-Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had 
children : 

I. Johannes, b. Jan. 7, 1779; m. Vrouwtje Van Bler- 
kum, Dec. 25, 1803 ; he d. July 2, 1840. He lived on the 
east side of Vreeland avenue, near Nineteenth avenue. 

II. Mary, m. Cornelius H. Doremus, Aug. 24, 1800, 
and died before her father, leaving issue. 

1 Riker's Annals of Newtown, 274, 322, 390. 



III. Hartman, b. Dec. 1 1, 1783 ; d. in inf. 

IV. Hartman, b. July 4, 1785; lived on the corner of 
Oliver and Marshall streets ; m. ist, Theodocy Snyder, dau. 
of Richard Snyder, near Godwinville. Issue : Cornelius, b. 
March 15, 1812. Hartman m. 2d, Hester Hand. He 
owned much land on Main street near Clay. 

V. Cornelius, m. Lena Van Blerkum, June 29, 1806 ; 
" she was a sister of Vrouwtje, wife of Johannes, her 
brother-in-law. Cornelius lived in a long stone house with 
hip-roof, which had been built by the Van Blarcoms, before 
the Revolution, on the south side of Willis street, a short 
distance west of Vreeland avenue. As his family increased, 
he built a brick house adjoining. Both were torn down 
about 1870. His residence was the scene of many a festive 
gathering in by-gone days, especially on the occasion of the 
marriage of any of his children. After the hospitable man- 
ner of the time, when his sons married there was first a 
"wedding" at the house of the bride, and the next day all 
the friends repaired to the house of the bridegroom, and 
made merry. Cornelius was so extremely deliberate in all 
his movements that he was dubbed "Captain Slow," which 
he took in good part, and it was a cause of regret to his 
neighbors when he removed to Godwinville, to be near his 
children, most of whom were employed in the cotton mill 
there. He died in that vicinity. 

VI. Michael, b. Jan. 31, 1790 ; m. Dolly Snyder, dau. 
of Andrew Snyder, near Godwinville ; he d. 1844 > she was 
b. Oct. 7, 1792; d. in Feb. 1850. 

VII. Jacob, b. Feb. 17, 1795 ; m. Gitty Devoe, from 
Rutherford. He lived in the house which had been oc- 
cupied by his father. The farm was sold by Abraham 
Reynolds, guardian of Jacob's minor children, by order of 
the orphans' court, by deed dated Feb. 27, 1838, to Henry 
I. Van Blarcom,! whose property was sold by Isaac Vander- 
beck, sheriff, by deed dated July 31, 1841, to Peter Van 
Winkle, the farm being then estimated to contain 93 acres. 2 
He subsequently sold to Peter A. Van Houten. Jacob left 
children : i. John, who removed to Jersey City ; 2. Jane, m. 
Reuben (?) Taylor ; removed to Newton, N. J. ; 3. Eliza Ann, 
who resided in Marshall street; 4. Cornelius, who lived in 
Park avenue, between the Baptist church and Carroll 
street; 5. Jacob; 6. David; 7. Maria; 8. Rachel, d. young, 
before her fathen 

Peter Hartman-Dirck-Hartman-Michiel-Jansen had chil- 
dren : 

I. Cornelius, b. Nov. 2, 1763 ; m. Dautye (Dorothy) 
Vanderhoof, Jan. 23, 1796. Issue : I. Annaatje, b. Sept. 
27, 1796; 2. Lea, b. Dec. 23, 1798; 3. Rachel, b. Aug. 2, 
1801 ; 4, Peter, b. Jan. 7, 1805 ; 5. Catharina, March 19, 
1811 ; 6. Jane, b. July 29, 1815. 

II. Dirck, b. July 26, 1768; probably d. young. 
III. Annaatje, b. July 26, 1768; m. Peter Lourens 
Ackerman, Aug. 28, 1788. Issue: I. Annatje, b. Feb. 20, 
1791 ; 2. Lerry (Laurens), b. Sept. 27, 1792. 

IV. Pieter, bap. May 2, 1779 ; d. young. 
Only Cornelius and Annaatje survived their father. 

1 Passaic County Deeds, B, 14. 

2 lb., E, 404. 

Seventh GeneTation. 

John Jacob-Johannis-Jacob-Elias-Michiel-Jansen had 
children : 

I. Jacob John, d. Oct. 31, 1820, aged I year, i mo. 5 

II. Remus, b. Oct. 5, 1823 ; m. Sarah Nichols, June 
5, 1847 ; she d. in 1874 ; he d. Oct. i, 1892. Issue : i, 
Mary Ellen ; 2. Ann Eliza ; 3. Frank Dinwiddle, a physi- 
cian of Paterson, m. Annie Gertrude Doremus, Nov. 3, 
1881 ; she d. July 8, 1892, leaving one child, Ralph Dore- 
mus Vreeland, b. Sept. 18, 1883]; 4. Hattie ; 5. George ; 6. 
John, b. May 20, i860 ; d. July 9, i860. 

III. Romulus, b. Oct. 5, 1823 ; m. Valeria Conselyea, 
June 3, 1847 ; d. |^Nov. 19, 1888. Issue : i. Sophia ; 2. 
Oscar, d. June 27, 1892. 

IV. Catharine, m. George Worden. 
V. Ellen, m. Thomas Whittaker. 

VI. Cinthia, m. Gottfried Miiller, a German artist. 

VII. Phebe, m. James Thomson. 

VIII. Jane, m. Herrmann Kieshauer. 

IX. Lea, m. James Briggs. 

Jacob Jacob-Johannis-Jacob-Elias-Michiel-Jansen had 
children : 

I. Mary (or Polly), b. Nov. 2, 1833 ; m. Archibald 
Hammel, Jan. 25, 1851. 

II. Rachel, b. Jan. 18, 1839. 
III. Jacob, living at Kingsland. 

Elias Jacob-Elias-Jacob-Elias-Michiel-Jansen had chil- 
dren : 

I. Antje, b. Sept. 21, 1787 ; m. Edo Vreeland, of 
Boiling Spring. Issue : i. Enoch ; 2. Margaret ; 3. Elias ; 

4. George; 5. Jane. Further particulars of these children 
have been given on page 126. 

II. Adrian, b. Nov. 8, 1789 ; m. Antje Herring, Dec. 
9, 1810. Issue : I. Abraham Herring, b. Jan. 6, 1812 ; m. 
Jane, only child of John Van Riper, of Delawanna. (Chil- 
dren — I. Adrian ; 2. Clarence Hvanter ; 3. John ; 4. Catrina ; 

5. Cornelius ; 6. Elias ; 7. Abraham, besides others) ; 
2. Elias, b. March 30, 1814 ; m. Jane, dau. of Aaron A. 
and Hannah Van Houten ; she d. May 15, 1849, a-ged 31 
years, 11 months, 21 days. Abraham Herring Vreeland 
was educated for the ministry ; he taught school, farmed 
and preached at various periods of his life. 

III. Geertje, bap. Jan. 10, 1796 ; m. Jacob Hopper, 
son of Garret Hopper, of Lodi. Issue : l. Ann, m. Jasper 
Yereance, of Boiling Spring ; 2. Adrian, m. ist, Eliza Ann 
Post : 3. Garret, who taught school for many years, in and 
about Paterson ; 4. Margaret, m. Henry Yereance, of Boil- 
ing Spring, brother of Jaspei' ; 5. Eliza, m. Peter Cadmus. 

IV. Elizabeth, b. April 9, 1812 ; m. 1st, Lucas Ro- 
maine, near Rochelle Park, January 21, 1830 ; 2d, Philip 
Van Bussum, of Slooterdam, Dec. 19, 1833. She d. Oct. 
21, 1875. Issue : I. Maria Ann (by Romaine); m. John 
Van Riper, who lived near the Bergen county end of the 
Broadway bridge, and was a farmer, and afterwards a furni- 
ture dealer in New York ; 2. Margaret, m. Peter J. Kipp, of 
Clifton ; 3. Peter, living at Slooterdam. 



Hartman Michael-Hartmaii-Michael-Hartman-Michiel- 
Jansen had children : 

I. Gerritje, b. May 25, 1794; m. Albert Van Houten. 
II. Fytje, b. Jan. 12, 1797. 
III. Tryntje, b. Aug. 11, 1799. 

IV. Lena, b. Aug. 31, 1803; ™- Garret G. Garrison, 
who lived on Broadway, near East Thirtieth street. Ch., 
Hartman, b. Jan. 14, 1826. 

V. Jenneka, b. Dec. 8, 1805. 
VI. Marretje, b. Sept. 2, 1808. 

Johannis Cornelius-Hartman-Michael-Hartman-Michiel- 
Jansen had children : 

I. Cornelius, b. Oct. 5, 1804 ; m. ist, Betse Simmons, 
sister of ex- Judge Henry P. Simmons, of Passaic ; Corne- 
lius lived in Fair street, Paterson ; 2d, Maria Taylor. Issue 
(all by second wife): I. John Livingston, b. Aug. 29, 1854; 
2. Elizabeth Ann Wiggins, b. Aug. 28, 1855 ; 3. Sophronia, 
b. Dec. 16, 1856 ; 4. Sarah Elizabeth, b. June 10, 1859. 

II. Catharine, b. Oct. 9, 1807; d. Nov. 25, 1807. 
III. Elizabeth, b. Dec. 20, 1808; m. Cornelius A. Post, 
who lived in Park avenue. Ch., John Post, m. Hattie 

IV. John, b. June 2, 181 1 ; m. Tinie (also called Ma- 
tilda) Stagg ; he d. in Vreeland avenue. Issue : I. Ira, d. 
when 17 or 18 years old ; 2. Sophronia, m. Henry J. Garri- 
son ; 3. Abraham, d. unm., about 20 years old ; 4. Nicholas, 
m. Ida Hill, in Vreeland avenue ; 5. Cornelius, removed to 
Newark; 6. John, in U. S. Navy; 7. Carrie, unm. Three 
others d. in. inf. 

V. Nicholas, b. July 2, 1814 ; m. Ellen Maseker (b. 
July 4, 1813), Feb. 17, 1838 ; d. April 13, 1873. Ch., Mary 
Elizabeth, b. July 12, 1840; d. Feb. 20, 1881, unm., at 127 
Ward street, Paterson. 

VI. Ann, b. July 15, 1817 ; d. in childhood. 
The four children of Johannis who grew up built houses 
on Vreeland avenue between Eighteenth and Twentieth av- 
enues, and lived there for a time. 

Cornelius Cornelius-Hartman-Michael-Hartman-Michiel- 
Jansen had children : 

I. Cornelius, b. June 12, 1808 ; d. in inf. 

II. Jannetje, b. Dec. 4, 1810; m. Lewis Masker, at 

III. Cornelius, b. March 21, 1813 ; m. Auley Christ- 
opher, at Godwinville, and removed thither after his mar- 

IV. Nicasie Van Blarkum, b. Aug. 13, 1815 ; m. Eliza 
Masker, at Godwinville ; afterwards removed to Hacken- 
sack, where he carried on blacksmithing, and later a hard- 
ware store. 

V. Elizabeth, removed to Western New York ; m. 

VI. Marian Simmons, b. Aug. 5, 1822 ; m. William 
Jackson, at Godwinville, after her father's death. She d. 
leaving one child, about two years old. Jackson m. 2d, 
Hannah Van Gelder, of Godwinville, March 2, 1843. 

VII. Ellen, m. Nicholas Folley. Ch., Katie, m. Wil- 
liam Mackrell. 

Michael Cornelius-Hartman-Michael-Hartman-Michiel- 
Jansen had children : 

I. Cornelius D. (Dolly, after his mother), b. March 
4, 1813 ; m. (by the Rev. Stephen Grover, Caldwell) Rachel 
Beach (b. Jan. 29, 1818 ; d. March 6, 1887), dau. of Capt. 
Jonathan Beach, of Caldwell, Sept. 29, 1836 ; d. July 6, 

II. Andrew, b. May 21, 1815 ; m. Phebe Ann Stevens, 
Oct. I, 1836. 

III. Elizabeth, b. May 5, 1819 ; m. Andrew Derrom, 
May 22, 1842; d. Feb. 6, 1883 ; he d. July 15, 1892. 

IV. Rachel, b. March 14, 1821 ; d. in inf. 

V. Jeremiah, b. July 13, 1829 ; d. unm., of consump- 
tion, Feb. 12, 185 1. 

Some of the Vreelands owned farms extending "from 
river to river ;" that is, from the Passaic below Passaic 
Bridge, across the First Mountain to the river in the 
vicinity of Little Falls. Others owned at Caldwell, and 
they soon had mills along the Peckamin river. When the 
Horseneck tract was opened, they were among the early set- 
tlers about Gansegat (Fairfield). Richard Penn, Lieutenant 
Governor of Pennsylvania, by deed dated January I, 1775, 
conveyed to Roelof Vreeland, of Pequanack, a large tract of 
land near Doremiis Bridge, being part of a tract of 2, 500 acres 
surveyed in 1715 for Wm. Penn.l Roelof died intestate, and 
his wife, Aaltje Doremus, then living at Peckamin river, was 
appointed administratrix, Aug. 17, 1804. They had chil- 
dren : I. Abraham, b. April 11, 1768 ; 2. Anneke, b. May 
24, 1771 ; m. Aaron Kirris ; 3. Ralph ; 4. Jennie, m. Abra- 
ham T. Doremus. 

The will of John Vreeland, of Pequanack, dated May 7, 
1785, proved June 4, 1795, names children John, Daniel, 
Jacob, Neeltje, Metje, Garret, Fametye, Peggy.2 

Jacob Vreeland and Garret Vreeland, probably members 
of that branch of the Vreeland family which was located 
between Second River (Belleville) and Third River (Frank- 
lin), acquired several tracts of land, estimated to contain 
about 300 acres, 'at Macopin and vicinity, in 1754, by virtue 
of a deed from David Ogden for 150 acres, dated Decem- 
ber 20, 1753, and a deed from James Alexander and Robert 
Hunter Morris for 54.4 acres, dated Jan. 28, 1754-^ Jacob 
acquired other lands in addition to those mentioned above. 
He conveyed 50 acres to Gerrebrant Yereance, May 28, 
1772 ; Yereance devised this tract to his children, Hannah, 
wife of Paul Powlason, Sarah, wife of Rulaf Van Wagoner, 
all of Acquackanonk, and Gerrebrant , Yereance, of New 
Barbadoes, who on July 2, 1796, conveyed the same to John 
Vreeland and James Vreeland, of Macopin, so that the 
property once more came into the Vreeland family. James 
Vreeland and Jane, his wife, released to John, May 9, 1812. 

John Vreeland, son of Jacob (sometimes referred to in 
deeds as John I. Vreeland, meaning John Jacob Vreeland), 
m. 1st, Polly Kidnie, of Second River, by whom he had six 
children. He m. 2d, Catharine Whitty (probably Witteg, 

1 E. J. Deeds, H 3, f. 69. 

a Book No. 36 of Wills, Trenton, f. 82. 

* Perth Amboy Surveys, S 3, f. 377. 



■the name being German), who bore him several more chil- 
dren. He was settled at Macopin prior to 1784.1 He lived 
about where Thomas B. Vreeeland now lives (1894), about 
a mile northeasterly from the Macopin pond. In the early 
days of the settlement, before he was able to build barns 
for the storing of his grain, he thrashed his buckwheat in 
the open air and piled it up in a huge mound. The wild 
turkeys were wont to swoop down in great flocks to feed on 
the grain, and the tradition is handed down in the family 
that one day John concealed himself, and when a flock 
settled down upon the buckwheat suddenly rose and fired 
into them, dropping nine turkeys at one shot. He had a 
saw mill where Horace Mabee's hotel now is, at Macopin. 
He conveyed most of his property, December 14, 1793, to 
his son James.2 His will, dated June 23, 1809, was proved 
July II, 1812 ; William Colfax, and his wife Catharine, 
were his executors.^ He devised to his wife Catharine dur- 
ing her widowhood, all his estate, with remainder to his 
sons William and Henry, in fee, who also received his 
farming utensils ; to daughters Elizabeth, Catharine and 
Elanah, all the residue of his personal estate ; to the rest 
of his children, naming them, five shillings each. His 
•children were : 
I. Jacob. 
II. Kobus (James), m. Jennie Beam, of Wanaque. 

Issue : I. Beam ; 2. John B. ; 3. Conrad, m. ; d. about 

1845, 'II ^ house which he built in 1821 on land deeded to 
him for life by his father. May 9, 1821. (Children : I. 
Thomas B. ; 2. James C); 4. Polly, m. James Tichenor, at 
Greenwoood Lake. 

