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Full text of "History of Clearfield County, Pennsylvania : with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers"

UNIVERSITY 
OF PITTSBURGH 



'781 ~ 



LIBRARY 



HISTORY 



OF 



CLEARFIELD COUNTY 

PENNSYLVANIA 

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 
OF SOME OF ITS PROMINENT MEN AND PIONEERS 

EDITED BY 

LEWIS CASS ALDRICH 



SYRACUSE, N. Y. 
D. MASON & CO., PUBLISHERS 

1887 



2)a.Y 
CL53A5 



PRESS OF D. MASON & CO. 

63 WEST WATER ST., 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



INTRODUCTION. 



TO a person unacquainted with the detail of a history of any county, a very 
inadequate idea of its scope can be conveyed by the expression, a History 
of Clearfield County. Were this work to be devoted alone to a narrative of the 
events of the county, it would occupy a volume much less in size than this; but 
when we come to consider the vast and varied interests of Clearfield county, 
and its large area, then we may know that the work is not over- sized. In its 
compilation great care has been exercised to insure correctness in general and 
in detail ; nevertheless it would be a surprising fact, a thing unprecedented, 
should there be found within its covers not a single error. In its preparation 
the compiler has sought, and had the assistance of a number of the most capable 
writers of the county, who, by their contributions and efforts, have helped to 
make this history what it is. And there are others, too, who have freely 
furnished every information requested of them, and made many valuable sug- 
gestions, all of which have materially facilitated the work of the editor. 

Our obligation of thanks is due to many, and among them there may be 
selected some of whom special mention should be made. To Hon. George R. 
and Colonel Walter Barrett, for assistance and courtesy uniformly extended, 
and for the use of a large and excellent library ; to Hon. Joseph B. McEnally, 
for like kindness ; to John Franklin Snyder, esq., for a most carefully prepared 
chapter on Education ; to Daniel W. Moore, for a chapter on the Press; to Dr. 
Preston Wilson, for the chapter on the Medical Profession; to the Rev. Abram 
S. R. Richards, of Osceola Mills, for several valuable chapters ; to Peter S. 
Weber, of Du Bois; A. Judson Smith, of New Millport; Captain James Dowler, 
of Burnside; Alonzo Potter MacLeod, esq., of Coalport ; R. D. Swoope, esq., 
of Curwensville, and others, in various portions of the county, for the contri- 
bution of valuable and well-written chapters. In addition to these, thanks are 



Introduction. 



due to the press of the county ; and also to the people, generally, who, by 
material encouragement and support, have helped to make this work not only 
a success, but possible. 

The volume now is before the public, and of its merits and imperfections 
the people of the county are to judge. Possibly some things are omitted that 
•should have been stated, and possibly some things that are stated might better 
have been omitted. Should there be a fault it cannot be laid at the door of 
those who have aided the work, or contributed to its pages. Nothing has been 
said through envy, malice or hatred, but in entire fairness toward all, and with 
a desire to record the events as they have occurred. 

With these thoughts the Memorial History of Clearfield County is placed 
before the people by the editor, and the pubHshers. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL GEOGRAPHICAL VIEW. 

The Subject — Formation — Geographical and Topographical — Mountains — Rivers — 

Natural Characteristics 13 

CHAPTER n. 

INDIAN OCCUPATION. 

Indian Occupation — The Lenni Lenapes — Their Origin — Country Occupied by Them — 
The Iroquois — Their Clan System — The Five Nations — The Lenapes Conquered — 
The Delawares — Other Tribes — Iroquois Successful — The Six Nations — Shawnees 17 

CHAPTER HI. 

THE INDIANS IN THE FRENCH WAR. 

The French and Enghsh War — Disposition of the Indians — Erection of Forts — Fort 
Augusta — Events Along the West Branch — Scenes at Chinckeclamousche — Sum- 
mary — Close of the War 23 

CHAPTER IV. 

WARS WITH THE INDIANS. 

Pontiac's War- — The League — Depredations on the Frontier — Forts Taken — Indians 
Driven Back — The Treaty of Peace — Threatenings of an Outbreak — Departure of 
the Moravians — Incidents — The Cresap War — Logan 31 

CHAPTER V. 

THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 

The Revolutionary War — Action of the Crown — The Colonies Determined — The Out- 
break — The Indians Hostile — Six Nations Divided — Depredations — Defenses — 

Struggles — Close of the War 37 

2 



Contents. 



CHAPTER VI. 

EARLY LAND OPERATIONS. 

Land Titles — Penn's Charter — Naming the Province — Treaties with Indians — Acquisi- 
tion of Lands to the Proprietaries — Boundaries — The Divesting Act— Surveys — 
Owners — The Holland Land Company 43 

CHAPTER Vn. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

Early Settlements — Territory Divided — The First Settlers — Difference of Opinion — 
The First Mill— First Marriage — First Child Born — The Christening — Other 
Settlements — Settlement Down to 1810 50 

CHAPTER Vni. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 

Erection of the County — Boundaries — An Error — Jurisdiction of Centre County Officers 
Extended Over this County — The Governor's Order — Proceedings of the Com- 
missioners — County Seat Fixed at Clearfield — Election Districts — Return of Tax- 
ables — The First Townships — Population — Act of 1812 — The Civil Organization 
Completed — Subsequent Townships — Erection of Elk County — Townships Taken 
from Clearfield County 64 

CHAPTER IX. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND COURTS. 

Plan of the County Seat — Lots Donated for Public Buildings — The Old Log Jail — The 
Jail Built in 1841-2 — The Present Jail — Its Cost — The First Court-House — 
Description — Important Cases Tried Therein — The New Court-House Built — 
Courts in the Old Church — Court-House Remodeled and Additions Built — Some 
Leading Causes Recalled 73 

CHAPTER X. 

FROM 1810 TO 1843. 

Pioneer Settlements After 1810 — Population in 1810 — The First Murder — Events of 
the War of 1812-15 — Peace — Election Districts Prior to 1843 — Record of the 
Floods on the West Branch — The Pumpkin Flood — Drowning of John and Ellis 
<Traham — Gorges at the Pee Wee's Nest 82 

CHAPTER XI. 

LUMBER AND ROADS. 

The Lumbering Interests — Rafting and Floating — Turnpike and Road Companies — 

Railoads of the County 92 



Contents. 



CHAPTER XII. 
CLEAEFIELD'S MILITARY HISTORY 105 

CHAPTER XIII. 
GEOLOGY OF CLEARFIELD COUNTY 203 

CHAPTER XIV. 

A REVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COAL INTERESTS OF THE 

CELEBRATED HOUTZDALE-OSCEOLA-PHILIPSBURG REGION 215 

CHAPTER XV. 
BENCH AND BAR. 

History of the Courts — Supreme Court — Common Pleas — Other Courts — The Judiciary 

— The Bench and Bar of Clearfield County 233 

CHAPTER XVI. 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 256 

CHAPTER XVII. 

THE PRESS OF CLEARFIELD COUNTY 267 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

REVIEW OF THE ORIGIN, GROWTH, AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCA- 
TIONAL INTERESTS AND INSTITUTIONS OF CLEARFIELD COUNTY. ... 279 

CHAPTER XIX. 

POLITICAL HISTORY OF CLEARFIELD COUNTY 813 

CHAPTER XX. 
CIVIL LIST AND COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS 323 

CHAPTER XXI. 

HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH OF CLEARFIELD, THE SEAT OF JUSTICE OF 

CLEARFIELD COUNTY 331 



8 Contents. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH OF DU BOIS 376 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

HISTORY OF BECCARIA TOWNSHIP 407 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
HISTORY OF BELL TOWNSHIP 414 

CHAPTER XXV. 
HISTORY OF BIGLER TOWNSHIP 425 

CHAPTER XXVL 
HISTORY OF BLOOM TOWNSHIP 428 

CHAPTER XXVII. 
HISTORY OF BOGGS TOWNSHIP 434 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
HISTORY OF BRADFORD TOWNSHIP 444 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
HISTORY OF BRADY TOWNSHIP 455 

CHAPTER XXX. 
HISTORY OF BURNSIDE TOWNSHIP 478 

CHAPTER XXXI. 
HISTORY OF CHEST TOWNSHIP 495 

CHAPTER XXXII. 
HISTORY OF COVINGTON TOWNSHIP 501 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 
HISTORY OF COOPER TOWNSHIP 509 



Contents. 9 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

HISTORY OF DECATUR TOWNSHIP 511 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

HISTORY OF FERGUSON TOWNSHIP 523 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 
HISTORY OF GEULICH TOWNSHIP 531 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 
HISTORY OF GIRARD TOWNSHIP 537 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 
HISTORY OF GRAHAM TOWNSHIP 542 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 
HISTORY OF GOSHEN TOWNSHIP 546 

CHAPTER XL. 
HISTORY OF GREENWOOD TOWNSHIP 552 

CHAPTER XLI. 
HISTORY OF HUSTON TOWNSHIP 558 

CHAPTER XLII. 
HISTORY OF JORDAN TOWNSHIP 566 

CHAPTER XLIII. 
HISTORY OF KARTHAUS TOWNSHIP 577 

CHAPTER XLIV. 
HISTORY OF KNOX TOWNSHIP 586 

CHAPTER XLV. 
HISTORY OF LAWRENCE TOWNSHIP 591 



lo Contents. 

CHAPTER XLVI. 
HISTORY OF MORRIS TOWNSHIP 603 

CHAPTER XLVH. 

HISTORY OP PENN TOWNSHIP AND THE BOROUG-HS OF LUMBER CITY 

AND PENNVILLE 615- 

CHAPTER XLVni. 
HISTORY OF PIKE TOWNSHIP AND THE BOROUGH OF CURWENSVILLE. . 628. 

CHAPTER XLIX. 
HISTORY OF SANDY TOWNSHIP 645- 

CHAPTER L. 
HISTORY OF UNION TOWNSHIP 651' 

CHAPTER LI. 
HISTORY OF WOODWARD TOWNSHIP 658 

CHAPTER LH. 
BIOGRAPHICAL 674 

INDEX 725- 



Contents. 



II 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



Barrett, George Rodden 676 

Betts, Rev. Frederick G. 69 1 

Betts, William W 692 

Bigler, William 709 

Boynton, Jonathan 700 

Chase, John Mitchell 695 

Coudriet, Leon M. 703 

Dill, William H. 690 

Du Bois, John 719 

Forcey, Thomas H .702 

Goodlander, George Breon 698 

Hoyt, Hon. John P 689 

Irvin, Hon. Alexander 682 

Irvin, Col. E. A 674 

Irvin, Col. John ..701 

Irvin, William 684 



Irwin, Ellis 681 

McClosky, Isaac Crosby 675 

McEnally, Hon. Joseph Benson 696 

MahafFey, James 704 

Maxwell, James Andrew, M. D 682 

Murray, Alexander 687 

Murray, Thomas H. . 706 

Patchin, Aaron W 683 

Patton, Hon. John 679 

Porter, William 697 

Potter, Dr. Johnson W 688 

Shaw, Richard 685 

Shaw, Richard Henry 692 

Shaw, William M 694 

Stewart, Robert Shaw. .678 

Wilson, R. V - - - 705 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Barrett, George Rodden facing 242 

Betts, William W facing 334 

Bigler, William facing 314 

Boynton, Jonathan facing 700 



Chase, John Mitchell ..facing 658 

Coudriet, Leon M ..facing 538 

Dill, William H facing 356 

Du Bois, John facing 376 



Contents. 



Flynn, James facing 412 

Forcey, Thomas H.. facing 702 

Goodlander, George Breon. . .facing 358 

Hoyt, Hon. John P facing 688 

Irvin, Hon. Alexander facing 338 

Irvin, Col. E. A facing 120 

Irvin, Col. John facing 184 

Irvin, William facing 684 

Irwin, Ellis facing 548 

McClosky, Isaac Crosby facing 580 

McEnally, Hon. Jos. Benson.. facing 240 
Maxwell, Jas. Andrew, M.D. . .facing 632 
Murray, Alexander ...facing 540 



Murray, Thomas H. facing 250 

Patchin, Aaron W facing 490 

Patton, Hon. John facing 68a 

Porter, William facing 344. 

Potter, Dr. Johnson W facing 504 

Shaw, Richard facing 596 

Shaw, Richard Henry .facing 692 

Shaw, William M facing 360 

Stewart, Robert Shaw facing 544 

Wallace, William A ..facing 318 

Wilson, R. V facing 258 

Windsor House, View of.. 705 



HISTORY 



OF 



CLEARFIELD COUNTY 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL GEOGRAPHICAL VIEW. 



The Subject — Formation — Geographical and Topographical — Mountains — Rivers — Nat- 
ural Characteristics. 

THE history of Clearfield county properly begins at the time of its organ- 
ization, and a narrative of the events of the territory within its boundaries, 
prior to such organization, must be associated with the events of the older 
counties from which it was erected. 

Previous to the early part of the present century, Clearfield, as a county, 
was unknown — not even contemplated. In the year 1804, by the act of the 
State Legislature creating this county, the older counties of Lycoming and 
Huntingdon surrendered portions of their territory to the formation of the new. 
The county of Lycoming was formed from a part of the still older county of 
Northumberland, in the year 1795, while Huntingdon county was taken from 
Bedford in 1787, so that, in order to narrate the events of Clearfield county, or 
the territory embraced by it, prior to its civil organization, a much larger area 
must be included within the scope of its Indian and early occupation, that the 
•connection of events may be kept perfect ; in fact the aboriginal occupation of 
this region is inseparably connected with the whole West Branch valley of the 
Susquehanna river — it is auxiliary to, though not co-extensive with it. 

But, before going thoroughly into the subject of the Indian occupation, a 
geographical and topographical description of the county in general will serve 
to prepare the mind of the reader for such events as shall follow thereafter ; 
and, as the configuration of the surface has not materially changed since its 



14 History of Clearfield County. 

earliest occupancy, hundreds of years ago, this description may be given in the 
present tense. 

Geographically, Clearfield county lies on parallel 41° 4' north latitude, and 
longitude 1° 30' west from Washington, D. C, according to the reckoning of 
Darby. The point of intersection of these imaginary lines is near Clearfield 
borough, as now located. 

The county is bounded north by Elk and Cameron counties; east by Cen- 
tre and Clinton counties ; south by Cambria county, and west by Jefferson and 
Indiana counties. The average length from north to south is about thirty-six 
and eighty-five hundredths miles, with an average breadth of about forty and 
five-tenths miles, containing an area of about fourteen hundred eighty-two and 
forty- two hundredths square miles, or its equivalent in acres of nearly nine hun- 
dred and fifty thousand. It lies rather to the west of the main ridge of the 
Allegheny mountains, which enter the State from Allegheny county, Mary- 
land, separate Bedford and Somerset counties, and extending in a northerly 
direction also separate the northwest part of Bedford from the southeast part of 
Cambria county. At the extreme northern angle of Bedford, the mountains 
turn to the northeast, and are thence drained on either side by the tributaries 
of the Susquehanna, discharging the waters of the West Branch to the north- 
west and those of the Juniata and Bald Eagle Rivers to the southeast. The 
Alleghenies reach the West Branch of the Susquehanna River near the mouth 
of the river Bald Eagle. 

The surface in the western part of the county is considerably broken by the 
great secondary formation of the main chain — by some writers of note called 
the Stony Mountains. It is between these mountain formations that the 
greater portion of the county is situate. The surface is irregular, hilly, and in 
some localities quite mountainous ; but the mountains, with a general incli- 
nation northeast and southwest, form no distinct chains, but are entirely broken. 

The height of the summit lands bordering on the Susquehanna River and 
Moshannon Creek, average from sixteen hundred to eighteen hundred feet 
above tide-water. The ridges in various localities often reach nineteen hun- 
dred, and in a few instances exceeding twenty-two hundred feet in height. 
As instance, in Girard township the elevation known as Big Knob is in the 
highest point twenty-two hundred and thirty feet. 

In the northern and northwestern portions of the county, in the localities 
generally included by the townships of Sandy, Huston, Union, Pine, the ex- 
treme northerly part of Lawrence, and some portions of Goshen, Girard, and 
Karthaus, a large area is found averaging in many places in excess of two 
thousand feet, and in general ranging from seventeen to nineteen hundred feet 
altitude. 

At the extreme southwest corner of the county, in the township of Burn- 
side, the West Branch of the Susquehanna River enters and flows in a generally 



General Geographical View. 15 

northeast direction, maintaining through Burnside and into Bell township a 
course nearly direct north. At Chest post-office it bears to the east, with an 
inclination to the north, and holds this direction generally, but excessively 
-devious and irregular, until it leaves the county, forming the southerly bound- 
ary of Karthaus township. Here it enters the counties on the east, and grad- 
ually finds its way to the confluence with the North Branch at Sunbury. On 
its general course through the county, the chief tributaries of the West Branch 
are Chest Creek, Clearfield Creek, and Moshannon Creek. 

Chest Creek rises near Ebensburg, Cambria county, and flows in a north- 
erly course through Chest township, and discharges its waters into the West 
Branch in Bell township, just north of Ostend. 

Clearfield Creek has its source mainly in Beccaria township, and flows 
northeasterly into Bigler township to Madera; thence on through Bigler, north, 
forming the boundary between Knox and Woodward townships, penetrates 
Boggs, and empties into the West Branch in Lawrence township, east of Clear- 
field borough. Clearfield Creek has two small tributaries, called Muddy Run 
and Little Clearfield Creek respectively. Muddy Run divides the townships 
of Beccaria from Gulich, and Knox from Woodward. Little Clearfield Creek 
rises in Ferguson and Jordan townships and flows northeasterly, dividing Pike 
from Knox, and Lawrence from Boggs townships, and discharges into Clear- 
field Creek, near Stoneville. 

The Moshannon forms the eastern boundary of Clearfield county, and sep- 
arates it from Centre county. Its head waters are near the Cambria county 
line, and from thence it flows in a northeasterly direction to a point east of 
Morrisdale, where it turns and runs in an easterly, though very tortuous, 
course for several miles ; thence in a generally north direction to its mouth at 
a very sharp bend in the West Branch. The Moshannon receives the drainage 
or surface waters from the west slope of the Alleghenies in Centre county, and 
of the eastern slope of the irregular and broken hilly districts of the townships 
on the east boundary of Clearfield county. The tributaries of the West Branch 
thus described, all discharge their waters into the main stream from the south. 

The streams auxiliary to the West Branch, which flow from the north or 
the northwest portion of the county, are Anderson Creek, Moose Creek, Lick 
Run, Trout Run, Deer Creek, Sandy Creek, Musquito Creek, and Upper Three 
Run. 

Anderson Creek rises in Huston and Union townships, thence runs south 
through Union and southeasterly through Bloom and Pike townships, and 
empties into the Susquehanna near and south of Curwensvillc. 

Moose, or more properly named " Chincleclamousche " Creek, has its 
source in Pine township ; from thence it flows through Lawrence township and 
into the river a short distance north from Clearfield. The name originally 
given this stream is not its only prominent feature. It has, within the past few 



1 6 History of Clearfield County. 

years, been utilized as the water supply for Clearfield borough, concerning 
which further mention will be found in another chapter. 

The head waters of Lick Run are found in Pine and Lawrence townships. 
The stream crosses Lawrence entire, and enters Goshen in the extreme south 
part, where it reaches the river. 

Trout Run rises in the extreme north part of Lawrence and Goshen town- 
ships, and is formed from several small mountain streams. Its main course 
hes in Goshen, and its waters discharge into the West Branch at Shawsville. 
Deer Creek lies almost wholly within the township of Girard, and flows 
into the river in the southeast corner of the township. 

Sandy Creek rises in the north part of Girard, and flows southeasterly into 
Covington township, and enters the river there. 

Musquito Creek has its source in Girard and Covington townships, from 
whence it crosses into Karthaus, where it empties at a sharp bend of the river. 
Upper Three Run rises and runs through Karthaus township only, and dis- 
charges into the West Branch near the Clinton county line. 

Bennet's Branch of the Sinnemahoning has its source in the south part of 
Huston township, whence it takes a northeasterly course into Elk and Cam- 
eron counties, and gradually finds an outlet into the main stream which 
empties into the West Branch near Keating, Clinton county. 

Laurel Run, a small tributary of Bennet's Branch, rises in the eastern part 
of Huston township, and flows thence north into the Branch in Elk county. 

Sandy Lick Creek has its source in Huston and Sandy townships, and 
takes a westerly course into Jefferson county, which it crosses, and mingles its 
waters with those of the Allegheny River at Redbank. 

As an evidence of the excessively tortuous course of the West Branch of 
the Susquehanna River, as it traverses the county, its waters flowing from 
southwest to northeast, the fact appears that a direct line from the point of 
entrance to the county, to a point where the stream enters the counties bor- 
dering on the east, is fifty miles in length, while by the course of the stream,, 
as a log would float, the distance is nearly one hundred miles. 



Indian Occupation. 17 



CHAPTER II. 

INDIAN OCCUPATION. 

Indian Occupation — The Lenni Leuapes — Their Origin — Country Occupied by Them — 
The Iroquois — Their Clan System — The Five Nations — The Lenapes Conquered — The 
Delawares — Other Tribes — Iroquois Successful — The Six Nations — Shawnees. 

AT the time the first settlers came to that part of our country now included 
within the boundaries of the State of Pennsylvania, the territory was 
found to be in possession of a tribe of Indians known as the Lenni Lenapes, 
which by themselves being interpreted, means " original people." Among the 
European settlers they were styled the Delawares, from the fact of their inhab- 
iting the region of the Delaware River. In other localities they were known 
as the Algonquins. Tradition, so long and frequently related concerning them 
that it seems to be an established fact, credits them with having come from the 
far western country, even beyond the borders of the Mississippi River; that 
about the time they reached the Mississippi in their journey eastward, they fell 
in company with another tribe distinct from themselves, called the Mengwe. 
The latter had in view the same end sought by the Lenni Lenapes — a home 
in the country farther east. Rumors sent in advance reported the country 
bordering on the river and to the east of it, as inhabited by a people of vast 
strength, who dwelt in strongly constructed fortifications and entrenchments. 
A request was made of them that the new-comers might settle in their coun- 
try. This was refused by the Allegewi, the occupants of the region, but per- 
mission was given that the Lenapes and the Mengwe might pass through 
their country and settle in the country still farther east. Deceived as to the 
number of emigrants in the eastward-bound body, or else with treachery afore- 
thought, the Allegewi made a fierce attack upon the Lenapes and slaughtered 
many of them before the entire tribe had crossed the river. The Mengwe, 
who had remained neutral during the fight, formed an alliance with their com- 
panions, the Lenapes, and waged a fierce and bloody war against the treach- 
erous Allegewi, and drove them from the country. The Allegewi suffered 
great loss by this war and fled to the country southward. The Lenni Lenapes 
also lost many warriors in the strife, and claimed that brunt of the battle fell 
upon them, while the Mengwe hung in the rear. Gradually the now conquer- 
ing forces worked their way eastward, maintaining friendly companionship, the 
Mengwe making a choice of the territory bordering on the Great Lakes, while 
the Lenapes followed the streams running to the eastward, and occupied the 
country from the Hudson River to the Chesapeake Bay, including the shores 
of the four great rivers — the Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, and the Poto- 
mac — making the country of the Delaware the chief center of their vast posses- 



History of Clearfield County. 



sions. That portion of the Lenapes that reached and occupied the Atlantic 
slope, became in time divided into three clans, or smaller tribes, to wit. : The 
Unamis or Turtle tribe, Unalachtgo or Turkey tribe, and the Minsi or Wolf 
tribe, otherwise known as Monsey or Muncy. The Wolf or Monseys, being 
more warlike and fierce than the other tribes, occupied the territory farthest 
inland, that they might defend the border against any depredations of the Men- 
gwe, who, although they engaged with the Lenapes against their common 
enemy, the Allegewi, were still distrusted by them on account of the doubtful 
interest they took in the war on the Mississippi. The possessions of the Len- 
apes extended from the Hudson southwest, including the Susquehanna valley 
and the valley of the Juniata. The three principal tribes. Turtle, Turkey, and 
Minsi, of the Lenapes, were afterward sub-divided into other tribes or clans, 
each assuming a separate name, as locality or circumstance might suggest. 
Some of these subordinate tribes were known as the Shawnese, the Susque- 
hannas, the Nanticokes, the Neshamines. 

The Mengwe became, in course of time, separated into five distinct tribes, 
and were severally known as follows : Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cay- 
ugas, and Senecas. Although their main line of possessions hovered along the 
borders of the Great Lakes, their hunting ground reached many miles inland, 
and they frequently came in contact with the Lenapes of whom they were jeal- 
ous, and they endeavored to arouse hostilities among the various tribes of the 
Lenapes, but in this they were unsuccessful. The Lenapes were the stronger 
and more powerful in point of numbers, and this fact was well known to the 
Mengwe. They dare not attack them nor wage war against them, nor was 
their border as carefully and strongly guarded as that of the Lenapes, with the 
Minsi on their frontier. Having failed in every attempt either to create dis- 
sension among the various Lenape sub-tribes, or lead them from their well 
defended border, the Mengwe called together their several tribes for the pur- 
pose of effecting a union for aggressive and defensive warfare. This council 
having met, it resulted in the creation of that great branch of Indian govern- 
ment known as the Five Nations. By the French they were known as the 
Iroquois ; by the Dutch, Maquas, and by the EngHsh, Mingoes. In general, 
this confederacy was known as the Iroquois Nation, and thus the most skilled 
historians have been content to designate it. It should be borne in mind, how- 
ever, that the name " Iroquois" was never used by the Confedeiates them- 
selves. It was first used by the French, and its precise meaning is veiled in 
uncertainty. The men of the Confederacy called themselves " Hedonosaunee," 
which means literally, " They form a cabin," describing in this manner the 
close union existing among them. The Indian name just above quoted, is 
more liberally and commonly rendered, "The People of the Long House," 
which is more full in description, though not so accurate in translation. The 
central and unique characteristic of the Iroquois league was not the mere fact 



Indian Occupation. 19 



of five separate tribes being confederated together, for such unions have been 
frequent among civilized or semi-civilized people, though little known among 
the savages of this continent. The feature that distinguished the people of the 
Long House from all other confederacies, and which at the same time bound 
together all these ferocious warriors, was the system of clans extending through- 
out all the different tribes. 

The distinctive word " clan " has been adopted as the most convenient one 
to designate the peculiar families about to be described, and is much better 
than the word " tribe," which usually applies to an Indian people separate and 
distinct from another. 

The whole Confederacy of Iroquois Indians, or people, were divided into 
eight clans, as follows : Wolf, Bear, Beaver, Turtle, Deer, Snipe, Heron, and 
Hawk. Some writers declare that every clan extended through all the tribes, 
while others assert that only the Wolf, Bear, and Turtle clans did so, the rest 
being restricted to a less number of tribes. Certain it is, nevertheless, that the 
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas or Senecas contained parts of the 
three clans named, and of several of the others. 

Each clan formed a family, and all members of it, no matter how widely 
separated, were considered as brothers and sisters to each other, and were for- 
bidden to intermarry. This prohibition was strictly enforced by common 
consent. So powerful indeed was this bond of union that linked the whole 
Confederacy together, that for hundreds of years there was no serious dissen- 
sion between the several tribes of the Iroquois nation. 

In times of peace all power was confided to the " sachems," in times of 
war to the " chiefs." The sachems were the rulers who exercised civil author- 
ity, met in congress, and directed the affairs of the Confederacy. Of these 
sachems, or rulers, there were fifty in all — of whom the Mohawks had nine, the 
Senecas eight, the Cayugas ten, the Oneidas nine, aud the Onondagas four- 
teen. Each tribe also had as many war chiefs as it had sachems, and in coun- 
cil each sachem had a war chief standing near to execute his commands. 

The Senecas were, by far, the most fierce and powerful of any of the nation, 
and they were stationed at the western extremity of their dominion to guard 
that entrance to their domain against intrusion by their enemies. 

The dates furnished by various historians as to the several conquests over 
smaller tribes or nations, by the Five Nations, differ materially. The French 
accounts tend to show that the Kahquahs were first conquered, and the Fries 
after them, while others reverse the order of conquest. Be that as it may, 
both were subjugated by the Iroquois, and Neuter Nation too, in turn, fell an 
easy prey to their relentless masters. The time of war against the Neuter 
Nation is given as having occurred about 1642 ; that of Kahquahs soon after 
1650, while some writers assert that between the years 1640 and 1655 the 
fierce Confederates "put out the fires" of both the Fries and Kahquahs. 



20 History of Clearfield County. 

After spreading destruction among their enemies nearer home, and bringing 
them into a state of complete subjection, the Iroquois went forth " conquering 
and to conquer."^ Ithey first turned their attention to the tribes inhabiting the 
rivers of Pennsj^IVahia, the descendants of their old associates and companions, 
the Lenni Lpnapes, more commonly known as the Delawares — on the Al- 
legheny^ tke/Susquehanna, and the Delaware in Pennsylvania ; on the Ohio, 
and evfl^^^s for -West as the Mississippi ; on the Potomac and the Savannah in 
thi^ fSGuth, ^^e Iroquois bore their conquering arms, filling with terror the 
dwellers alike on the plains of Illinois and in the glades of the Carolinas. 
They passed ruthlessly on over the mouldering bones of the slaughtered Kah- 
quahs to further conquests on the Great Lakes beyond the shores of Lake 
Superior. They fought and vanquished the Hurons, the allies of the French, 
and forced them to flee for safety to the frozen region of Hudson's Bay. They 
conquered as they went, destroying as a mighty whirlwind villages and inhab- 
itants alike of their people, and stayed only before the steady approach of the 
sturdy white-faced pioneer. 

In or about the year 17 12, the Tuscaroras, who had become involved in a 
war with the Powhattans, growing out of a dispute over the right of posses- 
sion to certain lands, were defeated by the Powhattans and fled northward, 
where they were received by the Iroquois and adopted into the Confederacy, 
which from this time forth was known as the Six Nations. The defeated Tus- 
caroras were a powerful tribe, and materially augmented the forces of the 
Iroquois. The territory occupied by the Tuscaroras before their disastrous 
warfare was the north part of the Carolinas and the lower part of Virginia. 

The full credit for the victory over the vanquished Tuscaroras does not 
belong wholly to the Powhattans. It is said, by good authority, that the 
white colonists then settling in North and South Carolina, and Virginia, not 
■only instigated the war against the Tuscaroras, but actually took part against 
them, and were it not for their white allies, the Powhattans undoubtedly would 
have been defeated. The Powhattans were a tribe of the Lenni Lenape family. 

That the Iroquois so willingly received the Tuscaroras and added them to 
their great body as a distinct nation, may be accounted for by the fact that 
while waging their war against the southern Indians, the Tuscaroras were allied 
to the Iroquois, and gave them great assistance, and the same fact would also 
account for the eagerness of the Tuscaroras to join the nation after having been 
so severely beaten by their southern antagonists. 

Although the Five Nations had, by force of arms, succeeded in defeating 
«very antagonist in their depredatory excursions over a vast area of territory 
occupied by their enemies, they by no means entirely subjugated them all or 
brought them into an acknowledgment of their supreme right to the territory 
invaded. They destroyed villages and slaughtered inhabitants or compelled 
them to flee for safety to the mountains ; but after the storm of war had passed 



Indian Occupation. 21 



these refugees returned to their ruined habitations and sought to re-estabUsh 
them, still claiming the right of possession and occupancy. 

The Iroquois claimed this right by conquest, and proclaimed themselves 
absolute owners of the whole territory invaded, but were not sufficiently strong, 
in point of numbers, to occupy more than a small portion of the conquered 
country. 

The precise time in which the conquest over the Pennsylvania Indians was 
accomphshed is not stated by any authority. In, or soon after the year 1655, 
they started on the war path in this region, and had concluded their whole 
conquest, central, west, and south, soon after 1680. The reader has already 
become aware of the fact that the chief or central point of the Lenni Lenapes' 
possessions was in the region of the Delaware river, and that the tribe inhabit- 
ing that territory were called the Delawares ; and further, that all the other 
tribes in the whole Lenape country were branches of the parent tribe, although 
known by different names in various localities. In such mention as shall here- 
after be made of the occupants generally of this country, the word " Delawares" 
will be used, unless a particular locality is mentioned, in which case the name 
of the branch tribe will be given. It may be well to add that the language 
spoken by the Five Nations was different from that of the Lenni Lenapes. 

The particular branch of the parent tribe that occupied the region here- 
abouts was the Shawnees, otherwise written Shawnese. Their language was 
the same as the Algonquins, and they are supposed to have been of southern 
origin. In the latter part of the seventeenth century, by permission of the 
Proprietory Government, they settled in the neighborhood of Conestoga and 
Pequea Creeks, where they remained nearly a quarter of a century. They 
were a migratory people evidently, not content to remain for a considerable 
time in any locality. They drifted westward, and in 1728 occupied country 
bordering on the Ohio, and before 1750 a majority of the entire tribe were 
settled there. Like the Delawares, the Shawnees were under the ruler-chiefs 
and sachems of the Six Nations, although they had their own chiefs and 
sachems • for local government. The representative of the Six Nations ap- 
pointed in 1728 to dwell among the Shawnees was Shekelimo. The jurisdic- 
tion of Shekelimo also extended over the Delawares. Richard Penn treated 
with the deputies of the Shawnees, who " were scattered abroad from the 
Great Island to the Allegheny." The Six Nations, in a message to the gover- 
nor in 1743, say they had gone to the Juniata to hunt with their cousins, the 
Delawares, and with their brethren, the Shawnees. 

Shekelimo stationed himself on the west bank of the river, a few miles 
above the present location of Lewisburg, Union county. Here he received a 
visit from Conrad Weiser in 1733, and whom he accompanied on his journey to 
Onondaga, the seat of government of the Six Nations. Shekelimo died at the 
place now called Sunbury, whither he had removed, and was succeeded by his 



History of Clearfield County. 



son Tachnachdourus, a chief of rank of the Iroquois, and who was better known 
as John Shekelimo. 

The lands south of the West Branch were placed under control of Half 
King, a chief of the Senecas, who was properly called Tanacharis. In 1754 
his post was located at Aughwick, in Huntingdon county. He lived but a 
short time, and was succeeded by a chief of the Oneidas called Scarrooydy. 

At the time of the treaties with the natives for the purchase of their lands 
by the proprietaries, the negotiations were made with the sachems of the Del- 
awares. When this became known to the deputies of the Iroquois, they 
appeared and disputed the right of the Delawares to any territory drained by 
the Susquehanna River. They contended that the territory was theirs by con- 
quest and they had the disposition of it. The proprietory government then 
made purchases of both nations until the paramount title of the Iroquois 
nation was acknowledged by the Delawares. In July, 1742, a conference 
with the chiefs and sachems of the Six Nations and the chiefs of the Shawnees 
was held by the governor and council at Philadelphia, which continued several 
days. 

The leading questions presented for consideration and adjustment at this 
conference were complaints on the part of the Indians of intrusions made into 
their country on the part of white settlers along the valley of the Juniata, a 
branch of the Susquehanna, and all along the banks of that river as far as 
Mahaning (Mahoning), and desire that they may be made forthwith to depart, 
"for they do great damage to our cousins the Delawares." The governor 
responded that regarding their former complaints of the settlers on the "Ju- 
niata and Susquehanna, some magistrates were sent expressly to remove 
them, and we thought no person would stay after that." The chief replied: 
" So far from removing the people, they (the magistrates) made surveys for 
themselves, and they are in league with the trespassers. We desire more 
effectual methods may be used, and honester men employed." 

The governor promised them a redress for their grievances, and at the 
same time remarked that the Delawares were creating trouble over lands pur- 
chased from their ancestors over fifty years before. The chief of the On- 
ondagas, Canassatego, who was the orator of the council, addressed the 
proprietaries a few days after this in the presence of Sassonan, a chief of the 
Delawares, and a number of other Indians of that nation, upon the subject 
complained of by the governor, in which he severely censured them for their 
faithlessness, and alleged that they had fairly released their lands to the whites 
and received full pay therefor, but that they had squandered their pay and 
were now seeking to create a disturbance with the settlers. In closing this 
somewhat remarkable address, he says : " We have concluded to remove them 
and oblige them to go over the river Delaware, and to quit all claim to any 
lands on this side for the future, since they have received pay for them and it 



The Indians in the French War. 23 

has gone through their guts long ago. To confirm to you that we will see 
your requests executed, we lay down this string of wampum in return for 
yours." When this address to the governor and council was concluded, Can- 
assatego upbraided the Delawares and ordered them to leave the lands imme- 
diately and go either to Wyoming or Shamokin. " You may go," says he, 
" to either of these places, and then we shall have you more under our eye, 
and shall see how you behave. Don't deliberate, but remove away and take 
this belt of wampum." 

This speech was interpreted by Conrad Weiser into English, and by Cor- 
nelius Spring into the Delaware language, upon which Canassatego, taking a 
string of wampum, said : " After our just reproof and absolute order to depart 
from the land, you are now to take notice of what we have further to say to 
you. This string of wampum serves to forbid you, your children, and your 
grandchildren to the latest posterity, from ever meddling in land affairs. 
Neither you nor any who shall descend from you are ever hereafter presumed 
to sell any land, for which purpose you are to preserve this string in memory 
of what your uncles have this day given you in charge. We have some other 
business to transact with our brethren, and therefore depart the council and 
consider what has been said to you." 

Conrad Weiser, the interpreter mentioned heretofore, and who took such 
an active part in the events that .occurred during the Indian occupancy, was 
born in Germany in 1696, but emigrated to this country about 1714. He was 
a grandson of the celebrated Indian agent and interpreter of that name. Con- 
rad became well acquainted with the language of several Indian tribes and 
possessed their fullest confidence through his honesty and fair dealing among 
them. He died possessed of considerable property. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE INDIANS IN THE FRENCH WAR. 

The French and Enghsh War — Disposition of the Indians — Erection of Forts — Fort 
Augusta — Events Along the West Branch — Scenes at Chinckeclamousche — Summary — Close 
of the War. 

THE war between England and France began in the year 1744, and was 
closed by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. The Six Nations gen- 
erally maintained their neutrality, though the Mohawks occasionally gave some 
aid to the English. During the eight years of nominal peace which succeeded 
that treaty, both the French and English made every attempt to extend their 



24 History of Clearfield County. 

dominion beyond the frontier settlements, the French with the greater success. 
In addition to their already established posts at Niagara and Detroit, they 
added Presque Isle (now Erie), Venango, and finally built Fort Duquesne on 
the site of Pittsburgh, evidently with design of establishing a line of forts from 
the lakes to the Ohio, and thence down that river to the Mississippi. 

Frequent detachments of troops and their Indian allies passed through 
along this line from Niagara to Erie, either by lake or on foot, and thence to 
Venango and Duquesne. Dark-gowned Jesuits hastened to and fro, every- 
where receiving the respect of the red men, and using all their art to magnify 
the power of both Rome and France. 

After two years of open hostilities in America, and several important con- 
flicts, war was again declared between England and France in 1756, this being 
their last great contest for the supremacy on American soil. In this war the 
Mohawks were persuaded to take the field in favor of the English, but the 
Senecas were friendly to the French, and only restrained themselves from tak- 
ing up arms against the English by their unwillingness to fight against their 
brethren. 

On the Ohio the Shawnees, who felt an open enmity against the English, 
had assumed a hostile attitude. 

The Delawares, smarting under the terrible rebuke administered by the 
Iroquois sachem in the conference at Philadelphia, and knowing the friendly 
feelings of the Five Nations toward the English, refused to leave the Delaware 
River, but located at Wyoming. 

By the council held at Albany in the summer of 1754, and to which the 
Six Nations were invited, no substantial results were accomplished, except that 
the commissioners representing Pennsylvania acquired title to another large 
tract of land within the province. A serious dispute soon arose as to the 
boundaries of this tract under the written purchase. The Indians claimed that 
they never intended to include in their sale the West Branch of the Susque- 
hanna, the hunting grounds of the Delawares and Shawnees ; that they were 
were not acquainted with the points of the compass, and if the line was run so 
as to include the West Branch they would never agree to it. The line run, as 
claimed by the purchasers, started from a point a mile above the mouth of 
Penn's Creek, on the river, and extended northwest by west to the west bound- 
ary of the province. A line so run would cross the West Branch near the 
mouth of the Sinnamahoning, and instead of reaching the west boundary of 
the province, would touch the north boundary a short distance west of the 
Conewango Creek, in Warren county. The deed itself never contemplated 
that this territory should be included in the purchase, but was only to include 
the head waters of the Juniata, far south of this. Whether or not this claim on 
the part of the representatives of the province was actuated by an honest 
intent, does not appear, but certain it is that the white settlers along Penn's 



The Indians in the French War. 25 

Creek paid for the transgression with their lives in the fall of 1755. An ami- 
cable adjustment of the dispute was reached in 1758, and the lines were run in 
conformity with the construction placed upon the boundaries of the purchase 
as claimed by the Indians. 

In the early part of the French and Indian war, the former were every- 
where victorious. Braddock, almost at the gates of Fort Duquesne was led 
into an ambuscade. The general himself fell mortally wounded, and his whole 
army severely beaten and totally routed by a force of French and Indians 
greatly inferior to his own. Montcalm captured Oswego, and the French lines 
up the lakes and across the Ohio were stronger than ever. 

In the month of October, 1755, a strong force of French and Indians left 
Fort Duquesne and appeared at the mouth of Bald Eagle Creek, intent on 
establishing a line of French possessions along the West and North Branches 
of the Susquehanna River, and it was this force that slaughtered the settlers of 
Penn's Creek Valley in that year. To oppose this line of possessions, the 
Provincials erected Fort Lytleton, now in Fulton county ; Fort Shirley, Fort 
Granville, at the mouth of Kishacoquillas Creek, one called Pomfret, on the 
borders of what is now Juniata and Snyder counties, and in the following year 
Fort Augusta was built at Shamokin by Colonel William Clapham. Although 
the order for the erection of Fort Augusta was made in June, 1756, the work 
was not completed until the fall of that year. 

In July Colonel Clapham and James Burd addressed a letter to Governor 
Morris setting forth their grievances and complaints. An extract from this 
communication reads as follows : " Tis extremely Cruel, Sr, and unjust to the 
last degree, That men who cheerfully ventured their lives in the most danger- 
ous and Fatiguing services of their Country, who have numerous Families 
dependant on their labor, and who have many of them while they were en- 
gaged in that service, suffered more from the neglect of their Farms and Crops 
at home than the whole Value of their pay. In short, whose Affairs are ruined 
by the Services done their Country should some of them receive no pay at all 
for those services, if this is the case I plainly perceive that all Service is at an 
end, and foresee that whoever has the command of this Garrison will inevitably 
be Obliged to Abandon his Post very shortly for want of a Suply of Provisions. 
Your Honr will not be surprized to hear that in a government where its Ser- 
vants are so well rewarded I have but one Team of Draught Horses, which, 
according to the Commissioners remark, can but do the Business of but one 
Team in a day from whence you will easily Judge that the Works must pro- 
ceed very slowly and the Expence in the end be proportionable. 

" Permit me, Sr, in the most grateful manner to thank your Honr for the 
Favor conferred on me and on the Regiment under my Command which I am 
sensible were meant as well in Friendship to the Province as myself I have 
executed the trust Reposed in me wth all Possible Fidelity and to the best of 



26 History of Clearfield County. 

my Knowledge, but my endeavours as well as those of every other Officer in 
the Service have met with so ungenerous a Return so contracted a Reward 
that we can no longer serve with any Pleasure on such terms. And if we are 
not for the Future to receive from your Honr our Orders, our Supplys and our 
Pay beg Leave unanimously to resign on the Twentieth of August next, & will 
abandon the Post accordingly at that time, in which Case I would recommend 
it to the Gentlemen Commissioners to take great care to prevent that universal 
Desertion of the men which will otherwise certainly ensue." 

In closing, this remarkable epistle says : " Tis wth utmost concern & Re- 
luctance that the Gentlemen of this Regiment see themselves reduced to the 
necessity of this Declaration and assure your Honr that nothing but such a 
Continued series of Discouragements could have extorted it from those who- 
hope that they have not used any Expressions inconsistent with that high 
Regard they have for your Honr, and beg leave with me to Subscribe them- 
selves," etc. 

The government, being no doubt hard pressed for funds and provisions, 
was exceedingly slow in supplying the wants of the soldiers. Again, in 
August, Colonel Clapham writes Governor Morris that their necessities are 
still unsupplied. Further he says he has been obliged to put Lieutenant Plun- 
kett under arrest for mutiny. 

Fort Augusta was completed early in the fall of 1756, and in December 
following was placed under command of Major James Burd. 

Major Burd reports the winter of 1756-7 as having been exceedingly cold 
and severe ; the West Branch entirely frozen over, and the paths so filled with 
snow that the Indians sent on an errand to Chincklacamoose (Clearfield) in 
February, 1757, were compelled to return before completing their mission. 

On the evening of April 7, 1757, Captain William Patterson, with a squad 
of ten men, was sent up the West Branch in quest of intelligence. He came 
as far as Chincklacamoose, having met with none of the enemy's forces on 
their route. This seems to have been a tour of investigation into a new coun- 
try, as Major Burd reported that the great path from Buchaloons, on Lake 
Erie, passed by Chincklacamoose and forked on the south side of the West 
Branch, forty miles east from that place, one path leading toward Cumberland 
county, while the other took off in the direction of Fort Augusta. They found 
the cabins at Chincklacamoose all burned, and saw no traces of Indians having- 
recently inhabited the place. The party remained in this vicinity for a space 
of about three days, living on walnuts, as no game could be found, and then 
passed down the river on rafts to the fort. 

On the 1st day of July, 1758, Levi Trump, then at Fort Augusta, ad- 
dressed a letter to Governor Denny, from which the following extract is taken : 
"I received a Letter from Lieutenant-Colonel James Burd, dated I2th ulto,, 
informing me that he had an account of a body of French that are Erecting a 



The Indians in the French War. 27 

Fort at Shinglaclamush, and 'tis thought they design to attack this place ; and 
also, Colonel Burd ordered me to confine all the French Deserters that were 
inlisted as Soldiers, and send them down under a Guard to Lancaster Gaol, 
and instantly to acquaint his Excellency General Forbes of the same, which I 
hav^e done. There are several soldiers here whose times have expired and 
have applied to me for Discharges, whom I have prevailed with to continue 
doing Duty, untill I know your pleasure in regard to them. Our Colours is 
entirely worn out, and shou'd be extreemly glad of a New one, the Staff is 70 
feet. 

" You mentioned in your last to me of six Lycences for Suttlars .being 
inclos'd, which did not come to hand." 

After this information was made to the authorities, two Indians named 
Pisqutomen and Keekyuscung were prevailed upon to undertake a journey into 
the country of the enemy as far as Fort Duquesne, and take an account of the 
motions of the French and of the disposition of the Indians. Frederick Post 
was desired to accompany them, which he readily consented to do. 

About the same time that Levi Trump wrote to Governor Denny, Peter 
Bard also addressed him, in which he says : " Your Honour has doubtless 
hear'd of the French building a fort uppon the West branch of this river, at 
a place called Shingelaclamoos, &c." 

From extracts taken from the journal of Frederick Post on this perilous 
mission, we observe as follows : 

"July 15th. — This day I received orders from his Honour, the Governor, 
to sett out on my intended Journey, & proceeded as far as Germantown, 
where I found all the Indians drunk ; Will'™ M'Kaking returned to Philada 
for a horse that was promised him. 

" 1 6th. — This day I waited for the said M'Kaking, 'till most dinner time, 
& when he came, he could hardly stand, being very drunk, & seeing he could 
Proceed no farther, I left with him and the rest, & went on to Bethlehem. 

" 17th, — I arrive at Bethlehem, & prepared for my journey. 

" 1 8th. — I read over both Treatties, that held at East town, and that at 
Philadelphia, and made myself acquainted with the particulars of each. 

" 19th. — With much difficulty I perswaded the Indians to leave Bethlehem, 
and traveled this day no farther than Hazes. Had a hard shower of Rain." 

For the next ten days a greater portion of the time was employed in pre- 
vailing upon the Indians to proceed further than Fort Allen. They had 
become frightened by unfavorable reports from up the West Branch Valley. 
However, their fears were removed and the party proceeded. Again referring 
to the journal : 

" 27th. — They furnished us here (Fort Augusta) with everything necessary 
for our Journey, and we sett out with good courage ; after having rode about 
ten miles, were caught in a hard shower of rain. 



28 History of Clearfield County. 

" 28th. — We came to Weheeponal, where the road turns off for Wioming, 
and slept this night at Quenashawakee. 

" 29th. — We crossed the Susquehanna over the Big Island, my companions 
were now very fearfull, and this night slept a great way from the Road, with- 
out a fire, but we could not sleep for bugs and mosquetoes. 

"30th & 31st. — We were glad when it was day, that we might sett out; 
we got upon the Mountains, heavy Rains all night, the Heavens alone were 
our covering, and we accepted of all that poured thence. 

" August 1st. — We saw three Hoops on a Bush, to one there remained long 
white hair ; our horses left us, I suppose not being fond of the dry food they 
met with on the Mountain, tho with a good deal of trouble we found them 
again. We slept this night on the same mountain. 

'• 2nd. — We came across several places where two Poles Painted Red, were 
stuck in the ground, in order to tye their Prisoners ; we arrived this night at 
Shinglimuce (Clearfield), where was the above marks ; 'tis a disagreeable and 
melancholy sight to see the means they make use of, according to their critical 
way, to punish Flesh & Blood. 

" 3rd. — We came this day to a part of the River Tobees (Toby), over the 
mountains, a very bad road." 

Having now passed this vicinity, the journal recites the unimportant/ea- 
tures of the trip until the arrival at Fort Venango. 

" 7th. — We arrived at Fort Venango, situated between two mountains in a 
fork of the Ohio River. I prayed the Lord to Blind them as he did the 
enemies of Lot and EHsha, that I might pass unknown ; when we arrived, the 
Fort being on the other side of the River, we haled, and desired them to fetch 
us over, which they were afraid to do, but showed us a place where we might 
ford ; we slept this night within half gun shot of the fort." 

Having fulfilled the object of their journey, the party started to return, and 
on the fifteenth day of September reached the " Susquehanna, & crost 6 times, 
& came to Calamawesink, where had been an Old Indian town ; in the Even- 
ing there Came 3 Indians, and said they saw two Indian tracts where we Slept 
turn Back, so we were Sure that they followed us. 

" 1 6th & 17th. — We Crossed Over the big Mountain (Allegheny.) 

" 1 8th. — Came to Big Island, where we had nothing to live on, we were 
Oblidg'd to lye to hunt. 

" 19th. — We met with Twenty Warriors who were Returning from the 
Inhabitants, with five Prisoners & i Scalp, Six of them was Delawares, the 
Rest Mingoes, we Sat Down all in one Ring together, I Informed them where 
I had been & what was done, they asked me to go back a Little, and so I did, 
and Slept all night with them, and inform'd them of the Particulars ; they said 
they did not know it, if they had, they would not have gone to war : be 
strong if you make a Good peace, then we will bring all the prisoners Back 
again ; they kill'd two Deer, & gave us one." 



The Indians in the French War. 29 

The party arrived at Fort Augusta on the 22d of September, as the jour- 
nal reads, "very Weary and Hungry, but Greatly Rejoiced at our Return 
from this Tedious Journey." 

Frederick Post, who has thus far taken such an active part in the affairs of 
the pioneers, and who acted as mediator between the provincial authorities and 
the Indians in this vicinity, came to this country about sixteen years prior to 
the time of the events narrated. His full name was Christian Frederick Post. 
At the time of his coming he had no other views than to preach the gospel 
among the heathen. He was a member of the Unitas Fratram Church, which 
church had two settled congregations of Indians. During the war he was 
intrusted by the government with negotiations to secure the assistance of the 
various Indian nations, and in every trust committed to his charge he fulfilled 
its mission promptly and well. 

In July, 1758, about the time that Levi Trump and Peter Bard wrote to 
Governor Denny, a party of French and their Indian allies appeared upon the 
West Branch at the village known to the Indians as Achtschingi Clammui (now 
Clearfield) where they commenced the erection of a fort, intending evidently to 
make this a central point of operations on this branch of the Susquehanna. 
They fitted out a war expedition and embarked down the river on rafts to 
attack Fort Augusta They found the fort much stronger in construction and 
garrison than they anticipated, and being without the artillery necessary for 
its siege, left without making an attempt against it. 

To epitomize the events that occurred from time to time in the territory 
now embraced within the limits of the county of Clearfield or immediately 
adjoining it, reference is made to the several messages addressed by Governor 
Denny to the proprietaries, concerning which he says : " In my last I men- 
tioned that the Augusta Batalion were employed in building and carrying on 
the works at that Fort (Augusta), their duty and labor very severe, even under 
these Circumstances of the Garrison, I ordered a strong Detachment under 
Colonel Clapham towards the Ohio, to act offensively, and if possible destroy 
an Indian town ; but Intelligence arriving before these orders could be carried 
into Execution, that a large body of French and Indians were coming to 
besiege the Fort, they were obliged to lay the expedition aside. This account 
proving false. Colonel Clapham who was employed in finishing the Fort, sent 
out a Captains Command to attack an Indian Town called Shinglecalamouse, 
situate near the head of West Branch of Susquehanna, where was supposed to 
be a great resort of Indians. Captain Hambright entered the Town, found 
the Cabins all standing, but deserted by the Indians, Agreeably to his orders 
he did not touch anything, nor destroy the Town, in hopes the Indians would 
come and settle there again. This was the only Indian Town that could be at- 
tacked ; and we found by a second Expedition that they had returned, set their 
Town on Fire, and were retired to Venango situate where the River au Boeuf 



30 History of Clearfield County. 

runs into the Ohio. Since the affair of Kittanning the Indians on this side of 
the Ohio have mostly retired with their Wives and Children under the French 
Forts on that River." 

Still later on in this summary of the events, the governor says : " An 
Expressed arrived from Shamokin with an Account of the Arrival of a Number 
of the Six Nation Indians, from Sir William Johnson, our known and hearty 
Friends, who informed the Commanding officer, that a body of French and 
Indians was making Canoes at the head of the West Branch of Susquehannah, 
with an intent to come and attack the Fort." 

In a communication addressed by the governor to the proprietaries, he 
again calls the attention to operations in this section as follows : " It will 
be proper to acquaint You, that the Six Nation Indians, as they passed by 
Shamokin in their Way to Harris's Ferry, inform'd the Commanding Officer 
that a large Body of French & Indians was making Canoes at the Head of the 
West Branch, and intended to come and attack that Fort." 

Returning to the more active scenes of the war, we find Colonel Armstrong 
engaged in an expedition against the Indian village at Kittanning, which he 
destroyed early in September, 1756, but not without a severe loss to his own 
force. This was the first aggressive movement against the Indian towns by 
the provincial forces, and was a serious blow to the savages. 

On November 8th following, began the grand council with the Indians at 
Easton, at which Teedyuscung, chief of the Delawares, and other prominent 
chiefs and warriors took part. The leading topic under discussion was the 
purchase made of the Indians in 1754, concerning lands on the West Branch 
and Penn's Creek. Teedyuscung acted as chief orator on this occasion, and 
maintained his position with firmness and dignity. 

In May, 1757, the conference with the Six Nations was held at Lancaster, 
at which the governor and other dignitaries were present. 

In 1758 William Pitt entered the councils of George II as actual, though 
not nominal chief of the ministry, and then England entered earnestly into the 
contest. That year Fort Duquesne was abandoned before the steady approach 
of the English and provincial forces. In the North Frontenac was captured 
by Colonel Bradstreet. The Western army passed under command of Gen- 
eral John Forbes, and Boquet commanded the provincials assembled at Rays- 
town. Major Grant, with a force of provincials, came in contact with a large 
body of French and Indian troops on the night of September 21, and was 
repulsed with great loss. Fort Duquesne was abandoned and blown up by 
the retreating French forces on November ist. This ended the struggle be- 
tween the English and French in the Ohio Valley and in Pennsylvania. The 
cordon was broken, but Fort Niagara still held out for France ; still the mes- 
sengers ran backward and forward, to and from Presque Isle and Venango; still 
the Senecas strongly declared their friendship for Yonnondio and Yonnondio's 
royal master. 



Wars with the Indians. 31 

In 1759 still heavier blows were struck. Wolf assailed Quebec, the Gib- 
ralter of the French. At the same time, Prideau, with two thousand British 
and provincials, and Sir William Johnson with one thousand faithful Iroquois 
sailed up Ontario and laid siege to Fort Niagara. Its capture was certain un- 
less relief could be obtained. Its commander, however, was not idle. Away- 
through the forest sped his lithe red-skinned messengers to summon the sons 
and allies of France. D'Aubrey, at Venango, heard the call and responded 
with his most zealous endeavors. Gathering all the troops from far and near, 
stripping bare the little French posts of the West, and mustering every red 
man he could persuade to follow, he set forth to relieve distressed Niagara 
with near a thousand Frenchmen and four hundred dusky warriors of the 
West. The forces of Sir William Johnson met those of D'Aubrey, and after a 
long and bloody fight the French were utterly routed. On the news reaching 
the fort the garrison at once surrendered, and the control of the Niagara, which 
for over a hundred years had been in the French, passed into the hands of the 
English. Soon Wolf gained Quebec at the cost of his own life. 

In September, 1760, the governor-general of Canada surrendered Mon- 
treal, and with it Detroit, Venango, and all other posts within his jurisdiction . 
This surrender was ratified by the treaty of peace between England and 
France in February, 1763, which ceded the French power in America to the 
British. 

After the campaign of 1760, a greater portion of the Pennsylvania forces 
were discharged. Small garrisons were stationed at Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, 
Fort Allen, and Fort Augusta. 



CHAPTER IV. 

WARS WITH THE INDIANS. 

Pontiac's War — The League — Depredations on the Frontier — Forts Taken — Indians 
Driven Back — The Treaty of Peace — Threatenings of an Outbreak — Departure of the Mo- 
ravians — Incidents — The Cresap War — Logan. 

UPON the close of the French and English war and the withdrawal of the 
French army from the province, the struggling colonists looked and 
lioped for an era of peace and quiet, that they might re-establish their wasted 
fortunes and extend their settlements farther along the frontier. But no, al- 
though the power of the French was entirely extinguished, the Western 
Indians still remembered them with affection, and were still disposed to wage 
Avar upon the red-coated English, and all who had aided or abetted their 



32 History of Clearfield County. 

cause. The renowned Pontiac, chief of the Ottawas of Canada, united many 
of these tribes of the West in a league against the hated red-coats, immediately 
after the advent of the latter into Canadian territory ; and as no such confeder- 
ation had ever been formed against the French during all their long years of 
possession, his action must be assigned to some other motive than mere hatred 
of all civilized intruders. 

In the month of May, 1763, the league assailed and captured nine out of 
twelve forts on the frontier, and massacred their garrisons. The post at Mich- 
ilimakinac fell first, and soon after Le Boeuf, Venango, Presque Isle, Le Bay^ 
Saint Joseph's, Miamis, Ouachtunon, and Sandusky. Niagara, Fort Pitt, and 
Detroit alone withstood this terrible shock. Detroit was saved through the 
efforts of an Indian woman who informed the commander of the post of the 
intended attack, and a proper defense was made. This attack was led by the 
mighty Pontiac in person, and although unsuccessful in his design against the 
place, he reaped a revenge in the terrible massacre perpetrated on the troops un- 
der Captain Dalyell, who had been sent to the relief of the garrison. 

After several murders had been committed by the Indians around Fort 
Pitt, Governor Hamilton took measures to protect the frontier, and sent out 
several detachments of troops, and strengthened the garrison at Fort Augusta. 
The whole country west of Shippensburg was overrun with marauding Indians,, 
who destroyed and plundered every village and hamlet. On both sides of the 
Susquehanna the inhabitants were compelled to flee to the woods and moun- 
tains for safety. Colonel Boquet was sent to relieve Fort Pitt with a force of 
troops and supplies. Before arriving there he detached a strong force and sent 
them to assist in defense of Fort Ligonier, where large quantities of ammuni- 
tion were stored. The Indians having become aware of this, raised the siege 
of Fort Pitt and hastened to attack Fort Ligonier and intercept the reinforce- 
ments. As the relief party were nearing the fort, they were attacked by the 
Indians, but drove them back. Again and again did the merciless savage foe 
charge the little band of sturdy troops, but were as often repulsed at the point 
of the bayonet, and finally routed and driven from the ground. 

The command under Colonel Boquet was attacked, but defeated the enemy 
by leading them into an ambuscade, saving his whole force from destruction. 
In due time he made his way to Fort Pitt, but the Indians, disheartened by 
their recent defeat and heavy loss, made no attack against it. 

The Indians soon after abandoned the country between Presque Isle and 
Sandusky, and retreated to the land west of the Ohio. 

In the month of September, 1763, occurred the awful tragedy at Devil's 
Hole, when a band of Senecas under Honayewus, afterward celebrated as Far- 
mer's Brother, and Cornplanter, ambushed a train of English army wagons 
with an escort of ninety soldiers, when every man, save four, fell victims to- 
their cruel and relentless foe. 



Wars with the Indians. 33 

In October of the same year a regiment of six hundred soldiers under 
Major Wilkins, was attacked by the Senecas at Black Rock, but succeeded in 
repulsing them with severe loss. 

This was the last serious attack by the Senecas upon the English. Becom- 
ing at length satisfied that Pontiac's scheme was a failure, they sullenly agreed 
to abandon further ravages and remain at peace with the whites. 

On the retirement of the Indians to the Muskingum and the regions beyond 
the Ohio, the inhabitants returned in fancied security to the settlements and 
resumed their usual avocations. The winter months came and with them gen- 
eral tranquillity prevailed. But at length, with the coming warm season, the 
frontier settlements were again aroused with the familiar but unexpected war- 
whoop in all its savage barbarity. The Indians fell suddenly upon the border 
settlements, devastating and destroying everything in their path. The toma- 
hawk and scalping knife again were in full play, creating alarm, suffering, blood- 
shed, and death in their unnatural and inhuman greed. To meet and check this 
terrible onslaught, a decisive action was taken by the British and provincials. 
Colonel Bradstreet, with a strong body of troops, came by water to Fort 
Niagara, accompanied by Sir William Johnson and a body of his Iroquois war- 
riors. A council of friendly Indians was held at the fort, among whom Sir 
William exercised his skill, and satisfactory treaties were made with them. 
The Senecas, who had repeatedly promised friendship, still held aloof, and 
were said to be meditating a renewal of the war. Bradstreet ordered their 
immediate attendance, under penalty of the destruction of their villages. They 
then came, ratified the treaty and thenceforth adhered to it. 

Colonel Boquet, with a strong force of regulars and provincials, and a com- 
plement of about two hundred friendly Indians, was to sweep through Penn- 
sylvania and then act in concert with Bradstreet along the lakes. 

The forces under Boquet reached Fort Loudon in August, when he re- 
ceived a courier from Bradstreet to the effect that he had concluded a treaty 
of peace with the Delawares and Shawnese ; but as these savages were still 
murdering and plundering he had no confidence in them, and continued prep- 
arations for an aggressive campaign against them. After a long and weary 
march, and having met with no considerable opposition from the Indians, Bo- 
quet, with his command reached Tuscarawas, near the forks of the Muskingum. 
Here he was informed that chiefs of the Delawares and Shawnese were coming 
to negotiate a treaty of peace, and preparations were made to receive them. 

At the conference Custaloga and Beaver appeared for the Delawares ; 
Keissinautchtha for the Shawnese, and Kiyashuta for the Senecas. After con- 
siderable discussion a treaty was agreed upon, but was not confirmed until all 
white prisoners were delivered up. 

In the month of May following the treaty was ratified, and the Indians ful- 
filled their promises to deliver up all prisoners. 



34 History of Clearfield County. 

Peace now once more was restored, families returned to their homes, and 
the tide of population once again began its westward move toward the frontier. 
Trade again was carried on along the lakes, almost entirely in open boats pro- 
pelled by oars, and an occasional temporary sail. In fair weather tolerable 
progress could be made, but woe to the craft which might be overtaken by a 
storm. 

No further event of importance occurred to disturb the peace and prosper- 
ity of the settlers along the borders until the spring and summer of 1767. 
Some of the lawless whites, by encroaching upon the Indian lands, nearly 
provoked them to a renewal of hostilities. The Indians, however, willing to 
abide by their declarations of peace, restrained themselves upon the promise of 
the proprietaries that their grievances should be redressed. So tardy, indeed, 
was the promised justice that in 1768 another open war with the Indians 
menaced the province. At this juncture Sir William Johnson came to the 
rescue, and through his efforts, war was averted. At his request a council 
was held at Fort Stanwix, in New York State, with the chiefs and sachems of 
the Six Nations. By the terms of the treaty made there on the 5th day of 
November, 1768, the Indian title to another tract in Pennsylvania was extin- 
guished. The northern boundary of the lands sold under this treaty followed 
the West Branch through Clearfield county and entered Indiana county at the 
point where Clearfield, Indiana, and Cambria counties join. It will be remem- 
bered that these lands were claimed by the whites under the treaty of 1754, 
and their encroachments on them at that time had much to do with provok- 
ing the Indians occupying those lands to hostilities during the French and 
Indian war. 

The year 1772 marked another event in the history of this vicinity, al- 
though not warlike in its nature. The Moravian Indians and mission- 
aries had built up a village called Friedenshutten, a few miles below Wyalu- 
sing, in what is now Bradford county. By the treaty at Fort Stanwix the Six 
Nations sold this land to the proprietaries, and this Christian band were com- 
pelled to vacate. Although the proprietaries had forbidden that any surveys 
should be made near them, the disturbance consequent upon the Connecticut 
claim intervened, and having been invited by the Delawares on the Ohio to 
come and settle among them, they made preparations and departed in 1772. 

Early in the month of June the party, comprising two hundred and forty 
persons, young and old, with their cattle, horses, and other effects, took up 
their journey through Indian roads and over the Allegheny Mountains, by way 
of the Bald Eagle, for the Ohio. They were divided into two bodies, one 
pursuing the journey in boats up the West Branch under charge of John Roth, 
and the other by land under John Ettwein. The party in boats carried their 
church bell in advance of the fleet, and proceeded in this manner as far as the 
island, where they were soon after joined by those on the land route. From 



Wars with the Indians. 35 

this point the boats were abandoned, and all proceeded together by land. 
When they reached the mountains the greatest difficulty was experienced in 
crossing them, as they had not sufficient horses to transport all their personal 
effects, and were, consequently, obliged to carry the balance on their backs. 
To add to the inconvenience of this task they were seriously troubled by 
rattlesnakes and other venomous reptiles, and lost several of their horses by 
being bitten by them. 

They complained further of being greatly annoyed by an insect known to 
the Indians as " punks," or " punkeys," which were so exceedingly small as to 
be almost invisible to the eye, but whose bites were painful as red-hot ashes. 
Some persons died during the journey, among them a crippled child, ten or 
eleven years of age, who was carried by the mother in a basket on her back. 
In the " Sketches of the Snow-shoe Region," by James Gilliland, he says : 
" One of the party was buried at Moravian Run, where the Indian path crosses, 
about a mile west of Big Moshannon Creek, and from this the name was given 
to the run." The original journal has this entry: "July 14, 1772, we came 
to Clearfield Creek, so called by the Indians, because on its banks there are 
acres of lands that resemble clearings, buffalo that resort thither having de- 
stroyed every vestige of undergrowth, and left the face of the country as bare 
as though it had been cleared by the grub-axe of the pioneer." 

The run, which since that time has been called Moravian Run, is now 
partly in Graham and Bradford townships. Graham was originally a part of 
Bradford. 

The reader will understand that up to this time there had been no perma- 
nent settlements made by the pioneers in this vicinity ; that the country for 
many miles around was an unbroken and dense forest, with only an occasional 
opening along the river and its tributaries. On the site of the present borough 
of Clearfield was the Indian village of " Chincklacamoose," frequently men- 
tioned in the foregoing chapters. This name has been spelled in so many 
ways that we shall not attempt to say which is correct, but adopt that most 
frequently used by past authorities. 

After the conclusion of Colonel Boquet's campaign and the treaty of peace 
at Fort Stanwix, and after the transgressions of the whites had been forgiven 
under that treaty, there occurred another outbreak in 1774, which, it must be 
acknowledged, was occasioned by the whites themselves. Several murders 
were committed upon the Indians in various localities on the head waters of 
the Susquehanna, Ohio, Monongahela, and Cheat Rivers. The Senecas made 
frequent complaints against the depredations of the whites upon some of their 
people. Logan, the celebrated chief, was one of those selected by the whites 
as an object of their vengeance. Bald Eagle was another against whom a 
special attack was made, and who was murdered by them. However, through 
the mediating influences of Sir William Johnson, no serious outbreak occurred. 



History of Clearfield County. 



He did his best to redress their grievances, and sought to have them withdraw 
to their villages and away from those isolated localities, where he could have 
them more completely under his protection. 

