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Full text of "History of the city of Spokane and Spokane County, Washington : from its earliest settlement to the present time"

•THE KSW YORK 

'UBUC LIBRARY 







.\. U. 1)1 UII.Wl 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



CITY OF SPOKANE 



AND 



SPOKANE COUNTRY 

WASHINGTON 

From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time 



By N. W. DURHAM 



ILLUSTRATED 



History, as it lies at the root of all science, is also the first distinct product of man's 
^liiritual nature; his earliest expressions of what can be called thought. — Carlyte. 



VOLUME 1 



SPOKANE-CHICAGO-PHILADELPHIA 

THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING COMPANY 

1912 



-^^mA 



THE NEW YORK 



< AND 

■ i.ATlONS 






PREFACE 



In tlie founding and building of Spokane and other cities of the Inland Empire, 
we find abundant material for history — a history rich in distinctive local color and 
abounding in achievements which well may excite our people's pride and interest. 

For the assembling here, within the brief span of forty years, of a prosperous, 
progressive and metropolitan population, drawn from the four winds of earth and 
dwelling togetlier in successful civic and industrial co-ojieration, constitutes a great 
epic achievement; and moreover, an aehiivinicnt whieli. prior to tlie nineteenth cen- 
tury, had scarcely a parallel in all the world's long history. New York, founded in 
I G'23, possessed a jiopulation two hundred years later that only closely corrt-sponded 
to the present population of Spokane: and so late as ISiO, Philadelphia, IGO years 
after its colonization by ^^'illia^l Peiiii, ftli 1(1.000 short of Spokane's census return.s 
of 1910. 

Men and women who came here witli the founding of tlie town, are still among us 
in rugged strengtli and creative power; and boys and girls who filled the first classes 
in the jjublic scliool are yet young men and women. In all this, there should be found 
a brave and inspiring story, and yet a narr.itive that will adiurc witii liistorical 
fidelity to truth. 

To the eom])ilati()n of this volume the writer has given a little more tlian a year 
of continuous and almost undivided efl'ort; but now that his labor is ended, regret 
is felt that another year is lacking to im])art to it somewhat of that finish which 
should be a distinct eliaracteristie of any historic production. That this brief preface 
may not be altogether apologetic, the author may say that lie has endeavored to court 
accuracy, and to give Jiis readers a volume which, wliile adequate in detail and com- 
prehensive in ])eriod and territory, lias yet attempted to catch tlie spirit of the times. 
Assistance and encouragement are appreciatively acknowledged from Mrs. C. L. 
Hathaway, August Wolf, John B. Slater, Frank Johnson, H. T. Cowley, Father 
Louis J. Taelman, W. P. Winans, W. D. Vincent and J. E. Nessly; to the Spokes- 
man-Review and the Chronicle for access to tiieir invahialile files; and to the advisory 
board, comprising .lames ]\Ionaglian, James X. Glover, Mrs. W. H. Liidden, D. C. 
Corbin, Edwin T. Coman and Ben. Burgunder. 

In tlie fullness of time, better histories will be jienned of .Spokane and the In- 
land Empire. Tlie author, iiowever, may venture a iiope that in this endeavor he has 
gathered u)) some historic data, and has recorded iiere tlie testimony of pioneers 
which, without his l;ilior, might have been wholly lost or cloudrd to posterity. 

X. \V. 1). 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF HISTORY 

FIRST .MENTION OF THE SPOKANES BY LEWIS AND CLARK EARLY DAY SPANISH INFLU- 
ENCES JEFFERSON TO JOHN JACOB ASTOR ADVENT OF THE FUR TRADERS, 1811" 

12 A NIGHT OF TERROR MASSACRE OF THE CREW OF THE TONQUIN A FRIGHTFUL 

REVENGE 1 

CHAPTER II 

WHITE MEN ON THE SPOKANE 

FIN N MACDONALD PROB\BLY FIRST TO VIEW THE FALLS RACE BETWEEN ASTORIANS AND 

THE NORTHWESTERS BRITISHERS ESTABLISH SPOKANE HOUSE AMERICANS LOCATE 

AT MOUTH OF OKANOGAN A YEAR LATER AT MOUTH OF LITTLE SPOKANE MR. 

ASTOr's STOCK OF GOODS HORSEFLESH STAPLE ARTICLE OF DIET ADVENTURES OF 

ROSS COX RESCUED BY' FRIENDLY SPOKANES BUFFALO WEST OF THE ROCKIES ■ 

TRADING WITH THE INDIANS DUEL AT SPOKANE HOUSE GAY LIFE IN THE BALL 

ROOM LIFE OF PERIL AND HARDSHIP PASSING OP THE BRIGADES A MOTLEY' 

CREW 9 

CHAPTER III 

BRITISH FLAG SUPPLANTS THE STARS AND STRIPES 

TAKING THE FURS DOWN THE COLUMBIA INDIAN THIEF HANGED AT MOUTH OF 

PALOUSE GREAT BRITAIN AND AMERICA AT WAR ASTOH BETRAY'ED BY' HIS PART- 
NERS AT ASTORIA HIS GREAT ENTERPRISE RUINED BRITISH SEIZE ASTORIA EXPE- 
DITION MASSACRED ON HEADWATERS OF THE SNAKE REMARKABLE ESCAPE OF PIERRE 

DORION's SQUAW 21 



vi CONIKNTS 

CHAPTER IV 

ODD ( HAKACTKK.S AT SPOKANE HOUSE 

INDIANS PASSIOXATEI.V FOND OF TOBACCO HALCYON DAYS FOK THE SI'OKAXES A 

FIERY IIIGIII.AXD SCOT- — TAKING AN INDIAN WIFE WAR NARROWLY AVERTED 

FLATHEAD GIRLS SCORN WHITE SUITORS OTHERS NOT SO FASTIDIOUS GARDENS 

PLANTED ON THE SPOKANE STRANGE INDIAN CHIEF NEAR LOON LAKE REMARK- 
ABLE CAREER OF A FREE TRADER 29 



CIIAriEK V 

rKANKI. UKTWEl-.N Sl'OKANE AND ASTORIA 

NAVIGATING THE COLUMBIA A CENTURY AGO FRENCH AND IROQUOIS VOYAGEURS 

RANGING OVER THE VAST INTERIOR MELONS AND CUCUMBERS GROWN AT SPOKANE 

THE GRAND COULEE INDIAN METHOD OF HUNTING DEER HORSE-RACING IN SPO- 
KANE VALLEY DELIGHTFUL TIMES IN 1815 ICE-BOUND ON THE COLUMBIA 

SHOCKING TRAGEDY ON THE UPPER RIVER VICTIMS RESORT TO CANNIBALISM 

NORTHWEST COMPANY ABSORBED BY' ITS HUDSON's BAY RIVAL 39 



CHAPTER VI 

AMUSING AND TRAGIC INCIDENTS 

DANCING WITH SPOKANE NYMPHS PETER SKENE OGDEN AND HIS INDIAN WIFE FRENCH 

THE PREVAILING LANGUAGE OF THE COUNTRY LOUIS LA LIBERTe's WOUNDED PRIDE 

THRILLING ADVENTURE WITH A GRIZZLY BEAR ROUGH LIFE OF THE FREE 

TRADERS KEEN COMPETITION FORCED RIDE WITH A SUPPLY OF TOBACCO SPO- 
KANE WOMEN GREAT SLAVES SHOCKING DOUBLE ACT OF REVENGE iO 



CHAPTER VII 

EARLY DAY MISSIONS IN THE INLAND EMPIRE 

CRUDE MISSION EFFORTS OF CATHOLIC IROQUOIS EMBLEM OF THE CROSS ON THE CO- 
LUMBIA INDIAN PILGRIMAGE TO ST. LOUIS ARRIVAL OF REV. SAMUEL PARKER IN 

1835 HIS TRAVELS IN THE SPOKANE COUNTRY ARRIVAL OF WHITMAN AND SPALD- 
ING WITH THEIR BRIDES OVERLAND JOURNEY OF EELLS AND WALKER WITH THEIR 

BRIDES ADVENTURES ON THE PLAINS AND IN THE MOUNTAINS ARRIVAL AT WHIT- 
MAN MISHIO.V NEAR WAI.I.A WALLA 61 



CONTENTS vii 

CHAPTER VIII 

FOUNDING A MISSION AMONG THE SPOKANES 

EELLS AND WALKER MEET THE INDIANS AT CHEWELAII BIRTH OF FIRST AMERICAN 

WHITE BOY IN OLD OREGON EELLS AND WALKER FAJIILIES LOCATE AT WALKEr's 

PRAIRIE, NEAR SPOKANE LIVING ON HORSE MEAT INDIAN CUSTOMS DESCRIBED 

MISSION LIFE AT TSHIMAKAIN MISSIONARIES DEEPLY DISAPPOINTED MIDWINTER 

FIRE HYMN AS SUNG BY THE SPOKANES 75 

CHAPTER IX 

MISSION LIFE AT WALKERS PRAIRIE, CONTINUED 

SEVERE WINTER OF ISlO-il ARDUOUS JOURNEYS BY FATHER EELLS GOING TO COL- 

VILLE FOR MAIL DR. WHITMAN'S FAMOUS MIDWINTER RIDE DISCOVERY OF THE 

PRECIOUS METALS MOTHERS' MEETINGS SEVENTY YEARS AGO DREADFUL WINTER OF 

1846-47 NO NEW BONNETS FOR EASTER SUNDAY FIRST SHOES FOR THE CHIL- 
DREN HOW THE MISSION WOMEN MADE CHEESE INDIAN WIFE WHO WAS "a 

JEWEL OF RARE EXCELLENCE." 83 

CHAPTER X 

MISSIONS DESTROYED AND ABANDONED 

MISSIONARIES ILL AND DISCOURAGED WHITMAN MASSACRE BRINGS TERROR TO TSHI- 
MAKAIN FAITHFUL SPOKANES REMAIN LOYAL MISSIONARIES FLEE TO COLVILLE 

GRAPHIC REMINISCENCE OF EDWIN EELLS A THRILLING MOMENT SPOKANES RALLY 

TO DEFENSE OF THEIR TEACHERS CAYUSES SEND OUT LY'ING RUNNERS OREGON 

VOLUNTEERS COME TO ESCORT MISSIONARIES TO WILLAMETTE VALLEY PATHETIC 

FAREWELL ON THE SPOKANE "oUR HEARTS WEEP TO SEE YOU GO." 89 

CHAPTER XI 

FOUNDING THE FIRST CHURCHES AROUND SPOKANE 

FATHER EELLS RETURNS TO THE BUNCHGRASS REGION TWELVE YEARS AT WALLA 

WALLA FOUNDS WHITMAN ACADEMY SPALDING RETURNS TO THE NEZ PERCES 

BAPTIZES 2,53 SPOKANES EELLS VISITS HIS OLD FRIENDS ON THE SPOKANE DELIV- 
ERS FIRST FOURTH OF JULY ADDRESS AT COLVILLE ORGANIZES AT COLFAX FIRST 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH NORTH OF SNAKE RIVER ELECTED SCHOOL SUPERIN- 
TENDENT OF WHITMAN COUNTY LIFE AS A CIRCUIT RIDER OUT OF COLFAX 

MOVES TO MEDICAL LAKE DEDICATES CHURCH AT CHEWELAH ORGANIZES CHURCH 



I (ONTKNTS 

AT MKDIIAI. I.AKK Ills « UUK l.N SPOKANE OKGANIZES CHlRtU AT SI'HAGLE 

HIS LAST DAYS AT TAlo.MA TRIBUTES TO HIS MEMORY MISSION' WORK AMONG THE 

NKZ I'EHCES LIKE WORK OF REV. II. II. M-ALDING A DEVOTED BAND GENERAL 

Howard's tribute to .miss .m'betii 95 



CIlAl'TEK XII 

U. T. ( ()\\ I.I.V I'KI.I.S 01 I. UK ,\.M()\(, I'HK .SPOKANES 
begins mission «()1ik with thk xez i'er(es in 1871— becomes an independent 

TEACHER AT SPOKANE IN 1871— FAMILY LIVES ON DRIED SALMON AND VENISON 

OPENS SCHOOL IN INDIAN LODGE INDIANS HELP TO BlILD SCHOOLHOLSE AND 

DWELLING Foil Mil. (<)« LKV EAGER TO LEARN WAYS OF CIVILIZATION SLIGHT RE- 
SPECT FOR PRIVACY GIFTS COME FROM AFAR FINDS INDIANS HONEST AM) KIND 

TEACHES FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOL, WITH Sl.\ PUPILS 107 

CHAPTER XIll 

cwTiioi.ir Mis.mox.s i\ the ixi.axd empire 

REV. MODEST DEMERS DESCENDS THE COLUMBIA IN 18,S8 MAKES A .MISSION TOUR OF 

INTERIOR THE FOLLOWING YE.\R ST. MARy's ESTABLISHED IN 181-1 BY FATHER 

DESMET AND OTHERS COEUR d'aLENE MISSION ESTABLISHED ON THE ST. JOE. 

1842 TRANSFERRED TO THE COEUR d'aLENE IN 1816 FATHER .JOSET IN CHARGE 

ST. IGNATIUS MOVED FROM LOWER PEND d'oREILLE RIVER TO MONTAN.\ SACRED 

HEART MISSION TRANSFERRED TO DESMET— MISSION LABORS AMONG THE NEZ PER- 

CES MISSIONS IN THE COLVILLE COUNTRY PRESIDENT OF GONZAGA VISITS THE 

CALISPELS ARMY OFFICER'S DESCRIPTION OF THE OLD MISSION OF ST. IGNA- 

"r"" 113 

CHAPTKU XIV 

( .\ I IIOI.IC -MISSIONS— tC).\ TIN LED 

FATHER DESMET .lOlRNEYS I.N A BARK CANOE, TO THE HORSE PLAINS I.\ MONTAN.\ 

RETURNS TO KALISPEL BAY AND FELLS THE FIRST TREE FOR THE MISSION — DISCOV- 
ERS LIMESTONE CAVE ON LOWER I'KNI) I)'oUi:i I.I.E (iOKS TO W 1 1.1. AM KTTK VALLEY 

FOR SEEDS AND IMPLEMENTS RETURNS AND ERECTS A LITTLE CHAPEL OF BOUGHS 

— POETIC DESCRIPTION OF KETTLE FALLS ESTABLISHES MISSION OF ST REGIS IN 

(1)1. Villi: VM.l.KV MEETS PETER SKENE 0(il)KN IN THE NOHTIIEUN WILDERNESS 

E.VI'HESSES HIS OPINION OF THE OREGON QUESTION HOW THE CA.MAS HOOT WAS PRE- 
PARED DESMET RANGES FAR, TO THE HEADWATERS OF THE COLUMBIA INTEREST- 
ING IILA( KFOOT TII\1>IT1<)\ AN INDIAN HEAVEN MISSIONARY'S REMARKABLE 

JOURNEY FROM THE ATHABASCA TO KETTLE FALLS HOW THE ARROW LAKES WERE 

NAMED J23 



CONTEXTS ix 

CHAPTER XV 

CATHOLIC MISSIONS— CONCLUDED 

OVERLAND JOURNEY FROM OLD WALLA WALLA TO THE SPOKANE DESMET TAKES A 

FRIENDLY INDL\N PIPE FROM THE SPOKANE TO COLVILLE TRIP FROM SPOKANE 

TO THE COEUR d'aLENE MISSION A SUMMER ENCAMPMENT DESCRIBED TAKING 

"pot luck" with INDIANS SUPERSTITIONS OF THE COEUR DALENES THEY WOR- 
SHIP A WHITE man's SPOTTED SHIRT AND BLANKET MISSION EFFORTS OF AN IRO- 
QUOIS CHIEF FATHER POINt's LABORS AMONG THIS TRIBE GOVERNOR STEVENs' 

HOSPITABLE RECEPTION AT THE OLD MISSION MISSIONARIES TAKE THE OATH OF 

ALLEGIANCE TO THE U. S. CAPTAIN m'cLELLAN AMONG THE VAKIMAS ST. MICH- 

AELS MISSION NEAR HILLYARD FATHER CARUANA AMONG THE SPOKANES 135 



CHAPTER XVI 

GOVERNOR STEVENS' OVERLAND EXPEDITION OF 1853 

FIRST GOVERNOR CLOTHED WITH REMARKABLE POWERS ON THE SUMMIT OF THE COEUR 

d'aLENES GUEST OF CATHOLIC FATHERS AT OLD MISSION IN CAMP AT WOLf's 

LODGE GOVERNOR OBSERVES SPOKANES AT THEIR DEVOTIONS FIRST VIEW OF LAKE 

COEUR d'aLENE MARCHING DOWN THE SPOKANE VALLEY GOVERNOR VISITS THE 

FALLS INDIAN VILLAGE AT MOUTH OF HANGMAN CREEK PUZZLED BY CHIEF 

GARRY FORCED RIDE TO COLVILLE MEETS CAPT. GEORGE B. m'cLELLAN BOUNTI- 
FUL SUPPER SERVED BY MRS. m'dONALD STEAKS COOKED IN BUFFALO FAT LISTENS 

TO TALES OF ADVENTURE 1 tO 



CHAPTER XVII 

FROM SPOKANE TO WALLA WALLA AND VANCOUVER 

m'cLELLAN procrastinates on THE COLUMBIA AND IN THE CASCADES HAD LITTLE 

FAITH IN THE COUNTRY STEVENS ASSEMBLES HIS PARTY IN CAMP WASHINGTON 

CHEERED BY A KEG OF COGNAC VISITS OLD MISSION ON WALKEr's PRAIRIE COL- 
VILLE VALLEY SETTLERS SEEK NATURALIZATION FIELD CAPITAL NEAR SPOKANE 

FEASTING IN CAMP WASHINGTON BEEF HEAD, TE.XAS FASHION ARMY OFFICERS 

SHRINK FROM WINTER SERVICE GARRY TELLS STEVENS OF INDIAN MYTHS ACROSS 

THE PALOUSE COUNTRY FINE POTATOES IN WALLA WALLA VALLEY TRIBUTE TO 

MARCUS WHITMAN DOWN THE COLUMBIA IN A CANOE GUEST AT VANCOUVER OF 

CAPTAIN BONNEVILLE 157 



X coxTi'.vrs 

CIIAPTKK Win 

Ol.VMl'lA. Till', HA( KWOODS CAl'ITAL, I.V 1853 

FIVE days' hard travel FROM VAXCOfVKR GOVERNOR DRENCHED IN AN INDIAN 

CANOE HEARTY IMDNKER (iHEETIXO— MRS. STEVENs' ORAl'HIC PICTl'RE OF THE 

sylAIin llTTl.i: ( MMT\I. "wiim- a I-HOSPECt!" she breaks down and (HIES — 

LATER LEARNED TO LOVE THE COUNTRY AND ITS PEOPLE HORSEHACK ACROSS THE 

LOVELY PRAIRIES PLEASING PICTURE OF FATHER HICARd's MISSION COLUMBIA 

LANCASTER ELECTED TO ( ONORESS BUSY DAYS FDU THE GOVERNOR MENA(KI) BY 

POLITICAL RUIN PEREMPTORY ORDER FROM JEFFERSON DAVIS STEVENS GOES BY 

SEA TO NATIONAL CAPITAL HIS ENEMIES ROUTED 167 

CHAPTKK XIX 

XEGOTIATIN(. TRKA 11 KS W ITII THi: INTKHIOK TKIIJKS 

STEVENS PLlNliES INTO AN AHDIOUS TASK WALI.A WAI.F.A A (JIIEAT COUNCIL GROUND 

GOVERNOR MEETS THERE .").()()() INDIANS IN 1 8.") J NEZ PERCES MASS A THOUSAND 

WARRIORS A STRIKING PAGEANT IIAU(iHTY MESSAGE FROM THE YELLOW SERPENT 

KAMIAKKX PROUD AND SCORNFUL FEASTING, HORSE-RACING AND FOOT-RACING 

INDIAN ORATORY AND SARCASM CHIEF LAWYER EXPOSES A PLOT TO MASSACRE THE 

governor's party -C()NSP1HA( V is thwarted THE TREATIES EXPLAINED A 

STARTLING 1N< IDENT STORMY COINCIL TREATIES CONCLUDED CELEBRATED WITH 

A SCAI.P 1)\N( E 171 



CHAPTER XX 

NEGOTIATI\(; 'rrii', FI.ATIII'.AD Tin atv t\ moxtaxa 

WALLA WALLA COUNCIL BREAKS UP TRAILS FILLED WITH WILD AND PICTURESQUE 

CAVALCADES GIFTS FOR THE SPOKANES STRIKING BORDER CHARACTERS PEARSON 

THE EXPRESS RIDER STEVENs' LITTLE PARTY MOVES EASTWARD ACROSS THE INLAND 

EMPIRE GREAT COUNCIL ON THE IIELLGATE GOVERNOR STEVENS EXPLAINS THE 

TREATIES MORE INDIAN ORATORY COTTINO THE OORDIAN KNOT "eVERY MAN 

PLEASED AND EVERY MAN SATISFIED." 189 

CHAP TKH XXr 

PEACE COUNCIL W Till Till: WAR I, IKK IiI..\CKFEET 

couriers 8um.mon numerous tribes great council at mouth of the judith 

Nebraska's commissioner procrastinates — stevens' opening address — treaty 



CONTENTS xi 

NEGOTIATED AFTER THREE DAY CONFERENCE COATS AND MEDALS GIVEN TO THE 

CHIEFS GERMAN SONGS ROLL ACROSS THE MISSOURI HOMERIC FEAST OF BUFFALO 

RIBS AND FLAPJACKS LISTENING TO THRILLING TALES OF TRAPPER DAYS 197 



CHAPTER XXII 

TRIBES OF INTERIOR TAKE TO THE WARPATH 

NEWS TO SHAKE THE STOUTEST HEART GOVERNOR CUT OFF FROM OLYMPIA PEAR- 
SON 's DESPERATE RIDE THROUGH HOSTILE COUNTRY STEVENS ADVISED TO DESCEND 

THE MISSOURI AND RETURN BY SEA REJECTS THAT COUNSEL AND BOLDLY RETURNS 

BY DIRECT ROUTE CROSSES BITTER ROOTS IN THREE FEET OF SNOW STARTLES 

INDIANS BY SUDDEN APPEARANCE IN COEUR d'aLENES FORCED MARCH TO THE 

SPOKANE MEETS MINERS FROM COLVILLE COUNTRY STORMY COUNCIL WITH SPO" 

KANES GARRY VACILLATES STEVENS BLAMED FOR YAKIMAS OUTBREAK SPOKANES 

CONCILIATED "sPOKANE INVINCIBLEs" ORGANIZED AS MILITIA COMPANY NEZ 

PERCES GIVE GOVERNOR AN ARMED ESCORT HOSTILES ROUTED BY OREGON VOLUN- 
TEERS STEVENS RETURNS SAFELY TO OLYMPIA 201 



CHAPTER XXIII 

GOVERNOR STEVENS AN ARDENT INLAND EMPIRE BOOSTER 

SENJ/S OPTIMISTIC REPORTS TO WASHINGTON FORESEES GREAT FUTURE FOR WALLA 

n-ALLA, PALOUSE, YAKIMA, SPOKANE AND OTHER REGIONS REMARKABLE FORECAST 

OF country's RESOURCES POINTS OUT VALUE OF LOGGED OFF LANDS REMARKABLE 

RIDE BY HIS 13 YEAR OLD SON CHARMED BY WESTERN MONTANA AND IDAHO PAN- 
HANDLE PREDICTS DEVELOPMENT OF MANY RICH MINES m'cLELLAN BERATES THE 

COUNTRY- IS PRAISED BY JEFFERSON DAVIS, WHO WANTS TO DISCOURAGE NORTHERN 

DEVELOPMENT ~'3 



CHAPTER XXIV 

CONFEDERATED INDIAN WAR OF 1858 

WAR FLAMES KINDLED OVER A WIDE AREA CAUSES LEADING UP TO THE OUTBREAK OF 

TRIBES NORTH OF SNAKE RIVER YAKIMAS REPUDIATE TREATY AND MURDER THEIR 

AGENT STEVENS BITTERLY ASSAILS COMMANDER AT FORT VANCOUVER STEPTOe's 

ILL-FATED EXPEDITION HIS CANDID P.EPORT OF THE DISASTROUS REPULSE 2-1 



\ 



xii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXV 

DETAILED ACCOLNT OF THE STEI'TOE RETREAT 

INDIAN HOSTILITY A SURPRISE HOSTILES OPEN FIRE OFFICIAL REPORT OF KILLED 

AND WOUNDED FATHER JOSEt's ACCOUNT OF THE TRAGEDY DEVILISH INTRIGUES 

OF THE PALOUSES RECOLLECTIONS OF A SURVIVOR STEPTOE SAVED FROM ANNI- 
HILATION BY NEZ PERCE ALLIES FAITHFUL OLD TIMOTHY MEMORIAL PARK 

MARKS THE SITE OF STEPTOE's LAST STAND PATRIOTIC GIFT OF DAUGHTERS OF 

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION ''i'^9 

CIIAPTKR XXVI 

roi,()Ni;i. wnK. Ill's ( ampaicx of hffrisal 

WAR DKI'ARTMEXT ACTS Willi yl UK VIGOR — STRONG COMMAND SENT OUT FROM WALLA 

WALLA SAVAGES MASS FOR THE CONFLICT ARE INSOLENT AND DEFIANT BOLDLY 

ATTACK THE TROOPS ARE ROfTEI) WITH HEAVY LOSS NEAR MEDICAL LAKE LT. 

Kll-'s GRAPHIC ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE WILD KLUillT OF THE ALLIES NEZ PER- 

CES CELEBRATE WITH A WAR DANCE HOSTILES RALLY FOR ANOTHER ATTACK FIRE 

THE PRAIRIE GRASS SCENES OF WILD CONFUSION BATTLE OF THE SPOKANE 

PLAINS 239 

CHAPTER XXVII 

WRIGHT DICTATES STERN TERMS TO THE VANQUISHED 

COMMAND BREAKS CAMP AND MOVES UP THE SPOKANE GARRY SUES FOR PEACE WRIGHT 

HANGS FIRST VICTIM CAPTURES AND KILLS VAST HERD OF INDIAN HORSES RUNNER 

BRINGS LETTER FROM FATHER JOSET INDIAN BARNS AND GRANARIES BURNED 

CHIEF VINCENT OF THE COEUR d'aLENES BEGS FOR PEACE COMMAND MARCHES TO 

COEUR d'aLENE MISSION PEACE COUNCIL A SCENE OF BARBARIC COLOR INDIANS 

TERRIFIED BY APPEARANCE OF DONATl's COMET 21-y 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

HOW HANGMAN CUEKk DKR1\ED ITS NAME 

WRIGHT HOLDS A COUNCIL WITH THE SPOKANES CANNY OLD COLVILLE CHIEF SPO- 
KANE CHIEFS HUMBLED KAMIAKEN ELUDES ARREST QUALCHIEN COMES IN AND 

IS PROMPTLY HANGED DIES LIKE A COWARD OWHI SHOT IN A DASH FOR LIBERTY 

SIX MORE INDIANS HANGED ON HANGMAN CREEK SIXTEEN IN ALL ARE VICTIMS 

OF THE NOOSE -REMAINS RECOVERED OF SOLDIERS WHO FELL IN STEPTOE's 
,„.,,.,. 253 



CONTENTS xiii 

CHAPTER XXIX 

WRIGHTS RETURN MARCH TO WALLA WALLA 

TELLS THE PALOUSES THEY ARE RASCALS AND DESERVE TO BE HUNG TREATS THEM AS 

OUTLAWS, BUT PUTS THEM ON PROBATION HANGS FOUR AS A WARNING TO THE 

OTHERS "CUTMOUTH JOHN" A CONSPICUOUS FIGURE MILITARY HONORS FOR THE 

GALLANT DEAD LIEUTENANT KIP's PREDICTION "tHE WAR IS CLOSED" COLONEL 

Wright's final report 261 

CHAPTER XXX 

REMARKABLE EARLY HISTORY OF SPOKANE COUNTY 

FIRST CREATED IN 1858 AREA OF 75,000 SQUARE MILES PUBLIC OFFICES GO BEG- 
GING OLD PINKNEY CITY THE COUNTY SEAT FIRST LEGISLATOR MURDERED BY 

INDIANS FIRST POLITICAL CONVENTION UNION SENTIMENT STRONG-^COURT 

HOUSE OF logs; HAD BEEN A SALOON HIGH PRICES IN THE 60s GOLD DISCOVERED 

ON THE PEND d'oREILLE MILITARY POST ESTABLISHED AT FORT COLVILLE CALI- 
FORNIA VOLUNTEERS A BAD LOT GRAND MILITARY BALL AT THE FORT PIONEER 

DISTILLERY RAIDED EARLY DAY EXECUTIONS, LEGAL AND OTHERWISE 265 

CHAPTER XXXI 

INLAND EMPIRE HISTORY IN OLD LEGISLATIVE ACTS 

DISCOVERY OF GOLD EARLY FERRIES AND BRIDCiES STEAMBOATS ON COLUMBIA AND 

SNAKE MEMORIALS FOR TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD SCHEME TO TURN PEND 

d'oREILLE RIVER INTO THE SPOKANE ARMS SENT TO MINERS GOLD HUNTERS OVER- 
RUN NEZ PERCE RESERVATION TOWN OF LEWISTON LAID OUT CANADIAN "RECI- 
PROCITY" MINERS CLAMOR FOR BETTER MAIL SERVICE FIRST BOOM IN THE INLAND 

EMPIRE SPOKANE COUNTY ANNEXED TO STEVENS DEALING WITH THE CHINESE 

WALLA walla's FIRST LITERARY SOCIETY JAMES MONAGHAN GRANTED BRIDGE 

FRANCHISE ON THE SPOKANE COAST MERCHANTS COMPETE WITH ST. LOUIS ORE- 
GON TRIES TO ANNEX WALLA WALLA FAMOUS OLD MULLAN ROAD PRICES OF WALLA 

WALLA PRODUCTS 279 

CHAPTER XXXII 

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY CONTINUED 

MAIL BETWEEN WALLA WALLA AND PINKNEY CITY LEGISLATURE PLEADS POVERTY 

PRAIRIE FIRES AGITATION TO ANNEX IDAHO PANHANDLE CLAMOR FOR LAND 

OFFICE AT WALLA WALLA SETTLERS COME INTO PALOUSE COUNTRY WHITMAN 



CONTENTS 

COrXTY CREATED CONDITIONS IN COLVII.LE VALLEY DEGINNING OF FAMOUS LIEU 

LAND STRUGGLE AGITATION FOR AN OPEN HIVEK EARLY DAY ROAD BUILDING 

LAWFUL FENCES DEFINED LAND OFFICE AT COLVILLE MILITARY POST AT SPO- 
KANE CREATION OF SI'OKANE COUNTY FIRST APPLICATION OF THE REFEREN- 
DUM I'KOllimriON STRU' ALONG THE NORTHERN PACIFIC GROWTH OF THE TER- 
RITORY .MEMORIAL FOR MILITARY TELEGRAPH LINE 299 



CHAPTER XXXTTT 

"THE DAYS OF OLD. THE DAYS Ol' (iOI.D" 

SPOKANES SELL (iol.l) IN 1 H.") 1- PIERCk's DISCOVERIES IN THE CLEARWATER COU.N'TRY • 

THOUSANDS OF .MINERS HASTEN TO THE .NEW CA.MPS JOAQUIN MILLER AN EXPRESS 

RIDER FABULOUS YIELDS IN OLD FLORENCE CA.MP E.\-GOVERNOR COLE's RECOL- 
LECTIONS HIGH PRICES IN THE MINES FIRST TRIP OF STEAMER COL. WRIGHT 

RICHEST PLACES IN THE U. S. HOW FLORENCE AND OTHER CAMPS WERE DISCOV- 
ERED FAMINE AND HARDSHIPS (iOI.I) BY THE QUART REIGN OF CRIME AND TERROR 

AMAZING ESCAPE FROM THE GALLOWS LYNCHING AT LEWISTON 315 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

IMMIGRATION OF THE EARLY SEVENTIES 

ARRIVAL OF OLDTIME CALIFORNIA AND IDMIO MINERS THOMAS NEWLON ESTABLISHES 

A FERRY NEAR TRENT WILLIAM SPANGLe's STAGE STATION FIRST SETTLER AT 

MEDICAL LAKE M. M. COWLEY LOCATES IN SPOKANE VALLEY D. F. PERCIVAL IN 

ROCK CREEK REGION COPLEN FAMILY" AT L.VTAH WORLD's L.\RGEST MASTODON 

DISCOVERED SPOKANE's FIRST BRASS BAND 325 



CHAPTER XXXV 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS BY THE FALLS OF THE SPOKANE 

ARRIVAL OF DOWNING AND SCRANTON IN 1871 THEIR "mULEy" SAW THE FIRST INDUS- 
TRY RECOLLECTIONS OF "bABE" DOWNING ARRIVAL OF JAMES N. GLOVER IN 1873 

HE BUYS OUT SCRANTON AND DOWNING PLATS THE FIRST TOWNSITE GIVES 

FREDERICK POST FORTY ACRES TO START A FLOUR MILL^ARRIVAL OF A. M. CANNON 

AND J. J. BROWNE TROOPS MOVE TO LAKE COEUR d'aLENE FIRST PIIY'SICIAN, AND 

FIRST DRUGSTORE CANNON STARTS A BANK SPOKANe's FIRST GUN PLAY HOVT 

THE PIONEERS LIVED THE FIRST NEWSPAPER BUSINESS LOTS GIVEN AWAY TRADE 

WITH THE INDIANS 329 



CONTEXTS XV 

CHAPTER XXXVI 

NEZ PERCE WAR AND MASSACRES OF 1877 

savage devotion to a cause josepil's love for the wallowa valley indl\n 

bureau vacillates first conflict with settlers fanatacism of the 

"dreamers" — Joseph's band ordered to nez perce reserve — war party pre- 
pares FOR THE CONFLICT CAMAS PRAIRIE SETTLERS ATTACKED MEN, WOMEN 

AND CHILDREN MASSACRED SHOCKING ATROCITIES SETTLERS FLEE TO PLACES OF 

REFUGE FIERCE AND SANGUINARY BATTLES WITH U. S. TROOPS .TOSEPh's REMARK- 
ABLE RUNNING CAMPAIGN SETTLERS IN SPOKANE REGION ARE TERRORIZED TAKE 

REFUGE ON HAVERMALE ISLAND J. N. GLOVEr's RECOLLECTIONS WAR PARTY 

DANCES NIGHTLY BY THE FALLS ARRIVAL OF THE TROOPS M. M. COWLEYS REMIN- 
ISCENCES 343 



CHAPTER XXXVII 

SOME FIRST THINGS BY THE FALLS 

Spokane's first "civic center" — first white child — first boarding house, hotel 

AND restaurant FIRST LAW OFFICE, WATER SUPPLY, CHURCH, BRIDGE, TELE- 
PHONE, ETC. FIRST CHRISTMAS TREE AND FIRST FOURTH OF JULY CELEBRATION 

REMINISCENCES OF FRANCIS H. COOK APPEARANCE OF THE TOWN IN 1880 FIRST 

TOWN GOVERNMENT START OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT J. T. DAVIE TELLS OF 

THE FIRST BRICK KILN AND FIRST BRICK BUILDINGS HISTORY OF THE PUBLIC 

LIBRARY 355 



CHAPTER XXXVIII 

CONCISE REVIEW OF TOWN, 1874 TO 1887 

H. T. COWLEY ARRIVES WITH BAND OF NEZ PERCE HELPERS APPEARANCE OF VILLAGE 

IN IS?! INDIAN SCARE POW-WOW IN FRONT OP GLOVEr's STORE FIRST SCHOOL 

DISTRICT ORGANIZED ELECTION IN GLOVEr's HOUSE FIRST CHRISTMAS TREE AND 

SUPPER NEZ PERCE INDIAN WAR ARRIVAL OF TROOPS RELIEVES THE TENSION 

BROWNE AND CANNON ARRIVE GRAND OPENING OF THE CALIFORNIA HOUSE 

CHENEY CAPTURES THE COUNTY SEAT FIRST BRICK BUILDING INCORPORATION 

OF THE TOWN CITIZENS CELEBRATE ARRIVAL OF NORTHERN PACIFIC, 1881 SPO- 

KANe's first big FIRE RUSH TO THE COEUR d'aLENES LAST SPIKE DRIVEN IN 

N. P. CITY ACQUIRES THE WATER SYSTEM DEVELOPMENTS IN COLVILLE COUNTRY' 

PIONEER STREET RAILWAY SPOKANE REGAINS COUNTY SEAT 369 



xvi CONTKNTS 

CIIAPTEU XXX J X 

DISCOVKH^• AM) 1)K\' I'.l.C )!' M I'.Nl' ()l- ( Ol-.IH DAI.ENES 

EXISTENCE OK GOLD KNOWN IN 'jOs lU-LLAN SAW NUGGETS THERE IN VKUY EARLY 

DAY A. J. PRICHAHD FIRST SVSTKMATIC PROSPECTOR HONORS DIVIDED WITH TOM 

IHWIN PRICHARD's STORY SCHEME TO COLONIZE COUNTY WITH "lIBERALS" 

DISCOVERY NEAR MURRAY WILD STAMPEDE OF '83 KEEN RIVALRY BETWEEN 

SPOKANE AND AMBITIOUS RIVALS FAMOUS OLD TOWN OF EAGLE M. M. COWLEy's 

RECOLLECTIONS MUSHROOM PLACER CAMPS DISCOVERY OF BUNKER HILL — THAT 

FAMOUS DONKEY "dUTCH JAKe's" STORY SALE OF THE GREAT MINE OTHER 

FAMOUS GALENA STRIKES ROMANCE OP THE HERCULES CHARLES SWEENy's 

OPERATIONS MARVELOUS RECORD OF PRODUCTION AND DIVIDENDS STRANGE STORY 

OF "dream" DAVIS '^81 

CHAPTKK XL 

HOW ( IIKNKV CAI'I'L lil.I) THF, COLNTY SEAT 

HV E. K. PEliRY 395 



CHAPTER XLI 

RECOM.IU 'I'lONS Ol" IHANK I )AI,I.A.\1 . .1. 1). SHERWOOD AND 

(1. I?. DENNIS 

liltAVK DAYS OF NKAIU.V ■1■|IIHT^ ^i:\l(S \(i() DALLAM STARTS THE RF.VIEW PRINTS 

FIRST NUMHKli AT CHENKV IlKMiV Vn.I.ARDS VISIT PAUL SnilLZK RECOMMENDS 

I'AIXT — HANK VAUGHN, THE DESPERADO, (IIMIOS To TOWN SCRUIl RACES IN 

HHOWNe's ADDITION APPEARANCE OK TOWN IN IXS.'i FIGIlTIN(i FIRE WITH A 

mcKKT LINK PlCTUHESyUp; STREET LIFE SQIAW FKilllS PrlU.U SPIHIT HKKORE 

THE FIRE MR, DENNIS AND HIS lIKill HAT RECOLLECTIONS OF "BLIND 

liEORGE" 



.399 



CHAPTER XLII 

RAPID GROWTH OI IHE YOUNCi CITY, 1886 TO 1889 

8LEIGII BIDES AND DANCES NEW ARLINGTON HOTEL OPENED EMMA ABBOTt's COJI- 

PANY IN "BOHEMIAN GIRl" SALE OF OLD DOMINION MINE CONTEST FOR THE 

COURTHOUSE STEAMER SPOKANE WRECKED FAIR ASSOCIATION ORGANIZED 

RAPID BUILDING OF RAILROADS SALE OF BUNKER HILL AND SULLIVAN REAL 

ESTATE BOOM VARIETY THEATER OPENS SPOKANe's FIRST SOCIAL CLUB BACHE- 
LOR'S BALL HOW THE CITY (iHKW ■1'09 



CONTENTS xvii 

CHAPTER XLIII 

THE GREAT FIRE OF AUGUST 4, 1889 

BLAZE STARTS NEAR OLD N. P. PASSENGER STATION SEEMS A TRIFLING AFFAIR WATER 

SUPPLY FAILS AND FLAMES SPREAD PEOPLE BECOME PANIC STRICKEN BUILDINGS 

BLOWN UP WITH GIANT POWDER MIGHTY SEA OF FLAME ROLLS TOWARDS THE 

RIVER TERRIFIED AND MOTLEY CROWD FLEES TO NORTH SIDE THIRTY-TWO BLOCKS 

DESTROYED CITY UNDER MARTIAL LAW— COURAGE QUICKLY DISPELS DESPAIR RE- 
LIEF ROLLS IN DONATIONS FAR EXCEED NEEDS OF DESTITUTE ORGY OF GREED 

FOLLOWS COUNCILMEN INDICTED FOR MISAPPROPRIATING SUPPLIES OPEN CHARGES 

OF BRIBERY IN "hAM COUNCIL" STEVE BAILEY ASSAULTS COUNCILMAN 

BETTIS 41^5 



CHAPTER XLIV 

EVENTS OF 1889 REVIEWED 

WASHINGTON ADMITTED TO THE UNION SPOKANe's FIRST LEGISLATIVE DELEGATION 

CITIZENS GIVE LAVISHLY TO PUBLIC ENTERPRISES A BEAUTIFUL AND IRRIDESCENT 

DREAM OUR BEGINNINGS IN ART TSE TOWN's BANKERS ITS SOCIAL "atMOS- 

PHERe" DESCRIBED BY "lADV ALBION" RECEIVING DAYS ON THE HILL AND IN 

Browne's addition— report of the board of trade — era of railroad build- 
ing TEN THOUSAND MEN IN SURROUNDING MINING CAMPS ORCHARDS STARTED 

ON "THE gravel" RAPID EXTENSION OF STREET RAILWAYS FIFTEEN PLACES OF 

WORSHIP HARRY. HAYWARd's THEATRICAL ATTRACTIONS 421 



CHAPTER XLV 

SPOKANE IN TENTS AND ON RUNNERS 

SEVERE WINTER OF 1 889-90— RAILROADS BLOCKED AND TRAINS SNOWED IN— SPOKANE 

AT A LOW EBB MORALLY "duTCH JAKe's" FAMOUS GAMBLING TENT KILLING OF 

BIG mac" LAW AND ORDER LEAGUE ORGANIZED GAMBLING HOUSES CLOSED, BUT 

REOPEN MONROE STREET BRIDGE TROUBLES TIDE LAND FIGHT SPOKANE CLUB 

FOUNDED CITY LIMITS EXTENDED SPOKANe's FIRST PROFESSIONAL BALL TEAM 

CLOUGH ELECTED MAYOR THE "SHANTYTOWN WAr" CITIZENS DEFEND THEIR 

LOTS WITH RIFLE AND REVOLVER FIRST MINING EXCHANGE ORIGIN OF HOME 

FOR THE FRIENDLESS CARPENTERS STRIKE AND CITIZENS RALLY TO COMPLETE 

EXPOSITION BUILDING WILSON DEFEATS TURNER AUDITORIUM THEATER 

OPENED 4.29 



xviii CONTENTS 

CllAl'TKll XJA 1 
NEW YEAR'S, 1891, SEES A NEW SPOKANE 

INDIAN WAR THHEATENKl) IN OKAXOUAN COI.-NTUV IIHIUKHV SENSATION AT OI.YM- 

PIA CITY ELECTION MAYOH, COL'NCII, AND COMMISSIONERS CLASH BOARD OF 

TRADE BECOMES CHAMBER OF COMMERCE SALE OF MORNING MINE STRANGE 

CASE OF HERMAN L. CHASE BEGINNING OF ROSSLAND CAMP DISCOVERY OF KASLO 

AND SLOGAN MINES JAMES J. HILI.'s FIRST VISIT NEW HIGH SCHOOL OPENED 

Spokane's first dehuv — review celebrates in its new building — spirited 

■tST 

SCHOOL ELECTION ' 

CIIAPTKR XLVII 

COEUll DALENE RIOTS OF 189-2 

TROUBLE PRECIPITATED BY ARRIVAL OF STRIKE-BREAKERS IDAHo's GOVERNOR ISSUES 

WARNING PROCLAMATION DEADLY BATTLE ON CANYON CREEK, JULY 11 STRIKERS 

HOIST THE WHITE FLAG BLOWING UP OF FRISCO MILL MILITANT UNION FORCES 

MARCH ON WARDNER CAPTURE TOWN AND I ONCENTRATORS SWEENY, CLEMENT 

AND MCAULEY COMPELLED TO SIGN AGREEMENT TO DISCHARGE NON-UNION FORCES 

LARGE NUMBERS OF NON-UNION MEN RUN OUT OF THE COUNTRY KEIGN OF TERROR 

AT THE OLD MISSION MARTIAL LAW DECLARED FORERUNNER OF POPULISM STATE 

AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE OPENS AT PULLMAN DEATH OF CHIEF GARRY D. M. DRUM- 
HELLER DEFEATS JAY P. GRAVES FOR MAYOR KIHST TnUor(iIl TRAIN OVER GREAT 

NORTHERN PISTOL BATTLE IN PACIFIC HOTEL '■ '■^ 

CHAPTER XLVIIT 

YEAR OF TURMOIL, GLOOM AND DISASTER 

MR. cannon's AFFAIRS BECOME IN VOLVED— HIS BANK FAILS— OTHER BANKS CLOSE THEIR 

DOORS MENACING DEMONSTRATIONS BY UN KM I'l.OVED THREATS OF VIOLENCE 

LAW AND ORDER LEAGUE FORMED ASSISTANT POSTMASTER COMMITS SUICIDE ALLEN 

AND TURNER SENATORIAL CONTEST— LEGISLATURE ADJOURNS WITHOUT ELECTING 

BEGINNING OF BEET SUGAR INDUSTRY— RETRENCHMENT AT ( ITV HALL WHEEL 

club's first run DESERTION AND DEATH OF COLGATE, GUIDE OF CARLIN PARTY 

MAYOH POWELL STARTS HOME INDUSTRY SENTIMENT US* 

CllAI'TKU XI. IX 

YEAR Ol- fOXEV ARMY AND GREAT A. R. U. STRIKE 

COXEVITES ASTIR IN SPOKANE COUNTRY— NIGHT TIME ORATORY AT THE HAYMARKET-- 
HEADQUARTERS IN OLD M. E. CHURCH— "cOLONEL" DOLPHIN IN DISGRACE— GREAT 



CONTENTS xix 

STRIKE PARALYZES TRAFFIC ON RAILROADS— RIOT AT NORTHERN PACIFIC STATION- 
DEPUTIES FIRE OVER CROWD— FIVE HUNDRED CITIZENS SWORN IN TO PRESERVE OR- 
DER—DISORDERS AT SPRAGUE— RISE OF THE "sHOTGUN LEAGUE"— POPULISTS ELECT 

MAYOR— STORMV REPUBLICAN STATE CONVENTION SPOKANe's FIRST FRUIT FAIR 

FIRST CARLOAD OF APPLES SHIPPED TWO MORE BANK FAILURES— CITY IN DARK- 
NESS LOW COST OF LIVING AMATEURS SING LIGHT OPERA 457 



CHAPTER L 

HOW SPOKANE WON THE ARMY POST 

BY E. E. PERRY . gc 

CHAPTER LI 

REVIEW OF HISTORICAL EVENTS OF 1895 

JOHN L. WILSON ELECTED UNITED STATES SENATOR— SCHISM IN FIRST M. E. CHURCH- 
FUTILE ATTEMPT TO IMPEACH JUDGE ARTHUR— LOCAL TALENT PRODUCES HOME- 
MADE OPERA— WAR ON BOX-RUSTLING— DEATH OF A. M. CANNON— BELT REELECTED 
MAYOR— SIMON OPPENHEIMER CUTS A WIDE SWATH— THEODORE CUSHING KILLS 
THOMAS KING— SUCCESSFUL SOCIETY CIRCUS— COLONEL WINSTON MEETS A HIGH- 
WAYMAN—COUNCIL THREATENS MAYOR WITH IMPEACHMENT— FRUIT FAIR A BRIL- 
LIANT SUCCESS— DEATH OF F. ROCKWOOD MOORE— BETTER TIMES FOR SPOKANE. .471 

CHAPTER LII 

SPOKANE REVIVED BY MINERAL WEALTH 

COEUR d'aLENES, ROSSLAND AND SLOCAN ROLL IN RICH DIVIDENDS— MAKING OF THE 
GREAT LE ROI— "wiLDCATTERS" FLOURISH— REPUBLIC CAMP .ATTRACTS ATTENTION- 
POLITICAL UPHEAVAL OF 1 896— INFLUENTIAL REPUBLICANS BOLT— FUSION OF 
DEMOCRATS, POPULISTS AND SILVER REPUBLICANS— SPECTACULAR CAMPAIGN- 
FUSION FORCES SWEEP STATE AND COUNTY CAUSES OF THE UPHEAVAL MAKING 

WAR ON GROUND SQUIRRELS— GOOD WORK FOR FORT WRIGHT BY CONGRESSMAN 
HYDE L. H. PLATTOR KILLED BY IlEXRY SEIFFERT— FRUIT FAIR ENLARGED. . . .477 

CHAPTER LIII 

REVIEW OF HISTORICAL EVENTS OF 1897 

GEORGE TURNER ELECTED TO THE SENATE— DR. OLMSTED DEFEATS DR. MAC LEAN FOR 
MAYOR— H. L. WILSON MINISTER TO CHILE— SALE OF WAR EAGLE MINE— DEVELOP- 
MENT OP REPUBLIC— GRANBy's BEGINXIXGS— MRS. ARCHER's PRIZE POEM— DEATH 



CONTENTS 

OF "death on the trail" LORD SHOLTO UOIOLAS ARUIVES TRIBULATIONS OK 

VERY REV. DR. DBAN RICH.MOND BABBITT TOWN WIDE OPEN AGAIN ROSE CAHNI- 

VAI. A.sr) l'\ll\I>K. prosperity's BANNERS WELL ADVANCED 4B I 



CHAPTER LIV 

SALE OF l.h. KOI MINK TO BRITISH COMPANY 

WHITTAKER WRIGHT, LONDON PROMOTER, OVERREACHES HIMSELF PEYTON INTERESTS 

SELL CONTROL TURNER INTERESTS OBJECT CONTESTS CARRIED TO THE COURTS 

JAY P. GRAVES MAKES A FORTUNE TRAGEDY OF THE GREAT EASTERN FIRE DEATH 

OF FRANK GANAHL, FAMOUS PIONEER LAWYER W. L. JONES AND F. C. CUSHMAN 

ELECTED TO CONGRESS FIFTH ANNUAL FRUIT FAIR NORTHERN PACIFIC SELLS 

LOW PRICED LANDS ' 



CHAPTER T>V 

INLAND EMPIRE SOLDIERS IN THE PHILIPPINES 

SEVEN-TWELFTHS OF WASHINGTON'S REGIMENT COME FROM THE EAST SIDE SPOKANe's 

GREETING TO THE SI.XTEENTH INFANTRY REGULARS DEPART FOR CUBA AND VOLUN- 
TEERS FOB MANILA COMPANIES A AND L ON THE FIRING LINE GENERAL KING 

PRAISES THE SOLDIER BOYS FROM WASHINGTON AND IDAHO SEVERE LOSSES IN ACTION 

DEATHS FROM WOUNDS AND DISEASE SPOKANE RED CROSS SOCIETY CHARTERS A 

TRAIN AND BRINGS OUR BOYS HOME IN COMFORT AND STATE CHEERING THOUSANDS 

WELCOME THE YOUNG VETERANS MEMBERS OF THE SPOKANE COMPANIES i91 



CHAPTER LVI 

TWO T'ROGRESSIVF, YEARS, 1899 AND 1900 RFA'IEWED 

D. C. CORBIN ESTABLISHES BEET SUGAR INDUSTRY FOSTER ELECTED SENATOR REPUBLIC 

TO THE FRONT— SALE OF REPUBLIC MINE CLARK AND SWEENY IN THE COEUR 

d'aLENES— HEROIC DEATH OF ENSIGN MONAGHAN SPOKANE INDUSTRIAL E.XPOSI- 

TioN — ELKS HOLD IMPOSING CARNIVAL— GREAT WAVE OF IMMIGRATION— GOVERNOR 
ROGERS REELECTED— REPUBLICANS CARRY REST OF TICKET- WILLIAM JENNINGS 
HHVAN IIEHE "llOT AIr" RAILROAD BUILT TO REPUBLIC '1'99 



CONTENTS xxi 

CHAPTER LVII 

SECOND FIERCE LABOR WAR IX THE COEUR D'ALENES 

ONE THOUSAND UNION MINERS SEIZE A TRAIN MOVE ON WARDNER WITH RIFLES AND 

DYNAMITE BLOW UP BUNKER HILL MILL ONE UNION MAN KILLED GOVERNOR 

STEUNENBERG CALLS FOR UNITED STATES TROOPS MARTIAL LAW ESTABLISHED 

UNIONS PUT UNDER BAN AND PERMIT SYSTEM ESTABLISHED MANY RIOTERS *-LEE 

TO THE HILLS HOST OF OTHERS ARRESTED AND IMPRISONED IN "bULLPEN" CON- 
GRESS CONDUCTS AN INVESTIGATION ED. BOYCE TELLS GOMPERS WESTERN FEDERA- 
TION IS NOT A TRADES UNION 503 

CHAPTER LVIII 

IMMIGRATION ROLLS INTO THE INLAND EMPIRE 

THIRTY THOUSAND NEWCOMERS ENTER THE SPOKANE GATEWAY COUNTRY COOPER- 
ATES WITH THE CITY OIL BORING CRAZE STRIKES THE PUBLIC THE KINDERGAR- 
TEN CONTEST SENSATIONAL PHASES OF RAILROAD PASS EVIL DR. P. S. BYRNE 

ELECTED MAYOR INTERSTATE FAIR ORGANIZED RELIGIOUS SERVICES IN "dUTCH 

JAKe's" PLACE hill's NORTHERN SECURITIES MERGER DEATH OF GOVERNOR 

ROGERS 507 

CHAPTER LIX 

THRILLING HUNT FOR TRACY THE OUTLAW 

TRACY AND MERRILL KILL THREE GUARDS AT OREGON PENITENTIARY ESCAPE INTO 

WASHINGTON TERRORIZE CITIES AND TOWNS AROUND PUGET SOUND TRACY KILLS 

MERRILL OUTLAW APPEARS IN OUTSKIRTS OF SEATTLE KILLS SEVERAL MEN 

ESCAPES INTO THE CASCADES CROSSES THE COLUMBIA MAN HUNT TRANSFERRED 

TO THE BIG BEND DESPERADO WOUNDED AT EDDY RANCH, COMMITS SUICIDE^ 

NOTABLE GATHERING OF RAILROAD PRESIDENTS AT DAVENPORT AND COLFAX 

VOLUNTARY CUT IN GRAIN RATES WAR ON RAILROAD LOBBY FIGHT FOR RAIL- 
ROAD COMMISSION LAST SPIKE E.XCURSION TO REPUBLIC BLACKWELL BUILDS 

COEUR d'aLENE electric LINE N. P. SELLS TIMBER LANDS LORD SHOLTO DOUG- 

LAS' FREE BOOZE SATURNALIA 511 

CHAPTER I.X 

LAST CLOUD FADES FROM THE FINANCIAL SKIES 

1903 A YEAR OP STIRRING POLITICAL INTEREST TITANIC STRUGGLE BETWEEN GOV. 

MC BRIDE AND THE RAILROADS LEVI ANKENY ELECTED U. S. SENATOR DEATH OF 



i CONTKNTS 

JOHN b. ALLEN SPOKANK ENTERTAINS I'UKSIDKN T llOOSEVELT DEATH (11 11. HOL- 
STER AND S. S. GLIDDEN GRANBY PAYS ITS FIRST DIVIDEND FABULOUS PROFITS FROM 

■MINES 517 



CHAPTER LXl 

RENEWED ACTIVITY IN UAII.ROAn BIIT.DIXG 

D. C. CORUIN ANNOUNCES PURPOSE TO lUlLU (. P. H. CONNECTION GRAVES AND 

BLACKWELL FINANCE ELECTRIC LINE INTO PALOUSE COUNTRY ROSSLANd's Ol'TPUT 

PASSES THE .$2r),000,000 mark — princely profits of THE coeur u'alenes 

MC BRIDE DOWNED IN HKPrllLRAN STATE CONVENTION MEAD DEFEATS TURNER 

FOR GOVERNOR SWEENY DEVELOPS SENATORIAL ASPIRATIONS DEATH OF COL. 

P. H. WINSTON, B. C. VAN IIOUTEN AND REV. S. G. HAVERMALE DROWNING OF MISS 

LOUISE IIAKKIS a2\ 

CHAPTER EXII 

CHARLES SWEENY'S 15R1EF TILT AT POLITICS 

No .MATCH FOR OLYMPIA POLITICIANS HE RETALIATES BY ELECTING PILES INLAND 

EMPIRE PROFITS DAGGETT DEFEATS ACUFF FOR MAYOR LARGE PROJECTS OF W. 

W. POWER CO. ACTIVE YEAR IN RAILROAD BUILDING JUDGE WHITSON OPENS V. S. 

COURT IN SPOKANE DEATH or II. WFII., ",UM" WAHDNER AND COL. W. W. D. 

TURNER— INDIANS SIGN TREATS Ullll IIIIMII .MAUKS ;)'27 

CHAPTER LXHI 

"SI'OK.VNK IS .\1,.M()ST A MODEL CITY' 

TRIBl'TE OF PRAISE BY COLORADo's GOVERNOR I.\ 1906 GROWTH OF CHAMBER OP 

COMMERCE PRESIDE.NT EAHLING HERE ELECTRIC LINE E.\TENDED TO IIAVDEN 

LAKE J. F. SLOANE SLAIN IIV HIS SON SIDNEY RENO HUTCHINSON, Y. M. C. A. 

SECRETARY, .MUItDERED ASSASSINATION OP GOV. STEUNENBERG FUTILE ATTEMPT 

TO I.MPEACH MAYOR DAGGETT DEATH OF E.\-GOVERNOR GEORGE E. COLE FOUND- 

IN(; OF WESTERN UNION LlIK INSURANCE COMPANY FORMER MILLIONAIRE DIES 

AT POOR FARM ;j.'i 1 

( HAPTK1{ 1>XIV 

YEAR OE PANIC AND CLllARING HOUSE CERTIFICATES 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE CHAMPIO.NS STATE COLLEGE C. II. MOORE ELECTED .MAYOR 

PANIC BREAKS IN NEW YORK- LOCAL BANKS ISSUE CI.EARl.NIi HOUSE CERTIFICATES 



CONTENTS xxiii 

FLURRY SOON SUBSIDES F. A. BLACKWELL BUILDS IDAHO & WASHINGTON NORTH- 
ERN FINE TOWN OF SPIRIT LAKE SPRINGS UP IN THE WILDERNESS DEATH OF D. F. 

PERCIVAL AND THOMAS GEORGE THOMSON "rEV." LESLIE DAY COMMITS SUICIDE 

WILD DEMONSTRATION AROUND POLICE STATION 535 



CHAPTER LXV 

ROOT-GORDON SCANDAL AROUSES THE PUBLIC 

SINISTER RUMORS DEVELOP INTO OPEN CHARGES CHIEF JUSTICE HADLEY CALLS FOR 

BAR ASSOCIATION INQUIRY JUDGE ROOT RESIGNS GRAND JURY CALLED APPEAR- 
ANCE OF JAMES J. HILL PROSECUTOR PUGH CHARGES HIM WITH BAD FAITH ■ 

GREAT NORTHERN REFUSES TO AID PROSECUTION GORDON ACQUITTED PASSING OF 

SUNDAY SALOON AND BOX-RUSTLING SPOKANE EQUAL SUFFRAGE ASSOCIATION OR- 
GANIZED MILES POINDEXTER GOES TO CONGRESS COSGROVE ELECTED GOVERNOR 

JONES DEFEATS ANKENY FOR THE SENATE NORTHERN PACIFIc's SCHEME OF GRADE 

SEPARATION DEFEATED 150,000 CLUB FOSTERS CHILDREN'S HOME 539 



CHAPTER LXVI 

BILLY SUNDAY'S REVIVAL AND THE UNExMPLOYED 

GREATEST RELIGIOUS MEETING IN CITY's HISTORY TEMPERANCE WORKERS MARCH ON 

OLYMPIA CARING FOR ARMY OF IDLE MEN PRATT DEFEATS OMO FOR MAYOR 

SPOKESMAN-REVIEW CELEBRATES TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY EXTRAORDINARY 

RUSH FOR INDIAN LANDS FRIGHTFUL WRECK ON COEUR d'aLENE ELECTRIC LINE 

PAN TAN DISCLOSURES NATIONAL IRRIGATION CONGRESS PRESIDENT TAFT VISITS 

INLAND EMPIRE CITy's CLASH WITH THE I. W. W. YEAR OF FINE GROWTH 

GREAT NORTHERN ABSORBS THE GRAVES SYSTEM DEATH OF J. HERMAN BEARE 

JUDGE NORMAN BUCK, E. H. JAMIESON AND C. S. VOORHEES Jig 



CHAPTER LXVII 

SPIRITED CONTEST OVER RAILROAD FRANCHISES 

COUNCIL DEMANDS TERMINAL RATES AND A COMMON USER CLAUSE CITIZENS DIVIDE 

AND A SPIRITED CONTEST FOLLOWS COUNCIL YIELDS AND RAILROADS WIN DIS- 
ASTROUS AVALANCHES IN COEUR d'aLENES AVALANCHE DEMOLISHES GREAT NORTH- 
ERN TRAIN— MORE THAN 100 LIVES LOST— ALLEN HAYNES SINKS $500,000 IN IN- 
LAND HERALD DEATH OF PROF. FRANZ MUELLER TWO HUNDRED LIVES LOST IN 

FOREST FIRES— POINDEXTER ELECTED TO SENATE SPOKANE ENTERTAINS DRY FARM- 
ING CONGRESS LARGE PROJECTS OF WASHINGTON WATER POWER CO 519 



xxiv rONTKNTS 

CHAPTER LXVJU 

(.U.\l.\llS>i().\ 1 ()l(.\i Ol (.()\ l-.KNMl'.NT ADOPTED 

PEOPI.K GROW WKARY OF rVTII-E ATTKMPTS TO PATCH UP THE OLD CHARTER STUDY 

THE COMMISSION PLAN MAYOR PRATT NAMES A COMMITTEE TO FRAME NEW CHAR- 
TER CITIZENS DEMAND AN ELECTION COUNCIL TRIES DILATORY' TACTICS, BUT 

YIELDS UNDER PRESSURE FIFTEEN FREEHOLDERS CHOSEN CITIZENS VOTE FOR 

ITS PLAN OF COMMISSION GOVERNMENT THE OPPOSITION TICKET NEW CHARTER 

IS ADOPTED FIVE COMMISSIONERS ELECTED FROM A FIELD OF NINETY-THREE 

CANDIDATES NEW GOVERNMENT INSTALLED 555 

CHAPTER LXIX 

WHICH BRINGS THIS HISTORY UP TO DATE 

FORMER POLICE CHIEF JOHN T. SULLIVAN ASSASSINATED CITY ENTERTAINS ROOSEVELT 

AND TAFT $77,431 SUBSCRIBED FOR GREATER SPOKANE PLANS AND PROJECTS — • 

SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE OF POPULATION MANUFACTURE OF PAPER STARTS ON LARGE 

SCALE NEW MONROE STREET BRIDGE OPENED SPOKANE CLUB OCCUPIES ITS NEW 

HOME REMARKABLE GROWTH OF INLAND CLUB "dOc" BROWN ENDS HIS LIFE 

(ilPSY SMITH CONDUCTS LARGE IIEVIVAI 559 

CHAPTER LXX 

PIONEER CHURCHES OF SPOKANE 

CONGREGATIONALISTS AND METHODISTS EARLY IN THE FIELD FIRST SERMON TO A WHITE 

CONGREGATION PREA< HED BY REV. S. G. HAVERMALE FIRST ORGAN FROM WILLA- 
METTE VALLEY FIRST M. E. CHURCH PIONEER BAPTIST LABORS MISSION WORK 

BY THE EPISCOPALIANS REV. T. G. WATSON ORGANIZES FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 

. CENTRAL CHRISTIAN CHURCH UNIVERSALISTS AND UNITARIANS EARLY DAY 

EASTER SEHVICES CHRISTIAN HOME IX (OI.VII.I.E VAI.I.EV IN 1 8,VI- .id.: 

CIIAPTKR LXXI 

CATHOLIC INSTITUTIONS OF SPOKANE 

FIRST PLACE OF WORSHIP A SHACK, 1 5x22— FIRST CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF LOURDES— 
FOUNDING OF THE CHURCH OF ST. JOSEPH— BEGINNING OF ST. ALOYSIUS— BIRTH 
AND GROWTH OF GONZAGA COLLEGE— ITS PROGRESS FROM FATHER REBMANN TO 
FATHER TAELMAN— FOUNDING OF SACRED HEART HOSPITAL IN 1 886— EDUCATIONAL 
INSTITUTIONS OF THE SISTERS OF THE HOLY NAMES— ST. JOSEPh's ORPHANAGE- 
OTHER INSTITUTIONS " 



CONTENTS XXV 

CHAPTER LXXII 

SPOKANE'S JEWISH COMMUNITY 

EARLY DAY HISTORY REVIEWED BY RABBI LEVINE SIMON BERG ESTABLISHES A STORE 

IN 1879 OTHERS WHO FOLLOWED SOON AFTER FIRST JEWESSES BY THE FALLS 

FIRST BIRTH AND FIRST DEATH FIRST DIVINE SERVICE— RABBIS WHO HAVE SERVED 

HERE VARIOUS JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS 579 

CHAPTER LXXIII 

EARLY DAY HISTORY OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

FIRST SCHOOL HOUSE AT CHEWELAH IN 1869 HOW THE PIONEER SCHOOL WAS BUILT 

IN SPOKANE JAMES MONAGHAN COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT IN 1875 ONLY 

ELEVEN CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE IN SPOKANE DISTRICT J. J. BROWNE FIRST SU- 
PERINTENDENT OF NEW COUNTY OF SPOKANE FIRST TEACHERs' INSTITUTE RECOL- 
LECTIONS OF A PIONEER TEACHER BENJAMIN P. CHENEY ACADEMY, AND STATE 

NORMAL AT CIIEXEY GROWTH BY YEARS 583 

CHAPTER LXXIV 

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF POLICE FORCE 

E. B. HYDE TOWN MARSHAL, WILLIAM KOHLHAUFP NIGHT WATCHMAN JOE WARREN 

JOINS THE FORCE IN 1884 LOCKUP ON SITE OF AUDITORIUM WARREN CAPTURES 

BILL JACKSON, A "wiCKED CUSs" INDIANS MURDER GEORGE RUSK ON DEADMAN 

CREEK WARREN KILLS A BAD INDIAN IN PEACEFUL VALLEY WHEN "wiLD BILl" 

CRIED INDIAN LYNCHED BY CITIZENS AT CHENEY 591 

CHAPTER LXXV 

SPOKANE'S LONG FIGHT FOR JUST FREIGHT RATES 

RATES ADVANCED 100 PER CENT IN 1887 A SHARP PROTEST FIRST SUIT BY BOARD OP 

TRADE IN 1889 SHIPPERS DIVIDED IN 1890 INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION 

HERE IN 1891 ADVENT OP JAMES J. HILL GIVEN FREE RIGHT OF WAY INDIGNA- 
TION OVER BROKEN PROMISES COMMISSION ORDERS REDUCTION IN CLASS RATES 

RAILROADS IGNORE THE ORDER COURTS HOLD COMMISSION CAN NOT MAKE RATES 

MYSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCE OF HILl's TARIFF SHEETS A. W. DOLAND AND OTHER 

SHIPPERS GO BEFORE JUDGE HANFORD LORENZO SAWYER KNOCKS THEM OUT — -IN- 
DIGNANT SHIPPERS ORGANIZE BOYCOTT RAILROADS GRANT CONCESSIONS HEPBURN 

LAW PASSED SPOKANE RENEWS FIGHT BEFORE COMMISSION TENTATIVE DECISION 

IN 1909 FULLER DECISION IN 1910 COMPLETE DECISION IN 1911 HOW SPO- 
KANE CELEBRATED 595 



xxvi rOVTFVTS 

CHAPTER LXXVl 

ORIGIN AND GROW Til Oi NATJONAL Al'l'LE SHOW 

BIRTH AND DK VKI.OPMKNT OF AN IDEA FIHST SHOW IN 1908 DELIGHTKI) THOUSANDS 

VIEW THE BEAITIFI'L EXHIBITS PRESIDENT TAFT PRESSES A GOLDEN KEY- SPLEN- 
DID ENTERPRISE IN PERIL — SAVED BY ENTHUIASTIC WORK GREAT FUND OF 

$60,000 RAISED IN 1911 BRILLIANT CARNIVAL FEATURES TWENTY-SEVEN VISIT- 
ING BANDS NATIONAL COUNTRY LIFE CONGRESS THIRTY-THREE PRINCESSES 

HOVALLV KNTKHTAINED 605 

CIIAPTKR LXXVII 

genesis, growth and achievements of the 150,000 club extraordinary fund- 
raising campaign forthe y. m. c. a. and the children's home first pianos 

in spokane v. h. brown called here in 1883 to tune ten instruments 

Spokane's first music store and first music teacher — history of the spokes- 
man-review how the rival morning journals were consolidated WOMAN 

SrFFRA(iK IN TKHIilTOlllAL DAYS WOMEN SERVE ON JIHIES 609 

CHAPTER LXXVII I 

D. C. CORBIXS CARI l.li IN SI'OKANI. (Ol N TltV 

VISITS THE COEUK d'aLENES IN 1886 — meets JIM WAUDNEU, I'lHL o'llol ItKE AND llAUKV 

BAER ALARMING MIXTURE OF ORE SAMPLES AND DYNAMITE BUILDS A RAILROAD 

AND SELLS IT TO THE NORTHERN PACIFIC COMES TO SPOKANE AND BUILDS THE 

SPOKANE FALLS ft NOHTHEKN TRYING TIMES AFTER PANIC OF 189,'! LOYALTY OF 

HIS EMPLOYES BUILDS THE SPOKANE 1 NTKH \ All" N \ 1, KSTA lU.ISII KS THE SUGAR 

BEET INDl STHV 615 

cnAPTKH I, XXIX 

CITY OFFICIALS OF SPOKANE, FROM 1881 TO DATE. COMPILED IIV ( ITV lI.EIIK C. A. 
FLEMING (519 

CHAPTER EXXX 

BRIEF HISTORY OF THF, HKi REND COUNTRY 

FUR TRADERS RANGE OVER THIS BROAD REGION ARRIVAL OF THE FIRST STOCKMEN 

TRAGIC END OF "wiLD GOOSE BILl" ARRIVAL OF THE SOLDIERS FIRST SETTLER AT 

DAVENPORT CRICKET SCOURGE OK 1882-83 CREATION OF LINCOLN AND DOUGLAS 



CONTENTS xxvii 

COUNTIES HOT AND FURIOUS COUNTY SEAT CONTEST DAVENPORT ARMS TO HOLD 

THE RECORDS INVADING "aRMy" FROM SPRAGUE TAKES THEM WITHOUT BLOOD- 
SHED A COUNTY WITHOUT A TOWN COMING OF THE RAILROADS WHITMAN 

COUNTY REDUCED TO MAKE ADAMS AND FRANKLIN COUNTIES FIRST HOUSE IN 

RITZVILLE HISTORIC OLD AINSWORTH PASCo's EXPENSIVE BANQUET ADVENT 

OF THE fiREAT NORTHERN 621 



CHAPTER LXXXI 

THE PALOUSE COUNTRY— ITS SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT 

ORIGIN AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NAME GRAZING REGION FOR INDIAN HERDS FIRST 

EXTENSIVE SETTLEMENT IN 1869 SITE OF COLFAX LOCATED IN 1870 COUNTY 

CREATED IN 1872 FIRST STORE AND SCHOOLHOUSE EARLY DAY GRAIN SHIPMENTS 

PIONEERS ALARMED BY NEZ PERCE WAR SETTLERS SEEK REFUGE IN BLOCKHOUSE 

AT PALOUSE FIRST NEWSPAPER AND TELEPHONE LINES STAGE LINES AND STEAM- 
BOATS THE FIRST RAILROAD MRS. CHASE's REMINISCENCES STATE COLLEGE LO- 
CATED AT PULLMAN IT.S START AND DEVELOPMENT 6!29 



CHAPTER LXXXII 

PIONEER WHEAT-GROWING AND FLOUR MILLING 

FIRST MILL BUILT AT FALLS ON COLVILLE RIVER, NINETY YEARS AGO MISSIONARIES 

AND INDIANS WENT THERE WITH THEIR GRIST FIRST PATENT FLOUR AND FARINA 

IN THE U. S. HISTORIC OLD MILLSTONES PRESERVED FIRST AMERICAN MILL BUILT 

BY "judge" YANTIS OLD-TIME MILLER WORKS ON A FLYING MACHINE INVENTS 

A MACHINE CALLED "hELL ON THE GRAB" TRIP THROUGH COLVILLE VALLEY IN 

1 882 635 



CHAPTER LXXXIII 

RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION IN THE INLAND EMPIRE 

PACIFIC RAILROAD FIRST ADVOCATED PUBLICLY IN 183'i FORECAST OF TEN MILES AN 

HOUR, AND ROUND TRIP IN THIRTY DAYS PORTAGE ROAD AT CASCADES FIRST LINE 

IN WASHINGTON NORTHERN PACIFIC STARTS CONSTRUCTION IN 1870 DR. BAKEr's 

FAMOUS ROAD FROM WALLA WALLA TO THE COLUMBIA LATTER-DAY CONSTRUC- 
TION OF MAIN AND BRANCH LINES 639 



xxviii (ON TK NTS 

CHAPTER LXXXIV 

NATIVE RACES IN THE INLAND EMPIRE 

ORIGIN AND MEANING OF "sPOKANe" INDIAN LANGUAGES LEGENDS OF THE SPOKANE 

RIVER HOW CHIEF GARRY WAS NAMED INDIAN ROCK PICTURES GAMBLING AND 

GHOST DANCING^ — GRAPHIC DESCRIPTION BY FATHER DIOMEDI STRANGE LEGEND OF 

THE COEUR d'aLENES CRUDE RELIGIOUS BELIEFS HABITS AND CUSTOMS OF THE 

NEZ PERCES A RICH AND BEAUTIFUL LANGUAGE ELOQUENT SPEECH BY AN INDIAN 

ORATOR 643 



CIIArTKH LXXXV 

ORIGIN OF CERTAIN INDIAN NAMES JOAyllN MILLERS UO.MAXTIt EXPLANATION OF 

THE MEANING OP IDAHO LAKE PEND d'oREILLE ONCE KNOWN AS KALISPELM, 

AND PRIEST LAKE AS ROOTHAN AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A NOTED PIONEER WHO SERVED 

WITH GOVERNOR STEVENS DEDICATION OF MONUMENT AT CAMP WASHINGTON, 

NEAR SPOKANE KETTLE FALLS INDIANS SUFFER FROM FAMINE AND EAT PINE MOSS 

now PRIEST RAPIDS WERE NAMED 657 



Spokane and the Inland Empire 



CHAPTER I 

ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF HISTORY 

riRST MENTION OF THE SPOKANES BY LEWIS AND CLARK EARLY DAY SPANISH INFLU- 
ENCES JEFFERSON TO JOHN JACOB ASTOR ADVENT OF THE Fl'R TRADERS, 1811" 

15 A NIGHT OF TERROR MASSACRE OF THE CREW OF THE TONQUIN A FRIGHTFUL 

REVENGE. 

Clime of the West! That to the hunter's bow, 

And roving herds of savage men wert sold ; — 
Their cone-roofed wigwams pierced the wintry snow, — 

Their tasselled corn crept sparsely through the mold. 
Their bark canoes thy glorious waters clave, 
The chase their glory, and the wild their grave. 

Look up ! A loftier destiny behold ! 
For to thy coast the fair-haired Saxon steers. 
Rich with tiie spoils of Time, the lore of bards and seers. 

— Lifdia H. Sigourney. 

THE known and recorded history of the Spokane country runs back a hundred 
and five years, and witiiin that century we shall find enough of romance and 
adventure, of death and daring, of wild barbaric color and civilization's 
glory, to make a narrative that should be worth the telling. 

First mention of the Spokane Indians, the river, lake and falls, though under 
other names, is found in the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition, begun in 
1801 and completed in 1806. These explorers, bold and indomitable, had ascended 
the Missouri, wintered on the Dakota plains among the Mandan Indians in the 
winter of 1801-,'). continued their journey to the headwaters of that stream the fol- 
lowing spring, crossed over the Rocky mountains, and found their way, down the 
headwaters of the Clearwater river (by tiiem called the Kooskooskee) to the Snake, 
which they termed the Lewis, and thence to and down the Columbia to the ocean. 
Passing there the winter of 1805-6, they started on their return the following 
spring, and when encamped near the present city of Lewiston, recorded this entrj- 
in their journal: 



2 SPOKANK A\n Till', IVI.AM) KMI'IHK 

"At this place we nitt with llircc men of a nation called the Skeet-ko-niish, who 
reside at the forks of a large river discharging itself into the Columbia on its east 
side to the north of the entrance of Clark's river. This river, they informed us, 
headed in a large l.-tke in the ijioiintains. and that the f.ilK. below wiiiell they re- 
sided, was at no great distance from the lake. 

"These people arc the same in their dress and ap]iearance with the Chopunnish 
(the Nez Perces) though tin ir language is entirely diH'erent. The river here called 
Clark's river is that which we have heretofore called the Flathead river (the Pend 
d Oreille of the present day). I have thus named it in honor of my worthy friend 
and f(li(iw traveler, Caj)tain (lark. I'nr this streaui we know no Indian name, 
and no white man hut ourselves was ever on its )jrincipal branches." 

The three Indians encountered by Lewis and Clark were evidently froui the 
middle band of the S|)()kanes, living at a large village at the mouth of the Little 
Spokane, but Lewis and Clark obviously fell into an error in attributing to them 
the information that the S))okane discharges into the Columbia above the Pend 
d'Oreille, for the latter stream falls into the greater river at a point just north of 
the international boundary. 

Continuing, Ca])tain Lewis wrote: "The Skeet-ko-mish nation resides in six 
villages and are about seventy miles distant from the Chopunnish nation and beyond a 
mount.iin which that river heads in. The Waytom lake (the Coeur d'Alene) is ten 
days around it. has two islands in it. and is seven days from the Chopuiniish. The 
falls of the l.artow river a little below the lake is l.")() feet, ne.irly ))er|)en(licular, 
or thereabouts. " 

Not so very wide of the mark, considering the explorers' nu-ans of information. 
The f.-ills. in their lot.-il deseenl through .Spokane, drop nearly U'lO feet, but it can 
scarcely be said that they .ire per|)endicular, or even "thereabouts." 

It seems strange that so few of the nanus given by Lewis and Cl.irk to Indian 
tribes and geographical points have been retained with settlement of the i-oiuitry. 
Clark's river has become the Pend d'Oreille below the lake, but above it is still 
called the Clark's fork. The Lewis lias Income the Snake, Waytom lake is lake 
Coeur d'AleiK'; the Skeet-ko-niisli Indians the .Spokaiies. and the l.artow. wliieli 
the ex|)lorcrs confused with the Spokane, is our own grewsome Hangman creek. 
Lartow is manifestly another s|)elling for the subsequent I.ahtoo of Cieneral 
Wright's rejiorts, and tlii' Latah of legislative enactment. 

Again we return to the journals: "The falls of Clark's river, which is only 
half a dav's ride from the latter, falls between 100 and ."jOO feet and leave a contin- 
uous s))rav. The ro.ads which pass up (lark s river Iroiu the tails, and that which 
intersicts it from the falls of L.artow rivir .are hilly and b.ad. The .Skeet-ko-mish 
reside thirty niibs up this river. The Skect-ko-mish reside also on the borders of 
Waytom Lake .anil on two isl.iials within the same." 

Captain lewis's Indi.in inform.ints seem to have dr.awn ;i long bow in their 
descrijition of the falls on the Cl.irk or Pend d'Oreille river. These .are now known 
as .\lb.ini f.alls, .and .iri ne.ir the Iohii oI Newport, 

II is possible thai wandering .and .adventurous white men or h.alf breeds may 
h.i\e found their w.i\ lo the f.ills of the S))ok.ine prior to the coming of Lewis and 
Cl.irk into this eountry. lint In ri- we are embarking on .a wide sea of conjecture. 
Earlv in the nineteenth eenlury an aged ."^pok.ine woman (old the early-dav fur 




BIEDSEYE VIEW OF SPOKANE 
Mount Carletou and Pend d 'Oreille range in the distance 



THE NEW yoRK 
PUBLIC UBrA] 






SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 3 

tradt-rs that slu- had once been far to the soutli, where she lieard mission bells and 
saw men plowing fields, and it is within the range of probabilities that faint com- 
munications had been opened between the Indians of the Spokane coimtry and the 
Spaniards in far-away California. Some color is lent to this conjecture by the 
resemblance between the saddles that were used by the Indians here a hundred 
years ago and the Spanish or Mexican saddle. Certainly the Indian cayuse ponies, 
which roamed over the Palouse country in large bands at the time of the Lewis 
and Clark expedition, came from Spanish . stock, for the horse was extinct on this 
continent at the time of the discovery of America. Old Indians informed the early 
fur traders that the horse had been brought into this section within their own mem- 
ory, and were fond of reciting the astonishment with which they viewed the strange 
animal when their parents had taken them to see it in possession of a- neighboring 
tribe.* 

Lewis and Clark returned to the east, and for several years the government of 
the United States put forth no effort to follow up such rights of possession as it 
may have acquired by this great work of exploration. Indeed, President Jefferson, 
who conceived and executed these explorations, appears to have entertained but 
vague ideas regarding the outcome of the heroic achievement, for we find him, a 
few years later, writing to John Jacob Astor of New York, encouraging the enter- 
prise of that daring merchant, but holding out no expectation that either the flag or 
the constitution would follow him to the distant banks of the Columbia. 

"I remember well having invited your proposition on this subject (wrote Jeffer- 
son to Astor) and encouraged it with the assurance of ^v.ery facility and protection 
which the government could properly afford. , -I :considered, as a great public 
acquisition, the commencement of a settlement '.on '.tJfaf point of the western coast 
of America, and looked forward with gratification to the time when its descendants 
should have spread themselves through tile whole length of that coast, covering it 
with free and independent Americansj_JJ.?*epNi!fEfcTED' With Us But By The Ties 
Of Blood And Interest, and enjoying like us the rights of self-government." 

We come now to the advent of the fur traders — to the first commerce on the 
Spokane — and the establishment ,i hundred years ago of rival stores by Astor 's 
Pacific Fur com])any and the Northwest Fur company of Canada, at tiie con- 
fluence of the Spokane and the Little Spokane, streams, designated then as the 
Pointed Heart and the Spokane. A brief resume of the history of these companies, 
and the older Hudson's Bay company, is essential to a clear understanding of the 
stirring events that are to follow. To that end I shall (juote in part from Ross 
Cox, who came to the northwest in 1812 as a clerk in the service of Mr. Astor 's 
Pacific company, and in part from Irving's "Astoria," written by that great genius 
after study of the records entrusted to him bv Mr. Astor, his friend. 



* Xavier Finlay, a mixed blooil, when more tlian 80 years of age, at ttie time of the es- 
tablishmeut of Fort Colville in 18.59, said to white men tJiat he could remember when the 
first horse was brought into the country north of Snake river. Word came to the Indians 
m the Colville valley, he said, of the presence of a strange animal among the Indians in the 
Wilson Creek country, between Spokane and the Columbia, fleet as the wind, as large as an 
elk, but without horns, and docile as a deer. Moved by curiosity, a number of northern 
Indians, including his grandparents. Journeyed to see this first horse in the northern country, 
and he recited how he was lifted, then a little boy, upon the back of the strange and beautiful 
creature, and shivered with fear when the sleek coat touched his little bare legs. 



4 SI'OKAM. AM) 'llll, IM.AM) IMI'lltl:; 

rile liistury of tin- Ilmison's li.iy coiiiijany goes back to 1670, when King Charles 
II of Kngland granted a cliarter to a number of adventurous gentlemen ambitious 
to exploit the wilds of North America. Prince Rupert was made the first governor, 
and the company w;is allowed the exclusive privilege of establishing trading fac- 
tories on the shores of Hudson's bay and its tributary rivers. 

"While Canada belonged to France," sa_vs Cox in 'Adventures on the Columbia 
Hi\( r.' "the Canadian traders had advanced many liundred miles beyond lake Supe- 
rior, and established several trading posts in the lieart of the interior, some of 
which the votjacjeurs still call by their original names, such as Fort Dauphin, I'ort 
Bourbon and others. The conquest of that province opened a new source of trade 
to British enterprise ; and while the officers of the Hudson's Bay company fancied 
their charter had secured thcni in the undisturbed possession of their monopoly, an 
active ,ind tiittrprising rival was gradually encroaching on their territories, and 
iin))ere( ptibly undermining their influence with the Indians. I allude to the North- 
west I'ur company of Canada, which originally consisted of a few jirivate traders, 
but subsequently becauK^ tlu' first commercial establisimicnt in British America. 

"Its first members were British and Canadian merchants. Their clerks were ; 
chiefly younger branches of respectable .Scottish families, who entered the service 
as ap))rentiees for seven years, for wliich jjeriod they were allowed one hundred 
j)()unds and suitaMt- clothing. At the expiration of their apprenticeship they were 
pl;iced on yearly sal.iries. v.irying from 80 to 1(50 pounds, and aeeording to their 
talents were ultimately |)rovided for as |)artners. 

"This svsteni. bv creating an identity of interest, produced a sjiirit of emulation 
among the clerks admirably calculated to |)romote the general good; for as each 
individual was led to exjiect th.at the jieriod for his election to the l)ro))riet,ary de- 
pended on his own exertions, every nerve was strained to attain the long-desired 
object of his wishes. 

"Courage was an intlis|)ensal)le (|uali(leation. not niercly for tiu' casual en- 
counters with the Indians, but to intimidate any competitor in trade with u lioni he 
might happen to conic in collision. Success was looked upon as the great criterion 
of a trader's cleverness; and |)r()vided he obtained for his outfit of merch.indisc 
what was considered a good return ot furs, the partners never stopped to inquire 1 
about the means by which they were acquired. 

"The Hudson's Bay company, on the contrary, presented no such inducements 
to extra exertion on the part of its officers. Each individu.al had :i fixed salary, 
wiliidiit :\\w pros|icet of liceoming a ]irii])ri(tor ; and some of them, whose c(nirage 
was undoubted, when challenged to single combat by a Northwester, refused, alleg- 
ing as a reason that they were engaged to trade for furs, and not to fight with fel- 
low-subjects. 

"Independently of the foregoing eircinnstances, the Northwest company, in 
the selection of its canoe men. or, as they were called, cncjaf/es, had another great 
.advantage over its chartered riv.il. These men were French Canadians, remarkable 
for ribcdiiiiec to their su|)erinrs. and whose skill in managing canoes, capability of 
enduring har(lshi|>s, and f.acility of adapting themsdVis to the habits and peculiari- 
ties u{ the v.arious tribes, rendered tiieni infinitely more po]ndar in the eyes of the 
Indians than tin- stiiblioni. niilii nding. matti r-of-faet Orkney men. (The chief part 




WILLIAM ( l.AIJK 
Of tlip Lewis ami (lark K,x|M'(litioTi 



(Pf^^,. -.-o.^Ai^r] 



LTlLCtf,_fr, . ... ^ 



SPOKANE AND THE INEAND EMPIRE 5 

of the boatnifii, and several of tlie officers of the Hudson's Bay conii)any had been 
formerly natives of the Orkney islands.) 

"After establishing opposition trading posts adjoining tlie different faetories 
of the Hudson's Bay company in the interior, the indefatigable Northwesters con- 
tinued their progress to the northwest and westward, and formed numerous trading 
establishments at Athabasca, Peace River, (jreat and Lesser Slave lakes. New 
Caledonia and the Columbia, etc., to none of which places did the officers of the 
Hudson's Bay company attempt to follow them. By these means the Northwest 
com])any became undisputed masters of the interior. Their influence with the na- 
tives was all-powerful, and no single trader, without incurring imminent danger 
from the Indians or encountering the risk of starvation, could attempt to penetrate 
into their territories. 

"With the interior thus inaccessible, and the confines not worth disjiuting, Mr. 
Astor turned his attention to the opposite side of the American continent (he had 
been operating on the Atlantic side), and accordingly made proposals to the North- 
west company to join with him in forming an establishment on the Columbia river. 
This proposition was submitted to the consideration of a general meeting of the 
wintering i}r()prietors (the annual winter conference at Fort William, near lake Supe- 
rior) .111(1. after some negotiations as to the details, rejected. 

'Mr. Astor therefore determined to make the attempt without their coopera- 
tion, and in tlie winter of 1809 he succeeded in forming an association called the 
Pacific I'ur eoni])any, of wliieii he liimself was the chief proprietor. As able and 
experienced traders were necessary to insure success, he induced several of the 
gentlemen connected with the Northwest company to quit that establishment and join 
in his s|)eculation. Among these \y as "Alexahdex. McKay, an old |)artner. who had 
aeoom|)anied Sir Alexander Mackenzie in 'his"))erilous journey across the eoiitiiunt 
to tile Pacific ocean. 

"It was intended in tin- first instanc'e' Jq forin ,a rtrading establishuunt at the 
entrance of the Columbia, and as nifmy more sulisequently on its tributary streams 
as tlie nature and ))roduetions of the country would admit. It was also arranged 
that a vessel laden with goods for the Indian trade should sail every year from New 
York f(n- the Columlna, and after discharging her cargo at the establishment, take 
on board the ])roduee of the year's trade, and thence proceed to Canton, wiiich is 
a ready market for furs of every description. On disposing of her stock of peltries 
■it the latter ])lace, she was to return to New York, freighted with the productions 
of Chin;i. 

"The first vessel fitted nut by the Pacific I'ur eoinpany was the Ton(|uin. com- 
manded by Ca])tain .lonathan Thorne, formerly a lieutenant in the service of the 
United States. She sailed from New York in the autumn of 1810, and had on board 
four partners, nine clerks, with a umiilur of inrelianics and I'oi/tificiirs, with a large 
and well assorted cargo for the Indian and Cliinese trades. 

"Much about the same period a party under the command of .Messrs. W. P. 
Hunt and Donald Mackenzie left St. Louis on the Missouri, with the intention of 
proceeding ;is nearly as possible by Lewis and Clark's route across the continent 
to the mouth of the Columbia. This party consisted, besides the above gentlemen, 
who were partners, of three clerks and upwards of seventy men. 

"The following year. IKIl, another vessel, the Beaver, of f80 tons, commandrd 



n SrOKWK AM) Till l\l \VI) FMPTRE 

by Captain Cornelius Sowles, sailed for tlu- ('ulunil)ia. She li.id on board one 
partner, six clerks and a nunilur of artisan-, and v(>;iii;iriirs, with a jjlentifiil su))pi_v 
of everything that could eontrihute to tiie comfort of the ))assengers and crew." 

Ross Cox einu on thr l{(a\er as one of the clerks in the service of Mr. Astor's 
company. 

It is not tile pnr|)osi- of Uiis iiislory to enter into the details of the setting iij) of 
the establishment .it .Vstoria. hut reference liaving been made to the Tonquin. the 
narrative would he incomiilete without a brief recital of her tragic fate. From the 
hour she attempted to cross the Columl)ia river bar, "disaster followed fast upon 
disaster." Chief .M.ite h'ox, with two American sailors and two ( .in.-idi.-in vuijd- 
fieiirs, who were ordered out by Ca))tain Thornc in the long boat to sound tlie chan- 
nel, were drowned in the iire.ikers on the '.J.'id of .March, .ind the gale became so 
menacing that the 'I'oniinin drew off shore and w.iited tiiere two days for an abate- 
ment of the tempest. 

On the i2;")th, the wind ha\ing modir.ited, .i second etl'ort was made to cross tiie 
b;ir. .'ind ,-igain it was necessary to order live men into the long boat for the perilous 
duty of going .-liiead to se.ireh out the ch.mnel. Aiken, one of the officers. W'eekes, 
the blacksmith. Coles, the sailmaker, and two natives from the Sandwich islands 
were selected, and tiny too were swept into tlu breakers, shouting frantii-.illy for 
the help that could iu)t be given. Aiken and Coles were drowned with the cajjsizing 
of the little er.aft, but W'eekes ;ind the Sandwich islanders clung to the bo.at and 
were e.-irried by tide and eurrnit out to sea. They succeeded in righting the boat. 
but the isl.inders wire exhausted by colli and labor and were powerless to m.iii tin- 
oars. Weekes pulled hard till daylight, and ni.ide a binding on the long beach to 
the north of Cape Disappointment on the northern shore of the Columbia. One of 
the Sandwich islanders had died in the night. ,ind the other was so exhausteil on 
reaching land that he could not take .in Indian tr.iil which a|)peared to le.id tow.irds 
the river. This tr.iil Wee krs followed, and ;i few hours' w.alking brought him in 
sight of tile Toni|iiin. lying at .-uichor in the b;iy. .\ relief party brought in his 
IJawaii.an companion ;ind be was restored to health. 

Meanwhile the men on the Tonquin bad p.issed a night of terror. .\s the long- 
boat was carried ;iw.i\'. tin slii|) struck repeatedly on the b.ar, and was swe|)t by 
great breakers rolling in froni the P.ieifie. .'^Iie stuck ii|)on tin- s.aiids and for hours 
was deluged in llie darkness, the people aboard c\|ieeting e\ ery minute to be their 
last; but with d.aybreik the tide and a wind from the west set her atloat .ind she 
was soon in s.afe waters under the shelter of the North cape. 

The work of choosing a site for the establishment (Astoria), erecting buildings 
to shelter the stores .md sup|)lies. ,ind diseh.irging cargo consumed several weeks, 
and the Toii(|uin did not b ive the riM-r till .luiie '>. With \iS persons on bo.ard she 
set sail for the norlli, am! picking up an liidi.iii iiilir|inlrr on tbi' w;iy, soon eame 
tea h.arbor on \';iiieouver's isLind. ( )ul nl lliil barlinr llir T(mi|iiin sailed never- 
more. 

Accounts (if tile iiiass.ieri Mliieli have ediin down lo us I roiii (on. Irving. I'r.an- 
chere and others .ire eonllieting. but on one tr.igie point there is eoiupleti- un.anim- 
itv: s.aving oiil\ llie Indi.in interpreter, every soul abo.ird fell a victim to savage 
treachery ind fury. 

And \ rl tile niass.aere could easilv h;i\e been .■ivoided. and wcmlil have been but 




MERIWETHEK LEWiy 
Of the Lewis ami Clark Expedition 



; THE N£W Yukk 
jPUBUC LlBRARYl 






SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 7 

for the pig-headedness of Captain Thorne, an irascible, contentious, stubborn indi- 
vidual who scorned all prudent counsels, and by his insolence towards the Indians 
invited the attack and frightful butchery that followed. 

No sooner the Tonquin had come to anchor than canoes filled with Indians and 
ladened with rich furs were seen putting off from shore, and as the natives mani- 
fested a friendly purpose, they were taken aboard witli their pelts, and the business 
of bartering was taken up. As the Indians brought a large number of sea-otter 
skins, the most precious fur taken on these shores, Captain Thorne saw visions of 
great profits, and began by offering trifling values. These the Indians, grown wise 
and wary by years of sharp trading with Yankee ships, scorned and rejected, where- 
upon Captain Thorne grew sulky and began to pace his deck in moody silence. An 
Indian chief, holding a tempting sea-otter skin, dogged his footsteps and kept 
holding the treasure before the irate captain, until Thorne, in a moment of uncon- 
trollable anger snatched the pelt from the hands of the chief and with it struck 
him across the face. 

Secretly vowing revenge, the Indians went ashore, and the interpreter and Mr. 
McKay, one of the partners, warned Thorne that mischief was brewing and advised 
him to weigh anchor and sail away. These counsels were curtly rejected, the cap- 
tain affirming that he could whip three times as many savages as the whole country 
could nuister, and pointed to his cannon and firearms in substantiation of his boast. 
On the following morning, while Thorne and McKay were still asleep, several 
canoe loads of Indians drew to the ship's side, and the natives were permitted to 
come aboard. They were followed by others, and soon the deck was swarming 
with them in such numbers as interfered with the work of the crew. Thorne and 
McKay were called, and McKay urged the captain to lift anchor and sail away, 
but even then Thorne was obdurate for a while, and allowed the Indians to exchange 
furs for knives. In the meanfipie the interpreter had observed that a number of 
the natives wore mantles, and expressed a suspicion to Thorne and McKav tliat 
they were secretly armed, a fear that was soon to have frightful verification, for at 
a signal by the chief, the mantles were cast aside, revealing war clubs and knives, 
and with demoniacal yells the savages began their work of death and destruction. 
As the arms were all in the cabin, the officers and crew could offer little effective 
resistance. Captain Thorne fought with savage fury, armed only with a large 
clasp knife, and killed several Indians and woinided many others before he was 
dispatched with a war club while leaning on the tiller wheel in exhaustion. Mr. 
Lewis, the clerk, though mortally wounded, fought his way to the cabin, and four 
of seven men who were aloft when the fighting started, managed to drop to the 
deck and reach the same place of refuge, the remaining three having been dispateiied 
with war clubs in the same effort. 

Once in the cabin and possessed of arms, the survivors opened fire and cleared 
the ship. 

Regarding the subsequent developments we find conflicting reports. According 
to one account, when some Indians ap])roached the ship cautiously the following 
morning, the survivors opened negotiations and offered to surrender it without fur- 
ther fighting provided they be allowed to take a boat and leave unmolested. An- 
other statement says the survivors, witli the exception of Lewis, tile clerk, took to 



8 Sl'OKAM'. AND 11 IK INLAND KMIMUK 

the lioal uiiiK-r c-ovtr of darkiiiss tin- iii;i,l]t Ixforc It is |iroli.i!ilr. thouirli, that 
Lewis staid with tin- ToiKiuiii to tlic last. 

The Indian interpreter, wlio liad been sjiared and taken ashore in one of the 
canoes, reported that when the Indians approached the ship the next morning, only 
one man was visible, and resjiondinp to his peaceful invitation, they went aboard in 
large numbers. Wliile in tiu- height of tlieir exultation there came a terrific explo- 
sion of the ship's magazine, killing more than a hundred of the savages and wound- 
ing more than a liundred others. The sea was reddened with their blood, and for 
davs afterward severed members were washed upon the shore. 

The four nu 11 who eseajird in tlic bo.it. uiialib-. by reason of tide and current, to 
pull out to sea. were forced to bind in .i small cove. Overpowered by weariness and 
loss of sleei). they fell into a dee]) slumber and were captured by the infuriated 
Indians. One report says they were dispatched on the spot, but another recites that 
tliev were taken |)ris()iurs into the village and slowly tortured to dcatli. The fact 
that Weekes, the man who made so gall.int .i fight for life in the breakers on the 
Columbia river ii.ir, was one of the four tlius nmrdered or tortured, deepens the 
])athos of this distressing tr.igedy of early days. 

Tliat Lewis, the clerk, meditated and executed tlu blowing up of the Tonquin, 
first enticing abo.ird a gre.it number of the natives, we may scarcely doubt. He 
])()ssessed a mel.-uielioly nature, and on the w.ay out from New York had voiced a 
))remonition that he should die by his own hand. Irving says he refused to accom- 
jiaiiy the men wlio ;itteiii])ted escape by sm.ill boat, "being disabled by liis wound, 
hopeless of cscajje and determined on a terrilile revenge. He now declared his 
intention to remain on board of the shij) until daylight, to decoy as many of the 
savages on board as possible, then to set fire to the |)owder magazine, and terminate 
his life by a signal act of vengeance." 



CHAPTER II 

WHITE MEN OX THE SPOKANE 

nXAX MACDONALD PROBABLY FIRST TO VIEW THE FALLS RACE BETWEEN ASTORIANS AND 

THE NORTHWESTERS BRITISHERS ESTABLISH SPOKANE HOUSE AMERICANS LOCATE 

AT MOITH OF OKANOGAN A YEAR LATER AT MOUTH OF LITTLE SPOKANE MR. 

ASTOr's STOCK OF GOODS HORSEFLESH STAPLE ARTICLE OF DIET ADVENTURES OF 

ROSS COX RESCUED BY FRIENDLY SPOKANES BUFFALO WEST OF THE ROCKIES 

TRADING WITH THE INDIANS DUEL AT SPOKANE HOUSE GAY LIFE IN THE BALL 

ROOM LIFE OF PERIL AND HARDSHIP PASSING OF THE BRIGADES A MOTLEY CREW. 

INASMUCH as the events in the preceding chapter touched the earlier history 
of S])okane and the Inland Empire at important points, the author has at- 
tempted to describe them with some particularity. They signalized the very 
first effort by an American citizen to establish commerce in a permanent form on 
the Columbia river and its interior tributaries, and portions of the Tonquin's cargo 
were transported to the interior in canoes and bateaux for the founding of trading 
posts at tlie mouth of the Okanogan and the forks of the Spokane and Little Spokane. 

We know not for a certainty the name of the first adventurous white man to 
gaze u])on the wild cataracts of the Spokane, but unquestionably the distinction 
of having been one of the first goes to David Thompson, astronomer, engineer and 
naturalist in the service of the Xortliwest Fur company.* In his "Remarkable His- 
tory of the Hudson's Bay company," George Bryce informs us that — 

"In .Inly. 1811, reports began to reach the traders at Astoria that a body of 
white men were building a fort far up the Columbia. This was serious news, for 
if true, it meant that the supjjly of furs looked for at Astoria would be cut off. 
An effort was made to find out the truth of this rumor, without success, but imme- 
diately after came definite information that the Northwest company agents were 
erecting a jiost at S))okane. This was none other than David Thompson, the emis- 

*T. C. Elliott of Walla Walla, a painstaking stnclent of northwestern history, believes 
that the Korthwesters established Spokane House in 1810, and that the work was 
probably done by Finan JIaeDonald, one of Thompson's men. That Thompson explored the 
Pend d 'Oreille lake and river region in 1809-10, and wintered that year at a trading post near 
the Flathead Indians in Montana, and was at Spokane House in the spring of 1811. "Skeet- 
shoo was the designation given by Thompson to the Spokane river, and to the lake later known 
as the Coeur d'Alene. " Thompson was then en route by horseback to Kettle Falls, where he 
built canoes for his descent of the Columbia. — "David Thompson, Pathfinder, and the Colum- 
bia River," an address delivered at Kettle Falls on the occasion of the centennial celebra- 
tion in 1011. 



10 SI'OK.Wi: A\l) rill, |\| \\|) I.MIMItK 

sary of tlic \()rtli\vi->>l cimiii/iiiy siiil to Inristall llir hiiildiiifi' of Astoria'^ fort. 
'I'liough too late to fulfill this iiii>.sioii. on .lulv Ij. 1 h 1 I , tin- ilouglity astronomer 
ami surveyor, in Ills caiioi- inaiiiucl l>y tigiit iiu ii and having the British ensign 

Hying, sto])pccl in front of the new fort Vfter waiting for eigiit days, 

'rhniii|ison. hiving received supplies and goods from McDougall (in command at 
A.sloriaj started on iiis return journey. WitI) him journeyed U]) the river David 
Stuart, wiio, with eigiit nun. was jiroeeeding on a fur and trading expedition. 
.•^tuart li.iil lilllr eonfidence in 'rhnni|ison. .md l)v a device succeeded in getting 
liini to proeeed on iiis journey .and le.ive iiiin to choose his own site for a fort. 
Going up to within 1 lO niiles of the Spok.me river, .and at tlie junction of tile 
Okanogan and CohiiiiMa. .siii.irt ereeti-d a tenipor.iry fort to e.irry on iiis first sea- 
son's trade. " 

It seems prohalilc tli.it il .Mr. .\st(ir had not (Xjioscd iiis li;iiid in his pnliuiin.ary 
negotiations for .i p.irtmrsliip with tin .Nortiiwesters, Thompson would not li.ivc 
been disijatehed to the f.ir nortliwist, .and the Pacific Fur coin])any would li.n e 
enjoyed an un(lis])uted o))portunity to seize tile strategic points and thus lueome 
strongly entr<iielird well .alic.id of its euiniing .and d.iring riv.ils. 

I'his w.as not, iiowever, Thompson's fir.st .appear.aiiee njion tile u|)])er waters of 
till Cohnnhui. From tlie s.aine authority it is learned that- - 

"In 1^)9 Thompson diti rniirnd on extending his explorations southw.ird on 
the Columbia river," and th.at ".a short distance south of tlic intcrn.ition.il luiund.ary 
he built a post in Se])tenilHr of that year." 

'I'lioiupson returned to the east, but e.ainr b.aek. and in July. 1811, started on :\ 
dcseent of tile Columi)ia tli.it was to give him the record of the first wiiite man to 
follow tli.it stream to its confluence with the Snake, Lewis and Clark iiaving de- 
seciidi d by w.ay of the Cle.irw.iter .md tin l^n.ake. At tile mouth of the .Sjiok.ine 
lie erected a pole .-md tied to it .a h.alf sheet of paper, claiming the country north 
of the forks .as British territory. This notice was seen by a number of Astor em- 
ployes, for Ross states tli.it he obsi-r\ed it in -Vugust, "willi the 15ritish flag Hying 
upon it. " 

I'rancliere h.as neonhil ,a more eireunist.iiiti.il .lei'ouiit ot the iin.asion of the 
Norlhwesters. On .luiie l;"), ten d.ays after the 'l'onc|uiii had sailed .iw.iy to de- 
struetion, "some n.alixes from u|) the river brought us two str.aiige Indi.ins. a m.an 
and .1 woni.in. They were not .attired like the s.ivages on tile river Colunibi.a, but 
wore long robes of dressed dtirskin. with leggings .and moee.asins in the f.asliion of 
tile tribes to the east of the Roeky iiiount.ains. W'c |iiit (lueslions to tlieiii in v.irious 
Indi.an di.aleels, but tlii'V did not undirsl.aiid us. 'I'luy showed us ,a letter addressed 
to '.Mr. .loliii .stii.irt. I'ort I'.slik.it.idiiie. New Caledonia.' Mr. I'illel tlieii .address- 
ini^ tli<-ni in the Knistene.aux l.angu.age, they .answered, although they ;i])]ieared not 
to undersl.ind it perfectly. N'ot withst.inding we le.arned from them tli.it thev h.ad 
bei'ii sent liy .i Mr. 1 imi.iii Mel)(in.il(l. .i ilrrk in (he ser\ ice of the Northwest 
comp.any, who ii.ad ,a post on .a ri\cr which tluy called .Spokan : that li.iving lost 
their w.ay, they h.ad followed tin- course of the T.aeoiis.ah-Tesseh, tin Indi.in ii.aine 
ol till- ( oluiiibi.i : thai when tliey .irri\cd .at the tails, the n.itives m.'ide them iinder- 
st.and th.at linr. urrr wliiti- men .at the luoutli of the river; .and not doubting th.at 
the jierson to whom the lettiT w.as .addressed would be found thercj tliey had come 
to deliver it. « 




,IOH.\ JACOB ASTOK 



THf- NEW YOM 
PUBLIC ilBRAR] 






SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 11 

"We kept these messengers for some days, and having drawn from them impor- 
tant information respecting the country in the interior, west of the mountains, we 
decided to send an expedition thither, under the command of Mr. David Stuart; 
and the lath of July was fixed for its departure." 

Here appears, perhaps for the first time in printed record, the name "Spokan," 
and tliese wandering natives who had found their way to the mouth of the Colum- 
bia, in all i)robability were of that tribe. Lewis and Clark, it will be recalled, had 
heard of the river as the Skeet-ko-mish, but an explanation of this seeming conflict 
in nomenclature is found in the fact that the Indians had no well established name 
for any of the rivers of this western country, each tribe or band applying its own 
local name to that portion of the stream flowing through its particular section. In 
this way it frequently was found that a single river bore half a dozen or even 
more appellations. 

Stuart's expedition to the interior comprised four clerks — Pillet, Ross, McLen- 
non and ^Montigny, and two natives from the Sandwich islands. Their three canoes 
were well ladened with provisions and goods needed for a trading establishment. 

"The place which he pitched upon for his trading post (we quote now from 
'Astoria') was a point of land about three miles in length and two in breadth, 
formed by the junction of the Oakinagan with the Columbia. The former is a 
river which has its source in a considerable lake, and the two rivers, about the 
place of tlieir confluence, are bordered by immense prairies covered with herbage, 
but destitute of trees. The point itself was ornamented with wild flowers of every 
hue, in which innumerable humming-birds were banqueting nearly the livelong day. 
"The situation of this point appeared to be well adapted for a trading post. 
The climate was salubrious, the soil fertile, (Okanogan boosters will please take 
notice) tlie rivers well stocked with fish, and natives^ peaceable and friendly. There 
were easy communications with the Interior by the' upper waters of the Columbia 
and the lateral streams, while the downiward current of the Columbia furnished a 
highway to Astoria. 

"Availing himself, therefore, of the driftwood which had collected in quantities 
in the neighboring bends of the river, Mr. Stuart and his men set to work to erect 
a house, which in a little while was sufficiently completed for their residence ; and 
thus was established the first interior post of the company." 

And thus was established the first American commerce within the broad confines 
of the Inland Empire. Momentous beginning, squalid though it seemed in the 
little depot built of driftwood from the banks of the Columbia, of a commerce and 
an industry which has now attained a magnitude far transcending the wildest flights 
of the imagination of tiie merchant prince who, from his office in New York had 
launched his daring enterprise and thereby contributed powerfully to the strength- 
ening of our title to this broad northwest at a time when British statesmanship and 
British enterprise were striving mightily to set their red ensign forever in these skies. 
We come now to the founding, in the summer of 181 '2, of Astor's trading post 
at the mouth of tlie Little S])okane, some ten miles northwest of the present city 
of Spokane. It will interest our present day merciiants, and tlie i)ublic as well, 
to take a hurried inventory of that first stock of merchandise to be vended in S|)o- 
kane county. As we have seen, the Northwesters had beaten the Astorians to this 
l)oint, but as David Thompson had traveled overland from eastern Canada, and 



12 Sl'OKANK AM) 'IIli: INLAND I'.MPIRK 

bfcii dL'Strli il nil till- way by a larf;c part of his cxptdition wlio had become dis- 
eontfiitid or alarimd and retiiriud to i-ivilizatioii, it is evident that he eouhl 
not have set up inueli of an estabhshinent at this site. Tlie fact that he was 
destitute of supplies when he arrived at Astoria, and was uiidir tlie necessity of 
begginj; from tlie Americans, may be acce))ted as proof that lie iiad not left much 
at his so-called post on the Spokane, j)robably nothing at all beyond some impedi- 
menta which he was glad to lay aside. Thompson was unaware, when he left the 
.'^|)i)kane country for the mouth of the river in July. 1811. that an American estab- 
lishment had been erected there, and it is not probable, if he liad had supplies to 
leave on the Spokane, that he would have ventured empty-handed down the Colum- 
bi.i. Ii\ing from hand to mouth. 

Mr. .\stor's stock, selected especially to appeal to Indian nature, included guns 
aiul aniiiiunition, spears, hatchets, knives, beaver traps, copper and brass kettles, 
wiiite ami green bl;iiikets; blue, green and red cloths; calicoes, beads, rings, thim- 
bles, hawksbells and other gewgaws. For provisions, there were beef, pork, flour, 
rice, biscuits, tea, sugar and a moderate quantity of rum and wines. 

W'itli this cargo a large exjiedition left Astoria June 29, 1812, the party includ- 
ing three partners, nine clerks, fifty-five Canadians, twenty Sandwich islanders, and 
^Messrs. Crooks, McClelland and R. Stuart, who, with eight men were to proceed witli 
dispatches to St. Louis. It traveled in bateau.x and light built canoes, the former 
carrying eight men, the latter six. The goods were packed in bales and boxes, and 
the liquids in kegs holding on an average, nine gallons. Ross Cox informs us that 
from thirty to forty of these jiackages were placed in each vessel, and the whole was 
covered liy an oilcloth or tarpaulin, to jireserve them from wet. Each canoe and 
barge had troin six to eight men, rowing or paddling, independent of the passengers. 

Extraordinary j)recautions were taken to guard .against attack by the thieving 
Wishram Indians at the Cascades of the Columbia, where a long portage was re- 
(juired around the rough water. The expedition arrived .it tin- foot of the portage 
on the evening of the fourth of ,Iuly. and ])re|)arations were made for action. Each 
man was given a musket and forty rounds of ball cartridge, and over his clothes 
wore an elkskiii shirt, rraehiiig to tin- kiues. It was entirely arrow )>roof. and at 
eighty or ninety yards could not be |)enetrated by .i musket ball. Besides the mus- 
kets a number had daggers, short swords and pistols; "and when armed cap-a-pie," 
says Cox, "we presented a formidable a])])earance." 

.So formidablr. in f let. that the Indians, though gathered around in numbers and 
looking enviously upon such stons of wealth, had not the hardihood to assail the 
strangers. Hut at midnight, win ii the weary voi/(i(iciir.s were in a sound slumber, 
•■md the dark mountains and forests were Init faintly illumined by the dying camii- 
fires, they were suddenly aroused and thrown into frightful confusion by the report 
of a gun and the cries of Mr. Pillet, one of the clerks, that he had been shot. 
"Every one instantly seized his arms and inquired on which side was the enemy; 
but our ap))rehensions were quickly appeased on learning it was merely an accident. 
One of the gentlemen, in examining the musket of a Sandwich islander, to see if it 
was primed, handed it to liini at full cock; and just as the islander had taken 
it, the piece went off .-uiil tin contents lodged in the calf of poor Fillet's leg, who 
naturally enough exclaimed tli.it lie was shot. This was, however, in our pr.esent 
circumstances, a disagreeable event, .is it rendered Mr. I'illet not only ine.iiiable of 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 13 

fighting, but required three or four men to carry him in a litter over the various 
portages. The wound was dressed with friar's balsam and lint, the ball extracted, 
the next day, and in about a month afterward he was able to walk." 

At a point near The Dalles the party purchased five horses from the Indians. 
"The value of the goods we paid for each in England would not exceed five shil- 
lings," says the historian of the expedition. "As these horses were intended for the 
kettle, they were doomed to instant destruction. Our comparatively recent separation 
from the land of bread and butter caused the idea of feeding on so useful and noble 
an animal to be at first highly repugnant to our feelings; but example, and above 
all, necessity, soon conquered these little qualms of civilization, and in a few days 
we almost brought ourselves to believe that the animal on which we fed once carried 
horns, was divided in the hoof, and chewed the cud." 

Horseflesh, in fact, was to become the staple diet at the posts on the Spokane 
and the Okanogan, and it is recorded that eighty cayuses were consumed in a single 
winter at Spokane, 

After their association with the filthy, fish-eating, canoe-squatting Indians 
around the mouth of the Columbia, the party were inclined to look upon the more 
cleanly interior tribes with an approving and indulgent eye. "The Wallah-Wallahs 
were decidedly the most friendly tribe we had seen on the river. They had an air of 
open, unsuspecting confidence in their manner that at once banished suspicion and 
ensured our friendship. There was a degree of natural politeness, too, evinced by them 
on entering their lodges, which we did not see practiced by any others. We visited 
several families in the village, and the moment we entered, the best place was se- 
lected for us, and a clean mat spread to sit on ; while the inmates, particularly the 
women and children, remained at a respectful distance, without manifesting any of 
the obtrusive curiosity about our arras or clothing, b_y which we were so much an- 
noyed among the lower tribes." 

^Mercenary immorality, we are informed, was unknown among them, in admir- 
able contrast to the oil-besmeared women on the coast. Cox found that "the females 
were distinguished by a degree of attentive kindness totally removed from the dis- 
gusting familiarity of the kilted ladies below the rapids, and equally free from an 
affection of jjrudery ; and I believe no inducement would tempt them to commit a 
breach of chastity." 

At the junction of tlie Columbia and the Snake, present site of Pasco and Kenne- 
wick, the adventurers encamped for three days, while buying horses for their jour- 
neys inland. David Stuart and jiarty then proceeded u)) the Columbia in their 
c;uioes, to the Jiost at tiie mouth of the Okanogan, and Donald MeKenzie and bis 
party up the Snake river, to establish a trading post on its upper reaches. 

"The natives of this district," writes Cox, "are called the Pierced-nose Indians, 
but as French is the language in general use among traders in this country, owing 
to most of their workmen being Canadians, we commonly called them Leg Ne:: 
Perces. They do not differ much from the Wallah-Wallahs in their dress or lan- 
guage, but are not so friendly, and demand higher prices for their horses. Their 
liabitations are covered with large mats fixed on poles ; some are square, others 
oblong, and some conical. They are of various sizes, from twenty to seventy feet 
long, and from ten to fifteen feet broad. These dwellings are pretty free from 
vermin, and are easily changed when occasion requires. 



14 SPOKANH AM) Till-. INLAND F.MriRJ-, 

"The women wiar li atln rii roln s wliicli cover tiii- shoulders. ]).irt ot the arms, 
tlie lireasts, and re.ieli down to their legs. The men have robes nearly similar, hut not 
.so long, with leggings which ri-.ieh u|) li.alf the thigii, and are fastened to a belt round 
the waist with le.it lur thongs. 'I'hey .ire clean, active and smart-looking, good 
hunters and excellent horsemen. They enjoy good health, .and with the exccjition 
oi a few sore eyes, did not ;i|)])e.ar to h.ive .any disorder. Thev are fond of their 
ehildnn .and .itlcntivc to the w.ants of their old |ieoi)le. Their saddles are made of 
dressed dei rskin. stnfVed with h.iir; tile stirrujis are wooden, with the bottoms 
broad .and H.at, and covered over with raw skin, which when dry becomes hard and 
lasts a long time. The bridles are merely ropes made out of the hair of the horses' 
tails, and are tied round their under jaw." 

After the purchase of twenty-live horses, the p.arty proceeded up the Snake, 
sonic oil l.iiiil with llir horses, hut the greater part still in the canoes. In this man- 
ner they continued to the mouth of the I'alousc river, where more horses were pur- 
ch.ased, for lure they were to leave the river and go overland to Spokane. The 
canoes .ind li.ite.nix were stored .aw.iy in ,a snug jil.aee and entrusted to the care of 
the chief of the vilLigc .at that lioint, and ,as a reward for his oversight he was given 
a "fathom of blue cloth," an .axe and .i knife: and to his wife were given some 
strings of white .and blue beads .and three dozen li.iwUliells for her chemise de cuir. 
The vill.age here coiujirised about forty in.al-eovered te))ees. 

Some conception of the toilsoiiu' eh.ar.actcr of a journey as then inaiic to the 
interior iii.iy be gleam il Iniiii llie f.act tli.at this party, leaving Astoria June 29, took 
till .\ugust 7 to reach the mouth of the I'.alouse on .Snake river, and the ])reparations 
,it th.it |)oiiit consniiied eight days more, so it was not until the 1 ;)th that it took 
up tile oicrl.iiid journey for the Spokane, under the guid.uice of ,in Indian employed 
.at the I'.alouse vill.age. 

The ji.arty now consisted iif one priiprielor, Cl.irke. four clerks, twenty-one 
C.an.adi.ins, ,aiid six i^.mdwieh isl.iiiders, uilli (he liiilian gui(K', and traversed the in- 
terMiiing I'.alouse country lu tw( tii the .Sn.ake and the .Spok.aiu- in safetv, the only 
incident of note li.aviiig luiii the se|).ar;itioii of Ross Cox from the brigade and his 
consequent loss .and w.iiideiings, .iloiie. without means of making fire, and scantily 
.attired, for a jicriod of fourtieii d.ays. when he finally st.iggered into the camp of 
some friendly Indians on the .Spok.uie. emaciated from hunger and hardship, and 
with feet so swollen ami lile<iling tli.it he could scarcelv walk. 

One report allegi s th.it Cox. who w.is a red-he.aded and somewhat ini])efuous 
Irishni.iii. persisted in Lagging .along the w.iy. .and li,a\iiig been reprini.inded bv 
Cl.arke bec.aiiie iiisiiliordiii.ate. ,aiul still persisting in Ins refusal to Uee|i up with the 
p.arty, w.as left far behind in the hope that it would serve as a wholesome lesson. 
Cox himself offers .an entirely di lien lit .and (|iiite ))l,iiisil)le explanation — in elTcct 
that attracted by the beauty of the b.iiiUs of ,i litlK stre.iiii where the expedition had 
made a noonday jiausc, he strolled .along till he c.iiiii In a iialural arbor .and lay 
down to rest. Overcome by weariness .and the lie.it nl the .\agusl sun, he fell into 
a sound sluiiiber from which he .aw.ikeiied sever.il linui-s later to discover that the 
|).irty w.as gone .and he left alone in a wild .and sav.ige Land. He followed the trail 
until it w.as lost on rocky ground, and then climbed ,a high hill, but the e.avalcade 
was nowhere to be seen. His only clothing w,is .a p.iir of ii.aiiki en trousers, a ging- 
h.aiii shirt and a p.air of worn nioee.asins, .and he sulVered inleiisely ,it night from cold 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 15 

and exposure. Not having even a pistol, his only means of subsistence were wild 
berries and roots, excepting one meal at a point where a party of Indians had made 
their camp the night before and left around their fire the remnants of some grouse 
upon wliich they had dined. In his description of his adventures, Cox seems to have 
exaggerated his experiences with wolves, bears and rattlesnakes, but for the rest 
iiis narrative is obviously a faithful record of his troubles. 

Rev. Samuel Parker, who was sent into this country in 1835 by the American 
Board of Foreign ^Missions, and traversed the Spokane country that year, makes 
liglit of Cox's adventures and writes him down an arrant nature faker. Describing 
the Spokane woods, Parker says: "These are the woods in which Ross Cox was lost, 
about the circumstances of which he gives a very interesting description, but which, 
so far as I have had as yet an opportunity to judge, contains far more fiction than 
truth. But his multitude of growling bears and howling wolves and alarming rattle- 
snakes, of which I have seen only one, may yet come out from their lurking places 
in hostile array." 

Cox's account of Iiis ultimate rescue by a family of tlie Spokanes is so pleasingly 
descriptive of the natural kindliness of "our first citizens of Spokane," that I in- 
corporate it here : 

"On advancing a short distance into the meadow (where he had seen horses) 
the cheering sight of a small column of gracefully ascending smoke, announced my 
vicinity to human beings, and in a moment after two Indian women perceived me. 
They instantly fled to a hut which appeared at the farther end of the meadow. This 
movement made me doubt whether I had arrived among friends or enemies, but my 
apprehensions were quickly dissipated by the approach of two men, who came run- 
ning to me in the most friendly manner. On seeing the lacerated state of my feet, 
they carried me in tiieir arms to a comfortable dwelling covered with deer skins. To 
wash and dress my torn limbs, roast some roots and boil a small salmon, seemed but 
the business of a moment. After returning thanks to that great and good Being 
in whose hands are the issues of life and death, and who had watched over my 
wandering steps, and rescued me from the many perilous dangers I encountered, I 
sat down to my salmon, of which it is needless to say, I made a hearty supper. 