III. John. 

IV. Abraham, went away from home and was never 
heard of afterwards. 

V. Nelly. 
VI. Polly. 
VII. William, m. Elenor Degraw. Issue : i. Elizabeth 

(Betsy), m. ; 2. Julia Ann. m. ; 3. Jane ; 4. 

Sarah; 5. Peter; 6. Harriet; 7. Maria; 8. David; 9. 

Hester; 10. Ellen; 11. James; 12. John Milton; 13. , 

d. young ; 14. -, d. young. 

VIII. Henry, m. Jane Eckhart ; d. Sept. 5, 1888, aged 
85 years, 6 months, 21 days. Issue : I. George, d. in inf. ; 
2. and 3. Jacob and Katie, twins ; 4. John ; 5. Richard ; 6. 
Sarah; 7. Joseph; 8. James; 9. Daniel; 10. David; 11. 
Peter ; 12. Ira. 

IX. Elizabeth, m. Samuel Payn. Issue : I. John ; 2. 
Lewis ; 3. Daniel ; 4. Catharine ; 5. Eliza ; 6. Samuel. 

X. Catharine, m. James Payn, brother of Samuel. 
Issue : I. Hiram ; 2. John ; 3. Adeline ; 4. Susan ; 5. 
Lorinda ; 6. James ; 7. Stephen ; 8. Jason. 

XL Elanah, m. David Gould ; they went West — to 

1 On November 26, 1784, a road was laid " from the neighborhood of 
Makapien to the main Road that Leads from Pompton to Charlotte- 
burgh, two rods wide, beginning where the Road formerly went before 
the Door of the Dwelling house of John Vreeland," etc.— Bir£-en Roads, 

2 Bergen County Transcribed Deeds, H, 302. 

3 Bergen County Wills, A, 416. 

Western New York, or further West. Issue : i. Ruth ; 2. 
Margaret Jane ; 3. Isaac ; 4. William ; 5. Rachel. 

John D. Vreeland (son of Dirck), who was a contemporary 
of John Jacob Vreeland, probably acquired his property 
from Garret Vreeland. He had children : Richard (men- 
tioned in deeds as Richard I. Vreeland), Yellas, John (John 
D. Vreeland, Jun.), Henry and Abraham. John D. Vree- 
land lived on the road leading from Macopin to Wanaque, 
a few hundred feet from the Macopin school house, where 
his grandson, John R. Freeland, now lives ; this branch of 
the family quite generally write their name Freeland. 

Abraham A. Vreeland bought several tracts of land, some 
as early as 1790, in the Wanaque Valley, from Joseph Board, 
Peter Slott, Simon Van Ness, Elias Boudinot, Michael 
Cook, Sen., William Colfax and Robert Colfax. 

About the same time, John A. Vreeland (perhaps a son 
of the Abraham Vreeland just mentioned) bought consider- 
able tracts of land in Pompton township. 

In a lonely spot on the hillside, overlooking the Pequan- 
nock river, about a mile above Smith's Mills, are three 
tombstones erected as "tributes of filial esteem," by Ann 
Vreeland, daughter of Peter and Elizabeth, to the memory 

Peter Vreeland, d. September 9, 1813, in the 59th year 
of his age. 

Elizabeth Vreeland (his wife), d. January 24, 1847, aged 
70 years, 6 months and 5 days. 

John Wittig, d. May 26, 1806, aged 69 years, 10 months. 

Wittig was probably the father of Elizabeth Vreeland. 

The following data are gleaned principally from the 
Acquackanonk, Totowa, Hackensack and Schraalenburgh 
church records. Except where otherwise stated, the dates 
after the names of children are the dates of birth : 

Abraham Vreeland (will dated Oct. 12, 1805— Essex 
Wills, A, 83) and Lea Vreeland : i. Maragrietje, bap. Dec. 
25, 1770; m. Hassel Yereance, and d. Aug. 29, 1847; 2. Cor- 
nelius, m. Sartje Helms, Nov. 13, 1797 ; 3. Elias, b. April 
28, 1783. Some account of the children of Cornelius and 
Elias will be found on the next page. 

Abraham Vreeland and Annaetje Moore : I. Elias, b. 
March 8, 1781 ; 2. Rutje, b. Oct. 12, 1791 ; 3. Gerrit, b. 
Aug. 24, 1795. 

Abraham Vreeland m. Rachel Ackerman, Nov. 30, 1786. 
His will, dated Feb. 21, 1826, proved Nov. 7, 1826, devises 
all his estate, at Polifly, to his wife Rachel for life, with 
remainder in fee to his sons, John and Lawrence. (Bergen 
Wills, C, 163.) I. Anatje, Feb. 2, 1793 ; 2. Effie, Aug. 15, 
1795 ; 3. John ; 4. Lawrence. 

Abraham Vreeland and Maritie Ackerman : i. John, 
Aug. 6, 1789. 

Abraham Vreeland m. Catharine Easterly, Oct. 5, 1789 ; 
I. Marragrietje, Jan. 19, 1790. 

Abraham E. Vreeland, of Acquackanonk, m. Lea De- 
graw, Sept. 28, 1799. His children were : i. Cornelius, 
July 17, 1800; 2. Lea, Feb. 21, 1802; 3. Hartman, Jan. 9, 
1804; 4. Catharina, March 13, 1806. 

Abraham J. Vreeland and Lena Romyn : i. John, Jan. 10, 



Benjamin Vreeland m. Elizabeth Van Winkel, May li, 
1799 : I. John, Dec. 3, 1800 ; 2. Isaac, March 4, 1802 ; 3 
Paulus, Nov. 22, 1803. 

Claas Vreeland m. Catrina Van Duyn, both of the church 
at Pompton, May 27, 1754. 

Cornelius A. Vreeland m. Sartje Helms or Susanna Hel- 
lem, Nov. 18, 1797 : I. Samuel, June 18, 1798 ; 2. Lea, 
Aug. 31, 1800; 3. Abraham, July 18, 1802; 4. Catharina, 
July I, 1804. 

Charles A. Vreeland and Ann Speer : i. Lydia, Dec. 26, 

Elias Vreeland and Lea Aeltse : I. Gerrit, Feb. 5, 1729. 

Elias Vreeland m. Christina Thiese, both of Acquacka- 
nonk. May 22, 1731. 

Elias Vreeland m. Catlyntje Smith (b. at Gansegat), July 
3, 1741: I. Pieter, Oct. 24, 1754; 2. Abraham, July 8, 
1757; 3. Gerret, May 24, 1760. 

Elias A. Vreeland, Jun., m. Annatje Spier, Jan. i, 1804. 
His will, dated June I, 1816, was proved Sept. 17, 1816. 
(Essex Wills, B, 221.) i. Jacob, Nov. 28, 1804; 2. Sarah, 
Sept. 10, 1807; 3. Lea, July 26, 1813 ; d. in infancy; 4. 
Lydia, Dec. 26, 1815. 

Enoch Vreeland and Catrina Cutwater : I. Isaac, b. Feb. 

16, 1760; 2. Thomas, b. Dec. 13, 1764; m. Catharine 

(Will dated Feb. 29, 1844; proved April 13, 1853); 3. Tryntje, 
bap. Sept. 13, 1767; m. Plopper. (Issue: i. Cornelius; 

2. Enoch). 4. Annatje, b. April 21, 1771 ; 5. Rachel, b. 
July 27, 1775; m. Brinkerhoff. Issue: I. George. 

Enoch C. Vreeland (will dated March 28, 1811 ; proved 
Sept. 4, 1816) and Lea Van Winkle: I. Jacomyntje, b. 
Mar. 24, 1771, m. Abraham Koejeman, Jan. 11, 1787. 
(Issue: I. Leya, b. Jan. — , 1796; 2. Leya, b. Oct. 6, 1798; 

3. Myntje, b. March 17, 1801); 2. Cornelius, b. Sept. 2, 
1772; 3. Simeon, b. Oct. 24, 1776; probably d. in infancy; 

4. Margrietje, b. Aug. 31, 1779; d. in infancy; 5. Helena, 

b. Jan. 23, 1782; m. Wilier; 6. Johannes, b. Dec. 7, 

1783; 7. Pryntje, b. June 29, 1786; m. Pier; 8. Lea, 

b. ; m. Vanderhoof ; 9. Saartje, b. June 12, 1789; 

prob. d. young ; 10. Jannetje, b. Sept. 11, 1791 ; 11. Mar- 
grietje, b. Nov. 14, 1795. 

By deed Sept. 8, 1798, Enoch C. Vreeland and wife con- 
veyed 32 acres; Feb. 20, 1800, they conveyed 30 acres, part 
of Lot No. 13, of the small lots ; April 21, 1800, they con- 
veyed to Abraham E. Vreeland Lot No. 2, 44 acres, where 
Cornelius Enoch Vreeland then lived ; also part of Lot No. 
I, 12 acres. 

Enoch (Ja.) Vreeland m. Marie Vreeland, Oct. 17, 1802: 

I. Johannes, b. April 24, 1803 ; 2. Enoch, b. April 9, 1812 ; 
3. Gouda, b. Nov. 24, 1814. 

Gerrit Vreeland, y. m., b. at Acquackanonk, m. Marietje 
Stymelsz, m., both 1. here, Nov. 7, 1745. 

Gerrit Vreeland and Maragrita Vreeland : I. Neeltje, 
Feb. 13, 1758; 2. Michiel, Sept. 31, 1761 ; 3. Marretje, Dec. 

II, 1766. 

Gerrit Vreeland m. Rachel Moor (Ragel More), May 29, 
1791 : I. Sally, Oct. 5, 1791; 2. Cathalyntje, May 6, 1793; 
3. Isaac, b. Sept. 21, 1796. 

Gerrit Vreeland m. Maragrietje Van Rypen, Aug. 16, 

1794: I. Abraham, March I, 179S ; 2. Ragel, Feb. 27^ 
1798; 3. Cornelius, Aug. 4, 1800; 4, Jannetje, Dec. 15, 
1802; 5. Janneke, May 15, 1808. 

Hartman Vreeland and Marritje Gerrebrantse : I. Belitje, 
Jan. 5, 1756. 

Hartman Enochs Vreeland m. Jannitje Van Nostrand, 
Aug. 20, 1747. 

Isaac Vreeland (d. Jan. 11, 1836, in his 90th year, and is 
buried at Belleville) and Myntje (Jemima) Romyn (d. Oct. 
17, 1821, in her 59th year, and is buried at Belleville) : i. 
Abraham, Oct. 26, 1787. 

Isaac Vreeland m. Maragrietje Vreeland, Feb. 10, 1790 : 
I. Helena, June 22, 1790; 2. Enoch, Sept. 5, 1792; 3. 
Catharina, Aug. 15, 1795 ; 4- Enoch, Sept. 20, 1798. 

Jacob Vreeland, y. m., of Second River, m. Martje Jurj- 
aense, of Acquackanonk, Dec. 21, 1726. 

Jacob Vreeland, y. m., b. at Wesel, m. Margaretha Gerrit- 
sen, maiden, b. at Wesel, both living at Acquackanonk, 
June 24, 1746. 

Jacob Vreeland m. Marytje Banta, Nov. 6, 1760 : i. An- 
naetje, bap. Nov. 23, 1761. 

Jacob Vreeland m. Sarah Jacobse (in a deed May 10, 
1800, they are described as of Caldwell) : i. Johannes, July 
26, 1779. 

Johannes Vreeland m. Metje Jurjaense : I. Johannes, 
Nov. 16, 1730. 

Johannis Freelandt aird Effje (Eegje) Ter Hune : I. Isaak, 
Jan. 21, 1755 (will dated Jan. 4, 1828; Bergen Wills, C, 
330); 2. Johannis, bap. June 20, 1756; 3. Tryntje, bap. 
Nov. 13, 1757; 4. Abram, bap. July 15, 1759; 5. Petrus, 
bap. May 3, 1761 ; m. Peggy Demse. (Issue: I. Hessel, 

b. July 28, 1782; 2. , b. July 24, 1783; 3. Marcus, b. 

b. Feb. 3, 1785; 4. , b. June 23, 1787; 5. Elizabeth, 

b. Jan. 13, 1801); 6. Jacob, b. Nov. I, 1765; 7. Benjamin, 
b. March 14, 1771 ; ra. Elizabeth Van Winkle, May 11,. 

Johannes (Ja.) Vreeland m. Jannetje Van Wagenen, Feb. 
23, 1792: I. Annaatje, Nov. 18, 1792; 2. Johannis, Jan. 3, 
1796; 3. Helena, Sept. 15, 1807. 

John Vreeland and : I. John, Jan. 26, 1784. 

John I. Vreeland and Sara Ellen (Allen) : I. Effie, April 
20, 1786; 2. Abraham, b. Feb. 20, 1791 ; 3. Sara, bap. May 
20, 1793, m. Tunis Van Iderstine ; d. Oct. 10, 1823 ; 4. Pie- 
ter, April 21, 1796. 

John Enoch Vreeland m. Jenneke (Jannetje) Van W'inkel, 
Dec. 25, 1804: I. Helena, Sept. 15, 1807. 

John Vreeland, Juir., m. Geertje Rodebach, Jan. 28, 1804 : 
I. John, Oct. 31, 1804; 2. Elias, Aug. 27, 1808. 

John M. Vreeland m. Elizabeth Van Eydestyn, Dec. 22,, 
1811 : I. Michael, Dec. 30, 1812. 

John J. Vreeland m. Helena Vreeland, Feb. 26, 1810 : 
I. Sara, July I, 1811 ; 2. Grietje, April 27, 1813. 

Joris Vreeland m. Elsje Meed (Meet) of Pegqueneck, 
Dec. 18, 1728: I. Johannes, Jan. 13, 1731 ; 2. Johannes, 
Feb. 16, 1732. 

Michael (M.) Vreeland m. Elizabeth Reddanor (Ridenar), 
Nov. 30, 1806 : I. Michael, Dec. 28, 1807 ; 2. Hendrick, 
Oct. 5, 1810 ; 3. Elizabeth, Sept. 7, 1812. 



Michael C. Vreeland and Dorrity Snyder : l. Adrian, 
May 21, 1815. 

Nicholas Vreeland and Elizabeth Van Schyven : I. 
Vrouwetje, Dec. 26, 1769; 2. Hessel, May 15, 1771 ; 3. 
Joannes, Jan. 14, 1775- 

VIII. Adrian Post. 

The Acquackanonk Patentee was doubtless a native of 
Holland, and was a son of Captain Adrian Post, who was 
sent over to this country in 1650 as the superintendent of a 
colony of twenty or more people, men, women and children, 
with suitable farming implements, in the ship "New Neth- 
erland's Fortune," which had been purchased. May 18, 
1650, by the Yonkheer Hendrick van der Capellen, of Rys- 
sel, Baron of Essels and Hasselt, representative of the 
Slates General, etc., etc., in connection with four Amster- 
dam merchants. The vessel sailed June 30, 1650, but ow- 
ing to winter storms did not arrive in this country until De- 
cember 19th. 1 

Pos is Dutch for gull, sea-gull. This seems to have been 
the correct way of spelling the Captain's name. He appears 
to have been a soldier. 

Although the records regarding Post are silent for the next 
four or five years, it is evident that he located his colony on 
Staten Island, carrying it on with much success, so that in a 
few years there were one hundred or more persons in the 
little settlement. He cultivated friendly relations with 
the Indians and familiarized himself with their language,^ 
an acquisition which was destined to be of much service 
to him at a most critical period in his career. When the 
Indian War of 1655 broke out, his flourishing colony did 
not escape in the general attack made by the Indians upon 
the whites, but on the night of September 15, twenty-three 
persons were killed on Staten Island, and sixty-seven were 
taken prisoners, among the latter being Captain Post, with 
his wife, five children and a servant girl.^ 

A pleasant illustration of the confidence the Indians re- 
posed in his integrity is the fact that the Hackensack Chief, 
Pennekeck, sent Captain Post with fourteen of his fellow pris- 
oners over to New Amsterdam to ask the Director -General for 
powder and lead in exchange for these captives. And an 
equally pleasant token of the confidenceof Captain Postin the 
humanity of his captors is the fact that at the request of the 
Dutch authorities he returned to the Indians to continue 
negotiations for the exchange of the rest of the white captives, 
and conducted his negotiations with such success that he re- 
turned to New Amsterdam October 21, with twenty-eight 
prisoners. He had another conference with the Hacken- 
sack Chiefs, Pennekeck and Oratamy, on October 26, and 
would seem to have been successful in securing the release 
of all the prisoners after a time.* Upon effecting his own 
exchange, the faithful superintendent returned to Staten 

1 O'Callaghan, II., 130 ; Broadhead, I., 524-5. 

2 N; Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 46. 

3 O'Callaghan, II., 291 ; N. Y. Col. Docs., XII., c 
War of 1655, p. 41. 

*Cal. N. Y. Hist. MSS.,1.,153; N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 46, 47, 48. 

