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Eontoon: FETTER LANE, E.G. 

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From a MS of Petrarch, De viris illitslribits (1379), m tlle Bibliotheque 
Natioiiale, Paris. Reproduced (by permission) from M. Pierre de 
Nolhac's Petrarque et /' ffiitnanisme, 1892 ; ed. i, 1907. 

^Frontispiece to Vol. II. 















A just story of learning, containing the antiquities and originals 
of knowledges and their sects, their inventions, their traditions, their 
diverse administrations and managings, their floiirishings, their 
oppositions, decays, depressions, oblivions, removes, with the caitses 
and occasions of them, and all other events concerning learning, 
throughout the ages of the world, I may truly affirm to be wanting. 

BACON'S Advancement of Learning, 1605, Book n, i 2. 




THE publication of the second and third volumes of the 
present History of Classical Scholarship brings to a close 
a work that was begun on New Year's day in 1900. The first 
volume, extending from the sixth century B.C. to the end of the 
Middle Ages, had only recently appeared, in October, 1903, 
when I had the honour of being invited to deliver the Lane 
lectures at Harvard in the spring of 1905, and the result was 
published in the same year under the title of Harvard Lectures on 
the Revival of Learning. The kindly reception accorded to the 
first volume of the History in the United States of America, as 
well as in England and on the continent of Europe, led to the 
publication of a second edition in October, 1906. 

The volumes now published begin with the Revival of Learning 
and end with the present day. They include a survey of the lives 
and works of the leading scholars from the fourteenth to the 
nineteenth century. Each of the periods embraced in these 
volumes opens with a chronological conspectus of the scholars of 
that period, giving the dates of their births and deaths, and, in 
the last four centuries, grouping them under the nations to which 
they belong. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the 
nations are arranged in the following order, Italy, France, the 
Netherlands, England, and Germany. This order has, however, 
been abandoned in the eighteenth, in which the influence of 
Bentley on Greek scholarship in Holland makes it historically 
necessary to place England immediately before the Netherlands. 
It has also, for still more obvious reasons, been abandoned in the 
nineteenth century in the case of Germany. Hence, in the first 
part of the third volume, the history of the eighteenth century in 
Germany is immediately followed by that of the nineteenth in the 
same country. There is good precedent for treating German 



Switzerland in connexion with Germany, and French Switzerland 
in connexion with France. Spain and Portugal concern us mainly 
in the sixteenth century ; Belgium and Holland are treated 
separately after the establishment of the Belgian kingdom in 
1830. Under the same century, room has been found for a 
retrospect of the history of classical learning in Denmark, Norway 
and Sweden, in Greece and in Russia, and also for a brief notice 
of its recent fortunes in Hungary. The history of the nineteenth 
century in England is immediately followed by that of the United 
States in the last chapter of the work. 

The bibliography prefixed to the second volume indicates 

most of the sources of information used in preparing the second 

and third volumes. It may possibly give the impression that the 

present work has had more precursors than is actually the case. 

At Gottingen, Ernst Curtius attempted in vain to induce Sauppe, 

and, failing him, Dittenberger, to write a general history of 

classical philology. Brief and suggestive outlines of the subject 

have appeared from time to time, but the present is the sole 

attempt to cover the whole ground with any fulness of detail. It 

is only the first century of the Revival of Learning in Italy that 

has been treated in the admirable work of Voigt. Bursian's 

valuable ' History of Classical Philology in Germany ' is almost 

exclusively confined to that country ; a handy volume on classical 

learning in Holland was written by Lucian Miiller ; and a very 

brief sketch of its fortunes in Belgium was buried by Roersch in 

a Belgian encyclopaedia. In the case of all the other countries 

of Europe, and in that of the United States of America, there has 

been no separate history; so that, in the present volumes, the 

work has been done for the first time, not for England alone, but 

also for Italy, France, Scandinavia, Greece and Russia, and for 

the United States, while the history of scholarship in Holland, 

Belgium, and Germany has been studied anew, and has been 

brought down to the present date. The scholars whose lives and 

works are reviewed in the present volumes are almost exclusively 

those who have already passed away. It is only in a very few 

cases, where complete silence would have been unnatural, that 

I have mentioned the names of living scholars, such as Weil and 



In endeavouring to sketch the leading characteristics of a long 
series of representatives of classical studies from the age of 
Petrarch to the present time, I have repeatedly been reminded of 
a custom of the ancient Romans, who placed in the niches of the 
atrium the painted masks of their ancestors and connected their 
portraits by means of the lines of the family tree. Those portraits 
were regarded as the chief adornment of the home, and were 
never removed except on the occasion of a death in the family, 
when each of the masks was assumed by a living representative, 
who was robed in the semblance of the departed, and took his 
place in the funeral procession that ended at the Rostra in the 
Forum. There the ' ancestors ' descended from their chariots, 
and seated themselves in their curule chairs, while the next of kin 
arose and rehearsed the names and deeds of the men enthroned 
around, and finally those of him who had been the last to die 1 . 
To the scholars of the present day these pages present a series of 
their own imagines maiorum, each set apart in his several niche, 
and grouped in order of time and place according to the centuries 
and the nations to which they belong. They pass before us in a 
long procession, and it is the author's privilege to come into the 
mart of the world and to announce the names and the achieve- 
ments of each to all who care to listen. 

Portraits of nearly sixty scholars have been selected for re- 
production in the present volumes. For the original engravings 
or lithographs of seventeen of these 2 I am indebted to Professor 
Gudeman, formerly of Cornell and now of Munich, who generously 
placed the whole of his collection at my disposal. M. Pierre de 
Nolhac has kindly permitted me to copy the portrait of Petrarch 
which forms the frontispiece of his classic work on ' Petrarch and 
Humanism '. M. Henri Omont has readily allowed me to repro- 
duce the portrait of Guarino, first published by himself from a MS 
in England. Mr G. F. Hill, of the British Museum, has supplied 

1 Polybius, vi 53; Pliny, N. If. xxxv 6; Mommsen's History of Koine, 
book III, chap, xiii /////. 

- liurman, Ernesti, Fabricius, Gronovius, Ilemsterhuys, Ileyne, Lachmann, 
Lambimis, Meineke, Montfaucon, K. O. Miiller, Muretus, Niebuhr, Kitsclil, 
Ruhnken, Salmasius, Vossius. The sources, from which these and all the 
other portraits are ultimately derived, are indicated in the List of Illustrations. 


me with the cast of the medallion of Boccaccio. M. Salomon 
Reinach has been good enough to select the engravings of Robert 
Estienne, Casaubon, Du Cange, and Mabillon, photographed on 
my behalf in the National Library of France, and also to facilitate 
the reproduction of the portrait of Boissonade. The Rev. E. S. 
Roberts, Master of Gonville and Caius College, now Vice-Chan- 
cellor of Cambridge, has lent me an excellent photograph of the 
Heidelberg portrait of Janus Gruter. Professor Hartman, now 
Rector of the University of Leyden, has entrusted to me his 
own lithographed copy of the presentation portrait of Cobet. 
Messrs Teubner of Leipzig have readily permitted the reproduc- 
tion of the particular portrait of Boeckh which, his son assured 
me, was, in his judgement, the best. Professor von Wilamowitz- 
Moellendorff, the distinguished son-in-law of Mommsen, has lent 
me an admirable portrait of his father-in-law, drawn by Sir William 
Richmond. Mr John Murray has given me a fine engraving of 
the portrait of Grote, now in his own possession, and has allowed 
me to reprint the copy of that portrait which is prefixed to the 
Life of the historian. Messrs Alinari of Florence have permitted 
the reproduction of Ghirlandaio's group of portraits of Ficino, 
Landino, Politian and Chalcondyles ; photographers in London 
have given similar leave in the case of the portraits of Erasmus 
and of the late Sir Richard Jebb, while Messrs Ryman of Oxford 
have enabled me to include in my list a portrait of Gaisford. 
Lastly, Professor J. R. Wheeler of New York has sent me the 
medallion of the American Sehool at Athens for reproduction 
at the close of the present work. 

Among those who have kindly supplied me with items of 
biographical or bibliographical information I may mention, in 
addition to M. Salomon Reinach, Mr John Gennadios, formerly 
Greek Minister in London ; Professor Zielinski of St Petersburg, 
who prompted his colleague Professor Maleyn to write on my 
behalf a brief memoir on the native scholarship of Russia ; 
Professor Sabbadini of Milan ; Professor Gertz of Copenhagen ; 
Professors Schiick and Wide of Upsala and Dr Bygden, Librarian 
of that University ; Dr V. van der Haeghen, Librarian of Ghent, 
and J. Wits, assistant Librarian of Louvain, who presented me 
with several memoirs of his fellow-countrymen ; Professors J. W. 


White and M. H. Morgan of Harvard, Professor E. G. Sihler of 
New York, Professor Mustard of Baltimore, and the late Professor 
Seymour of Yale ; Mr P. S. Allen, Fellow of Merton College, 
Oxford ; Dr Karl Hermann Breul, of King's College, and 
Mr Giles, Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In the 
transliteration of Russian names, I have followed the advice of 
Professor Bury. My study of the original Danish, Norwegian, 
and Swedish authorities on the lives of Scandinavian scholars has 
been facilitated by Mr Magniisson, of the University Library, 
while, in revising part of my chronological conspectus of editiones 
principeS) I have had the benefit of some suggestions from 
Mr Charles Sayle, M.A., of St John's College. Mr W. F. Smith, 
Fellow of St John's, and translator of Rabelais, has supplied me 
with a notice of that humanist. I have not invited criticisms 
from my friends, but, when Mr Arthur Tilley, Fellow of King's, 
offered to glance at that part of my pages which falls within 
the province of his Literature of the French Renaissance, I gladly 
accepted his offer. The few mistakes in other parts of the work 
that had escaped my notice, and that of the careful readers at 
the University Press, have been recorded in the Corrigenda. 
The INDEX at the end of each volume is not confined to the 
contents of the volume. In the case of the third volume, in 
particular, it includes references to selected portions of the 
general literature of the subject. 


July, 1908. 






INDEX 467 


History of Scholarship in Italy, 1321 1527 .... facing p. \ 

Edit tones Principes of Latin Authors . . . . . .103 

Editiones Principes of Greek Authors ..... 104, 105 

History of Scholarship, 1500 1600 . . . . . . .124 

,, ,, 1600 1700 ....... 278 

,, ,, 17001800 372 


(1) FRANCESCO PETRARCA. From a MS of Petrarch, De viris illustribzts, 
completed in January, 1379, for Francesco of Carrara, Duke of Padua, to 
whom the volume is dedicated (Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 6069 F). 
Reproduced (by permission) from the frontispiece of M. Pierre de Nolhac's 
Petrarque et I' Httmanisme, 1892. See M. de Nolhac's Excursus on the Ico- 
nography of Petrarch, in vol. ii 245 257, ed. 1907 . . Frontispiece 

(2) GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO. From a medallion in the British Museum, 
inscribed IOHES BOCATIVS FLORE(NTINVS). Cp. Alois Heiss, Les Medail- 
leurs de la Renaissance (1891), i 140 ...... 16 

(3) VALERIUS FLACCUS, iv 307317, with colophon and with Poggio's 
signature. Facsimile from Codex Matritensis, x 81, Poggio's autograph copy 
of the MS discovered by him at St Gallen in 1416. From a photograph sup- 
plied by Mr A. C. Clark, Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford . . 24 

(4) GUARINO DA VERONA. Reduced (by permission) from M. Henri 
Omont's Portrait de Guarino de Verone (1905), the frontispiece of which is 
derived from a photograph of the portrait painted in life-size at the end of the 
MS of Guarino's translation of Strabo in the Phillipps library at Cheltenham 


(5) VITTORINO DA FELTRE. From a medallion by Pisanello in the 

duced from the block prepared for the frontispiece to Woodward's Vittorino 
(Cambridge, 1897); cp. G. F. Hill's Pisanello, pi. 54 . . . . 54 

DEMETRIUS CHALCONDYLES. Reproduced (by permission) from part of 
Alinari's photograph of Ghirlandaio's fresco on the south wall of the choir in 
Santa Maria Novella, Florence (cp. p. 64 n. 6) . . . . 58 

(7) ALDUS MANUTIUS. From a contemporary print in the Library of 
San Marco, Venice, reproduced as frontispiece to Didot's Aide Manuce 94 

(8) PIETRO BEMBO. From Bartolozzi's engraving (in the Print Room, 
British Museum) of a portrait by Titian (1539) ..... 106 


(9) ERASMUS (1523). From the portrait by Holbein in the Louvre; 
reproduced (by permission) from a photograph by Messrs Mansell. Cp. p. 132, 
n. i) 114 

(10) VlCTORlUS. From the portrait by Titian, engraved by Ant. Zaballi 
for the Ritratti Toscani, vol. I, no. xxxix (Allegrini, Firenze, 1/66) . 136 

(ri) MURETUS. From Joannes Imperialis, Museum Historicum (Venice, 
1640), p. no 148 

(12) BUDAEUS. From the engraving in Andre Thevet, Portraits et vies 
des homines illnstres (Paris, 1584), p. 551 .164 

(13) CONCLUSION OF THE EPISTOLAE GASPARINI, the first book printed 
in France (1470). From part of \\\e facsimile in the British Museum Guide to 
the King's Library (1901), p. 40 ....... 168 

(14) ROBERT ESTIENNE. From a photograph taken in the Cabinet des 
Estampes, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, from one of Croler's reproductions 
of the original engraving by Leonard Gaultier (copied in Renouard's Anna/es, 

P- 2 4) J 74 

(15) TURNEBUS. From no. 127 of De Leu's Ponrtraictz (c. 1600), in the 
Print Room of the British Museum . . . . . . .185 

(16) DORAT. From no. 108 of De Leu's Potirtraiclz (c. 1600), in the 
Print Room of the British Museum ....... 187 

(17) LAMKINUS. From no. 2 in the first row of the frontispiece to 
Part ii of Adolphus Clarmundus, Vitae darissitiioruiii in re literaria viromm 
(Wittenberg, 1704) 188 

(18) JOSEPH JUSTUS SCALICER. From the frontispiece of the monograph 
by Bernays ; portrait copied from the oil-painting in the Senate-House, 
Leyden ; autograph signature from Appendix ad Cyclomelrica in the Royal 
Library, Berlin ........... 200 

(19) CASAUBON. From a photograph of an engraving in the Cabinet des 
Estampes, Bibliothuque Nationale, Paris ...... 206 

(20) LINACRE. From a drawing in the Cracherode collection, in the 
Print Room of the British Museum. Cp. p. 228 n. 3 . . . .234 

(21) BUCHANAN. From Boissard's Icoius, in iv -22 (Frankfurt, 
1598) 244 

(22) MKLANCHTHON. From a print of Albert Diirer's engraving of 1*26 
in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Cp. p. 266 n. 2 . . . 264 

(23) SALMASIUS. From the engraving by Boulonnois in Bullart's Aca- 
demie (1682), ii 226 .......... 284 

(24) Du CANGE. From a print in the Cabinet des Estampes, Bililio- 
theque Nationale, Paris ......... 288 

(25) MABILLON. P>om an engraving by Simonneau in the Cabinet des 
Estampes, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris ...... 295 

(26) LIPSIUS. From the portrait by Abraham Janssens (1605), engraved 
for Jan van der \Vouwcr by Pierre de Jode. Reduced from the large copy 
in Max Rooses, Christophe Plantin (1882), p. 342 f. Cp. p. 306 and p. 304 
" 7 302 


(27) G. J. VossiUS. From Bloteling's engraving of the portrait by 
Sandrart 308 

(28) MEURSIUS. From the engraving in Meursius, Athenae Batavae 
(1625), p. 191 310 

(29) DANIEL HEINSIUS. From a photograph taken in the Print Room 
of the British Museum from Snyderhuis' engraving of the portrait by 
S. Merck . . . . . . . . . . . .312 

(30) J. F. GRONOVIUS. From an engraving by J. Munnickhuysen 32 r 
(He is represented with 25 unnamed contemporaries in the frontispiece of 

his work De Sestertiis, L. B. 1691.) 

(31) N. HEINSIUS. From the frontispiece of the posthumous edition of 
his Adversaria (1742) ......... 324 

(32) JANUS GRUTER. From a photograph in the possession of the Rev. 
E. S. Roberts, Master of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, taken for 
Dr A. S. Lea from the portrait in the University Library, Heidelberg . 360 

(33) FORCELLINI. From part of the frontispiece to the London edition 
of 1825 377 

(34) MONTFAUCON. From a portrait by ' Paulus Abbas Genbacensis ' 
(1739), engraved by Tardieu fils, and reproduced by Odieuvre in Dreux du 
Radier's L? Europe Illustre (1777), vol. v 386 

(35) RICHARD BENTLEY. From Dean's engraving of the portrait by 
Thornhill (1710) in the Master's Lodge, Trinity College, Cambridge (frontis- 
piece of Monk's Life of Bentley, ed. 2, 1833) ..... 400 

(36) RICHARD PORSON. Reduced from Sharpe's engraving of the por- 
trait by Hoppner in the University Library, Cambridge . . . 426 

(37) PIETER BUR MAN I. From an engraving .... 445 

(38) HEMSTERHUYS. From an engraving by Schellhorn, published by 
Schumann, Zwickau ... .... ... 448 

(39) RUHNKEN. From a portrait by H. Pothoven (1791)' engraved by 
P. H. Jonxis (1792), and lithographed by Oehme and Mtiller (Brunsv. 
1827) . 458 

(40) WYTTENBAC;I. From a photograph of the portrait in the Aula of 
the University of Leyden . . . . . .462 


HiJBNER, E. Bibliographie der klassischen Alterthiimswissenschaft ; 
Grundriss zu Vorlesungen iiber die Gesckichte und Encyklopiidie der klassi- 
schen Philologie, ed. 2, 434 pp. 8vo, Berlin, 1889. 

HALLAM, H. Introduction to the Literature of Europe, in centuries xv, 
xvi, xvii ; chapters ii v in Part I, and chapter i in Parts II, in, IV, 1837-9; 
ed. 4, 8vo, London, 1854. 

WiLAMOWlTZ-MoELi.ENDORFF, ULRICH VON. (i) Gescldchte des Tragi- 
kertextes, in Euripides Herakles, ed. i, i 120 257, 8vo, Berlin, 1889; (2) Gr. 
Unterricht, in Lexis, Reform des hoheren Schulivestns, 163 175, large 8vo, 
Berlin, 1902. 

CARTAUI.T, A. A propos du Corpus Tibullianntn ; un siecle de philologie 
Latine classique, 569 pp. large 8vo, Paris, 1906. 

CREUZER, F. Zur Geschichte der classischen Philologie, brief biographical 
notices, with lists of later names, 238 pp. in Part v, vol. ii, of Deutsche 
Schriften, Frankfurt, 1854. 

FREUND, W. Triennium Philologicum ; Geschichte der Philologie, vol. i 
pp. 20 112, ed. 1874; pp. 22 142, ed. 3, 8vo (with 379 brief biographical 
notices, including no English scholars born since 1794), Leipzig, 1905. 

REINACH, S. Manuel de Philologie Classiqne (1879), vol. i, i 22 ; 
ii i 14 (Objet et Histoire de la Philologie], ed. 2, 8vo, 1883-4; Noi4veau 
Tirage with bibliography of 1884 1906 on pp. ix xxvi, Paris, 1907. 

URLICHS, C. L. Geschichte der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft (1886), 
in I wan Miiller's Haii'lbuch, vol. i 45 145, ed. 2, large 8vo, Miinchen, 1891. 

PEZZI, D. Cenni storico-critici intorno allo studio della grecita, pp. 3 80 
of La Lingua Greca Antica, large 8vo, Torino, 1888. 

GUDEMAN, ALFRED. Grundriss tier Geschichte Jer klassischen Philologie, 
224 pp. ; modern period, pp. 150 219, 8vo, Leipzig and Berlin, 1907. 

KROLL, W. Geschichte der klassischen Philologie, 152 pp. 121110, Leipzig, 

STARK, C. B. Handbuch der Archdologie der Kunst, (i) Systemalik und 
Geschichte, 400 pp. large 8vo, Leipzig, 1880. 

MICHAELIS, A. Die archiiologischen Entdeckungen des xi*. Jahrhun- 
derts, 325 pp. 8vo, Leipzig, 1906. 

S. II, b 


CHABERT. Histoire des etudes d* epi graphic grecque en Europe, Paris, 1907; 
R. DE LA BI.ANCHERE, Histoire de fepigraphie romaine, 63 pp., Paris 1887. 

LARFELD, W. Geschichte der griechischen Epigraphik, in vol. I, A ii, of 
Handbuch, large 8vo, Leipzig, 1908. 

BURSIAN, C. (i) Jahresbericht iiber die Fortschritte der classischen Alter- 
thums-wissenschaft; (2) Bibliotheca Philologica Classica; (3) Biographisches 
Jahrbuch ; Berlin, 1875 f ; now edited by W. KROLL (Reisland), Leipzig. 

KROI.L, W. Die AltertumsT.uissensch.aft im letzten Vierteljahrhunderl, 
547 pp. 8vo, Leipzig, 1905. 

ROUSE, W. H. D. The Year's Work in Classical Studies, 8vo, ioo6f 
(Murray), London. 

JOCHER, Allgemeines Gelehrtenlexicon, 1750 etc.; SAXIUS, Onotnasticon 
Litterarium, 1775 1803 ; BAYLE, Diet. Historique, ed. Beuchot, 1820-24 ; 
MICHAUD, Biographie Universelle, Ancienne et Moderne, nouvelle ed., 45 vols. 
imp. 8vo, Paris, 1843-65; DIDOT, Nouvelle Biographie Generate, ed. Hoefer, 
46 vols. 8vo, Paris, 185266; La Grande Encyclopedie, 31 vols. (Lamirault), 
Paris; etc.; ECKSTEIN, F. A., Nomenclator Philologorum, 656 pp. small 8vo, 
Leipzig, 1871 ; POKEL, W., Philologisches Schriftsteller-Lexikon, 328 pp. 8vo, 
Leipzig, 1882. 

Portraits of Scholars, etc. 

Jovius, PAULUS (Paolo Giovio). Elogia virorum literis illustrium...ex 
eiusdem vivuni expresses imaginibus exornata, 234 pp. folio, 
Basileae, 1577. 

THEVET, ANDRE. Portraits et vies des hommes illustres, Paris, 1584. 
See portrait of Budaeus, p. 164 infra. 

BOISSARD, J. J. (1528 1602). Icones virorum illustrium doctrina et 
eruditione praeslantium, in four parts with 50 portraits in each part, 410, 
Francofurti, 1597-99 ; all the portraits engraved by Theodore de Bry (1528 
1598); with letterpress, in parts i, ii, by Boissard ; and, in parts iii, iv, by 
T. A. Lonicerus. Half-a-century later the series was continued in the Biblio- 
theca Chalcographica (1645-52), part v reproducing the portraits in parts i iv, 
with about 40 new portraits; part vi containing 50 portraits by Seb. Furck, and 
parts vii, viii, ix, 50 each by Clemens Ammonius. See portrait of Buchanan, 
p. 244 infra. 

DE LEU (1562 1620). Pourtraictz de plusieurs hommes illustres; broad- 
sheet containing 144 portraits, Paris, c. 1600. See portraits of Turnebus and 
Dorat, pp. 185, 187 infra. 

MEURSIUS. Athenae Batavae, small 410, Leyden, 1625. See portrait of 
Meursius, p. 310 infra. 

IOANNES IMPERIALIS (Giovanni Imperiale). Museum Historicum, Venice, 
1640. See portrait of Muretus, p. 148 infra. 

BUI.LART, ISAAC. Academic des Sciences et des Arts, 2 vols. folio, Brux- 
elles and Amsterdam, 1682. See portrait of Salmasius, p. 284 infra. 


CLARMUNDUS, ADOLPHUS (i.e. Johann Christian Ruediger). Vitae claris- 
simorum in re literaria virorum, in eleven parts, i2mo, Wittenberg, 1704-14. 
Thirty small portraits in the frontispieces of parts i and ii, and 20 in those of 
parts iii and iv. See ' Lambinus', p. 188 infra. 

SCHROCKH, J. M. Abbildungen...beruhmter Gelehrten, 3 vols. i2mo, 
Leipzig, 1764-9. See portrait of Fabricius, frontispiece to vol. iii. 

ALLEGRINI, GIUSEPPE. Ritratti a" tiomini illustri Toscani con git elogi 
istorici, 3 vols. folio, Firenze, 1766-70. See portrait of Victorius, p. 136 

DREUX DU RADIER. D Europe Illustre, 5 vols. folio, Paris, 1777. See 
portrait of Montfaucon, p. 386 infra. 

HOFLINGER, L. (photographer). Philologen des (i) xiv xvi, (2) xvii 
xviii, (3) xix Jakrhunderts : 34 + 34 + 29 small medallion portraits reproduced 
on three plates, Dorpat, 1871 ; now out of print ; list on cover of Eckstein's 
Nomendator Philologorum. 

The Revival of Learning and the early History of 
Scholarship in Italy. 

GALLETTT, G. C. Philippi Villani liber de civitatis Florentines fatnosis 
civibus...ntinc primum cditus, et de Florentinontm Liiteratura principes fere 
synckroni scripiores [Manetti, Cortesius etc.], 4to, Florence, 1847. 

VESPASIANO DA BISTICCI. Vite di uoniini ilhistri del secolo xv, ed. Mai, 
1839; ed. Bartoli, Firenze, 1859. 

LILIUS GREGORIUS GYRALDUS. De Poe'tis nostrorum temporum (1551), 
ed. Karl Wotke, 104 pp. small 8vo, Berlin, 1894. 

Jovius, PAULUS (Paolo Giovio). Elogia Doctorum Virorum, 310 pp. 
small 8vo, Basileae (1556). 

HODY, H. (d. 1706). De Graecis Illnslribus Linguae Graecae...Instaura- 
torilnis, ed. S. Jebb, 326 pp. 8vo, London, 1742. 

BOERNER, C. F. De Doctis Plominibus Litterarum Graecarum in Italia 
Instauratoribus, 8vo, Leipzig, 1750. 

MEHUS. Vita Ambrosii Traversarii, etc. prefixed to Epp. , ed. Canneto, 
folio, Florentiae, 1759- 

TIRABOSCHI. Storia della Letteratura Italiana; certain chapters in vols. 
vi, vii (1300 1500 A.D.) of ed. 2, large 410, Modena, 1787-94. 

MEINERS, CHR. Lebensbeschreibungen beruhmter Manner aus den Zeiten 
der Wiederherstellung der Wissenschaften, 3 vols. 8vo, Zurich, 1795. 

ROSCOE, W. (i) Life of Lorenzo de' Medici, 1796 ; ed. 9, London, 1847; 
(2) Life of Leo the Tenth, 1805 ; ed. 5, London, 1846. 

HEEREN, A. H. L. Geschichte der classischen Litteralur itn Mittelalter 
(ed. 2 of the unfinished Geschichte des Studitims der klassischen Litteratur seit 
dem Wiederaufleben der Wissenschaftcii), i 321 376 (cent, xiv); ii t 354 
(cent, xv), 2 vols. small 8vo, Gottingen, 1822. 


VoiGT, GEORG. Die Wiederbelebung des classischen Alterthums, oder das 
erste Jahrhundert des Humanhmus, ed. i in i vol. 1859; e ^- 2 in 2 vols. 
1880 f; ed. 3 (Max Lehnerdt), vol. i 591 pp., vol. ii 543 pp. with bibliography 
on pp. 511 525 ; large 8vo, Berlin, 1893. 

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29 Sept. 1906; 7 Sept. 1907; Sept. 1908. 

Biographical notices in American Journal of Philology, Harvard Studies 
etc.; biographical dates in Harvard Quinquennial Catalogue, 1636 1905; 
and articles in Allibone's Dictionary, 3 vols., 1859-71, with Suppl. 2 vols., 
Philadelphia, 1891 ; and in the two Cyclopaedias of American Biography: 
the National, New York, 1892 1906, and Appleton's, ;l>. 1887-9. 


Germany and Austria. 

ERHARD, Geschichte des Wiederaufbluhens wissenschaftlicher Bildung, 
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mationszeitalter, 3 vols. Erlangen, 1843-5 \ SCHRODER, Das Wiederaufbliihen 
der klassischen Studien in Deutschland, Halle, 1864; and esp. JANSSEN, 
Geschichte des deutschen Volkes, 1876 f; E. T. 1896 f. 

KAMPFSCHULTE, Die Universitiit Erfurt, 2 vols., Trier, 1858-60. 

SCHMIDT, CH. Histoire litteraire de F Alsace, 2 vols., Paris, 1879. 

GEIGER, L. Renaissance und Humanismus in Italien und Deutschland 
(pp. 321 -563), with conspectus of literature (573 580), large 8vo, Berlin, 

PAULSEN, F. Geschichte des gdehrten Unterrichts in Deutschland, ed. 2, 
*339 PP- 8vo > Leipzig, 1892. 

BURSIAN, C. Geschichte der klassischen Philologie in Deutschland von den 
Anfdngen bis zur Gegemvart, 1279 PP- ^vo, Miinchen, 1883. 

HARNACK, A. Geschichte der preussischen Akademie der IVissenschaften, 
large 8vo, Berlin, 1900 f. 

ALLGEMEINE DEUTSCHE BIOGRAPHIE, 45 vols. + 7 vols. of Supplement, 
large 8vo, Leipzig, 1875 1906. 

WURZBACH, Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oeslerreich, 60 vols., 
Wien, 1857-92. 

JUSTI, Winckelmann, 3 vols., Berlin, ed. 2, 1898; KOCHLY, Gottfried 
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Biographical notices of German and other scholars in BURSIAN'S Bio- 
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WACKERNAGEL, J. Das Studium des klassischen Altertttms in der Schweiz, 
54 pp. 8vo, Basel, 1891. 


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HALVORSEN. Norsk Forf otter- Lexikon (5 vols. A T), Christiania, 1885 


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THEREIANOS, D. (i) Adamantios florae's, 3 vols. Trieste, 1889-90: (2) /. 
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CARL IKEN'S Leukothea, Leipzig, 1835 ; J. Rizo NEROULOS, Lift. Grecqtte 
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NiCOLAl, R. Geschichte der neugriechischen Literatur, 8vo, Leipzig, 1876. 

RANGABK, A. R. Litterature Nco-HcHenique, 2 vols. small 8vo, Berlin, 

Aei-iKov tyKVK\oTrai5iK6v, 7 vols., Athens, 1889 f. 


FREYTAG (1846) in Creuzer, Znr Gesch. der cl. Philol. (1854), 166 172. 
SCIIMID, G. (on Graefe and Count Uvarov). Zur russischen Gelehrtcn- 
geschichte, in A'uss. Revue xxv 77 108, 156 167. 

* ,* For further bibliographical details, see the footnotes. 



c. 1321 c. 1527 A.D. . . . 1^123 

Chronological Table, 1321 1527 A.D. . facing p. i 

CHAPTER I. Introduction. The four principal periods in the modern 
History of Scholarship, (i) Italian, (2) French, (3) English and Dutch, 
(4) German. The Renaissance. Petrarch and Boccaccio . i 16 

CHAPTER II. The Villa Paradise and San Spirito. Coluccio Salutati. 
Chrysoloras. Giovanni di Conversino. Giovanni Malpaghini. Gasparino 
da Barzizza 17 23 

CHAPTER III. The Recovery of the Latin Classics by Poggio, Lan- 
driani, Francesco Pizzolpasso, Enoch of Ascoli, Sannazaro, Politian, Giorgio 
Galhiate, Parrasio, and Fra Giocondo ; and of the Greek Classics by Guarino, 
Aurispa and Filelfo, Bessarion, Constantine and Janus Lascaris. The study 
of classical archaeology by Poggio, Ciriaco, Flavio Biondo, Andrea Mantegna, 
Felix Felicianus, Giuliano da San Gallo, and Fra Giocondo . 24 42 

CHAPTER IV. The early Medicean age in Florence. Roberto de' 
Rossi. Palla Strozzi. Cosimo dei Medici. Niccolo de' Niccoli. Traversari. 
Manetti. Leonardo Bruni. Marsuppini. Vergerio. Guarino. Vittorino. 
Filelfo 4357 

CHAPTER V. The earlier Greek Immigrants. Gemistos Plethon. 
Bessarion. Theodorus Gaza. Georgius Trapezuntius. Joannes Argyropulos. 
Demetrius Chalcondyles. Nicolas V and the translations of the Greek 
Classics. Valla, Decembrio and Perotti. Pius II, and Campano 59 73 

CHAPTER VI. The later Greek immigrants. Michael Apostolius. An- 
dronicus Callistus. Constantine Lascaris. Janus Lascaris. Marcus Musurus. 
Zacharias Callierges ........ 74 80 

CHAPTER VII. The Academy of Florence; Landino, Ficino, Pico, 
Politian. Marullus. Savonarola. Machiavelli. The Academy of Naples ; 
Beccadelli, Pontano, Sannazaro. The Academy of Rome; Pomponius 
Laetus, Platina and Sabellicus, Betnbo and Sadoleto, Paolo Giovio and 
Castiglione 81 9;, 

CHAPTER VIII. The Printing of the Classics in Italy. Sweynheym 
and Pannartz. Philip de Lignamine. Ulrich Hahn. Georg Lauer. John of 
Spiies. Bernardo Cennini. Aldus and Paul us Manutius : Aldus II 95 101 


Chronological Conspectus of Editiones Principes . . . 102 105 
CHAPTER IX. Leo X and his patronage of learning : Janus Lascaris 
and Marcus Musurus ; Guarino of Favera ; Filippo Beroaldo the younger. 
The study of Aristotle ; Pietro Pomponazzi, Leonico Tomeo, Alessandro 
Achillini. Poets : Bembo, Sadoleto, Calcagnini, Vida, Navagero, Fracastoro, 
Flaminio. Archaeologists : Fra Giocondo, Francesco Albertini, Andrea 
Fulvio, Fabio Calvi and Raphael. Piero Valeriano, Clement VII and the 
Sack of Rome (1527) ........ 107 123 

Chronological Table, 1500 1600 A.D. . 124 

CHAPTER X. Erasmus 127132 

CHAPTER XI. Italy from 1527 to 1600. Literary Criticism, Vida; 
influence of Aristotle's treatise On the Art of Poetry. Victorius. Robortelli. 
Sigonius. Pantagato. Panvinio. Nizolius. Majoragius. Faernus. Muretus. 
Francesco Patrizzi. Fulvio Orsini. Archaeologists; Marliani, Ligorio, 
Panciroli, Aldrovandi, J. B. de Cavaleriis, Lafreri, Flaminio Vacca. Aonio 
Paleario. Classical influence in Italian literature . . . 133 156 

CHAPTER XII. Spain. Nugno Gusmano, Arias Barbosa, Antonio of 
Lebrixa, Cardinal Ximenes, Sepulveda, Andrea Laguna, Nonius Pincianus, 
Clenardus, Vergara, Sanctius, Nunnesius, Agostino, Ciacconius, Cerda. 
Madrid, and the Escurial 

Portugal. Resende, Achilles Statins, Osorio, Alvarez . 157 163 

CEIAPTER XIII. France from 1360 to 1600. Bersuire, Oresme, Jean 
de Montreuil. The printers of the Sorbonne. Teachers of Greek : Gregorio 
Tife.nas, Ilermonymus of Sparta, Aleander. Gourmont and the first Greek 
press in Paris. Budaeus. Corderius. Robert and Henri Estienne. The 
elder Scaliger. Etienne Dolet. The College de France ; Danes and Tous- 
sain ; Rabelais ; Ramus, Turnebus, Dorat. Translators and literary critics. 
Lambinus. Passerat. Daniel, Pierre Pithou, and Bongars. Jurists : De 
Grouchy, Cujas, Hotmail, Doneau, Brisson, Godefroy. Translators : Amyot 
and Le Roy. Montaigne, La Boetie, Pasquier, Sainte Marthe. Scaliger. 
Casaubon. Mercier ........ 165 210 

CHAPTER XIV. The Netherlands from 1400 to the foundation of the 
university of Leyden, 1575. The Schools of the Brethren of the Common Life. 
Nicolaus Cusanus and Johann Wessel. Erasmus. Despauterius. Busleiden. 
Printers : John of Westphalia, Martens, Plantin. Vives. Goclenius, Nan- 
nius. Torrentius, Pulmannus, Joannes Secundus, Hadrianus Junius, \V. Canter 
(Pighius, Modius, Delrio, Cruquius) . . - . . 211 218 

CHAPTER XV. England from 1370 to 1600. Chaucer, Lydgate, 
'Thomas of England'. Visits of Poggio and Aeneas Sylvius. Adam de 
Molyneux ; Humphrey duke of Gloucester. John Tiptoft, Andrew Holes, 
William Grey, John Free, Robert Flemming and John Gunthorpe. 


The Study of Greek. Selling, Linacre, Grocyn, W. Latimer, Lily, 
Colet, More. Greek at Oxford. Greek at Cambridge : Bullock, Croke, Sir 
Thomas Smith, Sir John Cheke. Pronunciation of Greek and Latin. Ascham. 
Sir Thomas Wilson. Classical metres. Gabriel Harvey. Colleges and 
Schools. Translators. Latin poets of Italy studied in England. 

Scotland : Buchanan, Volusenus, Melville, Johnston, Drummond. 
Wales: John Owen ........ 219 250 

CHAPTER XVI. Germany from 1350 to 1616. Petrarch and Charles IV. 
Vergerio and Sigismund. Aeneas Sylvius in Vienna. Peuerbach and Regio- 
montanus. Peter Luder and Hartman Schedel. Agricola. Hegius. Langen. 
Wimpheling. Brant. Reuchlin. Mutianus. Celtes. Trithemius and Pirk- 
heimer. Peutinger. Cuspinianus. Vadianus. Busche. Bebel. Eobanus 
Hessus. The printers of Basel. Beatus Rhenanus. Glareanus, Grynaeus, 
Gelenius, Petrus Mosellanus. Melanchthon. Camerarius. Micyllus. Sturm. 
Rivius. F. Fabricius. H. Wolf. M. Neander. B. Faber. C. Gesner. M. 
Crusius. Frischlin. Xylander. Sylburg. Aem. Portus. Rhodomann. 
Hoesehel. Erasmus Schmied. Janus Guilielmus. Acidalius. Taubmann. 

Hungary : Aeneas Sylvius and Ladislas. Vitez and Janus Paunonius. 
Matthias Corvinus. 

Poland: Olesnicky. Dlugosz. Gregor of Sanok . . 251 276 

Chronological Table, 1600 1700 A.D. . 278 

CHAPTER XVII. Italy in the Seventeenth Century. Archaeologists: 
Cassiano del Pozzo, Donati, Nardini, Doni, Bellori and Bartoli, Raphael 
Fabretti. Composers of Latin verse : Strada, Ceva, Sergardi. Imitators of 
Pindar and Horace 279 282 

CHAPTER XVIII. France in the Seventeenth Century. Sirmond, 
Petavius, Guyet, Peiresc. Salmasius. Heraldus, Palmerius, Seguier, Vigerus, 
Maussac, Valesius ; C. and P. Labbe. Du Cange. The Jesuits and Port- 
Royal. Menage. The French Academy and the 'Three Unities'. Tanaquil 
Faber, Andre and Anne Dacier. Huet and the Delphin Classics. Mabillon. 
Hardouin. Spon 283 299 

CHAPTER XIX. The Netherlands from the foundation of the university 
of Leyden (1575) to 1700. Janus Dousa and his sons. Petreius Tiara, 
Vulcanius. Lipsius. Andreas Schott. Puteanus. Scaliger. Wowerius. P. 
Merula. Baudius. Scriverius. G. J. Vossius. Franciscus Junius. Salma- 
sius. Meursius. Putschius. Cluverius. Daniel Heinsius. Grotius. J. F. 
Gronovius. Isaac Vossius. N. Heinsius. Meibomius. (Spanheim.) Grae- 
vius. Rycke. J. and A. Gronovius. Broukhusius. Francius. Perizonius. 
Cuypers. The Elzeviers ........ 300 332 


CHAPTER XX. England in the Seventeenth Century. Savile. Downes. 
Bacon. Robert Burton. Dempster. Barclay. Gataker. Selden. Milton. 
May. Cowley. Duport. Barrow. Pearson. Stanley. P'alkland, Hales, 
Jeremy Taylor. The Cambridge Platonists : More and Cudworth. Theo- 
philus and Thomas Gale. Translators of Lucretius : Evelyn, Lucy 
Hutchinson, and Creech. Baxter. Hudson. Potter. Dryden. Dodwell. 
Barnes 332 358 

CHAPTER XXI. Germany in the Seventeenth Century. Gruter. Pareiis. 
Scioppius, Earth, and Reinesius. Seber and Weller. Lindenbrog ; Hol- 
stenius and Kircher. Vorst, Jonsen, Lambeck. Morhof. Gude. Bernegger, 
Freinsheim, Boekler, Obrecht, Scheffer. Conring. Spanheim. Beger. Cel- 
larius 358369 

Chronological Table, 1700 1800 A.D. . 372 

CHAPTER XXII. Italy in the Eighteenth Century. Facciolati, For- 
cellini. Ferracci, Lagomarsini. Garatoni. Rezzonico. Corsini. Bandini, 
Mingarelli, Morelli. Archaeologists : Ficoroni, Piranesi, Gori. Muratori, 
Maffei. Paciaudi, Morcelli, Marini. E. Q. Visconti. Fea . 373 384 

CHAPTER XXIII. France in the Eighteenth Century. Montfaucon. 
Capperonnier. Bouhier. Sanadon. Olivetus. Archaeologists: Banduri, 
Fourmont, Burette, Freret, Comte de Caylus, Patin, Vaillant, Pellerin, 
Mariette, D'Anville. Barthelemy, Seroux d'Agincourt, Guys, Choiseul- 
Gouffier, Brotier, Larcher. Alsace (Brunck, Oberlin, Schweighauser, Bast) 
and the Editioties Bipontinae. Levesque, and Sainte-Croix. Villoison 


CHAPTER XXIV. England in the Eighteenth Century. Bentley. Addi- 
son. Pope. Spence. Maittaire. Ruddiman. \Vasse, Davies, Whiston, 
Middleton, S. Clarke, Needham. Markland, John Taylor, Dawes. Chr. Pitt, 
Vincent Bourne, Gray, Sydenham. Heath, Toup and Musgrave. Shaw, 
Joddrell. Tyrwhitt and Twining. Parr and II. Homer. Porson. Wakerleld, 
Home Tooke, Burgess. The Dilettanti Society; Sluart and Revett, R. 
Wood. Scholarly Statesmen : Chatham, Burke, Fox, Pitt. Archaeolo- 
gists: -Sir \Vm Hamilton, Townley, R. Chandler, Payne Knight. A. 
Adam. Gibbon. Mitford. Sir Wm Jones .... 400 439 
CHAPTER XXV. The Netherlands in the Eighteenth Century. Le 
Clerc. Burman. KiAster. Bos. Duker and Drakenborch. Havercamp. 
Hemsterhuys. J. F. Reitz. Wesseling. D'Orville. Oudendorp. Burman II. 
Schrader. Valckenaer. Ruhnken. Pierson, Koen, Santen, Luzac. Wyt- 
tenbach 441466 



P- 35 ! 3 > f r Pizzopasso, read Pizzolpasso. 

p. 105; Stobaeus (1535), add Florilegium ; (1575) add Eclogae. 

Aretaeus (1554), for Andr. read Adr. Turnebus. 

Polyaenus (1589), for Leyden, read Lyon. 

p. 118 1. 8; for 1514 (Didot's date for the editio princeps of Pindar), read 
(as on p. 104) 1513 (with Christie's Essays, p. 243). 

p. 124; Italy, Pomponazzi ; for 1462 1565, read 1462 1525. 

p. 126; for salon carre, read salon carre. 

p. 1 58 n. i ; for des fonds grecs, read du fonds grec. 

p. 161 
p. 196 

p. 2OI 

P- 243 
p. 271 
p. 285 
p. 287 

p. 301 n. 5; for 332 f, read 362^ 

p. 368 11. 12, 15; for Helmstadt, read Helmstadt or Helmstedt. 

p. 372; England, after Spence (1699 1768), add Martyn (1699 1768). 

p. 378 1. 9 (inset); for Ferrati (Ftrratius), read Ferracci. 

p. 391 1. 28; for Vaillant, 1655, read 1665. 

2; for Constantius, read Constantinus. 

16; for Florio, read North. 

27; for Festus (1575), read (with Bernays, Scaligcr, 275) 1576. 

28; for 1559, read (with Hume Brown's Buchanan, 160) 1561. 

33; for 1608, read at Leipzig (1577) and at Hanover (1604). 

6; for Saville, read Savile. 

26; for Labbe (Labbaeus), read Labbe. 



Le moyen age, si profond, si original, si pottique dans I' i'lan de 
son enthusiasme religieux, rfest, sous le rapport de la culture intel- 
lectuelle, qu'un long tatonnement pour rcvenir a la grande ecole de la 
noble pensce, e'est-a-dire a rantiquite. La renaissance, loin d'etre, 
comme on I' a dit, un egaretnent de V esprit nwderne, fonrvoye apres 
un ideal etranger, n'est que le retour a la vraie tradition de r/iuma- 
nite civilisce. 

RENAN, Averrocs (1852), Pref. p. viii, ed. 4, 1882. 

DaW Italia sol tan to il classicisnw poteva sperare il suo rinasci- 
mento, dall' unica terra dove il vecchio mondo classico in rovine, 
superava in grandezza e maesta il giovane media evo. 

HORTIS, Studi sulle Opere Latine del Boccaccio, 
p. 210, Trieste, 1879. 

History of Scholarship in Italy between 1321 and 1527. 


1304-1374 Petrarch discovers Cicero, pro Archia, 1333, and ad Atticum 1345 

1313-1375 Boccaccio discovers Martial, Ausonius etc., and studies Greek 1360-63 

1330-1406 Salutati discovers Cicero, ad Familiares 1392 

1350-1415 Chrysoloras teaches Greek in Florence 1396-1400 

1356-1450 Plethon disputes on Plato and Aristotle '439 

'363-1437 Niccoli leaves 800 MSS to Medicean Library '437 

1369-1444 Leonardo. Bruni translates Aristotle's Ethics, 1414, and Politics 1437 

1370-1431 Barzizza, Epistolarum Liber, printed, Paris 1470 

1370-1459 Aurispa brings 238 MSS from Constantinople 1423 . 

1374-1460 Guarino da Verona teaches at Ferrara 1429-60 

1378-1446 Vittorino da Feltre teaches at Mantua 1423-46 

1380-1459 Poggio discovers Latin MSS at Cluni, St Gallen, Langres etc... 1415-17 

1385-1458 Alfonso I, king of Naples 1442-58 

1386-1439 Traversari discovers Cornelius Nepos '434 

1388-1463 Flavio Biondo, Italia llhistrata 1453 

1389-1464 Cpsimo de' Medici in power in Florence 1434-64 

1391-1450 Ciriaco d' Ancona, collector of inscriptions 1424, 1433, 1435-47 

1395-1484 Georg. Trapezuntiustr. A.r. Rhet., Hist. An. ,1450; Plato, Lams 1451 

1396-1459 Manetti translates Aristotle's Ethics etc 1456-9 

1397-1455 Tommaso Parentucelli, Pope Nicolas V M47~55 

1398-1481 Filelfo brings 40 MSS from Constantinople 1427 

1399-1477 Decembrio translates Plato's Republic 1440 

1400-1475 Theodoras Gaza, professor of philosophy in Rome 1451 

1403-1472 Bessarion presents his Greek MSS to Venice 1468 

1405-1464 Aeneas Sylvius, De Lib. Educ. 1450. Pope Pius II 1458-64 

1407-1457 Laurentius Valla, Elegantiae Latini Sennonis 1440-50 

1416-1486 Argyropulos lectures in Florence, 1456-71, and Rome 1471-86 

1417-1475 Giov. Andrea de' Bussi, Bp of Aleria, 8 editione s principes ... 1469-71 

1421-1498 Vespasiano, Vite di Uomini Illustri c. 1493 

1422-1482 Federigo di Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino 1474-82 

1424-1504 Cristoforo I.andino, Quaestiones Camaldulenses 1480 

1424-1511 Chalcondyles, ed. pr. Homer, 1488; Isocrates, 1493; Suldas... 1499 

1425-1498 Pomponius Laetus, ed. Curtius, Virgil, Pliny, Sallust 1470-90 

1426-1503 Pontano and Marullus (d. 1500) correct text of Lucr., ed. Flor. 1512 

1427-1477 Campano translates Plutarch's Lives 1470 

1430-1480 Perotti, Rudimenta Graininatices 1468 

1433-1499 Ficino translates Plato, 1482, and Plotinus 1492 

1434-1501 Constantine Lascaris, Grammatica Graeca '476 

1445-1535 Janus Lascaris, 5 ediiione s principes 1494-6 

1448-1492 Lorenzo de' Medici in power in Florence 1469-92 

1449-1515 Aldus Manutius, 27 Greek editiancs principes 1494-1515 

1453-1505 Beroaldus edits Propertius, 1487, and Plautus 1500 

1454-1494 Politian, Sylvae, 1482-6; Miscellanea 1489 

1458-1530 Sannazaro discovers Ovid, Halieut., Grattius and Nemesianus 1501-4 

1461-1510 Paolo Cortesi, De Hominibits Doctis 1490 

1462-1525 Pomponazzi, De Imtnortalitate A nimae 1516 

1463-1494 Pico delta Mirandola, .Apologia, 1484; Adv. Astrologiani ... 1495 

1469-1527 Machiavelli, Discorsi on Livy i-x 1516-9 

1470-1517 Muslims edits 7 editiones principes 1498-1516 

1470-1547 Bembo, On Terence, 1530; Epistolae Leonis X '535 

1475-1521 Giovanni de' Medici, Pope Leo X 1513-21 

1477-1547 Sadoleto, Laocoon, 1506; De Liberis Recte Instituendis 1534 

1477-1558 Valeriano, De Literatorum Infelicitate, written after 1527 

1478-1529 Baldassare Castiglione, // Cortegiano 1528 

1479-1552 Lilio Giraldi, De Poetis Nostrnruin Temporum 1551 

1483-1529 Navagero ed. Quint., Virg., Lucr., ()v.,Ter., Hor., Cic. Speeches 1514-9 

1483-1552 Paolo Giovio, Elogia Doctaruin Virorum 1556 

1488-1522 Longolius, Orationes et Epistolae, Florence 1524 

1499-1566 Vida, De Arte Poetica, 1527 ; Christias 1535 



THE History of Scholarship during the six centuries that have 
elapsed since the birth of Petrarch falls into four principal periods, 
which may be distinguished by the names of the nations that have 
been most prominent in each: (i) the Italian, (2) the French, 
(3) the English and Dutch ; and (4) the German. 

The first is the age of the Revival of Learning in Italy, 
including the two centuries between the death of Dante in 1321 
and the death of Leo X in 1521, and ending with the Sack of 
Rome in 1527. It begins with Petrarch (1304 1374) and it 
ends with the contemporaries of Erasmus (1466 1536). It is 
the age of the Humanists, and its principal aim is the imitation 
and reproduction of classical models of style and of life. 

The second, or French, period is mainly marked by a many- 
sided knowledge of the subject-matter of the Classics, by in- 
dustrious erudition rather than by any special cult of the form of 
the classical languages. It begins with the foundation of the 
College de France by Francis I at the prompting of Budaeus in 
1530, and it ends with the close of the seventeenth century. 
It is the period of the great Polyhistors of France and of the 
Netherlands. Its foremost names are those of Scaliger (1540 
1609) and Casaubon (1559 1614), and Lipsius (1547 1606) 
and Salmasius (1588 1653). Of these, Casaubon ended his 
days in England, while Scaliger passed the last sixteen years of 
his life at Leyden, which was also one of the principal scenes of 
the learned labours of Lipsius and Salmasius. 

The third, or English and Dutch, period begins towards the 
end of the seventeenth century with Bentley (16621742). It 
s. II. i 


is represented in Holland by Bentley's younger contemporary and 
correspondent, Hemsterhuys (1685 1766), and Hemsterhuys' 
famous pupil, Ruhnken (1723 1798). It is the age of historical 
and literary, as well as verbal, criticism. Both were represented 
by Bentley during the half century of his literary activity from 
1691 to 1742, while, in the twenty years between 1782 and 1803, 
verbal criticism was the peculiar province of Person (1759 1808), 
who was born in the same year as Friedrich Augustus Wolf. 

The fourth, or German, period begins with Wolf (1759 1.824), 
whose celebrated Prolegomena appeared, in 1795. Wolf is the 
founder of the systematic or encyclopaedic type of scholarship, 
embodied in the comprehensive term Alterthumswissenschaft. The 
tradition of Wolf was ably represented by his great pupil, Boeckh 
(1785 1867), one of the leaders of the historical and antiquarian 
school, as contrasted with the critical and grammatical school of 
Hermann (1772 1848). During this last period, while Germany 
remains the most productive of the nations, scholarship has 
become more and more international and cosmopolitan in its 
character. In the torch-race of the nations, the light of learning 
has been transmitted from Italy to France and England, to the 
Netherlands and Germany, to Scandinavia, and to the lands across 
the seas. 

The age of the Renaissance was the time of transition from 

the ancient to the modern world. The Renaissance 

The Renais- nag been described by one eloquent writer as ' the 

sance * 

discovery of the world and of man"; by another, 
as producing a 'love of the things of the intellect and the 
imagination for their own sake' 2 ; and by a third, as the move- 
ment by which the nations of Western Europe passed from the 
mediaeval to modern modes of thought and life 3 . The metaphor 
of a new birth was first associated with a revival of learning by 
an Englishman, Modoin, bishop of Autun, who hailed the revival 
under Charles the Great in a line that recalls the poets of Rome : 

1 Michelet, Histoire de la France, VII p. ii, la decouverte du monde, la de- 
couverle de I'homme ; cp. Burckhardt, Renaissance, part iv. 

3 W. Pater, The Renaissance, p. i. 

3 Cp., in general, J. A. Symonds, s.v. Renaissance in Enc. Brit. ed. 9; and 
Renaissance in Italy, i I 28. 


'aurea Roma iterum renovata renascitur orbi' 1 . The old Italian 
rinascita was probably first applied to the arts by Vasari 2 . The 
modern Italian Rinascimento is simply a translation of the French 
Renaissance, found as early as 1708 in the French Dictionary of 
Furetiere 3 , but not recognised by the Academy until ij62 4 . 
Among our own countrymen, William Collins (d. 1759) and 
Thomas Warton (d. i8oc>) 6 proposed to write a history of the 
' Revival of Learning ', or of ' Letters ', but the proposal remained 
unfulfilled. Both of these designs owed their inspiration to the 
age of Leo X. Similarly, in France, the Abbe Barthelemy, 
travelling in Italy in 1755, describes the age of Leo as la 
naissance d'un nouveau genre humain" 1 . But it has since been 
recognised that for the beginning of the Renaissance we must go 
back at least as far as Petrarch, who died in 1374, a full century 
before the birth of Leo. 

The Revival of Learning in Italy was practically completed 
within the period of exactly two centuries which separates the 
death of Dante from the death of Leo X. At the death of the 
first Pope of the Medicean house, humanism had well nigh run 
its course in Italy ; and, when the exiled poet of Florence died at 
Ravenna, Petrarch, the first of the humanists, was still a young 
student at Montpellier. But he was already enraptured with the 
style of Cicero and of Virgil. From his father, 
Pietro or Petracco, a notary of Florence, he had 
derived the name of Francesco di Petracco, which his sense of 
euphony, or his fancy for a name of Latin form, afterwards 
changed into Francesco or Franciscus Petrarca. Born in exile 
at Arezzo, he was taken at the age of eight to Avignon, the 
seat of the Papacy during the more than seventy years of the 

1 Diimmler, Poetae Lat. Aevi Car. i 385. 

2 Vite, Parte II, par. 3, rinascita di queste arti. 

3 Noticed as used in a figurative sense alone, e.g. '/# renaissance des beaiix- 

4 e.g. ' la renaissance des letlres '. 

5 Johnson's Lives, iii 282. 

6 Roscoe's Leo X, p. x, ed. 1846. 

7 A. Holm, II Rinascimento Italiano e la Grecia Antica (Palermo, 1880), 
excursus on pp. 35 40. Matthew Arnold, in Culture and Anarchy (1869), 
c. iv, introduced the form Renascence. 

I 2 

4 ITALY. [CENT. xiv. 

'Babylonian Captivity', which closely corresponded to the seventy 
years of his life (1304 1374). Educated mainly at Montpellier 
and Bologna, he spent sixteen years in the seclusion of Vaucluse. 
His early travels in France and Germany were followed by 
repeated visits to Rome, where, in recognition of his powers as 
a Latin rather than as an Italian poet, he was crowned with the 
laurel on the Capitol in 1341. While he was familiar with Parma, 
and Verona, and Vicenza, he hardly ever saw his ancestral city of 
Florence. He spent eight years in Milan, stayed for a time at 
Venice and Padua, and, twelve miles south of that place, passed 
the last four years of his life at the quiet village of Arqua. His 
Letter to Posterity tells us that he had a clear complexion, 
between light and dark, lively eyes and, for many years, a keen- 
ness of sight that did not require the aid of glasses 1 . Of his 
numerous portraits, probably the most authentic is that in a 
Paris manuscript of his own Lives of Illustrious Men, a portrait 
executed for an intimate friend in Padua less than five years after 
his death 2 . 

Petrarch was fully conscious of belonging in a peculiar sense 
to a transitional time 3 . He gives proof of his modern spirit when 
he resolves on making the ascent of Mont Ventoux, but he no 
sooner reaches the summit than he reverts to the mediaeval 
mood inspired by his copy of the Confessions of St Augustine 4 . 
Yet he has rightly been regarded as the ' first modern man ' 5 . In 
a new age he was the first to recognise the supreme importance 
of the old classical literature, to regard that literature with a fresh 
and intelligent and critical interest, to appreciate its value as a 
means of self-culture, and as an exercise for some of the highest 
of human faculties. In his Latin style he is no slavish imitator 
of ancient models. In prose he is mainly inspired by the philo- 
sophical works of Cicero, and by the moral letters of Seneca. In 

1 Epp. Fam. i i f, ed. Fracassetti. 

2 See Frontispiece, and cp. De Nolhac, Pttrarque et V Humanisms (1892), 
Appendix pp. 375 384, I ' iconographie de Petrarque. 

3 Rerum Memorandarum, Liber i 2, p. 398, ed. 1581, 'velut in confinio 
duorum populorum constitutus, ac simul ante retroque prospiciens '. 

4 Cp. author's Harvard Lectures on the Revival of Learning (1905), p. 9f. 

5 Renan, Averroes, p. 328, ed. 1882. 


verse his model is Virgil, but he keenly realises the importance of 
catching the spirit of the ancient poet without appropriating his 
actual language 1 . He collects classical manuscripts, as well as 
coins and inscriptions ; he is inspired with an interest in history 
and archaeology by the sight of the ruins of Rome. As a loyal 
Churchman, he regards the study of the Classics as the handmaid 
of Christianity, and not as hostile to its teaching. 

His mind was mainly moulded by the study of the Latin 
Classics, to which he was attracted by their perfection of form. 
Even in his earliest youth, he had a keen ear for the melodies of 
Latin verse and rhetorical prose. As a student at Montpellier, 
he was spending on the perusal of his favourite Latin authors the 
time that he was supposed to be devoting to the study of law, 
when his father suddenly appeared on the scene, tore his son's 
treasures from their place of concealment, and flung them into 
the fire. When the son burst into tears at the grievous sight, the 
father relented so far as to snatch from the flames two volumes 
only ; the one was a copy of Virgil ; the other was the ' Rhetoric ' 
of Cicero 2 . Cicero and Virgil became the principal text-books of 
the Revival of Learning. Petrarch describes them in one of his 
poems as the 'two eyes' of his discourse 3 . Even in his old age, 
he was still haunted by the mediaeval tradition of the allegorical 
significance of the Aeneid; but, unlike the mediaeval admirers of 
Virgil, he does not regard the Latin poet as a mysteriously distant 
and supernatural being ; he finds in him a friend, and he is even 
candid enough to criticise him. In his 'Familiar Letters' he 
quotes Virgil about 120 times; his carefully annotated copy is 
preserved in the Ambrosian Library 4 ; and, under his influence, 
the Aeneid was accepted as the sole model for the epic poetry of 
the succeeding age. It is the model of his own Africa. 

In his appreciation of the lyrics of Horace, he marks a distinct 
advance on the mediaeval view. Of the quotations from Horace 
in the Middle Ages, less than one-fifth are from the lyrics and 

1 Epp. Fam. xxiii 19 (cp. Harvard Lectures, n f). 

2 Epp. Rerum Seniliiim, xv i, p. 947. 

3 Trionfo della fama, iii 21. 

4 De Nolhac, 118 135 ; Facsimile of frontispiece in Miintz, Gazette Arch. 
1887, and Pctrarque (1902), opp. p. 12. 

6 ITALY. [CENT. xiv. 

more than four-fifths from the hexameter poems 1 ; but the balance 
is happily redressed by Petrarch, who quotes with equal interest 
from both. His copy of Horace is in the Laurentian Library 2 . 
Ovid is too frivolous for his taste 3 . With the epics of Lucan, 
Statius, and Claudian he is well acquainted ; and the same is true 
of Persius, Juvenal, and Martial, with parts of Ausonius 4 . Of the 
plays of Plautus only eight were then known ; Petrarch quotes 
from two of them 5 , and gives an outline of a third 6 as a proof of 
the poet's skill in the delineation of character. He is familiar 
with the comedies of Terence, and the tragedies of Seneca; he 
rarely refers to Catullus 7 or Propertius 8 ; it is apparently only in 
excerpts that he knows Tibullus 9 . All his quotations from 
Lucretius are clearly derived second-hand from Macrobius 10 . 

In his boyhood, he found himself impelled to study Cicero, 
and, although he was only imperfectly conscious of the sense, he 
was charmed by the marvellous harmonies of sound 11 . In his old 
age he declared that the 'eloquence of this heavenly being was 
absolutely inimitable' 12 . Virgil had been the favourite author of 
the Middle Ages ; it was the influence of Petrarch that restored 
Cicero to a position of prominence in the Revival of Learning 13 . 
Petrarch was familiar with all the philosophical books of Cicero 
then extant, with the mutilated text of the principal rhetorical 
works, and with many of the Speeches 14 . 

The lost writings of Cicero were the constant theme of his 
eager quest. Whenever, in his travels in foreign lands, he caught 

1 Moore's Studies in Dante, i 201. 

2 Foes, in Chatelain's Pattographie, pi. 87, 2; De Nolhac, 148 153. 

3 De Vita Sol. ii 7, 2. 

4 De Nolhac, 153, 160-7, X 73- 

6 Curculio and Cistellaria, in Fam. ix 4. 

6 Casina, in Fam. v 14. 

7 De Nolhac, 138140. 

8 iii 32, 49 f, apparently imitated in Canzoni, xii str. 7; De Nolhac, 142 f ; 
for imitations of Propertius in Petrarch's Africa, see Prof. Phillimore in 
R. Ellis, Catullus in the xivth century (1905), 29. 

9 De Nolhac, 145. 10 it. 134. 

11 Epp. Rerum Senilium, xv i, p. 946. 12 ib. p. 948. 

13 Zielinski, Cicero im Wandel der Jahrhunderte, 1897, p. 26; Harvard 
Lectures, 149. 

14 De Nolhac, 176 223. 


a distant glimpse of some secluded monastery, he hastened to the 
spot in the hope of finding the object of his search 1 . In 1333 he 
had his first experience of the joys of discovery, when he found 
two Speeches of Cicero at Liege. One of them was copied 
promptly by his companion, and the other by himself 2 . The 
second of these was certainly the Speech pro Archia' A . A far 
greater joy was awaiting him. The Letters of Cicero had for ages 
been lost to view; but at Verona, in 1345, he found a manuscript 
containing all the Letters to Atticus and Quintus, and the corre- 
spondence with Brutus. He immediately transcribed the whole, 
but his transcript has been unhappily lost. The copy in the 
Laurentian Library at Florence 4 , long supposed to be Petrarch's, 
was really transcribed, eighteen years after Petrarch's death, for a 
Latin Secretary of Florence, Coluccio Salutati, who was the first 
in modern times to possess copies of both of the great collections 
of Cicero's Letters. The Epistolae ad Familiares were completely 
unknown to Petrarch. No sooner had he discovered the manu- 
script of the Letters to Atticus than he at once indited a letter to 
Cicero himself apprising him of the fact 5 . This was the first of 
Petrarch's Letters to Dead Authors, the remainder (including a 
second letter to Cicero) being addressed to Homer, Virgil, and 
Horace, and to Livy, Seneca, and Quintilian. 

Before discovering Cicero's Letters he had already formed his 
style on that of Cicero's philosophical works; after the discovery 
of the Letters, he makes them the model of his own, and, in the 
preface to his Epistolae de Rebus Familiar ibus*, declares that he 
will follow Cicero rather than Seneca. Nevertheless, in those 
letters, he has as many as sixty citations from Seneca, and this is 
far from the only proof of his familiarity with that author 7 . His 
favourite Roman historian is Livy ; he bitterly regrets the loss of 
the books of the second decade 8 , and, writing to the historian 

1 Epp. Rerum Senilium, xv i, p. 948. 2 ibid. 

3 Fam. xiii 6 (ll 238 Fracassetti). 4 xlix 18. 

5 Fam. xxiv 3; cp. xxi 10 (n 87 Fr.) and Var. 25 (II 367 Fr.). Cp. 
Viertel, Die Wiederattffindung von Ciceros Briefen durch Petrarcha, Konigsberg 
program, 1879. 

6 p. 1 1 Fr. 7 De Nolhac, 308 f. 
8 Rer. Mem. \ ^. 

3 ITALY. [CENT. xiv. 

himself, exclaims: O si mihi totus contingeres^. He is familiar 
with Caesar, Sallust, Justin, Suetonius, Florus, Curtius, the 
Historia Augusta, Valerius Maximus, Vegetius, Frontinus, and 
Orosius ; but he knows nothing of Nepos or of Tacitus. He has 
only an imperfect copy of Quintilian 2 . He is unhappily un- 
acquainted with the Letters of the younger Pliny ; but he is 
fortunate in possessing the encyclopaedia of Pliny the elder. 
His copy is now in the Paris Library 3 , and, in the margin of the 
passage describing the fountain of the Sorgue 4 , Petrarch has 
drawn from memory a dainty little sketch of the valley of 
Vaucluse 5 . 

Under the influence of Cicero 6 , Petrarch had been led to 
believe that the Latin literature was far superior to the Greek 7 ; 
but he was ignorant of the Greek language. The first opportunity 
for learning it presented itself in 1339, when Barlaam, the 
Calabrian monk of Seminara, arrived at Avignon as an envoy 
from Constantinople. He was sent once more to the West in 
1342, and Petrarch's attempts to learn the language are best 
assigned to that date 8 . But he had barely learned to read and 
write the capital letters, when he unselfishly recommended his 
preceptor for a bishopric in S. Italy. Another envoy, Nicolaus 
Sigeros, who visited the West about 1350, sent Petrarch a MS 
of Homer about 1354. To Petrarch it was a sealed book, but, 
as he gazed on it, he was transported with delight. He even 
wrote an enthusiastic letter to Homer himself 9 , and also asked 
his friend in the East to send him copies of Hesiod and Euripides 10 . 
Besides possessing a translation of the first four books of the 
Iliad 11 , he acquired in 1369 a transcript of the rendering of the 
whole of Homer by a pupil of Barlaam, named Leontius Pilatus, 

1 Fam. xxiv 8. 

2 Fam. xxiv 7; De Nolhac, 281 f. 

3 MS 6802. 4 xviii 190. 

8 Reproduced in De Nolhac, 395. 6 De Fin. i 10, iii f . 

7 Sen. xii, p. 913, Graecos et ingenio et stilo frequenter vicimus et fre- 
quenter aequavimus, imo, si quid credimus Ciceroni, semper vicimus, ubi ad- 
nisi sumus (De Nolhac, 318). 

8 De Nolhac, 324-6. Cp. G. Mandorli, Fra Barlaamo Calabrese, 1888. 

9 Fam. xxiv 12. 10 Fam. xviii 2. 
11 De Nolhac, 353 f. 


whom he had entertained in Venice for three months in I363 1 . 
Though the baldness of this rendering led to an abatement in his 
enthusiasm for the old Greek poet, his subsequent writings give 
proof of his study of its pages. There is a well-attested tradition 
that he died while 'illuminating' (that is, annotating) his copy 
of a Latin translation of Homer 2 . This copy is now in the 
National Library of France, and the trembling hand that marks 
the close of the notes on the Odyssey confirms the tradition that 
they were his latest work. A Latin rendering of Homer's 
description of Bellerophon's wanderings on the Aleian plain 3 , 
which appears in Petrarch's Secretum*, has caused needless per- 
plexity to two of his most learned exponents in Germany and 
France 5 , who hazard the conjecture that the rendering is due to 
Petrarch himself. Had they been as familiar as Petrarch with 
the pages of Cicero, they would have found it in the Tusculan 
Disputations 6 . 

Petrarch possessed a MS of the Greek text of sixteen of the 
dialogues of Plato, and, on receiving the MS of Homer, placed 
it beside his Plato and wrote to assure the donor of his pride 
at having under his roof at Milan two guests of such distinction 7 . 
He also possessed a copy of part of the translation of the Timaeus 
by Chalcidius 8 . Leontius Pilatus, the only person from whom he 
might possibly have obtained a rendering of the rest, had met 
with a sudden and singular end. On his voyage from Constantinople 
in the spring of 1367, he was struck dead by a flash of lightning 
while standing against the mast, and Petrarch hurried down to 
the quay in the vain hope of finding, in the unhappy man's 
possessions, some precious manuscript of Euripides or of 
Sophocles 9 . Petrarch knows of the Phaedo solely in connexion 
with the story of the death of Cato 10 . He mentions the otiosa 

1 The passages on Leontius Pilatus are quoted in full by Hody, 2 10; cp. 
Gibbon, vii 20 Bury ; and De Nolhac, 339 349. 

2 Decembrio, quoted by De Nolhac, 348. 

3 //. vi 20 1 f. 4 iii p. 357. 

6 Korting, i 477 f ; De Nolhac, 350 n. i. 8 iii 63. 

7 Fam. xviii. 2. 

8 Now in Paris, Bibl. Nat. 6280 (De Nolhac, 43). 

9 Sen. vi i, p. 807; cp. Gibbon, vii 120 Bury. 

10 Fam. iii 18, iv 3. 

io ITALY. [CENT. xiv. 

cupresseta and the spatia silvestria that were the scene of the 
dialogue in Plato's Laws, but this touch of local colour is due 
not to the original but to an allusion in Cicero 1 . For Aristotle, 
whom he only knew in Latin versions, he had no partiality. He 
was convinced that that philosopher had suffered much at the 
hands of his translators ; he was repelled by a certain harshness 
of style, a complete absence of eloquentia* ; and, so far from 
accepting his authority, he declared that Aristotle had undoubtedly 
erred, not in small matters only, but even in those of the highest 
moment 3 . We have proof of his having once possessed the 
current commentaries on Aristotle in a Paris MS including 
Eustratius 4 of Nicaea, Aspasius and Michael of Ephesus, but 
there is little trace of any study of this MS on the part of the 
owner. He has a special antipathy against the Aristotelians of 
Padua, who followed the teaching of Averroes 5 . He urges his 
friend, the Augustinian monk, Ludovicus Marsilius, to write contra 
canem ilium rabidum Averroim*. He wages war against the 
Dialecticians of the day, who contemn the old Greek or Latin 
representatives of philosophy or literature 7 . In the Trionfo delta 
Fama* he denounces the syllogisms of Porphyry as sophisms 
which supply weapons against the truth. In the same work he 
vaguely mentions Greek and Latin Classics, and, in his tenth 
Eclogue, he ranks Euripides next to Homer. It is true that, 
to Petrarch, these Greek authors are little more than names. 
Nevertheless, he regards the great writers of antiquity, Greek as 
well as Latin, as his personal friends ; he feels that the Classics 

1 De Legibus, i 15 (cp. Plato's Laws, 625 B). De Vita Solitaria, i 5, i, 
p. 242 (Tullius et Virgilius) Platonem secuti ambo, qui inter otiosa cupresseta 
et spatia silvestria de institutis rerum publicarum deque optimis legibus dis- 
putat. M. De Nolhac (p. 329), who here quotes neither Cicero nor Plato, 
imagines that the Republic is meant (as well as the Laws), but the scene of 
that dialogue is quite different. 

2 Rer. Mem. ii i, p. 415; also De Ignorantia, pp. 1037, 1051. 

3 De Ignorantia, p. 1042. 

4 Eustachii (sic), wrongly identified as 'Eustathius' by De Nolhac, 337 
n. 3. 

5 De Ignorantia, 1035-59. 8 Sen. p. 734. 

7 Fain, i i p. 30 Fr. ; i 6 and 1 1 ; Sen. v 2 (3), p. 795. 

8 iii 62-4. 


that have survived enshrine for him the memory of great men of 
old whom he is glad to know 1 . Petrarch prepared the soil of 
Italy for the reception of Greek culture. It is possible that, but 
for his timely intervention, the Revival of Learning might have 
been delayed until it was too late. Between the death of Petrarch 
in 1374, and the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Italy recovered 
the Greek Classics 2 , 

It was owing to the influence of Petrarch that his great contem- 
porary, Boccaccio (13131375), began in early life 

to study the Latin Classics 3 . His education had 

unfortunately been left unfinished ; and his knowledge of Latin 
remained imperfect to the last. A legend told by Filippo Villani 4 
ascribes his first love of poetry to a visit paid to the tomb of Virgil 
at Naples. A devoted student of Dante, he sent his own transcript 
of Dante's immortal poem 5 , and of certain works of Cicero and 
Varro 6 , as a gift to Petrarch, whom he had long admired, but 
had never met until he saw him in Florence in 1350. Boccaccio 

1 Fam. Hi 18, p. 178 Fr. 

2 Symonds, 86 f. For the text of Petrarch I have generally referred to the 
second Basel folio ed. of 1581 (my copy bears the autograph of Tho s Campbell, 
who used it in writing his Life of Petrarch, 1841); also to Fracassetti's ed. of 
the Epp. de Rebus Familiaribus et Variae, 3 vols. 8vo, Florence, 1859-63. 
These letters have been translated and annotated by the editor in five vols. 
(1863-7), and the Epp. Seniles in two (1869). Cp. F. X. Kraus, Pelrarca in 
s. Briefwechsel, 'Essays', i, 1896. The first ed. of his De Viribus Illustribtis, 
and the best ed. of his Africa, were published at Bologna and Padua respec- 
tively in 1874 (the sooth anniversary of his death), which is also the date of 
Geiger's Petrarka (Leipzig), 277 pp. Cp. Voigt, Humanismus, i 20 is6 3 ; 
Kdrting, Litteratnr Italiens, i 1878; Geiger, Renaissance u. Humanismus, 
22 44, 565 f; De Nolhac, Pelrarque et r Humanisme, 1892, ed. 2, 1907, and 
the literature quoted in these works ; Sabbadini, // primo nncleo della Biblio- 
teca del Petrarca, in Rendiconti del R. 1st. Lomb. di sc. e left. (1906), 369 
388 ; also Symonds, Renaissance, ii 69 87% and Robinson and Rolfe, 
Petrarch, The First Modern Scholar and Man of Letters, with translations 
from his Correspondence (New York, 1898). 

3 De casibus illustrium virorum, fol. 90, (P.), quern ego ab ineunte juven- 
tute mea prae ceteris colueram. 

4 F. Villani, De Civitatis Florentiae Famosis Civibus, ed. Galletti, 17; 
Symonds, Boccaccio, 21. 

6 Petrarch, Fam. xxi 15, c. 1359 (the copy is now in the Vatican). 
6 ib. xviii 4. 

H ITALY. [CENT. xiv. 

was the link between Petrarch and the city of Petrarch's ancestors. 
It was through Boccaccio that Petrarch's influence first made 
itself felt in Florence, and it was at Petrarch's prompting that 
Boccaccio learnt Greek, and thus became the earliest of the 
Greek scholars of the modern world. Both are equally eager for 
literary fame, and both of them hope to attain immortality by 
their Latin rather than by their Italian works. But Boccaccio's 
Latin prose lacks the freshness of that of Petrarch, and is notably 
inferior to all that he wrote, whether in prose or in verse, in his 
native tongue. While Petrarch is interested in the spirit of the 
ancient Classics, Boccaccio is absorbed in trivial items of subject- 
matter, and busies himself in the collection of a multitude of 
minor memoranda from their pages 1 . Petrarch's Latin work 
'On Illustrious Men' prompted Boccaccio to write 'On Famous 
Women', as well as on the 'Falls of Princes' 2 , in which prominence 
is given to Greek legends. His principal Latin work is a small 
folio on Mythology, claiming to be founded on ancient authorities 
alone 3 . It is the earliest modern handbook of the subject, and 
its allegorical treatment of the old legends' must have given it a 
peculiar interest in the eyes of the author's contemporaries 4 . 
His less important work on 'Mountains, Woods and Waters', 
written to aid the study of the Latin poets, is simply an alphabetical 
dictionary of ancient geography, founded on Vibius Sequester. 
Both of these works, however, deserve recognition as the pre- 
cursors of our modern Dictionaries of Ancient Mythology and of 

Boccaccio had a wide knowledge of the Latin poets 5 , and 
with his own hand he made himself a complete copy of Terence, 
which is still preserved in the Laurentian Library 8 . He sees 
the importance of comparing the texts of ancient MSS, but beyond 
that stage he does not advance. He differs from Petrarch in 

1 Schiick in Neuejahrb. 1874 (2), 467 f. 

2 The title of Lydgate's version of De Casibus Viroriim Illustrium (W. P. 
Ker, Medieval Essays, 70). . u ! . 

3 1. xv c. 5. Cp. Schiick, Zur Charakteristik der italienischen Humanisten 

(1857), 122. 

4 F. Villani, I.e. 17, mysteria poetarum sensusque medium 
...perduxit; cp. Hortis, Accenni etc., 1877, and Stttdi, 229 256. 

6 Hortis, Studi, 389 413. 6 xxxviii 17; Hortis, Studi, 339. 


being uncritical. He is specially attracted to the two Latin 
historians, Livy and Tacitus. His appreciation of Livy is proved 
not only by abundant quotations from that historian, but also by 
a manuscript in the Laurentian Library 1 , which has on the fly-leaf 
some introductory notes by Boccaccio, first published from another 
source by Hearne the antiquary 2 , and not traced to their true 
author until many years later 3 . Boccaccio was the first humanist 
to quote Varro, and he may have obtained from Monte Cassino 
the extant archetype of all our MSS of that writer 4 . He also 
discovered the Ibis of Ovid, besides Martial, Ausonius, the 
Appendix Vergiliana, and the Priapeia, the earliest copy of which 
is written in his own hand 5 . His interest in the preservation of 
ancient manuscripts in general, perhaps even his interest in Tacitus 
in particular, is illustrated by the story of his visit to Monte 
Cassino, as told by his pupil Benvenuto in expounding the twenty- 
second canto of the Paradiso : 

Being eager to see the library, which, he had heard, was very noble, he 
humbly besought one of the monks to do him the favour of opening it. 
Pointing to a lofty staircase, the monk answered stiffly: 'Go up; it is already 
open'. Boccaccio stepped up the staircase with delight, only to find the 
treasure-house of learning destitute of door or any kind of fastening, while the 
grass was growing on the window-sills and the dust reposing on the books and 
bookshelves. Turning over the manuscripts, he found many rare and ancient 
works, with whole sheets torn out, or with the margins ruthlessly clipped. As 
he left the room, he burst into tears, and, on asking a monk, whom he met in 
the cloister, to explain the neglect, was told that some of the inmates of the 
monastery, wishing to gain a few soldi, had torn out whole handfuls of leaves 
and made them into psalters, which they sold to boys, and had cut off strips of 
parchment, which they turned into amulets, to sell to women 6 . 

In connexion with this story it has been suggested that the 

1 IxiiiS. 2 Oxford, 1708. 

" Hortis, Cenni di Giovanni Boccaccio intorno a Tito Livio, Trieste, 1877, 
and Studi, 1879, P- 3 ! 7 f > an d, on ms study of Livy, id. 416 424. 

4 Laur. 1 10. 

6 Laur. xxxiii $\. Cp. Sabbadini, Scoperte, 28 33. 

6 Benvenuto on Paradiso xxii 74 f, ed. Lacaita v 301 ; cp. Corazzini, xxxvf, 
and notes on Longfellow's Dante, I.e. (brevia is not, however, 'breviaries', but 
'charms' or 'amulets'; see Ducange, s. v. ). The story, not unnaturally, 
meets with protest from the learned historian of Monte Cassino, Tosti's Storia, 
iii 99. 

14 ITALY. [CENT. xiv. 

well-known manuscript of the Histories and the latter part of the 
Annals of Tacitus, which in some mysterious manner came into 
the possession of Niccoli before 1427 \ and passed into the 
Medicean Library after his death, was perhaps originally obtained 
by Boccaccio from Monte Cassino. It is written in a 'Lombard' 
hand, and this very manuscript may have come from that 
monastery. What is certain is that Boccaccio possessed a copy 
of Tacitus, transcribed by himself, possibly from the manuscript 
which ultimately found its way into the Medicean collection 2 . 
He is undoubtedly the first of the humanists who is at all familiar 
with that historian. In his commentary on Dante he quotes 
the substance of the historian's account of the death of Seneca; 
and, in his work 'On Famous Women', he borrows descriptions 
of certain notable personages from the thirteenth to the sixteenth 
books of the Annals, and from the second and third books of the 
Histories 3 . 

After the date of his conversion in 1361, the author of the 
Decameron, and of Fiammetta and the Amorosa Visione, ceases 
to be a poet either in prose or verse, but he never ceases to be a 
scholar 4 . As a scholar, he was content to remain poor rather 
than sacrifice his independence. Apart from a few diplomatic 
missions, the only office he ever held was that of being the first 
to fill the lectureship on Dante, founded in Florence in 1373. 
He left his MSS to the Convent of Santo Spirito, where they were 
carefully tended by Niccoli in his youth. The catalogue of 1451 
contains 106 MSS S . In the modest epitaph, which he wrote for 
himself, the only touch of pride is in the final phrase : Studium 

io, Epp- iii 14. 

2 He writes to the abbot of Montefalcone, 'quaternum quem asportasti 
Cornel ii Taciti quaeso saltern mittas, ne laborem meum frustraveris et libro 
deformitatem ampliorem addideris' (Corazzini, p. 59, corrected in Hortis, 
Siudi, 425,- n. 4). Cp. Rostagno, p. vi Q{ facsimile of Tacitus, Laur. Ixviii 2. 

3 Schiick in Neue Jahrb. 1874 ( 2 )> '7 Hortis, Sludi, 425 f; De Nolhac 
in Melanges d'archeol. etc. xii (Rome, 1892); and other literature in Voigt, i 
250* n. i. 

4 Symonds, Boccaccio, 63 f, 70. 

5 Goldrhann, Centralblatt fj'ir Bibliothekswesen iv (1887), 137 155; No- 
vati, in Giornale star, della letter, ital. x 4191^ and Hecker, Boccaccio- Funde 
(Braunschweig, 1902), 29 36. 


fuit alma poesis. Like Browning's ' Grammarian ', he was hot 
prevented, even by the trials and tortures of old age 1 , from 
remaining a brave and arduous scholar to the last ; and, when he 
died, in the year following the death of Petrarch, the chancellor 
of Florence declared that both of the luminaries of the new 
eloquence had been extinguished, and that he had never known 
a more loveable being than Boccaccio 2 . 

Boccaccio was not only the earliest modern student of 
Tacitus. He was also the first of modern men to study Greek in 
Italy, and indeed in Europe. Part of his Greek lore he derived 
from king Robert's librarian at Naples, one Paolo da Perugia, who 
had obtained from the Calabrian monk, Barlaam, a number of 
fragmentary details connected with Greek mythology. When 
Barlaanrs pupil, another Calabrian, Leontius Pilatus, had arrived 
in Venice from the East about 1360, Boccaccio promptly invited 
him to come and teach Greek in Florence, and kept him in his own 
house for three years translating Homer, while he carefully noted 
all the little items of Greek learning that fell from the lips of his 
ignorant and ill-favoured instructor 3 . 

He has a fancy for giving clumsily compounded Greek names 
to his Italian works. Greek and Roman mythology obtrudes 
itself in his Filocopo. The scene of his Amelo is laid in an 
imaginary Arcadia; that of the Teseide at Athens, while his 
Filostrato professes to be a tale of Troy 4 . Like Petrarch 5 , he 
declines to believe that Plato ever proposed the expulsion of 
Homer from his ideal State ; and, in defending the ancient poets, 
he takes refuge in allegorical interpretations 6 . He shows some 
slight knowledge of the Ethics, Politics, and Meteorologica of 

1 Ep. ad Brossanum, p. 378 Corazzini. 

2 Salutati, ap. Corazzini, pp. 475, 477. 

3 De Gen. Dear, xv c. 6, aspectu horridus homo est, turpi facie, barba pro- 
lixa, et capilitio nigro, et meditatione occupatus assiclua,- moribus incultus, 
nee satis urbanus homo etc. Petrarch, Sen. iii 6, calls 'Leo' a 'magna bellua, ' 
and 'Graius moestissimus' (Mortis, Stitdi, 502). 

4 Symonds, Boccaccio, 30, 39, 47-91 78. 

5 Contra Mcdiciun, iii p. 1 104 init. 

6 De Gen. Dear, xiv c. 10, stultum credere poe'tas nil sensisse sub cortice 

1 6 ITALY. [CENT. xiv. 

Aristotle, and, in a single passage of his Commentary on Dante, 
mentions the writings on Logic and Metaphysics^. 

In his work on Greek Mythology he assumes that he will be 
charged with ostentation for quoting lines of Greek from Homer. 
In reply, he glories in the fact that, alone of all the Tuscans, he 
has Greek poems at his disposal, and proudly claims to have been 
the first to offer hospitality to a teacher of Greek in Italy, the first 
to introduce the poems of Homer into Tuscany, the first of all 
Italians to resume the reading of Homer 2 . 

1 Hortis, Studi, 378380. 

2 De Gen. Dear. c. 7; cp. Manetti, Vita Boccaccii, eel. Galletti. 91, quic- 
quid apud nos Graecorum est, Boccaccio nostro feratur acceptum. In study- 
ing the Latin works, I have used fohannis Bocatii irepl yet>ea\oyias Deorum 
libri xv. . . ; ejusdem de Moniium, Sylvarum etc. nominibus (small folio, Basel, 
1532), with Hortis, Sludi sulle Of ere Latine del Boccaccio, 956 pp., large 410 
(Trieste, 1879), and Corazzini's Lettere edite e inedite (small 8vo, Firenze, 
1877). Cp. in general Voigt, i 162 183*; Korting, Litteratur /(aliens, ii 
(1880); Geiger, Renaissance und Humanismus, 45 69; Gaspary, Italienische 
Literatur, ii i 69, 636 645 ; and Feuerlein, Petrarca und Boccaccio, in Hist. 
Zeitschr. xxxviii 193 f; also Symonds, Renaissance, ii 87 98, and Giovanni 
Boccaccio (1895). 

From a medallion in the British Museum, inscribed 

Cp. Alois Heiss, Les Mddailleurs de la Renaissance (1891), i 140. 



SHORTLY after the death of Boccaccio, we have a glimpse of the 
interest inspired by the Classics in two of the social The villa 
circles of Florence. In the brilliant company that Paradiso, and 
frequented the Villa Paradiso of the Alberti, the 
conversation sometimes turned on Odysseus and Catiline, on 
Livy and Ovid, on the ancient Roman Empire, and the old 
Latin language 1 . A more learned society assembled at Santo 
Spirito, where the centre of the traditions of Boccaccio and of 
Petrarch was the eminent theologian and patriot, Luigi de' 
Marsigli (d. 1394), who was familiar with Cicero, Virgil and 
Seneca, and followed St Augustine in assigning a moral meaning 
to the scene in the Odyssey, where the comrades of Odysseus are 
transformed into swine by the wand of Circe. Among those who 
came under Marsigli's influence were Coluccio Salutati, Roberto 
de' Rossi, and Niccol6 Niccoli 2 . 

Salutati (1330 1406), who was educated at Bologna and 
corresponded with Petrarch in his youth, held 
the high office of chancellor, or Latin secretary, of saiuta"' 
Florence from 1375 to his death. Like Petrarch, 
he was a great collector of Latin MSS. He eagerly sought for 
the lost books of Livy, for Pompeius Trogus, and for a complete 
copy of Curtius and of Quintilian. He obtained a transcript (1375) 
of the Verona MS of Catullus, and of Petrarch's Propertius, 
together with a Tibullus, which is still in existence 3 . He was the 
first to possess a copy of Cato, De Agricultura, the elegies of 
Maximianus, the Aratea of Germanicus and the commentary of 

1 Giovanni da Prato, II Paradiso degli Alberti, ed. Wesselofsky, 1867. 

2 Voigt, i 184 i9O : '. 3 Ed. Baehrens, Proleg. pp. vii, x. 

S. II. 2 

1 8 ITALY. [CENT. xiv. 

Pompeius on the Ars maior of Donatus 1 . On learning in 1389 
that the two MSS of Cicero's Letters, from Verona and Vercelli, 
were at Milan, he caused a copy to be made from the Vercelli 
MS, which he found, to his joy, contained the Letters Ad 
Familiares, unknown to Petrarch. In 1392 he received from 
Milan a copy of the Verona MS of the Letters Ad Atticum, 
Ad Quintum Fratrem and the Correspondence with Brutus, the 
only MS of Cicero's Letters which Petrarch had himself discovered 
and transcribed 2 . Thus, after the lapse of centuries, the two 
volumes of Cicero's Letters stood side by side at last in the two 
ancient MSS at Milan, and in the two modern transcripts in the 
possession of Salutati in Florence 3 . Both of the latter are now 
in the Laurentian Library 4 , together with the original of the 
Ad Familiares, the MS from Vercelli 5 . 

Salutati was much more than a mere collector. We find him 
drawing up summaries of Cicero's Letters, and collating MSS of 
Seneca and St Augustine. He detects the spuriousness of the 
De Differentiis, formerly ascribed to Cicero. He encourages 
younger scholars, and among those whose gratitude he thus won, 
were men of no less mark than Poggio Bracciolini and Leonardo 
Bruni. He was honoured with a public funeral in the Cathedral. 
A full-length portrait of the Chancellor of Florence, a gaunt and 
grim personage with a Roman nose, robed in the black gown of 
his office, and bending beneath the weight of a vast volume which 
he holds in his hands, forms the frontispiece of the monumental 
edition of his Latin Letters 6 . 

1 Sabbadini, Scoperte, 34 f. 2 P- 7 supra. 

3 Cp. Voigt, Ber. d. sacks. Ges. d. Wiss. 1879, 4165; Viertel, Konigs- 
berg Progr. 1879, anAJahrb. fur kl. Phil. 1880, 231 247; and Cic. Epp. ed. 
Mendelssohn (1893), xi f ; also Leighton, in Trans. Ainer. Phil. Assoc. xxi 
59 87, and Kirner, in Studi ital. di filol. d. ix 399. 

* xlix 7 (Ad Familiares) and 18 (Ad Atticum). 

6 xlix 9. 

6 Epistolario, ed. Novati, in 3 vols, large 8vo, Rome, 1891-6; frontispiece 
to vol. i, reproduced in Wiese u. Percopo, Ital. Lift. 193 ; frontispiece to 
vol. iii, an earlier portrait by Cristoforo Allori ; facsimiles from his letters in 
iii 621, 661. More than a quarter of vol. iv part i (1905) is occupied with his 
defence of the ancient poets and of classical education. Cp., in general, 
Voigt, i 190 21 2 3 . 


Salutati was of signal service in promoting the study of Greek 
in Florence. The youthful Guarino of Verona had 

11 i i t r T.J- i Chrysoloras 

been prompted by the high reputation of Manuel 
Chrysoloras (c. 1350 1415), as a teacher of rhetoric and 
philosophy, to seek a place in his household at Constantinople 
with a view to profiting by his instructions 1 . The gratitude of 
Guarino caused the name of Chrysoloras to become widely 
known in the north of Italy ; and Chrysoloras and the aged 
Demetrius Cydonius had hardly landed in Venice as envoys of 
Manuel Palaeologus (1393), when two of the noble sons of 
Florence hastened to obtain the benefit of their teaching. One 
of them, Giacomo da Scarparia, accompanied the envoys on their 
return to the Byzantine capital, there to learn Greek from 
Cydonius. The other, Roberto de' Rossi, acquired some know- 
ledge of the language in Venice, and inspired the aged Salutati 
with an interest in Greek and in Chrysoloras. Salutati urged 
Scarparia to search for MSS of all the Greek historians and poets, 
and of Homer in particular, together with Plato and Plutarch, 
and lexicons of the Greek language 2 . In 1396 he was authorised 
by influential persons, such as Palla Strozzi and Niccol6 Niccoli, 
to invite Chrysoloras to leave Constantinople and to settle in 
Florence as a teacher of Greek. He accepted the invitation, and 
held that office for four years (1396 1400). Under his influence, 
Giacomo da Scarparia translated the Cosmography of Ptolemy, 
and Rossi certain of the works of Aristotle 3 ; Palla Strozzi, in 
later life, produced renderings from the Greek, but Niccoli never 
attained any intimate knowledge of the language. The most 
enthusiastic pupils of the new teacher were younger men, such 
as Leonardo Bruni, Carlo Marsuppini, and possibly Ambrogio 
Traversari. Bruni had been engaged for four years in the study 
of law, when the arrival of Chrysoloras prompted him to learn 
a language that no Italian had understood 'for the last seven 

1 Janus Pannonius, Delitiae poetariim Hung. (1619), 8 f (Legrand, Bibl. 
Hillen. i xix), famulus colis atria docti hospitis, et mixto geris auditore minis- 

2 Salutati, Epp. iii 129 132. 

3 Attested in Guarino's dedication of Plutarch's Flamininus, ap. Bandini, 
CataL Cod. Lat. ii 738. 

2 2 

20 ITALY. [CENT. xiv. 

centuries ' ', a language that would unlock for him the treasures of 
Homer, Plato and Demosthenes, and of all the poets, philosophers 
and orators, of whom he had heard such wonders 2 . Bruni learnt 
Greek for two years under Chrysoloras, and his memorable transla- 
tions from the Greek will be mentioned at a later point 3 . Another 
notable pupil, Vergerio, left a distinguished position as a teacher 
at Padua, to learn Greek in Florence. But the first enthusiasm 
for Greek had begun to abate on the Arno, when Chrysoloras, in 
obedience to the bidding of the emperor Manuel Palaeologus, 
left Florence in 1400 for Milan, where he was invited in 1402 to 
teach Greek at Pavia. It was there that he commenced a literal 
rendering of Plato's Republic^ afterwards revised by his favourite 
pupil Uberto Decembrio 4 , who transmitted to his scholarly son, 
Pier Candido 5 , a reverence for the memory of Chrysoloras. The 
latter returned for a time to the East, but between 1407 and 1410 
he was once more in the West as the envoy of his emperor, the 
places visited during these years including Venice, Florence, 
Paris, London 6 , and finally Rome. He was afterwards sent to 
Constantinople to treat with the patriarch on the union of the 
Churches. In 1413 he went to Germany with two cardinals to 
arrange about the Council of Constance, and at Constance he 
died of a fever in the spring of 1415. He was buried, not in the 
church of the Dominican monastery, but in a chapel between the 
north side of the choir and the sacristy. The monastery has been 
secularised ; the finely vaulted church has become the dining- 
room, and the adjoining chapel the pantry, of the Insel- Hotel '; but 

1 This interval of time (in which several other humanists agree) is deemed 
too small by Hody (p. 54), and by others. But it closely corresponds to the 
statement in Martin Crusius, Annales Suevici 274, that Greek was extinguished 
in Italy in 690 A.D. (exactly 706 years before). 

2 Hody, 28 30; cp. Gibbon, vii 122 Bury, and Symonds, ii uof. 

3 p. 45 f infra. 

4 Cod. Laur. Lat. Ixxxix 50. 

8 See his letter in Traversari, Epp. xxiv 69. He was only a child of three 
when Chrysoloras reached Pavia. 

6 />. aijoannem (Palaeologum //) imperatorem, tv y fftiyKpiffis TT?S TroXcuas 
leal ^as 'Pti/wys, in Migne, P. G. clvi 343, /^/wjj/uat 5t rijs iv AovBivli? TTJS Bpe- 
avroa (St Peter and St Paul) iro/tT^j Kal ravriytpcus r&v 


on the ceiling of the ancient chapel the traveller may still read the 
simple epitaph composed by Vergerio in memory of his master 1 . 

His funeral was attended by his Roman pupil, the poet Cenci, 
and by Poggio Bracciolini. The catechism of Greek Grammar 
known as his Erotemata, the earliest modern text-book of the 
subject, was printed in Florence shortly before 1484 and at 
Venice in the February of that year, and was afterwards used by 
Linacre at Oxford and by Erasmus at Cambridge. We also have 
his letter to Guarino on the meaning of the term Theorica in 
Demosthenes, and on the edition of the Iliad described by 
Plutarch as that of the narthex*. But he was unproductive as an 
author, and needlessly diffuse and redundant as a teacher. In his 
general character, however, he was a man of a far finer type than 
either of his precursors, Barlaam and Leontius Pilatus. His 
pupil Poggio, who, in his relation to others, is only too apt to give 
proof of an implacable and bitter temper, is eloquent in praise of 
his master's integrity, generosity and kindness, and of that grave 
and sober earnestness, which was in itself an incentive to virtue. 
He had been a bright example to others, a heaven-sent messenger 
who had aroused an enthusiasm for the study of Greek 3 . His 
fame was cherished by another celebrated pupil, Guarino, who 
compared him to a ray of light illuminating the deep darkness of 
Italy. Forty years after his master's death, he fondly collected all 
the many tributes to his memory and enshrined them in a volume 
under the title of Chrysolorina*. A Greek MS that once belonged 
to Chrysoloras is now at Wolfenbiittel 5 , and his own transcript 
of Demosthenes in the Vatican 6 . 

1 Ante aram situs est D. Emanuel Chrysoloras,... vir doctissimus, prudent- 
issimus, optimus etc. (complete copy in Legrand, I xxviii f ). An epitaph, which 
I have seen in the Portinari chapel (1462-6) of the church of S. Eustorgio in 
Milan, strangely confounds Manuel Chrysoloras, litterarum Graecarum resti- 
tutor, with his nephew John, the father-in-law of Philelphus. 

2 Rosmini, Vita di Guarino, iii 181, 187 189. 

3 Pgg'> Epp' i 4> xiii ' 

4 Partly preserved in Harleian MS 2580 (Sabbadini, La Scitola...di Guarino, 
16). Cp., in general, Voigt, i 222 232 s ; ii H3 S ; also Hody, 12 54; Le- 
grand, Bibliographic Hellenique, I xix xxx ; and Klette, Beitrage, i 47 f- 
Portrait in Paulus Jovius, Elogia (1575) 41, copied in Legrand, in 59. 

5 Gud. 24. 6 Gr. 1368 (De Nolhac, Bibl. de F. Orsini, 145). 


Meanwhile, an interest in Latin literature was maintained and 
developed in Northern Italy by the enthusiastic student of 
Cicero, Gasparino da Barzizza, to whom we shall soon return 1 , 
and by two earlier Latin scholars, both of them bearing the 
identical name of 'John of Ravenna' 2 . One of the two was a 
pupil of Petrarch, a youthful humanist, who has been identified 
as Giovanni di Conversino da Ravenna (1347 
c^ver^no dl c - I 46)- He was recommended to Petrarch in 
1364, and aided him in editing his 'Familiar 
Letters'. His beautiful penmanship, his marvellous memory, 
and his zeal for learning made his master desire to retain him 
permanently in his service. He left for Pisa (1366) and soon 
returned. After a while he was eager to go to Constantinople 
and learn Greek ; but Petrarch assured him that Greece was 
no longer a home of learning 3 , and accordingly he started for 
'Calabria', with letters of introduction to persons in Rome and 
Naples. We afterwards find him teaching in Florence (1368), 
Belluno and Udine, but the only place in which he settled for 
long was Padua, where he was a teacher of rhetoric in 1382, and 
again from 1394 to 1405. Besides serving as Latin secretary to 
the house of the Carraras, he lectured on the Latin poets, and 
aroused an interest in the study of Cicero. Among his pupils 
were the foremost teachers of the next generation, Vittorino da 
Feltre and Guarino da Verona 4 . He was formerly confounded 
with another ' John of Ravenna ', now finally identified as 
Giovanni Malpaghini (fl. 1397 1417), who was 
a teacher in Florence for many years, counting 
among his pupils the three future Chancellors, 
Leonardo Bruni, Carlo Marsuppini and Poggio Bracciolini 5 . 
Early in the fifteenth century Gasparino of Barzizza, near 

1 p. 23 infra. 

2 They were regarded, even by so eminent an authority as Voigt, as one 
and the same person. 

3 Epp. Sen. xi 9, p. 887, Graeciam...nunc omnis longe inopem disciplinae. 

4 Voigt, i 2I2-0, 1 , ed. 3, revised by Lehnerdt. See esp. the Konigsberg 
Programm of the latter (1893), with Sabbadini in Giornale storico delta lett. 
ital. V (1888) 156 f, and Klette's Beitrcige, i (1888). 

8 Voigt, i 2i9 3 f. 


Bergamo (c. 1370 1431) taught for a time in Pavia, Venice, 
Padua and Ferrara, and in 1418 found his earliest 
hopes fulfilled by his final settlement in Milan. B i^ a a rino da 
He expounded the De Oratore, De Senectute, De 
Officiis, Philippics and Letters of Cicero, the last of these being 
his favourite study. He collected Ciceronian Mss 1 , and gave a 
strong impulse to the study of Cicero, and especially to the 
cultivation of a new style of epistolary Latin. Henceforward, 
Latin letters were neither to be inspired by Seneca and the 
philosophical works of Cicero, as those of Petrarch, nor were they 
to be rich in rhetoric, like those of Salutati. They were to aim at 
a studied carelessness, and to reflect the grace of the best type of 
conversation. Gasparino's own style was sometimes criticised as 
marked by elegance and refinement rather than force and vigour. 
But his style is not uniform. It is marked by three main 
varieties : (i) the easy and familiar style of his private corre- 
spondence, in which, however, he is far too fond of the mediaeval 
use of quod; (2) his orations, which include not a few un- 
Ciceronian words and phrases, while his eulogy of St Francis 
combines classical and Christian phraseology without any breach 
of good taste ; and (3) his formal models for epistolary Latin 
composition, Epistolae ad exercitationem accommodatae. It is in 
these last that he attains the highest degree of correctness ; it is 
in these alone that he proves himself 'the true apostle of 
Ciceronianism' 2 . It is characteristic of the French appreciation 
of literary and epistolary style that his liber epistolarum was the 
first book printed in France 3 . 

1 Sabbadini, Scoperte, 36. 

2 Sabbadini, Ciceronianismo, 13 17. 

3 Paris, 1470; copy exhibited in British Museum, King's Library, case vii. 
His book on Orthography was published about the same time, while his 
Grammar was printed at Brescia in 1492. Opera, ed. Furietti, Rome, 1723; 
two of his Latin lectures in K. Mtillner's Reden utid Briefen, 56 f. Cp. Voigt, 
i 22o 3 f, 5o6 3 , and facsimile in Chap, xiii infra. 



THE quest for classical manuscripts, begun by Petrarch 1 and 
continued by Boccaccio 2 and Salutati 3 , was extended beyond the 
borders of Italy during the Council of Constance (1414 1418). 
That famous Council witnessed not only the death of the first 
great teacher of Greek in Italy, but also the discovery of not a 
few of the old Latin Classics. Foremost in the quest was 
Poggio Bracciolini(i38o i45g) 4 . Born at Terranuovo 
near Arezzo, and educated at Florence under Giovanni 
Malpaghini and Chrysoloras, he had been a papal secretary since 
1403, and attended the Council in that capacity. During the 
vacancy in the 'Apostolic See', from 24 May 1415 to u November 
1417, the papal secretary had no official duties to perform, and it 
was during this interval that his principal discoveries were made. 
These discoveries are connected with four distinct expeditions : 
(i) to Cluni in the summer of 1415, (2) to St Gallen in the 
summer of 1416, (3) to St Gallen and other monasteries early in 
1417, and (4) to Langres and other places in France and in 
Germany in the summer of the same year 5 . 

(i) At Cluni b , north of Macon, Poggio found an ancient MS 
of Cicero's Speeches, including the pro Cluentio, pro Sexto Roscio, 
and pro Murena"*. Recent researches have proved that it also 

1 p. 7, sztpra. 2 p. 14 f. 3 p. 171". 

4 Cp. Voigt, i 235251, 257 26o 3 . 

6 These four expeditions have been carefully discriminated by Sabbadini, 
Le Scoperte dei Codici Lalini e Greet ne' secoli xiv e xv (Firenze, 1905). 

6 Pggi Epp- ii 7> ex tnonaslerio Cluniacensi. 

7 Epp. ii 26 (to Niccoli), Orationes meas Cluniacenses potes mittere... 
Scribas mihi quae orationes sunt in eo volumine praeter Cluentianam, pro 
Roscio et Murena. 

26 ITALY. [CENT. xiv. 

included the pro Milone and pro Cae/io 1 . Poggio rescued the MS 
from the risk of destruction and sent it to his friends in Florence, 
where Francesco Barbaro had great difficulty in deciphering it 2 . 
The earliest known copy was completed in February, 1416, for 
Cosimo de' Medici by 'Joannes Arretinus', doubtless the calli- 
grapher of that name 3 . 

(2) In Poggio's expedition to St Gallen in the summer of 
1416, his comrades were Bartolomeo da Montepulciano, who soon 
took a prominent part in the transcription of the newly discovered 
Latin MSS ; Cencio Rustici, who like Poggio and Bartolomeo, was 
a pupil of Chrysoloras, and was engaged in translations from the 
Greek ; and Zomino (Sozomeno) of Pistoia, whose knowledge of 
Greek, combined with an interest in Grammar and Rhetoric, 
prompted him to collect 116 Latin and Greek MSS in Constance 
and elsewhere, which he ultimately bequeathed to his native city 
(d. 1458)*. So eager was the quest that even the wretched con- 
dition of the roads did not prevent Poggio and Bartolomeo and 
Cencio from sallying forth from Constance, and climbing the 
steep slopes that led to St Gallen some twenty miles distant. In 
that ancient home of learning they found the abbot and the 
monks absolutely uninterested in literature, and many a precious 
MS lying amid the dust and damp and darkness of one of the 
towers of the abbey-church, a noisome prison (says Poggio) to 
which even criminals condemned to death would never have been 
consigned 5 . Cencio, who was deeply moved at the sight, declares 
that, if those scrolls could have found a voice, they would have 
exclaimed : ' O ye, who love the Latin tongue, suffer us not to 

1 A. C. Clark, in Anecdota Oxoniensia, x (1905), The Vetus Cluniacensis 
of Poggio, p. iii. Poggio's MS is there identified with no. 496 in the Cluni 
catalogue of cent, xii, ' Cicero pro Milone et pro Avito et pro Murena et pro 
quibusdatn aliis'. Before Poggio's MS was removed to Italy, readings from it, 
including the pro Milone and pro Caelio, had been copied in a St Victor MS, 
now in Paris (Lat. 14,749). 

2 Guarino on Rose. 132, quoted in Clark's Anecdoton, iii. 

3 Sabbadini, Scoperte, 77 n. 22. On other copies, see Clark, xxxix. 

4 Vespasiano, Vite, 503-5, a short life of 'Zembino Pistolese'. His uni- 
versal chronicle is partly printed in Muratori, Scr. xvi 1063. 

5 Poggio, Epp. i 5 (to Guarino, 15 Dec. 1416). 


perish here; release us from our prison' 1 . Among Poggio's first 
discoveries was a complete copy of the Institutio Oratoria of 
Quintilian 2 , a work which Petrarch had never known except in an 
imperfect and mutilated form 3 , and which Salutati had vainly 
hoped to obtain from France 4 , while Gasparino da Barzizza had 
audaciously undertaken to supply the missing portions by means 
of compositions of his own 5 . Poggio hastened to send the good 
news to Niccoli and Bruni in Florence, carried off the MS to 
Constance, and copied it himself in 53 days 6 . His transcript was 
apparently still in the Medicean Library in 1495 7 an( ^ Gasparino 
obtained a second copy direct from Constance 8 . 

At the same time Poggio discovered a MS of the Argonautica 
of Valerius Flaccus, containing books i iv 317. He made a 
copy, which became the source of other transcripts, and has itself 
been identified with a MS now in Madrid 9 . Another copy, 
probably made for Bartolomeo by some ignorant German scribe, 

1 Cencio to Francesco da Fiano in Rome, in Quirinus (Angelo Maria 
Querini), Dlatriba ad Fr. Barbari Epp. (1741), p. 8. 

2 Epp. i 5, ibi inter confertissimam librorum copiam, quos longum est per- 
censere, Quintilianum comperimus adhuc salvum et incolumem, plenum tamen 
situ et pulvere squalentem.. Repperimus praeterea libros tres primos et dimi- 
diam partem quarti C. Valeri Flacci Argonauticon, et expositiones... super 
octo Ciceronis orationes Q. Asconii Pediani...Haec mea manu transcripsi, et 
quidem velociter, ut ea mitterem ad Leonardum Arretinum et Nicolaum Flo- 
rentinum ; qui cum a me huius thesauri adinventionem cognovissent, multis a 
me verbis Quintilianum per suas litteras quam primum ad eos mitti contende- 
runt. Cp. Bruni, Epp, iv 5. 

3 p. 8 supra. 

4 Ep, (i) in Thomas, De Johannis de Monsteriolo vita (1883) no; and (2) 
in Salutati's Epistolario, i 260. 

6 Blondus, Ital. Illustr. 346. 

6 Sede Apostolica vacante says the transcript of the colophon, quoted by 
Reifferscheid, in Rhein. Mus. 1868, 145. Bruni's reply to Poggio's first an- 
nouncement of his discoveries is dated 13 Sept. 1416 (Epp. iv 5). 

7 Archiv Star. Ital., Ser. Ill, xx 60. We have two transcripts from 
Poggio's: Vat. Urbin. 327, and Ambros. B 153 sup. (Sabbadini, Spogli 
Ambros. 350). 

8 Sabbadini, Studi di Gasp. Barzizza (1886), 4. 

9 x 8 1 (facsimile on p. 24), written in a more rapid hand than Poggio's 
transcript of Jerome and Prosper. For photographs from both MSS I am in- 
debted to Mr A. C. Clark. 

28 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

is in the library of Queen's College, Oxford 1 . A complete MS 
found its way into Italy at a later date (c. i^Si) 2 . 

Another of Poggio's finds was a MS containing the commentary 
of Asconius on five Speeches of Cicero, and that of an unknown 
scholiast on a large part of the Verrine Orations 3 . This MS was 
faithfully copied at Constance by Bartolomeo 4 and by Zomino s . 
Bartolomeo's transcript is now in the Laurentian Library 6 ; that of 
Zomino, at Pistoia. It was also copied, with greater freedom in 
conjectural emendation, by Poggio, whose transcript is still pre- 
served in Madrid, in the same volume as the Valerius Flaccus 
already mentioned 7 . A fair copy of Poggio's hasty transcript 
became the archetype of MSS in the Laurentian Library 8 and at 
Leyden. Poggio's free recension was followed in all editions of 
Asconius previous to that of Kiessling and Scholl, which is 
founded on the faithful transcripts of Bartolomeo and Zomino. 

Cencio, after stating that all the three MSS above-mentioned 
had been transcribed 9 , notes the discovery of a Comment of 
Priscian on a few lines of Virgil 10 , and a copy of Vitruvius. The 
latter was not unique, as we hear of a MS at Reichenau (still 
nearer to Constance), and of another in the papal library at 

(3) A second expedition to St Gallen was made amid the 
wintry snows of January, 141 7 la . This expedition was under 
official sanction, and Bartolomeo and Poggio are regarded as 
explorers of equal rank and authority 13 . St Gallen was not the 

I A. C. Clark, in Cl. Rev. xiii 119 130. 

* Vat. 3277 (cent, ix); Thilo, Proleg. xl ; cp. A. C. Clark, /. c., 124; Sab- 
badini, Scopcrte, 151. 

3 Div. Act. I, II, lib. i and ii, down to 35. 

4 25 July, 1416. B 23 July, 1417. 6 liv 5. 
7 A. C. Clark, in Cl. Rev. x 301-5. 8 liv 4. 

9 Quirinus, I.e., horum quidem omnium librorum exempla habfmus. 

10 Partitions (i.e. 'parsing') xii versuum Aeneidos. 

II Miintz, Hist, de V Art pendant la Renaissance, i 238. 

18 Bartolomeo's letter of 21 Jan. to Traversari (Epp. p. 984); vis hyemis 
and nives mentioned in Barbaro's subsequent letter to Poggio (p. 2), 6 July, 

13 F. Barbari, Epp. pp. 4, 6. Among the promoters of this expedition was 
Cardinal Branda (Sabbadini, Scoperte, 79, n. 33). 


only monastery visited. Bartolomeo alludes to one as 'in the 
heart of the Alps', probably Einsiedeln, and three others, doubt- 
less including the celebrated Benedictine abbey of Reichenau, 
founded in 724 on an island in the Untersee, and the later abbey 
of Weingarten less than 16 miles from the northern shore of the 
Lake of Constance. At St Gallen they found a Vegetius and a 
Pompeius Festus (i.e. the compendium by Paulus Diaconus), both 
of which were transcribed by Bartolomeo. Vegetius was in the 
library of Petrarch, but 'Pompeius Festus' was practically un- 
known 1 . The rest of the new finds were Lucretius, Manilius, 
Silius Italicus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and the grammarians 
Caper, Eutyches, and Probus. The Lucretius was discovered in 
a 'distant' monastery where a copy was made on Poggio's behalf 2 . 
It was probably in the summer of 1418 that this copy was sent to 
Niccoli, who apparently kept it until I434 3 , making in the mean- 
time the beautifully written transcript, now in the Laurentian 
Library, which is the ancestor of a whole family of Lucretian MSS. 
The Manilius is now represented by a transcript at Madrid 4 con- 
taining a number of readings not found in the earliest and best 
MS, that from Gembloux. Of the Punica of Silius Italicus, a work 
unknown in the Middle Ages, copies were made for Bartolomeo 
and for Poggio 5 , and of the four MSS, on which the text now rests, 
the two in Florence 6 probably represent the copy made for 

1 Sabbadini, 80, n. 36. 

2 Poggio to Barbara, early in 1418, 'Lucretius mihi nondum redditus est, 
cum sit scriptus : locus est satis longinquus, neque unde aliqui veniant ' (A- C. 
Clark, Cl. Rev. xiii 125). Murbach im Elsass has been proposed by Lehnerdt 
(Lucr. in der Renaissance, 5), who suggests that Poggio might have visited it 
during the expedition to Langres. 

3 Poggio to Niccoli, Epp- ii 26 (June, 1425), iv 2 (Dec. 1429; Munro, 
Lucr. p. 3 3 ; Lehnerdt, 5). 

4 R. Ellis, in Hermathena, viii (1893) 261 286, and Cl. Rev. vii 310, 356, 
406. The Madrid MS (M 31), containing Manilius and the Silvae, was origi- 
nally bound up with another MS (X 81) containing Asconius and Valerius 
Flaccus. At the beginning of theyfrj/ are the contents of the whole : Afanilii 
Aslronomicon Statii Papinii sylvae et Asconiu* Pedianus in Ciceronem et 
Valerii Flacci nonnulla; for the end of the second, see facsimile on p. 24, 
and cp. Clark, Cl. Rev. xiii 119. 

8 Clark, Cl. Rev. xiii 126-9; xv 166. 
6 L (Laur. xxxvii 16) and F. 

3O ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

Poggio, and the two others 1 that made for Bartolomeo. Fulda 
was the unnamed source of the MS of books xiv to xxxi of 
Ammianus Marcellinus, which was possibly brought to Constance 
by the abbot himself 2 . It ultimately found its way into the 
Vatican Library 3 . Poggio afterwards essayed in vain to obtain 
another MS of the same historian from Hersfeld 4 . By Probus 
(who is mentioned with the two other grammarians) is meant the 
Ars minor or Institutio Artium that bears his name. 

(4) In the summer of 1417 Poggio discovered, probably at 
Langres on the Marne, the/w Caectna 5 ; and, in unnamed monas- 
teries of France or Germany, seven other speeches, namely the 
three de lege agraria, the two entitled pro Rabirio, with the pro 
Rostio Comoedo, and the speech in Pisonem*. At Constance, 
early in 1418, Poggio was still in possession of his transcript of 
these speeches, but he afterwards sent it to Venice, where it was 
kept by Francesco Barbaro until I436 7 . It is only through this 
transcript, and its copies, that the text of the two speeches pro 
Rabirio has descended to posterity, while the transcripts of the 
Cluni MS, discovered by Poggio in his first expedition, are the sole 
authority for the pro Murena and the/n? Sexto Roscio, 

1 O (Oxon. Coll. Regin.) and V (Vat. 1652). 

2 Ziegelbauer (ap. Urlichs, in Rhein. Mus. xxvi 638), lectissima de sua 
bibliotheca exportari volumina iussit, quae magnam vero partem deinceps non 
sunt restituta. Poggio, Epp. ii p. 375, Ammianum Marcellinum ego latinis 
musis restitui cum ilium eruissem e bibliothecis ne dicam ergastulis Germano- 
runi. Cardinalis de Columna habet eum codicem, quern portavi, litteris anti- 
quis, sed ita mendosum, ut nil corruptius esse possit. Nicolaus Nicolus ilium 
manu sua transcripsit in chartis papyri. Is est in bibliotheca Cosmi. Id. Ep. 
printed by Clark, Cl. Rev. xiii 125, De Ammiano Marcellino non reperio, qui 
symbolum conferat ('aid in the decipherment or interpretation'). 

3 No. 1873, cent, x ; Facs. in Chatelain, Pal. no. 195. 

4 Epp. ii 7, iii 12 (1423-7). The text of the Hersfeld MS was published in 
'533. ar >d the MS lost, with the exception of six leaves found at Marburg in 
1876. Cp. Schanz, 809. 

8 Colophon to pro Caecina; hanc oralionem...cum earn... in silvis Lingo- 
num adinvenisset.... 

6 Colophon to in Pisonem; has septem...orationes...perquisitis plurimis 
Galliae Germaniaeque... bibliothecis cum latentes comperisset (A. C. Clark, 
Anted. Oxon. p. n; Sabbadini, Scoperte, 81). 

7 Letters, ap. A. C. Clark, Cl. Rev. xiii 125-6. 


The discovery of the Silvae of Statius has been referred to this 
fourth expedition 1 solely because it is not mentioned by Barbaro 
in his letter to Poggio 2 , in which Lucretius, Manilius and Silius 
are among the authors named. It was during his tour in 
Germany that Poggio (as he tells us) hired a local scribe 3 , and to 
just such a scribe the MS of the Silvae at Madrid, which is the 
archetype of all existing MSS of that work, has been independently 
assigned on internal evidence 4 . It was probably on the fourth 
expedition that he discovered a copy of Columella, an author 
already known to Pastrengo of Verona 5 . 

At Rome in 1427 Poggio sought in vain for MSS of Cicero, 
rumours of which had reached him from Trier and Utrecht, and 
even from distant Portugal. So closely was he identified with the 
quest that he was even erroneously credited with the first discovery 
of the Letters to Atticus 6 , the De Finibus and De Legibus" 1 . At 
Pistoia in 1409 Leonardo Bruni 8 had seen an ancient MS of 
Cicero's Letters to Quintus and Brutus, with seven books ad 
Atticum, which supplied new evidence as to the text and included 
two letters hitherto unknown 9 . In the latter half of i42i 10 (while 
Poggio was in England) an important discovery was made near 
Milan. In the cathedral church of Lodi, the bishop, Gerardo 
Landriani, was engaged in searching for some ancient charters in 
a chest that had long remained unopened, when he lighted on 
a MS of Cicero, written in old ' Lombardic ' characters, including 
a complete copy of the De Oratore, the Brutus, and the Orator. 
The Brutus was absolutely new, while the De Oratore and the 
Orator had hitherto been known only through imperfect and mu- 
tilated MSS. The MS was sent by Landriani to Gasparino Barzizza, 
who appropriated it, and sent in return a transcript of the De 
Oratore made byCosimo Raimondi of Cremona". Subsequently, 
Gasparino combined the newly discovered portions with those 

I Sabbadini, 82. 2 Querini, Epp. Barbari, p. 2. 