The Indians remaining were not content with an arrangement which pro- 
tected only the Senecas, nor were they willing to abandon their old and favo- 
rite haunts to which they had perfect right. Instead of growing less, the 
atrocities of the white bordermen became more frequent and more bold, and in 
1774, another destructive war broke out, which threw the whole frontier into a 
state of tumultuous excitement. A false rumor, to give color of excuse to 
their acts, was set afloat by the whites that the Indians had stolen a number of 
liorses from exploring parties on the Ohio and Kenhawa Rivers, and for the 
purpose of obtaining a position of defense against an expected attack by the 
Indians, the land-jobbers collected a force and stationed themselves at Wheel- 
ing, then commanded by Captain Cresap. Soon after this. Captain Cresap, 
with a party, intercepted two Indians and cruelly murdered them. The affair 
at Captina Creek, by Daniel Greathouse and his command, and only a short 
time after at Yellow Creek, by the same party, only served to increase the fury 
of the outraged natives. By these two assaults, the whole of Logan's family 
were murdered. Suddenly, a consternation pervaded the whole frontier. A 
foe, always quick to resent, and ever eager to shed the blood of the white man, 
was roused to a feeling of revenge which he would not be long in obtaining. 
The frontier was changed into a scene of war, the fields of the husbandman 
were destroyed, the cabins of the villagers were burned and his property de- 
stroyed, incautious settlers were overtaken and killed. Messengers were dis- 
patched to the military posts calling for aid, and General Lewis and Lord 
Dunmore were sent to relieve the whites. General Lewis reached Point Pleas- 
ant after a tedious march of nineteen days, but Lord Dunmore had not yet 
appeared. On the morning of the next day the Indians made a furious attack 
against the white force, which, with varying results, was kept up till night, when 
the savages withdrew across the Ohio. The loss to the whites was reported as 
seventy-five killed and one hundred and forty wounded, while the Indians suf- 
fered a greater loss. The latter were commanded by the celebrated Shawnee 
chief, Cornstalk. 

After the battle the Indians called a council and made peace with 
the white commander. Meanwhile, Lord Dunmore was approaching, when 
he received other messengers from the Indians asking for peace, which 
was granted. It was on this occasion that the celebrated chief, Logan, made a 
speech to Lord Dunmore which made him famous. He said: " I appeal to 
any white man to say, if he ever entered Logan's cabin hungry and he gave 
him no meat ; if ever he came cold and naked and he clothed him not. Dur- 
ing the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan remained in his cabin, 
an advocate for peace. Such was his love for the whites, that his countrymen 



The Revolutionary Period. 



37 



pointed as they passed, and said : ' Logan is the friend of the white men.' I 
had even thought to have lived with you but for the injuries of one man. 
Colonel Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, murdered all 
the relations of Logan, not even sparing my children. There runs not a drop 
of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This called on me for revenge. 
I have sought it. I have killed many. I have fully glutted my vengeance. 
For my country I rejoice at the beams of peace, but do not harbor a thought 
that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his 
heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan ? Not one." 

It will be remembered that Logan was a Six Nations chief, whose father 
Shikelimo, was a resident chief sent by the Six Nations to live among the 
Delawares. He named his son Logan, after James Logan, a conspicuous per- 
sonage in the province. During the French and Indian war, Logan acted only 
as peacemaker. After the close of the Cresap war he became morose and drank 
heavily. He made a mistake in saying that Cresap murdered his family ; the 
party under Greathouse committed that offense. While on a journey from 
Detroit to Miami, several years after this, Logan was murdered. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 

The Revolutionary War — Action of the Crown — The Colonies Determined — The Out- 
break — The Indians Hostile — Six Nations Divided — Depredations — Defenses — Struggles — 
Close of the War. 

THE active part taken by the English government in bringing into subjec- 
tion the disturbing factions among the struggling American colonies 
during and subsequent to the French and Indian war, had involved the mother 
country in a debt of considerable magnitude, and in order to somewhat lighten 
the burden, she looked toward the country in whose interest she had so zeal- 
ously contributed both of men and means. 

The first move toward the accomplishment of this purpose, was the passage 
of an act of parliament in the year 1767, which laid a duty on specified com- 
modities imported into the colonies. This, with other acts oppressive in their 
nature, found serious opposition on this side of the broad Atlantic, and an 
organized and determined resistance was resolved upon. The British ministry 
were soon made conscious of their error and offered a reduction of five-sixths 
of the duty imposed by the act of 1767, hoping, by this move, to restore tran- 



38 History of Clearfield County. 

quillity among the colonies, and in 1770 all duties were removed except one 
of three pence per pound on teas. Even this had not the desired effect, and 
the opposition to importations was as determined as ever. The Philadelphia 
merchants, as well as those of Boston and other ports, all signed the non-im- 
portation resolutions, and refused to receive this commodity into their store- 
houses, which act of refusal was looked upon as treasonable, and the king was 
requested to cause all offenders to be arrested and brought to England for trial 
and punishment. 

So strictly indeed, had the resolutions of the colonial merchants been ad- 
hered to, that in 1773 over fifteen millions of pounds of tea were accumulated 
on the hands of the East India Tea Company. As a special relief measure, 
parliament then offered to allow this article to be shipped to any part of the 
world, duty free. Feeling that this action would pass their teas into the proper 
channels in America, the company immediately freighted several ships for 
the various ports of the colonies, but the people had interdicted and resolved 
against it. 

At Philadelphia the pilots refused to conduct the vessels into port, whereat 
the owners deemed it unsafe to discharge their cargoes, but had them returned 
to England. At the port of New York a like result was had. At Boston, as 
soon as the ships entered the harbor, the colonists, disguised as Indians, rushed 
on board and dumped the cargoes into the bay. This led to further compli- 
cations. Parliament commanded and the colonies refused. The crown with- 
drew the civil authority vested in the several provinces, and the inhabitants 
organized to suit themselves, independent of Great Britain. The leading citi- 
zens of the province of Pennsylvania were called together to consult upon the 
situation, and resolved to endeavor to establish harmony 07i a constitutio7ial 
foundation. 

Pursuant to an agreement of the several provinces, a colonial congress met 
at Carpenters' Hall, in the city of Philadelphia, for the purpose of discussing 
the events of the day, and fixing upon future policy. 

The declaration of rights was first agreed upon, and then followed a recital 
of the wrongs perpetrated by the crown upon the colonists. Upon receiving 
the news of this convention, both houses of parliament declared to the king 
" that they find that a rebeUion actually exists in the province of Massachu- 
setts," whereupon that province was excluded from foreign trade, and for- 
bidden the usual fishery privileges. The same prohibition was soon after 
extended to five other of the provinces and the counties on the Delaware. A 
conciliatory course was then pursued by Great Britain, but without avail. In 
January, 1775, a provincial convention was held at Philadelphia, and continued 
in session for six days. During the progress of the convention the crisis had 
arrived. The arbitrary and oppressive acts of parliament were sought to be 
enforced at the point of the bayonet. 



The Revolutionary Period. 



On the 30th day of June, 1775, the committee of safety was appointed. 
The British and Americans, who had been in the closest friendship, and who, 
under the same banners had passed along the frontier in every part of the 
province, were now destined to seek each other's lives on the blood-stained 
battle-fields of the Revolution, in the great war for American independence, for 
American liberty. 

As dangers and hostilities increased, the Johnsons showed themselves 
clearly in favor of the king. Sir William was greatly disturbed by the gather- 
ing storm of war, but would undoubtedly use his power in behalf of his royal 
master. He died suddenly in 1774. Much of his influence over the Six Na- 
tions descended to his son, Sir John Johnson, and his nephew, Colonel Guy 
Johnson, the latter becoming superintendent of Indian affairs. Through his 
influence with the Indians, the powerful Iroquois confederacy was broken, and 
the Six Nations tribes, except the Oneidas and Tuscaroras, served under the 
banners of the king ; but it was nearly two years before they committed serious 
acts of hostility. The Senecas held off for a while, but the prospect of blood 
and British gold was too much for them to withstand, and in 1777 they, in 
common with the Cayugas, Onondagas, and Mohawks, made a treaty with the 
British at Oswego, agreeing to serve the king throughout the war. Mary 
Jemison, the white woman, then living among the Senecas, declared that after 
presents had been distributed among the Indians, the British agents promised 
a bounty on every scalp that should be brought in. The Oneidas remained 
neutral throughout the war. 

The most active of the Iroquois chiefs during the Revolution was Joseph 
Brant, or Thayendenegea, of the Mohawks. The leading chiefs of the Senecas 
were "Farmer's Brother," "Cornplanter," and "Governor Blacksnake." They 
were of equal rank, and received their orders direct from the British ofificers. 
At the massacre at Wyoming, in 1778, the leader of the Senecas, who formed 
the main Indian force on that occasion, was Guiengvvahtoh, supposed to be 
the same as Guiyahgwahdoh, " the smoke-bearer." That was the official title 
of the Seneca, afterward known as " Young King." He was too young to 
have been at Wyoming, but his predecessor in of^ce (his maternal uncle), 
might have been there. Brant was certainly not present. 

The Shawnese, during the first years of war, remained friendly, as well as 
many of the Delawares, but the tribes in general were influenced by the emis- 
saries of the Six Nation Indians on the frontier, and the still more potent factor 
— gold. The recognized leader among the Shawnese was Chief Cornstalk. 
He used his eloquence to induce the northern Indians to side with the colo- 
nists, but in vain. The inducements held out by the agents of the king were 
too strong, and the council decided to fight with the British. 

In 1777, Cornstalk, in company with a friendly Delaware chief, named 
Red Hawk, came to Mount Pleasant and informed the garrison of the determi- 



40 History of Clearfield County. 

nation of the council. Captain Arbuckle thought prudent that both should be 
detained within the fort, which was done. Soon after, EUinipsico, a son of 
Cornstalk, came to the place in search of his father. While the three were 
there, two soldiers who were hunting in the woods near the fort, were killed 
by Indian prowlers, whereupon the enraged whites murdered the three hos- 
tages and the interpreter. Thus died Cornstalk, Ellinipisco and Red Hawk at 
the hands of the people they had wished to serve. 

This unprovoked and willful murder of the chiefs was afterward fearfully 
avenged by the blood of the whites. From this time forward the Shawnese 
became the most deadly enemy to the pioneers along the border. 

Early in the spring of 1778, General Mcintosh was directed to defend the 
western frontier. He strengthened Fort Pitt, and subsequently built Forts 
Mcintosh and Laurens. While General Mcintosh protected this part of the 
border from serious depredations, he could not, by any means, so distribute 
his forces as to protect the northern and northwestern boundaries of the 
province. An attack was hardly looked for from that quarter, and the scat- 
tered sections along the Susquehanna were wholly unprotected. In July of 
that same year, a large body of Senecas, Tories, and a detachment of regulars 
descended the Susquehanna and attacked the village settlements at Wyoming. 
The attacking party numbered about two hundred British provincials, under 
command of Major Butler ; about two hundred Tories under Sir John Johnson, 
and five hundred Indians, chiefly Senecas, led by the famous Guiengwahtoh. 
When they reached the mouth of Bowman's Creek, they waited the coming of 
another party that had been sent to devastate the West Branch valley, from 
the mouth of the Sinnamahoning. After the arrival of the second party, the 
whole force of invaders reached nearly twelve hundred. They passed down 
the Susquehanna in boats until about fifteen miles from Wyoming, when they 
traveled the remaining distance by land. 

The force in defense of the settlement, numbering about three hundred, 
were gathered in Fort Forty, as the most available for the occasion. Colonel 
Zebulon Butler, with the assistance of Major Garrett and Colonel Dennison, 
commanded the defensive force. On the 3d of July they marched out to meet 
the enemy, and after a fierce battle of several hours' duration, the brave 
defenders were overpowered and cut to pieces without mercy by the infuriated 
Senecas. About two-thirds of those who went into the fight were slain. The 
survivors mainly found refuge in Wilkes- Barre Fort, and a few in Fort Forty. 
Terms of capitulation were then agreed upon, that the lives of the survivors and 
the women and children should be spared, and no property destroyed. In dis- 
regard of the latter part, the Indians destroyed the crops, plundered the dwell- 
ings and burned them. 

At Cherry Valley, the same year, the Senecas were present in force, 
together with a body of Mohawks under Brant, and of Tories under Captain 



The Revolutionary Period. 41 

Walter Butler, son of Colonel John Butler, and there was another battle sim- 
ilar to Wyoming. 

These events, and others on a smaller scale, induced Congress and General 
Washington to set on foot an expedition in the spring of 1779. We refer to 
the celebrated expedition of General Sullivan against the Senecas and other 
marauding Indians in the vicinity in which these disasters occurred. Sullivan 
marched up the Susquehanna to Tioga Point, where he was joined by a brig- 
ade under General James Clinton (father of DeWitt Clinton). Sullivan, with 
a total force of some four thousand men, moved up the Chemung to Newtown 
(Elmira). There Colonel Butler, with a strong force of Indians and Tories, 
estimated at from one thousand to fifteen hundred men, had thrown up in- 
trenchments, and a battle was fought. Butler was speedily defeated, retired 
with considerable loss, and made no further opposition. Sullivan advanced 
and destroyed all the Indian villages on the Genesee, burning wigwams and 
cabins, cutting down growing corn, and utterly devastating their whole coun- 
try. The Senecas fled in dismay to Fort Niagara. The Onondaga villages 
had in the mean time been destroyed by another force, but it is plain that the 
Senecas were the ones who were chiefly feared, and against whom the ven- 
geance of the Americans was chiefly directed. After thoroughly laying waste 
the whole Indian country, the Americans returned to the east. 

Sullivan's expedition substantially destroyed the league which bound the 
Six Nations together. Its form remained, but it had lost its binding power. 
The Oneidas and Tuscaroras were encouraged to increase their separation from 
the other confederates. Those tribes whose possessions had been destroyed 
were thrown into more complete subservience to the British power, thereby 
weakening their inter-tribal relations, and the spirits of the Senecas, the most 
powerful and warlike of them all, were much broken by this disaster. 

It was a much more serious matter than had been the destruction of their 
villages in earlier times, as they had adopted a more substantial mode of exist- 
ence. They had learned to depend more on agriculture and less on the chase, 
and possessed not only corn-fields, but gardens, orchards, and sometimes com- 
fortable houses. In fact they had adopted many of the customs of civiHzed 
life, though without relinquishing their primitive pleasures, such as tomahawk- 
ing and scalping prisoners. They fled en masse to Fort Niagara, and during 
the winter of 1779-80, which was of unusual severity, were scantily sustained 
by rations which the British authorities with difficulty procured. As spring 
approached, the English made every effort to reduce the expense by persuad- 
ing the Indians to make new settlements and plant crops. The red men were 
naturally anxious to keep as far as possible from the dreaded foe who had 
inflicted such terrible punishment upon them the year before, and were unwill- 
ing to risk their families again at their ancient seats. 

Having now disposed of the most dangerous foes of the north and north- 



42 History of Clearfield County. 

west frontiers of the province, let us look back and observe what, in the mean 
time, was transpiring elsewhere among the savages. 

In the fore part of the year 1778 a plan was organized to concentrate a 
large force of Indians and Tories at Kittanning, then cross the mountain by 
Indian paths and at Burgoon's Gap divide ; one party to march through the 
Cove and Conococheague Valleys, the other to follow the Juniata Valley and 
form a junction at Lancaster, killing all the inhabitants on their march. Al- 
though this offensive plan was partially carried out, it failed in the main pur- 
pose. Dissensions arose, and a leader of the Tories was killed by an Indian. 
The country became aroused, and the people flocked to arms. Some of the 
invaders were shot, others captured, and the balance driven out of the country. 

To guard against like incursions in future, numerous small parties were 
stationed at convenient points along the frontier. Soon after Colonel Brod- 
head, with a considerable force under his command, swept the country on the 
Allegheny and upper West Branch and thoroughly cleared the borders of all 
plundering and murdering savages. The presence of his command had a sal- 
utary effect upon the Indians, and the inhabitants of the West Branch and Penn's 
Valley returned to their homes and gathered such of their crops as were not 
destroyed. 

The great achievement of General Wayne at Stony Point, turned the tide- 
of the Revolution in favor of the Americans. Their drooping hopes were re- 
vived, while the British and Tories were correspondingly disheartened. From 
that time forward the life of British supremacy in America hung upon a hair, 
and that slender cord was broken by the surrender of Cornwallis in the month 
of October, 1781. 

In the fall of 1783 peace was formally declared between Great Britain and 
the revolted colonies, and, by that declaration, those colonies were henceforth 
to be acknowledged by all men as the United States of America, a free and 
independent nation. 

In the articles of peace agreed upon between the British and American 
authorities, no provision whatever was made for the Indian allies who had so 
faithfully served their master. The English authorities afterward offered them 
land in Canada, but all, except the Mohawks, preferred their accustomed 
localities. 

The United States, however, treated them with great moderation, and al- 
though the Iroquois had twice broken their pledges, and had plunged into war 
against the colonies, they were readily admitted to the benefits of peace, and 
were even acknowledged as having some rights to the territory not already- 
sold to the provinces by virtue of the several treaties previously made. 

In the month of October, 1784, a treaty was made between three commis- 
sioners of the United States, and the sachems of the Six Nations. 

The several treaties made with the Indians for the extinguishment of their 
titles to lands in Pennsylvania, we shall discuss at length in the next chapter. 



Early Land Operations. 43 

CHAPTER VI. 
early land operations. 

Land Titles — Penn's Charter — Naming the Province — Treaties with Indians — Acquisition 
of Lands to the Proprietaries — Boundaries — The Divesting Act — Surveys — Ovs^ners — The 
Holland Land Company. 

THE lands in the province of Pennsylvania were granted to William Penn 
by royal charter from Charles II, king of Great Britain, on the 4th day 
of March, A. D. 1681. Admiral William Penn, father of the grantee, died 
having a claim against the English government of sixteen thousand pounds, 
on account of money loaned and arrearages of pay. His son, William, pre- 
sented a petition to the crown that, in lieu of such indebtedness, he would be 
content with a grant of a tract of land in America, which tract he fully de- 
scribed in his petition. After having consulted with the proprietaries of other 
provinces adjoining the lands applied for, the king ordered the charter, and the 
territory embraced by it was called Pennsylvania. 

It has been commonly supposed that Pennsylvania was so named by the 
proprietary in honor of himself, but such is not the case, as the following ex- 
tract from a letter addressed by William Penn to Robert Turner, will fully 
show: "I choze New Wales, being, as this is, a pretty hilly country; but 
Penn, being Welsh for a head, as Penmanmoire, in Wales, and Penrith, in 
Cumberland, and Penn, in Buckinghamshire, the highest land in England, 
called this Pennsylvania, which is the high or head woodlands ; for I proposed, 
when the Secretary, a Welshman, refused to have it called New Wales, Sylva- 
nia, and they added Penn to it, and though I much opposed it, and went to the 
king to have it struck out and altered, he said it was passed, and would not 
take it upon him; nor .could twenty guineas move the under secretary to vary 
the name, for I feared lest it should be looked upon as a vanity in me, and not 
as a respect in the king, as it truly was, to my Father, whom he often men- 
tioned with praise." 

The charter in its terms vested full and absolute ownership, and possession 
of the province in William Penn, and empowered and authorized him to gov- 
ern the same, make such laws and regulations for the conduct of its affairs and 
people, as should be just, and not inconsistent with the laws of Great Britain. 

After coming into possession of this vast estate Penn sold large tracts to 
persons in London, Liverpool, and Bristol. He appointed William Markham 
as deputy governor, and sent him to the province with commissioners to treat 
with the Indians, arrange a peace with them, and purchase their title to the 
lands. 

Markham arrived in the province in the summer of 1681, in one of three 



44 History of Clearfield County. 

ships arriving at that time with passengers and commodities. On the second 
day of April following the charter, the king issued a proclamation to the in- 
habitants of the province, informing them of the grant, and of the powers and 
authority vested in Penn, and calling upon them to obey any and all such laws 
and regulations as the proprietary should order. 

So far from being a source of great profit to Penn the management of the 
affairs of the province soon involved him in a large indebtedness, and he was 
compelled to borrow six thousand six hundred pounds, and encumber the 
lands as security for its payment. At a later period he negotiated a sale of 
the entire province to Queen Anne, for the sum of twelve thousand pounds, 
and a part of the purchase price was paid, but for some reason the transfer was 
never made. 

The first step on the part of the proprietary, or his deputies, on coming 
into actual possession of the province, was to negotiate with the Indians for the 
release of their claim to the lands. This was done by numerous treaties and 
conferences, from time to time, the larger tracts being acquired usually after 
some dissension or war, but this assertion relates only to the larger purchases 
or the time of their consummation. In stating the facts concerning these trans- 
actions with the Indians, only the occasions on which sales of considerable 
magnitude were made will be noticed, lesser ones being of no great moment, 
and not necessary in this chapter. 

The first purchase from the Indians was made by Deputy William Mark- 
ham and the commissioners, by a deed executed by the chiefs, or shackmakers, 
of the several tribes having or claiming an interest in the lands lying in what is 
now Bucks county, in the extreme east part of the province. Authorities so 
materially differ in spelling the names of the shackmakers who executed this 
instrument, that they are omitted. The consideration paid for the land was 
mainly in goods and merchandise, as follows : " Three hundred and fifty fath- 
oms of wampum, twenty white blankets, twenty fathoms of strawd waters, 
sixty fathoms of DuflSelds, twenty kettles, whereof four are large, twenty guns, 
twenty coats, forty shirts, forty pairs of stockings, forty hoes, forty axes, two 
barrels of powder, two hundred bars of lead, two hundred knives, two hundred 
small glasses, twelve pairs of shoes, forty copper boxes, forty tobacco tongs, 
two small barrels of pipes, forty pairs of scissors, forty combs, twenty- four 
pounds of red lead, one hundred awls, two handfulls of fish-hooks, two hand- 
fulls of needles, forty pounds of shot, ten bundles of beads, ten small saws, 
twelve drawing-knives, four anchers of tobacco, two anchers of rum, two 
anchers of cider, two anchers of beer, and three hundred gilders (money)." 

From this time to the treaty and sale made in 1736, there were numerous 
sales of smaller tracts made at different times and by different Indian chiefs ; 
but at the conference made in this year (1736), October 11, the Five Nations 
chiefs seem to have been called upon to settle certain questions disputed by 



Early Land Operations. 45 

the resident chiefs. It will be remembered that the Five Nations conquered 
the tribes, descendants of the Lenni Lenapes, in this region, and by virtue of 
that conquest claimed the ownership of the whole territory. When called in 
the matter they seriously upbraided the resident Indians for presuming to sell 
the lands at all, and when they had done so they should have stood by the 
sale. The conveyance made at this time was executed by the Five Nations 
chiefs, and they confirmed the sales previously made. The territory embraced 
by it included the lands within the present counties of Adams, York, Lancas- 
ter, Chester, Delaware, Philadelphia, Montgomery, Berks. Lehigh, Northamp 
ton, Bucks, Cumberland, and parts of Franklin, Dauphin, and Lebanon. 

The next considerable purchase was made in the year 1749. In the esti- 
mation of the Six Nations (for now the Tuscaroras were added), there were 
questions of great import to be discussed on the consummation of this sale, for 
word had reached them that white settlers were trespassing on unsold lands, 
and that proper representatives might be sent to the conference at Philadelphia 
a council of the Six Nations was held at Onondaga, at which time the del- 
egates were chosen. The Senecas arrived first, and having made a stop at 
Wyoming to inquire as to the trespassing, were fully informed concerning 
them. In addition to the Six Nations, the Delawares, Shawnese, and Sham- 
okin Indians joined in the deed. The lands embraced by the sale include the 
present counties of Schuylkill, Carbon, Monroe, and parts of Dauphin, North- 
umberland, Columbia, Luzerne, Lackawanna, and Pike. 

To convey a fair understanding of the facts regarding the treaties of 1753 
and 1754, and the subsequent compromise agreed upon in 1758, it will be 
necessary to explain at some length. Some mention was made concerning 
this in an earlier chapter, and a full narration of the facts are here given. 

In 1753, Canassategoand several others of the leading chiefs attached to the 
British interests, were dead, and the sachem at the head of the council of the 
Six Nations was known to be in the French interest, and the affections of that 
people appeared to be much shaken. Those who adhered to the colonists 
were threatened by the French, and Indian affairs looked serious. At this 
time the friendly Indians were unwilling to do anything that might give rise 
to suspicion regarding their fidelity. They remonstrated, but they did so 
without threats. They desired that our people would forbear settling on In- 
dian lands over the Allegheny hills, and advised the government to call back 
the intruders ; that none should settle on the Juniata lands till matters were 
settled between them and the French. The treaty at Albany in 1764, with 
the Six Nations, was held by order of the king. The lords of trade and plant- 
ers had recommended this, that all the provinces might be comprised in one 
general treaty to be made in his majesty's name, as the practice of each pro- 
vince making a separate treaty for itself, in its own name, was considered to be 
improper. The Indian deed was executed at Albany July 6th, 1754. Many 
7 



46 History of Clearfield County. 

of the Indian tribes (not referring to the Six Nations), seeing their lands gone, 
joined the French, and according to the address of Governor Morris, " it 
seemed clear from the different accounts he had received, that the French had 
gained to their interest the Delaware and Shawnese Indians, under the ensnar- 
ing pretense of restoring them to their country." 

The lands embraced within the terms of the treaty included the hunting 
grounds of the Delawares, the Nanticokes, the Tuteloes, and the home lands of 
the Shawnese and Ohio Indians. Reference was made to the boundary line in 
the foregoing chapter (Chapter III). The controversy was finally settled by 
the compromise deed executed October 23, 1757, Hmiting the extent of the 
purchases of 1753-4, to the territory included within the boundaries of the 
present counties of Bedford, Fulton, Blair, Huntingdon, Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, 
and parts of Centre, Union, Snyder, and Cumberland. 

The next considerable purchase was made at Fort Stanwix, N. Y., Novem- 
ber 5, 1768, and this was the last sale of lands by them to the proprietaries. 
The consideration of this sale was ten thousand pounds. The tract of land 
embraced by this purchase was a strip of land extending from the northeast to 
the southwest corners of the province. The north boundary line extended 
through Clearfield county, following the courses of the West Branch on the 
south side thereof This purchase embraced, in whole or in part, the present 
counties of Bradford, Susquehanna, Wayne, Lackawanna, Pike, Wyoming, 
Luzerne, SulHvan, Lycoming, Columbia, Montour, Northumberland, Union, 
Centre, Clinton, Clearfield, Cambria, Indiana, Armstrong, Allegheny, Beaver, 
Washington, Green, Fayette, Somerset, and Westmoreland. 

In October, 1784, a treaty was made at Fort Stanwix between three com- 
missioners of the United States and the sachems of the Six Nations, by which 
treaty a large tract of land was conveyed, not only in Pennsylvania but in New 
York. This sale included all the remaining territory in the State, not pre- 
viously disposed of by the Indians. At the council the Marquis de La Fayette 
was present and made a speech, though not one of the commissioners. The 
chief, Red Jacket, was also there, but took no part in the council. Cornplanter 
spoke on behalf of the Senecas, but " Old King " was the recognized sachem 
of that tribe at the council. The purchase there made included in this State 
the territory embraced, in whole or in part, by the present counties of Brad- 
ford, Tioga, Potter, McKean, Lycoming, Clinton, Cameron, Elk, Clearfield, 
Indiana, Jefferson, Forest, Warren, Armstrong, Clarion, Butler, Venango, 
Allegheny, Beaver, Lawrence, Mercer, Crawford, and Erie. 

The above treaty at Fort Stanwix was, in January, 1785, ratified and 
confirmed by a deed executed by the Wyandot and Delaware Indians at Fort 
Mcintosh, which deed conveyed the same lands as mentioned in the convey- 
ance of 1784. 

The title to the small triangular tract in the extreme northwest corner of 



Early Land Operations. 47 

the State was acquired on the 4th day of September, 1788, by act of Congress, 
declaring "that the United States do rehnquish and transfer to Pennsylvania 
all their right, title and claim to the government and jurisdiction of said land 
forever.'' 

By the act of October 2, 1788, the sum of twelve hundred pounds was 
appropriated to purchase the Indian title to the tract. The deed from the 
United States of the above tract, was dated March 3, 1792. 

The proprietaries professed not to sell any lands beyond the boundaries of 
the purchases made from time to time. If surveys were made over them with- 
out their consent, they were illegal and void. To have departed from this 
principle would have occasioned wars with the Indians and resulted most 
fatally to the interests of the province ; and would have been a gross violation 
of the sacred rights of the natives and of the promises made them. 

This provision was so strictly adhered to by the proprietaries that acts 
were passed by the provincial government positively forbidding such unlawful 
surveys, and providing a penalty for a disobedience of them. 

By this it will be seen that if surveys were made on the north side of the 
West Branch, or the west side within the present boundaries of Clearfield 
county, prior to the treaty at Fort Stanwix, October, 1784, no title would 
have passed, nor could it be acquired by such survey ; it would have been 
void. In relation to the lands on the south or east side, within the same limits, 
the same rule would apply had any such survey been made prior to 1768, un- 
less made under the assumption that the purchase of 1754 was a valid one, 
and in fact included the lands as far north as the West Branch of the Susque- 
hanna River. 

William Penn died in the year 1718. By the terms of this will, which was 
dated in 17 12, his lands, rents, etc., in the provinces, were devised to his wife, 
Hannah Penn, in trust to sell or dispose of so much of his estate as was neces- 
sary to pay his indebtedness, and then convey to his son by a former wife, forty 
thousand acres of land, and all the residue of his estate in lands in the prov- 
inces to his children by his second wife. 

After Penn had made his will he had agreed to sell his whole estate in the 
province to the crown for twelve thousand pounds, and had in fact received a 
part of the purchase money therefor, and, although the sale was never com- 
pleted by actual transfer, the serious question arose on the construction of the 
will, whether his interest in the estate was real or personal property — if per- 
sonal, it went to his widow — if real, to his children. This question was a 
subject of many years of litigation in chancery, but was finally compromised, 
and the government of the province became vested in his sons by his second 
marriage, John, Thomas, and Richard Penn. 

In the year 1732 Thomas Penn came to this country and took charge of 
the affairs of the province, acting for himself and his brothers, John and Rich- 
ard Penn. 



48 History of Clearfield County. 

In the year 1779 the title of the Penns as proprietaries of the province was 
transferred to the Commonwealth under what is known as the " Divesting- 
Act." The Legislature, on the 28th day of June, passed an act by which all 
the private estates, manors, and quit-rents throughout were reserved to the 
proprietaries; their other estates in land became the property of the Common- 
wealth, and the State agreed to pay the proprietaries the sum of one hundred 
and thirty thousand pounds sterling, after the close of the Revolutionary War. 

In the territory now embraced within the boundaries of Clearfield county 
there were numerous surveys made at an early day, some of them prior to the 
Revolutionary War ; but any extensive movement in this direction was at- 
tended with considerable danger. The Indians were not friendly, and the 
prospect of seeing their favorite hunting and fishing grounds occupied by the 
adventurous whites was exceeding unpleasant to them. Judge Smith, an old 
surveyor, ran off a considerable tract in this vicinity as early as 1769, and 
soon after the treaty at Albany, but not until after the treaty at Fort Stanwix 
did the rush begin. James Harris and a party made extensive surveys in the 
easterly and southerly part of the county. Some extracts are given from 
Harris's diary or journal, made on that occasion, October, 1884. The party 
were as follows : " William Brown, James Harris, G. Meek, David Milligan, 
Andrew Small, Daniel Beats, and Thomas Pierce. They were subsequently 
joined by John Reed, D. Alexander, and R. Alexander. On the 23d they 
left Warrior Marks and crossed over to Moshannon and encamped for the 
night. On the 25th made a survey for Mr. Brown of twenty-one hundred and 
fifty acres in pursuance of five warrants. On the 27th left the forks of Mos- 
hannon and proceeded a nearly due west course about eight miles to Clearfield 
creek, just at the head of the narrows. Here they were met by Mr. Miller 
and two young men named Mitchell. The land here is described as an ex- 
tensive rich bottom, a creek about thirty or forty yards wide, the upland not 
rich, but well timbered in places. On the 28th they met five men named 
Rickerts, who came to the camp and claimed by improvement a great deal of 
the land up the creek, and say they will not allow it to be surveyed. Mr. Canan 
made two surveys on the south side of the creek for Reed, Alexander & Co., 
the second including the mouth of a large run, and extending up the same 
about a mile. James Alexander's including the mouth of this run, is in John 
Gill's name. 

" N. B. — On the 28th George Meek killed one large buck, pretty fat, not 
unwelcome news to the company." 

The next day, the 29th, Mr. Canan began a survey on the northwest side 
of Clearfield Creek, above the narrows, but was compelled to quit on account 
of rains. On the 30th he surveyed on the west side of the creek and extended 
the Hne up as far as Rickerts's land. On the 31st Mr. Canan, John Reed, and 
William Miller were left to perform their surveys, and the balance of the party 



Early Land Operations. 



49 



moved up to the forks of Beaver and Clearfield Creeks. They encountered 
great difficulties here on account of fallen trees. The 2d and 3d of November 
were spent in surveying in the vicinity, but were obliged to stop on the 4th on 
account of heavy rains. On the 14th they depart and reached Chest Creek in 
search of lands warranted, which were located in June prior. After search- 
ing and surveying several days through snow and rain the party returned to 
Juniata. 

The Canans made numerous surveys along the various streams of the 
county, some of them being made as late as 1802. In this year they came to 
the lands bordering on Chest Creek, to run a dividing line between Fisher's and 
McConnell's claims, and settle interferences. They started at the " Scotch 
Cabins," in (now) Cambria county, at the point where the Indian road from 
Kittanning to Carlisle crosses Chest Creek, and followed the courses and dis- 
tances of that creek for over thirty miles. They then came down to the West 
Branch, and thence down that stream. In the Canan party was the redoubt- 
able Samuel Fulton, concerning whom further mention will be made. 

Among the many other surveyors who, from time to time made surveys in 
this neighborhood, appear the names of Samuel Brady, the renowned hunter 
and Indian fighter, Daniel Turner, who was interested in surveyed lands from 
the Susquehanna to Milesburg, a large part of which were in this county. 
Turner first visited the county in 1794. William Anderson, for whom the 
creek of that name was called, was also one who became largely interested in 
land speculations here. 

There were many persons never residents, but speculators, who bought 
warrants and land claims in the county, many of whom held exceedingly large 
tracts. Of these there may be prominently mentioned the Holland Land Com- 
pany, Nicklin, Griffith & Boon, James Hopkins, McConnel & Reynolds, James 
Yard, Gramer & Bates, John Keating, whose lands included nearly the entire 
township of Karthaus ; the Keating lands, which bordered on the West Branch 
for many miles ; the Mead tracts, Thomas Kitland, Jeremiah Parker, James 
Wilson, Samuel M. Fox, the Drinker lands, George Roberts, on Chest Creek, 
Joseph P. Morris, John Hallowell, Robert Morris, Walter Stewart, Rev. Smith, 
Archibald Woodside, jr., William Griffiths, of Burlington, N. J.; Wilhelm Wil- 
link and others, Henry Drinker, Archibald McCall, James and William Mil- 
ler, Abraham Witmer, Peters, Rawle & Morgan, Phillips & Co., James C. 
Fisher, William Scott, of Trenton, N. J., and many others who owned and 
controlled tracts of various sizes and localities. 

Of the foregoing mentioned land operators, there are none that have been 
more prominently before the people and the courts of the State than the " Hol- 
land Land Company," and "Wilhelm Willink, and others." The "Holland 
Land Company " and " Wilhelm Willink and others," are synonymous names. 

Legally, there never was any such thing as the Holland Land Company, 
or the Holland Company, as they were usually called. 



50 History of Clearfield County. 

The company, consisting of Wilhelm Willink and eleven associates, mer- 
chants and capitalists of the city of Amsterdam, placed funds in the hands of 
friends who were citizens of America, to purchase several tracts of land in the 
United States, which, being aliens, the Hollanders could not hold in their 
names at that time ; and in pursuance of the trust created, there were pur- 
chased, both in New York and Pennsylvania, immense tracts of land, all man- 
aged by the same general agent at Philadelphia. 

The names of the several persons interested in these purchases, and who 
composed the Holland Land Company, so called, were as follows : Wilhelm 
Willink, Nicholas Van Staphorst, Pieter Van Eeghen, Hendrick Vollenhoven, 
and Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck. Two years later the five proprietors 
transferred a tract of about one million acres, so that the title vested in the 
original five, and also in Wilhelm Willink, jr., Jan Willink, jr., Jan Gabriel 
Van Staphorst, Roelif Van Staphorst, jr., Cornelius Vollenhoven, and Hendrick 
Seye. Pieter Stadnitzki was also made a partner, though in an unknown man- 
ner. The title to the three hundred thousand acres of the entire tract was 
conveyed to Wilhelm Willink, Wilhelm Willink, jr., Jan Willink, and Jan 
Willink, jr., but the tract was not in this locality. 

The title to the vast extent of lands of this company, held as joint tenants, 
not tenants in common, but to the survivors, became the subject of long and 
serious litigation, but was finally determined in the United States Supreme 
Court in favor of the company. The lands of the company in this county lay 
mainly on the west and north side of the West Branch, in Chincleclamoose 
township. 



CHAPTER Vn. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

Early Settlements — Territory Divided — The First Settlers — Difference of Opinion — 
The First Mill — First Marriage — First Child Born — The Christening — Other Settlements — 
— Settlement Down to 18.10. 

THE reader must bear in mind the fact that at the time the first settlements 
were made in this vicinity, there was no such thing as Clearfield county; 
and the settlers who came here prior to the year 1804, were locating either in 
Lycoming or Huntingdon county. The West Branch of the Susquehanna 
divided the counties, and every pioneer on the north or west side of that river 
was located in Lycoming county, while those on the south and east of the 
stream were citizens of Huntingdon county. 



Early Settlements. 51 



The question as to who was the first settler in the county, is now, and for 
many years past, has been in dispute. On this point the records of past 
writers differ materially. Those whose interests and associations are identical 
with the western territory of the county, claim that James Woodside was the 
original pioneer of the county, and that his settlement was made in the vicinity 
afterward known as Brady township, in the year 1785 ; while the residents in 
the eastern and central parts have always understood and maintained that 
Daniel Ogden was the first settler of the county, and that his settlement was 
made near and just south of the present county seat on the bank of the Sus- 
quehanna, in the year 1797, or twelve years later than the date of James Wood- 
side's settlement. This question cannot be settled at this time, nor will any 
attempt be made to do so. It is possible, of course, that Mr. Woodside could 
have been in the western part in 1785, and the fact not known to the Ogdens. 
Between the points of location was then a dense forest, never touched by the 
woodman's ax ; high hills also intervened, and the distance between the local- 
ities exceeded twenty miles. Another question arises : What constituted, at 
that time, a settlement ? If occupancy, improvement, and cultivation with 
intention of remaining created a settlement, perhaps James Woodside, of 1785, 
and Daniel Ogden, of 1797, both, will have to yield this honor in favor of 
Captain Edward Rickerts, basing the assumption of his settlement upon the 
the journal of James Harris, surveyor. The party on the 28th day of October, 
1784, were surveying on Clearfield Creek, and on that day, says the journal, 
" five men by the name of Rickerts came to our camp, said they claimed by 
improvement a great deal of land up this creek, say they will not suffer it to 
be surveyed." Again, " on the 30th, Mr. Canan performed one of the sur- 
veys on the west side of Clearfield, extending it as high up as Rickerts claim." 
The reader will understand that we do not intend to assert, as a fact, that Cap- 
tain Rickerts was the first settler of the county, but only to lay the fact before 
the public as bearing upon the question. 

Captain Edward Rickerts was a native of Maryland, and while a boy emi- 
grated with his father's family to Pennsylvania. At the age of nineteen 
Edward entered the service as an Indian fighter, and was considered one of 
the most experienced frontiersmen in the whole country. During the Revolu- 
tion his services to the province were so valuable that he was given a captain's 
commission. 

Having made the improvement referred to, and built a cabin. Captain 
Rickerts went for his wife and household goods, and returned with them in the 
year 1801. Upon his return he found the cabin occupied by Joseph Leonard 
and family. The two families lived there together during the winter following, 
but Rickerts having no claim to the land except by improvement, was after- 
wards compelled to vacate and settle elsewhere. Captain Rickerts died in the 
year 181 3. The lands improved by hirri, above referred to, lay on Clearfield 



52 History of Clearfield County. 

Creek, above the narrows, between places afterward known as Glen Hope and 
Coalport. 

James Woodside first came to this county, or rather to Lycoming county, 
in the month of July, 1785, with a surveying party from Chester county. 
Several tracts were located by them, one of which, under warrant number five 
hundred and seventy, belonged to Woodside, and his land was located on the 
stream known as Stump Creek. James Woodside lived here many years, the 
only white resident among the few remaining Indians, who were quite friendly. 
He is described as a man of decidedly peculiar habits, having no family, and 
content to live alone in his forest home. A monument has recently been 
erected by the enterprising citizens of Du Bois, known as the " Woodside 
Monument," in honor of the memory of this venerable pioneer, now dead and 
gone, to which reference will be made in the chapters relating to that portion 
of the county. 

Daniel Ogden, prior to his coming to this locality, was a resident of Cherry 
Valley, New York State. During the war that place was the scene of a mas- 
sacre almost equal to Wyoming. All his property was destroyed, and one of 
his sons, David, was killed by the Indians. His wife, with the remaining chil- 
dren, were compelled to flee to the woods for safety, and remained there dur- 
ing the entire night. In the year 1797 Mr. Ogden, with three of his sons, 
came to this place, ascending the West Branch in canoes. In this work they 
met with great difficulty. The channel in places was narrow and filled with 
rocks, rifts, and water-soaked trees, and they were obliged frequently to un- 
load and drag their empty canoes over these places, which hindered their pro- 
gress considerably. They passed above the old Indian town, and made a 
landing on the site now occupied by Matthew S. Ogden, about half a mile 
south of Clearfield court-house. There was but one break in the vast wilder- 
ness, the far-famed clear fields near the site of the Indian village of Chinclecla- 
moose. These fields bore evidence of recent cultivation upon the arrival of 
the pioneer. After having made a clearing and erected a log house, which 
was done with some assistance rendered by the few Indians then here, Mr. 
Ogden returned to Cherry Valley and brought his family here. Of his eight 
children, none were born here. They were Abner, Jonathan, David, who was 
captured and slain by the Indians at Cherry Valley; Daniel, jr., Joab, Jehu, 
Matthew, and Margaret. 

The Indians above mentioned were always referred to as the Cornplanter 
tribe. In fact there was no such tribe of Indians. Cornplanter was a war- 
chief of the Seneca tribe, and had two wives and many children, but they all 
belonged to the Senecas. The family, and perhaps the chief himself, may have 
resorted hither, but this is unlikely, as the Allegheny was nearer and larger. 
A special reservation was made for the children and descendants of Corn- 
planter on the banks of the Allegheny, in Warren county, where about eighty 



Early Settlements. 53 



of the Cornplanter descendants still reside, and where the " Cornplanter Mon- 
ument " is erected. 

Daniel Ogden, the father, was a strong, muscular man, a great hunter, and 
quite fond of joking. There was no grist-mill nearer than Lock Haven, and 
when meal was low, he used an old jointer-plane turned bottom up, and b}^ 
drawing an ear of corn along the surface, managed to manufacture a sufficient 
quantity of meal to supply the family demand. His son, Matthew, being ol 
an ingenious turn of mind, built a grist-mill in 1804, on Chincleclamoosc 
Creek. The greatest novelty, in construction, that ever was erected in the 
country, was Mat. Ogden's mill. There was but one piece of iron in the 
whole structure, a spike used for a spindle. The bolter was made of cap- 
cloth, and geared to the water-wheel with a strap, but notwithstanding its 
rude construction, the mill supplied the grist for the neighborhood for some 
time, and until Robert Maxwell built the second mill on Anderson Creek some 
years later. Matthew Ogden married Elizabeth Bloom, daughter of William 
Bloom, in the year 1802. This was the first marriage ceremony performed in 
the county. " Squire " Arthur Bell officiated. 

Daniel Ogden dif^d in 18 19, at the advanced age of eighty-four years. His 
wife died in 1835, aged ninety-eight years. Several of the children returned 
to New York State. Daniel, jr., moved over to the Allegheny River. Joab 
went West, but returned and settled near James Woodside, in Brady township 
in 1804, and was the second white settler in that locality. He died there. 

Arthur Bell came up the river from Big Island, in the same year, and soon 
after Daniel Ogden. He remained a few days with Ogden and helped put up 
his house, after which he went farther up the river, and commenced an im- 
provement. Bell, who in after years was known as Squire Bell, came from 
Path Valley, Centre county. He, and his brother John, who also came about 
the same time, were veterans of the Revolution, having served on a privateer. 
Arthur was made justice of the peace in 1802. He was a great " fiddler," and 
exceedingly popular among the settlers. He was a tall, muscular man, of 
determined spirit, kind, and obliging, and the recognized leader in the settle- 
ment. Grier Bell, his son, was the first white child born in the county. He 
was so named after Rev. Grier, of Williamsport, who came to baptize him. 
Squire Bell used an old coffee-mill for grinding corn until Mat. Ogden's mill 
was done. He raised a family of several sons and daughters. Of his children 
William married a Miss Henry, and died, leaving a large family. His widow 
afterward married John P. Dale. Greenwood was a rheumatic, and suffered 
severely from that complaint. Grier, the first child born in the county. Le- 
titia, who married James Young, and three other daughters who married 
respectively William, Thomas, and James McCracken, sons of James Mc- 
Cracken, sr. 

John Bell, perhaps better known as " Little John," and " Demi-John," 



54 History of Clearfield County. 

made a clearing on the north side of the river, on the farm now owned by- 
Samuel Snyder. Whatever John lacked in industry and thrift, he made up in 
popularity. No " frolic " was complete without him, and hardly any joke was 
perpetrated without John being in some way connected with it. 

Soon after the Bell family, came Casper Hockenberry and James Mc- 
Cracken with their families, and settled in the neighborhood. Their wives 
were sisters of Squire Bell's wife, and through the Squire's influence they were 
induced to make their settlement. 

Thomas McClure, afterward known as " Squire " McClure, came to the 
county from Cumberland in 1799. He made an improvement, but did not 
bring his family until 1800. Squire McClure was one of the county commis- 
sioners at the time the contract for erecting the county buildings was made. 
In his family were two sons and four daughters. 

About the year 1800 the people of the settlement discovered the old In- 
dian path leading from Chincleclamoose to Milesburg, and this afterward was 
made the route for transporting goods to the place. 

Along this path there came one day a stranger into the settlement, who 
took up her abode in the lower part of the borough, about on the spot where 
A. F. Boynton's barn stands. This person proved to be the Widow Lewis, who 
became familiarly known as "Granny Lathers." She located here and started 
a distillery, but about the time the War of 18 12 broke out. Granny departed 
and was known no more, except through the exploits of her son David. This 
son was a wayward youth, and his success in minor offenses led him to attempt 
greater ones. He and two comrades, named Connelly and McQuire, were in 
the habit of stopping and robbing the wagons of Bellefonte merchants, till at 
last a vigilance committe of Centre county citizens, and one or two from this 
locality hunted them down. David was shot through the arm and captured. 
He refused to have the injured member taken off, so he died from the effects 
of the wound. 

In the year 1801 settlement became more rapid, and this and the three 
years following witnessed the advent of several families whose names, through 
their own, or descendant's efforts, have become prominent in the affairs of the 
county. 

Martin Hoover settled on the river, in what is now Lawrence township, in 
1 80 1. He came from York county. Hoover was a thrifty, energetic, and pros- 
perous man. In 18 14 he was sent to the Legislature ; at another time he was 
county treasurer. He died in 1841, having raised a large family. His brother 
George was an early settler in the county, but did not come until some years 
later. He had a large family also. 

Next to Hoover's on the river settled about this time Frederick Hennich, 
or Haney, as he was more commonly known. He built a grist-mill near the 
mouth of Montgomery Creek. Haney also built the first " coal ark" used on 
the river, but its life was short, as it " staved " on the river at " Rocky Bend." 



Early Settlements. 55 



Abraham Hess came from York county about 1803, and settled on Clear- 
field Creek, where he died. Hess was twice married, and had thirteen chil- 
dren. A propos the settlement of Haney and Hess, a good story is told on the 
latter. Rev. Samuel Stewart came to Hess's place to baptize some children, 
and in preparing the family for the solemnities of the ceremony, took a Bible 
from the table and began to catechise the head of the family. " Who built the 
first ark ?" " Fred Haney !" innocently replied Mr. Hess, and the ceremony 
proceeded without further questioning. 

Paul Clover made a settlement at the mouth of Anderson's Creek, about 
1 801. He remained here several years, keeping a " public house " or tavern, 
and did some work as blacksmith. Clover died of a cancer, after which his 
widow and children moved to Clarion. 

Robert Askey came in and settled about this time a short distance below 
Clover's place, on the river near the fording place He often helped people in 
crossing the river, and is remembered as a kind and obliging person. Askey 
took up some land about a mile and a half back from the river, and made the 
first clearings on the ridges. He served in the war under General Wagner. 
At the time of his death he had a large fam.ily, who have become numerous in 
the county. 

Joseph Leonard, it will be remembered, occupied the cabin of Captain 
Rickerts in 1801, while the latter was away after his family. Leonard was of 
Irish descent, and came here from Huntingdon county. Soon after his com- 
ing, his sons, Isaac and Thomas, came. They had commenced an improve- 
ment below the Ox-bow on Clearfield Creek before Rickerts returned. Thomas 
remained here but a short time. 

David Litz came from Centre county and settled on the river near the 
place where the old bridge was afterwards built. Here he made a good farm, 
and raised a large family. Litz run the first raft of logs down the river, in the 
year 1805. This was the first rafting done in the county. 

Abraham Leonard was born in Ireland, and emigrated from there before 
the present century, and took up his residence in Huntingdon county. In 
1 80 1 he came to this place and located near the old toll-gate, on the Snow- 
shoe and Packersville turnpike, about two miles east of the borough. He 
made his clearing and house, and brought his family here in March, 1804. 
His family then consisted of his wife and three children — James T., Thomas, 
and Elizabeth. Elizabeth married John Spackman. The children born Abra- 
ham after coming here were Rachel, who married Jonathan Hartshorn ; Zenas, 
Hannah, who married William L. Moore; Robert, Agnes, who married Abra- 
ham Pierce, and Andrew. 

John Owens and Robert Graham were neighbors of Leonard in Hunting- 
don, and came here about the time he came, but settled on the opposite side 
of the creek. The Owens became a numerous family in the county in after 



56 History of Clearfield County. 

years. Graham had nine children, five of whom were born here. In 1813 
Graham left the creek and settled near Plum Island. 

Abraham Passmore came from Chester to Centre county, and was there 
some time before coming to this locality. He moved here and settled on the 
river in 1802. Passmore was a good blacksmith, and his coming was a great 
blessing to the residents here. He did the work for the whole surrounding 
country. In 1806 he left the river settlement and moved upon the ridge, north 
of the West Branch, where he opened and commenced a good farm. A num- 
of his descendants are still living in the county. 

On the site now occupied by the brewery, north of the railroad depot, in 
the year 1801 or '2, came Henry Irwin, a native of Ireland, with his wife and 
three children, John, Mary, and Joseph. Mary married Richard Shaw. The 
children of Henry Irwin born after his settlement here, were William, Henry, 
Margaret, who married Zacheus Mead ; Jane Ann, who became the wife of 
John Spackman ; James, and Nancy, who married Asahel Swan. The family 
moved here in a rudely constructed vehicle, something like a car, which was 
drawn by a steer over a road cut by Daniel Ogden. Henry Irwin became 
bondsman for a fellow-countryman named Connor, and as the latter did not 
appear when required, Irwin was compelled to sacrifice his property to meet 
the bond. He afterwards located about three miles down the river, near and 
below Wolf Run. 

About this time Thomas Mapes came and located nearly opposite where 
Irwin first lived. Mapes came from the East. He married Elizabeth Ogden, 
and after several years moved to Ohio. Several of the descendants of the 
Mapes family still live in Lawrence township. 

Prior to the Revolutionary War, Daniel Turner resided in Westmoreland 
county. He became largely interested in lands in this county, and fre- 
quently visited the locality before making a residence here. The first visit of 
Turner to these parts was in the year 1794. after which time man}^ surveys 
were made in his name, and his wife's also. In 1802 Turner settled near the 
head of Clearfield Creek, and made a farm there. Before he came here he had 
many conflicts with the Indians, but he was a bold, daring, and powerful man. 
One day in the year 1813, while hunting near John Ferguson's, he had a 
" rough and tumble " conflict with a panther, but succeeded in getting the 
animal by its hind legs and holding it in such a manner that it could not bite 
or claw him, until Joseph Turner came and dispatched this dangerous foe with 
a tomahawk. At another time he wounded a panther, and the animal re- 
treated to a cave- like place between two large rocks. Turner followed, and by 
attaching a sword-like bayonet to the muzzle of his gun, stabbed the panther 
to death. Few men would care to tackle a wounded panther in a place like 
that. Turner resided in Bellefonte before he came here and after he left West- 
moreland county. While in the former place he was an extensive operator. 



Early Settlements. 57 



but misfortunes came and swept away his property, and he was induced to 
move to this country. 

About the time that these settlements were being made in the central part 
of this county, there were attempts being made still further down the river, 
near the Centre county line. 

In 1 801 Jacob Wise, sr., a native of Berks county, but of late a resident of 
Penn's Valley, commenced an improvement on the Moshannon. 

During the same year Robert Anderson, an Irishman, and a man named 
Potter also settled in the vicinity. The place occupied by Anderson was 
afterward known as the Hawkins property. Potter settled on the old State 
road a few miles north of the creek. None of these three remained long, but 
left for the Bald Eagle Valley. Potter sold his right to Nicholas Kline, and it 
was afterwards disposed of to one Shimmel, a Hessian, who served under the 
British during the war. Shimmel made a clearing and built a distillery on the 
land. 

John Kline came to the county as early as 1802, and made an improve- 
ment on lands owned by Montgomery, a Philadelphian, not knowing whose 
they were. Montgomery came soon after to see the settlers along the creek, 
(Montgomery) and found Kline on his land, but would not compel him to 
move on account of the improvement he had made. He sold the land to Kline 
at a reasonable price. Kline bought another tract from a German named 
Jacob Anspach, a bachelor, in the year 1805. This was afterward occupied 
by George Philip Guelich. 

Hugh Frazier, a Scotchman, lived near the mouth of Wolf Run as early as 
1802. Frazier had served in the Indian war. He died during the dysentery 
epidemic in 1824, leaving four children — two sons and two daughters. 

John Carothers came here with his wife from Centre county, about this 
time. He was a weaver, shoemaker, and hunter. His wife was equal to him 
in hunting, and was often seen dressed in a hunting skirt, felt hat and moc- 
casins, with gun and ammunition, out in the woods after game. Carothers 
settled down the river about three or four miles, near the place called for him, 
Carothers's Bend.' They moved from here to Sunbury, where John Carothers 
was afterward found frozen to death with a jug of whisky near him. 

Alexander Read was born in Maryland and came to Center county in 
1794. In the year 1802 he came to Clearfield and occupied the land on the 
ridge in Lawrence township where the stone house now stands, the property 
of James Mitchell. There were two families of this name, but spelled differ- 
ently. The Reeds did not come here until 181 1. The heads of these families 
bore the same christian name, i. e., " Alexander," and to distinguish them in 
conversation, they were known as " Red Alex." and "Black Alex." — the for- 
mer applying to " Read," and the latter to " Reed." These appellations were 
given them on account of the color of their hair. The children of Alexander 



58 History of Clearfield County. 

Read were, Sally, who married William Dunlap ; Alexander, jr., Thomas, 
Rachel, who married Alexander B. Reed; John R., James A., and Amos. 
Marriage alliances were frequent between these families for several generations, 
and they were often mistaken for one family, but such was not the case. 
Alexander Read was commissioned by Postmaster- General Gideon Granger 
as postmaster at " Reedsboro," the place on the ridge above referred to, and 
he was the first postmaster in the county. The office was kept there until 
about 1 819. 

In 1803 Squire Arthur Bell sold the upper part of his farm to Benjamin 
Fenton, a resident of Half Moon Valley, Centre county. That year Fenton 
cleared three acres, put in seed for vegetables and wheat, built a cabin, and 
then returned to the valley for his family. During the winter he brought part 
of his goods, and in April following the family came. With them also came a 
Scotchman named Alexander McNattin. Elisha, Thomas, George, and Mary 
Fenton were children of Daniel Fenton. 

William Bloom was born in Germany, and came to this country during 
the latter part of the last century. He first located in New Jersey, but soon 
came to Centre county, and in the part thereof known as Penn's Valley. In 
the year 1803 he moved with his family to this county, and located in what is 
now Pike township, about three- fourths of a mile above the mouth of Ander- 
son's Creek. Here he and his sons cleared one hundred acres of land. The 
children of William Bloom were Anna, who married Thomas Price ; Isaac 
William, Elizabeth, who married Matthew Ogden ; John, Peter, Benjamin, 
Mary, who became the wife of Matthew Caldwell ; Abraham, Sarah or Sally, 
who married Richard Rowles, and James. The Blooms have been the most 
prohfic of any of the families in the county, and among them have been num- 
bered some of the foremost men of the county ; and although they have never 
sought social or political preferment, there has been hardly a year during the 
last three-quarters of a century that some member or descendant of the origi- 
nal stock has not been prominently before the pubHc, either in county or town- 
ship affairs. 

A short distance above the place where William Bloom settled, and at the 
point called the "pee wee's nest," there lived the family of Robert Cresswell. 
They were poor, and had a large number of children. Cresswell died after a 
few years, and the balance of the family moved to Huntingdon. Robert Cress- 
well's funeral was the first that occurred in the county. 

A little further down, below Robert Askey's place, lived Benjamin Jordon, 
about opposite Wright's nursery. Jordon was a Marylander by birth, and had 
served in the Revolutionary War. He came from Centre county, and there 
became related by marriage to General Potter. Jordon, by his large and pow- 
erful figure and military bearing, became quite a dignitary in the settlement. 
The greatest day in those times was " general training," and these were held 



Early Settlements. 



59 



at Jordon's place. He had five children. His three daughters married, re- 
spectively, Thomas, Alexander, and James Read. 

Benjamin Jordon had a brother Hugh, who came here about the same time, 
1803, and settled on the ridge near the place afterward known as the " Irish- 
town Settlement." Hugh Jordon was made associate judge of the county, and 
Jordon township was named in his honor. 

Opposite Benjamin Jordon's place lived George and John Welch. George 
Welch had a family but John had not. In crossing the Alleghenys John 
Welch was frozen to death. William C. Welch, who became prothonotary, 
and died while holding that office, in 1850, was a son of George Welch. 

John Ferguson was born in Ireland, and came to this country in the year 
1775. He enlisted in the Revolutionary service, and served under General 
Sullivan. He was at Freeland Fort when captured by the Indian and British 
forces under Captain Butler. He was also engaged on the frontier, guarding 
against Indian depredations. Ferguson settled on the north side of the river, 
just below the site of Lumber City, in the year 1803, but did not bring his 
family here until the next year. On this place John Ferguson lived and died. 
He was the father of thirteen children, and many of his descendants still live in 
the county. 

About this time Samuel Ewing located about one and one-half miles below 
the mouth of Muddy Run, near the place known as " Ewing's Bottom," but he 
made no farm there. 

William Brannian located about this time on the south side of the creek, 
near the Ox-bow, and shortly after Major Evans located in the vicinity. The 
latter made some improvement and built a house about two miles above Tur- 
ner's place, but did not bring his family here. Hugh Gallagher came in about 
then, occupied the house, and made a good farm there. 

Lands were cleared on the river near " Ardery's Dead-water," and a set- 
tlement made about 1803 by Peter, or, as he was more familiarly known, 
" Pete " Young. Young kept a " tavern " on his farm, and operated a distil- 
lery. He built the greater part of the Miiesburg and Le Boeuf road, east of 
Chest Creek. His brother WiUiam also made a clearing on the river, but sold 
to George Wilson in 1805. 

In the same year another settlement was made in the Moshannon neigh- 
borhood by Conrad Kyler. He was a weaver by trade. Conrad Kyler died 
in 18 16, leaving a family. They remained and built up a considerable estate. 
Many descendants of the family are still living in the east part of the county. 

Leonard Kyler commenced a clearing in the Hard Scrabble locality, but 
not until a couple of years after Conrad came there. He soon sold out, how- 
ever, to his brother John, and went to Bald Eagle Valley. The hamlet of 
Kylertown was named for these families. 

Peter Erhard, a German, made a settlement on the creek, near where New 



6o History of Clearfield County. 

Millport is now located, in 1803. He cleared land and erected a distillery. 
Peter was drowned in 1827. His sons built mills here at an early day, and 
from that fact the place was afterward named New Millport. 

Nicholas Straw made an improvement on the river in 1803. 

Samuel Fulton first visited this locality in or about the year 1797, with a 
party of surveyors. From that time to the date of his settlement he was a 
frequent visitor, and became fully acquainted, not only with the country, but 
the inhabitants as well. Fulton was an Irishman, and immigrated to this 
country with his mother in 1794. On one of his visits here in 1805, he pur- 
chased lands about three miles down the river; the next year he married, and 
in 1807 he became a resident of the county. Fulton was one of the characters 
of the settlement. He was short, stout, full of life and activity, and always 
ready to crack a joke ; yet, withal, he was one of the leading men of the 
county. He was made the first prothonotary of the county ; was afterward 
deputy sheriff, county treasurer, commissioner, and clerk of the commissioners. 
Fulton had four sons, James, Moses, Washington P., and Thomas, and five 
daughters, who married respectively, Archibald Shaw, Joseph Shaw, Richard 
Shaw, William Fullerton, and Thompson Reed. During the early civil history 
of Clearfield county, no person occupied a more prominent position than Sam- 
uel Fulton. 

In 1804 George Hunter, an Irishman, came from Huntingdon county, and 
built a cabin on the farm afterward occupied by John J. Reed. Hunter is 
remembered as an exceedingly whimsical fellow, odd in his habits and conver- 
sation. He died on the place he had improved. 

At or about the time of the organization of Clearfield as a county, March, 
1804, famines came and settled much more rapidly than before the erection 
was made. 

Among the many who then found homes by purchase, or grant, was the 
family of Thomas Forcey, a former resident of New Jersey. Forcey settled at 
" Polk's Bottom," now on the site of Reedsville. His children were Jane, who 
married Peter Owens; Catharine, who married George Connelly ; Tamer, who 
married Samuel Tate ; Nancy, who became the wife of Seth Maines ; Matthew, 
and Thomas who died during infancy. Matthew Forcey married Margaret 
Murray, who bore him seventeen children 

Joseph Patterson came from Penn's Valley about 1805, accompanied by 
his son Robert. Patterson made spinning-wheels, and Robert taught school, 

John Moore was a relative of the Pattersons and arrived here about the 
same time. He occupied a place adjoining Patterson's. He died in 1821. 

William Tate came up from Huntingdon county in 1804. His log house 
stood near where the Catholic Church stands. In 1808 Tate's house was 
burned, and his family barely escaped with their lives. The Tates became a 
prominent family in after years. The children were Dinah, Samuel, Lydia, 
Joshua, Martha, George, William, Levi, and Jesse. 



Early Settlements. 6i 



Daniel Ogden, Frederick Haney, and Matthew Ogden had each built mills 
prior to 1805. Daniel Turner soon after built one on Clearfield Creek; and in 
1808 Robert Maxwell erected a mill near Curwensville, and William Kersey- 
had a saw and grist-mill at Kersey's settlement about the same time. James 
and Samuel Ardery built a mill near where the old Clearfield bridge afterward 
stood in 1808. Benjamin Hartshorn built a tannery on the place where he 
settled in 1806. This is now Pike township, not far from Curwensville. This 
was the first tannery built in the county. 

From this time, 1805, until 18 12, the influx of families became so rapid 
that their settlement cannot be accurately fixed, nor can the names of all be 
recalled. 

Benjamin Hartshorn came in 1806, bringing his wife and six children. He 
crossed the river near Jordon's, and cut his way to his forest home with an ax, 
making a road sufficient to allow the passage of a wagon. After he had made 
a clearing and built a cabin, the tannery above mentioned was built. At the 
time of his death in 1821, Mr. Hartshorn had a family of eight children, viz.: 
Margaret, Anne, Jonathan, William, Benjamin, Nancy, Eliza, and Mary Ann, 

So far as its settlement is concerned, that part of the county known as the 
" Grampian Hills," can be divided into districts — one part lying toward the 
river, and that still further back on the hills. Here the land was taken up by 
John Bennett, Nun England, William Hepburn, Joseph Spencer, Francis 
Stephens, Samuel Cochran, and other. From 1805 to 1808 this was claimed 
by Charles Smith, but he never made his claim successful. 

Samuel Cochran was an escaped slave, and came here from Lycoming 
county in 1804. He first settled near the Fergusons, where he built a cabin 
and made an improvement Later he took up about three hundred acres on 
the "hills," made good buildings, and cleared up the farm. His house was 
frequented by the teamsters on the Kittanning road. 

James Gallagher made a settlement and cleared the land for a farm a short 
distance above where Glen Hope now stands. And about the same time, 1806, 
Hugh Carson made a clearing near the place afterward known as " Beccaria 
Mills." 

The family of James Moore located on the " hills " at an early day, near 
where Pennville now stands. Religious meetings were held at Moore's house 
by Rev. Daniel Stansbury, a Methodist minister, in 1806. These indulged 
meetings, as they were called among the Quaker element, were about the first 
religious services held in the county. 

Soon after the Moores, came other families, among them the Johnsons, Da- 
vid Wall, Caleb Davis, Gideon Widmire, Jonathan Wain. Samuel Johnson 
afterward moved to Ohio, leaving part of his family here. David Wall moved 
over into Brady township. 

James Moore, jr., became wealthy and was one of the most highly re- 



62 History of Clearfield County. 

spected men in the county. Through his instrumentahty religious services 
were held by Rev. Linn, of Bellefonte. These services were usually held in 
Squire McClure's barn. James Moore, jr., acted as agent for Fox & Roberts, 
who owned a large tract of land in the northwest part of the county. Be- 
sides James, jr., were two other sons of James Moore, sr., Jeremiah and An- 
drew. The three brothers built and operated both saw and grist-mills. 

The locality to which frequent reference has been made, known as the 
" Grampian Hills," was so named by Dr. Samuel Coleman, concerning whom, 
prior to his coming here, but little is known. He never spoke of his parentage, 
birth, or early life. He was supposed by many persons to have been of noble 
birth. He named the place " Grampian Hills," from a resemblance it bore to 
the Grampian Hills in the old country. The^firm of Hopkins, Griffiths & Boone 
had a large tract of land in that vicinity, and they gave Dr. Coleman three 
hundred acres to induce him to settle there. Not liking the profession for 
which he was educated, Coleman accepted the offer and took up the land, came 
here and made his first clearing in 1808. As understood, Dr. Coleman named 
his farm the "Grampian Hills," and that the whole vicinity has ever since been 
so designated. Dr. Coleman had one slave with him. 

About the time that Dr. Coleman settled on the " hills," Joseph Boone 
came. The latter was a friend of Coleman, but the circumstances of his com- 
ing here were quite different. He had been sheriff at Washington, and while 
acting in that capacity, a prisoner, named John Nicholson, was given him in 
custody. Having the liberties of the jail yard, Nicholson managed to escape. 
This made Boone and his bondsmen liable, and to meet that liability his prop- 
erty was sold. Boone then came to Williamsport, and from there went to 
Philadelphia. At the last named place he found Nicholson. In order to 
make Boone some reparation for the loss he and his sureties had sustained, 
Nicholson transferred to them a number of warrants, which were afterward 
surveyed for Hopkins, Griffiths & Boone, upon lands in this county. In the 
early part of the summer, in the year 1809, Boone and his family arrived at 
" Squire " McClure's, having come by boat from WiUiamsport. From the 
Squire's place they proceeded to their future home on the hills. Boone com- 
menced the erection of a mill on Bell's Run, but never completed it. He was 
chosen prothonotary and recorder of the county while living here. He 
returned after several years to Philadelphia, and practiced law. 

Abraham Goss, an old Revolutionary veteran, came and made a settlement 
about 1806 at the place known as "Goss Settelment," in (now) Decatur town- 
ship. 

Among the many names of old settlers in the county, not before men- 
tioned, were those of Nicholas and Henry Kephart, Valentine and David 
Flegal, Absalom Pierce, John Gearhart, Benjamin and Nicholas Smeal, and 
others probably forgotten. 



Early Settlements. 63 



James Rhea made an improvement in the Erhard neighborhood in 1806, 
but remained here only a few years. 

In 1808, Thomas Jordon, brother of Benjamin, came and made a farm, 
James McNeil came during the same year, and located near " Fruit Hill." 
McNeil was appointed justice of the peace by Governor Shultz, and held the 
office until justices were made an elective office. 

About this time came the McKees, the Dunlaps, the Cathcarts, the Anns, 
the Feltwells, and others. 

The Scotch-Irish settlement, so called, was near Fruit Hill, but the people 
who first settled there were not Scotch-Irish, as the name would seem to im- 
ply There were the Thompsons, Johnstons, Currys, Blooms, Pattersons, Jor- 
dans, Williamses, Wises, and Swans. 

Robert Collins, whose name became popular in the county, came here in 
1805, about the time the county buildings were erected. Collins died in 1855. 
leaving a large family of descendants. 

Jacob Spencer, sr., with his family, came to the county in 1808. He pur- 
chased land from Benjamin Jordon between Pennville and the river. 

William Feltwell came to the county in 1806, as agent for a large tract o^ 
land known as the Morgan tract, in what is now known as Jordon township. 

In 1809 a settlement was made at the mouth of Muddy Run, by the family 
of William Alexander. 