See also Indian 

Island and hunted up the few head of cattle left, but ow- 
ing to the complete destruction of the crops, buildings and 
other property, most of the cattle had died, and he was 
obliged to sell others to obtain means to maintain his wife 
and children. 1 

When Van der Capelle heard of the great havoc made by 
the Indians in his colony, he instructed Captain Post to 
gather together the survivors and to erect a fort on the 
Island ; also to keep the people provisioned. This, how- 
ever, was impracticable, as the Captain with his starving 
family during the ensuing winter were obliged to camp out 
under the bleak sky without any protection or means of 
defence. The authorities recognized the insurmountable 
difficulties in the way of protecting the colony, and decided 
to withdraw the soldiers and abandon him to his fate unless 
he would remove with his people and his patron's cattle to 
Long Island.2 The creditors of Van der Capelle, seeing 
the desperate condition of the colony, began to harass Post 
for the payment of the Baron's debts, and suit was brought by 
Jacob Schellinger and others against him as agent for the 
Baron for payment of a note ;3 and Janneke Melyn claimed as 
hers some of the few cattle still in Post's possession.4 Under 
his accumulating hardships and exposures and harassments. 
Post fell sick, and in the following April his wife was con- 
strained to petition the authorities for a postponement of 
the suit brought by Schellinger, and to urge that the sold- 
iers might be allowed to remain for the present on Staten 
Island. The soldiers who had escorted her to New 
Amsterdam were directed to return with her to Staten 
Island, but they had become tired of their exposure on that 
desolate spot, and declared they would not accompany her.5 
Dirck van Schelluyne, for and on behalf of Madam Post, 
in view of her husband's continued illness, petitioned 
(April 27, 1656) the Director-General and Council at New 
Amsterdam to send an armed force to the Island for the 
protection of the rights of Baron van der Capelle de Ryssel, 
Patroon of that place, and for somebody else to take care of 
the property duriii g Captain Post's illness. The author- 
ities, however, insisted that there was nothing on the Island 
worth preserving but the cattle, which ought to be removed 
to Long Island, and as the population consisted of only six 
or seven persons (Captain Post, his wife, five children, one 
male and one female servant), it would be folly to send a 
garrison for their protection. The armed force was accord- 
ingly refused. 6 On July 20, 1656, Schellinger recovered 
judgment against Post on a note signed by Cornelius Melyn 
and others, claiming to be agents of Baron van der Capelle.'' 
The attempt at colonizing Staten Island by individual 
enterprise having failed, the Island was purchased by the 

1 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 206. 

2 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 60-1. 

3 Cal. N. Y. Hist. MSS.,I.,i6i. 
< Cal. N. Y. Hist. MSS., I., 164. 
« Cal. N. Y. Hist. MSS., I., 165. 

6 Cal. N. Y. Hist. MSS., I., 165, 166 ; N. Y. Col. Docs., I., 638 ; N. 
Y. Col. Docs., xni.,74. 

^ N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 170; Cal. N. Y. Hist. MSS., I., 170. 



West India Company, to whom nineteen persons presented 
a petition, August 22, i66t, for tracts of land on the south 
side, in order to establish a village, which was allowed by 
the Company, Captain Post being one of the grantees. 1 It 
is probable, however, that he did not avail himself of the 
grant, but removed to Bergen about this time, if, indeed, he 
was not already a resident there. In 1662 he was one of 
petitioners to have a clergyman settled at Bergen, and 
promised to contribute twenty florins therefor yearly. 2 
Under date of December 28, 1662, he, with others, peti- 
tioned the Director-General and Council to protect the in- 
habitants of Bergen and Communipaw against the attempts 
of various individuals to fence in the common lands ;3 and 
on January 4, 1663, he and two others selected by their 
neighbors for the purpose, appeared before the Council to 
support , this petition.4 Under date of June 30, 1663, 
upon the nomination of his neighbors, he was confirmed as 
ensign for the village of Bergen. 5 On August 30, 1663, he 
petitioned for a grant of some low lands at Bergen, and sur- 
veys thereof were ordered to be made. 6 Post received from 
Governor Philip Carteret, May 12, 1668, a patent for fifty-five 
acres of land at and about Bergen;T being probably the same 
tract which he had received from the Dutch authorities. 
On May 18, 1671, we find him sworn on a jury to serve at a 
special court at Elizabethtown.8 On September 4, 1673, 
■when the Dutch reoccupied New Jersey as part of New Nether- 
lands, the Council of War appointed Post ensign for Bergen. 9 
This does not seem to have affected his standing with the Eng- 
lish, for after they recovered possession of New Jersey and 
New York, Post was commissioned, July 16, 1675, lieuten- 
ant of the militia at Bergen.lO His adventurous life ended 
at Bergen, February 28, 1677. During his lifetime, Capt. 
Post had executed two mortgages upon all his estate, move- 
able and immoveable, October 17, 1662, and May g, 1662, 
for twenty-nine thousand six hundred and fifty-six guilders, 
to Cornelius Steenwiclc, an eminent merchant of New York. 
His family were unable to pay these obligations, and he 
having died intestate, they declined to administer, where- 
upon Governor Carteret appointed Steenwick administrator 
of his estate.ll 

The records do not give us the name of Madam Post, 
who shared the Captain's fortunes and misfortunes with 
the bravery of a true heroine ; nor do they inform us who 
were the five children who accompanied them from Holland. 
It is probable that these were all young. 

1 N. Y. Col. Docs. , XIII. , 206 ; O'Callaghan, II. , 427. 

2 N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 233. 

3 JSr. Y. Col. Docs. , XIII. , 234. 
* N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 235. 
» N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 268. 
« N. Y. Col. Docs., XIII., 294. 
r Hudson Co. L. T.,p. 81. 

8 N.J. Archives, I., 66. 
»N. Y. Col. Docs., II., 597. 

10 E. J. Deeds, Liber 3, f. 117. 

11 E. J. Deeds, Liber 3, f. 133. 

Second Generation. 

Capt. Adrian Post had children : 

I. Adrian, b. in Holland ; came to America in 1650, 
with his parents ; m. Catrintje (Catrina) Gerrits, April 17, 
1677 ; he was one of the petitioners for the Acquackanonk 
Patent, May 30, 1684 ;l was named in the Patent as one of 
the grantees ; he was elected deacon of the Acquackanonk 
church in 1706. He was no longer living in March, 1713, 
when Symon Jacobsen van Winkel received a release from- 
the surviving patentees of Acquackanonk.2 It is not easy to- 
say with precision just where he lived. 
II. Maria.3 



VI. Margarit, bap. June 6, 1657. 

VII. Francoys, bap. March 3, 1659 ; m. Maritje Kobis 
(Cobus, or Jacobus), April 22, 1690. It is probable that he 
was an early settler at Acquackanonk. In 1695 he was 
chosen deacon of the church, and elder in 1699, 1705, 
1711, 1716. He appears to have beeen a man of substance, 
for on April 4, 1696, Hans Dedrickes, of the town of 
Bergen, conveys to "ffrancis Post of the township of Aquecke- 
nonge," consideration £31 Ss., current money of New Jersey, 
a " certaine parcell of Land Eyeing and being in the town- 
ship of Aqueckenong . . . betwixt Adrian Post, and Jurian 
Thomas being of the hundred [acre] Lotts and is Numbered 
Two, together with the full and Absolute Right and 
privileges of the halfe of the fourteenth part of the 
comoniage, according to the whole of the purchase of 
Aquakenonge."* Two years later, April 26, 1698, Cornelius 
Lubberts, of Bergen, for £30, conveys to "Franss Post of ye 
town of Achquikanuncque," "a certain lot or parcel of Land 
Containing one hundred acres lying within ye Pattent of 
Aquckononque above said being ye whole breadth of lott 
No. 10 & half ye breadth of ye No. 9 together with ye eight 
& twentieth part of ye rights of commons of ye sd town of 
Aquechkonunque according to aggrement made by ye 
Patentees to parties of said Patent wth its rights titles 
privileges & appurtenances unto said parcel of Land be- 
longing or in any manner or way appertaining." This deed 
was acknowledged before Enoch Michaelse, Esq.5 These 
two deeds gave Post an equal fourteenth part of the un- 
divided lands of Acquackanonk. In 1711 (November 27). 
he with seven others bought 2,800 acres, of land on Stony 

VII. Geertruyd,6 bap. Aug. 21, 1663. 

Third Generation. 

Adrian-Adrian Post had children : 

I. Adrian, b. Jan. 24, 1678; m. Elizabeth Merselis, 

1 N. J. Archives, XIII., 131. 

2 The Adrian Post mentioned in the receipts for quit-rents in 1712 and 
subsequently, on pp. 78-79, must have been of the next generation. 

3 Adrian Post and Maria Post were witnesses at a baptism in 1670. 
< E. J. Deeds, F.,f. 222. 

J E.J. Deeds, G., f. 107. 

8 The mother's name is given as Clara, but no surname is recorded. 



April 21, 1701 ; chosen deacon of the church in 1717 and 
1728. He devised all his lands in Essex county to his two 
sons, Adrian A. Post and Merseillas Post. 

II. Garrit, bap. Jan. I, 1680 ; m. ist. Lea Straet, Dec. 
25, 1704; 2d, Fransyntje Peterse, Jan. 4, 1726; elected 
deacon in 1718, and elder in 1726. 

III. Claertje, bap. Dec. 4, 1681 ; m. Pieter Helmigse 
(Van Houten), April 8, 1703. 

IV. Annetje, bap. May 6, 1685. 

V. Pieter, bap. Oct. 21, 16S8, m. Catharina (Catelyntje) 
Beekman, Dec. 8, 1710. There is reason to believe that 
this Pieter Post was the same who by deeds of lease and 
release, dated May 3-4, 1736, bought from Richard Ash- 
field, of New York, a tract of 428 acres "at Wanuch 
[Wanaque] adjoining Cornelius and Jacobus Blinkerhoff on 
the Paquanack, Pomtan and Packhack rivers."! He doubt- 
less established a grist and saw mill soon after his settle- 
ment, which was carried on afterwards by his son, Peter 
Post, miller ; the latter sold, March 3, 1770, to Gorlyne 
Doremus, of Pequanack, yeoman, a tract of twenty acres, 
including "where the old house of said Peter Post now 
stands. "3 From the first Peter Post proceeded the Posts of 
Pompton and West Milford. By his will, dated Decem- 
ber 3, 1757, but not proved until April 25, 1783, it appears 
that Pieter had married a second time. The following is 
his will : 

In the Name of God Amen I Peter Post of Pomlon in the County of 
Bergen & Eastern devision of the province of New Jersey Esqr. being 
well and of a perfect mind and memory thanlis be to God do make & 
ordain this my last Will & Testament in manner and form following 
first I commit my Soul into the hands of Almighty God and my body 
to be buried at the discretion of my executors hereafter named and as 
touching the disposition of all such Temporal Estate as it hath pleased 
Almighty God to bestow upon me I give & dispose thereof as foUoweth 
first I will that all my just Debts & Funeral charges shall be honourably 
paid and discharged Item I give unto my Eldest son aderyaen post my 
Silver Tankard in Right of his priini^aniiure or Birth right Item I give 
unto my son Peter Post my Silver Cup Item I give unto my Son Gerret 
Post my Silver Box Item I give unto ray three Children and my Grand 
Child Namely Aderyain Post Peter Post Catrina Cool and my Grand 
Child Catrina Post five Silver Spoons to be delivered within Seven 
Weeks after my Deceas Item my will and pleasure is that my loving 
Wife Johana shall have hold and enjoy all my Estate both Real & Per- 
sonal During She continues to be my weadow and the above mentioned 
Articles Not to be in force before that time Except- in the five Silver 
Spoons and my will is that then my two Daughters and my Grand 
Child Namely Catrina Cool iVtary Mead and Catrina Post shall have 
all the Remainder of my Silverware not disposed of before to be equally 
devided between them Item I Give unto my two Sons Peter Post and 
Gerret Post all that Tract of Land or Plantation where I now Dwell on 
and where my said son Peter now Dwellefh on the upper part or half 
unto the said peter Post his heirs and Assigns for ever and the lower part 
or half unto the said Gerret Post his heirs and Assigns for ever to be 
equally devided between them and that after such manner so as not to 
take away any of their buildings or orchards Subject Nevertheless to the 
Raising of Portion for the rest of my Children as hereby is directed 
That is my sd. Son Peter Post shall pay within a Year after the Death 
of my Wife or after she ceases to be my Widow unto my Daughter 
Catriena Cool or to her Heirs Executors Administrators or Assigns the 
sum of fifty Pounds lawfuU Money of the Province of New York and 
my Son Gerret Post shall pay within a Year after the death of my Wife 
or after she ceases to be my widow unto my Daughter Mary Mead or 

t Bergen County Transcribed Deeds, A, 42-43. 
2 lb., 128.] 

her Heirs Executors Administrators or Assigns the sum of Fifty Pounds 
Lawful money of the Province of New York Item I give and bequeath 
unto ray Grand Child Catrina post Child of my Daughter Johana deceas- 
ed a Bond of Fifty Pounds which bond bears date the 29th of March 
1757 to be Paid by my Son Aderyan Post ray will is that the said Bond 
shall be paid at or before my said Grand Child shall come to be 
of the Age of Eighteen Years and in Case she shall happen to die 
without Heirs of her Body then it is to be equally Devided amongst 
the Rest of my Children further my will and Pleasure is that all the 
remainder part of my Rail and personally Estate Not heretofore is 
disposed of after the death of my Wife or after she ceases to be 
my widow shall be equally divided among my five Children Namely, 
Aderyian Post Peter Post Gerret Post and my two Daughter 
Catriena Cool and Mary Mead Item I do hereby Nominate and Ap- 
point my three sons Aderyian Post Peter Post and Gerret Post to be 
the Executors of this my Last Will And Testament Intreating of 
them to cause the same to be Punctually performed fulfil'd and Kept 
Item and lastly I do hereby revoke and make void all former and other 
wills by me heretofore made Declaring this to be my Last will and Tes- 
tament In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and Seal this 
third day of December in the Thirtith year of the Reign of our sover- 
eign Lord George the Second over Great Brittaing &c King Anno Dom 
■757 Signed Sealed Published and declared by the said Peter Post to be 
his last will and Testament in the Presence of us After the Word unto 
between the fourth and fifth Line from below on the other side and the 
word to between the first and second line from above being first in- 
terlined and also the Word Rail and between the third and fourth Line 
from above being interlined Jacobus Barguo, George Ruyerse Pyeter 
Berry L 

Peter Post [L. S.] 