'Tlie family consisted of an elderly man and his son, with their wives and chil- 
dren. I collected from their signs that tiiey were aware of my being lost, and that 
they, with other Indians and white men, had been out several days, scouring the 
woods and plains in search of me. I also understood from them that our party had 
arrived at their destination, which was only a few hours' march from their habitation. 
They behaved to me with affectionate solicitude, and while the old woman was care- 
fully dressing my feet, the men were endeavoring to make me comprehend their 
meaning. 

"As it was too late, after finishing my supper, to proceed farther that night, I 
retired to rest on a comfortable couch of buffalo and deerskins. I slept soundly, 
and the morning of the thirty-first was far advanced before I awoke. After break- 
fasting on the remainder of the salmon, I prepared to join my white friends. 

"A considerable stream, about ninety yards broad, called Coeur d'Alene river, 
flowed close to the hut. (The name invariably attached in early days to that part 
of the Sjiokane flowing between the lake and the mouth of the Little Spokane.) We 
crossed the river in a canoe, after which they brought over three horses, and having 



16 Sl'OKAM. AMJ 1111. INLAND l..Mi'lUE 

cnv<l(i|)t(I my body in an Indian niantli- of diiTskin. wi- nidnnti-d and ^( t off in a 
smart trot in an lastcrly diriition. 

"W'l- had not proceeded niori than scvi-n inilc?> when I felt th( had effects of hav- 
intC cattii >'" imiili sahnon after so long a fast. I had a st-vcre attack of indigestion, 
•and for two hours sutfcrcd cxtrenie agony; and but for the great attention of the 
kind Indians. I think it wouhl iiave proved fatal. 

"Al)out .in hour .after rceonuneneing our journey, we arrived in a clear wood, 
in which, with joy unutt<ral)le, I observed our Canadians at work hewing timber. 1 
rode betwt-en the two natives. One of our men, named Francois Gardepie, who had 
been on a trading excursion, joined us on horseback. My deerskin robe and sun- 
burnt features completely set his |)owers of recognition at defiance, and he addressed 
me as .in Indian. I ri]ilii(i in 1 n neh liy asking how our pmpU- wi-re. I'oor l r.in- 
cois ai)j)e.ired i lettritied. excl.iimed "Saiiite t'ierge!" and g.dloped into the wood 
vociferating: 'Oh vies amis, vies amis il est trouve! Qui, uiii, il est trouve!' (Oh, 
my friends, my friends, he is found 1 Yes, yes, he is found!) 

" 'Qui? qui?' .asked his comrades, 'Monsieur Cox, Monsieur Cox,' rei)lied Fr.in- 
cois; '/(■ voila! le voila!' (There he is, there he is!) 

"Away went saws, hatchets and axes, and each m.in rushed forw.ird to the 
tents where we had by this time arrived. It is needless to say th.it our astonishment 
and delight at my miraculous escape were mutual. Tlie friendly Indians were lib- 
erally rewarded, the men were allowed a holiday, and every countenance bore the 
smile of joy and ha|)piness." 

The site chosen for the Spokane (lost was tile neck of land lyiiiir l)etween the 
Spokane and Little Spokane rivers, a short distance above the joiniiii; of the two 
waters. Cox describes it as thinly covered with (jine and other trees, .and close to 
.1 trading ])Ost of the Xortliwest eomp.iny. under the command of Me.Mill.ui. one of 
their clerks, who had ten men with him. The Northwest company had two other 
posts in the interior, one .about •■IW miles from .S))okane House, in a northe.asterly 
direction, for tr.ading with the I'l.ithe.ids. the otiier about '.iOO miles north of the 
Spokane, "among a tribe called the Cootonais (Kootenais) in whose country there 
are plentv of beavers, deer, mountain sheep, and, at times, buffaloes." 

Tli.at iiiiff.ahi* were to be found .among the Kootenais. occupying as tiiey did the 
wihl .and deeply ucioded iiKiuiil.ains and valleys of the ujiper Columbia, may be ques- 
tioned. While there is .abundant testimony that buiValo had formerly ro.amed over 
the great ))lains between the Rocky mountains and the Cascades, they h.ad become 
extinct here prior to the ,id\en( of the first white men. .and the tribes living west of 
the Rocky mountains h.ad long been under the necessity of making long hunting 
trijjs into the country of the IMackfeet for their snjiplies of robes and dried bulV.alo 
meat. In these expeditions the interior tribes, notably the Flatheads and the Coeur 
d'.Vlenes. had suffered frightful losses from savage attacks on their hunters by tiie 
Jilackfcct, and a fierce and implacable feud had grown uj) between these tribes and 



• From tlic journal of Dr. George Suckley, surgeon U. S. A., who deseendefl the Pciid 
d 'Oreille in a eanoe in the autumn of 1S53, I take this interesting excerpt: "BiilValo were 
formerly in great nunihcis in this valley, as .attested by the number of skulls seen and by the 
reports of the inhabitants. Kor a number of years past none had been seen west of llie 
CRoeky) mountains; but, singular to relate, a buffalo bull was killed at the mouth of tUu 
Pend d 'Oreille river on the day I passed it. The Indians were in great joy at this, supposing 
tliat the tiiifrrild were coining baek among them. 




FALLS OF l-\\K PAT.ni'SE 
As ilrawu hy urtist nith CluvLTUur Stevens' Kxpoditimi, 1853 



THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRAKY 



A8TBH, LtHOX 
TILOEN FOUNOATlONi 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 17 

the wild warriors of the plains. As the Blackfeet had come into contact with the 
fur traders operating east of the Rockj^ mountains, and had become possessed of 
firearms and ammunition before the establishment of trading posts west of the 
Rocky mountains, the Indians of the Spokane comitry suii'ered a terrible disad- 
vantage in their wars, and hence were eager to meet the western traders and ex- 
change their furs for guns and powder and ball. 

The origin of the name P'lathead, as applied by the French trappers and voyageurs 
to the superior tribe occupying the country on the western slopes of the Rockies, is 
veiled in mysterv. It does not appear that these Indians had ever adopted the prac- 
tice of flattening the heads of their infants; certainly they were not given to that 
custom when the white men came into the country, a strange custom that was con- 
fined to a few tribes seated around the mouth of the Columbia. It maj^ be the name 
was bestowed in derision or anger, since the term "tete plate" or Flathead has long 
been in use among the French as a term of reproach or villification. Rostand em- 
ploys it in "Cyrano de Bergerac" when he causes de Bergerac, in his angry outburst 
against Le Facheux, to exclaim: 

"Enorme, mon nes! Vil camus, sot camard, tete plate!" 

As the Northwest company had established posts among these Indians, the 
Astor j)eople decided to set up rival establishments, and clerk Pillet was dispatched 
with six men to locate a post among the Kootenais, and Farnam and Cox were sent 
from Spokane House to establish one among the Flatheads. Their mission achieved, 
the latter returned to the Spokane in time to share in the New Year's festivities, 
which were conducted on a scale of comparative magnificence. Clarke had built a 
snug and roomy dwelling house of four rooms and a kitciien ; another commodious 
structure for the men, and a capacious store for the furs and goods, "the whole 
surrounded by high paling and flanked by two bastions witii loopholes for musketry." 
So the party were in a position to take their ease, and the gay and care-free French- 
men enjoyed to their fullest zest the Christmas and New Year "regales." On such 
festive occasions flour and sugar were served out to the men for cakes, and a gener- 
ous allowance of rum and wine to wash down the unwonted luxuries of the day. 

"I passed the remainder of the winter at this place," run the Cox chronicles, 
"and between hunting, reading, fishing, etc., we contrived to spend the time agree- 
ably enough. We lived principally on deer, trout and carp (more probably suckers 
or whitefish), and occasionally killed a fat horse as a substitute for beef. Custom 
had now so far reconciled us to the flesh of this animal, that we often preferred it 
to what in Euro])e might be regarded as luxuries. Foals or colts are not good, al- 
though a few of our men preferred them. A horse for the table should not be under 
three years nor above seven. The flesh of those which are tame, well fed and occa- 
sionally worked, is tender and firm, and the fat hard and white; it is far superior to 
the wild horse, tlie flesh of which is loose and string}*, and the fat yellow and rather 
oily. \\'e generally killed the former for our own table, and .1 can assure my readers 
tliat if they sat down to a fat rib. or a rump steak of a well fed four-year-old, with- 
out knowing the animal, tliey would imagine themselves regaling on a piece of prime 
ox beef. In February we took immense quantities of carp in Spokane river (the 
Little Spokane) above its junction with the Pointed Heart, and in a few weeks 
after the trout came in great abundance. 

"The Spokans we found to be a quiet, honest, inoffensive tribe ; and although 



18 Sl'OKAM. A\U lilK IM.AM) KMriUE 

we had fortifiid our tstaMisliuniit in tlit- iiianiu-r aliovc int-ntioned, we seldom closed 
the gates at niglit. Their couiitrv did not ■•ibouiul in furs, and they were rather indo- 
lent in hunting. Their chief, Illutnspokanee, or the Son of the Sun, was a harmless 
old man who sj)ent a great ])ortion of his time between us and Mr. McMillan. We 
entered into a contract witli that gentleman to alistain from giving the Indians any 
sjjirituous liquors, to which liotli jiarties strictly adhered. Mr. Clarke, who was an 
old tr.ider himself, liad often witnessed the baneful eflVcts of giving ardent spirits 
to Indians, while he was in the service of the Northwest comiJany, at all whose es- 
tablishments on the east side of the Rocky mountains it was an almost invariable 
eustiini. . . ]{y tliis arrangement both parties saved themselves considerable 

troiilile and e.xjxnse. and kept tlie i)oor natives in a state of blissful ignorance. In 
other respects also we agreed very well with our o|)poneiit. .ind neither party 
evinced any of the turbulent or lawless s))irit which gave so ferocious an aspect to 
the o))|)osition of tile riv.al comiianies on the east side of the mountains. 

"The great object of every Indian w.is to obtain a gun. Now a good gun could 
not be had under twenty beaver skins; a few short ones we gave for fifteen: and 
some idea of the jjrofit may be formed when I state that the wholesale ))riee of the 
gun is about one jxtund seven shillings, while the .average value of twiiity beaver 
skins is about twenty-five pounds. Two yards of cloth, which originally cost twelve 
shillings, would gener.illy i)ring six or eight beavers, value eight or ten pounds; 
and so on in |iropi)rli(in for other articles. But they were satisfied and we had no 
cause to comj)lain. 

"The Spokans are far su))iri(ir to the Indi.ins of the coast in eiranliness. but by 
no nie.ms equ.il in this res])eet to the I'l.itlu-.ids. The women are good wives and 
most atfectionati nioliurs; the old. cheerful and ei)mi)lete slaves to their families; 
the young, lively .ind confiding; and whether married or single, free from the vice 
of incontinence. 

"Their village was situated at the ))oint formed by the junction of the two rivers. 
Some houses were oblong, others conical, and were covered with ui.its or skins ac- 
cording to the wealtl) of the ))ropri(tor. Their chief riches are their horses, wliieli 
they generally obtain in barter from the Xez Perces, in return for the goods which 
they obt/iin from us for their furs. Each man is therefore the founder of his own 
fortune. .111(1 their riches or ])ov( rty are generally i)roportioned according to their 
activitv <ir iiKJulrncc. Tin- vi<'c of gamliliiig. howcxcr. is prt\aleiit .•inioiig tiicui, 
and some are such sl.aves to it that they freciueiitly lose all their horses. 

"Tile sjiot where 'the rude foref.itlurs of the liainht sleeji' is about niiiiway be- 
tween the village .■iii(i the fort, .iiid lias rathrr a |ii<'tur(s(|iic etVcet ;it a liistaiiee. 
When a man dies several horses are killed, and the skins are attached to the ends of 
long poles, which ari' planted in the gr.aves. The number of Iiorses sacrificed is 
jiroportionrd to tin wialtli of the individu.il. Besides the horseskins, deer and 
buffalo robes, leather .sliirts, blankets, pieces of blue, green and scarlet cloth, strips 
of calico, moccasins, provisions, w.arlike weajions, etc,, are placed in and about the 
cemetery; all of which they imagiiii will be more or less necessary for the deceased 
in the world of spirits. 

"As their lands are much infested by wolves, which destroy the foals, they can 
not rear horses in such numbers as the Nez Perces, from whom they are obliged to 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 19 

jjurehase tluni amiuallv. They never kill any for their own use, but felt no re- 
pugnance to eat the flesh at our place." 

Affairs were not altogether harmonious between the rival establishments that 
first winter on the Spokane, for PiUet, a clerk of the Astor forces, fought a duel 
with pistols with :\Iontour, a clerk of the Northwesters. They fired at six paces — 
"both hits; one in the collar of the coat, and the other in the leg of the trousers. 
Two of their men acted as seconds, and the tailor speedily healed their wounds." 

Spokane House was the popular rendezvous for the different posts and detached 
trading parties operating all over the Inland Empire. Many a gay gathering and 
many a lively social diversion could the sentinel pines and downlooking mountains 
narrate today if they but had the power of speech. The establishment boasted a 
ball-r.)om, and there on -H-intry nights, to the strains of flute and fiddle, the vivacious 
Frencli Canadians and more stolid young Scotch chaps trod a measure with the 
copper-tinted belles of the Spokanes, the Nez Perces and other neighboring tribes. 
Forgotten then, in the entrancement of Terpsichore, were their weary marches by 
Held and forest and mountain trail ; their dismal bivouacs in winter snows or summer's 
deluge. Loquacious Pierre, and mercurial Jean, and quick-tempered Louis cast away 
their memories of dreadful toil by perilous portage, or snapped their fingers at the 
thought of coming travail, when the breast-straps should cut the flesh as they tugged 
at the lines of deep-ladened bateaux dancing on the swift waters of the Columbia, 
the Spokane, the Flathead and the "Cootonai." 

In fancy we may conjure back the stirring scene: the deep ball-room, lighted by 
the great hearthfire and flaring flambeaux of pine knots; the Scotch gentlemen, 
each in the tartan of his elan ; the Americans, decked out in some treasured piece of 
bright colored raiment of the period, brought from distant New York, and the 
French Canadians in jjlume and sash and gaily colored capote. 

And what a contrast without, where the winter moon spread her cold beams on a 
landscape of woody mountains and snowy plains, while the dark waters of the Spo- 
kane went tearing to the mighty Oregon, and the greater river ran sullen to the sea. 
It was a hard, wild life, and few who embraced it survived to see again the 
pleasant landscapes of their boyhood homes, or hear on sunny Sabbath morning the 
deep-toned bells of worshij) calling across the smiling fields. 

"It is worthy of remark," observes Parker, who traversed this country in 1835, 
'that comparatively few of all those who engage in the fur business about and west 
of the Rocky mountains, ever return to their native land and their homes and friends. 
Mr. P. of Fort Walla Walla told me that to keep up their number of trappers and 
hunters in the country west of the mountains, they were under the necessity of send- 
ing out recruits annually, about one-third of the whole number. Captain W. has 
said that of more than 200 who had been in his employment in the course of three 
years, only between thirty and forty were known to be alive. From this data it 
may be seen that the life of hunters in these far western . regions averages about 
three years. And with these known facts, still hundreds and hundreds are willing 
to engage in the hunter's life and expose themseUes to hardships, famine and death. 
The estimate has been made from sources of correct information, that there are 9,000 
white men in (he north and in the great west, engaged in the various department's of 
trading, traj.jjing and hunting. This number includes Americans, Britons, French- 
men and Russians." 



20 SI'OKAM: AM) llll. IM.AM) IMI'IRK 

Life at Okanogan offend none of the li\i ly (li\iT.sions tliat were tlu- acconipani- 
uicnt of a winter sojourn at Spokane House. In a letter bj" McGillivray, a year 
later to a friend at Spokane, we find a graphic pen picture of that dreary outpost of 
the coui])any : 

"Oakinagan, Feb., 181i. — This is a horribly dull place. Here I have been, 
since you parted from us, perfectly solus. Mj- men, half Canadians and half Sand- 
wich islanders. The library wretched, and no chance of m_v own books until next 
year, when the Athabasca men cross the mountains. If you or my friends at Sjiokan 
do not send me a few volumes I shall absolutely die of ennui. 

"The Indians here are incontestably the most indolent rascals I ever met; and 
I assure you it requires no small degree of authority, with the few men I have, to 
keep them in order. Montignier left me on the twenty-third of December to proceed 
to Mr. McDonald .at Kamloo))s. On his way he was attacked by the Indians at 
Okanogan Lake, and robbed of a number of bis horses. Tiie natives in that quarter 
seem to entertain no great friendship for us. as this is not their first attempt to 
trespass on our good nature. My two Canadians were out iuinting at the period of 
the robbery, and the whole of mj- household troops merclv consisted of Bonaparte. 
Wasliington and Caesar (three natives of Hawaii). Great names, you will say; but 
I nuist confess, tli.it much as I think of the two great moderns, and highly as I re- 
spect the nuinory of the immortal Julius, among these thieving scoundrels 'a rose 
by any other name would smell as sweet.' The snow is between two and three feet 
deep, and my trio of Owyhee generals find a sensible difference between such 
hy))erbor(an weather and the pleasing sunshine of their own tro])ical paradise. 
i'oiir fellows! They are not adapted for these latitudes, and I heartily wish they 
were at home in tiieir own sweet isl.-mds. and sporting in the 'l)lue sunnner ocean' 
that surrounds them. 

"1 have not as yet made a |),iek nl lir.-ivir. The la/y Indians won't work; and .is 
for the emperor, president .ind dictator, they know ;is mucli .ilmiit trapping as the 
monks of La Tra|)pe. I have hitherto principally subsisted on horseflesh. I can 
not say it agrees with me, for it nearly ])ro(lueed a dysentery. I have h.ad plenty of 
pork, rice, arrowroot, flour, taroroot. tea and coffee; no sugar. With such a variety 
oi bonnes rhosrs you will say I ought not to complain; but w.mt of society has de- 
stroyed my relish for luxuries, and the only articles I taste above par .are souchong 
and molasses. 

"\Miat a contrast between the manner I s])ent last year and this. In the first 
wilh all llll pride of a newly-created snl)altern, occasionally fighting the Yankees, 
() la mode ilii /xiii-i; and anon, spurting my silver wings before some admiring 
pai/sainif .along the frontiers. Then what a glorious winter in Montreal, with cap- 
tured .lonatiians, trium])hant IJritons, .astonished Indians, gaping htibitatits, agitated 
beauties, b.iUs, routs, dinners, suppers; parades, drums heating; colors flying, with 
all the other 'jiride, ])omp and circumstance of glorious war.' But 'Othello's occu- 
pation's gone,' and here 1 am. with .a shivering guard ol poor islanders, buried in 
snow, sipping molasses, smoking tobacco, and masticating horseflesh. Hut I ,im sick 
of the contrast !" 

Certainly a \i\i(i one, .and lu.ule by a gentleman of i vident culture and literary 
alt.aiiniieiit. 



CHAPTER III 

BRITISH FLAG SUPPLANTS THE STARS AND STRIPES 

TAKING THE FURS DOWN THE COLUMBIA INDIAN THIEF HANGED AT MOUTH OF 

PALOUSE GREAT BRITAIN AND AMERICA AT WAR ASTOR BETRAYED BY HIS PART- 
NERS AT ASTORIA HIS GREAT ENTERPRISE RUINED BRITISH SEIZE ASTORIA EXPE- 
DITION MASSACRED ON HEADWATERS OF THE SNAKE REMARKABLE ESCAPE OF PIERRE 

DORIONS SgUAW. 

Ay, tear her tattered ensign down ! 

Long has it waved on high. 
And many an eye has danced to see 

That banner in the sky. 

— Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

WITH the coming of spring. ISl.*?. Spokane House became a scene of lively 
preparation for the springtime brigade down the Columbia to Astoria, 
or Fort George as it was soon to become by the fortunes of war, and 
the stars and stripes to be supplanted by the British flag. Leaving poor Pillet, 
who. between his accidental shooting at the Cascades, his duel on the Spokane 
and otlier minor untoward experiences was evidently in an unhappy frame of mind, 
to keep guard on the Spokane with four assistants, the brigade set out on the 
25th of !May for the mouth of the Columbia. It had twenty-eight horses 
packed heavy with the season's catch, and reached Snake river at the mouth of the 
Palousf, or Pavilion river as it then was called by the French, on the thirtieth of 
May. Here the canoes were found in safety, barring a few nails which the Indians 
iiad extracted for their own needs, and while the brigade lay there to await repairs, 
a tragic incident occurred that was to lead, as we shall later learn, to a far more 
tragic denouement. 

During tlie night a thief or thieves had entered the tent in which Mr. Clarke 
slept, and stole from his (farde-vln a valuable silver goblet. Hastily summoning the 
Indians of the village, Clarke told them that he had overlooked ]irevious thefts on 
tile occasion of his coming into their country, believing that his indulgence then 
would win better treatment in future; but that he was mistaken, for his lenience then 
iiad led to tliis bolder theft, and he saw that he must now deal with them in a more 
resolute manner. He accordingly announced that if the stolen property were re- 
turned he would ])ardi)n the offender, but if not, he should hang the thief if he could 
find him. 

21 



22 SI'OK.W'K AM) 'llll- INI. AM) I'.MI'IKK 

'I'lu- ciiii-f and olluTs expressed a willingness to aid in tiie recovery of the stolen 
articUs, but the day passed with no results. That night a watch was set, and an 
Indian detected in the act of entering one of the tents. \\'hen discovered he fled to 
a eaiioe, l)ut was seized as he was stepping into it. .\n .ilarui was given, the whole 
camp was soon routed from their slumhers, and a search showed that several valuable 
articles were missing, most of which were found in the bottom of tiie canoe. The 
thief refused to give any account of the other missing articles, and as he iiad been 
remark.ibly well treated by the party, Clarke resolved, in view of this and the 
aggravated nature of the robbery, to put his threat into execution. A gallows was 
ordered erected, and the culprit's hands ,uid feel having been bound. Clarke assem- 
bled all the Indians of the village and made a siieech, declaring tliat the prisoner 
had violated his eonfidence, abused the rights of hospitality and committed an of- 
fense for wliieii lie ought to suifer death. 

The Indians .issent<-d to this projjosition and repudiated the prisoner, affirming 
tii.it he did not bilong to their tribe, but was an outlaw from another village, and 
thiv had all been .afr.iid of him. The thief offered the most violent resistance to his 
execution, and sen-amed in a frightful ni.iuner as he w.as launched into eternity. An 
aet'ount of the s\il)se(iuent ap))alling revenge taken by the relatives of this Indian 
will .-ipiicar in another chapter. 

dreat news aw.iited the .Spok.ine brig.ide on its .arrival, June 11, 1813, at As- 
tori.i. "We found all our friends in good health, " says Ross Co.x, "but a total revolu- 
tion bail taken place in the affairs of the company. Messrs. John George McTavish 
and Joseph LaRocque of tiie Northwest company, with two canoes and si.xteen men, 
had arrived a few days before us. From these gentlemen we learned, for the first 
time, that war had been declared the year before between Great Britain and the 
Tnited .Slates; .and that in conse(iuenee of the strict blockade of the American ports 
bv British cruisers, no vessel would venture to proceed to our remote establishment 
during the continuation of hostilities; added to which, a trading vessel which had 
touclud at the Columbia in the early jjart of the spring, had informed our people 
th.at the ship Beaver was blocked \i]) in Canton." 

Himself a British subject, and holding friendly feelings towards the .Northwest- 
ers, Cox states lightly .and defends a transaction th.at at best was shameful enough 
— a too ready betrayal by old Northwesters in Mr. Astor's service, of his interests 
and ))ro])erty into the hands of their former masters. We quote Cox's version: 
"These iinlueky and unexpected circumstances, joiuiil to the impossibility of sus- 
l.aining ourselves .another year in the country without fresh supplies, induced our 
proprietory to enter into negoti.ations with Mr. MeT.a\ish. who bad been •■uitliorized 
b\- till- .Norlliuisl (•(iiiip.iii\- to tri-.il with lliiiii. In .i few w-.-eks .an .iinie.ibli- .irr.-inge- 
ninil w.as ui.ade, by wlii<'li Mr. Me'l'avisb .agreed to |)iireli.a-.r .ill the furs, mer- 
eh.mdise. ))rovisions, etc.. of mir emnpany at .a eert.ain valu.ition. stipul.ating to 
l)rovide ,a safe i)nssage back to the United States, cither by sea or across the eonti- 
uciil. lor Midi inniilirrs of it ;is chose to return, .iiid ,i( Ibr s.anu' time olVering to 
those who should wish to join the Northwest iciin|).iriy and rciii.iiii in the country 
the same terms as if thev had originally been members ot tli.it eoiiip.my. .Messrs. 
Ross Mcl-eiiiioii .and I took .adv .iiit.agc of tlirsc librr.al jiropos.als. .and some tiiiii- 
.afli r Mr. Duiir.iii MeDoiig.al. one of the directors, .also joiruil the Northwest. 



SPOKAXE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 23 

The Americans, of course, preferred returning to their own country, as also did Mr. 
Gabriel Francliere and a few other Canadian clerks." 

The phrase, "to their own country," has now a half humorous ring, but there 
was no humor to the situation then. The Americans were down and out, their occu- 
pany of the Columbia River country had ended in failure, and it was known that a 
British war vessel was sailing to these shores to capture Astoria, pull down the 
American flag and take possession of the country for the British empire. 

Gabriel Franchere, has left, in his "Narrative of a Voyage to the Northwest 
Coast of America," a harsher rejiort of the perfidy of McDougal and other agents 
of .Mr. Astor. The Astorians were surprised one day, late in the autumn of 181"2, 
by the appearance of two canoes, bearing the British flag, and having between them 
a third canoe flying the American colors. These British canoes brought J. G. Mc- 
Tavish and Angus Bethune of the Northwest couijiany, the vanguard to a flotilla of 
eight canoes loaded with furs under the conduct of John Stuart .and McMillan. The 
\merican canoe bore a small party of Astorians, who had nut the Northwesters 
near the Cascades, and on learning the news brought by them, had returned to the 
mouth of tlie Columbia. 

McTavish delivered to MeDougal a letter addressed to the latter by Angus 
Shaw, his uncle, one of the partners of the Northwest company, advising him that 
the ship Isaac Todd, bearing letters of marque, had sailed from London in March 
under convoy of the British frigate Phoebe, with orders from the government to seize 
the American establishment at Astoria, which had been misrepresented to the admi- 
ralty as an important colony founded by the government of the United States. 

A little later the eight canoes came into the offing and the Northwesters, to the 
number of seventy-five men, went into camp on the beach near the Astor fort. Here 
was a hostile expedition, with confessed designs against the Astoria enterprise, but 
McDougal, Mr. Astor 's agent on the ground, and bound by every obligation of fidel- 
ity and decency to guard his great trust, received it in friendship and even benevo- 
lence, for the Northwesters were destitute of provisions and were supplied from Mr. 
Astor's stores while awaiting the expected arrival of a British war ship. 

The upshot of the negotiations that followed was the sale of the vast Astor in- 
terests to the rival institution at a price not exceeding one-third of its true value. 

"It was thus," lamented Franchere, "that after having passed the seas and suf- 
fered all sorts of fatigues and privations, I lost in a moment all my hopes of fortune. 
I could not help remarking that we had no right to expect such treatment on the part 
of the British government, after the assurances we had received from ]Mr. .Jackson, 
his majesty's charge d'affaires, previously to our departure from New York. But as 
I have just intimated, the agents of the Northwest company had exaggerated the 
importance of tlie factory in the eyes of the British ministry; for if the latter had 
known what it really was — a mere trading post — and that nothing but the rivalry of 
the fur traders of the Northwest company was interested in its destruction, they 
Would never have taken umbrage at it, or at least would have never sent a maritime 
ex))edition to destroy it." 

The frigate Phoebe failed to put in appearance, but in her stead the British 
sloop-of-war Raccoon arrived on November .SO. When first sighted, the North- 
westers, now in possession of Astoria, were uncertain as to her nationality, and a 
fear arose that she might bear Auuriean arms. Thev met this daim-er. thi)U"li. with 



24 SI'OK.Wl-, AM) Till: INLAND I'.MIMRE 

a very different spirit and resolution from that wliich iiad been exhibited by Mc- 
Dougal when facing tile ])ossil)ility of an aiipearanee of a British vessel. McDougal 
went down the bay in a sniail boat, under instructions to ascertain the nationality of 
the newcomer, and to represent himself either as an American or a British subject, 
according to the flag that she might be found to fly. Meanwhile the precious furs 
stored .-it the fort were hastily loaded into canoes and hurried up the river to a hiding 
place in the thickets of a little entering stream. 

"I'rom the account given in this chapter," says I'r.ineliere, "the reader will see 
with wli.it facility the establishment of the Pacific Fur company could have escaped 
capture by tin British force. It was only necessary to get rid of the land party of 
the Xorthwest company — who were completely in our power — then remove our ef- 
fects uj) the river on some small stream and await the result. The sloop-of-war ar- 
rived, it is true; but as, in the case I suppose, she would have found nothing, she 
would have left after setting fire to our deserted houses. None of their boats would 
have dared follow us, even if the Indians had betrayed to them our lurking place. 
Those at the head of affairs had their own fortunes to seek, and thought it more 
for their interest, doubtless, to act as they did, but that will not clear them in the 
eyes of the world, and the charge of treason to Mr. Astor's interests will always be 
attached to their acts." 

It seems improbable that the Indians would have betrayed the hiding ])laee of 
the Astorians, if this ex])edient had been adopted. McDougal had taken as wife a 
daughter of Chirf Coiieoiuiy, .-iiid the aged one-eyed chieftain seems to have been 
unable to fatiioiii the (|uiek shiftiness of his son-in-law; for when the Raccoon ap- 
peared in the bay, Concomly (piieklv assembled his warriors, marched them into the 
presence of liis soii-iti-law. and niver doubting that McDougal was loyal to his trust, 
\i)lunteere(l to aid him in battle against the invader. He proposed that he should 
station his warriors in the thickets on shore, and when the "King George men" at- 
tempted a landing iu- would (i|i( ii a hot fire on them from cover. When McDougal 
declined this hostile alliance, the old ciiief shook his head in sadness and disgust, 
and the assurances of his son-in-law, that the war vessel was bringing friends, was 
too iiuieh for the simple intcllcet of tin- old father-in-law. 

When Captain Black, having brought the Haeeoon to anchor in front of the es- 
tablishment, saw the |)riniilive appearance of the fort, lie could scarcely believe his 
eyes. He had been h d to believe that tin- Anurie-iii^ liiil luiilt llirre a great and 
wealthv establishment, .■iiu! .ill tliniugli tlic long \oyage lie and liis I'c How oltieers had 
indulged .anticipations oi tin- vieli |iri/,i- iiKniiy llial uduhl ecinu to tlieui with the fall 
of Astoria. He in<|uired it llni-i wn-r iiol I n-M( r .inil iiiovc pretentious buildings 
somewhirc iji Ihr \ieiiiit\'. anil win ii Icilil llial In liad srcii the entire estalilislinu lit, 
cried out : 

"Js this the lurl aliout wliieli I li.nc lirard so inueli talking.^ D — n me. but I'd 
Iratter ii down in two liours with a tour |iiniiider !" 

And when he learned of the eaniiy Ir.aiis.ietion by which the rich furs of the 
enemy had ])assed to a British subject, and his last expectation of jirizc money 
went vanishing into thin air, he grew furinusly .angry, and dem.-iiided the taking of 
an inventory of the propi riy piireliasnl of tin- Anieric.-ins, "with a view to ulterior 
m< asures in I'.nglaiid for tin rico\( ry id tin v.ilue from the Northwest company." 




(ir,i> TU/HKTrnrsE of Hudson's bay co.mpany ox marcus flat, 

STEVEXS COUNTY, WASHINGTON 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 25 

But as lie cooled off the ludicrousness of the affair evidenth' dawned on his sense of 
humor, for the "ulterior measures" were never taken. 

Less than if iO.OOO was allowed b}' the Northwest company for furs worth in 
excess of .$100,000, and goods and merchandise intended for the Indian trade were 
taken over at less than a third of their true value. The following estimate was made 
of the furs on hand and the prices paid for them compared with their real value : 

17,705 lbs. beaver parchment, valued at.$ 2.00 worth $ 5.00 

165 old coat beaver, valued at 1.66 worth 3.50 

907 land otter, valued at 50 worth 5.00 

68 sea otter, valued at 12.00 worth $45 to 60.00 

30 sea otter, valued at 5.00 worth 25.00 

Nothing was allowed for 179 mink skins worth 50 cents each; twenty-two rac- 
coons, worth 10 cents each; twenty-eight lynx, worth $2 each; eighteen fox, worth 
$1 each; one hundred and six fox, worth .$1.50 each; seventy-one black bear, worth 
$4 each; and sixteen grizzly bear, worth $10 each. 

But the deed was done, and could not be cured by repining or reproaches; and 
with Astoria also went Spokane House, Okanogan and the other trading posts of 
the Astor company. Captain Black of the sloop-of-war took possession of Astoria 
in the name of his Britannic Majesty, floated the British flag above it, and re- 
christened the place "Fort George." As this official act carried with it a claim to all 
the territory in possession of British subjects, Spokane passed under the British 
ensign, and continued British territory till, the war ended, by the treaty of Ghent 
the contracting powers agreed to restore the status ante-bellum, and surrendered 
each the territory it had acquired by conquest or occupation from the opposing 
power, when Astoria was theoretically returned to the United States, although the 
Northwest company remained there in undisputed possession for a number of years. 

Let us now take up the sequel to Mr. Clarke's ill-advised hanging of the Indian 
thief at the mouth of the Palouse river. 

A few months subsequent to this event, .John Reed, a warm-hearted old Irish- 
man, was sent with a party to trap beaver in the country around the upper reaches 
of Snake river, consisting of four Canadians, Giles Le Clerc, Francois Landry, Jean 
Baptistc Turcot, and Andre La Chappelle, and two half breed hunters, Pierre Dorion 
and Pierre Delaunay. Pierre Dorion was a son of that French Dorion who had 
accompanied Lewis and Clark across the continent. Dorion ju-re had taken a Sioux 
wife, and the product of that alliance was a numerous progeny as wild and adventu- 
rous as the wild west had ever yielded. It is narrated that the Dorion family were 
participants in numerous drunken debauches, and that on one of these occasions, 
the son Pierre engaged in a rough and tumble fight on the cabin floor with his worthy 
parent, and in a drunken rage was just in the act of scalping the author of his being, 
when the elder Dorion cried out: "Oh, my son, my son. Don't do that. You are 
too honorable to take your father's scalp!" An appeal which Pierre could not resist. 

When Wilson P. Hunt, who had been entrusted with the leadership in 1810 of 
Mr. Aster's overland expedition from Montreal to the Columbia, was strengthening 
his party at St. Louis, he employed Pierre Dorion as interpreter, and with Pierre 
on that frightful journey came his squaw and their two children. Mr. Hunt's party 



20 SI'OK.WK AM) 'I'lli: IMAM) I'M I' I li I', 

took eleven montli-- to traverse the vast expanse between nortlierii Missouri and the 
nioutii of the Coliiiultia, suffered tlie loss of several members by drowning and desti- 
tution, and experienced hardships, dangers and sufferings far greater than those en- 
countered by Lewis and Clark. Hut through them all the Dorions came unscathed, 
Madame Dorion, in fact increasing the party by one en route; and when Reed was 
dispatched on this detached hunting trip, along went Pierre and his heroic squaw. 

Irving has treated the events that followed with a graphic pen: 

"In the course of the autumn, Reed lost one man, Landry, by death. Auutlar 
one, I'ierre Uelaunay, who was of a sullen, perverse disposition, left him in a moody 
fit, and was never heard of afterward. The number of his party was not, however, 
reduced by these losses, as three luuitirs, Robinson, Hoback and Rezner, had joined it. 

"Reed now built a house nii tlu .Snake river for their winter quarters; which 
being completed, the party set about trapping. Rezner, Le Clerc and Pierre Dorion 
went about five days' journey from tlir wintering house, to a part of the country 
well stocked with beaver. Here tin y put up a hut and proceeded to trap with great 
success. While the men were out hunting, Pierre Dorion's wife remained at home to 
dress the skins and jirepare the meals. She was thus employed one evening about 
the beginning of .January, cooking the suiiper of the hunters, when she heard foot- 
steps, and Le Clerc staggered. l)ale and bleeding, into the hut. II< iiilormed her 
that a party of savages had surprised them while at their traps, and had killed 
Rezner and her husband. lie had liarely strength left to give this information when 
he sank ii|)nn the grouiici. 

"The ))()i)r woni.in saw that tin- only chance for life was insUmt ilighl. With 
gre.it diliieulty she caught two of the horses belonging to the party. Then collecting 
her clothes and a sni.ill quantity of beaver meat and dried salmon, she packed them 
upon one of the liorses .and heliJed the wounded man to mount upon it. On the other 
horse she mounted with her two children, and hurried away from this dangerous 
neighborhood, directing her Higlit to .Mr. Reed's establishment. On the third day 
.she descried a number of Indians on horseback proceeding in an easterly direction. 
She innnediatelv dismounted with her children, .and heljjed Le Clerc to dismount, 
and .ill eonec.ilid themselves. I'ortunately tluy escijud the sharp eyes of the 
sav.ages, but liad to proceed with the utmost caution. That night tliey slept without 
(ire or water; she managed to kee]) her children warm in her .inns, but before 
morning poor Le Clerc died. 

"\\'ith the dawn of day the resolute woman pursued her course, .and on the fourtii 
dax r( aehed the house of Mr. Reed. It was deserted, and all round were marks of 
blood and signs of a furious massacre. Not doubling tli.il Mr. Heed anil all his 
))artv had fallen victims, she turiud in fresii horror from the spot. I'or two d.iys 
she contiinied luirrving forward, re.idy to sink for want of food, but more solicitous 
.about hir eliililrrii lli.wi lursrll'. .\t lii)i;th siir naclh il ;i range of the Rocky moun- 
tains, near the u|)per |).irl ol the \\ .ilia \\ all.i ri\c r. Here she chose a wild, lonely 
ravine as her ))lace of winter ri fiigc. 

".Shr liiil fortunately a buffalo robe and three deerskins; of these, and of pine 
bark .and eed.ir branches, she constructed a rude wigwam, which she pitched beside 
a mountain spring. Having no other food, she killed the two horses and smoked 
Ihr (lish. The skins aided to cover her hut. Here she dragged out the winter with 
no other eomiiany than her two ehildrcii. Toward the middle of March lier provi- 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 27 

sions were nearly exhausted. She therefore packed up the remainder, slung it on 
her back, and, with her lielpless little ones, set out again on lier wanderings. Cross- 
ing the ridge of mountains, she descended to the banks of the Walla Walla, and 
kept along them until she arrived where that river throws itself into the Columbia. 
She was liospitably received and entertained by the Walla Wallas, and had been 
nearly two weeks among them when two canoes ])assed." 

These ]iroved to contain a J^arty from Astoria, ascending the Columljia to Fort 
Okanogan, the occujiants of which were surprised by Iiearing a cliildisli voice cry 
out in French : 

"An-ete: done! arretez done!" (Stop there, stop there!) It was one of Do- 
rion's children, joyously liailing friends; and it is jjleasing to add that the party 
generously rewarded the friendly Walla Wallas for tlieir kind treatment of the 
brave widow and her children. 

Although the supposition was never actually verified, it was believed bv the 
Astorians that the Reed jiarty were massacred by relatives of the Indian hanged at 
the mouth of the Palouse. It was known that they were greatly enraged by that 
high-handed act of vengeance, and friendly Indians had frequently warned the tra- 
ders that tlie family and friends of the victim were threatening retaliation. 



CHAPTER IV 

ODD CHARACTERS AT SPOKANE HOUSE 

INDIANS PASSIONATELY FOND OF TOBACCO HALCYON DAYS FOR THE SPOKANES A 

FIERY HIGHLAND SCOT TAKING AN INDIAN WIFE WAR NARROWLY' AVERTED 

FLATHEAD GIRLS SCORN WHITE SUITORS OTHERS NOT SO FASTIDIOUS GARDENS 

PLANTED ON THE SPOKANE STRANGE INDIAN CHIEF NEAR LOON LAKE REMARK- 
ABLE CAREER OF A FREE TRADER. 

The pipe, with solemn interposing puff. 

Makes half a sentence at a time enough. 

The dozing sages drop the drowsy strain, 

Then pause .and puff — and speak, and pause again. 

— Cowper. 

AFFAIRS at Spokane House were little altered by the change of ownership, 
novernment and flag. The brigades came and the brigades went between the 
Spokane and the Columbia. The voyageurs tugged at the cordelle quite as 
hard as before, and the thieving Wishram Indians at the Cascades grew even more 
thievish, and attacked with growing audacity the various parties as they made the 
arduous portage. The officers and their men fared as before on dried salmon, horse 
meat, and in a pinch now and then, on stewed dog. 

Occasionally supplies ran low at Spokane House, and the Indians watched 
longingly for the coming of the brigade with new stocks of tobacco and ammunition. 
On one occasion, these commodities were entirely lacking for two months, and when 
the supplies finally arrived there was great rejoicing of savage hearts. "The whole 
tribe assembled round the fort and viewed with joy the kegs of powder and the bales 
of tobacco as tluy were unloaded from the horses," says Cox. "A large 
circle was formed in tin- courtyard, into the center of which we entered, and having 
lit the friendly calumet, smoked a few rounds to celebrate the meeting. A quantity 
of tobacco was then presented to each man, and the cliief delivered an oration." 

"My heart ts glad to see you," he said; "my heart is glad to see 3'ou. We were 
a long- time very hungry for tobacco, and some of our young men said vou wonld 
never come back. Tiny were angry and said to me, "fhe white men made us love 
tobacco almost as much as we love our children, and now we are starving for it. 
They brought us their wonderful guns, which we traded from them; we threw by 
our arrows as useless, because we knew they were not so strong to kill the deer as 
the guns: and now we are idle with our guns, as the white men have no fire-powder 

29 



30 SI'OkAM. AM) llll, IM.AM) KMI'IRK 

or balls to give us, uiul we liavt- hrokiii our arrows and almost forgotten how to use 
tlieni. The white men are very bad and have deceived us.' But I spoke to tlienj and 
I said, 'You are fools; you have no patience. The white men's big canoes are a long 
time coming over the great lake that divides their country from ours. They told me 
on going away that they would come back, and I know they would not tell lies.' " 
Turning, then, to the assembled Indians, he continued: "Did I not tell you tli.it 
the wiiite men would not tell liisr You arc fools, great fools, and have no ])atienee. 
Let us now show our joy at meeting our friends; and tomorrow let all our hunters 
go iuto the ))lains, and upon the hills, and kill birds and dier for the good white 

UllU." 

The red hunters kil)t llu ir ))romise, and for several weeks following the tables 
at Spokane House were plentifully supplied with grouse, wild geese and ducks. 

These were halcyon times for the Spokanes. The fur traders had brought them 
many of the good things of civilization, and as yet few of its curses, liy a compact, 
faithfully kept, between tin- rival establishments, intoxicants were withheld from 
these children of the forests and the plains: the white man had not yet appropriated 
their lands, nor driven the edible game from the country. They had brought more 
comfortable raiment, beautiful ornaments of glass and brass, knives, axes and 
hatchets, the luxurv of tobacco and many good things to eat. A market had been 
made for the Indians' furs, and with the goods exchanged for these peltries, the 
Spokanes bought buHalo robrs froui the tribes to the east, and many horses from 
their neighbors, tlu' Xez I'erees. I roni comparative poverty they had been lifted 
into )>rosperitv. .Small woiidir then. Ibat tliey idolized these "good white men," 
and dwelt with llicui in lo\-e and friendslii]). And small wonder too. tiiat in after 
years, when the old men recalled the happy, prosperous years before General \Vriglit 
swept into their country with "hoof and with steel" and destroyed their great bands 
of horses and burned their granari<s and storehouses, "the tears ran down their 
cheeks like rain." 

One of the odd characters at Sjwkane House was McDonald, a tall, red headed 
Scot from the Higiilands. Until a youth he had heard no other tongue than Gaelic, 
lull Ihc educational ad\antagis of (ilasgow lia<l given him. at one time, a pretty 
good knowledge of pure English. Then he drifted across the water to Canada, 
and a(l(l( (I I'rcneh to his voealiul iiy. ^'ears of experience on the frontier had 
tauglil iiim scvn-al ludiari dialects, and now at Spokane House be had fallen into a 
habit of mixing his Ihougbts "in a most strange and ludicrous mcldiiijc." When 
angry he would swc.ar in half ;i dozen tongues at once. His great height of six feet 
four, broad shipulders, bushy whiskers, and b>iig red locks that had not felt the 
.scissors for v^ars. gave him .1 wild and urKoutli a|)pearance, though he was at heart 
good-natured and inotlcusive, easily thrown into a passion and as easily mollified. 
He had ae(|uired ;i S))ok;ine wife and two children, and passed most of his time 
among his wifi's rilatives, by whom and liy tin Indians generally he was respected 
and beloved. 

One day, just as the men were sitting down to diinier. a workman, followed by 
a native, burst into the dining room and urged llie coui]iany to hasten to the village 
and prevent Moodsbcd. as McDonald was about to fight a duel with one of the 
chiefs. 'I'hcv ran to tbr Indian ( Mcainpment. wbrrc McDonald was found, shifting 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 31 

a shotgun from one hand to the other, while he urged the chief to come on and light. 
"You rascal, you dog, you toad!" he shouted; "will you fight?" 
"I will," the chief replied in temperate tones, "but you're a foolish man. A 
chief should not be passionate. I always thought the white chiefs were men." 

"I want none of your jaw. 1 say you cheated me. You're a dog! Will you 
fight?" 

"You are not wise," answered the chief. "You get angry like a woman; but I 
will fight. Let us go to the woods. Are you ready?" 

"Why, you d — d rascal," retorted McDonald, "what do you mean? I'll fight you 
here. Take your distance like a brave man, face to face, and we'll draw lots for the 
first shot, or fire together, whichever you please." 

"You are a greater fool than I thought you were," remarked the ])lacid Indian; 
"whoever heard of a wise warrior standing before his enemy's gun to be shot at like 
a dog. No one but a fool of a white man would do that." 

"What do vou mean?" asked McDonald; "what way do you want to fight?" 
"The way that all red warriors fight: Let us take our gmis and go into the 
woods ; you get behind one tree, and I will stand behind another, and then we shall 
see who w'ill shoot the other first." 

"You are afraid, and you are a coward." 
"I'm not afraid, and you are a fool. " 

"Come on then; d — n my eyes if I care! Here's at you your own way." 
They were starting for the trees when the men interfered, had the combatants 
disarmed, and induced the wild Scot to return to the fort. 

For sheer love of fighting McDonald occasionally joined the Flatheads in their 
warlike excursions into the country of the Blackfeet, on the eastern slopes of the 
Rock\- mountains. The following anecdote, which was related to Cox, by several 
Indians, will show his steady courage and reckless disregard of danger: 

In the summer of 1812, at the buffalo plains, they fell in with a strong party of 
Blackfeet. and a severe contest followed. McDonald was to be seen in every direc- 
tion, in the hottest of the fire, cheering and animating his friends; and they at 
length succeeded in driving the Blackfeet to take shelter in a thick cluster of trees, 
from whence they kept up a constant and galling fire on the Flatheads, by which a 
few were killed and several wounded. In vain he exerted all his influence to induce 
his friends to storm the trees and drive the enemy from his cover. The Flathead 
mode of attack was extremely foolish, and productive of no benefit; for each warrior 
advanced opposite the spot from which the Blackfeet fired, and after exchanging a 
random shot into the trees, instantly galloped away. 

^McDonald, vexed at this puerile method of fighting, offered to take the lead 
himself to dislodge the enemy; but, with the exception of the war chief, they all re- 
fused to join him. He therefore resolved to try the effect of example, and putting 
his horse into a smart trot, rode opposite the place from whence the chief fire of the 
Blackfeet proceeded. He then dismounted, took deliberate aim at the head of a 
fellow which had just ])opped from behind a tree, and fired. The bullet entered the 
Blackfoot's mouth and he fell. A shower of balls instantly whizzed about McDon- 
ald and his horse; but he, undismayed, reloaded, while his friends besought him to 
retire. He covered another in the same manner, who also fell, after whicli he calmly 
remounted and galloped to his party uninjured. A prisoner who was subsequently 



32 SI'OK.WF, AM) 'I'll K INLAND I.MIMUK 

taken said tliat tlu- only two kilKil who had t.ik.n n fiigi- among the trees, were both 
sliot in the head by the "big wliite chief," as they teriutd McDonald. 

A few years later .McDonald suffered wounds in one of these forays against the 
Blackfeet from which he n, V( r (luite recovered. A Inill.t brought him down, when 
half a dozen .savages rushed upon him and began hacking iiis skull with their toma- 
liawks. The sealping-knife was out, and poor McDonald would soon have been dis- 
patched had not the war chief and several others of the Flathcads rushed to his re- 
li.f. and. after killing three of the Blackfeet, rescncd tluir courageous ally. 

Ill tlic- wiiilrr (if 181 1-1.) occurred an incidirit wliicli threatened, for a wliile. to 
imjiair tiie friendly relations between the traders .md the Spokanes. One of the 
junior clerks, grown weary of the single state, resolved to seek an Indian wife, and 
engaged the interpreter to make inquiries in the village regarding the eligible list of 
unmarried women. A comely damsel, 17 years of age, listened apjirovingly to the in- 
terpreter's overtures, and the negotiations were successfully taken up with her 
mother and brothers, her lath, r having died a few years previously. Blankets and 
kettles were presented to her principal relatives, and beads, bawkbells and other 
trifles dear to the Indian heart were distributed among the other members of the 
community. 

Then followed th, ih livery of the bride to her future lord and master of the 
paleface race. Her iiiotlu r brought her to the gate of the fort about 9 o'clock in 
the evening, and after ,in .ipathetic and raatter-of-faet i)arling. the young damsel 
was delivered to one of the men's wives, called "the scourer," who thoroughly cleansed 
her head and body of the paint and grease with which she had boii decorated ac- 
cording to the savage idea of personal adornment. After these alilutiuiis. she was 
passed along to the dressmaker, who cast aside her leathern chemise and decked 
her out in softer raiment of civilization. "And the following morning, when she 
appeared in her new habiliments," runs the chronicle, "we thought her one of the 
most engaging females that we had previously seen of the Spokaiu- nation." 

Vor several days everything went merry as a marriage bell, and the young 
couple seemed devotedly attached to each other: but one afternoon the occujiants of 
the fort were alarmed by the sudden appearance of a number of well mount.<l young 
warriors, who galloped into the courtyard of the fort, armed "and ajiiianntly bent 
on .serious business. The young bride, when her eye fell on the foremost horseman, 
scented trouble and |iniiiiptly fbil tor refuge into the storeroom, where she con- 
cealed herself. 

Dismounting, the leader ot the liaiid (l.iuaiMlrd a eouneil with the principal 
white chief, requesting, at the same time, that the other chiefs would ,ilso ajijjear 
and listen to his complaint. These having assembled, he addressed them, in sub- 
stance as follows: 

"Three snows have passed away since the white men came from their own 
c<iuiitrv to live among the Spokanes. When the Kvil .Spirit thought jiroper to dis- 
li-(ss till white jieople by covering the water of the rivers with ice, so that liny eoiilii 
not 'catch any fish, and sent snow over all th, iiiountains and jilains. by means 
whereof their horses were nearly destroyed by wolves, -when their own hunters, in 
fact, eo\ild not find an animal, diii Ihe Sj)okanes take .advantage ot their .alllietions ? 
Did lh( y roll thnn of their horses like Sinapoil (San I'oil) dogs? Did they say, 
111, whit, 111,11 an 11, ,w ]ioor .and starving; they are a great distance from their own 







GKAND COULEE IN THE BIG BENJD 
COUNTRY 

Sketeheil liv artist with (iovernor Stevens 



.f^'"" 



MAK('US WHITMAN'S GRAVE 
Nopr Walla Walla 




SITE OF THE ASTOl; TRAI)1X(; POST, ESTABLISH EI) IX ISll 





OLD J-'ORT WALLA WALLA 
Ou the Columbia 



OLD K(_»RT OKANOGAN 

FoiiTiileil ill Isll by Jnlm Jacob Astor. 

Skc'tilie.l in the 'oOs by Governor 

Stevens ' Expedition 



I"HE NEW YORK 

JPUauC UBRAkY 



TiLOtN Ft. 






SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 33 

country and from any assistance, and we can easilj' take' all their goods from them, 
and send them away naked and hungry? No, we never spoke or even thought of 
such bad things. The white men came among us with confidence, and our hearts 
were glad to see them; they paid us for our fish, our meat and our furs. We 
thought thej' were all good people, and in particular their chiefs ; but I find we were 
wrong in so thinking." 

Here the native orator paused for a moment, and then, resuming, added: "My 
relations and myself left the village several days ago for the purpose of hunting. 
We returned home this morning. Their wives and their children leaped with joy 
to meet tliem, and all their hearts were glad but mine. I went to my tepee and called 
on my wife to come forth; but she did not appear. I was sorrowful and hungry, 
and went into my brother's tepee, where I was told that she had gone away and 
had become the wife of a white chief. She is now in your house. I come, therefore, 
white men, to demand justice. I first require that my wife be delivered up to me. 
She has acted like a dog, and I shall live no more with her ; but I shall punish her as 
she deserves. And in the next place I expect, as you have been the cause of my 
losing her, that you will give ample compensation for her loss." 

The interpreter was directed to explain that the grievance of the injured hus- 
band lay against the relatives of the woman, and not against the white people; that 
if the young chief had been aware that she was married he would not have coveted 
her or taken her to his lodge ; that he was willing to give her former lord reasonable 
compensation for his loss, but he could not deliver her to him to be punished, and 
would not surrender her unless the husband would agree not to hurt her. 

The angry and jealous Indian refused to make any promise, and insisted on 
the woman's restitution, but as the traders had reason to fear that her life would be 
taken, they refused to yield. 

The old chief next addressed the young Indian, and his persuasions induced 
him to relinquish his claim on the young squaw, in consideration of a gmi, 100 
rounds of ammunition, three blankets, two kettles, a spear, a dagger, ten fathoms of 
tobacco and a quantity of smaller articles. In return for all this wealth, lie hound 
himself never to injure the girl or annoy her or her new husband. 

Notwithstanding these demands were considered exorbitant, the traders thought 
it wise to accede to them rather than disturb the friendly relations which had 
hitherto existed between them and the Spokanes. 

After the Indian had been put in possession of his reward, the pipe of peace was 
solemnlv smoked, perceiving which the object of all the controversy, knowing that 
it signified her safety, came out from her place of concealment and walked boldly 
by her former lord. No sign of recognition passed between them, "and neither 
anger nor regret seemed to disturb the natural serenity of his cold and swarthy 
countenance." 

The interpreter here mentioned was none other than Pierre Michel, son of a 
reputable Canadian by an Indian mother, and a fine fellow withal. He was held in 
high esteem by the Flatheads, and like the big, red-headed McDonald, had accom- 
panied this tribe on two of their war excursions against the Blackfeet, where he had 
won great fame by his courage and marksmanship. Many a trader and voyageur had 
aspired to an alliance matrimonial with these superior natives, but in every instance, 
with the sole exception of young Michel, their overtures had been rejected. Cox, 



34 Sl'OKAM-: AND llil. IMAM) KMPIRE 

who passi'd tin- greater part of one winter anion>r tlie llatlieads. tlius describes the 
success of tile interj)reter : 

"Michel wanted a wifi-. and having gained the affections of a handsome girl 
about lO years of age, and nieee to tile hereditary chieftain, he made a formal pro- 
posal for her. A council w.-is thereupon called, at which her uncle presided, to take 
Michel's offer into consideration. One yoiiMii warrior loved her ardently, and had 
(ibt;iined .a jirevious |)roiiiise from her mother that she should be his. He, therefore, 
with all his relations, strongly opposed her union with Pierre, and urged his own 
claims, which h,i(l lieeii sanetioiied l>y Inr uHithrr. 'Pile w.ar-cliief asked him if she 
had ever promised to heeome his wife, lie replied in the negative. 

"The chief then addressed the council. ,ind ])artieularly the lover, in favor of 
.Mieliel's suit, jiointiiig out the griat serviei s h<- had rendered the tribe by his bra- 
very, and dwelling strongly on the ))()liey of uniting him more firmly to their interests 
by assenting to the |)ro|)osed m.irriage. which, he said, would forever make him as 
one of their brothers. His influence predominated, and the unsuccessful rival imme- 
diately after shook hands with Michel, and told the young woman as he could not be 
her husband, he ho]jed she would .ilw.iys reg.ird liini as her brother. This slie readily 
promised to do. and so ended .ill (ip|)i)sitioii. 

"The hapiiy Pierre preseiitxi a gun to her uncle, some cloth, calico and orna- 
ments to her female relatives, with a iiistol ;ind handsome dagger to the defeated 
suitor. He jiroceeded in the evening to the ehirf's lodge, wlure a miiiilur of her 
friends had assembled to smoke. Here she received a lecture from the old m.iii, 
her mother and ;i few other .-ineients on her duty as a wife and mother. Tluy 
stronglv rxhorterl her to In- eh;iste, oludirnl. industrious and silent: and win n 
.-ibseiit with her husband among otiu r tribes, .ilw.iys to stay at home .iiid lia\( no 
intercourse with strange Indians. 

".She then retired with the old women to an adjoining hut. where she uiuh rweiit 
an ablution, .and b.ule .adieu to her leathern chemise, the ])l,ice of which was supjilied 
with one of gingh.im, to which was added .1 calico and green cloth jietticoat, and .1 
gown of blue cloth. 

"After this was over she was conducted back to her uncle's lodge, when she re- 
ceived some furthir advice as to her future conduct. A jirocession was then formed 
bv the two chiefs, and sexcral warriors e.irrying blazing llambeaii\. to convey the 
bride and her husb.and to the fort. They beg.an singing war-songs in praise of 
Michel's br.avery. and of their triumiihs over the Blai'kfcet. -She was surrounded 
bv a group of young .■iiul old wihik 11. sonic of whom were ri'joicing and others crying. 
The men moved on tirst. in a slow, solemn p.iee, still chanting their warlike e]ii 
thal.iniimn. The women followed ,it a short distance; .and when the whole party 
:irri\i<l in front of the fori. IIkv foniicd a circle and commcncid d/ineing and 
singing, which they kcjit u\> .-iboiit twenty minutes. 

".After this the calumet of |>e;iee went round once more, and when the smoke of 
the l.ast whilV h.ad dis;ippi;ired. Michel shook liaiuls with his l.ate rival, embraced 
the chiefs, ,ind conducted his bride to his room. While 1 remained in IIk country 
they livid h.i|)pily together." 

()lh( r Indi.in women of the .Spokane country wen- not so f.istidious .as the I'l.it- 
liead girls .about t.aking up domestic rel.itions with the white men. M.iny of them 
were eager for such an alliance, I'onsidcring that it elevated them abo\e their 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 35 

sisters and assured them a life of less drudgery and slavish obedience to lord and 
master. Many a clerk, voyageur and even partner was pleased to take an Indian 
woman to his bosom, and a gay life of extr;ivagance some of these Indian wives 
led, to the everlasting impoverishment of their white consorts. 

The first attempt at cultivation of the soil at Spokane House was made in the 
spring of 1813, when turnips, potatoes, cabbage and other vegetables were planted 
and returned a good crop. The quantity was increased the following spring, and by 
tile autumn of 181 i the post boasted of an abundance of the good things of the 
garden. . That year, also, the brigade from Astoria brought up a cock, three hens, 
three goats and three hogs, to the great astonishment of the Indians, who called the 
])oultry the wliite men's grouse, the goats the white men's deer, and the hogs the white 
men's bear. They inquired if all such animals were tame in the white men's country, 
and when answered in the affirmative, asked, if they should catch some wild animals 
ill this country, could the white men domesticate them. They were told to make the 
effort, and the traders would see what could be done, whereupon they brought in a 
young bear, which was tied in the sty with the hogs and cared for by one of the Can- 
adians, who taught him to dance, beg and play many tricks, much to the delight and 
entertainment of the Indians. 

In their trading expeditions the men from Spokane House roved widely over the 
vast interior, and some of tlieir expeditions took them to the Kettle Falls of the Co- 
lumbia, about 90 miles north of Spokane. As the basin at the foot of the falls there 
resembled a iioiling caldron, the French gave it the designation "La Chnudiere," and 
the Indians living in a nearby village, "Les Chandicn's." It was remarked that 
"cleanliness could not be ranked among their virtues; their habitations are filthy in 
the extreme, and tile surrounding atmosphere is impregnated with the most noxious 
effluvia, produced by the jjiscatory otl'als whicli lie scattered about their dwellings." 

About midway between Kettle Falls and Spokane House was found a small tribe 
of some fifteen families, spe/iking a mixed dialect akin to both the Kettle Indians 
and the Spokanes, but more closely ap)iroaehiiig the Sjiokane tongue. They were 
inoffensive and received the white men with marked demonstrations of friendship. 
Tlie chief of this tribe was described as an extraordinary being, the Indians alleging 
that he belonged to the e])ieeiie gender. He wore a woman's dress, garnished with 
beads, thimbles and small shells, and dressed his hair after the feminine fashion, 
but possessed a rough beard and masculine voice. The visitors were informed that 
he never gambled or associated with either sex, and by both men and women was 
regarded with fear and awe, who looked ujioii him as a being supernatural. He was 
usually attended by two or three children, to whom he ]3aid great attention, and it 
was their chief occupation to eateli his horses, of which he possessed a great number, 
collect provisions, make fires and cook his meals. When tliese wards attained a suit- 
able age, he gave them a jiortion, secured their marriage and dismissed them, after 
which he selected from the largest and poorest families the needed number of new 
recruits, the parents offering no opposition and ajiparently being glad to have them 
so well placed. 

F'rom this strange chief the visitors purchased a number of horses, and found him 
liberal and candid in his dealings. He entertained a profound scorn for falsehood, 
and if one of his wards was detected in a lie, the chief promptly dismissed him from 
his service, and under no consideration would he ever take back the delinquent. 



36 SPOKANF. AND TIIK INLAND FMIMHF, 

This chief seldom visited Spokane House, but wiien called upon by the traders 
there, he exhibited a courteous hospitality wliicii. they declared, was superior to 
anytliing they had ever met elsewhere. 

"He was communicative and inquisitive and ridiculed the follies of the Indians 
in the most philosophical manner. Of these he inveighed principally against gam- 
bling, and tlieir improvident thoughtlessness in neglecting to provide, during the 
summer and autumnal months, a sufficient quantity of dried salmon for the spring, 
which is the season of scarcity, by wliieli neglect they have been fre(iucntly reduced 
to starvation. He had heard of McDonald's quarrel with the Indian, which he 
adduced as one of the bad effects of gambling and added, 'Had the Spokane been 
foolish enough to follow the foolish custom of your countrymen, it is probable one 
of you would have been killed about a foolish dispute arising out of a bad pracUce 
which every wise man should avoid.' " 

This strange but wise personage inquired minutely about the laws and customs 
of the white people, their form of government, marriages and ideas of a future state, 
and approved most of them as they were explained to him : Init he could not recon- 
cile his judgment with the British law of iirimogeniture and tile custom of dueling. 
The first he |)ronouneed gross injustice, aeeording there witii tile Anierieaii idea, 
and as for the eode, he thought no one but a man lureft of his sense would resort 
to a duel in settlement of real or fancied wrongs, an Dpiiiimi whieli li.is siiiee come 
to be generally shared by civilized nations. 

This strange being was a person of unusual thrift and jirevision. His lodge " 
was completely covered with deerskins, and was quite waterproof; and the interior 
was neat and orderly, the floor spread over with clean mats. In one corner were 
stored his jirovisions, carefully preserved in leather and mat bags, and these he 
shared with a generous hand in jjcriods of scarcity and destitution. "In fact he 
wanted nothing that could add to his happiness or comfort," remarked an observer, 
"and possessed a degree of calm contentment uncommon among savages, and which 
would put to the blush much of the philosophical wisdom of civilized man." 

We are given to a belief that the Spokane country is a new land, whose history 
and development were not brought in touch with civilization until a generation ago; 
and while this conception is in a measure true, it nevertheless is equally true that 
a hundred years ago, men who had shared in ancient wars — in France, in Scotland, 
in Canada and the American colonies — were here in commerce and adventure, and 
looked out upon the valleys, the mountains and the waters that form <nir phasing 
])rospect of today. 

Of these was Jacques Hoole, who, at the advanced age of 90, was still active 
as a "free trader" in the regions aroinid Sjjokane House, and bartered here tile 
furs taken by his skill, industry and prowess. He was a native of I'r.ince. and 
when a youth served in the French army. He fought on the fatal field ol Culioden. 
nearlv 170 years ago, and was there wounded and taken jirisoner. After an ex- 
change of prisoners he was sent to Canada, was present when the noble Wolfe 
suffered his death wound on the plains of Abraham, and helped to carry the Mar- 
quis de Montcalm into Queliec after he had received his death wound. 

Upon tlie confjuest of Canada by the British, Jacques retired from tiie I'rencli 
army, married and took to farming; but on the breaking out of the war of the revo- 
lution, he left till- |iloiigli .•uul enlisted with the liriti'^li anus, and from a wound 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 37 

suffered at that period he carried in his old age a slight lameness that was percep- 
tible in his long tramps by these western woods and waters. 

After the revolution, troubles fell thick on the head of the old veteran. The 
patriot forces had destroyed his farm, his children were disobedient and his wife 
faithless, and he sought surcease from his sorrows in the wild life of a free trapper 
in the remote northwest. Even to the hour of his tragic death he retained much of 
the elasticity and all of the sprightly temperament of his youth and the character- 
istic volatility of the French. By the Canadians he was held in high respect, and 
their daily salutation of "Bon jour, pere," was always acknowledged by a bow and 
a responding "3/prri, merci, mon fils." ("Good morning, father;" "Thanks, thanks, 
my son.") 

While trapping beaver, in a wild and sequestered valley on the western slopes 
of the Rocky mountains, he was surprised and slain by a predatory band of Black- 
feet. His body was found by some friendly Flatheads, close by a beaver-dam. 
They had fired a bullet through his head, and in accordance with their inhuman 
custom had torn the few remaining white hairs away with the scalp. His clothes 
were left upon him, but his horses, traps and arms had been appropriated by his 
slavers. 



CHAPTER V 

TRAVEL BETWEEN SPOKANE AND ASTORIA 

NAVIGATING THE COLUMBIA A CENTURY AGO FRENCH AND IROQUOIS VOYAGEUBS 

HANGING OVER THE VAST INTERIOR MELONS AND CUCUMBERS GROWN AT SPOKANE 

THE GRAND COULEE INDIAN METHOD OF HUNTING DEER HORSE-RACING IN SPO- 
KANE VALLEY DELIGHTFUL TIMES IN 1 8 1 Z) ICE-BOUND ON THE COLUMBIA 

SHOCKING TRAGEDY ON THE UPPER RIVER VICTIMS RESORT TO CANNIBALISM 

NORTHWEST COMPANY ABSORBED BY ITS HUDSON's BAY RIVAL. 

IX TRANSPORTING supplies from Astoria to Spokane, or furs from this post 
to tlie lower Coluiiihia, tlie brigades resorted in jjart to navigation and in ])art 
to pack-trains, tlie sliarj) and foaming descent of the SjJokane river between tile 
trading post and the Columbia making impossible the use of canoes and bateaux at 
this end of the voj'age. 

A more inspiring sight it would be difficult to imagine than the passing, on some 
bright day of summer, of one of these brigades as it was swept swiftly along by 
the mightv current of the Columbia. One of the larger canoes or bateaux would 
be manned by a crew of eigiit or even a dozen motley voi/ageurs. These, with the 
Astor company and the Northwesters, were usually French Canadians, half breeds 
or Iroquois Indians; lint with the later coming of the Hudson's Bay eom))any and 
its absorption of the Northwest, a number of Orkney island men were brought into 
the country. The positions which called for the greatest skill and dexterity were 
in bow and stern, and these men were known respectively as foreman and steersman; 
the others as middlemen. 

The Freneii Canadians were a joyous, kindly-hearted lot, and it was a partieu- 
l/iriy dark and depressing day when their spirits flagged or the rough music of their 
boat songs (the chansons Vavirons^ were not heard rolling across the water and 
echoing back from clitf and mountain-side. When engaged in the liard service of 
working these brigades against wind and current, or portaging around the many 
obstructions in the stream, these voyat/eiirs were most voracious eaters. Incredible 
statements are made of their gastronomic capacity; their daily allowance, it is 
said, was ten pounds of meat to the man. or eight pounds if the ration were free 
of bone. Allowance should be made, however, for the fact that they had neither 
bread nor vegetables, and for weeks at a time tlieir sole subsistence was meat, soup 
.'ind occasionally tea. 

Some of the expeditions to the interior would ])roeeed in mass to the post at 
the mouth of the Okanogan, and there break u)) into smaller expeditions to Spokane 

39 



40 Sl'OKAM. AND Till', IM.AM) I'.MI'lUi: 

House, to the Kettle f:ilU ot Hie ( 'iiliiiiilii:i. nr [n rli.-ips even t(i the liiglier reaches 
of tlie Cohiinliia licirderiiij; on tlie Arrow lakes; and once a year a brigade worked 
its way heyinul tiu Arrow lakes to tlic Canoe river. ;ind tiience over the Rocky 
mountains to the he.idwaters of the Athabasca, down which stream they glided on 
their way to the great rendezvous of Fort William. 

Occasionally a detachment would leave the main body at the confluence of the 
Columbia and tlic Snake, to ascend the latter stream to outposts in the Clearwater 
regions. 

At other times the Spokane brigade would leave the Columbia torty uiiles above 
the mouth of the Snake, transferring the canoe lading to pack-train, and then march 
across the great ])lains to the Spokane. Rejiorting one of these exi)editions. Cox 
leaves an interesting description of one of the deep coulees of the Big Bend coun- 
try, obviously Moses or Grand. 

"During this journey, which occupied five or six days, we did not meet a single 
native; and with the exception of a few stunted red cedar trees, and some juniper, 
birch and willow, the country was divested of wood. Early on the morning of 
the second day we entered a remarkable ravine, with high, bold and rocky sides, 
through which we rode upwards of twenty miles, when we were obliged to leave it 
in order to follow our direct course. The soil in this ravine is a fine, whitish col- 
ored clay, firm and hard. There is little vegetation except on the sides, where 
clusters of willow and choke-cherry are occasionally met with. While we rode 
through it we passed several small lakes, round the shores of whieh I picked up 
some very fine pebbles of the agate species, exceedingly hard and possessing great 
delicacy and variety of shading. The banks of the Columbia, from the falls up 
to Lewis river (the Snake) abomid with pebbles of the same description; some of 
which I brought home and had cut. They take a beautiful polish, .uid in the o))in- 
ion of la))idaries far exceed the carnelian in value. 

"The following day we passed two warm springs, one of whieli was mi hot that 
in a short time water in a saucepan might be easily boiled over it. They were both 
highly sid))huric, but we liad not time, nor indeed were we prepared to analyze 
tluir pro])erties. 

"On leaving the canoes we expected to have reached .S|)()kane on the third day; 
but in consequence of Iiaving no guide, joined to the difficulty of finding water, we 
took double the time on which we bad ealeulated. Our provisions had failed, and 
we were about killing one of our jaded horses, when we came in sight of some lean 
deer, two of wliicli we shot. This su))ply brought us to Spokane House, which 
place we reached on the 12tii of May." 

Sti wart, McMillan, Cox, .Mackenzie and Montour ])assed a most ])leasant sum- 
mer tli.il VI ar, IHl.'i, at S])okaiie IIousi'. Their garden throve "like a green bay 
tree," and in addition to potatoes and other roots and esculents, e\pi rinieiils with 
melons and cucumbers gave gratifying results. "The Indians, who .at first would 
not touch .any thing which we jilaiited, began at length to have sueh .1 relish for the 
liroduce of the' g.arden that we were obliged to have sentinels on the watch to pre- 
vent their continual trespasses." 

Much as the natives relished these i)roduets of the deep, rich soil of the .Sijok.uie 
countrv, all efforts by the traders to induce them to cultivate gardens of their own 
proved ineffective. When they were told that by these means they could insure 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 41 

an abundance of food in winter and .s|)riiig and thus ])revent tlie recurrence of 
famine, they replied that such work would interfere with their hunting and fishing, 
and moreover would discourage their squaws from collecting wild roots and fruits 
in autumn, and render them lazy. 

Several excursions were made that summer for tlie purpose of becoming better 
acquainted with the neighboring Indians and to acquire a closer knowledge of the 
country; and, spurred by a lively curiosity to know more about the deep coulee, 
which they liad encountered while traveling across the Big Bend region, a second 
trip of exploration was made out to that vast fissure in the crust of the earth. 

"It is computed to be about eighty miles in length," runs the report of that 
excursion, "and presents all along the same rocky and precipitous sides. The path- 
ways are so steep and dangerous that even Indians in passing them are obliged to 
dismount, and loaded horses must be partly lightened. Some of the horses, by 
missing their footing, have been killed, and many severely injured in descending 
these precipices. The bottom throughout consists of the same firm, white soil, 
interspersed with small lakes. Several l)old insulated rocks are scattered here and 
there throughout the ravine, some of which exceed a quarter of a mile in circum- 
ference and are partially clothed with choke-cherry and other inferior kinds of 
vegetation. 

"From small horizontal channels worn on the sides of the rocks, and which 
seemed to indicate the action of water, we were led to imagine that this valley was 
formerly one of the channels of the Columbia, the course of which we supposed 
must have been changed by one of those extraordinary convulsions in the natural 
world, the causes of which are beyond human knowledge." 

At that time on the broad plateau between the Spokane and the Okanogan, 
hunters found, at certain seasons, numbers of small deer. Lewis and Clark had 
noted the presence of these animals and classed them as antelopes, which they 
closely resembled in form and swiftness, but the fur traders questioned the correct- 
ness of this classification, since the antlers were quite different from the horns of 
the antelope as described by naturalists. They were found in prime condition by 
early autumn, when excellent sport was had in hunting them, and their flesh was 
pronounced sweet and delicate. 

In hunting these deer the Indians had a method of their own. After a herd had 
been located, some members of the hunting party, by making a long detour, ob- 
tained a position in front of it. while those in the rear fired the dry bunch grass. 
Running before the flaming wind, the deer were intercepted by the hunters, and 
great numbers were killed with arrows. 

The wolves, too, according to the traders, had a concerted plan for preying on 
these defenseless creatures of the plains. It was declared that a band of wolves 
would form a semi-circular line and drive a herd to the edge of the Grand coulee; 
and tlien, by drawing in their fang-snapping cordon, would so completely hem in 
the victims as to leave them no alternative between leaping to death and destruction 
over the rocky cliffs or falling an easy prey to the ravenous band of four-footed 
hunters. 

That was a warm summer on the Spokane. During the days of mid-summer the 
temperature ranged from eighty-four to ninety-six degrees, and on the fifth of July, 
when a great horse-race was the attraction, the thermometer recorded 1 1 1 in the sh-adc. 



42 SI'OK.WI. AM) llll. IM.AM) l-.M 1' I li I', 

Horse-racing was llu n royal sport on tilt- Spokane gravel ))lains. before baseball had 
l.eeii inv.iitiil or l.agii.- t.aii.s were disporting before thousands of enthusiastic 
"fans." 

The precise location of the race-course is lost in the mists of anti(iuit.v. but it 
eould not have been far from the present site of the city. Ross Cox locates it "on 
tlie plains between tlie COeur d'Alcnc and Siwkane lands," and in addition to 
speedy horses owned by these tribes otiur racers were there from tin- land of the 
Flatheads, and several had been brought down from the Colville coiuitry by the 
Chaudieres. "There were some cal)ital heats and the i)etting ran high." The 
horses were ridden by their owners, and it was no uncommon sight for twenty-five 
or thirty to run in a straightaway five mile heat. "The course was a perfect plain, 
with a light gravelly i)ottoui, and some of the rearward jockies were occasionally 
severely peppered in the face from the small pebbles thrown up by the hoofs of the 
racers in front." 

I'ranclure informs us that these Indians were passionately fond of horse-races, 
and bet their jiossessions with a recklessness that often reduced them to poverty. 
The women rode as well as the men. I'or bridle they used a cord of horsehair, which 
they attached around the animal's month. With that he was easily checked, and by 
laying a hand on his neck, was made to wheel to this side or that. The saddle was 
a cushion of stuff. <1 d, . rskin, very suitable for the purpose for which it was de- 
signed, rarely hurting the horse and not fatiguing the rider so much as the Amer- 
ican saddles. The saddles for women were furnished with the antlers of a deer, 
and resembh (I the high ponnueled saddh s of the Mexican women. 

"Thev jjrocure their horses from the herds of these animals which are found in 
a wild state between the northern latitudes and the gulf of Mexico, and which some 
times count .1 thousand or fifteen hundred in a troop," says this informant. "These 
horses come from New .Mexico and .ire of .'Spanish race. We even saw some which 
had been marked by a hot iron by Si)aniar(ls. Some of our men, who had been at 
the south, told UK that they had seen among the Indians, bridles, the bits of which 
were of silver. Tiie form of the saddles used by the females proves that they have 
taken their ijattern from the S)i.inisli ones destined for the same use." 

When the first white men entered this country tiiey found tin Indians ad. jit in 
the use of the lasso and the calituring of wild horses. 

Tiiose were, indeed, pleasant, languorous summer days in tlu xall.y ot the 
Sp.ikaii.-. "the most pl.as.int .ind agr.iabl.- season I enjoyed in the Indian country," 
writes Cox. "llunting, (isliing, fowling, horse-racing and fruit-gathering occupied 
tiic day: whih re.uling, niusie. backgammon, etc., formed the evening pleasures of 
our small but friiiidly mess." 

We are further informed that the heat of the day was generally moderat.d by 
cooling bre.zes. "Towards the lattir end of .\ugust. and during tli. month of Sep- 
t.'irib.r, ali.iul noon. III.' Ih.-niioiiuler girierally stood at eighty-six, wliil,' in 111.- 
morning .and . v.ning it fell to thirty-five or thirty-six;" a weather record that might 
casilv lie duplieat.-d now by one of 111.' official r.])orts of Weather Observer Stewart. 

L.ain.iitably llirse tr.insitory d.lighls loulil not continue indefinitely in tin- r.nigli 
life of a fur trader. Winter was ;ipiin>aehiiig. a winter of deep diseont.iil .ind dire 
hardships and jjrivations by froz.n river and wind-sweiit idain. 

Tlh Spokau.' brigade w.as lat.' that aiitiiimi (KSl.")) in its des<-.iit of the Colum- 




STKl-T(_)10 liUTTK 
Must fMiiioiis Ian. I rjiark in Palmise country. Forim-rly callfil Pyraniiil Butte 



. rni- ,£w voRK 
^UBuc UBHaH] 



»«r»» Lf Hair 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 43 

hia to Fort George, as Astoria had now come to be known, and November was well 
advanced when Keith, Montour, Mackenzie and Cox, with fifty voyac/eurs and 
Rivet, the interpreter, started on the return trip to the interior. Winter set in early, 
and at tlie moutli of the Snake niueli drift ice was encountered wliich threatened in- 
Jury or destruction to the cedar bateaux and sucli of the canoes as were constructed 
of birch bark. Ice jams were soon met, and the work of portaging around them, in 
the severe temi)erature. exiiausted the men. For three days they struggled at tliis 
dreadful toil, tile spirits of the men falling to tile lowest ebb. 

After a cheerless breakfast a delegation presented itself before the tent occujjied 
by the clerks and sent in word tliat they wished to speak to Mr. Keith, the com- 
mander, and wlien he apjjcared at tlie tent opening, Bazil Lucie, one of the best and 
most obedient men in tiie brigade respectfully asked leave to speak for iiis fellows. 
His comrades, he said, were reduced to tlie lowest degree of weakness by tiie unex- 
pected liardships they had encountered, and iiad become convinced that tliey could 
not by any possibility overcome the long chain of rapids and ice jams that lay before 
them. At the same time they wished it to be understood that tiieir protest was not 
expressed in a mutinous spirit; tliey were willing and read}' to make the last eHort 
tiiat lay within tiieir strength, but felt tiiemselves incapable of further endeavor. 

Mr. Keith's first feeling was of anger and indignation. The protest was so at 
variance witli the customary spirit of Canadian voycu/eurs that he feared, for a 
moment, that lie would have to deal with a dangerous degree of insubordination; but 
wiien he looked U|)on tlie dejected figures of iiis men, and read in their faitiiful eyes 
tile sorrow which attended their reluctant remonstrance, he realized that his mo- 
mentary anger was unworthy of a being of liumane principles, and addressed them 
in ;i sympathetic spirit, assuring them that he did not find fault with their action 
and regretted that lie could not provide them with a more comfortable wintering 
ground. 

For it had become api)arent tliat thji J>rigfide would be unable to ascend the 
Columbia to Okanogan, but would JiiiVtf- to go into winter quarters on the bleak and 
wind-swept bank of the river and await the coming of spring and the breaking up 
of tile ice blockade which now held them in its unrelenting gri|). 

Fortunately an abundance of driftwood was near at hand, and of this some of 
the men were set at work gathering a large store, while otiiers were occupied in 
piling the trading goods in a safe position; and yet otliers, with the assistance of 
the canoes, tarpaulins and sails, constructed iiids and shelter for the expedition. 

This winter encampment was probably in the vicinity of Badger mountain, 
Douglas county, for the records state that about ten miles distant, in the midst of 
extensive plains there rose a high and conically shaped hill, which the traders named 
Mt. Nelson, and which, on having been climbed by Keith and one of the clerks, 
atti)rd(d .1 commanding viewpoint from which they looked out over "a widely ex- 
ttiid<il ijrospect of the great plains in their wintry clothing; their undulations 
reminded us of the ocean, when the troubled waves begin to subside after a storm." 
\'ainly they strained their eyes to catcli a glimpse of animate nature. "Xeitii( r 
man, nor fowl, nor cattle, nor beasts, nor creeping thing met our longing and ex- 
pectant gaze. Silent desolation reigned all around." 

W'v may readily believe that the time jiassed heavily enougli. "Our travtliii"- 
niirary." writes Cox. "was on too small a scale to .att'ord iiuieli iiitelleetiial eiijov- 



44 SPOKANE AND Till-, INLAND HMI'IRE 

iiiint. It iiiily iiiMsistt'd of one book of hyiiiiis, two song-books, the latfst edition of 
Joe Miller, and Darwin's Hotanic Garden. The Canadians eould not join us in the 
hymns, and we endeavored in vain to tune our pipes for profane harmony. "Yankee 
Doodle,' the 'Frog's Courtship' and the 'Poker' were the only three that came 
within the scope of our vocal ability." 

A few men who had been sent afoot to Fort Ok.mogan returned early in Janu- 
ary with sixteen lean and hungry cayuses and eight of these, after a few days' rest, 
were loaded with a part of the goods and supplies, and Mr. Keith, t.aking with him 
the greater number of the men, set off for the post at the mouth of the Okanogan. 

"Mackenzie and I passed six more melancholy weeks in this spot," says Cox, 
"during which period we did not see an Indian. Our time would have passed heav- 
ily enough, only that we fortunately agreed on no single subject. Episcopacy and 
Presbyterianism. with all their offshoots formed a prolific source of polemic recrea- 
tion; and when we became tired of the mitre and the kirk, we traveled back to 
Ossian and the Culdees. We argued on the immutability of the Magellanic clouds. 
We discussed the respective merits of every writer to whom the authorship of Junius 
has been attributed. We differed on the best mode of cooking a leg of mutton; and 
we could not agree as to the superiority of a haggis over a harico, or of Ferintosh 
over Inishowen. Plum pudding and rice each had its champion ; and when he rose 
in all his strength and thought to destroy me with the plentiful variety of a Scotch 
breakfast. I at once floored hiui with the solid substantiality of an English dinner. 
Thus witli I ni))ty stomachs and half-famished bodies, we argued on luxuries while 
we anticipated starvation. 

"Poor Mackenzie," adds Cox in a footnote. "In 18:28 I received a letter from 
the Columbia announcing the melancholy intelligence that he and four of his men 
had, the jjreeeding year, been surprised by the savages on Phraser's river, who bar- 
barously murdered the entire party." 

But spring came early and released the party from the ice-grip, for aliout the 
middle of February, under the genial influence of a strong Chinook wind, the Colum- 
bia opened, and on the 16th they tried onee more their fortunes by water, and after 
many narrow esca))es arrived at Okanogan twelve days later, "with empty stomachs 
and exhausted bodies." 

Neither Franchere nor Ross seems to have foreseen the building of a town, 
much less an im))erial city, by the falls of the .Spokane. The latter had his eye on 
the nioulli of the Okanogan as the site of tile future eoinniercial (le]>ot of the vast 
interior. The situation there he thought ".admirably adapted for a trading town. 
With a fertile soil, a healthy climate, horses in abundance for land carriage, an 
opening to the sea by the Columbia, and a communication to the interior by it and 
the Okanog.ui ; the rivers well stocked with fish, and the natives quiet and friendly, 
it will, in my o|)inion, be selected as a spot jirceminently calculated for a site of a 
town, when civilization (which is at present so r;ii)idly migrating towards the west- 
ward) crosses the Rocky iiiouiitains and reaelies tlir Cohnnbia." 

Jkit "man iiroposes and Ciod disposes" .and the traders of a hundred years ago, 
however keen-sighted and far visioned. eould not foresee the revolution that was to 
come with the locomotive and tin Imililiiij; of a \ast and intrieate system of railroads, 
whose masters wire to wrest the growing tonnage of I Ik future from the rivers and 



SPOKANE AND THE IXLAXU EMPIRE 45 

the seas and contribute to the building of cities by sites that could not be approached 
by the light canoe and the cedar bateau of the daring voyageur. 

The brigade that came up from Fort George, spring of 1817, was the largest that 
had ever ascended the Columbia. It left tiiat post under a salute of seven guns, 
and comprised five Scots, two Englishmen, one Irishman, thirty-si.K Canadians, 
twenty Iroquois Indians, two Nipissings, one Cree and three half-breeds; nine na- 
tives of the Sandwich islands, and one boy, a servant, two women and two cliildren. 
Two barges and nine large canoes were required for the transportation of this 
party and the average lading to each iioat was nearly a ton exclusive of the weight 
of passengers and crews. 

This expedition, on its way to Fort William, on lake Superior, arrived at the 
mouth of Canoe river, north of the Arrow lakes on the upper Columbia, without 
notable accident or incident. At that point, as seven of the men had become inva- 
lided, it was decided to return them to Spokane House rather than subject them 
to the hardships and dangers of the long voyage over the mountains and the vast 
plains of western Canada. Out of this action there was to develop one of the most 
horrible tragedies of which western annals contain a record. 

The best canoe was assigned the party of six Canadians and Holmes, the English 
tailor, and although only two of the men were able to work, it was thought that the 
current would carry them in three days to Kettle Falls, from whence they could 
easily reach Spokane. As the stock of provisions was limited, barely sufficient was 
assigned them for this period. They separated from their companions with gloomy 
forebodings, and some of them predicted that they would nevermore see their fam- 
ilies and friends in distant Canada. 

The current of the Columbia, now swollen by melting snow fields, carried them 
in ease and, safety to the upper Dalles or narrows. Here they disembarked, but in 
an effort to lower the canoe through the foaming waters, the line broke or was torn 
from the grasp of the weakened men, and the little craft swept away to destruction. 
As they had lacked either the providence or the strength to remove their scanty 
supply of provisions, these together with their blankets and most of their clothing, 
were carried away with the canoe, leaving them stranded on a ^vild and inhospitable 
shore, ill, destitute and discouraged. 

As no other course lay before them, they set out feebly on foot in an endeavor 
to follow the windings of the river to the Indian settlements far below. As the 
beaches were inundated, they had frequently to take to the wooded mountains, tear- 
ing their way along through the dense undergrowth, falling now and then from 
weariness or complete exhaustion, and one by one abandoning hope and jnelding to 
the blackness of despair. Macon, a voyageur, was first to perish under these ordeals, 
and his famished and desperate comrades, driven now to the horrors of cannibalism, 
divided his remains equally among them, and this shocking subsistence maintained 
life for a few days. Owing to the torn and swollen state of their feet, they could 
not advance more than two or three miles daily. Holmes, the tailor, followed Ma- 
cron; and one by one the others lay down and died until there remained only La 
Pierre and Dubois. Later La Pierre was found on the shore of upper Arrow lake, 
by some Indians in a canoe, and by them was brought down the river to Kettle Falls. 
The sole survivor declared that in self-defense he had been driven to cut the throat 
of Dubois, who, as he contended, had risen in the night and first attempted to kill 



4U Sl'OKANK AM) 11 11. INLANlJ l-Ml'lUE 

him with a clasij-kiiifc. He was hrouf^ht to Spokane, where his conflictinjr stories 
created sus))icioii. which was later iiiteiisitied hy the stateineiits made by the Indians 
who had picked him u)). .ind he was sub.sequently sent to Canada for trial; bnt ;is 
the evidence ajfainst liim was circumstantial, he was acquitted. 

We h.ive traced the manner and the methods whereby the interests of the Pacific 
Fur cdMip.iny (the A.stor enterprise) were ap|)r()pri.iticl. tiircuif;ii tre.ichery and 
cow.irdice. by the Northwest comj),iny. It now remains to narrate tile events wiiieli 
later led up to the acquisition of the Northwest company by the Hudson's Bay 
people. 

At no time within the period covered by these ii.irrativis liad the Hudson's 15ay 
comiiany obtained a foothold west of the Koeky mount.iins; but in the country east 
of the mountains the keenest and most unscrui)ulous rivalry h;id arisen between these 
eonflictiri}^ adventurers. Under-handed methods were Liter succeeded by o))en war- 
far( — the takinir of forts l)y armed .ittaek. the besieging of others until their inmates 
perished of starvation, .uid other ecjually lawless and desperate methods. The spirit 
ofth.it contest is well reflected in .i letter, writtin in IHKi from a Northwest trader 
to a friend ,it .S|)okane: 

"You .already know the strong opiiosition that came into the country, the great- 
est iJart of which went to Atli.ab.isc.i .and Slave lake. You must .ilso have lie.ird 
of their success at the former |)l.ice, having been obliged from sl.irv.ition to give 
themselves up to the Northwest, .iltliough your old friend (our .Mr. {'I.irke of Spo- 
ane House, who had gone over to the Hudson's ]$,iy jjeople), swore lie would r.itlier 
die th.an come under any obligation to our ))eo|)le. He lost seventeen men by faniine. 
•Vt Slave lake they were more successful; but ,it the different establishments they 
had in other (larts of the country, they lost thirteen more by star\;ition. Last .June 
they received ;i mortal blow from the ('oss.icks of Red river (half-breeds), of which 
.ifi.iir, as I was on the s))ot a few d.ays later, I shall give you .i det.iil. You of 
course know that two of our forts were taken, .and all the property, .and th.it C.i])- 
tain Cameron (a proprietor of the Northwest company) was made jirisoner. The 
forts were subsequently burned. 

"Mr. ,\. McDonmll. who was stationed at Qu'apjicUe river, held his fort in de- 
fiance of tluiii. He w.is threatened with destruction if he made iiiy .ittemiit to ))ass 
downw.inl. His opiioiunl. lMi«e\ri'. st.irted with his hum, ,iiuI returns of furs and 
jirovisions. but tliose bl.iekgu.ird Hrulis (also half-breeds) fell in with tliiin. took 
them .all |)risoners. and carried the property to .Mr. McDonnell. No blood w.is shed 
on this occasion. Some time .after. .Mr. McDonnell, being anxious for the .arrival 
of the genthaMen I'rdiii tin iKirtliu aril, sent .1 parly iil' fixe ( '•■maili.-iiis with tun e;irts 
loaded with jirovisions for us by hand; .and the ,ilio\c bl.ickguards took ui)on tliem- 

sel\-es to .Li( pany them to the number of fifty. On p.issing by tlic colony, at the 

disl.uKM- (if two miles, they were stopped by llii' gii\ernor .iiid twenty-six men well 
■ iriiiid. The Brules wire ;it tli.il lime bill lliirleeii, including the Canadians. A 
few words .arose bitween the governor .■iiid our men. The former ordered his men 
to tire, when two only, with much reluetanee. obeyid. 'I'lie tire was immediately 
nliiriiiil li\' llii Hniles, wlieii seven insl.inlly Irll. .\ nire.at \v;is begun by the Hud- 
son's Hay ))eople. but out of twenty-six only four esc.ilied. The Brules had only 
one man killed .and one wounded. They took the fort, with a great quantity of .arms 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 47 

and ammunition, and have sworn vengeance against every description of Hudson's 
Bay men. " 

This was bad business — a degree of frenzied enterprise which comported but 
poorly with tlie British boast about law and order; but it needs to be remembered 
tliat there existed then in western Canada no law or authority beyond the rule of 
the fur traders and tiie authority which they maintained by force of arms. 

Such warfare was, of course expensive, and joined to the ruinous competition 
which had driven the rivals to a policy of bidding higher and higher for the ])roduce 
of the traps, threatened, if indefinitely continued, to bankrupt one or the other, or 
])ossiblv both of the contesting companies. Back in Montreal and London, where 
declining dividends impressed the stockholders with the reprehensible nature of the 
conflict, an agitation soon started in the interest of peace, and negotiations were 
entered into which culminated in the purchase by the Hudson's Bay people of all 
the interests of the Northwest company, including Spokane House and other posts 
in the interior and on the Columbia. 



CHAPTER Vi 

AMUSING AND TRAGIC INCIDENTS 

DANCING WITH SPOKANE NYMPHS PETER SKENE OODEN AND HIS INDIAN WIFE FRENCH 

THE PREVAILING LANGUAGE OF THE COUNTRY LOUIS LA LIBERTe's WOUNDED PRIDE 

THRILLING ADVENTURE WITH A GRIZZLY BEAR ROUGH LIFE OF THE FREE 

TRADERS KEEN COMPETITION FORCED RIDE WITH A SUPPLY OF TOBACCO SPO- 
KANE WOMEN GREAT SLAVES SHOCKING DOUBLE ACT OF REVENGE. 

ROSS, who came out on tlu- Tonquin in 18)1, and made frequent trips to the 
interior, has recorded a graphic picture of Spokane House as it ap- 
peared a hundred years ago: "There all the wintering parties, with 
exception of the northern district, met. There they all fitted out ; it was the great 
starting jjoint. ... At Spokane House there were handsome buildings ; there 
was a ballroom even, and no females in the land so fair to look upon as the nymphs 
of Spokane ; no damsels could dance so gracefully as they, none were so attractive. 
]5ut Spokane House was not celebrated for fine women only ; there were fine horses 
also. The race-ground was admired, and the pleasures of the chase often yielded 
to the pleasures of tile race. Altogether Spokane House was a delightful place." 

This breathes a spirit of badinage, but relatively, as rough conditions then 
went at this and other posts, it sketches a picture that is fairly true. 

Among the notable traders who yielded to the blandishments of the Spokane 
bidies of that dim and dist.mt day was Peter Skene Ogdtn, who took for wife a 
remarkable woman of tliat tribe. She bore him several children, and carried into 
a serene old age a reputation as a faithful and dutiful spouse and a kind and 
attentive mother. Siie followed the fortunes of her wliite master to tiie lower 
Cohimbia. and dwelt for many years at Fort Vancouver and Oregon City. She 
died, at the age of 86, at Lac La Hache, British Columbia. Ogden failed to 
ratify the alliance with a formal marriage, even when pressed to do so as he lay 
upon his couch of death. To the urgent solicitation of good old Dr. McLoughlin 
he made answer that if many years of public recognition of tlie relation and of his 
children did not constitute sufficient proof, no formal words of priest or magistrate 
could help the matter. Ogden left a valuable estate, and this irregularity invited 
a vigorous contest of his will by relatives in England, but the dispute was amicably 
compromised through the efforts of Sir George Simpson, the executor of the will. 

Ogden, who came from an influential colonial family, revealed in liis boyhood 
a daring and adventurous spirit which lured him, while yet a youtli. into tlie west- 
ern wilds. He had been for a while, in the service of John Jacob Astor as a 

Vol 1—4 

49 



50 SPOKANE AM) THK INLAND E.MPJRE 

clerk, presumably at Montreal, but a little later, in 1811. lie attached himself, at 
the age of 17, to the Northwest company, and operated for several years in the 
wild country to the east of the Rocky mountains. He came upon the Columbia in 
1818, and two years later, by his zeal, courage and indefatigable industry, was 
made a partner in the Northwest company, and later became chief factor of the 
Hudson's Bay company. Ogden was a frequent sojourner at Spokane House, and 
was here at intervals till tiie jjost was abandonel to the elements and the use of 
the Indians of the neighborhood. 

From a manuscript in the Spokane city libr.iry. "Sijokane House; History of 
an Old Trading Post," I am pcrniittdl by tin- .lutbdr. Willi.un .S. Lewis of tiiis city, 
to make the following extracts: 

"After spending several days in looking for a suitable site, for his trading post, 
Clarke finally decided upon a beautiful point of land at the juncture of the Spokane 
and Little Spokane rivers. . . . The site selected was one of considerable 
beauty as well as commercial advantage. The Little Spokane, emerging from a 
narrow, heavily wooded valley, flows along ))arallel to the main river for .a mile or 
so before joining it. To the east are high, bald granite hills; and to the west 
gravel benches rise, overgrown with bunch-grass and occasional pines. On the 
alluvial bottom, midway between the two rivers and a short distance from their 
juncture, the post known as Spokane House was established. . . 

"A stout stockade, twelve feet high, was erected; this was flanked with two 
square bastions, each armed with a light four-pounder of brass, and with loop- 
holes cut in the upper story for use of musketry. This defense proved unnecessary, 
as the local tribe of Indians w.is very honest and inoffensive, and the post gates 
were seldom closed at night. The only use the four-pounders were ever put to 
was that of making noise for local celebrations. Within the stockade thus built, 
to make the following extracts: 

"The main trading building was an oblong structure, built of peeled logs of 
uniform size, the greater hiigtli extending north and south, and the sides facing 
the two rivers. 

"Till' framework of the roof, doors ,uul windows w.as of liewn tiuiliers. carefully 
fitted .and f.istened with wooden pegs, in place of n.iils, .ind the roof was shingled 
with sh.ikes cut from eed.irs growing .ilong tlie banks of the Little .Spokane. 

"In the middle of this trading liuilding. on e.-ieli side, an o|)ening seven leet 
high .and eight feet with w.is cut. forming a p.iss.ige -way. F.ach side of this was 
built u)) breast high, as a counter, to |)roteet the w.ires of the traders from the 
thieving ))roi)ensities of the Indians. Indi.ans desiring to trade could come into 
the building from i itiier side, up to tile log r.iilJMg. Ixliiud « liiell some of the 
clerks .and men were .ilw.iys stationed in eare of the niereliandise. 

".\nnixed to tli<- tr.iding building was .i room in which the furs were stored tor 
tr.insportation to ,\stori;i. 

"Clarke was an old and experienced Indian trader. As soon as his buildings were 
conii)leted, he assembled the neighboring Indians, made several speeches, displayed 
his fine buildings ;ind his wealth, and then gave a grand b.ill in honor of his men 
and the Indi.iiis — the first big .social event in the history of our section. . . . 

"By a separate agrtemint (at th<' time the .Vstor interests passed to the North- 



I 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 51 

west company) S}3okane House and property was sold to the Canadians for a band 
of Indian horses, to be delivered the following spring. 

"Under the management of the Northwest company, Spokane House was, for 
several years, an important trading center, tiiough the post proved to be in a 
rather out of the way location, 150 milts from the better fur regions, furs being 
scarce in the immediate neighborhood, and the local Indians being but indolent 
hunters. Gradually, as the local fur-bearing animals were destroyed, tlie busi- 
ness became less and less lucrative, yet the post continued to be retained, largely 
as a matter of sentiment and |)ersi)iial comfort. It was the Mecca for all the fur 
traders; the climate was delightful, the Indians friendly; all the wintering par- 
ties of the district met at Spokane; all fitted out here — it was a great starting 
point. Trappers, after their montlis of solitary labor, were eager for the attrac- 
tions of the post. The buildings were unusually handsome and commodious; the 
post even boasted of a ballroom, and the graceful native dancers were in great 
demand as partners. There were many fine horses about the place, and many 
a man wagered the earnings of a year upon tiie race-course. Deer were plentiful ; 
trout and other fish filled the streams ; and savory steaks of bunch-grass fed cayuses, 
a great delicacy at Spokane House, were famous througiiout the Rocky moun- 
tains. 

"When, !March 26, 1821, the Xortliwest company was absorbed by the Hudson's 
Bay company, Spokane House passed to the ownership of the latter. But the fur 
trade on the lower Columbia was now on the decline, and Spokane House was aban- 
doned in 182,5. and a new Hudson's Bay post established on the Columbia river, a 
short distance above Kettle P'alls, called Fort Colville." 

W. P. Winans, who went to Colville in July, 1861, where he lived until 1873, says, 
in a manuscript relative to the earliest settlements in that valley: "When the war 
of 1812 forced the Astor party to sell to the Northwest Fur company in 1813, they 
abandoned one of the posts at the mouth of the Little Spokane, and located it in the 
Colville valley, about 1816. When the Hudson's Bay company, in 1821, absorbed 
the Northwest Fur company, they built a stockaded fort at tliis trading post, on 
the south bank of the Columbia river, about a mile above Kettle I'alls, and called 
it Fort Colville. 

"When the writer visited, in 1870, the location of these posts on the Spokane 
and at the mouth of the Okanogan river, all that remained to indicate that once 
there had been buildings and people living there were the mounds made by fallen 
chimneys and the graves of the dead, although Fort Okanogan was occupied and 
maintained as a trading post for about fifty years, tlie last man in charge being a 
half-breed named Francis Desotel, who in 1862 abandoned it. moving tlie goods up 
to the Similkimeen river, about eiglity miles north, and established a trading post 
there. 

"Either William Frazier or Archii)ald MacDonald built Fort Colville and named 
it after the then London governor of the Hudson's Bay company. It was next to 
Vancouver in importance. Here the accounts or statements from all the posts in 
the Pacific northwest were made up for transmission, via the Columbia river to 
Boat Encampment, through Athabasca pass, via Jasper House and York factory on 
Hudson Bay, and thence by ship to England. It was maintained until 1870. when 
the Hudson's Bay company moved into Britisli territory. 



52 SPOKANK AM) llll IM.ANI) K.MIMHK 

"The first time I visited Fort Colville was in August, 1861. Then there was a 
stockade enclosing it, about 2r>0 feet square and twelve or fourteen feet high, in 
good repair, witli s(|uare towers or bastions at ojjposite corners enclosing the houses. I 
saw it again in .Inly. 19()K The stockade was gone, but some of the old storerooms 
and one of tiie b.istions built in I8'27. .ind the fr.inie dwrlling houses of tlie chief 
trader, built in 1863, were standing, the property being then owned by Donald 
McDonald, son of Angus McDonald, the chief trader, who claimed it as a homestead 
in 1870. During the thirteen years I resided in Colville valley, many times I 
enjoyed the society of Mr. .\ngus McDonald, the chief trader, who dispensed hos- 
pitality after the manner of the Scotch lairds of his ancestral home. 

"I have an illustration in mind. A i)arty of about fifteen of us concluded we 
would pay our resjjeets to Mr. McDonald on New Year's day, 1861', and have a 
sleighride too. So we got a pair of bobsleds, with a big wagon box and four 
horses, and drove the fifteen miles to the Hudson's Bay conijjany jiost. Mr. McDon- 
ald received us with courtly grace and abundant cheer. .Mtir the usu.-il greetings, 
we spent a short time socially, and were .about to returti that afternoon, but he 
would h.ive none of it. We must stay to diiuier and spend the night with him. We 
consented, and the dinner was served, on what he called a 'field table.' in a l.irge 
room twenty by thirty feet. Next to the w.iUs on the floor wen- s])read fur robes; 
the space left in the center was covered with white table cloths, and on this white 
field table, say ten by twenty feet, were iil.ued the dishes with provisions. The 
thirty guests, which includi il dur |),irty .uul .ibout as many more, being the princi- 
pal farmers of the valley, assembled around this festal board, and. reclining on the 
robes, we leisurely ))artook of the bountiful sujiply before us, and listened to our 
host relate incidents of eii.isc or exploration, or eontlict and treaty with the natives 
of the Northwest. Thus we sjient some hours, retiring .about midnight to our beds. 
"While he was entert.aining us, at the same time there were .-issembled in other 
buildings of the fort, as their yearly custom was, the former employes of the com- 
pany and their families, numbering over 100. who usually sjient the holiday week 
with him, having the best time in their lives in feasting, social mirth, music and 
dancing. 

"Angus McDonald e.ime to this country in 1840, as a clerk for the Hudson's Hay 
company, was sent to h'ort Hall, and w.-is tliere with Cajjtaiu Gr.int. Was married 
in 1843 to a daughter of a Ncz Perce chief. Came to Colville and took charge of 
the post about 18,50, and remained with the Hudson's Bay comi>,iny as long 
as they maintained trading posts in I'liited States territory. Some of his chil- 
dren having taken up their residence in the [''lathcad coimtry, he moved to that 
section, living near them the last few years of life. He died February 1st, 1889, 
over 72 years of age." 

There remain some odds umI ends of ancedDte and .adventure, and a few frag- 
ments of historic incident, to roinid out the section of this volume that deals with 
the picturesque period of the fur-trader. Those were brave and daring times, a 
hundred years ago, when the British flag flo.itid ovir the Inland Empire, and our 
first citizens were a medley aggregation of canny Scots and volatile French Canadians, 
of Iroquois and Spokancs, of half breeds and Sandwich islanders, with now and then 
a "mountain man," free trajjp.r .ind h.ilf savage American from the Kentucky 
frontier. 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 53 

French was the prevailing tongue, and traces of that language are stamped 
forever on the nomenelature of our mountains, lakes and rivers. They are written 
on our waters in such names as Pend d'Oreille (ear-ring), Coeur d'Alene (sharp- 
hearted), Palouse, (a grassy region), Nez Perces (pierced noses), and many others. 
Some of the Scotch clans were so numerously represented in the Spokane country 
that the voyageiirs, in order to escape confusion of names, resorted to distinctive 
nicknames. There were, for examj^le, Mr. Mackenzie le rouge (the red), Mr. Mac- 
kenzie le blanc (the white), Mr. Mackenzie le borgne (the one-eyed), Mr. Mackenzie 
le picote (the pock-marked); Mr. MacDonald le grand (the big), Mr. MacDonald 
le pretre (the priest), Mr. MacDonald le bras croche (the crooked arm). Ross 
Cox narrates an amusing incident growing out of this custom ; and since the leading 
character was probably the ancestor of the Liberty family whose name we have 
perpetuated in Liberty lake, the anecdote has a fitting place in a history of Spo- 
kane. 

Mr. Shaw, one of the agents, had passed many years in the interior, and was 
by the voyageiirs called Monsieur Le Chat (the cat). On quitting the Indian 
country he married a Canadian lady, by whom he had several children. Some 
years after this event, one of his old foremen, Louis La Liberte, went to Montreal 
to spend the winter. He had heard of his old bourgeois' marriage and was anxious 
to see him. Mr. Shaw was walking on the Champ de Mars with a couple of officers, 
when La Liberte spied him. He immediately ran up, and seizing him by both 
hands, exclaimed: 

"Ah, mon cher Monsieur Le Chat, comment vous portes-voiis?" 
"Tres bien, Louisson." 

"Et comment se parte Madame La Chatte?" 
"Bien, bien, Louisson, elle est tres bien." ■ 
"Et tous les petits Chatons?" 

("Ah, my dear Monsieur Cat, how do you do.''" "Very well, Louison." "And 
how is Madame Cat.^" "Well, well, Louisson, she is very well." "And all the little 
Kittens .!'") 

By this time Mr. Shaw, a trifle embarrassed before his fine army friends, 
thought it advisable to check La Liberte's effusiveness and with a rather brusque 
reply turned away, leaving Louisson astonished and indignant over his cool recep- 
tion. 

La Liberte, adds Cox, was an extraordinary old man ; he had several fine daugh- 
ters by an Indian wife and became father-in-law to three proprietors. He was there- 
fore proud of his connections, and feeling indignant at Mr. Shaw's supposed cavalier 
treatment, adopted an eccentric method of manifesting his resentment. 

He ordered a coat to be made of fine green cloth, with silver buttons; a vest of 
crimson velvet, with carnelian buttons, braided sky-blue pantaloons, Hessian boots 
with gold tassels and silver heels; a hat, feathers and silk sash. And thus accou- 
tered, with a long calumet in his right hand, and a splendidly ornamented smoking- 
bag in his left, he proceeded to the Champ de Mars during a regimental parade, 
and observing Mr. Shaw walking in company with some ladies and gentlemen, he 
vociferated: 

"Ha, ha, Monsieur Le Chat, voyez ma veste! vo-ila les boutons! En avez-vous 
de mime? Ha, ha, Monsieur Le Chat! regardes mes bottes; je suis ferre d'argent! 



54 SI'OK.WK AM) THl-; IM AM) lAIIMKi; 

Jf siiis /(■ hraii-jicrc itc Moiisiriir McDiiiiiill .' Monsieur Mackemic est man (lendre; 
et }!■ me siicre lie tons lex Chats, et ile toittrs les Cluilles!" 

(Ha, lia, Monsieur fat. st-e my vivst ! Then- ari- tin- buttons: Ii.im ynu aM\- like 
tllcm? Ila, lia. MoMsifur Cat. set- my hoots! I am shoii with silver. I am the 
father-in-law of .Monsieur .MeDinnill; .Monsieur .M.ieken/.ie is my son-in-law; and 
my cur.ses on all tiu' Cats, male and female!") 

.Some of his friends, who previous to his h.ninj; homi- observed him drinking a 
quantity of rum. followed him to the jjar.ide ground, and with much diHieultv at 
Icngtli sueeeeded in foreiiif; him ,iw;iy. while the old man every now and then lifted 
up a li-g. aiul ehallenged .-iny .Shaw or ollierr on the ground to show silver heels to 
his boots. 

'I'here is re.ison to believe, from tlu aliundan<'e of testimony whiell comes down 
to us from early days, thai the bear, and particularly the grizzly, was far more 
formidable and ferocious ;i hundred year.s ago than at the present dav. This be- 
lief is borne out by the journals of Lewis and Clark, always coldly scientific and 
judicial, .as W( 11 as by the circumst.intial narratives of hunters and tr.ippirs. The 
Indians looked upon the grizzly ,is .a foe dee])ly to be dreaded, .and no greater dis- 
tinction coidd come to a w.irrior th.an th.it won by killing one of thesi- monsters of 
the forests, a fe.it which i-ntitled the hunter ever .after to wear a necklace of the 
claws of the v.aniiuished biar. In miking this statement the author is aware 
that the conclusion might seem to run counti'r to the careful and undoubtedly cor- 
rect opinions of Mr. W . H. Wright, the well known natur.alist aiul author of .Spo- 
kane, wliosc many years of (irst-h.ind study of the grizzly of the Pacific co.ast h.ave 
won for him a place as supreme .itithority on the subject now under discussion. 
Reflection, however, makes it app.ireiit that thesi- seemingly contradictory state- 
ments of the nature of the grizzly bear ;iri' iu)t necessarily incompatible. One may 
accept Mr. Wrights i)resent d.ay judgment ;in<l iu)t have to reject the testimony of 
a hundred years ago. 

IJefore the .advent into this country of the whites, tli<- Indians possessed no more 
formidable weapons than thi' bow. tlu- spear .and the club. Thus lightly armed, it 
is .apparent that Ihev would ap])roach the grizzly with exceeding caution, and he 
in turn had learned by .issoci.ation th.at m.an was rel.ativcly a timid being, one 
easily overcome in .a struggle ,at close (|U.irters; and this gave him boldness and 
aggression. N.aturally. when the first white men iiitered the country, the grizzly 
was rcadv to face them .and to fight, and was slow to le.irn caution and fear of the 
inferior guns tlien in use. \i\\l with the country's settlement and the .ipjiearance 
of more dcadiv rifles, he has been taught a dilVereiil lesson. Ile has harned tb.at 
the white man can kill the biir. and kill .at long r.ange. 

An .adventure <-xperieiu cd in the spring of I H Hi by .a |)arty of ten Canadians 
who h.ad been sent from Spokaiir House on a trading excursion along the I'end 
d'Oreille river, w.as well attested by .all the members at the time. The third even- 
ing .after thcv h.ad (piitted the fort on the .Spok.aiU'. while sitting around .a c.imp- 
fire, dining on the choice bits of a dei r. a half-famished bear spr.aiig from behind 
a tree, cl.isped one of the st.artled voiiaijeurs in his embrace, aiul .ambled olT with 
his terror-stricken burden a dist.iiu-e of some fifty y.ards. Here the Can.adi.in was 
dropped, and .a large bone of tin di ( r from which he bad been eating the uu-at 
was seiz<(l from his grip. 




hi;. .IOUX McLOlUUtLIN 
Chief factur df tlio Ihnlsoii's H/.y ('niii|i,-ii:y. :it V.-iiiriJincr. in I In- Mils 



• rni: :;ew york 
^UBLiC UBRAR] 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE ' 55 

As soon as the startled campers had partly recovered from the alarm occasioned 
by this audacious act, Baptiste Le Blanc, a half-breed hunter, seized his gun and 
was about to fire when his arm was arrested by some of his companions who feared 
that a shot would kill their companion. Louisson, the kidnaped voyarfeur, attempted 
to escape, now that the bear had dropped him and was picking at the bone, but the 
grizzly growled in anger and again seized him, this time in a more vise-like grip. 
Louisson screamed out in agony and exclaimed : 

"Tire! Tire! mon cher frere, si tu m'aimes! Tire, pour Vamoiir du hon Dieii! 
A la tete! a la tete! (Shoot, shoot, my dear brother, if thou lovest me! Shoot, for 
the love of the good God! At the head, at the head!") 

Le Blanc fired, and liis well directed ball wounded the bear, which, in its rage 
scratched the face of Louisson, leaving marks that permanently marred his visage. 
At this juncture tiie men ruslied in on tlie wounded bear and dispatched it with 
tlieir long hunting knives. 

Scattered tlirough the Spokane country and other regions west of the Rocky 
mountains were a number of free traders. Tliese, as a rule, had served out their 
time with the fur companies, and preferred to continue in the country rather than 
be returned east under the terms of their contract. They generally had Indian 
families, and some of them practiced polygamy. They brought their produce to 
the company stores, to exchange for goods, or, in some cases for a money credit at 
Montreal. "From their constant exposure to the sun," says one observer, "these 
men are as irretrievably bronzed as the native Indians, from whom, owing to their 
long separation from their countrymen, they differ but little, either in their habits 
or their mode of living." 

Captain Bonneville, describing these vagrant wanderers of the wilderness, has 
said that "they come and go, when and where' they pfease ; provide their own arms, 
horses and other equipnients ; trap and trade on their own account, and dispose of 
their skins and )Kltries to tiie iiigiiest bid^ler. Sometimes, in a dangerous hunting 
ground, tliey attach themselves to the carftp of ' soiUe .'t'ra-der for protection. Here 
they come under some restrictions; they hJH-e to conform to the ordinary rules for 
trapping, and to submit to such restraints and to take part in such general duties as 
are established for the good order and safety of the camp. In return for this pro- 
tection and their camp-kee))ing, they are bound to dispose of all the beaver they 
take to tlie trader who commands the camp, at a certain rate per skin; or, should 
they prefer seeking a market elsewhere, they are to make him an allowance of from 
thirty to forty dollars for the whole hunt." 

Washington Irving, who gained access to the extended notes of Captain Bonne- 
ville, continues with the following free transcription : 

"The wandering whites who mingle for any length of time with tiie savages 
have invariably a proneness to adopt savage habitudes; but none more so than the 
free trappers. It is a matter of vanity and ambition with them to discard every- 
thing that may bear the stamp of civilized life, and to adopt the manners, habits, 
dress, gestures, and even walk of the Indian. You can not pay a free trapper a 
greater compliment than to persuade him you have mistaken him for an Indian 
brave; and in truth, the counterfeit is complete. His hair, suffered to attain to 
a great length, is carefully combed out, and either left to fall carelessly over his 
shoulders, or plaited neatly and tied up in otterskins or parti-colored ribbons. 



56 SPOKANE AND TUi: JNJ.ANIJ EMl'lUE 

A hunting-shirt of rutilcd calico of liright dyes, or of oriianitiited Icatlicr falls to his 
knee; below whicli curiously fashioned leggings, ornamented with strings, fringes 
and a profusion of hawkbells, reach to a costly pair of moccasins of the finest In- 
dian fabric, riclily embroidered with beads. A blanket, of scarlet or some other 
bright color, hangs from his shoulders, and is girt round his waist with a red sash, 
in which he bestows his pistols, knife, and the stem of his Indian pipe; i)rc])ara- 
tions cither for peace or war. His gun is lavishly decorated with brass t.icks and 
vermilion, and provided with :\ fring(-d cover, occasion.illy of buckskin, ornamented 
here and there with a feather. 

"His horse, the noble minister to the jiride, pleasure and ])rofit of the moun- 
taineer is selected for his speed and spirit and prancing gait, and holds a place in 
his estimation second only to himself. He is caparisoned in the most dashing and 
fantastic stvle; the bridle and crupper are weightily embossed with beads and 
cockades; and head, mane and tail arc interwoven with an abundance of eagle 
plumes which flutter in the wind. To complete this grotesque equipment, the proud 
animal is bcstreaked and bespott<d with vermilion, or witli wliite clay, whichever 
presents the most glaring contrast to his real color." 

The Spokanes, like all other Indians of the interior, were inordinately fond of 
tobacco, and to gratify their aiiintite would resort to industry when all other mo- 
tives were powerless to lure them from their habits of indolence. No business, how- 
ever trifling in importance, could be transacted until the negotiants had been indulged 
in an extended preliminary smoke. 

A party would arrive at the fort with the produee of their traps, deposit it on 
the floor and gravely squat around the lir,!)) in a circle. TIk re ii|ioh the trader 
would light his long peace \i\pc and go through a ceremonial perforuianee, directing 
first his face to the east, giving a solemn p\itl' in that quarter, and then repeating 
the performance with his face towards the other cardinal points of the compass. 
After a few short q\iick ])uffs, he would then i)ass tin- pipe to the chief, who would 
go through the same ritual, after which the calumet would be handed to the Indian 
next on his right, who would give a few whiffs and then jiass it along. In this way 
the pipe would pass from hand to hand until the tobacco burned out. when the 
trader would present the p.-irty with a quantity of tobacco for individual smoking, 
which they would generally finish before taking up the business of barter, remark- 
ing that they had been "a long time very hungry for a smoke." 

The smoking over, each man divided his skins into different lots, and made it 
known to the trader that he was ready for business, indicating his wants and that 
he was ready to trade eacli little pile for souu- |);irtieul;ir article or articles. The 
business transacted, another smoking match followed i)reliminary to their deii.irture 
for their village or encaminnent. The traders at .Spokane House found them 
"shrewd, hard dealers, not a whit inferior to .iiiy n.itive of Yorkshire, .Scotland or 
Connaught in driving a bargain," 

At times, before the Astor posts had i)ass<(i to the control of the Northwesters, 
competition was as keen between these rivals as nowadays between eom|)eting com- 
mercial travelers from Spokane, Portland and Seattle. An incident in the spring 
of 1813 will illustrate both the Indi;ui love of tob.ieeo and tlu keen rivalry then 
existing between the Astorijins and the Northwesters. 

One forenoon, at 11 o'clock, Mr, Clarke at S))okane House received a letter by 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 57 

courier from Mr. Farnliaui, who had been dispatched a few days previously with 
a party to trade with the Flatheads in the country to the east, infornxing him that he 
had fallen in with a large band of Flatheads who had a rich supply of furs, the 
produce of tlieir winter's efforts; that his rival, Mr. McDonald, was also on the 
ground, but that both himself and McDonald were quite out of tobacco, and 
all business was at a standstill. Farnham added that the one who should get the 
first supj)ly of tobacco would, by treating the Indians to a grand smoking feast, 
obtain tlieir furs, and urged tlie utmost endeavor to expedite the sending of a 
supply. It was absolutely necessary, he said, that the tobacco be delivered to him 
tliat night, to prevent the Indians treating with McDonald, with whom they had 
had a longer acquaintance than witli Farnham. 

The rival traders were then at the falls of the Pend d'Oreille, near the present 
town of Newport, seventy-two miles distant from Spokane House, and Mr. Clarke 
at first despaired of victory, considering it impossible for any horse to cover that 
distance in the limited hours of daylight that remained. He was about giving up 
the contest as hopeless when one of liis clerks volunteered to make the effort if 
Clarke would allow him to ride a noted horse of his own, called Le Bleu. The offer 
was accepted, the saddle thrown on Fe Bleu, and at 12 o'clock tlie clerk galloped 
away from Spokane Hou.se to the encouragement of cheers from tiie men. His 
course lay, for much the greater part of the way, the length of the valley of the 
Spokane, and the trail being in excellent condition, no difficulty was encountered 
so long as there remained a glimmer of daylight, and the rider had open country 
before him. The last ten miles of the way lay in forest, and dusk descending, the 
rider was delayed by darkness and obstructions of underbrush and fallen trees; 
but persistence trium])hed, and as he came out of the woods his eye was gladdened 
by the glare of campfires along the portage. 

Tlie thick twist was soon in the hands of Farnham, word quickly ran through 
the encami)ment that tobacco had arrived, and in an incredibly brief time clouds 
of smoke were floating above the heads of white trader and Indian warrior. The 
Flatheads thanked Mr. Farnham for liis extraordinary efforts to indulge them, and 
promised that he should have all their furs; but to clinch the compact he suggested 
that they deposit their packages overnight in his tent, enjoy themselves meanwhile 
in unlimited free smoke, and take up the business of barter the following morning. 
This they readily accepted, and the Astorians got the last fur the day after, not- 
withstanding two of their rivals came in a few hours later with a quantity of tobac- 
co, dispatched also from Spokane House as soon as the Northwesters there had 
scented the meaning of the hurried departure of their competitors. The Canadians 
were deeply chagrined by the success of the Americans and upbraided the Flat- 
heads for having deserted them for strangers ; but the latter philosophically replied 
that since the Astorians had been the first to gratify their hungry cravings for 
tobacco, it would have been ungrateful for them not to reciprocate ; and as for such 
debts as were owing from them to the Canadians, they promised faithfully to cancel 
them in future dealings. 

Le Bleu was described by an admirer at the time as "a noble animal, between 
fifteen and sixteen hands high, seven years of age, admirably built, and derived his 
name from his color, which was a dappled white and sky-blue. He was also a prime 
racer, and had beaten all competitors on the turf." 



58 SPOKANT, AND 'I'HI', INT. AM) F.MI'IRF. 

Cox credits tlu- Spokanes as "an honest, friciully tribe," adding that "tliey are 
good hunters, but somewhat indolent, fond of gambling, despotic husbands, but 
indulgent fathers. Their women are great slaves, and most submissive to marital 
authority. They did not cxliibit tin- same iiulitt'erenee to tile superior comforts 
of a white man's wife as that displayed by thi- I'lathead women, and some of 'them 
eonsequently became i)artners of tile voi/ar/i'ur.s. They niade excellent wives, and 
in general coiuhuti-d themselves witli pri)|)riety. Although the .S])okane men are 
extremely jealo\is, and |)unish witii severity any infidelity on the part of their 
wives, they themselves are not overscrupulous in tlieir own conduct." 

