History of Clarke County
History of Clarke County, Virginia
Copyrighted by Thos. D. Gold
Berry V ille, Virg in ia
=V 1 R G 1 N I A:
AND ITS CONNECTION WITH THE
WAR BETWEEN THE STATES
^ WITH 1 LL U STR ATIO N S OF
COLONIAL HOMES AND
OF CONFEDERATE OFFICERS
By thos. cr gold ^
WITH SKETCHES BY
DR. H. C. SOMMERVILLE GEO. H. BURWELL
GEO. B. HARRISON A. MOORE. JR.
AND M. W. JONES
OCT -s 1914
It has been said that when the Pilgrim Fathers landed
from the May Flower on Plymouth Rock, one of them
had in his hands a pen and ink horn and that he imme-
diately conmienced to write history.
His spirit still lives and has been writing from that day
to this. When one visits Boston he sees everywhere
monuments and markers of historical events, from Bunker
Hill Monument and Paul Revere's' old house to the place
where the witches were burned. Old South Church
and Fanueil Hall are filled with mementoes of the past.
How is it with us? Here in the County of Clarke from
Mt. Airy to the Opequon, from Gaylord to White Post,
every foot of ground has been made historic by the foot-
steps of our armies, by the combats of our brave men.
Every neighborhood, every house, has its story of suffer-
ing and adventure for the cause all loved so well.
The J. E. B. Stuart Camp of Confederate Veterans wish
before it is too late to preserve these facts, which should
be and will be of so much interest to their descendants and
all who may hereafter be citizens of our beloved county.
The story properly and fully writtjn would tell of
bravery unsurpassed on the part of our gallant soldiers,
of devotion unrivalled on the part of our old men and
noble women. Of a patriotism on the part of all which
led them to suffer all things, bear all things, if thereby they
might bring success to the battle for liberty under the
Constitution handed down to us by our fathers.
This story has dealt only with local events, events which
cannot get into the great history of the War and its causes,
which, unless told in this way, must in a few years be lost
in oblivion. Even now the lapse of years, the death of
so many who knew of and took part in those stirring times,
make it very difficult to gather the correct facts as to many
things and places. There are very few living who can
point out the exact spot of engagements where men fought
bravely and died cheerfully for home and country. It
has been our object in this story to give a brief history of
the Companies which went out from the county, to tell
of their services during the various campaigns and bat-
tles, to give as nearly as possible a correct roll of the men
and officers enlisted in them. It has been impossible to
give the fate of each or to tell of deeds of individual valor,
but we hope that enough has been told to give the story a
special interest to every one.
We have endeavored to ascertain and give the name and
record of every man from the County who took part in
the war in any command, or in any capacity. Our chapter
of incidents of suffering among the people is not as full as
hoped for, as so few responded to our appeals for help in
that direction. Mr. M. W. Jones, in 'Two weeks under
Sheridan" has given an entertaining story. We hope the
general history of the county may be of value. The
sketches of the towns, villages and churches may appeal to
some. Col. Geo. H. Burwell supplied the sketches of
Millwood. Geo. B. Harrison, Esq., that of Boyce, and
Dr. H. C. Sommerville that of White Post. Hon. A.
Moore, Jr., a member of the Clarke Cavalry, prepared the
history of that company. The remainder of the work was
done by the writer. He entered upon the work, trusting
to the generosity of his fellow county-men; hoping that
they would receive it as a labor of love from his hands.
Admiration for the county and its people and love for his
old comrades in arms have been the impelling forces
which have carried him through. Any profits which may
arise from the sale of the book will go to the J. E. B. Stuart
Camp of Confederate Veterans at Berryville for use in
their general work. While this history is not a personal or
family history, almost every family in the county may find
in its pages, somewhere, mention of a friend or relative who
has done honor to the family name. We hope that it may
enter into every household and be thought of much value.
The authorities used in our account of the battles and
engagements have been General Early's History, recently
pubHshed by his nephew, and the accounts of Mosby's
movements as given by Scott, Alexander, and Davidson.
Additional light in some cases from men who were in the
engagements, have also been a source of help.
THOS. D. GOLD
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Capt. S. J. C. Moore.
Capt. Strother H. Bowen.
Capt. Jas. H. O'Bannon.
Lieut. Chas. A. Marshall.
Lieut. A. S. Allen.
Capt. Wm. N. Nelson.
Capt. Wm. W. Randolph.
Capt. Robt. C. Randolph.
Lieut. William Hay.
Capt. D. T. Richards.
Lieut. William Taylor.
Lieut. R. O. Allen.
History of Clarke County
THE great county of Frederick, as first designated
by the House of Burgesses, embraced all that vast
extent of country from the top of the Blue Ridge
Mountains to the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes.
In it nestled the gem of its State, the little county of Clarke
but it was to be a hundred years before she should take her
place with her sister counties. When the enterprising
pioneer from the lowlands on the James, on the Cohon-
guruton (the Indian name for the Potomac) climbed the
mountain either at Ashby's or Snicker's Gap, there opened
up before him, looking westward, a scene of enchanting
beauty. Vast prairies of hill and dale, bodies of woodland
here and there, the whole rising from the banks of the
Shenandoah, the beautiful Daughter of the Stars, until it
melted away in the distance into the blue mountains in the
west. No wonder that the wealthy planter from the James
and the sturdy German and stalwart Scotch-Irishman from
Pennsylvania and New Jersey crowded into it. Kerche-
val tells us in that invaluable work of his, ''The History
of the Valley," that much the greater part of the country
between the Little North Mountain and the Shenandoah
River was one vast prairie, and like the rich prairies of the
West, afforded the finest pasture for wild animals. The
counitry abounded in the larger kinds of game; the buf-
falo, elk, deer, panther, wild-cat, wolf, fox, beaver and
wild fowl were abundantly plenty. This was especially
true of that part of the country now in the bounds of the
12 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
County of Clarke. Cooke in his admirable book, "Vir-
ginia," says that an English traveller visiting in that sec-
tion of the County around Millwood, spoke of its beauti-
ful prospects and sylvan scenes; transparent streams and
majestic woods and declared that ''Many princes would
give half their dominions for what the residents possessed
— ^health, content and tranquility of mind." An Ameri-
can writer called the region the ''Virginia Arcady," and
to this smiling country the lowlanders brought their fam-
ihes and servants, erected their "Old Chapel Church,"
which nestles down under its sycamores, and here their
descendants still remain. It was rather singular that at
the very first the settlers, particularly those from Penn-
sylvania, and they were the most numerous, settled along
the great rivers and creeks near the North Mountain in
preference to the fine country along the BuUskin, Long
Marsh, Buckmarsh and other smaller streams. While
there is evidence that there were Indian settlements at some
spots in the Valley, there is little evidence that they ever
made their homes in that portion now included in the
County of Clarke. About some of the larger springs of
water can be found arrow heads and other rehcs, and a
few years ago what was evidently an Indian burying place
was found near the Shenandoah River, at which place it is
supposed a battle was fought and the dead buried there.
We may well presume that it was a great hunting ground,
and that the tribes both north of the Potomac and from
the James and other southerly points came here to hunt,
and these hunting parties camping for the time around
some spring, these relics were left. Doubtless the battle
fought on the Shenandoah was between tribes from dif-
ferent sections, for when they met on the hunting ground
it meant extermination to the vanquished. It is said by
Kercheval that those Indians who lived in the Valley re-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 13
mained here after the coming in of the white settlers in
peace and quiet for more than twenty years, when sudden-
ly, as by one impulse, they left and went west of the Ohio,
to return later with firebrand and tomahawk against the
almost defenseless settlers. Many incidents are given by
Kercheval and others of these Indian depredations, but
none occurred in the bounds of Clarke, although Cooke
in his ''Fairfax," gives an account of an attack on Green-
way Court during Lord Fairfax's time, but that is likely
the writer's invention. The earliest settlement in the
County of Clarke appears to have been made about the
year 1740. In that year John and James Lindsey, broth-
ers, settled on Long Marsh, and Isaac Larue came from
New Jersey in 1743 and settled on the same stream. In
1744 Joseph Hampton and two sons came from the eastern
shore of Maryland and lived the greater part of the winter
in a hollow sycamore tree on Buck Marsh, near the present
town of Berryville. They enclosed a piece of land pre-
paratory to moving their families. Other settlers came
in very rapidly after this from Pennsylvania and New
Jersey, and settled in the same section, as well as some
from across the Blue Ridge. At the same time some of
the gentry from on the James and in the Northern neck
settled in the upper end of the county, having taken land
under a grant from Lord Fairfax to Colonel Carter.
Lord Fairfax was an English nobleman who had a grant
of an immense tract of country, lying between the Poto-
mac and the Rappahannock from headwaters to mouth,
a domain almost as large as the State of Maryland, and
having in its bounds the capacity to produce almost all
that its inhabitants might need — the fish and oysters of
the Potomac, the game of the Valley and the mountains,
and a soil that only needed to be broken up to produce in
abundance everything good for food. His Lordship very
14 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
soon after reaching Virginia took steps to have his pos-
sessions settled, and to that end sold in tracts to suit pur-
chasers, or leased to those unable to buy. He, himself,
built in the County of Clarke (Frederick then), his own
home, ''Greenway Court," where he lived in simphcity
until his death after the Revolutionary War. Soon after
arriving at his brother's on the Potomac, he met and was
pleased with a youth of sixteen, a surveyor, who was in
time to be the greatest man of America, George Washing-
ton. He employed him to survey these tracts sold or
leased, and sent him to work in the Valley. From Wash-
ington's Journal we learn that he commenced his work in
1748 and was engaged for two years or more. About a
mile north of Berryville on the Green Hill farm now owned
by Mr. A. Moore, Jr., and near ''Soldier's Rest" is a beau-
tiful spring gushing from the rocks beneath a large elm.
This is called the ''Washington's Spring," and tradition
says that in a two story log building over this spring, the
young surveyor had his office while working in the neigh-
borhood. Some one in the desire to turn everything old
into money moved the building some years ago, but the
spring and the grand old elm remain and no doubt from
the limpid waters of the spring he quenched his thirst and
rested his tired limbs under the shade of the elm. West
of Berryville, a mile and a half on the road to Winchester,
stands an immense white oak which is called by many the
"Washington Oak." To a friend asking about the
country he was surveying, he is said to have reported,
"That all the country east of that large oak was fine and
well watered, but west of it dry and rocky." The young
man had an eye to good lands as well as pretty women as
he moved about the country.
We find from the numerous entries that land was very
rapidly taken up in the County of Clarke, on Long Marsh,
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 15
Buck Marsh and other places. It would be very interest-
ing to note here names of parties who bought and held
tracts, but our space hardly permits names of old famihes,
some of whom are still represented among us, others whose
names even have passed away, all of whom took an active
part in the stirring times in which they lived.
There was need to be stirring. Lands had to be en-
closed with rail fences, requiring much hard labor, the
virgin soil had to be broken up, houses built, crops planted
and amidst it all, an unending vigilance against the In-
dians. They did not attack any one in the bounds of
Clarke, but they were then on the borders of Frederick,
and as all were then in Frederick, the men of our section
had to respond to the call for defenders and no doubt
many of them took part in the fights and wars of that
time. The difficulties of new settlers are not realized by the
people of today, who have everything within reach. In
those days they had to supply themselves. Very soon
sawmills and gristmills were started on some of the streams,
and then building became easier and frame buildings took
the place of logs. Wheat and corn enough to supply home
demands was soon raised, and flax to make clothing, and
small flocks of sheep for the same purpose. Each house
had its large and small spinning wheel, and its loom, and
thus they were independent of the far off cities of Alex-
andria and Baltimore. But after awhile there was more
wheat raised than could be used and money was needed,
so a market must be found. To reach the market, teams
were needed, and soon almost every farmer had his team
to carry his flour from its mill on the creeks to the city,
bringing back not only money, but other things, luxuries
not thought of a little while back. Cotton and cahcoes
began to be in the stores, and, for the well-to-do, silks and
satins. The labor of breaking and spinning the flax became
16 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
burdensome, and with the building of woolen factories,
where the farmer could exchange his wool for linens and
cloths and blankets, the looms gradually were thrust
aside, flax was no longer raised and all attention was given
to horses and cattle.
Among the men who were coming into notice in these
strenuous times was Daniel Morgan, a poor boy from
New Jersey, who had to work as a laborer at first, but in
time became the owner of a team and wagon. Being full
of the spirit of the times, he was in everything that was
going. When nothing was doing among the Indians he
spent his time, too much, in the tavern at Battletown,
where he had many fisticuffs and no doubt helped to give the
town its name. During the Braddock Campaign he and
his team were employed, and it is said that for some of-
fense against a British officer, he was sentenced to receive
five hundred lashes. He always claimed that they made
a miscount, and that he only got four hundred and ninety-
nine, and that they still owed him one. After that dis-
astrous affair he was out with the militia to fight the In-
dians and was made an ensign and stationed at Fort Ed-
ward. About 1760, after this campaign against the In-
dians, he bought a farm near Battletown and devoted him-
self to farming and stockraising. He called his home
"Soldier's Rest." To this place he brought his young
wife, Abigail Bailey, of the same neighborhood, a woman
of rare beauty and high character. Her influence upon
him led him to give up his wild habits and he prospered in
business and acquired considerable property. He was
soon called away again to fight the restless Indians in
what was called Pontiac's War, having been promoted to
a Lieutenancy in his company. In 1771 he was commis-
sioned by acting Governor Nelson a Captain of the Militia
of Frederick County, and was out with his Company dur-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 17
ing the Dunmore War. In the meantime his wife had
borne to him two daughters. During his various cam-
paings against the Indians he no doubt met and impressed
Colonel Washington with his natural military skill and
bravery and laid the foundation of a friendship which
lasted while he lived. His Indian wars being over he
settled down to enjoy domestic life at his home, "Soldier's
Rest," now the home of Mr. Edward Barnett. Here he
became more and more a man of mark in the commu-
nity, and when the Revolutionary War came on and Wash-
ington was sent to Boston to command the troops there,
Daniel Morgan, of ''Soldier's Rest," issued his call for
volunteers, and from the country around he soon had a
company of one hundred riflemen. Starting from Win-
chester with one wagon to carry their food and equipages,
if they had any, they struck a ''bee line" for Boston and
reported to General Washington as from the right bank
of the Potomac. In the attack on Quebec, Morgan and
his company took part with distinguished gallantry.
Morgan was taken prisoner. He was promoted on his
return to Colonel, and took a very conspicuous part in
the battles at Saratoga and aided materially in the cap-
ture of the British army there. Later, being sent to the
South, he was made a Brigadier General, and after taking
an active part in the Campaigns of Gates and Green
crowned himself with glory by his signal victory over the
distinguished British officer. Colonel Tarleton, at the
battle of the Cowpens. His health became broken and he
obtained leave of absence and returned to Virginia, where
he built a house and called it "Saratoga" (now the home
of Mr. R. Powel Page), after the great fight in the North.
It is said that he used the Hessian prisoners, confined near
Winchester, in the work. When his home, "Saratoga,"
was finished, he moved his wife and daughters to it and
18 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
they lived there a number of years. His daughters had
married during the war, officers who were on his Staff,
Col. Presley Neville, marrying the elder, and Major Heard
the younger. At ''Saratoga" General Morgan and family
entered into the social life of the community and dis-
pensed a generous hospitality. His sons-in-law and
families having moved to Pittsburg, General Morgan and
his wife decided that the establishment there was too large
for two people to keep up and they moved back to their
old home at "Soldier's Rest". While here he was elected
to Congress and served one term. In 1790 Congress voted
him a gold medal in honor of his services at the "Cow-
pens." His health failing he moved to Winchester, where
he died on July 6th, 1802. It is shown by his will that he
owned large tracts of land in the County of Clarke and
elsewhere, much of which was acquired by purchase and
some by grants for his services in the Indian and Revo-
lutionary Wars. General Morgan was a man of great
natural ability; without education or family influence he
attained not only a position of prominence as a citizen and
business man, but was exceeded by few men of his time
as a military leader.
There were others from Clarke in that war, and whenever
the country has called, the men of Clarke have been ready
to answer. In the War of 1812, Captain Taylor's light
horse company did good service around Alexandria, and
Capt. Robert C. Burwell's company of infantry did good
service at Norfolk. Capt. Jas. H. Sowers, of the 51st Vir-
ginia Militia, did good service under Col. Jas. McDowell,
of the "Flying Camp," in the Summer of 1813. Many of
Captain Sowers' men were from Clarke, as indicated by the
Roll of the Company. As the years swiftly passed, that
section included in the county of Clarke increased rapidly
in wealth and influence. Her wagons were constantly
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 19
on the road to Alexandria and Baltimore, and on return
trips were loaded with goods for far Tennessee. Many
of our best people now can look back with pride to their
wagoner grandfather, who with his good six-horse team
laid the foundation of comfort, if not wealth. But as the
people grew in wealth and influence, they began to feel
that Winchester, their County-seat, was too far away,
that to attend the courts and the General Muster there
was too great a burden and perhaps they thought that
they bore more than their share of the County taxes. At
any rate they wanted to set up for themselves, and so they
went about it in earnest.
WHEN the Legislature met in the winter of 1835,
a committee representing the people of the
County was sent there to push the matter
through, as they naturally expected that the authorities of
Frederick would not want to let so rich a portion of her do-
main pass away from her. The gentlemen selected were,
each in his line, expert. Dr. Cyrus McCormick, an able
and astute politician, with wide acquaintance in the State,
Col. Treadwell Smith, a successful business man, and Col.
Jacob Isler, a good mixer, to do the social part. Their
work in due time was successful, and the county was or-
dered to be laid off from the top of the Blue Ridge to the
Opequon, and from the Jefferson line to the Warren line,
a small county, seventeen miles by fifteen, but a gem in
On the 28th day of March, 1836, the gentlemen appoint-
ed by the Governor as the Justices of the Peace for the
County, met in Berryville in the Academy. Under an
act passed on the 8th of March, 1836, Mr. John E. Page
was chosen clerk pro tem. The commission from the
Governor named the following gentlemen as Justices of
the new County: Geo. H. Norris, Treadwell Smith,
David Meade, James Wigginton, Edward J. Smith, Na-
thaniel Burwell, John W. Page, John Hay, Francis B.
Whiting, Philip Smith, Robert Page, Francis McCormick
and Jacob Isler, Esquires ; whereupon the oath of office was
administered to them by Bushrod C. Washington, of Jef-
HISTORY OF CL.\RKE COUNTY 21
ferson County. The court then proceeded to the elec-
tion of clerk. Mr. John Hay having received a majority
of the votes, was declared elected, whereupon the oath
being administered to him, he entered upon hi^ duties for
a term of seven years. Geo. H. Xorris. Treadwell Smith
and David Meade were recommended to the Governor as
suitable men for the ofl&ce of high sheriff, and shortly
thereafter Geo. H. Norris was appointed to the ofl&ce.
Dr. Robert C. Randolph was appointed Coroner, John
Ship, Escheator. John E. Page, Commonwealth's Attor-
ney. Daniel S. Bonham, Surveyor. William R. Seevers,
Crier of theCourt, and Samuel B. Redman, Constable,
and the new county was ready to do business and has been
carrj-ing it on with all proper dignity and decorum ever
since, except for a while during the War between the States
when all ci-vil rule was done away T^-ith while the enemy
was in possession of the county.
The County ver>' soon had a sufficient number of the
legal fraternity to enter into practive, as we find that the
following were soon admitted to the bar: Washington
E. Singleton, John E. Page, Cary Selden Page, Richard
Parker, Thomas A. Moore. Richard E. Boyd, Province
^IcCormick, Lewis Glover, Robert Y. Conrad. Robert M.
Page. Philip WilUams, Jr.. Giles Cooke, John A. Thompson,
Chas. B. Harding, Da.\4d H. McGuire, A. S. TidbaU, Jo-
seph T. Daugherty and James M. Mason. The first
grand jury consisted of the following: [Nlann R. Page,
foreman, John Greenlee, James McCormick, Thomas E.
Gold, Jacob Luke, James V. Glass, Thomas Jackson, Ja-
cob Shirely, Paul Pierce, Isaac McCormick. Henr>' Marks,
James P. Hughes, Abraham Haines. John Burchell, John
Newett and Richard Ridgeway. They found no pre-
sentments and were discharged. Licenses to keep taverns
were issued to Bennett Russell and Treadwell Smith.
22 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
At the June Term, Samuel Briarly, Samuel Bonham, Chas.
McCormick, William Berry and David Meade were ap-
pointed school commissioners for the County. Until the
adoption of the new constitution in 1850 the Justices were
appointed by the Governor, and the Sheriffs were chosen
by the Justices, the oldest Justice generally being chosen.
After 1850 all these officers were elected by the people di-
rectly. These justices immediately took steps to have
a Court House and Jail built. The Court House is the
one now in use, but some years ago the jail was declared
unfit for use, and a new and modern one with comfortable
dwelling attached was built in the Court House yard. It
would be interesting to record the names of the justices
appointed and then elected during the years succeeding,
and there would be among them the best men of the County
and the most useful and public spirited citizens, but the
names of only those who were on the bench when the War
broke out in 1861 will be given. They were, Presiding Jus-
tice, Wm. G. Hardesty, Beverly Randolph, Alex. M. Earle,
Richard K. Meade, John Page, Ammishadai Moore, John
J. Riely, Geo. C. Blakemore, Francis McCormick, Ben-
jamin Morgan, William A. Castleman, Lewis F. Glass,
William Strother, John Morgan, Thomas L. Humphrey
and Nathaniel Burwell.
During the years which had passed both before the for-
mation of the County and afterwards, changes had been
taking place. The people had prospered, Baltimore had
been growing, Washington had come into being and was
fast becoming a city, and everything that the farmer
raised, whether live stock or grain, could be sold if got to
market. Long strings of big, tent-covered wagons were
continually on the go to and fro laden with the fruit of
the soil. Droves of cattle went to Baltimore or George-
town, the number of stores was increasing and everything
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 23
was prosperous. Interest was being taken in education
and there were a number of good schools in the county.
But the long haul to Alexandria was burdensome and the
County welcomed the opening of the canal from George-
town to Cumberland, and a little later the building of the
railroad to Harper's Ferry and westward. This revo-
lutionized everjrthing. The Shenandoah River now be-
came of great use to the people on its banks.
Mills were built and flat boats carrying large loads of
flour were soon passing down to Harper's Ferry and un-
loading on either the canal or the railroad. Saw mills
were put in operation, iron ore from the hills near the banks
was shipped, and the hitherto useless river was made to
serve the purposes of man. This went on until the War,
and large numbers of men made their living by boating
on the river. The building of the Winchester and Poto-
mac R. R., and later of the Shenandoah Valley R. R. in
1880, ended all that, and now the river is left to the fisher-
man and the electric power companies, who have harnessed
it near Harper's Ferry and will doubtless do so at other
In addition to the improvements of navigation on the
river, at this time, about 1840, the State had undertaken
a system of internal improvements from which Clarke
was to get great benefit. Wherever pubhc spirited and
enterprising citizens were willing to form corporations for
the building of railroads, canals, or turnpikes, the State
would take a large part of the stock. This policy stimu-
lated such enterprises, especially good roads, such as the
great Vally Turnpike from the Potomac down the Valley
into the southwest, the Northwestern Grade from Romney
to Winchester and others. The people of Clarke, alive
to all such things, soon formed a company to build a road
from the Shenandoah River through Berryville to Win-
24 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Chester, and to Charlestown; one from the river through
Millwood to Winchester, from White Post to the road
from Front Royal to Winchester, and from Millwood to
Berryville. By 1850 all these roads were finished, and
have been kept up ever since. Over them great armies
passed during the War, with their immense trains, and
they have been to the County the greatest asset of value
she has ever had. The gentlemen who put their money
into them never expected, and have never gotten divi-
dends on their stock, but were well satisfied to get the con-
venience and comfort of good roads upon which to travel
and haul their produce, and in the increased value of their
lands. These roads today are the pride of the County, and
the joy of the many automobile tourists who pass through
the country. Along in the fifties the people of the County
voted to take $100,000 of stock in the Alexandria, Lou-
doun and Hampshire Railroad, hoping thus to secure di-
rect connection with Alexandria and Washington, but that
hope has long been deferred and is yet to be realized.
Just after the War another subscription of the same
amount was made to the Shenandoah Valley Railroad,
running from Hagerstown to Roanoke. After some delay
this road in 1880 was opened, and has been of great value
to us. Bonds were issued by the County for the pa3mient
of this subscription, and a part of this debt is still unpaid,
but it has been reduced to something less than $60,000.
During the session of 1892 of the General Assembly, Hon.
R. S. B. Smith, then representing the County in the House
of Delegates, introduced a bill for the building of two
bridges across the Shenandoah River, one at Castleman's
Ferry and the other at Berry's Ferry. This matter was
submitted to the vote of the people and carried, and bonds
to the amount of $40,000 were issued for this purpose.
In this matter Mr. Smith had the aid and co-operation of
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 25
Hon. Thos. D. Gold, then in the State Senate from this
district. These improvements have been of great value
to the County, and the only regret is that more money
was not put into them, so as to put them beyond danger
of destruction from great floods. These public debts,
while a burden on the County, are so managed as to run
for many years and to divide the burden with coming
generations, if necessary. Under the Act establishing the
bridges, the Board of Supervisors of the County were to
have charge of the work. The Board at this time con-
sists of T. B. Levi, Chairman, J. E. Barnett, R. Powel Page
and C. T. Hardesty. They immediately called for an
election on the question of issuing the bonds of the County,
and that having been settled affirmatively, they proceed-
ed to build. The bridges are very handsome, steel struc-
tures and the best that could be built for the money al-
lowed to be used. Ten thousand dollars more on each
bridge, and they would have been secure for all future
IN giving an account of the public works in the County,
we have passed without comment the process by which
the County resumed civil life and government at the
close of the War. When the War ended there was in exist-
ence a pretended State government with Governor Pier-
repoint as Governor, acting under the legislation of a con-
vention held in Alexandria by men from such counties of
Virginia as were under Federal control. This Conven-
tion passed an ordinance vacating all civil offices and or-
dering an election in the County of Clarke under the sup-
erintendence of Chas. H. Boxwell, John W. Beemer, and
John Bromley as commissioners. On the 25th of May,
1865, the election was held with severe restrictions as to
qualifications of voters, and the following Justices were
elected. District No. 1, Wm. W. Meade, Jos. Mitchell,
Jacob B. Vorous and Jas. H. Bitzer. No. 2, David Wade,
Robt. B. Wood, John Bromley, and Martin Gaunt. No.
3, Wm. D. McGuire, Matthew Pulham, Aaron Duble and
Wm. D. Smith. No. 4, Nathaniel Burwell, Thos. L.
Humphrey, John Morgan, and Jackson Wheeler. Wheeler
declined to serve, and John M. Gibson was appointed to fill
the vacancy. Under Governor Pierrepoint the miUtia
was reorganized, and at a meeting in Berryville a full set
of officers was elected, but these things were not allowed
to stand. The U. S. Government in its determination to
treat the South as conquered provinces, set aside Governor
Pierrepoint and all of his acts, and established Military
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 27
District No. 1 for the State of Virginia. Under orders
from Military Headquarters, Military District No. 1,
dated March 29th, 1867, a court was held on Monday,
April 12th, 1867, present, John Morgan and John Bromley.
They were the only two Justices of those heretofore elected
who had taken the oath prescribed by the Act of Congress
of the United States dated July 2nd, 1862, and also Jarvis
Jennings, appointed by the commanding officer as a Jus-
tice from District No. 4, and Samuel L. Pidgeon from Dis-
trict No. 2. Mr. Jennings was elected Presiding Justice,
J. C. Shields, a Yankee doctor living in Winchester, was
appointed Commonwealth's Attorney, Jno. W. Beemer
was made Sheriff and George Glass, Clerk. These gen-
tlemen administered the offices of the County until those
elected under the new constitution went into office. Mr.
Jennings was a Northen man who had settled near White
Post just after the War. He was a most estimable man
and very highly thought of by his neighbors, and was re-
tained in office as supervisor for some years after the con-
stitution went into eft'ect.
In 1870 Edward White was elected Judge of the County
Court, and he appointed Geo. Glass, Clerk, Robert P.
Morgan ,Sheriff, and S. J. C. Moore, Commonwealth's
Attorney. Mr. Glass was subsequently elected for four
years, when he was succeeded by Jno. M. Gibson, who
held it until a few years ago. Mr. Gibson was succeeded by
Samuel McCormick, and he by Mr. George Glass. Judge
White was succeeded by J. H. Sherrard, of Frederick, he
by Jno. E. Page, of Clarke, he by R. A. Finnell, of Warren,
he by Giles Cooke, of Warren, he by S. J. C. Moore, of
Clarke. The office of County Judge was then done away
with, and the business is done by the Circuit Court under
the most wise and learned Thos. W. Harrison, of Win-
28 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Since the adoption of the constitution of 1867, which
went into effect in 1869, the affairs of the County have been
administered by the Board of Supervisors. Since the New
Constitution of 1902, their powers have been enlarged so
as to assume some of the duties of the County Court.
The Board at this time consists of J. E. Barnett, Chair-
man, Hugh Pierce, Lacy Humpston and J. H. Funkhouser.
Since the War, a system of Pubhc Schools has been put
into operation, giving to each community the advantages
of a good school. No one need now be without the foun-
dation of an education. The country schools have as a
rule good teachers and comfortable houses. It is how-
ever, to be regretted that many do not take advantage of
this opportunity to get an education, there being, ac-
cording to a recent pubhcation in "The Clark Courier,"
a very large percentage of the children, both white and
black, who do not avail themselves of it.
Sometime about the year 1900 the U. S. Government
located upon the Blue Ridge Mountain a weather station,
and built large buildings for the purpose. About the same
time persons of wealth bought land near to this govern-
ment property and built homes. This has attracted others
and the price of land on the mountain top has rapidly ad-
vanced. Many others from the City of Washington and
elsewhere are locating there. This advance in land val-
ues turned the attention of the Board of Supervisors of
Clarke and Loudoun to the importance of definitely fix-
ing the boundary line between the counties. By the
Acts of Assembly under which the County of Clarke was
constituted, the top of the mountain was the boundary.
This was very indefinite, and the Boards determined to
appoint a joint commission to settle and mark the line.
This was done a few years ago. Five commissioners from
each county were appointed by the Judges of the Circuit
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 29
Court of the respective counties. Those from Loudoun
were, Hon. Henry Fairfax, A. W. PhiUips, Volney Os-
borne, Benton James, Whitmore. From Clarke
were A. Moore, Jr., S. S. Thomas, T. B. Levi, M. H. Rear-
don and Thomas D. Gold. They met at Bluemont and
decided that the natural water shed was the top, and had
hnes run by an engineer and marked with stones, showing
the line. These gentlemen reached their conclusion and
settled the matter in a most friendly spirit and to the sat-
isfaction of all parties.
BATTLETOWN OR BERRYVILLE
VERY soon after the first settlers arrived in the
county, or even before, the roads or trails seemed
to fall naturally into certain places, pioneers
and travelers from the eastern settlements crossing the
mountains, made for Winchester, even then a village, by
the most direct line, and persons from the lower neigh-
borhoods on the Bullskin and below having business with
his Lordship at "Greenway Court",sought him by the
easiest route. These paths crossed each other, and there
some enterprising person opened a tavern and another
a blacksmith shop, and later a store. Here the young
men gathered to drink and play, and very naturally where
law had not much force, to quarrel and fight. Nearby was
the home of Daniel Morgan, and no one was fonder of his
drink then he and no one quicker to resent an insult, real
or fancied; so the cross roads settlement was called Battle-
town, and for many years continued to bear that name
among the older people, who were loathe to adopt the name
Berryville given it by the gentleman who had it laid out.
In January, 1798, it was established as a town on twenty
acres of land belonging to Benjamin Berry and Sarah
Stribling, and the following gentlemen were appointed
trustees: Daniel Morgan, Wm. McGuire, Archibald
Magill, Raleigh Colston, John Milton, Thomas Strib-
linger, Geo. Blakemore, Chas. Smith and Bushrod Taylor.
In 1803, another addition was authorized by the Legis-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 31
lature from the property of Chas. Smith, on the east side
of the town, and again a second enlargement in 1842, and
a third in 1870, when a large addition from the property
of J. Rice Smith, embracing all that part of the town north
of the Winchester Turnpike, and west of the property of
the Showers family. We still find a number of houses
that are very old. Probably the house where Mr. John
T. Crow now lives is as old as any; seventy-five years ago
it was known as "Quality Corner". Some pretty young
ladies lived there, and one of them taught a small school
for boys and girls. The small stone building occupied
by Mr. John Hart is very old, and was used as a jail be-
fore the County was laid off. The house adjoining, used
as his dwelling, is also one of the old houses; so also is
Dr. Page's residence and the home of Mrs. Cyrus McCor-
mick, which has been almost continuously occupied by
doctors during the memory of the oldest inhabitants and
longer, according to tradition. The Root house is very
old. Its last owner. Miss Mary Courtney Root, came to
it when a girl, having ridden on horseback from the State
of Tennessee. The house of Mr. Louis Scheuer and the
one adjoining are possibly as old as any. When the
writer was a boy, there were no houses west of Mr. Wm.
StoUe's except the house of Mrs. Ogden and the Misses
Washington. Near the old w^ell at Louis Stolle's shop, was a
cabin in which old Aunt Fanny Finch, a very fat old colored
woman, kept a cake shop and sold cider, and big horse
cakes such as the children of today never see, but which
were the delight of the boys of those days. On the Charles-
town Road, an old house and blacksmith shop, stand-
ing where is now Mr. J. M. Kercheval's nice home, were
the outside houses, and on the road to the river the house
now owned by Mr. Province McCormick was the last
house, and on the Millwood road that owned by the Misses
32 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Crow, then just built. The tavern, which stood where
the Battletown Inn now stands, was "The Old Tavern"
when I was a boy, and with its bar room and long shed
over the street in its front was a very attractive place for
those who wanted to refresh the inner man, either with
food or drink, or to sit in the pleasant shade of the porch.
Many noted caterers to the public appetite lived there and
dispensed its good cheer, but none who excelled the late
Mrs. Ann Castleman, who for many years presided over
it to the great comfort of guests and friends. The old
Academy, the place where all got their education prior
to the War, deserves special notice. The need of a good
school being very badly felt, some gentlemen of the vil-
lage and neighborhood united in buying two acres of land,
which was deeded to them as Trustees of the Berryville
Academy. This deed is dated 1810. Very soon there-
after they built a substantial stone building of two rooms,
with a belfry and bell on the top. The old bell called
several generations of our fathers to books, and is now,
I believe, in use at the Berryville High School, calling the
children's children to books. These gentlemen very
wisely provided the Academy with a good library of sev-
eral hundred books of choice reading, history, biography,
travels and good novels. The boys were allowed to take
these books home with them, but very seldom were they
allowed to take a novel, for which the boys should have
been thankful, as they were then compelled to read some-
thing solid and useful. The teachers were often Scotch-
men, who were fine teachers and strict disciplinarians.
The writer has heard this story of one. Two boys, big
fellows about eighteen years old, were kicking each other
under their desks. "Come thither, ye two kickers. Take
off your coat." "I wont." The old Scotchman, a big
raw-boned fellow, took the youngster by the throat and
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 33
proceeded to thrash him, he cried 'T won't, I won't," but
down came the blows faster and faster, until his tune
changed to ''O, pray, Mr. Adams," "O, pray, Mr. Adams."
The boy wore nankeen trousers, which an eye witness said
were cut into strips. For a wonder the boy's mother re-
belled and took him from school. But in those days, and
even in the writer's day, boys did not tell of their whip-
pings at home; they feared another there. Times have
improved wonderfully since then, children seldom get
whipped at school or at home, and I don't see that they
are any worse than the boys of long ago.
Another famous teacher, a Scotchman, was Mr. Jno.
Dow. He was also a surveyor and his name appears on
many deeds in the records of the County. He was reputed
to be very severe, and tales were told by those of his day
about him. Another, a Presbyterian preacher, Mr.
Baber, was a most excellent man, but somewhat eccentric.
He used to open with very long prayers, and one day a boy
tiring of it said ''Amen," and all arose. The old gentle-
man immediately proceeded to thrash every boy, and when
through resumed his prayer and finished without further
interruption. The teacher for a number of years prior to
the War was the Rev. William Johnston, an Irishman, a
graduate of Dubhn University, and also a Presbyterian
preacher. He was a most excellent teacher, but too se-
vere on some of the boys. The War closed his school,
and after the War he moved to Cumberland and taught.
The Academy was used for some years by the Episco-
palians for preaching until they built their first Church.
The Methodists also used it. In it was the first Sunday
school held in the town. Rev. Chas. Page and Mr. John
Gold, Sr., were the founders of it. At that time there was
no church in the town, the Old Chapel. and the old Bap-
tist Church at Trap Hill being the only ones in reach.
34 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Here also the Courts were held until the present Court
House was built. During the War the library was scat-
tered, never to be found. After the war some depart-
ments of the Public School were held in it until the new
house was built, and then it was used to store the fire
engine and a few years ago a spirit of vandalism taking
possession of somebody, it was torn down. It is a little
singular that southern people have so little reverence for
old places. The associations connected with the old
building were dear to many, and they would have been
glad to have seen it put to some useful public service.
Very early in the history of the town there were es-
tablished wagon making shops and blacksmith shops,
where famous work was done. Plows of all kinds and
every thing needed to use on the farm were made. About
1840, Matthew Pulliam, a young man from across the
mountain, settled here and his good work became known
far and wide. When threshing machines were introduced
he built them at his shop and there was nothing used on
the farm that he did not make. Others also were en-
gaged in the same work. Bowly and Ridings, on the
Charlestown Road, and Newman in the lower end of town.
All of this was before we had a protective tariff, which has
crushed out the small manufacturer and leaves us in the
hands of the great trusts. Cabinet makers were here also.
Mr. Deahl, the father of our Horace P. Deahl, could
furnish you with anything you needed while you lived,
and bury you in a good walnut coffin when you died, not
in a poplar one covered with shoddy cloth, as we do now,
and there were tailors to fit you up to nature with the best
clothes. Old Mr. Joseph Noble, who lived where Mr.
John Enders now lives, was quite a noted character. He
would fit you at his home, and he would also go to the
house to cut and fit the men on the place. For in those
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 35
days one of the big jobs of the farmer's wife was to make
clothing for the negro servants, suits of drab woolen cloth
for the men, and striped linsey for the women and chil-
dren. Mr. Noble was the man for this task, and when
not at work he could entertain the family, for he was a
well-read man and a fluent talker, and of most genial
nature. The house where he lived with his sister and a
lady relative was among the very oldest in the town.
Among the best known men of the town in the ante-bel-
lum days was Mr. Christian Bowser, the postmaster. He
lived in the building next the alley on the south side of Main
Street and for a great many years was the Postmaster.
He kept the ofiice and in addition a small candy store.
His daughter taught a school for small children in the
same building. He was a very genial old gentleman, and
fond of jokes. One of his jokes on the small boy who
would run in and ask him for a stick of candy was to give
him a piece of pepper candy, very hot, and then when the
boy cried over it to give him something nice. Notwith-
standing his little jokes, the boys and everyone were fond
of him. He also took great pleasure in furnishing glasses
to those who chanced to have left theirs at home and could
not read their mail, but his glasses were just a pair of
frames with no glass in them. He did these things in
such a kindly way, however, and enjoyed them so much
that no one got mad. He continued in the office for thirty
years or longer, when he was succeeded during President
Hayes' administration by Mr. Beemer. During the War
the people of the town were often much at a loss for a
means of livelihood. There was no work going on, the
stores were closed and there was absolutely ''nothing do-
ing". The men who before the War had made their liv-
ing by work at various trades or business, now had to rent
small pieces of land and farm them. Mr. Bowser and
36 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
others managed to get an old horse, and joining together
sometimes, they would put out corn or potatoes, or al-
most anything, to provide for those under their care. But
for this, they would have suffered as they had no money
to buy with, and there was nothing to buy, as the farmers
were hardly able to get sufficient to feed and cloth those
dependent on them. There was before the War almost
always a good school for girls and young ladies main-
tained in the town. Dr. J. A. Haines for some years, and
after him Mr. Mallory, had large schools on the prop-
erty now owned by the Deahl estate. Miss Mary Court-
ney Roots had a school for boys at her house. During
the War Rev. Mr. Suter had a school in the vestry-room
of the Episcopal Church and after the War Miss Hattie
Hammond had a flourishing school for young ladies.
Misses Davies and Cunningham had one in the west end
of town in a building put up by Capt. J. R. Nunn, for the
purpose. They were succeeded by Miss Laura Gold for
a few years. Capt. W. N. McDonald carried on for some
years a fine school for boys at his residence on the Mill-
wood road. The public schools were started in the State
in 1969, and the one in town has grown in size and use-
fulness until now it is considered among the best. At
first classes were held in the lecture room of the Baptist
Church and in the old Academy, until a large building was
erected. The first building was burned some years ago,
but another and better was built. There have been some
fine teachers connected with the school. The first prin-
cipal was Mr. M. W. Jones. To him is owing much of its
success. He has devoted himself to this work for many
years, first as teacher and since as a trustee. Many men
now successful in life were given an impetus by his thor-
ough training. There have been other fine principals,
and a most excellent corps of assistants.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 37
The town people suffered many hardships during the
War. Stragglers and even the organized troops would
commit depredations upon the defenseless people. They
would take the churches and the Court House for camping
places. The Baptist Church was occupied by troops on
more than one occasion during the fights which took place
in the town, and used as a defense. Mosby in his attack
on the wagon train fired at it with his cannon when thus
occupied, but did no damage. The basement was some-
times used as a stable. The Episcopal Church fared
better generally, but on one occasion was occupied by
some negro troops, who were endeavoring to get some of
the negroes of the town to go with them either by persua-
sion or force. They collected a number, among them Siz
Dangerfield, a big burly fellow, who did not want to go.
After nightfall, Siz, watched his opportunity, knocked
over the guard at the door and seizing his gun made his
escape, followed by others. They never got another
chance to make him a soldier. Rev. Chas. White, the
Presbyterian minister, lived near his Church and suc-
ceeded in protecting it. Mr. White was well known for
his warm southern sentiments and for his earnest prayers
in behalf of the cause, and many ardent old gentlemen
went to church to join him in his fervent petitions. The
writer remembers the service on the first Sunday after
every one had come home from the surrender. Some
Yankee troops, camped near by, were marched in to at-
tend the service. His text was ''By the rivers of Babylon,
there we sat down and wept; when we remembered Zion,
we hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst there-
of." He prayed most earnestly that what was obnoxious
in our sight might be removed, and then preached a ser-
mon appropriate to the occasion. The unrelenting and
unconquerable old gentlemen present felt, if they did not
38 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
say, amen to his prayer, though we soldiers did not think
he treated his Yankee hearers exactly right. But really
the home folk had more to fear and to feel hard over than
the soldiers. The War over, things speedily dropped into
a regular routine. Stores were opened, mechanics went
to work and the town went ahead with new life. A bank
was soon organized, also a building association. Mr.
Pulliam built a bark and sumac mill, which gave employ-
ment to a number of people, and a market for the sumac
leaves, until then considered a useless weed. Geo. C.
Thomas, from Maryland, reopened the large carriage
shops that had been run by Strother H. Bowen before the
War. For a few years things flourished, but fire destroy-
ed the sumac mills, the bank failed, and Mr. Thomas was
driven out of business by the cheap manufactured car-
riages and buggies from the north. During the prosperity
of the town, J. Rice Smith opened up a large addition to
it on the northwest, and many men taking advantage of
the building association, built their own homes. No in-
stitution that the town has had has done more good than
this building association. It has been running ever since,
with great success, and has always been in the hands of
conservative business men. In 1880 the Bank of Clarke
County was organized, and has done a good business and
grown in strength and in the confidence of the people.
Later the First National Bank was opened, and has been
successful, both banks adding yearly to their surplus and
also paying good dividends to their stockholders. In
1880 the Shenandoah Valley Railroad, now the Norfolk
and Western, which had been hanging fire for some years,
was finished and opened for business. Berry ville has be-
come one of the most important stations on the road, both
as to freight handled and passenger traflfic. A handsome
passenger depot has been recently built, which adds much
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 39
to the comfort of travellers. A ntiinber of years ago a
large flour mill was built by Mr. Lovett, and run by him
until his death, and then by the Berry ville Milling Co.
It has been recently sold and will be, when in operation,
an addition to the business of the town. There is also
an ice plant doing good service, and a co-operative cream-
ery, which is doing well. Stores have multiplied and any-
thing can be bought in the town from a threshing machine
or an automobile to a paper of pins. Telephone lines run
in every direction and you can talk to your friends in the
distant cities if you wish. An electric light and power
Company can furnish you with light for your house, power
to run your machinery and heat to cook your food. For
all these things you only need to have one thing yourself,
and that can be got by hard work, that is money. With
the coming of a trolley line connecting the town with
Washington and Hagerstown and Winchester, new life
will be aroused and those now living may see it develop
into a city. The town many years ago was incorporated,
and has a Mayor and Town Council to look after its af-
fairs. Under their management many good side walks
have been laid, and a fine supply of water has been brought
from the Blue Ridge across the river. Before the war
there were for a while two papers in the town: The Ber-
rjrvrille Gazette, edited by D. C. Snyder, and by Alex-
ander Perkins, and another, the Conservator, by Mr.
Glenn. Parkins was wounded at First Manassas and died.
The other paper died itself. After the War Capt. Jas.
H. O'Bannon and D. Holmes McGuire edited the Journal
for a few years. When Mr. McGuire died and O'Bannon
had moved to Richmond, where he was made Public
Printer, Capt. Wm. N. Nelson started The Clarke Courier,
but soon sold out to Jno. O. Crown, a Marylander, who had
fought for the South and settled among us. Mr. Crown
40 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
was a practical printer as well as an accomplished writer,
one of the best editorial writers in the State. After his
death, Mr. Blackburn Smith edited the paper for awhile,
and sold out to Mr. Chas. R. Hughes. Mr. Hughes is an
alert, active man, and thoroughly understands his busi-
ness. He has one of the best printing plants in the Valley.
Soon after the War the most provident and industrious
of the negroes bought lots and built houses just out of
the town, calling the settlement Josephine City. Most
of the older ones are dead or aged, and the younger ones
do not seem to care to keep up their property and many of
the houses are going to rack. They have one very good
church, the Zion Baptist. They have shown much de-
termination and energy and liberality in building their
churches. The Free-will Baptists have a very good church
on Liberty Street, and the Methodists one on Buckmarsh
Street. The Gallileean Fishermen, a fraternal order, have
a good hall, and do much good in helping the sick and
burying the dead. Among the white people are a num-
ber of orders. Masons, Red Men, and Woodmen of the
World. There are two halls for amusements. The Clarke
Opera House and Winston Hall. Plays and moving pic-
tures afford amusement to the people of town and country,
and in August the Berryville Horse Show brings crowds
of people from every direction and many fine horses are
shown. It is the great event of the year and is looked for-
ward to by many with great pleasure. Very many of those
who grow up in the county take that time for coming
home to see friends. This Horse Show has stimulated the
raising of fine horses, both heavy and light draft, and also
of the hunting class for jumpers. As mentioned before
Berryville has probably the largest freight and passenger
business of any station between Roanoke and Hagers-
town. This will materially increase as the apple industry,
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 41
heretofore neglected, is more and more developed. There
are a number of fine orchards, both old and young, in the
neighborhood of Berryville, and also of White Post and
Millwood. Mr. H. F. Byrd, of Winchester has an orchard
of two hundred acres, some bearing, which will in a few
years be very valuable. Messrs. Harry Warden and Jno.
B. Neill, Mr. A. Moore, Jr., Mrs. Kittredge, and Lewis
and Glover, and Mr. A. Arnett have very valuable or-
chards, and many others have smaller orchards. It is
hoped that in a few years they will add much to the pros-
perity of the County.
North of Berryville is Gaylord, a station on the Norfolk
& Western Railway, where a store and grain warehouse
are doing business, and also one at Briggs near the Old
Chapel. On the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. are Wadesville
and Swimley, where grain and fertilizers are handled, and
general merchandise is carried on. In the neighborhood
of Swimley, Mr. Dudley Pierce has a very large hennery,
where the production of eggs and raising of chickens is
carried on in a large way. In fact, the egg and chicken
business brings an immense amount of money into the
country. Farmers are not putting ''all their eggs into
one basket," but are seeking to diversify their produc-
tions. Lambs of the best quality are shipped in large
numbers each spring, and hogs are being taken all the
year to the city markets. So not relying as formerly on
wheat and corn, they are prospering in a greater degree
than some years ago.
A SKETCH OF MILLWOOD
BY COL. GEO. H. BURWELL
MILLWOOD, an unincorporated village of about
seven hundred inhabitants, is situated six and
a half miles south of Berryville, eleven miles
east of Winchester, three miles west of the Shenandoah
River at Berry's Ferry and opposite Ashby's Gap.
It is located on land formerly owned by Col. Nathaniel
Burwell, of ''Carter Hall," who was much interested in
the early development of this section of the State and to
that end erected several mills and inaugurated other in-
dustrial enterprises in the neighborhood, among others
the Upper Mill in Millwood from which the village takes
its name. This mill was built by Gen. Daniel Morgan for
Col. Burwell with the skilled workmen among the Hes-
sian prisoners of whom the General had charge and whom
he also employed in building for himself a handsome and
capacious residence on his own estate about a mile and a
half from the village and named it ''Saratoga," after the
battle in October, 1777, in which these Hessian prisoners
were captured and he played so conspicuous a part.
In carrying out his scheme of improvement Colonel
Burwell had already established a tan-yard in Millwood in
1785, for in that year he leased the property to Mr. Tuley,
the father of the late Col. Joseph Tuley of "The Tuleyries,"
for a term of ninety-nine years, reserving a rent of ten
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 43
dollars a year. Mr. Tuley seems to have been very suc-
cessful in the tanning business as he made a large fortune
and bought a fine estate which his son, Colonel Tuley,
added to, developed and improved with a handsome resi-
About 1790 the erection of ''Carter Hall," a half mile
from the village, was begun as the permanent residence
of Colonel Burwell, he having for a number of years prior
to that time occupied a house in the village during the
summer months when he would make his annual pilgrim-
age from the Lower Country in the neighborhood of Wil-
liamsburg. This house is still standing, and is the com-
fortable and substantial residence of Mrs. W. H. Cox.
Millwood from its earliest settlement had one or more
country stores filled with the numerous and varied arti-
cles hauled from Alexandria which the thrifty agricultural
population of the neighborhood might need. This kind
of store reached its highest development a few years prior
to the Civil War under the able management of Mr.
James H. Clark, who built and kept filled with merchan-
dise the large brick storehouse where everything could be
gotten, from a trace chain to a silk dress. This, however,
was only accompUshed after the building of the Balti-
more and Ohio Railroad and the Winchester and Potomac
Railroad, which brought about the transfer of trade from
Alexandria to Baltimore.
But Millwood, with its neighborhood, upon the sound-
ing of Wear's rude alarms, was no less interested in mili-
tary preparations than it had been in the pleasant pur-
suits of Peace. In 1860 a company of infantry was or-
ganized and drilled by Cap. W. N. Nelson, a veteran of
the Mexican War, assisted by Dr. WilUam Hay and
Robert C. Randolph as first and second lieutenants, and
Mr. John W. Holland as commissary sergeant, who after-
44 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
wards as such in active service had charge of the company
wagon until miUtary necessity required its abandonment
and the dispensing with all impediments not absolutely
necessary for veteran troops. The interest and enthu-
siasm of those days of preparation can be distinctly re-
called when Mr. George H. Burwell and Dr. R. C. Ran-
dolph, both over or about sixtj^ years of age, enrolled them-
selves as members and took part in the drills of the "Nel-
son Rifles" as examples to the younger men, and when the
wagons gathered in Millwood for the transport of the
company, which afterwards became Company C, Second
Virginia Infantry, to the neighborhood of Harper's Ferry
for the capture of that place in April, 1861 . It was through
Millwood that General Johnston's army marched from
Winchester to reinforce General Beauregard at Manassas
in July, 1861, and all the good women of the village and
surrounding country gathered to give the hot and weary
soldiers what food and refreshment could be hastily pro-
vided. It was to Millwood, and Winchester beyond, that
Blenker's Dutch were headed when forty of them were
drowned in the Shenandoah River at Berry's Ferry and their
further progress in this direction stopped.
Stonewall Jackson had his headquarters in the Carter
Hall Grove in the immediate vicinity of Millwood in Oc-
tober, 1862, after the Battle of Sharpsburg. And refut-
ing the charge of boorishness in his manners, the writer
recalls with pride and pleasure being sent with a basket
of eatables and an invitation to him to make his head-
quarters in the house; to which he most politely and con-
siderately replied that he was so constantly being called
upon at all hours of the day and night by officers and
couriers that he was unfit to be the occupant of any gen-
tleman's house, but that he would take pleasure in calling
as soon as he was able. This he did in a day or two, ac-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 45
companied by Colonel Pendleton and riding ''Little Sor-
The above mentioned mill in Millwood was frequently
inpressed by the Confederate Army. Threshing machines
manned by soldiers and worked by army horses were sent
into the surrounding country and stacked grain, threshed
and then ground in this mill into flour for the army, until
Generals Grant and Sheridan compelled even the crows
to carry their rations over this devastated region.
To Millwood the Sixth Corps of General Sheridan's
army came when on its way to Washington just before
the Battle of Cedar Creek, and to Millwood it was re-
called on reaching the River and hurried back to Middle-
town upon apprehension of an attack by General Early.
History would have been wTitten differently if it had been
allowed to pass over the mountains.
One of the most successful of Colonel Mosby's attacks
was made upon a squadron of Federal calvary in about
a mile and a half of Millwood, by which the squadron
which had formed the dangerous habit of daily scouting
from Winchester to the River and returning via The
White Post was almost wholly destroyed by being killed
or captured. After General Lee's surrender. Colonel
Mosby and General Chapman met in Millwood to ar-
range terms for the surrender of the Colonel's command,
which was not successfully accompHshed. Since that
time the village has had an uneventful career and does not
appear likely to be awakened into exciting activity of any
THE TOWN OF BOYCE
BY GEO. B. HARRISON
THE Town of Boyce was incorporated by the Cir-
cuit Court for the County of Clarke on the 28th
day of November, 1910, having at that date a
population of 312.
The first election for Mayor and four Councilmen was
held on the 20th day of December, 1910, at which W. M.
Gaunt was elected Mayor and George W. Garvin, M. O.
Simpson, J. T. Sprint and Geo. B. Harrison were elected
Councilmen; and the Council duly organized on the 24th
day of December, 1910, and elected Geo. B. Harrison,
The town is situated at the crossing of the Norfolk &
Western Railway and the Winchester & Berry's Ferry
Turnpike about two miles west of Millwood of which it
is the shipping point, and three miles from Old Chapel and
White Post respectively, and nine miles from Winchester,
upon a ridge, which drains on the one side into the Page-
brook Run and on the other into the Saragota Run, af-
fording most excellent sanitary conditions. It is appar-
ently well underlaid with water, a number of its artesian
wells proving inexhaustible. The Town well at a depth
of 165 feet furnishes water so cold that no ice is needed
The N. & W. Railway passes through the centre of the
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 47
business portion of the town, which at the time of the
building of the Railroad in 1881 was dense woods; and
the community since its renaissance on the 4th day of
October, 1900, when it was visited by General J. C. Hill,
Railroad Commissioner, in his official capacity, has taken
on all the push and energy of a railroad town.
The Norfolk & Western Railway in kind response to
the requests of the community has erected a magnifi-
cient station of latest design and material with spacious
grounds and facilities, fully equipped and provided with
electric light and water.
In addition to the PubUc Well the Town owns the
Electric Plant and lot on the Railway in the centre of the
town, and has added thereto an alternating current plant
with ninety kilowatt dynamo, so as to meet any possible
demand for light or power ; a switch will bring the coal to
The main street of the Town is piped with water; and
it has been contemplated to establish a fire department
and sewerage system.
The Town contains an Episcopal and a Methodist
church, and a Baptist parsonage; the Episcopal church
being electrically Hghted; a brick High School with seven
teachers and an enrollment of about two hundred scholars ;
a brick Bank with a capital of $15,000.00; a hotel and two
livery stables; one planing mill and two lumber yards;
two grain elevators; nine stores — one being a department
store ; a butcher shop ; a harness shop ; and a barber shop.
Adjoining the town is a large cattle plant, and the town
is a large stock-shipping station. Including the incorpor-
ated town of Millwood the population of the two towns is
computed to be about eight or nine hundred.
BY DR. H. C. SOMMERVILLE
ONE of Clarke County's noted villages, noted es-
pecially for its antiquity, was founded, or rather
not founded at all, just came so, in colonial times.
It was an English settlement under the rule and owner-
ship of his Excellency, Lord Thomas Fairfax, whose house
such as it was, a large one story log building, with no Lady
Fairfax in it, was situated only a mile and a half distant.
The location of this noted settlement was where two roads
met and crossed at right angles. One road was quite a
distinguished highway coming from East Tennessee, fol-
lowing the valley of Virginia all the way, taking in the
several settlements of Lexington, Staunton, Harrisonburg,
Woodstock, Strawsburg down to Newtown, now bearing
the misplaced name of Stephen's City. At this point the
road left the main valley trail, turned east for White Post,
Alexandria and Baltimore. Many stopping places or
Taverns were needed to accommodate teamsters and
travelers. White Post furnished one of these taverns,
now standing, at this date, as in the long past. Water
was vital — hence a well was dug. It bears the name of
the pubhc well and furnishes water today as it did in the
days of the teamsters. It is located on the Media lot,
formerly owned and occupied by a very saintly lady. Miss
Mary Meade, sister of Bishop Meade of Virginia. Very
THE HOME OF THOMAS, SIXTH LORD FAIRFAX
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 49
much history of interest is connected with this Tennessee
road. The other road of not much note, led from Battle-
town, now Berryville, to Front Royal. At the crossing
of these two roads a post was planted and on it a sign
board was nailed with directions to ''Greenway Court,"
the Capitol or seat of Government of all that territory,
known as the Northern Neck of Virginia. Lord Thomas
Fairfax just mentioned being the owner, ruler and king.
