n lilSTORY OF THE CLAN DONALD Jv\MlLIES OFMacDONALD fFDONAlD , M-DONNELL n n Gc 929.2 M145/ , 11342(J8 *^A GENEALOGY COLLECTION J ,,. ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY iMimmi 3 1833 00859 3326 Jfamoug (Pill jfamtlicjf HISTORY OF THE CLAN DONALD The Families OF MacDonald, McDonald anb McDonnell BY HENRY LEE NEW YORK R. L. POLK AND COMPANY, INC, Copyright 1920 by L. Polk & Co., Inc., New York Table of Contents: ' 1134208 Chapter I 9 Origin of the Qan — InnseGall — The Clann CboUa — Conn of a Hundred Fights— Soraerled, King of the Isles— The Story of Somerled. Chapter II 22 The Lords of the Isles, Ancestors of the Families of MacDonald, McDonald and McDonnell— The Red j,^ Hand — "Lord of the Isles, my Trust in Thee is firm Q as Aisia Rock"— The Baul Muluy— Good John of Isla — Donald of Harlaw — Donald Dubb. ^ Chapter III 84 I Territories of the Isles— Ceremonies and Customs — Hereditary Officers of the Clan— The Bards— Duntulm and Other Strongholds— The Badge, The Galley and The Eagle. Chapter IV 50 Branches of the Clan— The Chiefship — Sleat— McDon- nell of Glengarry— Clan Ranald. Chapter V 67 Dunnyveg and The Glens — Keppoch— Glencoe— The Mac Ruaries— Alastair Mor and the Clan Allister — The Family of Ulster — Sorley Buy and the Family of Antrim — Clan Donald of Connaught and Leinster. Chapter VI 89 Early American History of the Clan — Early Settlers — Bryan MacDonald — Angus McDonald of Virginia — John and William McDonald— The Clan in the Revolu- tion — Civil War Records, Chapter VII 104 Later Records of the Clan in the United States. Chapter VIII 118 Lines of Descent in Scotland, England and Ireland — Heads of Branches of the Clan — Notable Members of the Clan in the British Empire. Chapter IX 135 Armorial Bearings. PREFACE LL races of men seem to have an intuitive feeling that it is a subject of legitimate pride to be one of a clan or family whose name is written large in past history and present affairs. Everybody likes to know something about his forefathers, and to be able to tell to his children the tales or stories about their ancestors, which he himself has heard from his parents. The commandment "Honor thy father and thy mother" is good and sufficient authority for that feeling of reverence which is so generally shown towards a line of honorable ancestry. The history of the ■family was a matter of much importance to the Greeks; it was the custom of the early Roman to place in the aula of his house the images of the illustrious men of his family ; the Chinese go so far as to magnify such reverence into ancestor worship, and even the red Indian of our own Northwest recorded the traditions of his ancestors on the totem of his tribe. Well, then, may the story of the chiv- alry, courage and even lawlessness (so often the mate of courage) of their forefathers find a respon- sive echo in the hearts of the Clan Donald of the present generation, "who come of ane house and are of ane surname, notwithstanding this lang time bygane." It is not intended in this "History of the S 6 History of the Clan Donald Clan Donald" to attempt any genealogical investi- gation or show any family tree, but rather to tell of those bygone men of the Clan, in whose achieve- ments and history it is the common heritage of all who bear the name to take pride and interest. Old stories of clansmen of reckless bravery, who were good and true friends but were fierce and bitter enemies. Stories of men of the clan who fought hard, lived hard and died as they fought and lived. Those olden days may seem a time of scant respect for law, of misdirected chivalry and of brave deeds often wrongly done, but there is surely no true Mac- Donald, McDonald or McDonnell who, in his inmost heart, is not proud to claim descent from a clan whose ancient records are replete with such tradi- tions ; whose later records tell of those early adven- turers who left their native hills and glens for the new land of promise, and whose descendants have, in more prosaic times, earned honors in literature, arms and art. "It is wise for us to recur to the his- tory of our ancestors. Those who do not look upon themselves as links connecting the past with the future do not fulfill their duty in the world." History of the Clan Donald The Families of MacDonald, McDonald and m9d0nnell CHAPTER I HE Clan Donald is one of the most numerous and widespread of the clans, and includes several families, who, while using different surnames or different methods of writing the same surname, have an iden- tical genealogical derivation. Of these, the families of MacDonald or McDonald, and MacDonnell or McDonnell, are the most important. The mode of writing is immaterial, the name is the same; they are of one stock ; and the story of the Clan Donald is the story of their ancestors. As told later, the Clan derived its generic name from Donald, the grandson of Somerled; and hence the name Mac- Donald, or son of Donald, Mac, or the Gaelic Mhic, signifying son. By abbreviating the prefix to Mc and M' many families write the name McDonald and M'Donald. The surname MacDonnell, McDon- nell, McDonell, and other forms and methods of writing this name, came first into use, when, as men- tioned in Chapter IV, Aeneas MacDonald of the Glengarry branch was, in 1660, raised to the Peerage of Scotland by the title of Lord MacDonell. In the earlier chapters the family name has been written in its unabbreviated form, MacDonald, although, even in those bygone days the shorter forms of Mac were frequently used; and any record of names in 16 History of the Clan Donald the Scotland of today will indicate that the prefix is quite as frequently Mc as Mac. In the case of the modern families descended from the Clan, that mode of orthography has been followed, which, from long usage, the families have rightly been in the habit of using. The important position occupied by the Clan Donald and its branches invests the narrative of its rise and history with unusual interest to all, but more especially to those of the Clan, who may well refer with pride to iheir noble descent from the independent rulers of the island principality, the Kings of the Isles. The early history and descent of the Clan are involved in the cloudy shades of antiquity; and its origin is connected with many of the most interesting questions of Scottish ethnology. After the evacuation of Britain by the Romans, the country north of the Firth of Forth was occu- pied by a Pictish people designated the Alban Gael, whom historians agree were of the same race as the Cruithne of Ireland, and whose language was a type of the modern Scottish Gaelic. This people probably came first to Scotland between 500 B. C. and 300 B. C. To the south, the Scots of Dalriada occupied part of Argyll, and the country of Mull, Islay and the Southern Isles. The Alban Gaels or Picts, north of the Forth, were divided into the Northern Picts, who held the country north of the Grampians, and the Southern Picts. When, in 844, the Dalriads, Scots and Southern Picts were united in one king- dom by Kenneth MacAlpin, the Northern Picts History of the Clan Donald ll remained unaffected by the union. Included in the territory occupied by these Picts, or Alban Gael, were the Western Islands, known to the Gael as Innse-Gall, or the Islands of the Strangers, which later formed part of the dominion of the Kings of the Isles, progenitors of the Clan Donald. In these early days the Islands were constantly ravaged by the Norsemen and the Danes, who kept the whole western seaboard in a state of perpetual turmoil. "When watchfires burst across the main From Rona, and Uist and Skye, To tell that the ships of the Dane And the red-haired slayer were nigh; Our Islesmen rose from their slumbers, And buckled on their arms. But few, alas! were their numbers To Lochlin's mailed swarms; And the blade of the bloody Norse Has filled the shores of the Gael With many a floating corse And many a widow's wail." When Harold, the Fair Haired, in the year 875, constituted himself King of the whole of Norway, many of the small independent jarls, or princes, of that country refused to acknowledge his authority, and came to the Innse-Gall, or Western Isles. Har- old pursued them, and conquered Man, the Hebrides, Shetlands and Orkneys. The year following this conquest, the Isles rose in rebellion against Harold, 1^ History of the Clan Donald who sent his cousin Ketil to restore order ; but Ketil exceeded his instructions, and declared himself King of the Isles, being followed by a succession of Kings, until the Isles were finally added to Scotland. Allied with these Norse sea rovers was a Pictish people, called the Gall Gael, and Dr. Skene, the historian, claims that from the Gall Gael sprung the ancestors of the Clan Donald. The name Gall has always been applied by the Gael to strangers, and Skene maintains that the Western Gaels came, by associa- tion, to resemble their Norwegian allies in charac- teristics and mode of life, and thus acquired the descriptive name of Gall. The historical founder of the Family of the Isles was Somerled, Rex Insularum, for whom some writ- ers have claimed a Norwegian origin, but although the name is Norse all other circumstances point to a different conclusion. The traditions of the Clan Donald invariably represent that he descended from the ancient Pictish division of the Gael, and the early history of the Clan Cholla, the designation of the Clan prior to the time of Donald, penetrates into far antiquity. Tradition takes us back to the cele- brated Irish King, Conn-Ceud Chathach, or Conn of a Hundred Fights, the hundredth "Ard Righ," or supreme King of Ireland. Conn's court was at Tara and he died in 157 A. D. The Scottish poet Ewen MacLachlan refers to this early royal ancestor of the race of Somerled. History of the Clan Donald 13 "Before the pomp advanced in kingly grace I see the stem of Conn's victorious race, Whose sires of old the Western sceptre swayed. Which all the Isles and Albion's half obeyed." Fourth in descent from Conn came Eochaid Dui- bhlein, who married a Scottish Princess, Aileach, a daughter of the King of Alba. An old Irish poem describes the Princess as "a mild, true woman, mod- est, blooming till the love of the Gael disturbed her, and she passed with him from the midst of Kintyre to the land of Uladh." Their three sons all bore the name of Colla — Colla Uais, Colla Meann and Colla da Crich. The designation Colla was "imposed on them for rebelling," and means a strong man, their original names being Cairsall, Aodh and Muredach. The three Collas went to Scotland to obtain the as- sistance of their kindred to place Colla Uais on the Irish throne, and with their help placed him there, but he was compelled to give way to a relative, Muredach Tirech, who had a better title to the sov- ereignty. The three brothers then returned to Scot- land, where they obtained extensive settlements and founded the Clan Cholla. Colla Uais died in 337 A. D. Three generations after Colla Uais came Ere, who died in 502 A. D., leaving three sons, Fergus, Lorn and Angus. Fergus came from Ireland to Scotland and founded in Argyllshire the Kingdom of Dalriada in Albany, which later extended and be- came the Kingdom of Scotland. At this point the Clan Donald line touches that of the Scottish Kings, 14 History of the Clan Donald showing their common origin and ancestry. Fergus had two sons, Domangart, the elder, who succeeded his father and was the progenitor of Kenneth Macalpin, and the line of Scottish Kings ; and God- fruich, or Godfrey, the younger son, who was known as Toshach or Ruler of the Isles, and was the pro- genitor of the line from which the Clan Donald sprang. The Seannachies carry the line through several generations, through Hugh the Fair Haired, who was inaugurated Ruler of the Isles by St. Columba in lona, in 574, through Ethach of the Yel- low Locks, and Aid^n of the Golden Hilted Sword, who died in 621, down to Etach III, who died in 733, having first united the Isles after they had been alternately ruled by Chiefs of the Houses of Fergus and Lorn. Kenneth MacAlpin, the first King of the united Dalriads, Scots and Picts, married the daugh- ter of Godfrey, a later Lord of the Isles. We now arrive at the immediate ancestors of Somerled. Hailes in his Annals relates that, in 973, Marcus, King of the Isles ; Kenneth, King of the Scots, and Malcolm, King of the Cambri, entered into a bond for mutual defense. Then followed Gilledomnan, the grandfather of Somerled. Gilledomnan was driven from the Isles by the Scandinavians, and died in Ireland, where he had taken refuge. His son, Gillebride, who had gone to Ireland with his father, obtained the help of the Irish of the Clan Cholla, and, landing in Argyll, made a gallant attempt to expel the invaders. The Norsemen proved too strong, and Gillebride was compelled to hide in the History of the Clan Donald 15 woods and caves of Morven. At this time, when the fortunes of the Clan were at the lowest ebb, there arose a savior in the person of one of the most celebrated of Celtic heroes, Somerled, the son of Gillebride. He was living with his father in the caves of Mor- ven and is described in an ancient chronicle as "A well tempered man, in body shapely, of a fair and piercing eye, of middle stature and quick discern- ment." His early years were passed in hunting and fishing; "his looking glass was the stream; his drinking cup the heel of his shoe ; he would rather spear a salmon than spear a foe ; he cared more to caress the skins of seals and otters than the shining hair of women. At present he was as peaceful as a torch or beacon — unlit. The hour was coming when he would be changed, when he would blaze like a burnished torch, or a beacon on a hilltop against which the wind is blowing." But when the Isles' men, over whom his ancestors had ruled, were in dire need of a leader Somerled came forward in his true character. A local tradition in Skye tells that the Islesmen held a council at which they de- cided to offer Somerled the chiefship, to be his and his descendants forever. They found Somerled fishing, and to him made their offer. Somerled re- plied, "Islesmen, there is a newly run salmon in the black pool yonder. If I catch him, I will go with you as your Chief ; if I catch him not, I shall remain where I am." The Islesmen, a race who believed implicitly in omens, were content, and Somerled cast 16 History of the Clan Donald his line over the black pool. Soon after a shining salmon leapt in the sun, and the skillful angler had the silvery fish on the river bank. The Islesmen acclaimed him their leader, and as such he sailed back with them "over the sea to Skye," where the people joyously proclaimed that the Lord of the Isles had come. Such is the tradition in Skye. Other accounts say that the scene of Somerled's first achievements was in Morven, and his conquest of the Isles later. Somerled, Rex Insularum, took his place as a leader of men, from whom descended a race of Kings, a dynasty distinguished in the stormy his- tory of the Middle Ages, who ranked themselves before the Scottish Kings. "The mate of monarchs, and allied On equal terms with England's pride." The young hunter uprose a mighty warrior, who with dauntless courage and invincible sword struck terror into the hearts of his foes. Nor did he de- pend alone on his matchless courage. In one of his first encounters with the Norse invaders he made full use of that "quick discernment" ascribed to him by the early chronicler. It happened that while on a small island with a following of only one hun- dred Islesmen, he was surrounded by the whole Nor- wegian fleet, and, realizing that his small force was utterly inadequate to resist their attack, conceived a clever stratagem to deter the Norsemen from land- ing on the Island. Each of his men was ordered History of the Clan Donald 17 to kill a cow, and this having been done, and the cows skinned, Somerled ordered his little force to march round the hill on which they lay encamped; which having been done, in full view of the enemy, he then made them all put on the cowhides to dis- guise themselves, and repeat the march round the hill. He now ordered his men to reverse the cow- hides, and for a third time march round the hill, thus exhibiting to the Norsemen the appearance of a force composed of three divisions. The ruse suc- ceeded, for the enemy fleet withdrew. This story is related in another form by the bards or seannachies of Sleat, as follows: There was a little hill betwixt them and the enemy, and Somerled ordered his men to put off their coats, and put their shorts and full armor above their coats. So, making them go three times in a disguised man- ner about the hill, that they might seem more in number than they really were, at last he ordered them to engage the Danes, saying that some of them were on shore and the rest in their ships ; that those on shore would fight but faintly so near their ships; withal he exhorted his soldiers to be of good courage, and to do as they would see him do, so they led on the charge. The first whom Somerled slew he ript up and took out his heart, desiring the rest to do the same, because that the Danes were no Christians. So the Danes were put to flight; many of them were lost in the sea endeavouring to gain their ships, the lands of Mull and Morverin being freed at that time from their yoke and slavery. 18 History of the Clan Donald Somerled prosecuted the war into the heart of the enemy's country; and having gained possession of the mainland domain of his forefathers, he took the title of Thane or Regulus of Argyll, determining to obtain possession of the Kingdom of Man and the Isles and thus form a Celtic Kingdom. Olave the Red, then King of Man and the Isles, becoming alarmed at the increasing power of Somerled, ar- rived vdth a fleet in Stoma Bay. The "quick dis- cernment" of Somerled again proved equal to the occasion. He was desirous of obtaining the hand of Olave's daughter, Ragnhildis, in marriage, and went to meet the King of Man. Somerled wishing to remain unknown to Olave, said, "I come from Somerled, Thane of Argyll, who promises to assist you in your expedition, provided you bestow upon him the hand of your daughter, Ragnhildis." Olave, however, recognized Somerled, and declined his re- quest. Tradition says that Somerled was much in love with the fair Ragnhildis, and considering all is fair in love and war, agreed to the following plan to obtain her father's consent: Maurice MacNeill, a foster brother of Olave, but also a close friend of Somerled, bored several holes in the bottom of the King's galley, making pins to plug them when the necessity arose, but meanwhile filled the holes with tallow and butter. When, next day, Olave put to sea, the action of the water displaced the tallow and butter, and the galley began to sink. Olave and his men in the sinking galley called upon Somerled for aid, who promised help only if Olave would con- History of the Clan Donald 19 sent to his marriage with Ragnhildis. The promise was given, Olave found safety in Somerled's galley, Maurice MacNeill fixed the pins he had prepared into the holes, and, to the King's amazement, his galley proceeded in safety. The marriage of Som- erled and Ragnhildis took place in the year 1140. In 1154, Olave was murdered by his nephews, who claimed half the Kingdom of the Isles. Godred, son of Olave, who was in Norway at the time, returned to the Isles, but his tyranny and oppression caused the Islesmen to revolt, and Somerled, joining forces with them, seized half the Kingdom of the Isles, and became Righ Innsegall, or King of the Isles, as well as Thane of Argyll, Later Somerled invaded the Isle of Man, defeated Godfrey, and became pos- sessed of the whole Kingdom of Man and the Isles. The power of Somerled, King of the Isles, now caused great anxiety on the neighboring mainland, and King Malcolm IV of Scotland dispatched a large army to Argyll. Somerled took up the challenge, and a hard fought battle left both sides too ex- hausted to continue hostilities. Peace was estab- lished between the King of Scotland and Somerled, but after suffering great provocation from Malcolm and his ministers, the King of the Isles again took up arms in 1164, and gathering a great host, 15,000 strong, with a fleet of 164 galleys, sailed up the Clyde to Greenock. He disembarked in the Bay of St. Lawrence, and marched to Renfrew, where the King of Scotland's army lay. The traditional ver- sion of what then occurred is, that feeling reluctant 20 History of the Clan Donald to join issue with the Highland host, and being numerically inferior, Malcolm's advisers determined to accomplish the death of Somerled by treachery. They bribed a young nephew of Somerled, named Maurice MacNeill, to visit his uncle and murder him. MacNeill was admitted to Somerled's tent, and find- ing him off his guard, stabbed him to the heart. When Somerled's army learnt of the fate of their great leader, they fled to their galleys and dispersed. Tradition tells of a dramatic episode that is said to have occurred when King Malcolm and his nobles came to view the corpse of their late powerful foe. One of the nobles -kicked the dead hero with his foot. When Maurice MacNeill, the murderer, saw this cowardly action, the shame of his own foul deed came upon him. He denounced his past treachery, and confessed that he had sinned "most villainously and against his own conscience," being "unworthy and base to do so." He stabbed to the heart the man who had insulted the mighty Somerled, and fled. Through one Maurice MacNeill had Somerled won a bride, and at the hands of another Maurice MacNeill met his death. With regal pomp and ceremony the body of the King of the Isles was buried i< * * * jjj lona's piles, Where rest from mortal coil the mighty of the Isles." Family tradition, however, says that the Mon- astery of Saddel was the final resting place of the History of the Clan Donald 21 mighty founder and progenitor of the line of Princes that sat upon the Island throne, from whom de- scended the great Clan Donald. CHAPTER II OMERLED was succeeded by his three sons, among whom his kingdom was divided. Reginald obtained Kintyre and Isla, and a part of Arran; Dugall ac- quired Lorn, Mull and Jura; and Angus succeeded to Bute, part of Arran and the territory laying be- tween Ardnamurchan and Glenelg. The three sons held their possessions as a free and independent principality, owing allegiance neither to Scotland nor Norway. From Reginald, styled on his seal Reginald, Rex Insularum, Dominus de Ergile, sprang the family of Isla. He died in 1207, leaving three sons, Donald, Roderick and Dugall. From Donald descended the powerful Clan which still bears his name. Donald succeeded his father in the Lordship of Kintyre, Isla, and other Island possessions, being known as King of Innsegall, and as such entered into an alliance with Norway against Alexander III of Scotland. A romantic story of these times has been handed down by the seannachies. On one occasion when the galleys were approaching land held by the enemy, their leader, to urge on his followers, swore an oath that the clansman whose hand first touched the shore should be the ovraer of the land forever. The Clan Donald hero of the story sprang to the 22 History of the Clan Donald 23 prow of his galley, and with a stroke of his dirk cut off his hand, and cast it upon the shore, thus obtaining the lands for himself and his descendants. To this day the crest of the MacDonalds is the