In the vicinity of Mount Pleasant settlements were made prior to 18 10 by 
the Smileys, Dillons, Goons, and the Feltwells. 

Robert and Samuel Hagerty purchased and improved lands at the mouth 
of Muddy Run, as early as 1809, but did not bring their families here until 
some years later, about 1813. 

Ignatius Thompson made an improvement and came to reside on the ridges 
in 18 10. He was of Irish parentage, and moved here from Huntingdon 
county. 

Moses Norris also came in the same year and settled on the Ridge. He 
made a fine farm. 

About the same time John Rowles, the progenitor of a large family, lo- 
cated on the ridge. His sons were great hunters and woodsmen. 

Archibald and Robert Shaw, brothers, of Scotch- Irish descent, took up 
lands on the west side of the river, about one and a half miles below the county 
seat, in the year 18 10. From Archie have descended some of the most enter- 
prising citizens of the county. His children were John, Richard, Robert, Ar- 
chibald, jr., Margaret, who married William Daniel ; Barbara, who became the 
wife of William Leonard ; Mary, who married James Fulton ; and Jane, who 
became the wife of Andrew Welch. 

Robert Shaw, the pioneer, remained here but a short time. His children 
were James and John, by his first wife ; and by his second wife, Robert, jr., 
Archie and Adam. 



64 History of Clearfield County. 

David Hanna and one of his sons came to the county early in the present 
century, and was soon after followed by the rest of the family. In the family 
were thirteen children, David, the eldest son, was a surveyor, and at one time 
justice of the peace. 



CHAPTER Vni. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 

Erection of the County — Boundaries — An Error — Jurisdiction of Centre Countj^ Officers 
Extended Over this County— The Governor's Order — Proceedings of the Commissioners — 
County Seat Fixed at Clearfied —Election Districts —Return of Taxables —The First Townships 
— Population — Act of 1812 — The Civil Organization Completed — Subsequent Townships — 
Erection of Elk County— Townships taken from Clearfield County. 

CLEARFIELD county was erected by an act of the Legislature, passed on 
the 26th day of March, 1804. At the same time, and by the same act, five 
other counties were created, viz.: Jefferson, McKean, Potter, Tioga, and Cam- 
bria. That portion of the act relating to the erection and boundaries of Clear- 
field county is as follows : 

" Sect III. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That so 
much of the county of Lycoming, included in the following boundaries, to wit: 
Beginning where the line dividing Cannon's and Brodhead's district strikes 
the west branch of the Susquehanna River; thence north along the said dis- 
trict line until a due west course from thence will strike the southeast corner of 
McKean county ; thence west along the southern boundary of McKean county 
to the line of Jefferson county ; thence southwesterly along the line of Jeffer- 
son county to where Hunters district line crosses Sandy Lick Creek ; thence 
south along the district line to the Canoe Place on Susquehanna River ; thence 
an easterly course to the southwesterly corner of Centre county, on the heads 
of Mushanon Creek; thence down the Mushanon Creek, the several courses 
thereof to its mouth ; thence down the west branch of Susquehanna River to 
the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby erected into a separate 
county, to be henceforth called Clearfield county, and the place of holding the 
courts of justice in and for the said county, shall be fixed by the Legislature at 
any place which may be most beneficial and convenient for the said county." 

There is an undoubted error in the section above quoted, wherein it states 
that only "so much of the county of Lycoming, etc.," shall be erected into a 
separate county. Lycoming county embraced the territory that lay north 
and west of the West Branch, while the lands between the Mushanon and 
the West Branch were, at the time of the enactment, in Huntingdon county. 



Organization of the County. 65 

To have been correct, the section should have read, " That so much of the 
counties of Lycoming and Huntingdon included without the following bound- 
aries, to wit, etc." 

Under section seven of the same act provision was made for the appoint- 
ment of three commissioners by the governor, to run the line and mark the 
boundaries of the county. 

By section eight, "That as soon as it shall appear by an enumeration of 
the taxable inhabitants within the counties thus created, that any of them ac- 
cording to the rates which shall then be established for apportioning the repre- 
sentation among the several counties of the Commonwealth, shall be entitled 
to a separate representation, provision shall be made by law for apportioning 
the said representation, and enabling such county to be represented separately* 
and to hold the courts of justice at such place in said county as is, or hereafter 
may be, fixed for holding the same by the Legislature, and to choose their county 
officers in like manner as the other counties of this Commonwealth." 

The next section provided that the governor be required to appoint three 
suitable persons for trustees, who shall receive proposals in writing for the 
grant or conveyance of any lands within the county, or the transfer of any 
other property, or the payment of any money for the use of said county, for 
fixing the place of holding courts of justice in the county. 

Section eleven provides, "That for the present convenience of the inhabitants 
of said counties of Clearfield and McKean, and until an enumeration of the 
taxable inhabitants of the said counties shall be made, and it shall be otherwise 
directed by law, the said counties of Clearfield and McKean shall be, and the 
same are hereby annexed to the county of Centre, and the jurisdiction of the 
several courts of the county of Centre, and the authority of the judges thereof 
shall extend over, and shall operate and be effectual within said counties of 
Clearfield and McKean." 

The above quotations from the acts of the Legislature are made for the pur- 
pose of correcting an erroneous impression that has existed in the minds of many 
persons that this county was formerly a part of Centre county ; and for the further 
purpose of making known just how far and in what manner the interests of this 
county were identical with those of Centre. A question arose, however, as to 
whether the jurisdiction of justices of the peace of Centre county were, by the 
act, intended to extend over Clearfield county. This question was settled by 
a further act passed March 25, 1805, which declared that the jurisdiction of jus- 
tices of the peace did not extend over this county in cases of debts or de- 
mands. 

An act supplemental to the act of March 26, 1804, was passed on the 14th 
day of March, 1805, whereby it was provided that the power and authority of 
the commissioners and other county officers of Centre county, should extend 
over and be as full and effectual in this county, as if it were a component part 



66 History of Clearfield County. 

of Centre county ; and that the inhabitants of this county were entitled to ex- 
ercise and enjoy the same rights and privileges, and to be subject to the same 
regulations as if this were in fact a part of Centre county. And further, that 
the commissioners, treasurer, and recorder of deeds of Centre county, should 
keep separate books of the affairs of this county. 

Section four of the act provides, " That the county of Clearfield shall be an 
election district, and the electors thereof shall hold their general elections at the 
house of Benjamin Jordon, in the said district, and shall be entitled to vote for 
members of the Federal and State Legislatures, sheriffs, commissioners, and 
other county officers for Centre county." This election district, comprising the 
whole county, was known as "Chincleclamousche." In pursuance of the author- 
ity vested in him by the act of April 4, 1805, the governor issued to the com- 
missioners the following order : 

" Pennsylvania, ss. 

" Thomas McKean. In the name and by the authority of the Com- 

{ Place of the ^ monwealth of Pennsylvania: Thomas Mc- 

\ Great Seal. ) Kean, Governor of the said Commonwealth- 

"To Roland Curtin, of the County of Centre, John Fleming, of the County 

of Lycoming, and James Smith, of the County of 

" Gentlemen : — 

" Sends Greeting. 

" Whereas, In and by an Act of the General Assembly of this Com- 
monwealth, dated the 4th day of April, instant, it is amongst other things pro- 
vided, that the Governor shall be authorized and empowered to appoint three 
disinterested Commissioners, who do not reside or own any land in the County 
of Clearfield, which Commissioners, or a majority of them, shall meet at the 
house of Benjamin Patton in the town of Bellefonte, on the twentieth day of 
May next, and from thence proceed to view and determine on the most eligible 
and proper situation for the seat of Justice and public buildings for the County 
of Clearfield. 

'^ Now Know Ye, That having full confidence in your integrity, judgment 
and abilities, I have appointed, and by these Presents I do appoint you the said 
Roland Curtin, John Fleming and James Smith, Commissioners for the pur- 
pose aforesaid; Hereby requiring you and each of you, with all convenient dis- 
patch to proceed in the execution of the trust in you reposed as aforesaid, and 
to make a full and accurate report in writing, into the office of the Secretary 
of the Commonwealth, on or before the first Monday of December next. 

" Given under my Hand and the Great Seal of the State at Lancaster, this 
Sixth day of April, Anno Domini, 1805, and of the Commonwealth the twenty- 
ninth. 

" By the Governor. T. M. THOMPSON, 

" Secretary of the Commonwealth." 



Organization of the County. e-j 

By virtue of the authority vested in them, the commissioners met at the 
house of Benjamin Patton, in Bellefonte, on the 20th day of May, 1805, and 
received several proposals for the purpose intended. They then visited the 
county and proceeded to view the several localities before finally determin- 
ing the place of locating the county buildings. They visited the lands of Paul 
Clover, near the present borough of Curwensville, and those at the junction of 
Clearfield Creek and the West Branch. The latter were in dispute, being 
claimed by one Samuel Boyd, a colored man. They also viewed the lands of 
Martin Hoover, between Chincleclamousche and Curwensville, about where 
Wright's nursery is now located ; but Hoover thought the lands were more 
valuable for farming purposes, and would not part with them. The site was 
finally fixed upon lands of Abraham Witmer, a resident of Lancaster, on the 
place where the borough of Clearfield now stands, and on which the Indian 
town of Chincleclamousche formerly stood. For the proposed erection Abra- 
ham Witmer donated one town lot for the court-house, one for the jail, one 
for a market lot, and three for an academy. He also contributed three thou- 
sand dollars, one-half of which was to be used in the erection of the public 
buildings, and the other half for the academy or public school in said town. 

For the performance of the above covenant or donation, Witmer made 
and executed a bond as follows : " Know all men by these presents, That I, 
Abraham Witmer, of Lancaster township, in the county of Lancaster, and Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania, am held and firmly bound unto Roland Curtin, 
John Fleming and James Smith in the sum of Ten Thousand dollars lawful 
money of the United States, to be paid to the said Roland Curtin, John Flem- 
ing and James Smith, or either of them, their or either of their attorneys, heirs, 
executors, administrators or assigns. To which payment well and truly to be 
made, I bind myself, my heirs, executors and administrators firmly by these 
presents. Sealed with my seal, dated the Fifth day of November, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and five. Whereas, Thomas W. 
McKean, Esquire, Governor of Pennsylvania, by Letters under the Great Seal 
of this Commonwealth, dated at Lancaster the sixth day of April, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and five, appointed Roland Curtin, 
John Fleming and James Smith, or a majority of them. Commissioners for the 
purpose of viewing and determining on the most eligible and proper situation 
for the seat of justice and pubhc buildings in and for the county of Clearfield. 

" And Whereas, by an act of the General Assembly of this Commonwealth, 
dated the fourth day of April in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hun- 
dred and five, it is made the duty of the Commissioners so to be appointed, to 
take assurances by deed, bond or otherwise, of any lands, lots, monies or other 
property which hath been or may be offered for the use and benefit of the said 
county, either for the purpose of erecting public buildings, the support of an 
academy or other public use. And Whereas, the aforesaid Commissioners in 



68 History of Clearfield County. 

pursuance of the power given them for that purpose, have determined and 
fixed on for the purpose aforesaid, a certain tract or parcel of land, the prop- 
erty of the said Abraham Witmer. And whereas the said Abraham Witmer 
hath agreed to sell and convey in such a manner and to such person or persons 
as may be hereafter legally appointed for that purpose, one lot in said town for 
the purpose of having a court-house erected thereon, one for a jail, one for a 
market house, three for an academy and two pieces of ground for the public. 

" And the said Abraham Witmer further agrees and engages to give his 
bond or other security as may be required to such person as may be author- 
ized to receive the same for the payment of Three Thousand dollars on the first 
day of May, which will be in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and twelve, one-half thereof to be applied for the use of an academy or public 
school in said town and one-half for the purpose of erecting public buildings in 
said town. 

" Now the condition of the foregoing obligation is such, that if the before 
bounden Abraham Witmer, his heirs, executors, administrators or assigns shall 
from time to time, and at all times do keep and perform the aforesaid under- 
takings and agreements on his part, then and in such case the above obliga- 
tion to be void and of none effect, otherwise to be and remain in full force and 
virtue. 

"Abraham Witmer. [Seal.] 
" Signed, sealed and delivered 
in the presence of us, 
" Benjn. Patton. 
" Robt. T. Stewart." 

The report of the commissioners was duly made to the governor as soon as 
the location was fixed. The original report that should be among the old 
records at Harrisburg has been reported as lost, but fortunately, a certified 
copy was found at Clearfield among the papers of one of the attorneys of the 
place. It is as follows : " Sir, — By virtue of an act of the General Assembly 
of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, entitled, * An act authorizing the 
appointment of Commissioners to fix upon a proper site for the seat of justice 
in Clearfield county.' 

"We, the subscribers, appointed by his excellency the Governor, agree- 
able to the provisions of the above mentioned act, passed on the tenth day of 
April in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and five, — Report, 
That agreeable to the provisions of the above mentioned act, we met at the 
house of Benjamin Patton in the town of Bellefonte, on the twentieth day of 
May, one thousand eight hundred and five, and after receiving the different 
proposals made by several persons, proceeded to view and determine on the 
most eligible and proper situation for the seat of justice and public buildings 
for the said county of Clearfield, and do find that the old town of Chinclecla- 
mouse in the said county (the property of Abraham Witmer of the township 



Organization of the County, 69 

of Lancaster in the county of Lancaster and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania) 
situated on the south side of the west branch of the Susquehanna river in the 
county aforesaid, is the most eligible and proper situation for the seat of justice 
and public buildings in the said county ; and that we have laid out the said 
town ; (a plan of which is attached to the report) ; and we also further report 
that we have received from the said Abraham Witmer, his bond, which is 
hereto annexed for the conveyance of certain lots and the payment of certain 
sums of money at the time and for the purpose therein mentioned. 

" We are with respect your humble servants, 

" Roland Curtin, 
"Jno. Fleming, 
"Jas. Smith. 
" To Thomas McKean, 
"Thompson Esq. Secy." 

The proceedings of the General Assembly, following and relating to the 
report of the above commissioners, confirmed their report, as follows : The 
commissioners appointed by this act fixed the place of holding the courts, etc., 
on lands of Abraham Witmer, at Chingleglamouch, old town, on the west 
branch of Susquehanna, and the new county town is now laid out and called 
Clearfield. 

The entire territory embraced by the boundaries of the county was, by an 
order of the Quarter Sessions of Centre county, in August, 1804, formed into 
an election district known as Chincleclamousche, and the elections were ap- 
pointed by the Legislature to be held at the house of Benjamin Jordon, famil- 
iarly known as " Grand-dad Jordon." 

The first enumeration of taxable inhabitants in the county, made after its 
organization, showed a total of one hundred and four, of which number sixteen 
were single freemen. There were returned for taxation twenty-one thousand 
seven hundred and sixteen acres of land, seventy horses, one hundred and 
twenty cows, thirty-seven oxen, two grist-mills and two saw-mills. The 
counties of Lycoming, Centre, Clearfield, McKean, Tioga, and Potter, were 
found to have an aggregate of four thousand five hundred taxables, and were 
thereby entitled to one member of the State Senate. Centre, Clearfield, and 
McKean counties were, on the number of taxables returned, entitled to one 
member of the House of Representatives. 

In December, 1806, the commissioners of Centre county, having jurisdiction 
by law over the county of Clearfield, by their warrant under their hands com- 
manded Alexander Read, assessor of the township of Chincleclamousche, to 
take an account of all the freemen and the personal property made taxable by 
law, together with a just valuation of the same, and also a valuation of all trades, 
and occupations subject to taxation, and to return the same to the said com- 
missioners at Bellefonte on or before the 28th day of January, 1807. 
10 



70 History of Clearfield County. 

The following list will show the names of the taxable inhabitants of Chin- 
cleclamousche township, made in compliance with the above warrant : Robert 
Anderson, Robert Askey, David Allen, Arthur Bell, Greenwood Bell, John 
Bell, WilHam Bloom, sr., WiUiam Bloom, jr., Isaac Bloom, Thomas Bramen, 
Samuel Beaty, Samuel Beer, Caleb Bailey, John Cook, Robert Cresswell, Paul 
Clover, Peter Clover, Nicholas Cline, John Chne, John Crea, Hugh Carson, 
Samuel Cochran, John Carothers, George Cowhart, Benjamin Carson, Jude 
Cunningham, John Crowell, John Coulter, Robert Collins, Anne Deal, John 
Dennis, William Dunlap, Caleb Davis, Alexander Dunlap, Peter Erhard, Nun 
England, Samuel Ewing, Benjamin Fenton, John Ferguson, Valentine Flegal, 
David Flegal, Henry Eye, Hugh Frazier, John Finall, William W. Feltwell, John 
Gearhart, Abraham Goss, Robert Graham, James Gallagher, Samuel Green, Martin 
Hoover, Frederick Haney, John Hall, Abraham Hess, George Hunter, Hugh Hall, 
Benjamin Hartshorn, WilHam Hanna, William Hepburn, Dewalt Hess, Henry 
Irwin, Hugh Jordon, John Jordon, Benjamin Jordon, John Hiler, Andrew Kep- 
hart, Henry Kephart, Conrad Kyler, Leonard Kyler, Thomas Kirk, David 
Ligat, David Lewis, Thomas Lewis, Joseph Leonard, David Litz, Jane Lathers 
(Lewis), Abraham Leonard, William Leonard, James McCracken, Thomas 
McClure, Thomas McCracken, Joseph McCracken, Robert McCormick, John 
Moore, Thomas Mapes, James McCracken, jr., Robert Maxwell, Robert Mc- 
Cracken, Thomas McGee, Daniel Ogden, Matthew Ogden, John Owen, Joab 
Ogden, Joseph Patterson, Absalom Pierce, Abraham Passmore, William Rob- 
inson, Isaac Ricketts, Edward Ricketts, Alexander Read, sr., Alexander Read, 
jr., George Reynolds, Nicholas Straw, Benjamin Smeal, Nicholas Smeal, George 
Shimmel, John Shirley, Elisha Schofield, Christian Straw, Francis Severns, 
William Tate, Samuel Turner, William Underwood, George Wilson, John Weld, 
John Welch, George Welch, Jacob Weiser, John Weiser, Thomas Winters, 
George WilHams, Peter Young. 

The following were the single freemen of the county : Joseph McCracken, 
Robert McCracken, James McCracken, Andrew Beer, jr., Robert Maxwell, 
Peter Clover, John Kyler, Conrad Kyler, jr., Samuel Jordon, Thomas Kirk, 
James Kirk, James Carson, Lewis Lewis, James Dunlap, John Welch, James 
Galloway, Job England, Robert Howey, Andrew Bean, Daniel McCracken, 
David Flegal, George Haney, David Dunlap, James Dunlap, Solomon Cline, 
Samuel Jordon, Samuel Boyd, Thomas Kirk, Thomas Read, John Conneway. 

In 1807 the township of Chinclelcamousche was divided, and that part east 
and south of the West Branch of the Susquehanna River was formed into two 
new townships — Bradford and Beccaria, The former was so named in honor 
of Hon. William Bradford, who was attorney-general of the State from 1780 to 
1 79 1, and who was afterward made Supreme Court judge. The township em- 
braced the territory in the county east of Muddy Run to its mouth, and from 
thence was bounded by Clearfield Creek to its mouth. The West Branch 



Organization of the County. 71 

formed the northern boundary and the Moshannon the eastern boundary. 
Beccaria was named in honor of an eminent jurist and philanthropist who was 
instrumental in reforming the criminal law. This township was bounded north 
by Little Clearfield Creek from its mouth to its source, and a line drawn from 
thence to the West Branch at the mouth of Chest Creek. The West Branch 
formed the west boundary ; the Cambria county line the south, and Clearfield 
Creek from the mouth of Little Clearfield to the mouth of Muddy Run, and 
the latter from its mouth to the Cambria county line formed the east boundary. 
The remaining territory south and east of that river, north of Little Clearfield 
and west of Clearfield Creek, together with all the lands in the county north 
and west of the West Branch, still remained and was known as Chinclecla- 
mousche township. 

An act of Assembly passed March 28, 1808, provided that the townships 
of Beccaria and Bradford in the county of Clearfield, and all that part of Half 
Moon township of Centre county which lay west of the Allegheny Mountains, 
be erected into a separate election district, and the electors shall hold their gen- 
eral elections at the house occupied by John Gearhart. 

The next enumeration of taxables gave Chincleclamousche one hundred 
and eleven, Bradford thirty-six, and Beccaria twenty-eight ; in all a total of 
one hundred and seventy-five for the county. 

The population of the county in the year 18 10 was, white males, four hun- 
dred and thirty-seven ; white females, four hundred and three ; negroes, thirty- 
seven ; a total of eight hundred and seventy seven. 

The next step toward the complete civil organization of the county, after 
the act creating it, in the year 1804, was accomplished in the year 1812, when 
the General Assembly passed a law, January 28th, providing that the electors of 
the county be authorized to choose commissioners at the ensuing election in 
October, and that the powers and authority of the commissioners of Centre 
county over Clearfield county cease and determine, except, however, the pro- 
vision relating to the selection of jurors, in which case the commissioners of 
Centre county still retained jurisdiction in this county. 

The Hmited or abridged organization of the county was made full and 
complete by the law passed and approved January 29th, 1822, by which 
Clearfield county became entitled to all the rights and privileges of the other 
counties of the State, and authorizing courts to be held therein, the Courts of 
Common Pleas, Quarter Sessions, and such other courts as by law were au- 
thorized. The first term of court was appointed to be held on the third Mon- 
day of October, following. All suits theretofore commenced by persons in the 
county, and then pending, were transferred from Centre to Clearfield county, 
but until a proper jail was erected, all prisoners were, by the act, to be kept in 
the jail at Bellefonte. 

Power to select jurors was now taken from the Centre county commis- 



72 History of Clearfield County. 

sioners and vested in those of Clearfield. The act further provided that the 
county should be attached to the fourth judicial district. 

In the year 1813 two other townships were carved out of old Chinclecla- 
mousche. Pike and Lawrence were then erected, taking all that remained of 
the parent township on the south side of the West Branch, and reaching far up 
into the uninhabited regions on the north side. Pike township was so named 
in honor of General Zebulon Pike. The first enumeration of taxables made by 
Samuel Fulton showed an aggregate of seventy-four, of which twelve were 
single freemen. Lawrence township was named in honor of Commodore 
Lawrence, a hero of the naval service. Samuel Fulton made the assessment 
list in this township also, and reported one hundred and six taxables, of which 
twenty were single freemen. 

Covington township was erected in the year 181 7, out of Chincleclamoose, 
and with Gibson, which was created the same year, formed the first townships 
lying wholly north of the West Branch of the Susquehanna. Gibson lay north 
of Covington, and was so named in honor of John Bannister Gibson, one of the 
justices of the Supreme Court, and afterward chief justice of Pennsylvania. 
This township was partly taken in the formation of Elk county, and the part 
not taken was added to the townships adjoining. 

Sinnamahoning township was erected by a decree of the court dated Jan- 
uary 25, 1 82 1. In the month of April following, the name was changed to 
Fox. This was the last of the townships formed prior to the full organization 
of the county. It was named in honor of Mr. Fox, a resident of Philadelphia, 
who owned extensive tracts of land in the county. In 1868, by an act of the 
Legislature, a part of this township was added to Snyder township, Jefferson 
county ; another part to Horton township, Elk county, and the remaining part 
to Huston township, of this county. No further reference in the township 
department of this work will be made, either to Gibson or Fox townships. 

Jay township was formed in 1832, by Commissioners A. B. Reed, Martin 
Nichols, and George Wilson, from parts of Fox and Gibson townships. A 
part of it was taken in the erection of Elk county, and the remaining parts 
were subsequently annexed to Huston and Lawrence townships; so this town- 
ship, named by the court in honor of Chief Justice Jay, is entirely lost to the 
future of the county. 

In the year 1823 a small addition was made to the county by an act of the 
Legislature which provided for it, authorizing the deputy surveyor-general of 
Clearfield county to run a line from the mouth of the second run emptying 
into the West Branch of the Susquehanna from the north side, below " Butter- 
milch Falls," at true bearing north thirty-five degrees west, to the (then) pres- 
ent county line. 

The act erecting Elk county was passed April 18, 1843. The description, 
as recorded by the act in taking lands from Clearfield county, is as follows : 



Public Buildings and Courts. 73 

Beginning at the northeast corner of Jefferson county, thence due east about 
nine miles to the northeast corner of lot number 2328 ; thence due south to 
Clearfield county ; thence east along said line to the east line of Gibson town- 
ship ; thence south so far that a westwardly line to the mouth of Mead's Run 
shall pass within not less than fifteen miles of the town of Clearfield ; thence 
west to Little Toby's Creek, etc. 

This, with the part taken by the act of 1868, heretofore mentioned, com- 
prise the full extent of lands set off from this county for the formation of other 
counties. 

The other townships organized and erected from older ones of the county 
are as follows : Brady, 1825; Chest, 1826; Decatur, 1828; Burnside, Bell, 
and Penn were laid out in 1834, and confirmed in 1835 5 Girard, 1832 ; Jordon, 
1835; Morris in 1836; Boggs in 1838; Ferguson in 1837 or '8, but no 
record is found of it ; Huston, 1839; Karthaus, 1841 ; Goshen, 1845; Wood- 
ward, 1847; Union, 1848; Knox, 1854; Geulich and Graham, 1859; Bloom, 
i860; Greenwood, 1875; Sandy, 1878; Bigler, 1883; Cooper, 1884. 

Owing to the careless manner in which the early records of the erection of 
the several townships were kept, it is possible that an error may be found in the 
foregoing statement, but generally they will be found reliable. A further and 
more detailed record of the several townships of the county, will be found in 
the later chapters of this work. 



CHAPTER IX. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND COURTS. 

Plan of the County Seat — Lots Donated for Public Buildings —The Old Log Jail— The 
Jail Built in 1841-2 — The Present Jail — Its Cost — The First Court-House — Description - 
Important Cases Tried Therein — The New Court-House Built — Courts in the Old Curch — 
Court-House Remodeled and Additions Built — Some Leading Causes Recalled. 

WHEN the commissioners appointed by the governor determined to fix 
the seat of justice of the newly created county upon lands of Abraham 
Witmer, the latter at once caused a plot of the whole locality to be made, and 
laid out intersecting streets and alleys and intermediate squares of building lots. 
Market street, the main east and west thoroughfare was laid upon the old 
" Milesburg road," and the town extended two squares north and south from 
that road. Walnut street formed the south, and Pine street the north bound- 
ary of the town, the intervening streets being Locust, Market, and Cherry, and 
alleys having no name. The streets running north and south were named, 



74 History of Clearfield County. 



commencing at the river, Water street, near the river bank; Front street, 
afterward called First street ; Second street, Third street, and Fourth street. 
The river formed the west, and Fourth street the east boundary. 

The lot donated for the erection of county buildings was located on the 
northeast corner of Market and Second streets, and was known on the map as 
number seventy-five; the market-house lot fronts on Market street and is 
known as number eighty ; the jail lot was located on Locust street, and cor- 
nered on an alley, and is number ninety-one. On this lot now stands the 
dwelling house of Mrs. David Sackett. The three lots donated for the erec- 
tion of an academy lay in the extreme southeast corner of the town, on the 
corner of Walnut and Fourth streets, and are numbered one hundred and six- 
ty-two, one hundred and seventy-seven, and one hundred and seventy-eight,, 
respectively. These were found to be impracticable for the intended purpose 
and were exchanged for lots on Front, or First street, between Market and 
Cherry streets, a much more desirable location. 

Although the dedication of the several lots above mentioned was m.ade by 
Mr. Witmer in the year 1804, the deed for them was not executed until March 
8, 1 81 3. The conveyance was made by Abraham Witmer, and Mary, his 
wife, of the township and county of Lancaster, Pa., to Robert Maxwell, Hugh 
Jordon, and Samuel Fulton, commissioners of the county of Clearfield, or to 
their successors in office, in trust for the said county of Clearfield, for the pur- 
pose of erecting public buildings thereon. 

The lot donated for the erection of the jail on Locust street was never 
used for that purpose. The old jail was built on the site now occupied by the 
residence of Dr. J. P. Burchfield, on Second street, and was torn down at the 
time the residence was built. Some of the old timbers were used in the con- 
struction of the house. The jail was built of hewed logs, with a shingle roof 
and heavy wooden door. The windows had iron bars across to prevent escape. 
Although primitive in design and construction, this prison served the purposes 
of the county until the erection of the more substantial county jail on the site 
now occupied by the opera house block. For this structure land was pur- 
chased of Martin Nichols, sr., at the price of three hundred dollars. The build- 
ing was of stone, two stories in height. 

The front part was tastefully fitted up for the sheriff''s apartments, and the 
rear arranged for jail purposes. It was built by Martin Nichols, sr., and Jona- 
than M. Nichols, of Clearfield, at a cost of about thirty-five hundred dollars. 

The present county jail was built by George Thorn, of Clearfield, in the 
years 1 870-1-2, on lands purchased from Hon. WiUiam Bigler, at the lower 
end of Second street. The material used in construction of the walls, both for 
the building and yard enclosure, was white and yellow sandstone. The front, 
on Second street, is occupied by the sheriff" as a residence, the place for con- 
finement of prisoners being further back. The main hall is fourteen feet in 



Public Buildings and Courts. 75 

width and about seventy feet long. The cells are constructed on both sides of 
this hall, twelve on each side, six below and six above. The cost of this 
structure, as per contract, exclusive of the price paid for the land, was sixty- 
eight thousand dollars. Other work, coming under the head of " extras," 
brought the entire expense of the structure to a much greater figure. The 
land cost seven thousand dollars. 

The first court-house of the county was built by Robert Collins. It was 
modeled after the Lycoming county court-house, which was built by Mr. Col- 
lins early in the present century. Soon after the organization of this county 
he was induced to come to Clearfield, and the fact that a court-house would 
soon be erected here, hastened his determination, although the building was 
not commenced until some years later. In the year 18 14 the work was com- 
menced, and completed in the following year. No data is obtainable showing 
the precise time of commencement, or completion of this court-house, but the 
dates given may be considered reasonably correct. Collins was awarded the 
contract at the agreed price of three thousand dollars. The building was two 
stories high, built of brick, with rooms for county officers above, and the court- 
room below. The roof was made of shingles, and a small cupola rose above 
the building proper. There was no attempt at ornament in its construction, as 
the scarcity of money at that time would admit of no unnecessary expenditure. 

The first court was held at a term commencing October 21, 1822. From 
the Quarter Sessions docket some extracts are made. At a Court of Quarter 
Sessions of the Peace, a court of Common Pleas and Orphans Court, began 
and holden at the town of Clearfield, in and for the county of Clearfield, before 
Hon. Francis W. Rawle and Moses Boggs, esqs., justices and judges of the said 
courts. 

The acts of Assembly organizing Clearfield county for judicial purposes, 
being read, and the courts being] duly opened, the commissions of the said 
judges, F. W. Rawle and M. Boggs were presented and read. The commission 
of Samuel Fulton, prothonotary. of the said Court of Common Pleas, and 
clerk of the said Court of Quarter Sessions and Orphans Court, were also pre- 
sented and read, and also the commission of Greenwood Bell, sheriff of the 
said county of Clearfield, and writ of assistance, were presented and read. 

On motion of W. R. Smith, esq., Moses Canan was admitted and sworn as 
an attorney of the courts, and on the motion of Moses Canan, esq., the follow- 
ing named gentlemen were admitted and sworn or affirmed as attorneys of 
the same courts, namely, William R. Smith, Daniel Stanard, Joseph M. Fox, 
John Blanchard, James Hepberton, John Williamson, Hugh H. Brady, Thomas 
White, WiUiam J. Christie, John G. Miles, and Samuel M. Green, 

Samuel M. Green was appointed by the attorney-general of the State as 
deputy attorney-general of this county, and he was now sworn into office. 

The returns of the constables were then made ; Valentine Flegal repre- 



']6 History of Clearfield County. 

senting Bradford, Hugh Caldwell, for Lawrence, and William Hepburn, for 
Pike township. William Shepherd also appeared for Gibson township, but 
made no return. 

The first petition presented by sundry inhabitants of the county, praying 
that a road be laid out from the Cambria county line to intersect, near the 
house of John H. Turner, in Beccaria township, the road leading from Galla- 
ger's mill to Turner's mill. The court appointed Adam L. Keagy, William 
Wright, Amasa Smith, James Rea, Thomas Jordon. and Robert Patterson, 
commissioners to view and report to the court upon the necessity of this road. 
The road was laid out and report confirmed at the March Sessions in 1883. 

Upon the presentation of petitions, licenses to keep tavern were granted to 
Thomas Hemphill, Robert Collins, and William Philips, all of Clearfield town. 
This concluded the first day's business, whereupon court adjourned until the 
following day. 

After the adjournment, as the story goes, the newly-made lawyers, with 
the judges and a party of friends, repaired to a convenient hotel, where they 
celebrated, in truly royal fashion, this great event. Their great joy led them 
so far that, with a single exception, every soul of them became overcome by — 
circumstances — and water from the Susquehanna River. The narrator of this 
event said there was one person who did not partake of the festivities of the 
occasion, but was perfectly clear in the statement that he was not that one. 

On the morning of the 22d, at the opening of court, Hon. Charles Huston, 
president judge of the Fourth Judicial District, appeared and took his seat as 
president judge of the court. 

On motion, William Potter was admitted and sworn as an attorney of the 
courts. William Wilson received the appointment of county auditor in place 
of Martin Hoover, resigned, 

Alexander Caldwell was made deputy-constable of Lawrence, and Isaac 
Ricketts constable of Beccaria township. 

Petitions were received and filed, praying for the laying out of roads, one 
from Clearfield bridge to Widow Ardery's ; one from James Green's to the 
county line, in Fox township ; one from Turner's mill to Karthaus bridge ; one 
from Elijah Meredith's to the Fox Company's mill, in Fox township ; and one 
from the inhabitants of Pike and Beccaria townships, to be laid therein. All, 
except the last, were subsequently confirmed. 

The first term of court at which a grand and traverse juries were called 
was held in December, 1822, with Hon. Charles Huston, presiding. 

The grand jurors summoned on that occasion were Thomas Reed, foreman ; 
Alexander Dunlap, Caleb Davis (absent), John McCracken, John Henry, A. 
B. Reed, esq., Joseph Irvin, John Stugart, Jacob Hoover, Hugh Hall, esq., Hugh 
McMullen, Henry Mead, Consider Brockway, Robert Beers, James Iddings, 
Joseph Mason (absent), John H. Turner, John Bloom, Thomas Lewis, Benja- 
min Smeal, Joseph Davis, Thomas Haney, Samuel Turner, James McNeil. 



Organization of the County, 



77 



After having been in session about three days, they presented " true bills " 
as follows : The Commonwealth against Alexander Osborne, indicted for keep- 
ing a " tippling-house." On payment of costs a ;/<?//t^ /rc'^^^y;;/ was entered. 
Commonwealth versus Hugh Coleman and Thomas Lewis, supervisors of Gib- 
son township, for nuisance in highway. On motion of Thomas Burnside the 
indictment was quashed. Commonwealth versus James I. Thorne, blasphemy ; 
bailed for future appearance. Commonwealth versus Isaac Rodden, keeping a 
tippling-house ; nolle prosequi ordered. Commonwealth versus Absalom 
Timms, tippling-house; nolle prosequi ordQved. Commonwealth versus Jona- 
than R, Ames, passing counterfeit money ; bailed to the United States Circuit 
Court. 

Alexander B. Reed was appointed county treasurer December 19. 1822. 
The first traverse jurors summoned in the county were for attendance at this 
court. They were : William Wright, Richard Shaw, John Irvin, Samuel Tate, 
George Brown, John Fullerton, Thomas Dent, James McKee, Alexander Read, 
James Rea, James Wright, Matthew Gile, Abraham Ross, William Ross, An- 
thony Wright, Joseph Turner, Robert Ross, jr., James A. Read, jr., James 
Wilson, Samuel Ardery, Christian Straw, George B. Dale (absent), Jacob Fle- 
gal, Hugh Frazier, Crawford Gallager, George Ross, Jacob Hoover, John Swan, 
Lawrence Monahan, Orris Hoyt, James Young, Jonathan Hartshorn, Moses 
Norris, Jason Kirk, John Moore, Robert Wilson. 

It will be unnecessary in this chapter to go further into detail regarding the 
first court, or the proceedings thereof. The jury lists will serve in a manner 
to show who were some of the old residents of the county, and the records will 
suffice for a description of the first judicial proceedings had in the county. The 
old court-house building, which, in its day, was as pretentious, and perhaps 
more substantial, than any surrounding buildings of the town, is now a thing of 
the past ; yet, it has left its history in the many memorable cases, civil and 
criminal, that have been tried within its walls. Among the hundreds and 
thousands of cases in litigation, tried during the sixty years of time in which 
the court-house was in use, a few may be recalled as specially momentous. 
The case of the Commonwealth against Lawrence Allman, indicted for the 
murder of his brother Godfrey, in a fit of jealous passion. Judge Woodward 
was then on the bench, and the trial created the most intense excitement 
throughout the entire county. Allman was convicted of murder in the first 
degree, but a new trial was granted, which resulted in a verdict of " guilty of 
murder in the second degree." The prisoner was sentenced to twelve years 
imprisonment. 

The peculiar Plunkett case was another that caused much excitement and 
still more comment, on account of the impossibilities regarding it. 

One Campbell was perhaps as conspicuous an offender as ever was arraigned 
for trial in any court. The whole catalogue of offenses and misdemeanors, less 
11 



78 History of Clearfield County. 

than capital crimes, were chargeable to this person, and it is estimated that he 
was arraigned at least twenty different times. He certainly enjoyed the noto- 
riety of being called an habitual criminal. 

The famous libel suit of Dr. W. P. Hill versus Dr. Loraine, was another of 
the celebrated causes tried in the old court-house. 

Karthaus versus Wiggins, an action for trespass, was the longest trial on 
record in the county. 

These are but a few of the many cases that were tried in the courts of this 
county prior to the year i860. But, as years passed and the population of 
the county increased, a new and larger building became a necessity. The 
subject was agitated and discussed by the officials and people as early as 1845, 
and when the project was sufficiently advanced to take some definite shape, a 
new feature was introduced. The citizens of Curwensville, and residents in the 
south part of the county, were anxious that the county seat should be removed 
to Curwensville. Naturally and vigorously was this opposed by the Clear- 
fielders and residents of the lower part of the county. The champions of the 
project of Curwensville offered to donate the lands and erect the necessary 
buildings free of any expense to the county, and even went so far as to ask for 
legislative action in interest of the change. Here the Clearfield residents had 
the advantage. The most influential political workers were in favor of retain- 
ing the buildings, as in former years, and they were successful. The commis- 
sioners entered into a contract for the erection of a substantial brick building 
upon plans submitted by Cleaveland & Bachus. The contract was awarded 
to George Thorn, of Clearfield, at the agreed price of $16,500, and to use the 
material of the old building in the erection of the new so far as could be utilized. 
The work of tearing down the old court-house was begun in March, i860, and 
in a few days' time no trace of it remained. In its stead, however, there grad- 
ually arose a structure more complete, more imposing in appearance, and better 
calculated to meet the growing necessities of the people of the county. 

During the interval between the demolition of the old, and the completion 
of the new building, courts were held in the old Methodist Church edifice, on 
Cherry street, between Second and Third streets ; but this, too, is now gone, 
and in its place stands a substantial double frame dwelling, constructed in part 
from the material of the church building. 

Among the causes tried in the Cherry street building, that attracted some 
considerable attention, was the indictment of Sarah Brenniman, for infanticide. 
Although the prisoner had confessed the crime, she was acquitted. 

James Hauckenbery was tried for the murder of John Thompson, better 
known as " Devil " Thompson, a dangerous character. Hauckenbery pleaded 
self-defense; that at the time he was in fear of his hfe. The court held and 
the jury found that the shooting was too severe an act to resort to, to be en- 
tirely justifiable, and the prisoner was sentenced to four years imprisonment. 
He was pardoned, however, before the expiration of his term of sentence. 



Organization of the County, 79 

Another, and probably the most important case, was that of John Cathcart, 
the wife murderer. He was found guilty of murder in the first degree, and 
sentenced to be hanged. Arrangements were making for the execution of the 
sentence, and Sheriff Frederick G. Miller had ordered the erection of the scaf- 
fold, but Cathcart defeated the ends of justice by hanging himself about two 
weeks prior to the day fixed for the execution. 

The corner-stone of the new court-house was laid on Monday, the 4th day 
of June, i860. There was no public ceremony on the occasion. Within the 
stone was deposited a tin box containing the names of officers of the Federal, 
State, county, and borough government, ministers of the gospel residing here, 
a copy of the Bible, and a number of newspapers of the past and (then) pres- 
ent. Although the work of constructing the building was commenced in the 
spring of i860, the building was not completed until nearly two years later. 
When partly completed it became necessary to rebuild a portion of the tower 
owing to a miscalculation on the part of the architect, an uneven pressure on 
the columns being the result. The interior arrangement differed materially 
from that of the old court-house. Instead of having the court-room down- 
stairs, as was the case of the old building, that room was located in the upper 
story, and the county officers' rooms arranged below, except the surveyor's 
office, which is in the tower over the main entrance. On entering the front 
one goes directly into a long, wide hall, extending the entire length of the build- 
ing. On the right, first the prothonotary's office is reached, then the county 
commissioner's rooms, and beyond this the treasurer's office, the latter being in 
the addition built in 1882-83. First on the left from the front entrance is the 
recorder's office, next the old arbitration room, now used as a justice's office, 
then the office of the county superintendent, and last the district attorney's of- 
fices, one of which was formerly used as the sheriff's office. The floors are of 
asphaltum in the halls above and below. The clock was placed in the tower 
mainly through the efforts of citizens of the borough. The first bell placed in 
the tower was found defective, and was replaced by another, which although 
smaller than the first, was of much better metal. 

In September, 1882, a contract was made with Messrs. Thorn & Burchfield 
for the construction of an addition on the rear of the court-house, and remod- 
eling the roof and upper part of the former building. By this addition, the sher- 
iff's present office, the large arbitration room, part of the district attorney's 
office, and closets were annexed on the ground floor. On the floor above there 
was added the grand and traverse jurors' rooms, attorneys' rooms, with a library 
room above, reached by a spiral iron stairway, witnesses' waiting-room, and 
closets. Changes were also made in the roof to the old part, and the whole is 
now slated. The county officers' rooms are provided with a fire-proof deposit- 
ory for records. The building is heated throughout with steam. The price 
paid the contractors for the additions made in 1882-3 was about $35,897- 



8o History of Clearfield County. 

The upper floor is reached by three stairways, one on either side in the front 
of the building, and one in the rear leading to the attorneys' and jurors' rooms. 
The exterior presents a plain, neat, and tasteful appearance without evidence 
of any elaborate architectural display. The building was constructed with a 
view to utility and convenience rather than outward appearance and show. 

Many are the important causes tried within its walls, which have called here 
some of the ablest lawyers of the State ; and among these suits, civil and crim- 
inal, a few may appropriately be recalled. 

Pruner and Burleigh vs. Dr. David Houtz was several times tried here and 
in Centre county, and also in the United States Court. Dr Houtz will be re- 
membered as the founder of Houtzdale. The plaintiff was represented by John 
G. Miles, esq., of Huntingdon county, one of the leading lawyers of the State, 
and Hon. Joseph B. McEnally, of Clearfield. For the defense were Hon. Will- 
iam A. Wallace and and Hon. H. Bucher Swoope. This was a land case and 
involved a large tract in the vicinity of Houtzdale. The final determination 
was a verdict in favor of the defendant. 

In 1867 was tried the celebrated forgery case, the Commonwealth versus 
Daniel Polhamus. Judge Barrett presided by special request of Judge Sam- 
uel Linn. William A. Wallace for the Commonwealth, and H. Bucher Swoope 
ibr the prisoner. Polhamus was convicted and sentenced to the penitentiary, 
but subsequently pardoned. 

About the same time the Hagerty will case was tried. Hagerty was an 
eccentric person, and possessed a large amount of lands, two thousand acres or 
thereabouts. He made large bequests to religious and charitable societies, but 
died within thirty days after making his will. This made the instrument void- 
able. One bequest to the Presbyterian Church society at the " Cross Roads," 
was made on condition that they, in church meetings, should sing only Rouse's 
version of David's Psalms. The will was contested. Judge McEnally appear- 
ing for the contestants, and Senator Wallace and H. Bucher Swoope for the 
executors. The suit was brought in equity, and judgment and decree rendered 
in favor of the contestants. An appeal was taken to the Supreme Court, and 
the judgment of the lower court affirmed. 

The Commonwealth versus Mary Miller, indicted by the grand jury for the 
murder of her husband. This case was tried before Judge Samuel Linn and a 
jury. William M. McCullough and H. Bucher Swoope for the people, and 
William A. Wallace and J. B. McEnally for the prisoner. Mrs. Miller was con- 
victed and sentenced to be hanged. The sentence was executed in the month 
of October, 1867. Mary Miller was the first person hanged in Clearfield 
county. Cathcart, the wife murderer, was formally convicted and sentenced, 
but suicided before the day fixed for execution of the sentence. 

The largest verdict ever rendered in the county was in the case of Ynicen- 
cio Casinova versus the Derby Coal Company, an action growing out of a coal 



Organization of the County. 8i 

transaction. William A. Wallace appeared for the plaintiff, and Hon. George R. 
and Walter Barrett for the defendant. Although the cause was an important 
one from the amount involved, it did not attract much attention from the pub- 
lic. The verdict for the plaintiff was the sum of $285,000. 

No case tried in the county has caused such widespread comment and 
excitement as that known as the conspiracy trial. In all there were fifty-six 
persons, miners in the Houtzdale region, who were organized strikers. They 
were indicted for conspiracy from force of numbers by overawing the people. 
Riotous acts were proved. The first case against John Maloney and fifty three 
others was tried in 1875, before Judge Orvis and a jury. Wallace, Krebs & 
Fielding for the Commonwealth, and Hon. George R. Barrett and Walter Bar- 
rett, esq., for the prisoners. They were all found guilty. Four were sentenced 
to one year's imprisonment, eight for six months, and sentence suspended as 
to the balance. As every member of every organized labor society was inter- 
ested in the result, the events of the trial and verdict were telegraphed aU 
through the country. 

This was followed by the trial of the remaining two offenders on that occa- 
sion, John Siney, and Xingo Parks. Siney was not one of the strikers, but 
was known as a State organizer. He came to Houtzdale and delivered an in- 
flammatory address, for which he was arrested. On the trial Siney was acquitted, 
but Parks was found guilty of inciting unlawful assembly. He was sentenced 
to one year's imprisonment, but pardoned within a month from the time sen- 
tence was pronounced. Judge Orvis presided. Wallace, Krebs & Fielding for 
the Commonwealth, Hon. Mattew Carpenter, of Wisconsin ; ex-Attorney Gene- 
ral Frank Hughes, Hon. George R. Barrett, and Walter Barrett, esq., counsel 
for the accused. 

The Commonwealth against Martin D. Turner, for the murder of Maria 
Waple, the divorced wife of Thomas Waple. The case was tried before Judge 
Orvis and a jury, at the March Sessions, 1877. Counsel for the Commonwealth, 
Thomas H. Murray, Frank Fielding, and William M. McCullough. For the 
accused, William A. Wallace, David L. Krebs, George R. Barrett, and Walter 
Barrett. Verdict, guilty of murder in the first degree. The prisoner was sen- 
tenced to be hanged, but on an appeal to the Supreme Court, the judgment was 
reversed and a new trial ordered. The place of trial was changed from Clear- 
field to Clinton county, and, on the trial thereof, the jury rendered a verdict of 
" not guilty." In Clinton county Judge Mayer presided. 

The several suits of Bascom versus Arthurs, and the cross-suits of Arthurs 
versus Bascom, in their day created some comment, and occupied the time and 
attention of the courts for several terms. They were all controversies relating 
to land titles. They became prominent through the eminent counsel engaged 
on the trial. Bascom was represented by Hon. George R. Barrett, Hon. J. B. 
McEnally, and in the early stages of the litigation, by Hon. Isaac G. Gordon, of 



82 History of Clearfield County. 

Brookville, Pa., and Hon. H. Bucher Swoope. The Arthurs interest was 
championed by Hon. George A.Jenks, of Brookville, and the law firm of Wal- 
lace & Krebs. 

The last case of special importance was the Commonwealth versus John A. 
NevHng, on an indictment charging him with the murder of Samuel Penning- 
ton, at Houtzdale, on the 17th day of February, 1880. Nevling was found 
guilty and sentenced to be hanged. The sentence was executed by Sheriff James 
Mahaffey, on the 24th day of March, 1882, at Clearfield. Judge Charles A. 
Mayer presided at the trial. The counsel were, for the Commonwealth, Dis- 
trict-Attorney Joseph F. McKenrick, assisted by Mr. Chase, a local lawyer, 
then living at Houtzdale ; and for the prisoner, Messrs. McEnally & McCurdy. 
of Clearfield. 



CHAPTER X. 

FROM- 1810 TO 1843. 

Pioneer Settlements After 1810 — Population in 1810 — The First Murder— Events of the 
War of 1812-15 — Peace — Election Districts Prior to 1843 — Record of the Floods on the 
West Branch — The Pumpkin Flood — Drowning of John and Ellis 'Jraham — Gorges at the 
Pee Wee's Nest. 

DURING the early years of the present century, settlement by families in 
the newly created county was exceedingly slow, and every effort toward 
improvement was opposed by incredible hardships, privations, and toil. Upon 
the families who came here earlier than the year 18 10, fell the brunt of the 
battle for colonization and existence. All honor, then, to those sturdy, deter- 
mined pioneers — all honor to their families, their wives, their children, who by 
patient and unceasing toil laid the foundation upon which the county has since 
been built and enlarged by new-comers. At this time a comparatively small 
portion of the county had been settled, and no attempt had yet been made at 
improvement in the districts of the county away from the water-courses. The 
vast wooded country on the north and northwest was, as yet, unexplored, and 
only an occasional path leading into timbered districts, was known ; but, as 
the land on the streams was gradually taken up and improved, the new immi- 
grants were obliged to work their way into the hitherto unoccupied regions. 
Of the many that came, some few turned back down the river and across the 
county, to the more thickly settled country on the east. The early families on 
the east side of the county were mainly from Centre county, while those on 
the south and southeast came from Huntingdon and the counties beyond. 



From i8io to 1843. 83 



Settlement began but exceedingly slow in the western part. James Wood- 
side, Joab Ogden, and a very few others had made homes there, but the 
larger streams and their valleys received the new-comers. For about two years 
preceding the war with Great Britain,in 18 12-15, many new residents came 
and settled in various sections ; but during, and subsequent to that struggle, 
settlement and improvement by particular families became almost wholly lost 
in the general growth and prosperity. In 1810 the county had a population 
of about nine hundred, and at the end of the next decade of years it was 
increased nearly threefold. In 1808 there were but three election districts in 
the county — Chincleclamousche, Bradford, and Beccaria. Among the settlers 
and families that came to the county about the years 18 10-15, the names of 
some can be given. 

Thomas Kirk came from the township of Half Moon, Centre county, and 
made a clearing upon which he built a cabin. His family came the year fol- 
lowing, 181 1. He died after a few years, and was buried at the ©Id grave- 
yard near the present county seat. 

Soon after, John Kirk, a brother of Thomas, came to the county and located 
on the west side, in what is now Brady township. 

The family of Lebbeus Luther came to the settlements on the river about 
this time, but in 1820 he left the river and moved to the locality of Luthers- 
burg, which was named in his honor, on the old Susquehanna and Waterford 
turnpike. He was made agent for the Fox lands, and also kept a tavern at 
that place. In 1828 Lebbeus Luther was made sheriff of the county. He 
afterwards went to Elk county. 

Samuel Johnson made a settlement near where Pennville now stands, about 
the year 18 10. From him has descended some of the substantial families of 
the county. 

George Philip Geulich came to the county in 181 1, as a representative of 
the Allegheny Coal Company, for the purpose of examining the coal fields 
which were reported to be in the county. He, and a companion, remained 
through the winter, staying with the family of Alexander Read. On informa- 
tion given by Geulich, the Ringgold tract on Clearfield Creek was bought, and 
the company afterward purchased about four thousand acres across from the 
Moshannon, in the Karthaus locality. George Philip Geulich married Sarah 
Haney, who bore him ten children. In 1830 he was chosen county treasurer. 
Geulich township, in the south part of the county, was named in honor of 
George Philip Geulich. 

Alexander B. Reed was born in Lancaster county in 1786. At the age of 
twenty-five years, while at Big Island, he met John Ferguson and came with 
him to this county, in the winter of 181 1. He made his home for a time with 
the family of Hugh Hall. In 181 5 he married Rachel Read, and took up lands 
about a mile north of Hall's place, but did not occupy it at once. The chil- 



84 History of Clearfield County. 

dren born to Alexander B, and Rachel Reed, were : Maria Jane, who married 
William Bigler, late governor of the State; Henrietta Ann, Read A., George 
Latimer, William Milton, and Rebecca, who married John F. Weaver. Wil- 
liam Reed, father of Alexander B. Reed, did not come here until 1813. Alex- 
ander B. was familiarly known as " Black Alex.," to distinguish him from 
Alexander Read, who was called " Red Alex." The children of Maria J. 
(Reed) Bigler by her marriage with Wilham Bigler, were: Reed, John W., 
WilHam D., Edmund A., and Harry F. William Bigler was elected governor 
in 1851. George Latimer Reed married Sarah E. Weaver. The children of 
William Reed, the father of Alexander B., were: Isabella, Jane, Sally, James, 
Alexander B., Betsey, Polly, and William. 

About the time that the war of 1812-15 broke out, a number of families 
came to the county from New Jersey, and other parts of the east. Among them 
was William B. Wright, who located in the vicinity of Glen Hope. One of his 
sons, A. K. Wright, became a prominent figure in local affairs, having held the 
offices of sheriff and associate judge. Another son, John W., was chosen county 
treasurer and justice of the peace. Benjamin B. Wright was also a prominent 
personage. 

Dr. Keagy, a relative of the Wright family, came here about the same time, 
or soon afterward. He located about a mile below Wright's, on the creek. 

Amasa Smith also settled near the site of the present hamlet of Janesville, 
and became proprietor of " Smith's Mills." 

George Shaffer became one of the pioneers of the west part of the county, 
now Sandy township, in 18 12. He had a wife and four sons — George, John, 
Frederick, and Michael — all of whom came here together. They settled south 
of Sandy Lick Creek. 

Three brothers — James, Benjamin, and Thomas Carson — located about a 
mile west of Luthersburg. They came from Westmoreland county in the year 
1814. 

In the same year Joseph Packer located in that vicinity. He bored for salt 
at Luthersburg, but found none of that commodity. 

Daniel Barrett was born in Centre county. He came to this county 
in about the year 1813 or '14, and located at Curwensville. His children 
were : Maria, Keziah, George R., James C, Isaac L., Enoch L , Henrietta, and 
Philo W. 

James I. Thorn came to the mouth of Little Clearfield Creek in the year 
1 8 14, at which place he built for Robert Elder, of Half Moon, Centre county, 
a tavern, a saw-mill, and a woolen, or fulling-mill, as it was better known. 
Mr. Elder never resided in this county, but owned a tract of land and employed 
Thorn to erect the buildings. This was about the first fulling-mill built in the 
county. The children of James I. Thorn were : Joseph, George, Boswell C, 
Thetes P., and Hannah. 



From i8io to 1843. 85 



In the year 1813 the townships of Lawrence and Pike were carved out of 
old Chincleclamousche, and the early settlement of the families within their 
boundaries becomes a part of those townships. 

It was about this time that the first murder was committed within the 
boundaries of Clearfield county. James Monks shot and killed Reuben Giles 
while the latter was passing along the old State road, about three miles from 
Curwensville. The facts, as near as can be ascertained, are these : Giles Wcis 
traveling along the highway on horseback. He was well dressed, and his 
appearance indicated that he might be possessed of considerable money. He 
met Daniel Barrett and inquired for the nearest tavern, and was informed that 
he would have to turn back a distance of about one and a half miles to Nancy 
Ross's. He then asked the distance to the next tavern ahead, and Mr. Barrett 
told him It was about three miles to the place kept by Wrigley. Giles said he 
thought he could get there before dark, and started on his journey. Daniel 
Barrett was the last man that saw Giles alive, except Monks. The latter had 
been in the settlement attending a shooting match, and hunting. When Giles's 
body was found, suspicion rested on Monks, and a search was made for him. 
He was traced down the river to the Karthaus vicinity, and from thence to 
Milesburg. He took this unusual route in order to keep as much as possible 
away from the regularly traveled road, and avoid discovery. He was arrested, 
and tried at Bellefonte, and found guilty. In a confession made just before he 
was to be hung. Monks said he waited until Giles had passed him on the road, 
and then shot him in the back, robbed the body and concealed it it among 
some logs just off the road. 

War of 1812-15. During the five years next preceeding the year 1812 
the whole country was in a state of nominal peace and an era of prosperity ; 
but still throughout these years there was gathering in the political horizon a 
dark cloud, which was to plunge the nation into another foreign war. 

In 1776, and the years following, America fought Great Britain for her in- 
dependence, and achieved a recognition among the powers of the earth. 

In 18 12 she again engaged in war against the mother country, to maintain 
that independence which in years past had been forcibly acquired. 

The United States had scrupulously observed the provisions of the treaty 
of peace made with Great Britain at the close of the Revolution. There had 
been maintained, too, a strict neutrality during the progress of the Napoleonic 
war with the British kingdom, when perhaps every consideration of gratitude 
should have induced a participation in it as against the mother country. For 
several years the aggressive acts of the British had been a subject of anxiety 
and regret, and feelings of animosity increased on this side of the Atlantic. 
The embargo laid by Congress upon the shipping in American ports was found 
so injurious to commercial interests that it was repealed, and the non-inter- 
course act passed in its stead. In April, 1809, the English ambassador in 
12 



86 History of Clearfield County. 

Washington opened negotiations for the amicable adjustment of existing diffi- 
culties, and consented to the withdrawal of the obnoxious " orders in council," 
so far as they affected the United States, on condition that the non-intercourse 
act with Great Britain should be repealed. This was agreed upon, and the 
president issued a proclamation announcing that, on the loth day of June, trade 
with Great Britain might be resumed. The English government, however, 
refused to ratify the proceedings and the minister was recalled, whereupon the 
president revoked his proclamation, and the non-intercourse act again became 
operative. 

Beside the odious acts in the British parliament, injurious and insulting in 
their character, the English officers claimed the right to search American ves- 
sels, seize all who were suspected of being subjects of the king, and force them 
into their service. Under cover of this claim the greatest outrages were per- 
petrated, and by it many true and loyal persons were pressed into the service 
of Great Britain, both against their inclination and the well-established proof 
of their identity. 

On the 1 2th of June, 1812, President James Madison sent a confidential 
communication to Congress, in which he recapitulated the long list of the Brit- 
ish aggressions, and declared it the duty of Congress to consider whether the 
American people should longer passively submit to the accumulated wrongs 
and insults perpetrated by the British, and at the same time he cautioned the 
House to avoid entanglements in the contests and views of other powers. 

War was formally declared on the 19th day of June, 1812, but the measure 
was not universally sustained in some parts of the Middle and New England 
States. The opposing element was embraced in the Federal party, its chief 
ground of opposition being the fact that the country was not prepared for war. 
The Federalists constituted a large and influential minority of the political 
element of Congress, and had a considerable following in the several States 
not in active politics. They asked for further negotiations, and met the de- 
nunciations made by the ruling party (that is, the Democratic and Republican, 
for it went by both names) upon the English government, with savage and 
bitter attacks on Napoleon, whom they accused the majority with favoring. 

The events of the war that followed we need not recall here. There was 
no conflict of arms within this Commonwealth, and no hostile foot was set on 
Pennsylvania soil. Governor Snyder issued a call for fourteen thousand 
militia, and so prompt and hearty was the response, that nearly three times 
that number prepared and volunteered for the service. 

The results of the struggle for right and justice, over wrong and oppression, 
are written in the conflicts on Lake Erie, the repulse of the invaders on the 
Delaware, the distressing scenes on the Chesapeake, the invasion of New York, 
and the attempt to control the Hudson River and Lake Champlain. The battle 
at Plattsburg, the capture of Niagara and Oswego, the burning of Newark. 



From i8io to 1843. 87 



the battle at Black Rock, Lundy's Lane, and the occupation of poorly defended 
posts on the southern and southeastern frontier, the battle at New Orleans, 
the withdrawal and surrender of the British forces, and the final treaty of peace, 
which was ratified February 17, 1815. The Americans had fought their last 
battle with a foreign foe. 

Early Election Districts, — An occasional reference has been made to the 
early election districts of the county. These locations were fixed from time to 
time as settlement increased in various localities, and a statement of the places 
at which they were held and established, will prove of some interest. 

On the 14th day of March, 1805, an act of the General Assembly declared 
the whole county of Clearfield to be an election district, and provided that the 
electors of the county should hold their elections at the house of Benjamin 
Jordon. 

Beccaria and Bradford townships were formed in 1807, and in the year fol- 
lowing they were, with a part of Half Moon township of Centre county, formed 
into a separate election district, and the electors were, by the act of March 28, 
1808, directed to hold their elections at the house of John Gearhart, in Brad- 
ford township. 

No further changes were made until the year 18 13, when, by a law passed 
March 29th, that part of the township of Chincleclamousche lying on the waters 
of the Sinnamahoning, and a large country to the westward, was formed into a 
separate election district, and the electors thereof were directed to hold their 
elections at the house of Andrew Overdorf, at the forks of the Sinnamahoning 
Creek. 

A division was made in the Bradford district by an act approved March 24, 
18 1 7, which provided that Beccaria township and that part of Bradford lying 
south of an east line, beginning at the mouth of Wheatland Run and running 
thence direct to the Moshannon Creek, should form a separate election dis- 
trict, and the elections were directed to be held at the house of John Cree, in 
Beccaria township. The same act also provided that the portion of Rush 
township in Centre county lying west of the Allegheny mountains, and that 
part of Bradford township in Clearfield county, lying north of a line beginning 
at the mouth of Wheatland Run, and running thence direct to the Moshannon, 
should constitute a separate district, and that the elections should be held at 
the house of George Smeal, in Bradford township. 

In this same year a change was made in old Chincleclamousche township, 
by which the place of holding elections was changed from the house of Ben- 
jamin Jordon to the house of William Bloom. 

The organization of Covington township was completed in^May, 18 17, but 
it was not made a separate election district until 1818. The electors were 
directed to hold their elections at the house of Hugh Biddle, esq., in that town- 
ship. 



History of Clearfield County. 



By virtue of a law passed April 2, 1821, the township of Lawrence -wfas 
declared to be a separate district, and the electors were directed to meet for 
election purposes at the court-house, in the town of Clearfield. 

In 1822 the township of Fox and the west part of Gibson were formed into 
a separate district, and the elections were held at the house of James Green, 
sr., in Fox township. 

The place of holding elections in Covington township was changed by the 
act of March 31, 1823, from the house of Hugh Biddle to the house of Jacob 
Maurer. The same act further provided that the freemen of Gibson township 
should hold their elections at the house of Levi Hicks. The west part of Gib- 
son had heretofore been annexed to Fox township for election purposes. Pike 
township was also directed to hold elections therein, at the house of James 
Blair in Curwensville. 

In 1828, by a law passed April 14, the place of meeting for elections was 
changed to the house of John Kyler. 

The same year Decatur was made an election district, and the electors 
thereof authorized to meet at the house occupied by Abraham Goss. 

Brady township was formed into a separate district at the same time, and 
the place of holding elections was fixed at the house of Lebbeus Luther, at 
Luthersburg. 

Chest township was first authorized by the act of April 6, 1830, to hold 
elections therein. The freemen were directed to meet at the house of William 
Mahaffey, but by a law passed April 4, 1 831, the place was changed to the 
house of John Smith, at New Washington. 

Parts of Gibson and Fox townships which lay adjoining, were formed into 
a district, and elections were ordered to be held at the house of Thomas Lig- 
gett, in Gibson township. This act was also passed in 1831. 

In the year 1832 three districts were provided for. The polling place in 
Pike was changed from the house of James Blair to the inn kept by Isaac 
Chambers. Fox was directed to hold elections at John Kyler's, and Girard 
was made a separate district, and authorized to hold elections at Mordecai Liv- 
ergood's. 

By the act of April 9, 1833, elections in Gibson were appointed to be held 
at the house of William Montgomery; and by a further act, passed April 15. 
1835, the second Tuesday in February was fixed for holding such elections. 

Jordon was made a separate district in 1835, and the house occupied by 
James McNiel designated as the voting place. The same act changed the 
place of holding elections in Beccaria township to the house of William W. 
Feltwell. 

The laws of 1836 made four designations: Morris township elections were 
to he held at the house of William M. Hunter; Burnside, at the house of John 
Young ; Bell, at the house of Frederick Tamyar, and Chest at the house occu- 



From i8io to 1843. 89 



pied by James Thompson. Burnside and Bell townships were erected in 1835, 
and Morris one year later, hence these were original appointments. 

In 1838 the voting place'^in Pike was changed to the house of John Draucker, 
at Curwensville; Penn township was created into a separate district and voted 
at the old school-house on Spencer's Hill ; Boggs was also made a separate dis- 
trict, and the freemen thereof voted at the house of William Merrill, in Cram- 
mondale. 

By the laws of 1840 the township of Huston was made an election district, 
and the house occupied by Jesse Wilson was designated as the place of meet- 
ing. By the same act Ferguson was made a separate district, and the freemen 
thereof were directed to meet at the house of Thomas Davis, in that township. 

The place of holding elections in Morris was changed in 1842, to the house 

of Josiah Hunter. At the same time Covington and Karthaus were declared 

o be separate election districts ; the former to hold meetings at the house of 

Jacob Maurer, and the latter at the boarding-house of the Karthaus Iron 

Works, being the same place used when Karthaus formed a part of Covington. 

In 1842 the polling place in Decatur was changed to the house of John 
Goss; and in 1843 Burnside changed to the house of Wilson Owens, and Girard 
to the house occupied by George B. Smith. 

The election districts formed up to this time from the erection of the county 
in 1804, were established by the General Assembly for the convenience of the 
residents of the county, and without special reference to township lines, except 
^s new townships were created from time to time. It will be seen that, by the 
gradual formation of the several townships, the original Chincleclamousche 
township has been absorbed by the subsequent erections, so that the name is 
entirely lost. The creation of new townships subsequent to about 1830 were 
but subdivisions of the older, although the election districts were formed, in fre- 
quent instances, from parts of already established townships ; and a record of 
election districts subsequent to about the year 1843, is incidental to the record 
of those townships to which they belonged, therefore further mention of them 
at this time is unnecessary. 

Floods on the West Branch. — It is a matter of almost annual occurrence 
that the waters of the West Branch and its tributaries rise to an unusual height. 
At the breaking up of the ice in the river in the springtime, high water is, of 
course, expected, and the residents and property owners along the banks make 
preparation for that event, and place their movable property out of the reach 
of any such rise in the river as may destroy or carry it away. In early days 
these floods were not of such frequent occurrence as of later years, and this fact 
is attributable to the clearing up of the timber lands. When the country was 
well covered with forests the rays of the sun could not as readily reach the 
snow lying on the ground, and it passed off moderately with the gradually in- 
creasing warmth of the season, and, as a consquence, the country was not as 



90 History of Clearfield County. 

frequently subjected to a sudden rise of the waters ; but since the county has 
been mainly stripped of its protecting forests an annual rise is expected of 
greater or less extent, dependent on the amount of snow lying on the ground, 
and the character of the season generally. Notwithstanding the usual precau- 
tions of the people, the river sometimes rises to a height not contemplated, and 
a destruction of property follows. A few of these events it is the purpose of 
this chapter to record. 

The first occasion upon which the river rose to an extraordinary height was 
in the month of November, i8ii. There were no bridges on the river at that 
time, but those across the several streams in the county were almost entirely 
swept away. The crops of the season had not been fully gathered, and those 
on the lowlands were carried away by the waters. At times the surface of the 
water seemed literally covered with pumpkins swept from the fields along the 
river, and from that fact that this was ever afterward termed the " pumpkin 
flood." This event was not single to this locality, as a like flood occurred at 
at the same time on the north branch of the Susquehanna, which extended 
far up toward the head waters of that stream, and was there known as the 
" pumpkin flood." No serious damage was done to property in the locality 
of the West Branch, as settlement was in its infancy, but slight as the loss 
was, the burden of it was felt by the struggling pioneers. 

The next great flood occurred in the fall of 1847. The river became swollen 
from a heavy and continued fall of rain, and reached a height nearly as great 
as in the pumpkin flood. At this time the damage was greater, as fences, hay 
stacks, chicken-coops, dams, bridges, and lumber were carried away. The 
Ringgold Mill, the property of Kratzer & Barrett, was lifted from its founda- 
tion on Clearfield Creek, and carried into the river, thence down to Karthaus 
bridge, where it became lost. On the Sinnahmahoning Creek the destruction 
was also great. A small house, in which was a woman and three children, was 
floated down stream several miles, but fortunately none were drowned. 

About Christmas time in the year 185 1, there came another sudden rise in 
the streams. A heavy body of snow had fallen, and was followed by a warm 
rain, causing the river to rise very rapidly. The county seat was entirely sur- 
rounded, and as court was in session, much anxiety was created on account of 
the fact that those attending court were unable to reach home. Large quanti- 
ties of lumber were carried away and lost at this time. 