VI. Johannes, bap. June 10, 1690 ; m. Elizabeth Helm- 
igse van Houten, Oct. 8, 1714; chosen deacon in 1727 and 
in 1731 ; elder in 1734 and 1742. His will, dated May 10, 
1776, was proved Nov. 23, 1783. It does not mention his 
wife, who was probably dead when it was written. He dis- 
posed of his property as follows : 

In the name of God amen I Johannis Post of Sadie River in the County 
of Bergin and in the Eastern Division of New Jersey yeoman Being in 
Good Health of Body and of Perfect mind and memory Thanks be Given 
unto God Calling to mind the Mortality of my Body and knovring that it 
is appointed unto all men Once to Die do make and Ordain this my Last 
Will and Testament, That is to say Principally and first of all I Give my 
soul into the Hand of Almighty God that Gave it and my Body I Recom- 
mend to the Earth to be Buried in Decent Christian Burial at the Discrea- 
tion of my Executors not Doubting but at the General Resurrection I 
shall Receive the same again by the Almighty power of God, And 
as touching such Estate wherewith God hath been pleased to bless me 
in this Life I Give Demise & Dispose of the same in the following man- 
ner & form Imprimis, I Give and Bequeath unto my Oldest son Adriaen 
my Bible for his Birth-right To my son Cornelius I Give all my Farm- 
ing Utensils then my Just Debts (if any there be) must be paid out of 
the Then Remaining part of my Moveables, the Then Remaining 
Moveables must be Divided Between all my Children or their Heirs or 
Assigns Namely Adriaen, Helmich, Gerrit, Peter, John, Cornelius, Jan- 
nilye, and Antye, Equally share and share Alike. Item my Lands I 
Give unto my three sons Peter, John, and Cornelius their Heirs or 
Assigns that is to say, unto my son John or his Heirs or Assigns the 
fourth part of the Breadth of the Lott I Dwell upon Extending from the 
River Pasaick to the Rear of said Land Excepting the Mowing Ground 
which lies in said part of Land this fourth part is the Southermost part 
of said Lott of Land Joining to the Land of Thomas Van Repene. And 
I also Give to my son Peter or his Heirs or Assigns one fourth part of 
the Breadth of Lott of Land Next to my son John's part Extending 
from said River to the Rear of said Land. And also one Square Acre 
of Land out of the Southwesterly Corner of the Moiety or half of my 
said Land Excepting the mowmg Ground which Lies in said fourth part 
of Land. I Also Give unto my son Cornelius or his Heirs or Assigns 
the other Moiety or half of my said Lott of Land with ray Dwelling 

1 Recorded in Book No. 25 of Wills, Trenton, page 349, &c. 



House Barn with the Appurtenances thereunto Belonging Excepting 
the Mowing Ground which lies in said part of Land. The Mowing 
Ground which lies in said Lotts of Land shall be held in Common 
Between my three sons to wit Peter John and Cornelius. Also one par- 
cel or Lott of Land Knowen by the name of the Geer Hook. I also 
Give to my three sons Peter John and Cornelius or their Heirs or 
Assigns forever they paying the sum of one Hundred and Twenty five 
pounds New York money my son Peter must pay the sum of Thirty 
seven pounds ten Shillings, my son John must pay Thirty seven pounds 
ten shillings, my son Cornelius must pay Fifty pounds, all which said 
sums of money must be paid within four years after my Decease which 
said sum of One Hundred and Twenty five pounds shall be Equally Di- 
vided Amongst my five Children to vrit. Adriaen, Helmech, Gerrit, 
Janitye, Antye, to each of them their Heirs or Assigns the sum of 
Twenty five pounds. Furthermore my part in the Brewketle with the 
appurtenances to the same Belonging standing at Philip V. Bussems all 
my Children shall have an Equal Right in said Brew House in Case any 
Mine or Mines should be found or Discovered on any of my said Lands 
All my Children shall have an Equal right to the same, provided they 
Bear an' equal part of the Costs and Damages that shall Arise thereby. 
And I do Revoke and Disannul all former wills by me made Ratify- 
ing & Confirming this to be my last will and Testament this tenth Day 
of May Anno. Domini one Thousand seven Hundred and Seventy six. 
In Witness Whereof I do hereunto set my hand and seaU 

John Post [L. S.] 
Signed Sealed and Delivered) 
in the presence of us j 

David Marinus Junr. Harmanis Van. Bossem Abraham X Bush 


Frans-Adrian Post and Maritje Kobis (Jacobus) had chil- 
dren : 

I. Adrian, bap. March 29, 1692; m. Tryntje Xanders 
(Catharina Sanders); he was chosen deacon in 1738. In 
the subdivision of the Bogt tract in 1714, he received Lots 
II and 12 West. (See p. 75 ante.) 

II. Jacobus, m. Maritje Christyn. He owned Lot No. 
.4, West, in the Bogt subdivision. (See pp. 72-73, ante.) 
He was elected deacon of the Acquackanonk church in 
1741, and was one of the first elders of the Totowa church, 
in 1756. He settled near Little Falls at an early day, where 
he had a grist mill and a saw mill of some prominence. In 
laying out a road in 1750 from Horseneck to Little Falls, 
■the surveyors of the highways met "at the mills of Jacobus 

III. Johannes, m. Johanna Houwerd, both of Acquack- 
anonk, Dec. 26, 1726. His will, dated March 3, 1772, proved 
May 7, 1773, witnessed by Cornelis Garresse, Hendrick 
Garritson and Garrit Garritson (all his neighbors in the 
Bogt), made this disposition of his property, which appar- 
ently was not large : 

In the Name of God Amen, I Johannes F ; Post of Achqueghenonk 
in the County of Essex and Province of New Jersey Yeoman being weak 
in body but of Perfect mind and Memory (Blessed be God therefore) do 
this third day of March in the year of our Lord one thousand Seven hun- 
dred and Seventy two Make and Publish this my Last Will and Testa- 
ment in manner following (that is to say) Imprimis my will is that my 
Executors herein after named shall Discharge all my Just Debts and 
funeral Expences Item I Give to my Daughter Claertye the Sum of 
Seven Pounds Item my Will is that my Executors herein Named shall 
Raise so much money out of my Estate to buy for my two Daughters 
Molly and Elizabeth for each of them a New Suit of Clothes Each to the 
Value of five Pounds Item I Give to my Daughter Maayke my Gum 
Chest and all the Remainder of my money and also all my Real Estate 
Estate in the County of Esse.x or Elsewhere Item I Give to my Grand- 

1 Recorded in Book No. 25 of Wills, Trenton, page 263. 

son John Mills all my Sunday Clothes and the Remainder of all my 
Clothes I Give to my Grand Son Christopher Burt, and I do make and 
Ordain my Couzins Fran's la Post and John la Post to be E.xecutors of 
this my Last Will and Testament and do hereby Disannul all former 
Wills by me made Ratifi'ing and confirming this to be my Last Will and 
Testament In Witness whereof I the said John F. Post have to this my 
Last Will and Testament Set my Hand and Seal the Day and year first 
above written. 1 


Johannes F. X Post [L. S.] 


IV. Hendrik, m. Elizabeth Christyn, Dec. 25, 1728; 
he lived at Acquackanonk, and she at Hackensack, at the- 
time of their marriage. He owned and occupied the farm 
on the Wesel road, being the second farm south of Market 
street, now owned by ex-Judge John N. Terhune, and which 
then extended from the river to tire Wesel mountain. He 
also owned Lot No. 3, West, in the Bogt subdivision. (See p. 
73 ante.) He was called "Oude Hank" — old Henry — Post, 
to distinguish him from others of the same name. His 
will, dated May 27, 1777, proved January 13, 1790, is as fol- 
lows : 

In the Name of God Amen I Hendrick Post of Weesel in the Town- 
ship of Achquegenonk in the county of Essex and in the eastern divis- 
ion of the province of New Jersey husbandman being in good health of 
body and of perfict mind and memory blessed be God therefore do this 
twenty seventh day of may in the year of our Lord one thousand seven , 
hundred and seventy seven make and publish this my last Will and tes- 
tament in manner and form following, that is to say. Imprimis, I Rec- 
ommend my soul into the hands of Almighty God who gave it me and 
my body to the earth from whence i t came m hopes of a joyful Ressui ec- 
tion through the merits of my Saviour Jesus Christ and as for that 
Worldly estate wherewith it has pleased God to bless me in this life I 
give and dispose thereof as follows, First my Will is that aU my Just 
debts and funeral expences be paid and discharged by my execu- 
tors herein named. Item I give and bequeath to my eldest son Frances 
Post five pounds for his birthright Item I give and bequeath also to my 
sd. Son Frances Post to him his heirs and assigns forever all my land 
laying in the county of bergen together with all the priviledges heredit- 
aments and appurtenances thereunto belonging. Item I give and be- 
queath to my son Hendrick Post to him his heirs and assigns forever all 
my land laj'ing in the county of Essex abovesaid together with all the 
buildings priviledges hereditaments and appurtenances thereunto be- 
longing I give and bequeath also to my sd. son Hendrick Post and to 
his heirs and assigns forever three of my horses that is to say the choice 
of all my horses also my Waggon also my gun also one of my plows. 
Item it is my Will that all the remainder of my moveable estate shall be 
equally divided between all my children to wit. Francis, Hendrick and 
my daughter Leena now wife to John Sickels share and share alike and 
that in a Reasonable time after my decease and further it is my will and 
order that my said son Hendrick shall pay the sum of one hundred 
pounds currant money of New York to my sd. Son Frances and my sd. 
daughter Leena that is to say to my son Frances his heirs or assigns 
the sum of thirty pounds and to my daughter Leena her heirs or as- 
signs the sum of seventy pounds and that at the expiration of ten years 
after my decease. And I do hereby nominate constitute and appoint my 
two sons above named e.xecutors of this my last Will and testament. 
And do hereby revoke and disannuU all former Wills by me made rati- 
ifying and confirming this to be my last Will and testament IN WIT- 
NESS Whereof I the said Hendrick Post have to this my last Will and 
testament set my hand and seal the day and year first above written.2 

Hendrick Post [L. S.] 

Signed Sealed published and declared by j 
the said Hendrick Post as and for his last | 

Will and testament in the presence of. Ja- }- « 

cob Van Reiper, Michael H. Vreeland, 
Hessel Peterse 

1 Recorded in Liber L of Wills, Trenton, f. 47. 

2 Recorded in Book No. 30 of Wills, Trenton, page 354. 



Fourth Generation. 

Adrian-Adrian-Adrian Post and Elizabeth Merselis had 
issue : 

I. Adrian, b. in New York; m. 1st, Martje Thomasse 
(Van Rypen), Jan. 9, 1730; both were of Acquackanonk at 
the time; 2d, Jannetje, dau. of Hendricls; Gerritse (van 
Wagoner), Feb. 23, 1739. He was called Adrian A. Post, 
or Adrian Post, Jun. He was a baker by trade. In part- 
nership with his brother-in-law, Jurian Thomasse (Van Ry- 
pen), he bought from the Indians the Island and river bot- 
tom below the Falls, near the present West street bridge, 
in Paterson, the conveyance being as follows : 

I Tachthochear native of America have given granted bargained sold 
and confirmed .... unto Jurian Thomasse of the county of Bergen 
yeoman and Adrian A! Post of Essex county baker all that the stream 
and Bottom of the river commonly known by the name of Pesaik river 
to wit Beginning at the lowermost or northeasterly end of the Island 
(which lays in said River a little above the place where the Bridge form- 
erly laid over said River) and so up stream of said river to the upper- 
most or southwesterly end of said Island with all the rocks stones and 
all the benefits privileges .... for and in consideration of 20 shillings 
current money of said Province. 

Dated Dec. 10, 1737.I the 

Tahthoch- yf ear 
mark of 
In presence of 
Michael Vreelandt 
George Vreland 

This purchase was undoubtedly made with the intention 
of erecting a grist mill; but, for reasons which will appear 
hereafter, the project was not carried out by Post and 
Thomasse. It was doubtless, however, in pursuance of this 
scheme that Post soon after acquired a mill-seat at Slooter- 
dam, on the east bank of the Passaic river, at the present 
Dundee dam. This he probably secui-ed either from or in 
partnership with Joost (Joseph) Coch, whose name is some- 
times written Kugh, or Kough. By deed (unrecorded) da- 
ted March 25, 1765, for the consideration of .£475, Joost 
Coch, alias Kugh, of Saddle River, yeoman, gives, grants, 
bargains and sells unto Adriaen Post, of Saddle Rivei', 
miller : 

The Moity or Just Equall half part of a Certain Grist-mill Boulting 
Mill Milhouse Sawmill with an Equall half Part of all the Lands Streams 
Dams water water Courses together with a dwelling House on said 
Land as also all the Moveables to the said Mills and Dwelling House 
belonging and all Manner of Appurtainances benifitts and Profitts to 
the said Mills Streams Lands and Houses belonging the same being 
Scituate laying and being at a Place called called Slotterdam in the Pre- 
cinct of Saddle River in the County of Bergen and Eastern Division of 
New Jersey To have and to hold the above granted Premises to- 
gether with all the appurtenances as above granted unto the above- 
said Adriaen Post and unto his Heirs and Assigns forever acquitted of 
all manner of former gifts grants bargains Sales Leases Releases wills 
dowries Entails and all manner of Incumbrances whatsoever and the 
said Jost Kugh doth with the voluntary consent of Marytje his wife for 
himself His Heirs E.xecutors Administrators and Every of them Cove- 
nant to and with said Adriaen Post and his Heirs and Assigns forever, 

This document was witnessed by David Marinus and 
Harmanus Van Bossem, and was proved March 13, 1769, 
by David Marinus, before Peter Zabriskie, Judge of the 
Bergen common pleas. 

It would seem that as Adriaen Post got older he relin- 
quished the management of his mills to his son, Adriaen, 
and removed across the river, to Acquackanonk. By deed 
(unrecorded) dated April 11, 1780, witnessed by Henry Gar- 
ritse, Junr, and Michael H. Vreelandt, for the considera- 
tion of £100 New Jersey money, Adriaen A. Post and Yan- 
nity his wife, of Acquackanonk, give, grant, bargain and 
sell, in fee simple, to Adriaen A. Post, Jun., of Saddle 
River : 

All that Certain Parcel or Tract of Land Situate lying and being in 
the County of Bergain aforesaid being the Land which the sd Adriaen 
A. Post Junr now Dwells upon Contain about Two Acres Bounded 
West by Passaick River North by land of Joost Kugh East by Land of 
Arie G Post and South by Land of sd Arie Post And also one other 
Tract or Parcel of Land that is to say the one equal fourth Part of all 
that my Lot of Land Situate lying and being in the Mountain between 
Peckmans River and achqueghenonch Patent and also Between the lots 
of land now Possessed by Abraham Jo Ryker and the lot of Har- 
manis Van Wagenen. 

By deed (unrecorded) dated June 27, 1772, Adrian A, 
Post, of Aquackennonck, quit-claims to his brother, Mer- 
seillas Post, in fee, "all that Certain Messuage or Tene- 
ment where he the said Merseillas Post now dwelleth or re- 
sideth, with two third parts of Salt Meadow in the Bounda- 
ries of Newark Also one equal half part of Lot No. 2 Lying 
and being in the Cabarrachtel Butted and Bounded and 
Laying between the Lands of Johannis Sip and Harmanus. 
Van Waggoner with all the lands that shall or may be found 
in the Patent of Acquackennonck aforesaid or Elsewhere 
that was the property of the said Adrian Post deceased (Ex- 
cepting the Lands and Tenements now released by the said 
Merseillas Post to the said Adrian A. Post.)." From the pa- 
renthetic clause it appears that Merselis Post quit-claimed to 
Adrian the otb er half of the property, by deed of even date. 
II. Mercelius, m. Annatje Sip, both being of Acquack- 
anonk, Oct. 4, 1733. His will, dated Dec. 20, 1782, was 
witnessed by Lucas Wessels, Adrian M. Post and Hessel 
Peterse; it was proved Jan. 21, 1789, so that the testator 
must have approached his eightieth year ere he died. He 
disposed of his property in this manner: 

Item it is my Will that My Beloved Wife Annaaty shall possess and 
Enjoy All my Estate Both Real and Personal during her Life time for 
her Maintainance and After her Decease I Give to my Eldest Son Hel- 
mug ten shillings for his Birth Right. Item Give and Bequeath also to 
my said Son Helmug and to his Heirs and Assigns forever all that My 
Lott of Land he now Dwells uppon laying Between the Lots of Adriaen 
Post & John Sip Also All that my Land laying in Westermost Teer of 
Lots and Between the lots now in possession of Enoch C. Vreeland and 
Henry Doreemus Also all that My Lot Land laj'ing On the South side 
of the Lane which leads from said Achqueghenonck to the Little Falls 2 
and Between the Lots of Dirrick Vreeland and John Stymets Contain- 
ing About fourteen Acres Also the one equal half part of All my Land 
laying in the Mountain to the Westward of said Achqueghenonck Paten 
together With all the Buildings Improvements Priviledges and Appur- 
tenances Whatsoever to the same belonging or Appertaining Also 
the One Equal third part of All my right which I Have in a stilt togeth- 
er With the One Equal third part of All my right which I have in a Still 
House with the Appurtenances thereunto belonging Item I give and 
Bequeath to my Son Adriaen and to his Heirs and Assigns forever All 
the remaining part of All my Land and Meadow, not herein Above De- 
vised to my said Son Helmug whether in the County of Esse.x Bergen or 

IE. J. Deeds, E 2, f. 158. 