bleed- ing hand, and the point where the hand was thrown is still shown in Skye, and known as Ru Barnaski- taig. Donald married a daughter of Walter, the High Steward of Scotland, progenitor of the Royal House of Stewart, and died about the year 1249, leaving two sons, Angus and Alexander, known as Alastair Mor. Angus, Lord of Isla, styled by the seannachies Angus Mor, had his lands ravaged by Alexander in of Scotland in 1255, so that, in 1263, when King Haco of Norway arrived in the Isles, Angus joined the Norwegians. Shortly afterwards, however, he was on friendly terms again with the Scottish King, for, in 1284, he was one of the three nobles from Argyll present at the convention by which the Maid of Norway was declared heiress to the Throne of Scotland. Angus Mor died about 1292. He had two sons, Alexander, his successor, and Angus. The elder son, Alexander of Isla, married a daughter of Ewen of Lorn, thereby acquiring a large addition to his possessions, but having joined the Lord of Lorn in his opposition to Robert the Bruce, he became involved in the ruin of that Lord. Alexander was imprisoned in Dundonald Castle, where he died. His whole possessions were forfeited, and given to his brother Angus Og MacDonald, who had supported the claims of the Bruce. Angus Og was a protector 24 History of the Clan Donald of Robert the Bruce during the time of his greatest distress, and after the defeat of Methven gave Bruce a hospitable welcome to his Castle of Dunaverty, in August, 1306. Barbour, the metrical historian of the Bruce, mentions this. "And Angus of He that tyme was Syr And Lord and ledar of Kyntyr, The King rycht weill resawyt he And undertook his man to be. And for mair sekyrness gaiff him syne His Castle of Dcnaverdyne." At the Battle of Bannockburn, Angus Og and his men of the Isles, estimated by some historians at 10,000 men, were a potent factor in determining the issue of the conflict, and securing Bruce's famous victory. When the engagement between the main bodies had lasted some time, Bruce made a decisive movement, by bringing up the Scottish reserve. Tra- dition says that, at this crisis in the battle the Bruce addressed the Lord of the Isles in a phrase used as a motto by some of his descendants, "My trust is constant in thee," and the words of Scott nobly express the spirit of the scene : "One effort more, and Scotland's free ! Lord of the Isles, my trust in thee Is firm as Ailsa Rock." As a reward for the services rendered by the History of the Clan Donald 25 Clan Donald at Bannockburn, the Clan was granted, at the wish of the Bruce, the proud privilege in every battle of occupying the place of honor in the right wing of the Scottish army. Bruce also be- stowed upon Angus Og the Lordship of Lochaber, with the lands of Duror and Glencoe, and the Islands of Mull, Jura, Coll and Tiree. Angus married a daughter of Cunbui O'Cathan, a baron of Ulster, and with her came an unusual portion from Ireland in the form of men from twenty-four clans, from whom twenty-four families in Scotland descended. The descendants of these men are known to this day in the Highlands as "Tochradh nighean a' Chathanaich," or the dowry of O'Cathan's daughter. Angus Og died at his Castle of Finlaggan in Islay, in 1330, and was buried in the ancestral tomb in lona. His son John suc- ceeded him, and he had another son John, said by the sennachies to have been illegitimate, and known as Iain Fraoch, progenitor of the family of Glencoe and the MacDonalds of Fraoch. Tradition gives much of the credit for the mili- tary successes of Angus Og and the Clan to a magical green stone called the Baul Muluy, or Stone Globe of Molingus or Maol-iosa, the name by which was known St. Laserian, a saint who flourished during the early Columban period. This magic stone is said to have healed the sick, and brought victory to the Clan. A seventeenth century writer on the Western Isles thus describes the Baul Muluy: "I had like to have forgot a valuable curiosity which they call 26 History of the Clan Donald the Baul Muluy, i. e., Molingus his Stone Globe; This Saint was chaplain to Mack Donald of the Isles ; his name is celebrated here on account of this globe, so much esteem'd by the Inhabitants. This stone for its intrinsick value has been carefully trans- mitted to Posterity for several ages. It is a green stone, much like a Globe in Figure, about the big- ness of a Goose Egg. The vertues of it is to remove Stiches from the sides of sick Persons, by laying it close to the Place affected, and if the Patient does not outlive the Distemper, they say the Stone re- moves out of the Bed of its own accord. They ascribe another extraordinary Vertue to it, and 'tis this : the credulous Vulgar firmly believe that if this Stone is cast among the Front of an Enemy, they will run away, and that as often as the Enemy ral- lies, if this stone is cast amongst them, they still lose courage and retire. They say that Mack Donald of the Isles carried this about with him, and that vic- tory was always on his side when he threw it among the enemy." The stone continued to be used for the "cure of both man and beast" until about 1840, when it was lost "by being committed to the custody of a gentleman who partook too much of the scepticism of the age to have any^ faith in its virtue." John, the son of Angus Og, succeeded to the Lord- ship of the Isles, and was known as Good John of Isla, because of his gifts to the Church. He died at his own Castle of Artornish. An ancient manu- script translated from the Gaelic tells how "many priests and monks took the sacrament at his funeral, History of the Clan Donald 27 and they embalmed the body of this dear man, and brought it to Icolumkill ; the abbot, monks, and vicar came as they ought to meet the King of Fiongal (i. e., Western Isles), and out of great respect to his memory mourned eight days and nights over it, and laid it in the same grave with his father, in the church of Oran, 1380." He was twice married. He first married Amie MacRuari, sister of Ranald, to whose estates she succeeded. By her, he had three sons : John, who died in the lifetime of his father ; Ranald, the ancestor of Clan Ranald and Glengarry ; and Godfrey. Without any cause he divorced his first wife, with whom he had obtained such great possessions, and married the Princess Margaret, daughter of King Robert II, the first Stewart King of Scotland. By his second wife, he had several sons, Donald, the eldest, who became his successor; John the Tainister, or Thane, ancestor of the family of Dunnyveg ; Angus, who left no issue ; Alexander, known as Alastair Carrach, ancestor of the family of Keppoch; and Hugh, whose descendants became Macintoshes. Ranald, the son of John by his first marriage, was chief ruler of the Isles in his father's lifetime and "was old in the government at his father's death. He assembled the gentry of the Isles, brought the sceptre from Kildonan in Eig, and delivered it to his brother Donald, who was thereupon called Donald, Lord of the Isles, contrary to the opinion of the men of the Isles." Donald, afterwards known as Donald of Harlaw, 28 History of the Clan Donald therefore succeeded his father. Under the feudal law, the sons of the first wife would have succeeded by seniority, but such succession did not necessarily take place under the Celtic law of tanistry, or elective chiefship. Further, by Royal Charter of Robert II, the destination of the Lordship of the Isles was so altered as to cause it to descend to the grandchildren of the King. Therefore, as before mentioned, Ran- ald handed over to Donald the sceptre of Innesgall. Donald married the Lady Mary Leslie, afterwards Countess of Ross in her own right, which Earldom Donald claimed through his wife, thereby becoming involved in a contest with the Regent Duke of Al- bany. Donald prepared to defend his rights, the Fiery Cross blazed through the Isles, and the whole clan rallied to the fight. With "Fifty thousand Hie- lanmen, a marching to Harlaw," Donald was met by the Earl of Mar at the head of the Lowlanders, and the celebrated Battle of Harlaw was fought on the 24th June, 1411. As told in the old ballad, neither side could claim superiority. "At Monanday at mornin' The battle it began. On Saturday at gloamin' Ye'd scarce tell wha had wan. And sic a weary buryin' The like ye never saw As there was the Sunday after that On the muirs down by Harlaw." History of the Clan Donald 29 Donald of Harlaw died in Isla, in 1420, leaving two sons, Alexander, who succeeded him as Lord of the Isles and Earl of Ross; and Angus, Bishop of the Isles. Alexander, Lord of the Isles, had three sons, John, who succeeded him ; Hugh, Lord of Sleat ; and Celest- ine, who became Lord of Lochlash. John, Lord of the Isles, and Earl of Ross, on 13th February, 1462, entered into a treaty with Edward IV of England, and the banished Earl of Douglas for the conquest of Scotland, and the division of the Kingdom, north of the Forth, between the Earl of Ross, the Earl of Douglass, and Donald Balloch, Lord of Dunnyveg and Captain of the Clan Donald. On entering into the treaty John used the style of an independent Prince, granting a commission to his "trusty and well beloved cousins, Ranald of the Isles, and Duncan, Archdeacon of the Isles," to confer with the representatives of Edward IV. The Lord of the Isles raised a large force under his natural son, Angus, and Donald Balloch, and seized the burghs and sheriffdom of Inverness, Nairn, Ross and Caith- ness. The Government suppressed the rebellion and John was summoned before Parliament for treason. He however made his peace with King James III, and in July, 1476, was restored to the Earldom of Ross and Lordship of the Isles. He voluntarily resigned the Earldom of Ross and the lands of Kin- tyre and Knapdale, and instead was created a Peer of Parliament by the title of Lord of the Isles. He had no son by his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Lord 80 History of the Clan Donald Livingston, but the succession to the new peerage, and the estates, was secured in favor of his natural son, Angus. The resignation of the Earldom of Ross and the lands of Kintyre and Knapdale angered the leading men of the Isles, who, in opposition to the Lord of the Isles, joined his son Angus in an attempt to recover the Earldom. At the head of a large force of Islesmen, Angus took the field. The Earl of Athole was sent against him, but was defeated, and the Earls of Crawford and Huntly met with no bet- ter success. A third force sent against him under the Earls of Argyll .and Athole, was accompanied by Angus' father, and a hard-fought battle, known as the Battle of Bloody Bay, resulted in the com- plete victory of Angus and his followers. Angus obtained possession of the territories of the Clan, and was recognized as its head. He was later rec- onciled to his father, but remained in open resistance to the Government during the remainder of his life. Angus had married a daughter of the Earl of Argyll, and some ancient accounts say that she was the mother of the infant Donald Dubh, who was carried off by the Duke of Athole, and placed in the hands of Argyll, who imprisoned the child in the Castle of Inchconnel. But as to who really was the mother of Angus' son, Donald Dubh, the seannachies do not know. Angus avenged himself terribly on Athole, whose territory he raided, burning and slaughtering. Another feud in which Angus was involved re- sulted in his death, in 1490. This feud with Mac- History of the Clan Donald 31 kenzie of Kintail was caused by the latter's treat- ment of his wife, the half sister of Angus. Mac- kenzie had married the Lady Margaret of the Isles, daughter of John of the Isles. The lady is said to have been blind in one eye. Their married life was neither long nor happy, and the story goes that Mac- kenzie sent the one-eyed lady home to Angus, riding on a one-eyed horse, attended by a one-eyed servant, followed by a one-eyed dog. To avenge the affront of the one-eyed entourage, Angus marched to Inver- ness to attack Mackenzie, where he was murdered by his own harper, MacCairbre, who cut his throat with a long knife. Alexander of Locklash, nephew of John and son of his brother Celestine, succeeded to the Lordship of the Isles, and led the Clan to Inverness in an en- deavor to recover possession of the Earldom of Ross. Having taken the Royal Castle of Inverness he proceeded to ravage the Strathconnan lands of the Mackenzies who, however, surprised and defeated the invaders, Alexander being wounded. In conse- quence of this insurrection, the Estates in Edin- burgh, May, 1493, declared the title and possessions of the Lord of the Isles to be forfeited to the Crown. John, the former Lord, retired to the Monastery of Paisley, where he died about 1498, and, at his re- quest, was buried in the tomb of his royal ancestor, Robert II of Scotland. In 1497, Alexander, again invaded Ross, but was surprised at the Island of Oransay, and put to death. In 1501, Donald Dubh, who, as before mentioned, 32 History of the Clan Donald had been kidnapped in infancy by the Duke of Ath- ole, and confined by Argyll in the Castle of Inchcon- nel, was released by the MacDonalds of Glencoe, by the strong hand. The Islesmen now regarded him as their chieftain, and maintained that he was the law- ful son of Angus and his wife, the Lady Margaret Campbell. On his escape from Inchconnel, Donald Dubh went to the Isles, and convened the Clan. In 1503, the Islesmen and the western clans, under Donald, invaded Badenoch, necessitating the calling out of the whole force of the Kingdom of Scotland, north of the Forth, to suppress the rebellion, two years elapsing before Donald and his followers were finally overcome. In 1505, the King in person led a force to the Isles to disperse the Islesmen, and Don- ald Dubh was captured and committed to Edinburgh Castle, where he was kept prisoner for nearly forty years. In 1539, Donald MacDonald of Sleat, Donald Gorme, as lawful heir of John, claimed the Lordship of the Isles, but received a wound in the foot from an arrow, which proved fatal. After nearly forty years imprisonment Donald Dubh, in 1543, escaped, was enthusiastically received by the Island Chiefs, and at the head of a large force invaded Argyll's territory, slew many of his feudatories, and plundered his possessions. In 1545, at the instigation of the Earl of Lennox, the Islesmen agreed to transfer their allegiance to England, and Donald and the Earl agreed to raise an army. To carry on the war a ship was sent by England to History of the Clan Donald 33 Mull with a supply of money, which was given to MacLean of Duart to be distributed among the com- manders of the army, which they not receiving in proportion as it should have been distributed among them, caused the army to disperse. The Earl of Len- nox then disbanded his own men, and made his peace with the King. Donald Dubh went to Ireland to raise men, but died on his way to Dublin, at Drog,- heda, of a fever, without issue of either sons or daughters. With him terminates the direct line of the Lords of the Isles, and the title, annexed inalien- ably to the Crown, forms one of the titles of the Prince of Wales. CHAPTER III I HE power and importance of the ancestors of the Clan Donald, from whom the fam- ilies of MacDonald, McDonald, McDon- nell and other branches of the Clan take descent, is shown by the extensive terri- tories, regal state and ceremonies, belonging to, and observed by those ancestors, the ancient Kings of Innsegall, the Lords of the Isles. The number of the Western Isles of Scotland ex- ceeds two hundred. The principal possessions of the Lords of the Isles included the following territories in these Isles, and on the mainland. The Island of Ysla, or Isla, was in ancient times the principal abode of the Lord of the Isles, and is one of the largest and most important of the Islands. Loch Finlagan lies in the centre of the Isle. The lake takes its name from Isle Finlagan, which is located in the loch, and is "famous for being once the court in which the great MacDonald, King of the Isles, had his residence. His guards de corps, called Lucht-tach, kept guard on the lakeside nearest to the Isle." Here were observed the installation and other ceremonies referred to later. Among other Island territories were the Isles of Gigha, Jura, Tiree, Eigg, Ronin or Rum, Lewethy 34 History of the Clan Donald 85 or Lewis, Harris, North Uist, South Uist, Ben- becula, Barra, Canna, "And Scarba's Isle, whose tortured shore Still rings to Corrievreken's roar, And lonely Colonsay." -j ^ °^A^'')Q, On the mainland were the Lordship of Lochaber, including Kilmallie and Kilmoivoig, The Lordship of Garmoran, including Moydart, Arisaig, Morar and Knoydart. Also Morven, Knapdale, Duror, Kintyre and Glencoe. Each Island is replete with historical interest. The little Isle of Canna adjoins Ronin, or Rum. In a pretty bay on Canna there is a lofty and slender rock, detached from the shore, upon the summit of which are the ruins of a very small tower. "Canna's tower, that, steep and gray, Like falcon nest o'erhangs the bay." The tower is scarcely accessible by a steep and pre- cipitous path, and here it is one of the Kings, or Lords of the Isles, confined a beautiful lady of whom he was jealous, and whose restless spirit is said to still haunt the ruin. Ronin, or Rum, is a very rough and mountainous Island, "sixteen myle long and six in bredthe in the narrowest, ane forest of heigh mountains and abun- dance of little deir in it." On the shore of the Isle of Eigg is a cavern, invis- ible from the sea, which was the scene of a fierce 36 History of the Clan Donald feudal vengeance. This cave has a very narrov? en- trance, through vi^hich it is just possible to enter on all fours, but rises steep and lofty vs^ithin, and runs far into the rock. Here two hundred of the Mac- Donalds vs^ere slain by the MacLeods. Tradition says that the MacDonalds of Eigg had done some injury to the Chieftain of MacLeod. The story on the Isle tells that it was by a personal attack on the Chief- tain, whose back was broken. Other accounts say that some MacLeods, who had landed on Eigg, using some freedom with the young women of the Mac- Donalds, were bpund hand and foot and turned adrift in their boat. To avenge the offense, Mac- Leod sailed to Eigg with such a force of men as to render resistance hopeless. The MacDonalds, fear- ing his vengeance, concealed themselves in the cave, and after a long search the MacLeods returned to their galleys, thinking the MacDonalds had fled from the Isle. But next morning the MacLeods espied from their galleys a man on the shore, and, at once landing, traced his footsteps in the snow to the mouth of the cavern. They surrounded the entrance and summoned the refugees in the cave to deliver up the offending individuals. This was refused, and MacLeod then kindled, at the entrance of the cavern, a huge fire of turf and fern, and maintained it until all within were destroyed by suffocation. The bones of men, women and children long remained on the stony floor of the cavern, a mournful testimony to the fierce vengeance of MacLeod. In the Island of Skye the Lords of the Isles also History of the Clan Donald 87 held extensive possessions, and at Duntulm is their ancient Castle, with the Hill of Pleas nearby, where in former days the MacDonalds sat dispensing justice. Sheriff Nicholson's poetic description of Skye may equally well apply to the natural beauties of others of the Islands, each one an Isle of Mist. "Lovest thou mountains great, Peaks to the clouds that soar, Corrie and fell where eagles dwell. And cataracts dash evermore? Lovest thou green grassy glades. By the sunshine sweetly kist. Murmuring waves and echoing caves? Then go to the Isle of Mist." Among the above mainland possessions of the Lords of the Isles is included Kintyre, although in ancient times, Magnus, the barefooted King of Nor- way, obtained it as an Island, when Donald Bane of Scotland ceded to him "the Western Isles, or all those places that can be surrounded in a boat." The Mull, or promontory, of Kintyre is joined to the mainland of South Knapdale by a very narrow neck of land, the arms of the sea on either side being di- vided by less than a mile. Magnus obtained Kintyre as an "Island" by a ruse. He placed himself in the stern of a boat, held the rudder, and had the boat drawn over the narrow neck of land. The ceremony observed at the Proclamation of a new Lord of the Isles was in every way regal in 38 History of the Clan Donald pomp and display. At the time appointed for the solemn inauguration, there were gathered together the Bishop of the Isles, the Bishop of Argyll and seven priests, together with all the heads of the tribes of the Clan in the Isles and mainland. They took up their allotted stations round a big stone of seven foot square in which there was a deep impres- sion made to receive the feet of MacDonald ; for he was crowned King of the Isles standing in this stone, "denoting that he would walk in the footsteps and uprightness of his predecessors." He was in- vested with a white mantle to show his purity of spirit and integrity of heart, and that he would be a guiding light unto his people, and maintain the true religion. The mantle was a perquisite of the hereditary seannachy, or bard, of the Clan. The Bishop then gave to the Chief "a white rod in his hand, intimating that he had power to rule, not with tyranny and partiality, but with discretion and sin- cerity. He was then invested with the sword of his forefathers, as a symbol that it was his duty to pro- tect his people. The new Lord was lastly blessed and solemnly anointed by the Bishop and the seven priests, and the seannachies recited the long list and glories of the Chief's forefathers. The cere- monies were concluded by a week's feasting of all present by the Lord of the Isles. The Lord's Council of the Isles, sixteen in number, met at Isle Finlagan, round a table of stone, at the head of which, on a stone seat, sat MacDonald. The Council of the Isles was composed of four Thanes; History of the Clan Donald 39 four Armins, or Sub-Thanes ; four squires, and four freeholders. There was the right of appeal to the Council from all the courts in the Isles, which latter were held on hills in the different Islands. Three hills in Skye are still known as The Hill of Judg- ment, The Hill of Counsel, and The Hill of Hanging. In all matters of life and death the word of the Lord of the Isles was final, and grim justice was often dis- pensed. The ancient records tell of a guilty couple who were buried alive, and of criminals who were put to death by being placed in barrels lined with spikes, and rolled down a hill, called to this day Cnoc Roill, or Barrel Hill. In addition to the Council, the Lords of the Isles had various Officers of State, with certain duties hereditary in their families : The MacBeths were their physicians, men of great learning, with extensive knowledge of the properties of herbs. The Mackinnons or Clan Finan, Hereditary Mar- shals; with the Maclnnes as hereditary bowmen to the Mackinnons. The MacDuffies of Colonsay were their Recorders. The MacLavertys, their speakers or Orators, whose duties included the preservation of the gene- alogy of the family, and the preparation of the nup- tial song on the occasion of marriages, and other eulogies, which the seannachy recited. Their pecu- liar method of study has been described: "They shut their doors and windows for a day's time, and lie on their backs, with a stone upon their belly. 