In this eoniicelioM the same .iMthiirity narrates a tragic incident at .Spokane 
House: ".Sl.-ivish .and submissive .-is the .Spokane women are, they do not l.iniely 
submit to the occasion.al Lapses of their husb.inds. an instance of which occurred 
in the suininer of I. SI"), while I uas at .S|i(ik,iiic House. One of the tribe, named 
Singelsaascoghaght, (or the horse) from his great swiftness and dexterity in riding, 
was a tall and rather handsome Indian. He w.as rcm.irkable for his gallantries. 
His wife had for some time suspected him of e.irryiiig on an intrigue, .and being con- 
stantly on the w.atch. she soon discovered tli.it her suspicions were not groundless. 
The very night of the discovery, while he was in .a profound sleep, she inflicted on 
him a dreadful injury, of which \\v died befon- morning. On the intelligence 
becoming public, a crowd of his rel.ations .assenibhd around the lodgi-, to whom she 
opeidy .avowed herself ;is the .author of his de.ath, stating at the same time her 
reasons for connnitting the dreadful .act; but she h.ad scarcely finished when an 
•arrow from her husb.and's brother quivered in her heart. Her relations inst.antly 
collected. Guns, arrows and tomahawks were in instant requisition, and before we 
could arrive to check the bloody conflict, two men and two women had fallen vic- 
tims. Our ])resence restored tr.an(|uility, .and as the sufferers on each side were 
equ.ally divided, we experienced no gre.at ditHculty in liringing about .a reconcilia- 
tion, and each i);irty rested s.atistied with its resi)ective loss." 

By the same writer the Pointed Hearts, or. as the Can.adians ealhd tin in. /,c.v 
Cuciirs il'Alenes, (Hearts of Awls) Avere described as a sm.all tribe inhabiting the 
shores of .a l.ake .about fifty miles to the eastw.ard of .Spokane Housi'. "Some of this 
tribe occasionally visited our fort with furs to h.arter. and we ni.ade a few excur- 
sions to their lands. We found tin in uniformly hoiust in their tr.aflic. but they did 
not evince the same warmth of friendshij) for us as the Spokanes, and expressed no 
desire for the establishment of .a trading post .among them. They are in many 
respects more sav.age than tluir neighbors, .and I li.ive seen some of them often eat 
deer .and other iii<;it r.aw. They .are .also mori unfeeling luisb.ands, and frequently 
beat tlieir wives in ,an unfeeling manner. ' 

Tlu-se two tribes had btaai at war .about Iweiity years before the .adviiit of the 
white Ir.aders, arising out of .an iiieideiit of .a Troj.an n.ature, but ,at the period of 
these writings were .at peace, .and interiiiarrieil .anil .appeared to be on terms of 
perfect friendship. 

By both tribes the women were eonih inned to .a life of gre.at drudgery. They 
collected the firewood, carried the water, cooked the food, prepared the raiment, 
dressed the skins .and gathered and dried the winter's store of roots and berries. When 



1 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 59 

a hunter killed a deer, he merely cut out the tongue or removed enough for a single 
meal, and on his return to the encampment dispatched Iiis wife to carry in the 
body, she having for guidance in this task notches cut on trees by her hunter hus- 
band. The women, however, seemed quite contented in their subordinate position, 
notwithstanding its harships and their almost total lack of influence in tribal 
matters. 



' £ W 

li'UBUC Ui 






CHAPTER VII 

EARLY DAY MISSIONS IN THE INLAND EMPIRE 

CRUDE MISSION EFFORTS OF CATHOLIC IROQUOIS EMBLEM OF THE CROSS ON THE CO- 
LUMBIA INDIAN PILGRIMAGE TO ST. LOUIS ARRIVAL OF REV. SAMUEL PARKER IN 

1835 HIS TRAVELS IN THE SPOKANE COUNTRY ARRIVAL OF WHITMAN AND SPALD- 
ING WITH THEIR BRIDES OVERLAND JOURNEY OF EELLS AND WALKER WITH THEIR 

BRIDES ADVENTURES ON THE PLAINS AND IN THE MOUNTAINS ARRIVAL AT WHIT- 
MAN MISSION NEAR WALLA WALLA. 

The groves were God's first temples. Ere man learn'd 

To hew the shaft and lay the architrave, 

And spread the roof above them, — ere he framed 

The lofty vault, to gather and roll back 

The sound of anthems ; in the darkling wood. 

Amid the cool and silence, he knelt down. 

And offer'd to the Mightiest solemn thanks 

And supplication. 

— William Ctillen Bryant. 

WITH the earliest advent of the white man in this region, bringing with 
liim arms, implements, food, attire and customs different from those of 
the natives ; keen curiosity was created in the Indian mind regarding the 
source of his superior civilization and gifts. Some slight efforts were made by Cap- 
tains Lewis and Clark to enlighten the savage intellect with respect to the Bible 
and Christianity, but the results were necessarily meager, both from the limitations 
of the aboriginal mind and an exceedingly imperfect knowledge of the Indian tongues. 
Native conception of the benefits of Christianity was chieflv if not wholly material 
rather than moral, and after these explorers had left tlie country, a belief arose in 
the minds of the more intelligent chiefs and head men that possession and knowledge 
of the white man's "book" would supply their people with the key to civilization and 
the mechanic arts. 

A few years after the departure of Lewis and Clark, a number of Christianized 
Iroquois Indians, who had been attached to fur trading establishments in Canada, 
found their way over the Rocky mountains and fraternized with some of the tribes 
inhabiting the Inland Empire, notably the Flatheads and tribes along the Columbia. 
Zealous to spread the light of the gospel, these Catholic Iroquois attempted in a crude 
way to convert the tribes to Christianity. When David Stuart, a partner in John 

61 



62 SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMIMHE 

Jacob Astor's Pacific I'lir coinpaiiv, was asccndinj; tile Columbia in the spring of 
1811 to establish a trading post at the uioulh of tlie Okanogan, lie observed that 
religious services or ceremonies were being conducted by one of these Iroquois mis- 
sionaries, and from that circumstance named the cascades at that point "I'riest 
Rapids," and Priest Kapids they remain to the ))resent day. 

Considerable results j)robal)ly attended these missionizing efforts, for the Rever- 
end Samuel Parker, sent out here by the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions in IH'.i't to explore the country and choose sites for Protestant 
missions, reported finding along the Columbia in eastern Washington, a number of 
Indian graves over wliieh rudely coiistrueti-d crosses had beiii lifted by pi.)U^ h.mds. 
"The night of our .irrival, ' says Parker, "a little girl, of about six or seven ye.irs 
of age. died. The morning of the I'.'tli tiny buried her. Everything nlating to 
the ceremony was conducted witli gri at |)ro|)riety. The grave was dug only about 
two feet deep; and with their hands they fill U)) the grave after tile body is dejiosited 
in it. A mat is l.iid in the gr.ive; then the body wrajiped in its blanket, wilii the 
child's drinking cup and sjioom. made of horn: then a ui.it of rushes is spre.ad over 
the whole. 

"In this instaiiee tli( y had prijiared :\ cross to set u]) at the gr.ive. most |irobably 
h.iviiig In in told to do so by some Iroi|uiiis liidi.ins. a few of whom, not in the 
capacity of teachers, but as tr,i)>pers in the ein|>loy of tin- fur eoui|)anies, I saw west 
of the mountains." 

Apparently uneonseious of a spirit of bigotry, and uniniiiiHiil lh.it be was sewing 
dragon seeds of discord that would bring fruits of bitter controversy between Pro- 
testant and Citholie missions. P.irkcr .idded : 

"As I viewed .-i cross of wood made by iiien's hands of no .-uail to biiiefit either 
the dead or the living, .and f.ir more likely to ojierate as a salve to a guilty con- 
science, or a step|iing stone to idol.ilry. tli.in to be understiHid in its spiritual sense 
to refer to .1 erueifixion of our sins. I took this, which the Indi.aiis iiad [irepared. .and 
broke it to pieces. I then told them that we place .i stone .it the head .and foot of 
the gr.ive, only to lu.irk the jil.ace; and without a murmur, they cheerfully acqui- 
esced, .iiid .adopted our eustoui. ' 

Twenty-six ye.irs after the return of Lewis and Clark, a deleg.ition of five Nez 
Perces, two Spok.aiies ;ind prob.ably two or three I'l.ithe.ids. moved by a longing to 
le.irn the w.ays of white civilization, .iiiil prntessing an e.iniest ilesin to ae(|uire the 
gre.it "book" of which these ex))lorers li.id spoken, ventured .across the Rocky iiioiiii- 
t.ains .and down the Missouri river to .St. Louis. There they found their ol<l friend 
Captain Lewis, serving ;is Indi.in eoiiimissioner for the eiitiri- iiorthwist. ,iiid to liliii 
iii.ide known their hearts' desire. Cl.irk w.is .a Catholic, and some of the liidi.nis 
Iwcime converts to his faith, two of whom died there and received buri.il in conse- 
crated ground. On tin ir return Jcnirnry these ml se.arehers for the truth experienced 
severe hardshijis .and perils, .and Mver.al of them were either killed or eiisi.ived by 
the w.irlike .and pred.itory .Sioux in the land of the Dakotahs. Only a remnant of 
the deleg.ation survived to narr.ite to tin ir own people the stirring story of tin ir 
ndvcntures and the wondrous sights tli.it li.id unrolled before their astonished vision. 

Accounts of tliis extr.iordin.iry ]>ilgriiii.ige found their way into eastern news- 
p.apers, .and .a|)pe.iled to mission ze.al. both I'rolest.inl .iiid Catholic. .Moved bv this 
stirring ineideiit. the mission authorilii s of the Methodist l-'piscojial chureh the 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 63 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, and the Catholic Order of 
Society of Jesus, all planted vigorous missions in the Pacific northwest. The Meth- 
odists sent out the two Lees, Jason and Daniel, uncle and nephew, who, with two 
lay members, crossed the continent to found missions among the Indians east of the 
mountains. They arrived on the Columbia river in 1834, and were persuaded by 
Dr. John McLoughlin, chief factor of the Hudson's Bay company, stationed at 
Vancouver, to alter their plans and establish their mission and school in the Willa- 
mette valley. 

One year later the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions ap- 
pointed an exploring mission to the Pacific northwest, "to ascertain, by personal 
observation, the condition and character of the Indian nations and tribes, and the 
facilities for introducing the gospel and civilization among them." This society 
was supported by the Congregational, Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed ehurclies, 
and selected for its explorers, tlie Rev. Samuel Parker and several other volunteers. 
They arrived at St. Louis in the spring of 1834, too late to join the annual expedi- 
tion of the American Fur company. Two members of the party took up mission 
work among the Pawnees, but Parker, liaving been joined in April, 1831, by Dr. 
Marcus Whitman, the two traveled to Green river, in what is now the state of Wyo- 
ming, under protection of the annual brigade of the fur company. On that stream, 
at a point known as Rendezvous, Indians from both sides of the Rocky mountains, 
together with traders and trappers from a wide expanse of country, were accus- 
tomed to assemble for trade. Information gathered at the Rendezvous, from "moun- 
tain men," white traders and Indians, convinced Parker and Whitman that various 
tribes living west of the mountains desired missions and schools. It was thereupon 
resolved that Dr. Whitman should return to the east to secure helpers, and Rev. 
Parker continue west to i)re])are the waj'. 

Upon his return to the "United States," Mr. Parker wrote and ])ublished an 
informative, entertaining account of his journeyings "beyond the Rocky mountains." 
He possessed keen powers of observation, a well trained analytical mind, and great 
capacity for enduring weariness and hardships and adapting himself to savage life 
.uid surroundings. In the course of his extensive travels, Parker explored the Spo- 
k/uie country. He liad arrived at old Fort Walla Walla, on the Columbia, in the 
latter part of May, 183,5. and having obtained Indian guides and two French voya- 
r/eiirs as assistants, "concluded to take horses, and to go up througli the Spokein 
country, leaving the great bend of the Columbia river to the left some fifty or sixty 
miles. . . . On Sabbath, 22d, we had worship as usual, and the following day 
commenced the journey for Colville." 

The little party crossed Snake river near tlie moutli of the Palouse, by Parker 
called the Pavilion river, ascended that stream, and jiassing north through the 
Palouse country, came to the lands of the "S])okeins." "We stopped for the night, 
after a ride of fifty miles, near one of these villages of Spokeins. Their language 
differs almost entirely from any tribe or nation I have yet seen." 

Father Cusliing Eells, who, with the Rev. Elkanah Walker, established the first 
mission among the Spokanes. and labored with tliem for ten years, describes the 
Spokane language as iiarsh and guttural. "It makes me think of persons husking 
corn," was the expression made by one person on hearing it. "In this respect," 
writes Myron Eells, "it is very unlike the adjoining Nez Perce, which is soft and 



64 SPOKAXF, A\D Till; IMAM) l.MPIHE 

musical. It is also unlike the Nez Perce in its use of prepositions, the former hav- 
ing manv aiul tin- latter almost none, their places bcinjr supjilied by tlie inflections 
of the verb. " 

"A few nouns form their plural by reduplication, and some are irregular. For 
example, the word for man. skul-tu-mi-hu. becomes in the plural skul-skul-tu-mi-hu; 
hand, kal-lish, is kil-kal-lish ; .and mountain, ets-im-nio-ko, is ets-im-mo-ko-mo-ko; 
but woman, sem-ain, is pal-pil-kwi in the plural ; and tree, sa-at-kl, is sil-a-sil. The 
plural for Indian, skai-lu, is the same, and that of boy is expressed by a numeral. 

"There are no comparatives or .superlatives among the adjectives. If two 
horses are placed side by side, one is bad and the other is good ; but if the better of 
the two is compared witli another still better it becomes bad and the latter is called 
good. 

"Phrases are very common. Init not eoinpounded according to rule. It was nec- 
essary to learn them by the power of memory, and these, in a great measure, take the 
place of grannnar. In these phrases many contractions take place, and occasional 
changes of letters, evidently for the sake of euphony. 

"Tile language of the Spokanes is said to be the veritable I'lathead language, 
and belongs to the Salishan family spoken by inany Indians, tliough not by all, be- 
tween the Pacific ocean and the Rocky mountains, extending south of the Columbia 
and north a little beyond its sources. The geogra])liy of this Salishan family covers 
the greater portion of Washington southern Idaho and much of British Columbia, 
though other families, as the Sahaptian, including the Nez Perces and Yakima, are 
also used by the Indians of the state. . . . The Spokane language seems to 
have less regularity and grammar than many others belonging to the Salishan fam- 
ily, especially those on Puget Sound." 

Parker and his little jiarty traveled through the Spokane woods and struck the 
river about ten miles below the falls. They hallooed for a long time for the Indian 
who kept a f<rry there, and after a while "two women came to the stream, and witii 
uncommonly ))leasant voices, together with the language of signs, the latter of 
whieli only I could understand, informed us that the ferryman was gone upon a 
short hunt, would return in the evening, and the next morning at sun two hours high 
he would conii' and take us over. I never heard voices more expressive of kindness. 
I re(]uested them to ])addlp the canoe over to us. and my men would ))erform the 
labor of ferrying over our baggage. They declined on account ol the rapidity and 
strength of the current, the river In ing in full freshet. Tlierelore we had to en- 
camp and wait for the morning." 

Parker rcmnd "this a very |)leasant, open valley, though not extensively wide." 
He visited the oh! trading |]ost of the Northwest fur eoniiianv, onlv oni' bastion then 
remaining st.inding. 

The following morning the ferryman crossed over at the ajjpointed hour, and 
after ])assing the river they traversed "the valley of level alluvial soil," where it is 
about a mile and a quarter wide, and the east side esj)ecially is verv fertile. 

"Here the village of the Spokeins is located, and one of their mnnlier has com- 
menced the cultivation of a sm.all field or garden, which he has planted with pota- 
toes, peas and beans and some other vegetables, all of which were flourishing, and 
were the first I had seen s))ringing up untirr Indian industry west of the mountains." 

The .Sjiokanes .appear to havi- .-iltained a higher state of thrift and industry un- 







JASON LEK'S MISSION IX THK WILLAilETTE VALLI'^Y 




METIIOIHST .MISSION AT TIIK DALI.KS, K< Jl'NDKD IN ls:i,S 



THE NEW »uhK 

iPU3UC UBHAKY 
1 



L 



FtLUt N f C 



Li>*«X 



'^y -'^w4TiO»^| 



,, ^«£ W£W I'OftK 






SPOKANE AXD THE INLAND E.MPIRE 65 

der tutelage of the fur traders than was maintained in after years. It will be re- 
called that the Astor party had brought seeds from Astoria and started at this point 
a flourishing garden. A few years later the fur traders introduced wheat into the 
Spokane valley, and when Governor Stevens came into the valley in 18J3 he found 
extensive fields of tliat cereal and oats. Five years after, in 1858,, Colonel Wright, 
as an act of reprisal and warning, burning several Indian granaries and vegetable 
storehouses in the upper valley. 

As Parker climbed an eminence leading out of the valley, and looked down into 
the pleasant vale which bordered the winding river, he "drew in imagination a 
picture of what this valley will be when' this people are brought under the influence 
of Christianity and civilization." 

They encamped that evening in a pleasant glade on the way to Colville, when 
"manv Spokein and some Nez Perce Indians came riding into the place of encamp- 
ment, and turned out their horses with ours in the half wood and prairie." The 
Spokanes, who had seen him on his way, and learned the object of his mission, had 
sent out runners with the information that a minister was passing through their 
country, and as it was the first time a teacher of the gospel had ever come among 
them, they were eager to see him and hear his message. This date, the 27th of 
Mav, 1835, passes into history as commemorating the first preaching of the gospel 
by an ordained minister in the vicinity of Spokane. 

The Spokanes had brought with them as interpreter, "a young man of their na- 
tion, who had been to school at the Red river settlement on the east side of the 
mountains, and who had a very good knowledge of English." This description fits 
Chief Garry, so nami d from the circumstance of his having been sent to Fort Garry, 
in the Manitoba country, when a child, where he acquired a good command of the 
English language. 

"We had public worship that evening in the .Spokein and Nez Perce languages," 
Parker adds in his report. "One of the Nez Perces, a chief, understood the Spokein 
language, and collected his people a little back of the Spokeins, and translated the 
discourse as it was delivered, into the language of his people, without anv interiip- 
tion to the service. This was a plan of their own devising. All the circumstances 
combined were to me very interesting. If I had not been delayed the three several 
times, they would not have had time to collect their people and overtake me. Some 
of them had been engaged in the business of assembling and following a day and 
a half. Many of them were unwilling to return, and expressed a determination to 
go with me to Colville. What influenced these benighted Indians to manifest so 
much solicitude in my instruction derived from the word of God? It must be the 
influence of the Divine Spirit. And shall these influences pass unregarded and un- 
improved.'" 

A sixty mile ride the day following brought the party to old Fort Colville, on 
the Columbia. "The situation of this fort," says Parker, "is on an elevated spot, 
about fifty rods from the river, surrounded by an alluvial plain of rich soil, and 
oiH-ning in every direction an extended prospect of mountain scenery ; and a half 
mile below are Kettle Falls, above which the river spreads out widely and moves 
slowly until just above the precipice, it contracts into a narrow channel, and disap- 
pears from the view of the spectator, who beholds it at the fort; winding its way 
among the rocks below. This establishment is built for defense and is well stock- 



G6 Sl'OKANK AND THE INLAND I.MlMltK 

adi'd. hut so friendly have the natives always been, that no wars liavc ever occurred 
among them. It is occupied by some half dozen men with Indian families, and is 
well su|)|jlied with the useful ,'inimals and fowls common to farming establish- 
ments. The winter and summer grains, together with garden vegetables, are culti- 
vated with success and in profusion." 

This trading ])ost or fort, then in possession of tin liiidsnii's H.iy i(ini|).iiiy. h.icl 
been established by the Northwest comjiany in 1811, and li.ul passed, witii thi- other 
))osts of the Northwesters, to tlie Hudson's Hay ))eo])li- win ii they absorbed the 
Northwesters. 

As the day after his arrival was Sunday, P;irker conducted services for the 
pco])le of the fort who understood English, "and we worshil)ped the God of our lives 
who had protected us hitiierto, and from different nations had collected us in a 
little group in this end of the world." 

The service over, a number of the Indians galliered about tin- pre;ielier 'ami 
expressed great an.xiety to be taught the revealed will of God." They endeavored 
to make him understand their former beliefs and practices, and .-iHirmed that wliat 
tliey had so far learned from him appealed to them as reasonable and satisfactory. 
Parker was moved by this experience, which appealed powerfully to his intense 
religious zeal, to inveigh against the coldness of the Christian world. "How little 
of the faith, and love, and liberality of the church," he lamented, "is invested in the 
most profitable of all enterprises, the conversion of the world. Siiould some one 
propose the construction of a railroad from the Atlantic In tiic Pacific, and demon- 
strate the practicability of the measure, and show th.it nature lias interposed no 
effectual barrier, and tiiat it would concentrate not only tlie whole intmial. hut 
also the China trade, and tlie stoct would |irn(luee annually a rich dividi nd. Iiow 
soon would Christians eng.age in it." 

It is somewhat singular that tins ))reaeli( r In the wilih riuss, profoundly stirred 
by mission zeal, thus casually stumbled upon the i)recise arguments that later were 
emj)loved by the promoters of the Nortiiern Pacific railroad to float the stock in 
that vast industrial enterprise. 

After a short sojourn at Colville, Parker followed the windings of the Columbia 
to the mouth of the Okanogan. Tlure he purchased a bateau, and employing two 
Indians to take his horses overland to old Port Walla Walla, descended tin Columliia 
to Vancouver, and a few weeks later took p;iss;ige in a sailing vessel, via the Sand- 
wich islands, for tlie Atlantic coast, arriving ;it his home in Ithaca, New York, on 
the 2,Srd of .May, ".after an absence of more than two years and two months, ,ind 
having journeyed '.iS.OdO miles." 

His )niblishe(l reports (iit<r cxti iisjvcly into the eustciiMs of Indian ti'ilus. the 
geologv, flora and fauna ni tin couiilry. eli.iraeter of soil, eliniate. etc. hroui those 
reports we extract the following excerpts descriptive of the Indians of the interior 
as Ihiy existed three fourths of a century ago: 

"I'roci-itling north, wi- conn to the country of the Ne/ Perees, MJiieh has many 
fertile parts ad;i|>ted to tillage, and all i\( which is a line gr.izing country. They 
numiier about ij,;!>0(). 

"The Cavuscs arc situalid lo the west of tin Ncz Perees, and vi-ry nnich 
resemble them in jierson, dress, habits and nior.ils. They .are equally |)e.iee.il)le, 
honest and hospitable to strangers," an estimate that was iiardly borne out by Dr. 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 67 

Whitman's subsequent experiences. "They number more than 2,000 persons. 
Tlieir wealth consists in horses, which arc usually fine and numerous, it being no 
unconnnon thing for one man to own several hundred. Tiieir country, especially 
about the Grand Round, is uncommonly fertile, producing spontaneously camas in 
great abundance, upon which, with fish and some game, they principally subsist. 
Their anxiety to be instructed in the way of salvation is as great as that of the 
Nez Perces and Flatheads. 

"The Walla Walla Indians inhabit the country about the river of the same name, 
and range some distance below along the Columbia river. The number of per- 
sons in this tribe is about 500. In their character, employment and moral habits, 
they do not materially differ from the last named tribes. 

"The Palouse tribes are a jiart of the Nez Perces, and in all respects are like 
them. Their residence is along the Nez Perce river (the Snake) and up the 
Pavilion (the Palouse). They numbered about 300. The four last named tribes speak 
the same language, with a little dialectical diflerence. 

"Northeast of the Palouses are the Spokein nation. They number about 800 
persons, besides some small tribes adjoining them who miglit be counted a part of 
their nation. Their country is very much diversified with mountains and valleys, 
prairie and woods; and a large part is of primitive formation; some parts are very 
fertile. They denominate themselves the children of the sun, which in their language 
is Spokein. Their main dependence for subsistence is on fishing and hunting, to- 
gether with gathering roots and berries. They have many horses, .but not so 
numerous as their neighbors farther south. 

"East of these are the Coeur d'Alene Indians, whose numbers are about 700, 
and who are characterized by civility, honesty and kindness. Their country is 
more open than the .Spokeins, and equally if not better adapted to agriculture. 

"The country of the Flatheads is still farther east and southeast, and extends 
to the Rocky mountains. They are a very interesting tribe, dignified in their 
per.sons, noble, frank and generous in their dispositions; and have always shown 
a firm attachment to white men. They number about 800 persons, and live a 
wandering life. For subsistence they follow the buffalo upon tlie waters of Clark 
and Salmon rivers, and often pass over to the headwaters of the Missouri. They 
have become a small tribe by constant wars with the Blackfeet Indians; not that 
they themselves are of a ferocious or hostile disposition. Being averse to war, 
they wish to settle upon their lands, and are only waiting to be instructed in the 
arts of civilization and in Christianity. Their country is mountainous, but inter- 
sected with pleasant, fertile valleys, large portions of which are prairie. The 
mountains are cold, but in the valleys the climate is mild. 

"The Ponderas are so nearly like the Flatheads in person, manners and char- 
acter that a iiarticular description of them may be passed over. They number 
about 2,200, and live on the north of Clark's river, and on a lake which takes its 
name from the tribe. Their country has many fertile parts, and would soon be 
put under cultivation, if they could obtain instructors to teach them agriculture 
and to impart to them a knowledge of those things which are necessary to con- 
stitute a happy and prosperous community. Their language is the same as the 
Spokeins and Flatheads. 

"The Cootanies inhabit a section of country to the north of the Ponderas 



68 SPOKAM: AM) llll. INLAND E.Ml'JRK 

along -McGillivray's river, .iiid llicy arc ri-i>ri-seiitcd as an uncommonly interest- 
ing people. They speak a language distinct from all the tribes about them, open 
and sonorous, and free from gutturals, which are common in the language of the 
surrounding tribes. They are neat in their persons and lodges, candid and lion- 
est, and kind to each other. I could not ascertain their numbers, but probably 
they arc not over a thousand. 

"Xortii of the C'ootanics are the Carriers, whose number is estimated to be 
4,000, and south of these are the Lake Indians, so named from tlieir place of resi- 
dence, which is about the Arrow lakes. Tliey are about 500 in number. 

"At the south, and about Colville, arc the Kettle Falls Indians. Tlieir num- 
ber is 560. West of these are the Sinpauelish (the San Foils) 1,000 in number, 
and below these are the Shooshaps, having a population of 575. At the west 
and northwest, next in order, are the Okanogans, numbering 1,050. Between 
Okanogan and the long rapids arc detachments of Indians who appear poor, and 
wanting in that manly and active spirit wliieli characterizes the tribes above 
named. 

"South ot the long rapids, and to the conliuenec of Lewis' river (the Snake) 
with the Columbia, are the Yookoomans (the Yakimas), a more active people, 
tuniibering about 700. 

"Tile whole number of the ahovi- named Indians is 32,585. This is probably 
a low estimate, and in the number there are not included the Fall and La Dalle 
Indians." 

A general study ul the Indian missions of the nurlhwesl will not be permitted 
by the scope of this liistory. We shall, however, enter into some detail with 
regard to mission labors among tiie Spokanes, and to some extent into the mis- 
sions conducted among neighboring tribes. A brief review of the events leading 
up to the establishment, in 1837-8, of the Eells and Walker mission, on Walker's 
prairie, twenty-five miles nortliwest of this city, will be found essential to a 
clearer understanding of the systematic effort that was made three-fourtlis of a 
centurv ago, to Christianize and civili/e tlie \arious bands that tlien inhabited 
the region around the falls. 

It will be recalled that Dr. .Mareu.-. \\ hilinan, wlio accompanied Parker to 
the Rendezvous on Green river, returned to the east to stimulate interest in their 
courageous undertaking, and secure volunteirs for the contemplat<d mission sta- 
tions in the Pacific northwest. In this ell'ort he was successful in a most roman- 
tic wav. winning at once a bride and .i mission helper in the jjerson of Miss Nar- 
cissa I'rentiss, who was to share with him the ])erils and the pleasures of the 
wilderness, and, eleven years after, fall with the devoted martyr before tlie deatil- 
deaiing tomahawk of the treacherous Cayuses, at their Waiilatpu mission, six miles 
from the existing city of W.ill.i Walla. 

Additional hilpers were found in Rev. II. II. Spalding and wile, aimllier bridal 
couple, and in \\ . II. dray, secul.'ir agent of tin,' American Board. Dr. \\'liit- 
man, having learned that Mr. .Sp.alding .ind bride liad volunteered for mission 
work :nni)iig the Osage Indians, .and obt.iined the consent of the mission board, 
set out in .in effort to overtake them on their way to the land of the Osages and 
induce them to change their i)Ians .and go with him to the Pacific northwest. He 
came up with tlicui in the deep snows of western New York. They were travel- 



SPOKANE AND THE IXLxWD EMPIRE 69 

ing by sleigh, jyid !Mrs. Siialding, who was convalescent from a long illness, was 
still unable to walk a quarter of a mile. With characteristic abruptness. Whit- 
man called out: 

"We want you for the Oregon mission." 

"How long will the journey take.^" answered Spalding. 

"The summer of two years." 

"What convoy shall we have ?" 

"The American Fur company to the divide." 

"What shall we have to live on?' 

"Buffalo meat till we raise our own grain." 

"How shall we journey?" 

"On horseback." 

"How cross the rivers?" 

"Swim them." 

Mr. Spalding then turned from Whitman to his bride: 

"'Sly dear," he said, "my mind is made up; it is not your duty to go, but we \vill 
leave it to you after we have prayed." 

The little party came presently to a tavern, and pausing there took a private 
room and each prayed in turn. With beaming face Mrs. Spalding emerged after 
a few minutes of prayer, and declared : 

"I have made up my mind to go." 

The husband lovingly remonstrated with her zeal, pointing out the hardships, 
the jirivations and perils of the way, and as he reflected upon these dangers the 
l)rave man broke down and cried. 

"Wliat mean ye to weep and to break mine heart," was the bride's reply; 
"for I am ready not to be bound only, but also to die at Jerusalem for the name of 
the I>ord Jesus." 

Such was the spirit that carried these resolute men and women into the Ore- 
gon wilderness. 

And so they came into tlie depths of the wildest west, and never before was 
bridal journey like unto tliis. 

Dr. and Mrs. Whitman established their mission in the Walla Walla valley. 
The Spaldings located theirs at La))wai, in northern Idaho. 

And still tlie ^Slacedonian cry went uj) for more workers in the heathen land, 
and Mr. Gray returned east in 1837 to win the needed recruits. 

In a time-stained book of records at Holden, Massachusetts, one still may 
find this simjjle item: 

"March 5, 1838. Rev. Cushing Eells. of East Windsor, Conn., and Myra 
I'airbank were married liy William P. Paine." 

Fired by religious zeal, the young eoujtle had volunteered for the African 
missions of the American Board, but altered their life plans at the solicitation of 
Mr. Gray. Rev. Elkanah Walker, of North Yarmouth, Maine, and Miss Mary 
Richardson, to whom he was engaged, also abandoned their African plans to engage 
in the work in the Oregon country. Rev. A. B. Smith, of Connecticut, and his 
wife, likewise consented to come, and the matrimonial spirit running high, Mr. 
Grav found a bride in Miss Mary Dix, of Champlain, New York. The jiarty 



70 SPOKANl, AM) rill. IM.AM) LMl'IKK 

was conii)lctfd liy tin- .■idditioii of Coriulius U(if,'i r-,, who ciiiii- in. the e.i]).uitv of 
assistant missionary. 

"On March C, tin- day afttr tliiir marriage," many years later wrote tlieir 
son, the Rev. Myron Eells, "Mr. and Mrs. Eells began their bridal tour, which 
was not completed for more than a year, until tlie last of Ajiril, 1839. Then they 
were ready to receive callers in their own home of log huts or pens." 

Trom Xew York, where the party had assembled, they traveled by boat and 
train to Cliambersburg, Pennsylvania; from Chambersburg to Pittsburg, by stage; 
and from Pittsburg to Independence, Missouri, by steamboats on the Ohio, the 
Mississijjpi and the Missouri. As they were strict Sabbatarians, the question of 
Sunday travel gave them deep concern, and taking counsel at Cincinnati with 
Dr. Lyman Beeeher, that eminent divine dryly observed that if he were on a 
ship on the ocean, be should not jump into the sea when Saturday night came. 

At Westport, Missouri, twelve miles west of Independence, they found the 
annual expedition of the American I'ur eoiiipany, under which they were to have 
convoy to tlie Roeky mountains. Its caravan this year consisted of 200 horses 
and mules and seventeen earts that were drawn each by two mules hitched tan- 
dem. 'I'he missionaries had twenty-two horses .md nuiles. ,nul for a part of the 
way a wagon, taken to enable tile ladies to find relief from horseback ridinj; until 
they had grown tlioroughly accustomed to that mode of travel. 

"We generally stop about two iiours at noon," wrote Mrs. Eells in her di.irv, 
turn out the animals, get our dinners and eat; tin n we wasli the dishes again, 
tile men catch the animals and pack them. We mount our horses and are riding 
over rolling prairies, over high iiluffs, through deep ravines and rivers, but 
through no woods. 

"At night, when our .•iiiiiii.ils are uM|).icked, the gentlemen jjitcli our tetils. We 
spread our buffalo skins first, .ukI tin n .i piece of oilcloth for our floor. 'I'luii we 
neatly arrange our saddles and other loose baggage around the inside of our house. 
For our eh.iirs we fold our bl.inkets and lay them around, leaving a circle in the cen- 
ter upon wliieli wv spread a tableclolli « lieu we eat. In the morning we get up at 
half-iiast three, turn the animals out to eat; then we get our breakfast, eat and have 
worship. After this we wash and pack our dishes, our husbands catch the animals, 
saddle the horses and pack the mules. When we are fairly on our way we have much 
the a|)pearance of a large fuiier.il procession. I sii|)|)ose tlu eoinp.iny reaches li.ilf 
a mile." 

Buffalo iiie;it w;is the st.iple food, hut liiill'.ilo wen- not fiiuiirl tli.it spring .-is e.-irly 
as had bien expected, and when the su|)ply came tlieir flour was all but exhausted, 
barely sufficient rem.iining to make gr.ivy. The change to green buffalo meat proved 
most trying, and the missionaries suffered intensely from illness, overwork and ex- 
posure. Mrs. Eells wrote in her dl.iry, M.ay () : ".Ml is juibhub and confusion. 
Camj) wants to move early; horses bad to catch; dislus not p.icked in season. Oh, 
how much patience one needs to sustain him in this life." 

And ag.iin, on M.ay 12: "It rains so hard that notwithstanding we have a good 
fire we can not dry our clotlies at all. Obliged to sle.p in our blankets wet ,ts when 
taken from our horses. Our sheets are our p.irtitions between us and Mr. (ir.iv. 
When it rains they are spread over the tents. 

"lath, Sabbath. Arise this morning, put on our elotiie.s wet as when we took 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 71 

them off, and prepare for a long ride. I am so strongly reminded of bygone days 
that I can not refrain from weeping. 

"24th. Mr. Eells and myself hardly able to sit up. Init obliged to eat, drink and 
work as though we were well. Think it is trying. . . . 

"Nothing but the restraining grace of God can carry us through. I trust we 
both have this grace." 

They crossed the North Fork of tin- Platte in boats made of willow frames, 
covered with buffalo hides. It rained here so hard that the camp was flooded, and 
Mrs. Walker, though strong and vigorous, and ordinarily cheerful with a pleasant 
word for every one, fell to weeping as she sat on a pile of goods within the tent. In 
answer to efforts made to console her, she exclaimed, "I am thinking how comfort- 
able my father's hogs are. ' 

June the twenty-third brought them to the American Rendezvous, on Wind river, 
and there they remained for three weeks, surrounded by as wild and motley a com- 
pany as ever drank bad whiskey, or engaged in the savage sports of the wilderness. 
Mrs. Eells wrote, in her diary, July 5: "Captain Bridger came in about 10 o'clock 
with drums and firing, an apology for a scalp dance. After they had given Captain 
Drips' company a salute, fifteen or twenty mountain men and Indians came to our 
tent with drumming, firing and dancing. If I might make the comparison, I should 
tliink they looked like the emissaries of the devil worshiping their own master. They 
had the scalp of a Blackfoot Indian, whicli they carried for a color, all rejoicing in 
the fate of the Blackfeet in consequence of the smallpox. The dog, being frightened, 
took the trail, crossed the river, and howled so that we knew him and called him 
back. When he came back he went to each tent to see if we were all safe." 

They had been terrorized the night before by a party of drunken white men who 
came to the tent and threatened to settle accounts with Mr. Gray, with whom they 
had previously been in altercation. While Gray loaded his gim within the tent, Mr. 
Eells remonstrated with them and they went away and gave no further trouble. 

Under date of July 6 Mrs. Eells made this entry in her journal: "Last night 
twelve wliite men came, dressed and painted in Indian style, and gave us a dance. 
No pen can describe the horrible scene they presented. I could not imagine that 
white men, brought up in a civilized land, can appear so much to imitate the devil." 

Hardships were endured, and dangers confronted, by the pioneer women who 
came into the Spokane country forty years after these mission brides crossed the 
continent and took up their abode near the pleasant river Spokane; but their expe- 
riences when brought in contrast with the dangers and deprivations endured by Mrs. 
Eells and ^Mrs. Walker, seem little more than an entertaining outing. 

At the Rendezvous flour sold for $2 a pound; sugar, tea and coffee, $1 a pint; 
calico, $5 a yard ; a shirt, $5 ; tobacco, $3 to $5 a pound ; and whiskey, $30 a gallon ; 
and vet the wild rangers of the plains and the mountains drank whiskey and smoked 
tobacco as though they had been millionaires and the price of these indulgences were 
the normal rates going back in the United States. 

From the Rendezvous on Green river the missionaries expected to have convoy by 
a party of the Hudson's Bay company. This year, though, the American Fur com- 
])any had become vexed over some grievance at the hands of the Hudson's Bay peo- 
ple, and instead of meeting the latter at the customary gathering place on Green 
river, had selected a rendezvous 150 miles north, on a tributary of Green river. By 



72 Sl'OKAM'. AM) rill. INLAND l.Mi'iUi: 

a narrow chance Mr. Ennalinger, in charge of the Hudson's Bay party, learned of 
the altered plans of his rivals and the mission party was saved from the alarming 
alternatives of returning with the American Fur caravan, of jroincr to California with 
a party of trappers, or becoming stranded in the heart of the wildest part of the 
Rocky luount-iins. When Mr. Ermatinger came to the Green river Rendez- 
vous, he found, scrawled in charcoal on the old storehouse door, this significant in- 
scription: "Conic to Po|>nazua on \\'ind river, and you will find plenty trade, wins- 
key and white women." This told him the location of tiic mission party, and he 
hastened tlurr- to put tlnni iiiiclcr tin- i)rotection of his brigade. 

From this Ucndizvous ibcy started for the Oregon country on .Iul\' 12. On Sun- 
day, July ii'i. Mrs. l''.ells wrote: "TIk- Iiuli.-ins arc about our tents before we are up, 
and stay .-ibout .-ill d.iy. 'I'liiiik tlirv art- tin most filthy Iiuliaiis we have seen. .Some 
of them have a butl.ilo skin .iround tlieni. .Mr. \\'alk(r read a sermon. ;ind although 
they eould not undtrst.ind .1 word, they were still and paid good attention. They ap- 
peared .iiiuiM (I ultli nur singing." 

Thus the suiunur wore away, .and always it was travel, travel, travel; through 
mountain passes, by rushing rivers, and on the wind swept plains of the Snake river 
desert. But even a transcontinental journey of seventy-five years ago had ending, 
and under date of Wednesday, August 29, appears this entry in Mrs. Eells' journal: 
"Rode seven hours, thirty miles; arrived at Dr. Whitman's. Met Mr. Spalding 
and wife, with Dr. Whitman and wnfe. anxiously awaiting our arrival. Tluy all 
appear friendly, .and tri ,al us with f;-rcat hospitality. Dr. ^Vhitnlan's house is on the 
W.alla ^^■.alla. Iweiity-five milts east of Fort W.iUa W.alla. It is built of adobe, mud 
dried in tlie form of brick, only larger. I cannot describe its appearance, as I can 
not compare it with .anything I ever saw. There arc doors and windows, but they 
arc of the roughest material, the boards being sawed by hand and put together by 
no carpenter, but by one who knows nothing about the work. There are a number 
of wheat, corn and potato fields about the house, besides a garden of. melons and all 
kinds of vegetables common to .1 g.ardin. There .arc no fences, then- liting no 
timber of which to make them. The furniture is very primitive; the bedsteads .are 
boards n.ailcd to the side of the house, sink-f.ashion : then some blankets and husks 
make the bed: but it is good couip.ariil with tr.a\iling .acc'oinuiod.ations." 

I'rom the Atl.antic co.ist the long journty h.ad consumed 177 davs; from the 
Missouri river, 129. Mrs. Whitman and Mrs. .Spalding were the first white women 
to cross the Rocky mount.iins. Mrs. Kells .and .Mrs. \\'alker were the ne.\t to achieve 
an undertaking which well might have daunted the heart of a brave and rugged man. 
Describing the Oregon country of 18.'J8, Rev. Myron Eells informs us that in 
the broad expanse of wh.at ,arc now the states of Oregon, ^^'as]lington. Idaho and 
Montan.a tluri- were only tliirln Ji Mltlcmcnts : the mission station of i)r. \\liitm;m 
at Waiil.atpu in the W'.all.i Wall.a v.alhy. of Mr. .Sp.ahli'ng .at L.apwai among the Nez 
I'ercis, of the .Methodists .al Thi Dalles .and near .S.alcni. and the Hudson's I5av com- 
p.any forts at old I'orl W'all.i W.alla on the Columbi.i. Colville. I'ort H.all. Boise, Van- 
couver, N'is(|ually. I uip(iu.i, .and Ok.anog.aii, and the settlement at Astoria. Eells 
and Walker were to establish .a fourteenth, on Tsliiui.ak.ain creek, six miles north of 
tlic Spokaiu- river, .ind about twenty-five miles from the f.alls. 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 73 

Wlien they arrived at the Whitman mission, there were only fifty Americans in 
the country of whom thirty were connected with the missions. Great Britain and 
the United States were in controversy over ownership of the greater part of the 
Oregon country, and had struck a truce under a treaty of joint occupation. It was 
even considered necessary for the missionaries to travel under passport. 



CHAPTER VIII 

FOUNDING A MISSION AMONG THE SPOKANES 

EELLS AND WALKER MEET THE INDIANS AT CHEWELAH BIRTH OF FIRST AMERICAN 

WHITE BOY IN OLD OREGON EELLS AND WALKER FAMILIES LOCATE AT WALKEr's 

PRAIRIE, NEAR SPOKANE LIVING ON HORSE MEAT INDIAN CUSTOMS DESCRIBED 

MISSION LIFE AT TSHIMAKAIN MISSIONARIES DEEPLY DISAPPOINTED MIDWINTER 

FIRE HYMN AS SUNG BY THE SPOKANES. 

AFTER a fortnight's rest at the Whitman mission. Walker and Eells started 
northward, Sejitember 10, 1838, to explore the country preliminary to found- 
ing a mission among the Spokanes. At Chewelah they rested over the Sab- 
bath, meeting there many of the natives, and the next day pushed forward to Fort 
Colville to seek the counsel of Archibald McDonald, factor in charge of the Hudson's 
Bay establishment there, second only in importance to the greater establishment at 
Vancouver under Dr. Joliii McLoughlin. At Colville the company grew annually 
about i.OOO bushels of wheat, and maintained there a flour mill. Corn and vege- 
tables were grown there in abundance, a large herd of cattle added to the domesticity 
of the surroundings, and as tlie buildings were commodious, Mr. Walker exclaimed, 
as the valley scene rolled in u|)on their vision, "a city under a hill." 

Mr. ^IcDonald. a worthy, intelligent Scot, received them with great kindness, an 
attitude he maintained so long as he remained in charge. He advised that the mis- 
sion be located at Tshimakain, (the plain of springs) on the Colville- Walla 
Walla road, a place combining the advantages of soil, timiier, water and accessibility 
to the various bands of the Spokanes. Thither they went, and with Indian lielp, and 
two axes borrowed from Colville, erected two log cabins fourteen feet long and about 
twenty feet a])art. As winter was approaching, they suspended their work before 
the cabins had lieen roofed in, and returned to Walla Walla, by w;iy of Spalding's 
Lapwai mission. 

There thev wintered witii their famibes, and there, on December 7, 1838, was 
l}orn Cyrus Hamlin Walker, thought to be the first American white boy born within 
the iioundaries of old Oregon. Alice, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Whitman, drowned 
in early childhood, was the first American white child born within the same bounda- 
ries. :Much of their time was devoted that winter to study of the Spokane language, 
the missionaries having for their instructor the famous Nez Perce chief Lawyer, 
who understood that tongue. 

Late in February came the chief of the Sjiokanes, with four men and four women, 
to assist the ])artv in moving to their new liome, and on March 5, 1839, the wedding 



7G SI'OKANK AND THK INLANH KMI'IHF, 

aimixHTsary of hotli coui)lts. tlicy set their faces nortliwaril on tin- jouriuy to Tslii- 
makaiii, arriving there on Marcli 20. 

Tents were j)itched, and a messenger dispatched to Colville for provisions, ami 
with these came back an urgent invitation from Mr. .McDonald for the ladies and 
baby to become his guests while their husbands were conii)Kting their cabin homes. 
The invitation was accepted, and it was the last of Ajiril wluii they returned and 
set U)) housekee))ing. 

.At first the houses liad only eartlien floors, and pine boughs served for roof. .\s 
the spring rains quickly penetrated this rough shelter, earth was put upon the 
boughs; and still the roofs leaked, so bearskins were s])rea(i updii the beds to keep 
dry "our first families" near Spokane. 

The lu.xury of a cookstove was unknown throughout the nine years' life of the mis- 
sion at Tshimakain. In lieu of window glass, cotton cloth, and later oiled deerskin, 
were used. A few years later there was much rejoicing over the receipt of a few 
panes of glass, sent in sailing vessel around the Horn by Massachusetts friends, and 
transported, with infinite care, to the distant interior. 

Tor nine years the mission could bo.ist of only a single chair. Three boards, tiiree 
feet long, were packed I.'jO miles, .iiid by driving four stakes into the ground, a table 
was constructed. Timber, riven and hewn, was used for other furniture. 

In all the Oregon country there were two flour mills, both owned by the Hud- 
son's Bay company, one at Colville, the other at Vancouver. Flour at the Whitman 
mission was M-orth $24 a barrel. With the harvesting of the first crop of wheat at 
Tshimakain, the grain was taken in buckskin bags to Colville for grinding. "It was 
only seventy miles distant, and they could go and return in five days." 

The plough was homemade, with rawhide on the singli trti s in place of iron, .ind 
for nine years the wheat crop was etit with sickles. 

"The beef," according to Myron Kells, "neither chewed the cud nor jiarted the 
hoof. It was made out of the Indian pony. Cattle were very scarce. Neither love 
nor money could procure one from the Hudson's Bay company, .\bout half a dozen 
horses were killed for beef at Dr. Whitman's during the winter of 1838-39. and for 
several years Mr. Kills was accustomed to salt one down every winter. Tliev were 
fattened on the rich bunch-grass, and with few e.\cei)tions were eaten with a relish, 
even by the fastidious." 

.Mrs. 1-lells once wrote: "I h.-id the luxury of eating a jjiece of the first cow 
th.'it was driven into tile country." 

I'ire w.-is made M-ith flint, steel .md punk. .Mail from the east was brougiit out 
twice a year in vessels of the Hudson's Bay company. That for the mission was 
sent up the Columbia to old Fort Walla Walla, and when the missionaries learned 
of its ,'irrival there, they would "go to the postofliee," 200 miles away, the round trip 
taking two weeks, 

hi .January, 1S44, Mrs. Eclls wrote to her sister in Massachusetts: "Your letter 
(laird .'September, 181-1, I received .July, 1843, a long time, sure enough, but, as the 
Indians say, 'I am thankful to get a letter of any date.'" To the s.ame sister she 
wrotf, in .\pril. 1847: "I have just iie.ii reading your sisterly letter of December, 
18U, and .ilthough it was written more than two years ago, yet since it is the last 
I have heard from you, it is like reviving conversation and talking of past events." 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 77 

111 a kttcr written from the Whitman inissioUj soon after their arrival there in 
tile fall of 1838, Mrs. Eells recorded her impressions: 

"The country is large, and there are comparatively few inhabitants in it. The 
Hudson's Bay company has a number of trading posts, which are generally about 
300 miles apart. Mr. Spalding and Dr. Whitman have each a station about 125 
miles apart. The Methodists have two stations — one 150 miles, and the other 4.00 
miles from here. Besides these settlements, there are no others in this great territory. 
Of course the people of each settlement must raise their own provisions, make their 
own furniture, farming utensils, houses and barns. Everything of cloth is brought 
from some foreign port. There is nothing yet to make cloth of, and if there were, 
there is no way to manufacture it. Had I known there is not a spinning wheel in 
this whole country, I should have been exceedingly anxious to have one sent with 
my other tilings. There are very few sheep here, and more have been sent for from 
California. Dr. Whitman has raised a little flax, though not much, for want of 
seed. 

"There never having been any white women here before the missionaries, there 
has been no call for anything but Indian articles of trade. The men wear striped 
cotton or calico shirts, sleep in Indian blankets and buffalo skins, and of course 
have had no need for white cotton cloth, and have none. 

"Mrs. Wliitman and Mrs. Spalding have obtained some eartliern dishes, but think 
it doubtful whether we can have any others until we order them from England, or 
the States. Perhaps you will wonder what we shall eat with. We have the dishes 
we used on the way, which we have divided so that we shall each have a tin dish 
and a spoon, each a knife, fork and plate. We must be contented with what books 
we have until ours come around Cape Horn. 

"The Indians are numerous, but they live a wandering life. They live upon 
game, fish and roots, which are found in many different places. They have no houses, 
but live in lodges made of sticks set in a circle in the ground, and drawn together 
at the top and fastened with a string, leaving a place at the to)i for the smoke to 
l)ass out. Over this frame they throw skins, grass, willows and the like, which make 
their covering. They build their fire upon the ground, in the center, around which 
they live and sleep. They generally have one kettle, in which tlicy boil their fish, 
meat, corn and potatoes, if they have any. None of them have corn and potatoes ex- 
cept what the}' get from some of the above-named settlements. Not many of them, 
have an}- dishes, knives or forks or spoons of any kind. They eat standing, with the 
kettle in the middle, their hands supplying the place of all dishes. They will often 
]ierform a long journey for a knife or blanket. 

"They have learned of !Mr. Spalding and Dr. Whitman some scripture history 
and some hymns, which they sing. They have not yet had much time to teach them. 
Icing obliged to do most of their work. It is true the Indians help them some, but 
they cannot be depended upon. They are here today, and tomorrow they are some- 
where else. Besides, if they think you are depending on them, they will not work 
unless they are driven to it by hunger. Some of them are beginning to sow little 
jiatches of corn, wheat and potatoes for themselves; this the men have done and are 
proud of it: but if a man works for us, they call iiiiii a slave and a fool. Three or 
four have given evidence of a change of licart. 

"We feel that we are a small band of missionaries in a heathen land, far re- 



78 SrOKANK AM) 1111. IM.AMJ K.Ml'lRK 

moved from tlic luxuries and many of the comforts of life, and we feel more keenly 
the alisenee of civilized and Ciiristian society." 

.Mr. Eells, under date of l'"ebruary 25, ISIO, wrote of their labors among the 
Sjjokanes: "We are advancing slowly in the acquisition of the language, though as 
yet our knowledge of it is very liinit<(i. . . . The I'latliead (Spokane) and the 
Nez Perec languages are distinct, 'riuir ])hil(ih)gieal construction is wIkiUv unlike. 
We liave not l)een ahle to (ind any one word common to both languages. 

"Taking tliis |)]ace (Tshimakain) .as tile center of a circle whose radius shall not 
exceed sixty miles, it will includr a pciliulatinn of near '..'.000 souls, iiiui-trntli^ of 
whom rarely, if ever, leave the .above sjiecitied ground for a length of time, unless 
it be for ;i few weeks in the s])ring. There are five or six bands, each of which has 
particul.ir i.iniis wliieli tiny call theirs, and wlnre tluy pass a portion of each year. 
So far :is i cm learn, they .are somewh.it regular in their removings. 

"In April a large number meet in one plain to dig a root called popo. In .May 
they returned to this place, and after remaining a few weeks, moved to a large camas 
|)l.ain, ten miles from us. The camas is their most substantial root. It remains good 
from May till the next -March. In .June, salmon begin to go up the Spokane river, 
which passes within six miles of our house. At first a barrier was constructed near 
some falls, ten miles from this jjlaee, .and perhai)s fifteen miles from the c.imas 
grounds. At tiiat ])lace salmon were taken only during high water, and then not in 
large quantities, as the barriir i\tiii(l<(l only part of the way across the river. While 
the men and boys were em|)loye(l at the s.iliuon, the women were digging and prepar- 
ing cam.as, and d.iily horses j)assed between the two |il,iccs, loaded both ways, so 
that all could sh.ari- in hoth kinds of food. .\s the w.'itrr Irll aiiotlur barriir was built 
f.artlicr down, extending across the entire river; .and when comiileted, men, women 
.and children made a general move to the ))l;ice. If I judged correctly, I saw there 
atone time near 1,000 persons, .and the nuniln r was rajiidly increasing. I'rom 100 
to 800 s.'ilmon were taken in a day, wt ighing variously from ten to forty jjouuds 
,api<ce. 

'AN'hen they ceased to t.ake salmon, about the (Irst of .\ugust. thev returned to 
the c.im.as ground, where they rem.ained till October, and then began to make ]irepa- 
rations for taking the poor salmon as they went down the river. During this month 
they were very nuieh scattered, thougli not \ i ry remote from each othi r. In No- 
vember they went to their wintering ])laces. 

"l''rom .March to Novi-mber, our congregations xaricd troin .'lO to 100, 
not more (ban one liali of wiioMi usually reniainiii with us during tin- week. 
Tluy often came tin. fil'teeii, .and sometimes thirty miles on .Saturday, .and returned 
.again on .Monday. .Since November nearly 'JOO have reniainid with us almost con- 
stantly. In .addition to those just nirntionid. th. it liaxe been frec|uciit xisitors from 
neighboring b.ands, coming in various numbers, trom three or four to sixtv .at ;i time. 
They usn.ally s|)end two or three weeks and then return. 

"We liave habitually eonduelid worsliip uilh Ihnn umrning and iviiiing. wiu-n we 
rend a portion of scriptures, .and, so f.ar .as we are able, explain it, sing .and Jiray. 
On the ,S;il)balli we have h.ad three siTviees. While the weather continued warm, 
the pl.iee for worship w.is under some pine trees; but as it became cold, a house 
was prep.ireil for entirely by the i>eoph', expressly for worslii)). It resembled some- 
what in form the roof of a house in New I'.ngland, m.aking the angle at the top 




REV. ELKAXAH WALKER 



A 




f i Sr'' ' 




REV. GUSHING EELLS MRS. MVl;A F. J';i;i.LS 

PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES ON WALKER'S PRAIRIE 



• THE NEW Vc;> . 

•PUBLIC LlBkAh 
I 



1 




SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 79 

much smaller than tliat of most modern houses. The frame is made of poles four or 
Ave inches in diameter, and covered with rush mats. Most of the Indian houses here 
are made in the same way. 

"For want of a thorough acquaintance with the language, much of the instruc- 
tion communicated has related to scriptural history, though I think we have not 
failed to give them some correct ideas respecting the character of God, the fallen 
state of man, the doctrine of the atonement and regeneration, and the necessity of 
repentance and faith in Christ to secure salvation. It is strictly true that they must 
have 'line upon line;' every new idea must.be repeated many times. The nearer our 
teaching approaches to Sabbath school instruction, appropriate for small children, 
the better it is understood. This people ar^ slow to believe that the religion we teach 
extends farther than to the external conduct. They- wish to believe that to abstain 
from'gross sin and attend to a form of wor.^|iip' i'.s all that is necessary to fit them for 
heaven." 

In this respect, the Spokane attitude towards the life religious was not altogether 
at variance with that entertained by some good people of the present day. 

Throughout the journals, diaries and correspondence of the missionaries at 
Tshimakain, at Lapwai and at Waiilatpu, one finds abounding evidence, that in an 
excess of zeal and a severe application of "the New England conscience," these devout 
men and women had keyed too high their expectations of savage response to theo- 
logical refinements and subtleties. Because the Pentecostal fire could not flame in the 
Indian breast, they grieved and lamented. Often their way seemed dark, their life 
work a failure, their missions, perhaps, a mistake. So late as October, ISl?, Mrs. 
Eells wrote: "We have been here almost nine years, and have not been permitted to 
hear the cries of one penitent, or the songs of one redeemed soul. We often ask our- 
selves the question, 'Why is it?' Yet we labor on, hoping and waiting, and expect- 
ing tliat the seed, thougli long buried, will spring uj) and bear fruit. We feel in- 
creasingly interested in the work, and though we do not see the immediate fruit of 
our labor, we can not find it in our hearts to leave our people. We can not say that 
they have persecuted us so that we should lie authorized 'to flee to another city.' 
They listen to the word respectfully, but it appears to produce no saving effect." 

Two months after the writing of this letter. Dr. and Mrs. Whitman, their as- 
sistant, Mr. Rogers, and eleven others, chiefly immigrants stopping at Waiilatpu, 
were massacred by treacherous Cayuses, the little mission band at Tshimakain took 
asylum at Fort Colville, and, a few nionths later, acting under the insistent advice of 
tlie Oregon authorities, abandoned their station • forever, and under military escort, 
found refuge and new homes in the Willamette valley. Thus ended, in despair and 
darkness, a decade of faithful, earnest effort, and to the distressed and disappointed 
missionaries it well may have seemed- that at! their good seed of ten years' sowing 
iiad fallen upon stony ground. But many years later we find Governor Stevens, 
I>ieutenant Wilkes of the United States navy. General O. O. Howard and others 
giving testimony to the enduring and beneficial results of the mission among the 
Spokanes. 

Returning to the Eells journal, we learn that in November, 1839, a school 
was opened, at first with but tliirty ))U|)ils, but grown by A|)ril following to more 
than eighty. That first year at Tsiiiniakain brought incessant toil and countless 
privations. Cabins were made habitable, ground was broken and prepared for 



80 SPOKANE AM) IIIl. INLAND EMPIRE 

gardni and wheat field, fciict-s built to protect the crops from the Indian horses, 
long journeys were made to Eort Colville on the north and old Eort Walla Walla 
on the south; and superimposed upon all this and much more was the real work 
of the mission, the preaching and the teaching, the study of the difficult Spokane 
language, and the imparting of agricultural and manual instruction to such of 
the natives as were willing to receive it. 

".My opinion," said Eather Eells at that period, "is that our chief efforts 
should be with the children," a method adopted afterward by government, and 
found, after many years of experience, to return disappointing results, owing 
to the disposition of the adults to ridicule the young people on their return from 
Carlisle, Eorest Grove and Salem, and shame them back to the blanket and the 
tepee. And yet, after three-fourths of a century of experiment and testing, it 
cannot be said that a better plan offers than that recommended by Mr. Eellsi 

The mission work went on, with trials and tribulations. "On the morning 
of January 11, 1840," wrote Mr. Eells, "we met with a heavy loss. While en- 
gaged in family worship our house took fire, and being mostly lined with rush 
mats, and having no inside doors except cloths hung up, the flame spread so 
raj)idly that it went through every part of the building before an article was re- 
moved. After the first flash had passed such things as were in boxes were mostly 
saved. But before anything was taken out the greater part of the more valuable 
property which the house contained was nearly destroyed, such as library, writ- 
ing desk, clock, watch, two beds and bedding, much personal clothing, a quantity 
of Indian goods, tinware, riding and pack saddles, traveling ai)paratus, etc. Our 
food was mostly saved. The walls of the house, built of rough logs, were not 
essentially injured, except in being badly charred upon the inside." 

In the face of this disaster, the spirits of the mission workers must have 
fallLii correspondingly to the zero temperature without, lor tiic thermometer reg- 
istered eight below. Hut there was a silver lining even to tiiis dark cloud of mis- 
fortune; for the Indians responded to tlie alarm with commendable promptness 
and energy, constituting themselves the first volunteer fire brigade in the Spokane 
country, and exhibiting jidmirable honesty in restoring small articles which might 
easily have been concealed from the owners. And Mr. McDonald, in charge at 
Colville, with characteristic goodness, dispatched, without asking, four men from 
his fort who soon made the burned house habitable, and with them came also two 
gentlemen from that post, .Messrs. McLean and McPlierson. With the tempera- 
ture ten below zero, and a foot of snow over the country, the six volunteers 
camjied on the ground, .-m exhibition of kindness .uid fortitude that was deeply 
ap])reeiatcd. "This is but a specimen of the unvaried kindness shown us by tile 
gentlemen of the company with which we have had no particular intercourse or 
eoniicction," said Eather Eells. 

Writing at this date of mission results, Mr. Eells said: "During the past 
unnter nearly 250 Indians have been encamped by us. If we judge correctlv. 
there has been a marked increase in the knowledge of Divine Truth. This is 
especially true of the chief mentioned in the Herald by the name of Big Head. 
It lias been a rather general impression among the best-informed Indians that 
tliieves, gamblers. .Sabbath-breakers and such like will go to a place of misery 
when they die, but that such as arc not guilty of o|)en vices, and attend to a form 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 



81 



of worslii]) will go above. We have labored inueh to correct this and kindred 
errors, and unless we greatly mistake, our labor has not been in vain. The lan- 
o-iiage of tlie chief is: "I formerly thought my heart was good, but I now see it 
is not. We are full of all manner of wickedness — are covered up in our sins. 
They hold us like strong cords. One thing must be done. Our hearts must be 
changed, or we shall go below when we die.' " 

In the school instruction was given in reading, spelling, arithmetic and music, 
the pupils, both young and old, showing quick aptitude in numbers and mani- 
festing a passionate love for music. From the fur traders the Spokanes had 
picked u]) a number of lewd songs, and the missionaries tried to supplant these 
with hymns and sacred songs. They began with the doxology, and the Indian 
voice showed sufficient compass to sing it in three octaves in F. Then Mr. Eells 
composed the following hymn, words and music, and it proved popular, the natives 
clinging to it many years after the mission had been abandoned and their instruc- 
tors had taken up new liomes in Oregon. Mr. McLean of the Hudson's Bay com- 
panv heard Indians singing it in the heart of the Rocky mountains. 




Lam - a - lem, 
Thank.s . . . 



on - a 
thee . 



we 






ho 
ho 



vah, 
vah, 




-^^ 



Kain - pe - la, tns 

We not 



-^^ 



ca - leel. Rait - si - ah 
. dead. We . . . all 



\t 



:i: 



w 



wheel 
a 



wheel, 
live. 



Kain 
We 



pe 



la 



s 



i 



p^ 



ets 



ni 



ko 



nam. 



kaits 
We . 



chow, 
pray. 



CHAPTER IX 

MISSION LIFE AT WALKERS PRAIRIE, CONTINUED 

SEVERE WINTER OF 18-10-41 ARDUOUS JOURNEYS BY FATHER EELLS GOING TO COL- 

VILLE FOR MAIL DR. WHITMAN'S FAMOUS MIDWINTER RIDE DISCOVERY OF THE 

PRECIOUS METALS MOTHERS' MEETINGS SEVENTY YEARS AGO DREADFUL WINTER OP 

1846-i7 NO NEW BONNETS FOR EASTER SUNDAY FIRST SHOES FOR THE CHIL- 
DREN HOW THE MISSION WOMEN MADE CHEESE INDIAN WIFE WHO WAS "a 

JEWEL OF RARE EXCELLENCE." 

SO SEVERE was the winter of 1810-11 tliat only fifty Indians remained at 
the mission, and the attendance at the scliool fell to eleven. But another 
school, maintained at a point five miles from the mission, and attended almost 
daily by some one from the mission, had an attendance of twenty-two. In the last 
analysis Indian nature is not essentially different from white nature; is charmed 
by novelty, and the mind grows dull by tedious repetition; and though the school 
was continued, it never afterward numbered more than fifteen. 

With that indefatigable zeal and energy which attended him throughout a 
long life of intense religious endeavor, ^Ir. Eells traveled, in the year ending 
^larch 1, 1811, 1,200 miles on horseback, work which took him from home fifty- 
seven days. Teaching Indians at other points required 400 miles additional travel 
and twenty-three days more absence from home. He has left an interesting ac- 
count, in the Walla Walla Watchman of March 27, 188,'), of one trip made to 
Fort Colville with mail. "With our limited facilities, the annual autumnal passage 
of the brigade of the Hudson's Bay company from east of the mountains down the 
Columbia was an im))ortant event. Its arriv.al at Fort Colville was to be pre- 
pared for. Thus an opjiortunity was afforded for the conveyance of letters to 
Vancouver, and thence via the Sandwich islands to Boston. I had written and 
arranged with an Indian to accompany and assist me in conveying the mails, and 
in conveying supplies from the fort. In vain I looked for the arrival, according 
to jiromise, of the needed helper. The morning hours passed. The idea of not 
forwarding what I h.ad Jjrepared was unendurable. On a riding horse, with pack 
mule carrying tent, bedding, food, I started. The moon was at its full. After a 
ride of forty miles I camped. Seasonably the next morning I was traveling. The 
distance, thirty miles to the ])ost, was passed. The boats had not arrived. Mj' 
mail was left, and I returned twenty miles. 

"The fifty miles for the next day should be commenced early, as the last fifteen 
miles were darkened with timber. The moon would not rise till more than two 

83 



84 si'dKwr wD'i'iii; iM.wi) i.Mi'iin'. 

hours after siinsft, ami it was cloiiilv. Witii siu-ii tacts in mind I encamptd. I 
slept. I awoke; iiiv first tliouglit was, it is daylip;iit. The moon was conceaKii 
behind tile clouds. Hurriedly I struck tent, saddled. |)aeked and was off. After 

riding .in indefinite length of time the location of the on w.is (liseeriiilile. .ludg- 

ing thus, it w.-is not f.ir from midnight. After .1 noilurn.il ride of ten miles, I 
lay down again and slept without fear of being benighted in dark timber. The 
distance traveled was 11-0 miles; length of time, a little in excess of two days 
and a h.alf, with object attained and mail taken to postofliec." 

To enter into the long-staniiiiit;- Wliitnian eoiitrovrrsy is not witliiii tin |iiir- 
view of this history.* Respecting Dr. Whitman's memorable mid-winter ride across 
the continent volumes have beiii written -to show that its object was p,atriotic, to 
wrest the Oregon country from impending British ownership; and, on the other 
hand, to ])rove that liis controlling motive w.is preventimi ol ab.indonment of the 
Oregon missions by the American Ho.ird. and the ])art lie played politically had 
little or no bearing in saving Oregon to tlie United States. But since Eells and 
W.alker were called into counsel with Whitman, and went to Walla Walla at his 
summons, regard for at least approxim.ite completeness of the Tshimakain record 
requires the jniblication here of an affidavit made by Mr. Eells, before a notary 
iniblie ;it .Sjiokane, August 23, 188.*?, in part as follows: 

".September, 18V2. a letter written by Dr. Whitman, .addressed to Rev. Messrs. 
E. WalkiT .111(1 C. Eells. .at 'rsbiiiiakaiii. re.ulied its destination and was received 
by till persons to whom it w.as written. By the contents of .said letter, a meeting 
ot the Oregon mission of tlie .Vmerie.in Bo.ird of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions was invited to be Ik lil .it \\iiilat|)ii. Tlie object of said meeting, as stated 
in the letter named, was to .approve of ,1 purpose formed liy Dr. Whitman, that 
he go east on behalf of Oregon .as related to the United .Stales. In the judgment 
of Mr. WalkiT .■iiul myself, lli.il olijcet w.is foreign to our .assigned work, ^\'itll 
troubled thoughts we .inlieip.ited the proposed meeting. 

"On the following d.iy. Wi-dnesd.iy. we started, .and on S.iturd.iy afternoon 
camped on the Toiieliet. .it tin- ford iie.ir the Mull 111 bridge. We were pleased 
with the prospect of enjoying .1 period of rest, refleetion anil prayer — needful 
Jirejiaration for the .iiitagoinsni of opposing ide.is. ^\'e never iiioved eanip on 
the Lord's d.iy. On Mond.iy inoriiiiig wi- ,irri\i<i at W.iiil.itpu. and nut there 
the two resident families of Dr. Whitm.an and Mr. (Jr.iv. l{i\. II. 11. S|ialiliri<'- 
w.as there. .Ml the iii;ile iiieinliers of the mission were (lius together. 

"In the diseiissinn the ii{iiiiinii of Ml-. W.ilker .111(1 myself reiii.ailled iinelialiged. 
The purpose of Dr. Wliitin.iii was fixed. In his estiin.it ion, tlie s.i\ ing of Oregon 
to the I lilted .St.ates w.as of p.ir.iiiioniit iiiiport.inee. .inil lie would m.ike the .attempt 

•A roiioliition adopted by tlie IPKislatme nf Wasliiiiytun lenjlniy. in October, ISIH), as. 
Hortod tliat Dr. Wliitnian, "knowing tlie vast ro!-(inrc(^s ami mineral w(>altli of Oregon terri- 
tory, anil tJie intention of the governinont of the United States to dispose of the same for 
a trivial eonsideration, to the governnient of Great Britain, from not being aware of tlio 
iininonHe value . . . did, in the dead of winter, at his own private expense, cross the 
eoiitinent amid tlie snows of the Rocky mountains and the bleakness of the intervening plains, 
inhabited liy savage Indians, and reached Washington City and informed the government of 
the United States of the great value of said territory, and thereby prevented the sale and 
loss of said lerritorv to the United States." 











TSHLMAKAIN, AS SKETCHED BY (iKAY, 1S4:! 




TSIIIMAKAIX, AS SKETCHED BY AETIST WITH OOVERXOR 
STEVENS' EXPEDITION, 1S53 



r 



THE »(IW yoi»K 




SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 85 

to do so, even if lie li.ul to withdraw from the mission in order to accomplish his 
purpose. 

"In reply to considerations intended to liold Dr. Whitman to his assigned 
work, he said, 'I am not expatriated by becoming a missionary.' The idea of his 
withdrawal could not be entertained; therefore to retain him in the mission a vote 
to approve of his making the perilous endeavor prevailed. He had a cherished 
object for the accomplishment of which he desired consultation with Rev. David 
Greene, secretary of correspondence with the mission at Boston, ]\Iass., but I 
have no recollection that it was named in the meeting. A part of two days was 
sj)ent in consultation. Record of the date and acts of the meeting was made. 
The book containing the same was in the keeping oi the Whitman family. At the 
tunc of their massacre, November 29, 18-i7, it diStapp^aWd.'' ' ' , 

Long before the purpose or the results of Dr. Whi'WaVi's journey had been 
called into question. Father Eells wrote an extended statement for publication in 
the Missionary Herald of December, 1866: 

"The Hudson's Bay company," he said, "was aware at an early date of the 
existence of mineral deposits in that portion of Oregon claimed both by England 
and the United States." 

Some of its men had early discovered the extensive lead outcropjiings, on 
the shore of Kootenai lake in southern British Columbia, which in after years 
were to be located, under the mineral law, as the famous Bluebell mine. 

"If I remember correctly, ' continues Mr. Eells, "I had not been long in this 
country before the statement was made that gold had been found on the Colum- 
bia river, taken to England, made into a watch seal, brought back here, and worn 
by a gentleman connected with the Hudson's Bay comiiany." That the existence 
of gold in the country east of the Cascade mountains was known to representa- 
tives of the fur coni])any long jjrior to the discovery of that metal at Sutter's 
mill in California, can scarcely be doubted, but for obvious prudential reasons it 
was not to the interest of the Hudson's Bay company to exploit the important 
fact. 

"In those early days," testifies ^Ir. Eells. "Dr. Whitman made in my hearing 
the following statement: 'There is no doubt that this country abounds in the 
precious metals.' In the autumn or early winter of 1813 a German botanist was 
traveling with em|)loves of the Hudson's Bay company, and having had some 
knowledge of mining operations in Germany, he expressed to his fellow travelers 
the opinion that ])r(cious metals existed in a designated locality. They replied, 
'We know such to be the ease from actual investigation.' But while the resources 
of the country were measurably appreciated, special effort was made to produce 
till- impression that the country was of small value, and that much of it was 
worthless. 

"Previous to 181.'?, Mrs. McDonald, at Fort Colville. had a collection of min- 
eral specimens, a jjortion of which she presented to Mrs. Eells. These were sliown 
to Dr. Whitman on bis return in 18 IS. 

"An unyielding purpose was formed by Dr. Wliitman to go east. The mission 
was called together to consider whether or not its approval could be given to 
the proposed undertaking. Mr. Walker and myself were decidedly ojjijosed, and 
we yielded only when it became evident that he would go, even if he had to become 



86 S.I'OKANK ANO TlIK INLAND E.MI'JIU. 

discoiincitrd from tlic mission in order to do so. According lo the uiiderst.indiiiji of 
till- mi-mi)trs of the mission tlic single object of Dr. W'hitm.in in att(iii))tinj.f to 
cross the continent in the winter of 18l-'J-.'i. amid miglity pn-il -ind siitfering. 
was to make a des|)erate etl'ort to save this country to the United States." 

They h.'id mothirs' meetings, and a "Columhia Maternal association." lierc 
in the ImLiikI I'.iiipiri-. haei\ in 18.'J8. It was organized soon .-ifter the arrival of 
Mrs. Walker .ind .Mrs. Kells .it the Whitm.in mission, with six members. By 
18t2 seven others ii.id joined it. including the wives of two members of the Hud- 
son's Bay eomp.iny. 

".'sensible of the evils that beset the young mind in a heathen land (so ran the 
pre.imble) and confident that no arm but God's can secure our children or those 
comniitted to our can- from thi- daugers that surround thrui ami bring them early 
into the fold of ( hrist and tit them for usefidness here .and glory hereafter, we, 
the subscribers, .agree to form ourselvis into an association for the purpose of 
adopting such rules as are best cileul.ated to assist us in the right i)erform,iuee of 
our matern.il duties." 

Climatically the mission was nut well Impaled .at W.alkcr's pr.-iirie. 'I'lie crojis 
at Tshimakain sutlrred from frosts, .iiid the winters were longer and more severe 
tli.an at more f.avored s])ots in the v.allcy of tin- ."^jxik/iue. 'I'li.il of lSl()-7 w.is 
particularly rigorous. 

"The |)ast winter has been the most severe in the uiinuiry of the oldest In- 
dians," wroti' Mrs. Eells: "The snow beg.in to f.ill .about tlu' middle of November; 
about the uiiddle of December it was not far from two feet deep, and it continued 
to increase to the first of M.ireli. I'or more than li\c- uioiitbs the r.irtli w.is elotlud 
in ;i robe of white; for more than three months we were liter.ally buried in snow; 
all the west side of our bouse w.as banked to the roof, and would have been dark 
only that the snow was shoveled from the windows." 

Mission work among the Irulians w.is ])r,acticrilly suspended that dreary win- 
ter. The meeting house was closed from the 17th of .January to the last Sunday 
in .M.ireli, .ind even then .Mr. I'.ells went on snowshoes to opiii it. It was so cold 
the first of M.arcb that the air cut like a knife, and even at tli.it l.ite date in win- 
ter the missionaries found it hard to keep comfortable in their c.ibin homes, not- 
withstanding fuel was .ibund.-iiil .and they heaped high the supply (Ui the broad 
firepl.ices. 

" 1' roll! till iiiidillr ni DrecUlber till Well into .Vpril iiicii. woiiieii .iiiil ehildrell 
traveled on snowshoes. With gre.at dillieully Mr. W'.ilkir .inil Mr. I'clK in] their 
horses and cattle, but by econouii/ing in feediug they s.aved .all their horses but 
one, though twelve of their cattle died of st.irv.itioii. "We li.ive, however," wrote 
Mrs. I'jcIIs, "had .an .abundance of the necessaries of life. ,iiicl uku-i nt its luxuries 
th.in li.as sometimes f.illeii to our lot." Me.asured by present day st.indards of 
luxurious living, few indeed must have been their luxuries that winter at Tshima- 
k.'iiii. 

'I'lie Indi.ans suffered heavy losses of live stock. Xotwithstaniling the men 
and womiii spent .a gre.at |);irt of their time clearing .iw.ay snow so that their ani- 
iii.'ils could get .il Ihr froziii liuiicll-grass, nearly .-ill their horsrs died before the 
last of .l.aiiu.ary. With the beginning of winter the .Spok.ine chief had seventy 
horses and thirty <'.ittle. But with lh>- t.ardy coming of sjjriiig he had lost every 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 87 

horse and all but two of his cattle. "The Indians generally had from one to ten 
horses, " wrote Mrs. Eells, "but all alike are now on foot. I do not know of 
half a dozen live ones in all this region belonging to the Indians. They had 
nearly forty cattle which they had obtained through our instrumentality ; there 
are only three or four left. A band of sixteen cattle belonging to the Bay Indians 
was sent to the Spokane river to winter ; only one of them now is alive. 

"At Colville the Hudson's Bay company had 270 horses; by April only three 
were alive. Every one of another band of eighty horses belonging to a single 
man is dead. The horses of the Indians in that region, and also of tlie Bay Indians 
further north, are all dead. At Colville some of the cattle froze to death stand- 
ing." 

At Tshimakain they took little heed of the New York or Paris fashions ; and 
there were no new bonnets for Easter Sunday. About that time, acknowledging 
the gift of a shawl which had been sent around the Horn by eastern friends, Mrs. 
Eells wrote: "Mrs. Walker and I had each our red merino shawls that we wore 
in the States (nine years previous) and our plaids are pretty good, though they 
have been washed several times, and we concluded to send the shawl to Mrs. Whit- 
man, as we were pretty sure she had none. She has since sent back many thanks, 
as she was destitute." Think upon this heroic act of self-abnegation, ye pampered 
sisters of the twentieth century ; think of this when all the world seems dark and 
dreary under that last summer's creation in Parisian millinery. 

That same box of Massachusetts luxuries brought several pairs of shoes for 
the children, the very first their youthful eyes had ever fallen upon. They had 
always worn moccasins, and in winter were obliged to stay in the house or have 
wet feet. 

"Edwin and Myron think very much of the books sent them last fall," wrote 
tile faithful mother with grateful heart. "I think they learn books very well, but 
they can never know the noble, exhilarating feeling there is connected with going 
to worship in a good meeting-house, where they can understand what is said, or 
to a good school with others of their own age. But I have no doubt the Lord will 
take care of them if we do our duty." Oh, that severe New England training 
of five and seventy years ago! Has it forever vanished from our midst? Have 
we grown into better things, with all the wealth of luxury and" ease that came 
with the locomotive and the electric wire, or have we fallen upon degenerate days, 
that the confidences of this time-stained journal, penned, oh, so long ago, at 
lonely Tshimakain, sound quaint and peculiar to e.irs grown wiser in the brilliant 
light of the twentieth century? 

But those Mission mothers were practical withal. "Last year and the year 
before we had milk, so that we made a few small cheeses. Just to prove how neces- 
sity can invent new ways when the old ones are not at hand, I will tell you how we 
went to work. At first, I believe, Mrs. McDonald of Fort Colville, gave us a little 
rennet, but we co.uld bring no curd with it. Then Dr. Whitman gave us a little 
beef's rennet, but we succeeded no better with it. At last !Mrs. Walker thought 
that perhaps young deer's rennet would do, so after a while an Indian brought us 
one which we tried, and it did well. But perhaps you will say. Why did you not 
have calves' rennet? Because a general feeling has jirevailed that calves should 
not be killed. 



88 SIH^KANK AND THE iNLAM) LMIMKK 

"Now for tile clicfse basket and tongs, and something to dress it with. The 
first named utensil we did witiiout. We sueceeded in getting a two-gaHon keg 
sawed in two, which served fur hoops, and .it first we pressed with stones and bags 
of nuisket balls. L.ist year Mrs. Walker made herself a lever which saved her 
streiigtii some, but I did not try .iMytiiing new." 

This Mrs. Mel )(iii;il(i, will) gois into liistiiry .is .i eiiartcr iiicnilier of the Colum- 
bia Maternal association, collector of iiiiiur.il speeiuieiis and ;issi>t.int in the first 
cheese-making establishment in the Inland I'.iiipire, was an Indi.in woni.an, but 
according to .Mr. K( Us. ",i jewel of r.ire excellence, intelligent, and her ninnerous 
childriii were .-i living testiiimiiy tci inr in.iterii.il efficiency. " 



CHAPTER X 

MISSIONS DESTROYED AND ABANDONED 

MISSIONARIES ILL AND DISCOURAGED WHITMAN MASSACRE BRINGS TERROR TO TSHI- 

MAKAIN FAITHFUL SPOKANES REMAIN LOYAL MISSIONARIES FLEE TO COLVILLE ■ 

GRAPHIC REMINISCENCE OF EDWIN EELLS A THRILLING MOMENT SPOKANES RALLY 

TO DEFENSE OF THEIR TEACHERS CAYUSES SEND OUT LYING RUNNERS OREGON 

VOLUNTEERS COME TO ESCORT MISSIONARIES TO WILLAMETTE VALLEY PATHETIC 

FAREWELL ON THE SPOKANE "oUR HEARTS WEEP TO SEE YOU GO." 

THE long liard wintt-r of 1846-47 left the mission colony depressed in s])irit 
and some of them bodily ill. It had been particularly trying to Mrs. Eells. 
They were discouraged, and frankly confessed that their work had been dis- 
ajipointing in results. Indian interest, both in churcji and school, had fallen off, 
and reactionary spirits among the Spokanes taunted the teachers, and challenged 
them to ))oint out what benefits they had brought to the Indians. A few remained 
faithful, and in a way zealous, but not one had shown sufficient change of heart, ac- 
cording to the severe theological tests of the times, to warrant his admission to the 
church or to become a partaker of the sacrament. 

Before the Whitman massacre in November, 18i7, abandonment of the Sjiokane 
mission had practically been agreed upon. The Methodists were closing their Ore- 
gon missions, and Dr. Whitman bought their establishment at The Dalles. It was 
planned that Spalding should give up his work among the Nez Perces at Lapwai and 
join Whitman at Waiilatpu. Walker was to go from to Tshimakain to The Dalles; 
and Eells was to move to Dr. Whitman's, and engage in winter work for the benefit 
of the whites, many of whom were now settling in Oregon, while his summers were 
to be given up to itinerating work among the Indians. But man proposes and God 
disposes. "Sir. Walker's ill health detained him at Tshimakain. and it seemed im- 
prudent for Mr. Eells to leave him alone among the S|)okanes. And for some rea- 
son Spalding lingered, too, at Lapwai, and thus several lives were saved from the 
frightful fate that befell Dr. and Mrs. Whitman. 

After the massacre, futile efforts were made by the Cayuse Indians to induce 
tlie Spokanes to slay their teachers at Tshimakain. A number of Indians from the 
Spokane country liad gone down into the Willamette valley and taken employment 
uhder the white settlers. The C'ayuses sent false rejjorts to the Spokanes that the 
white people in Oregon, in retaliation for the Wliitman massacre, had killed si.xty of 
these Indians from the Spokane region. ^Mr. Eells went to the chief of the Spokanes 
and gave him assurance that the report was false. "Believe not tile message," he 
declared; "it is not the way the Americans do." 

89 



90 SI 'OK am: and Tin: inlanu kmi'iui: 

"Avoid l)iiiig out after dark," counseled the chief. "I and mj- jjeople are friendly, 
but some lurking Cayuses may try to kill you and throw suspicion on us. Make the 
door fast; place a strong shutter over the window. If there is a call for admittance, 
delay: make inquiry. By the dialect of the person at the door you will know from 
what band he conies — wliether from those well or evil disi^osed." 

It was a time to try the souls of the bravest, but the faithful Spokanes remained 
stanch, and the missionaries had faith in their loyaltv. 

"Soon after the massacre," says .Myron Eells in his biograiihy of Father Eells, 
"the government of Oregon raised volunteers, chiefly in the Willamette valley, who 
chastised the C.iyuses, huilt Fort Waters at Dr. ^^'ilitlnan's station, .-md drove the 
Indians out of their own country nearly half way to Tshimakain. This brought the 
enemy so near that there seemed to be more danger than before, and ^Ir. Walker 
went to Fort Colville about the first of March to consult with ^Ir. Lewes, in charge 
there, as to their safety." 

"Remain i|uiet at the mission as long as you can," replied I.ewes. "If you become 
convinced of real danger, come to my fort, and I will protect you equally with myself 
and family." 

CoufrciMted with the possibility of losing their teachers, the Spokanes now ex- 
hil)ited the most earnest evidences of friendshi]). They were ready, they affirmed, 
to go to war with the Cayuses. 

"But the hostile camp was now only about sixty miles from Tshimakain," says 
Myron Eells, "and it began to seem unsafe to stay any longer. Mr. Walker and !Mrs. 
Eells were constitution.ally timid and wished to leave. Mrs. Walker had strong nerves, 
but her six children made her cautious. She was on an even poise. Mr. Eells was 
not satisfied that there was danger enough to render it necessary to move; but he 
alone anchored the fcuirteen persons there, and the res])onsibility was too great. It 
was dieided to leave for I'ort Colville. .So linp))y were the timid ones at this, that 
notwithstanding that it r.-iined when they started, and their first camp was in the 
snow, and tiny did not reacli Colville until tile fourth day, yet the move was made 
without ,1 iiiunuur. 'I'he next week Messrs. Walker and F.rlK aM<l i:ciwiri ImIIs. tiieii 
six years old, returned to Tshimakain to look after what was left," 

Edwin Eells, in a recent article in the .Sunday Spokesman-Review, tells, in 
graphic reminiscence of that return to the abandoned mission: 

"On the .Sabbath following our arrival at our now desolate home, about i o'clock 
in the afternoon, while sitting (niietly in our house, we heard an unusual noise. My 
fatlur Went to the door and listened. lie sjiut it (|uiekly, fastened it .md went into 
the b.-iek y.ird, where we mounted a table standing there, from whicii we eould look 
over the picket fort fence tiiat surrounded us, .md listened. 

"OIV in the woods, .-i niiie away, were Indians coming, heralding their approach 
with tile Indian w.irwiioop. Nearer and nearer, and louder and louder eauie the 
sound. Tile cold chills ran down my back. I felt as though my li.iir was standing 
uj) under my cap, and I said : 'lather, father, what is it.' What is it.''' He was too 
intent to answer me. 

".Vl length they came out iulo the o])in prairie, h;iH' a mile distant. 'I'hire were 
a score of them or more, with faces painted, feathers in their iiair, bows and arrows 
in their Iinnds, riding bareback and yelling like mad. After a few minutes of intense 
suspense, my father recognized the horses and some of the Indians a.s bclongin"- to 




FIKST INDIAN AtiKMV BUILDING ON NEZ PERCES BEWKKXAI' 1( i.\ 




GKAVE OF MlSSrOXARY SPALDIN(i, AT t^t'ALDING, IDAHO 



THE MEW VUPK 

;hu3lic librakt 







SPOKANE AXD THE IXLAXD EMPIRE 91 

our own friendly band. His fears for our immediate safety were allayed, but he 
was intensely excited and apprehensive. 

"After dashing wildly about the prairie and giving all the variations of the 
warwhoop, they formed a half circle and made a bee line for the houses, reaching 
Mr. Walker's first, where all stopped suddenly, with an ear-splitting shriek. Mr. 
Walker, who was sitting in his house with a half breed Indian, was paralyzed with 
terror. My father and I went down to his house, distant, perhaps, 100 yards, to 
meet them. On the way he led me by the hand, and being very much excited, walked 
so fast that I had to trot to keep up with him. I said, 'Father, what makes you 
walk so fast.''' Again he did not reply. 

"The old chief's son was at the head of the band. His story was that one of 
their people, while hunting horses the day before, had visited a camp of the Cayuses 
and found some of them gone, he could not learn where. He suspected it was to 
Tshimakain. Upon his way home he came upon fresh horse tracks, which so 
strengthened his suspicions that he walked all night and till noon that day to tell 
the old chief, who, with a part of the band, was camped about twenty-five miles from 
home, near the Spokane Falls. 

"The chief immediately said, 'Young men, catch your horses and run to Tshima- 
kain and protect your teachers,' not knowing that we had moved away. That night 
our horses were secured and put under lock and key, a guard was kept all night, 
with fires burning, and the next morning, with an escort of twenty men, we rode 
three miles across the ferry on our way back to the fort. They did this to show the 
enemy, if any were lurking about, that we were protected. After entering the tim- 
ber they began to scatter, returning through the woods by separate trails, and thus 
our guard gradually diminished till we arrived at the fort, one or two only accom- 
panying us all the way. 

"During the next ten weeks Mr. Eells was almost continually in the saddle, and 
traveled about 1,100 miles, visiting all the Spokane Indian bands, most of whom 
maintained friendly relations, and none of whom became hostile. He always traveled 
alone, except when accompanied by trusty Indians. Being a man of peace, he never 
carried any weaponS. With a horse that could outrun any Indian horse in the coun- 
try, and a mule that could scent an Indian half a mile or more tethered close by, he 
often slept alone in some out of the way place under a friendly bush. His quiet 
courage and strict integrity won the respect and confidence of the Indians, and en- 
abled him to hold them all in check and prevent bloodshed. 

"With their right hands reverently placed on his pocket testament and in his 
presence, the chiefs and head men of the several bands made solemn promises of 
fealty to the whites which they faithfully kept." 

The Whitman massacre had thrown the whole country into a furor of alarming 
apprehensions. The dreadful news, carried quickly into the scattered settlements, 
from French Prairie in the Willamette valley to the fur trading outposts in British 
Columbia, struck alarm to the minds of the bravest men and terror to the hearts of 
timid women and children. Every rifle in the Oregon country was cleaned and 
oiled for the general savage warfare that seemed impending, and the door of evcrv 
remote cabin was doubly barricaded. 

^lischievous and murderous minded Cayuse Indians had put out their runners, 
with lying reports calculated to inflame the tribes of the interior, and to allav these 



9'2 Sl'OKAM. AM) 1111. IMAM) KMl'lHK 

(listiirlMii;; iiiHiaiiCfs. I'.itlitr Ei-lls was in the saddle, weeks at a time, going every- 
where over the interior, serene, courageous, self-jiossessed. And this at a time when 
even the fur traders suffered from attacks of "nerves." fur at I'ort Colville Factor 
I.ewes kept his place guarded, night ;ind d.iy. 

News of the massacre at \\'aiilatj)ii roused th( tigliting s]>iril ol tin Oregon set- 
tlers, and a Miliinteir rcgiineiit. commandi-d liv Coloiiil H. A. (i. I.ei-. marched out 
of the \\'illamette valley, ascended the Columbia river to the interior. ;ind invaded 
the country of the hostiles. But their elusive foe, thoroughly alarmed at tliis formid- 
alile ai>piaraMef of hitter and resolute avengers, scattered to the winds, and little 
punishment could lie iiiHieted. .May iiS two Indians brought letters to the refugees 
at 1-ort Colville. one from Colonel Lee informing the missionaries tli.it his forces had 
dispersed and chased the flying Cayuses across Snake river, and adding: 

"\^■hen we found that it was not expedient to |)ursue the flying Indians further, 
we halted. The (juestion was asked: Shall we go back to the \\'illamette and leave 
till- two mission families of Rev. Messrs. \\'alker and Eells? That couki not be 
thought of. They could not look .Vmeric.ins in the face and say: "We have left two 
mission.ary families in the Indian country in these times.' N'olunteers were asked 
lor to bring away tliosi' fauiilies .ind sixty responded. .M.ijor .Joseph .M.-igone was 
placed in charge." 

A letter from .M.ijor .M.igoiie st.ittd th.it he would be at Tshim.ik.iin with his 
forces on Sund.iy. .M.iy '-'8 (the same day that the messengers arrived .it Colville 
with these disjiatcliesj . to give them military escort to the Willamette settlements. 

After consulting .among them-selves .and with Factor Lewes, a verdict was reached 
for abandonment of the mission, and e.irly the next morning Walker. Eells and a son 
of Mr. Lewes were in the saddle for Tshimakain, where they arrived before sunset, 
a ride of 70 miles. The .Spokanes were reluctant to lose their teachers, and jiro- 
tested. with fin( spirit, tb.it they would proti ct the wiiite families, and if need be. 
were re.ady to m.ike w.ir on. the C.iyuses. When reminded that the {iresence of the 
missionaries might involve them in serious troubles, they answered th.it tliev were 
ready to accept the risk .and oiu Indi.ui. o|)ening his blanket, declared, wilh tine, 
im.agery. that they would protect the uiission.-iries even as a mother jirotet'ted her 
child. To the last the Sjiokjines remonstrated .against the contempl.ited sep.iration, 
and seeing that further conference could be of no jirofit. the p.irtv returned to Col- 
ville. By noon of Thursday all were re.ady. .and bidding goodbye to their kind hosts 
.iiid protectors at Eort Colville. they sorrowfully faced the south and reached the vi- 
cinity of .Tshimakain on Saturd.iy. L.-ukirig the Ik .irt to encounter .ig.iiii the jilead- 
ing eyes and voices of the Spokanes, they changed their ])lan of rem.iiniiii; there 
over Sunday, and crossed the Spokane and observed the Sabbath on the south bank 
of the stream. 

"Tile groves were God's first temples," in the Spokane country. Our mission 
workers could not wait for the rearing even of four ))lain walls, nnich less for 
"fretted vault." and swelling organ tones. M.my .i tiuu and oft tliev sjioke God's 
word in the be.iutiful catlndral of n.ature, beneath the vast dome of he.-iven. while 
thi ir wild .and uncouth congregations gathered .attentively around, in the sh.ade of 
the pillared |)incs. Eittiiig theme for tli<- hand .and brusii of ircnios w.is Ih.at fare- 
well service, on a Sabbath morning in e.irly .lune, on the hank of the brimming Spo- 
kane, witii til. women and children seated on hales of household goods, and the 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 93 

Oregon volunteers, stained by weeks of campaigning through the Indian country, 
some seated on logs, others half-reclining on the turf, and others yet with folded 
arms, standing soldierly erect. 

As the quiet Sunday wore away, many sorrowing Indians gathered in. "We do 
not know when we shall hear you again," said Qual-qual-a-hive-tsa ; "will you not say 
a service for us ?" And for scripture text the preacher took, "The people departed, 
sorrowing most of all that they might see our face no more." 

And so, after more than nine years of rough home-building among the Spokanes, 
they went away from beautiful Tshimakain, birthplace of five of the Walker chil- 
dren and of Edwin and Myron Eells. Few of them were ever to look again upon 
that mountain vale. And yet, "there is a clinging to the land of one's birth," and in 
memory of the place, Mrs. Mary Walker, "Grandma Walker" she became in later 
years to all the people of the countryside, wrote these lines for her children: 

Tshimakain. Oh, how fine. 
Fruits and flowers abounding; 
And the breeze through the trees, 
Fife and health conferring 

And tilt- rill near tli'- hill. 
With its sparkling water; 
Lowing herds and prancing steeds 
Arouiul it used to gathrr. 

And the Sabbath was so quiet. 
And the log-house chapel, 
Where the Indians used to gather 
In their robes and blankets. 

Now it stands, alas, forsaken : 
No one with the Bible 
Comes to teach the tawny Skailu* 
Of Kai-ko-len-so-tin.| 

Other spots on earth may be 
To other hearts as dear ; 
But not to me ; the reason why. 
It was' the place that bore me." 

That first week of the exodus took tlu-m to Dr. Wliitinan's mission. Two faith- 
ful Sjjokanes went witli them to the crossing of Snake river, and, parting, one of 
them said: "Our hearts weep to see you go, but we are reconciled." The second 
week hrouulit them to The Dalles. There the cavalcade divided. Mr. Eells, with his 
domestic animals, going with the troojjs overland through the Cascade mountains 
by way of Barlow pass, the others descending the Columbia in boats and going up 
the Willamette to Oregon City at the falls. 

* People. 
t rioil. 



91 Sl'UKANE AMJ Till: INLAND EMPIRE 

"The inissions of tli<- AiiuTican Board in Origoii were bn.ktii up," says Myron 
Eells in the biography of his father. "Could they be resumed? The only mission 
in regard to w liieh th.re was any hope was that among the Spokanes. Hoping 
that the way would ojxn for their return. .Messrs. Walker and Eells did not sever 
tlieir eonneetion with the Hoard for five years. 

Tile Indians were very anxious to have them return, and in 18.51 journeyed 
four hundred and fifty miles to Oregon City to obtain teachers. Dr. Dart, superin- 
tend.nt of Indi.-.n allairs. did what he eould to aid them, but after thoroughly 
weighing tb. matt, r n. ilb.r Mr. \\alker nor Mr. Eells could f.ei it iiis duty to 
return; for, first, th.re was no adecpiate jiroteetion at Tshiniakain; and, second, 
the cost of resuming and sustaining ojjerations was very great, owing largely to the 
high prices resulting from the discovery of gold in California. . . . Hence in 
1855 their eomuetion as missionaries with the Board was formally dissolved. 

"The Indi.ms li.id been left by their teachers, and the question was. Would 
they return to their former ijractices.;* Instead of retrogression came advance. 
If not members of the visible cbureh— and not one had been thought fit for church 
membership— some sliowed that they were members of the invisible one. Several, 
as it (livin.ly e.ilKd. took position as leaders and teachers. There were public 
Sabbath services and daily worslii]) in their lodges. If tile head man were absent, 
another took his place. If the praying men were all away, tlie praying women 
took tlieir places." 

Annually some of the Spokanes went to the Willamette valley for work, and 
each year they pleaded for the return of the missionaries. Yielding, at last, to 
their importuning, .Mr. Walker resolved to jiay them a visit, in company mth 
Indian Suixrintend.nt Dart. The two started for the Spokane country, but Dart 
was called back, and ^^■alkl r deemed it best to return with him. 

"Notwithstaiiding all tli. eoniniotion about Tshiniakain in the spring of 18t8. the 
wheat had been sown in hope that it might be needed." adds Father Eells' biog- 
rajiher. "When the missionaries left in .June, Mr. Eells gave the Indians the two 
sickles, and tli.y were instructed to cut it when it was ripe and put it in the barn, 
and if the missionaries did not return before the snow should tall, they might 
thresh and eat it. It w.is harvested, but the chief said it must be kept for the 
use of tlieir teachers on their return. It was used in time of need for seed, but 
was replaced. When tiny exiiected Mr. AValker to visit them, they carried it to 
Colville and had it ground, and brought it back for the u.se of the jiarty." 

In 1861, the government having established a military post at Eort Colville 
and placed Major I.ug.nbeel in command, that officer, who .served also as Indian 
agent, said to Mr. Eells: "Those Indians of yours are the best Indians I ever 
saw. I wi.sh you would go back and resume missionary operations among them." 



CHAPTER XI 

FOUNDING THE FIRST CHURCHES AROUND SPOKANE 

father eells returns to the bunchgrass region twelve years at walla 

walla founds whitman academy spalding returns to the nez perces 

baptizes 253 spokanes eells visits his old friends on the spokane deliv- 
ers first fourth of july address at colville organizes at colfax first 

congregational church north of snake river elected school superin- 
tendent of whitman county life as a circuit rider out of colfax 

moves to medical lake dedicates church at chewelah organizes church 

at medical lake his work in spokane organizes church at sprague 

his last days at tacoma tributes to his memory mission work among the 

nez perces life work of rev. ii. 11. spalding a devoted band general 

Howard's tribute to miss m'beth. 

Near yonder copse, where once the garden smiled, 
And still where many a garden flower grows wild, 
Thercj where a few torn shrubs the place disclose. 
The village preacher's modest mansion rose. 
A man he was to all the country dear, 
And passing rich with forty pounds a yrar. 

— Oliver GohlsmitJi. 

FATHER EELLS was never content with life in the Willamette valley 
or on Puget Sound. The call of the bunch-grass country came strong and 
persistent. He yielded to its subtle power, and in 1860 went to Walla 
Walla, where he lived for twelve years, preaching, teaching and laboring inces- 
santly for Whitman academy, an institution of his founding as an enduring me- 
morial to the murdered missionary. In 1862 he went back to Tshimakain, his 
first visit since the abandonment of the mission. He held services on a Sabbath, 
attended by many Indians who gathered in from the surrounding country to greet 
their old teacher. 

While he lived at Walla Walla, a number of Spokanes came down to that val- 
ley every year to work for farmers. Many of these frequently attended the Con- 
gregational church, and, remaining for Sunday school, were gathered into a class 
and taught in their own tongue. At times tliis class had twenty-five to thirty-five 
members. 

At Tshimakain the missionaries had given the Indians a tract filled with Hililc 

'J5 



96 SPOKANE AMJ TIIK INl.AM) KMIMRK 

|)icturis. Tliis tlicy had treasured tliroii-^h tlie years. To aid them in rcmein- 
lirance of dates, tile missionaries Imd prejiared a simjile chronological chart, a 
short line marking a year, one a little longer a decade, and a long line a century. 
By this means the time was illustr.ited. from the creation to the deluge, the deluge to 
the Christian era, and from the days of Christ to the jiresent. They treasured this 
simple chart for nearly thirty years. One Sunday in 1868, at Walla Walla, after 
a numher of them had .attended Sunday school, they followed Mr. Eells to his 
home, and jjresenting this old paper, A-ma-mel-i-kan uttered the single word, 
"tem-e-walsh" — it is worn out. They were given a now one. 

Mr. Eells moved from Walla Walla to Paget Sound in 1872. and the S])okanes, 
still seeking religious instruction, appealed to Missionary H. H. Spalding, who 
had resumed his work among the Nez Perces. Spalding went among them in 1873 
.•iiid l)a])tized 2'>3, a mission from which he jjrohahly derived l)eculiar gratifica- 
tion growing out of his intense and unreasoning aversion to the C.-itholies. L nder a 
new IiKli.in policy .idoijted in President Grant's .Kiiiiinistration, of turning over 
Indian education.il work to v.-irioiis religious denominations, the .Spokanes were 
assigned in 1871 to the C'olville agency, which chanced to fall under C.itholic con- 
trol. Naturally the Catholic missionaries were eager to extend tlie influence of 
the church of Uome, and this action hy .Spalding thwarted their ])lans. 

But the lure of the sun-hright interior rem.iined strong in the heart of Father 
Eells. \\'hen James N. Glover, in 1873, hrouglil his s.iwmill from Salem, Oregon, 
to Spokane, he emiiloycd as millwright Deacon J. ,1. Macl'arlaiiil of tli.it ])lacc. 
MacF.'irland attended, next year, the meeting of tlie Congreg.itional Association 
of Oregon and Washington, at Olymjiia. and tin rr narrated to Father Eells his 
observ.ations m.idc while erecting the mill on the .Spokane; how the Indians en- 
camped by the falls had daily called the people together for worshij), and main- 
tained double services on .Sund.iy. It was like a bugle call to the stout-hearted old mis- 
sionarv, and p.aeking food •■iiid bedding on his favorite horse I.e Bleu (how the old 
I'rench names lingered in the land, for Lc Bleu was a favorite horse name among 
the trappers a century ago) lie set out in .Inly, 1 87 K to cross the Cascade moun- 
tains. Alternalelv riding .'ind walking to rest his horse, he traversed the state, 
going bv w.av of Walla W.alla and Colfax. Coming to the .Spokane, he saw an 
Indian camp across the river. "Do you know me?" he (■.illed out across the water. 
"Yes, yes; it's Mr. I.ccls!" .answered the gl.id voice of the Indians. 

News of the return of their old friend and teacher ran over the country, .uul 
it was arranged that he should hold services at Clirwelali llic lnlldwing Sunday. 
That was a busy d.ay for Mr. I'.ells, for within six hours he conducted two services 
for the natives and two more for the white settlers. I'rom Chewilah he went to 
Colville lo consult Indi.-in Agent .1. A. .Sinims. Then b.iek to the .Spokane river, 
where two more services were held, and then a tri]) to the little settlement by the 
falls to unci and counsel with Rev. H. T. Cowley, who was t.aking U]) inde|)eiident 
mission.-iry work aiiioiig the ii.-itives tlurc. 

The next summer .Mr. Eells revisited the Spokane country and held twenty- 
four services with his former wards. One .Sund.ay he and Mr. Cowley adminis- 
tiTcd the sacrami-nt to sixty communicants before a congregation of .360. "I 
made note, " he remarked, "of the propriety of l.mgujige used in pr.ayer." 

He returned to the Puget .Sound country, but the sunnner of 1876 found him 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 97 

back in the interior, giving his Sundays to the white people in the vicinity of Col- 
ville, and most of his week days to the Spokanes at various places. During nine- 
teen weeks of tiiis summer he held forty services with the Indians and forty more 
witli the whites. He delivered, too, the address at the first fourth of July celebra- 
tion held at Colville. "As it was the Centennial year," says his son, Myron Eells, 
"tlie oration was expected to be largeh' an historical sketch of the valley. Partly 
from public records, partly from the reminiscences of early settlers, and partly 
from his own recollection, it was prepared. One man, John A. Simms, Indian 
agent, was present, who had been present when he delivered the first similar address 
in the Walla Walla valley sixteen years before." 

The country was now filling with settlers, in anticipation of the coming of 
the Northern Pacific railroad, and Mr. Eells was impressed with the opportunity 
here presented for home mission work. 

"True," writes his biographer, "the country was not thickly settled. Spokane 
had in 187i, when he first visited it after it had been laid out as a town (though 
he had visited the place thirty or more years before) only two women; and for 
many years afterward had in Clieney a strong rival, and in 1880 could boast of 
only about a hundred people. The entire district (eastern Washington north of 
Snake river) had only 2,43J. population. There was no railroad. Not until 1883 
was the last spike on the Northern Pacific driven. But there was a certainty that 
it would be built through that region ; hence a few had gone there, among them 
(juite a number of Dr. Eells' old acquaintances in the Walla Walla valley. 

"In the early days he often spoke of the rich Palouse country, and so he turned 
liis steps in 1877 to its center, Colfax. August 9, 187-1', while passing from Col- 
ville to Skokomish, he had preached his first sermon there, the first preaching from 
a Congregational minister in that town." 

At Colfax, on Sunday, July 8, 1877, assisted by Rev. Dr. Atkinson of Oregon, 
he organized the first Congregational church north of Snake river, ten persons 
entering into the organization. For four years he was pastor of that pioneer 
church. 

As Mrs. Eells was in failing healtii, it was deemed unwise at first to bring her 
to Colfax, but in the spring of 1878 he thought it best for her to be more closely 
associated with him in his labors, and it was planned that she should join Iiim 
there, plans that were not to be carried to execution, for in May this faithful and 
devoted "mother in Israel." who had come as a bride nearly forty years before 
to lonely Tshimakain, was seized with her last illness. August 9, 1878, at the age 
of 73, she passed to her great reward. Funeral services were held at Skokomish, 
and the funeral sermon was (ireached by her son. Rev. Myron Eells, as there was 
no other minister within thirty miles. 

"Before her death." tiiis son has written, "plans had been made for a eluireii 
building at Colfax. At first the proposition was made to the chureli that if it 
would allow other churches to use the building half the time, they would cooperate 
in building it. In accordance with that plan subscriptions were made. But to 
Dr. Eells this was injudicious. He believed that the Congregational church would 
have to do the greater part of the work, and would have the church but half the 
time. After consultation the plan was abandoned. Then Dr. Eells said that he 
would give as much as all the members for the erection of a building not to exceed 



98 spoKANi: AM) riii: inland kmpire 

a thousand doUarij. J. A. Perkins gave .$;')00, tlic rest $500. It was a great effort, 
and some had to borrow money. When finished tlie eost was over $2,000. The 
money was all fnrnished liy the ehureli. then inereased to thirteen niemhers. .md 
its pastor, except about fifty dollars." 

It was a small band, "but those ch.irtir members were a host," testified the 
pastor. "They were influential .md liiffjily ( -.ti-euied. They were small in num- 
ber, but earnest, active, efficient." 

Besides his $,^)()() to the ehureh l)uil(liu^-. Mr. I'.ells paid .illOO for the lots. .'r^lOO 
for the org.-m. if'.i I 1 for tlu' 1x11. .md for hynui books, bibles and incidentals enout;h 
more to swell his tol.il gift to .^^l.tillO. 'I'iie building. 30 by 60 feet, was dedi- 
cated September 7. 1879. Dr. Eells offered the dedicatory pra_ver, and it w.is 
dedicated free of debt. .\ud tliis, in brief, w.is the beginning of Plymoutii cliurch, 
Colfax. 

.\t the elielion of 187fS .Mr. Kells was elected school superintendent of Whit- 
man county, having thin an an-a considerably larger than that of Connecticut. 
He (jualified relucl.mtly, and finding his double duties a severe tax upon his strength, 
resigned the office June 1, 1879, and a successor was appointed, but failed to 
(lualifv, and Mr. Eells served out the term of two years. The following quota- 
tion from his own chronicles will illustr;ite )iioneer conditions in Whitman comity: 

".Moiidav morning left Colf;ix: rode p(rhai)s sr\(ii miles: was ;it .-i seliool in 
.S])ring valley soon .after nine o'clock. Iliibbbd uiy iiorse and let him graze out- 
side, .-md s])ent the forenoon in seliool. .\t 1'.; o'clock I rode on .-ind ate a cold 
luneli in the s.iddlc. .Vftrr ;i little more than ,m hour's ride, .arrived at :i school 
in Thousand Sjirings N'.illey. Kem.iined till the close of school. I then rode on; 
ate my supper as I had dom- my liineh. When it was becoming .i little dark, I 
arrived .it the residence of aged persons who. 1 thought, would entertain inc. It 
was r.aining. I knocked at the door: there was no resjionse. There was a rude 
stable constructed of rails .ind straw. 1 went to that; there was no feed there. I 
h.id t.ikin till precaution to e.irry a sui.ill portion of gr.iin on my horse. 1 now 
gave th.it to him. I h.id not ))Iaiined to c.iuip; eonsequeiitly my bedding was 
short. The flooring of the st.ible w.as the ground. I l.iy down: sle|)t some of the 
time, and some of the time I did not. In the morning the r.iin h.id ceased f.illing. 
Mv horse needed grass. I went out .and l.iy down, m.iking a ])illow of my .inn. 
and added somewh.it to my slee]). Had .-i cold breakfast of such food as I had with 
me. H.id tr.-nibil thirty ti\r miles the d.iy before. In due time I p.isscd on. 
At lialf-])ast 8 1 W.IS ne.ir the sehoolhouse lli.it 1 wished to visit. It was a large 
school, and there w.as .-in iniusu;d number of l.irge seliol;irs. I spent the entire 
forenoon in tli.at selionl. my Imrsr outside hobbli il ,mii gr.-izing. 

"At the close of the school I rode on to the school at Colton, and was there 
sca.son;iblv for the .-ifternoon session, and rem.iined there until near the close of 
the afternoon. As I h.id f.iilnl the iiiglil before to liud eiitirt.iiiiiiieiit. I now 
jilanned to he in .season. I h.id sever.il miles to ride. I rode down the v.illey 
e.illed Union Flat. While passing, I took out dry bread, dismounted, di])ped it 
in the w.-iter .and then got in the s.iddle. It s|)eedily softened. Seasonably I 
arrived ;it the residence of Mrs. II. H. He.ild. I said to her, 'Will you allow nic 
to leave tomorrow morning before bre.akf.-ist ?' — for I had some ten miles to ride 
to go to the III \t seliool. I think we e.m give yon .-in early bre.ikf.ist.' was the 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 99 

reply. She arose at five o'clock the next morning and gave me my breakfast so 
early that I was at the school house as soon as the teacher arrived. I spent the 
forenoon in that school and then returned to Colfax." 

Churches grew slowly in pioneer days. When Mr. Eells, after a four year 
pastorate at Colfax, resigned in July, 1881, that church had but twenty-eight 
members; and it was yet the largest church north of Snake river. The Rev. .1. T. 
Marsh was his successor in Plymouth church. 

While Mr. Eells was at Colfax his labors extended far beyond the radius of 
his congregation tliere. He was. in cttVct, a "circuit rider" over much the greater 
part of that four years, preaching at Lone Pine, Almota, Steptoe Butte, ^larshall, 
Colville and other places. Special work, says his biographer, was done also at 
Davton, Chewclah, Cheney, Spokane Falls and Medical Lake, and he counseled 
lartrelv in the organization of most of the earlier churches of eastern Washington. 
His was a wide stage of action, extending from the Canadian boundary on the 
north, to the Oregon line near Walla Walla; but he was gifted with extraordinary 
vigor and vitality, and his "little jaunts" over eastern Washington at this period 
of its development, even though made by a man who had attained the scriptural 
allotment of three score and ten. brought little of hardship to one who in his 
younger, days had shared the hard, rough life of traders and trappers, and lived 
for weeks at a time on Indian fare. 

Upon leaving Colfax, Mr. Eells, thinking the waters of Medical Lake would 
benefit his health, took up his residence there and, as his strength permitted, en- 
o-aged in general missionary work. But Medical Lake was off the railroad, and 
finding that his work could be better conducted from Cheney, he removed to that 
town in April, 1882, and built himself a small dwelling house. "For nearly a 
year and a half," says his son, "his time was spent in a round of labors in nine 
different places in three counties: Lone Pine in Whitman county; Cheney, Sprague, 
Spangle, Medical Lake and near Cottonwood Springs in Spokane county ; Chewelah, 
Fort Colville and Colville town in Stevens county. Then followed a year in the 
east for Whitman college, after which he still made his home at Cheney, nomi- 
nally, though really it was everywhere throughout the region." 

"I have been away from home sixteen nights (he wrote in ,Iuly. 188.5), at 
home twelve. I am weary in my work, but not tired of it." Again in October: 
"After an absence of fifteen days on a preaching tour I returned. I have con- 
ducted preaching services at each of nine different places." After a trip to Colfax, 
he wrote. September 11. 188,5: "A bo}-, judged to be .about ten years old. rode 
twenty-five miles to get a pair of shoes for his sister to wear to service." 

In October. 1886, he returned to Medical Lake, where he remained a year 
and a half, his preaching places at that jjcriod being Medical Lake. Pleasant 
Prairie, Half Moon Prairie, ^Meadow Lake and Cheney, with an occasional visit 
to Chewelah and Colville. 

In 1892 a church was erected at Chewelah, and notwithstanding Father Eells 
was then living west of the Cascade mountains, the people there felt that none 
could grace so well the occasion of the dedication. Fifty-four years to a day, after 
he first camped on the site of the town, he offered pr.ayer in this new church. 
"It mav be a weakness for me. an old man, to go so far, four hundred and fift\' 
miles and back, to accept the invitation," he wrote of tliis journey, "but if anybody 



100 Sl'OKANi: AM) 1111. INLAND I.MIMKE 

else had fainpcd on that spot, and held servifi-s there fifty- four years previous, 
perhaps he would li.ive the same weakness." 

A gift of a bell for this eliureli w.is his List import int aet lor ;iny eluireii. He 
lionght it in New York, .and paid for it a few d.ivs liefort his (h-.ith. .Said the Rev. 
II. L. Hallock at his funeral: "Its first tones in eastern \\'asliina:ton will ring out a 
tender requiem — nay, rather a glorious tone of rejoieing for the work lie ii.is .le- 
coniplished. and the crown of life he has gone to wear on high. 

Writing years after of his work at Cheney, his son, the Ke\. -Myron F.ells. s.iid: 
"Previous to 1881, Deacon G. K. .Vndriis. whose home was ne.ir Cheney, had Ik Id a 
.Salih.-ith school near that |)laei-. which was afterward moved to the town. The 
question then was, "Can ;i church be organized.'' It was done February '20, 1881, 
by Dr. Eells, in a hotel over a barroom, with nine members, three males and six 
fem.ales, and was the first church of ;iny denomination in the place. He was its 
pastor until the ordination of the Rev. !•'. T. Clarke the next winter. 

"The next question was to erect a building. Dr. Eells prepared a siil> 
scrijition paper and he.ided it with $,>00. Others subscribed. It was a strug- 
gle, yet it was carried forward. A contract w.is made for .'{'1,500. The first ifaOO 
were easily paid; the Church Huilding .Society had promised to furnish tht 
last •'{'.'500 ; the second ])aynient was the hard work. The day on which the ii.iymeiit 
w.is to be made was one of an.\iety. Deacon Andrus went about the place trying to 
obtain assistance. About noon he and Dr. Eells met to see the result of their united 
effort. There was no l.ick. It seemed wonderful. That afterncMiii he left for Lone 
I'inc and camped by a tree .it night. As he sat by the tree .md thought of the day's 
work and the progress tli.it li.id been made in regard to the eiuireli edifice, his heart 
overflowed with gr.ititiulc." 

To tliis churcli Mr. Eells also gave a bell, and in .ill his gifts to the Cheney 
church aggregated $1,100. The bell cracked in 1881, .md he li.id it sent back to tlie 
factory at West Troy, i)aying .'f'50 for freight and exchange for a new bell. 

After he h.ad hft e.istern W.ishington he wrote in his journal: "August HT, 1888: 
I pray much for tin diviiic .ipprov.-il jf my work at Cheney and Medical Lake. Feb- 
ruary 25, 1891: Have been to T.ieoiiia to pay interest money on .i note ag.iiiisl the 
Congregational eliureh .it Cluiiey. " 

Of Father Eells' later work at .Spokane his son has written: "Dr. Eells first 
visited this place in 1871, when but two white women were in it. He afterwards 
])reached there at times. \ eliureh was organized May i2'2, 1879. and their next 
gre.-it stej) was to erect .i building. They wi're then worshii)iiig in .i schoolhouse, 
26 by 40 feet, and thought that ;i church of the same size would be large enough. 
Dr. Eells advised them to make it ten feet longer, and jiromised them .'fS'.iOO. It was 
built the same size ;is the one ;it Cheney. 30 by TjO, ;it a cost of ,')5::i,000. Afterwards 
lie gave this church .i bell, then some books, and some more money, .amounting to 
$.')00 in all. At its dedication. December 20, 1881, the day after the one at Cheney 
was dedicated, he offered the dedicatory prayer. Dr. Atkinson preaching the ser- 
mon. He counseled it through troublous times in 1882-83, and for a short time in 
188.'J was its |)astor." 

.Such w.as the beginning of Westminster Congreg.ation.al iliiinli of .Spokane, and 
among its memorial windows is one with this inscription: 





\ fo' 



f«tllllll 








IXIilAN I'KKSUVIKHIA.N i HlKi^Jl, 
SPALDING, IDAHO 



A GROUP OF FATHER KFOLLS- 
CHURCHES 



THE ^£W VORK 

iPUBLiC MSKAKYl 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 101 

CUSHING EeLLS, 

Always abounding in good works. 

When Mr. Etlls karntd that with the construction of the Northern Pacific a 
town was to be started at Sprague. his memory ran back to many interesting incidents 
associated with that site. Tliere the mission families had encamped, that rainy 
spring in 1839. when on their way from the Whitman mission to Tshimakain ; and 
there, while they were detained by the kick of a horse suifered by ^Ir. Walker, he 
had walked to a slight eminence overlooking the present town and engaged in medi- 
tation and prayer. It was a convenient camping place on his journeys from Tshima- 
kain to the Whitman mission and old Fort Walla Walla on the Columbia, and there 
the mission families, on their way to the annual conference at Waiilatpu had passed 
two Sundays in rest and religious service. It seemed to liim tliat a spot thus enshrined 
in the deeper emotions of his heart extended to him a special call to duty and action, 
and accordingly he responded to that call, and there, on April 14, 1881, in the din- 
ing-room of the hotel, he conducted the first protestant services ever held in the 
town. On June 18, 1882, he organized a Congregational church there with five 
members and became its pastor, serving the little congregation for two years. At 
his own expense he built, the same year, a union Sunday school on a lot owned by 
himself. Out of his private purse came, too, the purchase price of the church bell, 
and the lot for the parsonage was his contribution. In all liis gifts to this cluirch 
totaled more than $750. 

With his resignation of the pastorate at IMedical Lake ended the active life work 
of Father Eells. On leaving that place. May 19, 1888, he wrote in his journal: 

"This afternoon I leave Medical I-ake. Marked kindness has been shown me by 
precious friends. Inexpressible sorrow and anguish have been experienced by the 
words and acts of others. I think it is not unlikely tlieir conduct is largely attribu- 
table to ignorance and erroneous belief. Doubtless I am sensitive." 

Moved by the infirmities of advancing age, he retired to the home of his son Ed- 
win on the Puyallup Indian reservation near Tacoraa. But again and again his 
heart went out to his churches in eastern Washington, and under date of August 19, 
1889, is found this entry in his journal: 

"I liave ordered an 800 pound bell to be forwarded to Rev. David Wirt at .Medi- 
cal Lake." And again : 

"October 19. 1889: In my dreams and waking moments I am at Medical Lake." 

On Saturday, February 11, 1893. he wrote the last entry in his journal, that 
journal which, for fifty-five years of active life, he had maintained, witli almost daily 
regularity. Witli unerring premonition of the approaching change, he wrote, "JNIy 
feelings impress me with the nearing close of my mortal life ' The next day was 
Sunday, and he rode to church from his son's house in Tacoma, participating in 
some of the services at the P"irst Congregational church. On tlie way liome he suf- 
fered a severe chill, but went out after dinner to feed his old horse, Le Blond, but 
fell in the effort and was unable to rise. He was carried to his bed with pneumonia, 
but a seeming change appearing for the better lie rose on Wednesday and wrote a 
little. That night he grew worse and a physician was summoned. The dying mis- 
sionarv watched the passing hours until after midnight of tlie sixteenth, his birthday, 
when he directed his granddaughter to write in his journal: "Eighty-tliree years 



10-2 Sl'OKAM. AM) I'lll. INl.AM) KMl'IKE 

ago today I c-omiiuiitHil this luort.il lilV." His last words wire soiiu- directions re- 
garding his faithful hor.si-. and about half-past two his cyt-s closed forever in death. 
The body was taken to Seattle and laid to rest by the grave of his wife. 

Memorial services were held at Walla Walla, where the i)rinei))al address was 
spoken by the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, assisted by President .T. 1". Eaton and Mrs. 
N. 1'. Cobleigh of Wiiitnian college, and Dr. A. .1. Anderson, i former president. 
.\t Colfax, where tht chief address was delivered by the Rev. H. P. James, Dr. F. 
.M. Hunnell also vi.ieiMf,^ .-, (ittinj; tril)ute. .\t M.dieal Lake, where exjjressions 
were made iiv Mr. .md .Mrs. 15. .S. Dudley. Mr. .ind .Mrs. E. W. Gilk.y. ami tin Rev. 
I'. \'. Hoyt. M .Skokomisb, in tin tirsl cliureli of the town, of which he once had 
been pastor, memorial services wire eondueled by his son; and at Raveiiswood. near 
Chicago, a memorial address was made by the Rev. Marcus Whitman Montgomery. 
with stereopticon views by Dr. .1. E. Roy. 