I can't say how the word 'White" originated, I suppose
Lord Fairfax ordered it, (the post) white washed, that
being the start perhaps and the reason for keeping up the
whitewashing business, both on buildings and in govern-
ment circles, etc., to this day. Strange to say the Post
never lost its identity. As one would fail and decay,
another would take its place with an improvement on the
former. Today there stands in the same spot a large
locust post neatly enclosed with dressed boards painted
white. On the top of which a large Kerosene lamp rests,
to give hght (when lighted) to the way-farer or others,
that they may see which of the four roads to take. Grand
old Post a mark of antiquity, and what a history it could
tell. It could tell of the splendid country and fine farms
of which it is the center. It could tell of the owners of
those farms, many of whom were among the best people
of the land— chivalric, hospitable, intelligent, refined.
White Post had an awakening gradually and became quite
a center of trade. This started mainly through the ef-
forts and enterprise of Mr. Oliver Funsten, whose store-
houses—substantial buildings of stone and brick, were
built on the several corners of the crossing of the roads.
There was a store room in the tavern, occupied by the
following merchants, namely: R. K. Meade, Hiram P.
Evans, E. W. Massey, W. Weaver, perhaps others, among
whom it is said was a Capt. Wm. Sommerville of revo-
50 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
lutionary times, who settled here about the year 1786 and
lived on the White Hall estate. I am told they all did a
good business. Besides the needs of the white citizens,
there were many slaves, whose owners did not fail to pro-
vide through the stores, for their every day wants. Then
came a post office of the same name. The mail was car-
ried on a horse once a week. This was the event of the
day and times. A general social meeting day of the citi-
zens to discuss crops, political events, every phase of
gossip that could be mentioned. I like those old time
meetings, so cheery and open and free — they did good —
made kinder hearts — better neighbors — knew each other
better and had more interest in each other than now in
the modern method of handing you your mail from the
road side. It is true we would have our little differences.
Our ups and downs, perhaps a ''spat" now and then, in
imitation, you know, of our larger and neighboring town
of Battletown. Our educational interests though limited
were not neglected. The pioneer teacher was Mr. John
Dow — a Scotchman — quaint and peculiar as is charac-
teristic of the Scotch — believing the main things neces-
sary for an education to be Latin and hickory switches.
However, he held sway many years and ''none dare his
right to intrude." He exerted, it is hoped, a good in-
fluence on the youth of the neighborhood, "the boys" —
some of whom I will name, Capt. David Meade, Sr.,
George Meade, Wm. C. Kennerly, Capt. J. McKay Ken-
nerly, Wm. D. Timberlake, with many others have passed
to the Great Beyond, I can recall but one or two of his
pupils living, David Meade, Jr., Mrs. Bush Puller, for-
merly Miss Belle Grubbs and sister.
An amusing incident was told on the old teacher. Dr.
Fauntleroy, the village doctor, had his office just across
the street from Mr. Dow's home. A patient made a pro-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 51
fessional call on the doctor one day and while there a
donkey started up a great braying, the patient never hav-
ing heard the like, asked to know what it meant. The
doctor replied: ''Oh that is nothing, only old Dow has
got the whooping cough." Among his successors as teach-
ers might be mentioned the names of a Miss Eunice Bal-
lard, Walker Y. Page and Captain Simpson, etc.
There was little or nothing done to educate the slaves.
Now the colored people have a fine large, modern school
building, situated in the Southern border of the village —
two or more rooms — ^with basement under entire building.
The purpose being to make it a Manual Training or In-
dustrial School. This enterprise was effected mainly
through the interest and liberality of Mr. and Mrs. Gra-
ham F. Blandy, of "Tuleyries." There are at present
two teachers and all the modern appliances.
The first building ever used as a school house was sit-
uated in the North-east of the Village on the land owned
by Col. R. K. Meade — part of his home place — ^the Lucky
Hit Farm. This lot of some two or three acres was well
located, covered with a beautiful blue grass sod and or-
namented with some grand old oak trees — ^for which the
neighborhood is famous. Colonel Meade, not only gave
the land, but it is said put up a good sized stone building,
to be used as a church (or meeting house as old time peo-
ple used to say) for all denominations — ^free to all. The
building was also to be used for a school house or academy.
It was here John Dow taught a number of years — ^his suc-
cessors following him. The building was made a con-
venience as a kind of public hall — speeches, lectures, plays,
entertainments, etc. It was finally abandoned and with
the beautiful lot sold. That was a sad day for White
Post — parting with her jewel — ^the beautiful lot. Poor
old church — how like the changing links of time and things
52 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
and people, they fill up the measure of their days — out-
live their time and are gone. Before destruction and ob-
livion overtook the old stone meeting house a new and
modern (for that day) brick church had been built by the
Methodist people, located just north, on the border of
the beautiful lot, in full view of the damage and wreckage
being done to the old. Like many new enterprises — ^the
new church prospered — interest was alive, membership
active and large, general attendance good. Among the
Methodist Clergy we had some able good men — men of
talent and piety. While the church was a denomina-
tional one; yet liberty abounded. The use of the church
was granted to the Episcopalians and Presbyterians.
Both used it regularly. The first under the leadership
of Rev. Jos. R. Jones for a number of years. The second
had Rev. Chas. White, of Berryville, for some years, both
prospered. It is well to remark that provision was made
for the interests of the school by erecting a new and sub-
stantial building of brick, containing two large rooms on
the lower floor — the upper story or floor being in one large
room and was used and known as the Masonic Hall. The
same building — ^remodeled is now used as a public school.
The location is near the Methodist Church above mention-
ed. Among the earlier teachers in this school or academy
might be mentioned Messrs. Grayson and Son — at one time
having as many as ninety scholars in two rooms. After
the war Geo. Turner, Geo. Kittridge, Miss Helen Smith
with Miss Lula Meade, Mr. Wm. F. Meade, C. G. Massey,
Mrs. Lucy McCormick and others. The scholars used
to tell a funny story on Mr. Meade — they would all get
their lessons aloud and make a terrible racket, this would
so worry him that he would become impatient and rep-
rimand them severely — then after everything would quiet
down, he would ask their pardon. The lot on which the
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 53
Methodist church was built was purchased from Mr. John
Alexander — one of the land owners adjoining White Post
— ^probably one of the largest. He was peculiar in his
dress or costume — ^wore his hair long, tied with a string in
queue style. He almost always attended service, and was
importuned by some of the church members to unite
with the church, his reply was, ''He had no occasion to
belong to the church, because the church belonged to him/'
meaning that he had assumed a certain indebtedness for
the church which it had failed to cancel. This church
building was not as carefully looked after as it should
have been. The water spouts failed to carry the water
and give the needed drainage. The walls cracked, and
the bees made honey in the cracks and annoyed the wor-
shippers — ^further the walls settled and became unsafe.
The building was taken down and moved near the center
of the town, on the west side of, and some little distance
from the street. Here quite a neat, modern brick building
now stands — having a church bell and belfry to tell the
villagers of the assembling of the multitude and the hours
Adjoining the lot on which the church stands is a neat,
comfortable dwelling, with the necessary out buildings,
shade and fruit trees, handsome lawn of blue grass well
kept. This is the home of the preacher — ^the parsonage,
where time and thought and means have been expended
by the membership to make their pastor and family com-
fortable during their brief stay in their midst.
On the South side and adjoining the Methodist church
is an attractive lot once the home of one of the village's
distinguished characters, Mr. Daniel B. Richards, fa-
miharly known as ''Uncle Dan." He was a saddler by
trade — ^lived to a good old age — spent the greater part of
his life here, making saddles for both ladies and gentlemen.
54 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Horse-back being the chief means of travel at that day.
He was famous for his satisfactory and skillful workman-
ship and many a saddle he and his partner — a Mr. Mc-
Kinstrey — built, little dreaming that the time would
come that the mode of travel would be so changed as to
require neither horse nor saddle. This lot of Uncle Dan's
was bought by the Episcopal people as it lay adjoining
the lot owned by them and on which their church build-
ing now stands.
Uncle Dan's dwelling, modest as it was, sheltered him
and family many years, being no longer needed, was torn
down and moved away. The Episcopal church was
built in the year 1873 on the lot formerly owned by Oliver
Funsten the merchant, afterward by Mrs. Washington.
The lot was a most desirable one — handsome and well
located — Shaving a good well of water. The Episcopal
people were happy in securing it and went to work with
great energy and enthusiasm in the effort to put up a
church building. In this they were joined by citizens
and neighbors generally, each throwing in his or her mite.
The rector. Rev. Jos. R. Jones of Millwood was very ac-
tive and energetic in presenting and furthering the cause
among the home people and visiting the cities of Rich-
mond, Alexandria and Baltimore. It is known as Bishop
Meade Memorial Church, in memory of the late Bishop.
The efforts made were encouraging and after much per-
severing and the incurring of some indebtedness, a large
brick building, seating two to three hundred people, ap-
peared as a reward of united efforts, as well as a home for
the Episcopal membership. The church was dedicated
July 13th, 1875. Within the church are two tablets, one
to the memory of Rev. Jones, the other to Bishop Meade,
D. D. A neat attractive chancel rail was placed in the
chancel to the memory of Capt. J. McKay Kennerly,
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 55
by the survivors of the Clarke Cavalry. Rev. Jones was
a tried and true leader for many years. Now sad to say
its doors are closed, being without a regular preacher.
The large sweet toned bell, perhaps the most so in this
part of the valley, seldom sounds out its charming tones
to the listening and delighted ears of those who dwell in
the many happy homes within a radius of five or six miles.
Some years after the completion of the church, want was
felt for a building for Sunday-School purposes, public
lectures, entertainments of various kinds, church meet-
ings, etc. Finally it was decided for the betterment of
the citizens of the village in general, to build a town or
Parish Hall, to be under the control of the Episcopal
Church. Therefore, the location for the building was
selected on N. E. corner of the Church lot. A neat one
story structure, well finished, seating perhaps a hundred
or more people, was built. This was done mainly through
the liberality, effort and energy of the late Capt. David
Meade, Sr., aided by a generous gift from Mr. Wm. C.
Kennerly. Later on a Rectory was built on a lot given
by Capt. David Meade, Sr., a noble, high-minded, genial
gentleman, always having the interests of the church at
heart and ever ready with his time and means to advance
the good of the community.
There is a considerable settlement of colored people
chiefly in the northern part of the village. They have
two quite respectable, good churches, with regular preach-
ing. Among these people there are some valuable, good
citizens, owning comfortable homes. The lot on which
the old stone church stood is now owned and occupied by
the homes of colored people. A noted saddler was men-
tioned, I think it would be remiss not to mention a noted
harness maker and justice of the peace, Mr. W. T. Whar-
ton, known the country over as "Bill Wharton,"a skillful,
56 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
honest, energetic workman, large trade, served the public
He kept an alert eye on the law breakers and showed
but little mercy, or rather favor. Another character, an
important agent in the development of the White Post
progress was Wm. Grubbs, the mail carrier. He gave his
service and life to this business for thirty-four consecu-
tive years. Poor old man; such a life: Sunshine and
rain — storm and calm — mud and ice-cold and snow — no
let up — no break in the monotony.
The celebrated ''Hughs Suction Pump" was made here
by the ''John Hughs Pump Co.," for many years. It
took the place of the old wind up, crank and axle chain
or rope fix with the old oaken bucket, sung about in the
long ago. A big business was done. It was known and
used not only in this county, but in the neighboring and
surrounding counties. There was located a tailor shop on
the Berlin lot and in it worked a small man named George
W. Rutter. He was fond of singing and could tell a good
story; was an active Free Mason and faithful attendant —
had a big trade. He and his partner — ^A. M. Bull, made
besides all things else — an overcoat with eight or ten
capes — one large, one reaching near the waist, then each
shorter until they reached the back of the neck. They
did their work at night by the light of a tallow candle.
At this date, or very recently we had electric light, made
in this place by the D. Pratt Meade Electric Light and
Power Co. The blacksmiths and wagon makers alwaj^s
had a rush of business. White Post always seemed to
have an attraction for the Doctors. Perhaps it was with
those in the past as it is with some of later date who
came here because there was no other place for them to
go. Among some of the long forgotten Dr.'s might be
named Dr. Snyder and Dr. Burwell.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 57
Then came Dr. John Fauntleroy — very prominent and
very successful — abode a long while, so capable and ener-
getic that there was no room for another. Finally the
war came and took him away. The people were without
a ''medicine man" — no doctor. A Dr. Wm. Sommerville
from what is now West Virginia, hearing of the situation,
came, offered his services and was gladly and kindly re-
ceived. He was a very tall, slender, delicate man. It
was said of him that he could stay on his horse (all rode
horse back then) and walk or ride, just as he chose. A
frail, delicate but noble, good man. Eminent and suc-
cessful in his profession, of great energy and adaptability.
A christian gentleman, exerting a wide influence for right-
eousness. He died in early or middle life. His younger
brother Dr. H. C. Sommerville, after a four year's ser-
vice in the war, came here in the Autumn of 1865. Prac-
ticed jointly with the elder brother until his death, which
occurred in the Spring of 1875. As remarked by a colla-
borator of this sketch — then the joint practice fell upon
the younger brother's shoulders and for many years he
toiled in the face of difficulties, faithfully and efficiently —
winning to a marked degree the love and confidence of all
with whome he came in contact. When deafness and
failing health compelled him to give up the profession,
it was a cause of genuine regret to his many friends and
patrons. About the same time, 1865, Dr. Thos. M.
Lewis, of Westmoreland County, Va., located here. Hav-
ing had a war experience as Ass't. Surg, in the army of
some four years. An ideal old Virginia gentleman, cour-
teous, upright, affable, honorable. He succeeded in his
profession and died at his home here in the village at an
advanced age. In his closing years, he lived alone — a
sad and lonely Hfe of disease and suffering — his wife hav-
ing died some years before his death. His body lies in
58 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
the cemetery adjoining the Episcopal Church, where many
other bodies of recent times He — "Sleeping their last
sleep" — as well as those of the long past, whose bodies
have been taken up, removed from the local burial places
and reinterred in this cemetery.
As a shipping point, quite a business is done at White
Post Station, N. & W. R. R., in cattle, hogs, sheep and
lambs. Some fine grazing farms, as the model, up-to-
date, Tuleyries farm, Montana Hall, Long Branch and
Greenway Court farms. Besides the farms of the Messrs.
Sowers and Lee in the adjoining neighborhood with many
smaller estates. On these farms are bred, grazed and ship-
ped, probably, as fine cattle as anywhere in the valley.
The same may be said of hogs and sheep. Yearly ship-
ments of cattle, 25 car loads, hogs 50, sheep and lambs 15
carloads. Heavy shipments of wheat of good milling
quality. Approximately 40 car loads yearly. Quite a
grass growing country and when season is favorable, large
shipments of hay made. Say 50 car loads. When the
contrary condition exists — it may be truly said of the
country, that it is a ''thirsty land, in which no water is,"
hence shipments are light.
Some large orchards, well kept, yielding large returns,
besides many smaller ones — hence making things very
lively at the station at shipping time — not unusual to have
a shortage of cars, causing much confusion and delay.
Some 60 car loads shipped best years. Shipment of
turkeys in Fall season large and of fine quality — ^prob-
ably as many as 1,000 in one year.
It may be said of the ancient village that it is a picture
and that the frame of the picture is in part — a beautiful
grove. Here nature has done her best — planted — nur-
tured a forest or park of many grand old oak and hickory
trees — large — some giants — ^very tall, straight and well
THE OLD CHAPEL— BUILT IX 1783
OLDEST EPISCOPAL CHURCH WEST OF THE BLUE RIDGE
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 59
proportioned, she clothes them each spring time in the
most inviting drapery of green and in Autumn changes
it to the varied and richest shades of color which only the
failing life of the varieties of the forest leaves can make.
She causes a covering, or carpet of green sward to cover
the ground and each day (it may be) sends the wind to
sweep — keep it bright, clean and in order — not a fallen
leaf, or twig, weed, bramble or briar to be seen — truly a
fitting surface for the shadows of the great oaks to rest upon
and for the sunbeams coming through the oaks to meet
and play with the shadows. In the early morning and
late evening it is enchanting, lovely and attractive beyond
compare. The only natural grove or park left in all this
country. White Post's most impressive object of in-
terest — an ornament of beauty, charm, grandeur and love-
liness. All of Clarke County, come and see it.
OLD CHAPEL AND MILLWOOD
THE churches of the different denominations in the
county deserve special notice, for to their con-
servative influence is due in large degree the
county's reputation for law and order. During the colo-
nial period the Episcopal was the established church and
was supported out of the Public treasury. As new counties
were established, new parishes were laid out and vestry-
men appointed, whose duties were partly civil. Very early
in the history of Frederick County, provision was made
for the building of chapels and one was built at what is
now called the ''Old Chapel." Its history is given in an
address delivered by Capt. Wm. N. Nelson in 1897. We
^all use extracts from his address, which tells far better
than the writer can, the history of that venerable building
and the Congregation that attended there.
''I will now proceed to give a short sketch of the history
of this Old Chapel, with such incidents as I have been able
to gather, that are suitable to the time and place. In
giving the history of the Old Chapel little more is neces-
sary than to follow Bishop Meade in his ''Old Churches
and Families of Virginia," adding such incidents as are
hardly worthy of the dignity of history."
On page 280, Volume II, of this book, he says; "In the
year 1738 the Assembly, in consideration of the increas-
ing number of settlers in the Valley, determined to cut
off two new counties and parishes; viz.. West Augusta
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 61
and Frederick, from Orange county and parish, which lat-
ter then took in all West Virginia. The county of Fred-
erick embraces all that is now Shenandoah — with part of
Page, Warren, Clarke, Frederick, Jefferson, Berkeley and
Hampshire. "(See also Henning's Statutes at Large, Vol-
ume V, Chapter 21, page 78) It is not pleasant to re-
call that even in those primitive days public moneys were
not always as accurately accounted for as might have been
expected. Somewhere between 1738 and 1744, 1,500
Pounds had been raised for the purpose of building
churches and chapels in the parish. This was at that
time a very considerable sum of money. The return in
the way of places of worship was very unsatisfactory. In
his book (Page 281, Volume II) The Bishop says: ''In
1752 an Act of Assembly was passed dissolving the ex-
isting vestry and ordered a new election, on the ground
that it had raised more than 1,500 Pounds for building a
number of churches, which were unfinished and in a ruin-
ous condition. As the churches of that day and in this
region were log houses, costing only from thirty to forty
or fifty pounds, there must have been much misspending
of money." There is nothing heard of this vestry, except
that they appointed processioners in 1747. I presume
these were men appointed to lay off metes and bounds of
parishes. It was dissolved in the year 1752, and in their
place the following vestry was chosen, viz., Thomas,
Lord Fairfax, Isaac Perkins, Gabriel Jones, John Hite,
Thomas Swearingen, Charles Buck, Robert Lemmon,
John Lindsey, John Ashby, James Cromley and Lewis
Neill. Evidently a respectable body of gentlemen, in
whose hands the public funds were safe, and sure to be
There is no record of the exact time the old log house
(known as Cunningham Chapel) was built. Bishop Meade
62 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
in his book says (Page 283, Volume II.) that this chapel,
with several others, was probably completed for use be-
tween the years 1740 and 1750. In the vestry book, of
which I have before me a copy made by Dr. Randolph at
the request of Bishop Meade, I find no allusion to it un-
til the year 1760, when the vestry contracted with Capt.
John Ashby, of Fauquier County, to make the following
repairs, viz., ''To cover the roof of said chapel with clap-
boards, and double ten nails, repairing the outside with
clapboards, when wanting, and etc." Among other items
he is to make "a new door to the women's pew," and ''mak-
ing tight and secure under the eaves of the roof to prevent
the birds coming in thereat." I do not learn what is
the meaning of the "women's pew." Our ancesters were
hardly so ungallant as to shut up the ladies of the congre-
gation in one pew.
We learn from the Bishop's book ("Old Churches,"
etc. page 285) that the Rev. Mr. Gordon was the first
Rector. It is not known when his ministry began or
ended. The Rev. Mr. Meldrum is next. He continued
in charge until 1765. Between him and the vestry a long
law suit was carried on, which terminated in his favor.
The vestry applied to the Assembly for relief and obtained
it. From 1766 the Rev. Sebastian was minister for two
years. In 1768 the Rev. Charles Mynn Thruston became
the minister, binding himself to preach at seven places
scattered over the large parish, including Shepherdstown.
In 1769 the county and parishes of Frederick were di-
vided into the counties of Dunmore (now Shenandoah),
Frederick and Berkeley; and into the parishes of Beck-
ford, Frederick and Norborne.
There was complaint made against Mr. Thruston that
he neglected his duty, in that he had preached in his
parish church but once since laying the parish levy.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 63
How long that was is not stated. The charge seems to
have been estabUshed, but at the next meeting of the ves-
try (December 27th, 1770), he having given satisfactory
reasons for his neglect of duty, was excused by the vestry,
and agreed to make up the deficiency by preaching on
Wednesday, if required to do so. His salary was 16,000
pounds of tobacco, equal to 214 pounds. In 1777 Mr.
Thruston laid down the ministry and entered the Conti-
nental army as Captain. He was afterwards promoted
to a Colonelcy, but, having no regiment, rendered no
further active service. He never resumed the ministry,
and died many years afterwards in New Orleans. From
the time of Colonel Thruston's resignation in 1777 to 1785
there is no record, as far as I can ascertain, of any minister
in the parish. In the latter year a vestry was elected con-
sisting of Col. Richard Kidder Meade, George F. Norton,
wardens; John Thruston, Edward Smith, Raleigh Cols-
ton, Gerard Briscoe, Robert Wood and Maj. Thomas Mas-
sie. Prior to this the vestries had been legal bodies.
Among their duties they collected tithables to pay the min-
ister, to build and repair churches, and to support pau-
pers and other persons chargeable on the county or parish.
It appears that in case of vacancies, ministers made ap-
plications for appointment, and were selected by the ves-
tries from among the applicants. This was changed by the
separation of Church and State in 1780. The above
named vestry selected Rev. Alexander Balmaine as min-
ister. He was a native of Scotland, but sympathizing
with the Colonies in their struggle with the mother country
he came to this country and became Chaplain in the Con-
tinental army. He continued the Rector of Frederick
parish until his death. Bishop Meade, having been a lay
reader at this Chapel, was ordained Deacon in 1811 and
acted as assistant to Mr. Balmaine. The Bishop was
64 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
minister at the Old Chapel for twenty-five years. He
gave up the charge of this church a year after Christ
Church, Millwood, was built. In 1835 the vestry called
the Rev. Horace Stringfellow. He continued in charge
about five years. The exact date of his resignation does
not appear in the minutes of the vestry. He occupied
the log house, back of the house built by the late James
H. Clark, Millwood. The Rev. Wm. H. G. Jones was
called to take charge of the parish as its Rector on the
20th of April, 1840. He continued in charge seven years
and resigned on the 15th of September, 1847. He re-
sided in what is known as the Tuley house, now owned and
occupied by Mr. John W. Copenhaver. October 13th,
1847, Rev. John F. Hoff accepted a call to take charge of
the parish. After a short residence at White Post, he occu-
pied the house known as the Rectory, near Millwood, now
owned by Rev. Joseph R. Jones. Mr. Hoff's resignation
was tendered and accepted on the 21st of June, 1858, hav-
ing had charge of the parish for nearly eleven years. On
the 9th of August, 1858, Rev. Joseph R. Jones accepted a
call by the vestry to the Rectorship of the parish. He con-
tinued in charge until April 18th, 1881, when his resignation
was tendered to the vestry and accepted. He lived at his
present residence. Our present Rector, Rev. C. B. Bryan,
having accepted a call to this parish preached his first
sermon here on the first Sunday in August, 1881.
Having begun a list of the clergy who have ofiiciated as
ministers in charge of this chapel, it was thought best to
bring it up to the present time.
I will now return to where the narrative was left off in
1785. Prior to that time, and from the year 1764, the
lay readers of the different parishes were John Ruddell,
James Barnett, (who was also a vestryman, and afterwards
resigned, having connected himself with the Baptist com-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 65
munion), John Barnes, Henry Nelson, James Graham,
Henry Frencham, Morgan Morgan, John James, WiUiam
Dobson, William Howard (reader at this Chapel) and
John Lloyd. In the accounts in the old vestry book we
find items of amounts paid these lay readers. On which
the present custom of voluntary service is a decided im-
provement. By an act of the General Assembly of Vir-
ginia of October 30th, 1780, the old vestries were dissolved
and the severance between the Church and State was ef-
In addition to the vestrymen already named it will be
of interest to give the names of a few others who served
in that capacity prior to 1780. They are Isaac Hite,
John Hite, Jacob Hite, John Neville, Charles Smith,
James Wood (afterwards a general in the Continental
Army and Governor of Virginia about 1816) (Old Churches
etc., page 284) Angus McDonald, Philip Bush, Marquis
Calmes, John McDonald, Warner Washington, Edmund
Subsequent to the division of Frederick parish into the
three parishes heretofore referred to, there were other di-
visions of that parish. It will not be necessary to fol-
low all the divisions. A full account will be found of
them in Dashiel's Digest of the Councils in the Diocese
of Virginia, and in Bishop Meade's ''Old Churches," etc.
In his account of the parishes in Frederick county the
Bishop says: "In the year 1827 Christ Church, Win-
chester, was organized into a separate parish, to be called
the parish of Frederick, Winchester." Luther parish,
afterwards changed to Clarke parish (Berryville) was ad-
mitted in 1853. Greenway Court parish was admitted
in 1868. It was in 1866 that the name of Cunningham
Chapel parish was adopted for this parish. (See Dashiel's
Digest for foregoing statements.) This is clearly a mis-
66 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
nomer. That had never been the name, as is stated in
vestry book for the year 1866. The parishes named
above, and others, had been cut off from time to time from
Frederick parish. This parish has never been so cut off,
and remains what is left of the original Frederick parish.
It will be observed that the Winchester parish recognized
this in giving the name of Frederick, Winchester.
We learn from Bishop Meade's invaluable book (page
288, Volume II) that, among the first things done by the
vestry of Frederick, after its reorganization in 1787, was
the adoption of measures for the building of a stone chapel
where it was designed to erect that one which failed
through the disagreement of the people and the vestry as
to its location just before the Revolution, viz., where
Cunningham Chapel stood. The land having come into
the possession of Col. Nathaniel Burwell the same two
acres for a church burying ground, which were offered by
Col. Hugh Nelson before the war, were given by Colonel
Burwell, and the present stone chapel ordered to be built
in 1790. (See action of vestry. Vestry Book, page 68.)
The old log building, which has been spoken of, stood a
few paces south of the present building, near the north
corner of the stone enclosure nearest this house. After
Bishop Meade took charge of this church, Mr. Philip
Nelson, of Long Branch, was the first lay reader. Of him
Bishop Meade says in his obituary: ''He was a lay reader
in this parish for a long series of years, keeping the church
open in my absence. He was one of the best readers, and
had a most melodious and powerful voice." (Vestry Book,
page 172) The ordination of Bishop Meade in 1881, and
his becoming minister of this parish, brings us much nearer
to our own time. He remained a Deacon for four years,
and was then ordained a Presbyter by Bishop Clagett, of
Maryland, there being no Bishop in Virginia at that time.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 67
He says that his salary during his ministry here did not
average more than $250 a year; but, as he writes, he "took
care to make the people contribute liberally to various
Owing to the incompleteness of the records it is difficult
to find at what time the first vestry meeting was held in
this place. As early as April 24th, 1796, a vestry for
Frederick parish met, of whom five out of eight present
were residents of this immediate neighborhood. In 1802
a meeting of the vestry is recorded, of which a majority
belong to this congregation. At a meeting on the 25th
of September, 1803, the members of the vestry reported
present are Richard Kidder Meade, Nathaniel Burwell,
Thomas T. Byrd, John Page, Robert Page, Robert Carter
Burwell, John Smith and Phihp Nelson; John Page and
Robert Page, wardens. As all of these were residents of
this neighborhood and members of this congregation, we
may fairly assume that this was a vestry for Cunningham
Chapel, distinct from any other church or chapel.
There is but little further of special interest to record
of the Old Chapel — as it is universally called — until it
was found necessary to have a larger building. In the
record for the year 1832, I find in our vestry book this
minute: ''About this time the connection ceased between
the Millwood — or Old Chapel — congregation and the Ber-
ry ville and Wickliffe congregations." The next vestry
reported after that time is composed entirely of gentlemen
from the Millwood neighborhood (Vestry Book 119-20).
Christ Church, Millwood, was built in the year 1834.
The lot of two acres on which it stands was given for the
purpose of building the church by Mr. George Burwell,
of Carter Hall, who was always liberal and generous in
his donations to the church and to all benevolent ob-
jects. The deed by which the lot was conveyed to the
68 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
trustees of the church is dated April 18, 1832. In his
book (Page 288, Volume II) Bishop Meade says:
*'In the year 1834 it was found that the Old Chapel was
too small and inconvenient for the increasing congrega-
tion, and it was therefore determined to erect another and
larger one in a more central and convenient place in the
vicinity of Millwood, on ground given by Mr. George Bur-
well, of Carter Hall. Such, however, was the attach-
ment of many to the Old Chapel that funds for the latter
could not be obtained, except on condition of alternate
services at the Chapel. From year to year these services
became less frequent, until, at length, they are now re-
duced to an annual pilgrimage, on some summer Sabbath,
to this old and much loved spot; or death summons the
neighbors to add one more to the tenants of the grave-
The tradition that the annual services held here are
prescribed by the contract by which the property is held
rests only on the stipulation in the deed from Col. Na-
thaniel Burwell, that in case it is used for any purpose in-
compatible with its use as a place of divine worship, it
shall revert to him and his heirs.
After the removal of the congregation to Christ Church,
Millwood, the history of the ''Old Chapel" is little more
than a record of those who, from time to time, have gone
over to the great majority. Eighteen of our soldiers,
who gave their lives for the cause of States rights, lie
buried here, and memorial services have been held here
in every summer since 1866, to keep green the memory
of our dead and to dfecorate their graves with flowers."
In the grave yard at Old Chapel are the graves of the
dead from the families of the Millwood neighborhood,
making it a sacred spot to many people. It is also the
resting place of a number of Confederate Soldiers from
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 69
the county and elsewhere. Here each recurring spring a
large number of people gather to place flowers upon the
graves of those whom they love as friends and kindred
and also upon those of the men who gave their lives for
the cause all loved so well. Here each year some one in
simple tale of burning eloquence tells the story of the times
when men gave their lives, their all for the cause they loved,
or perhaps in calm dispassionate logic, lays bare the
causes— which through many years led to this great strife.
May posterity through all the years to come keep this
At the Old Chapel is the first monument erected in honor
of the Confederate dead from the county. To Capt. W.
N. Nelson and the patriotic people of Millwood and vi-
cinity is due the honor of this work. A monument of
granite, upon which is carved the names of those from this
county who lost their lives during the war between the
States. When the flowers have been placed upon the
graves at the annual gathering for that purpose, the roll
of all the soldiers dead from the county and of those from
other states buried here is called. This duty for many
years was performed by Capt. W. N. Nelson, but for
recent years by Mr. R. Powel Page. A few years more
and some son of a Confederate soldier will have to assume
this sacred duty.
The Rectors of Christ Church, Millwood, since the
above was written have been: Rev. John Pointz Tyler,
Rev. J. Courtney Jones, Rev. Edward H. Engle, Rev. J.
M. Robeson the present incumbent.
VALLEY VIEW MISSION SCHOOL
The Valley View Mission School was established by the
Rev. J. M. Robeson on the road through Ashby's Gap in
1909, and consists of an attractive school building adapt-
70 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
ed to both school purposes and public worship. The
school is largely attended and has been presided over by
excellent teachers without expense to the county.
This parish was originally within the limits of the cure
administered by the Rev. Mr. Balmaine. Subsequent-
ly the Rt. Rev. William Meade extended his ministerial
labors over this parish, while he was rector at the old
stone chapel of the Millwood congregation. The Rev.
Dr. Jones and others occasionally visited the parish, and
preached at Wickliffe Church at stated intervals, Clarke
parish then not having been formed from Wickliffe parish.
The Rev. Jared Rice had charge for one year. The Ber-
ryville congregation had been worshiping in the old stone
academy in the village, but under Mr. Rice's rectorship
a church building was completed. The intention of the
people, was at first to make the building a union church,
but by the advice of Bishop Meade, it was erected for the
sole use of the Episcopahans. Mr. Rice's services, so
auspiciously commenced, were terminated by a speedy
removal and premature death. The Rev. William M.
Jackson succedeed him, taking charge of the congrega-
tion in Berryville and Wickhffe in 1832. He was the rec-
tor for eight years.
The Rev. Alex. Shiras w^as the next minister, from 1840
to 1844. Under him the rectory in Berryville was built,
and the present Wickliffe Church commenced. Toward
the erection of the church, Mrs. Gen. Parker had left a
bequest of $500.
The Rev. Richard H. Wilmer succeeded Mr. Shiras in
1844, and resigned in 1849. During his rectorship, the
new church at Wickliffe was consecrated by Bishop Meade,
on February 5, 1846, and in 1848 Grace Church, in Berry-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 71
ville, was improved by the addition of galleries, and other-
wise repaired and enlarged, at an expense of S800.
The Rev. Joshua Peterkin became the rector in 1849,
and resigned in 1852. His brother-in-law, the Rev. Wil-
liam D. Hanson, assisted him during this time, in preach-
ing to the servants at Wickliffe and to the white people
at Kabletown, and also on the mountain, at "Manning's
School House," and "Mount Carmel," the latter a log
chapel, built by the exertions of Mr. William J. Williams.
The Rev. Francis M. Whittle succeeded Mr. Peterkin in
1852. During his rectorship, the council in Wheehng, W. Va. ,
in 1853, made a division of the old Wickhffe parish, and
made Clarke parish. In 1854 Mr. Whittle urged the Berry-
ville people to erect a new church, and his efforts resulted in
the present edifice. Work on the new building was com-
menced in 1856 and completed in August, 1857. Its cost
was $7,500. It w^as consecrated on August 29, by Bishop
Meade, the sermon being preached by Rev. R. T. Davis, of
Martinsburg. Mr. Whittle resigned the rectorship in the
fall of 1857.
The Rev. Nowlin was called to the parish immediately
after, but only preached twice, when he was taken sick and
died in the rectory. He was succeeded by the Rev. Hender-
son Suter, in 1858, which rectorship lasted until 1866. Mr.
Suter was here during the trying period of the war, and
through his instrumentality the church several times was
saved from being burned by the Federal army. The Rev.
T. F. Martin was the rector from 1867 to 1879. The church
was signally blessed under his ministration. The Rev. P. P.
Phillips succeeded him in 1879. In 1883 the church was
renovated, and enlarged by the addition of a transept, at
an expense of $4,000. The number of communicants now
is 190. Mr. PhilHps resigned in June, 1894, and was suc-
ceeded by Rev. Edward Wall, who took charge in October,
of the same year. Mr. Wall is still rector of the parish.
THE METHODIST DENOMINATION
THE Methodist denomination in the County of
Clarke owes its foundation to Rev. Mr. Gaver,
the great-grand father of Mr. Jas. W. Gaver, of
Beriyville. In notes of his work in the Valley of Virginia,
now in possession of Mr. Gaver, he says that he was the
Presiding Elder of a District which extended from the
Tennessee line to the Potomac river, taking in the whole
of the Valley. There being no church building in Clarke,
he preached in the house of a Mr. A. M. Hardesty, with-
out doubt the Mr. Hardesty who lived at the old Hardes-
ty home near Minnie Wood Chapel, the progenitor of the
numerous and influential family of that name so well
known among us. He also preached in the house of Mr.
Jos. Noble, who with his sister and cousin hved at what
is now the Jno. Enders house. From this beginning the
denomination has grown to be probably the strongest in
the County in numbers and influence.
For some years the early Methodists preached in the
old Academy. The writer has been unable to discover
when their first building was erected, probably between
1840 and 1850. During the years prior to the war, the
church in Berryville was quite strong and had many fine
preachers to fill its pulpits. Among them was the Rev.
Thos. Sewell, a noted orator, and the present Bishop
Wilson, when quite a young man was on the Berryville
circuit. Under the preaching of such men the denomi-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 73
nation grew rapidly in the County, and chapels were
built in convenient places. In 1856 Cain's Chapel was
built on the Sensenney Road, and about the same time
Crums was built. There were churches also at White
Post and Mt. Carmel in Ashby's Gap, and at Ebenezer
near Snickers Gap. Since the war they have built churches
at Millwood, Boyce, and Marvin's Chapel. It has been
their determination to place the gospel of Christ in reach
of every one. Some years ago the congregation at Berry-
ville built a new and handsome church at which they have
preaching every Sunday. The pulpit is filled by earnest
men and the pews by an aggressive membership.
In giving the history of the church at Berryville it may
be of interest to relate some of the troubles which came
upon them as an incident of the great war. The war
naturally caused a breaking up of church relations be-
tween the churches of the North and the South in most
of the denominations and none more so than the Metho-
dist. According to their rule of church government, the
churches and church property are under control of the Con-
ference. The Baltimore Conference, to which this charge
belonged, was divided by the war into North and South.
At the close of the War the church here had as its pastor
the Rev. Wm. Hedges, a godly man and able minister. He
had preached when he could for his people all through the
war and proceeded to do so after its close. The Northern
Conference claimed the churches as belonging to them and
determined to retain them if possible. The Rev. Mr.
Lanahan a very able and determined man was sent to
this circuit to take possession and hold the churches. In
order to bring the matter to a test, he determined to make
appointments for the same day and hour that Mr. Hedges
had for his appointments. This of course led to difficulty.
One Sunday night the conflict came on in the Berryville
74 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Church. Mr. Hedges and Mr. Lanahan were both in the
pulpit, both ready to preach. Whenever Mr. Hedges
would start to preach Mr. Lanahan would also start.
Whenever Mr. Lanahan would start the choir would sing.
This singular contest was kept up for several hours. Both
determined to carry their point. Mr. Lanahan getting
in a sentence at a time. The choir almost exhausted it-
self singing him down whenever he arose. After a while
a number of the young men of the community made their
way gradually through the vast crowd until they reached
the pulpit, a note was handed Mr. Lanahan telling him
that this affair had to stop and giving him ten minutes
in which he could leave the town. He immediately called
for a Magistrate. Mr. Mathew Pulliam who was present,
said that he was one, and would promise that he (Lanahan)
should get safely out of the town. This being the best
he could get, the Reverend gentleman decided to leave,
and did so in safety, but right badly frightened. No harm
was intended him, but the boys were determined that he
should quit. The matter was later worked out in the
Courts and our people kept their church. People now
may think that the boys were wrong, but that was a time
which called for strenuous measures sometimes, and I
think that this occasion called for just such a measure.
THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, BERRYVILLE
Was organized by a commission of the Winchester
Presbytery, June 10th, 1854. There were only eleven
members at the organization. Previous to the organiza-
tion and building of a church building, the Rev. Jas. Gra-
ham then a young man preached occasionally for those
who were presbyterians, sometimes in the Methodist and
sometimes in the Baptist churches, as also did the Rev.
Chas. White, who afterwards became the pastor. The
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 75
church was built largely through the labors of Rev. Mr.
Baber, an old Presbyterian preacher, who had no regular
charge, but was a devoted earnest man, with large ac-
quaintance in the State and elsewhere. At the dedica-
tion of the church two very distinguished ministers were
present and preached, Dr. Plummer and Dr. Stuart Robi-
son, of Kentucky. Rev. Chas. White was the first pastor,
by his efforts the church building was not injured by the
U. S. troops during the war. He remained as pastor un-
til 1875. Since then Revs. C. S. Linghamfelter, A. B.
Carrington, J. H. Moore, Chas. Stribling, D. H. Scanlan,
S. K. Philips and D. W. Mclver.
At Stone's Chapel, about six miles from Berrj^v^ille, is
another Presbyterian church, served by the same pastor.
Stone's Chapel was named it is supposed for the man who
gave the land upon which it is built. It was built for the
use of the Lutheran and Presbyterian denominations and
is still so held, but the Lutheran's who many years ago
predominated, have almost disappeared. Many of them
joining the Presbyterian church. Services are held now
by only the Presbyterians. The first building at Stone's
was one among the first church buildings ever put up in
the county, dating back to before the Revolutionary War,
or immediately after, as there is record of preaching there
in 1786. The large number of German's from Pennsyl-
vania who settled in that neighborhood, were mostly
Lutherans, uniting with the Scotch Irish settlers, who were
Presbyterians, were the original builders. The present
building is probably the third to be built. The commu-
nity which it serves is very conservative and there are
doubtless many descendants of the original builders now
connected with the Church.
The Berryville, Stone's Chapel and Clearbrook churches
unite in supporting a pastor.
76 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
BERRYVILLE BAPTIST CHURCH
In the year 1772 Daniel and William Fristoe, brothers
and Baptist preachers from Stafford County, crossed the
mountains and commenced preaching in private houses
near Battletown, now Berryville, and soon gathered a
company of Baptized believers, who were constituted into
Buck Marsh church. A house of worship was built a
half-mile from Berryville, and there, for more than fifty
years, regular worship was maintained. The Fristoe
brothers continued to serve the church for some years,
though they had to ride seventy miles to meet their ap-
Rev. James Ireland became the pastor of the church in
1786, and continued to serve the church until his death
The position of influence held by Mr. Ireland in the de-
nomination and in this section of the State as well as some
of the circumstances connected with his life, calls for more
than a passing notice. He was a Scotchman, born and
educated in Edinburgh. After his arrival in America he
taught school as so many of his countrymen did. He
was something of a poet, but being a wild and rather dis-
sipated young fellow his poetry was of a hilarious kind.
After his conversion, he united with the Baptist church,
the Rev. Geo. Pickett travelling sixty miles to baptize him.
He immediately decided to preach the gospel. Those
were days of trying times for Baptist and others; not of
the established church. Soon after he entered the min-
istry he was arrested and confined in Culpepper Jail for
some time. He endured some serious persecutions while
in prison, some of the marks of which he carried to his
grave many years later. He used to date his letters from
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 77
my "Palace in Culpepper." His remains lie in the old
graveyard at "Trap Hill" the site of the old Buck Marsh
church near Berryville.
About the year 1786 William Fristoe removed to Shen-
andoah County, but was called to the pastorate the second
time after the death of Rev. James Ireland in 1806 and
from that time until 1815 or 1820 ministered to the church.
Rev. John Monroe, M. D., succeeded Fristoe, and he was
followed by Rev. Joseph Baker, who with a short inter-
regnum, remained with the church until 1852. Rev.
Henry Dodge, D. D., succeeded Baker, and was himself
followed by Joseph Sharpe, who was succeeded by Rev.
T. B. Shepherd, Rev. Mr. Llewellyn served the church,
after Shepherd left, for three years. In 1877 Rev. 0.
Ellyson became pastor, remaining five years. He was
succeeded by Rev. A. C. Barron, in 1882, who served the
church just two years. Rev. Julian Broaddus followed
Barron. About 1840 the old church building was aban-
doned, a new and handsome brick building was erected
in Berryville, and the name changed from "Buck Marsh,"
to "Berryville". In 1885 another church house was built
on a commanding situation. From its organization, the
church has had in its membership some of the most sub-
stantial and influential citizens in the neighborhood.
Rev. Dr. James A. Hayes, Rev. T. B. Shepherd and Rev.
Dr. Howard Kerfoot are distinguished ministers, who
have gone out from this church. Rev. E. J. Richardson,
the Temperance Leader, Rev. F. H. Kerfoot, Rev. N. O.
Sowers, Henry T. Louthan, Dr. J. D. Louthan a Mission-
ary to China, and E. M. Louthan, also went out from the
Dr. Broaddus has been pastor for thirty years, on Sep-
tember 1st, 1914. The Mountain Church was organized
in 1857 by Dr. J. A. Haynes, who served it as pastor for
78 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
some years. It has had as pastors, Llewellyn, Wiley,
Hubbard, Stoneham, Schools and others.
Bethel Church was organized in the year 1808, with 13
members, most of them from the ''Buck Marsh" church,
Berryville. The first pastor was Sam'l O. Hendson. He
was succeeded by Wm. Fristoe, and he by Dr. Wm. F.
Broaddus, who was pastor 21 years.
In 1833 the present brick building was erected; and Dr.
Broaddus having resigned Rev. Barnett Grimsley became
pastor and retained the pastorate twenty-five years.
Bethel has had a number of pastors since that time; in-
cluding Revs. Jno. Pickett, Luther Steele, Benton Shep-
herd, Joseph Sharp, Lewis Llewellyn, Geo. Williams, and
W. S. Dorset t and Stoneham. The present pastor is
For many years, the congregation at Old Bethel were
large, with large additions to her membership. In later
years, many churches having been organized in the ad-
joining towns and villages, and Bethel being so remote
from railroads and in the country, her interest, in a meas-
ure, seems to have diminished, only one or two of the older
members now living and the congregation is composed of
Was organized in 1888 by members of Bethel Church.
It has had as pastors, Dorsett, T. B. Shepherd, B. F.
Stoneham and Schools.
Belongs to the Old School Baptist denomination. It
is very old. The wTiter has been unable to get any data
as regards it, except that it has been ''Old Salem" for
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 79
many years and is probably as old or older than the ''Old
Chapel." There are now very few members and they
are aged people.
WHAT THE COUNTY AUTHORITIES DID
THE people of the County of Clarke went into the
war with their whole hearts and were ready to risk
not only life, but property for the cause they be-
lieved to be just and right. The county was small in ex-
tent and population. By the census of 1860 there was a
population of 7152. White males 1851, white females
1856, negro males 1840, females 1599. We cannot tell ac-
curately the number of soldiers from the county, but from
data obtainable, we think there were not less than seven
hundred. The county was rich in personal property,
horses, cattle, hogs, sheep; ever3d:hing raised on the farms
abounded. To the wise and far sighted, it was evident
that whether our arms were successful or not, the county
being situated on the border, was almost certain to lose
all of this kind of property. The amount of loss even-
tually sustained was immense, without including the
slaves. When the war ended, horses, cattle, hogs, sheep,
everything was gone. But these people would not have
hesitated even if they had foreseen the end. Their sis-
ter States of the South were threatened with invasion and
all the people were determined to stand by them regard-
less of consequences.
When it was known that the State had determined to
throw her fortunes in with the other Southern States, and
her volunteer soldiers had been ordered out and were in
the field, all felt that the county should take some official
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 81
steps to help on the cause in which each one was so much
interested. The first meeting of the County Court there-
after the Justices from the whole county were summoned
to meet at the Court House to take such steps as might be
deemed necessary. So on the 22nd day of April, 1861, just
five days after the County Companies had gone to Har-
per's Ferry, they met. Out of sixteen, thirteen responded
to their names, the others being out with the soldiers on
military duty. After due and calm consideration they
determined to appropeiate Ten Thousand Dollars for the
purpose of arming and provisioning the troops then in
the field from the county, and such as might go in later.
Of course in the beginning no one knew what was needed
or how to do what they wanted to do. This knowledge
came later. They found that they could do nothing to-
wards arming the troops. The three companies who had
gone to the front were already armed, and their desire to
furnish provisions could not be carried out as that was in
the hands of the military authorities. However, they
found many uses for the money and although we have no
report of how it was expended, those who were in the
companies knew they received the benefits, and it cheered
them on to do their duty, to feel that those at home were
caring for their good and comfort. The order of Court of
the April term, 1861, is here given:
Clarke County J ^^^•
In the County Court
April Term, 1861
At a County Court begun and held for the said county
at the Court House thereof on Monday, the 22nd day of
82 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
The Court proceeded to the consideration of the sub-
ject of raising money for the purpose of arming more ef-
fectually the county and provisioning the troops now in
service, and which may hereafter be called unto the ser-
vice of the State.
Wm. G. Hardesty, Esq., presiding Justice, Francis
McCormick, Wm. A. Castleman, John Morgan, Lewis F.
Glass, Thomas L. Humphrey, Nathaniel Burwell, Am.
Moore, John J. Riloy, John Page, George C. Blackmore,
Benjamin Morgan, R. K. Meade, Esquires, being a ma-
jority of all the Justices of this county, the rest being ab-
sent on military dut}', and it is unanimously ordered that
bonds of the county be issued with certificates of interest
attached for the sum of Ten Thousand ($10,000) Dollars,
payable in four installments for the purpose above men-
Ordered that N. Burwell, Benjamin Morgan, Lewis F.
Glass, Am. Moore and John Page Esquires, be appointed
a committee to carry out in full and in detail the above
order, namely, to borrow the money on the bonds, pur-
chase goods and efficient arms and distribute them, tak-
ing bond for their care and return when no longer needed,
and for the purchase of provisions, ammunition, etc.,
and report to the next court, and it is ordered that a
majority of the committee may act, and the court doth
appoint Thomas H. Crow, Chief Commissary, to execute
the order for purchasing provisions, etc., and said Thomas
H. Crow be authorized to appoint his agents throughout
the county, and it is ordered that this court at its next
June term do lev>^ for such an amount as may be required.
Ordered that in the event that any of the above named
committee be ordered off upon military dut}^ that the
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 83
committee shall be empowered to supply such vacancies
from the Magistrates of the county, and the court recom-
mends to the citizens of the county exempt by law from
military duty to meet together at once at such conven-
ient places as they may fix upon and organize Home
Guards, for the purpose of defense in a common cause in
such mode and manner as they may deem expedient.
And the Court orders that no charge for this attendence
and service at this term shall be made.
It will be seen from the above order of the Court with
what unanimity, action was taken and also how careful
they were that everything should be done not only for
the soldiers in service but to protect the interest of the
county. The men appointed on the committee were clear
headed business men, who would see that no loss should
come upon the people of the county who were to pay the
taxes that should repay their bonds. Mr. Crow, the
Chief Commissary, was a man fitted for the place. He was
a prominent merchant in the town and no doubt did the
county good and efficient service in the position. Under
this order they immediately proceeded to furnish knap-
sacks to the Companies in the field and also to get material
to make tents. A two horse wagon for each company was
ordered to be made and horses purchased for them. It
was found, as said above, that arms and provisions were
being furnished by the State and Confederate author-
ities, so nothing of that sort was necessary. The knap-
sacks, the tents and the wagons had to be made in the
county and you will see that many people were busy in
the work, for it was pressing work, the knapsacks were
needed, as thought, right away. How soon the companies
might be called on to march no one knew, and how were
they to carry their clothing, etc? The knapsacks must be
made and sent on at once. The poor boys as soon as they
84 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
left Harper's Ferry would have no shelter; the tents must
be made and the wagons and the horses surely were needed,
as the sad sequel will show. So there was much pressure
to get all done. Even the ladies, old and young, gave
their service on the tents. Tents made of the best heavy
cotton were hard to sew, and many drops of blood from
dainty fingers were left upon them, perhaps for some fond
lover to see, and think, ''This blood was shed for me."
The tents and knapsacks were at last done and sent on,
the knapsacks first. But soon they learned that knap-
sacks were incumbrances, that men needed to carry
mighty httle, and hardly that when the weather was hot.
The writer remembers that at some fights our knapsacks
were taken off and left in a line to be returned to later, and
never seen again. And the beautiful tents at the very
first approach of the enemy, were carefully taken down,
rolled up neatly, and left to be captured ! How we missed
the horses and wagons then! It had taken longer to make
the wagons, they were not ready until after the First Ma-
nassas, and the tents were gone sometime before that.
The wagons were a great comfort, such tents as we got were
hauled in them and also our blankets and cooking utensils.
They stayed with us for a year or more, but in one way
or another they were lost. I think the one belonging to
Company I was driven off by the driver, and wagon, horses
and driver never seen again. The fate of Company C's
wagon and of the Clarke Cavalry's is not known, but they
disappeared. It will be noticed in the above order that
the citizens of the county who were not in service were
urged to form themselves into Home Guards and to meet,
drill, and be ready to defend their homes. This was done
for a while with much enthusiasm, but when the Militia
was ordered out, about the first of June, 1861, that was
given up. The order, however, showed the spirit of
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 85
patriotism, which pervaded the hearts and minds of every-
one. At the May term, 1861, from an order issued, it
would look as though there had been some conflict of
opinion between the Committee, and the Chief Commissary
in the execution of their respective duties and the Court
felt that it should issue an order clearly defining the powers
of the committee and hmiting the power and authority
of its other agents. So the order of May, 1861, is included
in this account as follows :
On Monday, 27th day of May, 1861, the following
order was entered:
''It is ordered to be certified that in the order appointing
the committee for carrying out the order made at the
last term for more effectually arming, provisioning, etc.,
the troops now in service and such as may be called into
service, it was the purpose to confine the whole expendi-
ture of money and all other duties arising under said order
to the said committee and that the Commissary and other
agents be subject to the orders only of said committee."
The Court having ordered the issuing of the bonds it
became necessary to provide for their payment and we
find at the June term, the following order entered:
On Monday, the 10th day of June, 1861, the following
order was entered:
''Ordered that there be levied upon the real and personal
property of this county for the purpose of paying the bonds
ordered to be issued by the county at the April Term of
this court, due on the 1st day of January, 1862, for more
effectually arming, provisioning, etc., the troops now in
service or that may be hereafter brought into the service,
the sum of five cents upon every hundred dollars value
thereof and upon each white person in the county over
the age of sixteen years and upon each and every slave
over the age of twelve years, the sum of thirty-five cents."
86 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
On the 23rd day of December, 1861, the following order
Ordered that the Justices of this county be summoned to
the next term of this court for the purpose of considering
the manner and purposes in and for which the county ap-
propriations in April last, for the purpose of arming and
provisioning the troops of this county has been expended
and appropriated, and it is required that the committee
report their proceedings under the orders, at the next
term of the court.
On Monday, the 24th day of February, 1862, the fol-
lowing order was entered :
It is ordered that the consideration of the matters for
which the Justices have been summoned be postponed until
the April term next, and that the Justices be summoned to
that term to consider the subject of the expenditures of
the county appropriation for the arming and provisioning
the troops made at the April term, 1861.
It will be seen that the last orders of the Court pro-
vided for a report at the April Term, 1862, as to the ex-
penditure of the money borrowed. If there was a meet-
ing of the Court then there is no record of it. At this point
in the record book all the pages were cut out by the Yan-
kees, who seemed to wish to cause as much trouble as pos-
sible by the destruction of the county records. When
the war ended the papers of the Court were scattered
all over the Court house yard, and the books, many of
them, were badly mutilated. Some papers were gathered
up by Mr. D. H. McGuire and others, and placed in the
records again, but in a number of cases, whole records
were gone, resulting, no doubt, in loss and failure of jus-
tice to those interested. It is probable that there were
no more meetings of the Court, as the presence of the
enemy in our midst prevented it, and even when our troops
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 87
were here the time was too short to take up such matters.
Besides, in many cases, both principals and attorneys
were at the front fighting with powder and ball and all
thought of legal fighting was laid aside.
A very important part of the expenditure was in the
furnishing of clothing to those who needed it and also
overcoats to all. No one can tell with what pleasure the
men saw the overcoats brought to them in the Fall and
Winter of 1861 and '62. They added much to their com-
fort and enabled them to endure the hardships of the"
winter campaign more cheerfully. After the evacuation
of Winchester in the Spring of 1862 the County officially
had no opportunity to do anything for the men and they
had to depend on their home people or draw what they
needed from the Government. Later in the war provis-
ion was made to get the home people salt from the salt
works in Southwestern Virginia and Major Joseph F.
Ryan was the agent for the county to do this work. It
was very necessary as the only other source for such things
was across the Potomac and very few could get there.
Some ventured to run the blockade to get supplies from
Harper's Ferry and other places, but the majority had
to depend, for salt especially, upon the County Agent,
who brought it as far down the Valley as possible, the
people going there after it. Of course salt was in great
demand at the butchering season, and there were great
times getting it and dividing up the amount among friends
and neighbors. In those days, people seemed to think
only of doing the best possible for each other, there was
no thought — except among very few— of making money,
all seemed to feel that they had gone into a common cause
and that no one must suffer if kindness could prevent it.
The County authorities through Mr. Am. Moore, one of
the Justices, gave some help to the needy families of sol-
88 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
diers by supplying meat and other things, and the citi-
zens did what they could to help those in want.
I have heard of no instance where any suffered for want
of the necessaries of life. Of course, as time went on,
anxiety for those at home became very great on the part
of the men who had famihes. When the end was so long
coming and seemed to be going against us, some lost heart
and came home, and they could hardly be blamed. With
no provider and nothing doing in the country, all work
even on the farms stopped, the outlook was dark for help-
less women and children. If now and then one thought
that the call of the home folks was too strong to disregard,
who shall judge him and say that he was wrong?
THE people of Clarke have always been well known
for their intelligence and intellectual attain-
ments. Many of her sons and daughters have
been people of a high degree of culture, fond of literature
and art. Some have been professors and teachers of rep-
utation, others have attained high honors as ministers of
the gospel. Among civil engineers have been some who
have attained national reputation, others have been very
successful as bridge builders and mining engineers, in all
lines of engineering they have succeeded well. The mem-
bers of the Clarke Bar, as well as men from the county
who have entered the Bar at other places, have taken high
stands and are the peers of any in the State. Her Doc-
tors of Medicine have also been known for their skill in
both surgery and medicine. Many of her young men
who have entered the various lines of business have been
eminently successful. While there has been much intel-
ligence and intellectual culture, very few have made lit-
erature a life caUing, some have "Dallied with the Muses"
for pleasure or written other things when stirred by some
event or occasion of interest, but one only made work of
it. Among the few who ventured on the sea of letters
were some who were not natives of the county, but were
Philip Pendleton Cooke, whose young life was cut short,
just as he was in the flower of his manhood and on the
90 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
threshold of fame, was born in Martinsburg, but married
in Clarke. He had his home at the Vineyard, overlooking
the beautiful Shenandoah with the Blue Ridge in all its
grandeur in full view. He was very fond of hunting and
all outdoor sports and lost his life from pneumonia con-
tracted while hunting wild turkeys. He \vrote a number
of stories and poems for the "Southern Literary Mes-
senger." His lyric ''Florence Vane" has been translated
into many languages. In order that our people may know
what a beautiful writer he was we give the poem.