40 History of the Clan Donald and plads about their heads, and their eyes covered, they pump their brains for rhetorical encomium or panegyrick." The MacSporrans, their Purse Bearers. The MacVurichs, their Bards, are more fully re- ferred to below. The MacArthurs were their Pipers. They are a branch of the Clan Campbell and from time imme- morial a long line of hereditary pipers to the Lords of the Isles were MacArthurs, who held the lands of Hunglater in Trotternish. The last of the line of hereditary pipers of the MacArthur family died in 1800. The MacRurys were their hereditary Armorers in Trotternish. Under the Lordship of the Isles there was a Col- lege or heirarchy of bards. In Angus Og's Charter to the Abbey of lona one of the witnesses is Lachlan MacVurich, described as Archipoeta, or Chief Poet. Then and afterwards the MacVurichs were learned in Irish, English and Latin, and the fact that they studied in the Colleges of Ireland seems borne out by the Hibernian smack in many of their compo- sitions. After the fall of the Lordship of the Isles, they adhered to the fortunes of the Clan Ranald branch, from whom they received as the emolu- ments of their office, the farm of Stelligarry, and four pennies of the farm of Dremisdale. After 1745, the oiiice of family bard was abandoned by the Clan Ranald. Among the hereditary bards were those of the MacDonalds of Sleat, and a family History of the Clan Donald 41 of the name of MacRuari held lands in Trotternish in virtue of their office as bards to this family. The influence of the bards as a moral force in the social system of the Isles was considerable. It was their function to sing the prowess and fame of those who had won distinction in the field, and to incite the men of their own day to imitate the heroes of the past. A number of ancient customs and superstitions prevailed among the Islesmen, many, no doubt, origi- nating from the nature of their Island home. The forces of nature seen at their grandest in the tower- ing mountains, foaming torrents, precipitous crags and mountain lochs, were in the minds of the super- stitious Islesmen subject to the influence of various friendly and malign spirits, abiding in the black unfathomed depths, giddy recesses and gullies filled with hardened snow. An overflowing lake or a dis- aster on a mountain precipice were directly to be ascribed to the evil influence of some power inhabit- ing the region. The kelpie, or water horse, in every loch, was believed to warn by preternatural noises those about to be drowned, and each rushing moun- tain stream had its own particular water fairy. They had several methods of consulting the fates. One of the most remarkable was when a number of men retired to a lonely and secluded place, where one of the number was, with the exception of his head, enveloped in a cow's hide, and left alone for the night. Certain invisible beings then came, and answering the questions which he put to them, re- 42 History of the Clan Donald lieved him. Another method of seeking information was known as the Taghairm nan caht, and consisted in putting a live cat on a spit, and roasting it until other cats made their appearance, and, answering the question, obtained the release of the unfortunate animal. A story is told concerning one of the clergy of the Isles who was a magician, so learned in the black art that he was able to command the services of a certain Satanic gentleman, whom "The old painters limned with a hoof and a horn A beak and a scorpion tail." The reverend magician, wishing to ascertain the date upon which Shrovetide should be observed, went to one of the Island's lofty precipices, and standing on the edge called up his servant from the infernal re- gions, and at a word transformed him into a horse. Leaping on his back, they set off for Rome, the horse trying to get rid of his rider by propounding ques- tions which involved his master mentioning the name of the Deity in his answer. All in vain. Next morning Rome was reached ; and the high dignitary whom the magician consulted hurried in with a lady's slipper on one foot. He charged the Island parson with his diabolical craft; the cleric wagged an accusing finger at the telltale slipper, obtained the required information, and each resolved to keep the other's secret safely. Another reputed magician connected with the History of the Clan Donald 43 family was one of the MacDonalds of Keppoch. He and Michael Scott, the Wizard of the North, are said to have together studied the black art in Italy at the end of the fifteenth century, and MacDonald, it is said, was the more proficient. He was accustomed to converse with a female brownie, named Glaslig, for whom he was more than a match. On one occa- sion he asked her the most remote circumstance she remembered, when she replied that she recol- lected the time when the great Spey, the nurse of salmon, was a green meadow for sheep and lambs to feed on. In lona are certain stones which the Islesmen firmly believed were to hasten the end of the world. The small upper ones seem part of the handle of a cross. When the lower hollowed stone should be worn out by turning them round, then the end of the world would ensue. Nearby, a kind of a font sunk in the ground was the subject of a tradition, that whenever it was emptied of the rain water which it generally contained, a northerly breeze would immediately spring up. An impressive and reverent ritual was followed on the occasion of a galley putting to sea. The steersman said, "Let us bless our ship"; the crew responding, "God the Father bless her." Each per- son of the Trinity was successively invoked, and the steersman then asked what they feared if God the Father be with them, repeating the same question for each of the Trinity, and to each of the three questions the crew responded "We do not fear any- 44 History of the Clan Donald thing." Skye's poet, Alexander Nicolson, refers to this Liturgy in "The Bark of Clan Ranald." "May the Holy Trinity's blessing Rule the hurricane breath of the air, And swept be the rough wild waters. To draw us to haven fair." In addition to the customs and beliefs indigenous to their Island home, the Clan Donald had many usages common to all Highland clans. When in any sudden emergency it was necessary to gather the Clan, the cross, or tarich, known as the Fiery Cross, was immediately dispatched through the territories to call the clansmen to the appointed place of rendez- vous. This signal consisted of two pieces of wood, which the Chieftain fixed in the shape of a cross. One of the ends of the crosspiece was seared in the fire, and extinguished in the blood of a goat which had been killed by the Chief, while from the other end was suspended a piece of linen or white cloth dipped in the blood of the goat. The Fiery Cross was delivered to a swift messenger, who ran at full speed shouting the battle cry of the clan. The cross was delivered from hand to hand, and as each fresh runner sped on his way the clan assembled with great celerity. At sight of the Fiery Cross every man of the clan, from sixteen to sixty, was obliged to instantly repair, prepared for battle, to the place of rendezvous; as told in "The Pibroch of Donald Dhu": History of the Clan Donald 45 "Come every hill-plaid, and True heart that wears one, Come every steel blade, and Strong hand that bears one. Leave untended the herd, The flock without shelter ; Leave the corpse uninterr'd The bride at the altar ; Leave the deer, leave the steer. Leave net and barges : Come with your fighting gear. Broadswords and targes !" Every clansman, from childhood, was trained to battle for the clan and its Chief, and to excel in hardihood and endurance. The reproach of effemi- nancy was the most bitter which could be thrown upon him. It is related of an old chieftain, of over seventy years of age, that when he and his follow- ers were surprised by night, he MTapped his plaid around him and lay contentedly in the snow. His grandson had rolled a large snowball and placed it under his head. "Out upon thee," said the old Chief, kicking the frozen bolster away ; "art thou so effemi- nate as to need a pillow?" Angus Og led 10,000 of such bold and hardy men of the Clan Donald to the field of Bannockburn, and Donald commanded no less a force at Harlow ; while the number of galleys that accompanied the Lord of the Isles to sea varied from sixty to one hundred and sixty. The following account of the early drinking cus- 46 History of the Clan Donald toms sounds strange in these times: "The manner of drinking used by the chief man of the Isles is called in their language Streak, i. e., a Round; for the company sat in a circle, the cup-bearer fill'd the drink round to them, and all was drunk out, what- ever the liquor was, whether strong or weak; they continued drinking sometimes twenty-four, some- times forty-eight hours. It was reckoned a piece of manhood to drink until they became drunk, and there were two men with a barrow attending punctually on such occasions. They stood at the door until some became drunk, and they carry'd them upon the barrow to bed, and returned again to their post as long as any continued fresh, and so carried off the whole company, one by one, as they became drunk." The castles of the Chiefs of Clan Donald were both numerous and picturesque. Usually situated on the seashore to obtain the communication afforded by the ocean, they were veritable fortresses, approach- able only by narrow and precipitous stairs or draw- bridges, easily defended against any force advancing with hostile purpose. Duntulm, for centuries the chief seat of the MacDonalds of the Isles, stood on the very brink of a cliff down which its windows looked sheer into the sea. In earlier times it was known as Dun Dhaibidh or David, the name of a viking who had seized it from the Celts. When Donald threw the bloody hand upon the rocky shore, the MacDonalds obtained possession and erected Duntulm Castle. Inaccessible from the sea and almost unapproachable from the land side owing to History of the Clan Donald 47 a deep chasm between the castle and the mainland, up which the sea came foaming at high tide, it was reached only by a drawbridge, controlled by the in- mates of the Castle. The garden of the Castle on the summit of the rock is said to have been formed by soil brought by the MacDonalds from seven king- doms — England, Ireland, Norway, France, Spain, Germany and Denmark, and on the rock were the Hills of Judgment, and of Counsel and the Hill of Hanging. Far below, on the rocks by the shore there is still to be seen a deep groove, which tradition says was caused by the keels of the galleys as they were drawn ashore. Duntulm is now but a ruin, through which, according to popular imagination, stalked the ghost of Donald Gorme, cruelly put to death in the old Castle, to whose weird visitations is ascribed the desertion of Duntulm by the MacDonalds. An- other story runs that, about 1750 a nursemaid play- ing with one of the children of the family, let fall the child out of a window overlooking the rocks far below. "Drown me that woman !" said MacDonald, and the unhappy woman was set adrift in a boat full of holes and left to drown in the sea. As the party who had placed her in the boat returned they saw a white object on the face of the Castle cliff, which proved to be the child caught on a rock by its clothes, and uninjured. Too late, however, to save the wretched nursemaid ; and the catastrophe is said to have caused the MacDonald family to forever leave the castle that was "once the dwelling of a King." One of the most important Castles of the Clan 48 History of the Clan Donald was Artornish, situated in Morven, on the mainland side of the Sound of Mull. At this Castle met the parliaments or assemblies of the vassals and depen- dents of the Lords of the Isles ; and from here John MacDonald, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles, act- ing as an independent sovereign, dispatched his am- bassadors to sign a treaty with Edward IV of England. Opposite Artornish, on a high promontory in the Bay of Aros, on the Island of Mull, was another Castle of the Clan, Aros Castle, where the chieftains of the Isles were first called together, and then made prisoners by order of James VI, in 1608. The Castle of Mingarry is situated on the coast near Ardnamurchan Point. This ancient seat of the Clan was built in the thirteenth century, and was used by Allaster MacDonald, known as Colquitto, as the prison of the covenanters captured by him. Invergarry Castle, the stronghold of the McDon- nells of Glengarry, located on a steep and woody brae near the Caledonian Canal, was sacked and burned by the Duke of Cumberland after the rising of 1745. Castletirrim, or Islandtirrim, the seat of Clan Ranald, was situated on a rocky promontory of Moydart. Only a ruin now remains. Allan of Moy- dart, before joining the Earl of Mar in the rising of 1715, set it on fire, with this spirited address to the Clan, "If we win the day, my King will give me a better house ; if we lose, I shall not require it." The war cry of the Clan Donald, to which every clansman must answer, was Fraoch Eilan, or The History of the Clan Donald 49 Heathy Isle ; the McDonnell branch of the Clan claim- ing as their peculiar slogan, Craig an Fhithich, or The Raven's Rock; while the Clan Ranald branch used the cry, A dh aindeoin cotheireadh e!, or In Spite of All Opposition. The Badge of the Clan is the Fraoch Gorm, or com- mon heath. The Tartan of Clan Ranald, Glengarry and Glen- coe is a dark plaid of green, blue and black, with red stripes intersecting ; a white stripe being introduced for distinction in the tartans of Glengarry and Clan Ranald. The striking rose red tartan of the ancient Lords of the Isles is now the tartan of Sleat and Keppoch; the Sleat tartan being, however, with- out the black line found in that of the Lords of the Isles. Although many variations are found in the arms of the different branches of the Clan, two features of the MacDonald arms are almost invariably present, the Galley and the Eagle. The Galley is found as far back as the time of Reginald, the son of Somer- led, and is supposed to represent the ship in which the three Princes Colla sailed over from Ireland to Scotland. The outline of the Galley is seen carved in the mortar of a window arch of old Duntulm Castle. In the seal of John, last Lord of the Isles, who was forfeited in the Earldom of Ross, in 1476, we find the Eagle against the mast of the Galley; the two emblems being symbolical, the Galley of the sovereignty of the Lords over the Western Isles, and the Eagle of the Royal superiority of the Chiefs of Clan Donald. CHAPTER IV jHICH of the three branches of the family, Clan Ranald, Glengarry and Sleat, was by right of blood entitled to the Chief- ship of the whole Clan Donald, and the male representation of Somerled, has long been a contested point. These are the three Chiefs to whom Sir Walter Scott refers in the Song of Flora Maclvor : "0 ! sprung from the Kings who in Islay kept state, Proud Chiefs of Clan Ranald, Glengarry and Sleat, Combine like three streams from one mountain of snow. And resistless in union rush down on the foe !" The controversy which long existed between the Chiefs, arose from the fact that Donald, the son of Good John of Isla by his second marriage with the Princess Margaret, succeeded his father in prefer- ence to Ranald, the son of John of Isla's first mar- riage with Amie MacRuari. As told in Chapter II, such succession was apparently by Ranald's consent, yet there seems every reason to believe that Ranald was legitimate, and therefore Lord of the Isles de jure, though de facto his younger half-brother su- perseded him in the succession. As mentioned later 50 History of the Clan Donald 51 in this chapter, the branch of Sleat takes descent from Donald, while from Ranald, the excluded heir, descended the Chiefs of Clan Ranald, and the Chiefs of the McDonnells of Glengarry. Also it is a matter of dispute between the two latter branches whether Allan of Moydart, ancestor of Clan Ranald, or Don- ald, ancestor of Glengarry, was the elder of the sons of Ranald the superseded son of John of Isla. In 1911 the Chief and Captain of Clan Ranald, M'Donell of Glengarry, and MacDonald of Sleat, en- tered into an agreement regarding the healing of the ancient dispute. The agreement was come to be- tween the three heads of the branches, viz. : Angus Roderick MacDonald, otherwise Mac Mhic Ailein, Chief and Captain of Clan Ranald; Aeneas Ranald M'Donell, otherwise Mac Mhic Alasdair, of Glen- garry; and Sir Alexander Wentworth MacDonald Bosville MacDonald, otherwise Mac Dhonuill Nan Eilean, of Sleat. The agreement recited, that fol- lowing upon the forfeiture and death of John, Lord of the Isles and Earl of Ross, and the death without issue, in 1545, of his grandson Donald Dubh, the various branches of Clan Donald, of which the Lord of the Isles was supreme and undisputed Chief, separated from and became independent of one an- other. Also, that while claims to the Supreme Chiefship of the whole Clan Donald had been main- tained by their predecessors, the whole Clan had never admitted or decided in favor of any of their claims; and, although no one of the three heads of the branches abandoned his claim, they agreed to 52 History of the Clan Donald cease from active assertion of such claim ; and that in the event of more than one of them being present on any occasion, and the question of preeminence or precedency within the Clan having to be considered, such question should be decided for the occasion by lot. The immediate ancestor of the family of Sleat, was Hugh MacDonald, Lord of Sleat, a younger son of Alexander, Lord of the Isles, and therefore grand- son of Donald, the son of Good John of Isla. A son John, whom Hugh of Sleat had by his first wife, Fynvola, daughter of Alexander Maclan of Ardna- murchan, died without issue, but by a second wife, of the Clan Gunn, he had another son, Donald, called Gallach, so called because he was born and bred in his mother's country of Caithness. Hugh had also several other sons, and his descendants were so numerous in the sixteenth century that they were known as the Clan Uisdein, or children of Hugh. They were also called the Clan Donald North, to dis- tinguish them from the MacDonalds of Isla and Kintyre, who were known as the Clan Iain Vohr and Clan Donald South. Since the extinction of the direct line of the family of the Isles, in the middle of the sixteenth century, MacDonald of Sleat has always been styled in Gaelic, Mac Dhonuill nan Eilean, or MacDonald of the Isles. Hugh died in 1498, and his son, Donald Gallach, was murdered by his illegitimate brother, Archi- bald Dubh, in 1506. Donald Gallach's grandson, Donald Gorme, claimed the Lordship of the Isles, History of the Clan Donald 53 and died in 1539, from a wound in the foot. His son, Donald MacDonald Gormeson of Sleat, who was a minor at the time of his father's death, ranged himself on the side of Mary, Queen of Scots, when the disputes about her marriage began in 1565, and died in 1585. A story is told of Donald Gormeson that in the time of Queen Elizabeth he was invited to a banquet given by the Lord Mayor of London, at which, by an oversight, he was given a seat some way down the table. This breach of etiquette was pointed out to the Lord Mayor, it being told him that MacDonald was actually a great Prince in his own country of the Isles, and should have properly been seated in the place of honor beside his Lordship. The Lord Mayor at once sent a message of apology, request- ing the Chief to occupy a seat beside him. Mac- Donald replied to the message, "Tell his Lordship not to be troubling himself. Wherever MacDonald is sitting, that will be the head of the table." His eldest son, Donald Gorme Mor, fifth in descent from Hugh of Sleat, soon after succeeding his father, found himself involved in a deadly feud with the MacLeans of Duart, in which the interference of the government was necessary. The following is the traditional story regarding the origin of a feud be- tween Donald and MacLeod of Dunvegan. They were already bitter foes when MacLeod looking from his Castle of Dunvegan one wild and stormy night, exclaimed, "If my bitterest foe were at the foot of those rocks demanding shelter, on such a night I 54 History of the Clan Donald could not refuse it." He was taken at his word, for the galley of the Chief of Sleat was cast upon the rocks below, and MacDonald claimed the sacred right of hospitality. When the MacDonalds and the MacLeods sat down to eat together, outwardly at peace, the conversation turned to the richness of their dirks. Only the Chief of Sleat maintained silence. MacLeod asked, "Why do you not show your dirk, MacDonald?" "Here it is, MacLeod," replied Sleat, holding it up in his right hand, "and in the best hand for driving it home in the twenty- four Islands." MacLeod, thinking his guest would be courteous enough to name him at least second, asked, "And where is the next best hand for push- ing a dirk home in the twenty-four Islands?" "Here," cried MacDonald, holding up the dirk in his left hand. Donald Gorme Mor died, in 1616, without issue, and was succeeded by his nephew Donald Gorme Og MacDonald of Sleat, who was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia, by Charles I, with a special clause of precedency placing him second of that order in Scot- land. This Baronetcy is now the premier Baronetcy of Scotland. He adhered to the cause of Charles I, and died in 1643. He had several children by his wife, "Fair Janet," second daughter of Lord Mac- Kenzie of Kintail. His eldest son, Sir James Mac- Donald, second Baronet of Sleat, joined the Marquess of Montrose, in 1645, and when Charles II marched into England, in 1651, he sent a number of the Clan to his assistance. Sir James died in 1678. History of the Clan Donald 55 Sir Donald MacDonald, his successor, was in ill health, and led a quiet life until his death in 1695. His son and successor, also Sir Donald, known as Dhonuill a' Clogaidh, joined the 1715 rising in favor of the Stuart cause, but was not present at the great Jacobite gathering at Braemar, having proceeded to the Isle of Skye to raise his followers. After the Battle of Sheriffmuir, the Sleat men returned to the Isles, and resisted for some time, but when the gov- ernment troops were sent to Skye Sir Donald re- tired to North Uist, where he remained until he was able to take ship to France. He was forfeited, but the forfeiture was soon removed. He died in 1718, leaving one son and four daughters. The son. Sir Donald, was the next representative of the family, but died in 1720, when the title reverted to his uncle. Sir James MacDonald of Oronsay. Sir James had fought at Killiekrankie, and led the Sleat men at Sheriffmuir. His son, Sir Alexander MacDonald, was a minor Avhen he succeeded his father. He was one of the first persons asked by Prince Charles Edward to join him on his landing in 1745. He then told the Prince's messenger that he vsdshed well to the cause, but as the attempt was inopportune, and the Prince had brought no auxiliary force with him from abroad, the probability of success was so small that he could not support him. That Sir Alex- ander's sympathies were with the Prince is shown by the fact that he did all possible to protect him when in hiding, and encouraged his people to help the fugitive to escape capture. Hugh MacDonald 56 History of the Clan Donald of Armadale, Hugh MacDonald of Baleshare, Alex- ander MacDonald of Kingsburgh, Lady Margaret MacDonald (Sir Alexander's wife), and Flora Mac- Donald were all actively employed in effecting the escape of the Prince, and during the sad times fol- lowing the defeat of the Stuart cause Sir Alexander did all he could to lighten the hard lot of their unfor- tunate adherents. Yet when he died, in 1746, a Jacobite poet lampooned him in the following epi- taph: "If heaven be pleased when sinners cease to sin; If hell be pleased when sinners enter in ; If earth be pleased to lose a truckling knave ; Then all are pleased — MacDonald's in his grave." His eldest son and heir. Sir James, was only five years old at the time of his father's death ; was edu- cated at Eton and Oxford; and from his learning and great abilities became known as "The Scottish Marcellus." He died in Rome, in 1766. His brother Alexander succeeded, and by all accounts was not popular in the Highlands. Sir Alexander is the MacDonald referred to in Boswell's account of John- son's visit to Skye ; and the statements contained in such account almost led to a duel, which was only averted by the ample apology tendered by the Biogra- pher to the "English-bred Chieftain." Sir Alexan- der was created a Peer of Ireland, in 1776, by the style and title of Lord MacDonald of Slate. He died in 1795, his descendant being the present Baron MacDonald. Later, the Baronetcy and Chiefship History of the Clan Donald 57 of Sleat became separated from the Barony, and vested in the family of another descendant known as MacDonald of the Isles. The family of McDonnell or McDonell of Glen- garry take descent from Ranald, the son of Good John of Isla, Lord of the Isles, seventh in descent from Somerled, by his first wife Amie, the heiress of MacRuari. The immediate progenitor of the Glengarry family was Ranald's son, Donald, who was succeeded by his son, also Donald. The last named Donald was followed by his son John, from whose son and successor, Alasdair, fourth of Glen- garry, the family take the Gaelic patronymic, Mac Mhic Alasdair. The family name continued as MacDonald until the patent of nobility was granted to Aeneas, the ninth of Glengarry, who succeeded his grandfather in 1645, and was raised to the Scottish peerage, in 1660, by the title of Lord MacDonell and Aros. This is stated to be the origin of the name of MacDonell, McDonell or McDonnell, the orthography varying according to the usage of different families de- scended from the Glengarry branch. Glengarry of old formed part of the Lordship of Lochaber. King Robert the Bruce, after the vic- tory of Bannockburn, granted a charter of many lands to Angus Og of the Isles, including half the Lordship of Lochaber ; the other half being granted to Roderick of Glamoran, and on the forfeiture of Roderick, in 1325, the whole of Lochaber came into possession of the Lord of the Isles. 