3 Epp. i p. 80, conduxi scriptorem in Germania. 

4 Clark, C/. Rev. xiii 128. 5 Sabbadini, Scopcrte, 16, 82. 
6 Vespasiano, Poggio, 2. 7 Jovius, Elog. no. 10. 

8 Epp. iii 13. 9 Viertel, mjahrb.fiircl. Phil. (1880), 243. 

10 Sabbadini, in Studi ital. vii 104 f, Scoperte, 100. 

II Sabbadini, Scoperte, 100, n. 61. 

32 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

already known, and his recension of the whole was soon copied 
in many parts of Italy. In 1422, the Brutus was transcribed with 
wonderful rapidity by Flavio Biondo of Forli, who happened to 
be in Milan at the time 1 , and this copy, which is preserved in 
the Vatican 2 , was sent successively to Verona and Venice, and 
transcribed in various parts of Italy. A readable recension of 
the Brutus was meanwhile produced at Verona by Guarino. A 
transcript of the Brutus and Orator was forwarded to Niccoli 
from Milan in 1422, and is still in Florence. Further, a MS of 
the De Oratore and Orator, revised by Gasparino, found its 
way to Heidelberg and is now in the Vatican, together with a 
copy of all three treatises transcribed in 1422 and corrected from 
the original at Pavia in April 1425. The original was lost to view 
after I428 3 . In the meantime Poggio, while he was returning from 
England, where he failed to find any classical MSS, had lighted on 
an imperfect Petronius at Cologne and sent a copy to Niccoli, 
who kept it for seven years 4 . From Paris he sent Niccoli a 
transcript of the Lexicon of Nonius Marcellus 5 . The rumours 
of a complete Livy in a Benedictine abbey (possibly Cismar) in 
the diocese of Liibeck, which had reached Salutati in Florence, 
found their counterpart in the statement by a Dominican, Giovanni 
da Colonna, that he had seen an ancient MS of the 'fourth decade' 
in the archives of the cathedral at Chartres (c. 141 3) 6 , and the hope 
of finding new decades was thus revived. Early in 1424 a Dane 
at Rome assured Poggio that, in the Cistercian monastery of 
Soroe near Roskilde, he had seen three vast volumes, in Lombardic, 
mixed with Gothic, characters, containing (according to the in- 
scription outside one of them) ten decades of Livy, and that he 
had read a summary of their contents. But no such MS was 
found either at this, or at another monastery in Denmark, and 
a still later rumour was dismissed by Poggio as a mere romance 7 . 
We have already seen that the first of the humanists, who had 
any knowledge of Tacitus, was Boccaccio, who may possibly have 

1 Ital. Illustr. 346. * Ottob. 1592. 

3 Sabbadini, Guarino e le op. ret. di Cic. 433, and Scuola di Gttarino, 102. 

4 Epp. ii 3; iv 2, 4. 6 Epp. ii 22. 

6 Valentinelli, Bibl. MSS. Add. S. Marci Venet. vi 53. 

7 Epp. ii 9 ; iv 20 ; v 1 8. 


discovered the MS of 'the Histories and the later books of the 
Annals at Monte Cassino 1 . How and when that MS reached 
Florence is unknown. It was in the possession of Niccoli in 1426 
and there was some mystery about its provenance. Niccoli sent it 
to Poggio, who solemnly promised to keep its existence a secret 2 ; 
he also allowed Francesco Barbara to make a copy, and this copy 
was afterwards transcribed for Cardinal Bessarion (1453). But, 
until the text was printed, about 1470, it was known to very 
few. Thus the beginning of the Histories is quoted by Bruni in 
his laudation of Florence (1400), and the contents of the above 
MS were known to Valla, Tortelli, Decembrio, and Sicco Polentone. 
Tacitus is also quoted by Leon Battista Alberti (i452) 3 . The fact 
that Tacitus was so little quoted prompted an attempt on the part 
of J. W. Ross (1878) to prove that the Annals were forged by 
Poggio in 1422-9 4 , a fancy refuted by Sir Henry Howorth 5 , to be 
revived by P. Hochart 8 . But the later books of the Annals were 
known to Boccaccio before Poggio was born, and the earlier books 
were not discovered until 49 years after Poggio had died 7 . The 
MS of Annals i-vi, which probably came from Corvey, did not 
reach Italy until shortly before isog 8 . 

The first to hear in Germany of the Agricola, Germam'a, and 
Dialogus of Tacitus was apparently Bartolomeo Capra, an arch- 
bishop of Milan, who was eager in the quest of MSS 9 . Poggio 
was in London at the time (1422)', but his negotiations with a 
monk of Hersfeld began in 1425. Ultimately, in 1455, Enoch of 
Ascoli, the emissary of Leo X, acquired the Hersfeld MS of the 
minor works, and eight leaves of this MS have been happily 

1 p. nt supra; cp. H. Keil, in Rhein. Mus. vi (1848) 145. On the reco- 
very of Tacitus, cp. Voigt, i 249 257*. 

2 Epp. iii 5, 14, 15, 17 (1426-8). 

3 Hist, ii 49, in Architettura, p. 38, ed. 1565. 

4 Bursian's Jahresb. xix 568. 

6 Cp. Edinburgh Review, vol. 148, pp. 437 468. 

6 1890. Cp. Riv. di filol. xix 302. 

7 Clark, Cl. Rev. xx 227, n. 3. 

8 Viertel, in Neue Jahrb. 1881, 423, 805; Hiiffer, Korveier Studien, 1898, 
p. 14. 

9 Sabbadini, Scoperte, 104 b. 

10 Epp. i 21. 

S. II. 3 

34 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

identified in the MS of the Agricola found at Jesi near Ancona 
in I902 1 . 

In 1427, Lamola found at Milan a famous MS of Celsus 2 . In 
1429, Nicolaus of Trier, better known as Nicolaus Cusanus, sent 
Poggio a list of MSS, including not only a complete Gellius and 
Curtius, but also the titles of twenty plays of Plautus, most of 
which were then unknown 3 . Poggio urged the Cardinal Orsini to 
lose no time in securing the Plautus, and, by the end of the year, 
Nicolaus had arrived in Rome bringing with him the MS 4 of four 5 
of the eight known plays and of twelve that were new, which is 
still one of the treasures of the Vatican Library 6 . In the recension 
of Plautus which gradually became current in Italy, Poggio was 
aided by Gregorio Corero of Venice 7 . 

It was known to Poggio in 1425 that at Monte Cassino there 
was a copy of the work of Frontinus on the aqueducts of Rome, 
but it was not until he visited the monastery, in 1429, that 
the manuscript was actually found 8 . It was carried off to Rome, 
copied and returned, and it is still at Monte Cassino 9 . In the 
quest of MSS others (such as Traversari), who had equal or greater 
advantages, were less successful than Poggio. The only Classic 
discovered by Traversari was Cornelius Nepos, found in 1434 in 
the library of Hermolaus Barbarus at Padua 10 . 

During the Council of Basel, the Sicilian Aurispa discovered 
at Mainz in 1433 l ^ e Commentary of Donatus on Terence, as 
well as the Latin Panegyric^ beginning with Pliny's Panegyric on 
Trajan 11 . In the century that elapsed between Petrarch's discovery 
of Cicero pro Archia (1333), and Aurispa's discovery of Pliny's 

1 Facs. of one page in paper by Ramorino, in Atti del congresso...di sc. 
storiche, Roma, 1905, ii 230-2; Sabbadini, Scoperte, 141 f. 

2 Lanr. Ixxiii r. 3 Poggio, Epp. \ p. 266. 

4 ib. p. 304. 

5 Amphitruo, Asinaria, Aulularia, and half of the Captivi. The other 
four known plays were, Casitia, Curculio, Cistellaria and Epidicus. These 
survive in the Palatine MSS B and C, and the Ambrosian E. 

6 Ritschl's D (c. xii). 7 Vespasiano, Poggio, 2. 

8 Epp. i pp. 284, 304 ; cp. Sabbadini, Scoperte, 85. 

9 Complete facsimile, ed. C. Herschel (Boston, 1899). 

10 Trav. Epp. viii 53 ; Sabbadini, 95. 

11 Voigt, i 260*; Sabbadini, 116. 


Panegyric (1433), tne principal accessions to the Latin Classics 
had been made. 

Francesco Pizzopasso, archbishop of Milan (d. 1443), collected 
65 MSS, all of which are now in the Ambrosian Library. Among 
these is a valuable fragment of Donatus on Terence, and the sole 
authority for the Notae Juris of Probus 1 . In 1455, Enoch of 
Ascoli brought to Rome from the North, not only the minor works 
of Tacitus, but also all that remains of Suetonius de grammaticis 
et rhetoribus, with Apicius, and the tragedy of Orestes, and 
Porphyrio's commentary on Horace 2 . The Consolatio ad Liviam 
was discovered by an unnamed scholar in 1470, and in the same 
century a large part of two of Ovid's Heroides (xvi and xxi) was 
recovered 3 . In France, in 1501-4, the exiled Sannazaro dis- 
covered new poems of the Latin Anthology, as well as the 
Halieuticon of Ovid, and the Cynegeticon of Grattius and of 
Nemesianus 4 . 

Politian was a keen investigator of all the ancient MSS that 
came within his reach in Florence or elsewhere 5 . It was under 
the auspices of his rival Merula at Milan that Merula's secretary, 
Giorgio Galbiate, discovered the MSS at Bobbio in 1493. He 
probably brought to Milan, for the purposes of his proposed 
editions, the treatise of Terentianus Maurus on the metres, and 
that of Fortunatianus on the Odes of Horace; the works of 
Velius Longus and Adamantius, on orthography, with the Catholica 
of Probus, and the Eleganiiae of Fronto. The Terentianus alone 
was actually published. The satire of Sulpicia, first printed in 
1498, came from Bobbio. Among the MSS which Inghirami, the 
librarian of the Vatican, removed to Rome (1496), was that of the 
Auctores Gromatici, now at Wolfenbiittel. Aulo Giano Parrasio 
(1470 1534), one of the best scholars of his time, during his 
stay at Milan (14991506) obtained from Bobbio the MS of 
Charisius, and transcripts of the poems of Uracontius, besides 
discovering, probably in one of the monasteries of Milan, the 
hymns of Sedulius and Prudentius". 

About 1500, Fra Giocondo of Verona discovered in Paris the 

1 Sabbadini, 121. 2 ib. 14 r. 3 ib. 125 f. 

4 ib. 140. 6 ib. 151 f; p. 84 infra. 

6 Sabbadini, 156 160. 


36 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

Correspondence of Trajan and the younger Pliny. In 1508 the 
MS of Tacitus Annals, \ vi, was brought from Corvey to the 
Medicean Library; in 1515, Velleius Paterculus was found by 
Beatus Rhenanus at the abbey of Murbach; and, 1527, the 
first five books of the fifth decade of Livy were brought to 
light by Grynaeus from the abbey of Lorsch 1 . 

The Greek MSS Z , which had found their way into Italy before 
the corning of Chrysoloras, had been few indeed : one or two 
copies of Homer, parts of Plato and Aristotle, and a few of the 
Greek Fathers. It was a pupil of Chrysoloras, Angeli da 
Scarparia, who was urged by Salutati 3 to bring MSS of Homer 
and Plato and Plutarch from Constantinople. Another of his 
pupils, Guarino, returned to Italy from the East in 1408 with more 
than 50 MSS 4 . Foremost among the discoverers of 
Greek MSS was the Sicilian Aurispa, who became 
for Greek literature what Poggio was for Latin. He had his 
ambitions as a scholar, but he was more remarkable for his 
singular aptitude for trading in MSS. In 1417 he brought from 
the East a few good MSS, a Sophocles, a Euripides, and a Thucy- 
dides; this last he sold to Niccoli at Pisa 5 . Among those that 
he possessed in 1421, was the Commentum Aristarchi in Homerum, 
which has been identified as the celebrated codex A of the Iliad 6 . 
In 1422-3 he was in Constantinople, where he gathered from 
various parts of the Greek world a vast number of MSS. The aged 
emperor, Manuel II, presented him with the great historical work 
of Procopius, and with Xenophon's little treatise on Horsemanship. 
When he reached Venice, late in 1423, he brought with him a 
whole library of no less than 238 MSS, almost entirely consisting 
of the Greek classics. Florence was the goal of his hopes, and 
his most valued correspondents in Florence were Niccoli and 
Traversari 7 . The solitary MS which he sent to Niccoli from Con- 
stantinople was one of the tenth century containing seven plays 
of Sophocles, six of Aeschylus, and the Argonautica of Apollonius 

1 Sabbadini, 164. 2 Voigt, i 262-6 3 . s Epp. iii 129 132. 

4 List published by Omont in Rev. des Bibliothtques, ii (1892); cp. Sabba- 
dini, Scoperte, 44 f. 

6 Traversari, Epp. vi 8. 6 Sabbadini, 46. 

7 Epp. xxiv 38, 53, 61. 


Rhodius, now famous as the Laurentian MS of those authors 1 . 
For his friends in Florence he wrote out from memory a short 
list of his MSS which included the Homeric Hymns and Pindar 
and Aristophanes, nearly all Demosthenes, the whole of Plato 
and Xenophon, with Diodorus, Strabo, Arrian, Lucian, Athenaeus, 
Dion Cassius, and Plutarch. He taught Greek for a short time 
in Bologna and Florence, and afterwards settled in Ferrara. Of 
his many MSS he made little use, beyond trading with them, and, 
when he died in 1459, all except thirty had been scattered in 
different directions 2 . 

In 1427 a smaller number of valuable Greek MSS (including at 
least forty authors, such as Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, 

3 Filelfo 

Euripides and Theocritus, as well as Herodotus, 
Thucydides and Xenophon) was brought to Venice by Filelfo 
(1398 1481) who had spent seven years as secretary to the 
Venetian Legation at Constantinople 3 . Among the principal 
collectors of Greek MSS were Bruni and Niccoli 4 , whose collection 
found its way into the Medicean Library. Besides these there 
were Palla Strozzi, and Manetti, and Nicolas V. MSS were also 
collected at Urbino and Milan, at Mantua and Ferrara, at Padua 
and Venice 5 . Of the Greek immigrants four were specially 
famous as collectors of MSS. In 1468, Bessarion, the discoverer 
of Quintus Smyrnaeus, presented his collection to the republic of 
Venice 6 . Andronicus Callistus sold as many as six cases of MSS 
at Milan in 1476. Constantine Lascaris bequeathed 76 MSS to 
Messina, which are now in Madrid. Lastly, Janus Lascaris paid 
two visits to the East in quest of Greek MSS on behalf of Lorenzo 
de' Medici, returning on the second occasion with as many as 200 
MSS from Mount Athos (i492) 7 . 

The age of discovery saw the awakening of a new interest in 

1 Facs. of Sophocles (1885) and Aeschylus (1896). 

2 Voigt, i 263-5, 346-8, 556 s6o 3 ; final list of his MSS in Sabbadini's 
Biografihia ; cp. Scoperte, 46 47. 

3 List in Traversari, Epp, xxiv 32, transcribed in Symonds, ii 27o' 2 ; cp. 
Sabbadini, Scoperte, 48 ; on minor discoverers of MSS, ib. 49 f. 

4 ib. 5155- 5 >b. 5565- 

6 Omont, Inventaire, 1894; p. 61 infra. 

7 K. K. Miiller, Neue Mittheilttngen, 33341 r. Cp. Sabbadini, 67 f. 

38 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

the intelligent study of classical archaeology 1 . The ruins of Rome 
had been regarded with interest by Petrarch and by his friends, 
Rienzi and Dondi, and those friends had even recorded some of 
her ancient inscriptions. But a marked advance was made by 
Poggio, who carried off, either from St Gallen or from Reichenau, 
the tract ascribed to a pilgrim of the ninth century known as the 
Anonytmts Einsiedlensis' i , and himself collected inscriptions in 
Rome 3 , besides carefully enumerating and describing the ancient 
ruins in the first of the four books of his interesting treatise De 
Varietate Fortunae*. For Nicolas V, whom he there hails as a 
second Maecenas, he produced a translation of Diodorus Siculus, 
and, after serving as a papal secretary for half a century (1403 
1453), succeeded Carlo Marsuppini as chancellor and, in the 
evening of his days, composed his masterpiece, the History of 
Florence from 1350 to 1455. His style, which is apt to be 
diffuse, has remarkable freedom and originality, though professedly 
modelled on that of Cicero 5 . With his frivolous Facetiae and with 
his bitter feuds with rival scholars, such as Filelfo and Valla, 
we are not here concerned, though Valla has some interesting 
criticisms on Poggio's departures from Ciceronian usage 6 . He 
was buried behind the choir of Santa Croce, but the marble 
monument, for which he left provision in his will, was never erected. 
Donatello's statue of an aged ' prophet ', with sarcastic lips and 
deeply furrowed face and with antique drapery, which formed 
part of the facade of the cathedral church until 1560, when it was 
removed to a niche in the N. aisle, has been supposed to be a 
portrait of Poggio 7 , but it has been assigned to about 1422, when 
Poggio was only 42. The portrait by Antonio Pollaiuolo, which 
his sons were permitted to place in the hall of the Proconsolo, 

1 Voigt, i 266 286 s . 

2 Mommsen in Ber. d. sacks. Ges. 1850, p. 287 f; Voigt, i 268 3 , n. 4; Sab- 
badini, Scoperte, 82, n. 49. 

3 Copy discovered by De Rossi; cp. Henzen in C.I.L. vi i (Voigt, i 
266-8 3 ). 

4 Cp. Burckhardt, Part ill, c. ii, 177 186 E.T., and Symonds, ii 152-5. 

5 Epp. xii 32, quidquid in me est, hoc totum acceptum refero Ciceroni, 
quern elegi ad eloquentiam docendam. Cp. Sabbadini, Cicerontanismo, 19 f. 

6 Sabbadini, Ciceronianismo, 20 25; cp. Harvard Lectures, 155 f. 

7 Recanati, Vita Poggii, xxxiv. 


has not been traced ; and we have to rest content with inferior 
representations in the gallery between the Uffizi and Pitti 
palaces 1 and in the Venice edition of the History of Florence 

(i?i5) 2 - 

The leading representative of archaeological research in this 

aee was Ciriaco de' Pizzicolli of Ancona (c. 1391 

. ' Ciriaco 

c. 1450). He was the Schliemann of his time. A 
self-taught student, he spent all his life in travelling, not only for 
the purposes of trade, but also for the collection of objects of 
archaeological interest. The study of Dante led him to that of 
Virgil, and the study of Virgil to that of Homer. At his birth- 
place of Ancona, he began his archaeological career by making 
a careful copy of the inscription on the triumphal arch of Trajan. 
He continued that work in Rome (1424), where he first became 
conscious of the historic value of the evidence from inscriptions 
as compared with that derived from ordinary literature 3 . In the 
next year he learnt Greek at Constantinople, studied Homer and 
Hesiod, purchased a fine copy of Ptolemy at Adrianople, and 
MSS of Homer and Euripides in Cyprus, and even journeyed as 
far as Damascus. 

After returning to Rome (c. 1433), he visited Florence for the 
first time, viewing with delight the treasures of ancient art col- 
lected by Cosimo de' Medici and Marsuppini, by Donatello and 
Ghiberti, and taking a peculiar pleasure in the MSS and antiquities 
of his friend, Niccoli. Between 1435 and 1447 he travelled in 
many parts of Greece, including the islands. In Thasos he 

1 No. 761, head bent down towards left ; grayish hair brushed back from 
right temple ; and marked depression between the nostril and the corner of 
the lips. See also Boissard's f cones, i xii 108 (1597). 

2 Partly facing to left, with abundant black hair. On Poggio in general, 
cp. Vespasiano, 420-7; Life by Rev. W. Shepherd (1802); Voigt, i 235 249, 
ii 7, 74, 251, 327, 448 etc.; Symonds, ii 134^ 152, 218, 230 246. Epistolae, 
ed. Tonelli, i 1832, ii and iii (very rare) 1859-61. Orelli, Symbolae nonnullae 
ad historiam philologiae (Zurich, 1835), prints extracts from the Letters on dis- 
coveries of MSS, followed by the two on Jerome of Prague, and the Baths of 
Baden near Zurich; and A. C. Clark, in Cl. Rev. xiii 125, publishes an im- 
portant letter to Francesco Barbaro. A much-needed ed. of the Letters is 
expected from Wilmanns. 

3 maiorem longe quam ipsi libri fidem et notitiam praebere videbantur. 

40 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

bought a MS of Plutarch's Moralial. He also obtained scholia 
on the Iliad, and MSS of Herodotus, Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates 
and Galen. The latest incidents in his foreign travels were his 
visit to the ruins at Ephesus (1447) and his discovery of Homer's 
'epitaph' in the island of Chios. A few years later we find him 
at Ferrara, and at Cremona, where he died about 1450. 

His name is now known mainly in connexion with his col- 
lections of inscriptions. They originally formed three vast volumes, 
but only fragmentary portions have been preserved. He is 
wanting in critical faculty, and much of his learning is ill digested. 
His friend Bruni once told him that he would be much the better 
for knowing less 2 . But he was an honest man, and the doubts 
once cast on the accuracy of his transcripts have been trium- 
phantly dispelled 3 . In his unwearied endeavour to resuscitate 
the memorials of the past, he was fully conscious that his mission 
in life was ' to awake the dead '. He took a special pleasure in 
recalling an incident that once occurred while he was looking for 
antiques in a church at Vercelli. An inquisitive priest, who, on 
seeing him prowling about the church, ventured to ask him on 
what business he was bent, was completely mystified by the 
solemn reply : ' It is sometimes my business to awaken the 
dead out of their graves ; it is an art that I have learnt from 
the Pythian oracle of Apollo' 4 . His drawings of ancient sculptures 
have vanished, but, before their disappearance, some of them 
were copied at Padua by the Nuremberg humanist, Hartman 
Schedel (c. i 4 66) 5 . 

Among the contemporaries of Ciriaco was Flavio Biondo of 

Fiavio Forli (1388 1463), who, in 1422, was the first to 

Biondo make a copy of the newly discovered Brutus of 

1 Vat. Gr. 1309. Of his Strabo in two vols., the first is at Eton (cod. 141), 
the second in Florence (Laur. xxviii 15). Sabbadini, Scoperte, 48, 69. 

2 Epp. vi 9 Mehus. 

3 Boeckh, C.I. G. I p. ix; Henzen, C.I.L. vi (i) p. xl; Jahn, 341-3. 

4 Voigt, i 284'; cp. Jahn, 336. 

5 Chap, xvi infra; O. Jahn, Aus der Alterthumswissenschaft, 1868, 333 
352. Cp., in general, Scalamontius in Colucci, Delle anlichith Picene, xv 
50 f; the pref. to Kyriaci Itinerarium, ed. Mehus (1742); Tiraboschi, vi 179 
203; C.I.L. Ill p. xxii, 129 f; Voigt, i 269 286 3 ; Symonds, ii 155-7; De 
Rossi, Inscr. Christ, i 356 387 ; and Ziebarth, in N.Jahrb. kl. Alt. 1902, 214 f. 


Cicero 1 . He also deserves a place among the founders of 
Classical Archaeology. He was the author of four great 
works on the Antiquities and the History of Rome and 
Italy. His Roma Triumphans gives a full account of the 
religious, constitutional, and military Antiquities of Rome ; his 
Roma Instaurata describes the city of Rome, and aims at the 
restoration of its ancient monuments ; his Italia Illustrata deals 
with the topography and antiquities of the whole of Italy ; and, 
lastly, the title of the Historiarum ab Inclinatione Romani Imperil 
obviously anticipates that of the History of the. Decline and Fall 
of the Roman Empire*. 

Flavio Biondo died in 1463. In the following year we have 
an interesting indication of the abiding influence of his contem- 
porary, Ciriaco. On a pleasant day in the autumn of 1464 a 
merry company from Verona, Padua and Mantua met among the 
lemon-groves of Toscolano, on the western shore of the Lago di 
Garda. They crowned themselves with ivy and with myrtle, and 
sallied forth to visit all the remains of Roman antiquities that they 
could find amid the ruins of the temple of Diana and elsewhere, 
and to copy all the Roman inscriptions they could discover on or 
near the south-west shore of the lake. When they left the shore 
for the islands, their barque was dressed with laurel, and the 
notes of the lyre floated over the waters as they sailed southward 
for Sirmione. There they devoutly entered the little Church of 
San Pietro to give thanks for a happy and successful day. No 
less than two and twenty inscriptions had been copied by this 
joyous and grateful company, all of whom were members of an 
antiquarian confraternity. The confraternity had two officials 
bearing the name of 'consuls', one of whom was none other than 
the great antiquary and artist Andrea Mantegna, while the 'pro- 
curator' or secretary was the fortunate possessor of a name of 
happy omen, Felix Felicianus of Verona, whose jubilant memorial 
of this antiquarian excursion is one of the brightest pages in the 
early history of classical archaeology in Italy' 5 . 

1 p. 32 sjtpra. 

2 See further in A. Masius, Flavio Biondo, sein Leben und seine Werke ; 
Voigt, ii 34-6, 85-8 3 ; cp. Symonds, ii 220-2, Creighton, ii 374, iii 174; and 
Harvard Lectures, 46. 

3 Complete text first published in Kristeller's Andrea Mantegna, ed. 1901, 

42 ITALY. [CENT, xv f 

Ciriaco's example was thus happily followed by the versatile 
and accomplished Felix Felicianus, whose collection of inscriptions 
was appropriately dedicated to the most antiquarian of artists, 
Mantegna. The influence of Ciriaco may also be traced in the 
sketchbooks of Giuliano da San Gallo, and in the manuscript 
collections of Fra Giovanni del Giocondo of Verona. The villas 
of the ancients were elucidated in his edition of Pliny's Letters 
(1508), the first modern plan of a Roman house appeared in his 
Vitruvius (1511), and the earliest of modern drawings of Caesar's 
bridge across the Rhine in his Caesar (1513)'. 

p. 523. Only the beginning of the Jubilatio is printed in Corp. Inscr. Lat. v i 
p. 427 a. 

1 On the successors of Ciriaco, cp. E. Zieharth, in Neue Jahrb.fiir das kl. 
Altertum, xi (1903), 480 493; and Harvard Lectures, 48 54. 



UNDER the rule of the Ottimati, or the leading members of 
the greater Guilds (1382 1434), not a few men of mark in 
Florence gave proof of their interest in classical learning. Roberto 
de' Rossi, the first of the Florentine pupils of Chrysoloras, took 
delight in translating Aristotle, and in making beautiful copies 
of the works of ancient authors, which he bequeathed to his 
pupils, one of whom was Cosimo de' Medici 1 . The noble and 
generous Palla Strozzi, who had invited Chrysoloras to Florence, 
might have surpassed his rival Cosimo as a patron of learning, 
had he not been sent into exile in 1434. He spent the twenty- 
eight years of his banishment in studying philosophy and in 
translating Greek authors at Padua. Meanwhile, Cosimo was 
for thirty years (1434-64) the great patron of copyists and 
scholars of every grade, the inspirer of an important translation 
of Plato, and the founder of the Library of San Marco. The 
circle of Cosimo included Niccol6 de' Niccoli 


(13631437), the copyist whose 800 MSS finally 
found a home in the Medicean Library. The most important 
of those copied by himself were his Lucretius and his Plautus 2 . 
He was much more than a copyist. He collated MSS, revised 
and corrected the text, divided it into paragraphs, added head- 
lines, and laid the foundations of textual criticism. He visited 
Verona and Venice in quest of MSS, directed the agents of the 
Medici in acquiring MSS in foreign lands, was the valued corre- 
spondent of the most eager scholars in Italy, and the centre of 

1 Vespasiano, Cosimo, 246. 

2 On MSS acquired by him, cp. Sabbadini, Scoperte, 54. 

44 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

an enthusiastic literary circle in Florence. Though he was an 
excellent Latin scholar, Italian was the language of his letters 
and his conversation, and even of his only work, a short treatise 
on Latin orthography. Leonardo Bruni confessed that, as a 
student, he owed everything to Niccoli. He had attained the 
age of 73 when he died in the arms of his devoted friend 
Traversari 1 . 

Ambrogio Traversari (1386 1439) entered at an early age 
the Camaldolese convent of Santa Maria degli 


Angioh in Florence. He had taught himself Greek 
with the aid of Chrysoloras, and found his chief delight in the 
study of Chrysostom 2 . On his appointment as General of his 
Order in 1431, he visited the Camaldolese convents in many 
parts of Italy, but was far less fortunate than Poggio in the 
discovery of ancient MSS 3 . At Cosimo's request he executed, 
amid many misgivings, a Latin translation of Diogenes Laertius 4 . 
When he writes to his scholarly friend, Niccoli, his conscience 
does not allow him to quote a tempting passage from Naevius 5 ; 
and, in the vast series of his letters, his only citation of a pagan 
poet is from Virgil's Eclogues*. He was painfully conscious of 
the conflicting claims of literature and of religion; but, in later 
examples of monks who were also humanists, there is less of the 
anxious scrupulosity of Traversari as to which of the two masters 
should be served 7 . 

1 Vespasiano, Nicolao Niccoli, 473 482 ; Poggio's Funeral Oration and 
Letter to Marsuppini in Opera, -270, 342; Tiraboschi, vi 129 137; Voigt, i 
296 3o6 3 ; Symonds, ii 178 182. 

2 Francesco da Castiglione's letter to Lorenzo (1469), ed. Miillner, 216, 
makes Cosimo say : ' quam suavis est Chrysostomus, quam solus Ambrosius 
'in vertendo', where solus is doubtless a mistake for scitus. 

3 Epp. viii 4552, p. 34 supra. 

4 Epp. vi 23, 25, 27 ; vii 2 ; viii 8 ; xxiii 10. 

5 Epp. viii 9. 6 Epp. iii 59. 

7 Vespasiano, Frate Ambrogio, 240-5 ; Menus, Vita, compiled from the 
Letters and the Hodoeporicon (ed. Mehus, 1680), on pp. 364 436 of the 
preface to Canneto's ed. of the Letters in two folio vols. (1759) ; the rest of the 
so-called Vita is a chaotic mass of materials for the literary history of Florence; 
Tiraboschi, vi 157, 808 f; Meiners, vol. ii (1796); Cortesius, p. 227, ed. 
Galletti ; and esp. Voigt, i 314 322 3 ; cp. Symonds, ii i93 2 f. A portrait, 
copied from the 'bust in the cloister of S. Maria degli Angioli', represents him 


Among his pupils in Greek and Latin was Giannozzo Manetti 
(1306 14^0). A merchant and diplomatist, he 

x oy Manetti 

was also a student of theology, and was perfectly 
familiar with the languages of the Old and New Testaments, 
besides being a fluent (in fact prolix) Latin orator. The official 
oration delivered by Marsuppini, as chancellor of Florence, in 
congratulation of the emperor Frederic III, was considered far 
inferior to the extemporaneous speech delivered by Manetti in 
prompt and effective reply to certain points then raised by Aeneas 
Sylvius on the emperor's behalf. Driven into exile by the jealousy 
of the Medici in 1453, he withdrew to the court of Nicolas V 
in Rome, and subsequently to that of Alfonso in Naples. His 
Latin translations include the Greek Testament 1 , and the Nico- 
machean and Eudemian Ethics of Aristotle, together with the 
Magna Moralia. His failure to attain the permanent reputation 
that he fully deserved has been ascribed to the tediousness of his 
Latin style, and to the fact that he was 'deficient in all that 
elevates mere learning to the rank of art' 2 . 

From the name of one who so little merited banishment from 
the city which he adorned with his learning, we 


turn to two of her Latin secretaries who served her 
to the end of their lives. Leonardo Bruni (1369 1444) was born 
at Arezzo, the birthplace of Petrarch, and the daily sight of the 
portrait of his distinguished fellow-countryman inspired him with 
the ambition of following in his steps 3 . He learnt Greek at 
Florence under Chrysoloras, and his fame as a Latinist led to 
his being a papal secretary from 1405 1415, and chancellor of 
Florence from 1427 to his death. His reputation rests on his 
translations from the Greek. Beginning with the work of Basil 
on the profit to be derived from pagan literature (1405), he 

as a gracious personage with parted lips and upward-lifted eyes, and with a 
bunch of hair falling over his forehead (Rittratti...Toscani, 1766, iii 16). 

1 Naldus, Vita Manetti, in Muratori, xx 529. 

2 Symonds, ii 193-. Cp. Vespasiano, Vite, 444 472, and Comentario 
(ed. 1862) ; Voigt, i 322-6* etc. He was a small man with a large head ; 
in the portrait in Kittratti... Toscani (1766), ii 16, we see his keen glance and 
his grave and eager face. A resolute determination is the leading characteristic 
of the likeness in the gallery between the Uffizi and Pitti (no. 574). 

8 Commentarius in Muratori, Scr. xix 917. 

46 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

subsequently translated the Speech of Demosthenes On the 
Chersonesus (1406), that of Aeschines Against Ctesiphon and 
Demosthenes De Corona, with the Third Ofynthiac; a selection 
from Plutarch's Lives, with Xenophon's Hieron, These were 
followed by renderings of the Phaedo, Gorgias, Crito, Apology, 
Phaedrus (1423) and Letters of Plato, which were less highly 
appreciated than his translations of the Oeconomics, Ethics 1 and 
Politics of Aristotle. The translation of the Politics was prompted 
by the admiration for his Ethics expressed by Humphrey, duke 
of Gloucester; and the autograph copy dedicated to the duke 
was sent to England, but, owing to some delay in the acknowledge- 
ment, its dedication was transferred (with satisfactory results) to 
Pope Eugenius IV (i437) 2 . For this work he used a MS of the 
Politics obtained from Constantinople by Palla Strozzi 3 , probably 
comparing therewith the MS in possession of his friend Filelfo 4 . 
It has even been suggested that Palla Strozzi's copy had also been 
brought from the East by Filelfo in I429 5 . Bruni's rendering 
is now regarded as far too free and arbitrary; it is often impossible 
to infer with any certainty the reading of his Greek text; and 
many peculiarities of his translation must accordingly be ' passed 
over or regarded as merely his own conjectures ' 6 . But 'not a few 
good readings' are due to this source 7 . Bruni describes the 
original as an opus magnificum ac plane regium 8 , and he had good 
reason to be proud of a free and flowing version that made the 
Greek masterpiece intelligible to the Latin scholars of Europe. 
His other works included similar versions of Xenophon's Hellenica, 
Polybius and Procopius. He even wrote a Latin history of the 
First Punic War to make up for the loss of the second decade 
of Livy. He also composed a Greek treatise on the origin and 

1 Cp. Klette, Beitrage, ii 17. 

2 Vespasiano, 436 f, where duca di Worcestri must be a mistake for Glocestri. 
Cf. MS at New Coll. Oxford (c. 1450) and in Bodleian, Canon. Lat. 195 
(Newman's Politics, II 58). Printed 1492 etc. 

3 Vespasiano, Palla Strozzi, 272. 
* Bruni, Epp. vi n. 

8 Oncken, Staatslehre des Ar. i 78 f ; Susemihl, ed. 1872, p. xv. 

6 Susemihl-Hicks (1894), p. i ; cp. ed. 1872, xxviiif. 

7 Newman's Politics t in p. xxif. 

8 Epp. viii i (Voigt, i 169* f). 


constitution of Florence, a Latin dialogue criticising the works 
of Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio 1 , and a Latin encomium on 
Florence modelled on the encomium on Athens by the Greek 
rhetorician Aristides 2 . His Letters were famed for their excellent 
Latinity 3 ; but the chief work of his life was his Latin History 
of the Florentine Republic, of which twelve books had been 
completed at his death. His funeral oration was pronounced by 
Manetti, who placed a crown of laurel on the historian's brow. 
His body rests in Santa Croce, where his marble effigy, with his 
History laid upon his breast, reclines beneath a canopied tomb, 
which is a masterpiece of Bernardo Rossellino. The epitaph, 
modelled partly on that of Plautus, was composed by his successor 
Marsuppini : 

' Postquam Leonardus e vita migravit, Historia luget, Eloquentia muta est, 
ferturque Musas turn Graecas turn Latinas lacrimas tenere non potuisse' 4 . 

Carlo Marsuppini (c. 1399 J 453) was, like Bruni, a native of 
Arezzo. Like Bruni, he found his way to Florence; 

, . , . - -,. ,. . , , Marsuppini 

and, by the influence of Niccoli, was introduced to 
the Medicean family, and, in 1431, appointed teacher of Latin 
rhetoric and of the Greek language in the local university. In 
his inaugural lecture he gave proof of his marvellous memory by 
surpassing all his predecessors in the multitude of passages cited 
from the Greek and Latin authors. So signal was his success 
that he was permitted to lecture, even after his promotion in 1444 
to the important office of chancellor. He was considered nearly 
equal to Bruni in his mastery of Latin prose, and superior to him 
in verse. It was in verse that he produced his rendering of the 
Batrachomyomachia, and of the first book of the Iliad 5 . By his 

1 Klette, Beiirdge, ii 3783. 

2 Extracts in Klette, ii 84105. 3 Epp. ed. Mehus, 1741. 

4 Vespasiano, Lionardo d? Arezzo, 427 439; Voigt, i 306 312, ii 163 
I73 3 ; cp. Symonds, ii 282-6. His tractate De Stitdiis et Literis (c. 1405), 
translated in Woodward's Vittorino, 119 133; cp. Harvard Lectures, 61 
64. Portrait in profile, with aquiline nose, in Boissard's f cones, part i (1597), 
no. xvi, p. 124. 

5 Extract in Bandini, Bibl. Leap. Laurent, ii 439, beginning ' Nunc iram 
Aeacidae tristem misefamque futuram Diva, cane, et quantos Graiis dedit ille 
dolores '. The rendering was warmly welcomed by Nicolas V in two Letters 
preserved by Vespasiano, 441. 

48 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

contemporaries he was regarded as a man of no religion ; never- 
theless, he was one of the papal secretaries, and, when he died in 
1453, his head was crowned with laurel by his pupil, the mystical 
poet, Matteo Palmieri 1 , and he was buried in Santa Croce. His 
tomb, in the southern aisle, faces that of Bruni. The reclining 
form, with the hands clasped over the book, is less calm in its 
repose, and the design, as a whole, less severely simple, richer and 
more florid, but without loss of refinement. It is the masterpiece 
of Desiderio da Settignano, and is indeed one of the finest monu- 
ments of the Renaissance 2 . 

Niccoli, Traversari, Manetti, Bruni and Marsuppini were the 
foremost of the humanists of Florence in the age of Cosimo de' 
Medici. All of them, in their various ways, were actively engaged 
in promoting the Revival of Learning, when the study of Greek, 
and of Plato in particular, incidentally received a new impulse 
during the conference between the Greek and Latin Churches at 
the Council of Florence (1439). Before we trace the fortunes of 
the Greek immigrants who flocked to Italy between the date of 
that Council and the fall of Constantinople, we may glance at a 
few of the Italian humanists who have points of contact with 
Florence, though their main activity belongs to other cities in 
Northern Italy. 

We have already noticed the name of Gasparino Barzizza 3 , the 
eminent Ciceronian scholar, who closed his varied career at Milan 
in 1431, after professing Rhetoric at several other places, the 
most important of which was Padua (1407). Padua is also 
associated with a less eminent but not uninteresting humanist, 
Pietro Paolo Vergerio(^. 1370 c. 1445), who produced 


the first modern introduction to the study of Quin- 
tilian 4 , and, in 1392, addressed to a prince of the house of Carrara 
the first treatise in which the claims of Latin learning are methodi- 

1 1406 1475; author of treatise Delia Vita Civile (cp. Woodward's 
Renaissance Education, 65 78). 

2 Cp. C. C. Perkins, Italian Sculpture, 119, 121 ; and cuts in Geiger's 
Renaissance, 91, 93. On Marsuppini, cp. Vespasiano, Carlo cT Arezzo, 439 
441 ; Voigt, i 312-4, ii 194* f; Symonds, ii i86f. 

3 p. 23, supra. 

4 Combi, Epistole di Vergerio, p. xxi. 


cally maintained as an essential part of a liberal education 1 . In 
the latter he exults in Cicero's praises of literature, and himself 
declares that 'without style' even worthy thoughts would not be 
likely to attract much notice or secure a sure survival 2 . His 
interesting references to Plato and Aristotle 3 must have been 
derived from Latin translations. He had not yet learnt Greek, 
when, in connexion with Roman history, we find him writing as 
follows : 

It is hard that no slight portion of the history of Rome is only to be known 
through the labours of one writing in the Greek language (i.e. Polybius). It is 
still worse that this same noble tongue, once well-nigh the only speech of our 
race, as familiar as the Latin language itself, is on the point of perishing even 
among its own sons, and to us Italians is already utterly lost, unless we except 
one or two who in our own time are tardily endeavouring to rescue something 
if it be only an echo of it from oblivion 4 . 

About 1400, at the age of more than thirty, he went to Florence 
to learn Greek from Chrysoloras 5 . He was a papal secretary, 
when he had the honour of writing the Latin epitaph at Constance 
in memory of the restorer of Greek learning in Italy 6 . From 
Constance he followed the emperor Sigismund into Hungary, 
where his latest work was a studiously simple Latin rendering of 
the Anabasis of Arrian 7 . 

While Vergerio had learnt Greek from Chrysoloras in Florence, 
Guarino of Verona (1^74 1460) followed that 


teacher to Constantinople and learnt the language 
by spending five years in his household (1403-8). On his 
return he landed in Venice with about fifty Greek Mss 8 . He 
afterwards lectured for a few years in Florence (1410-4). His 
subsequent success as a lecturer in Venice (1414-9) led to his 
return to his native city of Verona (1419-29). Ultimately he 
was called to Ferrara, where after devoting five years to the 
education of Lionello, the eldest son of Niccol6 d' Este, marquis 
of Ferrara, he was appointed professor of Rhetoric in the local 

1 Woodward's Vittorino, 14, 93 118; Harvard Lectures, 58 61. 

2 Woodward, 105. 3 ib. 98, 101, no. 

4 ib. 106. B Voigt, i 4$i 3 . 6 p. 21, supra. 

7 Voigt, ii 272". Cp. Combi's Epistole di... Vergerio, Venice, 1887; 
K. A. Kopp, in His/. Jahrb. der Gorresgesellschaft, 1897, 274 310, 533 571. 

8 p. 36, supra. 

S. II. 4 

50 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

university (1436). The last thirty years of his life were spent in 
teaching at Ferrara, where his proficiency in Greek and Latin led 
to his acting as interpreter between the representatives of the 
Greek and Latin Churches at the Council of 1438. In addition 
to an elementary Latin Grammar, he produced a widely popular 
Latin version of the Catechism of Greek Grammar by Chrysoloras. 
His translations included three of the minor works of Lucian, the 
Evagoras and Nicocles of Isocrates, the whole of Strabo, and some 
fifteen of Plutarch's Lives. The singularly fine copy of his version 
of Plutarch's Lysander and Sulla, now in the Laurentian Library, 
was his wedding present to his pupil Lionello (I435) 1 . Guarino 
was an eager collector of Latin MSS. At Venice in 1419 he 
discovered a MS of Pliny's Epistles containing about 124 Letters 
in addition to the 100 already known, and several copies of this 
MS were made before it was lost. When the complete text of the 
De Oratore, Brutus and Orator of Cicero was discovered at Lodi 
(1422), he promptly obtained a transcript of all three treatises. 
A MS of Celsus reached him at Bologna in 1426, and another was 
discovered by his friend Lamola at Milan in the following year. 
At Ferrara in 1432 he made himself an amended copy of the 
famous codex Ursinianus of Plautus. As a native of Verona, he 
is fond of quoting Catullus, and his interest in the text descended 
to his son. He was himself concerned in the recension of Cicero's 
Speeches, and of Caesar, as well as both the Plinies, and Gellius 
and Servius. In his Letters he owes much of his inspiration to 
Cicero and the younger Pliny, and Pliny's account of his Tuscan 
villa is closely followed in Guarino's description of his own villa 
near Ferrara. Similarly his pupil, Angelo Decembrio, imitates 
the Noctes Atticae of Gellius in describing the literary discussions, 
whose scene he places at Ferrara, either in the apartments of 
Lionello, or in the suburban palace of Belfiore, or at the castle 
of Bellosguardo. The long life of Guarino began with no 
precociously early promise ; it was marked by a steady and 
continuous growth. Unlike certain other humanists, he showed 
no antagonism to the authority of the Church, no feeling of re- 
sentment against the spirit of the Middle Ages ; but he was true 
to the humanist type in a certain love of personal fame. He left 
1 Jxv 27 ; Harvard Lectures, 76. 


behind him many occasional speeches and some 600 letters, an 
elaborate edition of which, prepared by the devotion of a 
Sabbadini and deposited in 1892 in the library of the Lincei at 
the Palazzo Corsini in Rome, is still awaiting publication. His 
school and his method were eulogised in more than 1000 hexa- 
meters by Janus Pannonius 1 , and he deserves to be remembered 
with respect as a humanist whose moral character was very nearly 
equal to his learning. 

The method of instruction pursued by Guarino may be 
gathered from the treatise De Ordine Docendi written in 1459 by 
his son Battista (1434 1513)- It is the earliest treatise in which 
the claim to be considered an educated gentleman is reserved for 
one who is familiar with Greek as well as Latin : 

I have said that ability to write Latin verse is one of the essential marks of 
an educated person. I wish now to indicate a second, which is of at least 
equal importance, namely, familiarity with the language and literature of 
Greece. The time has come when we must speak with no uncertain voice 
upon this vital requirement of scholarship 2 . 

Among the numerous pupils of Guarino we note the names of 
four Englishmen, Robert Fleming, dean of Lincoln, John Free, 
bishop of Bath, John Gunthorp, dean of Wells 3 , and William 
Gray, bishop of Ely 4 . The Italian pupils included a precocious 

1 Silva Panegyrica ad Guarinum, 1457 ; Delitiae Poetarnm Hung. (1619), 
pp. 3 34. Cp., in general, Rosmini, Vita e Disciplina di Guarino Veronese, 
Brescia, 3 vols., 1805-6, with copy of a miniature portrait in the Trivulzi 
collection at Milan, representing Guarino in a conical Greek cap and with a 
closely shaven face and an intelligent expression ; medallion by Matteo de' 
Pasti in G. F. Hill's Pisanello opp. p. 230; portrait in Guarino's Strabo (MS 
Phillipps 6645) published by Omont (1905), and reproduced on p. 52. See 
also Voigt, i 344 f, 547 f 3 etc. ; Symonds, ii 297 301 ; and Sabbadini, G. V. e 
le opere retoriche di Cicerone (1885); Index to his Epistolario, with Vita (1885); 
G. V. e gli archetipi di Celso e Plauto (1886) ; Codici Latini posseduti, scoperti, 
illustrati da G. V., in Mus. Ital. di Ant. Class, ii (1887), 374456; Vita 
(1891), and esp. La Scuolae gli Studi di G. V. 240 pp. (1896). Mr Woodward, 
in Olia Mersdana (Liverpool, 1903), i 3, describes the contents of the 
Balliol MS (cxxxv) containing Letters and Orations of Guarino, presented to 
his College by Guarino's pupil, William Gray, bishop of Ely. Four of his 
letters on educational subjects are printed in Milliner's Keden und Briefe, 
213 238. See also Woodward's Renaissance Education (1906), 26 47. 

2 p. 1 66 of Woodward's Vittorino, where the whole is translated, 159 178. 
Cp. Harvard Lectures, 78 f. 

3 Rosmini, iii 117121. 4 Vespasiano, 214. 


52 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

translator from the Greek, Francesco Barbaro (1398 1454), who 
collected, collated, and emended Greek MSS, obtaining an Iliad 
from Crete, as well as an Odyssey and the Batrachomyomachia. 
Guarino shares with Vergerio the honour of having transmitted 
the Greek teaching of Chrysoloras to one who is so eminent in the 
history of education as Vittorino da Feltre. 


Reduced from H. Omont's Portrait de Guarino de Verone (1905), the frontis- 
piece of which is derived from a photograph of the portrait painted in life- 
size at the end of Guarino's Strabo in the Phillipps library at Cheltenham. 


Vittorino dei Ramboldini (1378 1446) was born at Feltre, 
among the hills between Venice and the Eastern 


Alps. For nearly twenty years he went on learning 
and teaching in Padua and then left for Venice, where he learnt 
Greek under Guarino. After a second stay at Padua, he returned 
to Venice, where the turning-point of his life came to him at the 
age of forty-six, when Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, lord of Mantua, 
invited him to undertake the education of his sons. Mantua 
thus became the home of Vittorino for the remaining twenty-two 
years of his life. He there established ' the first great school of 
the Renaissance', 'the great typical school of the Humanities". 
The impetus given to the enthusiasm and to the educational 
method of the humanists by the production of Guarino's rendering 
of 'Plutarch's' treatise On Education in 1411, and by the 
discovery of the complete Quintilian in I4i6 2 , and the De 
Oratore, Brutus and Orator in 14.22, was fully felt by Vittorino, 
in whom a familiarity with the ' educational apparatus of classical 
literature' was combined with 'the spirit of the Christian life' and 
'the Greek passion for bodily culture' 3 . The 'Pleasant House' 
amid the playing-fields on the slopes above the Mincio was a 
palace of delight, where all the sixty or seventy scholars, of what- 
ever rank, were under the selfsame discipline. Among the Latin 
authors studied in his school were Virgil and Lucan, with selec- 
tions from Horace, Ovid, and Juvenal, besides Cicero and Quin- 
tilian, Sallust and Curtius, Caesar and Livy. The Greek authors 
were Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, and the Dramatists, with Herodotus, 
Xenophon and Plato, Isocrates and Demosthenes, Plutarch and 
Arrian 4 . In the teaching of Greek he was aided by Georgius 

1 Woodward's Vittorino, 24. 

2 p. 27, supra; cp. A. Messer, Q. als Didaktiker und sein Einfluss auf 
die didaktisch-pddagogische Theorie des ffumanismus, in Fleckeis. Jahrb. 156 
(1897), 161, 273, 321, 361, 409, 457. An epitome of the complete Quintilian 
was drawn up by Francesco Patrizi of Siena, bp of Gae'ta 1460-94; cp. 
Fierville, Quint, i, 1890, p. xxxv ; Peterson, in Cl. Rev. v 54 ; Bassi, Turin, 
1894; Meister, in Berl. Phil. Woch. 1892 (nos. 39 f), 1894 (no. 50), and 1906 
(nos. 27-9, 31). See also Woodward's Education in the Age of the Renais- 
sance (1906), 8 10. 

3 Woodward's Vittorino, 25 27. 

4 On Vittorino's Greek MSS, cp. Sabbadini, Scoperte, 60. 



[CENT. xv. 

Trapezuntius and Theodoras Gaza, both of whom learnt their 
Latin from Vittorino. His famous pupils included Federigo, the 
soldier and scholar, who founded the celebrated library in his 
ducal palace at Urbino ; a papal legate, Perotti, the author of the 
first large Latin Grammar ; Ognibene da Lonigo (Leonicenus], an 
able teacher at Vicenza, whose smaller Grammar was widely used 1 ; 
and Giovanni Andrea de' Bussi, the future bishop of Aleria, who 
had the unique distinction of having been, in 1465 to 1471, the 
editor of the first printed editions of as many as eight works of 
the Latin Classics : Caesar, Gellius, Livy, Lucan, Virgil, Silius, 
and the Letters and Speeches of Cicero. In his splendid edition 
of Livy, he pays a special tribute of gratitude to his master 
Vittorino. Vittorino was a man of keen and eager temperament, 
of small stature and of wiry frame, with a ruddy complexion and 

1 His lecture on Val. Maximus, in Milliner's Reden, 142. 

From a Medallion by Pisanello in the 'British Museum, inscribed VICTORINVS 


OPVS PISANI PICTORIS The latter part is on the reverse, which repre- 
sents a pelican feeding her young. 


sharp features, and a frank and genial expression. The medallion, 
on which his scholarly face has been immortalised by Pisanello 1 , 
shows that he had the 'ornament of a meek and quiet' 
countenance 2 . 

One, if not both, of the Greek instructors in the school 
of Mantua had been recommended by Francesco 

' Filelfo 

Filelfo (1398 1481), a humanist whose character 
stands in sharp contrast to that of Vittorino. Filelfo had studied 
Latin at Padua under Barzizza, and had taught at Padua and 
Venice, where he saw much of Vittorino, as well as of Guarino. He 
learnt Greek at Constantinople (1422-7) in the household of the 
nephew of Manuel Chrysoloras, and he married that nephew's 
daughter. He was particularly proud of the purity of the Greek 
that he had acquired from his wife 3 . On his return to Italy he 
taught at Venice and Bologna, and (in 1429-34) at Florence, 
where he lectured with great eclat to audiences of four hundred, 
including the two future Popes, Nicolas V and Pius II. He 
gave four lectures daily, taking Cicero, and Livy or Homer, in 
the forenoon, and, in the afternoon, Terence, and Xenophon or 
Thucydides. Faults of character, however, led to his falling out 
of favour with Cosimo and the foremost scholars of Florence. 
From 1440 to the end of his life he lived mainly at Milan. 
At the age of 77, he was invited to lecture in Rome, and, at 
that of 83, in Florence, where he died soon after his return. His 
translations included Xenophon's Cyropaedia, Agesilaus, and Lace- 
daemoniorum Respublica, two speeches of Lysias, the Rhetoric of 
Aristotle, and four of Plutarch's Lives*. Among his original works 

1 Complete copy in Woodward's Frontispiece, and G. F. Hill's Pisanello, 
Pi- 54- 

2 Cp. Woodward's Vittorino, xi, i 92, and the literature there quoted; 
also Creighton's Historical Essays and Reviews, 107 134, 'A School-master 
of the Renaissance ' (Macmillatt's Magazine, 1875); and Woodward's Renais- 
sance Education, 10 -25. 

3 He says of the Greek women, ob solitudinem observabant antiquitatem 
incorrupti sermonis. The same had been said of the Roman matrons by 
Cicero, De Or. iii 45. In Sept. 1451 Poggio states the aim of his sojourn at 
Constantinople, quo Graeca sapientia factus doctior, maiorivel ttsuivel ornamento 
Latinae ftiturus essem. 

* Cp. Ep. 30, Sept. 1444. 

56 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

were Satires and Odes, and an epic poem of 6400 lines on 
Francesco Sforza of Milan. The Laurentian Library has an 
autograph volume of 46 sets of Greek verses, written alternately 
in elegiac and in Sapphic metre, in which the principal interest 
lies in the persons to whom the several poems are addressed, the 
list including Palla Strozzi, Bessarion, Argyropulos, Theodorus 
Gaza and Mahomet IP, who are among his correspondents in the 
no Greek letters which have deserved the honour of publication 2 
far better than the poems. 

His Latin letters throw much light on his studies, and on his attitude as a 
humanist. He had learnt Greek in the hope of adding a new grace to his 
Latin lore 3 . During his studies at Constantinople he had recognised the 
Aeolic element in Homer 4 , but he had searched in vain for a copy of Apollonius 
(Dyscolus) or of Herodian. Yet Greek would be better learnt there than in 
the Peloponnesus, which had produced no scholar except Gemislus Plethon 5 . 
The most learned Greek of the day was Theodorus Gaza 6 , who had copied for 
Filelfo the whole of the Iliad 7 . He himself had MSS of Diodorus and Pollux 8 , 
and was ready to lend a friend his 'Varro' 9 . He was careful in comparing 
manuscripts, and in studying Servius' commentary on Virgil 10 . As a strict 
purist he writes Quinctilis instead of Julius, and Deus (and even Christus) 
Optimus Afaximus 11 . He criticises the ' Spanish ' style of Quintilian's Declama- 
tions 12 . He exhorts a youth of high promise to devote himself to the study of 
eloquentia and humanitas. He has no doubt as to his own eminence, and he 
assures his distinguished correspondents that, by the magic of his style, he can 
make them immortal 14 . 

He combined the accomplishments of a scholar with the in- 
sidiousness and the brutality of a brigand. As one of the least 

1 Laur. Iviii 15. After I had noted the contents of this MS, I observed 
that 14 of the poems had been printed by Legrand (Cent-dix Leltres Grecques de 
Francois Filelfe, 1892, 195 219) from copies supplied by other scholars, who 
apparently did not inform him of Filelfo's express request that they should not 
be published (neque ex hisce quisquam exscribat rogd), as he had not revised 

2 Klette, Beitrdge, iii (1890), 98 174; and Legrand, /. c. (1892), i 194. 

3 Sept. 1451. 4 13 Apr. 1441. 9 June, 1441. 
6 28 Feb. 1446. 7 23 Jan. 1448. 8 3 Aug. 1437. 
9 30 Dec. 1442. 10 1 8 Dec. 1439. n x Aug. 1428. 
12 31 Jan. 1440. 18 8 Dec. 1440. 

14 (To Cosimo) May 1433 ; cp. 23 Jan. 1451. (The above references have 
been contributed by Prof. Sihler of New York, but the grouping and arrange- 
ment are my own.) 


humane of all the humanists, he is a discreditable exception to 
the Ovidian rule, 

' ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes 

emollit mores, nee sinit esse feros'. 

His bitter feuds may however be forgotten, while we remember 
that in 1427 he brought from Constantinople the works of at least 
forty Greek authors 1 , and that, on the death of Nicolas V, he 
exultantly wrote, with reference to that Pope's collection of MSS, 
and to the translations from the Greek that had been executed 
under the papal patronage : 

' Greece has not perished, but has migrated to Italy, the land that was 
known of old as Magna Graecia ' 2 . 

1 P- 37> supra. 

z Epp. xiii i (ed. 1502, Venice, the only complete ed.). Cp., in general, 
Vespasiano, 488 491 ; Rosmini, Vita, 3 vols. Milan, 1808, with frontispiece 
from portrait by Mantegna ; Voigt, i 348 366, 512 f, 524 f 3 ; Symonds, ii 267 
288; also Klette's Beitrage, iii 1890; and Legrand's Cent-dix Leltres 
Grecques, 1892. Five of his lectures at Florence (1429-34) printed in 
Mullner's Reden, 146 162. Portrait (in profile, with upward gaze, and 
laurel crown, and cap) in Jovius, Elogia, p. 30, copied in Wiese and Percopo, 

< It, 



S -S 

H 13 

Q 2 

p ^ 


<! ^s 


O ^ 

3 'S 

s> a 





WHILE the Council of Constance is associated with the death 
of the first important teacher of Greek in Italy (1415), the 
Council held at Ferrara in 1438, and at Florence in 1439, gave a 
definite impulse to the further study of that language in connexion 
with the Platonic philosophy and with the controversies as to the 
relative merits of Plato and Aristotle. The Council failed in its 
avowed purpose of uniting the Greek and Latin Churches, but it 
succeeded in the unintended result of drawing the scholars of the 
East and the West nearer to one another. At Ferrara the leading 
representatives of the Greek and Latin Churches were hospitably 
entertained by the able physician and dialectician, Ugo Benzi of 
Siena, who, after setting forth the differences between Plato and 
Aristotle, is said to have triumphantly refuted the Greeks in their 
preference for Plato 1 . On the transfer of the Council to Florence, 
the city on the Arno became the meeting-place of the languages 
of the West and the East, and of the two types of civilisation 
prevailing in the Italian and the Hellenic world. When one of 
the younger scholars of Florence first saw the long beards and 
the shaggy hair of the Greeks, he recalled the stories of the 
ancient Spartans, and strove in vain to repress his laughter ; but 
he admitted that some of those Greeks were fully worthy of their 
ancestors, and were still true to the traditions of the Lyceum and 
of the Old Academy 2 . 

1 Aeneas Sylvius, Europa, c. 52. Cp. Tiraboschi, vi 461 ; Voigt, ii 12 1 3 . 

2 Lapo da Castiglionchio, quoted by Hody, De Graecis Ilhistrilms, 31, 136. 
Cp. Vespasiano, Wfe, 14 f. Two of Lapo's lectures at Bologna (c. 1435) in 
Milliner's Reden, 129. 

60 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

Petrarch and Boccaccio had been vaguely interested in Plato ; 
and Bruni, the pupil of Chrysoloras, had translated several of the 
dialogues. The attention of the leading spirits in Florence 
was now called to a certain form of Neo-Platonism by the singular 
personality of an aged representative of the Greeks, 
'piet'hon 8 Georgios Gemistos, a native of Constantinople 
(c. 1356 1450). Estranged from Christianity in 
his youth, he had spent a large part of his life near the site of 
the ancient Sparta, where he elaborated a singular philosophic 
system of a Neo-Platonic type. He had already attained the age 
of eighty-three, when, in spite of his pagan proclivities, he found 
himself in the peculiar position of having been selected, on 
patriotic grounds, as one of the six champions of the Greek 
Church at the Council of Florence. But ' instead of attending 
the Council, he poured forth his Platonic lore, and uttered dark 
sentences to a circle of eager Florentines. Cosimo de' Medici 
was delighted with him, and hailed him as a second Plato. 
Gemistos modestly refused the title, but playfully added to his 
name, Gemistos, the equivalent, Plethon, which approached more 
nearly to his master's name' 1 . 'The lively style of Plethon 
inspired Cosimo with such enthusiasm that his lofty mind im- 
mediately conceived the thought of forming an Academy, as soon 
as a favourable moment should be found'. Such is the language 
used many years later by Marsilio Ficino 2 , who was only six years 
of age when he was selected by Cosimo to be the future translator 
and expounder of Plato. Before leaving Florence, Plethon 
produced a treatise on the points of difference between Plato 
and Aristotle 3 , and thus stimulated the Italian humanists to a 
closer study of both. The general result was an increased ap- 
preciation of the importance of Plato, and a material diminution 
of the authority of Aristotle, which had remained unchallenged in 
Western Europe throughout the Middle Ages. By 1441 Plethon 
had returned to the site of Sparta. His life extended over nearly 
the whole century that preceded the fall of Constantinople. Even 

1 Creighton's History of the Papacy, iv 41 f, ed. 1901. 

2 Preface to Plotinus (1492). 

3 wepi uv ' ApiffTOTtXrjs irpbs HXdrwva Siafaperai, Basel, 1574 '> Migne, 
P. G. clx 882 f. Cp. F. Schultze, Plethon, 19, 7091. 


after his death in 1450, his Neo-Platonic and pagan opinions 
were repeatedly attacked by the patriarch Gennadios 1 . But, 
while his memory was assailed in the East, it was honoured in the 
West, and, sixteen years later, when Sigismondo Malatesta, the 
victorious general of the Venetian forces, had rescued the site of 
Sparta from the Turks 2 , his ' love for men of learning ' led him to 
remove the bones of the Neo-Platonist to the splendid semi- 
pagan temple lately built by Leon Alberti of Florence for the lord 
of Rimini 3 . 

Among the Greeks assembled at the Council was Plethon's 
former pupil, Bessarion (1395 or 1403 1472), the' 
archbishop of Nicaea, whose services in the papal 
cause led to his being made a Cardinal. He afterwards translated 
into Latin the Memorabilia of Xenophon, and the Metaphysics 
of Aristotle, and (in 1468) gave to Venice a large number of 
Greek MSS, which formed the foundation of the famous library of 
St Mark's 4 . As a Cardinal resident in Rome, and surrounded by 
a crowd of Greek and Latin scholars, who escorted him every 
morning to the Vatican from his Palace on the Quirinal, he was 
conspicuous as the great patron of all the learned Greeks, who 
flocked to Italy, both before the fall of Constantinople, and after 
that event 5 . 

1 W. Gass, Gennadios und Plethon, Arislotelismus und Platonismns in 
der griechischen Kirche (1844). Cp. frontispiece to Legrand, III. 

2 Schutze, 109. 

3 Cut in Geiger's Renaissance, 211. Cp. F. Schultze, Gesch. der Philosophie 
der Renaissance, (i) Georgios Gemistos Plcthon, 1874; Voigt, ii ii9 3 f; Symonds, 
i 157 f, ii 198 210, and Sketches in Italy and Greece, 236 ; and H. F. Tozer 
in J. H. S. vii 353 380, with Creighton's History of the Papacy, iv 41-6, 
ed. 1901. Works in Migne, P. G. clx; Alexandre, Traite des Lois (1858); 
and Plethon's Denkschriften in Elissen's Analekten, IV ii (1860). Portrait in 
Boissard's /cones, I xix 136. 

4 Omont, Inventaire (1894) ; Sabbadini, Scoperte, 67 f; p. 37 supra. 

5 Vespasiano, 145 f; Hody, 136 177; cp. Voigt, ii 123 132 3 (with the 
literature there quoted) ; Symonds, ii 246-8 ; and R. Rocholl, Bessarion, 
Studie zur Gesch. der Renaissance, Leipzig, 1904. Portrait in Paulus Jovius, 
Elogia, 43, copied in Legrand, ill 3; another in Boissard's Icones, I xix 136. 
Autograph and portrait by Cordegliaghi, with illuminated first page of the 
Act of Donation of his MSS, in La Biblioteca Marciana nella sua nuava sede, 
Venice, 1906. 

62 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

Of the Greeks who arrived before its fall, the foremost (apart 
from Bessarion) were Theodorus Gaza, Georgius Trapezuntius, 

Joannes Argyropulos, and Demetrius Chalcondyles. 
Th Ga d za rUS The first of these > Theodorus Gaza (c. 1 400 1475), 

fled from his native city of Thessalonica before its 
capture by the Turks in 1430. He ranged himself on the side of 
Aristotle in the controversy raised by Plethon during the Council 
of Florence. He became the first professor of Greek at Ferrara, 
where he lectured on Demosthenes in 1448, counting among his 
pupils the German humanist, Rudolphus Agricola. In 1451 he 
was invited by Nicolas V to fill the chair of philosophy in Rome, 
and to take part in the papal scheme for translating the principal 
Greek Classics. His numerous translations included the Mechanical 
Problems 1 and JDe Animalibus of Aristotle 2 , and the De Plantis 
of Theophrastus 3 . He also produced a Greek rendering of Cicero 
De Amicitia and De Senectute. On the death of the Pope in 
1455, he went to Naples, where he translated Aelian's Tactics for 
king Alfonso. On the death of the latter (1458), he withdrew 
to a monastery on the Lucanian coast, was recalled to Rome by 
Paul II in 1464, and took part in the editio princeps of Gellius 
(1469). On the death of Bessarion (1472) he finally retired to 
Lucania, where he died in 1475. Of his two transcripts of the 
Iliad, one is preserved in Florence 4 , and the other in Venice 5 . 
In the preface to an Aldine edition of his translation of the 
Problems (1504), he is described by Manutius as facile princeps 
among the Latin and Greek scholars of his age, and he is 
eulogised by Scaliger as magnus vir et doctus, though he makes 
mistakes in the Historia Animalium 6 . His Greek Grammar 7 , the 
first of modern manuals to include Syntax, was used as a text- 

1 Printed at Rome, 1475. His translation of the Problems of Alexander 
Aphrod. first printed by Aldus, 1504. 

2 Venice, 1476. 3 Tarvisii, 1483. 

4 Laur. xxxii i, including the Batrachomyomachia. The text of the whole 
published at Florence in 1811 by a Cypriote, Nic. Theseus. 

5 At St Mark's. His copy of Aristotle's Politics is assigned by Hody, 
p. 58, to another Venetian library. 

6 Scaligerana prinia, 102. 

7 ypa.p-na.Tucr> tlffaywy-fj, ed. pr. Aid. 1495 ; often reprinted with Latin 
trans, down to 1803. 


book by Budaeus in Paris, and by Erasmus in Cambridge. In a 
fine MS of this Grammar in the Laurentian Library, a portrait 
bright with gold and various colours represents the author in a 
Greek garb, holding a book in his hand 1 . A less pretentious 
portrait, in the Elogia of Paulus Jovius, gives the impression of an 
honest and intelligent scholar 2 . 

The second of the early immigrants, Georgius Trapezuntius 
(1395 1484), a native of Crete, who finally reached 
Venice about 1430, became one of the papal secre- Trapezuntius 
taries, and died at the age of nearly ninety. Like 
Theodorus Gaza, he took the side of Aristotle in the controversy 
raised by Plethon. His numerous translations included the 
Rhetoric and Problems of Aristotle, and the Laws and Parmenides 
of Plato, but they are more verbose and less felicitous than those 
of Theodorus Gaza 3 . 

The third, Argyropulos of Constantinople (1416 1486), was 
in Padua as early as 1441, aiding the distinguished 
exile, Palla Strozzi, in the study of Greek. At Argyropulos 
Florence he taught Greek under the patronage of 
the Medici for fifteen years 4 , leaving in 1471 for Rome, where he 
died in 1486. He was highly esteemed as a translator of Aristotle, 
and his versions of the Ethics, Politics, Oeconomics, De Anima 
and De Caelo have all been printed. At Florence, his Greek 
lectures were attended by Politian, and an earl of Worcester went 
to one of them incognito 5 . At Rome, in 1482, his lectures on 
Thucydides were heard by Reuchlin, afterwards eminent among 
the humanists of Germany. The lecturer invited Reuchlin to 

1 Law. lv 15 ; Bandini, Cod. Gr. ii 279 ; Legrand, i xli n. 

2 p. 48, copied in Boissard's Scones, I xx 140, and in Legrand, in 187. 
Cp., in general, Hody, 55 101, Voigt, ii 143-6"'; and esp. Legrand, I 
xxxi xlix. 

3 Ludovicus Vives, De tradendis disciplinis, iii (Hody, 231). In his Laws, 
Bessarion found 259 mistakes. Cp., in general, Hody, 102 135, Boemer, 
105 120; Voigt, ii 45, 137 143*. His portrait, in Paulus Jovius, E/ogia, 
46, copied by Legrand, in 119, represents him as having an honest and stupid 
face, with an open book in his right hand. Cp. Boissard, I xviii 132. 

4 Six of his introductory lectures on Aristotle (1456-62) are printed in 
K. Milliner's Reden und Brief e (1899), 3 56. 

5 John Tiptoft ; Vespasiano, 403. 

64 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

read and translate a passage from one of the speeches, and was so 
struck by the excellence of his pronunciation and his reading, 
that he exclaimed with a sigh : ' Lo ! through our exile, Greece 
has flown across the Alps' 1 . 

Lastly, Demetrius Chalcondyles of Athens (1424 1511) 

reached Rome in 1447, and taught Greek at Perugia, 
cha'cwidyies Padua, Florence, and Milan. In 1450, as a youthful 

lecturer at Perugia, he made an immediate conquest 
of his Italian audience. One of his enthusiastic pupils says : 
' I listen to his lectures with rapture, firstly because he is a Greek, 
secondly because he is an Athenian, and, thirdly, because he is 
Demetrius. He looks like another Plato ' 2 . At Padua (1463-71) 
he was the first teacher of Greek who received a fixed stipend 
in any of the universities of Europe 3 . In 1466 he finished his 
transcript of a Greek Anthology now in Florence 4 . The most 
important event of his life as lecturer for twenty years in Florence 
(1471-91) was his preparation of the editio princeps of Homer, 
printed at Florence in 1488 for Bernardo and Neri Nerli, the first 
great work that was printed in Greek 5 . There are some vague 
and probably unfounded rumours of a feud with Politian. This 
can hardly have been serious, for a fresco in Santa Maria Novella 
painted by Ghirlandaio (d. 1498) represents an apparently friendly 
group of scholars who have been identified as Ficino, Landino, 
Politian and Demetrius 6 . Ficino thanks the last three scholars 

1 Melanchthon, Declam. (1533 and 1552) in Corpus Reformaiortim, xi 238, 
1005, ' Ecce, Graecia nostro exsilio transvolavit Alpes'. Cp. Hody, 187 210; 
Voigt, i 367-9". In his portrait in Jovius, 50, reproduced in Legrand, in 
155, he wears a large flat cap, and has a keen and resolute expression. 

2 Campanus, Epp. ii 9, p. 72, ed. 1707; trans, by Symonds, ii 249; cp. 
Tiraboschi, vi 820 ; Legrand, I xciv f. 

3 Voigt, i 439 s . 4 Laur. xxxi 28. 

5 Legrand, I qf. 

6 Cp. Vasari, ii 212 (E. T. 1876) (Bottari supposes that the fourth figure 
is Gentile de' Becchi, bp of Arezzo). Reproduced on p. 58. This is clearly 
the original followed by a German artist of cent, xvi, who, in a picture on a 
wooden panel, now in the Bibl. Albertina at Leipzig, has painted a church 
and some timbered houses of a German style beyond a piece of water, as the 
background to a copy of the portraits of these four scholars, whose names are 
given in German characters on the lower part of the frame. I am indebted to 
Prof. Zarncke of Leipzig for facilitating the taking of a photograph of the 


for their aid in the revision of his translation of Plato; and 
Demetrius was Politian's colleague as preceptor to the sons of 
Lorenzo. A Greek epigram by Politian describes the Muses as 
dwelling in the breast of Chalcondyles 1 , while a few lines of lyric 
verse by Marullus tell us that the bees of Attica were attracted by 
the sweetness of his honeyed lips 2 . After the death of Lorenzo 
in 1492, Demetrius withdrew to Milan for the last nineteen years 
of his life. It was there that, about 1493, he printed his Erotemata, 
a catechism of grammar aiming at a greater simplicity than that of 
Theodorus, which is, however, preferred by Erasmus 3 . It was 
there also that he produced the editio princeps of Isocrates (1493), 
and of Sui'das (i499) 4 . He gave proof of much insight (not 
unmixt with caprice) in the emendation of Greek texts. In 
integrity of character and in gentleness of disposition he stands 
higher than the ordinary Greeks of his time 5 . 

Of the five Greeks already mentioned, three, namely Georgius 
Trapezuntius. Theodorus Gaza, and Bessarion, took 

. Nicolas V 

part in the great scheme of Pope Nicolas V for the 
translation of the principal Greek prose authors into Latin. The 
future Pope, Tommaso Parentucelli of Sarzana (1397 1455)1 who 
was born at Pisa, was a student at Bologna, and, in the literary 
circle that surrounded Cosimo de' Medici in Florence, distinguished 
himself by his skill as a copyist, and by his wide knowledge of 
MSS. As Pope from 1447 to : 455> ne did much for the archi- 
tectural adornment of Rome, and for the encouragement of 
learning. He gathered MSS from all lands, and became famous for 
ever as the founder of the collection of classical MSS now preserved 

Leipzig panel. The latter is the source of the portrait of Demetrius in Boerner. 
Mr R. C. Christie's copy of the four portraits, now in the Library of Owens 
Coll., Manchester, is attributed to Vasari ; it is clearly copied from the original, 
and is better than the German version. 

1 Politian, ed. 1887, 192. 

2 Hymni etc., ed. 1497, P- 8 of signature d iii. 

3 Demetrio...viro turn probo, turn erudito, sed cujus mediocritas exactum 
illiul ac sublime Theodori judicium haudquaquam assequi potuerit (Hody, 221). 

4 Legrand, I 16, 63. 

5 Jovius, with portrait, 56 (reproduced by Legrand, Bibl. Hellen. I xciv) 
similar to that in Ghirlandaio's fresco. Cp. Hody, 211 226; Tiraboschi, vi 
819 822; Boerner, 181 191; Legrand, I xciv ci. 

S. II. 5 

66 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

in the Vatican Library. In his scheme for translating the Greek 
Classics into Latin, the author entrusted to the Greeks was 
Aristotle. The Rhetoric and De Animalibus were translated by 
Georgius Trapezuntius, who also undertook the Laws of Plato. 
An improved version of the De Animalibus was produced by 
Theodorus Gaza, who also rendered the Mechanical Problems, while 
the Metaphysics was assigned to Bessarion. The Nicomachean 
and Eudemian Ethics were undertaken by Gregorio of Cittk di 
Castello 1 , and Theophrastus, De Plantis, by Gaza. 

Turning to the Italian translators, we find Thucydides and 
nearly the whole of Herodotus rendered by Valla, Xenophon's 
Oeconomics by Lapo da Castiglionchio, the five extant books of 
Polybius (with Epictetus) by Perotti, the first five books of Diodorus 
Siculus by Poggio, the whole of Strabo by Guarino, and Appian by 
Piero Candido Decembrio. The translation of the Iliad into Latin 
verse was assigned to Marsuppini, who finished the first book only. 
The scheme, as a whole, was concerned with writers of prose alone. 
All the above translators were liberally rewarded by Nicolas V, 
who, on his deathbed, was able to say with perfect truth : ' In all 
things I was liberal, in building, in the purchase of books, in the 
constant transcription of Greek and Latin manuscripts, and in 
the rewarding of learned men' 2 . Most of the scholars, who were 
thus remunerated, are mentioned elsewhere, but three of them, 
Valla, Decembrio, and Perotti, may be appropriately noticed at 
the present point. The first of these was the only one of the 
translators who was born and died in Rome; the second was one 
of the papal secretaries; and the third was associated with Bologna 
and Rome more than with any other seat of learning. 

Laurentius Valla (1407 1457) learnt his Greek from Aurispa 

and from the papal secretary, Rinucci, while he owed 

his proficiency in Latin prose to Leonardo Bruni. 

Leaving Rome at the age of 24, he visited various places in the 

north of Italy, and subsequently entered the service of Alfonso, 

king of Aragon and Sicily, first at Gae'ta (1435), an( ^ afterwards 

at Naples (1442). Valla's denunciation of the 'Donation of 

Constantine' in 1440 served the interests of Alfonso by dis- 

1 Tifernas. Two of his lectures in Milliner's Reden, 173 190. 
a Manetti, Vita, 955-6. 


crediting the papal claim to temporal power, whether at Naples 
or elsewhere. Ultimately Valla made his peace with Eugenius IV, 
but it was reserved for that Pope's successor, Nicolas V, to 
appoint him a papal scriptor, and to obtain his aid in .the great 
scheme of translations. In 1450 he became professor of Rhetoric 
in Rome. He survived Nicolas, and became a papal secretary 
under his successor. In 1457 he died in Rome at the age of fifty. 
In early life Valla had been attracted to the study of Quintilian, 
whom he deliberately preferred to Cicero, and certain of Valla's 
notes on the first two books of the Institutio Oratorio, were long 
afterwards included in the Venice edition of 1494. In his earliest 
extant work, the dialogue De Voluptate, written at Pavia (1431), 
he shows a more than merely dramatic interest in Epicurean 
opinions 1 . His career at Pavia was brought to an end by his 
bold attack on the superstitious respect paid to modern jurists 
by the local lawyers 2 . Similarly, in his treatise on Dialectic, he 
denounces the mediaeval Aristotelians, Avicenna and Averroes, 
and attacks the philosophers of his time for their belief in the 
infallibility of Aristotle 3 . He is also one of the founders of 
historical criticism. His investigation of the sources of Canon 
Law had drawn his attention to the 'decree of Gratian', and in 
particular to the interpolated passage alleging that the emperor 
Constantine had presented Pope Sylvester I with his own diadem, 
and had assigned to the Pope and his successors, not only the 
Lateran palace, but also Rome itself and all the provinces of Italy 
and of the West. Valla attacks this decree on legal, linguistic, 
political, and historical grounds, showing inter alia that its style 
and contents are inconsistent with the date to which it purports to 
belong, and that the ancient MSS of the legend of St Sylvester, on 
which the decree professes to rely, say nothing of the alleged 
'Donation' 4 . Thus it was that, 'in the revival of letters and 
liberty, this fictitious deed was transpierced by the pen of 

1 Opera, 896 1010. The short dialogues, De liberp arbitrio, and De 
projessione religiosornm (Vahlen, Opnscula tria, 155), belong to the same 

2 Opera, 633643. 

3 Opera, 643 761, esp. 644. Cp. Vahlen's Vortrag, 10 15 2 . 

4 Text of decree reprinted by M. von Wolff, Lorenzo Valla, 85 88. 


68 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

Laurentius Valla, the pen of an eloquent critic and a Roman 
patriot' 1 . Valla's declamation naturally attracted the notice of the 
German reformers, and it was first printed by Ulrich von Hutten 
in i5i7 2 . The 'Donation of Constantine' has since disappeared 
from the Roman Breviary. 

In the domain of pure scholarship Valla's reputation mainly 
rests on his widely diffused work, ' On the Elegancies of the Latin 
language', the result of many years of labour 3 . He here attacks 
the barbarous Latin of the Middle Ages and of his own times. He 
declares that for centuries no one has really written Latin, yet he 
has a profound belief in the immortality of that language, which 
he deems as eternal as the Eternal City 4 . He tries its modern 
use by the standard of Cicero and Quintilian. He repeatedly 
shows a refined taste in the discrimination of synonyms 5 . From 
observations on points of grammar and style, which occupy the 
first five books, he passes on to criticism, the last book being 
mainly devoted to correcting the views of the ancient scholars or 
grammarians, such as Gellius, Nonius, Donatus, and Servius. Of 
the mediaeval grammarians, Isidore, Papias, and Hugutio, he 
has a far lower opinion, and his disrespect for these traditional 
authorities and even for Priscian, that ' Sun of Grammar, which 
sometimes suffers eclipse', was one of the grounds alleged for 
regarding him as a heretic 6 . In the latter part of the last book he 
examines the meanings given to certain legal terms, and appeals 
from the modern jurists to the ancient authorities on Roman law. 
He thus became one of the founders of the exact study of juris- 
prudence, and his influence was felt in France by Budaeus 7 . In 
its first form (with an appendix on sui and suns) the work was 
dedicated to Tortellius, the first librarian of the Vatican. It was 
printed at Venice in 1471, passed through 59 editions between 

1 Gibbon, c. 49 (v 273-5 and 538 Bury); cp. Milman's Lat, Chr. i 72 n; 
Bellinger's Pabstfabeln des MAs, 61 f, and Vahlen's Vortrag, 25 33*. 

2 Also in Valla's Opera (1540), 761 795. 
* Cp. lib. v init. 

4 Opera, ^f. 

5 e.g. iv j6 (Of era, 142) on sylva, Incus, sallus, nennis. 

6 Apologia in Opera, 799 ; cp. M. von Wolff, 69. 

7 Cp. Valla, Eleg. lib. iii praef. ; Budaeus, Annot. in Pandectas, p. 9 g, 
ed. 1536, and Vahlen's Vortrag 2i 2 . 

CHAP. V.] VALLA. 69 

that year and 1536, and, even at the present day, the greater part 
of its contents is by no means out of date 1 . 

As a textual critic Valla is represented partly by certain passages 
of his Elegantiae, and still more by the emendations that arose 
out of the readings in Livy at the court of Alfonso. It was Valla 
who explained to that inquisitive king the exact meaning ofpedibtts 
ire in sententiam*. Many of his emendations on the first six books 
of Livy's Second Punic War now form part of the current text 3 . 
He also criticises the Vulgate version of the New Testament in 
relation to the original Greek (1444), and his criticisms 4 were first 
published by Erasmus in 1505. 

Before returning to Rome, Valla translated Aesop at Gae'ta 
(1440) and sixteen books of the Iliad at Naples (1442 4) 5 . It 
may be doubted whether he, or indeed any Italian of that age, 
was equal to the difficult task of translating Thucydides. However, 
in little more than two years, the work was finished (1452): the 
Pope was pleased, and asked Valla to translate Herodotus. The 
latter was still unfinished when the Pope died in 1455, and the 
uncompleted rendering was accordingly dedicated to Valla's earlier 
patron, the king of Naples. His translation of Demosthenes, 
De Corona, shows greater freedom and idiomatic force than the 
somewhat bald version by Bruni 6 . Valla ended his days at peace 
with Rome. In a lecture delivered two years before his death he 
declares that, on the fall of the Roman empire, the Latin language 
had been preserved from extinction by the beneficence of the 
Christian religion and the apostolic see. The denouncer of the 
Constantinian donation of the Lateran Palace died as a Canon of 
the Lateran Church, and was buried within its walls. The epitaph 

1 The criticisms by Velletri (1452 1505) are reprinted by Vagetius, De 
Stylo Latino (1613), 143 191 f, with animadversions of his own, 60 f; also by 
Sanctius (1523 1601) in his Minerva, II c. 10 and c. 12, who in c. 10 says of 
Valla's treatment of the comparative, ' egregie ineptus est Valla, cujus studium 
fuit Latinam linguam compedibus cpnstringere '. Valla's work was praised, 
and epitomised, by Erasmus (P. S. Allen's Erasmi Epp. i 99, 108, no). 

2 Liv. xxvii 34 ; Opera, 594. 

3 Opera, 603 620. On Lucius and Aruns, cp. 438 f, 448. 

4 Opera, 801895. 

5 Vahlen, Opuscula Tria, 74 104. 

6 Vahlen, Opuscula Tria, 9 12, 128 148; specimens in 194 205. 

70 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

on this pioneer of historical criticism was ultimately preserved 
from destruction by Niebuhr 1 . 

The translation of Appian had been entrusted to Pier Candido 
Decembrio (1399 1477)> who in 1419-47 had been 

Decembrio . -,-,.,. - -, T - 11- 

secretary to rihppo Maria Visconti, and lived in 
Rome and Naples in 1450-60, and for the rest of his life at 
Ferrara and Naples. His father, Uberto (1370 1427), had 
studied Greek under Chrysoloras, who had begun a Latin render- 
ing of Plato's Republic. This rendering was revised by Uberto, 
and continued by his son, who sent his translation of the fifth 
book to Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, in 1439, and completed 
the work in the following year. The presentation copy, which 
arrived in England about 1443, was accompanied by a letter, the 
last words of which, vale, immortalis princeps, intimate that 
Decembrio's dedication of Plato's immortal masterpiece would 
render the duke himself immortal 2 . Decembrio had already 
prepared, for the duke of Milan, Italian renderings of the Lives 
of Alexander and of Caesar (i438) 3 . In 1440 he presented 
John II of Castile with a literal translation of Iliad i iv, x 4 . In 
1453 several books of his translation of Appian were ready for 
Nicolas V, while the History of the Civil War was finished after the 
death of the Pope, and was dedicated to Alfonso, king of Naples 5 . 
Decembrio's portrait has been preserved in a fine medallion 
produced before 1450 by Pisanello, in which he is described as 
studiorum humanitatis decus, one of the earliest examples of the 

1 Vortrdge uber rom. Alter th. 1858, p. u. On Valla, cp. Opera, Basel, 
1540 and 1543, folio; Poggiali, Memorie, 1790; Tiraboschi, vi 1057-72; 
C. G. Zumpt, in Schmidt's Zeitschrift f. Gesch. 1845, 397 434; and esp. 
Vahlen, Lorenzo Valla, ein Vortrag, 1864', 1870", and L. V. Opuscula Tria, 
205 pp., 1869; also Voigt, i 460 476, ii 148 15O 3 ; Symonds, ii 258 263; 
Mancini, Vita, 1891 ; Sabbadini, Ciceronianismo, 25 32, and Cronologia, 
1891 ; M. von Wolff, L. V., 134 pp., 1893; and W. Schwahn, L. V., 6r pp., 
1896; also Harvard Lectures; 136-8, 156. 

2 Voigt, ii 256*; Einstein, Italian Renaissance in England, 5 7; Mario 
Borsa, in Eng. Hist. Rev. 1904, 509 576, and W. L. Newman, ib. 1905, 


8 From Curtius and (probably) Suetonius respectively; Voigt, i 5t2 3 . 
* ib. ii 192*. 
8 tf-.ii 1 86V 


application of the term humanitas to the Classical studies of the 
Renaissance 1 . 

The free and flowing, though far from faithful rendering of 
Polybius, executed by Perotti (1430 1480), was 

. . . Perotti 

highly appreciated by Nicolas. Perotti had been 
educated at Mantua under Vittorino. He had lived at Verona 
with William Gray, the future bishop of Ely, and at Bologna with 
Cardinal Bessarion, in whose household he had diligently studied 
Greek. At Bologna he produced, in his Metrica, the first modern 
treatise on Latin Prosody (1453). His Rudimenta Gramntatices, 
the first modern Latin Grammar (1468), printed as a magnificent 
folio in 1473, is described by Erasmus as 'the most complete 
manual extant in his day' 2 . In 1458 he was made bishop of 
Manfredonia, but, except when travelling on ecclesiastical business 
in Umbria, he usually resided among his literary friends in Rome, 
where his recension of the elder Pliny was printed in 1473. ^ e 
spent his later years in a charming villa at Sassoferrato, the place 
of his birth. He there prepared a remarkably learned and dis- 
cursive commentary on the Spectacula and the first book of 
Martial, published by his nephew nine years after the bishop's 
death 3 . The same volume includes his commentary on Pliny's 
preface, and (in the later issues of 1513-26) his editions of 
Varro, Sextus Pompeius and Nonius Marcellus. As a Greek 
scholar and a pupil of Bessarion, Perotti took the side of Plato in 
one of the latest phases of the long controversy respecting Plato 
and Aristotle. 

Nicolas V had been a great patron of learning. On his death, 
it was for a short time thought possible that his successor would 
be the Greek Cardinal Bessarion. His actual successor, Callixtus III 
(1455-8), did little for the Greeks beyond proclaiming war 
against the Turks, and, to obtain funds for this purpose, he sold 
the works of art which Nicolas had lavished on the churches of 
Rome, and stripped the splendid bindings off the MSS, which 

1 Geiger, Renaissance, 159; G. F. Hill's Pisanello, pi. 56. 

2 i 521 c (Woodward's Vittorino, 87, and Erasmus, 163). 

3 Corn ucop iae sive Latinac linguae coinmenlarionim opus, folio, 1396 pp., 
Ven. 1489, and at least five later edd. The commentary on Martial fills 1000 
folio pages, but is not named in the title. On 1'erotti, cp. Voigt, ii I33-/ 3 - 

J2 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

Nicolas had stored in the Vatican 1 . The next Pope, Pius II 
(1458-64), disappointed the hopes of the humanists, though he 
was eminent not only as a statesman but also as a man of letters. 
As Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, he had learnt some Greek from 
Filelfo in Florence, had studied and taught at Siena, had written 
Ovidian poems and Horatian epistles, and had made his mark by 
a Latin oration at the Council of Basel. He had sent a long 
letter to young Sigismund, count of Tyrol, in praise of learning 
(1443), and an elaborate treatise on education to Ladislas, the 
youthful king of Bohemia and Hungary (1450). In that treatise, 
he had recommended the study of the Historians of Rome, and 
the moral writings of Cicero, Seneca and Boethius, together with 
Plautus and Terence, Virgil and Horace, Lucan and Statius, the 
Metamorphoses of Ovid, as well as Valerius Flaccus and Claudian, 
and Persius, with selections from Juvenal and Martial, neatly 
saying of the latter that ' in handling Martial we cannot gather the 
roses for the thorns', and dexterously parrying the 'shallow 
Churchman's ' objection to the perusal of pagan poets by the 
remark that, ' happily, there were in Hungary not a few to whom 
the poets of antiquity were a precious possession'*. He had also 
composed Ciceronian dialogues in which he had relieved the 
dulness of scholastic arguments by discussions on classical 
archaeology, literature and history ; not to mention a History of 
Bohemia in the style of Livy, a Latin comedy in that of Terence, 
and a Latin novel after the manner of Boccaccio. After he had 
become Pope, he frankly regretted some of his earlier poems, and 
spent much of his time on writing the history of his pontificate, 
but he was too critical to be really popular with the humanists, 
and his want of appreciation was never forgiven by the ever self- 
assertive Filelfo. 

Of his immediate circle the one who did most for the study of 
the Classics was Campano (c. 1427 1477), the 


Campanian shepherd boy, who became a pupil of 
Valla in Naples. But it was not until after the death of Pius II 
that, in or about the year 1470, he printed a series of seven folio 

1 Creighton, History of the Papacy, Hi 184. 

2 De Liberorum Educatione, translated in Woodward's Vittorino, 134 158. 
Cp. Harvard Lectures, 67 69. 


volumes, including the whole of Livy, Quintilian and Suetonius, 
with the Philippics of Cicero, and a Latin translation of all the 
Lives of Plutarch. 

The name of Pius II is commemorated in the Piccolomini 
palace and other buildings of Pienza, and also in the exquisitely 
beautiful Piccolomini library at Siena. In his private library he 
once possessed a MS of Prosper, which has since proved to be 
a palimpsest of the Verrine Speeches of Cicero, and, after many 
vicissitudes, has found a permanent home in the Vatican 1 . He 
died at Ancona amid the final preparations for his crusade against 
the Turks, and among the Cardinals who stood by his dying bed 
was Bessarion. In comparison with that Cardinal, he knew little 
of Greek, but when, only eleven years earlier, the news of the fall 
of Constantinople broke like a thunder-bolt on Italy, Aeneas 
Sylvius was fully conscious of the blow that had befallen the cause 
of Greek literature. In a letter to Nicolas, the papal patron of the 
Classics who had raised him to the purple, we find him exclaiming : 

How many names of mighty men will perish ! It is a second death to 
Homer and to Plato. The fount of the Muses is dried up for evermore 2 . 

1 E. Piccolomini, in Bolletino Storico Senese (1899), fasc. iii (Class. J?ev. 
xvii 460). 

2 Ep. 162, 12 July 1453 (Hocly, 191 f). On Aeneas Sylvius (Pope Pius II) 
cp. Creighton's History of the Papacy, Book iv cc. i and ix, and Historical 
Essays and Reviews; also Voigt, passim, and the monograph by the latter in 
3 vols., 1856-63. Portrait in Phil. Galleus, Effigies, i (1572) A3, and 
Boissard's /cones, in ii p. 10 (1598), reproduced in Miss J. M. Stone's 
Reformation and Renaissance. 



THE fall of Constantinople was once regarded as the cause of 
the Revival of Greek Learning in Italy. But, exactly a century 
before that event, Petrarch possessed a MS of Homer and of 
Plato ; the whole of Homer was translated into Latin for the use 
of Petrarch and Boccaccio ; and Boccaccio learnt Greek. Half a 
century before the fall, Greek was being taught in Florence by 
Chrysoloras ; and the principal Greek prose authors had been 
translated, and at least five of the foremost of the Greek refugees 
had reached Italy, before the overthrow of the doomed city. 

The most prominent of the Greeks, who found their way to 
Italy after the fall of Constantinople, were Michael Apostolius, 
Andronicus Callistus, Constantine and Janus Lascaris, Marcus 
Musurus, and Zacharias Callierges. 

The Greeks in Rome continued the controversy as to the 

respective merits of Plato and Aristotle, which had 

Aristotle^ been waged at Florence by Plethon in 1439. 

Plethon and Plato were attacked without bitterness 

by Theodorus Gaza 1 , and defended with good temper by Bessarion 2 

between 1455 and 1459. Bessarion wrote a second treatise 3 , 

which was answered by Gaza 4 (c. 1459). Gaza's preference for 

Aristotle brought down upon him an ill-mannered and ill-tempered 

1 tfn T] <f>6<ris /3ov\fvtT<u. 

2 De Natura et Arte, printed later as book vi of Adv. Calumniatorem 

3 irpbs T& IIXTjflwi'os Tr/adj ' A.pLffTOTl\t)v iTepl ovcrias. 

a vwep ' Ap 


attack on the part of one of Bessarion's proteges, Michael 
Apostolius, who hoped to retain Bessarion's favour by defending 
Plato 1 (1460-1). But Bessarion, who thoroughly disapproved of 
his protege's controversial methods, protested that he himself had 
a profound respect for Aristotle, as well as for Plato 2 , and even 
gave a cordial welcome to a short treatise, in which Aristotle was 
defended, and Apostolius refuted, in a sensible and moderate 
manner by a Greek of better breeding named Andronicus 
Callistus 3 (1462). Bessarion was afterwards attacked in a petu- 
lant spirit by Georgius Trapezuntius (i464) 4 , who in his turn was 
answered by Bessarion (i469) 5 . Simply for approving this answer, 
Argyropulos was denounced by Theodorus Gaza., who, so far as 
the Greeks were concerned, had the last word in this long debate 
(c. i47o) 6 . Bessarion, however, had the support of Italians such 
as Filelfo and Ficino, and his own pupil Perotti, who wrote a 
treatise against Trapezuntius 7 . Throughout all the tangles of 
this complicated controversy, a thread of gold is inwoven by 
the serene and imperturbable temper of Bessarion. Among the 
Aristotelians who joined in the fray, Theodorus Gaza shines by 
contrast with Georgius Trapezuntius, while Andronicus Callistus 
is far more attractive than the selfish and interested Platonist, 
Apostolius 8 . 

1 Apostolios, Trov-/i/j.aTa rpia, Smyrna, 1876; also MS in Bodleian, mentioned 
by Hody, 78. 

2 tfj.e dt <t>i\ouvTa /j.ev tvOi IlXdrwca, <f>i\ovi>Ta 5' 'Apur-rorAij Kal a>s 
<ro0wTaTw fftfio/j-evov (Kartpw. Text of Bessarion's Letter in Migne, P. G. 
clxi 685 692,; cp. Legrand, I Ixii f. 

3 MS in Escurial; Miller, Catal. des MSS Grecs, p. 177. 

4 Coviparatio inter Aristotelian et Plalonetit (printed Ven. 1523). 

5 Adversus Calumniatorem Platonis (printed in Rome, 1469). 

6 'AvTippyTiKoi'. Cp. Bandini, Catal. MSS Gr. ii 275 f. 

7 Valentinelli, Bill. nis. ad S. Marci, Venet. iv 7, 9. 

8 The earliest account of this controversy is that of Boivin le Cadet, 
Querdle des Philosophes du quinzieme siede, first printed in the Mhnoires 
de Littcrature of the French Academy, ii (1717) 775 791, where the 
correspondence about Apostolius and Andronicus (1462) is translated for the 
first time. Cp. Tiraboschi, vi c. 2 18, pp. 368 370; Buhle, Gesch. der 
neitern Philos. ii, 1800; Legrand, I xxxvi f ; Gaspary (on the chronology of the 
controversy), in Arc hiv fur Geschichte der Philosophic, iii (1890) 50 53; and 
Voigt, ii 1 55 s . 

76 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

Michael Apostolius (c. 1422 1480), who had been a pupil of 
Argyropulos at Constantinople, fled to Rome in 
1454. He subsequently settled in Crete, where 
he supported himself as a copyist 1 . His bitter 
attack on Theodorus Gaza was answered (as we have seen) in 
a courteous spirit by Andronicus Callistus, a native 
Callistus 110 ' f Constantinople, who makes his first appearance 
in Italy in 1461, when (like Argyropulos at an 
earlier date) he aided the Greek studies of Palla Strozzi at Padua. 
It was probably at Padua that John Free 2 wrote a letter of intro- 
duction to a friend at Ferrara describing Callistus as fully equal 
in learning to Gaza, and as a modest and pleasant person 3 . 
Callistus afterwards taught at Bologna and at Rome, and, on the 
death of Bessarion in 1472, left for Florence, where his lectures 
were attended by the youthful Politian, who wrote a graceful set 
of Latin elegiacs urging Lorenzo not to allow Callistus to leave 
Florence 4 . His fame as a lecturer reached the Hungarian bishop, 
Janus Pannonius, who had left Italy in 1458-9, but imagines 
himself as returning to the school in which Callistus was dis- 
coursing on Homer, Demosthenes, and Aristotle 5 . Callistus 
dedicated to Lorenzo a translation of Aristotle, De Generatione et 
Corruptione* . He subsequently lived in Milan and in Paris. He 
died in London, far from his friends 7 , after aiding a fellow- 
countryman, Hermonymus of Sparta, to return to Paris 8 , where 
he was one of the earliest teachers of Greek in France. 

A more notable name is that of Constantine Lascaris of Con- 
stantinople (1434 1501), a pupil of Argyropulos. 
He was nineteen years of age when he was made a 
prisoner by the Turks on the fall of his native city. 
During the greater part of the next seven years he probably stayed 

1 Legrand, I Iviii f. 

2 Creighton's Historical Lectures and Addresses, 202. 

8 Hody, 228 f. 4 Politian, ed. 1867, 227 f. 

5 Delitiae poetarum Hungaricorum, 1617, p. 198 (cp. Hody, 227 232; 
Legrand, I Hi n. 6). 

6 Legrand, I Ivii. 

7 <f)i\wv tprinos, Const. Lascaris, ap. Legrand, I Ivi n. 3. 

8 1476. Boissonade, Anecd. Gr. \ 420-6. 


at Corfu, but he found time for a visit to Rhodes, where he copied 
or acquired certain MSS now at Madrid 1 . From 1460 to 1465 he 
was transcribing MSS and teaching Greek in Milan. It was there 
that, in a happy moment, he presented to the princess Hippolyta 
Sforza a beautifully written transcript of his work ' On the Eight 
Parts of Speech', now in the Paris Library 2 . On her marriage to 
Alfonso II, the future king of Naples, Lascaris followed her to 
that court, and, a year later, started for Greece in a vessel that 
stopped at Messina, He was urged to stay, and there he abode 
for the remaining thirty-five years of his life. At Messina he 
taught Greek, one of his pupils being the future Cardinal Bern bo 3 . 
In the bitterness of his spirit he once wrote to a friend lamenting 
the enslavement of Greece, and longing to leave Sicily for the 
British Isles, or for the Islands of the Blest 4 . In gratitude, how- 
ever, to the Sicilian city, where he had spent the latter half of his 
life, he left his MSS to Messina, then under the rule of Castile. 
At Messina they remained until 1679, when they were removed, 
first to Palermo, and thence to Spain. In 1712 they were placed 
in the National Library founded in that year in Madrid 5 . Among 
them (dated Messina, 1496) is his own copy of Quintus Smyr- 
naeus the poet once known as 'Quintus Calaber', simply because 
the manuscript of his epic was first found, by Bessarion, in 
' Calabria '. The small Greek Grammar of Constantine Lascaris, 
published at Milan in 1476, is the first book printed in Greek 6 . 
Constantine Lascaris is a pathetic figure in the history of scholar- 
ship. Though he bore an imperial name, he found himself little 
better than a slave in Italy. He was reduced to support himself 
by teaching, and by copying MSS; and even his industry as a 

1 Cod. Matrit. no. 43 (Aphthonius etc.), no. 85 (Byz. law), no. 101 
(Choricius). Cp. Legrand, I Ixxi, and Iriarte's Catalogue. 
3 no. 2590. 

3 In 1492. Bembo, Epp. ed. 1582, p. 4 f. 

4 Iriarte, Bibl. Matrit: CoM. Gr. 290 (Legrand, I Ixxx f). 

6 Catalogued by Iriarte, 1769. Cp. Sabbadini, Scoperte, 68. 

6 Legrand, I i 5. Reprinted by Aldus at Venice (1495); the Pronouns 
had been finished at Milan, 1460, the Nouns, 1463; the Verbs at Messina, 
1468, and the Subscript Vowels, 1470. His abstract of Herodian is in the 
Hamburg Library. 


copyist was of no avail, when his skill was superseded by the 
newly-invented art of printing 1 . 

The same famous surname was borne by Janus Lascaris 

(1445 1535), who, on the fall of Constantinople, 
Lascaris was taken to the Peloponnesus and to Crete. On 

his subsequent arrival in Venice, he was sent, at 
the charges of Bessarion, to learn Latin at Padua. On the death 
of his Greek patron, he was welcomed by Lorenzo in Florence, 
where he lectured on Thucydides and Demosthenes, and on 
Sophocles and the Greek Anthology. As the emissary of Lorenzo, 
he went twice to the East in quest of MSS. He recovered as many 
as 200, but, before his second return, his great Florentine patron 
had passed away (149 2)*. On the fall of the Medici, he entered 
the service of France, and was the, French envoy at Venice from 
1503 to 1508. When the second son of Lorenzo became Pope 
as Leo X, Janus Lascaris was at once invited to Rome and set 
over a Greek College. One of his colleagues was Musurus, and 
among his pupils was Matthaeus Devarius of Corfu (c. 1500 
1570), the future author of a work on the Greek particles 3 , and 
the future editor of the editio princeps of Eustathius (1542-50). 
In 1518 Lascaris returned to France, where he aided Francis I 
in founding the Royal Library at Fontainebleau 4 . In this work 
he was associated with Budaeus, who, as an occasional pupil of 
his colleague, learnt more Greek from Lascaris than from his 
former teacher, Hermonymus of Sparta. Lascaris returned to 
Rome on the accession of the second Medicean Pope, in 1523, 
and again in 1534. In the following year he died, and was 
buried in the church of Sant' Agata, where the Greek epitaph, 
composed by himself, tells of his grief for the enslavement of his 

1 Cp. Hody, 240-6; Tiraboschi, vi 822-5; Voigt, i 369^ and esp. 
Legrand, I Ixxi Ixxxvii. 

2 He visited Corfu, Arta, Thessalonica, Mount Athos, Constantinople, 
Crete. The memoranda of his acquisitions (Cod. Vat. no. 1412) were published 
by K. K. Muller.-in Centrlbl.f. Bill, i (1884) 333412. Cp. De Nolhac, Bibl. 
de F. Orsini, 154-9, anc ^ i Q Melanges d'arcA. et d^hist. vi (1886) 255 f, 264 f. 

3 Ed. Klotz, 1835-42; originally published in 1587 (details of his life in 
his nephew's dedication of this work, and in Legrand, I cxcv-viii, and 
II 52 f). 

4 Cp. Omont, Catalogues des MSS grecs de Fontainebleau (1889), p. iv f. . 


country, and of his gratitude to the alien land that had given him 
a new home 1 . His reputation rests on his five editione s principe s, 
all of them printed in Florence, in Greek capitals with accents : 
namely, four plays of Euripides 2 , Callimachus, Apollonius Rhodius, 
the Greek Anthology, and Lucian (1494-6). At Rome he pro- 
duced at the Greek press on the Quirinal the ancient scholia on 
the ///Wand on Sophocles (i5i7-8) 3 . 

Among his pupils in Florence was the Cretan Musurus 
(c. 1470 1517), who was so diligent in teaching 
Greek at Padua that he hardly allowed himself M^Jrus 
four days of holiday throughout the year 4 . In 
1513 we find him lecturing on Greek in Venice, and making 
it a 'second Athens'. Such is the language of Aldus Manutius 5 
whom he aided, from 1498 to 1515, in the preparation of the 
earliest printed editions of Aristophanes 6 , Euripides, Plato, 
Athenaeus, Hesychius, and Pausanias. In recognition of the 
beautiful Greek poem, prefixed in 1513 to the editio princeps of 
Plato 7 , he was appointed bishop of Monembasia in the Morea, 
but died at the age of less than fifty, before starting for his 
distant diocese 8 . He was the editor of the ' Etymologic-urn 

1 Lascaris Epigr. ed. 1544, f. 13 verso, Adcr/capis dXAoSairr; 70^77 m/car^ero, 
yalr/v \ afire \irjv i;elvr)i>, w ^ve, / ue/u06yaei'os. | evpero /ieiAtx"7*', o.\\' &X^ eTal j 

2 Med. Hipp. Ale. Androm. 

3 Cp. Boerner, 199 f; Hody, 247 275; Wolf, Analecta, i 237; Vogel in 
Serapeum, 1849, no. 5 and 6; Symonds, ii 427 f; and esp. Legrand, I 
cxxx clxii, and portrait, ib. in 411. 

4 Erasmus, iii 788 B; Nichols, i 449. His teaching is highly praised by 
Beatus Rhenanus : ' nihil (in Graecisauctoribus) erat tarn reconditum, quod non 
aperiret, nee tam involutum, quod non expediret Musurus, vere Musarum 
custos et antistes' (Ep. ad Carolum V ; Leyden ed. of Erasmus, i /'//.; 
cp. Hody, p. 304). 

5 Preface to Oratores Graeci, 1513. 

6 Facsimile in Early Venetian Printing (1895), 1 1 1. 

7 Printed in Botfield's Prefaces to the Editiones Principes, 290-6, and in 
Didot's Aide Manuce, 491-8; translated in Roscoe's Leo X, i 421 f, ed. 1846. 

8 He is described, in his epitaph in S. Maria della Pace, as exactae 
diligentiae grammaticus et rarae felicilatis poeta (Legrand, I cxxi), and by 
Erasmus as not only gente Graectts, eruditione Graecissimus (Ep. 295), but also 
as Latinae linguae usque ad miracuhtm docttis (Ep. 671). Cp. Hody, 294 
307; Boerner, 219 232; R. Menge in Schmidt's Hesychius, v i 88 (1868); 

80 ITALY. [CENT. XV f 

Magnum ', published at Venice in I499 1 , while the printer was 

Caiiier es Zach arias Callierges (fl. 1499 X 5 2 3)> who, in the 

same year, printed the commentary of Simplicius 

on the Categories, and afterwards produced at Rome the second 

edition of Pindar (1515), and an early edition of Theocritus 

(1516), followed by his Thomas Magister (1517). Callierges was 

noted for his calligraphy *, and his Greek type is as beautiful, in 

its kind, as that of Aldus Manutius 8 . 

and esp. Legrand, I cviii cxxiv, with portrait in vol. II, frontispiece, from 
Jovius, Elogia, p. 57; also in Didot, p. 300 (with page of autograph, opp. 

P. 5)- 

1 Facsimile in Early Venetian Printing, 123 (wrongly dated 1497). 

2 Stobaeus, in New Coll., Oxford, copied Dec. 1523, the latest definite 
date in his life. 

3 Hody, 317; Ritschl's Pref. to Thomas Magister, p. xviii, and esp. 
Legrand, I 1 Ivii. The Greek Immigrants are briefly sketched by Heeren, 
ii 199 221, Bernhardy, Gr. Lit. i 747 752 4 ; Symonds, ii 246 250, 375-8, 
and by others; all previous accounts are, however, superseded by Legrand's 
Bibliographie Plelleniqtte, I ill (1885 1903). Cp. Literature in Krumbacher, 
p. 502 f, ed. 1897. 



THE thirty years, during which Cosimo de' Medici was in 
power (1434-64), were separated by the five years of the brief 
sway of his son from the three and twenty years of the rule of 
Lorenzo (1469-92). Lorenzo was one of the most accomplished 
and versatile of men ; astute as a politician, graceful as a poet, 
generous as a patron, and eager and enthusiastic as a lover of art 
and philosophy and classical learning. In his virtues and in his 
vices he was the incarnation of the spirit of the Renaissance. 

Ficino had translated ten of Plato's dialogues before the death 
of Cosimo ; ten more had been translated before the 

r T ii. i i j. j The Academy 

accession of Lorenzo; the work was completed in O f Florence 
1477 ar >d printed in 1482. The Introduction to 
the Symposium is one of the few primary authorities on the 
Platonic Academy of Florence. The ancient custom of cele- 
brating the memory of Plato by an annual banquet had, after an 
interval of twelve hundred years, been revived by Lorenzo. Nine 
members of the Academy, including Ficino and Landino, had 
been invited to the villa at Careggi. At the conclusion of the 
repast, Ficino's rendering of all the seven speeches in the Sym- 
posium is read aloud, and discussed by five of the guests 1 . Of 
the nine that assembled at Careggi to discuss the Symposium, the 
only one unknown to fame, apart from Ficino him- 

.- . . Landino 

self, is Cnstoforo Landino (1424 1504). A survivor 
from the age of Cosimo, he was destined to live to the age of 
eighty, and even to outlive the youthful Lorenzo. He had been 
associated with Ficino as Lorenzo's tutor; he had already lec- 
tured on Petrarch (1460), and, at a later time, he was to expound 

1 PP- 373440 of Basel ed., 1532. 
S. II. 6 

82 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

Dante (1481), to annotate Horace (1482) and Virgil (1487), to 
translate the elder Pliny (1501), and to imitate the Tusculan 
Disputations of Cicero 1 in a celebrated dialogue, whose scene is 
laid at Camaldoli, near the source of the Arno. In that dialogue 
the life of action is lauded by Lorenzo, and that of contemplation 
by the widely accomplished Leon Battista Alberti (1404 1472) 2 , 
who maintains the allegorical significance of the Aeneid, and 
finds affinities between the poetry of Virgil and the philosophy 
of Plato 3 . 

Ficino (1433 1499), the true centre of the Academy, received 
holy orders at the age of forty, and spent the rest 
of his days in the honest and reverent endeavour to 
reconcile Platonism and Christianity. In the latter part of his 
life he translated and expounded Plotinus (ed. 1492). After 
surviving Lorenzo for seven years, he died in 1499, an ^ is com- 
memorated by a marble bust in the Cathedral of Florence 4 . 

Among other members of the Academy was that paragon of 
beauty and genius, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola 
(1463 1494), who first flashed upon Florence 
shortly before the publication of Ficino's Plato. He was pos- 
sessed by the great thought of the unity of all knowledge, and, 
while he was still absorbed in planning a vast work, which was to 
form a complete system of Platonic, Christian, and Cabbalistic 
lore, he passed away at the early age of thirty-one, on the very 
day of 1494, on which the invader of Italy, Charles VIII of 
France, marched into Florence 5 . 

1 His lecture on the Tusc. Disp. is printed in K. Milliner's Reden, 
118 129. 

2 Voigt, i 37O-6 3 ; Symonds, ii 341-4; portrait in G. F. Hill's Pisanello, 
192. At 20, he composed a Latin Comedy, which passed for a Classic (the 
PhiloJoxius of 'Lepidus Comicus ', ed. Ven. 1588). 

3 Portrait in group on p. 58 supra ; another portrait in Alois Heiss, Les 
Medailleurs de la Renaissance, i 63. 

4 Reproduced in Wiese and Percopo, It. Lift. 199; he is one of the group 
on p. 58 supra. Cp. Reumont's Lorenzo, ii 20 30 E.T. ; Symonds, ii 3248; 
Harvard Lectures, 89 94. 

6 Roscoe's Lorenzo, 259^ ed. 1847; Reumont, ii 79 95; Symonds, ii 
329 338; fine portrait in the Uffizi, no. 1154, reproduced in Armstrong's 
Lorenzo, and Wiese and Percopo, 203 ; another portrait in the Uffizi, repro- 
duced by Alois Heiss, I.e. i 29. 


Pico's friend and correspondent, Hermolaus Barbaras (1454 
1493), died only a year before him. A grandson 
of Francesco Barbaro, the Venetian friend of Poggio, BartaTiTs* 11 
he had been educated at Verona, Rome, and Padua. 
He translated Themistius and Dioscorides, as well as the Rhetoric 
of Aristotle. He claimed to have corrected 5000 errors in the text 
of the elder Pliny 1 . In a memorable letter, Pico, while congra- 
tulating him on his Ciceronian style, ventured to ask whether the 
old schoolmen might not say to any one who now charged them 
with dulness, 'Let him prove by experience whether we barbarians 
have not the god of eloquence in our hearts rather than on our 
lips ' 2 . He is described by Politian as Hermolaus Barbarus 
barbariae hostis acerrimus 3 ; and he is declared by Bembo to 
have surpassed all former Venetians in Greek and Latin learning. 
He died in Rome in 1493, at the early age of thirty-nine. 

' Urbs Venetum vitam, mortem dedit inclyta Roma, 
non potuit nasci nobiliusve mori' 4 . 

In the following year, at the age of forty, died a notable 
member of the Florentine Academy, Angelo Poli- 

. . , Politian 

ziano, familiarly known as Politian (1454 1494). 
Sent to Florence at the age of ten from his home at Monte Pul- 
ciano, he attended the lectures of Landino, Argyropulos, Andro- 
nicus Callistus, and Ficino. By the age of thirty, he was tutor to 
Lorenzo's children, and professor of Greek and Latin Literature 
in Florence. Among those from England, who attended his 
lectures, were Grocyn and Linacre. The authors professorially 
expounded by him included Homer and Virgil, Persius and 
Statius, Quintilian and Suetonius. He was one of the first 
to pay attention to the Silver Age of Latinity; and he justified 
his choice partly on the ground that that Age had been unduly 
neglected, and partly because it supplied an easy introduction to 
the authors of the Golden Age 5 . It is as a scholar, and not as a 

1 Castigaiiones Plin. 1492-3. 

2 Ap. Politian, Epp. ix 4. 3 Misc. c. xc. 

4 Jovius, Elogia, no. 36, with portrait on p. 69. Cp. Tiraboschi, vi 828 f; 
Roscoe's Lorenzo, note 329. 

B Oratio super Quintiliano et Siatii Silvis, in Opera, ed. 1498, signature aa. 


84 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

philosopher, that he claims the right to expound Aristotle 1 . He 
was probably the first teacher in Italy whose mastery of Greek 
was equal to that of the Greek immigrants 2 . 

A singular interest was lent to his lectures on Latin and 
Greek authors by his impassioned declamation of Latin poems 
composed by himself in connexion with the general subject of 
his course. The four extant poems of this type are known by 
the name of the Sylvae. The first in order of time is connected 
with the Eclogues of Virgil (1482); the next, with the Georgics 
and with Hesiod; the third, with Homer; and the last, apparently, 
with a general course of lectures on the ancient poets (i486) 3 . 

Among the authors, in whose textual criticism he was in- 
terested, are Terence, Lucretius, Propertius, Ovid, Statius, and 
Ausonius, as well as Celsus, Quintilian, Festus, and the Scriptores 
Rei Rusticae. His copy of the editio princeps of Catullus, Tibullus, 
Propertius, and Statius, published in 1472, formerly in the Laur- 
entian Library 4 , is now in- the Corsini palace in Rome 5 . He made 
a special study of the Pandects of Justinian, the : celebrated MS 
of which was removed from Pisa to Florence in 1411. By the 
influence of Lorenzo, Politian was allowed to study the MS at his 
leisure 6 , and was thus enabled to point out mistakes in the later 
MSS, and in the current editions of the work 7 . 

The most learned of his extant productions is his Miscellanea 
(1489). Among the many topics discussed in its pages are the 
use of the aspirate in Latin and Greek, the chronology of Cicero's 
'Familiar Letters', the evidence in favour of the spelling Vergilius 
in preference to Vtrgilius, the details of the discovery of purple 
dye, and the differences between the aorist and the imperfect in the 

1 Lamia, ib. , signature Y. 

2 Letter to Matthias Corvinus, in Epp. ix i. 

3 Text in ed. 1867, 285 427; cp. Symonds, ii 453 484; Harvard 
Lectures, 96. 

4 Mahly, Angelus I'olitianus, 22. 

5 Cp. Schanz, 411, p. 146; Klotz, Praef. to Statius, Silvae, pp. 1 Ixviii; 
Sahbadini, Scoperte, 153, n. 71. 

6 Misc. c. xli; Epp. x 4. 

7 Gibbon, c. 44 (iv 468 Bury); Roscoe's Lorenzo, note 217; and esp. 
Mahly's Ang. Folitianus, 61-7. 


signatures of Greek sculptors. Gellius quotes a Latin riddle, and, 
for its solution, refers his readers to a lost book of Varro : 

' semel minusve an bis minus sit nescio, 
at utrumque eorum, ut quondam audivi dicier, 
lovi ipsi regi noluit concedere'. 

Politian solves the riddle with the word Ter-minus, adding a 
reference to Ovid's Fasti^. 

In his Latin prose, Politian was an eclectic, with an eccentric 
fondness for rare and archaic words. As an eclectic, he found 
himself in opposition to the pretended Ciceronian, Bartolomeo 
Scala, the Latin Secretary of Florence, and to the true Ciceronian, 
Paolo Cortesi, the author of the remarkable dialogue 'On Learned 
Men' (1490). In the course of a controversy with Scala, Politian 
insists that a single style is not sufficient to express everything. 
He adds that his critics sometimes found fault with him for using 
words that were really derived from the best MSS of Cicero. Scala 
is ready to approve of Politian's imitation of Sallust and Livy, 
while protesting against his partiality for the writers of the Silver 
Age 2 . In the controversy with Cortesi, Politian denounces the 
Ciceronians as the mere ' apes of Cicero '. ' To myself (he adds) 
the face of a bull or a lion appears far more beautiful than 
that of an ape, although the ape has a closer resemblance to 
man '. But " someone will say : ' You do not express Cicero '. 
I answer : ' I am not Cicero ; what I really express is myself " 3 . 
In his Latin history of the Pazzi conspiracy, the model he selects 
is Sallust. 

Politian wrote Greek poems at the age of seventeen, and, by 
his verse translation of four books of the Iliad 4 , gained the proud 
title of Homericus juvenis. His other translations include poems 
from Moschus and Callimachus and the Greek Anthology, with 

1 ii 677 f. On the interest evoked, by its publication, cp. Epp. iii 18; 
Harvard Lectures, 97. It led to a feud with Merula, who pretended that part 
of Politian's learning was derived from himself (Epp. xi i, 2, 5, 10, n, 21; 
Roscoe's Lorenzo, 251 f ; Mahly, 141-3). 
. 2 Politian, Epp. v. 

3 Epp. . viii 16; Mahly, 74 86; Sabbadini, Ciceronianismo, 34 42; 
Harvard Lectures, 157-9. 

4 ii v, Poesie Lafine, ed. 1867, 429 523. 


part of Plato's Charmides, and Epictetus, and a flowing rendering 
of the historian Herodian 1 . 

In Latin, as well as Italian, verse, Politian was a born poet. 
The Italian Opera originated in his Orfeo, which, in its first 
edition, written at an early age, contained, imbedded in the 
Italian text, an ode in Latin Sapphics to be sung by Orpheus 2 . 
There is a singular grace and beauty in the long elegiac poem on 
the violets sent him by the lady of his love. The purport of the 
whole may be gathered from a single couplet : 

' felices nimium violae, quas carpserit ilia 
dextera quae miserum me mihi subripuit' 3 . 