I loved thee long and dearly,
My life's bright dream, and early.
Hath come again;
I renew, in my fond vision,
My heart's dear pain,
My hope, and thy derision,
The ruin lone and hoary.
The ruin old.
Where thou didst hark my story,
At even told, —
That spot-the hues Elysian
Of sky and plain —
I treasure in my vision,
Thou wast lovelier than the roses
In their prime;
Thy voice excelled the closes
Of sweetest rhyme;
Thy heart was as a river
Without a Main,
Would I had loved thee never,
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 91
But fairest, coldest wonder;
Thy glorious clay
Lieth the green sod under —
Alas the day!
And it boots not to remember
Thy disdain —
To quicken love's pale ember,
The lilies of the valley
By young graves weep.
The pansies love to dally
Where maidens sleep;
May their bloom, in beauty vying,
Where thine earthly part is lying,
Had he lived he doubtless would have rivaled his fa-
mous brother John Esten Cooke. They were the sons
of John R. Cooke, a lawyer of distinction. John Esten
was born in Winchester, but like his brother he sought
and found a wife in Clarke and lived and died at his home
"The Briars." He indeed made literature his life work
and from his pen has come some of the best historical
novels of the day. His history of Virginia is very fine.
His lives of Lee and Jackson rank among the best. His
war novels ought to be read by all young southern people
and no library in Clarke should be considered complete
without his works. He was not only eminent as a writer
but as a soldier, having served on the staffs of Stonewall
Jackson and J. E. B. Stuart, and been highly thought of
by both of his generals.
Captain William Page Carter is another of our soldier
authors. He was the son of Mr. Thomas Carter of "Anne-
field." Having passed through the war as captain of a
battery of artillery and gained distinction as a fighter he
92 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
settled down in Clarke to the life of a country gentleman.
He did not make work of literature, but when the Muses
visited him he gave forth verses of rare charm and beauty.
The tenderness, the pathos, the sincere piety shown in
some of his verses have been rarely surpassed. He
touches the heart in its tenderest and most sacred emo-
tions. His poems of the War revive the most precious
memories of those trying times. His tributes to our
generals and to their brave followers are of the finest kind.
As a boy he was raised on a plantation where there were
man}^ slaves. Among them he caught the dialect, the spirit
of their songs and hymns and has most happily reproduced
them in his verses. His little book of poems, ''Echoes
of the Glen," should be in every home.
When ''Uncle Tom's Cabin," by Mrs. Harriet Beecher
Stowe, was published just before the war and was stirring
up the hearts of the Northern people by its misrepresen-
tations and slanders of the Southern people, a citizen of
Clarke, Mr. John White Page, hoped to stem the tide of
popular excetiment caused by it and to give the world
the truth about the South and the institution of slavery
by writing the story of "Uncle Robin in his Cabin in Vir-
ginia," and "Uncle Tom without one in Boston." His book,
while equal to Mrs. Stowe's, as a literary effort lacked the
tragical scenes of hers. Mr. Page's effort was to give the
truth, while hers had been to excite the passions, regard-
less of the truth. Coming at a time when the abolition-
ists of the North were doing everything possible to stir
up strife, his attempt to pour oil on the troubled waters
was without avail, and the war coming on so quickly his
book was in great measure lost sight of. Doubtless if re-
vived at this time it would get a hearing, then denied it,
and the author a reputation which he well deserved. Mr.
Page for some years was the Clerk of the Court of Freder-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 93
ick County, and died in Winchester. He was a member
of the Page family, so well known in the county.
Another of Clarke's writers who wrote for pleasure and
when moved by the spirit was Miss Selina Williams, who
wrote under the ''Nom de Plume" of "Tarpley Star."
Many of her short poes were published in the magazines
of the day and one poem of some length was published in
a book. It was a temperance story and intended to help
the cause of temperance, just then being pushed to the
front by its advocates. Her poem written in April, 1865,
on the occasion of the removal by the U. S. authorities
of the Confederate flag from the grave of Stonewall Jack-
son at Lexington, is very fine and has been thought by
many to equal, if not surpass Father Ryan's famous poem,
''The Conquered Banner." As the beautiful poem has
not been seen by many of our readers, we give it in these
THE FOLDED FLAG.
Take it Down; Gently there;
Tenderly fold it —
The flagstaff is bare
That shall nevermore hold it.
*Tis bare. It is blasted. 0, symbol's sad token;
Of a cause lying bare, whose flagstaff is broken —
Of a cause lying bare,
In whose depths there is sunk
The cup of despair
That the wretched have drunk;
Whose waters are bitter, whose waters are red
With the tears of the living, the blood of the dead.
might it not wave.
With none to forbid.
On this one lonely grave
Where our ashes are hid?.
This one span of earth, this one sod to cover.
Of all the broad acres erewhile it waved over;
94 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
From all of his trophies
On battle's wide field
This memorial of his
Might hang as a shield,
And his country yet keep when she gives all the rest.
This lone Cross of Honor to shine on his breast.
As our "Stars" disappear
And fall from their sky.
This group nestles there
As if loath to die.
The last rays they catch as the others grow dim.
As Stars seek their Star they cluster on Him.
They cluster, they settle
On Him who so oft,
Through the whirlwind of battle
Hath hailed them aloft.
They fall on his breast — in the last rush of Hope
That the arm which lies here might still hold them up;
But what boots it, Freemen,
To be thus down-hearted.
To weep thus like women
For what is departed?
Our Hero lies safe 'neath a far better cross.
Which men nor yet demons shall conquer by force.
Oh, World; We've not asked
In the verdict redress.
We know that the test
Is Success; still Success;
I'rom thy garlands encircling the conqueror's throne,
Not a leaf there may fall upon Failure's tombstone.
No; Take down that Banner,
It's stricken folds wave,
Hope's poor corpse in honor
To shroud for the grave.
Lay it deep in that tomb where the common cause lies.
To rise nevermore till our Jackson arise.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 95
It is past, it is done;
But the star of such glory
Must shine till the sun
Has paled and grown hoary.
Men die, they are mortal, the sand drinks their blood;
But justice and honor can die but with God.
There came among us at the close of the war a young
Marylander, who had fought for the South and wished to
make his home in the land he loved. John O, Crown,
while well known as a writer of fine editorials in his paper,
The Clarke Courier, was not knoA\Ti except by a few friends
as a writer of beautiful verses. His verses were published
in his own paper and not known to be from his pen. After
his death his wife had published an account of his prison
life, written by him at the request of the J. E. B. Stuart
Camp. In closing his story of his experiences as a prisoner
of war, he gave forth the following tribute to the Confed-
Oh, warrior children of a war-worn land,
Who carved Confederate fame on heights so grand —
Who bathed your battle standards in the glory
That shines adown the aisles of classic story —
Who reared your valorous deeds in Alps that rise
O'er sad defeat to shine in Honor's skies;
Ah, me; that after all the gifts you gave,
That garland only your lost nation's grave.
Grandly, Oh Southern nation, dawned the morn.
When, helmeted with hope and battle-born.
You girt your land with sabre strokes, the pour
Of leaden rain, and cannons' thundering roar.
Your midday splendor, flashing wide and high.
Led our brave thoughts to soar in faith's sweet sky.
And all our struggles melted in a dream
Of victory and peace by freedom's stream.
96 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Alas, then came defeat's sad woful night,
When all our grand achievements pass'd from sight.
To reappear a World-Force nevermore
By hill, and vale, and stream, and wave-washed shore;
When swords were sheath'd, and war-drums ceased to beat,
And bannerless you plod with weary feet
Into the deepening gloom of the unknown.
Where vanquish'd wander when hope's stars are gone.
Oh, men once marshal'd by the matchless Lee,
Or march'd with "Stonewall's band" to victory —
Oh, men who follow'd Hampton's waving plume,
Or saw the gallant Stuart meet his doom —
Oh, men who climb'd the heights all cannon-crown'd
Though death with fire and thunder rock'd the ground.
The Warriors of the World rein in their steeds.
And with admiring gaze salute your deeds.
Fair, sunny land, where strove the hero-hearted.
Woe toH'd from all our joy-bells when we parted
With our loved banner on that fatal field
That saw your martial strength to starving yield;
While seas are rock'd by storms and mountains stand,
And thought ascends to realms where words are grand.
Your fame shall stream across the wide world's pages —
Ride down in glory through the far-flung ages.
While the number of authors from Clarke is not large,
their work has been fine and entitles them to the admira-
tion of all lovers of the beautiful in Uterature.
NEGRO SLAVERY IN CLARKE COUNTY
NEGRO slavery was introduced into Virginia in
1619. A Dutch vessel driven by stress of weather
came into the James river and sold twenty of
the negroes, intended for the West Indies, to the Virginia
planters. As every one in those days was accustomed to
owning servants and as these added to the much needed
laborers of the Colony, they were received without objec-
tion and thus became the foundation of the institution of
negro slavery. Prior to this and for many years after,
paupers from England had indentured themselves to the
planters and others for a term of years as servants. After
their term of indenture was served they became citizens of
the colony. Some criminals from England were also
brought over and sold on similar terms. This source of
labor not meeting the needs of the Colonists, they very
willingly bought the negroes who were from this time
brought in increasing numbers by Dutch and New England
ships. When a hundred years later the planters and others
from Eastern Virginia migrated to the Valley and settled
in what is now Clarke County, they carried their slaves
with them and from those thus brought to the county the
negro population sprang. Most of these settlers owning
slaves found homes in the southern end of the county.
The Northern part was settled by Germans from Penn-
sylvania and Scotch Irish from New Jersey, who did not
98 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
But they were familiar with the institution, as negro
slaves were then in all the Colonies, and they had no con-
scientious scruples against it. As time progressed and
labor was needed for farming and other purposes, which
could be supplied by the natural increase in the number
brought originally, almost every farmer became the owner
of a few negroes.
When the county was formed in 1836 the negroes had
increased until they outnumbered the whites, there
being 2867 whites, 3325 slaves and 161 free negroes.
These negroes were mostl}^ held in small numbers, the
small farmers and renters owning two or three and the
majority of farmers who owned large farms not owning
more than eight or ten. A few of the older and more
wealthy families in the Millwood neighborhood held them
in large numbers. These slaves were well cared for by
both large and small owners. The large owners had for
each family a stone or log cabin. The single men were
provided with quarters together or in the cabins of their
parents. Each week there was issued to them a substan-
tial and plentiful ration of bacon and corn meal and vege-
tables in season, which the women of the cabin cooked
for her family. Many of them had patches of ground for
gardens or were allowed to have a hog or a hen house for
chickens. The men worked under the supervision of the
owner or more probably of an overseer, and were taught
to do all the work needed on a large farm. Some were
carpenters, some blacksmiths, some stone masons, some
of them became very fine stone fence builders. There
are stone fences standing now built by the negroes of Mr.
Francis Whiting of "Clay Hill," which seem to be as good
now at they were when first built seventy years ago.
The women on these large plantations were used as house
servants, cooks, seamstresses and to look after the chil-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 99
dren at the cabins and prepare the food for them and their
families. The old men and women sat around and dozed
in the chimney corners, dug a little in the patches and knit
socks for the men.
The house servants were often taught to read by their
mistress and also how to make dresses and other things
for themselves. The old saying that many hands made
light work was fully exemplified on these large plantations.
The farmers who held smaller numbers of slaves were
possibly more lenient to them than the large owners.
They were more a part of the family. Their meals were
prepared in the same kitchen and were about the same as
that served to the master. The food was always good
and substantial. Their quarters were generally a stone
building holding all of the slaves of the farm. The slaves
on both large and small farms were attended by the family
physician and you may be sure that he was sent for very
soon when one was taken sick. Unless, as in many cases
it was true, the lady of the house could manage the cases.
The wife of the farmer in all classes was always called upon
in case of sickness. The night was never too bad or dark
to prevent her from going to the bedside of one of her de-
pendants. If there was any one a slave to all the others,
it was the lady of the place. To her all the household
looked for help in a time of need. She was the teacher
of the young girls and boys brought into the house to learn
the various duties there. Upon her was the duty to think
of and provide for the household, both black and white,
and the numerous visitors which were coming and going
all the time. There had to be discipline of some sort, es-
pecially on the large farms and where there were many
slaves, but the discipline was not stern. It is customary
to associate the lash or the cowhide with slavery, but the
writer can say from personal knowledge that the use of
100 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
these things were very rare. Only the most refractory
were ever subjected to it. The great majority of owners
never used them at all. In a very few cases where the
slave was vicious and dangerous he was punished and if
not yielding he was then sold to be taken out of the county.
One of the great objections to slaverj^ was the fact that
sometimes they were sold and their families were broken
up. That seemed hard at first glance but I know that
the families of not only negroes but whites are broken up
this day far more than in the days of slavery. When the
sales became necessary — at the settling up of an estate,
or from some such reason, efforts were always made to
sell them in families rather than singly. These sales oc-
curred very seldom. The writer recalls only one. On
Christmas day, 1860, an estate was sold out and that was
the only one in his memory that was settled in that way.
On that occasion some negro traders, (as the men who
dealt in slaves were called) were there and were bidders,
but got but few, if any, of the negroes sold. People gen-
erally disliked the negro trader and his business was not
considered reputable. Persons holding small numbers of
negroes very often petted and spoiled the children and
sometimes even the older ones. The writer recalls an
anecdote of an old lady who owned a few, among them a
very much spoiled young fellow, who was a fiddler. Some-
times he would go to a party to play for the dances and
end in getting on a spree and not coming home for several
days. When he returned he would come in very meekly
and to her outbreak would be silent. She would accost
him with "Will, where have you been, you rascal? I must
have you whipped. Aggy, make poor Will a cup of coffee,"
and there it ended. I have written this in the effort to
show to the people who have grown up since the war and
those who may come in the future, what the institution
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 101
of slavery was and how they were treated by their owners.
That there were rare cases of cruelty cannot be denied,
but as a class the negro was more comfortable, better clad
and better fed than now in his freedom. Then his wel-
fare in health or sickness was upon his master.
The clothing furnished them was of the best material.
For the males in Winter a heavy woolen cloth — of a drab
color, for the females striped linsey, partly woolen. Each
received a suit of Winter clothing, with woolen socks and
good underclothing. The men had good heavy boots for
Winter and shoes for Summer. There was generally a
shoe-maker in each neighborhood who did the making and
mending for the community around him. A tailor was
brought to the house to cut the men's clothes, which were
then made by the mistress and her girls, who had been
trained under her eye to do needle work. The dresses for
the women and girls were made by the same. The old
women who could only sit around the fires, generally did
thie knitting, with the help of some of the girls and young
women. The Summer clothing was always plentiful
The negroes were allowed holiday at Easter and a full
week at Christmas. At Christmas they enjoyed them-
selves to the fullest. Many of them received presents
from their owners and they were allowed to gather in the
quarters for dancing and other amusements. While one
would play the fiddle or banjo another would pat ''Juba"
and another make very good music on a triangle or big
horse shoe suspended by a string and beat upon with a
large nail or piece of iron. The younger ones were great
dancers and it was one of the Christmas pleasures of the
young white folks to see them dance. They were light
hearted and joyous, free from care, knowing that the old
Master and Mistress would attend to all their wants.
102 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Religious instruction was provided for them. All the
churches had galleries for their use, which were generally
well filled. They were received in the churches as mem-
bers and were looked after by the pastors and officials of
the churches. Many of them were taught from the Bible
by their Mistresses, who would read it to them and ex-
plain it so that they could take in the plan of salvation.
Many of them were sincere Christians and lived upright
lives. Some who felt called to preach were so well taught
that although unable to read they could repeat chapters of
the Bible. Hymns they knew by memory and their pecu-
liar method of lining out verses in a singing tone thus as it
were never breaking the tune was very interesting. The
preachers were allowed to gather their families at night
and on Sunday evenings and preach to them, much to
their pleasure, as by nature they were a very religious race.
Their morals were just as good as now, although they have
had forty years of education and the preaching of their
own ministers. Marriage was the rule among the young
men and women and few children were born out of wedlock.
They married sometimes one on the same farm, but gener-
ally they chose mates from neighboring farms. The hus-
band was allowed to visit his wife as frequently as he
wished and took great pride in carrying to her some little
offering, such as sugar or coffee or some article of clothing.
The children belonged to the owner of the wife, but bore
the name of the husband. There was^ome stealing among
them of a petty kind, which was mostly passed by without
notice. The greater crimes were rare among them. They
were faithful and had genuine affection for their owners in
many cases. During the war they had often the oppor-
tunity to betray their owner's sons or friends to the enemy,
but very rarely did they do so. In fact their fidehty was
remarkable and the race deserves and gets credit for it
among all right thinking Southern people.
THE CLARKE COUNTY MILITIA
FOR many years before the war each county in the
State had a MiHtia organization. Once a year
everybody between the ages of eighteen and
forty-five was compelled to meet in what was called the
''general muster." General muster day was the biggest
day of the year, it even beat the circus days. Everybody
big and little, from far and near, turned out to see the
great sight. The drums and fifes were heard calling the
men together and there was much riding to and fro of
officers in gay uniforms and cocked hats with curUng
plumes. At last the line was formed and the regiment
marched to a field near town, where the men were put
through some evolutions and then dismissed for a rest.
The ginger cake and lemonade stands then did a big busi-
ness, to say nothing of the bar-rooms. Bullies from the
country around were ready and willing to whip anybody
who would try chances with them and there was no officious
policeman to interfere or hard hearted Mayor to impose
a fine. Little boys strutted around the proud posessor
of a horse cake or a stick of peppermint candy, everybody,
black and white, for it was a general holiday, had a big
time. After the Colonels and Majors and Captains had
dined at the hotel and returned, possibly in as jovial a
condition as the men, the lines were reformed, the big
drum beat the time and away they marched to town again,
where they were dismissed for the day and for the year.
104 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Of course nothing was learned as to military drill by such
meetings, but they served to bring people together and to
gratify the ambition of those who wanted to be Colonels
and Majors, etc.
The Regiment in Clarke was the 122nd, when the war
opened. Washington Dearmont was Colonel, J. J. Riely,
Lietenant Colonel, and W. A. Hardesty, Major.
There were several companies. The writer has been
unable to find out the names of all the officers. As Cap-
tains, there were Newton Pierce, J. R. Nunn, Bitzer, Lit-
tleton, Lee and Spillman. Lieutenants, Jas. Hardesty,
G. W. Diffenderfer, R. H. Renshaw, R. P. Morgan, Adjt.
W. H. Carter, Sergt. Major.
When General Johnson moved his army to the help of
Beauregard, it was thought that some military force
should be left here in the Valley to make a show of re-
sistance to any of the enemy who might appear. So about
the first of June, 1861, the Militia of the several counties
were ordered to meet at Winchester, where they were
armed with anything in the shape of a gun that could be
got. The Clarke regiment in pursuance of this order met
there and drilled as best could be done, where neither of-
ficer or men knew anything of the drill. When Johnston's
army fell back from Bunker Hill to Winchester and there
was every indication of a fight, naturally great excite-
ment prevailed among them. Great was the amusement
of the young volunteers, who thought they knew all about
drilling when they witnessed the awkwardness of their
friends in the Militia Corps. Some of the youngsters
were made very proud by being asked to help drill a Com-
pany or squad.
When at last Johnston's army left, there was no force
but Ashby's cavalry and the several regiments of Militia
under the command of General Carson, of Frederick.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 105
When Patterson moved with his army to Harper's Ferry
and then into Maryland, General Carson occupied points
near the Potomac, Martinsburg and other places, with
cavalry to the front guarding the fords, etc.
The Clarke Regiment under Colonel Dearmont and
Lieut. Col. Riely was posted at Duffield's depot on the B.
& 0. R. R. In the meantime the company of Captain
Bitzer, or men from the several companies were mounted
and formed into a cavalry company, in which capacity
they did very efficient service, picketing and scouting.
For sometime after going to Duffield's depot there was
no indication of the enemy, but one day they were startled
by the news of his approaching from two directions, with
the purpose of surprising and capturing them, but Colonel
Riely, in command at the time, by a well ordered and
timely retreat extricated his regiment from its perilous
position and fell back to Smithfield, and later rejoined the
Brigade at Winchester. They saw service at other points
on the river and were with General Jackson and Ashby's
cavalry when the attempt was made to break Dam No. 5,
on the Potomac. Carson's brigade of Militia made a
demonstration towards Falling Waters to attract the at-
tention of the enemy while General Jackson with Ashby
and the four infantry companies with him made the at-
tempt to cut the dam. They were also with them when
another effort was made just at Christmas, 1861, more to
deceive the enemy as to General Jackson's real intentions
than to injure the Canal. On all these occasions the mem-
bers of the Clarke Regiment did good and efficient ser-
vice, enduring the hardships of the campaign cheerfully
and being always ready to do their part and no doubt
would have given a good account of themselves if put to
the test in action. In fact they were under fire along the
river at different times and deported themselves well.
106 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
After the conclusion of Jackson's Romney Campaign they
were disbanded and sent home, having been in active ser-
vice about eight months.
Many of them joined the volunteer companies later,
and served with credit during the war. The brigade had
a battery of two pieces of artillery under Lieutenant Dif-
fenderfer of the Clarke Regiment and Mr. Thos. Bragg as
gunner. Mr. Bragg's experience as a pump borer was
thought to fit him particularly well for that position.
Whether they were ever in action the writer does not know,
but am sure, that if they had been, Lieutenant Diffen-
derfer and Gunner Bragg would have given a good ac-
count of themselves. The men in the militia were mostly
men of family, with wives and children or older people
depending upon them, men from thirty-five to forty-five
years of age. The members of the volunteer companies
were from sixteen to forty yesLTs and were mostly single
men, without the ties of the older men in the militia, but
they were of the same stamp, ready and walling to do the
duty placed upon them. After the disbanding of the
militia, an act was passed by the Confederate Congress
requiring all men between the ages of eighteen and forty-
five to enter the army and a great many of the men and
officers also, joined volunteer companies. Others who were
able got substitutes, who took their places in the army;
others were allowed to stay at home because of the num-
ber of women and children depending upon them. Me-
chanics, such as wagon makers and blacksmiths, who were
considered necessary for the communities where they hved,
were also allowed to remain at home, but after the spring
of sixty-two the men at home were mostly past middle
age, and upon them devolved the care of the old and help-
less, the women and the children. The militia from the
county were a credit to the country and no one need be
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 107
ashamed of having had a father or friend who for eight
months faithfully and cheerfully did the duties put upon
MILITARY MOVEMENTS IN THE COUNTY
AFTER the march of the Companies from the
County to Harper's Ferry on the 17th of April,
1861, no movement of troops except the assemb-
hng of the miUtia and their march to Winchester, excited
the interest of our people. General Johnston's army
marched through the county on its way to Manassas on
the 18th of July. After this time there was nothing more
than the passage of a company of cavalry or two on their
way to join the main army, or to make a scout towards
the Potomac. In November General Jackson and his
brigade were ordered back to the Valley, but did not pass
through the County. The Winter wore away and the
enemy was reported at CharlestowTi, but until early in
March none appeared.
On March the 10th, they advanced from Charlestown
towards Berryville and entered the town. There was
much consternation. Some refugeed, some even went as
far as Snickersville, hoping to be safe, but they ran into
danger there, the earth seemed full of Yankees. After
a few days everyone determined to make the best of it;
those who had fled came back to endure the sight of the
hated foe, and later to endure sufferings and trials of many
kinds. Jackson evacuated Winchester and the Federals
from Berryville moved on and united with those from
Martinsburg, and old Winchester was fully in their hands,
with Jackson at Mt. Jackson. General Banks thought he
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 109
could help McClellan at Manassas by playing the game
of Johnston of June before, and so started a column
through Berryville to cross the river and the mountain,
when suddenly, they heard far away towards Winchester
the roar of cannon. They halted, they hesitated, they
faced about and back through Berryville they poured to-
wards Shields at Winchester, but too late. Kernstown
had been fought. Jackson had struck them and made
them do just what he wanted. He had diverted them
from their purpose to fall on Johnston and enabled him to
withdraw from McClellan's front in safety.
After Kernstown, Berryville was occupied for some
time by a force under Colonel Reynolds, of Pennsylvania,
who treated the people kindly, except, if his officers saw
a good horse ridden in town, they took possession; but
such is war. When Jackson advanced this force was with-
drawn, but until after Second Manassas and the fall of
Harper's Ferry, the cavalry and wagons could be seen any
day traversing our roads. Upon one occasion a small
party of Federal cavalry were reported coming from
Charlestown. An old man of the town in a moment of
frenzy, seized a shot gun and meeting them at the corner
near Colonel Smith's house, fired upon them and killed
their leader. The rest took flight and old "Uncle Low"
Maddux was hurried away, for all knew that his life was
forfeit if caught. Back to Charlestown they fled, but
soon returned to wreak their vengeance. By hard per-
suasion they were prevented from burning the town.
On their way back to Charlestown they met a youth who
had ridden out to see and hear what might be going on.
They immediately seized him and charging him with being
a spy, carried him to Charlestown with them, with dire
threats as to hanging. Suddenly their threats were stop-
ped by a report of the approach of rebel cavalry. A
110 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
party sent out to reconnoiter saw coming to the town on
another road a body of men. "Rebels; Rebels;" away
they galloped through the town, followed by the party
they had seen, who also had seen rebels and having thus
frightened each other, they fled to Harper's Ferry leaving
our friend Ammi Moore, locked in the jail. Fortunately
a friend passing found the key and turned him out, and
he made for home and soon after into the army, where he
During the movements to catch Jackson, a Federal
Division, ''Blenker's Dutch" they were called, crossed
the river at Berry's Ferry and camped for a while in the
neighborhood of Bethel Church and left unpleasant mem-
ories behind them among the people.
When Jackson left the Valley on his march to Richmond,
the County was at the mercy of parties passing and re-
passing. Our cavalry sometimes moved through to re-
connoiter, but were unable to stay, bacause large forces
of the enemy occupied Winchester and Harper's Ferry.
In the main, the Federal cavalry did as they pleased,
taking horses, cattle and wagon loads of negroes off, and
keeping the people in constant fear of trouble. In the
last days of August, the battle of Second Manassas was
fought and General Lee moved into Maryland to fight
the bloody battle of Sharpsburg. On this long and tire-
some march around Pope, and into Maryland, a large
number of the soldiers, from fatigue, sickness and want of
shoes had fallen behind, and when the army crossed the
Potomac, were ordered to rejoin the army at Winchester.
Thus there came about a movement of this large number
of stragglers through the country. They took their time
in reaching Winchester, moving from one house to the
other, being fed with the best that the people had
and where shoes or clothing could be had, they were sup-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 111
plied with these also. But the poor fellows had a good
time, drifting along, never thinking, many of them, that
their presence at Sharpsburg would no doubt have given
us a victory that might, have been decisive. But the
hearts of the people went out to the poor fellows, and they
did their best for them. After the battle of Sharpsburg,
General Lee's army remained in Jefferson and Berkeley
until the latter part of October, McClellan being on the
north side of the Potomac near Harper's Ferry. Mc-
Clellan about the last of October began to move into
Loudoun and towards Richmond. General Longstreet's
corps was sent across the Blue Ridge to watch McClellan's
movements and Jackson's corps was moved from Bunker
Hill towards the Shenandoah, taking position between
Charlestown and Berryville. Subsequently D. H. Hill's
division of Jackson's corps was also sent across the ridge
to watch the enemy, Longstreet having moved on south-
wards. A. P. Hill's division was below Berryville in
Colonel Ware's woods, where is now the village of Webb-
town, so that he could watch the gap and ferry. Here
he had an engagement with the enemy, who had crossed
the ridge as McClellan was moving on. Early's division
was posted for awhile near Wyckliffe Church, while Jack-
son's was on the Charlestown pike, with General Jackson's
headquarters at Mr. M. R. Page's home, but as the enemy
passed south along the mountain. Early was moved to
Millwood and then to Stonebridge and Jackson to the
Opequon above Millwood. After the enemy had left the
vicinity of the Blue Ridge, D. H. Hill re-crossed the moun-
tain and moved up the river on the east side to the vicinity
of Front Royal. As soon as McClellan, or rather Burn-
side, who had succeeded him, developed that he was mov-
ing to Fredericksburg, Jackson's whole corps moved out
of the county and across the mountain. While Jackson's
112 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
corps was near Millwood, General Jackson had his head-
quarters at "Carter Hall." After this stay in the county,
so pleasing to our people, making them feel so secure from
harm, no one was left of our soldiers but some regiments
of cavalry who were to watch the enemy's cavalry on the
other side of the mountain. How well they did it will
appear a little later. Col. E. V. White's battalion was
camped in Colonel Ware's woods just below Webbtown,
to watch the ford at Castleman's Ferry. A part of the
12th Virginia Cavalry was camped at the junction of the
Summit Point road with the Charlestown. All seemed
safe and pleasant, when, one day General Stahl's brigade
of Federal Calvary pushed across the river, found White's
men with their saddles off and totally unprepared and
drove them pellmell through the streets of Berryville.
Here a small part of the 12th met them in a fight around
the Baptist Church, and in the woods back of the Church,
but were too few in number to hold them, and they also
had to seek safety in flight, losing some good men in the
encounter. Stahl pursued them as far as Mr. Martin
Gaunt's, and then retired taking with him a few prisoners
as the result of his raid. Among the prisoners was B. F.
Thompson, a member of Co. I, 2nd Virginia Inf., who
happened to be in town and could not get away. They
put him on one of their cavalry horses, and as they were
going along on their way to Aldie, after dark, he noticed
that he might possibly get into the line of guards on each
side of the prisoners. Seizing his opportunity he finally
got out of the line, and then riding towards the front, for
a time, he turned and as he passed down the line ordered
them to close up and keep a good look out on the pris-
oners. Having passed the rear, he jumped his horse
over a fence and away across the country he fled, and just
as church was being dismissed the next day in Berry^^ille,
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 113
he rode in with his good horse and equipments for his re-
ward, which horse was all he had to commence life with
when the war ended.
After this cavalry moved out, the people of Clarke were
again at the mercy of the enemy, who now had almost
complete possession, and moved as they wished about the
country. Winchester was full of them, under the hated
Milroy. Berryville was occupied by a force under Colonel
McReynolds, and all were resting in safety ''they think,"
when General Ewell with the 2nd Corps of the Army of
Northern Virginia appeared at Front Royal, crossed the
river and pushed on, the main body to Winchester.
Rhodes' Division coming by the Double Tollgate on the
Front Royal and Winchester road, moved across the
county by ''Page Brook" to Berryville, hoping to surprise
and capture the force there, but somehow they got notice
and fled in time to escape to Martinsburg, and, with such
of Milroy's men as reached that place, found safety across
the Potomac. Longstreet followed through the county
on his march to Shepherdstown, and for a few short weeks
our soldiers rejoiced the eyes and hearts of our people
soon to be saddened by the news of defeat at Gettysburg
and the return of our gallant army on its retreat. On
the advance while Longstreet's corps was passing through,
General Lee had his headquarters just north of Berry-
ville, under a large oak tree, on the land owned recently
by A. Moore, Jr. The spot has been marked by a granite
block. While here he attended the Episcopal Church
on Sunday morning, and some of our people had the pleas-
ure of seeing him and speaking to him. Only a few days
was the army allowed to rest their tired limbs in our
midst, when they were again on the march to meet the
untiring foe. The county was more than ever left at
their mercy and being as it was between the lines of the
114 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
armies, was exposed to the depredations of roving bands
of stragglers and thieves, as well as to the organized ones,
who were little better. The people found the hardships
of war now upon them in their worst form. The move-
ments of those bands and of small bodies of our cavalry-
were so frequent that no note was taken of the time or
purpose. All the people knew was that the Yankee cav-
alry had passed, or that our men were in town today,
maybe a fight in the streets and then away.
This condition continued through the Winter and Spring
of 1864, the people not knowing from day to day what
would happen to them, but no movement of importance
took place in the county. In the Spring General Seigel
moved from Harper's Ferry, through Berryville, up the
Valley on his campaign, and was defeated at New Market.
Later in July, Early, having driven Hunter, of house
burning fame, from Lynchburg, moved down the Valley,
but did not pass through Clarke on his advance into Mary-
land. Pushing on rapidly he fought the battle of the Mo-
nocacy and advanced to the defenses of Washington, hop-
ing to surprise and capture the place, but was a little too late.
Grant had sent troops from his army in front of Richmond.
General Early then withdrew, crossing the Potomac at
White's Ferry near Leesburg and retreating through
Snicker's Gap into Clarke. He placed Breckenridge's di-
vision between Berryville and the river to watch the fords
there. Gordon and Rhodes were camped about Wick-
liffe and Gaylord, guarding the approaches from Harper's
Ferry. He had been followed by the Army of West Vir-
ginia under General Crook and the troops of Hunter and
Averill; all under the command of General Crook. Gen-
eral Crook upon reaching the Shenandoah determined on
making a reconnaissance in force to develop General
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 115
On July 18th he ordered three brigades to cross the river
for that purpose. They were guided by a deserter from the
Clarke Rifles by the name of Carrigan. He had worked
as a tailor at Castleman's Ferry before the war and was
well acquainted with the mountain and the fords on the
river. He led them through the ''Retreat" farm, then
owned by Judge Parker, of Winchester, to a ford about
a mile below Castleman's Ferry, between the islands and
landed on the ''Cool Spring" farm and the "Westwood"
farm. Their approach through the mountain being hid-
den by the woodland, they were able to cross at the fords,
which were shallow, without discovery by Early's pickets
until they were safely over. They immediately sent for-
ward their skirmishers, pushing them across the "Cool
Spring" and "Westwood" farms until they reached the
public road leading from Castleman's Ferry to Wickliffe
Church. Their line of battle was placed across the "Cool
Spring" farm and partly on the "Westwood," near where
the "Cool Spring" house stands. General Breckenridge,
who was in command of the nearest troops was attending
service in Berryville at the Episcopal Church. Upon be-
ing notified of the advance of the enemy, he immediately
moved out and with his division under General Ramseur
and Gordon's to meet them. The troops camped at Webb-
town, then Colonel Ware's woods, moved through the
"Frankford" farm until in reach of the enemy. Gor-
don's and Ramseur's troops were thrown into position
immediately in front of the enemy's lines, and advanced
their skirmishers to occupy the attention of the enemy.
While this was being done. General Rhodes bringing his
division from the neighborhood of Gaylord, passing in
rear of the Confederates line of battle, moved down a ra-
vine, unseen by the enemy until he had placed himself on
their left flank and rear. When this movement was com-
116 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
pleted, Gordon and Ramseur pushed their lines forward
with vigor, driving back the enemy's skirmishers upon the
line of battle. At that moment Rhodes' lines advancing
rapidly from the enemy's left appeared in their rear.
They were immediately thrown into confusion and fled
precipitately to the river. A large number missing the
fords, threw themselves into the river at what is called
^'Parker's Hole," where the water was very deep and were
drowned. A large number were killed and wounded in
the fighting, some prisoners were taken. The remainder
made their way as best they could to the islands and then
across to the other side, where they were under the pro-
tection of their artillery. Man}^ of their dead were buried
on the ''Cool Spring" farm, from which they were removed
after the war to the National Cemetery at Winchester.
The Confederate loss was not heavy although a number
were killed and wounded. The dead were buried there
and removed later to Stonewall Cemetery at Winchester.
Among the Federal Officers in the fight that day, was a
Colonel Frost in command of a brigade of troops. Living
in the "Cool Spring" house was a relative of his, Mr. Eben
Frost, a well known man at that time. Colonel Frost
sent word to his relative, inviting him to come to see him,
as he had been badly wounded. The old gentleman de-
clined and said that *4f he had staid at home, he would
not have been shot." Colonel Frost died in a day or two
and as his remains were being taken to Charlestown, they
stopped for a while at the "Middle Farm" the old ances-
tral home of the Frosts. This battle was the biggest
fight that occurred in the Count}^ More men were en-
gaged and the fighting while it lasted was sharper. At
this time, fifty years later, it is not uncommon for fisher-
men to draw up a musket from Parker's Hole when think-
ing that they had hooked a ten pound bass. This en-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 117
gagement is called the Battle of Cool Spring, and will be
marked with a granite stone by the Camp. The enemy-
failing in this effort, made another attempt to cross at
Berry's Ferry on the 19th, which was handsomely repulsed
by General Imboden with his own and McCausland's
cavalry. During this fight Lieut. George Shumate of
the Clarke Cavalry was killed. General Early received
information just at this time that a column under Averill
was moving from Martinsburg towards Winchester, and
as his trains were exposed to attacks from the direction of
Charlestown, he determined to withdraw to Strasburg on
the Valley pike. This he did, sending Ramseur's division
to Winchester, but marching the rest of his army through
Millwood and White Post to Newtown, where he again
had all his enemies in his front.
General Early's movements during all his stay in the
lower Valley are well worthy of the attention of everyone.
Moving from one point to another with the greatest celer-
ity, but yet with an eye to every movement of the enemy,
or possible movement, he deceived them as to the size of
his forces and kept them on the lookout and uneasy as to
where he would next turn up. On the 24th of July he
moved rapidly down to Kernstown, the scene of Jackson's
fight in March, 1862, and after hard fighting drove the
enemy through Winchester in full retreat for the Poto-
mac. On the 29th, part of his army crossed tho Potomac
and went as far as Chambersburg, which was partly burned
in retaliation for the burning by Hunter and others in the
Valley. On the 31st, he was back at Bunker Hill. On
the 5th of August he again crossed the Potomac, on the
7th he was again back at Bunker Hill. On the 10th,
hearing that the 19th corps of the army of the Potomac
had arrived at Harper's Ferry, under command of Gen-
eral Sheridan, he moved up the Valley pike and took po-
118 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
sition at Fisher's Hill beyond Strasburg. While Early
was making this movement towards Fisher's Hill, Ram-
seur had a severe fight with the enemy's cavalry on the
Millwood road, and drove it back. On the same day Im-
boden and Vaughn's cavalry had a sharp engagement at
the Double Tollgate, with another body of cavalry, and
drove them back. Gordon also on the 12th, had a sharp
fight with the cavalry. Sheridan opened his campaign
with vigor, advancing as far as Cedar Creek, but before
he could attack, if he intended to do so, Mosby's attack
on his trains at Berryville caused him to fall back through
Winchester and Berryville beyond "Clifton," the home of
the Aliens. Early moving on to Bunker Hill and demon-
strating towards Summit Point and Charles Town, Sheri-
dan on the 24th fell back to Halltown, where he was under
the shelter of the guns on the Maryland Heights.
On the 30th of August, Anderson moved to Winchester,
and Early to Bunker Hill. In the meantime Sheridan
had again advanced towards Berryville and Summit
Point. On the 3rd of September General Anderson hav-
ing been ordered by General Lee to return to Petersburg,
moved towards Berryville, intending to pass through
Millwood and Ashby's Gap. Sheridan about the same
time extended his left so as to occupy the breastworks on
Grindstone Hill at *'Rosemont," also sending a division
of cavalry under General Torbert toward White Post.
Anderson marching quietly down the Winchester pike was
told by Mr. Geo. C. Blakemore and Mr. Martin Gaunt
that the enemy were in force just ahead of him. His lines
were immediately formed for the attack in front, and also
on the flank by sending a force through the farms now own-
ed by Mr. C. A. Rutherford and H. 0. Levi, to take po-
sition in the woods south of ''Rosemont." All things be-
ing ready, the whole line advanced and the enemy were
SAMUEL J. C. MOORE
CAPTAIN OF "CLARKE RIFLES" (COMPANY I, SECOND VIRGINIA INFANTHV^
LIEUTENANT-COLONEL AND ADJUTANT-GENERAL
ON GEN. JURAL A. EARLv's STAFF
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 119
soon driven from their exceedingly strong position and
fell back through Berryville to Sheridan's position along
the Summit Point turnpike. The column of cavalry sent
toward White Post under Torbert heard the firing at Ber-
ryville and returned, but their advance was fallen upon
by Mosby's men about a mile south of Berryville and a
number killed and captured. The main column advanc-
ing to the hill near the toll gate were fired upon by artil-
lery placed by order of Major S. J. C. Moore in the yard
of Mrs. Kittredge's residence, then owned by Mr. Beemer,
and quite a number were killed, causing them to turn to-
wards the river and pass east of the town in order to reach
their own fines on the north. On the 4th Anderson placed
his force in fine of battle in front of Sheridan. General
Early moved with three divisions to his assistance from
his camp at Stevenson's depot, being guided by the late
Col. J. J. Reily, who was wefi acquainted with all that
country. Finding Anderson in position. Early extended
his line northward through the ''Glen Allen" farm, hoping
to get around the flank of the enemy, but from a high hill
he was enabled to see that Sheridan's line extended as far
as Summit Point, and as his force was too small to reach
so far, he was constrained to give up the plan. After con-
sultation with General Anderson, it was determined to
move to the west side of the Opequon. This was done
during the 5th, and although the skirmishers of the two
armies were engaged, the movement was made without in-
terruption by the enemy. Sheridan with the force at his
command ought to have captured Early's whole force
without trouble, and if he had been a general of energy
and push he would have done so. Before Early's arrival
to reinforce Anderson, his train and division were in great
peril. Sheridan had in some way found out the position
of Anderson's trains, and had sent orders during the night
120 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
of the 2nd to General Torbert at White Post to attack
these trains, telUng him where to find them and but for
the capture of the courier by John Russell, he would
doubtless have undertaken it with every prospect of suc-
cess. An attack on his trains would have so crippled An-
derson that he would have been compelled to withdraw
in the face of so large an army, which would doubtless
have attacked and ruined him before Early could have
come to his assistance. Anyone studying the situation
will see that Sheridan could have outflanked Early on the
left towards Summit Point, have rolled him back towards
the Winchester road and had the force at Stevenson's and
all the trains there at his mercy. Sheridan may have been
a dashing and enterprising cavalry officer when under
General Grant's eye, but he was certainly a failure in
managing an army, when opposed by even the small force
under Early's command. His success later, at Winches-
ter, after Early's force had been reduced by the return of
Anderson to General Lee, when he (Sheridan) had an over-
whelming force of cavalry and infantry, entitled him to
no credit. Any man of the most ordinary ability could
have done as well. The battle of Berryville over, Early
withdrew to the west side of the Opequon, where he fol-
lowed the same tactics as before, threatening Sheridan's
rear and trying by such means to hold him and his army
from giving Grant any help before Petersburg. After
some days, Sheridan secured information of Anderson's
departure, and that part of Early's force was down at
Bunker Hill. Feeling safe with Early thus reduced and
his line so extended he determined to strike him at Win-
chester. It may be a matter of interest to Clarke people
to know how he got the information upon which he acted.
There was an old negro man, Tom Laws, living near the
"Old Chapel," a very respectable old man. One night he
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 121
was called to his door and asked if he was acquainted in
Winchester, and if he could get in and out. "Oh yes, my
young master is Provost Marshal." He was then carried
to Sheridan's headquarters at "Mansfield," Mr. Page's
farm, and given a message by General Sheridan to a Miss
Wright in Winchester. The old man did as directed,
took the message, saw the lady, got her reply, and brought
it out by the Millwood turnpike, where he was met by
some of Sheridan's men. Acting on the information thus
obtained, Sheridan moved to the Opequon at Spout
Spring, attacked Early near Winchester and after a fight
lasting from dayhght till nearly dark, drove him back be-
yond Winchester; but poor old Uncle Tom never saw
Sheridan any more, or the forty dollars promised for the
THE battle of Berryville was the last engagement
Early had in Clarke, and when he moved away,
the Confederates, in large force, never again en-
tered the county. Military movements were confined to
the army of Sheridan in force, as it moved towards Win-
chester and afterwards to small bodies of cavalry of the
Confederates, and more especially to those of Mosby and
the U. S. Cavalry opposed to him. Capt. J. S. Mosby,
having shown special skill in scouting inside the lines of
the enemy, was authorized in the Fall of 1863 to organize
a company of partizan rangers, which soon grew into a
battalion of several companies. He gathered a large num-
ber of young men from the country around, but also many
from the regular troops, who were attracted by the free
and easy life, as well as the opportunities for plunder, as
they were allowed to take everything of value on the per-
sons of their prisoners. They also had opportunities to
plunder wagon trains, and sometimes trains of cars, and
on more than one occasion got large sums of money which
were divided among them. The horses captured, after
taking such as were needed by the command, were sent
to General Lee's army. While the citizens sometimes
felt that Mosby's presence in the county made the enemy
treat them worse, which was doubtless true, however, as
a military measure his constant attacks on the communi-
cations of the enemy caused them to keep a large force
to guard the railroads and trains, and this kept that many
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 123
men away from Grant's army and so helped General Lee
to hold out longer. It has been estimated that at least
30,000 men were kept by Mosby's efforts from the more
active service with the large armies. We will not attempt
to follow all of Mosby's movements, but only such as re-
sulted in engagements of some importance in the county.
On Feb. 5th, 1864, Capt. Wm. H. Chapman and Lieut.
Jno. S. Russell, with fourteen men, attacked a party of
Federals between Millwood and Berryville, killing and
capturing several and taking four horses. The point at
which this fight occurred is indefinite, as Williamson
places it as stated above, and Mr. Scott puts it two miles
from Millwood towards Winchester. The next Mosby
fight in the county was on Aug, 13th. 1864, when he at-
tacked Sheridan's wagon trains loaded with supphes for
his army then at Winchester. According to the reports
of the U. S. Quartermaster in charge, the trains, consist-
ing of 525 wagons, guarded by Kenly's brigade of infantry,
a force of cavalry and a battery of artillery moved out
from Harper's Ferry on the morning of Aug. 12th, pushing
on Tvithout stopping until about 11 P. M., when they
reached the Buck Marsh Run, about a mile north of Ber-
ryville. Here they halted to feed and water their teams.
As they got through feeding they were started off, but
the rear of the train was not in motion until daylight,
when they were thrown into confusion by some shells
from a gun nearby. This gun was Mosby's. He had
learned from his scouts that a large wagon train was on
its way, and determined to try to destroy or capture it
with his battalion of about 300 men and two light pieces
of artillery. He had, during the night, reached a point
on the farm of Mr. Barnett just east of the pike. Placing
his artillery on a hill a short distance away, he opened fire
just as their rear teams were hitching up. As soon as the
124 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
enemy were thrown into confusion by the shot, Capt. Wm.
Chapman with his company, charged that part of the
enemy in the field just north of the run, consisting of in-
fantry behind a stone fence. He succeeded in driving
them off and capturing a number of prisoners, losing some
men, among them, Lewis Adee, of Leesburg. While this
was going on, Captain Richards, with his company, moved
across what is now Green Hill Cemetery, struck them just
west of the Baptist Church scattering them, and then he
cut across to the Winchester Pike, followed them some
distance, capturing wagons and men. Upon returning
he found some infantry in the Baptist Church, who were
soon driven out, but succeeded in making good their re-
treat towards Winchester. The results of this engagement
were 75 wagons captured and destroyed, 200 beef cattle,
500 or 600 horses and mules and 200 prisoners, with which
Mosby made good his retreat across the Shenandoah. A
great deal of plunder was gathered by Mosby's men, but
they failed to find a box of ''greenbacks" to be used in
paying off Sheridan's army, said to contain $125,000. The
result of this affair was to force Sheridan to fall back.
He reports four brigades of cavalry at Berryville, and to-
wards the Opequon; one division at Summit Point, and
his main army at ''Clifton." He also reports about this
time, Aug. 17th; "Mosby has annoyed me and captured
a few wagons. We hung one and shot six of his men yes-
terday." He chose to consider Mosby a bushwacker, and
not entitled to treatment as a soldier. For the shooting
above related, Mosby took complete revenge later. Also
in retaliation for these attacks, Sheridan's soldiers, under
orders from their superiors, proceeded to wreak their ven-
geance on the citizens, as had been done by Hunter a lit-
tle earlier. Mosby's scouts on the night on the 18th, in
their search for information, attacked a picket of the 5th
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 125
Michigan Cavalry near Castleman's Ferry, killing and
wounding one and taking two prisoners. In retaliation
for this General Custer determined to burn some houses
in the neighborhood. They proceeded to fire the resi-
dence of Colonel Ware, but were prevented here by the
timely arrival of some of Mosby's men, who put it out,
but the home of Mr. Province McCormick near by was
fired and burned, not allowing the inmates to remove any-
thing from the house, and otherwise mistreating the fam-
ily. They then proceeded to the house of Mr. Wm. Sowers
not far off, which they burned in the same brutal way;
then to Col. Benj. Morgan's, whose house shared the same
fate. But the avenger was on their track. Chapman of
Mosby's command followed them from McCormick's and
Sowers' burning houses, with vows of no quarter for such
fiends, met them just as they were leaving Colonel Mor-
gan's, attacked with irresistable fury, routing them and
kiUing thirty, bringing in no prisoners. These men were
members of the 5th Michigan Cavalry, and were sent to
do this work by order of General Custer. According to
their own report, out of 50 men they lost 30. These out-
rages were in some measure checked for awhile, but in the
end Mosby had to hang quite a number of Custer's men
before they would recognize him as entitled to the treat-
ment of a regular soldier. Sheridan, after faUing back be-
low Berryville, and establishing his lines along the Summit
Point road from the Charlestown pike to Summit Point,
and with his headquarters at ''Mansfield," pushed for-
ward to Grindstone Hill. At the same time he dispatched
General Torbert with his Brigade of Cavalry towards
White Post. Gen. Fitz Hugh Lee was west of Berr3rville
observing the movements of the enemy. Hearing of this
movement of Torbert he ordered Henry Kerf oot, a member
of the Clarke Cavalry, to follow Torbert and report his
126 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
movements. Kerfoot followed them to White Post, when
Torbert hearing the firing at Berryville, started to re-
turn; seeing which Kerfoot went to his father's home about
two miled south of Berryville, where he met Capt. Sam
Chapman of Mosby's command, who was also on the look-
out for Torbert. The day before. Chapman, with two
companies, had crossed the Shenandoah with hope of be-
ing able to do something to damage Sheridan. In order
to get some information Lieut. John S. Russell had gone
into Berryville that night, and going, as was his custom,
to the house of Dr. Neill, now the home of Hon. Marshall
McCormick, he tapped on Dr. Neill's window, asking the
Dr. for news of the Yankees. *'Why," said the Doctor,
''the town is full of them and the reserve picket is on my
front porch." Just then some one rode up the alley from
the Millwood pike, hailing the house and asking the way
to Millwood. ''All right, I will show you," said Russell,
"some of us have been pie-rootin around here and we
will show you." Calling his comrades, they started with
the stranger. Then Russell asked, "Why are you going
to Millwood this time of the night?" "I have dispatches
for General Torbert somewhere between Millwood and
White Post." At once Russell turned to him and said
"Give me those dispatches, pardner;" enforcing his de-
mand with the muzzle of a pistol. Getting the dispatches,
he moved on down to the pike, where he easily picked up
the balance of the squad and rode away through what is
now Josephine City to join Captain Chapman. The dis-
patches were from Sheridan to Torbert telling how he
might find some of Early's trains and destroy them.
Capt. Wm. Chapman immediately set out to inform Gen.
Fitz Lee of this, Lee being as he knew somewhere west of
Berryville, leaving his brother, Capt. Sam Chapman in com-
mand, with orders to watch Torbert. Capt. Sam Chapman
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 127
going to Dr. Kerfoot's at ''Llewellyn," met Henry Kerfoot,
who informed him of Torbert's movement towards Berry-
ville, and he thereupon determined to strike the advance
guard, the 6th New York Cavalry, which was moving some
distance in advance of the main body. Coming from
what is known as Possum Hollow, through Mr. Glass'
farm, they approached the Millwood turnpike without
being seen, just as the Yankees got along Mr. Gold's field.
Here Chapman and his men charged, driving them before
them back to the woods. At the upper end of the field
was a closed gate which stopped the wild retreat for a
little, but when it was opened they fled, pursued by Chap-
man and some of his men, who killed some in the woods
near Mr. Gold's residence and others in the woods beyond,
those who escaped reaching the main column at Pigeon
Hill. In the meantime Lieutenant Russell had gathered
up 30 prisoners and 38 horses. About this time the head
of the main column came in sight, and they led Russell
a merry chase across the fields towards the river. A
couple of regiments followed Russell, and w^re closing up
on him, when at the blacksmith's shop near Price's mill,
they were checked for a moment by running upon Horace
Deahl and Cyrus McCormick, members of the Clarke
Cavalry, who were having their horses shod. Deahl had
just got on his horse, when they came in view. Without
counting noses, he opened fire and dashed at them. They
gave back for a moment and he escaped. Cyrus McCormick
not being on his horse, was captured. The moment's
delay enabled Russell to reach Shepherd's ford and to get
safely across with his prisoners and horses.
On Sept. 16th, General Chapman with a brigade of
Federal Cavalry, crossed the Shenandoah at Castleman's
Ferry for a raid into Loudoun after Mosby, and to burn
and destroy. After crossing the river he sent a detach-
128 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
ment of the 8th New York Cavalry under Captain Comp-
son, up the river with orders to meet him at Paris. Chap-
man, after going to Paris, returned through Upperville to
Snickersville, from there he sent a company to the top of
the mountain in the Gap to meet Captain Compson, who
had followed the road along the top, arriving about 2 p. m.
at the Gap, having picked up about a dozen prisoners.
There both parties proceeded to feed and rest. In the
meantime Capt. Sam Chapman had got on the track of
Compson and his party and was following them along the
mountain road to the Gap. Finding them quiet and un-
suspecting, he charged them and scattered them, taking
eighteen prisoners and forty horses, and releasing those of
our people who had been captured. The large force of
General Chapman was lying at Snickersville, but did
nothing to help their fellows. Sometime in September
Sheridan finding he could neither capture Mosby, nor
drive him away from his fine of communications deter-
mined to continue his policy of treating him and his com-
mand as guerillas, robbers and spies, and to hang and shoot
them when captured. So having captured a number at
Front Royal, General Custer at Sheridan's command
hanged and shot seven of them, placing upon them a card
saying, ''This will be the fate of all of Mosby's men."
Colonel Mosby of course retahated. Having captured a
number of Custer's men, he made them draw lots and the
seven upon whom the lots fell were sent to Grindstone
Hill in Clarke, and there in the woods by the roadside
three were hanged, two were shot and two in some way
escaped. A card was placed upon them notifying General
Sheridan that it was in retaliation for the murder of the
Mosby men. Mosby also sent a letter to Sheridan by the
hands of Lieut. Jno. S. Russell, Russell taking it after an-
other gallant officer had dechned, saj^ing "that he did not
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 129
want to be hung yet." This effectually stopped Sheridan,
from any more hanging exploits. On Nov. 6th, Lieuten-
ant Russell with seven others, while concealed in a wood
on the old Charlestown road, saw a party of fifteen Yan-
kees going in the direction of Winchester. Russell for-
tunately had on a blue overcoat. He rode out saying,
"Where are you going, boys?" "To Winchester." "I'll
join you," said Russell. He rode quietly along for a while
and then drawing out his handkerchief he gave a signal to
his party, who came charging up. The Federals were all
killed, wounded or captured but two, and their horses
taken. On the same day Captain Mountjoy, with his
company fell into a force of cavalry sent out to look for
Russell and his party. A brisk fight ensued at what is
known as the Hidey farm, in which Mountjoy captured
a large number of men and horses. Returning through
Berryville, he allowed about half of his men to go to Lou-
doun by Castleman's Ferry, he going on with his prison-
ers to Berry's Ferry by way of "Clay Hill," the residence
of Mr. Francis Whiting. Here he was unexpectedly at-
tacked by the famous Captain Blazer with his large com-
pany. Mountjoy 's men were thrown into confusion and
fled. At the "Vineyard," the home of the poet, Philip
Cooke, one of his men was left mortally wounded and one
killed ; the remainder made their escape by the Island ford
to the other side of the river. So you see that Mosby
was not always successful. This Captain Blazer defeated
several of his companies, but was finally utterly destroy-
ed by Major Richards, and he himself killed after a very
gallant fight. This occurred at Myerstown in Jefferson
On Dec. 15th, Captain Chapman, with about 125 men,
crossed the river at Berry's Ferry, hoping to meet a party
of Yankee cavalry who were in the habit of coming down
130 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
to the river sometimes by way of White Post and Bethel
and sometimes by Millwood, Chapman, in order to be
sure of meeting them, divided his party, taking half with
him towards White Post. The other half, under Lieu-
tenant Russell, were secreted in Mrs. Cooke's wood, a part
of the Vineyard farm, in order to watch the road from Mill-
wood. About noon, the Federals, 100 strong, under Capt.
Wm. H. Miles, of the 14th Pennsylvania, approached cau-
tiously, having been warned by a negro. *'We can't get
across the river without being butchered," Russell told
his men, "so the only safe thing is to whip them. Don't
fire a shot until you are in forty steps of them, and we will
whip them." The Federals made a good fight, but in the
end they had to give way. Captain Miles was killed and
about nine others, twenty were wounded and sixty-eight
taken prisoners. About sixty horses were captured.
None of Russell's men were injured. This was a most
successful fight, and the credit in great measure is due our
county man, Jno. S. Russell.
On Feb. 19th, 1865, there occurred at Mt. Carmel
Church, on the road from Berry's Ferry to Paris, one of
the most successful fights made by Mosby's command.