In 1 861, during the month of October, occurred another unusual rise in the 
river, caused by heavy rains. The damage to the crops was severe, and quan- 
tities of lumber, shingles, and other property were lost. At this time the waters 
were higher than in 1847. The freshet of '47, as it has been called, was also 
termed the " pumpkin flood," from the fact of its occurring at the time when 
that product was still in the fields, and all in reach of the overflowing streams 
were swept away. No other serious damage was done by the flood of 1847. 



From i8io to 1843. 91 



That flood and the rise in 181 1, are frequently confused by the term " pump- 
kin flood " applying to each. 

The greatest destruction, both of property and hfe, was experienced in the 
memorable flood on St. Patrick's day, March 17, 1865. This was not, by any 
means, confined to the country drained by the West Branch and its tributaries; 
in truth, the damage caused here on that occasion was as little felt as anywhere 
in the Middle States. The whole country of the Susquehannas, the Chenango, 
the Allegheny, the Ohio, the Genesee, the Delaware, and other like streams was 
completely inundated. On the north branch of the Susquehanna and Chenango 
rivers the waters reached a height unequaled either before or since, and a great 
loss of property and life resulted. In this locality on the West Branch, bridges, 
dams, lumber and rafts, houses and out buildings, fences, and every movable 
thing in the path of the mighty torrent were swept away. John Graham, of 
Graham township, was drowned while trying to cross Moravian Run in order 
that he might save a raft. The bridge had been carried out, and Graham tried 
to cross on a pole. The pole broke and he was thrown into the stream. Ellis 
Graham, of Goshen township, was also drowned on the same day by falling 
into the river from a raft that he was trying to secure. There was but little 
rain to aggravate the flood of 1865. An unusual body of snow lay on the 
ground, and a very warm wind blew steadily from the south for three or four 
days. In its early stages this might be aptly termed an ice-flood, but the 
greatest height of water was reached after the ice had passed down the river. 

In the spring of 1884 another destructive ice-flood occurred, by which the 
iron bridge built to replace the " Goodfellow bridge," was carried ofl" its piers 
and borne on the floating ice to a point nearly opposite to the Beech Creek 
station, where it sunk to the bottom of the river. On its passage down it 
struck and carried ofl" the west part of the Market street bridge at Clearfield, 
and still further down struck the covered bridge leading to West Clearfield, 
but did not cause much damage thereto. 

There have been other destructive floods on the river at various times, but 
these are the principal ones worthy of mention. At a bend in the river known 
as the " Pee-wee's nest," the ice very frequently gorges and causes an over- 
flow along the river for many miles above that point, but the country below 
is not often affected by it. From that cause the residents up the valley of the 
river are subject to almost annual floods upon their premises, resulting from 
the filling up of the channel at the " Pee-wee's nest." 



9^ History gf Clearfield County. 



CHAPTER XL 

LUMBER AND ROADS. 

The Lumbering Interests — Rafting and Floating — Turnpike and Road Companies — Rail- 
roads of the County. 

THE lumbering interests of the past have borne about the same important 
relation to the welfare and prosperity of Clearfield county, as do the coal 
producing interests of the present ; and looking back three-quarters of a cen- 
tury, who of those pioneers would for a moment think that the complete dev- 
astation of the seemingly boundless forests could be accomplished in so brief a 
time ? In the infant days of this region, lumbering was a necessity. Through- 
out the whole extent of the original territory embraced by this county, and 
even far beyond it, there was but one cleared tract, comprising a few acres of 
land where the county seat now stands. To make a settlement and improve- 
ment by the pioneer meant the clearing up of the woodlands, and required 
long and untiring labor before a sufficient area could be improved to supply 
the necessary products for a frugal family. 

It was then that lumbering commenced — not that lumber was then a com- 
modity sufficiently valuable to place in market, but that the land might be 
cleared for agricultural pursuits. 

The first work in the forests in the production of logs and lumber as a bus- 
iness was commenced soon after the year 1820, and as at that day and in years 
following, rafting was an indispensable auxiliary to lumbering, the two will be 
treated under a common head. 

The early history of this county shows that Daniel Ogden and Frederick 
Haney had each built mills prior to 1805. Soon after Daniel Turner erected 
one on Clearfield Creek, and in 1808, Robert Maxwell had built a mill near 
Curwensville, and William Kersey another, at the Kersey settlement. The mill 
of James and Samuel Ardery was soon after built near the old Clearfield bridge. 
These men had built the several mills to supply the demands of residents in 
this locality. 

David Litz ran a small log raft down Clearfield Creek as early as the year 
1805, but this was for the purpose of erecting a log house in the county. 

Among the first persons who commenced manufacturing lumber for the 
market down the river was one Shepherd, who began operations on the Sin- 
namahoning, in the (then) northern part of the county, but lately in Cameron 
county, about the year 1822. He had a mill erected and manufactured some 
lumber, but he rafted mainly square or hewed timber. Shepherd married after 
coming to the creek, and lived there many years. 



Lumber and Roads. 93 



"Buck" Claflin came to the Sinnamahoning lumber district between 1825 
and 1830, and operated extensively. He kept a store there at the same time 
for the accommodation of his employees and the permanent residents of the 
county. 

Soon after Claflin, and prior to 1830, the Colemans were extensive opera- 
tors in that locality. 

The Johnsons operated further up and had a mill on Bennet's Branch, in 
Gibson township, now set off to Elk county. Winslow and Shaffer operated 
in the same locality, the latter on a small scale. Of the Winslows, there were 
three brothers — Reuben, Eben, and Carpenter. 

The above mentioned persons, it will be seen, operated mostly along the 
stream known as the Sinnamahoning Creek ; in fact it seems that the business 
of lumbering commenced down the river nearer the market, and, as the lands 
were taken up or stripped of their valuable timber, the newer operators were 
compelled to buy tracts farther up the several streams. Timber was so plenty 
at that time that no thought was entertained of getting far from a stream suffi- 
ciently large to navigate a raft. The modern inventions of " tram-roads " and 
" slides " were unnecessary and unprofitable. 

About the year 1832, and soon after, the lands were nearly all taken from 
Karthaus to the Cherry Tree, the borders of the river being the greatest field 
of operations. 

The reader will understand that the object of the operator was to get his 
rafts to market as quickly as possible, and for that reason only a small quantity 
of sawed or manufactured lumber was rafted. Log floating was not indulged 
in till about 1857 or '8. 

From 1830 ;to 1840 we find names of several who operated extensively, 
many of whom have become permanent residents of the county. 

John and William Irvin lumbered on lands about Curwensville. John 
Patchin located at Patchinville, and made that vicinity the base of operations, 
although he had and worked other tracts on Clearfield Creek and in the neigh- 
borhood of Frenchville. 

Judge Richard Shaw located near Clearfield, where he had a large tract of 
timber. He also operated near where Shawsville now stands. 

Alexander Irvin also commenced near Clearfield. Matthew Irvin located 
in Burnside township, and David Irvin at Luthersburg. The Irvins were 
brothers. Matthew was not an extensive operator, but his sons followed the 
business extensively. 

Graham & Wright were large operators in Graham township. 

Fitch & Boynton came to the county in 1835. They had some timber 
lands, but dealt mainly in worked timber, buying and rafting to market. 

Ellis and William Irwin operated in the vicinity of Clearfield town as early 
as 1837. 



94 History of Clearfield County. 

Bigler & Powell commenced about 1834, and made Clearfield the base of 
operations, although they had lands at FrenchvilLe and elsewhere. Mr. Bigler 
became governor of the State in 185 1. Mr. Powell is a merchant of Clearfield. 

A. B. Waller located at Cherry Tree, in the upper end of the county. He 
was from Washington, D. C, and operated largely for several years. 

At about this time Stewart & Owens cleared a large tract on Clearfield 
Creek near Glen Hope. 

James Forest operated on the creek further down, and resided at Clearfield 
bridge. 

John M. Chase commenced about the same time, and has followed the 
business to the present time. 

The principal marketing points for lumber cut in the region during these 
years, was at Harrisburg, Lancaster, and Marietta, where the large buyers from 
New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Baltimore, and other large cities east 
and south, came to make their purchases. 

For the next twenty years lumbering appears to have been the chief occu- 
pation of nearly every resident land owner of the county. Agriculture became 
a neglected pursuit, and the farmer looked to the accumulation of a fortune 
in the lumber business. Expenses were great, and during the excitement of 
the time, future contingencies were not provided for. 

The legitimate and certain result of the neglect in improving the lands as 
they were cleared, proved disastrous in very many cases. Hoped for fortunes 
were not realized, and when farming was resumed the lands were found to be 
exceedingly poor and difificult of cultivation. By years of labor and expense 
the farms were brought into a fair producing state. While this is true, as a 
general rule, there were of course exceptions in various localities, and there 
were just as good farms in some townships twenty-five years ago as there are 
to-day. 

Among the many who came to the county to engage in this business about 
the year 1840, and from that time to 1850, was John Du Bois, a native of New 
York. He operated first on the Sinnamahoning, but made headquarters at 
Williamsport. Mr. Du Bois afterward became one of the most enterprising 
men in the county, and did much for its substantial benefit. He founded and 
built up the borough ©f Du Bois, erected a lumber manufactory there, among 
the largest in the State, and engaged in extensive business enterprises that will 
live for generations a substantial monument to his memory. 

John G. Redding & Co., of Williamsport, began lumbering on the Sinnama- 
honing about 1844. The firm had a large tract and did an extensive business. 

Perks & Bowman had and operated a large tract ©n the Moshannon. Mr. 
Perks died, but the business was continued by his partner, who still operates 
there, although residing at Williamsport. 

Craig & Blanchard were heavy producers on the Sinnamahoning. In the 



Lumber and Roads. 95 



firm were three brothers, Blanchard, who hved on the tract. Mr. Craig was a 
resident of Wilmington, Del. 

Christ & Long had a tract on the creek comprising about fifteen or twenty- 
thousand acres. They were large dealers besides. Their lumber was rafted 
rough to Lock Haven, where they had saw- mills. 

John F. Weaver became a member of the firm of Bigler & Powell in 1847, 
after which the firm name was changed to Bigler & Co. Their field of oper- 
ations lay in the vicinity of Clearfield, about Bald Hill, in Bell township, and 
on Clearfield Creek. After Mr. Bigler was elected governor, in 185 i, his in- 
terest was sold to George L. Reed, and the firm became G. L. Reed & Co. 
The firm of Weaver & Betts was formed in 1869. 

John Patton commenced lumbering near Curwensville about 1847 or 1848. 

The Dodge tract, on the Sinnamahoning, was opened about the same time 
by their agent, Mr. Sacketts, a New Yorker. John Brooks, Levi Lutz, War- 
ner, Major Andrews, and Judge Gillis, commenced about the same time. 
John Brooks came in soon after 1850. He was a large operator. At one 
time he was elected to the Legislature. 

In 1857 a new system was introduced. Instead of rafting, as was the pre- 
vious practice, some operators began floating their logs to Williamsport, where 
the river had been boomed to receive them. This deprived the rafters of their 
means of liveHhood, and they organized to prevent any such innovation. An 
armed party of rafters attacked and drove the floaters from Clearfield Creek, 
after which the system of floating was abandoned on the waters of the creek, 
although it continued elsewhere. The attacking party of rafters were arrested 
and convicted of riotous conduct, but their attack had a wholesome effect in 
breaking up the floaters' organization in that vicinity. 

The lumbering business reached its maximum about this time, and any at- 
tempt to enumerate the entire list of those engaged in that occupation would 
be incomplete and useless. There were many small operators who ran from 
two to ten rafts each season, but by far the greater number of these were sold 
to dealers, and by them rafted to the markets. 

From the year 1859 to the present time there may be mentioned the names 
of some extensive operators in the various localities not heretofore referred to, 
and besides these many of those already named continued to the present, or 
until a very recent date. In Karthaus there may be recalled D. B. Hall, John 
Gilliland, Samuel GiUiland, Dr. J. W. Potter, I. C. McCloskey, and others. 
The Gillilands, with D. B. Hall, constituted the firm of D. B. Hall & Co. 

In Covington, on the river, were L. M. Coudriet, Augustus and Alphonso 
Leconte. Augustus Leconte built a mill in Girard in 1842, and afterward 
lived there. Judge Lamm was on Deer Creek, in Girard. 

Thomas H. Forcey succeeded Graham & Wright across in Graham town- 
ship. 

In Cooper there were Joseph C. Brenner, and Leonard Kyler. 



g6 History of Clearfield County. 

In Girard, Alexander, William, and Anderson Murray, James Irvin, Robert 
Stewart, and Gillingham and Garrison. 

In Bradford, William, George, and Henry Alberts, under the firm name of 
Alberts Bros. They had headquarters at Woodland. 

In Goshen, A. B. Shaw,_Walton Dwight, and Phelps & Dodge. The latter 
had large tracts throughout the northern part of the county, and were very 
large operators. 

In Lawrence were Ellis Irwin & Son, and they still operate on Lick Run ; 
Joseph Shaw, and William Mapes. 

In Pike, E. A. Irvin D. W. Irvin, Isaac B. Norris, N. E. & Samuel Arnold, 
John Irvin & Bros. The latter are also interested on Anderson Creek. On 
this creek were also John Du Bois, Paul, George, and John Merrell, and Blan- 
chard Bros. 

At Lumber City, and in Penn township, the Kirks, Fergusons, G. H. Lit- 
tle, and Joseph Hagerty. At Belleville were the Bell Brothers, and at Lewis- 
ville in the same township (Greenwood), the present firm of Leavey, Mitchell 
& Co. In Bell, the Mahaffeys, Robert, William, and Frank, the McGees, and 
Elias Henderson. 

In Burnside township, at New Washington, Burnside, and other points, 
were John M. Cummings, McMurrays, Mahaffeys, Gallagers, Dr. McCune, 
Horace and Jackson Patchin, John C. Conner, Aaron Patchin, Irvin Brothers, 
William and^ Matthew. The Irvin Brothers were succeeded by Horace 
Patchin. 

At the Cherry Tree region there still remains quite a bevy of lumbermen. 
Of those who have been there during recent years are David and Porter Kim- 
port, Jesse Harter, E. B. Camp, Pitts & McKeag, Vincent Tonkin, and others. 
The latter purchased the lands formerly operated by A. B. Waller. 

On the Moshannon, the Steiners, Moshannon Lumber Company, and A. B. 
Long & Sons; in Geulich, P. & A. Flynn ; in Houtzdale and Madera, D. K. 
Ramey, Samuel Hagerty, and James Lowther. In Beccaria and Jordon town- 
ships there were Clark Patchin, and John and Henry Swan. At Penfield, 
Hiram Woodward, and generally in Huston and Sandy townships, Charles 
Blanchard, George Craig & Sons, and John E. Du Bois. 

The pioneer lumbermen of Brady were Samuel and Frederick K. Arnold, 
and David Irvin. During latter years the business has been conducted by 
Reuben H. Moore, the Carlisles, Samuel Kuntz, the Knarrs, Pentzs, and 
George, WilHam, and Charles Schwem, who succeeded to the business of their 
father, William Schwem. 

Following carefully through the names of the lumbermen in this county 
since the business was commenced, there will be found many who are among 
the most enterprising and worthy residents of the county — men who came 
here to engage temporarily in business, and when that was accomplished have 



Lumber and Roads. 97 



continued to reside here, and, by their efforts and means have contributed 
towards the present prosperous condition of the county. 

Although the lumbering business of the present will not bear comparison 
with that of twenty-five years ago, it is still carried on to a considerable ex- 
tent In some parts of the county there still remain large tracts of standing 
timber, noticeably from Burnside to Cherry Tree, and generally throughout the 
northern part of the county. 

As incidental to the above subject it may be stated that on the streams 
large enough for rafting and floating, all lumbermen had equal rights in the 
pursuit of their business, as the river and its tributaries were declared by the 
Legislature to be public highways for the purpose intended. This was a neces- 
sary act, as by it any conflicting claims were prevented. 

Roads and Turnpikes. — If an attempt should be made to furnish a com- 
plete record of every road, turnpike or other like thoroughfare for public 
accommodation that has been surveyed, laid out or incorporated, either by 
legislative act or an order of the court in this county, a volume of considerable 
size would be required to contain that record. The docket of the Court of 
Quarter Sessions of Clearfield county, during the first twenty-five years after 
courts were authorized to be held therein, contain applications, orders to view 
and review and lay out in an almost numberless quantity. Local roads in the 
several townships, or leading from one to another of the townships of the county, 
were constructed after an order made by the court upon petition and proceed- 
ings thereon. Road and turnpike companies were organized and incorporated 
under an act of the State Legislature and were invariably toll-roads. Many of 
them were constructed according to their original conception; others have been 
curtailed or modified, and some have been abandoned. Of the many con- 
structed but few have yielded a profitable return to the stockholders by direct 
dividend, but nearly every one has been of vast benefit in the enhanced value 
of lands in the several localities through which they passed. 

Sometime prior to 18 10 a road was contemplated to extend from the town 
of Northumberland to Waterford, in Erie county, and the first legislative provi- 
sion was made relating to it in February, 1812. The act provided for the 
laying out of two turnpikes, rather than one continuous road, the first from 
Northumberland by the nearest and most convenient route to the West Branch 
of the Susquehanna River, at or near the mouth of Anderson's Creek. The line 
of the road lay from Northumberland to Derrstown, thence to Youngmanstown* 
to Aaronsburg, to Bellefonte, to Milesburg, to Philipsburg, to the Susquehanna 
River at the mouth of the creek. The other or western branch of the road lay 
from Waterford through Meadville, Franklin, and thence to the Susquehanna 
River at the mouth of Anderson's Creek. The former was known as the 
Northumberland and Anderson's creek turnpike road, for the stock of which 
the governor was authorized to subscribe to the amount of seventy-five thou- 



98 History of Clearfield County. 

sand dollars on behalf of the Commonwealth. The western branch of the road 
was known and incorporated as the Susquehanna and Waterford turnpike road, 
and for the laying out and construction thereof between the Susquehanna and 
Allegheny rivers the governor was authorized to subscribe for one hundred and 
twenty- five thousand dollars of stock. In 1 8 1 9, by an act passed March 29, there 
appears to have been a modification of the whole enterprise. That part of the 
road east of the West Branch was incorporated in five separate companies and 
and in five sections, for the construction thereof; the first between Northumb- 
land and Youngmanstown, the second between Youngmanstown.and Aarons- 
burg, the third from Aaronsburg to Bellefonte, the fourth from Bellefonte to 
Philipsburg, and the fifth from Philipsburg to the river, at the mouth of Ander- 
son's Creek. The last named section, lying wholly within this county, has 
always been known as the Philipsburg and Susquehanna turnpike Road Com- 
pany, as incorporated by the act of March 29, 18 19. Of the various sections 
of the road commissioners were appointed to view and lay out, those for the 
fifth being William Rawle, of Philadalphia, Hardman Philips, John Loraine, 
William Bagshaw and Jacob Test, of Centre county, and William Bloom and 
Job England, of Clearfield county. It was further provided that as soon as one 
hundred and thirty shares of the stock of the fifth section were subscribed for 
by individuals, the governor on behalf of the Commonwealth should subscribe 
for three hundred and twenty additional shares. Also, that three per centum 
of the entire amount appropriated for the entire road, should be used in the 
construction of a bridge across the Susquehanna at the mouth of Anderson's 
creek. 

The Milesburg and Smethport Turnpike Road Company was incorporated 
April 1 1, 1825. Peter A. Karthaus was the only commissioner residing in this 
county. The route lay from Milesburg to Karthaus, where the river was 
crossed, thence in a northwesterly direction across the northern end of the 
the county, thence north to Smethport, and thence to New York State line. 
If not completed within ten years the charter was to become void. 

The Clearfield and Jefferson Turnpike Road Company was incorporated 
April 10, 1826. The road extended from the mouth of Anderson's Creek to 
the borough of Punxsutawney in Jefferson county. 

The State road from the Moshannon Creek to Clearfield was laid out in the 
year 1826. 

The Snow Shoe and Packersville turnpike was incorporated April 10, 1828, 
by Commissioners Thomas Hemphill, John Kyler, Reuben Winslow, Philip 
Antes, jr., Lebbeus Luther, William Alexander, Thomas Burnside, John 
Rankin, and Robert Lisston. The road commenced near Snow Shoe, on the 
Milesburg and Smethport turnpike in Centre county, thence through Clear- 
field town to the Erie turnpike road near Packersville. 

The Armstrong and Clearfield Turnpike Road Company was incorporated 



Lumber and Roads. 99 



February 17, 1831, by Commissioners Thomas Blair, Jacob Pontious, Joseph 
Marshall, of Armstrong county, Charles Gaskill and John W. Jenks of Jefferson 
county, John Ewing and Harry Kinter of Indiana county, David Ferguson 
and John Irvin of Clearfield county, and William A. Thomas and Hardman 
Philips of Centre county. This road commenced at the borough of Kittan- 
ning, thence to Punxsutawney, and thence to intersect the turnpike at the 
mouth of Anderson's Creek in Clearfield county. 

The incorporators of the Clearfield and Sinnamahoning Turnpike Road 
Company were W. J. B. Andrews, Smith Mead, Erasmus Morey, Ebenezer 
Winslow, James Mix, John Shaw, John R. Bloom, A. B. Reed, Christopher 
Kratzer, William L. Moore, Thomas Hemphill and Jacob Coleman. The act 
creating the corporation was passed April 20, 1838. The route of the road lay 
from Clearfield to Penfield on the same now usually traveled by the mail stage, 
except that some slight alterations have been subsequently made. At Penfield 
the turnpike was built to intersect the Milesburg and Smethport road. 

The Huntingdon and Clearfield Turnpike Road Company was chartered 
by an act passed April 2, 1838. The commissioners were Samuel Hagerty, 
jr., John Campbell, William Wiley, Samuel Shoaff, William Irvin, John P, 
Hoyt and Thomas Brown, of Clearfield county, and five others of Huntingdon 
county. The road commenced at the town of Waterstreet, Huntingdon county, 
and thence run north to intersect the Erie turnpike at or near the mouth of 
Anderson's Creek in Clearfield county. 

The Waterstreet and Clearfield turnpike was incorporated April 2, 1838, 
by commissioners appointed from Huntingdon Centre and Clearfield counties, 
Henry Loraine being the only one residing here. The road extended from 
Waterstreet to Philipsburg, and thence to intersect the Snow Shoe and Pack- 
ersville turnpike at a point east of John Kyler's in Clearfield county. 

The Luthersburg and Punxsutawney Turnpike Road Company was incor- 
porated April 14, 1838. The commissioners were Lebbeus Luther, John Jor- 
don, Benjamin Bonsall, David Irvin, Jacob Fleck, Benjamin Carson, David 
Hoover, David Haney, and Jeremiah Miles, of Clearfield county, with others 
from Jefferson county. The line of the road was run by the nearest and most 
convenient route from Luthersburg to Punxsutawney. 

The Clearfield and Curwensville Turnpike Road Company was incorporated 
by Abraham K. Wright, John R. Bloom, Richard Shaw, Christopher Kratzer, 
Joseph Boone, jr., Thomas Brown, William L. Moore, William Bigler, Philip 
Antes, George Welch, sr., Benjamin Hartshorn, Isaac Chambers, and Robert 
Ross. The date of the act appointing them commissioners was April 16, 1838. 
The road commenced at Clearfield, and was authorized to extend, by the most 
convenient route to be determined by the commissioners, to connect with the 
Philipsburg and Susquehanna turnpike, at a point west of the river. 

The Bald Eagle and Clearfield Turnpike Road Company was organized 



History of Clearfield County. 



pursuant to an act of the Legislature, passed June 25, 1839. The commis- 
sioners from Clearfield county were Abraham K. Wright, James B. Graham, 
Henry Loraine, James AUport, James T. Leonard and George J. Kyler ; of 
Lycoming county, John Fleming, John Dealing, Robert Irwin, John Morehead, 
and J. P. Huling ; of Centre county, Thomas Burnside, John Mitchell, George 
Bresler, Joseph F. Quay, and John G. Lowrey. The road commenced at or 
near the mouth of Beech Creek ; thence by the valley of the creek to intersect 
the Milesburg and Smethport turnpike at or near Snow Shoe ; thence west- 
wardly to unite with the Packersville and Snow Shoe turnpike road in Clear- 
field county. 

The Clearfield and Allegheny Turnpike Road Company was incorporated 
by an act of the Legislature, passed July 2, 1839, under which commissioners 
were appointed, as follows : William Bigler, Robert Wallace, William L. Moore, 
Philip Antes, Christopher Kratzer, James T. Leonard, John Mitchell, Joseph 
Irwin, Joshua J. Tate, Samuel Tate, Amos Reed, sr., WilHam Spackman, 
Thomas Reed, WilHam Dunlap, James Cathcart, John W. Wright, John R. 
Bloom, and John R. Reed. The road was laid out from Clearfield to intersect 
and unite with the Curwensville and Waterstreet turnpike. 

The Glen Hope and Little Bald Eagle turnpike was incorporated March 
20, 1849, leading from Glen Hope, in Clearfield county, to Curwensville, This 
was an extension of a former road. The commissioners were John Patton, 
Samuel Evans, James Bloom, sr., Moses Wise, and William Wiley. 

The Clearfield Plank Road Company was incorporated April 6, 1854, to 
extend from the terminus of Tuckahoe and Mount Pleasant turnpike, and to 
intersect the Erie turnpike at any point in the direction of Clearfield or Cur- 
wensville. The capital stock was not to exceed four thousand shares at twenty- 
five dollars each. The incorporators were William P. Dysart, A. Caldwell, 
John Anderson, Jacob Covode, William Smiley, John Kratzer, James T. Leon- 
ard, Abraham K. Wright, William Irvin, John Patton, Andrew Moore, Isaac 
Kirk, and Thomas B. Davis. 

The Lick Run and Sinnamahoning Turnpike Road Company was incorpo- 
rated May 6, 1854, by Ellis Irwin, Christian Pottarff, Thompson Read, Isaac 
Scoffield, James Lock, John Owens, Richard Mossop, Gould Wilson, Philip 
Heavener, and John Hewitt, to extend from the mouth of Lick Run to Ben- 
net's Branch of the Sinnamahoning, near Gould Wilson's. The capital stock 
of the company was twenty thousand dollars, in shares of twenty-five dollars 
each. 

The Glen Hope and New Washington Turnpike and Plank Road Company 
was incorporated April 22, 1856, to extend from a point on the Little Bald Eagle 
and Glen Hope road, near where the public road from Glen Hope to Chest 
Creek crosses the same, and thence by the nearest and most convenient route 
to New Washington. The capital stock consisted of two hundred and fifty 



Lumber and Roads. 



shares at twenty- five. dollars each. The incorporators were David McGeehan, 
Joseph Patterson, Alfred D. Knapp, David Mitchell, Gilbert S. Tozer, Lewis 
J. Hurd, Russell McMurray, John M. Cumings, Henry D. Rose, James Dowler, 
and Frederick G. Miller. 

The Union Turnpike Road Company was chartered March 24, 185 i, by 
Abraham K. Wright, William Bigler, James T. Leonard, Richard Shaw, James 
B. Graham, Ellis Irwin, and Ferdinand P. Hurxthal, beginning at a point west 
of Philipsburg, on the Philipsburg and Susquehanna turnpike ; thence to the 
Snow Shoe and Packersville road, at a point east of George J. Kyler's, in 
Bradford township, in a direction to the town of Clearfield. 

The Grahamton and Deer Creek Turnpike and Plank Road Company was 
organized under an act of the Legislature, passed April 18, 1857. The amount 
of capital stock was fixed at the sum of two thousand dollars, in one hundred 
shares of twenty dollars each. The intended route of the road lay from the 
Tyrone and Clearfield Railroad to Grahamton ; thence to the mouth of Deer 
Creek, passing Leconte's mill and Humphrey Hale's to the coal company's 
works, and intersecting and uniting with the Milesburg and Smethport road. 
The incorporators were James T. Hale, James C. Williams, James B. Graham, 
A. Leconte, Abraham Beebe, Thomas Leonard, Francis Coudriet, T. F. Con- 
terel, E. Woolridge, and Peter Lamm. 

The Glen Hope and Independence Turnpike Road Company was organ- 
ized by virtue of an act of the Legislature passed April 24, 1857. The route 
lay from Glen Hope and thence by way of New Castle to the Tyrone and 
Clearfield railroad at or near Independence, at the mouth of Trout Run in 
Centre county. The incorporaters were Thomas Henderson, C. Jeffries, Ben- 
jamin Wright, Israel Cooper, John A. Thompson, Abraham Goss, Robert 
Hagerty, Christopher Shoff, Israel Goss, Alexander Reed, H. Green, John 
Wright, and J. J. Lingle. Capital stock, $12,000; shares, $20. 

The Kylertown, Morrisdale and Philipsburg Plank Road Company was 
chartered April ii, 1859. The capital stock was divided into five hundred 
shares at twenty dollars each. The route lay from Kylertown thence via 
Morrisdale and Philipsburg to intersect the Tyrone and Clearfield railroad. 
Incorporators : Dr. G. F. Hoop, M. R. Denning, J. C. Brenner, Andrew Hun- 
ter, J. C. Williams, and Chester Munson. 

The Madera and New Washington Turnpike and Plank Road Company 
was incorporated March 4, 1862, by J. M. Cummings, Russell McMurray,. 
Charles G. Worrell, Robert Patterson, Henry Swan, Robert Johnson, SamuelL 
Shoff, Samuel Hegarty, William B. Alexander, and Charles J. Pusey, of Clear- 
field county. The route of the road lay from Madera to New Washington.. 
Capital stock, $i8,ooo; value of shares, $20. 

The Graham Turnpike Road Company was incorporated February 14,, 
1863, by James B. Graham, James T. Leonard, Richard Shaw, sr., Thomas H. 



History of Clearfield County. 



Forcey, George L. Reed, J. G. Hartswick, and John M. Adams. The road 
extended from the end of the Union Turnpike at George Kyler's, by the way 
of Grahamton, and by the most convenient route to the Milesburg and Smeth- 
port Turnpike at a point west of Central Point on said road. The capital stock 
was divided into four hundred shares, at $25 each. The company was au- 
thorized to build a bridge across the West Branch. 

The Moshannon and Grahamton Turnpike Road Company was incorpo- 
rated March 31, 1864, with a capital stock of $12,500, in five hundred shares, 
at $25 each. The incorporators were: F. P. Hurxthal, Harbison Holt, S. H. 
Hersch, John T. Hoover, William Stewart, Jacob Mock, James B. Graham, T. 
H. Forcey, and James Nelson. The road extended from the Moshannon to Gra- 
hamton, on or near the line of the old State road, at the option of the directors. 

The Osceola Bridge and Plank Road Company was incorporated April 4, 
1866, for the purpose of constructing a plank road and bridge from the foot of 
Coal street, in Osceola, and to extend across the Moshannon to the passenger 
.station on the line of the Tyrone and Clearfield railroad. 

The Moshannon Turnpike and Plank Road Company was chartered April 
16, 1870, to extend from Philipsburg to Osceola, and thence to Houtzdale and 
Janesville. Capital stock, $25,000, in one thousand shares of $25 each. 

The Cream Hill Turnpike Road Company was incorporated April 2, i860. 
The Hne extended from Curwensville west to the Jefferson county line. This 
is now the only toll- road in the county, the others having passed into the con- 
trol of the officers of the several townships. 

The Curwensville and Kittanning Turnpike Road Company was incorpo- 
rated April 5, 1848, extending between the points named by the act, Curwens- 
ville and Kittanning. 

A State road from the town of Moshannon, in Snow Shoe township, by the 
nearest route across the Big Moshannon Creek, and thence to Kylertown, in 
Morris township, was laid out in i860, under an act passed February 24th of 
that year. 

There remains at the present time scarcely any of the turnpike road com- 
panies above mentioned, that can be classed as toll-roads. At the time of 
their incorporation, a majority of them were organized for private purposes, 
such as openings through new lands, and for other like reasons. As an invest- 
ment but few of them proved profitable from direct revenue, and many were 
abandoned, having failed of their purposes. On the clearing up and develop- 
ment of the agricultural lands, the continuation of the toll-roads became a bur- 
den of expense to farmers, and many township roads were laid out and opened 
at local expense to avoid the incorporated thoroughfares ; hence the abandon- 
ment of the toll-road. 

Railroads. — For more than a half century after the erection of Clearfield 
county, there was no rail connection between this and the adjoining counties 



Lumber and Roads. 103 



in either direction. The subject had been agitated and discussed for many 
years, and at one time a railroad was projected which should pass along the 
eastern border of this county and have its northern terminus at Philipsburg ; 
but this plan was never carried out, and in fact, received but little encourage- 
ment from any persons then residents of this county. With the admirable 
facilities afforded by the streams of the county for the transportation of lumber 
to market, and the undeveloped condition of the mineral deposits, rail commu- 
nication with the outside world was deemed unimportant except so far as 
related to local passenger and freight traffic. At and during this time the val- 
uable coal deposits of the county in general, and the Houtzdale and Philips- 
burg regions in particular, were well known to exist, but the supply from the 
more eastern districts of the State was equal to the demand. Soon after the 
year 1850, a railroad was projected and chartered, and some preliminary work 
done, to extend from Tyrone to Clearfield and thence westward through Jef- 
ferson and Clarion counties to Waterford and Lake Erie, to be known as the 
Tyrone, Clearfield and Waterford railroad ; but this plan was never carried out 
on account of various obstacles and difficulties encountered. No survey for 
this road was made further than Clearfield. 

On the 23d day of March, 1854, a charter was granted to the Tyrone and 
Clearfield Railroad Company, which was subsequently built and now in use, 
being the pioneer railway of the county. The plan proposed under this enter- 
prise contemplated the road as at present constructed and extending westward 
through the county, for a part of which west from Curwensville some grading 
was done, but the track has never been laid beyond that point. 

In the year 1862, or thereabouts, the road bed was completed and the track 
laid as far as Sandy Ridge, Centre county, and in the year following, to Philips- 
burg ; but it was not until several years later, about 1868, that rail connection 
between Philipsburg and Clearfield was accomplished. Some five or six years 
later the line was finished as far as Curwensville, and that borough, too, de- 
rived the benefits of a railroad, but not without considerable expense to the 
people of that place. The event of the first train running over the road to 
Clearfield occurred in February, 1869. 

The Tyrone and Clearfield road has numerous branches, particularly in 
the southeast part of the county. Some of these extensions or branches from 
the main line are for permanent use, but many have been built for temporary 
convenience and use in the coal regions, and are constantly being removed 
from place to place to suit the purposes of coal operators. The Moshannon 
extension, called the Moshannon and Clearfield, is one of the principal branches 
of the Tyrone and Clearfield railroad. It extends from a point near the mouth 
of Beaver Run, thence following the general course of the Moshannon and 
Whiteside Run into Geulich township. 

The Beaver Run, or Houtzdale Branch, starts from the same point and fol- 



104 History of Clearfield County. 

lows that stream to Houtzdale, and thence a southwest course to Ramey" 
The main sub-branches of this road are the Coal Run, the Goss, the Houtz' 
and the Ramey extension above mentioned to the Wigton mines. 

The Mapleton branches leave the main line at about midway between 
Osceola and Philipsburg, and penetrate the coal region in that vicinity north- 
west from Osceola. 

The Morrisdale starts from a point north of Philipsburg, and runs north in 
the direction of Morrisdale mines. The Hawk Run is a branch of the last 
named, and follows the stream called Hawk Run. These are the leading 
branches of the Tyrone and Clearfield railroad, all of which are a part of what 
is known as the Pennsylvania railway system. Many of them have been 
extended as necessity required in connection with the vast coal mining opera- 
tions of the region. 

The Bell's Gap Railroad Company was chartered May ii, 1871, to con- 
nect with the Pennsylvania road at Bell's Mills station, in Blair county, and 
thence running to a point on Clearfield Creek at or near Fallen Timber. In 
1872 the line was extended across the Allegheny Mountains, and subsequently 
(1880) constructed into the upper part of this county, near the line between 
Geulich and Beccaria ; thence generally northwest, touching Utahville ; thence 
west to Coalport and northwest to Irvona. A further extension was made in 
1886, from Irvona by way of Whitmer and Wilson Runs to Newburg, and 
thence down Chest Creek to its mouth at Mahafifey. A further extension, to 
be known as the Clearfield and Jefferson Railroad, is to be made in the near 
future. It will extend from Mahaffey up the West Branch and across to 
Punxsutawney, in Jefferson county, tapping the rich coal and coke country in 
that vicinity. 

The Low Grade Division of the Allegheny Railroad was opened through 
the west and northwest portion of the county in the spring of 1874. It is other- 
wise known as the Bennet's Branch Road, from the fact of its following the 
general course of that stream. Entering from the north at Tyler's, it runs up 
Bennet's Branch of the Sinnamahoning to the summit; thence down Sandy 
Creek to Evergreen, where it leaves this and passes west into Jefferson county. 

The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railroad, having its termini at the 
city of Rochester, New York, and Clayville, Jefferson county. Pa., respectively, 
was built through the northwestern part of this county in the summer of 1883, 
at which time it was known as the Rochester and Pittsburgh Railroad. It 
enters the county from the northwest near Evergreen, and runs thence south- 
east to Du Bois ; thence southerly to Stump Creek, and thence by that stream 
until it leaves that county, and again enters Jefferson county on the west. 

The Karthaus Railroad extends from Keating Station, Clinton county, on 
the Philadelphia and Erie road, to the hamlet of Karthaus, in this county, at 
or near the mouth of Mosquito Ci^eek. The road was completed about the 
latter part of 1883. 



Clearfield's Military History. 105 

The Beech Creek, Clearfield and Southwestern Railroad was constructed in 
Clearfield county during the year 1884, by a company of practical and expe- 
rienced railroad men and capitalists, who desired to reach the Clearfield county 
coal regions by a route independent of the existing roads. The route extends 
from Jersey Shore, Lycoming county, to Philipsburg, Gazzam, and Clearfield. 
" At Jersey Shore it unites with the Pine Creek Railroad and uses its tracks to 
Williamsport. Crossing the river it passes the old camping grounds at Wayne, 
runs along the north side of Bald Eagle Mountain to Castanea, opposite Lock 
Haven, touches Mill Hall, then crosses Beech Creek, and reaches the borough 
of the same name. Here it leaves the Bald Eagle valley and ascends Beech 
Creek at a sharp grade. After crossing this stream several times on iron 
bridges, it passes through a tunnel at Hog Back and reaches the Snow Shoe 
coal regions at an elevation of fifteen hundred or more feet above tide. An- 
other tunnel is entered opposite Peale. The Moshannon is crossed on a via- 
duct one hundred and fifteen feet high, and over seven hundred and seventy 
feet long, and then the route continues on to Philipsburg. From thence pass- 
ing west, the stations Munsons, Wallaceton, Bigler, Woodland, New Millport, 
Kermoor, and Gazzam, the end of the line is reached. From Clearfield to a 
point on the road at the junction, so called, communication is had with the 
county seat. This road is known commonly as the Beech Creek, and by 
many persons called ' the Vanderbilt,' from the fact that Mr. Vanderbilt, of 
railway fame, owned a controlling interest in the same. The running of the 
first train over this line to Clearfield occurred in the winter of 1884." 

The Cresson, Clearfield County and New York Short Route Railroad was 
constructed in the upper part of the county, between Cresson and Irvona, in 
the year 1886, having been about two years in building. It is distinctively a 
coal and lumber road, although passengers are carried over it. 

Further mention will be found relating to the several railroads of the county 
in the various chapters of township history, and with that in view no more 
than an outline sketch of them need be given here. 



CHAPTER XH. 
CLEARFIELD'S MILITARY HISTORY. 



WHEN, in 1 861, the iron lips of Moultrie's gun spelled upon our sky in 
letters red as blood, " civil war," the sons of Clearfield, breathing a 
spirit of patriotism as pure as the atmosphere of the hills around them, rushed 
to the Nation's capital to uphold the honor of the flag, and preserve intact the 



io6 History of Clearfield County. 

republic. It was not a question with them what battles were to be fought, 
what graves filled, or what altars shivered ; but donning the blue, vowed, no 
matter what the cost, that the serpent of secession should find an eternal grave, 
and gasp its last amid shrieking shell and hissing bullet. 

The " mystic cord of memory stretching from every battle-field and pa- 
triot grave " brings before us, with meteoric brillancy, the important part per- 
formed by Clearfield county in that great struggle. Loyal citizens only knew 
that men were needed, and they hastened to respond ; they exchanged the 
rippHng music of the mountain stream for the thunder of deep mouthed 
cannon and the deafening musketry volley ; they went out from the roof-tree 
of home to camp on southern soil, and stand guard in the pitiless night beneath 
sorrowing stars ; they went out to be shot to death, if need be ; to be fired at 
by a concealed foe ; to struggle in delirium in hospital, or starve or shiver in 
loathsome pens, with stones for pillows and vermin for companions, that the 
flag might be preserved unsulhed. This was the spirit that controlled the 
volunteers of Clearfield as they sprang into the arena where Titans struggled. 

Remembering the beautiful sentiments of Colonel Stuart Taylor, it may 
well be asked : Fathers, mothers, brothers, and sisters of Clearfield county, 
can you look up to see the morning furrow all the orient into gold without 
thinking what sacred graves it gilds ? Or, can you watch the slow dechning 
day without wishing it could be always sunlight on the silent mounds of 
Clearfield's patriot dead ? Do you ever see spring time daisy, or purple violet, 
unless you think what darling dust it is which feeds the wild flowers of the 
Wilderness, of Malvern Hill, of Gettysburg, of the crimsoned banks of the 
Chickahominy, and other fields where loved and lost are sleeping ? 

Days of the Militia. 

The martial spirit of Clearfield county does not date from the outbreak of 
the great rebellion; it existed in the days when the sturdy woodsmen felled the 
forest, that prosperous towns might spring up, agricultural interests be enlarged, 
and mechanism add to the wealth of its progressive inhabitants. It came with 
the pioneers, and slumbered until the grand old days of " general training " (to 
use a down-east phrase) dawned — the days when the farmer, the mechanic, 
and the woodsman abandoned toil, and hied away to the " muster " for a sea- 
son of jollification, to eat Yankee gingerbread and drink new cider, and boast 
of the prowess of the American eagle. 

In 1840, under State law, there was organized a volunteer battalion, com- 
manded by George R., afterward Judge Barrett, who had been commissioned 
major. So much interest was manifested, and so successful was the first year 
of its existence, that the commencement of the second year found the com- 
mand with a sufficient complement of men to form a regiment. There were 
six companies, of about sixty men each. Upon the formation of the regimental 



Clearfield's Military History. 107 

organization, Major Barrett was elected colonel, and E. W. Wise, major. They 
had " muster" and "review " days, and these were also holidays with citizens, 
who admired the music of the fife, the beat of drum, and the tread of uniformed 
men. But it was not a season of recreation to the militia. State encampments 
were attended annually at various places, and as there were no railroads at 
that time, it frequently became necessary to march forty or fifty miles to camp 
— rivaling some of the historic marches of the Army of the Potomac, with 
the exception of the bitter infantry fight, and occasionally a hurried retreat. 
This regiment drilled on the flats opposite where Judge Barrett now resides. 
The organization remained in existence six or seven years. There also existed 
a section of State militia, under the colonelship of William Bigler, who was, in 
185 1, elected governor of the State. 

Another organization was the "Guards," of which Hon. William A. Wallace, 
in 1854, was captain. They were well uniformed and had parade days. Cap- 
tain Wallace, laying aside the epaulettes, transferred his services to the political 
host, and through force of talent, adaptability, and knowledge of national af- 
fairs, became one of the foremost men in the State, honored with a seat in the 
United States Senate. 

Here, too, it was that Hon. John Patton acquired his military title of "Gen- 
eral" of the militia in his county. 

Clearfield in the Civil War. 

The history of the volunteers of Clearfield county from the first blaze of 
hostile cannon, until secession was buried at Appomattox by the surrender of 
Lee's sword, forms one of the most brilliant chapters of the Commonwealth's 
history. To faintly picture their services it will be necessary to refer to the 
records of the regiments to which they were attached, which forms an un- 
broken chain of testimony to demonstrate the patriotism of Clearfield's soldiery. 
It is not to keep alive sectional animosity that the historian recites the acts of 
a victorious host. Would the Athenians meeting in the Angora listen to a 
propositon that no man should hereafter speak of Marathon ? Would Romans 
teach nothing but philosophy, and refuse to tell the rising generation how 
Scipio conquered Hannibal, or Horatius held the bridge ? It was not Mara- 
thon, but the memory of Marathon, which fixed the home of civilization in 
Europe instead of in Asia. It was not the surrender at Appomattox that 
binds in iron bands the States of this Union, but it is the memory of its cost 
kept alive in the hearts of the people which gave to civilization its grandest on- 
ward step, and which some future Guizot, in tracing the pathway of human 
advancement, will declare secured for the world the fullest enlargement of 
human liberty. And as other generations read the pages recording the 
services of the sons of Clearfield, from 1861 to 1865, it will inspire them to 
preserve sacred the patriotic idea of " country first, the citizen afterward." 



[o8 History of Clearfield County. 



Thirty-Fourth Regiment — Fifth Reserves. 

Company C of this regiment was ordered to Camp Curtin, and organized 
into a regiment June 20, 1861. Governor Curtin, upon receiving a telegram 
from Lieutenant- General Scott for troops, sent the Fifth Reserves, together 
with the Bucktails, to the relief of Colonel Lew Wallace, at Cumberland. On 
July 13th they were ordered to Bridge 21, on the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road, which had been burned by the rebels. From that point they moved to 
New Creek, where, under Colonel Kane, they aided in dispersing the rebels. 
July 22, they were sent to Piedmont to protect the Unionists, who were sub- 
jected to cruel treatment at the hands of Southern sympathizers. It was soon 
after the Bull Run battle, which occurred on Sunday, July 21, that they were 
ordered to Washington, and from the National Capital they were dispatched 
to Harrisburg, and bivouacked in the vicinity of Camp Curtin. The enemy 
at this time had closed in around Washington, and fears were entertained that 
Maryland would be invaded and the soil of Pennsylvania be made a battle- 
ground. 

It was on the 8th of August, that they proceeded to Washington, and went 
into camp at Tennallytown. On the 14th of September they escorted Gov- 
ernor Curtin to camp, where, with President Lincoln, General McClellan, and 
others, the famous " war governor" reviewed the division. On the 19th of 
October, a reconnoissance was made to the vicinity of Dranesville, and on De- 
cember 20th, the regiment was ordered there, but did not arrive in time to take 
part in the handsome victory achieved by the Third Brigade. 

The 9th of April, 1862, found the Thirty-fourth occupying the barracks 
deserted by the rebels at Manassas. May 7 Colonel Simons reported at 
Falmouth, and on the 25 th of that month was ordered across the Rappahan- 
nock, June 9 the regiment embarked for the Peninsula, moved to White 
House, thence to Dispatch Station, and from there to Mechanicsville, the right 
wing of McClellan's army, five miles from Richmond. 

Here the Reserves inaugurated that memorable struggle of the Peninsula, 
known as the " Seven Days' Battle." It had been arranged between Generals 
Longstreet and Jackson, in the absence of General Lee, to attack Mechanics- 
ville (which means the battle of Beaver Dam Creek or EUerson's Mills) on the 
26th day of June. Jackson commenced the march of his troops from Mount 
Meridian, in the vicinity of Port Republic battle-field, on the 1 8th of June, 
with the intention of flanking the right wing of McClellan's army, but he was 
delayed by cavalry and felled timber, and consequently did not arrive at the 
time fixed upon for a general advance upon the Federal lines. The order had 
gone forth, and with the expectation that Jackson would arrive to take part, 
the battle commenced. When it opened, and the fact was heralded at Con- 
federate headquarters that Jackson had been delayed one day, Lee found that 



Clearfield's Military History. 



109 



it was necessary to fight the battle at Beaver Dam Creek, which proved so 
disastrous to the Confederates who faced the Pennsylvanians on that memora- 
ble day. 

The Position. — The position selected was a strong, defensive one. The 
banks of the valley were steep, and forces advancing on the adjacent plains 
presented their flanks, as well as their front, to the fire of both infantry and 
artillery, safely posted behind entrenchments. The stream was over waist deep 
and bordered by swamps. Its passage was difficult for infantry at all points, 
and impracticable for artillery, except at the bridge crossing at Ellerson's Mills, 
and at the one above, near Mechanicsville. 

To quote from General Fitz John Porter : " Early in the day I visited Gen- 
eral Reynolds, near the head of the creek, and had the best reasons, not only 
to be contented, but thoroughly gratified with the admirable arrangements of 
this accomplished officer, and to be encouraged by the cheerful confidence of 
himself and his able and gallant assistants, Seymour on his left, at Ellerson's 
Mills, and Simmons and Roy Stone in his front. Each of these officers com- 
manded a portion of the Pennsylvania Reserves — all under the command of 
the brave and able veteran, McCall. These troops were about to engage in 
their first battle, and bore themselves then, as they did on trying occasions 
immediately following, with the cheerful spirit of the volunteer, and the firm- 
ness of the veteran soldier — examples inspiring emulation in these trying 
'Seven Days' Battles.' 

" About two o'clock P. M. on the 26th, the boom of a single cannon in the 
direction of Mechanicsville resounded through our camps. This was the signal 
which had been agreed upon to announce the fact that the enemy were cross- 
ing the Chickahominy. The curtain rose ; the stage was prepared for the first 
scene of the tragedy. Tents were struck, wagons packed and sent to the rear- 
to cross to the right bank of the Chickahominy. The divisions were promptly 
formed and took the positions assigned them. General McCall assumed com- 
mand at Beaver Dam Creek ; Meade joined him, taking position behind Sey- 
mour ; Martindale and Griffin, of Morrell's Division, went respectively to the 
right and rear of Reynolds ; Butterfield was directed to support General 
Cooke's, and subsequently Martindale's right, while Sykes was held ready to 
move when needed. Reynolds and Seymour prepared for action, and con- 
cealed their men. 

" About three o'clock the enemy, under Longstreet, D. H. and A. P. Hill, 
in large bodies commenced rapidly to cross the Chickahominy, almost simulta- 
neously at Mechanicsville, Meadow Bridge, and above, and pushed down the 
left bank, along the roads leading to Beaver Dam Creek. The outposts, watch- 
ing the access to the crossings, fell back, after slight resistance, to their already 
designated position on the east bank of Beaver Dam Creek, destroying the 
bridges as they retired. 



History of Clearfield County, 



"After passing Mechanicsville the attacking forces were divided, a portion 
taking the road to Ellerson's Mill, while the larger body directed their march 
into the valley of Beaver Dam Creek, upon the road covered by Reynolds. 
This force moved on with animation and confidence, as if going to parade, or 
engaging in a sham battle. Suddenly, when half-way down the bank of the 
valley, our men opened upon it rapid volleys of artillery and infantry, which 
strewed the road and hill-side with hundreds of dead and wounded, and drove 
the main body of the survivors back in rapid flight to and beyond Mechanics- 
ville. So rapid was the fire upon the enemy's huddled masses, clambering 
back up the hill, that some of Reynolds's ammunition was exhausted, and two 
regiments were relieved by the Fourth Michigan and Fourteenth New York 
of Griffin's Brigade. On the extreme right a small force of the enemy secured 
a foothold, on the east bank, but it did no harm, and retired under cover of 
darkness. 

" The forces which were directed against Seymour at Ellerson's Mills made 
little progress. Seymour's direct and Reynolds's flank fire soon arrested them 
and drove them to shelter, suffering even more disastrously than those who 
had attacked Reynolds. Late in the afternoon, greatly strengthened, they 
renewed the attack with spirit and energy, some reaching the borders of the 
stream, but only to be repulsed with terrible slaughter, which warned them not 
to attempt a renewal of the fight. Little depressions in the ground shielded 
many from our fire, until, when night came on, they all fell back beyond the 
range of our guns. Night put an end to the contest. 

" The Confederates suffered severely. All night the moans of the dying 
and the shrieks of the wounded reached our ears. Our loss was only about 
250 of the 5,000 engaged, while that of the Confederates was nearly 2,000 out 
of some 10,000 attacking." 

Thus reports the commanding general on the left bank of the Chickahom- 
iny. From official reports it is learned that the Union forces engaged con- 
sisted of eleven regiments and six batteries; Confederate forces engaged, 
twenty- one regiments, eight batteries. Other reports differ with General 
Porter as to the loss, and put the total Union loss at Mechanicsville 361, but 
little more than that of the Forty-fourth Georgia alone (335). The Confed- 
erate loss, exclusive of Field's and Anderson's brigades, and of the batteries, is 
reported at 1,589, although William Swinton, on the authority of General 
Longstreet, puts the aggregate Confederate loss at between three and four 
thousand. 

It is evident, from Confederate accounts, that they were deceived as to the 
ground, and marched cooly into the jaws of death. This is evidenced from 
the published articles of Generals Hill and Longstreet. In General D. H. 
Hill's account a pathetic scene is described. The Forty-fourth Georgia, emerg- 
ing from the blaze of the Fennsylvanian's fire, attempted to re-form in the rear 



Clearfield's Military History. 



without officers. " It was pitiable to see the skeleton line," says one writer. 
An officer rode up and exclaimed, " Good heavens ! Is this all of the Forty- 
fourth Georgia ?" 

The writer of this sketch occupied a position upon a Union earthwork on 
the Richmond side of the river, and with field-glass in hand watched Confed- 
erate troops up the valley moving down to the Mechanicsville bridge, and 
crossing the stream to participate in the fiery carnival of death. Often the 
remark was made, " Fear not. The Pennsylvanians are enough for them." 
It more than proved true. No prouder record is emblazoned on the banner of 
volunteer soldiers than that written on the colors of the Reserves in letters of 
blood, " Beaver Dam Creek ;" and, as General Fitz John Porter expressed it, 
*' troops about to engage in their first battle," it added brilliancy to the patriot- 
ism of the Keystone State, and taught the enemy that when they measured 
bayonets with the Reserves they could count on no idle power in the conflict. 

All along the crimsoned pathway of the Potomac Army, from Mechanics- 
ville to the James River, in the memorable seven days' battles under McClel- 
lan, the Thirty-fourth, as well as the entire Reserves, exhibited the same 
courage as at Beaver Dam Creek. The laurels they won in that inaugural 
battle of the Peninsula remained green and untarnished until the famous 
retreat brought them underneath the cover of the Federal gunboats. 

Not a single soldier has forgotten the midnight bombardment, when the 
Confederate batteries on the south side of the James River sent their solid shot 
and shell into the Federal shipping and the army camps ; green in memory 
will remain the stirring incidents of the seven days when the fate of the nation 
hung upon the safety of that grand old Army of the Potomac. 

Remaining for a time where the hot sun beating upon the sandy plain 
reminded the volunteer that he was encamped in the hottest portion of Vir- 
ginia, there came intelHgence that Washington was in danger ; that the Con- 
federates might march northward. An order was issued to withdraw the army 
to Acquia Creek, against the judgment of General McClellan, who believed 
that such a move would prove disastrous ; that the army was in excellent dis- 
cipline and condition, holding a debouche on both banks of the James River, 
and free to act in any direction ; that the distance to Richmond was but 
twenty-five miles, and that a battle would not be likely to occur until within 
ten miles of that city ; that the line of transportation would be short, with 
gunboats to aid in forwarding supplies to the army, while Acquia Creek was 
seventy-five miles from Richmond with land transportation all the way. But 
the order was imperative, and the Thirty-fourth returned in front of Wash- 
ington, participating in the Second Bull Run. They continued to follow the 
fortunes of the army, taking part in the battle of Antietam, and the engage- 
ment at Fredericksburg. 

In February, 1863, they were ordered to Washington, where they en- 



History of Clearfield County. 



camped at Miner's Hill, and afterwards were assigned to duty in Washington. 
They took part in the battle of Gettysburg, and their after service was as fol- 
lows : Did guard duty along the Orange and Alexandria railroad, and at 
Alexandria acted as train guard. In February, 1864, they had a skirmish 
with guerillas near Brentzville, where Major Larimer was killed. During the 
winter and spring of 1864 the regiment was recruited, and Captain Smith was 
promoted to major. May 4, under Grant, they crossed the Rapidan and 
engaged in the Wilderness fight. In the battle near Fredericksburg and 
Orange Pike, Lieutenant- Colonel Dare, of the regiment, was mortally wounded 
and died. Major Smith succeeded him, and soon after was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel for gallant conduct. The regiment participated in the en- 
gagements which followed, until May 31, 1864, when their terms of service 
expired, and leaving the banks of the Tolopotomy on the nth of June, were 
mustered out at Harrisburg. 

Field and Staff.i 

Colonels. — Seneca G. Simmons, June 21, 1861 ; killed at Charles City 
Cross Roads, June 30, 1862. 

Joseph W. Fisher May 15, 1861 ; promoted from heutenant-colonel Au- 
gust I, 1862, brevet brigadier-general November 4, 1865 ; mustered out with 
regiment June 11, 1864. 

Lieiite7iant- Colonels. — George Dare, June 21, i86r ; promoted from major 
August I, 1862 ; killed at Wilderness May 6, 1864. 

Alfred M. Smith, May 15, 1861 ; promoted from captain company C to 
major February 22, 1864, to lieutenant-colonel May 7, 1864, to brevet colonel 
March 13, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment June ii, 1864. 

Majors. — Frank Zentmyer, June 21, 1861 ; promoted from captain com- 
pany I August I, 1862 ; killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862; burial 
record, died at Richmond, Va., December 31, 1862. 

J. Harvey Larimer, May 15, 1861 ; promoted from captain company E 
May I, 1863 ; killed at Bristow Station February 14, 1864. 

James A. McPherran, June 17, 1861 ; promoted from captain company F 
May 7, 1864, to brevet lieutenant-colonel March 13, 1865 ; mustered out with 
regiment June 11, 1864. 

Adjutants. — A. G. Mason, June 21, 1861 ; discharged March 27, 1863, to 
accept appointment on General Meade's staff; brevet major August i, 1864^ 
brevet lieutenant-colonel March 13, 1865. 

John L. Wright May 15, 1861 ; mustered out with regiment June ii, 
1864; brevet captain March 13, 1865. 

Quartermaster. — Samuel Evans, June 21, 1861 ; commissioned captain 

1 The muster roll of officers and men is taken from Bates's work on Pennsylvania Volunteers, and 
should any errors have occurred therein, they are undoubtedly copied here. 



Clearfield's Military History. 113 

May 7, 1864, not mustered; brevet captain March 13, 1865 ; mustered out 
with regiment June il, 1864. 

Siirgeojis. — John T. Carpenter, June 21, 1861 ; promoted and transferred 
to Western army as brigade surgeon. 

Samuel G. Sane, September 16, 1861 ; promoted surgeon of enrollment 
board, i6th district Pa., March 10, 1864; to assistant surgeon-general. Pa.; to 
brevet Heutenant-colonel March 13, 1865. 

Henry A. Grim, April 16, 1862; promoted from assistant surgeon 12th 
regiment P. V. R. C. ; mustered out with regiment June ii, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeons. — N. P. Marsh, June 21, 1861 ; promoted surgeon 4th 
regiment Pa. Cavalry, 64th regiment P. V. 

E. Donnelly, June 21, 1861 ; promoted to surgeon 31st regiment P. V. 
April 28, 1862. 

W. H. Davis, June 27, 1862; promoted to surgeon 33d regiment P. V. 
December 20, 1862. 

J. M. Groff, August 2, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate July 21, 
1863. 

O. C. Johnson, March 9, 1863 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Sep- 
tember 28, 1863. 

H. T. Whitman, September 16, 1863 ; wounded at Bethesda Church May 
30, 1864; mustered out with regiment June 11, 1864; brevet major March 
13, 1865.' 

Chaplain. — S. L. M. Consor ; mustered out by special order of war de- 
partment November i, 1862. 

Sergeant- Majors. — E. L. Reber, June 21, 1861 ; transferred to 191st P. 
V. ; veteran. 

R. M. Smith, June 21, 1861 ; promoted to second lieutenant August 8, 
1862 ; transferred to company G. 

G. P. Swoope, June 21, 1861 ; promoted to first lieutenant March 4, 1863; 
transferred to company I. 

Quartermaster- Sergeant. — Harry Mullen, June 21, 1861 ; transferred to 
191st P. V. ; veteran. 

Commissary -Sergeant. — J. W. Harris, June 21, 1861 ; transferred to 191st 
P. V. ; veteran. 

Hospital Steward. — John H. Johnson, July 21, 1861 ; transferred to 191st 
P. V. ; veteran. 

Principal Musicians. — E. L. Scott, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with 
regiment June 11, 1864. 

W. L. Smeadley, June 21, 1861 ; transferred to 191st P. V.; veteran. 

Company C. 
Recruited in Clearfield County. 
Captains. — J. Oscar Loraine, June 21, 1861 ; resigned November 7, 1861. 



114 History of Clearfield County. 

Alfred M. Smith, May 15, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant to first lieuten- 
ant July 25, 1 861, to captain November 15, 1861, to major February 22, 
1864. 

David McGaughey, June 21, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant to first lieu- 
tenant November 16, 1861, to captain March 22, 1864, brevet major March 13, 
1865; wounded at Wilderness May 9, 1864; mustered out with company June 
II, 1864. 

First Lieiitcnajits. — J. Harvey Larrimer, May 15, 1861 ; promoted to cap- 
tain company E July 12, 1861. 

John E. Potter, June 21, 1861 ; promoted from corporal to second heu- 
tenant August 15, 1862, to first lieutenant March 22, 1864; mustered out 
with company June ii, 1864. 

Second Lieutenant. — John W. Bigler, June 21, 1861 ; resigned June 22,1862. 

First Sergeant. — Wm. A. Ogden, June 21, 1861 ; commissioned captain 
June 4, 1864, not mustered; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

Sergeants. — Thos. H. Wilson, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company 
June II, 1864. 

James C. Miller, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 1 1, 1864. 

James L. McPherson, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June ii, 
1864. 

George B. Hancock, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864 

John Huidekoper, June 21, 1861 ; promoted to second lieutenant company 
E, 150th regiment P. V. October 30, 1862. 

Martin Mullen, June 21, 1861 ; killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 
1862. 

Corporals. — Wm. C. McGonagle, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with com- 
pany June II, 1864. 

Oliver Conklin, June 21, 1861 ; absent, wounded, at muster out. 

Smith B. Williams, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June ii, 
1864. 

Jos. W. Folmer, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Edward Blingler, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June il, 
1864 

Richard S. Carr, June 21, 1861 ; discharged October 24, 1863, for wounds 
received in action. 

BoHvar T. Bilger, June 21, 1861 ; killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 
1862. 

John W. Hoy, June 21, 1861 ; killed in action June 30, 1862. 

James Leonard, June 21, 1861 ; killed in action June 30, 1862, 

George W. Young, June 21, 1861 ; killed at Bristow Station October 14. 



Clearfield's Military History. 115 

E. S. Woolstencroft, June 21, 1861 ; deserted May 4, 1862. 

Musicians. — David McR. Betto, June 21, 1861 ; promoted to second 
lieutenant company E March 5, 1863. 

Lyman McC. Shaw, August 8, 1861 ; deserted July 5, 1862. 

Privates. — Wm. B. Beamer, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company 
June II, 1864. 

Wm. M. Bahans, June 21, 1861 ; discharged November 9, 1861. 

Wm. Baughman, June 21, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Oc- 
tober 23, 1862. 

Samuel I. Burge, July 21, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate May 
4, 1863. 

Solomon M. Bailey, April 7, 1864; transferred to 191st P. V. June 6, 1864. 

Math. J. Caldwell, July 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Robert E. Carson, June 21, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C; mustered out 
with company June 11, 1864. 

Daniel Curley, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

John M. Caldwell, July 21, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Sep- 
tember 25, 1861. 

John A. Coyle, June 21, 1861 ; discharged May 15, 1863, for wounds re- 
ceived in action. 

Alexander Carr, June 21, 1861; killed at Fredricksburg December 13, 1862; 
burial record, died at Richmond, Va., December 31, 1862. 

J. H. De Hass, June 21, 1861; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

John Dolan, August 30, 1862; discharged July 31, 1863, for wounds re- 
ceived in action. 

Benj. F. Derrick, June 21, 1861 ; killed at Bristow Station October 14, 
1863. 

Wm. Evans, April 8, 1864; transferred to 191st P. V. June 6, 1864. 

Henry J. Fisher, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Hiram France, June 21, 1861 ; discharged November 12, 1862, for wounds 
received in action. 

Miles Ford, June 21, 1861 ; killed in action June 30, 1862. 

Henry J. Fitchner, July 22, 1861 ; deserted August 12, 1862. 

John A. Green, July 21, 1861; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

Henry Garver, June 21, 1861 ; transferred from V. R. C. ; mustered out 
with company June 11, 1864. 

Loren Goodfellow, November i, 1861 ; transferred to 191st P. V. June 6, 

1864. 

Claudius Girard, December 23, 1863; transferred to 191st P. V. June 6, 

1864. 



ii6 History of Clearfield County. 

Wm. A. Haight, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company July ii, 
1864. 

Henry A. Harlan, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company July ii, 
1864. 

Wm. R. Hemphill, June 21, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 20, 1862. 

David B. Horn, April 7, 1864; transferred to 191st P. V. June 6, 1864. 

Philo B, Harris, June 21, 1861 ; killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 
1862. 

David W. Horn, March 30, 1864 ; killed at Wilderness May 9, 1864. 

Joseph Jackson, June 21, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Sep- 
tember 13, 1862. 

Wm. Jones, June 21, 1861 ; deserted September 16, 1862. 

John T. Kirk, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company July ii, 1864. 

Douglas N. Koons, June 21, 1861 ; discharged, date unknown. 

Geo. W. Lingle, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company July ii, 
1864. 

James I. Leigh tley, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Robert C. Larrimer, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Joseph Lines, June 21, 1861 ; transferred from V. R. C. ; mustered out 
with company June li, 1864. 

James Lingle, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June ii, 1864. 

Geo. W. Livergood, June 21, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 24, 1862. 

Sampson B. Lingle, June 21, 1861; discharged April 4, 1863, for wounds 
received in action, 

Rob. Livingston, July 15, 1861 ; died at Camp Tenally, Md., September 
13, 1861. 

Stephen D. Logan, June 21, 1861 ; died at Harrison's Landing, Va., Au- 
gust 5, 1862. 

Martin Livergood, July 15, 1861 ; died at Annapolis, Md., September 24, 
1862. 

Chas. W. Mitchell, June 21, 1861 ; transferred from V. R. C. ; mustered 
out with company June 11, 1864. 

Patrick Malone, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Wesley B. Miller, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Lorine Merrell, June 21, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, date 
unknown. 



Clearfield's Military History. 117 

Henry S. Merrell, June 21, 1861 ; died at Philadelphia August 14, 1862. 

John Maughamer, June 21, 1861 ; deserted April 4, 1863. 

Martin McCallister, June 21, 1861 ; absent, wounded, at muster out. 

Archibald McDonald, June 21, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 11, 1863. 

W. L. McGaughey, June 21, 1861 ; killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 
1862. 

Michael O'Leary, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

H. F. Passmore, June 21, 1861 ; discharged January 11, 1863, for wounds 
received in action. 

David Payne, June 21, 1861 ; killed in action June 30, 1862. 

Thos. W. Potter, June 21, 1861 ; killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 
1862. 

Wm. Robinson, June 21, 1861 ; died at Washington, D. C, March 26, 
1863 ; buried in Military Asylum Cemetery. 

Geo. H. Sweet, June 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 1 1, 1864. 

Oliver St. George, June 21, 1861 ; transferred to western gunboat service 
February 17, 1862. 

David Smay, February 26, 1864; transferred to 191st P. V. June 6, 1864. 

Christian Smay, February 26, 1864; transferred to 191st P. V. June 6, 
1864. 

H. B. Spachman, June 21, 1861 ; died at Camp Curtin, Harrisburg, Au- 
gust 9, 1 86 1. 

Philip G. Shafifner, June 21, 1861 ; killed in action June 30, 1862. 

Henry B. Smith, June 21, 1861 ; killed in action June 30, 1862. 

Peter F. Stout, June 21, 1861 ; killed at Gaines's Mill, June 27, 1862. 

Martin Stone, June 21, 1861 ; killed at Gaines's Mill June 27, 1862. 

Geo. W. Soule, June 21, 1861 ; killed at Bull Run, August 30, 1862. 

David R. P. Shirey, June 21, 1861 ; deserted June 9, 1862, 

John Verner, June 21, 1861 ; deserted September 14, 1862. 

Harrison Welton, June 21, 1861 ; deserted January 22, 1862. 

Nicholas Zeigler, April 7, 1864; transferred to 191st P. V. June 6, 1864. 

Forty-second — Bucktail Regiment. 