A graver pathos lingers over the lament for Lorenzo with its 
twice-repeated refrain : 

' quis dabit capiti meo 
aquam, quis oculis meis 
fontem lachrymarum dabit?' 4 

The death of Lorenzo (i492) s probably hastened the death of 
Politian (i494) 6 , and the Academy could hardly survive the death 
of Ficino in 1499. 

In the last year of his life we find Politian corresponding with 
Filippo Beroaldo the elder (1453 1505), on the 


subject of Merula, one of the few scholars of the 
day who failed to live on good terms with Beroaldo. Beroaldo 
had produced at Parma in 1476 the first commentary on the 

1 Mahly, 86100. 

2 Opere Volgari, p. 71 f, ed. 1885. 

3 Poesie Lat. 235, * ib. 274. 

5 Politian, Epp. iv 2, ' mine extincto, qui fuerat unicus auctor eruditi 
laboris videlicet, ardor etiam scribendi noster extinctus est, omnisque prope 
veterum studiorum alacritas elanguit '. 

6 On Politian, cp. Jovius, no. 38 (with portrait on p. 73, ed. 1577); 
F. O. Mencken (Leipzig, 1836); Tiraboschi, vi 1098 1108; W. P. Greswell, 
Memoirs (1801, 1805, 1809); S. F. W. Hoffmann, Lebensbilder beriihtnter 
Humanisten, i (1837) 71 198; and esp. A. Mahly, Ang. Politianus, Ein 
Culturbild aus der Renaissance, 173 pp. (1867); Symonds, ii 345 357, 
452 465 ; Guido Mazzoni, // Poliziano e /' Umanesimo, in Vita Ilaliana net 
Rinascimento (Milan, 1899), 147 177. Opera, Ven. 1498, Flor. 1499, Bas. 
1553; Epp. Bas. 1522, Antw. 1567; Opera, Epp., Miscell. Lugd. 1526 etc.; 
Poesie Latine e Greche in Prose Volgari etc., ed. Isidore del Lungo (Firenze, 
1867). His portrait is included in the group on p. 58. 


elder Pliny. He was afterwards a professor at Milan and Paris 
and in his native city of Bologna 1 , and proved himself a scholar 
of wide attainments and extraordinary industry, as an editor of 
many of the Latin Classics, including Propertius (1487) and 
Plautus (isoo). The Latin Satirists and Terence 

,.,,,. . . . Britannico 

were edited by his contemporary Giovanni Britan- 
nico of Brescia (d. after 1518), who completed in 1506 a post- 
humous edition of Plautus by his friend 'Pylades' Buccardus 2 . 

Among Politian's contemporaries at Florence was Michael 
Tarchaniota Marullus, who was a mere child when 

r ^ r Marullus 

his family fled from Constantinople in the year of 
its fall. They took refuge first in Ancona, where his great-grand- 
father had lived and died. In his youth Marullus served under 
the banner of ' Mars and the Muses ' 3 . On settling in Florence 
he won the favour of Lorenzo, and married Alessandra, the ac- 
complished daughter of Lorenzo's secretary, Bartolommeo Scala. 
The daughter had previously won the affections of Politian, and the 
feud that arose between the rival suitors has left its traces on the 
poems of both. Among the Greeks in Italy Marullus is exceptional 
in his mastery of Latin verse. In the first edition of his poems 
he imitates Catullus, Tibullus, and Horace, but in the last, that of 
1497, he gives proof of a keen admiration for Lucretius 4 . His 
able emendations of the text of the poet were well known during 
the latter part of his life 5 , and a copy was found on his person at 
his death 6 . He perished in the waters of the Cecina in the 
neighbourhood of Volterra (i5oo) 7 . 

Among those who waited on Lorenzo, as he lay a-dying at the 
early age of forty-three, were Pico and Politian. 
There too was Savonarola (1452 1498), who, with- 
in the next few years, was to see the works of Latin and Italian 
poets and many precious MSS perish in the flames kindled by his 

1 A lecture on Juvenal delivered at Bologna is printed in K. Milliner's 
Reden, 60 f. 

2 Cp. Ritschl, Opitsc. ii 62. 3 Epigr. i. 
4 Esp. in his last poem ; cp. Munro's Lncretitis, p. 7 3 . 

6 ib. pp. 6 14*. 

6 Candidus in pref. to Juntine ed. (1512). 

7 Hody, 276 291. 

88 ITALY. [CENT, xv f 

followers (1497), and was himself to close his marvellous career 
by an awful doom. About the date of Lorenzo's death, Savonarola 
wrote a treatise describing all learning as dangerous unless limited 
to a chosen few. He there attacks the abuse of poetry, though 
he spares poetry itself. He is peculiarly suspicious of the imi- 
tation of the ancient poets, and, as a reformer, he represents a 
religious reaction against the pagan tendencies of some of the 
humanists 1 . 

Shortly after the death of Savonarola, Florence for the first time 
employed in her Chancery the astute diplomatist, 
Niccolb Machiavelli (1469 1527), who ceased to 
hold office on the restoration of the Medici in 1513. While 
living in poverty on his farm in the neighbourhood of Florence, 
Machiavelli wrote, not only his Principe, but also his Discourses 
on the first decade of Livy, in which the Roman historian supplies 
the author with a few texts for setting forth the progress of an 
ambitious people. These discourses were written in 1516 to 1519 
for the meetings of the revived Academy held in the gardens of 
Bernardo Rucellai in the Via della Scala 2 . The Academy was 
suppressed in 1522, and, when it was restored in 1540, its aim 
was solely the study of the Italian language. One of Machiavelli's 
comedies, the Clizia, is founded on the Casina of Plautus, while 
his Italian history of Florence, down to the death of Lorenzo, 
has a flowing smoothness worthy of Herodotus, and a vivid 
picturesqueness resembling that of Tacitus. Early in the seven- 
teenth century, when a request for permission to publish Boccalini's 
Commentaries on Tacitus was referred to five of the Senators of 
Venice, ' it is the teaching of Tacitus (they said) that has produced 
Machiavelli and the other bad authors, who would destroy public 
virtue ; we should replace Tacitus by Livy and Polybius, historians 
of the happier and more virtuous times of the Roman republic, 
and by Thucydides, the historian of the Greek republic, who 
found themselves in circumstances like those of Venice' 3 . 

1 Savonarola, De Divisione ac Utilitate Omnium Scientiarum ; cp. Villari's 
Savonarola, 501 f ; Burckhardt, 476 E.T. ; Pastor, Gesch. der Piipsle, iii 141 f; 
and Spingarn, Lit. Criticism in the Renaissance, \j^{. 

2 Nerli, Comm. vii 138. 

3 Sclopis, in Revue hist, de droit franc_ais et elranger, ii (1856) 25. 


Machiavelli's writings abound in illustrations, not only from Livy 
and Tacitus, but also from Aristotle's Politics, and from Polybius 
and Plutarch. It is held by some that he was saturated with 
Thucydides, with whom he may have been familiar in Latinised 
selections, or in the Latin rendering of Leonardo Bruni, or of 
Valla ; but he has very few actual references to the Greek historian. 
It has been judiciously observed by Mr John Morley that, ' if 
he had ever read Thucydides, he would have recalled that first 
great chapter in European literature, ...where the historian analyses 
the demoralisation of the Hellenic world' 1 . Paolo Giovio states 
that Machiavelli confessed to him that he was indebted to 
Marcellus Virgilius, whom he had once served as secretary, for 
a number of choice passages from Greek and Latin authors for 
insertion in his works 2 . Such indebtedness for a few quotations 
is quite consistent with a high degree of originality 3 ; and, what- 
ever doubt there may be as to his knowledge of Greek, there 
is none as to his Latin. At his farm, he used to read Ovid 
and Tibullus in the open air, and, in the evening, array himself 
in royal robes before holding converse with the great men of old 4 . 
In the year of his death, Florence, for the third time, expelled 
the Medici, only to fall once more under their sway, and ultimately 
to pass for two centuries under the power of the younger branch 
of the Medicean house, the ultimate descendants of the younger 
brother of Cosimo, the Father of his Country. 

The Academy of Naples came into being during the reign of 
Alfonso of Aragon (1442-58), the 'magnanimous' 
patron of learning, who was interested in visiting ^ f Napies" y 
the birthplace of Ovid, in preserving the site of 
Cicero's villa at Gae'ta, and in listening to recitations from Virgil 
or Terence, and readings from Curtius and Livy. The centre of 
this Academy was the poet and courtier, Antonio of Palermo, 
better known as Beccadelli (1394 1471) ; and its place of meeting 

1 Thuc. iii 82-4; Romanes Lecture (1897), 16. 

2 Elogia, c. 87. 3 Algarotti, ap. Tiraboschi, vii 594. 

4 Letter to Fr. Vettori, 10 Dec. 1514. Cp., in general, Macaulay's Essay; 
Villari's Machiavelli; Symonds, i 282 305; and Mr Burd's edition of the 

90 ITALY. [CENT, xv f 

was an open colonnade looking out on the 'Street of Tribunals'. 

On the death of Alfonso, it was organised as a club under the 

influence of the poet Pontario (1426 150 A who 


was distinguished for the purity of his Latin prose 

and the graceful elegance of his Latin verse 1 . His poems are the 

theme of one of the elegies of Sannazaro (1458 


1530), one of the ablest members of the Academy, 
the author of Latin idylls on the Bay of Naples, and a Virgilian 
poem on the Birth of Christ, in which the work of twenty years is' 
marred by an incongruous imitation of classical models 2 . Most 
of the prominent members of this Academy were poets. One of 
the exceptions is Valla, whom we have already noticed in another 
connexion 3 . 

While the Academy of Naples had been fostered by Alfonso, 
and that of Florence by Lorenzo, Greek and Latin 
scholarship in Rome owed little to public patronage 
between the death of Nicolas V (1456) and the accession of 
Leo X (1513)*. Callixtus III regarded the sums spent by 
Nicolas V, on the red and silver bindings of the Greek and 
Latin MSS in the newly founded Vatican Library, as a lamentable 
waste of the resources of the Church 5 . Pius II disappointed the 
hopes of the humanists ; Paul II persecuted the Roman Platonists ; 
Sixtus IV opened the Vatican Library to the public, but suppressed 
the stipends of the local professors. Innocent III patronised 
Politian's translation of Herodian, but did nothing for scholarship 
in Rome itself; no service to the Classics was rendered by the 
infamous Alexander VI. Pius III was Pope for less than a 
month ; and Julius 1 1 was too busy with his wars to do anything 
for the votaries of the Classics, beyond the bestowal of a laurel- 
crown on a young Roman poet who assumed the garb of Orpheus 6 . 
But it was for Julius that Raphael painted, in the Camera della 
Segnatura, between 1509 and 1511, the famous fresco of Apollo 

1 Carmina, ed. 1902. He was one of the early critics of the text of 
Lucretius ; cp. Munro, p. 6 f. 

2 Harvard Lectures, 101-9. 3 P- 66 f, supra. 

4 Symonds, ii 357-9- 5 Vespasiano, Vite, 216. 

6 Diary of Paris de Grassis, 1512 (Creighton's History of the Papacy, 
v 201, 314). 


and the Muses with the ancient poets on Parnassus, and the no 
less famous 'School of Athens', which may well have been 
inspired either by the writings of Marsilio Ficino in Florence, 
or by the suggestions of Sadoleto in Rome 1 . It was under Julius 
that many men of letters, such as Sadoleto, Bembo, and Vida, 
gave the first proof of that distinction which added a lustre to the 
pontificate of Leo X 2 . It was also under Julius 
that Italy was visited, in 1506-9, by Erasmus iifuaiy" 5 
(1466 1536). In 1506, he went to Bologna. 
Filippo Beroaldo the elder, who had edited a vast number of 
Latin Classics, and Codrus Urceus, a professor of Greek, who 
wrote poems in good Latin, had lately passed away. Erasmus 
remained at Bologna for little more than a year, working quietly 
at Greek, and, in November, saw the triumphal entry of the 
warrior-pope, Julius II. Early in 1508, he left for Venice, where 
he spent nine months with Aldus Manutius, revising his Latin 
translation of the Hecuba and Iphigeneia in Au/is, correcting the 
text of Plautus, Terence, and Seneca 3 , and seeing through the 
press a new edition of the Adagia. From Venice he went to 
Padua, where he studied Pausanias and Eustathius, with the 
scholiasts on Pindar, Sophocles, Euripides, Theocritus, and 
Lycophron 4 . After visiting Ferrara and Siena, in the spring of 
1509 he reached Rome, where he first made the acquaintance 
of the younger Beroaldo, as well as Cardinal Riario, the nephew, 
and Cardinal Giovanni Medici, the future successor, of Julius II. 
On a third visit he made the acquaintance of Cardinal Grimani 5 , 
who pressed him to remain in Rome ; but the hopes inspired by 
the news of the accession of Henry VIII soon called him to 
England. He afterwards wrote, however, to assure one of the 
Cardinals, that the river of Lethe alone would wash out the 
memory of the delights of Rome 6 ; and another, that he recalled 

1 Raphael was in Florence in 1508. Cp. F. X. Kraus, Camera della 
Segnatura (Firenze, 1890), and Pastor, Gesch. der Piipste, iii 758 f, 768 772, 

2 F. X. Kraus, in Catub. Mod. Hist, ii 15 f. 

3 Didot's Aide Manuce, 414 n. 2. 

4 Beatus Rhenanus, quoted by De Nolhac, 56. 

5 Ep. 1175; C P- Harvard Lectures, 139. 6 Ep. 136. 

92 ITALY. [CENT, xv f 

with regret the theatre, the libraries, and the scholarly con- 
versations he had enjoyed in that city 1 . 

The Roman Academy flourished anew under Julius II. That 

Academy had owed its origin to Pomponius Laetus 
Academy"*' ( X 4 2 5 1 49%)> a pupil of Valla, whom he succeeded 

as the leading spirit among the Roman humanists. 
Greek he declined to learn for the curious reason that he was 
afraid that it might spoil his Latin style. To Pomponius the 
contemplation of the ruins of ancient Rome was a perpetual 
delight ; and in his own person he revived the life of the pagan 
past. He had a small plot of land, which he tilled in accordance 
with the precepts of Varro and Columella, and he was himself 
regarded as a second Cato. His vineyard on the Quirinal was 
frequented by his enthusiastic pupils. Before day-break that 
'insignificant little figure, with small, quick eyes, and quaint 
dress ' 2 , might be seen descending, lantern in hand, from his home 
on the Esquiline to the scene of his lectures, where an eager 
crowd awaited him 3 . He was the ruling spirit of the Academy. 
The members of that body assumed Latin names, and celebrated 
the foundation of Rome on the annual return of the festival of the 
Palilia. They also revived the performance of the plays of 
Plautus. Among the best-known members were Platina, the future 
librarian of the Vatican (i475-8i) 4 , and Sabellicus (1436- 1506), 
the future praefect of the Library of San Marco in Venice 5 . In 
1468 the Academy was suppressed for a time by Paul II, on the 
ground of its political aims and its pagan spirit ; Pomponius was 
imprisoned in the Mausoleum of Hadrian, and was put to the 
torture with Platina 6 and other men of mark. The Academy 
was revived under Sixtus IV, and we have a quaint account of 

1 Ep. 167-8. Cp. De Nolhac, Erasme en Ilalie, 144 pp., ed. 1898; and 
Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, viii 309 f, E.T. 

2 Sabellicus, Epp. lib. xi; Burckhardt, 279 E.T. 

3 Jovius, Elogia, no. 40 ; portrait on p. 78. 

4 Portrait in Jovius, p. 34. Platina is included in Melozzo da Forli's 
fresco (admirably reproduced in Alois Heiss, Les Mtdailleurs de la Renais- 
sance, i opp. p. 52), and in the interesting fresco copied in J. W. Clark's Care 
of Books, fig. 99. 

8 Portrait in Jovius, p. 98 (closely resembling Politian). 
6 De Vitis Pontificum, p. 338, ed. 1568. 


all the ceremonies, grave and gay, attending the commemoration, 
in 1482, of the first anniversary of the death of Platina 1 . 
Between Pomponius' release from prison and his death, he pro- 
duced editions of Curtius and Varro (c. 1470), commentaries on 
the whole of Virgil, including the minor works (1487-90), and 
editions of Pliny's Letters and of Sallust (1490) ; he also annotated 
Columella and Quintilian, and paid special attention to Festus 
and Nonius Marcellus. In complete accordance with his pagan 
view of life, he had desired that, on his death, his body should 
simply be placed in an ancient Roman sarcophagus on the Appian 
Way ; but, when he died at the age of seventy, his desire was 
over-ruled by his having a Christian burial in the church of 
San Salvatore in Lauro, and his obsequies at the Ara Caeli were 
attended by as many as forty bishops 2 . The Academy which he 
founded flourished once more under Julius II, when it had its 
Dictator and its Comitia, which, however, were of a somewhat 
frivolous character. Its palmy days were in the pontificate of 
Leo X, when it included the most brilliant members of the literary 
society of Rome, men like the future Cardinals, Bembo and 
Sadoleto, as well as Paolo Giovio and Castiglione. It held its 
meetings in the Circus Maximus, or on the Quirinal, or near the 
temple of Hercules by the bank of the Tiber, or in the suburban 
park of some Maecenas of the day, when a simple repast, seasoned 
with the salt of wit, would be followed by the delivery of Latin 
speeches and the recitation of Latin poems 3 . It was overwhelmed 
in the general ruin, which accompanied the sack of Rome by the 
Spanish and German troops of the Emperor Charles V in 1527. 
Among the minor Roman Academies of later origin was the 
Accademia delta Virtu founded by Claudio Tolomei and others 
under the patronage of the young Cardinal Ippolito dei Medici 
(d. 1535). The special aim of this Academy was the study of 

1 Jacopo Volterrano, in Muratori, Script. Rer. Hal. xxiii 171 (Tiraboschi, 
vi 322). 

2 Sabellicus, vol. iii, Epp. xi pp. 458 461, ed. Basel ; Tiraboschi, vi 
108 114, 659 665; Symonds, i 353, ii 359 362; Creighton, iv 47 56; 
Pastor, Gesch. der Piipsle, ii 292-5, 305 f; also Eckstein on Tac. Dial. p. 64; 
Naeke, Opp. i 119; and Mommsen, in Rhein. Ahts. vi 628. 

3 Tiraboschi, vii 141-4; Gregorovius, Book xiv, Chap, iv (viii 313 f). 



From a contemporary print in the Library of San Marco, Venice, 
reproduced as Frontispiece to Didot's Aide Manuce; p. 97 infra. 



WHILE we gratefully recall the preservation of Latin manu- 
scripts in the mediaeval monasteries of the West, as well as the 
recovery of lost Classics by the humanists of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, and the transference to Italy of the treasures of 
Greek literature from the libraries of the East, we are bound to 
remember that all this would have proved of little permanent avail, 
but for the invention of the art of printing. 

The old order culminates in the name of Vespasiano da 
Bisticci (1421 1498), the last of mediaeval scribes 
and the first of modern booksellers. The date of da^sS"' 
his birth falls exactly a hundred years after the death 
of Dante (1321) and before the death of Leo X (1521), and he is 
himself one of the most interesting representatives of Medicean 
Florence. An intimate friend of the many-sided Manetti, he was 
conscious of not having such a mastery of the best Latin as would 
warrant his using that language in answering the Latin letters of 
his friend, yet he possessed a thorough knowledge of the com- 
mercial value of Latin, Greek and Hebrew MSS. Besides executing 
orders for Hungary, Portugal, Germany, and England, he was the 
trusted agent of the three greatest collectors in the fifteenth century, 
Cosimo de' Medici, Nicolas V, and Frederic of Urbino. When 
Cosimo, the founder of three libraries, the private library of the 
Medici, that of San Marco, and that of the Badia between 
Florence and Fiesole, proposed to found a fourth library for the 
monks of San Lorenzo, he applied to Vespasiano, who promptly 
engaged 45 copyists, and, in less than two years, produced 200 MSS 
for that purpose 1 . The library was divided into classes according 

1 Vita di Cosimo, n, p. 255. 

96 ITALY. [CENT. xv. 

to a scheme drawn up by Tommaso Parentucelli, afterwards famous 
as Nicolas V, the founder of the collection of MSS in the Vatican 
Library. In the formation of that library, Vespasiano was one of 
the Pope's principal assistants, and the bookseller of Florence 
dwells in glowing terms on the services rendered by Nicolas V to 
the cause of learning 1 . Similarly, Vespasiano spent fourteen years 
in forming for the duke of Urbino a fine library including all the 
Greek and Latin authors as yet discovered, all the volumes being 
bound in crimson and silver, and all in perfect condition, all 
'written with the pen,' for the duke would have been ashamed 
(says Vespasiano) to possess a single printed book 2 . Such is the 
phrase found in one of those delightful biographies of the hundred 
and three men of mark, the patriots, patrons of learning and 
scholars of the fifteenth century, biographies founded on personal 
knowledge and inspired by a love of virtue, which have made the 
name of Vespasiano dear to all who are interested in the literature 
of the time of transition from the age of the mediaeval copyist to 
that of the modern printer. He rests in Santa Croce among the 
great men of Florence, after proving himself faithful to the old 
traditions of learning down to the very end of his life 3 . Twenty- 
eight years before the death of Vespasiano, we find Filelfo 
genuinely interested in the new art of printing, and resolving on 
the purchase of 'some of those codices they are now making without 
any trouble, and without a pen, but with certain so-called types, 
and which seem to be the work of a skilled and exact scribe', and 
finally inquiring as to the cost of a printed copy of Pliny and 
Livy and Aulus Gellius 4 . 

Printing had been introduced into Italy by two Germans, 
Sweynheym and Pannartz, who had worked under Fust at Maintz. 
They set up their press first at the German monastery of Subiaco 

1 Vita di Nicola V, 25 f, p. 38 f. 

2 Federigo, duca (T Urbino, 27 31, esp. p. 99 ' tutti iscritti a penna, e 
non v' e ignuno a stampa, che se ne sarebbe vergognato '. 

3 The Vite first published by Mai, in Sficilegiiim Romanum, 1839 f anc ^ 
afterwards by Bartoli (Florence, 1859). Cp. ' n general, Voigt, i 399 f 3 ; 
Symonds, ii 306 f. 

4 Letter dated 25 July, 1470, in Rosmini's Vita di Filelfo, ii 201 ; 
Symonds, ii 306. 


in the Sabine mountains (1465) and next at the palace of the 
Massimi in Rome itself (1467). At Subiaco they produced the 
editio princeps of the De Oratore of Cicero. At Rome they reprinted 
that work, and added the earliest edition of the Brutus and 
Orator (1469); moreover, they produced the editiones prindpes of 
Cicero's Letters and Speeches, Caesar, Livy, Gellius, Apuleius, 
Virgil, Lucan, and Silius (1469-71), the prefaces being generally 
written by Giovanni Andrea de' Bussi, bishop of the Corsican see 
of Aleria, who also saw through the press their Ovid of 1471. 
Cardinal Campano edited Quintilian and Suetonius for Philip de 
Lignamine, and Cicero's Philippics for Ulrich Hahn (1470). 
Pomponius Laetus edited for Georg Lauer the first edition of 
Varro De Lingua Latina (1471), and the second of Nonius 
Marcellus (1476). In Venice, the first edition of the elder 
Pliny was produced by John of Spires in 1469'. At Florence, 
Bernardo Cennini, the first Italian who cast his own type, printed 
the commentary of Servius on the whole of Virgil (1471-72). 
By the year 1500 about 5,000 books had been produced in 
Italy, of which about 300 belong to Florence and Bologna, 
more than 600 to Milan, more than 900 to Rome, and 2,835 
to Venice, while presses were set up for a short time in fifty 
places of less importance. 

Before the year 1495 only a dozen Greek books had been printed 
in Italy, viz. the Greek grammars of Lascaris 2 and Chrysoloras 3 ; 
two Psalters 4 ; Aesop 5 and Theocritus 6 , the 'Battle of the Frogs 
and Mice' 7 , and Homer 8 , with Isocrates 9 , and the Greek Antho- 
logy 10 . This last was in capital letters, and was succeeded in 
Florence by similar editions of Euripides, Callimachus, Apollonius 
Rhodius, and Lucian. The latter were, however, preceded by 
the earliest of the Greek texts printed in Venice by Aldus 

1 See list of Latin Editiones Prindpes on p. 103 infra, 

2 Milan, 1476; Vicenza, 1488. 

3 Venice, 1484; Vicenza, 1490. 

4 Milan, 1481-6. 5 Milan, c. 1479. 

6 Milan, c. 1493. 7 Venice, 1486; cp. p. 102. 

8 Florence, 1488. 9 Milan, 1493. 

10 Florence, 1494. 

S. II. 7 

98 ITALY. [CENT, xv f 

Aldus Manutius (1449 1515) is the Latin form of Aldo 
Manuzio, whose original name was Teobaldo 
Manutius Manucci. Born in the neighbourhood of Velletri, 
he was early imbued with classical learning by two 
natives of Verona, having studied Latin in Rome under Gaspare, 
and Greek as well as Latin under Guarino at Ferrara 1 . His 
younger fellow-student, the brilliant Giovanni Pico of Mirandola, 
recommended Aldus as tutor to his nephews Alberto and Lionello 
Pio at Carpi, and it was at Carpi that Aldus matured his plans for 
starting a Greek press with the aid of Alberto Pio. The press was 
ultimately founded in Venice, the model for the Greek type was 
supplied by the Cretan Marcus Musurus and most of the com- 
positors were natives of Crete. The Greek books published by 
Aldus between 1494 and 1504 included Musaeus, Theocritus and 
Hesiod, Aristotle, nine plays of Aristophanes, Sophocles, Herodotus 
and Thucydides, Xenophon's Hellenica, with eighteen plays of 
Euripides, and, lastly, Demosthenes. After an interval caused by 
the troubles of war, we have first the Greek rhetoricians, including 
the first edition of Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetic, and next, the 
Moralia of Plutarch. Another interval, due to the same cause, 
was followed by the publication of Pindar, with the minor Attic 
Orators, and Plato, and Athenaeus 2 . 

With a view to promoting the study of Greek and the systematic 
publication of the Greek Classics, Aldus formed in 1500 the 'New 
Academy' of Hellenists. Greek was the language of its rules ; 
Greek was spoken at its meetings; and Greek names were adopted 
by its Italian members. Thus Scipione Fortiguerra of Pistoia, 
the earliest editor of the text of Demosthenes, and Secretary of 
the Academy, translated his name into Carteromachus. 

One of the aims of the Academy was to produce in each month 
an edition of at least 1,000 copies of some 'good author' 3 . Among 
the ordinary members were Janus Lascaris and his pupil Marcus 
Musurus, besides other scholars from Crete. Among the honorary 
foreign members were Linacre, whose Latin rendering of the Sphere 
of Proclus was published by Aldus in 1499, and Erasmus, who 

1 Pref. to Theocritus, 1495, p. 194 of Botfield's Prefaces. 

2 See list of Greek Editiones Principes on p. 104 infra. 

3 Pref. to Euripides, 1503, p. 226 Bolfield. 


visited Venice in 1508, when he was engaged in seeing through 
the press a new edition of the Adagio, 1 . 

As a printer of Latin Classics Aldus had been preceded in 
Venice by John of Spires (1469), Nicolas Jenson, and Cristopher 
Valdarfer (1470). In 1501 Aldus began that series of pocket 
editions of Latin, Greek, and Italian Classics in small 8vo, which 
did more than anything else towards popularising the Classics in 
Italy. The slanting type then first adopted for printing the Latin 
and Italian Classics, and since known as the 'Aldine' or 'Italic' 
type, was founded on the handwriting of Petrarch by Francesco 
da Bologna 2 , and it was first used in 1501 in the Aldine editions of 
Virgil, Horace, Juvenal and Persius, as well as in the Cose Volgare 
of Petrarch 3 . The later Latin texts include Valerius Maximus 
(1502), Pliny's Letters (i5o8) 4 , and Quintilian (1514). 

In 1499 Aldus had married the daughter of Andrea Torresano 
d' Asola, who had, twenty years previously, bought up the printing 
business of Nicolas Jenson. In course of time Aldus and his 
father-in-law, Andrea, went into partnership, and the above edition 
of Pliny's Letters, printed in aedibus Aldi et Andreae soceri, supplies 
us with the first public record of the fact. Aldus was far more 
than a printer and bookseller; he rejoiced in rescuing the writings 
of the ancients from the hands of selfish bibliomaniacs, many of 
his texts were edited by himself, and he was honoured as a scholar 
by the foremost scholars of the age. One of the most generous of 
men, his generosity was appreciated by Erasmus, and by his own 
countrymen. The editor of the Prefaces to the Editiones Prindpes 
justly describes 'the dedications of Aldus as worth all the rest; 
there is a high and a noble feeling, a self-respect, and simplicity of 
language about him which is delightful; he certainly had aspiring 
hopes of doing the world good' 5 . He is probably the only publisher 

1 Didot's Aide Matinee, 147 152, 435 470; and Symonds, ii 385-8. 

2 Of the Griffi family (not Francia) ; cp. Fumagalli, Lexicon typographicum 
Italiae, Florence, 1905, s. v. Bologna, p. 42. Aldus himself called this style 
of type, cancel leresco (ib. 4/1). 

3 Didot, 155 169. Of the rare texts above mentioned, I happen to 
possess Munro's copy of the Juvenal and Persius, bound with the Catullus, 
Propertius and Tibullus of the following year. 

4 The first complete ed. with all the correspondence with Trajan (and the 
Panegyricus). B Botfield, p. vi. 


ioo ITALY. [CENT, xv f 

who, in the preface of a work published by himself, ever used 
such language as the following : nihil unquam memini me legere 
deterius, lectuque minus dignum. Such are the terms in which he 
refers to the Life of Apollonius by Philostratus; but he hastens to 
add that, as an antidote to the poison, he publishes in the same 
volume the refutation by Eusebius, translated by the friend to 
whom he dedicates the work. In the twenty-one years between 
1494 and 1515, Aldus produced no less than twenty-seven editiones 
prinripes of Greek authors and of Greek works of reference 1 . By 
the date of his death in 1515, all the principal Greek Classics 
had been printed 2 . Before 1525 the study of Greek had begun to 
decline in Italy, but meanwhile an interest in that language had 
happily been transmitted to the lands beyond the Alps. 

Paolo Manuzio (1512 1574), the youngest son of Aldo, was 

educated by his grandfather Andrea, who carried on 
Manutius tne business till his death in 1529, when Andrea was 

succeeded by his sons, with whom Paolo was in 
partnership from 1533 to 1540. From that date forward, Paolo 
published on his own account a series of Ciceronian works, 
beginning with the complete edition of 1540-6, and including 
commentaries on the Letters to Atticus (1547), and to Brutus and 
Quintus (1557), and on the Pro Sextio (1556). One of the 
daintiest products of his press is the text of Cicero's De Oratore, 
Brutus and Orator, printed in Italic type, with his own corrections, 
in 1559. He published his Italian Letters in 1556-60, and his 
Latin Epistolae et Praefationes in 1558. He had a branch house 
in Rome, on the Capitol, and it was mainly in Rome that he lived 
from 1561 till his death in 1574, producing scholia on the Letters 
Ad Familiares (1571) and on the Pro Archia (1572). At Venice 
and Rome he published several works on Roman Antiquities, while 

1 Nine of these 27 'editions' included two or more works, 69 in all besides 
the 27, making a total of 96. 

2 On Aldus Manutius, see Didot's Aide Manuce, 1875 ; Renouard, Annales 
de f imprinter ie des Aides (1803-12; ed. 2, 1834); and Omont, Catalogue... en 
phototypie, 1892. Cp. A. Schilck, A. M. u. seine Zeitgenossen (1862); and 
Symonds, ii 368 -391. Portrait, published in Rome, probably by Antoine 
Lafrery, now in Library of San Marco, Venice, copied by Phil. Galleus, 
Effigies, ii (1577) 32, and in frontispiece to Didot's Aide Manuce, reproduced 
on p. 94. Portraits of all the three Aldi in Cicero, ed. 1583. 


his comments on Cicero's Speeches were posthumously printed in 
1578-9, and his celebrated commentarius on the Letters Ad 
Familiares in 1592'. Tiraboschi, who refers to the eulogies 
paid him by Muretus and others, happily describes him as 
having been worthy of a far longer life, and still more worthy 
of immortal remembrance 2 . 

Paolo bequeathed his business to his son Aldo Manuzio the 
younger (15471597), who held a professorship in 
Venice before succeeding Sigonius in Bologna and ManuUus n 
Muretus in Rome. At the age of eleven, he had 
produced a treatise on the ' Elegancies of the Tuscan and Latin 
languages', and, at fourteen, a work on Orthography founded on 
the study of inscriptions (1561). The second edition of the latter 
(1566) contains the earliest copy of an ancient Roman calendar of 
B.C. 8 A.D. 3 discovered by his father in the Palace of the Maffei 
and now known as the Fasti MaffeianP. His other publications 
include a volume of antiquarian miscellanies entitled De Quaesitis 
per Epistolam (1576). He is somewhat severely denounced by Sca- 
liger as 'a wretched and slow wit, the mimic of his father' 4 . After 
little more than a century of beneficent labour in the cause of clas- 
sical literature the great house of printers came to an end when 
the younger Aldus died in Rome without issue in I597 5 . The vast 
library which had descended to him from his father and his grand- 
father was dispersed, but the productions of the Aldine press are 
still treasured by scholars in every part of the civilised world. 

1 Ed. Richter, 17791"; 'optimi etiamnunc interprets ' (Orelli's Cicero, ed. 
1845, III p. xxxv f). 

2 vii 208 f ; cy. Epp. 1581, ed. Krause, 1720; Epp. Sel. (Teubner, 1892), 
Lettere Volgari, 1560, Renouard, Lettere di P. M. (Paris, 1834). Portrait in 
his Liber de Coinitiis (1585), and in Phil. Galleus, ii 33, and Boissard's 
Icones, vili tnmm i. 

3 Cp. C.I.L.i pp. 303-7; J. Wordsworth, Fragments... of Early Latin, 
166 f, 539. 

4 Scaligerana, 149. ' P. Manucius quidquid scripsit bonum fuit, magno 
labore scribebat epistolas. Aldus filius miserum ingenium, lentum ; quae dedit 
valde sunt vulgaria : utrumque novi; Patrem imitabatur, solas epistolas bonas 
habet: sed trivit Ciceronem diu. Insignis est Manucii commentarius in Epi- 
stolas ad Atticum et Familiares. Manucius non poterat tria verba Latine 
dicere, et bene scribebat....' 

5 Portrait in Eleganze (1580), and in Cicero, ed. 1583. 


The present chapter may fitly close with a chronological conspectus of the 
editiones principes of the Greek and Latin Classics. The list 
Editiones is mainly confined to the principal classical authors, with the 

principes addition of the two earliest texts of the Greek Testament 

(1516-7) and of the Latin Fathers (1465), but to the exclusion 
of translations, grammars, and minor bibliographical curiosities. Not un- 
frequently an editio princeps conies into the world without any note of time or 
place, and without the name of any editor or printer, and the determination 
of these points is often a matter of considerable difficulty. Possibly the unique 
Batrachomyomachia in the Rylands Library, Manchester (ascribed by Proctor 
to Ferrandus of Brescia, c. 1474), and the rare copies of Virgil (Mentelin, 
Strassburg, c. 1469), Juvenal (Ulrich Hahn, Rome, c. 1470), and Martial 
(Rome, c. 1471), are earlier than those entered in the list ; and it is uncertain 
whether the editio princeps of Curtius (c. 1471) is that of G. Laver, Rome, or 
Vindelin de Spira, Venice. In the list, approximate dates are (as here) dis- 
tinguished by the usual abbreviation for circiter', and conjectural names of 
printers, or of places of publication, are enclosed within parentheses. For all 
these details the best bibliographical works have been consulted 1 . The name 
of the ' editor ' has been added, wherever it can be inferred either from the 
colophon or title-page, or from the preface or letter of dedication. It will be 
seen how large a part of the editorial work was done, in the case of Latin 
authors, by Giovanni Andrea de' Bussi, bishop of Aleria, and, in the case of 
Greek, by Janus Lascaris, and Aldus Manutius (with or without the aid of 
Musurus). Besides frequently indicating the names of the editors, the Aldine 
prefaces are full of varied interest. Thus Aldus laments that his work as 
a printer is interrupted by wars abroad 2 and by strikes at home s , and by 
difficulties in procuring trustworthy Mss. 4 But he exults in the fact that 
Greek is being studied, not in Italy alone, but also in France and Hungary 
and Britain and Spain 5 . A Greek scholar at Milan begins the editio princeps 
of the great lexicon of Suidas with an adroit advertisement in the form of 
a lively dialogue between the bookseller and the student, who finally produces 
three gold pieces and buys the book. 

1 Dibdin's Introduction, ed. 4 (London, 1827); Panzer, Annales Tyf>o- 
graphici, ad ann. 1536, n vols. (Nurnberg, 1793 1803); Hain, Repertoriutn 
Bibliographicuni, ad ann. 1500, 2 vols. in 2 parts each (Stuttgart, 1826-38; 
now in course of reprinting), with Indices and Register (Leipzig, 1891), 
Copinger's Supplement ', 3 vols. (London, 1898), and Reichling's Appendices 
(Munich, 1905-) ; R. Proctor, Index to the Early Printed Books in the British 
Museum to 1500, 2 vols. (London, 1898), Germany, in 1501-20 (1903), and 
The Printing of Greek in the xvth cent. {Bibliographica, Dec. 1900) ; Re- 
nouard, Annales des Imprimeries des Aides, 3 vols. ed. 3 (Paris, 1834) ; Didot, 
Aide Manuce (Paris, 1875); Botfield, Praefationes el Epp. (London, 1861); 
R. C. Christie, Chronology of the Early Aldines (1894), in Selected Essays 
(London, 1902), 223 246; and H. Guppy, The John Rylands Library 
(Manchester, 1906), 49 78. 

2 Plato, 1513. 3 Prudentius, 1502 N. 8. 

4 Aristotle, i i, and iv 1495-8. * Aristotle, i 2 (init.); Steph. Byz. 

Editiones Principes of Latin Authors. 







Cicero, De Officiis, Paradoxa 

Fust and Schoeffer 


c. 1466 

Cicero, De Ojficiis 

Ulrich Zell 



Cicero, De Oratore 

Sweynheymand Pannartz 


Lactantius; 1467 Aug.Civ. Dei 


Cicero, ad Familiares 



Cicero.ZV Or.,Bnitus,Orator 


Jo. Andreas de Buxis 




Pliny, Hist. Nat: 

J. de Spira 


c. 1469 


Sweynheymand Pannartz 




Cicero, ad Atticiim 


Vindelin de Spira 


*J u venal and Per>ius 


Cicero, Rhetorica, 

N. Jenson 


Quintilian, Inst. Or. 


(Phil, de Lignamine) 



c. 1470 

Cicero, Philippicne 

Ulrich Ha'h'n 




Valerius Maximus 

Boethius, De Phil. Cons. 

Hans Glim 


Tacitus, Ann. n 16, Hist., 

J. de Spira 


Germ., Dial. 



Franc. Puteolanus 



Silius Italicus 

Jo. Andreas de Buxis 

Sweynheymand Pannartz 


Cicero, Orationes 

Pliny, Kp/>.. libri viii 

Ludovicus Carbo 

(Chr. Val'darfer) 


Pomponius Mela 







Gering,Crantz, F'riburger 


Varro, L.L.\ 0.1471 *Curtius 

Pomponius Laetus 

Georg Lauer 



Aem. Probus, i.e. Nepos 

N. Jenson 


c. 1471 




G. Merula 

Vindelin de Spira 




Tib., Prop., Cat , Slat. Silv. 


N. Jenson 

Ausonius and Calpurnius 

Bart. Girardinus 

Bart. Girardinus 

Scriptores de Re Rustica 

Merula and Colucia 

N. Jenson 





c. M73 





Valerius Flaccus 

Rugerius and Bertochus 


Amm. MarceUinus, libri 13 


Sachsel and Golsch 


c. 1474 84 

Seneca, Tragoeiiiae 

Andreas Gallicus 



Quintilian, Bed, 3 

Dom. Calderinus 





Octavianus Scotus 



Hi-t. Aug. Scriptores 

Bonus Accursius 

Philippus de Lavagna 


Seneca, Aforalia et /?//. 




Dictys Cretensis 

Masellus Beneventanus 

(Philippus de Lavagna) 




Bart. Fontius 

Nicolaus Alemannus 



Quintilian, Decl. 19 

Jac. Grasolarius 

Lucas Venetus 




Barn. Celsanus 

Jac. Dusensis 


c. 1482 

Pliny, Pan., Tacitus, Agr. 

Puteolanus. I.anterius '. (Zarotus) 




Franc. Michael j Boninus 


c. 1486 


Joan. Sulpitius G. Herolt 


Froniinus, De aquaednctibns 


Vegetius, Aelian, Frontinus 

Eucharius Silber 


Quintilian, Decl. 138 

Thad. Ugoletus 

Aug. Ugoletus 




Ant. Motta 

Guil. Signerre 



Cicero, 4 vols. folio 

Alex. Minutianus 

Gulielmi fratres 


Prosper, Sedulius 

Aldus Manutius 

Aldus Manutius 


c. 1508-13 


Bart. Cyniscus 

Bern, de Vitalibus 


Tacitus, Annal. i 5 etc. 

Beroaldus II 

Steph. Guilleroti 



Velleius Paterculus 

Beatus Rhenanus 

Jo. Froben 



Amm. Marcellinus, libri 18 

M. Accursius 

Silvanus Otmar i Augsburg 



Pierre Pithou 

J. Odot Troyes 

See p. 102. 

Editiones Principes of Greek Authors. 






c. 1478 


Lat. trans. Rinutius 

(Bonus Accursius) 



* Batrachomyomachia 

Leonicus Cretensis : Venice 



Dem. Chalcondyles 

Bart, di Libri for 


Bern. Nerli 



(Uderic Scinzenzeller) 

c. 1493 

Theocritus, i 18, and He- 

(Bonus Accursius) 


siod, Opera et Dies 


Anthologia Graeca 

J. Lascaris 

Laur. de Alopa 


c. 1495 

Euripides, Med. Hipp. 

Ale. Andr. 

Callimachus, i 6 

c. 1494-5 


Lat. trans. Musurus 

Aldus Manutius 


1495 8 

Aristotle, 5 vols. folio and 

Aldus Manutius 


1496 N.S. 

Theocritus, i 30, Bion, 



Scriptores Grammatici 

Guarino, Politian etc. 

Apollonius Rhodius 

J. Lascaris 

Laur. de Alopa Florence 




Bened. Ricciardini 

Phil, de Junta Florence 



Bart. Capo d' Istria 

Printers from Carpi Venice 

Aristophanes, 9 plays 

Aldus et Musurus 

Aldus Manutius 


Epp. Graecae 

Dioscorides and Nicander 


' Etymologicum Magnum' 


Zach. Callierges 

Simplicius in Ar. Categ. 

Z. Callierges 



Ammonius in v voces 

Dem. Chalcondyles 

Printers from Carpi 
Z. Callierges 



Phil. Junta 



Stephanas Byz. 

Aldus Manutius 

Aldus Manutius 



B , 


. . 




Euripides, 18 plays 

Ammonius in Ar. Interp. 

Ulpian and Harpocration 

Xenophon, Hellenica 


Philostratus, vita Apoll. 

Philoponus in Ar. 


Aldus et Carteromachus 


Rhetores Graeci (incl. Ar. 

Aldus Manutius 


Rhet. Poet.) 


Plutarch, Moralia 

Aldus et Demetrius 

Aldus et Andreas Asul. 



Dionysius Periegetes 

Bondenus, & printer 

J. Maciochus 



Pindar, Lycophron etc. 

Aldus Manutius 

Aldus et Andreas Asul. 


Orationes Rhet. Gr. 


Aldus et Musurus 

. . 


Alex. Aphrod. in Ar. Top. 

Aldus Manutius 



Aldus et Musurus 



Oppian, Halieutica 

Bern. Junta 

Phil. Junta 


1516 N.S. 

Aristoph. TAesm. JLys. 


Testamentum Novum 


Jo. Froben Basel 


Euphrosynus Boninus 

Phil. Junta Florence 



Aldus et Andreas Asul. Venice 


Ben. Tyrhenus 


* See p. 102. 

Editiones Principes of Greek Authors (continued). 








Coelius Calcagninus 

Jo. Maciochus 


Didynius, Homerica 

J. Lascaris 

Ang. Collottius 



Euphrosynus Boninus 

Phil. Junta 


Plutarch, Vitae 

Phil. Junta 


Complutensian Polyglott 

Cardinal Ximenes 

Arnold Brocario 



Biblia Sacra Graeca 

Andreas Asulanus 

Aldus et A ndreas socer 


Aeschylus, 6 plays 

Fr. Asulanus 

Porphyrius, Homerica 

J. Lascaris 

' Monte Caballo' 



Galen, in 5 parts 

Asulani fratres 

Aldus et Andreas Asul. 


Xenophon, Opera 

Aldi in aedibus 



Fr. Asulanus 

Aldus et Andreas Asul. 


Epictetus and Simplicius 

J. Anton, et Sabio 



Vine. Obsopoeus 

Jo. Secerius 



Aristophanes, u plays 

Simon Grynaeus 




Diogenes Laertius 

Hieron. Froben et 

Hieron. Kroben et 

Nic. Episcopius 

Nic. Episcopius 


Simon Grynaeus 

Jo. Hervagius 



Hieron. Froben et 

Nic. Episcopius 




Jo. Bapt. Egnatius 
Victor Trincavelli 

J. F. Trincavelli 



Diodorus, 16 20 

Vine. Opsopoeus 

Jo. Oporinus 


J 544 


Arnoldus Arlenius 

Hieron. Froben 


lliomas Gechauff 

Jo. Hervagius 


Aelian, Var. Hist., etc. 

Camillas Peruscus 



Dionysius Halic. 

Rob. Stephanus 

Rob. Stephanus 



Dion Cassius, 36 58 


Eustathius. 4 vols. 

Majoranus & Devarius 

Ant. Bladus 



Dion Chrys. 

F. Turrisanus 

F. Turrisanus 



Car. Stephanus 



Aelian, Tactica 




Aeschylus, 7 plays 


Menander, Frag. 

F. Morel I 



' Longinus' 


Jo. Oporinus 



Putschius, & printer 

H. Stephanus 



Jac. Goupyl 

Andr. Turnebus 


Apollodorus, Bibl. 

Ben. Aegius 

Ant. Bladus 



Claudius Aelian, Opera 

C. Gesner, Robortelli, 

Gesneri fratres 




Aeschylus, c. Ag. 323 1050 

Victor! us 

H. Stephanus 


Maximus Tyrius 

H. Stephanus 


Marcus Aurelius 

Xylander et C. Gesner 

And. Gesner 


J 559 

Diodorus, i 20 

H. Stephanus 

H. Stephanus 



Bion, Moschus 

Adolf MeUerch 




Poetae Gr. Principes 

H. Stephanus 

H. Stephanus 



J. Sambucus 




Antonius Liberalis, 


Thomas Guarinus 


Phlegon, Apollonius 


Nonnus, Dionysiaca 





Plutarch, Opera 

H. Stephanus 

H. Stephanus 




Guil. Canter 





I. at. trans. Ficinus 

Petrus Perna 




Jo. Curterius 

Nic. Nivellius 



' Empedocles,' Sphaera 

Florent Chrestien 

F. Morel II 




J. Toinaesius 



Andronicus Rhodius 


M. Manger 




Jo. Arcerius Theo- 

Aegid. Radaetis 


1 doretus 


Photius, Bibliotheca 

Hoeschelius i Jo. Praetorius Augsburg 



Cl. G. Bachetus ' Seb. Cramoisy Paris 


From Bartolozzi's engraving of a portrait by Titian (1539). Cp. p. ii2f. 
(Print-room, British Museum.) 



THE age of Aldus Manutius was succeeded by the pontificate 
of Leo X (1513-21). Under the care of Lorenzo the future Pope 
had learnt his Latin and his Greek from the best scholars of 
Florence. When he made his progress as Pope in the splendid 
procession from St Peter's to the Lateran, the streets of Rome 
were adorned with marble statues of the old pagan divinities, 
while a triumphal arch in front of the palace of the wealthy 
banker, Agostino Chigi, bore an inscription in golden letters 
recalling the times of Alexander VI and Julius II, and declaring 
that the reign of Venus and of Mars was over, and that of Minerva 
had begun : 

'olim habuit Cypris sua tempora, tempora Mayors 
olim habuit, sua nunc tempora Pallas habet' 1 . 

Chigi set up a Greek press in his palace, where a celebrated 
edition of Pindar, the first including the scholia, was printed in 
1515 by Zacharias Callierges of Crete, who produced an edition 
of Theocritus in the following year. The Pope himself established 
a Greek school and a Greek printing-press on Monte Cavallo. 
Under the supervision of Janus Lascaris, and Marcus Musurus 2 , 
the scholia on Homer and Sophocles, and the Homeric Questions 
of Porphyry, were there published in 15 1 7-8. A pupil of Politian, 
named Guarino of Favera 3 , who had already taken part in editing 

1 Casanova; cp. Gregorovius, book xiv, c. iii (viii 186, E. T.). 

2 p. 78 f supra. 

3 Also known as Varinus and Phavorinus and as Gamers (from his birth- 
place in the March of Camerino). Cp. Tiraboschi, vii 1 101 f. 

io8 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

for Aldus in 1496 a collection of grammatical extracts, selected 
from the works of 34 Greek grammarians 1 , and was afterwards 
to be the compiler of a Greek dictionary printed by Callierges 
in 1523, was made bishop of Nocera and custodian of the private 
library of the Pope. That library had been mainly formed from 
the Medicean collection, which had been dispersed on the entry 
of Charles VIII into Florence in 1494. The greater part of it 
was fortunately purchased by the monks of San Marco, from 
whom it was bought by the Cardinal Giovanni Medici and con- 
veyed to Rome in 1508, there to remain until the second 
Medicean Pope, Clement VII, restored it to Florence (1523), 
and founded, for its reception, the present building of the 
Laurentian Library 2 . While the Medicean collection was still 
in Rome, Leo added to it the recently discovered MS of the first 
five books of the Annals of Tacitus, and it was under his 
patronage that the first complete edition of Tacitus was produced 
at Rome in 1515 by Filippo Beroaldo of Bologna (1472 1518), 
the nephew and pupil of the far more prolific editor bearing the 
same name (1453 1505). In a brief granting to Beroaldo the 
exclusive privilege of publishing this work (a privilege which was 
immediately infringed at Milan), the Pope insists on the im- 
portance of classical literature and expresses his earnest desire 
to continue to bestow honours and rewards on men of learning 3 . 
The publication of the editio princeps of the extant works 

of Tacitus was followed in 1516 by the appearance 
Aristoe f f tne sma ^ but by no means unimportant treatise 

of Pietro Pomponazzi, De Immortalitate Animae*. 

1 Scriptores Grammatici Graeci ; ' 'Thesaurus Cornucopiae el Horti Adonidis ' 
(1496); cp. Roscoe's Leo X, i 349 f, 489, ed. 1846; Botfield's Prefaces, 205. 
This work is not really, as stated by Gregorovius, viii 346, 'the first Thesaurus 
of the Greek language', in the ordinary sense of that term. Guarino was 
aided by another pupil of Politian, Carlo Antinori, and by Politian himself; 
also by Aldus and Urbano da Belluno, author of the Aldine Greek Grammar 
of Jan. 1497. 

2 Anziani, Delia biblioiheca Mediceo-Laurenziana, 1872; Jebb's Introd. to 
plain text of Sophocles (1898), xxxiii. 

3 The brief was written by Sadoleto (Pastor, Gesch. der Pafste, iv 483); 
translated in Roscoe's Leo X, i 357. 

4 Bologna, 1516; Venice, ^25; anon. '1534'. 


Its author, a native of Mantua (1462 1525), is a representative 
of one of the four varieties of the Aristotelianism of 

. ... . Pomponazzi 

the time, namely that which accepts the interpreta- 
tion of the opinions of Aristotle originally put forth by Alexander 
of Aphrodisias. 

The Italian Aristotelians were either content to follow one of the three 
exponents of Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas or Averroes or Alexander, or they 
studied the Greek text of Aristotle himself with or without the aid of the 
current Latin translations. Thomas Aquinas was the interpreter accepted by 
Aristotelians, who were in full accord with the normal doctrine of the Church. 
The teaching of Averroes had found a home in Padua in the first half of the 
fourteenth century, where it continued to flourish in the fifteenth century, and 
in the sixteenth, under Zimara (d. 1532) and Zabarella (d. 1589), until it 
practically came to an end on the death of Cremonini (1637). It had roused 
the energetic protests of Petrarch in the fourteenth century, the century in 
which it was represented at Padua by Jean de Jandun (fl, 1322) l . It had also 
been represented in Northern Italy by Urbano da Bologna (fl. 1334), and by 
Paolo Veneto (d. 1429), who, at a disputation held at Bologna in the presence 
of 800 Augustinians, had been defeated by Niccolo Fava (d. 1439), a friend of 
Filelfo 2 and an early representative of that school of students of the Greek text 
which was to dethrone Averroes in the following century 3 . Averroism of a 
much more moderate type than that of Paolo Veneto had been expounded at 
Padua in the fifteenth century by a member of a distinguished family of Vicenza, 
named Gaetano da Thiene (1387 i46s) 4 . It was at Padua that, in the same 
century, the first printed edition of Averroes had appeared in 14/2, followed by 
a new edition in 1552-3. Averroism was combined with varying degrees of 
orthodoxy. Even the celebrated Thomas de Vio (1469 1534), who became 
Cardinal Cajetan in 1517, used Averroes as his text-book at Padua, where he 
counted Pomponazzi among his pupils. Towards the close of the fifteenth 
century, the extreme Averroistic doctrine of the unity of the immortal reason in 
the whole human race had been professed at Padua by Nicoletto Vernias from 
1471 to 1499, but, in the latter year, under the moderating influence of the 
bishop of Padua, Vernias had withdrawn from that doctrine, and had written 
in favour of the plurality of souls, and the immortality of each individual human 
soul*. Four years before this public change of opinion, he had become remiss 
in his teaching, and he found himself opposed by a spirited rival in the person 
of Pomponazzi, who broke loose from the dry and dull routine of the traditional 
exposition of Aristotle and Averroes by adopting a more vigorous and varied 
style 6 . 

1 Renan, Av. 339-42 4 . - Epp. i 29, 38 (1428). 

3 Tiraboschi, vi 333 f, 343 f; Renan, Averroes, 344~6 4 . 

4 Tiraboschi, vi 345 ; Renan, Av. 347 4 . 5 Renan, Av. 352 4 . 
6 Jovius, Elogia, no. 71 ; Renan, Av. 353 4 . 

l id ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

While agreeing that the doctrine of Averroes as to the unity 
of all intellect had been sufficiently refuted by Thomas Aquinas, 
Pomponazzi held that Aristotle's true meaning was not that there 
was a plurality of immortal intellects (as contended by Aquinas), 
but that the human soul, including the rational faculty, was 
mortal. For this interpretation he appealed to Alexander of 
Aphrodisias, who identifies the active mortal intellect with the 
divine mind and declares the individual reason of each man 
to be mortal 1 . To escape from the imputation of heterodoxy, 
he distinguished between two orders of truth, the philosophical 
and the theological, admitting that an opinion, which was philo- 
sophically true, might be theologically false. Two years after this 
youthful teacher had begun to supersede the aged Vernias, the 
traditional interpreters of Aristotle were set aside and the original 
Greek text restored to a position of supremacy by a scholar of 
Albanian origin born in Venice, who had attended the lectures 
of Demetrius in Florence. This was none other 


than Leonico Tomeo (1456 1531), an admirer of 
Plato and of Cicero 2 , who, by the vigour of his attack on scholas- 
ticism, and by the beauty of his style, opened a new era in the 
scholarly study of Aristotle. While he effectively recalled atten- 
tion to the original text, he treated the views of Averroes with the 
utmost deference, and even found support in the Arabic inter- 
preter's psychology for a reconciliation of Aristotle with Plato, 
and a proof of the pre-existence and the immortality of all indivi- 
dual souls. He is described as a singularly attractive person, a 
quiet and unambitious bachelor, whose house, no less than his 
lecture-room, was frequented by earnest students in quest of 
knowledge. Towards the end of his long life, his venerable 
appearance was enhanced by the silvery whiteness of his flowing 
beard. As the inmate of his home he kept a tame crane for no 
less than forty years, and, not long after the loss of his favourite 
bird, he died of old age at 75. In the church of San Francesco 
in Padua his merits are commemorated in the Latin prose of an 

1 Ueberweg, ii 13 E.T. Pomponazzi, who was ignorant of Greek, doubt- 
less used the translation of Alexander, irepl faxy*, D 7 Girolamo Donato of 
Venice (Brescia, 1495). It had already been printed in Oxford, 1481. 

2 Erasmus, Ciceronianus, 71, ed. 1621. 


epitaph written by Bembo, who also honoured his memory in the 
impressive epigram : 

'Naturae si quid rerum te forte latebat, 
Hoc legis in magno nunc Leonice Deo.' l 

Pomponazzi was opposed in Padua by the moderate Averroist 
Alessandro Achillini (1463 1518). The war that 

r r ^ i r i i Achillini 

arose from the league of Cambrai for the overthrow 
of Venice compelled these academic combatants to transfer their 
battlefield to Bologna, where Achillini died nine years afterwards. 
He cherished a belief in the orthodoxy of his views, by distin- 
guishing (like his opponent) between theological and philosophic 
truth, but this even balance of opinion is not maintained in the 
pagan epitaph which was placed on his tomb : 

' Hospes, Achillinum tumulo qui quaeris in isto, 

Fallen's, ille suo iunctus Aristoteli 
Elysium colit, et quas rerum hie cliscere causas 

Vix potuit, plenis nunc videt ille oculis : 
Tu modo, per campos dum nobilis umbra beatos 

Errat, die longum ferfetuumque vale.' 2 

Meanwhile, a decree of the Lateran Council, published on 
19 Dec. 15 1 2 3 , had condemned all who maintained either the 
mortality or the universal unity of the intelligent soul. The 
former was the view of Alexander 4 , the latter that of Averroes. 
The same Council condemned the distinction between two orders 
of truth, and declared everything false that was in conflict with 
revelation. In September, 1516, Pomponazzi produced his 
celebrated treatise on the immortality of the soul, towards the 
close of which, after stating that Aristotle regards the soul as 
mortal, he himself concludes that the immortality of the soul is 
a neutral problem, that the soul cannot be proved by natural 
reason to be either mortal or immortal, but that its immortality 
depends on revelation. The tone and spirit of the work are clearly 
opposed to the Lateran decree, but, when the Dominicans of 
Venice urged the Pope to condemn it, the question was referred 
to the papal secretary, Bembo, who (as it happened) had attended 

1 Jovius, no. 81 (portrait on p. 170); Tirabosclii, vii 422 f. 

2 Jovius, no. 57 (portrait on p. 112); Tiraboschi, vi 489 f. 

3 Labbe, xix 842 f. 4 i.e. Alexander of Aphrodisias. 

ii2 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

Pomponazzi's lectures at Padua. In Bembo's view the work 
contained nothing worthy of censure, and this opinion was 
judicially approved by the Master of the Palace. As the writer 
had separated the region of philosophic speculation from that 
of Christian belief, he was acquitted, especially as he had formally 
declared that he did not adhere to anything he had written, save 
in so far as was determined by the Apostolic See. The Pope, 
however, entrusted the formal refutation of the treatise to a 
dexterous controversialist, Augustinus Niphus, who had produced 
a complete edition of the works of Averroes in 1495-7, and had 
passed from extreme to moderate and comparatively orthodox 
Averroism 1 . Pomponazzi, a person of diminutive stature, never 
dared to show himself in Venice, where his book had been burned 
in public ; for nine more years he enjoyed the safety of the papal 
city of Bologna. He finally resolved on starving himself to death, 
and on departing from the world in perfect silence, but that 
silence was broken by a few brief words attesting that he died 
without the hopes inspired by Christianity 2 . His body was taken 
to his native place, where he was buried in the church of San 
Francesco, while a bronze statue was set up in his memory by his 
pupil, the Cardinal Gonzaga 3 . 

Among the Latin scholars of this age the most conspicuous 

was Pietro Bembo (1470 1547). His father, a 

Venetian noble, was the owner of the celebrated 

Bembine MS of Terence. The son was born and bred in Florence. 

He afterwards studied Greek under Constantine Lascaris at 

Messina 4 , and philosophy under Pomponazzi at Padua. On 

completing his education, he joined his father at the brilliant 

court of Ferrara, where he sang the praises of Lucrezia Borgia 

in elegiacs modelled on those of Tibullus 5 , and dedicated to her 

the most graceful of his Italian works, a Platonic dialogue on 

1 Renan, Av. 366-71*. 2 Pastor, iii 113-5. 

3 See Jovius, no. 71 (portrait on p. 134). On Pomponazzi, cp. in general 
Tiraboschi, vii 425-31; Renan, Av. 353-66*; F. Fiorentino (1868); Geiger, 
Renaissance u. Humanismus, 289 f; Creighton, v 270-5; Fairbairn in Camb. 
Mod. Hist, ii 702-4; Pastor, Gesch. der Papstc, iv (1906) 562 f; also R. C. 
Christie's Selected Essays (1902), 124 160. 

* Cp. his description of Etna, Ven. 1495 ; Opera (1567), iii 41 69. 

5 Delitiae CC Ital. Poet. (1608), i 354. 

CHAP. IX.] BEMBO. 113 

love 1 . At Urbino, he attended the court of Guidobaldo da 
Montefeltro (1506-8), and, in Castiglione's Cortegiano,i\.\$ Bembo 
who discourses on the same Platonic theme, until the day breaks 
and the star of love alone is shining in the summer sky 2 . At 
Rome, in 1512, he was soon engaged in a controversy on 
Latin style with Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola (1470 
1533), the scholarly nephew of Politian's brilliant friend, Giovanni 
Pico 3 . In this controversy, Pico is the eclectic, and Bembo 
the Ciceronian 4 . In the following year, Leo X, on his accession, 
appointed Bembo one of the papal secretaries. This office he 
held during practically the whole of Leo's pontificate, and his 
official letters, in their published form, are good examples of an 
ultra-Ciceronian style. In the printed edition, the papal secre- 
tary lapses into some of the strangely pagan phrases that were 
characteristic of the age 5 . The Virgin Mary is described as 
Dea ipsa* ; Francis I is exhorted per deos atque homines to 
undertake a crusade against the Turks 7 ; and a bishop calls 
' gods and men ' to witness to the truth of his statement 8 . In 
the ' History of Venice ' the Senate of the Venetian Republic 
becomes the Patres Conscripti, the Turks are transformed into 
the Thracians, and, by a still stranger anachronism, the ' im- 
mortal gods ' are mentioned, certainly in thirteen passages, and 
probably in many more. 

Among his official letters, the two of special interest to 
scholars are those recommending Janus Lascaris and Longolius 

1 Gli Asolani, 1504. 2 Symonds, Italian Byways, 137. 

3 p. 82 sufra. 

4 J. Fr. Picus (19 Sept. 1512) and Petrus Bembus (i Jan. 1513) De Imita- 
tioneaxe both printed in Bembo's Opera (Bas. 1567) iii i 41, and by themselves 
(c. 1513, and Jena, 1726). Cp. Erasmus, Ciceroniames, 69 (ed. 1621); 
Sahbadini's Ciceronianismo, 46; Harvard Lectures, 159. 

8 Gregorovius, book xiv, c. 4 (viii 295 f, E.T.). 

6 Epp. viii 17. 7 Epp. xv 17. 

8 Epp. xii 24, 'obtestansque deos et homines', and, ad fin., 'ex quo tamen 
et uberior a Diis immortalibus gratia, et clarior ab hominibus gloria te sequetur ' 
(to Francis I). Pastor, Gesc/i. der Ptipste, iv (1906) 433, says: 'Die meisten 
heidnischen Ausdriicke wurden erst spater fiir die Druckausgabe der Briefe 
hinzugefugt; in den Originalen, die aus der Kanzlei Leos X versandt wurden, 
findet sich die Mehrzahl jener Wendungen nicht' (Anhang, nr. 3). 

S. II. 8 

ii4 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

to the favour of Francis I 1 . The second of these is the last 
of the series. Shortly before the death of Leo in 1521, Bembo 
had withdrawn to the neighbourhood of Padua, where he formed 
a choice collection of medals, inscriptions, statues and pictures 2 . 
The Terence, which he had inherited from his father, and the MS 
of the fragments of Virgil (cent, v), ultimately passed into the 
Vatican Library. He brought his collections to Rome 3 on being 
made a Cardinal in 1539. It was after that date that he acquired 
the once celebrated Tabula Isiaca*. On his death in 1547 he was 
buried in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, and, among 
the Latin poems written in his memory 5 , there are some, which, 
like Castiglione's Idyll of Alcon*, and the Eclogues of Joannes 
Baptista Amaltheus 7 , may well be regarded as the Italian proto- 
types of Milton's Lycidas. In his perfect mastery of pure and 
correct Latin prose, Bembo is the typical Ciceronian of his time. 
His interest in Latin scholarship is displayed, not only in his 
treatise De Imitatione, but also in his disquisition on the Culex of 
Virgil and on the plays of Terence, composed in the form of a 
dialogue between Pomponius Laetus and Hermolaus Barbarus 8 . 
Nine years after his death, these were valued by Muretus 9 more 
highly than their author's Latin poems. As a Latin poet he has 
more elegance than vigour. His early elegiacs, best represented 
by his Galatea and his poem De Galeso et Maximo 11 , are mainly 
modelled on Tibullus, Ovid, and Martial. He imitates the 
hexameters of Catullus in the poem on Benacus, and his hendeca- 

1 Epp. xi 5, and xvi 30 (April, 1521). 

2 Villa in Opere (Ven. 1729) ; copied in Wiese and Percopo, 328 f. 

3 Opere, iii 266. 

4 Now in Turin Museum, a spurious product of the age of Hadrian. 

5 Delitiae, i 379 396, esp. 380 f. 

6 Symonds, ii 490 f. 

7 Selecta Poemata Italorum, ed. Pope (1740), i 23 37. Ed. vi 'Lycidas'; 
p. 14,, pecudes, alto sub sole, requiram: externasqite petam, diversa per aequora, 
terras ('To-morrow to fresh woods, and pastures new ') ; p. 25, at vos o lauri; 
Eel. viii 'Corydon'; p. 29, En iternm ('Yet once more, O ye laurels'). 

8 Ed. 1530; also in Opera, iii 70 128. 

9 Opera, ii 525 ; cp. Harvard Lectures, 170. 

10 Delitiae, i 347. n i 364. 
12 i 306 (also in Sel. Poemata Ital. ii 192). 


syllables in some delightful lines defending his cultivation of his 
mother tongue, and concluding as follows : 

' Hac uti ut valeas, tibi videndum est ; 
ne dum marmoreas remota in ora 
sumptu construis et labore villas, 
domi te calamo tegas palustri' 1 . 

His hexameter poem on the river-god Sarca, the ' father ' of the 
Mincius, closes with a fine apostrophe on Virgil 2 . But, of all his 
Latin verses, those that live longest in the memory are his eulogy 
of Politian, ending with the line, Arbiter Ausoniae, Politiane, 
fyrae 3 ; and two of the shortest of his epitaphs, that on Actius 
Sincerus Sannazarius : 

' Da sacro cineri floras : hie ille Maroni 
Sincerus Musa proximus, ut tumulo'; 

and that on Raphael : 

'Hie ille est Raphael, tnetuit quo sospite vinci 
Rerum niagna parens, et moriente mori' 4 . 

Bembo's colleague as papal secretary was Jacopo Sadoleto 
(1477 1547) 5 . He had studied at Ferrara under 

. Sadoleto 

Leomcenus, and had reached Rome in the pon- 
tificate of Alexander VI, when he enjoyed the patronage of 
Cardinal Caraffa, and the friendship of Scipio Carteromachus. 
The hexameter poem, in which he celebrated the discovery of the 
Laocoon in 1506, was one of the most memorable compositions of 
the age. In the enthusiasm kindled by the recent discovery 
of the masterpiece, the poem was warmly welcomed. Bembo 
read it 'a hundred times" 5 ; but it is to be feared that, to many 
modern readers, it will seem as polished and as cold as the 

1 1365; cp. Symonds, ii 415. 

2 Mai, Spicilegium Rom. viii 488 504; Burckhardt, 259 E.T. 

3 Delitiae, i 375; Jovius, no. 38. 

4 Deliliae, i 378 f. On Bembo, cp. Tiraboschi, vii 938 f ; Roscoe's Leo X, 
c. 16; Greswell's Politian etc. 405-53*; Symonds, ii 410-5, 481-5; Creighton, 
vi 199; Cian, Un decennio di vitti di Bembo (Torino, 1885); and Pastor, Gesch. 
dcr Ptipste, iv (1906) 430-4. Portrait by Titian, reproduced on p. 106; cp. 
Phil. Galleus, Effigies, i (1572) A 5. 

5 For his later Letters, cp. Epp. ed. Balan (Innsbruck, 1885). 

6 Epp. Fam. iii 23 (vol. iv p. 178 a, ed. Ven. 1729). 

1 16 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

marble which it commemorates'. His far longer poem on the 
ancient Roman hero, Marcus Curtius, has much more life and 
movement 2 . In his maturer years he wrote Ciceronian treatises 
De Gloria and De laudibus philosophiae*. The influence of 
Quintilian is apparent in his dialogue on education, where the 
poets passed in review are Homer and Virgil, Plautus and 
Terence, and a new emphasis is laid on the study of Greek 4 . His 
Letters are more important than those of Bembo for the light that 
they throw on the literary life of the age ; and he is in general a 
man of wider interests and of far finer character than his colleague. 
He counted Erasmus among his correspondents, and had the 
highest regard for Melanchthon and Calvin. He was made bishop 
of Carpentras by Leo X, and a Cardinal by Paul III, and he died 
in the same year as Bembo (i547) 5 . . 

The briefest mention must suffice for the ' learned Muse ' of- 
Celio Calcagnini of Ferrara (1479 1541), a many- 

Calcagnini \ 

sided scholar, who saw service as a soldier, was 
interested in law and astronomy, collected MSS, and severely 
criticised the De Offidis of Cicero. His learning has been lauded 
by his friend Giraldi, who implies that his Latin verses were 
a mosaic of reminiscences from the ancient poets 6 . Giraldi 
himself is among those addressed in his hendecasyllables, which 
are in general more successful than his elegiacs. But a place 
may here be found for the best and briefest of his epigrams, 

1 Delitiae, ii 582 f (58 lines); transcribed by Lessing in his Laokoon, c. vi, 
where it is considered 'worthy of an ancient poet'. Cp. Gregorovius, viii 
146 f, E.T. 

2 Delitiae, ii 584 600; Sel. Poemata Ital. ii 181 191. 

3 Welcomed by Beml>o, Epp. Fam. v 21, as a masterpiece of Ciceronian 

4 De Libris Recte Instituendis (1534); also in Opera, iii 66 126 (Verona, 
1738). Cp.Tiraboschi, vii 312 ; Gerini,! sec. ^T/(Torino, 1891) ; 
Woodward's Renaissance Education, c. ix. 

B Epp. (Lyons, 1560) ; Epp. proprio nomine scriptae (Rome, 1760-7); Opera 
(Mainz, 1607; Verona, 1737); lllustrium Imagines (Rome, 1517). Cp. 
Tiraboschi, vii 308 f; A. Joly (Caen, 1857); Symonds, ii 415; Gregorovius, 
viii 327 f; Pastor, Gesch. der Pdpste, iv (1906) 434-6; portrait in Boissard, I 
xliv 262. 

De Poetis Nostrorum Temporum, ed. Wotke (1894) 33 f. 


' Ut tibi mors felix contingat, vivere disce : 
ut felix possis vivere, disce mori' 1 . 

The foremost Christian poet of the time was Marcus 
Hieronymus Vida (c. 1490 1566), who was born 
at Cremona, and spent most of his youth at 
Rome under Julius II and Leo X. Of his earlier poems the 
greatest is his Art of Poetry' 1 . He was the first of the many 
Italians who wrote on that theme in the sixteenth century 3 . His 
poem is mainly inspired by Virgil. But he is distinctly original 
in laying down laws of imitative harmony, and in illustrating them 
by his own verse 4 . He is apostrophised in the well-known lines 
of Pope's Essay on Criticism : 

' Immortal Vida : on whose honour'd brow 
The Poet's bays and Critic's ivy grow ; 
Cremona now shall ever boast thy name, 
As next in place to Mantua, next in fame ' 5 . 

His didactic poems on the Management of Silkworms and on the 
Game of Chess are singularly skilful compositions 6 . The former 
was highly appreciated by the elder Scaliger 7 , and the latter by 
Leo X, who presented the poet with a priory at Frascati, and 
set him the task of composing, amid the beauties of nature, an 
epic poem on the Life of Christ. The Christias, which was thus 
begun under happy auspices in the age of Leo, was not completed 
until the time of the second Medicean Pope 8 . It is more 
successful in the general treatment of its sacred theme than 
Sannazaro's poem De Partu Virginis 9 . 

1 Delitiae, i 520. Cp. Tiraboschi, vii 870-3; Roscoe's Leo X, c. 21; 
Geiger, Renaissance, 232 f. He revised for Aldus the ed. princeps of Libanius 

a Selecla Poemata Italorum, i 131189; written before 1520, printed 1527. 

3 Spingarn, Literary Criticism in the Renaissance, i26f, 131 f. 

4 Selecta Poemata Italorum, i 182-5. 

5 1. 705 f. It was probably this eulogy that led to the whole poem being 
translated by Chr. Pitt. 

6 De Bombyce, and De ludo scacorum (Sel.Pocm. Ital. i 103120, 190 210). 

7 Poetices liber vi 806 (1586). 

8 Cremona, 1535; illustrated ed., Oxford, 1725. 

9 Tiraboschi, vii 1440-51 ; Hallam, i 431*; Roscoe's Leo X, c. 17 (ii 1540; 
Symonds, ii 399; Pastor, Gesch. der Papste, iv (1906) 436-8 (and the literature 
there quoted) ; portrait in Wiese and Percopo, 282. 

n8 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

Among the correspondents of these Roman poets was a 
patrician of Venice, Andreas Navagero (1483 

Navagero . . . 

1529). He revised for the Aldine press Quintilian 
and Virgil (1514), Lucretius (1516), Ovid and Terence (1517), 
Horace, and the Speeches of Cicero (1519). The three volumes of 
the last were accompanied by Ciceronian letters of dedication 
addressed to Leo X, Bembo and Sadoleto. Among the works 
dedicated to himself was the editio princeps (1514) of Pindar 
(whose Odes he had more than once transcribed), together with 
editions of Cicero, De arte rhetorica and Brutus (1514-5), and 
the first decade of Livy (1518). He wrote Latin verse of singular 
beauty and purity on elegiac and idyllic themes; and Giraldi 
has praised his antiquae simplicitatis aemu/atio 1 . So deep was his 
detestation of Martial that once a year, on a day dedicated to the 
Muses, he solemnly burnt a copy of that poet's epigrams 2 . He 
found relief from the depression caused by overwork by serving 
for a time as a soldier. He was afterwards appointed librarian of 
San Marco, and historiographer of Venice, but his early death, as 
envoy to the court of Francis I at Blois, led to the History being 
entrusted to Bembo. Among the poets and scholars of his age, 
he is one of the purest in life and the most attractive in character 3 . 
The fellow-students of Navagero, at the philosophical lectures 
of Pomponazzi at Padua, included one of the ablest 


authors of the age, Girolamo Fracastoro (1483 
I 553)- Devoted to the study of music and astronomy, he was 
famous as a physician and a poet. The theme of the most 
important of his poems was the terrible scourge that first ap- 
peared in 1495 among the French soldiers quartered at Naples 4 . 
A theme no less unpromising had been vigorously handled by 
Lucretius in his description of the plague of Athens; but 
Manilius rather than Lucretius is the model of Fracastoro. The 
poem was dedicated to Bembo, and men of letters admired the 

1 P- 2 9> 3 1 Wotke ; cp. J. C. Scaliger, Poet, vi, 'Naugerii stilus generosus 
totus: semper enim aliquid vult, quantum potest'. 

2 Jovius, no. 78; portrait in Boissard, I (1597) xliii 256. 

3 Opera (Padua, 1718), including his Variae Lectiones on Ovid ; Poems in 
Delitiae, ii 104 135; cp. Greswell's Politian etc. 474-7^ Roscoe : s fao X, 
ii 163-7; ESdG?*JUtJf**ttft t 4651"; Symonds, ii 485-8. 

4 Bembo, Hist. Feneta, iii 113, ed. 1567. 


poetic skill with which the author had handled an undoubtedly 
difficult topic. Sannazaro held it superior to anything composed 
by himself or any of his brother-poets, while the elder Scaliger 
even described it as a ' divine poem ' '. The author passed a large 
part of his life at his beautifully situated villa near Verona, a 
villa described in one of his poetical epistles 2 . His memory was 
perpetuated at Padua by a statue of bronze, by the side of a 
similar memorial of his friend Navagero ; and the names of 
both are united in a monumentum acre perennius, in Fracastoro's 
celebrated dialogue Naugerius (i555) 3 - Navagero not only sup- 
plies the title of that work, but is also the principal speaker, as 
the exponent of the ideal element in Aristotle's theory of poetry 4 . 
A pleasant contrast to the neo-paganism of not a few of the 
poets of this age is presented by Marcantonio 

J Flaminio 

Flaminio of Serravalle (1498 1550), who is de- 
scribed by the historian of Italian literature as 'a name no 
less dear to Virtue than to the Muses' 5 . In his early youth he 
presented to Leo X some elegant compositions in Latin verse ; 
but he cared little for the great world of Rome. Though he 
spent part of his life at Urbino and Bologna, and at Padua, 
Genoa and Naples, and visited Venice in 1536, with a view to 
supervising the printing of his paraphrase of Aristotle's Meta- 
physics, he was never happier than at his villa on the Lago di 
Garda, poring over his Aristotle or writing his Latin poems 6 . 

1 Foetices liber vi 817, ed. 1586. The poem De Morbo Galileo is printed 
in Sel. Poemata flalomm, i 53 95; part is translated in Greswell's Politian etc. 
479 2 , and in Roscoe's Leo X, c. 17 (ii 160), and the whole by Tate in Dryden's 
Miscellaneous Poems, v 333 381, ed. 1716 (other poems, ib. ii 198 235). 
The author himself says, in his dialogue on poetry, 'omnis materia poetae 
convenit, dummodo exornari possit '. 

2 Ad Franc. Turrtanum, quoted and translated in Greswell's Politian etc. 
464 47 1 2 . 

3 Fracastorii Opera, i 340; Naugerii Opera, 227 272. 

4 Spingarn, Literary Criticism in the Renaissance, 31. On Fracastoro, cp. 
Tiraboschi, vii 1458; Roscoe's Leo X, c. 17; Greswell's Politian etc., 455 
491 2 ; Symonds, ii 477 481. Portrait in Boissard, i xvii 128. 

5 Tiraboschi, vii 1417 f. 

6 His delight in a rural life is charmingly expressed in his poems Ad agellum 
suiim and Ad Fr. Tnrrianum (in Sel. Poemata Ital. ii 53, 62). Most of his 
poems are printed in Delitiae, i 984 1045. 

ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

His verse is marked by piety of tone, and purity of theme, as 
well as terseness and vigour of style. A volume of poems by 
scholars of Northern Italy, which he sends, about 1549, to his 
patron, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, is accompanied by a set of 
verses, in which he expresses his wonder that, after the dark ages, 
and after all the ruin that has since befallen Italy, so many lights 
of song had shone forth in a single generation, and within the 
narrow bounds of Trans-Padan Italy. But these lights alone (he 
declares) would suffice to dispel the gloom of barbarism and 
restore the splendour of Latin letters; they would add eternal 
lustre to Italy, while Latin was now studied, not only by the 
northern nations, but even in the New World 1 . 

Such are some of the principal Latin poets of that age, but 
there are many whose names cannot here be recounted, though 
they are far from forgotten. The scholars and poets of Italy have 
been enumerated by Bartolommeo Fazio (d. I457) 2 and by 
Cortesius (d. i5io) 3 . Francesco Arsilli supplies us with a 
hundred epigrammatic descriptions of the poets who dwelt on 
Leo's Parnassus 4 . In 1514, no less than a hundred and twenty 
'poets' laid their offerings on the altar in the church of Sant' 
Agostino 5 . Two hundred 'illustrious' poets of Italy are included 
in the Delitiae of Janus Gruter 6 . Lilio Giraldi of Ferrara 
(1479 X 55 2 ) nas crowned his dialogues on the Greek and Latin 
poets of the past with two that are rich in delicate discrimination 
of the many poets of his time 7 ; while Paolo Giovio (1483 1552) 
has published his 'eulogies' on the scholars of Italy, whose portraits 
he had gathered round him in his villa on the Lake of Como 8 . 

1 Carmina (Padua, 1743), 122 f; Poeinata Sel. Italorum (Oxford, 1808), 
166; Symonds, ii 504-7. Cp. Tiraboschi, vii 1417-32; Roscoe's Leo X, c. 17; 
Ores well, I.e., 493 sop 2 , and Fifty Select Poems imitated by E. W. Barnard, 
with a memoir (Chester, 1829); Harvard Lectures, pp. iv, 82; portrait in 
Carmina (1743), copied in \Viese and Percopo, 326. 

2 De viris ilhistribus. 3 De hominibus doc t is. 

4 De Poetis Urbanis (1524), reprinted in Tiraboschi, vii ad fin.; cp. Roscoe's 
Leo X, c. \i ad fin. 

6 Coryciana (1524) ; Roscoe, I.e.', Gregorovius, viii 357 f; Creighton, 
vi 121. 

6 Deliiiae CC Italorum poetarum hujus superiorisque aevi illustrium (1608). 

7 De poetis nostrorum temporum (Ferrara, 1548) ; ed. Wotke, 1894. 

8 Elogia vcris clarorum virorum imaginibus apposita (Ven. 1546); Elogia 


From the poets we turn to the archaeologists. A collection of 
Roman inscriptions founded on the researches of 

Roman In- 

Fra Giocondo of Verona, and probably prepared by scriptions and 
the learned Canon Francesco Albertini, was pub- 
lished in Rome by Mazocchi in I52I 1 . Meanwhile in 1513 
Andrea Fulvio had presented to Leo X a description of the 
antiquities of Rome in Latin verse. This archaeological poet 
was the learned adviser of Raphael, who studied an Italian 
translation of Vitruvius specially made for his own use by Marco 
Fabio Calvi of Ravenna, and in 1518-9, shortly before his death, 
proposed to Leo X a scheme for an illustrated plan of Rome 
divided into the ancient ' regions '. The scheme bore fruit in the 
prose version of the Antiquitates of Fulvio, and in the Plan of 
Rome by Calvi, both published in the year of the ruin of Rome, 
the fatal 152^. 

Rome, which had been visited by Erasmus under Julius II, 
was, in the age of Leo, the goal of another 


wanderer from the North, Christopher Longolius 
(1488 1522). Neither the study of the law at Valence, nor its 
practice in Paris, could prevent his being drawn to Rome by the 
'genius of Italy' 3 . In 1517 he entered the capital in the 
disguise of a soldier ; his disguise was soon detected, he was 
hospitably entertained for three years, and, under the advice of 
Bembo, he applied himself to the study and the exclusive 
imitation of Cicero. A charge of treason to Rome, founded on 
the fact that, as a student in France, he had once eulogised the 
ancient Gauls at the expense of the ancient Romans, drove him 
from Rome to Padua, where he once more found a friend in 
Bembo. At Padua he published a volume of Ciceronian epistles, 
and, in 1522, he died at the early age of thirty-four. His death 
was lamented by all the scholars of the day, not excluding 

doctorum viroriim (Bas. c. 1556); Elogia virorum literis illustrium, ex ejtisdern 
Musaeo...iniaginibns exornata (Bas. 1577); his own portrait ib. and in Uffizi. 
Cp. Tiraboschi, vii 908 f; Gregorovius, viii 344. 

1 Henzen, Monatsber. Berl. Acad. 1868, 403 f; Pastor, Gesch. der Piipste, 
iv (1906) 465. 

2 Pastor, I.e., 468, n. 3 ; Lanciani, Golden Days of the Renaissance (1906), 
245 2 52. 

:i Epp. iv 26, ' felicem ilium ac plane divinum Italiae genium sum secutus'. 


Erasmus, who, in his Ciceronianus (1523), singles him out as a 
typical Ciceronian 1 . 

Leo's posthumous fame as a patron of learning has been partly 
enhanced by the phrase of Erasmus, who marked the transition 
from Julius II to Leo X in the words : ' an age worse than that 
of iron was suddenly transformed into an age of gold' 2 . Leo's 
'golden days' have been celebrated in Pope's Essay on Criticism ; 
and, when Leo died, his tomb was strewn with verses lamenting 
the passing away of the 'golden age' 3 . 

Leo's successor, Adrian VI (1522-3), cared little for classical 
literature or Greek art. In the presence of an 

Adrian VI . r 

envoy from Venice, after glancing for a moment at 
the Laocoon and the Apollo Belvedere, he turned away, and said 
with a sigh : ' They are the idols of the ancients' 4 . 

The pontificate of the second Medicean Pope, Clement VII 
(1523-34), saw a brief revival of learning. Piero 

Clement VII 

Valenano of Belluno (1477 1558), who had lived 


in Rome since 1509, and had been a favounte 
of Leo X, and a friend of that multifarious scholar, Cardinal 
Egidius Canisius of Viterbo 5 , was now recalled from Naples, and 
appointed professor of Eloquence 6 . His fame as an antiquarian, 
as a critic of Virgil, and as a successful imitator of Horace and 
Propertius, is eclipsed by his thrilling account of the calamities 
that befell the scholars of his time. The greatest of these 
calamities was the Sack of Rome by the Spanish and German 
troops of Charles V in the month of May, 1527 7 . In that 
overwhelming catastrophe many an artist and many a scholar 
perished, or suffered grievous losses, or passed into exile. The 
learned recluse, who had aided Raphael in the study of Vitruvius, 
died a miserable death in a hospital ; the literary critic of the 

1 p. 82 f, ed. 1621. Cp. Jovius, no. 67 (portrait on p. 127, and in 
Bullart's Academie, ii (1682) 156); Sabbadini, Ciceronianismo, 52 60; Gre- 
gorovius, viii 361 f; Harvard Lectures, i6of. 

2 Ep. 174. 3 Gregorovius, viii 432. 

* Negri in Lettere di Principi, i 113 (Venice, 1581); cp. Valeriano, ii 34. 
6 Gregorovius, viii 341 f. 

6 Portrait (in fur cloak, with strong face and fine eyes) in Philippus 
Galleus, Effigies, ii (Antwerp, 1577) 36. 

7 Creighton, vi 339 344, and Diaries quoted ib. 381-3, 418 437. 


Latin poets of that age, Lilio Giraldi, had to lament the loss of all 
his books; the writer of the eulogies of learned men, Paolo 
Giovio, was bereft of his only copy of part of the first decade of 
his great History of Rome, while the head of the Roman Academy 
saw most of his fine collection of MSS and antiquities dispersed 
and destroyed. Valeriano was absent from Rome during this 
appalling calamity, but on his return he found in the strange 
adventures of those who had lingered in the doomed city, much 
of the material for his work 'on the misfortunes of scholars' 1 . 
Giovio, at the close of his brief biographies, bids a sad farewell 
to the scholars of his own nation. The Germans, he laments, 
' have robbed exhausted Greece and slumbering Italy of the 
ornaments of peace, of learning, and of the flower of the arts'. 
Yet this 'hostile age' has left us 'something of our ancient 
heritage'. 'If, after the almost utter loss of liberty, we may still 
glory in anything, we may boast that we hold the citadel of 
imperishable eloquence.' Every citizen of Rome must 'guard 
this post, in order that under the banner of Bembo and Sadoleto, 
we may heroically defend the remnant of the great bequest of our 
forefathers' 2 . 

Immediately after the great disaster, men were saying on 
all sides that the light of the world had perished. Sadoleto, 
who had left for his bishopric in the South of France, wrote to 
the head of the Roman Academy recalling those happy meetings 
that had now been broken up by the cruel fate of Rome 3 . He 
himself received a letter from Bembo, who had withdrawn to 
Padua, exhorting him to bury their common misfortunes in a life 
of study 4 ; and another from Erasmus, saying that this terrible 
event had affected the whole earth; for Rome was not only the 
fortress of the Christian religion, the instructress of noble 
minds, but also the mother of the nations ; her fall was not the 
fall of the city, but of the world 5 . 

1 DC literatonini infelicitate, Venice, 1620; cp. Roscoe's Leo A", c. 21; 
Gregorovius viii 334, 357, 651 ; Symonds, ii 443 f. 
- Elogia, ad fin.; Gregorovius, viii 350. 

3 Sadoleto, Efp. i 106. Cp. Gregorovius, viii 654 f. 

4 Bembo, Epp. Fain, iii 24. 

5 Erasmus, Ep. 988. 

History of Scholarship in the Sixteenth Century. 


Spain and 



England and 


Janus Lascaris 

Ant. Nebriss- 


1445-1535 . 

ensis 14441522 


Aldus Manutius 


M49 15*5 

I455- I 522 

Beroaldus 1 


Conrad Celtes 




Leonico Tonieo 














Lily 14681522 



J. 0. Scaiiger 

Vives(in Nether- 




14841558 (in 

lands 1512 22, 



1463- 1518 

Fran 061523-5 3) 













Eobanus Hessu* 

1470- 1517 











Beroaldus 11 

R. Stephanus 


Petrus Mosel- 











1506 1582 






I 509 1546 


Lilio Giraldi 

Le Roy 


1497 J 554 






i urnebus 

H. Junius 

M97 '560 


1512- 1565 



Paolo Gio* io 




15*3 15<# 










J. C. Scaliger 



Petreius Tiara 



14841558 (in 






Italy 1529) 

1. am bin us 


1507 "589 




Conrad Gesner 

14881522 (in 

De Grouchy 


Italy 1517-22] 


G. Fabricius 








H. Wolf 








B. Faber 








F. Fabricius 








Martin Crusius 


H. Stephanus 





1528-31 1598 

J. J. Scaliger 




P. Daniel 

1540-1609 (at 


1505 I57 1 



Leyden 1593 


Fr. Portus 

Ant. Augustinus 



1536 -1596 




W. Canter 







1549 122 




1533 J592 

Cruquius ed. 




Passe rat 

Horace 1578 

I 547- I 590 


d. 1602 


Janus Dousa I 

Phil. Holland 

Aem. Portus 


Ach. Statins 

Pierre Pithou 











P. Ciacconius 

J. J. Scaligcr 




1526-1585 (in 



A. Schott 



Italy 1554-85) 



1560 1622 




J 549 J 62i 


A. Melville 


1529- 1568 







A. Ciacconius 


Janus Dousa II 



152? 1 597, 



1571 J597 



Fulvio Orsini 








Mercier d. 1626 






Videmus Latinam eruditionem, quamvis impend iosam, citra 
Graecismum mancam esse ac dimidiatam. Apud nos enim rivuli 
vix quidam sunt ef lacunculae lutulentae ; apud illos fontes pnris- 
simi et flumina durum volventia. 

ERASMUS, Ep. 149 ed. Allen, 1906 ; (Paris, 1501). 

Capessite ergo sana studio, ... ; veteres Latinos colite, Graeca 
amplexamini, sine quibus Latina tractari neqneunt. Ea pro 
omnium litterarum usu ingenium alent mitius, atque elegantius 
undequaque red dent. 

MELANCHTHON, De Corrigendis Adulescentiae 
Studiis, ad fin. (Wittenberg, 1518). 

Linguae Graecae osoribus ita responsum volo, omnem elegantem 
doctrinam, omnem cognitionem dignam hominis ingenui studio, uno 
verbo, quicquid usquam est politiorum dtsdplinarum, nullis a/iis, 
quam Graecorum libris ac literis, contineri. 

MURETUS, Or. ii iv (Rome, 1573). 

ERASMUS (15-23). 

From the portrait by Holbein in the salon carre of the Louvre. 
(Photographed by Messrs Mansell.) 



IN tracing the history of humanism, our natural course at the 
present point would be to turn from Italy to the other countries of 
Europe and to embark on a survey of the Revival of Learning in 
each. But there is one eminent scholar whose life and influence, 
so far from being confined to his native land, are even more closely 
connected with France, England, Italy, Germany and Switzerland 
than with the land of his birth. Our survey of the early history of 
scholarship beyond the bounds of Italy will therefore be preceded 
by some account of Erasmus, so far as his remarkable career was 
connected with Classical Scholarship. 

Erasmus was born at Rotterdam in 1466. He was the second 
of the two sons of Gerard of Gouda, near Rotterdam, 


and Margaret of Zevenberge in Brabant. His father 
was in priest's orders at the time of his birth, and the name 
Erasmus was that of a martyred bishop of Campania, who was 
revered in the Low Countries, as well as in England 1 . The Latin 
equivalent, Desiderius, was adopted by Erasmus himself, whose full 
name in the old Latin style was Desiderius Erasmus Rotterodamus. 
In his ninth year he was sent to school at Deventer, where the 
mediaeval text-books of Grammar were still in use, and his high 
promise was there recognised in 1484", when the school was 
visited by Rudolphus Agricola, afterwards described by Erasmus 
himself as ' the first who brought from Italy some breath of a 
better culture' 3 . In the same year he was removed to a school 
at Bois-le-Duc, distinctly inferior to that at Deventer, though 

1 F. M. Nichols, Epistles of Erasmus, i 37 f. 

2 P. S. Allen, Epp. Erasmi (1906), i p. 581. 

3 p. i of Ep. ad Botzhennim, 30 Jan. 1524 (Leyden ed. of Opera, i init.). 


founded by the Brothers of the Common Life 1 ; in 1487 he entered 
an Augustinian monastery near Gouda; and in 1492 was ordained 
priest. The ten years spent in that monastery happily left him 
much leisure for study, and among the works that he there wrote 
was an abridgement of the Elegant 'iae of Lauren tius Valla. He 
next entered the service of the bishop of Cambrai, who sent him 
to Paris, where he wrote a laudatory preface to a Latin history of 
France and thus became known to Colet. In Paris he learnt a 
little Greek, but made his living mainly as a teacher of Latin, 
counting among his pupils one of his future patrons, the youthful 
Lord Mountjoy, whom he accompanied to England in 1499. He 
was welcomed by Colet at Oxford, and by More and Warham in 
London. Early in the following year he returned to Paris, there 
to resume the work which he describes in the pathetic words : 
' my Greek studies are almost too much for my courage, while I 
have not the means of procuring books, or the help of a master' 2 . 
He is conscious that 'without Greek the amplest erudition in Latin 
is imperfect' 3 , and, of his early study of Homer, he says (like 
Petrarch) ' I am refreshed and fed by the sight of his words, even 
when I cannot always understand him' 4 . In 1500 he produced 
his Adagia, and, in the following year, an edition of Cicero De 
Ojficiis, besides working at Euripides and Isocrates. For part of 
1502-3 he resided at Louvain, where he studied Lucian in the 
newly published Aldine text of 1503: His return to Paris was 
followed by a visit to London, where (early in 1506) he presented 
Warham with a translation of the Hecuba, and Fox with a rendering 
from Lucian, whom he continued to translate in conjunction with 
More. In June he left for Italy, visiting Turin, where he received 
the degree of Doctor in Divinity ; Florence, which appears to have 
attracted him but little; Bologna, where (as we have already seen) 

1 The school to which Erasmus was removed in his i.}.th year is described 
by himself as one of those belonging to the Fratres Collationarii (Ep. 442), i.e. 
the Brethren of the Common Life. Cp. Delprat's History of the Confraternity 
(Utrecht, 1830), 196, 313^ quoted (with other passages) in a letter to 
Dr A. W. Ward from F. van der Haeghen of Ghent. 

2 iii 80; Nichols, Epp. \ 233; Ep. 123, p. 285 Allen. 

3 iii 9680; 36 and 968 ; De Ratione Studii, 3; Ep. 129, p. 301 Allen. 

4 iii 78; Nichols, i 270; Ep. 131, p. 305 Allen. Woodward's Erasmus, 
ii 135- 


he worked quietly at Greek ; Venice, where (as a guest of Aldus) 
he prepared a second edition of his Adagia; Padua, where he 
attended the lectures of Musurus, and then passed through 
Florence and Siena to Rome, where he was far less interested in 
its old associations, its ' ruins and remains ', its ' monuments of 
disaster and decay', than in the libraries and in the social life of 
the papal city 1 . Returning to England in 1509, he published his 
famous satire, the Moriae Encomium. Soon afterwards he found 
a home in Cambridge 2 , where, under the influence of John Fisher, 
bishop of Rochester, he became Lady Margaret Professor of 
Divinity. His rooms were near the south-east corner of the 
inner cloistered court of Queens'. It was there that in October, 
1511, he taught Greek to a little band of Cambridge students, 
using for his text-book the Grammar of Chrysoloras, and hoping 
to begin that of Theodorus Gaza, if he could obtain a larger 
audience 3 . Meanwhile, he was aiding Colet in his great design 
for the future school of St Paul's by writing his treatise De 
Ratione Studii (1511), as well as a work on Latin composition, 
De Copia Rerum et Verborum (1512), and a text-book of Latin 
Syntax, founded on Donatus (1513). He was also producing 
Latin renderings from the Moralia of Plutarch, and was beginning 
to prepare his edition of St Jerome, and his text of the Greek 
Testament. Early in 1514 he left Cambridge with a view to the 
publication of these works at Basel in 1516. His edition of the 
Greek Testament, the first that was actually published, was accom- 
panied with a Latin version and with notes suggested by those of 
Valla, which Erasmus had discovered in I505 4 . 1516 was also the 
date of the first edition of his famous Colloquies. The years 
between 1515 and 1521 were spent mainly at Basel and Louvain, 
where he aided in organising the Collegium Trilingue for the study 
of Hebrew, Greek and Latin. In the spring of 1522 he returned 
to Basel, making it his home for the next seven years. He there 
published his Ciccronianus (1528), a celebrated dialogue on Latin 

1 De Nolhac, Erasme en Italic, 1888 (cp. p. 91 supra). 

2 Aug. 1511 Jan. 1514. He had paid a brief visit in 1506 (Allen, i 
p. 590 f ). 

3 Ep. 123 (iii no); cp. Ep. 233, p. 473 Allen. 

4 Cp. Ep. 182, p. 406 f Allen. 

S. II. 9 


style, in which he vigorously protests against limiting the modern 
cultivation of Latin prose to a slavish and pedantic imitation of 
the vocabulary and phraseology and even the very inflexions of 
Cicero. The dialogue aroused the bitter attacks of the elder 
Scaliger and of Etienne Dolet 1 . In the same year he also 
produced his treatise De Recta Latini Graecique Sermonis Pro- 
nuntiatione, which, in process of time, led the northern nations of 
Europe to adopt the ' Erasmian ' pronunciation of Greek in 
preference to that which Reuchlin had derived from the modern 
Greeks and had introduced into Germany. In the pronunciation 
adopted by Reuchlin the vowels ij, i, v and the diphthongs 01 and 
ai were all pronounced like the Italian /, while av and eu were 
pronounced like af or av, and </or ev. 'The Erasmians main- 
tained... that, among the ancients, each vowel or diphthong had 
its own proper sound, a like the Italian a, iota like the Italian 
*, v like the French u or German u, e and rj like the Italian short 
and long e respectively, and that the diphthongs had the sound 
which results from the combined sounds of their component 
letters. They proved also that /? had the sound of our b, y of 
our hard g, 8 of our d, of ds, x of hard ch...; that T and TT 
should always "retain the sound of / and /, and that the initial 
aspirate should be sounded as h' 2 . 

In 1529 Erasmus gave to the world the maturest of his educa- 
tional treatises in a work De Pueris statim ac liberaliter Erudiendis. 
In the same year he left Basel for Freiburg on the verge of the 
Black Forest, where he was still living when his edition of Terence, 
the most important of his classical recensions, was published 3 . In 
1534 he returned to Basel, and worked at his edition of Origen. 
He was engaged on a new edition of his Letters, and on other 
work, when he died in the summer of 1536. 

The art of Holbein and of Diirer, with some slight touches 
derived from tradition, enables us to picture his personal appear- 
ance as a man of slight but well-built figure, with bluish grey eyes 
and light brown hair, a face characterised by a quiet humour, and 
a calm and steady gaze, blended with a caution that verges on 

1 Cp. Harvard Lectures, 162 167, and pp. 177-8 infra. 
z W. G. Clark in Journal of 'Philology ', l no 2, 98 108 ; Egger, Hellenisme 
en France, i 451 470. 3 Basel, 1532. 


timidity 1 . The inscription on the portrait by Diirer 8 , as well as a 
phrase in the author's own Letters 3 , tells us that a better picture 
may be found in his writings. We there find proof of an unwearied 
industry brightened by a quick apprehension, a vivid fancy, and a 
playful wit, acuteness of observation and vigour of intellect rather 
than depth of thought, wide and varied learning expressed with 
facility in a flowing style that is free from a ponderous and pre- 
tentious pedantry, and never aims at elegance for its own sake. 
Erasmus is a representative not so much of Greek as of Latin 
scholarship, and of Latin verse far less than of Latin prose. The 
strength as well as the occasional weakness of his character, and 
the wide extent of his influence, are amply attested in his Letters. 
His varied learning is best seen in his Adagia, where his erudite 
illustrations of the meaning of ancient proverbial phrases are often 
curiously diversified by pungent criticisms on modern priests and 
princes 4 ; and the same satirical element is constantly recurring in 
his Colloquies. He has rendered service to the cause of education 
not only by his general treatises on the subject, but also by the 
lucid text-books on syntax and style that soon superseded the dull 
mediaeval manuals. He translated into Latin the Greek Grammar 
of Theodoras Gaza, and supplied a Latin Syntax founded on 
Donatus. He represents scholarship on its formal side, grammar, 
style and rhetoric. He promoted the study of models of pure 
Latinity, such as Terence and Cicero. The other Latin books 
that he recommends for use in schools are select plays of Plautus, 
with Virgil and Horace, Caesar and Sallust. In Greek he approves 
Lucian, Demosthenes, Herodotus, Aristophanes, Homer and 
Euripides 5 . His own editions of Latin authors comprise Seneca 
(1515), Suetonius (1518), certain works of Cicero (1518-32), with 
Pliny (1525) and Terence (1532). His Greek texts belong to the 
last five years of his life and include Aristotle (1531) and Ptolemy 
(1533). He also produced recensions of St Ambrose, St Augustine 
and St Chrysostom, with three editions of St Jerome. Lastly, we 

1 Beatus Rhenanus (Nichols, i 36) ; Mullinger's Cambridge, i 491 ; Jebb's 
Erasmus, 5 f. 

2 rrjv Kpeirrw TO. ffvyypdfj.iJ.aTa. 5'a (1525). 

3 Ef. 428 (iii 446), optimam Erasmi partem in libris videre licet, quoties 
lihet (i June, 1519). 4 Cp. Hallam, Lit. i 280-5. 

5 De Ratione Studii, 3 ; ed. Woodward, 112. 



cannot forget his edition of the Greek Testament (1516). In the 
preface to that work, the scholar, who had done so much for 
secular as well as for sacred learning, points the contrast between 
those two branches of scholarship in the words: 

' aliorum litterae sunt eiusmodi ut non parum multos paenituerit insumptae 
in illis felix ille quern in hisce litteris meditantem mors occupat' 1 . 

Even as Petrarch marks the transition from the Middle Ages 
to the Revival of Learning, so, in the early history of learning, 
Erasmus marks the transition from Italy to the northern nations 
of Europe. 'I used my best endeavour' (he declared) 'to deliver 
the rising generation from the depths of ignorance and to inspire 
them with a taste for better studies. I wrote, not for Italy, but for 
Germany and the Netherlands'*. Before turning to the northern 
nations, we propose to trace the History of Scholarship in Italy 
in the age that immediately succeeded the Revival of Learning. 

1 The following is a small part of the literature on Erasmus. Opera, ed. 
J. Clericus (Leyden) in eleven folio vols. (1703-6); Life etc. by Jortin 
(1758-60); De Laur (1872); R. B. Drummond (1873); Fougere (1874); 
Nisard (1876); Froude (1894) ; Emerton (1899); Mark Pattison in Enc. Brit. 
ed. ix, and Capey, with brief bibliography (1902); also Bursian, Gesch. d. cl. 
Philol. in Dnitschland, i 142-9 ; Geiger's Renaissance, 526 548, Mullinger's 
Cambridge, i 472 520; Jebb's Erasmus (1890) and in Camb. Mod. Hist. i 
569 571; F. M. Nichols, The Epistles of Erasmus (1901-4); Woodward, 
Erasmus on Education (1904), with bibliography, Renaissance Education 
(1906), 104 126, and Brunetiere, Hist, de la Lift. Francaise classique (1904), i 
34 50; and, lastly, Briefe an Erasmus, ed. Enthoven (Strassburg, 1906), and 
esp. Erasmi Epistolae, vol. i, 1484 1514, ed. P. S. Allen (Oxford, 1906). 
Of the portraits by Holbein there are three types : (1) the profile-portraits, 
(a) once in the possession of Charles I, and now in the salon carre of the 
Louvre (reproduced on p. 126); (b) at Basel, with a simpler background, and 
with the words on the paper clearly legible : In Evangelium Marci para- 
phrasis followed by the author's name..., Cunctis mortalibus ins(itum est) 
(reproduced in Geiger's Humanismus, 531) ; (2) the three-quarter-face 
portrait at Longford Castle, near Salisbury ; (3) the small circular three- 
quarter-face portrait at Basel, representing a somewhat older man. (l) and 
(2) belong to 1523 (Woltmann's Holbein, 182-9). 

2 Jebb's Erasmus, 41 f; Erasmus, Opera (Basel, 1540), ix 1440, 'me 
adolescente in nostrate Germania regnabat impune crassa barbaries, literas 
Graecas attigisse haeresis erat. Itaque pro mea quantulacunque portione 
conatus sum iuventutem ab inscitiae coeno ad puriora studia excitare. Neque 
enim ilia scripsi Italis, sed Hollandis, Brabantis, ac Flandris. Nee omnino 
male cessit conatus meus' (1535). 


ITALY FROM 1527 TO 1600. 

THE Sack of Rome in the month of May, 1527, marks the end 
of the Revival of Learning in Italy, but not the end T .. 

* ' Literary 

of the History of Scholarship in that country. In Criticism. 


the month immediately preceding that appalling 
event, a work composed by Vida before 1520 was printed in 
Rome in the form of a didactic poem De Arte Poetica, the first of 
a long series of volumes on the theory of poetry published in 
Italy during the sixteenth century. Vida's treatise accepts as the 
text-book of literary criticism the Ars Poetica of Horace, while 
it finds the true model of epic verse in the Aeneid of Virgil 1 . 
Meanwhile, in 1498, another of the great classical influence of 
text-books of literary criticism, the treatise of Aristotle's 
Aristotle On the Art of Poetry, had been im- 
perfectly translated into Latin by Giorgio Valla of Piacenza 
(c. 1430-99), probably a cousin of Laurentius Valla; and it was 
in this form that Aristotle's treatise was first known in the Revival 
of Learning. The Greek text was afterwards printed for the first 
time in the Aldine edition of the Rhetores Graeri (1508) ; but the 
modern influence of this famous work dates from the memorable 
year I536 2 . It was the year that saw the Greek text separately 
published by Trincaveli, a revised Latin translation published by 
Pazzi, and the teaching of Aristotle applied for the first time 
to the theory of tragedy by Daniello 3 . In 1536 Ramus obtained 
his doctor's degree in Paris by maintaining that all the doctrines 

1 On Vida, see p. 117 supra; and cp. Saintsbury, History of Criticism, 
ii 29 37 ; Spingarn, Literary Criticism in the Renaissance, 127, 131-3. 

2 Spingarn, 17. 3 Spingarn, 137; also 28, 41, 81 f. 

134 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

of Aristotle were false, thus marking the decline of Aristotle's 
teaching in philosophy ; but, in the very same year, the dedicator 
of Pazzi's posthumous work declares that, in the treatise on 
Poetry, 'the precepts of poetic art are treated by Aristotle as 
divinely as he has treated every other form of knowledge', thus 
marking the beginning of Aristotle's influence in literature 1 . 
Between 1536 and 1550 the critics and poets of Italy had 
assimilated the teaching of Aristotle's treatise on Poetry. In 1543 
Giraldi Cintio tells us that it was already in use as a dramatic 
text-book 2 . In 1548 the first critical edition, with a Latin transla- 
tion and a learned commentary, was produced by Robortelli, then 
professor at Pisa 3 . In the following year the first Italian transla- 
tion was published by Bernardo Segni, and before April in that 
year, Ferrara was the scene of its first public exposition by Maggi, 
whose edition appeared in 1550". The great edition by Victo- 
rius was produced in 1560, and in 1563 we find Trissino adding 
to his earlier work (1529) two new parts, which are entirely 
founded on Aristotle 5 . Next follow the Italian commentaries 
of Castelvetro (1570) and Piccolomini (1575). The former 
is regarded by Tasso as supreme in erudition, and the latter 
in maturity of judgement 6 . The Unity of Time, which had made 
its first appearance in Giraldi Cintio (i543) 7 , is now followed 
by the Unity of Place, which presents itself in Castelvetro 
(i57o) 8 , whose commentary is lauded by Milton 9 , and described 
by Bentley as sold for its 'weight in silver in most countries 
of Europe' 10 . Aristotle's treatise was even expounded in 
Latin verse by Baldini in 1576, and, ten years later, it was 
paraphrased and explained in Italian prose by Salviati (1586), who 
briefly reviews the works of his precursors 11 . It was made into a 
practical manual for poets and playwrights by Riccoboni (1591)'*, 

1 Spingarn, 137. 

2 Discorso suite Comedie e sulle Tragedic, \\ 6 (Spingarn, 62). 

3 p. 141 infra. 4 Cp. Tiraboschi, vii 1472 f. 

6 Spingarn, 140. 6 xv 20 (Spingarn, 140). 

7 Discorso sulle Comedie e sulle 7'rageJie, ii lof; Spingarn, 91. 

8 Po'etica, 534; Spingarn, 98 f. 

9 Of Education (iv 389, ed. 1863). 10 Phalaris, 63, Wagner. 

11 Printed from MS in Florence by Spingarn, 314-6. 

12 Spingarn, 140. 


defended against all detractors by Buonamici (I597) 1 , and finally 
expounded on a large scale by Beni (1613). 

Meanwhile, a series of treatises on the Art of Poetry had been 
produced in Italy by Danielle (1536), Muzio (1551), Varchi 
( r 5S3)> Giraldi Cintio (1554), Fracastoro (i555) 2 , Minturno 
(1559), and Partenio (i56o) 3 . All these culminated in a work by 
a more famous scholar of Italian birth, Julius Caesar Scaliger 
(1484 1558), who in 1529 had left the banks of the Lago di 
Garda for Agen on the Garonne. In his treatise on poetry, 
posthumously published at Geneva in 1561, he describes Aristotle 
as 'imperator noster, omnium bonarum artium dictator per- 
petuus' 4 . The elder Scaliger belongs to the history of scholarship 
in France, the land of his adoption, but we must here notice two 
eminent Italian scholars, whose studies were closely connected 
with the Ars Poetica of Aristotle, though far from being confined 
to it. 

Piero Vettori, whose name is more familiar in the Latin form 
of Petrus Victorius (1499 1585), may be regarded 

111 /~i r Victorius 

as possibly the greatest Greek scholar of Italy, as 
certainly the foremost representative of classical scholarship in 
that country during the sixteenth century, which, for Italy at 
least, may well be called the saecuhtm Victorianum. Descended 
on both sides from families of distinction in Florence, he owed 
much to the intellectual ability of his mother. He learnt his 
Greek from Marcello Hadriano, and Andrea Dazzi 5 , and from the 

1 Discorsi Poelici in difesa d' Aristotele. 

2 p. 1 1 8 supra. 

3 See Index to Spingarn and Saintsbury. 

4 Poetices libri septem, vn ii i, p. 932 (ed. 1586). Cp. Saintsbury, ii 
6980. Scaliger's treatise was succeeded by a second work by Minturno 
(1564), and by those of Viperano (1579), P a t" zz i ( I 586), Tasso (1587), 
Denores (1588), Buonamici (1597) and Summo (1600). 

6 Andrea Dazzi (1475 1548), a pupil of the Latin secretary of Florence, 
and editor of Dioscorides (1518), Marcellus Virgilius Adrianus (1464 1521), 
whom he succeeded as professor. In his Latin poem on the 'Battle of the 
Cats and Mice' he imitated Virgil, Ovid, and Silius Italicus. He also wrote 
minor hexameter poems, Silvae, and Greek and Latin Epigrams (W. Riidiger, 
Marcellus Virgilius Adrianus, 65 pp., and Andreas Dactius aus Florenz, 
70 pp., Halle, 1897). 





chpuita LJX ffauota. cki 
dftoma nfU' tfiL' Ca/<* 


From the portrait by Titian, engraved by Ant. Zaballi for the Ritratti 
Toscani, vol. I, no. xxxix (Allegrini, Firenze, 1766). 


blind scholar, Giorgio Riescio of Poggibonsi. An early interest in 
astronomy led to his eager study of Aratus and his commentator 
Hipparchus. At the age of 24 he visited Spain in the company of 
his relative, Paolo Vettori, admiral of the papal fleet which was 
sent to escort the newly-elected Pope, Adrian of Utrecht, to the 
shores of Italy ; and, in the neighbourhood of Barcelona, he then 
collected a number of Latin inscriptions 1 . After taking part in 
the spirited but unavailing attempt of Florence to oppose the 
return of the base-born tyrant, Alessandro Medici, he lived in 
retirement at San Casciano from 1529 to the death of the second 
Medicean Pope, Clement VII (1534). In 1536-7 he produced 
in three volumes an edition of the Letters and the philosophi- 
cal and rhetorical works of Cicero, whose Speeches had already 
been edited by Naugerius. Under Cosimo I, he withdrew to 
Rome, but was soon invited to return to Florence as professor of 
Latin. He was subsequently professor of Greek, and of Moral 
Philosophy. In Latin scholarship he paid special attention to 
Cicero's Letters* ; he also edited Cato and Varro, De Re Rustica 
(1541), and Terence (1565) and Sallust (1576). In Greek his 
greatest works are his Commentaries on Aristotle's Rhetoric 
(1548), Poetic (1560), Politics (1576) and Nicomachean Ethics 
(1584). All of these are published in folio volumes, in which 
every sentence, or paragraph, of the text is printed separately, 
followed, in each case, by a full exposition. For the second 
Juntine edition of Sophocles (1547) he collated certain ancient 
MSS in Florence (doubtless including the codex Laurentianus] so 
far as regarded the Oedipus Tyrannus, Oedipus Coloneus, and 
Trachiniae, but in the preface he is simply described as ' a learned 
man ', without any mention of his name. He produced editions 
of Plato's Lysis, and Xenophon's Memorabilia (1551), Porphyry, 
De Abstinentia (1548), Clemens Alexandrinus (1550), Dionysius 
of Halicarnassus on Isaeus and Dinarchus (1581), and Demetrius, 
De Elocutione (1562), with the text interspersed in the folio pages 

1 Cp. Epp. 167 f. 

2 Ed. 1536, followed by Castigationes in 1540-1, Ad Familiares 1558, and 
Ad Atticum 1571. Many of the corrections now universally accepted are due 
to Victorius, e.g. Ad Fam. iv 8, virep MaMa? for 'supra Maias', and Ad Alt. 
xv 19, ' De Menedemo ' for ' Demea domi est'; cp. Riidiger, P. V. 18, 24, 49. 

138 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

of the Latin commentary. In Greek verse, he published the 
editio princeps of the Electro, of Euripides (1545), a play discovered 
in that year by two of his pupils, and the first edition of 
Aeschylus which contained the complete Agamemnon (1557)'. 
Twenty-five books of Variae Lectiones, or Miscellaneous Criticisms, 
published in 1553, were followed by thirteen more in 1569, and 
re-issued in the complete folio edition of thirty-eight books in 
1582. The only other works that need here be mentioned are his 
Epistolae ad Germanos missae (1577) and the Epistolae and 
Orationes published by his grandson in 1586. 

While he disapproved of the disastrous policy of the Medicean 
Pope, Clement VII, which ended in the Sack of Rome and 
the suppression of the liberty of Florence, he was loyal to the 
successors of Clement, and to the Grand Dukes of Tuscany ; and 
he was sent by Florence to congratulate Julius III on his election 

( T 549)- 

When the Grand Duke, Francesco, married Bianca Capella, 
Victorius presented the ruler of the State with a very exceptional 
wedding-gift in the form of a new edition of the commentary 
on Aristotle's Rhetoric (1579). In the Commentary on the 
Ethics, Aristotle's reference to the opinion of Eudoxus, that 
pleasure is the chief good 2 , prompts Victorius to introduce an 
irrelevant notice of the services of Eudoxus in the correction of 
the Calendar, and an equally irrelevant compliment to Gregory 
XIII on his similar services, a compliment which Victorius 
also pays the Pope in a separate letter on this subject 3 . None of 
the attempts to attract Victorius to Rome or Bologna had any 
permanent result ; he remained true to Florence to the last. We 
are told that, for eighty-five of the eighty-six years of his long life, 
his sight remained undimmed; also that he drank water only, and 
constantly bathed in his native stream of the Arno. At the age 
of 86 he died and was buried in the church of Santo Spirito, where 
the following inscription may be seen on the wall to the right 
of the altar : 

1 Owing to the loss of 14 leaves, more than two-thirds of the play is 
missing in the Medicean MS, viz. 323 1050, 1159 1673, ed. Wecklein. 

2 Ethics, x 2, i. 

3 Epp. p. 222, ' nactus occasionem idoneam laudandi te etc.' 


'D. O. M. 

In sepulcro hoc sub aram posito 
Inter ceteras familiae Vettori exuvias 

Translata servantur ossa 
Petri Victorii cognomento docti'. 

During his lifetime five medals were struck in his honour 1 , 
and his portrait was painted by Titian 2 , while, in the frontispiece 
of his posthumous Epistolae, we have an engraving representing 
the great scholar in the 8yth year of his age. His fame was 
not limited to his own land, or his own time. Scholars of his own 
age, or little later, were loud in his praises. His scrupulous care 
and unwearied industry are lauded by Turnebus, who declines 
to be compared with him, even for a moment 3 ; the epithets 
doctissimus, optimus, and fidelissimus are applied to him by the 
younger and the greater of the two Scaligers 4 , while Muretus calls 
him eruditorum coryphaeus* ; and similar eulogies might be quoted 
from Justus Lipsius 6 , and the author of the Polyhistor 1 ^ as well as 
from editors of the Ars Poetica of Aristotle, such as Anna Dacier 8 , 
and of Cicero's Letters, such as Graevius 9 . His Variae Lectiones, 
however, were sometimes regarded as unduly diffuse, and the 
prolixity of his Latin letters has been noticed in the Scaligerana, 
and by Balzac, who observed that the perusal of the whole 
volume was as tedious as travelling, on foot and alone, across the 
moorlands of Bordeaux". Among his editions of Greek authors, 
the highest place for wide and varied learning was generally awarded 
to his commentary on Aristotle's Rhetoric, while his contemporary 
Robortelli lauded him as the only scholar who had really thrown 
light on the text of Cicero 13 . He is described by a poet as having 

1 Bandini's Vita, 1759, opp. p. civ, and on title-page. 

2 Reproduced opp. p. 137. 

3 Adversaria, xix 28 ; Epp. clar. Ital. et Germ, iii 34. 

4 Prima Scaligerana, 99. s Var. Led. viii 6. 

6 Var. Led. ii 25. 

7 Morhof, Polyhistor, \ 5, 15. 

8 Ed. 1692, Preface. 

9 Epp. Earn., Praef. Cp. Sir Thomas Pope in Blount's Censura, 475 f. 

10 P- 359- 

11 Lettres a M. Chafelain, iii 21 (6 July, 1638), ed. 1656. 

12 Epp. clar. Ital. et Germ, i 36. 13 ib. \ 6. 

140 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

climbed the 'hill of Virtue.', and taken his place on its summit 
between Cicero and Aristotle 1 . The funeral oration in his honour 
was delivered by Leonardo Salviati, the head of the newly founded 
Accademia della Crusca, who dwells on the simplicity of his life, 
the unselfishness of his character, and his high qualities as a 
teacher ; and personifies Italia as saying of her famous son : 

Now no more shall distant peoples cross the snows of the Alps to see 
Victorias, or men of mark arrive from every land to hear him ; or princes hold 
converse with him. Now no more shall the works of scholars in all parts of 
the world be sent here for his approval ; or youth learn wisdom from his lips 2 . 