Speaking of the death of this truly great and good man. Dr. F. B. Clu rrington, 
pastor of Westminster church in S])okanc, said: that a hero was one who li.id an 
op|)ortunity .ind |)roved iciual t" it: but Dr. Eells bad an o|)portunity and im- 
proved it. 

The Rev. I.. H. Hallock, his T.ieom.i i)astor. said: "At the dawn of his eighty- 
third birtliday was transl.ited from earth to heaven. Dr. Cushing Eells. one of (jod's 
noblemen ; pioneer mission.-iry, friend of humanity, founder of Whitman college, and 
judged by tlie test of long and unwearied service, entitled as much as any man to the 
.Master's greeting, 'Will done, good .ind faithful servant; enter thou into the joy of 
tliv Lord.' Good I'"ather Eells died with the respect of all who knew him. He died 
in peace to meet the reward of an honored and faithful servant." 

The Oeeideiit.'il Congregationalist : ".\ company of our legislators, sitting in 
committee at Olymjiia, debated whether they should t,ix eliureh property. One of 
them asked why it should be f.ivored. He was reminded that there lay. not many 
miles from him. the mort.il remains of ;i Christian patri.ireh. Father Eells of 
venerable memory, through whose efforts and those of his colleague, Marcus Whit- 
iii.iii. this very state in whiib the legislators sat had been saved to him and to Amer- 
ica. On the day th.-it rounded eighty-three years of life, Cushing Eells left Washing- 
ton for another home. On the d.iy after his death, a legislative committee of the 
st.-ite of W.ashington, who owi d tlirir proixrty anil their Christian nurture to him, 
determined tn f.ivor tin eburelus beeause of his work. .\iid if ever a question was 
siiu.irely answereii. it w.is answered when ;i gentleman from Tacoma instanced the 
life of Cushing Eells as the reason why Washington owe.s something to the Christian 
missionarw tli'' Christian cliunli and the Christian's God." 

Dr. I.VMiaii .Vbbott wnili in the Cliristi;in L'nion: ".\ man of great and beautiful 
character, of unsurpasstd eonsi eration. anil one to whom the republic of the United 
.Stati's owes a far greatir ili bl lliari to many who have oeeu])ied .-i f.-ir more con- 
spicuous pl;i<'e in history. 

.Measured by iiiterisl arousid. niiiiiln rs eciM\ crtid. and sust.-iined results, the 
Ne/, Peree missions .at E.apw.ai .and Kami.ah were the most successful of all Protestant 
efforts to ev.angeli/.e the n.alive r.iees of the Pacific luirthwest. The reader will 
recall that with M.arcus Whitnian and his bride came the Rev. H. H. .Spalding 
.and bride, crossing the Rocky niount.iins in IH.'Ui, the young wives the first women 
to traverse the American continent ; and that the Sp.aldings answered the call of 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 103 

tlic Nez Perces, tlif most numerous and extensive of all the Indian tribes of the 
interior, and established a mission and sehool among them at Eapwai. The school 
opened with 100 pupils, old and young, and three years after the attendance had 
grown to 150 children and as many adults. Mr. Spalding reported that the more 
devout Nez Perces frequently spent the entire night pondering over what they 
had learned the day before. Two years later these Indians gathered in assem- 
blages of from 1,000 to '2,000 for religious instruction. 

They eagerly sought instruction in agriculture, and some of them would barter 
tiieir guns, dearest possession of the Indian heart, for hoes and spades. Nearly 
a hundred families planted fields around Mr. Spalding's, who reported in IS.SS that 
his own field yielded 2,000 bushels of potatoes, besides a good crop of wheat and 
other products. 

For many years after the missionaries had witlidrawu to the Willamette valley, 
the Nez Perces remained witliout white instructors, but immigrants, gold hunters, 
Indian agents and traders reported that the Christianizing influences of the mis- 
sionaries remained. One third of the Nez Perces were found to be maintaining 
family worship, and pubhc services were continued under the faithful preaching 
of Timothy. They possessed hymn books in their own beautiful language, and 
read from the gospel of Matthew, also in their own tongiie — books tliat had been 
printed in mission days on the first printing press to be set up and operated west 
of the Rocky mountains. This equipment of the "art preservative of ^all arts" 
had come as a donation from the Rev. H. Bingliam's church at Honolulu, and with it, 
in 1839, had come E. O. Hall, a printer from the Sandwich islands, induced to 
make the long voyage and journey to the interior of the American continent by 
the invalidism of his wife. The Halls remained at I.apwai till the spring of 
18 to. when they returned to the Sandwich islands. 

So well had many of the Nez Perces kept up tlieir knowledge of reading and 
writing that they were able, at the great council at Walla Walla in 1855, as re- 
ported by General Joel Palmer and others, to take notes of the proceedings and 
make copies of the treaties there negotiated by Governor Stevens. 

After the vigorous and successful Wright campaign of 1858, the country east 
of the Cascade mountains was declared open by military proclamation, in 1859, 
to white settlement, and soon thereafter Mr. Spalding, who, tiirough all the wait- 
ing years down in the Willamette valley, had cherished a purpose to return to 
his first field of endeavor, came back to the Nez Perce country and resumed his 
mission labors. "Although Mr. Spalding had been absent from the tribe many 
years," reported Indian Agent J. W. Anderson, "yet they retained all the forms 
of worship which h.-ul been taught them. Many of them have prayers night and 
morning in their lodges. Not having any suitable schoolhouse, I permitted Mr. 
Spalding to open his school in my office shortly after his arrival, and from that 
time till he was compelled to discontinue the school from severe sicknes.s, the school 
was crowded, not only with children, but with old men and women, some of whom 
were compelled to use glasses to assist the sight. Some of the old men would remain 
till bedtime engaged in transcribing into their language portions of scripture trans- 
lated by Mr. Spalding." 

.Judge Alexander Smith, of the first judicial district of Idaho, wrote about 



104 SPOK.WF, A\n rriF. ixiavd empire 

tliat time, for publication in a San Erancisco newspaper, the following interesting 
account of services iield at Lewiston In- Mr. Sjialding: 

"On Sunday last I liad tlie pleasure of attending chureli at this place, conducted 
in Ncz Perce by Rev. H. H. Spalding. The governor, federal and county officers 
and citizens of I.ewiston were mostly present. The scene was deeply solemn and 
interesting; the hrc.-ithless silence, the earnest, devout attention of that great con- 
gregation (even tlie small children) to the words of their much loved pastor; the 
spirit, the sweet melody of their singing; the readiness with which they turned to 
hymns and chapters, and read with Mr. Spalding the lessons from their testaments 
which Mr. Spalding had translated and printed twenty years before; the earnest, 
pathetic voices of the native Christians whom Mr. Spalding called upon to pra\ — 
all, all deeply and solemnly impressed that large congregation of white spectators, 
even to tears. It were better a tiiousand times over, if the go\ erinmnt would do 
away with its policy that is so insufficiently carried out. and only lend its aid to 
a few such men as Mr. Spalding, whose whole lieart is in the business, who has but 
one desire, to civilize and Christianize the Indians." 

In his able work, "Indian Missions," the Rev. Myron Eells blames "govern- 
mental policy and officers, the Indian ring and others," for hostile interference with 
Mr. Spalding's later work among the Nez Perces. "Some of the time he was on the 
outskirts, some of the time in the Walla Walla region, and sometimes elsewiuTe; 
yet all of the time he was aiming to do one thing, iiot\\'ithstanding tiie opposition 
of those who so often defeated him," a judgment which needs to be tempered by the 
statement of fact that Mr, Spalding, as often is the ease witli men of intense 
zeal and resolution of purpose, was tem]>eramentally unfortunate .md not infre- 
quently bitter and undiplomatic in his relations with others. 

"It was not until he went in person to Washington, in the winter of 1870-71," 
adds Eells, "that he obtained ,in order freely to return to his field. He reentered 
it in the fall of 1871, and for three years worked with uiiabating zeal, and during 
this time he was allowed to gather in the harvest." 

He lies buried at Lapwai, death calling him to his long reward on August 3, 
1874. Large part of the last year of iiis life was devoted to mission work among 
the Spokancs. Of these he baptized nearly 700 in the last three years of his life. 

"Perhaps," said the Oregonian of .Vugust 22, 1871, "it is to his influence more 
than to any otiier cause, that the Nez Perces are indebted for the distinction they 
enjoy of being regarded as the most intelligent and the least savage of all our Indian 
tribes. Amid the grateful remembrance of those wlio came in after him to enjoy 
the blessings his sacrifices purchased, he r.sts from his labors, and his works do 
follow him." 

In the closing ye.-irs (if his iiiissioii Mi-. .Spaldinj; di-ew around hiiii a most debited, 
earnest band of Christian workers, including our Spokane pioneer, H. T. Cowlev and 
wife, and Miss S. L. McBeth, who cime from tlie Clioctaw mission to take employ- 
ment under government as a teacher .iniong tiie Nez Perces. Of this remarkable 
woman General O. O. Howard, who visit, d hi r when passing through tin- eountrv 
Willi iiis command in |)ursuit of Clii.f .Insi ph and his hostile liand. wrote in the 
Chicago Advance of .lune It, 1877: 

"In a small Iiouse having two or three rooms, I found Miss McBeth living by 
Iierself. She is such an invalid from ))artial |)aralysis. that she can not walk from 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 105 

house to house, so I was sure to find her at home. The candle gave us a dim 
light, so that I could scarcely make out how she looked as she gave me her hand 
and welcomed me to Kamiah. The next time I saw her by day, showed me a pale 
intellectual face, above a slight frame. How could this face and frame seek this 
far-off region.!" Little by little the mystery is solved. Her soul has "been fully con- 
secrated to Christ, and He has, as she believes, sent her upon a special mission to 
the Indians. Her work seems simple, just like the Master's in some respects. For 
example, she gathers her disciples around her, a few at a time, and having herself 
learned their language, so as to understand them and to speak passably, she instructs 
them and makes teachers of these disciples. 

"Tliere is the lounge and the chair, there the cook stove and the table, there, 
in another room, the little cabinet organ, and a few benches. So is everything about 
this little teacher, the simplest in style and work. The only Nez Perces books thus 
far are the gospel of Matthew, translated by Mr. Spalding, and the gospel of John, 
by James Reuben, the Indian assistant teacher, who was aided in the translation 
by the Rev. Mr. Ainslie. It is evident these must be largely used in this work of 
instruction. I hear that the Indian department is afraid that Miss McBeth is 
teaching theology and orders her back to the rudiments. Certainly not theology in 
the way of 'isms' of any kind, I am ready to affirm. I told her to call it 'theophily,' 
if a high-sounding name was needed for God's love. For as Jonah, the sub-ciiief, 
brokenly said, 'It makes Indians stop buying and selling wives; stop gambling and 
iiorse-racing for money; stop getting drunk and running about; stop all time lazy 
and make them all time work.' It is filling this charming little village witli houses, 
and though she can not visit them, her pupils' houses are becoming neat and cleanly. 
The wife is becoming industrious within doors, sews, knits and cooks. The fences 
are up, the fields are planted. Oh, that men could see that this faithful teaching 
has the speedy effect to change the heart of the individual man ; then all tlie fruits 
of civilization begin to follow." 

In the chapter next following, the narrative of tlie Rev. H. T. Cowley's removal 
from the Nez Perce reservation, to take up independent mission work among the 
Spokanes, will conclude our review of Protestant missions in the Inland Em))ire. 



CHAPTER XII 

H. T. COWLFA' TELLS OF LIFE AMONG THE SPOKANES 

BEGINS MISSION WORK WITH THE NEZ PERCES IN 1871— BECOMES AN INDEPENDENT 

TEACHER AT SPOKANE IN 1871 FAMILY LIVES ON DRIED SALMON AND VENISON 

OPENS SCHOOL IN INDIAN LODGE INDIANS HELP TO BUILD SCHOOLHOUSE AND 

DWELLING FOR MR. COWLEY— EAGER TO LEARN WAYS OF CIVILIZATION— SLIGHT RE- 
SPECT FOR PRIVACY GIFTS COME FROM AFAR FINDS INDIANS HONEST AND KIND 

TEACHES FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOL, WITH SIX PUPILS. 



T 



HE appended tabulation, compiled by Captain Tliomas W. Symons, U. S. en- 
gineer corps, shows the variant spelling of the name Spokane: 



Spokan Official Transfer Papers Pacific Fur company to Northwest 

Fur company. 

Spokan Ross Cox. 

Spokane War Department Map 1838. 

Spokane Commodore Wilkes. 

Spokein Rev. S. Parker. This writer, who visited the country in 1836, 

says: "Tlie name of this nation is generally written Spo- 
kan, sometimes Spokane. I called them Spokans, but they 
corrected my pronunciation and said 'Spokein' and this 
they repeated several times, until I was convinced that to 
give their name a correct pronunciation, it should be writ- 
ten Spokein." 

Spokan Greenhow. 

Spokain McVickar. 

Spokan Nath. J. Wyeth's report, 1839. 

Spokane Robertson. 

Spokane Thornton. 

Spokane A. Ross. 

Spokan Franciiere. 

Spokan Irving. 

Spokan Nat. Railroad Memoirs. 

Spokan Armstrong. 

Spokan St. John. 

Spokane Pacific Railroad Report. 

Spokane Mullan. 

Sjioken Robertson & Crawford. 

107 



108 .Sl'OKANK AND Till. INLAND EMPIRE 

Perhaps no one here has more intimate knowledge of Indian life and character 
than that possessed hy H. T. Cowlew Mr. Cowley went among the Xez Perces in 
1871 as missionary and teacher, and i?i 187t transferred his labors to the land of 
*he Spokanes. With these he maint.iined tile relation of "guide, counsellor and 
friend" for a period of eight years, jjreaehing in their lodges, teaching in a rough 
building eonstniettd largely by their efforts, .md for n while subsisting, himself 
and family, on their rougii f.ire of dried salmon and lean venison. 

M hile .1 student .at Olierliii eollege, Mr. Cowley met and m.irried Mrs. Cowley, 
and under the rules was tluTeby disbarred from the completion of his course. He 
went then to .Antioeh .-is te;ielur and student, and was gradu.ited from tiiat college. 
A year later lie went to .\uliurii Theologieal seminary .iiid w^■^s graduated from that 
institution. After two years' service ainoMi,'^ the i'rott slant N'ez Perces at Kamiah, 
Idaho, differences having <-ome up between tile Indian .agent and the missionaries, 
lie resigned .and took up his residence at the new settlement of Mt. Idaho, on Camas 
prairie. 

".\ year or so later," said Mr. Cowley, "the .Spokane Indians sent down a delega- 
tion to iietition me to come among them and establish a school and elmrch at the 
falls of the ."Spokane. Tiiey expressed an earnest desire for the white man's en- 
lightenment, and undertook to i)rovide a house for my family, a school building for 
their own peojih-, .and the necessary food supjilies for my sujiport. I w.as ur'i-ed 
to take this step by the pioneer missionary, H. H. .S|>,ildiiig, then teaching and 
preaching at Lajiwai. Mr. .Sjialding li.ad iireaciied to the -S))()kanes in the summer 
of 1873, and intended to return witii me in 1871, but was taken ill and died tiiat 
summer. He now lies buried at Lapwai. 

"I arrived liere in .Iniie, 1871-, in company with six young Xez Perces, who liad 
been my heliiers at K.iiniah, one of them a son of Chief Lawyer. The Lawyers were 
a remarkable family. A daughter, Lucy, was a very attractive young woman, .and 
could readily have made an alliance with any one of several white suitors. One of 
the army officers at Fort Lapwai formed a die)) attaehinent for her, and asked iier 
hand in marriage, but she declined the offer and rem.iincd single to her death. She 
spoke Englisli well and was a very intelligent woman. Lawyer's two sons became 
Presbyterian jire.achers. Archie, the younger, was ,as fine a young man as you 
would see anywliere. He possessed a siileiidid form, tlu' Indian physiognomy was 
not pronounced in him, and he had a bearing of great dignity. 

"After I iiad looked over the field at .Spokane, I returned to Mt. id.alio lor iiiv 
family, and we arriv( d here in the middle of October, tr.aveling hv wagon. Living 
at the falls then were ,1. X. Glover, his partner, C. 1\ ^c aton, and a man named 
Kizer. On our w.ay up from Mt. Idaho, we overlook William Pool, a carpenter. 

and his family, who were ( ing to locate at Spok.ane. Mr. Pool h,lp,,i uir to 

build my house .and the Indi.an schoolhouse. 

".My first dwelling was at a jioint which is now on Sixtii avenue, between Divi- 
sion and Brown, . W< hnilt the .schoolhouse on Sixtli between Division and Pine. 
The dwelling was of logs, two rooms below .and .i Large .attic above, and we later 
added a leanlo kitchen. We could not find mortar or clay for chinking, and as a 
substitute used a tjuantily of ])ine moss, which the Indian squ.iws brought from the 
woods beyond Hangm.aii erei k. The logs used in this structure had iireviously gone 
into a half eom))leted building down near Howard street and the river. Someone 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 109 

had started a house there, which had never been completed, and Mr. Glover had 
sold it to the Indians. Enoch, a Spokane sub-chief, who had been instrumental in 
my coming here, took his team and hauled the logs up to the building site. There 
were here, at that time, about 250 or 300 Indians, who had been living in scattered 
encampments but later assembled in the vicinity of Pine street in order to be near 
tlu- school. Enoch had fenced in about 180 acres; his north line was about where 
Third avenue now lies, his south line was the cliff, his west line Howard street and 
the east line ran near Pine. 

"The schoolhouse was a box structure, 20 by 30, built of lumber bought 
at Glover's mill. There was some dissatisfaction over the refusal by Mr. Glover 
to donate the lumber, the Indians alleging that his predecessors, who had located 
here in 1871, had promised, in an informal treaty, to give them all the lumber they 
might require for their own uses, and they contended that Mr. Glover ought to 
consider himself bound to carry out that agreement. They finally agreed to pay 
for the lumber in furs and grain, but Mr. Glover had considerable difficulty in col- 
lecting, and I believe lie never was fully compensated for that lumber. The In- 
dians had very crude ideas about contracts and debts. They could barter furs for 
goods, but beyond that eould not grasp the white man's contracts and agreements. 
They were as ignorant as children. In the same way Mr. Pool, the carpenter, was 
to have three horses for his labor, and we had considerable difficulty in getting them. 
"Before the building was erected, I oi)ened school in a large Indian lodge, about 
eighty feet long, covered with Indian matting, canvas, sheeting and a few buffalo 
robes. Some of the Indians, but not all, had robes enough for lodges. Buffalo 
robes were generally used for bedding, and were spread upon a rough mattress of 
pine iiouglis and moss, or of tall rye grass and rushes from the swamps. I fre- 
quently slept in their tents in winter. On cold nights they would keep a fire going 
and some of these lodges were quite comfortable. 

"The young men carried the lumber on their backs all the way from the saw- 
mill down on the river bank, and the building was not completed until March. A 
stove was brought from Walla Walla. 

"When it was completed, old and young gathered in and filled the place to its 
capacity. Enoch himself would come occasionally and spend the day, taking in- 
struction. I never saw a people so eager to learn the ways of civilization. I first 
taught them the letters and figures. I had a blackboard and some crayons and drew 
pictures of animals and familiar articles. Pointing to one of these, I would get 
the Indian word for it and write it down, and then the corresponding English word. 
Considering the difficulties we had to contend with, they made very rapid progress. 
They wanted to start the lessons at dayliglit and keep up the instruction until dark. 
"My family then comprised Mrs. Cowley, Edith, aged seven, now Mrs. E. C. 
Stillman, living on the old homestead at Si.\th and Division ; Fred W., aged five, after- 
ward drowned in Loon lake ; Grace, aged three, who died at the time of the death of her 
mother in 1900; Agnes, aged one, now Mrs. J. L. Paine, living in the Wellington 
apartments at Stevens and Sixth. Cazenovia, born here in June, 1876, is now Mrs. 
A. K. Smythe of Portland; and Arthur W., born here in 1878, is an architect of 
this city. 

"I was long of the belief that my daughter was the first white child born in 
Spokane, but recently my attention has been directed to historical authority which 



J 10 Sl'OKANK AM) I'llK INLAND EMPIRE 

iTidits tli.it distinction to the little dauglittr of a family named Bassett, and I tliink 
that claim is correct. The Bassetts had moved from Spokane to the Four Lake.s 
country before my arrival here, and their little daughter was drowned at that place. 
"In looking back over those eventful years, I marvel now that I ventured so 
much in bringing my family liere and taking up my work independent of any sup- 
IJort beyond the meager help promised by the Indians. They had agreed to provide 
.1 liouse and provisions, but were unable to carry out their ])romise. I came liere 
with just $\:i in gold dust, given to me by Mrs. H. H. Spalding after tlie death of 
her liiisii.ind. I acted on religious faith, trusting that the Lord would provide for 
my family, and in this trust I was not disajjpointed. 

"Tlie Indians brought us a little dried salmon and some lean venison, and 
Enoch, who li.id .i cow, brought us a bucket of milk daily. Our first substantial 
supplies came from settlers ,at S))ang]e — a wagonload of potatoes, carrots, cabbages, 
turnips and onions, and half of a young hog. In some way, without any effort on 
my part, an account of my work got into the newsjJapers, and it must have appealed 
to ))nblie stiitiment. for it was not long till we were receiving boxes of provisions, 
elotliing and bidding from Walla Walla, Lewiston, Portland and even Cazenovia, 
New York, so tliat we suffered no liardsbips, and experienced no sickness. 

"Tlie Indians made as free with our house as their own lodges. They would 
crowd into the living room on winter days or niglits and unceremonious! v stretcli 
themselves before tlie open fire, never appearing to realize that they were shutting 
off the heat from the members of my family. They were like children, yet we 
enjoyed the experience, and every day was filled with work. 

"Good friends at Portland were also active in another way. After I had been 
working in this independent manner for several months, I was surprised and grati- 
fied to learn that through the llev. Dr. Lindsley, pastor of the First Presbyterian 
ciiureli in Portl.iiid. influence had been successfully exerted to secure me a commis- 
sion from the Indi.iii (le|)artment, as teacher for the Spokanes at a yearly salary 
of .-:=l,OU(l. Some time jirior to that, the government had adopted a new policy in re- 
spect to Indian idueatioii, of recognizing both Catholic and Protestant organizations, 
.and transferring to lliiiii ediieational work whieli liad previously been carried on by 
the war de|)artnieiit. .Vs llie Spokanes were eiiietly Protestants under the influence of 
Fathers Eells ,ind W.ilker, at Walker's jjr.-iirie. northwest of Spokane, I was di- 
rected to report to the \e/ Perce .igciit .it I,.i|)\vai, the Ne/, Perees also being 
cliiefly Protestants. 

"We used the schoolhouse ;is ;i ehunli. hut hcfor.' it m;is i)uilt I held religious 
services in tlieir lodges. Wiien I first canu In n- in .June, the young Indians cut 
down .1 number of Cottonwood trees, dug holes .ukI formed a sort of amphitheatre, 
which they covered over with poles and boughs, and In that arhor I iireaciied to a 
l.irge congregation. 

"I found Indian n.ilun totally ditierenl from what I h.id conceived it to be in 
my youth. In gi ner.il they were just as reliable ;is white pcoiile. honest .md re- 
gardful of their word. In my entire ex))erience I lost only two articles by theft^ 
.1 halter and a watermelon. They retunud the halter, and the Indian who took the 
watiriiielon stood u|) in ehur<-li .md lu.idi- open confession. I ft It .is safe among 
thini .IS .among the same number of whites. Once you get their confidence, thcv are 
loyal to the core. The Spokanes were as industrious as you could expect a jieojile 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 111 

to be in their state. They foresaw the coming of the changed conditions growing 
out of the settlement of their country, and took to the cultivation of the soil and 
raising of cattle, and wanted schoolhouses and clmrches. I endeavored, from the 
beginning, to impress upon them that the Northern Pacific, when completed, would 
bring settlers and their only hope was to take up land and learn the ways of the 
white man. There was no other hope for them as a race, but they found it very 
difficult to give up the tribal relation, and did not want to take up land in severalty. 

"When General O. O. Howard and Governor Ferry met them here in council 
in 1881, on the prairie in what is now Dennis & Bradley's addition, and announced 
that they must take land in severalty, or be placed on a reservation west of the 
Columbia, they were indignant and said : 'What right have you to dictate to us ? 
This is our country and we will not leave it!' Garry, who could speak English 
quite well, voiced the protest, and it was heeded. The government did not care to 
repeat the blunder made in 1877. with the Nez Perces. 

"Soon after I came Mr. Glover, Mr. Yeatoii. L. M. Swift, an attornej', and my- 
self held a school election. Glover, Yeaton and I elected ourselves directors and 
Swift, clerk, and I was employed as teacher. I had to go to Colville to get a 
teacher's certificate. 

"As my house was the only available place, we opened there the first school in 
•January, 1875, witli six pupils: Edith, Fred and Grace Cowley, two children of 
Mr. and Mrs. Pool, girls, and a little daughter of Mr. Yeaton. I soon discovered 
that I could not keep up teaching in connection with my other work and turned the 
school over to ]Mrs. Swift, and she removed it to her residence, a log house between 
Third and Fourth avenues and Bernard and Browne streets, and she completed 
there tlie tliree months* term in March. 

"About 1870, Rev. S. G. Havermale, who had come here in 1875, started a pri- 
vate school in the hall over Glover's store. He had expectations of building up a 
Methodist educational institution, and wanted to combine his school with the jmb- 
lic school, but it was found that this could not be done under the law." 

After Mr. Cowley gave up his work as missionary and teacher, he engaged for 
a while in journalism. C. B. Carlisle had come here from Portland in 1881, under 
financial encouragement from J. N. Glover, J. J. Browne, and A. M. Cannon, and 
founded tiie weekly Chronicle. Later Carlisle sold to C. B. Hopkins, Lucien Kellogg, 
and Hiram Allen, lirother of Senator John B. Allen of Walla Walla. Tiiey in turn 
sold to a newspaper man named Woodbury, who came here from the Cincinnati 
Commercial Gazette, and a little later Woodbury sold the paper to Mr. Cowley, in 
the spring of 1883, who held it till 1887. Encouraged by the boom growing out of 
the discovery and development of the Coeur d'Alcne mines, ;\Ir. Cowley raised the 
Chronicle to a daily in July, 1881, but gave it up in the fall and ran it as a weekly 
until 1886, wlien it became a permanent daily. 



CHAPTER XIII 

CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN THE INLAND EMPIRE 

REV. MODEST DEMERS DESCENDS THE COLUMBIA IN 1838 MAKES A MISSION TOUR OF 

INTERIOR THE FOLLOWING YEAR ST. MARV's ESTABLISHED IN 1841 BY FATHER 

DESMET AND OTHERS COEUR d'aLENE MISSION ESTABLISHED ON THE ST. JOE, 

1842 TRANSFERRED TO THE COEUR d'aLENE IN 1846 FATHER JOSET IN CHARGE 

ST. IGNATIUS MOVED FROM LOWER PEND d'oREILLE RIVER TO MONTANA SACRED 

HEART MISSION TRANSFERRED TO DESMET MISSION LABORS AMONG THE NEZ PER- 

CES MISSIONS IN THE COLVILLE COUNTRY PRESIDENT OF GONZAGA VISITS THE 

CALISPELS ARMY OFFICEr's DESCRIPTION OF THE OLD MISSION OF ST. IGNATIUS. 

A parish priest was of the pilgrim train, 
An awful, reverend and religious man. 
His eyes diffused a venerable grace. 
And charity itself was in his face. 
Rich was his soul, though his attire was poor, 
(As God hath clothed his own ambassador). 
For such, on earth, his blessed Redeemer bore. 
Of sixty j'cars he seemed ; and well might last 
To sixty more, but that he lived too fast ; 
Refined himself to soul, to curb the sense, 
And made almost a sin of abstinence. 

— Dryden. 

IN THE liistory of the Catiiolic missions of the Inland Emi)ire we possess 
a deathless story of absorbing interest and inspiration ; a record of dangers 
braved, privations borne and hardships endured under tlie sacred banner of 
the church. So long as history shall be read, that long will survive and be held in 
honored remembrance the names and deeds of such devoted priests as Blanchet 
and Demers, De ,Stnet and .Toset, Hoecken, Mengarini, Point, Ravalli. 

Historic evidence sustains the belief that the sacred emblem of the cross was 
lifted on these Pacific shores by Spanish explorers, and possibly by .Spanish priests. 
Writing from Cowlitz, in western Washington, under date of February, 1844, the 
apostolical missionary ,1. 15. Z. Bolduc said that even then he found ruins of birch 
edifices, "constructed for the purpose of drawing the savage nations to the knowl- 
edge of the gospel :" and among the natives, relies had been found attesting this 
fact. "A certain tribe had possessed for ages a brazen crucifix, bearing the ap- 

Vol. .1— » 

113 



114 Sl'tJKANK AM) TllK INLAND KMl'lHK 

pearancc of gri-at antiiiiiity : win ii. Ikiw, .hk] liv wlmiii it was hroiiplit tliitlirr. none 
can attest." 

Altliougli till- officers, clerks and enii)loy( s of tin tiir companies that operated 
in these ngioiis over the first half of the Jjiist century were of the Catholic faith, 
no organizetl effort was made to establish missions in the Pacific northwest until 
the year 183I-. Hy that time an extensive colony of former servants of the Hud- 
son's Bay coni|)any had settled on P'rench jjrairie. in the Willamette valley of Ore- 
gon, and ap|)lieation was made to Dr. I'roveneher, vicar apostolic of Hudson Bay, 
for a clergj-m.in fur their service. But means of connnunieation were slow, events 
moved leisurely in those distant d.iys. .md their prayers were not fullv answered 
until 1838. TIk- Rev. Modest Demers e.ime as far west as the Canadi.in Red River 
settlement in I8.'i7, .-uul .irr.mged with the fur eiinipanv for himself .and a fellow 
laborer to pass into Oregon the following year. According to an outline sketch of 
Oregon territory and its missions, which Liter ))ref.iced the jiublislied letters of 
Father De Smet, Rev. F. N. IJl.inehi t "left Canada .at the appointid time, and joined 
his comiianion at Red River, whence they both started on the 10th of July, .and 
after a ixrilous journey of between KOOO .and ."i.OOO miles, .and the loss of twelve 
of their fellow travelers in the rapids of the Columbia rivi-r. they arrived at Fort 
Vancouver the ii (■th of Xovember the same year. . . On seeing the mission- 

aries .at length .among them, the C.inadi.ans wept for joy. .and the savages .-issmibled 
from ;i distance of 10(1 mihs to behold the black gowns, of whom so nuieh liad been 
said." 

Aft<'r several months of mission work west of the Cascade niount.ains. I'.ithcr 
Demers ascended the Columlii.i in ,Iuly, I8.S!). visiting W'.iU.i \\'.alla. Okanogan 
and Fort Colville. "baptizing all the children that were brought to him in the course 
of his journey." He was the first ord.ained ])riest to spread the Catholic faith in 
the Inland Kmi)irc. His journiy to the interior consumed three months, and he 
returned in October to Fort \'ancouver. The following vear Father Demers re- 
peated his journey of ]8,'i9, .again visiting Wall.i W'.ill.i. Ok.anogan .and Colville. 

Wf (|Uote now from .a mainiscrijit in possession of .\ngust Wolf. i)re)i.irid with 
the sanction of Gonzaga college: 

"In response to solieit.ations (from the Indi.ms to the bisho)) of .St. l,ouis) Fa- 
thers Peter J. DcSmet. Gregory Mcng.arini and Niiholas Point, accompanied by 
Brothers Sjxclil. Huet and Claessens, set out for the Rocky mountains in 18 H. 
-Arrived in the Flathead country, they founded. .Sei)teniber '..'t, the first mission 
of St. Mary's, in the Bitter Root valley, not f.ar from the site of the present town 
of .Stevensville, Mont.ana. The fathers lived .among the Indians, instructing them 
.ind administering the sacraments, and conforming themselves to the customs of 
the savages. Tiny le.irmil their language, and lived as the savages did, on roots 
and berries, ;ind tin- iiroducts of the fisheries .and the eh.ase. In the course of time 
they <r<'cted a church .and residence, .and (ultiv.ated the band, striving .at first, with- 
out niueli success, to induce their wild iicdpbyles to iinit.ati- tlnni in .agricultur.al 
matters. However, th<- Fl.atheads, .as well .as ni.any of tin- inighboring tribes, re- 
sjionded to tlu' call of salvation, and a gre.it nninbi r were b.a))tized .and came to 
worship at the niissicm. The history of subsi(|urut missions was somewhat siniil.ar, 
except in later years the school becanu- .an important feature. 

"On various occasions the fathers at St. M.irv s received visits from members 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 115 

of tribes on both sides of tlie mountains, and the Coeur d'Alenes in particular begged 
that a mission might be given tliem also. Their wish was granted in the autumn 
of 18-12, when Father Nicholas Point and Brother Huet built a residence on the 
St. Joe river, a sluggish stream that empties into Lake Coeur d'Alene. This was the 
beginning of the famous Coeur d'Alene mission, now at Desmet, Idaho. 

"In 18i3 Fathers Peter DeVos and Andrew Hoecken, with four lay brothers, 
among them Brother .T. B. MeGean, arrived at St. Mary's from St. Louis, and 
shortly afterward, in 18 IK Father Joseph Joset and Father Zerbinati came from 
tlie same place, with Brother Vincent Magri. They made a welcome addition to 
the little band of missionaries and soon found em))loynient. Father Hoecken, after 
visiting the Sacred Heart mission on the St. ,Ioc, was detailed to found a mission 
among the CaHspels, near Lake Fend d'Oreille. In the summer of 18H he located 
the first St. Ignatius mission on Clark's fork, some sixty miles below Sand Point. 
Tiiis was the third mission founded. Father Joset. in the meantime, joined Father 
Point at the Coeur d'Alene mission, while Father DeVos and Father Zerbinati 
remained with Fatlier Mcngarini at St. Mary's. Meanwhile Father DeSmet, su- 
perior of llie missions, had traveled to Europe to obtain recruits. He was well 
received everywhere, and his holiness. Po])e Gregory XVI, ])roposed to make him 
bishop of the new diocese to be erected in Oregon. He managed, however, to trans- 
fer this burden to tlie shoulders of tlie Rev. Father F. N. Blanchet. 

"In 18i5 Father Nobili and Father Ravalli were called to active service. The 
former was sent to found a mission in New Caledonia (in northern Britisli Colum- 
bia). Father Ravalli was ordered to found a mission in the Colville valley, and 
built the first chaiicl there, on a liill between the fislury at Kettle F'alls and Fort 
Colville. This elia])el was named St. Paul's. After a few months, however, he 
was called to St. Mary's on the death of Father Zerbinati. Here he remained till 
1850, when that mission was closed for sixteen years. 

"In 1816 the mission on the St. Joe was transferred to the Coeur d'Alene river 
on account of the floods. The new mission, which is now known as the "Old Mis- 
sion," was placed in charge of Father Joset, who a little later became superior of 
the Rocky mountains when Father DeSmet was called away from the mountains 
by otiier duties. Father DeSmet took witli him Father Point, who had been re- 
called by iiis su])eriors to Canada. The two fathers jiartcd after crossing the 
Rocky mountains, and Father Point remained among the Blaekfeet, to instruct 
them during the winter of 1 8 16- 17. The order recalling Father Point had been 
issued from Paris in 1 813, but did not reach him until the end of 1 8 16. Such were 
the means of communication in those days. 

"In 1850 F'ather Joset was sent to close old St. Mary's, on account of the i)ad 
disposition shown by the Indians, under the influence of some white men who had 
lately come among them. Father Mengarini was sent down to the Willamette, and 
later on to California, while Father Ravalli took charge of the mission on the 
Coeur d'Alene river, and Father Joset, after visiting Father Hoecken at St. Igna- 
tius, established himself in 1851 in Colville valley. Here he remained with Father 
Vercruysse till 1858. Father Ravalli, in the meantime, was drawing up plans and 
commencing to build the wonderful church at the old Coeur d'Alene mission, which 
to this day wins the admiration of visitors — a church built without nails, planned 



116 Sl'DKANi: AMJ I'lll. INLAND K.Ml'lRE 

by a jjcniiis, and i>iit ii|> liy skillni WDrkiiitn, assisted liy savages in tin- inidsl of 
the wilderness. 

"We must now ntiirn to tin iiiountains and rapidly sketfli tin' progress of tlic 
missions tlure to tile present day. When Father C'ongiato was ni.ide snperior of 
both missions in 1851, the Kalispel mission of .St. Ignatius was moved from the 
hanks ol the Pcnd d'Oreille to Mission vaUey in the Flathead country, some twenty 
miles east of Flatln-.id lake. Here was founded the present St. Ignatius mission, 
whieh exists to this day. one of the most striking evidences of missiimary enter- 
|)rise in the eountry. '1 hi' present eluireli .ind residence, and the houses of the 
Sisters ol Providenee and of the L rsuliiie .Sisters are buildings no one would expect 
to find on an Indian reservation. 

"In 185^ Father K.avalli repl.ierd Father Joset at Colville. .-uid I'ather .loset 
returned to his beloved Coeur d'.\lenes. The f'olville mission was closed the fol- 
lowing year, .and I'ather K.avalli w.as tr.ansferred to St. Ignatius. 

"In 18f)() old .St. .M.iry's mission was reopened, and the general superior. Fa- 
ther CJiorda. worn out with his l.ihors, retired there to recuperate, leaving Father 
Urban (Jr.issi as vice-superior to look after the missions for the next three years. 
He again resumed his work in 18(!i). .and rem.iiiied in olfiee till .June. 1877. when 
Father Cataldo took his place. Father ,(ose])h IJandiui .-ifterw.ard became superior 
at St. Mary's, and Later on F.ither (iuidi. F'ather .Jerome D'Aste was the last 
missionarv to reside .at the place, for it w.as closed in 1891, and the Indians were 
transferred to .St. Ign.itius on the .loeko reservation. At St. Mary's died Father 
R;iv.alli. on October ■:.'. ISSk A moiunnent was erected to him by friends and ad- 
mirers, and some fortv miles north of Missoula, ;i st.ition on the .Northern Pacific 
railroad w.is ii.aniid .ifirr liini. He li.id retired to St. M.iry's .at its reopening in 
1866. 

"Ill Idaho llie old .S.iered He.art mission on the Coeur d'.Mene ri\ir flourished for 
a long time under I'.ither ./oset, later on assisted by Fatlier Caruana and others. 
In 1879 it was tr.iusfirred to Desmet, Id.aho (on the Coeur d'Alcne reserv.ation), 
where it now stands. Here Father C.aru.an.a. who h.is l,ai)ored for oxer forty years 
among the Indians, still displays his great zeal .and energy. This, i)eriiaps, has 
been the most successful of the Rocky Mountain missions, and today the well-kept 
f/iruis ;iM(l ill'- dixout hearing of the liidi.iiis is remarked by all who visit them. 
The historv of tlu De.Smit mission might well occupy us, did space allow. Here 
the first noviti.ite id' the mount.iins was est.ablished. Here Father .Foset died, in 
1891), .at lli( ripi old lii'e of ninety. Ili had passed seventy years in religion, and 
fiftv-six among tlu- Indians. He w.as the l.ast of tlie old missionaries who li.id 
labored with F'athers DeSmet, Point, Iloecken .and Ciiorda. 

"In 186.) our fathers were .iskc il to take eh.irgt of the mission among the Ncz 
■ Perec Indi.ans in Id.ilio. .\l .an <;irly period these Indians had f.alleii under Pro- 
testant influence, hiil iii.iiiy lu'vertlu'less wished for the 'Black Robes.' In 1866 
Father Cataldo Irll Ihi (oeur d'.Meni- mission, to xisit I.ewiston. ,and met some of 
the Indi.ans tlure. .Next vear, being .appointed to t.ake ch.arge of I.ewiston .and tilt' 
Indi.ms. Ill built .a sm.all <'hurch .iiirl .a sm.all residence theri'. In 1868 he built a 
sMi.all log eliiireh mi llie ( le.irw.iler rixer. .and in 1869 remodeled the old chief's 
house as a eli.apel .and .a school for the Indians. In 1870 he was recalled to the 
old Coeur d'.Mene missicm, but w.as ch.arged to visit the Ncz Perces from time to 




MlSSIdX KKIOCTED NP:AR FORT COLVI Ll.lx WA.SU I NdToN, 
BY .JESUIT FATHEKS 




Vli:\V (»K ( (II, VI I, I.E. WASlllXliToX 



TH.E NEW VuRK 
PU3LJC LiBKAKf 






THE t'^^~,.jUK 




- JNUA ( 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 117 

time. In 1872 we find him back in Lewiston, where he worked with great energy, 
and in 1874 was able to build a church for the Indians at Slickpoo, where the first 
mass was said the same year. In 1 875 Father Morville arrived from Italy and 
wintered at old Coeur d'Alene with Father Cataldo, but the following year he took 
up his residence at Slickpoo with Brother Carfagno. Father Gazzoli joined them in 
1877, the year of the Nez Perce war. Thus the mission of St. Joseph's was founded, 
and today one-third of the Indians are Catholic. Lewiston is now a thriving parish. 

"In 1865 the mission of St. Paul's in Colville was reopened. Father Joset had 
there commenced to build the church of the Immaculate Conception, near Fort Col- 
ville, for the benefit of the soldiers. This was completed in 1 865 by P"ather INIenet- 
rey and Brother Canipopiana. Father Grassi now thought to choose a new site 
for a mission between St. Paul's and tliis church, and bought land from a Canadian 
for this purjiosc. Here some modest cabins were erected which served as a residence 
from 1869 to 1873, when Fathers Jacob Vanzina, Joseph Guidi and Paschal Tosi, 
with Brothers Gaspard Ochiena, Lucian D'Agestino and Achilles Carfagno com- 
menced to build the present mission of St. Fr.'lncis Regis. Here the cornerstone of 
the commodious chapel was blessed in 1878 by Fathers Diomedi and Vanzina. A 
year later it was completely destroyed by fire and has since been replaced b_v the 
present excellent building. 

"Tlie Kettle Falls Indians were not the only ones to be visited from Colville, 
for our fathers used to make excursions among the Semitakan, the Chelans, We- 
natchees and Okanogans. Father DeRouge commenced a permanent mission among 
these latter in 1885. Previously Father Urban Grassi had traveled among them 
and lived with them in their tepees, instructing them in Christian morals and doc- 
trine. But with the coming of Father DeRouge great strides were made. He has 
built a church and school, and done great work in spite of exceptional difficulties. 

"About this time the parish of Yakima came into the hands of our fathers. This 
is the largest and most progressive town between Spokane and Seattle, and the parish 
is increasing in pr()portion to the growth of the community. The Indians on the 
Yakima reservation, who until two years ago had also a resident priest, are now 
attended from North Yakima. 

"In Oregon there is the jjarish at Pendleton, and the mission to the Um.itilla 
Indians attached to it." 

Such, in outline, is the history of Catholic missions in the broad region around 
Spokane, running back over a period of seventy years, told without embellishment, 
and. from neccessity of brevity, expressing little of the inspiration that brought 
the ])ioneer fathers into a land of savage wildness, or the faith that sustained 
them through a thousand perils by land and sea. Happily these have come down 
to us in the published letters of Father DeSmet, letters which reveal, as the preface 
from another's pen has said, "the manners and customs of the North American In- 
dians — their traditions, their superstitions, their docility in admitting the maxims of 
the gospel," and "described with a freshness of coloring, and an exactness of detail, 
that will render them invaluable not only to our own times, but especially to pos- 
terity. " In the language of this preface, "He travels through those vast and un- 
explored deserts, not merely as a missionary, filled with the zeal which characterized 
the apostles of the primitive society to which he belongs (the Jesuits) but with the 
eye of a poet, and an imagination glowing with a bright vet calm enthusiasm. Hence 



118 SI'OKANT. AND 1111. IMAM) IMI'IHK 

tlic exquisite deseriptions of .si-imry. of iiuidciits, of ivtiit^i; iltscrij)tioiis wliicli 
breathe tile spirit of n iiiiiul iiiihued with the hiftiest eonccptions of nature, and 
chastened with the saered inHuenees of faitii." 

As we have seen, FatluT DeSmet, after crossing tiie plains .md threading the 
winding defiles of the Rocky mountains, in 1811, established the mother mission 
of St. .Mary's, near the site of the J)resent town of .Stevensville, in .Montana. Im- 
pressed with the vastness of the field, he went then to Europe to arouse interest 
and win sujjjjort for the poor and struggling missions of the Rocky mountains; and 
from that long journey and voyage wi- find him returning by sea and crossing the 
troubled C'olumbi;i river i);ir in .luly. 18 11-, sueeis^ful .and il.-ited, and e.iger to 
plunge into the deep solitudes of the interior .-iiid greet again iiis savage friends 
from whom he had parted two years before. Duties in the A\'illamette valley de- 
tained liiui se\er.il iiiorilhs. hut tlusc .iccduiplished. he set out. in tin- beginning of 
Febru.iry, 181.j, for the interior. He ascended the t'olunibia in a cinoe to old Fort 
A\'alla \\ alia, and t.iking liie broad and well-worn tr.iil of the Indians and the fur 
traders, traversed the Wall.i W'.ill.i valley, p.'issed through the I'lloiise country. ,ind 
crossing tlie Spokane valley, passed on to St. Ign.itius mission ou tiie lower Pend 
d'()r<ille river where he was greeted by Father Adri.m Hoeeken. This mission 
stood on the cast bank of the I'cnd d'Oreille. si veii inihs below the pnsent town of 
L'sk. By reason of fre<|uent flooding from high water, it was ab.indcuied in IS.")!, 
and a new site chosen on the I'lathead reserv.ition in western Mont.ma. 

Although the priests could give these Indi.iiis but oee.isional visit.itions .after the 
removal of the mission, the Kalis|)els have continued devout in the Catholic faith. 
^^'itll rejoicing they greeti-d F.ather Taelinan .-it the Cbristm.as holid.iys of 191 1, 
when consideration for bi^ old friends among tJK ui prompted the busv ])resident of 
Cionzaga to venture .ig.iin into the wintry wildertiess. .\gain in ./.muarv, 191'2, 
Father Taelm.an was sunniioned by Chief .Mass.il.ih to the bedside of a living girl. 
"My people," s|)okc Mass.al.ib. .it the funer.il. "we ,ire grieved tod.iy .it the loss of 
our dear one; but God has his way. This world is a valley of tears. We are now 
poor and suffering, but if we are true to (Jod. there is a countrv above where we 
shall all meet again," 

Dr, George Suckley, .assistant surgeon U. .S. A., who accomp.anied Governor 
Stevens across the continent in 18;);!, and under direction of th.it ortiei.il ui.ide .i 
remarkable canoe voyag<' from I'ort Owen in Mont.in.i, to X'aneomer, deseeiKliiig 
thit Hitter Root, Clark's I'ork and Columbi.i, visited .St. Ign.atius on tli.it vovage. 
He has left, in his offici.il report, ;i most eiitert.iining descriiition of the mission: 

"I walked up to tlu- door of the mission house, knix'ked ;ind entered. I w.as met 
by the reverend su|)erior of the mission, I'.itber Hoeeken, who, in ;i truly benevolent 
and pleasing manner, said: 'W.alk in, you .are welcome; we are gl.id to see the face 
of .1 white man.' I inli-oduced myself .and the iiii ii, .iiid stated that 1 li.id come .all 
the way from St. .Mary's by water, after ,a voy.age of twenty-five d.iys; tli.it 1 was 
out of jirovisions and tired. He bade us welcome, had our things brought u]) from 
the boat, an exeillcnt iliiincr prrp.in il for us, .and .i nier room to sleep in. .ind Irr.ited 
lis with the cordi.ality .mil kindness of .a Christi.aii and .a geiitlem.in. Jn these kind- 
nesses the Reverend I'.ither .Menetriy ;ind the Lay brother, Mr. .M.age.an, cordi.illy 
took part — all uniting in their ( rule.ivors to make iis eomfort.ibli and feel .it home. 

"I'"r(un the Reverend Mr. Hoeeken I li.ivc the following p.irtieiil.irs eoiieerning 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 119 

the mission and the condition of the inhabitants in its vicinity: The mission was 
established nine years ago (in ISi-i), the whole country at that time being a vast 
•wilderness. Its inhabitants were the Kalispelms. They lived mostly from the 
Kalispelm or Fend d'Oreille lake, down the Clark river to this point; they speak 
nearly the same language as the Flathead or Salish Indians. Another mission (St. 
Mary's) was at the same time opened among the last mentioned tribe. 

"There are two lay brethren attached to the mission. One of these. Brother 
Francis, is a perfect jack of all trades. He is by turns a carpenter, blacksmith, 
gunsmith, and tinman — in each of which he is a good workman. The other, Brother 
Magean, superintends the farming ojierations. They both worked hard in bringing 
the mission to its present state of perfection, building successively a windmill, 
blacksmith and carpenter's shops, barns, cowsheds, etc., besides an excellent chapel, 
in addition to a large dwelling-house of hewn timbers for the missionaries. 

"The church is quite large, and is tastefully and even beautifully decorated. I 
was shown the handsomely carved and gilded altar, the statue of 'Our Mother,' 
brazen crosses and rich bronzed fonts, work, whicli, at sight appears so well executed 
as to lead one to suppose that the}' all must have been imported. But no, they are 
the result of the patient labor and ingenuity of the devoted missionaries, and work 
which is at the same time rich, substantial and beautiful. 

"Works of ornament are not their only deeds. A grindstone, hewn out of the 
native rock, and moulded by the same hand which made the chisel which wrought 
it; tinware, a blacksmith's sliop, bellows, ploughshares, bricks for their chimneys, 
their own tobacco pipes, turned out of wood and lined with tin — all have been made 
by their industry. In household economy they are not excelled. They make their 
own soap, candles, vinegar, etc., and it is both interesting and amusing to listen to 
their account of their plans, shifts and turns in overcoming obstacles at their first 
attempts, their repeated failures, and their final triumphs. 

"The mission farm consists of about 160 acres of cleared land. Spring wheat, 
barley, onions, cabbages, parsnips, peas, beets, potatoes and carrots are its principal 
products. The Indians are especially fond of carrots. Father Hoecken says that 
if the children see carrots growing they must eat some. Says he, 'I must shut my 
eyes to the theft, because they cannot, cannot, resist the temptation.' Anything else 
than carrots the little creatures respect. The Indians are very fond of peas and 
cabbage, but beets, and particularly onions, they dislike. The other productions of 
the farm are cattle, hogs, poultry, butter and cheese. 

"Around the mission buildings are the houses of the natives. They are built of 
logs and hewn timber, and are sixteen in number. There are, also, quite a number 
of mat and skin lodges. Although the tribe is emphatically a wandering tribe, j-et 
tlie mission and its vicinity are looked upon as headquarters." 

Passing to a description of the Indians and the uplifting work of the missionaries, 
Dr. Suckley reported : 

"They came among these Indians about nine years ago, and found tliem to be 
a poor, miserable, half-starved race, with an insufficiency of food and nearly naked, 
living upon fish, camas and other roots, and, at the last extremity, upon the pine-tree 
moss. Unlike the Indians east of the mountains, they had no idea of a future state 
or a Great Spirit; neither had they any idea of a soul. They considered themselves 
to be animals, nearly allied to the beaver, but greater than the beaver — and why.'' 



120 SPOKAXF. AND THK INLAND I'.M IM 1{K 

Because, they said, 'the beaver builds houses like us, and he is very cunning too; 
but we can catch the beaver, and he can not catch us — therefore we are greater than 
he.' They thought when they died that was the last of tluni. While thus ignorant, 
it was not uncommon for them to bury the very old and very young alive, because, 
they said, 'these cannot take care of themselves, and we can not take care of them, 
and they had better die.' 

"Of the soul they had no conception. In the hegiiniing tlie priests were obliged 
to depend upon the imperfect translations of h.ilf-Ureed interpreters. The word 
'soul' was singularly translated to the Indian-., liy one of these telling tiiem that 
they had a gut that never rotted, and that this was their living principle or soul. 
The chief of the tribe was converted, and was baptized Loyola ; the mass of the 
tribe followed their leader. They now almost all pray, have devotional exercises 
in their families, and seem in a fair way for further advancement. 

"To show you the good sense, benevolence and foresight of the priests. 1 will 
relate a short conversation I had with Father Hoecken, who is the superior of the 
mission and has been among the people from the first. Says he, 'Doctor, you will 
scarcely believe it; surrounded by water as we are, we often have difficulty in getting 
fish even for our Frid.iy dinner.' I replied, jokingly. 'I suppose. Father, that the 
Indians find no difficulty in observing a fast on Friday.' He answered immediately: 
'I never spoke to them about it; it would not do. Poor creatures, they fast too much 
as it is, and it is not necessary for them to fast more.' 

"The people look up to the father, and love him. They say that if the father 
should go away, they would die. Before the advent of the missionaries, the in- 
habitants, although totally destitute of religious ideas, still believed that evil and 
bad luck emanated from .1 fabulous old woman or sorecrcss. They were great be- 
lievers in charms, or medicine. Every man had his peculiar uiedieiiic or cliarm, 
which was his d('ity, so to s])eak : and of it they expected good or ill. With sonit- it 
would be the mouse; with others, the deer, buffalo, elk, salmon, bear, etc.; and which- 
ever it was, the savage would carry a ])ortion of it constantly by him. The tail of 
a mouse, or the fur, hoof, claw, feather, fin or scale of whatever it might be, became 
the amulet. When a young man grew u|) he was not yet considered a man until he 
had discovered his uudicine. His father would send liini to tlic to]) of a high moun- 
tain in the neighborhood of the present mission. lien lu w.is obliged to remain 
without food until he had dreamed of an .uiinial ; tiie first one so dreamed about be- 
coming his medicine for life. Of course anxiety. I.itigue, cold and fasting would 
render his sleep troubled .and re))lete with dreams. In a short time he would iiave 
dreamed of what he wanted, and return to his home .1 man. 

"At the mission they have a small mill, liy which the Indians grind their wheat. 
The mill is turned by h;ind, ;ind will grind but three huslu'ls a day." 

A discovery made near the mission by Dr. Suckley indicates the com|);iratively 
recent activitv of a volcano in the Inland F.mpire: "A few inches below the surface 
of the earth can be found tli( aslu s and eineritious deposit of a volcano. The 
stratum is about one-third of an inch thick. As you proceed in a north-northeasterly 
direction, it becomes thicker and thicker. Hence wi- may infer that the er.iter was 
in th.'it direction, aiul ])rol)al)l\- can n<iw lir lounil. Tin- inh.ahit.-iuts lia\r never seiii 
it. Thev do not travel from curiosity, and the direction is .among niomit.ains from tile 
verv door of the mission. In tlie tribe there are men .and women still li\inir who 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 121 

rcinciuber the eruption. They say that it came on during the afternoon and night, 
during which it rained cinders and fire. The Indians supposed that the sun liad 
burned up, and that there was an end of all things. The next morning, when the 
sun arose, they were so delighted as to have a great dance and a feast." 

At St. Ignatius mission Dr. Suckley learned that there was an abundance of 
lead ore on the Kootenai river. Black lead had been found at St. Mary's and gold 
on Hell Gate river, while copper and silver were said to exist in the mountains north. 

"The loud, deep-sounding reports, like the explosions of heavy pieces of ord- 
nance, occasionally heard in the Rocky mountains, and spoken of by Lewis and 
Clark in their narrative, are now and then heard. They never occur except during 
the coldest winters. The old trappers thought that these noises were produced by 
the bursting of silver mines. Their opinion in such a matter is of but little importance 
to my mind." These detonations he attributed to volcanic eruptions, to the break- 
ing away of heavy ice masses, or to landslides. 

Continuing his descent of the Clark's fork. Lake Fend d'Oreillc and the river of 
the same name. Dr. Suckley, three days after leaving St. Ignatius, arrived at old 
Fort Colville on the Columbia, where he was kindly entertained by Angus McDonald, 
in charge of that post of the Hudson's Bay company. 

"Near the fort (continues his rejiort to Governor Stevens) is the mission of St. 
Paul, established among the Kettle Falls Indians, on the left bank of the Columbia, 
about one mile from the Kettle Falls. I visited the mission establishment three 
times during my stay at Fort Colville. It is superintended by the Reverend Father 
Joset, assisted by one other priest and a lay brother. Father .loset received me very 
kindly. He is a Swiss, and very gentlemanly and agreeable in his manners. To liini 
I am indebted for much valuable information concerning this j)art of the country. 
The mission establishment consists of a chapel, a dwelling-house and several other 
buildings. There is no farm attached to it. The Indians have sufficient to eat 
which they obtain from other sources. There is. consequently, no necessitv re(]uir- 
ing the missionaries to cultivate land, as they can obtain all they want for their own 
use from tlie Hudson's Bay company. 

"The Kettle Falls Indians call themselves Squeer-yer-pe. The chief of this 
tribe is called Pierre .lean. He, with most of his followers, live in their lodges 
around the mission. The number of souls in this band is about ,'}.">(). During the 
summer season the Indians from all the surrounding country congregate at this 
))laee to catch salmon. There are then about 1 ()()() .it the falls. The Squeer-yer-pe 
name for the Kettle Falls is Scliwan-ate-koo. or deep-sounding water. Here the 
Columbia |)itclies over a ledge of rocks, making a fall of about fifteen feet perjjen- 
dicular. The Indians sow a little wheat and plant some- potatoes, of which they 
are very fond; but their principal subsistence is the everlasting salmon. They 
come ui> annually in griat nuniln rs, on their way to the headwaters of the Columbia. 
Tile Indians kill hundreds of thousands of these fish by spearing them. The myriads 
of salmon that ascend the rivers of the Pacific coast are almost incredible. In many 
))laees the water appears alive with them, and the shores are thickly lined with the 
dead and dving fish. This, according to De Smet, is particularly noticed on the small 
lakes of the upper Columbia, in the vicinity of Martin's rapids." 

.lust before his arrival at St. Ignativis, Dr. Suckley. reduced to the )3oint of 
famine, lodged one night with a band of Pend d'Oreilles. "Our provisions are out," 



122 SPOKANE AND TIIK INI. AND K.MI'IRH 

says his journal, "the ground is covered with snow, and the sky obscured by clouds. 
The weather is excessi\Tl_v cold. Our tent is wet, as indeed it has been for a week 
or more. Our robes and some of our blankets are in the same condition ; and, on 
the whole, our situation is quite uncomfortablr. I'lidcr these circumstances I con- 
cluded to lodge all night with the Indians. Our luingry stomachs were quite willing 
to partake of any hospitality tliey might offer in the shape of food. Witli these 
feelings I entered the lodge of All-ol-Sturgh, the head of the encampment. The 
other lodges are principally occupied by his cliildren and grand-ciiildren. They 
provided us witli dried camas and berries, jilso a piece of raw tallow, whieli tasted 
very good. .Shortly after our entrance All-ol-Sturgh rang a little bell ; directly the 
lodge was filled with inliabitants of the camp, men, women and children, who im- 
mediaU-ly got ujjon their knees and repeated, or rather chanted, a long jjraycr, in 
their own language, to the Creator. The repetition of a few pious sentences, an 
invocation, and a hymn, closed the exercises. In tiiese the squaws took as active 
a part as the men. Tlie promptness, fervency and earnestness all sliowed, was 
])leasing to eontemplate. These prayers, etc., have been taught tiiem by their kind 
missionary and friend, the much-loved Father Hoecken (.S. .J.). The participation 
of the squaws in the exercises, and the a])parent footing of equality between them 
and tiie men, so imich iiiilikt- their eniulitioii in othrr savagi- tribes, .-ijipear riiiiark- 
able." 



CHAPTER XIV 

CATHOLIC MISSIONS— CONTINUED 

FATHER DESMET JOURNEYS IN A BARK CANOE, TO THE HORSE PLAINS IN MONTANA 

RETURNS TO KALISPEL BAY AND FELLS THE FIRST TREE FOR THE MISSION DISCOV- 
ERS LIMESTONE CAVE ON LOWER FEND d'oREILLE GOES TO WILLAMETTE VALLEY 

FOR SEEDS AND IMPLEMENTS RETURNS AND ERECTS A LITTLE CHAPEL OF BOUGHS 

POETIC DESCRIPTION OF KETTLE FALLS ESTABLISHES MISSION OF ST. REGIS IN 

COLVILLE VALLEY MEETS PETER SKENE OGDEN IN THE NORTHERN WILDERNESS 

EXPRESSES HIS OPINION OF THE OREGON QUESTION HOW THE CAMAS ROOT WAS PRE- 
PARED DESMET RANGES FAR, TO THE HEADWATERS OF THE COLUMBIA INTEREST- 
ING BLACKFOOT TRADITION AN INDIAN HEAVEN MISSIONARY'S REMARKABLE 

JOURNEY FROM THE ATHABASCA TO KETTLE FALLS HOW THE ARROW LAKES WERE 

NAMED. 

PAUSING a few days at St. Ignatius for rest and recuperation. Father De 
Smet voyaged in a bark canoe about 120 miles from St. Ignatius to the 
Horse plains in Montana, where he was "among his dear Flatheads and 
Peiid d'Oreilles of the mountains during the Paschal time, 184;), and had the great 
consolation of finding them replete with zeal and fervor in fulfilling the duties of 
true cliiklren of prayer. The solemn feast of Easter," says he in a letter to Bishop 
John Hughes of New York, "all the Flatheads at St. Mary's devoutly approached 
tlie most blessed sacrament during my mass; and about 300 Fend d'Oreilles, (the 
greater number adults) belonging to the station of St. Francis Borgia, presented 
themselves at the baptismal font. How consoling it is to pour the regenerating 
water of baptism on the furrowed and scarified brows of these desert warriors, — 
to l)ehold these children of the plains and forests emerging from that profound ig- 
norance and superstition in which they have been for so many ages deeply and 
darkly enveloped; to see them embrace the faith and all its sacred practices with an 
eagerness, an attention, a zeal, worthy the pristine Ciiristians !" 

Sixteen days of laborious work witii paddle and pole had been required to take 
the missionary from St. Ignatius to the mission in Montana. Returning with the 
current, the long and devious way was covered in four. "On returning to the bay, 
(DeSmet always referred to St. Ignatius as Kalispel Bay) accompanied by Rev. 
Father Hoecken and several chiefs, my first care was to examine the lands belong- 
ing to this portion of the tribe of Kalis))els, and select a fit site for erecting the new 
■ establishment of St. Ignatius. We found a vast and beautiful prairie, three miles 
in extent, surrounded by cedar and pine, in tile neighborliood of the cavern of New 

123 



124 SPOKANK AM) IIII. IMAM) F.Ml'IRE 

Maiires;!. .iiul its (|\i.irrii s, and a tall of wati r ot' niiirc than 200 fci-t. Jiresenting 
every advantage tor the erection ot mills. J feUed the first tree, and after liaving 
taken all necessary measures to expedite the work. I diparted for Walla Walla, 
where I eml)arked in a small Imat and descended the Cohmihia as far as l'"ort Van- 
eonver." 

The siirnifieanee ot l)e Smit s mention of "the cavern of New Manresa" becomes 
more ajiparent on reeallinj;- that he was of the Society of .lesus. and that Ignatius 
Loyola, founder of the .lesnil order, wliih- undertroing austerities. ))assed a vcar in 
a cave near the town of .Manresa in northeastern S))ain. Limestone abounds along 
the lowi r I'liid (I Oivilli . and a remarkable cavern, probabh that which the mis- 
sionaries located near .St. Ignatius, is one of tile natural wonders of that region. 

De.Smet's purjiose in returning to the \\'illainette was to secure jjlovighs. spades. 
pickaxes, scythes and ear))enters' tools for the m w missions in the interior, and a 
few weeks later we find him bringing .1 pack-train of eleven animals, ladened with 
tlicse im))lements. over tiie Indian trail which ))enetrates a pass in the Cascade moun- 
tains by tlu' base ol Mount Hood, a trail that i\in then had been ))ut to extensive 
use by the innnigration that was jjouring into Oregon, and which has ])assed into 
liistory .-is the Harlow road. For c()in))anions he had "tile good Hrotiier McGean. 
and two metis or mongrels," and tlu- little (larly eiiecuintered many difticulties from 
the melting snows which sent a thousand rills and torrents rushing down tiie 
mountainsides into the narrow valleys. The inissionarv noted, as have tiiousands 
since hiui who have traveled over tliis historic route, the extensive groves of rilo- 
dodcndron. which at that season "displays all its strength and iieauty. It rises," 
says tlie missionary author, "to the height of fifteen or twenty feet, and entire 
groves art- formed by thousands of these shrubs, whose clustering branches entwine 
tliemsclves in beautiful green arches, adorned with innmiurable bou(]uets of splendid 
flowers, varying their luies from the Jiure wliite. to the deepened tint of tiie crim- 
soned rose." 

He noted, loo, traces of the distress and hardshijis suffered liy jiioiiecrs who had 
struggled through these mountain defiles while on the last stage of their long over- 
land journey to Oregon, for his "path was strewed with the whiteuril bones of horses 
.and oxen, melanciioly testimonies of tile miseries endured by other travelers through 
these regions." Twenty days were required to ))ass. in this wav. from the \\"\\- 
lametle to Walla Walla, a iounH\ now made by raih'o.id train in half as ui.un 
hours. 

".\i)ont the middle of .Inly." runs the De.Suiet narrati\(. "I arrived safelv with 
all my effects at the Hay oi Kalispi Is (the mission of .Si. Ignatius). In mv absenci' 
the number of neojihytcs had considiTably increased. On the feast of the A.scen- 
sion. I'.ither Iloeeken had the Iiap|)iness of baptizing more tli.an 100 adults. Since 
my departun- in the s|)ring. our little eohuu' has built four houses. |)repared e<m- 
strueting m.iterials for :i small church, and enclosed a field of .'iOO acres. .More than 
K)0 Kalispels, c(Mn])uling adults and children, h.ive been ba))tized. Thev arc all 
anim.ated with fervor and zeal: they in.ake use ol the li.iteliel and |ilow. being re- 
.solved to abandon an itiner.anl life for a l)ermanent abode. The beautiful falls of 
the Columbia, called the Ch.uidieres. in tiie vicinity of I*"ort C"olville. are distant two 
d.iys' journey I rtun onr new residence of .St. Ignatius." 

'i'hese f.alls .ire now known as IIk Ketlli' b'alls of the Colunibi.a. Thither 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 125 

went Father DeSmet to celebrate the feast of St. Ignatius, and he found 800 or 900 
Indians assembled for the salmon fishing. "Within the last four years," he con- 
tinues, "considerable nmnbers of these Indians were visited by the 'black gowns,' 
who administered the sacrament of baptism. I was received by my dear Indians 
with filial joy and tenderness. I caused my little chapel of boughs to be placed on 
an eminence in the midst of the Indians' huts, where it might not inaptly be com- 
pared to the pelican of the wilderness, surrounded by her young, seeking with 
avidity the divine word, and sheltering themselves under the protection of their 
fostering mother. I gave three instructions daily ; the Indians assisted at them with 
great assiduity and attention. 

"More than 100 children were presented for baptism, and eleven old men, borne 
to me on skins, seemed only waiting regenerating waters, to depart home and repose 
in the bosom of their divine Savior. ... A solemn mass was celebrated, during 
wiiicli the Indians chanted canticles in praise of God. The ceremonies of baptism 
followed, and all terminated in the most perfect order, to the great delight and 
gratification of the savages. It was indeed a most imposing spectacle ; all around 
contributed to heighten the effect. The noble and gigantic rock, the distant roar 
of the cataracts breaking in on the religious silence of that solitude, situated on an 
eminence overlooking the powerful Oregon river, and on the spot where the im- 
petuous waters, freeing tiiemselves from their limits, rush in fury and dash over a 
pile of rocks, casting upwards a thousand jets d'eaii, whose transparent columns 
reflect, in varied colors, the rays of the dazzling sun!" 

Gathered at the falls, besides the Chaudieres or Kettle Indians, were several 
S.in Poils and Spokanes, the latter tribe termed by Father DeSmet the Zingomenes, 
.1 varied spelling of "Sinkomans," a name given the Spokanes by some of their 
iieigliboring tribes. 

"I gave the name of St. Paul to the Shuyelphi nation," adds DeSmet, "and placed 
under tlie care of St. Peter the tribe inhabiting the shores of the great Columbia 
lakes, whither Father Hoecken is about to repair, to continue instructing and baptiz- 
ing their adults. jNIy presence among the Indians did not interrupt their fine and 
abundant fishery. An enormous basket was fastened to a projecting rock, and the 
finest fish of the Columbia, as if by fascination, cast themselves by dozens into the 
snare. Seven or eight times during the day, these baskets were examined, and 
each time were found to contain about 250 salmon. The Indians, meanwhile, were 
seen on every projecting rock, piercing the fish with the greatest dexterity. 

"I left Chaudiere or Kettle Falls August ith, accompanied by several of the 
nation of the Crees, to examine the lands they have selected for the site of a village. 
The ground is rich and well suited for all agricultural purposes. Several buildings 
wen- eoniuienccd ; I gave the name of St. Francis Regis to this new station, where 
a great number of the mixed race and beaver hunters have resolved to settle with 
their families." 

This mission is in the Colville valley, about seven miles from tile present 
town of Colville. Thwaites, who edited a more recent edition of DeSmet's letters, 
says that on the missionary's next visit to St. Regis he found settled there about 
seventy half breeds, and adds that "the station does not aj^jjear to have been con- 
tinuous, but to have been reestablished after the Indian wars. Later it became a 



126 Sl'OKAM-: AND Till. INLAND KMl'IUE 

fiourisliinp mission, witli schools for boys and ftirls, and was frequently visited by 
Spokane and C'olville Indians from the neigliboring reservations." 

From St. Francis Regis Fatlier DeSmetset out, August 9. on a circuitous journey 
into tbe country of tin- Kootenays. in eastern Britisb Columbia. As the roads were 
inundated by a great fresh<t. he resolved to r( turn to Lake Pend d'Oreille and 
ascend the Clark or I'latlie.id river, cross country liy trail, and strike tin- Kooten.ii 
river near the border between Idaho and .Mont.uia. This river, known to the fur 
traders as the McCJillivray. the missionary designated the I'latbow (.Irc-a-plat) and 
the Kootenay triln lie gave tile same designation. On this journey, in the dipths 
of tile forest, ln' liad the good fortune to meet Peter .Skene Ogden. f.iiuiius ixplurer, 
adventurer and chief factor of the Hudson's IJ.-iy comjiany. 

"As we .-iiiiiro-iched the forests, sever.il horsciiicn issued forth in tattered gar- 
ments. The foremost gentlenum saluted lue by name, with all the familiarity of 
an old acquaintance. I returned tlie gracious salutation, desiring to know wiiom I 
liad the honor of addressing. A small river sep.irated us, .ind with .-i smile lie said: 
'Wait until I reach the opjiosite shore, and then you will recognize me.' He is not 
a beaver hunter, said I to myself: yt under this t.attered garb and slouched hat. I 
could not easily descry one of the ))rinci]).il members of the Hon. Hudson's Bay 
company, tiie worthy and resjxct.ible .Mr, Ogden, I had the honor ,iiid good fortune 
of making a voyage with him. and in his own barge, from Colville to Fort Van- 
couver, in 1842, and no oiu eoiild desire more agreeable society. It would be nec- 
essary for you to traverse the desert, to feel yourself insulated, remote from brethren, 
friends, to conceive the consol.ition .and joy of such a reiieounter." 

Ogden, who had been on .i voy.age to England, liad returned in .\pril, accom- 
panied by two British officers — Captain Henry .1. Warre, nephew and aide-de-camp 
of Sir R, Downer .laekson, commanding the British forces in .Vmerica, and Lieu- 
tenant M. Vavasour of the British engineer eorjis. i'li. y had a commission, says 
Thwaites, from the government, perhaps not as extensive as is reported by Dei^met, 
but doubtless ami)le in ease of w.ir. They wi re also secretly commissioned by the 
Hudson's Bay company to rejiort on Dr. Mil.oughlin's attitude in regard to the 
American settlers, .and their .uherse .lecDUiit was .mswered hy hiiu in detail, alter 
his resignation. 

According to DeSuut, "It was lu itlur curiosity nor ])leasure that induced tluse 
two officers to cross so many desolate regions, and hasten their course tow.ards the 
month of the Columbia. They were invested with orders from their government 
to take iiossession of Cn]n- Disapiinintnuiit (.it the mouth of the Columbia), to 
hoist the English standard, and erect .i fortress for the purpose of securing the 
cntr.ance of the river in case of w.ir." 

At this period the hnig-staiidiiig lioiiiidary dis|)ute between the United States 
and (ire.it Hrit.iin had .ippro.iehed ,i crisis. Public sentiment was inflamed against 
England, .ind newsp,i|)ers ,ind politici.ms clamored for ;i vigorous and ex.icting policy 
by our .state deii.arlnieiit. In tli. ]ir( sidniti.il eainpaigii of 18U-. th.' catch jihrase, 
"Fifty-four-forty or fight," had served .is a jiolitieal slogan for the winning Jiarty, 
expressive of .i i)o|)ul;ir desire th.it the government of the United States should 
treat with England on no other basis than fixing the int.riiatiim.il boundary on that 
line of latitude, giving to the stars and strijies tiie greater part of the present 
province of British Columbia. But, as was ajitly said a little later, we didn't get 




THK OLD .MISSIUX OX THE t'OKl'K IVALKNE RIVEK BUILT BY THE 
JESUITS NEARLY SEVENTY YEARS AGO 



THE ^£W YuRK 



r 



UBUC LIBRART 






SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 127 

54-4.0, and we didn't figlit. DeSmet evidently regarded the attitude of the United 
States as large part bluster, for he remarked at the time: 

"In the Oregon question John Bull, without much talk, attains his end. and 
secures the most important part of this country; whereas Uncle Sam displodes a 
volley of words, inveighs and storms." It wasn't nearly so bad as that, for the 
treaty of 1846 really gave Uncle Sam "the most important part of the country," al- 
though the award threw to Britain the rich and beautiful province of British Colum- 
bia. 

DeSmet described the country between Lake Pend d'Oreille and the Kootenai 
as one of dense forests, the trail much obstructed by fallen trees, "morasses, fright- 
ful sloughs, from which the poor horses with much difficulty extricate themselves; 
but having finally surmounted all these obstacles, we contemplate from an eminence 
a smiling and accessible valley, whose mellow and abundant verdure is nourished by 
two lovely lakes, where tlie graceful river of the Arcs-a-plats winds in such fan- 
tastic beauty that it serves to make the weary traveler not only forget his past 
dangers, but amply compensates him for the fatigues of a long and tiresome journey." 

Of the subsistence of the Kootenai Indians he wrote: "These lakes and morasses, 
formed in the spring, are filled with fish; they remain there, enclosed as 
in a natural reservoir, for the use of the inhabitants. The fish swarm in 
such abundance that the Indians have no other labor than to take them from the 
water and prepare them for the boiler. Such an existence is, however, precarious; 
tile savages, who are not of a provident nature, are obliged to go afterwards in quest 
of roots, grains, berries and fruits: such as the thorny bush which bears a sweet, 
]>leasant blackberry; the rosebuds, mountain cherry, cormier or service berry, vari- 
ous sorts of gooseberries and currants of excellent flavor ; raspberries, the hawthorn 
berry, the wappato (sagittafolia) a very nourisliing, bulbous root; the bitter root, 
whose appellation sufficiently denotes its peculiar quality, is, however, very healthy; 
it grows in light, dry, sandy soil, as also the eaious or biscuit root. The former is 
of a thin and cylindrical form; the latter, though farinaceous and insipid, is a sub- 
stitute for bread; it resembles a small, white radish; the watery potato, oval and 
greenish, is prepared like our ordinary potato, but greatly inferior to it: the sweet 
onion, which bears a lovely flower resembling the tulip. Strawberries are common 
and delicious. 

"I can not pass over in silence the camash root (the camas) and the peculiar man- 
ner in which it is prepared. It is abundant, and, I may say, the queen root of this 
clime. It is a small, white, vapid onion, when removed from the earth, but becomes 
black and sweet when prepared for food. The women arm themselves with long, 
crooked sticks, to go in search of the camash. After having procured a certain 
quantity of these roots, by dint of long and painful labor, they make an excavation 
in the earth, from twelve to fifteen inches deep, and of proportional diameter to 
contain the roots. Tiiey cover the bottom with closely cemented pavement, which 
they make red hot by means of a fire. After having carefuUv withdrawn all the 
coals, they cover the stones with grass and wet hay; then place a layer of camash, 
another of wet hay, a third of bark overlaid with mold, whereon is kept a glowing 
fire for fifty, sixty, and sometimes seventy hours. The camash thus acquires a 
consistency equal to that of the jujube. It is sometimes made into loaves of vari- 



128 Sl'OKANH AM) I 111, INLAND KMi'lUH 

oils diincnsions. It is cxcclk'nt, fspcciiilx' wliiii lioilid witli im .it ; if kept (iry. it 
can he prcscrvi'd a long time." 

Throughout the forested sections of the Spokane country tin- Indian, when re- 
duced to famine in springtime, resorted to pine moss. M. M. Cowlty informed the 
editor that he often saw the .Spok.-ines make use of this poor substitute, after he 
eaine into the valley in I87„'. De.'^iiiet thus describes its use: "It is a parasite of 
the (line, a tree common in these latitudes, .iiid hangs from its houghs in great 
((ii.intities. It appears more suitable for mattresses, than for the sustenance of 
luiiiian life. When they have procured .i great quantity, they pick out all hetero- 
geneous substance, and pre|)are it as tluv do the eam.ish ; it becomes compact, and 
is, in my opinion, a most miserable food, which, in a brief sp.-iee, reduces those who 
live on it to ,i [jitiable state of emaciation." 

Over .a j)eriod of nearly two years we find this intrepid missioii.iry r.inging the 
vast wilderness around the sources of the Columbia, the Missouri, the Saskatchewan 
and the Athabasca, at times bearing the gospel and the cross to the very sources of 
the great river of the west. "The tradition of man's creation and future immor- 
tality, ' he writes from the "Fort of the Mountains," October ,'Kl, ISly, "exists among 
most of the Indi.m tribes; I li.ive had the opportunity of visiting and questioning 
them on the subject. Those who live by fishery, suppose their Heaven to be full 
of lakjs and rivers, abounding in fish, whose enchanted shores and verdant islands 
produce fruits of every kind. ' 

Much of this trying and perilous |)eriod he passed among the fierce and blood- 
thirsty Blaekfeet. "I eiie.imped (he writes in the s.ime letter) on tin- banks of two 
lakes to the east of the Roeky mountains, which the Blaekfeet call the Lake of 
Men and the Lake of Wonun. According to their tr.aditions, from the first of these 
issued a band of young men, handsome and vigorous, but poor and naked. I'rom 
the second, an equal number of ingenious .lud industrious young women, who con- 
structed .and made themselves clothing. They lived a long time, sejiarate and un- 
known to c.ich other, until the grc.it .\Linitou Wiz.ikeschak. or the old man (still in- 
vokid by the Hl.iekfcet ) visitid them; he t.uight them to slay .animals in the chase, 
but they were yet ignorant of the .art of dressing skins. Wizakcsehak conducted 
them to the dwelling of the young women, who received their guests with dances 
and cries of joy. Shoes, leggins, shirts and robes, garnished with porcupine quills, 
were presented them. l'';icli young woman silected her gmsl. ;iiid ))rcscnted liim 
with a dish of seeds and roots; the men. desiring to contribute to tin- cutert.iinmenl. 
sought the chase and returned lo.idi-d with g.ame. The wonun liked the meat, and 
;idniired the strength, skill .and bravery of the hunter^. The men were e(|ii.illy 
delighted with the beauty of their tr.ippings, and admired the industry of the women. 
Both parties began to think they were necessary to each other, and \Vizakeschak 
jiresidcd at the solemn compact in which it was agreed that the men should become 
the protectors of the women. ;iiid i)rovidc .ill iiecess.iries for their sii|)|)ort; whilst 
all other family cares should devolve ii))c)ii the women." 

De.Smet drolly .kUIs tli.it "the 15l.ickfeel sipiaws often bitterly eompl.ain of the 
astonishing folly ol their mothers in .icceiiting such a ])ro))osition ; declaring, if the 
<()iiip.ict were yet to b(; m.ide. they would arrange it in a very difVennt m.uiiier. 

"The Blaekfoot heaven is a counlry of s.indy hills, which they call Ks|)atcliekie, 
whither the soul goes after death, and where they will find .'igaiii ;ill the .animals 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 129 

they have killed, and all the horses they have stolen. The buffalo, hind and stag 
abound there. In speaking of the departed, a Blackfoot never says such a one is 
dead, but 'Espatchekie etake,' — to the Sand hills he is gone." 

Is it only coincidence that the Japanese have a tradition closelj- resembling the 
Blackfoot mytli of the origin of the family relation? 

A year later, in 1 816, Father DeSmet is found traversing the expansive prairies 
that now support the thriving cities of Calgary and Edmonton. With prophetic 
vision he thus writes of the jxjtential resources of the broad region lying between 
Walla Walla and Edmonton : 

"Are these vast and innumerable fields of hay forever destined to be consumed 
by fire, or perish in the autumnal snows? How long shall these superb forests be the 
haunts of wild beasts? And these inexhaustible quarries, these abundant mines of 
coal, lead, sulphur, iron, copper and saltpetre — can it be that they are doomed to 
remain forever inactive? Not so — the day will come when some laboring hand will 
give them value: a strong, active and enterprising people are destined to fill this 
spacious void. — The wild beasts will, ere long, give place to our domestic animals; 
flocks and herds will graze in the beautiful meadows that border the numberless 
mountains, hills, valleys and plains of this extensive region." 

In letters from "Boat Encampment on the Columbia," May 10, 1846, and "St. 
Paul's Station near Colville," May 29, 1846, the missionary gives us a lively, cheer- 
ful and at times humorous narrative of a remarkable journey he had just completed, 
by way of the historic route of the fur traders, from the headwaters of the Atha- 
basca to navigable water on the Columbia. Boat Encampment is at the extreme 
northern point of the upper big bend of the Columbia, where the Canoe and Little 
Canoe enter the larger river. At this point, in 1809, David Thompson, explorer 
and astronomer for the Northwestern Fur company, paused to build canoes for his 
descent of the Columbia, the first white man to explore the great river from that 
point to the mouth of Snake river. It was long a noted stopping place on the 
upper Columbia, where horses or snowshoes were exchanged for canoes or bateaux, 
or navigation ended and the land journey begun, as the case might be. 

"We had now (says DeSmet) seventy miles to travel on snowshoes, in order 
to reach the Boat Encampment on the banks of the Columbia. We proposed to ac- 
complish this in two days and a half. The most worthy and excellent Messrs. 
Rowan and Harriot, whose kindness at the Rocky mountain house and Fort Au- 
gustus I shall ever acknowledge, were of opinion that it was absolutely impossible 
for me to accomplish the journey. However, I thought I could remedy the incon- 
venience of my surplus stock, by a vigorous fast of thirty days, which I cheerfully 
underwent. I found myself much lighter, indeed, and started off somewhat en- 
couraged over snow sixteen feet deep. We went in single file, — alternately ascend- 
ing and descending — sometimes across plains piled up with avalanches — sometimes 
over lakes and rapids buried deeply under the snow, — now on the side of a deep 
mountain — then across a forest of cypress trees, of which we could only see the tops. 
I can not tell you the number of my summersets. I continually found myself em- 
barrassed by my snowshoes, or entangled in some branch of a tree. When falling. I 
spread my arms before me, as one naturally would do, to break the violence of the 
fall ; and upon deep snow the danger is not great, — though I was often half buried. 



130 Sl'UKAM-: AM) 1111. INLAND KMl'lUK 

wluii I ri(|iiirtd tlic assistance of my companions, wiiicli was always attended 
witii great kindness and good humor." 

In tlii-. mainur tliirty miles were made tin- first day, and the party encamped 
near the sinnniit. ".Some jjine trees were cut down and strip))ed of their branches, 
and these lieing laid on the snow, furnisiied us with a hed, wiiilst a fire was lijrlited 
on a floor of green logs." Hvery one who h.is traM-lrd primitively in tliesi- north- 
western solitudes, and has carried to tin toil a geiuiine love of nature, can appre- 
ciate the missionary's revcry : 

"To sleej) thus — under the heautiful eino|iy of the starry heavens — in the midst 
of lofty and stec]) mountjiins — among sweet murmuring rills and roaring torrents — 
may appear str.inge to you. and to all lovers of rooms rendered eomfortahle hv 
stoves and feathers; hut you m.iy think dilTerently afti r lia\ing come and i)reathed 
tile |)ure air of tiu' mountains, where in return, coughs and colds are unknown. Come 
and m.-ike a tri.al, and you will s.ay that it is lasy to forget the fatigues of a long 
march, and find eonti ntment and joy, even upon the sjjread liranches of ]>inev. on 
which, after the Indian f.-ishion, we extended ourselves ;ind sl(pl, wrap|)ed up in 
huttalo robes." 

Only a soul imbued with a |)rofound and abiding love of nature, .and sustained by 
dee]) faith in God's infinite wisdom and uurey, could exjjress sentiments so beautiful 
and lofty .after enduring the dre.idful hardships th.at befell feather DeSmet the 
day following: 

"At the foot of the nionnt.ain an obstacle of a new kind ])resetited itself. All 
the barriers of snow, the innumerable banks, which had sto|)])ed the water of the 
stn-.anis, lakes .and torrents, were broken up during the night, .and swelled consider- 
.ibly the gre.it I'ortage river (the Little Canoe). It me.inders so remark.ibly in this 
straight valley, down which we traveled for a day and a half, tli.it we were coni- 
lielled to cross it not less tb.in forty times, with the water fre<iuentlv up to our 
shoulders. So great is its impituosity, th.at we were obliged mutu.illy to support 
ourselves, to prevent being carried .away by the current. W\- m.arched in our wet 
clotlii s during the rest of our s.id route. The long soaking, joined to uiv gre.it f.a- 
tigue, swelled my limbs. All the nails of my feet canu ott, .and the blood stained 
my moccasins. Four times I found my strength gone, and I cert.ainly should h.ave 
perished in that frightful region, if the courage .inii strength of my conip.anions h.id 
not roused and .aided me in my distress." 

DeSmet describes an interesting custom. His party canu' over the I'ortage in 
May, and "s.aw .M.iypolis .ill .along the old rneampinents. E.aeh tr.i\eler who 
IJasscs there for the first time selects his own. A young Can.adi.an, with much kind- 
ness, dedicated one to me, which was at least 120 feet in height, and which reared 
its lofty lir.ad above .all tin- m ighlioriiig trees. Did I deserve it? He stripped it of 
.all its br.anelies, only leaving at the top .i litlli' crown; ,it the botloni ni\- n.iiiie .and 
the date of the transit were written." 

".\fter so m.any Labors .and dangers," continues the missionary, "we deserved 
a rejiast. ILapjiily, we found .at the Kne.iiii))ment .all the ingredients that were 
necess.ary for .a feast a bag of flour, ,a large li.im. p.irt of .i nindeer, cheese, sugar 
.and te.a in .abund.inee, wliieli the genllenieii of the l-'nglish eonip.any h.id eh.irit.ably 
left behind. While some were employed refitting the b.arge, others pre)),ared the 
dinner; and in .about .an hour we found ourselves snugly seated and stretched out 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 131 

around the kettles and roasts, laughing and joking about the summersets on the 
mountains, and the accidents on the Portage. I need not tell you that they de- 
scribed me as the most clumsy and awkward traveler in the band." 

From St. Paul's station, near Colville, Father DeSmet penned a continuation 
of this interesting narrative. After the feast which he has just described, the 
party launched the barge and shot rapidly down the swollen current of the Colum- 
bia. "Guided by an expert Iroquois pilot, and aided with ten oars, the boat darted 
over the boisterous surface" of j\Iartin's rapids, and at sunset they were at the 
Dalle of the Dead, where "tlie waters are compressed between a range of perpen- 
dicular rocks, presenting innumerable crags, fissures and cliffs, through which the 
Columbia leaps with irresistible impetuosity, forming, as it dashes along, frightful 
whirlpools, where every passing object is swallowed and disappears." . By means 
of two long ropes, the barge was lowered through this frightful trough, and the 
party encamped for the night at its foot. For details of the tragic incident which 
imparted to this stretch of the river a name so sad and shocking, the reader is di- 
rected to the chapter wherein an account is given by Ross Cox of the disastrous 
fate which befell a party that turned back from the mouth of the Canoe river in 
1817. 

May 1 1 the party resumed its voyage at early dawn, and that evening encamped 
at the entrance to Upper Arrow lake (an extended dilation of the Columbia river). 

"This beautiful sheet of crystalline water, whilst the rising sun was tinting the 
tops of a thousand hills around, came most refreshing to the eye. It is about thirty 
miles long, by four or five wide. Its borders are embellished by overhanging preci- 
pices and majestic peaks, which, rearing their white heads above the clouds, look 
down like venerable monarchs of the desert upon the great forests of pines and 
cedar surrounding the lake. The two highest peaks are called St. Peter and St. 
Paul." 

Here the father found twenty Indian families, belonging to the mission of St. 
Paul, encamped on the shore of the lake, and gladly accepted their pressing invi- 
tation to visit them. "It was the meeting of a father with his children, after ten 
months of absence and dangers," wrote the priest, adding a belief that "the joy 
was mutually sincere. The greater part of the tribe had been converted the past 
year at Kettle Falls. These families were absent at that time. I passed, there- 
fore, several days among them, to instruct them in the duties and practices of 
religion. They then received baptism, with all the marks of sincere piety and 
gratitude. Gregory, the name of their chief, who had not ceased to exhort his 
people by word and example, had the happiness to receive baptism in 1838, from 
the hands of the Rev. Mr., now Archbishop, Blanchet. The worthy and respectable 
chief was now at the height of his joy, in seeing at last all his children brought 
under the standard of Jesus Christ. The tribe of these lake Indians are a ))art of 
the Kettle Fall nation. They are very poor, and subsist principally on fish and 
wild roots. As soon as we shall have more means at our disposal, we will supjily 
them with implements of husbandry and with various seeds and roots, wliich, I 
have no doubt, will thrive well in their country." 

With no desire to draw invidious comparison, but as a direct historical state- 
ment, the fact is cons))icuous that tlie Catholic missionaries adopted and main- 
tained, from the beginning, a theory and an attitude differing fundamentallv from 



132 SPOKANE AND THK INI. AM) KMPIRE 

those which controlled and animated the Protestants. Freely and almost without 
reserve, they admitted into full communion their Indian converts, dispensing, with 
unstinted hand the .sacraments of the Roman church, and carefully avoiding an 
appearance of patronage or an air of superiority. Better had it heen if Whitman, 
Spalding, Walker and Eells had been less exacting in theological standards (as 
distinct from morals) : had relaxed their austere New England doctrines, and 
adopted towards their untutored wards a bearing of closer brotherhood, instead 
of maintaining, down to the very close of their missions, a policy of holding them 
under probation or tutelage. As the years rolled by. and the Cayuses saw them- 
selves permanently denied full communion, a spirit of sullen resentment developed; 
and the belief intensified that they were being exploited in a commercial spirit, 
and the missionaries were only fore-runners of an immigration that threatened the 
very existence of the Indian tribes. 

Explanatory of the origin of the name, Arrow lake, the author recalls the put- 
ting forward, a few years ago, by a contributor to a Spokane newspaper, of an 
erroneous theory that the first white men to ])ass through that region heard an 
Indian legend, tli.it the Great Spirit, while hunting one day, had emptied into these 
l.ikes Ills quiver of gigantic arrows: and in substantiation of this fantastic idea, huge 
sli.afts of the forest, stripped clean of limbs and silvered with years of weather, 
imbedded in tlic lake bottom and leaning at a sharp angle above the surface of the 
water, were shown in proof of the truth of the legend. Father DeSmet gives the 
true origin of the name: 

"We passed under a perpendicular rock, where we beheld an innumerable num- 
ber of arrows sticking out of the fissures. The Indians, when they ascend the 
lake, have a custom of lodging each an arrow into these crevices." 

In his "Fur Hunters," Alexander Ross writes of rude paintings in red upon a 
smooth and perpendicular rock on the shore of the lower lake. Against these jiaint- 
ings, says that author, Indians passing below in their canoes shot arrows in a 
spirit of defiance against a neighboring warring tribe. From the make of these 
arrows the natives could tell what tribes had recently passed. 

Passing through the Arrow lakes, and floating on the swift current of the Col- 
umbia, the missionary came to the Little Dalles. "Our barge was in great danger 
in the Dalle, some miles above Colville," he writes. "I had left it, to go on foot, 
to avoid the dangerous passage. The young boatmen, notwithstanding my remon- 
strances, thought they could pass in safety. A whirlpool suddenly arrested their 
course, Jind threatened to bury them beneath its angry waters. Their redoubled 
efforts proved ineffectual, — I saw them borne on with an irresistible force to the 
engulfing center — the bow of the boat descended already into the abyss and filled. 
I was on my knees upon the rock which overhung this frightful spectacle, sur- 
rounded by several Indians; — we implored tlu! .aid of heaven in f.ivor of our poor 
comrades — they seemed to be evidently lost — when the wliirljiool filled, and threw 
them from its bosom, as it reluctjintly yielded up the prey which it had so tena- 
ciously held. We all gave heartfelt thanks to Almighty God for having delivered 
llieni from a danger so imminent." 

At this ])oint in his n.irr.itive the missionary digresses into a comprehensive 
description of the surrounding country: "The mouth of the river McGillivray, or 
Flatbow (the Kootenai of tli<- jiresent day), is near the outlet of the lower lake. 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 133 

It presents a beautiful situation for the establishment of a future reduction or 
mission, and I have already marked out a site for the construction of a church. 
About twenty miles lower we passed the Flathead or Clark's river (the Pend 
d'Oreille), which contributes largely to the Columbia. These two beautiful rivers 
derive a great portion of their waters from the same chain of the Rocky mountains 
from which a great number of the forks of the Saskatchewan and of the Missouri 
are supplied. For a distance of about thirty miles from their junction with the 
Columbia, are they obstructed with insurmountable falls and rapids. Among the 
many lakes connected with the Flathead river, three are very conspicuous, and 
measure from thirty to forty miles in length, and from four to six in width. The 
Flathead lake receives a large and beautiful stream, extending upwards of a hun- 
dred miles in a northwestern direction, through a most delightful valley, and is 
supplied by considerable torrents, coming from a great cluster of mountains, con- 
nected immediately with the main chain, in which a great number of lakes lie em- 
bedded. Clark's fork passes through Eake Kalispel. Lake Roothan is situated in 
the Pend d'Oreille and Flatbow mountains, and discharges itself by the Black- 
Gown river into the Clark, twent}^ miles below Kalispel lake." 

Lake Roothan finds frequent mention in Governor Stevens' reports as lake 
"Rootham," and is so printed on old government maps. It is now known as Priest 
lake, and the "Black-Gown river" of DeSmet is the Priest river of the present day. 
The lake was named by the Jesuits in honor of the then father general of their order. 
"Towards the end of the month of May," continues the narrative, "I arrived at 
Fort Colville. I found the nation of Shuyelphi or Kettle Fall already baptized 
by the Rev. Father Hoecken, who had continued to instruct them after my depart- 
ure in the month of August last year. They had built, to my great surprise, a 
small frame church, so much the more beautiful and agreeable to my eyes, as being 
their first attempt at architecture, and the exclusive work of the Indians. With a 
laudable pride they conducted me, as in triumph, to the humble and new temple of 
the Lord, and in favor of that good people, and for their perseverance in the faith, 
I there offered the august sacrifice of the altar. 

"The arrival of the good Father Nobili at Colville filled us with great joy and 
consolation. He had made missionary excursions over the greatest portion of New 
Caledonia. Everywhere the Indian tribes received him with open arms, and took 
great care to bring their little children to be baptized. Having made a retreat of 
eight days in the Reduction of St. Ignatius, and after a month of repose and prep- 
aration for a second expedition, he returned with renewed zeal and fervor to his 
dear Caledonians, accompanied by several laborers, and supplied with a dozen 
horses, loaded with implements of agriculture and carpentry. 

"Father Nobili and myself were most hospitably entertained during our stay 
at Fort Colville. The kindness of the Honorable Mr. Lewes and family I shall 
never forget. Truly and deservedly has Commodore Wilkes stated, 'That the lib- 
erality and hospitality of all the gentlemen of the Honorable Hudson's Bay com- 
pany arc proverbial.' " 



CHAPTER XV 

CATHOLIC MISSIONS— CONCLUDED 

OVERLAND JOURNEY FROM OLD WALLA WALLA TO THE SPOKANE DESMET TAKES A 

FRIENDLY INDIAN PIPE FROM THE SPOKANE TO COLVILLE TRIP FROM SPOKANE 

TO THE COEUR d'aLENE MISSION A SUMMER ENCAMPMENT DESCRIBED TAKING 

"pot luck" with INDIANS SUPERSTITIONS OF THE COEUR d'aLENES THEY WOR- 
SHIP A WHITE man's spotted SHIRT AND BLANKET- — MISSION EFFORTS OF AN IRO- 
QUOIS CHIEF FATHER POINT's LABORS AMONG THIS TRIBE GOVERNOR STEVENS' 

HOSPITABLE RECEPTION AT THE OLD MISSION MISSIONARIES TAKE THE OATH OF 

ALLEGIANCE TO THE U. S. CAPTAIN m'cLELLAN AMONG THE YAKIMAS ST. MICH- 

AEl's MISSION NEAR HILLYARD FATHER CARUANA AMONG THE SPOKANES. 

FROM Colville DeSmet descended the Columbia in one of the barges of the 
Hudson's Bay company, stopping at Fort Okanogan, where he adminis- 
tered baptism to forty-tliree persons. From Vancouver he set out in .Tuly 
on a return to the interior, and under date of July 26, ISIG, in a letter from St. 
Ignatius, on the lower Pend d'Oreille river, thus records the incidents of an over- 
land journey from old Walla Walla on the Columbia: 

"The eighth day after my departure from Fort Vancouver, I landed safely at 
^\■alla Walla, with the goods destined for the diflferent missions. In a few days 
all was ready, and having thanked the good and kind-hearted Mr. McBean, the 
suiK-riutendent of the fort, who had rendered me every assistance in his power, 
we soon found ourselves on the way to the mountains, leading a band of pack mules 
and liorses over a sandy, dry jilain, covered with buneh-grass and wormwood." 

In fair weather this William B. McBean could be kind and hospitable to a degree; 
luit when, in his defense, all is said tliat may be said, tiic distressing fact remains 
that he iiehaved b.adly when begged for succor and defense by survivors of the 
\\'hitman massacre. Thwaites, editor of "The .Jesuit Relations and Allied Docu- 
ments," says that AIcBean was an educated half-breed, who succeeded Archibald 
McKinlcy at Fort Walla Walla in 181,'). "He attained an unpleasant notoriety in 
eonu<(tion with the Whitman massacre, because of his Catholic proclivities, and 
his tardiness in aiding the survivors; but most of the charges against him were 
unfounded. In New Caledonia he had a reputation for being despotic and wily, 
also somewhat fanatical in religious matters." 

With all the de<'p ardor of a lover of nature. Father DeSmet enjoyed his life 
on the trail — afloat on rushing mountain river, by cam))fire beneath the solemn 
])ines. or out u])on the free and starlit pr.iirie. "We encamped for tlie night," re- 

ia5 



136 SPOKANK ANJ) Till; INLANJJ h.MriUE 

sumes his narrative, "in a beautiful little meadow, watered by the Walla Walla 
river, where we found abundance of orrass for our animals. These were soon un- 
loaded and left free to graze at leisure. \Ve next made a fire, jjut on the camp 
kettle, stretched the bed, consisting of a bnfTalo robe, and smoked together the 
friendly Indian pipe, whilst supper was in-e])aring. We found ourselves at home 
and perfectly at ease in less than a quarter of an hour. The evening was clear 
and beautiful — not a cloud — our sleep, sound and rcfresliing, prepared us for an 
early start at dawn of day." 

Here was a spectacle — a priest of God puffing at an Indian pijjc and uiil)lush- 
ingly proclaiming the enjoyment of it— that would have scandalized the zealous 
Parker, forerunner of Whitman and Spalding in the lone land where rolls the Ore- 
gon. Parker detested the incense of the pipe, inveighed against its use by trapper 
.■ind Indian, and often gravely admonislu-d the Indi.ans against this sin. IJke 
DcSmet, he was brave, and zealous, and a lover of wild nature too; but unlike 
DeSmet, he seemed not to know when to \nibend. or when to look with indulgent 
eye on a practice which had long been dear to the Indian heart. 

"The »iext d.ay," continues De.Sniet. "we found about a dozen Indian lodges, 
called/fthe Palooses, a portion of the .Saiietan (Sahaptin) or Nez Perec tribe. We 
proeurecrtrom the Indians here some fresh salmon, for which we made them amiile 
return in powder and lead. But as the grass was withered and scanty, and the pil- 
fering dispositions of these Indians rather doubtful, we resolved on proceeding 
eight or ten mil<-s farther, and eneanif)ed late in the evi-ning on the Pavili<ui river 
(now the Palouse). 

"On the fifth day of our departure from Walla Walla, we reached the Spokane 
river, and found a good fording for our animals. You will see with pleasure the 
chart I have made of the headwaters of this river, which, though beautiful and 
interesting, is yet, like all the other rivers in Oregon, almost an unbroken succes- 
sion of rapids, falls and cascades, and of course ill-adapted in its jiresent condition 
to the purposes of navigation. The two upper valleys of the Coeur d'.Mene ;ire 
beautiful, and of a rich mold. They are watered by two deep forks, running into 
the Coeur d'Alene lake, a fine sheet of water, of about thirty miles in liiigth by 
four or five broad, from which the river Spokane derives its .source. I ealb d the 
two upper forks the St. .loseph's and the St. Ignatius. They are fonnril by in- 
numerable torrents, deseeiuling from the Pointed Heart mountains, a eliain of the 
Rocky mount.iins. The two ui)))<r valleys are about sixty or eighty miles long, and 
four or riglit miles brd.id. I counted u))Hards of forty littlt- lakes in liuni. The 
wlioli- neiglil)oriio()d of the Sjjokane river .affords very alnnidant gr.-izing. and in 
many sections is tolerably well timbered with pines of different species." 

DeSmet probably followed the old Indian trail leading from the \\alla Walla 
valley to Colville. whieli crossed the Spokane about twenty miles below the falls, 
and ]>assed through the Tshimakain valley, now Walker's prairie, where Eells and 
Walker maintained their Protestant mission from 1 S:;<» to ISfS. "On having the 
river," he says, "we ascended by a steep Indian ))ath. .\ few miles ride across a 
pine forest brings you to a beautiful valley leading to Colville. agreeablv diversified 
by pl.iiris and forests, lieintmd in by high wooded mountains, and bv huge ])ic- 
tures<|ue rocks towering their lofty heads over .all tlie rest. Foimtains and rivulets 
are Jicre very nunurous. After about thirtv miles we arrived at the foot of the 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 137 

Kalispel mountain, in the neighborhood of St. Francis Regis, where already about 
sevent_y metis or halfbreeds have collected to settle permanently." 

From St. Ignatius, under date of July 25, 1816, Father DeSmet wrote to Mrs. 
S. Parmentier, a Brooklyn woman who had made a liberal donation for the support 
of his missions. "I am indeed ashamed," he begins, "at not having been able sooner 
to answer the letters which you had the kindness to write me on the 2d of Septem- 
ber and the 7th of December, ISli." Evidently the mail service was no better for 
the Catholic missionaries than it had been for the Protestants, who regarded as one 
of their chief hardships the long delays involved in communication with eastern 
friends. Father DeSmet explained that this lady's letters "reached the Rocky 
mountains only the year after, while I was engaged in a distant mission among the 
Indians, so that I received them only in the month of July, 1846. ... I have 
given directions to the Indians of these different tribes to recite, every week, the 
Rosarv for one of their great benefactresses, meaning yourself. Now, you can 
not but be aware, that, among the Indians, the beads are recited in each family, 
so that I am already assured, and I have the consolation of saying to you, that 
many thousand pairs of beads have already been offered up to God and his august 
mother for you. Those good Indians — those children of the forest — so dear to 
my heart, will continue to display their gratitude till I tell them to cease, and that 
will not be very soon. . . . How happy should I be, my dear, excellent Madam, 
could I give you to understand how great, how sweet, how enrapturing, is their 
devotion to the august mother of God. The name of Mary, which, pronounced in 
the Indian language, is something so sweet and endearing, delights and charms 
them. . . . 

"The usual place of residence of the Kalispels — that in which the reduction of 
St. Ignatius is now established — is an extensive prairie, called the Bay of the Kal- 
ispels, thirty or forty miles above the mouth of Clark or Flathead river. A beau- 
tiful grotto exists in the neighborhood of the mission, which I have named the 
grotto of Manresa, in honor of our Holy Founder. It is very large, and might, 
at small expense, be fitted up for a church. May the Indians gather in crowds 
into this new Manresa, and after the example of their patron, St. Ignatius, be 
penetrated with a feeling sense of heavenly things, and inflamed with the love of 
God. 

"I shall always remember with pleasure the winter of 1844-45, which I had 
the happiness of spending among these good Indians. The place for wintering 
was well chosen, picturesque, agreeable and convenient. The camp was placed 
near a beautiful waterfall, caused by Clark's river being blocked up by an immense 
rock, through which the waters, forcing narrow passages, precipitate themselves. 
A dense and interminable forest protected us from the north winds, and a countless 
number of dead trees, standing on all sides, furnished us with abundant fuel for 
our fires during the inclement season. We were encircled by ranges of lofty moun- 
tains, whose snowclad summits reflected in the sun, their brightness on all the 
surrounding country." From this description, it seems probable that the rendez- 
vous just described was at Albani Falls, near the present town of Newport. 

"The place for wintering being determined, the first care of the Indians was 
to erect the house of prayer. While the men cut down saplings, the women brought 
bark and mats to cover them. In two davs this humble house of the Lord was 



138 SPOKANE AND THH INLAND K.NilMHE 

coinijlitiil liuuil)lc ,111(1 ])oor, indeed, hut truly tlie house of pr.-iycr, to which pure, 
simple, innocent souls repaired, to offer to the Great S])irit tlieir vows, and the 
trihute of their affections. 

"The great festival of Christmas, the day on wliirh the little tiand was to be 
added to the number ot Ihi true children of God. will luver he effaced from the 
meinory of our good Indians. The manner in which we celebrated midnight mass, 
may give you an idea of our festival. The signal for rising, which was to be given 
a few minutes before midnight, was the firing of a pistol, announcing to the In- 
dians that the bouse of prayer would soon be open. This was followed by a gen- 
eral discharge of guns, in honor of the birth of tlie infant Savior, and ."iOO voices 
rose spontaneously from the midst of the forest, and entoned in the language of the 
Pend d'Oreilles, the beautiful canticle: 'Dti Dieu puissant tout annonce la gloire.' 
— 'The Almighty's glory all things proclaim.' In a moment a multitude of adorers 
were seen wending th( ir way to the humble temi)le of the Lord — resembling, in- 
deed, the manger in which the Messiah was born. On that night, which all at once 
became bright as day, they experienced, I know not what, that which made them 
exclaim aloud, 'Oh, God, I give Thee my heart.' 

"On the eve the church was embellished with garlands and wreaths of green 
boughs, forming, as it were, a frame for tile images which represent the affecting 
mysteries of Christmas night. The interior w.as ornamented with pine branches. 
The altar was neatly decorated, bespangled with stars of various brightness, and 
covered with a profusion of ribbons — things exceedingly attractive to the eye of an 
Indi.in. .\t midnight I celebrated a solemn mass, the Indians sang several canticles 
suitable to the occasion. That peace announced in the first verse of the Angelic 
In'mn, 'The Gloria — Peace on earth to men of good will.' was. I venture to sav. 
literally fulfilled to the Indians of the forest. 

"A grand banquet, according to Indian custom, followed the first mass. Some 
choice pieces of the animals slain in the eluise had been set apart for the occasion. 
I ordered half a sack of (lour .and ,i large boiler of sweetened coffee to be added. 
The iiniciM. the contentment, the joy. and eh.arity, which Jiervaded the whole as- 
sembly, might well be comjiared to the ,ag.i])e of the jirimitive Christians." 

"Fathers Mengarini and Serbinati (the Last-mentioned father has since died), had 
the consolation to sec the whole tribe of the Elatbeads, among whom they had been 
laboring, approach the holy t.able on this day. Twelve voung Indians, taught by 
Father Mengarini, jxrfoniuil. with .leeuracy, several jiieces of music during the 
midnight m.ass. Fathers I'oint and Josct had, also, the eonsol.atioii of admitting 
for the first time, nearly tlu entire tribe of the Coeur d Alenes. on this auspicious 
d.iy, to the Holy Conniimudn. Tlu Christmas of 184i was, therefore, a great and 
glorious day in the Rocky mountains. 

"I will close this already lengthy letter with .1 few words more concerning the 
Pends d'Oreilles of the Bay. E.arly in the spring ol 181;), they began to build 
ii))on the s|)ot selected for the Reduction of St. Ignatius, and to open fields. On 
Ascension d.ay of the same ye.ar. F.atlur Ilocekm .administered baptism to ujnvards 
of a hundred .ailulls. .\t my Last visit, whicli I |i.ii(l liicin iu .Inly List, tliry h.-ul 
.ilre.idy pill up fourteen log houses, besides a large barn, had the timbers jjrepared 
for a elnireh. and li.ad upw.ards of ."JOO acres in grain, enclosed by .a substantial 
fenci-. The whole' \ilLigi-. nun. women and children, had wiirked most i-luerfuUy. 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 139 

I counted thirty head of horned cattle — tlie squaws had learned to milk the cows 
and churn ; they had a few hogs, and some domestic fowls. The number of Chris- 
tians had doubled since Christmas, ISH." 

August, 1846, found DeSmet at St. Mary's mission in Montana, describing, in 
a letter of August 10, a journey from St. Ignatius mission by way of the Colville 
country and the Spokane valley, to the mission of the Sacred Heart on the Coeur 
d'Alene river. "We had beautiful weather, and a path remarkably free from 
those obstructions so annoying to travelers in the mountains. Towards the middle 
of our day's journey, we reached a beautiful lake surrounded by hills, and a thick 
forest of larch (tamarack). I have named it the Lake DeNef, as a token of grati- 
tude towards one of the greatest benefactors of the mission. It discharges itself 
through a narrow passage, forming a beautiful rapid called the Tournhout-torrent, 
at the termination of which it joins its limpid waters to those of the river Spo- 
kane. " In the opinion of Tliwaites, who edited a revised volume of DeSmet's cor- 
respondence, this was the present Blake's lake in northern Spokane county, "which 
discharges by the West Branch into Little Spokane river." 

The missionary forded the Spokane river, just below the main falls, and fol- 
lowed up the south bank to Lake Coeur d'Alene. "A few words descriptive of our 
encampments during wet weather may not be out of place," says his narrative of 
this journey. "The tent erected in haste — saddles, bridles, baggage, etc., thrown 
into some sheltered spot — large heaps of larch branches or brushwood are cut 
down and spread over the spot of ground destined for our repose — provision of as 
much dry wood as can be collected is now brought forth for the whole night; on 
this occasion we made a fire large enough to roast an ox. These preparations com- 
pleted, our meal (dinner and supper the same time), consisting of flour, camash 
roots, and some buffalo tallow, is thrown into a large kettle nearly filled with 
water. The great heat requiring the cook to stand at a respectable distance from 
the fire, a long pole serves as a ladle to stir about the contents until the mixtnre 
has acquired the proper density, when a vigorous attack is made upon it after a 
singular fashion indeed. On the present occasion we were six in number, trusting 
to a single spoon, but necessity soon sujiplied the deficiency. Two of the company 
used pieces of bark; two others strips of leather; and the fifth, a small turtle shell." 

As tlie missionary's compaf/iioiis du vo/iaf/f were natives — two Kalispels and 
three Coeur d'Alenes, it may be surmised that they graciously awarded the single 
spoon to the blackrobe. "Grace being said," continues the father, "a circle is formed 
round the kettle, and the instruments jdunge and replunge into it with as much 
regularity and address as a number of smiths' hammers plying at the anvils; a few 
moments, and the contents of the large kettle are gone, leaving not a vestige be- 
hind. We found this repast delicious, thanks to our keen appetites. Making due 
allowance for the taste of others, I confess I have never enjoyed a feast more 
heartily th.m such as I have now described, prepared in the open air, after the 
Indian fashion. All the refined inventions of the art culinary, as sauces, pickles, 
preserves, pies, etc., designed to quicken or restore weak appetites, are here utterly 
useless. Loss of ap])etite, which among the wealthy forms the reigning complaint, 
furnishing abundant eui|)l()yment to a])othecaries and doctors, is here unheard of. 
If these patients would have the courage to abandon for a time their high living, 
and traverse the wilds of this region on horseback, breakfasting at daybreak and 



140 SPOKANE AND THE I M.AM) KM I' J HE 

dining at sunset, after a ride of forty miles, I venture to jjredict that they will not 
need any refined incitements to relish as I did a simple dish prepared by the In- 
dians." 

The scene here described with such good humor and sound, practical philosophy 
lay in our beautiful valley of the Spokane; and tin- dietary truths so pleasingly 
advanced by the pioneer of the gospel and tin- cross, are as sound today as two- 
thirds of a century ago. Now, as then, health and the zest of keen appetite may 
be had for the seeking in our mountain vales and by our wooded waters ; but the 
tribe of apothecaries and the cl.in of physicians (lourisli in our midst. 

"Having dried our blankets, and said night prayers, our repose was not less 
soiuid for having fared so simply, or lain upon ,i rough couch of brushwood," the 
good father adds contentedly. 

At the Cocur d'Alene mission De.Smet was cordially received by Fathers Joset 
and Point. All the Coeur d'Aleiies of the neighborhood came to welcome him. 
"The fervor and |)icty of these poor Indians filled me with great joy and consola- 
tion." remarks the missionary, "especially when T considered how great the change 
wrought in them since their conversion to Christianity. . . . Previous to their 
conversion, these Indians were shunned by the other trilies, on account, it is said, 
of their great power in juggling and other idolatrous practices. ... A single 
instance will serve to give you some idea of the objects of their worship, and the 
facility with wliieh they ado))! tluir uianitoiis or divinities. Thev related to me 
that the first white m.an they saw in their country wore a calico shirt, spotted all 
over with black and white, which to them appeared like the smallpox; he also wore 
a white coverlet. The Coeur d'Alenes imagined that the spotted shirt was the 
great nianitou himself — the great master of that alarming disease, the smallpox — 
and that the white coverlet was the great manitou of the snow; that if they could 
obtain possession of these, and pay them divine honors, their nation would never 
afterwards be visited by that dreadful scourge; and their winter hunts be rendered 
successfid by an abundant fall of snow. They accordingly offered bim, in exchange 
for these, several of their best horses. The bargain was eagerly closed by the 
white man. The spotted shirt and the white coverlet became thenceforward, ob- 
jects of great veneration for many years. On grand solemnities the two manitous 
were carried in i)rocession to a lofty eminence, usually consecrated to the perform- 
ance of their superstitious rites. They were then respectfully spread on the grass: 
the great medicine pijie offered to them, with as nuich veneration as it is customary 
witii tii( liulians, in presenting it lo the sun, the fire, the earth and the water. The 
whole band of jugglers, or medicine nun, then entoned canticles of adoration to 
them. 'I'lir service was generally terminated with a grand dance, in which the 
l)eriOrniers exliibited the most hideous contortions and extravagant gestures, aecom- 
pani<(i with a most unearthly bowling." 

I";ither NiehoLas Point, who labored long among the Coeur d'Alenes, is autluu-ity 
th.it this tribe was partly converted to Christianity, about the year 1830, by an 
Iro(|uois chief called Ignatius. They had heard, in an imperfect way from the fur 
traders, that in the f.'iith of the white man there was but one God. who had an 
invisible place called heaven as abode of good ))eo])le after death, and an invisible 
place of torment called hell, where the wicked s))irits were consigned. That God's 
son in heaven, beholding all men running in the road to the bad place, descended 




PETER JOHN DK S.MKT 
The great apdstle (if the Indians 



^i-K.AKlf 






SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 141 

to earth to point them to tlie good road, hut that in order to efifect this, it was 
required that he die upon the cross. 

"One evening," says Father Point, in an extended letter recording the details 
of the conversion of the Coeur d'Alenes, "all the families, who were dispersed in 
different directions, for fishing, for hunting, and for gathering roots, assembled 
upon the ground of an old chief called Ignatius, to see the author of this news. 
Regardless of fatigue, the}' jorolonged their sitting to the silence of the night, and 
listened to all the details of the glorious message." 

While the tribe halted between two opinions, hesitating whether they should 
abandon their old beliefs and accept the doctrine of the white men, a death-inflict- 
ing disease came among them, probably small-pox, and at the moment it raged with 
greatest violence, one of the dying, afterwards called Stephen, announced that he 
had heard a voice from heaven, saying, "Cast down th}' idols; adore Jesus Christ, 
and thou shalt be cured." 

"The dying man," says Father Point, "believed the word and was cured. He 
went about the camp and related what had taken place: all the sick who heard him 
imitated his example, and recovered their health. I have this fact from the mouth 
of the savages who heard the voice from heaven, and the same has been confirmed 
by eye-witnesses." 

However, remarks Father Point, as neither constancy nor reflection is to be 
found in the savage, the greater part of the Coeur d'Alenes relapsed into idolatry, 
hastened in this reactionary tendency by the influence of the medicine men. 

"Such," says Father Point, "was pretty nearly the condition of the people 
when Providence sent among them the Rev. Father DeSmet. His visit disposed 
them so much in favor of the Blackgowns, that it was determined I should be sent 
to their aid. Three months after, that is, at the doSe 'of the hunting expeditions 
of the autumn of 1812, I left St. Mary's to place the new converts under the pro- 
tection of the Sacred Heart of Jesus." 

Father Point arrived among the Coeur d'AlenCs" the 'fii-st Friday in November, 
and on the first Friday in December, lifted,' -with chant and prayer, the cross on 
the shore of a lake where the savages had gathered for fishing. As the first mission 
of the Sacred Heart was reared on the banks of the St. Joseph river, this lake was 
probably the Coeur d'Alene, or Chatcolet lake adjacent to the mouth of the St. 
.rost])!!. Soon these Indians "spoke no more of their assemblies of imposters, their 
diabolical visions, nor superstitious ceremonies, which had before been so common; 
and most important of all, gambling, which had always occupied a great portion 
of their time, was two weeks afterwards abandoned; the conjugal bond, which for 
centuries, perhaps, had known among them neither unity nor indissolubility, was 
brought back to its primitive character; and a beautiful sight was presented by 
the medicine men themselves, who, with their own hands, did justice to the wretched 
instruments hell had used to deceive them. During the long nights of that period 
it will not be necessary to tell how many sacrifices were made of feathers, wolves' 
tails, stags' feet, deer's hoofs, wooden images, etc." 

With the advent of early spring the Indians assembled at the chosen site for 
tile mission, and with enthusiasm and industry set about the building of a village, 
formed upon the ancient plans in Paraguay, under which each one contributed ac- 



142 SPOKANE AND THl. IMAM) EMPIRE 

cording to his stniifitli .iiul iiiclu.stry. Trcis win- filltd for cabins, roads opened, 
a church erected and the public fields enclosed, broken and planted. 

From the 9tii of Sei)tenil)cr to the date of this letter, a jjcriod of six months, 
"not one single fault wliieli can be called serious," adds Father Point, "has been 
committed in the villagf of tiie Sacred Heart of Jesus; and a great many who 
re]iroaclied themselves with light failings, cease not to make public confession in 
terms of grief. I have seen husbands come after their wives, and mothers after 
their daughters, not to excuse the accusations they had made, but to acknowledge 
that tlieir want of patience and humility were the cause of the failings of others. 

"It is worthy of remark that of all the adults who had not yet received baptism, 
and all who united to prepare for tin ir first communion, not one was judged un- 
worthy to receive the sacraments. Their simplicity, piety, charity, and especially 
their faith, were admirable. And truly all these virtues were necessary for these 
good old men, wlio, for the sake of learning their prayers, had to become the 
scholars of their cliildren, and for the children to enable them to do violence to 
their natural viv.icity, while thej* slowly communicated to their old parents and 
grandparents, a ))art of what they had learned; and the chiefs would rise at the 
dawn of day, and sometimes in the middle of the night, to exhort their peojjle to 
weep over their sins." 

Father Point has left us an affectionate deseri|)ti(in of the sacrament of the 
holy communion, conferred in the little church in the wilderness by the venerable 
Fatller Joset, whose labors have entered so extensively into the early history of 
the Catholic church in Spokane: 

"The church was small; it measured in lengtli fifty feet, and in breadth twentv- 
four. It was indeed poor, but from every part of the wall and ceiling, were sus- 
pended rich festoons of leaves. While the stars were still shining in the firmament, 
the chant, Lauda Sion, was heard. But who sung that divine canticle.'' The sav- 
ages who lately addressed their prayers only to the animals of their mountains. 
It was Father Joset who had the hai)])iness to distribute to them the bread 
of life — a happiness so much the more felt, as he had just arrived among them. 
Before they approached the holy table, he addressed them a few words; but the 
tender piety apparent in ail at the moment of communicating, made him fear to 
S))oil the work of God by adding more words of his own. and hi- li ft tlu tn to their 
own devotion." 

As repeated (locids in the St. Joseph river showed that the first site of the mis- 
sion had been unfortunately chosen, the elnireli and village of Sacred Heart were 
moved in ISIG to a more salubrious spot on the Coeur d'Alenc river. 

VISITED BY GOVKR.VOH STKVENS 

W'JK n (iovirnor lsa;ie I. .Stevens eaiiie into this eduntrv in IS."i.!. in the three 
fold capacity of govtrncM- iil Wasliiiiglon territory, Indian commissioner to treat 
with various tribes between D.ikota and Puget Sound, and searcher out of north- 
ern routes for :i transcontinental railniad. he visited this beautiful mission. Late 
on an Oetolier evening with .Vntoim IM irit for guide, he came to the mission door 
and sought hospitality of the fathers then in charge. "The mission," said .Stevens 
in his official rejxirt to the secretary of w.ir, "is beautifully located upon a hill 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 143 

overlooking extensive prairies stretching to the enst and west toward the Coeur 
d'Alenc mountains and the Columbia river. Aliout 100 acres of the eastern prairie 
adjoining the mission are enclosed and under cultivation, furnishing employment 
to thirty or forty Indians — men, women and children. I observed two ploughing, 
which they executed skilfully; others were sowing wheat, and others digging po- 
tatoes. 

"Pere Gazzoli received me with the most pleasing hospitality. Associated with 
liim are Pere Ravalli, now absent to secure supplies, and Brothers Charles Huett 
and Maginn. The latter, however, is a lay brother, attached to the Pend d'Oreille 
mission, who is here at this time to assist in harvesting. 

"Towards evening I witnessed the burial of an Indian chief. The funeral serv- 
ices were conducted after tlie Catholic form, and I was struck with the harmonious 
voices of the Indian choristers, and with their solemn observance of the ceremonies. 