This regiment became a noted one in the Army of the Potomac ; in the 
camps, and at the various headquarters, were frequently seen knots of sun- 
burned veterans discussing the exploits of the " Pennsylvania Bucktails," as 
they were frequently called, and the name soon became a household word. It 
was on the 13th of April, 1861, that Thomas L. Kane, brother of Dr. Kane, 
the famous Arctic explorer, was given permission by Governor Curtin to raise 
a company of mounted riflemen in Forest, McKean, and Elk counties. They 

16 



History of Clearfield County 



began to assemble at rendezvous April 17, and after deliberation, in accord- 
ance with the wishes of a large majority, the organization was changed from 
cavalry to infantry. The men, accustomed to climbing the mountains of 
Northern Pennsylvania in their search for game, very wisely concluded that 
they could render the government most effective service by hunting Confed- 
erates in the thickets of Virginia. That this conclusion was no error of judg- 
ment, was subsequently demonstrated. The author of this sketch remembers 
the capture of an Alabamian on the Rappahannock — an educated man, strong 
in debate, and quick to perceive a point. A conversation was in progress rel- 
ative to the merits of troops from different States, when the Alabamian re- 
marked : " We dread to meet the New Yorkers in the open field, but if we can 
get them in the woods we are happy ; of all the men for fighting in the forest, 
Pennsylvania and Michigan take the lead ; they are tigers let loose." This is 
explained upon the theory that New York troops were made up largely of 
young mechanics, while those from Pennsylvania and Michigan were accus- 
tomed to the woods, and perfectly at home when advancing upon an enemy 
under cover of trees and underbrush. 

On the 24th of April one hundred men had assembled at a rafting-place 
on the Sinnamahoning, where they constructed transports. The only uniform 
was a red shirt, black pants, and a bucktail in the cap. Two days later, three 
hundred and fifteen strong, they embarked on three rafts, and with a green 
hickory-pole, surmounted by a bucktail, for a flag-staff, the stars and stripes 
-flying, and fife and drum rousing the echoes of the mountain sides, onward 
• down the West Branch sailed the patriotic flotilla. Arriving at Harrisburg 
•they saluted the city with a volley, which, had it been fired in 1864 instead of 
J 86 1, would have fairly panic-struck the inhabitants. People flocked to take 
a look at the brave men who were about to meet the enemy upon the soil of 
the Old Dominion, and on all sides the " sturdy men from the mountains " were 
applauded. 

Authority had been given to muster them in as the Seventeenth (three 
months) Regiment. An organization was commenced with Thomas L. Kane 
as colonel, but as a Seventeenth Regiment had been mustered in at Philadel- 
phia, the organization was not consummated, and Colonel Kane, declining a 
commission, was mustered in as a private May 13. 

Other companies were recruited — one in Warren county, one in Chester, 
•one in Perry, one in Clearfield, one in Carbon, and two in Tioga, and the mate- 
rial had been assembled for a first-class regiment. On the 13th day of June 
a regimental election was held, which resulted in the selection of Thomas L. 
Kane as colonel, but, with that patriotism which always marks the career of an 
unselfish soldier, he resigned, that Lieutenant-Colonel Biddle, who had served 
in Mexico, might be placed in command. The name of the organization was 
changed from the " Rifle Regiment " to " Kane Rifle Regiment of Pennsylva- 



Clearfield's Military History. 119 

nia Reserve Corps," and started into service as Forty-second of the line, and 
although it was universally known as the " Bucktail Regiment." 

June 21, with the Fifth, Colonel Simmons, and Barr's Battery, the Forty- 
second was ordered to the support of Colonel Wallace, at Cumberland, Md., 
but before reaching that place Colonel Wallace, in accordance with order, had 
moved to Martinsburg. 

July 12, Lieutenant-Colonel Kane, with a scouting party of sixty men, 
crossed into Virginia, and at New Creek village was surrounded by McDonald's 
cavalry. A stubborn engagement took place, in which the Confederates were 
worsted and driven. Colonel Biddle, with his command, moved to the relief 
of Kane, and dispatched the latter with two hundred men to follow the enemy. 
He came upon them at Ridgeville, nine miles from New Creek, and after a 
skirmish, took possession. Colonel Biddle arrived, and the next morning the 
force fell back to New Creek and Piedmont, which position they held until July 
27, when ordered to Harrisburg, where they were reviewed by Governor Cur- 
tin August I. On the 6th of August they were ordered to report to General 
Banks, at Harper's Ferry. October i, the command moved to Tennallytown 
and joined the Reserves. December 12, Colonel Biddle resigned to go to Con- 
gress, having been elected from Philadelphia. 

We are now approaching a period when the Army of the Potomac, with 
the stinging defeat of Bull Run still fresh in memory, was about to experience 
its first joy — a victory achieved by Pennsylvania troops — a victory that thrilled 
the nation, not because of magnitude, but because of its moral effect, at a time 
when the enemies of the Republic were flushed with hope of success. Decem- 
ber 20, the Forty-second, under Lieutenant-Colonel Kane, marched with Orr's 
Brigade to Dranesville, where the enemy was in force. It was in this early 
fight that the name " Bucktails " was written in letters of blood. It was here 
that Colonel Kane was shot in the face, the ball crashing through the roof of 
his mouth, inflicting a painful wound. Bandaging his face, he continued to 
advance with his men, and amid the smoke of the contest, fought with Spartan 
determination. The enemy fled, leaving its dead and wounded upon the field, 
and one piece of artillery that would have been taken but for the positive order 
of the general in command. It was, nevertheless, a proud victory for the 
troops engaged. 

On the loth of March, 1862, the campaign opened, and the Bucktails 
moved to Alexandria. The Reserves were then assigned to the First Corps, 
and the Bucktails ordered to Falmouth. The middle of May finds them within 
six miles of Hanover Court-house. It was at this time that Colonel Kane, 
with four companies, was ordered to join Fremont. In the pursuit of Jackson 
up the Shenandoah valley, the Bucktails were in the extreme advance. Col- 
onel Kane with his scouts — one hundred men — had a stubborn fight with 
General Ashby at Harrisonburg ; the latter had with him Stuart's brigade. 



I20 History of Clearfield County. 

Bravely the Bucktails held their ground, waiting reinforcements, but in this 
they were disappointed. In the fight Colonel Kane was wounded and taken 
prisoner. Captain Taylor, admiring the brave commander, dashed through 
the fire and smoke to rescue him, and was also captured. The Confederates 
were so strongly impressed by such an exhibition of self-sacrifice and bravery, 
that they offered to parole him, but he and Colonel Kane refused. The loss 
of the Bucktails in killed, wounded, and prisoners was fifty-two — half the 
number engaged. 

The other six companies — four hundred strong — went into camp at Dis- 
patch Station. June 13th they participated in a skirmish with Stuart's Cav- 
alry at White House, the Federal base of supplies. June 27th they were 
ordered to Gaines's Mills, and participated in that memorable engagement, pro- 
nounced by military men as one of the most desperate conflicts of the first 
two years of the rebellion. On the evening of the 28th they commenced the 
march through White Oak Swamp, and on the night of the 29th performed 
picket duty on the Richmond road leading to Charles City, and took part in 
the battle of Charles City Cross Roads fought June 30th. 

Arriving at Harrison's Landing, they found two grand divisions of the 
army separated by a broad and deep tidal stream, and upon the men in the 
Bucktails who had served an aprenticeship in the lumber regions of northern 
Pennsylvania, was imposed the work of spanning the stream with a structure 
that would permit the passage of troops and trains. There were five hundred 
feet to be bridged, with the water in some places ten feet deep. It was re- 
quired that the work be completed in two days. The only material at hand 
was the growing timber on the banks. At five P. M. the work was com- 
menced, and at sunrise the next morning the bridge was ready for artillery to 
cross. 

From the Peninsula the regiment proceeded to Warrenton and partici- 
pated in the second battle of Bull Run. 

Returning to the four companies remaining with Fremont's Corps (now 
Sigel's), after the battle of Cross Keys, we find them engaged at Cedar Moun- 
tain. On the 19th of August they encamped at Brandy Station, on the 
Orange and Alexandria railroad, where Lieutenant-Colonel Kane joined them, 
he having been held a prisoner of war since the fight at Harrisonburg. Au- 
gust 22 they marched back to Catlett's Station. Then occurred another of 
General J. E. B. Stuart's wild rides for the purpose of capturing General Pope 
and his headquarters train. Colonel Kane, with a few men, met some of 
Stuart's horsemen at Cedar Run bridge, and with a single volley drove them 
in confusion. Colonel Kane's attempt to check the panic and secure an or- 
derly retreat at Cub's Run (second Bull Run) will live imperishable in the mil- 
itary history of this country. 

September 7 was a red letter day for the Bucktails. Colonel Kane was 




<£'/^. 



Clearfield's Military History, 



commissioned brigadier-general, and the four companies joined the six. 
Cheers rent the air, and the reunion was a glad one. Again they had come 
together, and clasping hands vowed to do or die in behalf of the cause of the 
imperiled nation. Bitter contests were before them, but they faltered not. 
Moving into Maryland they took part in the battle of South Mountain Sep- 
tember 14, and the next day at 3 P. M. reached the battle field of Antietam. 
In the two days the regiment lost in killed and wounded one hundred and ten 
officers and men. The next fight was at Fredericksburg. December 12 the 
Reserves crossed to the right bank of the Rappahannock. 

February 6, 1863, they were ordered to the defenses of Washington, and 
established camp at Fairfax; June 25, were ordered to join the Fifth Corps, 
then marching into Pennsylvania, and were participants in the battle of Gettys- 
burg. The remaining months of 1863 they were constantly on the skirmish 
line, and at the close of the campaign went into winter quarters at Bristow 
Station, where they remained until the last of April, 1864; April 29, broke 
camp and reached Culpepper on the 30th ; May 4, crossed the Rapidan and 
took part in the battle of the Wilderness. They distinguished themselves at 
Spottsylvania ; at Mountain Run they made two assaults on the enemy's 
works, but they were unsuccessful. May 1 1, occurred the assault by the entire 
army. On the I2th the Bucktails were employed picking off Confederate 
artillery men. 

The last fight of the Bucktails was on the Mechanicsville road. May 30, 
their term of office expiring that day. The regiment was mustered out at 
Harrisburg June 11, 1864. 

On the Fourth of July, 1866, the bunting which floated over the rafts in 
1 86 1, and which they had carried in their campaigns amid the blaze of artil- 
lery and the leaden storm of infantry, was borne in procession in Philadelphia 
by the veterans, and delivered to the governor of the State amid the cheers of 
assembled thousands. 

Company K of this regiment was recruited at Curwensville, with Edward 
A. Irvin, captain. 

Field and Staff. 

Colonels. — Thomas L. Kane, May 12, 1861 ; mustered as private May 13, 
1861 ; promoted to colonel June 12, 1861 ; resigned and elected lieutenant- 
colonel June 13, 1 86 1 ; wounded at Dranesville December 28, 1861, and at 
Harrisburg June 6, 1862; promoted to brigadier-general September 7, 1862, 
to brevet major-general March 13, 1865 ; resigned November 7, 1863. 

Chas. J. Biddle, May 29, 1861 ; resigned February i, 1862. 

Hugh W. McNeil, May 29, 1861 ; promoted from captain company D Jan- 
uary 22, 1862 ; killed at Antietam September 16, 1862. 

Charles F. Taylor, May 28, 1861 ; promoted from captain company H 
March i, 1863; killed at Gettysburg July 2, 1863. 



History of Clearfield County. 



Lieutenant- Colonel. — Alanson E. Niles, May 31, 1861 ; promoted from 
captain company E to major March i, 1863, to lieutenant-colonel May 15, 
1863; resigned March 28, 1864. 

Majors. — Roy Stone, May 29, 1861 ; promoted to major June 13, 1861 ;. 
to colonel of 149th P. V. Aug-ust 29, 1862. 

W. R. Hartshorn, May 29, 1861 ; promoted to adjutant February, 1862, 
to major May 22, 1863 ; mustered out with regiment June 1 1, 1864. 

Adjutants. — John T. A. Jevvett, May 29, 1861 ; promoted to captain com- 
pany D February 5, 1862. 

Roger Sherman, May 28, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant-major to adju- 
tant May 23, 1862; resigned March 21, 1864. 

Quartermasters. — Henry D. Patton May 29, 1861 ; promoted to captain 
and A. Q. M. U. S. V. December i, 1862. 

Lucius Truman, May 29, 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V, May 31, 1864. 

Surgeons. — S. D. Freeman, May 29, 1861 ; resigned October i, 1862. 

John J. Comfort, December 17, 1862 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 
1864; brevet lieutenant-colonel March 13, 1865. 

Assistant Surgeons. — W. T. Humphrey, June 21, 1861 ; promoted to sur- 
geon 149th P. V. September 5, 1862. 

W. B. Jones, August 2, 1862 ; resigned November i, 1862. 

Daniel O. Crouch, December i, 1862; resigned June 10, 1863. 

Lafayette Butler, September 30, 1863 : transferred to 190th P. V. May 30, 
1864. 

Chaplain. — W. H. D. Hatton, August 3, 1861 ; resigned November ii, 
1862. 

Sergeant- Major. — Wm. Baker, August 15, 1862; transferred to 190th P. 
V. May 31, 1864. 

Quartermaster- Sergeant. — Wm. C. Hunter, May 21, 1861 ; transferred to- 
190th P. V. May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Commissary - Sergeant. — John Semon, May 29, 1861 ; promoted from cor- 
poral company K January i, 1863; mustered out with company June ll,^ 
1864. 

Hospital Stezvards. — R. Fenton Ward, May 29, 1861 ; promoted to second 
lieutenant company I July i, 1862. 

Jeremiah J. Starr, May 28, 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; 
veteran. 

Principal Musician. — Henry Zundel, May 29, 1861 ; promoted from 
private to company F September, 1863 ; mustered out with company June 11^ 
1864. 

Company K. 
Recruited in Curwensville, Clearjield Co. 
Captains. — Edward A. Irvin, May 29, 1861 ; commissioned lieutenant- 



Clearfield's Military History. 123 

colonel September 10, 1862, not mustered; discharged May i, 1863, ^or 
wounds received in action. 

James M. Welch, May 29, 1861 ; promoted from second lieutenant March 
21, 1863; transferred to V. R. C. September 12, 1863. 

First Lieutenants. — W. R. Hartshorn, May 29, 1861 ; promoted to adju- 
tant February, 1862. 

John P. Bard, May 29, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant 
March 17, 1863, to brevet captain March 13, 1865 ; mustered out with company 
June II, 1864. 

Second Lieutenants. — Daniel C. Dale, May 29, 1861 ; promoted from ser- 
geant March 23, 1862 ; died February 17, 1863. 

John E. Kratzer, May 29, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant February 17, 
1863 ; transferred to V. R. C. May 31, 1864. 

First Sergeants. — Thos. J. Thompson, May 29, 1861 ; transferred to 190th 
P. V. May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Lewis Hoover, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

Daniel Blett, May 29, 1861 ; promoted to second lieutenant company F 
July I, 1863. 

John H. Norris, May 29, 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; 
veteran. 

James F. Ross, May 29, 1861 ; transferred to 109th P. V. May 31, 1864; 
veteran. 

Wm. G. Addleman, May 29, 1861 ; discharged May 24, 1864, for wounds 
received in action, date unknown. 

James G. Hill, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate May 8, 
1862. 

Corporals. — Edmund M. Curry, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with com- 
pany June 1 1, 1864. 

Wm. F. Wilson, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 1 1, 1864. 

Robert G. McCracken, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 
II, 1864. 

Alex. Robertson, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

. David M. Glenn, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 1 1, 1864. 

Cortes Bloom, May 29, 1861 ; discharged November 28, 1862, for wounds 
received in action, date unknown. 

Abraham Carson, May 29, 1861 ; discharged March 6, 1863, for wounds 
received in action, date unknown. 

Samuel Reed, May 29, 1861 ; discharged April 23, 1863, for wounds re- 
ceived in action, date unknown. 

Amos Swift, July 31, 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; 
veteran. 



124 History of Clearfield County. 

John Lemon, May 29, 1861 ; promoted to sergeant January i, 1863. 

John H. Wilson, May 29, 1861 ; died December 9, 1861. 

Privates. — John M. Addleman, October 3-, 1861 ; transfered to 190th P. V. 
May 31, 1864. 

Isaiah Bloom, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

Enos Bloom, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

Zachariah Bailey, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Richard J. Bard, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate No- 
vember 20, 1 86 1. 

James L, Barr, March 21, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate De- 
cember 3, 1862. 

John F. Barnes, July i, 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; 
veteran. 

Arnold Bloom, October 3, 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864. 

James C. Billis, May 28, 1861 ; transferred to Company H November i, 
1861. 

John B. Brink, February 29, 1864; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 
1864. 

Joseph P. Broomall, October 3, 1861 ; killed at South Mountain Septem- 
ber 14, 1862. 

Andrew J. Cupples, May 29, 1861 ; wounded at Wilderness May 7, 1864; 
absent at muster out. 

Henry Cogley, May 31, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

John H. Coulter, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Thos. Conklin, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

Chas. M. Clark, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Au- 
gust 10, 1 861. 

Arthur Conner, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate No- 
vember I, 1862. 

D. R. P. Chatham, May 29, 1861 ; transferred to U. S. Sig. Corps August 
29, 1862. 

Jacob Connelly, February 29, 1864; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 
1864. 

Wm. S. Cummings, May 29, 1861 ; killed at Antietam September 17, 
1862. 

Frank Chase, July i, 1861 ; deserted April 13, 1862. 

Manning S. Dunn, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June li, 
1864. 

G. P. Doughman, October 3, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 11, 1862. 



Clearfield's Military History. 125 

Wm. G. Denick, March 28, 1864; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 
1864. 

Levi Ennis, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June ii, 1864. 

James Flanigan, July 31, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate No- 
vember 21, 1 86 1. 

Frank A. Fleming, October 3, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
<late unknown. 

Isaac Fruze, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate May 30, 
1863. 

James Frantz, October 3, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 
10, 1863. 

Robt. R. Fleming, February 29, 1864; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 
1864. 

Adam Fogle, February 9, 1864; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864. 

A. Harrison Frantz, May 29, 1861 ; captured, died at Belle Isle, Va., July 
15, 1862. 

Martin F. Frantz, October 3, 1861 ; deserted December i, 1862. 

James Glenn, November 18, 1861 ; wounded in action, date unknown ; 
■dircharged on surgeon's certificate May 16, 1862. 

Charles M. Gofi", March 28, 1864; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 
1864. 

Samuel Gunsalus, March 28, 1864; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 
1864. 

Burton Granger, May 29, 1861 ; died October 2, 1862, of wounds received 
in action. 

Ellis J. Hall, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 

Lorenzo D. Hile, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June ii, 
1864. 

John Henry, October 3, 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; 
veteran. 

John W. Haslet, May 29, 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864 ; 
veteran. 

Henry J. Hall, July 31, 1861 ; transferred to 109th P. V. May 31, 1864; 
veteran. 

Joseph K. Henry, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate July 
20, 1861. 

C. Hockenburg, October 3, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April 19, 1862. 

Thomas Honitter, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate June 
26, 1862. 

WilHam Hosford, July i, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate De- 
cember, 1862. 

17 



126 History of Clearfield County. 

Thos. Humphrey, October 3, 1861 ; wounded in action, date unknown; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate December, 1862. 

W. M. Humphrey, July i, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate April 
20, 1863. 

Edward Halcomb, May 29, 1861 ; transferred to company D October 12, 
1861. 

James Henry, May 29, 1861 ; killed at Bull Run August 29, 1862. 

Charles Hall, July 31, 1861 ; killed at Antietam September 17, 1862. 

WilHam Hinnigh, May 29, 1861 ; killed in action May 7, 1864. 

Austin Irvin, July I, 1861 ; died March 6, 1863. 

Peter Jaggers, July 31, 1861 ; transferred to company D November i, 
1861. 

Samuel Kingston, July 31, 1861 ; discharged January 20, 1862, for wounds 
received in action, date unknown. 

John Kratzer, May 29, 1861 ; killed at Bull Run August 30, 1862. 

George W. Knapp, July i, 1861 ; died September 23, 1862, on board 
transport from Richmond. 

Frost Littlefield, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Cyrus B. Lower, October 27, 1863 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 
1864. 

Ephraim Morrow, May 29, 1861 ; transferred to Signal Corps August, 
1861. 

Isaiah McDonald, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Peter C. McKee, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 
1864. 

Charles R. McCrum, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April II, 1862. 

Geo. W. McDonald, May 29, 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 
1864 ; veteran. 

Alexander McDonald, October 3, 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 
31, 1864 : veteran. 

John Moyer, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate January 
I, 1862. 

Casper P. Mason, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate April 
10, 1863. 

Samuel Mortimer, May 29, 1861 ; died September 10, 1863, from wounds 
received in action, date unknown. 

Hiram McClenahan, May 29, 1861 ; transferred to 44th P. V. November 
I, 1861. 

Francis C. Morrow, July i, 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864. 



Clearfield's Military History. 127 

Nath. A. McCloskey, May 29, 1861 ; died November 28, 1861. 

And'n J. Montonz, May 29, 1861 ; died May 1864, of wounds received in 
action. 

David McCullough, May 29, 1861 ; deserted December 8, 1862. 

George O'Leary, July i, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Novem- 
ber 20, 1 86 1. 

Peter Piper, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate July 30, 
1862. 

Robert B. Pettingill, May 28, 1861 ; transferred to company H October 
12, 1861. 

John Rish, May 29, 1861 ; died June 11, 1864, of wounds received at 
Bethesda Church May 30, 1864; buried in National Cemetery, Arhngton. 

Thomas Riley, May 29, 1861 ; killed at South Mountain September 14, 
1862. 

Reuben Rex, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate June ii, 
1862. 

Robert W. Ross, October 3, 1861 ; died January 7, 1863, of wounds re- 
ceived in action. 

Edward D, Stock, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out with company June ii, 
1864. 

Joseph G. Spencer, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Sep- 
tember 22, 1 86 1. 

James Spence, October 3, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Sep- 
tember I, 1862. 

Abel Sonders, July 21, 1863 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Novem- 
ber 19, 1862. 

Joseph Shirk, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate December 
22, 1862. 

Philander Smith, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, date 
unknown. 

George B. Scott, May 29, 1861 ; discharged February 9, 1863, for wounds 
received in action, date unknown. 

Daniel Shaver, May 29, 1861 ; discharged April 20, 1863, for wounds 
received in action, date unknown. 

Peter Spargo, May 29, 1861 ; transferred to United States Signal Corps 
August 23, 1863. 

Jesse E. Shaver, March 28, 1864; transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 
1864. 

Porter Smith, May 29, 1861 ; killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 

Wm. H. Spence, May 29, 1861 ; deserted August 7, 1861. 

D wight Seaman, May 29, 1861 ; deserted, date unknown. 

George W. Taylor, May 29, 1861 ; discharged May 25, 1863, for wounds 
received in action, date unknown. 



128 History of Clearfield County. 

Daniel F. Williams, May 29, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 22, 1862. 

Joseph Williams, October 3. 1861 ; transferred to 190th P. V. May 3i>- 
1864; veteran. 

James M. Williams, February 27, 1864; died May, 1864, of wounds re- 
ceived in action. 

The Fifty-First Regiment. 

The portion of this regiment that was recruited in Clearfield county was- ex- 
ceedingly small, only comprising a contingent of sixteen men, enlisted by 
Peter A. Gauhn, who afterward was promoted to captain of Company G. A 
major portion of these were enlisted in October, 1861, for the regular three years 
service, but some slight accessions were made in 1864. 

The greater part of the regiment was raised in the counties of Montgomery,. 
Union, Snyder, Centre, and Northampton. The field officers were John F. 
Hartranft, colonel; Thomas S. Bell, lieutenant-colonel; Edwin Schall, major. 

On the 6th day of January, 1862, the regiment embarked for Roanoke 
Island, where they participated in the operations at that point, and moved next 
in the expedition to Newbern. Afterwards they were engaged at Cedar Moun- 
tain and the second battle at Bull Run. At Antietam they were under a 
terrible fire and made a gallant record in that battle. From Antietam it went 
before Fredericksburg, and subsequently was ordered to Fortress Monroe. It 
then followed the fortunes and shared the hardships and privations of the Ninth 
Army Corps, and participated in the Knoxville campaign. During the spring 

campaign it pushed forward to the N River where they again met the 

enemy. From this time Colonel Hartranft was in command as brigadier- 
general. 

Next a succession of movements brought them to Cold Harbor, where a 
heavy loss was sustained. Its next engagement was at Petersburg, Va. Here 
it formed a part of the storming column that followed the explosion of the 
mine, but was ordered back, there being no necessity for so strong a force. 
The regiment then participated in the succession of battles at Poplar Springs 
Church, Reams's Station, Hatcher's Run, and in the final attack which resulted 
in the evacuation of Richmond. On the 27th day of July, 1865, it was mus- 
tered out of service at Alexandria, Va. 

Those of the regiment from Clearfield county were recruited mainly from 
the northern part. The muster-roll of that part of Company G shows the 
name, rank, date of muster, and disposition of each man. 

Captain. — Peter A. Gaulin, October 17, 1861; promoted from second to 
first lieutenant February 12, 1862, to captain January ii, 1863; resigned 
March 16, 1864. 

First Sergeant. — Wm. Heichel, October, 17, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant 



Clearfield's Military History. 129 

to first sergeant February 13, 1865 ; mustered out with company July 27, 
1865. 

Sergeants. — George Dumont, October 17, 1861 ; promoted from corporal 
to sergeant February 13, 1865 ; mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Lewis Cartuyvel, October 17, 1861 ; promoted to quartermaster-sergeant 
March 9, 1865 ! veteran. 

Corporals. — Serdon Rolley, February 28, 1864; mustered out with com- 
pany July 27, 1865. 

Charles Heichel, February 29, 1864 ; promoted to corporal April 6, 1865 ; 
mustered out July 27, 1865. 

Wm. Maurer, October 17, 1861 ; mustered out October 16, 1864 — expir- 
ation of term. 

Privates. — Philip Cayot, October 17, 1861 ; absent, sick, when mustered 
out ; veteran. 

Cornelius Conway, October 17, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
date unknown. 

Huston Heickel, October 17, 1861; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, 
date unknown. 

Wm. Mackey, October, 17, 1861 ; died in Kentucky, date unknown. 

Jno. McGonegal, September 27, 1864; drafted; discharged by general 
order June i, 1865. 

August Rolley, October 17, 1861 ; captured ; died at Andersonville, Ga., 
May 29, 1864; grave 1454. 

Nicholas Rolley, October 17, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
June 6, 1865 ; veteran. 

Christian Simons, October 17, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
date unknown. 

Wallis Wiggins, October 17, 1861 ; killed at Antietam September 17, 
1862. 

Fifty-Ninth Regiment — Second Cavalry. 

The proportion of this regiment that was recruited in Clearfield county was 
exceedingly small, less than fifty men, and they were attached to Company F. 
These men were recruited in the eastern part of the county by Thomas G. 
Snyder, who was made first lieutenant, and who died of wounds received at 
Occoquan, Va., on December 28th, 1862. The regiment was raised in the fall 
of 1 86 1, in various sections of the State, and rendezvoused at Camp Patterson, 
six miles from Philadelphia. The field officers were as follows : Richard Price 
Butler, colonel ; Joseph P. Brinton, lieutenant-colonel ; Charles F. Taggart and 
J. Archambault, majors. The regiment was well disciplined, many of its 
officers having acquired some experience in the three months service. The 
colonel had served in Mexico, and Major Archambault was one of Napoleon's 



I30 History of Clearfield County. 

veterans. At Baltimore the regiment was reviewed by General Dix. At 
Cloud's Mills it was assigned to the brigade commanded by General Cookci 
First Reserve Army Corps, General Sturgis, but in August was transferred to 
General Buford's brigade. Its first engagement took place near Culpepper, 
and afterward participated in the Bull Run fight, where it lost heavily. On 
September lo, Buford was appointed to McClellan's staff, and Colonel Price 
succeeded to the command of the brigade. On October i the regiment was 
transferred to General Bayard's command, and assigned to the First Brigade. 
In November they engaged the enemy and were compelled to retire. They 
were constantly scouting until late in December, when, on the 28th, it fell into 
an ambuscade at Occoquan and suffered a great loss. Lieutenant Thomas G. 
Snyder was mortally wounded and captured here. He died in the enemy's 
hands. In killed, wounded, and misssing it lost over one hundred men. The 
regiment wintered at Accotink. 

In April, 1863, at Fairfax Court-House, it was assigned to the Second 
Brigade of General Stahel's Division. In June it participated in the Gettys- 
burg campaign, conducted twenty-five hundred prisoners to Westminster, and 
on the 7th rejoined the army at Middletown. It started in pursuit of Lee's 
army and went as far as Warrenton, and afterward did guard duty at Meade's 
headquarters. It was then assigned to the Second Brigade. Its subsequent 
history is told by the engagement at Beverly's Ford, on the heights around 
Rappahannock Station, the raid on Luray, after which it again went into winter 
quarters. The next year it moved with the Army of the Potomac and went 
with Sheridan on his memorable raid, and rejoined the army on the 25th. In 
Sheridan's second raid it also engaged. Its subsequent career was identified 
with the Army of the Potomac, at Wyatt's Farm, Boydton Plank Road, Mc- 
Dowell's Hill, and Five Forks, and was present at Lee's surrender at Ap- 
pomattox. The regiment was mustered out of service at Cloud's Mills, July 
13, 1865, after which "the boys" returned home, all but the dead, whose 
bones are bleaching from the Potomac to the Blackwater. 

Eighty-Fourth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry 

Was organized under a special order from the war department, issued by Gen- 
eral Cameron, then secretary of war, to General J. Y. James, of Warren county. 
WilHam G. Murray, of Blair county, as colonel ; Thomas C. McDowell, of 
Dauphin county, as Heutenant-colonel; Walter Barrett, of Clearfield county, as 
major ; Thomas H. Craig, of Blair county, as adjutant ; Dr. G. F. Hoop, of 
Clearfield county, as surgeon ; C. A. W. Redlick, of Allegheny county, as 
assistant surgeon; Alexander MacLeod, of Clearfield, as chaplain, and J. Miles 
Kephart, of Centre county, as quartermaster. 

The point of rendezvous was Camp Grossman, three miles from Hunting- 
don. Late in the fall of 1861 the regiment moved to C^mp Curtin, at Harris- 



Clearfield's Military History. 131 

burg. In December of the same year the regiment was ordered to Hancock, 
Md., to protect that point from a threatened invasion by the command of 
General Jackson. There the regiment received their arms in the afternoon, 
and the next morning, before dayhght, ordered to march to the town of Bath 
to assist in bringing away a battery of artillery. Before they reached that 
point they were informed of the near approach of Jackson's army. They suc- 
ceeded in securing the artillery, but one-half of the regiment was compelled 
to wade the Potomac River to escape capture. 

From there, under command of General Lander, they marched to Cumber- 
land, Md., from whence, in a few days, they went into camp at a point on the 
Paw Paw River, where General Lander formed his division. They remained 
at this point until the early spring of 1862. General Lander having died dur- 
ing the winter, General James Shields was appointed to the command. 

As soon as the season permitted, the camp was broken up and the division 
moved to Martinsburg, Va. At this time Clearfield county was represented 
by Company G, captain, Merrick Howsler, of Cameron county ; Company H, 
captain, William M. Behan ; Company I, captain, Joseph L. Kirby, first lieu- 
tenant, Clarence L. Barrett, second lieutenant, John B. Ferguson ; Company 
K, captain, Matthew Ogden, and second lieutenant, John S. Jury ; also from 
Clearfield county was Fred Barrett and Richard H. Shaw, hospital stewards. At 
the point last above referred to, the Eighty-fourth was brigaded with the One 
Hundred and Tenth Pennsylvania, the Fourteenth Indiana, and the Thirteenth 
Indiana, under the command of Colonel Nathan Kimball, of the Fourteenth 
Indiana. Upon the arrival of the division in Martinsburg, immediate prepar- 
ation was made to attack General Jackson at Winchester, Va. In less than a 
week the whole force was marching to that point. When the division arrived 
at Winchester, it was found that Jackson had retired down the Shenandoah 
valley. 

General Shields immediately put the division in light marching order, 
moved down the valley to Strasburg, reconnoitering as he proceeded, re- 
mained there one night. The next morning, by a forced march, returned to 
Winchester, passing hurriedly through the town, encamping upon the other 
side of the town some two or three miles distant. The people of Winchester, 
of southern sympathy, were greatly elated at what they supposed and termed 
"Shields's scare." Belle Boyd, a woman of subsequent notoriety, immediately 
rode to Jackson's camp and informed him of Shields's hasty retreat, and the 
supposed demoralized condition of his army — at least that was the information 
received by Shields's division. 

Early in the morning of March 22 the pickets were driven in, and by ten 
o'clock the battle of Kernstown was commenced. It raged fiercely until in 
the afternoon. Here Colonel Murray was killed, evidently by a sharpshooter. 
The figure " 84 " in his cap was driven into his brain by the force of the bullet ; 



132 History of Clearfield County. 

also Captain Patrick Gallagher, of Company E, and Lieutenant Charles Ream, 
of Company A. Nearly one-half of the regiment were killed or wounded. 
The regiment was made the subject of a special complimentary order from the 
commanding general for gallantry upon this occasion. 

After the battle of Winchester, Major Barrett being in command, on ac- 
count of the severe loss it had sustained, the regiment was assigned to provost 
duty at Berryville, Va. While here Lieutenant-Colonel McDowell joined the 
regiment for the first time. In a short time it was ordered to Winchester for 
provost duty, Lieutenant-Colonel McDowell as commandant, and Major Barrett 
as provost marshal. After a short stay at that place they were ordered to 
rejoin the division, which was then under orders to join General McDowell's 
forces at Falmouth. On this march, at the town of Luray, Colonel McDowell 
resigned his commission and severed his connection with the regiment. The 
■command again devolved upon Major Barrett, there being neither colonel nor 
lieutenant-colonel. They proceeded to Falmouth in a ragged and forlorn con- 
dition, having had no clothing issued to them since the winter before. After 
three days' rest at Falmouth, Shields's division was again ordered to retrace 
their steps up the Luray Valley to head off Jackson, who was then on his way 
to join Lee in front of McClellan, who (Lee) was being pursued by Fremont 
and Sigel. By forced marches the first brigade of the division to which the 
Eighty-fourth was attached, reached Port Republic at the same time that Jack- 
son's army appeared upon the other side of the river Shenandoah. 

The object of the Federal troops was to destroy the bridge in order to pre- 
vent Jackson's artillery from crossing. So near did they come to accomplish- 
ing this, that several regimental officers were close enough to the bridge to see 
General Jackson and several members of his staff ride through the bridge to 
rejoin his command. Of course he was unrecognized at the time, and the 
incident would not have been known had it not been recorded by General Dick 
Taylor in his description of the scene. Then commenced what has often been 
claimed the most fiercely-contested battle of the war, considering the numbers 
engaged and the inequality of the opposing forces. The Federal troops, all 
told, did not have over sixteen hundred infantry, four companies of cavalry, 
and one battery of two guns of the First Virginia Artillery, while Jackson's 
force amounted to about seventeen thousand effective men. 

The Eighty-fourth formed the left wing along with the two pieces of artil- 
lery. Colonel Tyler was in command. He ordered a charge to be made up a 
Jiill by the Eighty-fourth, which cost the regiment in killed and wounded about 
eighty men, which was fully one-fourth of their effective men in the field, their 
ranks having been decimated by sickness and exhaustion from the forced 
marches. For a period of about ten days previous to the battle, no rations 
had been issued. The troops were compelled to live from food obtained by 
foraging parties, and which principally consisted of mutton without salt, hick- 
ory ashes being used in its stead. 



Clearfield's Military History. 133 



Notwithstanding the disadvantage the Federal troops were under, the gal- 
lant soldiers held Jackson's army at bay from eleven o'clock A. M. of the 8th 
day of June until four o'clock P. M. of the 9th, when they were compelled to 
fall back. The retreat was a running fight from the scene of battle to Conrad 
Station. General Shields, hurrying forward, joined the retreating force about 
four miles from the scene of conflict. He immediately ordered Major Barrett 
to form his regiment and protect the rear of the retreating army, which kept 
them in a constant fight for a distance of about ten miles. After this provision 
by General Shields, not a prisoner was lost, although many were killed and 
wounded. The division returned to Luray, broken in health and decimated in 
number. 

The Eighty-fourth at this time could not muster over two hundred effec- 
tive men. Major Barrett was ordered from there to Harrisburg to consult 
with Governor Curtin as to filling up the regiment, both in rank, line and file. 
At this time there were not captains to over half the companies, but one field 
officer, the adjutant, having been wounded at Port Republic, left the regiment 
in a fearfully demoralized condition. The result of Major Barrett's visit to 
Harrisburg was an immediate movement to fill up the ranks, and a demand 
from Governor Curtin that the regiment should be given an opportunity to 
gather in its scattered troops from the various hospitals. Late in June Colonel 
Bowman, of Columbia county, was appointed colonel. Major Barrett having 
declined that commission, but was promoted to lieutenant-colonel ; Adjutant 
Craig was appointed major. 

In the mean time, under the command of the senior captain, the division 
moved to near Alexandria. Two brigades were shipped to join McClellan on 
the Peninsula, and two went into camp, and thus was Shields's famous division 
dissolved. 

Colonel S. S. Carroll, having been promoted brigadier-general, was placed 
in command of the new brigade in Ricketts's Division of McDowell's Corps. 

When Pope was placed in command, Ricketts's Division, to which the 
Eighty-fourth belonged, marched to Gainesville, and engaged with that division 
in all the fighting through the second battle of Bull Run. 

In August, 1862, Lieutenant- Colonel Barrett received a severe injury from 
his horse falling upon him, and in September resigned his commission. Major 
Craig was appointed to succeed him. Captain Milton Opp, of Company F, 
was commissioned major. 

The above has been written in detail, for the reason that up to this period 
the Eighty-fourth had a distinctive record, being merged only in Shields's 
Division, and operating in West Virginia and in the valleys of Shenandoah and 
Luray, away from large armies, but from and after this date it became a part 
of the grand Army of the Potomac, sharing in its marches, privations, hard- 
ships, battles, and glories ; and the history of that grand army is a history of 
18 



134 History of Clearfield County. 

the Eighty-fourth, as well as of the other regiments that composed it. Fol- 
lowing, under the various commanders, from the second battle of Bull Run, it 
participated in all the battles until it was finally merged, January 13, 1865, 
with the Fifty-seventh Pennsylvania Infantry, and ceased to hold its place in 
the Pennsylvania line. 

On the nth of June, 1863, Colonel Bowman was ordered to special duty 
at Washington, and never afterwards was with the regiment. After the con- 
solidation George Zinn was commissioned colonel, Samuel Bryan, major, as 
representing the Eighty-fourth Regiment in the new organization. The 
Eighty-fourth took part in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar 
Mountain, Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, ChancelLorsville, Gettysburg, 
Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court- House, Cold Harbor, siege of 
Petersburg, besides scores of engagements as a regiment, or with brigaded divi- 
sion, which, having been overshadowed by the great battles of the war, are not 
fixed in the minds and recollection of the people. No braver or better com- 
panies were in that regiment than those furnished by Clearfield county. Com- 
pany K, commanded by Captain Matthew Ogden ; Company I, by Captain 
Joseph Kirby ; Company H, by Captain William Bahan ; Company G, by 
Captain Merrick Housler, were either in whole or major part recruited from 

Xlearfield county. 

Before the regiment heard a " gun-fire," but being in line of battle at Han- 

-cock, Md., the eccentric but daring General Lander rode along the line, closely 
inspecting the men. He turned to the field officers and said: ''By gosh! 
those men will fights 

Field and Staff. 

Colonels. — William G. Murray, December 23, 1861 ; killed at Winchester, 
March 23, 1862. 

Samuel M. Bowman, June 21, 1862 ; promoted to brevet brigadier-general 
March 13, 1865; discharged May 15, 1865. 

Lieutenant- Colonels. — ^T. C. McDowell, December 18, 1861 ; resigned July, 
1862. 

Walter Barrett, December 23, 1861 ; promoted from major; resigned Sep- 
tember 10, 1862. 

Thomas H. Craig, December 24, 1861 ; promoted from adjutant to major 
July 31, 1862, to heutenant-colonel October i, 1862 ; resigned December 21, 
1862. 

Milton Opp, October i, 1861 ; promoted from captain company F to major 
■October i, 1862, to lieutenant-colonel December 23, 1862 ; died May 9 of 
Avounds received at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864. 

George Zinn, October i, 1861 ; promoted from captain company D to 
major December 23, 1862, to lieutenant-colonel August i, 1864; wounded in 
action October i, 1864; promoted to colonel 57th P. V. March 19, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 135 

Adjutants. — Joseph J. Vaughan, June 21, 1862 ; promoted to adjutant June 
21, 1863; discharged January 17, 1865. 

Edmund Mather, September 21, 1861 ; promoted from first heutenant 
company B January 18, 1863 ; transferred to V. R. C. November 26, 1863 ; 
discharged December 16, 1863. 

Charles W. Forrester, October i, 1862 ; promoted from second Heutenant 
company F January i, 1864, to captain company G, 57th P. V., January 13, 
1865. 

Quartermaster. — J. Miles Kephart, December 20, 1861 ; mustered out 
December 31, 1864 — expiration of term. 

Surgeons. — Gibboney F. Hoop, December 18, 1861 ; resigned September 
12, 1863. 

John S. Waggoner, February 2, 1863 ; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863; promoted from assistant surgeon October 24, 1863; resigned 
April 15, 1864. 

S. B. Sturdevant, August 19, 1864; mustered out January 13, 1865. 

John P. Norman, June i, 1863 ; promoted from assistant surgeon April 25, 
1864; resigned July 3, 1864. 

Assistant Surgeons. — C. A. W. Redlick, December 18, 1861 ; promoted to 
surgeon 136th P. V. September 2, 1862. 

G. W. Thompson, August i, 1862; resigned August 31, 1862. 

James D. McClure, September 13, 1862 ; promoted to surgeon 147th P. V. 
May 14, 1863. 

William Jack, June 7, 1864; transferred to 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Chaplains. — Alexander McLeod, December 28, 1861 ; discharged October 
6, 1862. 

John Thomas, February 27, 1864; discharged January 13, 1865. 

Sergeanf-Majors. — William M. Gwinn, December 5, 1861 ; promoted to 
second lieutenant company C April 23, 1862. 

John W. Kissel, December 9, 1861 ; promoted from private company F ;. 
to second lieutenant company D December 23, 1862. 

John S. Jury, 1861 ; promoted to second lieutenant company K October 
3, 1864. 

Quartermaster-Sergeants. — Harvey S. Wells, October 24, 1861 ; promoted 
to first lieutenant company F February 19, 1864. 

Gabriel H. Ramey, December 23, 1861 ; promoted from private company 
F; discharged December 13, 1864 — expiration of term. 

Commissary- Sergeant. — J. Russel Wingate, December 24, 1861 ; promoted 
from private company D; to second lieutenant company G October 15, 1862, 

Principal Musicians. — Foster Wighennan, December 24, 1861 ; promoted 
from private company D ; not accounted for ; veteran. 

Thaddeus Albert, December 5, 1861 ; promoted from private company F ;, 
not accounted for. 



136 History of Clearfield County. 

Hospital Stewards. — Frederick Barrett, December 24, 1861 ; promoted 
from private company D. 

Richard H. Shaw, 1861 ; promoted from private company K. 

Company H. 

Recruited in Clearfield and Danphi^i Counties. 

■Captains. — Wm. Bahan, September 24, 1862; discharged June 8, 1863. 

Clarence G. Jackson, August 2, 1862 ; promoted from second to first heu- 
tenant January 18, 1863 ; to captain July i, 1863 ; wounded and captured at 
Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

First Lieutenants. — Alexander R. Nininger, August 6, 1862 ; promoted 
from second lieutenant; discharged January 17, 1863. 

James S. Mitchell, March 17, 1862 ; promoted from first sergeant to sec- 
ond lieutenant January 18, 1863 ; to first lieutenant July I, 1863 ; transferred 
to company H, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Second Lieutenant. — William A. Wilson, May 28, 1862 ; wounded at Chan- 
cellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863 ; promoted from private July i, 1863 ; trans- 
ferred to company H, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Sergeants. — Arthur C. Gilbert, June 5, 1862; promoted to first lieutenant 
company I October i, 1862. 

William F. Fox, June 5, 1862; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 
1863 ; not accounted for. 

Andrew D. Seely, August 6, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Privates. — James Burk, June 5, 1862 ; died October 24, 1874; buried in 
National Cemetery, Arlington, Va. 

James Bassett, June 5, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. Jan- 
uary 13, 1865. 

C. Frank Barton, August 6, 1862 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863. 

William Beach, September 13, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

James J. Briner, September 23, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

David M. Bryan, September 15, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Charles E. Crawford, June 5, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

James Curry, July 7, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Martin Cosgrove, July 18, 1862; not accounted for. 

John Campbell, July 31, 1862 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 
1863; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Frank Cook, August 13, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

James Chamberlain, August 25, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 137 

Isaac Chase, September 13, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Frederick Conklin, September 1 1, 1862 ; captured, died at Salisbury, N. C, 
November 8, 1864. 

James Dunlap, July 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Washington Dibert, May 20, 1864; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Wm. L. Dewalt, June 5, 1862 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 
1863. 

Felix Despies, July 7, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Wm. J. Duryea, August 8, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Thomas Dailey, August 11, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Nicholas Eisman, July 31, 1862; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

David Estep, September 23, 1862; transferred to company E. 

Uriah M. Edgar, September 23, 1863 ; not accounted for. 

Frederick Fink, July 31, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Charles H. Frees, August 25, 1862 ; wounded and captured at Chancel- 
lorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. 

Samuel S. Fowler, August 25, 1862; not accounted for. 

Nelson Green, June 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Joseph Glasgow, June 5, 1862; not accounted for. 

John Garrigan, June 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Joseph Grifhth, July 7, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. Jan- 
uary 13, 1865. 

Willett C. Gearhart, August 6, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Edward Gillnett, September 13, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Joseph L. Hughes, July 7, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Benj. F. Hughes, July 7, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

John Harrington, August 6, 1862 ; wounded and captured at Chancellors- 
ville, Va., May 3, 1863. 

George Hiney, killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1S63. 

James M. Jordon, September 10, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Salisbury H. James ; not accounted for. 

George A. Kline, August 6, 1862 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Frank Lewis, June 5, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. Janu- 
uary 13, 1865. 

Joseph Lindemuth, June 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

James M. Lewis, May 17, 1862; transferred to company K. 

Thomas B. Lou, August 21, 1862 ; transferred to V. R. C. ; died at Wash- 
ington, D. C, March 8, 1864. 



138 History of Clearfield County. 

William H. Lane, September 5, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 

Francis A. Leas, September 13, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

George Maguire, June 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Thomas E. Merchant, June 25, 1862 ; transferred to company F. 

Oscar B. Millard, August 6, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Thomas B. Miller, August 21, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Henry Manes, September i, 1862 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Wm. H. McE . June 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

James McGowan, August 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Garrett Nolan, June 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Jacob Nevil, October 3, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. Jan- 
uary 13, 1865. 

Daniel Oberly, September 17, 1862 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Levi Ostrander, September 30, 1862 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Herman Perry, June 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

John Pea, August 6, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. January 
13, 1865. 

Augustus B. Pearce, September 13, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Benjamin F. Peterman, September 17, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Daniel Quick, August 6, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. Jan- 
uary 13, 1865. 

George Rehr, June 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

William H. Ruch, August 6, 1862; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

James J. Ruch, August 6, 1862; transferred to company H, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Allen B. Reams, August 30, 1862; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

William H. Shaffer, June 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

John Schneiber, July 7, 1862 ; transferred to V. R. C. September 26, 1863 ; 
discharged July 6, 1865. 

John Stifer, August 6, 1862; not accounted for. 

Jacob Stoner, September 5, 1862; not accounted for. 

Joshua P. Sherman, August 6, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Alonzo Solt, August 21, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Andrew J. Sollery, September 12, 1862 ; transferred to company H, 57th 
P. V. January 13, 1865. 

George Thompson, Jnne 5, 1862; not accounted for. 



Clearfield's Military History. 139 

Timothy Torsey, July 18, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Thomas Wright, June 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Amos Whitnight, August 6, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Abner Welsh, August 6, 1862 ; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 
1863 ; not accounted for. 

Joseph P. Warren, August 21, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Daniel Wilhelm, August ii, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

William Young, August 5, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Rudolph L. Young, August 30, 1862 ; transferred to company K, 57th 
P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Company I. 

Recriiited ai Clearfield and Blair Counties. 

Captains. — Joseph L. Curby, September 25, 1861 ; resigned September 10, 
1862. 

John H. Comfort, November 17, 1862 ; resigned November 28, 1862. 

Arthur C. Gilbert, June 5, 1862 ; promoted from sergeant company H to 
first lieutenant October i, 1862 ; to captain ; resigned April 15, 1863. 

John R. Ross, November 15, 1862 ; promoted from first lieutenant May i, 
1863; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863; promoted to brevet 
major April 9, 1865 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

First Lieutenants. — Isaac Hooper, September 16, 1861 ; resigned February 
14, 1862. 

Clarence L. Barrett, February i, 1862; promoted from second lieutenant 
February 15, 1862 ; resigned August 2, 1862. 

John B. Ferguson, 1861 ; promoted from first sergeant to second lieu- 
tenant February 15, 1862 ; to first lieutenant; resigned November 15, 1862. 

George S. Good, November 17, 1862 ; promoted from second lieutenant 
May I, 1863 ; wounded and captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863 ; 
captured at Mine Run November 30, 1863 ; discharged December 31, 1864. 

Second Lieutenants. — John W. Paulley, September 25, 1861 ; resigned 
January 31, 1862. 

Alban H. Nixon, October 24, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant to second 
lieutenant March 3, 1862 ; to first lieutenant company K January 18, 1863. 

First Sergeant. — Hiram F. Willis, September 20, 1862; promoted to first 
sergeant; commissioned second lieutenant May i, 1863, not mustered; 
wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863; discharged to accept com- 
mission in V. R. C. 

Sergeants. — Thomas Gouldsberry, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

A. G. Jamison, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

William Clouser, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Wilham W. Alsbach, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 



140 History of Clearfield County. 

Corporals. — Johnson Cassidy, i86i ; transferred to company K 1862. 

James Gorman, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Ellis Hart, 1861 ; discharged, date unknown. 

Robert Jamison, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Isaac Manes, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Alexander Reed, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Joseph Repetto, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Charles White, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Musician — Simon C. Whitmer, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Privates. — Thomas Adams, 1861; transferred to company K 1862. 

Howard D. Avery, September 30, 1862; transferred to company I, 57th 
P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Joseph Apt, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

John Brady, 1861 ; discharged May 10, 1862. 

Henry C. Bowers, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Joseph Bennett, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Houser Baltzer, 1861 ; discharged, date unknown. 

Jacob N. Brigham, September 30, 1862; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 5, 1863 ; died August 2, 1864; buried at Cyprus Hill Cemetery, L. I. 

Daniel L. Brown, 1861 ; died at Annapolis, Md., June 15, of wounds re- 
ceived at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. 

Eliphalet W. Brush, 1861 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. January 
13, 1865. 

Truman Brigham, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

William Bone, October 29, 1862 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Demetrius Barnhart, November 4, 1862 ; transferred to company I, 57th 
P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Jacob Bastain, September 27, 1862 ; transferred to company B. 

James Burk, September 29, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Samuel H. Beyer, October 6, 1862; not accounted for. 

Daniel C. Boyer, October 6, 1862; died June 12, 1864; buried in National 
Cemetery, Arlington, Va. 

Nelson Bliss, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Newton Bailey, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Samuel Bailey, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

William Booze, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Gemmil Baker, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Anson N. Bidwell, March 31, 1864; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Walter Barrett, March 31, 1864; not accounted for. 

John B. Campbell, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 



Clearfield's Military History. 141 

Samuel Curry, 1861 ; discharged, date unknown. 

Geo. W. Colmer, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

John Cramer, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

John Cunningham, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Wayne Campbell, October 29, 1862; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Zartis Campbell, October 29, 1862; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

John Clements, November 6, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Valentine Culp, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Christopher Cassidy, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

John J. Charles, March 31, 1864; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

John H. Davis, 1861 ; discharged, date unknown. 

Elias Dexter, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Judson Davy, September 30, 1862 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

James A. Davis, September 30, 1862; transferred to company I, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 

Frank Duaenhaffer, November 4, 1862; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

John Dash, 1861 ; deserted, date unknown, 

Daniel Elmore, October 25, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

John Evans, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Henry Evans, 1861 ; deserted, date unknown. 

Alexander Funk, 1861 ; died, date unknown. 

Sidney Farley, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

John H. Ferguson, 1861 ; wounded at Port Republic June 9, 1862 ; trans- 
ferred to company K 1862. 

James H. Ferguson, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

William Frampton, September 30, 1862; not accounted for. 

John W. Frampton, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Isaac Frampton, March 31, 1864; not accounted for. 

John Green, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Abraham Glunt, 1861 ; died, date unknown. 

Joseph M. Gavitt, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

John G. Guthrie, November 4, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Edward Gibson, September 15, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Charles Gearhart, November 6, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Theo. J. Garretson, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Jacob Gilnett, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

John R. Gaston, March 31, 1864; not accounted for. 



142 History of Clearfield County. 

John Hoggencamp, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

William Hoffman, September 30, 1862; captured, died at Alexandria, Va., 
February 8, 1865, grave 2993. 

James Haas, October 6, 1862 ; transferred to company G, 5 7th P. V. Jan- 
uary 13, 1865. 

Jonathan Haas, September 15, 1862; transferred to company G, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 

George W. Harp, October 6, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Samuel Hughes, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Peter S. Hart, 1861 ; wounded on picket June 19, 1864; transferred to 
company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

George Hoffman, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

William Hagerty, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Uriah Haneigh 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

James Hepburn, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Jno. Heitzenrether, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Robert Harbridge, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Joel Hofford, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

James A. Haines, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Samuel Hare, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

William A, Hallowell, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Ephraim Hanes, March 3, 1864; not accounted for. 

Patrick Hagerty, March 30, 1864; not accounted for. 

Samuel H. Hulse, March 31, 1864; not accounted for. 

Samuel Johnson, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Chester T. Jackson, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

James Jefferson, September 29, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Jacob Kessler, September 30, 1862 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 

3, 1863. 

Levi Kessler, September 30, 1862 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Orlando Krigbaum, October 6, 1862 ; transferred to company G, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 

William Kratzer, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862, 

Robert L. Lydic, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Joseph L. Lydic, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Justice Lukins, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

David Luke, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

George Lloyd, September 15, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

A. B. Lawrence, September 15, 1862; transferred to company B. 

H. K. Lawrence, September 15, 1862 : transferred to company B. 

James M. Lewis, May 17, 1862; transferred to company H. 



Clearfield's Military History. 143 

Ellis Manes, 1861 ; deserted date unknown. 
Isaac Miller, 1861 ; deserted, date unknown. 

Orange J. Michaels, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

John Miles, 1861 ; discharged, date unknown. 

John Mark, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

James Mosher, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

George W. Marks, September 30, 1862 ; transferred to V. R. C; discharged 
July 5, 1865. 

Andrew J. Mosher, September 30, 1862 ; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

John L. Markles, September 30, 1862; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863 ; not accounted for. 

John Mosher, September 30, 1862; not accounted for. 

John P. Myers, September 30, 1862 ; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863 ; not accounted for. 

Amos J. Mitchell, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Virgil B.Mitchell, October 29, 1862; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863 ; not accounted for. 

Andrew J. Marks, September 30, 1862; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Jacob S. Miller, December 21, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Dennis Maghar, March 30, 1864; not accounted for. 

Daniel McGowen, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

John McAleer, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

F. McCracken, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Philip McCracken, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

WilHam McAfoose, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

Edwin North, September 30, 1862 ; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Samuel OHnger, 1861 ; died at Alexandria, Va., July 1862. 

William Oliver, September 30, 1862; not accounted for. 

Levi Ostrander, September 30, 1862; transferred to company I, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 

George C. Parsons, September 30, 1862; not accounted for. 

John Poudler, 1861 ; deserted, date unknown. 

Theodore Pardee, 1861 ; drowned at Hancock, Md., date unknown. 

Jackson Potter, 1861 ; died at Alexandria, Va., date unknown. 

Jacob Rup, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

James Reed, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Robert L. Rodkey, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

George W. Rogers, September 30, 1862 ; transferred to company K, 57th 
P. V. January 13, 1865. 



144 History of Clearfield County. 

Arthur Robbins, September 15, 1862; transferred to company B. 

Jacob Ramard, November 6, 1862 ; not accounted for, 

James Rue, March 31, 1864; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. Janu- 
ary 13, 1865. 

James G. Robinson, March 31, 1864; transferred to company K, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 

David L. SutHfif, September 30, 1862; died August i, 1864; buried in 
National Cemetery, Antietam, Md., section 26, lot D, grave 409. 

Joseph G. Sutlifif, September 30, 1862; died May 19, 1864; buried in Na- 
tional Cemetery, Arlington, Va. 

Jerome Skinner, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Bradley Sherwood, September 30, 1862 ; transferred to company I, 57th 
P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Jesse Scott, October 29, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

H. E. Schemerhorn, October 29, 1862; not accounted for. 

John Shister, September 15, 1862; not accounted for. 

Cyrus Stebbins, November 14, 1862; not accounted for. 

William Scott, September 15, 1862; not accounted for. 

John W. Simonton, 1861 ; captured, died at Richmond, Va., March 27, 
1864. 

Henry Sell, 1861 ; discharged, date unknown. 

Henry Stugart, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

John B. Shankle, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

D. F. Stanberger, 1861 ; deserted, date unknown. 

Robert Sayers, March 31, 1864; not accounted for. 

George Taylor, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Hamlet H. Taylor, March 31, 1864; transferred to company H, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 

Adam Ulrich, September 15, 1862; transferred to company B. 

John Varner, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Thomas Wisner, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Franklin Weaver, 1861 ; transferred to company K 1862. 

John Woodward, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Samuel C. White, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Osmer White, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

James Wright, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Samuel WilHams, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

George W. Welton, September 30, 1862 ; not accounted for. 

Moses Wood, September 30, 1862 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Henry D. Wood, September 30, 1862 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 145 

Richard Williams, September 30, 1862; not accounted for. 
Abraham Whipple, September 15, 1862 ; not accounted for. 
And. Wadsworth, September 27, 1862; not accounted for. 

Company K. 
Recridted in Clearfield County. 

Captahis. — Matthew Ogden, September 13, 1861 ; resigned November 20, 
1862. 

Jacob Peterman, November 20, 1862; killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863. 

Albert H. Nixon, October 24, 1861 ; captured at Bull Run, August, 1862 ; 
promoted from second lieutenant company I to first lieutenant January 18, 
1863 ; to captain July 28, 1863 ; captured at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863; 
wounded at Mine Run November 27, 1863, and at Cold Harbor, Va., with loss 
of arm, June i, 1864; promoted to brevet major and lieutenant-colonel March 
13, 1865. 

First Lieutenants. — Charles H. Volk, September 23, 1861 ; resigned July 

8, 1862. 

Luther B. Sampson, October 3, 1861 ; promoted to sergeant October 23, 
1861 ; to second lieutenant June 21, 1862; to first lieutenant May i, 1863 ; 
to captain company F September 3, 1864. 

Second Lieutenants. — John S. Jury, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant-major 
to second lieutenant October 3, 1864; to first lieutenant December 14, 1864; 
transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

John W. Taylor, September 14, 1861 ; resigned June 21, 1862. 

James B. Davidson, December 5, 1861 ; promoted from first sergeant July 
I, 1863; discharged April 30, 1864. 

James M. Lewis, May 17, 1862 ; promoted to second lieutenant November 
17, 1864; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

First Sergeant. — Isaac Manes, December 7, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant 
May 3, 1863 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865 ; vet- 
eran. 

Sergeants. — Peter A. Young, 1861 ; discharged November 24, 1862. 

Martin V. Pearce, 1861 ; deserted January 14, 1862. 

Daniel Graham, 1861 ; wounded and captured at Port Republic, Va., June 

9, 1862 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. 

George W. Ogden, 1861 ; discharged February 7, 1863. 
Wm. K. Armagast, 1861 ; died November 13, 1862. 
Charles Hall, 1861 ; killed at Deep Bottom, Va., August 16, 1864. 
William W. Alsbach, 1861 ; discharged February 7, 1863. 
Charles White, 1861 ; promoted from private; wounded and captured at 
Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. 



146 History of Clearfield County. 

James H. Ferguson, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. 

Robert H. Jamison, December 5, 1861 ; promoted from private; captured 
at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

Corporals. — William A. Nelson, October 24, 1861 ; captured at Chancel- 
lorsville, Va., May 3, 1863 ; wounded October 18, 1864; transferred to com- 
pany K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

Richard J. Conklin, 1861 ; deserted, date unknown. 

Simon HamUn, 1861 ; died at Cumberland, Md., May 30, 1862. 

John B. Miller, 1861 ; deserted February 7, 1862. 

Cornelius Wilson, 1861 ; died May 31, 1863. 

Joseph H. Barger, December 5, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863; wounded at Pleasant Hill June i, 1864; transferred to com- 
pany K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

George S. Kyler, 1861 ; discharged October 14, 1863. 

R. J. Shafifner, October 24, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

Matthew O. Tate, 1861 ; wounded and captured at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863. 

Wm. B. Hemphill, August 16, 1861 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 

Robert Harbridge, December 7, 1861 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865 5 veteran. 

Musicians. — Frederick H. Jordan, October 24, 1861 ; transferred to com- 
pany K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

William Taylor, October 24, 1861 ; discharged July 7, 1862. 

Privates. — Robert Archy, 1861 ; discharged 1862. 

John W, Antes, 1861 ; deserted, date unknown. 

Elijah Ashenfelter, 1861 ; died February 8, 1863. 

Perry Addleman, August 16, 1862 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Thomas Adams, 1861 ; died at Alexandria, Va., January 7, 1863, of wounds 
received at Port Republic June 9, 1863 ; grave 66"]. 

Joseph Apt, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Victor L. Abbott, April 7, 1864; wounded at Deep Bottom, Va., August 
15, 1864; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Otto C. Buck, 1 861 ; died November 20, 1864; buried in National Cem- 
etery, Arlington, Va. 

George Baughman, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

David Buck, 1861 ; discharged October '30 for wounds received at Bull 
Run, Va., August 30, 1862. 

Henry Bigham, 1861 ; wounded at Port Republic, Va., June 9, 1862. 



Clearfield's Military History. 147 

William Booze, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Samuel Bailey, 1861 ; discharged January 9, 1863. 

Newton Bailey, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Nelson Bliss, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

John Brimmer, 1861 ; discharged December 3, 1861. 

Henry C. Bowers, December 7, 1861 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865; veteran. 

Gemmil Baker, 1861 ; discharged March 3, 1863. 

George Baines, March 31, 1864; not accounted for. 

John R. Carr, 1861 ; discharged December 23 for wounds received at Win- 
chester, Va., March 23, 1862. 

Solomon Cupler, 1861 ; died at Harrisburg, Pa., January 5, 1862. 

Peter Curley, 1861 ; discharged, date unknown. 

Samuel Cross, 1861 ; discharged February 8, 1863. 

Michael Gulp, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C, date unknown. 

William Clonser, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Valentine Gulp, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

John B. Campbell, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

George W. Colmer, December 7, 1861 ; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Christopher Cassidy, 1861; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863; 
transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Johnson Cassidy, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Solomon Cassidy, December 7, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865; vet- 
eran. 

John Dash, 1861 ; transferred to company I. 

Levi Drocker, 1861 ; deserted, date unknown. 

Samuel B. Devore, October 24, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Roland Dixon, 1861 ; deserted October 14, 1861. 

Levi H. Derrick, March 4, 1864; wounded at Pleasant Hill. Va., June i, 
1864; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Robert Dane, March 4, 1864; wounded at Wilderness May 5, 1864; not 
accounted for. 

Alfred Everhart, April 7, 1864; wounded at Wilderness May 5, 1864; 
transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

John Fontenroy, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. 

Sidney Farley, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

John H. Ferguson, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

James Gomlic, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Robert Graham, October 24, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V.January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 



148 History of Clearfield County. 

James L. Graham, 1861 ; killed at Winchester, Va., March 23, 1862. 
John Grady, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Jacob Gilnett, December 7, 1861 ; killed at Pleasant Hill, Va., June i, 
1864; veteran. 

Edward Gilnett, 1861 ; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 

1862 ; not accounted for. 

James Garley ; discharged, date unknown. 

Theo. J. Garretson, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

John Green, 1861 ; killed at Mine Run, Va., November 27, 1863. 

Thos. Gouldsberry, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

James Gorman, 1861 ; wounded and captured at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863. 

Harvey H. Hite, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Henry C. Heise, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. 

Samuel Hare, December 7, 1861 ; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863, and Wilderness May 4, 1864; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865; veteran. 

Joel Hufiford, 1861 ; wounded and captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 

1863 ; discharged September 25, 1863. 
Samuel Hamlin ; died, date unknown. 

George Hoffman, 1861 ; wounded and captured at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863 ; not accounted for. 

Uriah Haneigh, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

James Hepburn, December 7, 1861 ; wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 
1864; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865 i veteran. 

William Hagerty, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Thomas H. Irvine, 1861 ; deserted, date unknown. 

Gratz M. Johnson, 1861 ; wounded at Cedar Mountain August 9, 1862, 
Bull Run August 30, 1862, and Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863; not ac- 
counted for. 

Samuel Johnson, December 7, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Ellis Kyler, 1861 ; discharged December 9 for wounds received at Port 
Republic, Va., June 9, 1862. 

Peter A. Kyler, 1861 ; died at Winchester, Va., June 7, 1862 ; burial in 
National Cemetery, lot 10. 

John Kennedy, 1861 ; discharged July 10, 1862. 

John Krise, 1861 ; deserted June 5, 1862. 

Joseph Kretzer, November 2, 1861 ; discharged November 18, 1864 — ex- 
piration of term. 

WiUiam Kretzer, 1861 ; killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. 

John Kesigle, 1861 ; wounded and captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863. 



Clearfield's Military History. 149 

William Luzier, 1861 ; wounded at Winchester, Va., March 23, 1862; not 
accounted for. 

Henry Lightner, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

John Luzier, October 24, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va„ May 3, 
1863, exchanged ; not accounted for; veteran. 

John Lytle, 1861 ; wounded and captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 
1863. 

Isaac Lyons, 1861 ; discharged February 11, 1863. 

Henry Lubold, December 5, 1861 ; wounded at Ceda rMountain August 9, 
1862, Bull Run August 30, 1862, Chancellorsville May 3, 1863, and Wilder- 
ness May 6, 1864; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865 l 
veteran. 

Mervin Ludlow, 1861 ; deserted June 16, 1862. 

Joseph Larrion ; killed June 19, 1864. 

Joseph L. Lydic, 1861 ; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863; 
not accounted for. 

• Robert L. Lydic, December 7, 1861 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 

James A. Meade, October 24, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865; veteran. 

Adam Miller, 1861 ; deserted February 7, 1862. 

James Maguire, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Miles Miller, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

George Morkret, December 5, 1861 ; transferred to company K, 58th P. V. 
January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

Jacob S. Miller, December 21, 1861 ; transferred to company I, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

William Moley ; killed at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864. 

Orange J. Michaels, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

John Mark, December 5, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 
1863 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

PhiHp McCracken, December 7, 1861 ; wounded at Cedar Mountain Au- 
gust 9, 1862, and Wilderness May 6, 1864; transferred to company K, 57th 
P. v., January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

WiUiam McAfoose, 1861 ; discharged January 9, 1863. 

Samuel McLaughlin, 1861 ; discharged March 9, 1863. 

John Nesemier, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C, date unknown. 

Christopher Netzel, October 2, 1862; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

William S. Ogden, 1861 ; discharged November 24, 1863. 

James W. Owens, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Henry C. Owens, 1861 ; wounded at Port Republic, Va., June 9, 1862; 
not accounted for. ^^ 



150 History of Clearfield County. 

Jonas L. Pownall, October 24, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865 I vet- 
eran. 

Andrew Peters, 1861 ; discharged July 4, 1862. 

James C. Reams, 1861 ; discharged February ii, 1863. 

Michael Reep, 1861 ; killed at Spottsylvania C. H., May I2, 1864. 

Isaac Robinson, 1861 ; died, date unknown. 

John Riddle, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Bretlan A. Reams, August 30, 1862 ; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

George W. Rowles, 1861 ; deserted October 14, 1861. 

John F. Rote, 1861 ; deserted September 25, 1861. 

Alexander Reed, 1861 ; wounded at Thoroughfare Gap, Va., August 28, 
1862 ; killed at Spottsylvania C. H. May 12, 1864. 

Jacob Reep, December 7, 1861 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

Robert L. Rodkey, December 7, 1861 ; wounded and captured at Chancel- 
ilorsville, Va., May 3, 1863 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V., January 
113, 1865 ; veteran. 

Samuel J. Rodkey, February 22. 1864; transferred to company K, 57th 
P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Daniel G. Smith, 1861 ; killed at Winchester, Va., March 23, 1862 ; buried 
in National Cemetery, lot 10. 

A. C. Spanogle, 1861 ; discharged, date unknown. 

John H. Shimel, October 24, 1861 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

Richard H. Shaw, 1861 ; promoted to hospital steward, date unknown. 

Samuel Snoddy, 1861 ; wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864; not 
accounted for. 

Michael Steibig, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

John Solomons, December 5, 1861 ; captured at Chancellorsville, Va., May 
3, 1863 ; wounded at Spottsylvania C. H. May 12, 1864; transferred to com- 
pany K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

Jacob Schooly, 1861 ; not accounted for. 

Nicholas Simpson, 1861 ; discharged February 21, 1863. 