58 History of the Clan Donald During the Chiefship of Donald the Eighth of Glengarry, a serious feud broke out between him and Colin MacKenzie of Kintail. From 1580 to 1603 incessant feuds were carried on with the usual depre- dations and slaughter on both sides. These feuds originally arose out of disputes between the two fam- ilies regarding Strome Castle, and the other prop- erty in Locharron and Locklash, brought to the family of Glengarry by the marriage of Alexander, the sixth of Glengarry, to Margaret of Lochlash. These lands adjoined those of the MacKenzies, and led to constant disagreement. The MacKenzies hav- ing made aggressions upon Glengarry's land, the latter, to maintain his rights, took up his residence in Locharron, and placed a small garrison in the Castle of Strome. With some of his followers he fell into the hands of the MacKenzies, and was de- tained in captivity until he agreed to yield the Castle of Locharron to the MacKenzies. The other pris- oners were put to death. For this the Privy Council caused MacKenzie to be detained in Edinburgh, and in the Castle of Blackness. In 1602, Glengarry, through the craft of the MacKenzie, was, him- self, summoned to appear before the Justiciary Court at Edinburgh; but paid no attention, and went on revenging the slaughter of two of his kins- men whom the MacKenzie had killed. In conse- quence Kenneth MacKenzie of Kintail procured a commission of fire and sword against Glengarry, and invaded and laid waste the district of North Morar. Glengarry's followers retaliated, and landed History of the Clan Donald 59 on the coast of Lochlash with the intention of burn- ing and destroying all MacKenzie's possessions ; but their leader, Alasdair MacGorrie, being killed, they returned home. To revenge Alasdair's death, Angus Og, the young leader of Glengarry, proceeded north to Locharron, where he and his followers burned many of the houses, and killed the inhabitants ; but on their return home they were intercepted by a large force of MacKenzies, and Angus Og's galley being overset in the fight, the young Chief was slain. In 1603, the men of Glengarry, under Allan Dubh MacRanuil of Lundy, made an incursion into the MacKenzie country, plundered the lands of Cille- ehriost, and ferociously set fire to the Church during divine service, when full of men, women and chil- dren; while the Glengarry pipers marched round the building playing the well known pibroch, which has been known ever since by the name of "Cille- chriost," as the family tune of the McDonnells. Eventually, in 1607, Kenneth MacKenzie, afterwards Lord Kintail, succeeded in obtaining a Crown Char- ter to the disputed lands. Donald, the eighth of Glengarry, died in 1603. His eldest son, Alexander, known as Alasdair Dearg, died in the lifetime of his father, and his son, Aeneas, became ninth Chief of Glengarry. He was a firm adherent of Charles I, for which he was forfeited by Cromwell, but immediately on the restoration, Charles II, in 1660, created him for his loyalty a Peer of Scotland, under the title of Lord MacDonell and Aros. Lord MacDonell died 60 History of the Clan Donald without issue in 1682, when the representation of the Glengarry family reverted to Ronald or Regi- nald McDonnell of Scothouse, eldest son of Donald, the second son of Donald, the eighth of Glengarry. The McDonnells of Glengarry, with other branches of the Clan Donald, engaged in all the attempts made for the restoration of the Stuarts. They joined Dundee, in 1689, in Lochaber, and fought at the Battle of Killiekrankie, and, on 27th August, 1715, Alasdair McDonnell, the eleventh of Glengarry, was one of the Chiefs who attended the pretended grand hunting match in Baemar, to arrange with the Earl of Mar as to raising the standard of the Chevalier St. George, styling himself James VIII of Scotland. He was at the Battle of Sheriifmuir, 13th November, 1715, and when the Clan Donald were thrown into dismay by the fall of Allan of Moydart, the Captain of Clan Ronald, it was Glengarry who, throwing his bonnet in the air, rallied them with the cry, in Gaelic, "Revenge! Revenge! Revenge today — and mourning tomorrow." In the rising of 1745, seven hundred of the McDonnells of Glengarry joined Prince Charles Ed- ward, under the command of McDonnell of Loch- garry. Alasdair McDonnell, the Chief's eldest son, was chosen by the Highland Chiefs to carry an address to the Prince in France, and signed in their own blood. He missed the Prince, who in the inter- val started for Scotland, was taken prisoner, and detained in the Tower of London until after Cul- loden. The distinguished part taken by the Glen- History of the Clan Donald 61 garry McDonnells throughout the rising under Bon- nie Prince Charlie is well known, and after the final defeat at Culloden the unfortunate Prince slept the first night at Invergarry Castle, the seat of McDon- nell of Glengarry, which was afterwards plundered and burnt to the ground by the Duke of Cumber- land's troops. After the suppression of the rising, the Chief of Glengarry was arrested and committed to the Tower of London, where he suffered a long and tedious imprisonment. The McDonnells of Barrisdale, the McDonnells of Greenfield, and the McDonnells of Lundy descended from the house of Glengarry. The founder of the Clan Ranald branch of Mac- Donald was Ranald, the eldest son of Good John of Isla, Lord of the Isles, and his wife Amie MacRuari. Ranald was eighth in descent from Somerled. He was followed by his son, Allan MacDonald of Clan Ranald, who fought at the famous Battle of Har- law, 1411, where he greatly distinguished himself, with his brothers, Donald of Glengarry and Dugald, the latter of whom was slain. Allan died in 1419, and was succeeded by his eldest son Roderick, known as Ruari MacAlain, who married Margaret, daugh- ter of the famous Donald Balloch, Chief of Clann Iain Mohr, and had issue, Allan his heir, and Hector or Eachainn, the progenitor of the branch of Mac- Donald known as Clann Eachainn. Roderick died in 1481, and was succeeded by his son Allan, "the mighty-deeded," commonly known as Allan Mac- Ruari. 62 History of the Clan Donald Allan kept the neighboring clans in a continual state of terror. Three of the powerful Highland Chiefs were at one time Allan's prisoners in his stronghold of Castletirrim, MacLeod of MacLeod, MacKay of Strathnaven, and Mackintosh of Mack- intosh. The following is told as the origin of his disagreement with Mackintosh : On the completion of his new castle, on an island in Loch Moy, Mackin- tosh gave a house warming, inviting all his friends and vassals to a great banquet, at which a wandering Irish harper was present. After the usual carous- ing. Mackintosh expressed his happiness at being now for the first day of his life, free from the dread of Allan MacRuari, of whom he then considered himself quite independent, and feared neither him nor any of the name of MacDonald. The Irish harper, in the course of his wanderings, went to Castletirrim and told MacDonald the words of Mackintosh. This was sufficient for Allan, who, summoning the Clan, traveled by night and rested by day till he came to Loch Moy. He had carried with him several boats made of hides, which he launched under cover of night, and stormed Mackin- tosh's new Castle. Mackintosh was made prisoner, taken to Castletirrim, and held in confinement for a year and a day, when Allan set him free with the advice, "never to be free from the fear of Mac- Donald." Allan had evidently inherited that "quick discern- ment" ascribed by the ancient chronicler to his famous ancestor, Somerled. For, on a certain occa- sion when Allan sailed with one galley only to visit History of the Clan Donald 63 his possessions in the Isles, he met a fleet of ten galleys of the MacLeans, with which clan also he had a feud. Realizing his danger, and the odds of ten galleys to his one, Allan ordered his men to stretch him out as a corpse on an improvised bier, and make every show of mourning. On meeting the MacLean galleys his men communicated the melan- choly tidings of the death of their Chief, whose body they were conveying to his ancestral burying place. The news so delighted the MacLeans they allowed the single galley to pass unmolested, and went their way; but before the MacLean expedition returned, Allan had overrun a great part of their land, and carried away much loot to Castletirrim. Allan was executed in the presence of James IV, in 1509. The sentence is supposed to have been for the part he took in a raid upon Athole under Donald Dubh. He had issue, Eanald, his heir; Alexander, whose son John Moydartach afterwards became Captain of Clan Ranald ; and by a second marriage, with the daughter of Lord Lovat, Ranald Gallda. Ranald, his successor, like his father, was tried in the presence of the King, and executed at Perth, for some unrecorded crime, in 1513. His son, Du- gald, for his cruelty and crimes against his own kin, became detested by the Clan, and was assassinated, his sons being formally excluded from the succes- sion. The command of the Clan, with the family estates, was given to Alexander, the second son of Allan MacRuari, who held the command until his death in 1530. John MacDonald, Moydartach, seventh of Clan 64 History of the Clan Donald Ranald, on the death of his father, Alexander the son of Allan, obtained a charter of his father's lands from the Crown, in 1531. Lord Lovat, in support of his grandson Ranald Gallda, the son of Allan's second marriage, marched to Castletirrim and by the assistance of the Frasers, placed Ranald in pos- session of the lands. The Clan Ranald met the Fra- sers in the Battle of Blar-nan-leine, or the Field of Shirts, so called from the fact that as the day was unusually hot, both sides prepared for the conflict by stripping off their upper garments, and fighting in their shirts and kilts. After both sides had dis- charged all their- arrows, the struggle was carried on hand to hand with the sword, and consisted mainly of isolated single combats. The result was that all of the Frasers were killed except four, and all of the MacDonalds except eight. Lord Lovat, his son the Master, and Ranald Gallda were all slain in the battle, and John Moydartach left in possession of the Chiefship and estates, which he transmitted to his descendants. The Clan Ranald distinguished themselves under the Marquess of Montrose in the Civil War of the seventeenth century. At the Battle of Killiekrankie, their Chief, then only fourteen years of age, fought under Dundee with five hundred of his clan. They were also at Sheriffmuir, and took an active part in the rising of 1745. At the Battles of Preston and Falkirk, the MacDonalds were on the right, which they claimed as their due, but at CuUoden the Clan Ranald, Glengarry and Keppoch men of History of the Clan Donald 65 Clan Donald formed the left. They urged that the post on the right, given the Clan by King Robert the Bruce, be conferred on them, but the claim was not allowed, to their great displeasure. The sept of the MacEachainn MacDonalds is de- scended from Hector, or Eachainn, second son of Roderick MacDonald, third of Clan Ranald. Eachainn obtained lands in Morven. One of the attendants of Prince Charles Edward when he escaped from Scotland to France, was Neil Mac- Eachainn MacDonald. He served in France as a Lieutenant in the Scottish Regiment, and was father of Stephen James Joseph MacDonald, Marshal of France, and Duke of Tarentum. The progenitor of the family of MacDonald of Glenaladale, known as the Clann Mhic Iain Og, was John or Iain Og MacDonald, second son of the famous John MacDonald, Moydartach, seventh of Clan Ranald. The standard of Bonnie Prince Charlie was unfurled on Glenaladale property at Glenfinnan, where a monument now stands to indi- cate the spot. The MacDonalds of Kinlochmoidart descended from John, fourth son of Allan, the eighth of Clan Ranald. John MacDonald, the first of this family, was known as Iain MacAlain, and obtained from his father a charter of Kinloch-Moidart and Asker- nish, with lands in Uist. The ancestor of the MacDonalds of Benbecula was Ranald, brother of Donald, who was Captain of Clan Ranald in the latter part of the reign of James 66 History of the Clan Donald VI. On the failure of Donald's descendants, the family of Benbecula succeeded to the Barony of Castletirrim, and the Captainship of Clan Ranald. The family of MacDonald of Boisdale, in South Uist, is descended from Donald MacDonald of Ben- becula, who became the fourteenth of Clan Ranald. It was MacDonald of Boisdale that, meeting Prince Charles Edward soon after his landing at Eriska, advised the Prince to go home. "I am come home," replied the Prince. CHAPTER V I HE founder of the family of Dunnyveg and the Glens was John Mor, the Tainis- ter or Thane, second son of John, Lord of the Isles, by his marriage with the Princess Margaret of Scotland. The family became known as the Clan Iain Vohr, or Clan Donald South. His father bestowed on him land in Isla and Kintyre with the Castle of Dunnyveg, and by his marriage with Marjory Bisset, heiress of the Glens in Antrim, he acquired the heritage of the Glens, from this time on being styled of Dunnyveg and the Glens. He was murdered, in 1427, by Janaes Campbell, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Donald Balloch, who in 1431, when the Isles broke out in rebellion, took command of the Islanders, and at their head burst into Lochaber. The King having vowed ven- geance, Donald found refuge in the Antrim Glens, though even there he was not free from the Royal revenge, and but for the ready resource of an Irish , Chief it is hard to say what his fate would have been. This Irish Chief presented the Scottish King with a human head, and the credulous James be- lieved it to be the head of Donald Balloch. He appears later to have come under an act of grace of the Government, for he died in his native Isles in 1476. John, his son and successor, in the revolt 67 68 History of the Clan Donald of the Clan Iain Vohr, stormed Dunaverty Castle, dislodged the King's garrison, and hung the Gov- ernor from the wall in sight of the King and his fleet. He was apprehended and executed, together with his son John, known as Cathanach, and several sons of the latter. Two of Cathanach's sons escaped to Ireland, Alexander and Angus, the former suc- ceeding as head of the house of Dunnyveg. In 1517, when Sir Donald of Lochlash, claiming to be Lord of the Isles, rebelled against the Government, among ■the first to support him was Alexander with his Clan. After the death of Sir Donald of Lochlash, Alexander and his followers were again in insurrec- tion, and with the MacLeans raided the lands of the Campbells. He, however, later submitted to the King, and after successfully defending himself against the charges of Argyll, was received in high Royal favor, and obtained grants of land from the King. Alexander died in 1538. His son James, who succeeded as head of the family of Dunnyveg and the Glens, was educated at the Scottish Court, and entered the service of James V. When Donald Dubh raised the standard of re- bellion, he, to all appearances, remained neutral, although the presence of his brother Angus in Don- ald Dubh's camp is an indication of his sympathies. When Donald Dubh died, in 1545, the Islanders chose James of Dunnyveg as a leader in his place. Quarrels with Argyll as to their respective posses- sions were adjusted, and the reconciliation completed by a marriage between Lady Agnes Campbell and History of the Clan Donald 69 James of Dunnyveg. James and his brothers saw much fighting in Ireland when the English attempted to expel the Clan Donald from Ulster, his brother Sorley Buy MacDonald taking a very prominent part. James was mortally wounded in a fight with the O'Neills, his brother Sorley Buy captured, and another brother, Angus, also made prisoner. James was murdered by Shane O'Neill in 1565. He has been described as the most powerful Chief the Clan had seen since the downfall of the dynasty, and an entry in the "Annales of the Four Masters" describes him as "a paragon of hospitality and prowess, a festive man of many troops, a bountiful and munifi- cent man. His peer was not to be found at that time among the Clan Donald of Ireland or Scotland." His murderer, Shane O'Neill, was later killed by the MacDonalds, who sent his head to Dublin, "pickled in a pipkin." James' eldest son, Angus, succeeded as Lord of Dunnyveg and the Glens. Notwithstand- ing the fact that he was married to the sister of MacLean of Duart, a feud with the MacLeans re- garding the Rhinns of Isla, which had commenced in the lifetime of his father, was renewed with much bloodshed and distress. This feud is remarkable as an example of the ferocity with which such inter- clan quarrels were conducted, and, in 1585, the feud came to a height under the following circumstances : On his way to visit his kinsman, Angus of Dun- nyveg, MacDonald of Sleat was driven by stress of weather to the Island of Jura, and landed on that part of the Island which belonged to MacLean of 70 History of the Clan Donald Duart, the other part being the property of Angus MacDonald. Two of the MacDonalds of Clan Ranald, who had a grudge against their Chief, one of whom was named MacDonald Terreagh, happened to arrive on the Island at the same time, and that night carried off some of MacLean's cattle, with the object that the theft might be imputed to Sleat and his party. Under that impression Lachlan Mor Mac- Lean assembled his followers, and suddenly attack- ing them at night, slew about sixty of them. The Chief of Sleat himself only escaped by his having spent the night on board his galley. After Sleat's return to Skye, whither he proceeded vowing ven- geance against the MacLeans, he was visited by Angus MacDonald, for the purpose of concerting measures of retaliation. On his homeward voyage to Kintyre, Angus landed in the Isle of Mull, and, against the advice of his followers, went to visit his brother-in-law. Sir Lachlan MacLean, at his Castle at Duart, in the hope of affecting an amicable arrangement of all their disputes. His two brothers, Ranald and Coll, who were with him, refused to accompany him, fearing treachery, and their fears were realized; for although well received at first by MacLean, Angus and all his party were the fol- lowing day arrested by Lachlan Mor and thrown into prison. The only one who escaped was Regi- nald MacDonald, a cousin of Angus. To preserve his life and recover his freedom, Angus agreed to renounce his right to the disputed lands in the Rhinns of Isla, and for the performance of this History of the Clan Donald 71 engagement he was obliged to give his eldest son, James, a young boy, and his brother, Reginald, as hostages. A short time afterwards Lachlan Mor sailed to Isla to get the agreement fulfilled, taking with him James MacDonald, the young hostage, leaving the other in fetters in the Castle of Duart. On his arrival he encamped at the ruinous fort, or Eilan Gorm, on the Rhinns. Angus MacDonald was then residing at Mullintrea, to which place he in- vited MacLean, who declined the invitation. Angus, however, pressed his invitation, with the strongest assurances of safety and good treatment, and Lach- lan Mor, thrown off his guard, at length complied. With eighty-six of his followers he went to Mullin- trea, in the month of July, 1586, and on his arrival was sumptuously entertained the whole day. The night, however, was signalized by different treat- ment. At the usual hour for retiring to repose, MacLean and his people were lodged in a long house which stood by itself at some distance from the other houses. During the whole day MacLean had always kept James, the young heir of Dunnyveg, within his reach, as a sort of protection to him in case of an attack, and at going to bed he took him along with him. About an hour after MacLean and his people had retired, Angus assembled his men to the number of about four hundred, and made them surround the house in which MacLean and his company lay. Then himself going to the door, he called upon Mac- Lean, and told him he had come to give him his reposing drink, which he had forgotten to order be- 72 History of the Clan Donald fore going to bed. MacLean answered that he did not wish to drink at that time, but MacDonald insisted that he should arise, it being, he said, his will that he should do so. The peremptory tone of MacDonald made MacLean at once apprehensive of danger, and getting up and placing the boy, James, between his shoulders, as a sort of shield, he