Within a year of the delivery of that funeral oration, Salviati, 
in the course of the celebrated controversy in defence of Ariosto 
and in depreciation of Tasso, had written an extensive com- 
mentary on the Ars Poetica of Aristotle, which still remains in MS 
at Florence 3 . As commentators on that treatise, Salviati and 
Victorius alike had been anticipated by the author of the first 
critical edition, Robortelli (1548). 

Francesco Robortelli (1516 1567) was the son of a notary 
belonging to a noble family at Udine. He was 


educated at Bologna, and held professorships at 
Lucca (1538), Pisa (1543). Venice (1549). an <i Padua (1552-7), 
and at Bologna itself (1557). From Bologna he returned to 
Padua in 1560. Seven years later he died in poverty, and the 
university honoured him with a public funeral, while the gratitude 
of his Paduan pupils of the ' German nation ' caused his statue to 
be placed in the church of Sant' Antonio 4 . An inordinate self- 
esteem led to his quarrelling with several of the leading scholars 
of his time. His earliest work, the Variorum Locorum Adnota- 
tiones (Venice, 1543), is remarkable for its frequent attacks on 
Erasmus. It was reprinted at Florence in 1548, in the same 
volume as several minor works on History and Rhetoric, on 
Catullus and Virgil, and on the Names of the Romans, closing 

1 Albericus Longus, ib. ad fin. 

2 Orazione Funerale, 1585. Cp., in general, Bandini's Vita, 1759; 
H. Kammel \njakrb. f. Philol. xcvi, 1866, 325 f, 421 f; and W. RUdiger 
(Halle, 1896). 

3 Cod. Magliabech. II ii 2, Spingarn, 314 f; also 123 f. 

4 G. B. Rossetti, Pitture etc. di Padova^ 77. 


with a Greek Ode in honour of the author. The disquisition 
on the Names of the Romans became notorious in connexion 
with his subsequent controversy with the great authority on 
Roman Antiquities, Sigonius. In the same year he produced 
a far more important work, his edition of Aristotle's treatise on 
the Art of Poetry, a thin folio volume including a critical revision 
of the text, a Latin translation, and a learned and suggestive 
commentary 1 . In the course of the latter he reviews the question 
of aesthetic imitation, discusses the reason why tragedy deals only 
with persons of importance, and, in his interpretation of Aristotle's 
famous definition of tragedy, describes terror and pity as 'purging' 
the mind of those emotions, and diminishing their effect in real 
life, by familiarising the spectator with their representation on the 
stage 2 . In this view, he is followed by Victorius (1560) and 
Castelvetro (1570). His edition concludes with a paraphrase of 
the Ars Poetica of Horace, and some account of other criticisms 
on poetry. Much of the erudition contained in this work was 
afterwards utilised in the Arte Nuevo of Lope de Vega (d. 1 635)1 
His next important work was an edition of Aeschylus, including 
the scholia (1552), in which he revised the text, and did much 
towards restoring the metre 4 . In the same year he published 
Aelian's Tactics with a Latin translation, and with illustrations 
copied from ancient MSS. He was the first to print the celebrated 
treatise On the Sufi/ime s , which here appears as the work of 
' Dionysius I.onginus', an attribution which remained unchallenged 
until i8o8 6 . With a pardonable pride, the editor describes the 
text as an opus redivivum ... e tenebris in lucem eductum ; but all 
that he supplies by way of elucidation of this masterly work is a 
series of marginal headings denoting the principal contents. His 
unimportant edition of Callimachus, with the Greek scholia and 
with a Latin translation, appeared in the same year as his Fasti 
Capitolini (1555). The only other work that need here be 
noticed is the folio volume of 1557 including a treatise on the 
Art of Criticism, two books of emendations, and a comparison of 

1 Later ed. Basel, 1555. ~ Cp. Spingarn, 29, 63, 77. 

3 Ed. Morel-Fatio, 1901-2 (Saintsbury's History of Criticism, ii 50, 345). 

4 Cp. Enm. ed. Davies, p. 25. 8 Basel, 1554. 
6 Cp. Rhys Roberts, 3, 247, 251. 

142 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

the chronology of Livy with the dates in the extant Roman Fasti. 
The short treatise On the Art of Textual Criticism claims to be 
the first of its kind 1 . It still deserves respectful remembrance, for 
it really broke new ground. The author here notes the general 
characteristics of Latin MSS, and the different kinds of handwrit- 
ing, indicates some of the principal causes of corruption and the 
corresponding means of restoration, and lays down certain rules 
for conjectural emendation 2 . The chronological work published 
at the same time, and the earlier Fasti Capitolini of 1555, are con- 
nected with his memorable quarrel with his learned fellow-country- 
man, Sigonius. The quarrel arose out of Robortelli's unimportant 
treatise On the Names of the Romans, published while he was 
still at Pisa (1548). Five years later, Sigonius wrote on the same 
subject, attacking Robortelli's opinions 3 , but describing the author 
as a 'friend' and as 'a man of learning'. In the following year 
Robortelli published a letter resenting the attack, and reprinted 
this letter in his Fasti Capitolini. The latter had been published 
earlier in the same year by Sigonius with additions of his own. 
But these additions were omitted by Robortelli, who stated that 
they contained many mistakes, which he proposed to set forth in 
his public lectures. In a new edition of the Fasti (1556), Sigonius 
said nothing of Robortelli ; and, in the following year, Robortelli, 
in his treatise on the chronology of Livy, renewed his attacks on 
Sigonius, repeatedly describing him as nullo judicio praeditus, and 
heading half the chapters with error Sigonii. Sigonius managed 
to obtain advance sheets of this work, and was thus enabled 
to answer the attack within a month of its publication. The 
answer is as bitter as the attack, but Sigonius 'might fairly plead 
excessive provocation. The quarrel was composed for a time by 
the good offices of Cardinal Seripando, who was at Bologna in 
1561, but it broke out afresh in 1562, when both the disputants 

1 De Arte sive Ratione corrigendi Antiquos Libras Disputatio, mine 
primum a me excogitata ; reprinted in the Amsterdam ed. of Scioppius, 
De Arte Critica (1672), and in Gruter's Lampas, ed. 1747, t. ii. 

2 Hallam, i 4 g6 4 . 

3 e.g. Robortelli had denied the antiquity of Roman female praenomina, 
except in the marriage formula, ubi tu Gaius, ego Gaia. Sigonius replied by 
quoting examples to the contrary from the times of the Republic. 


were professors in Padua. Robortelli's treatise De Vita et Victu 
Populi Romani was afterwards attacked by Sigonius in his 
Disputationes Patavinae, and Robortelli replied under an assumed 
name in his Ephemerides Patavinae with remarks on the personal 
peculiarities of Sigonius, which brought on him a still more 
violent attack in a second edition of the Disputationes, Happily, 
both works were suppressed by order of the State. Robortelli's 
merits, as an editor of Aeschylus, and as an intelligent expositor of 
Aristotle's treatise on Poetry, are undoubted. It is true that 
he failed to rise to the height of a great opportunity in the editio 
princeps of the treatise On the Sublime, but, five years later, he 
laid the foundation of the art of textual criticism as applied to 
Latin MSS. It would have been better for his reputation if he 
had written nothing more, for, in the department of Roman 
Antiquities, he was no match for his opponent Sigonius 1 . 

Carlo Sigone or Sigonio (c. 1524 1584) was born at Modena, 
and at Modena he died, after having held professor- 
ships at Venice (1552), Padua (1560), and Bologna 
(1563). His minor works include a Latin translation of Aristotle's 
Rhetoric (1557) and a collection of the fragments of Cicero (1559). 
All his greater productions are connected with the history and 
antiquities of Rome. In 1555, while still at Venice, he published 
his folio edition of Livy and his Fasti Consulares, with an ample 
commentary on the latter in the following year 2 . The last two 
works were the first in which accurate criticism was applied to 
the chronology of Roman history. Their author also broke new 
ground in his treatises on the legal rights of the citizens of Rome 
and the inhabitants of Italy and the Provinces (1560-7). Roman 
Antiquities are further represented in his treatises on Roman names, 
and Roman law-courts (1574), the latter work being lauded by 
Gibbon as written 'with much learning and in a classic style' 3 . 
Moreover, he traced the fortunes of Rome from the days of 
Diocletian to the end of the Western Empire in a folio volume 
consisting of twenty books, the first modern work that fully 
deserves the name of a history 4 . In another stately volume he 

1 Cp., in general, Tiraboschi vii 840-8. 

2 Both reprinted at Oxford, 1801-2. 3 c. 45 (iv 506 Bury). 
4 ffistoriarum de occidental! imperio libri xx, Bononiae, 15/8. 

144 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

had already told the story of the 'Kingdom of Italy' from the 
invasion of the Lombards (568) to 1199, and afterwards to 
1286', a work which was founded on wide research in the Italian 
archives, and has received the highest eulogy from the competent 
pen of the author's erudite biographer, Muratori 2 . He had dealt 
more briefly with the Constitution of Athens, and with the times 
of the Athenian and the Spartan supremacy (1564-5). In the 
former all the Greek authorities appear in a Latin dress, and 
hardly any Greek words occur, a fact that has been held by 
Hallam to imply a decline of Greek learning in Italy, while his 
works on the Roman government are regarded by the same writer 
as marking an epoch in that department of ancient literature 3 . 

Besides his controversy with Robortelli, he was involved in 
a discussion, conducted in a better temper on both sides, with 
Nicolas de Grouchy of Rouen, professor of Greek at Bordeaux^ 
the author of a treatise De Comitiis Romanorum (i555) 4 . Late 
in life he was engaged in a less creditable controversy with Antonio 
Riccoboni (1541 1599), who was already known as a commen- 
tator on the rhetorical works of Cicero, and as a translator of the 
Rhetoric of Aristotle 5 . In 1583 a printer in Venice produced a 
volume purporting to be the Consolatio of Cicero, liber... nunc 
primum repertus et in lucem editus 6 . It had been seen through 
the press by one Francesco Vianello. Sigonius maintained in 
two 'Orations' that it was the work of Cicero, while Riccoboni 
declared that it was spurious ; he suspected, indeed, that it was 
the work of Sigonius himself. Justus Lipsius and others agreed 
with Riccoboni, and there is no doubt that they were right. 
Sigonius did not live to publish his third 'Oratio' on the subject 

1 De Regno Italiae, Ven. 1574, etc. ; cp. Gibbon, c. 45 ad fin. 

2 Vita Sigonii, p. ix, 'insigne profecto opus et monumentorum copia, et 
splendore sermonis, et ordine narrationis, ex quo incredibilis lux facta est 
eruditioni barbarorum temporum, in ilium usque diem apud Italos tenebris 
innumeris circumfusae'. 3 i 525-6 4 . 

4 The discussion related to the question whether popular elections had to 
be confirmed by the comitia curiata ; cp. Cic. De Lege Agr. ii 26 31. 

8 His criticisms on the Rhetoric and Ethics were reprinted at Oxford as late 
as 1820-1. 

6 There were nine different editions in 1 583-4 (Orelli-Baiter, Onomasticon, 
i 377 f). It may be seen in Nobbe's Cicero, p. 1345. 


(1599). Early in 1584 he withdrew to his native town of Modena, 
where he had built himself a villa that may still be seen across the 
Secchia, two miles distant from the town. He there died in the 
same year, and was buried in the church of Sant' Agostino 1 . 

An interest in Roman antiquities was aroused in Rome itself 
by one of the earlier contemporaries of Sigonius, 

. ,. . Pantagato 

Ottavio Pantagato of Brescia (1494 1567), who 
passed the greater part of his life in Rome. His high reputation 
for learning, especially in the department of Antiquities and 
Chronology, is attested by Victorius 2 and by Paulus Manutius 3 . 

A younger contemporary of Sigonius, Onofrio Panvinio, an 
Augustinian monk of Verona (1529 11568), printed 

b ,. . Panvinio 

an edition of the fasti Consulares at Venice m 1556, 
and thus came into friendly controversy with their recent editor, 
Sigonius. Panvinio spent most of his time in Rome. During a 
visit to Sicily in 1568, he died at Palermo; he was buried at 
Rome in the church of Sant' Agostino. In the course of his 
short life, besides producing his edition of the Consular Fasti, 
he wrote on Roman names, on ludi circenses and saecnlares, on 
triumphs and sacrifices, on the books of the Sibyls and the 
portraits of the emperors. Much of his work was founded on 
his own researches in Roman inscriptions. He had collected 
nearly 3000, and formed a grand scheme for publishing all the 
inscriptions of the Roman world 4 . His collection has not been 
found, but it has been surmised that it was the same as that 
published at Antwerp by one of his companions in Rome, named 
Martin Smetius, whose work became the foundation of that of 
Janus Gruter 9 . 

During the life-time of Sigonius, the study of Cicero, but not of 

1 A complete edition of his works in six folio volumes was published at 
Milan, 1/32-7, with a Life by Muratori, and with a fine portrait as frontis- 
piece. Cp., in general, Tiraboschi, vii 831 840. 

2 Pref. to Cic. ad Alt. 

3 Epp. ii 34, ' urbem, a qua ceteri honestantur, sua ipse virtute nobilitat ' 
etc. Cp. Tiraboschi, vii 882-6. 

4 Fasti, lib. ii, ' magnum inscriptionum totius orbis opus adorno, quod 
quamprimum Deo auspice evulgabitur ; in quo omnia singillatim inscriptionum 
loca accuratissime descripta sunt '. Cp. Lanciani (it. s. p. 121), 130-2. 

6 Cp. Tiraboschi, vii 825831 ; Henzen in C./.Z. VI (i) liii ; Stark, 101. 

S. II. 10 

146 . ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

Cicero alone, was well represented by scholars bearing the Latin 
names of Nizolius, Majoragius, and Faernus. The first 


of these, whose name was Mario Nizzoli (1498 
1566), was born at Brescello in the duchy of Milan, and had already 
enjoyed for thirteen years the generous patronage of Count Gian- 
francesco Gambara of Brescia, when he published the first edition 
of his Observationes in Ciceronem, in two folio volumes (1535), with 
references to the pages of the Aldine text. This important work of 
reference was revised by Alexander Scot under the title of Apparatus 
Latinae locutionis, with references to the sections of his edition of 
the whole of Cicero (Basel, 1588). It was republished under the 
more intelligible titles, Thesaurus Ciceroniamis, and Lexicon Cicero- 
nianum. The latter was the title adopted by Facciolati in his 
edition of 1734- Later editions of this valuable work are still 
in use 1 . From 1547 to 1562 he was a professor at Parma, and 
was brought into controversy with Majoragius. The latter had 
attacked the Paradoxes of Cicero (1546) ; the attack was met by 
a friendly letter of protest on the part of Nizolius. Majoragius 
replied in an Apologia, and Nizolius retorted in an Antapologia, 
whereupon Majoragius hurled forth two books of Reprehensiones, 
and soon found himself confronted by his opponent's Anti- 
barbarus Philosophicus (i553) 2 . The author here attacks the 
scholastic terminology, which was still predominant in the study 
of the logic and metaphysics of Aristotle, and pleads for a wider 
recognition of the best authors of Greece and Rome. The 
treatise owes its reputation mainly to the fact that it was reprinted 
by Leibnitz in 1670, with a notable preface recommending the 
work as a model of philosophical language that was free from 
barbarism 3 . The controversy between Nizolius and Majoragius, 
which was waged with violence on both sides, was viewed with 
regret by the literary world of Italy, and many attempts were 
made to reconcile the disputants. Oporinus, who printed the 

1 e.g. ed. 1820 London, in three octavo vols. Sir Philip Sidney, in his 
Apologie for Poetrie (1595), p. 68 Arber, mentions ' Nizolian Paper-bookes 
of... figures and phrases'; cp. p. 150 infra, 

2 This is only the popular abridgement of the true title : De veris 
principiis et de vera ratione philosophandi contra pseudo-philosophos. 

8 Hallam, ii 17 f*. 


tracts of Majoragius at Basel, vainly intervened in a controversy 
which was only closed by the early death of that otherwise blame- 
less and meritorious scholar (1555). In 1562 the survivor, 
Nizolius, became professor at Sabbioneta, but, four years later, 
he appears to have died at the place of his birth, where a tablet 
commemorates him, not only as the ' first author of the Observa- 
tions on Cicero' (which is true), but also as 'the sole restorer of 
the Aristotelian philosophy ' (which does not appear to be in ac- 
cordance with the facts) 1 . 

His opponent, Marcantonio Majoragio, assumed that name 
in exchange for that of Maria Antonio Conti 

/ u . ik/r Majoragius 

(1514 1555). He was born at Majoragio near 
Milan, and it was at Milan that he held a professorship for the 
latter part of his short life, being only absent for a year or more, 
in 1542. At that date the war in Lombardy led to his leaving for 
Ferrara, where he attended the lectures of Maggi on philosophy, 
and those of Alciati 8 on jurisprudence. He produced a com- 
mentary on the Rhetoric of Aristotle (1547) and on the Orator 
of Cicero (1552 etc.); that on the first book of the De Oratore 
(1587) was not published until after his death. He defended 
Cicero against the attack on the De Offiriis by that versatile 
scholar and eager student of Cicero, Celio Calcagnini (1479 
1546), who had already passed away before the defence was pub- 
lished. His own attack on the Paradoxes of Cicero (1546) 
brought him (as we have seen) into a conflict with Nizolius, 
which was only closed by the early death of Majoragius 3 . 

Another student of Cicero, Gabriello Fae'rno (or Faernus) of 
Cremona (d. 1561), owed much to the favour of 


Cardinal Carlo Borromeo and to that Cardinal's 
uncle, the future Pope Pius IV. It was not until after the death 
of Faernus that the classical world of Rome welcomed the pub- 
lication of his edition of Cicero's Philippics, with the pro Fonteio, 
pro Flacco and in Pisonem (1563), and his recension of Terence 
(1565), both of which works were highly commended by Vic- 
torius 4 . His celebrated rendering of a hundred Aesopian fables 

1 Cp. Tiraboschi, vii 452, 1510-3. 

2 (1492 1550); portrait in Boissard, n 134. 

8 p. 146 supra. Cp. Tiraboschi, vii 1507-10. 4 Epp. pp. 112, 129. 

10 2 



[CENT. xvi. 


into Latin verse was similarly published by command of the Pope 


The year that preceded the death of Faernus was that of 
the arrival of Muretus in Rome. Marc-Antoine 
Muret (1526 1585), who was born at Muret 
near Limoges, studied at Poitiers, but was mainly self-taught. 
In early life he had a great admiration for the elder Scaliger, 
whom he twice visited at Agen. In 1546 he began to lecture 
at Poitiers, where he made the acquaintance of Joachim du 
Bellay, one of the brilliant group of poets known as the Pleiad. 
In the following year he was already lecturing with success at 
Bordeaux. Montaigne, who claims Muretus as one of his private 
tutors, and took part, as a boy, in his play of Julius Caesar, 

1 Tiraboschi, vii 1409-1 r. 

From Joannes Imperialis, Museum Historicum (Venice, 1640), p. no. 


describes him as recognised by France and Italy as the best 
stylist of his time 1 . In Paris he lectured on Cicero, De Divinatione, 
and on Aristotle's Ethics, his notes on the latter being printed in 
1553, his first publication on a Greek subject. Thanks to Dorat, 
himself a native of Limoges, and to Joachim du Bellay, he was 
admitted into the circle of young poets, to which Dorat and 
Ronsard then belonged. In 1553 he published his French com- 
mentary on Ronsard's Amours, and his Juvenilia, a collection of 
Latin verse, including the fine line : Pande oculos, pande stellatae 
frontis honorem*. In the midst of his gay and brilliant life among 
the poets of Paris, a cloud suddenly arose on the horizon. 
Mysterious charges of heresy and of immorality led to his 
suddenly leaving Paris for Toulouse, where he is said to have 
been condemned to death ; but one of the two entrusted with the 
execution of the sentence sent him a slip of paper inscribed with 
the Virgilian phrase, heu fuge crudeles terras ; Muretus at once 
took the hint, and was at a safe distance by the time when he was 
burnt in effigy at Toulouse. During his flight across the north of 
Italy, he fell into a fever, and, in one of the cities of Lombardy, 
found himself in the hands of certain physicians. The coarseness 
of his features, and the rustic garb of his disguise, led to his being 
mistaken for a tramp. After a consultation, one of the physicians 
said to the other in Latin : -faciamus experimentum in anima 
vili, whereupon the patient rose in his bed, and indignantly ex- 
claimed : Vilem animam appellas pro qua Christus non dedignatus 
est mori? 3 . Escaping from this second peril, he made his way 
to Venice, where he held a professorship of humanity for four 
years (1555-8). He afterwards took private pupils in Padua, and 
lived for twelve years under the patronage of the Cardinal of Este 
at Ferrara and elsewhere ; and, finally, he was a professor in 
Rome for more than twenty years (1563-84). In 1576 he was 
ordained to the priesthood, and in 1585 he died, and was buried 
near the high altar in the French church of SS. Trinita de' Monti, 
where an inscription in his own Latin prose identifies his tomb 4 . 

1 i 25, Me meilleur orateur du temps'. 

2 No. 28; Dejob, p. 35. Pattison, Essays, i 127, compares the Tennysonian 
' star-like sorrows of immortal eyes'. 

3 Colletet, ap. Dejob, 60 ; Menagiana, i 302. 4 Dejob, 367. 


At Venice, his friendship with Paulus Manutius led to his 
publishing at the Aldine Press his editions of Catullus, Horace 
and Terence, Tibullus and Propertius, the Catilinarian Orations 
of Cicero, a commentary on the first book of the Tusculan Dis- 
putations^ and the three lectures De Studiis Litterarum (1555). 
Early in 1563, on a visit to Paris in the train of the Cardinal 
of Ferrara (when he was well received by Turnebus and Dorat, 
and met the young Canter, besides coming into friendly relations 
with Amyot), he discovered a MS of Victorinus 1 , and published 
an edition of Cicero's Philippics. During his early time in Rome 
he lectured on Aristotle's Ethics, and on Roman Law. Forbidden 
to lecture on Law, he discoursed on Cicero, De Finibus, and 
on Plato's Republic. Forbidden to lecture on Plato, he took 
refuge in expounding Juvenal and Tacitus, the De Offiriis and the 
Letters of Cicero, the De Providentia of Seneca, and the Rhetoric 
and Politics of Aristotle. His translation of the first two books 
of the Rhetoric, and his commentaries on the Ethics, Oeconomics, 
Topics, Plato's Republic i, n, and his notes on Tacitus and Sallust, 
were afterwards printed. Most of his published works were closely 
connected with his lectures. Far more interesting than any of 
these were the Variae Lectiones, which appeared in three in- 
stalments, the first eight books in 1559, the next seven in 1580, 
and the last four in 1585. One of the most interesting passages 
is that in which he tells us of the trap that he laid for some of the 
ultra-Ciceronians of his day, who had a singularly sensitive ear 
for any words, which, as they supposed, had never been used by 
Cicero. To these fastidious critics the touchstone of Ciceronianism 
was the lexicon of Nizolius. When some of them were attending 
Muretus' lectures in Rome, he slyly introduced into his discourse 
some of the words which had been accidentally omitted by the 
lexicographer. The ' Ciceronians ' protested that it was simple 
torture to listen to such barbarisms ; but, when Muretus actually 
showed them his authority in the pages of Cicero, the words that 
had just before been deemed harsh and rough, at once became 
' smooth and sweet and delightful to the ear' 2 . Similarly, the 
superlative illustrissimus lay under grave suspicion, so long as it 

1 Epp. in xii. 

* Var. Lect. xv i; Harvard Lectures, i6gf. 


was supposed that the earliest authority for its use was Gellius ; 
but, as soon as it was discovered in Varro, it was no longer 
necessary to resort to the circumlocution maxime illustris^. 
Muretus was specially grateful to Cujas for bringing some of the 
old Latin words into use, ne lingua per se inops . . .magis etiam 
pauperetur 2 . 

His relations with Lambinus were perfectly satisfactory in 
1556, when Lambinus visited Muretus in Venice ; but an 
estrangement arose in 1559, when Muretus published in his 
Variae Lectiones some emendations, which he had borrowed, 
without leave, from Lambinus. The final and irreparable breach 
ensued two years later, when Lambinus published his corre- 
spondence with Muretus, regardless of the damage that was thus 
inflicted on the good name of the latter. Muretus, who had 
plagiarised from Lambinus, held that he had himself been similarly 
treated by Lipsius, in his edition of Tacitus, but he states his 
grievance in the most courteous terms 3 . Nevertheless the work 
of Lipsius on Tacitus, like that of Lambinus on Horace, is 
superior to any single edition published by Muretus. Scaliger says 
more than once that Muretus thoroughly understood Aristotle's 
Rhetoric; he adds that Muretus was a very great man, that he 
satirised the Ciceronians and at the same time expressed himself 
in a thoroughly Ciceronian style, without confining himself to that 
style, like the rest 4 . As an imitator of Cicero, he was more 
successful than the younger Pliny, or than Paulus Manutius. 
Nature (says Ruhnken) had given him the same genius as Cicero 5 . 
He was long regarded as a classic model for modern Latin prose. 
But he was himself fully conscious of the importance of Greek. 
In his inaugural lecture on Plato, he defended the teaching of 
Greek against the unintelligent protests of the day, and clearly 
pointed out the probable results of a neglect of that study. ' All 
that was lofty in thought' (he declared) 'was enshrined in the 
literature of Greece ' 6 . During the twenty years, in which he 

1 Var. Lect. xv. i; Harvard Lectures, 169 f. 

2 Var. Lect. xi 17 ; paupero itself is only found in Flautus. 

3 Var. Lect. xi i. 4 Scaligerana Sec. 

5 Mureti Opera, IV iii, ed. Ruhnken. Cp. Hallam, i 5O4 4 . 

6 Or, \\ iv (i 236 Ruhnken), ' Omnem elegantem doctrinam, omnem 

152 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

lectured under no small difficulties and restrictions in Rome, 
he foresaw the decline of learning in Italy and made every effort 
to arrest it 1 . 

Muretus had been forbidden to continue his lectures on Plato. 
It was not until seven years after his death that the 

Patrizzi . . ... 

prominent Platonist, Francesco Patnzzi (1529 
1597), was invited to hold a professorship in Rome. This original 
and versatile genius was at once a philosopher, mathematician, 
historian, soldier, orator, and poet. Born on an island between 
Istria and Dalmatia, he was educated from an early age at Padua, 
where he became the pupil and the friend of Robortelli. In 
1553 he published a discourse on the different kinds of poetic 
inspiration, followed, in 1561, by his dialogues on history. After 
living abroad in Cyprus, France and Spain, he produced the four 
volumes of his Discussiones Peripateticae (1571-81), in which he 
criticises the life of Aristotle, declaring many of his writings to 
be spurious and violently attacking his opinions. During a second 
visit to Spain he parted with several of his Greek MSS, which are 
now in the Library of the Escurial 2 . He subsequently spent 
fourteen years at Ferrara under the patronage of duke Alfonso II. 
It was during this time that he published his remarkable work 
Delia Poetica (1586), in which he once more opposes Aristotle. 
In the historical division of this work he declines to follow 
Aristotle in founding the type of the various forms of poetry on a 
few great works. He surveys the history of literature as a whole, 
and thus produces the first attempt in modern times to study 

cognitionem dignam hominis ingenui studio, uno verbo quicquid usquam est 
politiorum disciplinarum, nullis aliis quam Graecorum libris ac litteris contineri'. 
' Praedicere possumus, si homines nostri paulo magis Graecas litteras negligere 
coeperint, omnibus bonis artibus certissimam pestem ac perniciem imminere'. 

1 Dejob, 375. On Muretus, cp. Dejob, Marc-Antoine Miiret, pp. 496 
(1881), and the literature there quoted (reviewed in Pattison's Essays, i 124 
131). Opera, four vols., ed. Ruhnken (1789) ; Epistolae, Prae/ationes, Orationes, 
three vols., ed. Frotscher (1834-41); Scripta Selecta, two parts, ed. Frey 
(1871-3). Portrait in his Juvenilia (1553), also in Phil. Galleus, Effigies, ii 
(1577) 12 ; Boissard's /cones, vin /// 2; in Ruhnken's ed. vol. i, and Joannes 
Imperialis, Museum Historicum (Ven. 1640), p. no, reproduced on p. 148. 
Cp. also De Nolhac, La bibliotheque d'un humanists au -xvi e s. (Rome, 1883). 

2 Proclus, Libanius, Plotinus, etc. (Graux, Fonds grec de f Escurial, 127-9). 


literary history in a broad as well as a philosophic spirit. In the 
controversial division he attacks the Treatise on Poetry, denouncing 
its teaching as ' obscure, inconsistent and entirely unworthy of 
credence }l . As a literary critic he is two centuries in advance of 
his time 2 . In his Nnova Philosophia of 1591 he combined the 
opinions of Plato with the teaching of Bernardino Telesio of 
Cosenza (1508 1588), who united a keen appreciation of the 
prae-Socratic natural philosophers with an eager insistence on the 
importance of the direct investigation of nature. The work was 
dedicated to Gregory XIV, formerly his fellow-student at Padua. 
That Pope's successor, Clement VIII, soon invited him to Rome, 
where he was professor of Platonic philosophy till his death 
in I597 3 . 

His contemporary, the enthusiastic scholar and antiquarian, 
Fulvio Orsini (1^29 1600), who was probably the 

x J . . ' ' . . Fulvio Orsini 

natural son of a condottiere named Maerbale Orsini, 
was originally a chorister and ultimately a canon of the church of 
St John Lateran. For his interest in Greek and Latin and his 
taste for the study of Roman antiquities he was mainly indebted 
to a canon of the Lateran church, Gentile Delfini, and to the 
president of the Roman Academy, Angelo Colocci. When the 
Roman Fasti were discovered in the Forum (1546-7) it was 
Delfini who was entrusted by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese with 
the duty of placing them in the Palace of the Conservatori on 
the Capitol. On the death of Delfini (1559), Orsini became 
librarian to three of the Farnese cardinals in succession, and 
devoted himself to the formation of a large collection of 
manuscripts and printed books, as well as busts and gems and 
Latin inscriptions. He was the centre of classical and antiquarian 
interests in Rome, and there was hardly any edition of a Latin 
author published in his time to which he did not contribute 
readings from his store of MSS. He was thus brought into 
relations with many of the leading scholars in Italy and in other 
parts of Europe. Among his independent works were Greek illus- 
trations of Virgil (1567), and selections from the Greek lyric poets 
(1568), as well as an important work on iconography entitled 

1 Spingarn, 165 f. 2 Saintsbury, ii 95 102. 

3 Cp. Tiraboschi, vii (i) 458-66; Hallam, ii 6 f . 

154 ITALY. [CENT, xvi. 

Imagines et Elogia (1570), and textual notes on the whole of Cicero 
(1579 f). He was also in various ways associated with Antonio 
Agostino 1 in his own work on Roman Families (1577), in his Festus 
(1581), in his editio princeps of the excerpts from Polybius, which he 
received from his friend the archbishop of Tarragona (1582), and 
in his latest work, the fragments of the Roman historians (1595). 
He bequeathed his important collection of MSS to the Vatican 
Library, which thus became possessed of many treasures of the 
highest value, including the celebrated MSS of Pindar, Terence 
and Virgil, which had once belonged to Cardinal Bembo. He 
was buried at the foot of the altar of the chapel, which he founded 
near the entrance to the sacristry of the Lateran church. He has 
been justly eulogised by Baronius as rerum antiquarum soller- 
tissimus exploralor^. 

The briefest mention must suffice for the classical archaeologists, Barto- 

lommeo Marliani of Milan, who produced in 1 544 the second 

Archaeologists edition of his antiquae itrbis Romanae topographia; Pirro 

Marliani Ligorio (d. c. 1586), who published a work on the Antiquities 

Panciroli of Rome in 1553, and left a vast collection of copies of Latin 

inscriptions 3 and ancient monuments 4 ; Guido Panciroli (1523- 

99), a professor of law at Padua, whose Descriptio Urbis Romae appeared in 

*593 5 > Ulisse Aldrovandi 6 , who printed in Venice a brief but important account 

of the ancient statues in Rome (1556); Joannes Baptista de Cavaleriis, who 

1 p. 160 infra. 

2 Ann. Eccl. 324 A.D. See also the eulogy by De Thou, ap. Tiraboschi, 
vii 246, Blount, Censura, 553, and esp. De Nolhac, La bibliotheque de Fttlvto 
Orsini (1887), 489 pp., with plate of autographs of Petrarch, Poggio, Pomponius 
Laetus, Politian and J. Lascaris etc. 

3 Many of these are spurious: cp. C. I. L. VI (i) li, (5) 19* 213*; Pref. to 
IX x xlviii. Under the name of Annius of Viterbo, the Dominican Giovanni 
Nanni (1432 1501) had already published in Rome in 1498 the 'Commen- 
taria supra opera diversorum auctorum de Antiquitatibus loquentium confecta', 
including passages purporting to be the remains of Berosus, Manetho, Megas- 
thenes, Fabius Pictor, and Cato, the genuineness of which was doubted by 
Sabellicus (d. 1506), Crinitus (d. 1504), and Raphael Maffei of Volterra 
(d. 1521), and has since been vainly defended by A. Florchen (Hildes. 1759) 
and G. B. Favre (Viterbo, 1779). Cp. Tiraboschi, vi 666 f, Hallam, i 240"*, 
and R. C. Christie's Selected Essays, 59 f. 

4 Tiraboschi, vii 880-2 ; Stark, 103. His collection was preserved at Turin 
and Naples. There is a single vol. in the Bodleian. 

6 Tiraboschi, vii 794-8. 

6 Portrait in Bullart's Academic (Paris, 1682), ii 109. 


published reproductions of the buildings in 1569, and of the statues in 1584 
and 1594; Antonio Lafreri, who produced more than 100 engravings of old 
Rome in his Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae (I575) 1 ; and, lastly, Flaminio 
Vacca, who in 1 594 wrote a careful account of the Roman Antiquities discovered 
in his day, and thus closed with a work of high merit the archaeological pro- 
ductions of the sixteenth century 2 . 

During the latter half of the century the influence of the In- 
quisition and the Index was distinctly unfavourable 
to classical scholarship 3 . The scholar and poet, p^^rto 
Aonio Paleario (1504 157), denounces the Index 
as 'a dagger drawn from the scabbard to assassinate letters' 4 . He 
laments that 'the study of the liberal arts is deserted, the young 
men wanton in idleness and wander about the public squares' 5 . 
He complains that ' a professor was no better than a donkey 
working in a mill ; nothing remained for him but to dole out 
commonplaces, avoiding every point of contact between the 
authors he interpreted and the burning questions of modern 
life' 6 . Paleario is well known as the author of the Latin poem 
On the Immortality of the Soul 7 , an uneven work modelled partly 
on Lucretius 8 . After holding a professorship of eloquence at 
Lucca, he succeeded Majoragius as professor at Milan in 1555. 
Fifteen years later he was accused of heresy, and died a martyr's 
death in Rome 9 . 

The influence of the Greek and Latin drama on the Italian 
literature of the sixteenth century may readily be 
traced in the translations, or imitations, of Sophocles, ^"classics 
Euripides, and Seneca 10 , as well as of Plautus and 

1 Stark, 102. 2 id. 100. 

3 Cp. Charles Dejob, Sur f Influence du Concile de Trente, 49 80, 99 
102; Symonds, vi 219 237. 

4 Oratio pro se ipso (Lyons, 1552), 'sica districta in omnes scriptores' 
(Symonds, vi 212). 5 Camb. Mod. Hist, iii 465. 

6 Symonds, vi 230. 

7 Sel. Poem. Ital. i 211 270; cp. Symonds, ii 497 n. i. 

8 Cp. J. C. Scaliger, Poet. 796, ed. 1586. 

9 Cp. Tiraboschi, vii 1452-6. Of the treatise On the Benefits of Christ's 
Death, ascribed to Aonio Paleario, 40,000 copies were printed ; among the very 
few that survive are two in Italian and one in French in the Library of St 
John's College, Cambridge. It was really written by Don Benedetto, a follower 
of Flaminio ; Lanciani (u. s. p. 121), 208 f. 

10 Gaspary, Ital. Lit. ii c. 29. 

156 ITALY. [CENT. xvi. 

Terence 1 . The representation of plays of Plautus had been 
begun in Rome by Pomponius Laetus, and was continued at 
the brilliant court of Ferrara towards the close of the fifteenth 
century. It was Ferrara also that saw the performance in 1508 of 
the first comedy written in Italian, the Cassaria of Ariosto, a 
play of a Plautine type, which had been composed ten years 
previously. The author, in adopting the new language, pays in 
the prologue an interesting compliment to the old : 

' E ver che ne volgar prosa ne rima 
Ha paragon con prose antique o versi 
Ne pari e 1'eloquenza a quella prima '. 

Another early Italian comedy, the Calandria of Cardinal 
Bibbiena (first performed at Urbino in or before 1510), is founded 
on the Menaechmi, and similarly the Mercator, Aulularia and 
Mostellaria are imitated by Machiavelli in the two plays which 
he produced in 1536. But the practice of performing Latin plays, 
or Italian translations of them, was by no means superseded by 
these and other imitations of Latin originals. After the middle 
of the century we find a performance of the Phormio of Terence, 
the prologue of which was, on this occasion, written by Muretus 2 . 

The influence of Virgil may most readily be traced in Tasso, 
whose Christian epic abounds in reminiscences of the pagan 
poet. In some of the more exalted passages a certain incongruity 
has been noticed in these reminiscences. For example, the 
Crusaders at an impressive and tragic moment are allowed to 
lapse into an obvious translation from the dying words of Dido : 
' Noi morirem, ma non morremo inulti'. All such incongruity 
vanishes, however, in the beautiful renderings of the similes and 
the battle-scenes. Tasso's models also include Lucretius and 
Lucan 3 . 

1 Gaspary, Ital. Lit. ii c. 30. 

2 Tiraboschi, vii 1302. Cp., in general, Vincenzo De Amicis, Z' Imitazione 
Latina nella Commedia Italian a del xvi secolo, ed. 1897. 

3 See Symonds, vii 102-6. 



IN tracing the influence of humanism beyond the bounds of 
Italy, we shall begin with the Latin nations, and 


with the Iberian peninsula. In Spain we find no 
proof of any influence on the part of Petrarch, while there are 
several points of contact with Poggio 1 . Again, the Spanish noble- 
man, Nugno Gusmano, who visited Italy during the Council of 
Florence, returned with Italian renderings of the Tusculan Disputa- 
tions and De Oratore of Cicero, the Declamations of Quintilian and 
the Saturnalia of Macrobius 2 . Among early scholars in Spain, a 
pupil of Politian, Arias Barbosa, taught Greek at Salamanca ; and 
Antonio of Lebrixa, commonly called Nebrissensis 

. . . Nebrissensis 

(1444 1522), after spending twenty years in Italy, 
returned in 1473 to lecture at Seville, Salamanca and Alcala, and 
to publish Grammars of Latin and Greek, as well as Hebrew 3 . 
His Introductiones Latinae was the first Latin Grammar of note in 
Spain 4 . The first classical book printed in Spain was Sallust 
(Valencia, 1475). A College was founded at Alcala by Cardinal 
Ximenes (1437 1517), but the Greek Testament, there completed 
and printed early in 1514 as the fifth volume of the 'Complu- 
tensian Polyglott' (two years before that of Erasmus), was not 
licensed for publication until 1520 and was not seen by Erasmus 
until 1522. The Cardinal had died five years before, and the 
issue of this important work was not followed by any public 
patronage of Greek studies in Spain. The knowledge of Greek 

1 Voigt, ii 357 3 . 

2 Vespasiano, Vile, 520; cp. Snbbadini's ScoperU, 195. 

3 McCrie's Reformation in Spain (Hallam, i I73 3 ). 

4 A. Merrill, in Prof. Atner. Phil. Assoc. XXI (1870) xxiii f. 

158 SPAIN. [CENT. xvi. 

was confined to a very select class, who learned the language, not 
for its own sake, but to aid them in their other studies. By the 
compact concluded by Charles V and Clement VII at Bologna in 
1530, Spain was pledged to a reactionary policy in Italy, and the 
Revival of Learning was checked in both countries. However, in 
the latter half of the fifteenth and the first half of the sixteenth 
century Spanish scholars who visited Italy brought back with them 
a certain interest in Greek authors. Pincianus, Cardinal Ximenes, 
and Francesco de Mendoza, Cardinal of Burgos, had thus imported 
Greek MSS and texts; and these volumes were accessible to scholars, 
while their owners lived, and passed into public libraries on their 
death 1 . In 1548 Aristotle's Politics was translated into Latin by 
the Spanish scholar Sepiilveda, but the translation was printed in 
Paris. In 1555 Dioscorides was translated into Spanish by 
Andrea Laguna, a physician of Valencia, who, with the aid of 
an ancient MS, corrected the text in more than 700 places 2 . 
Among the pupils of Barbosa and Lebrixa, we find Fernan 
Nunez de Guzman (1471 1552), also known as 


Nonius Pincianus (from Pmtia, the ancient name of 

Valladolid). He taught Greek at Alcala and Salamanca. At 

Alcala in 1519 he published interlinear Latin renderings of Basil's 

tract on the study of Greek literature, and of the ' Helen and 

Alexander' of Demetrius Moschus 3 . He annotated the margins 

of his MS of twelve unpublished discourses of Themistius, but he 

never published any edition. That honour was reserved for 

France and the Netherlands 4 . In 1536, however, he produced an 

edition of Seneca that earned the praise of Lipsius 5 , and, in 1544, 

a series of able emendations of Pliny's Natural History, which 

were completely reproduced in the edition of Commelin (1593) 6 . 

Vives, a native of Valencia (1492 1540), spent a large part 

of his active life in the Spanish Netherlands 7 ; and, 

conversely, Nicolaus Clenardus, or Cleynaerts, a 

native of Brabant (1495 1542), taught Latin in Spain at Braga 

1 Graux, Essai sur les origines des fonds grecs de FEscurial (Bibl. de V Ecole 
des hautes etudes, XLVi), xxxi + 5^9 pp. (1880). 

2 Graux, 98. 3 Graux, 9 f. 

4 Graux, 21. B Hallam, i 335*. 

6 Cp. Graux, 9 n. 7 chap, xiv infra. 


and Granada, publishing an excellent Greek Grammar (Louvain, 
I 53)> which was widely used and frequently reprinted 1 . The 
Greek Grammar of Clenardus was, however, surpassed by that of 
Francisco Vergara (c. 1484 1545), a work produced 
in I537 2 , and fully appreciated by Scaliger 3 , who 
added that the best parts had been borrowed by Canini. Half 
a century later, Francisco Sanchez of Brozas, com- 
monly called Franciscus Sanctius Brocensis (1523 
1601), professor of Greek at Salamanca in 1554, won a high 
reputation by a celebrated text-book on Latin Syntax, called 
Minerva, seu de causis linguae Latinae Commentarius (1587). 

Sanctius owed much to the elder Scaliger's work De linguae Latinae 
causis. While he constantly cites the ancient and modern grammarians, he 
nevertheless regards them with a scorn that is almost ludicrous. He is led 
astray by comparing Latin with Hebrew and Arabic. He insists on a rigid 
uniformity in Latin Grammar. Rules were to have no exceptions ; every word 
was to have one construction only. The author constantly takes refuge in 
'ellipse', when he is confronted by any syntactical difficulty. But the 
ultimate success of his Minerva was unbounded. He was regarded by Haase 
as having done more for Latin Grammar than any of his predecessors, and 
Sir William Hamilton even held that the study of Minerva, with the notes of 
the editors, was more profitable than that of Newton's Principia. The peculiar 
and uncommon constructions that are here collected doubtless make the book 
useful as a work of reference. It is at any rate written in good Latin. The 
author shows a familiarity with the whole range of Latin literature, as well as 
with Aristotle and Plato. He edited Virgil's Bucolics and Horace's Ars 
Poetica, with Persius, the Ibis of ' Ovid ', the Gryphus of Ausonius, and the 
Sylvan of Politian 4 . 

A contemporary of 'Sanctius', named Pedro Juan Nunez, or 
Nunnesius, of Valencia, who studied in Paris, and 

r r /-i i *_ -n i / i /- \ Nunnesius 

was professor of Greek at Barcelona (d. 1602), is 

best remembered as an editor of Phrynichus (i58o) 5 . He was 

also the author of an interesting little Greek Grammar (1590), 

1 Hallam, i 33O 4 ; R. C. Christie's Selected Essays, 92 123. 
" Paris, Morel, 1557, 'ad Complutensem ed. excusum et restitutum ', 
438 pp., including 100 on Syntax. 

3 Scaligerana Sec.', Hallam, i 493. 

4 A. Merrill, /. c. 

5 Described in Lobeck's ed., p. Ixxv, as ' non indoctus sane, ut ilia erant 
tempora ' ; and his notes as ' philologiae sibi proludentis crepundia '. 

160 SPAIN. [CENT. xvi. 

which differs little from those now used in schools 1 . We are sorry 
to add that the great Greek Thesaurus of H. Stephanus was not 
appreciated 2 either by Nunnesius or by the eminent scholar who 
will next engage our attention. 

Archaeological studies were well represented in Antonio 
Agostino of Saragossa (1517 1586), who was 
educated at Salamanca, and (under Alciati) at 
Bologna, where he continued the study of law, combining with 
it the study of Greek, which was then a somewhat rare accom- 
plishment. He taught law at Padua, and at Florence, where he 
questioned the accuracy of Politian's collation of the famous MS 
of the Pandects 3 . He studied MSS, inscriptions, and ancient 
monuments in Rome, where he was a member of the papal 
tribunal (1544-54), while he was in constant communication 
with the scholars of the time, and rejoiced in the old associations 
of the eternal city 4 . In 1554 he published at Rome an edition 
of Varro, De Lingua Latina, in which he followed the interpolated 
MSS and banished every archaism from the text, a process that met 
with protests from Turnebus and Scaliger. In 1559 he was more 
successful in editing certain fragments of Verrius Flaccus, and 
Festus, making good use of the Farnese MS at Naples, and intro- 
ducing many corrections 5 . After holding the see of Lerida, he 
became archbishop of Tarragona for the last ten years of his life 
(1576-86). In 1583 he published a treatise on Roman laws and 
Senatus consulta, which was twice reprinted before the end of the 
century. His masterpiece in classical archaeology was his book 
of dialogues on coins, inscriptions and other antiquities, posthu- 
mously published in 1587, and subsequently translated into Latin 6 . 

He breathes the spirit of the Italian humanists when he writes 
with rapture to his Roman friend Orsini, telling him of the 

1 Rutherford's New Phrynichtis, 504. 2 Graiix, 16, 17. 

3 p. 84 supra. 

4 Andreas Schott, laudatio funebris, ' vixit jucunde in hac urbe propter 
antiquitatis Romanae impressa vestigia, theatrum circum titulos nummos et 
inscriptiones, quibus referta urbs est, ut et moenia omnia Romane loqui 
videantur ' (Stark, 106). 

6 K. O. Miiller, pref. to Festus, p. xxxvi. 

6 By Andreas Schott (1617); cp. Stark, 106 ; De Nolhac, La bibliothtque 
de Fulvio Orsmi, 43 48. 


discovery of the Excerpts on Legations from the Encyclopaedia 
of Constantius Porphyrogenitus : 

Somewhere in Spain a Greek MS has been found containing the fairest 
fragments of the ancient historians. I have a large part of them in my hands at 
the present moment, while the rest are being promptly copied. If they were 
pearls or rubies or diamonds, they could not be more precious. The most 
ancient of these belong to Polybius...! have also in my hands some beautiful 
fragments of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, fragments as lucid as crystal, and 
well-nigh as bright as the stars 1 . 

The MS that aroused this enthusiasm was the gem of the 
collection of Greek MSS belonging to Juan Paez de Castro, the 
chaplain of Philip II, who had addressed to the king, in the 
early part of his reign, a memoir 'on the utility of founding a good 
library '. The monastery of the Escurial, near Madrid, was built 
in 1563-84; the library was founded in 1566-87, and this MS 
formed part of its treasures, but the text was not published by 
any Spanish scholar 2 . The MS was more than once transcribed 
by the Greek copyist Darmarius ; and the transcripts made by the 
latter were the source of the editions of Orsini in 1582 and of 
Hoeschel in 1603, and of the fragments in Casaubon's Polybius 
(1609). The original, and one of the transcripts, perished in the 
Escurial in the disastrous fire of 1671; but another of the 
transcripts still survives in that library 3 . 

The study of Roman Antiquities and Latin texts was mean- 
while represented by a modest and industrious 

. Ciacconius 

scholar named Pedro Chacon, Petrus Ciacconius of 
Toledo (1525 1581), who was employed by Gregory XIII on 
learned researches in Rome and was called the Varro of his age. 
His antiquarian treatises were published after his death, and were 
partially reprinted in the Thesaurus of Graevius. He is cele- 
brated for his works on the Roman triclinium and on the columna 
rostrata of Duilius. His namesake Alfonso Chacon (1540 1599), 
a native of Granada, who died in Rome, wrote a treatise on the 
Column of Trajan, and left behind him many drawings of Roman 

1 Letter to Fulvio Orsini, from Lerida, 26 Sept. 1574, in Antonii Augnstini 
opera, vii 256, ed. Lucca; Graux, 15, 93 97. 

2 Graux, 20. 3 Graux, 95 97. 

S. II. II 


The Jesuit, Juan Luigi de la Cerda of Toledo (c. 1560 1643), 
produced at Madrid in three folio volumes an edition 
of Virgil (1608-17), reprinted in Lyons and Cologne. 
The only other names that need here be noted are those of the 
historian Enrique Florez (16931773), and the expert in numis- 
matics and epigraphy, Francesco Perez Bayer (1711 I794) 1 - 

Among the public institutions of Spain the Library founded by 
Philip II at the Monastery of the Escurial between 1566 and 1587 
is celebrated for its Greek Mss 2 . The monastery is a vast and 
lonely palace amid the mountains north of Madrid. The collection 
formed by Mendoza (1503 1575), the envoy of Charles V in 
Venice, was acquired for the Library in I576 3 , and that of Antonio 
Agostino in 1587*; but a large number of the MSS were destroyed 
by the fire of 1671 5 . The classical MSS in the Biblioteca National 
at Madrid include the collection made by another Mendoza (i 508 - 
'1:566), the cardinal bishop of Burgos 6 . They also include the 
Greek MSS of Constantine Lascaris 7 , and several important Latin 
MSS formerly belonging to Poggio, (i) Manilius and the Silvae of 
Statius, and (2) Asconius and Valerius Flaccus, (i) having been 
copied by a scribe in his employ, and (2) by Poggio himself 8 . 
The MSS of Poggio and Lascaris are an interesting link between 
Spain and Italy. 

Portugal, as well as Spain, took a keener interest than France 
in the works of Poggio, who wrote a letter congratu- 

Portugal .... T i i 

latmg Prince Henry the Navigator on his exploration 

of 'Ocean's utmost shores' 9 . The restoration of learning in that 

country is ascribed to the historian and poet, 

Resende , . . . , .. 

Resende (1498 1573), who was instructed in Greek 
by Barbosa and Lebrixa, published his Latin Grammar in 1540, 
and taught at Lisbon and Evora. He there counted among his 

1 C. I. L. ii p. xxi. 2 Miller, Catalogue (Paris, 1848). 

8 Graux, 163 f. 4 il>. 280 f. 

6 ib. 32of. 6 ib. 60 f. 

7 Included in catalogue by Iriarte, Madrid, 1769; cp. Graux, Rapport, 
1878, p. 124; and p. 77 supra. 

8 A. C. Clark in Cl. Rev. xiii 119 f. These MSS formerly belonged to the 
Conde del Miranda. For a facsimile from Poggio's Valerius Flaccus, see 
p. 24 supra. 

9 Epp. ix 35 (1448-9); Voigt, ii 357 3 f. 


pupils Achille Esta9O, or 'Achilles Statius' (1524 1581), who 

afterwards won a high reputation in Rome, not 

only by a work on ancient portraits (1569), but statius 8 

also by studies on the viri illustres of Suetonius, 

which were highly praised by Casaubon 1 . The Portuguese bishop, 

Jeronymo Osorio (1506 1-580), who was educated 

at Salamanca, Paris, and Bologna, has been described 

by Dupin as the Cicero of Portugal 2 . He owes his reputation as 

a Latinist to his treatise on Glory and to his History of the reign of 

Emanuel, but Bacon has severely said of him that his vein was 

weak and waterish 3 . The Jesuit, Emanuel Alvarez 

of Lisbon (1526 1583), produced in 1572 a Latin 

Grammar, which has been extolled as the first in which the 

fancies of the ancient grammarians were laid aside 4 . It was the 

text-book in all the Jesuit schools, and has often been reprinted, 

the latest edition being that of Paris in 1879. 

1 ' Statius' commented on the Ars Poetica of Horace (1553) and on Catullus 
and Tibullus (1566-7), after he had already been associated with Muretus' 
edition of Propertius (1558). 

2 Niceron, ed. Baumgarten, vol. ii 308. 

3 'The flowing and watery vein of Osorius' (Advancement of Learning, I 
iv 2 p. 29 Aldis Wright); cp. Ascham's Scholernaster, no, 129 131, 233, 
239, ed. Mayor; and Hallam, i 5O7 4 . Opera in 4 folio vols. 1592. 

4 Morhof, i 831, ed. 1747. 


From the engraving in Andre Thevet, Portraits et vies des hommes illustres 
(Paris, 1584), p. 551. Cp. p. \ioiinfra. 


FRANCE FROM 1360 TO 1600. 

IN France, where the early stages in the Revival of Learning 
were mainly marked by Italian influence, the chief centres of 
intellectual life were the Royal Court, and the University of Paris. 
Petrarch, who was unfamiliar with French, and consequently 
never felt quite at home in Paris, wrote a letter in 1367 con- 
gratulating Urban V on exchanging Avignon for Rome. He there 
praises Italy at the expense of France, and even describes the 
French as a barbarous people 1 . The letter naturally aroused the 
indignation of a champion of France identified as Jean de Hesdin, 
who in his reply gives proof of his familiarity with the Latin 
Classics in general and with the historians in particular 2 . 

Among the constant companions of Petrarch during the three 
months that he spent in Paris in 1361, was Pierre 


Bersuire (d. 1362), the French priest who trans- 
lated for king John the Good all the books of Livy that were 
then known. Under that king's son, Charles the ' Wise ' (who was 
familiar with Latin), Sallust, Suetonius, Seneca, Vegetius, with 
Lucan and parts of Ovid, were translated into French. A French 
rendering of the Latin translation of the Politics, Economics, and 
Ethics of Aristotle was produced by Nicole Oresme 
(d. 1382), chaplain to the king, and dean of Rouen, 
who, after his promotion to the bishopric of Lisieux, produced 
a translation of Aristotle De Cae/o 3 . As a translator, he intro- 
duced into French a large number of words of Greek origin, 
which were then new, such as aristocratic, democratic, oligarchic, 

1 Epp. Sen. ix i. 2 Voigt, ii 333 :i f. 

3 Fr. Meunier, Essai (1857) 84 117. 

i66 FRANCE. [CENT. xv. 

demagogue and sophiste, and even mttaphore, poete and fobne' 1 . 
While Oresme belongs in spirit to the Middle Ages, a certain 
sympathy with the Revival of Learning is shown by Laurent de 
Premierfait, a priest of Troyes, who died in Paris in 1418. He 
translated the De Senectute and the De Amidtia of Cicero for 
an uncle of Charles the 'Wise' 2 . 

The library of king Charles included Lucan, Boethius, por- 
tions of Ovid and Seneca, Latin translations of Plato's Timaeus, 
and of parts of Aristotle, with French translations from Aristotle, 
Valerius Maximus 3 , Sallust and Vegetius. 'Virgil is conspicuously 
absent' 4 . But Virgil's Eclogues (as well as Pliny and Terence) 
were to be found in the library of the king's brother, John, duke 
of Berry 5 . 

The influence of the University is exemplified in the text- 
books prescribed for the academic course. In the fourteenth 
century they included authors such as Virgil, Ovid, Juvenal, 
Terence, with Sallust and Livy, as well as Cicero, Seneca and 
Quintilian 6 . Of the two foremost representatives of the Uni- 
versity, Pierre d'Ailly (d. 1425) and Jean Charlier de Gerson 
(d. 1429), the latter was far more familiar with classical authors, 
his speeches and sermons including quotations from Virgil and 
Terence, Horace and Statius, Cicero and Seneca, as well as 
Caesar, Sallust, Livy, Suetonius and Valerius Maximus. But 
his Latin style is obscure, and teems with Gallicisms and with 
scholastic terminology 7 . 

The earliest genuine humanist in France was Jean de Mon- 

treuil (1354 1418), secretary to the Pope and the 

Montrexiii Dauphin, as well as to the dukes of Burgundy and 

Orleans, and ultimately chancellor to Charles VI. 

He regarded Petrarch as the most famous of moral philosophers ; 

1 Fr. Meunier, I.e. ; Egger, Hellenisms en France, i 128 f; Voigt, ii 339 s f. 

2 Voigt, ii 34O 3 . 

3 The translation begun by Simon de Hesdin for Charles the 'Wise' 
(1375), and completed by Nicolas de Gonesse for John, duke of Berry (1401), 
was adorned with fine miniatures by Jean Fouquet (c. 1475) for Philippe de 
Comines (reproduced from two Harleian MSS in 1907). 

4 Cp. Delisle, Cabinet des MSS, i 18 46, iii 115170, 335 f, quoted in 
Tilley's Essay on the preludes of the French Renaissance (1885), 139. 

5 Tilley, I.e. 1391". 6 Voigt, ii 342*. 7 ~ib. ii 343 3 f. 


he had a special admiration for the Remedia Utriusque Fortunae, 
but his model in Latin style was Salutati, 'the father of Latin 
eloquence'. As envoy of his king in 1412, he spent some time 
in Rome, where Leonardo Bruni gave him an introduction to 
Niccoli in Florence. He thus obtained transcripts of plays of 
Plautus and certain books of Livy, with Varro De Re Rustica, 
being apparently the first Frenchman who derived classical learning 
from Italy. In his letters he is fond of quoting Virgil and Terence, 
with Cicero, Sallust and Seneca ; he is the first in France to follow 
the example of Petrarch in adopting the classical second person 
singular, instead of the plural, in addressing Popes and Princes ; 
he even urges the Pope to imitate the actions recorded in the 
ancient history of Rome 1 . Among his most intimate friends was 
Nicolas de Clemanges 2 (1360 c. 1440), who taught the rhetoric 
of Cicero and Aristotle in the schools of Paris, and was an eager 
student of the Latin Classics, especially Quintilian and Cicero, 
from whose speeches (he assures us) he learnt many more lessons 
in eloquence than from his rhetorical works 3 . He spent some 
twelve years at Avignon as the only humanist among the papal 
secretaries, was made a Canon of Langres, and late in life 
resumed his lectures on Rhetoric in Paris. Among the Classics 
familiar to him were several that were then imperfectly known in 
Italy, such as Persius, Cicero, De Oratore and Pro Arc/iia, and 
the Letters Ad Familiares*. 

The Revival of Learning in France was promoted by the 
introduction of printing. In 1470 Michael Freyburger of Colmar, 
Ulrich Gering of Constance, and Martin Crantz, were invited by 
Guillaume Fichet and Jean Heynlyn to set up a press in the 
precincts of the Sorbonne. The first book printed in France by 
these German printers was the work of an Italian humanist, 
the model Letters of Gasparino da Barzizza 5 . The prefatory 
epistle, with its reference to Heynlyn as 'prior' and Fichet as 

1 Ep. 19 in Epp. Set., Martene and Durand, Vet. Script, et J\fon, Am- 
plissima. Cvllectio, Paris, 1724, ii 1311 1465; Voigt, ii 344-9^. Eight new 
letters in A. Thomas, De Joannis de Monsterolio vita et oferibus, Paris, 

2 Or Clamanges. 3 Ep, 43. 

Voigt, ii 349 355 3 . 5 p. 23 supra. 

168 FRANCE. [CENT. xv. 

'doctor', determines the date as 1470. In the next year the 
editio princeps of Florus was produced by the same printers ; their 
Sallust (1471) was soon followed by Terence, and by Virgil's 
Eclogues and Georgics, Juvenal and Persius, Cicero, De Oratore, 
Tusculan Disputations and De Officiis (1472), and Valerius 
Maximus '. 

ne ab onibus te defertu efte iudiccs/ ego 
(quern forte in numero amicoy no habe/ 
bas)polliceot tibt opera mca* d(qd illi 
non fine fcelere negkxerut)ego paratus 
fum defenfione tuam fufciperc Tu uero 
admonebts/quibus adiumentis opus tibt 
fitd ego nec| pecunWnecg confilio tibi 
deero t Vale ; 

Foeltx Eptay Gafpatint f bis; 


The first book printed in France (1470); part of facsimile in British 
Museum Guide to the King's Library (1901), p. 40. 

The study of Greek was slow in making its way in France. 

The Council of Vienne (1311) had decreed the appointment of two 

Lecturers in Greek, as well as Hebrew, in the University of Paris, 

no less than in those of Bologna, Salamanca, and Oxford, but 

the decree, which was passed in the interest of theological rather 

than classical learning, remained a dead letter 2 . It was not until 

1430 that a stipend was assigned to teachers of Greek and 

Hebrew in Paris 3 , and not until 1456 that Gregorio 

Tifernas, who was born at Citta di Castello about 

1 Cp. Tilley, Essay (1885), 155 f, and the earlier authorities there quoted ; 
also A. Claudin's First Paris Press (Bibliogr. Soc. 1898), and Hist, de /'/;//- 
primerie en France, i (1900), with illuminated facsimile of Gasparino p. i, 
and colophon, facing p. 22 ; and P. Champion, Les plus anciens monuments 
de la typographic parisienne (1904), 86 planches. 

2 vol. i 584 1 , 6o7 2 . 3 Bulaeus, Hist. Univ. Paris, v 393. 


1415 and had lived in Greece and had taught Greek in Naples, 
Milan and Rome, applied for permission to teach it in Paris 1 . 
The permission was granted and a salary assigned, on condition 
that the lecturer charged no fees and that he lectured daily on 
Rhetoric as well as on Greek. He continued to lecture for four 
years, and then left for Venice, where he died in 1466. 

About 1476 another teacher of Greek appeared in the person 
of a skilful copyist 2 , George Hermonymus of Sparta, 

. . , Hermonymus 

the somewhat incompetent instructor of Erasmus 15 
and Budaeus and Reuchlin 4 . Lectures in Greek were occa- 
sionally given by John Lascaris, who was invited to France in 
1495 by Charles VIII, aided Louis XII in organising the library 
at Blois, and joined Budaeus in doing similar service to Francis I, 
when the library at Blois was transferred in 1544 to Fontainebleau 5 . 
A more regular and continuous course of instruction was supplied 
by the Italian, Jerome Aleander, who arrived in 

. . Aleander 

1508, armed with an introduction from Erasmus . 
In and after that year, he lectured on Greek as well as Latin, 
and perhaps also on Hebrew. He became Rector of the Uni- 
versity of Paris in 1512; on his return to Rome, in 1517, he 
was appointed librarian to the Vatican, and, as Cardinal Aleander, 
he became prominent in the ecclesiastical history of the age 7 . 

It was with the aid of Aleander that the text of three treatises 
from Plutarch's Moralia was printed in Paris in 1509, doubt- 
less to serve as text-books for Aleander's pupils. 


I he printer was Gourmont, who had established 

the first Greek press in Paris, producing in 1507 a little volume 

1 The dates in Crevier, Hist, de F Univ. de Paris, iv 243 f, are 1458 
or 1470. 

2 Omont, Mem. Soc. Hist. (Paris, 1885). 

3 Catal. Lucubr. in Pref. to Leyden ed. i, Graece balbutiebat... ; neque 
potuisset docere si voluisset ; neque voluisset, si potuisset. 

4 Cp. Egger, i 146 f; Omont, in Mem. de la Soc. d'histoire de France, 
xii 65 98 ; Tilley, Essay, 146 f. 

6 Removed to Paris under Henri IV (1595). Cp. Omont, Cat. des MSS 
frees de Fontainebleau, 1889; also (in general) Tilley, Essay, 148 f. 

6 Cp. De Nolhac, in Revue des Etudes grecques, i 61 f ; and Lefranc, Hist, 
du College de France, 29 f. 

7 Tilley, Essay, 149 f. 


of extracts from the gnomic poets called the liber gnomagyricus, 
the first Greek book printed in France. In the course of a 
brief preface the editor, Francois Tissard, insists on the im- 
portance of Greek: nemini dubium est...quanti sit Latinis eru- 
ditio Graeca in hac praedpue tempestate aestimanda. He also 
describes the difficulty with which he had induced the printers 
to put a Greek work into type by appealing to their sense of 
honour, their ambition, their public spirit, and their hope of 
personal profit 1 . In the same year, Gourmont printed the Frogs 
and Mice of ' Homer ', the Works and Days of Hesiod, and the 
Erotemata of Chrysoloras. He also printed Musaeus and Theo- 
critus, and (in 1528) the Ecclesiazusae of Aristophanes, and 
Demosthenes and Lucian 2 . The text of the whole of Sophocles 
was completed by Simon Colinaeus on Dec. i6th, I528 3 . 

The following year was the date of the publication of the cele- 
brated Commentarii Linguae Graecae of Budaeus 4 . 
Guillaume Bude (1467 1540), who was born in 
Paris, was the son of a wealthy civilian who had a considerable 
collection of books. After spending three years in studying law 
with little success at Orleans, he returned to Paris and gave 
himself up to the pleasures of the chase, a pursuit on which he 
long afterwards wrote a dialogue by the command of Charles IX. 
It was not until the age of 24 that he became a serious student 
and began to form his Latin style on the study of Cicero. His 
letter to Cuthbert Tunstall assures us of the little Greek that he 
ever learned from Hermonymus of Sparta 5 . He derived far more 
profit from the occasional instructions of the busy Greek diplo- 
matist, Janus Lascaris. Budaeus rose to be secretary to Louis XII 
and a Maitre des Requetes; he was charged with diplomatic missions 
to Julius II and Leo X; and in 1520 was present at the interview 
between Francis I and Henry VIII in the ' Field of the Cloth 
of Gold '. Under Francis I and Henry II his fame as a Greek 
scholar was one of the glories of his country. In 1502-5 he 

1 Egger, Helltnisme en France, i 1 54-7. 

2 Cp. Didot's Aide Manuce, 596 f ; Lefranc, College de France, 29 33. 

3 Th. Renouard, Bibl. de Simon de Colines, 1894, p. 128. 

4 Ed. Badius, 1529; ed. R. Estienne, 1548. 

5 Of era, 1362(1557)- 


produced a Latin rendering of three treatises of Plutarch ; in his 
'Annotations' on the Pandects (1508) he opened a new era in the 
study of Roman law; and, in 1515 (N, s.), he broke fresh ground 
as the first serious student of the Roman coinage in his treatise 
De Asse. It was the ripe result of no less than nine years of 
research, and in twenty years passed through ten editions. Its 
abundant learning is said to have aroused the envy of Erasmus, 
and its dry erudition was preferred by one of the author's par- 
tisans to the rich variety and the sparkling wit of the Adagio 1 . 
The collection of letters which he published in 1520 included 
several in Greek, and thenceforth he held, by the side of 
Erasmus, the foremost rank as a scholar. The original aim of 
his Commentarii was the elucidation of the legal terminology of 
Greece and Rome, and, amid all the miscellaneous information 
here accumulated, that aim remains prominent 2 . The author's 
learning was generously recognised by Scaliger 3 , and much of 
the material stored in his pages was incorporated in the Greek 
Thesaurus of Henri Estienne. . The little volume De Philologid 
(1530) is a plea for the public recognition of classical scholarship, 
in the form of a dialogue between Budaeus and Francis I. In 
his far more extensive work De Trdnsitu Hellenismi ad Christian- 
ismum (1534) he describes the philosophy of Greece as a prepa- 
ration for Christianity, and defends the study of Greek from the 
current imputation of ' heresy '. His French treatise, De V Insti- 
tution du Prince, written in 1516, was not printed until 1547. 
He here declares that 'every man, even if he be a king, should 
be devoted to philology', which is interpreted as 'the love of 
letters and of all liberal learning'. Such learning, he adds, can 
only be attained through Greek and Latin, and of these Greek is 
the more important 4 . 

Besides two villas in the country, he owned a house in the 
Rue Saint-Martin (no. 203), which in the seventeenth century still 
bore the motto selected by Budaeus himself : 

' Summum crede nefas animam praeferre pudori. 
Et propter vitam vivencli perdcre causas '. 

1 Hallam, i I'jS 4 f. 2 Quarterly Review, vol. xxii (Hallam, i 329 4 ). 

3 Scaligcrana, 39, $a este le pins grand Grec de PEurope. 

4 Woodward, Renaissance Education, 127-^138. 

172 FRANCE. [CENT. xvi. 

In 1503 he married the daughter of an ancient Norman house, 
and it is said that, on his wedding-day, by an exceptional act 
of self-denial, he limited his time of study to three hours only. 
In his studies he was aided in every possible way by the devotion 
of his wife. Once, when he was busy reading in his library, one 
of the servants suddenly rushed in to inform him that the house 
was on fire. The scholar, without lifting up his eyes from his 
book, simply said to his informant : allez avertir ma femme ; 
vous savez bien que je ne irfoccupe pas des affaires du menage!^ 
His health was seriously impaired by his prodigious industry, 
and the surgeons of the day vainly endeavoured to cure him of 
his constant headaches by applying a red-hot iron to the crown 
of his head 2 . Happily he was enabled to find a safer remedy 
by taking long walks and by cultivating his garden 3 . When he 
died in 1539, he had a simple burial in the church of Saint- 
Nicolas-des-Champs 4 . The contrast between this great Greek 
scholar and his contemporary, the admirable Latinist, Erasmus, 
has been felicitously drawn by M. Egger : 

' Bude ne sut jamais emprunter a son ami les charmes d'une latinite facile et 
amusante. II dit lourdement des choses souvent neuves, toujours sensees, 
quelquefois profondes, sur 1'efficacite des etudes helleniques et sur 1'utilite de 
leur alliance avec 1'esprit chretien. II n'a du reformateur que le savoir et les 
convictions serieuses; il n'en a point le talent' 5 . 

Perhaps his most important, certainly his most permanent, 
service to the cause of scholarship was his prompting Francis I 
to found in 1530 the Corporation of the Royal Readers. It had 
no official residences, or even public lecture-rooms. // eta it bati 
en hommes*. It was many years before it attained the dignity of 
a local habitation 7 and the name of the College de France. In 
front of the present buildings of that centre of eloquent and 
inspiring teaching the place of honour is justly assigned to the 

1 Eugene de Bude, Vie de Guillaume Bnde, 22. 

2 ib. 23. 3 ib. i87f. 

4 Cp. Saint-Gelais, i 120, quoted by Tilley, i 19. 

5 Hellenisme en France, i 173. 

8 Etienne Pasquier, (Euvres, i 923. 

7 The first stone was laid 28 Aug. 1610 (Lefranc, 235), and the fabric 
finished about 1778 (ib. 266 f). 


statue of Budaeus '. In his own age, Calvin had proudly described 
him as primum rei literariae decus et columen, cuius beneficio 
palmam eruditionis hodie sibi vindicat nostra Gallia. It was 
mainly owing to Budaeus that the primacy in scholarship had 
passed from Italy to France 2 . 

The foundation of the royal readerships had been opposed by the 
obscurantists in the University, but lectures in Greek were already being 
given in several of the Colleges, and, in the College of Sainte- 
Barbe, Maturin Cordier (1479 1564) had been active as an 
educational reformer for the sixteen years immediately preceding the publication 
of his treatise attacking the barbarous Latin of the day 3 . Among his pupils at 
another College was Calvin, who afterwards invited him to Geneva, where he 
taught in 1536-38, and in 1559-64, and where he published his celebrated 
Colloquies ( 1 564) 4 . 

The year 1527 was memorable as that in which the famous 
printer and scholar, Robert Estienne, or Stephanus 
( I 53 1 559)> fi rst assumed an independent position Estienne 
as a publisher. His Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, 
published in a single volume in 1532, as a reprint of Calepinus' 
(1502), became in its final form an entirely new work in three 
folio volumes (i543) 5 . It was not until 1544 that he turned his 
attention to Greek, and produced a series of eight editiones 
principeS) beginning with Eusebius (1544-6) and going on with 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (1546-7), Dio Cassius (1548)", and 

1 On Budaeus cp. Vita by Louis le Roy 1540-1 ; Rebitte, Guillaume 
Bude, restaurateur des Etudes grecques en France (1846) ; and Eugene de Bude, 
Vie de Guillaume Bade", Fondateur du College de France (1884) ; M. Triwunatz, 
in Miinchener Beitrage, no. 28 (1903); also Egger, i 161 173; Lefranc, Hist, 
du College de France, 46 f, 102-6; and A. A. Tilley, Literature of the French 
Renaissance, 1904, i 14 19. Portrait on p. 164 supra. 

2 Tilley, i 19. On Germanus Brixius and Nicolas Berauld, who ranked 
next to Budaeus as Greek scholars, and on Pierre du Chastel, one of his 
successors, see ib. i 20 f. 

3 Corderius, De corrupti serrnonis apud Gallos et loquendi latine rationc 
libellus, 1530. 

4 E. T. 1614, 1657; latest ed. London, 1830. Cp. E. Puech, Maturin 
Cordier, 1895; Tilley, i 17 f; and Woodward, Renaissance Education, 154 
1 66. 

6 Cp. Christie's Etienne Dolet, 235 n. 

6 The words in the preface, locos mutilos intactos reliquimus, give proof of 
a more cautious and critical spirit than that of the Italian humanists. 


E R T KAf cernis STE PHA JfVM > qufmGallicus or Ins 


Quipius et cwcftiisprocudii Scripts ptorum . 

*~- n / /- / / . .-*-. 

vow ?tiu twn vwmfttiL fcrrz ~uirun . 


From a photograph of one of Croler's reproductions of the. original engraving by 
Leonard Gaultier (copied in Renouard's Anndles, p. 74). Cabinet des .E^tampes, 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 


Appian (^i) 1 . These books were printed_in a magnificent type 
designed in 1541 by the last of the professional calligraphers, 
Angelo Vergecio 2 , executed by the first French engraver of the 
day, Claude Garampnd, and finally cast at the expense of the 
royal treasury. In this type the complex ligatures and contractions 
used by calligraphers were skilfully imitated. The first book in 
which all the three alphabets of the new type were used was the 
folio edition of the Greek Testament (i5so) 3 . This Testament 
had already been printed in duodecimo in 1546 and 1549, and 
long remained the standard text, being ultimately even described 
as the textus receptus in the Elzevir edition of 1633. In 1551 
persecutions arising from his printing of this text compelled 
Robert Estienne to take refuge in Geneva, where he died in 

I559 4 - 

As a printer and a scholar he was even surpassed by his 
son, Henri Estienne (11528 -?i 5 1598), who, in the 

... r i H. Estienne 

early part of his career, spent several years in Italy 
(1547-9), and also visited Florence, Brabant, and England. A 
second visit to Italy led to his discovery of ten new books of 
Diodorus, printed in 1559, the year in which he succeeded to 
his father's business at Geneva. His editions of ancient authors 
amounted to no less than 58 in Latin and 74 in Greek, 18 of the 
latter being editiones principes. He was specially attracted to the 
Greek historians 6 . He ruined himself over the publication of 
his Thesaurus Graecae Linguae (1572) and his Plato (1578). The 

1 Completed by his younger brother, Charles. 
8 Egger, i 148, 150. 

3 A. Bernard, Les Estienne et les types grecs de Francois I (1856, and 1867) ; 
Pattison's Essays ii 85 89; W. Meyer, Henricus Stephanus ilber die Regii 
Typi, mil i 7'afeln (Gottingen Abhandl. vi 2 (1902) 32 pp.)- The same type 
was used at Paris by Morel and Turnebus, and also at Heidelberg and Basel. 
It was not until 1662 that a simpler type (with 40 instead of 400 characters) 
was first used by Wetstein at Antwerp. The Typi Regii are reproduced in 
Omont's Gk Catalogues of Fontainebleau (1889); cp. Proctor's Essay r, 

4 Cp. Mark Pattison's Essays, i 70 89. Portrait on p. 174. 

5 1528 is the traditional date, given by Maittaire and Renouard; but 1531 
is supported by the evidence of Henri himself and his uncle Charles, and is 
preferred by L. Clement, Henri Estienne et son ceuvre fraitfaise (1899), 463 f. 

6 Pulcherrimum scriptorum genus (Pref. to Diodorus, 1559). 

FRANCE. [CENT. xvi. 

former, in five folio volumes, is his greatest work ; it was a Thesaurus 
that (as the publisher bitterly remarked) made him poor instead 
of rich ; its sale was damaged by the publication of an abridge- 
ment in a single volume, prepared by his disloyal assistant, Scapula 
(1579). The original work has been re-edited in modern times 1 , 
and, as a Greek lexicon on a large scale, it is still unsurpassed. 
The text of Plato held its ground for two centuries until the 
Bipontine edition of 1781-7, and it is a familiar fact that all 
modern references to Plato recognise the pages of ' Stephanus '. 
; His ' Apology for Herodotus ', a volume of 600 closely printed 
pages, is an example of his weakness and diffuseness as an author 
and a critic 2 . His main strength lies in a perfect mastery of 
Greek idiom, attained as the ripe result of long and laborious 
study. His first publication was the editio princep s of 'Anacreon ' 
(1554), and the text of that edition was not superseded for three 
centuries. When it first appeared, it was welcomed by the poet 
Ronsard, who passes from the imitation of Pindar to that of 
Anacreon in the pretty lines addressed to his page-boy : 

' Verse done et reverse encor 
Dedans ceste grand' coupe d'or : 
Je vay boire a Henry Estienne, 
Qui des enfers nous a rendu 
Du vieil Anacreon perdu 
La douce lyre teienne' 8 . 

His Aeschylus, edited by Victorius (1557), was the first to 
include the complete Agamemnon. His edition of the ' Planudean 
Anthology' was supplemented by many epigrams recorded in 
ancient authors (1566). In his recensions of the Classics his 
alterations of the manuscript readings were capricious and un- 
critical, and he is accordingly denounced with some severity by 
Scaliger as a corrupter of ancient texts 4 . It has also been sup- 
posed that the readings, which he describes as derived from MSS, 
are sometimes merely conjectures of his own, to which he thus 
attempts to lend an air of fictitious authority 5 ; but his veracity 

1 London, 1815-28; Paris, 1831-65. 2 Cp. Tilley, i 292 f. 

8 Egger, Hellenisme en France, i 363; Tilley, i 332. 
4 Prima Scaligerana, s.v. Dalechampius, and Erotianus. 
6 e.g. Hermann on Eur. HtL 1410, 1507. 


has been repeatedly vindicated, and, whenever his statements 
cannot be put to the test, it must be remembered that, during 
his extensive travels in Italy and elsewhere, he examined many 
MSS in a cursory manner, and that, in the case of those in private 
collections in particular, the MSS, from which he states that he 
derived his readings, may easily have been lost 1 . 

The Ciceronianus of Erasmus had appeared in 1528. The 
French were not unnaturally offended by the way in which their 
great Greek scholar, Budaeus, had been rather unceremoniously 
mentioned in the same breath as the Parisian printer, Badius. A 
reply was prepared in the very next year by Julius 
Caesar Scaliger (14841558), a scholar of Italian slallg^^ 
origin, who had been born at Riva on the Lago 
di Garda, and, after spending 42 years in Italy, had betaken 
himself to the French town of Agen on the Garonne. During 
his Italian days he had seen service as a soldier ; he was now 
physician to the bishop of Agen. Burning to make himself a 
name among scholars, he published, in 1531, an oration de- 
nouncing Erasmus as a parricide, a parasite, and a corrector of 
printer's proofs; defending Cicero from the attacks of Erasmus; 
and maintaining that Cicero was absolutely perfect 2 . Erasmus 
treated this abusive tirade with silent contempt ; he attributed it 
to Aleander ; he felt sure that Scaliger could not possibly have 
had the ability to write it. Stung with rage and mortification, 
Scaliger flung himself once more into the fray. He prepared a 

1 Feugere, Caracteres, ii i 204; GrautofF's Program (Glogau, 1862), 
15 17; Sintenis in Philologus, i 134 142, zur Ehrenerkliirung fiir Henricus 
Stcphanus. On both the Stephani, cp. Almeloveen, de vitis Stepkanorunt, 
Amst. 1683; Maittaire, Stephanorum Historia, London, 1709 (both include 
a portrait of Robertus); H. St. xxvii Brief e an Crato, ed. Passow (1830); 
Hi unedierte Brief e, ed. Dinse, in Jahrb. cl. Philol. 1864, 843 859; also 
Didot, Observations (1824); GreswelFs Early Parisian Greek Press (1833); 
Renouard, Annales (\%$i etc.); Feugere (1853 and 1859); Egger, Hellenisme 
en France, i 198 221; Mark Pattison, Essays, i 67 123; Stein, Noicvcaitx, 
Documents sur les Estienne (1895). On 'Henri Estienne', cp. L. Clement, 
H. Estienne et son auvre francaise (1899); Tilley, i 290-8. There is no 
known portrait. 

2 J. Caesaris Scaligeri Pro M. Tullio Cicerone, contra Desiderium 
Erasmum Roterodamum, Oratio I (1531), ed. 1620, Toulouse. 

S. II. 12 

178 FRANCE. [CENT. xvi. 

still more violent and vain-glorious harangue, which was not 

published until late in 1536*; but, meanwhile, in the month of 

July, Erasmus had passed from the scenes of earthly controversy 

'To where beyond these voices there is peace'. 

A more creditable production of Scaliger's is his treatise De 
Causis Latinae linguae (1544), an acute and judicious work on 
the leading principles of the language, in the course of which he 
claims to have corrected 634 mistakes made by Valla and his 
other predecessors. A far more comprehensive work is his 
Poetice (1561), one of the earliest modern attempts to treat the 
art of poetry in a systematic manner. He here deals with 
the different kinds of poems, and the various metres, together 
with figures of speech and turns of phrase, criticises all the Latin 
poets ancient and modern, and institutes a detailed comparison 
between Homer and Virgil to the distinct advantage of Virgil, 
while the epics of Homer are regarded as inferior to the Hero and 
Leander of 'Musaeus' 2 . He also declares Seneca 'inferior to 
none of the Greeks in majesty ' 3 . He makes all literary creation 
depend ultimately on judicious imitation 4 . 

During the controversy raised by the Ciceronianus, Scaliger 
was not alone in his championship of Cicero. He was supported 
by one who was nettled, not only by the disrespectful way in 
which Erasmus was supposed to have treated Budaeus, but also 
by his criticisms on the young Ciceronian scholar, Longolius, one 
of whose devoted pupils at Padua was a friend of this second 
champion of Cicero, Etienne Dolet (1509 1546). 
Dolet's 'Dialogue on the imitation of Cicero' 
takes the form of an imaginary conversation between the pupil 
of Longolius, and Sir Thomas More as the representative of 
Erasmus. It was less violent than Scaliger's first oration, but it 
was treated by Erasmus with the same silent contempt 5 . 

1 Oratio II, ed. 1623, Toulouse. Christie's tienne Dolet, 194-6; 
cp. Hallam, i 325*. 

2 Hallam, ii 200-2*. 3 vi 6. 

* Spingarn, Literary Criticism in the Renaissance, 131, and passim ; also 
Saintsbury's History of Criticism, ii 69 80; cp. E. Lintillac, De J. C. Scali- 
geri poetice (Hachette, Paris, 1887), and Tilley, ii 80 f. 

5 Christie, tienne Dolet, 197 f. 


Its author, a native of Orleans, had eagerly devoted himself \ 
to the study of Rhetoric and Cicero in Paris and Padua, and, on 
returning to France, took up his residence at Toulouse (1532-4), 
where he resolved on writing a great work with a view to proving 
Cicero's superiority to Sallust, Caesar and Livy. After making 
many enemies by his injudicious and intemperate speeches at 
Toulouse, he left for Lyons, where the two folio volumes of his 
'Commentaries" were published by Gryphius in 1536-8. The 
work has been justly described as 'one of the most important 
contributions to Latin scholarship produced by the sixteenth 
century' 2 , and its almost simultaneous appearance with the second 
edition of the Latin Thesaurus of Robert Estienne marks an 
epoch in the history of Scholarship. The Thesaurus, aiming at 
practical utility, naturally follows the order of the alphabet ; the 
' Commentaries ', ' more scientific and critical ' in their method, 
follow the sequence of meaning, and are mainly concerned with 
Ciceronian usage. The work was enlivened by personal touches 
that would certainly have been out of place in a dictionary 3 . The 
author also gives a singularly complete list of the leading repre- 
sentatives of the Revival of Learning, adding an eloquent eulogy 
on their victories over barbarism 4 . This great achievement was 
soon followed by a collection of Formulae, or Ciceronian phrases 
(1539), afterwards printed as an Appendix to Nizolius 5 . Dolet's 
attack on Erasmus provoked in 1539 a rejoinder by Franciscus 
Floridus Sabinus, who charged Dolet with plagiarism in his 
'Commentaries', and even with 'atheism' 6 . Dolet replied in 
1540, and was himself answered in the following year. The 
charge of plagiarism is only true to a trifling extent. As a 
printer, from 1538 to 1544, Dolet produced a French translation of 
the Ad Familiares and the Tusculan Disputations of Cicero, and a 
history of the reign of Francis I in Latin verse and prose. He 
was for a time a friend of Marot and of Rabelais. His Carmina 
were denounced as heretical in 1538 ; his publication of the New 

1 Commentarii Linguae Laiinae: facs. of title-page in Christie, 243. 

2 Christie. 23.1 f. 

2 Christie, 234 f. 

3 ib. 241. 

5 Edd. 1606, 17; 

6 Christie, 272 f. 

3 ib. 241. 4 ili. 247 253. 

5 Edd. 1606, 1734, 1820; also in several epitomes. 

6 Christie. 272 f. 

12 2 

i8o FRANCE. [CENT. xvi. 

Testament in French and his translation of two religious treatises 
by Erasmus, with other works, charged with 'heresy' in 1542, led 
to his being prosecuted in the court of the Inquisitor-General at 
the instigation of jealous rivals among the printers of Lyons. On 
his condemnation, he appealed to the Parliament of Paris, but 
meanwhile the royal pardon had been obtained and he was set at 
liberty. He was the first to translate any part of Plato, or the 
' Platonic ' writings, into French. His rendering of the Axiochus 
and Htpfarchus, which was probably made with the help of a 
Latin version, was published in 1544. A redundant phrase in 
a single passage of his rendering of the former dialogue laid him 
open to the imputation of attributing to ' Plato ' a disbelief in the 
immortality of the soul 1 , and, strange to say, this charge con- 
tributed in no small degree to his being condemned to death. 
He was executed in the Place Maubert in 1546. Julius Caesar 
Scaliger ignobly heaped insults on his memory, but his fate 
was lamented by Theodore Beza, and his memory has recently 
been honoured by a bronze statue erected on the spot where he 
died as a ' martyr to the Renaissance '. 

He has been well described as ' a sound Latin scholar, as scholarship was 
then understood, possessed of much learning, of strong classical feeling, of 
unwearied industry, and of both the will and the power to make his learning 
available for the use and benefit of others' 2 . 'His enthusiastic love of 
learning and his intense belief in himself are his strongest characteristics, 
and both contributed in no small degree to his misfortune' 3 . 

Three centuries before the death of Dolet, an oriental College 
had been founded on the southern bank of the Seine, not far from 
the Place Maubert. It had been suggested by a bull of 
Innocent IV in the year 1248. It was afterwards called the 
'College of Constantinople', and its aim was the theological 
instruction of young Greeks with a view to their being sent as 
missionaries to the East. But this Greek College was in no sense 
a College for the teaching of Greek. In 1515 Leo X had founded 
a Greek College under Lascaris at Rome. In the same year, the 

1 <ri> 7&p OVK &r, ' tu ne seras pas rien du tout\ Christie, 445. 

2 Christie, 477. 

8 ib. 480, ed. 1880 (ed. 2, 1899). Cp. Saintsbury, in Macmillan, xliii 
273 f, and Tilley, i 25 f. 


university of Alcala, with its College of St Jerome and its four 
chairs of Greek and Hebrew, had been established by Cardinal 
Ximenes ; and in 1517 the Collegium Trilingue was constituted at 
Louvain. It was the ambition of Francis I to found a similar 
College in France. In 1517 he vainly endeavoured to attract 
Erasmus to Paris, while the foremost scholar of the day declined 
on the plea that Charles V had the first claim on his allegiance. 
Francis I afterwards became the prisoner of Charles V, and, during 
his captivity in Spain, actually saw in 1525 the newly-founded 
university of Alcala. The eloquent appeal addressed in 1529 to 
Francis in the preface of the 'Commentaries' of Budaeus, 
together with the enlightened cooperation of Lascaris, led in 1530 
to the foundation of the ' Corporation of the Royal Readers u with 
teachers of Greek, Hebrew and Mathematics, who were in the 
first instance five in number. The College arose partly out of 
the hostility of the Sorbonne to the study of Greek and Hebrew. 
The lawyer Conrad of Heresbach states in 1551 that he once 
heard a monk vehemently declaring in the pulpit, ' they have 
recently discovered a language called Greek, against which we 
must be on our guard. It is the parent of all heresies. I 
observe in the hands of many persons a work written in that 
language called the New Testament. It is a work teeming with 
brambles and vipers. As for Hebrew, all who learn it immedi- 
ately become Jews' 2 . 

The first two teachers of Greek were Pierre Danes, ' Danesius ' 
(1497 1577), a member of an ancient and wealthy 
family in Paris, who afterwards produced editions 
of Justin and Pliny, became bishop of Lavaur, took an important 
part in the Council of Trent, and was buried in St Germain-des- 
Pres ; and Jacques Toussain (c. 1498 1547), a 

... Toussain 

less pretentious and far more industrious scholar, 
the compiler of a Greek and Latin Dictionary, whose portrait in 
Beza's Icones 3 suggests austerity of life and energy of character. 
Among their first pupils were two whose paths diverged widely in 

1 p. 172 supra. 

8 De laudibiis Graecarum literanim oralio, Argentorati, 1551, p. 26 f; 
Eugene de Bude, Vie de Btide, 43 f. 
3 Facing p. v. ij. 

1 82 FRANCE. [CENT. xvi. 

after life, Ignatius de Loyola, and Calvin (1509 1564), whose 
earliest work was a commentary on Seneca De dementia (1532), 
and who owed much to his mastery of Latin 1 . It is probable 
that their lectures were also attended for a short time by 

Frai^ois Rabelais (c. 1490 1553)1 the son of an avocat, was born at or 

near Chinon in Touraine. He was educated at the Cluniac 
Rabelais .. _ ... , , r 

monastery of Seuille, and afterwards at a Franciscan convent 

near Angers. He subsequently became a Friar of the strictest order of the 
Franciscans at the convent of Fontenay-le-Comte in Poitou; where he laid 
the foundation of his wide erudition (1509-24). His friend Pierre Lamy was 
a protege of Budaeus, who encouraged the brethren in their Greek studies. 
Rabelais translated Herodotus, and read largely in Lucian. The less scholarly 
inmates of Fontenay were alarmed by the publication of Erasmus' Commentaries 
on the New Testament ; Greek was denounced as heretical, and the students 
of Greek deprived of their books. Lamy fled at the first opportunity, while 
Rabelais was considerately transferred by Clement VII to the Benedictine 
abbey of Maillezais near Liguge, then under the refined and enlightened 
bishop, Geoffroi d'Estissac. He was here welcomed by a circle of learned 
men, mostly jurists, e.g. Andre Tiraqueau, Jean Bouchet, and Almaric Bouchard. 
But, before long, he left for the French universities, studying law at Bourges, 
and medicine in Paris (1528-30). In December, 1530, he graduated as 
Bachelor in Medicine at Montpellier. After lecturing there with great 
success, he went to Lyons early in 1532, with a view to his lectures on parts 
of Hippocrates and Galen being published by Sebastian Gryphius, an excellent 
Latin scholar and printer of handy editions of the Latin classics. Rabelais 
almost certainly acted for Gryphius as corrector of the press. In October he 
became physician to the local hospital, and, to amuse his patients, composed 
Les grandes...Croniques du geant Gargantua, in which the adventures of that 
beneficent giant are combined with those of Merlin and Lancelot of the Lake. 
The success of this work prompted him to publish his Paniagruel, which 
combines giant-stories of the Carolingian cycle with humanistic learning, with 
satires on legal and scholastic studies and on the disputations in the Sorbonne, 
and with attacks on the Mendicant Orders. He here borrows from the 
Commentaries on the Pandects and the De Asse of Budaeus, from More's 
Utopia, as well as from Homer, Hippocrates, Galen, and Diogenes Laertius, 
with Virgil, Ovid, and Gellius, and from translations from Lucian and Plutarch 
by Erasmus and Budaeus. 

After a visit to Rome in company with the future Cardinal, bishop" 
Jean du Bellay, he produced at Lyons an edition of Marliani's Topographia 
Romae Antiquae (i534) 2 . In the next year his Grandes Croniques were super- 
seded by his Gargantua, a work of wider outlook and more extensive erudition. 

1 Tilley, i 230. 2 p. 154 supra. 


The suggestions made in Pantagruel 1 are here expanded into a complete 
system of moral, intellectual and physical education 2 , which even now 
commands respect, a system probably partly inspired by that of Vittorino. 
The giant-stories are dropped, but we have much about medicine and classical 
learning, and many traces of indebtedness to the Adagia of Erasmus. Erasmus 
is doubtless the source of the learned allusion to the images of the Sileni in 
the prologue, and the series of references to Hippocrates, Plautus, Varro and 
Pliny is really derived from Gellius 3 . 

After a second visit to Rome with the Cardinal (July 1535 to March 1536), 
he returned to Paris, completed his medical degrees at Montpellier, and 
wandered about the South of France till late in 1539, when he took service 
with the Cardinal's brother, Guillaume du Bellay, Viceroy of Piedmont 4 . 
A stay at Orleans was succeeded by his residence at the Benedictine priory 
of St Maur des Fosses near Paris, under Cardinal du Bellay. Here he seriously 
took up classical studies and completed his Third Book. This, his most 
finished production, is concerned almost entirely with various systems of 
divination on the prospects of the marriage of Panurge. The wealth of 
classical reference is more profuse than ever, including Homer, Diodorus, 
Strabo, Pausanias and Diogenes Laertius 5 , with Ovid, Suetonius, Gellius, and 
the ' Scriptores Historiae Augustae', Lucian and Philostratus, Catullus and 
Terence. Under the inspiration of the library of St Maur 6 , he carefully 
studied Plutarch's Moralia 7 , the De Divinatione and the moral treatises of 
Cicero, Pliny's Natural History (especially on points of botany), Ovid's 
Metamorphoses and Fasti, and (above all) Virgil, with the commentary of 
Servius 8 and the elucidations of Macrobius. The renaissance scholars laid 
under contribution include Politian and Valla, Budaeus and Erasmus, with 
Tiraqueau 9 , Johannes Nevizanus 10 , and Cornelius Agrippa 11 . 

On the publication of the Third Book (1546) he retired to Metz, where he 
soon became physician to the hospital, and wrote part of his Fourth Book with 
the aid of a few texts such as Ovid's Fasti and Valerius Maximus. The Book 
was finished in Rome during his third visit in the company of the Cardinal 
(1548-50), when he added to his authorities the Antiquae Lectiones of Caelius 
Rhodiginus, formerly Greek Professor at Milan (d. 1525). The Fourth and 
the posthumous Fifth Book are entirely taken up with the Voyage of Pantagruel 
and his companions to consult the oracle in Northern India or Cathay, 
whither they proceed by the famous North- West passage 12 . Rabelais is 

I c. 8. 2 c. 23 and 24. 
3 iii 16. 4 d. Jan. 1543. 

5 Also Herodotus and Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 

6 Lib. iv, Ep. Ded. 

7 Cp. P. P. Plan, in Melanges a" Archeologie et d" Histoire, xxvi (1906), 

8 W. F. Smith, in Revue des Etudes rabelaisiennes, iv 4 (1906), 22 pp. 

9 De legibus connubialibus. 10 Silva Nttptialis. 

II De occulta philosophia and de vanitate scientiarum. 12 iv c. i. 

i&4 FRANCE. [CENT. xvi. 

femarkable for his interest in voyages of discovery. Hence his fondness for 
the Odyssey, and for Lucian's Vera Historia. 

After the publication of the Fourth Book (1552), in which the Decretals 
are ridiculed, he resigned his cure of Meudon early in 1553, and died in the 
same year 1 . 

Toussain counted not only Rabelais, but also Ramus and 

Turnebus among his pupils. In 1547 (the year of the death 

of Francis I) Toussain was succeeded as lecturer in Greek by 

Turnebus, while Ramus became a professor in 1551. For a 

quarter of a century Ramus, or Pierre de la Ramee 

. Ramus ' 

(1515 1572), was the most prominent teacher in 
Paris. He was already celebrated as the resolute opponent of the 
exclusive authority of Aristotle. In 1536 he had maintained the 
thesis that everything written by Aristotle was false, and in 1543 
he had severely attacked the Aristotelian logic. This attitude had 
naturally made him many enemies. Nevertheless in 1551 a 
special chair of ' eloquence and philosophy ' was instituted on his 
behalf 2 . He lectured with great success on Cicero and Virgil. 
He substituted humanistic methods of teaching for the scholastic 
methods that had long prevailed ; he encouraged the study of 
Greek, and he improved the study of Latin. In the very first 
year of his lectureship he was entangled in a petty controversy 
with the Sorbonne as to the proper pronunciation of quisquis and 
quanquam. The Royal Reader pronounced the vowel u in both 
words ; the Sorbonne pleaded for its suppression ; Parliament 
decided to leave it an open question 3 . With his colleague, 
Galland, he had a dispute on the merits of Quintilian, of which 
Rabelais has said in the 'new preface' to the fourth book of 
Pantagruel : ' What shall we do with this Ramus and this 
Galland, who are setting by the ears the whole University of 
Paris ?' As a protestant, Ramus was unhappily one of the victims 
of the massacre of St Bartholomew in 1572*. 

1 This account of Rabelais is abridged from a sketch written on my behalf 
by my friend, Mr W. F. Smith, Fellow of St John's, translator of Rabelais 
(1893). '. Cp. Tilley, i 165223, with the bibliography there quoted, and 
Brunetiere, Hist, de la lift. fran(aise dassique, i (1904), 105 164; also 
C. Whibley, Literary' Portraits (1904), i 108. 

2 Pasquier, Recherches de la France, ix 18. 3 Lefranc, 21 r n. 

4 On Ramus, cp. Ch. Waddington (Paris, 1855); Desmaze, 1864; Ziegler, 



I8 5 

The Royal Readers in Greek included Turnebus (from 1547 
to 1565), Dorat (1559 to 1588) and Lambinus 
(1561 to 1572). The first of these, 'Adrianus 
Turnebus' 1 of Andelys in Normandy (1512 1565), was sent at 
the age of twelve to be educated in Paris under Toussain and 

No. 127 of De Leu's Pourtraictz (c. 1600) ; Print Room, British Museum. 

others, whom he astonished by his marvellous memory and his 
rare acumen. In 1545 he became a professor at Toulouse, and, 
on the death of Toussain, was appointed to succeed him in Paris. 
Toussain had been (like Budaeus and Rabelais) a man of marked 

Gesch. der Piidagogik (1895), 107 f; and see Tilley, i 273 f; portrait in Bois- 
sard, II 96. 

1 This is the form found on the title-page of his Aeschylus. In the 
Letters prefixed to that ed., and to his Sophocles, the name is spelt Toi//>- 
ve/3oj, as also in the Greek Epitaph by Henr. Stephanus, who in another 
epigram calls him TcwpcTj/Sos (Maittaire, Stephanorum Vitae, 112 f). The 
Latin epitaphs, by Stephanus and Jean Mercier, have Turnebus. His 
own contemporary, Estienne Pasquier (GLuvres choisies, Ep. i) addresses him 
in 1552 as M. de Tournebu, and the form Tournebou is given in the Bibliotheque 
Britannique, vii 154 f; Tournebus is found in Paris accounts of 1550-1 
(Lefranc's College de France, 404), and is the form adopted by Legay (Caen, 
1828), and by Tilley, i 280, who describes 'Tournebus' as Latinised into 
Turnebus, and then Gallicised back into Turnebe. The suggestion that the 
original French form was Touvnebceuf, and that this was derived from the 
Scottish name of Turnbull (a suggestion due to Dempster), is rightly regarded 
as doubtful by Eckstein, Nomencl. Philol. s.v. Cp. L. Clement (1899), p. 7. 

r86 FRANCE. [CENT. xvi. 

erudition, ' a living library ' ; Turnebus was more of a specialist in 
Greek textual criticism. From 1552 to 1556 he was Director of 
the Royal Press, and, in that capacity, published a series of Greek 
texts, including Aeschylus (1552), and Sophocles with the scholia 
of Triclinius (1553). He also edited Cicero's Laws, and Philo 
and Oppian; and commented on Varro and the elder Pliny. 
Late in life he completed his most important work, the thirty 
books of his Adversaria, in which a large number of passages in 
ancient authors are judiciously explained or boldly emended. 
De Thou describes them as aeternitate digna. Scaliger's verdict 
on the Adversaria is vague. He admires the author's learning, 
but regards the work as immature 1 ; at the same time, he con- 
siders that there is more in a single book of Turnebus than in the 
37 books of the Variae Lect tones of Victorius 2 . Montaigne, his 
junior by 21 years, speaks with no uncertain sound: 

' I have seen Adrianus Turnebus, who having never professed any thing 
but studie and letters, wherein he was, in mine opinion, the worthiest man that 
lived these thousand years,... notwithstanding had no pedanticall thing about 
him but the wearing of his gowne, and some external fashions, that could not 
well be reduced and incivilized to the courtiers cut... For his inward parts, 
I deeme him to have been one of the most unspotted and truly honest minds 
that ever was. I have sundry times of purpose urged him to speake of 
matters furthest from his study, wherein he was so cleare-sighted, and could 
with so quicke an apprehension conceive, and with so sound a judgment 
distinguish them, that he seemed never to have professed or studied other 
facultie than warre, and matters of state ' 3 . 

Another of the Royal Readers in Greek, Jean Dorat 4 

(c. 1502 1588), was born at Limoges. Francis I 

made him tutor to the royal pages, and Charles IX 

gave him the title of ' Poet Royal '. He is said to have published 

more than 50,000 Greek and Latin verses, and 15,000 of these 

1 Scaligerana s.v. 2 Scaligerana Sec. s.v. 

3 Essayes, I c. xxiv, Of Pedantisme (in Florio's transl.); cp. n c. xii, 
1 Adrianus Turnebus, a man who knew all things '. Cp. in general L. du 
Chesne's Funeral Oration in Opera (Arg., 1600); Legay (Paris, 1893), 51 pp.; 
L. Clement, De Adriani Turnebi . . .praefationibus et poemalis (1899), 152 pp. 
with bibliography. 

4 His father's name was Dorat ; the son Latinised this as Auratus ; and 
his contemporaries called him Daurat as well as Dorat (Tilley, i 309 ; 
cp. Pattison's Essays, i 206 n.). 



I8 7 

are preserved in his Poematia. ' No book was written but Auratus 
composed a poetic eulogy of the author ; no person of quality 
died but Auratus wrote an elegy in verse'. He represents the 
' moment in French literature, when Greek learning was in 
alliance with public taste and polite letters ' 1 . Scaliger, who can 
only describe him as ' bonus poe'ta ', because he could write verses 

No. 108 of De Leu's Pourtraictz (c. 1600) ; Print Room, British Museum. 

on any subject, is more emphatic when he calls him ' Graecae 
linguae peritissimus '. Ten years before his appointment as one 
of the Royal Readers, he published his edition of the Prometheus 
Vinctus (1549). Among his pupils at the College de Coqueret 
was the future poet Ronsard. Dorat, 'foreseeing that Ronsard 
would one day be the Homer of France, and desiring that his 
spirit should be nursed with appropriate aliment', took him and 
read to him the whole of the Prometheus. ' Why is it, master ', 
cried Ronsard, ' that you have hidden such riches from me for so 
long?' 2 The gratitude of Dorat's poetic pupils enrolled their 
master's name in the ' Pleiad ' ; and the Greek spirit that, under 
the influence of Dorat, began to breathe in the poems of Ronsard, 
aroused an interest in all that was Greek 3 . Apart from the edition 
of the Prometheus, Dorat left behind him conjectural emendations 
on other plays of Aeschylus, which give proof of learning, 

1 Pattison, i 207. 

3 Egger, Hellenisme, lefon x. 

2 Binet's Life of Ronsard. 

i88 FRANCE. [CENT, xvi. 

acumen, and poetic taste. Hermann preferred him to all the 
critics on Aeschylus 1 . 

Dolet had translated the Letters of Cicero ; Masures, the whole of Virgil ; 
. Habert, the Metamorphoses of Ovid, and Pelletier, the Ars 

Poetica of Horace. The number of these translations 
multiplied to such an extent that a protest was raised by one of the ' Pleiad ', 
J. du Bellay, who urged the duty of imitating and assimilating the ancients 
instead of translating them. The poets in particular, he declared, should not 
be translated, except at the command of princes and great noblemen*. Never- 
theless, he afterwards translated Aeneid IV and vi, while the Epistles of Ovid 
were published in French by a lady of high birth, Madeleine de l'Aubespine 3 . 
Literary criticism in France began with the publication of Pelletier's 

French version of the Ars Poetica of Horace (1545), and the 
Criticism ^ rs * ; re f erence to the corresponding work of Aristotle in the 

critical literature of France is to be found in du Bellay's 
Defense et Illustration de la Langue frattfaise (1549). An edition of Aristotle's 
treatise was produced in 1 555 by the learned printer, Guillaume Morel (i 505-64) ; 
and the dramatic law of the ' Unity of Time', ascribed to Aristotle by Italian 
writers such as Minturno and Castelvetro, was accepted in France by Ronsard 
(1565), and by Jean de la Taille (i572) 4 . 


The third of the above-mentioned Royal Readers in Greek 
was Denys Lambin, or Dionysius Lambinus (1520 

i Lambinus . 1-1 "\ /- 

1572), who won his laurels mainly in the field of 
Latin scholarship. Born at Montreuil-sur-mer in Picardy, he was 
educated at Amiens, and, after spending some years on the study 
of the best Greek and Latin authors 6 , entered the service of the 

1 On Agam. 1396. Cp. Vitrac's Eloge (1775); Robiquet, De J. Aurati 
vita (1887) ; and Pattison's Essays, i 206, 210. 

2 Defense, 1. i. 3 Feugere, Cdraeteres, i 7. 

. * Spingarn, 171, 177, 184, 206; Saintsbury, ii 113, 117; Tilley, ii 82. 

8 Preface to Cicero, ' cum in optimo quoque scriptore et Graeco et Latino 
evolvendo ac legendo aliquot annos in Gallia consumpsissem, in Italiam 
profectus sum '. 


Cardinal de Tournon, whom he accompanied on two visits to Italy. 
.During the first of these visits he lived in Rome for four years 
(1549-53). After staying for a year or two in Paris, he returned 
to Italy for five years (1555-60), which he spent in Rome, Venice 
and Lucca. In one of his letters he describes himself as having 
passed twelve years in a vita motoria et turbulenta^. But he was 
thus brought into contact with scholars such as Faernus, Muretus 
and Fulvius Ursinus, and had those opportunities of collating MSS 
in the Vatican and elsewhere, which proved of signal service in 
his subsequent editions of the Latin Classics. In 1561 he was 
appointed one of the Royal Readers in Latin, but was soon 
transferred to a readership in Greek. At that time he had 
already published, at the suggestion of the Cardinal de Tournon, 
a Latin translation of Aristotle's Ethics (1558), which was followed 
(in 1567) by one of the Politics, while, in the last year of his life, 
he published a discourse on the utility of Greek, and on the 
proper method of translating Greek authors into Latin (1572). 
Meanwhile, he had won a wide reputation by his great editions of 
Latin authors. The first of these was his Horace (1561). He 
had been preceded by unimportant commentators on the Ars 
Poetica, such as Achilles Statius (1553) and Francesco Luisini 
(1554), and by others whose names are now forgotten; he had 
gathered illustrations of his author from every source ; and he had 
collated ten MSS, mainly in Italy. The text was much improved, 
while the notes were enriched by the quotation of many parallel 
passages, and by the tasteful presentment of the spirit and feeling 
of the Roman poet". Within the next two years he had completed, 
in November 1563, his masterly edition of Lucretius (1564). He 
had founded his text on five MSS ; three of these he had collated 
in Rome, a fourth was lent by his friend, Erricus Memmius, and 
the fifth, collated on his behalf by Turnebus, was that in the 
monastery of St Berlin in Saint-Omer, and is now known as the 
' Leyden quarto '. He had also examined the earlier editions, and 

1 Letter to Erricus Memmius, Epp. Bruti, p. 435. 

' 2 Preface, to .Cicero, 'ibidem (in Italia) Q. Horatium Flaccum cum 
exemplaribus antiquis, quorum magna est in eis locis copia, comparavi, 
eosque duces et auctores secutus, multos in eo poe'ta locos et mendosos 
emendavi et implicates explieavi '. 

190 FRANCE. [CENT. xvi. 

had studied the old Latin grammarians ; while, with a view to his 
commentary, he had ransacked the Greek and Latin Classics. 
For his author he had a peculiar admiration : of all the surviving 
Latin poets, Lucretius was, in his opinion, not only elegantissimus 
et purissimus, but also gravissimus atque ornatissimus. He 
dedicates the whole work to Charles IX, and the several books 
to individual scholars, such as ' Memmius', Ronsard, Muretus, 
Turnebus, and 'Auratus'. He claims to have restored the true 
reading in 800 passages, and we are assured on the best authority 
that the superiority of his text over those of all his predecessors 
' can scarcely be exaggerated '. 

' The quickness of his intellect, united with his exquisite knowledge of the 
language, gave him great power in the field of conjecture, and, for nearly three 
centuries, his remained the standard text '. ' His copious explanatory and 
illustrative commentary calls for unqualified eulogy, and has remained... the 
great original storehouse, from which all have borrowed who have done 
anything for the elucidation of their author '. ' His reading is as vast as it 
is accurate, and its results are given in a style of unsurpassed clearness and 
beauty. His notes observe the mean between too much and too little : he 
himself calls them brief, while his thankless countrymen, thinking however 
more perhaps of his Horace than his Lucretius, have made lambin or lambiner 
classical terms to express what is diffuse and tedious '. 

The learning accumulated in this edition was shamelessly pillaged by 
Giphanius (1566). In 1570 Lambinus published his third edition. 'In 
a preface of great power and beauty of style he states his wrongs ; there and 
throughout his commentary the whole Latin language, rich in that department, 
is ransacked for terms of scorn and contumely' 1 . 

To the preparation of his brilliant edition of the whole of 
Cicero, which appeared in 1566, he gave only two years and a 
half, and some of his alterations of the text are regarded as 
unduly bold. In 1569 he edited Cornelius Nepos. He had 
already completed his commentary on twelve of the plays of 
Plautus, and was beginning the thirteenth, when the shock caused 
by the news, that his colleague Ramus had been put to death in 
the massacre of St Bartholomew, hastened his own end. Scaliger, 
who observes that Lambinus possessed very few books 2 , admires 
the excellence of his spoken and written Latin style 3 ; and it has 

1 Munro's Lucretius, pp. 14 16 3 . 

2 Scaligerana. 3 Prima Scaligerana. 


been well remarked by Munro, that ' his knowledge of Cicero and 
the older Latin writers, as well as the Augustan poets, has never 
been surpassed and rarely equalled". 

During his second sojourn in Italy, Lambinus had been 
assisted by Muretus in deciphering the readings in 
certain MSS of Lucretius, and had shown his assistant 
part of his future commentary on Horace. In 1559, 
on receiving from Muretus a copy of the Variae Lectiones, Lambinus 
discovered that his own notes on Horace had been appropriated. 
He wrote in temperate terms to expostulate, and, in 1561, printed 
the whole of the correspondence, in which (as it happened) there 
were several other items detrimental to the moral character of 
Muretus 2 . The latter had afterwards the satisfaction of noticing 
in the margin of a copy of Lambinus' Horace some of the minor 
mistakes in that important work 3 . The career of Muretus has 
already been traced in connexion with the land of his adoption 4 . 

In the latter half of the sixteenth century we note the name of 
the poet and professor, Jean Passerat (1534 1602), 
who succeeded Ramus as Royal Professor of 
Eloquence in 1572. He is said to have published nothing before 
the age of sixty, when he wrote the French verses at the close of 
the Satire Menippee (1594). In Latin, his favourite author was 
Plautus, whom he is said to have read through forty times. He 
lost his sight five years before his death. He is best known for 
two of his posthumous works: a treatise De literarum inter se 
cognatione ac permntatione (1606), and an annotated edition of 
Catullus, Tibullus and Propertius (i6o8) 5 . 

In this century there were three notable scholars in France, 
who published classical texts from MSS formerly 
in monastic libraries. Pierre Daniel of Orleans Daniel, 
(1530 1603) produced the first edition of the Pithou 
Querolus (1564), and of the fuller form of the 

1 Lucretius, p. i4 3 . Cp., in general, P. Lazerus in Orelli's Onomaslicon 
Tullianitm, 1478 491 ; and, for opinions of early scholars, Blount's Cetisura, 
504 f. 

2 Muretus, Opera, eel. Ruhnken, i 395 f, where the rest of the correspondence 
is reprinted. 

3 Lazeri, u.s. p. 486 f. * p. 148 supra. 
5 Cp. Tilley, ii 54. 

192 FRANCE. [CENT, xvi 

commentary of Servius (I6OO) 1 . Pierre Pithou, ' Petrus Pithoeus ' 
of Troyes (1539 1596), General-Procurator in Guienne and at 
Paris, had a fine library including an important collection of MSS. 
He produced the first important text of Juvenal and Persius (1585) 
founded on the ' codex Pithoeanus ' formerly in the Benedictine 
abbey of Lorsch, and now at Montpellier 2 , and the editio princeps 
of Phaedrus (Autun, 1596), the Pervigilium Veneris (1577), 
Salvianus (1580), and the Edict of Theodoric (1579). He also 
produced an improved edition of Petronius 3 . He narrowly escaped 
death in the massacre of St Bartholomew (1572), and became a 
Catholic in the following year. When Scaliger left for Leyden in 
1593, Pithou was perhaps the ablest scholar in France; but a 
decline in Greek scholarship is indicated by the fact that Scaliger 
describes Pithou as 'nothing of a Greek scholar' 4 . 

The Protestant, Jacques Bongars of Orleans (1554 1612), 
who received part of his early education in Germany, 

Bongars .,..,. _, 

and was afterwards a pupil of Cujas at Bourges, 
edited Justin in 1581, a collection of Dacian Inscriptions in 1600, 
and the Gesta Dei per Francos, early histories of the French 
Crusades, in 1611. He held diplomatic positions abroad, and in 
the course of his travels visited Constantinople in 1585, and 
Cambridge in 1608. In 1603-4 he bought a large part of the 
libraries of Pierre Daniel and of Cujas, and subsequently be- 
queathed all his books and MSS to the son of Rene Grausset, 
the Strassburg banker. The son presented them to Bern, the 
native city of his wife (1632). The most important items in the 
collection are the MSS of Virgil, Horace 5 , and Lucan. The 
collection included part of the literary treasures of Fleury, which 
had been dispersed in 15 62". 

1 Hagen, Zur Gesch. der Philol. i f (Bern, 1873) ; L. Jarry, Une corre- 
spondance litteraire (1876); history of his library in Moreri, Grand Diet. Hist. 

2 Facs. in Chatelain, Pal. no. 127. 

3 A. Collignon, Petrone en France (1905), 24 28. 

4 Scaligerana Altera. Cp. Boivin, vita etc. 1716; Grosley (1756); Briquet 
de Laraux (1768); O. Jahn, Ber. sacks. Geselhch. iv 278; and Tilley, i 294, 
ii 234. A fine portrait engraved by Vanschuppen (also by Morin, in Lacroix, 
xvii e siecle, 1882, fig. 55, p. 149). 6 Chatelain, Pa!, pi.. 76, 77. 

6 Hagen, /. c. .53 f, and Schultess, in Beitrage.zur Gelehrten-Geschichte 
des xvii fahrh. t Hamburg, 1905, 103 206; also vol. i 625*, n. 8, 


In the same age law and archaeology were admirably re- 
presented in France. The study of jurisprudence 
had been introduced by the Italian, Andrea Alciati DC Grouchy 
(1492 1550), who lectured for a few years at Hotman 
Bourges (1528-32) 1 . Nicolas de Grouchy, of Rouen Doneau 
(15201572), taught at Bordeaux, Paris, Coimbra Godefroy 
and Rochelle, and (besides his numerous transla- 
tions from Aristotle) distinguished himself by his learned disserta- 
tion De Comitiis Romanorum (1555). Jacques Cujas, or Cujacius, 
of Toulouse (1522 1590), who taught at Cahors, Valence, Paris, 
and Bourges, was the founder of the historical school of juris- 
prudence. He was famous as the author of an extensive series 
of learned 'Observations and Emendations' (1566), while the 
fullest edition of his works extends to eleven folio volumes. The 
professors in certain German universities were wont to raise their 
caps whenever, in the course of their lectures, they mentioned 
the name of Cujas or of Turnebus 2 . Francois Hotman (1524 

1590) was the author of 'Observations' on Roman Law, and of 
Commentaries on Cicero's Speeches. His political pamphlet, the 
Tigre (1560), which has been described as a 'succession of pistol- 
shots fired point-blank ' at the Cardinal of Lorraine, was modelled 
on the Catilinarian orations 3 . He also produced an important 
political treatise in Latin, the Franco-Gallia (15 73) 4 . Hugues 
Doneau, or 'Donellus' (1527 1591), was the author of a 
systematic work on Civil Law 5 . The massacre of 1572 drove 
Doneau and Hotman to Geneva. Barnabe Brisson (1531 

1591) was the writer of celebrated treatises on the terminology of 
the Civil Law (1557) and on the legal formulae of the Romans 
( X 5^3)- He was forced by the partisans of the League to act as 
first President of their Parliament in 1589, and was put to death 
by the faction of the Sixteen in 1591". Lastly, Denys Godefroy, 

1 Portrait in Boissard, n 134. 

2 Pasquier, Recherches, ix c. 18 (Tilley, i 281). Portrait in Boissard, 
vn ff. 

3 Tilley, ii 229. 

4 ib. ii 231 ; portrait in Boissard, in 140. 

5 Portrait in Boissard, in 290. 

6 Molles, Diss. de Brissonio, Altd. 1696 ; Conrad in his ed. of De Formulis 

S. II. 13 

194 FRANCE. [CENT. xvi. 

' Gothofredus ' (1549 1621)', distinguished himself as the editor 
of the Corpus Juris Civilis, while his son Jacques (1587 1652) 
edited the Theodosian Code. The treatise on Government, Six 
livres de la Republique, written in French and also in Latin by 
Jean Bodin (1530 1596), may here be noted, in so far as it is 
founded on the teaching of Plato and Aristotle 2 . The learned 
lawyers above mentioned are among the glories of France. An 
interesting picture of their scholarly industry is preserved by 
one of the legal luminaries of the time, Antoine Loisel, who tells 
us that, after supper, Pithou, Cujas and himself used to meet in 
the library every evening, and continued to work there until three 
o'clock in the morning 3 . 

During this age classical masterpieces were translated with a marked effect 

on the literature of France. In the fourteenth and fifteenth 

centuries the most popular Latin poet was Ovid, whose Meta- 
morphoses had been popularised by the paraphrase and commentary of 
Pierre Bersuire (d. 1362). The Epistles were translated in 1 500, the Remedium 
Amoris in 1509, and the first two books of the Metamorphoses (by Marot) in 
1532. Among the translations of Virgil may be mentioned the first Eclogue 
by Marot (1512) and the first Georgic by Peletier (1547), who also translated 
the Ars Poetica of Horace (1544), which partly inspired the Art Poelique of 
Sibilet (1548), the first French translator of the Iphigeneia at Anlis (1549). 
Terence's Andria was competently rendered by Charles Estienne (1542). 

Estienne Dolet's translations of Cicero, ad Familiares, and Tusculan 
Disputations, I in (1542-3), were frequently reprinted. The De amicilia 
and De seneclute, the De legibus and Somnium Scipionis were rendered by 
Jean Colin (1537-9), an( ^ ten f ^ Speeches by Macault (1548). Meigret 
translated the De Offidis, and Sallust, and three books of the elder Pliny. Old 
translations of Caesar were revised. Bersuire 's Livy held its ground till 1582, 
but a new rendering had been begun in 1548, which was also the date of the 
beginning of a translation of Tacitus completed in 1582. Vitruvius was 
translated by Martin in 1547. 