1 Geberg'te — at the mountain. 

2 Clifton or Van Houten avenue. 



Elsewhere that is to say after the death of my said Wife Together With 
All the Buildings Improvements Previledg-es Hereditaments And Ap- 
purtenances whatsoever to the same belonging or in Any Wise Apper- 
taining, Item I give also to my said Son Adriaen and to his Heirs and 
Assigns two Equal third parts of all my Right I have in a still together 
with two Equal thjrd parts of All my Right which I have in a still 
House with the Appurtenances thereunto belonging Also All my Farm- 
ing Utensils and also the Choice of two Horses and the Remainder of 
my Personal Estate It is my Will shall be equally divideded Among all 
my Children Namely Helmug Adriaen, and my Daughters Lybetye Ger- 
ritye & Annetye share & share a Like and that in a reasonable time after 
the death of my said Wife, And further it is my Will and Order that My 
said son Helmug his Heirs Executors Or Administrators shaU pay to 
Each of my said Daughters their Heirs or Assigns the sum of Twenty 
One pounds thirteen shillings and four pence Current Money' of New 
York and that Within four Years after the death of me and My said Wife 
and my said Son Adriaen shall likewise pay to Each of my said Daugh- 
ters their Heirs or Assigns the Sum of Twenty Eight pounds Six shil- 
lings and Eight pence Currant Money of New York and that Within four 
Years as above said and I do Nominate and Appoint my sd two sons and 
My Cozin Richard, V. Rypen Executors of this my Last WiU and Tes- 
tament and do hereby revoke and disannul All former Wills by me Made 
ratifying and Confirming this to be my last WiU and Testament In Wit- 
ness Whereof I have hereunto set my Hand and seal the day and Year 
Above Written.l 

Marselus X Post [L. S.] 

Gerrit-Adrian-Adrian Post and Lea Straet had issue : 

I. Adrian, b. Dec. iS, 1705 ; m. Rachel Hertje, or 
Hartte, he and his bride both being of Acquackanonk, Jan. 

9, 1730- 

II. Geesje, b. July 4, 1708; m. Cornelis Aeltse, Jan. 
19, 1728. Aeltse owned Lot No. 11 in the Goutum subdivis- 
ion, on the Wesel road, described in 1806 as "between the 
church and Wesel as laid out by John Ver Kerk bounded on 
the east by the public road that leads from the landing to Pat- 
erson, on the north by lands of Henry Garritse, and on the 
west and south by lands of the heirs of Hessel Peterse, late 
of Wesel, deceased." He doubtless owned to the river, 
also. This Lot he conveyed to his brother-in-law, Gerrit 
Post, by deed (unrecorded) dated May 2, 1748. Subse- 
quently, a plot of fourteen acres was "taken off the end," 
probably where Thomas Post had his grist mill and distil- 
lery in later years. 

III. Katrina, b. Nov. 30, 1714; m. Johannes Stymets, 

, 1737- 

IV. Rachel, b. March 21, 1717; m. Cornelis van Houte, 
Jan. II, 1735. 

V. Autje, b. Aug. 20, 1719; m. Helmech Van Houten, 
b. at Gemoenapan, living at Totowa, Oct. 29, 1742. 

VI. Gerret, f b. Dec. 12, 1721. Gerret probably m. 
.VII. Leeje, ) Antje Stymets. 

By his second wife, Fransyntje Peterse, Gerrit Post had 
issue : 

VIII. Claertje, b. Atig. 11, 1727. 
IX. Jannetje, b. July 15, 1729. 

X. , bap. Sept. 12, 1731. (This was probably the 

Johannis G. Post, widower, who m. Catrina Van Winkle, 
Oct. 20, 1759.) 

Pieter-Adrian-Adrian Post had children : 

1 Recorded in Book No. 33 of Wills, Trenton, page 374. 

I. Pietertje, m. Dirck Thomasse (van Ripen), Sept. 
28, 1732. 

II. Adrian. He was sued in the Essex common pleas, 
Sept. 17, 1753, by Robert and Richard Ray, for £10, 19s. 
6d., and on April 9, 1754, confessed judgment fur £g, 2s. 
6d., "money ac 8 oz." 

III. Peter, m. Elizabeth, dau. of John Van Voorhies, 
of Wykofl. Pie succeeded his father in carrying on the 
grist and saw mills at Pompton. His will, dated February 
6, 1776, proved March 29, 1781, is unusually voluminous 
and minute in its details, and throws considerable light on 
the family history : 

In the Name of God Amen I Peter post Senr. of pompton in the 
County of Bergen & province of East New Jersey being through the 
abundant Mercy and Goodness of God tho weak in Body yet of a Sound 
yei a/ a Sound and Perfect Understanding and memory do Constitute 
this my last Will and Testament, and desire it may be received by all 
as Such First I most humbly bequeath my Soul to God my Maker be- 
seeching his most Gracious acceptance of it through the all Sufficient 
Merits & jNIedation of my most Compassionate Redeemer Jesus Christ 
who gave himself to be an Atonement for my Sins and is Able to Save 
to the Uttermost all that Come to God, by him. Seeing he ever liveth to 
make Intercession for them, and who I trust vrill not reject me, a re- 
turning penitent Sinner, when I Come to him for Mercy in this Hope 
and Confidence, I render up my Soul with Comfort, humbly beseeching 
the most blessed and Glorious Trinity, one God most Holy most Merci- 
ful & Gracious, to prepare me for my Dissolution, and then to take Me 
to himself into that peace and rest, and Incomparable, Felicity which he 
has prepared for all that Love and fear his Holy Name, Amen, Blessed 
be God. I give my Body to the Earth, from whence it was taken in full 
Assurance of its resurrection from hence at the Last day. As for my 
Burial, I desire it may be decent, without pomp or State at the discretion 
of my Dear Wife and my Executors hereafter Named who I doubt not 
will manage it with all requisite Prudence, As to ray Worldly Estate 
wherewith it hath pleased God to bless me in this Life I give demise 
and dispose of in the following Manner and form. Firstly that my Just 
& Lawful debts be paid, I give and Bequeath unto Elizabeth my Dearly 
beloved Wife all my Estate both real and personal During Her Natural 
Life so long as She remains my Widow, but if She Should Incline to 
JSIarry She may not take away or make use of any part of my Estate 
or Goods Saving or Excepting her own wearing Apparel, As Concern- 
ing my two Sons Peter and Adrian I also give and bequeath unto them 
all that Lands made unto Me by my Father in his last Will & Testa- 
ment, Each an Equal half in Quantity and Quality, but I will and Order 
that my Son Henry is to have three Acres of Land out of my Son 
Adrians part and also where Peter & Adrian Joins their Lands along the 
Roadside and my Said two Sons Peter and Adrian must Build thereon a 
Good Stone House with one Good Comfortable Room and a Cellar 
under the Same for their Brother Henry with his help I also Will and 
bequeath unto my Son John my my Large Dutch Bible I likewise give 
and bequeath unto my Six Daughters Catherine post, Abigail post, 
Elizabeth post Anate Post, Mary post, & Margaret post to Each of them 
twenty five pounds New York Currency and to be paid out of an Estate 
made Unto my Wife by my Father in Laws last Will and Testament 
lying and being at Wykofi as far as it will reach and if it do not Amount 
to that Money to take of the Note Gelyn Doremus promised to pay for 
John post Dated the third day of March 1770, But & if the said Estate 
and Note cannot make up the full Sum to the Girls and as I have 
directed above then peter & Adrian is to make it fully up Each Equal 
alike, and to be paid to the Girls after there Mothers decease and not 
before. As Concerning my Swamp I will and Order the Largest 
ditch runing Northerly and Southerly through Near the Bliddle of 
the Same Shall be the division thereof between my Sons Peter & 
Adrian that is I give all my Right and Title of the westermost Side Unto 
Peter which he has now in possession and the Easterly Side unto 
Adrian and he is to give unto his Brother Henry the one half of his part 
thereof at the Northermost End, Henry is to have it after he Comes to 
Marry and wants it in his family Adrian is let him have it. as to the 



"Beaver pond for which I have a Deed and is recorded and now lies in 
the Hands of Lawyer DeHart in Morris Town, After paying for and 
■Clearing the Same together that is my two Sons Peter and Adrian are to 
divide Equally between them in Quantity and Quality there is a Small 
Fraction or Matter of Land which my Son John has over and above of 
his Unckle Garrit post that when you Come to divide I will that (if it 
cannot be Otherwise Settled) let my Brother Garret have in lieu thereof 
the Same Quantity from my Sons Peter and Adrian along the Division 
Line between them and their Uncle Garrit, as to my Silver Spoons my 
sd Wife Elizabeth is to get two More and then after her Death Each 
Child is to have One, Now as Concerning the Mountain Called Cashey 
Borrogh my Sons Peter and Adrian is to devide between themselves 
as well as they Can Agree and if the cannot Agree they must Get 
their Executors to Agree for them Therefore all my Household Goods 
and Chatties Cattle Houses Mills, Barn and all Other Buildings & 
Utencils Negroes and my Estate real and personal I give and Bequeath 
unto my Loving Wife Elizabeth during Her Natural Life or Widow- 
hood as before Mentioned with this Proviso that Nothing be Unneces- 
arily Destroyed by her but what must be to the Support of the family, I 
do hereby Will and Order that my son Adrian, live in the family, with 
his Mother and the Children During his Mothers Natural Life or 
Widowhood and to use the utmost of his Endeavors to Support bring 
up and Maintain the family and to let nothing be Destroyed of what he 
possibly can prevent, and not dispose, Sell or malce way Vfith Any 
Individual thing belonging to the Estate without the Knowledge and 
Consent of his Mother And furthermore I Will Order, bind & Command 
that none of my Children Shall disturb, Quarrel, or dispute with their 
Mother, particularly particularly Peter and his Wife and Adrian and 
his Wife nor by any of the Children to make her Life Uneasy during 
her Natural Life or Widowhood and that if he She or they Shall will or 
may Transgress or Offend in this Sort I do hereby give unto my sd 
Loving Wife Elizabeth full Power and Authority to turn out or off the 
place Instantly Such Offender or Offenders without delay at her pleasure 
I do leave my Loving Wife Elizabeth and my Loving Son Adrian in full 
Adrian in full possession of all my Estate which they Now possess 
& and if Adrian Can pay the debts and keep the place Clear So as there 
May be no Occasion of Selling off then Adrian is to have the Negro Boy 
named Jo. Otherwise he must be Sold to pay the debts and that by 
your Mothers Consent. Item I will and Order that my Son Adrian is to 
bring up the Small Children in Education, Victualing, Clothing and 
Other Necessary s with the help of his Mother as well as the others, 
were brought up Namely Elizabeth, Anate, Mary & peggy and to have 
as good an Outset at their Marriage (if so please God) as Catharine had 
& Abigail to have her part likewise. And Lastly I will & bequeath 
Unto my Loving Son Adrian (after the Death of his Mother or when 
She Ceases to be my Widow) All my Buildings Houses, Mill, Barn, 
Orchard, Waggons ploughs. Harrows with their tackling & furniture & 
two Horses. And the remainder if there any be I will that it be Equal- 
ly divided Among all my Children, after my Said Wifes decease or Mar- 
riage And I further Will and Order and it is my desire that my Son 
peter Shall have the Northermost divission of my Lands whereon he 
now dwelleth and Adrian the Southerly part thereof, As to raising 
Cattle or Stock, I will that Adrian Shall raise but one Head to his 
Mothers two, and if Stock is Sold & the debt paid Adrian is to have one 
Shilling and his Mother two of what remains Over. And I do hereby 
make. Constitute and Confirm my trusty and Loving friends Joost 
Beam and Abraham Bertholf as my faithful E.xecutors in this my last 
Will & Testament IN WITNESS Whereof I have hereunto Set my 
Hand and Seal this Si.xth day of February in the Year of Our Lord One 
thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy Six. 1776. 

Peter Post [SEAL] Signed and Sealed In presence of James Bertolf 
Robert Clark 

WHEREAS I Peter Post in this my Will has forgot this Clause at the 
first I will & Order that if any of my Sons Should decease without a 
Real Heir of their Body that he or their Estate (Viz) what he or they 
had of my Estate Shall be Equally divided Amongs all my Childrenl 

PETER POST [SEAL] James Bertolf Robert Clark. 
Elizabeth Van Voorhies, widow of Peter Post, left a will 
<d.ated Dec. 6, 1813, proved Aug. 10, 1816."^ 

1 Recorded in Liber No. 23 of Wills, page 98 &c. 

2 Bergen County Wills, B, 178. 

IV. Gerret, prob. m. Mary Hennion, m. bond dated 
Oct. IS, 1759. 

V. Catriena, m. ist, Hendrick Kook; 2d, Barent Kool 
(b. at Hackensack), Aug. 17, 1755. Barent Kool, or Cole, 
probably built and occupied the stone house on the north. 
side of Broadway, just east of Straight street, owned from 
about 1820 until 1893 by ex-Governor Philemon Dickerson 
and his daughter, Mrs. John M. Gould. Cole died about 

VI. Mary, m. Mead. 

VII. Johanna, m. Post. Ch., Catrina. 

Johannis-Adrian-Adrian Post and Elizabeth Helmigse 
van Hoiiten had issue : 

I. Adrian, b. June 25, 1715 ; m. Hendrickje Akker- 
man (b. and living at Hackensack), May 20, 1736. 

II. Helmegh, b. May 4, 1717 ; m. Francyntje Toers, 
both being of Acquackanonk, Dec. 5, 1740. 

III. Catrina, b. Oct. 11, 1720; d. in inf. 

IV. Gerret, b. Sept. 2, 1722 ; m. Elizabeth Toers (b. at 
Bergen, but living at Acquackanonk), April 25, 1745. In 
his will, dated June 10, 1765, proved Oct. 15, 1765, he made 
this disposition of his property : 

In the Name of God Amen this tenth day of June in the Year of our 
Lord Anno Dom. One thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty five, I Garret 
Post of Sadie River in the County of Bergen and Eastern Division of 
New Jersey yeoman, being weak of Body but of perfect mind and 
memory thanks be to God therefore and Calling to mind the mortallity 
of my Body and that it is appointed unto man Once Dy do make and or- 
dain this my last Will and Testament in the following manner and form, 
that is to say, principally I Give my Soul into the hands of God that 
gave it my Body I Recommend to the Earth to be hurried in a decent 
manner at the discretion of my Executor hereafter to be named. Noth- 
ing doubting but through the merits of Jesus Christ to receive the same 
again, and touching such worldly Estate wherewith God hath been 
pleased to Bless me in this life I Give devise Bequeath and dis- 
pose of the same in the following manner. Imprimis my will is 
that all my Just Debts & funeral Expences be paid and dis- 
charged. Item I Give devise and Bequeath unto my beloved wife 
Elizabeth the full and sole use & Improvement of all my Estate both 
real and personal with a full power to all Intents and purposes to sell 
all or any part of my Lands as if I myself had sold the same during 
the time she is my widow, but if any land remain after her desease or 
remarriage, then my Will is that the same be and remain to the Sole 
use and befit of my Son Arie Post and unto his heirs and assigns forever. 
Item I Give and Bequeath unto my Daughter Elizabeth the Sum of 
Twenty five pounds LawfuU money of New York. Item I Give and 
Bequeath unto my Daughter Annatje the Sum of twenty five pounds 
LawfuU money of New York to be paid after the desease or remarriage 
of my wife above said by my son Arie in lew of his land Item my Will 
is that all my moveable estate after the desease or remarriage of my 
wife aforesd shall be Equally divided among my three children, Arie 
Elizabeth and Annatje or their heirs or assigns Share & Share alike, 
and I do nominate Constite and appoint my beloved friend Adrijaen 
A. Post Miller to be Executor of this my last will & Testament 
and do by these presents revoke and make void all other will or wills 
Bequest or Bequests by me willed or Bequeathed and all other Execu- 
tors by me nominated holding for firm this and no other to be my last 
Will and Testament. 

Gerrit Post [L. S.] 
Signed Sealed published pronounced and declared this to be my last 
Will and Testament in the Presence of harmanus Van Bossum Philip 
Van Bossum David Marinus.l 

V. Jannitie, b. Oct. 7, 1724. 
VI Peter, b. Nov. 6, 1726; m. Neesye Gerresse, and had 

1 Recorded in Liber H of Wills, Trenton, pages 577 «Stc. 



son Joliannis, b. June 26, 1761. 