"The mission is composed of buildings enclosing a square. Some of them are 
quite old, but the barn is large and new. The church stands a little distance from, 
the rest, and does much credit to those who erected it. It is constructed on a plan 
designed by Pere Ravalli, and is of the Roman demi-style of architecture. Pulleys 
and ro])es were the only mechanical aids in the construction. Pere Ravalli is quite 
an architect, and drew up many designs before the one selected was adopted. In 
his room, which I was kindlj' given to occupy, was his library. I observed that it 
contained several standard works on architecture. The church was not completed, 
although sufficiently so for the performance of services within. The interior is 
prettily arranged. The altar is supported by two massive timbers of ]3ine which 
are about four feet in diameter. We were informed that in erecting these pillars, 
an Indian who %vas holding one of them became frightened and let it fall, fortu- 
nately without injury to any one. The priests live in a self-denying manner, and the 
good effects of their influence over the Indians around them are plainly manifest. 

"There is quite a village of Indians near the mission. Thej' have some half 
dozen log-houses, but most of them live in lodges. 

"While awaiting the arrival of the train, I was enabled more particularly to 
observe the manner in which the affairs of the mission were conducted. Brother 
Charles has charge of the buildings and attends to the indoor work, cooks, makes 
butter and cheese, issues provisions, and pays the Indians for their work, which 
payment is made in tickets bearing a certain value, 'good for so many potatoes or 
so much wheat,' etc. By this management the Indians are able to procure their 
subsistence in the summer by hunting and fishing, and have tickets in store for liv- 
ing during t!)e winter. They are well contented, and I was pleased to observe 
habits of industry growing upon them. In the barn we saw their operations of 
threshing: four boys rode as many mules abreast around in a circle, being followed 
by two girls witli flails, who appeared to be perfectly at home in their business. 
One half of the barn is reserved for their crops, while the other is arranged for 
cattle. Their stock at present consists of twenty cows, eight pairs of oxen and 
ninety pigs, which are driven to pasture upon the prairie by Indians boys daily. 
I noticed an Indian woman milking, and was surprised to see her use both hands, 
something rarely seen among the Indians. We afterwards visited the field — a large 
fire was burning, and around it sat Indians roasting and eating potatoes. There 



144 SPOKANE AND Till. INLAND EMI'IHK 

appeared to be a great scarcity of ])roper implements, and in digging potatoes I 
noticed that many had nothing better than sharpened sticks." 

Governor Stevens remarked that Brotlier Maginii declared himself to be, like 
many other naturali/.td citizens, a good democrat, inquired who was president of 
the United States, and appeared to be much pleased when informed that he was a 
democrat. 

Two years later, in .linif. 1855, Governor Stevens revisited this mission. "We 
were received in the most hospitable and cordial manner, and remained there the 
next day," says his official report. "To show something of the privations which 
the missionaries have to undergo, I will remark that Fatlur Ravalli, in his recent 
trip from Tiie Dalles, li.ui the assistance of only two Indians and an Indian boy 
in bringing up a train of twcntj'-two pack animals. He was obliged to see per- 
sonally to tile packing of each one of his animals, doing most of the manual labor 
himself, and could not get off (though he commenced at early dawn) until towards 
ten o'clock in the morning." 

On the occasion of tlie governor's first visit to the mission, the Indians were 
called in from the fields, and he addressed them, saying: 

"I am glad to see you and find that you are under sueii good direction. I have 
come four times as far as you go to hunt buffalo, and have come with directions 
from the Great Father to see you, to t.ilk to you. and to do all I can for your wel- 
fare. I see cultivated fields, a clnirch, houses, cattle, and the fruits of the earth, 
the work of your own hands. The (ireat Father will be delighted to hear this, and 
wiU certainly assist you. Go on, and every f.imily will have a house, and a patch 
of ground, and every one will be well clothed. 1 have had talks with the Black- 
feet, who promise to make peace with all the Indian tribes. Listen to the good 
father and to the good brothers who labor for your good." 

That evening the governor had a long conversation with the father and brothers, 
and on leaving the next morning he made glad the heart of Brother Ciiarlcs by 
presenting him a number of lariats for use in raising the timbers of the uncom- 
pleted church. 

On the occasion of the governor's second visit to the mission, in June, 1855, 
the fathers and lay iirotiiers took tlir n.illi of allegiance to the government of the 
United States, and signed naturalization papers. Stevens remarked that they 
seemed much pleased with the idea of becoming American citizens, 

IN THE YAKIMA VAI,LEV 

Captain George B. McClellan, when traveling down the Yakima in 1853, visited 
tile mission in that valley, and George Gibbs, a member of his expedition, has left 
us this description: "The mission, which, in summer, is maintained in the Ahtanum 
valley, is transferred (with the moving of the Indians in winter) into that of the 
main river. There are two priests attached to this mission, belonging to the order 
of the Oiilats, Fathers Pandozy and d'Harbomey. The stations are small log 
buildings, divided into a chapel and lodging room, with a corral for horses and a 
spot of enclosed garden ground adjoining the one at Ahtanum. The fathers in- 
formed us th.-it they found the Yakimas not verj' teachable, and that they had 
accomplislii tl little except as peacemakers; the Indians were lazy and cultivated 



SPOKANE AND THE IXLAXD EMPIRE 145 

tli( ground with but little regularity, some years not planting at all. They did not 
believe that a resident farmer would be of use. The Indians, however, say, and 
justly, that they have no tools, and but little inducement to labor, their country 
attording other subsistence, and the toil of planting with their own rude imple- 
ments not being compensated by the results. With proper encouragement, and 
assistance in breaking up the ground, they would doubtless do more. It is probably 
an object with the missionaries to discourage secular residents, who might divide 
their own influence over the natives. 

"The courteous attention of these gentlemen to the officers of the expedition 
requires acknowledgment. They furnished all the information in their power re- 
specting the country, secured good guides to the parties, and acted as interpreters 
witli the Indians. Father Pandozy, in particular, is familiarly acquainted with the 
Yakima tongue. Kamiaken is the only one of the three brothers who has adopted 
even the forms of Catholicism, and he refuses to be baptized, because he would be 
compelled to put away his surplus wives, of whom he has several." 

Gibbs states that a number of Yakimas professed to have a remedy for small- 
pox. "Father Pandozy, one of the missionaries, informed me that he believed it 
to be the root of a species of iris. He had once tasted it, and it acted as a violent 
emetic. The Spokanes have also another and different specific. It is known to 
but few persons, having been gradually forgotten since the former visitation. Re- 
cently, when it broke out in one of the Spokane villages, an old woman, who was 
blind, described it to her daughter, and directed her to proceed towards Kamiaken's 
country, and that if she encountered none in lier way, to get from him some of 
which he used. The girl, however, did find the herb and returned with it. The 
mother prepared the medicine, and the smallpox was .stayed, but not until it had 
nearly destroyed the village. We were not successful in obtaining specimens of this 
|)lant, but Father Pandozy kindly promised to save some when opportunity offered. 
In regard to tliis disease, the greatest .scourge of the red man, it has passed through 
this region more than once, and was probably the first severe blow which fell upon 
the Oregon tribes. Its appearance seems to have been before any direct intercourse 
took place with the whites, and it may have found its way northward from Cali- 
fornia. Captains Lewis and Clark conjectured, from the relations of the Indians, 
and the apparent age of individuals marked with it, that it had prevailed about 
tliirty years before their arrival. It also spread with great virulence in 1843. From 
tlie other, and no less sure, destroyer of the coast tribes, the venereal, the Yakimas, 
and generally the Indians east of tlie mountains, are, as yet, exempt. Spirituous 
liquors have never been introduced into tluir country, at lea.st beyond the neigh- 
borhood of The Dalles." 

ST. Michael's mission ne.\r spokane 

From a manuscript in the Spokane public library, written by one of the resi- 
dents at Gonzaga college, we extract the following: 

In the '6()s St. Michael's mission to tiie Indians was founded on Peone (jr.iirie, 
nine miles northeast of Spokane. Ba])tiste Peone was the chief. In 1863 he 
became a Catholic, and from that time till the winter of 1866, when Father Cataldo 
made the first attempt to establish a permanent mission on the prairie, the converted 

Vol. 1—1(1 



146 SPOKANK AND THK IM.AM) EMPIRE 

chief's home was the stopping; iilace of tlie missionaries on tlnir periodical visits 
to the Spoiiane Indians. 1 atlicr (alaldii liaving been assigned to work among them, 
his first care was to jjroeure a chapel wiiereiii to hold services, but they o])poscd 
him, and declared that in the absence of the head chief thev coidd not assume the 
resjionsibility of granting his request. But as tin eliit f was nut In return for some 
time, the Father told the Indians that he would erect achalJel, and then if they did 
not desire to have it, he would totally destroy it at the end of three months. W'itii 
some murmurings they assented to this ])roposition, and forthwith Father Cataldo 
erected a log structure, about two miles from the ])resent St. Michael's mission. 
When the three months had ehqjsed, nearly .ill of the Indians had become Catholic, 
and when Father Cataldo expressed a willingness to destroy tiu' chapel .'is he had 
promised, the new converts, of a different mind now. strongly olijeetcd, one of the 
chiefs boldly declaring that if the head ciiiif did not like what had been done in 
his absence, he could go clscwheri- : and as Inr llu- I'atlu r's Icax ing, they would 
only consent to that ui)on the terms tli.it another be sent in his place. 

For some time after the foundation of this mission, it was very hard to get 
fathers to go there, as so much other work was to be done, and as a consequence 
the Indians grew dissatisfied and went to the Protestant faith. 

In 1878 the mission w;is moved to the present site, about three mibs from 
Hillyard. and .i jiriest sent there to officiate regul.irly. There were .about COO in 
the .S))okane trilie at th.at time, and of these the Catholics numbered one li.ilf. 

The Indians of this section used to gather together and do their hunting by 
driving tlie game onto Peone ])rairie. tliere killing .-md ))orlioning it. In the fall 
they would .assemble and st.art out for deer, the bunt taking about ;i month. An 
Indian was ]ilaced at a deer tr.-iil. and if there were not enough Indians, they would 
build a fire in tile trail and ))iit sonii' iiioee.isins on the (ire to drive the deer back. 
.\fter a few days the Indians would start tow.irds the prairie, driving the deer 
before them, and when they reached the jir.airie there was great feasting and re- 
joicing if the hunt bad Ixeii a ))rofitable one. 

The Indi.ans did their (isbing at the mouth of the I.ittle .Sjiokane. They would 
make two nets. on<- consider.ibly higher than the other, and stretch these across the 
river, the liiglur net .-iboxc the lower. The fish which they w<re after, known as 
the s'chihiizc in Indian, never went backw.irds; they were caught in the sjiace 
between the two nets, and .at the end of the season were dried .uid i)reservid for 
food during the winter. 

At the beginning of the Xe/ Perce Indian war. Chief .losepli sent messengers to 
Scltis, then chief of the Coeur d'Alenes, asking him to join in the war .against the 
whites. Seltis refused point lil.ink. .ind furlhennore took st< ps to protect the 
whites in the neighborhood of the Coeur d'Alene tribe, .loseph's men had raided 
some of Ihe settlements in the Palouse country, and -Seltis. luaring of this outrage, 
imniediatclv gatli( red togilb<r bis men .-iiid set out to recapture the towns that 
were said to be raided, and then sent for the whites that had taken refuge in some 
of tlic nein-hboring settlements to return to their f.arms and towns, .and he would pro- 
tect them and see that no liann cniu In IIk ni. The Colf.ix ))eo|)Ie. soon after this 
maunaniinous ,ict of .Seltis, .isked him and Ins nun to come to Colf.ax and a banquet 
would be given in his honor. Hut tlu' old chief politely refused, as he feared that fire- 
water would bi- flowing, and it would not Im g I for his men to attend. The chief 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 147 

was also great in other ways, as he had been invited to Washington several times 
by the presidents of that day, but he always refused, as he thought it prudent to 
stay with and protect his tribe from the ravages of the unscrupulous. 

St. Michael's is no longer used to teach the Indian, but as an adjunct to Gon- 
zaga it furnishes a portion of the farm produce used by that institution, and gives 
a quiet resting place for the tired and overworked fathers and scholastics. 

The site was on a slight rise above Chief Peone's camp, and overlooking it so 
that nearly all parts of the prairie could be seen. There was no water at the site, 
but the Indians furnished all the necessaries of life, even while they were at outs 
with the rest of the whites. The priests never suffered for the lack of anything. 
Two structures were erected side by side, one of them a small residence for the 
])riest, ,ind tlie other a chapel where services were held. These buildings were 
destroyed a few years ago by fire caught from a surrounding field. The old grave- 
yard to the east of the mission site still remains, and the graves of the Indians may 
be seen. Tiie practice of buryitig above the ground was not followed after the 
advent of liic mission, and all the graves were marked with crosses, whicli may be 
seen today. The graves are enclosed in little log huts, with six or eight buried in 
each enclosure. 

Rev. Jose]ih M. Caruana, S. J., came in 1862. "In September, 1862," said he, 
"I baptized seventeen Indian children on the very spot wliere now is located the 
Nortlicrn P;icific depot, then occupied by a large Indian camp fisliing for white 
salmon. The whole country, on botli sides of the river, was covered with Indian 
tepees and bands of cayuses." In ISei Father Caruana made the acquaintance of 
James Monaghan, at his ierry down the river, and about the same time of another 
white man, Camille Lanctau, who had been rmniing a ferry for two or three years, 
seven miles below the falls. 

"About 1866," adds Father Caruana, "was built tlie first store in the Spokane 
valley, at what we now call Spokane bridge. Of course that store was started and 
kejjt by white people. It was also the nearest postoffice we had. Our previous 
postoffice was in ^\'alla Walla." 

For a continuation of the early-day labors of Catholic missionaries and priests 
the reader is directed to the chapter on "Catholic Institutions of Spokane." 



, Tf^E NEW YOfiff 
P^^UC UBRAR] 



"Tso, Uifx 



-J"-"^'' FOOH, 



^riaNi 



CHAPTER XVI 

GOVERNOR STEVENS' OVERLAND EXPEDITION OF 1853 

FIRST GOVERNOR CLOTHED WITH REMARKABLE POWERS ON THE SUMMIT OF THE COEUH 

d'alENES GUEST OF CATHOLIC FATHERS AT OLD MISSION IN CAMP AT WOLF's 

LODGE GOVERNOR OBSERVES SPOKANES AT THEIR DEVOTIONS FIRST VIEW OF LAKE 

COEUR d'aLENE MARCHING DOWN THE SPOKANE VALLEY GOVERNOR VISITS THE 

FALLS INDIAN VILLAGE AT MOUTH OF HANGMAN CREEK PUZZLED BY CHIEF 

GARRY FORCED RIDE TO COLVILLE MEETS CAPT. GEORGE B. m'cLELLAN BOUNTI- 
FUL SUPPER SERVED BY MRS. m'dONALD STEAKS COOKED IN BUFFALO FAT LISTENS 

TO TALES OF ADVENTURE. 

His life was gentle; and the elements 

So mix'd in liim, that Nature migiit stand up, 

And say to all the world, "This was a man!" 

— Shakespeare. 

CROSSING the country from St. Paul to Puget Sound, to assume office at 
01yni])ia, Isaac I. Stevens, first governor of the infant territorj', looked 
upon tlie troubled waters at Spokane, October 17, 18,53. This region showed 
then little change from the appearance it presented to the fur traders of tlie rival 
Astor and Nortiiwest companies, nearly fifty years before. TIic old regime of 
the Hudson's Bay company had all but disappeared, the Protestant missionaries 
had left the country five years before, but Catholic missions still flourished, and 
under their tutelage and the still prevailing influences of the Protestant workers, 
the Indians had come noticeablj^ under the sway of civilization and peace; the 
industrious had grown prosperous, and some of tlieni men of relative wealth. 

Wide and far-sweeping was the domain over which this brave, energetic and able 
soldier came to rule, comprising the area now embraced within the boundaries of 
Washington state, and including as well the Panliandle of northern Idaho and a 
large section of western Montana, sweeping eastward to the summits of the Rocky 
mountains. 

One better fitted, by temperament, education and training, or by knowhdge of 
human nature, refined or savage, to fill the new oflice and meet its grave and per- 
))lexing duties, President Pierce could scarce have found if he had searched the 
heart and soul of every strong and able American, north or south. Nearly sixty 
years have drifted by since Stevens came into the ultimate west; the young terri- 
tory has grown rich, ])opulous and sovereign; but a greater man than Isaac Ingalls 

149 



150 Sl'OKANi: AM) •I'll)-. INt.WI) KMI'IHF, 

Stevens it lias yet to produce. Had he not fallen in one of the early battles of the 
civil war, his genius might have swept him to the head of the Union forces; for in 
bold resolution, in leadership of men, and ability to grajjple with dangers and ditfi^ 
culties, lie showed himself vastly the superior of Captain George B. McClellan when, 
side by side, they played their parts on the broad stage of the Pacific northwest. But 
Stevens was to fall in early action, and McClellan to command tlie Union armies, 
and temporize on the Potomac as he had procrastinated on the Columbia. 

Stevens came clothed with remarkable powers. Additional to his governorship, 
he commanded a large and thoroiiglily equijjpid expedition to search out ])asses and 
routes for a railroad from the Mississijipi to Puget Sound, and was empowered to 
negotiate treaties with Indian tribes between the Dakotahs and the Pacific. 

"It is ditticult," says the son. Hazard Stevens, in his 'Life of General Isaac I. 
Stevens.' "to realize the magnitude of the task here outlined. It was to traverse 
and explore a domain '2,0(1() miles in length by 250 in bre.ulth, stretching from 
the Mississippi riMr to tin- Pacific ocean, across 1,000 miles of arid jjlains 
and two great mountain ranges, a region almost unexplored, and infested by pow- 
erful tribes of predatory and warlike savages; to determine the navigability of the 
two great rivers, the Missouri and the Columbia, which intersect the region; to 
locate by reconnoissance and to survey a practicable railroad route; to examine the 
mountain passes and determine the depth of winter snow in them; to collect all 
possible information on the geology, climate, flora and fauna, as well as the topog- 
raphy, of the region traversed; .-md finally to treat with the Indians on the route, 
cultivate their friendship, and eolltet information as to their langu.-iges, numbers, 
customs, traditions and history; and all this, including the work of preparation 
and organization, to be aeeomplished in a single season." 

After months of scientific labor, Stevens and his party attained, on a fair Octo- 
ber day, the summit of the Coeur d'Alene mountains, and from those char heiglits 
the governor looked down upon .-i large p.irt of his inipi rial doiiiaiti. In his official 
reports he has left a description of that scene: 

"Upon awakening this morning we were surprised to be greeted by one of the 
loveliest days imagin.-ible. Tlie sky was clear, and tin- air as soft and balmy as a 
morn in summer. .After striking e.-im)), we ascended to tlie highest point of the 
ridge, about one mile ,iii(j a hall' Ironi e.imp. Here we made a long halt, enjoying the 
magnificent view s|)re;Kl open to us, which, I venture to say, can scarcely be sur- 
])assed in any country. Far distant in the east the peaks of the Rocky mountains 
loom u]) into view, stretched out to a great length, while the Flathead lake and the 
valley thence to the Blaekfoot pass was plainly visible. Nearly the entire range of 
the Coeur d'Alene mountains, clothed with evergreen forests, with here and there 
an open summit covered with grass; numerous valleys intersecting the country for 
miles around ; courses of many streams, marked by the ascending fog, all conduced to 
render the view fascinating in the greatest degree to the Ixliolder. The mountains 
were covered with luxuriant coarse grass. Seated on lliis pdint, Mr. .St.inhy was 
enabled to tr.msfer this beautiful panorama to his sketch-book. 

"Diseending the ])cak to the general level of the ridge, we eoiitiinied on for 
nearly six miles, wIk ri I Ik descent commenced, and in less than tlirce miles we 
jiassed down a very steep descent and gained the base of the mountains, which we 
estimated rose S-.^OO feet above it. This brought us into a valley filled with gigantic 




(u.)VKi;.\()i; sTKVKXs 

As a young army Dtticer 




II \ZAl;|) STKVKXS 

Tlic (idvermir's son, who, as a 

liov of tliii-teen. witnessed 

tlie great conncil at 

Walla Walla 




KlIAXCIS J. I). WOLFF 

Willi was with (Invcrnor 
Stcvnis 




(iOVKRXOR STKVKX8 
in ISo:. 



■''fe:?^^^ 







>CAMP 
WASHINGTON 
185300X1908 





.1* ♦- : 



MOXIIMKXT KRKCTED OX SITK OF 
(;AMI' WASHINGTON 



•^ THE :>£W VuRK 1 

Public library 






SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 151 

cedars. The larch, spruce and vine maple are found in today's march in large 
(luantities, the latter giving a pleasing variety to the forest growth. About four 
o'clock we encamped on the bank of the stream, which here grows much wider." 

The expedition was now on the headwaters of the south fork of the Coeur 
d'Akne river, and descending that valley, the governor, guided by Antoine Plant 
(if the Spokane valley, drew rein late that evening at the hospitable doors of the 
Catholic mission. 

Under the vigilant eye of Governor Stevens this extensive government expe- 
dition had traversed the wide prairies of the Dakotahs, crossed over the Rocky moun- 
tains, and descended into our beautiful Inland Empire, without encountering serious 
mishap. Perhaps a better conception of the character of the expedition and the 
military rigor of its government en route will be obtained from the following orders 
which were issued early in the campaign by Governor Stevens: 

"The most careful attention to animals is enjoined upon all persons engaged in 
this expedition, and will be rigidly enforced. The animals must not go beyond a 
walk, except in case of necessity; and each mounted man must walk some four or 
five miles each day to rest his animal, unless it be impracticable, in consequence of 
his duties. At halts, men must dismount. 

"On the march the train will keep together as much as possible; the speed of 
the wagons will be regulated by Governor Stevens' ambulance or wagon, or by the 
instrument wagon. The acting quartermaster will regulate the pace of the lead- 
ing team in such a manner that all other teams can keep up without forcing the 
mules. No person except guides, or those having permission, will precede the train 
by more than one-fourth of a mile, or go further from it than that distance, unless 
in case of necessity, or for the performance of some duty." 

Camp regulations were embodied in the following order: 

1. Tliere is no such thing as an escort to this expedition. Each man is 
escorted by every other man. Tire chiefs of the scientific corps will, equally with 
the officers of the army, act as officers of the guard. It is confidently believed that 
every member of the expedition will cheerfully do his duty in promoting all the ob- 
jects of the expedition, sharing its toils of every description. 

2. Each man of the expedition will habitually go armed. The chief of each 
party and detachment will rigidly inspect arms each morning and evening. Ex- 
cept in extraordinary cases there shall be no march on Sundaj'. On that day thert 
will be a thorough inspection of persons and things. Clothes should be washed and 
mended, and, if water can be found, each man will be required to bathe his whole 
person. This course is taken to secure health. 

3. The Indian country will be reached in ten days. There is no danger to be 
apprehended, except from the want of vigilance of gniards, and the carelessness of 
single men. The chief of a party or detachment will inspect the guard from time 
to time in the night, and report every case of inattention to duty. 

4. It will be the habitual rule of each member of the scientific corps to take 
charge of his own horse, and to take from and place in the wagon his owii personal 
baggage. As private servants are not allowed, the necessity of this rule will be 
apparent. There are exceptional cases, however, as the chief of a party, or wliere 
great labor has to be performed. 

.). There will be no firing of any descri))tion, either in camp or on tlie march. 



152 Sl'OkANj: AND Till-: INLAND L.Ml'lUK 

ext'ipl by tlic luiiitfrs and {;;uidts, and certain mcmhcrs of tlif scii-ntific corps, 
u-itliout permission of tin- cliitf of tlic ixi)i(lition, or, in case of detacliments, of the 
officer in cliarge of tin- dttaclmuiit. 

Leaving the Coeur d'Alene mission on tlie morning of Oetolxr Lj, the expedition 
encam])ed "in a beautiful prairie, ealbd the Wolf's Lodgi-, with good grass. " Here 
tlie governor met a party of 100 S|)i)kaMes. with .iOO horses on their wav to hunt 
buffalo on the plains beyond the Rocky mountains. 

"Towards sundown this evening." wrote Stevens, "I w.is gre.itly interisted in 
observing our frii nds, the Sjjokanes, at their devotions. .\ hell rang, .iiid the wliole 
band gathered in and around a large lodge for evening prayers. There was some- 
thing soleuni and |).ithetie in the evening ])sahii resounding through the forests 
around us. This shows what good nsults can Mow from the l.ibor of devoted mis- 
sionaries; for the Spokanes had had no religious instruction for tile last five vears. 
As I went down the river, and met b.-ind .after band of the .Sj)okanes, I inv.-iri.iblv 
found the same reg.ird for religions services. .Vfterw.irds they came around mv 
(■.•inip-(ire and we had a talk, Tliey tell me that six d.iys since Governor Ogden (of 
the Hudson's Bay eom])any) and three gentlemen, witii some soldiers, left Walla 
Wall.-i for Colville to un-et me. (jarry. they say, is at his f.arm, four miles from the 
S|iok.ine House. 1 s|)oke to tin in .also with reference to being on friiiidlv terms 
with the Coeur d'Alenes. " 

\\ itii quick and prophetic eye Cioxenior .Stevens took notice of the opportuni- 
ties for future settlement: "The country through which we have ))assed today, 
though obstructed with f.allen timber, .■ind rolling, ,ind at times broken in surface, 
was Jirable, .and nuiinded uu' of a gre.at de.al of country th.it I h.ave seen in New 
F.ngl.md, wiiere there are now productive farms." 

He was of >Lass.achusetts birth, seventh in descent troiii the first settler .it 
.Vndover. ,ind h.i\ing been brought u|) from inf.iiiev .iiuid New Engl.and nur- 
roundiiigs. where h.ird-willed men h.id struggled with .adverse nature and come off 
victorious from the conibjit, li.ad developed a jieculiar f.aculty for coni))rehcnding, 
almost within ;i gl.inee, the future jiroductive possibilities of ;i broad region wliieb 
tlien Lay wild and sav.agely beautiful. He h.ad develoiied, too, a system of gath- 
ering inform.ition by (|uestioning occasional settlers, tr.ipiiers and missionaries, as 
chance g.ive him tiie desired op])ortunity. He w;is evi'r re.idv for ,i "t.ilk" with 
chief or lie.id m.ui. .and often, .after ,i d.iy of the severest tr.ivel, would eagerly sit up 
h.ilf the night or more to dr.iw out the eoiiversation.il jiowers of his frontier host, 
from the good f.athers .-iikI brolliirs .at the Coeur d'.Meue luission he le.irned th.at 
"the country intermediate between this and Cl.ark's fork on the I'eiid d't)reille Lake 
is arable, well-watered, .and not much inti-rsected by sjiurs or ridges." 

.Soon .after le.a\ing e.ainp on the uioriiing of the sixteenth the parf\- came in \ iew 
of Lake Co( ur d'Alene, shimniering below them in the mellow October sunlight, .and 
eleven miles from camp "struck it near its western extremity." Stevens described 
the Lake .as "a beautiful sheet of w.iler surrouncled by pieturescpie hills mostly 
covered with wood. Its sh.ape is irregul.ir, unlike that given it upon the m.ips. Its 
w.atcrs are received from the Coeur d'.Mene river, which rinis through it. Helow 
the Lake the ri\-er is not i-.asily n.avigable, there being iii.any rapids, .and iu numerous 
inst.ances it widens greatly and runs sluggishly through ,a sli.allow ch.annel. .\bovc 
the Lake I am infornud bv the mission.aries that it is navigable nearly to the mis- 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 153 

sion. Upon the eastern side appears a range of hills, along the eastern base of wliich 
I think the road from the mission to Walla Walla passes." 

Leaving the lake, at the site of the present city of Coeur d'Alene, the expedition 
followed down the Spokane river on its northern liank, passing a camp of Coeur 
d'Alenes occupied with their trout fisheries. 

When Governor Stevens entered the country, the Spokane river, from the lake 
to the mouth of the Little Spokane, still bore the fur traders' designation, the 
Coeur d'Alene, and the Spokane valley was called the Coeur d'Alene prairie. The 
broad region sweeping westward from the falls to the Columbia, bearing the present 
day designation of the Big Bend country, was then termed the Spokane plains. 

Passing on down the valley, the party "witnessed a touching sight, a daughter 
administering to her dying father;" and still keeping through open woods, "on a 
most excellent road, in two miles further came to the Coeur d'Alene prairie, a 
beautiful tract of land containing several hundred square miles. Trap rock, pro- 
jecting above the surface of the ground, borders the river as we enter the prairie." 

Continuing on, they met a half breed, Francis Finlay, on his way from his home 
at Colville to the Bitter Root valley with his family, "among whom we saw his 
pretty half-breed daughter." They impressed the governor as being well dressed 
and presenting "a very respectable appearance. " 

Tiirec miles before reaching the niglit's encam]jment, they met a party of Spo- 
kanes who informed them that Chief Garry was at his farm and was holding there 
some of the horses that had been left with him by Lieutenant Saxton, who had come 
in from the Columbia river to join the main expedition in the interior. 

Leaving camp, the governor, accompanied by Antoine the guide, Osgood and 
the artist Stanley, "turned from the trail to visit the falls of the Coeur d'Alene 
river (the Spokane), wiiile Lavette took the train ahead on the trail to the Spokane 
House. There are two principal falls," reported Stevens, "one of twenty feet 
and the other of from ten to twelve feet; in the latter there being a perpendicular 
fall of seven or eight feet; for a quarter of a mile the descent is rapid, over a rough 
bed of rocks, and in this distance we estimate a fall of 90 to 100 feet," rather an 
under-estimate, both of the main falls and of the total descent of the river. 

One mile below tiie falls, at the mouth of Hangman creek, the governor found a 
small Indi.in village whose inhabitants were catching salmon. He "noticed one 
large woman, who seemed to pride herself u))on her person, which she took jiains to 
set off in the most becoming manner, by means of a blanket wrapped around her." 

The road from Hangman creek to Spokane House, at the mouth of the Little 
Spokane, was described as passing over "a sandy prairie interspersed with groves 
of pine. Crossing a dividing ridge with high and steep banks, we came into the 
prairie in which the Siiokane House is situated, in which were two Spokane villages. 
We inquired for Garry, and I sent him a request that he would visit me at my camp. 
The train we found a mile below the junction, across the Spokane. The Indians 
indicating a good cami) some distance luyond, we moved on eight and a half miles to 
it, which we reached half an hour before sundown. Here there was good grass and 
plenty of water, and we soon made up a large campfire." 

After arranging matters in camp, the governor observed, after nightfall, a tire 
down the river, "and strolling down to the place came ujion a camp of Spokane 
Indians, and found them engaged in religious services, which I was o-lad of the 



154 SI'OK.WT. AND TIIF. IXI.AXn EMPIRE 

opportunity to wiliuss. Tliere were three or four men, as many women, and half 
a dozen chiklnii. Their exercises M-ere: 1, address; 2, Lord's prayer; ,'!. jisahus; 
i, benediction; and were conducted with great solemnity." 

In its work of exi)loring routes for a transcontinental railroad, the United States 
govcrniiunt had .-Kidijttd the jilan apiilied more than forty years before bv John 
.laeol) Astor in iiis ixild enter])rise of foundinji' on tlir northwest coast of America 
his Pacific Eur comp.iny. namely, of sending one expedition overland and a second 
by sea, around ('a|)r iloi-n and into the Columbia river. On Governor Stevens' 
request, command ol the water expedition had been entrusted to Captain George 
B. McClellan. "As the route was new and eomi)aratively unexplored," savs Stevens, 
"it was determined to organize the whole command into two divisions — the eastern 
division being under m_v immediate direction, and the western division under Captain 
George 13. MeCh ll.in. of tlie corps of engineers, who was ordered to report to me, 
and whose field ol duty is best shown by the following extract from the general 
instructions: 'A second party will proceed at once to Puget Sound and explore the 
passes of the Cascade range, meeting the eastern party between that range and the 
Rocky mountains, as may be arranged by Governor Stevens.' " 

Stevens had reason to believe that McClellan's party was sonu wiun- in tlio 
interior, and his object now was to consolidate the two parties and plan out the fur- 
ther work of exploration. Garry and a number of other Spokanes came in that even- 
ing and "gave rumors of a large party having arrived opposite Colville; also of a 
small party having gone from Walla Walla to Colville." There was also a report of 
the arrival of a party, at W;dla Walla from the mountains. The governor was further 
informed that an old man had just come from the Yakima valley in four days, bring- 
ing news of a party operating in that vicinity, towards Colville. "I can not learn," 
wrote Stevens, "whether tlie party is under Ca|)t.iin McClellan or one of iiis officers. 
The Indians confirm tin- inti-Uigence given by tlie Cayuse Indians at tin- Coeur 
d'Alene mission, that thirty wagons have crossed the Cascades i)y th( niilitarv road, 
but rumors vary .is to their success in getting through." 

The governor was |)nzzled by Chief Garry's .apparent lack of candor. "Cl.-irry," 
he wrote from the field, "was educated l>y the Hudson's Bay com])any at Red river, 
where he lived four years, with six other Indians from this vicinity, all of whom 
are now dead. He sj)caks English .ind I'reneh wc 11. and wv Ii.im- hail a long con- 
versation this evening; but he is not frank, and I do not understand him," Stevens' 
first measure of the Spokane chief squares with the judgment of , lames N. Glover, 
who eonsidend lilni ".in old skulker." In justice, however, to the iiuinorv of the 
;iged chieftain, wiio lies buried in Greenwood cemetery, we .add tli.it Stevens later 
readjusted his first estimate and learned to place much confidence in Garry's sin- 
cerity and ability. The chief was tin n eiiltiv .itiiig .in extensive field; lie had learned 
farming from Elk.an.ah W.alker, the jiroleslant missionary who labored among the 
Spok;i2ies for ne.irly ten ye.ars, and had .a good crop of wheat when Ciovernor Stev- 
ens came into his country, and was going to Colville the next day to li.ive some of 
it ground .at the old Hudson's Bay mill. 

Stevens resolved to i)usli on to ('(iKillr. and at half past eight tin- next morn- 
ing broke cani|) .and st.artcd north. On tin way there the.v were joined by an old 
Indian from the Y.ikim.a country, who li.ad been directed by Garrv to meet the gov- 
ernor and im]);irt further information concerning the jiarty of white men he had 



^^A 

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, - '■>.■'-:'( 







(liMiiiiiiJiiiijmil 



THli- ;-,'£w vijRK 
PUBUC LIBRARY 






SPOKANE AND THE INLAND E.\JPIRE 155 

seen beyond the Columbia river. The old man stated that a large party had reachea 
the bank of the river opposite Colville tlie day before. "I was satisfied from his 
aeeounts, " says Stevens, "that the party was McClellan's, and accordingly deter- 
mined on going to Colville tonight. Antoine has horses half way. We rested until 
2 o'clock and then set out, Antoine and myself pushing ahead of the train. We 
met Antoine's family encamped in a fine prairie, with whom Antoine remained, send- 
ing his brother-in-law on witli us as a guide." 

At a point twenty-eight miles from Colville the governor was told tiiat he could 
not complete the journey that day, as it was growing late and parts of the road 
were bad, "but being determined to do so we pushed on and reached Brown's at 
5-A5, who informed us that the distance to Colville was eighteen miles. After par- 
taking of some bread and milk, we resumed the road with the same animals, dash- 
ing off at full speed, going eight or nine miles an hour most of the way, and reached 
Colville at nine o'clock. Mr. McDonald, the trader in charge, gave me a most 
hospitable reception and addressed a note to McClellan, who had just gone to his 
camp near by, informing him of my arrival. ^IcClellan came up immediately, and 
though I was fairly worn out with the severity of the ride, we sat up till one 
o'clock. At 1 1 we sat down to a nice supper prepared by !Mrs. McDonald and 
regaled ourselves with steaks cooked in buffalo fat, giving them the flavor of buf- 
falo meat. I retired exhausted with tlie fatigues of the daj'." 

"During our staj^ at Colville," wrote Stevens, "we visited McDonald's camp. 
Near it there is a mission, under Perc Lewis, whom we visited. The Indians about 
the mission are well disposed and religious. In the evening we listened to the 
thrilling stories and exciting legends of McDonald, with which his memory seems to 
be well stored. He says intelligence had reached him through the Blackfeet of 
the coming of my jjarty ; that the Blackfeet gave most singular accounts of every- 
thing connected with us. For instance, they said that our horses had claws like 
the grizzly bear; they climbed up the steep rocks and held on by their claws; that 
their necks were like the new moon ; and that their neighing was like the sound of 
distant thunder. McDonald has, of course, given a free translation of the reports 
made by Indians. 

"We listened to his accounts of his own thrilling adventures of his mountain life, 
and a description of an encounter with a party of Blackfeet is well worth relating. 
At the head of a party of three or four men he was met by a band of these Indians, 
who showed evidences of hostility. By signs he requested the cliief of the Black- 
feet to advance and meet him, both being unarmed. When the ciiief assented and 
met him half way between tlie two parties, ^McDonald caught him by the hair of 
the iiead, and. iiolding iiim firmly, exacted from the remaining Indians promises to 
give up their arms, which they accordingly did, and passed on peacably. He has 
lived here many years, and is an upright, intelligent, manly and energetic man." 



CHAPTER XVII 

FROM SPOKANE TO WALLA WALLA AND VANCOUVER 

m'cLELLAN procrastinates on the COLUMBIA AND IN THE CASCADES HAD LITTLE 

FAITH IN THE COUNTRY STEVENS ASSEMBLES HIS PARTY IN CAMP WASHINGTON 

CHEERED BY A KEG OF COGNAC VISITS OLD MISSION ON WALKEr's PRAIRIE COL- 

VILLE VALLEY SETTLERS SEEK NATURALIZATION FIELD CAPITAL NEAR SPOKANE 

FEASTING IN CAMP WASHINGTON BEEF HEAD, TEXAS FASHION ARMY OFFICERS 

SHRINK FROM WINTER SERVICE GARRY TELLS STEVENS OF INDIAN MYTHS ACROSS 

THE PALOUSE COUNTRY FINE POTATOES IN WALLA WALLA VALLEY TRIBUTE TO 

MARCUS WHITMAN DOWN THE COLUMBIA IN A CANOE GUEST AT VANCOUVER OF 

CAPTAIN BONNEVILLE. 

McC'LELLAN had been only measurably successful with his end of the work. 
He had arrived at Vancouver, on the Columbia on the '27th of June, but 
with characteristic disinclination to move until every detail of equipment 
and preparation was worked out, he did not jjut his party in motion till July 18, 
and then to find, before he had penetrated the Cascade mountains a great distance, 
that his thoroughness of preparation was but a handicap, as he had organized a 
larger expedition than he could expeditiously move through a tangled and broken 
mountain region. Unable to penetrate the western slopes of the Cascades with his 
unwieldly expedition, he directed his efforts east of the Cascades, where the country 
was more open, and by means of detachments had gleaned a pretty fair knowledge 
of the passes as far north as the Methow. McClellan's report on the character of 
the prairie country between the Columbia river and Spokane was based on long 
range observation. From the summit of a high ridge separating the waters of the 
Yakima and the Wenatchee he obtained a view which he described most drearily; 

"That portion of the Cascade range which crosses the Columbia sinks into an 
elevated plateau, which extends as far as the limit of vision to the eastward; this 
is the Spokane Plain. On it we could see no indication of water, not a single tree ; 
and except on the mountain spur, not one spot of verdure. It was of a dead, yel- 
lowish hue, with large clouds of black blending into the yello\dsh tinge, and 
appeared to be a sage desert, with a scanty g^o^vth of dry bunch-grass, and fre- 
quent outcroppings of basalt." 

"^IcClellan, as appears from his report," says Hazard Stevens in the biogra])hy 
of his father, "took a decidedly unfavorable opinion of the country, and of a rail- 
road route across the Cascades. He declared in substance that the Columbia river 
pass was the only one worth considering, that there was no pass whatever north of 

157 



158 SPOKANF, AND Till. INLAND KM I'l U i: 

it except the Snoqualinic pass, and gave it as his firm and settled opinion that tiir 
snow in winter was from twenty to twenty-five feet deep in tliat pass. 

"His examination of the i).iss was a very hasty and cursory onr. with no other 
instruments than a comjjass and a barometer, and extended only three miles across 
the summit. His only information as to the deptii of winter snow was the reports 
of Indians, and the ni;irks of snow dm tin trcis. or wliat he took to be such. Thus 
the most important jxiint, the real probli iii of the field of exploration entrusted to 
him, namely, the existence and character of the Cascade ])asses, he failed to deter- 
mine. He failed utterly to respond to (jovernor Stevens' earnest and manly exhor- 
tation, 'We must not be frightened with long tunnels, or enormous snows, but set 
ourselves to work to overcome them.' He manifested the same dilatoriness in prep- 
aration .111(1 moving, the same timidity in .Ktioii. tin- same magnifying of difficulties, 
that later marked and ruined his career .is .m army commander. 

"Tm'o railroads now cross tile r.ange wliieli he examined — tlu Nortiurn I'.uific. 
by a pass just .south of the Snoqualmie and north of the Nahchess, the very ])laee of 
which McClellan reported that 'tlicrc ecrt.-iinly is none between this (the Snoqual- 
mie) and the Nahchess pass;' .iiiii tin (iir.il Northern, by a ])ass at the head of the 
Wenatchee or Pisquouse river, of which stream he declared, 'It appears certain that 
there can be no jiass at its head for a ro.-id.' The snows he so much exaggerated 
have proved no obstacle, and in fact h;ivc .letn.-illy caused less trouble and obstruc- 
tion in these passes than in the Columbi.i pass itself." 

Since the foregoing was written. .Snoiinnlmie jiass has been ajipropriated by 
the Cliicago, Milwaukee & St. I'.iiil. iiul R. E. Strahorn's Nortii Coast system 
has fouii(! .ui excellent ))ass farther to the south, and following closely, in fact, the 
line of iii-ir( li followed by McClellan between \',incouver and the valley of the 
Yakima. 

Hazard ,Stevens adds that one of the lines of the Xorthern Pacific (the Mullan 
branch from Missoula) now crosses the Coeur d'.AIene pass on Governor Stevens' 
route, to the vicinity of the mission, running thence south of Coeur d'Alenc lake to 
Spokane. 

Describing the v.'illey of the ('oliiiiilii;i, .Me( 'h ll.in wrote: 

"Through a valley of about .-i mile in bre.idtli. in which not :\ tree is to be seen 
and seldom even ,i Imsli, and which is bordered by steep walls of trap, l.iv.i and 
sandstone, often .arranged in .a succession of high plateaux or ste))s, the (lee|i blue 
water of the Columbia Hows with .a r.apid. |)o\verfiil (airrent. It is tiie only lifelike 

object in the desert. The eh.aractcr of the valley is niiieli the same as far ;is Fort 

Okinakane. It occasionally widens out slightly, ag.aiii it is n.irrowed by the moun- 
tains pressing in. Sometimes the trail passes over the lower bottom, .at others ele- 
vated and extensive terraces, .and in .a few ])l.aees over (l.angeroiis pdinls in the 
mountains." 

McClellan measured the stre.ani just .almve the nioutb of the W'l iiatehee. (thin 
c.alhd the I'isquouse) and found it .'?71 y.anls wide in .'^epleIllher. I'ifliaii miles 
fiirtli( r lip it was 329 j'ards wide. 

"il will be seen," reported .Stevens, "th.at Iboiiiih ,a very fine ex.aniin.alion h.ad 
been made of the eastern slo))!- of the Cascades, no line had been run by Cajjtain 
McClell.an to Puget Sound, and I deemed it of the greatest consequence to carry 
thro\igh such a line, so tiiat we could speak with positivencss and certainty of the 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 159 

grades on the western sides, and the other facts bearing upon the question of rail- 
road practicability. Captain McClellan was of opinion that it was possible to 
carry such a line through at this season of the year, although he apprehended that 
some difficulty might be found from the presence of snow." 

Governor Stevens resolved to assemble the whole party in a camp south of the 
Spokane river, and "then to arrange parties so as to move to the Sound and the 
lower Columbia river in such a way as would give the best additional knowledge of 
the country." Chief Garry, having come in with his wheat, was dispatched with a 
letter to Lieutenant Donelson relative to the place of rendezvous. Stevens decided 
to remain at Colville another day, and to leave October 20 for the concentration 
camp, "a valley south of the Spokane river, some ten or twelve miles south of the 
Spokane House. This spot," explained Stevens, "is only a short distance off the trail 
leading from Walker and Eells' mission to Walla Walla." 

When the (lartv moved off the following morning. Trader McDonald presented 
the governor with "a keg of cognac to ciieer the hearts of the members of all par- 
ties, and obliged us also to take a supply of port wine." On the way to the evening 
camp they passed McDonald's grist mill "on Mill river, the only one in the neigh- 
borhood." McDonald kept them company, and that night they enjoyed a "glorious 
supper of smoking steaks and hot cakes, and the stories added to the relish with 
which it was eaten." McDonald was a born raconteur, and as they sat around the 
flaring campfire charmed them "with a recital of his thrilling adventures, and 
expressed much regret that the exjiected arrival of the Hudson's Bay express from 
Canada obliged him to return the next morning." 

From Stevens' journal: October 'i^. — We got off early, and at Brown's stopped 
to purchase horses, and succeeded in obtaining two, one for McClellan and the 
other for myself. McDonald accompanied me some distance further, when, bid- 
ding each other adieu, I pushed ahead, and reaching a small stream I found that 
AlcClellan's party had taken the left bank, and that the captain, who came up 
afterwards with Mr. Stanley, had gone on to join them. We took the right, and 
thus avoided a bad crossing in which McClellan's party became involved. We 
encamped upon the borders of the stream. Our train is now larger and more 
heavily laden than before, in consequence of the increased supplies. Today we 
have thirteen packs. At night we killed a cow, ])urchased of Brown, and we 
still have an ox in reserve, to be killed when we meet Donelson. I may say here 
that two ])ounds of beef and half pound of flour per man is not too much for a 
day's allowance. 

October 23. — Snow is falling this morning, and it has cleaned our beef ad- 
mirably. I received a note from McClellan, just after starting out, saying that in 
consequence of yesterday's difficulty with the train he thought that he had better 
remain with his ow^l train. He afterwards, at my request, joined me, leaving the 
train under the charge of Duncan. W'c journeyed but ten miles, encamping near 
where we had seen Antoine's family in going to Colville. The snow ceased falling 
about noon, with five inches upon the ground. It is light, and we think it will 
disappear in a few days. The Indians inform me that we shall not probably find 
it south of the Coeur d'Alene river; and from their statements it would seem that 
this river is a dividing line as regards climate. 

October 21. — We started this morning with the intention of reaching the 



160 SPOKANE AND THl. INLAND I:MIMK1. 

appointed place of meeting tonigiit. .McCKll.iii, Mintcr, Osgood, Staidey and my- 
self pushed ahead, and at noon we reached the old Chemakane mission, so called 
from a spring of that name near by. The mission was occupied by Messrs. Walker 
and Eells, but in 181-9, in consiiiiiciici- of the C'ayuse dirticulties, it was abandoned. 
These gentlemen labored ardently tor the good of the Indians. Walker was a good 
farmer and taught tliem agriculture, and by them his n;ime is now mentioned with 
great respect. The house occupied by \\'.ilker is still standing, but that of Eells 
has been burned down. The site of the mission is five miles from the Spokane 
river, in an extensive open valli y. well watered and very rich. Here we met Garry 
and some 200 Spokanes. G.irry li.i^ forwarded the letter to Donelson, but had 
received no intelligence of his .irriv.il in the Coeur d'Alene ])l.iin. We therefore 
concluded to encamp here, and tomorrow .McC'lellan and myself are to accompany 
Garry to the S])okane House. The route by Walker .lud Eells' mission to Colville 
united with that taken by us twelve or fourteen uiiles from tiu- niissicui. It is a 
better route, affording good grazing diiring the whole distance. The Colville or 
Slawntehus and Chemakane valleys have ))ro(luctive soil, and .-ire from one to three 
miles wide, and bordered by low hills, covered with l.ireh. ])iiic and spruce, having 
aisd a ])roductive soil, wliich gradually become broken and lower towards the south. 
In till evening the Indians clustered around our tire, .and manifested much pleasure 
in our treatment of them. Ciibbs was indefatigable in collecting information in 
regard to these Indians. I have now seen a great deal of Garry and am much 
■pleased with him. Beneath a quiet exterior he shows himself to be a man of judg- 
ment, forecast and great reliability, .uid I could see in uiy interview with his band 
the ascendency he possesses over them. Ne.ir the mission lives Solomon Pelter, a 
settler, who. by Garry's permission, has t.iken up his abode in this valley. I told 
Palter, in reply to his request to be permitted to remain here, th.it though I h.id no 
pii«( r ti) .uitlinrizi liiin. yet I could see no objection to his so doing; that I looked 
with favor ujioii it. and n(|Uested him to have an eye to the interests of the 
Indians. 

"I should h;ive mentioned, in its jjroper ))laee, th.nt in Colville valley there is a 
line of settlements twenty-eight miles long. The settlers are persons formerly con- 
nected with the Hudson's Hay com])any, and they are anxious to become n.aturalized, 
.111(1 liiM till lands they now occu])v transferred to themselves. I informed them 
lh.it I could only express m_v hopes that their case would be met by the passage of 
a special act. They are extensive farmers and raise a great deal of wheat." 

Governor Stevens and Captain McClellan, guided by Chief (iarry, went on to 
Spokane House the following morning. G.-irry's family they found occu))ying a 
comfortable lodge, arul Ciarry informed lluiii that he .ilways li.id on hand flour, 
sugar and coffee, with which In- could make his friends comfort.ible. "We then 
went to our new cam)) south of the Spokane, which h.ul been est.-ibtislicd while we 
were visiting Garry's jilace. From the Chein.iUiiir inissiiin the Ir.iiii lilt the river, 
and jxissing through .i rolling country emered with open pine woods, in five miles 
reached the Spokane, and crossing it liy a good aMil winding ford, ascended the 
pl.iin, .111(1 ill six miles, the first two of which w.is through opi n jiine, reached Camp 
Washington." 

To Secrctarv \\ . II. (iilstr.i)) ol llu .Slati I listoric.il society I .iiii iiuleliled for 
interesting det.ails ng.-irding the location, .ifter ;i l;ii)se of fifty years, of the site of 



SPOKANE AXD THE INLAND EMPIRE 161 

Camp Washington. A distant relative of tlie secretary, Owen B. Cnlstrap. informed 
him that in plowing he had unearthed an old musket, a rusted sword and other 
warlike implements, and expressed a belief that his homestead, near Four Mound 
prairie, had been the scene of an Indian battle. Secretary Gilstrap replied that 
while the find was a most interesting one, it could hardly mark a battleground, 
for the site lay north of Wright's line of fighting in the war of 1858. and history 
afforded no evidence of any other engagement between whites and Indians in that 
vicinity. 

Secretary Gilstrap surmised that the relics might have connection with Gov- 
ernor Stevens' movements in this section, and a rereading of the official reports 
seemed to confirm his belief. He discovered in the governor's reports a detailed 
description of his operations in the Spokane country in 1853. and learned that 
the party, after leaving the Spokane House, at the junction of the Spokane and 
Little Spokane rivers, had traveled six miles and halted at a spot which afforded 
good grass and water. The old route was followed, and at a distance of six 
miles a glade was found in the pine woods; in it a spring which formed a little 
lake of two acres, and surrounded by a small meadow. No other spot in the 
vicinity met the description, but Mr. Gilstrap, in the true spirit of historical re- 
search, was careful not to jump at a conclusion, and induced "Curly Jim," an aged 
Spokane who was a youth when Stevens entered this country, to accompany him 
to the scene. The aged Indian retained a keen recollection of the incidents de- 
scribed by Stevens, and pointed out the exact site of historic Camp Washington. 

"I believe the people of Spokane county can justly make the claim that within 
their borders was consummated the organization of the new commonwealth," said Mr. 
Gilstrap in a recent conversation with the author; "and in a sense 
this historic site of Camp Washington was the first capital of the territory. 
For here Governor Stevens relinquislied his duties as explorer and searcher out 
of routes for future railroads, and entered upon his duties under the president's 
commission as governor. " 

Mr. Gilstrap has also an interesting explanation of the origin of the name "Four 
Mound. ' At a point not distant from Stevens' camp four large natural stone monu- 
ments stand out against the surrounding landscape, and on the largest of these Indian 
hands erected nearly a century ago four cairns of broken rock. These remain today. 
Aged Indians preserve a tradition that Camp Washington was a rendezvous for 
trappers and traders prior to the coming of Governor Stevens. From time imme- 
morial the i)lace had been a natural gathering place by reason of the advantages 
which ]irompted Stevens to choose it for his camp^ — its abundance of grass and 
water: and while it was six miles distant from the trading post at Spokane House, 
it appears that the traders frequently transported a part of their wares there 
and exchanged them for furs brought in by Indian hunters. Even today the old 
Indian trails, worn deep in places by the passing of many feet, are still in evi- 
dence, having survived the winter snows and sunuuer rains of more than half a 
ccnturv. 

^^■l^en Go\ernor Stevens entered the new territory of Washington, the Hudson's 
Bav comjjany still maintained trading posts at Colville, Walla Walla, Vancouver 
and Steilacooni. near Tacoma, but its oldtime autocratic sway was tottering to a 
fall. It still asserted extensive though ill defined rights, and its officers were most 

Vol. ,1-11 



162 SPOKANE AM) IIIK INLAND EMPIRE 

anxious to cultivate the friendship and good will of the first governor. With far- 
seeing political vision, Stevens anticipated the seductive influences that would be 
extended towards himself and other members of the expedition, and in Iiis instruc- 
tions to Captain MeC'lellan and others was explicit and emphatic: 

"I am exceedingly desirous (he wrote) that no exertion should be spared to have 
means of our own for our expedition, and shall much prefer to be in condition to 
extend aid than to be obliged to receive aid from others. Whilst we will gratefully 
receive aid from the company in case of necessity, let it be our determination to 
have within ourselves the means of the most complete efficacy. I am more and more 
convinced that in our operations we should be self-dependent, and whilst we ex- 
change courtesies and hospitalities with the Hudson's Bay couiiJany, the people 
and the Indians of the Territory should see that we have all the cleinents of success 
in our hands. The Indians must look to us for protection and counsel. They must 
see that we are their true friends, and be taught not to look, as they have been 
accustomed to, to the Hudson's Bay company. I am so impressed with this fact 
that I wish no Indian presents to be procured from British posts. I am determined, 
in my intercourse with the Indians, to break up the ascendency of the Hudson's 
Bay company, and permit no authority or sanction to come between the Indians 
and the officers of this government." 

For five days the expedition remained in C'ani)) Washington, making arrange- 
ments to move westward. Lieutenant Donelson came in with his detachment on 
the 28th, "and soon we all sat down to a fine supper prepared for the occasion," 
wrote Governor Stevens. "All the members of the exj)edition were in fine s[)irits; 
our table was spread under a canopy, and u|)on it a great variety of dishes ap- 
peared — roasted beef, bouilli, steaks, and .ibund.-inee of hot bread, eofiee, sugar, and 
our friend -McDonald's good cheer." Probably so great a feast had not been sjjread 
in the country since the regale days of forty years agone, when trader, trapper and 
voi/ac/eur cheered their hearts with creature comforts on some great feast day of 
the church of Rome. 

"But the best dish," adds Stevens, "was a beef's head cooked by friend M inter 
in Texas fashion. It was jilaced in a hole in the ground, on a layer of hot stones, 
with moss and leaves around it to protect it from tlie dirt, and tlien covered up. 
There it remained for some five or six hours, when removing it from thi pl.ier wlirre 
it was deposited, the skin came off without difficulty, and it prcsmti d a m r\- t< iript- 
ingdish, and was enjoyed by every member of the j)arty." 

The (|uestion now confronting Governor Stevens was, were tiu animals in (it 
condition for severe work in the Cascade mountains? He was deejjly concerned 
with the importance of running a survey tlirough the Snoqualmie pass (Sno-cjual- 
moo he wrote it in his reports), but "was unwilling, after so much labor aiul fatigue, 
to assign the gentlemen to duty, when they did not have eonfidi iiee in their ni<ans, 
imless it was a case of im))erative necessity. " 

Accordingly he resolved to leave the matter to their judgnunt. ami whih both 
McClellan and Donelson "were ready cheerfully to conform to ,inv direction, they 
did not desire to go upon the duty; .md accordingly, somewhat reluetanllv, I deter- 
niini-d to srnd llic whole Jiarty to the Walla Walla, thence to 'I'iir Dalles and \'an- 
eouvi r, and tin nee to Olympia, making carefully a survey of the eouutrv on the route. 

"I will here observe," says Stevens in mild criticism, "that all the gentlemen 




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SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 163 

were too much influenced in their judgment bj' the belief that snows would fall 
early and deep in the Sno-qual-moo pass, and on the route from the Coeur d'Alene, 
under the base of the Bitter Root, to the Walla Walla. The little fall of snow 
which I have mentioned — although in snow countries it is simply an incident of the 
fall, having nothing to do with betokening the approach of winter, but rather indi- 
cating, if anything, a late winter — had not been appreciated, and was thought to 
indicate that winter was already upon us. The necessary instructions were sent 
accordingly. I sent word by an Indian expressman to Lieutenant Arnold at Col- 
ville, informing Iiim of tlie arrangements, and also letters to Lieutenant Mullan 
and Mr. Tinkham, at Fort Owen; for I was now satisfied, from what I had gath- 
ered upon the route, that ;\Ir. Tinkham would find great difficulty in moving over 
the southern Nez Perce trail to Fort Walla Walla in December. The fall of snow 
varies exceedingly at short distances apart on the Bitter Root mountains, as I then 
had reason to believe, and as was afterwards demonstrated. I still desired that 
Lieutenant Donelson should go up the Coeur d'Alene, although all' the other parties 
went on the direct route, but he did not desire to do this. And I will again observe, 
that had I possessed at Camp Washington information which I gained in six days 
afterwards at Walla Walla, I shovild have jiushed the part)' over the Cascades in 
the present condition of the animals ; but Captain McClellan was entitled to weight 
in his judgment of tlie route, it being upon the special field of his examination." 

Leaving Camp Washington, the expedition traveled in a southerly direction 
'Iirough the Palouse country. They came, on the second day, to a chain of small 
akes, abounding in wild fowl. "We saw in one of these lakes," wrote Stevens, 
■'surrounded by ducks and geese, a pair of white swans, which remained to challenge 
our admiration after their companions had been frightened away bj* our approach. ' 
"Garry assures us," added the governor, "that there is a remarkable lake called 
En-ehush-chesh-she-luxum, or Never Freezing Water, about thirty miles to the east 
of this place. It is much larger than any of the lakes just mentioned, and so com- 
pletel.v surrounded by high and precipitous rocks that it is impossible to descend 
to the water. It is said never to freeze, even in the most severe winters. The In- 
( ians believe that it is inhabited by buffalo, elk, deer and all other kinds of game, 
which the}' say may be seen in the clear, transparent element." 

Ciarry also narrated a superstition respecting a point of painted rock in 
Pend d'Oreille lake, near a place then occupied by Michael Ogden. He assured 
Governor Stevens that the Indians never dared to venture by the mystic point, 
j'.-prehending that such act of sacrilege, as related in their legends, would be re- 
sented by the Great Spirit, who would cause a terrific commotion in the waters and 
cause them to be swallowed up in frightful waves. The painted rocks were said to 
be very high, and to "contain effigies of men and beasts, and other characters, made, 
as tile Indians believe, by a race of men who preceded them as inhabitants of the 
land." Similar painted rocks exist at the upper end of lake Chelan. 

On the afternoon of November 1 the expedition arrived at the junction of the 
Palouse and the Snake, and crossing Snake river, pitched camp on its southern 
bank. Chief Wi-ti-my-hoy-she, of a band of Palouse Indians encamped near the 
mouth of the Palouse, exhibited a medal of Thomas Jefferson, dated 1801, given to 
his grandfather, he said, by Captains Lewis and Clark when they passed througii 
tb- country in 1805. 



164 Sl'OkANK AM) 1111. IM.AMJ EMl'IUE 

Governor Stevens was uiwible to visit the falls of the Palouse, but inserted in 
his official report, the following description, supplied him by Stanley, the artist, 
who had seen them in 18i7: 

"Tlic Palouse river (Stevens spelled it Peluse) flows over three steppes, each of 
which is estimated to have an ascent of a thousand feet. The falls descend from 
the middle of the lower of these steppes. There is no timber along the course of 
this stream, and but few willow or otiur l)ushes ; yet the soil is fertile and the grass 
nutritious and abundant even in winter. Tin- fall of water, which is about thirty 
feet wide, can not be seen from any dist.uil ))()int. for flowing through a fissure in 
the basaltic rocks, portions of which tower above in jagged pinnacles, it suddenly 
descends some 1'2;) feet into a narrow basin, and thence flows rapidly away through 
a deep canyon. The distance from tiie falls to Snake river is about nine miles. 
The valley widens considerably for about half a mile from the mouth of the Palouse. 
The home of the Palouse Indians is near this junction, where they devote much of 
their time to salmon fishing. The salmon ascend to the falls, but these Indians 
have a legend which tells of the wickedness of the Indians higher up the country, 
and how the Great Spirit, in his displeasure, placed the falls as a barrier to the 
further ascent of the salmon." 

Prom tlic crossing of Snake river the governor pushed rapidly to old Fort Walla 
Walla, on the Columbia. The country between the .Snaki- and Walla Walla rivers 
he described as "high rolling prairies. On the road I traveled," he added, "the 
grass was uniformlv good, but on leaving tiie .Snake the first water was the Touehet, 
twenty-seven and one half miles distant. Tliis was the longest march we had 
accomplished without water after leaving I'orl Mciiton, ])erh,i])s the longest between 
the Mississippi and the Columbia. C.ipt.iin .MeClellan, by a slight change of direc- 
tion, striking the Touehet liigher up, and crossing the \\'alla. Walla valley b_v a more 
central line, found good water and camps at less than twenty miles apart." 

At Fort Walla Walla the governor was the guest of Factor Pembrum of the 
Hudson's Bav company. He remained in the Walla Walla country till November 
8, and on the fourth and fifth rode through the valley. 

November 4. — We started on the tri)) through this valley, riding upon our 
horses. Arriving at the Hudson B.iy f.-irm, we exchanged them for fresh ones, send- 
ing back to W.illa Walla (on the Columbia) the old ones by an Indian. This farm 
is eighteen miles from Wall.i Walla, and is a fine tract of land, well adapted to 
grazing or cultivation. It is n.itur.illy bounded by streams, and is equivalent to a 
mile square. 'rinT<- is tlic rielirst gr.iss we have seen since leaving St. Mary's. Two 
herders tend their .inimals, and a sm.all house is erected for their accommodation. 
From this we went to McBane's house, a retired f.ietor of the eom]).iny. from wlienec 
we had a fine view of the southern portion of the valKy. wliieli is w.itered by iii.iny 
tribut.irii s from Ihe Blue mount.iins. 'I'lii land here is very fertile. .MeB.inc 
was in eli.irgc of I'ort \\'.ill.i W.ill.i during the Cayuse difficulties. Thirty miles 
from W.ill.i W.ill.i. .111(1 111 .ir MeH.ine's, lives Father Chirouse, a missionary of tin 
Catholic order, who, with two laymen, e.\ercises his iiiHuenee among the surrounding 
tribes. .\ p.irty of immigrants, who had lost nearly all their animals, are shel- 
tered here .it lliis time. From Chirouse and McBane I learned th.it the immigrants 
frer|uently e.-ist wishful eyes upon the villry. but li.ning ni.-idc no ;irr;ingenients 
with the Indi.iiis. thev .are unable to settle there. 



SPOKANE AND THK IXLAXl) EMPIRE 165 

November f.. — We remained with Mr. McBaiie over night, and returned to the 
fort by way of the Whitman mission, now oecupied by Bumford and Brooke. They 
were harvesting, and I saw as fine potatoes as ever I beheld— many weighing two 
pounds, and one weighing five and a half. Their carrots and beets, too, were of 
extraordinary size. Mr. Whitman must have done a great deal of good for the 
Indians. His mission is situated upon a fine tract of land, and he had erected a 
saw and grist mill. It is said that his death was brought about by the false reports 
of a troublesome half-breed, wlio reported having heard Mrs. Whitman say to her 
husband, wlien speaking of the Indians: "We will get rid of them some day." 
From Bumford's to the mouth of the Touchet are many farms, mostly occupied by 
the retired em])loyes of the Hudson's Bay company. On our return we met Pu-pu- 
mox-mox. the ^Valla Walla eliief, known and respected far and wide. He possesses 
not so much intelligence and energy as Garry, but he has some gifts of which the 
latter is deprived. He is of dignified manner and well qualified to manage men. 
He owns over '2,000 horses, besides many cattle, and has a farm near that of the 
Hudson's Bav company. On the occurrence of the Cayuse war he was invited to 
join them, but steadily refused. After their destruction of the mission he was asked 
to share the s])oils, and again refused. They then taunted him with being afraid of 
tl)e whites, to which he re])lied: "I am not afraid of the whites, nor am I afraid 
of the Cavuse. I defy your whole band. I will plant my three lodges on the border 
of niv own territory, at tlie mouth of the Touchet, and there I will meet you if you 
dare to attack me." He accordingly moved his lodges to this point and remained 
there three or four weeks. Stanley (the artist) was on his way from Walker and 
Eells' mission to \A'hitman's mission, and, indeed, was actually witliin tlirec miles 
of the mission wlien he learned of the terrible tragedy which had been enacted 
there, and the information was brought to him by an Indian of Pu-Pu-mox-mox's 
band. Pu-])U-mox-mox has saved up a large amount of money (probably as much as 
$.).000). still he is generous, and frequently gives an ox and other articles of value 
to his neighliors. Some of liis people having made a contract to ferry the immi- 
grants across the river who crossed the Cascades this year, and then h.iving refused 
to execute it, he compelled them to carry it out faithfully, and. mounting his horse, 
he thrashed tliem until they complied. He has the air of a substantial farmer. 

From the Walla Walla valley Governor Stevens continued down the Columbia 
in a canoe, carefully examining the prinei))al ra|)ids lietween the moutii of the \A'ana 
Walla and the Cascades, and from tlie best examination which he w,is able to make, 
"became at once convinced that the river was probably navigable for steamers, or 
at all events worthy of being experimentally tested." 

The night of Novemlier 11. he passed at the Cascades, meeting there "several 
gentlemen — men who had crossed the plains, and who liad made farms in several 
states and in Oregon or Washington — who h.id carefully examined the Yakima coun- 
try for new locations, and who impressed me witli the importance of it as an 
agricultural and grazing country." The new governor's faith, sympathy and even 
affection for the pioneers stand out in clear expression in his official reports and 
private correspondence. Of them he said in one of his reports: 

"They have crossed the mountains, and made tlie long distance from the valley 
of the Mississippi to their homes on the Pacific; they Iiave done so fre(:]uentlv, hav- 
ing to cut out roads as tliey went, and knowing little of the difficulties before them. 



16f) SPOK.WF. AM) I'fli: IN'I.AVI) I-.MPIRE 

Tlicv are therefore men of observation, of experience, of enterprise, and men who 
at liome liatl, by industry and frugality, secured a competence and the respect of 
their neighbors; for it must l)e known tliat our immigrants travel in parties, and 
those go together wiio were acquaintances at home, because they mutually confide in 
each other. I w.is struck with the high qualities of the frontier people, and soon 
learned how to confide in them and g.itiier information from them." 

As an example in eoiitr.ist. we otter an extract from a letter from Captain George 
B. ]^IcClellan to Secretary of War Jett"erson Davis, of date September 18, 1853: 

"But the result of my short experience in this country has been that not the 
slightest faitji or confidence is to be placed in information derived from the inhabi- 
tants of the territory; in every instance when I have acted upon information thus 
obtained, I have been altogether deceived and misled." 

I'roni tlie Cascades Governor Stevens continued his canoe vovage to Vancouver, 
where he remained from the seventeenth to the nineteenth as the guest of Captain 
Bonneville, made famous by the genius of \\'asliington Irving, and where he also 
lueaine ae(inainted with tin- officers of tlic Iliulson'.s B;iy conq)any. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

OLYMPIA, THE BACKWOODS CAPITAL, IX 1853. 

FIVE days' hard travel FROM VANCOUVER GOVERNOR DRENCHED IN AN INDIAN 

CANOE HEARTY PIONEER GREETING MRS. STEVENs' GRAPHIC PICTURE OF THE 

SQUALID LITTLE CAPITAL "WHAT A PROSPECT !" SHE BREAKS DOWN AND CRIES 

LATER LEARNED TO LOVE THE COUNTRY AND ITS PEOPLE HORSEBACK ACROSS THE 

LOVELY PRAIRIES PLEASING PICTURE OF FATHER RICARd's MISSION COLUMBIA 

LANCASTER ELECTED TO CONGRESS BUSY DAYS FOR THE GOVERNOR MENACED BY 

POLITICAL RUIN PEREMPTORY ORDER FROM JEFFERSON DAVIS STEVENS GOES BY 

SEA TO NATIONAL CAPITAL HIS ENEMIES ROUTED. 

"Not stones, nor wood, nor the art of artisans make a state; but where men are 
who know how to take care of themselves, there are cities and walls." 

— Attributed to Alcaeus by Aristides. 

FIVE days of the liardest sort of travel it took the first governor of Washing- 
ton to go from Vancouver to Olympia, cramped up for the greater part of the 
time in an Indian 'canoe, and drenched by the cold November rains; but 
Stevens facetiously dismisses the incident by "advising voyageurs in the interior, 
when they get suddenly into the rains west of the Cascades, to take off their buck- 
skin underclothing." He neglected the precaution, "and among the many agree- 
abilities of this trip up the Cowlitz was to have the underclothing of buckskin wet 
entirely through." And buckskin possesses a strong retentive affinity for moisture. 

But a warm and hearty pioneer greeting awaited him at Olympia, and when, a 
few days later, lie delivered a lecture descriptive of his long overland journey and 
the feasibility of building a railroad from St. Paul to Puget Sound, the whole town 
turned out and greeted enthusiastically his confident predictions that they would live 
to Iiear the locomotive's whistle echoing amid the wooded hills of that primeval wil- 
derness. 

Looking backward over the vista of sixty years, one marvels that congress pos- 
sessed the prescience then to found an embryo commonwealth in this remote and 
sparsely settled region. There were fewer than 5,000 inhabitants in all the terri- 
tory's wide expanse, from the Pacific to the summits of the Rocky mountains. 
Olympia, the capital, was a dreary, rain-drenched mudhole, and the future cities of 
Spokane, Seattle, Tacoma, Walla Walla and Yakima had either no existence on the 
map, or were, at best, a few shacks and cabins hastily thrown up against the win- 
ter's rains and snows. Mrs. Stevens, who came to Olympia two years after, and, 

167 



168 Sl'OK.WI, WD llil. IM.WI) I.MI'IIJK 

who, as wife of tin- governor was the soeial hrader of her hushand's vast political do- 
main, lias recorded graphically her imjiressions of the squalid little capital : 

"At night we were told, on ascending a hill, 'There is Olympia!' Below us, in 
the deep mud, were a few low, wooden houses, at the head of Puget Sound. Mv lieart 
sank, for tlie first time in my life, at the ))ros])ect. After ploughing througli the 
mud, we stopped at the principal hotel, to stay until our jiouse was ready for us. 
As we went ujistairs there were a nunilier of people standing about to see the gover- 
nor and liis family. I was very much annoyed at their staring and their remarks, 
which tiny made .uKlilily. .iimI ll,■l^t(•lllci to get in some private room, where I could 
make myself better ])re])art(l lor an inspection. Being out in rains for many days 
had not imjiroved our a))|)iarMiiir nr clothes. But tiiere seemed no rest for tlie 
weary. L pon being uslured into the public parlor, I found people from far and 
near had been invited to inspect us. The room was full. The sick child was cross 
and took no notice of anything that was said to her. One of the women saying aloud, 
'What a cross brat tb.it is,' I could stand it no longer, but opened a door and went 
into a large dancing ball, and soon after, when the governor came to look me up, I 
was breaking my licart over the forlorn situation I found myself in — cold, wet, un- 
comfortable, no fire, shaking with chills. What a prospect!" 

But the mistress of the cai)ital soon found fire, and more cheering and refined 
greetings, and quickly learned to catch her husband's brave and sympathetic spirit. 
Many of the people called on her, and sbi foiiiul them pleasant and agreeable. "Many 
of tlieni wi re well educated and interesting young ladies, who had come here with 
their busbaiidH. gcniriinient officials, and who liad given up their city homes to live 
in this unknown land, surrounded by Indians and dense forests." 

Mrs. Stevens dwelt there for three years, and learned to love the country round- 
al)out. "There was a pleasant company of officers, with their wives, stationed 
at Steilacoom, twenty miles from Olympia, with whom I became acquainted, and had 
visits from and visited. Naval shii)s came uj) Puget .SoiJnd, with agreeable officers 
on board. I had a horse to ride on horseback across the lovely prairies. 
.\bont two miles down there was a Catholic mission, a large dark house or monastery, 
surrounded by cultivated land, a large garden in front filled with flowers, bordered 
on one side, next the water, with innnense bushes of wall flowers in full bloom; the 
fragrance, resembling the sweet English violet, filling the air with its delicious odor. 
l''atber Ric;ird, the v( n. r.iblr lirail ol this house, was from Paris. He had lived in 
this ))l;iec more thin l«i iity yi irs. He had with him b'ather Blanchet (later of be- 
loved mriiKiry in our own iiil.ind region), a sliorl. thieksct man. who managed every- 
thing pertaining to the teni))oral comfort of tlie mission. Under him were servants, 
who were employed in various ways, baking, cooking, digging and planting. Their 
fruit was excellent and a great rarity, as there was but one more orchard in the 
wlioli country. Tlim was a large number of Flatheads settled about them, who 
had bren taugiit to count their beads, say i)rayers, and were good Catholics in all 
outward observances; chanted the morning and evening prayers, which thev sang in 
their own language in a low. sweet strain, wbieli, the first time I heard it, sitting in 
my boat at siniset, was impressive and solemn. We Avent often to visit Father Ricard, 
who was ,1 highly educated man. who set nied to in joy having some one to converse 
with him in his own language. He said the Canadians used siuli liid I'niub." 

A ])roclaniation by the governor, jiublished soon after his ,irri\.il it Olxnipia in 



SPOKANE AND THE IXLAND EMPIRE 169 

November, 18.J3, designated January 30 as election day to choose a delegate to con- 
gress, and members of the legislature, and summoning that body to meet in the 
capital on the twenty-eighth of February. Columbia Lancaster, a lawyer, was 
elected delegate, and the legislature liaving assembled on the appointed day. Gover- 
nor Stevens, in his first message, recommended the adoption of a code of laws and 
organization of the country east of the Cascades into counties. On his recommen- 
dation, the legislature memorialized congress for a surveyor general and a land 
office, for more rapid surveys of public lands, for amendment of the land laws so 
that single women would have the same footing as married ones, for a grant of lands 
for a university, for imi)roved mail service, and for a wagon road from Puget Sound 
to Walla Walla. 

Busy days were these for the governor, filled with absorbing duties and official 
cares. In an Indian canoe he had explored the shores of Puget Sound, and not- 
withstanding the congressional appropriation for railroad surveys and exploration 
had become exhausted, lie drove forward that important work with his usual intelli- 
gence and vigor, and thereby incurred grave peril of political ruin. To provide the 
necessary funds for the immediate and pressing needs of the survey, he drew on 
Corcoran & Riggs, government bankers at Washington, for .$16,000, and these drafts 
were dishonored. Jefferson Davis, secretary of war, was in deep sympathy with the 
pro-slavery party in congress, which neglected no intrigue to discourage and prevent 
the building of a northern line of railroad. 

About that time the political situation was explained to Stevens in a letter from 
his old friend Halleck, then stationed in California. "The pro-slavery extension 
party," pointed out Halleck, "will work very hard against the North Pacific states, 
which must of necessity remain free." Halleck added that a vigorous conspiracy 
was then fomenting in California. "The first branch of this project was to call a 
new convention in California, dividing it into two states, making the southern one 
a slave state, with San Diego as the port and terminus of a railroad through Texas. 
Circulars and letters to that effect were sent to pro-slavery men in California, and 
the attempt made to divide the state, but it failed. The next move was to acquire 
Tower California and parts of Sonora and Chihuahua, making Guaymas the termi- 
nus, and the newly acquired territory slave states. ... If the territory is ac- 
quired, it will be a slave territory, and a most tremendous effort will be made to run 
a railroad, if not the railroad, from Texas to Ciuaymas, with a br.-iiich to .San 
Francisco." 

Corroborative of these warnings, the governor received a eurt and peremptory 
order from Secretary Davis, disajiproving his arrangements and ordering him to 
suspend his winter operations. This critical situation he met with a quick resolu- 
tion to hasten to the national capital and thwart the cunning schemes of southern 
politicians, and to justify his apparent desertion of territorial duties, the legislature 
readily passed a joint resolution that "no disadvantage would result to the terri- 
tory should the governor visit Washington, if, in his judgment, the interests of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad survey could thereby be jjromoted." 

Leaving Olympia March '26, the governor went by way of the Cowlitz river to 
the Columbia, and took steamer for San Francisco, arriving there early in 
April. Taking the isthmus route, he was in New York in May, and proceeding 
promptly to Washington, presented before the department a report so thorough and 



170 Sl'OKANK AM) THK INT.AND KMPTRF, 

coiuiiuiii'i; that Secretary Davis was moved to submit to congress an estimate to 
cover tlu- deficiency. TIic necessary appropriation was made, and the protested 
drafts honored. Of this incident CJener.il limit afterwards wrote: 

"I followed him in the thorougli work he made of the Northern Pacific Railway 
survey — of his row with Jeff Davis for overrunninp: in his expenditures the amount 
assiijned liim, and so j>reventing Jeff's designs of defeating that road. In 185t I 
had, at Fort Monroe, occasion to describe your father to old Major Holmes, a class- 
mate of Jeff. He went to Washington, and on his return told me, 'Your friend 
Stevens is ruined. Davis refuses to reeomniend to congress to make good the ex- 
pi-nditiires as contrary to orders. It will niiii Stevens.' 'Wait awhile,' said I; 'I 
see by the last Union that Stevens lias just arrived, en route to Washington, at 
Panama. He will leave .lert' nowhere.' Soon after he arrived in Washington, was 
fdllowid by an ajipropriatioii covering all liis liills. and so ,Ieff failed all round." 



CHAPTER XIX 

NEGOTIATING TREATIES WITH THE INTERIOR TRIBES 

STEVENS PLUNGES INTO AN ARDUOUS TASK WALLA WALLA A GREAT COUNCIL GROUND 

GOVERNOR MEETS THERE 5,000 INDIANS IN 1855 NEZ PERCES MASS A THOUSAND 

WARRIORS A STRIKING PAGEANT HAUGHTy MESSAGE FROM THE YELLOW SERPENT 

KAMIAKEN PROUD AND SCORNFUL FEASTING, HORSE-RACING AND FOOT-RACING 

INDIAN ORATORY AND SARCASM CHIEF LAWYER EXPOSES A PLOT TO MASSACRE THE 

governor's PARTY CONSPIRACY IS THWARTED THE TREATIES EXPLAINED A 

STARTLING INCIDENT STORMY COUNCIL TREATIES CONCLUDED CELEBRATED WITH 

A SCALP DANCE. 

"The passions are the only orators that always persuade; they are, as it were, a 
natural art, tlie rules of which are infallible; and the simplest man with passion is 
more jjersuasive than the most eloquent without it." 

— La Rochefoucauld. 

CONGRESS had enacted tlie donation land act, which held out to settlers 
the enticing offer of 320 acres to a single man, 320 acres each to married 
man and wife, who would cross the plains and mountains and found homes in 
Oregon. No serious attempt had been made to establish treaty rights with the 
possessing Indians, who, finding themselves ignored and their property rights dis- 
regarded, and noting the swelling stream of white immigration, grew startled, 
suspicious, alarmed and restless. This native discontent was fast deepening into 
indignation and anger, and tiiroughout the interior bolder spirits were advocating 
a widespread uprising and war of extermination before it should become forever 
too late to roll back the white invaders. 

To face and solve this difficult (jroblem, to allay the Indians' grievance and 
patch up tardy treaties with the tribes both east and west of the Cascade moun- 
tains, was the delicate and difficult duty laid by government upon tlie governor of 
the young territory of Washington. Returning from the national capital, Stevens 
promjjtly plunged into this arduous undertaking, and having first established trea- 
ties with the Indians in the Puget Sound country, we find him, in the early months 
of 1855, inviting two great councils with tlie tribes between the Cascade and the 
Rocky mountains. 

Indian Agents A. J. Bolon and R. H. Lansdale were sent that spring among 
the powerful tribes of the Inland Emj)ire, to point out to the chiefs the advan- 
tages that would accrue to their people by entering peaceably into just and liberal 

171 



172 SPOKANK AM) 'I'lll, IMAM) I.MIMRE 

treaty relations witli the {roveriiinent. and on tin- siijjgcstion of Kaniiaktn. liead 
chief of the Yakinias. the Walla Walla valley was selected for the council ground. 
"There of old," said Kaniiak<ii. "is the jjlace where we held our councils with 
the neighboring tribes, .iiid uc will hold this loiiruil tlnrc now." 

Preparatory to the assembling ot tin tribes, a large quantity of merchandise 
.111(1 |iri)\ isi()n~ was t.aken up the Columbia in keelbo.ats to A\'alla M'.alla. and a 
jjarty of twenty-five men was organized at The Dalles, in eastern Oregon, and with 
])aektrain, mules, riding .-ininials and provisions, sent to the council ground to pre- 
])are for the coming of tlu n (inn ii. .iiid afterw.ards to .leeoinijany Governor Stevens 
to the scene of ;iiu)tli(r great eoiiiicil. to be Inld in ar tin site of the ])ri-S(iit city of 
Missoula, ^lontan.i. 

"The Walla W;ill.i coiiin-il. like tin- IMackfoot." s.iys llaz.ird .Stevens, "was 
conceived and |il;uiin(l exclusively by Governor .Stevens. He alone impressed 
the necessity ot tlniii upon the government, and obtained the requisite authority. 
Tlu work oi collecting the Indians w.-is- done cbietly by his agents, and it was not 
until he learned from Doty that the liidi.iiis had agreed to attend, and that the 
eomieil was assured, that be invited Superiiitendeiit Palmer (of Oregon) to take 
part ill it .-IS joint eoininissidner with liiniMlf for sucli tribes as lived p.artly in 
both tei-rit(ii'ies. Tbis t.-iet be e;uised to be entered on tbe joint reeiinl of the 
council.' 

Leaving the governor's olliee in charge of .Seerel.ary of .State M.ison. (Icuernor 
Stevens set out from Olyuipia e.irly in May for the W.illa Walla valley. The 
route taken by bis jiarly lay across eouiitry to Cowlitz landing, where canoes were 
taken down tlu ( (iwlitz to tbe Columbia: tlnne. by steamboat to Vancouver, and 
tlieiiee by steamboats and portage to The Dalles, where tbe I'nited .States inain- 
t.iined a military post of two eomijanies of the I'oiirtb infantry, under .Major 
C;. .(. R.ains, and where .Snp( riiili ikK lit .loel Pabin r of lln Oregon agencies awaited 
liis coming. 

"The outlook for etfeeting a treaty w;is deemed uii favorable by .all. " says Hazard 
Stevens, "(jovernor .Stevens w.is warned by I'atlnr i{ieard. of the Y.akim.i mis- 
sion, th/it the Indians were plnlling to cut olV tbe while ebiefs who might ;ittem])t 
to hold .1 council. The .Snake Indians bad att.aeked and massacred jiarties of 
while innnigrants recently, and Major liaiiis w.is under orders to send a force 
on the immigrant road to protect them. ' 

Hut the governor was determined to c.-irry out I be ai-raiigi-meiits, for be fore- 
saw that retreat .it lliis critical nionient. after the eiiuiieil bad been agreed ii|)on. 
tile Indians iiuitfil to the rendezvous, and gifts .assembled on the ground, would 
involve a fatal show of weakness and in all jjrobability prove the very me.iiis to 
precipitate the threatened uprising. After su])per he discussed the sitii.-ition for 
two hours with Major Rains, and )H-rsuaded that officer to give him a small detach- 
ment of forty soldiers. "I rem.arked." be wrote in his diary, "that the services 
of a sni.ill force in checking insolence wciiild be as good as 200 men siibsetiuently. 
We deemed it necessary to maintain our dignity and th.it of our government at 
the council, and we would seize any i)erson. whether white man or Indian, who 
behaveil in an improper maiiin r. There were uii(|iiesti(mably .i great many mal- 
contents in each tribe. \ few determined sjiirits. if not controlled, might embolden 
,all not well disposed, and defeat the negoli.alioiis. Should tbis sjiirit be shown. 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 173 

tney iiiust he seized ; the well affected would then govern in the deliberations, and 
I anticipated little or no difficulty in negotiating. I then alluded to my determina- 
tion to call out the militia of the territory .should I find, on reaching the council 
ground, that am' plan of hostilities was being matured. 

"So doubtful did General Palmer consider the whole matter, that it was only 
the circumstance of a military force being dispatched which determined him to 
send to the treaty ground presents to the Indians. He stated to me that he had 
concluded to send up no goods ; but, the escort having been ordered, he would send 
up his goods." 

History, I believe, will sustain the opinion that in tense dramatic interest, in 
wealth of savage staging and barbaric color, and in ultimate influence alike upon 
the white man and his red brother, the Walla Walla council stands out in bold 
relief, the most important, the most striking historic event in the Inland Empire, 
if not within the entire Pacific northwest. Five thousand Indians gathered there — 
2,000 warriors sat in council, and the proceedings were enlivened by fierce 
native eloquence and haughty flights of bitter irony and biting wit. Tribe found 
itself arrayed against tribe, and faction set against faction ; some counseled peace, 
some boldly stood for unrelenting war ; and some there were who carried on auda- 
ciously their angry plot to sound the dreadful tocsin by massacreing on this council 
ground the governor's party and his little soldier escort of forty men. 

The council ground lay on the right bank of Mill creek, six miles from the 
Whitman mission, and wdthin the present limits of the city of Walla Walla. "The 
valley," says the governor's biograpiier, "was almost a perfect level, covered 
with the greatest profusion of waving bunch-grass and flowers, amidst which grazed 
numerous bands of beautiful, sleek mustangs, and herds of long-horned Spanish 
cattle belonging to the Indians, and was intersected every Iialf mile by a clear, 
rapid, sparkling stream, whose course could be easily traced in the distance by its 
fringe of willows and tall cottonwoods. Now every foot of this rich valley is un- 
der cultivation, a dozen grist mills run their wheels by these streams, and the very 
treaty ground is the center of the thriving town of Walla W^alla." A city it has 
growni since that was jienned. with 20,000 |ieo))le dwelling together in culture, 
prosperity and wealth. 

Towards evening of yiny 21 came the governor and his party upon the scene, 
drenched by the soaking rains tlirough which they had ridden since early morn, 
but cheered by the sight of barbaric comfort that met their eager eye. Hazard 
Stevens, who, then a boy of 13, rode with his father to the council ground, thus 
describes the historic scene: 

"The cam]) was found jHtclied. and everything in readiness for the council. 
A wall tent, with a large arbor of poles and boughs in front, stood on level, open 
ground, a short distance from the creek and facing the Blue mountains, all ready 
for the governor. This was al.so to serve as the council chamber, and ample clear 
space \vas left for tiie Indians to assemble and seat themselves on the ground in 
front of tlie arbor. A little farther in front, and nearer the creek, were ranged 
the tents of the rest of the party, a stout log house to safely hold the supplies and 
Indian goods, and a large arbor to serve as a banqueting hall for distinguished 
chiefs, so that, as in civil lands, gastronomy might aid diplomacy. A large Iierd of 
beef cattle and a pile of potatoes, purchased of Messrs. Lloyd Brooke, Bumford & 



174 Sl'OKANK AM) TllK IM.AM) I.MI'IHF. 

Noble, traders and stock-raisers, who were oeeupyiiig tlie site of the Wliitman 
mission, and ample stores of sugar, coffee, bacon and flour, furnished the materials 
for the feasts." 

Previous to the arrival of the Indians, tin following; |)roi;r,iiii was ,id(>])ti(l : 

1. Governor Stevens to jjreside. 

2. Each superintendent to be sole commissioner for the Indians within his 
jurisdiction. 

•J. Botii to act jointlv for tribes coniiaoii lo liolh ()rr}j;on .md Wasliiugton, each 
to api)oint an agent and commissary for thiiii. .ind goods and provisions to be 
distributed to them in i)roportion to tlie number under the resjiective jurisdictions. 

i. Separate records to he kejit, to be carefully compared and certified jonitly 
as far as related to tribes of both Territories. 

5. To keep a public table for the chiefs. 

The following oflieers were appointed for the joint treaties: 

Washington: Commissioner, Governor Isaac I. Stevens; secretary, J;imes Doty; 
connnissary, R. H. Crosby; agtnt. R. H. Laiisdali-: interpreters, \\"illi.iin Cr.iig and 
N. Raymond. 

Oregon: Connnissioiur. .loci I'alnur; secretary. Willi.iin C. McKay; com- 
missary, N. Olney; agent, R. R. 'rhoiiipsoM ; intcrpntrrs. M.itthiw Danplur .md 
.John I'lettc. 

As additional intcrprctirs (iovernor .Stevens appointed \. 1). .P.inihrun. .John 
Whitford, .James Coxie .-md I'.itriek McKensie. 

Lieutenant Gracie and his little command from 'i'lic Dalles arrived on the -^lUl, 
and with the lieutenant, as guest, came Lieuttn.int Kip. who was to participate in 
the Wright camjiaign in tlie Sliokane country two ye.-irs later ;ind record in enter- 
t.'iining style his experiences in .i little book <-allcd ".Vriny Life on tile I'.ieific." 
I'"or their comfort the governor li,ul pitched .i tint, while the soldiers threw up 
rough shelters of boughs, covered with canvas pack-covers. The two oHieers dined 
with the governor, "ott' ;i table constructed from split pine logs." says Kip. "smoothed 
olV. hut not very smooth." 

Now Jill was ready for the Indian hosts. First c.iine the Ne/. I'erces. men, 
women and children, 'J. 500 in all. the great<r part of the trib(>. for the occasion 
was deemed one of high inonunt and pcrli.ips of (iKluriiig signifieanee to them 
.and their descendants for untold gener.itions. Dear to the Indi.in heart is studied 
cercMionial. .ind le;iriiing of the ap|)roaeh of lln' barbaric eavale.ide. the connnis- 
siouers drew up llicir little party on .i knoll which eonuiiandcd a line \iiw of 
the wirlc .ind flower spangled \;ill(y. Iji lokiri of Nez Perce friendshi)) through- 
oul the t'avuse war that followed lln Wliilniaii massacre of 1817. the oHieers in 
th.-it campaign had presented tlu' tribe with a large .Vnieriein flag. This tiny bore 
aloft in the soft May sunshine. ;ind sent ahead of their .uh aneing hosts to he 
Jjlaiited upon the knoll. 

"Soon lliiir eaxaleade came in sight." says an observer of this stirring scene,* 
"a thous.ind w.irriors mounted on line horses .and riding at a galloj). two .abreast. 
n;iked to the hreechclont. their faces colored with white, rid .and yellow )>.iint 
in fanciful designs, and ih ckiil with pluim s and feallnrs and trinkets lluttcring 
in the sunsliine. The ponies were even more gaudily .irrayed. many of llnm srlntid 

• Tlaziinl Stevens. 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 175 

for their singular color and markings, and many painted in vivid colors contrast- 
ing with their natural skins — crimson slashed in broad stripes across white, j'ellow 
or white against black or bay; and with their free and wild action, the thin buffalo 
line tied around the lower jaw, — the only bridle, almost invisible — the naked riders, 
seated as though grown to their backs, presented the very picture of the fabled 
centaurs. Halting and forming a long line across the prairie, the}' again advanced 
at a gallop still nearer, then halted, while the head chief. Lawyer, and two other 
chiefs rode slowly forward to the knoll, dismounted and shook hands with the com- 
missioners, and then took post in rear of them. The other chiefs, twenty-five in 
number, then rode forward, and went through the same ceremony. Then came 
charging on at full gallop in single file the cavalcade of braves, breaking succes- 
sively from one flank of the line, firing their guns, brandishing their shields, beat- 
ing their drums, and yelling their warwhoojis, and dashed in a wide circle around 
the little party on the knoll, now charging up as thougii to overwhelm it, now wheel- 
ing back, redoubling their wild action and fierce yells in frenzied excitement. At 
length they all dismounted and took their stations in rear of the chiefs. Then 
a number of young braves, forming a ring, while others beat their drums, enter- 
tained the commissioners witli their dances, after which the Indians remounted and 
filed off to the place designated for their camps. This was on a small stream 
flowing parallel to Mill creek, on tlie same side with and over half a mile from 
the council camp. The chiefs accompanied the governor to his tent and arbor, 
smoked the pipe of peace, and had an informal talk." 

As the Indians came to the council on invitation of the commissioners, they 
were regarded as guests of the government, and rations were issued to the Nez 
Perces and some other petty tribes then on the ground — one and a half pounds of 
beef, two pounds of jiotatoes, and a half pound of corn to each person. 

Ne.xt to arrive were the Cayuses, A\'alla Wallas and Umatillas. Mitliout jjomp 
or ])ageantry they encamped on tlie opposite side of Mill creek, at a point more 
than a mile removed from the wiiites. An intervening fringe of leaf trees com- 
pletely concealed them from view. As head chief of the Walla Wallas and Uma- 
tillas, the aged Pu-])U-mox-mox, or Yellow Ser])ent, exerted autocratic sway over 
liis own people, and was a personage of marked influence with neighboring tribes. 
He was a thrifty soul, and by trade with the innnigrants passing through his do- 
mains en route to the Willamette valley, had acquired a large sum in coin. His 
lierds ran into the thousands. Notwitlistanding his son had been murdered by 
California gold miners, he had always maintained friendly relations with the whites, 
altliough the loss of his son still rankled in his breast, and as he had grown some- 
wliat childish, malcontents were striving, by frequent reference to that outrage, 
to inflame his miiid and induce him to join in a war of extermination. 

The day after their arrival, the Nez Perce chiefs and head men, to the luunber 
of more than thirty, came over to dine witli the commissioners. Seated upon the 
ground, in two long parallel lines, tiiey quite filled the arbor. They brought vora- 
cious ajjpetites to tlie banquet, and Governor Stevens and Commissioner Palmer, 
wlio had graciously assumed tlie office of carvers, discovered that they had bur- 
dened themselves with a strenuous task. At length, their arms wearied by the work 
and the pers])iration drojijiing from their faces, they were glad to yield the honors 
to two husky packers. "The table for the chiefs was kept up during the council. 



17r, SI'OKANK AND TIIK INLAND K.MIMHK 

and every day was well attiiKlcil, hut it was not again ffracrd hy tlic presence of 
the connnissioiiers." 

An envoy trmn l'n-|)ii-iiiii\-i]iii\. the ^'illow Si-r|iiiit. Iirciui;lit lln- haughty and 
ominous message that the Vakimas, C'ayuses and Walla Wallas would accept no 
Jirovisions from the commissioners; that they would hriiig their own, and it was 
their desire that the Young Chief, Lawyer, Kaniiaki n and himself, head chiefs of 
the Cayuses, Nez Perces, Yakimas and Walla ^^'allas res))ectively, should do all 
the talking for the Indians at the council. Refusing to accept any tohacco for 
his ehiif. tiic messenger was overheard to nnitter as he rode disdainfully away, 
"You will find out hy and hy why we won't take provisions." 

F.ither (iiinnisc of the Catholic mission among the \\'.illa \\. alias. ,ind latlier 
I' iiiddsy of tile Yakini.a mission, came in to attend the eouiieii. and reported that 
witli the exception of Kamiaken these Indians were generally well disposed towards 
the whites. This chief had lieeii heard to s.iy. "Tf Ciovernor .Stevens spe.iks hard, 
I will speak h.ard, too."' Other liuli.uis h.ad said th.it K.uni.akrn would come to the 
council with his young men. 'hut with |)o\vder and h.ill. ' When invited to the 
council hy the governor's seeret.iry. Mr. Doty, he had scornfully rejected the 
tendered presents, declaring that he "h.id never accepted anything from the whites, 
not even to the value of a grain of wheat, without paying for it, and tii.it he did 
not wish to purchase the jiresents." Spe.aking of this noted chief, fiovernor .Stevens 
said: "He is a peculiar in.in. niuinding me of the p.'iiither .and the grizzly bear. 
His counten.anee has an extr.iordin.ary |)lay, one moment in frowiis, the next in 
smiles, flashing with light, .and hl.ick .is Krebus, the same instant. His pantomime 
is great, .and his gesticul.it ion much .and expressive. He t.ilks mostly in his face, 
and with his hands and arms. " 

Rumors ran over the great eneampinnit th.it thisr trilu-s had allied to oppose 
a treaty, and fears were ex|)ressed tli.at an .ittempt to open tlii- eouneil would be 
the signal for .a w.irlike outbreak. 

Tiie next day .a b<)d\- of K)() mounted C.iyuscs ami W alia \\ .ill.is. .iriiied ,ind 
in full g.al.a dress. ,iiid yelling like demons, rode furiously tliriee .around the Nez 
Perces cam)), and soon thereafter Young Chief, .aeeomp.anied by his principal sub- 
chiefs, rode u)) to the governor's tent, but dismounted on invitation with apparent 
reluctance, .and shook li.inds with .1 eold .and forbidding demeanor, refused to 
smoke, .and remained but a trw moments. "The haughty carri.ige of these chiefs," 
wrote .Stevens in his journ.il. 'and their manly cliar.aeter h.ave. for the first time, in 
mv Indian experience, realizid the descriptions of the writers of fiction." 

Ill III Chief Garry of the .S))ok.anes attended the eouneil. but only as an ob- 
sei'\rr. It li.ad been found impossible to .assemble the Spokanes at .a ))oint so dis- 
tant fniiii Ihiir tiiuntr\-. within the brirt' time that offered, .and (iovernor .Stevens 
pro))osed a sep.arate treaty with them. Later on bis return from the Missouri. 

A messenger sent to invite the Palouscs to the council returned with .1 single 
chief of that tribe, who s.iid that his people look little interest and would not 
eonie. 

Sund.iv, M.av '-7. Governor .Ste\ins made this entry in his jiiurn.il: "There 
was service in the Nez Perce e.iiii|i .iml in the Nez Perce language. Tinidlhy being 
the |)reaehir. The commissioners .attended. The sermon was on the ten com- 
mandments. Timothy has a natural .and graceful delivery, and his words were 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 177 

repeated Liv a iirompter. The Nez Perces liave evidently ])ro<ited imicli from the 
labor of Mr. Spalding, who was with them ten years, and their whole deport- 
ment throughout the service was devout." 

The next day came the Yakimas. Agent Bolon and an interpreter went out 
to meet them, and returned bringing Kamiaken and the Yellow Serpent. The 
latter affected to be grieved and indignant over reports that he was unfriendly 
to the whites, and declared his purpose to face the commissioners and ask why 
such slanders had been circulated against him. Soon thereafter, in company with 
Kamiaken, Owhi and Skloom. Yakima chiefs, rode into camp, dismounted and 
shook hands in apparent friendship, but in the smoke that followed in the arbor 
they used their own tobacco exclusively, declining that tendered them by the com- 
missioners. 

Governor Stevens foniially o]3ened the council in the afternoon of May 29, 1855. 
Two thou^-and Indians, more than half of them Nez Perces, were present, seated 
on tlie ground in semi-circular rows forty deep, one behind the other. Facing them, 
under the arbor in front of the tent, sat the commissioners, secretaries, interpreters 
and Indian agents. Timothy, chief and preacher of the Nez Perces, assisted by 
several of his young men who had been taught to read and write by the missionary 
Spalding, were provided a table beneath the arbor and kept their own records for 
tliat -great and powerful tribe. 

Beyond a silent, solemn smoking of the peace pipe, the appointment and swear- 
ing in of two interpreters for each tribe, and some brief preliminary remarks, little 
was accomplished the first day. Before adjiiuniing to ten o'clock the next morning 
Governor Stevens repeated the oflfer of jirovisions for the various tribes, suggesting 
that two oxen be taken to each camp and slaughtered for its use. 

"We have plenty of cattle," replied Young Chief of the Cayuses. "They are 
close to our camp. We have already killed three and have plenty of provisions. 

General Palmer to the interpreter: "Say to the Yakimas, 'You have come a long 
way: you may not have jirovisions. If you want any, we have them, and you are 
welcome.' 

"Kamiaken is supplied at our cam])." was the quick interjection of Young Chief 
of the Cayuses, who declined, too. to dine at the table of the commissioners; but 
Pu-jHi-niox-mox (the Yellow Serpent) and the great war chief Kamiaken were more 
friendly in demeanor, dining with the commissioners and remaining afterwards a 
long time in their tent, smoking and talking in a friendly way. 

May 30 and 31 were devoted to a careful explanation by Governor Stevens of 
tile two treaties that were under consideration. "There were to be two reserva- 
tions, " says his son Hazard Stevens — one in the Nez Perce country of 3,000,000 
acres, on the north side of Snake river, embracing both the Kooskooskia (Clearwater) 
and Salmon rivers, including a large extent of good arable land, with fine fisheries, 
root irrounds. limber and mill sites, and was for the accommodation of the Cayuses, 
Walla Wallas. Umatillas and Spokanes, as well as the Nez Perces. 

"The other embraced a large and fertile tract on the upper waters of the Ya- 
kima, and was for the Yakimas, Klickitats, Palouses and kindred bands. 

"The reservations were to belong to the Indians, and no white man should come 
upon them without their consent. An agent, with school teachers, mechanics and 
farmers, would take charge of each reservation, and instruct them in agriculture, 



178 M'UKAM. AND Tllh J M.AM) KMl'IRE 

trades, etc.; gri.st and saw mills were to be built; the laad chiefs were to receive an 
annuity of ii=.")00 each, in order that they might devote their whole time to their 
people; .ind annuities in clothing, tools and usetul articles were to be given for 
twenty years, after which they were to be self-supijorling. 

"The advantages of the reservations were dwelt uijon. They embraced some 
of the best land in tin eoiintry. and were l.irge enough to atford each family a farm 
to itself, besides gr.izing for all tlieir stock; they contained good fisheries, abundance 
of roots and berries, and eonsider.ihie gaiiu-. Tiny were near enough to the great 
roads for trade with tlir ininiigrants. yet far .iiough from them to be undisturbed 
1)V travelers. By having so nianv tribes on one reservation, the agent could better 
look after them, and could aeeoni])lisli more with the same means at his disposal. 

"The stajjle argument lidd out was the s\ip( rior advantages of civilization, and 
the absolute necessity of tiieir adojjting the habits and mode of life of the white 
man in order to escape extinction, (iovernor Stevens also exorted them to treat 
for the sake of tlu >x.imi)le ujion their inveterate enemies, the Blackfeet; that thereby 
they would i)rove themselves firm friends of the whites, and that he would then take 
delegations from each tribe with his jjarty .md proceed to the Blaekfoot country, 
and make ,i lasting treaty of peace, so th.it they could ever after hunt the buffalo 
in safety, .and trade horses with the Indians east of the Rocky mountains." 

Young Chief of the Ciyuses began to show an a|)|)ariiit yielding. On tlie third 
d.ay of tile eouneil he dined, for the first time, with the other head chiefs at the gov- 
ernor's tal)le. .111(1 that evening sent word tiiat iiis young men had grown weary of 
the close coiitiiieineiit of the long sessions, and as they desired a holiday, he asked 
Ih.it the next d.ay be given uj) to diversion, and no eouneil be held until Saturday. 
Tlie coinniissioners, pleased at this indication of ,i more tr.ietalile spirit, elieerfully 
assented to the idea. 

There were now assembled on tile ground, according to Lieutenant Kip, "about 
.'j.OOO Indians, inehiding squaws and children;" .and tlieir encami)inent and 
lodges, scattered over the valley for more tli.in a mile, [(resented "a wild .and f.intas- 
tic appearance." Tlie holiday w.as given over to feasting, horse-racing and 
foot-r.ieing. Despite .all missionary efforts to break up the gambling evil, that 
passion still r.aii high in the Indian bre.ist. .and tieree g.amiiig attended these eouneil 
races. "The usual course w.as a long one. sometimes two miles out ,ind back." says 
Hazard Stevens. "Ofteiitinies thirty liorses would start together in a grand sweep- 
st.akes ; tlu- riders .ind l)etters would throw into one eomiiion |)ile the articles put 
up as stakes — blankets, leggings, inirsc ((luipnuiits .iiid wh.itevcr else w.is bet. .uid 
the winner would take the whole jiile. The foot races were equally long. ,iiid the 
runners would be escorted in their course by .1 crowd of iiumnled Iiidi.ms. g.iUoping 
IkIiIikI .iiiiI licsidc Iheiii so eioscly tb;it tlic cxli.uisted ones cimld hardly stop without 
be.ing run down. The riders .and runners were inv.iri.ibly stri])])ed to the breech- 
cloth. ,111(1 presented m.any fine, manly forms, ))erfect .Vpollos in bronze." 

WIh 11 IIk ((uiiieil reassembled, Saturd.ay. .Iiine 'J. (Jovernor Stevens invited the 
Indi.ins to s|)eak freelv. "We want you to oi)en your hearts to us," he said, .and 
seizing this invitation, the o|)))onents of the treaties ])roinptly took the lead in the 
resulting or.itory. 

"We have listened to .all you h.ave to say." began the Yellow Serpent, "and now 
we desire you to listen when .any Indian speaks. I know the value of your speech 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 179 

from having lieard sucli speeches in California, and having seen treaties there. We 
liave not seen in a true light the object of your speeches, as if there were a tree set 
between us. Look at yourselves: your flesh is white; mine is different, mine looks 
poor." 

Thus witli native skill of oratory. Yellow Serpent began an affected plea of in- 
feriority, of humility, of inability to cope in cunning with the white commissioners. 
Then, with a quick turn of insinuation, he declared, "If you would speak straight, 
then I would think you spoke well." Then came a sharp thrust at the demoralizing 
effects of that superior white civilization, upon which Governor Stevens had dwelt 
in all liis utterances: "Should I speak to you of things that happened long ago, as 
you have done.' The whites made me do what they pleased. They told me to do 
this, and I did it. They used to make our women to smoke. I supposed then they 
did what was right. When tliey told me to dance with all these nations that are 
here, I danced. From that time all the Indians became proud and called themselves 
chiefs. 

"Xow how are we here as at a post? From what you have said, I think that you 
intend to win our country, or how is it to be? In one day the Americans become as 
numerous as the grass. This I learned in California. I know it is not riglit ; you 
have spoken in a roundabout way. Speak straight. I have cars to liear you, and 
here is my heart. Suppose you show me goods, shall I run up and take them ? That 
is the way of all us Indians as you know us. Goods and the earth are not equal. 
Goods are for using on the earth. I do not know where the whites have given lands 
for goods. 

"We require time to think quietly, slowly. You liave spoken in a manner quietly 
tending to evil. Speak plain to us, I am a poor Indian; show me charity. 
If there were a cliief among the Nez Perces or the Cayuses, and they saw evil done, 
they would put a stop to it, and all would be quiet. Such chiefs I hope Governor 
.Stevens and General Palmer have." 

With cutting sarcasm, the Yellow Serjjent added, "I should feel very much 
ashamed if the Americans did anything wrong. I had but a little to say, that is all." 

As if by prearrangement, to bear out Yellow Serpent's assertion that the chiefs 
would brook no wrong, Camospelo, a Cayuse chief, sharply rebuked some of his 
yoimg men who had behaved in a disrespectful manner, talking and walking about 
while the council was in session. 

Late that evening Lawyer, chief of the Nez Perces, came secretly to the tent of 
Governor Stevens and revealed a cons])iracy of the Cayuses to massacre all the 
whites on the council ground. Lawyer, who had suspected treachery, had discovered 
the peril through a spy. for the plot had been developed in great secrecy. It had 
been under nightly consideration, and a determination reached in full council of the 
tribe on the very day that Young Chief had sought as a holiday. They were now 
onlv awaiting the assent of the Yakimas and Walla Wallas, and that gained, were 
to start a war of white extermination. 

Lawyer was ready and able to thwart the massacre. "I will come witii my 
family and pitch my lodge in the midst of your camp," he declared, "so that those 
Cayuses may see that you and your party are under the protection of the head chief 
of the Nez Perces." Notwithstanding it was tlien after midnight. Lawyer carried 
out his promise before daylight, and the next morning caused it to be bruited among 



180 SI'OKAM. AM) llll. INLAND K.Ml'lKK 

tlif other Iii(ii.ins that tin- coiiiniissioiurs enjoyed tlie protection of tlie ))owerful 
Xez Perces. 

Governor Stevens, fearing that full UiKiwlidfre of the conspiracy would start a 
jjanic among the whites, revealed the news only to his secretary. Mr. Doty, and 
Packniaster Iliggins, and through them the soldiers were directed to jiut their arms 
in readiness. Night guards were posted, and the eouueil continued as if nothing 
alarming had develo|ied. 

On Mondav I.awver sjioke for the triaty. antl se\eral of iiis chiefs followed in 
similar tenor. They were followed liy Kamiaken: 

"I lia\c something different to say from what the others have said. They 
are voung men who have spoken as they have spoken. I have been afraid of the 
white man. His doings are different from ours. Perhaps you have spoken straight 
that your children will do wiiat is right. Let them do as they have promised." 

"I do not wish to speak," declared the Yellow .Serjient, contemlituously. "I leave 
that to the old men." 

Eagle-froni-the-Light. a Nez Perce chief. s|)()ke with deep feeling and pathetic 
import. His .'^luecli was regarded by some of the white men as the most impressive 
heard at the council : 

"Vou .ire now come to join together the white m.m .and the red man. .\nd why 
should 1 hide anything? I am going now to tell you a tale. The time the whites 
first passed through this country. ,ilt hough the jieojile of this country were blind, 
it w.is their heart to be friendly to them. Although they did not know what the 
white iieojile s.iid to them, they answered Yes. as if they were blind. They traveled 
.alioiit with (lie white people as if they h.id hei-ii lost. 

"I have been talked to by the French (employes of the fur companies) and by 
the Americans; and one says to me. Clo this way, and another says Go another way, 
and that is the reason 1 am lost between them. 

"A long time ago they hung my brother for no offense, and this I say to my 
brother here, that he may think of it. Afterwards came .S])alding and \Vhitinaii. 
They advised us well .and t.iught us well — very well. It was from the same source 
— the light (the east). They h.id i)ity on us. and we were pitied, and .Spalding sent 
my father to the east — the States, and he went. His body has never returned. Hi' 
was Sent to learn good counsel, .and fririidshi)) and many things. This is another 
thing to think of. ,\t the time, in this place here, when there w.is blood s])illed on 
the ground, we were friends to the whites, and they to us. At that time they found 
it out th.at we were friends to them. My ehirf. my own eliief. said. 'I will try to set- 
Ih- ,ill the had iii.itti rs with IIk uliiles.' .-111(1 he st.vrtcd to look for counsel to 
straighten ii|> iii.itlirs. .nid llirrr his body lies heyoud there. He has never returned. 

".\t the tiiiK the Iridi.uis held ,i gr.iiid eouueil .at I'ort I.ar.amie, I was with the 
I'l.itlieaiis. ;iiid I lie.ard there wcmld be a gr.aud eouueil on this side next year. \Ve 
were asked to go .and liud counsel, friendship ;iiiil good advice. Many of my jieople 
st.arted, and died in the country died hunting wh.il was right. There were a good 
m,in\ st.arted: on (ineii rivir the sm.illpox killed all but oui'. They were going to 
find good counsel in the cast, .and here am I, looking still for counsel, and to be 
taught wh.at is best to he dom-. 

"And now look .at my |)eo|)le's bodies scattered everywhere, hunting for knowl- 
edge — liuntinLi; for some one to teach them to go straight. And now 1 show it to you, 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 181 

and I want you to think of it. I am of a poor ptople. A preacher came to us, Mr. 
Spalding. He talked to us to learn, and from that he turned to be a trader, as 
though there were two in one, one a preacher and the other a trader. He made a 
farm and raised grain and bought our stock, as though there were two in one, one a 
preacher, the other a trader. And now one from the east has spoken, and I have 
lieard it, and I do not wish another preacher to come, and be both trader and preacher 
in one. A piece of ground for a preacher big enough for his own use is all that is 
necessary for him. 

"Look at that; it is the tale I had to tell you, and now I am going to hiuit 
friendship and good advice. We will come straight here — slowly perhaps, but we 
will come straight." 

As the Indians were slow to speak. Governor Stevens and Commissioner Palmer 
devoted the next two days to further explanation of the treaties and a large map, 
showing the boundaries of the reservations, the streams, root grounds and camping 
places. 

Reticence, however, continued the prevailing attitude of the aboriginal mind. 
The chiefs were slow to speak, and when Steachus, regarded as most amicable of all 
the Cayuse leaders, expressed his sentiments, they revealed, even in that friendly 
quarter, a spirit of disapprobation and doubt. 

"My friends." began this chief, "I wish to show you my heart. If your mother 
were in tliis country, gave you birth and suckled you, and, while you were suckling, 
some iK-rson eame and took away your mother, and left you alone and sold your 
mother, how would you feel then ? This is our mother — this country — as if we drew 
our living from her. My friends, all of this you have taken. Had I two rivers, I 
would leave the one, and be contented to live on the other. I name the place for 
invself, the CJrande Ronde, the Touchet towards the mountains, and the Tucanon." 

Willing to divide his native land with the white invaders, but grieved and mourn- 
ful over the thought of yielding it all, to the last rood and acre, and moving with his 
peoi)le to a strange and distant reservation. W^ith dim eye and savage, angry heart, 
this forbidding jjrosjject had been glimpsed by the Cayuse mind eight years before, 
when Whitman and his little mission band were slain in protest against that ever 
increasing train of tented wagons, rolling out of the mysterious and distant east, 
and rumbling down the western slopes of the beautiful Blue mountains. 

Stevens and Palmer well knew how futile it is to attempt to rush the Indian 
mind to hasty decision, and tactfully adjourned the council to the following day. 
Lawyer, sjieaking then for the Nez Perces, adopted the only line of reasoning that 
gave the sliglitest hope of winning over the cold and sullen chiefs of other tribes. 
He dwelt upon the vast numbers of westward moving whites, th( ])ower of their 
civilization, the utter hopelessness of Indian opposition, and the imperative need 
of a peaceful adjustment of their relations. Their only refuge, he declared, would 
be found in placing themselves under the protection of the Great Father at Wash- 
ington. Silence followed this api)eal for the treaty, to be broken by the haughty 
Young Chief of the Cayuses. 

"His country he would not sell. He heard what the earth said. The earth said 
to him, 'God has ]>laced me here to take care of the Indian, to yield roots for him, 
and grasses for his horses and cattle.' The water spoke the same way. God has 



182 .SI'OK.WI-, AM) llll'. INLAND EMPIRE 

forbidden the Indian to st-li liis iniintry ixti pt lor a fair price, and lie did not 
understand the treaty." 

This adroit use of revelation served as a cue for Five Crows, the Yellow Serpent, 
Owhi and several other chiefs — Owlii, who, three years later, was to meet his death 
in a daring effort to escape from the guards of Colonel Wright's command. 

l'u-])U-mox-mox, or the Yellow Serpent, head chief of the Walla Wallas, proposed 
that this council siiould adjourn, and inntln r he held at some future time. He 
protested that the Indians were treated like cluldren, were not consulted in the draft- 
ing of treaties which they were asked to sign, and declared that he wanted no alterna- 
tive to the complete exclusion of the white people from his domains, Kamiaken, the 
famous war chief of the Y'akimas, maintained a studied silence. "I have nothing 
to say, " was his invariable reply to all appeals to reveal his heart. 

Governor Stevens saw that the time had come for plain speaking and vigorous 
resentment of the accusation that the white commissioners were seeking to deceive 
the red parties to the i)roi)osed treaty. 

".My brother and myself have talked straight. Have all of you talked straight? 
Lawyer has, and his jieople here, .and their business will be done tomorrow. 

"The Y'oung Chief says he is blind and does not understand. What is it that he 
wants? Steachus says that his heart is in one of three places — the Grande Rondc, 
the Touchet and the Tueanon. Where is the heart of Y'oung Chief? 

"Pu-j)u-niox-mo.\ can not be wafted off like a feather. Does he prefer the 
Yakima reservation to that of the Niz I'crecs? We have asked him before. \Ve 
ask him now. Where is his heart? 

".\iid Kamiaken, the great chief of the ^'akiiiias, he lias not spoken at all. His 
people have had no voice here today. He is not ashamed to sjieak. He is not 
afraid to speak. Then speak out. 

"But Owhi is afraid lest (iod be angry .'it his selling his land. Owhi. niv 
brother, I do not think th.-it (iod will be angry if you do your best for yourself and 
your children. Ask yourself this question tonight, "Will not God be angry with me 
if I neglected this oijjiortunity to do them good?' Owhi .'■ays his peo])le are not here. 
Why did he promise to come here, then, to hear our talk? 1 do not want to be 
ashamed of Owhi. We exjieet him to s)>eak straight out. W't rxpict to luar from 
Kamiaken, from Skloom." 

I'ive Crows here proposed an adjournment. "Listen to me. you chiefs," said he. 
"Hitherto we have iieeii as one peo))lc with the Ne/, Perees. This dav we are di- 
vided. We, tlir (ayiisrs. tin Walla Wallas and Kaniiaken's people and others will 
tliiiik oxer tin- iiiatlir toiiiglit. and give you an aiiswir tomorrow." 

.Slrvens .and Palmer bad now sutlieiently tested out the Indian mind to see that 
in its present form tin Irialy would fail of aeeeptaii(( . ( nine ssioiis must be made, 
and to overcome the avt rsioii of tin Cayuscs, llic Wall.i Wallas and the Umatillas to 
removing to the Nez Peree l.inds, liny brought forward at the council next dav a 
])lan for ;m additional reservation on tin upp( r waters of the Um.atill.a, at the base 
of tin- Ulue mountains. To mollify the stubborn chiefs, the annuities of $500 to be 
paid each of the head chiefs for ten years were extended over a period of twenty 
years. The Y'ellow Ser|)ent w.-is offered the .addition.il .advantage of trading with 
settlers and immigrants .at an cstalilisbcd trading post, and an annuity of .^100 for 
twenty years to his son. In b ngtliy. rainbliiig speeelics Young Chief and Yillow 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 183 

Serpent accepted the treaties. "Now you maj' send me provisions," said the Yel- 
low Serpent in conclusion; but Kamiaken of the Yakimas maintained his sullen 
bearing and refused to assent to the treaties. 

A startling incident now menaced all the efforts of the two commissioners. A 
small band of warriors, painted, armed, chanting a war-song and waving the gory 
trophy of a freshly taken scalp, came galloping upon the council ground. Instantly 
the o-reat assemblage was thrown into conjecture and commotion. Looking Glass, 
war chief of the Nez Perces, returning from a prolonged hunting trip among the 
Blackfeet, on the great plains east of the Rocky mountains, had learned, on reach- 
ing the Bitter Root valley, that his tribe were in a great council in the Walla Walla 
valley, negotiating a treaty without his presence or knowledge. This chief, while 
old. petulant and shifty, had an influence with the tribe second only to that of 
Lawyer. He had been made furious by the news, and leaving the main body of his 
iuinting party on the Bitter Root river, had hurried westward with a few chosen 
friends. In spite of his seventy years, and deep and melting snows in the Bitter Roots, 
the war chief and his party had traveled 300 miles in seven days, and were now 
arrived upon the council ground at the critical moment when the commissioners 
were laboring with the recalcitrant Kamiaken. Surrounded by his band of faithful 
warriors, still waving the scalp-locks of their Blackfeet victims. Looking Glass rode 
proudly upon the scene, his brow a thunder-cloud of angry protest, his eye darting 
indignation at his friends, and broke into a fierce Jeremiad against the tribe: 

"My people, my people, what have you done? While I was gone, you have sold 
mv country ! I have come liome, and there is not left me a place on which to pitch 
rav lodge. Go home to your lodges ! I will talk to you !" 

Instantly the council was adjourned, and Governor Stevens sought private coun- 
sel with Lawyer, who thought that the war chief would calm down when he learned 
the terms of the treaty. Lawyer, said, though, that Looking Glass's untimely return 
had so unsettled the tribe that the original boundaries of the Nez Perce reservation, 
though larger than the tribe would need since other provision had been made for the 
Cayuses, Walla Wallas and Umatillas, could not now be reduced. 

When tlie council met the following day it quickly became apparent that Look- 
ing Glass had not softened down. He asserted his head chieftainship over the Nez 
Perce tribe, and contemptuously said that the boys had spoken yesterday, but now 
his voice must be heard. After many inquiries and objections, he finally mapped 
out other lines for the Nez Perce reservation which included nearly all the territory 
that the tribe had ever claimed. Encouraged by Looking Glass's opposition, the 
Cayuses witlulrew their assent to the treaty, and Young Chief artfully played on 
the seeming indignity suffered bj' the Nez Perce war chief, while away fighting the 
hereditary enemies of his tribe, and still more artfully recognized him as head chief 
of all the Nez Perces. Lawyer, indignant at this attempted repudiation of his 
riglits, abruptly left the council while Looking Glass was delivering his fierce 
tirade. The commissioners, refusing to yield to the grasping demands of the aged 
cliicf, adjourned the council to the following Monday. 

Affairs took now a more hopeful form, for after adjournment. Yellow Serpent 
for the Walla Wallas, and Kamiaken for tile Yakimas, yielding under pressure from 
their sub-chiefs and head men, came in and signed their respective treaties. The 
Yellow Serpent had said in the morning, when a spirit of repudiation was in the air, 



184 SrOKAM-, AND Till-, IMAM) KMPIRF. 

that his word had passed, and he sliould sign the treaty regardless of what Looking 
Glass and his followers anionf; the Xez Perees iniirlit do. His exainplt- h.iii imiell 
iiitiiiirice willi Kaiiiiakrii. 

I.atir in the cviiiinfr a mw eoiiiplicatioii. in tlic aggrieved bearing of tin- faith- 
lul atid friendly I.awyi-r, confronted (ioviriior Stivcns. Comiiij; to tin- fro\rriior's 
tent, tins chief said in complaint: 

"Governor Stevens, you are my chief. You eoine from tlu' Pnsidint. 11( has 
s])okcn kind words to us, a j>oor peO])le. \\'i lia\ r listened to them and agreed to a 
treaty. We are hound by tlie agreemint. \\ In ii Looking Gl.iss asked you. 'HoW 
long will the agent live with us?' you might liave replied by asking the question, 
'How long have you heen head cliief of tlie Nez Perees.'' When he said. 'L tlie head 
chief have just got hack; I will talk; the hoys talked yesterday,' you migiit have re- 
pli((i. 'The Lawyer, and not you, is tlie head iliief. 'I'he whole Xcz Perce tribe have 
said in council tiiat Lawyer was the head chief. Your faith is ])ledged ; vou have 
agreed to the treaty. I call upon you to sign it.' H.id tiiis course been taken, the 
treaty would Iiave been signed." 