pre- pared to defend his life, or to sell it as dearly as possible. As soon as the door was forced open, James MacDonald, seeing his father with a naked sword in his hand, and a number of his men armed in the same manner, cried aloud for mercy to Mac- Lean, his uncle, which being granted, Lachlan Mor was immediately removed to a secret chamber, where he remained till next morning. After Mac- Lean had surrendered, Angus MacDonald announced to those within the house that if they would come out their lives would be spared; but he excepted MacDonald Terreagh and another. The whole, with the exception of these two, having complied, the house was immediately set on fire, and consumed along with MacDonald Terreagh and his companion, the latter a near kinsman of MacLean. The tragedy did not, however, end here. Allan MacLean, a near kinsman of Lachlan Mor, in the hope that the MacDonalds would put him to death, in which event Allan would have succeeded to the management of the estate, as guardian to Lachlan's children, who were then very young, caused a report to be spread that the hostage left behind at Duart Castle had been killed by the MacLeans. Under History of the Clan Donald 73 the impression that it was true, Coll, the brother of the hostage and of Angus MacDonald, took a signal vengeance on the unfortunate prisoners in his hands, two of whom were executed every day, until at last Lachlan Mor alone survived. His life was saved on account of an accident that happened to Angus MacDonald, as he was mounting his horse to witness Lachlan's execution. Information of the feud being sent to King James VI, he immediately dispatched a herald demanding that Lachlan should be set at liberty ; but the herald was unable to pro- cure shipping for Isla. MacDonald at length re- leased him, on his delivering into the hands of Angus his eldest son Hector MacLean and seven other hostages. Soon after Angus went on a visit to Ire- land, when MacLean, dreaming only of vengeance, hurried to Isla and laid waste a great portion of that Island. When Angus returned from Ireland he invaded the Isles of Mull and Tiree, and "killed and chased the Clan Lean at his pleasure, and so revenged him- self fully of the injuries done to him and his tribe." MacLean retaliated by an inroad into Kintyre, and so they continued to "vex one another with slaugh- ter and outrages." Lachlan MacLean obtained the return of his son and the other hostages under the following circum- stances: John Maclain, of the Clan Donald, had been a suitor for the hand of Lachlan's mother, the daughter of the Earl of Argyll, and was, in 1588, invited to Mull, with a view of the proposed alii- 74 History of the Clan Donald ance; and to gain him over to the MacLean side. Maclain accepted the invitation, but no persuasion could induce him to join against his own clan, the MacDonalds. Furious at his refusal, Lachlan, on the marriage night, caused eighteen of Mac Iain's attendants to be massacred ; then, bursting into the bed-chamber, w^ould have murdered Maclain had not his new-made wife interposed. He was, however, held prisoner for a year, when he and other pris- oners were exchanged for MacLean's son and the other hostages. In June, 1594, as MacDonald of Dunnyveg and MacLean of Duart, continued contumacious, they were forfeited by Parliament. James, the son of Angus of Dunnyveg, was held in Edinburgh as a hostage for his father, who, deprived of all support, was compelled to yield to the King. James was soon afterwards knighted, but Angus failed to fulfil the conditions entered into, and both he and his son, Sir James, suffered imprisonment. Their lands were taken possession of by the Campbells, much of the property of the ducal house of Argyll consisting of what had formerly belonged to the house of Dunny- veg. Angus died before 1613, and Sir James died in 1626, without issue. The MacDonalds of Colonsay were a branch of the house of Dunnyveg and the Glens, being descended from Coll, a brother of James MacDonald of Dun- nyveg, and of Sorley Buy MacDonald. An important place in the history of the Clan Donald is occupied by the MacDonalds of Garragh History of the Clan Donald 75 and Keppoch, called the Clan Ranald of Lochaber. They descended from Alexander MacDonald, or Alastair Carrach, third son of Good John of Isla, Lord of the Isles, and his wife the Princess Mar- garet. His father bestowed upon him the Lordship of Lochaber. For his share in the insurrection of the Islanders under Donald Balloch, he was forfeited and the greater part of his lands were bestowed upon Duncan Mackintosh, Captain of the Clan Chat- tan, which proved the cause of a fierce and lasting feud between the Mackintoshes and the MacDonalds. The MacDonalds of Keppoch, however, held their own in the braes of Lochaber, where they continued to dwell, and which they defended against all comers. In 1498, Donald, the then Chief of Keppoch, was killed at Leachada, in Glenurchy, fighting against the Stewarts of Appin. His successor, Iain Aluinn, gave great offense to his people by acknowledging the authority of the Mackintoshes in Lochaber, and by surrendering to their Chief, a well known thief, Donuill Ruadh Beag, making a condition that "his blood should not be spilled." A condition which Mackintosh considered he had fulfilled when he promptly hanged Donuill. The Keppoch MacDon- alds met and deposed Iain, and Alexander, or Ala- stair Gleann, was chosen in his place. The Keppoch men fought with the other branches of the Clan Donald in the centre of Montrose's army, and followed him through all his campaign, until they were obliged to return with the rest of the Highlanders to protect their homes from the Cov- 76 History of the Clan Donald enanters. All through the Civil War the Keppoch men were very active on the side of the King. Soon after the Restoration, Alexander MacDonald Glas, the young Chief of Keppoch, and his brother, were murdered on the occasion of a banquet given in the old Castle of Keppoch. During the banquet the clansmen, discussing some topic, came from high words to blows, and the young Chief and his brother were killed in the melee. Coll MacDonald was the next Chief of Keppoch. He was known as "Coll of the Cows," and the feud between his Clan and the Mackintoshes led to the last clan battle ever fought in the Highlands. The Mackintoshes, esti- mated at 1,200 men, entered Lochaber in the July of 1688, and took possession of the Castle of Kep- poch, from which Coll had barely time to escape. Coll retired to the hills, and sent round the fiery cross. Having gathered a force estimated at 700 men, he met the Mackintoshes on the Hill of Mulroy, where after a sharp fight the MacDonalds were the victors, and the Mackintoshes fled, leaving a number of killed and wounded. A commission of fire and sword was issued by the Government against Coll, who, after defeating the Mackintoshes, advanced on Inverness, in revenge for the support the inhab- itants of that town had given the Mackintoshes. Lord Dundee acted as mediator, and agreed to pay Coll compensation for the damage done by the Mackintoshes ; and Coll drove away the cattle of his enemy, hence "Coll of the Cows." He fought at the Battle of Killiekrankie, and on the breaking out of History of the Clan Donald 77 the rising of 1715 he joined the Earl of Mar, and fought at Sheriffmuir, where the Keppoch men and the other clansmen of the Clan Donald formed the right wing of Mar's army. Coil's son, Alexander MacDonald of Keppoch, took a romantic part in the rising of 1745. He and one of the Stewarts of Appin had, in 1743, been sent by the Jacobite Chieftains to the French Court, to lay before Prince Charles Edward the proposal of his Scottish followers. When the Prince landed at Eriska, in 1745, Keppoch immediately joined him, and raised his Clan. On the 16th of August, two companies of the Government troops, under the com- mand of a Captain Scott, were met at Highbridge by Donald MacDonald, Keppoch's brother, who, with a small force, had been sent to intercept them. Re- inforced by more Keppoch men, Donald engaged the Government troops, who surrendered and were taken prisoner. In this way the Keppoch MacDon- alds had the honor of striking the first blow for Bonnie Prince Charlie. Keppoch, with 300 clans- men, joined the Stuart forces when the standard of the Prince was raised at Glenfinnan, and fought magnificently with the MacDonald regiments in the place of honor at Prestonpans, Clifton, Falkirk, and throughout all the campaign. At Culloden, as is well known, the MacDonalds were greatly offended at being placed on the left of the Prince's army, and being deprived of the place of honor on the right which they claimed as a heritage from Ban- nockburn. As they stood sullenly nursing their 78 History of the Clan Donald ' "" pride and facing the foe, the gallant Keppoch, see- ing his Clan hesitate, rushed forward alone with drawn sword, and died, as he had lived, a chivalrous Highland gentleman. The MacDonalds of Glencoe are descended from John, knoviTi as Iain Fraoch, natural son of Angus Og, Lord of the Isles. John settled in the wild and gloomy Vale of Glencoe, in the district of Lorn. "The Vale, by eagle-haunted cliffs o'erhung. Where Fingal fought and Ossian's harp was strung." In 1689 the then Chief of Glencoe, Alexander MacDonald, was one of the Chieftains who sup- ported the cause of King James, and at the head of his Clan followed "the bonnets of Bonny Dundee." Glencoe fought at the Battle of Killiekrankie, and in consequence of his share in the campaign passed under a decree of forfeiture in 1690, circumstances gradually leading up to the terrible episode known in history as the Massacre of Glencoe. In August, 1691, the Government required that all the Clans who had been in arms in favor of King James should take the oath of allegiance to King William and Queen Mary, before the last day of December. Alexander MacDonald of Glencoe had postponed taking the required oath until the stipu- lated time had nearly elapsed, and when he set out for the purpose of complying with the order, he was detained by the snowdrifts in the passes. As soon as he could get through the country, he went History of the Clan Donald 79 to the commander at Fort William to take the oath. The commander not being empowered to administer the oath, sent him with a letter to Sir Colin Camp- bell of Ardkinglass, Sheriff-depute of Argyll. The weather was so severe that the Sheriff was detained three days before he could meet Glencoe at Inverary. The time had elapsed, but on the earnest solicita- tion of the old Chieftain, and explanation of the cause of the delay, Ardkinglass administered the oath on January 6th. Suspecting no treachery, and persuaded he had secured the safety of his Clan, Glencoe returned to the Vale. Meanwhile the Earl of Breadalbane had gone to London; Dalrymple, Master of Stair, then Secretary for Scotland, had been arranging a plan for extirpating the MacDon- alds ; and the following proclamation was drawn up and signed by King William : "It will be proper for the vindication of publick justice to extirpate that sett of thieves. W. R." Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, with 120 men of Argyll's regiment, was ordered to Glencoe on the 1st of February. Captain Campbell was uncle to young MacDonald's wife, and he and his party were hospitably received in the Vale ; Glenlyon assur- ing the MacDonalds that the object of the visit was friendly. During twelve full days Campbell and his men spent the time in merriment, receiving the most generous treatment that their appointed victims could afford. On the 12th of February the order was sent to Campbell to fall upon the MacDonalds precisely at five o'clock the following morning, and 80 History of the Clan Donald put all to the sword under seventy years of age. With this dastardly order in his pocket, Campbell spent the evening before the massacre at cards with John and Alexander MacDonald, the sons of the Chief. At parting, he wished them good-night, and even accepted an invitation from the Chief to dine with him the following day. The massacre com- menced at five o'clock in the morning of the 13th February, 1692. Glenlyon undertook to butcher his own host and the inhabitants of his house, and his host, with nine others, were dragged from their beds, tied hand and foot, and slain in cold blood. A boy, twelve years of age, clung round Glenlyon's feet and begged for mercy ; but Captain Drummond shot the child dead. The old Chief of Glencoe was roused by a knocking at his door and as he was rising to receive his supposed guest was shot dead behind his back. He fell in the arms of his wife, who died next day in a state of distraction, and it has been asserted that the butchers tore the rings from her fingers with their teeth. The slaughter became general; neither age nor infirmity was spared ; women defending their children were killed. Thirty-eight, including the old Chief and his two sons, were shot down. How many of the fugitives perished among the snow-clad hills will never be known. The MacDonalds of Glencoe fought at Sheriffmuir, and, in 1745, joined Prince Charles Edward with 130 men, fighting through all his campaigns up to the final defeat of the Stuart cause at Culloden. History of the Clan Donald 81 From Roderick of Bute, a younger brother of Donald of Isla from whom the Clan Donald take their name, sprang the branch of the family known as MacRuari of Garmoran. Roderick, second son of Reginald, Lord of the Isles and eldest son of Som- erled, was born in the latter part of the twelfth cen- tury, and upon him his father bestowed the Island of Bute and lands in Kintyre. Of piratical tenden- cies, he was a wild and daring man even for the age in which he lived. He and his sons supported King Haco of Norway, invaded Ireland, and conquered the Isle of Man, but on the annexation of the Nor- wegian possessions in the Isles to Scotland, in 1266, both Bute and Arran were restored to the family. Roderick died shortly after 1266, and was followed by his son, Dougal, known as Dougal MacRuari, who is designated by the seannachies. King Dougal, and is said to have been succeeded in the lands of Garmoran by his son Allan, who died about 1284 and was succeeded in his lands by a daughter, Chris- tina, although he left at least three sons, Roderick, Allan and Lachlan. Christina resigned the Mac- Ruari patrimony to Roderick, to whom Bruce also granted a charter. Roderick and his brothers in- vaded Skye and Lewis, the lands of the Earl of Ross, and had finally to be held in check by their kinsman, the Lord of the Isles, who pursued Roderick by sea and land, and at length seized him, put him in irons, and imprisoned him in a dungeon. Christina, the heiress of Allan, married Donald, Earl of Mar, and thus became the mother of the vdfe of King Robert 82 History of the Clan Donald the Bruce, and progenetrix of the long line of Scot- tish Kings. Roderick was succeeded by his son, Ranald, who received a charter from Robert the Bruce to lands in Uist, Barra, Rum, Moydart and Morar. He was assassinated by the Earl of Mar in the Monastery of Elcho. He left no issue, and his brother and successor, Allan, also dying without issue, the male line of Roderick of Bute became ex- tinct, the family inheritance devolving on Amie, the sister of Allan, who carried the MacRuari lands to her husband, Good John of Isla, Lord of the Isles. The Clan Allister was one of the oldest families that branched from the Clan Donald stem, and de- scended from Alastair Mor, son of Donald de He, and younger brother of Angus Mor, who succeeded as Lord of the Isles, in 1249. Alastair Mor was killed in a feud with the MacDougalls in 1299. This branch of the Clan Donald settled in South Knap- dale, the principal seat of their Chief being for- merly at Ard-Phadriuc, on the south side of Loch Tarbet; latterly they resided at Loup, from which they received their usual designation. The Clan Donald of Ulster sprang from Alexan- der of Isla, known as Alastair Og, who succeeded his father, Angus Mor, as Lord of the Isles, in 1292. Alastair had supported Edward I of England, and opposed Robert Bruce, from whose vengeance he suffered when the Bruce became Monarch of Scot- land. He was imprisoned in Dundonald Castle, where he died, and his possessions were given to his brother Angus Og. Alastair left six sons, Black History of the Clan Donald 83 John, Reginald, Somerled, Angus, Godfrey and Charles. These sons inherited the legacy of ven- geance, being driven from their native soil to seek refuge in another land. They are next found in Ireland, settling in various parts of that country, where they became Captains of Galloglachs, or com- panies of foot-soldiers chosen for their superior size and strength. The name Galloglachs was given these soldiers of fortune because of their foreign birth, mostly from Scotland. Black John, the son of Alastair, became Hereditary Constable of the O'Neills of Ulster, and had his seat at Cnoc-na- Cluith, or Hill of Sport, in the Barony of Dungannon and County of Tyrone. He was killed, in 1349, by Manus, son of Eochy MacMahon, Lord of Oriel. Black John was succeeded by Somerled, who is referred to as High Constable of Ulster. Notwith- standing the slaying of his father, Somerled was persuaded by the MacMahons to repudiate his wife and enter into a matrimonial alliance with a daugh- ter of Brian MacMahon. He fell a victim to the treachery of his supposed friend and father-in-law, who invited Somerled to a feast at which the drink- ing was deep and long in the hall of Oriel. During the festivities Brian threw his arms round Somerled, and caused him to be bound and cast into a nearby lake, where he was drowned. This occurred in 1365, and the O'Neills joined forces with the numerous kinsmen of the murdered Chief, routing MacMahon, who was banished, and his wife and daughters made prisoners. 84 History of the Clan Donald Somerled's son, John, was slain in an encounter with Teige O'Connor, and, in 1366, Charles, the youngest son of Alastair Og, was the leader of the Galloglachs. In 1368, the feud created by the mur- der of Somerled again broke out, and Neill O'Neill, King of Uladh, whose Constable Somerled had been, marched at the head of an army to attack MacMa- hon, Alastair, the son of Charles, accompanying him as Constable of the Galloglachs. A fierce battle en- sued in which Alastair was slain. No further record is found of the family until well on in the fifteenth century, when it is told that the MacDonald Captain of the Galloglachs was killed in a battle with the English. Again, in 1493, they were engaged in their usual game of war, and in a battle fought that year Ranald MacDonald, the Constable, and his three sons fell. After another fatal fight in which MacDonald Galloglach, son of John, was killed, the rare instance of a MacDonald Constable dying a natural death is recorded, when Randall Mor, son of Gillespie Mac- Donald, died in 1503, in Duibhthrian. The next record, however, is again of the usual killing of a MacDonald Constable, Colla, who was slain at Ar- magh. In 1522, a war broke out between the O'Neills of the North and the O'Donnells of Donegal, which lasted for years. Donald Og MacDonald was then Captain of the O'Neill Galloglachs, but the O'Neills were defeated with a loss of nine hundred followers, among them, naturally, Donald and a number of his Galloglachs. Later, a disagreement arose between the O'Neills History of the Clan Donald 85 and the MacDonalds, and through this quarrel the MacDonalds were compelled to relinquish the lands of Cnoc-na-Cluith, which they had held for two hun- dred years, and take up their abode in another re- gion. The breach between the two families was, however, eventually healed, and the MacDonalds re- turned to their old allegiance, and the land with which they were so long connected. In 1551, the MacDonalds and the O'Neills are found together fighting the English, but soon after, the Clan Donald of Ulster became scattered, settling in other locali- ties, and are no more mentioned as Hereditary Con- stables of the O'Neills. The founder of the noble family of McDpnnell of Antrim was Sorley Buy MacDonald, the sixth son of Alexander, or Alastair Maclain Cathanach, of Dunnyveg and the Glens. Alexander fled to Ireland after the execution of his father in 1494, and the early part of the life of Sorley Buy was spent in the struggles of the family in Ulster. In 1550, he was taken prisoner by the English authorities, but released after a short imprisonment. In 1552, he summoned his followers, invaded Carrickfergus, and defeated the English garrison with great slaughter. Sorley Buy was, in 1558, appointed by his eldest brother Lord of the Route, in the County of An- trim, and on his brother's death he seized the Irish estates of the family. He was engaged in numerous conflicts with the native Irish and the English forces, but finally became a faithful subject of Queen Eliza- beth, and was made a free denizen of Ireland on 86 History of the Clan Donald the 14th April, 1573. His stormy career ended, the old Chief spent his remaining years at his favorite seat of Donanynie Castle, where he died in 1589, and was buried in the Abbey of Bunamargie. He was married to Mary, daughter of Con O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and had four sons. James, his eldest son, and successor, made the old fortress of Dunluce, of which he was Constable, his principal place of residence, and was styled of Dunluce. After visit- ing the Scottish Court, where he was knighted by King James, Sir James died in 1601, when a dispute arose between his brothers Angus and Ranald as to the succession. Ranald was then in Scotland, but lost no time in returning to Ireland, where he found a considerable number of the family ready to sup- port him against Angus. Before taking any active step, he sent a message to Angus desiring a private interview, but Angus declined. An ancient MS gives the following account of the settlement of the dis- pute : "However, God was pleased not to let them engage, for that very day came St. Patrick's Clerk, who was called O'Dornan, and St. Patrick's bell in his hand. He entered the camp ringing the bell, and they were all amazed to see O'Dornan coming, for his duty was to curse. Ranald and all his camp made obeisance to St. Patrick's Clerk, and Ranald said, "What is the matter, holy Clerk?" O'Dornan answered, "I am much concerned for you and your foolish prodigal brother Angus." Ranald said, "That is none of my fault." "I am well pleased with you," O'Dornan said, "In the name of the Father, History of the Clan Donald 87 the Son and the Holy Ghost, and my Holy Patron, St. Patrick, I proclaim you Lord and Master of the Baronies of Dunluce and Kilconway." St. Patrick's Clerk then went to meet Angus and his army. He takes his bell and rings it very hard. Angus cries, "What is all this ringing for?" "It is I," said O'Dornan, "to curse you and your army for your un- lawful insurrection against your brother Ranald." "Pray, holy Clerk, bless me and I will go and ask my brother's pardon." Angus sent back his people, came to meet his brother at Loughgill, and they kissed and embraced each other." King James knighted Ranald, and, in 1618, raised him to the dig- nity of a Peer of Ireland, by the style and title of Viscount Dunluce, further advancing him to the higher dignity of Earl of Antrim, on the 12th De- cember, 1620. The Earl died at Dunluce on the 10th December, 1636, and from him