Joseph F. Stoufifer, August 11, 1862; transferred to company K, 57th P. 
V. January 13, 1865. 

John B. Shankle, December 7, 1861 ; wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 
5, 1864, and Deep Bottom, August 15, 1864; transferred to company K, 57th 
P. V. January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 

Henry Stugart, 1861 ; discharged March 9, 1863. 

Charles Snyder, October 24, 1861 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865 ; veteran. 



Clearfield's Military History. 151 

John A. Shankle, March 31, 1864; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. 
January 13, 1865. 

John Thompson, October 24, 1861 ; transferred to company K, 57th P. V- 
January 13, 1865; veteran. 

Nathan B. Trade, March 31, 1864; wounded at Pleasant Hall, Va., June 
I, 1864; transferred to company K, 57th P. V. January 13, 1865. 

Jacob Wainright, 1861 ; killed at Winchester, Va., March 23, 1862 ; buried 
in National Cemetery, lot 9. 

Daniel K. Weld, 1861 ; discharged December 6, 1862. 

G. Waldenmyer, 1861 ; discharged, date unknown. 

Edward Welsh, 1861 ; discharged February 8, 1862. 

Franklin Weaver, 1861 ; wounded and captured at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863. 

John F. Weaver, March 31, 1864; not accounted for. 

Rudolph L. Young, August 30, 1862; wounded October 27, 1864; trans- 
ferred to company H. 

One Hundred and Fifth Regiment. 

To the formation of this regiment Clearfield county contributed parts of 
three companies. Company C was recruited in this and Clarion county ; Com- 
pany D in this and Allegheny county, and Company F was recruited in Indi- 
ana, Venango and Clearfield counties. 

Early in the month of August, 1861, Amor A. McKnight, who had seen 
service as one of the three months' men, was authorized to raise a regiment for 
the three years service. A major part of the recruiting offices were established 
in, and the men enlisted mainly from what was, at that time, known as the 
" Wild Cat" district, being the congressional district of which this county then 
formed a part. When a sufficient number were enlisted, and, as a matter of 
fact, the sturdy residents responded quickly and nobly to the call, an organiza- 
tion was completed, and field officers elected as follows : Amor A. McKnight, 
colonel ; W. W. Corbett, lieutenant-colonel ; M. M. Dick, major. The regi- 
ment rendezvoused at Pittsburgh, but were not long permitted to remain there, 
as, early in October the command was ordered to the front, and in pursuance 
thereof went to Washington and encamped for a brief time, and then moved to 
a point about one mile south of Alexandria, known as Camp Jameson, where 
they went into winter quarters. Here it was assigned to Jameson's Brigade^ 
which was made up in the main of Pennsylvania troops. 

In March following, 1862, they broke camp and were transported to Fort- 
ress Monroe, and immediately afterward participated in the siege of Yorktown, 
doing guard duty and suffering only from sickness caused by the unhealthful 
locality in which they were placed. Upon the evacuation of the place by the 
enemy, they joined in pursuit, and after a hard march through rain and mud 



152 History of Clearfield County. 

reached Williamsburg. The next day, May 4, they were advanced as skir- 
mishers, and planted the colors on the principal fort of the enemy. It was 
next engaged at Fair Oaks, where it got into exceedingly close quarters, but 
through the coolness and efficiency of the officers in command, and the brav- 
ery and determined fighting done by the men, it was eventually victorious, 
and escaped annihilation and capture, but not without serious loss and injury 
to officers and men. The result of this battle to the regiment was forty-one 
killed, one hundred and fifty wounded, and seventeen missing. Headley, in 
mentioning the part taken by the One Hundred and Fifth during the battle of 
Fair Oaks, says : " Napoleon's veterans never stood firmer during a devastat- 
ing fire." On the 26th and 27th of June following the regiment was again 
engaged at the battles of Mechanicsville and Gaines's Mill, but met with no 
serious loss. After this the army fell back and began a retreat to the James 
River, and Jameson's Brigade was placed under command of General Robin- 
son. During this retreat in which the Federal forces were hard pressed by the 
Confederates, the regiment was constantly under orders and frequently ex- 
posed to the enemy's fire. On the 30th, at Charles City Cross Roads, it had 
a sharp engagement with the rebels in repelling an attempt on the part of the 
latter to capture a battery, and in which the regiment lost fifty men in killed 
and wounded. At Malvern Hill, the next day, it was under a heavy artillery 
fire, but not closely engaged. At the close of the campaign on the Peninsula, 
the regiment was assigned to duty in guarding the railroad between Manassas 
and Warrenton Junction. At the Second Bull Run it was again hotly en- 
gaged and its ranks fearfully decimated by being in an open position and 
exposed to the deadly fire of the enemy, but nevertheless held firmly to its 
place in support of a battery. At sundown it was relieved and placed on 
picket duty until nearly midnight, and then moved to Centreville, where it lay 
until the 31st. General Kearney, in his report of the Second Bull Run fight, 
says: "The One Hundred and Fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers were not want- 
ing. They are Pennsylvanians — mountain men — again have they been fear- 
fully decimated. The desperate charge of these regiments sustains the past 
history of this division." 

Reduced in numbers, fatigued and worn, but retaining their characteristic 
bravery and determination, and willing to remain in active service at the front, 
the regiment was, at the close of Pope's campaign, ordered into the defenses of 
Washington, and remained there until after the battle of Antietam. On the 
28th of October following it moved to White's Ford, crossed the Potomac and 
proceeded to the Ball's Bluff battle ground, where for several days it was en- 
gaged in scouting expeditions in the vicinity of Leesburg and Millville. With 
the main army it then advanced to the Rappahannock, and on the 24th of 
November, reached Falmouth. On the 13th of December it crossed the river, 
and at a double quick went to the ^relief of the Pennsylvania Reserves, who 



Clearfield's Military History. 153 

were hotly engaged and hard pressed, and took a position in the rear of Ran- 
dolph's battery. At dusk it advanced and lay upon their arms in front of the 
battery for a space of thirty-six hours, within reach of, but concealed from the 
rebel sharpshooters, but was then relieved and returned to camp across the 
river. From this time until the latter part of January, 1863, the regiment 
remained in camp, and were then ordered to move, but owing to the impass- 
able condition of the roads, were compelled to return. 

The troops were reviewed by Governor Curtin on the 26th day of March, 
and on the lOth of April following were visited by President Lincoln and Gen- 
eral Hooker, the latter having now been advanced to the chief command. On 
the 28th of April the brigade to which the regiment was attached, started on 
the Chancellorsville campaign and occupied a prominent position in the en- 
gagements that followed, charging here and there in the thickest of the fight, 
constantly under the terrible fire of artillery and infantry, suffering every hard- 
ship known to modern warfare, until on the 5th of May it was ordered across 
the river to Falmouth. In killed, wounded, and missing the regiment lost in 
this battle an aggregate of seventy-seven men out of three hundred and forty- 
seven that entered, among the killed being the gallant Colonel McKnight. 
Then commenced the move to the northward, and the regiment reached the 
scene of Gettysburg on the night of July i, and on the day following Com- 
panies A, C, D, F, and I were deployed as skirmishers in support of the 
Sixty-third Regiment, where they remained until afternoon when they were 
called in, and with the regiment, took a position on the right of the brigade 
when the battle commenced. During the terrible battle that ensued the regi- 
ment behaved nobly, and fought as brave men can fight, first advancing and 
then retiring, officers and men alike being cut down under the merciless artillery 
and infantry fire, until at night, they took a position on the road connecting 
Cemetery Ridge with Round Top. Of two hundred and forty-seven men who 
went into this fight, the regiment lost in killed, wounded, and missing, one 
hundred and sixty-eight, more than half of its numerical strength. Of the 
conduct of the One Hundred and Fifth, Colonel Craig said: "We rallied some 
eight or ten times after the rest of the brigade had left us, and the boys fought 
hke demons. Their battle-cry was, Pennsylvania. I could handle them just 
as well on that field of battle as though they had been simply on drill. This 
is a state of perfection in discipline that is gained in but few regiments." 

Gettysburg over, after a series of movements, and a sharp brush at Au- 
burn, the regiment brought up at Fairfax Station, where for a brief time it 
was assigned to provost duty, but again advanced, and in the latter part of 
November took part in the battle of Locust Grove. At the close of the Mine 
Run campaign it went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. 

On the 28th of December two hundred and forty men, nearly the entire 
strength of the regiment, re-enlisted, and were given a veteran furlough. 
While away about fifty recruits were obtained. 



154 History of Clearfield County. 

Early in May of the succeeding year preparations for the spring campaign 
were completed, and refreshed and recruited the regiment moved with the 
army to participate in the memorable seven- days battle of the Wilderness. 
The results accomplished here fully maintained the reputation and fighting: 
ability of the One Hundred and Fifth. Their grand cotip de main on the I2th 
was a crowning glory, and by it there fell into the hands of the Federal troops 
five thousand prisoners, besides artillery and small arms. Next came Peters- 
burg, in which it took part, and after that the raid on the Weldon Railroad. 
July 26 the regiment participated in the movement across the James River, 
and returned in time to be of good service during the events that followed, but 
suffered severe losses. Colonel Craig was mortally wounded and died a day 
later. In the various attacks on the Weldon Railroad that followed during 
the fall and early winter, it took a lively part, after which it again went into 
winter quarters. 

The next spring, 1865, the regiment engaged at Hatcher's Run and Sailor's 
Creek, and upon the surrender of General Lee marched, by way of Richmond, 
to Bailey's Cross Roads, where it encamped. On June 23 it marched in the 
grand review at Washington, and on the nth of July was finally mustered out 
of service. During its service in the field this regiment lost two colonels, two 
lieutenant-colonels, one major, five captains, and five lieutenants were killed in 
action, or died from wounds so received. At the final muster out not an offi- 
cer, and but a handful of the men who originally marched with the regiment 
remained. 

Field and Staff. 

Colonels. — Amor A. McKnight, October 12, 1861 ; wounded at Fair Oaks 
May 31, 1862; resigned July 28, 1862 ; recommissioned September 20, 1862 ; 
killed at Chancellorsville May 3, 1863. 

Calvin A. Craig, August 28, 1861 ; promoted from captain company C to 
lieutenant-colonel April 20, 1863 ; to colonel May 4, 1863 ; wounded at Get- 
tysburg July 2, 1863, at Wilderness May 5, 1864, and at Petersburg June,. 
1864; died August 17 of wounds received at Deep Bottom August 16, 1864. 

James Miller, October 23, 1861 ; promoted from captain company K to 
major January 14, 1865 ; to colonel May 15, 1865 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment July II, 1865; veteran. 

Lieutenant- Colo7iels. — William W. Corbet, October 12, 1861 ; commis- 
sioned colonel July 29, 1862, not mustered ; resigned September 10, 1862. 

J. W. Greenawalt, September 4, 1861 ; promoted from captain company E 
to major November 29, 1862; to lieutenant-colonel May 4, 1863 ; died May 
17 of wounds received at Wilderness May 5, 1864. 

Oliver C, Reddic, September i, 1861 ; promoted from captain company I 
May 15, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment July 11, 1865 ; veteran. 



Clearfield's Military History. 155 

Majors. — Mungo M. Dick, September 4, 1861 ; promoted from captain 
company E September 20, 1861 ; resigned August 9, 1862. 

Levi Bird Duff, May i, 1861 ; promoted from captain company D May 4, 
1863; commissioned lieutenant-colonel May 18, 1864, not mustered; dis- 
charged October 25 for wounds, with loss of leg, received at Petersburg June 
18, 1864. 

Adjutants. — Orlando Gray, August 29, 1861 ; promoted from first lieu- 
tenant company H September 15, 1861 ; resigned August 26, 1862. 

John H. Woodward, September 4, 1861 ; promoted from private company 
E to principal musician October i, 1861 ; to sergeant-major; to adjutant Au- 
gust 27, 1862 ; to first lieutenant company G November 27, 1862. 

Hillis McKown, October 24, 1861 ; promoted from private company C to 
sergeant-major February 10, 1863; to adjutant September 28, 1864; mus- 
tered out with regiment July ii, 1865 ; veteran. 

Qiiartermasters. — Robert J. Nicholson, September 9, 1861 ; promoted from 
first lieutenant company B October i, 1861 ; resigned October 16, 1862. 

Harrison M. Coon, October 25, 1861 ; promoted from private company G 
to quartermaster- sergeant October 26, 1861 ; to quartermaster November 27, 
1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate August 8, 1864. 

Joseph G. Craig, September 15, 1861 ; promoted from first lieutenant com- 
pany C to adjutant March 28, 1863; to quartermaster September 28, 1864; 
mustered out with regiment July 11, 1865. 

Surgeons. — Alexander P. Heichhold, October 23, 1861 ; resigned Septem- 
ber 12, 1862. 

William Watson, September 16, 1862 ; discharged by general order May 
2^, 1865. 

Adam Wenger, November 7, 1862 ; promoted from assistant surgeon June 
2, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment July ii, 1865. 

Assistant Surgeons. — William F. Smith, October 15, 1861 ; resigned Sep- 
tember 12, 1862. 

George W. Ewing, August 4, 1862; promoted to surgeon 115th P. V. 
April 7, 1863. 

Aaron C. Vaughn, May 15, 1863 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Sep- 
tember 3, 1864. 

Joseph Taylor, June 7, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment July 11, 1865. 

Chaplains. — Darius S. Steadman, October 12, 1861 ; resigned June 23, 1862. 

John C. Truesdale, June i, 1864; mustered out with regiment July 11, 
1865. 

Sergeant-Majors. — W. H. McLaughlin, October 23, 1861 ; transferred to 
company H July I, 1862. 

George Van Vliet, October 23, 1861 ; promoted from first sergeant com- 
pany I to sergeant-major June 5, 1862 ; to first Heutenant company H July 11, 
1862. 



156 History of Clearfield County. 

Robert J. Boyington, October 5, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant company 
I; to second lieutenant company I February 6, 1863. 

Tilton Reynolds, September i, 1861 ; promoted from private company H 
September 28, 1864; to captain company H November 24, 1864; veteran. 

Ivester H. Dean, February 29, 1864; promoted from corporal company K 
November 24, 1864; mustered out with regiment July ii, 1865 ; veteran. 

Quartermaster Sergea^its. — Fleming Y. Caldwell, September 9, 1861; pro- 
moted from private company A to commissary sergeant September 20, 1861 ; 
to quartermaster-sergeant January 7, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment July 
II, 1865 ; veteran. 

Benj. M. Staufifer, October 25, 1861 ; promoted from private company G 
November i, 1862; mustered out with regiment July 11, 1865; veteran. 

Hospital Stezvard. — Charles D. Shrieves, December 16, 1861 ; mustered 
out with regiment July 11, 1865 ; veteran. 

Commissary Sergeants. — John Coon, October 25, 1861 ; promoted from 
private company G January 7, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment July 11, 
1865 ; veteran. 

D. R. Crawford, October 23, 1861; discharged September 25, 1864; vet- 
eran. 

Principal Musicians. — Andrew McKown, August 28, 1861 ; promoted 
from corporal company D August 28, 1863; mustered out, expiration of term. 

Eli B. Clemson, August 28, 1861 ; promoted from private company D 
September i, 1864; mustered out with regiment July 11, 1865 ; veteran. 

Joseph Lichtenberger, August i, 1861 ; mustered out with regiment July 
1 1, 1865 ; veteran. 

James H. Craig, October 24, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant company C 
August 28, 1864; discharged September 25, 1864; veteran. 

Company C. 
Recruited in Clearfield and Clarion Counties 

Captains. — Calvin A. Craig, August 28, 1861; wounded at Bull Run Au- 
gust 29, 1862 ; promoted to lieutenant-colonel April 20, 1863. 

Charles E. Patton, August 28, 1861 ; promoted from first lieutenant April 
20, 1863 ; killed at Boydton Plank Road October 27, 1864. 

Joseph B. Brown, October 21, 1861 ; promoted to corporal December i, 
1861 ; to sergeant January i, 1862 ; to first sergeant October 3, 1863 ; to first 
lieutenant March i, 1864; to captain November 7, 1864; mustered out with 
company July 11, 1865. 

First Lieutenants. — Joseph Craig, September 15, 1861 ; promoted to first 
lieutenant July 29, 1862; to adjutant March 28, 1863. 

William H. Hewitt, August 31, 1861 ; promoted to first lieutenant May 
14, 1863 ; discharged by general order May 19, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 157 

Richard G. Warden, August 26, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant to first 
sergeant November i, 1864; to first lieutenant June 8, 1865 ; mustered out 
with company July il, 1865 ; veteran. 

Second Lieutenants. — Isaac A. Dunston, October 25, 1861; promoted from 
first sergeant July 29, 1862 ; to second lieutenant May r, 1863 ; died August 
2, of wounds received at Gettysburg July 2, 1863. 

Henry H. Michaels, October 25, 1861 ; promoted to corporal April i, 
1864; to sergeant November i, 1864; to second lieutenant June 8, 1865; 
mustered out with company July 11, 1865 ; veteran. 

First Sergeants. — John R. Osborn, January 4, 1864; promoted to cor- 
poral January i, 1865 ; to first sergeant June 8, 1865 ; mustered out with com- 
pany July II, 1865; veteran. 

Addison Lau, September 12, 1861 ; died June 17 of wounds received at 
North Anna River May 23, 1864; veteran. 

George Laing, December 24, 1863; promoted from sergeant September 
15, 1864; commissioned second Heutenant October 22, 1864, not mustered ; 
discharged by general order May 17, 1865 ; veteran. 

David H. McCauley, December 24, 1863; promoted from sergeant March 
I, 1864; discharged February 22, 1865; veteran. 

Sergeants. — Charles C. Weaver, October 25, 1861 ; promoted to corporal 
April I, 1864; to sergeant August 28, 1864; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865; veteran. 

Samuel H. Mays, October 25, 1861 ; promoted to corporal August 28, 
1864; to sergeant May 17, 1865 ; mustered out with company July ii, 1865 ; 
veteran. 

James E. Lafiferty, October 25, 1861 ; promoted to corporal August 28, 
1864; to sergeant May 29, 1865 ; mustered out with company July 11, 1865 ; 
veteran. 

Horace H. Ferman, December 24, 1863 ; promoted from corporal June i, 
1864; discharged February 22, 1865 ; veteran. 

Charles Rodgers, September 9, 1863 ; drafted ; promoted to corporal Jan- 
uary I, 1865 ; to sergeant June 8, 1865 ; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

Samuel Lattimore, December 24, 1863 ; wounded at Petersburg June 21, 
1864; discharged February 22, 1865 ; veteran. 

John H. Piersall, December 24, 1863 ; promoted from private June i, 
1864; discharged February 22, 1865 ; veteran. 

William D. Lyttle, December 24, 1863; promoted from private January 
24, 1864; discharged February 22, 1865; veteran. 

Stewart Orr, October 25, 1861 ; promoted to corporal April i, 1864; to 
sergeant August 28, 1864; discharged by general order May 29, 1865 ; vet- 
eran. 

21 



158 History of Clearfield County. 

William McNutt, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
February 4, 1863. 

John Clary, August 28, 1861 ; promoted from corporal April i, 1863 ; dis- 
charged August 28, 1864 — expiration of term. 

Andrew A. Harley, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal April i, 1863 ; 
to sergeant May i, 1863 ; discharged August 28, 1864 — expiration of term. 

James H. Craig, October 24, 1861 ; promoted to principal musician Au- 
gust 28, 1864; veteran. 

William P. Lowry, October 24, 1861; transferred to V. R. C. December 

I, 1864; veteran. 

Corporals. — Isaac G. Miller, October 21, 1861 ; promoted to corporal June, 
1864; mustered out with company July il, 1865 ; veteran. 

John Ashbaugh, July 17, 1863 ; drafted; promoted to corporal January i, 
1865 ; mustered out with company July 11, 1865. 

Eli H. Chilson, October 21, 1861 ; promoted to corporal June i, 1864; 
mustered out with company July 11, 1865 ; veteran. 

Isaac Lyle, October 16, 1861 ; promoted to corporal May 29, 1865 ; mus- 
tered out with company July 11, 1865 ; veteran. 

Aaron Young, February 12, 1864; promoted to corporal June 8, 1865; 
mustered out with company July 11, 1865. 

James W. Watkins, February 18, 1864; promoted to corporal June 8, 
1865 ; mustered out with company July 11, 1865. 

John H. Hager, July 16, 1863; drafted; promoted to corporal June 8, 
1865 ; mustered out with company July 11, 1865. 

James B. AUison, October 21, 1861 ; died at White Oak Swamp June 28, 
1862. 

Richard M. Rockey, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
June 16, 1862. 

Samuel James, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Au- 
gust 7, 1862. 

Edward Keefer, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
September 26, 1862. 

James W. Spears, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
September i, 1862. 

Andrew G. Sager, October 23, 1861 ; promoted to corporal August 28, 
1864; discharged by general order June 6, 1865 ; veteran. 

George Warden, January 4, 1864; transferred to V. R. C. December 28, 
1864; veteran. 

William Whipple, August 28, 1861 ; not on muster-out roll. 

Musicians. — Andrew Stedham, December 25, 1863; mustered out with 
company July 11, 1865; veteran. 

Charles F. Cross, December 25, 1863; mustered out with company July 

II, 1865 ; veteran. 



Clearfield's Military History. 159 

Privates. — Robert Allen, April 22, 1864; mustered out with company- 
July II, 1865. 

T. T. Armagost, October 24, 1861 ; died at Savage Station July i, 1862. 

James A. Ardery, October 24, 1861 ; deserted December 15, 1862. 

William Allshouse, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 27, 1864 — ex- 
piration of term. 

David Allison, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, Au- 
gust 13, 1862. 

Levi Allshouse, July 17, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

Robert E. Alexander, February 29, 1864; absent, sick, at muster out. 

F. M. Bookwalter, February 15, 1864; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

George A. Brown, July 16, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Levi Bush, September 7, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

James Biggins, March 31, 1864; wounded in action June 16, 1864 — ex- 
piration of term. 

George W. Bennett, December 31, 1861 ; died at Chester, Pa., August 5, 
of wounds received at Charles City Cross Roads, Va., June 30, 1862. 

John Burton, July 30, 1864; drafted; missing in action near Hatcher's 
Run March 29, 1865. 

Wm. H. Bookwalter, April 8, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 20, 1862. 

F. O. Bookwalter, April 8, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate January 
6, 1863. 

Wm. Bunnel, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 
28, 1863. 

Charles L. Brooks, September 9, 1863 ; drafted ; discharged January 21, 
1865, for wounds received in action September 4, 1864. 

Hezekiah Bowser, February 11, 1864; discharged by general order June 
5, 1865. 

Benn Bannister, September 5, 1861 ; deserted; returned; discharged by 
general order May 17, 1865. 

Wm. J. Crick, October 25, 1861 ; deserted ; returned; mustered out with 
company July 11, 1865. 

Simon Crandall, March 29, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

E. P. Cochran, February 22, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

Craig Carnery, July 13, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 



i6o History of Clearfield County. 

John C. Church, July ii, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

Benj, F. Coursin, July 18, 1863; drafted; discharged by general order July 

27, 1865. 

A.J. Cyphert, April 12, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate No- 
vember 25, 1862. 

Jesse R. Craig, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Jan- 
uary 29, 1863. 

George Clinger, April 8, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 

28, 1863. 

David Cyphert, April 8, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate August 
17, 1863. 

George G. Cyphert, October 24, 1861 ; discharged May 27, 1864, for 
wounds received at Chancellorsville May 2, 1863. 

James K. Cyphert, April 12, 1862; discharged April 18, 1865 — expira- 
tion of term. 

George Camp, July 10, 1864; drafted ; discharged by general order June 
13, 1865. 

M. G. DeVallance, April 9, 1864; wounded in action June 16, 1864; mus- 
tered out with company July il, 1865. 

George Dugan, October 25, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865 ; veteran. 

John Divinne, June 14, 1864; drafted; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

Geo. W. Davis, October 24, 1861 ; died at Camp Franklin, Va., December 
5, 1861. 

James Day, September 8, 1863 ; drafted; deserted May 3, 1864. 

John Divine, April 14, 1864; discharged by general order May 29, 1865. 

David Dugan, August 28, 1861 ; discharged March i, 1865 for wounds 
received at Deep Bottom August 16, 1864; veteran. 

James Devanny, July 16, 1863; drafted; transferred to company D Feb- 
ruary 26, 1864. 

Andrew Dougan, February 29, 1864; not on muster-out roll. 

William O. Easton, March i, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

Andrew Eicher, July 16, 1864; drafted; transferred to company D Feb- 
ruary 26, 1864. 

Edward Floyd, April 13, 1864; wounded at Opequan August 16, 1864; 
mustered out with company July ii, 1865. 

Alanson R. Felt, April 9, 1864; mustered out with compan}'- July 11, 
1865 ; veteran. 

WiUiam George, July 18, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. i6i 

Archibald George, October 25, 1861 ; absent on furlough at muster out; 
veteran. 

E. A. Gooderham, October 24, 1861 ; killed at Malvern Hill July i, 1862. 
John Goodman, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
February 11, 1863. 

John Gould, June 17, 1864; drafted; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
March 18, 1865. 

Albert Gordon, July 28, 1864; discharged by general order May 22, 1865. 

Richard Holland, July 29, 1864; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Lee Hileman, September 16, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Samuel Harrison, sr., July 10, 1863 ; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

Miles Haden, February 24, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

Lebanah H. Hetrick, July 1863; drafted; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

James A. Harley, October 25, 1861 ; deserted; returned; mustered out 
with company July 11, 1865. 

Charles Hammond, June 10, 1864; substitute; absent, sick, at muster out. 

George Hilbert, October 25, 1861 ; wounded at Wilderness May 5, 1864; 
absent at muster out ; veteran. 

Henry Hamma, January 4, 1864 ; wounded at Boydton Plank Road Octo- 
ber 27, 1864 ; absent at muster out ; veteran. 

Edward Harrison, October 24, 1861 ; died at Philadelphia December 12, 
1862. 

Joseph L. Harley, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 28, 1864— expi- 
ration of term. 

J. W. T. Hollopiter, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 28, 1864— ex- 
piration of term. 

David Hetrick, April 8, 1862; discharged April 8, 1865— expiration of 
term. 

Ami Hager. July 16, 1853 ; drafted ; discharged by general order May 29, 
1865. 

William Hamma, October, 1861 ; transferred to company D February 26, 
1864; veteran. 

Robert Hunter, August i, 1861 ; transferred to company D February 26, 
1864. 

John Isaman, July 18, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

John Ingham, March 10, 1864; wounded at Wilderness May 5, 1864; 
absent at muster out. 



i62 History of Clearfield County. 

John C. Johnson, April 9, 1864; wounded at Wilderness May 6, 1864; 
absent at muster out. 

Jesse Kearnighan, March 29, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

David Kidder, July 11, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

Samuel Keifer, October 25, 1861 ; absent on furlough at muster out; vet- 
eran. 

M. S. Kirkpatrick, April 8, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb- 
ruary II, 1863. 

Patrick Long, March 4, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 1865. 

Thomas B. Lines, March 16, 1864; missing in action at Wilderness May 
6, 1864. 

John Mott, October 16, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 11, 1865 ; 
veteran. 

Robert Moore, March 24, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

William Mattis, March 20, 1865 ; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

John Mays, October 24, 1861 ; died September 8 of wounds received at 
Bull Run August 29, 1862. 

David Michael, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Au- 
gust ID, 1862. 

John Mills, February 26, 1864; discharged by general order May 29, 
1865. 

Obediah Miles, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 19, 1862. 

Thomas M. Mitchell, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 28, 1864 — ex- 
piration of term. 

David Mitchell, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April II, 1863. 

Edwin Marquis, July 24, 1863 ; drafted; transferred to company D Feb- 
ruary 26, 1864. 

Allen Morrison, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 11, 1863. 

James Maloy, October 24, 1861 ; discharged October 24 for wounds re- 
ceived at Charles City Cross Roads June 30, 1862. 

Jno. W. McCormick, October 24, 1861 ; killed at Spottsylvania Court- 
House May 12, 1864. 

Henry McCormick, October 24, 1861 ; died of wounds received at Bull 
Run August 29, 1862. 

Geo. D. Funkhouser, January 4, 1864; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865 ; veteran. 



Clearfield's Military History. 163 

Wm. H. Fetter, February 27, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

Jacob Fry, October 24, 1861 ; killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863 ; buried 
in National Cemetery, section C, grave 90. 

John M. Fry, October 24, 1861 ; died at Alexandria December 18, 1861 ; 
burial record, died at Alexandria, Va., December 11, 1863, grave 1164. 

David Fleck, October 24, 1861 ; died at Camp Jameson, Va., January 18, 
1862 ; burial record, died at Alexandria, Va., December 9, 1863, grave 11 39. 

Perry C. Fox, April 9, 1864; missing in action near Petersburg June 22, 
1864. 

David Girts, February 4, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865 ; veteran. 

George McGlaughlin, October 24, 1861 ; died July 11 of wounds received 
at Fair Oaks May 31, 1862. 

Ab'm McGlaughlin, October 24, 1861 ; died at Philadelphia June 25, 1862 ; 
burial record, September 28, 1862. 

Robert McFadden, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
October 4, 1862. 

David McKown, July 17, 1863; drafted; discharged by general order 
May 29, 1865. 

Ross McCoy, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate No- 
vember 8, 1862. 

Hillis McKown, October 24, 1861 ; promoted to sergeant-major February 
10, 1863. 

Isaac McCuUough, September 9, 1861 ; not on muster-out roll. 

David P. Nail, October 24, 1861 ; killed at Auburn, Va., October 13, 
1863. 

Adam Nufif, April 18, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate October 
22, 1862. 

Wm. J. Newgant, September 9, 1861 ; not on muster-out roll. 

Jacob S. Oburn, July 29, 1864; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Joseph R. Ogden, February 26, 1864; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Robert Owens, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Jan- 
uary 20, 1865 ; veteran. 

George W. Peck, March 20, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

Michael Phillips, March 29, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

Coleman E. Parris, April 9, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

William Pike, April 29, 1864; wounded at Petersburg June 15, 1864; ab- 
sent at muster out. 



i64 History of Clearfield County. 

Frederick Peters, December 24, 1863 ; killed at Hatcher's Run March 25, 
1865. 

Jonathan Pierce, October 24, 1861 ; died June 23 of wounds received at 
Wilderness May 5, 1864; veteran. 

Oliver N. Powell, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
August 6, 1862. 

Jacob F. Phillips, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
February 20, 1863. 

John Palmer, September 9, 1863; drafted; transferred to company D 
February 26, 1863. 

F. Rumbarger, July 29, 1864; substitute; discharged by general order 
May 29, 1865. 

Abraham J. Riggles, December 27, 1863; deserted; returned; mustered 
out with company July ii, 1865. 

Edgar E. Riddell, September 30; wounded at Wilderness May 6, 1864; 
absent at muster out. 

David Richards, March 10, 1864; wounded at Spottsylvania C. H. May 

10, 1864 ; absent at muster out. 

George Reich, April 18, 1862 ; wounded at Mine Run November 27, 1863 ; 
discharged April 10, 1865. 

Jeremiah Rhodes, October 24, 1861 ; died July 16 of wounds received at 
Gettysburg July 3, 1863 ; buried in National Cemetery, section A, grave ^J. 

William Rockey, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 27, 1 864-^expira- 
tion of term. 

Isaac N. Rainey, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 24, 1863. 

John S. Rockey, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Au- 
gust 20, 1863. 

David P. Reich, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 3. 1862. 

Joseph Kinsel, March 23, 1864; transferred to company D February 26, 
1865. 

John Scott, October 25, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 11, 1865 ; 
veteran. 

Emery E. Stitt, July 17, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company July 

11, 1865. 

William C. Smith, July 17, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

George W. Saunders, September 30, 1861 ; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865 ; veteran. 

Michael Shanhan, September 30, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865 ; veteran. 



Clearfield's Military History. 165 

David R. Shannon, February 13, 1864; wounded at Wilderness May 6, 
1864; absent at muster out. 

David Shagel, July 18, 1863; drafted; wounded at Wilderness May 6, 
1864; discharged by general order July 19, 1865. 

Ami Sibley, April 7, 1864; wounded at Wilderness May 5, 1864; absent 
at muster out. 

Barnard Smith, March 10, 1864; wounded at Wilderness May 5, 1864; 
absent at muster out. 

Philip Smith, October 24, 1861 ; killed at Wilderness May 5, 1864; vet- 
eran. 

Templeton Sayers, October 24, 1861 ; died at Camp Jameson, Va., No- 
vember 30, 1 861. 

James Sallinger, October 24, 1861 ; died at Harrison's Landing July 8, 
1862. 

James Schofield, October 24, 1861 ; died near Alexandria October 7, 
1862. 

Jacob Sealor, October 24, 1861 ; died at Point Lookout August 16, 1862. 

John Shields, April 27, 1864; missing in action near Petersburg June 22, 
1864. 

James Stephenson, July 2, 1863 ; drafted ; deserted January 10, 1865. 

William Speady, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 27, 1864 — expira- 
tion of term. 

Daniel Sarver, August 22, 1862 ; discharged by general order May 29, 
1865. 

Francis Snyder, July 16, 1863 ; drafted; discharged January 2, 1865, for 
wounds received at Wilderness May 6, 1864. 

Francis Smith, April 8, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate August 
7, 1862. 

George Settlemoyer, December 31, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate August 7, 1862. 

John Sollinger, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate De- 
cember 18, 1862. 

Palmer J. Stephens, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 15, 1863. 

Jackson Spears, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate May 
29, 1863. 

H. Schreckengost, October 24, 1861 ; discharged December 22 for wounds 
received at Chancellorsville May 3, 1863. 

George Stokes, February 29, 1864; transferred to company D February 
26, 1864 ; veteran. 

John Smith, July 11, 1863 ; drafted ; transferred to company D February 
26, 1864. 



i66 History of Clearfield County. 

John Stedham, August i, 1861 ; transferred to company D February 26, 
1864. 

Peter L. Smith, September 9, 1861 ; not on muster-out roll. 

Thomas M. Tanthnger, August 2, 1864; substitute; died at Washington 
April 4, 1865 ; burial record, March 27, 1865 ; buried in National Cemetery, 
Arlington, Va. 

John H. Twining, March 26, 1864; missing in action at Wilderness May 
6, 1864. 

Isaac Turner, June 7, 1864; substitute; transferred to V. R. C. Septem- 
ber 25, 1864. 

Wm. W. Vaneps, March ri, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

Philip W. Welch, June 22, 1864; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Alexander Walker, September 9, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with com- 
pany July II, 1865. 

Samuel F. Williams, September 30, 1861 ; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865 ; veteran. 

William C. Wilson, June 30, 1864; substitute; killed at Deep Bottom 
August 16, 1864; burial record, died at Philadelphia September 16, 1864. 

John A. L. Wilson, March 25, 1864; died at City Point January 24, 1865. 

James Woods, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Sep- 
tember 26, 1862. 

Samuel Walker, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April 14, 1862. 

William Westover, October 24, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
February 17, 1863. 

John Withrow, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 27, 1864 — expiration 
of term. 

Thomas F. Wilson February 29, 1864; transferred to company D Febru- 
ary 26, 1865. 

Abraham Young, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 27, 1864 — ex- 
piration of term. 

Company D. 

Recruited in Alleghejiy and Clearfield Counties. 

Captains. — John Rose, August 28, 1861 ; resigned January 27, 1862. 

Levi Bird Duff, May i, 1861 ; wounded at Fair Oaks May 31, 1862 ; pro- 
moted from corporal company A, 38th P. V. February 8, 1862; to major May 
4, 1863. 

Isaac L. Piatt, August 28, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant to first sergeant 
January 28, 1862 ; to first lieutenant July i, 1862 ; to captain April 21, 1864; 
discharged Octobers, 1864 — expiration of term. 



Clearfield's Military History. 167 

William Kelly, August 28, 1861; promoted to corporal February 28, 1862; 
to sergeant July i, 1862 ; to first sergeant July i, 1863 ; to captain November 

26, 1864; mustered out with company July ii, 1865 ; veteran. 

First Lieutenants. — Wm. W. Worrell, August 28, 1861 ; resigned January 

27, 1862. 

J. P. R. Cummisky, February 6, 1862 ; killed at Fair Oaks May 31, 1862. 

Joseph L. Evans, September 12, 1861 ; promoted to second lieutenant 
December 15, 1864; to first lieutenant May 15, 1865; mustered out with 
company July ii, 1865; veteran. 

Horace Warner, December i, 1864; promoted from 2d U. S. Sharp- 
shooters February 18, 1865; discharged March 15, 1865. 

Second Lieutenants. — Charles C. Wilson, August 28, 1861 ; resigned Jan- 
uary 27, 1862. 

George Gibson, August i. 1861 ; promoted from first sergeant December 

I, 1864; to second Heutenant May 15, 1865; mustered out with company July 

II, 1865 ; veteran. 

Charles H. Powers, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to first sergeant August 
31, 1861 ; to second lieutenant January 28, 1862; killed at Chancellorsville 
May 3, 1863. 

James Silvis, August 28, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant to first sergeant 
November i, 1862; to second Heutenant July i, 1863; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate August 6, 1864. 

First Sergeants. — J. K. P. McCullough, August i, 1861 ; promoted to ser- 
geant November 26, 1864; to first sergeant May 15, 1865 ; mustered out with 
company July ii, 1865; veteran. 

Sergeants. — John McKindig, August i, 1861 ; promoted to sergeant No- 
vember 26, 1864 ; mustered out with company July ii, 1865 ; veteran. 

George O. Riggs, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal December 31, 
1864; to sergeant May 15, 1865 ; mustered out with company July 11, 1865; 
veteran. 

Wm. C. McGarvy, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal December i, 
1862 ; to sergeant May 15, 1865 ; mustered out with company July ii, 1865; 
veteran. 

Milton Craven, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal April 30, 1863 ; 
to sergeant March i, 1864; wounded, with loss of arm, at Wilderness May 6, 
1864 ; absent in hospital at muster out ; veteran. 

Ebenezer Bullers, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal July, 1862 ; to 
sergeant April i, 1863 ; discharged August 28, 1864 — expiration of term. 

John C. Johnson, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to sergeant July i, 1862; 
discharged on surgeon's certificate February i, 1863. 

Mahlon B. Loux, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal March i, 1862; 
to sergeant June 30, 1863 ; discharged August 28, 1864 — expiration of term. 



1 68 History of Clearfield County. 

Isaac M. Temple, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 30, 1862. 

Corporals. — Joseph F. Wolford, August i, 1861 ; promoted to corporal 
December 31, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 1865 ; veteran. 

John R. Shaffer, August 28, 1861 ; promoted corporal December 31, 1864; 
mustered out with company July 11, 1865 ; veteran. 

Robert Scott, February 10, 1864; promoted to corporal December 31, 
1864; mustered out with company July ii, 1865 ; veteran. 

James Hare, August i, 1861 ; promoted to corporal March I, 1865 ; mus- 
tered out with company July ii, 1865 ; veteran. 

Osborn Hod, February 28, 1864; promoted to corporal May 15, 1865 ; 
mustered out with company July ii, 1865. 

Edward Kline, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal May 15, 1865; 
mustered out with company July ii, 1865 ; veteran. 

Daniel R. Snyder, August 28, 1861 ; died June i of wounds received at 
Wilderness May 6, 1864; veteran. 

James H. Green, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 2, 1862. 

Gilbraith Patterson, August 28, 1861 ; died December 6, 1864. 

Charles E. Hoel, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal April 30, 1863 ; 
wounded at Wilderness May 6, and with loss of arm at Spottsylvania C. H. 
May 10, 1864; discharged August 28, 1864 — expiration of term. 

John B. Horning, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 8, 1863. 

Darius Vastbinder, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal March i, 1865 ; 
discharged by general order May 29, 1865. 

D. H. Paulhamus August 28, 1861 ; discharged December 10, for wounds 
received at Gettysburg July 2, 1863. 

Andrew McKown, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to principal musician Au- 
gust 28, 1863. 

Jerome B. Taylor, August 28, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. October 2, 
1863. 

Privates. — Milton J. Adams, March 21, 1864; wounded at Spottsylvania 
C. H. May 12, 1864; absent in hospital at muster out; veteran. 

Benjamin F. Alexander, April 18, 1864; discharged by general order June 
24, 1865. 

Amos Ashkettle, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April 4, 1862. 

Ebenezer O. Bartlett, August 28, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865 ; veteran. 

John Berchtold, June 13, 1864; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

John Bickerton, July 16, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 169 

Philip Black, March 31, 1864; mustered out with company July ii, 1865. 

Daniel Bowers, March 31, 1864; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865. 

John Boyle, August i, 1861 ; mustered out with company July ii, 1865 ; 
veteran. 

John Becker, September 7, 1863 ; drafted; wounded at Wilderness May 
6, 1864 ; absent in hospital at muster out. 

David Bell, August 28, 1861 ; died June 23 — burial record, June 26 — of 
wounds received at Fair Oaks May 31, 1862 ; buried in Cypress Hill Ceme- 
tery, L. I. 

Richard Bedell, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 28, 1864 — expira- 
tion of term. 

Silas Bouse, August 28, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. November i, 1863 ; 
returned June 25, 1864; discharged August 28, 1864 — expiration of term. 

Oliver P. Boyd, July 1 1, 1863 ; drafted ; discharged by general order June 
6, 1865. 

John Bulgar, February 26, 1864; discharged September 21, 1864. 

Asa Bowdish, August 28, 1861 ; discharged October 29, 1861. 

Byron Bryant, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 28, 1864 — expira- 
tion of term. 

Wm. Cameron, July 25, 1864; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Christopher Chadderton, July 20, 1864; substitute; mustered out with 
company July ii, 1865. 

John S. Christie, August 28, 1861 ; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865 ; veteran. 

George Colston, August i, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Isaiah Corbett, December 26, 1863 ; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

James R. Corbett, August 28, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 11, 
1861 ; veteran. 

Samuel Criswell, August 28, 1861 ; killed at Charles City Cross Roads 
June 30, 1862. 

Andrew Christie, August 28, 1861 ; died June 17 of wounds received at 
Petersburg June 16, 1864; buried in National Cemetery, City Point, section 
E, division i, grave 135; veteran. 

Edward Cox, March 18, 1865 ; substitute; deserted June 24, 1865. 

Anson L. Curry, August 28, 1861 ; deserted November, 1862. 

Joel Clark, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 28, 1864 — expiration of 
term. 

Vincent Crabtree, March 16, 1865; substitute; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 



I/O History of Clearfield County. 

James M. Cree, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Jan- 
uary 8, 1863. 

Eli B. Clemson, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to principal musician Sep- 
tember I, 1864; veteran. 

Francis Davis, February 22, 1864; drafted; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

William Dunn, August 25, 1861 ; mustered out with company July li^ 
1865 ; veteran. 

Thomas Davis, February 22, 1864; drafted; died December 31, 1864; 
buried in National Cemetery, Arlington, Va. 

James Devanny, July 16, 1863 ; drafted; captured June 22, 1864. 

Matthew Eagleson, July 11, 1863; drafted; died February 19, 1865; 
buried in Poplar Grove National Cemetery, Petersburg, Va., section D, division 
C, grave 33. 

Andrew Richer, July 16, 1863; drafted; missing in action at Boydton 
Plank Road, Va., October 27, 1864. 

James Fair, August i, 1861 ; mustered out with company July li, 1865 ; 
veteran. 

Samuel Free, February 27, 1864; drafted; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Calvin Fryer, March 18, 1865; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

John Fleming, July 10, 1863 ; drafted; wounded October 2, 1864; absent 
in hospital at muster out. 

Jacob Frickie, June 30, 1864; substitute; absent, sick, at muster out. 

C. Fischer, June 29, 1864 ; substitute ; deserted July 29, 1864. 

Charles M. Frazier, March 22, 1862; discharged March 22, 1865 — expira- 
tion of term. 

Ransom Freeman, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
March 18, 1862. 

Simon Fulton, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb- 
ruary 9, 1863. 

Charles Frick, March 23, 1865 ; discharged by general order May 29, 
I 5- 

Charles Graham, August 28, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 1 1^ 
1865 ; veteran. 

WiUiam Griffith, February 15, 1865 ; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865. 

James K. Grimley, March 23, 1865 ; substitute; mustered out with com- 
pany July II, 1865. 

Samuel Gross, March 23, 1865 ; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 171 

James Gracey, July 11, 1863 ; drafted ; discharged by general order May 
29, 1865. 

Andrew Henderson, July 18, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Alexander D. Hoel, October 25, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865 ; veteran. 

Henry Houser, March 18, 1865 ; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Josiah M. Hays, July 16, 1863 ; drafted ; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Samuel S. Hays, February 22, 1864; drafted; died at Beverly, N. J., Oc- 
tober 9, 1864. 

John Hilliard, August 28, 1861 ; died December 15, 1862; buried at 
Point Lookout, Md. 

Sebastian Hogan, August 28, 1861 ; died October 6, 1861. 

Robert Hunter, August i, 1861 ; missing in action at Spottsylvania C. H. 
May 12, 1863. 

Isaiah Haines, August 25, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate April 
4, 1862. 

William Hamma, October 9, 1861 ; discharged by general order May 29, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Nathaniel B. Hippie, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April 4, 1862. 

William B. Hoel, August 2S, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 8, 1863. 

George Hollenbeck, September 30, 1862 ; discharged by general order 
May 29, 1865. 

Lyman Hegley, August 28, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. November 6, 
1863. 

John Hennessy, March 2, 1865 ; not on muster-out roll. 

Eli Ice, July 29, 1864; substitute; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
June, 1865. 

Wilder Jackson, September 2, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Jonathan Jamison, August i, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865 ; veteran. 

James Kelly, February 7, 1865; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

John Knoll, February 7, 1865 ; mustered •ut with company July ii, 1865. 

Gottfried Kammur, March 16, 1865 ; substitute ; deserted March 27, 1865. 

Henry Keys, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 
27, 1862. 

Joseph F. Kirby, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 27, 1862. 



1/2 History of Clearfield County. 

John Klinger, August 28, 1861 ; discharged September 3 for wounds re- 
ceived at Glendale, Va., June 30, 1862. 

Edward Knapp, August 28, 1861 ; discharged August 28, 1864 — expira- 
tion of term. 

Frank Livingston, August 28, 1861 : deserted June 27, 1863. 

William Lightner, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
March 25, 1862. 

John Mayberry, July 29, 1864; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

David Mulholland, October 25, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 

1 1, 1865 ; veteran. 

James Murphy, August 7, 1862; wounded at Chancellorsville May 3, 
1863 ; absent in hospital at muster out. 

Edwin Marquis, July 24, 1863 ; drafted; missing in action September 13, 
1864. 

James Mack, March 16, 1865 ; substitute; deserted April 28, 1865. 

Thomas J. Morrison, March 17, 1865 ; substitute; deserted June 25, 1865. 

Malvin Munger, October 25, 1861; transferred to 33d N. Y. V. August 31, 
1862. 

Archibald F. Mason, October 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
February 27, 1863. 

Henry Marquett, September 4, 1863 ; drafted; prisoner from October 27, 
1864, to March 4, 1865 ; discharged by general order June 17, 1865. 

James McAtee, August i, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Charles A. McCosh, August i, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Samuel McFadden, August 28, 1861; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865 ; veteran. 

William McKelvy, August i, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865; veteran. 

Alexander P. McArdle, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
August 4, 1862. 

David McCardle, August' 28, 1861 ; discharged August 28, 1864 — expi- 
ration of term. 

Reed McFadden, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 6, 1861. 

Sam McLaughlin, August 28, 1861; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 28, 1863. 

John McLaughlin, August 28, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. September 

12, 1863. 

Irwin McCutcheon, August i, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. August i, 
1864; veteran. 



Clearfield's Military History. 173 

Nathan Noble, August 28, 1861 ; captured at Gaines's Mill June 27, 1862; 
died July 20, 1862. 

\ Benjamin Newcomb, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
August 19, 1862. 

James O'Nell, September 4, 1863; substitute; deserted September 23, 1863. 

Casper Pitcher, June 13, 1864; substitute; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

William Pennington, August 28, 1861 ; killed at Fairoaks May 31, 1862. 

George Plotner, August 28, 1861 ; killed at Fairoaks May 31, 1862. 

Joseph Pete, March 18, 1865 ; deserted June 25, 1865. 

Josiah Y. Reppeard, March 31, 1864; killed at Wilderness May 5, 1864. 

William Riddle, August 28, 1861 ; killed at Fairoaks May 31, 1862. 

George L. Riley, March 31, 1864; killed at Wilderness May 5, 1864. 

Charles B. Ross, August 28, 1861 ; killed at Fairoaks May 31, 1862. 

Joseph Riensel, March 23, 1864; captured at Boydton Plank Road October 
27, 1864; died at Annapolis, Md., March 16, 1865. 

John Robinson, March 18, 1865 ; deserted June 5, 1865. 

Isaac L. Rearick, July 18, 1863 ; drafted ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate February 5, 1865. 

Solomon B. Riggs, August 28, 1861 ; discharged April 20, 1865, for wounds 
received at Petersburg June 22, 1864. 

John Rorabaugh, August 28, 1861; transferred to V. R. C. November 6, 
1863. 

William M. Riggs, August 28, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. December 20, 
1863. 

Samuel K. Shipley, September 4, 1863; substitute; deserted; returned; 
•out with company July li, 1865. 

Andrew Sites, August 28, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 1 1, 1865 ; 
veteran. 

George Smith, August i, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 1 1, 1865 ; 
veteran. 

Herman Sneer, September 4, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

George Staum, June 13, 1864; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

George J. Stiles, September 4, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Gershom Saxton, August 28, 1861 ; killed at Wilderness May 5, 1864. 

William Shaffer, August 28, 1861 ; killed at Deep Bottom August 16, 
1864 ; veteran. 

William Smith, August 28, 1861 ; captured June 22, 1862 ; died in Rich- 
mond July 2, 1862. 

23 



:74 History of Clearfield County. 



Henry Shaffner, August 28, 1861 ; died July 2, of wounds received at Fair- 
oaks May 31, 1862. 

George Stokes, February 28, 1864; captured; died at Salisbury, N. C, 
January 23, 1865 ; veteran. 

John Smith, July 11, 1863; drafted; missing in action at Boydton Plank 
Road October 27, 1864. 

Samuel Sharp, September i, 1863 ; substitute; deserted June 25, 1865. 

Richard Smith, March 16, 1865 ; substitute; deserted April i, 1865. 

Isaac Solly, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate October 
4, 1862. 

William H. Saxton, August 28, 1861 ; transferred to lOth U. S. Infantry 
December 20, 1862. 

Robert ShuU, August 19, 1862; discharged by general order May 29, 1865. 

Perry Smith, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Decem- 
ber 31, 1862. 

Almon Spencer, March 22, 1862 ; discharged March 22, 1864 — expiration 
of term. 

John Stedham, April , 1861 i; captured; discharged May 19,1865 — ex- 
piration of term. 

Harvey D. Thompson, July 15, 1863 ; drafted ; discharged by general order 
June 24, 1865. 

James Thompson, February 14, 1865 ; wounded at Sailor's Creek, Va., 
April 6, 1865 ; absent in hospital at muster out. 

William Todd, March 16, 1865 ; substitute; deserted June 25, 1865. 

Robert Tozer, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate April 
4, 1862. 

Solomon Tozer, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb- 
urary ii, 1863. 

Charles Truck, March 25, 1865 ; substitute; discharged by general order 
May 29, 1865. 

Boswell C. Thorn, August 28, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. December 15, 

1863. 

Gabriel Vastbinder, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 11, 1862. 

Anthony Williams, August i, 1864; substitute; mustered out with com- 
pany July II, 1865. 

William Wilson, February 12, 1864; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865. 

William Woodward, March 31, 1864; mustered out with company July il, 
1865. 

Henry C. Wykoff, March 22, 1862; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865 ; veteran. 

John Wilson, August 28, 1861 ; killed at Fair Oaks May 31, 1862. 



Clearfield's Military History. 175 

George Wood, August 28, 1861 ; killed at Fair Oaks May 31, 1862. 

William Williams, July 27, 1864; substitute; deserted February 4, 1865. 

Charles D. Warner, September 8, 1863; drafted; discharged by general 
order June 23, 1865. 

John Williams, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate June 
2^, 1862. 

Ellis Wilson, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Febru- 
ary 2, 1863. 

George Wilson, August 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate De- 
cember 13, 1862. 

Thomas F.Wilson, February 29, 1864; prisoner from September 10, 1864, 
to March 12, 1865 ; discharged by general order June 6, 1865. 

Henry B. White, July li, 1863 ; drafted ; transferred to V. R. C. January 
5, 1865. 

George Yingling, February 25, 1864; wounded at Boydton Plank Road 
October 28, 1864; absent in hospital at muster out. 

John Yingling, August 28, 1861 ; killed at Petersburg June 16, 1864; 
buried in National Cemetery, City Point, section D, division i, grave 78 ; vet- 
eran. 

Company F. 

Recruited in Clearfield, Indiana and Venango Counties. 

Captains. — Robert Kirk, September 9, 1861 ; wounded at Fair Oaks May 
31, 1862, and at Bull Run August 29, 1862 ; killed at Chancellorsville May 3, 
1863. 

John Daugherty, September 9, 1861 ; promoted to first sergeant January 
2, 1862; to second lieutenant September 29, 1862 ; to first lieutenant Novem- 
ber 26, 1862 ; to captain August 19, 1863 ; mustered out October 7, 1864 — 
expiration of term. 

William Kemper, September 17, 1861 ; promoted from corporal to sergeant 
January 2, 1862; to first sergeant September 29, 1862; to second lieutenant 
January i, 1863 ; to captain November 24, 1864; mustered out with company 
July 1 1, 1865. 

First Lieutenants. — James B. Geggir, September 9, 1861 ; wounded at Fair 
Oaks May 31, 1862 ; resigned October 24, 1862. 

Henry P. McKillip, September 9, 1861 ; promoted to corporal January i, 
1863 ; to sergeant July l, 1863 ; to first sergeant April i, 1864 ; to first Heu- 
tenant November 26, 1864; mustered out with company July ii, 1865 ; vet- 
eran. 

Second Lieutenants. — David Ratcliff, October 25, 1861 ; resigned Decem- 
ber 2, 1861. 

Ezra B. Baird, September 9, 1861 ; promoted from first sergeant to second 
lieutenant January 2, 1862; wounded at Fair Oaks May 31, 1862; resigned 
October 24, 1862. 



1/6 History of Clearfield County. 

Ogg Neil, February 19, 1862; promoted to corporal August 28, 1863; ta 
sergeant July i, 1864; to first sergeant December 17, 1864; to second lieu- 
tenant June 8, 1865 ; mustered out with company July 11, 1865 '< veteran. 

First Sergeants. — William T. Stewart, September 17, 1861 ; promoted to 
corporal August 27, 1863 ; to sergeant July i, 1864; to first sergeant June 9, 
1865 ; mustered out with company July 11, 1865 ; veteran. 

Jacob S. Smith, September 9, 1861 ; promoted from sergeant January i, 
1863 ; killed at Chancellorsville May 3, 1863. 

Sergeants. — Lewis Findley, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal July 
I, 1864; to sergeant September i, 1864; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Wm. W. Hazelett, September 17, 1861 ; promoted to corporal September 

I, 1864; to sergeant December 17, 1864; mustered out. with company July 

II, 1865 ; veteran. 

John M. Brewer, February 28, 1864; promoted to corporal September l^ 
1864; to sergeant December 17, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

Samuel H. Pound, February 17, 1862 ; promoted to corporal December 
17, 1864; to sergeant June 9, 1865; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Robert Doty, September 9, 1861 ; promoted from corporal to sergeant 
September 9, 1862; killed at Gettysburg July 2, 1863; buried in National 
Cemetery, section E, grave 9. 

John W. Smith, September 9, 1861 ; promoted to corporal August 28, 
1863 ; to sergeant April i, 1864; killed at Petersburg June 18, 1864; veteran. 

Samuel Adamson, September 9, 1861 ; died May 20, 1863, of wounds 
received in action ; burial in Military Asylum Cemetery, D. C. 

John Hendricks, October 25, 1861 ; discharged October 25, 1864 — expi- 
ration of term. 

Elijah Pantall, October 25, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. March 4, 1864. 

Jonathan Brindle, October 25, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. June 18, 1864. 

Corporals. — Luke Loomis, jr., July 8, 1864; drafted; promoted to cor- 
poral December 17, 1864; mustered out with company July ii, 1865. 

Joshua Pearce, September 9, 1861 ; promoted to corporal June 9, 1865; 
mustered out with company July 11, 1865 ; veteran. 

Joseph Taylor, September 9, 1861 ; promoted to corporal June 9, 1865 ; 
mustered out with company July ii, 1865 ; veteran. 

Wm. H. Hazelett, September 17, 1861 ; promoted to corporal June 9^ 
1865 ; mustered out with company July ii, 1865 ; veteran. 

Charles B. Gill, August 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal September i, 
1864; absent, wounded, at muster out; veteran. 

John W. Lynn, July 16, 1863 ; drafted ; discharged by general order June 
24, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 177 

John N. Means, February 28, 1864; promoted to corporal June 9, 1865. 

Lewis D. Ensinger, September 9, 1861 ; promoted to corporal January i, 
,1862 ; killed at Charles City Cross Roads June 30, 1862. 

Ira F. Mott, September 3, 1861 ; promoted to corporal August 28, 1863 ; 
killed at Wilderness May 5, 1864; veteran. 

George B. Hall, September 17, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
October 12, 1864; veteran. 

George W. McFadden, August 28, 1861 ; prisoner from October 27, 1864, 
to March 2, 1865 ; discharged by general order June 5, 1865 ; veteran. 

Thomas Niel, October 19, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 
4, 1865 ; veteran. 

Irwin B. Nicodemus, May 7, 1862; discharged May 19, 1864 — expira- 
tion of term. 

James Randolph, September 9, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
June 30, 1863. 

George W. Randolph, September 9, 1861 ; discharged October 25, 1862, 
for wounds received in action. 

John N. Vanhorn, October 25, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
February 6, 1863. 

Peter Wheelan, November 2, 1861 ; discharged November i, 1864 — ex- 
piration of term. 

George W. Campbell, September 9, 1861 ; discharged February 25, 1863, 
for wounds received in action. 

Privates. — Wm. H. H. Anthony, September 17, 1861 ; missing in action 
at Spottsylvania C. H. May 12, 1864; veteran. 

Jonathan Ayers, February 25, 1864; missing in action at Boydton Plank 
Road October 27, 1864. 

James D. Anthony, October 25, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
October 14, 1862. 

Thos. S. Anderson, September 9, 1861 ; discharged February 6, 1863, for 
wounds received in action. 

James Aul, October 25, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. July i, 1864. 

William W. Brillhart, February 10, 1864; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

John W. Bryant, August 2, 1864; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865. 

Jacob L. Bee, February 11, 1864: absent, sick, at muster out. 

John W. Brooks, September 9, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
March 25, 1863. 

Charles Berry. October 25. 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb- 
ruary 18, 1863. 

James Buher, July 7, 1864; substitute; prisoner from August 16, 1864, to 
March 13, 1865 ; discharged- by general order June 29, 1865. 



178 History of Clearfield County. 

John H. Bush, February 28, 1864; absent, wounded, at muster out. 

James Crock, September 9, 1861 ; killed at Fair Oaks May 31, 1863. 

James Crawford, March 16, 1865 ; substitute ; deserted June 23, 1865. 

John Carr, March 18, 1865 ; substitute; deserted April 27, 1865. 

Samuel Cochran, September 9, 1861 ; deserted June 30, 1863 ; returned ; 
discharged May 25, 1865, to date expiration of term. 

John Cupler, September 9, 1863; discharged February 15; 1863, for wounds 
received in action. 

Wm. A. Chambers, April 30, 1862; transferred to V. R. C. October i, 
1863. 

Perry C. Cupler, September 9, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. September i, 
1863. 

Michael Dolan, March, 18, 1865 ; substitute; absent, sick, at muster out. 

William W. Dixon, February 14, 1864; absent on furlough at muster out. 

Peter Depp, September 9, 1861 ; killed at Chancellorsville May 3, 1863. 

Henry H. Depp, September 9, 1861 ; died at New Haven, Conn., July 6, 
1862, of wounds received in action. 

Peter Dalton, March 18, 1865 ; substitute; deserted July i, 1865. 

Thomas Daily, March 10, 1865 ; substitute; deserted June 26, 1865. 

Patrick Delaney, March 17, 1865 ; substitute; deserted May 15, 1865. 

Philip B. Depp, September 9, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 12, 1861. 

John P. Drum, October 25, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Jan- 
uary I, 1863. 

James Drum, September 9, 1861 ; discharged July 23, 1863, for wounds 
received in action. 

Jonathan Doty, September 9, 1861 ; mustered out September 30, 1864 — 
expiration of term. 

Samuel Edwards, September 17, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November 12, 1861. 

Chauncey A. Ellis, October 25, 1861 ; mustered out September 9, 1864 — 
expiration of term. 

John M. Fleming, September 17, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1864; veteran. 

Alfred Foltz, March 5, 1865 ; substitute; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Wm. Fitzgerald, March 17, 1865; substitute; deserted April 4, 1865. 

Samuel Fry, October 26, 1861 ; discharged January 2, 1863, for wounds 
received in action. 

John F. Fulmer, September 9, 1861 ; discharged September 8, 1864 — 
expiration of term. 

Samuel D. Fulmer, September 9, 1861 ; discharged August 24, 1864, for 
wounds received in action. 

Thomas S. Guiles, March 15, 1865 ; substitute; deserted June 23, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 



179 



Stephen Gleeson, March 16, 1865; substitute; mustered out with company- 
July II, 1865. 

George Gossor, March 3, 1865; substitute; mustered out with company- 
July II, 1865. 

James Gallagher, March 13, 1865 ; drafted; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Joseph Graham, February 23, 1865 ; drafted; mustered out with company 
July 1 1, 1865. 

Anthony A. Gallagher, July 15, 1864; drafted; absent, sick, at muster 
out. 

Henry A. L. Girts, September 9, 1862 ; transferred to V. R. C. October 
I, 1863 ; discharged by general order June 29, 1865. 

Jonathan Himes, September 3, 1861 ; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Wm. S. Hendricks, September 17, 1861 ; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865 ; veteran. 

Isaac Hendricks, February 28, 1864; mustered out with company July 11, 
1865. 

Joseph Hill, September 9, 1861 ; killed at Fair Oaks May 31, 1862. 

Alonzo Hemstreat, September 9, i86l; killed at Gettysburg July 2, 1863. 

George W. Hoover, October 25, 1861 ; died at Fortress Monroe June 4, 
1862, of wounds received in action. 

Benjamin B. Hall, February 29, 1864; captured; died at Anderson ville, 
Ga., July 17, 1864; grave 3474. 

John Hare, March 17, 1865 ; substitute; deserted April 27, 1865. 

James Hopkins, September 9, 1862; deserted October, 1863. 

Thomas Hombs, January 30, 1864; deserted May 6, 1864. 

H. H. HoUowell, October 26, 1861 ; deserted October, 1863. 

Simon D. Hugus, September 9, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
March 14, 1862. 

John C. Hollowell, October 26, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
November i, 1862. 

Thomas M. Hauck, October 25, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 24, 1862. 

Edward Hogan, March 17, 1865 ; substitute; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate June II, 1865. 

Geo. W. Hollowell, September 9, 1861 ; discharged January 13, 1863, for 
wounds received in action. 

Samuel Hannah, September 9, 1861 ; transferred to ist U. S. Cavalry Jan- 
uary 17, 1863. 

George K. Hoover, October 26, 1861 ; transferred to V. R. C. October 7, 
1863. 

Daniel Johnston, October 25, 1861 ; killed at Bull Run August 29, 1862. 



i8o History of Clearfield County. 

John D. Jewell, September 3, 1861 ; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Jackson Jones, July ii, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

James A. Johnston, June 9, 1864; substitute; killed near Weldon Railroad, 
Va., October 2, 1864. 

Robert J. Jewett, February 17, 1862; died at Washington, D. C. June 4, 
1864, of wounds received in action; buried in National Cemetery, Arlington, 
Va. ; veteran. 

James Jenkins, July 27, 1864 ; drafted ; missing in action at Deep Bottom, 
Va., October 2, 1864. 

Amos S. Knauer, March 11, 1865 ; drafted ; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Harrison Keltz, September 9, 1861 ; deserted June 25, 1863 ; returned 
April 25, 1865 ; mustered out with company July ii, 1865. 

Charles Kleffer, October 25, 1861 ; died at Camp Jameson, Va., January 

28, 1862. 

John Kelly, March 16, 1865 ; substitute; deserted April 2, 1865. 

John Kelly, June 27, 1862; captured; died at Salisbury, N. C, Decem- 
ber 15, 1864. 

Jacob Kurtz, March 16, 1865 ; substitute; deserted April 2, 1865. 

Thomas Kennan, March 17, 1865 ; substitute ; deserted June 29, 1865. 

Robert S. Laughry, February 24, 1864 ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

Levi S. Lust, March 18, 1865 ; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Nicholas Lutcher, March 17, 1865 ; 'substitute ; mustered out with com- 
pany July II, 1865. 

Charles Lyle, January 29, 1864; killed at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864; 
buried in Wilderness burial grounds. 

John Myer, March 16, 1865 ; substitute ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

Edward Mingus, March 18, 1865; substitute; deserted; returned June 

29, 1865; mustered out with company July ii, 1865. 

George R. Moyer, March 16, 1865 ; substitute; mustered out with com- 
pany July II, 1865. 

Garret P. Mattis, March 17, 1865 ; substitute ; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Peter Morgan, March 22, 1865 ; substitute; discharged by general order 
July 12, 1865. 

Wm. Mann, January 16, 1863 ; killed at Sailor's Creek, Va., April 6, 1865. 

Scott Mitchell, June 4, 1864; substitute; died November 6, 1864. 

Wm. C. Martin, September 17, 1861 ; died January 6, 1865 ; veteran. 



Clearfield's Military History. i8i 

Geo. W. Maynard, September 9, 1861 ; missing in action at Wilderness, 
Va., May 5, 1864. 

George Moore, March 15, 1865 ; substitute; deserted May 20, 1865. 

John Miller, September 9, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Janu- 
ary 29, 1863. 

Jas. A. Minish, September 9, 1861 ; discharged September 8,^1864 — expi- 
ration of term. 

James McCarty, March 17, 1865 ; substitute; absent, wounded, at muster 
out. , 

Rob. McMannes, October 26, 1861 ; died at Harrison's Landing, Va., July 
20, 1862. 

Michael McDannell, March 16, 1865 ; substitute; deserted April 27, 1865. 

Thomas McFadden, March 17, 1865; substitute; deserted April i, 1865. 

John McKean, September 9, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
January 11, 1863. 

Sam. A. McGhee, September 9, 1861 ; discharged September 8, 1864 — 
expiration of term. 

Wm. T. Niel, May 7, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate August 6, 
1862. 

Thomas Orr, September 9, 1861; killed at Bull Run, Va. August 29, 1862, 

Wm. O'Brian, March 16, 1865 ; substitute; deserted April 4, 1865. 

Matthew O'Donnell, March 17, 1865 ; substitute; deserted April i, 1865. 

Chas. W. O'Niel, March 18, 1865 ; substitute; deserted June 24, 1865. 

James O'Bran, September 9, 1861 ; discharged September 10, 1862 for 
wounds received in action. 

Thomas O'Brichel, September 9, 1861 ; discharged September 8, 1864 — 
expiration of term. 

Charles Parry, March 18, 1865 ; substitute; discharged by general order 
June 12, 1865. 

David R. Porter, January 11, 1864; died at Philadelphia, Pa. February 
13, 1865. 

Jas. R. Pounds, October 25, 1861 ; missing in action at Gettysburg, Pa. 
July 2, 1863. 

Jackson Piper, October 25, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate De- 
cember 1 1, 1862. 

Adam Ritz, March 18, 1865 ; substitute ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

Enos Ratzel, March 18, 1865; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Amos Redky, March 24, 1865 ; drafted; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

John Riley, March 16, 1865 ; substitute; deserted April 5, 1865. 



History of Clearfield County. 



Jacob Reel, March 21, 1865 ; drafted; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

Peter Rourke, March 16, 1865; substitute; deserted July i, 1865. 

Irwin Robinson, February 15, 1864; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April 20, 1865. 

Jas. W. Shaffer, March 19, 1862; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Isaac Smith, July 16, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865. 

Geo. Shields, September 8, 1862; deserted June 30, 1863; returned No- 
vember 14, 1864; mustered out with company July ii, 1865. 

John Schmidt, March 17, 1865 ; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Asher A. Sellers, February 24, 1865; drafted; mustered out with com- 
pany July II, 1865. 

John Service, August 28, 1861 ; absent, wounded, at muster out; veteran. 

David Simpson, February 14, 1864; discharged by general order June 27, 
1865. 

Chas. Smouse, September 9, 1861 ; killed at Fredericksburg, Va. Decem- 
ber 13, 1864. 

David S. Simpson, September 9, 1861 ; killed at Chancellorsville, Va. May 
■3, 1863. 

Samuel Stevenson, July i, 1864; substitute; captured; died at Salisbury, 
N. C. December 27, 1864. 

Lewis Stern, June 13, 1864; substitute; missing in action at Boydton 
Plank Road, Va. October 27, 1864. 