"In reply," s.ays Stevens, "I told the Lawyer that we considered .ill the talk of 
Looking (jlass as tiie outjiourings of an angrj' and excited old man, wiiose heart 
would become .ill right if left to himself for a time; that the Lawyer had left the 
council whilst in session. ,ind without sjicaking; that it was his business to have 
interfered in this way if it had been necessary. We considered the Lawyer's leaving 
as saying, 'Nothing more can be done today; it must lie finished tomorrow.' Y'our 
authority will be sustained, and your ])eo|)h' will be called upon to kee)) their word. 
You will be s\ist;iined. The Looking Glass will not be allowed to speak .is head 
chief. ^ ou. and ynu .ilone. will be recognized. .Should Looking Glass persist, the 
,i|)))e,il will l)e m.ide to your people. Tliev must sign the treaty agreed to bv them 
through you as liead chief, or the council will be broken up and you will return 
home, your faith broken, your lio))es of the future gone." 

Nez Perce and (ayuse tribal councils, held tli.it night, were not concluded until 
d.iylight. The Nez Perees had a stormy council, but ended in an agreement th.-it 
Lawyer was Ik ad chief, ami Looking Glass second only to him. This w.-is redueid 
to writing, and cont.aiiied .1 decl.iration that the f.iitli of the tribe w.is pledged to 
(iovernor Stevens and the treaty must be signed. 

A peaceful .'^abbatli succeeded these stormy events, and pious Timotln . th.it 
Timothy who Later, in 18.')8. was to save Colonel .Ste))toe's little command from ut- 
t<r rout .and death, jireached a timely sermon, holding up to the execr.ation of the 
tribe .and llie rrtriliutiou of I h-;iven those members who would follow after the 
treacherous te;ieiiings of the t'.ayuses .and bre;ik tin unsullied Nez Perec faith. That 
day K.imiaken. in conference witii Stevens, s.iid : 

"Looking (il.ass. if left alone, will sign the tre.ity. Don't .ask me to .accept pres- 
ents. I have nexcr taken one from a wiiiti man. W'lu n the |i;i\inents .an- made I 
will take my shari. " 

.Mond.iy lirouglit tlie closing scenes of this s|)eetaejilar and momentous council. 
K.arly in (Ik morning (iovernor Stevens said to L.iwver: 'We .are now ready to go 
into eouiieil. I sliall call u))on your people to keep their word, and ujion you, as 
hc.id chief, to sign (irst. We w.int no s|Heehes. This will be the Last d.ay of the 
eoiineil. Call your people tog( ther .is soon .as possible." "That is the right course," 




AVALI.A WAl.l.A (OlWt IL, 18.55 













■ ~> i I " ■;:ig am - j, -s-">__'"^ "^ -' '•T'*! "''''■' 



IKASTIXG THK clIIKFS AT WALLA WALLA COUNCIL 



^4^*fr 



W^Ll i.nMM. 



TLIE SCALP DANCE AT WALLA WALLA COUNCIL 

PEKSENTS AND SUPPLIES WERE STORED 

IN THE LO(i HUT 



''in:: tl " YORK 


PUBUC LIBRARY 


*4T*». Lt^^ax 


T.LBkx fOvNOAfiONi 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 185 

replied Lawyer, as he turned away to assemble his people. Governor Stevens thus 
describes the closing scenes of the gathering: 

■'Tlie Looking Glass took his seat in council in the very best humor. The Cayuses 
and Nez Perces were all present. Kamiaken sat down near the Young Chief. The 
council was opened by me in a brief speech: 'We meet for the last time. Your words 
are pledged to sign the treaty. The tribes have spoken through their head chiefs, 
.loseph. Red Wolf, the Eagle, Ip-se-male-e-con, all declaring Lawyer was the head 
chief, I call upon Lawyer to sign first.' Lawyer then signed the treaty. 'I now 
call upon Joseph and the Looking Glass.' Looking Glass signed, then Joseph. Then 
every chief and man of note, both Nez Perces and Cayuses, signed their respective 
treaties. 

"After the treaties were signed, I spoke briefly of the Blackfoot council, and 
asked each tribe to send delegations, the Nez Perces a hundred chiefs and braves, 
the whole under the head chief, or some chief of acknowledged authority, as Look- 
ing Glass. There was much talk on the subject on the part of the Indians. Look- 
ing Glass said he would have a talk with me alone some other time." 

The council ended, presents were distributed among the assembled tribes. In 
return for liis jiresent, Eagle-from-the-I>ight, the Nez Perce chief who had spoken 
in eloquent op))osition to the treaty, and proudly refused the commissioners' offer of 
provisions, tendered to Governor Stevens a superb skin of a grizzly bear, with teeth 
and claws intact. "Tliis skin," he said in a presentation speech, "is my medicine. 
It came with me every day to tlie council. It tells me everything. 
It says now that what has been done is right. Had anything been done wrong it 
would have sjjoken out. I liave now no'u'se for it. I give it you that you mav know 
niv heart is right. " Every day throughout the council sessions, Eagle-from-the- 
Light liad sat u]ion this skin, teeth and cla-ws turned towards the commissioners, re- 
fusing tlie roll of blankets which had been offered liim. 

"Thus ended," says Governor Stevens' journal, "in the most satisfactory manner, 
tliis great council, prolonged through so many days — a council which, in the lumi- 
ber of Indians assembled and the different tribes, old difficulties and troubles be- 
tween them and the whites, a deep-seated dislike to and determination against giv- 
ing up their lands, and the great importance, nay, absolute necessity, of opening this 
land by treaty to occupation by the whites, that bloodshed and the enormous expense 
of Indian wars might be avoided, and in its general influence and difficulty — has 
never been equaled by any council held with the Indian tribes of the L'nited States. 

"It was so considered by all present, and a final relief from the intense anxiety 
and vexation of the last month was especially grateful to all concerned." 

In celebration of the conclusion of the treaty, and the return of Chief Looking 
Glass and his braves from the buffalo country, the Nez Perces gave a scalp dance. 
Hazard Stevens, the governor's son, who witnessed with boyish eyes that frightful 
savage scene, describes it in his biography of Governor Stevens : 

"The chiefs and braves, in full war paint and adorned with all their savage 
finery, formed a large circle, standing several ranks deep. Within this arena a 
chosen body of warriors performed the war dance, while the densely massed ranks 
of braves circled around them, keeping time in measured tread, and accompanving 
it with their wild and barbaric war song. The ferocious and often hideous mien of 
these stalwart savages, their frenzied attitudes and shrill and startling yells, formed 



186 SPOKANE AM) THK INLAND KMI'IKK 

a subject worthy the pen nt D.intc and tin- piiuil ot Dore. Tin- missionary still 
h;icl work to do. 

"Presently an old Iiag, the very j)ieture of squalor and woe, hurst into the circle, 
bearing aloft on a pole one of the fresh scalps so recently taken by Looking Glass, 
and, dancing and jumping about with wild and extravagant action, heaped upon tlie 
poor relic of a fallen foe every mark of indignity and contempt. .Shaking it aloft, 
slie vociferously abused it; she beat it, she spat u))on it; she bestrode the pole and 
ruslud around tlie ring, trailing it in the dust, again and again; while the warriors, 
with grim satisfaction, kept up their measured tread, clianted their war songs, and 
uttered, if possible, yet more ear-piercing yiils. 

"A softer and more pleasing scene succeeded. The old hag retired with her be- 
draggled tropliy, and a long line of Indian maidens stepped witiiiii tile circles, and, 
forming an inner rank, moved slowly roiuid and round, chanting a mild and plain- 
tive air. A number of the stylisli young braves, real Indian beaux in the height of 
paint and feathers, next took post within tlie circle, near the rank of moving maid- 
ens, .-iiid each one, as the object of his adoration passed him, placed a gaily deco- 
rated token upon her slioulder. If she allowed it to remain, his affection was re- 
turned and lie was .accejjted, but if she shook it off, he knew that he was a rejected 
suitor. Coquetry, evidently, is not confined to the civilized fair, for, without excep- 
tion, the maidens, as if indignant at such public wooing threw off the token with 
disdain, while every new victim of delusive hopes was greeted with sliouts of laugii- 
ter troiii the spectators." 

W'iien tlie council ended thus happily, few of the little band of white partiei- 
))ants, realized how |)erilously near tiiey iiad been to a death of Indian treachery. 
If tile Nez Perce eliief Lawyer Iiad not, through his spies in the hostile Cayuse 
cam]), discovered the conspiracy, warned Stevens and assumed ojjen and conspicu- 
ous protectorate over the commissioners and their ])arty, the murderous plot would 
probably have been consummated, and the fair valley of the Walla Walla would 
have witnessed a recurrence of that Cayuse treachery which .signalized the destruc- 
tion of the Whitm;in mission. 

"Their design, (says Lieutenant Kip) was first to massacre the escort, which 
would have been easily done. Fifty soldiers against .S.OOO Indi.in w.irriors. out on 
the ojien plains, made r.itiier too great odds. We should iiave had time, like Lieuten- 
ant Grattan at I'ort L.ir.ainie last season, to deliver one fire, and then the contest 
would have been over. Tiieir next move was to surjirise the jiost at The Dalles, as 
they could also have easily done, as most of the troojis were withdrawn, .nnd the 
Indians in the neighborhood had recently unit<(l with tlieiii. Tliis would have been 
the beginning of tiuir w.-ir of extermination ag;iinst the settlers." 

"L'oiled in their ))lot," comments Hazard .Stevens, "why did they then so i|iiiekly 
agree to the treaties.' All the eirewmstanees ;ind evidence go to show that, with the 
exccjition of Ste.-idius, the friendly Cayuse, they all — Young Chief, Five Crows, 
Pu-pu-inox-niox, K.imi.iken .and their sub-ciiiefs — all signed tile treaties as a delib- 
erate act of treaeliery. in order to lull the whites into fancied security, gi\f time for 
Ciovernor .Stevens to (iej)art to the distant lilackfoot country, where he would |)rob- 
ably be wiped out by those truculent savagi s. .and for the Nez Perces to return 
home, and also for eoin|)leting their preparations fnr a wide-spread and siiiuiltaiieous 
onslaught (in all the settlements. .Searcely had lliiy reached home from the council 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 187 

v/lien the.v resumed such preparation, buying extra stores of ammunition, and send- 
ing emissaries to the Spokanes, Coeur d'Alenes and even to some of the Nez Perces 
and to other tribes, to incite them to a war, actually held a council of the disaf- 
fected at a point in the Palouse country the following month, and, within three 
months of accepting ostensibly the protection of the Great Father, precipitated the 
conflict. Agent Bolon and many white miners and settlers in the upper country were 
massacred, and settlements as widespread as Puget Sound and southern Oregon, 600 
miles apart, were attacked on the same day. In this conspiracy and contest, Kamia- 
ken was the moving spirit, the organizer, the instigator, whose crafty wiles never 
slept, and whose stubborn resolution no disaster could break. But in the end, after 
protracted and stubborn resistance, they were defeated and compelled to move on 
their reservations, and live under the very treaties they so treacherously agreed to, 
and under which they still live and have greatly prospered. 

"Over 60,000 square miles were ceded by these treaties. The Nez Perce reser- 
vation contained 5,000 square miles, including mountain and forest as well as good 
land, and ])rovision was made for moving other tribes upon it. The payment for 
the Ntz Perce lands comprised .^'200,000 in the usual annuities, and $60,000 for im- 
proving tlie reservation, saw and grist mills, schools, shops, teachers, farmers, me- 
chanics, etc. Ardent spirits were excluded. The right to hunt, fish, gather roots 
and berries, and pasture stock on vacant land was secured, and provision was made 
for ultimately allotting the land in severalty. An annuity of $500 for twenty years 
was given the head chief, and a house was to be built for him, and ten acres of land 
fenced and broken up the first year. At the special request of the Indians, the claim 
and homestead of William Craig (near Lewiston) was confirmed to him, and was 
not to be considered jaart of the reservation, although within its boundaries." 

Besides I^awyer and Looking Glass, fifty-six sub-chiefs signed the Nez Perce 
treaty. Of these was Joseph, father of the younger Joseph, who, twenty-two years 
later, was to become famous as leader of the warring Xez Perces and fight a bril- 
liant running battle, over a long and devious trail, baffling again and again Generals 
Howard and Gibbon, and inflicting heavy losses on the regulars engaged in that mem- 
orable canii)aign of 1877. 

Eight hundred square miles were embraced in the Umatilla reservation. The 
treaty carried $100,000 in annuities. $50, ()()() for improvements, $10,000 for moving 
the immigrant road, and provisions for a saw and a grist mill, two schoolhouses, 
a blaeksmitii shop, wagon and plough-making shop, carpenter and joiner shop, 
tools and equipments. For instruction, teachers, farmers and mechanics were 
provided for twenty years. The head chief received the same allowance as in 
the Nez Perce treaty, and Pu-pu-mox-mox was granted the privilege of conduct- 
ing a trading post at the mouth of the Yakima, and received besides three j'oke 
of oxen and liberal stores of agricultural macliinery and farm implements. The 
canny old chief had certainly driven a hard bargain. This treaty was signed 
by three head-chiefs and thirty-two sub-chiefs. 

The Yakima treaty carried the same general provisions as the Nez Perce 
and Umatilla agreements. In addition to their large reservation in the Yakima 
country, they were given a smaller one on the Wenatchee, where they had a fishery. 
The payments carried $200,000 in annuities, .$60,000 for improving the reserva- 
tions, and allowances for instruction, etc., similar to those in the other treaties. 



CHAPTER XX 

NEGOTIATING THE FLATHEAD TREATY IN MONTANA 

WALLA WALLA COUNCIL BREAKS UP TRAILS FILLED WITH WILD AND PICTURESQUE 

CAVALCADES GIFTS FOR THE SPOKANES STRIKING BORDER CHARACTERS PEARSON 

THE EXPRESS RIDER STEVENs' LITTLE PARTY MOVES EASTWARD ACROSS THE INLAND 

EMPIRE GREAT COUNCIL ON THE HELLGATE GOVERNOR STEVENS EXPLAINS THE 

TREATIES MORE INDIAN ORATORY CUTTING THE GORDIAN KNOT "eVERY MAN 

PLEASED AND EVERY MAN SATISFIED." 



s 



CENES of extraordinary bustlf and seeming confusion succeeded the ter- 
mination of the council. A great village of more than 5,000 iieople was 
quickly demolished and as quickly passed from view. Lodges were lowered, 
the scattered herds were rounded up, and decked in their gorgeous and resplendent 
gifts of scarlet blankets and gaily figured calicoes, the assembled tribes scattered 
to every point of the compass. They "filled all the trails leading out of the valley 
with their wild and picturesque cavalcades." 

Next in order now was the holding of other great councils with the Flatheads 
.ind neighboring tribes, the Spokanes, and the warlike Blackfeet in the buffalo 
country east of the Rocky mountains. As the territory of Washington joined then 
tlie territory of Nebraska, Alfred Cumming, superintendent of Indian affairs for 
Nebraska, had been appointed as one of three commissioners to negotiate the 
Blackfoot treaty. General Palmer of Oregon had been named as the third, but 
his territory having at most, only remote association with the far eastern tribes, 
he declined the appointment, and with the Oregon officers left for the Willamette 
valley. 

As Stevens intended to negotiate a separate treaty with the Spokanes, on his 
return from the Blackfoot council, A. ,1. Bolon, Indian agent of the Yakimas, 
was despatched with a small party to old Fort Walla Walla on the Columbia, with 
goods intended for the Spokanes, there to be stored for safe-keeping. He was 
next to visit and inspect the Yakima reservation, and after that |)roceed to The 
Dalles, bring the Nez Perce goods to Walla Walla, wliere he was to load up with 
the Spokane goods and pack them to Antoine Plant's ranch on the Spokane river, 
preparatorv to the governor's conneil on his return from the country of the Black- 
feet. 

"It was a beautiful sunny .luiie morning, the 16th," says Hazard Stevens, 
"when the little train drew out from the deserted council ground and took its way 
in single file across the level valley prairie, covered with luxuriant bunch-grass 

189 



190 SPOKANj; AND TllL INLAND K.Ml'JKE 

and viv.d-hued flowers. A large, fine-lookinft Co.ur d'Alenc Indian named Joseph, 
1((1 the way as guide; then rode tlie governor with his son, Seeretary Doty,, Agent 
Lansdalc, and Gustavc Schon, the artist, barometer carrier and observer; then 
came Packmaster Higgins. followed by the train of eleven packers and two cooks, 
and forty-one sleek, long-eared pack-mules, each bearing a burden of iiOO jjounds, 
the men interspersed with th, nuiK-s to k,,p th.ni moving on tile trail; while 
seventeen loose animals, in a disorderly bunch, driven by a couple of iierders, 
brought up in the rear. It was a picked force, boti, men "and animals, and made 
up in efliciency for scanty numbers. 

"The artist, Gustavc Schon, a soldier of the Fourth infantry, detailed for 
tile trip, was an intelligent German, a clever sketcher, and competent to take 
instrumental observations. 

"Higgins. ex-orderly sergeant of dragoons, a tall, broad-shouldered, spare, 
sinewy man, a fine swordsman and drillmaster. a scientific boxer, was a man of 
unusual firmness, intelligence, and good judgment, and (juiet. gentlemanly manners, 
and held the implicit respect, obedience and good will of his subordiiiates. He 
afterwards became the founder, banker and first citizen of the flourishing town of 
Mis.soula, at Hellgate in the Bitter Root valley. 

"A. H. Robie worked up from the ranks, married a daughter of Craig, and 
settled at Boise City. Idaho, where he achieved .i highly prosp.rous and respected 
career. 

"Sidney Ford, a son of ,(udge Ford, was a Ii.uidsome. stalwart young Saxon 
in appearance, bro.id-should.nd. sensible, capable, and kindly. The others were 
all men of experience on the iilaius and uiouiit liiis, brave and true. Hv all odds 
the most skilful and picturesque of these mountain men. and liaving the most 
varied and romantic liistory. was Delaware .Jim. whose father was a Delaware 
chief and his mother a uliitr woman, and wlio had s|),iit a lifctiuie -for he was 
now past middle age— in hunting and traveling over all parts of the country, from 
the Mississippi to the Pacific, meeting with many thrilling adventures and hair- 
breadth escapes. 

".Many of the men were clad in buckskin moccasins, breeches and fringed hunt- 
ing shirts: others ill rough, serviceable woolen garb, stout boots and wide slouch 
bats. All carried navy revolvers and keen bowie knives, and many in addition 
bore the long, heavy, small-bond Kintueky rifle, uliieii tluy fired with -reat 
deliberation and unerring skill. 

"One of the most remarkable iiirii <'()niiectr(l uilh the expedition was tlir ex- 
press rider, W. H. Pearson. A native of I'liiladrljiliia. of small but w<ll knit 
frame, with muscles of steel, and spirit and eiiduranee that no exertion app.in ntly 
could break down, waving, chestnut hair, high forehead, a refiiud, intelligent .md 
Jileasant face, the m/iiiners and bearing of a gentleman such w.is Pearson." 

In one of his oIKcial reiiorts (lovernor Stivcns pays cordial trilmte to this 
spl. ndid border character: "Hardy, bold, intelligent and resolute. !iavin;r .i cjreat 
div.rsity of exixrieiiee. whieh liail made him .leiiuainted with all tli,- nlations 
between Indians and white men from the lionhrs of Texas to the fortv-nintli 
parallel, and which enabled him to know lust how to move, whether under south- 
ern tropics or the winter snows of the north, I suppose there has scarcely ever 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 191 

bttii any man in the service of the government who excelled Pearson as an ex- 
pressman." 

Taking the Nez Perce trail, the party moved leisurely up through the Walla 
Walla valley into the Palouse country, camped one night on Hangman creek south of 
the falls of the Spokane, passed thence into the Coeur d'Alenes, and moving 
up the Coeur d'Alene river, by way of the Catholic mission, retraced the gover- 
nor's route of 1853, and crossing the summit of the Bitter Root mountains on July 1, 
descended the St. Regis de Borgia, and came to the Bitter Root river on July 3. 

While encamped on Hangman creek. Governor Stevens was visited by the Palouse 
chief Slah-yot-see and thirty braves, the chief complaining because no goods had 
been given him at the Walla Walla council. The governor promptly met his 
whining with this terse reply: 

"Slah-vot-see, you went away before the council was ended. Koh-lat-toose 
remained and signed the treaty. He was recognized as the head chief of the 
Palouses, and to him the goods were given to be distributed among his tribe as he 
and the princijjal men should determine. I have brought no goods to give you. 
Go to Koh-lat-toose. He is the chief, and it is from him you must obtain your 
share of the presents. Had you remained until tlie council terminated, you would 
have had a voice in the distribution of the goods. Kamiaken, your head chief, 
signed the treaty, and said that he should bring the Palouses into the Yakima 
country, where they properly belonged." 

The crossing of the Bitter Root river was safely effected on July K altliougli 
the stream was then at its torrential stage. Moving eastward, the party was met 
on the 7th bv 300 chiefs and warriors of the Flathead, Pend d'Oreille and Kootenay 
tribes, and with a rattling discharge of musketry were conducted to their encamp- 
ment near the Hellgate river. After a pleasant conference of several hours, the 
governor's party established camj) on the main river, a mile distant from the Indian 
rendezvous. That afternoon three liead chiefs — Victor of the Flatheads, Alexan- 
der of the Pend d'Oreilles, and Michelle of the Kootenays, along with several 
sub-chiefs, visited the governor, and after the peace pipe had been dulv smoked, 
were addressed by him in his usual ojK'ning vein. He spoke of the recent council 
at Walla Walla, and proposed the following Monday as opening day for tluir 
council. 

"The Flatheads or Salish," says Hazard Stevens, "including the Pend d'Oreilles 
and Kootenays, were among those who had been driven westward by the Blackfeet, 
and now occupied the pleasant valleys of the mountains. They were 
noted for their intelligence, honesty and bravery, and although of medium 
stature and inferior in physique to the brawny Blackfeet, never hesitated to attack 
them if the odds were not greater than five to one. Having been supplied liy the 
early fur-traders with firearms, which enabled them to make a stand against their 
out-numbering foe, they had always been the firm friends of the whites, and like 
the Nez Perees, often hunted with the mountain men and entertained them in their 
lodges. A number of Iroquois hunters and half-breeds had joined and interm.ir- 
ried with them. (These Iroquois had been brought into this country by the old 
Northwest Fur company, as I'oi/ageurs or boatmen, in which occupation they gen- 
erally excelled all others.) The Bitter Root valley was the seat of the Flatheads 
))roper. The Pend d'Oreilles lived lower down the river, or northward in two 



I'Jii S1H)KA.\K AND THK IMAM) K.MPIRE 

li.-iiids- -tile L pjxT I'l 11(1 (iOrcilks on tin- Horse |)l.iiiis .irid .locko prairies, and 
till- lower Peiid d'Oreilles on Clark's fork. l)elow the lake of their name, and 
were canoe Indians, owning few horses. Tile Kootenays lived about the I'lathead 
river and lake. All these, except the Lower Pend d'Oreilles, went to buffalo, and 
their hunting trips were spiced with the constant peril and excitement of frequent 
skirmishes with their hereditary enemies. The Jesuits, in 1843, estiiblished .i mis- 
sion among the Lower Peiid d'Oreilles, but in ISot moved to the Flathead river, 
mar the mouth of the .loeko. They also started a mission among the Llatheads 
in tile Bitter Root \alley. forty miles above Hellgatc, where they founded the 
luautiful village of .'^t. Mary, .iiiiid eliarming scenery; but the incessant raids of 
the IJlackfeet were surely hut slowly wiping out' these brave and interesting 
Indi.ins. and the mission was abandoned in 18.tO as too much exposed. The Owen 
Brothers then started :i trading post at this point, whicli they named I-'ort Owen; 
.•md fourteen miles .ihoxc it l.ieuteii.uit MuUan Imilt his winter cam]) in 1853, 
kuouii as ('aiitoiuiiint .Stevens, wliieh has been sueei'eded by the town of .Stevens- 
villr.' 

.Vt tin- ojuning session of the council. .Monday, .hily 9, Governor Stevens made 
a long speech in which he pointed out the su))erior advantages of civilization, 
their need of the |)roteetiiig arm of the Great Lather to sto|) the incessant and 
decimating w.irs with the Blackfcet, and the detailed terms and advantages pro- 
posed by the government. But whib- the Indians were most friendly in si)irit, 
and willing .md even eager to follow the white iii.in's way. they shrank from the 
reciuirement of the |)ro])osed treaty wliich compelled them .ill to go U))oii the same 
reservation. But to the governor this requirement seemed advisable and bene- 
ficial, since all three tribes belonged to the common Salish familv, sjjeaking the 
s.ime language and being closely interm.-irried and otherwise allied. He therefore 
offered to segregate a tract for them eillur in the upper Bitter Root valley in 
^'i(■tor's country, or the Horse jilains .-uid .loeko rixcr in the Pend d'Oreille terri- 
tory. 

When the governor had finished, the chiefs, one by one. voiced either tlieir 
open opposition or ex))risse(l iniphatic reluctance to the ado|)tion of this ))lan. 
Big Canoe, a Pend d'Oreilli eliit f. objected to relinquishing any i).irt of his terri- 
tory, but thought the whites and Indians eoiild continue to dwell together without 
treaties or reservations. In his speech. ;is tr.inslated by the interjireters. be said: 

"Talk about treaty, when did 1 kill you: Winn did you kill me? What is 
the reason we are talking about treaties? We ,ire friends. We never spilt the 
blond of one of you. I never saw your blood. I w.int my country. I thought no 
one would ever w.iiit to talk about my eounlry. Now you t;ilk. you white men. 
Now that I li.i\( he.ird. I wish the whites to stop coming. Perhaps you will put 
me in a trap, if I do not listen to you. white chiefs. It is our land, both of us. 
If you make a f.irin. I would not go tin ri- and |)ull up your crops. I would not 
drive vou away from it. If I were to go to your eounlry and say, 'Give nie ,a 
little piece.' I wondi r would you say. 'Here, t.ike it.' I exjiect that is the same 
wav vou w.aiit uu to do lien . I :im \iry poor. This is .ill the sm.all |)ieee I have 
got. I .1111 not going to lei it go. I did not come to make troiibli-; tlurefore I 
would s.iy, I .am very poor. 

"It is two winters since you Jjassed here. I'.vtry yi.ir since my horses have 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 193 

gone to tlie Blackfeet. Here this spring the Blackfeet put my daughter on foot. 
She packed her goods on her back. It made me feel bad. I was going on a war 
party as your express passed along. Tlien I think of what I heard from j'ou, my 
father, and take my heart back and keep quiet. If I had not listened to your 
express, I should have gone on war parties over yonder. We drove one band of 
horses from the Blackfeet. I talked about it to my Indians. I said, 'Give tlie 
horses back, my children.' My chief took them back. You talked about it strong, 
my father. Mj"- chief took them back. That is the way we act. When I found 
mj' children were going on war parties, I would tell them to stop, be quiet. Tell 
them I expect now we will see the chief. I expect he will talk to the Blackfeet 
again." 

Governor Stevens: "I will ask you, my children, if you fully understand all 
that was said yesterday ? I ask you now, can you all agree to live on one reserva- 
tion ? I ask Victor, are j-ou willing to go on the same reservation with the Pend 
d'Oreilles and Kootenays.' I ask Alexander, are you willing to go on the same 
reservation with the Flatheads and Kootenays. I ask Michelle, are you willing 
to go on the same reservation with the Flatheads and Pend d'Oreilles.^ What do 
you, Victor, Alexander and Michelle, think.' You are the head-chiefs; I want you 
to sjicak." 

Victor: "I am willing to go 'on om- reservation, but I do not want to go over 
yonder " (the Pend d'Oreille country). 

Alexander: "It is good for us all to stop in one place." 

Michelle: "I am with Alexander." 

Governor Stevens : "The Pend d'Oreilles and Kootenays think it well to have 
all these tribes together. Perhaps Victor might think so by and by, if the place 
suits. Alexander and Michelle wish to live together, their people in one place ; 
they have a thousand people, the land ought to be good. Each man wants his 
field : the climate ought to be mild. 

"1 ask Victor, Alexander and Miclulle to think it over. Will they go to the 
valley with Victor, or to the mission with Alexander and Michelle? I do not 
care wiiich. You will have your priests with you, whether j-ou go to the mission 
or Fort Owen. Those who want the priest can have him. The Great Father 
means that every one shall do as he pleases in regard to receiving the instructions 
of the priests." 

Next day's council brought no change of mind, Victor refusing to move to the 
mission, Alexander declining to go to the valley; neither objecting to the other 
coming to his place. To overcome this . deadlock, Governor Stevens proposed a 
holiday and feast, and used the delay to send for Father Hoecken to investigate 
a rumor that the priests were exerting an adverse influence on the negotiations. 
Father Hoecken arrived before the conclusion of the council and quickly con- 
vinced the governor of the falsity of the rumor. He expressed complete approval 
of the treaty, and on its conclusion signed the instrument as one of the witnesses. 

Twelve hundred Indians were now encamped on the treaty grounds, and for 
their pleasure on the day of the feast two beeves, coffee, sugar, flour and other 
provisions were supplied them. After the feast the Indians counseled among 
themselves respecting the treaty. 

But at next day's council the deadlock seemed as unbroken as ever. Victor 

Vol. I— 1 3 



194 Sl'OKANK AND THE iM.AND K.Ml'JUE 

refused to speak, declarini; that he had not yet made up his mind. At this point 
the governor adopted a taunting tone: 

"Does \'ietor want to treat?" he asked. "Is he, as one of liis people has 
called hiiu, an old woman? Dunii) as a dog. If Victor is a chief, let him speak 
now." 

To escape Stevens' adroit pressure, Victor aliriiptly left the council and 
went to his lodge. The next day lie sent word tliat his mind was not yet made 
up, and the governor adjourned tile council to Monday, when Victor, manifestly 
to "save his face" before the governor and liis own peo|ili-, brought forward a 
com])romise arrangement. He projiosed tli.it the two tracts under consideration 
should be c.irefully surveyed and ex.-imined l)y (iovcrnor Stevens, and the one 
found best should l)e chosen for tlie reservation. 

Alexander and Michelle persisting in their decision the governor cut the Gordian 
knot bv accepting Victor'.s plan so far as it concerned him and his people and 
giving the others the reservation .-irouiid tlie mission. 

"My children (he said) Victor h;is made liis pro|)Osition. Alexander and Midl- 
elle have made theirs. We will make a treaty for them. Hotli tracts shall be 
surveved. If tlu- mission is the liest land, \'ietor sliall live there. If the valley 
is tile best land, X'ictor sliall stay there. .Mex.uider ,uiil Michelle may stay at 
the mission." 

The thric head-chiefs then signed the treaties, but Moses, a sub-chief of tlie 
Flatlieads. would not sign. 

"Mv brother is buri<-d here." lie protested. "1 (lid not think you would take 
the only ))iece of ground 1 had. Here are three fellows (the head-chiefs) ; they 
say, "Get on your horses and go.' Last year when you were t.ilkiiig about tlu' Black- 
feet you were joking." 

Governor Stevens: "Ilow can Moses s;iy. 1 .iiii not going to the 151aekfoot 
countrv? 1 liave gone all the way to the Great I'.-ither to arrange about the Ulack- 
foot council. \\'h.it more e.in I do? .\ man is coming from the Great I'ather to 
meet me. Does Moses not know tli.it Mr. Hurr .iiid anotlirr man went to I'ort 
Benton the other day?" 

With fine imagery Moses rejoined: "You li.ive |)ulled .ill my wings otf .uid then 
let me down." 

(iovcrnor Stevens: ".Ml tli.-it we li.ivi- done is for your luiKtit. I h;ive s;iid 
th.at tile Flathcads were brave .ind honest .iiid should be jiroti cted. Bi- ))atient. 
Everything will come rigiit. " 

Moses: "1 do not know how it will be str;iiglit. .\ few d.-iys .igo the I51;iek- 
ffcet stole horses at S.ilmon river. " 

Governor Stevens, to the interpreter: ".\sk liiin it he s< es the Nez Perce 
cliief Eagle- from-the-Light ; he is going to the lU.ickfoot couiieil with me." 

Moses: "Yes, I see him; they will get his hair. The Hl.iekfeit .ire not like 
these iieojilc; they are all drunk." 

When the infliienital men had signed. Governor Stevens said: 

"Here are three p.ipers which you li.ive signed, copies of the same treaty. One 
goes to the Presi(hnt. one I ])lace in the hands of the head-chief, and one I kec)) 
myself. Everything that has been said here goes to the President. I have now a 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 195 

few presents for you. They are simi)ly a gift, no part of the payments. The pay- 
ments can not be made until we hear from the President next year." 

After a council protracted for eight days, success crowned the governor's labors. 
"Every man pleased and every man satisfied," as he expressed it. 

This reservation, which was opened to white settlement in 1909, embraced 1,250,- 
000 acres. The treaty carried $8i,000 in annuity goods, $36,000 to improve the res- 
ervation ; salaries of $500 a year for twenty years, with a house and ten acres fenced 
and ploughed, to the three head-chiefs ; schools, mills, hospitals, shops ; teachers and 
mechanics for twenty years; the right to fish, hunt, gather roots and berries, and 
pasture stock on vacant land outside the reservation. The three tribes were to con- 
stitute one nation, under the head chieftainship of Victor, to be called the Flathead 
nation. Father Hoecken, R. H. Lansdale. W. H. Trappan, R. H. Crosby and Will- 
iam Craig witnessed the treaty. About 20,000 square miles were ceded. The treaty 
grounds were adjacent to the present thriving and progressive city of Missoula. 

"This is not the place," says Governor Stevens in his narrative of 1855, "to go 
into the details of the Flathead treaty." With calm confidence in the judgment of 
history and the unbiased verdict of posterity, the governor adds: "I trust the time 
will come when my treaty operations of 1855 — the most extensive operations ever 
undertaken and carried out in these latter days of our history — I repeat, I trust the 
time will come when I shall be able to vindicate them, and show that they were wise 
and proper, and that they accomplished a great end. They have been very much 
criticised and very much abused ; but I have always felt that history will do these 
operations justice. I have not been impatient as to time, but have been willing that 
my vindication should come at the end of a term of years. Let short-minded men 
denounce and criticise ignorantly and injuriously, and let time show that the gov- 
ernment made no mistake in the man whom it placed in the great field of duty as its 
commissioner to make treaties wnth the Indian tribes." 



CHAPTER XXI 

PEACE COUNCIL WITH THE WARLIKE BLACKFEET 

couriers summon numerous tribes great council at mouth of the judith 

Nebraska's commissioner procrastinates — stevens' opening address — treaty 

negotiated after three day conference coats and siedals given to the 

chiefs german songs roll across the missouri homeric feast of buffalo 

ribs and flapjacks listening to thrilling tales of trapper days. 

BREAKING cam]) at tiic conclusion of tlii' I'latlitad council. Governor Stevens 
and party hastened eastward for tlie ifreat piaee coinicil with the Blackfeet. 
Fort Benton, head of navigation on th<- .Missouri, was the apjKiinted rendez- 
vous, where his jiarty were to meet Colonel Alfred {'unnning. Indian superintendent 
for Nebraska territory, wlio had been designated hy tile government as the other 
commissioner to negotiate this treaty. Under ])!ans carefully worked out hy Stev- 
ens. Cumniiiig was to ascend the Missouri by steamboat, bringing with him the neces- 
sary goods and |n-ovisions for the council ; but Cumming, who was amazingly pom- 
pous, i>etulant .and inefficient, had ]3roceeded so dil.itorily that he himself at one 
time despaired of getting on the ground tli.it season, and projxised that the govern- 
ment post])()ne the council to tile following year. 

Officials at Washington realized that this course would never do; that Governor 
Stevens, with gre.-it difficulty, having notifi<'d numerous tribes and bands ranging over 
a vast extent of country, (hat the council would ln' held late in the summer of ISS.*), 
failure to carry out these arr.mgements would be t.aken by the Indians ,is .i mani- 
festation of broken faith; the council must be held. C'unnning was thereupon admon- 
ished to go forward with the original ))lans, but his disregard of Governor Stevens' 
recommendations involved him in additional delays, and when Stevens .and party ar- 
rived at Benton, they met the disa|i]iointing news that Cumming and all the goods 
and ))rovisions were f.ir down the Missouri; that (he Nebraska official liad Jirema- 
turely unloaded the steamer, and was trying (o cordellr (be freight u|) the swift 
current of the upper Missouri in small boats. 

Stevens sent out couriers in all directions. ail\ ising the v;irious b.-uids lh;it the 
council could not be held at the designated date, and .asking them to hold their peo- 
))lc in readiness for a Liter smnmoiis. Chafing under these delays and dis.-ipjioint- 
ments, foreseeing th.it llu Indians could not be held indefinitely as they must shift 
their cam])s.with the err.itie movements of the buff.ilo, .and were in danger of iiass- 
ing beyond call, the governor decided to change the council ground from Fort 
Benton to the mouth of the .hiditli. farther down the Missouri, and thus elimin.ate 

197 



198 SI'OKANK AM) IIII, IM.AM) I.MIMin-. 

the delay involved in cordelling the merchandise and provisions over that long and 
difficult reach of the river. 

"Had the goods arrived at any time during this waiting period," says Hazard 
Stevens, "not less than 12,000 Indians would have attended the council, comprising 
10,000 Blackfeet, 1,100 Nez Perces, 700 Flatheads and Pend d'Oreillcs and 400 
Snakes, the western Indians numbering 2,200." When the council finalh- assembled, 
October 16, only 3,500 IndLins were in attendance. The double purjjose of the pro- 
posed treaty was to establish an enduring peace between the Blackfeet and the 
tribes living west of them, and Wcate the former upon a reservation. In his opening 
speech the governor said : 

".My children, my heart is glad today. I see Indians east of the mountains and 
Indians west of the mountains sitting here as friends — Bloods, Blackfeet, Piegans, 
Gros ^'entres; and Xez Perces, Kootenays, Pend d'Oreillcs, Flatheads ; and we have 
the Cree chief sitting down here from the north and east, and Snakes farther from 
the west. There is peace now here between you all present. We want peace also 
witli absent tribes, with the Crees and Assiniboines, with the Snakes, and yes, even 
with the Crows. You have all sent your message to the Crows, telling them you 
would meet them in friendship here. The Crows were far, and could not be present, 
but we expect you to promise to be friends with the Crows. 

"I shall say nothing about peace with the white man. No white man enters a 
Blaekfoot or a western Indian's lodge without being treated to the very best. Peace 
alread}' prevails. We trust such will continue to be the case forever. We have been 
traveling over your whole country, both to the east and west of the mountains, in 
small parties, ranging away north to Bow river, and south to the Yellowstone. We 
have kept no guard. We have not tied up our horses. All has been safe. There- 
fore I say, peace has been, is now and will eontiiuie, between these Indians and the 
white man." 

The treaty was thiii read, tin- governor explaining its terms, sentence by sen- 
tence. Speeches by all the chiefs followed, extolling the advantages of peace and 
manifesting the best of feeling. On the third day the treaty was negotiated and 
signed by .ill the attending chiefs and head men. Three days more were given up to 
the distribution of presents, including coats and medals to the chiefs, with appro- 
priate speeches by the two commissioners, exhorting them to respect their pledges 
to the Great Father and control their young braves in the interest of enduring |)eaee. 
The personnel of the officers w;is: Is;iae I. Stevens and .Mfred Cununiiig. commis- 
sioners; James Doty, secretary; Tlioni.is .Adams and .V. ,1. N'aiigbn, reporters. The 
inter]jreters were: James Bird, A. Culbertson and M. Roche for the Blackfeet; 
Benjamin Kistr and G. .Sehon, for Uu I'l.itiu-.uls ; ^^'illiam Craig and Delaware .lim, 
for the Nez Perces. 

"The treaty was inueli iimrr lli.in a treaty of peace as far as the Blackfeet were 
concerned," conimcnts Hazard .'Stevens, "for it gave them schools, farms, agricul- 
tural implements, etc., an .•igciil, and annuities of .f.S^.OOO for ten years, of wliieh 
$1;"),000 was devoted to educating them in agriculture and to teaching the children. 
It contained the usual provision prohibiting intoxicating liquor. The extensive re- 
gion between the Missouri and the Yellowstone was made the common hunting 
ground of all the tribes. .Ml agreed to maintain peace with each other, including 
those tribes that were unable to lie ))r(Stnl, the Crows, Crees, Assiniboines and 



SPOKANE AND THE IXLAXD EMPIRE 199 

Snakes. The treaty was made obligatory on the Indians from their signing it, and 
on the United States from its ratification, which occurred the next spring, and it 
was duly proclaimed by the president on April 25, 1856. 

"The peace made at this council was observed with gratifying fidelity in the 
main. The Blackfeet ceased their incessant and bloody raids, and met tlieir former 
enemies on friendly terms upon the common hunting grounds. Within a few years, 
in 1862-63, large white settlements sprang up on the headwaters of the Missouri, 
but they were spared the horrors and sufferings of Indian warfare with so powerful 
a tribe, largely in consequence of this treaty. The council, which Governor Stevens 
planned and carried out with such foresight, sagacity and indefatigable exertions 
during two years, bore fruit at last in the perpetual peace he hoped for and pre- 
dicted. Few treaties with Indians have been so well observed by them as this by 
the 'bloodthirsty' Blackfeet. They took no part in the great Sioux wars, nor in the 
outbreak of Joseph. They were afterwards gathered together on a large reserva- 
tion, including the country about the Sun river, where the governor proposed to es- 
tablish their farms." 

A pleasing description of the council ground has been recorded by the same 
author, who, as a boy of 13 accompanied his father and witnessed the savage and 
barbaric council. It was "a wide, level plain, covered with a noble grove of huge 
cottonwoods. It was on the left bank of the Missouri, nearly opposite but below the 
mouth of the Judith. This stream was also bordered by broad bottoms, which were 
cohered wih large sage-brush, and fairly swarming with deer. The governor's 
camp was pitched under the lofty cottonwoods, and lower down was the camp of the 
crew of men who had dragged the boats up the river. They were a hundred strong, 
mostly Germans, having many fine voices among them, and were fond of spending 
the evenings in singing. The effect of their grand choruses, pealing forth over the 
river and resounding among the lofty trees, was magnificent. 

"In the governor's camp an unusually large Indian lodge — a great cone of poles 
covered with dressed and smoke-stained buffalo skins — was erected and used as an 
office tent, where the records were copied and smaller conferences held. Every 
night between eleven and twelve, when the work of the day was concluded, the 
governor would call in the gentlemen of the party, a few chiefs, and some of the in- 
terpreters, and have a real Homeric feast of buft'alo ribs, flapjacks with melted 
sugar, and hot cott'ee. Whole sides of ribs would be brought in, smoking hot from 
the fire, and ])asspd around, and each guest would cut off a rib for himself with his 
hunting knife, and sit there holding the huge dainty, three feet long, and tearing off 
the juicy and delicious meat with teeth and knife, principally the former. No 
description can convey an idea of the hearty zest and relish and enjoyment, or the 
keen appetiites, with which they met at these Iiospitable repasts, and recounted the 
varied adventures and experiences of their recent trips, or listened as Craig, Dela- 
ware Jim, or Ben Kiser related some thrilling tale of trapper days, or desperate 
fight with Indian or grizzly bear." 

A far cry this may seem from the night-lighted streets of Spokane, with their 
flaring electric signs, swift-passing automobiles, and pleasure-seeking throngs; but 
these nomadic scenes in Walla Walla vale, and by Missoula's flowing waters, and on 
the distant plains where mingle the Judith and the Missouri, required their setting 
and their shifting, seven and fifty years ago, else liad tliere been no ])eace with In- 



200 SPOKAXK AND 11 IK I\l AM) F.MPIRE 

dian tribes, no settlement by daring and ad\ cntiirinis pioneers, no turning of the soil 
to farm and gardtn, or filling of the forest nioiiarclis; no rocking out of millions in 
placer gold or delving deep for hidden treasures of mineral vein and chamber. And 
without these antedating achievements, where now could be the beautiful, the sub- 
stantial empress city of the Inland Empire? 



CHAPTER XXII 

TRIBES OF INTERIOR TAKE TO THE WARPATH 

NEWS TO SHAKE THE STOUTEST HEART GOVERNOR CUT OFF FROM OLVMPIA PEAR- 
SON 's DESPERATE RIDE THROUGH HOSTILE COUNTRY STEVENS ADVISED TO DESCEND 

THE MISSOURI AND RETURN BY SEA REJECTS THAT COUNSEL AND BOLDLY RETURNS 

BY DIRECT ROUTE CROSSES BITTER ROOTS IN THREE FEET OF SNOW STARTLES 

INDIANS BY SUDDEN APPEARANCE IN COEUR d'aLENES FORCED MARCH TO THE 

SPOKANE MEETS MINERS FROM COLVILLE COUNTRY STORMY COUNCIL WITH SPO- 

KANES GARRY VACILLATES STEVENS BLAMED FOR YAKIMAS OUTBREAK SPOKANES 

CONCILIATED "sPOKANE INVINCIBLES" ORGANIZED AS MILITIA COMPANY NEZ 

PERCES GIVE GOVERNOR AN ARMED ESCORT HOSTILES ROUTED BY OREGON VOLUN- 
TEERS STEVENS RETURNS SAFELY TO OLYMPIA. 

"It is vain for the coward to flee; deatli follows close behind; it is only by defy- 
ing it that the brave escape." — J'oltaire. 

IX BUOYANT spirits, witli no premonition of impending peril. Governor 
Stevens and party left the ]51ackfoot council ground. "Everything had suc- 
ceeded to our entire satisfaction, and. indeed, beyond our most sanguine expecta- 
tions," the governor reported. "The greatest delight and good will seemed to per- 
vade the minds of all the Indians, and we left them at the mouth of the Judith on 
our way to Fort Benton, and proceeded thence to the waters of the Pacific, rejoiced 
that our labors had had such a consummation." 

Packing up. the little party of twenty-four faced westward on October 2i, reached 
Fort Benton the next day, and after a two day pause there, preparing for the long 
homeward journey, left Benton October 28. On the evening of the twenty-ninth, 
while in camp on the Teton, the evening meal dispatched and the men assembled 
around the campfire, a horseman was seen a])proaching in the gathering twilight. It 
was the daring express rider, W. H. Pearson, bearing news calculated to shake the 
stoutest heart. He had ridden desperately and long, and as his exhausted mount 
staggered into the firelight, it was seen, from Pearson's wild, emaciated and haggard 
appearance, that he had passed through some ordeal of a trying nature. Eager arms 
lifted him from the saddle, friendly hands ministered to the fainting man with 
warmth and food ; and he then delivered his dispatches and a made a report tliat, for 
a moment, struck consternation to that little band on desert plains a thousand miles 
from home. 

"The great tribes of the upper Columbia country, the Cayuses, Yakimas, Walla 

201 



202 SPOKANK AM) Tlli. INLAND KMI'llii: 

Wallas, [■|iiatillas, I'alduscs anil all llic ()ri;;iiii liaiids (Idwii to Tlu- l);iilfs, tlit- very 
ones wliii liad siiiiiid till- Iriatics at tlic Walla Walla council and Jirofessed such 
friciidslii|), had all linikcn out in open war, " says Stevens' l)iogra])lier. "Tiiey had 
swept the upper country clean of whites, killinjr all the settlers and miners found 
there, and niiirdrred Aiiint Holon under eireuinstances of peculiar atrocity. Major 
Haller, sent into the Vakinia country with a hundred regulars and a how- 
itzer, had hecn defeated and forced to retreat hy Kaniiaken's warriors, with the 
loss oi a third nl' his I'orca- and his canMon. The Indians west of tlii' Cascades 
.lad also risen sinniltani-ously, and laid waste the settlements on I'upet Sound and 
,n Oregon, showing that a widespread eons))iracy |)re\aile(l. The Spokanes and 
Coeur d'AIcnes were hostile, or soon would lufoiue hostile under the spur and taunts 
jf the young Cayusi' and Yakima warriors sent among them to stir them u]), 
and even some of the Nez Perces were disaffected. A thousand well armed and 
brave hostiU- w.irriors under K.imi;d<en, l'u-))u-mox-moN, Young Chief .and Five 
Crows, were gathered in the Walla W.all.-i valley, waiting to 'wipe out" the Jiarty 
on its return; S(iu.ids of young hraves were visiting the N'ez Perces, Sjiokanes and 
Coeur d'Alenes, v.iuuting their \ietories, displaying fresh gory sc.ilps, .and using 
every effort to e.-ijole or force them into hostility to the whites. 

"The daring expressman's story of how he ran the gantlet of the hostile tribes 
with the dispatches and information u|ion uhieh depended the lives of the ]);irty, 
heightened the im))ression made hy his wretched ap))e.iraiice .md dolefid tidings.'' 

He h.id left The Dalles on his return trip, fresh and well mounted, .and riding 
all d.iy ,iud night, ri lelied Hilly MeK.ay's r.anch ou tlu- I'matilla at d.iylighl. The 
pl.ice was deserted. L.issoing a fresh mount, he s.iw a hand of hostiles, racing 
down the hills tow.-irds the valley, and as he sprang into the saddle, they gave 
fierce yells .and cries of "Kill the white m.an ! Kill the white ni.an ! " Thev ))ur- 
sued iiim for many miles, hut he slowly drew away, aiul ,it nightfall turiud off 
the trail at right angles, rode for several miles, and then took a course parallel 
with the regiil.ar route. Uidiug in this str.itegic m.ainier, resting ;i few hours in 
secluded covert, and seeking unusual fords, he reached I,.i|)w.ii, .and .after a day's 
rest, pushed on over tlu- IJitter Root mount.iins. A blinding snowstorm beset him, 
a tree fell and crushed his Nez Perce comjianion, and the trail was buried under 
several feet of new-fallen snow, I'n.ilih' to travi'l furtluT on horse b.iek. Pear- 
son imjirovised snowshoes, cutting the fr.iuies with his knife, .lud we.iving the 
wells with strands of liis rawhide l.iri.it ; .and ])acking blankets .and .1 little dried 
uie.it Upon his b.aek. pushed omi- the snow buried heights, and after four d.ays of 
this desperate travel, descended into the Bitter Root v.illcy, near Fort Owen, where 
rest, a fresh mount and friendly greetings awaited him. Three days more, and he 
w.as in .Sli'vens' e.iuip on the Teton. 

"He brought me letters from ollieial sources (so runs the governor's r<cord), 
stating that my only chance of safety was to go down the Missouri and return to 
the western coast by the way of New Y'ork ;" but the governor's "determination 
was fixed .and un.ilti r.able th.it .in .itteui])t should be made to reach the settlements 
by the direct route, and th.at .all d.angers on the road should be sternly confronted." 
Secret.arv Dotv was sent back to I'ort Henton for .1 Large quantity of powder and 
ball, .addilion.al .arms .and aihlitioiial .aniiu.ils. .iiid these procured, the governor 



SPOKANE AND THE IXLAXD EMPIRE 203 

dtcidtd to Iiasttn homeward at express speed. Pushing on to Hellgate, he pur- 
chased every good mule and horse that he could get in the valley. 

"The question was. what should be our route home," says Stevens. "It was im- 
portant, it seemed to mc. to our success, that we should be able to cross the moun- 
tains and throw ourselves into the nearest tribes, without their having the slightest 
notice of our coming. I felt a strong assurance that if I could bring this about. I 
could handle enough tribes and conciliate the friendship of enough Indians to be 
sufficiently strong to defy the rest. There would certainly be no difficulty from the 
snow down Clark's fork (and through the Spokane valley), but it was known that 
the Upper and Lower Pend d'Oreille Indians were along the road, and no party 
could travel over it without its approach being communicated to the Indians ; 
whereas Indian report had it that the Coeur d'Alene pass was blocked up with snow 
at this season of the year, and I felt satisfied that they would not expect us on this 
route, and therefore I determined to move over it. It was the shorter route of 
the two ; it was a route where I desired to make additional examinations ; it was a 
route which enabled me to creep up, as it were, to the first Indian tribe, and then, 
moving ra})idly, to jump upon them without their having time for preparation. I 
knew that Kamiaken and Pu-pu-mox-mox had sent a body of warriors to cut off 
my party; and that we had to guard against falling into an ambusii. but an Indian 
has not patience to wait many days for such a purpose, and I thought, looking to 
all these things, that the line of safety was to move over the Coeur d'Alene pass." 

Notwithstanding the members of the party, almost without exception, looked 
upon this plan as most desperate, still they maintained a cheerful spirit, obeyed 
every order with alacrity, "and enjoyed themselves very much in the evening 
camp." 

In three feet of snow they crossed the Bitter Root mountains November 20, 
and moving down the headwaters of the Coeur d'Alene river the follo^ving day, 
came to good grass, with fine water, affording excellent range for the exhausted 
animals. Here a day was taken for needed recuperation. "From the appearance 
of all that surrounded us," reported Stevens, "I was satisfied that there were no 
Indian runners on the lookout for us." 

When within twenty-five miles of the Catholic mission, the governor, deeming 
it impracticable to take the whole train in in one day without breaking down the 
horses, took Pearson, Craig and four Ncz Perces. and starting at daylight, pushed 
rapidly into the mission, "throwing ourselves into the midst of the Indians, and, 
with our rifies in one hand, and our arms outstretched on the other side, we ten- 
dered to them both the sword and the olive branch. They met us very cordially," 
savs the governor's narrative,* "every Indian left his lodge and gathered around us. I 
had told the four Nez Perces, 'When you reach the Coeur d'Alenes, talk to them 
Blackfoot; tell them about our great council and treaty at Fort Benton: tell them 
that they can hunt buffalo without being disturbed by their hereditary enemies, 
the Blackfeet ; tell them that the lion and the lamb have lain down together ; get 
their minds off their troubles here, and turn them to other subjects in which they 
take an interest.' It is enough for me to say that we established the most cordial 
relations with the Coeur d'Alenes. We found that the emissaries of the Yakimas 



* By the Indians Stevens was called the Hyas Tyee Skookum Tum-Tum, the "Big Chief 
with the Strong Heart." 



204 SPOKANE AND Till. I M.AM) l.Ml'lHl. 

Iiad only Icit tii.il |)()iiit sonic fonr or ti\f d.iys. h.ninjr dcspaircil of our iTossing 
tile mountains." 

The train arri^d tin m xt day. .md Sttvens deterniint-d to ])ii.sli on to the Spo- 
kane river, having sent forward from the mission Craig and .i ]),irt of the Xcz 
Perces, to bring a large delegation of the latter tribe into the lirojjosed couneil with 
the Spokanes, and to arrange for a friendly Xen Perce escort through the hostile 
country and on to the military j)ost at The Dalle.s. 

"Moving from the Coeur d'Alene mission on the '27th day of November," con- 
tinues the narrative, "I made our first e.imp at the Wolf's lodge, some nineteen 
miles from it, and the next d.iy made .i forei-d in.ireli. moving forty miles to the 
SjJokane country. W'v met Pol.itkiii, oiu- of tin ]irituip.il eliiefs of tlu .S|)okanes, on 
our way. .md were .it Antoiiie I'l.mt's !» fore d.irk." 

This .\ntoiiie Plant, the re.idcr will rce.ill. h;id ser\ ed .is guide between the 
Spokane country ,ind the J51,iekfoot treaty grounds. He was a French Canadian, 
with one-fourth JMackfoot blood in his veins, but cherished a cordial hatred for his 
mother's -tribe, and when (iovernor Stevens .sought his services as a guide, had 
eagerly laid aside the pleasures of his peaceful life on the Spokane, and his eye 
kindled at the prospect of going once more into the land of the warlike and pred- 
atory Blackfeet, where, in his more yoiillifiil d.iys. lie had taken part in numerous bat- 
tles. Antoine kept a small tr.-iding jiost .-it a ford on the S|)ok.iiii- river below 
the site that afterwards became historic .is Cowley's bridge. When on the march he 
had a cheery li.ibit of rousing the enc.uiipiiieiit ,it daybre.ik with .1 w.irwhoop. He 
had been a voi/ac/cur under the regime of llu' Hud.son's Bay company, but having 
retired from that service, had s.ttled down to ,1 semi-sav.ige life in the i)Ie,is;int 
v.ilK y of the Spokane. 

Hen- the governor found .-i number of miners from the Colville country. Stevens 
never neglected to strike when thi' iron was hot. Before midnight he had Indian 
messengers on the tr.-iils. to tin l.owc r SjMjkanes. to the Colville Indians, and thence 
on to the Ok.inog.ans. and to tlu- Lower Pend d'Oreillcs, asking them to meet him in 
council. Angus McDonald, in eli.irHc of the Hudson's Bay post at Colville. .-md 
the Jesuit fathers from the luission tluri-. were .ilso iinited to visit him In his <;nii|). 
"We remained on the .S|)ok;iiie nine d.iys," s.iys the governor, ".iiicl I li.id there one 
of the most stormy councils for three- d.-iys tli.-it ever occurred in my wlioli- Indi.-iii 
experience; yi-t h.-iving gone then- with tin- most .-mxioiis di-sin- to pnveiit their 
i-ntering into the war. but with .1 firm determin.-ition to tell tlii-m (ilainly and can- 
didly the truth. I succeeded both in conviiieiiig them of the f.-icts ,-ind gaining their 
entire confidence. At this council were .-ill the chiefs and ))eo))le of the Coeur 
d'Alenes and the S))okanes — the very tribes who defeated .Ste|)toe the pjist season, 
the very tribes who have met our Iroojis sinei- in two ])iteli(-d hittles; and I feel that 
I can. without impropriety refi-r to the sueei-ss of loy l.-ibors ;iiii(iiig these Indi.-ins. 
haeki-d up siinjily with a little p.irty of twi-nty-four iiu 11. When our couneil w.-is 
.-idjoiiriii-d. the Indi.-iiis '^:nr tin- In si lest of their frieiidshii) and affection, b\- (-.-leli 
0111- (-oiiiiiin to l.-iy befon- uii- his little wrongs and ask redress. Thev come in .1 
body ;ind offered mi- .1 fnn-e to lul)) me through tin- hostilities of A\':ill.i W.-ill.i \.il 
ley and on tin- banks of the Columbi.i. which 1 dci-lined. saying th.-il I e.-iiuc not 
among the .S))okancs for their .-lid. but to prolci-l tln-iii .-is their father." 

CJarry and .-i p;irty of Coi-iir d. Mi 11c- i-hiefs .-mil iMtliniit i.-il 1111 11 arrived .it tin- 




i,(i(iKi\(; (;lass 

W.il Clncf of tlic Xrz Ten 




IT I'C MdX .\I()X. (Il; 
VKLI.dW SKUrKNT 

7To;i(l Chief nf the \V;ilhi Wallas 





iiW III 
A Chiff nf the VakiiiKi 




TIIK VorXd CIIIKK 
llriiil riiicf ,]f tlip Cayiises 




THK [>awyi-:r 

Head < liief (if tlic Xcz Tcrces 



KAMIAKKN 
ITeail Chief of the Yakiaias 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 205 

council ground November 29. Three days later came McDonald witli the Colville 
chiefs, tile missionaries and four white miners. The council was held December 3, 
4 and 5, and was marked, says Hazard Stevens, "by disaffected and at times openly 
hostile views and expressions and uncertain purposes, on the part of the Indians, 
.md steadfast determination to hold tl)eir friendship and restrain them from war, 
on the part of the governor. The Spokanes openly sympathized with the hostiles. 
Many of their young braves liad joined them. They insisted that no white troops 
should enter tlieir country, and urged tlie governor to make peace with the Yakimas, 
for the rumor was current tliat the troops had driven them across the Columbia and 
into the region claimed by tlie Sjiokanes. They objected to the whites taking up 
tlieir land before they had made treaties and sold it, and were much stirred up be- 
cause a number of Hudson's Bay company ex-emjaloyes at Colville had staked out 
claims, and filed with Judge Yantis the declaratory statements claiming them under 
the donation act. Kaniijikens emissaries h.id imbued them with all kinds of false- 
lioods concerning the war .ind its e.iuses. and tlie purposes of the whites, particularly 
of Governor Stevens, and what he did and said at the Walla Walla council. They 
were to be driven by soldiers from their own country, and forced to go on tiie Nez 
Perces reservation without ;iny treaty or compensation. They were to be deported 
west of the Cascades, ;iiid shipped across seas to an unknown and dre.-idful doom. 
Higlily colored iiut imaginary stories of wrong and outrage inflicted upon Indians 
were industriously circulated, and e(|u.illy inytliie;il tales of Indian victories and 
exploits." 

Prior to the o})eniiig of the council, .Stexens learned to distrust the petulant, 
treacherous and aged chief Looking filass of the Nez Perces. A half-breed inter- 
preter, emj)loyed by tile governor, to keep a close watch on Looking (ilass and 
Garry, saw Looking Cilass enter Garry's tent late one night, and creeping u]) to the 
lodge, overheard ;i convers.itiou wherein Looking Glass proposed a plot to entrap 
the governor and his ))arty on their arrival in the Nez Perce country, and force 
him to enlarge the Nez Perce reservation to the area which had been demanded by 
I>ooking Glass at the Walla W.illa council when he came theatrically u))()ii the coun- 
cil grounds there, after his return from .i long hunting triji beyond the Rocky 
mountains, and to dem.iud such additional payments and advantages as would 
amount to a stiff ransom. 

Stevens met this alarming situation by despatching a messenger to Lapwai, ad- 
vising Craig of the proposed conspir.icy and instructing him how to undermine 
Looking Glass's hostile influence among the Nez Perces. Garry, unaware that the 
governor knew of Looking CJIass's ])roposal. boldly and artfully supported his de- 
mands in a speech before the council. 

"When I heard of the war (said Garry) I had two hearts, and have had two 
hearts ever since. The bad heart was a little larger than the good. Now I am 
thinking that if you do not make peace with the Yakimas, war will come into this 
country like the waters of the sea. From the time of my first recollection, no blood 
has ever been on the hands of my people. Now that I am grown up, I .iin afraid 
that we may have the blood of the whites upon our hands. 

"I hope that you will make peace on the other side of the Columbia, .and keep 
the soldiers from coming here. The Americans and the Yakimas are fighting. I 
think they are both equally guilty. If there were many Frenchmen here, niv heart 



206 Sl'OKANK AND 'nil. INLAND K.Ml'IRE 

would be like fighting. Tliesf Iniicli |)( npU- lurt- li.ivc talkid ton iimcl]. I went to 
the Walla Walla eouneil, and when 1 returned I found that all tile Irenelnnen (set- 
tlers in the C'olville valley, who were former employes of the fur eompany) had 
gotten their land written dnwii on a |)aper. I ask tin in Why are you in sueli a 
liurry to have writings for your lands iiou r Wliv don't you wait until a treaty is 
made?' 

"(iovirnor, these troubles ari on iiiy mind all tile time, .and 1 will not hide tliein. 
Wlieii I was at tile Wall.i W all.i eouneil uiy mind was divided. When you first 
eomnuneed to speak, you said the Walla ^^'allas, Cayuses and L'niatillas were to move 
on to tile Nez Perce reservation and tin- .Spokanes were to move there also. Then 
1 thought you spoke had. Then I thought when you s.iid that, that you would strike 
the Indians to the lie.irt. After you h.id spoken of these nine different things, as 
seliools. and slio])s, ;uid f.ariiis. if you had then ;iski(l tlu- chiefs to mark out .i piece 
of land — a pretty large piece — to give you, it would not have struck the Indians 
so to the lieart. Your thougiit was good. You see far. But the Indians, heing 
dull-lie.aded, e.ui not see far. Now your ehildriii have t.illen. The Indians have 
sjjilled their blood, because they have not sense enough to understand you. Those 
who killed Pu-pu-mox-mox's son in Cilifornia, they were Americans. Why are 
those Aiiurieans .alive now.' \\\\y .are tiny not li.inged.- That is wh.it the Indi.ans 
think, that it will be Indians only who are hanged for murder. Now, governor, 
here are these young ))eople- my people. I do not know their minds, but if tliey 
will listrii to \ou. I shall be very gl.-id. When you t.alk to your soldiers .and tell 
them not to cross .Snake river into our country, I sh.iil be glad. " 

"Why is the country in dilticulty again?" asked the chief of the Lower Spokanes. 
"'I'li.at eomes on account of the sni,illpo\ brought into the country, .and is ;dl the 
time on the Indians' heart. They would keej) thinking the whites brought sickness 
into the country to kill them. That is what has hurl the hearts of the Y.akimas. 
rii.it is uli.it we think h.is brought about this difficulty between the Indi.iiis and the 
whiles. I lliiiik. governor, you have talked a little too hard. It is ,as if you had 
thrown ;iw,iv .all the Indians. I lie.ard you said at the W.illa Walla council that 
we were children, .ind lliat our woiiii ii .and eliildriii and <',atth' should be for you. 
and then we thought we would never raise camp .and move where yon wished us to. 
We had in our hearts tli.at if you tried to move us off we would die on the land." 

Then spoke u|i .Sti lliiii. chief of the Coeur d'Alenes: "We h.ave not yet made 
friends. ,V11 the Indi.ans .are not yet your children. When I heard th.it war had 
eoinnieneed in the Yakini.i country. I did not belii\( they li.ad done well to com- 
nu-nce. I wish vou would sprak .iiid drv the lilood on lli.it l.iiul now. If ymi 
would do th.at, then I would Lake you for .a friend. You lia\i iii.iny soldiers, and 
I would not like to liav<' them mix .among my |)e()))h-." 

Schl.ateal \oierd siniil.ir scntinieiits : "Now the ^'akiin.as h.ave crossed the Colum- 
bia, I would not like to h.ave the whites cross to this side. If the whites do not 
cross the river the Indi.ans will all be ))lcased. We lia\c not iii.ule friendship yet. 
We h.ave not sbaki ii li.inds vit. When we ser th.at the soldiers don't cross the 
Colunibi.a we shall believe you take us for your friends. When you stoj) th.at diflfi- 
culty — the fighting now going on — we .sli.all believe th.at you intend to adopt us for 
your children. Then I will believe that you have taken us for your friends, and 
will t.ake vou for mv friend." 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 207 

Peter John, a Colville chief: "My heart is very poor, very bad. My heart is of 
all nations. I never hide it. My heart is fearful. There are some who have talked 
bad. I am always thinking that all would be well. I wish all the whites and 
Indians to be friendly; but even if my people should take up arms against the 
Americans, I myself would not. I know we can not stop the river from running, 
nor the wind from blowing, and I have heard that you whites are the same. We 
could not stop you. I only speak to show my heart. I am done." 

Snohomish, a chief of the Lower Spokanes, living near the Columbia, said: 
"When you went away to the Blackfoot country, and the Yakimas commenced fight- 
ing, my heart was broken. Ever since my heart is very small. Ever since I have 
been thinking, How will the governor speak to us .^ And yesterday he did speak, 
and said to the Indians, 'You must keej) jjeace,' and I have been thinking what God 
would say if we should spill blood on our land. I never loved bad Indians, nor 
war; I never believed in making war against Americans. I wish tliey would sto]) 
all tile Indians and whites from fighting. Now I will stoj). I have shown my 
lieart." 

15ig Star, Sjjokane chief: "The reason that I am talking now is that all the In- 
dians did not like what you said at the Walla Walla council. They put all the 
blame on you for tile trouble since. The Indians say you are the cause of the war. 
My heart is very small towards you. My heart is the same as the others for you. 
Ever since I heard tlure was war, I w\as afraid for you. I am afraid you will be 
killed. You have not yet made a treaty, and you jjassed us by, and your people 
liave commenced coming — the miners — and they will u|)set my land. This spring, 
wlu II my people commenced talking about the ammunition, I said, 'My children, 
do not listen to my children who wisli to do wrong.' I said to tile Sun chief, 'What 
is the reason you are getting into troulile.^ Your fatlier was good; now he is killed 
by the Blackfeet.' And this summer, wiien tile governor passed here. I spoke to 
him again, and lie would not listen. I left home and went to the Nez Perees. and 
there met Mr. [McDonald. After crossing the Columbia river these two young 
fellows overtook me. I spoke to Mr. McDonald to give me good advice to help my 
children. He did speak, and I thougiit he gave me good help. I was glad. We 
had not yet arrived at the fort when tliat young man (a Spokane) rushed on the 
wliites and choked them. After McDonald and myself h.id talked to tliem, I thought 
they would listen. If I had not tried to make them do right, it would not have 
hurt my feelings so mucli. Since that, I am crying all the time." 

(^uin-quim-moe-so, a Spokane chief living at Eells and Walker's old mission on 
Walker's ])rairie, was outspoken in fi.xing on Governor Stevens the blame for the 
Yakima uprising: "When I heard, governor, what you had said at the Walla 
Walla ground, I thougiit you had done well. But one thing you said was not right. 
You alone arranged tlie Indians' land ; the Indians did not speak. Then you struck 
tile Indians to tile heart. You thought they were only Indians. Tliat is why you 
did it. I am not a big cliief. but I will not hide my mind. I will not talk low. I 
wish you to hear what I am saying. That is the reason, governor; it is all your 
fault the Indians are at war. It is your fault, because you have said that the 
Cayuses and Walla Wallas will be moved to the Yakima land. Thev who owned 
tlie land did not speak, and yet you divided the land." 

As the council progressed, Garry assumed a tone of haughty equality and inde- 



208 SPOKAXF. AND THK INLAND EMI'IRK 

pcudcnce: "When you look at the red men, you think you have more heart, more 
sense, tlian these poor Indians. I tliink tile difference between us and you Ameri- 
cans is in the clothing: the blood and body are the same. Do you think, because your 
mother was white and theirs dark, tlial you ari- hij;liir or better? We are dark, 
yet if we cut ourselves, the blood will be rid, and so with the whites it is the same, 
though their skin is white. 1 do not think we are poor because we belong to another 
nation. If you take those Indians for men, treat them so now. If you talk to the 
Indians to make a peace, the Indians will do the same to you. You see now the 
Jiidi.ms are j)roud. On account of oni' of your remarks, some of your people have 
already fallen to the ground. Tbf Indians arc not satisfied with the land you gave 
them. What commenced the troublr was thf iiuirdcr of l'u-pii-nio.\-mox's son (by 
miners in California) and Dr. Whitiiiaii. ami now tiny lliid thtir reservations too 
Miiall. If all those Indians had niarki-d out their own reservations, tlir trouble 
would not have happened. If you could get their reservations made a little larger, 
they would be pleased. If I li.id the business to do, I could fix it by giving them ,i 
Hull- more land. Talking about land. I am only sjieaking my mind. What I was 
saying yesterday about not crossing the soldiers to this side of the Columbia is ray 
business. Those Indians have gone to war. and I don't know myself how to fix it 
up. That is your business ! Since, governor, the beginning of the world there 
has been war. Why can not you manage to keep peace? M.-iybe there will be no 
peace ever. I'.viii if you should hang all the bad people, w.ir would begin again, 
.and would never stop. " 

By ))atient reasoning and convincing denial of the false reports eoneerning his 
utterances at the Walla Walla council, the governor dissiiiated, at least for the 
time, the growing hostile feelings of the .Spokanes. and when the council was over, 
they exjiressed friendly sentiments and willingly exchanged their fresh horses for 
the travel-jaded animals of the party, taking for hoot the Indian goods which had 
bet n brought up from old Fort Walla U'.illa for the deferred council. They even 
g,i\i up sonic of their rifles, needed by .Stevens to arm the miners who had come in 
from tlie upper ('olund)i;i river b;irs. .and who were now nuistcri-d in, .along with 
the other nicniliers of the ixpedition as the "Spokane Invineililcs." the first militia 
coin])aM\- to lie organized and armed in the Iidand Fmpire. 

■■\\'iiin I moMil from .Spokam ." reported Stevens. "I had with me the best 
train of the season. I reduced tr:ins|)ortation ti twelve d.iys. .and the |)acks to 
eighty j)ounds. for I desired to be in a condition il the N'ez I'ercis were really 
hostile, and I was not strong enough to light. 1 could m.ike .a good run. .and then I 
struck for the N'l z Perces country." 

Moving down the valley, on I he .ittcrnooii of I)((<nilier ti. trom the treaty 
grounds ,il .\ntoine Plant's ))lace. IIk party ene.am|ied by thi- falls (d' tin' Spokane. 
"The second dav." runs .Stevens' n;irrati\e of lS.")."i. "I met an e\|)rcss from Craig's, 
ti'lling me thai llu' Ncz Perces weri' all right, .and llial the whole tribi- would b.ack 
me up. We moved towards l..ap\vai. and were fo-r d.ays in reaching that point, the 
distance being 108 miles. The w.nthcr w.is very disagnc.ibh-. Ixing snowy and 
rainy. In about fifty miles from the S))ok;me we got upon our old trail to the Ked 
^Volf's ground, which tr.ail w( iollowid lor .about twenty miles, and then keeping to 
our left. |i.ass,il to the mouth of the L.i|)W.ii. and thence to William Craig's place 
on that str.am . . . -My object not being to give an account of my Indian 




BLOCK HOUSE AT UPPER CASCADES 
OF THE COLUMBIA 

Where General Pliilip Sheridan made his first 
war record 



, '''f^E N£w V'oRi/ 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 209 

operations or of the Indian war," says the narrative of 1855 in conclusion, "I will 
close my narrative at this point, referring you to my official reports should further 
information be desired in connection with this trip. I will state that on mj^ way 
into the settlements I remained in the Walla Walla valley some ten days, where I 
saw much of the Oregon volunteers. Went to The Dalles, in advance of my party, 
witii three men, and, the river being closed by ice, went down from The Dalles to 
near Vancouver on the trail, and reached Olympia on the 19th of January." 

Notwithstanding winter was well advanced when the governor's party came to 
William Craig's hospitable homestead and the ground was well spread with snow, 
Chief Lawyer had brought together there 208 lodges, which sheltered more than 
2,000 friendly Nez Perces. "An animated council was at once held, " says Hazard 
Stevens. "The council lodge was a hundred feet in length, built of poles, mats and 
skins, and in this assembled 200 chiefs and principal men. Lawyer presiding. An 
ox had been killed, and young men, who officiated for the occasion, roasted or boiled 
the meat at fires in the lodge, and handed it around in large pans, from which each 
person selected such choice pieces as suited his fancy. The scheme of Looking 
Cilass found no adiierent. indeed was not broaciied. and the unanimous resolve was 
not only to maintain their friendship to tile whites and stand by their treaty, but 
to escort Governor Stevens witii 250 of tbtir bravest and best armed warriors, 
stark buffalo hunters and Blackfoot fighters every one, and force tlieir way through 
tiic masses of liostile Indians gatliered in tile Walla Walla valley. " 

Finding no sup])ort for Iiis treacherous plot, old Looking Glass craftily turned 
front and made a virtue of necessity. "I told tlie governor," he said in council, 
"tii.-it the Walla Walla country was blocked u]) by bad Indians, and that I would 
go ahead and be behind, and that's my heart now. Now that he says he will go, I 
will get up and go with hiiu. Now let none of you turn your face from what has 
been said. Your old men have spoken, and where is the man who will turn his 
back on it." 

.\s the council ended an Indian runner came in from the Walla Walla valley with 
tiie startling .ind cheering news tiiat a regiment of 500 Oregon volunteers com- 
manded by Colonel Kelly, wlio later served as United States senator, liad come up 
from tlie Willamette valley into the Walla Walla country, and after four days hard 
fighting liad routed the hostiles and driven them out of the valley. The way thus 
cleared, Governor Stevens could have dispensed with the tendered escort of the 
Nez Perces, but to confirm their fidelity and cement the bond of friendship, he 
invited a hundred warriors to go with him as far as the Walla Walla valley. 

"It was a clear, briglit. frosty December morning that the mingled cavalcade 
of wliite and Indian left beliind tlie hospital lodges of the Nez Perces, and filed 
along tlie banks of the Lapwai and Kooskooskia," says Hazard Stevens. "Rarely 
has tlie Clearwater reflected a more jiieturcstiue or jovial crew. Here were the 
gentlemen of the party, with their black felt liats and heavy cloth overcoats; rough- 
clad miners and packers; the mountain-men, witii buckskin shirts and leggings 
and fur caps; the long-eared pack-mules, witli their bulky loads; and the blanketed 
young braves, with painted visage, and hair adorned with eagle feathers, mounted on 
sleek and spirited mustangs, and dashing liitber and thither in the greatest excite- 
ment and glee. Each of tlie warriors had three fine, spirited horses, wliich he rode 
in turn as the fancy moved liini. Tiiey used buckskin ])ads or wooden saddles cov- 

Vol. 1—1 4 



210 SI'OKAM, AM) 1111. IM.AMi IMI'IKI-. 

crcd witii butfalo, Ijcar or uKuiiitain goat skin. TIk hriillc was a siiiiijle line of 
buffalo hair tied around tlie lower jaw of the steed, which yielded implicit ohidience 
to this scanty headgear. At a halt the long oiid of the line is flung loosely on the 
ground, and the horse is trained to stand witiioul (itliir fastening. 

"The demeanor of the young braves on this march was in marked contr.isl to 
-the traditional gravity and stoicism of their race. They shouted, laughed, told 
stories, cracked jokes, and gave free vent to their native gaiety and high spirits. 
Craig, who accompaiii( <1 tlu p.irly, translated these good things as they oecurnd. 
to the great amusenunt ot the whites. Crossing a wide, Hat plain covered with tall 
rye grass, he related an anecdote of Lawyer, with the reminiscence of which the 
young braves seemed particularly tickhd. While yet an obscure young warrior. 
Lawyer was traveling over this ground with .-i jLirty of the tribe, including several 
of the principal chiefs. It was a cold wiiiltr d.iy. .iiiil a biting gale swe)it uj) the 
river, penetiating their clothing and chilling them to the bone. The chiefs sat 
down in the shelter of the tall rye grass, and were indulging in a cosy smoke, when 
Lawyer fired the prairie far to windward, and in an instant the fiery element in 
a long, crackling, bla/.ing line, came sweeping down on tin wings of tlir wind ujjon 
the comfort-taking chiefs, and drove them to rush lit It.r skelter into the river for 
safety, dropping robes, pipes and everything that might impede their Higbt. For 
this audacious prank Lawyer barely escaped a public whipping. 

"It was a gala day for the Nez Perces when the party reached the valley, and 
W( rt received by the Oregon volunteers with a military parade and a salute of mus- 
ketry; ,ind when Governor Stevens dismissed tliitn with presents and thanks and 
words of eneour.-igenieiit, they returned home the most devoted and enthusiastic auxi- 
liaries that ever marched in behalf of the whites. 

. "The valley was reached on the -'Oth. Major Cliinn commanding the volun- 
teers, and other officers rode out to meet tlir governor, and. on reaching the vol- 
unteer eamji. tlit troops, four liiniilrrd in nunilirr. par.iclrtl and (Ircd .-i volley m 
salute as the picturesque eolunui uiarelud i).ist. the fifty sturdy, travel-st.iined whites 
in advance, followed by tlu hundred proud .ind (lainiting braves, curveting tlitir 
horses and uttering llnir warwhoojis. The volunteers then formed in hollow 
square, and the governor addressed them in a brief speech, coni))linienting them on 
their energy in pushing forward at that inclement season, and gall.intry in engag- 
ing and routing .1 superior force of the eiuiny. .ind tendering the Ih.inks of his 
]);irtv for o|)(ning the road." 

(iovernor .Sti'Vens ;ind jiarty eagerly lislmcd lo the news of the wintrr eaiu- 
paign of the volunteers. Tin cngagenient iiiil luen a severe one. the eonfeder.ited 
hostiles resisting firndy for four days, and then falling back in confusion on mis- 
taking a distant i)aek-train, descending the slopes of the Blue mountains, for a 
reinforcing eohunn of arTned white .soldiers. In the couili.it I'u pu-uiox-inox h.iil 
been taken prisoner, and attempting to escapi from his guard, was killed by a 
rifle volley. By a singular tragic coincidence, Owhi. .mother leading chief in this 
uprising, was to suffer a like fate two years later, while attempting to escape from 
Colonil Wright's command. 

(ieinr.al ^^'ool . commanding; lln di |i.irtuierit of ihe Cohnnlii.i. had .irrixed al \'.-in- 
eouv.r from .S;,n b'ranciseo, luil liad eillier failed or refused to supiiort the \olun- 
teers or s.nd relief to (iovernor .Stev.ns. He took the view that the Indians were 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 211 

not to blame, and that the war had been instigated by white speculators. "He had 
even disbanded two companies of Washington volunteers at Vancouver, after they 
had been actually mustered into the United States service," declares Hazard Stevens, 
in a spirited defense of his father ; "and a company that had been raised under the 
direction of Colonel Frank Shaw, for the express purpose of going to the defense 
of the governor, was dismissed by Wool in spite of the remonstrances of its officers 
and of Major Rains." 

In a succeeding chapter we shall relate the stirring events which followed as a 
sequel to the Yakima-Walla Walla outbreak, and deal somewhat with Governor 
Stevens' severe arraignment of General Wool before the war department. 



CHAPTER XXUI 

GOVERNOR STEVENS AN ARDENT INLAND EMPIRE ROOSTER 

SENDS OPTIMISTIC REPORTS TO WASHINGTON FORESEES GREAT FUTURE FOR WALLA 

WALLA, PALOUSE, YAKIMA, SPOKANE AND OTHER REGIONS REMARKABLE FORECAST 

OF country's RESOURCES POINTS OUT VALUE OF LOGGED OFF LANDS REMARKABLE 

RIDE BY HIS 13 YEAR OLD SON CHARMED BY WESTERN MONTANA AND IDAHO PAN- 
HANDLE PREDICTS DEVELOPMENT OF MANY RICH MINES m'cLELLAN BERATES THE 

COUNTRY IS PRAISED BY JEFFERSON DAVIS, WHO WANTS TO DISCOURAGE NORTHERN 

DEVELOPMENT. 

Tliy voice sounds like .i ]>roi)li<t's word; 
And in its hollow tones are heard 
Tlie thanks of millions yet to be. 

— Fif~ Greene Halleck. 

WIll'.X in tile field Governor Stevens took note of climatic conditions, the 
soil, timber, water, building materials and other elements bearing on 
future settlement of this region. His reports to Washington are clear, 
informative, optimistic. He comprehended, as none before him, the country's ])()ten- 
tial resources, its mild and invigorating climate, and great ])0ssibilities for settle- 
ment and conversion, through the enterprise, courage and industry of our pioneers, 
into an empire abounding in )ileasant homes and productive industries. 

After jiassing through the Walla Walla country in June, ]85,'5, on his way east- 
w.ard to the Blackfoot council, he wrote in his journal: "We left our camp in the 
Walla Walla valley at noon, moving over a delightful rolling country, well gr.issed 
and arable; and on .June 17 we moved twenty miles over a remarkably fine grazing 
and wheat country, and eani))ed on the Pa-at-ta-ha creek, a branch of the Touchet 
river. 'I"he following points of today's jourtuy are worthy of attention," adds the 
governor, "in order to show that tliis region is not the b.arren desert it has been re]i- 
rescnted to be. In six and a half miles we crossed the Smahine creek of tlu- Toueliet, 
where there was good running water. In three miles and three (piarters further on 
we crossed the Kajjyah creek of the Touchet, near its junction with the latter stream. 
There was ))ine in view in the valley of the Toueliet. and the country was verv beau- 
tiful and inviting. One mile further, (ui a small fork of the Touchet, several persons 
have taken claims in the vicinity. . . The whole country in view was well 

adapted to purposes of agriculture and stock-raising." 

rnntinuing his description of the eountry. Governor Stevens said: "Leaving 

•iv.\ 



214 SPOKANE AM) IIH. IMAM) K.MPIRE 

tile Tukanon, we ascended the bluffs and i)assed over table-land of the same charac- 
ter as that of the first ])ortion of our journey, and reached tiie Pa-at-ta-ha tributary 
of the Tukanon. This tributary furnishes a large amount of excellent land; its val- 
ley, as well as the table-land between it and the adjacent streams, is uniformly fer- 
tile, and at tlit' j)rcscnt time covered with the most luxuriant grass. I will here 
remark, to guard against misconception, that it must not be inferred, when I speak 
of a covmtry as being covered with excellent grass, that it is not an arable coimtry, 
for I suppose it will be admitted that all ar;il)le countries ought to furnish grass of 
some kind. After traveling up this stream three miles, we came to a rather broad 
trail, which, turning oiT from the stream, crosses Snake river, eighteen miles below 
the Red Wolf's ground, and leads to the Coeur d'Alene mission and the Spokane 
country. . . . The day's journey has been delightful to all the members of my 
party, for it passed over a most beautiful prairie countrj^, the whole of it adapted to 
agriculture. In the valley of the Tukanon we found a very experienced and kind- 
hearted mountaineer, Louis Moragne, who, with his Flathead wife and six children, 
had gathered about him all the comforts of a home. His eldest daughter was mar- 
ried to a very intelligent American, Henry Chase, a native of m}' own county, in the 
good old state of .Massachusetts, and they now propose to locate on the Touchet. 
. . . Moragne is the owner of some fifty horses and many cattle. His ))otatoes 
were in blossom and his wheat excellent. He had four acres under cultivation. He 
succeeded well in raising poultry, of which he had three or four dozen." 

Moving northward the governor and his party came to the junction of Alpowah 
creek and the Snake, where Red Wolf had "a fine field of corn which promises a 
most luxuriant crop." Stevens estimated the amount under cultivation there at 
twenty acres, irrigated by the waters of the creek, "and tolerabh' well set out with 
fruit trees. I observed," adds the governor, "with great pleasure, that men as well 
as women and children, were at work in this field, ploughing and taking care of 
their crops. The corn, planted only six weeks since, was about ready to silk out. 
From the appearance of the valley of the Alpahwah, I am satisfied that grapes would 
be a very profitable crop." Snake river valley vineyards are noted for the excellence 
of their products. 

"The Ncz Pcrces country," the official report continues, "is exceedingly well 
adapted to grazing, and is, for the most part, a fine, arable country. There are very 
extensive fields of the camas, and the Indians lay up large stores of that nutritious 
and delightful root." 

Moving northward into the Palouse country, the party "reached the Uible-land. 
. . . And here I was astonished, not simply at the luxuriance of the grass, but 
the richness of the soil ; and I will again r(-niind the reader that it does not follow 
because the grass is luxuriant that the country is not arable." The governor closed 
his journal that day by another expression of astonishment at the luxuriance of the 
grass and the richness of the soil. "The whole view presents to the eye a vast bed 
of flowers in all their varied beauty. The country is a rolling table-land, and the 
soil like that of the prairies of Illinois." 

Their next night eneam|innnt was on the right bank of the main Palouse river. 
"The whole country to the westward, as far as the eye could reach, was an open 
plain, the skies clear, and the atmosphere transparent; I say again, the whole coun- 
try was. a))|)arently. exceedingly rich and luMiriant." The governor inti-rrogated 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 215 

very closely his packmaster, Higgiiis, in reference to the character of the country 
westward, "for he had crossed it on two different lines between our present trail 
and that from the mouth of the Palouse ; and lie assured me that the country which 
my own eye saw today, and had seen yesterday, was precisely the same country as 
that found on the westward lines." 

"The narrative of these last four days travel," adds Stevens, "shows how extraor- 
dinarily well watered the country is west of the spur of the Bitter Root mountains. 
I will state again, having crossed the great plain of the Columbia from the Chema- 
kane mission north of the Spokane to the mouth of the Palouse, that the difference 
in the character of the country on these two lines is most extraordinary. A large 
portion of the country from the Chemakane mission to the mouth of the Palouse is 
arable, and generally w^ell grassed. There is no deficiency of wood for camps, yet 
occasionally the basaltic formations crop out of the ground, at which points the 
country is sterile and uncultivable. But under the spurs of the Bitter Root moun- 
tains (the Coeur d'Alenes) the whole country is arable, the soil as rich as the best 
])rairies of Minnesota, and every convenience for the house and farm at hand — wa- 
ter, wood for fires, and timber for building." 

Governor Stevens foresaw, nearly sixty years ago, the agricultural future of the 
timber lands of tlie Inland Empire, after they should be logged off. "I paid particu- 
lar attention to the forest growth," he remarks, "and I bore in mind our Puget 
Sound experience, which had established the fact that the timber lands, as a general 
thing, were much superior to the prairie lands. When I first went to the Puget 
Sound country in 1853, that fact was not acknowledged; but the popular impression 
was that the timber lands were worthless except for the timber. In 1855 there had 
been experience of crops on timber lands, which established conclusively the fact 
that they were our most valuable lands for agricultural purposes." 

Commenting on the ease of travel in the interior, the governor wrote: "^ly son 
Hazard. 13 years of age, had accompanied me from Olympia to the waters of the 
Missouri. Like all youths of that age, he was always ready for the s.-iddle and 
delighted in the hunt, and had spent some days witli one of my hunting jiarties on 
the Judith, where he had become well acquainted with the Gros Ventres. When we 
determined to change the council from Fort Benton to the mouth of the Judith, I 
undertook, in the name of the commission, the duty of seeing the necessary messages 
sent to the various bands and tribes, and to bring them all to the mouth of the 
Judith at the proper moment. These Indians were scattered from Milk river, near 
Hammell's Houses, along tlie Marais, along the Teton, to a considerable distance 
south of tile Missouri, the Flatheads being on the Judith, and the Upper Pend 
d'Oreilles on Smith's fork of the Missouri, witli two bands of the Blackfeet lying 
somewhat intermediate, but in the vicinity of the Girdle mountains. I succeeded 
in securing tlie services of a fit and reliable man for each one of these bands and 
tribes, except the Gros Ventres, camped on Milk river. There were several men 
who had had considerable experience among Indians and in voyaging who desired to 
go, but I had not confidence in them, and accordingly, at 10 o'clock on Sunday morn- 
ing, I started my little son as a messenger to the Gros Ventres. Accompanied by 
tlie interpreter Legare, he made that Gros Ventres camp before dark, a distance of 
seventy-five miles, and gave his message the same evening to the chiefs, and without 



216 SPOKANK AND THK INLAND KMI'IRF. 

cli.iiiging horses tliiy were in the saddle tarly in tin nnrrning. aiui reached my camp 
at half past three o'clock. 

"Thus a youth of thirteen traveled 1")() measured miles from HI o'clock one day to 
half past three o'clock in tlie afternoon of the next; and lie came in so fresh that he 
could have traveled, without fatigue, at least thirty miles further that evening. The 
Gros Ventres made tlieir marches exactly as I had desired, and reached the new 
council ground at the mouth of the Judith on the very morning which iiad been 
appointed, being the first of all the bands and tribes." 

Of western Montana, the country lying between the Uoeky mountains and the 
Bitter Roots, Governor Stevens wrote with a far-seeing and prophetic eye. Of the 
whole area of this beautiful region, some ;iO,000 square miles, he estimated that 
I'J.OOO square miles would be brought under cultivation. "The country in the forks 
of the Flathead and the Bitter Root, stretching away east above the Blackfoot can- 
yon, is mostly a table-land, well watered and arable; and on all these tributaries — 
the Bitter Root, the Hcllgate, the Big Blackfoot, the .locko. the Maple river, the 
Hot Spring river, and the Lou-Lou fork itself — the timber land will be found un- 
(luestionably better than the prairie land. It will not be in t!i( immediate bottom 
or valley of the river where farmers will find tluir best locations. Init on the smaller 
tributaries some few miles above their junction with the main stre.-ims. The traveler 
])assing up these rivers, and seeing a little tributary breaking out in the valley, will, 
in going up it, invariably come into an open and beautiful country. The observer 
who has passed tlirough this country often; who has had intelligent men who have 
lived in it long; wlio understands intercourse with the Indians, and knows how to 
verify information which they give him, will be astonished at the conclusions which 
he will reach in regard to the agricultural advantages of this country : and it will not 
be many years before the jirogress of settlements will establish its superioritv as an 
agricultural region. " 

.Mthough his scat of government was at Olymjiia. Stevens seemed never to weary 
in his entluisiastic jiroelainiing of the beauties, the resources and the favorable cli- 
m.ite of the interior of his vast territory. Its \erdant and flower-pied ])rairies 
charmed his senses, and its more open and park-like forests, as contrasted with the 
t.angled and somber depths of the Puget Sound region, enlivened his fancy and 
kindled his prophetic fires. He was the first influential "booster" of the .S))okane 
country. We owe to liis memory an enduring monument, but it should not be erected 
until a f\md is gathered surticieiit to insure artistic gi iiius of the highest order. '\'oung 
cities that purchase statues preiiiatiireiy arc in darijicr of amassing a collection of 
monuments better suited to the cemetery than to |)ulilie parks and open i)laces. 

In his volmninous re))ort to the national government, Stevens described, in great 
minuteness, the country tra\irse(l by his cx]n'dition. With (|uick eye he iinled its 
])olential resources, and with facile |)en ])ortrayed them with a fidelity to l-iet that 
seems remarkably ))roj>hetic in the ligiit of subscciuent settlement and devilopmeiit. 
"That portion of the great plain lying cast of the main Colunibi.i. and whieh may 
he regarded as bounded on the north by the Spokane, and on tiie ( as| hv tile foothills 
of the Hitler Hoot mountains," says his rejjort of 18.).'i, "is. for the most i)art. well 
w.itered .ind well grassed. The eastern half of this portion is ( xcecdinglv will 
;ida|)ted to agricultural purposes. The \arious streams — the Palouse. the Camas 
Prairie creek of the Coeur d'Alene (Hangman), the .Spokane .-ind Coeur dWli ni' 







o 
2; 




»' -^. ' .^-;.^'.;rv::^;.': 



I 



THE r*|w yoRK 
UBLIC LIBRARY 






THE N£v\' YORK 



TiL 






tiN< 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 217 

rivers — are well timbered with pine, and numerous rivulets and springs are found 
through that portion of the country, facilitating the progress of settlements, and 
rendering the whole at once available to the agriculturist. Indeed, the whole of the 
western slopes of the Bitter Root mountains are densely timbered with pine, spruce, 
larch, cedar and other trees. These spurs have, in most cases, a gradual slope to 
the west, and the valleys of the several streams above referred to, as well as the 
Clearwater and Clark's fork, are wide and open, including in the lower valley the 
immediate, gentle and numerous lateral spurs branching off from the main spurs." 

Passing to a description of the Palouse and Big Bend regions, Stevens wrote: 
"This country is better supplied with wood than has been generally imagined. If 
the voyageur traveling over this country, whatever route he takes, be asked what 
sort of country it is, he will tell you an excellent country for traveling — wood, water 
and grass everywhere. But the pine of tlie Spokane extends nearly to its moutli, 
and for some miles south of the river. The Spokane is the name of the main stream 
to its junction with the Coeur d'Alene river, when its name is given to a smaller 
tributary coming from the north (the Little Spokane), the Coeur d'Alene being the 
main stream. 

"One of the most beautiful features of the Coeur d'Alene river and country is 
the Coeur d'Alene lake, whicli is embosomed in the midst of gently sloiiing hills, cov- 
ered with a dense forest growth; the irregularity of its form, and the changing aspect 
of the scenery about it, makes it one of the most picturesque objects in the interior. 

"The whole valley of the Coeur d'Alene and Spokane is well adapted to settle- 
ment, abounding in timber for buildings and for fires, exceedingly well watered, and 
tlie greater portion of the land arable. Even on the main route from Colville to the 
nioutli of the Palouse, there is much arable land for thirty miles south of the Spo- 
kane. East of this line the whole country may be denominated as cultivable countrv. 

"North of tlie Great Plain, that is, from the Spokane to the forty-ninth parallel 
east of the main Columbia, the country for the most part is densely wooded, altliough 
many valleys and open places occur, some of tliem now occupied by settlers, and all 
])resenting advantages for settlement. Down Clark's fork itself (the Pend d'Oreille) 
there are open patches of land of considerable size, and so on the Kootenay river. 
North of the Spokane is a large prairie, known as the Coeur d'Alene jjrairie (the 
Spokane valley) througli which the trail passes from Walla Walla to Lake Pend 
d'Oreille. . . . From Fort Colville to where the Columbia bends suddenly to the 
west there is a good deal of excellent land. It will be safe to pronounce the wliole 
country north of the Spokane, and lying between the main Columbia and the Koote- 
nay and the Coeur d'Alene mountains as a cultivable country, althougli the dense 
forests will be an obstacle in the way of rapid occupation of the country. 

"But here comes in another element of wealth: Tlie country about Colville and 
on Clark's fork lias been pretty thoroughly prospected for gold, and it exists in 
])aying quantities throughout that region. On the Kootenay river are found mines of 
lead, copper, quicksilver, sulphur and platinum; and tliere can be no question, from 
information derived from practical miners, from geological explorers, and especially 
from the testimony of the Jesuit fatliers, DeSmet, Hoecken and Ravalli, that this is 
a countrj' very rich in minerals." 

Of tlie country lying between the Columbia and the Cascade mountains, including 
the valleys of the Yakima, the Wenatchee or Pisquouse. the Entiat, Chelan, Metliow 



218 SI'OKANi: AND ■rilK INI, AM) l.M I'l li K 

and Okanogan, Governor Stevens conti inKd lli.it a great iiijiistiee liad been done it 
"by a want of patience and consideration on the part of gentlemen who have gone 
over it rapidly in the summer, and who have been over it but once. Now the most 
intelligent vuya(jeurs and best practieal I'armers in that country agree in opinion 
that there is a large quantity of arable land throughout this country, and very 
superior grazing. This is the opinion of intelligent Indian chiefs who have them- 
selves made some progress in raising crops, and who are already great stock- 
raisers." 

"On the several trijjutarics of the Yakima, particularly towards their upper 
waters, the land is rich and adapted to most of the crops, and so in the valley of 
the main Yakima itself. This valley has been denominated by some a desert and sage 
plain; sage does not occur in spots and small quantities, but much of the country 
is cultivable and productive. It may be observed that in regard to the whole of this 
central portion of the Territory, it will be necessary to exercise care as to seed- 
time, and farmers will have a disadvantage over those west of the Cascades in their 
seedtime being very much shorter; but with ordinary care as to the time of imtting 
in seed no danger need be apprehended from droughts. 

"This portion of the country is wooded about half wav' from the divide of the 
Cascade mountains to the Columbia itself, but you pass up the main Yakima seventy 
miles before you reach the building pine, although cottonwood is found on its banks 
sufficient for camping ])urposes ; but when you reach the Pisquouse or Wenatshapam, 
you come to a wooded region which extends to the main Columbia. The forest 
growth of the upper waters of the Clearwater and of the main Columbia from above 
the mouth of the Wenatshapam, furnishes inexhaustible supplies, which, after being 
rafted down the streams — that is, the Snake and Columbia rivers — will furnish set- 
tlements in the vicinity of those rivers with firewood and lumber at moderate rates." 

Worthy of observ.-ition, said the governor, was the discovery, by his explorations 
of 1853, that gold existed "throughout the whole region between the Cascades and 
the main Coluniliia to north of llie boundary, and paying localities have since been 
found at several jioints, particularly on the southern tributary of the Wenatsha|)am 
(the Wenatche(-). Gold q\iartz also is found on the Natchcss river. The gold-bear- 
ing zone, crossing the Columbi.-i and stretching eastward along Clark's fork ami the 
Kootenay river, unquestionably extends to the Rocky mountains." 

Ill sh.irp contrast to .Stevens' o])timism, Cajitain (ieorge B. ISIcClellan, re])orting 
from his camj) at Ketetas, on Yakima river, September 18, IH53, thus describes the 
Yakima country: "The last forty-five miles of the trail have been over barren sage 
plains, mostly without grass, always without timber, and very stony: in some of the 
valleys pretty good bunch-grass is found. The soil of the valleys of the Yakima and 
its branches, thoush very limited in extent, is good enough to make tolerable farms, 
if irrigated." 

This of the orchard soil that has since become world famous. McClellan usu- 
ally look a ix-ssimistic view, and his discouraging reports were eagerly s<ized by 
.lefl'erson D.avis, then secretary of war, to discredit .Stevens' enthusiastic laud.ition 
of the northern routes. Southern slave-holding interests and svinpathizers were 
then active .and adroit in their political manipulations to prevent settlement of 
northern territories, and at the same time foster the extension of slavery in the vast 
unsettled areas of the southwest. In this iiioineiitoiis political struggle they h.id, of 



SPOKAXE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 219 

course, the able support of Secretary Davis, who exerted his official influence in sup- 
port of an extreme southern route that would have for its Pacific terminus the harbor 
of San Pedro, near Los Angeles, or that of San Diego, still nearer the Mexican 
boundary. In his report to congress. Secretary Davis quotes McClellan, approvingly, 
as follows: "I am of tlie opinion that the Yakima pass is barely practicable, and 
that only at a high cost of time, labor and money." "The depth of snow upon the 
summit of this pass has been much discussed," says Davis's report. "Captain 
McClellan, who made the reconnaissance, says that he and his party spared no pains 
in inquiring of the Indians during the summer, fall and winter, as to the quantity 
and nature of the snow in the mountains during the winter. , . . All the infor- 
mation obtained was consistent; and the resulting conclusions, that in ordinary win- 
ters there could not be less than from twenty to twenty-five feet of snow in the 
passes." 

Subsequent railroad construction and operation have shown the wildness of these 
superficial guesses. Governor Stevens, who well understood the unreliability of 
Indian testimony on this point, as they were opposed, from interest, to the building 
of railroads in their country, felt, from the beginning, that McClellan's estimates 
were unreliable, and emphatically urged that officer to make a more thorough exam- 
ination of the Cascade passes in the winter of 1853-54; but McClellan raised one 
difficulty after another, failed altogether to grasp Stevens' argument that winter was 
just the time to examine the passes and gather definite, reliable data, and when 
another officer. Lieutenant Tinkham, acting under the governor's directions, accom- 
plished the very achievement which McClellan had pronounced impracticable, and 
at the same time proved the untrustworthiness of McClellan's conclusions, the officer 
who was later to command the Union armies on the Potomac resented the governor's 
resolute action, and a coldness grew up between them. 

Returning to McClellan's report on the Yakima valley, we find him asserting 
that while the Indians raised excellent potatoes, "the cold nights (the thermometer 
frequently standing below thirty-two degrees at sunrise), and the shortness of the 
season, would be great obstacles in the way of cultivation. . . . The Yakima val- 
ley below this is wide, often destitute of grass, no timber of any consequence, and a 
limited extent of soil that by irrigation could be made moderately productive. On 
the trail to The Dalles the country is everywhere stony, barren and worthless. The 
valley of the Columbia, near the mouth of tlie Yakima, is a vast sage desert." 



CHAPTER XXIV 

CONFEDERATED INDIAN WAR OF 1858 

WAR FLAMES KINDLED OVER A WIDE AREA CAUSES LEADING UP TO THE OUTBREAK OF 

TRIBES NORTH OF SNAKE RIVER YAKIMAS REPUDIATE TREATY AND MURDER THEIR 

AOENT STEVENS BITTERLY ASSAILS COMMANDER AT FORT VANCOUVER STEPTOE's 

ILL-FATED EXPEDITION HIS CANDID REPORT OF THE DIS\STROUS REPULSE. 

How sUt-p the brave wlio sink to rest 
By all their countrys wishes blest. 
Wlien spring, with dewy fingers cold. 
Returns to deck their hallowed mould, 
Slie there shall dress a sweeter sod 
Than fancy's feet have ever trod. 

By fairy hands tlieir knell is rung, 
By forms unseen their dirge is sung; 
There Honor comes, a pilgrim gray, 
To bless the turf tliat wraps their clay: 
And Freedom shall awiiile repair. 
To dwell a weeping hermit there. 

— William Collins. 

IT IS a fitting coincidence tii.it the United States government has establislied the 
military reservation of Fort George Wriglit on the very scene where that a!)le 
soldier, four and fifty years ago, dealt his final crushing blow to tile confed- 
erated hostile Indians in the war of 18,')8. By that victory a lasting peace was won, 
and this fair wild land made ready for awaiting pioneers. So condign was that 
defeat, so stern tlie treaty language of the stout soldier Wright that the spirit of 
angry insolence was forever driven from the red warrior's breast, and the Spokanes 
and Coeur d'Alenes have ever remained our enduring friends. 

If the reader, bent on liistoric search, will follow downward for two miles the 
west bank of the Spokane from its confluence with Hangman creek, his eye will 
fall on the scene where Wriglit and liis gallant command struck the river after their 
memorable running fight of fifteen miles. Retracing his steps a mile, lie will dis- 
cover, at a point one mile down stream from Hangman creek, the spot that was 
made their night encampment after that strenuous autumn day. 

If the reader care to continue his stroll on historic ground, and will seek out a 



222 SPOKANE AND THR INLAND EMPIRE 

point on the south bank of the Spokane two miles above the main falls, his foot 
will press the treaty grounds wiiere the broken and terrified Spokanes, responding to 
U right's imperious summons, gatliered in penitence and besought his mercy. 

Wright's campaign in the autunui of 1858 followed fast upon the disastrous re- 
pulse of Colonel Ste])toe at a point near the present flourishing town of Rosalia in 
HDrthern Whitman county. So charged with stirring interest are these events, so 
fraught with lasting consequences, that they constitute an essential episode in Spo- 
kane's history and that of the whole Inland Empire. Jt is therefore the author's 
purpose to devote to them a somewhat extended recital. 

The period passing between 1853 and 1858 was signalized by many savage In- 
dian uprisings throughout the Pacific northwest. At times within that period the 
skies were red with war flames from the Rogue river region of southern Oregon 
northward to Puget Sound, and from the western waters to the Rocky mountains. 
Some tribes of the interior had, in fact, maintained a constant attitude of haughty 
insolence since the Caj'use uprising in 1817 and the massacre, at Whitman mission 
near Walla Walla, of Dr. Marcus Whitman, Mrs. Narcissa Whitman and other mem- 
bers of their Jiousehold. 

Dissatisfaction existed in the minds of some of the interior tribes against cer- 
tain treaties which had been negotiated in 1855 bj' Isaac I. Stevens, who bore from 
the president of the United States a dual appointment as first governor of Washing- 
ton territory and commissioner emjxjwered to treat with all the Indian tribes of the 
vast interior from the Missouri to the Pacific. A number of chiefs protested that 
Stevens had failed to negotiate with the men who were authorized to bind their 
people by treaty obligations, and angrj' protests were made against some of the 
conditions of these treaties. 

The unrest was further intensified In* a long delay by the senate in its work of 
treaty ratification and by a conflict of oflicial opinion regarding the ultimate fate 
of the treaties at Washington. Army oflicers in the field were positive that ratifica- 
tion and an attempt by the government to enforce the treaties would preeijiitate a 
general uprising. Colonel E. J. Steptoe, then commanding at Fort Walla Walla, 
entered vigorous protest, declaring in a letter to the assistant adjutant-general at 
San l-'rancisco: 

"It is my duty to inform the gener.il lh.it Mr. J. Ross Brown, acting, as I believe, 
as an agent of the Indian Bureau, did. in a recent conversation ■with "La^vyer" the 
Nez Perces chief, assert that (i()\ernor Stevens' treaty of Walla Walla would cer- 
tainly he r.itified and enforced. Considering that this statement is in direct opposi- 
tion to wii.it tlu Indians have been told by us, and to what, as I believe, nearly all 
of them desire, it seems to me in very had taste, to say the least of it. Mr. Brown 
could not ))ossibly have known that the treaty will be ratified, and even if he had, 
the projjcr time to enlighten the Indians on the subject is obviously after it shall 
have become a law of the land. He had no right to unsettle the Indian's minds on 
a jioint respecting which his convictions are probably no stronger than the opposite 
belief of many others in daily intercourse with them. 

"I will sini])ly add that in my opinion any attempt to enforce that treaty wall be 
followed by immediate hostilities with most of the tribes in this part of the country; 
for which reason it does appear to me greatly desirable that .i new commission be 
appointed, and a new treaty made, tlioroiighly digested and accepted by both sides." 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 223 

Obviously it did not occur to Steptoe that if Brown erred in telling the Indians 
that the treaty would be ratified and enforced, himself and other army officers were 
alike at fault when they told the red men that it would not be ratified or enforced. 
Brown's rights as a prophet were at least ecpial to tiiose of Steptoe and Clarke, 
commanding the department of the Columbia. 

Ringleaders in this sorry business of repudiating treaties were the Yakimas. 
They had met Governor Stevens in the summer of 1855, entered into treaty relations 
and accepted agency rule, only, a few months later, to go on the warpath and mur- 
der their agent, A. J. Bolon, and a number of other white men in their country. 
These atrocities they followed up by defeating a detachment of United States troops 
under ^lajor Haller, and declared their determination to exterminate all the whites 
in the country. 

As we have seen, news of the Yakima war reached Ciovernor Stevens on October 
29, 1855, when returning from a council with the Blaekfoot nation in Montana. He 
was two days' march from old Fort Benton, head of navigation on the Missouri, 
when this alarming intelligence reached him by an express from Acting Governor 
Mason at Olympia, and his position became one of imminent peril. "At this time," 
to quote from his report to Jefferson Davis, then secretary of war, but within a few 
years to be making greater history as president of the southern Confederacy, "my 
party of twenty-five men were in this condition: our animals were poor and jaded 
from the constant express service in which they had been employed in the operations 
])reliminary to the Blaekfoot council; for our expresses had ranged from Saskatche- 
wan on the north, to the Yellowstone on the south ; they possessed but few arms and 
little ammunition, as we had, in coming up, found no use for them, passing through 
the territory of friendly Indians." 

Stevens, however, as we have seen in a preceding chapter, met the situation 
with his customary courage and vigor. 

The governor complained bitterly to the war department against the refusal of 
General Wool, commanding at Fort Vancouver, to dispatch regulars to his relief 
when it became apparent that he had been cut off from the settlements and his party 
was in imminent danger of destruction. "We had reached a place of safety unaided, 
excepting by the fortunate movements of the Oregon troops. Not a single man had 
been pushed forward to meet us, although it was well known we should cross the 
mountains about a certain time, and arrive at Walla Walla at the time we did." 

"Mr. Secretary," continues the indignant governor, "Major-General Wool, com- 
manding the Pacific division, neglected and refused to send a force to the relief of 
myself and party, when known to be in imminent danger, and believed by those who 
are best capable of judging, to be coming on to certain death; and this when he had 
at his command an efficient force of regular troops. It was reserved for the Oregon 
trooj)s to rescue us. There has been a breach of faith somewhere. I ask for an 
investigation into the whole matter." 

From Walla Walla the governor hastened to Olympia, to deal with the warlike 
Indians in the Puget Sound country. He found time, however, to map out a winter 
campaign against the warring savages of the interior, and went to Vancouver to lay 
it before General Wool, but missed that officer by a few hours. Wool having sailed 
from Portland for San Francisco. The limitations of this history forbid the presen- 
tation here of Stevens' plan in detail, but it may be said in passing that he advanced 



224 SPOKANE AND THE INF. AM) EMPIRE 

tliiTf a iloctriiic of successful Indian warfare which ultimately was applied some 
twenty years iattr in Indian wars on tin- great plains east of the Rocky mountains, 
after repeated failure had demonstrated that the old plan of spring and summer 
campaigns was powerless to strike effective i)lows. Stevens' advice was founded on 
tlie well known fact that when young grass comes in springtime, the Indian finds 
maintenance everywhere, and if menaced hy an invading enemy, has only lo disperse 
hispeoi)le in all directions to baffle and defeat pursuit. But in winter his people can 
not rove at will or |)leasure. They are required hy the rigors of climate to conccn- 
tr.-ite in sheltered i)laces, around their winter stores of provisions, while an invading 
force of regulars can transport supplies hy wagon and keep its horses in good con- 
dition by feeding grain. 

"I will resjiectfully urge," advises Stevens in a detailed communication to Wool, 
"tiiat you forward your preparations with all possiliK- dispatch, (let all of your 
disposable force in the Walla Walla valley in .lanuary. Establish a large dcl>ot 
cimi) liere: occupy Eort AA'all.i Wall.i and be ready early in February to take the 
field. February is generally a mild and o|)en month. February and .March are the 
favorable montlis for operating; all the Indians are destitute of food; the rivers are 
easy to cross; the mountain passes are closed. In Ajiril the Indians can retreat 
(iM the I'end <i'()reille route, eastward of the mountains. In .M.iy the Coilir d'Alene 
route is also open; the streams are swollen and the salmon begin to run. In June 
roots are ahund.mt and the streams difficult to cross. If o])erations he vigorously 
prosecuted in Febru.'irv and Mari-h. tlier<- is little prob.ability of any of the tribes 
now jK-aeeable, t/iking part in tin- war. This is the eonelusion to which I w/is brought 
b\- tile recent council lnld by me with tile Indian tribes on tile S|)okane." 

ll.id these reconnnend.itions been heeded, there is reason to believe that the inte- 
rior triius would h.ive i)een ])acified by early spring of 18.)(>, and history would 
not li.ive recorded the disastrous repulse of .Stejitoe in the summer of 18")8. Numer- 
ous .atrocities would ha\c been spared, .iiid thi t.isk of subjugating the hostilcs 
would have been far less difHeult .md expensive than it afterwards ])roved to be. 

Tiiis view is ably sust.iined by I.ieuten.mt .loim .Mullan. an oftic.r under Wright 
in 18r)8, and afterwards niadi' famous as surveyor .•lud builder of the historic Mullan 
trail. "Tile war feeling of lH")a." says this .luthority, "was not ended in 1858. 
.Manv mav join issue, but let tiu-m renumber tiiat .it the end of the winter campaign 
of 18;K) there was a uuit\i.al withdr.iwing of troops .and Indi.ms from tlu- field. In 
18.")7 no troops were sent into the field. The iuunigr.int routes were all blocked up 
in consetiuenee of difiieulties in the interior, ,ind thus no passage of persons was had 
through the hulLin enuntry. The eonuu.ind under Colonel Steptoe then tlial entered 
the country in ]8;J8 was tlu first military I'ori'e tliat tried the field since the .-ijjparent 
cessation of hostilities." 

It is true Ih.al .'sleptoe's littli- eomm.ind entered the eountry with no hostile in- 
tent. On tlie contrary, as Mullan says, .Stei)loe had ever been a firm frieiul of the 
Indians, and tiic objects of his exi)edition wire to ".adjust .amicably ,ill the difl'er- 
enccs that existed .among the Indians .ind whites that then had place at l''ort Col- 
villc; to punish those wlio had run ott' cattle from Walla Walla, aiul .it the s.nm 
time to ])roduce .1 moral effect on the Indians by moving a military colunni through 
the country, .and give his men .it the s.iiiie time .1 field experience." 

.Steptoe has been severely criticised for .ipp.irent o\ tr-confidence in the friendli- 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 225 

ness of the tribes north of the Snake, and the circumstance that his party came with 
an inade(juate supply of ammunition has been cited in substantiation of that belief. 
But the truth is, Steptoe had given orders for an adequate supply before leaving 
Walla Walla, but lamentably, as a survivor of the expedition, who served as pack- 
master, frankly confessed to the author a few years ago, the greater part of the 
ammunition that had been brought out for packing was overlooked in the excitement 
of the hour, and the loss was not detected until the party had entered the Spokane 
country and found itself surrounded by a vastly superior number of furious, taunt- 
ing warriors. 

Apparently no official explanation was made of the scant supply of ammunition, 
for General Winfield Scott, then commanding the army, commented in this terse 
manner on Steptoe's report: "This is a candid report of a disastrous affair. The 
small supply of ammunition is surprising and unaccounted for." 

It is not clear, however, that the disaster would have been averted if ammunition 
had been carried in quantity, for Steptoe's force was vastlv outnumbered by the 
enemy, a part of his soldiers carried old nnisketoons, an arm inferior to the rifles 
borne by some of the Indians, and a part of the command were recent recruits who 
had never been under fire and were inexperienced in field service. It seems probable 
that with a greater ammunition supply Steptoe would not have made his successful 
night retreat, and that with the return of day the Indians — who had surrounded his 
position — would have charged his camp and annihilated his command. Even if 
they had lacked the courage to close in, they would have renewed the battle and 
subjected the troops to a repetition of the galling attack as it slowly retreated toward 
the Snake. In that event it seems certain, too, that the enemy would have sent a 
sufficient force to the river to capture Steptoe's canoes and thus cut off his retreat to 
Walla Walla. 

Steptoe's official report of his repulse bears evidence of candor, truthfulness and 
moral courage. Writing, May 23, from Fort Walla Walla, to Major W. M. Mackall, 
assistant adjutant-general stationed at San Francisco, he said: 

"Major: On the second instant I informed you of my intention to move north- 
ward with a part of my command. Accordingly on the 6th I left here with compa- 
nies C, E and H, First dragoons (the term then employed for mounted men) and E, 
Ninth infantry, in all, five company officers and 152 enlisted men. Hearing that the 
hostile Pelouses were near Al-pon-on-we, in the Nez Perces land, I moved to that 
point and was ferried across Snake river by Timothy, a Nez Perces chief. The 
enemy fled towards the north and I followed leisurely on the road to Colville. On 
Sunday morning, the 16th, when near the Te-hoto-nim-me (probably Pine creek) 
in the Spokane country, we found ourselves suddenly in presence of ten or twelve 
hundred Indians of various tribes — Spokanes, Pelouses, Coeur d'Alenes, Yakimas 
and some others — all armed, painted and defiant. I moved slowly on until just 
about to enter a ravine that wound along the bases of several hills which were all 
crowned by the excited savages. Perceiving that it was their purpose to attack us 
in this dangerous place, I turned aside and encamped, the whole wild, frenzied mass 
moving parallel to us, and, by yells, taunts and menaces apparently trying to drive 
us to some initiatory act of violence. 

"Towards night a number of chiefs rode up to talk with me, and inquired what" 
were our motives to this intrusion upon them. I answered that we were passing on 



226 SI'OK.Wl'. AND 'I'lIK IMAM) IIMI'IKH 

to C'olvillf, and li iii iki lidstilr iMliiiticiiis towards tlie Spokancs, who had alwa_vs bciii 
our friends, nor towards anv other tril)is wlio wire friendly ; tliat my cliief aim in 
coming so far was to see the Indians and tlie white people at C'olville, and by friendly 
discussion with both, endeavor to strengthen their good feelings for each other. They 
expressed themselves satisfied, but would not eonsent to let me have canoes, without 
which it would be impossible to cross the .Spokane river. I concluded, for this rea- 
son, to retrace my steps at once, and the next nioniing (ITtli) turned back towards 
this post. 

"We Ii.-id not marched tiiree miles when the Indians, who had gathered on the 
hills adjoining the line of march, began an attack u|)on the rear guard, and immedi- 
ately the tight became general. We Labored under the great dis.idvant.age of having 
to defend the pack tr.iin while in motion and in .i rolling country peculiarly favorable 
to the Indian mode of w.irfarc. We liad oidy a small (luantity of ammunition, but in 
tluir excitement the soldiers could not be restr.ained from firing it in the wildest 
manner. Thej' did, however, under the leading of their respective commanders, sus- 
tain well the reputation of the .army for some hours, charging the enemy repeatedly 
with g.ill.intry and success. 

"The difficult and dangerous duty of Hanking tile eolunm was assigned to Brevet 
Capt.iin T.iylor ,ind Lieutenant (iaston. to both of whom it proved fatal. The latter 
fell about 1 '2 o'clock, .ind the enemy soon after ch.irging formally upon his com- 
pany, it fell b.ack in confusion .and could not be r.allied. 

"About .a li.aif hour .after this Captain Taylor was brought in niortalh- wounded; 
ujion which I inunediately took jiossession of .a convenient height and halted. The 
fight contiiMied here with unabated activity; the Indians occupying neighboring 
heights and working themsilves along to pick off our men. The wounded increased 
in innnber continually. Twice the enemy gave umnistak.ible evidence of a design 
to carry our jjosition by ass.ault, and their number and desperate courage caused mc 
to fear the most serious consequences to us from such ,in attempt on their part. 

"It was manifest that the loss of their officers .and comrades began to tell u))on 
the spirit of the soldiers; that they were becoming discouraged, and not to be relied 
upon with confidence. Some of them were recruits but recently joined; two of the 
conip.inies had inusketoons, which were utterly worthless to us in our present condi- 
tion; and, wh.at was most alarming, only two or three rounds of cartridges remained 
to sonii' of the men, and but few to .any of them. 

"It was plain th.it the <neniy would give the troo))s !io rest during the night, 
and they would be still further disqu.alified for stout resistance on the morrow, while 
the nmnber of enemies would certainly be increased. I determined for these rea- 
sons, to make a forced m.arch to .Sn.ike river, about eighty-five miles distant, and se- 
cure the canoes in advance of the Indians, who had .already tlire.itened to do the 
same in regard to us. After consulting with the officers, .all of whom urged nie to the 
stej) as the only means, in their o|)inion, of securing the safety of the conmi.ind, I 
concluded to abandon everything th.it might ini|)ede our march. Accordingly we 
set out .about 10 o'clock in perfectly good order, leaving the disabled .animals .and 
such .as Were not iir condition to travel so far and so fast, .and, with dee)) ))ain I have 
to .add, the two howitz( rs. The lU'Ccssity for this Last measure will give vou, as well 
as many words, a conception of the strait to which we believed ourselves reduced. 
Not .-m otiie( r ol' the eonuii.and (lci\ililiil that we would be ii\ crwlicliued with tlir first 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 227 

rush of the enemy upon our position in the morning; to retreat further bj* day, with 
our wounded men and property, was out of tlie question ; to retreat slowly by night 
equally so, as we could not then be in position to fight all next day ; it was therefore 
necessary to relieve ourselves of all incumbrances and to fly. We had no horses able 
to carry the ginis over eighty miles without resting, and if the enemy should attack 
us en route, 'as, from their ferocity, we certainly expected they would, not a soldier 
could be sj)ared for any other duty than skirmishing. For these reasons, which, I 
own candidly, seemed to me more cogent at the time than they do now, I resolved 
to bury the howitzers. What distresses me is that no attempt was made to bring 
them off; and all I can add is, that if this was an error of judgment it was committed 
after the calmest discussion of the matter, in which, I believe, every officer agreed 
with me. 

"Enclosed is a list of the killed and wounded. The enemy acknowledged a loss 
of nine killed and forty or fifty wounded, many of them mortally. It is known to 
us that this is an underestimate, for one of the officers informs us that on a single 
spot where Lieutenants Gregg and Gaston met in a joint charge twelve dead Indians 
were counted. Many others were seen to fall. 

"I can not do justice in this communication to the conduct of the officers through- 
out the affair. The gallant bearing of each and all was accompanied by an admirable 
coolness and sound judgment. To the skill and promptness of Assistant Surgeon 
Randolpli tile wounded are deeply indebted. 

"Ik" pleased to excuse the hasty a]j])earance of this letter; I am anxious to get it 
off, and have not time to have it transcribed. 

"I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"E. J. Steptoe, 
"Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel United States Army." 



CHAPTER XXV 

DETAILED ACCOUNT OF THE STEPTOE RETREAT 

INDIAN HOSTILITY A SURPRISE HOSTILES OPEN FIRE OFFICIAL REPORT OF KILLED 

AND WOUNDED — ^FATHER JOSEt's ACCOUNT OF THE TRAGEDY DEVILISH INTRIGUES 

OF THE PALOUSES RECOLLECTIONS OF A SURVIVOR STEPTOE SAVED FROM ANNI- 
HILATION BY NEZ PERCE ALLIES FAITHFUL OLD TIMOTHY MEMORIAL PARK 

MARKS THE SITE OF STEPTOE's LAST STAND PATRIOTIC GIFT OF DAUGHTERS OP 

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 

In all the trade of war, no feat 
Is nobler than a brave retreat. 

— Butler's Hudibras. 