VII. Catrina, b. Sept. 15, 1729; not mentioned in her 
father's will, and probably d. young. 

VIII. Johannes, b. Sept. 2, 1731 ; m. Catrintje Retan. 
Ch., Saertje, b. July 3, 1765. 

IX. Cornelius, b. , 1736 ; m. ist, his neighbor, 

Marritje Cadmus, of Slooterdam, Dec. 18, 1760; 2d, an- 
other Slooterdam neighbor, Anna Maria Cogh or Kough, 
Jan. 4, 1767; he d. Feb. 2, 1812 ; she d. March i, 1814, 
aged 75 years, i mo., 12 days. The will of Cornelius bears 
date the day of his death ; it was proved March 24, 1812. 
He left all his property to his wife during her widowhood ; 
all his wearing apparel and $2go to his son John ; to his son 
Gerret $375 ; the remainder of his estate to his sons Cas- 
parus and Cornelius. 1 

X. Antje, prob. m. Jacob E. Vreeland, Dec. 2, 1758. 
Adrian-Frans-Adrian Post and Tryntje Xandershad issue : 
I. Francois, b. Feb. 26, 1718 ; m. Brechie or Peggy 
Hennyon, ni. bond dated June i, 1750 ; he prob. m. 2d, 
being then of Wesel, Rachel Van Rype, also of Wesel, the 
wid. of Abraham Van Winkle, Sept. 21, 1755. He lived 
near where the gas-works now stand, on Lyon street, in a 
stone house torn down about 1815. 
II. Alexander, b. Feb. 27, 1720. 

III. Peter, b. Sept. 6, 1722; m. ist, Maragrietje Wester- 

velt, of Wegherau, Oct. 19, 1751; 2d, Jacomyntje . 

He lived in the Bogt, about where Halmagh Van Winkle's 
stone house still stands, near East Eighteenth street and 
Eighth avenue. He sold his share (112 acres) of his fath- 
er's farm at the Bogt (see p. 75 ante) to Cornelius Walling 
Van Winkle, for £900. His son, Peter, removed to the 
Susquehanna country, being among the first settlers in that 
region. He returned to Paterson some years later, but 
"went back to the Susquehanna.^^ Peter's will, d^ated June 9, 
1787, proved August 16, 1787, follows : 

In the name of God Amen I Peter A Post of the Township of Ach- 
quaghenonck in the County of Essex and State of New Jersey being 
weak in body but of sound mind and memory blessed be God therefore 
do this ninth day of June in the year of Our Lord one thousand Seven 
hundred and eighty seven make and publish this my Last Will and Tes- 
tament in manner and form following, that is to say First my Will is 
that twenty pounds be paid to my Sister Elseye widow of Albert 
Bertholf and to her Heirs or Assigns and like'^vise all the remainder of 
all my just debts Debts and funeral coit of my personal estate bj"" my 
Executors herein after named. Item my Will is that all m3' Land Shall 
remain in possession of my beloved wife Jacomeinty during the time she 
shall be my widow but it is my Will that my Son Adriaen Shall have the 
management of my Plantation or lands during her Widowhood on con- 
dition that he shall allow to m}' said wife the full one equal third part of 
all the grain yearly and every year and Ukewise of Potatoes and Turn- 
ups which he shall raise on my Land during her Widowhood and after 
the death or remariage of my Said vvife I give devise and bequeath all 
my Real Estate whether in the County of Essex Bergen or elsewhere to 
my said Son Adrian his heirs and Assigns forever. Item I give and be- 
queath to my said wife and to her heirs and Assigns forever my Bed 
bedsted %vith all the furniture thereunto belonging now standing in my 
dwelling room and likewise my yong negro wench named (Deyain) 
Item I give and bequeath to my said wiie two of my Horses and three 
of my Milk Cows and three of my Sheep during her widowhood and it is 
my Will that my said Son Adriaen Shall provide pasture and hay for 

1 Bergen County Wills, A, 384. 

2 Conversation with Paul Post, in 1871. 

said Horses, Cows and Sheep during the time aforesaid Item I give and 
bequeath unto my daughter Maike one of my Cows and one HefEers and 
two Sheep and my said daughter Maike to have nine pounds five shill- 
ings and three pence in money out of my personal estate. Item I give 
and bequeath to the Children of my daughter Margrit deceased namely 
Peter and Abraham the sum of twenty three pounds out of my personal 
estate to be equally divided between them share and share alike and the 
remainder of my personal estate it is my Will and order shall be equally 
divided between my said wife Jacommeintye my said Son Adriaen my 
daughter Maike and the Children of my said daughter Jlargrit deceased 
share and Share alike that is to say my said wife one fourth part of my 
said Son Adriain one fourth part my said daughter Maike one fourth part 
and the Children of my said daughter Margrit one fourth part and that 
in a reasonable time after my decease. Item I is my WiU that my Said 
Son Adriaen shall pay or cause to be paid the sum of Twenty pounds 
unto my said daughter Maike and the Children of said iNIargarit that is to- 
say the sum of Ten pounds to my daughter Maike and the Sum of Ten 
pounds to the Children of said JNIargrit to wit Peter and Abraham and 
that at the expiration of fifteen years after my decease And I do hereby 
nomenate and appoint my loving friends John Ja Post Simeon Van 
Winckle and Cornelius Van Winckle Executors of this my Last Will and 
Testament and do hereby Revoke and disannul all former Wills by me 
made ratifing and confirming this to be my last Will and Testament 
In Witness whereof I the said Peter A Post have hereunto set my Hand 
and Seal the day and year first above written. 1 

Peter A X Post [L. S.] 
Signed Sealed published and declared by 1 
the Testator as and for his Last Will and f 
Testament in the presence of J 

Jane Stanton Rachel X Houten, Hessel Peters, 

Only Simeon Wanwinkel, Junr., and Cornelius Van Win- 
kle, qualified as executors. The former was doubtless Simeon 
John Van Winkel, of the Bogt ; the latter was Cornelius 
Walling Van Winkle, owner of the grist mill at the foot of 
Mulberry street. 

IV. Elsje, b. April I, 1726; m. Albert Bertholf. 
V. Antje, b. July 3, 1729. 
VI. Egbert, m. Saertje Stuyvesant, Nov. 9, 1765. 

Jacobus-Frans-Adrian Post and Marietje Chrystyn (or 
Maria Kirstien, as sometimes written) had children : 

I. Francoses, b. at Acquackanonk, Sept. 3, 1724; m. 
Catlyntje Van Houten (b. at Totowa, dau. of Roelof Van 
Houten), Dec. — , 1750. He was probably the Frans Post 
who owned Lot No. i, East, in the Bogt subdivision. In 
1753 and in 1758 he bought lands on the Peckamin River, 
from Abraham and Jacob Smith, and established his home- 
stead there, 2 probably southwest of Little Falls. In com- 
pany with William Alexander (Earl of Stirling), Col. John 
Reid, of New York, Walter Rutherford, of Hunterdon coun- 
ty, David Ogden, of Newark, Col. Cornelius Hetfield, of 
Elizabeth, and Y/illiam Crane, of Elizabeth, he bought a 
tract of several thousand acres at Horseneck, he owning a- 
one-ninth interest in the whole.3 On June 6, 1771, he and 
Hetfield and Crane, bought at Sheriff's sale one-third of a 
tract of 13,500 acres at Horseneck* ; Post sold an undivid- 
ed third of his interest to Harmanus Van V/agenen, by 
deed (unrecorded), dated June 13, 1771, in which he de- 

1 Recorded in Book No. 29 of Wills, Trenton, f. 403. 

2 Essex Transcribed Deeds, A, 65. 

3 Recitals in unrecorded deeds, Nelson MSS. 
* E. J. Deeds, F 3, f. 322. 




■scribed himself as of Peckamin river. 1 In 1773 he is re- 
ferred to as Capt. Frans Post. He died prior to Oct. 26, 
1792,2 intestate. 

II. Jacobus, b. June 20, 1726; m. Metje Van Wagen- 
inge (or Gerritse). 

III. John, m. 1st, Catrienna Van Houten, dau. of Rob- 
ert Van Houtenj 2d, Elizabeth ; the latter survived 

him. He was a carpenter by trade. He received by his 
father's will (Oct. 26, 1765), all or most of Lot 4, West, and 
a part of Lot 3, West, in the Bogt subdivision. 3 He also 
owned much of Lot 6, West, acquired by his father and him- 
self from the Van Blarcoms, and lying on both sides of Wil- 
lis street, west of East Eighteenth street, ^including the fa- 
mous "Peace and Plenty" tavern stand, at the northwest 
corner of those two streets. He lived in the old one-story 
stone house, with long, low roof, still standing on the south 
side of Willis street, between Madison avenue and East 
Nineteenth street, where his father had probably lived part 
■of his life. By his will, dated May 19, 1803, proved Feb. 
9, 1805, he devised to his sons — James, Robert, Adrian and 
John — "all my house and lands that I now dwell on with 
all the residue of my lands to be equally divided as soon as 
convenient after John arrives at twenty-one," until which 
-time his wife Elizabeth was to. have charge of the estate.4 

IV. Lena, b. Jan. 30, 1730. 

V. Jannetje, b. June 11, 1732. 

Johannes-Frans-Adrian Post and Johanna Houwerd had 
issue : 

I. Claerlje, b. Aug. 7, 1727. 

II. Maria > ^ . , -vt c 

III. Elizabeth! *^'"^' ^- N°^- ^6> ^7^9- 

IV. Maeijlce, b. March 21, 1732. 

One of these daughters m. Mills, and had a son 

John; another m. Burt, and had a son Christopher. 

Hendrik-Frans-Adrian Post and Elizabeth Christyn had 
children : 

I. Fransoois, b. Dec. 9, 1729 ; m. 1st, Margrietje Van 
Wagenen, both of Wesel, Dec. 26, 1756; 2d, Maragrieta 
Van Rypen, widow, July 13, 1777. He lived in New York. 

II. Helena, b. Aug. 8, 1731 ; m. John Sickels. Sick- 
els and wife (Lienor) by deed (unrecorded) dated June 9, 
1788, conveyed to Henry Kip, of New Barbadoes, a tract of 
34 acres, lying between the Wesel road and the Passaic 
river, "known as Lot Number One" — probably No. i of the 
Goutum subdivision. This property was conveyed by Hen- 
ry Kip and Jannetje his wife to Jacob En. Vreeland by deed 
(unrecorded) dated Dec. 26, 1792. 

III. Hendrick, known as Hendrick Post, jun., to dis- 
tinguish him from "Oude Hank," m. Jannetje Vreeland. 
He d. about 1820, and was buried in the family burying 
ground on the Wesel road. 

1 Recitals in unrecorded deeds, Nelson MSS. 

2 Essex Transcribed Deeds, A, 68. 

3 See p. 73, ante. 

-* Essex County Wills, A, 48. 

Fifth Generation. 

Adriaen-Adrian-Adrian-Adrian Post and Martje Thom- 
asse had issue : 

I. Adriaen, b. Dec. 2, 1730; m. Geertje Vreeland, 
Jan. 19, 1755 1; d. Jan. 11, 1806; he lived at Slooterdam, 
and carried on the mill there. She d. March 15, 1820, 
aged 87 yrs., one mo., one day. His will, dated Oct. 10, 
1805, proved May 17, 1806, is given herewith : 

In the name of God, Amen. I Adrian Post of Slotterdam in the 
Township of Saddle River in the County of Bergen and State of New 
Jersey being of sound mind and memory do make ordain and publish 
this for my last will and testament First I give and bequeath to my 
son John Post and to his heirs and assigns forever All my real estate 
that is to say the Grist and Saw Mills with the Houses lands and tene- 
ments that are belonging to me in the said County of Bergen with also 
six acres of Back meadow at Berry's Creek in said County of Bergen — 
second I give and bequeath to my Grand-son Adriyon Michl Post his 
Heirs and Assigns forever All that farm late the property of my Brother 
in law Michael Vreeland deceased situate at Weasel in the township of 
Acquacknonk and County of Essex Also sixteen Acres of Brack meadow 
at Berry's Creek in the said township of New Barbadoes and County of 
Bergen Also all my right and title of landed property at Mocapien in the 
said County of Bergen — Third I give and bequeath to all my children 
namely John Post my son my Grandson Adriyon Ml. Post my daughters 
Marritie Wife of Helmagh Van Winkle Elizabeth Wife of Elias Jn 
Vreeland and Margaret Wife of Elias Ja Vreeland all my right and 
title that may belong to me of the small lots at Acquacknonk Church to 
them their Heirs and Assigns forever share and share alike — forth — I 
give and bequeath to my three daughters aforesaid namely Maritie 
Elizabeth and Margaret their Heirs and Assigns the sum of seven 
hundred and fifty dollars each to come out of my personal Estate to be 
paid unto them by my Executors hereinafter named in six weeks after 
the death of me and my wife Gitty that is to say in six weeks after the 
death of the survivor of us — Fifth. — I give and bequeath to my son John 
Post his Heirs and Assigns all the Horses Waggons sled slays, or 
cattle sheep the one equal half of all the Hogs and all the Bags there 
may be on the place and in the mills at the decease of me and my wife 
— Sixth — my Will is that the residue of my personal estate shall be 
equally divided between my heirs hereinbefore mentioned that is to say 
to John my son to Adriyon Ml Post my Grandson and to my three 
daughters Maritie Elizabeth and Margaret share and share alike to 
them their heirs and assigns — Seventh — I further order that my Negro 
Wench named Lay shall be at;Liberty to live with any of my children 
she may choose to live with who are not to pay or allow anything for 
her that is to say after the death of my Wife and that my old wench 
Mary shall and must be maintained by my son John and my grandson 
Adriyon equally after the death of my Wife — Eight — my will further is 
that my wife Gitty shall have tlie full Command of all my Estate during 
her Hfetime to order and use the same as she may think fit but not to 
commit waste thereon. — and lastly — I appoint my son John Post my 
sons in law Elias Jn. Vreeland and Halmegh Van Winkle and Elias Ja. 
Vreeland, executors of this my Testament and last Will. 2 

Witnessed by Cornelius Van Houten, Charles Tiebon, Abraham Willis. 

II (prob.). Thomas, m. Maria Vreeland, Dec. 19, 

1761; d. Jan. 20, 1815, aged 76 yrs., 6 mos. He lived near 

the "Wesel bridge" — across the Wesel or Vreeland brook, 

in the northern part of Passaic, and probably had the small 

1 The family Bible, in excellent preservation, now in the possession 
of Mrs. Peter J. Kipp, of Clifton, has this record of the marriage : 

Anno Domni 1755 Den 19 lanuarie is Getrouwdt Adriaen A. Post 
mett Geertye M. Vrelandt op Zondagh Aghter Middagh. 

Door Domanie Davidt Marinus 

Predicant tot Achquagenonck. 

That is: Anno Domini 1755 the 19 January, Adriaen A. Post was 
married to Geertye M[ichaeU Vreeland, on Sunday afternoon, by Do- 
minie David Marinus, preacher at Acquackanonk. 

2 Bergen County Wills, A, 90. 



grist mill with one run of stone, and the distillery, carried 
on by Thomas Post of the next generation. The latter m. 
Catherine Vreeland, m. bond dated July 23, 1784. He 
and his wife conveyed, April 24, 1813, to James J. Post, 
for $5,000, a tract of fourteen acres of land on the Wesel 
road opposite John H. Garritson's — apparently the mill and 

Mercelius (Merselis)-Adrian-Adrian-Adrian Post and An- 
natje Sip had children : 

I. Helmig (Helmich), m. Metje Van Rypen. 
II. Lybetye, m. Myndert Gerrebrant, marriage bond 
dated Dec. 19, 1769. 
III. Gerritje. 

IV.' Annatje, b. Nov. 30, 1752. 

V. Adrijaen, b. May 23, 1756 ; m. Lybetje Van 
Rypen, May 14, 1786. He was called and signed his name, 
Adrian M. Post. He lived on the northwest side of the 
River road, a short distance below the old County draw- 
bridge, or south of Gregory avenue, Passaic. His will, da- 
ted Sept. 13, 1825, proved May 11, 1829,1 divided his lands 
between his three sons — John, Richard and Merseles. 