Major Gibson, with 125 men from the 14th Pennsylvania
and 100 from the 21st New York, was sent to stir up
"Mosby's Confederacy." They crossed the Shenandoah
at Shepherd's Ford, and proceeded by the mountain road
past Mt. Carmel Church to Paris, where they divided,
part going to Upperville, and the rest under Gibson to-
wards Markham. As they went, they searched houses
for Mosby's men, who sometimes stayed in the homes in
that neighborhood. This march was made during the
night, hoping to find every one asleep and thus easy prey.
They did pick up about twenty-five, but news of their
presence had got abroad, and by morning Major Richards
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 131
was collecting a force which increased as the day went on.
Following at a safe distance, they at last saw them enter
Ashby's Gap and ascended the mountain. At Mt.
Carmel, the road turns abruptly, and just as their rear
guard reached this point, Richards charged them. The
prisoners, who had been sent on in front, seeing their
friends charging, formed across the road to Shepherd's
Mill, the only road the Federals could retreat over, and
although unarmed, thus assisted in the successful issue of
the fight. Being armed only with carbines, the Yankees
were no match in close quarters for men armed with pis-
tols. Pressed on all sides they broke and ran pellmell for
the river, throwing away guns, belts, chickens, turkeys
and other plunder gathered on their trip. They pushed
for Shepherd's Ford, Major Gibson, according to his re-
port, trying to rally them, but really it looked as if he were
leading them, as only he and a few others escaped across
the river. Of the Federals, 13 were killed, a large number
wounded, 63 captured, including several officers and 90
horses taken. This party was led by a deserter named
Spotts. He made good his escape, much to the regret of
Mosby's boys, who would have swung him up to a nearby
chestnut tree with hearty good-will.
About the last of March, Colonel Mosby ordered Charlie
Wiltshire, a very gallant young man from Jefferson county,
to go on a scout into Clarke, taking several men with him.
Now it happened that Wiltshire was paying attention to
a young lady in Clarke, and all paths led to her house.
But strange things happened in war times, and love knows
no bounds, for a young Lieutenant of the Federal army,
Ferris by name, admired the same lady and was willing
to take all risks to see her. On this day, attended by an
orderly, he had visited her and was just coming out to get
upon his horse, when Wiltshire and his men rode up.
132 HISTORY OT' CLARKE COUNTY
Ferris, sheltering himself behind the corner of a building,
opened fire on them. He was well supplied with pistols.
When the affair ended Wiltshire was mortally wounded,
and his companions badly hurt. Ferris escaped on Wilt-
shire's horse, and it was with difficulty that Wiltshire's
friends got him away to a place of safety. This unfortu-
nate affair occurred at the house of Col. Daniel Bonham,
now owned by Mr. Holmes Hardesty. Colonel Mosby
remarked of the Yankee Lieutenant that he was as brave
as Charlie Grogan, which was as high praise as he felt he
could give to any man.
On the 9th of April General Lee surrendered at Appo-
mattox. The last effort made by Colonel Mosby in the
county was just after the surrender of General Lee, but
before he had heard of it. He came with a part of his
command into Mr. Edward McCormick's woods, just
east of the residence of Mr. McGuire. He then sent John
Russell with three others into Berryville to see the lay of
the land. The Court House yard was occupied by the
Ist New York Cavalry. Russell secreted himself and
party in the alley running from Main street to Mr. Crow's
garden, watching for an opportunity to see or do some-
thing. After awhile, he saw them forming and getting
ready to move, so he attacked the picket of twelve men
on the Millwood pike and captured them. He expected
that the regiment, hearing his firing, would follow him,
when he intended to lead them into Colonel Mosby 's am-
bush, but for some reason they would not follow him, but
went down towards the river. He got safely away with
his prisoners, and rejoined Colonel Mosby. The command
was sent across the river and Mosby and Russell and sev-
eral others proceeded to go on a scout towards Winchester.
About one o'clock at night, they stopped at the house of
Mr. Thos. E. Gold, to get feed for their horses. They got
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 133
supper for themselves as well, for Mrs. Gold immediately
got busy and soon gave them as good a supper as the house
afforded. They then went on towards Winchester, and
Russell was sent to the ''Bower" in Jefferson to get such
information as might be had there. On his return, he was
told by Mr. Thos. Wood that General Lee had surrendered
which of course he was slow to believe, but when he heard
the minute guns of rejoicing in Winchester, his faith gave
way and he returned to his command with a sad heart.
This ended the military operations of our people here.
On the 20th of April Mosby met some officers from Gen-
eral Hancock then commanding in Winchester, to make
terms of surrender, but the negotiations failed and on May
1st he disbanded his men at Salem. A little later Colonel
Chapman, with about 200 men, went to Winchester.
They were paroled on the same terms as were the men of
General Lee's army, the men returning to their homes
and retaining their horses.
The committe of the J. E. B. Stuart Camp decided to
place granite markers at the following places, where en-
gagements were fought as described in these pages :
The Battle of Cool Spring, July 18th, 1864, near Castle-
Fight at the Double Tollgate, Aug. 11th, 1864.
Fight at Berry's Ferry, July 19th, 1864.
Battle of Berryville, Sept. 3rd, 1864.
The Buck Marsh fight, near Berryville, Sept. 13th, 1864,
Fight at Gold's Farm, Sept. 3rd, 1864.
Fight at Col. Morgan's Lane, Aug. 19th, 1864.
Fight at Mt. Airy, Sept. 15th, 1864.
The Vineyard Fight, Dec. 16th, 1864.
Mt. Carmel Fight, Feb. 19th, 1865.
Several other small affairs took place which have not
been marked, as both the time and place were not defi-
134 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
nitely known, or the fights were not of enough importance
to be marked.
These markers were prepared and put in place by the
well known marble and granite worker, T. J. Orndorf, of
WHEN the War was on in earnest early in the
Summer of 1861, there was no communi-
cation with Baltimore, and so no Balti-
more Sun or National Intelligencer or Alexandria Ga-
zette for the gentlemen of the town and country. Their
custom had been to meet every day at the Post Office to
get their mail and talk neighborhood news, but now they
found time hanging on their hands and could only amuse
themselves by meeting in some doctor's or lawyer's of-
fice or at the stores and discuss the war, its causes and
effects. Many heated discussions, sometimes causing es-
trangement between lifetime friends, were had in those
meetings, for it was considered treason to question the
righteousness or wisdom of our cause. When the Militia
was ordered out there were none at home, but the older
men, and sometimes a farm had no men at all to manage
its affairs, only the servants, who with singular fidelity
went on with the farm work as usual. The mistress or
it might be the young boy of the family, not quite old
enough for active service, was compelled to take the re-
sponsibility of looking after things. The monotony of
life was varied by visits of the father and sometunes the
mother to the camp who went laden with the best that the
home could afford for the soldiers of the family, or it may
be, they would take a suit of clothes or boots, anything
that could add to the comfort or lessen the hardships of
136 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
soldier life. Teams were sometimes bought or pressed
into the Confederate service. The cattle, hay and com
were sold to the Commissary or Quartermaster Depart-
ment. In the Spring of 1862, when Jackson fell back from
Winchester and the enemy moved in, there was a great
change. Many of the negroes availed themselves of the
first chance to leave for Pennsylvania and freedom. The
horses and cattle were now taken and driven away for the
use of the enemy, sometimes a receipt was given saying
that this property had been taken for use of the Govern-
ment and would be paid for on proof of loyalty to the
United States. At one time a farmer had a fine lot of
cattle, just ready for the market. A gentleman who
bought for the Confederates had looked at them and made
arrangements to take them away on the following day,
when there rode up a company of the U. S. Cavalry with
a train of wagons. They got around the cattle, loaded
up all the negroes who would go into the wagons, arrested
the farmer and carried him a prisoner to Winchester, al-
lowing him to ride a crippled stallion, about the last horse
on the palce. Here he was kept about two weeks in one
of the forts; his saddle for a pillow and the ground for a
bed. Upon his refusing to take the oath of allegiance to
the U. S., he was allowed, through the kind offices of Mr.
Geo. Ginn, a Union man of the town, to give bond in the
sum of five thousand dollars that he would not give aid
or comfort to the Confederacy. He and his old horse
were then permitted to leave. Soon after this the 2nd
Battle of Manassas occurred and an army of stragglers
came through the county on their way to Winchester.
The old gentleman always told them when they came to
him for help, 'T can't do anything — but there is my wife,
ask her — she might help you." But when General White
was captured at Harper's Ferry with all his papers, the
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 137
bond in all probability was destroyed and he felt released.
At any rate, in some way or other no Confederate soldier
ever went away empty. With the negroes nearly all gone
and with the horses also taken, it became to all a serious
problem how the old and infirm, the women and children
were to be fed and clothed, but those men, old ones mostly,
were equal to the occasion. They would in some way get one
or two horses and put out a few acres each year of corn and
wheat. Those away from the main roads would have a
few sheep, and hogs could always be raised, as they could
hide themselves better than other stock and the Yankees
didn't like hog meat anyhow, so with the little corn and
wheat they were fed and the wool was traded at the fac-
tories for cloth and yarn. This not only clothed the home
folks, but when chance offered, providing a suit for the
soldier at the front. At times there was excitement
enough. Perhaps some negro or ill disposed Union man
would report that at such a house was a Confederate sol-
dier or may be that it was a "Rebel Post Office" and sud-
denly a swarm would appear, the house would be searched
from top to bottom, whatever they fancied would be car-
ried away, no place was sacred. An amusing story, which
is true, is told of an old lady who had secreted under her
bed, some bags of wheat. She was told that she must
get into her bed — an old fashioned high testered one, and
be "a sick lady." The curtains of her room and bed were
drawn and then two children were left on guard. A party
who were unusually mean were ransacking the house and
one of them approached the room of the ''sick" old lady.
When he attempted to enter, she and the children held the
door, she crying out "You can not come into this sick
room." But when he persisted, as she told it, she "fetched
him a blow on his nose and drew the blood." Fortu-
nately just then an officer with some humanity in his make
138 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
up came on the scene and ordered him off and the "sick'*
room was saved. The old lady was always very proud
of having drawn Yankee blood. Such scenes were com-
mon, and very many. Probably most of the houses were
searched time and again. Some times the intruders be-
came violent. On one occasion, an old gentleman was
trying to save the last horse on the place, holding to it
and pleading for it, when he was struck wnth the scabbard
of a sword and his collar bone broken. But these old men
and women were willing to endure anything for the cause
they loved. They would take risks of the utmost danger.
There was one house that was used frequently as a de-
pository of letters coming from the army to be distributed
as best they could to the friends of the soldiers. On one
occasion the mistress of the house taking a little girl be-
hind her on a horse, went several miles across country by
lonely roads to the next house that was used for that pur-
pose. At any moment, she might have been intercepted
by a party of cavalry, and if searched would have been
sent to prison as a rebel spy. The people living on the
great public roads and beside streams w^ere, if possible,
more troubled than any one else. Along Buck Marsh and
Long Marsh runs was a favorite camping ground. For-
tunate was the home if the General happened to make
his headquarters in the yard, they were then safe, but
after the camp had moved, the stragglers came along and
then was the time of most danger. Some of these men
would not stop at anything and only the protection of a
divine hand saved these unprotected ones from the worst
of fates. There were times with some of them that they
had to draw rations from the Yankees camped in their
Along these same roads many farms were left without
any fencing and when the war closed the owners had to
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 139
fence their entire farms. A number of houses and barns
were burned, causing great suffering to the inmates. Dur-
ing the Summer of 1864 under orders from General Grant,
a number of male citizens around Berryville and vicinity
who were liable to conscription for service, were arrested,
among them were Jas. Forster, Henry J. Mesmer, John
F. Burchell, Jno. Louthan, Jas. Louthan, Geo. Diffender-
fer — ^Patterson, John Anderson, Killian Pope, and others
whose names I have been unable to get. They were im-
prisoned in Fort McHenry for some moiiths, when they
were released through the efforts of some friends of the
south in Baltimore. To show the horrors of war, I will
tell of an incident in tlie Fall of 1864 at the time of Sheri-
dan's advance to attack Early. At a house near the
Opequon a lady was very ill. Batteries were put in posi-
tion on the hills near. Skirmishers were firing across the
creek, the house and yard were filled with soldiers. Every
room except the one in which the sick lady lay, was oc-
cupied at night by soldiers. Amidst all this noise and con-
fusion a child was born and the mother passed into the
Great Beyond. Strange to say the sick one was the calmest
and most self-possessed person in the house. The day
after her death she was carried to Winchester through the
midst of the hostile army and laid in Mt. Hebron. The
child born under such adverse circumstances lived to be
a bright and happy girl.
The writer has tried to gather more of the trying ex-
periences of the people but has failed to get any response
to his appeal for help in this direction. Of course, many
of these sufferings were the natural outcome of war, but
many of them need not have been if the common instinct
of humanity had been given full play.
In Sheridan's barn burning raid, night came upon the
burners when they reached Berryville and a few barns near
140 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
by were not burned. Among them was that of Mr. Thos.
E. Gold, which was well filled with hay. The U. S. Cav-
alry would go every day and carry it to camp on their
horses, promising to burn the barn before they left. It
was the Fall of the year and the orchard near the barn was
full of apples. One day just as a large party leaving were
loaded with hay and apples, Phil. Swan, John Crow and
Marquis Calmes, members of the Clarke Cavalry who
were scouting, rode up to the edge of the woods near the
house and in sight of the barn. Mr. Gold, standing on his
porch, saw them and waving his hands to them, they dash-
ed after the Yankees, firing and yelling as if they had a
hundred, whereupon all took to flight and the boys rode
back with three horses and one prisoner and made their
escape through the woods. Very soon a regiment was
on the ground threatening to burn the house and to take
the ''old rebel" away with them, charging him with firing
out of the house on them. Mr. Gold's comment on his
accuser was apropos. ''Captain," he said, "that man's
a liar and he knows he's a liar, I'd like to have the handling
of him for a few minutes." No doubt their threats would
have been carried out, but for the honesty of one of them
who had remained in the orchard during the whold af-
fair. He testified that there were only three rebels and
that "the old Rebel" was telling the truth. These are iso-
lated cases. That there were many others there is no
doubt. These are given not to stir up bad feeling but
that the young people of this generation and those to
come, may know what hardships their ancestors endured
during those troublous times.
The numerous searchings for Confederate soldiers led
many people to make places of concealment for not only
the soldiers who might happen to be with them, but for
any valuables that could not be carried safely about their
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 141
persons. Closets were devised with concealed openings
and great ingenuity was used and scarcely a house but
had a place into which they could slip a soldier or two for
safe keeping. The ladies also used to have large pockets
fastened to a belt around their waist, under their nice
roomy skirts. The dresses of that day were especially
suited for the purposes of concealment, as all ladies wore
hoops which gave ample room for the pockets. In these
pockets, the silver spoons and other light valuables were
put whenever the Yankees appeared. The fashion of
today would have offered no opertunity for such a thing.
In that day every one admired curved lines in the make up
and so plumpness was much sought after. Now the idea
is to have all lines as straight as a shingle.
Soldiers and people took all sorts of risks and braved all
dangers. On one occasion a number of Confederate Cav-
alry were breakfasting at Mr. Armistead Colston's, when
some one announced the approach of some U. S. Cavalry
toward the front of the house. The boys had their horses
just in front and were absolutely cut off from escape in
that direction. One of the young ladies of the family,
taking in the situation told them to come through the yard
of the house and pass out through the garden back of it.
She held the gate while they did so. They had hardly
disappeared around the house when the Yankees appeared
and ordered her to open the gate. She stoutly refused and
held onto it although they struck her with the scabbords
of their swords and broke her arm. The delay gained by
her bravery and persistancy gave our boys time to make
their escape. Such devotion was not rare. The women
old and young seemed to rise to the occasion no matter
how trying. This young lady became the wife of a gal-
lant Confederate soldier and was well worthy of the best.
Another of our heroines was a young married lady, who
142 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
rescued all her father's cattle and cows. The entire herd
was driven off in spite of pleadings and protestations that
the cows at least be left, as they furnished milk and butter
for the old and the children, and indeed more than half
the living. She determined to follow and appeal to the
General of the Command. So taking an old black Mammy
behind her on a horse she started on her perilous journey.
She finally overtook them at New Market, the home of
Dr. Randolph, where they had halted for the night. An
interview was obtained and the General at last told her
that if she could get her cows out of the large drove in the
field opposite, she might have them. The old Mammy
here came into use. She had milked those cows and when
she went to the gate and called they came running, and
not only their own, but some that belonged to their neigh-
bors, all that ran out when the gate was opened and were
returned in triumph by these invincible women.
The fidelity of the negroes who remained at home was
also wonderful. When the young master or even other
soldiers were in the house, they always knew it and kept
the faith put in them perfectly. As an instance; — ^A
soldier was at a relative's house, when a party of U. S.
Cavalry rode up, making escape impossible. The colored
people were eating their dinner in the basement. The
Yankees instead of searching the house, as they so often
did, asked these negroes, through the open window,
whether there was not a rebel soldier in the house? They
answered "No," that he had "been there but had left."
The Soldier a member of the Clarke Cavalry, was stand-
ing at that moment in the room above, behind some ladies
who were looking out of the window, indeed he could see
the cavalry himself, and felt hopeless of the outcome, but
the Yankees on getting this answer, moved away and he
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 143
Many instances of their fidelity could be mentioned.
The cheerfulness of the people under such depressing cer-
cumstances was remarkable. One old gentleman while
his barns were burning sat on his front porch and sang —
''Let the Yankees burn as they will, we'll be gay and happy
still." Their only ambition seemed to be to help their
country's cause and do something for the soldiers who were
defending her. As for themselves if they could have
something to eat and to wear, they were satisfied. Some
day a monument to the noble women and old men who
bore so much and so bravely should be built and I hope
that the young people who may read this account, and
others, may be led to do it.
TWO WEEKS UNDER SHERIDAN
DURING the war between the States— 1861 1865,
my father lived on the farm now owned and oc-
cupied by Mr. Ben Foley, about three miles due
north from Berryville. Living there back from any of the
public highways along which the contending armies often
passed, we had been disturbed comparatively little by the
Yankees excepting the taking by them of all our horses
save one old blind mare and an old horse the Confederates
had turned out to die.
Early in the fall of 1864, there we were in fancied se-
curity listening to the rattling of the musketry, the sing-
ing of the cannon ball, the bursting of the bomb-shells,
and the yelling of the soldiers in a battle raging about and
around Grind Stone Hill. This battle, I think, was on
Saturday evening and as the shades of evening fell there
was quite and peace at our home with little thought of
what the morrow had in store for us. Sunday morning
came, — it was a bright September Sunday, and the sun
as usual smiled upon our home of plenty, yea, of abund-
ance. To enumerate, we had the two old horses spoken of
above, eight milk cows, sixty fine fat sheep, seventy-five
or a hundred hogs big and little, and turkej^s, geese, and
chickens almost without number, three or four hundred
bushels of wheat in stack, twenty-five tons of nice hay in
the barn, which my father and my younger brother and
myself with the aid of Mr. Michael Pope, had garnered,
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 145
laboring beyond our strength rather than see it waste in
the field, a large crop of corn standing in the field, apple,
peach, and damson trees all exceedingly full of luscious
fruit, a goodly supply of meat in the meat-house, and quite
a number of bee stands.
Thus surrounded by plent}^ — for war times a great deal
— we were enjoying the quiet of a country Sabbath, when
all of a sudden we were aroused by the geese, hens and
turkeys flying, screaming and fleeing as if the very deuce
was after them.
Out we rushed and for the first time and last we saw
a Confederate skirmish line. It extended clear across
the farm and rapidly advanced in a northern direction.
These men were so close to each other that the fowls had
fled pellmell before them. The line never got any fur-
ther than the fence that divides the John Locke land from
Mr. Ben Foley's. That portion of the farm southwest of
the house was literally covered with soldiers, horses and
cannon. General Early, Maj. S. J. C. Moore, Col. John
Riley and a number of other Confederate officers were in
our yard. My mother and sister hastily prepared them
a snack which they ate from their hands as they sat on
their horses. The soldiers fell upon the fruit upon the trees
like a devouring flame, and my father seeing that it would
soon be gone asked General Early for a guard and saved
much of the fruit, — an act which we all bitterly regretted.
Some of the soldiers advised us to repair to the cellar
or quit the premises as the house would likely be leveled
to the earth by the death-dealing ball and shell ; we could
then hear the rattle of the musketry between the skirmish
lines not a thousand yards away.
Early had come down the pike from Winchester and
turned off at Mr. Martin Gaunt's farm, now owned and
occupied by his son John Gaunt, and got as far as our
146 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
place to plant his cannon or, which is more probable,
finding the enemy too strong for him retired before night
leaving only a skirmish line between us and the Yankees.
Monday the skirmish lines fought all around our house;
sometimes the Confederates were in our yard and some-
times the Yankees. The balls flew thick and fast, many
of them striking the house, which being of logs and stone
afforded us ample protection. We had no cellar. By night
we had seen an armed Confederate soldier for the last
time. That God has willed it so is the only thing that has
ever reconciled the writer to the passing of the Confed-
During the skirmish on Monday a couple of Confed-
erates came to our front gate and asked for something to
eat. I was on the front porch and ran in the house to
get it. When I came out with it they said, * 'Don't bring
it out here, the balls might hit you." I repHed, ''they are
no more apt to hit me than you," and rushed out with the
food but the whistling, singing, and spat of the balls made
me only too glad to get back into the house. Late in the
evening, when all was quiet and neither a Yankee nor a
Confederate was anywhere in sight, brother Doras got
upon the fence to survey the surroundings. Scarcely was
he up before two bullets came whistling by his head from
the direction in which the Confederates had retired, they
thinking, no doubt, that he was a Yankee.
By Tuesday the Yankees, realizing that the Confeder-
ated were all gone, began to pour in on us to loot and to
pillage. We applied to the officers for a guard, but they
replied that as our house lay outside of their picket line
they could not give us a guard, for Mosby might pick them
Language fails me to portray even faintly what we had
to take, endure, and suffer for the next two weeks for that
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 147
Godless horde fulfilling to the very letter Sheridan's in-
structions to lay waste the Valley so that a crow flying over
would have to carry its rations. All day long they would
pillage and destroy and at night they would retire within
their picket line. One day quite a number were catching
chickens when a man in fine uniform evidently an officer,
rode up and in a rough and commanding tone ordered
them to quit, and he drove them out of the yard. Then
he said to my mother, ''Madam, these men will return and
take all of your chickens, I cannot stay here and keep them
away, so you let your two little boys (Doras and myself)
catch as many as they can and I will buy them from you."
We caught a dozen or so and tying them together handed
them up to him, when without saying "thank you" he
put spurs to his horse and rode away. When we attempted
to eat our meals at the table as usual, they came in the
house and took the victuals off the table, dishes and all.
We soon discovered that at the rate things were going we
would have literally nothing to eat, so at night father,
Doras, and I buried a pot of butter, hid jars of preserves
in rock piles, buried our meat in the ash heap, carried one
barrel of flour out in the field and put it in an old lime kiln
and covered it over with rocks, and hid another barrel
in a secret closet in an old unoccupied house. Had we not
done this I verily believe we would have had to leave the
premises in search of something to eat. I saw my father
pick scraps of meat out of the soap grease and eat them.
We had to prepare and eat our meals at night. During
the day we ate on the sly what we could carry in our pocket.
One day a drunken soldier cocked his gun and put it to
my father's breast and with an oath said: "If you do not
let me put my hand in your pocket I will kill you," at that
my father pulled his vest open and said, "I reckon I am
as ready to die as you are ready to kill me," just then an-
148 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
other soldier jerked the gun away, and at the same time
my sister, now Mrs. Britton, raised a window and threw
the wash basin at the drunken soldier hoping, I suppose,
thereby to attract his attention. He whirled around and
struck at her through the window with his gun, breaking
the sash and knocking the broken glass all over her.
By their acts and language, generally, they proved what
one of their great generals said and acted, to-wit: "War
This pillaging, looting, destroying set would have pickets
out for fear of Mosby. One day twenty-five or fifty ne-
groes, coming after hay on mules, came out of the woods
near by in a gallop and with a yell. One of the pickets
fired his gun. Pandemonium ensued. Men rushed here
and there as if they had suddenly gone mad. Some seized
their bridle reins and vainly attempted to pull their horses
over the yard fence, a strong plank fence, some threw
down their guns and yelled out "I surrender." One poor
fellow actually ran against a tree with such force that he
tore off one side of his face, making a sickening sight.
Well, God be praised, the end came at last. One morn-
ing we found the Yankees had all gone and their camp we
found as completely deserted as the Trojans found the
Greek camp before the walls of Troy. Then we took a
long breath of relief, and pulled ourselves together, and sur-
veyed our surroundings. We found we had literally
nothing, excepting what we had hid. We had neither
horse, cow, sheep, hog, turkey, goose, nor chicken; no hay,
no wheat, no corn, no straw, no fodder, nor apples, nor
peaches, nor damsons, not even any bees with their
Save for the provisions we had hid and a hundred or so
dollars in gold my father had managed to save, starvation
would have stared us in the face during the winter of
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 149
1864-65. Not a grain of wheat did we get sowed in the
fall of 1864, yet we cut eighty bushels of volunteer wheat
m the summer of 1865, through we had plowed not a fur-
row. Our Heavenly Father knew we had need of it.
M. W. JONES.
THE CLARKE RIFLES
2nd VIRGINIA INFANTRY
ON the 17th of October, 1859, the people of Harper's
Ferry were startled in the early morning by
meeting armed men at their doors, and finding
that during the quiet hours of the night a body of desper-
ate men had taken possession of the U. S. Armory and
arsenal, and were shooting down any who came in sight.
Who these desperate men were and what was their object
was soon manifested. Several persons were killed or
wounded, some were taken prisoners to the small engine
house where this force was collected. It was then dis-
covered that the leader was the infamous John Brown, a
leader in the fighting in Kansas, the instrument of the
fanatical abolitionists of the North in their effort to pre-
vent the establishment of slavery in the territory of Kan-
sas. He had a few months prior to this time established
himself as a farmer and country merchant in the Blue
Ridge mountains near Harper's Ferry, and there had gath-
ered his men and arms for his effort to arouse the negroes
to insurrection against their owners. From this point he
had gone up and down the Virginia Valley trying to stir
up the negroes to join him in his purpose. The writer re-
members very well a singing school teacher, who during
the summer and fall preceding his outbreak, had schools
at different points in the county. A very innocent man
STHOTHER H. BOWEX
CAPTAIN, CLARKE RIFLES (COMPAXY I, SECOND VIRGINIA INFANTRY)
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 151
apparently, but his disappearance just before the outbreak
of Brown at Harper's Ferry, and the fact that he made it
convenient to visit farmers' houses on Sundays while the
families were at church, ostensibly to have his washing
done, but really to talk with the negroes, convincing every
one that he had been an emissary of Brown. Doubtless
Brown had assurances from some of the more restless and
discontented of the negroes that they would join him, but
their hearts failed them, or their good sense prevented
them, and so no one responded to his movement. The
U. S. Government sent Col. R. E. Lee and the Marines
from Washington, under Lieut. Israel Green, whose wife
was a Miss Taylor of Berryville, to Harper's Ferry, and
the affair was soon ended by the capture of Brown and
his party. Some were killed and wounded, the others
were placed in the jail at Charlestown and after trial were
sentenced and hanged. This affair stirred up the Vir-
ginia people and aroused them to the fact that they should
prepare for such emergancies. They then saw that there
was a faction at the North who would stop at nothing
to accomplish their objects and that to be ready to defend
their rights, their homes and their liberties, they must arm
themselves. Immediately all over the State volunteer
companies of soldiers were organized. In Berryville a
Company was formed caUing themselves the Clarke Guards,
under Capt. Strother H. Bowen; Lieuts. Flagg, Ashby and
Morgan. They took part in guarding the prison at Charles-
town. One of their number preventing the escape of
Cooke and Coppie, two of the men under sentence. After
the execution of Brown and his men, this company re-
turned home and from some disagreement among its offi-
cers, was disbanded. A new company was then organized,
caUing themselves the ''Clarke Rifles." Strother H. Bowen
was elected Captain, S. J. C. Moore 1st Lieutenant; H. P.
152 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Deahl 2nd Lieut.; Byrd, 3rd Lieut.; W. T. Milton 1st
They were armed with minie rifles with sword bayonet,
a very fine weapon, considered the best then made. The
men were uniformed in gray, with high hats having a large
pompon or ball instead of plume. The hat was a very
heavy and uncomfortable affair, which was soon thrown
away when we went into service, and replaced by a light
military cap, much more comfortable and suitable. The
rifle, too, was found not to be as good as the Springfield
minie musket, and was also exchanged for the musket and
regulation bayonet. These muskets were got later on,
mostly from the enemy, as opportunity offered. The
members of the company were from the town and country
around, and represented all classes of the people, farmers,
merchants, mechanics, lawyers, printers and young boys
from the schools. A number of them were from the Blue
Ridge Mountain. Most of them were accustomed to the
use of a gun or rifle, and were fine shots, a fact which con-
tributed very much to the usefulness of the company in
active service. The fall and winter of 1860 and '61 were
spent in drilling, and the men by the spring of 1861 were
tolerably efficient in the drill and the use of their weapons.
While we were thus preparing for what all feared must come
the country at large was in a state of excitement and un-
rest. Several of the Southern States had seceded from
the Union. Virginia had elected a convention to consider
what her course should be, and although Virginia's people
loved the Union and were averse to leaving it, the course
of the newly elected President Lincoln and his govern-
ment was such as to cause thinking people great anxiety
as to the outcome. What was feared suddenly happened.
Mr. Lincoln ordered out 75000 troops and called on Vir-
ginia for her quota. Immediately the sentiment of all
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 153
changed, and the convention determined to cast the for-
tunes of the old Commonwealth with her sister Southern
states. Upon this being determined, orders were issued
for the volunteer companies of the State to meet and pre-
pare for the struggle.
On the morning of the 17th of April, 1861, Captain
Bowen received orders to march with his company to
Harper's Ferry to aid in its capture. At Harper's Ferry
were the U. S. Armory and Arsenal, where were stored
large quantities of arms and ammunition, very important
for us to have. Messengers were sent hurrying through
the county, ordering the members of the company to re-
port in uniform and with arms at Berryville by 12 m. of
that day, but with singular want of foresight no orders
for rations were issued even for the one day. The men
gathered promptly, and by 1 o'clock were ready for the
march. There were hasty goodbyes, many tears by anx-
ious mothers and wives over sons and husbands departing
for no one could guess what fate. But among the men,
especially the young and thoughtless, all was joy and hi-
larity. No idea of the terrible events which were so soon
to follow. No idea of the long years of toil and danger
entered into their minds. We would soon settle matters
and be at home again. We were carried in four-horse
wagons furnished by the farmers of the neighborhood, and
from the top of what is now Cemetery Hill, we took our
departure. On reaching Charlestown we found that the
2nd Regiment, under Col. J. W. Allen, composed of the
companies from Jefferson County, had marched to Hall-
town, four miles from Harper's Ferry. We pushed on,
arriving there about sundown, as did also the Nelson
Rifles, a company from Millwood under command of
Capt. W. N. Nelson. After a supper of crackers and
cheese and very fat middling, we started on the march.
154 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
About two miles from the Ferry we were halted, and for
the first time heard the command, afterward to be so fa-
miliar, ''load at will." That sounded like business. In-
tense excitement ensued. Some in their hurry loaded
with the ball end of the cartridge foremost, others tore off
the powder and left only the ball, all of which gave trouble
later. One fellow became deadly sick and had to retire.
Fortunately just then a young man of the county who had
followed, came up and there in the road they exchanged
clothing, the sick man going back home, never to be of
any account again. Fear so possessed him that he never
rallied, and eventually left the service. But our excite-
ment and flurry amounted to nothing. We marched into
the Ferry, meeting no one. The U. S. troops there, a
company of infantry, after setting fire to the armory, had
crossed the bridge and marched to Chambersburg. We
arrived on the scene in time to see the burning buildings
and no more. We had quarters in the Cathohc Church,
and during the night arrested a number of citizens, at-
tempting to secure guns stolen from the armory. On the
next day we entered upon the real life of a soldier, never to
be relaxed until that fateful day at Appomattox when, our
toils, labors and sacrifices over, we laid down the arms so
sanguinely taken up. Officers and men soon found that
they had all to learn as to war and its affairs. No one
knew how to make a cake of bread or cook a piece of meat,
and only one man in the company could make a cup of
coffee. I well remember with what curiosity we gathered
around Bob Wliittington to see him make coffee. At first
for a few days we were in a Battallion of the two companies
from Clarke under command of Capt. Wm. N. Nelson of
Millwood, but soon we were placed in Colonel Allen's
regiment, which for a while was called the 1st Virginia.
The old 1st Virginia was formed from Richmond com-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 155
panies and claimed the right to retain their number, which
the government conceded to them, although we were the
first to organize in the field. We never envied them their
name or reputation, as we felt that we were as well drilled,
although not as well uniformed, and that we did as good
service and we are sure that the 2nd Virginia earned by
hard service and gallant fighting as good a name as they.
Soldier's life in the main, except in battle, is uneventful.
Ours consisted in drilling during the day and being aroused
at night by false alarms. When Col. T. J. Jackson took
command he went at once to the work of breaking us in,
and our days and nights were all full of work and unrest.
For some reason from the first, the Clarke Rifles, now Co.
*'I", 2nd Virginia Vol. Inf., was often put on detached
service. We men used to think it was because the Colonel
did not like us, but I have thought since it was because he
had confidence in our ofiicers and in the men also, that
they would do well whatever duty was put upon them.
We were soon sent over into Maryland on outpost duty.
We were stationed at the School house where Cooke of
John Brown fame, taught school. Here we saw the pits
where those mysterious boxes were buried which came to
John Brown, ostensibly filled with hardware for the store,
but really with picks and guns to be used by the negroes
in murdering the white people of the land. A mile or two
away was the house in which Brown lived and kept his
country store. Colonel Jackson was determined that his
men should become accustomed to war's alarms. Every
few days reports of the approach of the enemy were cir-
culated. On one occasion all were ordered out at two
o'clock in the morning, sent burring to different points to
take post, but all that happened was the B. & 0. train
pulling in and aboard was Major Gen. Harney of the U.
S. Army on his way to Washington. Lieutenant Moore of
156 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
our company and Captain Marshall of General Jackson's
staff arrested him. The old gentleman was sent to Rich-
mond, and there released and sent on to Washington. On
another evening the enemy was reported advancing from
Chambersburg. Lieutenant Moore came hurrying from
the Ferry loaded with a box of cartridges. The company
was formed, cartridges distributed, orders given to sleep
on arms and be ready at a moment's notice to meet the
foe. The excitement was intense. One fellow, who was
sick, forced himself to join the ranks, but the strain was
too great. He fainted and had to be carried away. An-
other boy, who proved afterwards to be a very dashing,
gallant soldier, fainted at the sight of the first one's top-
pling over. This was not fear, as both proved gallant
soldiers. The stay on the Maryland mountain was pleas-
ant, but could not last. We were ordered to join the
Regiment, and the Regiment was ordered to Martinsburg
to protect that point. The Clarke Rifles were sent to
the Potomac opposite Williamsport to guard the ferry
and ford there. There was a company of Maryland troops
at Williamsport, but they made no demonstration and we
none. There we were joined by two men of the town who
came over — Tommy Goheen, a little Irishman, who made
a good and faithful soldier, and a loyal citizen of Frederick
County after the war. The other, a man named Johnston,
was good and true for a long time, but towards the last
grew tired and gave up the fight; did not desert to the
enemy, but simply quit. A few weeks after this, having
left the ford at Williamsport and rejoining the Regiment,
we received our fine tents furnished by the county, and
made by the ladies of the county. You may be sure we
prized them, for they represented to us the love and toil
of the dear ones at home. Time was passing delightfully
in camp in a fine orchard, when suddenly a strange sound
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 157
greeted our ears, a very rapid and continued roll of the
drums, ''The long roll," once heard never forgotten. How
every one ran with one accord to one place. 'Tall in,
fall in, fall in, strike your tents, prepare to march." Alas,
the beautiful tents were torn down, nicely piled up to
wait for wagons which never came, and there found by
the Yankees who in a short time after we marched away,
came in and took possession. Never more were we to see
them; all the labor and love was wasted. An incompe-
tent or ignorant quartermaster had made no provision
for what all should have known must come soon. Thence-
forward we had tents if we captured them, but mostly
we did not have them. In fact we came to think that
tents and things of that sort were incumbrances, only to
be used by the Yankees and by us sometimes in winter
quarters, when there was no marching to do. The regi-
ment, now part of the 1st Brigade under command of
Brigadier General T. J. Jackson, took position on the pike
near the little village of Hainsville, and we were put for
the first time in line of battle and saw in the distance the
blue coated enemy and the Stars and Stripes floating in
the breeze. We were not premitted on this occasion to
become engaged. The 5th Virginia and Pendleton's
battery had all the fighting to do and won all the honors.
The experience was helpful to all, it gave us some idea of
what we should have to do, and braced our nerves for that
which would surely come to pass. We withdrew through
Martinsburg and joined General Johnston's command,
and retired to Winchester for a few days. Then we were
marched to Darkesville, four miles from Martinsburg,
where we lay in line of battle for four days offering battle
to the enemy, who declined to come out. When Johnston
left Harper's Ferry to put himself in front of Colonel Pat-
terson who was at Martinsburg, we marched through
158 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Charlestown and a few miles out on the Berryville pike.
We were sure we were going through our home town and
see our home people, and the people at home made great
preparations to feed the whole army as it came through.
Wagon loads of good things were brought in, and although
it was Sunday, no thought was given to anything but the
feeding of the soldiers. The day wore away and no army
appeared. General Johnston had passed across through
Smithfield to Bunker Hill, and formed his lines there to
confront the enemy. The disappointment was great.
The ample provision was lost. One ardent old gentleman
filled his carriage and came on to Bunker Hill, bringing
his double-barreled gun to take part in the fighting. It
is almost incredible to people of this day, half a century
later, the spirit that animated old and young then. Each
man felt that the fight was his, and that it was his duty
to take part in and if need be, die for the cause. Patter-
son refusing to fight, back to Winchester we marched,
and what wonderful preparations for battle we made. We
tore down all the fences within a mile of the town on the
north, so that the cavalry and artillery could have a fair
and open field. All this was done to fool Patterson. We
found out later that battlefields were always ready, didn't
have to be prepared. Suddenly one morning, the head of
the column started towards the Blue Ridge. We were
going to leave the Valley. How we rebelled. We would
not leave our homes and people to the mercy of the Yan-
kees. We would not go, but as we marched we were
halted on the road and an order from General Johnston
read telling the men that "Our gallant army under Gen-
eral Beauregard at Manassas in now attacked by over-
whelming numbers; the commanding general hopes that
his troops will step out like men, and make a forced march
to save the country." This appeal to our patriotism was
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 159
like an electric shock, and was responded to with cheers,
and every one felt that it was up to him to do his duty.
But when we reached the Shenandoah River and found
that we had to ford it, our enthusiasm cooled and for a
time many of us held back, but just then the 33rd Virginia,
under Colonel Cummings came up and marched right into
the water. We were put to shame and waded right in.
The ford was really refreshing after the hot and dusty
march of the day and we felt better from it. The night was
spent at Paris, nestling at the foot of the mountain, and
in the morning away to Piedmont, now Delaplane, and
aboard the cars for Manassas Junction and Beauregard.
By night fall we are there and in bivouac. At day break
we are marched to Blackburn's Ford on Bull Run, where
two days before a fight had taken place. But no foe ap-
pears to us and we are marched westward. After a while
the boom of cannon and then the rattle of musketry is
heard and we know that the fighting has begun. Our
General moves us towards the firing, the noise of battle
increasing. The wounded begin to meet us — all things
indicate trouble ahead. Passing through a woods we are
thrown into line of battle. The artillery commence firing
just to our right. We are just behind a hill. Our orders
are to wait until the enemy comes over the hill, then the
front rank to fire, then the rear, then to charge bayonets.
A thrilling and trying time — shells bursting above us.
One man of the company is wounded by shrapnel. The
minie balls are flying everywhere. We can not see the
left of the regiment, but we know that they are engaged,
that our friends in Co. ''C" are at it. We hear afterwards
of their terrible loss. The brigade is ordered forward —
we drive the enemy before us beyond the Henry House.
We capture their battery. The fight rages wildly — they
turn and run — ^the day is ours, and we don't know how
160 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
we got it, but it is glorious. The enemy retreat in wild
disorder, throwing away guns and everything that im-
peded their flight. The road is filled with overturned
wagons, abandoned pieces of artillery, ever>i,hing con-
nected with a well appointed army. Grave and great
senators, congressmen, civilians of all sorts who had come
out to see the Rebels run, joined in the race. One sena-
tor ran so fast he was said to have lost the tails of his coat.
A great victory. Many thought that we ought at once
to have advanced and taken Washington. Whether we
could or should have advanced is fully discussed in the
great histories. The reader is referred to them. This
writer is no military critic. All that he knows is that on
the night and day succeeding the battle it rained, and
rained and rained. He knows that the troops engaged
in the battle were in great disorder, and that it took sev-
eral days for the commands to get into proper shape.
During the hottest part of the cannonade, which was
very heavy and trjnng on the nerves, and lasted for sev-
eral hours, General Bee seeing Jackson's Brigade stand-
ing so firmly in their position, called upon his men to rally
behind the Virginians, who were standing like a ''Stone
wall." It was thus we got the name which was borne
with honor through the war, and which honors every one
connected with the Brigade.
THE calm succeeding the great battle was occupied
in training the armies on both sides for the next
encounter. We went into camp just below Cen-
treville and were kept at drilling from daylight until dark,
day after day; — Mounting guard, going on picket, some-
times for a week, turning out to meet a supposed advance,
building forts and, in fact, doing everything calculated to
improve us as soldiers and bring us into thorough mili-
tary discipline. Sometimes we were in sight of the capi-
tol at Washington, sometimes in the pine woods where
nothing could be seen, ever on the alert against our foe,
who was just as alert as we. Now and then some father
or brother would come from home to visit the Company,
bringing always a box of good things to some one of the
boys, and maybe a bottle or two of whiskey to be used,
they said, medicinally. Among us such things were al-
ways in common, all joined in the feast or tasted the good
old rye. Those were red letter days and enjoyed to the
full. While at camp Harmon near Centreville, our Cap-
tain, Strother H. Bowen, resigned to take up other work
for the government. He was a brave man and a capable
officer, but his years made the service very hard to him.
When he resigned, 1st Lieut. S. J. C. Moore was made
captain, H. P. Deahl 1st Lieut., Sergt. W. T. Milton 2nd
Lieut, and J. H. O'Bannon 3rd Lieut., in place of Byrd,
resigned. Mr. Byrd's health had been such that he had
been unable to do any service, having been with the com-
162 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
pany only on one march. The new officers were popular
and energetic, and raised the company to a fine state of
efficiency and did much to earn the high reputation it al-
ways bore. A. S. Allen was made 1st Sergt.; a gallant
soldier and fine fellow, beloved by all; kind hearted and
true, and well deserving the promotion.
The weeks and months passed swiftly until the late fall,
when our General, having been promoted to Major Gen-
eral, was sent to the Valley to take command there. How
earnestly we all wished to go with him, but it was not so
ordered and we had learned that a soldier had to obey and
be content. Upon taking leave of the Brigade he had us
all drawn up in column before him in such compact form
that all might see and hear him. He made a speech, the
first probably he had ever made.
"I am not here to make a speech, but simply to say fare-
well. I first met you at Harper's Ferry in the commence-
ment of this war, and I cannot take leave of you without
giving expression to my admiration of your conduct from
that day to this, whether on the march, in the bivouac,
or the tented field; or on the bloody plains of Manassas
where you gained the well-deserved reputation of having
decided the fate of the battle. Throughout the broad ex-
tent of country over which you have marched, by your
respect for the rights and the property of citizens, you
have shown that you were soldiers, not only to defend, but
able and willing both to defend and protect. You have
already gained a brilliant and deservedly high reputation,
throughout the army of the whole Confederacy, and I
trust, in the future, by your deeds on the field, and by the
assistance of the same kind Providence who has hereto-
fore favored our cause, you will gain more victories, and
add additional lustre to the reputation you now enjoy.
You have already gained a proud position in the future
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 163
history of this, our second War of Independence. I shall
look with great anxiety to your future movements; and
I trust, whenever I shall hear of the First Brigade on the
field of battle, it will be of nobler deeds achieved, and
higher reputation won."
Then pausing, as though unable to leave his comrades-
in-arms without some warmer and less official words, he
threw the rein upon the neck of his horse, and, extending
his arms, exclaimed:
"In the army of the Shenandoah you were the First
Brigade; in the army of the Potomac you were the First
Brigade; you are the First Brigade in the affections of
your general; and I hope, by your future deeds and bear-
ing, you will be handed down to posterity as the First Bri-
gade in this our second War of Independence. Farewell."
Thus saying he waved his hand, wheeled and left the
ground at a gallop, followed by a shout in which his brave
men poured out their whole hearts. He left immediately
for Winchester. About the middle of November the Bri-
gade was ordered to follow. You can well imagine the
joy this order gave us, whose homes were so near to the
seat of his movements. Very few of us got an oppor-
tunity to go to our homes, as early in December General
Jackson determined to attempt to break up the use of the
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal on the north bank of the Po-
tomac. To do this it was necessary to cut Dam No. 5
across the river which turned the water into the canal.
Four companies of infantry, Cos. ''D", "I" and ''H" of
the 2nd Regiment, and Captain Williams Company of the
4th Regiment were sent with the militia to make a diver-
sion at Falling Waters, and then being joined by the Bri-
gade to try to cut the dam. The Clarke Rifles guarded the
working party which consisted of Captain HoUiday's
Company of the 33rd Regiment and Captain Robinson's
164 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
of the 27th. The work was accompUshed in four nights.
They could only work at night, as the enemy were thick
on the other bank and kept up a continuous fire. The
Company there was under the eye of our General, and
often very near him, as he seemed to take delight in be-
ing at the most exposed places. To be near Jackson and
Ashby while in action was an inspiration to all, and every
man endeavored to do his full dut3^ When stationed along
the banks of the river at night, we were ordered to keep
perfectly quiet so as not to draw the fire of the enemy.
One night when all was still, there suddenly rang out the
squawk of an old rooster, making night hideous. One
of the boys had marked his roosting place, and as it was
known that we were to leave that night, he determined
to capture him for his Christmas dinner. How mad the
Captain was. ''Who caught that rooster." No one
knew, but all the same, we carried him back to camp and
on Christmas day invited the Captain to join us in a plate
of soup from his lordship. With all the hardships and
dangers, the boys would mix fun and hilarity.
We were in camp for a few days, and then these four
companies were again ordered to Dam No. 5, this time
to veil the movement of the main army on Bath in Morgan
County. With Ashby's cavalry we made a demonstra-
tion there, and when the army moved towards Bath we
with the cavalry, marched across the mountains to join
them. The weather was bad, snow, rain and sleet every
day, the roads blocked by trees cut across them, but on
we pushed, to reach Bath a few minutes after the army
had entered and the enemy had fled across the Potomac
to Hancock. A luxurious night in the big hotel, and on
we went the next morning to attack the enemy across the
river. Our wagons not having come up, we had the next
night to repose our weary limbs on the ground, to wake
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 165
up in the morning with several inches of snow on us.
Such is soldier life. Hardships unending, pleasures very
seldom, but youth and high spirits seem to overcome all
obstacles and though we grumbled at times, no one lost
heart or wanted to turn back. Again we are with the
Regiment and after a toilsome all night march over frozen
icy road, we came up with our wagons at Unger's Store on
the way to Romney. Hungry and tired we were the next
morning, when there came in sight a carriage. With one
accord all shouted, ''There is old Mr. Gold." He had
come from Clarke, loaded with overcoats for the men and
a box for Tom. With what pleasure was his load received.
How comfortable were the coats, and how good the things
in the box. The people at home were thinking of us and
did not want us to suffer. Letters were written, and soon
he left loaded with the thanks of the men and letters for
the homefolk. Those dear people, ever faithful and
thoughtful. We can never forget the hardships and toils
that they endured for their country and their friends at
the front. Time nor distance, swollen streams nor stress
of weather prevented them from coming to see their boys
and bringing something to cheer them for their hard duty.
A few days rest at Unger's Store, from which point all
the sick were sent to the hospital at Winchester. Colds
and some pneumonia produced by the severe exposure
of this winter had made the sick list unusually heavy.
We were all hoping that the army would soon move in
that direction, when one night the order was sent around
to cook three day's rations and be ready to move early in
the morning. What hustling and bustle in the messes!
By midnight the rations were cooked, and all hands were
ready for the hard march to Romney. Rain and sleet
every day! Muddy roads and many streams to cross.
At every step some one cursing "old Jackson" for taking
166 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
us on such a march at such a time and in such weather.
In the midst of the cursing and grumbhng, along rides our
general on Old Sorrel. Immediately the cursing stops,
and all with one accord begin to cheer. He gallops by,
his cap in hand and eyes to the front, his staff following as
best they can. It was wonderful how his presence in-
spired enthusiasm and made all press on with renewed
vigor. Though the march was hard and toilsome, we felt
that he knew what he was doing and that it was for the
best. We soon began to pass the ruins of burning houses
and barns, evidence of the vandalism of the enemy who
so often seemed to think that they could crush the ''Re-
bellion" by burning homes and throwing women and chil-
dren helpless and homeless out into the cold and winter
weather. What indignation at this cruel and inhuman
warefare was stirred in our hearts, and I fear that if any
of the perpetrators of these things had come into our hands
then they would have paid dearly for their inhumanity.
At least we reached Romnej^ to find the enemy gone, leav-
ing tents standing and every evidence of a hurried and
precipitous retreat. We were quartered in the Academy
building, a school taught for manj^ years by Dr. Foote, a
Presbyterian minister of note — a very pleasant change
from tents and the wet ground. General Jackson was a
very temperate man, but here, by his orders I suppose, a
ration of whiskey was issued to the men. There were
few very who did not accept it cheerfully. The com-
missary carried it around and measured out to each man
his ration. One of the bo3^s, wanting to get a double por-
tion, slipped out with his gun and placed himself in the
line of sentinels, and when the jug was carried around the
guard line, he was there ready and succeeded nicely with
his little trick. I remember only two or three occasions
when this was done. While at Romney the Company was
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 167
sent on picket to the Hanging Rocks, a high mass of rocks
overhanging the road, and looking as if they might at any
time topple over. In a few days all the troops, except
General Loring's command, were ordered to march back
to Winchester, 42 miles away. Such a march was hardly
ever taken. The rains and snows had made the roads
soft. The long wagon trains and the artillery cut them
up so that they were almost impassible for man or beast.
But on we went. Winchester was our goal, and who
would not endure hardship to get to old Winchester and
in reach of home. At Romney we had made some new
acquaintances. In the abandoned tents of the enemy we
found some very disagreeable occupants. The boys said
that they had U. S. on their backs. We did not want their
company, but before the war was over, became used to them
in a way. It was said that fire would not kill them, but we
found out that boiling water would, and often the camp
kettle in which we made our soup, was used for boiling our
clothes and ridding ourselves of these vermin.
Upon reaching Winchester, the 2nd Regiment went into
winter quarters near the Old Smithfield house just north-
east of town. We were furnished tents to which we made
chimneys of mud and stone or sticks, and managed to exist
most miserably while there. In later years we learned to
build log huts which were very comfortable. The winter
was uneventful, except for the first military execution of
the war, at least in our part of the army. A man by the
name of Miller from Jefferson County, had been court
martialed for striking or wounding his captain, and was
sentenced to be shot. When the day arrived, Co. "I"
was detailed to guard the execution. It was not a pleas-
ant duty, but it was not ours to object. We had to do as
we were ordered. The place of execution was in a field
just south of town. The prisoner was placed upon his
168 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
coffin with his hands tied behind him, facing the firing
party, who were from his own company of cavalry. Our
company was divided into two platoons, and drawn up
on each side of the coffin. At the command to fire from
the Provost Marshal, Captain Botts of Charlestown,
twelve guns loaded some with ball and some with blank
cartridges, flashed and the prisoner was dead. An awful
sight, but men became hardened to things of that kind.
Early in March rumors of advance of the enemy
were heard. Members of the company who were at home
were hurriedly recalled, and everyone was in expectation
of a fight. On the 11th of March, the army moved back
towards Strasburg. After crossing Cedar Creek, the four
companies before mentioned, '^D", ''H" and 'T' of the
2nd Regiment, and one from the 4th, were again placed
with the cavalry. When the enemy advanced we, with
the artillery under Captain Chew, fought them from every
hill from Cedar Creek to Mt. Jackson. At Fisher's Hill,
just beyond Strasburg, the river makes a sharp bend a-
bove which are high bluffs. Our company was stationed
here with Chew's two guns. When the enemy advanced
through the town on the river road they came in full view
of Chew, and he firing with great precision struck the
centre of a regiment and killed and wounded a large num-
ber. It did not take many minutes for them to vacate
the road. They then proceeded to form their lines, place
their batteries and send out a swarm of skirmishers. It
looked like we were going to be picked up in short order.
But Colonel Ashby at last ordered us to leave our position
and after keeping to the fields, and out of sight as was
thought, till beyond range, we were marched on the road,
when all at once they opened on us with eight pieces of
artillery, so placed as to sweep the road. It was trying
on the nerves, and Captain Moore never walked so slowly
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 169
in his life than at that time, and of course we could go no
faster than he, no matter how much we might want to.
From almost every hill we had now to fight them. We
would form our skirmish line, and place our battery. They
would move up till they saw us and then they would do
the same and advance and after some time had been thus
occupied, we would withdraw to another hill and await an-
other advance. So it went, we retreating very slowly,
they advancing very slowly. At night we went in to camp
at the Narrow Passage and the enemy withdrew to Win-
chester. On the 22nd of March, Colonel Ashby and our
four Companies and Chew were ordered down the Valley.
We marched to Bartonsville, 27 miles that day, and stop-
ped for the night there. Ashby and Chew had attacked
the enemy on the suburbs of Winchester just at sundown,
and General Shields had been wounded. We were in
high hopes that the next day we could enter Winchester
once more. In the early morning we were moved out and
down the pike, and were thrown into ambush on each side
of the road, hoping that their cavalry would get after
Colonel Ashby, who had ridden ahead to draw them out.
But they were too sharp for that. About ten o'clock the
enemy advanced a brigade to attack Chew's guns which
were on the right and east of the turnpike. To support
the guns the four companies were deployed and sent for-
ward. As Mr. Dabney puts it, ''They scoured the forest
with enthusiastic courage and repulsed the enemy." But
our loss in this engagement was severe. Wm. Shepherd
was killed, his brother Decatur badly wounded, Richard
Roy badly wounded and taken prisoner and Nat Sowers
taken prisoner. These in our Company. The other
companies had losses of killed and wounded also. The
companies were then ordered to rejoin their regiments,
which by this time had come upon the field. About four
170 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
o'clock we were all moved to the left to attack the enemy,
posted upon a range of hills lying west of Kernstown. We
had to cross from the pike to the hills in full view of the
enemy and under the fire of their guns. Upon reaching
the line of hills we immediately advanced and were soon
hard at it. Sheltered behind rocks, trees and anything we
could find, we poured a heavy fire into their lines with
telling effect. The regiments in our front were continually
breaking and others being brought up. The}^ had to plant
their flag staff into the ground, the bearers were shot down
so often. When nearly out of ammunition, the order was
given to fall back by General Garnett, commanding our
brigade. There was some confusion for a time, but the
5th Regiment being in reserve checked the pursuit. Our
Company lost here: killed, Kins Willingham, and others
wounded, and Ed. Bonham and Tom Gold taken prisoners.
This was the hardest fight we had ever been in, and I
doubt if there were many harder fought fields during the
war. The men taken prisoners were sent to Fort Dela-
ware, where they were kept until the following August,
when they were exchanged and returned to the army.
The story of their life in prison would be interesting, but
as it is not the object of this history to give the story of
individuals, but of the whole company, their's must re-
The army, after the battle which seemed to end so dis-
astrously, retreated only a few miles and went into camp
for the night. By morning the stragglers had come to-
gether, discipline was renewed and everything and every-
body was ready to meet the enemy, if he advanced. While
the victory seemed to be with the enemy. General Jack-
son accomphshed what he started to do, which was to pre-
vent the forces at Winchester crossing the mountains and
reinforcing McClellan at Manassas and thus overpower-
JAS. H. O'BAXXOX
CAPTAIN, "CLARKE RIFLES
(company I, SECOND VIRGINIA INFANTRV)
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 171
ing General Jos. E. Johnston, who was opposing him there.
The severe blow given at Kernstown compelled them not
only to keep all their forces at Winchester, but to send
others there to follow Jackson. On the morning of the
24th, General Jackson retreated through Strasburg to
Rude's Hill beyond Mt. Jackson. The four companies
spoken of as being with the cavalry were again detached
to help Ashby cover the retreat to that point. The enemy
moved south as far as Woodstock and there stopped,
seeming afraid to attack General Jackson, who had a
very strong position at Rude's Hill. After resting here
for some days, Jackson moved through Harrisonburg to
Swift Run Gap in the Blue Ridge. At this place a great
many companies were reorganized. They had enlisted
for one year, and that time having expired and most of
the men having re-enlisted for the war, it was nescesary
to elect officers for the new term. The Clarke Rifles,
Co. *T", proceeded to elect, and chose for Captain, S. J.