LIEUTENANT GREGG, in Steptoe's command, wrote to a friend at Fort 
Vancouver that when they left Walla Walla no one thought of having an 
encounter, for the Spokanes had always been considered as friends of the 
whites. It was therefore a surprise when these Indians halted the soldiers and pro- 
tested against their further advance into the country. Gregg reported that the 
Indians were well mounted, armed principally with rifles, and were extended 
along Steptoe's flank at a distance of 100 yards. After Steptoe had talked with 
the chiefs he informed his officers that they would have to fight, as the Indians 
were constantly growing more menacing and insulting. The soldiers dared not 
dismount, and remained in the saddle for three hours until the Indians dispersed 
with the setting of the sun. 

This was Sunday, the 16th, and the morning following the command started 
on the retrograde movement towards Walla Walla. The Indians opened fire as the 
troops were crossing a little stream, and within twenty minutes the firing was gen- 
eral. Gregg reported the losses' at two officers, five men and three friendly Indians 
killed, ten men wounded, and Sergeant Ball, who had greatly distinguished himself 
in the action, as missing. He added, "It will take a thousand men to go into the 
Spokane country." 

OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE KILLED, WOUNDED AND MISSING IN THE BATTLE AT TE-HOTQ- 

NIM-ME, M.\Y 17, 1858. 

Killed — Brevet Captain O. H. Taylor, Second Lieutenant William Gaston, 
Privates Alfred Barnes, Charles H. Harnish, .Tames Crozet, Victor Charles DeMoy, 
First Sergeant William C. Williams. 

229 



230 Sl'OKANF. AM) 11 1 1. IM.WI) l.MIMltK 

Wounded — .laiiu-s I.yncli. IKiiry .M()iilr<\ ill< . I'.lijali R. IJircli, Jauics Kelly, 
^^'illi.•lln D. Mieon. Hariet Sneckster, James Healy, Maurice Henley, Charles 
Hughes, John Mitclull, Ormond W. Hammond. John Klay and Gotlieh Berger. 

After the eonnn.ind liad retreated to Walla Walla intcnsi- and bitter interest 
centered around the source of tin- Indians' suiJjjly of anmuinition, and unjust and 
unfounded rumor asserted that I'atlier Joset, the Jesuit priest at the Coeur d'Alene 
mission, had supjilied it. In an ortieial re|)ort Ste[)toe discredited that rumor, and 
gave his belief that it liad been supplied either by the traders at Fort Colvillc or 
the Mormons from the L tali country. Father Joset was deeply grieved by the cruel 
rumor, and said to Steptoe that it was a charge too monstrous for him to notice in 
;i formal way. 

It is not didieult. now. to comprehend the origin of a story so diametrically in 
conflict with the truth. Trom the beginning of the unrest. I-ather .loset had pleadi-d 
inccssantlv with tin Indians lor ))eace. As a result of his labors, a large number of 
the Coeur d'Alencs, probably half of the tribe, bad declined to be drawn into the 
fighting. In his zeal to ))revent the impending clash, the i)riest had followed 
his wards to the very point of eontlict. remonstrating with tbcni till bis own 
life was imperilled. \\ ben the soldiers, not understanding bis motives, saw 
this man of God mingling with their s.i\age enemies, they were startled, and sjjrang 
to the conclusion that be had been instriinuiit.il in infl.iming their minds, and out 
of that belief grew the wild rumor tli.it be bad supplied them with ammunition. 

We quote now from a letter of Father Joset, to Father Congiato, superior of 
the missions in the Rocky niount.iins. in relation to 'the events of the unfortunate 
17th of May, and of the causes wliieb have brought such sad results': 

"Do not think, my reverend father, that I am beknowing to .-ill the affairs of the 
savages; there is a gre.at dr.il w.inting: tln-y eoiiu- to us about the alT.airs of their 

conscience, but .is to the rest they consult us but little \ftc r the b.ittle 

Hoiiaventure, one of the best young men in the nation, who was not in the fight, 
and who, as I will tell later. Ii.is .aided us n great deal in saving the lives of the 
.Americans at the mission at the time of the b.ittle, said to me, 'Do you think that 
if we thought to kill the Americans we would tell you so?' Even among the Coeur 
d'Alenes there is .-i eirt.iiii number that ui never see, tb.it I do not know in .any 
manner. The m.ajorily distrust nie uIhii 1 eonir to s))i'.ik in f.ivor of the .\niiri- 
c.ins. 

"Last winter Michelle said to me: "F'/itlicr. if the soldiers exhibit themselves in 
the country (of the mountains) the Iiidi.ins will become furious.' T had heard 
rumors that a det.aelunent would eoiiic to Colville, and I iutendi-d to go to inform 
Colonel Steptoe of this disposition oi the Indians. Toward the bcginnitig of 
.April it was learned that an .\meric.-in ii.id been assassin.ated by :\ Xez Perce. Im- 
mediately rumor commences to cireul.ite th.-it troojis were jirrp.iring to cross the 
Nez Pcrces ftlic ."^iLike river) to obtain \x;ngeanee for this crime. Tow.ird the end 
of .\pril at the time of my departure the chief. Pierre Prulin. told lue not to go 
now; to wait some weeks to see what turn .itV.iirs are going to t.-ikc . 'I .am too hur- 
ried,' I rejiliid III liini. 'I e.an iml wait.' .\rri\i(l .at the Cain.as |ir;iirii-. I nut the 
express of tin- gn-.it eliirf N'iiui nl : Ibis lolil ine to return, bis peojile tliouglit there 
w.as too inueb d.auger .al lli.il nmnirnl. I ri plied that I w.as going to wait three 
davs to give Ibr ebicf time tn (iml ini biuisrlf; tb.it if In- did not eoiiic I would 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 231 

continue nij' route. I said to myself, if Vincent believes really in the greatness 
of the danger, however bad or liowever long the road may be, he will not fail to 
come. In the meantime I saw several Nez Perces. Their conversation was gen- 
erally against the Americans. One of them said in my presence, 'We will not be 
able to bring the Coeur d'Alenes to take part with us against the Americans ; the 
priest is the cause; for this we wish to kill the priest.' 

"Vincent marched day and night to find me. He said 'We are not on good 
terms with the Nez Perces and the Palouses ; they are after us without cessation 
to determine us in the war against the Americans. We are so fatigued with their 
underhand dealings that I do not know if we will not come to break with them entire- 
ly. Their spies cover the country. When the young men go for horses, they will 
kill them secretly and start the report that they have been killed by the Americans. 
Then there will not be any means to restrain our people. We hear the chief of 
the soldiers spoken of only by the Nez Perces, and it is all against us and to 
excite our young people. I have great desire to go to see him (Steptoe).' 

"It was agreed that when I should go down I should take him to see the colonel. 
It is then I learned a part of the rumors which were spreading over the country. 
A white man had said: 'Poor Indians, you are finished now; the soldiers are pre- 
paring to cross the river to destroy you; then another five hundred soldiers will go 
to establish themselves at Colville ; then five hundred others will join tlum ; then 
others and otliers till they find themselves the strongest; then they will chase the 
Indians from the country.' 

"Still another white man had seen five hundred soldiers encamped upon the Pa- 
louse preparing tliemselves to cross the river. All the above passed three weeks 
before the last events. Among other things Vincent said to me: 'If the troops are 
coming to pass the river, I am sure the Nez Perces are going to direct tliem upon 
us. . . ' 

"On the l.Hh of Mav I received another ex]iress from Vincent. The troops 
had jiassed the Nez Perces (the Snake) ; they had said to the Coeur d'Alenes that 
it was for them the soldiers wished. Vincent desired me to go to aid him in pre- 
venting a conflict. He told me to be quick — the troops were near. I set out in an 
instant. . . . Tlie distance from the mission to Vincent's camp was, I think, 
about 90 miles; as the water was very high. I could only arrive on tiie evening of 
the 16th. Vincent told me lie had been kept very busy to restrain liis young men; 
that he had been at first to the chief of the soldiers, and had asked him if he had 
come to fight the Coeur d'Alenes; that upon his negative reply he had said: 'Well, 
go on,' but to his great displeasure he liad eanijied in his neighborliood : th.it then 
he had made his people retire. Still a liloodthirsty Palouse was endeavoring to 
excite them. Later other Indians confirmed to me the same re))ort ; they were 
Vincent and the .Sjiokane's chief who prevented the fight on the l;)th. The chiefs 
of the different tribes and a quantity of other Indians gathered around me. I 
spoke to them to persuade them to peace. I told them that they did not know 
with what intention the chief of the soldiers was coming; that the next day they 
should bring me a horse, and that they might accompany me till in sight of the 
soldiers; that I would tlien go alone to find the officers in command, and would 
make them to know then what was now doubtful; they a])]ieared well satisfied. I 
said still to Vincent to see tliat no ])erson took tlie advance. 



232 SI'OKANK AM) llli: IM.AM) I'.M I'l UK 

"Tlif saiiu- fvining tin y c.iiiic from tlu- ciiiip (it tin- Paloust-s to aiinouncf that 
one of tlic slaves of the soldiers (it is thus that tli.v call the Indians wiio acconi- 
l)an.v the troops) had just arrived. The ehief of the soldiers had said, according to 
him. '\on C'oeur il'. Mines, ymi are well Ici do ; vdiir lands, your women, are ours.' 
1 told the Coeur d'Alenes not to believe it: that no olHcer ever spoke in that way; 
tomorrow, I said, I will ask the chief of the soldiers if he has said that. 

"The next morning I saw the Spokane's Tshequyseken (medicine man). .Said 
he to me: 'Yesterday evening I was with the ehief of the soldiers when a P.ilouse 
came to tell him that the priest had just arrived: he has brought some powder to 
the Coeur d'Alenes to encourage them to kill tin- soldiers.' Then, turning around 
towards tlie Coeur d'Alenes I said: 'Do you sec now the deceit of this people.' They 
go and slander us before the soldiers, and slander the soldiers lure.' 

'A\lirii they hail brought rue a horsi- I wi'ut to the eanij) of the soldiers: they 
were far off. I set out in their direction to join thiin. I s,iw Colonel Steptoe, 
made him acquainted witli the dis))ositions of the Indians, the mistrust the presence 
of the troo])s would ins])ire, and \w\v 1 had been kept from going to inform him 
in the spring. . . . I 'asked him if he did not desire to see the chiefs. l'))oii 
his rci)ly that his dragoon horses were too nnieh frightened to stop long, I observed 
to him that they could talk in marching: he then said he would take pleasure in 
seeing them. I went to seek them, but could find only Vincent: him I conducted 
to the Colonel: he was fully satisfied with him. One of the Indians who accom- 
panied the troops g.ave Vincent a blow over the shoulders with his whip, saying to 
him, 'Proud man. why do you not fire?' and then accused one of the Coeur d'Alenes 
who had followed \'incent of having wished to fire i:pon a soldier. Vincent was 
replying to the colonel when his uncle came to seek him, saying the Palouses 
were about commencing to fire. I warned the colonel of it and then went with 
Vincent to try and restr.iin the Spokanes and Coeur d'Alenes; when we had made 
them acquainted with the disposition of the colonel they appeared well satisfied. 
\'ictor. one of the braves who has since died of his wounds, said. 'We have nothing 
more to do here, we will each one go to his liome.' .lean Pierre, the ehief. su|)ported 
till proposition of \'ietor: then Malkapsi beeami- furious. I did not at the time 
know why. I found out later that he wished .all to go to the camp of Viiu'ent to 
t.alk over their affairs. .M.ilk.i))si slapjied .lean Pierre, and struck Victor with the 
handle of his whip. I seized the infuri.iti d man anil :\ few words sufficed to e.ilm 
him. 

"I set mil tliin with a few chiefs to .•iiniounee at the eanqi that all uas trau- 
(|uil; .1 h.-ilf hour or an hour later, what was my surprise to learn th.it they were 
fighting. I h.id to .ask for a horse, and there was in the cam)) only old men and 
women: it was about three o'clock when they brought me a heavv w.igon horse. I 
set mil. howe\er, with the hope of getting there by night, when I w.is met bv an 
Indian who told me it was useless to f.atigue myself, 'the Indians .are enraged at 
the death of their ))eople, they will listen to no one,' whereupon J returned to my 
tent, the dagger in my heart. 

"The following is the cause of this unliapjiy conflict as it has been related to 
Tiir: 'I'he parents of Malkapsi, irritated .and ashanu-d of his passion, s.aid to him, 
'What do you do? You m.altre.at your own people. If ydii wish to (iirht. behold 
your enemies' fpointing to the troo|)s). then s.aying. 'Oh. uell hi us <fo and die.' 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 233 

they ran towards the troops. I do not think there was more than a dozen of them. 
The affair did not become serious until Jacques, an excellent Indian, well beloved, 
and Zachariah, brother-in-law of the great chief Vincent, had been killed; then the 
fury of the Indians knew no bounds. 

"The next day I asked those that I saw, 'What provocation have you received 
from the troops.'"' 'None,' said they. "Then you are only murderers, the authors 
of the death of your own people.' 'That is true ; the fault can in no way be attrib- 
uted to the soldiers. Malkapsi is the cause of all the evil.' 

"But they were not all so well disposed. When I asked others what the soldiers 
had done to them, they replied to me: 'And what have we done to them that they 
should come thus to seek us; if they were going to Colville,' said they, 'why do 
they not take the road; no one of us would then think of molesting them? Why do 
they go to cross the Nez Perces so high up ? Why direct themselves in the interior of 
our country, removing themselves further from Colville.'' Is it us who have been to 
seek the soldiers, or the soldiers who have come to fall on us with their cannon?' 
Thus, although they avow that they fired first, they pretend that the first act of 
hostility came from the troops. I asked them if they had taken scalps. They told 
me no, with the exception of a small piece that had been taken by a half fool. I 
asked them also if they had interred the dead. They replied that the women 
had buried them, but that the Palouses had opened the graves which were at the 
encampment. It is then also that the Indians told me: 'We see now that the father 
did not deceive us when he told us that the soldiers wished peace. We forced them 
to fight. We fired a long time upon tliem before they answered our fire.' . . . 

"You will easily believe me, my reverend fatiier. wlun I tell you I would pur- 
chase back with my life this unhappy event; not on my own account; I have been 
and will be much slandered; but what are the judgments of man to me, when God 
is my witness that I have done everything in my power to preserve peace? . . . 

"I am, with respect, my reverend father, your very humble servant. 

P. .JOSET, S. J." 

Father Joset accused Steptoe's Nez Perce guides with intriguing to bring on a 
clash of arms between the troops and the Spokanes and Coeur d'Alenes, alleging 
as a motive their desire to settle old feuds against those tribes, and believing that 
the soldiers would easily defeat and humiliate their enemies. Without question 
the guides directed the command to tlie wrong road, as the direct and natural route 
to Colville would have led the party more to the west and towards a crossing further 
down the Spokane. That the guide mistook himself so grossly, he declares, would 
be absurd to supjjose. "I see no other way to explain his conduct than to say he 
laid a snare for the Coeur d'Alenes wliom lie wished to humiliate, and seeing after- 
wards the troops fall in the ditch that he had dug for others, he has done every- 
thing possible to draw them from it." 

Poor, faithful old Timothy, for his fidelity to the whites can not be doubted, 
even though, as Joset charges, lie fell into a design to use them to humiliate a tribal 
enemy, was doubly unfortunate in falling under a eloiid of suspicion; for Beall 
tells us that when Timothy came in from his ]5erilous work of scouting in search of 
an opening thr(mgh which the exhausted command might retreat to Walla Walla, a 



234 SPOKANE AND THE INLAND IMI'IRE 

iuiMil)iT iif tlif soldiers (|U(sti(MU(i his fi(iilit\-. anil ijiuniiiin il that lie was lictraying 
till-Ill into tlir li.inds nt' tlic savage foe, and Hciiild had the in t(i ainlmsli and de- 
struction. 

The Palouses were .Ma(hia\ illian in thi ir chvilish work of embittering the 
S])olianes and C'oeur d'Alenes against tiie wiiites. They made it their chief mission 
to circulate false rumors, always attributing evil designs to the soldiers, and were 
deplorably successful in their scheme of ])oisoning the minds of their childlike and 
credulous dupes. Lieutenant !Mullan h.is expressed his deepest contempt for the 
niiseliief-making role of these Indians, whose trii)e. he avers, was made up of 
renegades from every other tribe in tlic interior. 'I'luy l)ore "a most unenviable 
ri'putation for lying and thieving — their best of traits," and he adds that witii 
such men for newsmongers and siieh men for eouneillors it is not surprising to know 
that the Indians who had been friiiidly were misled and misinformed regarding 
the intentions of tiie white peojde. 'riiey liad been tnid that tlie prim;iry and prin- 
cipal object was for the extermination of the Indi.in .and to ))ut the wiiite man in 
possession of his women, his wives, his lands, iiis ,ill. 

During all of tiiis time, continues Mullan, the Jesuit fatliers had been indefat- 
igable in their e.\ertions to preserve peace. They pleaded early and late, till their 
weak voices were drowned in the stronger voices of the hostiles crj'ing for war, 
until their very motives were suspected and impugned and they themselves threat- 
ened with a fate which the agitators had now planned for all the whites. 

Fifty years after, Major ,1. G. Trimble, a survivor of the battle, residing then 
at Berkeley, California, wrote a gr;i])hie reminiscence of the retreat: "The com- 
mand arrived at the iiutte (scene of .'^tl■|)toe's final stand) about the middle of the 
afternoon. The uninjured men spread out in skirmish lines along the north and 
east sides of the butte, seeking refuge behind tufts of bunch-grass. Behind them 
were placed the su))])lies. the wounded and the two howitzers. Tiie wounded suf- 
fered severely. I'lie nun had been without food since daybreak, and without sleep 
for more than 2 1 hours. 

"Tlu- Indians kejit attacking ijersistently. They tied buneh-gr.iss to their heads 
and tiieii wriggled like snakes through the tall gr.-iss. To add to the desperation 
of tile situation, the command was running short of ammunition, it h;i\ing started 
with only .'SO rounds to the man. 

"When evening fell the Indi.ans ceased tiring, but their eanipllres lila/ed all 
round and made the attenijited sortie dangerous. Flight was the only course left. 
The howitzers were buried and the dead interred. The wounded were tied to 
horses, the white horses being coverid witli dark blankets. A few mules were 
))icketed to one siih' to suggest some sort of traji to the wary savages, and at 9 
o'clock at night the comm.ind set forth under the guidance of the Nez Perces. 

"Through all the we.ary night the men rode, reaching the P.ilouse hills at day- 
break. When they Iiad crossed tin riM r a halt was m.ide .and some semblance of 
order restored to the command. Inil there uas no food to ln' had. Six men were 
missing, iirobabh' becoming losi in I lie hurried flight tliroiiuli the dark, '("he rest 
of the comm.and soon mounted the j.ided horses .■ind rode li.ird tow.irds the Snake 
river. 

"About dusk the troops reaeliiil tin lop of the long rough descent to the river 
now known ;is .Steptoe e.anvon. .and at inidniglit they got to the ri\-er. .'ind tiie faith- 




ROSALIA, WASH IM; Tu.\ 



Over this ground Steptoe's command retreated in 1858, |Hirsued by one thousand howling, 

painted warriors. Within a stone's throw of this scene he made 

his last stand against the hostiles 



THE ^£W I'ORK 

FU8UC LIBRARY 



liLCtH FCIUKOATICNI 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 235 

ful Nez Perces were there. A strong body of them climbed to the top of the canyon 
and stood guard till daylight, when the troops crossed the river. The squaws suc- 
cored the wounded and broiled salmon for the nearly famished men. Had the Nez 
Perces not remained faithful, it is probable that the entire command would have 
been destroyed." 

According to Trimble the equipment was |)oor. One company had Mississippi 
Yager rifles, an arm that carried well but could not be loaded on horseback. The 
others fought with musketoons, which carried one ball and three buckshot, but 
these gims were of no execution at more than fifty yards. Tlie men also had old- 
fashioned, single barrel, muzzle-loading pistolets, decidedly inferior to those of the 
Indians. These arms were inferior to the Hudson's Bay rifles of the Indians, and 
only the determined bravery of the troops, in repeatedly charging the yelling sav- 
ages saved the command from destruction in the running fight along Pine creek. 
Years afterward, when the smiling arts of peace had conquered these scenes of 
former warlike aspect, a number of these antiquated arms were turned by the plough 
again to the sunshine and the winds. In the heat and stress of battle, weary sol- 
diers, their ammunition gone, had cast them away. And j-ears later, wheels of the 
howitzer carriages were taken from a deep ])ool in Pine creek, near the base of 
battle hill. 

Lieutenant Lawrence Kip, an officer in Wright's expedition, expressed the con- 
sensus of official judgment in holding that the retreat was necessary, and, under the 
circumstances, admirably conducted. "Night at last settled down on the battle- 
field and found the little command perfectly exhausted and with the ammunition 
almost gone," wrote Kip. Two officers— Captain Oliver H. P. Taylor and Lieu- 
tenant William Gaston, both of the Eirst dragoons-— had fallen with a number of 
men. The remainder were gathered On rising ground, while every hill around 
swarmed with tlieir exulting enemies who seemed to have them now completely in 
tiieir toils. 1 _. 

"A council of the officers was hastily held by Colonel Steptoe at which there 
was but one opinion. The force against them was over])owering, and by the next 
morning would undoubtedly be still further increased. Without ammunition they 
would be almost defenseless, and it was evident that long before the close of the . 
next day not one of the command would be left to tell the storv of their fight. 

"Nothing remained therefore but to .■■ttempt a retreat during tlie night. The 
bodies of the fallen whieli were within their reach were liuried, the two howitzers 
were cached, and the command mounted and stru.'k off in the direction of the Snake 
river." 

In every account of this sad affair the author has discovered an earnest desire 
to conniiend the fidelity and fine intelligeiiee of our Nez Perce allies. They saved 
the eonnnaiid from aiiniiiilation. It w;is tlie writer's good fortune, in the spring of 
19(17, to meet a little group of the survivors who were visiting Rosalia as guests of 
the townspeople. In the work of relocating the various jioints of interest they lived 
again in the wild, free jiast. and m.iny an eye was dim with tears as these grizzled 
veterans strode still sturdily over the hills and through the jileasant meadows where 
half a century before they had fouglit so desjierately for life. The ))rosperous town 
has preenijjted a considcralile jiDrtion of the old battlefield, and stragtrles out to the 
base of the low hill wlure the list stand was made. The little vallev of Pine creek 



236 SPOKANE AND TIIK INLAND K.MIMHK 

lies at its base, and across tills meadow and up tin- liill was earried tin- siip|)ly of 
water that saved the lives of wounded soldiers and served to refresh tlu weary 
comrades who fougiit so gallantly to save the command. 

Particularly clear and vivid were the recollections of Private Thomas J. Beall, 
and the lapse of fifty years had not dulled his firatitude to the faithful Nez Perce 
guides. He recalled their names with fondest reeolleetion — pious names they bore 
in token of the labors of zealous mission bands. There was Timothy, a chief, 
and Levi and .^^inion. and half-breed Ch.arlie Connors, "who was killed on yonder 
hill the night that we escaped." 

In the dusk of tlie summer iii<;iit loyal 'riiiiotliy volunteered to seout under 
cover of darkness out beyond the skirmish line, in search of some jiossible opening 
in that terrible cordon of savage foes. And .Stei)toe accepted the brave service, 
and never questioned Timothy's loyalty or judttment when he returned after an 
hour of perilous adventure and rei)orted th.it he h.id found a ga)) and through it 
could lead the soldiers, perhaps to safety and home. The w.iy led across the little 
valley, over a shallow in the stream, .and tiiiiie.- up a stee)) hill on tii<- other side, 
so steep indeed that the hostile Indians had not thought it wortli tiieir whil.- to 
guard. 

Three survivors of the Stcptoe and Wright campaigns went over the extended 
Stcptoe battlefield at Rosalia, Whitman county, June 14.th, 1907, and explained 
to nearly sixty visitors from .Spokane and many citizens of Ros.ilia. the scenes and 
stirring events in that dis.istrous (iglit. These survivors were Thomas .1. Beall, 
who now lives near Juliaetta, Idaho. He was Colonel Steptoe's chief-packmaster 
in the Steptoe battle: Michael .1. Kenny who also took part in the battle and Avho 
came to the reunion from Wall.i Walla: .1. .T. Rohn. also from Walla Walla, who 
was with Colonel Wright's eoimnand the following autunm and was a i)art of the 
detachment sent by Colonel Wright to the scene of the Steptoe battle, to recover 
the remains of the officers and men who fell in that action. 

A memorial park marks now the site of Steptoe's last stand. Citizens of Rosalia 
donated three acres, and Esther Reed chai)ter of Spokane of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution has taken up the commendable work of cneting tlure an 
enduring monument to the memory of the soldier band who fought with such 
heroic fortitude in order that we who came after, and our children ;ind children's 
children might h.ive tiie i.les.sing of enduring peae<-. Tile chapter li.as pledged the 
completion of that work, and the historic eminence will bear a fitting granite obe- 
lisk. 

The site was form.illy dedic.ited. .lime 1.'-. 1!)().S. with an iiiijiressive jirogr.imme 
before an assemblage of more than 1,000 people. Special trains brought two hun- 
dred regulars from Fort Wright and interested citizens from Spokane and Colfax, 
and the visitors were met in Rosalia by a special reception committee comprising 
Mayor F. M. Campbell and Mrs. Campbell, Tom Priehard, marsh.il of the day, 
a.ssi.sted by L. W. Anderson; Mr. and Mrs. M. E. Cheat, Mr. and Mrs. Charles 
Helmer, Mr. .and Mrs. F. J. Wilmer. Mr. and Mrs. Ralston McCaig, Mr. and 
Mrs. M. W. Mcrritt, Mrs. T. R. Lewis, Miss Kate Woods, S. \V. Towne, T. F. 
Donohoe, E. W. Wagner and others. 

Esther Rei-d ch.ipler was represented by Mr,. M. .1. Cordon, regent: Mrs. F. H. 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 237 

Crombic, vice-regent; ^Irs. J. W. Maclntosli, recording secretary; Mrs. J. S. Moore, 
registrar; Mrs. William H. Smiley, treasurer, and Mrs. J. T. Cooper, director. 

A procession was formed and marched to the battle ground, and arrived there, 
the Colfax band played patriotic airs while the jjeople cheered and waved flags. 
Prayer was offered by the Rev. F. N. Smith of Rosalia, and H. ]M. West, on behalf 
of the citizens of Rosalia presented the deed of gift of the park to J. R. Rupley, 
chairman of the Whitman couijty board of commissioners. Mrs. M. A. Phelps, 
chairman of the Steptoe Monument association, responded to the presentation of 
the deed on behalf of the Daughters of the American Revolution. General T. R. 
Tannatt of Spokane, a member of the West Point Graduates association whose long 
army service in the west had brought him into intimate relationship with many of 
the officers who fought in the Indian wars of the '50s, reviewed the careers of 
Taylor, Gaston and Gregg. 

In the afternoon formal and eloquent addresses were made by Governor Albert 
E. Mead, Colonel Lea Febiger, then commanding at Fort Wright, and Judge Stephen 
J. Chadwick, then of the superior bench of Whitman county and later of the state 
supreme court. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

COLONEL WRIGHT'S CAMPAIGN OF REPRISAL 

WAR DEPARTMENT ACTS WITH QUICK VIGOR STRONG COMMAND SENT OUT FROJI WALLA 

WALLA SAVAGES MASS FOR THE CONFLICT ARE INSOLENT AND DEFIANT BOLDLY 

ATTACK THE TROOPS ARE ROUTED WITH HEAVY LOSS NEAR MEDICAL LAKE LT. 

KIp's GRAPHIC ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE WILD FLIGHT OF THE ALLIES NEZ PER- 

CES CELEBRATE WITH A WAR DANCE HOSTILES RALLY FOR ANOTHER ATTACK FIRE 

THE PRAIRIE GRASS SCENES OF WILD CONFUSION BATTLE OF THE SPOKANE PLAINS. 

The setting sun 
With yellow radiance lightened all the vale: 
And, as the warriors moved, each polished helm 
Corslet, or spear, glanced back in gilded beams. 
The hill they climbed ; and halting at its top, 
Of more than mortal size, towering they deemed 
An host angelic clad in burning arms. 

— John Home. 

THE war deiiartraent was quick to grasp the unpleasant fact that Steptoe's 
repulse made necessary a campaign of resolute vigor and stern reprisal. 
Intoxicated by their victory, the hostile tribes grew more arrogant and con- 
fident than before, and boasted that they would drive back any force that the govern- 
ment might dare to send north of Snake river. Clamor rose louder and more angry 
with each ])assing week for the massacre or expulsion of every white man in the 
country, and it became apparent that nothing short of complete chastisement would 
allay the bitter hostility of the savage mind. 

Accordingly it was decided to hurry reinforcements to Fort Walla Walla, and 
to send a strong column under Colonel (ieorge Wright into the Indian country. 

These preparations consumed a period of about three months. Before lea\nng 
Walla Walla Colonel Wright dispatched couriers to the friendly Xez Perces, asking 
them to meet him at the fort. When they arrived a council was held under an im- 
provised arbor, and they were told hy tlie commander that so long as they remained 
faithful they should have the protection of the strong arm of the law. After several 
chiefs had spoken, about thirty warriors volunteered to accompany the command. 

The first detachment, under Captain Keyes, moved out from the fort on tlie 
morning of August 7, charged with the duty of selecting a crossing at the Snake and 
choosing a site for the necessary field work to guard it, and at the same time to keep 

239 



240 SPOKANE AND THK INLAND KMPIRE 

open the line of communication witli Fort Wall.i W.illa. Captain Keyes selected the 
crossing at the mouth of the Tucanon, as it offered an abundance of good wood and 
grass, and designated it "I'ort Taylor" in honor of the Captain Taylor who had 
fallen in Steptoe's battle of May 17. Here a fortification was erected, a road con- 
structed for the use of the troops in descending from the plateau to the stream, and 
a large flatboat built to ferry the command across the Snake. 

A severe storm delayed the crossing two days, but on August 25 and 26 Wright 
made the passage successfully with his entire command, without loss or accident, and 
went into camp on the north bank with a force of 570 regulars, thirty friendly Nez 
Perces, 100 employes and 800 animals of all kinds, with subsistence for thirty-eight 
days. Brevet Major Wvse, with company D, Third artillery, was left to occupy 
I'ort Taylor to protect the stores and boats and keep open the line of communication. 

"Marching from Snake river on the morning of the 27th," runs the official report 
of Colonel Wright, "our route lay over a verj- broken country for a distance of four- 
teen miles, where We struck the Pelouse river and encanii)ed on its right bank. Re- 
suming our march on the i28th, I halted, after a march of six miles and a quarter, at 
a |)oint wliere tile trail divides — that to the left leading to Colville direct, and that 
to llie right more to the eastward, .\fter consulting our guides and examining our 
maps and itineraries, I determined to march on the trail to the right; accordingly, 
on the :i9tli, we advanced. The country presented a forbidding aspect; extensive 
burnt districts were traversed, but at the distance of twenty miles I found a very 
good encampment, with sufficient grass, wood and water. Up to this time we had 
seen no hostile Indians, although Lieutenant Mullan, my engineer officer, with our 
eagle-eyed allies, the Nez Perces, had been constantly in advance and on either 
flank; signs, however, bail been diseovercd. .inii I knew tliat our apjiroacli was known 
to the hostiles. 

"Advancing on the morning of the .'iOth, occasionally a few of the enemy were 
seen on the hilltops on our right flank, increasing during the day and moving parallel 
with our line of march, but too remote and too few in number to justify pursuit. 

"After marching eighteen miles I encamped, and about 5 p. m. the Indians 
approached our ])ickets and a sharp firing commenced, I immediately moved out 
with a portion of my command and the enemy fled. I pursued them for four miles 
over a very broken country, and then returned to camj) at sunset. .\11 was (luiet 
during tbe night, and at 6 o'clock this morning we were again on the inareli. .Soon 
the Indians were seen in small parties at the distance of two or three miles on the 
hills, and moving as yesterday, with their numbers gradually increasing and ap- 
proaching a little nearer, but I did not deem them worthy of notice, only taking the 
precaution to halt frequently and close up our baggage and su|)ply trains as com- 
jiactly as possible. Our march this day was ten miles longer than we .anticipated, 
and for a long distance without water; and, at two miles from this camp, the Indians 
made a strong demonstration on our supply train, but were hnndsomelv dispersed 
and driven off by the rear guards, and infantry deployed on either flank. 

"My men and animals require rest ; I shall remain here tomorrow ; I have a good 
camp, with an abundance of wood, water and grass." 

The command was now well .advanced into the Spokane country, and was mov- 
ing over the elevated and broken plateau which forms an indistinct boundary between 
the Palouse region, the Big Bend country, and the .Spokane valley proper. Little 



SPOKANE AXD THE INLAND EMPIRE 241 

time, iiowever, remained for rest, for the savage foe was massing for the conflict, 
eager for tlie impending clash, still fluslied with his recent victory over Steptoe's 
little column, and confident that a few more suns at furthest would witness a repeti- 
tion of that disaster and perhaps on a more sanguinary scale. 

On the morning of September 1st, Indians in greater numbers were seen posted 
on the surrounding hills. They were defiant and insolent, and seemed eager for an 
engagement. Wright met the challenge by ordering out a large part of his force 
to drive the enemy from the hills and engage the main body of the warriors, reported 
by the scouts to be concentrated just beyond an overlooking eminence. After advanc- 
ing a mile and a half, this force of 220 men came to the foot of the hill and promptly 
dislodged the savages. The dragoons first reached the summit, and after exchanging 
a volley, drove back the Indians' skirmish line, and held the position till the foot 
soldiers came up. 

On the plain below the enemy was massed, and every spot seemed alive with the 
red warriors which the soldiers had come so far to fight. The scene was in the 
vicinitv of Four Lakes, near the jiresent town of Medical Lake, and about twenty 
miles from the falls of the Spokane. The Indians, mounted, were in tlie scattered 
woods on the shores of the lakes, in ravines and gullies, and dashing madly over the 
o))en ground. Kip reported that they seemed to cover the country for a distance 
of two miles. "Mounted on their fleet, hardy horses, the crowd swayed back and 
forth, brandishing their weapons, shouting their war cries, and keeping up a song 
nf defiance. Most of them were armed with Hudson's Bay muskets, while others 
had hows and arrows and long lances." 

In his description of the scenes that followed. Lieutenant Kip has left us a 
grapiiic ])ortrayal that is suggestive of the best lines of Walter Scott: 

"Tluv were in all the bravery of tlieir war array, gaudily painted and decorated 
witii their wild trappings. Their plumes fluttered above them, while below skins 
and trinkets and all kinds of fantastic embellishments flaunted in tlie sunshine. 
Tiieir horses, too, were arrayed in the most glaring finery. Some were even painted, 
and with colors to form the greatest contrast ; the white being smeared with crimson 
in fantastic figures, and the dark colored streaked with white clay. Beads and 
fringes of gaudy colors were hanging from their bridles, while the plumes of eagle 
feathers, interwoven with the mane and tail, fluttered as the breeze swept over 
them, and com])leted their wild and fantastic ajiljearance." 

But a disiieartening surprise was in store for them. Steptoe's troops had been 
equipped with antiquated arms inferior to those carried by the savages, but the men 
under Wright were armed with the latest military rifle which propelled a minnie 
b.iU with great accuracy and long range. It soon became apparent that consterna- 
tion had seized the red warriors, for they retreated before the death-dealing fire of 
the soldiers. At first they came resolutely forward to engage the invaders, advanc- 
ing rapidly, firing, and then retreating with great quickness and baffling irregularity. 
But as the line advanced, an increasing number of Indians were seen to fall from 
their saddles, although their fire was impotent against the trooj^s. As in the Step- 
toe fight, they made desperate and successful efforts to prevent their dead falling 
into the hands of the soldiers. One Indian was seen leading off a horse with two 
of his dead com])anions bound to it. 

As the steadily advancing troops drew nearer and the fire grew more heavv, the 
vni r -in 



1^1:2 sroKAXi: AM) iiii: i\i wd imimui", 

wliiili .irr.iy tli.it li;i(l liccii fr.itliiTcd in the woods .iriii ravines .irduiiil tlu- base of 
tlu- liill lirokc and Hi-d towards tlic |)lain. 

This was tlu' nionunt cagirly awaiti-d liv the dragoons, and wlun tin- order was 
given to cliarge, tile companies tliat had been with Steptoe and seen Taylor an(J 
Gaston fall before the tire of tin- redniin, went wild with tlic s])irit of vengeance- 
Up to this moment the mounted nun had l)ien held in the nar of tile foot soldiers, 
but galloped forw.ini between the com|)any intervals when they heard the command- 
ing voice of Capt.iin (irier shouting, "Chargi- the rascals I" Jn a twinkling the 
dragoons were u|>oii the madly retreating Indians. Out came tin- s.ibers, ll.ishing 
in ihe millow .iutuinn sunlight. ,iiid with clatter of hoof and r.attle of arms, and 
fierce yells of the victors and shrieks of the v.iiKiuished. the work of cutting down 
the laggards was acconii)lisiied witii a resolution and thoroughness th.it strvick terror 
to the fleeing foes. Lieutenant Davidson shot one w.arrior from the saddle, with a 
blow of his saber Lieutenant Gregg s])lit the skull of .mother. It became a wild race 
for life, with tiie fleeing Indians d.isiiing desijcrately for cover in the rocks .-ind 
woods. Only tile jaded condition of the soldiers' mounts saved the fugitives from 
complete destruction. The troojjs h.id been on the march for twenty-eight d.iys, 
there had been constant scouting, ,ind ,it niglit tin- horsis were jjicketed with insufli- 
eient grazing area, .iiid they were consequently no m.iteli for the fresh mounts of 
the Indi.an fighters. 

So eoni))letely wire the horses ( xli.iiisted. tli.at they were ji.issed bv tin- foot 
troops, who ;idx;iiiec (1 and (lrc)\c the iiieiuy under .-i constant fire for .iboiit two miles. 

As the Iiidi.ins li.id sc.ittend under widi' cover, ('oliinel Wright ordi'red ;i bugle 
recall, and tlu- Hushed and triunipii.int soldiers returned to c.imp. The fighting h.id 
lasted four hours, .-ind exteiuh-d over a field of three miles. Not .1 lu.in was killed 
or wounded, while the Indians h.id suffered ;i loss of fifteen or twenty killed .iiui 
forty or fifty wounded. Their dead included a brother and brother-in-law of Chief 
(i.irry of the Spokancs. 

In their iirecijiit.-ite flight the Indi;ins threw .iw.iy their imixdimenta. and the 
lil.ain was strewn with muskets, cjuivers. bows .and arrows, blankets and robes. There 
w.is much gaiety as tlii' troojis c.-ime in with triiphi<s of the fight. p;irticul.irl\ when 
.•in officer .appeared with Iwn bull'alo robes .ukI .1 lil.-inket wrapped arimnd biiiiself 
and horse. 

A little Later the Nez Perce .lilies straggled ill. They li.ad pursued the tli-eing 
enemy ten miles, .and came b.ack even richer in spoils tli.iii lluir white eninr.ides. 
Deplor.ably. their collection eont;iined several sc,al|)s, and "( utiiinutli .loliii." who 
had received in Ihe W'hiliu.an ni;iss.acre a frightful wouiiil that hidi-ouslv marn d his 
features, was most jubil.aiit of .all ,as he w.aved his bloody trophy high .above his 
head. A grand w.ir d.ance. protr.icted f;ir into the night, celebr.ated the d.iy's events 
to the complete satisfaction of the .allies. 

Colonel Wright, in his ofHei.al report, "took great ])lcasurc in commending to the 
departiiii iit the coolness and g.illantry displayed by every officer and soldier en- 
gaged ill the b.atlle." 

To ricruit the weary anim;ils aftiT tlie b.attle of the Four Lakes, the eommand 
rested there for three (Lays. No hostile Indi.uis .i|)])e.ired to disturb the well-e.iriied 
rest, .and the Nez I'erce scouts, .after r<-eonnniteriiig the surrounding couiitrv, re- 
|)orled thai none wire in sight. 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 243 

At 6 o'clock on the morning of September 5 the column broke camp and started 
througli tile broken country for the Spok.me river. After a march of five miles, tiie 
enemy was seen collecting in large numbers on the riglit. For some time they rode 
parallel to the troops, all the while increasing in numbers and insolence. The lesson 
of the 1st was incomplete, and the hostiles had seemingly renewed their courage, 
tiuir confidence and insolence indicating some newly conceived plan of battle in 
whicli they were placing liigli confidence. This they quickly put into execution. A 
high wind was blowing from the south, and the Indians firing the dry grass of the 
prairies, a roaring sea of flame was soon rolling u))on the command, enveloping it in 
dense clouds of smoke. Under cover of this liank of smoke, the redmen ])artly 
encircled tile troops and poured in a rifle fire upon them. Tile pack train |)romptly 
closed up Miul was guarded by Captain Dent's company of rifles, a company of the 
Third artillery and a company of dragoons, while the remainder of the command 
made ready to repulse the foe. 

A curious and exciting scene attended these preparations. While the Mexican 
muleteers were driving the lOO lieavily loaded pack animals to a center, many of 
tlie iiostiles, wild witli rage and excitement, were indulging in tlic most daring feats 
of horsemanship, dashing down steeji hills with all the reckless abandon at their 
command, the while shouting in defiance and taunting the soldiers to meet them in 
action. Their courage was of short duration, for when the soldiers, flushed with 
recent victory, charged through the smoke and flames, they quickly broke and fled 
to the cover of woods and canyons. But they had short respite in the woods, for 
the howitzers soon shelled them out of that cover. It was then that the great war 
chief Kamiaken of the Yakimas had a narrow escape from death, a shell bursting in 
a tree-top above him and sending down a branch that inflicted a severe wound. 

Then the infantry renewed the charge and rapidly drove the skulkers on towards 
the river, until the country for a distance of four miles, which had recently been 
swarming with them, was cleared of their presence. Among those who fell in this 
stage of the fighting was a chief upon whose saddle was found the pistol used by 
Lieutenant Gaston in the Steptoe campaign. 

Fighting of this nature, alternate charges by dragoons and infantry, continued 
all the way to the Spokane river, over the present military reservation of Fort 
Wright. 

In his cflicial report Colonel Wright states that he had continuous fighting for 
seven hours, over a distance of fourteen miles, and finally camped on the banks of 
the river, the troops exhausted by a long and fatiguing march, without water and 
for two-thirds of the distance between the four lakes and the stream having been 
constantly under fire. "The battle was .won," Wriglit adds, "two chiefs and two 
brothers of Chief Garry killed, besides many of lesser note, killed or wounded. A 
kind Providence protected us, although at many times the balls flew thick and fast 
througli our ranks; yet, strange to say, we had but one man slightly wounded." 

Wright officially designated this engagement the "battle of the Spokane plains," 
as the eastern ])ortion of what is now termed the Big Bend country was then known. 
His official reports and others speak of the Spokane valley as "Coeur d'Alene prai- 
rie." This seeming error in terms will be better understood when the fact is recalled 
that the fur traders who began operating in this region in 181 I called the stream 
from the lake to the present Little Spokane the Coeur d'Alene river, and considered 



244 SPOKAM'. A\l) rill. IM.WI) I. Ml' IKK 

tlie I.ittl<- Spok.iiii- ,111(1 the strc.iiu liclow it^ intiuth tlir S|)()k;inc. Old maps, reports 
and iiarrativi-s I'ricnuiilly nfi r to tin- Sptikaiii- himsc at the cDiifluence of the Coeur 
d'Alciif and Sijokanc, or llu- "I'ointi-d Hiart" and tlu- Spokane, C'orur d'Alcnc bt-ing 
a Frctifli phrase translatalile as "arrow-liearted," or more literally, "awl-lu-arted.'" 
Lieutenant .lolin Mullin haves us tli<' t'ollouinfj interesting information hearing on 
this point: 

The version given me (says Mullan). and uliieli would appear to he reliable, is 
as follows: When the English trading corporation known as the Hudson's Bay 
conii)any, ni()no|)i)lized that whole region of Oregon, their successes in establishing 
trading st.itions among the Indians was of the most marked ciiaracter. N'o tribe, 
howcM-r iiostile or numerous, had been ever known to oppose an_v obstacle in their 
way. until they made the attemjjt to establish a st.ition or post among this small 
band of Indians, who. tenacious of their rigiits. and loving their mountain wilder- 
ness, said to this c<)m|)any: "We are willing to barter our furs and peltries for 
your jiowder and b.iU and such things as you bring for traffic, but we can only make 
the exchange at certain jioints." n.amed by themselves; "within the limits of our land 
you can not enter, but on the hanks of yonder river, which m.irks our border, we 
will meet you at stated times, and there, and there oidy, we can trade and traffic." 
Their determination, wiiich even uj) to this day (18.J8) they have most steadfastly 
clung, became liie law of the company, and they so ))ersistently maintaim-d it that 
the Canadian voi/arjcurx, employes of the company, immediately called these sav- 
ages "Coeur d'Alenes," Indians having "hearts of arrows," and hence often called 
"Pointed Hearted" Indians, and the mission "Pointed Heart" mission. 

Wlien the disciples of I.oyol.a entered this region (Mullan continues), with the 
jiraiseworthy object of establishing their missions at diflferent points in the moun- 
tains, the Coeur d'Alene country, among other sections, was selected. "Hut," said 
the members of this same company to th<' fathers, "you are certainly not going to 
establish a mission among the Pointed Hearts.'" "Why not?" said they. "Be- 
cause." w.as the re))ly. "we h.i\<- tried for years ])ast to surmount, and as yet with- 
out success, the difficulties that .array themselves against us and forbid the .attempt." 
But the more anxious now. because difficulties did environ their ]),ithway, the noble 
DeSmet, Joset .and Point, in 1842, went forth .and successfully establi.shed the cross 
in the Rocky mountains, ,ind. loo, in the very heart of the country of these semi- 
savages; and the evidences that we now saw around us all bore witness how untir- 
ing and successful their efforts had been." 



CHAPTER XXVII 

WRIGHT DICTATES STERN TERMS TO THE VANQUISHED 

COMMAND BREAKS CAMP AND MOVES UP THE SPOKANE GARRY SUES FOR PEACE WRIGHT 

HANGS FIRST VICTIM CAPTURES AND KILLS VAST HERD OF INDIAN HORSES RUNNER 

BRINGS LETTER FROM FATHER JOSET INDIAN BARNS AND GRANARIES BURNED 

CHIEF VINCENT OF THE COEUR d'aLENES BEGS FOR PEACE COMMAND MARCHES TO 

COEUR d'aLENE MISSION PEACE COUNCIL A SCENE OF BARBARIC COLOR INDIANS 

TERRIFIED BY APPEARANCE OF DONATl's COMET. 

WE PAUSE in the narrative to take a prospect of this region as it unrolled 
before the eye of Wright's command. Walla Walla's fair valley was as 
unsettled as in the days when the fur trader entered the country a cen- 
tury ago, for little effort had been made by home-builders to invade it since the 
atrocities of the Whitman massacre of 184.7. Its great beauty and potential fertil- 
ity, however, were then apparent, and an officer under Wright predicted that it 
could be brought to the support of a population of 15,000, an estimate that seemed 
then a rather wild flight into the fanciful. Walla Walla city alone has now a popu- 
lation in excess of 20,000. 

After the command crossed Snake river, its way lay across what is now the 
heart of the rich Palouse country, then a vast, open bunch-grass region, dotted by 
bands of Indian horses, and with an occasional village of tepees in the sheltered 
groves along the streams. The reader will have noted that the author, when quoting 
from official reports, has regarded the original and correct spelling of the name 
Pelouse — a French noun translatable into English as a grassy sward, an appellation 
bestowed by French trappers and vofiaqeurs in the early part of the nineteenth 
century. This beautiful, rolling region, now so rich in material wealth, and all the 
attendants of refinement and civilization — with its amplitude of schools, colleges 
and churches, of homes, towns and cities, served as a great pasturage domain for 
Indian iierds. Its rich volcanic soil had nowhere been broken by the ploughshare's 
steel. 

At the falls of the Spokane the river ran as wild and free as it had thundered 
through the distant ages, and save the nomadic shelters of the red men, no habita- 
tion marked its shores. Up the valley, as the command neared lake Coeur d'Alene, 
evidences of semi-civilized cultivation met the eye. Wheat-growing had been at- 
tempted with considerable success by the Spokanes and Coeur d'Alenes, and in their 
gardens potatoes and other vegetables gave promise of the more bountiful yields 
that the soil would bear under the white settler's care. 

245 



246 SPOKANE AND 1111. I M.AM) 1. Ml' I HE 

Excil>tiiig ail iKcasiiiiial small fiu-lo.Mirc for tlu-si- agricultural bigiiiiiings, tin- 
Spokane valley was also a spreading bunch-grass domain, over which roamed large 
bands of eavuse ponies and some small iierds of cattle. 

Tlie fighting over, the officers and their brave men bad better o])p(irtunit\' to 
enjoy the wildh' beautiful |)anoraina wliieli ii.iture had spread around tlnir camps. 
Lieutenant Ki]) wrote enthusiastically of the entrancing scenes, blending a prosi)ect 
of rushing waters, of linij)id Lakes and distant wooded mountains. We quote from his 
description : 

"We broke up our cam)) this morning at seven, and moved up the river about 
seven miles, when we again encamiJcd. Most of our w.iv l.av through the wood 
skirting the river (the command is now marching over grcnuid tliat .ifterw.ird became 
the business ,and residence sections of .*^))okane). the scenery .around being very 
beautiful. Just before reaching our cam|)ing ground, we p.assed the great S))ok.in 
falls (note his oiiiissioii of the liii.il 'c'l. ll is .1 high, n.arrow. b.asaltic c.aiivon, 
where the whole river passes over an inclined ledge of rocks, with .1 fall of between 
forty and fifty feet. The view from every i)oint is exceedingly i)ictures(iue. As 
high up .as the f.ills. s.alnion ,arr found in grr.it .ibuiul.aner. while .above them trout 
are very ])lenty." 

A few days later the s.ame writer wrote glowingly of tiie scenes surrounding 
l.ike ( 'oiur dWItiie : 

"All day we have toiled along through beautiful scenery, yet a countrv difficult 
for a force to make its way, as our march li.is been through the forest in its primeval 
state. 1 c)i- the first few miles .along the borders of the lake, the trees were scat- 
tered, but .after leaving the shore the timber became so thick that tlie troops had to 
m.ircli in single file. The forest seemed to become more dense as we adv.anced, 
until we could see nothing about us but high hills ,and deep caverns, with thick 
woods covering all, through which we wound our way in a twilight gloom. 

"This is a splendid country as a home for the Indians, .and we can not wonder 
th.it tiny .ire .aroused when thry think the white men .are intruding on them. The 
Coeiir d'Alene l.ake, one of the most beautiful I li.ive ever seen, with w.ater clear 
as cryst.al. is .about fifteen miles in length (it is nearer thirtv in fact), buried, as it 
were, in tin- Coeur d',\lene mountains, which rise .around it on everv side. The 
woods are full of berries, while in the S])ok.in river s.almon .abound below the falls 
.and trout .abo\ e. In the winter season deer and elk .are found in tlie mountains. 
.M.iny parts of the (diiiitry .are good for gr.izing. while there are a sufficient number 
of fertile spots where crops can easily be r.iised. When tlu' Indi.an thinks of the 
hunting grounds to which he is looking forw.ard in the .Spirit Land, we doubt whether 
he could iiii.igiiie .anything more in .aia-ord.ancr uitli his t.astc Ih.in this realitv." 

We now resume the thread of the narr.itive ,it the point where Colonel U'right 
wi 111 into e.anip. with his weary but victory flushed troops, on the .S|)ok,ine river 
at .1 point in the iiniiiedi.ite vicinity of (ireinwood cemeterv of the jiresent (lav. The 
sixth of .Septinilier w.as .a (Lay of rest. Indi.aiis skulked on the ojiposite side of the 
Stream, .and tli.it .afternoon a few jilueked up eour.age .and came into the camp, pro- 
fessing fririid'-hip .and giving infonii.ilion .aliimt the fords. 

The next morning the comm.and m.arclied up the river, jiassing over the jiresent 
site of ,Spok:ine. Ag.iin Fndi.ins were sighted <m the oiijiosite shore, and commmiica 
liiiii w.is o|ii Old Willi llii 111 Ihnmgli Ihe Nez Perce guides. They re|)orted th.at Chief 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 247 

Garry was near by and wanted a conference, and Wright directed them to meet 
him at the ford about two miles above the falls. The command halted at the desig- 
nated point, and (iarry crossed over and came into camp. He said that he had been 
op])osed to the fighting, but that the young men were against him and he could not 
control his ])eople. Credence was given to his professions, for Dr. Perkins, who 
had attended the Spokane council at Fort Colville, had made the following mention 
of Ciarry: "He says his heart is undecided; he does not know which way to go; his 
friends are fighting the whites, and he does not like to join them; but if he does 
not, they will kill him. During the whole time that we were in the council, Ciarry* 
never said a word, but merely looked on." 

Wright told Garry to go to his l)eoi)le and all the other Indians and say for him : 
"I have met you in two bloody battles; you have been badly whipped; you have lost 
several chiefs and many warriors, killed or wounded. I have not lost a man or 
animal; I have a large force, and you Spokanes, Coeur d'Alenes, Pelouses and Pend 
d'Oreilles may unite, and I can beat you as badly as before. I did not come into 
this country to ask you to make peace; I came here to fight. Now when you are 
tired of the war and ask for peace, I will tell you what you must do: You must 
come to me with your arms, with your women ;ind children, and evervthinc; vou have, 
and lay tliem at my feet; you must ])ut your faith in me and trust to my mercv. If 
you do this, I shall then dictate the terms upon which I will grant you peace. If 
you do not do this, war will be made on you this year and next, and until your 
nation shall be exterminated." Garry promised to join Wright the following morn- 
ing on the march. 

After the interview with Garry, Polotkin, another Spokane chief, came forward 
with nine warriors and sought an interview. Wright was suspicious of this Indian, 
having learned that he had been conspicuous in the attack on Steptoe, and was a 
leader in the battles of the Four lakes and the Spokane plains. As this party had 
left their rifles on the opposite bank, Wright directed the chief to sit still while two 
of his Indians were sent over to bring them in. He then told Polotkin that he would 
hold him in custody, with one of his men who was strongly suspected of tlie nnirder 
of two niiiurs in the preceding Ajiril. After encamping the following evening at a 
point sixteen miles up the valley, Wright further investigated the case of this Indian, 
and as his guilt seemed established beyond question, he was hanged for the murder 
of the miners. This was the first execution as a result of the uprising, but before 
Wright left the Spokane country he hanged many others. Particulars of this sum- 
mary ju.stice will be narrated further along in the narrative. 

When the two Indians had crossed the river to bring in the rifles, one of them, 
thinking discretion the better part of valor, niadt- off in a hurry, but tlie other re- 
turned with the arms, which were found to be of British nianufaeturc, marked 



* In the jiiiljiniiMit of H. T. Cowley, "Garry was of a weak and vacillating character, 
crafty and iuirplial)lp. He reported to Colonel Wright after the defeat, that he had advised 
against the hostile movement, but I have been told by Thomas Brown, one of the oldest set- 
tlers in the Colville valley, that Garry used his utmost endeavors to draw the Colville and 
Calispel Indians into hostilities, setting forth the allurement of the large amount of plunder 
which would he divided among them in case of the defeat of tlie expedition, a result wliirh 
he thought easy of accomplishment. Prominent members of his own tribe here informed me 
of the same circumstances." 



248 Sl'OK.Wl. AM) llll. INI, AM) I.MIMIfF. 

"l,i)ii(liiii. IS 17. .-iikI li.id i\ idciitly htiii purcliaMci ol tlir lliulson's Bay coiiijiaiiy 
at Fort Colvillf. 

The coininand marched at sunrisi- on the morning of Septcuihtr 8, and after ad- 
vancing up tlie valley about ten miles, the Nez Perce scouts reported tiiat they had 
sighted Indians on tile right, and at the same time clouds of dust were seen rising 
between the command and the mountains. Tilkohitz, a Palouse chief, was trying to 
run his great b;ind of iiorses out of the country, and was heading for a ))ass in the 
hills on the southern side of the valley. The Nez Perce allies and a numlirr nt the 
soldiers were sent in pursuit, and after a short skirmish captured tlie whole l),ind of 
800 or 900 animals. The Indians retreated to the hills, and, as afterwards learned, 
watched the driving of}' of tiie horses from an eminence, observing that it did not 
matter a great deal, siner A\'right would have to turn them loose again, .and tiny eould 
be rounded up .after \\r liad left tlie country. Tlie ca|)ture was made "near ,a wide 
lake to tlie right of tile great C'oeur d'Alene tr.ail, .a ))l.aee where large numbers of the 
four tribes winter" (jjrobably Saltese lake.) Two days later Colonel Wright, as a 
w.ar iiu .asina , to punisii tile Indians and prevent the possibility of renewed hostilities 
after he should leave the countrv, ordered tiie killing of these horses, with the excep- 
tion of about 130 saved for tiie use of liis expedition. This distressing work con- 
sumed the greater j)art of two days. The method first .ido])te(l was to enclose the 
animals in a large corral, and then lasso them one by one, drag them out and kill 
them with a well-placed rifle li.all. In this way about 200 were dispatched, but the 
plan proving slow and jiainfii! to tiir feelings of the soldiers, it was .ab.andonrd, and 
most of liu otiurs were killed by tiring \ollevs into the eorr.al. The colts were dis- 
patciied witii .a blow on tlie lie.ad, .and an officer wiio witnessed tiie painful duty, 
wrote afterward th.at it w.as most distressing, at nigiit after the killing, to iiear tlie 
brood mares that yet remained, neighing niourMfully for their young. A number 
of tile animals, becoming wild witii fright, broke away from their captors 
and escaped to the hills. Tlir site of tliis tragedy was .a])propriatelv called tiie 
"Horse .Sl.augiiter cam]), ' .and w.as in.arked till ,a eoiiip.ar.ativeiy recent li.atr li\- |)iles 
of liones on tile open prairie. 

On tile morning of .Septeiiilier 10 .an liuii.iii niiiiKi- caiiic in from tiie (iniir 
d'Al(iie mission, lic.ariiig from I'.ithc |- .lo-.il .a Icttc i- st.atinii Hiat the Indi.ans were 
entirely erusiual .and li.ad r< aiuesti (i liiiii to intercede for tiieiii. Colonel \\'right tiiere- 
upon decided to in.areli his (a)niiii.aiul to tiie mission. Aeeordinglv .an .adv.anee was 
orderetl, and on tin- iiioi-iiiiig of tin ilr\i iitli tlic river w.as crossed .at tlie upper ford, 
.and tJK trail taken for l.akr Coiair d .\lrni-. This led over an easy prairie road for 
two and .1 ii.alf miles, win re tin ro.ad forked, one leading across tiic prairie to Clark's 
fork of tile Cohinii)i.a, .and thi otlur tliroiigli the open timber along the north i»ank 
of the Spok.aiii-. 'I'liis route carried tlie eoniiii.iiid .across tlir site of tin- present town 
of Post Falls. "About twelve miles below tile lake," s.ays .Mull.aii, "tile river makes 
anotiier f.all, passing tiirongh ,a deei) .and n.arrow rocky gorge some thirty yards 
wide, in a lie.aiitifiii sIkcI of white fo.aiii. " 

I.ii iiten.anl .Muli.an, wlio siiliseciiicntly laid out and constructed the famous Mul- 
lan ro.ad for liu' w.ar dep.artiiient, kept a keen <ye during tiiis campaign for jiossi- 
bililies of Mich ,1 ro.ail. .and in .a subsequent report suggested tli.at it niigiit be found 
fe.asiiilc to hl.ast out tlie niekv olistriielions .at i'osl I'alls .and IIk rrbv lower tin- lake. 





CHIEF GARRY AS SKETCITKH l\ 1,S55 ( HI EF CARRY IX OLD A(iE 



•^rriE IHEW YORK 
[PUBLIC LIBKART 

I 



LiW*X 
r uawD*TI»N« 



SPOKAxNE AND THE IXLANU EMPIRE 249 

reclaim ovtrflow lands in tlif St. .Joe valley and prepare a way for easy road-building 
along the banks of tliat stream. 

At a point four miles from the lake the eiinnnand came to some Indian fields and 
gardens and destroyed there two or three barns filled with wheat. Some caches hold- 
ing dried eake and berries were also destroyed. "This outbreak," wrote Kip, "will 
bring ui)on the Indians a winter of great suffering from the destruction of their 
stores." 

Just before reaching a .camping spot on the lake shore, an Indian burial ])lace 
was passed. "Each grave was covered with a low log house, surmounted by a cross, 
the house answering both as a monmnent and a protection for the remains against 
wild animals." "Though our march was one of devastation through the country, we 
left unharmed and untouched the spot where reposed the lifeless dead," remarks 
Mullan — an example which, had it been more closely followed by settlers through- 
out the northwest, must have softened the antipathy of the natives against the in- 
vaders, prevented a great deal of bitter indignation, and made unnecessary the re- 
cording of many savage acts of revenge. To the ghoulish acts of curio-hunters, who 
have not hesitated at desecration of Indian graves, may be traced the cause of the 
killing of many a white man by infuriated Indians. 

As the troops were about to resume their march on the morning of the twelfth, 
Vincent, head chief of the Coeur d'Alenes came in, bearing a pass from P'ather Joset, 
and announcing that he was rounding up the hostiles to bring them to the mission 
to meet Wright and sue for peace. The route this day followed an Indian trail 
along the lake for three and a half miles, when it ascended a mountain that com- 
manded a fine view of the lake and surrounding forests. A distance of only ten 
miles was covered, and the army encamped in a beautiful little prairie on Wolf's 
Lodge creek. 

Thence on to tlie mission the way was much obstructed by fallen trees in a dense 
forest. Over the narrow trail the command could only proceed in single file, and 
extended over the trail for six or eight miles. The march was made, though, with- 
out danger, as the fighting spirit had been entirely driven from the Indian breast. 
Wright considered it, however, an act of prudence to maintain a strong front and 
rear guard until he reached the mission, nineteen miles from the camp on Wolf's 
Lodge creek. It was 10 at night when the last of the pack train arrived at the mis- 
sion. The weather had been sultry, and the soldiers suffered considerably on the 
march. The officers were provided with mounts, but shared them through the day 
with exhausted privates who had fallen by the wayside, and many of whom required 
medical attenion. 

"We first came in sight of the mission when about five miles off," writes Lieuten- 
ant Kip. "It is situated in a beautiful valley surrounded by the Coeur d'Alene 
mountains. A pretty stream, a branch of the Coeur d'Alene river, with clear, cold 
water, runs alongside of it, furnishing means of irrigation. In the center of the 
mission stands the church, and round it cluster the other buildings — a mill, a couple 
of houses for the priests, the dwellings of the Indian converts, and some barns to 
store their produce. The priests, in the evening, sent a wagon full of vegetables to 
the officers." 

While awaiting the coming of Vincent and other Coeur d'Alenes for the ap- 
proaching council, the officers paid frequent visits to the priests. Fathers Joset and 



250 Sl'OKANK AM) llll-, INLAND 1 MI'IHK 

Miiiitrcv, and tlirt-c lay brollit-rs. I>y wlioiii tiny were received with great kindness 
and politeness. This mission was not established till 1816, when experience hail 
shown that the one on the St. .Iose])h river was not admirably located, being subject 
to Hood in time of high wat^^r. The priests informed Colonel Wright that the Coeur 
d'Alcnes could not muster more than 100 warriors, and the whole tribe did not ex- 
ceed lOO souls. Most of them, though, participated in the recent fights. The Spo- 
kanes numbered about four times as many warriors and people. 

On the morning of the seventeenth, practically all the Coeur d'Alenes being as- 
sembled, was held the memorable peace council. The scene was one of marked bar- 
baric color. Hefore Colonel Wright's tent an arbor of trees and boughs Iiad been 
provided, and in tills syK.in c-lianilur tin cliiifs nut tin- olHecrs who were to deter- 
mine their fate and future. 

"I have conunitted a great crinu-, " confessed (liiif \'inei-nt. in opciiiiig the eoun- 
eil. "I .am fully conscious of it, .iiui .ini dei ply sorry for it. I and all my people are 
(1(( ply rejoiced that you are willing to forgive us. I have done. 

Colonel Wright (to the Indians): "As your chief has said, you have committed 
a great crime. It has angered your (Jreat Father, and I have been sent to punish 
you. You attacked Colonel Stejitoe when he was jiassing peaceably through your 
country, and you hav<- killed some of his men. But you ask for peace, and vou shall 
have it (in certain conditions. 

"^'ou see that you fight .against us hopelessly. I have a great many soldiers. I 
have a great many men at Walla \\ all.i, and have a large body coming from Salt 
Lake City. What can ynu do against us.' 1 ean ])l.iec my soldiers on your plains, by 
your fishing grounds and in the moinit.iiiis where you eateli game, and ycnir helpless 
families ean tiot run away. 

"Vou shall lia\t- jiiaee on the following conditions : Yini nnist deliver to nie, to 
take to the general, the men who struck the first blow in the affair with Colonel 
Ste])toe. You must deliver to me, to take to Walla Walla, one chief and four war- 
riors with their families. Wni must drlivcr up lo nir all property taken in the affair 
with Colonel Steptoe. Yon must .allow all trooj)s and other white men to pass 
through your country unmolested. You must not allow any hostile Indians to come 
into your country, and not rng.igr in any hostilities with any while man. 1 promise 
you that if yon will comply with all my re(]uirements none of your ptoj)le shall be 
harmed, liul I will withdraw from your comitry and you shall have i)eacc forever. 

"I .also rii|nirc thai tin lialclut sh.ill be buried between you and our friends, the 
\e/ I'erees." 

The |)arl of the speech rcfrrririi;- (u tin Nc/, I'crces was ri'pc.ated to the Ccicur 
d'Alenes in their presence. 

Vincent: "I desire to hear what the Ne/, Perces' heart is." 

Haitzmalikcn. eliiif of the Nez Perces, replied: "You behold nic lu fore you. ami 
I will lay my heart opiii to you. I desire there shall be peace between us. It sh.all 
be ;is the colonel s.-iys. I will lU'ver wage war against any of tin- friends of the 
white man. " 

Vincent: "It does my heart good and makes also my people glad, to hear you 
.speak so. I have desired ))eaee between us. There shall never be war between our 
people, nor between us .and tin white men. The |)ast is forgotten." 

The conditions proposed by Colonel Wright Hir( then formally signed, first by 



SPOKANE AND THE IXLAXD EMPIRE 251 

himself and his officers, and then by Vincent and the other chiefs and head men. 
The pipe of peace was smoked all round and the council was ended. 

The aged Spokane chief Polotkin, who had formerly been held as a prisoner, 
also made a short speech, saying tliat he was satisfied and would try to bring in 
his people. He left the camp immediately on the conclusion of the council. 

Pacific relations were now completely established, and the soldiers and Indians 
engaged in brisk trading, shirts and blankets being exchanged for robes and mocca- 
sins. But the scene had yet its side of sadness, for a number of the women were 
weeping bitterly, some for those who had fallen in battle, others for the hostages who 
were to be taken away to Walla Walla. The Indians found it difficult to understand 
why the soldiers could be so friendly with them, and Fatlier Joset explained it by 
saying the soldiers "were like lions in war and lambs in peace." 

Some of the Coeur d'Alenes frankly disclosed the tactics by wiiich they had 
hoped to defeat the command. They had expected to be attacked first by the dra- 
goons or mounted men, and had planned to concentrate their rifle fire and ammuni- 
tion on that arm of the service. Tiie dragoons disposed of, they had expected to 
surround the infantry and to keep riding round them, shooting in arrows. As they 
greatly outnumbered the foot troops, they counted on thus cutting them off from re- 
treat and gradually wiping them out. The long range rifles demolished this well 
planned scheme. 

"In the beginning of September." we are informed by an officer under Colonel 
Wrigiit, "Donati's comet appeared, and night after night it has been streaming above 
us in all its glory. Strange as it may seem, it has exerted a powerful influence over 
the Indians in our behalf. Appearing just as we entered the country, it seemed to 
them like some huge besom to sweep them from the earth. The effect was probably 
much increased by the fact that it disappeared about the time our campaign ended 
and the treaties were formed. They must have imagined that it had been sent home 
to their Great Father in Washington, to be put away until required the next time." 

"I have never," says Wright in an official report, "witnessed such manifestations 
of joy as were expressed by the whole Coeur d'Alene nation — men, women and chil- 
dren—at the conclusion of the treaty. They know us, they have felt our power, and 
I have full faith that licnceforth the Coeur d'Alenes will be our stanch friends." 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

HOW HANGMAN CREEK DERIVED ITS NAME 

WRIGHT HOLDS A COUNCIL WITH THE SPOKANES CANNY OLD COLVILLE CHIEF SPO- 
KANE CHIEFS HUMBLED KAMIAKEN ELUDES ARREST QUALCHIEN COMES IN AND 

IS PROMPTLY HANGED DIES LIKE A COWARD OWHI SHOT IN A DASH FOR LIBERTY 

SIX MORE INDIANS HANGED ON HANGMAN CREEK SIXTEEN IN ALL ARE VICTIMS 

OF THE NOOSE REMAINS RECOVERED OF SOLDIERS WHO FELL IN STEPTOe's FIGHT. 

WRIGHT'S next move was a great council with the Spokanes, and the 
place chosen for the rendezvous was on tlie banks of Hangman creek, 
near the present town of Spangle, in the southern part of Spokane 
county. The command, leaving the Mission on the morning of the 1 8th, and moving 
by way of the St. Joseph river, arrived at the council grounds on the evening of the 
22d, where the Spokane nation awaited him. Kamiaken, the great war 
chief of the Yakimas had been in camp the evening before, but his courage seems 
to have failed him for he and another chief cleared out before the troops arrived. 
Wright sent Chiefs Garry and Big Star out after him, with a message that he 
should not be harmed if he came in, but if he failed to surrender he would be hunted 
down and jnit to death. Kamiaken was regarded as the most powerful chief in the 
Inland Empire, and the most relentless foe of the white men. His mother was a 
Yakima and his father a Pelouse, this giving him a great influence over the two 
tribes, and his talents as an organizer won him considerable authority over most of 
the tribes of the interior. 

"My first acquaintance with Kamiaken," says Kip, "was at the Walla Walla 
council, three years before. There it was evident that he was the great impediment 
in the way of any cession of the Indian lands. While the other chiefs, one by one, 
came into the measure, and even Looking Glass, the war chief of the Nez Perces, 
at first entirely hostile, at last yielded to the force of some peculiar arguments 
which are equally potent with savages and white men, notliing could move Kamia- 
ken. Witli more far-reaching wisdom than the rest, he probably saw that this sur- 
render of their lands and intrusion of the white men would be the. final step in 
destroying the nation. Governor Stevens was unable to induce him to express any 
opinion, but he sat in gloomy silence. Several times when the governor appealed to 
him with the inquiry, 'we would like to know what is the heart of Kamiaken,' his 
only answer was, 'What have I to say?' He was the leader in the outbreak which 
took place shortly after, when Major Haller's force was defeated, and he has been, 
we have no doubt, the moving spirit in arraying all these tribes against us this 



254 spoK.wi: AM) ■nil; im.am) i.mi'Iui: 

season, anil liringinj;- >>ij (liis iipi ji war la re. Il is not to br wciiidtTcci at, tlicri'fore, 
that in- is afraid to put liinistlf in tlif jjower of the whites." 

llanginan cTtck took its name from tile iuinging of a number of outlaw Indians 
by order of Colonel Wright at this encampment. It has been a stream of extensive 
nomeiielaturc. Wright dated his dispatehes from this point, "Camp on the Xed- 
wiiauld Kivcr. W. T., I, at. i7 degrees, 21 minutes north." Others in his party 
spelled it "Niduald, " and yit otiiers termed it the Ned-whuald or I.ahtoo creek. 
In one report it ap])ears as Camas Prairie creek, and a few years before his death 
the venerable and beloved Protestant missionary Father Eells informed the writer 
(if this volnnic that the Indians ealled it ".Sin-too-too-ooley" creek, or the place 
where little fish were caught. Objecting to the grewsome name of H.-ingman, the 
Washington legislature att( nijiti d a few years ago to fix the name by statute as Latah 
creek, a clum.sy eorrn|)ti(in of tin iimre luphonious Indian word "Lahtoo." 

The .Spokane council was held on the morning of September 2.S, in front of 
Colonel Wright's tent. It was a delegate gathering, attended by 107 representatives 
and chiefs, wlio came empowered to speak for the Spokanes. the Colvilles, the Pend 
d'Ori'illes .and several smaller bands. Tlir ('olvilir ehiif was a canny old redskin. 
Prior to the w.ir he told his i)eo))l< that In had heard ,i good de.il about the soldiers, 
but never having seen them, he would go down iiid be a witness of the fighting. He 
was .at the battle of the Four L.akes. and wIk n the engagement was over he hastily 
mounted his horse and hurried back to his own illihee. the Indian word for home 
or iduntry. Having calltil his tribe together, he reported that he had seen the 
soldiers, but m \rr wanted to see them .again. They stood as firm as the pines, he 
said, when the Indians fired at them; they could march f.aster and further in a 
d.iy than horses and their guns carried .i mile, more than halt' w.iv as far .igain 
as the Indians' .arms; .and his eoiieluding words were that tin v slmuld alwavs re- 
main friends with the whites. 

.Vdiiressing the couneil Culnnrl \\ right |ir(Mnisrd llicni piaee on tin sanii terms 
he had imposed on the Coeur {lAleties. He expected them, he said, to come for- 
w.ard like men, as the Coe\ir d'.Menes h.ad done and were now friends of the gov- 
ernment. This was the last trialy that he should make, .and he desired that the 
friendly Nez Perees be included in it. but the hostile Nez Perces who had taken 
pari in the fighting must be driven out of the country. In conclusion he decl.ared 
tli.it the government intended to make ro.ids through their country, wlure and 
whenever it pleased, and the men eni|iloyed in th.it work nuist not be molested. 

The .Spok/uu' chief replied; "I am sorry for what li.is been done, and gl.ad of 
the op|iortiuiity now ollered to make pe.aee with the (ireat I'.ilher. \\ e promise 
to obey and fulfill these terms in every point." 

Another old .Spokaiu' chief said "My heart is the same. 1 trust everybody is 
included in the ('olonel's mercy." 

Colonel Wright: "It embraces everybody, and those who go with nu to \\'.alla 
W.alla as hostages for the good behavior of the nation shall not be hurt tlu least, 
but wi II taken care of until their safe return at the ex|)iration of one year." 

The treaty was signed by .all the chiefs ])resent for the .Spokanes. \\'lul( the 
council w.is in session, (iarry and Kig .St.ar returned ami re))orted that tbev bad 
hunted all night for Kami.akcn without success, biil bad foinnl liini anil his brother 
Sebroiini at iln\brrak on the nlber side of the Spokane rivi'r. 'I'bev could not in- 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 255 

duce him, liowever, to come in, as he said he was afraid of being taken to Walla 
Walla. 

After the conditions of peace had been interpreted to Garry and Big Star they 
also signed the treaty. 

Milcapzy, a Coeur d'Alene chief who had not attended the council of his tribe 
at the mission, was present at the Spokane council, and Colonel Wright singled him 
out and said : 

"Milcapzy, I saw your letter to General Clarke. You said to the General: 
'Perhaps you tliink that we are poor and want ))eace. We are neither poor nor do 
we want peace. If you want peace you must come and ask for it, and take care 
that you do not come beyond the battle ground.' 

"W^ho now asks for peace ? I do not. And where stands the battleground } 
Milcapzy thinks he is rich. He has bands of horses, and houses and farms and 
lodges full of grain. Let him remember that riclies sometimes take wings and fly 
away. Tilkohitz was rieli once, but is poor now. Milcapzy, look upon the banks of 
the S]3okane (a reference to the killing of Tilkohitz's great band of horses). I 
should like to hear Milca])zy speak." 

Milcapzy reflected a moment, conferred with a warrior at his side, and after 
adjusting his head-dress, replied: "I am aware that I have committed a great 
crime. I am very sorry for it. My heart is cast down. But I have heard your talk 
just made in this council. I have confidence in what you say, and I thank you for 
it. I am ready to abide by the terms you ])ro])ose. " 

After F"ather Joset had explained to him the terms of the treaty under which 
peace had been granted to the Coeur d'Alenes he signed it and the council was 
ended. 

"Among the chiefs at this council, " according to Kip, "were Polotkin. the head 
chief of the Spokanes, whom we formerly held as a prisoner and released — and one 
of his sons, the one who visited our camp on the Spokane the daj' his father was 
detained. His brother and himself were the Indians who were fired at by the 
guard across the river when demanding the release of the old chief. He is one of 
the most splendid looking men I have ever seen. He was shot in the arm below 
the elbow, and his brother was shot through the body. From what we could learn 
of him, he will ]5robably not recover." 

One of the hostages taken to Walla Wall.i was Anthony, a Coeur d'Alene chief 
who was in the fight with Steptoe. When Lieutenant Gaston fell, he covered his 
body with leaves, intending to go back afterward and bury it, but when he returned 
the body had been removed. 

"I can not close this communication, " says Wright in his report of the council, 
"without expressing my thanks to Father Joset. the superior of the Coeur d'Alene 
mission, for his zealous and unwearied exertions in bringing all these Indians to a 
true understanding of their position. For ten days and nights the father has toiled 
incessantly, and only left us this morning after witnessing the fruition of all his 
labors." 

Conspicuous as ringleaders in the work of inciting the u]3rising were Owhi and 
Qualchien, father and son. They were Yakimas, Owhi a brother-in-law of Chief 
Kamiaken, and were regarded as two of the worst Indians west of the Rocky moun- 
tains. The son was even more notorious than the father, and Colonel Wright was 



256 SI'OKANK AND Till'. IMAM) I-.MIMHF. 

particularly .■iiixi()\is to secure liini. That di sire was mow to l)e gratified, aii<l a 
tragedy was to be enacted on the meadow banks of the Ned-wliuald that would 
cliangc its n.ame and associate it forever with as startling an act of military jus- 
tice as the annals of Indian warfare can anywhere ])resent. 

Ouhi was a conspicuous figure at the great council at Walla Walla in 1855, 
where he opposed all <-essioiis of l.iiid to the whites, protesting against the treaties 
with great zeal and ability. 'I'li.uiks to Lieutenant Ki|i. who was at the W.ill.a 
W.ill.i council and took iu)tes of Owhi's speech, his sentiments have been prcservcil 
in history : 

"We are talking together," s.iid Owlii on that occasion, ".and the Great Spirit 
hears all that we say today. The Great S|)irit g.ive us tiie land .and measured the 
land to us. This is the reason that I am afraid to say anything about this land. 
I .1111 .ifr.iiil of th<- laws of the Great Spirit. This is the reason of my Iie.irt 
being sad. This is the re.ison I cannot give you an .answer. I ,iiii atr.aid of 
the Great Spirit. Sh.ill I steal this Land and sell it.' or wh.it sli.ill 1 dor This 
is the reason why my heart is sad. The Great Spirit made our friends, hut the 
Gre.at Si>irit in.ade our bodies from the e.irth. as if they were different from the 
whites. What shall I do? Shall I give the l.ind. which is a part of my body, and 
leave myself i)oor .and destitute"' S\\:t\\ I s.iy I will givi- you my hand? I cannot 
say so. I am .afraid of the (ireat Spirit. I love my life. The reason I do not 
give mv land .iwav is I .am afr.iid of being sent to hell. I love my friends. 1 love my 
life. This is the reason why I do not give my Land .iw.iy. I h.ave one word more 
to say. Mv i)eo])le arc far aw.iy. They do not know your words. This is the reason 
I can not give vou an answer. I show you my he.irt. This is .all I h.ave to say. 

After their d.fe.at .it the W.ill.i W.ill.a eouneil. Owlii .Hid his son Qualellicn 
cooperated with K.imi.iken to organize the u))rising .md outbreak of the follow- 
.ing winter when the Indian agent and sever.il other white men were murdered. 

On the evening of the .Spok.me council. Owlii c.ime in .ind surrendered to 
Colonel Wright, who recei\ed him in sternness and sent for a priest to act as 
interpreter. The colonel h.id .i |)eeuliarly nervous way of i)utting questions. 

Wright: "Where did he see me last?" 

Priest: "He saw you in his country." 

Wright: "Whereabout in his country?" 

Priest: "On the Natchess river." 

Wright: "Wh.it did he promise me at th.at time?" 

I'riest: "Th.at he wmild come in with his people in some d.iys." 

()wlii bee.ime p.ile .and confused. 

Wright: "Why did he not <lo so?' (.\side: "Tell the officer of the guard to 
bring a file of his men; and Captain Kirkham, you will iuive some iron shackles 
made ready.") 

Owhi hung his hr.id .and lookial still morr confused. 

Priest: "He s.iys he did do so." 

Wright: "Where is he from now?" 

Priest: "I'rom the mouth of the Spokane." 

Wright: "How long has he been away from there?" 

Priest: "Two days." 

Wright: "Where is (^u.ilehien ? ' 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 257 

Priest: "At the Diouth of the Si)okane." 

\\'right: "Tell Owhi tiiat I will .send a message to Qualchien. Tell him he, too, 
shall send a message, and if Qualchien does not join me before I cross the Snake 
river, in four days I will hang Owhi." 

When this communication was made to Owhi, we are informed by Kii), he ap- 
peared to lose all power over himself. He sank on the ground and perspiration 
came out on him in large drops. He took out a book of prayers, and in much 
confusion turned over the leaves for a moment, looking at the pictures apparently 
without knowing what lie was doing, and handed it to the priest who was standing 
by him. He was then taken off by the guard and put in irons. When the mes- 
senger went oft' Owhi said he did not think Qualchien would come in. 

Captain Keyes has left a graphic description of the surrender of Qualchien 
and the quick resulting tragedy. About I'S o'clock on the day following the plac- 
ing of Owhi in irons, two Indians and a fine-looking squaw emerged from a canyon 
tuar the camp. The three rode abreast, and a little distance behind them rode 
an Indian hunchback. The three chief jjersonages were gailv dressed and ap- 
l^roached with a dashing air. They wore a great deal of scarlet, and the squaw 
flis])layed two ornamental scarfs, passing over the right shoulder and under the 
left arm. Across the front of her saddle she carried a long lance, the handle eom- 
jjletely wound with bright beads, and from the ends of which hung two long 
tijjpets of l)eaver skins. The two braves bore rifles, and one, evidently the leader, 
carried an ornamented tomahawk. With exceeding boldness they directed their 
horses to Colonel Wright's tent. 

Ca]itain Keyes pulled aside the tent flap and said: "Colonel, we have distin- 
guished visitors here. " When the colonel came out he instantly recognized Qual- 
chien, who daringly entered into conversation with him, retaining his rifle by his 
side. Qualchien's bearing was so defiant that Captain Keyes, fearing that the out- 
law meditated violence, placed himself on guard and stood alert to sjjring on the 
Indian at the slightest demonstration. 

Presently Colonel Wright mentioned Owhi's name and Qualchien started and 
exclaimed. "Car.''" (where). "Owhi mittite yawa" (Owhi is over there), re- 
plied the colonel. 

At these words Qualchien seemed to be half paralyzed. He acted in the dazed 
way of a man who had been stunned by a physical blow. He kept repeating, 
mechanically, "Owhi mittite yawa !" "Owhi mittite yawa !" Then he made a 
motion as if he would use his rifle, and made towards his horse, but was seized 
by the guard and disarmed. He carried a fine jiistol capped and loaded, and 
plenty of ammunition. 

Colonel Wright commanded liim to go with the guard, and he at first assented, 
but tiien luld back and was pulled along. He was a fine specimen of physical 
manhood, with a broad chest, muscular limbs and small hands and feet. By the 
time he had reached the guard tent he was recovered from his semi-stupor and 
fought desjierately for his freedom. It required six men to tie his hands and 
feet, although he suffered at the time from an uidiealed wound in the lower part 
of his body. The subsequent proceedings were startlingly summary. Wright 
recorded them in his official report in a single sentence: "Qualchien came to me 
at 9 this morning, and at 9:15 a. m. he was hung." 



258 SPOKANK AM) THK INLAND I.MIMKI. 

Hut letters and reports liy others of liis coiiiiuand liave preserved for us a more 
dramatic setting. Wlicn Qualcliien's fate was made known to Iiim, he fell to curs- 
ing Kaniiaken. He was dragged to a neighboring tree, but when they attempted 
to place the rope around his neck, the struggle was renewed, and bound as he 
was, it became necessary to throw him on his back before the noose could be i)ut 
over his head, he shrieking all the while: "Cojxt six I (stop my friends). Wake 
memaloose nika ! (do not kill me); nika potlateh liiyu chickamin, hiyu knitan (I 
will give much money, a great many horses) ; spore nika memaloose, nika hiyu 
siwash silex (if you kill me a great many Indians will be angry); copet six!" In 
spite of his protests the rope was run over the limb of a tree and he was strung 
up, shouting curses on Kaniiaken with his last breath. Among tliose who pulled 
with eagerness on the rope were two miners who had been with the party attacked 
by Qualciiien and his band in the Colville country a few months before. 

It developed a little Liter that Qu.-ilchien had been the victim of some act of 
treachery, for he had not met the messenger sent out in search of him, but had 
either come of his own accord or been lured in by the Indian hunchback, whose 
expression when Qualchien was hauled up indicated a devilish satisfaction. And 
as soon as the deed was over the hunchback galloped to the upper end of the en- 
campment where he related with savage joy to his people the part he had played 
in guiding the victim into the hands of Wright. The squaw who. a few minutes 
before, had ridden in so airily, proved to be Qualchien's wife, a daughter of Polot- 
kin. iShe was suflfered to depart, and rode off with Qualchien's companion. It was 
su])])osed that Qualchien had been sent in by Kamiaken, as a si)y, to learn what 
Colonel Wright would do with the ringleaders of the outbreak, and the victim 
looked upon the great war chief of the Yakimas as the author of his deatli. 

"He died like a coward," wrote an officer who h;id \ritnessed the tragedy, "and 
very differently from the manner in which the Indians generally met their fate. 
So loud indeed were his cries that they were heard by Owhi, who was confined 
near by." In disgust the old chief disowned him, saying, "He is not my son, but 
the son of Kamiaken." meaning that he had followed the counsel of the Yakima 
leader. 

It became bruited around the next day that Qualchien had a large sum of money 
on his person, and his body was exhumed to prevent the treasure falling into the 
hands of the Indians, but little of value was discovered. 

"In all the battles, forays and disturb.inees in Washington territory," said 
Kip, "Qualchien has been one of the leading s|)irits. The influence for evil whicli 
he exerted was probably greater even than that of eitlier Owhi or Kamiaken. Of 
the three, he was the most ;iddicted to fighting and bloodshed. He has been di- 
rectly charged with the murder of nine white men at different times. In the action 
of March 1, 1856, on White river, Puget Sound district, Qualchien was present 
witli fifty Yakima warriors, .and of these seven wiTe killed." 

Tiiree d.iys after the hanging of Qtialchien, Owhi. his father, made a dash for 
freedom. Lieutenant Morgan, riding by his side, fired three sliots from his re- 
volver, .all taking effect, and a dragoon liastrried tn the udiiiulcd chief and put a 
bullet tbrougli his he.ad. 

"Nothing has been (lon( in tliis campaign," said Lieutenant Ki|), "so effectually 
to secure the peace of the eoiintry as the deatli of these two chiefs." 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND ExMPlRE 259 

In cxi)laiiation of tlie hanging of Quakliiin, Colonel Wright said in his report 
to his superior at Fort Vancouver: "He has been actively engaged in all the mur- 
ders, robberies and attacks upon the white people since 1855, both east and west 
of the Cascade mountains. He was with the party who attacked the miners on 
tile We-nat-che river in June last, and was severely wounded; but recovering 
rapidly, he has since been committing assaults on our people whenever an oppor- 
tunity offered. " 

I have been unable to find in Colonel Wright's reports any account of the 
hanging of other Indians on Hangman creek. Lieutenant MuUan mentions briefly 
tiiat "a number of Pelouses at this camp expiated their many crimes upon a gal- 
lows erected for the purpose," and Kip is a little more circumstantial. "In the 
middle of the day," says that authority, "two Pelouse Indians came in, bringing 
a letter from the priest. They were followed shortly after by seven or eight 
more. The whole party were at once taken to the guard-house and ironed. At 
evening they were brought up for examination, and being convicted of having 
been engaged in various atrocities, six of them were at once hung. One of them 
was proved to be the Indian who killed Sergeant Williams at Snake river, when, 
after being wounded in Colonel Steptoe's affair, he was trying to make his way 
back to Walla Walla." These, in addition to Qualchien, and the Indian hanged 
in the Spokane valley, made a total of eight who died by the noose in the Spokane 
country. Four more were hanged on the Palouse, and four at Walla Walla. Ac- 
cording to Wright, eleven Indians were hanged in all, but other rejKirts show a 
total of sixteen and that is probably the correct count. 

While the main command rested on Hangman creek. Colonel Wright dispatched 
three companies of dragoons to the Steptoe battlefield, distant about ten miles, to 
recover the remains of the officers and men who had fallen in that engagement and 
the two mountain howitzers which had been buried on the evening of the memor- 
able night retreat to Snake river.. Lieutenant Kip, who participated in tliis sad 
mission, thus describes the solemn duty: 

"On reaching the battlefield proper, we halted and encamped, and picketing 
our animals in good grass, began to search for the remains of the men there so 
inhumanly butchered, and the guns lost in that desperate encounter. 

"The guns having been well buried, were found as they had been left, undis- 
turbed. Passing along the slope of the hill, we came upon a small ravine in which 
lay the graves of four men: Captain Taylor, a half-breed, and two dragoons. 
Silently and mournfully- we disinterred their remains, and securelv packing them 
bore them from the field to our camp, in order to transport them to Walla Walla, 
there to give them jjrojjcr burial with military honors. 

"Silently surveying the ground from tlie top of this hill, a scene of sadness 
and desolation met the eye at every turn. Broken and burnt fragments of all that 
had once constituted the equipage of this command lay scattered to the right and 
left, and everywhere were to be seen the unmistakable signs of a relentless savage 
foe who liad determined on the utter annihilation of this small command. 

"But one thing remained not totally destroyed, a jjair of shafts of one of the 
buried guns. Why this had escaped the general conflagration of such things as the 
Indians could not usefully appropriate was a wonder to us all. 

"This, with our rude means at hand, we framed and fashioned into a cross, 



260 SI'OKANF, AM) Till, INT. WD l.Ml'lliK 

which wc erected 111)011 tlic battlefield as a Christian token tu the honored dead, and 
to point the straiiffer to the spot where brave men bravely met their fate; and as 
each ortieer and soldier lingered near the s|)ot. and heard rehearsed the sad recital 
of that memorable drfeat, tile silent tiar stole down many a bronzed elieek that had 
confronted death and bra\ed danger upon many a tented field." 

"Poor Gaston." exel.iims Ki)). "My parting with him was at \\'est Point, when 
full of lifi .ind sjiirits and bright anticipations of his future career. My last recol- 
leetion of him is in his gray cadet uniform. I never saw him after, until I thus 
stood by his remains today. He was every inch a soldier; and when, during the last 
year, ill health weighed him down, and he feared the a])))roaeli of that feebleness 
whieli would withdraw him from his duties, his military spirit seemed to be the 
strongest imjiulsi- he felt. He often expressed the hope that he might die in battle, 
and thus it was that his wish was gratified. He had a soldier's death, and will have 
a soldier's burial and grave, — 

" 'The fresh turf, and not the feverish bed.' " 



CHAPTER XXIX 

WRIGHT'S RETURN MARCH TO WALLA WALLA 

TELLS THE PALOUSES THEY ARE RASCALS AND DESERVE TO BE HUNG TREATS THEM AS 

OTTLAWS, BUT PUTS THEM ON PROBATION HANGS FOUR AS A WARNING TO THE 

OTHERS "CUTMOUTH JOHN" A CONSPICUOUS FIGURE MILITARY HONORS FOR THE 

(iALLANT DEAD LIEUTENANT Klp's PREDICTION "tHE WAR IS CLOSED " COLONEL 

Wright's final report. 

H.W'IXC; practically completed his campaign, Colonel Wright now broke 
caiiip on Hangman creek and began the retrograde march to Walla Walla 
111! the iiKiniiiig of Se])tenilur 26. On the evening of the twenty-ninth tlic 
command encamped at a point well down on the Palouse river, on what appeared to 
have been an old battleground of the Indians, arrow heads and remains of other 
weapons being scattered about. 

A large number of Palouse Indians came in the next morning, with their families, 
and the Colonel determined to hold a "council," as he termed these somewhat one- 
sided conferences with the broken and humiliated tribes. The Palouses having 
gathered before his tent, and the interpreter being ready, the Colonel delivered this 
gracious and complimentar\' address: 

"Tell them they are a set of rascals and deserve to be hung; that if I should 
hang them all, I should not do wrong. Tell them I have made a written treaty 
with the Coeur d'Alenes and the Spokanes, but I will not make a written treaty with 
tluni ; and if I catch one of them on the other side of the Snake river, I will hang 
him. Tell them they shall not go into the Coeur d'Alene country, nor the Spokane 
country, nor shall they allow the Walla Walla Indians to come into their country. 
If they behave themselves, and do all tliat I direct them, I will make a written 
treaty with them next spring. If I do, there will be no more war between us. If 
they do not submit to these terms, I will make war on them; and if I come here .again 
to war, I will iiang them all, men. women and children. 

"Tell them tliat five moons ago two of tluir trilic kilh-d some miners. The mur- 
derers must immediately be delivered up." 

After the Palouses had weighed these words, thev conferred among themselves, 
and jiresently one of them came forward. The other liad slipped away, apparently 
to the great annoyance of his tribe, who, to save themselves were eager to comply 
with the victor's conditions. 

Colonel Wright: "Tell them they must deliver up the six men who stole our 
beef cattle at Walla Walla." 

261 



262 SPOKANK AM) TIIF. INLAND K.Ml'lUE 

This demand met witli (luick compliaiicf, and tin- oifiiidcrs were brought furw.ird 
and handed over to the guard. 

Colonel Wright continued: "Tell them they must allow all white mm to pass 
unmolested through their eountry, aiul nuist deliver u|> to me one chief and four 
warriors, with their families, to go with me to Walla Walla as hostages." 

.VII these terms were accepted by the unhapjjy and terror-stricken Palouses, and 
then, to make the lesson more im])res-,ive, four of them — the murderer and three 
others who had been selected as notorious marauders — were marched to a tree sev- 
er.al liundrid yards distant and hanged. 

The return to Walla Walla was made without notable incident, the command 
arriving tliere October ."), after an absence of just sixty marching days. As it 
marched into the iiirt. "Cutmoutli .lulin" was by far its most conspieunus figure, 
cl.id in a red blanket, a large skin cap upon his head, and in his hand a long lance 
from the eiul of which dangled the scalp lie had taken in the battle of the Four Lakes. 

When the troo])s readied the |);irade ground the eoliinin liallril. the r.-mks o|)ene(i. 
and Colonel .Mansfield, the inspector general of the department, who had arrived a 
few days before, made a thorough inspection. There was nothing about the com- 
mand, says Ki)), of the "pomp and eireuinstanee of glorious war." During two 
months no one had slejjt uiuler roof, and all were begrimed with mud. rain and dust. 
The .artillery and infantry wore blui- flannel shirts, drawn over their uniforms and 
belted .at the waist. The dragoons li.ad a similar dress of gray fl.mnel. The officers 
li.id .idojjted the same, with slouched hats. The only marks of their rank were the 
.shoulder-strap sewed on to the flannel. Yet all this was showing the reality of serv- 
ice. If there was little displ.ay of uniforms, the arms were in perfect order, and we 
believe the troops had never been in ,a higher state of discipline or a more perfect 
condition for action. 

(Juoting from tlic same ollieer's Jouriial: 

October 7th. — Today we turned to more solemn duties. At ten o'clock took |)laee 
the burial of Cajitain Taylor, Lieutenant CJaston .and the remains of the men which 
had been found on Colonel Steptoe's battleground. It was from this jiost they li.ad 
m.irehed forth, and here they were to be laid to their rest. They were, of course, 
buried with military honors, the ceremony being invested with all the p.ageantry 
ivhieii w.is possible, to show res|)ect to the memory of our g.all.ant comrades. All the 
odieers, thirty-nine in luimber, .and the troojis at the ))ost, .amounting to «00 (rein- 
forcements having arriv<'d since our departure), look p.art in the ceremonies. The 
horses of the dead, dr.ipi'd in bl.iek. having on tin in llir oflieers' swords and boots, 
were led behiiul the coffins. The remains were t.aken .about half a mile from the post 
and there interred. Three volleys were fired over them, and we left them where 
day .after d;iy the notes of the bngli- will lie borne o\ir their gr.aves. while we cherish 
their memories ;is those wlin laid down (Ik ir young lixes in the b.ittlelirld for their 
country. 

With iirnphetic foresight this gifted young oflieer .added: "This iiumeiise tract 
of s|)len(lid country over which we m.arehed, is now opened to the white man, and the 
time is not f.ar distant when settlers will begin to occupy it, .and the f.armer will dis- 
cov( r lli.il he e.m rc.a)) his h.arvcst. .and llif miner explore its ores Mitliont d.am'-er 
from the former savage foes. ' 

But buoyant as were these predictions, the jjrogress of fifty vears has brought 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 263 

a realization immeasurably beyond their expectations. Opulent cities, prosperous 
towns, productive fields and pleasant orchards cover the land which then lay wild 
and savage. Railroads have everywhere supplanted the Indian trails, and the red- 
man's campfire has given way to the firesides of more than 100,000 homes. 

I can not close this chapter without a few words of feeble tribute to our gallant 
and ever efficient regular army. We who now possess this pleasant land in peace 
and prosperity owe an unextinguishable debt of gratitude to the courage, devotion 
and self-sacrifice of its officers and men. Their work is ended, and save a mere hand- 
full of survivors still spared to us by the relentless hand of Time, the}' have passed 
to their long reward. Some fell in later Indian wars of the west; others were called 
to a greater theater of conflict and served their country with valor in the civil war. 
Yet others passed into peaceful pursuits and contributed notably to the development 
of the country and its resources. Soldiers of Steptoe and Wright, if living still, we 
render our salute. If resting beneatii the turf, we bow in homage to yoar honored 
memory. 

Under date of September 30, 1858, I find Colonel Wright's last word on the 
campaign. It was written from his camp on the Palouse river, en route to Walla 
Walla, and addressed to the assistant adjutant-general, headquarters of the depart- 
ment of the Pacific, Fort Vancouver, W. T. : 

"!^ir: Tlie war is closed. Peace is restored with the Coeur d'Alenes, Spokanes 
and Palouses. After a vigorous campaign the Indians have been entirely subdued, 
and were most happy to accept such terms of peace as I might dictate. 

"Results 

"1. Two battles were fought by the troops under my command, against the 
combined forces of the Spokanes, Coeur d'Alenes and Palouses, in both of which the 
Indians were signally defeated, with a severe loss of chiefs and warriors, either 
killed or wounded. 

"•i. The capture of 1,000 horses and a large number of cattle from the hostile 
Indians, all of wliich were either killed or api)ropriated to the service of the United 
States. 

"3. Many barns filled with wheat or oats, also several fields of grain, with 
numerous caches of vegetables, dried berries and kamas, all destroyed or used by the 
troops. 

"-t. The Yakima chief, Owhi in irons, and the notorious war-chief Qualchien 
hung. The murderers of the miners, the cattle-stealers, etc (in all eleven Indians), 
all hung. 

"The Spokanes, Coeur d'Alenes and Palouses entirely subdued, and sue most 
abjectly for peace on any terms. 

"6. Treaties made with the above-named nations; they have restored all prop- 
ertv which was in their possession, belonging either to the United States or indi- 
viduals ; they have promised that all white people shall travel through their country 
unmolested, and that no hostile Indians shall be allowed to pass tlirough or remain 
among them. 

"7. The delivery to the officer in CDunnand of the United States troops of one 
chief and four men. with their families, from each of the above-named tribes to be 



264 SI'OKAM. AM) I III. IM.WI) I.MI'IKK 

taken to Fort Walla Walla, and luld as hostages for the future good conduct of their 
respective nations. 

"9. The recovery of two inouiitaiii howitzers abandoned hy the troops under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Steptoe. 

"Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"G. Wright, 
"Colonel Ninth Infantry. Commanding." 



CHAPTER XXX 

REMARKABLE EARLY HISTORY OF SPOKANE COUNTY 

FIRST CREATED IN 1858 AREA OF 75,000 SQUARE MILES PUBLIC OFFICES GO BEG- 
GING OLD PINKNEY CITY THE COUNTY SEAT FIRST LEGISLATOR IIURDERED BY 

INDIANS FIRST POLITICAL CONVENTION UNION SENTIMENT STRONG COURT 

HOUSE OF logs; had been a SALOON HIGH PRICES IN THE 60S GOLD DISCOVERED 

ON THE PEND d'oREILLE MILITARY POST ESTABLISHED AT FORT COLVILLE CALI- 
FORNIA VOLl'NTEERS A BAD LOT GRAND MILITARY BALL AT THE FORT PIONEER 

DISTILLERY RAIDED EARLY DAY EXECUTIONS, LEGAL AND OTHERWISE. 

THE early history of Spokane county lias connected with it events of an 
extraordinary character. Four times was it created by legislative act. 
Twice it was not organized by the agents appointed for that purpose. 
Once it had, after organization, a short and jjrecarious existence, and was merged 
into Stevens county ; and tlie fourth creation was followed by the political com- 
munity of recent years." — From a manuscript by VV. P. Winans, who served two 
terms, beginning in 1862, as auditor of the original county of Spokane, when the 
county seat was Pinkney City. 

With free-handed disregard of actual needs and conditions, the early legisla- 
tures of Washington territory parceled out the interior into county forms long 
before towns or even crossroads settlements had come into existence. A number 
of these counties never had other than mere legal or fictional being, and in that 
class for several years, belonged the first comity of S]iokane. attemjited to be set 
up at the session of 1857-8. when a bill was enacted .January 29. "to create and 
organize Spokane county," as follows: 

"Be it enacted. That all that portion of the county of Walla Walla embraced 
witliin the following lioundaries, to wit: Commencing at the mouth of the Snake 
river, following up said river mid channel to the forty-sixth jjarallel of north lati- 
tude; thence east along said parallel fn the .summit of flic Rockt/ mountains ; thence 
north along said summit to the forty-ninth ]iarallel of north latitude; thence west 
along said ]iarallel to the Columbia river; thence do\^^l mid channel of said river 
to the place of beginning; the same is hereby constituted and organized into a sepa- 
rate county, to be known and called Spokane county. 

"That the county seat of the said eounty is liereliy tem)iorarily located on the 
land claim of Angus McLeod. 

"That Robert Douglass. .John Owen and \\'illi/nii MeCreary are herebv ap- 
pointed a board of eounty commissioners; and that Patrick McKenzie is herebv 

265 



266 Sl'OKANK AND TllL INLAND E.Ml'lUK 

ajjpointcd slierifT; and tli.it I.ifavftte Alexander is lu-reliy a])i)()intcd cDuiity audi- 
tor." 

Vast, wild and uiiti iiaiitid by civilization was the region embraced within the 
desijin.itfd houiidaries — a .strelcli of Jilain and luountaiii, of j)r;iirie and forest, of 
jilaeid lakes .iiid foaniing torrents, 200 miles widi' and nearly K)0 miles long, eom- 
jirisiiig an aria of more than 7.").0IH) s(jiiare miles, and with searei-ly one white 
person to eacii thousand s<|uare miles of territory. Sueli feeble and scattered set- 
tlements as then had existence were found in the Colville valley. .Settlers along 
the Spokani . there were none of the white race. The fnilians were warlike, inso- 
lent and JigfiTessive. and the county in fact was conjured into fictional being on 
the eve of the .allied outbreak of the Indian tribes nortii of Snake river. 

I'liblie ottic(^ went a begging then in (.isteni Washington, and found no takers 
in the remote, unsettled ,and moneyless county of S])okane ; for the otiieials named 
in the first legislative act failed to qualify or to organize county government; .and 
a year Liter the legislative assembly, which then met annually, made a second effort. 
An act of .January 18. ISoQ, named Robert Douglass, .Fohn McDougald and Angus 
MeC'loud as commissioners of the ))roposed new county. Thomas Urown was desig- 
nated to serve as slierifl', Patrick MeKeiizie as auditor, Thomas Stensgar as probate 
judge, and Solomon Pelkie justice of the jieace — all to hold office until tlie next 
regular election, or until their successors should be elected and qualify. No loca- 
tion for a county seat was specified. 

This attcmjit was as futile .as the first, but undaunted, the legislature tried 
again. After the brilliant e.amp.aign of 1858, and thorough pacification of the 
country by the troops under Colonil (ieorge Wright, it i)assed another act. in 
January, 18(iO, to reest.ablisli the county of Spokane. The boundaries were defined 
as before, but this time the county seat was temporarily located "on the land 
claim of Dr. li.ates." in the ('(ihille \ alley. "Few of the vast ))opulation of Spo- 
kane county today know that while its official organization dates b.ack to a time 
but little more than thirty years .ago. h.aving been carved — .a small and then insig- 
nificant portion — out of Stevens county, yet there was a county of Spokane estab- 
lished by an act of the territorial legislature of 18G0," s.ays Attorney .lohn B. 
Slater in .an article written after a search of the old county records at Colville. "It 
was organized in .April of th.at year, and flourislied for four years." In honor 
then of the gallant ini nmry of Isa.ic F. Stevens, first territorial governor, who 
had fallen in one of the early battles of the eivil war, the legislature changed the 
county's name to Stevens. 

The initial entrv in tlu lirst book of neonls of this original county of Spokane 



".No. I. Received of William II. W.atson. ■■^'J."), in full for house .and lot .and 
all things belonging thereto. 

"Pinkncy City, W. T., ,)uly 11, 1800. 
(Signed) "('. I.. Thomas. 

"Recorded .Inly 1^. 1860, G o'clock p. m. 

"H. II. Ro(ii:i!S, 

"Count 1/ Auditor." 



SPOKANE AXD THE IXLAXD EMPIRE 267 

And on page 'i of hook ], of the records of Spokane county, appear, as follows, 
the first minutes of the proceedings of the hoard of county commissioners: 

"In pursuance of an act of the legislative assembly of the territory of Wash- 
ington, jiassed January 17, 18G0 (a certified copy of which is attached to page 1 
of this record), the county of Spokane was organized, and the following named 
persons were respectively sworn into office and executed bond according to law, 
viz: 

",J. W. Seaman, James Hays and Jacques Dumas, as county commissioners; 
John W'ynn, as sheriff; R. H. Rogers, as auditor; R. H. Douglas, as treasurer; J. 
R. Bates, as justice of the peace, and F. Wolff, as coroner. 

"In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and private seal (there 
being no official seal provided), this 7th day of May, 1860. 

"R. H. Rogers (L. S.) 
"Auditor in and for Spokane county, W. T." 

"It seems." says Mr. Slater, "that Rogers and Douglas became mixed in the 
process of qualification, and, according to the fact as stated by a witness to the 
ceremonv, Douglas, by accident, signed and (jualified by oath u]5on the blank form 
provided for Rogers, the latter, at the same time, making the same mistake with 
reference to the blank form provided for Douglas, as treasurer. The spectators 
laughed heartily over the mistake, and tlie two gentlemen accepted the change as 
a sort of .joke, although afterward, it is said, they became bitter enemies. 

"On the 8th of ^lay. 1860. the board met and designiated Pinkney City the 
county seat, wliich was the town or trading post adjoining the site of Fort Col- 
ville, three miles north of the present site of Colville. Two election precincts were 
established and election notices directed to be posted. John L. Houck was ap- 
|)oiiited the first road supervisor, and given charge of all the public highways in 
the county, which then extended from ^^'enatchee on the west to Helena, Montana, 
on the east, and from Lewiston, Idaho, on the south to the British line on the 
north. 

"At the election held in June, 1860. George Taylor was elected to succeed 
.Jacques Dumas as county commissioner, who had drawn a short term and was 
elected chairman of the board. As nearly as can be ascertained from the records, 
the officers elected for the first term were: Treasurer, R. H. Douglas; assessor, 
John Gunn, who failed to qualify, and J. T. Demarce was appointed to succeed 
him; auditor, J. R. Bates; and sheriff, F. Wolff. 

"On April 11, 1861, James Hays resigned the office of county commissioner, 
and Robert Bruce was appointed his successor. 

"The first money received by the county was -$'200 paid by Chamberlain & 
Walker for a license to vend ardent spirits in Pinkney City. This was immediately 
followed by licenses to five others for the same place, a living evidence that Pink- 
ney City was a lively town. 

"The population of the place is said to have been nearly a thousand people.* 
All the business was along one street, and extended along each side of the thor- 
oughfare for nearly a mile. The commissioners, in order to provide anqile fire 



*Beii Burgunder's recollection is that it never excpeclctl 200 or 300. 



268 SPOKAM. AM) Till: INLAND F.MI'II{H 

protection and pure water for domestic jiurposes for the town, a])])ropriated -tlOO 
to be expended in digging a well in the center of the street, and as nearly the 
center of the town as possible. The well was dug, but it is said the water was never 
used except for slaking tin thirst iif the cavalry Imrsi > from the post nearby. 
Today there is not a sign of tiic wi II remaining, and .ill that would indicate that 
once there might have been human inli.ihitants upon this historic spot is an occa- 
sioh.il dejiression in tlie earth, the remains of oh! cellars and basements, under 
buildings that iiandled the trade of the country, 

"The eonimissioners' journal was ke|)t bv li.iiids not train<ii to eirrie.il work, 
but the good old pioneers did the best they could for Spokane county, as is evi- 
denced by some of the proceedings which commemorate the stirring times. The 
most influential men were elected to oftice, and. whetlu r or not they obeyed the 
laws themselves, tluy niadi- it ap|)i ar by the records that tin v were especially 
solicitous that all others make gocd under existing statuti s. Once they m.ide a 
record apjilauding the auditor because lu- had been diligent in enforcing jjayment 
of license money for the ))rivilege of kee])ing saloon. 

"The proceedings of the Sjjokaiie eounty commissiomrs cover only about thirty- 
five p.iges, the last being the record of the meeting held on November tiO, 1863, 
wlicii Thomas Stensgar. .lolin l'. llofstetter and Robert 13ruce were commis- 
sioners. .\t this meeting tin following record was madi-: 'The auditor was in- 
structed to writi- to Dr. Tobey, representative, requesting hiui to get a bill |);issed 
immediately to tax Chinamen, the tax to be .fl.."!!) a month, or .$f.50 a (piarter, to 
be collected by the sheriff, .and he be allowed ■■■iO per cent on what be collects, and 
the treasurer and auditor their usual fees, as in other |)ul)lie moneys; also have 
Stevens county .attached to this (Spokane) county, the citizens having failed to 
organize.' " F.xpl.m.atory of this List instruction to Re))resentative Toby, it may 
be ex|)l.-iiii((l th.at the legisl.iture. .it tlir previous session, li.-id cut off :i section of 
W.ill.i W.all.a county and called it .Stevens. 

.Mr. .Skater found that tin- first gr.and jury of .Spok.inc enuiitv w.is couvincd 
ill .lime, I860, by Judge W'illi.iiii .Strong. W In n it ciiin In p.iying the jury the 
connnissioners objected upon the ground that it w.is tin- duty of the gener.il gov- 
ernment to p.iy its court officials, .and the court w.is obliged to exercise his judicial 
jjrerogative in .1 court order to com))el payment. The connnissioners paid the bill, 
but iii.idr ;i iiiiiiulr of the f.iet tli.it llnir .let of nludiriiee w.as exercised iiiulcr |)ro- 
test. 

Not withstanding no jirovision li.id lircii m.-idc in the Irgisl.itive act for repre- 
sentation froin the new county in tin- assembly at Olympia. the voters elected W. 
II. W.itsiin .it the first election. He appeared at the eipital. ready to t.ake the 
o.atli .iiiil 1 nti-r ui)on legislative duties, but the assembly dcelined to si-.it liiin. As 
a sort of consolation salve, liowi \ rr. he was elected doorkeeper of the house. While 
returning on horseback, from the capital to Pinkney City, in the sjiring of 1861, 
Watson w.is murdered by a .Spokane Indian, Ci-sit-shee, between Walker's prairie 
and C'am.as i)rairic. Walker wore a fine gold watch, coveting which the Indi.an fol- 
lowed him from his niglit encampment, and found on the Spokane's person after 
tin diseoverv of the crime, led to liis arrest on the Spokane. He was taken to 
the county seat by .Sheriff Woltf. and bound over for trial by .lustiee of the Peace 
Cvrus Hall. The crime and the ex.ainination aroused intense public feeling, and 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 269 

the little court room of the justice was filled with citizens and soldiers from Fort 
Colvillc. Immediately after the examination a mob formed, took the prisoner 
from the sheriff, and hanged him from the cross beam of the double gate before 
the brewery. JiLstice in those days seems to have been expeditious and cheap, 
for the total cost to the county of the arrest, trial, conviction and execution, all 
transpiring within two days, was only thirty dollars. 

J. R. Bates, the first representative from Spokane countj^, was elected in July, 
1861. Taking warning from the tragic fate of ^Ir. Watson, he went properly 
"heeled" with a Colt's dragoon revolver with gun stock attachment. 

W. P. Winans, who lived for thirteen years in the Colville valley, and held 
various offices of public trust when Pinkney City was the county seat, kept a 
journal in which were recorded events and incidents on the day of their occurrence. 
From that journal, and aid given by such pioneers as S. F. Sherwood, Francis 
Wolff, John U. Hofstetter, C. H. ^Montgomery, L. W. Meyers, Benjamin Bur- 
gunder, James Monaghan, George McCrea and Mrs. Christina ^McDonald Will- 
iams, !Mr. Winans has written an invaluable manuscript history of early days in 
the Colville valley and the Spokane country. By courtesy of Ross R. Brattain of 
Spokane, the writer has had access to a copy of the Winans manuscript, and from 
it gleans many interesting and important facts about men and events, full fifty 
years ago. 

Construction of the first brewery, at Pinkney City, was commenced in 1860 by 
.John Shaw and a man named Berry, and finished by John U. Hofstetter in 1861. 

Pinkney City, which was built just across the creek from Fort Colville reserve, 
was named in honor of the commanding officer of the fort, Major Pinkney Lou- 
gen beel. 

In the winter of 1861. Mr. Carpenter, a clerk employed in the store of 01m- 
stead & Co., was killed by Perote. The murderer was arrested and taken to the 
nearest jail, at Vancouver, and the records of the commissioners show that on 
Ajjril 10, 1861, Sheriff Francis Wolff was allowed ■$-t,S8.25 for expenses and mile- 
age of the trip. Another county official, R. H. Rogers, presented a claim of 
.$316.50 for carrying the poll books to \'ancouver, containing the vote on joint coun- 
cilman; but the commissioners, regarding the claim as excessive, allowed a mile- 
age rate of 30 cents on the 470 miles to Vancouver, and awarded Rogers $11'1. 

The winter of 1861-62 was unusually severe. Mr. Winans recorded the fol- 
lowing temperatures in his journal: January l.*}, 30 below zero; January 17, 33 
below; January 18, 30 below. And snow from two to four feet deep. There was 
not a day in that month that the mercury did not fall below zero. 

"Marcli ^2'i., 1862, mail carrier for \\'alla Walla came back, unable to get 
through ; re])orted snow three to five feet deep on Spokane jjlains, about Willow 
s])rings. Joe !Mason started on snowshoes, became snow blind, was found by In- 
dians and brought back to .Spokane river. 

"April 1, 1862, J. W. Seaman got through from Walla Walla; left there two 
weeks ago; reported snow then 12 to 15 inches deep, wood .$25 per cord. Brought 
news from the States up to November 27th (more than four months old)." 

It is believed that the following is the first rtcord of a political I'oiiveiition held 
in the Spokane country: 



270 SPOKANE AND THE JNJ.AND l.Ml'lUE 

Spokank County Convkntion 

Tile L'liion county convention met at the courthouse, Pinkney City, W. T., 
.luiu It, 1864, for the purpose of nominating candidates for the coming election. 
J. it. JJates was called to the chair, and W . P. Winans elected secretary. 

Nominations: — For representative, li. 1'. Yantis ; for sheriff, I-. T. .Marshall; 
for treasurer, .1. It. Bates; for auditor. W. P. Winans; for probate judge, John 
Wynne; for coroner, N. 11. Scranton ; for county connnissioners, Robert Bruce and 
John U. Hofstetter; for justice of the jjeace, D. H. Ferguson. 

After the nominations the following resolutions were read and adopted: 

"Rksolvkd, That our Representative be instructed to use his best efforts to 
have a treaty made with the Indians in our county, and to have the public surveys 
extended over our county as soon as possible. 

"Resolvko, That he use his best endeavors to i)roinote the welfare of the 
county, the mining interests in particular ; and to use his influence to have the 
mail route reestablished from Fort Colville and Walla Walla. Also to use his 
influence toward having the capital removed from Olympia to Walla Walla. 

"Resolved, That we regret the jirescnt deplorable condition of our country 
in its struggle to maintain its existence, and we heartily endorse the policy of the 
goveriuiient in its execution of the laws, ;ind we rejoice in the success of the Fed- 
eral Anns. 

"Resolved, That we will use our best efforts to sustain the government in its 
lircsent struggle to establish its supremacy over all the land." 

These proceedings were in mass convention. The resolutions, as .Mr. \\'iiians 
recalls, were written by Henry \\'ellington. ".i man of education and refinement 
who could command attention in any .-issembly. He moved to the Okanogan valley 
about thirty years ago, dying in June, 1903, loved, honored and respected by all 
wild knew him, for his lofty character and sterling worth." 

At the election, July li, 1'2I votes were jjolled in the county, and ,ill those 
nominated at the June conventidii. with the exception by B. F. Yantis, for repre- 
sentative, were elected. Y.-intis had only thirty-eight votes, his opponent, Charles 
H. Campfield, forty-eight; but Yantis went to 01yni])ia. where his family resided, 
contested the seat before the legislative assembly, .-md won. 

Of necessity a county so poor and unsettled as the early d.ay Spokane had 
to make shift with ;i jirimitive courthouse. At their April session, 1861, the com- 
missioners bought friiTii Charles R. Allen, for $500, a log building 20x40, that 
had been used as a saloon. This cabin housed the government for five years, and 
was then sold to C. H. Montgomery for .fl.200 in county warrants, worth then 
about 2r> cents on tin rlnllar; and on I'ebruary 23, 1867, a larger log building was 
bought from R. 11. Douglass for if'.'iOO in coin, or $066.66 in paper. This second 
building continued to be the courthouse until the town was moved to its present 
location, the site of the niodt rn Colville. 

By legislative act of .F.-muary 3, 1862, a judicial district was created to cover 
Spokane and Missoula counties, and court met for the first time at Pinkney City, 
.luly 28, 1862. with Judge E. P. 01i))li.int ])residing; W. P. Winans, clerk; J. J. 
McCiillvra, United St.-ites attorney: S. li. I'ai'go, prosccutiii;,'- attorney: T,. T. Mar- 
shall, sheriff; and Salucius Garfielde attorney. 



«- 







KETTLE FALLS OF THE COLU.MHIA 
As sketched by the Stevens' Expedition in 1S5U 




ULIi IICDSOX'S llAV (.'Uill'ANY 
POST AT KETTLE FALLS, 

EKEfTEn rx is;??, 








OLU JiUUSuN'S HAY (_(JMPAXY AT 
FORT rOLVlLLK, AS XT AP- 
PEAR KM JX ]SS7 



IXTEENATIOXAL BOUiXDAEY BE- 
TWEEN WASHIXGTON AND 
BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

The little brunette stands on the 
United States Side 




KETTLE FALLS AS THEY APPEAR TODAY 






r" 



THE NEW YORK 



[PUBLIC LIBRAKY 



»,»T»«. LfwlX 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 271 

Only annual sessions were held, and when court convened in June, 1863, for 
a two-day session, it was presided over by Judge J. E. Wyche, with not a lawyer 
in sight. Mrs. Mary J. Walters was granted the first divorce in the county. Of 
a verity hath it been said that "great oaks from little acorns grow." The divorce 
crop has kept well apace with the general step of growth and progress. 

Then, as now, expectation rose and fell with the prospect of immigration and 
fuller development of the potential resources of the land; and the intelligence was 
welcomed when Captain John Mullan, surveyor and builder of the MuUan road 
from Walla Walla to Fort Benton, wrote in June, 1862, that four Missouri river 
ste;iraboats had arrived at Benton, with 350 passengers from St. Louis, en route 
to Bitter Root, Deer Lodge and Walla Walla valleys. "They came provided with 
their carriages and wagons, purchased animals at Fort Benton, and have already 
started for their new homes on the Pacific. The boats made the trip from St. 
Louis in thirty-two days, and the teams will make the trip over the new military 
wagon road in forty days to Walla Walla." 

At Fort Colville, in July, 1862, the military jiaid .$'2. .50 a bushel for wheat. $11 
a barrel for flour, and $1 a bushel for oats. 

Charles Frush and Fred. Sherwood arranged in the sjjring of 1863 to run 
an express from Fort Benton to \Vall.\ M'alla, by way of Spokane prairie, to con- 
nect with the Wells Fargo express at Walla Walla. 

In the spring of 1865, Mr. Winans \inid i'i\-_^ cents jier jiound for carrving 
freight from Wallula, on the Columbia, to Colville, and sold bacon at 621/0 cents, 
coffee 75 cents, sugar 50 cents, beans 35 cents, salt 25 cents, nails 40 cents, butter 
$1, and shot 50 cents. Calico brought 371/4 cents per yard, a spool of thread 25 
cents, and a paper of needles the same. 

The first steamboat to run the Columbia above the international boundary was 
built by Captain Lew White where the town of Marcus now stands. It was chris- 
tened the "Forty-Nine," and Miss Christina McDonald and Miss ISIary L. Brown 
drove the first nails. It was launched November 18, 1865, and made its first run 
about April, 1866, with Lew White as captain, Wesley Briggs purser, A. C. 
Pingstone mate, and Wash. Eldridge engineer. 

The first annual statement of the treasurer of Spokane county, as shown by 
the records, is as follows : 

PiN'KNEY City, W. T., January 1, 1863. 

To amoimt received $2,587.58 

Paid out: 

By county orders redeemed $1,881.98 

By cash, school fund, 1861 277.02 

By cash, school fund, 1862 122.26 

By cash, territorial fund, 1861 106.01 

By cash, territorial fund, 1862 56.22 

By cash, war fund 50.00 

Fees, R. H. Douglass 8.12 

Fees, for disbursing 85.18 

By Cash .79 $2,587.58 



272 S1'(-)KAM: and Till. 1M.AM-) KMl'lUK 

L'lidir datf of Dtcember 28, 1802. Mr. Winans' jouni.il contains this entry: 
"K. F. Sniitli, uiy employer, started below, witii .t'2i2,000 in gold dust, accompanied 
liy .l.imes Monagiian, Pucket and Lieut. Hoadley." And January 2, 1863: "Con- 
ner s mule train got in with goods from Wallula, l.S.OOO jiounds of bacon, sugar, 
etc., thirty-si.\ days since he started for the goods. I'.iid freight bill on same, 
$1,950." 