descended the present family of Antrim. The Clan Donald of Connaught descended from Somerled, the son of Alastair Og, and occupied the same position with the O'Connors in Connaught as the Clan Donald of Ulster did with the O'Neills. The O'Connors, like the O'Neills, were independent Kings in their district, and it is probable that Som- erled was Constable of the O'Connor Galloglachs. Four of his sons successively held that office, all four meeting their death on the field of battle. Somerled was succeeded by his son Donald, who was killed at the Battle of Traigh Eathuill-int-sair, in 1367, and was followed by his brother Somerled, who fell in 88 History of the Clan Donald battle in 1377. Donald Og, another brother, was the next Constable, and met the usual fate, when the command fell to Marcus, the fourth son of Som- erled, who held it for nine years, until he and his son Dougal were left dead, with a large number of Galloglachs, after a fierce and sanguinary fight. The fatal weird persistently followed this heroic race until the Irish Celtic system came to an end in the seventeenth century. The Clan Donald of Leinster are an offshoot of the same tribe. Another noble family, now extinct, esteemed a branch of the Clan Donald, was the family of the Earls of Stirling. They were descended from Alex- ander MacDonald, who obtained the lands of Men- strie, in the County of Clackmannan, and whose pos- terity assumed the surname of Alexander, from his given name. His descendant. Sir William Alexander, was created Earl of Stirling in 1633. CHAPTER VI EFORE the close of the century which saw the last MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, adventurers from the old world had set out to establish Colonies, and open up the wonders of the new land across the Western Ocean. In 1577, Sir Humphrey Gilbert was granted a patent of Colonization for Virginia, where, in 1607, a small body of colonists formed the settle- ment at Jamestown, and other points on the James River, which later became the Province of Virginia. The founding of the Plymouth Colony followed the historic voyage of the "Mayflower," in 1620, and within sixty years after the first settlement on the James River, the Colonies of Virginia and Maryland were established in the South; Plymouth, Massa- chusetts Bay, Connecticut and Rhode Island, in New England; with the Dutch Colony of New Nether- lands on the Hudson, between the two groups of English settlements. During the seventeenth century the current of migration from Scotland was slow, for condi- tions were not yet such as to cause the hardy Scots to leave the hills and glens to which they were at- tached by so many romantic and domestic ties. At the end of the century, however, economic condi- tions, both in Scotland and the North of Ireland, 90 History of the Clan Donald where many Scots had located, caused a great and valuable influx to the Colonies of Highlanders and Lowlanders from Scotland direct, and of Scottish Ul- stermen from the north of Ireland. And when the abo- lition of the patriarchal system, in 1748, dissolved the ties of clanship, and compelled the Chiefs to maintain their rank by new means, the Highland proprietors were unable to support upon their estates a number of men whom they no longer could use in military service. The Highland Chiefs also found that their extensive pastures, so long the rearing ground of black cattle only, could with much better advantage be engaged in the feeding of sheep, and the sheep farmers of the Lowlands made offers of rents, against which the Highlanders were unable to com- pete. Military duty and clan services were no longer acceptable in lieu of money rent, and many of the Highlanders, unsuited for their altered circum- stances, resolved to test the truth of the old adage that "they who hae a gude Scottish tongue in their head are fit to gang ower the world," said farewell to their native hills and sought fame and fortune in the new land. As the Scottish poet, Thomas Pringle, sang : "We seek a wild and distant shore Beyond the western main; We leave thee to return no more, Nor view thy cliffs again ! But may dishonor blight our fame. And blast our household fires, -- History of the Clan Donald 91 If we or ours forget thy name Green Island of our sires!" A member of the Clan who arrived at an early- date in the new Colonies was Bryan MacDonald or McDonald, of the Glencoe branch of the family. He came to America about 1685, settling in Newcastle County, Pennsylvania, now Delaware, on Mill Creek. Here, in 1689, he acquired "a certain parcel of land in the County of Newcastle," which land was about six miles west from Wilmington, Delaware, in Mill Creek Hundred. He died in 1707, leaving seven children who are named in his vdll. The family later moved from Delaware into Virginia, on the Roanoke and James Rivers. His son, Bryan, died in Botetourt County, Virginia, in 1757, and from him are descended a large family of MacDonalds or McDonalds. About the year 1785, Richard and Alexander McDonald, twin brothers left Botetourt County and settled where the village of Macksville, Washington County, Kentucky, now stands. Rich- ard rose to the rank of Major in the Indians wars, and his son, James, served four years as Senator from Kentucky. Two other early arrivals were Donald and John MacDonald, who are mentioned in the list of persons from Scotland who were brought to New Jersey in the ship "Thomas and Benjamin," in 1684. Other New Jesrey records show that William McDonald was, in 1759, appointed Captain in the New Jersey Regiment which was raised to join in 92 History of the Clan Donald the final campaign to conquer the French forces in America. Captain McDonald was probably the same as the captain of that name who gallantly led the attack on Fort Du Quesne, in September, 1758. He was reported killed in the spring of 1760. Another William McDonald was Sheriff of Somerset County, New Jersey, in 1761. Among the McDonnells of Glengarry who fought for Bonnie Prince Charlie in 1745, was Angus Mc- Donnell. He was born in the Highlands in 1724, the son of Angus MacDonald or McDonnell of Glen- garry. Like many of. the Clan, he was attainted of treason after the Battle of Culloden, but escaped to America, and arrived in Virginia in 1746. He landed at Falmouth in that Colony, later moving into the interior where he entered the service of the Colony, and rose to the rank of Captain. In rec- ognition of his services he received a grant of four hundred acres of land, in 1754, and also purchased a tract of land to the east of Winchester, where he built his home, which he named Glengarry, after his old home in the Highlands. In 1765 he was commis- sioned Major of Militia, being promoted to Lieuten- ant Colonel in 1774, and, in 1775 was made Sheriff. Washington appointed him Lieutenant Colonel in the Continental Army, in 1777, but McDonnell was unable to accept the commission, and died in 1778, leaving seven children. His family continued to live at Glengarry until the house was destroyed by fire, when they moved to Patterson Creek in Hamp- shire County. History of the Clan Donald 93 A number of grants of land in New York State were made to members of the Clan, who arrived from Scotland about the middle of the eighteenth century, doubtless emigrating in consequence of the before mentioned changed conditions in the old country. In 1764 is found an Order of His Majesty in Council to survey for Lieutenant James McDonald, 10,000 acres of land in the Province of New York, which McDonald requested should be in Ulster County, near Shawangunk Kill; and in the same year Donald McDonald and John McDonald peti- tioned for grants of land at Albany. Also in 1764, Captain Alexander MacDonald petitioned for a grant of 3,000 acres of land on the east side of the Hudson River, in the County of Albany, the petition being accompanied by a certificate of General Gage that the Captain had served during the war. Among other grants of land at this time to members of the family, were those to Norman and Alexander Mc- Donald of land at Otter Creek, in the County of Albany, in 1765; to Angus McDonald of 200 acres on the east side of the Kinderhook River, also in 1765; to Neil McDonald, in 1767; and, in 1771, Edward and John McDonald petitioned for a grant of 6,000 acres of land in the County of Albany, on the east side of the Hudson River. The formation of quite a little colony by a member of the family, is shown by the petitions of Alexander MacDonald, or McDonald, who, in 1773, on behalf of himself and twenty-three others, asked, in his first petition, for a grant of a tract containing 24,000 94 History of the Clan Donald acres of land in New York State, "in Totten and Cross fields purchase," and that the same may be erected into a township by the name of Ardnam- wichan. In the same year, he presented a second petition asking for a further grant of 30,360 acres in the same locality. John and William McDonald were the sons of Thomas McDonald of Lochshin, in the Highlands of Scotland. John came to America in 1770, and William followed in 1772. John married in America, and had a numerous family of children, some of whom settled in Ohio, their descendants later re- moving to Illinois. William settled in Pennsylvania, where his son, afterwards Colonel John McDonald, was born in 1775, in Northumberland County. In 1780, the family crossed the mountains to Mingo Bottom on the Ohio, then the frontier of civilization, and the scene of continual Indian attacks. The fam- ily again moved, in 1790, this time to Kentucky and here young John had his first experience of Indian fighting, and was constantly employed in hunting and scouting. In the spring of 1792, John joined General Massie's settlement at Manchester, on the Ohio River, finding more Indian fighting, and, in 1794, with his brother Thomas, accompanied Gen- eral Wayne's Army as ranger. Two years later he again joined General Massie, assisting in the estab- lishment of the first settlements on the Scioto River, and in laying out and surveying Chillicothe, the first capital of Ohio. In 1802, John McDonald set- tled at Poplar Ridge, Ohio, and served in the War History of the Clan Donald 95 of 1812, rising to the rank of Colonel. He also acted as Paymaster and Quartermaster General. Sen- ator Joseph E. McDonald was his youngest child. At a General Assembly for the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation, held at Newport the first Wednesday of May, 1756, Barak M'Donald of Providence was made a freeman of the Colony; and among other records, we find Archibald, James and John McDonald listed as inhabitants of Chester County, Pennsylvania, in 1765, and Patrick McDon- ald as a landowner in North Carolina, in 1750. The issue of the war between the English and French settlements in America, 1754-1763, roused the interests of the British Government in the pos- sibilities of its American Colonies. The Govern- ment endeavored to recover from the Colonies part of the cost of the French War, by which their exist- ence had been secured, but "taxation without repre- sentation" was bitterly resented, and in December, 1773, occurred the Boston Tea Party, where a mob of colonists, disguised as Indians, boarded some Eng- lish ships laden with tea in the Harbor of Boston, and threw their contents into the sea. On the 5th September, 1774, the First Continental Congress met at Philadelphia, being the initial step towards the conflict which was to wrest the Colonies from the rule of the English King. The King persisted in repressive measures, and the colonists resisted in arms, bloodshed ensuing at the first engagement at Lexington Green, 19th April, 1775, which ushered in a war destined to last through eight long years, until, 96 History of the Clan Donald in 1783, the Colonies should attain the right of self- government. True to old tradition, and to the fight- ing spirit of the Clan, the men of the MacDonalds, McDonalds and McDonnells, took a memorable part in the fighting on both sides of the conflict. Many of the Clan joined the sturdy farmers and hardy settlers who formed the patriot army which faced the soldiers of England, and fought gallantly from Lexington to Yorktown. In the lists and records relating to the Revolution- ary and other Wars, "McDonald" is the one form of orthography used in referring to members of this family; no distinction being made to identify those who used other modes of writing the name. In the List of Continental Army Officers, the fol- lowing of the Clan are mentioned as holding commis- sions : Major Adam McDonald, 1st South Carolina Regi- ment. He was killed in 1777. Major Daniel McDonald, 3rd New Jersey Regi- ment. Captain John McDonald, 6th Pennsylvania Battal- ion and Swope's Battalion of the Flying Camp. Taken prisoner at Fort Washington, in 1776, he was exchanged in 1780. Captain James McDonald, 1st South Carolina Regiment and South Carolina Dragoons. Regimental Quarter-Master Alexander McDonald, Delaware Battalion of the Flying Camp. Lieutenant William McDonald, 3rd New Jersey Regiment. History of the Clan Donald 97 Lieutenant Barney McDonald, 4th Virginia Regi- ment. Lieutenant Donald McDonald, 3rd Pennsylvania Regiment. Lieutenant William McDonald, 4th Georgia Regi- ment. Lieutenant Michael McDonald, Putnam's and Nix- on's Regiments. He was formerly a Lieutenant in the British Navy. And among the officers of the name in the Levies and Militia, were : Major Richard McDonald, First Battalion, Som- erset Regiment, New Jersey. Captain Lewis McDonald, Jr., of the East Bed- ford Company, 2nd Regiment, New York. Quarter-Master Barak McDonald of the Provi- dence County Troop of Horse, Rhode Island. Quarter-Master James McDonald, Westchester County Militia, New York. Lieutenant William McDonald, New Jersey Vol- unteers. Ensign Colin McDonald, 10th Regiment Albany County Militia, New York. Surgeon Donald McDonald of the sloop "Machias Liberty." There were 128 soldiers and sailors of the name of McDonald (or MacDonald) , McDonnell, and other forms of the name, from the one Colony of Massa- chusetts alone, and from each of the colonies, the old fighting stock of Clan Donald came forth to battle, and to share in the ultimate victory. 98 History of the Clan Donald With the British Forces engaged in the War were many officers and men of the different families of the Clan. At the time of the outbreak of the Revolution there was a large settlement of Scottish colonists at Cross Creek, in North Carolina. They brought with them to the new country, the sturdy senti- ments of the Covenanters, but loyalty was an inher- ent principle in their character, and when Donald McDonald called upon his countrymen to remember their oath of allegiance to the Crown, they, at first followed him to oppose the patriot army. But as the rebellion assumed the phase of resistance to op- pression and redress of wrongs many, afterward, fought in defense of the principles of the Covenant- ers with the forces of the Continental Congress. Donald McDonald, on the other hand, was commis- sioned a Brigadier General of the British Forces, by Lord Dunmore, and gathered more than one thousand Scots around him. He had fought for Prince Charles Edward at Culloden and had great influence over his colonist countr3rmen. Also at Cross Creek, lived Flora MacDonald, the heroine of the Prince's wanderings and escape, and she used all her influence to rally the Scots to General Mc- Donald's standard. After a fierce fight, the small loyalist forces were dispersed by the patriot army, and General McDonald taken prisoner. He was at first put in Halifax Prison, but was removed to Philadelphia, where he was kept in close confine- ment until exchanged, when he went to London. History of the Clan Donald 99 Flora MacDonald's husband, Major Allan Mac- Donald, was also taken prisoner in the same en- gagement. He was Major in the North Carolina Highlanders, and with Flora had emigrated from Scotland to that Colony. He was released at the end of the war and left America. Their sons. Cap- tain Charles MacDonald and Lieutenant James Mac- Donald fought through the war with the British Army. Among the officers in the Regular Army during the War of 1812, were the following of the name of McDonald, which is again the method of spelling the name in all records : Colonel James McDonald, Ohio, brevetted colonel for distinguished and meri- torious conduct in the sortie from Ft. Erie ; Colonel John McDonald, Ohio; Major William McDonald, Ohio, brevetted Major for gallant conduct at the Battle of Niagara; Captain Angus McDonald, Vir- ginia ; Captain James McDonald, Maryland ; Captain John McDonald, Ohio ; Captain and Surgeon Charles E. McDonald, New York; Lieutenant William Mc- Donald, Pennsylvania ; Lieutenant James McDonald, Tennessee; Lieutenant Ebenezer McDonald, Mary- land ; Cadet Angus W. McDonald, Virginia, Officers of the name who took part in the War with Mexico, 1846-1848, include: Major Philip W. McDonald, Pennsylvania, brevetted Lieutenant for gallant and meritorious conduct at Battle of Mon- terey, brevetted Captain for gallant and meritorious conduct in the Battles of Contreras and Churubusco, and Major for gallant conduct in the Battle of Cha- 100 History of the Clan Donald pultapec ; Lieutenant Bedney F. McDonald, Georgia, brevetted Lieutenant for gallant and meritorious conduct in the Battle of Huamantla; Lieutenant John McDonald, 5th Ohio Infantry ; Lieutenant Fen- ton G. McDonald, Missouri Mounted Volunteers; Lieutenant J. McDonald, Texas Mounted Volunteers ; Lieutenant Charles McDonald, Tennessee Mounted Volunteers; Lieutenant James McDonald, 3rd Illi- nois Infantry ; Lieutenant John McDonald, 2nd Lou- isiana Infantry; Lieutenant Thomas J. McDonald, Bell's Regimet, Texas Volunteers; Surgeon George T. McDonald, Ohio ; Surgeon A. McDonald, Alabama Volunteers. The fundamental cause of the Civil War was the growth of the institution of slavery in the South, after it had long been practically abolished in the North. The question of the emancipation of these slaves led to a bitter dispute between the Northern and Southern States, the South insisting on the prin- ciple of State's rights, and the doctrine of secession. Between December 20th, 1860, and February 1st, 1861, South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas passed ordinances of secession, and on February 4th, 1861, the Confed- erate States of America were organized. Four other States, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennesse and Ar- kansas joined the new Confederacy. The secession was followed by hostilities, the first gun being fired at Fort Sumter, on April 12th, 1861. Among Officers of the Clan in the United States Army in the Civil War were : History of the Clan Donald 101 Colonel Charles McDonald, 8th Missouri Infantry and 1st Memphis Tennesee Militia; killed in action at Memphis, 12th September, 1864 ; Lieutenant Colo- nel John E. McDonald, New York; Lieutenant Colonel William O. McDonald, New York; Major James McDonald, Ohio; Captain John McDonald, U. S. Cavalry ; Captain Alexander James McDonald, brevetted Lieutenant for gallant and meritorious conduct at the Battle of Fredericksburg, and Cap- tain, for gallant and meritorious service at the Battle of Chancellorsville ; Captain Isaiah B. McDonald, 17th Indiana Infantry; Captain Robert McDonald; Lieutenant Isaiah H. McDonald, Ohio Infantry; Lieutenant and Quarter Master Robert McDonald, New York; Surgeon John McDonald, New York; and Surgeon Edward McDonnell, New York. The President also ordered drafts in the States and Territories and called for large bodies of Vol- unteers. The list of Field Officers of the Volunteer and Militia Forces contain the names of several of the Clan; the mode of spelling being uniformly "McDonald," as in the other Government lists. Colonel Andrew McDonald, 106th New York In- fantry; Colonel Christopher R. McDonald, 47th New York Infantry; Lieutenant Colonel Orlando G. Mc- Donald, 87th Missouri Militia; Lieutenant Colonel John S. McDonald, 17th West Virginia Infantry; Lieutenant Colonel Joseph M. McDonald, 47th New York Infantry ; Lieutenant Colonel Duncan McDon- ald, 2nd Wisconsin Infantry ; Major William D. Mc- Donald, 33d Missouri Militia; Major Asa W. Mc- 102 History of the Clan Donald Donald, 7th Illinois Cavalry; Major Henry J. Mc- Donald, 11th Connecticut Infantry; Major John McDonald, 8th Missouri Infantry; Major James H. McDonald, 50th New York Engineers; Major James H. McDonald, 60th Illinois Infantry; Major James W. McDonald, 11th Massachusetts Infantry. With the Southern Army were a number of mem- bers of the different families of the Clan, who, con- sidering allegiance to their State of supreme impor- tance, fought bravely with the Army of the Confed- erate States. The records of the Confederacy are in many respects very deficient, and it is not possible to give individual names, but among those of the Clan may be mentioned a descendant in a direct line of the MacDonalds or McDonnells of Glengarry. Craig W. MacDonald of the Confederate States Army was born in 1837. His father was Colonel Angus MacDonald, a son of Major Angus MacDon- ald of Glengarry, Virginia, mentioned earlier in this chapter. Craig MacDonald entered the Virginia Military Academy in 1855, but in the following year became a student at Virginia University. When the Civil War broke out he joined the command of Gen- eral Elzey, who made him his aide-de-camp. He was killed at the Battle of Gaines Mill. Colonel Angus W. MacDonald, the Confederate Cavalry leader, born in Virginia, and entered the Military Academy as a Cadet in 1814. He served in the United States Army as Lieutenant, but resigned and became a fur trader of the Missouri Company until 1825, when he became Counselor at Law at History of the Clan Donald 103 Romney, Virginia. In 1840, he was appointed Brig- adier General of Virginia Militia, and on the out- break of the war joined the Confederate forces against the United States. He died at Richmond, Virginia, in 1865. CHAPTER VII ARLY arrivals in the new Colonies set- tled, in the main, near the seaboard, which by degrees became well occupied, and the consequent movement of the set- tlers from the coast regions into the interior was a notable feature of the eighteenth century. Follow- ing this new trend of migration, many of the Clan settled inland, or crossing the mountains joined the company of virile and aggressive pioneers, who fear- lessly pitched their tents deeper and deeper into the great land of the West. In later and more peaceable times those bearing the names of the different branches of the Clan have ever taken an active part in the strenuous movements of American life, gaining for themselves a front rank in its roll call of distinguished men in the army, navy and the Church, in politics, litera- ture, arts and sciences. In the political life of the country the Clan has been represented in both houses of Congress. Alexander McDonald was United States Senator from Arkansas, serving from 1868 to 1871 in the 40th and 41st Congresses. He was born at Far- randsville, Clinton County, Pennsylvania, the son of a native of Ayrshire, Scotland, who came to this country in 1827. Alexander McDonald amassed a considerable fortune and was most active in raising 104 History of the Clan Donald 105 troops for the Federal Army during the Civil War, for some time supporting three regiments at his own expense. He died at New York City, in 1903. Joseph Ewing McDonald was United States Sena- tor from Indiana in the 44th, 45th and 