C. Moore, 1st Lieut. Jas. H. O'Bannon, 2nd Lieut. Chas.
A. Marshall, 3rd Algernon S. Allen. John R. Nunn who
had recently joined the Company, having been a Captain
in the militia in its service around Winchester, was made
1st Sergeant. This appointment was much disapproved
of by the men, as they thought that one of their number
who had gone through the year's service with them should
have received it. The appointment, though unpopular,
was a good one, as he made a good and efficient officer,
brave and cool in time of action. J. W. Willingham was
made 2nd Sergeant, D. J. Shepherd 3rd, B. F. Thompson
4th, M. L. Barr, 5th. While the army was here a number
of conscripts from Augusta were put into the company;
some of them made good soldiers and served to the close
of the war. In the Blue Ridge mountains near Swift Run
Gap, a number of men who had deserted the army or were
172 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
avoiding conscription, had set up an armed resistance to
the authorities. They had built a fort in one of the narrow
valleys among the hills, and defied arrest, conamitting dep-
redations at times upon the people of the surrounding
country. General Jackson sent the four companies here-
tofore named, Co. 'T' being one of them, under command
of Major Jones, (afterwards Brigadier General, and a very
poor one) to break up their nest, arrest and bring them in
if possible. Their fort was taken and they scattered, but
I don't think any were captured; but this little rebellion
was effectually crushed by the prompt and rapid action
of Major Jones and his command. This duty completed,
the Company rejoined the regiment and their connection
with Ashby and his cavalry ceased.
THESE companies during all their service with Ash-
by had rendered very efficient aid in supporting
his advance or covering his retreats. Very soon
his career was to end, and from this time on the company's
history was to be merged into that of the whole regiment
and the army. Henderson's Life of Jackson gives a very
vivid history of the events which follow the movement
from Swift Run Gap. The toilsome march to Staunton,
the rapid march to McDowell, the attack upon Millroy
and his defeat are set forth by him very graphically. The
2nd Regiment was not actively engaged during the battle,
and lost no men. After the battle the army marched to
Frankhn in pursuit of the enemy. Seeing them fleeing
before him, General Jackson here turned eastward with
his face for the Valley and his eyes on Banks at Harrison-
burg. Banks, who had been mystified by Jackson's
movements, no sooner heard of his approach than he fell
back to Strasburg to be in reach of his supports. Jackson
moving with his usual rapidity, passed through Harrison-
burg to New Market, followed by General Ewell and his
division. Ashby with his cavalry threatened Banks at
Strasburg, while Jackson crossing the mountain to Luray,
passed down the Page Valley and fell upon the enemy at
Front Royal. Upon hearing of the disaster to his troops
there, Banks retreated in disorder to Winchester, evading
Jackson, who wished to strike him at Middletown and de-
stroy him. Worn and tired they at last faced each other
174 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
on the hills west of Kernstown. Here Banks made a gal-
lant defense. The Stonewall Brigade with other troops
at last, by a gallant charge broke their line, and they went
pellmell through the town. Not, though, without heavy
loss to Co. *'I." A shell burst in the line and killed Jno.
Dobbins and another of the Company, and two men of
the next company, disabling Lieut. A. S. Allen by blind-
ing him, but only for a short time. He had to be led into
the town, but was ready in a few days to resume his duties.
The march to Martinsburg and Harper's Ferry and the
investment of that place was rapidly accomplished. Here
the 2nd Virginia with Co. 'T\ were sent across the Shen-
andoah to hold the mountain top on the Loudoun side.
His rear being threatened from Front Royal and Moore-
field, Jackson had to get away faster than he came, if he
was to save his plunder and his prisoners, and even his
army. The army marched for Winchester, leaving the
Stonewall Brigade to follow as soon as the 2nd Virginia
could be moved from its position across the river. The
darkness of the night, and some mistake in orders by which
the Regiment was marched back to the top of the mountain
after having reached the river, and immediately marched
back to the river again, so delayed the 2nd Regiment that
they were left by the Brigade far in the rear. After cross-
ing the river they marched to Charlestown, where many
of them lived, and halted for an hour for breakfast. They
then pushed on and made the longest continuous march
ever recorded, overtaking the Brigade at Newtown after
a march of forty-two miles without sleeping.
Particular mention is made of this march because Cos.
"I" and "C" both of Clarke, took part in it. The Regi-
ment having rejoined the Brigade and soon after the rest
of the army, proceeded up the Valley, taking part in those
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 175
brilliant movements which culminated in the Battle of
At Port Republic Co. ''I" had again the fortune to do
signal and effective service while detached from the Regi-
ment on picket duty. Port RepubHc hes just at the jun-
ction of the North and South branches of the Shenandoah
River, and between the rivers. A bridge across the north
branch afforded a means of passing it. The south branch
was crossed by fording. General Jackson's reserve ord-
nance and other trains were parked just south of the vil-
lage, while the army was in bivouac on the north bank,
opposing Fremont who was ad vane ng from Harrison-
burg. On the South side and advancing rapidly up the
Page Valley from Luray was Shields. In some way
Shields had heard of the almost defenseless position of the
wagon trains. He saw that to destroy them would ruin
Jackson. He therefore pushed a force of cavalry and in-
fantry by forced marches in order to surprise and destroy
these trains. But ''the best laid plans of mice and men —
even of Generals gang aft agley." It happened that
Captain S. J. C. Moore and his company had been placed
on picket duty beyond the town, and were on the point
of moving back to camp to rejoin the Regiment, when
Henry Kerfoot, who had been a member of the Company,
but had left to join the cavalry, dashed up and reported
that the Yankee cavalry had driven in the cavalry picket
and were almost at his heels in pursuit. Captain Moore
first sending Kerfoot to notify General Jackson, who had
slept in the town, of the approach of the enemy, and thus
saving Jackson from capture, formed his company behind
a plank fence, and as soon as they appeared opened fire
upon the Yankees and checked their advance. His de-
termined and gallant defense of his position, aided by
Carrington's battery, which was parked nearby, and got
176 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
into action as soon as possible, held the enemy until Gen-
eral Jackson riding rapidly across the bridge could send
a regiment or two to their relief. The prompt and gallant
action of Captain Moore in foiling the plans of the Yan-
kees saved not only General Jackson from capture, but
also saved from destruction his ordnance trains. Their cap-
ture would likely have resulted in his defeat by Fremont
and possibly the destruction of his army by the junction
of Shields and Fremont. The crippling even of Jackson
would have prevented him from taking part in the great
seven days fight at Richmond, and might well have
brought disaster on the cause of the South of the most
ruinous character. Dr. Dabney in his life of Jackson,
claims the credit for this affair for himself, and some
stragglers that he gathered together, but Henderson, the
great English writer, gives full credit to Captain Moore
and his Company. After the war Captain Moore met
General Carroll, who commanded the force which endeav-
ored to capture the trains, and was told by him that his
gallant defense that morning had kept him from being pro-
moted for a year. If he had succeeded he would have
been made a Brigadier General right away. We see here
the importance of doing our duty in small matters, be-
cause upon very small things often turn the great events
of history. The people of Clarke may well be proud of
the record of her gallant soldiers upon this, as upon many
other occasions. On the same day the Battle of Cross
Keys was fought, and on the next the Battle of Port Re-
public, the hardest fight Jackson's men had yet had.
The Stonewall Brigade, which for a long time bore the
brunt of the fight, was badly cut up and had for a while
to fall back before the enemy. Our Company was in with
the Regiment, and bore its part in the arduous fighting,
losing killed and wounded several men.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 177
While Fremont and Shields were in full retreat with the
cavalry on their heels, Jackson was pushing his army by
every possible means toward Richmond, to take part in
General Lee's effort to drive McClelland from his position
in front of that city. The story of those seven days fight-
ing, of the bravery and self-sacrifice of our brave soldiers
is known by all. Co. 'T" with the 2nd Virginia, took part
in all these battles and bore themselves with honor. The
list of killed and wounded was large, among the latter
Sergt. John Nunn.
Here too, our gallant Colonel Allen was killed and now
lies buried in Hollywood Cemetery at Richmond. He
was succeeded in command by Col. Lawson Botts of
Charlestown. The battles of Richmond over, after a few
day's rest, away went Jackson and his men to Gordons-
ville to meet a new enemy, Gen. John Pope, who boasted
that he carried his headquarters in the saddle and had never
seen anything but the backs of his foes. He was soon to
find that he must look into their faces. At Cedar Run
his advance under Banks was met and driven from the
field. Here the Stonewall Brigade again, by its prompt
and vigorous charge led by General Jackson in person,
turned the tide of battle, which was wavering, into glor-
ious victory. In this fight, as Captain Moore and his
Company were advancing through the woods, they came
suddenly upon a Regiment of Yankees also advancing.
The Yankee Colonel was about to shoot Captain Moore,
when Wm. Allen, who was near him, shot and killed the
Colonel, thus no doubt saving Captain Moore's life. As
our fellows followed the retreating foe. Sergeant Willing-
ham noticed a watch in the pocket of a dead officer, and
without stopping, as he ran by, he pulled it from his
pocket. That night by the camp fire, after washing the
blood from it, he discovered that he had a very fine watch,
178 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
worth SI 50. 00. It was a rare thing for infantry to get any
of the plunder of the battle field, except perhaps a gum
blanket or a canteen. Such things were supplied to us by
our captures from the enemy. A number of our best and
bravest were killed or wounded in this fight. There was
no rest under General Jackson. But few days passed
when away we marched, through dust and heat, night and
day, going we knew not whither, across the Rappahannock,
through Thoroughfare Gap, on, on, until early one morn-
ing we ended at Manassas. What a time was that — half
starved and worn out, we suddenly found ourselves turned
loose among car loads of everything good to eat and drink
and smoke — cigars by the box. One good fellow loaded
up with a fine lot of coffee upon which his mess hoped to
regale themselves, and then in so much abundance of good
things, threw away his coffee and loaded up with tent
flies. You may be sure he got a good cussing that night.
What good were tent flies in August? Did we not have
the whole canopy of heaven to rest under? But coffee, —
ah, that was luxury indeed. After burning all those de-
lightful stores, away we marched through the night across
the old field of 1st Manassas, facing at last to meet the
foe as he might come from Warrenton. The hard march,
the lack of rations and the lack of shoes caused many men
of the Company and of the army to straggle so that we
went into the fight the next day with only twenty-three
men and officers. All day the 28th of August we seemed
to lie around, moving here and there, fronting first one
way and then the other until, just as the sun set, the order
to advance is given. On we go, a long line of gray, firing
as we advance. From somewhere in front the bullets come
thick and fast, the smoke hanging low. We see nothing.
At last we reach a fence. We halt, — all seem to be fall-
ing, — the rain of bullets is like hail. Our men from the
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 179
rear, coming up, overlap us, firing also. Small wonder
that of the twenty-three who went in, fourteen are killed
and wounded, four left on the field dead. The order is
presently heard to cease firing. The moon rises and
floats peacefully and serenely above us, giving her light
to friend and foe. Now the ambulances come, the wound-
ed are gathered up and borne to some field hospital.
There the surgeons remove balls, cut off arms and legs.
Oh, the horror of it all, to look back at, but who minded it
then? The writer, who was wounded, remembers a poor
fellow in the ambulance with him whose cries for water
were pitiful in the extreme. On receiving some he be-
came quiet, and on reaching the hospital was found to be
dead — dead beside a comrade who did not know it until
he himself was taken out of the ambulance. The wounded
of the Company in some way were sent to Clarke, and had
a few months or weeks with the dear ones at home. The
survivors pressed on with the army, to take part in the
march through Maryland, in the capture of Harper's
Ferry, and in that bloodiest of all fights of the war. Sharps-
burg. The few left on their feet were allowed to slip off
to their homes as the army made its way slowly down the
Valley before crossing the mountain. By November the
wounded were well back in the ranks, and Fredericks-
burg found the Company again with pretty full ranks and
ready for duty whatever it might be. After Fredericks-
burg, into winter quarters at Moss Neck Farm. Here we
had good log huts, comfortably heated, and entered into
the usual routine of drilling, mounting guard, going on
picket, etc., the playtime of the soldier. Here we had
for the Brigade a large log house for preaching, and during
the winter a meeting of weeks, during which many were
converted. Some of the best preachers in the South were
with us, and much good was done. Co. "I" had some very
180 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
earnest and devoted Christians, among the best was J. M.
Pope, a good Christian and brave soldier. The influence
for good of such men was far-reaching and inspiring to all
who met them. Captain Moore, who was wounded at
2nd Manassas, did not return to the Company, but ac-
cepted a position on the Staff of the 2nd Brigade with
General Jones. He was a very gallant and efficient of-
ficer and had the confidence of his men in the fullest degree.
Under him the Company reached its highest point in effi-
ciency and good service, and we parted from him with
regret. The wound he had received disqualified him for
infantry service, and he felt that he would do more and
better service elsewhere. If he had remained with us, he
doubtless would have reached the ranks of Brigadier
General, — if he had lived — but our field officers were killed
off so fast, or were so badly wounded that none of them
got past the rank of Colonel. 1st Lieut. O'Bannon was
promoted to Captain, Marshall to 1st Lieut and Allen to
2nd. 1st Sergt. J. R. Nunn was made 3rd Lieut., and Se-
bastian E. Bonham 1st Sergt.
The winter was uneventful. Picket duty along the
Rappahannock for a week at a time broke the monotony,
but added to the hardship of soldier life, for on picket we
had no houses or tents, but had to do the best we could
with shelters made of blankets and oilcloths. Soldiers are
generally lighthearted and make the best of things. In
addition to our preaching, we also had some theatrical
performances. Holmes Clarke of Co. "C" was promi-
nent in these. They were considered pretty good under
such adverse circumstances. There was a good deal of
sickness in the Company. Several men were sent to the
hospitals in the cities with pneumonia and kindred dis-
eases. Some were placed at farm houses in the vicinity
of the camp. Our Regimental Surgeon, Dr. Jack Straith,
A. S. ALLEN
SECOND LIEUTENANT, "CLARKE RIFLEs"
(company I, SECOND VIRGINIA INFANTRY)
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 181
of Charlestown, was indefatigable in his labors, and no
doubt saved the lives of many. Our good Chaplain Dr.
Hopkins, was always attentive to the spiritual welfare of
the men in camp, as well as in battle, where he not only
inspired with courage by his example, but every word and
deed helped us to do our duty.
Rumors of the advance of the enemy were frequent, and
at last they proved true. Hooker threw his vast army
across the fords of the Rappahannock into the Wilderness,
and the 2nd Corps under our great General Jackson was
soon on the march to meet him. Everyone is familiar
with the great movement around Hooker's flank, with the
night attack and the surprise, and also with the sad blow
the South received in the fatal wounding of our noble
leader. With his death the Confederacy received a mortal
wound from which she never recovered. The next morning,
with J. E. B. Stuart in command, and the watchword
''Remember Jackson," the enemy's works were charged
and taken, but with heavy loss. The wounded in Co. *T"
were Lieuts. Allen and Nunn, and Sergt. Bonham, and
privates Tom Barr, Julian Morales and Kirk Glover.
Lieut. Allen was carried to Richmond, where pneumonia
developed and he died, — gallant, whole-souled fellow and
beloved comrade; always in high spirits and ready for
any duty. His loss was irreparable to the Company.
Bass Bonham, who died from wounds, was a kindred spirit
and one of the best of soldiers. Lieut. Nunn's wound was
such as to disable him for infantry service. On his re-
covery he was sent to Harrisonburg on special duty as
Provost Marshal, and never rejoined the Company.
These vacancies were never filled. From that time on we
had only the two commissioned officers, O'Bannon and
Marshall. Our losses in killed and prisoners and sick in
hospitals so reduced our numbers, that it was not thought
182 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
necessary to fill up the vacant places. J. W. Willingham
was made 1st Sergt. and was a very capable officer.
Lieut. Nunn, although unpopular as a first Sergt., be-
ing a very strict disciplinarian, was a popular Lieut., and
was held by the men in high esteem for his bravery and
devotion to duty. The victory left the army saddened
by the loss of our General, and the Company by the loss
of our Lieut. Allen and Sergeant Bonham. But soldiers
have no time to grieve. The spring was here, and the time
for action had come. With our new Corps Commander,
Gen. R. S. Ewell, we were soon upon the road with our
faces towards the Blue Ridge. What joy in all hearts
when from the top of a hill we at last saw in the distance
the long blue hills. Now all with one accord broke forth
into shouts of gladness, homeward bound, for the Valley
is home. How all stepped out with renewed vigor and
pressed forward, eager to meet the foe and drive him from
our beloved homeland. On up the mountain, and yonder
at its foot is Front Royal. We forded the Shenandoah
and soon the 2nd Virginia was ordered to the front to take
the advance. Captain Burgess, of the Winchester Rifles,
Co. ''F", demanded of the Colonel the right to lead the
advance to Winchester, and Co. 'T" was sent with him.
Soon after crossing the Opequon we were deployed as
skirmishers on each side of the road, and pushed on over
fence and through woods until suddenly, what we first
thought to be cavalry, appeared on a hill in front, but we
soon discovered that it was a battery of artillery. They
quickly unlimbered and let us have it. We were halted
in our wild career and wondered how well those Yankee
gunners could shoot, as shot and shell fell around us.
Colonel Nadenbousch ordered up a battery of our guns
and they entertained each other for a little while, when the
Yankees withdrew. Much noise and some tremor, but no
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 183
one hurt. The advance was resumed, and our division
took position southeast of the town, while Early moved
around to the west to attack the forts. During the night
the enemy moved out and attempted to make their way
to Martinsburg, but our division marching to Jordon
Springs intercepted them, and captured a large number,
the 2nd Virginia capturing three regiments and five flags.
There came a day's rest near Stevenson's and visits from
some of our fathers, loaded with things for the comfort of
sons and friends, and words of cheer from loved ones at
home, and we again went away through Brucetown and
Smithfield to Shepherdstown, where we forded the Po-
tomac and were once more in Maryland. Fording rivers
had become no more a hardship, but rather a comfort,
cooHng and cleansing in its effects on our hot and dusty
bodies. We bivouaced near Sharpsburg, and the Com-
pany picketed at the bridge over the Antietam, made fa-
mous by Burnside's efforts to cross it during the recent
battle. The march to Hagerstown lay through the bat-
tlefield where fences and trees showed the rain of bullets
poured upon them. In bivouac just beyond Hagerstown,
old Mr. Gold again came to us with the inevitable box for
Tommie. All enjoyed it and he passed the night with us,
taking soldier fare on the ground. By easy marches we
passed through the towns of the Cumberland Valley to
Carlisle, where we halted for a day or two. To our sur-
prise, for we expected to go to Philadelphia or New York,
we now turn our faces southward, reaching Chambersburg
in the evening, where in a large creek we find time to bathe
and wash our under clothing, much in need of it, lying on
the bank while it dries. The next day across the moun-
tains towards Gettysburg we go, never stopping to rest as
usual, for ten minutes every hour. Some one hears a boom
in front. A cannon? No, some one tapping the bass drum.
184 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Again "Boom", "Boom", surely that is a cannon! How
we push on! The top is at last reached, and then we know
that someone is fighting ahead. At Cashtown, wagons
and wagons! What is ahead? "A. P. Hill is swinging
Presently some wounded appear and then some pris-
oners, and we are in the midst of the field of the first day's
fighting at Gettysburg, but it is over for the day. Some-
one has blundered, and the Yankees are taking advantage
of the blunder and are even now building breastworks and
placing batteries. We go into line at the base of Culp's Hill,
very slowly. We hear the axes ringing on the hill. We
know that means hard and hot work tomorrow. The men
say "If old Jack was here we would go up that hill tonight
and not wait for them to fortify." Fatal blunder, paid
for with many lives, and possibly the success of the Con-
federacy. At last we are in line. The skirmishers are
sent forward ; all orders are in a whisper, for the enemy is
just in front. Now and then an alarm, a rattling fire
and then quiet, but we know that they are very near.
With the dawn the skirmishers engaged, but soon take re-
spectful distance and all is quiet until four in the evening.
Why were all those hours lost? Another blunder. Then
the line advances toward the hill. Our left is harassed
by some skirmishers and the 2nd Virginia is sent to drive
them back, which is soon done, and the regiment, now on
the extreme left of the army, goes in with the brigade.
But Cos. "I" and "K" are detached to watch the fellows
we have just driven off and to guard the roads in rear of
our line of battle. There we stay during the whole battle.
We know nothing of what is going on. We hear the aw-
ful roar of cannon and musketry, and our suspense is ter-
rible. We hear some way that our division has captured
a line of breastworks, and is holding them, but is in a very
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 185
perilous situation. We make the best of it. Our videttes
see the enemy's cavalry massing on our left, then our cav-
alry massing to meet them, and in the evening we see the
great cavalry fight between Stuart and Pleasanton.
Rations having run short, some of our company find some
hams and flour up a chimney in a deserted house. The
hams are divided among the men and some of the flour is
baked, but with the usual improvidence of soldiers, no
more is cooked than needed just then, but the raw ham
proved a life saver on the retreat, as it turned out to be
all that we were to have. At last our suspense is ended.
An aide to General Walker has just ordered us to rejoin our
regiment, and whispers to the Captain that General Lee
has been repulsed and that the army is about to withdraw.
How quietly, how sadly we move. How depressed and
crestfallen, none can tell. Morning finds us on Semi-
nary Hill facing the enemy. We have thrown up breast-
works somehow and are ready to meet him. We come to
the conclusion that we are not so badly whipped after all,
and wish that our friends over on the other hill would try
to take our hill from us, but they seem to know better and
do not try it. All this day, the 4th of July, we lie behind
our breastworks waiting for them. A day's rations were
brought to us here, which were soon eaten, as everyone
was hungry. On the next morning we were moved out
to take up the line of retreat, expecting the enemy to
strike us every moment, but they did not come and along
about ten A. M. we were fairly started with Early's di-
vision covering the retreat. The heavy rains had made
the roads deep and muddy, making the marching bad for
men and worse for artillery and wagons, so that our prog-
ress was slow, and we did not make many miles that day.
Just before night cannonading told us that they were
pushing our rear guard, but no one seemed disturbed and
186 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
at dark we bivouaced. Johnston's Division took the rear
the next morning, with the 2nd Regiment as rear guard.
All day we marched, but saw no signs of the enemy. We
were almost starved. But for the hams taken during the
battle, Co. "V would have had nothing. This we ate
raw. We stopped for awhile near a mill. Some of the
men started the mill to running and ground some wheat
that they found, letting the bran and flour all run together.
This we mixed and baked on the mould board of a plow
found lying near by. It was about the sweetest bread we
ever ate. Late on this day we reached Antietam Creek
and crossed on a bridge. Just beyond were our trains
and plenty to eat. Each man was looking forward to a
good meal, when an order came to Lieutenant Marshall
to take sixteen men and go back to guard the bridge.
We were mad, but back we had to go. Soldiers are ex-
cusable sometimes for taking something to eat, and at this
place we availed ourselves of the priviledge and killed a
fine pig running around threatening to bite us. We got
some corn meal from a mill nearby and proceeded to cook
enough of the pig and meal to satisf}^ us for our long fast.
When everything was about ready to be served, pop, pop,
pop, from across the creek, and the cavalry were back
upon us, the Yankees following them. We deployed and
advanced and drove them back, but when we returned, all
of our pig and meal were gone. Some troops stopping
there had gobbled everything. Such is the life of the
ON the morrow we took position between Hagers-
town and the Potomac, and built breastworks,
for we had to wait until the river fell before we
could ford it. Part of Co. '*!", under Sergeant Gold, were
placed on picket in the old fair grounds near the pike.
What an awful dark rainy night that was. At midnight
they were withdrawn, and relieved by cavalry. Two
men, Nimrod Hart and Ed Hall, were left, as in the dark-
ness they could not be found, and as everything was done
in a whisper, they could not be called. We thought we
would never see them again, but just as we were stepping
into the river to ford it, they came up, having had a very
narrow escape from capture. When we were in the Val-
ley again, General Walker said he wanted every man in
the 2nd Regiment to get home if possible, but as passes
could not be gotten from the higher Generals, we had to
take our chances of getting by the pickets. So Co. "V^
was very small for some days, but by the time we crossed
the mountains at Milam's Gap, most of the boys had re-
turned to duty, having seen their loved ones for a fleeting
moment. We went into camp near Orange Court House,
and just as we got fixed up comfortably, we were moved
around Meade towards Manassas, trying to play the game
we played on Pope, but it did not work and we were
marched back to where we started. Then Meade tried his
hand at advancing, and at Mine Run our division sud-
denly found itself very close to the enemy. The 2nd
188 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Regiment was thrown forward as skirmishers and got
into one of the hottest fights of the war. Here Co. ''I"
lost in a short time fourteen men out of twenty-two. We
sometimes called it the ''Battle of the Georges". Geo. Pat-
terson, Geo. Riggle and Geo. Doll were killed and Geo.
Wheeler was badly wounded and died shortly after reach-
ing the hospital. Ben. Thompson, Nat Sowers, and others
After this battle the army went into winter quarters.
Our houses were small log huts, capable of holding three
or four men, and were quite comfortable. Chimneys
built of sticks of wood and plastered on the inside, answer-
ed well. The roofs of clapboards or pieces of tents, a bed
of straw or pine shats on pieces of split wood, or small
poles, made us feel quite luxurious. Our rations this
winter showed that provisions were getting scarcer and
harder to get. Corn meal and 34 of a pound of bacon,
with sometimes a little rice or beans, made little enough
for men living in the open all the time. But no grumb-
ling was heard, no question as to pay was ever raised.
How different from the soldiers of the Revolutionary War.
Some of them were always clamoring for their pay and
made Washington's life miserable. But General Lee
never had that to vex his soul. The army of Northern
Virginia took what was given to them, and toiled and
fought on without murmuring. The world will never see
their like again. This winter our brigade was sent every
fourth week some miles away down the Rapid an River to
picket. Some weeks it rained continuously. Our only
shelter was made of oil cloths and blankets, making sheds
very much like the hog shelters often seen on farms. Big log
fires in front of them kept us warm enough, but Hfe during
picket week was miserable on the whole. Sometimes it
was varied by a sudden crossing of the river by the enemy
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 189
on a reconnoissance. Then the long roll would ring out
and everyone would seize his gun and make for the breast-
works. After a few hours the Yankees would go back
and all would be quiet again. The Stonewall Brigade and
Hay's Louisiana Brigade had their winter quarters near
each other, and Doles' and Battle's Alabama Brigades
not far off. One day, just after a heavy fall of snow.
General Doles challenged General Walker to a snowball
battle. Doles' and Battle's Brigades were formed in line
on one hill, where they made piles of balls and stood wait-
ing the attack of General Walker with his own and the
Louisiana Brigade. General Walker determined to try
some of Jackson's tactics on them. He drew his brigade
up facing the Alabamians, but sent the other brigade
around through the woods, so that they should come in
the rear of the Alabamians. His men were told to pre-
pare as many balls as they could carry, and at a signal
on the drum to advance to the attack, but when they got
pretty close, at another roll of the drum, they were to turn
and fall back, which would draw Doles' men away from
their piles of balls in pursuit of their fleeing enemy. Then
another roll of the drum and the Louisianians were to rush
out behind, capture their balls, and our brigade was to
turn and charge them in front. The scheme worked fine-
ly. We advanced and then fled with them after us. At
the signal the Louisianians appeared, we turned and drove
them pellmell from the field, chasing them through their
own camp. General Doles was knocked from his horse,
but not hurt. The game, though rough, was much better
than the real thing with minie balls, and was greatly en-
joyed. The monotony of camp life was broken by such
Late in the winter Lieut. Chas. Marshall, of Co. 'T\
was sent to Clarke to hunt up some absentees, taking
190 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
with him Kirk Glover, Julian Morales, Eph. Furr and Tom
Gold. At Waynesboro they were joined by a small de-
tachment of the 12th Georgia Regiment. They marched
down the Page Valley through Luray and Front Royal,
and down the eastern bank of the Shenandoah to Berry's
Ferry. After passing Front Royal a few miles, they saw
a man running away from a house towards the mountain.
The Georgians immediately opened fire on him, and for a
few minutes the dust flew around his heels, until Lieu-
tenant Marshall interfered and stopped them. The fugi-
tive turned out to be Captain Marshall, of our Cavalry,
who was at his home and took us to be Yankees and so
fled. He had a narrow escape. The Georgians thought
any man running away from them must be a Yankee, and
so they went for him. Our trip resulted in nothing more
than to give our men from Clarke an opportunity to get
to their homes for a few hours, slipping across the river
one night, and returning the next. Julian Morales met
a lot of Yankee cavalry, and only escaped by l3ang be-
hind a fence while they rode by on the other side. This
short, hard-earned pleasure was much enjoyed, although
we had to march nearly two hundred miles to obtain it.
We were soon back in camp, much envied by the poor
fellows who had not gone.
On the fourth of May, 1864, we broke up our winter
quarters, and set out on the march to meet General Grant
and his vast army, who had crossed the river and were pre-
paring to get between General Lee and Richmond. We
passed the old battlefield at Mine Run, and bivouaced
near the Wilderness. On the morning of the 5th, after
some moving back and forth through the thick woods,
we met the enemy and all day long we were engaged until
the brigade was almost out of ammunition, but we held
our ground, and just before night the firing ceased and we
CHAS. A. MARSHALL
FIRST LIKUTEXAXT, CLARKE RIFLES
(company I, SECOND \'IRGLNL\ LNFANTRV)
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 191
built breastworks. During the day Seargt. Willingham
was taken prisoner, and Geo. Writt was wounded. There
were no other casualties. The 6th and 7th we laid in our
breastworks, and were not engaged, except our skirmishers
in our front. On the 8th we moved towards Spotsylvania
C. H. to meet Grant there — a hot and toilsome march.
We were urged by our General, in an order read to us on
the march, '^To stand to our duty, that the enemy was
pressing to get ahead of us, but had been met and repulsed
by Anderson's Division." We were very much refreshed
by meeting the Clarke Cavalry, who had just come out of
the fight. To meet old friends and schoolmates, seen
but rarely in those stirring times, gave us fresh courage
to press on with vigor and inspired us with zeal, and hope.
A moment we saw them, shook their hands, and parted for
fates we knew not of. Just before night we went into line
of battle, and immediately were ordered to build breast-
works. A rail fence nearby gave us the foundation, and
we dug dirt with whatever we could, with our bayonets
and one pick, and threw it up as best we could, and in a
short time we had it breast high and thick enough to with-
stand bullets, if not cannon ball. Soon General Ewell
rode along and directed us to place a log on top, with
space to fire under, and to cut brush and trees in front to
hinder the enemy as much as possible. We worked at
this by relays, all night, and by morning we were strongly
fortified. On the evening of the 10th of May, the enemy
broke through our lines just to our left, but no one of our
Company was hurt. On the morning of the 12th about
dawn, they charged our lines to our right and rear, and
soon in our front, in such overwhelming numbers, that
they broke through. Although our brigade and the others
fought well and bravely, 3,500 were cut off and captured
including Gen. Edward Johnston, commanding the Di-
192 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
vision. From Co. 'T" Kirk Glover, Chas. Ashby and
Tom Gold, were captured, Lieut. Chas A. Marshall was
wounded. All day long the battle raged in one incessant
roar of musketry and artillery. There never seemed one
moment of intermission, until night ended it, both sides
worn out with the great effort. The Confederates held
their lines, but at great loss of hfe — lives more precious
to us than to the enemy, because we could not refill our
ranks. The 12th of May, 1864, was a day never to be
forgotten. It left the Stonewall Brigade and the 2nd
Regiment with ranks so depleted, that from that time on
they could not fill the posts assigned to them with the
spirit and dash of the past, but could only hang on with
grim determination to do their duty to the end. Captain
O'Bannon was now the only Commissioned officer with
the Company. Lieutenant Marshall, being disabled by his
wound for a time, got permission to raise a company of
partisan cavalry in Clarke, but when it met to organize at
White Post, some months after this time, they were sur-
prised and scattered and he taken prisoner. He was
among the Confederate officers sent to Charleston Har-
bor to be placed under the fires of our own batteries in
order to keep them from firing at the batteries of the enemy.
He survived it all, and after the war settled in California,
where he died. He was a most gallant and efficient of-
ficer, and much beloved by the men and honored by his
brother officers. In an engagement soon after the 12th
of May, Julian Morales and Jno. W. Grubbs were cap-
tured and sent to Point Lookout. They, with others of
the company, who were prisoners there, were later sent to
Elmira, N. Y., and kept there, most of them, until the
close of the war. Those were awful days; battle succeed-
ing battle in quick succession — North Anna, Cold Har-
bor, and then into the lines at Petersburg. Sergt. Geo.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 193
Alexander was wounded at Cold Harbor, and upon going
home was captured and joined his comrades in the prison.
The casualties of different kinds, killed, wounded and
missing, reduced the Company so much in numbers that
Captain O'Bannon was placed on the staff of the General
commanding the brigade, and the few remaining men were
placed in Co. ''C", under the gallant Capt. Robt. Ran-
dolph. With him they made the Lynchburg campaign
after the house-burning General Hunter. Then under
General Early they made the campaign to Washington
and return, took part in the Cool Spring battle in Clarke,
and the battle of the Opequon, and of Cedar Creek, where
Captain Randolph was killed, gallantly leading the rem-
nants of the two companies. At Petersburg under Gor-
don they suffered untold hardships in the trenches, took
part in the endless fighting on the lines, and finally under
Lieut. Phihp Nelson, they made the sad retreat from Peters-
burg, fighting, starving, suffering in body and mind un-
til the 9th of April, 1865, the few left present laid down
their arms, so nobly borne for four long years, and return-
ed to their homes.
But how few of Co. *T" to return. Four were present
at the surrender, a few had given out on the retreat, and
were not there, only J. R. Shipe, ''Doc", as we all called
him, Edward Rutter, Osborne Jones and R. H. Depreist,
a man from Augusta County, who had been put into the
Company in 1862 and had made a good and faithful sol-
dier. Of these ''Doc" Shipe is the only one hving, hon-
ored by all for his faithfulness in that time of trial, and
for his honor and integrity as a man. Osborne Jones, a
good and true soldier, died years ago, leaving a family to
mourn a father who had manfully done his duty. The
survivors of the Company after the war became scattered
and now in the County of Clarke there are very few liv-
194 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
ing, the remnant of as gallant a band as entered the Con-
federate army so many years ago. The places which
know them will soon know them no more. May the mem-
ory of their patriotism and faithfulness to duty be kept
ever green in the hearts of the people of the County. In
doing their duty they did honor to the county of their
birth, and deserve to be held in honor by coming genera-
tions As this company was a part of the Stonewall Bri-
gade the following beautiful poem is given as appropriate
THE STONEWALL BRIGADE
They come again, who in immortal story.
Past failure, death and tears,
Bore their unfading banner to its glory
Through the laborious years.
The frost is in their veins; the feet are laggard.
That sped to meet the foe;
Yet shines on every face, however haggard.
The light of long ago.
For each, the peaceful years have vanished, seeing
His comrades marching there;
Once more they live and move and have their being
In a diviner air.
And shaking off the pulseless, feeble fashion
Of this degenerate day.
They thrill again with the heroic passion.
Of Stonewall Jackson's way.
What boots it, though the fight was lost? They fought it
As soldiers should: That youth
Passed with it, and was lost too? Lo! these thought it
Well spent, since for the Truth.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 195
They march with ghosts of comrades, dead and gory —
Down the autumnal years
Still bearing that rent banner, starred with glory.
Past failure, death and tears.
Lost Cause! Lost Youth I Nay, out of War's red sowing
Hath sprung the harvest grain:
Their Cause is fame's; and the old bugles, blowing.
Bring back their youth again.
— Armistead C. Gordon.
THE following is the roll of the Clarke Rifles, Co.
"I", 2nd Virginia Vol. Infantry.
We regret that we cannot give the record of each
man in full, but there being no written record available, we
have had to depend on memory, and there are so few of
the Company now living and their memories are so im-
paired by age and the long lapse of time, that individual
records cannot be given, and even some of these that we
give may not be altogether right; but with the help of
Jno. W. Grubbs, J. R. Shipe and M. L. Barr we have done
the best we could. There will be some names with no
record given. That will not mean that they may not
have been wounded or a prisoner, or possibly killed, but
the absence of each one of us who have tried to make the
record for sometime in prison has made it impossible for
us to know the fate of all. It is very much to be regretted
that we did not undertake this work ten years ago, when
more memories would have been available, but it is vain
to regret. We have done the best possible under the cir-
cumstances. There were some men from Augusta County
put into the Company. They will be indicated.
1st Capt. Strother H. Bowen. Resigned August, 1862, to
manufacture gun carriages for the Confederacy.
2nd Capt. S. J. C. Moore. Promoted from 1st Lieut.
Wounded at 2nd Manassas. Made Adjutant Gen.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 197
2nd Brigade. Wounded at Wilderness. Made Ad-
jutant Gen. 2nd Corps under Gen. Early. Rank
2nd Lieut. H. P. Deahl. Spring 1862 joined Clarke Cav-
3rd. Lieut. Thomas Byrd. Resigned 1861. Physical
3rd Lieut. Wm. T. Milton. Promoted from 1st Sergt.
Joined Clarke Cavalry 1862.
Lieut. J. H. O'Bannan. Promoted to Captain Dec. 1862.
Lieut. Chas. A. Marshall. Promoted from 1st Sergt. to
1st Lieut. Wounded at Spotsylvania, taken prisoner
and confined with the 600 in Charleston Harbor.
Lieut. Algernon S. Allen, Jr. Promoted to 2nd Lieut.,
wounded at Chancellorsville, died in Richmond, 1863.
Lieut. Jno. R. Nunn. Promoted from 1st Sergt. 1863,
wounded at Seven Days fight, Richmond and Chan-
cellorsville, disabled and made Provost Marshal of
2nd Sergt. Jas. W. Willingham. Promoted to 1st Sergt.,
taken prisoner May 5th, 1864, Wilderness.
Sergt. Decatur J. Shepherd. Wounded Kernstown 1862
and Cedar Run 1862, detached service.
Sergt. Ben. F. Thompson. Wounded Mine Run Nov.
1863, prisoner at Pt. Lookout and Elmira, N. Y.
Sergt. Martin L. Barr. Wounded Mine Run, Nov. 1863.
Sergt. W. C. Shepherd. Killed, Kernstown, Mar. 23rd,
Sergt. Justin E. Sowers. Joined Cavalry, April 1862.
Sergt. N. 0. Sowers. Prisoner, Kernstown 1862, wounded
Mine Run, Nov. 1863, disabled.
Jas. H. Wilson.
Geo. W. Alexander. Wounded, Cold Harbor. Prisoner.
Geo. Towberman. Augusta man.
198 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Ben. F. Stuart. Augusta man.
2nd Sergt. Thos. D. Gold. Prisoner, Kernstown, Mar.
25th, 1862. Wounded, 2nd Manassas. Prisoner,
Spotsylvania, May 12th, 1864.
Jno. P. Carrigan. Musician, deserted to the enemy.
Jno. Kelley. Musician, deserted to the enemy.
Jno. A. Atwell.
Ch as. Ashby. Detached service. Prisoner, Spotsylva-
nia May 12th, 1864.
Wm. S. Allen.
J. R. Athey.
Jas. E. Bonham. Prisoner, Kernstown, 1862. Prisoner
1864. 12th Va. Cavalry.
Sebastian E. Bonham. Promoted to 1st Sergt. 1863.
Killed, Chancellorsville, 1863.
Jas. F. Broy. Killed, Wilderness, May 5th, 1864.
Addison Broy. Died, Stanardsville, 1862.
Geo. N. Barnett. Joined Brooks battery May 1862.
Wounded, Chancellorsville, died.
John T. Barr. Wounded, Fredericksburg, Dec. 1862, died.
David Barr. Prisoner, died old Capitol Prison, Washing-
ton, D. C.
Jas. F. BilLmyer.
Jas. Beavers. Augusta.
Jos. M. Brown. Augusta.
Chas. D. Castleman. Wounded, 2nd Manassas, died.
Samuel A. Campbell.
Rezin Carroll. Wounded, Cedar Run, disabled.,
Jno. W. Carpenter. Joined Cavalry.
Benj. W. Crim. Wounded, detached service.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 199
Jno. H. Craig. Augusta.
John J. Dobbins. Killed, Winchester, 1862.
Peter T. Duke. Joined Cavalry.
John Davis. Killed, 2nd Manassas, 1862.
Geo. Doll. Augusta. Killed, Mine Run.
Robert H. Depreist. Augusta. Present Appomattox.
Geo. Daugherty. Killed, 2nd Manassas.
Jas. R. EUeyette. Detached service.
J. Endernon. Augusta.
W. D. Engleton. Augusta.
Jno. Fiddler. Detached and honorably discharged.
James Fiddler. Died in prison, Pt. Lookout.
Geo. Furr. Joined Cavalry 11th Reg.
Edward T. Farral. Wounded, Wilderness.
Jas. W. Fuller. Cavalry.
Jas. H. Gill. Wounded, 2nd Manassas, died.
Thornton K. Glover. Wounded, Chancellorsville, prisoner,
Thos. W. Guard.
Thos. Goheen. Prisoner 1864.
Cyrus Grow. Killed. Augusta man.
Jno. W. Grubbs. Wounded Chancellorsville and Spotsyl-
vania. Prisoner, Cold Harbor.
Chas. Wesley Grubbs. Prisoner, Spotsylvania 1864.
Edward Hall. Killed, Wilderness.
N. R. K. Hart. Prisoner.
200 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Norman D. V. Howard. Detached service.
W. E. Hannum. Prisoner.
Jas. P. Hough.
Jno. M. Harwood.
Geo. W. Joy. Detached.
Andrew J. Joy. Prisoner.
Francis Johnston. Prisoner.
Osborne Jones. One of four at surrender at Appomattox.
J. Campbell Janney. Joined Mosby, 1864.
Geo. W. Kelly. Wounded, 1st Manassas and Port Re-
H. H. Kindig. Augusta. Put in substitute, who was
J. E. Kindig. Killed. Augusta.
Thos. B. Lanham.
Phihp B. Lucius. Cavalry.
Geo. W. Levi. Cavalry.
Carter M. Louthan. Discharged for disability. Joined
Artillery, Brooks Battery.
David H. McGuire, Jr. Joined Clarke Cavalry.
Alfred C. Marshall. Discharged, disability. Joined Cav-
Moses B. Murphey. Joined Cavalry.
Benj. A. May. Wounded, 1st Manassas.
Julian Morales. Prisoner, Spotsylvania.
Evan T. Myers.
David Mercer. Died in hospital.
W. A. Nicewarner.
Geo. M. D. O'Bannon. Joined Mosby, 1864.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 201
Jno. M. Pope. Wounded, Mine Run.
Washington Pope. Died in hospital.
Geo. Patterson. Killed, Mine Run.
Geo. Riggle. Killed, Mine Run.
Edwin M. Rutter. Wounded, Wilderness. One of four
Jno. W. Riggle.
Richard P. Roy. Badly wounded, Kernstown, and taken
Benj. R. Ricard. Taken prisoner, Petersburg, April, 1865.
Jno. J. Riely. Deserted to enemy.
Chas. B. Riely. Prisoner 1862. Killed, 2nd Manassas.
Jno. J. Rippon.
Jno. H. Shewbridge. Prisoner, 1862. On detached ser-
Simon P. Stickles. Wounded, Port Repubhc, disabled.
Jno. R. Shipe. Wounded, Petersburg, and prisoner. One
of four at Appomattox.
Frankljm R. Shepherd. Prisoner, 1864.
Edward C. Smith. Discharged from old age.
Jas. F. Trayhorne. Became captain of Cavalry Company
in White's Battalion.
Albert S. Thompson.
Thos. T. Thatcher.
James Talley. Died.
Baker Tapscott. Prisoner.
Jas. W. Whittington. Cavalry.
Robert N. Wilson.
Geo. Writt. Wounded at Wilderness, May 5th, 1864.
202 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Walker B. Wilson.
Geo. W. Willingham. Detached service.
John P. Willingham. Killed 23rd March, 1862 at Kerns-
Benj. F. Wilson.
Thos. Wyndham. Discharged, over age.
Geo. Wheeler. Wounded, Mine Run. Died, Richmond.
WM. X. XKLSOX
CAPTAIN, "XKLSOX RIFLES" (COMPANY C. SECOND VIRGINIA INFANTHV)
THE excitement following the John Brown affair
stirred up the people of Clarke, as well as the
whole of Virginia, men everywhere felt that a
crisis was upon them. That they must prepare to meet
what seemed inevitable, an appeal to arms. The little
hamlet of Millwood and the community surrounding and
its people of intelligence and fervent patriotism responded
to the cry of the hour and organized a Military Company.
Choosing for its Captain, one who had in the Mexican
war borne himself gallantly. Wm. N. Nelson was made
Captain. Dr. Wm. Hay 1st Lieut., Robert C. Randolph
2nd., Jas. Ryan 3rd., John Kelly 1st Sergeant, David
Keeler 2nd, W. T. Whorton 3rd.
When the call to arms was sounded on the 17th of April,
1861, Captain Nelson proceeded with his Company to
Charlestown and thence to Halltown, where the 2nd Va.
Infantry had assembled under Col. J. W. Allen. Captain
Nelson, as the senior officer from Clarke, took command
of the two Companies from the County. He being under
Colonel Allen. The march to Harper's Ferry, the cap-
ture of what was left by the flames, of the contents of the
arsenal and armory, was easily accomplished. For a few
days the two Clarke Companies were in a Battalion under
Captain Nelson. They were then thrown into what was
called for a short time, the 1st Virginia Infantry, under
Colonel Allen, Lieut. Col. Lackland of Jefferson and Major
204 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Frank Jones of Frederick County. The Nelson Rifles as
the Millwood Company was called, now became Co. '*C".
1st Va. Inf. But in a short time the number of the regi-
ment was changed to the 2nd Va., and thus it went
through the war.
The Nelson Rifles was composed of men from Millwood,
White Post and the vicinity of these places. Men of all
classes and conditions; the sturdy sons of farmers, mer-
chants, laborers from the farms and shops, men from
the Blue Ridge, all drawn together by one impulse in de-
fense of a common cause, bound together by love of coun-
try and in defense of home. With such incentives they
were sure to do their duty well and make a name for cour-
age and devotion equal to any from the State or the South.
Col. T. J. Jackson having taken command at Harper's Fer-
ry, every effort of every oflficer and man was to make this
mass of patriotic citizens into an army of soldiers, who
were to leave an imperishable fame. No one entered into
this work wdth more enthusiasm and zeal than Captain
Nelson and his men. The drilling, the guard duty, the
false alarms, the marches were entered into with a set pur-
pose to do the best and make the best of themselves.
When the 2nd Regiment was ordered to confront Patter-
son's advance at WiUiamsport, Company ''C" marched
with them and at the camp near Falling Waters received
the tents furnished by the County; which alas; in a short
time were to fall into the hands of the enemy. When
Patterson crossed the river and the brigade under General
Jackson went to meet him at Hainesville, the Company
had to leave their tents nicely folded for the Yankees to
get, as no provision had been made to haul them. Here
at Hainesville, Company "C", as did the rest of the bri-
gade, first saw the enemy, but that was all, the 5th Va.
Regiment and the Rockbridge battery did the fighting.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 205
But the sound of the guns made them reahze that they
were near the real thing, and that war meant something
more than drilling and dress parade. The marches to
and from Winchester, the lines of battle at Bunker Hill
and Darkesville, confronting the enemy, the momentary
expectation of battle, steadied their nerves and prepared
them for what was so soon to come. When the order to
move to Manassas came they had to march by their own
doors and were only allowed to say a hurried good-bye;
they thought war was real, war was earnest, but with true
and loyal hearts they accepted the inevitable and did
their duty like men. At the crossing of the Shenandoah
Mr. Otway McCormick, who lived at the ford, saw that
Co. *'C", got over dryshod, as he had his hands and horses
there to carry them over. The bivouac at Paris, the
march to Piedmont, the ride on the cars, brought them at
last to Manassas Junction, where Beauregard was wait-
ing and hoping for their arrival, as McDowell with his
hosts were just ready to spring upon him. The next
morning they marched to Blackburn's Ford, thence to the
sound of the firing. The Brigade was thrown into line
with the 33rd Regiment, to the left of the 2nd, Company
''C" being on the extreme left of the 2nd, where it was to
have its baptism of fire. Very soon a battery of artil-
lery was placed immediately in front of the 33rd,
and of the left of the 2nd and opening with shot
and shell threatened to do much damage to our
line. Seeing this Colonel Cummings of the 33rd Va.,
ordered that regiment to charge the battery, which they
did most gallantly. Not being supported they were soon
driven back, back past the left of the 2nd, Va., thus leav-
ing their flank unprotected. Very soon the enemy ad-
vanced and from flank and front poured in a merciless
fire on the gallant companies in the left of the regiment.
206 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Companies "C" and "G" both lost heavily, but stood
their ground and returned the fire until at that critical
moment the whole brigade led by General Jackson ad-
vanced, captured the batteries, swept every thing before
them and turned the tide from an imminent defeat, to a
glorious victory. Captain Nelson was wounded by a ball
through his chest from which he never recovered and was
prevented from active service in the field during the re-
mainder of the war, but a man of his ardent nature and
zealous patriotism could not be content to do nothing
and he sought other service in which he could and did be
useful to his country. Others equally true and loyal were
killed and wounded. Alexander Parkins, the editor of
the Berryville Gazette, one of the most fiery of secession-
ists, was wounded and died. Carlyle F. Whiting, Thos.
H. B. Randolph, John A. Hibbard, Jacob B. Rutter and
Adam Thompson were also wounded.
W. Scott Dishman, E. Grubbs, J. B. Whitten and Ben.
F. Wilson, were killed. The loss being seventeen out of
fifty-seven. Soon after the battle of Manassas, Lieu-
tenant Hay who was a surgeon of ability was made sur-
geon of the 33rd Va. Inf., and left the Company. He had
been a good and efficient officer and did his part well,
taking command of the company after Captain Nelson
was wounded and leading it through the remainder of the
battle. He served with the brigade for a year or more,
and was then put in charge of the Hospitals at Staunton,
which he managed with great ability and acquired a great
reputation as a skillful surgeon. Lieutenant Rj^an being
Sheriff of the county never went into active service, but
resigned. This left two vacancies in the Commissioned
Officers of the Company, which were filled in August, 1861,
by the election of David Meade of White Post as 2nd
Lieut, and of David Keeler as 3rd Lieutenant, Randolph
FIRST LIEITHXAXT, '"NELSON" RIFLKs"
(COMPANY C, SECOND VIRGINIA INFANTRY)
SURGEON IN CHARGE OF HOSPITALS AT STArN'ON. \ A.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 207
having been promoted to the 1st Lieutenant when Dr.
Hay resigned, assumed command of the Company and held
it in that capacity until April, 1862. Captain Nelson's
wound proved of such a serious character that he was un-
fitted for infantry service and was not with the Company
again, but hoping to return held his commission until the
reorganization in 1862 when he declined re-election and
was put into another branch of service. A man of his
talent and gallantry would have won renown and attained
high rank if he could have stayed in the regular service.
The company had lost so heavily in the battle of July
21st, that it needed all the skill and good example of Lieut.
Randolph to get it into good shape again, but his high
moral character and wise leadership soon accomplished
the desired end and the company was itself again, ready
for any service or danger that might be placed upon them.
In the meantime General McClellan, ^'The Young Na-
poleon of the North/' had been placed in command of the
Federal army. His great forte was organization, so he
proceeded to organize and equip an immense army for
invasion, and ''On to Richmond," became the cry of every
one from the President to the private citizen. To meet
this vast host our Generals set to work to prepare for it
by a thorough drilling and disciphning of their forces.
General Jackson although wounded in the recent battle
never left his post, but by presence and example inspired
his brigade to do all things possible to sustain the high
reputation they had acquired at Manassas. None re-
sponded nore heartily than the officers and men of Co.
*'C". The Officers studied tactics and read books on mili-
tary affairs and the men rapidly learned the drills. For a
week or two after the battle the brigade bivouaced near
the battlefield. It was then moved to a camp about a
mile east of the village of Centerville upon a level plateau,
208 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
which offered most excellent drill grounds for all the regi-
ments. Very few people of the present day have any
idea of the life of soldiers in camp and it may be interest-
ing to describe it. The men of each Company were di-
vided into messes, of from six to ten men, who did their
own cooking. A few utensils, such as frying pans, spi-
ders which were iron vessels with three legs and a lid for
cooking bread in. Kettles to boil meat in and to make
soup and when not in use for that purpose to boil clothes
in, constituted the culinary outfit. It was wonderful how
expert many of the men became. They could make very
good biscuits or flat cake and often most excellent rolls.
On rare occasions coffee was issued. The usual ration
was rice and beans and for meat, bacon and fresh beef.
Life in camp was never idle. At five o'clock in the morn-
ing ''Reveille" was sounded — ^the whole drum corps of
each regiment taking part. You can imagine that when
the whole brigade or a division were camped near each
other that some noise was made. At the end of the third
tune, you could hear all over the camps, the first sergeants
calling "Fall in Co. "I" or *'C", whatever their company
might be. What tumbling out of tents and rushing into
line, for the roll was to be called immediately and he who
was late or absent was to be put on extra guard duty.
What wonderful memories those first sergeants had, they
would rattle off names of officers and men without miss-
ing one, no matter how large the compan}^ and never failed
to remember the poor belated ones, or the turn of extra
duty. After roll call every one whose duty it was for that
day to cook, became busy until breakfast was over. At
half-past seven, the call for Company drill was sounded.
One of the officers, usually a Lieutenant then drilled the
Company in the manual of arms for an hour. This was
to teach the men how to handle their guns, how to load
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 209
and fire with precision and coolness, and to care for their
weapons, so that they should always be ready for inspec-
tion. At nine, guard mounting took place, and the detail
from each company and regiment was marched to the
guard house (which was often not a house, but an enclos-
ure of any kind) and there divided into three reliefs for
duty during the following twenty-four hours. At ten
the call for Company drill was heard and the companies
with all the officers present were taught the different
evolutions of the company. How to keep step, to wheel,
to form in various ways and assume a number of positions,
which might be necessary some day even on the field of
battle. At twelve, dinner w'as cooked and served, if there
chanced to be enough for three meals, and there was
plenty at first in the camp we are now telling of. At two,
the companies were again assembled for Battalion drill.
Here the Colonel was in all his glory. There was no better
drill officer in the army than our Colonel Allen. For two
hours he kept the regiment on the go, from one movement
to another until every one was almost worn out. At six
dress parade was held. Every one in his best uniform, if
he had any best. This was a sight worth seeing. The
long lines at open order. The fussy adjutant, the stately
Colonel. The band marching and playing from one end
to the other. Everything to show the pomp and glory
of the occasion and at the end to march to the tune of
"Yankee-doodle," double-quick back to quarters, and
then to get supper. At nine, tattoo, and half-past taps,
were sounded and ''lights out," was heard being shouted
by the sergeants of the companies, and soon the thousands
of gallant men were sleeping the sleep of the tired. All
this was necessary to make soldiers of the raw mass of
men who composed the army. All were willing enough
to fight, but to fight sucessfully, they must be under disci-
210 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
pline, must know how to obey orders, no matter how or
when given, whether in the quiet of the camp or the roar
of the battlefield. Co. "C" did its part in this school of
the soldier and by Fall its officers and men were ready for
whatever might come to them in the fortunes of war.
Very soon a change was to come, their General now loved
and admired for his bearing in the battle was to be taken
from them and to go to their beloved Valley. They were
present at his parting with the brigade and heard his
speech, which meant so much to him and to them. But
their sorrow was soon turned into joy, for the brigade was
ordered to proceed to Winchester. What joy in all their
hearts as they speeded toward the Blue Ridge and from
its top could almost see Millwood and White Post and
their homes. General Jackson having been made a Ma-
jor General, a new man was sent to take command of the
brigade — General Garnett, a West Pointer, but a gentle-
man, one whom the men soon learned to love. He soon
let them know that he looked upon them as men and fel-
low soldiers, not machines or dogs to be ordered and kicked
around at his fancy. He realized as had General Jackson
that his was a citizen soldiery and deserved to be treated
as comrades fighting for a common cause. From the camp
near Winchester, some of the men of Co. ''C" were allowed
to go home for a few days and possibly some availed them-
selves of the nearness of home to go without permission.
But such things were not thought to be so bad in the early
days of the war and if the men returned in a short time,
they received only a mild reprimand. No doubt the kind
hearted Lieutenant Randolph was imposed upon by some,
for all knew his gentle disposition and that he felt that his
men, being good soldiers and always ready for the fight
or march, should have some liberty. 'Twas not in his
nature to be a martinet, his men were his comrades and
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 211
friends and his discipline was easy upon all who tried to do
their part in times of stress.
The terrible winter campaign to Bath and Romney was
borne with cheerfulness by men and officers. Upon the
return to Winchester, the commanders of Cos. '*C" and
"I" sent a detail to Clarke to hunt up some from each
company who had over-stayed their time of leave and
having recovered from their sickness were slow to return
to duty. These were to be seen and told that unless they
reported promptly for duty, that they would be reported
as deserters. You may be sure that they hurried to re-
port as no one wanted that name applied to him. The
winter wore away with the usual routine of camp life.
More uncomfortably to the men than some in the later
days, as they had not learned to build huts for winter
quarters, or they could not obtain material for building
them. Early in March it became evident that General
Jackson would have to fight or leave Winchester. Co.
**C" and all the lower Valley soldiers preferred fighting,
but our force was too small and on the 10th of March,
we left the town and moved up the Valley. The enemy
advanced as far as Woodstock and then fell back to Win-
chester. General Jackson broke up his camp near Mt.
Jackson a few days later and by one of the rapid marches
for which he and his men were soon to become famous ad-
vanced to Kernstown, three miles from Winchester. Here
on the 23rd of March he struck the enemy, inflicting such
a blow that, they were forced to give up their plan of re-
inforcing General McClelland at Manassas, were compell-
ed to return to the valley and follow his movements, which
from this time on attracted the attention of the U. S.
Government, more even than the movements of McClel-
land with his grand army. Co. "C" was in at Kernstown,
one of the most hotly contested battles of the war and did
212 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
its part well. Back to Rude's Hill and then to Swift Run
Gap, General Jackson took his troops. The time of en-
listment of many of the troops having expired, it became
necessary to re-organize all such companies and regiments.
Most of the men had re-enlisted for three years or the war.