"On .May 26. 186,i, at the upper Palouse camp," writes Mr. Winans, "tiierc 
were stolen from Ferguson & Co.. nine mules. The teams to whicii tiiese animals 
belonged were en route to CciMllr witli goods. Tlie mules were driven towards 
Britisii Columbia, crossed the Cohuubia at Dancing Hill ferry, and tlienee up the 
Okanogan to Britisii Columbia. Francis WoltV accepted an offer of ^'AM for the 
return of the mules. At the boundary line he struck thiir trail, and eh.inging 
horses several times with tiie Indians, lie overtook tile thieves, and watciiing liis 
opportunity at nigiit. about ten miles tiiis side of Nicholas lake, B. C, iie recov- 
I red the mules, leaving the tiiieves afoot, lie ilr(>\( tiir niuhs to Cnh iUe. .arriving 
June 15, 186.S, about twenty days after tluy were stolen, he living most of that 
time on suckers bougiit from tile Indians. Tile thieves were W. Page, an Eng- 
lisimiaii witli pock marks, Louis Wiilianis. or 'Nigger Louie,' and .lolin Wagoner, 
or 'Duteii John.' Afterwards, in 186 K Page was concerned in the Magruder 
murder, .and kiUed at I.ewiston. Wagoner, witii a jiartner, licit! up a wagon train 
near Boise; thi- partner w.is killrd. hi- was cauglit .and liuiig. 1 lia\c no record 
of wliat became of 'Nigger Louie.' but lien liurgiiiuler says lie was living at one 
time witli the Indians at Kaiiiloops. B. C . 

Bv act of .lanuarv .'iO, ISd:!. the legisl.atnre cut olV from Walla Walla county 
the territory Iving between the international boundary on tlie nortii and the A\eriat- 
chee river on the south, and the Columlii.i river on tiic cast .and tiie Cascade moun- 
tains on tile west, and named if .^stevens county. W. B. ''4'antis w.as named as sherifT 
and Cliarles H. Camptield auditor. The county seat was "temporarily" located 
at "H. E. Young's store." "No .ittem|)t was made to org.aiiize the county of 
.Stevens ;it H. E. Young's store," says Mr. Winans, "for it was so temi)orary th.it 
it remained witiiin its jiroposed bouiid.aries but .i few months. Tiie oflici.ils iiauud, 
being miners, were on tiie move iiuntiiig new diggings, the claims they aliandoned 
being occupied bv hundreds of Chinaiiuii, wlio were .apparently making good w.ages 
and j)a3'ing no taxes. " 

It is Mr. Winans' recollection of the discussion of this quistion that the principal 
reason .idv.aneed for the annex.atiou of .Stevens to Sjiokane was the need of control of 
both sides of tlie Columbia, to prevent evasion of head tax by Chinese shifting 
from one side of the river to the other. "Our representative evidently tried to fol- 
low out his instructions, but in his endeavors to have Stevens coimty attached to 
S])okane, the legislature reversed iiiiii, for tiie act of January I<), 186t, attached 
.Spok.ane to .Stevens, but tiie officers of .Spokane were made tlie officials of .Stevens." 
Dr. Tobey secured the passage of an ".\et to |>roteet free white labor from coni- 
jietitioii of Chinamen. " levying ,i (pi.irterly tax of $6, the slieritf to have 25 per 
cent, the remainder to be divided eipi.-illy between the county and the territory. 
Under this act there was )5aid the treasurer of Stevens county .$2,91'0 in 1861', 
$1,5 f2 in 1865, .and .$.'5,076 in 186(). I'.xplan.atory of tiie small collections of 1865, 
it is recalled tiiat bogus collectors, im])ersonating the slieritf and liis deputies, went 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 273 

among the confiding Chinese and collected several hundred dollars of the tax. The 
law was repealed in 1869. 

At the election, July 13, 1863, for delegate to congress, the vote of Stevens 
county was: Cole 56, Turney 22, Raynor 11, Richardson 2. 

The following entries are taken from the Winans diary : 

"July 26, 1S63. Received news today of the battles and victories of Gettysburg 
and Vicksburg, of July 4, only twenty-two days. Very quick time." 

"August 17, 1863. Very hard frost last night; killed the potato and squash 
vines; also the wheat and oats were rendered valueless." 

"September 8, 1863. Marcus Oppenheimer and W. V. Brown took possession of 
some of the buildings of the British Boundary Commission, abandoned last j'ear by 
Col. Hawkins and the sappers and miners." 

Brown died some years before Oppenheimer. The latter filed a homestead on 
the place, and the town of ]\Iarcus, now on the site, was named for him. 

As some confusion arose from the fact that the county seat was called Pinkney 
City, but the ])ostoffice Fort Colville, the name of the county seat was changed to 
Fort Colville by an act passed January i. 1868. Seven years later, the little village 
of Spokane Falls, ambitious to become the seat of government, made an audacious 
effort to take the county seat from Colville. An act was actually passed, November 
5, 1875, locating the county seat at Spokane, and directing "that on or before May 
1, 1876, the county commissioners shall remove all records to that place." "The 
coimty commissioners did not permit an act of the legislature to override their per- 
sonal jireferences," observes Mr. Winans, for the county records show that on 
April 26. 1876, all three commissioners, L. W. Meyers, D. F. Percival and J. La- 
mona, lieing present, the question of changing the county seat was discussed, and 
the majority decided that 'the act was null and void, because it was an amendment to 
the act of 1863, which was repealed by act of 1864, which located the county seat 
at Colville.' Percival dissented, but no further action was taken. We think this is 
the first instance of a board of county commissioners passing on the legality of an 
act of the legislature and winning out, for the countj' seat remained at Colville, and 
is there to this day." 

Dismemberment of .Stevens county began November 27, 1871, with the cutting 
away of Whitman county. Then, in chronological order, came the cutting off of Spo- 
kane. October .SO, 1879; Kittitas and Lincoln, November 21., 1883; Adams, Franklin 
and Douglas, November 28, 1883; Okanogan. February 2, 1888; Ferry, February 
21, 1899; and Chelan. March 13. 1899. 

The act creating Whitman county took from Stevens all territory south of a 
line drawn from White Bluffs northeasterly to Lougenbeel creek; thence by Fifth 
standard parallel to the Idaho line, and appointed as its first officers: Charles D. 
Porter, sheriff: .Tames Ewart, auditor, and W. A. Belcher, treasurer. 

"The county officials named," says Mr. Winans, "assembled January 1, 1872, and 
took o.itli of office in the hewn log house built by J. A. Perkins, being the first house 
in Colfax, and it still stands in the rear of the present residence of the builder, who 
not only erected the first house, but also assisted in building the first sawmill, and 
has, during his long residence in the county, been one of its most efficient, unselfish 
and leading factors in building up that thriving city and prosperous community." 

Speaking of the organization of Whitman county, Captain James Ewart has said: 



274 Sl'OKANi: AM) Till. IM.AM) KMl'lRE 

"At tliis first meeting tiie questiun arose, who would adiiiiiiistir tile oath of oHice. 
No one present was authorized to do so. It hai)pened that Anderson Cox, an officer 
of the land office at Walla Walla, was in Colfax, and they, making virtue of neces- 
sity, had him swi-.ir in .James Kw.-irt .-is eounty auditor, and he administered the 
oath of office to the other officials. A st.itement of the organization was afterwards 
made to Judge Kennedy, .ind he declared it legal." 

Wc return now to the early history of .Spokane and .Stevens county. "It was not 
until after the war that parties divided ])olitically," continues Mr. Winans. "Tiicii 
for a few years it was Union and Democratic parties, but in 1869 five of the seven 
avowed republicans met in the office of the writer and agreed on a plan of organiza- 
tion, M-hich was carried into effect by placing a republican ticket in the field and 
electing the greater part of it. The seven were Henry Wellington, W. V. Brown, 
II. E. Young, F. W. Perkins, George McCrae, S. F. Sherwood and W. P. Winans. 
For political literature the democrats circulated Brick Pomeroy's Democrat, and the 
republicans the New York Tribune and Harpers' Weekly." 

According to the same authority, the legislative representatives elected during 
the first few years of Spokane-Stevens county are: J. A. Bates, 1861; Charles H. 
Camjitield, J 862, B. F. Yantis, contested, Campficld made no appearance, and Yantis 
got the seat ; Dr. Isaac L. Tobey, for 1 86.S, reelected for 1 86 1, but resigned, as the 
pav, <t3 a day and mileage in "greenbacks" at 40 cents on the dollar would not cover 
his expenses and he did not go to Olympia a second time. Wni. V. Brown, for 186.5, 
would not leave his business to go to the capital. ,1. ,1. H. Bokkelem for 1866. W. P. 
Winans for 1867, member of the first biennial session; Charles H. Montgomery, 
1869; \\'. 1'. Win.ins, 1871; T. (). I'.ivorite. 187.3; R. H. Wimpy, 1875; D. F. Perci- 
val, 1877 and 1879. 

The joint councilmen representing W.iUa W;ill.i. .Sj)okane, Stevens and other 
counties for the first few years of organization were: John A. Simms, 1861-2; Dan- 
iel Stewart, 1863-i; Anderson Cox, 186,';-6; B. L. Sharp.stcin, 1866-7; J. M. Van- 
syeke, from 1867 to 1870; H. O. D. Bryant, 1871-2; Charles H. Montgomery, 1873-4. 

Under the caption of "Incidents," Mr. Winans records the following: 

Before the organization of the county government, gold was dicovered on the 
Pend d'Oreille river by Joe Morrell in 18;)1, and in 1855, the news being scattered 
abroad, quite a number of miners, packers and traders came into the Colville valley 
among tliem Francis Wolff, who in 1856 brought the first merchandise on wagons 
into the v.illey, starting from The Dalles, going by Walla Wall;i v;dley, and crossing 
Snake river at the mouth of the Palouse by lasliing canoes together. After driving 
across country, he ferried the S])okane in the same way, and passed thence into the 
vallcv hv way of Walker's iir;iirie, making the wagon tracks that Major I.ougenbeel 
followed in 1859 win n iu' e.uiu to estalilish the military post. 

The discovery of gold, tiie influx of miners, and the location of the United .States 
mililarv post called the attention of the territorial legisl;iture to the valley, and on 
January 11, 1859, an act was passed "Authorizing Edward L. Massey to establish a 
ferry across Snake river, where the road crosses between Walla Walla .and Fort Col- 
ville." On December I't, 1859, tlie general government was petitioned to build a 
wagon road from Seattle, via .Snotpialmie )):iss. to I'ort Colville. 

In 1859 and 1860 J. R. Bates operated the ferry at the Government crossing on 
the .Spokane river. He sold out to W . ,). Terry .'ind William Xixon, and on .Scjitem- 



SPOKAXE AXI) THE INLAND EMPIRE 275 

ber 20, 1800, James Monaglian was employed by them to take charge of it, he at that 
time being 20 years old. The legislature, on January 11, 1861, granted them a 
charter to build a bridge. This ferry afterwards became the property of James 
!Monaghan, who built the first bridge in 1865, at this crossing. This bridge after- 
wards was called Lapray's bridge, Joseph Lapray purchasing it about 1875. 

The first bridge built on the Spokane river was above the !Mullan road crossing, 
in 1861, by Tim Lee, Joe Herrin and Ned Jordan. High water in the spring of 
1 865 took it out, and it was rebuilt by the same persons that year. 

Tile Kootenai mines were discovered in the fall of 1863, and to ascertain if a 
praeticil route could be had by water, D. H. Ferguson & Co., in the spring of 1864, 
l.ougiit a canoe, employed Dick P'rj', Adam Boyd and Old Piene as guide, provisioned 
them for six months, and sent them to find a route to the mines. They went ujj the 
Columbia river to its headwaters, portaged the canoe three-fourths of a mile to the 
Kootenai river, and floated down that stream to the mouth of Wild Horse creek, 
where the W.alla Walla trail crossed the river. They used the canoe as a ferry boat 
to cross the miners from the south, en route to the mines. 

About 100 miners wintered (1861-65) at I\Iarcus, and in the spring of 1865 
started up the Columbia river and prospected the streams emptying into it, and dis- 
covered the French Creek, or Big Bend mines, in the fall of 1865. 

To enable tlie people of Colville to reach the Kootenai trail with the ])roducts of 
the valley, it was necessary to make a road from Cottonwood creek, a few miles south 
of Chc'welali. to Peone Jirairie, a distance of about sixty miles tlirougii the timber. 
The ])eople volunteered the labor, and the merchants, C. H. Montgomery, D. H. 
Ferguson & Co.. and W. P. Winans donated the provisions. The road was laid out 
by a com))any, consisting of D. H. Ferguson as commissary, John U. Hofstetter as 
overseer, and an Indian as guide. The people by the dozens worked there during 
the summer and fall of 1867, and completed the road so that it has been used ever 
since. In 1871 Chief Engineer Moberly, in charge of the surveying j)arties of the 
Canadian Pacific railroad, bought ]irovisions in Colville, and they were packed over 
this road to Kootenai, British Columbia. 

In July, 1881, Cajitain Hunter, witii a detaebment of the First cavalry, repaired 
tile road, John U. Hofstetter again overseeing the work. He camped at the beauti- 
ful lake on the divide, and on account of the numerous loons, named it Loon lake, by 
which it is now known. 

Immediately following the Wright campaign of 1858, the war department decided 
to establish a jiermanent military post in the Spokane country, and in the spring of 
1859 four eoui])anies of the Ninth U. S. infantry, under Major Pinkney Lougenbeel, 
were ordered to the Colville valley. The conmiand crossed the Snake river at the 
mouth of the Palouse, the Spokane at the point now known as the Lapray bridge, 
and located, June 21, 1859, the military ])ost on the flat near Mill creek, about three 
miles from the present town of Colville. A four company post was built of hewn 
logs. R. II. Douglass and John Nelson had built a sawmill in 1858, at tiie falls 
on the creek about three miles below the site of the fort, and Major Lougenbeel tried 
to rent it on a basis of ^20 per thousand for lumber sawed, he to sui)])ly logs and 
labor. The owners demanded .^lO, whereupon the .Major built a dam half a mile 
above the post site, jjut in ;i sawmill and cut out enough lumber for bis own lueds, 



276 si'okam: and iiii. im.amj i:.\ii'1UK 

tlicii liasiiig tlif mill tii otlurs. aiid in tins way tin- scttlirs were cnabk-d to buy 
lumber at .flO a thousand. 

The same year, says Mr. \\inans. tin I5riti.sb boundary commission, under Col- 
onel Hawkins, located their quarters on the south side of the Columbia river, two 
mills above Kettle Falls, and about fiftein miles from the American post, and 
l)uilt comfortable log houses to shelter his command. The place is now occu- 
jiied by the town of Marcus. On Aujjust (!, 18()1. Captain John G. Parke .sold such 
supi)lies .IS he had belonging to the American Hound.iry Counnission (the .\merican 
and British engineers had worked together locating the boundary) and left for the 
States; and on April 4, 1862. Colonel Hawkins abandoned bis buildinjj and started 
for England by way of A\'alla A\'all.i. 

I'or the historic dates in this eh;ii)ter, relating to tlir military occupation of the 
Colville valley, I am indebted to the v.ihiable journal of Mr. AVinans. 

On November 17, 1861, Major I.ougeiibeel was relieved of the couunand of I'ort 
Colville by Major James F. Curtis, with two e(iin])anies of the Second Infantry, Cali- 
fornia Volunteers. One of the first orders issued by Major Curtis dismissed the post 
sutler, Charles R. Allen. It was terse. em|)hatic and patriotic: ".Sir: You are dis- 
missed as sutler from this post for your unqualified secession principles." 

.Some of the California A'olunteers were a rough and disorderly lot, rejjuted jail- 
birds of San Francisco, a city then swarming with the otfseourings of civilization. 

"Besides getting drunk, tiny uould tiiilit. ste.il .-iiul kill. Within tour d.-iys of 
tlieir arrival they broke into the only washhouse in town, ran oti' the Chinamen and 
stole the clothes, leaving most of the citizens with only what underclothing was on 
tluir persons. February 8, 1802, Lieutenant .lolin .M. Ilrnry came to the town, 
and in cold blood killed .lohn Hurk with a butcher knife. The coroner's inquest found 
Henrv guilty of nuirder. M.i jor Curtis confined him to his quarters for about twenty 
days, and then, on account of eritieisni by citizens, turnnl liim over to Sheriff Fran- 
cis Wolff. The nearest jail being tTO miles dist.mt, at \',iucouver. the sheriff took 
liim to his farm, about five miles distant, and kept him until si)ring, when Henry de- 
manded a hearing before a justice of the peace. At the examination, and on ac- 
count of the intimidation of these soldiers, no one a])peared to prosecute, and he was 
discharged and left the ])laee. It was reported some months later that he was killed 
in a row in California. Sluritf WoliT was allowed $352 by the comity eornmissioners 
for guarding and feeding Lieutenant Henry." 

Februarv ti'i, 1863, passes into history .is memorable for tin- Largest and most 
brilliant social event that had ever been given in tile Spokane country, the great 
b.ill of the California Volunteers. Invitations were sent out to practically everybody 
in the Colville valley, including the officers .and iiKii of the British Boundary Coiu- 
Diission. The times were democratic, social distinctions were obliterated between 
officers .and men, and there was a joyous cominingling of the native and Caucasian 
races. More than lOO guests attended, including about l.")0 women of the valley. 
chicflv natives and mixed liloods. .mil li.ilf .a dozen white women, .ill tliit eoiild be 
mustered in the fort and the country. M.ajor Curtis and his officers attended in full 
dress uniform, and were hospit.iiile to a degree, exerting themselves to see that none 
lacked attention, .-uid capping their hospitality with .i bountiful sujiper. Evidently 
the California A'oluntcers were on their good behavior, .and there was only a "sound 
of revelry by night" where too frequently had been a sound of deviltry by day. 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 277 

One of tlif company barracks, a log building 25x100, had been patriotically and 
beantii'ully decorated as a ballroom. At each end, over the great fireplaces, were 
rosettes of guns and sabers, flanked by the flags of the United States and the British 
Empire. Flags and bunting were on tlie sides of the building in profusion, and for 
illumination artistic hands had formed great chandeliers of bayonets attached to 
hoops, in cone and pyramidal eft'ect. The dancing and the feasting lasted until 
daylight. 

We quote now from ^Ir. Winan's diary: 

March 26, 1862. Lieutenant Wing of the California Volunteers committed sui- 
cide by shooting himself, placing the muzzle of the pistol in his mouth. The first use 
made of the beautiful marble of which the valley has such a great variety and abun- 
dance was a slab marking his grave. 

April 21, 1862. Major Curtis came with his command to the town, went to John 
Shaw's distillery, took the worm of the still out and up to tlie fort, knocked all the 
barrels of whisky in the head, and ordered every one in town not to sell liquor to 
any one, wliicli order was obeyed. The character of some of the men in his com- 
mand was such that life and proiJerty were not safe when they were drinking. 
The order was obeyed, not only because it was an order, but for self-protection. 

July 11, 1862. !Major C. H. Rumrill, with two companies of the Washington 
Territory \'olunteers, relieved Major Curtis, who, with his command, went to Fort 
Vancouver. 

November 3, 1862. The order of ^lajor Curtis of April 21, stopping the 
sale of liquors, was suspended by order of Major Rumrill, and whisky selling was 
again permitted. It might be proper to say that during the prohibition the settlers 
expended about the same amount of money, but it was noticeable that their families 
were more comfortably housed and better clothed. 

During the fall and winter of 1862-63, some desperadoes, driven out of Lewiston, 
came to Colville. One of them, Charles Harper, shot and killed Mrs. McRice at a 
dance, at the British Boundary Commission barracks. He fled, but on the twenty- 
seventh of January, 1863, was caught by a party of miners and hanged at Leo's bar 
on the Columbia river, about fifteen miles below the old fort. 

Another called Williams (who was thought by his associates to be Wells, a man 
who killed a sheriff and his deputy and driver near Sacramento four years before) 
with three others, were stopping on the Little Pend d'Oreille, on the place afterwards 
owned by Mrs. A. Reeves ' Ayers. His companions became afraid of him and killed 
him. The younger one, a boy of 18, told !Major Rumrill about it, alleging self- 
defense, hoping to get the supposed reward offered for Wells. The body, when un- 
earthed and examined, showed that Williams had been shot, knocked in the head 
witii an ax, and choked with a scarf. This investigation implicated the others, and 
they tried to get out of the country, but the sheriff and posse, with the guidance of 
.lames Monaghan and his prompt action, overtook them on the Spokane, near An- 
toine Plant's ferry, and took them back to Colville. There being no jail, they, with 
two others, were kept in the guard house all winter, and the following April broke 
away from the guard, and were afterwards seen in Walla W^alla. 

November .3, 1863, Lieutenant Charles P. Egan was married to Miss Emma 
Johnson, .-it the commanding officer's quarters, by D. H. Ferguson, justice of the 
peace. A s))l(ndid dinner followed the ceremony. This officer, as commissary gen- 



278 SPOKWI' AM) •ri!l', INI.AVn I-AFI'IHF. 

era], attained considtrililr notoriety in canned beef contracts during tlie Spanish- 
American war. 

December 'M-. ISO.S, military l>all at tlu i'urt. All the i»i)i)!r of the Valley were 
there, the Washinjrtoii Xdlunttirs tryiiij^ to i-xeil the CaliforMia \'oluiitii r-i in the 
entertainment of the year before. 

May 26, 18(5.5, Captain !•'. O. McCown, with one company of Oregon Volunteers, 
relieved ^lajor Rumrill and his command of two companies of Washington Territory 
Volunteers, they going to Walla Walla. Captain MoCown, on taking command, au- 
thorized W. 1'. Winans to act as post trader. 

Xovember 9, 1865, Captain John S. Wharton, with one company, sixty-two men. 
Fourteenth I'. .S. infantry regulars, arrived and relieved Captain McCown and his 
connnand. who went to X'ancouvcr to be mustered out of service. From tiiis date 
until abandonment, September, 1882, the fort was garrisoned by regular troops from 
different regiments with different officers. 

On .January 19, 1866, John S. Davis, living at the British Boundary Commis- 
sion barracks, was punishing his squaw: lur mother, seeing it. ran a knife through 
his body, killing him. A few hours afterward the mother was found hanging bv her 
neck in one of the vacant buildings. The people did not take the law into their own 
ii;iii(K in i\rry e.-ist'. for in 1H(>.") an Indian killed a whit<' ni.in on Kettle river, at 
night while the victim was sleeping. He was given :i jury trial, was found guilt v of 
nnirdcr. and hanged from a gallows erected by the sluritV. 

On I'ebru'iry 18. 1867, ;i l)arty of five soldiers came to town, .md shot and kilh-d 
n. I'. .Stew.irt. the probate judge. On .lune 8. 1867, tiie court met, presided over 
by .ludge J. E. Wyche, and soldier Ileilly was found guilty and sentenced to twenty 
years in the penitentiary at Steilacoom. .Judge Stewart was buried with Masonic 
ceremonies. Seven ^fasons were pres<iit. This was tlie first Masonic funeral in the 
county. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Merriam, with his command of three companies, camped 
during the winter of 1879-80 on Foster creek, and in the spring of 1880 went to 
Chelan and commenced to build a jiost, but the diflieulties of access, and the lack of 
tr.msportation were such that a new location was sought for, and the fort was fin.iUv 
located near the mouth of the Spokane river, and built there in 1881. 

Lieutenant Webster and his command were then witiidrawn from Colville, leav- 
ing a quartermaster's man, Christ Gilson. in charge, who, after a few months, was 
discharged, and in 1882 the fort was left to the tender mercies of the people. In a 
few years not a liouse was left on the original site. Parts of tiiem. though, can yet 
be found, twenty-five miles away from where tiiey formerly stood. The land of the 
military reserve was appraised .and ^old. and is now owned by citizens and cultivated 
as farms. 

The troo])s were withdrawn Ironi b'ort Sjwkane in 1898. to take part in the Sjian- 
isli w.ar, and later the fort was lunhd inrv to the Indian (le|iarlinent and used as ,an 
Indian scliool. 

l"or the record of changes since 187.'i Mr. U'inans .acknowledges information 
given by .James Monaghan .uid I'.dw.ird O'.Shea. 



CHAPTER XXXI 

INLAND EMPIRE HISTORY IN OLD LEGISLATIVE ACTS 

DISCOVERY OF GOLD EARLY FERRIES AND BRIDGES STEAMBOATS ON COLUMBIA AND 

SNAKE MEMORIALS FOR TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD SCHEME TO TURN PEND 

d'oREILLE river INTO THE SPOKANE ARMS SENT TO MINERS GOLD HUNTERS OVER- 
RUN NEZ PERCE RESERVATION TOWN OF LEWISTON LAID OUT CANADIAN "RECI- 
PROCITY" MINERS CLAMOR FOR BETTER MAIL SERVICE FIRST BOOM IN THE INLAND 

ESIPIRE SPOKANE COUNTY ANNEXED TO STEVENS DEALING WITH THE CHINESE 

WALLA walla's FIRST LITERARY SOCIETY JAMES MONAGHAN GRANTED BRIDGE 

FRANCHISE ON THE SPOKANE COAST MERCHANTS COMPETE WITH ST. LOUIS ORE- 
GON TRIES TO ANNEX WALLA WALLA FAMOUS OLD MULLAN ROAD PRICES OF WALLA 

WALLA PRODUCTS. 

Trust me, each state must have its pohcies ; 

Kingdoms have edicts, cities Iiave their charters ; 

Even the wild outlaw, in his forest walk, 

Keeps yet some touch of civil discipline ; 

For not since Adam wore his verdant apron. 

Hath man with man in social union dwelt, 

But laws were made to draw that union closer. 

—Old Play. 

AT THE sessions of 1860-1 and 1861-2, the legislature carved, out of the 
original boundaries of Spokane, the counties of Missoula, Idaho, Nez Perce 
and Shoshone, that territory having received a large influx of gold miners; 
and at the latter session enacted a law constituting these counties, and with them 
Spokane and Walla Walla, the first judicial district. At the same session acts were 
passed establishing courts at the county seats of Idaho, Spokane and Shoshone, that 
of Spokane to have jurisdiction in Sjiokane and Missoula counties. 

At this time discoveries of gold at various points in the Clearwater and Salmon 
river region and along the bars of the Columbia river were luring thousands of ad- 
venturous men into the interior, and ferries were needed at many points where roads 
and trails crossed deep or turbulent rivers. At its winter sessions of 1860-1 and 
1861-2 the legislature at Olympia was besieged by eager applicants for ferry fran- 
chises. An act passed in January, 1861, authorized "Antoine Plant, his lieirs and 
assigns to establish and keep a ferry across the Spokane river, at or near tlie point 
where the military road from Fort Walla Walla to Fort Benton crosses said river;" 
and allowing liiin to cliarge the following tolls: 

279 



280 Si'OKAM. AND TllK INLAND 1-,.\11'JUE 

For tacli wago|i, carriage or vcliiclc, with two animals attached. ..$-1.00 

I'or each pleasure wagon, with two horses 3.00 

For each additional animal 50 

For each cart, wagon or carriage with one horse 2.00 

FOr Ulan and horse 1 .50 

For each .iiiiuial packed 1.50 

For each footman 50 

F'or loose aniui.ils. other than slui|) or hogs 25 

For sheep, goats or hogs, each head 15 

The grantee was required, "witliin six nionlhs Iroui and alter the passage of this 
act. to j)roeiirr and keep on said ferry a sufficient ferry boat, with the requisite num- 
ber of hands to work the same, for the transportation of all persons and their prop- 
erty without unnecessary delaj- ;" and furtlier, to ))ay "into the county treasury of 
the county in wiiieh said ferry may lie hx-ated, as ,im annual tax, a sum not to ex- 
ceed $25 for the use of said count}-." 

At the same session the legislature incorporated the Spokane Bridge company, 
with W. J. Terry, William Nix "and such otiiers as may become associated with 
thera," as incorporators, with a capital stock of $20,000; "for the purpose of con- 
structing a bridge across the .S|)okane river, .Spokane county, at or near the govern- 
ment crossing." Maxinuim tolls were established: 

For each foot passenger $ .25 

For each man and horse 1.00 

For each jjaek animal and pack 75 

F'or each cart, ch;iise. gig with two wheels, or other two-wheeled 

carriage drawn by one liorse 1.25 

The same drawn by two horses or oxen 1.50 

For each four-wheeled wagon, buggy or carriage, with one horse. 1.50 

The same with two horses or oxen 1.75 

For addition.il horse or ox 25 

For eaeli ))leasure carri.ige, coach or vehicle for conveyance of 

persons, with four horses 2.00 

For each horse, nnile or ass, or neat cattle 25 

F'or each slieep or liog 10 

The ])resident of the comp.any was required, as soon as the bridge was cora- 
(ileled and tolls collected thereon, to list under oath the capital stock and other prop- 
erty of tile eomiiaiiy, "for tax.ition as personal property is then listed for taxation by 
law." And "at .-iny tiuie after ten ye.irs from the time the tolls m;iy be first col- 
lected on said bridge, the county commissioners or proper authorities of .Spokane 
crjwnly shall liavr a right to pMreli.isc and m.in.age said bridge in such ;i manner as 
may be ))rovided by law." 

Mention of Antoine Plant's jilaee on the .Spokane river is madi' in jireeeding chap- 
ters. Hen Burgnndc r. .i resident of Colfax since 1879, who e.ime into the Inland 
Empire in 1802, and a year later went to Marcus, .Stevens county, where he en- 
gaged in business for many years, has given the writer valuable information 



SPOKANE AND THE IXLAXD EMPIRE 281 

respecting Antoine's place and other historic crossings of the Spokane. Plant's 
ferry was at a point a short distance above Trent, but his home, where Governor 
Stevens repeatedly was sheltered in the '50s, was at the large spring which gushes 
from the hillside about a mile and a half north of the stream. 

Tlie MuUan road crossed the river at Plant's ferry, and ran up the valley to 
Lake Coeur d'Alene. At Antoine Caniille's place, some three miles above Plant's 
dwelling, it connected with the old Colville road coming down over Peone prairie. 
]\Ir. Burgunder recalls that the ]\lullan road followed the old Colville road from 
Walla Walla to the crossing of Cow creek, and there took an independent course, 
and crossed Snake river at the mouth of the Palouse. McWirck Bros, had the 
first ferry at tliat point. They operated under a charter granted in the early '60s. 
The place is now known as L3'on's Ferry. 

Tim Lee and Joe Herrin built the first bridge across the Spokane, in 1864, and 
sold it to Charley Kendall, who had a store on the east bank. The store of M. M. 
Cowley and Tom P'ord was on the west side. Kendall was killed about 1875 by 
Joe Leonard, who fired through Kendall's bedroom window. Leonard was killed 
in Montana, while serving as a U. S. scout in tlic Xez Perce war of 1877. At the 
time Kendall operated his toll bridge across the Spokane, Isaac Kellogg came up 
from M'aitsburg in 1865 and built a free bridge across the stream at Antoine 
Plant's old ferry. While sitting in his cabin one night, he was killed by a shot 
fired through the window. 

Lieutenant !Mullan found Plant "a very worthy halfbreed Flathead Indian, who 
speaks both French and English; has a small field mider cultivation, from which 
he obtains corn, wheat and vegetables ; these, with the salmon found in the river, 
form an abundant supply for his Indian family." 

Mullan, with a party of 100 men, completed his historic old liigbway in 1859-60. 
His main command started from Walla W^alla July 1, bridging rivers, creeks and 
sloughs on their march, and noting the character of the country. Of the Palouse 
region Mullan ventured the prediction that "the black loam would doubtless pro- 
duce vegetables and cereals, and it is not at all improbable that the grazier and 
agriculturist will find, at no distant day. tracts of land that will amply repay 
their reclamation." 

Under date of July 14 Midlan made this entry in his journal: "We camped this 
day on the banks of the Nedwhuald, and at the same point where General Wright 
lumg Qualcliien, the noted Yakima chief, and several other Indians, from which 
fact the creek is known to many as Hangman's creek." 

Of the Coeur d'Alene Indians Mullan wrote: "They are; wily fellows, and 
great caution is necessary in all intercourse with them." 

His great task ended, Mullan's command was disbanded at Walla Walla in 
August, 1860, and tlie outfit sold. "Thus ended my work in the field," he reported, 
"costing seven years of chjse and arduous attention, exploring and opening uj) a 
road of 624 miles, from the Columbia to the Missouri river, at a cost of $230,000." 
At this jH-riod all eyes were dazzled liy the glitter and glamour of gold, for the 
rich jilacers of the Spokane country were yielding i)rineely tribute; fortune smiled 
on many a poor miner, and the spirit of promotion and exploitation was in the land. 
Steamboats were needed on the swift waters of the Columbia, the Snake and the 
Clearwater, to transport passengers and merchandise to the interior, and to meet 



'JB2 Sl'OKANK AND ■I'lli: IMAM) l.MIMUK 

tliat need we find J. C. Ainswortii, Daniel I". Bradford. K. K. Thompson and J. S. 
Ruggle a])i)earing at Olynipia for legislative articles to incorporate the historic old 
Oregon Steam Navigation company, predecessor of the Oregon Railroad & Navi- 
gation company, or as now known, the Harriman system in Washington and Oregon. 
At least two of tiiese, were to become steamboat princes, for their boats earned 
fabulous profits, as wealth came easily when miners were rocking out from $10 to 
$100 a day to the man at Pierce City, Orofino. Florence and iitlur famous jilacer 
camps of fifty years ago. 

Even then, and for years before, the peoi)le had keen anticipations of tiie coming 
of the Nortliern Pacific railorad and the transformation to be wrought by it in pio- 
neer conditions of travel, transportation and development. A memorial adopted by 
the Washington legislature, February 4, 1858, told congress that "the time has ar- 
rived for the construction of a great national railwav across the continent, connect- 
ing the populous states of the Atlantic with the Pacific shores of the Union, already 
colonized witli our young and vigorous men. ... It will bind together this vast 
re])ublic, and be a chain of union between tlie Atlantic and Pacific states. It will 
insure the defense of the country. Armies, seamen, military and naval stores may be 
transported from ocean to ocean in less time and with less expense than were re- 
quired between New York and the lakes during the war of 1812. It will give a 
direct, quick transit to mails. Military reasons call for its construction. Political 
reasons require that it should be made; and more than all, commercial reasons de- 
mand it. The trade of the Pacific ocean and eastern Asia will take its track. The 
trade of India, whose channels have been shifting for hundreds of years, is destined 
to shift once more, and that is across our continent. The American road to India 
will become the European track to that region, and the rich commerce of India will 
flow through our center." 

For these and other reasons, it was — 

"Resolved, As the opinion of the legislative assembly, that the cheapest and 
shortest route from the great commercial emporiums of the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
is the route explored and surveyed by Governor Stevens near the forty-ninth ])arallel 
of north latit\ide, connecting Piiget Sound, the largest and most commodious harbor 
in the world, witli its inexhaustible beds of coal, with the head of Lake Superior and 
the three great lakes which connect directh'' with the Atlantic, thus greatly reducing 
the cost of transit on heavy merchandise. 

"Resolved, Tliat the northern line is the most accessible by navigation, passes 
through the lumber regions of Minnesota and Washington, and has easy access to the 
vast pine forests of the Red river, and ])assing through the rich and boundless prai- 
ries of the northwest. 

"Resolved, That the construction of this great northern national system can 
not only be the work of tile present century, but it can be made the great work of tlie 
present administration, giving it undying fame, binding together this vast empire in 
bands of iron, and bearing the light of the gospel, of science and civilization across 
the continent, and making it the great highway between Europe and Asia." 

But lamentably the civil war was coming on, and Buchanan's administration, 
soon to be swept t'roin jxiwcr, was not to have the "undying fame" held out to it bj' 
the legislative assembly of the young territory of Washington. Russian peasants 
have a saying tliat "God and tile czar are far away." and congress and a trans- 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 283 

continental railroad were far distant from the voice of the legislative assembly tliat 
was trying to make itself heard from the backwoods capital of Olympia. 

We have in the Spokane river a pretty fine water power, even as nature bestowed 
it upon us; but we should have possessed a far greater power if only the brilliant 
project of the promoters of the Pend d'Oreille mining company had materialized 
some fifty years ago. Their object, however, was the quest of gold, not to amplify 
the water power in the Spokane, of which it then seemed there was an abundance and 
more for all future time. 

By an act passed in January, 1861, this corporation, having as its incorporators 
W. H. Watson, H. Way, W. Terry, R. Ricord, G. C. Blankenship, William Cardwell 
and B. F. Yantis, was granted power "to construct and maintain a canal for the pur- 
pose of turning the channel of the Pend d'Oreille river into the Spokane river from 
any point on said Pend d'Oreille river that the said company shall deem most advis- 
able, and shall have the exclusive right for mining purposes to the bed of said river 
below low water mark." It further was provided that "any person not a member of 
said corporation who shall attempt to mine in said river below low water mark, shall 
be deemed guilty of a trespass, and upon conviction thereof, shall forfeit and pay to 
the said corporation not less than .$500 nor more than $1,000, recoverable before 
any court liaving jurisdiction, in the name of tlie corporation." 

On the theory that the bed of the Pend d'Oreille was rich in placer gold, it was 
the intention of the company to divert, through a canal, the entire flow of that river 
into the headwaters of the Little Spokane, and thence into tlie main Spokane. But 
the stock proved unsalable, and it apjiears that the project never advanced beyond 
the "paper" stage. 

At the session of 1859-60, John W. Park was granted a franchise for a ferry 
across the St. .loseph river, "in what is commonly known as Spokane county," at the 
point "where tlie territorial or military road leading from post or P'ort Walla Walla 
to Fort Benton, Montana, " crossed that stream. The authorized tolls were somewhat 
higher tlian tlie legislature liad |)erniitted on other ferries in tlie interior, ranging 
from 50 cents for a footman to $5 for each wagon with two animals attached. 

William Forman was authorized to establish a ferry across the Coeur d'Aleiie 
river, "in wliat is commonly called Spokane county," at the point where the Walla 
Walla-Fort Benton road crossed that stream, with permission to charge the same 
schedule of tolls as had been granted the ferry across the St. Joseph. 

Notwithstanding the pacification of the country by the crushing defeats ad- 
ministered by Colonel Wright in 1858 upon the turbulent Indian tribes, the settlers 
were apprehensive of renewed hostilities north of Snake river; and the legislature, 
by a resolution ])assed February 1st, 1860, directed the (juarterniaster general "to 
forward one-fourth of all the territorial arms now in his possession, to some con- 
venient jioint or points in the counties of Spokane and Walla Walla, or both of them." 

.\niong the important acts passed at this session was one "to establish an insti- 
tution of learning in Walla Walla county," — the beginning of the Whitman college 
of the present day. The act, passed December 20, 1859. provided for "the instruc- 
tion of persons of both sexes, in science and literature." in an institution "to be 
called the Whitman seminary;" and named Elkanah Walker, George H. Atkinson, 
Elisha S. Tanner, Erastus S. Joslyn, W. A. Tenney, H. H. Spalding, John C. Smith, 
James Craigie and Cushing Eells as trustees. The capital stock was never to exceed 



284 SPOKANF, AXO THK IMANO KMI'IKK 

$150,000, "nor the income or proceeds of the same be appropriated to .iiiy other use 
llian for tlic benefit of said institution as contemplated by this act." 

I'or the aeeomraodation of goJd-hunters passing into the upper Columbia river 
eountry .iihI on tlu way to the Similkameen placers, P. C. Dunlcvey M-as autliorized 
at tills session to establish and keep a ferry "across Shalam river in Spokane county, 
comnuneing at lake Shalam and extending five miles down Shalam river." Thus 
they attempted to spill "Clulrin" iialf a cciitury and more ago. 

The country east of the Cascade niouiit.iins engrossed a large ])art of the lliouglit 
and attention of the legislative session of the winter of 18()0-(il. rra\el was setting 
in briskly towards tlu placer mining e.inips of northern Id.ilio, and the upper 
Columbia, and to facilitate it the legislature granted the Walla Walla & Clear- 
water road company a franchise to construct and m.aintain a toll road by way of 
lh( old Indian trail. F.lias I). Pierce, Joseph L. Davis, James Buckley and Lycurgus 
Jaekson were named as incorporators, and empowered to charge tolls at each bridge 
or terry ranging from fifty cents for a footman to $.5 for each wagon with six 
nmies, iiorses or oxen. Daniel l.adoux was authorized to keep a ferry across the 
Columbia at the mouth of Kettle river. 

Congress was memorialized for the a|)pointiHi nt of ;i eoiiiiiiissioiu-r to treat 
with the Xez Pc ree Iiidi.ins for a elLuige in their reservation, the memorial jioint- 
ing out tiiat "during the jiast year (liseo\ cries have indicated the existence of rich 
gold fields within the limits of tli( Xi z Perce reservation in this territory;" that 
"this has caused great excitement auiorig tliose Indians, .is .also among our white 
))oi)ulation, and it is feared that unless some .letinn is t.aken by the gener.al govern- 
ment, it may lead to serious difficulty between the whites .and the Xcz I'erees, who 
have been miiformly friendly to our citizens." It was believed "that the Lands 
upon which the gold is indicated may be peaceably ]>rocured of the Indians should 
a eonnnissioner be appointed to treat with them for a change in the boundaries 
of the reserv.ition." 

The first treaty w.as m.ide with the Xez Perces in 18.")5, but was not ratified 
until I8")9, explains .Myron Eells. in "History of Indian Missions on the Pacific 
Co.-ist." The next vear the gold mines of Orotino were discovered on thi ir reserv.i- 
tion, and the following year those of Flor<nee and other jilaces in western Id.aho, 
to the east of the reservation ; but to re.ieh tlu' latter the miners were obliged to 
travel across the reservation; and men did rush on to it .and .across it \-ery nnich 
as if it li.ad not been set ap.art for llie Indians. In order to avoid .a conflict, a new 
treaty was ni.ide in April. 18()1 (wiiich, however, was lu-ver ratified), by which 
that part of the reservation lying north of Snake and Clearwater rivers, the south 
fork of llie Cle.arw.aler. .and tlie trail frdin the sonlli t'(n-k liy the Wiepjie root 
ground, across tiie Hiltir Hoot mount.iins. w.is opened to tin- whites in eonnnon with 
the Indians for mining purposes. As long as the United States did not ratify it, it 
did not become binding on the Indians, .and iv. n if it li.ad been, only .a p.art of 
the reservation was opened, and that only lor mining purposes. Vet. in defiance 
of law, and against the |)rotestations of tiic Indi.in .agent, the town of I.ewiston 
was laid out in 18(il on the reserv.ition. .and on that p.arl of it wliieli iiad not been 
linis (ipemd. Tlh- town soon grew to be a place of 1 ,'200 people, and the first 
capil.al iif Id.aho; .and the anom.aly was seen of the legislature of a territory sitting 



SPOKxVXK AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 285 

on an Indian reservation, and even making laws, some of which were contrary 
to the laws of tlie United States, in regard to intercourse with Indians. 

"By the sjjring of 1863," adds Eells, "it was evident tliat a new treaty was 
needed, whereby the reservation should be curtailed, if possible; and this was 
made in June of that year; but it was not ratified by the United States until 1867. 
Lawyer, the head chief, and fift}' other sub-chiefs and head men agreed to it, but 
otiiers did not, among whom were Joseph. White Bird and Looking Glass, who 
lived on the part surrendered to the United States; and this was the main cause of 
the war with .Joseph in 1877. 

"The tribe was thus, in 1863, divided into treaty and non-treaty Indians, and 
as government failed either to ratify this treaty, or even to pay all the money due 
under the first treaty, the division between the two parties grew ^vider and wider, 
and the non-treaty party grew constantly stronger, while the other side grew weaker. 
To add to the difficulty, the miners and otliers, of whom 3,000 or KOOO were on the 
reservation, carried a large amount of whiskey with them, a considerable part of 
which was furnished to the Indians, enough at times to occasion serious trouble, 
had there been no other cause. 

"Lawyer, notwithstanding, stood firm for the whites until .Tune, 1867, more 
than six years after the miners had entered his reservation, and four years after 
the last treaty had been made. But by that time he seemed to tire of waiting, 
and at a council held that month he boldly demanded that justice be done; and such 
was the feeling of the tribe that if he had not done so, wrote the agent, J. O'Neill, 
"he would not have lived forty-eight hours. I know this to be true," he added; "I 
know that some of his people would have killed him." 

News of the ratification of the treaty, however, reached them soon after this: 
the promises made soon began to be fulfilled, and trouble was avoided. 

In another memorial the legislature directed congressional attention to the need 
of Canadian "reciprocity." It recited that — 

"A valuable mineral region lies in the Columbia river basin east of the Cascade 
mountains wliieh is divided by our northern bound.iry line, the forty-ninth ])arallel ; 
that a valuable and quite extensive mining region, in which are now ^vintering 
ujiwards of -iOO American miners, lies south of said forty-ninth parallel; that from 
the topography of the country it is absolutely essential that Americans, who are 
obliged to travel from point to point, in obtaining ingress or egress from said 
mines, must traverse a portion of British Columbia; that it is equally essential 
that British miners and merchants, who desire to locate in the mines of British 
Columbia are compelled to pass through an extensive ])ortion of the territory in- 
cluded in Territory of Washington ; that large quantities of British goods are thus 
necessarily passed through our territory, and a large quantity is supplied to our 
miners, wnthout paying any duties whatever; that a British custom-house is estab- 
lished on the route whicli Americans are comijelled, at present, to travel, and a 
number of revenue officers are stationed along said route, compelling the payment, 
not only of duties (although the goods and supplies are not sold or disposed of 
until they again reach our own territory), but also, in the sliape of tonnage dues 
and road taxes, according to tlie following schedule: 



286 SPOKANE AND TlIK INLAND 1..MIMUE 

Tonnage dues, per ton $ 3.00 

Road tax, per ton 10.00 

Wagons, each 10.00 

.single tt;niis 4.00 

ilorsenicn 1 -SO 

'"That, in consequence of Britisii merchants securing inijiortation to American 
miners free of duty, and our American fellow citizens having to pay the British 
dues and tiie trihute money or toll above referred to, tlie latter are powerless to 
compete with the Hritisii C'olumbi.ans." 

The memorial closed with the signilicant st.itenienl tliat while "no ditliculty 
has yet occurred calculated to mar the peaceful relations existing between the two 
nations, tliis state of things cannot long continue." 

Still anotlier memorial urged th.-it ".-i military ro;ul is mueh lucded truiii tliu 
headwaters of Puget Sound to Fort Colville, as the postmaster general has adver- 
tised for hids for carrying tin- United States mails from HiUingham Bay to tliat 
point." It was set forth th.-it "the distance in a straiglit line between tile two 
points is about 185 miles," and that the citizens of Bellingham Bay had spent 
large sums of money and labor in opening a trail between the two said jioints, 
and tlioroughly tested the i)r.ieticai)ility of a wagon road on or near tiie line of 
said trail which was accessililc .it .ill seasons of the yi-.ir. It was added th.it-- 

"The ])ass through the Cascade mountains known ;is Park's pass, is the best 
heretofore discovered, and the Northwestern Bound.ary counnission passed over 
the same last summer with .ill their .inim.-ils .and baggage. This is the nearest 
route to the 0])en country east of the Ca.scades by .at least 1 ;J0 miles, from the 
waters of Puget Sound. This road, if established, will o])en large and fertile 
tr.-icts of country to settlemint. .and .also give us a jxist road to I'ort Colville .and 
the gold mines. 

After tiftv ve.ars tiu drc .iiii ol the pioiucrs is yet a driani: and liie Bellingh.im 
Bav \- K.asteni r.iilro.ad. on wliieh liigli lio|)es were subs((|uiiitly founded to put 
the towns of IJellingliam B.ay in com|)etition with Seattle .and Tacoma for the com- 
merce of the Iiidi.in F,m|)ire, languishes for want of funds and enterjirise. 

Roads, ferrii s .md liridges, better m.ail facilities — these were the crying needs 
of the Sjjokaue country half a century ago. Tlu old onler has |)assed away, and 
the brave, hardv men who were engaged tluii in tin inspiring work of emi)ire 
building, have, most of them, gone on the long, long journey which needs no 
bridge or ferrv ; but the spirit of their times we find exjiressed in the time-worn 
and age-stained volumes of legislativi' lore. 

Passing on to the session of '(il-'J we discover the a])))ointiniiit. by .an act ji.assed 
.January 1, of .1. I.. Henek, .John W'ynn .and .lohn Drinnheller. "to locate .and estab- 
lish a territorial road from Fort A\'.illa Walla to Fort Colville, on the Columbia 
river in Spokane countv. I'or this service they were to receive "a compensation of 
three doll.ars per day while .actually employed in the viewing and locating of said 
road, to be ))aid out of the county treasuries of their respective counties." 

And at the same session .1. R. Bates was authorized to build a toll bridge 
"across the .Spok.anc river at a point where the territorial road leading from Walla 
Walla to Colville on the Columbia river crosses or may cross said river;" .and 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 287' 

pending the building of the bridge, "the said J. R. Bates, his heirs or assigns, shall 
secure a good and sufficient flatboat with sufficient hands to work the same, for the 
transportation of all persons and their property, across said river •without delay." 
The tolls ranged from fifty cents for a footman to $3 for "each pleasure, car- 
riage, coach or vehicle for conveyance of persons." Automobiling in the vicinity 
of Spokane would have been expensive recreation in those times. 

Gold dust was the prevailing medium of exchange. Hence the adoption of 
the following law by the territorial solons that winter at Olympia: 

"That if any person shall counterfeit any kind or species of gold dust, gold 
bullion or bars, lumps, jiicces or nuggets of gold, or any description whatsoever 
of uncoined gold, currently passing in this territory, or shall alter or put off any 
kind of uncoined gold mentioned in this section, for the purpose of defrauding any 
person or persons, body politic or corporate; . . . every such person so offend- 
ing, or any person or persons aiding and abetting in said offense or offenses, shall 
be deemed guilty of counterfeiting, and upon conviction thereof, shall be punished 
by imprisonment in tin- penitentiary for a term not less than one year nor more 
than fourteen years." 

^len were now invading the Inland Empire by the thousand, lured by the 
search for the "golden fleece." The fame of the new "diggings" had spread afar, 
and experienced gold miners hastened here from California, from British Columbia, 
from southern Oregon, from the Willamette valley and the Puget Sound country. 
In large part they were liome-owning citizens; many of them left families down 
below; others were young men witii sweethearts and mothers in the places of their 
bringing-up. and in every mining camp the liastily assembled population was eager 
for news from home, and grew clamorous for better mail service. This agitation 
found expression in a memorial, jiassed, January 6, 1862, the legislature at Olym- 
pia "respectfully re])resenting" to the postmaster-general "that the people now living 
in the eastern portion of this territory are laboring under great inconvenience and 
expense from tlie fact of there being no mail facilities to the nortliward and east- 
ward of the town of Walla Walla. 

"The great extent and richness of our gold fields," so runs the memorial, "to- 
gether with the unequaled grazing and farming lands east of the Cascade range 
of mountains, justifies the belief tliat there will be soon many thousand perma- 
nent settlers engaged in farming and mining in tliat portion of our territory. In 
view of these facts, your memorialists would (iray that a weekly mail route be 
established between the town of Walla Walla and Fort Colville, and also a weekly 
mail route be established between Walla Walla and Pierce City, via Lewiston. A 
wt-ekly mail should also be established between Lewiston and Florence City, situ- . 
ated in the far-famed Salmon river mines. 

"We would also respectfully request that a daily mail r<iute be established be- 
tween Vancouver City and Walla Walla, thus connecting with the overland daily 
mail between Sacramento City, Cal., and Olymjiia, W. T." 

A week later a still more pressing memorial was addressed to "the Honorable 
Senate and House of Representatives in Congress assembled," "respectfully repre- 
senting that in view of the fact of the rich dejiosits of gold in the country lying 
cast of the Cascade mountains in tliis territory, wliiili eomitry has now within 
its limits more than five thousand men engaged in gold mining, which innnbcr will 



288 Sl'OKA.NE AND Till. IM.AM) KM IM 1( I. 

be increased to more tli.in .50.000 men during tin- eiisiiinff .summer, wliicli popula- 
tion li.-ive no facilities wliatever lor the delivery of the L'nited States mail amongst 
them : 

"We, your memorialists, would respi-et fully request your honor.ahle body to 
establish the followiuf; mail routes: 

".\ iii:iil route froiii Walla Walla, via l.ewiston and I'ieree City, to l-'.lk City, 
distance about '^00 miles, weekly service. 

"A branch route from I.ewiston to Florence City, aiiout 85 miles, weekly service. 

"A routi- from Wall.i Walla, via Antoine Plant's and the Coeur d'Alene mis- 
sion, to Hell (late Ronde. distance .S.jO miles, semi-weekly service." 

In yi I anotlii r nieniori.il. the legisl.ature jirotested to the ))Ostmastcr-gcneral 
against the discdntinu.inee of ni.-iil service l-etween Walla Walla and ( oh ilK-. .and 
))resenled the followin"' facts for his consideration: 

W.ill.i W'.alla comity has now .about l.OOl) iidi.ihit.ints. There .are r>.OOU men 
in the eiiuntr\ north of Colvilli . whosi onU' .\niirie.in otfiee is that ot Colville. 

That there will be .iO.OOO ])<-o])le in the country e.ist of the Cascade mountains 
before the close of the ensuinp; suunner. 

There has been ;i semi-weekly line of steamers running with through connec- 
tions between Portland and Wall.a Walla, which scmi-wcekly line is to be increased 
to .1 dailv line on the reopening of navigation on the Columbia in February. 

[n view of these f.acts, ;i d.aily m.ail service was .asked betwicii l'(U"tlaiul .aiul 
W'.all.a W'all.a. .and the legislature repeated its recpirst fur the new lines proposed 
in the foregoing memorials. 

.\iu)tlier memorial to congress rei)rcsented tli.it "tlnri an \.ist tracts of agri- 
cultur.al lands within the county boundaries of .Spokane .and .Misscuila. over wbicli 
the public surveys of the government h.ive not Inari extended. I |)on these lands 
a large number of our citizens are located, who li.ave erected hou.ses .aiul o))ened 
farms. We therefore ask congress to make ;m appro)iriation which will be suffi- 
cientlv large to extend this much needed survey over the counties to which we 
ref( r." 

']"be legislature was certaiidy busy writing .and passing niejnori.ils th.at winter. 
Another represented tli.at "great inconvenience exists to the settlers on the public 
bands in tin- counties of W'.alla W.ill.a. .Spokaiu^ .Shoshone, Missoula, Ncz Perce 
and Id.aho. by consequence of tlnir remote situ.ation from any land office of the 
United States; and you .are lurehy resjieetfully petitiimed to establish .a Land 
office at the city of W'.alla W.ill.a. in W.ill.i W.illa e(Minty." 

Tu lbes(' various acts .and memori.als wi' find Lack of uniformity in spelliiin' the 
n.iHii- ".Spokane," and it ap))ears frea|uently without th'e fin.al "e." 

I.euiston li.-iil now lieeonie the l.aruist town, excepting I'ortl.and, in the Pacific 
northwest. Almost literally it may be s.aid th.at it sjirang up in a night, experience 
b.aving shown that its site was the pr.aetic.al head of n.avig.aticm on the .Snake and 
the Clearwater, .and therefore the n.atur.al outfitting .and distributing point for 
miners and others going into the jd.acer camps of the Cle.arwaler and Salmon 
river districts. A controversy .arose a few years ago, respecting tlie date of its 
fiuniding .and the origin of its name, .and tin- ipiestion h.iving been referred to 
Cieorge F,, Cole, former governor of W'asliingliui territory, Mr. Cole rc)ilied: 

"Cobmel I.yli'. Captain Ainswortli, I.awrene. Coe, \ie. Trevett and myself 




chai;lks II. ,\i(i.\-|'(;(i.M i:i;v 

A noteil Stevens Countv I'icinoer 




Wild cMinc tci the Spokane 
river in ! Slit! 




-M. M. COWLEV 

AVlio liierited at Cowley's Bridge 
ill 3872 




K'KSIDKXCK UJ'" .lAMKS .\1( 1>:A( I HAX. SIloWIXC .lAMKS MOXA- 
(illAX AXn FAMILY WIIKX A I'dST TKADKK 

Also Knlieit Mnnayliaii atterwni.l I'lnsiyn. on |]oiiy. and the stage wliiili ran fron 

the Kurt to Spokane Kails 



1 He ."^L^" I'jhf. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



••i*H. LtHmx 



I 



THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



JiLDtn fOoNO* : 



SPOKAXE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 289 

selected the location and named the place Lewiston, in the latter part of May 
or the first part of June, 1861, in lionor of Ca|itain Lewis, of the Lewis and Clark 
expedition." 

An act passed at the session of 1862-3 authorized David Williamson to estab- 
lish and keep a ferry "across the Spokane river, at a point two and a quarter miles 
above Colonel Wright's crossing of the same, witli the privilege of two miles each 
way up and down from said point." For each footman, a toll of 50 cents could be 
collected; for each man and liorse, and for each animal packed, $1.50; for each 
wagon with two animals attached, $3, and for each wagon with four animals at- 
tached, $4 ; but the county commissioners were empowered to regulate and change 
tlicse tolls at any regular term of their eolirt. An anfiual tax of $25 was charged 
for the franchise. 

At the same session A. W. Compton and HcHry- Cames were "authorized to 
establish and keep a ferry across the'T'ehd d'Oreille river at Singuackwateen, 
with a 50-cent toll for footmen, but somewhat lower rates for conveyances than 
in the case of the Spokane ferry. 

Another franchise was granted to George ^Melville "and his associates to 
establish and keep a ferry across the Kootenay river, at a point where tiie boundary 
commissioners' trail crosses said river, known as Chelemta." All of these fran- 
chises were in Spokane county. 

At that period many Chinese were entering the country to mine placers that 
were not considered sufficiently profitable by white miners, and the legislature 
fixed a poll tax on Chinese of $16 a iiead, the proceeds to go to the school funds 
of the various counties, excepting in Stevens, where the money went into the road 
fund. By special act, it was jjrovided that "in the collection of the Cliinese police 
tax the sheriff of Stevens county or his deputy shall have power to pursue any per- 
son who shall attempt to evade the payment of this tax into any county in the 
territory, and enforce the collection in the same manner as though he were in the 
county of Stevens." Obviously the pioneers of fifty years ago believed, with 
"Truthful .lames," that "for ways that are dark and tricks that are vain, the 
ht.itlkii Chinee is |)eeuliar. " 

At the session of 1861-5, Irwin R. Morris was voted a franchise to build a 
toll bridge across the Sjjokane river, "commencing at a point two miles above the 
house of Antoine Plant, and extending u|) said river a distance of five miles above 
said jioiiit." County organizations were still faint and irregular, far while tin 
grant lay within Spokane county the grantee was required to jjay into the treasury 
of Walla Walla county an annual tax of $25. 

And on the following d;iy, S. 1). .Smith was granted a franchise for a toll 
bridge ".across the Spokane river at or near the ))laee known as Colonel Wright's 
crossing, with the same re(]uirement as to i)aynient of annual tax to Walla Walla 
county." The schedule of charges ranged from 50 cents for a footman to $4 for a 
wagon and two-horse team. 

Culture was not altogether ignored in tlu' interior, and Walla Walla was the 
place to light and hold .aloft the lamp of learning. The legisature, at this session, 
passed an act "to incorporate a library and literary association in the town of Walla 
\\'al!a." with W. W. .Johnson. B. X. Sexton, I.. B. Monson, L. ,/. Rector, ,(. H. 



290 si'okam: and tiii. im.amj lmimkk 

Ktiulrick and Aiifrus McKay, and ''the officers and mcuibcrs of tlu- C ,illii)|)ian 
society of \\ alia \\ alia" as incorjiorators. 

"Said corporation may rcccivi- and liold all moneys or property coming into 
their liands bv vi)liintary Mil)scri))tions. eontrilmtinns or otherwise, or a))ply the 
same to the establishing and maintaining of a library, and may also receive and 
iiold .ill donations of books, p.-qxrs .ind )>eriodicals th.at ni.-iy be donated for that 
jiiirpose. 

Travel over the ^\■.lll.l \\'.ill.i-('ol\ ille v.iUiv ro.id had been lie.ivy ;uid continuous 
for several years, and ,/auies Monaghan .-uhI Willi.ini Nix. who h.id been conducting 
a ferry at the Spokane crossing of that highway, about twenty miles below tlie 
present city, sought and were granted, by tlie legislature of 1865-6, a franchise to 
build .1 bridge. The act re(niirfd tli.it "the s.iid bridge shall not be less than eight 
feet wide, and shall be substantially built, and sutticiently strong to bear up with 
safety a wagon carrying three tons with the team attached." The franchise ran for 
ten years, and the grantees were to p.iy an .mnu.il tax of $25 to Stevens county. The 
tolls ran from '25 cents for a foot passenger to $1- for each wagon with two horses 
attached. 

Mr. Monaglian was one of the first white men to engage definitely and perma- 
nently in business on the Spokane. He had come to America from Ireland in 1856, 
and two years later came to the Pacific coast by way of the Isthmus, arriving at 
\'.ineouver, this state, in May, 1858. l"or a year or so he worked on a ferry across 
the DesChutes river in eastern Oregon; was next employed until 1860 on the little 
steamer Colonel ^^'right. the (irsl ste.-imlio.at to run on the ui)))er Columbia. His next 
occui).ition was on the ferry across the Spokane, which he bought from its former 
owner and later converted into a bridge, under the foregoing franchise. In 1869 he 
went to ^\■.•llla Walla for a short time, and the following year bought an interest in a 
store at Chewelah. Washington, also buying from the Indians a farm on which a 
part of tile town site is now located. In 1873 he removed to Colville. where he en- 
gaged in merchandising until 1879. and then went with the L'nited States troops to 
the nioutii of I'oster creek, in the Big Bend country, and the following s])ring to 
Chel.in. In 1880 he took supplies by boat from Colville to the mouth of Foster creek. 

Mr. Monaghan next came to Fort Spokane, at tlie mouth of the Spokane river, 
where he was engaged in contr.acling for government supplies, and also served as 
postmaster and post-trader of that ])ost from 188'2 to 1885. He and C. B. King 
erected the first private boat on F.ake Coeur d'.Mene. running from Coeur d'Alene Citj' 
to Old Mission during the gold exeiteuieMt on tlie Xortli I'ork of the Coeur d'.Mene, 
and a year later they laid out tlie townsite of Coeur d'.Vlene. Mr. Monaghan came to 
.Spokane in 1887. and this citv has since been his home. His son. .lolin Robert 
Monagh.an. born at Chewilili. eiiliri li tin- Inited .St.ites ii.-ixal .•le.ideniy .at Ann.-ipo- 
lis, was gr.aduated with honors, .assigned to service as ;in ensign, and fell in action, 
under ))artieul.irlv heroic circumstances, in a hot skirmish with rebellious natives, 
near .\))i.i in tlie .'^.imo.in islands. .\n impressive monument at the intersection of 
Riverside avenue ,iiid Monroe streets, w.is erected by .idiiiiring friends and citizens 
of S))okane .as a tribute to his gallant memory. 

Cl.amor still rose for lutler iii.ail service, .and the legislature, in .Tanuary, 1865, 
memori.alized congress to est.iblish a distributing iiosloiliei' at W.ill.i AV.all.i. In suji- 
port of this request it argued that — 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 291 

"There is, in the territories of Washington and Oregon, a combined population 
of over 80.000 inhabitants; that in these territories rich deposits of gold and silver 
are being constantly discovered and developed ; that the permanent population is 
being steadily and rapidly augmented ; that mining towns are in consequence spring- 
ing into existence in every part of the mining districts ; that the present postal ar- 
rangements are entirelv inadequate to meet the growing demand for postal con- 
veniences; that the city of Walla Walla is on the natural and recognized transit 
route of the great northern overland mail, and is the geographic and eligible center 
of distribution for the great mining districts of Idaho and Washington territories; 
that at this time such settlements are almost entirely dependent upon the said over- 
land mail, which arrives at Walla Walla three times a week, which city is already 
connected by roads with Lewiston, Fort Lapwai, Fort Colville, Florence, Pierce City, 
Elk City, Orofino, Deer Lodge Valley and other mining camps; that mail matter for 
such towns and settlements must and necessarily does pass through Walla Walla; 
and that the western portion of Washington territory, embracing the lower Colum- 
bia and Puget Sound country, as well as all the portion of Oregon north of the 
Calapooia mountains, can, with slight addition to existing postal arrangements of 
overland service, secure the reception of mail matter from the Atlantic States in from 
five to ten days less time than by way of Sacramento, California." 

A memorial adopted in January, 1866, represented "that in view of the rapid 
filling up of the comitry east of the Cascade range of moimtains with a hardy and 
industrious class of immigrants, who are making homes for themselves and poster- 
ity," there was urgent necessity at tlie earliest practicable date, of effecting a treaty 
with such tril)es of Indians as had not already been treated with for their lands. 
The memorial added that the Indians not treated with had manifested a hostile atti- 
tude at various times and places for the last seven years: "that murder and theft are 
of very frequent occurrence, and the security of life and property are in constant 
jeopardy from the small roving tribes that have not been placed on reservations." 

"Your memorialists would further represent that all of the Indian tribes not 
treated with east of the Cascade mountains reside within the boundaries of Stevens 
county, and that they number between 1,,500 and 2,000." 

A memorial ado]ited in December, 186;), urged the establishment of a post route 
from Helena, Montana territory, to Wallula, on the Columbia river, in eastern Wash- 
ington, via Hell Gate, Pend d'Oreille lake and Antoine Plant's place on the Spo- 
kane. In argimient it was represented that "the portion of INIontana territorv lying 
westward of the Rocky mountains is fast filling with population attracted thither by 
the rich mining fields recently discovered and already being successfully developed ; 
that there is now in such portion of said territory an estimated population of some 
iio.OOO, distributed in numerous mining camps and towns; that your memorialists 
believe that these pioneers of settlement who are laboring to develop the resources 
of the country have strong claims on your consideration, and that the encouragement 
by the government of mining interests will materially tend to increase the supply of 
the precious metals and their distribution, the result of which must secure a national 
benefit, because of the fact that an abundance of gold and silver would defeat a 
speculation in gold, and as the premium on that was reduced, it would measurably 
enhance the value of currency, thereby alleviating the government in its discharge of 
our great national debt." 



292 Sl'OkAM. AND lllK INLAND i:.\ll'lUE 

Mi-ii come and go, .iiid tlic yt-ars roll l>v, liiit aiiiiiiatiii<r motives remain tile same. 
Portland and San Franeiseo nureiiants wanted the trade of the vast interior as 
against the merchants ot St. I.nuis .inil Missouri river cities, wiio were actively 
reaching out for it hy steanihoat transportation to old Fort Benton, on the upper 
Missouri. I'ortland uurehants. forty or tifty years .ago. sold goods all the way to 
Benton, .-iiul injoycd :i thri\iMg trade particularly at seasons whiu low water pre- 
vented the Missouri ri\ir hoats from ascending to the head of highw.atcr ninigation. 
The l.iti- ]'',dward Failing, long t ngaged in the wholcs.ale iiardw.ire line in Portland, 
informed the writer years ago that hi^ house had placed m.iny .a rich order in the 
country .around Fort Benton. 

Tiiis motive of tr.ide ixpansinn w.is candidly |)ar,ided in tile memorial, which 
added: '"I'he natur.il outlet of said rrgicui. u herehy its \ ;ist mineral wialth is to he- 
come heneficial to the world, is through the Columhia river to Portl.ind, Oregon, and 
San Francisco: that u|)on these points .and hy such chainud the ])()|)ul.ition of this 
region arc to de))eud. ])rinci]),ally for their su|)pliis. .and a rcterenee to the map uill 
demonstr.ite th.at through this eh.innel they can he easily, cheaply and c.\|)editiously 
.supi)lied at all seasons of the year. And your memorialists may ,add in this connec- 
tion, that if these settlements are made to depend upon St. I.ouis. they will he re- 
stricted to the occ.ision.il tri))s of ste.imhoats .at the high stages of w.iter of the Mis- 
souri river." 

Bv whom could then lie foresi-en the swift, tr.insforuiing cli.mges of forty years.' 
the Jiassing forevermorc, with the d.iwning of the twentieth century, of ste.auihoat 
navig.ation on the Missouri: .and tin' construction, not of a single transcontinental 
r.ailro.ad. i)nt half a dozen; and the luiilding. .at their erossro.ads hy the f.ills of the 
.Spok.anc. of a city twenty tinus .as Large .as the i'ortl.ind of old? And whosi- tlu n 
the vision to discern the rise hy the shores of lonely Puget .Sound of a city th.at should 
cover by 1912 a population gre.ati r tliau ."st. I.ouis ho.isted when th<- ink was yet not 
drv on this old memori.al of six .and forty years .igone.' 

Oregon coveted then the f.air vale of W'all.a W'.all.a. .and the W.ishiugton legisl.a- 
ture, in .a resolution passed .I.iuu.iry i). [HQCt. directed its deleg.ate in congress "to 
resist anv and .all .attempt to diuiinish the .area of the ti-rritory of Washington liy 
annexing Walla W'.all.a county to the st.ite of Oregon." 'I'he firm lielief w.as further 
expressed "that such jiroposed s<-heme of .annex.alion mitts with the earnest disap- 
])roh,ation of .a large m.ajoril\- of the eiti/.i-ns of s.aid county, .iiid tlnds no f.avor with 
the people of the territory." 

"Coming events c.ast their sh.adows lietore. .and the coming ot the Northern 
Pacific was foresh.adowed in .1 resolution p.assed .l.anu.ary 1,"), ISiiti: 

"Whereas there h.is been .1 proje<-t org.inized to eoinieet the griat l.iUis of tlu: 
North with Puget .'^ound .and the I'aeilie oei .in hy .a r.iilro.KJ to lie desiguatrd .as the 
Norllurn P.aeitic railro.ad : .and 

"Whereas, We helieve such .lu ( ntcrprisi- Hciuld he greatly luiulici.al to W.ish- 
ington territory in de\tloping its ^.•lri(lu^ :igri( ultural. uiiuer.il .and eoiiuuerci.al in- 
terests ; therefore. 

"Resolved, Bv the I.egisl.ilive .Vsseudily of tin- 'I'erritory of W.isliingtun. 'I'h.at we 
li:iil with jov .an <aiterprise of this kind .as lending lo di\(liip not unly tin- interests 
of Washington territory, hut .all the great Northwest." 

An act adopted in Janu.ary, I8()7, defined the hoimdaries of .Stevens county as 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 293 

commencing .it the ))oint of intersection of the forty-nintli parallel of latitude and 
tlie boundary line between Washington and Idaho territories; thence west with said 
parallel to tlie summit of tlie Cascade mountains; tiience southerly with said summit 
to the headwaters of the Wenatchee river; thence down the channel of said river to 
the Columbia river; thence down mid-channel of said river to tlie moutli of Snake 
river; thence up mid-channel of said river to the boundary line between Wash- 
ington and Idaho territories; thence north on said line to the forty-nintii ])ara]i(l of 
latitude and jilace of beginning. 

Out of this exjjansive domain Iiave since been cut the counties of Ferry, Okano- 
gan, Chelan, Douglas, Grant, Fr.inklin. Lincoln, Adams, Whitman and Spokane — 
material .imple enough in territory and we.ilth .uid v.ariety of natural resources for 
an imperial state. 

For the building and imijrovenunt of roads within this domain, the legislature, 
at the same session, authorized the county commissioners to assess a road tax of -$6 
on every person liable to perform labor on the jiublic roads, and also to assess 
not less than '> nor more than 10 mills on the dollar of the valuation as determined 
by the county assessor. 

W. A. Ball and associates were authorized to construct a wagon ro.id from (ioose 
Island on Snake river, to tlie Mullan road, "near the old Indian ferry on tlie north 
side of the S])okane river, and to establish bridges on the Palouse and Spokane 
rivers." A ratlier stiff schedule of tolls was authorized: For each wagon with two 
animals .ittached, $12; for each additional span or yoke of animals, $2; for each 
buggy and liorse. $10; for each horseman, .$1; for each loaded pack anim.al, .$2; for 
each loose or unloaded animal, $1 ; for each head of liorned cattle, $1 and for each 
footman, and head of sheep or swine. .10 cents. But these charges were to cover the 
crossing at both bridges. 

.1. D. Schnebley was given a grant to build .iiid operate a bridge across tin- .*^|)o- 
kane "at a place distant from two to three miles above the ferry of Antoine Plant, at 
such particular jjoint as may be most eligible for building such bridge." 

At the same session, Patrick Farrell was authorized to build and keep .i toll 
bridge across Hangman creek, on the direct road leading from Walla Walla to I'ort 
Benton. 

This famous old highway, located and built by the Lieutenant John Mullan, who 
attended Colonel Wright in his campaign against the hostile Indians in IS.'iS. had 
fallen into such a state of neglect that the legislature was moved to address a strong 
memorial to congress, urging its repair. As that document set forth witli admirable 
clearness the history of the road and the conditions existing in 1 866 throughout the 
entire "u))per country," it deserves, at least in part, a place in this history. After 
reciting that the highway, for much of the distance through the Coeur d'Alene and 
Bitter Root mountains was in an almost impassable condition for wagons, on account 
of fallen timber and destruction of bridges, it went on to represent that — 

"The necessity for a great national highway connecting the Missouri and Colinn- 
bi.i rivers by a good and substantial wagon road, was by its own import.uiee first 
brought to the notice of your honorable bodies .as early as the year 1 S 1!). In the 
spring of 1852, the necessity felt by the government for a more thorough .-md s.itis- 
factory knowledge in detail of the geograjihie.il .iiid topograjihical character of 
the country lying between the Columbi.-i .-iiid tin- Missouri ri\i-rs. induced eonirress 



29i Sl'OKANi; AM) llli: IM.AM) I.MI'IKK 

to make an appropriation for tin- purpose, and in tlie .s])ring of 1853, by authority 
of congress, several eorjjs of engine<-rs and explorers were organized and sent 
forth under tin- dinetion ct Honor.-ililc I. I. Stevens. The voluminous and truth- 
ful reports of these several parties indueed eongress to aet and ait promptly, and 
in I8,J7 Captain John Mullan was ordered into the field, being fully supplied with 
all the necessary men and means, and was on the ground in the spring of 1858. 
Commencing at Wallula (thru ohl I'ort Walla Walla) on the Columbia river, he 
had completed the Walla Walla and i'ort Benton military wagon road in Sep- 
tember, 1862. 

■"I'lie opening of this road is of the greatest, most vital importance to the l)eo- 
ph- (if \\;ishington. Idaho, .•ind that i)ortion of Montana lying west of the Rocky 
inountains; and in the o|)inion of your uu iiuirialist>. in a militarv point of view 
its iuiportanee cannot be over-estini.-itrd. 

"Vour memorialists are of tin- opinion tli.il .i'loo.OOO judiciously expended in 
re)),iiring said road between W ill.i Walla and Helena cities, a distance of H.") 
miles, under the direction ol a competent engineer from tlu t'nited States tojio- 
graphical bureau, will put the road in good condition and enable teams loaded 
with freight and ni.ieliimry lo pass nvrr from lli<- Columhia river into the heart 
of ;i rich mining country. 

"Rich quartz veins are licing discoMrrd in thi- h, arts of the (\)eur d'Alene 
and Bitter Root mountains, which will .r,- long demand macliinery for their de- 
vel(i))mint. .and the working nl' Hhi<li, in connection with the ])l;icer mines, would 
contribute largely to the devrlopuu lit of Washington, Idaho and the western ]ior- 
tion of Montan.i territories. 

'"rile opening of this road will enable a large jjortion of the population now 
on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada Cascades and Rocky mountains to use 
this great thoroughfare in reaching tlic rich gold and silver iiiiiu s Iviiig along its 
routi- from Helena west to the Columbiji river. Ag.ain. it is tlirougli this national 
highway that tile immigrant from the eastern side of tin mountains. ;ind those 
wild asci lid the Missouri river to I'ort Benton must pass to reach western Montana, 
\\'.isliiiigt()ii and a large |iortioii of Idaho territorv. 

'"I'lirre is a constant stream of population flowing into the region of eountrv 
lying along and adjaeeiil to this so-called Midlan ro.id. The immigr.uit who is 
seeking I'.arming land comes on down to the Wall.i \\'all.i and other rich vallevs Iv- 
ing along the western ti-rminns of the road, and thence on to I'uget sound. 

"There is at the present time a l)0|)iiIalioii of over 1(H), ()()() inlialiit.ints in the 
territories of W.ishingtoii. Idaho and western .Montana. Itieh deposits of gold, 
silver. cop|)er. le.id .and iron an- constantly being discovered and rapidlv developed. 
Mining towns are springing into existence in .all jiarts of tlir newly settled region. 
Br.ancli ro.ads leading from this ni.-iin trunk (Mull;in ro.-ul) to the different mining 
cam))s are being made by individual enterprise. ,ind everything gives indication that 
at no distant day tiiese hardy .iiid suecesstul pioneers will be knocking at tile door 
of congress asking to be admitted into the sisterhood of states. But tlie |)0))ula- 
tion of this vast region of country is too new aiui too i)Oor to be able to take hold 
of .and rapidly eonii)lele such a great i ntcrprise as the opening of this military 
road. 

"The inhabitants, coming as they have from all parts of the United .St.ites, are 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 295 

unacquainted with each other, and admitting that they have all the necessary means 
within themselves for the opening of this road, a few months' acquaintance with 
eacli other is not sufficient to establish the necessary confidence to organize a com- 
pany and put forward to completion so great an undertaking. Nor is this all: 
the great length of this road and the large number of people it would benefit when 
opened demands that it should be a free road. 

"Your memorialists wish to further show the vital importance of an early 
opening of a free road through this rich and fertile region of public domain, 
wliereby the producers of the valleys may be enabled to reach the mining regions 
with their produce, and supply tlie miners with the necessaries of life at prices 
which will enable them to remain in and develop the mines. We will give some 
statistics carefully compiled and drawn from reliable sources relative to the produc- 
tions and ruling prices for the same, of Walla Walla valley alone, together with 
the number of tons of freight landed by steamers at Wallula, and the amount pass- 
ing over the MuUan road by pack trains to western ^lontana. 

"The Walla Walla valley, including that portion which lies in the state of 
Oregon, has produced this season (1866) 500,000 bushels of wheat, 250.000 bushels 
of oats. 200.000 bushels of barley. 150,000 busliels of corn, 170,000 pounds of 
beans, 4,500 head of hogs, 1,800 head of horses, 2,500 head of cattle. 

"From January 1 to November 15, 1866, 1,500 head of horses have been pur- 
chased by individual miners at Walla Walla Jiorse markets, 2,000 miners have out- 
fitted .it Walla Walla, 5,000 head of cattle were driven from Walla Walla to 
Montana. 6,000 mules have left Walla Walla and the Columbia river, loaded with 
frei"-ht for Montana; fifty-two light wagons with families have left Walla Walla 
for Montana, thirty-one wagons with immigrants have come through from the 
States via the Mullan road, a ])ortion of whom settled in Walla Walla valley and 
the remainder crossed the Columbia -river at Wallula and settled on the Yakima 
river, or passed on to Puget Sound ; not less than 20,000 persons have passed over 
the ;yiullan road to and from Montana during tlie past season; $1,000,000 in 
treasure has i)assed through Walla Widl.i and Wallula during the same period. 

"The \\'alla Walla valley contains six flouring mills, six saw mills, two |)laning 
mills, two distilleries, one foundry and fifty-two threshing, heading and rea])ing 
machines. 

"The Oregon Steam Navigation company have run a daily liut- of boats to 
Wallula (Sundays excepted) during the jiast season up to the fourth day of No- 
vember; since that time the boats have made four trips per week. These boats are 
of the caiiaeity from 75 to 200 tons burden, and giving the very lowest estimates, 
have landed not less than 5.000 tons of freight at \\'allnla during the season. 

"As early as 1862, about the time the Fort l?enton wagon road was com])leted. 
the Oregon Steam Navigation eomp.my buulcd at Wallula. from the fifth day of 
•Julv to the eleventh day of October inclusive, 1,705 tons of freight, making three 
trips ])er week, which is an average of over forty tons per trip. 

"The government has a large w.inhouse at Wallula, a quartermaster's agent 
in charge, and all the government sujjlilics for Fort Walla Walla. Fort Boise and 
a large proportion of those for Forts Colville and Lajiwai are landed there. Freight 
is landed at Wallula for Lewiston, Florence. Pierce City, Elk City and Orofino, 
during the spring and fall, and for Helena. Blaekfoot City. Deer Lodge. Hell 



296 Sl'OKANK AND TlIK IM.AMJ 1.. Ml' IKK 

Gate, Bitter Root valley, Cariboo, Kootenai aiul I'rnd d'Onille lake, at all se.asons 
of tile year, ice not preventing. 

"Your memorialists will further >>tat<- tliat owiiif; to tin- condition of the Mullaii 
road, the iirodneers of the Walla Walla and other \allevs adjacent thereto are 
de|>rived of ;i valii.il)le market for tiuir jiroducts, .and the inhabitants living along 
till- line of tin ro.id and in western Montana, are compelled to pay exorbitant, 
not to say extortionate, ))rices for the necessaries of life, while the best standard 
mills family flour is selling at Walla W.illa for five doll.ars per barrel, and the 
best of wheat is selling at sixty cents ]n r lm^ill I : the trrifrjit on either of these 
articles to Montana, via the Mullaii ro.id in its present eoruiilion. costing from thir- 
teen to twenty-two cents i)er pound by p.ick .mini.ils. 

"Your memorialists are of the opinion tli.at wht .at e.aii not lie ])ureli.ised .iny- 
where in the United .States at wh.at it is now being sold for daily at W.illa Walla, 
sixty cents jier bushel. Oats command from one to one .and one-half cents per pound; 
barley from ()ne to one and one-tpi.arter cents jxr pound. Last year the merchants 
of Walla Wall.a shipped over (iOO.OOO i)ouiids of oats to Oregon, and ll.'i.OOO 
pounds of wool and .a large quantity of jjotatoes and onions." 

The postoffice department had established a m.ail route from Wallul i to 
Helena, making W.illula .a distributing office, and the memori.al eoneluded with the 
opinion "that by opening the ro.ad we are assured tiiat we shall soon have what 
the requirements of the country .and the number of inli.abitants demand, .a m.ail 
coach on the route instead of .a train of p.ackhorses." 

In this memorial is presented a vivid ))ortray.al ni conditions in liie Inland 
Empire, five and forty years ago, and .a f.aithfnl picture of tr.afiic as it moved 
over the historic old Mullan road. In f.mey we ni.ay conjure back the scenes of 
other days, .and contrast with the ch.angcd conditions of tile jjresent hour the 
stream of tr.allie as then it flowed along this old highw.ay down the wild v.alKy of 
the Spokane. I. it us. in imagin.ation, take a position beside the pioneer thorough- 
fare and await the passing of tlie tr.aftic of a busy day in autunni. Comes yonder 
a long cavalcade of pack animals, with Lading of nu icliandisi- from Portland or 
Walla Walla, cineiied iiigh above the rough jiack saddles of frontier pattern. It 
is headed for tile Montana mines and three liundred miles away to the east an 
enterprising merchant frets in ini)),atience ;is he scans his empty shelves and cal- 
culates liis d;iily loss in the gold dust that would In liis il only iie li.ad tin goods 
so wanted by the red-shirted, big-booted miners up I Ik gulch. 

Scarcely h.as the dust raised by this shufHing e.ar.n.au been w.ifted away by 
the vagrant bree/e than we may detect .a moving jiicture of a different sort. .\n 
immigrant tr.ain is coming round a nr.ar-by bend .and stirring iij) a stu])endous 
dust as it moves .along. Galloping a lidlr in .adx.anc . a liorseiii.an sights an attr.act- 
ive camping ))l,u'e. with tile three-fold .adv.aiit.ages of wood, grass and water, scans, 
under a sheltering h.and. tiu' meridian son. .and s<nds b.ack a long halloo who.se 
cheery meaning even tlie j.aded teams .are (|niek to nnderst.and .and answer with 
a quickened ))ace. Within a few minutes the little tr.ain li.as Imnbrred u]), wagons 
come to rest .at various vantage points aronnd the wayside brook; women and chil- 
dren climb out from the taivcrcd wagon beds; traces are unhooked, lines looped up 
on the liames, iieckyokes quickly taken from wagon-tongues, and instantly we hear 
a medley of jingling harness, rattling tinware and ciiildish voices made sharj) by 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 297 

hunger's call. For they have come far since they left their camping-spot of the 
night before and the days are long and tedious when one travels in an immigrant 
wagon across the plains or through tlie mountains and the deep forests of the west. 
They are on their way, perhaps from old Missouri or more distant Illinois or In- 
diana, to a ])romised land in the Walla Walla or the Willamette valley ; and have 
been steadily on the move since early spring gave promise of sufficient pasturage 
to sustain their teams and cattle. Grim resolution, with sunshine and the winds, 
lias fixed upon their features lines of determination, but hope gleams in every eye, 
and quiet courage, and patient endurance. The long journey is nearing the end, 
and the land of pleasant abundance can not be far away. 

It is only a conjured picture, but we lift our hats to these immigrants of fifty 
years ago. For they were strong, and they had confidence, and they were unafraid. 
Builders of empire, founders of states, creators of towns and cities — thev have be- 
come an almost vanished type, and with their passing, state and nation have lost 
something of the picturesque and somewhat of rugged courage and virtue. 

The Mullan road crossed the Spokane at Schnebley's bridge, two and a half miles 
above the present town of Trent, or about 1'2 miles east of the city of .Spokane. If 
ran, thence, along the north bank of the river, past the old Kendall (later Cowley's) 
bridge, eighteen miles above Spokane ; and thence, by way of Post Falls to Lake 
Coeur d'Alene, through Fourth of ,Tuly canyon, and up the Coeur d'Alene river, 
by way of the Old Mission, crossing tlie Coeur d'Alene river frequently, and pass- 
ing into Montana over the pass of St. Regis Borgias. 

From tlie crossing of the Sjiokane river, it ran (towards Walla Walla) down 
the Spokane valley a few miles, and turned south and left the valley at a point 
about six miles east of the city, passing over Moran prairie near the present coun- 
try residence of J. .J. Browne. It crossed Hangman creek about nine miles from 
Spokane. From the Hangman creek crossing it headed southwest for the ferry 
across Snake river near the mouth of the Palouse, passing enroute about three miles 
nortli of Spangle, and thence to tlie Hines place on lower Rock creek, where a settler 
named Hines ran an eating place. From the Hines place it ran by waj' of lake 
Colville, near the present town of Sprague to Cow creek, the next stopping place, 
and then on to the crossing of the Snake. Beyond Snake river it ran by way of 
the Touchet river to Waitsburg, and thence on to Walla Walla. 



CHAPTER XXXII 

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY COXTIXUED 

MAIL BETWEEN WALLA WALLA AND PINKNEY CITY LEGISLATURE PLEADS POVERTY 

PRAIRIE FIRES AGITATION TO ANNEX IDAHO PANHANDLE CLAMOR FOR LAND 

OFFICE AT WALLA WALLA SETTLERS COME INTO PALOUSE COUNTRY WHITMAN 

COUNTY CREATED CONDITIONS IN COLVILLE VALLEY BEGINNING OF FAMOUS LIEU 

LAND STRUGGLE AGITATION FOR AN OPEN RIVER EARLY DAY ROAD BUILDING 

LAWFUL FENCES DEFINED LAND OFFICE AT COLVILLE MILITARY POST AT SPO- 
KANE CREATION OF SPOKANE COUNTY FIRST APPLICATION OF THE REFEREN- 

UUJI PROHIBITION STRIP ALONG THE NORTHERN PACIFIC GROWTH OF THE TER- 
RITORY MEMORIAL FOR MILITARY TELEGRAPH LINE. 

A MEMORIAL to the postmaster-general, December 15. 1866. represented 
that 'luuler an order issued by the postal department, the postmaster was 
instructed not to pay over $4,000 for carrying the mail between Walla 
Walla and Pinkney City," but this sum was deemed inadequate for the distance of 
229 miles and the character of the country traversed. On solicitation of citizens 
of Walla Walla and Stevens county, J. R. Bates and a man named Brennick had 
been induced to cover the route at that rate for three months only, on an under- 
standing that the matter would be taken up with the department and an increase 
asked to $7,000. This consideration the legislature thought reasonable, and the 
increase was therefore asked, adding that the mail on this route was important, as 
there then existed at the Pinkney City end of the route the following government 
offices: Custom house at Little Dalles. Indian agent and collector and assessor of 
internal revenue at Pinkney City, and a military post. By a legislative act passed 
a year later, the name of Pinkney City was changed to Colville. 

In furtherance of tiie building of a trans.-ontinental railroad, the legislature 
memorialized congress, under date of .Tanuary a. 1867, as follows: "That in accord- 
ance with the rapid progress of commercial er.t!T"risc, and the increasing demand for 
rapid intercourse across the domain of the LTnited States, from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific oceans, the congress of the I'nited States lias ))rovided by legislative enact- 
ments for the construction of two lines of railroads, known as the Union or Cen- 
tral, and the Northern Pacific railroads, but the northern road has not re- 
ceived the same assistance from the fostering hand of the general government which 
has been extended to tlie central road, although from the natural condition of affairs 
it is more necessary that such assistance should be extended to the Northern than to 
the Central road, for tlie reasons: First, that in Wasliington tcrrit(n-y. the terminu.s 

299 



300 Sl'OKANF, AM) TIIK IXI.AXD F.>ri'II{E 

of the road, tlierc is not sufficient capit.il tlir(iu;r|i,,„t tin uIjoIc territory even to 
commence such an enterprise, wliile in California, the terminus of the Central road, 
sufficient capital could be obtained, were the holders thereof willing, to build tlie 
whole road without any assistance from tlie ;r,i,i ml ^ovrrmiieiit. Second, tiiat from 
the geograijliical jwsition of the different routes, the northern road when eomi)lete(i 
will build uj) ,1 national and international comuieree of far greater extent and v.ilue 
than the central, and that the nature of the soil along tlu ncirthi rn route guarantees 
the more rapid growth of a rich and Jiowerful agrieultural community along the 
wliole extent of country through which it will pass." 

In view of tliese considerations, the legislatur< prayed eongriss to pass an act 
granting the same privileges to the Northern I'aeitie railroad eom|)any as had been 
already granted to the Union Pacific r.iilroad eom|),iny. 

The legislatures of 45 and 50 years ago were not ashanu-d to )ili .id po\i rt\ when- 
ever a iirobability arose of obtaining something from congress by m.-iking that plea, 
for we find frequent assertion, in old memorials .iiid resolutions, of the fin.inei.il 
weakness of the territory and its people. They were rich only in anticipation, .md 
eager to dip a liand in the opulent connneree of tin Oriiiit. And .i territorv m,i\ beg 
insistently without s.ierifieing state ))ri(le. 

At that time little had been attempted in a farming way in eastern Washington 
outside of the Walla Walla valley. The exp.msive Palouse and Big Bend sections 
were open grazing country, with hardly .i furrow turned .my where; and when the 
luxuriant bunch-grass bad cured in tlie sunniiei- sun. il.-inger .-irose const.intly of 
wide-sweeping prairie fires. To cheek that peril, tlu- legislature ])assed a l.iw in 
January, 1868, to proliibit the setting of grass fires "on any of the unoccupied l:md 
or lands, being known as jir.airie or ])asturage land in the counties of Wall.i A\:ill.i. 
Stevens, Yakima and Klickitat," and jirov iding peii.alties of imprisonment in the 
county jail for not more than one year, or .i line not exceeding .*.J00, or both iuijjris- 
onment and fine. 

Although Washington territory h.id .illowed, almost witliout a jirotest, Idaho to 
be cut aw.-iy from its eastern area .i tVw years l)efore. .igit.ition now arose for 
restor;ition of the P.niii.iuiilr. ,iiid Ihc Icnisj.iturc. in .l;iHu;ir\ . 1S(),S. .■i(h>|)ti-(l a 
memorial which represented th.it : 

"By the boundaries of Id.-iho tirrilory. tlirn- is a louij n.irrow strip l\inn' in the 
northern portion of s;iid territory, boinidcd on tlic iiorlli hv lirilisli ((iluiulii.i. on 
the east by .Montana territory, and o:i the west by ^\'.■lshingtou territorv: .ind lli.it 
tile said strip of territory, at its northern extremity, is only .-ibout fifty miles wide," 
divided into tin' tiiree eounties of Nez Perce. Shoshone .md Id.iho. 

"Your memorialists are assured, liy the voiei- of tlie residents .•md the press of 
said Jiortion of Idaho territory, tli.it tiny ,ire desirous of being .iniiixed to the ter- 
ritory of W.ashington : tli.it tlie connnereial. soei.il .md politie.il interests ot thi- 
people of the s;iid northern jiortion of Id.-ibo .ire idc ntie.il with those of the (leopli- 
of W.ishington territory. 

"The great dist.-inee of these tliree iiorlhiru eoiiiitries from Hoise City the 
capital of Idaho — a distanc<' of mcr ."lOO miles incurs great exjiense to said 
territory, .-lud .also to their legisl.ators. 

"And your memorialists would further show tli.it tin represent.itives from the 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 301 

said counties, in order to reach their capital, are compelled to travel through a 
large portion of Washington territory and the state of Oregon." 

Believing that the people of northern Idaho desired annexation to Washington, 
the legislature asked congress to make tlie requisite change in boundary lines. The 
striking fact can not escape the reader that, after a lapse of more than -10 years, 
the conditions set out in the foregoing memorial survive toda}', substantially as thej' 
existed in 1868. By social and commercial ties, northern Idaho is still bound to 
easterji \\'ashington ; and, just as forty-three years ago, the people of the Pan- 
handle are required to pass through Washington and Oregon to transact business 
at the capital at Boise. 

The agitation, begun in 1S6S. has had frequent revival, and even now is not 
wholly extinguished. It developed such strength when Cleveland was president 
that a bill restoring the Panhandle to Washington passed both houses of Congress, 
but failed to win executive a)jproval. 

A memorial relative to the carrying of m.iil between Colville and Spokane 
Bridge, adopted in December. 1 867, reveals the unsettled state of the country. 
The postmaster at Colville had been instructed by the department not to pay more 
than $1,500 a year for tiiat service, and if a contract could not be let, to discon- 
tinue the route and tlie postoffice at Spokane Bridge. Ira Matthews was induced 
to take the contract, but on the understanding that the matter would be taken up 
with the department and increased ])ay recommended. The memorial set forth 
tli.it in view of the length of tjie route, ninety miles, "weight of mail matter; difficult 
roads, attributable to the character of the country through which the route must 
necessarily pass ; the absence of settlement in a distance of sixty miles, rendering 
it essential for the carrier to provide and transport necessary forage," the allowance 
of $1,;)00 for a weekly mail was entirely inadequate, "in fact, not sufficient to meet 
the necessary expense of keeping open the route." An allowance of $3,000 a year 
was therefore urged upon the jjostal department. 

A memorial adopted in October, 1869, urged the establishment of a United States 
land office at Walla Walla, as "a matter of vital importance and pressing necessity 
to all the people of Washington territory who reside east of the Cascade moun- 
tains." It represented that "the only land office at which these people can enter 
their homestead and preemption land claims is at Vancouver, west of the Cascade 
mountains and about 250 miles distant from Walla Walla. The most of the home- 
stead claimants have yet to make their final lioniestead jiroof; and the same is true 
of the ])rcemption land claimants." 

At that time there were in tin eciunties of Klickitat, Yakima, Walla Walla and 
Stevens about 2,000 land claimants, and the memorial estimated that it would cost 
them, on an average, $150 in traveling expenses alone if they were required to make 
final ])roof at Vancouver, "while the government receives of the homestead settler, 
in all, $22 legal tender for 160 acres, and from the preemptionists $200 currency." 

According to this memorial, not a fifteenth part of the fertile and arable land 
had lieen surveyed or settled. 

Again the legislature urged upon congress the importance of aiding the build- 
ing of the Northern Pacific railroad. This highway, it said, woidd connect with the 
great lakes and through them with the St. Eawrence river, while the route, from 
the headwaters of Lake .Su))eri()r to Puget Sound, was comparativelv short, well 



302 srOKANi: AM) llli: IM.AM) KMl'IKE 

watered and tiinbcrt-d, with ahundance of coal, "and capable of sustaining an almost 
uninterrupted belt of population across the continent on either side of the road." 
"This road," tlie memorial continued, "presents a direct, feasible and eligible 
route across the continent which will open the territories of Dacotah, Montana, Ida- 
ho, Washington and Oregon to civilization, settlement and commerce, and stimulate 
the develoj)ment of their great agricultural and mineral resources; and whicli will 
invite the commerce of Ja])an and China to our Pacific coast and across the conti- 
nent, thereby increasing the national wiillh and revenue, and jiromoting our foreign 
and domestic trade and the general iii(histry of onr |)((>]ilc. ' 

Prophetic words! And vision sweeping ddwii the century! Uttered by the 
deep-forested shores of Puget Sound, in the unpretentious eajjital of the territory, 
and with tHie backwoods for environment, but vibrant with an iusi)iration of ap- 
proaching events of worldwide magnitude. These pioneer legislators of fifty years 
ago brought to their tasks some of the elements of genuine greatness. Their "native 
hue of resolution" had not become "sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought;" 
and while their old laws, resolutions and memorials reveal here and there an imper- 
fect knowledge of the spelling book, they were generally framed witii clearness of 
diction and a directness that miglit well be e())>i( d in these days of too frequent indi- 
rection and evasion. 

A hundred years .-igo, wlieu tlie lirst lur tr.idrrs eiiteriil this region, tliey tninid 
and used .-in Indi.ui bighw.iy crossing the country from the Columbia river, ne.ir 
old Fort \V,ill;i Walla, to tlu' Coh ille valley and the Kettle or Chaudiere falls. 
When, in ISGO, government establislied the first m.-iil route in the section north of 
Snake river, it ado])ted this prehistoric route, leaving W'all.i Walla and jiassing 
thence by way of the Palouse ferry on the Sn.ike. (Hw creek, 15ig lake, .and lower 
Spokane bridge (ojurated by .Tames Monaghan) to old I'ort Colville, a distance of 
210 miles. This route w.as ])ursued initil 1867, when the service was shifted by 
way of Waitsburg and Tucanon, in Walla Walla county, and thence via the ujiiier 
S])okane bridge, twelve miles above the falls, to I'ort Colville. 

A memorial ado))ted in October. I860, asked tli.it tlie service be restored to the 
old route, reijresenting thai Waitsburg, Tuc.ukhi .uid other offices were directly on 
the mail route from Wall.i W;ill;i to I.ewiston, .iiid could be sujiplicd with all neces- 
sary mail facilities by Ih.if route without :iny additional expense to the government. 

The memori.al further re|)resented "th.it as ,at jiresent arr.anged. the mails arc 
carried on said route, in order to reach Fort Colville. a distance of 28o miles, making 
the schedule time, on the trij). of twelve days; luil that mail m.atter is frequently de- 
layed for four weeks, to the great detriment and inconvenience of many citizens." 
It was argued tli.it liie route could be matirially shortened and afford bettrr facili- 
ties and accommodations by having tlie mails carried as formerly when the route 
was first established. 

From time to tiiiii' a few settlers liad found tluir way into the I'.ilousi- eountrv, 
and bv the summer of 1871 the possibilities there in way of soil .and climate had 
been sudicicntly denionstr.ited to call for the (U-ganization of a new county. The 
legislature recognized these new conditions, and ;in act approved by Governor Ed- 
ward S. Salomon, November 29, 1871, set up the county of Wliitiii.an .ind dillind 
the following bound.arics : 

Commencing at a point on .'^n.ike ri\( r win re I Ik line dividing Jd.iho .iiid W.ish- 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 303 

ington territories strikes said river, tliencc down mid channel of said river to its 
mouth ; thence up mid channel of the Columbia river to White bluffs ; thence in a 
northeasterly course to where the fifth standard parallel crosses Longenbeal creek; 
thence east along said parrallel to the dividing line between Washington and Idaho 
territories; thence south along said line to the place of beginning: Provided, That 
until the fifth standard parallel is established, the line from White bluffs shall be 
in a nortlieasterly course to the south end of Big lake; thence in an easterly course 
to Stone house near Rock lake; thence east to the dividing line between Washing- 
ton and Idaho territories; thence south along said line to the place of beginning. 

As first board of county comniissioners the act named G. D. Wilber, William R. 
Rcxford and Henry S. Burlingame. Charles D. Porter was appointed sheriff and 
assessor; .Fames Ewart auditor, W. A. Belcher treasurer, John Denny probate 
judge, C. E. White superintendent of schools, and ,Iohn Fincher coroner, "to hold 
their offices until the next general election, or until tlieir successors are elected and 
qualified." William Lucas, Jesse Logsdon and ,1. A. Perkins were appointed com- 
missioners to locate a county seat until the next general election, when the deter- 
mination of the permanent county seat was to be referred to the voters. 

The new county was added to Walla Walla for judicial purposes; to tlie coun- 
ties of Walla Walla and Stevens in the election of joint councilman, and to Stevens 
county in the election of joint representatives. Stevens and Whitman were to divide 
the debt of old Stevens county in proportion to the taxable property returned by 
the respective assessors of the two counties. Whitman to issue county orders to 
Stevens for its proportion. 

Road-making, as always the case in a new country, was one of the most pressing 
tasks, and to meet this need in part, the legislature at the same session directed the 
county commissioners of Walla Walla, Whitman and Stevens, at their February 
session in 1872, to appoint one citizen of their respective counties, "who shall be 
and are hereby constituted a board of commissioners to view and locate a territorial 
road from Walla Walla city via Waitsburg, in Walla Walla county, on the most 
direct practical route to Bellville, in Whitman county, crossing Snake river at the 
mouth of the Pinawawa, thence by the most direct practical route to Fort Colville, 
in Stevens county." For this service the locators were to be paid a )xr diem of four 
dollars each. 

Even with the loss of territory suffered by the erection of Whitman county, 
Stevens remained a county of "magnificent distances," embracing within its con- 
fines nearly one half of the area of Washington territory, being 200 miles in length 
and 1.50 in breadth, and containing 30,000 square miles. Interesting glimpses of 
this region as it then existed are found in a memorial adopted in November, 1871. 
It represented that Stevens county "is inhabited by the Spokane, Coeur d'Alene, 
Isle de Pierre, San Poel, Okanogan, Lal^e, Colville and Calispell tribes of Indians, 
in all numbering about 4,500; that Colville valley contains 127 white settlers, with 
thirty women and 117 children, and that there are scattered in various settlements 
here and there, in other parts of the county, 1.S7 white settlers, with forty women 
and 111. children; that no treaty has ever been made by the United States with the 
Indians of Stevens county, nor have they ever been jilaced on reservations; that Fort 
Colville is a military post of the United States, garrisoned by a single company of 
infantry, and situated at a distance of 200 miles from the settled portions of Wasli- 



304 SrOkANK AND TllK INLAND EMl'JKli 

iiigtoii territory last of the Cascade inouiitaiiis ; tliat the Indians inliabiting Stevens 
county liavc heretofore been kept in cheek, owing to tlie jjresenee of tliis small body 
of troops (since their defeat by the late General George Wriglit) but that when 
lately it was rumored that the troojjs would be removed, they became emboldened 
and openly announced their intention of driving out the white settlers and taking 
possession of their property as soon as the removal of the troops was accomplished ; 
that the settlers of Colville valley would be unable to protect themselves, and would 
be compelled to abandon their farms on which they have expended many years of 
toil, were the troops removed; liiat the settlers in other parts of the county, except 
l)ossibly those living near the county of Walla Walla, would likewise be driven from 
their homes by the Indians, and that hostilities between the whites and Indians 
would almost necessarily follow the reniov.al of the troojis; that in anticil)ation of 
the Northern Pacific railroad passing across Stevens county, settlers are immigrating 
to it very rapidly, and that iti the opinion of your memorialists, the military post 
already established by the government, with its garrison. sliouUl be eontiiuied until 
the settlers are nmnerous enough to protect themselves and to eoiiviiiee the Indian 
tribes living in that county that any resistance to immigration or hostilities to the 
white population would be futile." 

A marked change in legislative temper and policy towards the Northern Pacific 
railroad C(>mj)any was manifested at the session of 187.'3. Prior to that time, the 
legislature had been most sup|)licating in its pleas for giiu rous n.itional .aid and 
encouragement for the eomp.any: but circumstances alter cases, and with the contem- 
poraneous arrival of construction forces and settlers in eastern \\'ashington came 
conflicts of interest, and the legislature felt in duty bound to eliam))iou the cause 
of the settler. 

A serious clash of title rose now between the eoin|i.iiiy and a large iiiniiber of 
settlers. I5y .act of congress of July '2. 18()t. .i grant of land w,as given the com- 
l}anv of "t-very alternate si'ction of public land, not mineral, designated by odd lunn- 
Ih rs. to the amount of twenty .alternate sections per mile, on each side of said 
railroad line, as saiti company may ado))t through the territories of the United 
Slates, and ten alternate sections of land ))er mile on each side of s.aid railroad, 
whenever it |),isses through .an\ state: and whenever, on the line thereof the L'nited 
States ha\c full title, not reservi'd. sold, granted or otheruiM' .appropriated, and 
free from preemption or other el.ainis or rights, at the timi- the line of said road is 
definitilv fixed, .aiul a pl.it tliireof filed in tin oiliee of the connnissioiur of the gener.al 
land dtliei'; and whenever prior to said lime, any ol said sections or p.irts ot said sec- 
tions shall have been granted, sold, reserved, occupied by homeste.id settlers, or prc- 
em|>tion or otherwise disposed of, other band shall be selected by said company in lieu 
thereof." 

Under this grant the company filed its map of definite route in the offici' of the 
eonunissioner of the gener.al band otiiee. .Xugust 1:1. 1,S7(). and the seeretarx' ot the 
interior. .1. I), Cox, held in a letter to tin piasident of the N'orlhern Pacific, th.at 
such withdr.awal should take etl'eet from .and .after the receipt of the map of the 
s.inie .at the local United .States band ofllei s. Tbesi maps, tluuigh filed at U'.asbing- 
1(111 in August, were not filed in llie local land cilliees in eastern W.asbirigtoii till the 
tolliiwiiig Oetolnr. .and in this interim ni.iny settlers filed on odd numbered sections 
within the grant. Hy the decision of Secret.ary Cox, these settlers were within their 



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PUBUC LIBRARY 


A^Tvn. Liw«X 


TILBCN FOUNOATICNI 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 305 

riji'lits ; lint liis successor subsequently reversed that decision and held that the rail- 
roMfl's title attached from tiie time of filing at Washington, and consequently settlers 
who went upon these lands after August 13, were trespassers on railroad lands. 

Out of these conflicting decisions developed the famous "lieu land controversy" 
which entered vigorously into the territorial politics of the day, and which was 
instrumental several years later in electing as delegate to congress the late Charles 
S. Voorhees, of Colfax and Spokane, who championed the cause of the settlers 
against the railroad company. 

A memorial adopted in November, 1875, declared that the settlers "went upon 
the lands in good faith for the ])urpose of making homes for themselves and families ; 
that the decision of Secretary Delano gives over to the railroad company 
the homes and improvements of settlers with the labor of years expended thereon ; 
th.it at the time of making their settlements and filing, the tracts were unoccupied 
and una])pro))riated i)ublic lands, and considered by all the land officers of the gov- 
ernment, from the highest to the lowest, as property subject to homestead and pre- 
emption; and that said railroad demands of such settlers that they shall purchase 
of it. and asks such an exorbitant ]irice for each tract that the settlers are both 
unwilling and unable to purchase. ' 

The memorial charged President Cass of the Nortiiern Pacific with broken faith 
and open repudiation of written promises to relinquish these lands to the settlers 
and take other Lands in lieu under a sjHcial act of congress which had been passed 
to cure tlie injustice, and generally assumed a hostile attitude against the company. 
Similar conflicts of interest had develo])ed in western Washington, along the line 
between Tacoma and Kalama on tlie Columbia river, and altogether the Nortiiern 
Pacific had made itself intensely unpopular in a territory whose people had pre- 
viously bowed down before it almost to the point of worship. 

After pointing out that the grant liad been made by congress on condition that 
the company complete not less than 1 00 miles of "track ■yearly, and alleging that it 
had built no road at all within tlie two jireceding years, the legislature further pro- 
tested against the contention of the railro.id that it was exempt from taxation within 
the territories, and concluded : 

"Wherefore, in consideration of the facts herein stated, your memorialists, as a 
matter of justice to the people of the territory, would most respectfully and earnestU' 
ask that the lands in this territory unearned by the completed road of said company 
lie restored to homestead and preemption settlement; that sueli legislation as will 
require said company to bear its proper burden of taxation may be adopted, and that 
the act of congress approved June 22, ISTl, entitled 'an act for tlie relief of settlers 
on r.iilroad lands,' be so amended as to permit bona fide settlers, who settled or 
filed in the local land office ])rior to the date of the company filing its map of definite 
location, to prove up and take title from government without let or hindrance from 
said Northern Pacific railroad company." 

For nearly thirty years tlie Nortiiern Pacific resisted this plea for justice, oppos- 
ing the settlers in the courts, before the departments and in congress, and interfer- 
ing continuously with territorial and state politics. In this way it wore out most 
of the claimants until they were glad, in order to clear title to their homes, to yield 
to the railroad's terms of settlement. Many years later the old controversy was 
ended by act of congress, but on terms that were considered immenselv adv.-mtan-eous 



306 SPOKAXF, AM) Till'. INLAND K.Ml'IRE 

to the company, and which broujtlit upon L'nitid States Senator John L. Wilson 
some criticism for his |)art in introducing and advocating the curative legislation. 

An act to encourage forestation in eastern Washington found legislative favor 
in November, 1873. It authorized the commissioners of Stevens and Whitman coun- 
ties "to exempt from taxation, except for territorial purposes, the real or personal 
property of each taxpayer who shall, within the county within such year, plant and 
suitably cultivate one or more acres of forest trees for timber, to an amount not 
exceeding .$300 for each acre." 

A memorial adopted in November, 1873, and signed by N. T. Caton as speaker 
of (he house of representatives, and Wm. McLane as president of the council, prayed 
congress for an appropriation to overcome obstacles in the Columbia river. It rep- 
resented that — 

'"I'lie Cascade mountains divide the territory into western and eastern Washing- 
ton ; that eastern Washington territory is almost exclusivelv a grazing and agricul- 
tural country, that the soil is capable of producing all the grasses and cereals known 
to the middle and western states ; that the product of Walla Walla countj* alone, with 
a population of about 8,000 souls, in its grain yield for the year 1873, as shown by 
the most carefully prepared statistics, will reach the enormous sum of 1,000,000 
bushels. That large bodies of land in the counties of Walla Walla. Stevens, Yakima 
and Whitman are equally as susceptible of cultivation as those already occupied, 
imi)roved and cultivated; that the counties above enumerated are fast filling up with 
an intelligent and industrious population." 

The people residing in eastern Washington, it was pointed out, were almost 
wholly dejiendent on the Columbia river for an outlet to the Pacific ocean and to 
markets for tin- products of their soil and tin- fruits of tliiir labor, and the memorial 
added : 

"That from the points of shi](nii nt on tlic Columbia river to the junction of the 
Willamette river therewith, nature has opposed great obstacles to the free and suc- 
cessful navigation of the stream — one at The Dalles and one at the Cascades, making 
a portage of fourteen miles at the former place, and of five or six at the latter, an 
imjjerative necessity. The costs and expenses attending the transportation of freight 
over the portages aforesaid are so burdensome on the people of eastern Washington 
as to amount to an almost entire prohibition ; that the people may have an oppor- 
tunity to develop the region of country in which they live, and at the same time pro- 
vide the means of subsistence for themselves and families whilst thus laboring without 
meeting with the great hindrances to the free navigation of the Columbia river, your 
memorialists earnestly pray your honorable bodies to make such an appropriation 
as shall in your judgments overcome the obstacles aforesaid." 

Another memorial at this session advanced "serious and weighty reasons" why 
nortliern Idaho should be annexed to Washington territory. Among these were 
the "impassable barrier in the shape of towering rugged mountains, where perennial 
snows ever abound, making it absolutely necessary, in order to have any communi- 
cations Willi other portions of the territory, during eight months of the year, to 
take circuitous routes through Washington territory and the state of Oregon before 
any ])ortion of the balance of the territory can be reached, either on foot, horseback, 
or by vehicle. 

"We would tnrlliii- n |insent, ' eontiiuii's tlic memorial, "tiiat that |)ortii)n of 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 307 

Idaho which it is jjroposcd to annex to Washington is a narrow strip of country, 
about in proportion to tht- balance of the territory as the handle of a frjnng pan 
is to the pan, and it lies contiguous to our territory, lying immediately east, and with 
no barriers intervening. Its commercial, political and social interests are identical 
with ours ; its products, climate and people are in every respect similar. It helps 
to form one grand basin where there is no dissimilarity in the soil, the pursuits of 
the people, the general appearance of the country or the character of its resources. 
"Annex the same to Washington, and it must grow and prosper ; but keep it tied 
to Idaho territory, and it must ever remain in a comparatively primitive state. As 
where there is no affinity of interest, no affinity of feeling, and where there is so 
little hope of ever overcoming to any great extent the rankling sectional feeling, that 
sectional antagonism which too often is prevalent among the greater towards the 
smaller population, there is little ground for hoping that these conditions will ever 
be materialh' unchanged." 

A little overdrawn, but having substantial basis of truth and reason. Ha))i)ily 
the pessimistic predictions of the memorial have not been verified. Northern Idaho 
has not "ever remained in a comparatively primitive state," for its commercial and 
social relations, as indicated in this old plea for annexation, have been inseparably 
bound up with those of eastern Washington, and these are ever more )5otent in indus- 
trial and social progress than political ties. Some rankling sectional feeling there 
lias been against the capital end of the commonwealth; but have we of eastern Wash- 
ington not felt at times that our greater half, lying west of the Cascade mountains, 
has been lacking in the breadth and understanding that would have contributed more 
freely to our happiness and progress without impairing in the least the welfare of 
our neighbors to the west? 

We come now to the year 1875, and still the paramount need was better means 
of communication — more highways and improvement of the existing ways. Con- 
stant need was felt and expressed for more adequate communication between the 
east side and the west, for in many respects the bond then existing between the two 
sections was closer than that of today. The interior had then no other outlet than 
to the west; was drawing almost its entire immigration from that source; and was 
dependent on coast capital and enterprise for development of its resources. For 
news interest the people east of the Cascade mountains turned to the coast; their 
mail came from that quarter; they read coast newspapers, and most of them had 
family ties on Puget Sound or down in the Willamette valley. 

So keen was this desire for closer relations that tlie legislature of 1875 over- 
powered its moral scruples, if such it had, and authorized private lotteries in the 
cause of a highway across the Cascades. By statute "any person residing in this 
territory who is desirous of aiding in the construction of a wagon road across the 
Cascade mountains shall have the right to dispose of any of his property, real and 
personal, by lottery distribution, under such restrictions and conditions as are pro- 
vided in this act." 

The chief condition was the payment of ten jier cent, of the jn-dccids of the lot- 
tery to a trustee, who in turn was to pay it to a board composed of three citizens 
of Yajiima county and two of King who were "to superintend the expenditure of all 
moneys realized for the benefit of said road, under the j)rovisions of this act." 

The road thus favored was to be constructed from Snoqualmie jjrairie in Kino- 



308 SPOKANE AM) rilK IM.AM) KMIMRK 

county, to tlie south end of Lake Kichclas in Yakima county ; was to be opened at 
least thirty feet wide, all jjrades to be at least fifteen feet wide, and be a ])art of 
a territorial road from Seattle to Walla \\'alla. 

Another aet defined lawful fences in Whitm.iii and Y.akima counties: Plank fence, 
four feet, eight inches high; ))()sts, five inches or more in diameter, substantially 
set in the ground, not more than eight feet ajjart : the lower plank i)laced twenty 
inches from the ground, second plank eight inches above tin- lower, and third plank 
ten inches from second, the i)l.ink to be six inches wide, one inch tliick and firiidy 
fastened to the ]>osts by nails, wire or otherwise. 

Post and rail fence, five feet liigh, made of sound posts, five or more inches in 
diameter, firmly set in the ground, not more than twelve feet apart, with four rails 
not less than four inches in diameter, securely f.astened : the lower rail twenty inches 
from the ground, and the remaining three rails not more than eight inches apart. 

Provision was also made for post and jjole fences, "worm" fences, and ditches 
of two designs, one design being a ditch three feet deep with embankment and sod 
thrown u)) on inside of ditch two feet six inches liigh. with substantial ))osts set in 
embankment, not more than twelve feet a|),irt. and pole or rail securely fastened 
thereto not more than fifteen inches from the embankment. To sucii niakesiiifts were 
the ))ioneer settlers of a |)rairii- rigion drivi ii in the early homesteading era of our 
country. 

.\n act .a))proved Novenibtr I",.'. 187;">, declared the .Spokane river navigable and 
a public highwav from its mouth to the dividing line between Washington and Idaho, 
"for the ))urpose of r.ifting, driving and floating logs, timber and other material." 

Fines were provided for the piniishuuiit of persons who might ol)struet the chan- 
nel, but it w,is provided, "that tht |)lacing of any mill dam or boom across said 
stream shall not be construed to be .in obstruction to the navig.ition aforesaid, if the 
s.ime be so constructed as to allow the |)assage of logs, timber and other material 
without unnasoM.ible (hlay ; ' and jxrsons running logs were ui.ade liable for dam- 
ages sustained by bridges. 

Another memorial, urging the overcoming of obstructions in the Columbia river 
and passed at this session, is remarkable for the accuracy of its jjrediction regarding 
the wheat-growing )iossibilities of eastern \A'.ishington. That season's exportable 
surplus from this district w,is given ;is 1.000. 000 l)us!iels. but it was estim.ited that 
with lower freight rates the country <(iuld produce 20,000.000 bushels for export. 
.Mthough wheat was then selling for .f I a bushel at Portland, the market price at 
Walla W.illa. the principal |)urcliasing point in eastern W.ishiugton, was only 1;) 
cents i)er bushel: tiir dillrnnee was .alisorbed in excessive transportation cliargcs 
and high profits lor middlemen. .Attention w.is directed to a report of Brevet IJriga- 
dii r-Cicner.il .Miehler. of the United .States engineer corps, estimating the cost of 
short canals and locks at .t 1 .."lOO.OOO. The combined poi)ul.ition of eastern Wash- 
ington, eastern Oregon and northern Idaho, "wliich would be directly .and innnedi- 
;itely benefited by the removal of these obstructions and by the free navigation of 
this river." w.is estimated ;it '.-ibout .'iO.OOO. a very large ])roportion of whom .ire 
eng.iged in agrieultur.il |)ursuils." 

'I'he esl.iblishment of ;i hand olfice at Colf.ix was urged in a memorial to congress 
as "a matter of gr<;it importance to all the settlers north of .'snake ri\(r and east 
of tlie Cascade inoiintains." Congnss. it .-iddi-d. "in justiee ought to .lel in this 



SPOKANE AND THE INLAND EMPIRE 309 

matter for tlic following reasons : The only land office east of the Cascade moun- 
tains is at Walla Walla City, near the southern boundary of the territory, and dis- 
tant about i200 miles from a majority of the settlers in said portion of the territory." 
In the establishment of these local land offices we ma}- trace unerringh' the settle- 
ment and development of the country. For several years a single land office at 
Oregon City served the needs of the country. Later an office was located at Van- 
couver, near Portland. Then, witii the settlement of the country east of the moun- 
tains congress in turn established land offices at Walla Walla, Yakima, Colfax, Spo- 
kane and Waterville in the Big Bend country. 

Meanwhile settlement and progress drifted around Spokane, but prior to 1872 
there were few happenings of moment at the falls. The site of the present city lay 
off the two important highways of the interior. The Mullan road cut across Moran 
prairie and struck the valley six miles above the falls, while the old Walla Walla- 
Colville route crossed the Spokane at Monaglian's bridge some twenty miles below. 
From ancient times the valley of the Spokane had been considered lacking in agri- 
cultural ))0ssibilities, and was used ehiefly as pasturage ground for herds of Indian 
horses and as an Indian race course where the neighboring tribes assembled to match 
tlieir crack running horses and gamble furiously on speed contests. Homeseekers 
passed its gravel soil eonteui])tuously by; and as lor wattr power, was not the coun- 
try full of it, going everywhere to waste? No one could capitalize water power 
in those days. 

Hut witli the arrival here in 1871 of Seranton and Downinjr. the luiildiu!'- of 
their little "nudey" saw mill, and the homesteading of farming lands in the Four 
Lakes country and down around Spangle, the southern end of Stevens countv began 
to command some attention, and an act approved November 9, 1877, authorized the 
commissioners to levy a special tax on the assessable property of the county "for 
the purpose of building a bridge across the Sjjokane river at or near Spokane Falls." 

.Some of the newcomers into eastern \\'as]iing-ton. moved bv memories of their 
boyhood days in eastern states, had attempted to stock the country with "Bob ^^'llite" 
(juail, and an act approved November 9. 1877, provided that "anv person or per- 
sons who shall buy, sell, shoot, kill, snare or traj) any quail in the counties of \\'al]a 
Walla, Columbia and Whitman before the first day of September, 1881, shall be 
ileemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction . . . shall be fined not more 
than .t.50 nor less than $10, one-half to be paid to the informer and the other to go 
into the county school fund." Eitlier the law proved ineffective, or the imported 
birds failed to thrive and multiply in their new environment, for the quail was 
comparatively an unknown bird in this region until later efforts by sportsmen of 
Spokane ))roved measurably successful in introducing it here in numbers. 

Alarmed by the apparent policy of the Northern Pacific to seek another terminus 
on Puget .Sound or the Columbia river, enterprising citizens of Seattle projected a 
railroad from their town to Walla ^Valla, and obtained, at the legislative session 
of 1877, the passage of an act authorizing various counties to subscribe to the cap- 
ital stock: King and Walla Walla, $100,000 each; Yakima, $50,000; Columbia, 
$7.'),000; Whitman, $60,000; Stevens, $20,000; Klickitat, $10,000; and various other 
counties $,'5,000 each. 

Some progress was made in construetion out of .Seattle, but the line never o-ot 
verv far into the Cascade mountains. 



310 SI'OKANK AM) ■|'IIi: IM.ANU I.Ml'IKK 

Congress was memorialized at tliis session to convert the Colville valley into an 
Indian reservation. It was represented — 

'That the unsettled condition of the Indians east of the Cascade mountains in 
Washington territory, is alike injurious to the Indians and the white people. The 
permanent location of these Indians upon one reservation would result in the pros- 
perity and peace of both the white people and the Indians. 

"We would further represent that tlie Colville valley is .-idmirably adapted for 
an Indian territory for all the Indians east of the Cascade mountains, not only on 
account of its arable lands, the roots, camas and salmon fisheries, but also on account 
of its situation, which, owing to the surrounding country, can never to intrenched 
upon by any white settlements. The remnants of different tribes to whom reserva- 
tions have been assigned under different treaties, to the exclusion of white settlers, 
derive no benefit from these reservations which they could not fully enjoy in Col- 
ville vallev. Yet their occupancy of the different reservations keeps a body of fine, 
arable land from cultivation and settlement by white people These different reser- 
vations together contain more arable land than the Colville valley, and their situa- 
tion in close proximity to the settlements of white people, makes a change not only 
desirable, but also of ultimate benefit to