Translations from the Greek poets opened a new era in French literature 
in the reign of Francis I. The Electra of Sophocles and the Hecuba of 
Euripides were indifferently rendered by Lazare de Baif (1537-44), ar| d the 
first ten books of the Iliad and the first two of the Odyssey were translated in 
verse by Salel and Peletier respectively (1545-7)- With the aid of Janus 
Lascaris, several of the Greek historians were translated by Claude de Seyssel, 
bishop of Marseilles and afterwards archbishop of Turin, and were published 

1 Portrait in Boissard, vn ff 2. 

2 Feugere, Caracteres, i p. xxxii, ii 432-5. 

3 ib. Cp. Tilley in Camb. Mod. Hist, iii 58 f. 


after his death (1520) by command of the king 1 . The title-page of Macault's 
translation of the first three books of Diodorus shows us the king's secretary 
and valet de chambre presenting his work to Francis I (1535). There were 
also translations of Herodian and Polybius, I v, Dion Cassius and Xenophon's 
Cyropaedeia. These were surpassed in popularity by Pierre Saliat's Herodotus 
(i556) 2 . The above translation from Diodorus was printed by Tory, who 
himself translated thirty dialogues of Lucian (1529), and the Oecononiicus of 
Xenophon (1531). The Hipparchus of Plato and the spurious Axiochus were 
rendered by Dolet (1544), and we know of versions of part of the Symposium, 
and of the Ion, Crito, and Lysis. Oresme's translations of Aristotle's Ethics and 
Politics still held the field. Two renderings of Aesop in French verse were 
published in 1542-7. Parts of Plutarch's Moralia and eight of the Lives 
appeared in the reign of Francis I. With regard to these translations in 
general, it must be noticed that they were made from Latin versions, with the 
rarest possible reference to the original Greek 3 . 

Pindar, whose text was first published in 1513, doubtless presented serious 
difficulties even to Dorat, the best Greek scholar in the Pleiade, but he found 
imitators such as Ronsard, one of whose odes even surpasses the Fourth 
Pythian in length 4 . It was apparently with a sense of relief that Ronsard 
welcomed the easier task of imitating Anacreon 5 . 

The title of prince of translators was won by Jacques Amyot 
(1513 1593), who made Plutarch speak the French 
language 6 . He was lectured on Greek by Danes 
and Toussain, and was appointed professor at Bourges. He 
published his translation of the Greek novel of Heliodorus in 
1547, and, in recognition of this rendering and of his version of 
some Lives from Plutarch that was still unpublished, was made 
abbot of Bellozane, one of the last acts of Francis I. For the 
next four years he worked in the Libraries of St Mark and the 
Vatican. In the Vatican he discovered a better MS of Heliodorus ; 
at Venice he found five of the lost books of Diodorus (xi-xv), 

1 Thuc. , Xen. Anab., Diodorus 18 20, Eusebius and Appian (1527-44). 

2 Ed. Talbot (1864). 

3 Cp. Tilley, i 35 40 ; and, for translations from Greek and Latin poets, 
Goujet's Bibliothequefran$aise, iv vin, and, from Latin and Italian generally, 
J. Blanc's Bibliographic ilalieo-frattfaise (Milan, 1886) quoted ib. i 39 ; also a 
popular sketch by J. Bellanger, Hist, de la Traduction en France, 131 pp. (no 
index), 1903. 

4 Egger, i 351-8. 

5 ib. 363 ; Sainte-Beuve, Anacreon au xvi e s. (in Tableau de la poesie fr.) ; 
Delboulle's Anacreon, 1891 ; and Tilley, i 330 f. 

6 Montaigne, ii 10. 


FRANCE. [CENT. xvi. 

which he published, with the next two, in 1554. In 1559 he 
produced his rendering of the Daphnis and Chloe of Longus, and 
completed that of the Lives of Plutarch, which he dedicated to 
Henry II. Henry's successor, Charles IX, made him Grand 
Almoner of France (1560) and bishop of Auxerre (1570). 
Amyot's translation of the Moralia appeared in 1572. His 
translation of Plutarch was practically a new and ' original work' 1 , 
and a living force for two and a half centuries 2 . In his own age, 
' I am grateful to Amyot above all things ' (says Montaigne), ' for 
having had the wit to select so worthy and so suitable a work to 
present his country. We ignorant folk had been lost, had not this 
lifted us out of the mire ; thanks to it, we now dare speak and 
write, and ladies give lessons out of it to schoolmasters ; 'tis our 
breviary' 3 . The dignity and grace of Amyot's rendering were 
lauded by the translator's friend and publisher, Morel ; his version 
of the Lives > in the English dress of Florio, became Shakespeare's 
Plutarch. Minor flaws have been found in its pages by Muretus 4 , 
and in the seventeenth century by Meziriac, and, early in the 
nineteenth, by Paul Louis Courier; but its smooth and flowing 
charm, and its literary merits in general, have been more generously 
appreciated by later critics 5 . 

Louis Le Roy (1510 1577) attended the lectures of the new 
royal professors in 1530, a year or two later than 
Amyot. He wrote a life of Budaeus in excellent 
Latin, and, after spending nearly twenty years in translating Greek 
prose authors, succeeded Lambinus as professor of Greek (1572). 
His translations consist of the Olynthiacs and Philippics of 
Demosthenes ; Plato's Timaeus, Phaedo, Symposium and Republic ; 
Aristotle's Politics, and some treatises of Isocrates and Xenophon. 
He is recognised as a ' competent translator ', whose style ' some- 
times strikes a higher note'. In the first of his lectures on 
Demosthenes, which were delivered in French (1576), after 

1 Joseph Joubert, ed. K. Lyttelton (1898), 188. 

2 O. Greard, De la morale de Plutarque, 328 f (ed. 1874). 

3 ii 4 init. * Journal de Montaigne, ii 152 (ed. 1774). 

5 A. Pommier, loge <f Amyot (1849) ; Blignieres, Amyot et les traducleurs 
franfais au xvi s. (1851) ; Feugere, Caracteres, i 487 506 ; Egger, Hellenisme, 
i 261-4; Bellanger, Hist, de la Traduction en France, 13, 25 28; and Tilley, 
i 280 289. 


paying a tribute to the ancient languages, he attacks ' those 
scholars who entirely neglected their native language and all 
modern topics' 1 . 

Michel de Montaigne (153392) preserves a perfect silence as 
to Saliat, the translator of Herodotus, from whom 

, . . .. .... Montaigne 

all his quotations from that historian are bor- 
rowed. He is personally acquainted with Amyot, ' the great 
Almoner of France' 2 ; the books that he reads for profit as well as 
pleasure are 'Plutarch (since he spake French) and Seneca' 3 ; 
and he confesses that his book is completely built up with 
the spoils of these two authors 4 . The other Classics that he 
cites most frequently are Cicero, Lucretius, Horace and Virgil 5 . 
As his ' familiar tutors ' he names ' Nicholas Gruchy, who 
hath written De comitiis Romanorum; William Guerente, who 
hath commented Aristotle ; George Buchanan, that famous 
Scottish Poet, and Marke Antonie Muret, whom (while he lived) 
both France and Italic to this day, acknowledge to have been the 
best orator' 6 . He also quotes 'our late most famous writer 
Lipsius, in his learned and laborious work of the Politikes' 7 . His 
eulogy of Turnebus has been already noticed 8 . There is no 

1 Tilley, i 289 f ; cp. A. H. Becker, Lays Le Roy, 1896. 

2 i c. 23 ; p. 196 supra. 3 ii c. 10. 

4 ii c. 32 ; i c. 25 ; cp. Tilley, ii 160-2, and in Canib. Mod. Hist, iii 69. 

8 For a list of authors read by Montaigne, with his judgements on them, see 
Miss Grace Norton's Studies in Montaigne (1904), p. 265 f. The authors read 
before 1580 include Aristotle, Caesar, Gellius, Horace, Manilius, Martial, 
Ovid, the elder Pliny, Plutarch, Suetonius, Terence, Valerius Maximus; those 
read chiefly in 1580-8, Catullus, 'Cornelius Callus', Curtius, Juvenal, Lucan, 
Lucretius, Persius, Propertius, Tacitus, Virgil; after 1588, Diodorus, Herodotus, 
Livy, Plato, Quintilian, Xenophon ; and, in all years, Cicero, Diogenes 
Laertius, and Seneca (pp. 267 286 f). Besides these 50 authors, he uses 125 
others, e.g. Stobaeus ; Florilegium Epigraminatuin (1531); Poetae Gnomici 
(1561-9); ' Publius Syrus' (1516 or 1560). Montaigne is 'one of the most 
original of authors, though he helped himself to ideas in every direction ; but 
they turn to blood and coloring in his style, and give a freshness of complexion 
that is forever charming' (Lowell, on Montaigne as a Reader, and Student of 
Style). Cp. C. Whibley, Literary Portraits (1904), 181 221. 

6 i c. 25 (Florio's transl.); p. 149 supra. 

7 ib., cp. latest ed. of ii, c. 12. He had corresponded with Lipsius in 
1589 (Tilley, ii 149). 

8 p. 1 86 supra. 


writer of this age who is so thoroughly saturated with the wisdom 
of the ancients or who so frequently applies quotations from the 
Classics to the conduct of life. He is proud of the honorary 
title of ' Citizen of Rome ' ; and he represents the final and the 
ripe result of the Revival of Learning in France. 

With Montaigne we may associate his short-lived friend, 
Estienne de La Boetie (i^o is6i), whom he 

La Boetie 

so warmly admired for his bold protest against 
tyranny 1 . La Boetie's interest in Greek is proved by his translation 
of the Oeconomicus of Xenophon and of part of the Economics of 
Aristotle, as well as Plutarch's Praecepta Conjugalia and Consolatio 
ad Uxorem. His skill in Latin verse is exemplified in the poems, 
which he composed at the prompting of the elder Scaliger, whose 
death he commemorated in a pathetic passage in which he foresees 
the approach of his own end 2 . 

The French civilian and poet, Estienne Pasquier (1529 1615), 

who was born before Montaigne and his friend, and 

Pasquier . . ... 

survived them both, agreed with Montaigne in his 
admiration of Horace, and, at a time when Du Perron preferred a 
single page of Quintus Curtius to thirty of Tacitus, insisted on 
the superiority of the author of the Annals, and sent one of his 
correspondents a happy rendering from that historian's pages 3 . 

His friend Scevole de Sainte-Marthe of Loudun 


(15361623), a member of a noble house, and a 
pupil of Muretus, Turnebus and Ramus, was distinguished as a 
Latin poet. Two of his works deserve mention: (i) a didactic 
poem on the education of children, called by one of his medical 
contemporaries the divinum carmen Paedotrophicum*; and (2) A 
book of eulogies in Latin elegiacs on no less than 150 Frenchmen 
distinguished for their learning, who had died during the author's 
life-time, beginning with Lefevre d'Etaples (d. 1536) and ending 
(in its final form) with Estienne Pasquier (d. 1615)*. Among those 

1 Essais, i c. 27 ; cp. Hallam, ii 36*. 

2 Feugere, Caracttres, i i 125, esp. 115. 

3 ib. i 227-9. See also Tilley, i 299 304. 

4 Feugere, i 435 n., translated into English verse, with life, by H. W.Tytler, 
M.D., 1757 ; cp. Tilley, ii 23 f. 

8 Gallorttm doctrina illustrium, qui nostra patrumque memoria floruerunt, 
elogia (Poitiers, 1598, 1602), Paris, 1630. 


commemorated are Budaeus, Longolius, Montaigne, Ramus, 
Turnebus, Amyot, Muretus, Lambinus, Auratus, and Henri 
Estienne. Aureolus Elogiorum libellus is the phrase applied in the 
Letters of Balzac 1 to this brief and epigrammatic survey of more 
than a century of French Scholarship 2 . The characters of the 
leading scholars who died between 1545 and 1607 are admirably 
summed up in the obituary notices that adorn the great Latin 
History of De Thou (1553 i6i7) 3 . 

Of the foremost scholars of France in the sixteenth century, 
Turnebus died some years before the eventful date of St Bartho- 
lomew (1572); Ramus perished in the massacre, Lambinus died 
of fright, while Hotman and Doneau fled to Geneva, never to 
return. Joseph Justus Scaliger withdrew to the same city for two 
years, and, when he returned, the only great scholars who survived 
from the former age were Dorat and Cujas 4 . Scaliger, who is one 
of the glories of the later age, spent the last sixteen years of his 
life at Leyden, but, for the first fifty-three years of his life, he 
belongs to France. 

Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540 1609) was of Italian descent. 
At Agen on the Garonne, he was the constant com- 

. . . . . Scaliger 

panion of his father, Julius Caesar Scaliger, during 
the last four years of that father's life. Between the ages of 
fourteen and eighteen, he was required to produce daily a short 
Latin declamation, and also to keep a written record of the peren- 
nial flow of his father's Latin Verse. It was thus that he acquired 
his early mastery of Latin. But he was already conscious that 'not 
to know Greek, was to know nothing' 5 . Hence, on his father's 
death, he went to Paris to attend the lectures of Turnebus; but, 
finding these too advanced for his purpose, he was compelled to 
be his own teacher. With the aid of a Latin translation, he worked 
through the whole of Homer in twenty-one days; and, in four 
months, he perused all the Greek poets. During his four years 
in Paris, he became intimate with Canter, and with Dorat, who 
introduced him to a nobleman of Poitou, Louis Chasteigner, Lord 

1 xxii 17. - Feugere, i 461 482. 

3 Extracted in Teissier's Eloges (Geneva, 1683), and in Blount's Censara, 

4 Tilley, i 294. 8 Scaliger, Epp. p. 51 (L.B. 1627). 


From the frontispiece of the monograph by Bernays ; portrait copied from 
the oil-painting in the Senate-House, Leyden ; autograph from Appen- 
dix ad Cyclometrica in the Royal Library, Berlin. 


of La Roche-Pozay. With this nobleman Scaliger travelled for 
four years in Italy, paying two visits to Rome, where he saw much 
of Muretus, and staying for a time in Naples and Venice, and at 
Verona, which he regarded with reverence as the home of his 
ancestors. In Italy, his main attention appears to have been given 
to inscriptions, but a whole winter was devoted to Thucydides, 
and, on returning to France, the scholar was wont to discourse on 
Polybius during his rides with his patron. In that patron's family 
he lived from time to time for thirty years (1563-93), moving from 
castle to castle in Poitou and Limousin. During all that period 
he was serving his long apprenticeship to learning, but his studies 
were repeatedly interrupted by the disturbed state of the country. 
Shortly after his tour in Italy, he visited Edinburgh, and, although 
he failed to find any Greek MSS in the libraries of the British Isles, 
he afterwards borrowed a transcript of the Lexicon of Photius from 
Richard Thomson of Clare 1 . In 1570 he studied Roman Law 
at Valence under Cujas, who, in his commentary on the Digest, 
accepted one of his pupil's emendations 2 . At Valence he also 
began a friendship, that was to last for thirty-eight years, with the 
great historian De Thou. Two years later he left Valence; and, 
on the fatal night of St Bartholomew, he was safe at Lausanne. 
For the next two years he remained at Geneva, lecturing with some 
reluctance, but with marked success, on Cicero, De Finibus, and 
on Aristotle's Organon. He then returned to his patron in Poitou. 
Scaliger had already given early proof of his study of Varro 
(1565), and had edited the Catalecta of Virgil (1573). These were 
followed by his editions of Ausonius (1574), of Festus (1575), and 
of Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius (i577) 3 . He regarded the 
Italian type of Scholarship, with its fancy for the imitation of the 
ancients, as a frivolous pursuit, and he had no sympathy with 
Italian scholars in their hap-hazard alterations of classical texts. 
He was the first to point the way to a sounder method of emen- 
dation founded on the genuine tradition of the MSS; but, when he 
had made his mark as a textual critic by his editions of Festus and 
the Latin poets above mentioned, he left the path, that he had 

1 Scaliger, Epp. p. 503. 2 Eernays, 144. 

3 His transpositions in Propertius and Tibullus are severely criticised in 
Haupt's Opusc. iii 34 36. 


struck out, for a profound and protracted study of ancient history 
and the subject-matter of the Classics. The transition is marked 
by his Manilius (1579), where his interest in textual criticism is 
thrown into the shade by his study of the astronomy of the 
ancients. His Manilius thus serves as an introduction to the 
comprehensive system of chronology set forth in his folio volume 
De Emendatione Temporum (1583). The publication of this work 
placed him at the head of all the living representatives of ancient 
learning. In 1590, Justus Lipsius, who had for the last twelve 
years been the leading professor at Leyden, applied for leave of 
absence, and, during that absence, became a Catholic. After 
some delay, Scaliger consented to fill the vacant place, and the 
stores of learning, that he had accumulated for thirty years as a 
native of France, were surrendered to the service of the Northern 
Netherlands. His disinclination to lecture was duly respected ; 
all that the authorities at Leyden desired was his living and inspir- 
ing presence in that seat of Protestant learning. His laborious 
study of ancient chronology and history was no longer broken, as 
of old, by constant changes of residence, or by alarms arising from 
religious wars in the provinces of France. As a groundwork for 
the study of primitive tradition, he selected Jerome's translation 
of the Chronicle of Eusebius. 

From the fragments of the Eusebian text, he divined that the Chronicle, in 
its original form, must have consisted of two books ; that the second alone, 
with its chronological tables, was represented in Jerome's translation, while 
the first had comprised extracts from the Greek authorities on the ancient 
history of the East. He resolved on reconstructing the original Greek text of 
both books. In 1601 he came on the track of a manuscript chronicle by a 
Greek monk, Georgius Syncellus, and, in 1602, he ultimately succeeded in 
getting a MS of this Chronicle sent from the Paris Library to Leyden, when he 
found that it largely consisted of transcripts from Eusebius. In 1605 he heard 
from Casaubon that in the Paris Library there was a chronological list of all 
the Olympic victors down to the 249th Olympiad. He was convinced that 
this must at one time have formed part of the work of Eusebius, and that it 
was originally compiled by Julius Africanus. He obtained a transcript, and 
with the aid of all the extant Greek evidence, drew up a complete list in Greek, 
which has sometimes been erroneously regarded by scholars as an original 
Greek document. He was thus enabled to restore the Greek Eusebius, which 
he printed as part of his great Thesaurus Teiiiponini (1606). His conjecture 
as to the character and contents of the first book of Eusebius was confirmed 


long afterwards by the discovery of an Armenian version (1818), which also 
included the Olympic lists of Julius Africanus. 

The Jesuits had captured Muretus and Lipsius, and had hopes 
of securing the timid and wavering Casaubon. Their attack 
against the apparently impregnable Scaliger was directed, not 
from France, but from Flanders and Germany. It was opened at 
Gratz in 1601 by Martin Delrio, formerly of Liege and Louvain, 
who denounced Scaliger for denying the genuineness of the writings 
ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite. It was continued at Antwerp 
in the coarse production called the Amphitheatrum Honoris (1605), 
and, at Mainz, by criticisms on Scaliger's knowledge of Hebrew, 
and by the polished and pungent pages of the Scaliger Hypobo- 
limaeus of the Latin stylist Caspar Scioppius (1607). Scaliger had 
inherited from his father a profound belief in his descent from the 
Delia Scalas of Verona 1 . It was this claim that was denounced 
by Scioppius. In the Confutatio Fabulae Burdomim (1608), 
Scaliger produced a vigorous and triumphant reply, which more 
than convinced his friends, Casaubon and Daniel Heinsius, but 
was disregarded by his foes and by the general public. 

During his fifteen and a half years at Leyden, apart from his 
great Thesaurus Temporum he produced editions of Apuleius (1600) 
and Caesar (1606), and went on correcting the text of Polybius to 
the very end of his life. Early in 1609, he fell asleep in the arms 
of his favourite pupil, Daniel Heinsius. That pupil honoured his 
master's memory by a funeral oration in Latin prose and by a 
Latin poem. Of Scaliger's productions in Latin verse, two thirds 
are translations, including a Latin rendering of the whole of the 
Ajax of Sophocles 2 and the Cassandra of Lycophron, and many 
Greek versions from Catullus and Martial. His original Latin 
verse is marked by a high degree of moral force 3 . He was praised 
by Bentley as an expert in prosody 4 . His chronological labours 
were also warmly appreciated by Selden in England, and by 
Calvisius at Leipzig ; he aided the literary labours of David 
Hoeschel in Augsburg, and of Sylburg and Gruter at Heidelberg, 
devoting no less than ten months to producing a masterly index to 

1 Epp. pp. i 58 (1594), ed. 1627, ' De Vetustate Gentis Scaligerae '. 

2 Cp. Scaligcrana Sec. s.v. Muretus. 3 ed. 2, 1864. 
* Menatider, p. 67, ' nemo in arte metrica Scaligero peritior'. 


the Inscriptions edited by the latter 1 . He foresaw the future 
greatness of Grotius. De Thou describes his friend, Scaliger, as 
the foremost scholar of his age 2 . Scaliger says that 'Lipsius is 
nothing in comparison with Muretus', while Lipsius compares 
Scaliger to 'an eagle in the clouds' 3 , the symbol adopted in the 
vignette to the funeral oration. Lastly, Casaubon says of Scaliger : 
'nihil est quod discere quisquam vellet, quod ille docere non 
posset; nihil legerat, quod non statim meminisset' 4 . He had no 
sympathy with the fashion of publishing Miscellanea or Adversaria, 
which had been set by Politian and Victorius, by Turnebus and 
Muretus; he preferred to deal with the exposition and criticism 
of each author as an undivided whole 5 . He not only exhibits a 
remarkable aptitude for the soundest type of textual emendation; 
but he is also the founder of historical criticism. His main strength 
lay in a clear conception of antiquity as a whole, and in the 
concentration of vast and varied learning on distinctly important 
works 6 . 

Isaac Casaubon (1559 1614), who was eighteen years younger 
than Scaliger, was born at Geneva of Huguenot 


parents, who had fled from Gascony. At the age 
of nine he could speak and write Latin. He was learning Greek 
from his father, with Isocrates, ad Demonicum, as his text-book, 
when the news of the massacre of St Bartholomew's drove them 
to the hills, where the lessons in Greek were continued in a cave 
in Dauphind Till the age of nineteen his father, who was a 
Huguenot pastor, was his only instructor. The son describes 

1 Epp. p. 381 ; cp. Bernays, p. 186. 

2 Hist. lib. xxi, ' in re literaria principem sine controversia locum tenet '. 

3 Epp. Misc. Cent, i 6. 

4 Praef. to Scaliger's Opusc. For other eulogies, see Blount's Centura. 

5 Ep. i, p. 52, Bernays, 164. 

8 The materials for the life of Scaliger include his Epistolae (1627), and 
Lettres Intdites (1879) 5 his opinions are reproduced in the Scaligerana prima 
{Vertuniani, 1574-93), and secunda (Vassanorum, 1603-6), best ed. 1740. 
The Poemata (1615) were reprinted in 1864. The account in Nisard's 
Triumvirat Litttraire (1852) is superseded by the learned monograph of 
Bernays (1855), and by Pattison's Essays, i 132 243. Cp. Urlichs, 59 6i 2 . 
(Bernays is regarded as unduly laudatory by Lucian Miiller, Philologie in den 
Niederlanden, 35, 222-7, anc * by Haupt, Oj>uscula, iii 30 f.) 


himself as o\j/ifj.aO^ and auroSiSaKTos. He hardly began any con- 
secutive study until the age of twenty, when he was sent to Geneva, 
there to remain for the next eighteen years (1578-96). At 
Geneva he read Greek with the Cretan, Franciscus Portus, whom 
he succeeded as 'professor' in 1582. His second wife (1586) was 
a daughter of Henri Estienne, who jealously prevented his son-in- 
law from having access to his MSS, and hardly ever lent them: 'he 
guards his books' (writes Casaubon) 'as the griffins in India do 
their gold' 1 . But, when Estienne died in loneliness at Lyons, 
Casaubon inscribed in his journal a few feeling lines lamenting his 
loss 2 . Meanwhile, he read all the Greek texts that he could find, 
besides buying transcripts of unpublished MSS from the Greek 
copyist, Darmarius. Even at a place where literary interests were 
almost dead, he carried out his own ideal of classical learning. In 
an exhaustive course of reading he made a complete survey of the 
ancient world. Among his foremost friends in Geneva was the 
venerable Beza; his correspondents in France included De Thou 
and Bongars. In 1594 he writes to Scaliger at Leyden: 'I never 
take up your books or those of your great father, without laying 
them down in despair at my own progress' 3 ; and, on hearing of 
Scaliger's death in 1609, he notes in his diary, that he had lost 
'the guide of his studies, the inseparable friend, the sweet patron 
of his life'. Scaliger himself had said of Casaubon: 'he is the 
greatest man we now have in Greek'; 'his Latin style is excellent, 
terse, not diffuse Italian Latin' 4 . 

In 1596 Casaubon left Geneva for Montpellier, where there 
was a greater interest in the Classics, the medical course including 
Hippocrates and Galen. His entry into Montpellier was nothing 
short of a triumphal progress. For three years he lectured to 
students of mature years on Roman law and history, on Plautus 
and on Persius, on Homer and Pindar, and on Aristotle's Ethics. 
Though Latin was the theme of most of his public lectures, his 
private reading was mainly Greek. 

In 1598 he paid his first visit to Paris, where he was welcomed 
by a group of scholars, which had, only two years previously, lost 
its presiding genius, Pierre Pithou. The group included the elegant 

1 Ep. 41. 2 Ephcm. 1598. 3 Ep. 17. 

4 Scaligerana Sec. s.v. Casaubon. 



[CENT, xvi f 

Latin versifiers, Passerat and Rapin, and their customary place of 
meeting was the house of the learned historian De Thou, with 
whom Casaubon had been in correspondence for many years. He 
had heard much of De Thou's library 1 , but it surpassed his expec- 
tation, and his heart sank at the thought of the little that he knew. 
He returned to Montpellier in October, 1598. 

1 Engraving in Lacroix, xvii e siecle, fig. 54 (frontispiece of Bibliotheca 
; portrait in Boissard, vm kkk 4. 


From a photograph of an engraving in the Cabinet des Estampes, 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 


Early in 1599 he was invited to Paris by the king, who desired 
his aid in a proposed 'restoration' of the university. Bidding a 
sad farewell to Montpellier, he waited on the way for more than a 
year at Lyons, while he superintended the printing of his 'Animad- 
versions' on Athenaeus. At Paris he had the title of Ledeur du 
Roi, but, owing doubtless to his remaining true to his Protestant 
principles, he was not appointed to an actual professorship either 
in the University of Paris or in the College de France. In the 
latter the Chair of Latin was filled by Federic Morel, who has far 
less claim to distinction as a professor of Latin than as a printer 
of Greek, the finest of his editions, in point of typography, being 
the Libanius of 1606. The Chair of Greek, which ought to have 
been assigned to Casaubon, was given to a youthful protege of 
Cardinal Du Perron. In 1604 Casaubon was, however, appointed 
sub-librarian to De Thou in the Royal Library. In that capacity 
he supplied materials to Scaliger and Heinsius at Leyden, Gruter 
at Heidelberg, Hoeschel at Augsburg, and Savile at Eton, while 
his own works prove how eagerly he ransacked the Royal MSS. 
His ten years in Paris were the happiest period of his life. 

After the assassination of Henry IV (1610), the Ultramontane 
party gained new power, and Casaubon was urgently pressed to 
become a Catholic. His own feelings were in favour of the via 
media of the Anglican Church, and he accepted from archbishop 
Bancroft an invitation to England, where he was welcomed by 
James I, and was assigned a prebendal stall in Canterbury with a 
pension of ^300 a year. Writing from England to Salmasius, 
Casaubon gratefully exclaims: 'This people is anything but bar- 
barous; it loves and cultivates learning, especially sacred learning' 1 . 
Casaubon was compelled to give most of his time to the refutation 
of the Annals of Baronius. He discovered that the errors of 
Baronius were errors of scholarship, for Baronius knew neither 
Hebrew nor Greek. Casaubon paid visits to Cambridge and Oxford, 
and was delighted with both. His host at Oxford was Sir Henry 
Savile, then Warden of Merton as well as Provost of Eton, but, 
although they had the common ground of an interest in Greek, 
they were separated by the strongest contrast of character : 
1 Casaubon, insignificant in presence, the most humble of men, 

1 Ep. 837. 


but intensely real, knowing what he knew with fatal accuracy, and 
keeping his utterance below his knowledge'; Savile, 'the munifi- 
cent patron of learning, and devoting his fortune to its promotion, 
with a fine presence, polished manners and courtly speech', not 
devoid of 'swagger and braggadocio' 1 . Casaubon was hospitably 
entertained, but succeeded in reserving many hours of each day 
for his studies in the Bodleian, a pleasure for which he paid the 
penalty during the second week in a sudden sense of giddiness 
which seized him on his way to the library 2 . His stay in England 
lasted only for three years and eight months; and, in his strenuous 
labours in the refutation of Baronius, he sometimes sighed over his 
unfinished Polybius. He looked upon England as 'the island of 
the blest' 3 , but it was in that island that his life of long-continued 
labour and of late vigils came to a premature end at the age of 55. 
The martyr of learning was buried in Westminster Abbey, and the 
epitaph, added at a later date by Morton, bishop of Durham, 
begins and ends as follows : 

' O Doctiorum quidquid est assurgite 
Huic tarn colendo Nomini'... 

' Qui nosse vult Casaubonum 
Non saxa sed chartas legat 
Superfuturas marmori, 
Et profuturas posteris' 4 . 

His earliest work was concerned with Diogenes Laertius (1583). 
His father had recommended him to read Strabo, and the son 
produced a commentary on that author in 1587, which is still 
unsuperseded. This was followed by the editio princeps of 
Polyaenus (1589), and by an ordinary edition of the whole of 
Aristotle (1590). It is not until we reach his commentary on the 
Characters of Theophrastus (1592), that we find a work that is 
marked by his distinctive merit, an interpretation of a text of the 
most varied interest founded on wide reading and consummate 
learning 5 . It was a work that won the highest praise from Scaliger 6 . 
The number of Characters in this edition is raised from 23 to 28 

1 Pattison, 3552. 2 Eph. p. 984. 3 Ep. 703. 

4 Blount, Censura, 622. Wolf, Kl. Schriften, ii 1185-8, prefers Casaubd- 
nus to Casaubonus. 

6 Pattison, 433 2 . 6 Ep. 35, with Casaubon's reply, Ep. 19. 


by the addition of five from the Heidelberg Library. His notes on 
Suetonius (1595) continued to be reprinted in extenso down to 
1736. Though generally destitute of poetic feeling, he admired 
Theocritus; he calls the 27th poem a 'mellitissimum carmen'; 
and his Lectiones Theocriteae formed part of an edition published 
in 1596. One of his greatest works was his Athenaeus; his text 
of 1597 was followed by his 'Animadversions' of 1600, the whole 
of which were reproduced by Schweighauser in 1801. Casaubon 
would indeed have rejoiced, if he could have foreseen this fact 
when he wrote to Camerarius in 1594: 'I am deep in Athenaeus, 
and I hope my labour will not be in vain. But one's industry is 
sadly damped by the reflexion how Greek is now neglected and de- 
spised. Looking to posterity, or the next generation, what motive 
has one for devotion to study?' 1 But the absence of ethical motive 
led to the editor feeling a lack of interest in this author, and he 
was more strongly attracted to biography and to history. In the 
preface to the Historiae Attgustae Scriptores (1603) he holds that 
'political philosophy may be learned from history, and ethical 
from biography' 2 . The ethical interest is strong in his Persius 
(1605), on which he had lectured at Geneva and Montpellier, 
and his commentary on the Stoic satirist, of which Scaliger said 
that the sauce was better than the meat 3 , was reprinted in Germany 
as late as 1833, and has been ultimately merged in Conington's 
edition. Casaubon was interested in the practical wisdom of 
Polybius, and his edition of that author, promised in 1595, was 
published in 1609, with a preface of 36 folio pages of masterly 
Latin prose addressed to Henry IV, urging the importance of 
classical history as a subject of study for statesmen. The four 
years spent on this work were mainly devoted to the Latin trans- 
lation, the aim of which was to make the ancient historian accessible 
to the modern world 4 . A small volume of notes was posthumously 
published in 1617. Casaubon lives in his Letters* and in his 
Ephemerides 6 , a Latin journal largely interspersed with Greek, 
recording his daily reading and his reflexions for the last seventeen 
years of his life. When he has read continuously for a whole day, 

1 Ep. 996 (Pattison, 52'-'). 2 Pattison, 44O 2 . 3 Ep. 104. 

4 Cp. Pattison, 197 ioy. 5 Ed. Almeloveen, Rotterdam, 1709. 

6 Ed. J. Russell, Oxford, 1850. 

S. II. 14 


from early morn till late at night, he gratefully records the fact in 
the words : hodie vixi. Here and in his Letters, the Latin is that 
of a perfect master of the language, though it fails to attain ' the 
verve and pungency' of the style of Scaliger 1 . The only two mots 
attributed to him illustrate the attitude of the humanist towards an 
expiring scholasticism. Once when he was shown the old hall of 
the Sorbonne, his guide exclaimed : Voila une sale oil il y a quatre 
cens ans qiton dispute; and Casaubon replied with the question: 
Qu'a-t-on decide"? Again, after listening to a long disputation in 
that home of mediaeval lore, he remarked that 'he had never 
heard so much Latin spoken without understanding it' 2 . The 
'Casauboniana' printed by J. C. Wolf in 1710 are merely extracts 
from the 60 volumes of Adversaria and other papers deposited in 
the Bodleian by his son. The Adversaria themselves consist 
almost entirely of rough memoranda of his own reading, and the 
only item that can here be quoted is the precept that supplies us 
with the motive that inspired this vast collection: 'quicquid legis 
in excerptorum libros referre memineris. Haec unica ratio labanti 
memoriae succurrendi. Scitum enim illud est, Tantum quisque 
scit, quantum memoria tenet' 3 . 

His good name was attacked by his foes and was vindicated by 
his son Meric (1599 \^i\\ who was educated at Eton and 
Oxford, and held preferment in England. He is known as a 
translator of Marcus Aurelius, and an annotator on Terence, as 
well as on Hierocles, Epictetus and Cebes. 

The sixteenth century in France closes with the name of Josias 

Mercier, or Mercerius, who was born in Languedoc, 

was a member of the Council of Henry IV, and 

produced editions of the Ibis of Ovid (1568), the dictionary of 

Nonius Marcellus (1583, etc.), the Letters of Aristaenetus, and the 

treatise of Apuleius, De Deo Socratis (1625). Mercier marks the 

transition from the sixteenth to the seventeenth century. Three 

years before his death in 1626, his daughter was married to one of 

the leading scholars of the seventeenth century, Claudius Salmasius. 

1 Pattison, 88 2 . 2 ib. 4 26 2 . 

3 Tom. 16 (Pattison, 429 2 ). On Isaac Casaubon, cp. esp. the Life by 
Mark Pattison, 1875, and (with portrait and index) 1892 ; also Enc. Brit. s.v. 
Cp. C. Nisard's Gladiateurs, 309 456, esp. 344 379 ; and the slight sketch 
by L. J. Nazelle, /. C., sa vie et son temps (1897). 



DURING the fourteenth century the Brotherhood of the Common 
Life was founded in the Netherlands by Gerhard 
Groot (1340-84) and Florentius Radewyns (1350- R f d r e ^ y a n n s d 
1400). Among the chief aims of the Brethren were 
the transcription of MSS and the promotion of education in a 
religious spirit In and after 1400 many schools were founded by 
them in the Netherlands and in Northern Germany. In these 
schools the moral and religious education was based on the study 
of Latin, thus preparing the way for the humanists in Northern 
Europe. Among the precursors of humanism trained Nicoiau 
in these schools, as well as in Italy, were Nicolaus Cusanus 

T. Wcsscl 

Cusanus (1401 1464), who bequeathed to his birth- 
place of Cues on the Mosel a valuable collection of Greek and 
Latin MSS 1 ; and Johann Wessel of Groningen (14201489), the 
lux mundi of his age, who learnt Greek in Italy and counted 
Rudolf Agricola and Johann Reuchlin among his pupils in Paris 2 . 
The School at Deventer appears to have been originally a 
Chapter School, revived by the Brethren 3 who took part in the 
instruction, although the most celebrated of its head-masters, 
Hegius, was not a member .of that body. The Brotherhood, how- 
ever, has a clear claim to the credit of having founded the school 

1 Cp. F. A. Scharpff (Tubingen, 1871) ; Geiger, 331 f ; Creighton, Papacy, 
vi 8. Many of the MSS now form part of the Harleian collection in the British 
Museum; cp. Sabbadini's Scoperte, 109 113. 

2 Bursian, i 90 ; cp. Creighton, Papacy, vi 7. 

3 On returning from Amersfurt, where they had been driven by the plague 
in 1398 (Delprat, Broederschap van G. Groote 1830, p. 43 f, ed. 1856). 

14 2 


at Hertogenbosch, or Bois-le-Uuc. Deventer was the first, and 
Bois-le-Duc the second of the schools of Erasmus. 


That eminent humanist, who belongs to the Nether- 
lands by virtue of his birth, is so cosmopolitan in his character 
and in the varied regions of his activity, that his career has 
already been reviewed at an earlier point 1 . 

The university of Louvain had been founded in 1426 by 
John IV, duke of Brabant, with the approval of Martin V. The 
best of the local schools, known as that of the Lilium or Lis, was 
established in 1437 by Carolus Virulus (d. 1493), who presided 
over it for fifty-six years, and was the composer of a highly popular 
book of formulae epistolares' 2 '. From the school of Lis 

Despauterius . 

came Jan van rauteren, or 'Despauterius (d. 1520), 
a teacher at Hertogenbosch, who was one of the reformers of the 
current text-books of Latin Grammar 3 ; and at that school the 
study of Latin was popularised in and after 1508 by the public 
performance of the Aulularia and Miles Gloriosus of Plautus 4 . 
The Collegium Trilingue for the study of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, 

was founded in 11517 by Jerome Busleiden, who in 

Busleiden J . J 

1498 had left Louvain to study law at Bologna, and 
on his return became famous as a patron of letters and a collector 
of MSS. The magnificent museum, which formed part of his 
mansion at Malines, was admired by Sir Thomas More 5 , while he 
is lauded in the Letters of Erasmus as not only omnium librorum 
emaa'ssimus 6 , but also utriusque linguae callentissimus^ . After the 
death of the founder, no one did more than Erasmus to ensure 
the realisation of his friend's design, and, but for Erasmus, the 
Collegium Trilingue could hardly have survived the first ten years 
of its existence. 

1 p. 127 f supra. 

2 He is lauded by Vives De Trad. Disc, iv i 336 ; Felix Neve, Memoire 
historique et litttraire stir h coltege des Trois-Langues a Ftiniversite de Louvain 
(Bruxelles, 1856), 9 f. 

8 Neve, 15; Babler, Beitriige, 140 169. It was founded on Alexander de 
Villa Dei, and written in Latin verse. The Orthographiae Isagoge (Paris, 
1510), Rudimenta (1512), and Syntaxis (1515), were combined in the Cotn- 
mentarii Grammatici (Lyons, 1536; Paris, 1537). 

4 Neve, 118 f. 6 Lucubrations, 258 f, ed. 1563 (Neve, 384 f). 

6 i p. 671. 7 i p. 1836. 


The history of humanism in the Southern Netherlands is inseparably 
connected with the early printers of that region. John of 
Westphalia began printing in Louvain in 1474, and, between Printers: 
that date and 1497, produced more than 1 20 works. Mispress Westphalia 
was in one of the university buildings, and his editions included 
Juvenal and Persius, Virgil (1475-6), Cicero's Brutus (1475) and De OJfidis 
etc. (1483), and Leonardo Bruni's translation of the Ethics 
(1475). His business was bought by Dierik Martens, who 
settled at Louvain in 1512, there producing 24 editions of Latin works, which, 
in size and price, were suited for the use of students. In 1512 he made a 
fount of Greek type, and, when lectures began to be given in Louvain, he 
improved his type and produced a large number of Classical editions, including 
the greater part of Lucian, Homer (1523), Euripides, Theocritus, Aesop, the 
Plutus of Aristophanes, Herodotus, parts of Xenophon, Demosthenes, Plato, 
Aristotle, and Plutarch. He was himself a Greek and Latin and Hebrew 
scholar, and, in his preface to the Plutus, he laments the loss of the plays of 
Menander. His Greek texts are better printed than any produced in Paris 
before the establishment of the Royal Press by Francis I in 1538. He left 
Louvain for his native town of Alost in 1529. From that year onward, under 
the editorship of Rescius, the first professor of Greek at the Collegium 
Trilingue, a series of Greek texts was printed by Barthelemy Gravius, 
including Xenophon's Memorabilia, parts of Lucian, the Laws of Plato, the 
Aphorisms of Hippocrates, and Homer (1531-5)' After the death of Rescius 
little was done at Louvain for the printing of Greek ; Gravius died in 1580, and 
scholars at Louvain had their Greek editions printed either abroad or at 
the important press recently founded by Plantin at Antwerp. 
Christopher Plantin (1514 1589), who was born near Tours, 
was apprenticed to a printer at Caen; he practised bookbinding in Paris for 
three years before leaving for Antwerp, where he established a press in 1550. 
In 1570 he obtained the important privilege of printing all books of devotion 
for every part of the Spanish dominions. His greatest work was the Antwerp 
Polyglott printed in eight folio volumes (1569-72). His business was carried 
on under great difficulties owing to the revolt of the Netherlands against the 
power of Spain. In 1583-5 he was compelled to withdraw to Leyden, not 
returning until Antwerp had been recovered for Spain by the duke of Parma. 
On his death he was buried in the Cathedral 1 . In 1585, one of his sons-in- 
law, Franz Raphelinghius (1539-97), professor of Hebrew and Arabic, set up 
a press at Leyden, where his sons succeeded him as printers. At Antwerp, 
Plantin's business was inherited by his son-in-law, Moretus, and for three 
centuries it was continued in the same premises from 1576 to 1876, when the 
last representative of the house of Plantin- Moretus sold the building, with all 
its plant, its collection of MSS, printed books and engravings, and picture- 

1 Portrait in Bullart's Academic, ii 257 ; and in Max Rooses, Christophe 
Plantin, 1882. 


gallery, to the city of Antwerp, to be preserved for ever as a Museum of 
Printing. Among the numerous portraits by Rubens there preserved are those 
of Matthias Corvinus, Pico della Mirandola, Ortelius, and Lipsius, who is also 
represented in a fine engraving 1 ; in the room set apart for the correctors of the 
press, are two paintings probably representing Theodor Poelman, the editor 
of Horace (1557), and Cornelius Kilianus, the Flemish lexicographer, correcting 
their proofs, while among the printed Classics exhibited are diminutive copies 
of Martial (1568), and of Canter's Aeschylus (i58o) 2 . We shall meet Canter 
and Poelman and Lipsius in the sequel ; meanwhile, from scholars connected 
with the house of Plantin at Antwerp, we must turn to a humanist of earlier 
date, who was similarly connected with Martens at Louvain. 

In 1509 Juan Luis de Vives (1492 1540), a Spaniard of 
distinguished ancestry, who had been an adherent 
of scholasticism in his native land, and had opposed 
the adoption of a new Latin Grammar at Valencia, left for Paris, 
where he endeavoured to attain proficiency in dialectics. Three 
years later, weary of word-fence, he settled among the Spanish 
merchants in the university town of Louvain. He subsequently 
paid repeated visits to Paris. His conversion from scholasticism 
to humanism, probably begun in Paris and completed in the 
Netherlands, was due to the writings of Erasmus, whose personal 
acquaintance he made at Louvain. He there lectured mainly on 
Virgil and Cicero, and on the elder Pliny. In 1522 he went to 
England, and from Sept. 1523 to March 1525 resided from time 
to time in Corpus Christi College, Oxford 3 . He composed for his 
pupil, the Princess Mary, his treatise De Ratione Studii, and De 
Institutione Feminae Christianae, which he dedicated to her mother, 
queen Catherine of Aragon; and, for protesting against the king's 
divorce from Catherine, he was disgraced and dismissed. He 
returned to Bruges, where he had married in 1524, and where he 
lived (with few exceptions) for the rest of his life. It was there 
that, as tutor to a future bishop of Cambray and archbishop of 

1 Reproduced in chap, xix, p. 302 infra. 

2 Both in i6mo. Cp. Max Rooses, ChristopTie Plantin, with 100 plates; 
and Musee Plantin- Moretus, Antwerp, 1883. 

3 In 1523 he was invited by Wolsey to fill one of the public lectureships, 
and gave two brilliant courses of lectures (cp. P. S. Allen, on ' Vives at 
Corpus,' in the Pelican Record, 1902, ig6f, and on the 'Early Corpus 
Readerships '). 


Toledo, he composed (in 1531) his three educational treatises 1 . 
All three are included under the general title De Disciplinis. 

(i) In the first seven books, which are critical, he discusses the causes that 
have led to the decline of learning, touches on the superficiality of the school- 
men, whom he describes as ' sophists ' ; refers to the corruptions in Classical 
MSS and the inadequacy of the Latin translations of Aristotle ; the evil effects 
of scholastic disputations, the objections to the existing method of obtaining 
university degrees, the moral influence of the teacher, and the dignity of his 
calling. Grammar must not be studied in the subtle scholastic manner, but 
must be treated as the study of literature. All the other ' arts' are next reviewed 
in due order, (ii) The five books of part ii are constructive. The proper site 
for a school, and the character of the teacher, are set forth, and quarterly 
conferences on the part of teachers in each school recommended. The 
mother-tongue must be cultivated, but the almost universal language is Latin, 
which is also necessary in learning Italian and Spanish, while, for a complete 
mastery of Latin, it is necessary to learn Greek. The work forms a systematic 
and consistent whole, and it rests on an ethical and psychological basis. It is 
characterised by a blending of humanism with a Christianity that is partly 
coloured by Stoic and Platonic elements. It is one of the most valuable 
products of the union of Christianity and humanism during the Revival of 
Learning 2 . 

It was at Lou vain that several of the minor works of Vives were 
printed between 1519 and 1523, and, for part of that time, he 
lectured on Latin authors in the university. In his early treatise 
In Pseudodialeeticos (1519) he criticised the university of Paris, 
and, late in life (1538), he produced a volume of colloquies for 
beginners in Latin 3 . 

Among the lecturers of more than local fame at the Collegium 
in is 19-^9 was Conrad Goclenius. He 


dedicated a translation of the Hermotimiis of Lucian 
to Sir Thomas More (1522), who acknowledged the compliment 
by sending the translator a gilded cup full of gold pieces 4 . His 
successor in i S^9-=57 was Petrus Nannius of Alkmaar 


(1500 1557), who produced ten books of critical 

1 De Corruptis Artibus ; De 7radendis Disciplinis ; De Arlibns. 

2 Hartfelcler in Schmid's Gesch. der Erziehuttg, II ii 128 135. 

3 Cp. Vita by Majan, prefixed to the Opera (Valence, 1782-90) ; Mcmoire 
by Nameche (Bruxelles, 1841), and article by Mullinger in D. N. B.; also 
P. S. Allen, u.s.; and Woodward, Renaissance Education, 180 210 (list of 
classical authors recommended by Vives, ib. 198 f ). 

4 Nannius (Neve, 146 n). 


and explanatory Miscellanea, and commentaries on the Eclogues 
and Georgics, and the Ars Poetica, together with many translations 
from the Greek. He is described by Lipsius as the first who 
kindled an ardour for letters in the school of Louvain 1 . 

A few other names may be briefly noted. Hermann Torrentius, 
who taught at Groningen and in his native town of 

Torrentius . 

Zwolle, is known as an editor of the Eclogues and 
Georgics (1502), and as the author of a Classical Dictionary 
(1498 etc.) 2 , and of a revised and corrected edition of the 

mediaeval Grammar of Alexander de Villa Dei 3 . 


Iheodor Poelman, or Pulmannus (1510 -1581), 
saw through the press a large number of Latin Classics (Horace, 
Virgil, Lucan, Censorinus, Claudian etc.) for the 
SecimdAis great house of Plantin at Antwerp 4 . Jan Everaerts, 

or Joannes Secundus, a jurist of the Hague (1511- 
36), is best known as the author of the Basia. Hadrianus Junius 
(Adriaan de Jonghe), a physician at Haarlem, Copen- 
hagen, and Delft (1511 1575), is in good repute as 
an early editor of Nonius Marcellus (i565) 5 . A higher distinction 
belongs to the name of the Greek critic, Willem 
Canter of Utrecht (1542 1575), who studied under 
an able teacher, Cornelius Valerius, or Wouters (fl. 1557-78), and 
under Dorat in Paris, and afterwards lived as an independent 
scholar at Louvain. Among his works are the Novae Lectiones 
(1564), a Syntagma on the proper method of emending Greek 
authors 6 , and an edition of the Eclogae of Stobaeus. He opens a 
new era as an editor of the Tragic Poets of Greece. His Euripides, 
a sexto-decimo volume of more than 800 pages (1571), is the 
first in which the metrical responsions between strophe and anti- 
strophe are clearly marked by means of Arabic numerals in the 
margin, and the text repeatedly corrected under the guidance of 
these responsions 7 . His editions of Sophocles (1579) and Aeschylus 

1 Ep. Sel. Misc. iii 87 ; cp. Neve, 149 156. 

2 Elucidarius carminum et historiarum, etc. 3 Bursian, i 104 f. 
4 Max Rooses, Plantin, 106 f (with portrait). 

8 Also as the author of a Greek and Latin Lexicon (Bas. 1548, 1577); 
Life (1836) and Letters (1839) by Scheltema, Amsterdam. 

6 Reprinted in Samuel Jebb's Aristides, vol. ii. 

7 Euripidis Tragoediae xijc, in quibus praeter infinita menda sublata, 


(1580) were posthumously published 1 . The former remained in 
common use for more than two centuries 2 . 

If we descend below the year 1575, we have to note the name 
of Stephanus Vinandus Pighius (1520 1604), a 

. . Pighius 

native of Campen, who spent eight years in Italy, 
was librarian to Cardinal Granvella in Brussels (1555-74)? an d 
passed the latter part of his life as a Canon at Xanten on the 
Rhine. It was there that he produced both of his important 
works, his edition of Valerius Maximus (1585), and his Annales 
Romanorum (1599 1615). His earlier life in Italy is represented 
by a collection of drawings of ancient monuments preserved in the 
codex PiManus at Berlin 3 . We may also notice 

3 Modius 

Franz Modius, a Canon of Aire, who was born near 
Bruges (1556 1599), an editor of Curtius, Vegetius, Frontinus, 
Justin, and Livy, and author of a work on the triumphal proces- 
sions and the festivals of Rome. The Jesuit, Martin 


Anton Delrio, of Antwerp and Louvam (1561 
1608), who criticised Solinus, and annotated Claudian and the 
plays of Seneca, is best known for his denunciation of Scaliger's 
disbelief in the genuineness of the works ascribed to 'Uionysius 
the Areopagite' 4 . A far more familiar name is that 


of Jacob Cruquius, the professor of Bruges, whose 
edition of Horace, begun in 1565 and completed in 1578, supplies 
us with our only information as to the codex antiquissimus Blandi- 
nius, borrowed from the library of a Benedictine monastery near 
Ghent, and burnt with the monastery after it had been returned 
to the library. 

During the progress of the Horatian labours of Cruquius, an 
event took place that marks an epoch in the history of scholarship 
in the Netherlands, the foundation of the university of Leyden, in 
memory of the heroism displayed by its inhabitants during its 
famous siege in 1575. While Louvain continued to be the leading 

carniinntn omnium ratio hactenus ignorata mine primuin proditur (Plantin, 

1 Cp. Burman, Trajectum Erudition, 59 70. 

2 Brunck (1786); cp. Jebb's Inlrod. to text of Sophocles (1897), xxxviii. 

3 Bursian, i 345. 

4 Bernays, Scaliger, 81, 205 f. 


university of the Southern (or Spanish) Netherlands, Leyden 
became the foremost seat of learning in those Northern Nether- 
lands, which threw off the Spanish yoke and formed themselves 
into the 'United Provinces' in 1579. The first period in the 
history of scholarship in the Netherlands has now ended : the 
foundation of Leyden marks the beginning of the second. 


ENGLAND FROM c. 1370 TO c. 1600. 

IN the dawn of the Renaissance the only point of contact 
between Petrarch and England is supplied by the learned biblio- 
phile, Richard of Bury. When these kindred spirits met at 
Avignon in 1330, Petrarch seized the opportunity to enquire as 
to the exact position of the ancient Thule, and was disappointed 
to find the English envoy perfectly indifferent to this interesting 
topic 1 . Petrarch was afterwards, however, assured by Boccaccio 
that a day would come when even ' the backward Briton ' would 
appreciate his epic poem of Africa 2 . Chaucer (1328 1400) paid 
three visits to Italy in 1372-8 and was under Italian influence 
until 1384. He made use of Boccaccio's Latin works, though he 
never names their author, and there is no evidence that he knew 
the Decameron 3 . But he frequently mentions Petrarch. The 
* Clerkes Tale ' he professes to have ' lern'd at Padowe of a 
worthy clerk'. 

' Franceis Petrark, the laureat poete, 
Ilighte this clerke, whos rethorike swete 
Enlumined all Itaille of poetry' 4 . 

The Latin Classics most familiar to Chaucer were Ovid, Virgil, 
Statius, and Juvenal, with parts of Cicero and Seneca 5 . Homer 6 , 

1 Epp. Fain, iii i. 

2 Studiis tardiis Britannits (Boccaccio, Lettere, p. 250, Corazzini). 

3 W. H. Schofield, English Literature, from the Norman Conquest to 
Chaucer (1906), 109, 293, 341, 347. 

4 On Petrarch's influence on English poetry, cp. Einstein's Italian Renais- 
sance in England, 316 340. 

5 Cp. W. Hertzberg, Chanters Canterbury Gcsch. 42 45; Kissner, Chaucer 
in s. Beziehungen zur ital. Literatur, Marburg, 1867; T. R. Lounsbury, 
Studies in Chaucer, New York, 1892, vol. ii. 

6 Cp. Schofield, 282 f. 


Statius, Virgil, Ovid, Lucan, and Claudian are the poets placed 
on lofty pillars in his House of Fame 1 . Chaucer's pupil, Lydgate, 
knew the most important of the Latin 'works of Petrarch and 
Boccaccio, and Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury 
(d. 1414), was a correspondent of Salutati. In i395 2 an Augus- 
tinian monk named ' Thomas of England ' lectured in Florence, 
where he ' bought the books of the modern poets ', and the 
translations and other early works of Leonardo Bruni 3 . In 
December, 1400, the Greek emperor, Manuel Palaeologus, was 
entertained at Christ Church, Canterbury, and, in 1408, England 
was visited by Manuel Chrysoloras 4 . At the Council of Constance 

(1415) Henry Beaufort became acquainted with 
England. Pggi> wno at the bishop's invitation spent several 

years in England (1418-23). Poggio's English 
correspondents included Nicholas Bildstone, archdeacon of 
Winchester, Richard Pettworth, the bishop's secretary, and John 
Stafford, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. In the early 

years of the Council of Basel, Aeneas Sylvius was 
neasTsyivius" sent as an envov to Britain. On his way to Scotland 

he noted the barbarism of the rustics in North- 
umberland, but, on his return, he saw a Latin translation of 
Thucydides in the sacristy of St Paul's cathedral (i435) 5 . It was 
probably after returning to Basel that he made the acquaintance 
of Adam de Molyneux, Secretary of State to Henry VI and a 
frequent correspondent of Aeneas Sylvius. Molyneux was pro- 
bably the first Englishman who acquired the art of writing a Latin 
letter in a polished style adorned with classical quotations 6 . 

In the same age Cardinal Beaufort's rival, Humphrey, duke 

Hum hre ^ Gloucester ( I 39 I 1 44?)) distinguished himself 

duke of as a patron of learning. He employed Italian 

teachers to aid him in the study of Latin poetry 
and rhetoric. These teachers included ' Titus Livius of Forli ', 

1 iii 365423. 

2 Gherardi, Statuti, 364. 3 Epp. ii 18 ; Voigt, ii 258 3 . 

4 F. A. Gasquet, Eve of the Reformation, p. 20, ed. 1905. 

5 Ep. 126 (Creighton's Papacy, iii 53 n.). 

6 Cp. Creighton's Early Renaissance, p. 19 ; also in Hist. Lectures and 
Addresses, p. 196 f. 


'poet and orator to the duke of Gloucester', and afterwards 
author of a life of Henry V; Antonio Beccario of Verona, a 
pupil of Vittorino ; and Vincent Clement, his ' orator ' at Rome, 
who was also famous as the 'star' of the university of Oxford 1 . 
Duke Humphrey left to that university a considerable library 2 , 
including the Panegyrici Veteres, and the Letters of Cicero 3 . His 
admiration of Leonardo Bruni's rendering of the Ethics led him 
to ask the translator to produce a similar rendering of the 
Politics, which was ultimately dedicated to Pope Eugenius IV 4 . 
Another Italian scholar, Pier Candido Decembrio, sent the duke 
a translation of the first five books of the Republic, begun by 
Chrysoloras, continued by his father, and completed by himself. 
On this second occasion the duke (who had been remiss with 
Bruni) did not forget to thank the translator for the work ; he 
even encouraged him to complete it (i439) 5 . He also received 
from the youthful Lapo da Castiglionchio certain of his renderings 
of Plutarch's Lives 6 . With his death in 1447 the first age of 
humanism in England comes to an end, and the interest in the 
Greek Classics falls, for a time, into abeyance. 

In the second half of the same century, Italy was visited by 
John Tiptoft, earl of Worcester (c. 1427 1470), a 
friend of the monks of Christ Church, Canterbury. 
Forced to leave England, he went to Venice, and thence to 
Palestine. On his return to Italy, he studied Latin at Padua, 
visited the aged Guarino at Ferrara, and Vespasiano in Florence, 
where he heard Argyropulos lecture on Greek. The Latin speech 

1 Beckynton's Correspondence, \ 223 (Rolls Series}. 

2 The number is variously stated at 108, 1-29, 300 400, or 600 (probably 
the ultimate total). Cp. Munimenta Academica, ed. Anstey, for 1439 and 
1444; and Delisle, Le cabinet des AfSS, i 52. Erasmus could hardly refrain 
from tears when he saw the scanty remains of this library, and in Leland's 
day scarcely a single volume survived. 

3 Voigt, ii 2s6 3 . 

4 Vespasiano, Vile, 436f; p. 46 supra. 

5 The whole correspondence is printed in English Hist. Rev. July 1904-5; 
a facsimile of a MS of Decembrio's letter is given opposite p. 6 of Einstein's 
Italian Renaissance in England. The duke's reply includes the phrase hoc 
nno nos longe felicem iitdicantes (Hist. Rev. 1904, 513) ; cp. Hallam i io8 4 n. 

6 Bandini, Cat. codd. Lat. Laur. ii 699, 742 ; Voigt, ii 257*. 


that he delivered in Rome in the presence of Pius II drew tears 
of joy from the eyes of the Pope. A translation from Lucian 
was dedicated to him by Francesco d' Arezzo, and he himself 
translated the De Amicitia of Cicero. Some of the numerous 
MSS that he purchased in Florence were presented to the university 
of Oxford 1 . His love of letters was lauded by Caxton 2 , but Italy 
had inspired him, not only with an appreciation of the Greek and 
Latin Classics, but also with an admiration for the methods of 
the Italian despots, and, when he was executed on Tower Hill, 
the mob declared that he deserved his death for infringing the 
liberties of the people by bringing from Italy ' a law of Padua ' to 
take the place of the common law of England 3 . 

Florence was also visited by an Englishman, who was the 
royal envoy to the Pope, and remained in Florence for a year and 
a half, consorting with scholars of the better sort, such as Manetti, 
and purchasing many MSS from Vespasiano 4 . 

Englishmen resorted still more frequently to Ferrara. Reynold 

Chicheley studied there and became Rector of the university 5 . 

Among those who attended the school of Guarino at that place 

was William Grey, who had already worked at 


Cologne and Padua, and invited a youthful scholar, 
Niccol6 Perotti, to share his lodgings and aid him in the study of 
Latin. Grey became bishop of Ely (d. 1478), and bequeathed to 
Balliol College, Oxford, a number of MSS, including many letters 
of Guarino 6 . 

1 Epist. Acad. ii 354, 390. 

2 Leland, Script. Brit, 480. 

' s Vespasiano, Vite, 402-5 ; Creighton, Historical Lectures, 198 ; Einstein, 
24 27. In the Canterbury necrology (MS Arundel 68 f 45 d, quoted by Gasquet, 
p. 21) he is described as ' vir ujidecumque doctissimus, omnium liberalium 
artium divinarumque simul ac secutarium litterarum scienter peritissimus'. 

4 Vite, 238, ' Messer Andrea Ols '. . I have succeeded in identifying him 
as Andrew Holes, chancellor of Sarum (1438) and envoy, of Henry VI to 
Eugenius IV in Florence (1441-3). He had meanwhile been nominated 
archdeacon of Northampton, and bishop of Coutances. See Beckynton's 
Correspondence, in the Rolls Series, i 26, 91, i i8, 172 f, 225, 234, 239, ii 251. 

* Calendar of State Papers, Venetian, vol. VI, part iii, 1581. 

q Coxe, Cat. Cod. Oxon. I Balliol; and Woodward, Otia Meneiana, 1903. 
Cp. Vespasiano, 213 f; Creighton, 201 ; Einstein, 19 f. 


Guarino was also visited by John Free (better known as 
Phreas), Fellow of Balliol, who taught medicine at 
Ferrara, Florence, and Parma, and is said to have 
been nominated bishop of Bath shortly before his death in 1465 1 . 
When Guarino died in 1460, his son referred with pride to the 
fact that his father's school had been attended by pupils even 
from Britain, 'which is situated outside the world' 2 , and the 
funeral oration by Lodovico Carbone paid the same tribute to the 
master's memory 3 . Robert Flemming, who had 

, , , - T . , . i r T i Flemming 

been made dean of Lincoln in 1451, left Lincoln 
for Ferrara, and was agent for Edward IV in Rome. He wrote 
Latin verses at Tivoli and compiled a Greek and Latin dictionary. 
On his death in 1483, he left the MSS, which he had collected in 
Italy, to his cousin's foundation of Lincoln College, Oxford 4 . 
John Gunthorpe, who was invited to Ferrara by 


Free, there learnt to make Latin speeches. He 
was employed on complimentary embassies by Edward IV, was 
Warden of the King's Hall, Cambridge, prebendary of Lincoln 
and dean of Wells (1472-98). The house that he there built 
gives proof of his interest in Italian architecture, while some of 
the MSS which he collected in Italy were bequeathed to Jesus 
College, Cambridge 5 . 

All of these Englishmen, who went on pilgrimage to Guarino's 
school at Ferrara, were interested in Latin. They all attained 
positions of eminence, and left their Latin MSS to College libraries, ]/ 
but they kindled no interest in the Classics. ' It was not till the 
value of Greek thought became in any degree manifest that the 
New Learning awakened any enthusiasm in England' 6 . 

In the Revival of Learning the first Englishman who studied 
Greek was a Benedictine monk, William of Selling, or Celling, 

1 Voigt, ii 26o 3 ; Creighton, 202; Einstein, 18, 20 23; some of his Letters 
published by Spingarn in Journal of Comp. Lit. 1903. Dr J. F. Payne sug- 
gests that his original name was possibly Wells (plural of <f>ptap). 

2 Voigt, ii 261 n. i 3 . 

3 Leland, De Scriptoribns Brit. 462. 

4 Voigt, ii 26o 3 ; Creighton, 203 ; Einstein, 23 f. 

5 Only one or two are left (M. R. James, Parker MSS, 1899, 13). Cp. in 
general Voigt, ii 26o 3 ; Creighton, 202 ; Einstein, 23. 

6 Creighton, 204. 

hcm*s linxcrt. prc 

i>immc t'.erfvs tlicf-r tixxs deaf-tana ut; l / rC: y ^ '' 
serf it ffn4i-mri -fife: " L-Pet* 

From a drawing in the Cracherode collection, Print Room, British Museum. 

Thomas Linacre professeuren medecine a son isle Angloise, homme certes docle aits 
deux langues, Grecque et Latine, lequel ayant compose plusieurs doctes liures, 
mourn t a Londres fan de notre Seigneur 1524. 


near Canterbury (d. I494) 1 . Night and day he was haunted by 
the vision of Italy that, next to Greece, was the 
nursing mother of men of genius 2 . Accompanied 
by another monk, William Hadley, he went to Italy in 1464* and 
studied for three years at Padua, Bologna, and Rome. On his 
return, he brought back many MSS, and endeavoured to make a 
home of learning in the monastery of Canterbury, of which he 
become Prior in 1472, after a second visit to Rome in 1469. He 
paid special attention to Greek, and produced a Latin rendering 
of a work of St Chrysostom. In 1485, he visited Rome for the 
third time, to announce the accession of Henry VII, when he 
delivered a Latin oration in the presence of Innocent VIII and 
the College of Cardinals. He was possibly Fellow of All Souls' ; 
he was certainly Prior of Christ Church, Canterbury, from 1472 
to 1494. The MSS, which he had collected in Italy, were be- 
queathed to that body ; most of them perished in a fire, but one 
of them possibly survives in the Homer given by archbishop 
Parker to the library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge 4 . His 
monument in Canterbury Cathedral describes him as ' Doctor 
theologus Selling, Graeca atque Latina | lingua perdoctus' 5 . 

In the school of Christ Church, Selling inspired with his love 
of classical learning his pupil and nephew, Thomas 
Linacre (c. 1460 1524), who went to Oxford about 
1480, was elected Fellow of All Souls' in 1484, and accompanied 
Selling on his embassy to the Pope in 1485-6. It was during 

1 Leland's Tillaeus (De Scr. Brit. 482) has suggested Tilly or Till. The 
Canterbury Letter Books (iii 291 in the Rolls Series, quoted by Gasquet, p. 22) 
show that Prior Selling was interested in a boy named ' Richard Tyll\ 

" Leland, Script. Brit. 482, 'prae oculis obversabatur Italia, post Graeciam, 
bonorum ingeniorum et parens et altiix '. 

3 Litt. Cant, iii 239; cp. Einstein, 29; Gasquet, 23. Leland, I.e., states 
that, at Bologna, Selling was the pupil of Politian 'with whom. ..he formed 
a familiar and lasting friendship'; but Politian was only 10 in 1464, and was 
probably then in Florence. The Greek Readers at Bologna in 1466-7 were 
Lionorus and Andronicus (Dallari's Rotuli, p. 51, quoted by Gasquet). 

4 M. R. James, Parker MSS (1899), P- 9- The Euripides in the same 
library, and the Livy in that of Trinity College, possibly belonged to Selling. 

5 William Worcester mentions ' certain Greek terminations as taught by 
Dr Selling' with the pronunciation of the vowels (Brit. Mus. Cotton MS Julius 
F vii, f. 118, quoted by Gasquet, p. 24). 

S. II. 15 


this visit to Italy that Selling introduced Linacre to Politian in 
Florence. In Florence Linacre studied Latin and Greek under 
Politian and Chalcondyles. A year later he went to Rome. It 
was there that, while examining a MS of the Phaedrus in the Vatican 
Library, he made the acquaintance of Hermolaus Barbarus l , who 
urged Linacre and his two English companions, William Grocyn 
and William Latimer, to translate Aristotle into Latin. After 
leaving Rome for Venice, he made the acquaintance of Aldus 
Manutius, and was enrolled as an honorary member of his Greek 
Academy. In the preface to the second volume of the Aldine 
editio princeps of Aristotle (February, 1497), Aldus states that the 
care with which the work had been executed would be attested by 
many in Italy, and in particular at Venice by ' Thomas Anglicus, 
homo et Graece et Latine peritissimus '. At the end of the 
Astronomici Veteres (1499), Aldus prints the Sphere of Proclus 
in the Latin rendering recently made by 'Thomas Linacrus 
Britannus', who had become intimate with the prince of Carpi, 
to whom this part of the work is dedicated by the printer in 
October, 1499. He also prints a letter from Grocyn (27 August) 
mentioning Linacre's recent return to England. Linacre had 
meanwhile, in 1492, graduated in medicine at Padua, and had 
studied Hippocrates under Leonicenus at Vicenza. On his way 
back to England (probably in the summer of 1499), he erected 
on the highest point of one of the Alpine passes an altar of stones 
which he dedicated to Italy as his Sancta Mater Sfudiorum 2 . 
On his return he proceeded to translate the commentary of 
Simplicius on the Physics and of Alexander on the Meteorologica 
of Aristotle, and it was probably at this time, in London, that his 
lectures on the Meteorologica were attended by Thomas More 3 . 
His translation 4 remained unpublished, but his renderings of 

1 Pauli Jovii Elogia, no. 63. 

2 Epigram by Janus Vitalis, in Pauli Jovii Elogia, no. 63 ; cp. Dr Payne's 
Introd. to Linacre's Galen, 13 15. 

3 Stapleton (Vita Mori, 12, in Tres Thomae, 1588) states that More learned 
Greek, and studied the Meteorologica, under Linacre at Oxford, where More 
was in residence about 1493. This is the only evidence for Linacre's return to 
England in 1492 (see esp. P. S. Allen, in Eng. Hist. Rev. xviii (1903) 514, 
Linacre and Latimer in Italy). 

4 Erasmus, Epp. 466, 1091. 


several treatises of Galen saw the light, De Sanitate Tuenda and 
Methodus Medendi in Paris (1517 and 1519), De Temperamentis 
at Cambridge (I52I) 1 , and three other treatises in London 
(1523-4). The work printed at Cambridge in 1521 by Siberch, 
who in the same year and place was the first to use Greek type in 
England 2 , was dedicated by Linacre to Leo X, in memory of the 
fact that, by permission of Lorenzo, the translator had shared 
with the future Pope the private instructions of Politian. In 
1509 he had been appointed physician to Henry VIII; in 1512 
he wrote for St Paul's School a Latin Grammar, which was not 
accepted by Colet. His appointment as tutor to the princess 
Mary led to his preparing a Latin Grammar, which was composed 
in English, though it bore the Latin title, Rudimenta Grammatices 
(c. 1523); it was afterwards translated into Latin by Buchanan. 
A far more important work was Linacre's treatise De Emendata 
Structura Latini Sermonis (1524), which was reprinted abroad 
with a letter from Melanchthon recommending its use in the 
schools of Germany 3 . The edition of Julius Pollux by Antonio 
Francesco Varchiese (1520) was dedicated to Linacre, who also 
counted among his correspondents the eminent Greek scholar, 
Budaeus. Lastly, Linacre was the founder of the College of 
Physicians (1518), and of lectureships in medicine at Merton 
College, Oxford, and St John's College, Cambridge. The lecturers 
were originally required to expound Linacre's own renderings of 
Galen, but the Galenian tradition, which had come down from 
the Middle Ages, was abolished at Cambridge by the statutes of 
Queen Elizabeth 4 . Linacre was buried in St Paul's cathedral, 
but it was not until 1557 that Dr Caius marked the site with an 
epitaph in which he describes Linacre as vir et Graece et Latine 
atque in re medica longe eruditissimus 6 . He is among the earliest 

1 Facsimile, Cambridge, i8Sr. 

2 Assuming the correctness of Mr Bradshaw's chronological arrangement 
of Siherch's publications, the first Greek printed in England must have 
been the expressive words, irdvrwv ^era/JoX^, the motto of the Sermon of 
St Augustine (1521; facsimile, 1886). 

3 Hallam, i 3s8 4 . 

4 Prof. Macalister's Lecture in Lancet, 1904, pp. 1005 f. 

5 Cp. Einstein, 30 38; Dugdale's History of St Paul's (1658), 56. 


of England's humanists. Erasmus has declared that nothing can 
be more acute, more profound, or more refined than the judge- 
ment of Linacre 1 , and in the Encomium Moriae (1521) has drawn 
a portrait of his friend, which may well have been the original of 
Browning's Grammarian' 2 ': 

' Novi quendam tro\vTex"l)rarov Graecum, Latinum, Mathematicum, philo- 
sophum medicum Kal TO.VTO. /3a.<n\iK6v jam sexagenarium qui, caeteris rebus 
omissis, annis plus viginti se torquet et discruciat in Grammatica, prorsus 
felicem se fore ratus, si tamdiu licet vivere, donee certo statuat, quomodo 
distinguendae sint octo partes orationis, quod hactenus nemo Graecorum aut 
Latinorum ad plenum praestare valuit. Proinde quasi res sit bello quoque 
vindicanda, si quis conjunctionem facial dictionem ad adverbiorum jus per- 
tinentem ' 3 . 

Modern English Scholarship begins with Linacre and his 
two friends, William Grocyn and William Latimer. 


The eldest of the three was Grocyn (c. 1446 1519), 
elected Fellow of New College in 1467. He was over forty when 
he joined Linacre in Italy, where he and Latimer attended the 
lectures of Politian and Chalcondyles between 1488 and 1490. 
It was probably not until his return from Italy in 1491, that the 
teaching of Greek began to be effective in Oxford. In 1496 
he left for London, where More became his pupil. Beyond the 
tradition of his teaching, he has left little behind him, except a 
letter to Aldus, written in 1499, thanking him for his singular 
kindness to Linacre who had just returned to England, and con- 
gratulating him on his publication of the Greek text of Aristotle 4 . 
William Latimer (c. 1460 1545), Fellow of All Souls' in 

1489, who studied at Padua (1498) and was a friend 

W. Latimer 

of Sir Thomas More, was even less productive than 
Grocyn. He is only represented in literature by his correspond- 
ence with Erasmus, who playfully refers to the little use he made 

1 p. 229 infra. 2 Dr Payne, I.e., p. 48. 

3 p. 251. Life (by George Lily) in Paulus Jovius, Descr. Britanniae 
(Ven. 1548); also in Bale (Ipswich, 1548), Leland's Encomia (1589); and 
Dr Noble Johnson (1835). See esp. Dr Payne's In trod. (pp. i 48) to 
Linacre's Galen (1881, with portrait from Windsor), and his Harveian Lecture 
on Harvey and Galen (1897), 7 14. Another portrait, p. 224 supra. 

4 Printed next to Preface to Linacre's Prochts in the Aldine Astronomici 
Veteres ; cf. Oxford Collectanea, ii 351, and Einstein, 30 35. 


of his learning by comparing him to a miser hoarding his gold 1 . 
The youngest of this group of Greek scholars was 
William Lily (c. 1468 1522), who during his early 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem studied Greek in Rhodes, underwent 
all kinds of difficulties and privations, while working in Venice 2 , 
and attended the lectures of Sulpitius Verulanus and Pomponius 
Laetus in Rome. He was chosen by John Colet to be the first 
high-master of St Paul's (1512-22), and in that capacity prepared, 
under the title of 'Grammatices Rudimenta', a short Latin Syntax, 
with the rules in English, which was not printed until 1527. 
Colet (c. 1467 1519), after studying the Platonic 
and Neo-Platonic philosophy in Latin versions, 
spent three years in Italy (1493-6), during which he acquired 
the rudiments of Greek. Among his favourite modern authors 
were Ficino and Pico della Mirandola. The life and letters of 
the latter were specially studied by Thomas More 
(1478 1535) about 15 io 3 . More himself informs 
us that he attended Linacre's lectures on Aristotle's Meteorologica*, 
and his Utopia (1516) has elements derived not only from 
St Augustine's De Civitate Dei but also from Plato's Republic*. 
More had already left Oxford to read law in London, while 
Erasmus was spending those two months in Oxford (Oct. Nov. 
1499), when he first met Colet; but he lighted on More (as well 
as Grocyn and Linacre) during a visit to London, and in Decem- 
ber, 1499, wrote from London to an English friend in Italy : 

' I have found in England... so much learning and culture, and that of no 
common kind, but recondite, exact and ancient, Latin and Greek, that I now 
hardly want to go to Italy, except to see it. When I listen to my friend Colet, 
I can fancy I am listening to Plato himself. Who can fail to admire Grocyn, 
with all his encyclopaedic erudition ? Can anything be more acute, more 
profound, more refined, than the judgement of Linacre? Has nature ever 
moulded anything gentler, pleasanter, or happier, than the mind of Thomas 
More?' 6 

1 Rp. 363. 2 Sir George Young, Gk Literature in England, 69. 

3 More's Picus Erie of Alyrandula has been reprinted, ed. J. M. Rigg 
(1890). More may have been born in 1477 (P. S. Allen, Erasmi Epp. i 265). 

4 Letter to Dorpius, 21 Oct. 1515, in his Lucubrationes (1563), 416 f; 
Lnpton's Introd. to Utopia, p. xix. Cp. p. 226 n. 3 supra. 

5 ib. xlviii f, and Index. 

6 Ep. 14 (no. 118, ed. P. S. Allen, 1906). 


It was to a daughter of More that Erasmus, in the language of 
a modern picture of The Household of Sir Thomas More, disclosed 
his opinion of the relative value of Greek and Latin : 

'You are an eloquent Latinist, Margaret 1 , he was pleased to say, 'but, if 
you woulde drink deeplie of the Wellsprings of Wisdom, applie to Greek. 
The Latins have onlie shallow Rivulets ; the Greeks, copious Rivers running 
over Sands of gold' 1 . 

During the short time spent by Erasmus in Cambridge (Aug. 
1511 Jan. 1514), he gave unofficial instruction in Greek, be- 
ginning with the catechism of Chrysoloras, and going on to the 
larger grammar of Theodorus Gaza 2 . 

When in 1516 Bishop Fox, who had been Master of Pem- 
broke College, Cambridge, founded Corpus Christi 
Oxford and College, Oxford, he made provision for lecturers 
who were to give instruction in the Greek and Latin 
Classics. This was the first permanent establishment of a teacher 
of Greek in England. But the teaching of Greek aroused in 1518 
the opposition of a party of students who called themselves 
Trojans ; and a preacher in Lent went so far as to denounce, not 
only Greek, but also Latin and all liberal learning whatsoever. 
Mo're, who was then in attendance on the king at Abingdon, 
wrote to the authorities of the university on behalf of the Gre- 
cians 3 ; a royal letter was sent commanding that all students 
should be readily permitted to study Greek 4 ; and in the same year 
(1518) a lectureship of Greek was founded by Wolsey. Erasmus, 
who rejoices in recording the way in which the ' brawlers were 
silenced' at Oxford, observes that, meanwhile, at Cambridge, 
' Greek was being taught without disturbance (tranquille), as its 
school was under the government of John Fisher, Bishop of 
Rochester, a divine not only in learning but in life ' 5 . 

Among the pupils of Erasmus in Cambridge was Henry 
Bullock, Fellow of Queens' (1506), who kept Greek alive in 

1 [Miss A. Manning], Household of Sir Thomas More, p. 90, ed. Hutton, 
1906 ; Erasmus, quoted on p. 125 supra. 

2 Ep. 123 (no. 233, ed. P. S. Allen). 

3 Letter in Jortin's Erasmus, ii 662-7 ; 29 March, 1518. 

4 Erasmus, Ep. 380 (22 April, 1519). 

8 ib. (cp. Mayor on Ascham's Scholemaster, 245). 


Cambridge 1 , till it was taken up in 1518 by Richard Croke 
(c. 1489 1558), the minister and discipulus of 
Grocyn (probably in London). Croke became croke Ck 
Scholar of King's, and afterwards Fellow of St John's. 
After studying at Cambridge in 1506-10, he worked in Paris 2 
1511-2 under Erasmus and Aleander, and, in 1515-7, taught 
Greek with signal success at Cologne, Louvain, and Leipzig 3 , 
where he counted Camerarius among his pupils 4 . After eight 
years' absence abroad, he returned from Dresden to Cambridge 
in 1518, and, having been formally appointed Reader in Greek, 
delivered two orations on the importance and utility of that lan- 
guage (i52o) 5 . Cambridge was the first university in the British 
Isles to institute the office of Public Orator (1522), and Richard 
Croke, the first holder of that office, was specially appointed for 
life, and had further privileges, quia primus invexit literas ad nos 
graecas 6 . As Reader in Greek, he was succeeded 
by Thomas Smith of Queens' (1514 1577), who smith 
filled that position from 1535 to 1540, when he be- 
came Regius Professor of Civil Law, the Regius Professorship of 
Greek, founded in this year, being assigned to 
John Cheke (1514-57), 'who taught Cambridge C hekl h 
and king Edward Greek'. He was then Fellow of 
St John's, and afterwards Public Orator, and Provost of King's. 
Within two years of Cheke's appointment as Professor, we find 
Roger Ascham, Fellow of St John's, writing to another member 
of the same society on the flourishing state of classical studies in 
Cambridge : 

1 His translation of Lucian -irepl duf/ddwv (1521) is in St John's College 
Library, the only copy in Cambridge. He was Vice-Chancellor in 1524-5, 
and died in 1526. 

2 Erasmus, Ep. 149 ; no. 227 and 256, P. S. Allen ; Nichols, ii 22. 

3 Nichols, ii 274, 533. 

4 Camerarius, De Eobano ffesso, ' ferebar in oculis, quia audiveram 
Ricardum Crocum Britannum, qui primus putabatur ita docuisse Graecam 
linguam in Germania, ut plane perdisci illam posse arbitrarentur' (Mullinger's 
Cambridge, i 527). 

5 Mullinger, i 528 539. 

6 Statute in Heywood's Doctintcnts, 1852, i 433. This ignores the in- 
struction privately given by Erasmus in October, 1511 (Ep. 233 Allen). 


For some five years, Aristotle and Plato had been studied at St John's ; 
Sophocles and Euripides were more familiar than Plautus had been twelve 
years before ; Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon were more ' conned and 
discussed ' than Livy was then ; Demosthenes was as well known as Cicero ; 
Isocrates as Terence ; ' it is Cheke's labours and example that have lighted 
up and continue to sustain this learned ardour' 1 . 

About 1535, Thomas' Smith and John Cheke, then young men 
of little more than twenty, had been attracted to 
numfiatiorj " the question of the pronunciation of Greek, and, 
after studying the Dialogue of Erasmus on that sub- 
ject (1528), and the treatise of Terentianus, De Litteris et Syllabis, 
they had come to the conclusion that a reform was necessary. 
This reform, which was none other than the adoption of the 
'Erasmian' method, was cautiously introduced by Smith, whose 
example was followed by Cheke and Ascham. In December, 1536, 
the Plutus was acted in St John's with the Erasmian pronunciation. 
The reform was opposed, and the question brought to the notice 
of Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, then Chancellor of 
the university. In 1542 Gardiner, after writing to Cheke, decreed 
an immediate return to the ' Reuchlinian ' pronunciation. The 
effect is described as most disheartening. Ascham complains 
that 'all sounds in Greek are now exactly the same, reduced, 
that is to say, to a like thin and slender character, and subjected 
to the authority of a single letter, the iota ; so that all one can 
hear is a feeble piping like that of sparrows, or an unpleasant 
hissing like that of snakes' 2 . Then followed a protracted corre- 
spondence between Cheke and Gardiner 3 . Compliance with the 

1 Epp. p. 74 (Mayor's ed. of The Scholemaster, 257; Mullinger, ii 52 f. 
Cp. Toxophilus, p. 77 Arber). Portrait in H. Holland's Heroologia (1620), 
p. 52, and in Strype's Life, ed. 1705. 

2 Epp. p. 75 (Mullinger, ii 60). Ascham found the ' Erasmian ' pronuncia- 
tion in use at Louvain in 1551 (Works, 355). Cp. Strype's Life of Sir John 
Cheke, 17 19 (ed. 1705), and of Sir Thomas Smith, 29 34 (ed. 1698) ; also 
Sir George Young, Greek Literature in England (1862), 85 94. 

3 Joannis pronuntiatione Graecae potissimum linguae (Basileae, 
1555), reprinted, with other treatises on the same subject, in S. Havercamp's 
Sylloge, 2 vols., Leyden, 1736. The force of many of Gardiner's arguments is 
noticed by Munro in my copy of this work. ' The Erasmian pronunciation of 
the vowels was the same as that already in use in France, and with the 
exception of u, with that used in Italy and Germany'; the English pro- 


decree was neglected for a time ; it was rigorously enforced in 
1554 ; but, on the accession of Elizabeth in 1558, the ' Erasmian ' 
pronunciation came into general use in England. It was subse- 
quently adopted abroad, being accepted by Henry Stephens' and 
Beza, and by Ramus and Lambinus 2 . 

It has not been generally noticed that Gardiner's edict of 
May, 1542, was directed against any change in the 
customary method of pronouncing Greek or Latin 3 . n unci*t\on~ 
Early in the i6th century it was assumed in England 
that the Italian method of pronouncing the Latin vowels was 
right. Erasmus 4 describes the Italians as recognising the English 
pronunciation of Latin as being the next best to their own. Even 
as late as 1542 the vowels were still pronounced at Cambridge 
in the Italian manner 5 . But the Reformation made it no longer 
necessary for the clergy to use the common language of the 
Roman Church ; and, partly to save trouble to teachers and 
learners, Latin was gradually mispronounced as English. The 
mischief probably began in the grammar schools, and then spread 
to the universities. Coryat, who visited Italy and other parts 
of Europe in 1608, found England completely isolated in its 
pronunciation of long /. 

' Whereas in my travels I discoursed in Latin with Frenchmen, Germans, 
Spaniards, Danes, Polonians, Suecians, and divers others, I observed that 
everyone, with whom I had any conference, pronounced the i after the manner 
that the Italians use... Whereupon having observed such a generall consent 
amongst them in the pronunciation of this letter, I have thought good to 

nunciation of the Greek vowels was (and is) the same as that of the English 
vowels (W. G. Clark m. Journal of Philology, i (2) 98 108). 

1 Afologeticum (1580). 2 Mullinger, ii 54 64. 

, 3 The question referred to the Chancellor is: 'quid in literamm sonis ac 
linguae turn Graecae turn Latinae pronuntiatione spectandum, sequendum, 
tenendum sit ' ; and the Chancellor's decision is : 'quisquis nostram potestatem 
agnoscis, sonos literis siue Graecis siue Latinis ab usu publico praesentis saeculi 
alienos, priuato iudicio affingere ne audeto': Cheke, De pronuntiatione (1555), 
p. 1 8. Cp. Cooper's Annals, i 401-3. 

4 1528. De Pronuntiatione, 234, ed. 1643. 

5 Thomas Smith, DC rectd et emendala linguae Graecae pronuntiatione 
(12 Aug. 1542), Paris, 1568, p. 14% ' voces. ..quas nos Angli Concordes cum 
Italis producebamus ' ; but the English pronunciation was already, in certain 
points, different from the Italian and the French (ib. 3 f ). 


imitate these nations herein, and to abandon my English pronunciation of 
vita... and amicus, as being utterly dissonant from the sound of all other 
Nations ; and have determined (God willing) to retayne the same till -my 
dying day' 1 . 

At Leyden, in 1608, Scaliger received a visit from an unnamed 
English scholar, and, after listening to his ' Latin ' for a full 
quarter of an hour, and finding it as unintelligible as Turkish, 
was compelled to bring the interview to a close by apologising, in 
perfect good- faith, for his inadequate knowledge of English 2 . 
Coryat visited Leyden in the same year, but he does not profess 
to have called on any other scholar than Vulcanius. 

The isolation of England had doubtless extended still further 
by the time of Milton, who holds that ' to smatter Latin with an 
English mouth, is as ill a hearing as Law-French', and recom- 
mends that the speech of boys should ' be fashion'd to a distinct 
and clear pronuntiation as near as may be to the Italian, 
especially in the vowels' 3 (1644). 

The flourishing state of Greek studies in Cambridge has been 
attested 4 by Roger Ascham (1515 1568), who was 
Fellow and Greek reader at St John's and Public 
Orator (1546-54). He was private tutor to Elizabeth as princess 
in 1548, and as queen ten years later, and between these dates 
he was a Secretary of Embassy under Edward VI, and Latin 
Secretary to queen Mary in 1553. On the accession of that 
queen, he wrote in the space of three days no less than 47 different 
Latin letters to the principal personages of Europe, not one of whom 
was below the rank of a Cardinal 5 . In 1550, on visiting Bradgate 
Park in Leicestershire, to take leave of Lady Jane Grey before 
he went to Germany, he found her in her chamber reading the 

1 Coryat's Crudities (1611), ii 157 f, ed. 1776. At Venice he conversed 
with a 'Jewish Rabbin, that spake good Latin' (i 301); and with a Greek 
Archbishop, whose ' pronunciation was so plausible, that any man which was 
skillfull in the Greeke tongue, might easily understand him ' (i 295). 

2 Ep. iv no. 362, p. 700, ed. 1627. 

3 Of Education, in Prose Works, ii 384 f, ed. Mitford. Cp. W. G. Clark, 
in Journal of Philology, i (2) 103. 

4 p. 232 supra. 

5 E. Grant, De Vitd, p. 22 in Epp. ed. 1703. 


Phaedo of Plato, and regarding all the sport in the Park as 
' but a shadow' to the pleasure that she found in Plato 1 . 

In the course of his Scholemaster the Latin books that he recommends are 
the Letters and Speeches of Cicero, with Terence, Plautus, Caesar, and Livy. 
He also maintains that the best method of learning Latin is that of translation 
and retranslation, which was followed by Cicero in the case of Greek and 
commended by the younger Pliny, while the method of paraphrase, rejected 
by both, was approved by Quintilian. It had, however, injured the style of 
Melanchthon and was discountenanced by Sturm. Again, 'Metaphrasis', or 
turning Latin verse into prose, or prose into verse, was approved by Quintilian, 
but disallowed by Cicero, with whom Ascham agreed. Epitomising was 
useful to the compiler himself, but harmful to others. He also touches on 
dramatic imitation, discusses the choice of models and of means and instru- 
ments of literary imitation in general, briefly reviewing the ancient and modern 
authorities on the subject ; and, after an interesting digression on the state of 
learning in Cambridge, ends by setting forth the rules for the imitation of 
Latin authors that had been laid down by Cheke, including a full account of 
his admirable criticism on Sallust, with his ' uncontented care to write better 
than he could' 2 . The sections on declamation, and on the imitation of Cicero, 
are missing, as the work, which was published in 1570, had been left incom- 
plete at its author's death. 

Ascham's definition of Plato's ev^uifs 3 , founded mainly on a 
passage of Plutarch's Moralia*, is, in a certain sense, the source of 
the Euphues of John Lyly (1579 f ) ; but there is a vast difference 
between the plain and strong style of Ascham, and the elaborately 
antithetical and affectedly sententious manner of Lyly, who, so 
far from appealing to the same circle as the Scholemaster^ has 
himself assured us that ' Euphues had rather lye shut in a Ladyes 
casket, then open in a Schollers studie' 5 . In opposing the opinion 
of the bishop, who said, ' we have no nede now of the Greeke 
tong, when all things be translated into Latin', x\scham urges 
that 'even the best translation is... but an evill imped wing to 
flie withall, or a hevie stompe leg of wood to go withall' 6 . 

While travelling abroad, he looked back on Cambridge as 
a place to be preferred to Louvain 7 , and he failed to admire a 
Greek lecture on the Ethics at Cologne 8 . He spent several 

1 Scholemaster, 33, 213, ed. Mayor. 

2 p. 192 ; cp. Saintsbury, ii 152. 

3 Scholemaster, p. 21 Mayor. 4 81 D. 5 p. 220 Arber. 
6 p. 151. 7 pp. 62, 220, 258. 

8 E PP- PP- 230, 233. 


years at Augsburg, where he frequently met Hieronymus Wolf. 
During nine days in Venice, he saw ' more liberty to sin ' than 
he ever heard tell of in nine years in London 2 ; he knows 
many whom 'all the Siren songs of Italy could never untwine 
from the mast of God's word' 3 ; but he holds that, for young 
men, travelling in Italy is morally dangerous 4 . Next to Greek 
and Latin he 'likes and loves' the Italian tongue 5 , but he 
maintains that to read and to obey the precepts of Castiglione's 
Cortegiano for one year would do a young man more good than 
three years spent in Italy 6 . 'Time was, when Italy and Rome 
have been... the best breeders and bringers up of the worthiest 
men... but now that time is gone' 7 . Clearly, in Ascham's opinion, 
the age in which Italy had exercised a healthy influence on the 
Revival of Learning in England was already over. His place 
in the History of Scholarship cannot be better summed up than 
in the language of Fuller : ' Ascham came to Cambridge just at 
the dawning of learning, and staid therein till the bright-day 
thereof, his own endeavours contributing much light thereunto' 8 . 
The year of the publication of the Scholemaster was also that 
of the appearance of the earliest English translation 
f Demosthenes. In the dedication of a version of 
the Three Olynthiacs (1570) the translator, Thomas 
Wilson, of Eton and King's, and LL.D. of Ferrara (c. 1525 1581), 
dwells on Sir John Cheke's masterly renderings of the orator, 
and recalls the days they spent together ' in that famous Universitie 

1 Katterfeld, Roger Ascham, 141. 2 p. 87. 

3 Scholemaster, p. 73. 4 pp. 68, 83. 

5 p. 69. 6 p. 61. 7 p. 69. 

8 Fuller's Worthies (1662) in Yorkshire, 209. See, in general, the edd. 
of the Scholemaster by Mayor and Arber ; also Katterfeld's Roger Ascham 
(Strassburg, 1879), anc ^ Quick's Educational Reformers, 23 f. The only 
portrait is in the frontispiece of Elstob's ed. of the Epistolae (1703) where 
Ascham is presenting an address to Queen Elizabeth. In the margin are 
10 medallions, including Sir Thomas Smith, Sir John Cheke, and Sturm, all 
of them excellent portraits. But Ascham's profile is in the shade and his 
features cannot be clearly distinguished ; there was obviously no authentic 
portrait for the engraver to follow. A profile portrait carved in wood, and 
evidently founded on this engraving, was presented to the Library of St John's 
College about 1900. It was formerly in a private library in Southampton. 
The English works of Ascham have been edited by Mr Aldis Wright (1904). 


of Padua', and the ' care that he had over all the Englishe men 
there, to go to their bokes". In his Art of Rhetoric (1553), which 
shows a keen interest in style, he protests against ' strange inkhorn 
terms' and all undue ' Latining of the English language' 2 . 

One of the crazes of his contemporaries was the introduction 
of classical metres into English poetry. Homer's 
description of Odysseus is regarded by Ascham 3 as metres 103 
translated ' both plainly for the sense and roundly 
for the verse ' in an excruciating couplet by Thomas Watson, 
bishop of Lincoln, of which William Webbe actually says that, 
'for the sweetness and gallantness thereof, it 'doth match and 
surpass the Latin copy of Horace' 4 : 

' All travellers do gladly report great praise of Ulysses, 
For that he knew many men's manners, and saw many cities'. 

Chapman, in one of his earliest poems, says the last word on 
the newly-imported English hexameter : 

' Sweet Poesy 

Will not be clad in her supremacy 
With those strange garlands, Rome's hexameters, 
As she is English; but in right prefers 
Our native robes, put on with skilful hands, 
English heroics, to those antic garlands' 5 . 

The adoption of such metres had been pressed upon Edmuud 
Spenser 6 by that eccentric genius, Gabriel Har- 
vey (1550-1 1630) Of Christ's College, Fellow of Harvey 6 

Pembroke, who may here be briefly mentioned, 
not only by reason of his claim to be the father of the English 
hexameter, but also as the author of the ' Oratio post Reditum ', 
which he published under the title of Ciceronianus (1577). We 
are here concerned solely with that part of the discourse which 

1 Cp. Arber's Introd, to the Scholemaster, 6 f. 

2 Cp. Saintsbury, ii i+gf and Gregory Smith's Elizabethan Essayists, 
index, s.v. Inkhorn. 

3 Scholeniaster, p. 71 Mayor. 

4 Of English Poetry (1586), p. 72 Arber. 

5 Shadow of Night, 86 91 (Gregory Smith, I.e., I liv, and Camb. Mod. 
Hist, iii 369). 

8 Cp. Einstein, 357. 


shows how deeply the author was influenced by scholars abroad. 
He confesses that he had formerly followed the strict Ciceronians, 
such as Bembo, Sadoleto and Nizolius, had disapproved of 
Erasmus, and had sided with Cortesius against Politian. But he 
had since lighted on the Ciceronianus of Joannes Sambucus (1531 
84) 1 . From Sambucus he had been led to the Ciceronianus of 
Ramus (1557), and the corresponding works of Freigius (1575) 
and Sturm (15 74) 2 . These had sent him back to the study 
of the old Latin Classics, and he had thus learnt to appreciate 
other models besides Cicero 3 . 'Let every man', he said, 'learn 
to be, not a Roman, but himself. In the margin of his Quintilian 
in the British Museum he writes that ' Mr Ascham, in his fine 
discourse of Imitation, is somewhat too precise and scrupulous 
for Tully only, in all points' 4 . 

The History of Scholarship in England has necessarily some points of contact 
with that of its principal educational institutions, the dates of 
which may here be briefly noted. In the year 1300 only three 
Colleges were in existence in Oxford, University, Balliol, and Merton, and 
only one in Cambridge, Peterhouse (1284). In the fourteenth century, during 
the life of Petrarch, three were founded at Oxford, Exeter, Oriel, and Queen's, 
and five at Cambridge, Clare, Pembroke, Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, and 
Corpus Christi College. The next foundation at Oxford was New College 
(1386), in intimate connexion with Winchester (1387), and the next at Cam- 
bridge was King's (1441) in similar relation to Eton (1441). In the fifteenth 
century, Oxford saw the foundation of three Colleges: Lincoln (1427), All Souls' 
(1437), and Magdalen (1458); and Cambridge also of three, Queens', St Cath- 
arine's, and Jesus (1496). It is not until the sixteenth century that we can 
trace the influence of the Revival of Learning in the foundation of Brasenose 
(1509), Corpus (1516), Christ Church (1525), Trinity and St John's (1554-5) 
at Oxford; and of Christ's (1505), St John's (1511), Magdalene (1542), and 
Trinity (1546) at Cambridge. In 1558 Gonville Hall was endowed anew, 
as Caius College, by Dr John Caius (1510-73), who, between 1539 an< ^ ! 544> 

1 De Imitalione Ciceroniana IV dialogi, Par. 1561. 

2 De Imitatione Oratorio,. 

3 Ciceronianus (ed. 1577), 18 47. 

4 H. Morley's Hobbinol^ in Grosart's Introd. to Gabriel Harvey, I xviii. 
Cp. Mayor on Ascham's Stholemaster, 241, 272. Harvey's favourite Latin 
phrases are ridiculed in Pedantiiis, a play which was performed in Trinity 
College in February, 1581, and probably contributed to his being defeated in 
his candidature for the office of Public Orator in March (G. C. Moore-Smith's 
ed., Louvain, 1905, xxxii-xxxviii). 


had studied at Padua and lectured there on Aristotle, and had collated MSS of 
Galen in Italy, and who permitted the medical fellows on his foundation to 
study abroad either at Padua or Bologna, or at Paris or Montpellier 1 . In the 
same century we have the distinctly post-Reformation Colleges of Jesus 
College, Oxford (1571), and of Emmanuel (1584) and Sidney, Cambridge 
(1596). The only Colleges that have since been founded are, at Oxford, 
Wadham and Pembroke (161224), and Worcester (1714), with Keble (1870) 
and Hertford (1874); and, at Cambridge, Downing (1800) and Selwyn (1882). 
The founder of Exeter College (1314) had established a School at Exeter 
in connexion with his College at Oxford, thus anticipating the 
principle carried out in the splendid foundations of Winchester 
(1387) and Eton (1441). The first English School that came into being under 
the immediate influence of the Revival of Learning was that of St Paul's in 
London, founded in 1510 by dean Colet, the friend of Erasmus; the first 
high-master was one of the earliest students of Greek in England ; by the 
Statutes, the holder of that office was required to be 'learned in good and 
clean Latin 2 , and also in Greek, if such may be gotten\ and this requirement 
is copied in the Statutes of Merchant Taylors School (1561). By the ordinances 
of Shrewsbury School (f. 1551), made in the time of the first Master, Thomas 
Ashton (1562-8), the Master and the Second Master must be 'well able to 
make a latten vearse and learned in the greke tongue ', while the books pre- 
scribed in Greek are the Grammar of Cleonardus, the New Testament, 
Isocrates ad Demomcum, and Xenophon's Cyropaedeia*. Archbishop Sandys 
directs the Master of his School at Hawkshead (1588) to 'teach Grammar, 
and the pryncyples of the Greeke tongue ' 4 ; and the text-books mentioned by 
John Lyon, the founder of Harrow (1590), include some Greek orators and 
historians, as well as Hesiod. Greek text-books were prepared for the use of 
Westminster School in 1575 an d 1581, and the influence of the Revival of 
Learning extended to many other schools such as Christ's Hospital (1552), 
Repton (1557), Rugby (1567), and the numerous Grammar Schools 5 . 

The Revival of Learning in England led to the production 
of many English renderings of the Classics. The 

r T^ i i /-. Translations 

Phoenissae of Euripides was translated by George 

Gascoigne, of Trinity, Cambridge, and Francis Kinwelmersh, both 

students of Gray's Inn (i556) 6 . The ten Tragedies of Seneca 

1 Statute 54 (Hey wood's Documents, ii 276). 

2 Cicero, Sallust, Virgil, and Terence are mentioned in the Statute, which 
also required the teaching of Lactantius, Prudentius, Proba, Sedulius, Juvencus, 
and Baptista Mantuanus (Lupton's Life of Colet, 279). 

3 Baker-Mayor, Hist, of St John's Coll. 409 413. 

4 Complete text of Statutes in H. S. Cowper's Hawkshead, 1889, 472 f. 

5 Cp. A. F. Leach, English Schools at the Reformation, 1546-8 (1896), 5 f. 

6 Warton's History of English Poetry, 57 init. Gascoigne's translation 
was made from the Italian rendering by Dolce (Einstein, 359). 


were paraphrased by various hands' and published in a collected 
edition (1581), of which Thomas Nash has said in his General 
Censure (1589): 'English Seneca read by candle light yields many 
good sentences..., and... he will afford you whole Hamlets, I 
should say handfulls of tragical speeches' 2 . Thomas Phaer, the 
lawyer, who was also an M. D. of Oxford, had translated little more 
than nine books of the Aeneid before his death in 1560 ; the task 
was completed by Thomas Twyne, of Corpus Christi, Oxford, in 
1573. Phaer, who began his work with a view to proving that 
the English language was not incapable of elegance and propriety, 
claims to be a pioneer: 'By mee first this gate is set open'. 
His metre is the Alexandrine line of seven feet: e.g. 

' Lo ! there againe where Pallas sits, on fortes and castle-towres, 
With Gorgons eyes, in lightning cloudes inclosed grim she lowres'. 

Webbe cites several passages from Phaer to prove the 'meetnesse 
of our speeche to receive the best forme of Poetry', and the 'gal- 
lant grace which our Englishe speeche affoordeth' 3 . The first four 
books of the Aeneid were rendered in rude but sometimes vigorous 
hexameters by Richard Stanyhurst of University College, Oxford 
(i582) 4 . The translation of Virgil was completed by Abraham 
Flemming of Peterhouse, in his bald and literal rendering of the 
Eclogues and Georgics (1575, 1589). Virgil's Culex was paraphrased 
by Spenser (1591). Ovid's Metamorphoses was rendered in a 
spirited and poetic manner by Arthur Golding (1565-7), in the 
same metre as Phaer's Aeneid: e.g. 

' The princely pallace of the Sun, stood gorgeous to behold, 
On stately pillars builded high, of yellow burnisht gold' 5 (Lib. ii). 

He is commended by Webbe for 'beautifying the English lan- 
guage' 6 , and his version was well known to Shakespeare. It was 

1 Jasper Hey wood's Troades, Thyestes, Hercules Furens; Alex. Nevyle's 
Oediptis ; Trios. Nuce's Octavia ; John Studley's Medea, Agamemnon ; Henry 
Denham's Hippolytus ; and Thos. Newton's Thebais. Warton, 57 ult. 

2 Ed. Gregory Smith, in Elizabethan Critical Essays, i 312. 

3 pp. 46 51 Arber; i 256 262 Gregory Smith. 

4 Ed. Arber (1880). Cp. Gregory Smith, i 135147; and the vigorous 
onslaught by Nash, ib. 315 f. 

8 New ed. 1904. 
6 p. 51 Arber. 


succeeded (in 1621-6) by the rather unduly literal rendering of 
George Sandys, of St Mary Hall, Oxford, a rendering admired by 
Dryden '. Marlowe of Corpus Christi, Cambridge, translated part 
of the Hero and Leander of Musaeus, the Amores of Ovid (c. 1597), 
and the first book of Lucan ( 1 600). Ovid's Heroides was rendered 
by Turberville of New College, Oxford (1567) : and Horace's Satires, 
Epistles, and Art of Poetry by Thomas Drant, of St John's, 
Cambridge (i567) 2 . Martial fills a large part of the Epigrams 
translated by Timothy Kendall of Magdalen Hall, Oxford (1577). 
Christopher Johnson, Fellow of New and Head-Master of 
Winchester, translated Homer's Battle of the Frogs and Mice into 
Latin hexameters (1580); and Thomas Watson, possibly of Oxford, 
produced a Latin version of the Antigone (1581), and of the 'Rape 
of Helen' (1586), a poem rendered into English in the next year 
by Marlowe, who in 1598 paraphrased part of the Hero and 
Leander of Musaeus, a work completed by George Chapman. The 
earliest English translation of any part of Homer was that of 
Iliad \ x, translated, in 1581, from the French version of Hugues 
Salel (1545), by a turbulent M.P., Arthur Hall, who had been 
encouraged in the work by Roger Ascham. It begins thus : 'I 
thee beseech, O goddess milde, the hatefull hate to plaine'. This 
was entirely superseded by the splendid work of George Chapman 
(c. 1559 1634), who in 1611 completed his vigorous rendering of 
'the Iliads of Homer, Prince of Poets, never before in any lan- 
guage truly translated'. This was followed by the Odyssey (1614), 
the Battle of the Frogs and Mice, and the Hymns (1624); and, at 
the end of this volume, he proudly adds: 'The work is done that 
I was born to do'. The following is an extract from his translation 
of Iliad v: 

' From his bright helme and shield did burne, a most unwearied fire, 
Like rich Autumnus' golden lamps, whose brightnesse men admire, 
Past all the other host of starres, when with his chearfull face, 
Fresh-washt in loftie ocean waves, he doth the skie enchase'. 

Chapman has enriched the language with a long array of compound 
epithets, such as 'silver-footed', 'high-walled', 'triple-feathered'. 

1 Hooper's Introd. to George Sandys' Poetical Works, I xxvii xlii. 

2 Warton, 58. 

S. II. I 6 


Waller could never read his rendering of the Iliad without a feeling 
of transport, and Pope appreciated its 'daring fiery spirit' 1 . It was 
after sitting up till daylight over a copy of the fine folio edition 
that Keats wrote the celebrated sonnet, 'On first looking into 
Chapman's Homer', from which the few following lines are 
taken : 

' Oft of one wide expanse had I been told, 
That deep-brow'd Homer raled as his demesne: 
Yet did I never breathe its pure serene 
Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold : 
Then felt I like some watcher of the skies 
When a new planet swims into his ken '. 

But Keats (as Matthew Arnold has reminded us) 'could not read 
the original and therefore could not really judge the translation'. 
"Coleridge, in praising Chapman's version, says at the same time, 
'It will give you small idea of Homer'" 2 . In the Preface to the 
Reader (i598) 3 Chapman holds that 'the worth of a skilful trans- 
lator' is to adorn his version 'with figures and formes of oration 
fitted to the original'. But, while it is a mark of Homer's style to 
be 'plain in thought', Chapman introduces 'conceits' of his own, 
that are not fitted to the original, as in the line: 'When sacred 
Troy shall shed her toitfrs, for tears of overthrow' 1 *. And yet 
Chapman has much that is truly Homeric: 'he is plain-spoken, 
fresh, vigorous, and, to a certain degree, rapid' 5 . 

Arthur Golding, the translator of Ovid, was also the translator 
of Caesar (1565), Justin (1574), Seneca De Beneficiis (1578), and 
Pomponius Mela and Solinus (i587-9o) 6 . Sir Thomas North 
(c. 1535 c. 1601), who translated Marcus Aurelius from French 
and Spanish editions, reproduced Amyot's French rendering of 
Plutarch's Lives in a version published in 1579, which is celebrated 

1 Warton, 59. 

2 Matthew Arnold, On Translating Homer, 24; cp. 25 30 (ed. 1896). 

3 Gregory Smith, ii 295 f. 

4 OTO.V WOT 6\w\y"I\ios Iptf (Matthew Arnold, /.<-., 89, 98). 

5 ib. 23. Cp. Saintsbury's Elizabethan Lit. 189 f. 

6 In the Caesar (dedicated to Sir William Cecil), nostris militibus cunc- 
tantibus (iv 25) is expanded into, 'when our men staied and seined to make 
curtsy'; and scaphas and speculatoria navigia (iv 26) are rendered 'cockbotes 
and brigantines'. 


as the authority followed by Shakespeare in Coriolanus, Julius 
Caesar, and Antony and Cleopatra*. A still wider fame was 
attained by Philemon Holland (15521637), Fellow of Trinity, 
Cambridge, and ultimately head-master of Coventry School, whose 
remarkable industry as an interpreter of the Classics earned him 
the title of 'the translator general in his age' 2 . His renderings 
included the whole of Livy (i6oo) 3 , Pliny (1601), the Moralia of 
Plutarch (1603), Suetonius (1606), Ammianus Marcellinus (1609) 
and (after an interval occupied partly by his translation of Cam- 
den's Britannia), the Cyropaedia of Xenophon (1632). 

The example of Petrarch and his successors, as writers of 
Latin verse, was followed in England. Several of 

Latin Verse 

the Latin poets of Italy visited that country, and the 
Zodiac of Life by Marcellus Palingenius (Venice, c. 1531) was 
highly popular in its English dress. The eclogues of Baptista 
Mantuanus (1448 1516), the 'good old Mantuan' of Love's 
Labours Lost*, were read in the grammar-schools of Shakespeare's 
boyhood, were translated by Turberville in 1567 and imitated in 
Spenser's 'Shepherd's Calendar' in isS? 5 . 

Meanwhile, Latin scholarship was well represented in Scotland 
by a humanist who was born before Cheke and 


Ascham, and survived them both. George Buchanan 
(1506 1582) studied in Paris in 1520-2 and at St Andrew's in 
1524. In 1526 he returned to Paris, where he taught Grammar 
in the College of Ste Barbe, and was tutor to the young Earl of 
Cassilis in 1529-34". In 1540-7 he was teaching Latin at Bor- 
deaux, Paris, and Coimbra, living mainly in France, Portugal, and 
Italy, until his return to Scotland in 1559. Apart from his Latin 
poem on the Sphere 7 , his Latin epigrams on his imaginary loves, 

1 Cp. Shakespeare's Plutarch, ed. Skeat (1875). 

2 Fuller's Worthies, iii 287 Nuttall. 

3 The whole of this translation was ' written with one pen', which a lady 
set in silver and preserved as a curiosity. 

4 iv 2, 97 f. 

5 Cp. Einstein, 346-8. 

6 It was to the Earl of Cassilis that Buchanan dedicated his first work, his 
Latin translation (1533) of Linacre's English Rudinienta Granunaticcs. 

7 1586 etc.; Hallam, ii 147 4 . 

16 2 

Scotia, fi c UAt&m hunc a eliclam produce it all arcton, 

Credo cquid^m, qdiitf purcaluvre poli . 
<J- ex > 

From Boissard's Icones, in iv 22 (Frankfurt, 1598). 


his Latin plays 1 , and his translation of the Medea and Alcestis in 
Latin verse, his scholarship is best represented by his Latin version 
of the Psalms in various metres (1566 etc.), mainly produced 
during his stay in Portugal. One of the most elegant is his ren- 
dering of the psalm By the waters of Babylon, which begins as 
follows : 

' Dum procul a patria, moesti Babylonis in oris, 

Fluminis ad liquidas forte sedemus aquas ; 
Ilia animum subiit species miseranda Sionis, 

Et nunquam patrii tecta videnda soli. 
Flevimus, et gemitus luctantia verba repressit, 

Inque sinus liquids decidit imber aquae. 
Muta super virides pendebant nablia ramos, 

Et salices tacitas sustinuere lyras' 2 . 

The following is the first half of the poem dedicating the work to 
Mary, Queen of Scots : 

'Nympha, Caledonke quse nunc feliciter one 

Missa per innumeros sceptra tueris avos; 
Quce sortem antevenis meritis, virtutibus annos, 

Sexum animis, morum nobilitate genus : 
Accipe (sed facilis) cultu donata Latino 

Carmina, fatidici nobile regis opus'. 

Henry and Robert Stephens in all their editions describe the 
translator as poetarum nostri saecnli facile princeps. Scaliger says 
of him: Buchananus unus est in tota Europa, omties post se relin- 
quens in latina poesi* . Even in his lifetime his Latin Psalms were 
studied in the schools of Germany; they remained long in use in 
the schools of Scotland, and an edition was even set to music in 
I585 4 . Buchanan has not merely translated the Psalms into Latin 

1 His Jepthes (1554) is described by Ascham (Sch. 169) as 'able to abide 
the true touch of Aristotle's precepts and Euripides' examples'. This play 
and John the Baptist have been translated into English verse by the Rev. A. 
Gordon Mitchell. 

2 Cp. Eglisham's Duellum Poeticitm (London, 161 Sf), and the criticisms 
on the same by Arthur Johnston (1619) and W. Barclay (1620); also Andrew 
Symson's Octupla (Edinb. 1696). 

3 Scaligerana I. Cp. Blount's Censura. 

4 P. Hume Brown's Buchanan (1890), 146 9. Preceded by another 
musical ed., Lyons, 1579. 

246 SCOTLAND. [CENT. xvi. 

verse : he has endeavoured to clothe them in the form and texture 
of lyrical and elegiac Latin poems. Sir Philip Sidney declares 
that 'the tragedies of Buchanan doe justly bring forth a divine 
admiration' 1 . 'Buchanan' (said Dr Johnson) 'was a very fine 
poet' 2 , 'whose name has as fair a claim to immortality as can be 
conferred by modern Latinity'; he 'not only had great knowledge 
of Latin, but was a great poetical genius'. It is as a writer of 
history that he is described by Dryden as 'comparable to any of 
the moderns, and excelled by few of the ancients' 3 . His Rerum 
Scoticarum ffistoria, a folio volume in twenty books, was published 
in the year of his death (1583). His instincts as a humanist 
prompted him to select Latin as the language of this work, which 
was read with interest by the scholars of Europe for two centuries. 
In the eighteenth century it was seriously debated whether the 
historian's model was Caesar or Livy or Sallust, and it was almost 
universally agreed that he had surpassed his predecessors. He 
is now remembered mainly for his compositions in Latin verse. 
He wrote a May-day poem that was a joy to Wordsworth 4 , a poem 
closing with the lines in which that day is hailed as the image of 
life's early prime and as the happy omen of a new age : 

'Salve vetustae vitae imago, 
Et specimen venientis aevi' 5 . 

1 Apology for Poetry, 67 ed. Arber. 

2 Boswell's Life, i 376 Napier ; cp. iii 295. 

3 Hume Brown, 3, 293^ 327. 

4 Life by Chr. Wordsworth, ii 466 (CalenJae Maiae, translated in Hume 
Brown's Buchanan, 177-9). 

5 On Buchanan, cp. Bernays on Scaliger, 108 f ; Henry Morley, English 
Writers, viii 339 352; Testimonia in Allibone's Dictionary; and esp. 
P. Hume Brown, George Buchanan, Humanist and Reformer (1890); also 
Life by D. Macmillan (1906), and Essay by T. D. Robb ; Lit. Suppl. to The 
Times, 6 July, 1906; C. Whibley in Blackwood, July, 1906. The portrait on 
p. 244 is reproduced from that in Boissard's Icones (15970, which has been 
copied in the bust in Greyfriars Churchyard, and in Hume Brown's frontis- 
piece. For another portrait, see Bullart's Acadhnie, ii 351 (1682). 

Opera omnia, ed. T. Ruddiman (Edinb. 1715); for the best bibliography 
of Buchanan, see (Dr David Murray's) Catalogue of the Quatercentenary Exhi- 
bition held in Glasgow (1906) including list of 13 portraits in oils, with more 
than 6 engravings; reprinted as part of the 'Quatercentenary Studies', ed. 
G. Neilson, with Robb's Humanism in Buchanan (1907). See also St 
Andrews Memorial, ed. D. A. Millar (1907). 


One of the most interesting of the minor 'Scots abroad' was 
Florentius Volusenus (c. 1504-47), who was edu- 
cated at Aberdeen, and resided in Paris (1528-35). vSSwS 
When he called on Sadoleto, bishop of Carpentras, 
he so completely charmed that Ciceronian scholar by his exquisite 
Latinity, that he was at once appointed principal of the local 
school, where he lectured on Latin authors for ten years (1536- 
46). The humanist and the Christian alike are represented in his 
Ciceronian dialogue, De Animi Tranquillitate. He died at Vienne 
on his way home to Scotland, and is commemorated in the 
following lines by Buchanan: 

' Hie Musis Volusene jaces carissime ripam 

Ad Rhodani, terra quam procul a patria ! 

Hoc meruit virtus tua, tellus quae foret altrix 

Virtutum, ut cineres conderet ilia tuos ' *. 

In the generation next to that of Buchanan we have Andrew 
Melville (1545 1622), who, as a Latin poet, is 


sometimes ranked second to Buchanan. Among 
the finest of his hexameter poems is that on the Creation, and 
the paraphrase of the Song of Moses 2 . He studied under Ramus 
in Paris, was professor at Geneva in 1568, was acquainted with 
Scaliger, and, as head of Glasgow University in 1574, and principal 
of St Mary's College, St Andrews, in 1579, led the revolt against 
the mediaeval method of studying Aristotle 3 , and created a taste 
for Greek letters in Scotland 4 . The foundation of the university 
of Glasgow had been sanctioned in 1450 by a Bull issued by 
Nicolas V, but the study of Greek was not introduced into 
Scotland until 1534, when John Erskine of Dun (1509 1591), 
on returning from his travels, brought with him Petrus de 

1 P. Hume Brown's Buchanan, 71 74. 

2 Delitiae, ii 77, 84. Cp. Dr McCrie's Life of Andrew Melville, \ 92-6. 

3 James Melvill's Diary, 48 f, 67, 123 f (owing to Andrew Melville's 
influence at St Andrews, they ' perusit Aristotle in his awin langage '). 
McCrie, i 78, 258 f; R. S. Rait, on 'Andrew Melville and the Revolt against 
Aristotle in Scotland,' in Eng. Hist. Rev. 1899, 250 260. 

4 Latin Poems in Delitiae, ii 67 137 ; an epigram of six lines led to his 
being imprisoned for nearly four years in the Tower of London (1607-11); 
Life by Dr McCrie, 242 f. 

248 SCOTLAND. [CENT. xvi. 

Marsiliers, a native of France who taught Greek at Montrose 1 . 
Andrew Melville studied under him as a boy in 1556 8 2 , but 
Andrew's nephew, James, who ' would have gladly ' learnt Greek 
and Hebrew at St Andrews, complains that 

'the langages war nocht to be gottine in the land; our Regent... teatched us 
the A, B, C of the Greek, and the simple declintiones, hot went no farder' 3 . 

The influence of the Humanist-Pope, who had granted the Bull 
for the founding of Glasgow, had not availed to arouse an interest 
in Greek on the distant banks of the Clyde ; and at St Andrews, 
in 1564, the great Latin scholar, Buchanan, failed to obtain recog- 
nition for the study of Greek 4 . The honour of promoting the 
study of that language at Glasgow was reserved for the protagonist 
of presbyterianism, Andrew Melville, who substituted for a blind 
faith in the authority of Aristotle an intelligent study of Greek 
texts. With Melville, however, the languages were simply the 
handmaids to theology. The Union of the Crowns in 1604, 
which ' brought about the victory of the party opposed to Melville, 
placed in the universities a new type of men, who cared for the 
humane learning for its own sake'. The period of the first 
episcopalian supremacy (1604-38) has accordingly been described 
as 'the golden age of the humane letters' in Scotland 5 . 

In that age a closer rendering of the Psalms than that of 
Buchanan was produced in 1637 by his countryman, 
Arthur Johnston (1587 i64i) 6 . It will be remem- 
bered that the Baron of Bradwardine used to read 'Arthur 
Johnston's Psalms of a Sunday, and the Deliciae Poetarum Scoto- 
rum' 7 . Johnston has a pretty poem on his birthplace, beside the 
river Ury and below the ridge of Bennachie, both of which are 
named in the following graceful lines : 

1 James Melvill's Diary (ed. 1842), 39; cp. McCrie's Life of Knox, 
period i, note C, and James Grant's Burgh Schools of Scotland (1876), 46 48, 


- Diary, 39. 3 Diary, 30. 