James S. Smith, February 28, 1864 ; substitute ; missing in action at Boyd- 
ton Plank Road, Va. October 27, 1864. 

Dan. Sullivan, March 16, 1865; substitute; deserted April 5, 1865. 

Andrew J. Smith, September 8, 1862; deserted October, 1863. 

Henry Shaffer, October 25, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Sep- 
tember 15, 1862. 

Peter C. Spencer, October 25, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 31, 1862. 

John Stewart, October 25, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Jan- 
uary 30, 1863. 

David C. Simpson, February 14, 1864; discharged by general order June 
2, 1865. 

Danif'l Tallman, September 9, 1861 ; deserted May 10, 1862. 

Sterling M. Thomas, September 9, 1861 deserted April i, 1862. 

Peter Vanoligan, March 18, 1865 ; substitute ; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

John Vorece, March 10, 1865 ; substitute; deserted May 2, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 183 

Sam. W. Walker, February 18, 1864; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865. 

Isaac Wray, February 18, 1864; mustered out with company July ii, 
1865. 

Newton Wilson, July 16, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company July 
II, 1865. 

Moses White, March 17, 1865 ; substitute mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Conrad Wolf, March 15, 1865; substitute; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

Henry VVimmer, March 17, 1865 ; substitute ; mustered out with company 
July II, 1865. 

John Williams, March 16, 1865 ; substitute; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Wm. H. Wilson, September 9, 1861 ; killed at Fair Oaks, Va. May 31, 
1862. 

Albert C. Wheeler, September 9, 1861 ; killed at Charles City Cross Roads 
June 30, 1862. 

David Willard, September 3, 1861 ; killed at Wilderness, Va. May 5, 1864; 
veteran. 

John P. Williamson, October 26, 1861 ; captured; died 1862. 

Joseph White, October 25, 1861 ; captured; died date unknown. 

Ferdinand Wagner, March 17, 1865; substitute; deserted April i, 1865. 

David K. Williams, October 26, 1862, transferred to company F, i8th 
Regiment, Veteran Reserve Corps, January 20, 1865. 

George W. Young, October 26, 1861 ; died at New Haven, Conn., June 
28, 1862. 

The One Hundred and Forty-Ninth Regiment — Bucktails. 

To the formation of this regiment the counties of Potter, Tioga, Lycoming, 
Clearfield, Clarion, Lebanon, Allegheny, Luzerne, Mifflin, and Huntington, 
contributed men. The successes achieved and the gallant services rendered by 
the original famous " Bucktails" induced the war department to organize and 
equip other similar regiments, and in pursuance of the authority vested in him 
by the secretary of war, Roy Stone, who ranked as major in the original Buck- 
tail regiment, and who commanded one of its battalions through many a hot 
battle with McClellan's army on the Peninsula, was directed to proceed at once 
to Pennsylvania and raise a Bucktail Brigade. This was in July, 1862. In 
less than twenty days the One Hundred and Forty- ninth and the One Hundred 
and Fiftieth regiments were formed and ready to receive their equipments for 
the field. These two were suddenly called to the defense of the nation's cap- 
itol, as the hosts of the Confederacy had invaded Maryland and seriously 
threatened the whole region around Washington. 



1 84 History of Clearfield Conuty. 

Clearfield county was represented in the One Hundred and Forty-ninth, 
either in whole or in part, in the formation of Companies B and E. Upon the 
complete organization of the regiment the following were the field officers: 
Roy Stone, colonel ; Walton Dwight, lieutenant-colonel ; George W. Speer, 
major. For the remaining part of the year 1862, and until the middle of 
February of the succeeding year, the regiment remained on duty in the vicin- 
ity of Washington, after which they were ordered to the front, and proceeded 
to Belle Plain, Va., where with the One Hundred and Forty- third Pennsyl- 
vania they formed the Second Brigade of the First Army Corps, and Colonel 
Stone was placed in command. 

They were first under fire from the enemy on the Rappahannock, a short 
distance from Pollock's Mills, and held firmly to their position. Early the 
next morning, May 2, it marched to join the main army in the fierce battle at 
Ghancellorsville and arrived there before daylight on the morning of the 3d, 
and at once began the construction of rifle-pits. For several days and nights 
following the regiments were engaged, reconnoitering and skirmishing here and 
there, attacking the enemy's pickets and capturing several prisoners, and gen- 
erally rendering commendable service, bravely facing danger with the fear- 
lessness of veterans. 

Following close upon the heels of Chancellorsville came the Gettysburg 
campaign, General Lee, commanding the Confederate forces, having moved 
northward early in June. During the first and second days the regiment was 
actively engaged, occupying prominent and important positions, and exposed 
to an almost constant fire from the enemy's battery or sharpshooters. During 
the third day it was held in reserve and was marching to meet Pickett's divi- 
sion when the Confederate forces withdrew. In this long and bloody fight 
the regiment certainly established the fact that the name by which they were 
known, " Bucktails," was worthily applied ; but the command fared badly at 
Gettysburg. Colonel Stone, the gallant commander, was severely wounded, 
as was Lieutenant Colonel Dwight, Captain John Irvin, of Company B, and 
Lieutenant Mitchell, of Company E. In his official report of the Gettysburg 
fight General Doubleday says: " I relied greatly on Stone's Brigade to hold 
the post assigned it (between the brigades of Cutler and Meredith), as I soon 
saw that I should be obliged to change front with a portion of my line, to face 
the northwest, and his brigade held the pivot of the movement. My confi- 
dence in this noble ^body of men was not misplaced. They repulsed the 
repeated attacks of vastly superior numbers, and maintained their position 
until the final retreat of the whole Hne." After the battle the regiment lay 
encamped for a day or two on the field, and started with the army in pursuit 
of Lee and his retreating forces. The events that followed during the fall 
campaign were unimportant, and early in December, they went into winter 
quarters near Culpepper. 




STy'iyE,C.Willia^ 



r,siBr..t'y 



A^^^-^-- 



Onondaqa Historical 

Clearfield's Military History. -^-♦^'^*^^^'^'^^'^^^" 

Early in May of the year 1864, the brigade was prepared for the spring 
campaign and moved from their" winter camp to a point near the old Wilder- 
ness Tavern, but remaining there but a single night, again moved forward out 
.on the Log road, where a line of battle was formed, then pushing forward met 
the enemy in a fierce and almost hand to hand conflict, but having an inferior 
position for successful battle, was slowly forced back to the Lacy House, where 
they re-formed and were held in reserve for the rest of the day. In this en- 
counter the regiment suffered severely at the hands of the rebels, being taken 
at a great disadvantage and somewhat by surprise. Early in the evening, 
however, the regiment retrieved its loss, having been moved to the right of the 
Second Corps, led the charge and drove the enemy from his position, and with 
but slight loss to its own force. On the morning of the 6th the battle was 
renewed with all its vigor, with success at first, but later the whole line was 
compelled, to fall back leaving the brave commander, Wadsworth, dying on 
the field. In the afternoon the brigade was ordered to a charge against Long- 
street's forces in the hope of recovering a lost position, and nobly was the 
order executed, after which the regiment was relieved and retired to the rear 
for rest and recuperation. In this two days' contest the regiment lost in killed, 
fifteen; in wounded, ninety-nine, and in prisoners taken, ninety- two — about 
one-fourth of its entire number. 

On the morning of the i8th, after an all night march, the regiment reached 
Laurel Hill, and immediately went to the relief of the cavalry. Although 
very much fatigued from its long march, and being in an exposed position, it 
held firmly to its ground during the day, and at evening threw up breast- 
works. After a day in reserve it again went to the front attacking the enemy 
and driving them into their works. On the I2th they again charged, but 
were repulsed with some loss. The men then went to support the Sixth 
Corps, and took a position at the front where they were exposed to the mer- 
ciless fire of the rebel sharpshooters. They then moved again, and during the 
night of the 13th to a position one mile east of Spottsylvania Court-house. 
With the First Division the regiment moved on to Petersburg, and both in the 
siege and assault upon the enemy's works it was actively engaged. It was 
then under command of Colonel John Irvin, he having been promoted to that 
rank April 22, 1864. From the time of the opening of the campaign in May, 
until the close of the month of July, the One Hundred and Forty-ninth Regi- 
ment, according to the report of Colonel Irvin, lost two commissioned officers, 
and thirty-two men killed, six commissioned officers, and two hundred and 
forty-three men wounded, and one hundred and twenty-one missing, an aggre- 
gate of four hundred and four. 

On the 1 8th of August, 1864, the regiment joined in the first assault on 
the Weldon Railroad. Although at close quarters, and in a severe struggle, 
on account of an admirable position, its loss was very light, while that of the 



i86 History of Clearfield County. 

beaten enemy was quite sev^ere. On the iith of September, they were re- 
lieved from duty at the front and went into reserve, and so continued until the 
7th of December when it joined in the grand raid upon the Weldon Railroad, 
and on the return therefrom acted as rear guard, in which position they were 
continually harassed by the Confederate cavalry. 

In the early part of February, 1865, it joined the movement to Dabney's 
Mills, and participated in the engagement at that point, the last conflict at 
arms in which the gallant regiment took an active part. It was then detached 
from the Army of the Potomac and sent to Elmira, N. Y., where, with the 
One Hundred and Fiftieth, it was on guard duty at the camp for rebel 
prisoners. Here it remained until the close of its term of service, and was 
mustered out on the 24 of June, and proceeding to Harrisburg was paid off^ 
and finally disbanded. 

Field and Staff. 

Colonels. — Roy Stone, August 30, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg July i, 
1863; brevetted brigadier-general September 7, 1864; discharged by special 
order January 27, 1865. 

John Irvin, August 26, 1862 ; promoted from captain company B to major 
February 10, 1864; to lieutenant-colonel April 22, 1864; to colonel February 

21, 1865 ; discharged by special order August 4, 1865. 
Lieutenant-Colonels. — Walton Dwight, August 27, 1862 ; promoted from 

captain compan}/ K August 29, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 
1863 ; discharged by special order March 31, 1864. 

James Glenn, August 23, 1862; promoted from captain company D to 
major April 22, 1864; to Heutenant-colonel February 21, 1865; discharged 
by special order August 4, 1865. 

Majors. — George W. Speer, August 26, 1862 ; promoted from captain 
company I August 29, 1862 ; discharged by special order March 23, 1865. 

Edwin S. Osborne, August 30, 1862 ; promoted from captain company F 
February 25, 1865 ; discharged by special order July 21, 1865. 

Adjutants. — John E. Parsons, August 30, 1862; promoted to captain 
and assistant adjutant- general U. S. Vols. June 30, 1864; resigned January 
30, 1865. 

John F. Irwin, August 26, 1862 ; promoted from first lieutenant company 
B September 5, 1864; mustered out with regiment June 24, 1865. 

Quartermasters. — John M. Chase, August 26, 1862; promoted from first 
lieutenant company B August 29, 1862 ; discharged by special order May 10, 
1863. 

Darius F. Ellsworth, August 26, 1862 ; promoted from private company 
K to quartermaster- sergeant February 21, 1863 ; to quartermaster November 

22, 1863 ; to captain and A. Q. M. U. S. Vols. June 30, 1864; mustered out 
September 20, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 187 

George W. Turner, August 22, 1862 ; promoted from sergeant company 
F to quartermaster-sergeant November 22, 1863; to quartermaster October 
18, 1864; mustered out with regiment June 24, 1865. 

Surgeons. — W. T. Humphrey, September 12, 1862 ; discharged by special 
order January 17, 1865. 

Ab'm Harshberger, November 22, 1863 ; promoted from assistant surgeon 
February 4, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment June 24, 1865. 

Assistant Srirgeons. — W. R. D. Blackwood, September 12, 1862; promoted 
to surgeon 40th Regiment P. V. April 28, 1863. 

White G. Hunter, September 12, 1862 ; promoted to surgeon 211th Reg- 
iment P. V. September 22, 1864. 

William H. King, March 23, 1863 ; promoted to surgeon i82d Regiment 
P. V. July 27. 1863. 

David W. Riggs, February 15, 1865; mustered out with regiment June 
24, 1866. 

John Graham, April 17, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment June 24, 1865. 

Chaplain. — James F. Calkins, June 3, 1863 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment June 24, 1865. 

Sergeant- Majors. — David Allen, August 26, 1862 ; promoted from private 
company H September 21, 1862 ; transferred to company H June 18, 1865. 

William T. Easton, August 23, 1862 ; promoted from sergeant company 
D' January i, 1864; to first sergeant 32d Regiment U. S. C. T. March 28, 
1864, and to captain 103d Regiment U. S. C. T. March 18, 1865 ; discharged 
May 5, 1866. 

Henr}^ Landrus, August 30, 1862 ; promoted from sergeant company G 
April 3, 1864; wounded and captured at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864; dis- 
charged by general order May 31, 1865. 

W. M. Berkstresser, August 12, 1863; drafted; promoted from private 
company G June i, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment June 24, 1865. 

Hospital Steward. — Adelbert J. Higgle, August 26, 1862 ; promoted from 
private company K September 12, 1862; mustered out with regiment June 
24, 1865. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant. — Samuel L. Miles, August 26, 1862; promoted 
from private company B to commissary-sergeant September 12, 1862; to 
quartermaster-sergeant October 18, 1864; mustered out with regiment June 
24, 1865. 

Commissary -Sergeant. — Charles A. Davidson, August 26, 1862 ; promoted 
from private company F October 18, 1864: mustered out with regiment June 
24, 1865. 

Principal Musician. — Henry Moyer, August 19, 1862; promoted from 
musician company C March i, 1864; mustered out with regiment June 24, 
1865. 



History of Clearfield County. 



Company B. 

Captains. — John Irvin, August 26, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., 
July I, 1863 ; promoted to major February 10, 1864. 

William Holden, August 26, 1862 ; promoted from second to first lieuten- 
ant May 16, 1863; to captain February 11, 1864; discharged December 21, 
1864. 

John L. Rex, August 26, 1862 ; promoted from sergeant to first sergeant 
February 12, 1863; to second lieutenant February 20, 1864; to first lieuten- 
ant September 5, 1864; to captain January 30, 1865; mustered out with 
company June 24, 1865. 

Fh'st Lieutenants. — John M. Chase, August 26, 1862 ; promoted to quar- 
termaster August 29, 1862. 

John F. Irvin, August 26, 1862; promoted from sergeant to second lieu- 
tenant September 30, 1862; to first lieutenant February 20, 1864; to adju- 
tant September 5, 1864. 

Albert B. Cole, August 26, 1862 ; promoted from sergeant to first ser- 
geant; to second lieutenant September 5, 1864; to first lieutenant January 
30, 1865 ; killed at Hatcher's Run, Va., February 6, 1865. 

Milton McClure, August 29, 1862; promoted to corporal February 14, 
1863; to sergeant September 5, 1864; to first lieutenant March 27, 1865; 
mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Second Lietite?ia7it. — Newton Read, August 26, 1862 ; promoted from cor- 
poral to sergeant August 31, 1864; to second lieutenant June 7, 1865 ; mus- 
tered out with company June 24, 1865. 

First Sergeant. — Oscar B. Welch, August 26, 1862 ; wounded at Laurel 
Va., May 8, 1864; promoted from corporal to sergeant; to first sergeant 
September 5, 1864; absent in hospital at muster out. 

Sergeants. — Wihiam I. Bard, August 26, 1862; wounded at Spottsylvania 
C. H., Va. May 10, 1864; promoted from corporal February 20, 1864; mus- 
tered out with company June 24, 1865. 

John Henry, August 26, 1862 ; wounded at Wilderness, Va. May 6, 1864; 
promoted to corporal February 27, 1863 ; to sergeant June 6, 1865 ; mustered 
out with company June 24, 1865. 

Edward Livingston, August 26, 1862; wounded at Wilderness, Va. May 5, 
1864; promoted to corporal September i, 1863 ; to sergeant June 6, 1865 ; 
mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Charles W. Needier, August 29, 1862 ; promoted to corporal February 14, 
1863; to sergeant February 20, 1864; missing in action at Wilderness, Va. 
May 5, 1864. 

Robert Fleming, August 26, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
June 26, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 189 

Daniel Shunkweiler, August 26, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa. July 
I, 1863 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, date unknown. 

Corporals. — Andrew S. Wall, August 26, 1862; promoted to corporal Feb- 
ruary 20, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Joseph Baish, August 26, 1862 ; wounded at Laurel Hill, Va. May 8, 1864; 
promoted to corporal February 20, 1864; mustered out with company June 
24, 1865. 

John H. Smith, August 26, 1862; promoted to corporal September 5, 
1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Daniel W. Sloppy, August 26, 1862 ; promoted to corporal September 5, 
1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Marion Sharp, August 26, 1862; wounded at Petersburg, Va. June 18, 
1864; promoted to corporal June 6, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 
24, 1865. 

Charles P. M'Masters, August 26, 1862; wounded at North Anna River, 
Va. May 23, 1864; promoted to corporal June 6, 1865 ; mustered out with 
company June 24, 1865. 

Horace N. Toby, August 19, 1863 ; drafted ; promoted to corporal June 
6, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

George Hagen, August 26, 1862 ; promoted to corporal February 12, 
1863 ; missing in action at Wilderness, Va. May 6, 1864. 

William Curry, August 26, 1862 ; died at Washington, D. C. October 7, 
1862. 

Ellis Lewis, August 26, 1862 ; promoted to corporal; killed at Gettysburg, 
Pa. July I, 1863. 

John P. Spencer, August 26, 1862; promoted to corporal; killed at Wil- 
derness, Va. May 6, 1864. 

Thomas Adams, August 26, 1862 ; deserted February 8, 1863. 

WiUiam Sloppy, August 26, 1862 ; deserted July i, 1863. 

Mtcsiciaiis. — George L. Way, August 26, 1862 ; mustered out with com- 
pany June 24, 1865. 

David A. Wilson, August 26, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Privates. — Joseph Alexander, August 26, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, 
Pa. July I, 1863 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 10, 1865 ; 
discharged by general order June 27, 1865. 

Bernard Adams, August 26, 1862; killed at Gettysburg, Pa. July i, 1863. 

John Blair, August 26, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Abraham T. Bloom, August 26, 1862 ; wounded at Wilderness, Va. May 
5, 1864; absent in hospital at muster out. 

David Bloom, August 26, 1862 ; misssing in action at Wilderness, Va. May 
5, 1864. 



I90 History of Clearfield County. 

Calvin Becannan, August 13, 1863 ; drafted ; missing in action at Wilder- 
ness, Va. May 5, 1864. 

John W. Bowers, March 6, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Jacob Burtner, August 13, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

Benj. F. Brant, August 26, 1863; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, Va. 
May 5, 1864 ; absent in hospital at muster out. 

John B. Bott, September 19, 1863 ; substitute ; absent in hospital at mus- 
ter out. 

Andrew J. Brant, September 23, 1863; substitute; wounded at Wilderness, 
Va. May 5, 1864; absent in hospital at muster out. 

Wilhs G. Button, October 16, 1863; substitute; wounded at Petersburg, 
Va. June 18, 1864; discharged by general order May 31, 1865. 

Simon B. Benson, October 16, 1863 ; substitute; mustered out with com- 
pany June 24, 1865. 

Henry M. Bloom, August 26, 1862 ; discharged by special order January 
•31, 1863. 

Jas. M. Boal, August 26, 1862; discharged by surgeon's certificate April 

14, 1863. 

Reuben K. Barnhart, August 19, 1863; drafted; discharged by general 
order May 24, 1865. 

Conrad Barrett, August 26, 1862; wounded at North Anna River, Va. 
May 22, 1864; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged by general 
order June 29, 1865. 

Jacob D. Birsh, August 26, 1862 ; deserted ; returned ; discharged by spe- 
cial order July 8, 1865. 

Chas. D. Button, October 19, 1863; substitute; killed at Laurel Hill, Va. 
May 5, 1864. 

John H. Curry, August 26, 1862; wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 
1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Jas. L. Clark, August 26, 1862; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Wm. H. Connell, August 26, 1862; wounded at Wilderness, Va. May 5, 
1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Geo, W. Curry, August 26, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb- 
ruary II, 1863. 

David C. Cady, August 19, 1863; drafted; transferred to United States 
Navy April 22, 1864. 

Samuel Conner, August 13, 1864; transferred to company A, 49th Regi- 
ment, P. V. date unknown. 

James Cree, September2 S,]i863 ; substitute; died at Culpepper, Va. Decem- 
ber 28, 1864. 



Clearfield's Military History. 191 

John Crance, August 19, 1863 ; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, Va. May 
5, 1864; died at Alexandria, Va. May 16, 1864. 

Richard A. Curry, August 26, 1862; killed at Gettysburg, July i, 1863. 

Joseph D. Dale, August 26, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Wm. Delancy, March 5, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

John P. Doan, August 19, 1863 ; drafted; discharged on surgeon's certi- 
ficate March 24, 1864. 

Daniel R. Davis, August 26, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa. July i, 
1863 ; discharged by general order June 29, 1865. 

Wm. P. Dixon, August 26, 1862; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps 
date unknown. 

Rob. P. Dixon, August 26, 1862; died at Andersonville, Ga. July 26, 
1864; grave 4087. 

EH Erhart, August 26, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate February 
27, 1863. 

Michael Fulermer, August 13, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

Cornelius Fitzgerald, August 24, 1863 ; drafted ; absent in hospital at mus- 
ter out. 

Luther Fisler, August 16, 1863; substitute; missing in action at Wilder- 
ness, Va. May 5, 1864. 

David Fink, August 26, 1862; missing in action at Wilderness, Va. May 
5, 1864. 

Mortimer Farley, March 31, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Henry Farley, November 7, 1863 ; captured at Wilderness, Va. May 5, 
1864; discharged by special order April 8, 1865. 

Morris Farley, August 26, 1862 ; wounded at Weldon Railroad, Va., Au- 
gust 21, 1864; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, date unknown. 

Wm. Fleming, August 26, 1862 ; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863. 

Wm. C. Gibbs, October 13, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Samuel Gafford, August 18, 1863; drafted; captured at Wilderness, Va., 
May 5, 1864; discharged by general order June 8, 1865. 

Samuel George, August 26, 1862; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, 
date unknown. 

Benjamin F. George, August 26, 1862 ; killed at Gettysburg, Pa,, July, i, 
1863. 

David C. Heiges, August 26, 1862 ; absent in hospital at muster out. 

Andrew Heiges, August 26, 1862; missing in action at Wilderness, Va., 
May 5, 1864. 



192 History of Clearfield County. 

George W. Hardinger, August 26, 1863; drafted; missing in action at 
Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. 

Wm. Hardegan, August 26, 1863 ; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, Va., 
May 5, 1864 ; absent in hospital at muster out. 

James K. Hancock, August 26, 1862; mustered out with company June 
24, 1865. 

Charles Hawk, September 16, 1863; substitute; discharged by special 
order March 25, 1864. 

James W. Henry, August 26, 1862 ; discharged by general order May 19, 
1865. 

Wm. H. Harding, November 7, 1863; captured at Wilderness, Va., May 
5, 1864; discharged by general order June 12, 1865. 

Miles H. Hang, August 26, 1862; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; 
discharged by general order July 12, 1865. 

Bailey Heiges, September 24, 1863 ; substitute; died at Washington, D. 
C, December 20, 1863, buried in Military Asylum Cemetery. 

Alexander Haney, August 26, 1862 ; died at Washington, D. C, February 
5, 1864. 

Andrew T. Jackson, August 26, 1862 ; deserted; returned; discharged by 
special order July 8, 1865. 

Barnard Kemper, September 12, 1868; drafted ; mustered out with com- 
pany June 24, 1865. 

Levi Kegg, September 23, 1863 ; substitute; wounded at Wilderness, Va., 
May 5, 1864; absent in hospital at muster out. 

Darius Knapp, August 19, 1863; drafted; died at Culpepper, C. H., Va,, 
December 28, 1865. 

George W. Leech, November 8, 1863 ; mustered out with company June 
24, 1865. 

Andrew Lembie, September 26, 1863 ; substitute ; mustered out with com- 
pany June 24, 1865. 

David W. Lee, August 26, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

Jacob T. Leins, August 26, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 
1863 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate April 2, 1864. 

John Lininger, August 26, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 
1863 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, date unknown. 

Wm. Lewis, August 26, 1862; deserted July i, 1863. 

James B. Martin, March 7, 1865; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

John H. Mock, October 2, 1863 ; substitute; mustered with company June 
24, 1865. 

Luke S. Munn, August 26, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate April 
I, 1864. 



Clearfield's Military History. 193 

Wm. A. Moore, March 7, 1865; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Samuel L. Miles, August 26, 1862; promoted to commissary-sergeant Sep- 
tember 12, 1862. 

John A. Murphy, August 26, 1862; died at Philadelphia, Pa., July ii, 
1865, buried in Military Asylum Cemetery, D. C. 

James L. McCullough, August 26, 1862; absent in hospital at muster out. 

James M. McDowel, August 26, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg. Pa., July 
I, 1863 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate April 23, 1864. 

George McDowel, August 26, 1862 ; discharged by special order October 
14, 1862. 

Harvey McCracken, August 26, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 

1, 1863 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged by general order 
July 17, 1865. 

William H. McKee, August 26, 1862 ; died at Washington, D. C, Novem- 
ber 21, 1862. 

Thomas McKenzie, August 17, 1863; drafted; killed at Wilderness, Va., 
May 6, 1 864. 

Samuel McClure, August 26, 1862 ; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863. 

James M. McKee, August 26, 1862; deserted February 8,. 1863. 

William H. McDonald, August 26, 1862; deserted February 12, 1863. 

Shadrik H. Phillips, August 26, 1862; died August 22, 1863; buried in 
Cypress Hill Cemetery, L. I., grave 815. 

Joseph G. Russell, March 8, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Phihp Rigard, September 15, 1863 ; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, Va., 
May 5, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Henry Runyan, August 13,1863; drafted; discharged by special order 
July 18, 1865. 

Richard Rowls, August 26, 1862; deserted June 14, 1865. 

Harvey F. Smith, March 8, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Daniel Smith, August 26, 1862; missing in action at Wilderness, Va., May 
5, 1865. 

Samuel Stine, August 14, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with company June 
24, 1865. 

Rob. H. Slocum, April 23, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Wm. H. Stage, August 26, 1862 ; discharged by special order September 

2, 1863. 

Jacob Seigler, August 14, 1863 ; drafted; wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., 
June 2, 1864; discharged by general order May 17, 1865. 

Benjamin F. Shave, August 19, 1863; drafted; wounded at Hatcher's Run, 
Va., February 6, 1865 ; discharged by general order May 16, 1865. 



194 History of Clearfield County. 



Daniel Shumber, September 15, 1863; substitute; deserted; returned; dis- 
charged by special order July 8, 1865. 

William Smith, August 26, 1862; deserted February 12, 1863; returned; 
discharged by special order July 8, 1865. 

Franklin Smith, August 26, 1862; deserted; returned; discharged by 
special order July 8, 1865. 

Columbus Smith, August 26, 1862; deserted; returned; discharged by 
special order July 8, 1865. 

Sylvanus Snyder, August 26, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 
1863 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, date unknown. 

W. Stambaugh, August 26, 1862 ; died at Orange Court-House, Va., of 
wounds received at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. 

Andrew J. Sawer, August 19, 1863 ; substitute; killed at Laurel Hill, Va., 
May 8, 1865. 

William Slocum, August 19, 1863 ; drafted ; died at Washington, D. C, 
December 19, 1864; buried in National Cemetery, Arlington, Va. 

Samuel Starr, August 26, 1862 ; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863. 

Willis Taylor, March 8, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Thomas Templeton, February 25, 1865 ; deserted June 14, 1865. 

Martin Van Buren, March 10, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Amos Wall, March i, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Jos. G. WiUiams, August 26, 1862 ; wounded at Wilderness May 5, 1864 ; 
mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Henry Wynn, jr., September 15, 1863; drafted; wounded at Spottsyl- 
vania Court-House, May 16, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Ira C. Wood, August 19, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company 
June 24. 1865. 

Wm. S. Ward, August 16, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

Alex. J. Wolford, September 23, 1863; substitute; wounded at Weldon 
Railroad, Va., September 20, 1864. 

Francis Ward, September 14, 1863 ; substii:ute ; missing in action at Wil- 
derness, Va., May 5, 1864. 

John Waterson, August 26, 1862; missing in acton at Wilderness, Va., 
May 5, 1864. 

James A. Wilson, August 26, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 12, 1862. 

John Wimer, August 26, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 
12, 1863. 

John Wolf, September 19, 1865 ; substitute; captured at Wilderness, Va., 
May 5, 1864; discharged by general order June 12, 1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 195 

John Whitfield, August 26, 1862; drafted; discharged September 7, 1863. 
Joseph Whitman, August 26, 1862 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps ; 
discharged by general order November 18, 1865. 

Jacob Zerr, September 23, 1863 ; drafted ; absent in hospital at muster out. 

Company E. 

Captains. — Zara C. McCullough, August 30, 1862; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate December 12, 1863. 

Amos Row, August 30, 1862 ; promoted from first lieutenant January 30, 
1864; wounded at Hatcher's Run, Va., February 6, 1865 ; mustered out with 
company June 24, 1865. 

First Lieutenant. — Thomas Liddell, August 23, 1862 ; promoted from first 
sergeant to second lieutenant February 3, 1864; to first lieutenant April 22, 
1864; wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864; mustered out with com- 
pany June 24, 1865. 

Second Lieutenants. — Meredith L. Jones, August 30, 1862; commissioned 
first lieutenant December ii, 1863; not mustered; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate March 18, 1864. 

Robert A. Mitchell, August 23, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 
I, 1863, and at Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864; promoted from sergeant to 
first sergeant February 3, 1864; to second Ueutenant April 22, 1864; mus- 
tered out with company June 24, 1865. 

First Sergeant. — James W. Irwin, August 23, 1862 ; wounded at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., July I, 1863, and at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864; promoted from 
sergeant April 26, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Sergeants. — Wesley H. Shirey, August 29, 1862; promoted to corporal 
November i, 1862; to sergeant May i, 1865; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

Hiram H. Hawk, August 26, 1862 ; promoted to corporal January i, 1863 ; 
to sergeant January i, 1864; wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864; 
mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Abednego Crane, August 23, 1862; promoted to corporal September i, 
1863; to sergeant April 26, 1864; wounded at Laurel Hill, Va., May 8, 
1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Milton S. Lawhead, August 23, 1862; promoted to corporal September i, 
1863 ; to sergeant September 26, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Cornelius Owens, August 23, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 
1863; promoted to second lieutenant 41st Regiment U. S. C. T. September 
26, 1864; discharged September 30, 1865. 

William L. Antes, August 23, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 
1863; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps March 15, 1864. 



196 History of Clearfield County. 

George W. Miller, August 23, 1862; promoted from corporal April 26, 
1864; killed at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. 

Corporals. — Michael B. Cramer, August 23, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July I, 1863 ; promoted to corporal November i, 1863 ; captured at Wil- 
derness, Va., May 5, 1864; died at Florence, S. C, or Salisbury, N. C, Jan- 
uary 10, 1865. 

George W. Luzere, August 29, 1862; promoted to corporal November i, 
1863 ; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

John M. McCumber, August 23, 1862; promoted to corporal January i, 
1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

John W. Dehess, August 23, 1862; wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 
1864; promoted to corporal April 26, 1864; discharged by general order July 
6, 1865. 

William F. Krise, August 23, 1862 ; promoted to corporal April 26, 1864; 
mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

William L. Taylor, August 23, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 
1863, and at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864; promoted to corporal April 26, 
1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Jason Kirk, jr., August 23, 1862; discharged by general order May 13^ 
1865. 

John H. Mason, August 23, 1862 ; discharged January 28, 1864, for 
wounds received at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863. 

William Pierce, August 25, 1862 ; discharged January 7, 1864, for wounds 
received at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863. 

Stephen Brundage, August 29, 1862; promoted to corporal; died at 
Washington, D. C, October 30, 1862. 

James A. Birchfield, August 23, 1862; promoted to corporal; died at 
Clearfield, Pa., August 18, 1863. 

Abram B. Davis, August 23, 1862; died at Washington, D. C, September 
29, 1862. 

Benj. B. McPherson, August 23, 1862; promoted to corporal ; killed at 
Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 1863. 

Musicians. — James H. West, August 23, 1862 ; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

Hiram G. Blair, August 29, 1862; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Privates. — Henry C. Alleman, September 19, 1863; drafted; wounded at 
Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

John Allen, September 14, 1863; drafted; discharged by special order 
December 18, 1863. 

Joshua Armstrong, August 23, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 5, 1863. 



Clearfield's Military History. 



197 



John W. Alworth, August 29, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
December 10, 1863. 

George W. Ardry, August 23, 1862; died at Bealton Station, Va., Sep- 
tember 9, 1863. 

Robert J. Alexander, September 22, 1863; drafted; died at Alexandria, 
Va., December 20, 1863; burial record, December 22, 1863, grave 1219. 

John R. Ball, August 23, 1862; wounded at Wilderness, Va., Ma}- 5, 
1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Daniel Baker, August 27, 1863; drafted; discharged by general order 
June 2, 1865. 

John A. Bobst, August 15, 1863 ; drafted; wounded at Laurel Hill, Va., 
May 8, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Frederick Beesecker, August 27, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with com- 
pany June 24, 1865. 

George Baight, August 24, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

Thomas Boyden, August 15, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

David Bowman, October 14, 1863 ; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, Va., 
May 5, 1864, and at Hatcher's Run, February 6, 1865 ; mustered out with 
company June 24, 1865. 

James Baine, August 15, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company June 
24, 1865. 

John F. Bowman, October 14, 1863 ; drafted ; wounded at Laurel Hill, Va., 
May 8, 1864; transferred to V. R. C. ; discharged by general order July 31, 
1865. 

James S. Bradley, August 23, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
March 25, 1863. 

James H. Bush, August 25, 1862 ; wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 
1864, and at Hatcher's Run February 6, 1865 ; discharged by general order 
May 17, 1865. 

Perry A. Bush, August 14, 1863; drafted; captured at Wilderness, Va. 
May 5, 1864; discharged by general order June 12, 1865. 

Michael Baine, September 12, 1863 ; drafted ; discharged by special order 
September 13, 1864. 

David B. Bernard, August 23, 1862 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps 
March 30, 1864; discharged August 23, 1865 — expiration of term. 

James R. Brewer, August 25, 1863 ; drafted ; died at Alexandria, Va. June 
6, of wounds received at Laurel Hill, May 8, 1864. 

George W. Bowman, October 14, 1863 ; drafted; died at Andersonville, 
Ga. October 18 of wounds received at Wilderness, Va. May 5, 1864; grave 
1 1087. 

26 



History of Clearfield County. 



Calvin Bowman, October 14, 1863 ; drafted; died at Washington, D. C- 
May 18, 1864; buried in National Cemetery, Arlington, Va. 

William Carr, August 23, 1862 ; missing in action at Wilderness, Va. May 
5, 1864. 

Jos. P. Catherman, August 23, 1862 ; mustered ont with company June 24, 
1865. 

Benj. F. Carr, August 23, 1862 ; captured at Wilderness, Va. May 6, 1864; 
died at Annapolis, Md., March 11, 1865. 

Joseph M. Cook, August 15, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

Francis Culloton, August 15, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

Justice Carey, September ii, 1863; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, Va. 
May 5, 1864; discharged by general order July 24, 1865. 

John M. Caldwell, August 23, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
ISFovember 26, 1862. 

Peter Curley, August 23, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa. July i, 1863 ; 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps December 15, 1863. 

David Cramer, August 23, 1862; wounded at Laurel Hill, Va. May 8, 
1864; died at Washington, D. C. June 3 — burial record June 6 — of wounds 
received at Spottsylvania C. H., Va. May 12, 1864; buried in Cypress Hill 
Cemetery, L. I. 

John L. Cavender, September 15, 1863; drafted; captured at Wilderness, 
Va. May 5 ; died at Andersonville, Ga. September 14, 1864; grave 8700. 

Patrick Culloton, August 29, 1862 ; deserted January 29, 1863. 

Valentine Dice,' February 26, 1864; wounded at Wilderness, Va. May 5, 
1864 ; absent at muster out. 

David Dulberger, August 15, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

Edwin R. Dailey, August 29, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April I, 1863. 

Jas. H. Daugherty, August 29, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April I, 1863. 

Wm. Davis, August 15, 1863; drafted; died at Washington, D. C. Janu- 
ary 2, 1864. 

John Darcy, August 29, 1862; died at Belle Plain, Va. March 11, 1863. 

Tobias Edward, August 15, 1863 ; drafted; captured at Weldon Railroad, 
Va. August 21, 1864; discharged by general order June 12, 1865. 

John Funk, August 15, 1862 ; drafted ; wounded at Petersburg, Va. June 
18, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

James M. Fox, August 23, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 
21, 1864. 



Clearfield's Military History. 199 

Frank Freel, August 23, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa. July i, 1863 ; 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps February 15, 1864. 

Charles Fry, August 15, 1862 ; drafted; died December 27, 1863 — burial 
record December 28 — at Alexandria, Va. ; grave 1236. 

James W. Goss, August 23, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa. July 1, 
1863 ; absent in hospital at muster out. 

Edward Goss, August 23, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa. July i, 1863 ; 
mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Chas. H. Garrison, August 29, 1862 ; wounded at Wilderness, Va. May 5, 
1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Frederick Gamp, October 16, 1863 ; drafted; discharged by general order 
June, 1865. 

Samuel C. Gephart, August 24, 1863; drafted; wounded at Laurel Hill, 
Va. May 8, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Jas. W. Guthery, September 22, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with com- 
pany June 24, 1865. 

Augustus Grey, February 7, 1865; discharged by general order June 2, 
1865. 

Wm. Grey, February 24, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24, 1865- 

Henry P. Hummel, August 29, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 
I, 1863 ; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Wm. Gready, August 29, 1863 ; deserted January 29, 1863. 

Nathan Haring, August 29, 1863; missing in action at Gettysburg, Pa. 
July I, 1863. 

Andrew Hamaker, August 14, 1863; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, 
Va. May 5, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Wm. Hoover, August 23, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 
20, 1863. 

Michael Hinkle, August 15, 1863; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, Va- 
May 5, 1864; discharged by general order May 17, 1865. 

Elias Heddings, October 15, 1863; drafted; died at Washington, D. C. 
May 19 of wounds received at Spottsylvania C. H., Va. May 12, 1864 ; buried 
in National Cemetery, Arlington. 

Martin Hashuishall, August 17, 1863 ; drafted; wounded and captured at 
Wilderness, Va. May 5, 1864 ; died at Andersonville, Ga. September 27, 1864; 
grave 9843. 

Wm. H. Ike, August 25, 1862; captured at Wilderness, Va. May 5, 1864; 
died at Wilmington, N. C, March 26, 1865; buried in National Cemetery; 
grave 1002. 

John C. Johnson, August 23, 1862 ; absent in hospital at muster out. 

James T. Jones, August 23, 1862; died at Washington, D. C. November 
20, 1862. 



200 History of Clearfield County. 

Oliver H. P. Krise, August 23, 1862; wounded at Wilderness, Va. May 
5, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Daniel S. Kepliart, August 23, 1862 ; missing in action at Gettysburg, Pa. 
July I, 1863. 

John Kivlan, August 29, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Decem- 
ber 28, 1862. 

Andrew Krise, August 23, 1862 ; deserted; dishonorably discharged June 
18, 1864. 

Christian Lanich, August 23, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

James Lucas, August 29, 1862 ; wounded and missing in action at Gettys- 
burg, Pa. July I, 1863. 

Joseph Linard, August 17, 1863; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, Va. 
May 5, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865. 

Chas. Larimer, August 23, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa. July i, 
1863 ; discharged by general order June 12, 1865. 

Harvey Lloyd, August 23, 1862; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps 
December 15, 1861. 

William Mays, August 30, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

John Miller, September 14, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

David S. Maxwell, August 17, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with com- 
pany June 24, 1865. 

James D. Maffit, August 23, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Jan- 
uary 12, 1863. 

Alonzo J. W. Merrell, August 23, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate February ii, 1863. 

Thomas E. Miller, August 23, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April I, 1863. 

William L. Mackey, August 23, 1862; died at Washington, D. C, January 
12, 1863 ; buried in Military Asylum Cemetery. 

William H. Miller, August 25, 1862 ; deserted February 16, 1863. 

George McCanns, August 17, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

James D. McMullin, February 7, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 
24, 1865. 

Patrick McCail, August 29, 1862 ; deserted January 29, 1863. 

LeviF. Noss, August 14, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company June 
24,^1865. 

John H. Ogden, August 23, 1862; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 



Clearfield's Military History. 201 

William H. Phillips, August 23, 1862; missing in action at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July I, 1863. 

Henry W. Peters, August 23, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Benjamin F. Peterson, August 27, 1862 ; drafted ; mustered out with com- 
pany June 24, 1865. 

Peter Phefifer, August 23, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate April 
I, 1863. 

James Rinehart, August 23, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July i, 
1863 ; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Henry Rose, August 14, 1863 ; drafted; discharged by special order June 
29, 1865. 

Lazarus A. Riggle, August 15, 1863; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, 
Va., May 5, 1864; mustered out with company June 14, 1865. 

Cortes Reams, August 23, 1862; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps 
December 15, 1863. 

William S. Renshaw, October 16, 1863; drafted; captured at Weldon Rail- 
road, Va., August 21, 1864; died at Salisbury, N. C, December 26, 1854. 

J. C. W. Reynolds, August 23, 1862; deserted November 26, 1862. 

Elias Schoepp, August 23, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Henry B. Snyder, September 14, 1863; drafted; missing in action at Wil- 
derness, Va., May 5, 1864. 

Henry A. Snyder, August 14, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company 
June 24, 1865. 

James Steele, August 28, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company June 
24, 1865. 

James C. Sutton, February 7, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24, 
1865. 

Oliver Smith, August 29, 1862; died at Washington, D, C, June 18, 1863; 
buried in Military Asylum Cemetery. 

Henry Shaffer, August 13, 1863; drafted; died at Warrenton Junction, 
Va., November 9, 1863. 

William F. Snyder, September 14, 1863 ; drafted ; died at Warrenton Junc- 
tion, Va., November 12, 1863. 

William O. Snyder, August 27, 1863 ; drafted; died at Paoli Mills, Va., 
December 18, 1863; buried in National Cemetery, Culpepper C. H., block i, 
section A, row 9, grave 302. 

Samuel Smith, August 23, 1862; deserted February 3, 1863. 

Levi L. Tate, August 23, 1862 ; absent on detached service at muster out. 

John Titus, August 29, 1862 ; killed at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. 

Edward Tinsdale, October 6, 1863 ; drafted; captured May 21, 1864; died 
at Andersonville, Ga., July 28, 1864, grave 4160. 



202 History of Clearfield County. 

Joseph R. Weasner, August 23, 1862; mustered out with company June 
24, 1865. 

John Woleslagle, August 29, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate Oc- 
tober 2, 1864. 

Chester O. Wells, August 23, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Januray 30, 1863. 

Phil. M. Woleslagle, August 29, 1862; transferred to Veteran Reserve 
Corps December i, 1863. 

Edward Williamson, October 16, 1863; drafted; wounded and captured at 
North Anna River, Va., May 23, 1864 ; died at Richmond June 6, 1864. 

Samuel Yocum, August 14. 1863 I drafted ; wounded at Wilderness, Va.,. 
May 5, 59th Regiment, 2d Cavalry, 1864; mustered out with company June 
24, 1865. 

Company F. 

Recruited in Clearfield and Centre Counties. 

Captains. — P. Benner Wilson, August 18, 1861 ; promoted to major Oc- 
tober 28, 1862. 

W. W. Anderson, September 14, 1861 ; promoted from ist heutenant, com- 
pany E, to captain, February 2, 1863 ; to major i8ist Regiment P. V. Feb- 
ruary 18, 1864. 

Clement R See, November 10, 1861 ; promoted from 2d to ist lieutenant 
October 2, 1862; to captain April 23, 1864; wounded at St. Mary's Churchy 
Va., June 24, 1864; discharged September 6, 1864. 

William H. Sheller, October 10, 1861 ; promoted from 1st sergeant to 2d 
lieutenant May 2, 1864; to captain December 25, 1864; transferred to com- 
pany F, 1st Cavalry, June 17, 1865 ; veteran. 

In Other Commands. 

From the upper part of the county a contingent of some fifteen men were 
enlisted, which formed a part of Company H, of the Sixty- fourth Regiment — 
the Fourth Cavalry. They were enlisted mainly in Burnside and the surround- 
ing townships, but the military record gives this county no credit for any part 
of that or any other company of the Sixty-fourth. The regiment entered the 
service in October, 1861, and was mustered out in July, 1865. 

Clearfield county was also represented in Battery A, First Regiment of 
artillery — Campbell's Battery, the Forty-third in the line. The contingent 
was small, comprising less than ten recruits. 



Geology of Clearfield County. 



203 



CHAPTER XIII. 



GEOLOGY OF CLEARFIELD COUNTY. 



THE geology of Clearfield county has been written by numerous gentlemen, 
notably Professors Leslie, Pratt, Chance, Hoover, and Scott, while local 
geologists have all had a say, and the consequence has been a difference of 
opinion as to what should be the name, and what letter or letters should be 
assigned to the several coal beds. 

With all due deference to the opinions of these eminent geologists, yet the 
necessary hurried examinations made by Messrs. Pratt and Chance, oftentimes 
through a primeval forest, or over nearly impassable jungles where the meas- 
ures could not be exposed, and where it would take months to make a thor- 
ough examination, the chance for error would seem to be great, and their 
scientific knowledge could not guard them from making reports that the pick 
and shovel would disprove in after years ; and therefore, no credit is asked for 
the later facts herewith presented, and it is trusted that where this paper differs 
from the reports named, the gentlemen will be assured that no blame is 
attached to their several papers, but that the region being more thoroughly 
developed, it i? very easy to give facts that they could possibly know nothing 
about. 

Before starting on the geology of the county, it is necessary that the reader 
should be made acquainted with the general principles governing the science, 
and what is meant by the terms employed to describe the material composing 
the planet called earth, and how this material was formed. The classification 
of formations of organic history and geological time is inserted in the following 
table : 



JEons. 

Caenozoic, 
Mesozoic, 



Palaeozoic. 



Eozoic, 



Ages. 
Quaternary, 
Tertiary, 
Cretaceous, 
Jurassic, 
Triassic, 
'' Upper Carboniferous, 
Lower Carboniferous, 
Devonian, 
Silurian, 
Cambrian, 
Huronian, 
Laurentian. 



Man. 
Mammals. 



Organic Reigns. 



Reptiles and Birds. 
> Amphibians and Land Animals. 



Fishes. 

Marine Invertebrates. 

Protozoans. 



The portion of this table most nearly concerning Clearfield county is the 
lower carboniferous measures of the PalcEOZoic formation. The rocks compos- 
ing the other divisions of this aeon are far below the surface, and do not crop 



204 History of Clearfield County. 

out within the county, if we except the No. XI Red Shale and the No. X 
Pocono Sandstone, which are above water level for short distances along the 
Susquehanna and Moshannon valleys. 

The base of what is known as the Lower Productive Coal Measures, is the 
Pottsville or Serai Conglomerate. This rock is the foundation of all the great 
coal measures of the Appalachian basin. It belongs to the coal era, and extends 
from the southeastern part of Pennsylvania, to and beyond the coal fields of 
Alabama and Missouri. In thickness it reaches i,ooo feet in the anthracite 
regions, gradually tapering to ten feet at the southwestern extremity. Its 
composition is a concretionary silicious quartz, in the form of a coarse sand 
rock, containing large, white, flint-like pebbles. In this region, the outcrop of 
the conglomerate forms the main crest of the Alleghenies, and is exposed by 
the deep basins of mountain streams, whose waters wash its surface. The 
Moshannon heads in this formation about twelve miles above Osceola Mills, 
and its presence is a never failing indication of coal. 

Taking the Serai Conglomerate, or No. XII, as the foundation, a true sec- 
tion of the coal measures of the county would read upwards as follows, accord- 
ing to J. W. Scott, esq. : 

" From the cannel slate and coal to Bed A, 30 feet. From A to B, 50 to 
60 feet. B to intermediate vein 30 feet, and from latter to C, 30 feet. From 
C to slate vein (slate and coal mixed) 30 feet, and from latter to D (Lower 
Freeport) 30 feet. D to D2, 30 feet, and from D2 to E or Moshannon bed, 
40 feet. From E to F or Rider Bed, 40 feet, and from F to G or Cap Bed, 
30 feet. 

" After 30 feet of cover on Cap Bed, we reach the Mahoning Sandstone with 
the barren measures and barren beds rising above. 

" The Mahoning Sandstone does not appear in place until we pass Houtz- 
dale. At Ramey large accumulations of barren measures superimpose the 
Mahoning. 

" This is what may be properly called an average section, varying with local- 
ity. Each bed has its own specific bed rock as well as cover, varying in dif- 
ferent places. The different seams or beds of coal are not uniform throughout, 
but vary in size and quality." 

The rocks composing the barren measures are found only in a few town- 
ships of the county. According to Dr. H. M. Chance in his report H. 7, "they 
are capping the high summits of the Bloomington ridge, south of Curwensville 
and Clearfield, and also in the trough of the Andersonville sub-basin. They 
also cover a considerable area in Beccaria and Guelich townships." 

Between these two rocks therefore lie all the mineral wealth of the Clear- 
field region, viz., the Serai or No. XII Conglomerate and the Mahoning Sand- 
stone. 

"The county is divided into three great coal basins, known respectively as 



Geology of Clearfield County. 



205 



the First, Second, and Third Basins, which pass through the county in a gen- 
eral southwest and northeast course. 

" They are separated by two anticHnal axes, commonly known as the First 
and Second axes, the third basin being separated by the Third or Boon's Moun- 
tain anticlinal from the Fourth basin of Jefferson and Elk counties. 

" Beginning at the southeastern corner of the county, and passing northwest 
to Boon's Mountain at the northwestern corner of the county, we pass over the 
following axes and basins : 

("Eastern sub-basin (?) 
p. -p • J Guelich township sulD-anticlinal (?) 

I Utahville-Ramey-Houtzdale-Osceola-Philipsburg-Morrisdale 

1^ basin. 
First Anticlinal Axis — Laurel Hill axis, 

( Ansonville sub-basin — Karthaus basin. 
Second Basin. <^ Marion sub-anticlinal — Nolo axis of Indiana county. 

( Pennville sub-basin. 
Second Anticlinal Axis — Chestnut Ridge — Driftwood axis. 

( Eastern sub-basin. 
Third Basin. < Second sub-anticlinal. 

( Du Bois — Benezette basin. 
Third Anticlinal axis — Boon's Mountain axis. 



" The significance of the lines marked upon geological maps to show the 
axial line of anticlinal uplifts is not understood by many persons. Some 
imagine a distinction is to be made between an 'anticlinal' and an ' axis;' that 
one brings up the conglomerate. No. XII, and throws the coals out into the 
air, while the other does not. Others suppose that this occurs where an 
' anticlinal ' or an ' axis ' is marked upon the map. It is, therefore, proper to 
explain here that — 

" 1st. An anticlUial is simply a fold or roll in the rocks, or a line along 
which they are uplifted. 

" 2d. An axis is the central or crest-line of an anticlinal ; in other words 
the line along which the greatest iiplift is found. The term axis is often used 
synonymously with anticlittal." — Report H. 7. 

The trough of the first basin extends from Utahville through Ramey, 
Houtzdale, and Osceola. It crosses the Moshannon Creek into Centre county 
at the Mapleton Branch Railroad, re-crossing again into Clearfield county near 
the schutes of the Atalanta No. 3 colliery, crossing back into Centre county 
below the town of Phillipsburg, and again crossing into Clearfield county at 
the m.outh of Emigh Run, where it gradually rises until near Morrisdale, when 
it "spoons" out. But still the basin can be distinctly traced north through 
Kylertown, when it deflects towards the east and passes over into Centre 
county. 

The central line of this basin follows the valley of the Beaver Run from 
Osceola Mills to Houtzdale. The Centre county side of the basin catches only 
27 



2o6 History of Clearfield County. 

a small area of the upper beds, the rise on the southeast side of the axis being 
very steep. 

The basin is full of faults. Three of these are found in the Moshannon 
workings. Serious faults have also been encountered in the Morrisdale mines 
(an upthrow of 42 feet) in the Allport, Franklin, Penn, Arctic, and many other 
collieries ; in fact there are very few mines in this basin in which more or less 
serious disturbances have not been found. 

The mines opened along the Beaver Run on the Moshannon Branch Rail- 
road show that the measures rise towards the northwest and southwest. But 
in nearly all of the colHeries reverse and local dips are encountered, and in 
some cases they are of such a serious nature as to cause much extra expense 
in overcoming them ; Eureka No. 5 and No. 10 being examples. Clay seams 
and a pinching down of the roof, thereby thinning down the coal, often occurs; 
but the most serious disturbances, and the most difficult to overcome, are the 
numerous dislocations or displacements of coal seams. In every case of a 
" downthrow " it goes to the southwest, and in the line of fracture or slip has 
a southeast and northwest bearing. On the north of the Beaver Run, and 
extending northeast from Houtzdale to Morrisdale, these dislocations occur 
very often, showing displacements of the coal bed from ten to fifty feet. The 
first on the north side of the Beaver Run is at Stirling mine. No. 2, which 
shows a " downthrow " to the southwest of twenty-one feet, and having a 
southeast and northwest course. The next are two faults in the Laurel Run 
mine, which occurred within forty-five yards of each other. One indicates a 
" downthrow " of twelve feet, and the line of slip is south ten degrees east, the 
other bearing north forty degrees east, and is a " downthrow" of fifty-three 
feet ; line of slip north forty degrees west The next fault is at the Decatur 
mine, which shows a " downthrow " to the southwest of ten feet. At the Em- 
pire mine there is one twenty feet. At the Pardee, one half mile from Decatur 
mine, there is another, but do not know the number of feet of displacement. 
The general direction or bearing of the slips are southeast and northwest, and 
" downthrows " toward the southwest. When these faults are encountered 
they often destroy the whole plan of the under-ground workings, and unless 
the mine manager has the necessary skill and general adaptability, they are 
very expensive to overcome. 

The majority of the mines opened in the first basin are opened on the E 
Bed. The exceptions are named below. This bed is called the D by Pro- 
fessor Chance, and the B by Professor Piatt, but later developments plainly 
show that it is the E or Mammoth Bed of the Anthracite region. 

The first bed above the Serai Conglomerate is known as Bed A, the next 
as Bed B, the next Bed C, and so on to the top bed which is known as Bed 
G, and is immediately underneath the Mahoning sandstone. If there were 
no disturbances it would be easy to know what bed was being worked by 



Geology of Clearfield County. 207 

counting either from the bottom or from the top rock, but sundry local beds 
appear now and then, not true beds, but oftentimes offshoots of the regular 
bed, and these sporadic beds may exist over miles of area. When first found 
they mislead the miner and geologist into thinking they have another persis- 
tent bed, and behold another letter is wanted for it, but the letters all being 
appropriated some years ago they tack to their new found child a letter with 
the second power — for instance, A Prime, B Prime, etc. This is often the case 
in the Clearfield region, and thus the geologist is wrong from no fault of his. 
To get at the true letter then of the bed so extensively worked in the first 
basin we commence at the top and count down. We find first the Cap Bed, 
G, next the Rider Bed, F. This bed is worked by W. C. Langsford & Co., 
and the coal sold in the borough of Houtzdale for home consumption. Under 
Bed P" is the Moshannon Bed, or E. 

The reason Professor Piatt called the bed at the Moshannon mine B, was 
due to the (then undefined) faults at this and the Beaverton mines, which 
throw the coal down to within a few feet of the railroad. The same mistake 
was made in naming the bed at the Franklin colliery, while local geologists 
claimed that the bed worked in the Penn colliery was not the same bed that 
was worked in the Eureka No. i mine, and this, too, after a person could 
enter the one mine and pass out through the other one. An erroneous opinion 
is one of the hardest things to correct, sometimes even when ocular proof is 
offered. These mistakes do not matter much to the general reader, or to the 
average citizen, but oftentimes properties have been condemned which have 
since been reclaimed by local, competent men. 

The coal worked at the Philadelphia mine at Osceola Mills, and at the Re- 
liance mine near the same place, and at the Powelton Black Diamond mine, 
is taken from Bed B. The coal worked in the Morrisdale mines is taken from 
Bed C, as traces of the ferriferous limestone is found beneath that bed. The 
coal from the mines on Pine Run is taken from Bed B. Bed F was opened on 
Hughes's Farm, and found to be two feet, six inches thick. 

The mines worked along the line of the Bells's Gap Railroad are all on 
BedB. 

There is very little known about the second basin as yet ; the region not 
being opened, and the country but sparsely settled, and covered in most places 
by dense forests. 

A sub-anticlinal enters the county from Cambria county, a little southwest 
of East Ridge, and runs near Marion towards Kerrmoor. This anticlinaljhas 
not been fully developed. It is known as the Marion Anticlinal. The^center 
of the trough of the second basin is supposed to extend from Lumber City, 
south from Curwensville and Clearfield, along the upper portion of Bradford 
township, and the lower east end of Girard township, and about through the 
center of Covington and Karthaus townships, and thence into Cameron county. 



2o8 History of Clearfield County. 

The mountainous wilderness north of Clearfield borough, embracing an area 
of about one hundred and fifty square miles, is without human inhabitants, is 
traversed by few roads, and according to Chance, is principally occupied by 
rocks of the Conglomerate series, forming sterile soil. Therefore it is impos- 
sible to say what this land may contain. 

" North of Clearfield the measures rise steadily towards the second anticli- 
nal axis, so that while the ground three or four miles north of the river is very 
high, we find the hills topped by only the lower portion of the coal measures, 
and six or seven miles (in an air line) north of Clearfield on the road leading 
towards the old Caledonia pike, we find the summits sandy and rocky and cov- 
ered with blocks of conglomerate. The summits on this road are 2IOO to 
2150 feet above tide. 

" One mile and a half north-west of Clearfield we find several banks opened. 
The lower bed shows about two feet and a half of coal with a slate parting one- 
half to one inch thick, five inches from the bottom. This bank is opened at 
an elevation of about 1310 feet above tide, and is probably on the Kittanning 
Middle coal, Bed C. The Joseph Shaw bank on the opposite side of the ravine 
is about twenty feet lower, but is thought to be on the same bed; it shows but 
little more than two feet of coal." — Report H. 7. 

Forty-five feet above the former opening a bank was opened on Bed C, 
and two beds are supposed to lie in the hill above this mine, one of which 
showed five feet of coal, but a fault was encountered which ran the bed down 
to an insignificant thickness. This was Bed E. 

The old Karthaus-Caledonia pike runs for about three miles through the 
northern part of Lawrence township, through sandy " barrens," formed by the 
Conglomerate, which is here elevated by the Caledonia sub-axis. But as the 
Elk county line is approached, the rocks rapidly sink to the northwest, towards 
Caledonia, and the coal measures are soon found on the hill-tops, and the 
character of the land is similar to that made by the coal measures in other 
localities. 

Bed E was opened in Karthaus township many years ago, and mined ex- 
tensively by old Peter Arns Karthaus, at the place named after himself; the 
coal averaging five feet six inches. The old workings were allowed to close, 
however, and to remain so until, in 1883, when John Whitehead and Berwind, 
White & Company opened large mines in this township, the one at Karthaus 
and the other at Three Runs. The coal proved to be over six feet in thick- 
ness at each of these mines. They are now both owned and worked by the 
Berwind-White Coal Mining Company. This coal, however, has the "bony" 
on its top, and a small slate parting in the center. This parting is not per- 
sistent, however, and is often wanting. 

Bed E does not cover a large area in this township, as it lies very high on 
the hill- tops, and is, moreover, confined to the hills close to the river. The 
other beds are not yet opened. 



Geology of Clearfield County. 209 

In Covington township the lower beds have been extensively worked for 
home consumption, but the opening of the E at Karthaus has discouraged the 
farmers from attempting to compete with the mines of the Big Bed, as it is 
locally named, around Frenchville. 

About two miles from Wallaceton a mine has been opened along the line 
of the Beech Creek road, which is supposed to be on Bed B. 

Between Wallaceton and Woodland the rapid dip towards the center of the 
second basin is plainly shown by some of the railroad cuts, and in one cut a 
bed of coal is exposed, which shows a remarkably sharp dip to the north. The 
lower portion of the coal measures occupy most of the surface of Bradford 
township, and only a small portion is sufficiently high to take in the upper 
beds of the series. 

There is a mine near Woodland which produces a peculiar kind of coal, 
which nearly resembles and is taken for cannel. On examination, however, 
it is found that this coal is bituminous shale, and is met with very often in the 
first coal basin. It makes a good house coal, but is practically worthless for 
other purposes. It contains a large percentage of ash, which certifies to its 
character. The amount being limited, however, a ready sale will be found for 
all that can be produced. The following facts are extracted from Report H : 

" Passing west and northwest along the Tyrone and Clearfield Railroad 
from Blue Ball station, about one-half mile beyond the station, is marked by a 
beautiful exhibition of the serai conglomerate. Enormous bowlders of fine- 
grained white quartzose sandstone, with some brownish massive sandstone, 
are found, and occasional massive layers of conglomerate rock, with rounded 
white quartz pebbles of the size of a pea and larger. The mass rises as a wall 
fifty to sixty feet high. Some of the loose blocks will contain over two thou- 
sand cubic feet. As exposed here, this mass of sandstone and conglomerate 
should be in all some two hundred or more feet in thickness. 

*' The Tyrone and Clearfield Railroad, following the stream, keeps in this 
conglomerate, sometimes dipping softly in one direction and then back again, 
or about flat until near Wallaceton, where overlying measures come in, and 
coal is found out-cropping. In wells in the village a small coal is struck only 
a few feet below the surface, with from six to twelve feet of fire-clay underly- 
ing it. Where the lowest exposed coal was struck in a well, about five hun- 
dred yards southwest of Wallaceton, it shows about two to two and one-half 
feet of coal, with fire-clay floor and sandy gray slates For cover. The dip at 
this point is slightly back to the southeast. 

" At Shimmel's opening, two-thirds of a mile northeast of the station, the 
main entry has fallen in ; but from the size of the opening the bed could not 
have been large. Gray slates overlie the bed. On the hill south of this mine 
two small beds were once opened up, dipping to the southeast. 

"The valleys of Clearfield and Little Clearfield Creeks are sharp, narrow 



History of Clearfield County, 



gorges, eroded in the hard rocks, forming the Conglomerate series No. XII. 
The high land back from these streams commonly contains about two hundred 
feet of coal measures, and the higher knobs probably take in the Mahoning 
sandstone." 

Messrs. Chase & Van Dusen have opened up a mine on Little Clearfield 
Creek, which shows four feet six inches of Bed E. This mine rises southeast, 
towards Clearfield Creek. 

A little further up the Little Clearfield the O'Shanter Coal Company have 
built a railroad about two miles, along a run, at right angles to the creek, and 
have opened up and are now shipping from Bed E. This mine rises towards 
the southwest. The bed here is capped by about one foot to eighteen inches 
of cannel, of the same quality as that mined near Woodland, and is shipped 
and sold separate from the other coals. The remainder of the bed measures 
from three feet two inches to three feet six inches, making the total width of 
the bed from four feet two inches to four feet six inches. 

Between Curwensville and Bloomington, Bed D has been opened up in a 
number of places, and furnishes a bright black, shining columnar coal, with 
only a small amount of sulphur, and yielding a small amount of ash — in other 
words, a fuel of high order. 

In the region between Bloomington and Little Clearfield creek a strong 
northwest dip pervades the rocks, so that the coal is here more than a hundred 
feet higher than when opened near Curwensville. This rise to the southeast 
continues over into Knox township, and near the Pleasant Ridge school-house 
on the " Barrens " road the Mahoning Sandstone is seen at an elevation of 
1650 feet, more or less, above tide. 

A large number of country banks have been opened on beds A and B in 
the neighborhood of Curwensville, but they rarely found more than two and a 
half to three feet of coal, and that of rather poor quality and often very sul- 
phurous. These workings have, therefore, been abandoned, the banks have 
long since fallen shut and the beds cannot be measured. 

The line of greatest elevation of the first anticlinal axis passes through 
the northwestern part of Bigler township, lifting the top of the Conglomerate 
No. XII about 240 feet above Clearfield Creek in the hills near the mouth of 
Lost Run. The prevailing dip is north of west towards the central line of the 
Second Basin, but local dips to the southeast are occasionally observed. The 
northwest dip is very strong in the vicinity of the head-waters of Potts Run. 
Some of the high land between Potts and Lost Runs takes in all the produc- 
tive measures, but the area underlaid by the Freeport Beds is comparatively 
small. Limestone occurs near the Cove Run school-house, and a bed of coal 
five feet thick is found on the Irvin estate on Lost Run. 

Throughout the southeastern part of Jordan township the coals are elevated 
by this uplift of the first anticlinal axis, but the prevailing dip is gently to the 



Geology of Clearfield County. 



northwest towards Ansonville. On the road from Glen Hope to Ansonville 
and Gazzam, the Mahoning- sandstone is seen capping the summits of the hills. 
In the vicinity of Ansonville this rock does not out-crop prominently, but its 
place is about 200 feet lower down than where seen near Glen Hope, showing 
a dip to the northwest. 

Going northwest into Ferguson township, we find the Mahoning sandstone 
125 feet higher on Campbell Run. This fact locates the central line of the 
Second Basin near Ansonville. In the extreme western corner of this town- 
ship the Mahoning sandstone lies 150 to 175 feet higher than on Campbell 
Run, which helps to prove where the trough of the basin may be found. 

The coal is opened and worked very extensively in and around Gazzam 
by the Clearfield Bituminous Coal Corporation, and finds its way to market 
over the Beech Creek Railroad. The bed worked is the E, and varies from 
three feet six inches to four feet. The coal is clean, bright, shining, columnar, 
and with an almost inappreciable amount of sulphur, and is low in ash. 

Bed E is opened up near Pennville, though no shipments are made from 
there. The coal is about five feet thick, and resembles the coal mined in the 
First Basin from that bed. 

A three foot bed was opened about three miles above Bellville. The coal 
was not of good quality, and appeared as if it was taken from Bed B. This, 
however, is not certain. Future developments may change the whole charac- 
ter of this coal. 

" Three beds of limestone have been found in the hills south of the river, 
Greenwood township. They are probably the Freeport Upper and Lower 
Limestones and the Johnstown Cement Bed, and this is the only locality at 
which the presence of all three beds are known or even suspected. The coals 
are opened up, but the upper beds are all thin, barely reaching three feet, but 
one of the lower beds (probably Bed B) is quite thick. In the absence of 
openings that may be examined, the thickness and character of the coals in this 
township must be judged from openings in the adjoining townships. 

" At Lewisville the Johnstown Cement (limestone) Seam was opened and 
the product burnt some years ago, but as it was found to be very impure, the 
enterprise was abandoned and the kiln torn down. The seam lies about two 
hundred feet above the river. 

" In the northern part of Bell township the land is very high, the crest of 
the divide between the waters of the Susquehanna River and Mahoning Creek 
often reaching a height (by barometer) of more than 2200 feet above tide. 
This high land marks the uplift of the Second or Chestnut Ridge anticlinal 
axis. It is capped by the Mahoning sandstone. 

" From this ridge southwardly and southeastwardly towards the river we 
find the measures dipping rapidly, so that the place of Bed B is about three 
hundred and fifty feet above the river near McGee's. 



212 History of Clearfield County. 

" In the country drained by streams flowing west and northwest to the 
Mahoning, the dip is probably west or northwest towards the center of the 
Third V>2&mr —Report H. 7. 

The Clearfield and Jefferson Railroad extends from Irvona to Chests. This 
road will be extended to Punxsutawney on the west and to Madera on the 
east, and will fully open up all this section of country. 

The coal is not opened up enough either in Burnside or Chest townships to 
warrant any record of their quality or the thickness of the beds being given at 
this time. From what can be learned, however, it is safe to say that the beds 
are of moderate thickness. From local openings they have been found to be 
as high as six feet and as low as four feet in thickness. In Burnside township 
the No. XII Serai Conglomerate is above water level along the Susquehanna 
River, but passes beneath water level on either side of the river. The Mahon- 
ing sandstone is seen in place as a massive conglomerate capping the summits 
of the hills east of Cherry Tree. 

•' Going east towards Somerville's Mill, on Chest Creek, the summits reach 
a height of 400 feet above the river, and still show the Mahoning sandstone as 
a prominent cap- rock. 

" Going north towards New Washington there are higher summits, but the 
Mahoning sandstone does not show prominently. It is possible that many of 
these hills are not quite high enough to catch this rock, but it is more probable 
that the rock here exists as a soft, shaly sandstone and does not make a well- 
marked outcrop. East of New Washington it is plainly seen in the high knobs 
overlooking Chest Creek." — Report H. 7. 

The trough of the Third Coal Basin, within the county follows the line of 
the Low Grade railroad from Tylers southwest to within a few miles of Du Bois, 
and then apparently leaves the valley to run under the high land near or south 
of West Liberty. It is a continuation northeast of the Punxsutawney coal 
field. 

The third anticlinal axis (or Boon's Mountain axis) crosses the extreme 
northwestern corner of the county, in a northeast and southwest direction. It 
is probable that only five miles of the axis lie within the county. 