In order to fill up the ranks of such companies as had fallen
below the standard required by the army regulations,
many conscripts from the counties higher up the Valley
had been gathered together and were now distributed
among the companies needing them. Co. *'C" had a
large number put into her ranks, but many of them left
on the night after they were mustered in and were never
seen again. Those who remained became good soldiers
and served with loyalty until the end. Some being killed
and wounded and otherwise suffering from the vicissi-
tudes of war. In the re-organization the company was
called on to choose its commissioned officers. Wm. W.
Randolph, a private in the company was elected Captain.
Lieut. Robert C. Randolph, 1st Lieut., David Meade 2nd
Lieut, and David Keeler 3rd, PhiHp Nelson was made 1st
Sergt. and Mord Lewis 2nd. Captain Randolph was a
brother of Lieutenant Randolph, who with his usual
magnaminity preferred his brother's promotion to his
own. A noble pair indeed, admired by all who knew them
for their many manly quahties. The Company and the
army were now ready for whatever might be before them
and General Jackson soon let them know there was to be
no play time among his men. McDowell, Winchester,
Harper's Ferry, soon followed, Co. "C" taking part in all
and being with the 2nd Va., in its famous march from
Harper's Ferry to Newtown, forty-two miles without
stopping to sleep. The longest march known in history.
At Port Republic the company led by her gallant Captain
did good service and lost some good men. About this
\VM. \V. RAXDOLPII
CAPTAIX, "NELSON- RIFLKs" (COMPANY C, SKCOND VIIUilMA IMANTHV>
I.IKITI:NANT-C.()L0NKL, second \IR0INIA INFANTin
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 213
time Sergt. Nathaniel Burwell was made Sergt. Major of
the Regiment which position he filled with abihty and
soon endeared himself to the Colonel and his staff. The
march to Richmond, where General Jackson threw his
forces on the flank of the enemy found Co. "C" in step
with the rest of the army. In these fights the Company
lost heavily, Lieut. David Keeler was killed, a gallant man
and efl&cient officer. He fell at Cold Harbor during a
charge made by the brigade. One incident, an example
of gallantry, occurred here, which I will give in the words
of Sergt. Mord Lewis who was present and saw and heard
all that was done, as well as doing his own part, nobly. In
a letter to me he says: ''The most noticeable incident of
bravery that I recall was at the battle of Cold Harbor,
June 27th, 1862. General Jackson had the brigade drawn
up in line and told us that he had not intended to put us
in the fight, but there was a battery that had annoyed
General Lee all day, and that other brigades had failed
to take it, he said, "You have done it before, you can do
it again, go ahead." We went in charging through a
boggy piece of ground, part of the way up to our knees in
mud, becoming somewhat scattered, by the time we got
over it. Nat Burwell of ''Carter Hall" was Sergt. Major
of the the regiment at the time. By order of Colonel
Botts he lined us up and said "Now men when you charge,
remember the girls at home." Just then Colonel Botts
said "Come here Burwell, give me your hand, you are a
brave fellow." This was done while under a heavy fire.
We made the charge and captured the guns. I have
heard of this from others, who said that Sergeant Burwell
led the charge, jumping his horse over the fences and go-
ing ahead of the men until the guns were captured. The
compliment paid to him by Colonel Botts was all the more
valuable as Colonel Botts did not give his praise unless
214 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
well deserved. This gallant young man, with so much of
promise before him, fell badly wounded, two months later
at 2nd Manassas and died, and his remains lie with his
father in the sacred precincts of ''Old Chapel."
Since the re-organization in April of 1862, many changes
had taken place in the Company. Besides the heavy
losses in killed and wounded, several of her good and true
men had joined the cavalry, and the artillery. Ben
Trenary, Carlyle Whiting, Warren Smith, Jas. F. Kerfoot,
who was made a scout for General Lee and promoted
later to Captain. Peter Dearmont, Judson Kerfoot, Mat
Royston and others went into the cavalry. Robert Bur-
well and his brother, George, and W. T. Wharton joined
Stuart's Horse artillery. Robert Burwell was promoted
on the battlefield of Sharpsburg for bravery and later
was mortally wounded at Brandy Station on the 9th of
June, 1863. Geo. Burwell was also promoted to a Lieu-
tenancy. W. T. Wharton was made Sergeant and did
good service in that branch of the army. N. B. Cooke
was transferred to the Clarke Cavalry, Oct. 21st, 1862,
and ordered to report to General Stuart's Headquarters,
where he remained about a month, when he was elected
2nd Lieut, in Cooper's Battery, which he was command-
ing when disabled on Early's Retreat, Oct. 24th, 1864.
There were probably others transferred or detailed which
materially reduced the ranks of the Company. Lieut.
David Meade had also been promoted to Captain in the
Quartermaster's Department and Lieutenant Keeler had
been killed at Cold Harbor, leaving only two officers
present for duty — Captain and Lieutenant Randolph.
These vacancies were not filled until the winter of 1863,
when Philip W. Nelson and Samuel Grubbs were elected
to fill them. After 2nd Manassas and its losses, the Com-
pany bore its part in the strenuous Maryland Campaign,
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 215
being at the capture of Harper's Ferry and in the terrible
fighting at Sharpsburg. Those who were left were al-
lowed a few days at home as the army passed through
Clarke on its slow progress up the Valley and then came
Fredericksburg and winter quarters at Moss Neck, where
the men made themselves comfortable by building log
huts. A chapel was built by the brigade, where preach-
ing was held. This winter some amusements were gotten
up in the form of amateur plays. Holmes Clark, a very
gifted young fellow in Co. "C", was a leader in this move-
The opening of the Spring of 1863 found the army and
all connected with it ready for the work that our General
had in view for them. Every one was in fine spirits and
none more so than the gallant officers and men of Co. "C".
At Chancellorsville they took part in the great flank move-
ment and also in the charge on the enemy's works, led
by General Stuart, with the watchword "Remember Jack-
son," for our peerless leader had fallen the night before.
Here the coolness and bravery of Captain Randolph in-
spired his men. He was a very tall man, and as the line
advanced seeing some men a little distance from him be-
ing shot in the legs, he said to his men: "Boys I believe
I will go down there, I might get a furlough." Sometimes
the men used to call getting a wound, getting a furlough.
His indifference to danger as well as his coolness had the
desired effect on his Compan}^ and others near him.
Among the w^ounded here, was John JoUiffe, a gallant
fellow, who was so disabled as to be unfit for the field, but
did good service elsewhere.
Following swiftly on Chancellorsville came the march
into Pennsylvania and the great battle of Gettysburg.
The 2nd Virginia in this fight was on the extreme left and
did not take a very serious part in the battle, but Company
216 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
"C" lost in wounded, three of the fourteen from the regi-
ment, showing that it was doing its full duty. The ever
present and vigilant enemy did not allow much time for
rest and soon the armies were confronting each other on
the Rapidan and the bloody fight at Mine Run took place.
Here the regiment lost heavily — ^in officers and men. At
2nd Manassas, Colonel Botts had been wounded and died,
leaving no field officer. These places had been filled by
promoting Captain Nadenbousch, of Martinsburg, to
Colonel; Captain Colston, of Berkeley, to Lieutenant Col-
onel and Captain Stuart, of Harper's Ferry, to Major.
At Mine Run, Colonel Nadenbousch was disabled and
never again took command. Colonel Colston was mor-
tally wounded and subsequently died, leaving Major
Stuart in command.
THE winter of 1864 was spent in quarters on the
Rapidan watching the enemy. The death of
Colonel Colston and the retirement of Colonel
Nadenbousch made it necessary that one of the Captains
should be promoted. Early in the spring of 1864, Cap-
tain Wm. W. Randolph was promoted to the Lieutenant
Colonelcy of the regiment over the head of Major Stuart.
Major Stuart, while a gallant soldier, lacked some of the
qualifications for so important a command and it was
thought best by those in authority to promote Captain
Randolph. The selection was a good one. No braver,
cooler, or more thoughtful man for the comfort and wel-
fare of his men could have been chosen. Colonel Randolph
took command on the 3rd of May, 1864. On the 4th the
army moved out to meet the enemy under General Grant,
the new commander of the Army of the Potomac. To il-
lustrate Colonel Randolph's care and thoughtfulness for
his men, I will relate an incident of that day's march.
On going into bivouac in the evening after a hard march,
the Colonel found that the Quartermaster had left the
wagons containing the cooking utensils of the men sev-
eral hundred yards away. He sent for the Quartermaster
and ordered him to bring the wagons right up to the line
of the regiment, saying "that his men had marched all
day and should not be required to go such a distance for
the utensils and that he never wanted that to occur again.'^
You may be sure, that this thing, small in itself, made an
218 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
impression on the regiment and they took him at once
into their hearts and all looked forward to a brilliant and
successful career for him, but vain are human hopes. In
twenty-four short hours he whom they loved was to be
taken from them in the full tide of his manhood. On
the morning of May 5th the division moved forward and
was soon thrown into line of battle, in a thick woods.
The line which was continually moving to the right, was
sometimes in a dense thicket and sometimes in the open
woods. Our regiment was on the extreme left and we had
to keep moving in order to keep in touch with the brigade.
Colonel Randolph was on foot behind the line, carrying
in his hand a chess board, of which game he was very fond.
Being near the writer at one time in the thick woods he
remarked to me : ''Tom, how will we get out of this place?"
I answered: ''Oh, you will get us out all right." After
sometime the line halted and the enemy opened fire and
we were soon hotly engaged. The regiment being on the
extreme left was being flanked by the enemy and our line
had to be continually stretched out towards the left in
order to hold them back. This state of things had gone
on for several hours and the men were getting scarce of
ammunition when word was brought that the Louisiana
brigade was coming to our relief. In the meantime in
order to steady the Une, Colonel Randolph had ordered the
flag to a position near him and had gathered a number of
men near it to protect it. Just after this had been done,
the writer who was near the Colonel saw Sergeant Lewis
of Co. "C" talking to him. They were talking very coolly
but very earnestly and seriously. Sergeant Lewis with
his hands resting on the muzzle of his gun and the Colonel
with his chess board under his arm as calm as if in not the
least danger, although the fire at this point was too hot
to be comfortable. Sergeant Lewis was telling him of
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 219
the death of Lieut. Sam Grubbs, who a Httle before had
been shot, leading his company in an advance to drive
back a body of the enemy who were outflanking them.
Grubbs had been shot in the head and instantly killed.
Lewis had at that time a hole through the crown of his
hat, received a few minutes before. As our men were
holding their own, the Colonel moved off with Sergeant
Lewis to make an attempt to bring off the body of Lieu-
tenant Grubbs. While going on this sacred duty Colonel
Randolph was struck by a ball in the head and died im-
mediately. His body w^as brought off, but the body of
gallant Sam Grubbs was not recovered. The enemy tak-
ing advantage of the momentary confusion caused by the
fall of the Colonel, moved forward, but their advance was
met by the timely arrival of the Louisiana brigade, which
drove them back. Thus was his noble Ufe cut short. No
more gallant spirit ever filled man's heart. No braver or
more thoughtful officer ever commanded the regiment.
The regiment felt his loss deeply and Co. ''C" missed this
gallant young Lieutenant — the friend and companion of
his men. But alas, such things as were upon them allowed
no moments for grief. Even while the bodj^ of our leader
was borne away, we had to fall back a short distance and
proceed to build breast w^orks. That evening, to our left
the enemy made a desperate effort to break our lines, but
failed, and renewed the attack the following morning with
the same results. On the 8th of May we moved towards
Spotsylvania Court House. Arriving there after a most
tiring march late in the evening we immediately went to
throwing up works. On the evening of the 10th the enemy
attacked just to the left of our regiment and broke the
line, driving the brigade on our left from their position,
thus exposing the left flank of Co. "C". In this charge
Elliott Weir, a member of Co. "C", had a singular exper-
220 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
ience. When the enemy got over the breast works, he
was captured and ordered to pass over to the side from
which they had come. As soon as he had jumped over,
he threw himself on to the ground and pretended that he
was dead. In a short time our troops drove the enemy
back and recovered our hnes. Elliott then got up and
came in safe and sound. He was not so fortunate on the
12th, when the enemy charged our division and captured
3,500 men, ''Ell" was of the number and could play no
such ruse to save himself, but with many others from the
regiment had to go to prison and remain there until the
end of the war. Soon after the death of Colonel Randolph,
Lieut. Robert Randolph was made captain of the Company
and Phil Nelson 1st Lieut. The heavy losses in both Co.
"C" and Co. "V made it necessary to unite them under one
conmiand. Captain O'Bannon of Co. *'I", having been put
upon the staff of the brigade general. All were under the
command of Capt. Robert Randolph. Under him they
made the campaign with General Early from Lynchburg
after Hunter, took part in the fight at Monocacy and be-
fore the defenses of Washington. On the retreat they
passed through Loudoun and entered Clarke at Snicker's
Gap. Here some of them got an opportunity for a few
fleeting hours to see the home folks. At the battle of
''Cool Spring" they had their first and last opportunity
to fight on the soil of Clarke. They took part in the rapid
movements of General Early in front of Sheridan and at
the battle of "Belle Grove," or Cedar Creek, they lost their
honored Captain, who had so faithfully and gallantly led
them through so many trials and dangers. There was no
more chivalrous or heroic spirit in the ranks of the army
than he, gentle and modest, thoughtful and kind, yet de-
manding the best in his men, he was loved by them with
a devotion seldom seen. Upon his death the command de-
ROBERT C. RANDOLPH
CAPTAIN, "XELSOX RIFLEs" (COMPANY C, SECOND VIHGINIA IxrWTHN
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 221
volved upon Lieutenant Nelson. Under him the winter
of 1864 was passed in the trenches at Petersburg. Our
brave men here endured the greatest hardships of the war,
suffering from cold and hunger and never free from the
fire of the enemy. It was no common thing for a shell to
drop in the midst of them while cooking their scanty
rations. But amidst it all they bore themselves with
fortitude, accepting the worst without complaining. One
third of them were kept on the firing line at all times, so
that they never had more then two days at a time for rest
and even then often all were called to the front to repel a
threatened attack, or to march off to the right to resist an
attempt to turn General Lee's flank. Day and night these
alarms came and there was no moment of security. Their
rations were of corn bread and middling, day after day.
As spring opened details were sent into sw^amps and fields
hunting garlic, poke and other weeds for greens, in an
effort to prevent scurvy.
Many were sick with chills and fever and other malar-
ious diseases. Their pay, small at best, had become so
worthless that a month's pay would not buy a pound of
tobacco. But our gallant fellows cared not for the pay.
If they could have been clothed warmly and properly fed,
the lack of pay, dangers from shot and shell would not
have affected them. When engaged in battle with their
well fed and warmly clothed enemy they sometimes had
the opportunity to get a haversack full of the good things
that the Yankees had or to capture an overcoat or blanket,
but these chances were rare now. Our army was on the
defensive and were glad to be able to hold their position,
and could not ransack the enemy's camps as of yore or
to capture them in large numbers, and so this resource was
taken from them. The winter wore itself away. Genera^
Grant having stretched his lines away to the South and
222 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
East, compelling General Lee to still further extend his
attenuated lines. At last all was ready for the final blow.
On a bright Sunday morning in early April he made the
attempt and succeeded in breaking General Lee's line.
All saw that the inevitable had come. Petersburg so long,
so bravely defended must be given up. With but a scanty
supply of rations, the retreat was commenced, with the
expectation of getting abundant supplies at Amelia Court
House. But some incompetent, somewhere, failed to do
his duty and when the army reached that point no rations
were found. From that time forward the possessor of an
ear or two of corn was a richer man than Rockefeller.
Marching and fighting by day and marching by night,
snatching a little sleep during a halt, they pushed on. On
the ninth of April near the village of Appomattox C. H.
they found the enemy across their path. General Gordon
with the 2nd Corps, all that was left of it, and our friends
of Co. '^C" and ''I" are among them, is ordered to clear
the road of the enemy. They form into line and with the
old time yell they charge the foe and drive them a mile
and the road is open for escape. But useless was the charge,
useless the yell, the bravery, for even then General Lee
was making terms of surrender.
The end had come and of the two gallant companies that
had marched to Harper's Ferry on the 17th of April, 1861,
so gayly, so confidently, there are but Lieutenant Nelson
and eight men from Co. "C", and four from Co. 'T". A
sad day for them, worn out, half starved, two hundred
miles from home, no money, what were they to do? With
the farewell order of their loved General sounding in their
ears and embalmed in their hearts, they started on the
long tramp. No longer led by able and thoughtful of-
ficers, they scattered and each for himself or in couples
they made the dreary tramp, depending for something to
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 223
eat on the impoverished people along the way. Slowly
and painfully they come, and at last the Blue Ridge and
Shenandoah are crossed and they reach their homes.
Homes almost as destitute as they, but the loved ones are
there and it is home at last. Before them work, hard
work, but they went at it as bravely as they had gone at
their old enemy. Gradually as the summer passed, those
in prisons or hospitals came and took up the work of life.
How these returned soldiers bore themselves, how they
toiled to rebuild broken fortunes, how they helped to put
the old State back into proper place in influence and power,
all now living know. They are now old and worn with
the toils and cares and misfortunes of life and many are
dependent upon the scanty pension given them by an un-
grateful State, which has forgotten all that these men did
and suffered, or if remembered, remembered only as the
theme of a decoration day oration or the plank in a party
platform, or in a Governor's Message. The Daughters
of the Confederacy, God bless them, bedeck them with
"Crosses of Honor," aid them wdth money, look after
their widows and do all that they can to help and honor
them, but the State gives them hardly enough to clothe
them, and even those who get the little pension have to
swear that they are in poverty.
I cannot close this account of Co. *'C", the ''Nelson
Rifles," better than by giving an extract from a letter pub-
lished some years ago in the Clarke Courier, signed "A
Gentleman of Verona" — a gentleman well known and
honored by all the people of Clarke, one familiar with the
history of the officers and men of this Company. Al-
though too young to be in the army, he was old enough at
the close of the war to take note of each and every one,
and can speak of them far better than the ^vriter.
"I should like if my pen has the power, to make you a
224 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
few pictures of some of the noble men with whom I served
for part of the war in the Company ''C", Second Regi-
ment, Stonewall Brigade. Rudyard KipUng says: "The
officers are well written about," but it is only my mess-
mates and comrades and dear friends whom I shall speak
of. There was our first Captain, William N. Nelson, the
noblest gentleman I have ever seen. I fancy I can see him
now in full dress uniform as he took us on dress parade,
as handsome as an Apollo Belvidere, keen of wit, sound of
judgement, stern in the performance of duty, expecting
all men to do theirs in the cause he loved so well, and every
inch a soldier. There was Will Randolph, true and tried,
who fell as Colonel of the Regiment on the 9th day of May,
1864; who stood like King Saul, head and shoulders above
any man, scholar, gjTimast, statesman, and the bravest
man I thought in the army. I recall how he looked as he
walked on top of the works at Gettysburg, carrying an oil
cloth full of ammunition to the Company. And Robert Ran-
dolph, also Captain of the Company ''C", killed at Cedar
Creek, a perfect type of Christian soldier, and gentleman.
And I see Tom Randolph as he looked at the extreme
right of the Company as we marched in at Manassas on
that bright July morning when our Captain and 17 men
were killed out of 57 muskets.
"I often thought in looking at Tom Randolph that 'he
is complete in features and mind with all good grace to
grace a gentleman,' and John JoUiffe, faithful to the end,
and badly wounded at Chancellorsville. Carly Whiting,
who was twice wounded before he was 17 and died a mar-
tyr's death at 19, and his joyous laugh was lost to the Cav-
alry Camp. There were six Grubses out of seven killed
and wounded; their mother should have been as proud of
them as if they had been the Gracchi, and Lieut. David
Keeler, Hke Hercules, killed without the city wall. I mind
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 225
well Adam Thompson, the best squirrel shot in the Com-
pany, and Bill Thompson, a good soldier as ever polished
a belt buckle or bayonet. Then there was Warren Copen-
haver, though dying soon after his first fight, left a glor-
ious record behind him, and old John Hibbard, shot in the
leg at Manassas at the time our Captain got his death
wound, so far as active service was concerned, and Robert
Burwell, the coolest man I ever saw under fire, and who
in the Company does not remember George Burwell try-
ing to draw his ramrod from his gun at Kernstown and
cr3dng because he could not get another shot at the
Yankees, and which of you old fellows does not remember
George's capturing the Yankee Captain at Manassas when
he was only 14 years old. Lord, what a handsome dash-
ing boy he was. There was a man with us on whose mem-
ory my mind loves to linger as I look over the past. I
fear you will say, Dear Courier, that I an only calling the
roll of honor, but caUing the roll was my business at that
time, as it was the business of the man of whom I am just
speaking, a man who never would take promotion because
he thought he could serve the Dear Mother-land better
as a private or non-commissioned officer, and because I
think he really loved to feel the pressure of the musket to
his shoulder, and got more of the glory of the strife on foot
doing a private's duty than he would anywhere else. As
I heard one of the oflicers say once he believed he was one
of the most reckless men in the army. I refer to Nat Bur-
well, of ''Carter Hall." It would be useless to have to
write his name for any of the old Company to know him
when I recall the time before Richmond when Colonel
Botts called on Nat to rally the regiment and let them dress
on him just as the evening was closing in and the regiment
came to his call. Think of the gallant fellow after the
battle was fought carrying water to the wounded of the
226 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
enemy because he said our wounded had their friends to
look after them and the others, poor fellows, had been left
in our hands. That always seemed to me the truest hos-
pitaHty and the highest Christian virtue. Many of these
fellows became commissioned officers and many were
killed, but all deserved high rank. I have not forgotten
John McCormick and the way he carried dispatches for
General Rhodes, at Gettysburg, to whom he had been trans-
ferred from Company C, as the army marched to Pennsyl-
vania. 1 am dreaming and the visions of the past come
over the still deep waters in ripples bright and fast.' I
find it impossible to mention more than a few of the noble
men I had the honor to serve with, in a letter, but I hope
it will make some one of the old boys who has more talent
than I to write what he knows so I may see it way off
here and know who has passed over the river and who are
still on this side. What became of Nat Cook, and Phil
Nelson, and Mord Lewis? What boys they were, and
what men they made, ripened in the hot furnace of red
battle. There are many more men I would like to pay
a passing tribute to, some who were not of my command,
but I shall only speak of two now. Capt. Hugh Nelson,
afterwards Major, I mind him well on his milk white steed
when the white banner of peace was still spread over our
fair land. The greatest scholar, statesman and scientist
of the day, man of wondrous charm of manner and bear-
ing, a man all of whose ways were ways of pleasantness
and all his paths were peace, but when once the despot's
heel was on our shore, he was a very bolt of war, and the
beau ideal of a Cavalry Commander, as he led the Old
Clarke Cavalry on Victor, where the foremost fighting fell.
And then there was Dr. Archie Randolph, Fitz Lee's
chief medical advisor and friend."
I will here give a list of the battles in which Co. ''C"
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 227
and Co. '*!" took part. This list was furnished by Mr.
1st Manassas July 21st, 1861
Kernstown March 23rd, 1862
McDowell May 9th, 1862
Winchester (Banks) May 25th, 1862
Cross Keys June 8th, 1862
Port Republic June 9th, 1862
Cold Harbor June 29th, 1862
Malvern Hill • July 1st, 1862
Cedar Run August 9th, 1862
2nd Manassas August 28th-29th and 30th, 1862
Capture of Harper's Ferry
Sharpsburg Sept. 17th, 1862
Fredericksburg Dec. 13th, 1862
Chancellorsville May 2nd and 3rd, 1863
Winchester No. 2 June 15th, 1863
Gettysburg July 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, 1863
Mine Run Nov. 27th, 1863
Wilderness May 5th, 1864
Spotsylvania May 10th and 12th, 1864
Battle of the Nye May 18th, 1864
Bethesda Church June 2nd, 1864
Monocacy July 9th, 1864
Cool Spring August, 1864
Fisher's Hill Sept, 22nd, 1864
Cedar Creek or Shady Grove Oct. 19th, 1864
Hatcher's Run Feb. 6th, 1865
Hains Hill or Fort Steadman Mar, 25th, 1865
Petersburg April 2nd, 1865
Retreat April 2nd to 9th, 1865
Besides these, there were numerous skirmishes of not
enough importance to be named or remembered.
The story of this company should have been written
228 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
by one of the Company, and the writer most reluctantly
undertook the work. He felt that Sergt. Mord Lewis
was the one best fitted in every way for it. But his mod-
esty is equal to his bravery and to show my readers what
his bravery was I will relate an incident of the winter of
1865. The ladies of Rockbridge County sent to the bri-
gade a large lot of clothing and they desired that a suit
should be given to the bravest man in each regiment, the
man to be chosen by his comrades. In the 2nd Virginia
Sergeant Lewis was only a few votes behind David Hen-
derson, of Jefferson, and you must remember that Jefferson
had five companies in the regiment. Lieut. N. B. Cooke,
at one time a member of the company, in answer to a
letter from the writer says: ''Dear Old Mord Lewis is the
one pecuUarly fitted to give you Co. ''C", from A to Z.
No man in the army did his work more faithfully and he
was fortunate enough to be never disabled and so was there
all the time." There were very few of the Company in my
reach to consult with and they like myself have forgotten
much that would have been of interest. It has been my
wish and my effort to do full justice to the gallant officers
and men and if I have made errors they have been unin-
tentional and unavoidable. I have been unable to get a
correct list of the casualties in the different battles and as
I could not give them in full, have not attempted at all.
A Roll of the Company is given which has some notes as
to the killed and wounded and etc., but I am sure it is
not full and may be not altogether correct. This roll has
upon it a number of names of men from up the Valley who
were placed in the Company in April, 1862. Many of
them left very soon but those remaining made good sol-
diers. I am not able to indicate those men on the roll,
but people of Clarke will recognize the names of our own
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 229
Those men did their part like men in those days which
tried men's souls. The following little poem expressing
most beautifully his condition after so many years have
[Written for the Religious Herald.]
We see him standing at the parting of the ways.
The one leads back, along which youth has sped.
The other, shorter of the two, ends just ahead.
Within the silent city of the dead.
Where young and old ahke must end their days.
The passing years have left their furrows, clear and deep,
Upon the cheek and brow once free from care.
The head, so richly crowned with locks of raven hair,
Doth now but scattered strands of silver wear;
And eyes, so wide awake in youth, now sleep.
In early life he heard his country's call to war.
To which his loyal soul gave answer true.
We know not if he wore the garb of gray or blue;
But this we know, that all the struggle through
He kept his face towards his guiding star.
And whether came to him glad victory or defeat.
His bright escutcheon was no coward's shield.
His glittering blade preserved on every field
The symbol which no valiant heart may yield,
And gave the world a theme for poets meet.
Down through the years that followed war — the years of peace.
Which none the less were years of toil and strife.
With duties manifold and heavy burdens rife —
The veteran poured the manhood of his life
In streams of love whose flow shall never cease.
'Tis thus we find him at the parting of the ways.
What tribute for his service shall we bring?
What panacea for the pain of ingrate's sting?
His deeds of love and valor we will sing;
His "dearest meed" be "our esteem and praise."
Gainesville, Fla. W. T. H.
THE NELSON RIFLES
ROLL of Company ''C", 2nd Va. Volunteer In-
Wm. N. Nelson, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, captain,
Millwood. Wounded 1st Manassas, disabled, entered
another branch of service.
William Hay, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, 1st Lieut., Millwood.
Made Surgeon 33rd Va. Reg., Aug. 1861. Promoted
Robert C. Randolph, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, 2nd Lieut.,
Millwood. Captain, May, 1864. Killed battle of
Cedar Creek or Belle Grove, Oct. 1864.
James Ryan, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, 3rd Lieut., Millwood.
Resigned, Sheriff of County.
David Meade, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, 3rd Lieut., White
Post. Vice Ryan resigned.
David Keeler, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, 3rd Lieut., Millwood.
Aug. 1861, vacancy. Lieut. Hay promoted.
Philip W. Nelson, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, 2nd Lieut, Mill-
wood. Promoted from 1st Sergt., wounded Port Re-
public and present at surrender at Appomatox.
Samuel Grubbs, enlisted Aug. 17, 1861, 3rd Lieut., Millwood.
Promoted from Sergt. Killed May 5th, 1864, Wilderness.
John Kelly, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, 1st Sergt., Millwood.
Discharged 1861, disability.
Wm. T. Wharton, enlisted Aug. 17, 1861, 3rd Sergt., White
Post. Transferred to Horse Artillery.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 231
Jno. Jolliffe, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, 4th Sorgt., Millwood.
Wounded Chancellorsville, detailed special duty.
Chas. C. Benn, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, 5th Sergt., Mill-
wood. Present at surrender at Appomattox.
Cornelious Hawks, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, 1st Corp.,
White Post. In prison 12 months.
John A. Hibbard, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, 2nd Corp., Mill-
wood. Wounded 1st Manassas. Discharged on ac-
count of wound.
Geo. W. Rutter, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, Drummer, White
Post. Discharged for disability.
Barney Carrigan, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, Fifer, White Post.
Deserted to enemy.
Jacob B. Rutter, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, private, White
Post. Wounded Manassas 1861. Killed at Aldie
Nathaniel Burwell, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, Sergt. Major
of Regiment, Millwood. Promoted Sergt. Major of
Regt. Mortally wounded 2nd Manassas, 1862, and died.
Robert P. Burwell, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, Private, Mill-
wood. Transferred Stuart's Horse Artillery, Pro-
moted Lieut. Died of wounds received Brandy sta-
tion June 9th, 1863.
George H. Burwell, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, private, Mill-
wood. Promoted 2nd Lieut. Pelham Battery, Horse
W. B. Copenhaver, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, private, Mill-
wood. Died 1861.
A. J. Berlin, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, private, White Post.
Served four years. Captured May 12th, 1864, pris-
oner until close of war.
W. R. Barham. Served 4 years.
G. W. Anderson, private.
Fred S. Crow, private. In prison 12 months.
232 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
James Cooper, private.
Jno. W. Cooper, private.
N. B. Cooke, enlisted Apr. 17, 1861, private, Millwood.
Transferred to Clarke Cavalry Oct. 21, 1862. On
duty at General Stuart's Headquarters. Made 2nd
Lieut. Cooper's Battery. Disabled Oct. 24th, 1864.
Ephriam Corfelt, enlisted Apr., 1862, private, Shenandoah
Aaron Corfelt, enlisted Apr., 1862, private, Shenandoah
Gideon Corfelt, enlisted Apr., 1862, private, Shenandoah
F. N. Crown, enlisted private, Shenandoah County. Dis-
charged Mar. 28, 1862 by special order No. 118.
C. C. Cahoon, private. Served four years.
John W. Clay, enlisted 1864, private. Served one year.
James Chamblin, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Wounded June 27th, 1862.
W. B. Clem, enlisted 1862, private, Shenandoah. Served
Peter Dearmont, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Trans-
ferred Clarke Cavalry.
Jos. T. Doran, enHsted Apr. 18, 1861, private, Millwood.
W. Scott Dishman, Apr. 18, 1861, private, Millwood.
Killed 1st Manassas. Buried on field.
Alexander Da}^, enlisted Apr. 18, 1861, private, Millwood.
Served 4 years.
John E. Evans, enlisted Apr. 18, 1861, private, White
Harrison Estep, enlisted Apr. 18, 1861, private, Shenan-
R. T. Ellett, enlisted Apr. 18, 1861, private, Millwood.
J. Erms, private. Wounded June 27, 1862.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 233
D. Estep, enlisted Apr. 18, 1861, private, Millwood.
Served four years.
Kinlock Fauntleroy, enlisted Apr. 18, 1861, private, Mill-
wood. Made Lieut. Artillery.
John A. Fry, enlisted Apr. 18, 1861, private. Wounded
Amos Funkhouser, enlisted 1863, private. Served 2 years.
Ambrose Funkhouser, enlisted 1863, private. Served 2
E. Grubbs, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Killed 1st
Samuel Grubbs, enlisted 1861, private Millwood. Pro-
moted Lieut. Killed May 5th, 1864. Wilderness.
Jas. W. Grubbs, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Killed
Wm. Grubbs, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Killed
Geo. W. Grubbs, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Killed
Jas. S. Grubbs, enlisted 1861, private.
Philip L. Grubbs, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Jas. T. Grubbs, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Served
Jno. W. Holland, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Jas. Henry, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Edward Hefflebower, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Wounded; 12 months in prison. Cavalry.
James Hodge, enlisted 1861, private.
Robert C. Harris, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Thos. L. Hughes, enUsted 1861, private, White Post.
Discharged under age.
234 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
John T. Hughes, enhsted 1861, private, White Post. Dis-
charged under age.
Joel Hensley, enhsted 1861, private. Served four years.
A. M. Hoyt, enhsted 1862, private. Served three years.
Jas. F. Kerfoot, enhsted 1861, private, MiUwood. Joined
cavalry 1862. Made scout to Gen. Lee. Promoted
Judson G. Kerfoot, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Joined cavalry 1862.
Daniel Kerfoot, enhsted 1861, private, Millwood. Killed
A. J. Kerfoot, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Surren-
dered Appomattox April 9th, 1865.
Jas. Kenny, enlisted 1861, private.
Wm. Kenny, enhsted 1861, private, Millwood. Wounded.
H. T. Kelly, enlisted 1864, private, Millwood. Served
Jas. D. Kerfoot, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Served
Mordecai Lewis, enlisted 1861, Sergt., Millwood. Pro-
moted Sergt. Wounded. At surrender at Appomat-
tox, April 9th, 1865.
J. D. Lloyd, enlisted 1861, Millwood.
J. S. Lloyd, enlisted 1861, Millwood.
Jas. B. Lindsey, enlisted, 1861, Millwood.
T. Munsen, enlisted 1861, Millwood. Deserted 1861.
John W. McCormick, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Surrendered at Appomatox.
H. T. McDonald, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
D. F. Miller, enlisted 1862, private. Served 3 years.
Jas. W. Marshall, Sr., enhsted 1861, private. Served 23/^
Jos. McDaniel, enlisted 1864, private. Served 3 months.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 235
Jos. E. Newlands, enlisted 1861, private. Served 4 years.
P. W. Noell, enlisted 1863, private. Served 2 years.
Wm. T. Noell, enlisted 1863, private, Millwood. Served
J. R. Oliver, enlisted 1862, private, Millwood. Served
Alex. Parkins, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Wound-
ed 1st Manassas and died.
Bushrod Puller, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Andrew Perron, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
W. L. Paugere, enlisted 1862, private, Millwood. To end
Geo. R. Lunzey.
Deshin Lloyd, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Samuel Rutter, enlisted 1862, private, Millwood.
Mat S. Royston, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Joined
Thos. H. B. Randolph, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Wounded 1st Manassas. Transferred Signal Corps.
Chas. H. Richards, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Killed at Wilderness, May 5th, 1864.
John Reardon, enhsted 1861, private. Prisoner Spotsyl-
vania, died at Elmira, N. Y.
F. H. Randolph.
Geo. C. or John C. Rutherford.
John Ryman, enlisted 1862, private, Millwood. Served
to close of war.
Ed. Ryan, enlisted 1862, private, Millwood. Served to
close of war.
L. R. Riley, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Wounded
John W. Sprint, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Jas. W. Spencer, enlisted Apr. 1861, private.
236 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Phil H. Shearer, enlisted Apr. 1861, private, Millwood.
Wounded at Gettysburg.
Wm. R. Shipe, enlisted Apr. 1861, private.
Wm. M. Sowers, enlisted Apr., 1861, private, Millwood.
Killed while at home on furlough.
Wm. M. Sowers, enlisted Apr. 1861, private, Millwood.
PhiHp Speyle, enhsted 1861, private. Surrendered Ap-
pomattox April 9th, 1865.
Samuel Speyle, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
J. E. Spitzer, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Served
Geo. T. Shields, enlisted 1863, private. Served 13 months.
John T. Sprint.
Adam T. Thompson, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Wounded 1st Manassas.
John W. Tansill, enhsted 1861, private.
W. A. Tansill.
W. H. Thompson, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Quarter Master Sergt. of regiment. Surrender of
Ben Trenary, enhsted 1861, private, Millwood. Trans-
J. B. Whitter, enhsted 1861, private, Millwood. Killed
Lewis F. Wood, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
F. B. Whiting, Jr., enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
Carlyle Whiting, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Trans-
ferred Co. D. 6th Virginia Cavalry. Killed 1864.
Jas. E. Weir, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Prisoner
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 237
Benj. F. Wilson, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood. Killed
B. F. Willingham, enlisted 1861, private, Millwood.
H. Van Belt, enlisted 1861, private, Millowod.
H. Cloud, possibly H. Clarke. Surrendered Appomattox.
Jno. L. Nash, private. Discharged.
THE CLARKE CAVALRY
AMONG the military organizations that went from
the County of Clarke in defense of the State and
Southland in the war between the states, was a
troop of horse known as the Clarke Cavalry.
It is not to be understood that this troop was composed
wholly of residents of said county. It was a crack corps,
and many men from adjoining and distant counties of the
State and from other states enlisted in it, attracted by its
reputation for dash and gallantry, and the character of
the material of which it was composed.
There was organized in that part of the County of
Frederick which is now embraced in the territory of the
County of Clarke, for service in the war with Great
Britian in 1812, a company of cavalry commanded by
Captain Eben Taylor. It is said that the names on the
roster of the Company last mentioned and the names on
that of the Clarke Cavalry were to a large extent the same,
from which the inference is drawn that many of the men
composing the Clarke Cavalry that took part in the war
between the states were descendents of the men who, in
the war of 1812, enlisted under the command of Captain
Throughout the period between the War of 1812 and
that of 1861-65, this Company preserved its organiza-
tion in a general way; its existence was not continuous,
but with short intervals of interruption the organization
U. 1. HICIIAHDS
CAPTAIN, "CLARKE CAVALRY," (COMPANY L), SLXTH VIRGLNL\ C.W ALMY')
LIEUTENANT-COLONEL, SIXTH VIRGINIA CAVALRY
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 239
was preserved. From 1845 to 1856 this Company had
as its Captain, Hugh M. Nelson, of "Longbranch", near
Millwood. Among the Lieutenants during these years
were Richard P. Bryarly of White Post and James M.
Allen, now living in Brooklyn, New York. The Company
was armed with sabres and the old single barrel horse
pistols, which would be curiosities now. Previous to and
during the John Brown affair the Company had as its
Captain, E. P. C. Lewis.
It did some service at that time. Soon after this it was
reorganized with other officers.
The roster of the Company when it engaged in the war
of 1861-65 with changes and additions in its officers here-
in below noted, were as follows :
Joseph R. Hardesty, Captain; resigned July 21st, 1861.
Hugh M. Nelson, elected in July 1861. He served as
Captain of the Company until the spring of 1862,
when he accepted a position on the staff of Gen. Ewell.
He served in this capacity until his death in August,
1862, when he died from disease contracted in the
William Taylor, 1st Lieut., promoted to Major in the
David H. Allen, 2nd Lieut, who died in August, 1861, from ^
the result of a wound received in the first battle of
George Mason, 3rd Lieut.
Charles H. Smith, Orderly Sergeant.
At the re-organization of the Company in May, 1862,
the following officers were elected:
D. T. Richards, Captain; successively promoted to Major
and Lieut. Colonel of the 6th Virginia Cavalry. He
was wounded in action at the battle of Yellow Tavern,
May 11, 1864.
240 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
1st Lieut, Joseph McKay Kennerly, promoted to be cap-
tain of the Company Oct. 28th, 1864, to rank from
June 4, 1864, permanently disabled by a wound re-
ceived in action at Ream's Station July, 1864.
R. O. Allen, 2nd Lieut., permanently disabled by a wound
received at the Battle of Brandy Station, June 9, 1863.
C. George Shumate, 3rd Lieut., wounded at Brandy Sta-
tion, June 9, 1863, at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864,
and killed in action near Berry's Ferry, July, 1864.
Ashby, Lewis; killed in action at Trevillian Station, June
Ashby, Buckner; discharged under an Act of Congress.
Ashby, George; discharged on surgeon's certificate.
Ashby, Shirley C.
Anderson, Milton B.
Ambler, JaqueHne R.
Bell, Jonah; killed at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.
Bell, James; killed in action near Berryville, Aug. 1864.
Bell, John; wounded in action September 9, 1863.
Brown, WilHam H.
Blackburn, John S.; promoted to lieutenancy in Ordi-
Brabham, Charles; discharged on surgeon's certificate.
Barbee, John; killed in action June 9, 1863 at Brandy
Berkeley, Carter; promoted to lieutenancy in Artillery
Larue, C. C; corporal, wounded in action Sept. 13, 1863
at Brandy Station, Va., and at Lacey's Springs, Va.,
Sept. 20, 1864.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 241
Larue, William A.
Larue, Gilbert; wounded in action at Brandy Station,
Lewis, H. L. D., promoted to Major on staff of Gen. Maury.
Lindsey, James; killed in action, 1863, near Upperville, Va.
Moore, Francis; died March 6, 1862, from sickness con-
tracted in service.
Moore, William; Sergeant, promoted to lieutenancy in
the Company, died of wounds received in action at
Five Forks, Va., April 2, 1865.
Moore, A., Jr.; taken prisoner at Yellow Tavern, May 11,
1864, escaped from railroad train August 16, 1864,
and returned to his command.
Moore, Nicholas; permanently disabled by wound receiv-
ed June 9, 1863, at Brandy Station, Va.
Morgan, William C; sergeant.
Morgan, John; taken prisoner at Berry's Ferry, Va.
Morgan, Daniel, died of wounds received in action April
2, 1865, at Five Forks, Va.
McGuire, D. Holmes.
Meade, F. Key.
Magner, M. F.
Milton, William T.; acting Sergeant Major of the 6th Va.
Regiment Cavalry after the capture of Eugene Davis.
242 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Carson, John R.
Castleman, M. R. P.; color Sergeant of 6th Va. Cavalry.
Castleman, Robert; transferred to 12th Regiment of Cav-
Castleman, James R.
Crow, John T.; wounded while on service as scout near
Luray in 1864.
Crow, H. Clay.
Calmes, F. H.; promoted to major of 23rd Va. Cavalry,
wounded in action at Charles Town, Nov., 1863.
Calmes, Marquis; killed in service as scout, Dec, 1864.
Cooke, N. B., detailed as courier for Gen. J. E. B. Stuart.
Dearmont, John; corporal, killed in action at Lacy's Spring,
Va., Dec. 20th, 1864.
Deahl, Horace P.; wounded at Brandy Sta., Oct. 13, 1863,
at Trevillian Sta., June 11, 1864, and captured in
Davis, Eugene; promoted to Sergt. Major of 6th Va.,
Cavalry, taken prisoner at Yellow Tavern, May 11,
Davis, Albert F.
Davis, A. S.
Everhart, James B.
Everhart, J. Newton.
Fauntleroy, Kinloch, promoted to lieutenancy and as-
signed to Stuart's Horse Artillery.
Funston, O. R.; promoted to lieutenancy as adjutant 11th
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 243
Grady, C. Powell; sergeant, promoted to captaincy on the
staff of Gen. William E. Jones.
Grady, Temple; died of disease contracted in the service,
Grady, Edward; wounded at Berry's Ferry.
Gibson, William, sergeant, killed in ambuscade at Annan-
dale, Va., Oct., 1861.
Griggs, James L.; wounded in action Sept. 1864, near Lu-
Harris, George; corporal.
Hardesty, Charles W. ; wounded near Appomattox Court
Hammond, WiUiam H.; died of wound received in action
July 4th, 1864, at Ream's Station, Va.
Hite, Madison; discharged on surgeon's certificate.
Hite, Irving; died of disease contracted in the service.
Hite, Fontaine; killed in action Jan., 1865, at Beverly, W.
Hite, William M.; killed in action Oct. 14, 1864, at Brandy
Janney, Walter, died at Camp Chase Prison in 1864.
Johnson, John M.
Keeler, J. M.
Kerfoot, John D.
Kerfoot, Henry; wounded in action Sept., 1864.
244 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Kitchen, George; deserted to the enemy.
Kneller, Lewis, corporal.
Kimball, Charles E.; promoted to Ueutenancy and ad-
jutancy of 6th Regiment Va. Cavalry.
McCormick, Edward, promoted to major in Quarter-
McCormick, Hugh H.; wounded in action Oct. 14, 1863,
at Brandy Station.
McCormick, Cyrus; wounded in action Oct. 14, 1863, at
Mitchell, Cary; died of disease contracted in service.
Mitchell, Robert; wounded in action Oct. 14, 1863, at
Buford's Ford; killed in action June 11, 1864, at
TreviUian Station, Va.
McClure, Nicholas; Quartermaster clerk.
Michie, H. B.
Marshall, E. C, Jr.
Opie, Hierome; promoted to lieutenancy in Ordance Bu-
Opie, John N. ; wounded in action Sept. 13, 1863, Culpep-
per Court House.
Powers, Philip; promoted to major in Quartermaster's
Page, William B.; wounded in action Culpeper, Court
House, Oct. 13, 1863.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 245
Pendleton, Robert N.
Pendleton, Dudley D.; promoted to captaincy on staff
of Gen. Pendleton.
Russell, Jesse, corporal.
Russell, Bennett, died of disease contracted in the service
Russell, Thomas, J.; wounded in action at Brandy Sta-
tion, June 9, 1863, and permanently disabled.
Riely, William A.
Smith, Charles H.; taken prisoner May 9, 1864.
Smith, Treadwell, corporal; wounded June 9, 1863, at
Brandy Station, at same place Sept., 1863, and killed
in action at Five Forks, Aug. 2, 1865.
Smith, J. Rice.
Smith, Warren C.
Sowers, George, H.
Shepherd, Joseph H.; taken prisoner 1863.
Shepherd, George C; taken prisoner 1863.
Shumate, G. H. ; died of disease contracted in the service.
Shumate, Thomas; wounded in action.
Steptoe, R. C; wounded in action June 11, 1864, Trevil-
Swartzwelder, Lennard; killed in action June 11, 1864, at
Swann, Philip; corporal, detailed as scout.
Timberlake, Thomas W.; killed in action Oct. 9, 1864.
246 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Topper, Pius Francis, wounded in action June 9, 1863, at
Brandy Station; killed in action Sept., 1864, near
Watson, James; Commissary Sergeant of Company.
Watson, Thomas; wounded in action Oct. 9, 1864.
White, John R.; wounded at Luray, Sept., 1864.
Williams, Thomas ; promoted to assistant surgeon.
Williams, L. Eustace, wounded in action at Trevillian
Station, June 11, 1864.
Ware, Charles; assistant Surgeon out of Regiment.
Ware, J. S.
Willis, N. P.; sergeant and Ueutenant of Company, wound-
ed in action June 11, 1864, at Trevillian Station.
Waesche, George; quartermaster clerk.
Whiting, Carlyle; wounded at Manassas, July 21, 1861,
killed near Luray, Dec, 1864.
Wigginton, James D.
Wheat, Joseph N.; taken prisoner Sept. 18, 1864, at Win-
Wheat, F. W. ; orderly sergeant.
Count F. Zulasky; promoted to lieutenancy and put in
command of battery at Rockett's, near Richmond.
The foregoing embraces the names of all enlistments
in the Clarke Cavalry, including those that enlisted during
Immediately on the secession of the State from the
Federal Union, April 17th, 1861, Governor Letcher order-
ed all military organizations in the lower Shenandoah
Valley to proceed with expedition to Harper's Ferry and
take possession of that point, the chief object in view be-
ing the seizure of the United States armory and arsenal
at that point, with the muskets and swords contained in
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 247
the latter. The Clarke Cavalry promptly obeyed this
order, moving on the 17th. Shortly after, Col. Thomius
J. Jackson was put in command of the troops at that point,
and he was shortly succeeded by Gen. Joseph E. Johnson',
who was intrusted with the command of the Department
of the Valley and the country lying west of it. J. E. B.
Stuart was commissioned by the State of Virginia Colonel
of the Cavalry and had in his command at Harper's Ferry
six troops, aggregating about three hundred men, including
the Clarke Cavalry. This was the nucleus of the first
regiment of Virginia cavalry.
During the occupation of Harper's Ferry the Cavalry,
under the command of Colonel Stuart, was kept con-
stantly on duty as pickets and scouts. It guarded the
forts of the Shenandoah, and of the Potomac beyond
Martinsburg. One important duty that devolved upon
Colonel Stuart was to keep his eye on the movements of
a body of Federal soldiers that was being collected at
Harrisburg, Pa., with the purpose of so threatening
General Johnson's communications at Harper's Ferry as
to prevent his rendering aid to General Beauregard at Ma-
nassas. So efficient was the service rendered by Colonel
Stuart that General Johnson in a letter written to him
when he, Johnson, was transferred to the West, says
"How can I eat, sleep or rest in peace without you upon
Colonel Stuart kept General Johnson fully advised of
Patterson's movements down the Cumberland Valley to
Williamsport, Md., and the latter promptly transferred
his army from Harper's Ferry to a point on the Winches-
ter and Martinsburg Turnpike, near Darksville, and of-
fered battle, which Patterson declined. His escape with
his army to the aid of Beauregard at Mana^ssa.^ without
knowledge of it reaching Patterson was a most difficult
248 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
and delicate undertaking, the accomplishment of which
depended very largely on the efficiency wath which Colonel
Stuart cloaked and guarded the movements. A cordon
of pickets was established across the Shenandoah Valley
to the top of the Blue Ridge Mountain, which was so well
maintained as to completely veil the movements and pur-
pose of General Johnson, so that he was able to arrive on
the plains of Manassas without a suspicion of the move-
ment entering the mind of General Patterson. After
General Johnson's infantry and artillery had crossed the
Blue Ridge, Colonel Stuart called in his pickets and scouts
and followed it to Piedmont, and thence marched prompt-
ly to Manassas to take his part in the battle that was then
pending there. Placing himself on the extreme left of
the Confederate army and supported by Beckham's bat-
tery, he kept in check and repelled repeated efforts of the
enemy to extend its right flank so as to envelope the left
of General Johnson, and finally, at a critical period of
the battle, he ordered two companies of his regiment,
namely, the Clarke Cavalry and the Loudoun Cavalry,
to charge the enemy's infantry. This was successfully
done, and a regiment of Zouaves that had ventured out
on the extreme right of the Federal army was practically
destroyed. In this engagement Lieut. David H. Allen
received a wound from which he died in the month of
When the retreat of the enemy began. Colonel Stuart
pressed it with his mounted men, captured a great many
prisoners and contributed largely to the confusion, ex-
citement and panic of the rout. In a paper prepared by
General Early on so much of the battle as fell under his
immediate eye he declares that no subordinate officer con-
tributed as much to the defeat of the enemy in this en-
gagement as did Colonel Stuart.
Fiiisr i.ii;rii:.\ANr. •Clahkk c.walkn*"
(C()MI>A^^ I). SIXTH MKdIMA CAN ALKN I
MAJOH IN (,)l AHTKHMASTI:m\s Dl.l'AHl \II \ I
THE battle of Manassas was followed by a long
period of quiet and rest to the infantry and ar-
tillery, but the cavalry, which has been fitly
styled the eye and ears and cloak of an army, was constant-
ly occupied. Colonel Stuart established his picket line
within sight of the capitol building in Washington, and
had daily encounters with the outposts of the enemy. In
one of these, Sergeant Wm. Gibson, of the Clarke Cavalry,
was fired upon from ambuscade by the enemy and killed.
The Clarke Cavalry retained its connection with the
First Regiment until Colonel Stuart was promoted to the
rank of Brigadier General, and as there was an excess of
two companies in the First over what was required to con-
stitute a regiment, the Clarke Cavalry elected to be trans-
ferred to the 6th Virginia Cavalry, with which regiment
it served until the close of the war between the states, and
in which it was known as Company D. The 6th consti-
tuted a part of the brigade of which General Stuart took
command on his promotion. It was first commanded by
Col. C. W. Field, who being, shortly after he took command
of it, promoted to the rank of Brigadier General of Infantry,
was succeeded in command by Col. Thomas S. Flournoy.
When the army of General Johnson was withdrawn from
the neighborhood of Centreville and transferred to the
peninsula below Richmond, the Clarke Cavalry took an ac-
tive part in defending the rear of his army and after it
had crossed the Rapidan River the 6th Regiment was left
250 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
with General Ewell in the neighborhood of Culpeper Court
House for the purpose of watching the movements of
General McDowell, who commanded the Federal army at
When, in the month of May, 1862, General T. J. Jackson
was about to enter upon his brilliant campaign in the
Shenandoah Valley, he was re-enforced at Elkton by the
troops commanded by General Ewell, including the 6th
Cavalry. The Clarke Cavalry had it thus in its power
to take an active part in the campaign, and rendered very
valuable and efficient service.
General Jackson's march down the Lura}^ Valley was
preceded by the Cavalry, and his movement concealed
and shrouded by active picketing and scouting. The
enemy, after being driven from Front Royal and River-
ton, made a stand at Cedarville on the turnpike road be-
tween Riverton and Winchester, where, under the im-
mediate eye of General Jackson, and acting under his
personal order, five companies of the 6th Regiment, in-
cluding the Clarke Cavalry, made a charge so effective
and gallant that General Jackson is said to have express-
ed great admiration of it and to have declared that he had
never read of a more gallant charge by a body of cavalry.
The Clarke Cavalry remained with General Jackson
while he was in the lower Valley, and accompanied him
when he withdrew from Harper's Ferry to the Upper Val-
ley, taking part in the fight near Harrisonburg, in which
General Ashby was killed, and in the subsequent battles
of Cross Keys and Port Republic. It then accompanied
General Jackson as his advance guard, especially select-
ed for the purpose, on his march to Richmond to join
General Lee in his attack on the army of General Mc-
Clellan. It remained near Richmond until General Jack-
son's movement to Gordonsville, to which point it ac-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 251
companied him, taking part in his campaign against Pope
and in the Battle of Cedar Mountain.
About this time a new brigade formation \va^ made by
which the 6th Virginia Cavalry, together with the 2nd,
7th, 12th and the 17th BattalHon constituted Robert-
Shortly after the Battle of Cedar Mountain, General
Lee concentrated his army near Culpeper Court House,
from which point General Stuart made his celebrated raid
by way of Warrenton and Auburn on the rear of Pope's
army atCatlett's Station, captured Pope's headquarters, his
private wardrobe and papers, and a large amount of stores,
and several hundred wagons were burned. A member of
the Clarke Cavalry became the possessor of a pair of
General Pope's boots which he wore with much satisfac-
tion for some time thereafter.
From Catlett's Station General Stuart returned by a
direct route to Fauquier White Sulphur Springs, where the
enemy sought to intercept him. After a heavy cannonade
in which some of his men were killed and wounded, Stuart
succeeded in re-crossing the Rappahannock and re-joined
General Lee's army in Culpeper County. The march to
Catlett's Station immediately preceded General Jackson's
famous flank movement of Pope's army.
On the 25th day of August, 1862, General Jackson,
with his corps well shrouded from view of the enemy by
Stuart's Cavalry, crossed the Rappahannock River at
Hinson's Mill, and by a forced march reached Salem on
the night of that day. On the 26th, passing through
Thoroughfare Gap, he struck the railroad at Bristoe Sta-
tion, a few miles north of Manassas Junction, where there
was known to be an enormous quantity of supplies of all
sorts for Pope's army. On the night of the 26th, General
Stuart was directed to move on Manassas Junction and if
252 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
possible capture it without giving the enemy an oppor-
tunity to put the torch to the suppUes there. Taking
with him a part of his command, including the Clarke
Cavalry, he marched directly upon Manassas Junction,
and early on the morning of the 27th, with the assistance
of a force under the command of General Trimble, suc-
ceeded in capturing the place with the troops stationed
there, and all of the supplies that had been concentrated
at that point. The Clarke Cavalry participated in this
movement, and in the subsequent disposition for meeting
Pope on the old battlefield of Manassas. In this battle
the Cavalry rendered efficient service, charging and rout-
ing that of the enemy and protecting the right flank of
General Lee's army.
After the defeat of Pope at Manassas, the command to
which the Clarke Cavalry was attached accompanied
General Jackson on his flank movement by way of Chan-
tilly, having for its purpose getting at the rear of Pope's
army between Centreville and Alexandria. While the
movement did not succeed in accomplishing this purpose,
it inflicted punishment upon the enemy at a fight that oc-
curred near Chantilly in which Generals Kearney and
Stevens, of the Federal army, were killed.
About this time General Robertson was relieved of the
command of the brigade and after the lapse of a few months
was succeeded by Col. W. E. Jones, who was made Brig-
adier and placed in command of it. The 6th Cavalry did
not accompany General Lee on his campaign into Mary-
Isnd which terminated at Antietam, but was left behind
at Manassas to protect the troops that were engaged in
gathering together the arms and other fruits of the vic-
tory there, and after this was accomplished they marched
to the Shenandoah Valley and joined the army of General
Lee in the neighborhood of Charles Town. They contin-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 253
ued in camp near Charles Town until the army moved
across the Blue Ridge on its march to Fredericksburg, and
was occupied in picketing very closely the Shenandoah
River and the roads leading across the Blue Ridge Moun-
tains from the counties of Jefferson and Clarke.
When General Lee withdrew his army from Antietam
to the counties of Berkeley and Jefferson, it was sorely in
need of rest from its most fatiguing campaign.