4 Hume Brown, 238 f. 

5 R. S. Rait, on University Education in Scotland, in Proceedings of 
Glasgow Archaeological Society, 15 Dec. 1904. 

6 P. Hume Brown's Buchanan, 147-9. 

7 IVaverley, c. 13. 


' Mille per ambages nitidis argenteus undis 

Hie trepidat laetos Vrius inter agros. 
Explicat hie seras ingens Bennachius umbras, 

Nox ubi libratur lance dieque pari. 
Gemmifer est amnis, radiat mons ipse lapillis, 

Queis nihil Ecus purius orbis habet' 1 . 

He had taken the degree of M.D. at Padua, and was a physician 
in Paris. On his return to Scotland after an absence of twenty- 
four years, he was patronised by Laud as a rival to Buchanan 2 . 
While Buchanan uses a variety of metres in his version of the 
Psalms, Johnston confines himself to the elegiac couplet 3 . He has 
been called 'the Scottish Ovid', his style 'possessing somewhat 
of Ovidian ease, accompanied with strength and simplicity' 4 . A 
word of praise may be added on the Heroides of Mark Alexander 
Boyd (1563 1601), and on the poem on Anne of Denmark by 
Hercules Rollock (fl. 1577 i6ig) 5 . David Wedderburn (1580 
1646), who compiled a Latin Grammar (i63o) 6 , was from 1620 
to 1646 the official Latin poet of Aberdeen. One of his poems 
is an elegy on Arthur Johnston (1641). Johnston's Psalms had 
been published in 1637. After the Scottish Revolution of 1638, 
' down with learning ' was the cry of some of the extreme Cove- 
nanting divines. 

The biographer of Buchanan has aptly described William 
Drummond, of Hawthornden (is8=; 1640), as 'the 


only Scotsman of eminence in whom it is possible 
to find the humanist even in his milder form; and Drummond all 
through his life felt himself an alien in a strange land' 7 . He 
attended lectures on law at Bourges and Paris (1607-8), shortly 
before becoming laird of Hawthornden (1610). His sonnets were 

1 Dditiae Pott. Scot, i 6or, ed. 1637. 

2 i.e. a rival to Buchanan's posthumous fame (Buchanan having died five 
years before the birth of Johnston). 

3 A fine ed. of Johnston's Poems was produced by Geddes, 1892-5, with 
copies of three portraits. Cp. Bibliography and Portraits by W. Johnston, 

4 W. Tennant, quoted (with other Tcstimonia] in Allibone's Diet. 

5 Cp. McCrie, ii 328f. 

6 James Grant's Burgh Schools of Scotland, 365-8. 

7 P. Hume Brown, 236. 


inspired by those of the Italian poet, Guarini, and his poetry 
reveals many traces of the influence of the Latin poets of Italy. 
His interest in Chess led to his being specially attracted by Vida's 
poem on that theme: 

' If Hieronymus Vida can be found, with Baplista Marini his Adone, we 
shall not spare some houres of the night and day at their Chesse, for I affect 
that above the other' 1 . 

Turning from Scotland to Wales, we have a clever contemporary 
of Andrew Melville in the Latin epigrammatist John 
Owen, or Audoenus (c. 1560 1622). Borri at 
Armon in the county of Caernarvon, he was educated at Win- 
chester, was a Fellow of New College, Oxford, in 1584-91, became 
head-master of Warwick School about I595 2 , and was buried in St 
Paul's cathedral. The three books of his Epigrams (1606) were 
followed by a complete edition in 1624; they were thrice translated 
into English, and often reprinted at home and abroad. They are 
described by Hallam as ' sometimes neat, and more often witty'. 
They were placed in the Index in 1654, doubtless mainly owing 
to the unfortunate epigram, which, in his lifetime, had led to his 
being disinherited by his uncle: 

'An Petrus fuerit Romae, sub judice lis est; 
Simonem Romae nemo fuisse negat ' 3 . 

Among happier examples of his style we may quote his epigram 
on Martial: 

' Dicere de rebus, personis parcere nosti ; 

Sunt sine felle tui, non sine melle, sales' 4 , 

and the central couplet of his lines on Drake : 

' Si taceant homines, facient te sidera notum ; 
Atque polus de te discet uterque loqui' 5 . 

1 History of Scotland (1655), p. 263. 

2 A. F. Leach, History of Warwick School, 124 134 (with Owen's 

3 Ad ffenricum, i 8. 

4 Ad Dominant Mariam Neville, ii 160. 

5 ib. ii 39. 


GERMANY FROM 1350 TO 1616. 

THE German Emperor, Charles IV, who ascended the throne in 
1346, was regarded by Petrarch, not only as the head of the Holy 
Roman Empire, but also as a beneficent patron of literature, a new 
Augustus. Petrarch's correspondence with Charles IV began in 
I350 1 ; at Mantua, in the autumn of 1354, he presented the 
emperor with gold and silver coins of ancient Rome bearing the 
effigy of the emperor's great precursors 2 . In 1356 he was sent as 
the envoy of Milan to the emperor's capital of Prague, 'the extreme 
confines of the land of the barbarians' 3 ; but this visit led to no 
permanent result 4 . The second son of Charles IV, the emperor 
Sigismund, was enabled to study Arrian's account of the exploits 
of Alexander in the easy Latin version provided for him by 
Vergerio, the first of Italian humanists to enter the service of a 
foreign prince 5 . But this version would have been forgotten, had 
it not fallen into the hands of Aeneas Sylvius, who represented 
Italian humanism in Vienna (1442-55), and wrote in 1450 an 
interesting treatise on Education for the benefit of a royal ward of 
his master, Frederic III s . As Pope, in 1459, he was assured by 
his former pupil, the German historian, Hinderbach, of the grati- 
tude of Germany for the teaching and the example which had 
led that land to admire the studies of humanism, and to emulate 
the olden splendour of Roman eloquence 7 . The German jurist, 

1 Epp. Fain, x i. - ib. xix 3. 3 Sen. xvi 2. 

4 On Petrarch's relations to Charles IV, cp. Voigt, ii 263~8 3 ; and Cancel- 
laria Caroli IV, ed. Tadra, Prag, 1895. 

5 p. 49 supra. 6 p. 72 supra. 

7 Geiger, Renaissance und Humanismus in f (alien und Deittschland (1882), 


Gregor Heimburg, who, in his earlier years, had acquired for him- 
self a certain degree of proficiency in the Classics, was a political 
opponent of Aeneas Sylvius and of the humanistic influence of 
Italy 1 . The influence of Aeneas was, however, continued at 
Prague by Johann von Rabstein 2 and in Moravia by bishop 
Prostasius of Czernahora 3 . 

The first to expound the Latin poets in Vienna was Georg 
Peuerbach (1423 1469), who had visited many universities in 
France, Italy and Germany, and in 1454-60 lectured in Vienna, 
not only on mathematics and astronomy, but also on the Aeneid, 
and on Horace and Juvenal 4 . Lectures on the Eclogues and on 
Terence, and on Cicero, De Senectute, were given by his pupil, the 
astronomer Johann Miiller of Konigsberg, near Coburg, who is 
best known as Regiomontanus (1436 1476). In 
tanus 10 ' 1461 he accompanied Bessarion to Italy, where he 

made a complete copy of the tragedies of Seneca, 
learnt Greek, and produced Latin translations of the works of 
Ptolemy, and the Conic Sections of Apollonius of Perga. Return- 
ing to Vienna in 1467, he entered the service of Matthias 
Corvinus, king of Hungary, and finally settled at Nuremberg, 
where he published the first edition of the astronomical poem of 
Manilius (1472). He ultimately became archbishop of Ratisbon, 
and a proposal to reform the calendar led to his being summoned 
to Rome, where he died in I476 5 . 

The influence of Italy on German humanism was early exem- 
plified by Peter Luder (c. 1415^. 1474), who, after 
matriculating at Heidelberg, visited Rome as a 
priest, became a pupil of Guarino at Ferrara, sailed from Venice 
along the coast of Greece as far as Macedonia, and, on his return, 
settled at Padua with a view to studying medicine. The presence 

1 Scripta, ed. Goldast, 1608 : Joachimsohn, Gregor Heimburg (Bamberg, 
1891); Voigt, ii 284 290'. 

2 Dialogus, ed. Bachmann (Vienna, 1876). 

3 Voigt, ii 293 3 . 

4 Voigt, ii 29i 3 ; cp. Aschbach, Gesch. dcr Wiener Univ. 486 f. 

8 Bursian, i 107 f; cp. Hallam, i i86 4 ; and Aschbach, I.e., 537 f; also 
Janssen's History of the German People at the Close of the Middle Ages (E. T. 
1896 f ), i 139 146. 


of some German students at Padua led to his fame reaching the 
Palatinate. He was accordingly invited to Heidelberg, and 
appointed to lecture on Latin poets (1456). His older colleagues 
immediately insisted on his submitting his inaugural discourse to 
their own approval, and prevented his having easy access to the 
university library. Driven from Heidelberg by the plague in 1460, 
he was welcomed at Ulm and Erfurt and Leipzig. He even 
returned to Padua, and afterwards lectured on medicine as well as 
Latin at Basel 1 . 

Among his most eager pupils at Leipzig was Hartman Schedel 
(1440 1514)5 who became an unwearied collector 

TT 11 i Schedel 

of humanistic literature. He has thus preserved an 
important part of the great journal of Ciriaco d' Ancona, including 
his copies of the monuments and inscriptions of the Cyclades. 
His sketches of certain works of ancient art afterwards inspired 
some of the drawings of Diirer, now in Vienna 2 . His large collec- 
tion of inscriptions is now in the library at Munich, and his work 
on the history of the world from the creation to the year 1492 is 
widely known under the name of the 'Nuremberg Chronicle' 

(M93) 3 - 

A place of honour among the early humanists of Germany 
is justly assigned to the famous Frisian, Roelof 
Huysman, or Rodolphus Agricola (1444 1485), 
who was born near Groningen, and was educated at Deventer, 
Erfurt, Louvain and Cologne, and perhaps also in Paris. In 1468 
he left for Italy, where he studied law and rhetoric at Pavia 
between 1469 and 1474, paying two visits to the North during 
that interval. In 1475 he went to Ferrara, and studied Greek 
under Theodorus Gaza. In 1479 he finally returned to Groningen, 
where he was town-clerk in 1480-84, often acting as an envoy and 
paying repeated visits to Deventer, on one of which (possibly in 
1484) he saw Erasmus 4 . In 1484 he went to teach at Heidelberg 

1 Voigt, ii 295 3Oi 3 ; Bursian, i 95 f; Geiger, 327. Cp. Wattenbach, 
Peter Luder, in Zdtschr. f. Gesch. des Obcrrheins, xxii (1869) 33 f; Bauch's 
Erfurt, 4350. 

2 p. 40 supra. 

3 Voigt, ii 3o6 3 ; Bursian, i 108 f ; Geiger, 374; Wattenbach in Forsch. 
zur deittschen Geschichte, xi 351 f. 

4 P. S. Allen's Erasmi Epp. i 581. 


on the invitation of Ualberg, bishop of Worms, whom he accom- 
panied to Rome in the following year to deliver an oration in 
honour of the newly elected Pope, Innocent VIII. Shortly after 
his return he died at Heidelberg. 

At Heidelberg he lectured occasionally on Aristotle, but was 
apparently more effective in his private and personal influence 
than in his professorial teaching. The highest praise must be 
bestowed on his renderings from Lucian 1 . He was long regarded 
as the standard-bearer of humanism in Germany 2 . His slight 
treatise on education (i484) 3 was welcomed as a libellus .vere 
aureus when it appeared in the same volume as the corresponding 
works of Erasmus and Melanchthon, but the only important points 
on which he there insists are cultivation of the memory, care- 
fulness in reading, and constant practice. A cheerful alacrity in 
saying and doing the right thing is the lesson of life expressed in 
his own epigram: 

' Optima sit vitae quae formula quaeritis : haec est : 
Mens hilaris faciens quod licet, idque loquens'. 

He is remembered as an earnest opponent of mediaeval scholas- 
ticism, and he certainly did much towards making the study of 
the Classics a vital force in Germany. In a letter to a fellow- 
labourer in this cause, Rudolf von Langen (1438 1519), who 
promoted the revival of education in the cathedral-school of 
Miinster 4 , we find Agricola saying: 'I entertain the highest hope 
that, by your aid, we shall one day wrest from proud Italy her 
vaunted glory of pre-eminent eloquence' 5 ; and the closing couplet 
of a tribute to his memory written by the Italian humanist, 
Hermolaus Barbarus, implies that, during the life-time of Agricola, 
Germany was the rival of Greece and Rome: 

' Scilicet hoc vivo meruit Germania laud is, 

Quicquid habet Latium, Graecia quicquid habet' 6 . 

1 Callus, and the libellus de non facile credendis delationibiis (ed. 1530). 

2 Pref. to Opuscula (1518), 'antesignanus'. 

3 Deformando studio. Cp. Woodward, Renaissance Education, 99. 

4 Bursian, i 98 f. 

5 Opera (Col. 1539) ii 178 (Heeren, ii 173 ; Ilallam, i 2o6 4 ). 

6 Boissard, I 175. For Agricola, cp. Opera (Col. 1539); Tresling, Vita et 
Merita Rudolphi Agricolae (Groningen, 1830); Bursian, i 101 f; von Bezold 
(1884); Ihm (1893); P. S. Allen, in English Hist. Rev., April, 1906, and in 


Agricola gave some instruction in Greek to his friend and 
earlier contemporary, Alexander Hegius (1433 


1498), who was a master at Wesel and Emmerich, 
and, during the last fifteen years of his life, made the School of 
Deventer the great educational centre of North Germany, waging 
a successful war against the old mediaeval text-books and pointing 
to the Latin Classics as the only source of a perfect Latin style 1 . 
Among his pupils at Deventer was Erasmus. 

Rudolf von Langen (1438 1519), a student at Erfurt, who 
visited Italy in 1465 and 1486, finally succeeded in 
1498 in carrying out his long-cherished plan of 
founding a school on humanistic lines at Miinster, where he spent 
the greater part of his life as Canon of the cathedral church. He 
failed to induce Hegius to become the head-master, but one of the 
best-known masters of the school was a pupil of Hegius, namely 
Murmellius (1480 1517), the author of many useful text-books. 
Langen himself published a work in Latin prose on the Fall of 
Jerusalem, and four volumes of Latin verse 2 . 

The Schools of Deventer and Miinster in the North had their 
counterpart in the South-West, at Schlettstadt in 
Elsass. It was the school of Jacob Wimpheling 
(1450 1528), who afterwards studied at Freiburg and Erfurt, and 
also at Heidelberg. He returned to that university as a professor 
(1498), lecturing mainly upon St Jerome. He subsequently left 
for Strassburg, where he was in frequent feud with monks and 
humanists alike, and failed in his hopes of reforming education 
and establishing a university. He had founded literary societies 
in several of the cities where he dwelt. At Strassburg he became 
the centre of a literary circle, which corresponded with Erasmus 

Erasmi Epp. i 106 ; and Woodward's Renaissance Education (1906), 79103, 
where a still unpublished Life of Petrarch (1477; Munich Cod. Lat. 479) is 
noticed. Cp., in general, Creighton, Papacy, vi 9 f; and Geiger in A. D. B., 
and in Renaissance, 334 f. A contemporary portrait is reproduced ib. 335, 
and in Boissard's Icones, I xxvii 172 (1597). 

1 O. Jahn, Populare Aufsiitze, 416; Geiger, 391 f; and literature in 
Bursian, i 100 n. Cp. P. S. Allen in Erasmi Epp. \ 105 f, and Woodward, 
I.e., 84 f. 

2 Bursian, i 98 101 ; J. F. Schroder's Kl. Studien in Deutschland (in cent, 
xv f), 1864, 6i-6j Bauch's Erfurt, 41 f; P. S. Allen's Erasmi Epp. i 197. 


on questions of literature and theology. In his writings on the 
theory of education, he insisted on the importance of moral 
influence; he also suggested new methods and better text-books, 
that should aim at appealing to the intelligence instead of burden- 
ing the memory. He abolished the commentaries on Donatus 
and Alexander, and supplied practical manuals in their place. 
His own treatises on grammar and style were widely popular 1 . 
His principal friend at Strassburg was the town- 
clerk, Sebastian Brant (1457 1521), celebrated as 
the author of the Ship of Fools (1494). 'He was more, of a 
humanist than Wimpheling, and found a solace for his legal 
labours in the cultivation of the Muse... He celebrated, with justi- 
fiable pride, the German invention of printing, and took it as an 
omen of the coming time when the Muses would desert Italy and 
make their abode on the banks of the Rhine' 2 . 

His great contemporary, Johann Reuchlin (1455 : 5 22 )> 
studied Greek at Paris in 1473 under the pupils of 
Gregory Tifernas and in 1478 under Hermonymus. 
In the interim he went to Basel and made good progress in the 
language under Andronicus Contoblacas (1474). At the age of 
twenty he there produced, under the title of Vocabularius Brevi- 
loquus (1475-6), a Latin dictionary, which showed a marked 
advance in clearness of arrangement, and, in less than thirty 
years, passed through twenty editions. He taught Greek, as well 
as Latin, at Basel, Orleans and Poitiers. He describes the results 
of his learning and teaching Greek as follows: 

To Latin was then added Greek, the knowledge of which is necessary for 
a liberal education. We are thus led back to the philosophy of Aristotle, 
which cannot be really comprehended until its language is understood. In 
this we so won the minds of all who... longed for a purer knowledge, that they 
flocked to us and deserted the trifling of the schools 3 . 

1 Isidoneus Germanicus and Adolescentia (1496-8); also Elegantiarum 
Medulla (1490), and Germania (1501). Cp. Wiskowatoff (Berlin, 1867); 
B. Schwarz (Gotha, 1875); Geiger, 359, 402 f, 576; Bursian, i 103 f ; Paulsen, 
i 61 f ; Hartfelder in Schmid's Gesch. der Erziehung, ii 2, 68 70; Creighton, 
Papacy, vi n 13; Karl Pearson, Ethic of Freethought, 185 192, ed. 1901 ; 
P. S. Allen's Erasmi Epp. 463 ; and Woodward's Renaissance Education, 216. 

2 Creighton, vi 14 ; cp. Geiger, 365-9; portrait in Boissard, n 174. 

3 Ep. 250; cp. 171 ; Karl Pearson, Ethic of Freethought, 164 f (ed. 1901). 


In 1482, and again in 1490, he went to Italy, where he became 
acquainted with the learned Venetian, Hermolaus Barbarus. At 
Rome he won the admiration of Argyropulos by his mastery of 
Greek 1 . On a subsequent visit in 1498 he learnt Hebrew, which 
was thenceforward the main interest of his life 2 . He spent twenty 
years at Stuttgart, and two at Ingoldstadt, and for the last year of 
his life was professor of Greek and Hebrew at Tubingen. 

In the study of Hebrew he came into conflict with the obscu- 
rantists of the day, but his cause was supported by the enlightened 
humanists of Germany. It was in defence of Reuchlin that the 
barbarous Latinity and the mediaeval scholasticism of Ortwin 
Gratius (1491 1451)1 and his allies in Cologne, were admirably 
parodied in the Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum. The first volume 
of that memorable satire (1516) was mainly composed by a 
humanist of Erfurt, Johann Ja'ger of Dornheim, who called him- 
self Crotus Rubianus*, while the second (1517) was chiefly the 
work of Ulrich von Hutten". The unobtrusive leader of the 
eager band of humanists, who produced these remarkable volumes, 
was Conrad Muth, or Mutianus Rufus (c. 1471 
1526), who had been a school-fellow of Erasmus at 
Deventer, and had lived at Erfurt, as a student and a teacher, 
from 1486 to 1492, when he left for Italy. He there made the 
acquaintance of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Baptista 
Mantuanus, as well as the elder Beroaldus and Codrus Urceus at 
Bologna, where he took the degree of Doctor in Law. On his 
return, he settled at Gotha, where he placed, in golden letters, 
over the door of his canonical residence the words BEATA TRAN- 
QUILLITAS, and thereafter devoted his thoughts to 'God and the 
Saints and the study of all Antiquity'. He took the keenest 
interest in his younger friends, the humanists of Erfurt, inspiring 
them with an eager desire for the spread of classical literature, 
a hatred for the pedantry and formalism of the old scholastic 
methods, and a critical spirit which felt little reverence for the 

1 p. 63 f supra. 

2 Bursian, i 120 f; Geiger, 504 525, and Life (1871) and Letters (1875) > 
cp. P. S. Allen, Erasmi Epp. i 555. 

3 Bauch's Erfurt, 147-9. 

4 Ed. Booking, 1859-70; cp. Geiger, 504 f, 549 f; Bursian, i 120 131. 

S. II. 17 


past 1 . After organising the victory of the humanists over the 
scholastic obscurantists of the day, their leader lived to see his 
'tranquil' home ruthlessly plundered by a protestant mob 2 , at a 
time when the quiet waters of Humanism had been overwhelmed 
by the stronger stream of the Reformation 3 . 

The humanists of Germany may be divided into three suc- 
cessive schools distinguished from one another in their relation to 
the Church 4 , (i) The Earlier or Scholastic Humanists, who were 
loyal supporters of the Church, while they were eager for a revival 
of classical learning, and a new system of education. They are 
represented by the three great teachers of North Germany, Rudolfus 
Agricola, Rudolf von Langen, and Alexander Hegius; also by 
Wimpfeling, the restorer of education in South Germany; by 
Trithemius., one of the founders of the Rhenish Society of Litera- 
ture; and by Eck, the famous opponent of Luther. They worked 
for the Revival of Learning in all branches of knowledge, while 
they hoped that the new learning would remain subservient to the 
old theology. (2) The Intermediate or Rational Humanists, who 
took a rational view of Christianity and its creed, while they pro- 
tested against the old scholasticism, and against the external 
abuses of the Church. 'They either did not support Luther, or 
soon deserted him, being conscious that his movement would lead 
to the destruction of all true culture'. Their leaders were Reuchlin 
and Erasmus, and Conrad Muth, the Canon of Gotha. 'Their 
party and its true work of culture were shipwrecked by the tempest 
of the Reformation'. (3) The Later or Protestant Humanists, 
who were ready to 'protest' against everything, young men of 
great talent, but of less learning, whose love of liberty sometimes 
lapsed into licence. Their leading spirit was Ulrich von Hutten. 

1 Creighton, vi 32. 2 1524; Kampfschulte, ii 233. 

3 On his highly original letters, which reveal the secret of his influence, 
cp. Krause's Briefwechsel de s Mutianus Rtifus (1885) ; also Bocking, Hutteni 
Opera, Suppl. ii 420-8 ; and esp. Kampfschulte, Die Universitat Erfurt in 
ihrem Verhciltnisse zu dein Humanismus und die Reformation (2 vols., Trier, 
1858-60). Cp. A. W. Ward, On some Academical experiences of the German 
Renascence, 1878; G. Bauch, Erfiirt im Zeitalter des Friihhumanismus 
([904), 126-8, VD& passim\ Geiger, 432 f; Bursian, i 128 f. 

4 Karl Pearson, Ethic of Freethought, 166184, ed. 1901; cp. Janssen's 
History of the German People (E.T.), i 63 80; iii i 44. 


In course of time, some of them became Rational Humanists; 
others, supporters of Luther. 'While Erasmus, Reuchlin and 
Muth viewed Luther's propaganda with distrust ', these younger 
Humanists 'flocked to the new standard of protest and revolt, and 
so doing brought culture into disgrace and shipwrecked the 
Revival of Learning in Germany' 1 . 'The revolt of Luther caused 
the Church to reject Humanism, and was the deathblow of the 
Erasmian Reformation' 2 . 

On the publication of the Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum, a 
premature death had already cut short the career of 
Reuchlin's younger contemporary, Conrad Celtes 
(1459 1508), the knight-errant of humanism in Germany. The 
scholastic spirit was still dominant during the seven years that he 
had spent in Cologne. But he learnt some Greek from Agricola 
at Heidelberg, and he was widely known, and fairly remunerated, 
as a lecturer on the Platonic philosophy, and on Latin poets and 
orators, at Erfurt, Rostock, and Leipzig. The proceeds of his 
lectures enabled him to spend six months in Italy, living mainly 
at Ferrara with Battista Guarino, and also at Padua with Musurus, 
and in Rome with Pomponius Laetus. Soon after his return in 
1487, he received the poet's crown from Frederic III at Nurem- 
berg, being the first German who attained that distinction. We 
next find him studying and teaching at Cracow. He there met 
a congenial spirit in Filippo Buonaccorsi, who had fled from 
Rome owing to the suppression of the Roman Academy. Celtes 
was thereby prompted to found humanistic societies in Poland 
and Hungary, and also on the Rhine. This last was inaugurated 
at Mainz in 1491; the great patron of learning, Johann von 
Dalberg, bishop of Worms, was its first president, 
while Johannes Trithemius, of Trittenheim on the p^khek^er 
Mosel (1462 1516), and Wilibald Pirkheimer of 
Nuremberg (1470 1530), were among its most prominent 
members. Trithemius combined wide learning of the mediaeval 
type with a keen interest in the collection of MSS, and the acquisi- 
tion of Greek and Hebrew 3 ; while Pirkheimer, who had spent 

1 Karl Pearson, 177. 2 ib. 227 ; cp. 244. 

3 Bursian, i 105 f; Geiger, 446-9; cp. Silbernagel (iSSj 2 ), Schneegans 
(1882); Janssen, i 108 116. 



seven years in Italy, was eminent as a statesman and a patron of 
humanism, and as a translator of Greek texts and a student of 
archaeology 1 . Celtes himself lived for a time at Nuremberg, and 
afterwards lectured on rhetoric at Ingoldstadt. In 1497, under 
the favour of Maximilian, he became a professor, as well as head 
of the Imperial Library, in Vienna, and, in 1502, president of the 
'College of Poets and Mathematicians' then founded by the 
emperor. His adventures in various parts of Germany are the 
main theme of his Latin poems, many of which are inspired by 
a semi-pagan spirit. His more serious productions included 
editions of Gunther's Ligurinus"*, of the Latin plays of Hroswitha 3 , 
and of the Germania of Tacitus, which was accompanied by a 
patriotic poem on Germany. Lastly, he discovered in the Vienna 
Library a thirteenth-century copy of a map of Roman roads of the 
third century, which he bequeathed to the patrician patron of 

learning, Conrad Peutinger of Augsburg (1465 

I S4?) 4 > to whom it owes the familiar name of the 
Tabula Peutingeriana 5 . Peutinger was an eager collector of coins 
and inscriptions. It was by his aid, and at the cost of Count 
Raymund Fugger of Augsburg, that a corpus of Greek and Latin 
inscriptions was produced by Petrus Apianus and Bartholomaeus 
Amantius of Ingoldstadt (i534) 6 - 

Among the ablest of the successors of Celtes in Vienna was 

Johannes Cuspinianus (1473 1529), a poet and 
Vadianus" 11 statesman, who edited Avienus and Florus, and 

critically studied Roman chronology 7 . His friend, 
Joachim Watt, or Vadianus of St Gallen (1484 1551), produced 
an exhaustive commentary on Pomponius Mela 8 . 

1 Bursian, i 160-4 ; Geiger, 3/6384, with Diirer's fine portrait on 
P- 3775 Janssen, i 147 f. 

2 Vol. i c. 29 prope finem. 3 Vol. i c. 26. 

4 Geiger, 369 372, with portrait on p. 444. 

5 Now in Vienna; handy ed. by Miller (1888). On Celtes, cp. J. F. 
Schroder, Kl. Studien (1864), 154168; Bursian, i 109117, and Jahresb. 
xxxii 215-8; Bauch's Erfurt, 6772 ; Geiger, 454462, 578, with portraits 
on pp. 455, 459; also Janssen, i 158 f. 

6 Bursian, i 167; Janssen, i 148 151. 7 Geiger, 441 f. 

8 Bursian, i 1701". Portrait of Vadianus (Watt} in Boissard's Icones III 
xv 112 (1598), copied in Cribble's Early Mountaineers, facing p. 43. 


One of the most scholarly of the adherents of Ulrich von 
Hutten was Hermann von dem Busche (1468 
1534). Educated- at Deventer and Heidelberg, he 
went in 1486 to Italy, where he spent five years, in the course of 
which he visited Rome, and attended the lectures of Pomponius 
Laetus. On his return, after spending a year at Cologne, he 
passed through many of the universities in Northern and Central 
Germany, lecturing everywhere on the Latin Classics, till he 
became the first professor of Classical Literature, rectiorum litte- 
rarum professor, at Marburg (1527-33). He defended classical 
studies in his Vallum Humanitatis (1518); he was the first to 
publish the Carmen de Bella Civili preserved in Petronius (1500); 
and he also edited Silius Italicus (1504) and the Amphitruo 
of Plautus, and commented on Claudian's poem De Raptu 

Meanwhile, at Tubingen, an enthusiastic teacher of humble 
birth, Heinrich Bebel (1472 1518), was laying 
down the laws of Latin usage, of Latin letter-writing, 
and of Latin versification. He was also winning a wide popularity 
by singing the glories of Germany, and the Triumph of Love, and 
by providing a German counterpart of the frivolous Facetiae of 
Poggio 2 . 

Among the humanists of Erfurt a prominent place must be 
assigned to Helius Eobanus Hessus (1488 1540), 
who lived at that university, not only as a student, HCSSUS"" 
but also as a teacher. From 1517 to 1526 he was 
the highly popular professor of Poetry and Rhetoric, lecturing to 
enormous audiences, and counting among his pupils youths of 
high promise, such as Micyllus and Camerarius. .The somewhat 
serious student just mentioned was the first treasurer of a festive 
club, over which Eobanus presided as the 'king of poets'. When 
the interests of humanism fell into abeyance at Erfurt, Eobanus 
left for Nuremberg, where he taught for seven years with the grave 
Camerarius as his colleague. This was the time of his greatest 
activity as a translator. He rendered into Latin verse the Idylls of 

1 Bursian, i 136-9; cp. Geiger, 426-8. 

2 Bursian, i i4of; Geiger, in A, D. B. and Renaissance, 423-5; Creighton, 
vi 28 f. 


Theocritus (1531), and Similes from Homer, with some of the 
Psalms, and the book of Ecdesiastes. He also produced a long 
Latin poem on the historic and artistic glories of Nuremberg. A 
brief return to Erfurt (1533-6), where he found that the fame of 
the university had declined, and that the spell of his own popu- 
larity had been broken, was followed by his migration to the 
newly-founded university of Marburg, where he continued his 
activity as a poet and a teacher during the four remaining years of 
his life. He there completed his metrical version of the Psalms, 
and produced a new edition of his numerous poems, the principal 
place among them being due to the 'Christian Hero'ides' that won 
him the title of the 'Christian Ovid'. His latest work was a 
rendering of the whole of the Iliad in Latin hexameters (1540). 
He undoubtedly did much in his time for the popularising of 
humanistic studies. His success was due to his happy and cheer- 
ful temper, and also to the elegant and idiomatic Latin, which 
characterised his work as a translator 1 

In this age one of the most important centres of humanism 
was Basel 2 . Humanism was there fostered by the 

Basel . . 

university founded in 1460, while Classical texts 
were issued by at least three printing-presses: (i) that of 
Johannes Froben (1491), who was succeeded in 1527 by his son 
Hieronymus and his son-in-law Episcopius ; (2) that of Cratander 
(1518), subsequently managed by Oporinus 3 (1544); and (3) that 
of Hervagius (1531). The texts were founded on MSS from the 
monasteries of Alsace and the Palatinate, and some of them are 
now the only evidence as to the readings of those MSS, e.g. 
Cratander's edition of Cicero ad Atticum, Beatus Rhenanus' 
Velleius Paterculus, Gelenius' Ammianus Marcellinus, and the 
joint edition of Livy by the last two scholars 4 . 

Erasmus had resided at Basel during the four years after 1514, 

1 Bursian, i 131-4; Bauch's Erjurt, passim ; and esp. C. Krause's 
admirable monograph in two vols. (1879), w ' tn specimens of his translation 
of Theocritus (ii 94) and Homer (ii 249), and portrait of 1533; Diirer's 
engraving of 1526 is reproduced in Geiger, 469, and less accurately in Bois- 
sard, in xvii 124. 

2 Cp. Geiger, 416-21. 

3 Bursian, i 158 ; portrait in Boissard, iv xlix 32?. 

4 Urlichs, 6f-; Bursian, i 159, 254. 


the seven after 1522, and also for the last two years of his life. 
He had been attracted to the place by his printer and publisher 
Johannes Froben, that genuine bibliophile, that ' ideal friend ', 
who ' had no memory for injuries ', and ' never forgot the most 
trivial service". Froben died in 1527. For sixteen years before 
that date Basel had also been the home of the friend 
and biographer of Erasmus, Beatus Rhenanus of RhenlmU 
Schlettstadt (1485 -1547), who, on the death of 
his publisher, left Basel for the place of his birth and his early 
education ; he died (at Strassburg) twenty years later. With the 
main exception of his Curtius, with notes by Erasmus, which 
had already appeared at Strassburg (1518), his best editions were 
printed at Basel : the editio princeps of Velleius (1520), from a 
MS discovered by himself at Murbach ; Seneca, Ludus de morte 
Claudii (1515); 'emendations' on the text of the elder Pliny 
(1526), from a Murbach MS that has since vanished; and lastly 
his Tacitus (1519-33), and his joint edition of Livy (i535) 2 . 
The text of Tacitus owes much to his corrections, but he was 
in general distinguished for his fidelity to the readings of the 
MSS, and for his critical caution in admitting conjectures 3 . 

Among his younger contemporaries was Glareanus (1488 
1563), who generally resided at Basel, or at Freiburg, 
where he held the professorship of poetry, though Grynaeus 
his main distinctions were won in the criticism of 
the current Roman chronology 4 . A second contemporary was 
Grynaeus of Heidelberg (1493 154 1 ), who in 1527 discovered at 
Lorsch a MS of the first five books of the fifth decade of Livy (now 
in Vienna), taught Greek in Vienna and Buda-Pest, as well as 
Heidelberg, and finally settled in 1529 at Basel 5 . A third was 
Gelenius of Prague (1497 * 554), who, after studying at Venice 

1 Ep. 922; Drummond's Erasmus, \\ 273 f. 

2 He also edited Pliny's Epp. (Strassburg, 1514), Gregory of Nyssa, Pru- 
dentius, Tertullian, and Origen. 

3 Bursian, i 150-2; Geiger, 488 f; Life, etc. by Horawitz (1872-4); Brief- 
'Meehsel, 1886; G. C. Knod, Aus dtr Bibliothek des B. K. (Schlettstadt, 1889); 
portrait in Boissard, I xli 248. 

4 Bursian, i 1541"; Geiger, 41 8 f. 

5 Bursian, i 156 f; portrait in Beza's /cones, facing p. O iij, and in Bois- 
sard, iv xliii 286. 


-/WANYS ' 

From a print of Albert Durer's engraving. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. 


under Musurus, went in 1524 to Basel, where he produced 
editions of Callimachus and Aristophanes, as well as the Planudean 
Anthology, with a commentary by Brodaeus of Tours, and the 
editio princeps of several of the minor Greek geographers (I533) 1 - 
In Latin he published an edition of Ammianus Marcellinus (1533), 
with the aid of a MS from Hersfeld, which has since disappeared ; 
he was associated (as we have seen) with Beatus Rhenanus in an 
edition of Livy, to which he contributed a collation of a MS at 
Speyer, and a new collation of that at Mainz, both of which MSS 
are now lost 2 . Lastly, he made good use of two ancient MSS in 
his Castigationes on the text of the elder Pliny (1535), followed 
by his edition of 1554, the merit of which has been recently 
recognised by Mayhoff 3 . His short-lived con- 
temporary, Petrus Mosellanus (14931524), who M JSuTnu 
succeeded Richard Croke as the teacher of Greek 
at Leipzig (1517), distinguished himself as an expositor of 
Quintilian and of Gellius, and still more as the preceptor of 
Camerarius, who is best known as the friend of Melanchthon 4 . 

Philip Schwarzerd, or Melanchthon (1497 1560), who was 
educated at Tiibingen, left his mark on the history 

- . . . r ' Melanchthon 

or education in Germany, not only as a lecturer on 
Virgil, Terence, and the rhetorical works of Cicero, and as Pro- 
fessor of Greek at Wittenberg, but also as a keen advocate for a 
thorough training in grammar and style. He produced works on 
Greek (1518) and Latin Grammar (1525-6), and many editions 
of the Classics, besides text-books of all kinds, which remained 
long in use. In conjunction with colleagues inspired by the same 
spirit, he published a series of commentaries on Cicero's rhetorical 

1 He assisted in the preparation of the editio princeps of Josephus (Basel, 
I 544)- The editor was Arnoldus Arlenius of Brabant, who also produced 
the editio princeps of Lycophron (ib. 1546); while his Polybius (1549) was 
the first to include the Epitome of books vn xvn. A pupil of Gyraldus 
(Depoetis, p. 69 Wotke), he had copied for Conrad Gesner the illustrations in 
the MS of ' Oppian' in the Library of St Mark's, and, in 1538-46, had organised 
the collection of MSS formed by Mendoza, the envoy of Charles V at Venice 
(Graux, Fonds Grec de rEscurial, 185-9). 

2 Bursian, i 152 f. * Ed. 1906, Praef. p. iv. 

4 Bursian, i 184; cp. O. G. Schmidt, 1867, and De Paedologia, ed. 1906, 
with Einleitung by Hermann Michel. 


works, on Terence and Sallust, on the Fasti of Ovid, and the 
tenth book of Quintilian, as well as on selections from Aristotle's 
Ethics and Politics. The series included editions of Hesiod and 
Theognis, and the Clouds and Plutus of Aristophanes, with trans- 
lations of Pindar and Euripides, and of speeches of Thucydides 
and Demosthenes. His text-books, and his courses of lectures, 
were introduced by excellent ' Prefaces '. Of his numerous 
' Declamations ' the most celebrated is that on the study of the 
classical languages, and especially on the study of Greek, de- 
livered as his inaugural lecture at Wittenberg (i5i8) a . His many 
Latin Letters, and indeed his Latin works in general, are written 
in a style that is easy, clear, and simple, without being distinctly 
elegant. He had no sympathy with the paganising spirit of many 
of the Italian humanists : the principles of Christianity were part 
of the very life-blood of the praeceptor Germainae*. 

His friend, Joachim Camerarius of Bamberg (1500 1574), 
studied Greek under Croke and others at Leipzig 

Camerarius _ i T-. 

and belonged to the circle of Eobanus Hessus at 
Erfurt. After becoming the intimate friend of Melanchthon at 
Wittenberg, he held classical professorships at Nuremberg (1526), 
Tubingen (1535), and Leipzig (1541-74). His numerous editions 
of the Classics, without attaining the highest rank, are characterised 
by acumen and good taste. They include Homer, the Greek 
Elegiac poets, Theocritus, Sophocles, Thucydides and Herodotus, 
as well as posthumous editions of Aristotle's Ethics, Politics, and 
Economics. He also produced an extensive series of Latin trans- 
lations of the Greek Classics. Among his editions of Latin authors 
a place of honour must be assigned to his Plautus (1552), the 

1 De corrigendis adolescentiae stitdiis. The Declamationes have been edited 
in two parts by Hartfelder (Weidmann, Berlin). 

2 His philological works are included in the Corpus Refonnatorutn 
vols. xvi xx, and the Letters and Declamations in other volumes. Cp. Bur- 
sian, i 173-8; also Hartfelder, Melanchthon ah Praeceptor Germaniae, and 
Mel. Paedagogica, and in Schmid's Gesch. der Erziehung, in ii 206 228; 
Paulsen, ed. 2, i 1 12 f, 185 f, 203 f, 223 f, 258 f ; and Woodward's Renaissance 
Education, c. xi, 211 f; also T. Bailey Saunders (preparing). As compared 
with Wimpfeling, Melanchthon is depreciated by Karl Pearson, Ethic of Free- 
thought, 222 2 . Portrait after Diirer on p. 264; the life-like medallion at 
Hanover is reproduced as frontispiece to Hartfelder's Melanchthon. 


text of which was founded on the codex vetus Camerarii (cent, xi), 
containing all the extant plays, and on the codex decurtatus (xii), 
formerly at Freising, containing the last twelve plays alone. Both 
of these belonged to the Palatine Library at Heidelberg, but were 
removed to the Vatican in 1623 ; the former is still in the Vatican, 
while the latter has been restored to Heidelberg. They are now 
known by the symbols B and C respectively. Camerarius was 
fully equal to his friend and exemplar Melanchthon in the wide 
extent of his attainments and in his thorough knowledge of Greek 
and Latin in particular, but he distinctly surpassed him in critical 
acumen, and in this respect holds one of the foremost places 
among the German scholars of the sixteenth century 1 . 

Among his friends Was Jacob Molsheym of Strassburg (1503 1558), who 

owed his name of Micyllus to his taking the part of that 

character in a dramatic representation of Lucian's 'Dream' 

at Erfurt, where he was under the influence of the enthusiastic Latin scholar 
and poet, Eobanus Hessus. After continuing his studies under Melanchthon at 
Wittenberg, he lectured on Latin at Frankfurt, and on Greek at Heidelberg. 
He was associated with Camerarius in an edition of Homer comprising the 
earlier and shorter scholia of Didymus (1541). His independent works in- 
cluded the editio princeps of the fables of Hyginus (1535) from a MS at Freising, 
besides editions of large portions of Ovid, a translation of the whole of Lucian 
(1538), and a treatise on prosody (1539) 2 - 

Strassburg is also associated with the more notable name of 
Johannes Sturm (1507 1589). His educational 
principles are laid down in the celebrated treatise 
De puerorum ludis recte aperiendis (1538), his inaugural oration as 
head-master of Strassburg school, a position which he filled with 
distinction for no less than forty-three years. He made the 
writing and the speaking of Latin the almost exclusive aim of 
education. His school was frequented by pupils from all lands, 
and became the model for gymnasia in many parts of Germany. 
His correspondent Roger Ascham, who unfortunately never met 
him 3 , describes him as 'one of his two dearest friends' 4 ; he 
praises his 'Select Letters of Cicero' (1539), and his treatise 
De Institutione Prineipum* (1551); and, when he wishes to 

1 Bursian, i 185-9; Paulsen, ' /22 9 2 33"> Ritschl, Opusc. ii 99 f, iii 67 f; 
Ribbeck's Ritschl, ii 432 ; cp. Pokel, s.v. 

~ Bursian, i 192-6. s Katterfeld, Roger Ascham, 78. 

4 Scholemaster, 128. 8 Scholemaster, 3, 35. 


recommend a modern model of the plain, as well as the grand 
and the intermediate, styles, he says: 

' For our time the odde man to performe all three perfitlie, whatsoever he 
doth, and to know the way to do them skilfullie, whan so ever he list, is in my 
poore opinion Joannes Sturmius' 1 . 

An educational position similar to that of Sturm at Strassburg was attained 
. in Saxony by his short-lived contemporary Rivius (1500 

1553), who published at the Saxon town of Meissen an ex- 
cellent edition of Sallust, in which the text is founded on the evidence of four 
. MSS and is corrected in many passages (i53y) 2 . His pupil, 

Georg Fabricius (1516 1571), studied in Italy at Padua and 
Bologna, and explored the monuments and inscriptions in Rome. His 
numerous editions of the Classics included Virgil and Horace, with the 
scholia on both, while he also produced works on Roman topography and 

antiquities (1540 f)- His namesake, Franz Fabricius of 
F. Fabricius 

Diiren (1527 1573). studied in Paris under Ramus and 

Turnebus, and was Rector of the gymnasium at Dlisseldorf (1564-73). The 
most important of his works was the Annals of the Life of Cicero (1563 etc.). 
He also arranged Cicero's Letters in chronological order, and, in editing 
several of Cicero's works, made use of several new MSS. Lastly, he supplied 
Lambinus with readings from a MS at Cologne. In this respect, and as a 
pupil of eminent teachers in Paris, he is an interesting link between Germany 
and France 3 . 

A name of greater note is that of Melanchthon's pupil, 
Hieronymus Wolf (1516 1580), who, after a 
wandering life, settled at Augsburg, first as se- 
cretary and librarian to the wealthy merchant Johann Jakob 
Fugger, and next as Rector of the newly-founded gymnasium, 
which he ruled from 1557 until his death. He made his mark 
by his repeated editions of Isocrates (1570 etc.), and De- 
mosthenes (1572 etc.), with Latin translations and explanatory 
notes. For his Demosthenes, which was published in five folio 
volumes, he used a valuable MS in the Augsburg Library, the codex 
Augustanus primus, now at Munich. He also edited Suidas 
(1564), and three folio volumes of Byzantine historians 4 . Roger 

1 p. 113, with Mayor's n. on p. 208. Cp. Life by C. Schmidt (1855); 
Raumer's Gesch. d. Pddagogik, i 228 276 2 ; Paulsen, i 282 29O 2 ; E. Laas 
(Berlin, 1872); Bursian, i 201 f; Geiger, 404; portrait in Boissard's Icanes, 
VII 663 ; G. Schmid in R. A. Schmid's Gesch. der Erziehimg, II ii 302 388. 

2 Bursian, i 204 f. 3 Bursian, i 208 f. 

4 Bursian, i 210-2 ; portrait in Boissard's Icones, n 270. 


Ascham, during his stay in Augsburg (1550-1), admired the 
varied learning and the fine library of Jakob Fugger, and had the 
use of a catalogue of the MSS, made by Wolf 1 , whom he describes 
as 'very simple' in his personal appearance, and a frequent guest 
at the table of the English embassy 2 . 

A wide range of reading was represented by the educational 
text-books of Michael Neander (15215 1595), who 

\ j j jyjn Neander 

studied under Luther and Melanchthon at Witten- 
berg, and was for forty-five years Rector of the school at Ilfeld. 
His best-known works were his Opus Aureum of Greek and Latin 
moral maxims, his Anthologicum Graeco-Latimim^ and his selec- 
tions from Pindar and Euripides 3 . 

Lexicography is represented in the same age by Basilius Faber, 
Rector of Erfurt (1=520 1=576). In 1571 he pro- 

v . 7 . B. Faber 

duced a comprehensive Latin Thesaurus, which long 
survived. It was re-edited by Cellarius (1686), Graevius (1710), 
and J. M. Gesner (1726). Lexicography satisfied 
only a part of the varied intellectual activity of an 
earlier Gesner, Conrad Gesner of Ziirich (1516 1565), whose 
Bibliotheca Universalis (1545-9) is a biographical and biblio- 
graphical Dictionary of all the writers in Greek, Latin, or Hebrew 
known to the author. The second part of this work is a vast 
encyclopaedia of the arts and sciences. Gesner was one of the 
founders of the modern study of Natural Science, and his descrip- 
tion of the ascent of Pilatus opens an era in the literature of the 
scientific exploration of the Alps 4 . His classical works include a 
Dictionary of Greek and Latin, and of Proper Names, an edition 
of Stobaeus, and the editio princeps of Aelian, De Natura Ani- 
malium (1556). In his Mithridates (1555) he made the first 
attempt towards the comparative study of language 5 . The study 

1 Ep. p. 41 (to Sturm) and p. 252 (to Froben), eel. Elstob. 

2 Katterfeld, A. Ascham, 1401". On H. Wolf as an educationist, cp. G. 
Schmid, I.e., II ii 430 461. 

3 Bursian, i 212-5; G. Schmid, I.e., n ii 388 430. 

4 De raris herbis etc. (Zurich, 1555). Cp. F. Cribble's Early Moun- 
taineers, with Gesner's portrait (1899), 5 1 62. 

5 Bursian, i 216-8; portrait in Boissard, IV xxiii 130 (with his own list of 
his writings). 


of modern, as well as ancient, Greek was represented in the same 
age by Martin Crusius (1526 1607), for the last 

Crusius . . 

forty-seven years of his life professor at Tubingen '. 

His younger and abler colleague, the Latin versifier Nicodemus 

Frischlin (1547 1590), did much for the advance- 


ment of the study of Greek and Latin Grammar 8 . 
Wilhelm Xylander 3 of Augsburg (1532 1576), a student of 
Tubingen, who in 1558 succeeded Micyllus 4 as 


professor of Greek and as librarian at Heidelberg, 
produced the editio princeps of Marcus Aurelius (1558), and 
important editions of Plutarch (1560-70), Strabo (1571), and 
Stephanus of Byzantium (1568). He made good use of the MSS 
accessible to him, and also gave proof of a singular acumen in the 
emendation of texts. His edition of Pausanias was completed by 
Sylburg 5 . 

A thorough knowledge of Greek, considerable critical acumen, 
and an intelligent application of great powers of 
work were the main characteristics of Friedrich 
Sylburg (15361596), who, besides studying at Marburg and 
Jena, spent some time in Geneva and Paris, where he learnt much 
from Henri Estienne, to whose Greek Thesaurus he afterwards 
contributed. In 1583 he settled for eight years at Frankfurt, and, 
for the last five years of his life, at Heidelberg, working for the 
press of Wechel at the former, and for that of Commelinus at the 
latter. Besides completing Xylander's edition of Pausanias ( 1 584), 
he edited at Frankfurt the whole of Aristotle, and of Dionysius 
of Halicarnassus, the three volumes of the Scriptores historiae 
Romanae, and the grammatical work of Apollonius Trepi a-wrd^cw;. 
His work at Heidelberg included the Latin writers De Re Rustica, 
and the Greek Fathers, Clement of Alexandria and Justin Martyr. 
Early in his career he declined an invitation to fill the Chair of 
Greek at Marburg: he was content to hold an appointment in the 
library at Heidelberg, devoting almost all his energies to editorial 
work. Every one of his editions is distinguished by important 

1 Bursian, i 223. 2 ib. i 224-7. 

3 Holtzmann. 4 p. 267 supra, 

5 Bursian, i 228; portrait in Boissard, IV xli 278. 


corrections of the text, and is accompanied by a full and careful 
index 1 . 

Sylburg would naturally have been appointed professor of Greek at Heidel- 
berg, but for his sudden death from over-work at the age of 

60. The vacant professorship was assigned to Aemilius Portus Aemilius 

(1550 1614-5), a son of the Cretan Greek, Franciscus Portus. 

The father had taught his native language at Ferrara, and had withdrawn to 
Geneva in 1559 owing to his sympathy with the cause of the Reformation. 
The son, who was born at Ferrara and had taught Greek at Geneva and 
Lausanne, was living in Heidelberg at the time when the professorship fell 
vacant 2 . He had inherited from his father a complete command of his 
ancestral tongue, but, notwithstanding his undoubted industry, he was inferior 
to Sylburg in thoroughness, in critical acumen, and in sound judgement. An 
unfortunate dispute with a German student led to his resigning his professor- 
ship ; he was accordingly compelled to confine himself to the duties of an 
ordinary teacher at Kassel and Stadthagen, where he died. His numerous 
works, many of which were hastily produced under the pressure of poverty, 
included lexicons, such as those to Herodotus and Pindar and the Bucolic 
Poets, besides many Greek texts with Latin translations. In the first volume 
of his edition of Euripides, there was printed for the first time a long fragment, 
which was then ascribed to the Danae, but has since been proved to be spurious 3 . 
He was the first to prepare an edition of the six books of Proclus on the 
Theology of Plato, posthumously printed in i6i8 4 . 

Among Germans who studied Greek, a place of honour is 
due to Lorenz Rhodomann (1546 1606), a school- 

i i Tr Rhodomann 

master, who, in the latter part of his life; was pro- 
fessor of Greek and Latin at Jena and Wittenberg. He had a 
remarkable facility in writing Greek hexameters, and his epic 
poems, anonymously published in 1588 by his former master, 
Michael Neander, were accepted by many as genuine classical 
works. In ancient literature the special subject of his study was 
Quintus Smyrnaeus, whose epic poem he published, with a Latin 
translation and critical notes, in 1608. In the same year he 
produced the ripe result of many years of learned labour in an 
edition of Diodorus Siculus, by which the textual criticism of 
that author was materially advanced. Ten years previously, he 
had published Latin translations of the extracts from the historian 

1 Bursian, i 229-^232. 

2 By the death of Pithopoeus (1596); Portus resigned in 1608. 

3 Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag. p. 714 f. 4 Bursian, i 232-4. 


Memnon, and the geographer Agatharchides, which had been 
preserved by Photius 1 . 

Far greater service was done for Photius by a pupil of 
Hieronymus Wolf, named David Hoeschel (1556 

Hoeschel . . . .. . 

1617), who, m 1 60 1, gave to the world the editto 
princeps of the whole of the Bibliotheca. He also edited the 
Illyrica of Appian (1599), the Edoga of Phrynichus (1601), and 
the Excerpta ex Legationibus in the historic encyclopaedia of 
Constantine Porphyrogenitus (1603). The material for these and 
other works was derived from a valuable collection of Greek 
MSS from Corfu, which was bought in Venice by the enlightened 
Council of Augsburg (i544) 2 . With the aid of a wealthy and 
learned member of that Council, Marcus Welser, he set up a 
printing press, at which his own editions and those of other 
scholars were printed on fine paper and in excellent type from 
1595 to i6i4 3 . 

One of the last of the scholars of Germany, who taught the 
language and literature of Greece in the spirit of 
Melanchthon, was Erasmus Schmied (1570 1637), 
who was professor, first of Greek, and next of Mathematics, at 
Wittenberg. His principal work was an edition of Pindar, with 
a Latin translation and a careful commentary (1616). It was 
founded on three Palatine MSS, and the writer claimed to have 
corrected the text in more than 600 places. The commentary 
remained unsurpassed until the appearance of the editions of 
Heyne and Boeckh. He also edited Hesiod (1603), and pro- 
duced a treatise maintaining his preference for the ' Reuchlinian ' 
over the ' Erasmian ' method of pronouncing Greek 4 . 

Mention may here be made of two Latin scholars of high 
promise, both of whom died in the prime of life. 
Janus Guilielmus of Liibeck (1555 1584) published 
at an early age at Rostock a treatise on the officials of the Roman 
Republic, and a Latin rendering of the Phoenissae. His subse- 
quent studies at Cologne were followed by the publication at 
Antwerp of his Verisimilia on the early Latin authors (1582). In 

1 Bursian, i 235^ 2 Graux, UEscurial (1880), no, 413. 

3 Bursian, i 236-8 ; portrait in Boissard, vill nnn i. 

4 Bursian, i 238 240. 


the next year he was welcomed in Paris by all the foremost 
scholars of the day, and there published his maturest work, the 
Plautinarum Quaestionum Commentarius. In 1584 he conclu- 
sively refuted Sigonius by proving that the Consolatio, printed in 
1583, was not the work of Cicero 1 . From the days of his youth 
Cicero had been his favourite author, and he had collected 
materials for the correction of the text in Cologne and Paris. 
The results were first published in Gruter's edition of 1618, long 
after their author's early death at Bourges in 1584*. 

In extent and variety of published work Guilielmus was 
surpassed by Valens Acidalius (i^y 1595), who 

3 , Acidalius 

m 1590 left the universities of Northern Germany 
for those of Italy. At Bologna, where he spent most of his time 
in the study of the Classics, he graduated in Medicine. At 
Padua, he had already produced, in 1590, an edition of Velleius 
Paterculus, containing many corrections'of the text. He also paid 
much attention to Apuleius, and the plays of Plautus and Seneca. 
On returning to Germany in 1593, he settled at Breslau, but the 
only results of his studies abroad that he produced in the two 
remaining years of his life were his 'Animadversions' on Q. Curtius. 
His corrections of the text of Plautus and Tacitus and the Latin 
Panegyrici were published by his brother 3 . 

Far less capacity for the criticism of Plautus was displayed by 
Friedrich Taubmann of Wittenberg (i*,6s. 1613), 

3 v D Taubmann 

who deserves, however, to be remembered for the 
zeal with which he endeavoured to counteract the decline in Latin 
style which he laments in his thesis De Lingua Latina (1602). 
Notwithstanding the efforts of men like Ulrich von Hutten and 
Martin Luther to mould the German language for the purposes 
of literature, Latin long continued to be the normal medium, 
not only for works of learning of every description 4 , but even for 
poetry 5 . 

An early link between Italy and Hungary may be found in the 
treatise on education addressed in 1450 by Aeneas 
Sylvius to Ladislas, the youthful king of Hungary 

1 p. 144 supra, 2 Bursian, i 240-2. 3 Bursian, i 242 f. 

4 Bursian, i 244^ 5 ib. i 250 f. 

S. II. 18 


and Bohemia. The study of the best Latin literature in prose 
and verse is here strongly recommended, with details as to the 
authors that should be preferred. For reasons of style, the 
youthful king is warned against wasting his time over the history 
of Bohemia or Hungary 1 . Five years later the royal youth 
requested the king of Naples, and the duke of Modena, to send 
him any works of interest on the exploits of the ancient Romans, 
or of others who were worthy of imitation 2 ; but his life of 
promise came to an early end at the age of eighteen. Even the 
heroic general of the king's armies, Joannes Hunyady, found time 
for studying the works of Poggio; but the true founder of classical 
studies in Hungary was Joannes Vitez (d. 1472), who 
had studied in Italy before becoming secretary to 
Hunyady; chancellor to Hunyady's royal son, Matthias Corvinus; 
and, finally, cardinal archbishop of Gran. Vitez was in constant 
correspondence with Florence, sending for correct copies of the 
Classics, and himself transcribing translations from the Greek. 
It was his ambition to found a Hungarian university, and he 
prompted the king to become a patron of learning. Among 
those whom he befriended was the aged Italian humanist, 
Vergerio, while he received from Argyropulos the dedication of 
a rendering of the De Caelo of Aristotle 3 . 

One of the youths sent at his charges to receive their educa- 
tion in Italy was his nephew, Janus Pannonius 
Pannonius (H34 147 2 )> wh , from the age of thirteen to 
that of twenty, was an inmate of the house of 
Guarino at Ferrara, where he gave proof of a singular precocity of 
intellect, as well as a marvellous memory. He produced trans- 
lations from the Greek, but his favourite field of composition was 
Latin verse. When he had studied law for four years at Padua, 
and was still under the age of twenty-five, his uncle induced 
Pius II to appoint him to a Hungarian bishopric. Returning to 
Hungary with a large collection of Greek and Latin MSS, he 
regarded his native land as a place of exile as compared with the 

1 p. 72 supra; De Liberonun Educatione, translated in Woodward's Vit- 
torino, 134 158 ; cp. Harvard Lectures, 67 69. 

2 Abel's Analecta (Budapest, 1880), 156 f. 
:) Voigt, ii 3i6-8 3 . 


Italy that he had left. His gratitude to his teacher, Guarino, was 
enshrined in a lengthy poem in Latin hexameters 1 , and, to the 
end of his life, Latin verse was the main theme of his interest. 
Ficino's rendering of Plato's Symposium was dedicated to him; 
and he himself dedicated to king Matthias Corvinus a translation of 
part of the Iliad, and of the Apophthegms of Plutarch. Unhappily 
he was induced by his uncle to join in a conspiracy against the 
king, and, not long afterwards, he died at the early age of thirty- 
eight 2 . 

King Matthias Corvinus (1443 1490) was interested in Latin 
poets, such as Silius Italicus, in historians, such as 

. Corvinus 

Livy and Curtius, and in -Roman writers on the 
military art. In 1467, with the approval of the Pope, he founded 
an academy at Pressburg, but young Hungarians still preferred, 
if possible, to complete their education in Italy. He also formed 
a fine library at Buda, where thirty copyists and artists were 
employed in keeping up the supply of illuminated MSS. This 
library, which belonged to the last ten or fifteen years of his life, 
was unfortunately scattered in all directions at his death 3 . He 
introduced the art of printing and founded a university at Buda; 
Italian humanists were welcomed at his court, and an interest 
in literature flourished in the land ; but the intellectual life of 
Hungary, as well as the newly-founded university, was over- 
whelmed for a time by the Turks, who invaded the country after 
the victory of Mohacs in 15 26*. 

In Poland, the earliest apostle of humanism was apparently 
the cardinal archbishop of Cracow, Sbignew Oles- 
nicky. He had studied at Cracow, but there is 

. . , _ Olesnicky 

nothing to prove that he had ever visited Italy. 

His command of Latin prose, mainly founded on modern models, 

1 p. 51 supra. 

2 Vespasiano, Vile, 11^ ; Voigt, ii 318 ^4 3 ', Pocinata and Opnscula 
(Utrecht, 1784); Abel, Analeda (1880). 

3 Abel in Lit. Bericht en atis Ungarn, n iv (1878). Cp. Marki in Osl. 
Ung. Rev. xxv. In this library J. A. Brassicanus (1500 1539) saw a com- 
plete Hypereides (Praef. ad Salvianum, 1530). 

4 Voigt, ii 3i5-3*7 3 - 

1 8 2 


such as the letters of Salutati, led to his appointment as secretary 
to the king of Poland. In 1423 he became bishop of Cracow, a 
position which he held for thirty-two years. In 1424 he there 
made the acquaintance of Filelfo; and for twelve years he cor- 
responded with Aeneas Sylvius, who, as bishop of Triest in 1450, 
displayed to the German Councillors at Neustadt a letter from the 
Polish Cardinal proving that the German skill in Latin was 
surpassed in Poland 1 . 

For twenty-four years the Cardinal's secretary was Johannes 
Dlugosz, who, in a letter to Aeneas Sylvius, con- 

Diugosz ... 

fesses to his admiration for clearness of style, and 
is himself known as the author of the first important Latin history 

of Poland 2 . Latin poetry rather than prose was the 
of G Sanok favourite study of Gregor of Sanok, who, after 

setting out on his wanderings in Germany at the 
age of twelve, settled down as a student at Cracow, where he 
graduated in 1439. He lectured on the Eclogues and Georgics, 
and on Plautus and Juvenal. After acting as tutor to the sons of 
Hunyady, he lived in the household of bishop Vitez, and himself 
became archbishop of Lemberg in 1451. He wrote much, but 
published little apart from a selection from his Latin verses, with 
two historical works. In Italy he might have attained that 
distinction in literature, for which he could find no scope in the 
land of his birth. Among the Italians whom he welcomed in 
Poland was Filippo Buonaccorsi, who had fled from Rome when 
the local Academy was suppressed by Paul II 3 . Buonaccorsi was 
the first Italian to introduce into Poland a wider and more 
popular interest in Classical studies 4 . It was at Cracow that (as 
we have already seen) he met Conrad Celtes, who was thereby 
inspired to found humanistic societies in Poland and Hungary, 
as well as on the banks of the Rhine 6 . 

1 Voigt, ii 32 7-9". 2 ib. ii 329 s . 3 p. 92 supra. 

4 Zeissberg, Die polnische Geschichtschreibung des MAs (1873), 349 f 
(Voigt, ii 330 3 ). 

6 p. 259 supra. On humanism in Poland, cp. Cod. Epist. Saec. XF, ed. 
Sokolowski et Szujski (Man. medii aevi, t. ii) Crac. 1876. 



Nescire qnaedam, magna pars Sapientiae est. 

GROTIUS, Poemata, p. 332, ed. 1617. 

Non audiendi sunt homines imperiti, qui humano ingcnio 
majorem, vel inutilem, et rebus gerendls adversam TroXv/jidOfiav 

MORHOF, Polyhistor, i i i, 1688. 

La fin naturelle de la science, et par consequent des etudes, 
est, apres Jestre rempli soy-mesme, de travailler pour les autres. 

MABILLON, Etudes Monastiques, Part n, Ch. xv, 1691. 

History of Scholarship in the Seventeenth Century. 




England and 




P. Merula 











1560 1627 












R. Burton 

H. Lindenbrog 










G. j. Vossius 


F. Lindenbrog 






C. Labb<< 


















Drummond j Bernegger 


I 585 1649 15821640 


D. Heinsius 

Johnston Barth 



15871641 15871658 




May j Reinesius 

Cassiano dal 

P. Seguier 

Salmasius at 

I 595 1650 15871667 

Meric Casaubon Holstenius 

Pozzo d. 1657 



15991671 1596-1661 




Duport i Kircher 

d. 1661 


F. Junius 

16061679 1601 1680 



Milton ! Weller 

H. Valesius 

J. F. Gronovius 







P. Labbe' 







Du Cange 

H. More 






Pietro Bartoli 


Isaac Vossius 








R. Fabretti 

Tan. Faber 

N. Heinsius 





1620 1681 





Theoph. Gale 



1629 1710 








1630 1710 








1632 1703 

1631 1700 

1629 1710 

C. Patin 

Thomas Gale 







H. Dodwell 

Cellar! us 

1646 1729 















Barnes ; Obrecht 


1651 1722 




Anne Dacier 












1644 1716 












IN the seventeenth century the classical learning of Italy was 
mainly limited to archaeology, a study that was 

, , , , r Archaeologists 

stimulated by the perpetual presence of the rums of 

old Rome, by the accumulation of ever-increasing stores of Latin 

inscriptions, and by the occasional discovery of interesting works 

of ancient art. In the first half of the century a large collection 

of drawings and prints from the antique was formed at Rome 

by the Commendatore Cassiano dal Pozzo (d. 1657) 

and his brother Antonio. This collection was con- da?^ozzo 

stantly consulted by Winckelmann while it was 

still in the possession of Cardinal Alessandro Albani, from whom 

it was purchased in 1762 for the Royal Library at Windsor 1 . 

The topography of ancient Rome was intelligently described in 

the Roma vetus ac recens (1638) of a Jesuit teacher of rhetoric 

in Rome named Alessandro Donati of Siena (1584 1640), and 

in a diffuse and popular work on the same subject. 

3 Donati 

the Roma antica of Famiano Nardini of Florence, Nardini 
who died in Rome in 1661. The Inscriptions 
Antiquae of Giovanni Battista Doni (1594 1647) were posthu- 
mously published by Gori in 1731. The distinguished archaeo- 
logist, Giovanni Pietro Bellori (1615 1696), pub- 
lished the 'Capitoline plan' of Rome (1673), and ^^ and 
reproduced the coins and gems in the collection of 
queen Christina, the portraits of ancient poets and philosophers and 
Roman emperors, the paintings in the Roman crypts and in the 
sepulchre of the Nasos, the reliefs on the Antonine column, and 

1 Michaelis, Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, 84, 433, 718. 

280 ITALY. [CENT. xvn. 

a large series of similar sculptures included in the Admiranda 

Romanarum antiquitatum vestigia (1693). The engravings for 

these great works were mainly executed by Pietro Bartoli 1 . His 

contemporary, Raphael Fabretti of Urbino (1619 

1700), who became director of the archives of 

Rome, published a clear and almost complete account of the 

Roman aqueducts (1680), and a fine folio volume on Trajan's 

column (1683). He also did good service by his learned labours 

in the field of Latin inscriptions, 

' His diligence in collecting inscriptions was only surpassed by his sagacity 
in explaining them ; and his authority has been preferred to that of any other 
antiquary. His time was spent in delving among ruins and vaults, to explore 
the subterranean treasures of Latium; no heat, nor cold, nor rain, nor badness 
of road, could deter him from these solitary peregrinations. Yet the glory of 
Fabretti must be partly shared with his horse. This wise and faithful animal, 
named Marco Polo, had acquired, it is said, the habit of standing still, and as 
it were pointing, when he came near an antiquity ; his master candidly owning 
that several things which would have escaped him had been detected by the 
antiquarian quadruped' 2 . 

In Latin scholarship the most pleasing product of this century 

is to be found in the Prolusiones Academicae of the Roman 

Jesuit, Famianus Strada (1572 1649), fi rst P UD " 


lished in 1617. In the varied pages of this compact 
and compendious volume the author shows considerable taste in 
dealing with large questions of historical, oratorical and political 

The most interesting of his Prolusiones are the fifth and sixth of the second 
book, where we have a critical review of the Latin poets of the age of Leo, and 
a discourse on poetry, purporting to have been delivered by one of their 
number, Sadoleto. The ancient models imitated by the poets of that age are 
next illustrated by a series of six short poems composed by Strada himself, 
with criticisms on each. The following are the six poets selected, with the 
names of the modern poets to whom the several imitations are dramatically 
assigned : Lucan (Janus Parrhasius), Lucretius (Bembo), Claudian (Casti- 
gltone), Ovid (Hercules Strozzi], Statius (Pontano), and Virgil (Naugerio) 3 . The 
happiest of these parodies are those on Lucan and Ovid ; a lower degree of 

1 '635 1700; Stark, 115. 

2 Hallam, iii 255*, who refers to Fabroni, Vitae Italorum, vi, and Visconti 
in Biographic Universelle. Cp. Stark, 116. 

3 pp. 322 342, Amsterdam, 1658. 


success is attained in the case of Virgil, Statius and Claudian, and the lowest 
in that of Lucretius. But this last has an interest of its own. The theme is 
the magnet, and the poem describes an imaginary method of communication 
between absent friends by means of two magnetic needles which successively 
point towards the same letters of the alphabet, however far the friends may be 
removed from one another, .in ingenious play of fancy, which almost antici- 
pates the electric telegraph. This poem has been specially mentioned by 
Addison in the Spectator^, while all the six poems are noticed in the Guardian"*. 
The theme of the poem in the style of Claudian is the famous contest between 
the nightingale and the player on the lute, which (as observed by Addison) is 
introduced into one of the pastorals of Ambrose Philips (d. 1749)- But 
Addison omits to observe that the whole of the poem had been elegantly 
translated by Richard Crashaw, who died exactly a hundred years before 
Philips, in fact in the same year as Strada himself. Strada's name is not 
mentioned in the Delights of the Muses, where the first poem, on Music's 
Duel, ends with the following description of the nightingale's fate : 
' She fails ; and failing, grieves ; and grieving, dies ; 
She dies, and leaves her life the victor's prize, 
Falling upon his lute. O, fit to have 
That lived so sweetly dead, so sweet a grave'. 

In the second half of this century there were other Latin poets, both within 
and without the ' Society of Jesus'. Among these may be men- 
tioned Tommaso Ceva (1648 1 737), the author of an elegant, Ceva 
though somewhat incongruous, poem on the childhood of Sergardi 
Jesus; and Sergardi, who bitterly satirises the jurist Gravina 3 . 
But to the classical scholar not one of these poets is equal in interest to 

Strada was violently attacked in a curious work by Caspar 
Scioppius (1576 1649), the Infamia Famiani, in which that 
captious critic objects to Strada's use of Latin words found only 
in authors of the Silver age. The critic, who was born near 
Nuremberg, had spent nearly half a century in Italy after joining 
the Church of Rome in 1598. An account of his varied career 
is reserved for the chapter on the land of his birth 4 . 

In the Italian literature of the transition from the sixteenth 
to the seventeenth century the lyric poet Chiabrera 

J j c Imitators 

(1552 1637), who was educated by the Jesuits in of Pindar 
Rome but spent most of his life at his birthplace 

1 No. 241 (iii 135 of Addison's Works, eel. 1868). 

* Nos. 115, 119, 122 (Works'w 221, 237 243). Cp. Sir Thomas Browne's 
Works, \ 152 f, 155, ed. 1852; Hallam, iii 132*. 

3 Hallam, iii 490 f 4 . 4 c. xxi infra. 

282 ITALY. [CENT, xvn f 

Savona, endeavoured to strike out a new line by the avowed 
imitation of Pindar. His ruling instinct as a scholar is revealed 
in the sentence : ' When I see anything eminently beautiful, or 
taste something that is excellent, I say : It is Greek Poetry %1 . 
The ' Pindaric Ode ', with its strophe, antistrophe and epode, 
but without any imitation of the poet's style, had been introduced 
by Trissino (d. 1550). The study of Pindar is also exemplified 
in the free translation by Alessandro Adimari (d. 1649) 2 . I" 
1671 'Pindaric Odes' appear among the works of the great lyric 
poet Guidi (1650 1712), but Guidi was unfamiliar with the text 
of Pindar himself 3 . Pindar was afterwards translated by the 
Abate Angelo Mazzo of Parma (d. 1817)*, but the eminent critic 
Carducci considers that the only Italian lyric poem, ' in the deep 
Pindaric sense of the term', is the Sepolcri of Ugo Foscolo 
(d. i827) 5 . 

The Alcaic odes of Horace were imitated by Chiabrera 6 , and 
the 'Roman Pindar' was emulated by Fulvio Testi of Ferrara 
(1593 i6o6) 7 , of whom it has been said that 'had he chosen 
his diction with greater care, he might have earned the name 
of the Tuscan Horace 18 . The odes had already been imitated 
by Bernardo Bembo (1493 1569), by Bartolomeo del Bene of 
Florence (d. 1558), and, later than this century, by Luigi Cerretti 
(d. 1 808) 10 and others. 

1 Symonds, vii 316 f. Cp. Hallam, iii pf 4 ; portrait in Wiese u. Percopo, 
It. Lilt. 399. 

2 Hallam, iii 1 1 4 . 3 Wiese u. Percopo, 409. 
4 Wiese u. Percopo, 532. 6 ib. 532. 

6 ib. 401. 7 ib. 400, 402. 

8 Crescimbeni (Hallam, iii io 4 ). 9 ib. 339. 

10 Wiese u. Percopo, 532. 



WE have seen that, in the latter part of the sixteenth century, 
the two greatest representatives of classical learning in France, 
Scaliger and Casaubon, were Protestants, who, in 1593 and 1610, 
were compelled to leave their native land for the Netherlands and 
England 1 . Owing to the influence of the Counter-Reformation, 
and the training of the Jesuits, the energies of the classical 
scholars that still remained in France were diverted from pagan 
to Christian studies. Thus the Jesuit, Jacques Sirmond (1559 
1651), edited Apollinaris Sidonius (i6i4) 2 , together 
with a number of ecclesiastical writers. Another p'Jtavius 
Jesuit, Denys Petau, or Petavius, of Orleans (1583 
1652), besides editing Synesius (1612) and Epiphanius (1622), 
devoted a large part of his chronological work, the Doctrina 
Temporum (1627), to the criticism of Scaliger's De Emendatione 
Temporum*. A third, Fronton du Due (1558 1624), edited 
Chrysostom; while a pupil of the Jesuits, Nicolas Rigault (1577 
1654), edited Tertullian and Cyprian. Among other eminent 
men of learning, who were trained by that Society, were the 
brothers Henri and Adrien de Valois, and Du Cange, to whom we 
shall shortly return 4 . The Catholic side was also represented by 
Francois Guyet of Angers (1575 1655), a private 
tutor in Rome and Paris, whose posthumous works p^resc 
include acute criticisms on Hesiod and Hesychius, 

1 pp. 203, 207 supra. 

2 Cp. Gibbon's Life and Letters, 56, ed. 1869. 

3 Hallam, ii 295-7* ; Bernays, Scaliger, 76, 165. 

4 pp. 287-9 i"f''a. Cp. Tilley, in Cainb. Afod. Hist, iii 61. 

From the engraving by Boulonnois in Bullart's Academic, 1682, ii 226. 


and on Horace, Phaedrus, and Valerius Maximus, as well as 
recensions of Terence and Plautus, with a translation of the 
latter. His contemporary Nicolas Peiresc (1580 1637), wno 
was educated by the Jesuits at Avignon, and distinguished him- 
self in mathematics and in oriental languages at Padua, made 
the acquaintance of Camden and Saville on his visit to England 
in 1605. On returning to the South of France he began to form 
his extensive collection of marbles and medals. Among those 
whom he aided by his liberality were Grotius and Valesius, as 
well as Scaliger and Salmasius 1 . 

Claude de Saumaise, better known as Salmasius (1588 1653), 
was a native of Saumur. His early promise was 

. , , . . . 01- Salmasius 

recognised by Casaubon, who, writing to Scaliger 
in 1607, calls him &juvenis ad miraculum doctus^. In that year, 
at the age of 19, he had already discovered at Heidelberg the 
celebrated MS of the Anthologia Palatina of Constantine Cephalas, 
and was receiving letters from the aged Scaliger 3 , to whom he 
sent transcripts of many of the epigrams, and by whom he was 
strongly urged to edit the work. The edition was repeatedly 
promised, but was never produced; in 1623 the MS was carried 
off to Rome, where it remained until 1797 ; and it was not until 
1813-4 that the text of the whole work was printed by Jacobs. 
At Heidelberg Salmasius was under the influence of Gruter, who 
contributed the notes to his early edition of Florus (1609). In 
his edition of the Historiae Augustae Scriptores (1620) he dis- 
tinguished himself less as a sound textual critic than as an 
erudite commentator. It was said that what Salmasius did not 
know was beyond the bounds of knowledge 4 , but his erudition 
had its limits, for, in a discussion on the different varieties of 
silk, his 'profound, diffuse, and obscure researches' 5 show that 
he was 'ignorant of the most common trades of Dijon or 
Leyden' 6 . His most remarkable work is that entitled Plinianae 
Exercitationes, in which more than 900 pages are devoted to the 
elucidation of the portions of Pliny included in the geographical 
compendium of Solinus (1629). 

1 Hallam, iii 238 240*. 2 Epp. p. 284. 

3 Epp. 245-8, pp. 525 536. 4 Hallam, ii 283 4 ; p. 286 n. 6 infra. 

5 Hist. Aug. pp. 388 391. 6 Gibbon, c. 40 (iv 229 Bury). 

286 FRANCE. [CENT. xvn. 

The Chair of Scaliger, which had been left vacant at Leyden 
since 1609, was filled in 1632 by the call of Salmasius, who, like 
Scaliger, was expressly invited not to teach, but to ' shed on the 
university the honour of his name, illustrate it by his writings, and 
adorn it by his presence' 1 . At Leyden he produced his learned 
treatise De Usuris (1638), which includes a historical survey of 
the subject, and insists on the legitimacy of usury for clergy 
and laity alike. This was followed by an appendix De Modo 
Usurarum (1639). In his Funus linguae Hellenisticae (1643) he 
contends that the language of the Greek Scriptures is not a 
separate dialect but the ordinary Greek of the time 2 . In 1649 
the exiled king, Charles II, then living in the neighbourhood at 
the Hague, requested Salmasius to vindicate the memory of 
Charles I in a Latin treatise that should appeal to the whole of 
Europe. Accordingly, Salmasius, 'a man of enormous reading 
and no judgment ', a pedant destitute of either literary or political 
tact, and utterly ignorant of public affairs, prepared his Defensio 
Regia Pro Carolo 7(i649) 3 . The reply was entrusted to Milton, 
who, in his pamphlet entitled Pro Populo Anglicano Defensio 
(1651), began by attacking Salmasius for using persona of an 
individual, but, in the very same passage, unfortunately exposed 
himself to attack by using vapulandum instead of verberandum*. 
Milton's pamphlet teems with personalities, and the same is true 
of the rejoinder by Salmasius, which was his latest work 5 . Neither 
of the controversialists gained any credit, or even any pecuniary 
reward. Milton paid the penalty of his efforts in the total loss 
of sight, while Salmasius, who had left Leyden in 1650, for the 
Swedish court of queen Christina, ended his days in gloom. He 
left behind him a vast reputation for learning. He is called by 
Gronovius the Varro and Eratosthenes of his age, and he is 
lauded by Grotius as 'optimus interpres veteris Salmasius aevi' 6 . 

1 Funeral Oration by Voorst, in Pattison's Casaubon, iffi. 

'* Hallam, ii i"]f>*. * Pattison's Milton, 106. 

4 Milton's Prose Works, iv 6 Mitford; Johnson's Lives, i 102, ed. 1854. 

5 '^53, printed in 1660. 

6 Cp. Blount's Censura, 7191", ed. 1690. He is severely criticised by 
Baillet, n. 511. ' Non homini sed scientiae deest, quod nescivit Salmasius' 


Meanwhile, in the native land of Salmasius, Desiderius 
Heraldus (c. 1579 1649), professor of Greek at Heraidus 
Sedan, and a member of the parliamentary bar in Paimerius 


Pans, had published ' animadversions ' on Martial 
(1600), besides writing a work on Greek and Roman law, which 
was published in the year after his death. Paimerius, or Jacques 
le Paulmier (1587 1670), who had studied law and Greek 
literature at Sedan, passed the last twenty years of his life at 
Caen, and, during that time, published at Leyden a volume of 
' Exercitations ' on the best Greek authors (1668). Pierre Seguier 
(1588 1672), President of the French Academy, was at the same 
time collecting those MSS, which led to his name being assigned 
to the Lexica Segueriana in a single MS in the Paris Library 1 . 
The Jesuit Francois Vigier, or Vigerus, of Rouen vigerus 
(1591 1647), broke the ordinary Jesuit tradition Maussac 
of the predominant study of Latin by producing a 
work on the principal idioms of Greek (1627), which had the 
distinction of being successively edited anew by Hoogeveen, 
Zeune, and Hermann (i834) 2 . Harpocration had been edited 
in 1614 by Philippe Jacques de Maussac (1590 1650), president 
in Montpellier. That lexicographer was further expounded in 
1682 by the disputatious pedant 3 , Henri de Valois, or Valesius 
(1603 1676), who had been educated by the Jesuits at Verdun 
and Paris, and is known as the editor of Ammianus Marcellinus 
(1636) and of the Excerpta (Peiresciand) from Polybius (1634). 
Greek was also studied by Charles Labbe (1582 
^5 7), a parliamentary barrister of Paris, who pub- 
lished Glosses on Greek law (1607), and prepared 
an edition of the Glossaries of 'Cyril and Philoxenus', published 
after his death by Du Cange (1679). His namesake, the Jesuit 
Philippe Labbe of Bourges (1607 1667), edited several of the 
Byzantine historians, besides taking part in a great work on the 
Councils 4 . Editions of the Byzantine historians, Cinnamus and 

1 Vol. i 406', 4i6 2 ; portrait in Lacroix, Science and Literature in the... 
Renaissance, fig. 410 (p. 547 E.T.). 

Vigerus, De praecipuis graecae linguae idiotismis. Cp. Hallam, ii 275*. 

3 E. de Broglie, Alabillon, i 60. 

4 He also published numerous works on Greek Grammar, Tirocinium 
linguae graecae, etc. 


From a print in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 


Zonaras, and of the Chronicon Paschale, were produced by the 
erudite scholar and historian, Charles du Fresne, 
sieur Du Cange (1610 1688), who was born at 
Amiens, and educated at the local Jesuit College. After studying 
law at Orleans, he was called to the parliamentary bar in Paris, 
but devoted himself mainly to historical studies at Amiens 
(1638-68) and in the capital. He is best known for his great 
Glossary of mediaeval Latin, originally published in three folio 
volumes (1678)', and a corresponding Glossary of mediaeval 
Greek in two (1688). The Jesuit, Franois Vavasseur (1605 
1681), an elegant Latin scholar and the author of an Anti-bar- 
barus, said of the lexicon of late Latin : ' II y a soixante ans que 
je m 'applique a ne me servir d'aucun des mots rassembles si 
laborieusement par M. Du Cange'. The lexicographer of the 
latest Latinity was himself an accomplished writer, and the range 
of his learning not only included a variety of languages, but also 
extended over history and geography, law and heraldry, numis- 
matics and epigraphy, and Greek and Latin palaeography. His 
lexicographical works were directly founded on the study of an 
infinite number of MSS. His work on Byzantine History was 
illustrated by a two-fold commentary, including an account of the 
families, as well as the coins and topography, of Constantinople 
(1680). He also edited Ville-Hardouin's History of the Latin 
conquest of that city, and wrote a History of its Latin emperors, 
besides editing Joinville's History of Louis IX. The edition of 
the Glossaries ascribed to 'Cyril and Philoxenus' etc. (1679) ls 
closely connected with his own glossarial labours. He is one of 
the greatest lexicographers of France, and his work in this depart- 
ment still remains unsurpassed. He was a man of unaffected 
piety, and his sociable temperament won him many friends, among 
the most learned being Mabillon. He had a small but well-knit 
frame, and a fine figure. His statue in bronze, larger than life, 
still adorns the Place St Denis in his native city of Amiens 2 . 

1 Ed. 4 in six vols. (1733-6); ed. Charpentier in ten (1766) ; in six (Halle, 
1772-84); ed. Henschel in seven (1840-50) ; ed. Favre in ten (1883-7). 

2 Cp. Pref. to his Amiens (1840); Hardouin's Essai (1849); Feugere in 
Journal de V Instruction pnbliqm (mars, avril, 1852); Leltres Inedites, 1879; 
and other literature quoted in Nonv. Biogr. Gen. 

S. II. 19 


The Society of Jesus, founded in Paris by Ignatius Loyola in 1534 and 

approved by Paul III in 1540, had, in spite of the opposition 

of the university, succeeded in establishing the Collegiiim 

Claromontanum in 1563. Expelled in 1594, they returned in 1609. In their 

celebrated schools they did much for the promotion of original composition 

modelled on Cicero and Virgil. Of their numerous Latin poets, the best- 

known in the i7th century were Petavius 1 , Rapin 2 , and Santeul (1630 

1697), and in the i8th, Sanadon (d. 1733). Intensely conservative in their 

adhesion to the ratio studiorum of 1599, they continued to use Latin in their 

text-books long after it had been abandoned by other teachers. The use of 

French was one of the characteristics of the ' Little Schools ' 

of the Jansenists of Port- Royal, founded in 1643 near the 

abbey of Port-Royal-des-Champs, eight miles beyond Versailles, and sup- 

pressed in 1660. Their text-books included the Latin Grammar of Lancelot 

(1644), who also composed a Greek Grammar (1655), and a highly popular 

fardin des racines grecques (1657), which remained in use for two centuries. 

The most celebrated pupil of Port-Royal was Racine, while their opponents, 

the Jesuits, claimed Corneille and Moliere. More than a century after the 

suppression of Port-Royal, the Jesuits were themselves suppressed in 1762. 

The anecdotist, Gilles Menage of Angers (1613 1692), a 
parliamentary barrister, and prior of Mont-Didier, 

Manage . . . .. . 

besides writing a discourse on the Hautontimoru- 
menos of Terence, and notes on Lucian, produced several works 
which were repeatedly reprinted, including notes on Diogenes 
Laertius, the Amoenitates juris civilis, and the Historia mulierum 
philosopharum. A similar popularity has attended his Poemata, 
a pleasing imitation of Ovid and Tibullus 3 , and the light anecdotes 
of a literary kind collected in the four small volumes of his 
Menagiana. He confesses that he cannot read a Greek author 
easily without the aid of a translation 4 , but he is quite capable of 
finding flaws of prosody in the Greek verses of Scaliger 5 . He is 
the original of Vadius in the Femmes Savantes of Moliere (1672), 
and of the 'Pedant' in the Caracteres of La Bruyere (1644-96), 
the translator as well as the imitator of Theophrastus (1688). 
La Bruyere, Menage, and Du Cange were all, sooner or later, 

elected members of the French Academy founded 
Academy and by Richelieu in 1635. During the five preceding 
ijnities^ 6 years, while that Academy was coming into being, 

one of its original members, the minor poet 
1 p. 283 supra. 2 p. 291 infra. 3 Hallam, iii 49i 4 . 

4 Menagiana, iii 61, ed. 1715. B Menagiana, i 326. 


Chapelain, definitely formulated in France the theory of the 
Three Unities, which the dramatic critics of Italy had elicited 
from Aristotle, who really recognises no other Unity than that of 
Action. Chapelain converted Richelieu to his views and inspired 
the attack directed by the Academy against Corneille's Cid on 
the ground of its violation of the Unities. The controversy ended 
in 1640 with the victory of the theory of the Unities; Corneille 
was elected a member of the Academy in 1647, and in 1660 
wrote a discourse recanting, at the bidding of the minor critics 
of his day, the principles he had himself followed in the Cid\ 
The influence exerted in France by Italian commentaries on 
Aristotle's treatise on Poetry is further exemplified in the survey 
of the history of the subject by the Jesuit, Rene Rapin of Tours 
(1621 1687)*, who is also the writer of an elegant Latin poem 
on Gardens 3 , and in his ' Parallels of Great Men ' prefers the 
Latins to the Greeks 4 . 

Tanaquil Faber of Caen (1615 1672), who taught at Saumur, 
was a diligent editor of Greek and Latin texts. 

T. Faber 

Among the former were Anacreon and Sappho, 
Dionysius Periegetes, Agathemerus, Apollodorus, ' Longinus ', 
and Aelian ; while the latter included Florus, Terence, Lucretius, 
Virgil, Horace, and Phaedrus. Menage effectively says of him : 
' M. le Fevre etoit un bon Gaulois de 1'ancienne roche, qui faisoit 
autant gloire de sa pauvrete que de sa profession'. He was in 
fact so poor that he was compelled to part with his library, but 
he is famous, adds Me'nage, not only as the editor of the works 
he has left behind him, but also as the father and the preceptor 
of Madame Uacier 5 . Faber's daughter, Anne, was 
married to Andre Uacier (16511722), a member A^Dadet 
of the Academy, and Librarian in Paris. Dacier, 
besides producing new editions of Faber's Anacreon and Sappho, 
edited ' Festus and Verrius Flaccus ' (1681). His translations 
included Aristotle's treatise on Poetry. He edited Horace, while 
the honour of producing a French translation of that poet was 

1 Saintsbury, ii 257 f; Spingarn, 210. 

2 Avertissetnent to his Reflexions sur I'Art Poetique d' 'Aris(6te (1674). 

3 Cp. Hallam, iii +<)i-T, 4 . * jb. 54 1 4 . 
5 Menagiana, ii 17 f. 

I 9 -2 


shared by his learned wife. Madame Dacier (1654 1720) was 
also the translator of Terence, and of three plays of Plautus, 
together with the Plutus and Clouds of Aristophanes, Anacreon 
and Sappho, and the whole of the Iliad and Odyssey. Her 
rendering of Homer is her masterpiece ; and, although it has been 
criticised for a too frequent resort to periphrasis, and for its 
occasional anachronisms, it deserves the praise of having been 
founded on an accurate knowledge of the text, and inspired by a 
boundless enthusiasm for the poet 1 . As an editor of the Classics, 
she is represented in Greek by her Callimachus 2 ; and in Latin by 
Florus, Dictys and Dares, Aurelius Victor, and Eutropius. 

All these Latin works formed part of the celebrated series of 

the Delphin Classics. The general editor and organiser of the 

series was Pierre Daniel Huet of Caen (1630 

1721), who from 1670 to 1680 was the coadjutor 

of Bossuet in the tuition of the Grand Dauphin, the son of 

Louis XIV. 

Nearly sixty volumes were produced in less than twelve years by thirty-nine 
editors at a cost equivalent to about ,15,000. The project marks an epoch in 
the history of classical literature in France. Learning had indeed been de- 
clining since the days of Francis I, but the Latin Classics, though no longer 
exclusively cultivated for their own sakes, were still recognised as forming a 
part of general literature, and popular editions of the ordinary Latin authors 
were welcome. In addition to a Latin commentary, each of these editions 
had an ordo verbonim below the text, and a complete verbal index. These 
points were not novel in themselves; the novelty lay in their application to 
the whole of the Latin authors included in the series. The best known of the 
editors are (besides Madame Dacier) Hardouin and Charles de la Rue. But 
the only distinctly scholarly edition was that of the Panegyrici Veteres by 
De la Baune, while Huet's conjectural emendations on Manilius prompted 
Bentley, the next editor of that poet, to describe Huet and Scaliger as viros 
egregios. All the volumes of the original edition have an engraving of * Arion 
and the dolphin', and are inscribed with the phrase in usum serenissimi 
Delphini. The Dauphin, for whose benefit this comprehensive series of Latin 
Classics was organised by Huet, and for whom the 'Discourse on Universal 
History' was composed by Bossuet, celebrated the completion of his education 
by limiting his future reading to the list of births, deaths and marriages in the 
Gazette de France. He died four years before Louis XIV, who was succeeded 
by the Dauphin's eldest son. 

1 Bellanger, Traduttion en France, 45 47. Cp. Hallam, iii 247'. 

2 Bentley calls the editor jbeWMMnUM doctissima. 


Huet, who in early life had seen Salmasius at Leyden, and 
had visited the court of queen Christina at Stockholm, was in 
frequent correspondence with many of the scholars of Europe. 
He was the founder of the Academy of Caen, and, in his edition 
of Origen, showed a singular sagacity as a conjectural critic. 
After devoting ten years to the tuition of the Dauphin, he spent 
ten summers at a beautifully situated abbey south of Caen, 
and was afterwards for fourteen years bishop of Soissons and 
Avranches. On his elevation to the bishopric, he did not cease 
to be a student, and the disappointed rustic, who was not allowed 
to see him at Avranches, 'because the bishop was studying', ex- 
pressed a hope that the king would send them a bishop 'qui a fait 
ses etudes'. After resigning the mitre, he persisted in continuing 
his studies for the remaining twenty-two years of his life. He 
resided mainly at the abbey of Fontenai, near Caen, devoting 
most of his time to philosophical pursuits. His keen interest in 
classical studies led to his opposing the Cartesians, who despised 
the ancients. His Latin has been described as the characteristic 
Latin of the Jesuits, faultless, fluent, perfectly clear, and insipid. 
A student of philosophy to the very end of a long life of more 
than 90 years, he is the modern counterpart of Carneades, as 
described by Valerius Maximus: 'laboriosus et diuturnus sapien- 
tiae miles; siquidem, nonaginta expletis annis, idem illi vivendi 
ac philosophandi finis fuit". 

Huet had survived for fourteen years his learned contemporary, 
Jean Mabillon (16^2 1707), one of the greatest 


ornaments of the Benedictine Order. Born in a 
simple cottage at Saint-Pierremont in the diocese of Reims, he 
had delighted in passing his time in meditation under the shadow 
of an oak tree, the site of which was known long after as ' le 
chene Mabillon'. He was a student at Reims, and, at the abbey 
of Saint- Remi in that city, he entered the Order at the age of 
twenty-two. Part of the next ten years was passed at the monas- 
teries of Nogent, Corbie, and Saint-Denis, where his duties as 
custodian of the treasury of the abbey enabled him to cultivate his 
archaeological tastes. He had already seized every opportunity 

1 Pattison's Essays, i 244 305. 

From an engraving by Simonneau, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 


for the study of MSS, when, at the age of thirty-two, he was invited 
by Luc d'Achery (1609 1685), the editor of the thirteen volumes 
of the Veterum aliquot Scriptorum Spicileghtm, to take part in the 
learned labours of the Benedictines at the abbey of Saint-Germain- 
des-Pres in the south of Paris. 

The earliest home of the Benedictine Order in France was the monastery of 
Saint-Maur on the Loire, founded by St Benedict's favourite pupil, St Maun 
The Order had been reformed in Lorraine and elsewhere by Didier de la Cour 
in 1613-8, and this reform had been taken up by Tarisse, who in 1630-48 
presided over the ' Congregation of Saint-Maur ', with its head-quarters at the 
ancient abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Pres, which continued to be a famous 
centre of religious learning until its suppression in I792 1 . 

Mabillon was a member of this abbey for 43 years from the 
date of his entering it at the age of thirty-two to his death at the 
age of seventy-five. During the many years of his residence 
within its walls, the abbey was the resort of the foremost repre- 
sentatives of the learned world in Paris, including classical 
scholars such as Du Cange and Valesius. In less than three 
years after his admission, he produced the two folio volumes of 
his edition of St Bernard, a work in which he proved himself a 
sound critic, an able expositor, and the master of a pure and lucid 
Latin style. In the following year he published the first volume 
of his Acta Sanctorum Ordinis Sancti Benedict^ a historic work 
of the highest order, which was characterised throughout by a 
never-failing love of truth. The quest of manuscript materials 
for the composition of this and other learned works led to his 
visiting the monasteries of Flanders, Lorraine, Burgundy, Nor- 
mandy, and Alsace. In the course of these investigations he 
produced his third great work, the folio volume of 635 pages, 
De Re Diplomatica (1681). The authority of the charters of 
Saint-Denis had been attacked, and the general object of the 
treatise was to set forth the proper method of determining the 
date and genuineness of ancient documents. A spirit of charity 
and candour is conspicuous in the preface ; the work itself 
includes numerous facsimiles from charters and other ancient MSS, 
and it ends with a special tribute of thanks to the learned Du 

1 Cp. Vanel, Les Benedictine de Saint-Afaur a Saint-Germain-dts-Pres 
1630 1792 (1896). 

296 FRANCE. [CENT. xvn. 

Cange. Its publication was welcomed as an important event by 
the world of scholars throughout Europe. After its publication 
the king desired to see the author, who was accordingly presented 
by Le Tellier, the archbishop of Reims, and by his rival, Bossuet, 
bishop of Meaux. In introducing Mabillon, Le Tellier said : 
' Sire, I have the honour of presenting to your Majesty the most 
learned man in your realm'. Bossuet, regarding this as a reflexion 
on his own learning, quietly suppressed the proud archbishop by 
adding : 'and the most humble'. Even in recent times the value 
of the treatise has been recognised by M. Leopold Delisle, who 
says of Mabillon : 

The most illustrious of the pupils of Luc d'Achery added much to the 
collections of his master ; above all he devoted himself to the task of dissi- 
pating the darkness that enveloped the historical documents of the Middle 
Ages, and, in his immortal treatise De Re Diplornatica, laid down the rules 
that have resisted the most vigorous attacks, rules whose truth has been con- 
firmed by the most modern investigations 1 . 

The work was dedicated to Louis XIV's great minister, 
Colbert. In the following year Colbert invited Mabillon to 
examine, in the archives of Burgundy, the documents relating to 
the reigning house, and afterwards sent him to the libraries of 
Germany at the royal expense. 

The time was not entirely favourable for a tour in Germany. The 
Germans had been exasperated by the sudden capture of Strassburg by the 
French (1681), and Vienna was being threatened by the Turks (1683). But 
the tour was accomplished with very little inconvenience in the happy com- 
panionship of Michel Germain, the devoted friend of Mabillon. It extended 
over parts of Bavaria, Switzerland, and the Tyrol, and included visits to 
Luxeuil, Bale, Einsiedeln, St Gallen, Augsburg, Ratisbon, Salzburg, Munich, 
Innspruck, Constance, Reichenau, Freiburg and Strassburg. At the prompting 
of Mabillon, the manuscript Chronicle of Trithemius was printed in the abbey 
of St Gallen. Some Greek MSS had been noticed at Augsburg, and MSS of 
Virgil at Reichenau ; and a collection of Roman inscriptions, unknown to 
Gruter, had been discovered. The journey lasted from January to October 
1683, and was recorded in the Iter Germanicum, in the last of the four volumes 
of the Analecta (1685). 

A similar journey in Italy was taken at the king's charges by the same two 
monks. It lasted from April 1685 to June 1686, including a month at Milan, 
eleven days in Venice, seven months in Rome, one in Naples, ten days at 

1 Cabinet des MSS, 1874, ii 63. 


Monte Cassino, and three at Bobbio, and more than one visit to Florence. 
At Florence they were greatly aided by the ducal librarian, Magliabecchi, 
whom Mabillon describes as a 'walking museum and a living library'; at 
Rome, they were shown all the objects of antiquarian interest by the eminent 
archaeologist, Fabretti. Among the numerous MSS, which they acquired in 
Italy for the royal library in Paris, was a fine copy of Ammianus Marcellinus. 
The tour was described under the title of the Iter Italicum in the first part 
of the first of the two quarto volumes of the Museum Italicum (1687). 

Mabillon was subsequently invited to draw up a scheme of 
study for persons leading a monastic life. This was published in 
1691, and was received with applause by the learned world. But 
it brought him into controversy with the Abbe Armand de Ranee, 
who had renounced all his preferments except the small priory of 
La Trappe (near Mortagne), where he founded a reformed com- 
munity consisting of members of the Cistercian Order. In 1683 
he produced his treatise, Les Devoirs de la Vie Monastique, 
permitting the monks no other employment than that of prayer, 
the chanting of the psalms, and manual labour, and enjoining 
perpetual silence and abstinence from study. Mabillon's lively 
friend, Michel Germain, indignantly exclaimed : ' he would con- 
demn us to the spade and the plough!' 1 De Rance"s views 
reappeared in a modified form in his Eclairtissements. On the 
publication of Mabillon's Traite des Etudes Monastiques, de Ranee 
regarded it as a direct attack on his own principles, although his 
name was nowhere mentioned. The Abbe published a Reponse 
(1692), and in the same year was answered by Mabillon in his 
Reflexions. The controversy excited the keenest interest among 
scholars. On the publication of the Traite, Mabillon received 
a letter from Huet, congratulating him on his endeavour to dis- 
abuse the minds of those who had been led to believe that 
ignorance was a necessary qualification for a good monk' 2 . The 
controversialists were finally reconciled by the Christian charity ex- 
hibited by Mabillon in an interview with the Abbe de Ranee, which 
was brought about by the latter's friend, the widowed Duchesse de 
Guise. In 1701 the 'Academy of Inscriptions' was founded by 
Colbert, not with a view to the study of ancient inscriptions, but 

1 Valery, Correspondence, ii 329. 

2 13 Aug. 1691 (Valery, ii 320). Cp., in general, Maitland's Dark Ages, 
161-5 (ed. 1844). 

298- FRANCE. [CENT. xvn. 

primarily for the composition of appropriate mottoes for the 
medals struck in honour of the exploits of Louis XIV. This 
Academy soon became the centre of the study of language and 
history in France. By the royal command Mabillon was nominated 
one of the original members. Two years later he produced the 
first of the four folio volumes of the ' Annals ' of the Benedictine 
Order, which occupied his attention until his death in 1707. In 
all his scholarly investigations he was inspired by a perfect charity, 
and an unfailing honesty of purpose. The guiding principle of 
his life may be found in the motto prefixed to the particular work 
which, among all his learned labours, has the closest connexion 
with scholarship: scientia veri justiquevindex^. His devoted friend, 
Thierry Ruinart, spent two years in collecting his papers and in 
writing his life. In 1819 his remains found their final resting- 
place in the second chapel to the right, as one enters the choir of 
the ancient abbey church of Saint-Germain-des-Pres. The in- 
scription runs as follows : 

4 Memoriae D. loannis Mabillon, Presbyteri, Monachi Ordinis S. Benedict!, 
Academiae Inscriptionum Humaniorumque Litterarum Socii, pietate doctrina 
modestia elapso iam saeculo clari, bibliothecarum turn nostratium turn 
exterarum diligentissimi indagatoris, in diplomatum sinceritate dijudicanda 
facile principis, Actorum Annaliumque Ordinis sui collectoris conditoris' 2 . 

The other tablets of the same date in the same chapel are in 

honour of Descartes, and of Mabillon's great successor among 

the scholars of the Benedictine Order, Bernard Montfaucon. 

Montfaucon belongs to the next generation and is therefore 

reserved for a subsequent chapter. Meanwhile, the 

Jesuit Jean Hardouin of Quimper ( 1 646 1 729) may 

here be mentioned as the editor of the Delphin edition of the elder 

Pliny (1685), and as the author of works on numismatics (1684 and 

1693), who paradoxically maintained that almost all the ancient 

Classics were spurious products of the thirteenth century. He 

made an exception in favour of the Georgics of Virgil, the Satires 

1 De Re Diplomatica, 1681 ; cp. Jadart, 89. 

2 On Mabillon cp., in general, Ruinart (1709), Chavin de Meulan (1843), 
Valery, Correspondance Intdite (1847), and esp. the works of H. Jadart (Reims, 
1879), E. de Broglie, 2 vols. (1888); and S. Baumer, Johannes Mabillon, ein 
Lebens- und Literaturbild (Augsburg, 1892). 


and Epistles of Horace, with Cicero and the elder Pliny, and to 
these he was disposed to add Homer, Herodotus and Plautus. 
Thus he held that the Odes of Horace and the Aeneid of Virgil 
were written in the middle ages, an opinion that prompted his 
younger contemporary Boileau to remark that, although he had no 
love for the monks, he would not have been sorry to live with 
' Frere Horace' or 'Dom Virgile'. Jacob Vernet of Geneva hit off 
his character in the following epitaph : ' in expectatione judicii 
hie jacet hominum paradoxotatus..., credulitate puer, audacia 
juvenis, deliriis senex' 1 . 

Classical archaeology owed much to his short-lived con- 
temporary, Jacques Spon of Lyon (1647 1685), 
who travelled with George Wheler in Greece and S whefe"? 
the Levant (1675-6), collecting coins and MSS and 
antique marbles. Drawings of the sculptures of the Parthenon 
were made in 1674, thirteen years before it was reduced to ruin 
during the Venetian siege of 1687 2 . These drawings were for- 
merly ascribed to the French artist, Carrey, but were probably 
produced by one of the two Flemish artists who accompanied the 
Marquis de Nointel 3 . 

1 E. de Broglie, Alabillon, i 105; borrowed partly from Menage, Vita 
Gargilii Mamurrae, in Misc. 1652. 

2 Stark, 137 f; Michaelis, Parthenon, 62 f, 95 f, 345 f; Omont, Atfihies au 
xvii e siecle (1898), pi. i xix ; Springer-Michaelis, Kunstgeschiclite, eel. 7, fig. 44. 

3 Omont, 4 f. 



A NEW era in the History of Scholarship in the Northern 
Netherlands is marked by the foundation of the 


university of Leyden in 1575. When the siege of 
Leyden had ended in the repulse of the Spanish forces, the 
heroism of the inhabitants was publicly commemorated by the 
institution of an annual fair and by the establishment of a 
university. The actual birth of that university was celebrated by 
a gorgeous series of ceremonies. In the van of an imposing 
procession were the allegorical representatives of the faculties of 
Theology, Law, and Medicine ; in the centre, a personification of 
Minerva, surrounded by Aristotle and Plato, Cicero and Virgil ; 
and, in the rear, the professors and other officials of the newly- 
founded seat of learning. Meanwhile, a triumphal barge floated 
slowly down the Rhine, bearing to the place of landing the 
radiant forms of Apollo and the Muses. The barge was steered 
by Neptune, who had lately let loose the waters of the Ocean on 
the troops of Spain, and had thus relieved the siege of Leyden. 
As soon as the procession of the professors had reached the 
landing-place, each in turn was embraced by the Muses and 
Apollo, and all were welcomed by the recitation of a Latin 
poem 1 . It was the happy inauguration of a seat of learning that 
had come into being under circumstances that were absolutely 

1 Motley's Dutch Republic, ii 565-8; cp. Meursius, Athenae Batavae, 
1 8 20. The current story that Leyden was offered a choice between a univer- 
sity and an annual fair free of tolls and taxes finds no support in the documen- 
tary history of Pieter Bor, vii 561, and (as I learn from Mr Hessels) is 
rejected by the latest historian of the Netherlands, Prof. Blok of Leyden. 


The newly-founded university owed much to the foremost of 
its three Curators, the lord of Noortwyk, Janus 


Dousa (1545 1604) 1 . As governor of Leyden he 
had been the brave leader of the beleaguered citizens ; in Latin 
letters, he was then known for his poems alone, but he afterwards 
gave proof of his interest in Plautus (1587) and in other poets. 
His love of Plautus was inherited by his elder son, Janus (1571 
1597), the Librarian of Leyden, while the younger, Franciscus 
(1577 1606), produced in 1597 a memorable edition of the 
fragments of Lucilius, in which the influence of Scaliger is 
apparent 2 . The first Rector of Leyden was Petreius Tiara 
(1516-88), professor of Greek, translator of the Sophistes of Plato 
and the Medea of Euripides 3 . The same professorship was held 
from 1588 to 1612 by Bonaventura Vulcanius, 


or De Smet, of Bruges (1538 1614), an editor 

of Arrian, Callimachus, and Apuleius, who also published the 

glossary of Philoxenus 4 . 

One of the two greatest services rendered to Leyden by its 
first curator, Janus Dousa, who was known as the 
'Batavian Varro' and the 'Oracle of the University' 5 , 
was his happily inducing the great Latin scholar, Justus Lipsius 
(1547 1606), to take up his residence at Leyden in 1579. Born 
at Issche near Brussels, he had from the age of sixteen been a 
student at Louvain, where he specially devoted himself to Roman 
Law. In 1567 he had accompanied Cardinal Gravella to Italy 
as his Latin secretary. He spent two years in Italy, exploring the 
libraries and examining all the inscriptions he could find. In 
Rome he made the acquaintance of Muretus and other leading 
scholars, and collated transcripts of Tacitus, without ascertain- 
ing the existence of either of the two Medicean MSS. After 
returning to Louvain for a year of irregular life, he visited Dole 
and Vienna. On his way back in 1572 he stayed for more than a 

1 Portraits of Janus, father and son, in Meursius, 87, 151, and in Boissard, 
IV 2 and vi 14. 

2 Portrait in Marx' Lucilius, 1906. 

3 Portrait in Meursius, 83, and Boissard, VI 3. 

4 Portrait in Meursius, 102, and Boissard, VI 5. 
8 id. 89 ; cp. Hamilton's Discussions, 332 f. 




From Pierre de Jode's engraving of portrait by Abraham Janssens (1605). 
Reduced from large copy in Max Rooses, Chrislophe Planlin (1882), p. 342 f. 


year at Jena, where he held a professorship. He there became a 
Protestant, and even delivered a violent discourse against the 
Catholics. He left Jena for Cologne, where he spent nine months, 
in 1574. In the same year his great edition of Tacitus was 
published at Antwerp. He then withdrew to his old home at 
Issche, but the horrors of civil war soon drove him from that de- 
fenceless town to the city of Louvain. In 1576 he was lecturing 
at the local university on the Leges Regiae et Decemuirales, and on 
the first book of Livy. The memorable invitation to leave the 
Spanish Netherlands for the Dutch university of Leyden led to 
his residing there with great distinction, as honorary Professor of 
History, from 1579 to 1591. In the latter year, when a controversy 
arose on the punishment of heretics, he asked for leave of absence, 
and quietly went to Mainz, where he was re-admitted into the 
Roman Church. After declining many tempting proposals from 
princes and bishops in Germany, in 1592 he accepted a call to his 
first university of Louvain, where, as professor of History, he 
lectured to large classes on the Roman historians and on the 
moral treatises of Seneca. He also received a stipend as honorary 
professor of Latin at the Collegium Trili/igite, which long remained 
closed in consequence of the disturbed state of the country. In 
One of his Dialogues he writes of Louvain in 1602 : nunc jacent 
ibi omnia el silent^. Even the office of President of the College 
continued vacant for thirty years until 1606, the year of the 
death of Lipsius 2 . 

His main strength lay in textual criticism and in exegesis. 
His masterpiece in this respect was his Tacitus, of which two 
editions appeared in his life-time (1574, 1600), and two after his 
death, the latest and best, that of 1648, including Velleius. It 
was not until 1600 that the readings of the two Medicean MSS 
were published (by Pichena), when one of the earliest of his 
emendations, gnarum (for G. navuni) id Caesari 3 , was confirmed. 
He was so familiar with the text of Tacitus, that he ' offered to 
repeat any passage with a dagger at his breast, to be used against 
him if his memory failed him' 4 . The exegesis of his edition rests 
on a profound and accurate knowledge of Roman history and 

1 Lovaniniii, lib. in, c. iv. - Neve, Mem. 103. 

3 Ann. \ 5. 4 Niceron, xxiv 119 (Hallam, i 4S6 4 ). 


antiquities. It is a work that places him in the front rank of 
Latin scholars, but it must not be forgotten that he also produced 
editions of Valerius Maximus and Velleius Paterculus, and of 
Seneca and the Panegyric of the younger Pliny. Except in 
the case of Seneca's Tragedies and Plautus, he did little for 
Latin Verse, and his work was of far greater service for the 
authors of the Silver Age than for Cicero. His familiarity with 
Cicero is, however, proved by his Variae Lectiones, and by his 
decisive rejection of the Consolatio published by Sigonius 1 . His 
thorough acquaintance with Latin literature and Roman history 
is conspicuous in his numerous treatises, especially in those 
entitled De Militia Romana and Poliorcetica (the former including 
a commentary on the Roman camp as described by Polybius 2 ), in 
his Variae and Antiquae Lectiones of 1569 and 1575 respectively, 
and in his Epistolicae Quaestiones (1577). His Politica is mainly 
a digest of Aristotle, Tacitus, and other ancient authors. A 
special interest attaches to the work on the pronunciation of 
Latin, dedicated to Sir Philip Sidney (1586), in which he is dis- 
tinctly in favour of always pronouncing C as K, and V as W, 
while he allows of some variation in the sounds of the vowels 3 . 
His study of the authors of the Silver Age led to his abandoning 
the moderate Ciceronianism of his earlier Letters and of his Variae 
Lectiones for a style founded on Tacitus and Seneca, and even on 
Gellius and Apuleius 4 . Though he was fond of quoting Greek, 
his strength did not lie in that branch of scholarship. Scaliger 
said of him : Lipsius n'est Grec que pour sa provision* ; and a remark 
in one of the Letters of Lipsius, ' Graecas litteras homini erudito 
decoras esse, necessarias non item', met with a protest, in his 
life-time, from Casaubon 6 , and, after his death, from Ruhnken 7 , 

1 Lipsii Opera Critica (Hallam i so8 4 n.) ; p. 144 supra. 

2 Cp. Hallam, i 527*; founded on Fr. Patrizzi (cp. Seal. Sec. 143). 

3 Opera (Antwerp, 1637), 441 f. 

4 H. Stephanus, De Lipsii Latinitate (1595); cp. C. Nisard, Triumvirat, 
3942, 140-6. 

6 Seal. Sec. 143. 

6 Epp. 291, 294; with Lipsius' reply, Ep. 356 (Burman, Sylloge, i 376). 

7 Opera, i 268. On the Life and Works of Lipsius, cp. Meursius, 109 
115 (portrait, ib. and in Boissard, n ii 28); his portrait was painted by 
Rubens, Van Dyck, and Abraham Janssens (see p. 302 supra). Cp. also Blount, 


who describes him as ' perfectus literis Latinis, Graecarum medi- 
ocriter peritus'. 

The Jesuit Andreas Schott of Antwerp (1552 1629) was, like Lipsius, a 

pupil of Cornelius Valerius, professor of Latin at Louvain 

(1557-78). After visiting Douai and Paris, he spent several 

years in Spain, as a professor at Toledo and Saragossa. Thereupon he 
entered the Society of Jesus, and was a teacher in Rome at the Collegio 
Romano. In 1597, at the age of 45, he returned to Antwerp, which remained 
his home for the rest of his life. To the Ciceronian controversy he contributed 
a pamphlet entitled Cicero a calumniis vindicates (1613). His name is con- 
nected with the discovery of the Monumentum Ancyranum, first copied by 
Busbequius (1555), Legationis Turcicae Epp. iv (1595), 65; and first published 
by Schott with Aurelius Victor (Antwerp, 1579) 65 f. He edited Aurelius 
Victor, Pomponius Mela, and Seneca the rhetorician; while his study of Greek 
is attested by his edition of the Bibliotheca of Photius (1606), and the Chresto- 
mathy of Proclus (1615). He was the first to edit the Proverbs of Diogenianus 
(1612); all his notes on those Proverbs were reprinted by Gaisford, and a small 
selection only by Leutsch and Schneidewin. Although he was a Jesuit, he 
was on friendly terms with Casaubon, their correspondence beginning in 1602. 
But in writing to Protestants he exercised a certain degree of caution ; at the 
end of a letter to G. J. Vossius he simply subscribes himself as ' the darkling 
{tenebrid) who translated Photius ' *. 

At Louvain, Lipsius was succeeded in 1607 by h' 5 P U P''> Erycius Puteanus 
of Venloo (1574 1646), who at an early age was appointed 
professor of Eloquence at Milan, where he was honoured with 
the friendship of Cardinal Frederic Borromeo, the founder of the Ambrosian 
Library. He was the correspondent of many scholars throughout Europe, but 
the topics treated in his Latin works were unimportant, and he succeeded in 
his blameless ambition of being bonus potius quam conspicnus^. 

At Leyden, the place of distinction filled by Lipsius until 
1590 was offered by Janus Dousa to Scaliger, who 
there produced his great work, the Thesaurus 
Temporum (1606). His life and works have been already noticed 
in connexion with the land of his birth 3 . In the land of his 

591-4; Reiffenberg (1823); C. Nisard, Triumvirat, i 148; Neve, Me HI. 
166172, 322 f; G. H. M. Delprat, Lettre.s Inedites (1580-97), Amst. 1858; 
Van der Haeghen, Bibliographic ; L. Miiller, 24 29, 33 35; Urlichs, 62- f. 

1 Colomies, Melange Curieux, 833. Cp., in general, Baguet in Alt' in. Acad. 
Belg. xxiii 1-49; van Hulst in Revue de Liege (1846) ; de Backer, Bibliographie 
i 710727; Neve, Mem. 342 f; Pattison's Casaubon, 396 400- n. 

2 Neve, Mem. 172180; portrait in Boissard, vil // 3; Blount, Centura, 
689; Max Rooses, Musee Plantin (1883), 32. 

3 p. 199 supra. 

S. IL 20 


adoption he continued to be famous as the greatest scholar of his 
age. Among those who came under his immediate influence at 
Leyden was Daniel Heinsius, to whom we shall shortly return. 
Wowerius 1 (1574 1612), a native of Hamburg, was Scaliger's 
pupil at Leyden, and, after living at Antwerp, travelled for some 
years in France and Italy. He was aided by Scaliger in his 
edition of Petronius ;. he also edited Apuleius. A greater interest 
attaches to his Tractatio de Polymathia, a fragment of a vast 
work on the learned studies of the ancients, the first attempt at a 
general survey of the whole domain of classical learning (i6c>4) 2 . 
He was an intimate friend of Philip Rubens (1574 1611), the 
elder brother of the artist. Both of the friends were pupils of 
Lipsius, and their friendship has been immortalised by the artist 
in a picture now in the Pitti Palace. The two friends are seated 
at a table covered with books, and between them is Lipsius. In 
a niche of the wall to the right, we see a copy of the bronze bust 
of 'Seneca' (whose works had been edited by Lipsius in 1605), 
with four Dutch tulips in a glass beside it; in the middle distance, 
we have a glimpse of a beautiful Italian landscape ; while the 
artist himself is standing on the left 3 . 

The teaching of History at Leyden was taken up in 1597 by Paulus Merula 
of Dordrecht (1558 1607), who had travelled extensively in 
France, Italy, Germany, and England, and was then practising 
as a barrister. Several of his antiquarian and geographical works were pub- 
lished after his death. Two years before his appointment, he published an 
edition of the Fragments of Ennius (1595). He professed to have found some 
of these in a MS of L. Calpurnius Piso at the monastery of Saint-Victor in 
Paris 4 , but this is now regarded as a fraudulent statement 5 . Merula's successor 

was Dominicus Baudius (1*61 1613), an excellent composer 

in verse and prose, as is proved by his Ainores and his Orationes. 

One of these was addressed to queen Elizabeth, another to James I, while a 

1 Jan van der Wouwer. 2 Bursian, i 303, Urlichs, 74*. 

3 Cp. Emile Michel, Rubens, i 155. It is clear, from chronological con- 
siderations, that it is not Grotius who is here represented as the friend of 
Philip Rubens; and this opinion is confirmed, on other grounds, by Max 
Rooses as well as Emile Michel. A portrait of Lipsius, engraved for 
Wowerius, p. 302 supra. 

4 p. 424 of Hessel's ed. of Ennius, 1707. 

5 Lawicki, De fraude P. Merulae, Bonn, 1852. Cp. Meursius, Ath. Bat. 
158 f; portrait ib., and in Boissard, VI 16. 


third is the funeral oration in honour of Scaliger (1609). Of his numerous 

letters many are addressed to Grotius 1 . Petrus Scriverius of 

i i i Scnverius 

Haarlem (1576 1660), who lived at .Leyden as an independent 

scholar, is best known as an editor of Martial (1619). He also edited the 
tragedies of Seneca and the works of Apuleius, but he was probably much 
more interested in writing his own poems and in printing repeated editions of 
the Basia of Joannes Secunclus 2 . 

A far wider field of learning was covered by Gerard John 
Vossius (1577 1649), the greatest ' Polyhistor ' of 

,-, . G- J- Vossius 

his age. Born of Dutch parentage in the neigh- 
bourhood of Heidelberg, he was educated at Dordrecht and 
Leyden, ultimately becoming Rector of the former in 1600 and 
of the latter in 1615. In 1622 he was appointed professor of 
Eloquence at Leyden, and, after holding that office for ten years, 
accepted the professorship of History at Amsterdam in i63i 3 . 
Seventeen years later, at the age of 72, when he was climbing a 
ladder in his library, he had a fall that proved fatal, thus dying 
(as Reisig has phrased it) ' in the arms of the Muses'. The 
subjects of his most important works were Grammar, Rhetoric, 
and the History of Literature. His earliest literary distinction 
was won at Leyden in 1606, when he published a com- 
prehensive treatise on Rhetoric, which, in the edition printed 
thirty years later, fills 1000 quarto pages. On its first appearance, 
Scaliger declared that he had learnt an infinite amount from its 
perusal, while Casaubon lauded its critical power and its wide 
erudition 4 . His text-book of Latin Grammar (1607) was re- 
peatedly reprinted in Holland and Germany, while his learned 
and scholarly work on the same general subject, published in four 
volumes in 1635, under the title of Aristarchus, sive de Arte 
Grammatica, was warmly welcomed by Salmasius, and went 
through several editions, the latest of which appeared at Halle 
after the lapse of two centuries 5 . He also wrote a treatise De 
Vittis Sermonis et Glossematis Latino-barbaris in nine books. 