46th Con- gresses. He was born in Ohio, in 1819, the son of Colonel John McDonald mentioned in the preceding chapter. His father died during his infancy, and, in 1826 the family moved to Montgomery County, Indiana. He was at first apprenticed to a saddler and harnessmaker, from which honorable calling originated his later senatorial sobriquet, "Old Saddle Bags." After studying law, he was admitted to the bar in 1844. In 1849, he served one term as Repre- sentative in the 31st Congress; was Attorney Gen- eral for the State of Indiana, and elected Senator in 1875, serving for six years. He died at Indianap- olis, in 1891. Moses McDonald was member of the House of Representatives from Maine, in the 32nd and 33rd Congresses. He was born in the State, and prac- ticed law, serving as representative in the State Leg- islature, Speaker of the State House, and State Sena- tor. He died at Saco, Maine, in 1869. John L. MacDonald, Representative from Minne- sota in the 50th Congress, was born at Glasgow, Scotland, in 1838. After coming to this country he was admitted to the bar in 1859, and served as Judge of the Probate Court of Scott Country, Prose- cuting Attorney, and editor of two newspapers. During the Civil War he was commissioned to enlist 106 History of the Clan Donald and muster in Volunteers for the Federal Army. He also served as Representative and Senator in the State Legislature. Edward F. McDonald was member of the House of Representatives from New Jersey in the 52d Con- gress. Born in Ireland, in 1844, he came to this country with his parents during infancy. He served in the Civil War, enlisting in 1861, before he was seventeen years old. He died at Harrison, New Jersey, in 1892. John McDonald, Representative from Maryland in the 55th Congress, was born in 1837 and came to America, where he enlisted in the United States Army in 1857. After serving in several Indian cam- paigns, he was vdth the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac through the Civil War, and retired as Captain of Cavalry in 1868. William J. MacDonald, Representative from Mich- igan in the 63rd Congress was born in 1874, in Grant County, Wisconsin, and is a lawyer, residing at Calumet in that State. In connection with Congress, it is interesting to note that one of the Clan was the first Chief Clerk of the Senate of the United States, and that three generations of his family have held the same office. John Gunn McDonald was the first Chief Clerk of the Senate, and at the time of the burning of the Capitol by the British, in the War of 1812, McDon- ald saved the records and documents of the Senate, burying them until all danger was passed. The office of Chief Clerk was also held by his son, W. J. History of the Clan Donald 107 McDonald. Therefore, when in the 59th Congress, H. B. McDonald, a son of W. J. McDonald, became Chief Clerk of the Senate, he represented the third generation of his family to occupy this important position. Three members of the Clan have been Governors of States. Charles James McDonald, nineteenth Governor of Georgia, 1839-1843, w^as born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1793. Later his parents removed to Hancock County, Georgia. He was admitted to the bar in 1817, and after serving as Judge of the Su- preme Court of Flint Circuit, State Representative and State Senator, was elected Governor in 1839. He died in 1860. Jesse Fuller McDonald, Governor of Colorado, 1905-1906, was born at Ashtabula, Ohio, in 1858, and went to Leadville, Colorado, in 1879, where he became engaged in mining. He was State Senator, 1902, and Lieutenant Governor, 1904. William C. McDonald, first State Governor of New Mexico, 1911, was born at Jordanville, New York, in 1858. After being admitted to the bar at Fort Scott, Kansas, in 1880, he, the same year, removed to Lincoln County, New Mexico. He was a member of the Legislature of New Mexico, 1891-1892. In many walks of life, men and women of the Clan have attained prominence, and by their learning, industry and genius sustained the reputation of the grand old name. Daniel McDonald, Educator, born at Watertown, 108 History of the Clan Donald Connecticut, in 1785, was the great grandson of Colonel Louis McDonald of Inverness, born 1708, who came to this country and became Colonel of the Colonial Militia of New York. Daniel McDonald was ordained a priest of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in 1810, and after being Rector of different churches, became Principal of Geneva College, New York. He died in 1830. William MacDonald, Lecturer on Government, University of California, was born at Providence, Rhode Island, in 1863, and was Dean of the Depart- ment of Music in the University of Kansas from 1884 until 1890. He then graduated at Harvard, in 1892, and became Professor of History and Eco- nomics at Worcester, Massachusetts, Polytechnic In- stitute. He also held the Professorship of History and Political Science at Bowdoin College, and of History at Brown University. He is author of "Select Documents of the History of the United States"; "Select Charters and Other Documents Il- lustrative of American History" ; "History and Gov- ernment of Maine"; "Jacksonian Democracy"; "From Jefferson to Lincoln" ; edited "Johnson's High School History of the United States," and contrib- uted numerous articles to periodicals. Duncan Black MacDonald was born at Glasgow, Scotland, in 1863. He became Professor of Semitic Languages at Hartford Theological Seminary and has served as Haskell Lecturer at the University of Chicago ; Special Lecturer at Wellesley College ; and Lamson Lecturer on Mohammedanism at Hartford History of the Clan Donald 109 Theological Seminary. He is author of "Selections From Ibn IChaldim"; "Aspects of Islam"; and nu- merous works on Semitic theology, literature and history. Robert A. F. McDonald, Professor, Bates College, Lewiston, Maine, was born at Winnipeg, Manitoba, in 1878, and is author of "Adjustment of School Or- ganization to Various Population Groups," and many lectures on educational topics. James M. MacDonald, born at Limerick, Maine, 1812, was the son of Major John MacDonald, who served in the War of 1812. James M. MacDonald was ordained in the Presbyterian ministry, 1835, and was for some years pastor of the First Presby- terian Church, Princeton, New Jersey. Author of "Key to Revelation" ; "My Father's House" ; "Eccle- siastes Explained" ; and other theological works. Charles E. McDonnell, Roman Catholic Bishop of Brooklyn, was born in New York City, in 1854. After holding many high offices in connection with St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, he was appointed to the Diocese of Brooklyn in 1891, and consecrated Bishop in 1892. Alexander McDonald, born at Forres, Morayshire, Scotland, in 1833, was one of the Pioneers of the oil industry in the United States. The first com- pany to deal in oil as a merchandise was known as Alexander McDonald & Company, of Cincinnati. This was in 1862. Marshall MacDonald, pisciculturist, was born at Romney, Hampshire County, West Virginia, in 1835. 110 History of the Clan Donald He was great grandson of Angus MacDonald, who emigrated from Scotland, and settled in Frederick County, Virginia, in 1747. Marshall MacDonald was educated at the Virginia Military Institute, and at the University of Virginia. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he joined the Confederate Army as Inspector on the staif of Stonewall Jackson, and served throughout the entire war, rising to the rank of Major of Engineers, acting as Engineer in Charge of the Siege of Vicksburg. He was ap- pointed Brigadier General, but the commission did not reach him before General Lee's surrender. After the war he became Professor of Chemistry and Min- ing Engineering at the Virginia Military Institute. In 1875, he was appointed Fish Commissioner of Virginia, and was widely known as one of the fore- most ichthyologists, perfecting many inventions in connection with the hatching and culture of fish. From 1888 until 1895 he was United States Commis- sioner of Fish and Fisheries. He died at Washing- ton, D. C, 1895. Alexander McDonald was born at Lynchburg, Virginia, in 1827, being editor of the Lynchburg "Virginia" from 1850 to 1893. In 1891 he was elected to the State Senate, and served as a Commis- sioner to the Vienna and Paris Expositions. He was appointed United States Minister to Persia, in 1893, and died at Lynchburg, in 1897. Charles MacDonald, Civil Engineer, was born in Canada, of Scottish descent, in 1837, and engaged in railroad work for some years, but his name is best History of the Clan Donald 111 known in connection with bridge construction, hav- ing designed and constructed some of the largest railroad bridges in the country. MacDonald spent some time in Australia during the erection of the Hawkesbury Bridge in New South Wales. "The man who built the New York subway" was the name given John B. McDonald, who was born in Ireland, in 1844, his parents emigrating to New York when he was three years of age. His business career as a railroad contractor began on the Croton Water Works, New York City; then followed the Fourth Avenue Improvement and the Vanderbilt Tunnels. His other enterprises included work on the West Shore Railroad, the Akron and Ohio Railroad, and the Trenton Cut-off on the Pennsylvania Rail- road. On February 25th, 1900, the contract for the construction of the underground Rapid Transit System in New York City was awarded to McDon- ald, and on March 24, 1900, the formal breaking of the ground for the tunnel took place in City Hall Park. In 1904, the first trains were put in operation in "McDonald's Last Ditch." Carlos Frederick MacDonald, M. D., and alienist, was born at Niles, Ohio, in 1845. During the Civil War he served in the 6th Ohio Cavalry, later becom- ing Medical Superintendent of the Binghampton Asylum for the Insane, and of the State Asylum for Insane Criminals. He was called to Buffalo to deter- mine the mental condition of Czolgosz, the assassin of President McKinley, and was medical counsel to District Attorney Jerome in the Thaw trial. 112 History of the Clan Donald James MacDonald, M. D., born at White Plains, New York, in 1803, was sent abroad by the Govern- ors of the New York Hospital to visit the insane asy- lums of Europe. He published "A Review of Fer- rers on Insanity" ; "Statistics of Bloomingdale Asy- lum"; "A Dissertation on Puerperal Insanity"; and other works. He died at Flushing, Long Island, in 1849. David McDonald, born near Millersburg, Ken- tucky, in 1803, became a "New Light" preacher in 1820, but left the ministry to practise law in Indian- apolis. The Presidency of Indiana Asbury Univer- sity was offered him, in 1856, but was declined on the gound that he was not a College graduate. From 1864 until 1869 he was Judge of the United States District Court for Indiana, and was author of "Mc- Donald's Treatise," and other legal works. He died at Indianapolis, in 1869. The celebrated Maxwell-Preller murder case, which attracted the attention of the civilized world, was one of a number of cases managed by Marshall F. McDonald during his term of office as Assistant Circuit Attorney at St. Louis. He was a native of Iowa, born at Council Bluffs in 1854. His grand- father who emigrated from Scotland in 1800, was one of the pioneer settlers of the State of Iowa. Marshall F. McDonald was admitted to the bar of St. Louis, in 1881, being elected Assistant Circuit Attorney in 1884, retiring from that office in 1888 to begin private practice. James William McDonald was born at Stockton, History of the Clan Donald 113 California, in 1858, of Scottish ancestry. He set- tled in St. Louis, and became one of the most promi- nent merchants of the country. The first merchant to import lace and embroidery to the United States, Robert MacDonald, was born at Paisley, Scotland, and came to this country during the time of the Civil War. He died in 1917. Brave enough to "charge hell with a bucket of water" was the description of Captain Bill McDon- ald, the Texas Ranger, contained in the report of Major Blocksom on the Brownsville affair. He was Captain of the Texas Rangers, until appointed State Revenue Agent, in 1907. The preceding memoirs of members of the Clan in the United States include authors of many works on a variety of legal, historical and educational sub- jects, and to these may be added a goodly list of writers, bearing the name of families of the Clan, who have made noteworthy contribution to the lit- erature of America. Etta Austin Blaisdell McDonald is the author (with sister) of many publications, including "Child Life" ; "Child Life in Tale and Fable" ; "The Blais- dell Spellers" ; and "Mother Goose Children." Eleanor W. MacDonald wrote "The Winning of Walk-Over-the-Water," a story of Indian love. John W. McDonald is the author of "A Soldier of Fortune." Robert McDonald is author of "Her Ladyship." Agnes MacDonell is author of "For the King's Dues." 114 History of the Clan Donald Rev. John McDonald of Albany published many works, including "Isaiah's Message to the American Nation" ; "A Sermon on the Death of General Alex- ander Hamilton"; "The New Testament Translated Out of the Original Greek" ; "The Duty of America Enforced"; "The Danger of America Delineated"; and "The Faithful Steward." Joseph McDonnell is author of "Half Hours With God." Alexander MacDonald wrote "The Holy House of Loretto." A. J. MacDonald published, "Monuments, Grave- stones and Burying Grounds." Malcolm MacDonald is the author of "Harmony of Ancient History" ; and "Guatemozin : A Drama." James Grover McDonald wrote "Current Miscon- ceptions About the War" ; and "German 'Atrocities' and International Law." John MacDonald is author of "Czar Ferdinand and His People." Elizabeth Roberts MacDonald wrote "Dream Verses" and other poems. George MacDonald wrote "A Hidden Life," and other poems. Donald McDonald is author of "Sweet Scented Flowers and Fragrant Leaves." M. A. MacDonald published poems under the lit- erary title of "M. A. M." Mary Noel MacDonald's Poems were written over the initials "M. N." Anna Singleton MacDonald is author of "Colunx- History of the Clan Donald 115 Arthur MacDonald made a special study of in- sanity, hypnotism and criminology, and is author of "Plan for the Study of Man"; "Abnormal Man"; "Emil Zola"; "Criminology"; "Juvenile Crime and Eeformation" ; and many other works on his special subjects of study. James Wallace MacDonald is author of "Language Instruction in High Schools of Massachusetts"; "Primary Algebra." Dennis J. McDonald wrote "Speech Improve- ment." Neil C. MacDonald is author of "The Problem of Rural School Betterment" ; "Preparation of Service Thru the School" ; "Rural School Sanitation." John Angus MacDonald is author of "Successful Advertising; How to Accomplish It"; "Successful Retail Advertising." C. M. MacDonald published "Design Argument Fallacies." G. B. MacDonald published "Preservative Treat- ment of Fence Posts" ; "Renewing the Shelterbelt" ; "Legislative Procedure." Greville MacDonald is author of "Vivisection and Progress" ; "The Tree in the Midst." George E. MacDonald wrote "A Letter to Solici- tor Lamar" ; "Thumbscrew and Rack." Edward McDonald is author of "Old Copp's Hill and Burial Ground." Dale Francis McDonald virrote "Infantry Train- ing." Pearl MacDonald is the author of "The Canning 116 History of the Clan Donald of Vegetables"; "Grain and Grain Products"; "Meats and Meat Substitutes"; "The Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables." Donald F. MacDonald published, "Outline of Canal Zone Geology"; "Report of the Physiography and General Geology of the Lower Flood Plain of the Sixaola River"; "Some Engineering Problems of the Panama Canal." Francis Charles MacDonald is the author of "Sorcery." E. M. MacDonald wrote "Colonel Robert G. Inger- soll As He Is." Frank Virgil McDonald is the author of Gene- alogical works. The colossal head of Washington in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, is the work of James Wilson Alexander MacDonald, who was born at Steubenville, Ohio, in 1824. His earlest work as a sculptor in marble was a bust of Thomas H. Burton, the first of the kind executed west of the Mississippi. He also executed a colossal bronze statue for Forest Park, St. Louis, and a statue of Halleck for Central Park, New York City. Christie MacDonald, the prima donna, was born in Nova Scotia, but made her professional reputation in the United States. She first appeared as a light opera star, in 1900, in "Princess Chic," and appeared in the leading role in "The Belle of Mayfair" ; Miss Hook of Holland" ; "Mikado" ; "The Spring Maid" ; and many other productions. Two distinguished members of the Clan represent History of the Clan Donald 117 each branch of the United States service. Rear Ad- miral John Daniel McDonald, born at Machias, Maine, in 1863, was appointed Commandant of the Brooklyn Navy Yard in 1918. Brigadier General John Bacon McDonald was born in Alabama in 1859. CHAPTER VIII N the "old country" the Clan is repre- sented in the Peerage, the Baronetage and in the different Orders of Knight- hood. The present Earl of Antrim is Randal Mark Kerr McDonnell, 7th Earl of the 2nd Creation, and Vis- count Dunluce. He was born in 1878, and succeeded his father in 1918. The family seats are Glenarm Castle, County Antrim, Ireland, and Friendly Green, Cowden, Kent. Baron MacDonald, Ronald Archibald MacDonald, 6th Baron (Ireland), was born in 1853, and suc- ceeded to the title in 1874. The first Baron Mac- Donald was Sir Alexander MacDonald, third son of Sir Alexander MacDonald, 7th Baronet of Sleat. He was elevated to the Peerage of Ireland on the 17th July, 1776, by the title of Baron MacDonald of Slate, County Antrim. The modern seat of Lord MacDon- ald is Armadale Castle, in the Isle of Skye, on the shore of the Sound of Sleat. The first, and present. Baron MacDonnell is Sir Antony Patrick MacDonnell, P. C. ; G. C. S. I. ; K. C. V. 0.; born 1844, and created Baron in 1908. He was Lieutenant Governor of the Indian North West Provinces and Oudh ; a member of the Council of the Viceroy of India ; and formerly Chief Commissioner 118 History of the Clan Donald 119 in Burma and the Central Provinces. Until 1908, he was Under Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. The Baroness MacDonald of Earnscliffe, in the Province of Ontario, and Dominion of Canada, Susan Agnes MacDonald. is the widow of the Right Honourable Sir John Alexander MacDonald, P. C; G. C. B. ; Prime Minister of the Dominion of Can- ada, who died on the 6th June, 1891. Her Ladyship was created a Peeress, as Baroness MacDonald of Earnscliffe, on 14th August, 1891. Seats: Earns- cliffe, Ottawa; Les Rochers, Riviere du Loup, Que- bec ; and Ketotsin, National Park, Banff, Northwest Territories ; all in Canada. Sir Alexander Wentworth MacDonald Bosville MacDonald of the Isles, 14th Baronet of Sleat, in the Island of Skye, and 21st Chief of Sleat, was born in 1865. The family seats are Thorpe Hall, near Bridlington, and Gunthwaite Hall, near Penistone, Yorkshire. Sir Archibald John MacDonald, 4th Baronet of East Sheen, was born in 1871, succeeded his father in 1901, and died in 1919, when the title became extinct. The family took descent from Sir Archi- bald MacDonald, the posthumous son of Sir Alex- ander MacDonald, 7th Baronet of Sleat, and brother of Alexander, 1st Baron MacDonald. The first Sir Archibald became Solicitor General, in 1784 ; Attor- ney General, in 1788 ; Chief Baron of the Exchequer in 1793 ; and was created a Baronet in 1813. Several members of the Clan have received the 120 History of the Clan Donald honor of Knighthood, the present representatives being : Major General Sir James Ronald Leslie MacDon- ald, K.C.I. E.;C.B. Sir Andrew McDonald, Knight Bachelor, a mer- chant of Edinburgh who was Lord Provost of the City. Sir John MacDonell, K. C. B.; King's Remem- brancer and Senior Master of the Supreme Court of Judicature. He is Dean of the Faculty of Laws in the University of London, and standing Counsel to the Board of Trade. He was born in 1846. Major General Si-r Donald Alexander MacDonald, Knight Bachelor ; C. M. G. ; I. S. O. ; Canadian Mili- tia, and formerly Chief Superintendent of Stores, Canada. The Honorable Sir Hugh John MacDonald, Knight Bachelor; K. C. ; Police Magistrate of the City of Winnipeg. He was Canadian Minister of the Inte- rior, 1896, and is son of the late Right Honourable Sir John Alexander MacDonald and stepson of the Baroness MacDonald of Earnscliffe. Sir Alexander McDonald, G. B. E. ; Joint Director of the Ministry of Munitions for Ireland, was knighted in 1917. The Right Honourable Sir John Hay Athole Mac- Donald, P. C; G. C. B.; Lieutenant of the Royal Company of Archers, was, from 1888 until 1915, Lord Justice Clerk of Scotland, in virtue of which post he assumed the official title of Lord Kingsburgh. Sir Murdoch MacDonald, K. C. M, G.; C. B.: is History of the Clan Donald 121 Adviser and Under Secretary of State for Public Works, Egypt. Major General Sir Archibald Cameron MacDonell, K. C. B. ; C. M. G. ; D. S. 0., is son of S. S. MacDonell, Q. C, of Windsor, Ontario, and was born in 1864. Many of the ancient branches of the Clan have become extinct in the main line of descent, and newer families have arisen. The following are the present heads of some of the families of the Clan. John Ronald Moreton MacDonald of Largie, Ar- gyllshire, born 1873, is descended from John Mor MacDonald, of Dunnyveg, second son of John, Lord of the Isles and the Princess Margaret of Scotland, daughter of Robert II. The family seat is Largie Castle, Tayinloan. The present head of the family of Balranald is James Alexander Ranald MacDonald, who was born in 1881. The family seat is Balranald, Lochmaddy, in North Uist. William Bell MacDonald of Rammerscales takes descent from Donald MacDonald, who was born in 1665, and was Captain of the MacDonald Highland- ers at the Battle of Killiekrankie. Rammerscales, the family seat, is near Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire. Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth Lachlan MacDonald is the representative of the family of Skeabost, In- vernesshire. John Ranald MacDonald of Sand, Argyllshire, was born in 1869. The last and 21st Chief of Glengarry, Aeneas Ran- ald MacDonell, was born in 1875. 