General Jackson's troops had marched from the Valley
to Monterey, where they defeated Freemont; thence down
the Valley fighting the enemy at Front Royal and Winches-
ter, to Harper's Ferry; thence up the Valley fighting the
battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic. It had then
marched to Richmond, participating in the seven day's
fighting on the Chicahominy; thence they had returned
to Gordonsville, marched to Cedar Mountain and defeat-
ed Pope, made its flank movement to Manassas, engaged
the army of General Pope for three successive daj^s in
heavy battle, marched by way of Frederick City to
Harper's Ferry; thence to Antietam or Sharpsburg, par-
ticipating in the very heavy engagement there. The rest
of General Lee's army had made the same march and done
the same fighting, except that it had not participated in
the campaign with Jackson in the Valley, nor did it par-
ticipate in the battle of Cedar Mountain. The result of
this strenuous period of marching and fighting had worn
the army's strength down to the last degree, and General
Lee, desiring to give his army a good long rest in that re-
gion of abundance, determined to send General Stuart on
an expedition around McClellan's army which was then
on the north side of the Potomac River, with its bivouac
or camps extending from Williamsport on the west to the
present town of Brunswick, then known as Berlin, on the
east, with his cavalry massed near Berlin, his idea being
254 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
that when Stuart appeared north of the Potomac River,
the enemy's cavalry would be put in immediate pursuit
and that by the hurry and prolonged march that it would
be compelled to make in pursuit of the elusive Stuart, it
would be so broken down as to be unfitted for service for
the period of at least a month, a condition that would com-
pel McClellan to remain quietly in his camps until his
army could be rested for further action.
He accordingly directed General Stuart to take eight-
een hundred picked men, six hundred from each of his
three brigades, to cross the Potomac a few miles west of
WiUiamsport, march into Pennsylvania as his judgement
might direct, gather up as many horses and cattle as he
could, and to do such other damage to the public enemy as
was in his power and return to Virginia.
Stuart on the 9th of October, marched out with his
eighteen hundred men and a battery of four guns, from
Darksville, crossing the Potomac before daybreak, and
started on his expedition before the enemy learned of his
movement. Shortly after he crossed the River a steady
down-pour of rain began which lasted for forty-eight hours
rendering the usual quiet flow of the Potomac turbid and
rapid, filling its channel to the swinmiing point at most of
the ordinary fords. General Stuart issued an address to his
troops before leaving Virginia in which he enjoined upon
them implicit obedience to orders, the strictest order and
sobriety on the march and in bivouac, and informed them
that the success of their expedition demanded at their
hands coolness, decision and bravery. One-third of his
command was ordered to seize horses and other property
of the citizens of the United States subject to legal cap-
ture, and the remainder was held in reserve for any ser-
vice that might be demanded of them. Individual plun-
dering was strictly prohibited. The arrest of public of-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 255
ficers was ordered that they might be held as hostages for
citizens of the Confederacy who had been imprisoned by
the Federal authorities. This movement was not suc-
cessful in its efforts to elude observation, and by an early
hour of the morning on which the River was crossed, the
Federal officers were aware of it and of the direction the
Confederates had taken. As stated above, McClellan\s
Cavalry was on the east flank of his army, distant about
forty miles from the point at which General Stuart entered
Maryland. They were ordered to make a rapid march
from the left to the right flank and reaching the neighbor-
hood of Williamsport they were disposed so as to inter-
cept Stuart's command on its return, as it was confidently
anticipated that he would return by the route taken.
General Stuart reached Chambersburg the evening of the
10th of October in a pitiless rain. Placing his artillery
so as to command the town, it was called upon for an un-
conditional surrender. No resistance was made and the
Confederate troops marched into the town and were drawTi
up on the pubfic square. Colonel McClure, whose home
was on the line of march, some time after wrote for publi-
cation an account of his observation of the conduct of
the men and officers, in which he paid the highest com-
pliment to their conduct, declaring that they behaved
with entire propriety and would not even enter a house
without first asking permission.
General Stuart was confronted now with a very serious
problem. He knew that if he returned by the route by
which he had come he would encounter Federal cavalry.
He had every reason to fear too, that the Potomac River
above WiUiamsport near the foot of the North Mountains
would be past fording. On the other hand if he attempted
to return to Virginia by the other flank of McClellan's
army, that is, east of Berlin, the line of march would be
256 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
lengthened by sixty or more miles. After carefully consid-
ering the entire situation, General Stuart determined to
make the longer march, influenced thereto doubtless by
the supposition that the enemy would be looking for him
on the route by which he had come, and that if they at-
tempted to return to the point from which they had first
marched to intercept him, neither horses nor men would
be in effective condition by the time they reached his line
of march. Leaving Chambersburg at 9 o'clock on the
morning of the 11th, he followed the road to Gettysburg
until he had crossed the Catoctin Mountain. At Cash-
town he turned southward, marched through Fairfield on
the road to Emmitsburg. During all this time his de-
tachments were busily collecting horses until the Maryland
line was reached. There the detachments were called in,
orders were issued to disturb no property belonging to
the people of Maryland, the command was closed up and
the march continued. General Stuart was fortunate in
capturing some of the enemy's couriers with dispatches
indicating what efforts were being made to intercept him,
and thus was enabled to avoid the troops sent out for that
purpose. Passing Hyattstown, he proceeded by way of
Barnesville, which he reached just after the enemy's cav-
alry had vacated it; thence he pushed boldly towards
Poolesville. The enemy had a signal station on Sugarloaf
Mountain from which, as they could perceive the move-
ments of Stuart and his line of march, information was
promptly conveyed to the Federal officers.
After passing Barnesville and going about two miles
in the direction of Poolesville, he bore to the right, taking
a long disused road which conducted him to the public
road leading from the Monocacy to Poolesville, which he
entered about three miles from the mouth of the Monocacy.
When he reached the last named road his command turn-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 257
ed westward until he reached the farm of Mr. Franklin
White. There leaving the public road and taking a pri-
vate road through the farm of Mr. White and his neigh-
bors, he approached White's ford on the Potomac River,
where he found a large body of Federal infantry in posses-
sion of the ford, and the situation appeared desperate.
Determining to try a little bravado, the officer in command
of the advance guard wrote a note to the Federal command-
er, stating that General Stuart with his command, was
nearby, that successful resistance was hopeless, and de-
manding the surrender of the Federal troops. Fifteen
minutes was granted for comphance with the demand.
The fifteen minutes passed without any sign from the enemy
when it was opened upon with artillery and the Confeder-
ate regiments ordered to advance. Instead of receiving
the fire of the enemy, as was confidently expected, they
were seen retreating as rapidly as they could along the
tow-path down the river. The crossing of the Potomac
was soon effected, and General Stuart's command was
again among friends.
The difficulties of this march were inexpressible. The
fatigue of the horses and men, the inclement weather, the
danger of being intercepted by the enemy, the success-
ful moving of the long train of horses that were captured,
and keeping the artillery horses up to their duty, combined
to create difficulties that were almost insurmountable.
The effect upon the enemy's cavalry which had been rapid-
ly hurried from BerUn to WiUiamsport, and then back
from WiUiamsport to Berhn was such as General Lee had
anticipated. The enemy's cavah-y was completely broken
down, and General McClellan was held in his position on
the north bank of the Potomac fully a month longer than
he would otherwise have remained, thus giving to General
258 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Lee's army an additional month for necessary rest and
An amusing story is told by Major McClellan in his
campaign of Stuart's Cavalry of an incident of this ex-
pedition. "On the second day's march some hungry
cavalrymen approached a house whose male defenders
had fled, leaving the women and babies in possession. A
polite request for food was met by the somewhat surly
reply that there was none in the house. Casting a wolfish
glance upon the babies, a lean fellow remarked that he
had never been in the habit of eating human flesh, but
that he was now hungry enough for anything, and that
if he could get nothing else he beheved that he would com-
promise on one of the babies. It is hardly necessary to
say that the mother's heart relented and a bountiful re-
past was soon provided.
"Butler's Advance Guard was completely equipped with
the boots and shoes of a Mercersburg merchant, who had
no suspicion of the character of his liberal customers un-
til payment was tendered in the form of a receipt required
by General Stuart's orders. One old gentleman who was
despoiled of a large sorrel mare which he was driving to a
cart, protested that the impressment of horses had been
forbidden by orders from Washington. He refused to be
convinced that he had fallen into the hands of the rebels,
but threatened the vengeance of the General Govern-
ment upon those who had disregarded its orders."
AFTER the army of General Lee had left the Valley
for Fredericksburg, General Jones with his bri-
gade was ordered to proceed to the neighbor-
hood of Harrisonburg and go into winter quarters, and he
was engaged during the following winter in protecting the
Valley from the depredations of the enemy who were then
in possession of Winchester and the section around it.
In the month of January, 1863, General Jones moved
with his brigade across North Mountain to Moorefield
in Hardy County, where there was a body of the enemy
stationed. The march was a most disagreeable one ; dense
fog, alternating with heavy cold rain and sleet, filled the
mountains throughout the march, which lasted for sev-
eral days. When Moorefield was reached, the enemy
promptly proceeded to re-enforce the troops at that point
and presented a front that caused General Jones to return
to his winter quarters near Harrisonburg without accom-
complishing the purpose for which the journey was made.
He remained quietly in winter quarters until the latter part
of April, when he started on an extended march through
West Virginia, passing through the North Mountain at
Brock's Gap by Moorefield, and thence by way of Green-
land Gap to a point on the Cheat River near the cross-
ing of that stream by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
When the command reached Moorefield it was dis-
covered that the south branch of the Potomac, flushed by
heavy spring rains was beyond fording depth at the ford
260 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
by which the road proceeded directly toward New Creek,
but it was thought that fording might be accompHshed
at Petersburg, a point on the River some miles above,
and about twelve miles south-westward from Moorefield.
The 6th Regiment was accordingly marched by the road
to Petersburg to make a test of the question of its being
forded. When it arrived on the east bank, an uninviting
sight presented itself to the men. The river was very full,
the current exceedingly swift and the ford exceedingly
rough and rocky. It was evident that fording could be
accomplished only with great danger and perhaps with
loss of life. Some citizens living nearby volunteered their
services, and riding boldly out into the stream, took a po-
sition on either side of the fordway so as to indicate the
exact line of the ford. The command then marched into
the river to find that their worst apprehensions of the dan-
ger were more than reahzed. The water was well up on
the saddle skirts and none but the strongest animal could
retain his footing. Several of the men, with their horses,
were swept down the stream, one of them drowned and
the other two narrowly escaped with their lives, being
swept by the current within reach of the trees standing
on the bank, and being fortunate enough to seize the
branches and pull themselves out of the water, they man-
aged to reach the shore. About one-half of the regiment
succeeded in getting over. The remainder were sent down
below to the ford at Old Field, where they swam their
horses across, accompanied by the other regiments of the
brigade. The command then proceeded by a forced
march to Greenland Gap, which it found held by about
one hundred and fifty Federal infantry, who because of
the delay at Moorefield, had heard of our approach and
had prepared for our reception by throwing up breast-
works in the narrow gap and occupying some buildings
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 261
that stood by the side of the Turnpike. General Jones
was without artillery and the enemy had to be attacked
by sharp shooters. A very stubborn resistance was made,
resulting in the kilUng and wounding of one-half dozen or
more of the Confederates and the capture of the enemy,
two or three of whom were killed in the attack.
The night was a peculiarly beautiful one, a full moon
shed its rays upon the mountain and the road by which
the command traveled. The air was crisp and frosty,
the scenery most romantic and beautiful. The shoes of
the horses made music on the turnpike road. All night
long the command pressed briskly westward and by sun-
rise of the next morning, ascended a steep range of moun-
tains bordering Cheat River on the east. The river was
reached about 12 o'clock of that day. A picket of two
mounted men stood at the bridge spanning the river.
Two Confederates mounted on fleet horses were directed
to effect their capture, which was speedily done. The
command was then about three or four miles up stream
from Rowlesburg, where the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad
crossed the river over a bridge with long and very high
trestling. General Jones was of the opinion that the de-
struction of this bridge and trestling would interrupt for
a long period of time the use of the Baltimore & Ohio
Railroad by the Federal Government in the transporta-
tion of troops and supplies, and its destruction was the
main object he had in view in making the expedition. He
carried with him nine kegs of powder to be used in blowing
up the bridge and tresthng. Having captured the picket
as above stated, he at once made his dispositions for at-
tacking the town of Rowlesburg. He was unprovided
with artillery and his command consisted wholly of cavalry.
It was found that from the position at the bridge Rowles-
burg could be reached only by a narrow and exceedingly
262 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
steep mountain road that made its way up the eastern
slope of Cheat Mountain, and over it to Rowlesburg. Ad-
vancing his mounted men along this narrow and steep
road, he discovered that the enemy had barricaded it
by felling a great number of trees across it, and, be-
sides this, had stationed a regiment of infantry at the bar-
ricade to oppose its passage. The command was not pro-
vided with axes to remove the obstacles, nor was it so
armed as to enable it to attack the infantry guard on any-
thing like equal terms. Expecting that General Imboden,
who had in his command some mounted infantry, would
join him at this point on the following day, he withdrew
without pressing an attack, went into camp and awaited
the arrival of General Imboden. In this, however, he was
disappointed. General Imboden was then many miles
distant from him and did not unite his forces with him
for some days thereafter. The result was that on the fol-
lowing morning General Jones abandoned the purpose of
attacking Rowlesburg and the destruction of the bridge
and trestling, and proceeded westward to Morgantown
and thence to Fairmont.
At Morgantown a singular incident occurred. The
Monongahela River at that point was spanned by a sus-
pension bridge, the only support of which, besides the sus-
pension wires, was furnished by its resting on stone piers
on either ban : of the stream. The 6:h regiment was or-
dered to cross the bridge, and when the head of the column
reached the centre of it it inclined downward, thus
shortening the direct line of the structure and it slipped
from its supports at either end and thus became in reality
a suspension bridge hanging in mid air and held up by the
steel cables alone. The movement of the horses soon im-
parted to the bridge a swinging motion which caused them
to stagger and sway from side to side as if they had been
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 2G3
drunk It gave a very ludicrous appearance to them and
was attended by very grave danger, for if the cables or
the wires attaching the bridge to the cables had broken,
the command would have been precipitated to the stream
some fifty or sixty feet below. The column was at once
halted, that portion which had not approached the centre
of the bridge was ordered to return to the bank and the
rest of the command proceeded to the other side of the
river, the bridge maintained its swinging motion and the
horses their staggering steps until they had reached firm
At Fairmont the command encountered opposition from
a home guard that had been hastily assembled and organ-
ized, embracing three hundred men and boys. On the ap-
proach of the Confederates they took position along the
river at a point that they considered inaccessible to cav-
alry, but a bold charge soon dislodged them and they sur-
rendered at discretion. An iron bridge spanning the
river at Fairmont was broken up. This part of the ob-
ject of General Jones' expedition, that is, the destruction
of the bridges and trestling along the Baltimore & Ohio
at such points as they were able to touch, was very ef-
fectually accomplished, except that at Rowlesburg, the
destruction of which would have inflicted much more
serious injury upon the road than of all the other bridges
and trestling put together. From Fairmont, the com-
mand marched toward Clarksburg, but finding it held by
a large force of the enemy, it skirted to the east and south-
ward of that town and moved in the direction of Wirt
County on the Kanawha River. Here were the first
wells bored for oil in the United states, it being a very rich
oil section owned originally by a southern capitalist, but
on the breaking out of the war the northern sympathizers
drove out the owners and took possession of these wells
264 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
and operated them for their own benefit. Punishment
for this outrage was the object of General Jones' expedi-
tion to that section. The superstructure over the wells
and many tanks of oil were quickly ablaze, flat boats
loaded with oil and moored in the river were fired. The
tanks and the barrels of oil on the boats quickly exploded
under the effect of the heat of the fire, and the oil spread
upon the surface of the river for a distance probably of a
mile, and this catching fire, there was presented the very
remarkable spectacle of a river on fire. This occurred at
night and the whole region was lit up by the lurid flames
of the burning oil.
From this point General Jones turned his face again
toward the Valley, reaching it and going into his old camp
near Harrisonburg the latter part of May or first of
June. As the command approached the Shenandoah
Valley the rumor reached it of the death of Stonewall
Jackson, the first intimation it had had of that sad event.
Although it came in the shape of a rumor not fully con-
firmed, the men spoke of it with bated breath and in awe-
The expedition of General Jones had covered the period
of a month or more. Its purpose, as above indicated, be-
ing to do as much harm as possible to the Baltimore &
Ohio Railroad, to gather and bring into the Confed-
erate lines as many beef, cattle and horses as could be
secured, and last, but not least, to impress the Federal
authorities with the necessity of placing military com-
mands at various points in the State to protect that re-
gion from a repetition of such visits as had been paid it
by General Jones' brigade, thus weakening their force at
other points where contact with the Confederate armies
The command had been but a few days in its old quar-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 265
ters near Harrisonburg, when it was summoned to re-join
General Stuart at Brandy Station, near Culpeper Court
House, and at once took up its march for that destination.
On the 8th day of June, a grand review was held in the
neighborhood of Brandy Station, of all of the cavalry
attached to General Lee's army. General Lee was present
in person and took part in the review. It was said that
eight thousand cavalrymen were in the procession.
General Lee was then preparing to move his army north-
ward from Culpeper Court House on his Pennsylvania
campaign, and with the view of shielding his army from
the view of the enemy and preventing his getting any in-
formation of the direction in which he was moving he de-
termined upon a reconnoissance in force by his cavalry
on the north side of the Rappahannock River, his cavalry
to be so disposed as to effectually cloak the infantry and
artillery. After the review spoken of above, and with the
purpose of beginning the crossing of the Rappahannock,
early on the morning of the 9th, he disposed his cavalry
as follows: General Hampton's brigade was placed about
two miles south of Brandy Station in the direction of
Stevensburg; William F. H. Lee's brigade was stationed
in front of Wellford's Ford, or in a position from which
it could move across and take part in the reconnoissance
of the following morning; Beverly Robertson's brigade of
North Carolina cavalry was posted on the plateau north
of Fleet Wood Hill, charged with the duty of picketing
Kelly's Ford; WiUiam E. Jones' brigade was stationed
four and a half miles east of Brandy Station near St.
James church in front of Beverly's ford, and was charged
with the duty of picketting there. General Stuart's head-
quarters the night of the 8th were on Fleet Wood Hill,
one-half mile east of Brandy Station. St. James church
stood about two hundred and fifty yards to the westward
266 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
of the road leading to Beverly's Ford, and near this church
all of the brigade of General Jones went into bivouac the
night of the 8th, except the 6th regiment. On the east
side of the Beverly's Ford road, and nearly opposite St.
James church, stood the Gee house, surrounded by a grove
of oaks and crowning a slight eminence. In this grove
the 6th Regiment bivouaced. The artillery was camped
in front of Jones' brigade near the edge of a body of timber.
St. James church stood about two miles south-westward
from the river at Beverly Ford. Extending from the
church a distance of a half mile was an open field. North-
eastward from the edge of the field a body of timber, per-
haps a mile in depth, extended towards the river and to
the hills overlooking the river bottom. The horses of
the men, after they went into bivouac on the night of the
8th were turned loose to graze, as were the horses of the
battery camped in the edge of the field near the woods
spoken of above. Company A, of the 6th Regiment, was
detailed to do picket duty at Beverly's Ford. General
Stuart was wholly unconscious of a purpose then enter-
tained by General Pleasanton, commanding the cavalry of
the Federal army, to make on the early morning of the 9th
a reconnoissance towards Culpeper Court House for the
purpose of ascertaining the situation, position and, as well
as he could, the purpose of General Lee and his army.
Thus the two commanding officers of the two bodies of
cavalry each had in mind to cross to the opposite side of
the Rappahannock River on the morning of the 9th. Each
was unaware of the position and purpose of the other.
General Pleasanton had massed his cavalry on the northern
bank of the Rappahannock. At early daybreak of the
morning of June 9th, he suddenly threw the 2nd and 3rd
Cavalry Division and General Russell's Brigade of in-
fantry across the Rappahannock River at Kelly's Ford,
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 267
Beveral miles below Beverly's Ford, which ford as stated
above was under the guardianship and care of General
Robertson. At the same time his 1st Division of Cavalry
and General Aimes' Brigade of infantry, all under the
command of Brigadier General Buford, suddenly, a little
before daybreak, began the fording of the Rappahannock
at Beverly's Ford, moving with great precipitation and
spirit. It there encountered the company of the 6th,
Company A, of Loudoun County, on picket duty at that
point. The enemy soon pressed back this Company and
reached the southern bank of the river. From that point
the road, a narrow one, led through the hills overlooking
the river, and thence on by way of St. James church to
Brandy Station. The narrowness of the road and the
timber land spoken of above, afforded Captain Gibson, of
Company A, the opportunity to put up a very spirited de-
fense, which he did, with the result of greatly impeding
and delaying the movements of General Buford 's Cavalry.
Realizing at a glance the seriousness of the situation, he
dispatched a messenger to Major Flournoy, commanding
the 6th Cavalry, to inform him of what was transpiring.
This messenger found the men asleep, and their horses
as stated above, scattered in the fields grazing. The order
was at once given to the men to mount their bourses as
quickly as possible, and without waiting to fall into line
of battle or column, to move as rapidly as they could
to the aid of Captain Gibson. About one hundred men
of the 6th promptly succeeding in catching their horses.
Some mounted without saddles, some without coats or
hats. Everything was hurry and scurry to dash to the
assistance of Captain Gibson. This body of men moving
in some confusion, when they had penetrated about two-
thirds of the distance of the woodland, encountered Cap-
tain Gibson's men retreating rapidly before the enemy,
268 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
who were pursuing as fast as they could. This un-or-
ganized crowd of the 6th made a bold dash at the enemy
and succeeded in checking his advance. In the mean-
while notice was promptly sent to General Stuart of the
situation at his bivouac on Fleet Wood Hill, two miles
in the rear. William F. H. Lee's brigade was hurried
from Wellford's Ford down the river so as to assail Bu-
ford's command in flank. Robertson was dispatched
with his entire command to guard Kelly's Ford. Hamp-
ton was recalled from his position on the Stevensburg road
to the assistance of General Jones at St. James church.
It should have been stated that Fitz Lee's brigade on the
evening of the 8th had been sent up the Rappahannock
river some miles in order that he might interpose his men
between any cavalry of the enemy that might move up
in that direction, and the column of General Lee then oc-
cupying the road on its march toward the Valley.
Buford, while somewhat delayed by the onslaught of
the men of the 6th above mentioned, soon forced them
back into the field south of the woods. A few men tarried
in the woods to observe the enemy's movements, among
them Lieut. R. O. Allen, of the Clarke Cavalry, whose at-
tention was attracted to Col. B. F. Davis, of the 8th New
York Cavalry, that day in command of the brigade, who
was seated on his horse in the road with his back to Lieu-
tenant Allen, waiving his sword as though to encourage
his men to advance. Lieutenant Allen had shot from his
pistol all but one load. Seeing the position of Colonel
Davis in front of his men, indeed the men themselves were
concealed from his view by a bend in the road, he advanced
upon him without attracting his attention until he was
within a very short distance. Colonel Davis, perceiving
his danger, made a vicious stroke at Lieutenant Allen with
his sword. The Lieutenant was a capital horseman, pes-
n. (). ALLIEN
LIKLTllNAN r, •■(.I.AHKi; CWAI-in'"
(company I), SIXTH VIHdIMA (.A\ AI.HN
He was the eldest of three bmlhers who served in Ih.' Conl.-deri.tf
\rmv two of whom lost their lives in the service (Dnvul II., wh.. was
mortallv wounded at the First Battle of Manassas, and A. S at C han-
cellorsviUe.) These voung men were of patriotic and hghtrng stock,
as their paternal great-grandfather fought in the Kevolul.onary \N ar
and was presented a sword by the House of Burgesses of \ .rgnua.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 209
sessing the skill of an Indian in the management of a horse
and in his seat upon it. Throwing himself quickly on the
side of his horse, the sweep of Davis' sword passed over
him and in an instant Allen fired his remaining shot at
Davis with an aim so true that he fell dead from his horse
and Allen galloped off unharmed. One of the men in the
woods with Lieutenant Allen was Nicholas Moore, of the
Clarke Cavalry, who received a very severe wound from
a pistol shot which caused him to fall forward on his horse
and to loose control of it. He, however, managed to re-
tain his position on his back and was brought off of the
The enemy now pressed forward to the open field that
has been mentioned, lying between St. James church and
the woodland, and there a tremendous struggle occurred,
the Confederate and Federal soldiers being commingled
and fighting at arm's length. This struggle resulted
in the enemy being forced back into the timber and
gave opportunity to the officers commanding the Con-
federate cavalry to get into some formation. General
Stuart was now on the ground and was in position to di-
rect the fight. In the struggle that had occurred in the
field the artillery, especially Chew's battery, contributed
very largely to forcing the enemy to retreat into the tim-
ber. The artillery took an advanced position and poured
shell and cannister and grape shot successfully into the
ranks of the enemy. The enemy, however, was not to be
disposed of by what had occurred. They rallied and made
one or two desperate charges across the field in an effort
to capture the artillery which had taken up a position on
the southern side of it, and not far from St. James church.
They were foiled in this, and about this time William F.
H. Lee's brigade had reached the hills overlooking the road
by which the enemy were moving, and making a vigorous
270 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
flank attack upon them withdrew for the time their at-
tention from the force about St. James church.
The arrival of Lee's brigade on the enemy's flank and
the lull in their attack upon the Confederates at St. James
church was a most fortunate circumstance, for at this mo-
ment a courier dashed up with the starthng intelligence
that the enemy was directly in the rear of the Confederates,
between them and Brandy Station, and about one-half
mile from the latter place, where they occupied Fleet Wood
Hill. At first General Stuart could not credit this infor-
mation, but the sound of artillery from the direction of
Fleet Wood Hill soon dispelled all doubts in his mind.
It turned out that the force of the enemy that had
crossed at Kelly's Ford had succeeded in passing along
the front of General Robertson's brigade, who as stated
above, had been sent to guard that approach. A part had
marched rapidly to Stevensburg and a part direct to
Brandy Station and Fleet Wood Hill. Near Stevensburg
they encountered a part of General Hampton's brigade
where a very sharp engagement ensued, resulting in Hamp-
ton's regiment being forced back. General Stuart had
had his headquarters on Fleet Wood Hill several days,
but on the morning of the 9th, in preparation for his
movement across the Rappahannock, he had had his
headquarters baggage packed, and with his wagons sent
off to Culpeper Court House. But for this it would un-
questionably have fallen into the enemy's hands.
Most fortunately one of Chew's guns that had exhausted
its ammunition in the fighting at St James church had
retired from the field there and gone back to the foot of
Fleet Wood Hill. By good luck a few solid shot and two
or three defective shells were found in the limber of the
gun, and Lieutenant Carter, who had charge of it, prompt-
ly moved his gun to the top of Fleet Wood Hill and opened
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 271
on the approaching column of the enemy. He and his
gunmen were without support, and constituted the only
force of Confederates there at the time. The bold front
shown by Lieutenant Carter impressed the enemy with
the idea that he was supported by a body of Confederate
Cavalry, and caused him to halt to make his dispositions
This was the situation reported to Gen. Stuart at St.
James church as above mentioned. General Buford's being
called off by the threatened attack of William H. F. Lee
on his flank, enabled General Stuart to withdraw his force
by degrees and as rapidly as the situation admitted of to
meet the attack at Fleet Wood Hill. His regiments moved
back at a rapid gallop, which brought them upon the
ground in a very straggling and ill-formed condition, but
the front ranks without waiting to close up dashed at the
enemy, drove them back and recovered the guns of Chew's
battery they had captured, and a general melee ensued in
which the other regiments as they came upon the ground
from St. James church participated. The fight was pro-
longed and severe. In a charge made by the 6th Cav-
alry, Lieutenant Allen, who had wrought such doughty
service down in front of St. James church as above stated,
received a cannister shot through his shoulder which disa-
bled him from further active service in the army. The re-
sult of the fight at Fleet Wood Hill was that the enemy was
driven off, losing one of their own batteries to the Confed-
erates, as well as the one they had captured before the
arrival of the forces from St. James. The fight at the two
points lasted almost throughout the entire day, and is re-
garded as the severest cavalry fight that occurred during
the war between the States. The enemy hastily withdrew
across the Rappahannock River, and on the morning of the
next day General Lee, taking up his march northward with
272 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
his army, General Stuart crossed the river a little higher up
than had been his purpose, but at a point which enabled
him to interpose his cavalry between Lee's army and the
GENERAL LEE marched to the Shenandoah Val-
ley and rested his army for a few days in the
neighborhood of Berryville and Millwood, General
Stuart being charged with the duty of watching the move-
ments of General Hooker's army and guarding the passes
of the Blue Ridge Mountain. He distributed his cavalry
from Upperville to Snickersville, and Aldie, where he was
vigorously attacked by the enemy's cavalry, supported
by two brigades of infantry. This fight continued through
two days and resulted in what may be considered a drawn
battle. While his cavalry was thus engaged, Hooker
was moving his army northward, approaching the Poto-
mac River through the counties of Fairfax and Loudoun.
General Lee crossed the Potomac in the neighborhood of
Shepherdstown and gave directions to General Stuart to
cross with his cavalry on either side of the enemy's army
that in his discretion he thought best. Acting under the
discretion given him, General Stuart concluded to move
around the rear of the enemy's army and pass his cavalry
between it and the City of Washington, the directions re-
ceived by him from General Lee being to join General
Ewell's corps in Pennsylvania, and that he would prob-
ably find him in the neighborhood of York, Pa.
General Stuart left behind to watch the enemy and the
passes through the Blue Ridge Mountain, the brigade of
General Robertson and General Jones, and as this has
more to do with the Clarke Cavalry than the movement
274 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
of other parts of the Southern army, nothing further will
be said with reference to General Stuart's movements.
General Robertson, who was the senior brigadier gen-
eral and in command of his own and General Jones' bri-
gade, was directed to hang upon the enemy's left flank
and rear and as soon as he was satisfied that he was mov-
ing across the Potomac River, to cross the Blue Ridge
Mountain and join General Lee in Maryland or Pennsyl-
vania, as the case might be. Accordingly when Hooker's
army was fully occupied with crossing the river. General
Robertson withdrew the two brigades from the east of the
mountain into the Valley, and marching by Millwood and
Berryville, crossed the Potomac River at Williamsport,
moving thence to Chambersburg and from Chambers-
bugr direct to Gettysburg, where what may be termed the
decisive battle of the war was fought within the next few
Robertson's cavalry was kept upon the right flank of
General Lee's army during the first two days' engagement
at Gettysburg. On the third General Lee informed
Gen. William E. Jones that the enemy's cavalry was
assailing his wagon trains from the direction of Em-
mitsburg, Md., and directed him to proceed rapidly
with his brigade to the defense of the trains. General
Jones at once moved out towards Emmitsburg, and on his
arrival in the neighborhood of the village of Fairfield, Pa.,
encountered the advance of the enemy's cavalry, which
happened to be the 6th Regiment of United States Regu-
lars. The 7th Virginia Cavalry held the advance of
Jones' brigade, and for some reason gave way before the
combined attack of the enemy's mounted men and dis-
mounted sharpshooters, when General Jones made a per-
sonal appeal to the 6th Virginia Cavalry to drive the enemy
from the field. The Clarke Cavalry held, as it usually did,
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 275
a position at the head of the regiment, and acting under
the orders of Major Cabell Flournoy, moved hurriedly
down a lane bounded on either side by a stout, well-built
post and rail fence. The head of the enemy's mounted
column was soon observed moving in the direction of the
6th Virginia, while the enemy's dismounted sharpshooters
from a field on the right of their mounted men received
the 6th Virginia with a hot fire from their carbines. The
6th, with drawn sabers, dashed most gallantly down the
road at the head of the emeny's column, which it broke
by its impact and put to rout. Unfortunately for the en-
emy the led horses of the dismounted men were brought
along the lane in their rear, so that when the mounted men
were forced back and encountered the led horses they
were caught between the Confederates in their rear and
the immovable mass of dismounted horses in their front.
Their escape from the Confederates was thus impeded,
with the result that a great many of them were killed and
wounded. The writer observed in the pursuit that there
was hardly a fence corner along the lane on either side of
it that was not occupied by a dead or wounded Yankee.
Major Starr, who commanded the United States Regu-
lars, was desperately wounded and captured, and the sec-
ond in command was likewise badly wounded, the result
being to destroy for some time the usefulness of the 6th
United States Cavalry.
This victory for the Confederate Cavaby accomplished
the purpose for which they had been sent in the direction
of Emmitsburg, and after the fight they went into bivouac
near the village of Fairfield. On this day had been fought
the last day's fight at Gettysburg, and General Lee di-
rected his wagon trains to draw back toward the Poto-
mac River, he remaining, however, the following day in
line offering to give battle to the enemy if he desired it,
276 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
but the enemy had no stomach for further fighting, and
on the following day General Lee withdrew his army and
moved back to Hagerstown, where he halted for several
days and renewed his offer of battle to the enemy, which
again was declined, and General Lee then moved his army
over the Potomac River into the lower Valley of the Shen-
andoah. The Cavalry was engaged during the halt in
Hagerstown, in numerous encounters with the enemy
on General Lee's front, and finally guarded the rear of
the army when it was making passage of the Potomac
After some days of rest in the Lower Valley, the enemy
having moved in the direction of Warrenton, General
Lee took up his line of march to place himself across the
enemy's front and between him and Richmond, going by
way of Front Royal and Chester's Gap, the cavalry re-
maining behind to guard the approach across the Blue
Ridge Mountain and to protect the rear of the army from
attack, followed on and re-joined the army in Culpeper
During the following months the regiment to which
the Clarke Cavalry was attached, was occupied with
picketting and scouting and performing the ordinary du-
ties of the cavalry branch of an army. General Lee finally
withdrew across the Rapidan River, leaving the cavalry
still northward and north-eastward of Culpeper Court
On the 13th of September, 1863, the enemy's cavalry
made a very determined attack upon the Confederates,
one column attacking the brigade of which the 6th was a
part, at Brandy Station, and the other coming in from the
direction of Rickettsville, where it met and gradually
drove back Wickham's brigade to Culpeper Court House.
There Jones' brigade, having fallen back slowly fighting
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 277
every foot of the way, joined it. A spirited charge was
made by the enemy at Culpeper Court House, and just
south of it, but it was met with equal spirit and courage,
and greater efficiency, and was held in chock until night-
fall, when the Confederates, under orders from General
Lee, fell back to the Rapidan, where they joined the main
body of the army. The enemy's cavalry pressed for-
ward to the Rapidan and displayed themselves in the
fields bordering it on the north. Major Flournoy re-
quested permission to take his regiment, the 6th Cavalry,
over and drive them back and administer punishment to
them for their audacity. Permission being granted, he
moved his regiment over the river, and drawing it up in
squadron formation, made a very gallant and effective
charge upon the enemy, wounding and capturing some of
them and driving the rest of them back into the timber,
when upon orders from General Lee it withdrew across
the Rapidan. This charge was made in sight of General
Lee's army, and of General Lee himself, and won for
Major Flournoy his commission as Lieutenant Colonel
of the Regiment.
There followed this what is known as the Bristoe Cam-
paign in which General Lee moved his army forward with
an effort to repeat the movement made by General Jack-
son in 1862 of getting in the rear of the Federal army,
now commanded by General Meade, and administering
a castigation. The enemy, however, had learned from
experience, and moved so quickly back from its position
on the Rapidan River that the effort was generally speak-
ing a fruitless one, and the army was withdrawn to its old
quarters south of the Rapidan. The cavalry attended
General Lee on this movement and rendered the usual
service of guarding his flanks and cloaking and conceal-
ing the movements as well as could be done.
278 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
After the return of General Lee's army to its old quar-
ters south of the Rapidan, the enemy essayed a forward
movement. Crossing the Rapidan River, it approached
General Lee's position on a little stream known as Mine
Run, which gave the name to this campaign, and it is
from the name of the stream known as the Mine Run Cam-
paign. General Meade moved forward and took a po-
sition in front of General Lee, giving every indication of
a purpose to deliver battle. General Lee anticipating
an attack from the enemy remained in his position until
suddenly the enemy seemed to lose heart and withdrew
across the Rapidan without accomplishing anjrthing by
his forward movement. There can be Uttle doubt that
had General Lee known that Meade's heart would fail
him and that he would not attack, that he. General Lee,
would himself have been the assailant and that a battle
would have occurred at this time south of the Rapidan
The Mine Run campaign closed active operations for
the season. The Clarke Cavalry, with the regiment to
which it was attached, went into winter quarters between
Orange Court House and Barnett's Ford on the Rapi-
dan and was engaged throughout fall and early winter
months in picketting the Rapidan River. About the 1st
of January, owing to the scarcity of food for horses, the
cavalry command was permitted to go to their homes and
remain until their assistance was needed in the spring.
About the 1st of March, 1864, the 6th Regiment was
assembled and went into camp at Ashland, about sixteen
miles north of the City of Richmond. It remained here
for some weeks in great discomfort, when it marched to
the neighborhood of Fredericksburg, where it remained
a few days. From its bivouac there it moved to Spotsyl-
vania Court House, and went into camp and continued
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 279
there until Grant crossed the Rapidan River for his cam-
paign of 1864.
To Fitz Lee's division, of which the Clarke Cavalry-
formed a part, was committed the duty of holding the ex-
treme right of General Lee's army. The campaign opened
early in May of that year, and for three days the command
would move out regularly in the morning, take its position,
fight throughout the day, always holding the enemy in check,
and returning each evening to its place of bivouac. On the
morning of the third day General Grant began his move-
ment by his left flank, endeavoring to interpose his army
between that of General Lee and the city of Richmond.
This movement brought upon the cavalry defending the
right wing of General Lee's army pressure, both by their
cavalry and infantry supported by artillery, before which
it was compelled to give way. The fighting during the
preceding days had been in a body of timber land just
south of which, extending toward Spotsylvania Court
House, was a large body of cleared land, an open unob-
structed field, and when Fitz Lee's division was forced
back from the position it had occupied on General Lee's
right it retired across this body of cleared land, mov-
ing slowly and presenting a front to the enemy's move-
ments. The enemy followed with a large body of infantry,
having withdrawn its cavalry, and moved in battle for-
mation to and across the field in the direction of Fitz
Lee's retiring division. It was estimated that the enemy
brought into the field a force of not less than ten thousand
infantry, which marched in line of battle, and before this
battle line the cavalry slowly retired until it reached a body
of timber on the south side of the cleared land spoken of
above, which extended from the cleared land immediate-
ly to the neighborhood of Spotsylvania Court House.
At this point a dispatch was received from General An-
280 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
derson, commanding the corps of General Longstreet,
stating that he, with Longstreet's corps, was marching
with all possible expedition to the position then occupied
by Fitz Lee's division of cavalry; that it was necessary
that the enemy should be held in check until his arrival,
and that he should not be permitted to occupy the po-
sition then occupied by the cavalry. Captain Breathed
placed his guns in position at the edge of the woods, where,
supported by Lee's division of cavalry, he kept up a con-
tinuous and rapid discharge of shells upon the lines of the
approaching enemy. This fire retarded their movements,
but still there was reason for the gravest apprehension
that they would get possession of Spotsylvania Court
House before the arrival of Longstreet's corps of infantry.
General Lomax, then commanding the brigade to which
the 6th Virginia Cavalry was attached, approached the
position occupied by the Clarke Cavalry and repeated to
the men the contents of the dispatch above referred to
from General Anderson. He said it appeared to be nec-
essary that some diversion should be made to still further
retard the steady advance of the enemy's infantry; that
he had determined to order the Clarke Cavalry to charge
full front on the enemy's lines, and that it was his purpose
to lead them in the charge. He then ordered the company
to detach itself from the regiment and to follow him to a
position in the direction of the enemy from which the
charge could be most effectively made. The company
moved briskly forward a distance of about two hundred
and fifty yards, where in a slight depression in the surface
of the ground, it was drawn up in line of battle for the in-
There was never an occasion when the courage of men
and their readiness to sacrifice their lives for a cause were
more severely tested. It was observed, however, that
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 281
the men took the situation with great cheerfulness and
evinced a readiness to devote their Hves there to the de-
fense of their country. There was not the least sign ap-
parent of uncertainty in the mind of any member of the
company as to what he should and would do. They sat
erect in their saddles with the bridle lines firmly grasped
in their hands, ready to rush upon the enemy at the com-
mand from General Lomax, who sat a few paces in front
of their line. The situation was most tense. The order
to charge was momentarily expected, when suddenly a
shout in the rear announced the arrival of Longstreet's
corps of infantry, and a courier dashed up to General Lo-
max with an order to withdraw the company and resume
its place at the head of the regiment. The order to
countermarch was at once given and the men were march-
ed back and took the position which they had just before
On their arrival the head of Longstreet's corps marched
up and the infantry was rapidly ranged across the front
of the open field and the cavalry withdrew in the direction
of Spotsylvania Court House. It may be safely said that
at no period of the experience of this company in the war
between the states was their courage and patriotism more
severely tried, and it may be further said that there is on
record no instance of men showing a more cheerful readi-
ness to lay down their lives in defense of the cause which
they were seeking to maintain.
On the arrival of the infantry the enemy's advance was
at once arrested and on the field theretofore occupied by
Lee's division of cavalry was constructed the angle in the
light works that General Lee's army was able to provide
for their protection, which became afterwards famous as
the Bloody Angle. The day following information reached
General Stuart that General Sheridan, with a body of cav-
282 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
airy and artillery, numbering from twelve to fourteen
thousand men, had moved out from near Fredericksburg
on what is known as the Old Telegraph Road, and was
marching in the direction of Richmond. Between Sheri-
dan's corps and Richmond there were no Confederate
troops, and his movement was a very serious menace to
the safety of the capital of the Confederacy. General
Stuart, on receiving this information, started in pursuit
of Sheridan with Lomax's, Wickham's and Gordon's bri-
gades of cavalry, numbering not in excess of five thousand
men. The rear of Sheridan's corps was overtaken and
sharply attacked at Jarrald's Mill. Here the enemy left
the Old Telegraph Road and took that to Beaver Dam
Station on the Virginia Central Railroad, where they cap-
tured and burned some Confederate supplies. Here again
they were struck by Stuart's pursuing colunm and a sharp
From this point the enemy marched southward to what
is known as the Old Mountain Road leading from Gordons-
ville to Yellow Tavern, where it unites with the Old Tele-
graph Road about twelve miles north of Richmond. The
movement of Sheridan to the Old Mountain Road left
open to General Stuart an interior line of march to Yellow
Tavern, of which he promptly took advantage and leav-
ing General Gordon to harrass the enemy's rear, he, with
Lomax's and Wickham's brigades, pressed on rapidly to
Hanover Junction, where the men and horses were allowed
an hour and a half for rest. About two o'clock of the
morning of the 11th, the command was again started in
the direction of Yellow Tavern, reaching that point about
11 or 12 o'clock the following day and in advance of Sheri-
dan. The march from Hanover Junction to Yellow Tav-
ern was a very rapid one, the horses over much of the route
passing at a gallop. Near Ashland General Stuart, act-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 283
ing upon information that he received of the enemy's
movements, detached Wickham's brigade which he sent
southward with orders if the enemy were not soon dis-
covered in that direction, to return and follow his march
to Yellow Tavern. General Wickham's brigade was
greatly delayed in the execution of this movement, and
the only command with which General Stuart reached
Yellow^ Tavern was Lomax's brigade.
Shortly after his arrival there sharp cannonading could
be heard in the direction of the Mountain Road, indicat-
ing that General Gordon had overtaken the enemy's rear
and was doing what he could to impede his march and ar-
rest and break up his movements. About 2 o'clock in the
afternoon the head of Sheridan's corps appeared in view
from Yellow Tavern. The size of the command there
with General Stuart w^as much too small to admit of his
planting himself across Sheridan's front, so he withdrew
from the point of intersection of the Old Mountain and
the Old Telegraph Roads about a mile and a half along
the Telegraph Road northward, where he dismounted the
entire command, except the Clarke Cavalry. The dis-
mounted men were placed in the cuts made b}- the road
and in ditches that the farmers had made in connection
with their fences. Of the Clarke Cavalry there were pres-
ent about forty men ; twenty of these were dispatched un-
der command of Lieutenant Shumate to report to General
Winder, in command of the city of Richmond, and to keep
him advised of the movements of the enemy's column be-
tween Yellow Tavern and that city. The remainder of
the cavalry were deployed on horseback on an elevated
piece of ground in rear of the dismounted men, the object
being to make as large a display of force as was possible.
General Sheridan dismounted his command and formed
it in three lines of battle which were advanced to the at-
284 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
tack on Lomax's brigade, numbering in all not over eight
hundred men. Here a most spirited fight was waged and
the enemy, notwithstanding the disparity of forces, was
held in check until nearly or quite five o'clock in the after-
noon, when by a spirited charge the Confederare line was
driven from its position and retired behind the sparse line
of mounted men above mentioned. During this engage-
ment the Baltimore Light Artillery had been posted on
the extreme right of the Confederate line and had rendered
most efficient service in holding the enemy in check. When
the dismounted men gave way General Custer, with his
brigade mounted, advanced to charge this battery. At
this time a courier rode up from General Lomax with the
statement that the eighteen or twenty mounted men of
the Clarke Cavalry were the only mounted Confederates
on the field with which to meet Custer's charge. The men
were directed to ride as rapidly as they could around to
the right until they reached the Old Telegraph road and
then to charge immediately down the road until they
struck the head of the enemy's column, charging up the
road. It took but a few minutes for them to reach the
Telegraph Road, but before they did so, along their way
they met General Lomax, who with great earnestness ap-
pealed to the men to do what was in their power to save
the Baltimore Light Artillery from capture, as it was being
hard pressed by Custer. Reaching the Old Telegraph
Road, the men at once turned to the left and dashed down
it in the direction of the approaching enemy. About one
hundred and fifty yards from the point where they reached
the telegraph road they passed Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, who
was seated on his horse a few yards to the west of the road
and facing it. When the men appeared he waved his sword
and cheered them. About two hundred yards beyond
the point where General Stuart was passed, the men met
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 285
two guns of the battery coming out at full speed. They
opened to the right and left to permit them to pass and
then resumed their charge. A short distance behind tlie
battery the enemy appeared in sight coming at a charge.
The dust raised by the retreating battery and the shadow
cast by the trees which lined the road tended greatly to
obscure the fewness of the Confederates, while the narrow
road enabled them to occupy it from side to side and pre-
sent as broad a front as that of the enemy. Like an arrow
from a cross bow they struck the head of the enemy's col-
umn, stopped it, turned it about and tumbled it down
the hill up which it was riding and across a stream that
flowed at the bottom of it. In the meantime the enemy
had gathered in the timberland on both sides of the road
and greeted the Confederates with a rifle fire as they pur-
sued the fleeing cavalry. Two guns of the Baltimore
Light Artillery had been captured, one with a broken axle
and the other because it could not limber up in time to get
out of the enemy's way, but the two remaining guns es-
caped owing to the bold dash made by the remnant of
the Clarke Cavalry that made the charge. These were
compelled, of course, to retire after their first dash, but
they charged and re-charged as the enemy attempted to
mount the hill and held it in check until the arrival of a
mounted squadron of the 1st Regiment which then took
up the fight, and the enemy was enabled to get a very
short distance beyond the point where its charge was first
arrested by that of the Clarke Cavalry.
In the meanwhile General Stuart had imprudently left
the position mentioned above and ridden in the direction
of the enemy, when a Yankee who had been dismounted
and who was running through the woods to escape to his
friends, saw him and fired at him \nth his pistol, givmg
him a wound from which he died the following day.
286 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
The loss of General Stuart was second only to that of
General Jackson, as it was not possible to replace him.
After the enemy was halted, as above described, it with-
drew back toward Yellow Tavern and thence marched to-
ward Richmond until it reached what is locally known as
the Lafayette Road, which cut the road to Richmond at
right angles, and which is said to have been originally made
by General Lafayette when he marched from a point on the
James River above Richmond to Yorktown to take part
in the capture of Cornwallis. Turning to the left the
enemy took this road in the direction of the white house
on the Pamunky river. After marching in that direction
for twenty-four hours it suddenly turned to the right and
moved to the James at Harrison's Landing. Throughout
this march it was greatly harrassed and annoyed by at-
tacks from the Confederate cavalry under the command
of General Hampton, who on the death of General Stuart
succeeded to the command of the cavalry attached to the
army of Northern Virginia.
The 6th Virginia Cavalry remained below Richmond
for the next thirty days. Early in the month of June
General Hunter, who was then commanding the Federal
forces in the Valley, was directed to move up the Valley,
to cross the Blue Ridge Mountains, seize Charlottesville,
do as much damage to the railroads there as he could, and
then to march across country to join Grant below Rich-
mond. To aid him in making this march General Sheri-
dan with two divisions of cavalry was detached by Gen-
eral Grant and directed to make a wide detour to avoid
the detection of his movement and its arrest by the Con-
federate Cavalry, and to endeavor to unite with Hunter
in the neighborhood of Charlottesville, from which point
he was to aid him in his march to Grant's army. General
Lee was promptly advised of this movement and dis-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 287
patched General Hampton with his own and Fitz Lee's
division to intercept Sheridan and prevent his mooting
with Hunter. General Hampton had the inside road and
marching rapidly reached Trevillian Station on the Vir-
ginia Central Railroad ten or fifteen miles east of Clorrlons-
ville, and there bivouaced on the night of the 10th. Fitz
Lee's division following, spent the same night at Louisa
Court House, six or eight miles distant and to the east.
On this day, the 10th of June, Sheridan crossed North
Anna River. General Hampton's purpose was to unite
Fitz Lee's division with his own and thus combined to de-
liver battle to Sheridan on the following day, and to this
end he directed General Lee to march by a road that led
from Louisa Court House to Clayton's store, just north
of which Sheridan had gone into camp; with his own di-
vision he marched from his position near Trevillian by a
road which, gradually converging with the road General
Lee was ordered to march by, united with it at Cla>1:on's
Store. This proved to be an unfortunate movement.
The two columns of Confederate cavalry were moving on
lines which started at a distance of six or eight miles from
each other and gradually converged as above stated, un-
til they met at the store above mentioned. Before this
movement could be fully executed, and before the two
moving Confederate columns had gotten near to the point
of destination, Clayton's store, Sheridan sent General
Custer with his brigade by a route which passed his, Cus-
ter's column, between the two columns of Confederate
cavalry and enabled him to take a position near Trevil-
lian Station from which he attacked the rear guard and
baggage wagons of Hampton's division. As soon as in-
formation of this was obtained by General Hampton, both
his own and Fitz Lee's division were so directed as to
catch Custer between them, and General Rosser was or-
288 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
dered to attack Custer from the west. Custer escaped
the trap thus set for him, although he had to abandon
what he had captured from Hampton and a number of
caissons of his own artillery. Sheridan, with the balance
of his command, moved toward Trevillian where there
was heavy fighting which lasted during parts of the 12th
and 13th of June. During the progress of this fighting
a battery of the enemy well posted on a hill caused much
annoyance to the brigade of General Lomax, of Fitz Lee's
division, as it marched from the direction of Louisa Court
House upon Trevillian Station, and General Lomax or-
dered the squadron, composed of the Clarke Cavalry and
a small remnant of Company H of the Regiment, to de-
tach itself from his line, to march, moving as quietly as
it could, through the timberland intervening between him
and the troublesome battery and when in proper position
to charge and if possible capture it. Captain Joseph
McK. Kennerly, of the Clarke Cavalry, commanding the
squadron, moved as directed for some distance through
timberland which concealed from the enemy his approach,
until he reached the edge of the field in which the battery
was posted and three or four hundred yards from the guns.
There a difficulty presented itself that was most discour-
aging. A piece of swamp land, it was found, separated
the timber land from the soHd ground of the field mention-
ed above, which was only passable by men riding in single
file. Captain Kennerly led his men across this swamp and
formed them in fine on the side next to the enemy's bat-
tery, which in the meanwhile had turned its fire upon him
and his men, directing Lieutenant Duncan, commanding
Company H, to follow, form his men likewise and then
take up the charge, he ordered his fine to charge upon the
battery. A more gallant charge was never made by
soldiers. The men of the Clarke Cavalry present num-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 289
bered twenty-eight or nine. They chushed upon tho f^uns,
cutting down the gunners, and then seeing a regiment of
dismounted men, the support of the battery, lying on the
ground in rear of it, they pressed forward against it, routed
it and put it in retreat, but here an unexpected trouble
arose. A regiment of mounted men which had not been
before visible, and which were posted to the riglit of the
battery, came down at full charge on the small handful
of Confederates, scattering them, their organization l>e-
ing already broken by the charge they had made, and
swept them back, recovering the guns. This charge was
most fatal to the men of the Clarke Cavalry in killed and
wounded, and in wounded horses; but few of them got off
unhurt or with horses unhurt. Many were left upon the
field, some to die and some too badly wounded to be re-
moved. What remained of the Clarke Cavalry re-joined
the Regiment and took part at the subsequent attack on
Sheridan, who was finally driven from the field and the
purpose of his movement broken up. Sheridan in his
report of this fight states that he pressed Hampton's
Cavalry until he reached a line of infantry in rifle pits
when he thought it prudent to retire. In point of fact
no infantry took part in the fight, and no organization
of Confederate infantry was nearer General Hampton's
force than twenty or thirty miles.
From the Trevillian fight Sheridan retreated precipi-
tately, re-crossing the North Anna River and marching
as far eastward as the White House on tiie Pamunky,
closely pursued by Hampton and his cavalry. Sherichm
crossed the Pamunky and took a position on the right
flank of Grant's army. Hampton followed and for the
ensuing weeks there was frequent contact between him
and the enemy in which he inflicted upon it much loss and
damage. Sheridan finally moved across the James River
290 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
and took position on the left flank of Grant's army, and
about the latter part of June, Hampton followed with his
cavalry and took position on the right of General Lee's
army. About the time this movement was made by
Hampton, General Wilson of the Federal army, with a
division of cavalry, marched down into Southern
Virginia, destroying much private property and doing some
damage to the railroads. One object on the part of
General Hampton in moving to the south side was to
intercept Wilson on his return from his raid. This he
succeeded in doing at Ream's Station, where about the
1st of July he encountered Wilson returning, his men
loaded down with plunder and eagerly anxious to get un-
der shelter of Grant's army. A fight ensued in which
Wilson's division was very badly used up, a large number
of prisoners, about eight hundred, were captured and the
field was strewn with articles of female apparel, jewelry
and every kind of valuable that could be found in the
houses of the people that had been raided by the enemy on
their excursion into the interior of the State.
Early in the month of August the brigade, embracing
the 6th Virginia Cavalry then commanded by Gen. Wm.
H. Payne, was ordered to the Valley to join Early, who at
that time had retired from his march to the neighborhood
of Washington City. General Payne joined General
Early in the neighborhood of Winchester and his brigade
took an active part in the marching and countermarch-
ing adopted by General Early to deceive the enemy and
in the many cavalry engagements that occurred at the
time. The battle of Winchester was fought on the 19th
of September, 1864, the 6th Regiment participating in
the fight. This battle was disastrous to General Early,
his right flank being turned by the enemy's cavalry, and
he was forced to retreat, which he did as far as New Market
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 291
where he halted his army. A large part of Sheridan's
army consisted of a body of well-mounted and well-equip-
ped cavalry armed with repeating rifles. The Confeder-
ates cavalry had had an exceedingly arduous campaign.
Begining with the fighting in the Wilderness early in May,
it had been fighting and marching tliroughout the entire
summer and when Payne's brigade reached the Valley,
both men and horses were thoroughly exhausted and in
no plight to encounter the enemy's cavalry. In the bat-
tle of Winchester, Gen. Fitz Lee was wounded and General
Rosser, who had remained with General Lee's army, was
ordered to move with his brigade first to Culpeper Court
House, where General Anderson was posted with a body
of infantry, and shortly after to the Valley where he took
conamand of the cavalry attached to General Early's
army. On the 19th of October, General Early made his
attack upon Sheridan's army at Cedar Creek, just north
of Strasburg, marching by night, moving by concealed
roads, he took the enemy completely by surprise and
Sheridan's army was panic stricken and fled. In a flank
movement along the base of the Massanutten Mountain
the Clarke Cavalry had the lead and had the distinction
of being the first of the Confederate troops to ride into
the enemy's camp and to spread terror in their ranks.
One corps of Sheridan's arm}^ occupying a position on his
right, preserved its organization intact, and falling back
near Middletown made a stand, re-enforced by as many
of the fugitives from the fighting in the early part of the
day as he could gather to his standard. General Early
attacked Wright's corps, but his army was very much
scattered, the men were nearly starved and the temptation
to stop in the abandoned camp of the enemy to supply
themselves with food and clothing was too great for them,
and yielding to it General Eariy found his line very much
292 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
decimated when he undertook to drive Wright from his
position at Middletown. He failed in the attack and the
enemy moving forward with great spirit, having a large
mass of cavalry on its right, put Early to rout, capturing
many of his men and much of his artillery and wagon
train. General Early retreated to New Market, and
Rosser massed the cavalry on his left on what is known as
the Middle and Back Roads. The Valley had been thor-
oughly swept and garnished of all supplies for man and
beast, and it was found impossible to supply either men
or horses with food at New Market, and General Early
withdrew to Staunton, a position on the Virginia Central
Railroad, where suppHes could reach him. This exposed
the Valley northward of Staunton to the advance of the
enemy's cavalry, which moved up to Harrisonburg and
out to the southwest as far as Dayton and Bridgewater.
Here it engaged in a systematic plan of destruction by
fire of dwellings, barns, mills, hay and grain stacks, so
that the country presented the appearance of a general
conflagration for many miles. While engaged in this
work, Rosser moved down and attacked them, driving
them back, killing a great many, but no prisoners were
taken. The men, highly incensed by the sight of the
burning dwellings, barns, etc., and of the women and
children who had been rendered homeless, showed no
quarter. They drove the enemy beyond Harrisonburg
and on down the Valley, General Early moving his small
body of infantry in support of the cavalry. Rosser's men
were rendered reckless in their courage by the scenes they
had witnessed and often pressed the enemy to the point
of imprudence and suffered punishment in consequence.
A fight that occurred on the Back Road in the month of
November resulted in the defeat of Rosser and the cap-
ture of some of his artillery. He then withdrew his com-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 293
mand to the neighborhood of Timberville in Rockingham
County. The need of suppHes for the men caused Gen-
eral Rosser to turn attention to the counties lying west-
ward of the Valley, where there still remained large num-
bers of cattle and horses and on the 26th of November he
moved with his command through Brock's Gap and on
the 27th reached Moorefield.