1 Epp. et Orationcs, ed. nova, 1642, portrait ib., and in Meursius, 154, 
and Boissard, vi 15. 

2 Portrait of Scriverius in Meursius, 220, and Boissard, vi 27. 

3 Meanwhile, he was offered a professorship of History at Cambridge in 
1624, and was made Canon of Canterbury in 1629. 

4 See also Saintsbury, ii 358. 5 Cp. Hallam, ii 288 4 . 

2O 2 



(_ ?/*/?*. . 


/ ''' r ' 

I/ a.'l; ,'is,' <ist<j .<-';r.r-' t //.'. .- ( +t~-vacrfc'~c/vr' 

G. J. Vossius. 
From Bloteling's engraving of portrait by Sandrart. 


Four of these, published during his life-time (1645), may be 
briefly described as an Anti-barbarus of the remaining five 
(1685), printed after his death, the most interesting part is on the 
verbafalso suspecta, giving lists of many good Latin words that do 
not happen to be found in Cicero 1 . In the interval between these 
two works on Grammar, he published two important treatises on 
the History of Literature, entitled De Historitis Graecis (1623-4) 
and Latinis (1627), and a new edition of the former appeared at 
Leipzig as late as 1833. His treatise on Poetry (1647) was a 
work of wide influence. It resembles the corresponding treatise 
of the elder Scaliger 2 . His interest in Art is attested by his brief 
treatise De Graphice, while he is also the author of one of the 
earliest works on Mythology 3 . The brother of his 


second wife was Franciscus Junius (1589 1677), 

author of the De plctura veterum (1637 and 1694), and for thirty 

years librarian to the earl of Arundel 4 . 

The Chair of History at Leyden, left vacant from the death 
of Scaliger in 1609 to the year 1631, might well have been 
offered to Gerard John Vossius, who had produced both of his 
important works on the Greek and Latin historians before the end 
of 1627. But in 1631 a native of another land, 

, , . . Salmasius 

Claude Saumaise, was invited to fill the vacant 
Chair, and it cannot be regarded as an entirely accidental co- 
incidence that in that very year Vossius resigned the professorship 
of Eloquence at Leyden for that of History at Amsterdam. 
Saumaise, or Salmasius, whose earlier career we have already 
noticed in connexion with the land of his birth 5 , had produced in 
1629 his great work on Solinus, but, after his appointment at 
Leyden, he edited authors of minor importance only, such as 
Scylax, Cebes, Simplicius, and Achilles Tatius, while he added 

1 Cp. Hallam, ii sS? 4 . 

2 See Saintsbury, ii 359. 

3 De Origitie et Progressu Idololatriae, sine de Theologia Genlili. On 
G. J. Vossius, cp. Meursius, Ath. Bat. 267 275 (portrait ib. and in Boissard, 
ix n % i; also on p. 308 supra) ; Blount, 680; C. Tollius (1649) ; H - Tollius 
(1778); Ue Crane (1820); Hallam, ii 287-* f ; L. Miiller, 40. 

4 Michaelis, Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, 25; Stark, 126. Cp. 
Lessing's iMokoon, c. 2 and c. 29. 

5 p. 285 supra. 


From the engraving in Meursius, Athenae Batavae (1625), p. 191. 


little to his reputation for learning, except by his work on usury, 
and his treatise disproving the existence of a separate Hellenistic 

Jan de Meurs, or Joannes Meursius (1579 1639), who was 
born near the Hague, was a student at Leyden, 

.... /- T-> T Meursius 

and, after receiving the degree of Doctor in Law at 
Orleans, became professor of History and of Greek in his own 
university (1610). During the fourteen years of his professorial 
activity, he printed for the first time a number of Byzantine 
authors; he also produced the editio princeps of the Elementa 
Harmonica of Aristoxenus (1616), and edited the Timaeus of 
Plato with the commentary and translation of Chalcidius (1617). 
Most of his numerous lucubrations are concerned with Greek 
Antiquities, including the festivals, games, and dances of Greece, 
and the mysteries of Eleusis. Gronovius, who has gathered many 
of these into his Thesaurus, describes Meursius as ' the true and 
legitimate mystagogue to the sanctuaries of Greece'. He wrote 
much on the Antiquities of Athens and Attica, and the vast 
amount of rather confused learning that he has thus collected has 
been largely utilised by later writers on the same subject. His 
treatise on the Ceramicus Geminus was first published by Pufendorf 
(1663), to whom Graevius dedicated his edition of the Themis 
Attica of Meursius (1685). He commemorated the first jubilee 
of Leyden by producing, under the name of Athenae Batavae, a 
small quarto volume in two books, (i) a history of the Town and 
University with curious cuts representing incidents connected 
with the siege, and (2) a series of biographies of the principal 
professors, contributed by themselves, with lists of their works 
and with their portraits. The date of its publication (1625) 
marks a turning point in his career. The work is dedicated to 
the chancellor of the king of Denmark, who had lately invited 
him to accept the professorship of History at the Danish university 
of Soroe, where he passed the last fourteen years of his life. The 
portrait prefixed to his autobiography in the Athenae Batavae, 
presents us with a face marked with an exceptional alertness and 
keenness of expression'. 

1 p. 191, and Boissard, vi 23. See also D. W. Moller's Dispu.'atio (1693); 
J. V. Schramm (1715); and A. Vorst, in preface to posthumous ed. of Theo- 
phrastus, Char. 1640 (reprinted in Gronovius, Thes. x); Opera, Flor. 1741-63. 

From Snyderhuis' engraving of portrait by S. Merck. Print Room, British Museum. 


Helias Putschius of Antwerp (1580 1606) was educated at 
Stade, near the mouth of the Elbe, and at Leyden, 

v r^ Putschius 

where he came under the influence of Scaliger. To 

Scaliger, who calls him an egregius juvenis 1 , he dedicated his 

comprehensive collection of Grammaticae Latinae atictores antiqui 

(1605), printed from manuscript sources at Heidelberg, one of the 

many places in Germany where he lived before that early death 

at Stade, which prevented his completing the notes to that great 

work 2 . 

Cluverius of Danzig (1580 1623) visited Poland and Germany before he 

was sent to learn Law at Leyden. But he was much more 

attracted to the study of Geography, and, under the influence 

of Scaliger, he devoted himself entirely to that subject. He served as a 
soldier for two years in Hungary, travelled in Bohemia, and in England and 
Scotland, as well as in France, Germany, and Italy. He had a wide know- 
ledge of modern languages, and the Italian Cardinals endeavoured to retain 
him in Rome, but he remained true to Leyden, where he ended his days in 
receipt of an annual stipend, which did not involve any public duties as a 
teacher. He produced three important works on the ancient geography 
of Germany (1616), Sicily, with Sardinia and Corsica (1619), and Italy (1624). 
The first of these, as well as his Introduction to Geography, which was pub- 
lished after his death, was twice reprinted 3 . 

A far longer life than that of Putschius the grammarian, or 
Cluverius the geographer, was allotted to one who 

D. Heinsius 

was born in or about the same year as both. Daniel 
Heinsius of Ghent (1580-1 1655) studied Law at Leyden, but 
his real interest lay in Plato and Aristotle. He found a friend in 
Scaliger, who bequeathed to him a number of his books, while 
Heinsius was deeply devoted to the memory of that great scholar, 
and published three orations in his honour 4 . His work on Greek 
authors, such as Hesiod and Aristotle's treatise on Poetry, was 
(except in the case of Theocritus) better than his work on Latin 
authors. He studied the treatise of Aristotle in connexion with 
the Ars Poctica of Horace. His edition of the former (1611) is 
the only considerable contribution to the criticism and elucidation 

1 Seal. Sec. s. v. 

- Life by Ritterhusius, 1608 and 1706, and by Wilcken, Lindcnbrogii 
(1723), 82112. 

3 Cp. Meursius, Alh. Bat. 290 f, with portrait, and D. Heinsius, Oratio ix. 

4 Or. ii, iii, xxix. 


of the work that was ever produced in the Netherlands. It 
includes several satisfactory corrections of the text, a Latin 
translation completed in 'two or three days', and a number of 
original notes. In his pamphlet De Tragoediae Constitutione, 
published in the same year, he deals with all the essential points 
in Aristotle's treatise, giving proof that he has thoroughly imbibed 
the author's spirit, and adding illustrations from the Greek tragic 
poets, and from Horace and Seneca 1 . It was through this work 
that he became a centre of Aristotelian influence in Holland 2 . 
His influence extended, in France, to Chapelain and Balzac 3 , to 
Racine and Corneille 4 ; in Germany, to Opitz 5 ; and, in England, 
to Ben Jonson, who in his Discoveries (1641) borrows largely from 
Heinsius, without mentioning his name 6 . He also borrows from 
the criticisms of Heinsius on Plautus and Terence, first printed 
in that scholar's edition of Horace (i6i2) 7 . 

His transpositions in the text of the Ars Poelica and his verbal 
conjectures in the other works of Horace have been disapproved 
by Bentley and other critics; but his treatise De Satyra Horatiana 
is not without merit. His critical notes on Silius (1600), on the 
tragedies of Seneca (1611), and on Ovid (1629), are not much 
more valuable than those on Horace 8 . Nevertheless, his criticisms 
were highly praised by his contemporaries and by his immediate 
successors 9 . His Latin orations are sometimes deemed to be 
unduly grandiloquent, but his elegiac poems have a more uniform 
elegance than those of Buchanan, which they closely resemble. 
His Juvenilia in particular are marked by a repeated preference 
for a polysyllabic ending to the pentameter line 10 . He was highly 
honoured at home and abroad; he was made a Councillor of State 
by Gustavus Adolphus, and a knight of St Mark by the Republic 

1 Saintsbury, ii 356 f. 

2 Jonkbloet, Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Lefterkunde, 1889*, iv 214 f. 

3 ib. iii 60 f. 4 Pref. to Don Sanche. 

5 Beckherrn, Opilz, Ronsard, und Heinsius, 1888. 

6 This has been pointed out to me by Prof. Spingarn, to whom all the 
above references are due. 

7 See esp. Spingarn's Sources ofjonsorfs ' Discoveries ', in Modern Philology, 
ii (1905) 451460, and M. Castelain's critical ed. (Paris, 1907). 

8 L. Muller, 39. 9 Blount, 698. 
10 Hallam, iii 5i 4 . 


of Venice; and was invited to the papal court by Urban VIII 'to 
rescue Rome from barbarism' 1 . 

Hugo Grotius (1583 1645), w ^ was born at Delft and 
educated at Leyden, was eminent as a statesman, a 

... . 11- i 11 TT-ri Grotius 

diplomatist, a theologian and a scholar. His father 
wrote Latin poems, and corresponded with Lipsius in Latin prose^ 
The son began writing Latin verses at the tender age of eight, and 
constantly practised the art until he was at least thirty-four. At 
the age of fifteen, under the influence of Scaliger, he began to 
prepare an edition of the mediaeval text-book of the liberal arts 
by Martianus Capella. In the same year he attended Olden- 
Barneveldt on an important mission to France, and was presented 
to Henry IV 2 , who gave the young attache a gold chain with his 
portrait. On his return to the Netherlands the youthful Grotius 
published his commentary on Capella, with a portrait of himself 
wearing the gold chain and the medallion. The work was 
welcomed by Scaliger, who divined the editor's future greatness 3 . 
In the year of its publication his father, fearing he might be unduly 
attracted to the pursuit of literature, removed him from Leyden 
as soon as he had taken the degree of Doctor in Law, and entered 
him as an advocate at the Hague. The early part of his public 
career was an unbroken series of distinctions. He was successively 
historiographer of the Netherlands, advocate-general of Holland 
and Zealand, a member of the States-general, and envoy to Eng- 
land. His earliest work on international law was the Mare Liberum 
(1609), and he was well content with the terms of the answer to 
that work in the Mare Clausiim of the learned Selden (1636). 
The controversy excited by the two theological professors of 
Leyden, Arminius and Gomar, continued long after the death of 
the former in 1609; and the Arminian (or anti-Calvinistic) opinions 
of Barneveldt led to his being sentenced to death with the approval 
of the Synod of Dort (1619). Grotius, who sympathised with 
Barneveldt, was condemned to imprisonment for life. The same 
sentence was pronounced on the president of the council of Ley- 

1 Cp., in general, Meursius, Ath. Bat. 209 219 (portrait ib., and in 
Boissard, VI 16, bearing his modest motto, quantum est quod nescinnts); 
Thysius, Orat. Funebris, 1655. Portrait on p. 312 supra. 

- Poemata (1617), p. 307 f. 3 ib. 519 f. 


den, who, on hearing his doom, exclaimed in the words of Horace: 
hie murus aeneus esto, nil conscire sibi, nnlla pallescere culpa. 
Grotius received his sentence in silence, reserving for a future time 
the publication of the proof of its scandalous injustice 1 . In his 
prison he wrote in Dutch verse the first draft of his future treatise 
De Veritate Religionis Christianae ; and the ' dulces ante omnia 
Musae' were now dearer to him than ever 2 . All that he composed 
at this time was sent to G. J. Vossius at Leyden, and Vossius in 
his turn was permitted to send large parcels of books for the use 
of the imprisoned scholar. The books passed to and fro in a box 
about four feet long, and, by the ingenuity of his wife, it was in 
this box that, after the lapse of a year and ten months, the prisoner 
made his escape. In March, 1622, he fled to Paris, where he 
found friends among the scholars of the time, such as Salmasius 
and Peirescius. Once, in the company of the latter, a stranger 
asked how he could become as learned as Peirescius and Grotius, 
when Grotius replied: 'Lege Veteres, sperne recentiores, et eris 
noster' 3 . When Puteanus wrote to console the exile with the 
examples of Themistocles and Coriolanus, Grotius preferred to 
think of Aristides, and of Phocion, who in his last words sent a 
message to his son, bidding him never to reproach Athens with 
the penalty she had inflicted on his father 4 . In 1622 he published 
his Defence in Dutch and in Latin. In the following year he 
produced his edition and translation of the poetic passages in 
Stobaeus, accompanied by the treatises of Plutarch and Basil on 
the study of the poets, and followed, three years later, by excerpts 
from the tragic and comic poets of Greece 5 . The Latin version of 
the extracts in Stobaeus had occupied him during the imprison- 
ment at the Hague immediately before his trial, and, curiously 
enough,, he had just reached the 4pth Section, On the Criticism of 
Tyranny, when the pen was taken from his hand 6 . In the three 
short years between the publication of his Stobaeus and 1625 he 
composed his classic work De Jure Belli et Pads 1 . In the same 
year he completed the Latin version of the De Veritate and offered 

1 Afologeticiis, c. 19. ' 2 Ep. 125. 

3 Luden, 171 n. * Ep. 164, p. 62. 

5 1626; enlarged by Gataker in his Miscellanies, 

6 Ep. 200, p. 71. 7 Hallam, ii 544589*. 


Scriverius some memoranda on the tragedies of Seneca 1 . He also 
put together certain notes and emendations on Tacitus, which 
reminded him to resume his Latin History of Holland. The 
emendations were subsequently printed in 1640 in a new issue 
of the edition of Lipsius. His translation of Procopius was not 
published until ten years after his death. His rendering of the 
Phoenissae of Euripides in Latin Verse, begun in prison, was 
completed and published in 1630. 

His attempt to return to his native land was rudely met by a 
decree of perpetual banishment. But the treatise De Jure Belli 
et Pads had been specially admired by the great warrior Gustavus 
Adolphus ; Grotius entered the service of Sweden, and in 1635 
began his career as envoy of the young queen Christina at the 
court of France. Fourteen years later, he asked for his recall; 
the request was granted; on his way to Sweden, he was welcomed 
by his friends at Amsterdam and Rotterdam. He had an 
interview with the queen at Stockholm, and left for Liibeck 
(presumably) in the hope of returning to his native land. His 
ship was, however, wrecked on the Pomeranian coast, and he was 
only able to drive as far as Rostock, where he died. His em- 
balmed body was afterwards buried in the tomb of his ancestors 
at Delft, and the place of his rest was marked by an epitaph, which 
he had himself composed: 

' Grotius hie Hugo est, Batavus, Captivus et Exul, 
Legatus Regni, Suecia magna, tui '. 

Apart from his important works in the domain of theology, law, 
and history, his productions as a scholar alone would be enough 
to lend distinction to his name. In his early youth (as we have 
seen) he had commented on Martianus Capella ; in 1601 and 1608 
respectively, he had written two Latin tragedies, on the Exile of 
Adam and the death of Christ, and the former of these was imi- 
tated by Vondel and by Milton. He had translated the Phoenissae 
of Euripides, and the poetic extracts in Stobaeus; he had edited 
Lucan (1614), and Silius (1636); and had corrected the text of 
Seneca's Tragedies and of Tacitus. At Paris in 1630 he began 
his renderings of the Planudean Anthology. In the course of this 
work he corrected the original text in many passages, and in this 
1 Ep. 101, p. 784. 


connexion consulted Salmasius 1 , who had made his memorable 
discovery of the more comprehensive Palatine Anthology in 1 606, 
and was still contemplating an edition of the same. For the 
appearance of that edition Grotius waited in vain; he continued 
to revise and polish his renderings, and lived in the hope of seeing 
this work printed, not in France, but in Holland 2 . The printing 
had even begun 3 , when the work was laid aside, and these admir- 
able renderings did not see the light until 150 years after the 
translator's death 4 . 

He was less skilful as a critic of the text of the tragic and 
comic poets of Greece, than as a translator; but he had a singular 
faculty for illustrating any passage with the aid of apt parallels from 
his wide reading of the Classics. His Latin poems give abundant 
proof of his poetic taste; and his immature verses of 1598 were 
superseded by the edition of his poems collected by his brother 
in 1617. Of the Latin poets of that age, Baudius may excel in 
fancy; Broukhusius, and the elder and younger Heinsius, in 
smoothness of style; but Grotius surpasses all in the success with 
with he reproduces the spirit of classical poetry, and clothes 
modern thoughts in ancient forms. Lucian Miiller, in the course 
of a long and interesting examination of his Latin verse, quotes, 
as a solitary example of a departure from classical usage, the 
following couplet referring to a portrait of Scaliger painted shortly 
before the death of that great scholar: 

'haec est Scaligeri mortem meditantis imago, 
luminis heu tanti vespera talis erat '. 

'The evening of life' (adds the critic) 'is a modern, not an ancient, 
metaphor' 5 . On the contrary, the 'evening of life' is a metaphor 
approved by Aristotle 6 , who quotes a parallel from Empedocles 
and might have quoted another from Aeschylus 7 ; and Daniel 

1 Epp. 368, 418. a Epp. 527,612, 1698 etc. ; Suppl. 402, 486, ed. 1687. 

3 Ep. 1721. 

4 His secretary, E. le Mercier, deposited the original in the library of the 
Jesuits' College in Paris in 1665. It was published by Jerome de Bosch at 
Utrecht in 1795-8, with the aid of a transcript from England, corrected by 
Grotius himself (Luden, 278). It has since been reproduced as part of the 
Didot ed. of the Greek Anthology. 

5 p. 203. 6 Poet. c. 21 6. 7 Agam. 1123. 


Heinsius, who, like Grotius, was one of the favourite pupils of 
Scaliger, had translated in 161 1 the very treatise in which Aristotle 
approves this metaphor 1 . Grotius could hardly have failed to be 
familiar with this work. 

Of all the scholars to whom he addresses his poems, the first place 
belongs to Heinsius 2 , who, as it happened, was afterwards Secretary of the 
Synod of Dort, which condemned Grotius. Among the rest are Scaliger 3 
and Meursius 4 . A scholarly interest attaches to his iambic poem on Docta 
Ignorantia, the point of which is driven home in the final line: 'Nescire 
quaedam, magna pars Sapientiae est' 5 . In -the preface he confesses to an 
ingenium sequax ac ductile, which made it easy for him to imitate any Latin 
poet in whose works he happened to be interested. His vocabulary is even 
coloured occasionally by his study of Roman law, which is directly represented 
by his poetic paraphrase of a long passage in the Institutes of Justinian 6 . He 
skilfully imitates the Apophoreta of Martial in a long series of couplets on the 
articles, which the thrifty Dutchman, so far from presenting to his friends, 
carefully keeps for himself. In this series the couplet on Pocula cerevisiaria, 
in which the contents of those glasses are lauded v&pretiosior undo, Lyaeo 7 , led 
to an amusing controversy with the French scholar, Fran9ois Guyet, who 
patriotically preferred the national beverage of France 8 . 

The next generation to that of Grotius is represented by 
Tohann Friedrich Gronov (1611 1671). He was 

... . . Gronovius 

born at Hamburg and studied at Leipzig and Jena, 

entered Leyden in 1634, and completed his academic education 

1 p. 47, Dicet ergo . . .senectutem vesperam vitae. 

2 PP- 73. 2 3. 251, 3 2 4. 335. 37 2 , 373. 3/6- Cp. Heinsius ad Grotium, 
531-3; and Baudius on Grotius and Heinsius, 527, 529. 

3 pp. 299, 300, 344, 360 ; and seven poems on his death, 357 f. 

4 pp. 247, 288, 335, 336, 362. There are also poems on Gruter's In- 
scriptions (235) ; on Gorlaeus (322) and his Dactyliotheca (176); on Scriverius, 
editor of Martial (381) ; and on the death of Lipsius (239, 345) ; lastly, a poem 
by Vossius on the works of Grotius (541). 

5 331 : cp. Quint, i 8, 21 ; Scaliger, Poemata, Iambi, xx ; and Gibbon, 
Autob. 54, ed. 1869 ; also Sir W. Hamilton's Appendix on 'Learned Ignorance" 
in Discussions, 601-7. 

6 PP- 433452. 7 p- 428. 

8 On the life and works of Grotius, cp. Burigny (1750 f); H. Luden, 
Berlin, 1806; Caumont, tude, Paris, 1862; Neumann, Berlin, 1884; and 
literature in Eckstein, and Pokel, s. v. Testimonia in Blount, 663-7, Portrait 
in Meursius, Ath. Bat. 204, and elsewhere ; also a coloured print, including 
his escape from prison, published by J. Wilkes, 1806; see also Fred. Muller's 
Catalogits (Amst. 1853). 

From an engraving by J. Munnickhuysen. 


at Groningen. Thereupon he travelled in France, Italy and 
England ; and the MSS examined in the course of his travels 
supplied him with materials for his future editions of the Latin 
Classics. He owed his interest in scholarship to the influence of 
Vossius, Grotius, Daniel Heinsius, and Scriverius, and to the 
teaching of Salmasius. He describes the large classes that 
attended the lectures of Heinsius, whom he succeeded at Leyden, 
while the younger Heinsius was one of his most intimate friends. 
His miscellaneous Observations were warmly welcomed by 
Grotius (1639), and his commentary De Sestertiis was received 
with equal enthusiasm by Vossius (1643). As an editor, he 
devoted himself mainly to the classical writers of Latin prose, 
sharing with Lipsius a preference for the authors of the first 
century, and especially for those that gave peculiar scope for the 
elucidation of their subject-matter. His editions mark an epoch 
in the study of Livy, of both the Senecas, and of Tacitus and 
Gellius. He also edited the great work of the elder Pliny. This 
preference for prose had possibly been inspired at Leyden by the 
example of Salmasius. The extension of his interest to the 
textual criticism of Latin poetry was due to the discovery of 
the Florentine MS of the tragedies of Seneca. His diatribe on the 
Silvae of Statius is an immature work, but, in his riper years, the 
acumen exhibited in his handling of prose is also exemplified in 
his treatment of the text of poets such as Phaedrus and Martial, 
Seneca and Statius. His edition of Plautus is marred by an 
imperfect knowledge of metre, which has been noticed by Bentley 1 . 
His breaking ground in Greek is hailed with delight by the French 
scholar, Tanaquil Faber 3 , but his published work was almost 
entirely confined to Latin 3 . His son and grandson will be 
mentioned in the sequel. 

Meanwhile, we turn to certain scholars of the same generation, 
the sons of a distinguished father, G. F. Vossius. 

1 Em. in Men. et Phil. p. 484 Meineke, ' Gronovius senariorum rationes 
parum intelligebat '. 

* Ep- 75- 

3 Testimonia in Blount, 741 f; cp. L. Miiller, 42 44; also the Life by 
N. Wilckens (1723), and in the Lectiones Plautinae (1740); and J. Holier, 
Cimbria Litterafa, iii 265 282. 

S. II. 2 I 


All of his sons were singularly precocious. Dionysius (1612-33) was the 
short-lived librarian of Amsterdam; and Gerhard ([620-40) 
edited Velleius Paterculus at the age of nineteen. His second 
son, Isaac Vossius (1618 1689), who was born at Leyden, was appointed pro- 
fessor of History at Amsterdam at the age of fifteen. Nine years later he visited 
Italy, and we find him giving his friend N. Heinsius a graphic account of the 
difficulties he experienced in seeking admission to the libraries in Rome 1 . In 
1649 ne l 6 ^ Amsterdam for the court of queen Christina. He taught the queen 
Greek, and sold her a large number of his father's valuable MSS. She is the 
'Xanthippe' of his letters to Heinsius. He left Sweden in 1652 owing to 
a dispute with Salmasius, and, six years later, in an edition of Pomponius Mela, 
had the satisfaction of noticing some of the geographical mistakes made in his 
opponent's work on Solinus. He repeatedly visited Paris, and was tempted to 
enter the service of France, which would have made it necessary for him to 
become a Catholic. But he preferred becoming an Anglican, not (like 
Casaubon) on grounds of real belief, but because he desired to retain the right 
to a certain degree of speculative freedom. His sponsor in England was John 
Pearson, the scholarly Master of Trinity, who had been attracted by his work 
on Ignatius. He received an honorary degree at Oxford (1670), and was 
presented by Charles II with a prebend at Windsor (1673), but he scandalised 
his colleagues by reading Ovid during the services in St George's Chapel, and 
by saying of one of their number who was absent from Windsor but was 
loyally doing his duty at his country-living : ' est sacrificulus in pago et 
rusticos decipit '. With his scepticism he combined a singular degree of 
credulity, and it was possibly the credulity exhibited in his work on the 
Sibylline Oracles (1679) that prompted Charles II to say of him: 'He is 
a strange man for a divine; there is nothing that he will not believe, if only it 
is not in the Bible '. He is said to have been intimately acquainted with the 
manners and personages of all ages but his own. Evelyn, who met ' the 
learned Isaac Vossius' at dinner 'at my Lord Chamberlain's' 2 , discourses, ten 
years later, on the erudite note on tacking, which Vossius had introduced into 
his commentary on Catullus 3 . The miscellaneous character of his learning is 
also illustrated by his telling Evelyn ' of a certain harmony produced by the 
snapping of carters' whips, used of old in the feasts of Bacchus and Cybele ' 4 . 
Evelyn further notes that, with the aid of MSS, he had corrected Justin 'in 
many hundreds of places most material to the sense and elegancy' 5 . He held 
his prebend at Windsor for sixteen years, and, when he died, his fine library 
of 762 MSS was offered ' at a great price ' to the Bodleian, and Bentley, who 
was then at Oxford, did his best to bring about its purchase 6 ; but the executors 

1 Burman's Sylloge, iii 561. 

2 Diary, 31 Oct. 1675. 

3 iv 20. 4 Evelyn to Pepys, 23 Sept. 1685 (Diary etc. iii 278, q.v.). 
* ib. iii 190. 

Monk's Life of Bentley, i 21 f ; and Bentley's Correspondence, 68. 


carried the MSS back to Holland, where they expected 'a quicker market'. 
' I wished with all my heart ' (says Evelyn) ' some brave and noble Maecenas 
would have made a present of them to Trinity College, Cambridge' 1 . Had 
the MSS remained in England, instead of being bought by Leyden, Bentley, 
who was then working at Lucretius, might, with the aid of the two Vossian 
MSS of that poet, have anticipated Lachmann's discoveries by a century and 
a half 2 . Isaac Vossius (as we have seen) edited Justin, and the minor 
geographers, Scylax and Pomponius Mela, his edition of the former including 
an anonymous periplus from trie library of Salmasius. His Catullus, published 
in London in 1684, is rich in curious erudition, but is not highly esteemed. 
One of his best works is his treatise Depoematum cantu et vocibus rhythmicis, 
published anonymously at Oxford in 1673. He there 'retraces the ancient 
alliance between poetry and music, insists on a strict adherence to the rules of 
prosody', and 'dwells on the beauty of rhythmical movement' 3 . His principal 
characteristic is a not inconsiderable versatility, but he is unquestionably 
inferior to his father 4 . It may, however, be remembered to his credit that his 
learning attracted the interest of bishop Pearson, and that his correspondents 
included Laud and Ussher, as well as his accomplished countryman, the 
younger Heinsius 5 , who follows next in order. 

Niklaas Heinsius (1620 1681), the only son of Daniel 
Heinsius, was born in Leyden. He travelled in 
England (1641), France (1645), Italy (1646), and 
Sweden (1649). In 1651 he resided in Italy as the envoy of 
queen Christina ; he represented the Netherlands at the Swedish 
court in 1654; was Secretary of State at Amsterdam in 1656; 
and was once more in Sweden in 1659. In 1671 he visited 
Moscow ; he afterwards lived in retirement at Vianen, a small 
place on the lower Rhine, S. of Utrecht; and he died at the 
Hague. His library, which was sold by auction for a considerable 
sum after his death, included all branches of learning, but was 
peculiarly rich in editions of the Latin poets 6 . For a large part 
of his career he was engaged in diplomatic and political work; 

1 Evelyn to Pepys, 12 Aug. 1689 (iii 306). 

2 Munro's Lucretius, i p. 1 y 3 . 3 D. N. B. s. v. 

4 Hallam, iii 244 4 , is not sufficiently decisive on this point. 

5 On Isaac Vossius, cp. Aa's Wbordebook, xix 416; Danou in Biogr. Univ. 
xlix ; and authorities quoted in D. N. B. Correspondence in Vossii et 
Clarontm Virorum Epistolae (1690), and with N. Heinsius in Burman's 
Sylloge, iii 556692. 

6 Peerlkamp, De Vita, Doctrina, et Facilitate Nederlandonitn, qui car- 
mina Latina compositerunt, 426. 

21 2 

From the frontispiece to his Adversaria (1742). 


he never held any academic appointment; and it was only the 
leisure hours of his public life that he could devote to the 
pursuits of scholarship. His natural tastes inclined him to 
poetry. His Latin poems are brighter in style than those of his 
father and of Grotius, and are fully as graceful as those of 
Baudius and Broukhusius. Of his three volumes of Latin verse, 
two had been published before he had edited a single Latin 
author. His practice in versification, his wide reading in classical 
and post-classical Latin, and his knowledge of Greek literature, 
made him an accomplished scholar, and a well-equipped editor of 
classical texts. As a textual critic, he had acquired an extensive 
knowledge of various readings by his study of MSS during his 
residence abroad. Few scholars have examined so many Latin 
MSS, and his careful collations of such MSS compare favourably 
with those prepared by others on his behalf. In making his 
selection from the vast mass of variants, he was guided by a fine 
taste and a sound judgement acquired by long experience 1 . 
While Gronovius had devoted himself entirely to the writers of 
Latin prose, his friend, the younger Heinsius, was almost ex- 
clusively an editor of Latin poets. He produced editions of 
Claudian (1650), Ovid (1652), Virgil (1664), Prudentius (1667), 
and Valerius Flaccus (1680), besides leaving notes on Catullus, 
Propertius, Phaedrus and Silius Italicus, which were published 
long after his death 2 . In Latin prose he only edited Velleius 
Paterculus (1678), but he left behind him notes on Curtius, 
Tacitus, and Petronius. His editions of the Latin poets above- 
mentioned laid the foundation of the textual criticism of those 
authors, and he has thus obtained the title of sospitator poet arum 
Latinorum. He had a singular aptitude for conjectural emenda- 
tion, while his vast reading enabled him to support his conjectures 
by parallel passages that were exactly to the point. As a critic, 
he is more concerned with single words or phrases, than with the 
composition as a whole. The fact that Virgil and Ovid formed a 
kind of conventional phraseology, which became current in Latin 
poetry, made it comparatively easy for one who was familiar with 
that phraseology to correct the texts of the Latin poets. Cicero 
and Livy had no similar influence on their immediate successors, 
1 L. Miiller, 51 f. 2 Adversaria (1742). 


who have in general a definite individuality. This may explain 
the fact that Heinsius is less successful as a corrector and a critic 
of Velleius Paterculus, Curtius and Tacitus, than of Claudian and 
Silius Italicus 1 . But we may also attribute his success as a critic 
of the poets to the fact that he was himself endowed with a high 
degree of imaginative power and with a singularly felicitous taste. 
In his works in general he wears his learning 'lightly, like a 
flower '. While his pressing engagements as a diplomatist and a 
statesman robbed him of the leisure which might have enabled 
him to produce a longer array of learned lucubrations, it can 
hardly be doubted that his experience of public life preserved 
him from the perils of pedantry, and contributed to the formation 
of a sound and sober judgement, a practical sense of proportion, 
and an aptitude for clear and lucid expression. In his Latin 
verse, he shares with the other poets of the Netherlands a certain 
partiality for Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius, but his own 
model is mainly Ovid. Two of the happiest of his elegiac poems 
are those on the Bay of Naples 2 , and on the girls skating on the 
frozen Rhine 3 . His eulogy of General Monk as the restorer of 
the Stuarts includes the couplet : 

' Harmodios Atthis, Brutos ne Roma loquatur ; 
Pulchrius haec longe dextra peregit opus' 4 . 

Among his many ' occasional ' poems, a special interest attaches 
to those concerned with Menage and Balzac 5 ; Thomas May, the 
continuator of Lucan 6 ; Scriverius, the editor of Martial 7 ; and 
J. F. Gronovius : 

' Optimus antiqui Gronovius arbiter aevi, 
Cui nihil ignotum saecula cana ferunt' 8 . 

In his Latin letters, his chief correspondents are Gronovius 9 and 
Graevius 10 . 

1 Ruhnken's Praef. in Velleium, ' haec tantopere celebrata felicitas ilium 
destituit in prosae orationis scriptoribus, Velleio, Petronio, Curtio, Tacito'. 

2 p. 12 f, ed. 1666. 3 p. 234. 

4 p. 82. 8 pp. 255260. 

6 p. 274. 7 p. 203. 

8 p. 85; cp. 18, 107, 228. 

9 342 Letters in Burman's Sylloge, iii i 555- 

10 699 Letters, ib. iv i 733. Portrait in his Adversaria (1742), reproduced 
on p. 324. 


Among the scholars who, like Heinsius, were connected with the queen 

of Sweden, was Marcus Meibomius (1630 1710), who lived 

for a short time at the Swedish court. He was a professor at 

the Danish university of Soroe, and at Amsterdam. An interval of forty years 
separates his Latin translation of the Antiqui Musici Scriptores (1652) from 
that of Diogenes Laertius (1692). 

The cosmopolitan scholar, Ezechiel Spanheim (1629 1710), 
was born in Geneva. His father was celebrated 


as a theological professor, first at Geneva and next 
at Leyden, where the son continued his early education from 
1642 to his father's death in 1649. At the age of twenty-two 
he became professor of Eloquence at his native town; travelled in 
Italy until 1665 as tutor to the son of Charles Louis, Elector- 
Palatine, and subsequently represented the Elector in London ; 
and was the envoy of Frederic III, Elector of Brandenburg, at 
Paris in 1680, and, on that Elector's becoming the first king 
of Prussia in 1701, represented him in London for the last eight 
years of his life. His principal work, De Praestantia et Usu 
Veterum Numismatum, was published at Rome during his visit 
to Italy (I664) 1 . He also contributed a prolix commentary to 
the posthumous edition of Callimachus (1697) bearing the name 
of Theodorus Graevius (1669-92), a son of J. G. Graevius 2 . 
Lastly, he produced an edition, and a French translation, of 
Julian (1696). Wyttenbach thought more highly of Petavius 
than of Spanheim as a commentator on the first Oration of Ju- 
lian : ' Spanheimius multa, non multum legerat ; at eruditio ejus 
censeri debeat multitudine ac varietate, non vi ac ratione ' 3 . 

Johann Georg Greffe, or Graeve, better known as Graevius 
(1632 1703), was born at Naumburg, educated 

....... Graevius 

at bchulpforta, and at the universities of Leipzig, 

Deventer and Leyden. He was professor of Eloquence at Duis- 

burg (1656) and Deventer (1658), and at Utrecht (1662), where 

1 Ed. 2 (1671); ed. nova (London, 1706; Amst. 1717), with portraits. 

" Monk's Life of Bentley, i 62, 76, 189, 195. 

3 Juliani . . . Oralio, 166, ed. Schaefer (1802). Opera omnia in 3 folio vols. 
(Leyden, 1701-3); many papers in Graevius, Thesaurus. Portrait in Trinity 
Lodge, bequeathed by Spanheim; engravings dated 1683 and 1700 in 
F. Midler's Catalogs, 5044-6, also in editions of his principal work, and 
in Niceron etc. Cp. Cambridge ed. of Matthew Prior, ii (1907) 183. 


he lived and worked for the last forty years of his strenuous life. 
His Hesiod (1667) is almost his only edition of a Greek Classic; 
his Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius (1680), his only recension 
of any of the Latin poets. As a pupil of Gronovius, he limited 
his attention mainly to writers of Latin prose, and primarily to 
Cicero, whom Gronovius had admired without either imitating 
his style or editing his works. Graevius edited Cicero's Letters 
(1672-84), De Offiriis, Cato, Laelius, Paradoxa and Somniiim 
Scipionis (1688) and the Speeches (1695-9), a "d also the Opera 
cum notis variorum, which extended to eleven volumes and then 
remained unfinished (1684-99). He further edited the Latin 
historians, Justin, Suetonius, Florus, and Caesar. Finally he pub- 
lished the Inscriptions Antiquae (1707), and the works of earlier 
scholars collected and reprinted in the three Thesauri, (i) eru- 
ditionis scholasticae (1710) ; (2) antiquitatum Romanarum, in twelve 
folio volumes (1694-9); and (3) antiquitatum et historiarum Italiae, 
in nine volumes (1704), continued by Burman (1725). In so vast 
an output of learned labour, we cannot expect all the parts to 
be equally excellent, and it is in his recension of Cicero's Letters 
that we may most clearly trace the salutary influence of Grono- 
vius. The Latin style of his Prefaces, his Speeches and his 
Letters, is elegant, but he did not succeed in creating a school 
of style among his pupils 1 . The correspondence begun by 
Bentley in 1692 was continued with little intermission until the 
death of Graevius in i703 2 . Bentley supplied Graevius with a 
collection of more than 400 fragments of Callimachus as his 
contribution to an edition of that poet begun by his correspondent's 
short-lived son ; and Graevius, whose attention was first drawn to 
Bentley by the Epistle to Mill, hailed him as the novum sed 
splendidissimum Britanniae lumen' z , 

The successor of Gronovius at Leyden in 1672 was his pupil Theodor 
Rycke of Arnheim (1640 1690), who produced an annotated 
edition of Tacitus (1687), and a small volume of Animadver- 

1 Praefatioties et Epp. (1707); L. Miiller, 45. 

3 Monk's Life of Bentley, \ 49 f; Correspondence (1842), 4r 270 passim, 
and Epistolae (1825), i 125 (with portraits of both); also in Haupt's Opusc. 
iii 89 107. 

3 Praef. ad Callimachum. Cp., in general, Frotscher's Narraliones, 1826, 
i 134204. 


stones (r686), which attained the distinction of being reprinted in three volumes 
at Dublin (1730). Another pupil of Gronovius was his son 
Jakob (1645 1716), who studied under his father at Deventer Gronovius 
and Leyden, visited England, Spain and Italy, and was pro- 
fessor of Greek at Pisa, and at Leyden from 1679 * h' s death thirty-seven 
years later. Besides producing new editions of his father's Tacitus, Gellius, 
and Seneca's tragedies, he edited Herodotus and Polybius, Cicero, Livy and 
Ammianus Marcellinus, as well as Harpocration, and Stephanus Byzantinus. 
He also produced a Thesaurus Antiquitatnm Graecanim in thirteen folio 
volumes (1697 1702), volume 12 including an enlarged Latin edition of 
Potter's Antiquities. A special interest attaches to his editio princeps of 
Manetho (1689). Bentley's success in correcting the fragments of Callimachus 
aroused the envious spirit, the angry temper and the vituperative tongue of 
Jakob Gronovius, whose failings as an editor of Cicero led him to be described 
by Bentley ten years later in language of unwonted severity 1 . Bentley's sub- 
sequent correction of a fragment of Menander, and of the errors committed by 
Gronovius in attempting to correct it, prompted the latter to attack Bentley 
once more in a pamphlet, in which the bitterness of the tone is only equalled 
by the harshness of the style 2 . The reputation of this industrious scholar has 
been unduly enhanced by the credit he derived from his father's fame, which, 
in the third generation, descended in a diminished degree on Abraham 
Gronovius (1695 1775), an editor of Aelian, and Librarian of Leyden 3 . 

Jan van Broekhuyzen, or Janus Broukhusius of Amsterdam 
(1649 1707), was a pupil of Hadrianus Tunius. 


Skilfully discriminating between the special apti- 
tudes of two of his pupils, Hadrianus recommended Ovid as the 
best model for Petrus Francius, and Propertius for Broukhusius. 
So successful was the latter that he became known as the ' Pro- 
pertius of Holland'. The love of Latin literature, with which 
he had heen inspired by his master, never deserted him. On 
the death of his father, his uncle vainly endeavoured to apprentice 
him to an apothecary. Rather than submit he enlisted as a 
soldier, and rose to the command of one of the bodies of troops 
stationed at his native city of Amsterdam. But he never ceased 
to read and to imitate the Latin poets, and especially Propertius 
and Tibullus, and also to prove himself an original poet in his 
lyric as well as his elegiac pieces 4 . He began his literary career 

1 homunciilus ernditione mediocri, ingetiio nullo ; Monk's Life of Bmtlty, 
i 226. 

2 ib. i 276. 3 Cp. L. Miiller, 44. 
4 Foemata, 1684 and i/n; Peerlkamp, 455 460. 


as an editor of the modern Latin poems of Aonio Paleario (1696), 
and his edition of Sannazaro was published in 1728, twenty-one 
years after his death. The former of these works was followed 
by an elaborate edition of Propertius (1702, ed. 2 1727), in which 
he is far too apt to reduce the poet's rough and vigorous phrases 
to an Ovidian smoothness. After the publication of his first 
edition, he transcribed all the notes of N. Heinsius on Propertius, 
and his transcript was printed by Burman, at the end of his 
publication of the Adversaria of Heinsius (I742) 1 . His own 
edition of Propertius was followed by one of his other favourite 
poet, Tibullus (1708). 

Petrus Francius (1645 1704), the fellow-pupil of Broukhusius, 
had the honour of reciting a Virgilian poem in 


the 'New Church' of Amsterdam in memory of 
the heroic Admiral Ruyter, who had fallen in a victorious en- 
gagement off the shore of Sicily. So vast was the crowd which 
thronged the church to listen to the poem, that the poet's friend, 
the scholar-soldier, Broukhusius, who was in command of the 
troops on that occasion, resorted to the use of the Latin language 
in addressing every applicant for admission, and all who replied 
in Latin were immediately admitted. His skill in carrying out 
his master's injunction to imitate Ovid is fully proved by his 
published poems (1697). His early travels in England, Italy, 
and France, were followed by his election, first to the Chair of 
History and Eloquence, and, next, to that of Greek at Amsterdam. 
He carried out a small part of his plan for rendering all the Greek 
epigrams of the Planudean Anthology into Latin verse 2 . He also 
published some Latin Orations, which were attacked by an in- 
ferior composer, the learned Perizonius (1651 


1715). Ihe vernacular name of the latter was 
Voorbroek, and under the Latinised name, Accinctus, he wrote 
a Latin letter 'ad P. Francium Barbarum'. But, as a Latin 
composer, Perizonius only excited the ridicule of Francius. His 
strength lay in another line. He produced an annotated edition 
of the Minerva of Sanctius, while he was still a professor at 
Franeker (1607). He was called to Leyden in 1693. His best 

1 Burman's Funeral Oration (1708), and Peerlkamp, /. c. 
i Peerlkamp, 446 453. 


work as an editor is his recension of Aelian's Varia Historia 
(1701). He also produced a learned dissertation on Dictys (1702). 
In his Origines Babylonicae et Aegyptiacae (1711), he was the first 
to suggest the spuriousness of the royal lists of Manetho, and 
he defended the chronology of Scaliger against the criticisms of 
Sir John Marsham. His Animadversiones Historicae (1685) are 
recognised as a masterpiece of historical criticism, and as an 
anticipation of Niebuhr's method of dealing with the early history 
of Rome 1 . 

Classical archaeology in the Netherlands is best represented 
by his contemporary Gisbert Cuypers (1644 1716), 
a pupil of Gronovius at Leyden, who become pro- 
fessor of History (1668), and Biirgermeister at Deventer. His 
volume of Observationes (1670), which included explanations of 
various rites, and illustrations from Roman coins, was twice 
reprinted. In his Harpocrates (1676) he published a number 
of monuments that were previously unknown, and in 1683 he 
lavished a considerable amount of learning on the famous relief 
called the Apotheosis Homeri, found at Bovillae, formerly in the 
Colonna Palace and now in the British Museum 2 . 

We have already noticed the early printers of the Classics in the Southern 
Netherlands, at Louvain and Antwerp 3 . We have here to mention a famous 
family of printers belonging to the Northern Netherlands, and, in particular, to 
Leyden and Amsterdam. 

The founder of the family was Louis Elzevier (1540 1617), who, when his 
native place, Louvain, had been ravaged by war and pestilence, 
left it for Leyden, where he established himself as a bookseller 
and bookbinder in 1580, five years after the foundation of the university. His 
fame as a printer began about 1595. In the works issued from his press, he 
was the first to draw a distinction between the consonant v and the vowel ;/. 
Of his five sons, two, namely Matthys and Bonaventura, succeeded their father 
at Leyden; the business continued to flourish until i68r, and then declined 
between that date and 1712. Two other sons of Louis became booksellers at 
the Hague, and the fifth at the university of Utrecht. 

1 Niebuhr, History of Rome, i 251 f (E. T., 1831); Schwegler, i 135; 
Kramer's E/ogium, Berlin, 1828; Urlichs, 8i' 2 . 

- Third Graeco-Roman Room, no. 159. First published in Kircher's 
Latium, Amsterdam, 1671. Cp. L. Miiller, 21; Urlichs, 8o 2 ; Stark, Ha nd- 
buch, 122 f. 

3 p. 213 supra. 


Meanwhile, another firm had been founded at Amsterdam in 1638 by 
another Louis (d. 1670), who was joined in 1654 by Bonaventura's son, Daniel, 
who died in 1680. The business passed into the hands of another family 
in 1 68 1, a date which marks the close of the best days of the Elzeviers of 
Amsterdam, and of Leyden. 

The beautiful editions of the Greek and Latin Classics that continued to 
appear down to 1681 were produced at Leyden in and after 1595 and especially 
between 1622 and 1651, the era of the i2mo and i6mo volumes of Bona- 
ventura and of his nephew Abraham, the son of Matthys. Similar editions 
were produced at Amsterdam in and after 1638. The Greek Testament was 
repeatedly printed at Leyden (1624 and 1633) and Amsterdam (1656, 1662, 
1670, 1678). It is the preface to the second Leyden edition that contains the 
oft-quoted words : textum habes mine ab omnibus receptum 1 . All the Elzevier 
editions, of the Greek Testament and the Classics alike, fully deserve their 
place among the dainty little volumes described, in the preface to the former, 
in the Homeric phrase: oXlyois Tf Q&ois re. 

1 E. Reuss, Bill. N. T. (1892) 109 f. On the Elzeviers, cp., in general, 
Willems, Les Elzevier, Bruxelles, 1880, and Eckstein's Nomenclator, 642 f, 
with the literature there quoted; also Berghman's Etudes, Stockholm, 1885; 
Goldsmid's Catalogue, Edinburgh, 1885 (abridged from Willems); and R. C. 
Christie's Essays, 297 308. 



IN the reign of queen Elizabeth one of the most learned 
representatives of classical scholarship in England 

. Savile 

was Sir Henry Savile (1549 1622). After matricu- 
lating at Brasenose, he became Fellow and mathematical Lecturer, 
and ultimately (from 1585 to 1622) Warden of Merton. On 
taking his M.A. degree in 1570, he 'read his ordinaries in the 
Almagest of Ptolemy', thus attaining a two-fold reputation, as a 
mathematician and as a Greek scholar. In 1578 he went abroad, 
collecting MSS and making the acquaintance of scholars on the 
continent. He is said to have represented the queen for a short 
time in the Netherlands 1 . On his return he became her tutor 
in Greek, and it was in her presence at Oxford that he delivered a 
memorable discourse on the merits of the mediaeval Schoolmen 2 . 
As Warden of Merton he showed great judgement in selecting 
men of learning as Fellows. In 1591 he translated four books of 
the Histories, and the Agricola of Tacitus 3 . His translation was 
eulogised in verse by Ben Jonson, and, within fifty years, had 
passed through six editions. In the Agricola*, the correction 
Intemelio for in templo is due to Savile. The notes were after- 
wards reproduced in Latin by Gruter (1649). Savile added 'A 
view of certain militar matters, for the better understanding of 
ancient Roman stories', which was translated into Latin by 
M. Freher of Heidelberg (1601). (It is generally regarded as 

1 Wotton, English Baronetage, i 60. 

2 Oratio, printed 1658. 

3 The Annals and Ger mania were translated in the same reign by Richard 


the first contribution made by any English scholar to the study 
of Roman Antiquities ; but we must not forget that, half-a-century 
previously, Robert Talbot, of Winchester and New (c. 1505 1558), 
had published Latin 'annotations' on the Antonine Itinerary.) 
When the office of Provost of Eton fell vacant, he aspired to fill 
it, although he was a layman, and the holder of the office was 
required to be in priest's orders. Early in 1595 the queen gave 
him the Latin Secretaryship and the Deanery of Carlisle, 'in 
order to stop his mouth from importuning her any more for 
the provostship of Eton". However, in May, he was actually 
appointed Provost, and was as strict a disciplinarian as in his 
other high office, that of Warden of Merton. At Eton we are told 
he could not abide 'witts', and much preferred 'the plodding 
student' 2 . In 1604 he was knighted after a banquet given at Eton 
to James I. He was subsequently one of the scholars associated 
in the preparation of the authorised version of the Bible, being one 
of those entrusted with the Acts and Revelation, and with part of 
the Gospels. The loss of his only son, in the year of the father's 
knighthood, led to his devoting the larger part of his private 
fortune to the advancement of learning. He collected MSS, and 
secured the aid of scholars at home and abroad, for a great 
edition of Chrysostom. Through Casaubon, he obtained colla- 
tions of MSS in the royal library of Paris, but he failed in his 
attempt to purchase the set of matrices of the royal type, which 
Henri Estienne, the father-in-law of Casaubon, had taken from 
Paris to Geneva 3 . Thereupon Savile purchased a special fount 
of type, probably from the founders employed by the firm of 
Wechel at Frankfurt 4 , engaged the king's printer, and himself 
superintended the work at Eton. In 1611 Casaubon tells a 
friend abroad that the work was being produced privata impensa, 
animo regio, and that he found some solace for all his troubles 
in reading the proofs 5 . The printing of the eight folio volumes 

1 Anthony Bacon to Hawkins, 5 March, 1595. 

2 Aubrey's Lives, n ii 525 (ii 214, ed. 1898). 

3 Pattison's Casaubon, 23 1 2 . 

4 To Hoeschel, Ep. 738. 

5 R. Proctor, The French Greek Types and the Eton Chrysostom, in Essays 
(1905), 110-7. 


was completed in 1613, at a total cost of ^8000, the paper alone 
costing a quarter of that sum. 

'This worthy knight' (says Fuller) 'carefully collected the best Copies of 
St Chrysostome, and employed learned Men to transcribe, and make Anno- 
tations on them 1 ; which done, he fairly set it forth, on his own cost, in a most 
beautiful edition ; a burthen which he underwent without stooping under it, 
though the weight thereof would have broken the back of an ordinary 
Person ' 2 . 

In splendour of execution, and in breadth of erudition, it far sur- 
passed all the previous productions of English scholarship 3 . An 
edition of Xenophon's Cyropaedia was printed at Eton at the 
same press in 1615. After Savile's death the 'elegant types', 
which that ' learned knight procured with great cost ', were 
scattered about the Provost's lodge and lost 4 . All the type had 
been bequeathed to the University of Oxford; in 1632, some of 
it was lent to the University Press at Cambridge; but nothing 
more is known of it 5 . 

It was on the completion of the great edition of Chrysostom 
that Savile (as we have seen) had the satisfaction of driving 
Casaubon in his coach from Eton to Oxford and showing him 
the Library and all the other sights of the University 6 . He 
aided Bodley with his advice in founding his famous Library. 
His own MSS are mentioned on almost every page of the Greek 
ecclesiastical historians edited by Valesius". In 1619 he founded 
the two professorships of Geometry and Astronomy at Oxford ; 
and, two years later, published his prelections on Euclid. On 
his death in 1622 he was commemorated by sculptured monu- 
ments at Eton and at Merton College, Oxford. 

The latter includes a portrait representing him clad in a Roman toga and 
resting his hand on a closed book, with figures of Chrysostom and Ptolemy on 
one side of the monument, and of Euclid and Tacitus on the other. In the 

1 Among these may be mentioned Richard Montagu, of Eton and King's, 
afterwards bishop of Norwich, and Andrew Downes, professor of Greek at 

2 Worthies of England, Yorkshire, iii 431 Nuttall. 

3 Cp. Hallam, ii 27j 4 . 

4 Evelyn to Pepys, 12 Aug. 1689 (iii 300, ed. 1854). 

5 Proctor, /. c. 1 1 7. 

6 p. 207 f supra. 7 Evelyn, iii 307. 


upper part are two Genii, one of them gazing at Savile's face in a mirror, and 
the other writing his name in the Book of Life ; while above them is a figure 
seated on his coat of arms and blowing the trumpet of fame 1 . 

Munificent in his patronage of learning, he was polished in 
his manner, courtly in his speech, and vain-glorious in his 
character. ' He would faine have been thought to have been 
as great a scholar as Joseph Scaliger' 2 . He is reported to have 
been an 'extraordinary handsome man, no lady having a finer 
complexion' 3 . There is a portrait at Eton, and another in the 
university gallery at Oxford. 

Among those who aided Savile by their learning was Andrew 
Downes (c. 1^49 1628), 'whose pains were so in- 

Downes . v J ^ " 

laid with Sir Henry Savile's edition of Chrysostom, 
that both will be preserved together' 4 . He was educated at 
Shrewsbury and at St John's, Cambridge, where he held a 
fellowship from 1571 to 1586. Amid the conflict of theological 
controversies, the knowledge of Greek was ' almost lost and 
forgot' in St John's, 'had it not been restored' by Downes 5 . 
After migrating to Trinity in 1586, he held the professorship of 
Greek for nearly forty years (1586 1625). He is characterised 
by Fuller as a scholar ' composed of Greek and industry'. His 
lectures on Demosthenes, De Corona, were attended in 1620 
by Simonds D'Ewes, who in his Diary describes the lecturer 
as follows : 

'He had been Greek professor in the University about 30 years, and was at 
this time accounted the ablest Grecian of Christendom, being no native of 
Greece ; which Joseph Scaliger himself confessed of him long before... When I 
came to his house near the public Schools, he sent for me up into a chamber, 
where I found him sitting in a chair with his legs upon a table that stood by 
him. He neither stirred his hat nor body, but only took me by the hand, and 
instantly fell into discourse... touching matters of learning and criticisms. He 
was of personage big and tall, long-faced and ruddy-coloured, and his eyes 
very lively, although I took him to be at that time at least 70 years old' 6 . 

1 Ant. Wood, De Coll. Merton. ; epitaph in Blount's Censura, 651. 

2 Aubrey, Lives, ii 524 (ii 214, ed. 1898). 3 ib. 
4 Fuller's Cambridge, 310, ed. 1840. 

6 Baker's Hist, of St John's, 180, 171, ed. Mayor. 

6 Life, ed. Halliwell, i 139; Diary, 17 Mar. 1620; Baker-Mayor, 598. 
Cp. [Marsden's] College Life in the Time of James I, 30 34. 


D'Ewes, after repeatedly absenting himself from the Greek professor's lectures, 
received from the professor, by the hands of a bachelor in divinity, ' a scroll 
containing certain notes of his last lecture '. 

Dowries had been appointed one of the six final revisers of 
the authorised version of the Bible, but he would never leave 
Cambridge for the meetings at Stationers' Hall ' till he was either 
fetcht, or threatened with a Pursivant' 1 . Another of the six was 
his pupil John Bois, who, like himself, had aided Savile in his 
Chrysostom, and whose notes survived in the Benedictine edition, 
while those of Downes were omitted 2 . Downes published his 
lectures on Lysias, De caede Eratosthenis (1593), and on Demos- 
thenes, De Pace (i62i) s . John Taylor, in the preface to his 
Lysias (1739), says of him: 'multum de juventute Academica 
et renascente Graecismo meruit vir ille laboriosissimus'. For the 
first of his Colleges, he wrote a letter of thanks in Greek to a 
lady identified as Mildred lady Burghley 4 ; corresponded in Greek 
with Casaubon 5 ; and, on the death of James I, wrote a Greek 
epigram stating that Peitho had rested on the lips of the departed 
monarch. He deprecates criticism on his verses ; he was then 
77 years of age. Two years later he resigned his Professorship, 
and retired to the village of Coton, near Cambridge, where he 
died early in i628 8 . The Diarist, to whom we are indebted for 
part of the above description of Andrew Downes, gives us a 
glimpse of a young classical student's range of reading in those 
days, when he writes : 

' I... finished Florus, transcribing historical abbreviations out of it in mine 
own private study ; in which also I perused most of the other authors, and read 
over Gellius' Attic Nights, and part of Macrobius' Saturnals' 7 . 

1 Peck, Desiderata Curiosa, viii 48 9. 
" Mullinger's Cambridge, ii 506 n. 

3 Dedicated to James I ; reprinted in C. D. Beck's eel. (1799), pp- 10.5 318. 
Valckenaer, on Herodotus iii 70, refers to 'Andreae Dounaei, viri Graece per- 
docti, Praelect. in Demosth. Philipp. p. 99'. 

4 Baker- Mayor, 396. 

5 Epp. 108 (1596), 949 (1614), 995 (1595) etc. 

6 Epitaph in chancel, copied in Taylor's Lysias, xv, and in Baker- Mayor, 


7 Simonds D'Ewes, Life, i 12 r. 

S. II. 22 


A far wider range of study is represented by Francis Bacon 
(1561 1629), who 'had taken all knowledge to 
be his province' 1 . At the age of twelve, he came 
into residence at Cambridge, as a fellow-commoner of Trinity 
College; and, among the books with which he was furnished 
by the Master, were Cicero, Livy, Sallust, Caesar; Homer, 
Xenophon, Plato and Aristotle 2 . We are confidently assured by 
his earliest biographer that, even ' whilst he was commorant at 
the university, about sixteen years of age, he first fell into the 
dislike of the philosophy of Aristotle, ...being a philosophy only 
strong for disputations and contentions, but barren of the pro- 
duction of works for the benefit of the life of man' 3 . His 
general attitude towards ancient philosophy is briefly summed 
up by Macaulay : ' Two words form the key of the Baconian 
doctrine, Utility and Progress. The ancient philosophy dis- 
dained to be useful, and was content to be stationary' 4 . In 
Bacon's Essays (1597 1625), a History of Scholarship is only 
concerned with a single sentence from that on ' Studies ' : To 
spend too much time in Studies is Sloth ; To use them too much 
for Ornament is Affectation ; To make Judgement wholly by 
their Rules is the Humour of a Scholler'. In the Advancement 
of Learning (1605), the principal classical authors quoted are 
Cicero and Seneca, Livy and Tacitus : Xenophon and Plato, 
Demosthenes and Aristotle. In the same work the absence of 
any adequate history of learning is noticed 5 . We have, however, 
a 'survey' or 'general and faithful perambulation of learning' 6 ; 
and indications of the author's familiarity with certain stages 
in its history. 

Thus, of the attitude of the early and mediaeval Church towards the 
Classics, he writes : ' We find that many of the ancient bishops and fathers of 
the Church were excellently read and studied in all the learning of the 
heathen ' ; and ' it was the Christian Church, which, amid the inundations of 
the Scythians... and Saracens..., did preserve in the sacred lap and bosom 
thereof the precious relics even of heathen learning, which otherwise had been 
extinguished' 7 . 

1 Letter to Burleigh. 

2 Advancement of Learning, ed. Aldis Wright, pref. p. vi. 
8 ib. vii. 4 Essays, 383, ed. 1861. 

6 II i a. 8 II Ded. 15. 7 I vi 14. 

CHAP. XX.] BACON. 339 

As an instance of the ' contentious ' type of learning, Bacon selects the 
schoolmen, ' who, having sharp and strong wits, and abundance of leisure, and 
small variety of reading, but their wits being shut up in the cells of a few 
authors (chiefly Aristotle their dictator)..., and knowing little history, either of 
nature or time, did, out of no great quantity of matter and infinite agitation of 
wit, open out unto us those laborious webs of learning which are extant in 
their books' 1 . Of their dependence on Aristotle he adds: 'As water will 
not ascend higher than the level of the first springhead from whence it 
descendeth, so knowledge derived from Aristotle, and exempted from liberty 
of examination, will not rise again higher than the knowledge of Aristotle' 1 *. 
' Notwithstanding, certain it is that, if those schoolmen to their great thirst of 
truth and unwearied travail of wit had joined variety and universality of 
reading and contemplation, they had proved excellent lights, to the great 
advancement of all learning and knowledge' 3 . 

In connexion with the Revival of Learning, the credit, now generally 
assigned to Petrarch and the early humanists, is here attributed to Luther, 
who, ' finding his own solitude, being no ways aided by the opinions of his 
own time, was enforced to awake all antiquity, and to call former times to his 
succours to make a party against the present time. So that the ancient 
authors, both in divinity and in humanity, which had long slept in libraries, 
began generally to be read and revolved'.... 'The admiration of ancient 
authors, the hate of the schoolmen, the exact study of languages ' were among 
the causes that contributed to the study of eloquence. ' This grew speedily to 
an excess ', as might be seen in the ' flowing and watery vein of Osorius ' 4 , in 
the superstitious cult of Cicero which had been satirised by Erasmus and 
exemplified by Ascham and Sturm, and in the almost deification of 
Demosthenes by Car of Cambridge 5 . All these are examples of the 'first 
distemper of learning, when men study words and not matter' 6 . 

In the age of the Reformation, he points out that ' it was ordained by the 
Divine Providence, that there should attend withal a renovation and new 
spring of all other knowledges ; and, on the other side ' he recognises that the / 
Jesuits 7 'have much quickened and strengthened the state of learning' 8 . 

Lastly, in the reign of James I, he feels persuaded ' that this third period 
of time will far surpass that of the Grecian and Roman learning ' 9 . 

The Advancement of Learning is expanded in a Latin form 
in the De Augmentis Scientiarum (1623). The Wisdom of the 
Ancients (1609) gives a moral or political interpretation to many 

1 i iv 5. 2 i iv 12. 3 i iv 7. 

4 p. 163 supra. 

5 Nicholas Carr (1523-68), Greek professor 1547, translator of Dem. 01. 
and Phil., etc. 

6 i iv 2. 7 Cp. i iii 3, and De Angmentis, vi 4. 
8 i vi 15. 9 II xxiv. 

22 2 


of the fables of Greek Mythology. Finally, in the Novum Or- 
ganum (1620), by the very title of that memorable work, the 
author boldly enters the lists against the logical text-book of 
Aristotle; and, although it has been censured by Hallam' for 
the 'general obscurity' of its style, it has been highly commended 
by the learned author of the Polyhistor, who 'had found little 
in the books since written by Englishmen, the grounds of which 
he had not long before met with in Bacon' 2 . 

A remarkable variety of classical erudition is the main characteristic of 
Robert Burton (1576 1640), Fellow of Brasenose, and 
Student of Christ Church, Oxford, the celebrated author of 
the Anatomy of Melancholy (162 1) 3 . He is quaintly described in Wood's 
Athenae Oxonienses* as ' a general read scholar, a thoro' pac'd philologist ' ; 
'by many accounted a severe student, a devourer of authors'; but 'very 
merry, facete, and juvenile'. The Latin" elegiacs which he addresses to his 
book show a turn for pleasant raillery. Dr Johnson has justly described the 
work as ' perhaps overloaded with quotations ' ; ' but there is great spirit and 
great power ' (he adds) ' in what Burton says when he writes from his own 
mind' 5 . 

Thomas Dempster of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge (c. 1579 
1625), was born some three years later than 
Robert Burton and died fifteen years before him. 
He belonged to an ancient family in Scotland, which lost all 
its fortunes owing to its fidelity to the catholic cause. He 
graduated at Douay and Paris, and was a professor at Toulouse 
and Nimes, and at several Colleges in Paris. In Paris he edited 
Claudian (1607) and Corippus (1610). At Cologne in 1613 he 
reprinted, with corrections and large additions, the Antiquitates 
Romanae of Johann Rossfeld, or Rosinus (1585). He afterwards 
professed civil law at Pisa, and the humanities at Bologna, where 
he died. Meanwhile he had been knighted by Urban VIII. In 
addition to a critique on Historians, he wrote an Ecclesiastical 
History of Scotland 6 , in which he was prompted by his patriotism 
to exaggerate the literary fame of his country, and even to claim 
Turnebus as of Scottish descent 7 . His work De Etruria Regali, 

1 43 * 

2 Morhof, ii 124 f, ed. 1747. 3 17 other edd. before 1850. 
4 ii 652 f, Bliss. B Boswell, ii 259, Napier. 

6 1627; new ed. 1828. 7 p. 185 n. supra. 


printed nearly a century later (1723-6), with an illustrated 
supplement by Philip Buonarroti, aroused a fantastic interest in 
Etruscan Art, and an exaggerated sense of the antiquity and 
extent of Etruscan civilisation 1 . He also wrote on mythology 
and cosmography, and was famous as a Latin poet, his poem 
entitled Musca being admired as a lepidum carmen, sed non 
indoctum*. He had a frank and open manner, and a pugnacious 
temper. He had also a remarkably good memory, and spent 
fourteen hours a day in reading 3 . He is described by Ussher 
as a man of much reading, and absolutely no judgement 4 . 

His contemporary John Barclay (1582 1621), who was born 
in Lorraine of Scottish descent and was probably 

. Barclay 

educated by the Jesuits, has some reputation as a 
Latin writer. At the beginning of the ten years of his residence 
in London, he produced the Latin poems of his Sylvae (1606), 
and, at the close of the five years spent in Rome towards the 
end of his life, he completed a political satire in Latin prose 
called the Argents (1621). The latter is an allegory, partly 
founded on the state of France during the latter years of 
Henry III, and it was a favourite with Richelieu 5 . Coleridge 
even preferred the Latin style of this work to that of Livy or 
Tacitus, but Hallam is more judiciously content to compare it 
with that of Petronius 6 . His Latin verse is modelled mainly 
on Statius and Claudian. He is the theme of a couplet com- 
posed by Grotius : 

' Gente Caledonius, Gallus natalibus hie est, 
Romam Romano qui docet ore loqui' 7 . 

The puritan divine and critic, Thomas Gataker (1574 1654), 
was a Scholar of St John's, a Fellow of Sidney 

. Gataker 

Sussex College, Cambridge, and subsequently lec- 
turer at Lincoln's Inn and rector of Rotherhithe. In 1620 he 

1 Stark, 183. 

2 Borrichius, De Poet 'is, 151. 3 Aub. Miraeus, ap. Blount. 

4 Antiy. Britann. Eccl. c. i. Cp. Blount, 642 f, and D. N. B. 

5 Vita, prefixed to Argents. 

6 Hallam, ii 28 4 4 , iii 165 f 4 . 

7 For other Testimonia, cp. Blount, 655 f. See also sketch of Life by 
Lord Hales, 1783. 


travelled in the Netherlands. He wrote a curious treatise on the 
' Nature and Use of Lots ', and, apart from works on the Hebrew 
prophets and on the ecclesiastical controversies of the day, pub- 
lished a Greek text of the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, with 
a Latin version and a copious'commentary 1 , ' the earliest edition 
of any classical writer published in England with original anno- 
tations ' s . The Stoic philosophy is reviewed in the Introduction 
and many parallel passages from Greek and Latin philosophical 
writings are cited in the notes. His Adversaria Miscellanea 
(1651) and Posthuma, with an autobiography (1659), include 
many observations relating to classical antiquity. His translation 
of Marcus Aurelius is reprinted in the Opera Crttica, published 
at Utrecht in 1698, with a Life by Herman Witsius. He has 
been placed by a foreign writer among the six Protestants con- 
spicuous for depth of reading, and has been characterised as a 
vir stupendae leclionis magnique judicii*. 

Gataker's slightly younger contemporary, the learned jurist, 
John Selden (1584 1654) of Hart Hall, Oxford, 

Selden . . 

and of the Inner Temple, M.P. for his university 
in the Long Parliament, produced in 1617 two works of profound 
learning, his ' History of Tythes ' in English, and his treatise 
De Diis Syr is in Latin. As the author of the latter he earned 
from Gataker the epithet of TroXv/zafo'crraTos 4 . A more immediate 
service to scholarship was rendered in 1628-9 by his publication of 
the Marmora Arundelliana, a description of the marbles brought 
from Asia Minor by William Petty, a Cambridge man, who was 
acting as agent for Thomas Howard, the second Earl of Arundel 
(1586 1646). Petty found at Smyrna a number of Greek in- 
scriptions originally collected by an agent of the Provengal 
scholar, Peiresc 5 . Owing to some intrigues on the part of the 
sellers, the agent had been thrown into prison and the collection 
dispersed. Petty recovered them, and purchased them, at a high 
price, for Lord Arundel, and the marbles reached Arundel House 
in the Strand in 1627. The greatest interest was excited by the 

1 1652; reprinted, 1697, 1707. 

2 Hallam, iii 250*. 

3 Morhof, Polyhistor, i 926, ed. 1747. 

4 De Tdragr. 5 Vila, by Gassendi, 227. 


two large fragments of a chronological table which, from the place 
of its original discovery, became known as the Marmor Parium. 
The table begins with Cecrops and goes down to 354 B.C., the 
latter part, ending with 263-2 B.C. (the year of its composition), 
having been lost 1 . The deciphering and interpretation were 
undertaken by Selden, the magnus dictator doctrinae gentis Anglicae, 
with the aid of Patrick Young and Richard James. The fame of 
the inscriptions and their collector was spread abroad by the 
publication of Selden's work, and Peiresc now learnt for the first 
time the fate of his former property, but he generously rejoiced 
that the task of appreciating the inscriptions had fallen into such 
good hands 2 . The work is lauded by Baillet, who adds that, even 
if men were to refuse to Selden the eulogies that were his due, 
' les pierres parleroient pour luy' 3 . Forty years after the marbles 
had arrived in England, the inscriptions, which Selden's volume 
had made famous, are described by Evelyn as ' universally 
neglected and scattered up and down about the garden, and 
other parts of Arundel House', 'exceedingly impaired' by the 
'corrosive air of London' 4 . Part of them were used in the 
repair of the house, and in this way the upper half of the 
Marmor Parium had disappeared in the chimney, and would 
have been lost to the learned world, had it not been discovered 
betimes by Selden and his friends 5 . Under the influence of 
Evelyn, the marbles were presented to the university of Oxford, 
but, of the original number of 250 inscribed stones, only 136 
reached that destination. These were at first 'inserted in the 
walls that compass the area of the (Sheldonian) theatre', where 
the author of the Sylva judiciously advised the planting of a 
hedge of holly to prevent idle persons from scratching and 
injuring them 6 . They were edited afresh by Prideaux (1676), 
and afterwards transferred to the interior of the Ashmolean 
Museum, and ultimately to the University Galleries. 

1 A fragment covering 336 2996.0. has been found (At/i. Milt. 1897, 183). 

2 Michaelis, Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, 17 f, 34 f. 

3 Jugfwens des Sfavans, 1685, ii 401 ed. 1722. 

4 Diary, 19 Sept. 1667 (ii 29). 

5 Prideaux, Marmora Oxoniensia, 1676, pref. 

6 Evelyn, Diary, 13 July, 1669 (ii 41 f). 


When Grotius, in his Mare Liberum (1633), denied England's 
right to exclude the fishermen of the Netherlands from the seas 
claimed by England, that right was maintained by Selden in his 
Mare Clausum (1636), and Grotius, who had already described 
Selden as the Honor Britanniae (1625)', was (as we have already 
seen) well content that the controversy should be in such good 
hands 2 . His dissertation on the Civil Year and the Calendar 
of the Jews was lauded by Vossius 3 . His Table-Talk has been 
characterised as ' far less rude, but more cutting than that of 
Scaliger ' 4 . Selden must have been thinking mainly of theological 
learning, when he said of the English clergy of his day, 'All 
Confess there never was a more learned Clergy no Man taxes 
them with Ignorance'; and of learning in a larger sense, when he 
says elsewhere, ' The Jesuits and the Lawyers of France, and the 
Low-Countrymen, have engrossed all Learning; the rest of the 
world make nothing but Homilies' 5 . His own preference for 
quoting original authorities is expressed with some rudeness, when 
he remarks : ' To quote a modern Dutch Man, where I may use 
a Classic Author, is as if (in justifying my reputation) ' I were 
to... neglect all persons of Note and Quality that know me, and 
bring the Testimonial of the Scullion in the Kitchen' 6 . He is 
described by Burnet as 'the most learned Mr Selden, one of 
the greatest men that any age has produced". His industry, 
and his strength of frame, the exactness of his memory and the 
sureness of his judgement, have been lauded in the Memoirs of 
Dr Lloyd, who adds that his 'Fancy' was 'slow'; nevertheless 
he made ' several sallies ' into poetry and oratory, and was proud 
of the fact that he had been taught by Ben Jonson 'to relish 
Horace ' 8 . 

Thomas Young (1587 1655), curate to Gataker at Rother- 

hithe, and afterwards the Puritan Master of Jesus 

College, Cambridge, was John Milton's private 

tutor, and is the theme of the fourth of his Latin Elegies and of 

1 De Jure Belli et Pads, lib. II, c. 2. 

2 p. 315 supra. :! De Scient. Math. 466. 
4 Hal lam, ii 5i8 4 . 8 pp. 37, 67 Arber. 

6 ib. 31. 7 Hist. Kef. book 3, p. 264, ed. 1539. 

8 Blount, 696. 


two of his Latin Letters 1 . In the Elegy the poet confesses that 
he has derived from his private tutor his first taste for classical 
literature and poetry : 

' Primus ego Aonios, illo praeeunte, recessus 

Lustrabam, et bifidi sacra vireta jugi ; 
Pieriosque hausi latices, Clioque favente, 
Castalio sparsi laeta ter ora mero '. 

Milton (1608 1674), who was educated at St Paul's School, 
London, and for seven years at Christ's College, Cambridge, tells 
us in his 'Apology' that at Cambridge he was not 'unstudied in 
those authors which are most commended', the 'grave Orators 
and Historians ', ' the smooth Elegiack Poets ', and the ' divine 
volumes of Plato and Xenophon' 2 . During his five years at 
Horton, he ' enjoyed a complete holiday in turning over Latin 
and Greek authors' 3 . His common-place book, ascribed to the 
latter part of his time in that rural retreat, includes quotations 
from as many as sixteen Greek authors, cited mainly for historical 
facts, and not for poetic phrases 4 . His reading was that of a poet 
and a general scholar rather than that of a professional philologer; 
and he ' meditated ' what he read 5 , thus escaping the reproach of 
being ' deep verst in books, and shallow in himself' 6 . 

At Paris, in 1638, he saw Grotius, who 'took his visit kindly, 
and gave him entertainment suitable to his worth, and the high 
commendations he had heard of him ' 7 . During his year in Italy 
(1638-9) he attended two of the meetings of one of the Florentine 
Academies, and recited from memory some of the Latin verses 
of his youth. He spent two months in Rome, viewing the an- 
tiquities, and cultivating the acquaintance of scholars, such as 
Lucas Holstein of Hamburg, who had lived for three years at 
Oxford, and was then librarian of the Vatican. He was shown 
the sights of Naples by Manso, the patron of Tasso and Marini, 
and on his departure presented his host with his Virgilian Eclogue 
of Mansus. On his way back he spent two more months in 

1 Mitford's Milton, \ 216, vii 369, 373. 

- ill. iii 269, 272. 3 ib. vi 287. 

4 Pattison's Milton, 19. 5 Aubrey's Lives (ib. 18). 

6 P. A', iv 326. 

7 Philips, Life of Milton (1649) ' n ^- Godwin's Lives (1815), p. 358. 


Rome, and two in Florence, where he saw Galileo. After a 
month in Venice, he returned to England via Geneva, the home 
of the uncle of his bosom-friend, Carolus Diodati, the Damon of 
the Epitaphium, a pastoral elegy inspired by a genuine emotion. 
It was composed on his return from abroad, and is the latest of 
the poet's serious efforts in Latin verse. His Lycidas, which pre- 
ceded his visit to Italy, and his Epitaphium Damonis, which 
immediately followed his return, were both of them modelled on 
the Latin Eclogues of Virgil and of later Italian poets 1 . 'The 
Latin pieces ' (says Dr Johnson) ' are lusciously elegant ; but the 
delight which they afford is rather by the exquisite imitation of 
the ancient writers, by the purity of the diction, and the harmony 
of the numbers, than by any power of invention, or vigour of 
sentiment' 2 . He also describes the Epitaphium Damonis as 
' written with the common but childish imitation of pastoral life ' 3 . 
The poem is, however, defended by Warton, who observes that 
' there are some new and natural country images, and the common 
topicks are often recommended by a novelty of elegant ex- 
pressions' 4 . Leland's hendecasyllables and epigrams are an 
unimportant exception to the statement that Milton is 'the 
first Englishman, who, after the restoration of letters, wrote 
Latin verses with classick elegance' 5 . His early Latin poems 
belong to 'the spring-time of an ardent and brilliant fancy' 6 ; 
and his Latin poems in general are 'distinguished from most 
Neo-Latin verse by being a vehicle of real emotion ' 7 . 

In 1640 Milton was engaged in the tuition of his two nephews, who were 
joined by other pupils in 1643. One of those nephews has preserved an 
impressive list of the authors studied : in husbandry, Cato, Varro, Columella, 
Palladius; Celsus, and a great part of Pliny; Vitruvius; the Stratagems of 
Frontinus; Lucretius and Manilius, In Greek verse, Hesiod, Aratus, Diony- 
sius, Oppian, Quintus Smyrnaeus, Apollonius Rhodius; in prose, Plutarch's 
Placita Philosophorum, and On the Education of Children; Xenophon's 
Cyropaedia and Anabasis; the Tactics of Aelian, and the Stratagems of 
Polyaenus 8 . 

1 p. 1 1 4, n. 7 supra. 

2 Lives of the English Poets, i 139, ed. Cunningham. 

3 il>. i 91. 4 Todd's Milton, iv 506. 
5 Todd's Milton, iv 363. 6 Hallam, iii 56 4 . 

7 Pattison's Milton, 41. 8 Todd's Milton, i 29. 


The Tractate on Education (1642) is mainly a scheme for the acquirement 
of useful knowledge with the aid of Greek and Latin books. After suggesting 
that the speech of his ideal students should be ' fashion'd to a distinct and 
clear pronuntiation, as near as may be to the Italian, especially in the Vowels', 
he would have 'some easie and delightful Book of Education' read to them, 
such as ' Cebes, Plutarch, and other Socratic discourses', or ' the two or three 
first Books of Quintilian'. 'The next step would be to the Authors of 
Agriculture, Cato, Varro, and Columella'. 'The difficulties of Grammar being 
soon overcome, all the Historical Physiology of Aristotle and Theophrastus 
are open before them'. 'The like access will be to Vitruvius, to Seneca's 
Natural Questions, to Mela, Celsus, Pliny, or Solinus'. 'Then also those 
Poets which are now counted most hard, will be both facil and pleasant, 
Orpheus, Hesiod, Theocritus, Aratus, Nicander, Oppian, Dionysius, and, in 
Latin, Lucretius, Manillas, and the rural part of Virgil '. Thereupon ' their 
young and pliant affections are led through all the moral works of Plato, 
Xenophon, Cicero, Plutarch, Laertius, and those Locrian remnants'; 'some 
choice Comedies, Greek, Latin, or Italian ; those Tragedies also that treat of 
Houshold matters, as Trachiniae, Alcestis, and the like ' ; ' those extoll'd 
remains of Grecian Lawgivers, Lycurgus, Solon, Zaleucus, Charondas, and 
thence to all the Roman Edicts and Tables with their Justinian'. ' Then will 
the choise Histories, Heroic Poems, and Attic Tragedies of stateliest and 
most regal argument, with all the famous Political Orations offer themselves; 
which, if they were not only read, but some of them got by memory, and 
solemnly pronounc't with right accent, and grace, as might be taught, would 
endue them even with the spirit and vigor of Demosthenes or Cicero, Euripides 
or Sophocles'. Logic, also, 'so much as is useful', to be followed in due 
course by ' a gracefull and ornate Rhetorick taught out of the rule of Plato, 
Aristotle, Phaleretis, Cicero, Hermogenes, Longinus'; and, lastly, 'that 
sublime art which, in Aristotle's Poetics, in Horace, and the Italian Com- 
mentaries of Castelvetro, Tasso, Mazzoni, and others, teaches what the laws 
are of a true Epic Poem, what of a Dramatic, what of a Lyric, what Decorum 
is, which is the grand master-piece to observe' 1 . 

Milton's copies of Pindar, Euripides, Lycophron, and Aratus 
are still extant with marginal memoranda proving that he read the 
Greek poets with the eye of a critic. His Pindar, the Saumur 
edition of 1620, is now in the Harvard Library. His Euripides, 
printed by Paul Stephens at Geneva in 1602, was bought in 
1634, the year in which he wrote the Conius, and is now in the 
possession of Mr W. W. Vaughan, head-master of Giggleswick 2 . 
His Lycophron was once in the library of the late Lord 

1 Todd's Milton, iv 384-9. 

2 Emendations in Museum Criticum, 1814; cp. Bacch. 188 n, ed. Sandys. 


Charlemont ; his Aratus (1559) is now in the British Museum. 
Milton's debt to the Classics is shown far less by any direct 
adaptations of their phraseology than by the classical flavour that 
pervades his poems. A tribute to his Latin scholarship was paid 
by his appointment as Latin Secretary to the Council of State 
from 1649 to 1659, and England's communications with foreign 
powers lost none of their dignity by being couched in Miltonic 
Latin. For the task of replying to the Eikon Basilike, the first 
name suggested was that of Selden, but it was finally entrusted to 
Milton. He also discharged the duty of answering the Defensio 
regia of Salmasius, but the only passages of his Defence of the 
People of England, and of his Second Defence, that retain their 
original interest, are those that tell of the author's studies and 
travels. When he had finished these pamphlets, there were many 
to whom he was only a blind man that wrote Latin 1 . Paradise 
Lost was not published until 1667, and 1670 saw the publication 
of Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes. The latter is founded 
on the earlier Attic models, the Chorus throughout takes part in 
the dialogue, and, ' according to ancient rule and best example ', 
the drama begins and ends ' within the space of twenty-four 
hours '. Aristotle's famous definition of tragedy is quoted on the 
title-page, but while the much-disputed term katharsis is there 
translated by lustratio, the preface, probably composed under 
the influence of the Italian commentators, is more in accord with 
the best modern interpretation, when it states that tragedy is 
'said by Aristotle to be of power by raising pity and fear, or 
terror, to purge the mind of those and such like passions' 2 . This 
aim is attained in Samson Agonistes, which finds its close in 'calm 
of mind, all passion spent'. 

As a Latin poet, Milton had been preceded in England by 

Thomas May of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge 

(1595 1650), whose translations of the Classics 3 are 

praised by Ben Jonson, and whose skill in imitating the style of 

Lucan is shown in his Latin continuation of the Pharsalia (1640). 

1 Whitelock's Memorials (1656), p. 645 of folio ed. Cp. Pattison, 117. 

2 Cp. vol. i 62. 

3 Virgil's Georgia, 1622, 1628; and Lucan's Pharsalia, 1627, with a Con- 
tinuation in English verse, 1630, and in Latin (Leyden), 1640. 


As a Latin poet, not only May, but also Cowley (1618 1667), is 
preferred to Milton by Dr Johnson 1 ; but the merits of May, who 
is a ' sonorous versifier ', ' accomplished in poetical declamation ', 
are mainly those of a skilful parodist, while the metaphysical 
conceits of Cowley are ill-adapted for the garb of 

. . . Cowley 

Latin verse 2 . A passing mention is due to Cowley's 
Naufragium Joculare, and to his little volume De Plantis, in 
which he discourses in Latin verse on the qualities of herbs, the 
beauties of flowers, and the uses of trees. In the final couplet of 
the Latin dedication of his English Poems to his Alma Mater, he 
recalls the happy days of his quiet life beside the Cam : 

' Qualis eram cum me tranquilla mente sedentem 
Vidisti in ripa, Came serene, tua'. 

James Duport (1606 1679), who was the son of a Master of 
Jesus, and was educated at Westminster and Trinity, 
and elected Fellow in 1627, may well have known 
Milton, who was only two years junior to himself, in Cambridge. 
But this is only an inference from his omission of Milton's name 
in his invectives against regicides. Duport was professor of Greek 
from 1639 to 1654, and during the Civil War went on quietly 
lecturing on the Characters of Theophrastus 3 . After the Restora- 
tion he became Dean of Peterborough (1664) and Master of 
Magdalene (1668-79). In contrast to the Cambridge Platonists 
of his day, he was an adherent of Aristotle, but he devoted most 
of his energies to the composition of Greek and Latin verse. His 
models were Homer and Martial, but he allowed himself metrical 
licences unrecognised by either. He broke into verse on the 
slightest provocation. An episcopalian and a royalist, he could 
not refrain from joining in celebrating the peace with Holland in 
a collection of verses addressed to Cromwell. In his Horae Sub- 
serivae he supplies us with a set of Latin elegiacs on the Trinity 

1 Lives, i 12 f. 

2 T. Warton, Preface to Milton s Minor Poems, xviii, ed. i. 

3 The MS of his lectures was lent to Stanley, the editor of Aeschylus, on 
whose death it came into possession of Moore, bishop of Ely ; the bishop lent 
it to Peter Needham, who published it in his own edition (1712). Needham 
assumed it had been composed by Stanley, until Bentley proved from internal 
evidence that it was the work of Duport. 


fountain ', and represents the Master lamenting the death of the 
Vice-Master in a grandiloquent series of Greek hexameters 
addressed to a meeting of the Senior Fellows 2 . Essaying a far 
longer flight, he rendered in Homeric verse the whole of the Book 
of Job (1637), as well as those of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, and 
the Song of Solomon (1646). In his Homeri Gnomologia (1660) 
he collected all the aphorisms of the Iliad and Odyssey, and illus- 
trated them from the Scriptures and the Classics 3 . 

At the Restoration, Duport had been invited to resume the 
Chair of Greek, which had been vacant for six years. He de- 
clined the honour, and recommended that it should be conferred 
on his favourite pupil, Isaac Barrow (16^0 1677). 


Barrow's inaugural oration opens with a brief review 
of the earlier teachers of Greek in Cambridge, beginning with 
Erasmus, Sir Thomas Smith and Sir John Cheke, and ending 
with Downes and Creighton; but the lectures, which were so 
auspiciously begun, were but scantily attended. 'I sit like an 
owl', he says, 'driven out from the society of other birds' 4 . Within 
four years he exchanged the Chair of Greek for the newly-founded 
Lucasian Professorship of Mathematics. His introductory lecture 
reveals him as a philosopher and a divine, as well as a scholar. 
He confesses that 'though far from viewing with morose disdain 
the amusing employment of verbal criticism, his warmest affections 
have ever been given to the graver investigations of nature'; and 
he reminds his hearers that the ancient Greek philosophers had 
ever blended the study of philosophy with that of mathematics 5 . 
He resigned the Lucasian Chair in favour of his pupil, Isaac 
Newton (1669). As Master of Trinity (1672), he founded the 
Library. He published a Latin text of Euclid before his election 
as Professor of Greek, and a Latin text of Archimedes after his 

1 318 f. 2 ib. 497- 

3 Monk in Museum Criticum, ii 672, and Mullinger, Cambridge Charac- 
teristics in the Seventeenth Century. Cp. Hallam, iii -248 f 4 . Quern Jupiter 
vult perdere, elemental prius is the rendering in Duport's Gnomologia, 282, of 
the tragic fragment, 8rav 5' 6 Sal^uv dvdpl -jropffuvrj KO.KO., rbv vovv tfi\a.\f/e irpCi- 
TOV $ /SouXetferat (in Schol. on Soph. Ant. 620), subsequently rendered in 
Joshua Barnes' Euripides (1694), Index Prior D, Deus quos vult perdcre, 
dementat prius. 

4 Opuscula, iv ut. B Mullinger, 191. 


appointment as Master of Trinity. He came to the end of his 
great career as a scholar, a mathematician, and a divine at the 
early age of forty-seven. 

We have already noticed the names of Meric Casaubon (1599 
I67I) 1 , and of Isaac Vossius 2 (1618 1689). The early work of 
the latter on the Letters of Ignatius attracted the 


interest of John Pearson (1613 1686), the author 
of the 'Vindiciae Ignatianae,' of whose unfinished work on 
Ignatius we find Bentley saying that 'the very dust of his writings 
is gold' 3 . He was also an annotator on Diogenes Laertius, but is 
now far better known as the author of the 'Exposition of the 
Creed', as Master of Jesus and Trinity, Cambridge, and as Bishop 
of Chester. 

Thomas Stanley of Pembroke Hall (1625 1678), a barrister, 
who, after travelling abroad, settled in London, was 


a descendant of the third earl of Derby, and a 
cousin and intimate friend of Lovelace. At Pembroke, he was a 
pupil of Fairfax, the translator of Tasso, and his ample means 
enabled him to assist Sir Edward Sherburne (1618 1702), the 
translator of Manilius (1675),, and of the tragedies of Seneca 
(1701). His own translations included versions of Greek, as well 
as Latin, poets 4 . His History of Philosophy, published in four 
volumes (1655-62), is biographical rather than critical, and in- 
cludes no name later than Carneades. It is mainly derived from 
Diogenes Laertius, but there is also an account of the Platonic 
philosophy, derived from Alcinoiis, the Peripatetic from Aristotle, 
and the Stoic from various ancient authorities. At the time of its 
publication, the field which it covered was almost untrodden 
ground 5 . In the following year he produced his celebrated edition 
of Aeschylus (1663). It was far superior to all its predecessors, 
but at least 300 of the emendations that appear in the text were 
appropriated, without acknowledgement, from the partly unpub- 

1 p. 1 10 supra. 

2 p. 322 supra. 

3 Phalaris, c. 13 prope finem. 

4 1647-51; edited by Brydges in 1814-5; his version of Anacreon reprinted 
in 1893. 

B Hallam, iii 303*. 


lished proposals of Dorat, Scaliger, and Casaubon 1 . It has served 
in its turn as the great source of illustrations for all subsequent 
editions of Aeschylus. It was described by Bentley as a 'noble 
edition' 2 ; it was republished in 1745, and afterwards revised by 
Person and reprinted by Samuel Butler. Stanley's Adversaria 
are still preserved in the University Library of Cambridge. 

The study of the Classics in the seventeenth century may be 

illustrated by the intellectual interests displayed by some of the 

principal representatives of rational theology in that age. The 

moderate and liberal churchman, Lucius Gary, 

second Viscount Falkland (c. 1610 1643), wno 

was admitted a member of St John's College, Cambridge 3 , and 

also studied at Trinity College, Dublin, is described by his friend 

Clarendon as having subsequently made 'prodigious progress' in 

learning. 'There were very few classic authors in the Greek and 

Latin tongue that he had not read with great exactness' 4 ; while, 

among the scholars of his own day, he had a singular admiration 

for Grotius 5 . The 'ever-memorable' John Hales 

(1584 1656), Fellow of Merton and lecturer in 

Greek at Oxford, and Fellow of Eton from 1613 to 1649, had an 

'exact knowledge of the Greek tongue', which enabled him to be 

of special service to Savile in his famous edition of Chrysostom 8 . 

Jeremy Taylor (1613 1667), Fellow of Gonville 

and Caius College, Cambridge, and of All Souls, 

Oxford, Bishop of Down and Vice-Chancellor of Dublin, was 

described in his funeral sermon as 'a rare humanist', who was 

'hugely vers'd in all the polite parts of Learning, and had 

thoroughly concocted all the ancient Moralists, Greek and Roman, 

Poets and Orators' 7 , while his own discourses are remarkable for 

'an erudition pouring itself forth in quotation, till his sermons 

1 C. J. Blomfield in Edin. Review, xix 494, and in Museum Crilicum, ii 
498; Hallam, iii 250*. Stanley's own emendations are quoted by Davies on 
Eum. p. 29 f. 

2 Phalaris, 260 Wagner. 

3 Falkland's Letter in Baker-Mayor, 532. 

4 Life, 48. 

5 Tulloch, Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England in the 
xvii cent. (1872), i 91. Cp., in general, J. A. R. Marriott's Falkland (1907). 

6 ib. i 172. 7 Dr George Rust, p. 13' (1670). 


become in some places almost a garland of flowers from all other 
writers, and especially from those of Classical antiquity' 1 . His 
'Liberty of Prophesying' has for its explanatory title the formid- 
able Greek designation : av/u/Jo/W i^iKo-TroAe/xiKoi/. 

One of the foremost of the 'Cambridge Platonists' of the same 
century, Henry More (1614 1687), was known as 
the 'Angel of Christ's College', where he led a Cambridge 

. . Platonists 

secluded life, declining the office of Master, as well More 

as a bishopric. 'For the perfecting' of his know- 
ledge 'of the Greek and Latin tongue', he had been sent as a boy 
to Eton, where he 'was wont sometimes with a sort of musical 
and melancholic murmur to repeat' to himself those verses of 
Claudian : 

' Saepe mihi dubiam traxit sententia mentem, 
curarent super! terras, an nullus inesset 
rector, et incerto fluerent mortalia casu'. 

As a youthful Bachelor of Arts at Christ's, he studied the 'Platonic 
writers, Marsilius Ficinus, Plotinus himself, Mercurius Trismegis- 
tus, and the mystical divines'; and among his other favourite 
authors in later life were Philo and Clement of Alexandria. His 
'Philosophical Poems', beginning with his 'Psychozoi'a'and 'Psych- 
athanasia', in which he endeavours to 'give some fair glimpse 
of Plato's hid Philosophy', are purely Neo-Platonic conceptions 
clothed in the fantastic garb of a poetry that is so far from lucid 
as to call for the poet's 'notes' and 'interpretation general' to 
illuminate its obscurities. In the most readable of his prose 
works, the 'Divine Dialogue', he describes a dream of his youth, 
in which he sees a 'very grave and venerable person', who presents 
him with a silver key, inscribed with the sentence, Claude fenestras, 
ut luceat domus, and a key of gold, bearing the motto, Amor Dei 
Lux Animae. The dreamer is awakened by strange noises from 
the outer world, but the full meaning of the golden and the silver 
keys, and of their mottoes, is the theme of long debate in the 
'philosophical bower' of the 'airy-minded Platonist', where the 
scene of the 'Divine Dialogue' is laid 2 . 

1 Hallam, ii 359*. 

2 Tulloch, ii 305, 307, 309, 312323. 

S. II. 23 


More's contemporary, Ralph Cudworth (1617 1688), Fellow 
of Emmanuel, and Master of Christ's from 1654 to 


his death, is best known as the author of 'The true 
Intellectual System of the Universe', and the 'Treatise concerning 
Eternal and Immutable Morality'. He quotes freely from the 
Neo-Platonists, and from their modern followers, Pico of Miran- 
dola and Ludovicus Vives 1 . 

The Cambridge Platonists, of whom More and Cudworth are 
the most prominent representatives, show a lack of critical judge- 
ment in their confusion of Platonism and Neo-Platonism. The 
dialogues of Plato that chiefly interest them are the Theaetetus, 
Sophistes, Parmenides, and, above all, the Timaeus. Nearly half 
the second book of the 'Immutable Morality' consists of quota- 
tions from the Theaetetus, and the discussion of the Platonic Trinity 
in the 'Intellectual System' mainly rests on the Timaeus and on 
the Neo-Platonists. Their favourite writers are Plotinus, and, in 
a less degree, Proclus and Hierocles, Themistius, Damascius, and 
Simplicius. 'They are', as Coleridge says, 'Plotinists rather than 
Platonists' 2 . 

Like Philo, and Clement of Alexandria, the ' Cambridge Plato- 
nists' held that Plato derived his wisdom from 
^Theophiius Moseg similar i y Theophilus Gale (16281678) 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, who left his library 
to Harvard, maintained that all the Gentile philosophy was 
borrowed from the Jews. This opinion is set forth at length in 
his 'Court of the Gentiles' (1669-77), which is recognised as a 
work of far wider learning than Stanley's History of Philosophy*. 
His namesake Thomas Gale (c. 1635 1702), Scholar of West- 
minster and Fellow of Trinity, was Professor of 
Greek at Cambridge (1666-72), High Master of St 
Paul's (1672-97), and Dean of York (1697 1702). His published 
works include an edition of Timaeus Locrus, De Anima Mundi 
(1670); the Opuscula Mythologica, Ethica, et Physica (1671); the 
Historiae Poeticae Scriptores Antiqui (1675) and the Rhetor es 
Selecti Graeci et Latini (1676). These were followed by the editio 
princeps of lamblichus, De Mysteriis (1678), in the preface of 
which he states that he had received from Isaac Vossius the 
1 Tulloch, ii 201. 2 ib. ii 478 f. 3 Hallam, iii 303*. 


original MS, 'quod nunc primum edo'. He also produced editions 
of Herodotus and Cicero, and of the Latin historians of Britain 
(1687-91). In 1695 we find Evelyn dining at St Paul's with Dr 
Gale, 'who showed me many curious passages out of some ancient 
Platonists' MSS concerning the Trinity, which this great and learned 
person would publish, with many other rare things, if he was en- 
couraged, and eased of the burden of teaching' 1 . Two years later 
he became Dean of York, but no further work of his was published, 
until his posthumous edition of the 'Antonine Itinerary' was pro- 
duced in 1709 by his son Roger Gale, the antiquarian, who left 
a large collection of his father's MSS to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, chief among which is the celebrated MS of the Lexicon 
of Photius 2 . 

The second half of the seventeenth century is marked by an 
interest in Lucretius. In 1656 the first book was 


translated into English verse by John Evelyn 
(1620 I7o6) 3 , with a lengthy but rather trivial commentary 4 . 
Eighteen years later we find him writing to Meric Casaubon : 
'you may be sure I was very young, and therefore very rash, or 
ambitious, when I adventured upon that knotty piece'. He adds 
that, 'to charm his anxious thoughts during those sad and calami- 
tous times', he had gone through the remaining five books, but 
that his rendering 'still lies in the dust of his study, where 'tis like 
to be for ever buried' 5 . A year later, a verse translation of the six 
books was presented to the earl of Anglesey by Mrs 
Lucy Hutchinson, far better known as the writer of Hutchinaon 
the Life of Col. Hutchinson (1615 1664)" and of 
the 'Principles of the Christian Religion'. In the latter 'there is 
hardly any writer, sacred or profane, Jewish, Greek or Roman ; 
hardly any schoolman or modern commentator, whose opinions 
are not considered in greater or less detail' 7 . In her translation 

1 Diary, 29 Oct. 1695 (ii 337). 

2 M. R. James, Catalogue of Western MSS , ii Pref, and p. 190. 

3 Diary -etc., i 314, iii 72-8. 

4 Munro in Journ. Cl. and S. Philol. iv 124. 
8 Diary etc. , iii 247. 

6 Portraits of both in Peterhouse Library. 

7 Munro, I.e. iv 122. 



of Lucretius, she denounces the poet as 'this Dog', and 'the 
foppish casuall dance of attorns' as an impious and execrable 
doctrine 1 . Her work remains in MS 2 . Seven years later a ren- 
dering in verse was published by Thomas Creech 
(1659 1700), Scholar of Wadham, Fellow of All 
Souls, and head-master of Sherborne. His edition of Lucretius 
(1695) was published by the Oxford Press, and, 'owing to the 
clearness and brevity of the notes', remained long in use. The 
compiler of this work has been described as 'a man of sound and 
good taste, but... of somewhat arrogant and supercilious temper' 3 . 
Besides editing and translating Lucretius 4 , he produced renderings 
of Horace 5 , Theocritus and Manilius, with selections from Ovid, 
Juvenal, and Plutarch. 

Anacreon and Horace were edited by William Baxter (1650 

1723), Richard Baxter's nephew, who was educated 

at Harrow, and became master of the Mercers' 

school. Under the title De Analogia, seu arle Latinae Linguae 

Commentarius (1679), he produced the first Latin Grammar of a 

more than elementary type that had appeared in 

England. John Hudson (1662 1719) of Queen's 

College, Oxford, Fellow and Tutor of University and Librarian of 

the Bodleian, edited Thucydides (1696), Josephus, and the minor 

Greek Geographers (1698 1712). 

The year 1697 was the date of Potter's Antiquities of Greece, 

the early work of John Potter (c. 1674 1747), 

Fellow of Lincoln, and afterwards editor of Clement, 

bishop of Oxford, and archbishop of Canterbury. The same year 

was the date of Evelyn's Discourse on Medals, and 


of Dryden's Virgil. The latter was keenly criticised 
by Swift and Bentley. It contains many fine lines 6 ; but, as a 
whole, it is perhaps less successful than his renderings of Horace, 
and of Persius and Juvenal, authors better suited to his strong 

1 Munro, /. c. iv 128 f. 2 British Museum, Add. 19,333. 

3 Munro's Lucretius, i i J s . 

4 Cp. Prior's Satire on the Modern Translators in the Cambridge ed. of 
Prior, ii (1907) 50. 

6 Cp. Pope's Imitation of Ep. i 6. 
9 Hallam, iii 488*. 


and vehement style. The death of Dryden (1631 1700) coin- 
cides with the close of the century. 

Our present period ends in England with the names of Henry 
Dodwell and Joshua Barnes. Dodwell (1641 

J . H. Dodwell 

1711), Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, and 
Camden Professor of History in Oxford from 1688 to 1691 (when 
the fact that he was a non-juror led to the loss of his professor- 
ship), is best known for his chronological works. On ceasing to 
hold office, he produced his treatise De Cydis Veterum (1692 and 
1701). This was followed by his 'Annals' of Velleius, Quintilian, 
and Statius (1698), and of Thucydides and Xenophon (1702). 

Joshua Barnes (16541712), of Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, began his literary career by producing a 
fanciful little volume written in English, but inter- 
spersed with Greek verses, called Gerania or 'News from the 
Pygmies' (1675)*. Elected Fellow of Emmanuel three years 
later, he became Professor of Greek at Cambridge in 1695. I n the 
previous year he had edited the whole of Euripides in a single 
folio volume, an edition reprinted at Leipzig and Oxford. This 
was followed by his Anacreon (1705), which attained a second 
edition. Finally he embarked on an edition of Homer, for which 
he failed to find a publisher. Its publication in 1710-1 was only 
made possible by his persuading his wife, who had inherited a 
small fortune from her first husband, that the real author of the 
Homeric poems was Solomon 2 . With all its imperfections, it has 
been recognised as a work of greater utility than any of its pre- 
decessors, and ninety years elapsed before any distinctly superior 
edition appeared 3 . The editor's facility in writing and in speaking 
Greek was remarkable. When the Greek archbishop of Philippo- 
polis visited Cambridge in 1701, Barnes, at the request of the 
Vice-Chancellor, presented him for an honorary degree in a Greek 
speech that is 'still preserved' 4 . In the preface to his poem on 

1 This may well have inspired Swift with the idea of Gulliver's Travels (as 
suggested to me by Mr P. Giles). It may at least have partly prompted him 
to describe Gulliver as a student at Emmanuel, especially as it was the College 
of Swift's former patron, Sir William Temple. 

- Monk's Life of Bent ley, i 291 n. 3 ib. i 296 f. 

4 ib.\ i52f. The archbishop's reply is bound up with a volume in Ee. 12. 10 


Esther, he tells us that he found it easier to write his annotations 
in Greek than in Latin, or in English. There was nothing, how- 
ever trivial, that he could not turn into Greek. Bentley, who fully 
acknowledged his 'singular industry' and 'most diffuse reading' 1 , 
used to say that he understood about as much Greek 'as an Athenian 
blacksmith', presumably implying that he had rather the 'colloquial 
readiness of a vulgar mechanic' than the erudition, taste and 
judgement of a scholar 2 . In the year after the publication of his 
Homer he died, and was buried at Hemingford Abbot in Hunting- 
donshire. Greek Anacreontics were written for his monument, 
but a Cambridge wit suggested a terser epitaph describing him as 
felicis memoriae, expectans juditium*. Barnes, in his edition of 
Euripides, had accepted the 'Epistles of Euripides' as the genuine 
writings of the poet ; Dodwell, in his treatise De Cydis Veterum, 
had followed the data presented by the ' Epistles of Phalaris ' in 
determining certain points of chronology. The errors of both 
were happily corrected when the spuriousness of the Epistles of 
Phalaris and of Euripides was conclusively proved by Bentley, who 
is the foremost representative of the next period of Scholarship. 

in St John's College Library (Wordsworth's Univ. Life in xviiith cent., 320 f); 
but the Greek speech of presentation is not to be found in the University 
Library or at the Registry or at Emmanuel, or among the Covel papers in 
the British Museum. 

1 Dissertations, 558 Wagner. 

2 Cumberland's Memoirs, 28, ' I do believe that Barnes had as much 
Greek, and understood it about as well, as an Athenian blacksmith'. Cp. 
Jebb's Bentley, 36. The Biographia Britannica (followed by Allibone's Diet. 
and Wolf's Kl. Schr. 1052) wrongly has 'an Athenian cobler'. 

3 Wolf, 1053. The phrase was borrowed from Menage (p. 299, n. i 
supra). On Barnes, cp. Monk's Life of Bentley, i 52-4, 291-7; also Biogr. 
Brit., and Allibone. 



GERMANY, as well as England and the Netherlands, may 
claim a part in the career of Janus Gruter (1560 
1627). His father was burgomaster of Antwerp, 
and it was there that Janus was born. His mother was a learned 
and accomplished Englishwoman, and it was from his mother 
that he learnt Latin. Owing to the troubled state of Antwerp 
during the struggle of the Netherlands against the power of Spain, 
his parents took refuge in England. From the age of seven he 
lived in this country ; he was educated at Norwich Grammar 
School, and in 1577 entered Gonville and Caius College, Cam- 
bridge 1 . He continued his academic studies at Leyden, and 
subsequently held professorships at Rostock and Wittenberg, 
where he published nine books of Suspiciones, explaining or 
emending numerous passages of Plautus, Apuleius, and Seneca 
(1591). In 1592 he left for Heidelberg, where he gathered 
around him a goodly band of eager pupils. At or near the 
capital of the Palatinate he spent the remaining thirty-five years 
of his life. In 1602 he was appointed Librarian. In the same 
year he published his most important work, a Corpus of ancient 
Inscriptions, begun at the suggestion of Scaliger, who not only 
supplied a large part of the materials, but also devoted the 
strenuous toil of ten months to the construction of twenty-four 
admirably methodical Indices 2 . He produced editions of at least 
seventeen Latin authors, including Tacitus, with the notes of 
nine previous commentators (1607), Livy (1608), and Cicero 
(1618), with the hitherto unpublished collations and conjectures 

1 Cp. Venn's Annals, 410 f; Biogr. Hist, i 92. 

2 Bernays, Scaliger, 67 f ; cp. Hallam, ii 290 f 4 . 

From a photograph of the portrait in the University Library, Heidelberg. 


of Guilielmus 1 , and with unjustifiable strictures on the text of 
Lambinus. In his notes to the Historiae Augustae Scriptores 
Minores (1611), he was the first to recognise the existence of the 
' Saxon characters ' in a Palatine MS, written in what is now 
known as the Beneventan script 2 . He was charged by Scaliger 
with being indifferent to the merit of the authors edited, his only 
aim being the production of a book. It was even said that he 
never failed to publish one in every year, and sometimes even in 
'every month'. All other scholars appeared 'mere drones in com- 
parison with him' 3 . The six volumes of his Lampas (1602-12) 
are only a collection of dissertations by scholars of centuries 
xv xvi. His collection of two hundred of the modern Latin 
poets of Italy 4 was published under the name of Ranutius 
G(h)erus, an anagram of Janus Gruterus (1608). In 1622, when 
Heidelberg was captured by the troops of Tilly, a large part of 
his private library was destroyed, while the famous Palatine 
library, which was under his charge, was assigned as the spoils 
of war to Maximilian of Bavaria. By Maximilian it was presented 
to Pope Gregory XV, who sent Leo Allatius to superintend its 
transfer to the Vatican (1623). Hence it is that so large a 
number of the Vatican MSS are still known as the codices Palatini*. 
Some of them were afterwards carried off from Rome to Paris, 
and then sent back to Heidelberg. The greater part of the 
Palatine Anthology was thus restored to its former home. Gruter 
never recovered from the blow that had befallen the library ; he 
spent the last four years of his life cultivating his garden in a 
rural retreat not far from the desolate university of the Palatinate 6 . 
' His eulogists have given him credit for acumen and judgement, 
and even for elegance, and an agreeable variety of style ; but his 
reputation mainly rests on his laborious erudition' 7 . The merit 

1 p. 272 supra. 2 Traube, in S. Ber. of Munich Acacl. 1900, 472. 

3 Hallam, ii 28o 4 . 

4 Also of France (1609), and Belgium (1614) ; those of Germany were col- 
lected by A. F. G. G. (1612); those of Hungary by Pareiis (1619); while those 
of Scotland were printed at Amsterdam (1637). 

5 Graeci, cat. by H. Stevenson (1885); Latini, by H. Stevenson jun. and 
De Rossi (vol. i, 1886). 

6 Bursian, i 270-4. Cp. J. v. Hulst, Jean Grtiytere, Liege, 1847. 

7 Hallam, ii 28o 4 . 


of dividing the books of Livy into the chapters now in use belongs 
to Gruter, who, in the preface to his last edition of that historian 
(1627), states that he had done the same for other authors, and 
that future editors were welcome to adopt the divisions which he 
had suggested. 

As custodian of the Palatine MSS, he had always been ready to 
oblige scholars who publicly acknowledged his aid. The excerpts 
from the MSS of Camerarius, which he sent to Taubmann (1565 
1613) for his edition of Plautus (1605-12), were duly acknow- 
ledged ; but he regarded with disfavour and endeavoured to 
discredit the Plautine labours of Philipp Pareiis 


(1576 1648), who, in his second edition of 1619, 
printed the first accurate collation of the Palatine MSS. In the 
third edition of Taubmann's text, Gruter attempted to reflect on 
the accuracy of Pareiis by stating that the text of Taubmann had 
been bona fide collated by the librarian himself with that of the 
MSS 1 . Pareiis did permanent service to the study of Plautus by 
the publication of his Lexicon (1614, 1634) and the evidence of 
the Palatine MSS of Terence is carefully recorded in his edition 
of that poet, which has a good Index (1619). He also edited 
Sallust and Symmachus, and made useful contributions to Latin 
lexicography. A full index is the main merit of his son Daniel's 
edition of Lucretius (1631). Much of the father's best work was 
done at Neustadt on the Hardt, where he was Rector of the 
local School from 1610 until the capture of the town by the 
troops of Spain drove him to Hanau, where he held a similar 
position for nearly all the twenty-five remaining years of his life. 

Among the scholars and controversialists connected with the Palatinate a 

place must be found for Caspar Schoppe (1576 1649), who 

was born in the upper Palatinate, near Nuremberg, and studied 

at Heidelberg, Altdorf, and Ingoldstadt. He was still a student when he 

produced, in 1596, a volume of Verisimilia on classical writers of Latin prose, 

a work evincing critical acumen and multifarious reading, as well as vanity 

and shameless dishonesty. Part at least of this work was plagiarised from the 

books to which he had access in the library of his master, Giphanius 2 . In the 

following year his criticisms were continued in the form of a series of Letters 

addressed to Scaliger and Casaubon in his Suspectae Lectiones, consisting mainly 

1 Bursian, i 275 n. 2; and Ritschl's Opnsc. ii 125 f. 

2 C. Nisard, Glcuiiafeurs, ii 12 f. Cp. p. 190 supra- 


of conjectures on Plautus and Apuleius. In the same year, in his brief treatise 
De Arte Critica, he illustrated the errors of the copyists by means of examples 
taken from the MSS of Plautus and Symmachus. Having become a catholic at 
Prague in 1598, he went to Rome, and served the papal cause in Germany, 
Italy and Spain. Meanwhile he found time for criticising Apuleius, editing 
Varro, De Lingua Lafina, and the Letters of Symmachus, and producing an 
improved edition of the Minerva of Sanctius. In 1618-30 he lived in retire- 
ment at Milan, where he wrote a ' philosophic ' Latin Grammar (T628) 1 , which 
passed through several editions. He next attacked the Jesuits, and, to escape 
from the enemies he had raised against him, fled for refuge to Padua, where he 
spent the last thirteen years of his life. He wrote polemical treatises against 
the great protestant scholars Scaliger 2 and Casaubon 3 . 'The Protestants, 
whom he had abandoned, and the Jesuits, whom he would not join, are equally 
the objects of his anger'. As 'one of those restless and angry spirits, whose 
hand is against all the world', he 'lived a long life of controversy' 4 . His 
literary feuds earned him the title of the snarling scholar the cants gram- 
maticiis. It is possibly the same irritability of temper that is symbolised in the 
' quills upon the fretful porcupine ' which is represented as resting on the table 
beside which he stands in one of his portraits. Scaliger having inherited 
from his father the championship of the cause of Cicero, Scioppius entered the 
lists against the greatest orator of Rome. He also attacked the style of the 
Jesuit Latinist Strada 5 , whose ' Italianisms' he exposed to view, while his own 
style, at least in his earlier works, is disfigured with ' Germanisms ' 6 . The 
attack on Strada has, however, the merit of being accompanied by a valuable 
treatise on historic style. In the course of the latter he attacks the Latinity of 
Thuanus, Lipsius, Casaubon, and other recent writers. 

Schoppe had a keen controversy with the Latin versifier, Caspar von Earth 
(1587 1658), who, after travelling abroad for ten years, lived 
mainly at Leipzig and Halle. His facility in Latin verse was 
early proved in his Juvenilia (1607). In the same year he elaborately edited 
the Pseudo-Virgilian Ciris. In 1612 he attacked Schoppe in his Cave Canem, 
and edited Claudian. This was followed by his edition of the ' venatic and 
bucolic' Latin poets, dedicated to Casaubon (1613). His Statius was not 
published until 1664. Of the 120 volumes of his Adversaria, only 60 have 
been printed, but these are enough; they extend to 1500 folio pages, and to 
more than that number of chapters 7 . Mediaeval literature was one of his many 
interests. He professes to have read as many as 16,000 authors of all kinds, 

1 Hallam, ii 285 4 . 

2 Scaliger hypobolimaeus, 1607; cp. Bernays, Scaliger, 85 f, 212 f. 

3 Responsio ad Ep. Cazoboni, 1615. 

4 Hallam, ii 285*. 

5 p. 281 supra. 

6 Infainia Famiani; cp. Nisard, ii 182 f. 

7 Cp. Hallam, ii 28 1 4 . 


and he has been described by a contemporary scholar as a vir nniltae lectionis 
sed exigui judicii 1 . He is characterised by an extraordinary degree of vanity, 
combined with a disregard for veracity. For a time he counted among his 

friends the learned physician, Thomas Reinesius of Gotha 

('587 1667), who was in correspondence with many scholars. 

Reinesius had studied medicine at Padua, and his residence in Italy had led 
to his taking an interest in the collection of Latin Inscriptions, but it was not 
until after his deatji that the results were published in a fine folio volume 
dated 1682. His wide learning is attested by the 700 pages of his Variae 
Lectiones (1640). At Padua in 1664 he produced a valuable edition of a con- 
siderable fragment of Petronius, which had been found at Trau in Dalmatia 
in 1640. 

Thuringia was also the home of a meritorious scholar, Wolfgang Seber 

(1573 1634), who published a complete vocabulary to the 

Homeric poems, and editions of Theognis and Pollux. West 

of Thuringia lay the birthplace of the theologian and orientalist Jacob Weller 

(1602 1664), who in 1635 produced a Grammatica Graeca 

nova, which deserved praise for its brevity and clearness, and 

was widely used in Holland, as well as in Germany, down to the end of the 

eighteenth century, especially in the edition prepared by J. F. Fischer, and 

supplemented by the Syntax of Lambert Bos 2 . 

The influence of Scaliger is exemplified by Heinrich Linden- 
brog of Hamburg (1570 1642), who produced 
a learned edition of Censorinus, which was re- 
printed at Leyden and Cambridge; while his brother, Friedrich 
(1573 1648), edited many other Latin authors, such as Ammi- 
anus Marcellinus, Terence and Statius (with the scholia on both), 
besides collecting the earliest Latin historians of Germany. Both 
were pupils of Scaliger at Leyden (1594-6), and Heinrich was 
specially interested in Latin Inscriptions 3 . 

Another native of Hamburg, Lucas Holstein, or Holstenius 
(1596 1661), after studying at Leyden, visited 


England and Prance, joined the Roman com- 
munion and went to Rome, where he lived from 1627 to his 
death, as librarian of the Barberini palace and of ' the Vatican. 
His published works include an edition of certain treatises of 
Porphyry, and the editio princeps of Arrian's Cynegeticus (1644). 

1 Burman's Sylloge, ii 763. 

2 Bursian, i 301 ; cp. Hallam, ii 275*. 

3 Zieharth, in Btitrage zttr Gelehrten-Geschichle des xz'ii Jahrh. (Hamburg, 
?). 73i6i. 


He formed the design of editing all the minor Greek Geographers, 
and his familiarity with ancient Geography is proved by his 
posthumously published notes on Stephanus of Byzantium. The 
geography of Italy and of the ancient world in general was studied 
by the Jesuit Athanasius Kircher (1601 1680), 


who was driven by the victorious Swedes from 
Wiirzburg, and found a refuge in Rome, as a professor in the 
Collegio Romano. One of his best works is his illustrated 
historical and topographical account of Latium (1671). He is 
famous as the founder of the Roman Museum of Antiquities 
known as the Museo Kircheriano, which still includes his own 
collection of antique Roman and Italian coins 1 . 

The study of Latin style is exemplified in the works de Latini- 
tate falso and merito suspecta (1665-9), published 
by the Berlin schoolmaster and librarian, Johannes 
Vorst (1623 1696). The history of literature is meanwhile repre- 
sented by Jonsen (1624 1659), a master of the 


school at Frankfurt, who in the last year of his 

life produced a work De Scriptoribus Historiae Philosophicae, 

worthy to stand beside that of Vossius on the Greek Historians. 

Only the early portion of a literary history of the world was 

completed in the same year by Peter Lambeck, of 

Hamburg (1628 1680), a nephew of Holstenius. 

In the course of his critical notes on the Nodes Atticae, he 

conclusively proved that the author's name was A(ulus) Gellius, 

and not Agellius, as had been supposed by mediaeval writers 

and even in later times by Lipsius. He joined the Roman 

Church, and, in the latter part of his life, became librarian at 

Vienna, leaving behind him eight folio volumes on the history 

of the MSS which had been under his charge from 1663 to his 


In contrast to the Prodromus Historiae Literariae (which 
Lambeck failed to bring down any further than the times of Moses 
and Cadmus), in contrast also to the fragmentary Tractatio de 
Poly mat hia of Wowerius 2 , we have the completed fabric of the 
Polyhistor of Daniel George Morhof of Wismar 
(1639 -1690), who left a professorship at Rostock 

1 Bursian, i 310; Urlichs, ;$-. ' 2 p. 306 supra. 


(1661-5) to be one of the first professors at the newly-founded 
university of Kiel (1665-90). His Polyhistor, liferarius, philo- 
sophicus, et practicus, is a great encyclopaedic work divided into 
three parts. The early part alone was printed two years before 
the author's death. The whole was edited by Moller in 1704, 
and by the encyclopaedic author, J. A. Fabricius of Hamburg, 
in 1731 and 1747. We are here concerned with the Polyhistor 
literarins alone. This is a vast survey of classical learning, divided 
into seven books, (i) bibliothecarius, on the history of literature, 
on bibliography, and on libraries ; (2) methodicus, on the best 
method of studying Greek and Latin ; (3) Trapao-Kcvao-riKo?, on 
making notes and abstracts of the authors studied, together with 
the first draft of a dictionary of metaphors, and lists of topics 
for laudatory poems etc. ; (4) grammaticus, on language and 
literature; (5) criticus, on writers on criticism and antiquities; (6) 
oratorius, on rhetoricians and orators ancient and modern ; and 
(7) poeticus, on ancient and modern writers on the art of poetry, 
and ancient Greek and modern Latin poets, the ancient Latin 
poets having already been reviewed in (4). In this great work 
Morhof has embodied his teaching as a professor at Kiel ; he 
reviews the books in every department of learning in an approxi- 
mately chronological order ; supplies a brief but judicious notice 
of each ; and, by his copious erudition, makes amends for certain 
defects in the distribution of his subject 1 . In his minor works 
he defended Livy from the charge of Patavinitas (1685), and 
also wrote on purity of Latin style (ed. 1725)*. 