Adrian-Gerrit-Adrian-Adrian Post and Rachel Hertje 
had issue : 

I. Lea, bap. June 8, 1735 ; m. Johannis Spier, both of 
Acqiiackanonk, Dec. i, 1755. 

II. Adrian (prob.), m. Jannitje van Vechte ; she m. 
2d, Peter Gerritse, widower, Aug. 5, 1781. 

Gerrit-Gerrit-Adrian-Adrian Post and Antje Stymets had 
issue : 

I. Yacob, b. Oct. 12, 1751. 
II. Gerrit, b. Nov. 6, 1758; m. Marritje Van Rypen, 
April 10, 1796. 

Peter-Peter-Adrian-Adrian Post and Elizabeth Van Voor- 
hies had children : 
I. Peter. 
II. Adrian, known as Major Post; he was prominent 
in many ways in the local affairs of his township and coun- 
ty, holding various offices and exercising an important influ- 
ence. He had a grist mill and saw mill. By his will,3 da- 
ted Aug. 12, 1823, proved Aug. 25, 1823, he left his family 
Bible to his daughter Elizabeth; "my Bushil on the new 
testament to my son John Post;" to son John "all my right 
and title which I hold in the farm, mills, etc., where he now 
lives, together with the piece of land by the river known by 
the name of Tonass Landtye the value of which must be as- 
certained in a judicious manner so that he shall have an 
equal share of the land." The rest of his estate was to be 
equally divided between his children : i. Elizabeth, wife of 
James Bertholf ; 2. Margaret, wife of Cornelius Van Wag- 
oner; 3. Hannah, wife of Nicholas Remain; 4. Ann, wife of 
Tice (Matthias) Roome; 5. Mary, wife of Dr. Lambert 
Sythoff (issue — Margaret Ann, b. Jan. 8, 1826; Peter, b. 
April 8, 1827); 6. John. 

III. Henry, m. Elizabeth Board, June 12, 1780. 

IV. John. 

1 Essex County Wills, E, 107. 

2 Bergen County Wills, B, 423. 

V. Catherine (Catelyntje), m. Garret Neefjes, Dec. 6,. 
1788. Ch., Elizabeth, m. Andrew Smith. 

VI. Abigail, m. George G. Ryerson, both being of Sad- 
dle River township (which then included Pompton and 
West Milford townships), m. bond dated Dec. 17, 1773. 

VII. Elizabeth, m. John Van Aulen, m. bond dated Jan. 
10, 1782. 

VIII. Anate (Hannah), m. Martin Brown. 
IX. Mary, m. John Pulis. 
X. Margaret (or Peggy), m. Jacob Mead, m. bond da- 
ted June 10, 1791. 

Adrian-Johannes-Adrian-Adrian Post and Hendrickje Ak- 
kerman had issue : 

I. Elisabeth, bap. Sept. 18, 1743. 
II. Cornells, bap. Nov. 26, 1747. 

III. Annaetje, bap. Oct. 29, 1749. 

IV. Elizabeth, bap. March 8, 1752. 
V. Pieter, b. Nov. 21, 1754. 

Helmegh-Johannis-Adrian-Adrian Post and Francyntje 
Toers had children : 

I. Catrina, b. Oct. 12, 1741. 
II. Joannes, bap. March 20, 1748; m. Elisabeth Ak- 
kerman; d. March 7, 1847; she d. May 27, i860. 

John H. Post was born on the east side of the Wesel road 
(now Lexington avenue), about opposite the former parson- 
age of the First Reformed church of Passaic. There he car- 
ried on farming in a small way. When Washington marched 
through Acquackanonk with his army on that memorable re- 
treat through the Jerseys, in November, 1776, he ordered the 
Acquackanonk bridge to be cut down, in order to delay 
pursuit by the British. John H. Post was one of the party 
who performed this task, and in his later days he often re- 
counted the particulars of this fact. Also how he and 
Peter Simmons (father of ex- Judge Henry P. Simmons of 
Passaic) were detailed at the Battle of Monmouth to guard 
the water, which was of priceless value under the intense 
heat of that June day ; and how they heard Washington 
imperiously demand of Gen. Lee, "Why this untimely 
retreat ?" Post traded his farm with his wife's brother, 
Abraham Ackerman, for a piece of land near Crooks 
avenue — a transaction that turned oiit better for Ackerman 
than for Post. On his tombstone in the Fiist Reformed 
Church Cemetery at Passaic, is this inscription : 

"In — Memory of — John II. Post — A Soldier of the — 
Revolutionary War — who departed this life — on the 7th of 
March — A. D. 1847 — Aged 97I Years. — That having all 
things done — And all your conflicts past — Ye may behold 
your victory won — And stand complete at last." 

Adjoining this is the tombstone of his wife, on which is 
the following inscription : 

"In — Memory of — Elizabeth Ackerman — wife of John H. 
Post — who was born in the year — 17SS — & died May 27, 
i860 — in the 105. year of — her age." 

For many years the venerable widow received a pension 
of $120 per year from the Government, on account of her 
husband's service in the Revolution. 

1 He was within thirteen days of being ninety-nifte years old. 



III. Arie, bap. Jan. 20, 1751; m. Maria Stagg. 

IV. Jannetje; b. Dec. I, 1753. 
V. Feytje, b. Oct. 2, 1756. 

VI. Cornelus, b. Feb. 21, 1761. 
Gerrit-Johannis- Adrian-Adrian Post and Elizabeth Toers 
had children : 

I. Arie, bap. May 31, 1747 ; m. Catharina Post. Ch., 
Rachel, b. Sept. 11, 1768. 

II. Elizabeth, bap. April 12, 1752. 
III. Annatje, bap. April 27, 1755. 
Cornelius-Johannis-Adrian-Adrian Post had children : 
By his first wife, Marritje Cadmus : 

I. Johannes, b. June 9, 1761 ; m. Cornelia Cadmus, 
Oct. 26, 1782. His will, dated April 28, 1837, was proved 
Dec. 4, 1841 ; in it he describes himself as of New Barba- 

II. Hartman, b. June 21, 1764; not mentioned in his 
father's will, and probably d. unm. 

By his second wife, Anna Maria Kough : 

III. Casparus, b. 1767 ; m. Fytje Paulusse, Nov. I, 
1794; d. March 28, 1842, aged 75 yrs., 4 mos., 21 days ; 
she d. May 13, 1859, aged 85 yrs., 4 mos. His will, dated 
August 7, 1839, was proved Nov. 17, 1842. In it he de- 
vises all his estate to his wife during her widowhood ; in 
case of her remarriage she was to have one end of his 
house, together with $300. To soa Cornelius C. Post, 
" my farm and salt meadow as I now occupy them; my 
black man, Ben, and eight-day clock ; all my horses, yoke 
of oxen," etc. To daughter Nellie, wife of Albert R. 
Terhune, $500. Remainder to son and daughter above 
mentioned. His wife Sophya, his son, Cornelius C. Post, 
and son-in-law, Albert R. Terhune, were appointed execu- 
tors.2 Casparus lived on the east bank of the Passaic, a 
short distance below the Dundee dam. 

IV. Garret, b. Jan. 10, 1770 ; m. Maragrietje Vreeland, 
Oct. 18, 1793. By his will, dated July 22, 1833, proved 
August 14, 1833, Garret devised all his property to his wife ; 
no children are named in the will. 3 The witnesses were 
David D. Van Bussum, Caspar Post and Cornelius C. Post. 
His wife Margaret and Albert R. Terhune were constituted 

V. Cornelius, b. July 9, 1777 ; m. Elizabeth Van 
Winkle, Nov. 20, 1802 ; d. Feb. 13, 1855 > ^^^ d. June 28, 
1811, aged 27 yrs., 9 mos., II days. He is sometimes re- 
ferred to as Cornelius C. Post, Jr. He had a saw-mill on 
the. east bank of the Passaic, near the present Clifton 

Francois-Adrian-Frans-Adrian Post and Brechie Hennion 
had children : 

I. Catrina, b. July 14, 1751. 

II. Johannes, m. 1st, Antye Ratan; 2d, Jannetje De- 
graw, widow, July 8, 1798. He lived in the old stone house 
near East Eighteenth street and Eighth avenue. The 
premises, comprising 90 acres, were sold by his son Paul, 

1 Bergen County Wills, E, 508. 

2 Bergen County Wills, F, 25. 

3 Bergen County Wills, D, 370. 


and his widow Jane, to James Van Blarcom, by deed dated 
April 22, 1825, for $3,000.1 Van Blarcom sold some years 
later to Halmagh Van Winkle. 

Peter- Adrian-Frans-Adrian Post had children : 
By his first wife, Grietje Westervelt : 

I. Maragrietje, b. April 12, 1753; m. . Issue: 

I. Peter ; 2. Abraham. 

II. Adriaan, b. April 3, 1755. On Oct. 6, 1790, Adrian 
Peter Post mortgaged Lot No. 5, being 7.80 chains broad^ 
containing 44 acres, formerly in the possession of Jacob E. 
Vreeland, deceased. 

HI. Johannis, b. June 26, 1761. 

By his second wife, Jacomyntje : 

IV. Maecke. 
Egbert- Adrian-Frans- Adrian-Post and Saertye Stuyvesant 
had children : 

I. Adrian^ b. March 30, 1766; m. Raegel Sickles. In 
his will, dated Feb. 19, 1835, proved May 10, 1839, he de- 
scribes himself as of Secaucus.2 

II. Pryntje, b. June 23, 1769; d. May 14, 1775. 

III. Pieter, b. Nov. 4, 1771; m. Jannetje Diedricks, 
Feb. 7, 1795. 

IV. Johannis, b. Dec. 18, 1773 ; prob. m. Abby Prior,. 
May 9, 1794. 

V. Cornelius, b. May 26, 1780; d. Nov. 8, 1780. 

VI. Pryntje, b. July 13, 1784. 
Frans-Jacobus-Frans-Adrian Post and Catelyntje Van 
Houten had children : 

I. Jacobus, bap. Dec. 24, 1752 ; m. Selle Dy (Sarah, 
dau. of Derrick Dey and Sarah Toers). He lived on Pecka- 
min river, in Caldwell township, near the present county 
line, where he owned a farm of 250 acres at the time of his 
death, which occurred prior to May i, l8li.3 

II. Fytje, b. Oct. 9, 1754; m. Jacob Smith, jun., 
doubtless of Little Falls, Aug. 14, 1774. They removed to 
Honeoye Falls, Monroe county, N. Y., and afterwards to 

III. Roelif (Ralph), b. Nov. 10, 1756 ; m. Marretje 
(Mary) Post, May 14, 1786. He was a carpenter by trade^ 
and lived near his brother Jacobus. He was one of the 
Trustees of the Reformed church of Little Falls, to whom 
the site for the church was conveyed in 1801. He owned 
considerable land at Singack and at Little Falls. In 1803 
he owned a saw mill on the Peclcamin river.4 

IV. Jannetje, b. April 22, 1759; m. Dr. Philip Dey 
(son of Col. Theunis Dey and Hester Schuyler, of Lower 
Preakness), m. bond dated Sept. 7, 1780 ; d. Aug. 10, 1827. 
Dr. Dey was b. July 10, 1754; took some part in the settle- 
ment of the town of Romulus, N. Y., and returned to this 
neighborhood, where he met with a violent death, Aug. 2, 
1810, being thrown from his horse. 

V. Johannes, m. Marretje Neafie ; she was bap. May 

1 Essex Transcribed Deeds, E, 370. 

2 Bergen County Wills, E, 349. 

3 Essex Transcribed Deeds, C, 626. 
i History Passaic County Roads, 32. 



22, 1768, dau. of Cornelius Neafie and Aeltje Van Giesen, 
of Totowa. 

VI. Cornelius, m. Sarah. Dey (b. May 18, 1769, dau. of 
Thomas Dey and Abigail Lewis ; grand-dau. of Derrick 

Dey and Sarah Toers) ; she m. 2d, Hughes. Ch., 

Dirck Dey, b. May 6, 1791. 

VII. Marretje, b. Jan. 14, 1765 ; m. Isaac Pier, before 

VIII. Caroline, m. ist, Dec. 6, 1788, Garret Neafie (son 
of John Neafie and Helena Dey), b. Sept. 25, 1764; d. in 
1810; 2d, William Van Ness, b. Jan. 24, 1770 ; d. Nov. 16, 

Jacobus-Jacobus-Frans-Adrian Post and Metje Gerritse 
(van Wageninge) had children : 

I. Neesje, bap. Dec. 17, 1752. 

II. Jacobus, bap. Dec. 8, 1754; he removed to Rama- 
po, whence he returned to m. Rachel Alje (Alyea), m. bond 
dated March 11, 1783. Ch., David, b. Feb. 17, 1797. 

III. Metje, bap. April 19, 1756. 

IV. Gerrit, bap. Nov. 19, 1758. 
V. Johannis, b. May 14, 1763. 

John-Jacobus-Frans-Adrian Post and Catrienna Van 
Houten had children : 

I. Elizabeth, m. Daniel Schoonmaker, Nov. 28, 1789. 
Ch., Jane, b. Aug. 13, 1809. 

II. James. He was a protege of Mrs. Hessel Peterse, 
whose husband owned a farm extending from the river to 
the mountain, including the present Cedar Lawn Cemetery 
and Lake View, besides much other land. After his death 
she took young James to live with her. He m. Jannetje 
Van Giesen, Sept. 4, 1794. 

III. Mary, m. Cornelius Merselis. 

IV. Robert, b. Aug. 3, 1778; m. Rachel Van Derhoof. 
In the division of his father's estate, the homestead, on 
Willis street near Madison avenue, fell to his share. He 
and his wife Rachel, with the concurrence of his father's 
widow, Elizabeth Post, conveyed the homestead, with 65 
acres of land, to Peter Merselis, by deed dated May 26, 

VI. Jannetje, b. April 20, 1781 ; m. Walling-Cornelius 
Van Winkle, Feb. 23, 1800. 

VII. Adriaan, b. Jan. 21, 1784; m. Rachel Van Giesen, 
July 10, 1803 ; d. in 1822 or 1823 ; she was b. in a stone 
house on the Polifly road, where it turns toward Hacken- 
sack ; she m. 2d, Abraham Van Houten, of Broadway, Pat- 
erson, in 1823; d. Feb. 22, 1863. Adrian J. Post kept the 
famous "Peace and Plenty" tavern at the northwest corner 
of Willis and East Eighteenth streets, from about 1806 
until his death. Post was sometimes called Adrian J. 
Post, jun. He and his wife conveyed to Edo P. Merselis a 
tract of 6.14 acres "on the south side of the road that leads 
fi'om Paterson to the Landing on the east side of a lane in 
front of the said Edo P. Merselis's dwelling house," by 
deed dated April 24, 1822, for $307. This was on Market 

VIII. Johannes, b. Jan. 8, 1788; m. Elizabeth Paulusse, 

1 Essex Transcribed Deeds, B, 65. 

Jan. 23, 1808. He was called John I. or John J. Post, jun. 
He and his wife, with his father's vridow, Elizabeth, con- 
veyed to Abraham Van Blarcom, Jan. 17, 1809, for $1,475, 
a tract of 32:^ acres south of Market street; and on Dec. 6, 
1811, he sold to Simeon Van Blarcom a tract of one acre, 
on the north side of Broadway, near Straight street, for the 
munificent price of seventy-five dollars !1 

Fransoois-Hendrick-Frans-Adrian Post and Maragrietje 
Van Wagenen had children : 

I. Jannetje, b. Oct. 9, 1757. 
II. Hendrik, b. Jan. 28, 1761 ; m. Jannetje Van Hou- 
ten, Nov. 10, 1782. He was born at Wesel, but at the time 
of his marriage lived at Bergen. His wife was born at 

Hendrick-Hendrik-Frans-Adrian-Post and Jannetje Vree- 
land had children : 

I. Hendrick, b. Sept. 21, 1766; probably d. young. 
II. Hartman, b. June 15, 1770 ; m. Nancy Jackson, 
April 28, 1792. In the division of his father's property, 
Hartman received the western portion of the farm, extend- 
ing to the mountain. He lived in a stone house still stand- 
ing, on the Morris canal. His descendants and others of 
the family settled in the neighborhood, which accordingly 
came to be called "Post Town." 

III. Elizabeth, b. Dec. 17, 1771. 

IV. Beeletje, b. Jan. I, 1775 ; m. Hermanus Van Bos- 
som, jun.. May 7, 1797. 

V. Hendrick, m. Jannetje Van Houten,2 Dec. 17, 
1797 ; d. Nov. 20, 1808, intestate, aged 31 yrs., 10 mos., 8 
days, and is buried in the family burying-ground on the 
former Post homestead, on the Wesel road. His tomb- 
stone has this v^rse inscribed upon it : 

Father I give my spirit up 

And Trust it in thy hand 

I die in Flesh, shall rest in hope 

And rise at thy Command. 
His personal estate was inventoried Dec. 9, 1811, by Garret 
Van Houten and Adrian Post, at $515.29. His widow m. 
2d, Edo Van Winkle, Dec. i, 1811. Van Winkle was ap- 
pointed, Jan. 8, 1821, guardian of her minor children — - 
Henry, Cornelius and Helen. 
VI. Lena, b. Nov. i, 1780. 