At New Creek Station, now Keyser, a point on the Bal-
timore & Ohio Railroad about twenty miles southwest
of Cumberland, the enemy maintained a force of infantry
and cavalry numbering from twelve to fifteen hundred.
It had constructed two forts on elevations near the Sta-
tion, one of which was equipped with heavy artillery and
the other with a battery of field guns. Here was kept
a large quantity of supplies for use by the force at that
point and for the raiding bodies of cavalry which were
sent out from that point into Hardy and other counties
lying southward. When General Rosser started on his
march to Moorefield and westward of it, he thought of
the possibility of attacking and capturing the forces at
New Creek, together with the supplies stored there. He
knew very well that if this was to be accomplished it wiis
to be done by surprising the enemy. Just below Moore-
field, a few miles, the advance of Rosser's command en-
countered a body of Federal cavalry on a raiding expe-
dition. In order to conceal if possible the fact that he
was present with his cavalry command, he sent Captain
McNiell, who commanded a company of rangers enlisted
in the neighborhood of Moorefield, to attack the enemy,
at the same time sending one or two squadrons of men
taken from either his own or Paj-ne's brigade, to get in
rear of the enemy. McNiell moved forward promptly,
attacked the enemy with great spirit and dash, captured
a large number of them and put the rest to flight. This
294 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
was done before the flanking party mentioned above was
able to reach a post in the enemy's rear, the result being
that such of the enemy as were not killed or captured by
McNiell, turned in a headlong run which did not termi-
nate until they reached New Creek. This situation pre-
sented a dilema. It was fair to presume that all chance
was now lost of springing a surprise on the enemy at New
Creek Station, as they had undoubtedly been warned by
the fleeing raiding party of the approach of the Confed-
erate forces, and this in point of fact was done. Another
circumstance had occurred in the meanwhile of which
Rosser had no information, namely, another raiding party
had been started on an expedition toward Moorefield,
which learned of the presence of Rosser's force below Moor-
field and returned in full retreat to the point from which
they had come, but in their anxiety to escape Rosser's men
they abandoned the main roads and took a circuitous route
through the mountains, thus delaying their return to New
Creek until the night of the following day. General Rosser
concluded to move on toward New Creek and let events de-
termine whether he should attack the enemy in his strong-
hold or not. Proceeding down the main road from Moore-
field toward Romney until he reached a point a few miles
south of Burlington, where a road branching off from the
road Rosser was traveling led in the direction of New
Creek, he moved his command by a secluded mountain
road until he reached a point within six miles of New
Creek Station. Here the very grave question was de-
bated as to whether or not the attack should be attempt-
ed. General Payne, who was always keen for a fight,
gave his voice for the attack, and whatever hesitation Gen-
eral Rosser may have felt was overcome and it was de-
termined to move promptly on the enemy and try the
fortunes of war with him. Rosser's conmiand reached
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 295
the road leading; from Petersburg to New Creek Station,
about four miles from the latter point. A small stream
which gave the name to the station meandered along a
bold line of hills to the right of the road, which, from the
point at which it was entered, ran as straight almost as
an arrow into New Creek Station. One of the enemy's
forts occupied a hill immediately to the left of the road as
the Confederate troops faced the enemy. Another fort
occupied a point nearer the railroad and to the right of
the public road. Moving down this road from the post
occupied by the Confederate column, everything seemed
to be perfectly quiet, there being nothing to indicate that
the enemy was aware of Rosser's presence. About two
miles in the direction of New Creek Station was the enemy's
picket. People living in houses along the road who were
known to be of strong Union sympathies, looked \Nath
complacency and entirely without alarm upon the ad-
vance guard of Rosser's men, having no idea that they
were not Federal troops. This increased the belief that
his arrival was not anticipated by the enemy. Twenty
men were selected, all wearing the blue overcoat of the
Federal uniform. These were sent a short distance m
advance of the column with directions to make no out-
ward demonstration, but to ride up on the picket as if
they were friends and capture them without firing a shot.
The 6th Regiment, headed by the Clarke Cavalry, followed
at a short distance behind this group. As the men moved
down the road some Federal soldiers were met who were
permitted to pass the group in blue coats, which they did,
assuming that they were their own men, until they rode
into the column dressed in gray a short distance behind,
where they were captured and sent to the rear. As the
cobimn moved down the road and approached New Creek,
it was made more and more apparent that the enemy was
296 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
resting with a sense of entire security and without sus-
picion of what awaited them. A Federal wagon train was
returning to New Creek by a road that paralled the road
on which the Confederates were traveUing, and about
two hundred and fifty yards distant, but they too, were
obviously ignorant of the character of the force that was
there in full sight.
These wagon men, when the column had reached a point
within two or three hundred yards of the enemy's fort on
the left, suddenly woke up to the fact that the men on
the turnpike road were Confederates and it was very
amusing to see their frantic actions and efforts to hurry
their teams into a gallop to escape to New Creek Station.
Having reached a point within two or three hundred yards
of the fort, the 6th Regiment was ordered to diverge from
the road and to charge directly up the steep hill on which
the fort was located and to capture it. The cannon pro-
truded from the embankment and the sentinels could be
seen on their beats as they marched up and down within
the fort, but without hesitation the 6th Regiment spurred
their horses to the greatest speed that in their condition
they could attain, dashed up the hill, entered the fort and
in a few minutes hauled down the United States flag that
was floating from a staff within its limits. The 8th Regi-
ment that followed immediately behind the 6th, was di-
rected to pursue the road toward New Creek Station un-
til it reached the point where the road that passed the fort
in that quarter left the road by which it was travelling,
and to take that road and if possible to seize the fort there.
This was gallantly done, the fort was captured and a
battery of field artillery that was posted within it was
secured. By this time the men constituting the garrison
at this point who had been in their tents just in the rear
of the fort attacked by the 6th Cavalry, were seen tumbling
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 297
out of their tents and hurrying with all possible speed to-
ward the Potomac River, which flowed about tliroo hun-
dred 3'ards north of the Station. The 6th Regiment , now
re-enforced by the rest of the command, except the 8th,
set off in full pursuit and soon overhauled the greater
number of them. The colonel in command escaped with
twenty-five or thirty men into the mountains beyond the
river. The victory here was a notable one. Rosser had
scarcely more than eight hundred men with him, he had
surprised and captured a post garrisoned by at least one
thousand infantry , protected by two forts well supplied with
artillery. There was also captured here a large amount of
supplies of all kinds gathered there for the men of the post
and other forces of Federal troops engaged in raiding into
the country to the southward. The prisoners were hasti-
ly gathered together, horses were put to the field artillery
and it was carried off. The heavy guns in the other fort
were spiked and Rosser, after remaining until night fall
at the Station, took up his march leisurely back to his camp
near Timberville, taking with him the booty and prisoners
that represented the results of the expedition.
This was one of the most successful of the many ex-
peditions of this kind made by the Confederate Cavalry
during the war.
Returning to the Valley of Virginia a large part of
Rosser's cavalry was furloughed in order that the men
might go to their homes and take care of their horses, and
recruit themselves for the campaign of the approaching
spring. A part of the command, including the Clarke
Cavalry, was moved up to a point on the Virginia Central
Railroad about eight miles west of Staunton, known as
Swope's Depot, where the men went into bivouac, and re-
joiced to feel that although their supply of rations was
most scanty, and they were ragged and ill-shod, that their
298 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
horses were utterly broken down and without sufficient
food, they might count upon a period of rest from their
labors. It was the purpose of the enemy, however, to
permit no such indulgence.
About the 17th or 18th of December, an expedition left
Winchester that had for its object the seizure of Char-
lotesville and the destruction of the railroads at that point.
One body, and the larger of the two, moved by way of
Front Royal, crossing the Blue Ridge at Chester's Gap,
and thence by direct road toward Charlottesville. The
other moved up the Valley with the view of either occu-
pying the attention of Early's small command there or
else to cross by one of the Gaps of the Blue Ridge and join
the other force at Charlottesville. General Rosser was
promptly advised of this movement and moving about
three hundred men down the Valley, learned that the
enemy had reached a point known as Lacey's Spring on the
Valley Turnpike, where he had gone into camp for the
night. It was utterly idle to suppose that any impres-
sion could be made upon so strong a force as the enemy
had by an attack by daylight, and so it was determined
to make a night attack upon the enemy while he slept.
Accordingly General Payne, with his small body of men,
moved to the westward of Lacey's Spring and approach-
ing the enemy's camp, as indicated by his fires, when
within charging distance, charged among their tents with
loud hurrahs, firing their pistols into the tents and at
every man who showed himself. This created a perfect
pandemonium. The enemy, aroused from his sleep, be-
wildered by the noise, frightened by the cracking of the
pistols and the carbines, wildly dashed out of their tents
in full retreat. This attack could be made, however, at
but one point, the enemy's camp extended along the turn-
pike for a considerable distance and while the Confed-
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 299
crates were driving pell moll the enemy from one part (jf
the camp, in the farther part the enemy mounted, formed
in rank and prepared to deliver battle. For this the Con-
federates were in no wise prepared, and having captured
a good many prisoners and arms and horses, they quietly
withdrew and the next morning the enemy began his re-
treat down the Valley and General Payne marched leis-
urely back to Swope's Depot to his old quarters. Arriv-
ed here, news came of the movement of the enemy , spoken
of above, that had crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains at
Chester Gap, and which was by this time pressing on
towards Charlottesville. At Charlottesville a large body
of artillery had been quartered for the winter. It was whol-
ly unprotected by infantry or cavalry, and its first inti-
natiom of the danger to which they were exposed was on
hearing that the enemy were within a short distance of
them. The Confederate artillery was well accustomed to
fighting without support. The guns were hiistily run
out upon the hills, placed in position and shotted, and when
the enemy came within reach of their fire a furious can-
nonade was opened upon him. This reception was evi-
dently unlooked for, and doubtless produced in the minds
of the enemy the impression that a body of Confederate
infantry or cavalry was there to protect so formidable an
array of artillery as showed itself upon the hills, so that,
after some light skirmishing with the artillery, the whole
body turned upon its heels and retired to Winchester,
the point from which they had started.
In the meantime, Payne's brigade, learning of the ex-
posed condition of the artillery at Charlottesville, was
hurried by way of Staunton and Waynesborough across
the Blue Ridge Mountain at Swift Run Gap, and had
reached a point about twelve or fifteen miles from Char-
300 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
lottesville, when it learned of the enemy's retreat and re-
turned to its old camp at Swope's Depot.
In the month of January, with the view of obtaining
supplies for the horses and men, General Payne moved
his brigade to a point in Rockbridge County , about ten
miles southeast from Lexington, and went into quarters
there. General Rosser, who was always on the lookout
for something striking to do, had learned that a body of
the enemy was occupying Beverly, in Pocahontas county,
on the banks of Tygert's Valley River, and he conceived
the idea that he might repeat the experience he had had
at New Creek by marching across the mountains and at-
tacking this post. The horses and men were in such con-
dition, however, that he was unwiUing to make the move-
ment without the entire consent of the men. He accord-
ingly called for three hundred volunteers to go on the ex-
pedition. He soon found he had more volunteers than
he wanted, and selecting from them three hundred of the
best mounted, he started upon an expedition that had not
its parallel in the experiences of the men of either army
during the war between the States, in the matter of hard-
ships to which the men were subjected. The weather was
bitterly cold, the roads, at best difficult and rough and ex-
ceedingly hilly, were covered with ice. At points the
snow had collected in deep drifts and the cold was so in-
tense that scarcely a man who went upon the expedition
escaped being badly frost bitten, some even losing their
limbs from the effect of the cold. The horses' shoes had
not been roughed for such an expedition, and so they
slipped on the ice-caked roads, often falling and struggling
to regain their feet. Under these circumstances this body
of men proceeded with such expedition as it could until
it reached a point within striking distance of Beverly.
A halt was made until the shades of night had gathered,
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 301
and then moving by an obscure mountain road which con-
ducted the command to a point to the west of the enemy's
encampment, so as to cut off retreat, the men were dis-
mounted and formed in hne. Many of them were so stiff
with cold that they had to be taken from their horses,
their pistols removed from the holster and placed with
the cock drawn in their hands. The enemy numbered
from eight hundred to a thousand, and the night was dark.
Moving in thin line the men pushed forward to the log
huts which constituted the enemy's \\anter quarters, and
announced their arrival by seizing the interior guard,
bursting open the doors of the huts and rushing in among
the sleeping and now terrified enemy. In the darkness
some of the enemy escaped, but five hundred and eighty
prisoners were captured and brought away by the Con-
federates. The captured supplies were burned, and by
daybreak the command was ready to take up the return-
ing march to its encampment in Rockbridge County.
The Confederate casualties were two; Colonel Cooke was
wounded in the leg and lost his Umb. Private Fontaine
Hite, of Frederick County, Va., who had enlisted in the
Clarke Cavalry, and who had lost his horse, learning that
there was a probable opportunity of remounting himself
if he accompanied the expedition, did so afoot, walking
the entire distance. Going to the door of one of the hute
occupied by the sleeping enemy, he kicked it open and
walked in. A soldier, realizing that an attack was made
upon the encampment, seized his pistol and firing at Hite
gave him a wound from which he died in a few hours.
It is much to be doubted if this movement was a wise
one. The condition of the men and their horses when
they got back from it was such as to unfit them for ser-
vice for a very long time.
On the 7th day of February, 1865, Payne's brigade
302 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
broke up its camp in Rockbridge County and marching
down the James River reached Richmond and took a post
a few miles east of the city on what is known as the Nine
Miles Road. Here they remained until Sheridan, who had
succeeded in driving General Early from the Valley, cap-
turing many of his men, had approached the north bank
of the James River in Nelson County, with the evident
purpose of crossing to the south side and destroying the
high bridge on the line of the South Side Railroad. The
Cavalry camped about Richmond, including the 6th Vir-
ginia Regiment, was hurried across the James to this
bridge near Farmville to meet the enemy, but Sheridan
found the James River greatly swollen from the winter
rains, and the citizens living in the neighborhood of the
point at which he proposed to cross it, prudently burned
all the bridges so that he found himself unable to continue
his march toward the high bridge. Turning to the left he
marched down the river until he reached a point some
miles west of Richmond, then struck across the country
leaving Richmond to his right, crossed the Pamunky
River and proceeded along its north bank to the White
House, pursued by the cavalry, which when it found that
he had abandoned his purpose to cross the James, had re-
crossed it at Richmond and followed in his track.
There was little further fighting on the part of the cav-
alry until Grant began his movement to turn General
Lee's right flank and to get into his rear, when it was or-
dered to cross the James and take a position on the right
of the infantry line to meet the enemy. The beginning
of the end had now approached. On the retreat from
Petersburg the cavalry was in almost daily contact with
the enemy, fighting and marching. At Five Forks, about
the 1st of April, it engaged in a very heavy battle with
Sheridan's cavalry in which the enemy was driven from the
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 303
field. In this fight William Moore and Treadwell Smith
were killed, and Daniel Morgan received a wound which
caused his death in the course of a few weeks. The sur-
render of General Lee's army on the 9th of April, did not
include the cavalry, which was given an opportunity, or
took the opportunity to march away and detach itself
from the army before the surrender occurred. Many of
the men attempted to reach General Johnson's army in
North Carolina, others, realizing that the end of the war
had come, turned their faces homeward, and so ended
their career as soldiers of the Confederacy.
No attempt has been made in the foregoing narrative
to describe the life of the men in camp and on the march,
or the peculiarity of temperament and disposition of the
men of the Clarke Cavalry; nor has it been attempted to
speak of their individual daring and exploits. This
would make interesting reading, but is foreign to the pur-
pose of this article and would swell its volume far beyond
the purpose for which it is prepared.
COUNTY MEN IN VARIOUS COMMANDS
A LARGE number of men from the county joined
companies from other counties. Some were in
the different departments of the army as Quar-
termaster Commissaries, Doctors, Staff Officers and in
command of companies from other counties. We have
endeavored to get the names and records of all facts ; no
doubt some may be overlooked. We have appealed
through the county paper for help in this direction and
have not received it. If any are omitted, it will not be
for want of effort on our part. Each record will be as
full as our information will warrant, of every individual
as to his line of service and his record in the service.
Lieutenant Col. Fielding H. Calmes, of the 23rd Vir-
ginia Cavalry, enhsted at the beginning of the war in the
Clarke Cavalry, Co. D., 6th Virginia Cavalry. He was
detailed as a scout and while engaged in this duty he
formed a company of cavalry, which was placed in the
23rd Virginia Cavalry, commanded by Col. Chas. T.
O'Ferrall. As Captain of his Company he was very ac-
tive, efficient and gallant. In General Imboden's at-
tack on a force of U. S. troops in Charlestown, who were
posted in part, in the Court House, he was badly wounded.
The attack w^as successful and a large number of prison-
ers captured. Upon his return to his regiment after he
had recovered from his wound, he was promoted to Major
and later in February, 1865, was made Lieut. Col. In
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 305
April, 1864, Major Calmes, with ninety-seven men, at-
tacked a force of 200 in Winchester and drove them pell-
mell through the streets of the town and takinp their com-
mander and thirty-two prisoners. He was taken prisoner
later and confined at Camp Chase, Ohio. There were
doubtless Clarke men in Major Calmes' Company, but
I am unable to get their names.
Dr. Wm. M. Page, Assistant Surgeon U. S. Navy. In
the fall of 1861 returned to the South and joined Captain
Marshall's Company of cavalry. Was later made Surgeon
in Confederate Navy.
Beverly Randolph, killed at Greenwood Depot, Alber-
marle County, March 2nd, 1865.
Major John Esten Cooke served on staff of Gen. J. E.
B. Stuart and on staff of General Pendleton. Was also
inspector of artillery. He achieved distinction as an au-
thor of historical novels and his ''Virginia" is very fine.
Dr. A. C. Randolph. Surgeon of Cavalry Division.
Dr. R. P. Page, enlisted as private in Nelson Rifles,
was made Surgeon of Mahone's Division.
Capt. T. P. Pendleton, Quartermaster Col. McDonald's
Dr. Randolph Kownslar, Surgeon in hospital at Char-
Dr. S. S. Neill, surgeon in hospital at Charlottesville.
Dr. Bushrod Taylor, Surgeon of Division.
Major Jno. Morgan, Quartermaster in Tennessee army.
Robt. P. Morgan, Quartermaster in Tennessee army.
Capt. Benj. Morgan, Quartermaster in Tennessee army.
Capt. A. J. Thompson, Co. B, 52nd Infantry. Wounded
R. Powel Page, Rockbridge Battery, and served on staff
of Col. Tom Carter, Chief of Artillery under Gen. Early.
Robert Burwell, promoted from Co. C, 2nd Va. Inf., to
306 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Lieut. Horse Artillery. Mortally wounded Aug. 1st, 1863,
died Aug. 21st, 1863.
W. T. Wharton, transferred from Co. C, as Sergeant
to Horse artillery.
Col. Thos. H. Carter, a native of Clarke County, a grad-
uate of the V. M. Institute, also a graduate of medicine,
when the war broke out was living in King William county,
where he raised a company of Artillery and was madeCapt.
Then Major, Lieut. Col., and Col, and commanded the
artillery of General Early's army of the Valley in the Fall
of 1864. Wounded at the battle of Winchester, Sept.
Capt. Wm. P. Carter was living in Miss, when the war
broke out but came back to Virginia and was made
Orderly Sergeant of the King William Artillery, then 1st
Lieut., then Captain. Was desperately wounded at the
Battle of Seven Pines, and captured at Spotsylvania
Court House, May 12th, 1864, and remained in prison
until after the war, then farmed in this his native county.
Died in Washington city, Nov. 20th, 1913, aged 77.
Wm. B. Page, son of Judge Jno. E. Page, joined the
army in Sept., 1864. Died of typhoid fever in November,
Geo. H. Burwell was first in Co. C; then the Horse Ar-
tillery, in 1864. Was made Lieut, in the regular army,
after the war, went to Mexico and joined Maximilliam's
Arm}^, was made Captain of Artillery and killed Sept.,
1866, aged 19 years and 6 months.
Major Beverley Randolph was in the old Navy and
Mexican war. Was on Gen. Jos. E. Johnson's staff until
Gen'l Johnson was wounded at Seven Pines, then on Gen'l
Whiting's staff, then made Ordinance officer, and assign-
ed to the Staunton, Va., Post.
N. B. Cooke, promoted to Lieut, of Artillery from Co.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 307
C, 2nd Va. Inf. Very badly wounded Sept. 26th, 1864.
W. T. Kerfoot, wounded near Gettysburg, while courier
for Gen. W. E. Jones.
Judson G. Kerfoot, Co. B.
James F. Kerfoot, joined Co. C, 2nd Va. Inf., promoted
to Capt. of Scouts.
John B. Glover, Co. K, 2nd Kentucky Inf.
W. H. Carter, Co. I, 23rd Va. cavalry.
Jim WiUingham, Co. B, 2nd Va. Inf.
E. A. Colston, Co. D, 2nd Va. Cavalry.
W. A. Castleman, Jr., 17th Va. Inf. Killed Sharpsburg.
Henry Briggs, Warrenton Rifles, 8th Va.
Geo. H. Wright, Co. A, 19th Va. Inf.
Lieut. A. Marshall Monroe, Co. F, 2nd Va. Inf. wound-
ed and prisoner.
Frank WiUingham, Co. F, 2nd Va.
John Stipe, 5th Va. Inf.
Richard K. Meade, Co. F, 2nd Va. Lost his arm at
1st Manassas, was made Lieut, on Gen. Jackson's staff.
Was inspector of cavalry later.
Col. Richard H. Lee, Co. G, 2nd Va. Inf. Wounded
at Kernstown, made Lieut. Col. on General Court Martial ;
Judge of County Court after the war.
Col. O. R. Funston, Col. of 11th Va. Cav.
Lieut. O. R. Funston, Adj. 11th Va. Cav.
Col. J. R. C. Lewis, in command heavy artillery on
James river below Richmond. Resigned from U. S. Navy
to come south.
Major P. H. Powers, Commissary department.
Major Jno. D. Richardson, Quartermaster 7th Va.
Dr. John P. Smith, Surgeon in the Army and Hospitals.
Col. C. D. Bruce, raised a Battery of Artillery, but
was later transferred to Infantry.
308 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Major Edward McCormick, in Quartermaster De-
partment, Lynchburg, Va.
H. L. D. Lewis, on Gen. Maury's staff, at Mobile, Ala.
C. L. Deahl, in artillery Co. from Alexandria.
Dr. Chas. A. McCormick, Surgeon in army of Tennessee.
COMPANY K, 11th VIRGINIA CAVALRY
Geo. Chapel Jos. Green
H. C. Drish James Dishman
Geo. Grimes Geo. Smallwood
James Grimes G. W. Furr
Jas. Moore A. L. Lloyd
Jos. B. Moore Jno. L. Longerbeam
J. T. Murphy Wm. Tomblin
Moses B. Murphy Snowden Tomblin
Wm. Pyles Isaiah Writt
Alfred Shell Frank Willingham
Jno. T. Shafer David Wood
Henry Stickles Geo. Thompson
Wm. Thompson Geo. Lanham
James Tomlin James Wiley
brook's battery — POGUE's — BATTALION OF ARTILLERY
C. M. Louthan, prisoner for long time.
Geo. N. Barnett, wounded at Chancellorsville and died.
John Edward Barnett, Quartermaster Sergt. Pogue's
7tH VIRGINIA CAVALRY FROM CLARKE
Geo. Diffenderfer Richard Marlow
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 309
N H Carpenter Jno. Carpenter
11th VIRGINIA CAVALRY
Capt. Jno. R. Pendleton Lieut. Edmond Pendleton,
killed at Jack's Shop,
Warner T. Gray fall of 1863.
Jas. Van Meter D. C. Snyder
Isaac Van Meter. Philip P. Pendleton
John Hughes Henry Catlett
H. Clay Grigsby Tazewell Grigsby
12th va. cavalry
D. Mason Hough John H. Shewbridge
CO. E, 12tH VIRGINIA
M. A. Boyd Alfred Marshall
CO. I, 12th VIRGINIA
Buckner Ashby ~ Lewis Ashby
Russell Ashby Abner Ferguson
J. Ship Mitchel
35th BATTALION OF CAVALRY
CAPT. JNO. F. TRAYHERN
John Dove Joseph Dove
Edwin Drish, killed at Leesburg, July, 1864.
Jno. 0. Crown, a native of Maryland, but coming to
310 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Clarke at the close of the war, we feel that he is one of us.
Magnus S. Thompson, wounded near Berr5rsdlle, No-
vember 1st, 1864.
Maitland Taylor, wounded and died May 5th, 1864,
12tH VIRGINIA CAVALRY
Jas. W. Whittington Harrison A. Way
Edward Bonham Chas. R. Hardesty
Capt. Jno. Ford, wounded at Jack's Shop and Pools-
Sergt. Thos. N. Eddy, wounded at Berr3rsrille.
Jno. F. Bell Harry Bell
John Bell Morgan Copenhaver
Jno. T. Colston, wounded at Ream's Station.
Chas. Carter, wounded at Wilson's Raid.
Benj. Diffenderfer Newton Everhart
Jackson Everhart Thos. Everhart
Chas. A. Jones, wounded in Wilderness.
Newton Patterson Henry Patterson
W. E. Reed Lewis Shrout
David Shrout George Shrout
J. N. Shepherd, badly wounded at Brandy Station,
John P. Yowell, badly wounded at Kernstown.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Lieut. Jno. S. Russell J. R. Castleman
Geo. Copenhaver Harvey Woods
Howard Kerfoot Z. T. Sowers
Washington Dearmont Robert Elsea
John R. Ashby ^- Edgar Dishman
Dr. Richard Sowers
Mathew Royston, Co. C, 2nd Va., then to cavalry.
LEE'S BODYGUARD— 39th VA. BATTALION CAV.
Vernon Lee Ludwell Lee
Wm. Morris Josiah McDonald
Jacob Wilhngham Wm. Green, 1st Sergt.
Jas. W. Dennj^ on detached service at Gen. Lee's head-
quarters. After the war moved to Baltimore and was
elected to Congress.
6th VIRGINIA CAVALRY
D. McC. Knight
H. T. Wiley
312 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Geo. Marlow Chas. Balthis
Jas. Sowers R. E. Beavers
Everard Fowler Geo. Thompson
JE. B. STUART camp of Confederate Veterans
was organized August 12th, 1891, with Col. S.
J. C. Moore as Commander.
The Camp was organized for the purpose of gathering
and preserving local history connected with the war, per-
sonal experiences of the members and any incidents of
historical value connected with the lives of the soldiers
or citizens of the county at that time; also to aid any Con-
federate who might be needy, and in any way possible
perpetuate the memory of the men and the events of the
years from 1861 to 1865. In carrying out this work they
have aided the survivors of the Clarke Cavalry, an or-
ganization of the county, to put up a handsome monu-
ment on the Court House Square. This work was first
undertaken by the Clarke Cavalry survivors and carried
forward by them alone until the Camp was organized,
when their efforts were united. Very material aid was
given, also by the Stonewall Chapter of Daughters of the
Confederacy. The monument was unveiled on the 21st
day of July, 1900.
The monument has upon it the following inscription
and also the names of those who lost their lives during
314 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
TO THE MEMORY OF
THE SONS OF CLARKE
who gave their lives in defense of the
Rights of the States
and of Constitutional Government
Fortune denied them success
But they achieved
2nd Virginia Inf., Stonewall Brigade
LIEUT. COL. W. W. RANDOLPH
SERGT. MAJ. N. BURWELL
CAPT. R. C. RANDOLPH
Lieut. D. Keeler Lieut. L. T. Grubbs
W. C. Copenhaver J. Debtor
L. Dishman J. M. Grubbs
W. G. Grubbs D. Kerfoot
A. Perkins J. Puller
J. Reardon C. H. Richards
G. W. Whitter B. S. Wilson
P. Grubbs J. Ritter
Lieut. A. S. Allen T. Barr
S. E. Bonham W. Brabham
J. Broy G. Doll
G. Breach C. D. Castleman
J. Davis J. J. Dobbin
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 315
E. M. Ritter
W. C. Shepherd
J. K. Willingham
Co. D, 6th Virginia Regiment, Cavalry
LIEUT. D. H. ALLEN
LIEUT. C. G. SHUMATE
SERGT. W. B. MOORE
P. C. Mitchell
D. C. Morgan
G. H. Shumate
W. M. Hite
W. T. Hammond
T. Smith, Jr.
P. F. Topper
MAJ. H. M. NELSON
SURG. W. HAY
LIEUT. R. P. BURWELL
LIEUT. E. PENDLETON
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
G. N. Barnett
J. T. Keene
W. T. Moreland
W. B. Page
T. G. Russell
J. W. Smith
W. M. Sowers
C. L. Deahl
T. T. Royston
W. M. Shumate
J. W. Ashby
The address was delivered by Hon. James Marshall,
himself an old soldier. The monument was unveiled
by Miss Mary Washington Gold, president of the Stone-
wall Chapter. The J. E. B. Stuart Camp, assisted by
the Stonewall Chapter, entertained the visiting Camps
and all old soldiers and a great many others, providing a
bountiful feast. The large crowd who attended on that
occasion testified to the desire of the people to do honor
to the Confederate Soldier and the cause he represented.
It was a day memorable in the history of Berryville and
The Camp has now on its roll the names of one hundred
and six members. Many of them have answered their
last roll call on earth and have "passed over the river to
rest under the shade of the trees" with their great leaders,
Lee, Jackson and Stuart. A list of the members of the
Camp from its formation is herein given.
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
R. O. Allen
P. F. Affleck
W. E. Ambrose
John H. Anderson
Jno. F. Bell
Chas. H. Brabham
J. Edward Barnett
Rev. Julian Broaddus
W. S. BroT\Ti
Fielding H. Calmes
W. P. Carter
E. A. Colston
Jno. 0. Crown
M. R. P. Castleman
Jno. R. Castleman
S. A. Duling
A. J. Hobson
Jno. M. Jones
Jas. F. Kerfoot
W. E. Kerfoot
Jos. McK. Kennerly
H. L. D. Lewis
J. R. C. Lewis
J. N. Laws
B. F. Lewis
A. G. Lidy
J. W. Lloyd
C. E. Lippitt
David Meade, Sr.
David Meade, Jr.
W. T. Milton
John W. Carpenter
B. R. DifTonderfer
H. P. Deahl
Jas. R. Ellyett
Rev. J. J. Engle
B. F. Foley
W. T. Grey
J. T. Griffith
J. W. Grubbs
Thos. D. Gold
Wm. V. Green
Chas. R. Hardesty
C. W. Hardesty
A. Marshall Monroe
D. B. Morrison
J. E. Murphy
W. C. xMorgan
Jas. F. Moore
Dr. S. S. Neill
R. K. Ogdcn
Dr. R. P. Page
R. Powel Page
G. E. S. Philips
Wm. M. Piphcr
J. M. Pope
Archie C. Pago
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Dr. Cyrus McCormick
Jno. W. McCormick
Wm. N. McDonald
A. Moore, Jr.
S. J. C. Moore
R. K. Meade
John H. Shewbridge
John B. Stannard
Wm. M. Struder
W. C. R. Tapscott
A. J. Thompson
Wm. H. Thompson
J. W. Vorous
Jno. R. White
J. H. Willingham
J. S. Ware
Thos. H. Randolph
W. E. Reed
Geo. C. Ricamore
R. B. Roy
Jno. S. Russell
J. W. Roberts
Jno. C. Rutherford
J. N. Shepherd
Geo. C. Shepherd
John R. Shipe
D. C. Snyder
Chas. H. Smith
Rev. Jos. Thomas
B. F. Thompson
J. D. Wigginton
G. F. WiUingham
Geo. H. Wright
UNITED DAUGHTERS OF THE CONFEDERACY
ON January 16, 1897, a chapter of the United Daugh-
ters of the Confederacy was organized in Berry-
ville. The object of this chapter, as of the or-
ganization of the U. D. C, was and is to collect and pre-
serve material for a truthful history of the war between
the States, to protect historic places in the South and to
aid in any way possible needy Confederates Veterans and
those dependent upon them. The Stonewall Chapter
has been especially interested in gathering and preserv-
ing local history. The Chapter organized by electing
Miss Mary A. Lippitt, president; Miss Kate S. Neill, 1st
Vice-president; Miss Louise D. Hardesty, 2nd Vice-presi-
dent; Miss Mary K. Moore, Secretary and Treasurer.
The Stonewall Chapter from its organization has been
very active in every good work undertaken either by the
J. E. B. Stuart Camp of Veterans or by the Virginia Di-
vision of the U. D. C. It has extended material aid to
veterans in the county who were in need and also to the
widows of veterans. It has furnished a room in the Aged
Confederate Woman's Home, in Richmond, and each year
sends contributions to help to maintain that institution.
At the solicitation of Mrs. A. J. Montague during one
year they sent one hundred and twenty-five dollars
($125.00) to the Home, thus maintaining one of the in-
mates for a year. The Chapter took a very active part
in raising funds for the erection of the Confederate Monu-
320 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
merit standing in the Court House Square, thus aiding the
J. E. B. Stuart Camp most materially. They managed
the great entertainment held on the day of the unveiling
of the monument and did everything in their power to
make the occasion the great success it was. The Chapter
deserved and received the gratitude of the veterans and
the applause of the whole county for their good work on
this occasion. It has helped in putting monuments and
other memorials not only in the State of Virginia, but at
many places in other states of the South. They are es-
pecially interested in helping needy widows, who under
the limitations of the State pension laws, cannot receive
pensions from the State.
Confederate Veterans look with hope and confidence
to the organization of the U. D. C, to take up and carry
on the work of the Camps, when they go out out of exist-
ence, which must be in a few year. The Stonewall Chap-
ter is very much in earnest in all these good works and
the J. E. B. Stuart Camp appreciates most highly their
help in collecting and preserving historical events, in
looking after the histories used in schools and in endeav-
oring to have true histories used by the schools. The
Camp and Chapter both feel that such things have
been neglected too long and that in a great many in-
stances wrong and harmful impressions have been made
upon the minds of the youth of our country by the use
of histories which were unfair to the South and the men
who fought for the Southern cause. A list of the members
of the Stonewall Chapter is appended. In the years to
come many will consider it a high honor to find the name
of a mother or relative on this roll.
The Stonewall Chapter has been active in presenting
crosses of honor to the veterans and such descendants as
were entitled to them. If any veteran or any one entitled
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY .T21
to receive a cross fails to receive one, it will be his own fault,
as the Daughters have earnestly insisted upon all such to
apply. On the occasion of presenting these crosses, the
Chapter has alw\ays succeeded in having a speaker to
entertain and instruct all wlio would come. Thent* oc-
casions have been of much interest and have been well
attended. The speakers have been enabled to i)r(«ent
parts of history to the people often not found in Ixx^ks,
and also to explain the causes of the war in such a way as
to enlighten the people who hear them. These ocrjksions
have been very valuable and helpful in instilling correct
views and in teaching true history.
The Stonewall Chapter has aided the Camp very ma-
terially in its last work of marking the scenes of battles
and engagements in the county. They stand ever ready
to help every good Confederate cause.
ROLL OF STONEWALL CHAPTER, U. D. ( .
BERRYVILLE, CLARKE COUNTY, VIR(;iNIA
Miss Kate B. Neill
Miss Daisy Warden
Miss Mary Washington Gold
Mrs. Nelson Clarke Griffith Wilson
Mrs. E. M. VanDevanter
Mrs. Rebecca L. Green Bryarly
Miss Francis R. Wolfe
Miss Kate Henson
Mrs. Pattie Hardee Page
Mrs. Louisa Dix Hardesty Kerfoot
Mrs. Maria G. Lewis
Mrs. Minnie N. Kerfoot
Mrs. W. S. Allen
Mrs. Lorenzo Lewis
322 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
Miss Hallie Broaddus
Miss Mary A. Lippitt
Miss Mable Barnett
Miss Annie C. Moore
Mrs. A. R.. Brown
Mrs. Nannie P. McCormick
Mrs. Mary N. Crisp
Miss Elvira Daniel Moore
Miss Marie I. Crow
Mrs. Bessie McCormick Whiting
Miss Jennie Pope
Miss Mary Melville Morrison
Mrs. Florence B. Hardesty
Miss Edith Allen Morrison
Miss Jessie Castleman
Mrs. Mary Brewer Moore Miller
Miss Ida Lee Castleman
Miss Lily K. Moore
Miss Bernie Crown
Miss Minnie Lee Ogden
Mrs. Loula Henson Dix
Mrs. Ida Thompson Ramey
Miss Hallie LaRue Dorsey
Miss E. C. Turner
Miss Ada M. Drake
Miss Emily H. Smith
Mrs. Jas. W. Foley
Miss Fleda May Ramey
Miss Kathleen Ferguson
Miss Nannie D. Thomas
Miss Helen M. Ferguson
Miss Agnes Lee Tapscott
Mrs. Laura W. Gold Crawford
Mrs. Lucy Ware Lewis McCormick
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 323
Mrs. Lucy Neville Gold Walter
Mrs. Nannie Moss Whiting
Miss Mary E. White
Mrs. Elizabeth E. G. Walker
Miss Lucy Taylor Mumforcl
Mrs. Ellen Douglas Neill
Mrs. Mary Engle Gaunt
MEMORIES OF PRISON LIFE
DDRESS of Mr. Thomas D. Gold, before the J.
E. B. Stuart Camp.
Fellow Comrades: —
A third of a century has passed since the scenes and
the events occurred in which it is now our highest honor
to know we bore a small part, but the lapse of time, the
care, the trials or successes of life cannot eclipse nor even
dim our recollections of the men, the times, the exper-
iences of those days. One step with memory and we are
seated around the camp-fire with loved comrades; the
story, the joke, the song, the merry laugh, are heard.
We are on the toilsome march. The cannon boom in the
distance, the column steadily pushes onward, the line of
battle is formed, the skirmishers are sent out, the line
advances, the enemy is in sight, muskets roar, with yells
we rush forward, the guns are taken, the enemy is routed,
night falls, we bivouac on the field, the roll is called; our
gallant comrades — where are they? Killed, womided,
missing. It was my misfortune on two occasions to be
missing and to find myself a prisoner. At Kernstown, in
1864, when I saw our lines falling back in confusion, I
thought all would be taken, and decided to save myself
by flank movement, and, of course, was picked up by the
cavalry. With 235 others, I was sent to Baltimore jail,
where we were the recipients of the kindness for which
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 325
good people of that city were famous, and which should
forever bind us to them with hooks of steel. Books to
read and a gold dollar for each prisoner were given us.
We were then sent to Fort Delaware, from which I was
exchanged the following August. The second time I was
taken with 3,500 others in the Bloody Angle at Spottsyl-
vania on that ever memorial 12th of May, 1864, when
Hancock broke our lines. We were kept all that day at
Grant's headquarters, where we could hear the heavy
musketry fire, the heaviest of the war, hoping, as some-
times the roar seemed to come nearer, that the tide of
battle would reach us and free us. The rain which fell
in torrents during the evening and night, we had to stand;
fortunately, we had not yet thrown our blankets away,
and, with Yankee oilcloths taken from out foes, we were
able to keep dry. Nothing was issued to us to eat until
evening of the next day, when we reached Potomac creek
on our way to Point Lookout. On our march we met for
the first time negro troops, w^ho said as we passed them;
"Better put 'em down in dat hollow and open grape and
canister on 'em; dey make mighty good guano." Our
blood boiled; if there had been no white guards to inter-
fere we would have made guano of them.
After landing at Point Lookout and being divided into
companies we soon fell into the life of the prisoner. The
prison was a large enclosure containing forty or fifty acres,
surrounded by a close plank fence 15 feet high, with a par-
apet on the outside for the sentinels to walk on, from which
they could overlook the prison. Ten feet inside was the
"Dead-Line," to cross which was to be shot without warn-
ing. Just outside of the walls was the bay, in which we
were allowed to bathe, or we could remain on the beach
from sunrise to sunset. The prison was laid off in streets
running parallel to each other, into the main street, upon
326 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
which the eating houses were situated, at meals. We were
marched by companies into these houses and got our very
scanty rations — about half a pound of bread, two ounces
of meat, and a pint of soup a day, or ten hard-tack in the
place of bread. We found there, when we arrived, some
friends from our command and others. We were quarter-
ed in large tents mostly, some built houses of cracker
boxes, obtained from the commissary, using the boxes as
weather-boarding and covering with tent flies or oilcloths.
I lived in one with Ed. Bonham, who was there when I
arrived, and some others. They were more comfortable
and not so crowded as the large tents, which had as many
as twenty in them sometimes. Soon after my arrival
there, our comrades, A. Moore, Jr., and Charles H. Smith,
were brought in. With them was Mr. Eugene Davis, a
cultured Christian gentleman, a gallant soldier, a man
whom to know was a privilege, to have as a friend an hon-
or. To me he became such, and I shall forever remember
his kindness to a boy who needed the wise counsel and
good example set by one whose quiet dignity subdued the
rough, and whose pleasant manners and genial conver-
sations charmed all who were brought under his influence.
Twenty-five years after, when nursing my son at Charlotts-
ville, he sought me out and renewed the kindness of former
days by ever5rthing in his power that could comfort and
help me in sore trouble. His patient endurance, without
murmuring of the hardships of prison life, helped many
others. I remember that during the winter at Elmira,
where the thermometer was often 12 or 15 degrees below
zero, that his bed consisted of two oilcloths, a blanket, and
three canteens filled each night with hot water and placed
around him; yet he was invariable cheerful. Soon after
our getting settled we were entertained by the old sol-
diers with stories of the negro guards, and warned to be
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 327
careful not be out after dark, as the patrol which went
about over the grounds would arrest or shoot on very Httlc
provocation, in fact, we could hear shots and whLstUng
bullets at most any time in the night.
A negro sentinel one day had brought in with him his
knapsack filled to the full. He put it on the ground at
one end of his beat. As he paced to and fro an old "Con-
fed" could not stand the temptation to renew acquaintance
with a Yankee knapsack, so when the fellow's back was
turned he picked it up and was soon enjoying its contents.
When the darky saw what had happened he said: "Dah,
dey done got my knapsack, and, 'fore God, Dinah's pic-
ture's in dah." On another occasion one of them on guard
on the street near the eating house, when the street was
crowded with prisoners going and coming from dinner,
fired into them and wounded four men. If a leader had
appeared just then I think we would have broken out, so
great was the indignation among us. Their presence was
an insult, and so intended, no doubt, and very galling to
southern pride. The prisoners had many ways of em-
ployment and amusement. One was a large school, pre-
sided over by a man of education, and attended by several
hundred prisoners. Among them were Mr. A. Moore, Jr.,
and myself. Everything was taught, from Latin and
Greek to A. B. C's. We refreshed our memory of Virgil
and some other Latin writers. In this connection I will
say that at Elmira we had a still larger school, under the
management of Mr. Davis. I was a teacher there and
taught a class of men to read and write, who did not know
their letters. We had a very large school, running way
up in the hundreds. We were allowed for a few hours
each day the use of an eating house. Books were sent
from New York, Baltimore and other cities — old books of
every conceivable kind. Much good was done by these
328 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
schools, especially in keeping the men cheerful under their
privations. At Point Lookout we could bathe when we
chose during the day, which was very conducive to health.
Many were engaged in manufacturing fans, rings, im-
ages made from bone, chains from guttapercha and horse
hair. One man made a steam engine, by which he ran a
turning lathe. They demonstrated that all ingenuity was
not with the Yankees. A great pastime was gambling.
On the beach you could, during the day, find hundreds
of games of faro, keno, lotto, poker, and sweat cloths, at
which you might bet anything you had, money, chews of
tobacco, rations of bread, crackers, anything and every-
thing. I had a comrade in my house who used to fre-
quently steal a start in crackers from an old gentleman who
was with us, and like, the gambler of to-day, he sometimes
got enough to pay back and have several good feeds over,
but often nothing. I tried it myself once. I had only
two hard-tacks and was very hungry, so concluded to
risk them for enough for a good meal. Luck was with me,
and I got a big pile, but was not satisfied until luck turned
and left me without one, and hungrier than ever and mad
because I had not eaten some of them while I played.
The experience was enough, and I quit dice for good.
During the summer an old gentleman from Charles
City County, Va., was brought in, about 70 years old,
taken from his home without warning, with no charge
against him, and leaving a family of several ladies defence-
less. He was kept until the close of the war, and was as-
signed to our house. He was a lawyer by profession, but
had taught a school for boys many years. He determined
that he would not give way, and so by exercise and every
way possible he kept up his health until his release. He
said he had made money all his life, and wanted to make
some there, so that he could say that he had turned every
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 329
occasion to good account. To do it he wrote to his
daughter in Richmond to send him a box of tobacco. The
authorities let it in, he sold it for greenbacks; Imught up
Confederate money, and when he got liome aftf-r the war
had a pile of it. He was a plucky old man, and had faith
in the south. There was another old man brought during
the winter to Elmira from the southern part of Florida,
75 years old, taken with others who attempted to re.sist
a Yankee raid. With clothing insufficient for such a cli-
mate, so different from his own, there could be only one
issue. He was urged by the officer, who brought him to
take the oath and leave the prison. He said that if out,
he could not get home and would die, and if he must die
he wanted to die among his own people. His imprison-
ment was a short one, and he died among his own people.
The name and memory of Mark Elmore, the aged patriot,
will never be forgotten by those who saw and knew him.
In August many of us were removed from the Point to
Elmira, N. Y. The trip was made by water to New York
City, spending about forty-eight hours on the ocean.
The weather was fine and the trip was as pleasant as it
could be to one of 1,100 prisoners. Elmira was situated
in sight of the mountains, and you may be sure that we
Valley people feasted our eyes, even if our stomachs were
starving. The officer in charge — a Major Colt, of New
York — was a very kind hearted man, and did all he could
for us, except feed us, which was what we wanted most.
There were 12,000 prisoners here; and, although in many
respects it was the best prison I was in, the lack of food
and severe climate caused many to die. During the win-
ter there were twenty-five per day taken out and buried.
They lie there today in unmarked graves. How long
shall it be so? Do not these men as much deserve honor
as those who fell on the fields? You, those who have not
330 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
endured imprisonment, can hardly understand the feel-
ings of men who daily saw a large number of their comrades
carried to their graves, and were conscious that their turn
was likely to come at any time; seeing hundreds more,
pale, emaciated, ragged, who were being starved by a slow
but certain process; diseases of all kinds, such as small-pox,
fevers, pneumonia, and etc., thinning us out, it required
the same, or more bravery than the battle-field. Many
prisoners had friends in the North who helped them. The
liberality of those who sympathized with the South was
wonderful, and they never seemed to tire. There was an
order that we could only write to relatives. Immediately,
we all became cousins and nephews to somebody. A lady
would get a letter from her "dear cousin" she caught on
right away, and cousin it was. Those cousins sent us
clothing, good things to eat, wrote kind letters, and cheered
us every way. Some day we ought to build a monument
to our cousins up there. The quarters at Elmira were
large buildings of rough plank, holding 250 men, in charge
of two sergeants from among the prisoners. We were re-
quired to keep them very clean, and to do this a detail
was made each day of fifteen men, three of whom were on
duty at a time from sunrise to tattoo. Breaches of rules
were punished by imprisonment in the guard-house or
in a black hole, by bucking, or confinement in the sweat-
box. This implement of torture must have come down
from the Inquisition. It was made of plank just large
enough for a man to stand erect in with his hands down
and so tight that he could not raise them; he could not
bend his knees. The top, several feet above his head, was
the only place through which air could enter, and this
placed in the sun made confinement for any length of
time intense torture. I remember two young men from
southwest Virginia, who in some way had got enough
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 331
whiskey to p;ot drunk on, and who were puni.shed by buck-
ing and gagging, the sweat-box and black hole, because
they would not divulge the name of the Yankee who fur-
nished the whiskey. An officer struck one of them in the
mouth with a tent-pin, but they held out and told them
they might kill them before they would tell. There were
not a great many instances of cruelty, and some of the
officers were kind when it was in their power to be so.
The hospitals were quiet, good, and well furnished, and
prisoners were detailed as nurses and stewards. Doctors,
who were mostly men employed, not commissioned, were
kind and did what they could to alleviate the sufferings
of the sick.
In all the prisons, the prisoners, by their manufacture
of trinkets, etc., were able to get some money, by which
they carried on a traffic among themselves. At Point
Lookout there were many who kept eating-houses, where
one could get hot biscuits and coffee, molasses, some-
times cabbage, or anything that could be bought from the
sutlers. At Elmira we were not allowed to Iniy so many
things from the sutler. Tobacco was almost the only
article we could buy. It was also an important part of
the currency. The authorities would not let money sent
by friends be paid in monej^ but forced you to get orders
on the sutler. So, to turn it into money, we had to buy
tobacco, trade it for bread, sell the bread for money; with
the money you could buy bread when hungry, or possibly
clothing from some one who had a misfit or more than he
wanted. There were many attempts to escape by tun-
nels, but only one was successful, by which five men got
away. I was ready one night to go out, and two men were
in the hole about to open it, when some oath-taker dis-
covered it and reported us. The two caught w<Te con-
fined in the black hole for a month on bread and water.
332 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
We sometimes had preaching on Sunday, Rev. Thomas
K. Beecher, brother of Henry Ward, a Catholic bishop,
and several others. All but one confined themselves to
the Gospel, one man undertook to tell us of the wickedness
of the rebellion, but had to finish his sermon to the few
Yankees who stood around, as the prisoners all left. In
January there was talk of exchanging the sick, and of
course, all wanted to get into hospitals. I was so fortu-
nate as to be sick enough to get in, and to be sent on the
second load to Richmond. You may imagine with what
joy I got ready, sewing my prison relics in the lining of
my clothes for fear they might be taken, telling good-by
to the man}^ friends, new and old, some met there who had
become dear by pleasant association, congeniality of
thought and feeling, never to be seen or even to be heard
of in this world again. The sad memories of that time
are brightened by thoughts of those who helped to bear
the ills to which we were all subjected. The southern
soldier, in prison, half starved, poorly clad, in a rigorous
climate, in the midst of disease, with death rapidly re-
ducing his numbers, bearing all with patient endurance,
with cheerfulness even, with no incentive but love of
country and of honor, maintained the reputation for
bravery and devotion to duty upheld by men on hard
fought fields, when inspired by the enthusiasm of comrades
and the leadership of loved commanders. May our
memory of the men and the times be kept ever green.
(Note. — Since the above address was delivered, the
National Government has marked all the Confederate
graves at the Federal Prison Camps which could be
positively located from the records.)
HOW A CLARKE MAN, A PRISONER OF THE WAR, ESCAPED
SOLDIER life has many vicissitudes of fortune, in
the Camp, or march, or battlefield. None is
more dreaded by the soldier than capture by the
enemy. The humiliation of giving up to your despised
foe, the trusty saber and pistol or the beloved musket,
and of exultation of the charge, changed in a moment to
shame and despair is overpowering and one feels that death
was preferable. T'was so quickly done, a dozen pistols
at your head or perhaps bayonets at your breast, and you
surrender. You are ordered to the rear with perhaps a
dozen volunteer guards, who are glad of some excuse to
leave the front. At the rear you meet other prisoners
coming in, perhaps some from your own company — which
is comforting — "For misery loves company."
On the 10th of May, 1864, Sheridan made a preat ef-
fort to capture Richmond, while Grant was holding Lee's
attention at Spotsylvania Court House. He was met at
"The Yellow Tavern," near Richmond, and a hotly con-
tested battle was fought. The gallant and beloved C.en.
J. E. B. Stuart was killed there— a loss irreparable to the
Confederacy. During the hottest of the battle the Clarke
Cavalry were ordered to meet the advance of a large
force which was endeavoring to capture a Confederate bat-
tery. They did this most gallantly, repulsing the enemy.
In the melee following the charge, our county m:ui, A.
Moore, Jr., then a boy of sixteen, was captured by the
334 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
enemy. He with Mr. Eugene Davis, a member of the
company, although a citizen of Albemarle County, and
others of the cavalry were marched, on foot, to the ''White
House" on the Pamunkey and from that point sent by
steam boat to Point Lookout, where the U. S. Government
had a large prison camp. Here they met with many whom
they knew belonging to other commands and also some of
their own company. They in common with all others, en-
dured the hardships of the life there until in August, a large
number were selected to be sent to Elmira, New York. Mr.
Moore and Mr. Davis were among the number. They
went by steamboat to Baltimore and at that place were
put on aboard cars of the Northern Central R. R. for El-
mira. Mr. Moore knew that this road passed through the
mountains of Maryland and Pennsylvania and through
the Cumberland Valley. He with five others determined
to attempt to escape. They were traveling in ordinary
box cars, such as are used for carrying grain, etc. They
thought that they could cut a hole in one end, and thus
get on the narrow platform between the cars and by jump-
ing off escape. In order to carry out this plan, on some
pretense a blanket was hung across the car, shielding the
one at work from the observation of the guard at the door.
Mr. Davis, who was a very cultivated and agreeable man,
undertook to entertain the guard and prevent him from
suspecting what was going on. With their knives they
slowly cut the plank away and at a late hour of the night
when they thought they were now in Northern Pennsyl-
vania and in the mountains bordering on the Cumberland
Valley, succeeded in making it large enough to slip through.
Without the formality of good-byes, six of them passed
quietly through and taking their places behind each other
on the bumpers, they sprang one after the other out into
the darkness. Where they would land they knew not
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 335
whether in a cut or on an em})anknu'nt they thoupht only
of the chance for freedom and did not tliink of tlie dangers.
They were seen by some of the guards of the rapidly pass-
ing tram and fired at, but no stop was made, or effort to
recapture them. What was their lil)erty worth to tli<*m
now that they were free? They were in a hostile country.
Part of Pennsylvania and Maryland lay between them and
the Potomac, and as they knew the enemy were in posses-
sion of the Shenandoah Valley. Fortunately Mr. Moore's
knowledge of the country served them here. The moun-
tains on either hand told them that their road was south-
ward between the mountains. Undaunted, they d«»ter-
mined to press on. They found it best to travel by night
and lie hidden during the day in corn fields or woods.
Each night they would get something to eat from the
spring-houses or dairies of the farms on their route. Liv-
ing thus, principally on milk and butter, for they were
afraid to venture to make inquiries or seek food from the
houses, they made their perilous journey. On one oc-
casion two of them went to a farm house seeking to get
some food, as they were tired of tlie milk and butter diet.
There they represented themselves as going to Chaml^ers-
burg, which they had heard had been burned by General
Early, seeking work. The people were willing to sell them
something and gave them desired information as to the
state of affairs, but they were much nonplussed by a young
woman of the house wanting to go with them, a.s she lived
in Chambersburg and wanted to go home. FortunaU^ly,
it was found that her clothing was in the washtub and she
would not go. On one occasion daylight caught them be-
fore they got to a suitable hiding place and they had to
take refuge in a small cornfield ne^ir a village. They
could hear the drums beating as a detachment of troops
was stationed there, enforcing the draft. During the day
336 HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY
a woman from a near by house came into the field to gather
the green corn. Some dogs that she had with her found
something suspicious in the long grass and barked. She,
to satisfy her curiousity, made a search and was much ter-
rified when a tall man in a long linen duster rose out of the
grass and confronted her. She fled rapidly to the house,
and our friends thought that it was all up with them. But
for some reason, probably she and her folks thought that
the man was a citizen hiding from the soldiers who were
enforcing the draft, and having no desire to have a fellow
citizen drafted, they made no alarm. After their long
and dangerous tramp they at last came in sight of the Po-
tomac and Virginia. But the canal had to be crossed and
also the river. While hidden in a corn field near the canal,
Mr. Moore went forward to renonnoiter, hoping to find a
bridge across the canal, as a road crossed it at that point.
Upon approaching cautiously, he found just below him a
picket post of soldiers. Retracing his steps very quietly
and rejoining his friends, they kept hidden until some time
after dark. They then came to the canal at another point,
and were fortunate enough to avoid the sentinels on its
banks and plunging in got across safely. A broad bot-
tom was crossed and the river reached and now came the
rub. Five of the men had been connected with the Con-
federate Marine Service aAd could swim, but Mr. Moore
could not. How was he to get across? They knew noth-
ing of the river or of the bank on the farther side. But
after all the other dangers passed they could not let this
stop them. Two of the men offered to get him across if
he was willing to venture. They struck boldly in, he
having a hand on the shoulder of each one. At last the
Virginia bank is reached and is found to be a high bluff
and no place to land. The swimmers are ahnost exhaust-
ed and our young friend urged them to leave him and save
HISTORY OF CLARKE COUNTY 3.37
themselves, but they tell him to hold on and presently,
swimming down stream, a landing is found and they are
safe on the banks. After a while they were joined by the
others and strike out into the darkness. Many people
in Berkeley county near the river were Union people and
it now behooved them to exercise supreme caution, but
food they must have and information. So at la.st they
determined to make inquiries at a large house looming up
ahead of them. Upon knocking at the door a head is
cautiously put out of a window — "who are you, and what
do you want at this hour of the night?" After much baf-
fling, it was decided to tell who they were — "Escaped Con-
federate prisoners." — "Come right in, the Confederate
pickets are just over the hill and Gen. Early's army is in
Martinsburg." What relief of suspense! What joy to
be again with southern friends and in the lines of a Con-
federate army! Other heads had been at the windows
above and they being withdrawn in a moment the doors
were thrown open and the good ladies proceeded to give
our heroes the first meal that they had tasted since they
had parted with their Yankee guards and their "Hard-
tack". There is very little more to say. In the morn-
ing they went to Martinsburg and there parted never to
meet again. Our young friend, Ammi Moore, going to
his father's home in Clarke and thence to the army. The
others reached their part of the army in safety. One of
them is now living in Richmond, a very old man. Mr.
Moore hears from him occai?ionally and through him of
the others. No doubt there were other t^scapes made,
all of them perilous, but none more so than this made by
a Clarke county man who is known so well to the people
of the county.
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