His contemporary, Marquard Gude of Rendsburg in Schleswig- 
Holstein (1635 ^Sg), is less distinguished as a 


scholar than as a patron of learning and a collector 
of MSS. During his travels in Italy he copied numerous inscrip- 
tions that were finally published by Franz Hessel (1731). His 
valuable collection of Greek and Latin MSS (including the Greek 
lexicon known as the lexicon Gudianuni) now forms part of the 
library at Wolfenbiittel 3 . 

For a large part of the seventeenth century there was a flourish- 

1 Cp. Hallam, i p. v; iii 55 1 4 . 

2 Bursian, i 304-6. 3 Bursian, i 323 f. 


ing school of Roman History at Strassburg, where a university was 
founded in 1621. The editions of the Roman historians published 
by this school were distinguished for the excellence of their 
indices of subject-matter as well as language. The founder of the 
school was Matthias Berneeger of Hallstadt (is 8 2 


1640), who edited Justin, select Lives from 
Suetonius, and the whole of Tacitus, with explanatory notes, 
original and selected (1638). The model of this school was the 
great editor of Tacitus, Justus Lipsius 1 . Bernegger's Tacitus 
included many excellent notes and emendations due to his pupil 
and son-in-law, Johannes Caspar Freinsheim (1608 

. . Freinsheim 

looo), the foremost representative of the school. 
Freinsheim lived at Upsala in 1642-51, and passed the last four 
years of his life as an honorary professor at Heidelberg. He 
produced excellent editions of Florus 2 , and of the first four books 
of the Annals of Tacitus. In his edition of Curtius, he endeavours 
to repair the loss of the first two books by a composition of his 
own, which is the best of the three attempts to supply the 
deficiency. A far more extensive work is his restoration of no 
less than sixty of the lost books of Livy (1654), a work which, 
although it lacks the charm of the historian's style, is stored with 
an ample supply of facts, and rich in the fruits of careful research. 
Even his posthumous edition of Phaedrus (1664) is inspired by 
an interest in history, for each of the fables is illustrated by a 
historical incident 3 . Another pupil of Bernegger, 
Johann Heinrich Boekler (1610 1672), was an 
influential teacher at Strassburg in 1631-48, and 1652-72, and 
at Upsala in the interval between these two periods. He edited 
Velleius Paterculus, and the Histories of Tacitus, produced a 
commentary on Nepos, collated MSS of Polybius, and published 
an edition of Herodian. His pupil and son-in-law, 
Ulrich Obrecht (1646 1673), edited the Scriptores 

1 Cp. Biinger (Strassburg, 1893). 

2 1632, 1636, 1655, 1669. 

3 For correspondence between Bernegger and Freinsheim (1629-36), see 
E. Keller, in Beitriige zur Gelehrten-Geschichte des xvii Jahrh. (Hamburg, 
1905), i 72; Reifferscheid, Quellen zur Gesch.d, geistigen I.ebens... \ijahrh,, 
p. 960. 


Historiae Augustae, and the whole of Quintilian. Another pupil 
of Boekler, Johann Scheffer (1621 1672), who, 
like Boekler, became a professor at Upsala, where 
he spent the last 31 years of his life, produced many editions of 
Greek and Latin authors, including Hyginus, Petronius, Justin, 
and Phaedrus, but he perversely opposed the ordinary opinion as 
to the authorship of the first two of these works. His illustrated 
treatises on the ships, the carriages, and even the necklaces of the 
ancients, are in good repute ; he was also an artist, and wrote on 
the history and the technique of ancient painting 1 . 

The historical studies characteristic of Strassburg have their 
counterpart at Helmstadt, near Magdeburg, in the 
learned labours of Hermann Conring (1606 1681), 
who was for half a century the ornament of the university of 
Helmstadt, being successively professor of Physics, Medicine, and 
Politics. Apart from encyclopaedic works on the first two of these 
subjects, he produced, in connexion with the third of his varied 
interests, an edition of the Germania of Tacitus, with excerpts 
from other writers on German history. He also edited the 
Politics of Aristotle, with many valuable suggestions on the Text, 
and with a collection of the fragments of the lost TroXtTeiat 2 . 

The work of Spanheim (1629 1710), who belongs to 
Germany by his descent and also by his diplomatic services, has 
already been noticed in connexion with his place of education in 
the Netherlands 3 . While Spanheim had a wide knowledge of 
classical literature as well as of numismatics, his comparatively 
short-lived successor, Lorenz Beger of Heidelberg 


(1653 1705), confined his researches to the 
antiquarian field alone. He was the custodian of the cabinet of 
antiques at Heidelberg, and of the collection of works of ancient 
art at Berlin, and his Thesaurus Brandenburgicus (1696) contains 
a large selection of ancient coins and gems, with an ample 
commentary 4 . 

The scholar and archaeologist Spanheim, and the eminent 
jurist Thomasius, played an important part in promoting in 1694 

1 Bursian, i 325335 ; Urlichs, 75 2 . 

2 Bursian, i 336-8. s p. 327 supra. 
* Bursian, i 342-7- 


the foundation of the university of Halle by Friedrich, Elector of 
Brandenburg, who afterwards became the first King of Prussia. 
The professorship of Eloquence and History, and the office of 
University Librarian, were assigned to the many-sided scholar, 
Christoph Cellarius (1638 1707), the author of 


numerous works on Grammar and Style, and on 
Ancient History and Geography. Among his most popular 
works were his Antibarbarus, his Orthographia Latina, his new 
edition of Faber's Thesaurus, and his Historia and Geographia 
Antiqua. His most important work is his Notitia Orbis Antiqui, 
in two quarto volumes (1701-6), with numerous maps. Several 
of his fifteen editions of Latin historians and other authors were 
accompanied by maps, which were then a novelty in classical 
works. He also broke new ground in starting a Collegium 
politioris doctrinae or elegantioris litteraturae, the precursor of the 
Seminarium which has become an established institution in the 
universities of Germany 1 . 

In the early part of the century surveyed in the five preceding 
chapters, the first enthusiasm aroused by the Revival of Learning 
had already begun to languish in Italy and in other parts of 
Europe. It was an exceptional indication of an interest in accu- 
rate scholarship when a treatise on the Latin particles prepared 
by the Italian Jesuit, Horatius Tursellinus (b. 1545), was printed 
at Mainz in 1602 as the first of all the precursors of the elaborate 
edition published by Hand three centuries after the birth of the 
original author. During the seventeenth century the learning of 
Italy was almost exclusively concentrated on local and general 
archaeology 2 . It was partly in consequence of the predominating 
influence of the Roman Church that Italy had been diverted 
from the study of the pagan Classics, and that France had been 
deserted by Scaliger in 1593, by Casaubon in 1610, and by Salma- 
sius in 1631. In the land which they had left, those three great 
protestant scholars were succeeded by Jesuits such as Sirmond, 
Petavius and Vigerus 3 , and by jurists, such as Peiresc, Heraldus 

1 Bursian, i 348 351; cp. Creuzer, Zur Gesch. der Phil. 120 f. 

2 Chap. xvii. 

3 To these may be added Rigault (1577 1654), editor of Onosander and 
S. II. 24 


and Valesius 1 , most of whom were surpassed in erudition, on the 
catholic side, by the great lexicographer, Du Cange, and the 
learned palaeographer, Mabillon 2 . The age of Louis XIV, the 
founder of the Academy of Inscriptions (1663), was glorified in 
1687-92 by Perrault, who, after a superficial survey of ancient 
and modern learning, assigned the palm to the latter, and thus 
gave the signal for a controversy which broke out once more in 
the days of Bentley 3 . Meanwhile, in the Netherlands, classical 
learning was ably represented by men like G. J. Vossius and 
Grotius, by Daniel Heinsius and his distinguished son, by J. F. 
Gronovius, Graevius and Perizonius 4 . In England the century 
was adorned by the names of Savile and Bacon, Gataker and 
Selden, More and Cudworth, Milton and Dryden, while, towards 
its close, the errors in historical or literary criticism which had 
marred the meritorious labours of Dodwell and of Barnes were 
destined to be triumphantly refuted in the Dissertations on the 
Epistles of Phalaris and of Euripides*. Lastly, in Germany, the 
age of the Thirty Years War (like that of the Civil War in 
England) was unfavourable to the peaceful pursuits of learning. 
But, happily, the beginning and the end of the century were 
marked by the notable names of the cosmopolitan scholars, 
Gruter and Spanheim, both of whom had points of contact with 
England, while, in its latter half, the name that perhaps lingers 
longest in the memory is that of Morhof, the profoundly learned 
author of the Polyhistor 6 . On the whole, it was a century of 
multifarious erudition rather than minute and accurate scholar- 
ship, a century largely concerned with the exploration of Latin 
rather than Greek literature; but a new age of historical and 
literary criticism, founded on a more intelligent study of Greek, 
was close at hand with Bentley for its hero. We cannot, however, 
forget that it was in this century that the principles independently 
applied by Niebuhr to the critical study of early Roman History 
were in part anticipated by the acumen of Perizonius 7 . 

Artemidorus; the Scriptores Oneirocritici...Agrarii etc. (1614); Juvenal and 
Sulpicia (1616); Tertullian (1635), Minucius Felix and Cyprian (1643). 

1 Samuel Petit (1594 1643), author of the Leges Atticae (1635), belongs 
to the same group. 

2 Chap, xviii. 3 p. 403 infra. 4 Chap. xix. 

5 Chap. xx. 6 Chap. xxi. 7 p. 331 supra. 


(a) Nobis et ratio et res ipsa centum codicibus potiores sunt. 
(b) Noli Libraries solos venerari ; sed per te sapere aude, ut 
singula ad orationis ductuin sermonisque genium exigens ita demum 
pronunties sententiamque feras. 

BENTLEY, on Horace, Carm. iii 27, 15, and Praef., 1711. 

Conjecturas iugeniosas laudabat magis quam probabat; el nihil 
magis quam dulces illas ingenii illecebras in judicando cavendum 


ERNESTI, De Gesnero ad Ruhnkenium, 1762. 

Movebat ipsa Graecae linguae dignitas, ut pro viribus ad earn 
illustrandam aliquid conferrem ; disciplinarum nempe et artium 
omnium matrem, qua stante stcterunt omnia vitae rivilis ornamenta; 
qua deficiente ilia quoquc dilapsa sunt. 

MONTFAUCON, Palaeographia Graeca, Ep.\). 5, 1708. 

Recte vir magnus statuebat, Latinam linguam Graecae sic 
aplam et nexam esse, ut, qui alterant ab altera distrahat ac divcllat, 
animi e.t corporis discidium inducere videatur. 

RUHNKEN, Elogium Hemsterhusii, p. 43, I789 2 . 

24 2 

History of Scholarship in the Eighteenth Century. 







Le Clerc 






1646 1716 



P. Burtnan I 


J. A. Fabricius 












1670 1716 



C. Capperonnier 









S. Clarke 












C. G. Schwarz 













Drakenborch Markland 













1688 1749 


J. Taylor 








De Caylus 

J. F. Re'tz 


J. M. Gesner 





1691 1761 









170* 1766 









1696 1761 




J. Capperonnier 

J. Alberti 







1696 1770 




R. Wood 









P. Burman II 






1720 1804 

J. F. Christ 




W. Hamilton 

J. A. Ernesti 









M usgrave 














Home Tooke 




1736 1812 

1729 1781 





J 737 '794 

1729 1812 
F. W. Reiz 



R. Chandler 













J. A. Capperonnier 





San ten 

W. Jones 






J 737 1 7& 









E. Q. Visconti 



Payne Knight 

W. Heinse 









H. Homer 




1746 1820 





J. G. Schneider 


1756 1801 

1750 1822 


T. Burgess 





F. A. Wolf 




* Alsace. 



IN the eighteenth century some of the greatest achievements 
of Italian scholarship were connected with Latin lexicography 
and the study of Cicero. Before the publication of Forcellini's 
great lexicon in 1771, all the Latin dictionaries in general use in 
Italy and elsewhere were founded more or less on 'Calepinus'. 
The author, Ambrogio da Calepio, or Ambrosius Calepinus 
(c. 1440 1511), was born at Calepio between Bergamo and 
Brescia, entered the Augustinian Order at Bergamo, and published 
his dictionary at Reggio in 1502, dedicating his work to the 
Senate and People of Bergamo. He prepared a new edition in 
1509, which he inscribed with the name of the Superior of his 
Order, Egidio of Viterbo. In 1511 he died, and his corrections 
were incorporated in an edition published in 1521. In his 
preface he tells the Senate and People of Bergamo that ' for 
many years he had extracted from authors, both catholic and 
profane, interpretations of words rather for his own use than for 
publication, preferring the learning of Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, 
to the cavils of Valla. He professes to excel all former writers 
in copiousness, in exactness of citation, in the explanation of 
prepositions ; but is notwithstanding conscious of innumerable 
defects' 1 . His dictionary marked a great advance on the mediaeval 
glossaries, and on the various vocabularies of the last quarter 
of the fifteenth century 2 . It was widely used in Europe, and it 

1 Ed. 1502, quoted by Prof. J. E. B. Mayor, Journal of Cl. and S. Philology, 
ii 278. 

2 Tortellius (1471), Junianus Maius (1475), Reuchlin (1475), Dionysius 
Novariensis (1488). 

374 ITALY. [CENT. xvm. 

even added to the French language a new word Calepin, ' a note- 
book, or common -place- book '. Edited again and again, and 
overlaid with many additions, it was denounced as follows by the 
learned Dane, Olaus Borrichius (1626 1690) : Bonus ille 
Calepinus Mies cactus et recoctus parum sapit 1 . In France, 
Robert Estienne had been urged to reprint it in its original form, 
but the proposal ended in his producing a Thesaurus of his own, 
with the aid of Budaeus and others (i543) 2 . This was followed 
by Faber's Thesaurus (1571), in which all the derivatives were 
arranged under the words from which they were derived 3 . A 
series of revisions of Calepinus, Estienne, and Faber, appeared in 
Germany, culminating in J. M. Gesner's Novus Thesaurus (1749). 

Meanwhile, the students of Latin in Italy were in general 
content to rely on the successive editions of the work of their 
countryman, Calepinus. In 1680 a library and a well-equipped 
printing press were established at Padua by Cardinal Gregorius 
Barbadicus, who in 1663 had been promoted from the bishopric 
of Bergamo, the former home of Calepinus, to that of Padua, the 
future home of Forcellini, whose fame was long unjustly obscured 
by that of Facciolati. 

Jacopo Facciolati (1682 1769) was born at Torregia in the 
Euganean hills, and Aegidio Forcellini (1688 


1768) at Campo Sampiero, near Treviso. Both 
were of humble birth and of excellent abilities. From their 
village-homes in the S.W. and the N.E. of Padua, they came to the 
seminary of that place, Facciolati at the age of twelve, in 1694, 
and Forcellini at that of sixteen, in 1704, the year in which 
Facciolati took his first degree in theology. Facciolati was in 
due time invited to superintend the studies of the seminary, and 
the preparation of Greek, Latin and Italian lexicons for the use of 
the students. In the preparation of the Greek lexicon, which was 
a new edition of that of Schrevelius (1670), he had the aid of 
Forcellini and others, but the name of Facciolati alone appears on 
the title-page (1715). Again, the Italian lexicon was similarly 

prepared by Forcellini (1718), but it was not until 

Forcellini . ., , , 

after a protest on the part of Forcellini s brother, 

1 Dissert, de Lexicis Latinis. 

- p. 1 73 supra. 3 p. 269 supra. 


that Forcellini's name was mentioned in the preface to the 
eighth edition (1741). Thirdly, at the revision of the Latin 
lexicon of Calepinus, Forcellini worked, under Facciolati, for 
three years, and the result appeared in 1718. Facciolati, who 
seems to have really done a large part of the work, wrote the 
preface but made no mention of Forcellini's name, merely 
referring to him as strenuissimus adolescent. 

Forcellini's experience in helping to edit ' Calepinus ' had con- 
vinced him that an entirely new work was necessary. Late in 
1718, by the command of the bishop and under the leadership of 
Facciolati, the Studiorum Praefeetus, Forcellini began the Totius 
Latinitatis Lexicon. In 1724, when he had reached the word 
comitor, the bishop died, and, under his successor, Forcellini was 
compelled to leave the seminary of Padua. For seven years he 
was placed at the head of the seminary of Ceneda in the Venetian 
Alps, but, on the arrival of a new bishop (Ottoboni), he was 
recalled in 1731, and had proceeded as far as the word pone in 
1742, when the bishop inconsiderately assigned him the laborious 
duty of being Confessor to all the local clergy. The progress of 
the lexicon was thus retarded until he was fortunately released 
from that responsibility by a new bishop (Rezzonico) in 1751, 
when he was enabled to continue his lexicographical work without 
further interruption, starting afresh with the appropriate word 
thesaurus, and reaching the last word in the lexicon in 1753. 
After spending two more years in revising his manuscript, he 
handed it over to Ludovico Violato for transcription. 

Meanwhile he wrote his preface, in which he modestly states that his 
master, Facciolati, 'a name illustrious in the commonwealth of letters', had 
selected him to make the Latin Lexicon, not because of any special ability on 
his part, but because he was regarded as a person of sound health and capable 
of enduring even the most protracted labour. Thus, with his own hand, and 
under the advice and aid of his master, the almost interminable toil of nearly 
forty years had been brought to a close. He had added many gleanings from 
unfamiliar authors, and from inscriptions and coins ; he had paid special attention 
to orthography, to the proper arrangement of the several meanings of each 
word, and to copious citation of examples, making a point of never quoting 
any passage that he had not himself seen in its original context. He had spent 
all his pains, strength and time on his task ; he was a young man when he set 
hands to it, and had grown old in the course of its completion. 

376 ITALY. [CENT. xvni. 

When the vast undertaking was finished, Forcellini lived on for 
some years in the seminary ; but, meanwhile, no one took any 
steps for the printing and publication of his work. He was now 
far advanced in life and broken down by his long labours, when 
he bethought him of the village where he was born, and asked 
permission to make the place of his birth the quiet haven of his 
declining years. The permission was granted, and the great 
lexicographer humbly handed over to the library of the seminary 
the twelve last volumes of his own original draft of the lexicon 
with the sixteen volumes of the fair copy, and on May-day in the 
year 1765 left Padua for his old home at Campo Sampiero. 
There, among his own people, he spent his time in peaceful rest 
and in quiet contemplation of things eternal, till, three years later, 
after a short illness, he passed away early in April, 1768, in the 
Both year of his age. His body was laid without pomp or circum- 
stance in the part of the village-church where priests were wont to 
be buried, and it was not until many years had elapsed that any 
epitaph whatsoever was placed on his tomb. The original manu- 
script and the transcript of his great lexicon were still in the library 
at Padua, when Cardinal Prioli became bishop. By his prompt 
command it was sent to press early in 1769. The title, as it left 
the hands of the transcriber, ran as follows : 

Latinitatis totius Lexicon in Patavino Seminario euro, et opera Aegidii 
Forcellini elucubratum, iussu et auspiciis Antonii Marini Card, Prioli 
episcopi edit um. 

But Facciolati, who was still alive (being now in the 88th year of 
his age), felt annoyed at finding no mention of his own name. 
Accordingly, he caused the title to be recast as follows : 

Tothis Latinitatis Lexicon const/to el cura Jacobi Facciolati, opera et studio 
Aegidii Forcellini, alumni Seminarii Patavini, lucubratum. 

This title, which has unfortunately led many to believe that 
the lexicon was, in a large measure, the work of Facciolati, was 
retained until the publication of De-Vit's edition (1858 f). 
Facciolati himself had, in 1756, written to the librarian of 
St Mark's in Venice : princeps huius operis conditor atque adeo 
unus Forcellinus est; but, in publishing this letter in 1759 and 
1765, he omitted this sentence 1 . Facciolati died in August, 1769. 

1 De-Vit's Praef. p. xxxii. 




The printing of Forcellini's lexicon was completed in four folio 
volumes in 1771, having been seen through the press by Caietano 
Cognolati, who wrote a full preface to the work. But the printer 
had in hand a new edition of the old ' Calepinus ', which was 
intended for publication in 1772. He accordingly kept back the 
great lexicon for fear it should damage the sale of the other work. 
A few copies, however, got abroad, and so large was the demand 
that nearly the whole stock was soon exhausted. A new edition 
appeared in 1805, followed by those of James Bailey (1825), 
Furnaletto (1823-31), Schneeberg (1829-35), De-Vit (Prato, 
1858-79), and Corradini (Padua, I864-90) 1 . 

1 See De-Vit's Praefatio (1879), ri ^ PP- '> an & C P- J- E. B. Mayor, in 
Journal of Cl. and S. Philology, \\ (1855) 271 290. 

Part of the Frontispiece to the London edition of 1825. 

378 ITALY. [CENT. xvm. 

While Forcellini deserves perpetual remembrance as 'the man 
of one book', and that a true monument of gigantic industry, we 
must, in fairness to his former master, add that Facciolati was the 
author of the Fasti Gymnasii Patavini (1757) and many minor 
works; that he edited Cicero, De Officiis etc. (1720), and was the 
first to give a satisfactory form to the Lexicon Cieeronianum of 
Nizolius (1738). 

The study of Cicero is represented in the same century (i) by 

Marcus Antonius Ferratius of Padua (d. 1748), 

whose Epistolae (Venice 1699 and 1738) did much 

for the right understanding of Cicero's Speeches 1 ; and (2) by the 

learned Jesuit, Girolamo Lagomarsini (1698 1773), 

Lagomarsini * I'** 

who collated all the MSS of Cicero accessible to him 
in Florence and elsewhere, and was professor of Greek in Rome 
for the last twenty-two years of his life. 

These collations first became known to the world through 
Niebuhr. They have since been used for the Verrine Orations by 
K. G. Zumpt, the pro Murena by A. W. Zumpt, the pro Cluentio 
by Classen, the pro Milone by Peyron, the Brutus and De Oratore 
by Ellendt, and similarly by Baiter and Halm in the second edition 
of Orelli. But not a single work of Cicero was edited by the 
industrious collator himself 2 . 

In the next generation about half of Cicero was edited by 
Garatoni of Ravenna (1743 1817). During the 


eleven years that he spent at Rome and Bologna 
(1777-88) he published seventeen volumes of an edition, which 
was to have extended to thirty-three, but the printing came to an 
end owing to the bankruptcy of the publisher, and, for the rest of 
the editor's life, nothing else appeared in connexion with Cicero, 
except editions of the/r<? Plancio and pro Milone z . At an earlier 

date a remarkable monument of the study of the 

Rezzonico .*.. * > i r i- i 

elder Pliny was produced in the two folio volumes 

1 Orelli-Baiter, Onomaslicon, \ 437, ' liber quo Ciceronis interpres carere 
prorsus nequeat'. 

2 Cp. J. M. Parthenius, De Vita et Studiis Lagoinarsini, Ven. iSor, 
82 98; Fabroni, Vilae Ifa/orum, xviii 146. 

3 Dionysii Strochii de -vita et set: G. 1818 (Friedemann u. Seebode, Misc. 
Crit. i 136 141 and ii i etc.). 


of the exceedingly diffuse Disquisitiones Plinianae (1763) of 
Count Rezzonico (1709 1785). 

In the same century we have two important catalogues of the classical MSS 
of Florence. That of the library in the Kiccardi palace by Giovanni Lami 1 of 
Santa Croce was published at Leghorn in I756 2 , while that of the Laurentian 
library, including a vast amount of information extracted from the MSS them- 
selves and from other sources, was produced in eight folio volumes (1764-78) 
by Angelo Maria Bandini of Florence (1726 i8o3) 3 . In the field of Classics 
a librarian of the Vatican, Pier Francesco Foggini of Florence (1713 1 /83), 
contented himself with producing a printed ' facsimile ' of the Medicean Virgil 
(1741), and a satisfactory edition of the Fasti Praenestini of Verrius Flaccus 
(1779). Catullus, Tibullus and Propertius were specially studied by Giannan- 
tonio Volpi of Padua (1686 1766), an editor of Plautus, Lucretius and Lucan. 

During this age Greek occupies a subordinate position. In 
the first half of the century Greek studies are well 
represented by Odoardo Corsini of Fanano (1702 
1765), whose Fasti Attici, published in four quarto volumes in 
Florence (1744 56), laid the foundation for the chronology of 
the Attic Archons, while his Dissertations of 1747 dealt with the 
chronological and other problems connected with the panhellenic 
games. He also published two folio volumes on the Greek abbre- 
viations for words and numerals (1749). He was afterwards 
general superior of the educational Order of Piarists, first in Rome 
and afterwards in Pisa 4 . His great work on Greek chronology 
was not followed up by any exactly similar work in Italy. 

The first two of the fourteen years, that Bandini devoted to 
the printing of the great catalogue of the Lauren- 

. . Bandini 

tian library 5 , were partly spent in publishing the 
remains of five Alexandrian poets : Callimachus, Nicander, 
Coluthus, Tryphiodorus and Aratus (1764-5). Callimachus had 
already been translated into Latin, and Nicander (as well as 
Oppian) into Italian verse by Antonio Maria Salvini (1653 1729). 
In 1766 Bandini published Theognis, Phocylides, and the golden 
verses of Pythagoras, with translations into Latin and Italian, 

1 16971770. 

2 He also produced 18 vols. of Deliciac Eruditornm (1736-69), and 3 vols. 
of Memorabilia Italonini eruditione pracsta ntinin, 1742-8. 

3 Cp. Mazzuchelli, Scrittori </' Italia, II i 2 i 7 f . 

4 Fabroni, Vilae Ilalorum, iii 88 148. 5 1. 5 supra. 

380 ITALY. [CENT. xvm. 

followed in 1770 by Theophrastus, De Historia Plantarum. He 
was also interested in the literary history of Florence, as is partly 
proved by his Lives of Ficino (1771) and Victorius 

We need only mention two more Greek scholars, both of whom were 

ecclesiastics: Giovanni Luigi Mingarelli of Bologna (1722 

1793), who produced a notable treatise on the metres of 

Pindar (1773); and Jacopo Morelli of Venice (1745 1819), 

who published the declamation of 'Aristides ' against Leptines, and other 

Greek texts, from the library of St Mark's, which was under his care 2 . 

Archaeological research was meanwhile promoted by the 
foundation of learned societies such as the Etrus- 

Archaeology . 

can Academy of Cortona with quaintly styled 

'Lucumons' at its head (1726), the 'Accademia di Ercolano' at 

Naples (1755), an d the 'Accademia di antichita profane' founded 

on the Capitoline hill by Benedict XIV (i74o-58) 3 . The antiqui- 

ties discovered by these Academies were added to the treasures 

of ancient art stored in the Museum at Naples, and on the Capitol 

and in the Vatican at Rome. Turning from societies to indi- 

viduals, we find antiquarian and topographical research successfully 

carried on by Ficoroni (1664 1747), whose name 

is associated for ever with the exquisitely engraved 

cista, which he discovered near Praeneste and presented to the 

Museum in the Collegio Romano. His latest work, that on the 

Vestiges of Ancient Rome (1744), supplies an instructive con- 

spectus of the topography and the monuments. About the same 

time the ruins of Rome were reproduced in bold and vigorous 

engravings by Vasi and his distinguished pupil 

Gianbattista Piranesi (I7O7-78) 4 . The youthful 

Goethe was first inspired with a longing to see Italy by the very 

copies of these engravings, which may still be seen at the Goethe- 

Haus in Frankfurt. After the time of Ficoroni and before that of 

Piranesi, we find Antonio Francesco Gori, a priest 

and professor in Florence (1691 1757), publishing 

the ancient Greek and Roman inscriptions of Etruria (1727 44), 

and editing Doni's ancient inscriptions (1732), together with the 

1 Mazzuchelli, II i 217 f. 

2 Life by Moschini (1819) and Zendrini (1821). 

3 Stark, i88f. 4 Stark, 241. 


six volumes on coins, in the Museum Florentinum (17402), and 
the three volumes on ancient ivory Diptychs (I759) 1 . Inscriptions 
continued to be collected and studied in many parts of Italy, but 
their study was attended with difficulty owing to the fact that 
many of them were forgeries 2 . The latter are not excluded with 
sufficient strictness even from the Thesaurus compiled by the 
great historian Lodovico Antonio Muratori (1672 

. . Muratori 

1750), librarian at Milan from 1695 to 1700 and 
afterwards for half a century at Modena, the most industrious and 
the most widely learned Italian scholar of his time. He produced 
six folio volumes of Antiquitates Italicae Medii Aevi\ in addition 
to the twenty-seven folio volumes of his Scriptores, the eighteen 
quarto volumes of his Anna/i, and the eight of his Anecdota 
Latino, and Graeca. Even these are not all, as his total output 
amounted to forty-six volumes folio and thirty-four volumes quarto. 
By his calm and sober judgement, by his vast capacity for literary 
research, and by his unfailing championship of good sense in 
matters of scholarship, he exercised a most healthy influence on 
historical and antiquarian studies in Italy. He stoutly resisted 
the scholasticism of his day, successfully defended himself against 
the Jesuits, who had the audacity to denounce him as a heretic, 
and, as a parish priest and ultimately provost of Modena, was a 
perfect pattern of devotion to the sacred duties of his office 3 . 

To the school of Muratori belongs his contemporary and friend 
Scipione Maffei of Verona (1675 1755), a scholar 
of varied accomplishments, who combined an in- 
terest in the drama, and in art and poetry in general, with the 
local patriotism which prompted him to record the history of his 
native place in his Verona Illustrata (1732), and to describe its 
antiquities in his Museum Veronense (1749). In the latter the 
extant inscriptions are carefully and correctly copied. His treatise 
De arte critica lapidaria, published after his decease in the sup- 
plement to Muratori's Novus Thesaurus, gives proof of his keen 
and unsparing criticism of the inadequate work of other archaeo- 

1 Stark, 116. 2 Stark, 119. 

3 Vita, Ven. 1756; Fabroni, Vitae Ital. x 89 391; Schedoni, Elogio 
(Modena, 1818); Braun, Ehrenrettung (Trier, 1838); Stark, 118; portrait in 
Scritti Inediti (1872), reproduced in Wiese u. Percopo, 466. 

382 ITALY. [CENT. xvm. 

legists 1 . He travelled in Germany and England, spent four years 
in Paris, and was thoroughly familiar with the Roman remains in 
the South of France 2 . 

Archaeology is represented in the next generation by Paolo 
Maria Paciaudi of Turin (1710 1785), a pupil (and 
also a strong opponent) of the Jesuits. Widely 
known as an able preacher of the Theatine Order, he showed a 
keen interest in sacred archaeology in his learned sermons on the 
Saints. He spent part of his life in Naples and Rome, held high 
office in his Order, was an eager collector of antiquities, and a 
recognised authority on ecclesiastical archaeology and on numis- 
matics. In his most important work, the Monumenta Peloponnesiaca 
(Rome, 1761), he published, for the first time, the inscriptions, 
reliefs and statues from the Peloponnesus and the Greek islands, 
preserved in the Nani Museum at Venice, and applied to their 
interpretation a sound and critical method 3 . 

Some twenty years later, an admirable introduction to the 

study of inscriptions was supplied by Stephano 

Antonio Morcelli of Chiari (1737 1821), librarian 

to Cardinal Albani, in his work c On the style of Latin inscriptions' 

(1780) and in his 'Select Inscriptions, with Comments' (1783). 

The wide extent of his influence may be estimated by the fact that 

he was the authority that inspired the Latin inscriptions of Dr Parr, 

while the present writer has seen a copy of the second of the 

above works in the little local library of the upland village of 

Colle near Bordighera. 

His contemporary, the eminent archaeologist, Gaetano Marini 

(1742 1815), published the inscriptions of the 

Albani Villa and Palace in 1785, and the great 

expectations thereby aroused were completely fulfilled in the two 

quarto volumes of the Inscriptions of the Fratres Arvales (1795), 

in which those inscriptions (which were previously known) were 

explained and emended, and no less than a thousand others 

published for the first time 4 . 

1 Hagenbach, Epp. Epigr. 1747, ap. Urlichs, too 2 . 

2 Stark, 118. 3 Stark, 119. 

4 Our knowledge of the Fratres Arvales has since been completed by 
Henzen, Acta Fratrum Arvalium, 1874. 


The archaeological family of the Visconti, like that of the 
former rulers of Milan, originally came from Sarzano near Genoa. 
When Winckelmann left Rome in 1768, he was succeeded as 
surveyor of antiquities by Giovanni Battista Visconti, who held 
that office till his death in 1784. The most famous member of 
the family was his son, Ennio Quirino Visconti 

. . . E. Q. Visconti 

(1751 1818), a precocious genius who published 
at the age of 13 an Italian rendering of the Hecuba. Early in his 
career he produced works on the Monuments of the Scipios 
(1775), the inscriptions of the Jenkins collection (1783), the 
excavations at Gabii, and the antiques in the Palace and Villa 
Borghese (1796-7). Meanwhile he had succeeded his father in 
the production of the celebrated work on the Museum Pio- 
Clementinum, with illustrations and descriptions of that important 
part of the Vatican Museum. Volumes n to vn (1784 1807) 
are entirely his work. It was humorously said of him by the 
Danish archaeologist, Zoega, who was then in Rome : ' Visconti 
is working at archaeology \vith as much distinction as ever, 
always equally ready with an explanation, whether the subject 
admits of an explanation or not'. When the Roman Republic 
was set up in 1798, Visconti, to the regret of his friends, allowed 
himself to be made a Consul; and, in the following years, when 
some of the finest works of art were carried off by Napoleon, he 
accompanied them to Paris, where he held high office as Conser- 
vateur des Antiques, and produced an admirable account of the 
works of ancient sculpture entrusted to his charge 1 , besides 
completing three important volumes on Greek Iconography 2 . 
In 1814 he was one of the first to recognise the transcendent 
importance of the Elgin marbles 3 . He is the embodiment of the 
intelligent appreciation of the works of ancient sculpture awakened 
in Italy by the influence of Winckelmann. 

His brother, Filippo Aurelio (d. 1831), was distinguished as an editor of 
the Museo Ckiaramonti* ; his nephew, Pietro, was secretary of the Roman 

1 1800, 1817. 

2 The finely-bound large-paper copy of this work, that once belonged to 
Napoleon himself, has been seen by the present writer in the collection of 
M. Gennadius in London. 

3 Cp. Michaelis, Der Parthenon, 82 f. 4 vol. i (1808). 

384 ITALY. [CENT. xvm. 

Academy of Archaeology; his son, Ludovico Tullio (d. 1853), was an able archi- 
tect in Paris, and a Visconti has since been at the head of the Archaeological 
Commission in Rome 1 . 

Among the Roman contemporaries of Ennio Quirino Visconti 
was Carlo Fea of Pigna near Nice (1753 1836), 
a member of the bar, who became librarian to the 
Chigi, and, besides translating and annotating Winckelmann's 
' History of Ancient Art ' in 1783-4, produced an important work 
on the Ruins of Rome (1820). He not only gave proof of his 
interest in Virgil (1797) and Horace (1811), but he superintended 
the Roman excavations, which were begun in 1782 and became 
peculiarly productive from 1813 to 1820. He preserved important 
records of these discoveries in his Miscellanea (1790, 1836), and 
published the new fragments of the Fasti Consulares in 1820. 
He is the principal founder of the modern study of Roman 
topography 2 . 

The briefest mention may suffice for Alessio Simmacho 

Mazzocchi Mazzocchi (1684 1 770, a commentator on the 

ignarra Tabulae Heradcenses (1754), and Niccolo Ignarra 

(1728 1808), who was highly esteemed by Ruhnken 3 for his 

corrections of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter (1784). Both of 

these were Neapolitan ecclesiastics. Meanwhile, in 


Florence, Luigi Lanzi (1732 1810) was writing on 

ancient vases and on modern painting, and was editing Hesiod ; 

and in Rome, a professor of Greek, Giovanni 

Amaduzzi . . . 

Cnstoforo Amaduzzi (1742 1792), was producing 
his Vetera Monumenta and his Anecdota, which were followed by 
a far slighter work, his edition of two of the Characters of Theo- 
phrastus, published at Parma in 1786. 

1 Stark, 243-4. 

2 Jordan, Topogr. I i 96 (Stark, 242). 

3 Opusc. ii 548 f. 



OUR first important name is that of Bernard de Montfaucon 
(161515 1741), who was born at the chateau of 

V . ' . Montfaucon 

Soulage in Languedoc. After leaving school, he 
read all the historical works in his father's library, beginning with 
the French translation of Plutarch. Apart from the library, there 
was a chest of books left in his father's care. The chest was 
invaded by rats, but the young Montfaucon came to the rescue 
by finding a key that would unlock the chest, thus saving its 
contents from destruction, and finding fresh fields of literature 
to explore. The reading of history led to his first becoming a 
soldier; but after serving for two years in the army, he entered 
the Benedictine Order at Toulouse in 1675. He subsequently 
studied the language and literature of Greece for two years at 
Soreze and for eight at Grasse. In 1686 he was diligently reading 
Herodotus at Bordeaux. After removing to Paris in the following 
year, he spent three years in Italy (1698 1701), exploring the 
great collections of MSS, and devoting special attention to the 
Laurentian Library. An account of his travels was published 
under the title of the Diarium Italicum (1702), which was 
translated into English. This includes a full description of the 
topography of Rome, with some notice of earlier writers on the 
subject, and a scheme for a more complete survey 1 . Some of the 
results of this tour were embodied in the two volumes of fragments 
of the Greek Fathers (1707). While Latin alone had been the 
theme of Mabillon's treatise De Re Diplomatica, the foundations 

1 Gibbon, c. Ixxi ad fuiun (vii 324 Bury). 
S. II. 25 


From a portrait by ' Paulus Abbas Genbacensis ' (1739), engraved by Tardieu 
fils, and reproduced by Odieuvre in Dreux du Radier's UEtirope Illustre 
(1777) vol. v. 


of Greek palaeography were laid in the Palaeographica Graeca 
produced by Montfaucon in 1708, which, besides establishing 
the principles of a new science, comprised a list of no less than 
11,630 MSS. In 1715 he completed the Catalogue of the Biblio- 
theca Coisliniana, a library belonging to the Due de Coislin, the 
prince-bishop of Metz, and including that of his grandfather, 
Se'guier, the whole of which was afterwards bequeathed to the 
abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Pres, and was ultimately incorporated 
in the Paris Library. His next great work, the Antiquite Expliquee, 
a vast treasury of classical antiquities, was published by subscrip- 
tion in ten folio volumes in 1719. Within two months the first 
edition of 1,800 copies (or 18,000 volumes) was sold off, and a 
new edition of 2,200 printed in the same year, followed by a 
supplement in five volumes. All the fifteen volumes were trans- 
lated into English. The Russian nobleman, Prince Kourakin, 
had a complete set, sumptuously bound, and packed in a special 
case to accompany him on his travels in Italy. The work had 
been produced in haste, and the execution of the plates was far 
from perfect, but it supplied a comprehensive conspectus of all 
the antiquarian learning of the age, and it was long before it was 
in any way superseded. A grand scheme for the exposition of the 
civil and ecclesiastical archaeology of France was only partially 
completed in the five volumes on the Monuments de la monarchic 
francaise (1725-33). Montfaucon had published St Athanasius in 
1698, and Origen's Hexapla in 1713; his great edition of Saint 
Chrysostom in thirteen folio volumes, begun in 1715, was finished 
in 1738. In the following year he produced in two folio volumes 
his Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum, including all the catalogues of 
Europe, which the author had collected in the space of forty 
years. In 1741 he had gathered materials for the continuation 
of his vast work on French archaeology, the second part of which 
was to deal with the churches of France. When he read a paper 
on this subject at the Academy of Inscriptions in the December 
of that year, a foreign member, who then saw him for the first 
time, asked him his age, and received the reply: 'In thirteen 
years I shall be a hundred'. Two days later an unforeseen 
attack of apoplexy carried off in a few hours the last of the great 
scholars of the Congregation of Saint-Maur. His final resting- 


388 FRANCE. [CENT. xvm. 

place is in the same chapel of the abbey-church that contains the 
remains of his great predecessor, Mabillon. 

In his early surroundings at the chateau in Languedoc there 
had been little to suggest that he would become a great scholar. 
One of his brothers, who was an officer, writes him a letter 
beginning : ' vous etes insupportable, mon cher frere, avec vos 
racines grecques ' *. He not only became one of the best Greek 
scholars since the Revival of Learning, but he also learnt Hebrew, 
Syriac, Chaldee and Coptic, and only failed to learn Arabic. 
The secret of his wide learning, and of the large number of 
volumes that he produced, is revealed in a memorandum drawn 
up at the age of eighty-five, in which he states that, for the last 
forty-six years, he had always spent thirteen or fourteen hours a 
day in reading or writing 2 . In learning, and in powers of work, 
he rivalled Mabillon, whom he excelled in his wider interest in 
classical antiquities, as well as in greater animation of manner. 
He had a happy wit, and a keen appreciation of the work of 
younger men. The scholars of his immediate circle were in- 
formally known as the 'Academy of the Bernardins', and the best 
of his pupils were proud to call themselves his sons 3 . In 1719, 
when he was made a member of the Academy of Inscriptions, he 
had already produced forty-four folio volumes. He had scholarly 
friends in all Europe ; he was known to Englishmen as hominum 
et amicorum oplimus*. One of the most frequent visitors at the 
abbey was the poet and diplomatist, Matthew Prior, plenipotentiary 
in Paris in 17 12 5 . Another of the numerous foreign frequenters 
of his rooms was the future author of a great work on Sicily, 
Philippe d'Orville of Amsterdam (1726)". Among the most 
learned and accomplished of his Italian correspondents were 

1 E. de Broglie, i 205. 

2 ib. ii 316. 

3 Cp. his own account of his life and works, printed in E. de Broglie, 
Bernard de Montfaucon et les Bernardins (1891), ii 311 323. 

4 ib. i 22. 

5 ib. i 137 f. In 1700 Prior had vainly applied on behalf of the Cambridge 
Press for the use of the 'Greek matrices, cut by order of Francis I' (p. 175 
supra]. Cp. MSS de la BibliothZque du fioi, 1787, I xciii f; Nichols, Lit. 
Anted, iv 663 f ; Wordsworth, Schol. Acad. 383. 

6 ib. i 277 283. 


Muratori and Albani 1 . One of his younger friends at the abbey 
was Dom Vincent Thuillier (1685 1736), who, besides editing 
the posthumous works, and writing a summary of the controversy 
with the Abbe de Ranee, produced a French translation of the 
whole of Polybius at the request of an eager strategist, the 
Chevalier de Folard, who had been inspired with an interest 
in the art of war by reading the Commentaries of Caesar. The 
Chevalier's commentary on Polybius, which accompanied the 
Benedictine monk's translation, included so many personal 
reflexions on his military contemporaries, that the first volume 
alone was allowed to be published in France (1727), while the 
remainder saw the light in Holland 2 . Among the greater literary 
enterprises of the Benedictines of the Congregation of Saint- 
Maur, those connected in different degrees with classical scholar- 
ship are the earlier volumes of the twelve on the Histoire Literaire 
de la France (1733-63), a great work resumed by the Institut de 
France in 1814; the Art de verifier les dates in three folio volumes 
(1783-87); and Toustain and Tassin's Nouveau Traite de diplo- 
matique in six quartos (1750-65). Their other works are mainly 
connected with the History of France and its Provinces 3 . 

Among the French Latinists of the eighteenth century we 
find three members of a single family. The first of 


these, Claude Capperonnier (1671 1744), editor 
of Quintilian (1725) and the Rhetores Latini (1756), took part 
in the revision of the Latin Thesaurus of Robert Estienne 4 . 
Claude's nephew, Jean (1716 1775), edited Caesar and Plautus, 
and Sophocles, with the scholia (1781). It was his transcript of 
the Paris MS that was used by Ruhnken in his edition of the 
Platonic Lexicon of Timaeus (i754) 5 . Lastly, Jean Augustin 
(1745 1820) edited Virgil, Justin, Eutropius etc., and the 
Academica of Cicero (1796). The second and third of the 
Capperonniers were librarians in Paris, and all the three had 
friendly relations with scholars in the Netherlands. 

1 H>- i 3 2 4 f and 338 f. 
- i/>. \ 43, ii 41 1 10. 

3 il>. ii 306. 

4 Lefebure de S. Marc, Eloge, 1744. 

5 Dupuy, jSlgtge in Hist. Acad. Inscr. xi 243. 

390 FRANCE. [CENT. xvm. 

Jean Bouhier (1673 1746), president at Dijon, edited Cicero 
and the poem of Petronius On the Civil War. with 


a French translation (1737) ; he also wrote treatises 
on Herodotus, and contributed to Montfaucon's Palaeographia 
Graeca an account of the ancient forms of the Greek and Latin 
Alphabets. Horace was edited in 1715 by the Jesuit, Noel 

Etienne Sanadon of Rouen (1676 1733), a Latin 


versifier, who taught at Caen and Tours, and held 
the office of librarian at the College de Louis XIV in Paris 2 . 
Another Jesuit, Pierre Joseph de Thoulie, better 
known as Olivetus (1682 1768), besides trans- 
lating parts of Demosthenes and Cicero, produced an edition of 
the whole of Cicero with selected notes in nine quarto volumes 
(1742), which was reprinted in Geneva and London. 

We may here mention a group of archaeologists including Bancluri (1671 

1 743), the author of a vast work on the Eastern Empire and on 

Fourmont the Antiquities of Constantinople ; Michel Fourmont (1690 

Burette 1745)1 who collected a large number of inscriptions in the 

Peloponnesus, but published his forgeries only r> ; Burette 

(d. 1747), who for half a century contributed to the Journal dcs Savants a 

number of important papers on Greek Art and Greek Music; and Nicolas 

Freret (1688 1749), * ne author of notable works on ancient geography and 

history, who was sent to the Bastile for his unpatriotic memoir on the origin 

of the Franks 4 . During his imprisonment he perused anew the Greek and 

Latin Classics, and wrote a paper on the Cyrofaedeia. 

Classical archaeology was ably promoted by the Comte de 

Caylus (1692 1765), who, after a military career, 

accompanied the French envoys to the East, spent 

two months in Smyrna, made a perilous journey to Ephesus and 

Colophon, visited the plain of Troy, and studied the monuments 

of Constantinople and of Rome (1717). On his return to France 

we find him intimate with men like Mariette and the Abbe 

Barthelemy. Spending four-fifths of his large income on the 

1 A. Collignon, Petrone en France, 94. 

2 Harless, Vitae Philol. iv 5873. 

3 Cp. C. 1. G. i p. 61, R. C. Christie's Selected Essays, 5891, and infra 
c. xxix (on Boeckh), vol. iii 99 n. i. 

4 Bougainville in Mem. Acad. Inscr. xxiii 314 337; Walckenaer, Examen 


patronage of archaeology, he filled his house with works of 
ancient art three times over, and on each occasion presented the 
contents to the royal collections. He was interested in Etruscan 
and Egyptian, as well as Greek and Roman Art, and was attracted 
to works that were interesting because they were instructive, and 
not solely because they were beautiful. He published a large 
number of monuments of ancient sculpture in the seven volumes 
of his Recueil d'A ntiquites (1752-67). He here includes nothing 
that he has not seen with his own eyes ; he tests the genuineness 
of every item, and gives proof of an artistic discrimination superior 
to that of Montfaucon. The numerous memoirs which he pre- 
sented to the Academy, in and after 1744, deal with works of 
ancient art in a scientific spirit, carefully interpreting and recon- 
structing them in the light of the ancient authorities. He caused 
the mural paintings found in the sepulchre of the Nasones to be 
carefully reproduced by P. S. Bartoli in a rare and sumptuous 
work, the Peintures Antiques (1757). He noted with interest 
the new enthusiasm for Homer, and observed that impressions 
derived from Homer were always enduring, because his ideas were 
'just and grand' 1 . He advised artists to choose their subjects, 
not from Ovid, but from Homer and Virgil, and, in the execution 
of their works, to keep closely to the poet's description, thus 
ignoring (as Lessing has shown) the essential difference between 
painting and poetry 2 . Lastly, he took the keenest interest in the 
exploration of Herculaneum and Veleia, and in the Roman camps 
and Roman roads of France 1 ' 1 . 

Greek and Roman coins had been collected with eager enthusiasm by 
Charles Patin (1633-94), J. F. F. Vaillant (1655 1708), and 
Joseph Pellcrin (1684 1782); and ancient gems skilfully Vaillant 
reproduced in the Pierres Gravees (17-12) of P. J. Mariette Pellerin 
(1694 1775) 4 - Meanwhile, Ancient Geography was admir- n'^v' 6 *fl 
ably represented by the ' First Geographer of the King of 
France', J. B. B. D'Anville (1697 1782), who published no less than seventy- 
eight geographical treatises and two hundred and eleven maps, all of them 
distinguished for their clearness and accuracy. Some of his best works were 
on Ancient Gaul, Italy, and Kgypt. 

1 Corresp. ii 67. 

~ Tableaux, 1757; criticised in Laokoon, c. xi. 

3 Stark, Handbiich, 147151. 4 Stark, 146 f. 

39 2 FRANCE. [CENT. xvm. 

A popular type of Archaeology was represented by the anti- 
quary, Jean Jacques Barthe'lemy (1716 1795), who 


was educated by the Jesuits, enjoyed the patronage 
of the Due and the Duchesse de Choiseul, and travelled with 
them in Italy, where he was keenly interested in the recent 
discovery of the Herculanean papyri. He became keeper of the 
royal cabinet of medals in Paris, was familiar with several oriental 
languages, and was the founder of the scientific knowledge of 
Phoenician, and of numismatic palaeography 2 . He is still more 
widely known as the author of the Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis 
en Grece (1789), a work that, for thirty years, occupied all the 
authors leisure hours, and has long been held in high esteem as 
a popular account of the manners and customs of ancient Greece. 
It has even been translated into modern Greek. 

In this work the youthful traveller is the counterpart of the author, while 
two of his other characters correspond to his patrons the. Due and Duchesse 
de Choiseul. The brief analysis of Aristotle's treatise on Poetry, included 
in this work 3 , is apparently inspired by Marmontel; the account of Greek 
Astronomy 4 is a reminiscence of Fontenelle; the criticisms on the constitu- 
tion of Sparta recall the paradoxes of the Abbe de Mably and of Rousseau ; 
while the views on the Drama are suggestive of those of Voltaire. Even apart 
from these anticipations of modern opinions, anachronisms are not wanting. 
Thus we have an Athenian of the age of Philip giving us a definition of the 
Eclogue which really belongs to the times of Theocritus. In the discussion 
on Poetry 5 the poetic imagination is described in terms far more precise than 
those of Plato's Ion or Phaedrus, while the definition of the imagination as 
the faculty of calling up images, whether in waking hours or in the hours 
of sleep, is not the view of Aristotle, but that of Philostratus, five centuries 
later 6 ; and the author's views on 'the purgation of the passions' resemble 
those of modern interpreters rather than the dimly suggested opinions of 
Aristotle himself. Again, much is omitted that might well have found a place 
in its pages. In the description of the popular songs of Greece, the swallow- 
song of the boys and girls of Rhodes is absent 7 ; and interesting traits might 
have been borrowed from the Oeconomicus of Xenophon, and from the private 
speeches of the Attic orators. But the author's glowing description of the 
pan-hellenic festivals gives a new life to the poetry of Pindar ; he is prompted 
by a happy inspiration when he describes Plato as unfolding to his disciples 

1 Egger, Hellenisme, ii 404. 2 Stark, 175. 

3 c. 71. 4 c. 30. 5 c. 80. 

6 Egger, Hisloire de la Critique, c. 75. Cp. vol. i 72 2 , 334 2 stiprd. 

7 Athenaeus, 360. 


the cosmology of the Titnaeus on the crest of Sunium, where a violent storm 
has just been succeeded by a perfect calm ; his story of the death of Socrates 
is not unworthy of the Greek original in Plato, and his description of the 
voyage of the sacred vessel bound for Delos might well have been written by 
one who had long been familiar with the Cyclades. As a matter of fact, the 
author had never been beyond the bounds of France and Italy, but in Italy 
he had viewed the early excavations of Pompeii and had thus been enabled 
to give a more vivid description of the visit of Anacharsis to the theatre of 
Athens 1 . The work is accompanied by illustrative notes, and maps. 

In the year that followed the publication of the Anacharsis^ 
the author produced a paper on the finances of Athens, suggested 
by an Attic inscription that had recently reached the Louvre 2 . 
The Anacharsis, which was published in 1789, on the very eve of 
the French Revolution, supplies us with a pleasing picture of the 
literary labours that were rudely interrupted by that appalling 
event. Deprived of his official position and his Academic 
functions, the keeper of the King's Cabinet of Coins, and the 
member of the Academy of Inscriptions, was sent to prison. He 
there wrote three memoirs including a delightful retrospect of his 
career, which was not unclouded by fears for the future of the 
studies to which he had devoted more than fifty years of his life. 
He was released from prison owing to the influence of Danton ; 
but, before the meetings of the Academy could be resumed, the 
Abbe Barthelemy had already passed away 3 . 

The archaeologist Seroux d'Agincourt of Beauvais (1730 
1814) escaped the perils of the Revolution by 
making Italy his home for thirty years, from 1778 d . A er jcourt 
to 1809. A pupil of the Comte de Caylus, he 
bequeathed to his own pupils a set of engravings of thirty-seven 
antique terracottas, but it was not until 1823 that his great work 
in six volumes was published, a work that fills the interval 
between the end of ancient and the beginning of modern art, and, 
in its earliest portions, is of special value in connexion with 
classical archaeology 4 . 

While the travels of Seroux d'Agincourt and Barthelemy were confined to 

1 c. ii. 

2 Mem. deTAcad. des belles lettres (1792); C. I. G. no. 147. 

3 Kgger, Hellenisme, ii 296310. 

4 Stark, 256. 

394 FRANCE. [CENT. xvnr. 

Italy, the manners and customs of the modern Greeks were carefully studied 
at Constantinople, and elsewhere, by Pierre Augustin Guys 
(1720 1799), a merchant and Secretary of State, who was 

a member of the Academy of Marseilles, and who died at Zante 1 . 

A more distinguished representative of France, the Comte de 
Choiseul-Gouffier (1752 1817), the nephew of 
Gouffier CU Barthelemy's great patron, travelled in Greece and 

Asia Minor from 1776 to 1782. In 1784 he 
published a memoir on the Hippodrome of Olympia, and was 
appointed ambassador of France at Constantinople. Three years 
later he sent the artist Fauvel (who had already travelled in 
Greece) to sketch the ruins of Athens, and obtained for the 
Louvre a single metope of the Parthenon and a single slab of the 
frieze. Of the two folio volumes of his Voyage Pittoresque en 
Grece, the first alone (1782) appeared before the outbreak of the 
Revolution. The author fled to St Petersburg, where he became 
Director of the Academy and of the Public Libraries. He 
returned to France in 1802, was made a Peer of the Realm in 
1814, and died at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1817. It was not until 1822 
that the second volume of his Voyage was published, a work that 
aroused and maintained in France an increasing interest in the 
glorious scenery and the memorable associations of Greece 2 . 

The Jesuit Academician, Gabriel Brotier (1723 1789), is best 
known in connexion with his edition of Tacitus 
(1771), which has often been reprinted; he also 
edited Pliny (1779) and Phaedrus (1783). Pierre 
Henri Larcher of Dijon (1726 1812) was an Academician and a 
Professor in Paris. His most important work was his translation 
of Herodotus, accompanied with historical notes, in seven volumes 
(1786), which has been repeatedly republished. He had pre- 
viously translated the Electra of Euripides, the Cyropaedeia of 
Xenophon, and the Greek romance of Chariton 3 . 

We may here make separate mention of a group of four 
Alsatian scholars : Brunck, Oberlin, Schweighauser, and Bast. 
Their surnames suggest German descent, but the first three were 

1 Voyage Lilt, de la Grcce, ed. 2, 1776. 

2 Stark, 256. 3 Boissonade, Notice, 1813. 


subjects of France, for Strassburg had been captured by the 
French in 1681 and the rest of Alsace had already been annexed 
in the course of the Thirty Years' War. Richard 
Francois Philippe Brunck (1729 1803), born at 
Strassburg, was educated by the Jesuits in Paris, and served in the 
commissariat department during part of the Seven Years' War. On 
his return from Germany in 1760, he devoted himself to classical 
studies in Strassburg ; during the Revolution he was imprisoned 
at Besangon ; and, on his liberation, sold his library in 1790, 
thirteen years before his death 1 . His enthusiasm for the Greek 
poets led to his devoting his leisure to the critical revision of their 
texts. He had collations of MSS at his disposal, and ample means 
for the editing of their works. Under the title of Analecta from 
the Greek Poets, he published in three volumes a large number of 
Epigrams from the Greek Anthology 2 (classified under the names 
of their authors), together with the Bucolic Poets and Callimachus 
(1772-6). He also edited Anacreon and Apollonius Rhodius. 
He was specially successful as a critic of the Greek drama. Thus 
he edited three plays of Aeschylus 8 , seven of Euripides 4 , and the 
whole of Aristophanes (1783) and Sophocles (1786-9). In his 
recension of Sophocles he opened a new era by removing from 
the text the interpolations of Triclinius, and by reverting to the 
Aldine edition and especially to the Paris MS A (cent, xiii), with 
which that edition generally agrees 5 . The Laurentian MS was 
then practically unknown to scholars ; it was not collated by 
Elmsley until 1820. Brunck was often led astray by the tempta- 
tion to introduce conjectures of his own, and by an undue anxiety 

1 Memoire (1803); Fr. Jacobs in Allg. Encycl. I vol. xiii 220-2, Halm in 
A. D. />.;' Lett res Inedites' in Annuaire,..des Eludes grefqiics, 1874; 
Bursian, i 500. 

2 Cp. Fr. Jacobs, Proleg. Breviora, p. xxi b Diibner, ' Inter ipsos belli 
Borussici tumultus, graecis literis admotus, vix e limpidissimis illis fontibus 
gustaverat, quum incredibili ardore dies noctesque hoc unum ageret, ut sitim 
gustando excitatam largis haustibus restingueret. Forte in ejus manus apo- 
grapha quaedam Antliologiae ineditae incidental' etc. 

3 Prom., Persae, Sept em (1779). 

4 Am/row., Or., Mcd., Hec., Plwen., Hipp., Bacchac (17791"). 

5 Jebb, Introduction to Facsimile of Latir. J\/S, p. 20; and to Text of 
Sophocles (1897), xiii. 

39 6 FRANCE. [CENT. xvm. 

to accept the canon propounded by Dawes ; nevertheless, he fully 
earned the credit of having laid the foundation for a better treat- 
ment of the text and metre. He is far less well known for his 
editions of Latin Classics, such as Plautus (1779 f), Virgil (1785), 
and Terence (1797). 

Jeremias Jacob Oberlin (1735 1806), who was born and bred 
at Strassburg, passed his whole life as a member of 


the staff of the gymnasium and the university, being 
head of the former from 1787 to his death. He edited Vibius 
Sequester, as well as Ovid's Tristia and Ibis, Horace, Tacitus, 
and Caesar ; and was interested in archaeology, and palaeography, 
and in the history of literature 1 . 

Strassburg was also the place of the birth and education of 
Tohann Schweighauser (1742 1830). who was 

Schweighauser J 

professor of Greek and Oriental Languages from 
1778 to 1824. He took part in editing two of Brunck's earlier 
editions of Greek plays, but his own studies were mainly confined 
to the classical writers of Greek prose. Thus he edited Appian 
(i 785)2, Polybius (1795), Epictetus and Cebes (1798), Athenaeus 
(1798), and Herodotus (1810). He also produced excellent 
lexicons to Herodotus and Polybius ; his Athenaeus (which 
included the whole of Casaubon's commentary) extended to 
fourteen volumes. His own notes invariably give proof of 
extensive reading, and are characterised by the minutest accuracy. 
In Latin prose he is only represented by an edition of Seneca's 
prose works in five volumes (i8o8) 3 . 

Schweighauser and Brunck were associated with the series known as the 

editiones Bipontinae (1779 1809) begun at Zweibriicken, and 

Bi E ontina<f continued in 1 798 at Strassburg. The Greek Classics included 

were Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, Diodorus, 

Lucian, and the Serif tores Erotici. The Latin Classics extended to one 

hundred and fifteen volumes, and included Brunck's edition of Plautus, 

which marks a very different stage in the history of the text to that which 

has since been attained. The series comprised independent recensions, to- 

1 Fata literarum oinnis aevi tabulis explicata (1789). 

2 For this ed. he used many excellent MSS (Opusc. Acad. ii 97 f), together 
with unpublished notes by Musgrave. 

3 L. Spach, Les deux Schweighaeuser, in Oeiivres Choisies, 1871, I7sf; 
Ch. Rabany, Les Schiveighaeiiser, 1884, 128 pp.; Bursian, i 503. 


gather with reprints from earlier commentaries. The enterprise was mainly 
organised by G. C. Croll (1728 1790), editor of Terence, Sallust, Tacitus, 
Velleius, and Cicero's Brutus, De Officiis, and Tusculan Disputations etc., 
and by his colleagues J. V. Embser (d. 1781), and F. C. Exter (1746 1817), 
editor of Plato, Cicero (thirteen volumes), Seneca, and Tacitus 1 . Croll and 
Exter were successively Rectors of the gymnasium at Zweibrticken 2 . 

Our group of scholarly Alsatians closes with the name of 
Friedrich Jacob Bast (1771 1811) of Buchsweiler, 
which then belonged to the distant Duchy of 
Hesse-Darmstadt. Bast, who was legal adviser to the Hessian 
legation in Vienna and Paris, is best known in connexion with 
the useful Commentatio Palaeographica, which he contributed to 
Schaefer's edition of Gregorius Corinthius towards the close of 
his brief life of forty years. At the time of his death he was 
preparing an edition of Apollonius Dyscolus 3 . 

Ancient History is represented in France by Pierre Charles Levesque 
(1736 1812), who wrote a Critical History of the Roman 
Republic, and discussed the Constitutions of Athens and <^^^ 

o d i n L c - 1* ro l X 

Sparta (1796 f); and by the Baron de Sainte-Croix (1746 
1806), a French officer living at Avignon and in Paris, whose works on the 
Historians of Alexander the Great, on Ancient Federal Governments, on the 
Cretan Constitution and on the Eleusinian Mysteries are still held in esteem 4 . 
Both of these lived on into the age of Wolf, whose Prolegomena were published 
in 1795 and were attacked by Sainte-Croix in a work described as a ' Refutation 
of a paradox on Homer' 5 . 

Homer was the theme of the most fruitful labours of Jean 
Baptiste Gaspard d'Ansse de Villoison 6 (1753 


1805). As early as 1696, Kiister had mentioned 

1 1792; ed. 2, 1798. 

2 Butters, Editiones Bipontinae, Zweibriicken (1877), 53 pp.; Bursian, 
i 504 f. 

3 Mem. in Wyttenbach, Opp. Cp., on Elsass, Urlichs, n6' 2 . 

4 Cp. Wyttenbach's Opuscula ; and Notices by De Sacy and Dacier. 

5 Millin's Mag. Encyd. vol. v (1798). 

6 His aristocratic name was regarded with disfavour in the age of the 
Revolution. Finding it necessary, as a Member of the Academy, to obtain 
permission to write a paper on some point of philosophy, he presented himself 
before one of the revolutionary authorities, when the following dialogue 
ensued : Comment t'appelle-tu, citoycn? De Villoison. // ny a plus de De. 
He bien: soit Villoison. // n'y a plus de Ville. Comment faut-il done que 
je niappclle? Commune-Oison. Villoison himself greatly relished telling 

398 FRANCE. [CENT. xvm. 

the scholia of a MS of Homer in the Library of St Mark's in 
Venice 1 ; in 1781 Villoison drew attention to the importance of 
this MS 2 . He was accordingly sent to Venice at the public 
expense to collate MSS and to transcribe the scholia, which he 
published with ample prolegomena in lySS 3 . Meanwhile, he had 
visited the Court of Weimar, and had spent two years in Greece 
(1785-7). During the Revolution he fled to Orleans; he was 
afterwards Professor of Ancient and Modern Greek at the College 
de France. His earliest work had been the Homeric Lexicon of 
Apollonius (i773-4) 4 , followed by an edition of the Pastoralia 
of Longus (1778). His publication of the Venetian scholia on 
Homer supplied Wolf with arguments for his view that the 
current text of Homer differed from that of the Alexandrian 
critics. It is said that Villoison, who had hardly been conscious 
of the supreme significance of these scholia, was alarmed at the 
use to which they were put by Wolf in his attack on the 
traditional opinions on Homer 5 . The last scholar of the old 
school had unconsciously forged the weapons for the first scholar 
of the new 6 . 

this story to his Greek friend, Panagiotes Kodrikes (cp. Thereianos, Ada- 
mantios Koraes, i 179, where the new name is further transformed into Ko/x- 

1 Historia Critica Homeri, p. in, ' Venetiis in Bibliotheca D. Marci 
servalur Ilias cum scholiis ab editis multum differentibus'. 

2 Anecdota Graeca (Venice, 1781), ii 184, '(Iliadis editio) quae cum hisce 
signis criticis et aureis illis utriusque Codicis prodibit Scholiis'. 

3 For details cp. Beccard, De Scholiis in Homeri Iliadein Venetis, i, 
Berlin, 1850. 

4 Since edited by Bekker, and Pluygers. 

5 Dacier, Notice (1806), 15 f. 

6 Egger, HelUtmme, ii 400-2; Nouvelle Biogr. Gen. xiii i 13; Wytten- 
bach, Opuscitla, ii 74 79; Boissonade in Mag. Encycl. iii 380; Urlichs, IO9 2 . 


From Dean's engraving of the portrait by Thornhill (1710) in the Master's 
Lodge, Trinity College, Cambridge (frontispiece of Monk's Life of 
Bentley, ed. 2, 1833). 



IN the first half of the eighteenth century the greatest name 
among the classical scholars of Europe is that of 
Richard Bentley (1662 1742). Born at Oulton, 
near Wakefield, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, he was educated 
at Wakefield Grammar School, and at St John's College, Cam- 
bridge. He was admitted a member of that College at the age 
of fourteen years and four months, and took his degree as a high 
Wrangler at the age of eighteen. It was at the same age that one 
of his future opponents, Richard Johnson, had entered the College 
in the previous year. As there was no vacancy in the only two 
fellowships then open to natives of Yorkshire, Bentley was never 
a Fellow of his College. The College, however, made him head- 
master of Spalding ; a former Fellow, Stillingfleet, Dean of 
St Paul's, appointed him tutor to his son ; and, in the library of 
Stillingfleet, one of the largest private libraries of the time, 
Bentley laid the foundation of his profound and multifarious 
learning. When Stillingfleet had become bishop of Worcester, 
and Bentley was his chaplain, a nobleman, who had met Bentley 
at the bishop's table, said to his host immediately after : ' My 
Lord, that chaplain of yours is a very extraordinary man '; 'Yes', 
replied Stillingfleet, ' had he but the gift of humility, he would be 
the most extraordinary man in Europe". Meanwhile, he had 
accompanied his pupil to Oxford, thus obtaining constant access 
to the treasures of the Bodleian. At Oxford he published, as an 
appendix to an edition of the Chronicle of John Malalas of 

1 J. Nichols, in Gentleman 's Magazine, Nov. 1779 (Monk's Life of Bentley, 
\ 4 8, eel. 1833). 

S. II. 26 


Antioch, his celebrated Letter to Mill (1691). In that Letter he 
gave the learned world the first-fruits of his profound study of the 
Attic Drama. The early dramatists of Athens are described by 
the Chronicler as ' Themis, Minos, and Auleas ' ; under this dis- 
guise, Bentley detected the names of Thespis, Ion of Chios, and 
Aeschylus. He also announced his discovery of the metrical 
continuity (or Synapheia) of the anapaestic system l . In less than 
a hundred pages, he corrected and explained more than sixty 
Greek or Latin authors. In recognition of this masterly per- 
formance, he was hailed by two of his most erudite contemporaries 
on the continent, as 'the new star of English letters' 2 . Seventy- 
five years later, Ruhnken declared that, ' to ascertain the truth as 
to the lexicon of Hesychius, the world had needed the learned 
audacity of Bentley's Letter to Mill, that wonderful monument 
of genius and erudition, such as could only have come from the 
first critic of his age' 3 . 

In 1697, his learned correspondent, Graevius, published an 
edition of the text of Callimachus, which had been prepared by 
his short-lived son. The work was made memorable by the fact 
that it was accompanied by an erudite commentary from the pen 
of Spanheim, and by a remarkable series of some 420 fragments 
collected by the industry and elucidated by the genius of Bentley. 
This collection is a striking example of critical method, and is 
characterised by sound judgement as well as undoubted brilliancy 4 . 
It was described by Valckenaer as the most perfect work of its 
kind 6 . 

1 Dawes, Misc. Crit., p. 30, ed. Oxon., says : "Hanc ffwafaiav (sic) in 
anapaesticis locum habere primus docuit, non iam, uti ipse ad Hor. Carm. 
iii 12, i asseverat, Cl. Bentleius, sed Terentianus : 'Anapaestica fiunt ibidem 
per (rwa<f>eiav '." But the knowledge of this fact had been lost, when it was 
rediscovered by Bentley. 

2 Graevius, Praef. ad Callimachum, 'novum sed splendidissimum Bri- 
tanniae lumen'; Spanheim, in Julianum, p. 19, 'novum idemque iam 
lucidum litteratae Britanniae sidus ' (Monk, i 31). 

3 Ofuscula, i 192 (1766), ed. 1823. 

4 Jebb's Bentley, 34. 

5 Diatribe in Ear., p. 4 a, ' nihil in hoc genere praestantius prodiit aut 
magis elaboratum ' ; and on Schol. Leyd. in II, xxii 398, ' opus perfectissimum ' 

"(Manly, n 3 f). 


Meanwhile, a controversy on the literary merits of the ancients 
and the moderns, that had arisen in France, had found its way 
to England. Perrault 1 and Fontenelle 2 had claimed the palm for 
the moderns 3 . Sir William Temple, in his Essay upon Ancient and 
Modern Learning, entered the lists as the champion of the ancients. 
His challenge to a further conflict is given in the following terms : 

' It may perhaps be further affirmed, in favour of the Ancients, that the 
oldest books we have are still in their kind the best. The two most ancient 
that I know of in prose, among those we call profane authors, are .^sop's 
Fables and Phalaris's Epistles, both living near the same time, which was 
that of Cyrus and Pythagoras. As the first has been agreed by all ages since 
for the greatest master in his kind, and all others of that sort have been but 
imitators of his original ; so I think the Epistles of Phalaris to have more race, 
more spirit, more force of wit and genius, than any others I have ever seen, 
either ancient or modern. I know, several learned men (or that usually pass 
for such, under the name of critics) have not esteemed them genuine ; and 
Politian, with some others, have attributed them to Lucian : but I think he 
must have little skill in painting that cannot find out this to be an original. 
Such diversity of passions, upon such variety of actions and passages of life 
and government ; such freedom of thought, such boldness of expression ; such 
bounty to his friends, such scorn of his enemies ; such honour of learned men, 
such esteem of good; such knowledge of life, such contempt of death, with 
such fierceness of nature and cruelty of revenge, could never be represented 
but by him that possessed them. And I esteem Lucian to have been no 
more capable of writing than of acting what Phalaris did. In all one writ, 
you find the scholar or the sophist ; and in all the other, the tyrant and the 
commander ' 4 . 

The challenge was partly taken up by Bentley's friend, William 
Wotton, of St Catharine's, who had migrated to St John's in 1682. 
In 1694, Wotton published, in his Reflections upon Ancient and 
Modern Learning, a calm and judicious examination of Temple's 
essay. On its appearance, Bentley assured his friend that the two 
books, which Temple had termed the ' oldest ' and ' best ' in the 
world, were in truth neither old nor good ; that the ' Aesopian ' 
Fables were not the work of Aesop, and that the Letters of 

1 Le siecle de Louis le Grand (1687) ; Parallele des anciens et des tnoderncs 

2 Appendix to his Dissertation on Pastoral Poetry (1689). 

3 Cp. Monk i 58 f; Macaulay's Essay on Sir William Temple, pp. 452-7 
of ssays, ed. 1861. Cp. H. Rigault, Histoire de fa Querelle des anciens et des 
modernes (Paris, 1856), 490 pp. 

4 In Miscellanea, part ii (1690) ; Works, i 166, ed. 1750. 

26 2 


Phalaris were a forgery of a later age. Meanwhile, a sudden and 
unwonted demand for the Letters had been aroused by Temple's 
splendid advertisement, and accordingly an edition was promptly 
prepared in 1695 by a youthful scholar of Christ Church, Oxford, 
a 'young gentleman of great hopes", the honourable Charles 
Boyle. It must be remembered that the genuineness of the 
Letters was never maintained by Boyle, who leaves it an open 
question. It was Temple, who was committed to the opinion 
that the author was Phalaris 2 . A new edition of Wotton's 
Reflections was soon called for, and in 1697 Bentley contributed 
his promised Dissertation on Aesop and Phalaris. 

Bentley begins by attacking the chronology. Taking 550 B.C. as the latest 
possible date for the age of Phalaris, he shows that, of the Sicilian cities 
mentioned in the Letters, Phintia was not founded till nearly three centuries, 
or Alaesa till more than 1 40 years, afterwards ; and that the potter of 
Corinth, who gave his name to the ' Thericlean cups ' presented by Phalaris 
to his physician, lived more than 120 years later. Again, the Letters ring the 
changes on the names of Zancle and Messana, whereas Zancle was not known 
as Messana until more than 60 years after the death of Fhalaris. Similarly, 
they mention Tauromenium, though it was many generations before that name 
was given to the Sicilian city of Naxos. The phrase, ' to extirpate like a 
pine-tree ', which is used by the author, originated with Croesus, who began 
his reign after the death of Phalaris ; another of his phrases, ' words are the 
shadow of deeds ', was due to Democritus, more than a century later. The 
author was familiar with later poets, Pindar, Euripides, and Callimachus ; 
he even mentions ' tragedies ', a form of literature that came into being some 
years after the tyrant's death. 

Bentley next attacks the language, which is Attic Greek, whereas the King 
of the Dorian colony of Agrigentura would naturally have written in the Doric 
dialect. Even the coinage is of the Attic and not the Sicilian standard. ' Take 
them in the whole bulk.... I should say they are a fardle of common-places, 
without life or spirit from action and circumstance You feel, by the emptiness 
and deadness of them, that you converse with some dreaming pedant with his 
elbow on his desk ; not with an active, ambitious tyrant, with his hand on 
his sword, commanding a million of subjects ' 3 . 

Bentley also examines the Letters of Themistocles, Socrates, and Euripides, 
and proves that they were forged many centuries after the death of their 
reputed authors. Here, as before, his arguments turn on points of history 
and chronology, and language. As to the ' Letters of Euripides ', a private 

1 Bentley's First Dissertation, p. 68, ed. 1697. 

2 Jebb's Bentley, 56, 58. 

3 First Dissertation, p. 62, ed. 1697. 


communication from Bentley 1 had not deterred Barnes from declaring in his 
edition of 1694, that any doubt as to their having been written by Euripides 
was a proof of either ' effrontery or incapacity '. The arguments urged in that 
communication are here repeated with several additions. 

The ' Aesopian Fables ' are ascribed by Bentley to a prose paraphrase of 
the choliambics of Babrius executed by Maximus Planudes, the Byzantine 
monk of the fourteenth century. 

The attack on ' Phalaris ' was answered by a confederacy of 
the friends of Boyle 2 . A second edition of the reply appeared in 
a few months ; a third, in the following year. At first, and, indeed,, 
for long afterwards, popular opinion was against Bentley. Early 
in 1695, Pepys, after reading the first attack on Bentley in the 
preface to Boyle's edition of the Letters, writes to a friend : 
' I suspect Mr Boyle is in the right ; for our friend's learning 
(which I have a great value for) wants a little filing ; and I doubt 
not but a few such strokes as this will do it and him good' 3 . In 
1697 Swift, who was then living under Temple's roof at Moor 
Park, attacked Bentley in his 'Tale of a Tub' 4 , and in his 
'Battle of the Books' 5 . In April, 1698, Evelyn 'alone would 
stand up ' for him, waiting till he had heard both sides". . 

Early in 1699, Bentley answered Boyle and his friends by 
producing an enlarged edition of his Dissertation. It is a work 
that marks an epoch in the History of Scholarship. It is not only 
a ' masterpiece of controversy ' and a ' store-house of erudition ' ; 
it is an example of critical method, heralding a new era 7 . Yet it 
was long before its mastery was recognised : many years elapsed 
before Tyrwhitt could describe the opponents of Bentley as ' laid 
low, as by a thunderbolt' 8 , or Porson pronounce it an 'immortal 
dissertation' 9 . 

Bentley was Master of Trinity from 1700 to his death in 

1 22 Feb. 1693 (N. S.), Correspondence, i 64-9. 

2 Bentley's Dissertations examined by Boyle (1698). 

3 Bodleian MS (Monk, i 71 f). 

4 pp. 51, 65, ed. 1869. Preface dated Aug. 1697; anonymously published, 

6 pp. 101, 103, 105-9. Anonymously published, 1704. 

6 Bentley's Correspondence, p. 167. ' Jebb's Bentlev, 83. 

8 De Babrio (1776), quoted by Mahly, 117. 

IJ Watson's Life of For son, 281 


1742. We are not here concerned with the internal feuds and 
controversies that marked his tenure of that office. His in- 
troduction of written examinations for fellowships and of annual 
elections to scholarships was a permanent advantage to the 
College. During those forty-two years his many contributions to 
classical learning included an appendix to the edition of Cicero's 
Tusculan Disputations by John Davies, Fellow of Queens' (1709), 
in which Bentley gives proof of his familiarity with the philosophical 
works of Cicero and with the metres of the Latin Dramatists. In 
the following year he produced under an assumed name his emen- 
dations of 323 fragments of Philemon and Menander 1 . The next 
year saw the publication of his memorable edition of Horace 
(1711), in which the traditional text is altered in more than 700 
passages 2 , a masterly work, which, however, does more credit to 
the logical force of his intellect than to his poetic taste. It is 
here that we find his celebrated dictum: 'nobis et ratio et res 
ipsa centum codicibus potiores sunt' 3 . A large part of the notes 
was thrown off in the course of five months (July to November, 
1711), 'in the first impetus and glow' of his thought. This 
rapidity of production naturally landed him in occasional mistakes, 
and his Latinitywas attacked by two of the schoolmasters of the 
day, one of whom, John Ker 4 , drew attention to the fact that 
Bentley in his preface had promised that, even in this hasty work, 
his readers would not fail to find sermonis puritatem, whereas the 
word puritas was in itself an example of impure Latinity. He 
was similarly attacked by his contemporary at St John's, Richard 
Johnson 5 , who begins with an interesting collection of Bentley's 
sayings about himself and others. A rival edition of very uneven 
merit was produced in 1721 by a Scottish friend of Burman and 
Le Clerc, Alexander Cunningham (c. 1655 1730), whose editions 
of Virgil and Phaedrus were posthumously published. 

Bentley's skill in the restoration of Greek inscriptions was 
exemplified in the case of inscriptions from Delos (i72i) 6 and 
Chalcedon (1728). In the latter, his corrections of the faulty 

1 Utrecht, 1710; Cambridge, 1713; p. 442 infra. 

2 Select list in Mahly, 131 f. 3 On Carm. Hi 27, 15. 

4 Qiiaterttae Epistolae ( 1 7 1 3). 6 Aristarchus Anti-Bentleianus (1717). 

6 Correspondence, p. 589; Monk, ii i6of. 


copies were completely confirmed by the original 1 . In 1722 he 
supplied Dr Mead with a number of emendations of the Theriaca 
of Nicander 2 . Early in 1726 he published an edition of Terence, 
in which the text is corrected in about a thousand passages, mainly 
on grounds of metre. The same volume includes an edition of 
Phaedrus and of the ' Sentences ' of ' Publius Syrus '. The 
preface is followed by a Schediasma on the metres of Terence, 
and by a Latin speech delivered by Bentley in July, 1725, when he 
had just been restored to the University degrees, of which he had 
been deprived in 1715*. He here explains the significance of the 
several symbols of the doctoral degree, the chair, the cap, the 
book, and the gold ring, which is the emblem of liberty 4 . 

Bentley has left his mark on the textual criticism of Plautus 5 , 
Lucretius 6 , and Lucan 7 . In 1732-4 he was busy with an edition 
of Homer, in which the text was to be restored with the aid of 
MSS and scholia, and the quotations in ancient authors, and by the 
introduction of the lost letter, the digamma. The discovery of 
the connexion of this lost letter with certain metrical peculiarities 
in Homer had been made by Bentley as early as 1713, and it is 
mentioned in a note on Iliad xvi 172, in the posthumous second 
volume of Samuel Clarke's Iliad (i732) 8 . In the same year he 
introduced the digamma in two quotations from Homer in the 
notes to his edition of Paradise Lost 9 . It was the strange 
appearance of words such as FCOIKWS, in these notes, that prompted 
Pope in March, 1742, to write the well-known lines in the fourth 

1 Correspondence, 698 f; J. Taylor, De Inope Debitore (1741); Monk, ii 
41 1 f; Jebb, 137 f. 

2 Museum Criticum, \ 370 f, 445 f (1814) ; Monk, ii 170 f. 

3 Jebb, i 4 r. 

4 Cp. 'aureus annulus est Doctori' in Duport's Praevaficatio, 1631 (Chr. 
Wordsworth's Scholae Academicac, 275 ; ib. 22 n. i). The present writer, as 
a boy in the galleries of the Senate- House, saw this 'gold ring' still in use 
in 1858. The rings have since been handed down from one Vice-Chancellor 
to another unused ; their purpose has been forgotten, but they are faithfully 
preserved by the University. 

6 Sonnenschein's Captivi (1880), and Anccd. Oxon., 1883. 

6 Ed. Wakefield (Glasgow, 1813); ed. Oxon. 1818. 

7 Ed. 1760 and 1816; cp. Mahly, 150, and, in general, Jebb, v vi. 

8 Cp. Mahly, 79, 144^ 161 179. 

9 iv 887, vi 832. 


book of the Dunciad where the goddess of Dulness is addressed 
as follows : 

1 Mistress ! dismiss that rabble from your throne : 
A vaunt Is Aristarchus yet unknown ? 
Thy mighty scholiast whose unwearied pains 
Made Horace dull and humbled Milton's strains. 
Turn what they will to verse, their toil is vain : 
Critics like me shall make it prose again. 
Roman and Greek grammarians ! know your better, 
Author of something yet more great than letter ; 
While tow'ring o'er your alphabet, like Saul, 
Stands our digamma, and o'ertops them all '. 

In his ' Remarks ' on the ' Discourse of Free-Thinking ' by 
Anthony Collins, he protests against the opinion that the Iliad 
was an 'epitome of all arts and sciences', which Homer had 
' designed for eternity, to please and instruct mankind '. He adds 
his own view : 

'Take my word for it, poor Homer... had never such aspiring thoughts. 
He wrote a sequel of songs and rhapsodies, to be sung by himself for small 
earnings and good cheer, at festivals and other days of merriment ; the Ilias 
he made for men, and the Odysseis for the other sex. These loose songs were 
not collected together in the form of an epic poem till Pisistratus's time, above 
500 years after ' 1 . 

Bentley's latest work was his recension of the astronomical 
poet, Manilius (1739), a quarto volume with an engraving by 
Vertue of Thornhill's portrait in the Master's Lodge of Trinity 
College (1710). 

His relations to his scholarly contemporaries in the Netherlands 
are exemplified by his correspondence with the aged Graevius, who 
was one of the first to hail the dawn of Bentley's fame (i697) 2 . 
In 1696 he obtained for the University Press a new fount of type 
from Holland 3 , which was used in printing Kiister's Sui'das in 
1705. The criticisms on Aristophanes, which he sent to Kiister 
in 1708, clearly prove how much might have been achieved by 
Bentley in a complete edition of that author 4 . In the same year 
he prompted the youthful Hemsterhuys to strengthen the weak 

1 c. vii ; Works, iii 304 (Dyce). Cp. Jebb, 146^ 2 p. 402 supra. 

3 Wordsworth's Scholae Academicae, 383 f. 

4 His marginalia were first published in the Classical Journal, nos. xi xiv. 


points in his knowledge of Greek metre 1 . With Pieter Burman 
his relations were at first friendly. Burman's first letter informed 
him of the death of their common friend, Graevius 2 ; and it was 
through Burman that he published his anonymous Elucidations of 
Philemon and Menander 3 . In 1709 Burman sends Bentley a 
presentation-copy of his Petronius 4 ; next year, he consults him as 
to a proposed edition of Valerius Flaccus 5 . In 1718 he laments 
the interruption in their correspondence 6 , and in 1721 writes 
about his edition of Ovid 7 . The publication of Bentley's Phaedrus 
(in the Terence of 1726) led to a rupture with Burman, who had 
already produced three editions, and soon added a fourth (1727), 
in which he carefully balanced Bentley's readings with those of 
Bentley's opponent, Hare ; and, in the same year, when Bentley, in 
preparing his own edition of Lucan, applied to Burman for the 
use of the collations and notes of N. Heinsius, Burman declined 
to lend them, and announced an edition of his own, which did 
not appear until i74o 8 . 

The two centuries that elapsed between the call of Scaliger to 
the university of Leyden (1593) and the publication of Wolf's 
'Prolegomena to Homer' (1795) were an a 8 e f m 'g n distinction 
in Dutch Scholarship, and during the first half of the seventeenth 
century that Scholarship owed an incalculable debt to the healthy 
and invigorating influence of Bentley. As a scholar, Bentley was 
distinguished by wide and independent reading. He absorbed all 
the classical literature that was accessible to him, either in print or 
in manuscript ; but, unlike the humanists of Italy, he was not a 
minute and scrupulous imitator of the style of the Latin Classics. 
In textual as well as historic criticism, he had a close affinity with 
the great Scaliger. His intellectual character was marked by a 
singular sagacity. Swift and keen to detect imposture, he was 
resolute and unflinching in exposing it. His manner was, in 
general, apt to be haughty and overbearing, and his temper 
sarcastic and insolent. One of his characteristic mottoes was : 

1 P- 449 >>'f>' a - 

- 1/03; Correspondence, 206 f; Bentley's reply in Haupt's Opusc. iii 89 f. 

3 p. 442 infra. 4 Carres f. p. 3/9f. 

5 1710, il>. 391. 6 Monk, ii 118. 

1 Corresf. p. 578 f. 8 Monk, ii 236-8. 


aXXovs tfvdpi, diro 8' "E/cropos i(r\eo xetpas 1 . He had a Strong 
and masterful personality, but his predominant passion was an 
unswerving devotion to truth 2 . 

Bentley's friends included Evelyn and Wren, Newton and 
Locke. Evelyn's Discourse on Medals had appeared in 1697. 
The influence of the Classics is illustrated by several other con- 
temporaries of Bentley, who were not professional 

Addison / 

scholars. Addison (1672 1719), who was ten years 
younger than Bentley, and died at the early age of 47, gives proof 
of a refined and tasteful interest in the Classics, not only in his 
Dialogues on Medals*, and his Remarks on Italy*, but also in his 
Latin Poems 5 and his literary criticisms on Homer 6 and Virgil 7 . 
Even his own writings have been described as ' sweet Virgilian 
prose' 8 . Classical poetry also finds its echo in Pope 
(1688 1744), the imitator of Horace's Satires and 
the translator of the Iliad (1720) and the Odyssey ( 1 7 2 5 f ). Shortly 
after the publication of Pope's Iliad, Bentley met the translator 
at bishop Atterbury's table, and told Pope ' that it was a very 

1 Monk, ii 50. 

2 A Narrative of the Life and Distresses of Simon Mason, Apothecary 
(Birmingham, s. a.), 76, says of Bentley: 'The Charities he did with his 
right Hand, were not known to his left ; his Alms were done in Secret 
that he might be rewarded openly'. On Bentley in general, cp. Life by 
J. H. Monk, 1830; ed. 2, 1833; Correspondence, ed. C. Wordsworth, 1842 ; 
six of Bentley's letters to Burman in 1703-24 in Haupt's Opuscula, iii 89 107 
(reprinted in A. A. Ellis, Bentleii Critica Sacra, 1862); F. A. Wolf in 
Lilt. Analekten (1816), reprinted in Kleine Schriften, ii 1030 1094; De 
Quincey's Works, ed. 1863, vi 35 180; Hartley Coleridge, Worthies of 
Yorkshire and Lancashire, 65 174 ; H. J. Nicoll's Great Scholars, 37 90; 
G. Hermann, Opusc. ii 263-8; Bernays, in Rhein. MHS. viii i 24; Jacob 
Maehly, Leipzig, 1868; R. C. Jebb in English A/en of Letters, 1882 (with 
literature in Prefatory Note), and in D. N. B. ', J. E. Sandys in Social 
England, v 59 70. Bibliography by A. T. Bartholomew and J. W. Clark, 
preliminary proof printed for private circulation, Cambridge, 1906. 

8 Works, ed. 1862, i 253355- 4 i 35<5 538. 

5 i 231252. 

6 e.g. in Taller, no. 152, and Spectator, nos. 273, 417. 

7 Essay on the Georgics, 1693 ( Works, i 154 f) ; Taller, no. 154 ; Guardian, 
no. 138; Discourse on Ancient and Modern Learning, v 214; Dissertatio de 
Insignioribtis Rotnanis Poe'lis, vi 587 f. 

8 Works, i 231 (a phrase of Dr Edward Young's). 


pretty poem, but that he must not call it Homer \ and Bentley, 
later in life, when asked the cause of Pope's dislike (as shown in 
the Dunciad}, replied : ' I talked against his Homer, and the 
portentous cub never forgives' 1 . It has aptly been observed by 
Matthew Arnold that ' between Pope and Homer there is in- 
terposed the mist of Pope's literary artificial manner ' ; ' Pope 
certainly had a quick and darting spirit, as he had, also, real 
nobleness ; yet Pope does not render the movement of Homer' 2 . 
The best-known line in the translation of the Odyssey is preceded 
by one that owes its existence to the necessities of rhyme alone : 

' True friendship's laws are by this rule exprest, 
Welcome the coming, speed the parting guest' 3 . 

Joseph Spence (1699 1768), a friend of Pope, was a Fellow 
of New College, Oxford, and travelled extensively 
in Europe. He exchanged the Professorship of 
Poetry for a sinecure Professorship of History, and devoted his 
leisure to the preparation of his Fotytnefis*, a treatise on Classical 
Art and Mythology, which Lessing frequently criticises in the 
Laokoon, while he fully admits the author's learning and his 
familiarity with extant works of ancient art 5 . 

Among the minor contemporaries of Bentley was Michael 
Maittaire(i668 1747), a native of France, educated 
at Westminster and Oxford. As a master at West- 
minster, he wrote on the Greek dialects (1706), and on the History 
of Printing 6 , besides editing for scholastic purposes no less than 
thirty-three volumes of the Greek and Latin Classics (iyn-33) 7 . 
His northern contemporary, Thomas Ruddiman 

. . Ruddiman 

(1674 1757) of Aberdeen, a printer, bookseller 
and librarian in Edinburgh, deserves honourable mention for his 
Rudiments of the Latin Tongue (1714), and his Grawmaticac 
Latinae Institiitiones (1725-31). The former work passed through 

1 Monk, ii 372. 

2 On Translating Homer, n, 68 ; also 19, 21 f, 66, ed. 1896. 

3 Od. xv 74. " 1747; ed. -2, 1755. 

5 pp. 90, 97, 103, 114, 124 IT, ed. Bliimner. 

6 Stephanorum Historia, 1709; Hist, lypographorum Paris., 1717; Annales 
Typographic^ 1719-25. 

7 Charles, Dissertation, 1839. 


fifteen editions during the author's life-time, and long remained in 
use in the schools of Scotland. The second part of his Institutiones 
was the best work of the time on the subject of Syntax. He also 
wrote on the true method of teaching Latin (1733). His master- 
piece in printing was his edition of Livy (1751). His edition of 
the Latin works of Buchanan (1715) brought him into con- 
troversy with those who agreed with that historian's political 
opinions, which differed from his own ; but even controversy 
failed to affect the serenity of his temper. ' In person he was 
of middle height, thin and straight, and had eyes remarkably 
piercing". In the opinion of the writer just quoted, he was 'one 
of the best men who ever lived' 2 . 

Among Bentley's immediate friends was Joseph Wasse (1672 
1738), Fellow of Queens', the editor of Sallust 3 and 


Thucydides 4 , of whom Bentley said : ' When I am 
dead, Wasse will be the most learned man in England' 5 . Bentley 
survived him by four years ; and lived ten years longer than his 

younger friend John Davies (1679 1732), Fellow 


and afterwards President of Queens', who, besides 
editing Caesar, Minucius Felix, and Maximus Tyrius, made his 
mark as a commentator on many of the philosophical works of 
Cicero 6 . To his edition of the Tusculan Disputations an important 
Appendix was contributed by Bentley 7 , to whom he dedicated his 
edition of the De Natura Deorum*. The De Oratore, De Officiis, 
and 'Longinus' were ably edited by Zachary Pearce (1690 
1774), Fellow of Trinity, and ultimately bishop of Rochester. 
Among Bentley's contemporaries at Cambridge were William 

Whiston (1667 1752), Fellow of Clare, a mathe- 
wfiddieton matician and divine of ' very uncommon parts 

and more uncommon learning, but of a singular 
and extraordinary character' 9 , now best known as the translator 

1 H. J. Nicoll, Great Scholars, 199. 2 Cp. Life by G. Chalmers, 1794. 

3 1 710, founded on the collation of 80 MSS. 

4 Incorporated in Duker's ed. (1731), p. 447 infra. 

5 Nichols, Literary Anecaotes, i 263. ' Kuster, Burmnn, Wasse' in Pope's 
Duitciad, iv 237. 

6 Tusf. Disp., De Nat. Dear., De Divin., Acad., De Legibus, De Finibus. 

7 p. 406 supra. 8 Monk, i 223, ii 115. 
9 Nichols, i 494 506, with portrait. 


of Josephus, and Dr Conyers Middleton (1683 1750), one of 
Bentley's opponents, the author of the Life of Cicero. Bentley 
had friendly relations with Dr Samuel Clarke 

S. Clarke 

( l6 75 !7 2 9) of Gonville and Caius College, who, 

in two passages of his Caesar (1712), expresses his admiration of 

the great critic 1 , and, in one of his latest notes on the Jliad, 

draws attention to Bentley's discovery of the digamma*. Another 

contemporary, Peter Needham (1680 1731), 

Fellow of St John's, who had edited the Gevponica, 

produced, with Bentley's aid, an edition of the Commentary of 

Hierocles on the 'Golden Verses of Pythagoras' (1709), which 

was partly superseded by that of Richard Warren, Fellow of 

Jesus College (i742) 3 . Needham had meanwhile published a 

variorum edition of the Characters of Theophrastus. 

Bentley was on friendly terms with Jeremiah Markland 
(1693 1776), Fellow of Peterhouse, who, in his 


earliest work, the Epistola Cntica on Horace, shows 
the highest appreciation of Bentley (i723) 4 . Markland produced 
an important edition of the Sylvae of Statius (1728). In his 
Remarks on the Epistles of Cicero to Bruttis (1745), he recorded 
his entire agreement with the doubts as to the genuineness of 
those Epistles, and of the Speeches post Reditum, which had been 
expressed by James Tunstall (1708 1762), Fellow and Tutor of 
St John's, and Public Orator 5 . Markland (besides contributing 
to Taylor's Lysias) edited the Supplices of Euripides (1763) and 
the two Iphigeneias (1768). He dedicated the first of these 
three plays to Hemsterhuys and Wesseling, and wrote in his own 
copy : ' probably it will be a long time before this sort of 
Learning will revive in England'". During his travels abroad, he 
met D'Orville, the eminent geographer, in Amsterdam ; and he 
was familiar with the works of J. M. Gesner, whom he closely 
resembled in personal appearance. He twice declined the Regius 
Professorship of Greek, and, at the age of sixty, withdrew to 

1 Monk, i 336 f. 2 Monk, ii 263. 

3 Monk, i 226 f. 4 Monk, ii 169. 

5 Cic. ad Alt. et Q.fratrem (1741) ; 'Observations' on the correspondence 
between Cic. and Brutus (1745). See, in general, Nichols, v 412-4. 
8 Nichols, iv 288. 


Milton Court, near Dorking, where he lived in feeble health for 
the last twenty-five years of his life. His best work as a Scholar 
was characterised by a peculiar combination of caution and 
boldness 1 . In the opinion of Elmsley, who belongs to the next 

' He was endowed with a respectable portion of judgment and sagacity. 
He was very laborious, loved retirement, and spent a long life in the study of 
the Greek and Latin languages. For modesty, candour, literary honesty and 
courteousness to scholars, he is justly considered as the model which ought to 
be proposed for the imitation of every critic ' 2 . 

Markland's Cambridge friend, John Taylor (1704 1766), was 
Fellow of St John's and successively Librarian 


(1731-4) and Registrary (1734-51) of the university. 
He is best known as an editor of Lysias 3 , and of part of 
Demosthenes 4 . He was the first to publish and expound the 
important inscription recording the accounts of the Delian Temple 
m 377-4 B - c - 5 For thirty years he resided continuously in 
College. ' Taylor's friend ', George Ashby, says : 

' If you called on him in College after dinner, you were sure to find him 
sitting at an old oval walnut-tree table entirely covered with books' ... ; 'and 
he instantly appeared as cheerful, good-humoured, and dcgage, as if he had 
not been at all engaged or interrupted.' 'He understood perfectly, as a 
gentleman and a scholar, all that belongs to making a book handsome, as 
the choice of paper, types, and the disposition of text, version, and notes.' 
'He was grand in his looks, yet affable, flowing and polite.' 6 Dr Johnson, 
who was far less familiar with him, said : ' Demosthenes Tay/0r...\va.s the most 
silent man, the merest statue of a man, that I have ever seen ' 7 . 

He was ordained at the age of 43, and was Rector of Lawford in 
Essex from 1751 to his death. He left his MSS to Askew, and 

1 F. A. Wolf, Kleine Schriften, 1104. 

2 Quarterly Rev. 1812, 442. Cp. Nichols, Lit. Anecd. iv 272 362, 657 f, 
with portrait, and vii 249 f (index). F. A. Wolf, /. f., 1096 mo; E. H. 
Barker, Parriana, ii 241 f. 

3 410, 1739; 8vo > I 74- 

4 vol. iii, 1748 ; ii, 1757 ; i never appeared. 

6 Marmor Sandvicense (1743); now in the vestibule of Trinity Library; 
cp. Nichols, iv 497 ; Hicks, Gk Hist. Inscr. no. 82. 

6 Nichols, Literary Anecdotes, iv 490 535, 662 f (reprinted separately, 
1819) ; R. F. Scott, St John's Coll. Admissions (1903), 339 f. Cp. E. H. 
Barker's Parriana, ii 220 231. 

7 Boswell, 25 Apr. 1778. 


many of his books to his former school Shrewsbury. He took 
part in the English edition of the Latin Thesaurus of Robert 
Stephanus, much augmented and amended by the Rev. Edm. Law, 
Fellow of Christ's 1 , the Rev. T. Johnson, Fellow of Magdalene, 
and Sandys Hutchinson, Librarian of Trinity (1735). In the 
very next year Robert Ainsworth (1660 1743) produced his 
' Compendious Dictionary of the Latin Tongue ', on the same 
general plan as Faber's Thesaurus 2 . It passed through at least 
five editions, the fourth being revised by William Young, the 
original of Fielding's ' Parson Adams '. 

Among the earliest productions of Richard Dawes (1709 
1766), Fellow of Emmanuel, was a Greek eclogue 
on the death of George I (1727), followed by a 
specimen of a proposed translation of Paradise Lost into Greek 
hexameters (i736) 3 . In a note to the latter he adroitly applied 
to the criticism of a passage in Bentley's singular edition of 
Milton's great epic 4 one of Bentley's own comments on Horace 5 . 
He was a diligent student of Bentley's Terence and of the 
accompanying schediasma. In 1/38 he became master of the 
grammar-school at Newcastle upon Tyne, and in 1745 he had the 
satisfaction of seeing his Miscellanea Critica published by the 
Cambridge Press : 

The work is in five parts : (i) corrections of Terentianus Maurus ; 
(2) criticisms on Oxford editors of Pindar ; (3) Greek pronunciation ; 
differences between Attic and Ionic futures, and between the subj. and 
opt. ; and corrections of Callimachus ; (4) the digamma (5) ictus in 
Attic poets, and emendations of the Dramatists. 

It is on this work that his reputation rests. His conjectures on 
Aristophanes have left their mark on Brunck's edition, and many 
of them have been confirmed by the Ravenna MS. He is best 
known in connexion with ' Dawes's Canon ', which declared that 
the first aorist subjunctive, active and middle, was a solecism 
after oVw<; /A?; 6 and ou 7 . In all such cases he insisted on 

1 Educated at St John's ; afterwards Master of Peterhouse, and Bp of 
Carlisle (cp. Nichols, Lit. Anecd. ii 65 72). 

2 Nichols, v 248 254. 

3 Cp. Kidd's ed. of the Misc. Crit. (1817), init. 

4 P. L. i 249 f. B Carm. i 7, 27. 

6 Misc. Crit. ed. Oxon. p. 227 (Ar. Nub. 822). 7 ib. p. 221 (Nub. 366). 


altering the first aorist subjunctive into the. future indicative. 
The fact is that, owing to the similarity in form between 
these subjunctive aorists and the future indicative, the second 
aorist was preferred to the first, if both were in use 1 . Dawes 
repeatedly criticises Bentley 2 , who had died three years before 
the publication of the work. It passed through five editions, 
but the author failed to produce his promised recensions of 
Homer and Pindar and the Attic poets. Meanwhile, he satiri- 
cally described his former pupil, Anthony Askew of Emmanuel 
(1722-74), as ' Aeschyli editionis promissor' 3 . Though Askew 
never edited Aeschylus, he collected Greek and Latin inscriptions 
and left behind him an extensive library of classical MSS and of 
rare editions. As master of the school at Newcastle, Dawes 
quarrelled with the Town Council (he even taught his boys that 
the proper translation of ovos was Alderman], but he ultimately 
retired on a pension in 1748. A stalwart man with flowing snow- 
white hair, he spent most of his time in rowing on the Tyne, but 
there is no record of his producing any classical work in the 
eighteen years that elapsed between the date of his retirement 
and that of his death 4 . He is honourably mentioned by Cobet, 
together with Bentley and Person, Elmsley and Dobree, as one 
of those Englishmen, from whose writings, ' non tantum locis 
corruptis clara lux affulget sed paulatim addiscitur ars quaedam, 
qua verum cernere et eruere et ipse possis' 5 . 

His contemporary, James Harris (1709 1780), is well known 
as the author of Hermes and of the Philosophical Inquiries. 

Among the poetic translators of the age was Christopher Pitt 
(1699 1748), of Winchester and New, who pro- 
duced a successful rendering 'of the Aeneid (1740) 

1 Goodwin, Moods and Tenses, 363 f, and Trans. Arner. Philol. Assoc. 
1869^ 46 55 ; cp. Hermann, Opusc. vi 91 f. 2 pp. 261, 313 etc. 

3 Advt in Newcastle Coiirant, 10 Oct. to 14 Nov. 1747 (Giles, p. 66). 
He collected all the editions, and, while still a student at Leyden, dedicated 
to Dr Mead a Specimen of his proposed work (1746). He is regarded as one 
of the founders of Bibliomania in England (Allibone, s. z>.). Cp. Nichols, 
iii 494-7, iv 725. His portrait in Emmanuel is engraved in Dibdin's Typo- 
graphical Antiquities, vol. ii. 

4 P. Giles, in Emm. Coll. Mag., v (2) 49 69; Monk's Bentley, ii 367 f. 
6 Or. Je Arte Interprelandi (1847), 136. 


and an interesting version of Vida's Art of Poetry^. The poet, 
Thomas Gray (1716 1771) of Eton and Peter- 
house, who migrated to Pembroke in 1756, wrote 
his Latin ode on the Grande Chartreuse during his early travels 
abroad. His notes on Linnaeus were mainly written in Latin 2 . 
As a scholar of a wide range of reading he was a specially diligent 
student of Plato, and not a few of his notes 3 are quoted in 
Thompson's Gorgias. He was mentioned by Parr among the 
few persons in England who ' well understood ' Plato. Another 
of these was Floyer Sydenham (1710 1787), Fellow 
of Wadham, the translator of the whole of Plato 
(1759-80)". His contemporary, Richard Hurd (17201808), 
Fellow of Emmanuel, produced an aesthetic commentary on 
Horace's Ars Poetica (1749) and the Epistola ad Augustum 
(1751), which was translated into German. The former date 
marks the beginning of his friendship with Warburton (1698 
1779), who discourses at large on the sixth Aeneid in connexion 
with his paradoxical work on the Legation of Moses (1737-41), 
and borrows largely from Meursius in his account of the Eleusinian 

We may next notice a group of three Greek Scholars, all of them 
associated in various ways with Exeter. Benjamin 
Heath (1704 1766), town-clerk of Exeter, pub- 
lished notes on Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides in 1762, 
and received an honorary degree at Oxford in the same year. 
He has been recognised as one of the ablest of English editors of 
Aeschylus 5 . The latest English editor of Sophocles has described 
him as 'a critic of fine insight and delicate taste' 6 . He also left 
manuscript notes on Latin poets, and was interested in the English 
dramatists. Jonathan Toup(i7i3 1785) of Exeter 
College, Oxford, did much for the criticism of 

1 Nichol.s, ii 260 f. For Vincent Bourne, see Addendum on p. 439. 
- C. E. Norton, Gray as a Naturalist, with facsimiles of his notes and 
his drawings (Boston, 1903). 

3 Gray's Works, ed. Gosse (1884), iv 67 338. 

4 Field's Life of Parr, ii 358. 

5 Eiim. ed. J. F. Davies, p. 32. 

6 Jebb's Introduction to text of Soph. (1897), xli. 

S. II. 27 


Su'idas 1 , and produced an edition of the treatise On the Sublime 
(1778), which gave Porson the first impulse to classical criticism. 
He also contributed to Thomas Warton's Theocritus (1770). 
Reiske contrasts the urbanity of Warton with the truculence of 
Toup a , while Wyttenbach says of Markland and Toup, 'ilium 
ratione, hunc ingenio Criticam factitare' 3 . 'He was less happy 
in conjecturing than in defending his conjectures, and in this he 
resembled his great master Bentley, whose very errors were 
instructive' 4 . He was 'not wholly untinctured with that self- 
complacency, which is the almost inseparable companion of too 
much solitude' 5 . The tablet placed in the church at East Looe 
by the Delegates of the Clarendon Press assures us that ' his 
abilities and critical sagacity ' were ' known to the learned through- 
out Europe ' 6 . As a prebendary of Exeter for the last eleven years 
of his life, he survived his younger contemporary, a physician of 
Exeter, Samuel Musgrave (1732 1780), M.D. of 


Leyden and Oxford, who counted Ruhnken 7 , 
Ernesti 8 , and Schweighauser 9 among his correspondents. He 
visited Paris to collate* MSS for his edition of the Hippolytus 
(i756) 10 , and his ' Exercitations ' on Euripides were published in 
the same year as the notes of his fellow-townsman, Heath, on all 
the Tragic poets (1762). He visited Paris again in 1763-4, and 
was well known to the leading scholars there ; Jean Capperonnier 
refers to him in terms of gratitude. Meanwhile, he had edited 
the whole of Euripides in 1778. The popular edition of Sophocles 
was that of Thomas Johnson (1675 I 75)j f Eton and Brent- 
ford, a capable, diligent and careful scholar, who died in great 
poverty 11 . This edition was published in three volumes (1705-46), 
and was twice reprinted after his death. Musgrave's comments 
on the poet were incorporated in the Oxford edition of 1800. 

1 Emendationes, 1760-6; Ep. Crit. 1767; Cttrae Novissimae, 1775. 

2 Reiske to Askew; Mant's Life of T. Warton, \ xlvi. 

8 Vita Ruhnk. 218. 4 Gentleman's Mag. l.v 340. 

5 Nichols, ii 341. 

6 Nichols, ii 339 346, 427, iii 58; Barker's Parriana, ii 236 f; Johnstone's 
Mem. of Parr, i 534. 

7 Vita, 71, and Ep. 9 Jul. 1780. 

8 Corresp. ed. Tittmann, 55 62. 9 Cp. Bibl. Crit. II ii i;7- 

10 Nichols, iv 285. u Jebb, Introd. to text of Soph, xxxviii. 


Two years before Musgrave's death. Apollonius Rhodius had been edited 

at Oxford in 1778 by Thomas Shaw, Fellow of Magdalen, 

T. Shaw 
who is said to have found the earliest recognition of his work 

in a notice of one of his conjectures, followed by the words pittide Shavius^. 
This is probably only a pleasantry of the Oxford wits of the day, who also 
made sport of the Latin version of the name of his more distinguished name- 
sake, the Fellow of Queen's and professor of Greek (i747-5i) 2 . The criticism 
is not due to Brunck, who in his Apollonius Rhodius (1/80) is sufficiently 
severe on the Oxford editor, but always calls him Shaw. The next year saw 
the publication of an English commentary on the Ion and Bacchae (1781) by 
Richard Paul Joddrell (1/45 -1831), followed by the Alcestis 
in 1790. The best part of these 'Illustrations of Euripides' 
is the archaeological introduction to the Bacchae. 

Oxford was far more ably represented in the same age by the 
widely accomplished scholar, Thomas Tyrwhitt 
(1730 1786). Educated at Eton and Queen's, 
he was a Fellow of Merton (1755-62), and Clerk to the House 
of Commons (1762-8). He is credited with an 'unlimited be- 
nevolence ', and a knowledge of ' almost every European tongue ', 
and is celebrated as an editor of Chaucer, a critic of Shakespeare, 
and as the principal detector of the forgeries of Chatterton. He 
contributed a critical appendix to Musgrave's ' Exercitations ' on 
Euripides. In 1776, following in the track of Bentley, he detected 
further traces of Babrius in the 'Fables of Aesop'. In 1781, he 
boldly assigned to the age of Constantius (357) the Orphic poem 
De L.apidibus, and his edition of that poem received the rare 
distinction of a review by Ruhnken 3 . A cursory perusal of Strabo 
led to his publishing a number of corrections of the text (1783). 
Further, he was the first to publish, from a MS in Florence, the 
Speech of Isaeus 'on the Inheritance of Menecles' (1785). He 
also prepared an able edition of Aristotle's Treatise on Poetry, 
with critical notes and Latin translation, which was first published 
in 1794, eight years after his death. All his works are characterised 
by wide reading, and by critical acumen 4 . It was partly in re- 

1 Chr. Wordsworth's Scholae Academicae, 94 n. i ; Tuckwell's Reminis- 
cences, 131 (where ' Boeckh ' is mentioned by an error of memory). 
- Wordsworth, 168. 

3 Bibliothcca Critica, iv 85 f; and Ep. 9 Jan. 1783 (Wordsworth's Scholae, 

93 ". 5). 

4 Gentleman 's Mag. LVI (2) 717; Nichol, iii 147 151 ; Wolf, Kl. Schr. 

27 2 


cognition of his own earlier work that, in 1786, he received from 
Brunck the flattering assurance that England was ' le pays de 
1'Europe ou la litterature grecque est la plus florissante". 

Between Tyrwhitt's death in 1786 and the publication, in 
1794, of his edition of Aristotle's treatise, an important English 
translation of the same work with ' notes on the translation and 
on the original ', and ' two dissertations on poetical, and musical, 

imitation', was produced in 1789 by the Rev. 

Thomas Twining (17351804), late Fellow of 
Sidney Sussex, Cambridge, who had sole charge at Fordham, 
near Colchester, from 1764, and was Rector of St Mary's, 
Colchester, for the last sixteen years of his life. He had no 
aptitude for the trade in tea for which his family has long been 
famous, his main interest being in literature and music. Before 
going to Cambridge, he had learnt Latin and Greek in the family 
of a Colchester clergyman, where his sole fellow-student in those 
languages was his tutor's daughter, his future wife. On his 
marriage in 1766, he wrote his wife's name in the first leaf of the 
household account-book, adding the date, and a quotation from 
Tibullus : ////' sint omnia curae, Et juvet in tota me nikil esse domo. 
His English rendering and his suggestive notes on Aristotle were 
prepared in his study at Fordham, an ' extremely cheerful and 
pleasant' room, 'looking into a garden of sweets 12 . His boat on 
the piece of water at the parsonage prompts him to write an 
English imitation of the Dedicatio Phaseli of Catullus 3 . He is 
delighted with the vignettes in a new edition of his favourite 
Tibullus, which he describes as ' by far the most elegant German 
book ' he had ever seen 4 . He says of Pindar : 

' There are here and there fine poetical strokes in him, and moral maxims 
well expressed; but he is very unequal, often very tiresome, very obscure, and 
to us moderns very uninteresting.... He is one of those ancient authors, 

1111-3; and D.N.B. His portrait is prefixed to his quarto edition of 

1 Luard in Camb. Essays, 1857, 125. 

2 Recreations and Studies of a Country Clergyman of the Eighteenth 
Century, being selections from the Correspondence of Thomas Twining, 
edited by his grand-nephew, Richard (1882-3). 

3 ib. 240 f. . 4 ib. 71 (17/9). 


whose real merit falls short of their echoed character. He is sometimes 
bombastic, and sometimes prosaic 1 '. 'There is no appearance of art in 
Demosthenes: in Cicero a great deal too much' 2 . 

He delights in Tyrwhitt's edition of Chaucer 3 . In preparing his 
own work on Aristotle's Ars Poetica, he writes to Charles Burney 
in 1786 : 

' The extreme depravation of the text, its obscurities and ambiguities, are 
such that I have been forced to give up a greater portion of my comment to 
philological disquisitions than I could have wished ; and a great part of my 
pains have been employed in proving passages to be unintelligible. But what 
then ? When people fancy they understand what they do not, it is doing 
some good to show them that they do not. It is some use to pull down what 
is wrong, if one can't build up what is right' 4 . 

He sends Heyne a presentation copy of his translation, writes a 
Latin letter suggesting a correction of Odyssey, xi 584, and 
receives a flattering reply from the Gottingen professor 5 . His 
English correspondence gives proof of his interest in the Greek 
Drama and in Greek Music 6 , and in many other matters un- 
connected with the Classics. His intimate friends included 
Ur Burney and Dr Parr. 

Parr wrote in his presentation copy of the Aristotle : ' The gift of the 
author, whom I am proud and happy to call my friend, because he is one 
of the best scholars now living, and one of the best men that ever lived' 7 . 
Parr also wrote his epitaph : ' Viro, in quo doctrina inerat multiplex et 
recondita, ingenium elegans et acutum, scribendi genus non exile spino- 
sumque, sed accuratum et exquisitum, in rebus quae ad artem criticam 
pertinent explicandis sermo sine aculeo et maledictis facetus et sapore paene 
proprio Athenarum imbutus' 8 . 

The writer of this tribute of friendship, Samuel Parr (1747 
1825) of Harrow and Emmanuel, was head-master 
of three schools in succession, at Stanmore, Col- 
chester, and Norwich, and, from 1785 to his death, perpetual 
curate and private tutor at Hatton in Warwickshire, where he 
built himself a library, which contained more than 10,000 volumes. 

i ib. 1 80 f (i 793). 2 il,. 193. 

3 U>. 229. 4 ib. 140. 

5 !/>. 246 257 (oreDro 5e di\f/duv iruflv, of'd' flxfv \foOai). 

6 ib. 14, 26. 7 ib. 10 (1790). 

8 Johnstone's Memoirs of Parr, iv 597, viii 584 ; engraved portrait in 
Sidney Sussex College. 


He attained considerable distinction as a writer of Latin Prose. 
His stately epitaphs and his other Latin inscriptions 1 were con- 
fessedly modelled mainly on the contemporary works of Morcelli 2 . 
Writing to Edward Maltby, he says: 'In Westminster Abbey 
I do not know one inscription that is formed upon the models of 
antiquity; and even in Oxford I have met only with one which 
resembles them ' 3 . 'It is all very well to say that So-and-so is a 
good scholar ', said Samuel Parr to Samuel Butler of Shrewsbury, 
' but can he write an inscription ?'* In 1 787 he reprinted a treatise 
on Cicero written by William Bellenden (fl. i6i6) 5 , who had 
apparently proposed to add an account of Seneca and the Elder 
Pliny, and thus complete his work ' De tribus Luminibus Romano- 
rum '. Parr prefixed to his reprint a long Latin preface on the 
' Three Lights of Britain ', Lord North, Fox, and Burke. The 
preface is modelled on Cicero and Quintilian, and references to 
the numerous passages borrowed from those writers are added in 
the margin 6 . In the generation immediately succeeding the 
author's death, this preface used to be studied in Cambridge as 
an accepted model of modern Latin Prose 7 . While Person was 
still living, Sydney Smith called Parr ' by far the most learned 
man of his day'; and Parr admitted Person's superiority to 
himself in Attic Greek alone. ' Person ', he once observed to a 
friend, with whom he was out riding, ' has more Greek, but no 
man's horse, John, carries more Latin than mine' 8 . Another of 
his well-known sayings was 'Person first, Burney third' 9 . He 
sent an able Latin scholar, Mr James Pillans of Edinburgh, a 

1 94 in Johnstone's Memoirs, iv 558 655 ; cp. ib. 677 f, and viii 555 656; 
also Barker's Parriana, i 524, 526; Johnstone's Memoirs, i 755 f; Blunt's 
Essays, 244 f. Parr wrote his own epitaph in English. 

2 p. 382 supra. See Johnstone's Memoirs, \ 758. 

3 Johnstone, i 758. 4 S. Butler's Life and Letters, i 255 q. v. 
5 Copied by Middleton in his Life of Cicero (1741) ; Nichols, v 414-7. 

8 Parriana, i 523 n ; ii 147 152 ; Memoirs, i 180 206. 

7 Pryme's Reminiscences, 136 ; Wordsworth's Scholae Academicae, 100. 
My copy belonged to James Hildyard of Christ's in 1829, and to W. H. 
Bateson, from 1848, the year of his election as Public Orator. F. A. Wolf, 
Kl. Schr. ii 1 1 14 n, describes Parr as exhibiting, in his Latin prose, mehr echt- 
Romische Farbe than most Englishmen. Parr himself preferred Ernesti's and 
Ruhnken's Latin to that of Heyne (Parriana, ii 99). 

8 Parriana, i 522. 9 ib. i 521 f; ii 723, 


monograph on the subjunctive mood 1 which fills more than 
twenty pages of print. It was by the advice of Parr that in 1791 
Samuel Butler, then entered at Christ Church, was transferred to 
St John's College, Cambridge ; it was also by his advice, supported 
by that of Person, that, in 1805, another eminent head-master, of 
the same surname, but of another family, George Butler, was 
appointed Joseph Drury's successor at Harrow. Parr migrated 
from Emmanuel to St John's, where one of his portraits is 
preserved 2 . He was not satisfied with any of them: 'All the 
artists ', he remarked, ' fail in one feature none of them give me 
my peculiar ferocity' 3 . Notwithstanding his extensive erudition, 
he accomplished little that was of permanent importance, but he 
freely lavished his advice and his aid on others, and thus enabled 
them to accomplish what they could not otherwise have done 4 . 
Person spent the winter of 1790-1 at Hatton, enriching his mind 
with the vast stores of Parr's library. ' As a classical scholar he 
was supreme... Pre-eminent in learning, ...he was... most liberal 
in communicating it '. Such is the language of the frank and 
honest funeral-sermon preached by Samuel Butler ; he has since 
been described by one, who has surveyed all the literature of the 
subject, as ' one of the kindest hearted and best read Englishmen ' 
of his generation 5 ; while Macaulay has characterised his 'vast 
treasure of erudition ' as ' too often buried in the earth, too often 
paraded with injudicious and inelegant ostentation, but still 
precious, massive, and splendid ' 6 . 

One of his faithful friends was Henry Homer (17531/91), Fellow of 
Emmanuel, who aided him in the revision of his preface to 
Bellenden. lie was so modest a man that he never published 

1 Works, ed. Johnstone, viii 533 554. 

2 The author once showed this portrait (in 1891) to a lady (Miss Ilorner, 
of Florence), who perfectly remembered ' sitting next to Dr Parr, at the 
christening of her younger brother'. 

3 Nicoll, 183. 4 i