Sixth Generation. 

Adrian- Adrian- Adrian- Adrian- Adrian Post and Geertje 
Vreeland had children : 

I. Adrijaen, b. May 13, 1756; prob. m. Sara Spier; 
d. Jan. 4, 1799. 

II. Michiell, b. Jan. 13, 1758; d. Jan. 28, 1758. 
III. Marritje, b. Aug. 12, 1759 ; m. Helmigh Van 
Winkle, Jan. 24, 17848 ; d. April 13, 1821. Mr. Van Winkle 
lived on the Passaic river, opposite Passaic city. 

1 Essex Transcribed Deeds, F, 22 ; B, 587. 

2 Here is a not unusual incident of the kind that puzzles the genea- 
logist. Two cousins of the same name, Hendrick Post, each marry a 
wife of the same name, Jannetje Van Houten. 

3 Oif p. 99, ante, the date of the marriage is given as Januarys, 
1784 ; that was the date of the first "calling out" in the church. 

fV«MVOCv& \\v^, TV.;!.) A\M>'^ Q'evT^^.TA^-^?^ 
Ana 4 vVAiiL/>Ce,-wJ(A<t<^ 4 tjtjJ^jh \fw> 



IV. Michael, b. Oct. 14, 1761 ; m. Jannetje Ackerman, 
May II, 1786 ; he d. Aug. 4, 1804 ; she d. Nov. 15, 1835, 
aged 68 yrs., one mo., 25 days. 

V. Elizabeth, b. Sept. 27, 1763 ; m. Elias Jn. Vree- 
land, Jan. 9, 1783. 

VI. Jenneke, b. Feb. 6, 1766; d. Oct. 27, 1777. 
VII. Marragrietje, b. Feb. 8, 17685 m. Elias Ja. Vree- 
land, March 8, 1787. She d. Feb. 14, 1854. Her will, dated 
Feb. 29, 1844, was proved April 13, 1854. 

VIII. Thomas, b. July 3, 1771 ; d. April 10, 1778. 

IX. Johannes, b. Dec. 18, 1774 j m. ist, Dec. i, 1799, 
Elizabeth Van Winkle, dau. of Simeon-Johannes-Simeon- 
Symon Jacobse, and sister of John S. Van Winkle, of the 
Goffle ; she d. without issue. He m. 2d, Sally (Salome) 
Goetschius (b. Oct. 7, 1786, dau. of John Mauritius Goet- 
schius and Tryntje Kip, of Bergen County), Dec. 26, 1804 ; 
d. June 19, 1814, from the kick of a horse. He was 
plowing one day with a frisky young team, and stooping 
down at a spring to get a drink, one of the horses, annoyed 
by a fly, kicked out and struck his master in the fore- 
head, causing his death in a few days. His tombstone, 
referring to this accident, says : "This is the Lord's doing ; 
it is marvelous in our eyes." Johannes Post carried on the 
saw and grist mills devised to him by his father, just below 
the Dundee dam, on the east bank of the Passaic. The 
mills were quite extensive for that day; the grist mill had 
two run of stone, and capacious bins for the storage of 
grain. John was called "Yawn's Hans" — Adrian's John. 
His widow m. 2d, Richard I. Banta, by whom she had issue : 
I. Ellen Eliza, b. Nov. 5, 1816; 2. Anna, b. Nov. 5, 1818, 
m. Uriah J. Van Riper, of Preakness; 3. John, b. Jan. 27, 
1821. She died Oct. 14, 1863, at Upper Preakness. 

Helmich-Mercelius-Adrian- Adrian- Adrian Post and Metje 
Van Rypen had children : 

I. Marcellus, b. Dec. 13, 1770 ; m. Judich Evertse, 
May 26, 1796. They lived near the Notch. 

II. Jenneke, bap. March 8, 1772. 
III. Adrian, ) twins, b. Jan. 26, 1776. Johannes m, 

iv! Johannes, ( ^«"*^^ °' Charity Degraw, Oct. 
) 25, 1800. 
V. Helmich, b. Jan. 19, 1779. 

VI. Annaatje, ) 

twins, b. Jan. 30, 1781. 

VII. Marretje, ) 
VIII. Gerret, b. Aug. 26, 1783 ; m. Elizabeth Doremus, 
Sept. 10, 1803. 

IX. Cornelius, b. Feb. 4, 1785. 
X. Hendrick, b. May 20, 1789. 
XL Elizabeth, b. June 4, 1791. 
XII. Thomas, b. Aug. 14, 1793. 
Adrijaen-Mercelius-Adrian-Adrian-Adrian Post and Ly- 
betje (Elisabeth) Van Rypen had children : 
I. Claasje, b. Nov. 4, 1786 ; d. unm. 
II. Marcelus, b. Dec. 12, 1788 ; m. Marritje Van 
Houten (dau. of Cornelius Van Houten, of Totowa), Oct. 
13, 1814. She d. Nov. 28, 1862, aged 69 yrs., 8 mos., 14 

III. Annatje, b. Dec. 16, 1790 ; d. unm. 

IV. Dirck, b. Aug. 20, 1793 ; m. Neesje Van Riper, 

from North Belleville, Dec. 4, 1814 ; he lived at Claverack 

V. Adriaen, b. June 24, 1796 ; he was a deaf mute ; d. 

VI. Elias, b. Dec. 30, 1798 ; he was feeble-minded^ 
and d. unm. 

VII. Helmich, b. May 10, 1802 ; d. Oct 15, 1808. 
VIII. Johannes, b. Feb. 9, 1805 ; m. ist, Rachel Huyler ; 
2d, Charlotte Wunsch, a German, a school teacher at Pas- 
saic. He d. shortly after his second marriage, and his 
widow returned to Germany. He tore down and rebuilt 
the old house which had been occupied by his father, next 
below the old Van Wagoner homestead, on the River road,. 
at Passaic. He was an enterprising business man, and 
carried on a lumber yard next below the Simmons dock, in, 
partnership with Richard Morrell, leasing the ground from 
John Van Wagoner. Being active in the local militia, he- 
attained to the rank of Major. He d. Dec. 2, 1864. His. 
will, dated August 13, 1863, with codicil May 27, 1864, was 
proved Dec. 15, 1864.1 Issue: I. Clara (m. William S. 
Anderson) ; 2. Sarah E. ; 3. Julia M. ; 4. John Aaron ; 5. 
Richard ; 6. George M. ; 7. Cornelius ; 8. Walter S. His 
executors sold 72.82 acres of his farm in the city of Passaic, 
extending from the Erie Railway to Bloomfield avenue, and 
between Paulison and Lafayette avenues, to Anna Paulison 
(wife of Charles McKnight Paulison), by deed dated July 
18, 1865, for $23,000. The southern half of the old home- 
stead was sold many years earlier by his brother, Merselis, 
to John B. Aycrigg, for $7,000. 

IX. Jannetje, b. Aug.. 31, 1807 ; m. Daniel Van Riper,, 
from Hudson City, N. J. ; d. there. 

Adrian-Adrian-Gerrit-Adrian-Adrian Post and Jannitje: 
Van Vechte had children : 

I. Gerrit, b. Feb. 4, 1760; prob. m. Helena Man- 
ning, Sept. 5, 1795 ; she had previously m. 2d, Pieter Ger- 
ritse, widower, Aug. 5, 1781. 

II. Mercelus, b. Aug. 6, 1761; m. Jenneke Ouke, 
June II, 1782. 

Gerrit-Gerrit-Gerrit-Adrian-Adrian Post and Marritje Van 
Rypen had children : 

I. Dirck, b. Dec. 6, 1796. 

II. Jenneke, b. Oct. 13, 1798. 
III. Johannis, b. April 4, 1801 ; d. Aug. 16, 1887. 
Johannes-Helmegh-Johannes-Adrian-Adrian Post and 
Elisabeth Ackerman had children : 

I. Metye, b. Aug. 6, 1789; prob. m. David Cogh, Jan. 
I, 1806. 

II. Louwerens, b. Dec. 25, 1796. "Larry" had an 
independent sort of humor that sometimes militated against 
his own interests. His uncle, Abraham Ackerman, once 
took him into his employ, and gave him to understand that 
he would make him his heir if he worked satisfactorily. 
Shortly after this bargain had been struck, Larry and the 
other farm hands having finished their dinner were enjoying 
a brief rest before returning to the fields. "Uncle Brom" 
was uneasy at what he considered such a sinful waste of 

1 Passaic County Wills, B, 576. 



time, and briskly moving about suggested to the men, 
"Now boys, as you have some time to spare, suppose you 
pull flax for a spell." Larry immediately revolted. "If 
you expect me," said he, "to pull flax for a 'noon spell,' 
you are very much mistaken." And he forthwith quitted 
his uncle's employ. The old man never forgave the slight, 
and when he died it was found that by his will he 
bequeathed $3,700 to each of Larry's brothers and sisters, 
but not a dollar to Larry himself. On another occasion 
Larry was given employment at the Union Brewery, which 
stood on the site now occupied by St. Joseph's Hospital. 
The pecuniary inducements were not great, but a more 
important consideration in Larry's mind was the assurance 
that he could have all the beer that he could drink. This 
was a rash bargain on the part of the brewer. He stood 
it for two days, when, alarmed at the apparently un- 
limited capacity of Larry, to absorb the product of the 
brewery, he declared the contract "o£E. " 

III. Johannis, b. Sept. 27, 1798. 

IV. Selly, b. March 23, iSoi. 
V. Susanna, b. May 6, 1803. 

There were eight others. 

Arie-Helmegh-Johannis-Adrian-Adrian Post and Maria 
Stagg had children : 

I. Jannetje, b. Feb. 19, 1792. 

II. Helmigh, b. Aug. 8, 1794 ; prob. m. Annaatje Vree- 
land, June 6, 1813. Ch., Elizabeth, b. April 25, 1814. 
III. Abraham, b. Nov. 14, 1800. 
Johannis-Cornelius-Johannis-Adrian-Adrian Post and 
Cornelia Cadmus had children : 

I. Johannes, b. July 7, 1 785. 

II. Cornelius, m. ; d. before his father, 

leaving issue : I. John ; 2. Andrew. 

III. Andries, b. July 26, 1791. 

IV. Fytje, b. May 17, 1794. 

V. Maragrietje, b. Nov. 18, 1796. 
VI. Agje (or Effie), b. May 24, 1799 ; m. Peter Post. 
Issue : I. Henry, b. Feb. 3, 1822 ; 2. Catharine Ann, b. May 
9, 1S25; 3. John. 
VII. Gertrude. 
VIII. Martha, d. before her father, leaving issue. 
Casparus-Cornelius-Johannis-Adrian-Adrian Post and 
Fytje Paulusse had children : 

I. Johannis, b. Aug. 10, 1795 ; not mentioned in his 
father's will ; probably d. young. 

II. Neeltje, b. March 22, 1799 ; m. Albert R. Terhune. 
III. Cornelius, b. Feb. I, 1806 ; m. Annaatje Van 
Houten, of Slooterdan. He was a farmer, on the Bergen 
county side of the Passaic river, below the Dundee dam. 
To distinguish him from the numerous Posts of the same 
name he was commonly called "'Sparus's Case" — Casparus's 
Cornelius. He died March 27, 1856. His wife Annaatje 
(Hannah) was b. Nov. 27, 1809; d. Dec. 8, 1886. Issue : 
I. Nellie R., b. Dec. 22, 1839; m. John A. Van Saun; d. Jan. 
24, 1858; 2. Jesper, b. Sept. 14, 1845; d. Oct. 16, 1865. 
There were probably others. 

Cornelius-Cornelius- Johannis-Adrian-Adrian Post and 
Elizabeth Van Winkle had children : 

I. Cornelius, b. Sept. 19, 1803. 
II. Maria, b. March 10, 1805 ; d. in inf. 
III. Theodorus, b. June 30, 1807 ; m. Ann Zabriskie. 
IV. Maria, b. Nov. 14, 1809 ; m. William Doremus ; 
d. July 19, 1832. 

Johannes-Francois-Adrian-Frans-Adrian Post and Antye 
Ratan had children : 

I. Johannes, b. April 7, 1783. 

II. Yannetye, b. Nov. 6, 1786. 

III. Francoos, b. Oct. 12, 1788. 

IV. Poules, b. July 14, 1791 ; m. ist, Catharine Dore- 
mus, Dec. 26, 1812 ; he d. Oct. 21, 1873 ; she d. July 17, 


V. Bregge (Bridget), b. April 4, 1795 ; m. Abraham C. 
Van Riper. Ch., Anna, b. Jan. 31, 1819. 

Adrian-Egbert-Adrian-Frans-Adrian Post and Raegel 
(Rachel) Sickles had children : 

I. Parcel (Priscilla?) Amelia, b. Dec. 16, 1780. 
II. Egbert, b. Nov. 15, 1787. 

III. Jenneke, b. Feb. 25, 1790. 

IV. Hendrick, b. May 2, 1792. 
V. Sarah, b. June 21, 1798. 

VI. Cornelius, b. July i, 1802; d. Dec. 31, 1802. 
VII. Cornelius, b. Sept. 29, 1803. 
Pieter-Egbert-Adrian-Frans-Adrian Post and Jannetje 
Diedricks had children : 

I. Saertje, b. March 26, 1795. 
IL Jacob, b. July 7, 1797. 

III. Jane, b. May 31, iSoi. 
Jacobus-Frans-Jacobus-Frans-Adrian Post and Selle Dey 

had children : 

I. Richard. 
II. James. 

III. Frans, b. May 22, 1778. 

IV. Cornelius ; he received from his parents, by deed 
June 10, 1801, a tract of 40 acres of land on Peckamin 
river. He was fhen of Pequanack. He probably d. prior 
to May I, 181 1. 

Richard, James, Frans and John partitioned their father's 
farm, May I, 1811, it having been mapped out by Abraham 
Ryerson, jun., into nine lots, for the purpose.! 

Roelif-Frans-Jacobus-Frans-Adrian Post and Marretje 
Post had children : 

I. Francois ; m. Lea . By deed, May 8, 1826, 

he and his wife conveyed to William Sandford a tract of 
land "in the Bowery," — apparently the triangle bounded 
by Straight, Willis and Market streets, which he had bought 
for $1400 from Abraham Van Blarcom and Abigail his wife, 
March 25, 1826. He had large property interests in other 
parts of Paterson also. He wrote his name Francis R. Post. 
II. Johannis, b. April 16, 1789; m. Keziah Duryee, 
May 20, 1817. Issue : I. John, b. Oct. 30, 1819 ; 2. Jacob 
D., b. June 20, 1822. 
IIL Catlyntje. 

IV. Jacobus, b. May 6, 1794. 

V. Fytje, b. Aug. 21, 1799. 

1 Essex Transcribed Deeds, C, 626. 



Joliannes-Frans-Jacobus-Frans-Adrian Post[]and Marretje 
Neafie had children : 

I. Francoos, b. May 12, 1788. 
TI. Cornelius, b. Aug. 30, 1790. 
III. Aultye, b. July 29, 1793. 
James-(or Jacobus)-John-Jacobus-Frans-Adrian Post and 
Jannetje Van Giesen had children : 

I. Hessel Pieterse, b. Jan. 28, 1796; d. Sept. 29, 1799. 
II. Catharina, b. May 6, 1798; d. Sept. 19, 1799. 
Both these children are buried in the Post family burying 
ground, on the Wesel road. 

III. Fytje, b. Oct. 19, 1800. 

IV. Elizabeth, b. Feb.—, 1814. 
Robert-John-Jacobus-Frans-Adrian Post and Rachel Van 

Derhoof had children : 

I. Catrenew, b. Jan. 18, 1800. 
II. Elisabeth, b. July 17, 1801 ; m. Cornelius A. Sip ; 
d. Feb. 2, 1823. 

III. Johonnis, b. Feb. 19, 1805. 
IV. Cornelious, b. July 18, 1807. 
V. Jacobus, b. Jan. 3, 1810. 
Adriaan-John-Jacobus-Frans-Adrian Post and Rachel Van 
Giesen had children : 

I. Johonis, b. April 14, 1804. 

II. Joris (George), b. June 10, 1806 ; m. Lavinia ; 

lived most of his life in New York city, and d. there. 

III. Catharine, b. Sept. 28, 1813 ; m. John R. Van 
Houten, of Broadway. . 

John-John-Jacobus-Frans-Adrian Post and Elizabeth 
Paulusse had children : 

I. Catharina, b. Oct. 30, 1808. 
II. Neeltje, b. Sept. 29, 1