122 History of the Clan Donald To record the names and story of all the MacDon- alds, McDonalds and McDonnells who have been prominent characters, or have taken a noted part in the history and development of the British Em- pire, would alone require a complete volume to do anything like justice to the subject ; so many of the Clan having distinguished themselves in every quar- ter of the globe. Consequently it must suffice to mention some notable names. The Jacobite heroine. Flora MacDonald, was the daughter of Ranald MacDonald of Balivanich and Milton in the Island of South Uist, in the Hebrides, and his wife, Marion, the daughter of Angus Mac- Donald, minister of South Uist. Her father was the son of Angus Og, son of Ranald, first of Ben- becula. Flora MacDonald was born in 1722, and at the age of two lost her father and was adopted by the wife of the chief of her clan, MacDonald of Clan Ranald, to whom she owed her upbringing and her schooling at Edinburgh. Shortly after her re- turn to South Uist from Edinburgh, the rising of 1745 broke out, and in June, 1746, when she was living at Benbecula, Prince Charles Edward took refuge there after the Battle of Culloden, and sought her help. The Island was held for the Government by the local Militia, but the sympathies of the Mac- Donalds were with the Prince, and after some hesi- tation Flora promised to help. On the pretense of going to visit her mother, who had married Captain Hugh MacDonald, then in charge of the militia, she obtained from her step-father a passport for History of the Clan Donald 123 herself, her man-servant, "an Irish spinning maid named Betty Burke," and a crew of six men, Betty Burke was the Prince, and probably Captain Mac- Donald was aware of the fact. At ten o'clock on the night of June 27th, the party set sail across the Minch to Skye. The presence of a large party of the MacLeod Militia on the beach prevented their landing, and they held out to sea, disembarking early in the forenoon at Kilbride. Leaving the Prince and her man-servant to take shelter in a cave. Flora pro- ceeded to the seat of Sir Alexander MacDonald, where she confided to Lady MacDonald the desperate case of the Prince, and obtained promises of assist- ance to accomplish his escape. Prince Charlie was sent for the night to the factor's house at Kings- burgh. Flora and her man-servant accompanying him, they next day set out for Portree, where a boat conveyed him to Raasay, and he was finally able to escape to France. On her return home to Milton, Flora was arrested, was conveyed to London, and for a short time confined in the Tower, but was soon allowed to live outside under the guard of a "messenger." She received her liberty by the Act of Indemnity of 1747. In 1750 she married Allan MacDonald the younger, of Kingsburgh, and, in 1773 they emigrated to North Carolina. As already told, her husband served the British Government in the War of Independence, and was taken prisoner. In 1779 Flora returned home to Scotland in a mer- chant ship, which was attacked by a privateer. She refused to leave the deck during the fight, and was 124 History of the Clan Donald wounded in the arm, causing her to remark that she had therefore suffered for both the Stuart and Han- overian causes. After her husband's return to Scot- land they resided at Milton, but later removed to Kingsburgh, where she died on the 5th March, 1790. The name of another of the Clan has been inti- mately connected with the career of Prince Charles Edward. Andrew Lang, in "Pickle the Spy" and "The Companions of Pickle," claims to prove that the secret agent "Pickle" who acted as a spy on the Prince after 1750, was Alastair or Alexander Mac- Donell, Chief of Glengarry. The aspersion has been strenuously repudiated by writers of the Clan. Al- astair's father was John, 12th Chief of Glengarry, said to have been a most violent and ill-tempered man. Alastair ran away to France, in 1738, while a mere boy of thirteen years of age, and entered the French service in the Royal Scots Regiment. He went to Scotland, in 1744, as an agent for the Stuart cause, returning to France with messages in Jan- uary, 1745, and was still in France when Prince Charles Edward landed in Scotland. Late in that year he was captured at sea by the English Gov- ernment while on his way to join the Prince and was imprisoned in the Tower of London for twenty- two months. On his release he again went abroad, but, in 1749, was in London, and it is at this time the alleged offer of his services as a spy was made to and accepted by the Government. The informa- tion supplied by the spy "Pickle," whoever he may have been, enabled the British Ministers to keep a Historij of the Clan Donald 125 close watch on the Prince, and the conspiracies formed for the restoration of the House of Stuart. A Mrs. Cameron, whose husband had been executed in 1752, denounced MacDonell as the informant, but he never lost the confidence of the leaders of the Stuart adherents. He succeeded his father, as Chief of Glengarry, in 1754, and died in 1761. Lawrence MacDonald, the British Sculptor, was born at Cask House, Perthshire, in 1799, the son of a poor violinist. When very young he was appren- ticed to the trade of a stone mason, but took every opportunity to cultivate a natural taste for model- ling and drawning, and became an art student at the Trustees Academy, Edinburgh. He studied and worked in Rome in 1823, acquiring a wide reputa- tion. On his return to Scotland he modelled many fine busts, and was elected a member of the Scottish Academy, in 1829. He again took up his abode in Rome, in 1832, where he remained until his death in 1878. Among his works may be mentioned the classic groups, "Ajax and Patroclis"; "Thetis and Achilles" ; "Ulysses and His Dog Argos" ; and "An- dromeda Chained to the Rock." Colonel Alexander Ranaldson MacDonell, of Glen- garry, thought to have been the last genuine speci- men of a Highland Chief, and to have suggested to Sir Walter Scott some traits in the Fergus Maclvor of "Waverley," was the eldest son and successor of Duncan MacDonell, 14th hereditary Chief of Glen- garry. When on a journey he was always attended by a large Highland retinue, and when in pursuit 126 History of the Clan Donald of deer would sleep out, wrapped in his plaid, for nights together. He was drowned in 1828, while escaping from a ship which had been wrecked. Alexander MacDonald, Alastair MacMhaighstir Alastair, the Gaelic Poet, was born at Dalilea, on Loch Shiel, Argyllshire, in 1700. He held a com- mission under his cousin Charles, who mustered the Clan Ranald, and took his full share of the cam- paign of 1745-1746. MacDonald was excelled by none in the merit of his war songs, such as "Moladh an Leoghainn." His best work is considered to be the "Birlinn Chlainn. Raonuill." He died at Santaig in 1780. A later poet, novelist and lecturer, of the Clan, George MacDonald, was born at Huntly, Aberdeen- shire, in 1824. He was of the Glencoe MacDonalds, and a direct descendant of one of the families that suffered in the massacre. He studied at Aberdeen University, where he took his degree, and from there went to Highbury College, London, to study for the Congregational ministry. His health, however, was unequal to the strain of ministerial work, and he devoted himself to literature. His first book was published in 1856, followed by many popular novels, among others "David Elginbrod"; "Alec Forbes of Howglen"; "The Marquis of Lossie"; and "Donal Grant." He was editor of "Good Words for the Young," and lectured in America. His poems in- clude "Within and Without" ; the "faerie romance," "Phantastes" ; and a volume of Poems, in which is the following, entitled "Ane by Ane" : History of the Clan Donald 127 "Ane by ane they gang awa', The Gatherer gathers great an' sma', Ane by ane mak's ane an' a'. Aye when ane set doun the cup, Ane ahint maun tak it up, Yet thegither they will sup. Golden-heided, ripe an' Strang, Shorn will be the hairst ere lang. Syne begins a better sang !" The distinction of having been the first man to walk in London with an umbrella was claimed by a MacDonald. John of that name, born in Urquhart, in 1741, after a youth spent in a variety of vagabond occupations, became first a gentleman's servant, and then achieved an unenviable notoriety as Beau Mac- Donald. He traveled over Europe and Asia with his employers, and his "Travels in Various Parts" was published in London, in 1790. He claimed to have been the first to walk London streets with the now familiar umbrella. A pioneer in a very different field, was Alexander MacDonald, the first working man to obtain a seat in Parliament. Born of poor parents, and at the early age of eight years sent down the pit to work with his father, he was as often as possible sent to school by his mother. He became a prominent advo- cate of the interests of the miners, and in 1842, took an active part in a strike. After saving from his 128 History of the Clan Donald scanty earnings sufficient to enter Glasgow Univer- sity, he studied there two winter sessions, earning the necessary money in the summer. He took a leading part in all conferences of the miners, and, in 1863, was elected President of the National Miners' Association. He unsuccessfully contested Kilmarnock Burghs, in 1868, but was elected Mem- ber of Parliament for Stafford, in 1874. The Honorable and Right Reverend Alexander MacDonnell, Chaplain of the Glengarry Fencibles, or British Highland Regiment, First Roman Catholic Bishop of Upper Canada, and a member of the Leg- islative Council of the Province, was born at Inch- laggan in Glengarry, in 1760. He was ordained priest at Valladolid, Spain, in 1789, and returned to Scotland. From there he sailed for Canada, in No- vember, 1804, and, in 1819, was nominated, and in 1820, consecrated Bishop of Resina and Vicar Apos- tolic of Upper Canada. When Upper Canada was erected into a Bishopric, in 1826, Bishop MacDon- nell became its first Bishop. He died in 1840. The Organizer of the Dominion of Canada, and its first Premier, Sir John Alexander MacDonald, was born at Glasgow, Scotland, on 11th January, 1815, son of Hugh MacDonald, a native of Sutherland- shire, who emigrated to Canada, in 1820, settling at Kingston, Ontario. John Alexander MacDonald was called to the Bar in 1836, and commenced practice at Kingston. His first public office was that of Alderman of Kingston, but, in 1844, MacDonald was elected to the Provincial Assembly as Conservative History of the Clan Donald 129 member for that city. A quotation from his elec- toral address on this occasion expresses the domi- nant note of his public career: "I therefore need scarcely state my firm belief that the prosperity of Canada depends upon its permanent connection with the mother country, and that I shall resist to the utmost any attempt (from whatever quarter it may come) which may tend to weaken that union." In 1847, he was appointed Receiver General with a seat in the Executive Council, shortly afterwards becom- ing Commissioner of Crown Lands. After the Gov- ernment of which he was a member was defeated the Reform Government which succeeded passed the Rebellion Losses Bill. In connection with the ex- citement caused by the passage of the Bill, Mac- Donald was one of the organizers of the British- American League, the objects of which were the confederation of all the Provinces, the strength- ening of the ties with the mother country, and the adoption of a national commercial policy. He brought about a coalition of Conservatives and Moderate Reformers, from which was de- veloped the Liberal Conservative party, of which until his death MacDonald continued to be the prin- cipal figure, and which for more than forty years largely moulded the history of Canada. From 1854 until 1857 he was Attorney General of Upper Canada, and then became Prime Minister. He was largely instrumental in bringing about the coalition of the Canadian Provinces. MacDonald, at the head of the delegation from Ontario and Quebec, met the 130 History of the Clan Donald public men of the maritime Provinces in conference at Charlottetown, in 1864, and the outline of confed- eration then agreed upon was filled out in detail at the Conference of Quebec, soon afterwards. He be- came the first Premier of the Dominion of Canada, and was made a K. C. B. in recognition of his serv- ices to the Empire. The Northwest Territories were secured as a part of confederated Canada by the purchase of the Hudson's Bay Company, and the establishment of Manitoba as a Province in 1870. In 1871 British Columbia entered the Confederation, one of the provisions of union being that a trans- continental railroard should be built within ten years, which was declared by the opposition to be impos- sible. The Cabinet resigned in 1874, and for four years Sir John was in opposition, being returned to power at the election of 1878. Sir John undertook the immediate construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which had been postponed by the former Government. The line was begun late in 1880, and finished in November, 1885. From 1878 until his death on the 6th of June, 1891, Sir John remained Premier, his history during those years being the history of the marvelous progress and achievements of the great Dominion. The memory of the illus- trious leader is perpetuated by statues in most of the principal Canadian cities and a memorial in St. Paul's Cathedral, London, testifies to the Imperial character of his great life work. Sir John was made a member of the Privy Council of the Empire in 1879, and in 1884, received the Grand Cross of the Bath. History of the Clan Donald 131 After his death his widow, as before mentioned, was created a Peeress as Baroness MacDonald of Earns- cliflfe. "Fighting Mac" — Sir Hector Archibald MacDon- ald — rose from the ranks to become one of the most brilliant generals the British Army has ever known. He was born at Muir of Allan Grange, Ross-shire, Scotland, in 1852, and, in 1870, enlisted in the Gor- don Highlanders. At the time of the Afghan War of 1879 MacDonald had risen to Colour Sergeant, and his bravery and gallant conduct in the presence of the enemy obtained him promotion to commis- sioned rank. In the Boer War of 1880-1881 he served as Lieutenant, being made prisoner at Ma- juba. General Joubert as a mark of appreciation of the bravery displayed by MacDonald, returned him his sword. In 1885 he served under Sir Evelyn Wood in the reorganization of the Egyptian Army, and took part in the Nile Expedition of the same year. In 1888, he was promoted Captain, and, in 1889, he received the D. S. 0. for his bravery at Toski. He became Major in 1891, and, in 1896, commanded a brigade of the Egyptian Army in the Dongola Expedition. At the head of MacDonald's Soudanese Brigade he repulsed the most determined onslaughts of the followers of the Mahdi at the crisis of the Battle of Omdurman, in 1898. He was pro- moted Colonel and appointed aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria, being again promoted, in 1899, to Major- General. In December, 1899, he was sent to South Africa to command the Highland Brigade, which he 132 History of the Clan Donald commanded through Lord Roberts' Paardeberg, Bloemfontein and Pretoria operations. He was made a K. C. B. in 1901, and the following year appointed to the command of the troops in Ceylon, but early in the following year he committed suicide in Paris. A tower 100 feet high has been erected to his memory at Dingwall. Another Canadian statesman of the Clan, John Landfield MacDonald, was born at St. Raphael, Glen- garry County, Ontario. He was admitted to the bar in 1840, and in 1841 was elected to the Canadian Parliament for Glengarry, which seat he held for sixteen years. From 1852 to 1854 he was Speaker of the House. In 1862 he was called on by Lord Monck, the Governor General, to form a ministry, and was Prime Minister until 1864. He opposed federation, but on its passage was, in 1867, entrusted by the Conservatives with the organization of the Provincial Government of Ontario. In 1871 he re- signed, and died in 1872. John Smyth MacDonald, Holt Professor of Physi- ology, Liverpool University, was born in Dublin in 1867, and is author of "Structure and Function of Nerve Fibres," "Structure and Function of Striated Muscle," and other works. Arthur Anthony MacDonell, Boden Professor of Sanskrit, Oxford University, was born in 1854, son of Colonel A. A. MacDonell of Lochgarry. Also Keeper of the Indian Institute; Fellow of Balliol College, and Fellow of the British Academy. He is author of "A Sanskrit Grammar," "Vedic Mythol- History of the Clan Donald 133 ogy," "A History of Sanskrit Literature," "A Vedic Grammar for Students," and numerous works on Oriental Languages and subjects. The Right Reverend Alexander MacDonald, D.D., Roman Catholic Bishop of Victoria, British Colum- bia, was born in Nova Scotia, in 1858. He was Pro- fessor of Latin and Philosophy, St. Francis Xavier's College, Antigonish, from 1884 until 1903, and is author of "Religious Questions of the Day," "The Sacrifice of the Mass," and other theological works. The Honorable Charles M'Donald, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Commonwealth of Aus- tralia, from 1910 until 1913, and re-elected Speaker in 1914, was born at Melbourne, Australia, and served as President of the Australian Labor Federa- tion from 1890 to 1892. A famous scion of Clan Ranald, Jacques Etienne Joseph Alexander MacDonald, Duke of Tarentum and Marshal of France, was born at Sedan, on the 17th November, 1765. He was the son of Niel Mac- Donald of Clan Ranald, who escaped to France with Prince Charles Edward after the Battle of Cullo- den. Although intended for the Church, he, in 1785, obtained a commission in Maillebois' Regiment re- cruited for service in Holland against Austria. He then obtained a cadetship in Dillon's Regiment, working his way up to a Lieutenancy, in 1791. The Revolution then broke out, and war followed in the beginning of 1792. He was promoted Captain and aide-de-camp to General Beurnonville, being pro- moted five months later to Lieutenant-Colonel for 134 History of the Clan Donald distinguished bravery in battle. He became Colonel early in 1793, and General of Brigade in August of the same year. As General of Division he partici- pated in the conquest of Belgium and Holland. In 1796 he was on the Rhine, and in 1798 in Italy, where at the head of 12,000 troops he entered Rome, but evacuated the city on the following day on the approach of a large Neapolitan army. MacDonald now had differences with the Commander-in-Chief and resigned, but shortly after on the removal of the latter he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Army of Naples in his place. Bonaparte ap- pointed MacDonald to the command of the Army of the Grisons, which was to operate among the Alps, and at its head he made the famous passage of the Splugen. In 1809, the Emperor ordered him to Italy, where he carried all before him. At Layback he took 10,000 prisoners and captured 100 guns. At the Battle of Wagram, Napoleon addressed Mac- Donald on the field: "On the battlefield of your glory I make you a Marshal of France." After the conclusion of peace MacDonald was in command of the Army of Italy, and was created Duke of Taren- tum. He continued to serve in the Army of France, and on the abdication of Napoleon was kindly re- ceived by Louis XVIII, and became Major-General of the Royal Body Guard. He died at his seat at Courcelles, 25th September, 1840. CHAPTER IX GREAT Scotsman, Thomas Carlyle, has said, "By symbols man is guided and commanded, made happy, made wretch- ed," and the emblems used by our fathers in days gone by are well worthy of being remem- bered. The Crest was the emblem that served, when the banner was rent asunder and the shield broken, as the rallying point for the Knight's followers. Many branches of the Clan bear their distinctive crest. The Supporters, another of the heraldic insignia, originated from the custom of the knights exhibit- ing their armorial shields upon the barriers and pa- vilions on the occasion of a tournament. Pages and esquires attended to watch their master's escutch- eons, and on these occasions they assumed grotesque and fantastic costumes, clothing themselves in the skins of lions and bears, and hence the variety of supporters carried in the arms of the different branches. Many of the armorial bearings of branches of the Clan are no longer in use, but among those still ex- tant the following are of most general interest. The Lords of the Isles — Arms — Or, an eagle dis- played with two heads, gules, surmounted by a lymphad, sable, in the dexter chief point a dexter hand couped, gules. 135 136 History of the Clan Donald Crest — A raven, sable, standing on a rock, azure. MacDonald of Sleat — Arms — Quarterly, 1st and 4th Grand Quarters, counterquartered, 1st, argent, a lion rampant gules, armed and langued azure, 2nd, or, a hand in armour fessewise, proper, holding a cross-crosslet fitchee, gules, 3rd, argent, a lymphad, sails furled and oars in action, sable, flagged gules, and 4th, vert, a salmon naiant in fesse, proper, for MacDonald; 2nd and 3rd Grand Quarters, argent, five lozenges conjoined in fesse, gules, and in chief three bears' heads erased at the neck, sable, muzzled or, a canton ermine, for Bosville. Supporters — Two leopards, proper, collared or. Crests — A hand in armour fessewise, holding a cross-crosslet fitchee, gules, for MacDonald; a bull passant, argent, armed or, issuing from a hurst of oaks, charged on the shoulder with a rose, proper, for Bosville. Mottoes — Per mare per terras and Virtus prop- ter se. MacDonald of Clan Ranald — Arms: Four coats quarterly, 1st, argent, a lion rampant, gules, armed or; 2nd, or, a dexter hand couped in fesse, holding a cross-crosslet fitchee in pale, all gules ; 3rd, or, a lymphad, her oars in saltyrways, sable, and in base undy vert, a salmon naiant, proper. Supporters — Two bears, each having two arrows pierced through the body, all proper. Crest — A triple towered castle, argent, masoned sable, and issuing from the centre tower a dexter hand in armour embowed grasping a sword, all proper. History of the Clan Donald 137 Mottoes — Over the crest, My hope is constant in Thee ; below the arms, Dhandeon co Heiragha. MacDonell of Glengarry — Arms — Or, an eagle displayed, gules, surmounted by a lymphad, sable, sails furled and rigged, proper, in the dexter chief a dexter hand couped in fesse of the second, in the sinister a cross-crosslet fitchee of the third. Supporters — Two bears, each having an arrow pierced through the body, all proper. Crest — A raven, proper, perched on a rock, azure. Mottoes — Over the crest, Cragan an Fhithich ; be- low the arms. Per mare per terras. McDonnell, Earl of Antrim — Arms — Quarterly, 1st, or, a lion rampant, gules ; 2nd, or, a dexter arm issuant from the sinister fesse point out of a cloud, proper, in the hand a cross-crosslet fitchee erect, azure; 3rd, argent, a lymphad, sails furled, sable; 4th, per fesse azure and vert, a dolphin naiant in fesse, proper. Supporters — Dexter, a savage wreathed about the temples and loins vdth ivy, all proper; sinister, a falcon, wings inverted, proper, beaked membered and belled or. Crest — A dexter arm embowed in fesse, couped at the shoulder, vested or, cuff argent, holding in the hand a cross-crosslet fitchee, azure. Motto — Tou jours pret. Baron MacDonald — Arms, supporters and crest as MacDonald of Sleat. Motto — Per mare per terras. Baron MacDonnell — Arms — Quarterly indented, 138 History of the Clan Donald 1st, a lion rampant, gules, armed and langued azure ; 2nd, or, an arm in armour embowed, couped at the shoulder, the hand holding a cross-crosslet fitchee vert ; 3rd, argent, a ship in full sail, sable ; 4th, per fesse wavy, azure and vert, a dolphin naiant, proper. Supporters — Dexter, a sambur, proper, sinister, an Irish wolfhound, proper. Crest — An arm in armour as in the arms. Motto — Tou jours pret. Ancient arms of the MacDonnells of Connaught, from a monument in MacDonnell's Chapel, Ross Abbey, County Galway — Azure, an ancient galley, sails set and flags flying, argent, between in chief a cross calvary on three grieces, or, between in the dexter an increscent of the second, and in the sin- ister a dexter hand couped at the vsTist apaumee, proper, and in base a salmon naiant also of the second. Crest — A unicorn passant, gules. Motto — Hie vinces. "Crest of my sires ! whose blood it sealed With glory in the strife of swords. Ne'er may the scroll that bears it yield Degenerate thoughts or faithless words."