Within the third coal basin are all the mines that are worked along the 
line of the Low Grade division of the Allegheny Valley Railroad, from Du 
Bois on the west to Tylers on the east, and lying in Huston and Brady town- 
ships. 

From West Liberty northward towards Du Bois the measures lie flat, so 
that, while the center of the basin is near West Liberty, the Freeport coals do 
not come above water-level until we reach Du Bois. 

The coal worked west of the latter town, by the Rochester and Hildrup 
Companies, is the same that is worked at Reynoldsville, i. e., Bed E. 

At the Rochester mine the bed shows very thick, in some parts of the 



Geology of Clearfield County. 213 

workings approaching seven feet, with a slate parting about two feet below 
the roof 

Coming eastward, up the Low Grade Railroad, towards the town of Du 
Bois, we find the Barren measures coming down to water-level. This accounts 
for the absence of this coal in the Du Bois hills — it there lies below water- 
level. This has been proven by several holes drilled for water in and near 
the town. 

From Du Bois eastward to the Summit tunnel the cuttings on the railroad 
are all in Barren measure rocks, and at the tunnel there is a thickness of over 
two hundred feet of these measures. 

Between Luthersburg and Rockton the hills are rarely high enough to 
catch the Freeport lower coal with sufficient mining cover. The lower coals 
have been opened on the head-waters of the Luthersburg branch of Sandy 
Lick Creek, but they are rather thin — commonly two and a half or three feet 
thick. The Freeport lower limestone outcrops in the road on the summit. 

The Barren measures occupy the central part of this basin from near Win- 
terburn southwest to Brady township. The coal opened at Winterburn may 
be one of the higher beds, probably Bed F, and the same may be said of the 
openings made at Penfield, but at Tylers the bed worked has every indication 
of being Bed E. The coal in the mine at Tylers is nearly four feet thick, but 
is very sulphurous. The product of this mine is crushed, washed, and coked 
before being shipped. 

Clearfield County Fire Clays. — Fire clay is found and worked in the first 
and second coal basins in the county, and near the borders of the county in 
the third coal basin. 

The fire-brick works at Retort and Sandy Ridge, about three and four 
miles respectively from Osceola Mills, are in Centre county, not far from the 
line. The clay worked ranges from four feet to six feet thick, averaging five 
feet or more ; but ranges in places from four feet to twelve feet in thickness. 

The clay worked is in three layers, and these are kept separate, the differ- 
ent qualities of these layers making them specially valuable for different pur- 
poses. The top layer is said to be adapted for furnace bottoms ; the middle 
layer, the hard clay, is used for bricks, and the third layer for making tiles and 
the in- walls of furnaces. The hard, sandy clay in the bottom is not worked. 
These clays rest upon the conglomerate (XII) and are therefore at the bottom 
of the lower coal measures. 

Three miles west of Blue Ball station, on the Tyrone and Clearfield Rail- 
road, the Harrisburg Fire Brick Company have opened and are working an 
extensive fire-clay mine. The clay is shipped to Harrisburg, where it is man- 
ufactured into bricks. These bricks are used for heating and puddling fur- 
naces, and for the lining of blast furnaces, chiefly in the Schuylkill, Susque- 
hanna and Cumberland Valleys, The clay is also shipped to Pittsburgh, where 
it is made into pots for the use of glass works. 28 



214 History of Clearfield County. 

The clays worked are in three layers, called respectively the upper layer, 
or " shell clay ; " the middle layer, or " block clay," called the best of the three ; 
the lower layer, or " flag clay." 

These clays, in their floor, cover, character, and size, resemble strongly the 
Sandy Ridge fire-clays, and give every evidence of being the same bed, altered 
but little in its passage underground from the Sandy Ridge mine, on the crest 
of the Allegheny Mountain, to this Blue Ball mine, where the clay is again 
raised high up and comes out to daylight near the summit of the first anticlinal 
sub-axis. 

The Wallaceton Fire Brick Company have opened the clay bed at a point 
below Wallaceton, and are extensively working it. The Woodland Fire Brick 
Company have opened and are working the clay on both sides of Roaring Run 
Brook, about forty feet above the stream. The hill rises fifty feet above, cov- 
ered on the surface with sandstone lumps, usually of moderate size, without 
any pebble rock conglomerate. 

The working face of clay exposed measured an average of about five feet 
•of hard, good-looking clay, with softer or more impure fire-clay in roof and 
floor. While a part of this five-foot clay occasionally deteriorated temporarily 
in character, yet the general average of the bed, both in size and quality, is 
•sustained with much regularity. 

Another drift, about one hundred yards away, shows nearly the same thing, 
but with perhaps more of the inferior, and less of the valuable, clay showing 
in the working face. 

The mine opened at Barrett Station, some years ago, was never worked to 
any great extent. In fact the clay was not worth much, and the mine was 
abandoned soon after its opening. 

The mine opened in Clearfield town, east of the depot, according to Pro- 
fessor Piatt, " showed a curious exaggeration of an ordinary fire-clay deposit," 
being mixed with coal, iron ore, sandstone, and black slate. There were eight 
layers of fire-clay, some impure mixed with shales, some mixed with sand, 
while others were mixed with nodular iron ore balls. There were, however, 
eight feet of fairly good clay in the mine at the beginning, but it soon dimin- 
ished in size and quality, and the mine was abandoned. The clay now used 
in the works is brought from around Woodland and Blue Ball. 

R. B. Wigton & Sons have opened up the clay at the head of the Ashland 
■siding on the Coal Run Branch Railroad. This clay is evidently the same 
clay that is worked at Sandy Ridge, as it also rests upon the conglomerate 
(XII) here, coming to the surface within a mile of the works, at the summit of 
the anticlinal axis. 

A very fine bed of clay was exposed in a railroad cutting of an extension 
of the Moshannon Branch to Madera, on W. C. Dickinson's place. The clay 
showed up eleven feet, but at this present writing it has not been worked. It 



Review of Coal Interests. 215 

is supposed to be the same bed worked elsewhere in the county, but this is 
not asserted, because so Httle of the bed has been exposed that it is impossible, 
as yet, to say that it lies on the conglomerate. 

This fire-clay, no doubt, covers the conglomerate over a large area of the 
county, and future generations will be the parties who will have the pleasure 
of proving whether this is so or not. 

The mineral wealth of Clearfield county might be said to have been only 
touched so far. The vast deposits of coal that are known to lie within her terri- 
tory will give employment to thousands, and enlist the capital of moneyed men 
for hundreds of years to come. Though the woods are nearly cut down and 
the lumber industry might be said to be passing away, yet it is only to make 
room for the young giant now lying in swaddling clothes in the cradle of the 
present. This giant will, in a very few years, give evidence of its power, and 
the geologist of the future will know a great deal more than can be known or 
can even be dreamed of at present. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



A REVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COAL INTERESTS OF THE CELE- 
BRATED HOUTZDALE-OSCEOLA-PHILIPSBURG- REGION. 

THE coal production of the county has been developed in so short a time 
that, to the general reader not knowing the full facts, it may appear like 
a tale copied from the " Arabian Nights," or told by a second Munchausen. 

Beginning in the year 1862, with only 7,239 tons output for that year, it 
has grown in the short time of twenty-four years to near four millions of tons 
in 1885. No comparison is made with the year 1886, for the reason that a 
three months' strike, which then occurred, limited the product some 330,000 
tons, while the scarcity of cars for transporting the output must have cut off 
some 200,000 tons more, a total loss of about 530,000 tons in round numbers. 

It is the purpose of this chapter to show how this great industry has been 
developed, and trace it, step by step, to the present time, and, as near as pos- 
sible, to make an accurate record of the several collieries comprising the now 
world- renowned Houtzdale-Osceola-Philipsburg region. So great, indeed, has 
been this output that it is deemed of sufficient importance to be made the sub- 
ject of a special chapter in this work. The other coal-producing localities will 
receive full mention in the several townships of which they form a part. 

This region, geologically, is known as the first bituminous coal basin, and 
extends from Utahville in the southwest, to Peale in the northeast, of the 



2i6 History of Clearfield County. 

lower or southeastern part of the county, and embraces within its borders the 
Houtzdale, Osceola, and PhiHpsburg sub- regions. The south and east lines of 
the county having for its boundaries Cambria and Centre counties respectively? 
the first basin naturally extends over into these counties ; but, with the excep- 
tion of four mines near to Osceola, that ore worked in Centre county, and the 
mines at Ansonville in the E basin, all the production passing over the rail- 
roads leading from the county is mined within its limits. 

The first basin contains several workable veins or beds of coal ; among the 
number being the celebrated " Moshannon vein," from which is taken, with 
one, or possibly two exceptions, all the coals known as the " Clearfield coals," 
and which has given this region its reputation. This Moshannon bed is known 
as " Bed E," and varies in thickness from two feet and under to over ten feet, 
but its normal thickness is from four and one half to five feet, and is generally 
without slate partings, but with a " bony " coal immediately beneath its top 
rock. That also varies in thickness — from three inches to one foot — but nor- 
mally about five inches, and has no parting from the coal. 

At times, however, a parting of " bituminous shale," or false cannel, forms 
near the center of the bed, and in one instance at least this " cannel " became 
rock, over a foot in thickness. This is not general, however, and the bed is 
free from all impurities except the " bone " on its top, which is easily separated 
and cast away by the miner. 

The coal from the Moshannon Bed early became noted for its freedom 
from sulphur and other impurities, and therefore its small percentage of ash. 
Very little of it was "coked," as it was too good to coke, and the coal was 
used in its raw state for the generation of steam (especially in locomotives and 
ocean steamers), for rolling-mills, and blacksmith forges, and for the making of 
glass, and other products requiring specially pure coals. Its freedom from sul- 
phur made it very desirable as a cargo for ocean-going vessels, and for the firing 
of ocean steamers, as there was no danger incurred from spontaneous combus- 
tion. 

The coal is not screened for the market, but "slack" and "lump" is shipped 
together, and commonly known as the " run of the mine." True, there are 
one or two screens erected in the region, but these are not used to get the 
" lump," but on the contrary, the customer wants the " slack," without the 
lump. 

These coals did not win their way into public favor without the usual 
drawbacks. It was not generally known that the purer the coal the finer 
would it be mined, and as there was and is very few lumps in this coal, and 
as it did not make the favorable appearance " on board cars," that screened 
bituminous coals generally does, it was condemned at sight, and before trial 
on locomotive engines that were used to draw the first of these coals to market; 
and they therefore burned coal brought from Westmoreland county, and the 



Review of Coal Interests. 217 

engines, with one accord, agreed that the Clearfield county coal was worth 
nothing as a steam producer until after an exhaustive analysis, this coal, when 
it was found to contain more pure carbon than bituminous coal generally, and 
then the superintendents of the roads near the region concluded to try it in 
their locomotives, upon which it was found to be far superior to all other steam 
producers, not excepting anthracite coal, and at once it jumped public favor, 
and to-day all the important railroads in Northern New York, Massachusetts, 
New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine, use coal from these mines, while the 
great Pennsylvania road draws nearly all its supplies from the county for its 
system eastward of Tyrone ; and many of the large ocean-going steamers 
derive their power from the wealth that once laid in the hills of this county. 

The first shipment of coal over the Tyrone and Clearfield railway was 
made from the mine now known as the " Powelton," three miles south of Os- 
ceola Mills, and though in Centre county, yet its production is added in the 
total mined from Clearfield county, so that we will have to note it. The rail- 
road was finished to that point in 1862, and the mine shipped 7,239 net tons 
for that year. It was then owned by John Nuttal, afterwards by the Powel- 
ton Coal and Iron Company, who worked it for a number of years, and then 
leased it to W. J. Jackson, who named the mine " Black Diamond," and still 
works it. 

There were sundry local openings on the bed made before this time, and the 
coal sold to the citizens about the locality, but none was carried any great dis- 
tance, with the exception of the coal from the Goss Farm, in Decatur town- 
ship, where an opening was made as early as 1830, and the coal conveyed to 
Spruce Creek by wagons. The Drane colliery is now working this ancient 
mine. 

The Derby mine, about three-fourths of a mile west of Philipsburg, was 
opened in i860 by George Zeiglar, and the coal hauled on a tram-road to 
Philipsburg and sold for local use. When the railroad reached that point in 
1864 this mine was ready to ship ; its schutes were located nearly opposite 
the depot, and it can justly claim being the first mine in the county to ship its 
coal to market over the new railroad. This mine is still being worked by the 
Barnes Brothers, but an extension known as the Derby Branch was built in 
1870, and the coal is now loaded and shipped on that branch. 

The next mine to ship was the " Cuba," immediately opposite Philipsburg. 
This mine was opened in 1863 by a Mr. Saltilda, and afterwards worked under 
the name of "Cody Ridge," by J. N. Cassanova, who owns the lands on which 
this and Derby mines are placed, and is now worked again under the name of 
" Cuba," by the Cuba Coal Company. 

The year 1864 also witnessed the opening of a mine about half a mile east 
of Osceola Mills, and opposite the old Enterprise mine, by a Mr. Fulton, who 
only shipped a few cars, when he abandoned his enterprise, and retired from 



21 8 History of Clearfield County. 

the field. This mine was long known as " Fulton's Folly," why, it is hard to 
ascertain at this late date. 

There was another mine opened during 1864 immediately opposite Osceola 
Mills, and just over the line in Centre county, and known as the " Smith," on 
the lands of A. G. Curtin, D. I. Pruner, and others. The lease was trans- 
ferred afterward to John Miller, and he conveyed it to William Wallace and 
John Tucker, who re-named the colliery the "Wallace." In the mean time the 
Osceola Company had acquired by purchase all the rights of Curtin ct. als. in 
the lands, and that company was merged afterwards in the Moshannon Land 
and Lumber Company. On the 31st of July, 1873, the lease expired, and the 
mine reverted to the land owners, who subsequently leased it to Isaac Rose 
and Michael McHugh. They re-named the colliery the " Philadelphia," by 
which it still appears on the record, though not shipping much coal. The vein 
worked is the B. 

The coal production had increased in 1863 to 24,330 net tons, and in 1864 
to 65,380 net tons (and here it might be mentioned that in all computations of 
coal production, where tons are spoken of, it will mean net tons). In 1865, 
however, there was only shipped 60,629 tons, a decrease of 4,751 tons, though 
another colliery was opened during that year on the Crane estate, opposite 
which, in 1867, there was another mine opened, and both named "Enterprise." 
The " Enterprise " that was opened on the Crane property was in Clearfield 
county, and its coal was hauled across the creek on trestle work, and dumped 
into cars in Centre county. The mine ran for about five years, when it was 
abandoned. The "Enterprise " that was opened in 1867 on lands of Fred. 
Dale, in Centre county, is still running, the property now being owned by 
Judge Orvis and Colonel D H. Hastings. This mine has been operated by 
numerous parties, and under several names, but is now known as the "Phoenix," 
and operated by the Elizabeth Coal Company. 

The Moshannon Branch Railroad was commenced in 1864, and completed 
as far as Moshannon in 1866, with a branch up Coal Run to the old Decatur 
mine. In June. 1866, a mine on the lands of the Moshannon Coal Company, 
on the south side of the railroad, was opened by the land owners, the Mos- 
hannon Coal Company on the tract formerly known as the John Anderson, 
and called "Moshannon," J. H. H. Walters, superintendent. This mine ran 
until about 1880. when it was abandoned by its owners, a new one having 
been opened immediately opposite in 1876, and called " New Moshannon," 
and which is still in operation, though now leased to the Clearfield Consoli- 
dated Coal Company. Both of these mines were very successful ventures, and 
first brought to general notice the Clearfield coals. 

The old Decatur colliery, of which mention has been made, was also 
opened in June, 1866, on the lands of the Decatur Coal Company, on the Coal 
Run Branch. The owner or operator was John Nuttal, who had previously 



Review of Coal Interests. 219 

operated the Powelton colliery. This mine ran for about two years, when it 
was abandoned, the pioneer coal operator having other works opened, and 
the rails on the branch were taken up in 1869, and the branch abandoned as 
they thought for all time. Little did they know at that time what wealth lay 
hidden in the hills surrounding them. The shipments for the year 1866 
reached 107,878 tons. 

In the fall of 1868 the Kittanning Coal Company, or rather the Beaver 
Branch Coal Company, which ' was an offshoot of the Moshannon Land and 
Lumber Company, opened the Beaverton colliery on their lands about a quar- 
ter of a mile above Moshannon. This became the largest colliery in the region 
at the time, though, in this day, it would not be counted very great. The 
colliery has been " worked out" for some time and is now abandoned. The 
region shipments for the year 1867 were 169,219, and for 1868 reached 171,- 
238 tons. 

During the summer of 1868 the Moshannon Branch Railroad was extended 
about two miles further west, and in the summer of 1869 the rails were laid 
upon the portion graded, and Sterling No. i commenced August li, 1869, to 
add to the production. This colliery was opened upon the lands of A. B. 
Long, formerly the Casper Haines tract, and in a very short time became the 
largest coUiery in the region. This supremacy it retains to this time. The 
colliery was opened by the Sterling Coal Company ; John F. Blandy, agent ; 
George D. Wood was the superintendent. In 1870 the Stirling Coal Company 
sold half of their interest to the Powelton Coal and Iron Company, and in 
1872 sold the remaining half to the same parties, w^ho are still the ow^ners. 
The present superintendent is James Campbell. 

The Mapleton Branch was completed in 1869, and Mapleton colliery was 
opened during this year, on the lands of the Mapleton Land Company (for- 
merly the Hammerslag farm) and D. W. McCurdy. This mine had been pro- 
ducing coal for some time, as a " country " bank, the coal being sold to the 
farmers and others who lived around the opening. It is still " at work," hav- 
ing passed through the hands of Schofield & Weaver to White & Lingle ; from 
them to Berwind, White & Company, and from them to the Berwind-White 
Coal Mining Company, the present operators. 

The amount shipped from the region for the year 1869 was 259,994 tons. 

During the following year, 1870, the Moshannon Branch Railroad was 
extended a quarter of a mile further, and the Eureka colhery opened and com- 
menced to ship coal March 14, 1870. This colliery was owned by White & 
Lingle, and was situated on the lands of Dr. Houtz, of Alexandria, Hunting- 
don county. The coal in this mine proved to be the purest of any that had 
been opened up to that time, and the mine itself was without a " fault " from the 
beginning to the end. In 1874 the mine passed into the hands of Berwind, 
White & Company, and from them to the Berwind-White Coal Mining Com- 



History of Clearfield County. 



pany. It shipped coal to November i8, 1 886, when it was closed, except that 
the company is still mining a small amount and selling it to the citizens of the 
town of Houtzdale. 

The name " Eureka " was registered as a trade-mark by the Berwind- 
White Company, and its name is significant of the purity of this company's 
production. 

The Morrisdale Branch Railroad from Philipsburg was commenced in 1867, 
and graded towards Loch Lomond to accommodate the interests of the lum- 
bermen at that point. 

At Hawk Run, about two miles from the town named, another branch 
northward was built, and the "New Decatur" colliery opened in July, 1868, 
by John Nuttal, George W. McGaffey, and others, under the name of the 
" Decatur Coal Company," Mr. Nuttal being the same person who successfully 
operated the Powelton and the Decatur collieries heretofore mentioned. Some 
time afterwards they moved further northward and opened another colliery, 
which they also named " Decatur," and which is still being operated ; George 
W. McGaffey, superintendent. 

In 1869 this second branch railroad, mentioned as being opened at Hawk 
Run, was still further extended northward, and Wigton, Doris, Holt and 
others opened the first of the Morrisdale collieries. These mines were opened 
on the tract of land originally warranted to Robert Morris, and were named 
" Morrisdale " in honor of that distinguished Revolutionary patriot. The first 
change in the firm name was when Doris retired, and the firm was styled 
Wigton & Holt. Afterwards Mr. Holt retired, Mr. Wigton buying his interest, 
and he, associating his sons with him in the business, the firm became R. B. 
Wigton & Sons, the present name. This firm has been very successful, and 
now operate about six " Morrisdales " in and around the first opening, besides 
being the owner of the Fire Brick Works at Steiner Station, near Philipsburg. 
They opened a fire clay mine at the head of the Coal Run Railroad in 1883, 
and are now working it. 

In the fall of 1870 the Kitanning Coal Company made a lease with the 
Moshannon Land and Lumber Company to mine the coal on the lands owned 
by the latter company in Woodward township, and proceeded to open the 
Franklin colliery, at the same time grading a branch from the end of the 
Moshannon Branch to their proposed site, 'This branch was finished, and the 
colliery commenced to ship coal in the spring of 187 1. The lands upon which 
the openings were made were owned by Dr. Houtz, who owned all the coun- 
try thereabouts, at that time, he having bought the Philip Loast, William John- 
son," Jacob R. Howell, and the George Beckham warrants, in 1852. 

The Moshannon Land and Lumber Company were possessed of about 
30,000 acres of land behind, or south of Dr. Houtz's lands, but they could not 
reach their property and ship without first going for some distance through 



Review of Coal Interests. 221 

the lands of Dr. Houtz, and a lease was made with that person accordingly. 
This colliery was worked until 1886 by the parties who opened it, but it was 
then transferred to the Berwind-White Coal Mining Company, who are still 
working it. The colliery has been, and is still a very large one, its daily out-put 
at this time averaging 1,100 tons. John Lawshe was its first superinten- 
dent, then in succession Arthur McHugh, John Cameron, Mr. Ramsey, Alex- 
ander Thompson, E. A. Foster, and Alexander Cameron, the present superin 
tendent. 

In 1 87 1 the Moshannon Branch Railroad was extended about half a mile 
further west, and J. A. Blattenberger & Company opened their Penn mine on 
the lands of Dr. Houtz. This mine adjoins on the west the Eureka No. i, and 
is situated with the Eureka, Franklin, Harrison, and Eureka No. 10 in the 
borough of Houtzdale. The Penn was never a very successful mine, the coal 
being thinned out in various places to about two feet in thickness, but what- 
ever the bed lacked in thickness it made up in purity. The Penn coals have a 
wide reputation, and the mine is still producing, though not more than about 
five cars per day. George Gould is the present superintendent, and the mine 
is owned and operated by Rickert Brothers & Co. 

In 1872 J. P. Hale opened a colliery on the lands owned by himself, and 
known as the Reading lands, about one and one-half miles northeast of Osceola 
Mills. The coal was shipped over the Mapleton Branch. This mine was not 
a success, and in 1873 he opened another mine opposite, and called it "Read- 
ing." The Reading is still being operated by Henry Liveright, though not to 
any great extent. Its production will average one hundred and fifty tons per 
day. 

In 1 87 1 William Wallace, of Philadelphia, opened the "Logan" colliery, 
on lands owned by himself, on the Mapleton Branch, After successfully 
operating the mine for some time he sold all his right and title*to the " Logan 
Coal Company," J. M. Reed, president. They, in turn, sold or leased the 
property to John Whitehead & Co., who worked it for some years, after which 
they sold to Barnhurst, Good & Co., January 7, 1878. The latter, meeting 
with some difficulty, sold to H. J. Smith & Co., and they, January i, 1883, 
sold to Henry Liveright & Co., who are still successfully working the colliery. 
The mine is now shipping about 8,000 tons per month, and its product is 
looked upon as of superior quality. 

In 1873 Nuttal & Bacon opened a mine on the Mapleton Branch, which 
they called " Laurel Run." This mine was sold soon after 1880 to Josiah M. 
Bacon, who still works it. In 1882 "Laurel Run No. 2" was opened at the 
head of the Crowel Run Branch, or, as it is generally known, Mapleton No. 2 
Branch. The No. i mine was on lands owned by Richard Hughes ; the No. 
2 on lands formerly known as the " Shaw tract," but now owned by Mr. Bacon. 
Mine No. i has been driven through the hill, and is now connected with No. 2, 



222 History of Clearfield County. 

Richard Langdon opened a mine on the Crane farm, about a mile below 
Osceola Mills, in 1873, which he named the " Langdon." This coal was taken 
over the creek by trestle, and by a tram-road to Dunbar Station, where it was 
loaded in cars on a siding from the main line of the Tyrone and Clearfield 
Railroad. This mine was not a success, and was therefore abandoned in 1874. 

During the fall of 1873 and the spring of 1874, the Goss Run Branch Rail- 
road was built, extending from Goss Run Junction with the Moshannon Branch, 
four miles above Osceola Mills, to lands owned by Samuel Henderson, two 
miles ; and several very important collieries were opened, which materially 
increased the production. 

The first mine to ship on this branch was the " Webster," or, as it was 
known at that time, " Skaith's." It was opened on lands of the late Dr. Houtz, 
by Schuykill county men — Samuel Parmley, Sheriff Matz, James Simons, Mr. 
Skaith, and others. They also opened a mine east of the Webster and oppo- 
site, across Goss Run, which they called "Diamond." These mines were 
opened for some time before the railroad reached them, as the Kittanning 
Company, who owned the land at the junction with the Moshannon Branch, 
refused to sell or permit th& road to cross their lands for some time, and the 
patience of Messrs. Parmley, et als., was rapidly being exhausted, when ar- 
rangements were effected with the Kittanning Coal Company, whereby the 
road was graded a little way farther. Another obstacle presented itself; they 
ran against the lands of the Powelton Coal and Iron Company, and another 
negotiation had to take place. This resulting satisfactorily, the road was per- 
mitted to go on, and it was then finished. The Webster folks, though, had 
thought seriously of building a tram-road, about two miles long, to bring their 
coal to the Moshannon Branch, and then build their schutes a little above 
Stirling. This mine is still at work, the firm name being J. C. Scott & Sons. 
The " Diamond " mine is worked out and has been abandoned for about two 
years. The " Webster " was another of the very successful collieries, and 
handsomely paid its owners for their outlay in opening it. The coal from the 
*' Diamond " mine was brought across the ravine on trestle-work and dumped 
from the same schutes as the " Webster," practically making one operation of 
the two openings. The present superintendent's name is Philip Hartman. He 
has been superintendent during the greatest part of the time the mine has been 
running. 

The next colliery opened on the Goss Run sub-branch was the " Ocean," 
at the head of the branch. This colliery was situated on the lands of Samuel 
Henderson, and was opened by John Whitehead, of Huntingdon, an old 
" Broad Top " operator. He bought the farm of Henderson, and on the 23d 
day of November, 1874, shipped the first coal. This colliery, though not the 
largest, has shipped more coal in one day, and made the largest monthly ship- 
ment of any colliery in the region. In August, 1878, the mine worked twenty- 



Review of Coal Interests. 223 

seven days, and shipped 36,091^ tons, and mined 1,563 tons two hundred 
pounds in one day. In September, 1878, the mine shipped 26,280 tons four 
hundred pounds, and in July, 1879, in twenty-five days' work, they shipped 
31,435 tons one hundred pounds. 

The firm operating this mine was Harned, Ogle & Co., the "Co." being 
John Whitehead. Afterwards, Mr. Ogle dying, a Mr. Jacobs was admitted 
to the firm, which was styled Harned, Jacobs & Co. Subsequently this 
firm opened and operated several other collieries in the region, all of which 
will be noticed in their proper places. They remained in business until 
November 15, 1885, when they sold all their interests in the Clearfield and 
Snow Shoe regions to Berwind, White & Co., Mr. Whitehead, however, 
retaining his interest until January i, 1887, when he sold out to the re- 
mainder of the firm ; the firm name now being Berwind-White Coal Mining 
Company, who are still operating the colliery under review, and which still 
produces about 350 tons per day. The superintendent of this mine, from its 
commencement until the present time, is Hugh Roland. 

The next to be opened on this branch was the " Excelsior," opposite the 
" Ocean," at the head of the branch. This mine made its first shipments in 
January, 1873, from the JefTry tract, and was opened by Fisher, Miller & Co., of 
Huntingdon, Pa., their superintendent being Thomas Richards. This mine is 
still working, and producing quite a respectable amount of coal daily. The 
firm has been changed since its commencement by the death of one of the 
Fishers and the withdrawal of Mr. Miller. Mr. Richards is still the superin- 
tendent for the firm. 

In the spring of 1875 the " Mears Bank" was opened on this branch by 
George Mears, of Broad Top, who, after working it for about a year, concluded 
there was no coal in the mine, and sold all his interest to Berwind, White & 
Co., who altered its name to " Goss Run," and proceeded to make a first class 
colliery of it. Instead of there being no coal in the mine, it proved to be over 
six feet thick in a number of places, and of the purest quality. The mine was 
situated on the land of David Blair, of Huntingdon, and was a little below the 
"Diamond" and opposite the "Webster." The superintendent is Peter Cam- 
eron, sr. 

There was one other mine opened on this branch during 1875, about a half 
a mile above the junction, and was called " Stirhng No. 2." It was opened by 
the Powelton Coal and Iron Company on lands of their own. This company 
it will be remembered was one of the objectors to the Goss Run Branch going 
forward, and when they asked for a switch to connect their siding with the 
branch it was refused them unless they paid their share towards the cost of the 
branch. This they' refused in their turn, and the issue was joined. The coal 
company sought to put in their own " frog," and for that purpose shipped one 
by freight, but it was lost. They then hauled one over the mountain by wagon 



224 History of Clearfield County. 

to make sure that it would not get lost, but the railroad people found it very- 
convenient to make a siding of the lower part of this branch during each night, 
consequently no " frog" could be laid. Matters rested thus for some weeks, 
when an amicable understanding was arrived at, and the siding connected with 
the branch, and Stirling No. 2 added its quota to the already long list of coal 
producing/jCollieries. The mine is still at work, though nearly exhausted. 

The Moshannon Branch was extended during the year 1875 three miles, to 
enable D. K. Ramey, of Altoona, who owned the lands at the then terminus, 
to get his lumber to market. The extension of this branch also opened the 
way to a very extensive coal field, and in the fall of 1874 William Kendrick 
commenced to sink a shaft two miles from Houtzdale, on lands of Mr. Ramey, 
for the purpose of proving the " E Bed," which had dropped below water-level 
at that point. This shaft is seventy feet deep, and was the first in the region, 
if we except the Sackett shaft at Osceola Mills, sunk in 1866, to reach the "A 
Bed," ^but which was never worked. Mr. Kendrick, however, did not work 
this shaft to any great extent, but considering the cost of producing the coal 
too great for that time, he abandoned it, and going east for about three- 
fourths^of a mile nearer Houtzdale, he sank a slope and opened an extensive 
colliery. This slope he called "Beaver Run," It was situated on lands of 
the Madera Improvement Company. After working this colliery for some 
time he sold it to the Beaver Run Coal Company, who operated it for some 
time longer. They, in turn, leased it to Barnhurst, Good & Co., who failed, 
and the property reverted to the Beaver Run Coal Company. They sold 
the improvements to John Whitehead, who removed them. The coal remain- 
ing in the ground was leased to the Houtzdale Coal Company. In 1882 Mr. 
Whitehead commenced to pump out the Kendrick shaft, repaired it and com- 
menced to ship coal from it March 10, 1882. He called the colliery " Ocean 
No. 2." This mine was turned over to the Berwind-White Coal Mining Com- 
pany, along with the other mines of Mr. Whitehead, in 1885, and is now 
being operated by the latter company. 

During 1876, ''JJ, '78 and '79 there seemed to be a falling off in the open- 
ing of new collieries, but the spring of 1880 witnessed quite a revival in the 
business. It is true the production steadily increased during these years of 
seeming stagnation, but some mines that had been previously opened showed 
signs of exhaustion, and new fields were explored. The " Goss Run, No. 2," 
sub-branch, was built in the spring, commencing one mile above its junction, 
and Berwind, White & Co. opened a new colliery at its head, calling it 
" Eureka No. 2." This colhery was ready for work July 3, 1880, in fact, made 
its first shipment (one car) on that day. It is still working and good for 
20,000 tons per month. It was situated on the Petrican & McNeil tract, form- 
erly warranted to Mathias Barton, two miles northwest of Houtzdale. This 
has also been a very successful venture. Its superintendent is Peter Cam- 
eron, jr. 



Review of Coal Interests. 225 

On the same day, viz., July 3, 1880, the new colliery, a mile and a half 
west of Houtzdale, opened by the Moshannon Coal Company, on the Mos- 
hannon Branch, also made its first shipment (one car). This mine was named 
"West Moshannon." There was quite a rivalry between the superintendent 
of the "Eureka No. 2," and the superintendent of the "West Moshannon," as 
to who should ship the first car to market. As stated before, both collieries 
shipped one car on the same day, and both were hauled to Osceola by the 
same engine, the Moshannon car ahead. At Osceola the first car down the 
branch became the hind car when placed on the parent road, and the coal from 
" Eureka No. 2 " was hauled over the mountain first. 

The " West Moshannon " was opened on the Loraine tract, owned by Dr. 
Loraine, of Philipsburg. It was originally warranted in the name of Israel 
Wheeling, and adjoins lands of the Houtz estate on the east. P. B. Zent- 
meyer was and is the superintendent of the company. The coal in this mine 
has rarely decreased below six feet in thickness, while in places it is up to 
seven feet. This was the first mine in the region to employ " rope haulage," 
the tail rope system being in successful operation. The mine was worked by 
its owners up to January i, 1887, when it was leased to the Clearfield Consoli- 
dated Coal Company, who are operating it at present. Its capacity is about 
750 tons daily. 

During the summer of 1880 John Whitehead commenced the Atlantic 
mine on lands of Wallace, Reading & Company, formerly a part of the estate 
of Samuel Hagerty. This mine was situated on the Moshannon Branch, two 
miles above Houtzdale, and nearly opposite the Kendrick shaft. The coal 
here rose up to about water level, or very near it, and the drainage of the mine 
was had through the shaft. The first shipment from this mine was made in 
January, 1881. This was another of the Harned, Jacobs & Company colHeries, 
and passed with the rest to the Berwind-White Coal Mining Company, by 
whom it is now operated ; Robert Whitehead, superintendent. 

During the fall of 1886 the company determined to place "rope haulage '* 
in this mine, as the territory that could be reached by this opening was very 
extensive, and to that end they employed Mr. H. M. Morrison, of England, to 
place his system in the colliery. This system is the "cable," or endless rope 
haulage, and is now in successful operation, it being the first of its kind in the 
region. The opening for this mine is erroneously called a " slope," but it is 
not a slope in the general acceptation of the term, as nearly all of its coal is 
above water level, and a "slope," as generally understood, means an opening 
to bring coal or other substance to the surface, by means of an incHned plane, 
and from below water level. 

In the spring of 1881 another sub-branch was built from the Goss Run 
Branch, commencing about a mile and a half above its junction, and about 
half a mile above the junction of the No. 2 Branch. This was called " Goss 



226 History of Clearfield County. 

Run No. 3 Branch." It is about a mile in length, and was built to enable 
Harned, Jacobs & Company to open another colliery on the Hagerty estate, 
which they called "Pacific." This mine commenced to ship June 3, 1881, and 
its present daily production is about 1,200 tons ; David AUgood, superinten- 
dent. 

On November 16, 1882, another colliery was opened by the same company 
at the head of this branch, and on the same estate, which they named " Pacific 
No. 2." This colliery has a capacity of 1,000 tons daily, and was transferred 
to the Berwind-White Coal Mining Company, with the other mines mentioned 
before. Edward Lloyd is superintendent of No. 2. This makes three large 
collieries mining coal from this estate, viz : " Atlantic " and " Pacific " Nos. I 
and 2. The company has also opened another mine on the western side of 
these lands, which they have named "Atlantic No. 2." This colliery com- 
menced shipping this present year. The mine is fitted with air compressor, 
hoisting engines, and other appliances to make it a first class colliery. 

In the summer of 188 1 BeadHng Brothers effected a lease with Dr. Houtz's 
heirs, whereby they opened a colliery on a piece of land between Stirling and 
FrankHn collieries, and called it " Harrison." Coal was shipped from this mine 
August 10, 1 88 1. The mine is situated opposite Eureka No. i, and soudi of 
the railroad. The coal is carried over the Moshannon Branch and Beaver 
Run by means of a trestle, and is dumped from the schutes and shipped over 
the siding of the Eureka. After operating this mine for about a year, they 
sold to Lang & Company, who operated it until December, 1886, when they 
sold to the Elizabeth Coal Company, by whom it is now operated. 

The year 1881 was productive of new collieries. On August 22 of that 
year the Empire Coal Co. commenced to ship from their colliery " Empire," 
situated on the Pardee Branch. This connected with the Morrisdale Branch 
at Hawk Run. The coal from this mine is now being shipped over the Beech 
Creek Railroad, the Pardee Branch becoming a part of the Philipsburg Branch 
of that road. 

In September, 1881, the Spring Hill mine was opened by the Leonard Coal 
Co. on the Derby Branch. This company also own the " Leonard " on the 
same branch. The Leonard was opened some time before and was worked by 
John Ashcroft. The combined production of these collieries will average 5 00 
tons daily. 

Another mine was opened by R. H. Chipman & Co. during the year 1881, 
at Coal Run Junction with the Moshannon Branch, which was called " Coal- 
dale." The territory upon which this mine was operated was small and the 
coal was soon exhausted, consequently the mine is now abandoned. 

At the head of the No. i Mapleton Branch in September, 1881, Mitchell 
& Keller commenced to ship from their Columbia mine. At the beginning 
this mine gave its proprietors much trouble, and local prophets predicted a 



Review of Coal Interests. 227 

failure. In December, 1881, Mitchell bought out Mr. Keller, and worked the 
mine alone. His faith in the property was justified in a short time, for the 
objections were overcome, and the Columbia is now a good producer. Its 
average capacity is 700 tons daily. 

Griffiths, Neil & Co. opened up Victor No. i on the Derby Branch during 
1 88 1. This mine was sold to the Victor Coal Company some time in the year 
1883, and is now capable of producing 500 tons daily. The same company 
opened up Victor No. 2 and 3, on the Crowell Run Branch, in 1883, and are 
able to ship about 1,500 tons daily. John Walton is their superintendent. 

In August, 1 88 1, Jones, Mull & Co. opened a colliery on the Pardee 
Branch, which they called " Hawk Run." This mine is not a very extensive 
operation, and now ships its coal over the Beech Creek Road. 

During the year 1880 the Moshannon Land and Lumber Company, in 
conjunction with the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, combined to grade a 
branch road up the Moshannon creek to reach their lands on Whiteside Run 
and beyond. This road joins the Moshannon Branch Road a mile above 
Osceola Mills, and at the present time is six and a half miles long, with a 
branch two miles above its junction leading to the Central and Leskie collieries, 
a mile long. The Leskie colliery was opened for shipments September 26, 
1 88 1, but was sold to R. H. Powell & Co. immediately afterwards, and by them 
renamed "Stirling No. 3." This colliery, with the Central, are in Centre county. 
The Stirling is not working at present. 

The "Central" was opened by the Mears Brothers in 1883, and by them 
called " Rush." They did not work it more than a year, when, getting into 
trouble, they were sold out. The colliery then passed into the hands of T. C. 
Heims, of Osceola Mills, who gave it its present name, and by whom it is now 
worked. Its capacity is about 300 tons per day ; superintendent, W. R. Ed- 
wards. 

The " Glenwood " colliery, situated on the Derby Branch, was also opened 
in 1 88 1, by R. C. Colburn. He sold the mine soon afterwards to George F. 
Huff & Co., and they to Williams & Morris, by whom it is now worked. 
Its capacity is about 600 tons daily, and its coal is well and favorably known 
in the market. 

" Lancashire No. i," also situated on the Derby Branch (this branch is also 
known as the Campbell), was opened for business during the year 1881, by 
Thomas Barnes & Brother, and during the following year they opened " Lan- 
cashire No. 2," on the Crowel Run Branch. Both these collieries are now 
being worked by Campbell, Tucker & Co., and are able to produce 1,000 
tons per day. The Barnes Brothers are working the " Baltic," a mine opened 
during 1885, whose capacity is 400 tons per day. 

The " Colorado " was another mine opened in 188 1, by A. & W. H. Bar- 
low, on the Derby Branch. They operated it until some time in 1883, when 



228 History of Clearfield County. 

their rights were transferred to Hoyt & Jackman, by whom it is still operated. 
Its daily capacity is about 400 tons ; Thomas Pilkington, superintendent. 

During the year 1882 the branch up the Moshannon Creek, and known as 
the Moshannon Extension, was graded to its present terminus, but the rails 
were not laid upon it until the spring of 1883. A road was also projected and 
commenced, during 1882, up Coal Run, following the old Decatur Branch. 
This road was also completed in the early part of 1883, and other collieries 
were opened upon it. 

The first of these was a mine called the " Ashland," which was opened 
upon the lands of Wallace & Reading, at the head of Coal Run, by a party of 
Schuylkill county capitalists, prominent among whom was the late State sena- 
tor, J. P. Cohhan. The company did not succeed very well, and the colliery 
reverted to the land owners, by whom it was leased, in 1885, to the Berwind- 
White Coal Mining Company, and who operate it at present. 

The next opening on this branch was made by Holt, Lewis & Co., who 
opened the old "Decatur" of 1866 fame, which they renamed the "Arctic," 
and its name is appropriate, as it soon froze out its new owners, and the mine 
is again deserted. 

The Crowel Run, or Mapleton No. 2, Branch was also completed during 
the latter part of 1882, and J. A. Losie opened his " Keystone " mine on this 
road. He did not have very good success, however, and in 1885 he sold the 
plant to Graham & Passmore. The mine is now abandoned. 

H. J. Smith opened a mine on this branch during the year 1882, and com- 
menced shipping coal during 1883, which mine he called "Logan Ridge." 
This is north of Logan mine, but in the same hill. Its capacity now is about 
400 tons daily. 

The Atalanta Coal Company also opened its Atalanta collieries Nos. i and 
2, on Crowel Run, in November, 1882. These collieries have a capacity of 
about 700 tons daily, and their coals compare favorably with any other in the 
market. Charles Welch is the superintendent. 

In March, 1882, D. D. Dodge & Co. opened a mine on the main line near 
Steiner's Station, which they called " Hudson." This mine the Dodge & Co. 
sold to the Atalanta Coal Company, by whom it is now operated under the 
name of " Atalanta No. 3." Its capacity is 400 tons daily. 

Berwind, White & Co. opened up a colliery, and commenced to ship coal 
in March, 1882, which they called " Eureka No. 3." This colliery was located 
on lands of the Kittanning Coal Company, two miles above Osceola Mills. 
It was originally opened by T. C. Heims, W. A. Crist, and Peter Cameron, sr., 
and called " Bonanza." They never operated it, however, but sold it before 
ready to ship. 

The Pardee Branch was also extended northward during 1882, and Duncan, 
Lingle & Co. opened up the " Pardee," which commenced shipping March, 



Review of Coal Interests. 



229 



1882. This mine is still in operation, and is looked upon as a very successful 
colliery, though it met some very serious faults in its infancy. Mr. Lingle, one 
of its owners, died in March, 1886, but the firm name remains unchanged. 
W. C. Lingle is the superintendent. Its production is now being shipped over 
the Beech Creek Railroad. 

In November, 1882, Holt, Schoonover & Co. opened up a mine at the head 
of this branch (the Pardee), which was named the " AUport." They soon 
after sold to Holt, Chipman & Co., and the colliery was renamed the "Coaldale 
No. 3." It is an extensive opening, its coal being shipped over the Beech 
Creek road. W. H. Blackburn, superintendent. The proprietors have intro 
duced rope haulage in this mine, and have thus more than doubled its capacit} . 
Holt, Chipman & Co. have other mines shipping coal over the Beech Creek, 
called " Coaldale No. 3," and " Coaldale No. 4" on the Mapleton No. 2 Branch, 
shipping over the Tyrone and Clearfield Railroad, which they opened in the 
latter part of 1884. 

In the fall of 1882 a company was formed in Houtzdale, called the Houtz- 
dale Coal Company, consisting of Charles and Theodore Van Dusen, W. A. 
Chase, and J. C. Scott & Sons, for the purpose of mining coal. They leased 
from the Houtz heirs a tract of land that had previously been condemned, and 
proceeded to sink a slope therein, the coal being found under water-level at 
that point. On February 23, 1883, all things being ready, they made their 
first shipment. This colliery lies in the borough of Houtzdale, about half a 
mile from the Moshannon Branch, and a spur was built to enable the colliery 
to ship. James Mines was the superintendent, who also owned an interest in 
the company. This mine was sold to the Berwind-White Coal Mining Com- 
pany, July, 1886, and by them named "Eureka N. 10." Its present capacity 
is about 1,000 tons per day. 

In the spring of 1883 John Wilkinson reopened old Moshannon mine, 
three miles above Osceola Mills, on the Moshannon Branch, and commenced 
to ship about two cars per day from it. This mine he renamed " Sobieski." 
In 1885 he opened the "F Bed," over the old Beaverton mine, and named 
this mine " Sobieski No. 2." The capacity of both will equal 200 tons daily. 

In May, 1883, Berwind, White & Co. commenced to ship coal from two 
mines they had opened at the head of the Moshannon extension, two miles 
south of Houtzdale. These mines they had named " Eureka No. 4 " and "5." 
No. 4 was a drift opening, and having only a limited territory it is now worked 
out. No. 5 was opened by a slope and is a very extensive mine, though not 
very valuable. The company, in 1884, opened another mine half a mile fur- 
ther west, which they called " Eureka No. 6," and are now engaged in open- 
ing another one still further west a half mile, and which is called " Eureka No. 
8." The mines have an extensive territory and will make large collieries. Will- 
iam Pollock is superintendent of No. 5, and John Allen is superintendent of 
Nos. 6 and 8. 30 



^30 History of Clearfield County. 

On August 17, 1883, John Maurice successfully opened a colliery in the 
.abandoned territory of the old Eureka No. i, which he called " Mount Ver- 
mon." This colliery was situated on the Goss Run No. 2 Branch, about one- 
'fourth of a mile above its junction. Mr. Maurice soon sold an interest to the 
Elizabeth Coal Company, and by them the mine was renamed " Elizabeth." 
Its schutes were burned down in May, 1884, on the occasion of the Brisbin 
fire, but they were soon rebuilt, and the mine is still working, but will not last 
much longer, as its territory is limited. 

During the year 1883 the Mapleton No. i Branch was extended two miles 
to enable T. C. Heims to ship from his new opening on the Drane farm, and 
which he had called " Drane.' This mine was situate on the old Goss lands, 
and coal was taken from them some fifty years ago and hauled in wagons over 
the mountain to Spruce Creek. The Drane commenced to ship November 8, 
1883, and its present capacity is 500 tons per day. It is situate about two 
miles north of the town of Osceola Mills. 

Reakirt Bros. & Co. opened, during 1884, a mine north of, and in the same 
liill as their Penn, on the lands of the Houtz heirs. This mine was situate on 
^Goss Run Branch No. 3, about half a mile above Brisbin, and was called 
"" Loraine." Its present capacity is about 400 tons daily, and the coal is equal 
to the " Penn " coals ; George Gould, superintendent. 

The Coal Run Branch was extended, in the summer of 1884, from the 
Ashland mine, some two miles west, and on October 9th of that year Harned, 
Jacobs & Co. opened " Ocean No. 3." This mine was formerly called " New- 
castle," and its coal was hauled through the hill, under ground, to Ocean No. 
I tipple, and there shipped as coal from No. i, but on the day mentioned it 
entered a separate existence. This mine followed the others of Harned, Jacobs 
& Co., and was sold to the Berwind-White Coal Mining Company, in 1885, 
and Harned, Jacobs & Co. ceased to exist as a coal firm. 

Fisher & Miller also opened a mine on this branch in October, 1884, which 
they called " Excelsior No. 2." This mine worked the same tract as Excelsior 
No. I and Eureka No. 2. Its present capacity is about 500 tons daily. 

During the year 1882 Messrs. R. B. Wigton & Sons purchased from Aaron 
and Frederick Schofif, Boaz Alexander, and Bigler Dunlap, an extensive tract 
of land just west of Amesville, Bigler township, and in 1885 they proceeded to 
open a colliery upon it which they called " Vulcan." This caused the Moshan- 
non Branch Railroad to be extended two miles to reach the mine, and coal was 
shipped over the Vulcan Branch in the fall of that year. This mine is quite an 
extensive one, and its present capacity will equal 700 tons daily. 

The Messrs. Wigton also opened a new mine on the Beech Creek Road in 
1885, and named it "Rothrock." This colliery is on the Hawk Run Branch, 
and is fitted up with coal cutting machines, a Norwalk air compressor, and 
every appliance for the mining of coal quickly and cheaply. 



Review of Coal Interests. 231 

During the year 1884 R. H. Powell & Co. erected a powerful air compres- 
sor at their Stirling No. i mine, and placed three coal cutting machines in their 
No. 2 opening. These have been very successful. They had formerly hauled 
their coal out of this opening with a locomotive, but in 1885 they placed a 
pair of stationary engines at the drift mouth, and hauled the coal with a wire 
rope. This was a very great improvement, and largely increased the capacity 
of the colliery. 

The Beech Creek Railroad was finished to Peale in July, 1884, and 114,- 
151 tons were shipped from the "Grass Flat" mines, located in and around 
that place during the year. The road was finished to Gazzam July, 1885, and 
that point commenced to add its quota to the general production. The Phil- 
ipsburg Branch was completed February, 1885. 

In the year 1885 the Karthaus mines of John Whitehead & Co. commenced 
to ship over the Clearfield and Susquehanna Railroad. This road joins the 
Philadelphia & Erie Railroad at Keating, thirteen miles above Renovo. This 
mine was also transferred to the Berwind-White Coal Mining Company, No- 
vember 15. 

The Three Runs Mine, or " Cataract " was opened in the spring of 1885 
by Berwind, White & Co. on the same railroad, six miles lower down the river 
than Karthaus, on the lands of Weaver & Betts, and is now a very large col- 
liery. 

In June, 1885, the Excelsior No. 3 colliery was opened on the Moshannon 
Branch, about a half mile below Ramey by Fisher, Miller & Co. This mine is 
a "slope," and is without exception the most completely equipped colliery in 
the region. Its superintendent is Thomas Richards. The vein is pinched and 
at places not over two feet in thickness. At the present time they are open- 
ing another mine on the north side of the tract, where the coal is of normal 
thickness. This coal reaches the market over an extension of the Vulcan 
Branch, The mine is known as Excelsior No. 4. 

In the spring of 1886 the Clearfield Consolidated Coal Company leased a 
tract of land north of the Moshannon Creek, and south of the old Beaverton 
mine, owned by the Kittanning Coal Company, and opened two mines on it, 
which they called " Mount Vernon No i " and " 2." The capacity of the 
mines amounts to 300 tons per day, and the coal is shipped over the Moshan- 
non Extension Branch. 

John Maurice also opened a mine on lands of the Houtz heirs, and com- 
menced to ship in the spring of 1886. He called his mine " Ferndale." It is 
situated on the Goss Run No. 2 Branch, about a quarter of a mile below 
Eureka No. 2, and its capacity is lOO tons daily, Mr. Maurice is now opening 
a mine on the Beech Creek Road, below Gazzam, from which he is now ship- 
ping coal. 

In the fall of 1886 Reece & Long opened a colliery near the main line, a 



232 History of Clearfield County. 

mile below Philipsburg, and called it " Glenwood No. 2." This is a new op- 
eration, but its projectors expect it to make its mark before long. 

In 1885 J. C. Scott & Sons and James Mines withdrew from the Houtzdale 
Coal Company, and formed a partnership among themselves under the name 
of James Mines & Co. They procured a lease on some lands at Ramey, and 
proceeded to open a colliery, which they called " Webster No. 4." This mine 
is now at work, and its outfit is very satisfactory to its owners. James Mines 
is its superintendent. 

There are a few local " banks " shipping a car or two now and then to 
market, prominent among whom is the " Esteps " at Osceola Mills, but with 
this exception it is believed that every mine within the region has been re- 
viewed, a total of over eighty. 

It is possible, however, that some of the small producing mines may have 
been omitted; some that are still in their infancy and just preparing to ship; 
others that are owned by individuals who ship occasionally, and produce an 
amount so inconsiderable that no record has ever been made concerning them. 

A statement of the tonnage from the year 1862 to the year 1886, inclu- 
sive, will be found of interest as showing the comparative growth of this most 
valuable industry in this wonderful coal-producing region: 

1862, 7,239 tons; 1863, 24,330; 1864,65,380; 1866, 107,878; 1867, 
169,219; 1868, 171,238; 1869,259,994; 1870,379,863; 1871,542,896; 
1872,644,246; 1873,592,860; 1874,654,251; 1875,926,834; 1876,1,218,- 
789; 1877,1,374,927; 1878,1,298,452; 1879,1,622,976; 1880,1,739,872; 
1881,2,401,987; 1882,2,838,970; 1883,2,866,174; 1884,3,287,514; 1885, 
3,663,466; 1886, 3,331,020; a grand total of 30,251,004 tons. 

This is not the total production of all the mines in the region. It repre- 
sents only the amount that was passed over the Tyrone and Beech Creek 
scales. The amount used in the county for locomotives, stationary engines, 
household purposes, fire brick manufacturers, etc., will amount to 200,000 per 
annum ; nor does it represent the amount shipped over the Low Grade Di- 
vision of the Allegheny Valley Railroad from Du Bois and vicinity, or the 
amount shipped by the Bell's Gap Railroad, nor over the Keating scales. 

The region, however, is only in its infancy, and twenty years from now, it 
would not be a surprising fact, that a shipment of 10,000,000 tons per annum 
will be reached, judging from the improvements now being made. The Mos- 
hannon Branch Railroad has been opened nine miles further west to Knox 
township, and openings have been made, and schutes erected on the lands of 
William A. Wallace, on Pine Run, and in a short time this new field will add 
its out-put of both coal and coke to the general result. 



Bench and Bar. 233 



CHAPTER XV. 

BENCH AND BAR. 

History of the Courts — Supreme Court — Common Pleas —Other Courts — The Judiciary 
— The Bench and Bar of Clearfield County. 

TO properly understand and fully appreciate the history of the judiciary of 
any nation or commonwealth, and the worth and attainments of the 
magistrates and practitioners at its bar, some knowledge of the origin and de- 
velopment of the machinery and spirit of this branch of civil government is 
indispensable. 

The sentiment is commonly expressed that the judicial system of the State 
of Pennsylvania is largely copied or derived from the common law of England, 
and slightly from the civil law of the continent. In many respects this is true, 
and resemblances may be traced therein; there are certain changeless principles 
running throughout the laws of every state and people from time immemo- 
rial. The statute and common laws of England are the recognized funda- 
mental principles upon which are based the legislative and constitutional 
enactments of this Commonwealth. 

We may look briefly at the past and present disposition and powers of the 
courts of the State and observe from what elements they have grown. 

In the year 1722 a law was passed by the General Assembly of the prov- 
ince estabHshing a court of record to be known and styled the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania, and by the same enactment was empowered to hear 
and determine all pleas, plaints and causes removed or brought there from the 
various Courts of Common Pleas of the province, by virtue of writs of error, 
habeas corpus, or certiorari, or other writs or process remedial in nature ; and 
furthermore to administer justice to all persons, exercising the full powers and 
authority granted by the act creating it as the King's Bench, Common Pleas 
and Exchequer at Westminster. This court was not made the court of last 
resort in the State until 1806. By the terms of the charter or grant to William 
Penn by Charles II, then on the throne of Great Britain, the right to review 
any proceeding or judgment of the court in the province was reserved to the 
king and his successors. This reserved power was, of course, overthrown by 
the Revolution, and in the year 1780 was vested in a Court of Error and Ap- 
peals. In the year 1791 the act of 1780 was repealed, and the court organ- 
ized upon a plan agreeable to the constitution of the United States and that of 
the State of Pennsylvania. 

The constitution of the State adopted and ratified in convention on the 2d 
day of September, 1790, article V, provided for the judiciary, as follows : 



234 History of Clearfield County. 

Section i. " The judicial power of this Commonwealth shall be vested in 
a Supreme Court, in Courts of Oyer and Terminer and general gaol deHvery, 
in a Court of Common Pleas, Orphans' Court, Registers Court, and a Court 
of Quarter Sessions of the Peace for each county, in justices of the peace, and 
in such other courts as the Legislature may from time to time establish." 

Section 2 provides that judges of the Supreme Court shall hold their ofhces 
during good behavior ; but that for any reasonable cause, which shall not be 
sufficient ground for impeachment, they may be removed by the governor on 
the address of two-thirds of each branch of the Legislature. The article fur- 
ther provides that the jurisdiction of judges of this court shall extend over the 
State, and that by virtue of their offices they shall be justices of Oyer and Ter- 
miner and general gaol delivery in the several counties. 

Section 4 of the same article in making provision for the Courts of Com- 
mon Pleas, says : " The governor shall appoint in each county not fewer than 
three, nor more than four judges, who, during their continuance in office, shall 
reside in the county. The State shall be divided by law, into circuits, none of 
which shall include more than six, nor fewer than three counties. A president 
shall be appointed by the courts in each circuit, who, during his continuance 
in office, shall reside therein. The president and judges, any two of whom 
shall be a quorum, shall compose the respective Courts of Common Pleas." 

The judges of the Common Pleas, thus created, were made ex officio jus- 
tices of Oyer and Terminer for the trial of capital and other offenders within 
their respective districts. While the act provides that any two of the judges 
shall constitute a quorum, it further directs that the president shall be one of 
them. 

The Supreme Court and the Common Pleas, as well, are made Courts of 
Chancery for purposes therein fully set forth. The Common Pleas judges are 
further made to preside at the Quarter Sessions, Orphans' Court, Registers of 
Wills, and are made within their respective counties justices of the peace so far 
as relates to criminal matters. 

By section 10 it is further provided that the governor shall appoint a com- 
petent number of justices of the peace, and that they shall be commissioned 
during good behavior, but they may be removed on conviction of misbehavior 
in office, or on any infamous crime, or on the address of both houses of the 
Legislature. 

In the selection of officers to represent the Commonwealth, provided for 
above, the chief executive was the sole appointing power, and this continued a 
law until changed by act of the State Legislature, approved April 15, 185 1, 
which provided for the election of each by ballot by a majority of the electors. 

By the ratification and adoption of the constitution of 1790, the people of 
the great Commonwealth of Pennsylvania laid the foundation for a grand sys- 
tem of jurisprudence which has commanded the admiration not alone of the 



Bench and Bar. 



235 



entire people but of the nation — a system under which, with some modifica- 
tions, some necessary additions, her people were content to live for nearly a 
half century. 

Prior to 1836 the powers and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court were not 
expressly defined or fixed by the constitution, or by definite enactment of the 
Legislature. Statutes were passed from time to time, as occasion or exigen- 
cies demanded. In territorial extent its jurisdiction and powers reached 
throughout the entire State ; it had and retained jurisdiction co-extensive with 
the three great courts at Westminster — the King's Bench, the Common Pleas 
and the Exchequer. 

The act of June 16, 1836, re-confirms the powers vested in the Supreme 
Court by the constitution, and, in addition thereto, somewhat enlarges those 
powers and defines more clearly its jurisdiction in certain cases. 

From the year 1786 to 1799 Courts of JVisi Prins were held in the several 
counties by the justices of the Supreme Court, at such times as they deemed 
most convenient for the people. Original writs did not issue from the Supreme 
Court to the several counties, but writs of certiorari and habeas corpus only, 
by virtue of which actions were removed from the inferior courts, and the 
issues in fact arising in them were tried at Nisi Prius, after which judgment 
was rendered in bank. Circuit Courts were substituted for Courts of Nisi 
Prius in 1799, only so far as concerned the State outside the county of Phila- 
delphia. The Circuits were of the same nature as the Nisi Prius, except that 
judgment could be rendered at Circuits, subject in certain cases to revision on 
appeal. Having been found impracticable and inconvenient, the Circuit Courts 
were abolished in 1809, the Nisi Prius re-established, only applicable, how- 
ever, to the county of Philadelphia, and the same act that restored the Nisi 
Prius also revived the Circuit Courts for the other counties, but after a faithful 
trial of several years were again abolished in 1834. 

In the year 1838 a new constitutional convention was organized for the 
purpose of revising, amending, and enlarging upon the constitution of 1790. 
By the adoption of the amendments, the appointing power remained in the 
executive, by and with the consent of the Senate. The tenure of ofifice of 
Supreme Court justices was fixed at fifteen years, " if they should so long be- 
have themselves well." The president judges of the several courts of Common 
Pleas, and of such other Courts of Record, and all other judges required to be 
learned in the law, shall hold their offices for the term of ten years, " if they 
shall so long behave themselves well." The term of office of associate judges 
is fixed at five years, subject to the conditions quoted above. This embraces 
substantially the amendments to the old constitution applicable to the judi- 
ciary of the State, except that provision is therein made for the election of 
justices of the peace by the qualified voters of the several wards, boroughs, 
and townships. 



236 History of Clearfield County. 

By an act of the Legislature, approved April 15, 1851, in pursuance of an 
amendment to the constitution, the creating power in the judiciary was trans- 
ferred from the chief executive to the people of the Commonwealth. This is 
such a radical change from former procedure, that the text of the leading 
enacting clauses are quoted in full. 

Section i. Be it enacted, etc. " That the qualified electors of each of the 
several counties of this Commonwealth shall, at the next general election, at 
the times and places of electing representatives, and whenever it shall thereafter 
become necessary for an election under this act, and under the constitution of 
this Commonwealth, vote for five persons at the first election, and at every 
election thereafter as many as may be necessary under the provisions hereof, 
to serve as judges of the Supreme Court of this Commonwealth, one person to 
serve as president judge of the judicial district in which such county shall 
lie, and two persons to serve as associate judges of the several courts of such 
county." 

The next section provides " That the qualified electors residing within the 
jurisdiction of any District Court or other Court of Record now existing or 
hereafter to be created by law, shall, at the next general election, and when- 
ever thereafter the same shall be necessary, at the times and places for holding 
such election within their respective election districts, vote for one person for 
president judge of such court, and for as many persons for associate judges 
thereof as shall be required by law." 

Under the new constitution adopted in 1873, and which became operative 
on the first day of January, one thousand, eight hundred and seventy- four, 
" Article V, Section i. The judicial power of this Commonwealth shall be 
vested in a Supreme Court, in Courts of Common Pleas, Courts of Oyer and 
Terminer and general jail delivery, Courts of Quarter Sessions of the Peace, 
Orphans' Court, Magistrates' Courts, and in such other courts as the general 
assembly may from time to time establish. 

" Section 2. The Supreme Court shall consist of seven judges, who shall 
be elected by the qualified electors of the State at large. They shall hold their 
offices for the term of twenty-one years, if they so long behave themselves well 
but shall not be again eligible. The judge whose commission shall first ex- 
pire shall be chief justice, and thereafter each judge whose commission shall 
first expire shall in turn be chief justice." 

By section three, the jurisdiction of justices of the Supreme Court extends 
throughout the State, and they are ex-officio justices of Oyer and Terminer 
and general jail dehvery over the several counties; they have original jurisdic- 
tion in cases of injunction against corporations, habeas corpus, oi inaiidamics, to 
courts of inferior jurisdiction, and of quo warranto as to all officers of the Com- 
monwealth having jurisdiction over the State. They have jurisdiction by ap- 
peal, certiorari^ or writ of error in all cases. 



Bench and Bar. 237 



The Courts of Common Pleas by the act remain unchanged, except that 
not more than four counties shall be included in any one judicial district. 

The Court of N/sz Priiis is abolished, and no court of original jurisdiction, 
to be presided over by any one or more of the judges of the Supreme Court, 
shall be established. 

Whenever a county shall contain forty thousand population it shall consti- 
tute a separate judicial district, and shall elect one judge learned in the law. 
The office of associate judge, not learned in the law, is abolished in counties 
forming separate districts. 

The intent of the foregoing portion of this chapter has been only to furnish 
a synopsis or outline of the organization of the various courts, or the judiciary 
of the Commonwealth, as based upon the constitutions adopted from time to 
time, and of the several acts amendatory thereof and supplemental thereto, 
and upon such further acts as the legislative body of the Commonwealth were 
empowered to adopt. Detail has been avoided, and possibly some facts should 
have been stated that are omitted. In the preparation of it, reference was had, 
not only to the several constitutions as adopted, but other acts of the Legis- 
lature, passed from time to time, and the works of standard text and elementary 
writers, from all of which free quotation and use of material has been made. 

In pursuance of the changes and amendments adopted under the constitu- 
tion of 1790, the Commonwealth was divided into five judicial districts or cir- 
cuits, the first comprising the city and county of Philadelphia, and the counties 
of Bucks, Montgomery, and Delaware ; the second, Chester, Lancaster, York, 
and Dauphin ; the third, Berks, Northampton, Luzerne, and Northumberland ; 
the fourth, Cumberland, Franklin, Bedford, Huntingdon, and Mifflin ; the fifth, 
Westmoreland, Fayette, Washington, and Allegheny. 

But, as the population of the Commonwealth increased, new counties were 
organized to suit the convenience of the people. This necessitated frequent 
changes in the districts throughout the entire State, and it can hardly be within 
the province of this chapter to follow them. 

The Betich of Clearfield County. — While Clearfield was organized as a sep- 
arate county by act of the Legislature in the year 1804, it was several years 
attached to and under the jurisdiction of the officers of Centre county. The 
act provides that, for the present convenience of the inhabitants of the county, 
and until an enumeration of the taxable inhabitants of the county shall be 
made, and it shall be otherwise directed by law, the said county of Clearfield 
shall be, and the same is hereby annexed to the county of Centre, and the 
jurisdiction of the several courts of the county of Centre, and the authority of 
the judges thereof shall extend over, and shall operate and be effectual within 
said county of Clearfield. 

This act remained in full force until January, 1822, when the Legislature 
passed a further law organizing Clearfield county for judicial purposes, and 
authorizing courts to be held therein. ^^ 



238 History of Clearfield County. 

The first court was held in the county in October, 1822, Hon. Charles Hus- 
ton, president judge. 

At a special session of the Legislature held in the year 1883, and pursuant 
to the provisions of the constitution relating to counties having over forty 
thousand population, Clearfield county was organized as a separate judicial 
district. 

In pursuance of the authority conferred by the constitution of 1874, upon 
counties forming separate judicial districts, the office of associate judge of Clear- 
field county was aboHshed, but by serving out their unexpired term, the law 
became operative January first, one thousand eight hundred and eighty-seven. 

Charles Huston was born in Bucks county. Pa., January 16, 1771. He 
was educated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, and graduated in 1789, after which 
he taught a select school for two years. While teaching he studied law, and 
was afterward admitted to the bar, in August, 1795. In the early part of 1795 
he went to Williamsport, Lycoming county, and in 1807 removed to Bellefonte, 
Centre county, where he resided at the time of his appointment to the presi- 
dency of the courts of the district. His sterling worth as a jurist and strict 
integrity as a man were fully eulogized by Judge Walker, whom he succeeded 
upon the bench. A man of plain manners, integrity, learning, sound under- 
standing, deep legal research and natural eloquence. For eight years Judge 
Huston presided over the Fourth district, and, in 1826, was advanced to the 
Supreme Court of the Commonwealth, where he served until 1845. The latter 
years of his life were devoted to the preparation of a text work on the " History 
and Nature of Original Titles to Land in the Province and State of Pennsyl- 
vania." Judge Huston died November 10, 1849. 

Judge Thomas Burnside next succeeded to the bench. Thomas Burnside 
was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, July 22, 1782, and at the age of ten years 
came to this country with his father. His studies for the bar were prosecuted 
in the office of Hon. Robert Porter, of Philadelphia, and in 1804 he was ad- 
mitted to practice, after which he came to Bellefonte ; was chosen State sena- 
tor in 1 8 II, and elected to Congress in 181 5. He was appointed judge of the 
Luzerne district in 1816, but resigned in 1818. In 1823 he was again State 
senator. He was appointed judge of the Fourth district in 1826, and of the 
Seventh district in 184 1. In 1845 he was advanced to the Supreme Court 
bench. Judge Burnside was an exceptional man. Every lawyer, young and 
old, knows well his eccentricities and peculiarities. He possessed unusual de- 
termination, having a full understanding of the law and an abundance of cour- 
age to enforce. He enjoyed a joke at whosever expense, and was, withal, one 
of the most popular judges on the bench. Judge Burnside died at German- 
town, March 25, 1857. 

George W, Woodward next came upon the bench. Judge Woodward is 
described as a tall, heavy, and well proportioned man, of excellent personal 



Bench and Bar. 239 



appearance and remarkably good address. On the bench he presided with 
dignity and abiUty ; always courteous and affable, he became one of the most 
popular judges in the State. He was, after serving a full term on the Common 
Pleas bench and performing other judicial service, made chief justice of the 
State. Judge Woodward died about twenty years ago. 

Robert G. White, of Tioga, succeeded Judge Woodward. Judge White 
was in this district but a single year, when, by legislative act the district was 
changed and he was transferred. He died before his term of office expired. 
During his incumbency an assistant law judge was appointed in his district to 
assist in the transaction of business. Judge White died from an epileptic at- 
tack. 

John C. Knox, of Venango county, came next. He presided but a short 
time, and was consequently advanced to the Supreme Bench. He died in an 
asylum for insane. At one time Judge Knox was attorney-general of the 
Commonwealth. 

James T. Hale, the next president judge of the district, was born in Brad- 
ford county, October 14, 18 10. He studied law and was admitted to the bar 
in 1832, and in 1835 moved to Bellefonte. In the month of April, 185 i, he 
was appointed president judge to succeed Judge Knox in the district. Judge 
Hale occupied the bench but a short time, but during his incumbency dis- 
charged the duties of the office impartially and with marked ability. After 
retiring from the bench Judge Hale practiced a few years and then retired 
from the profession to engage in other pursuits. He became largely inter- 
ested in the development of the coal and timber lands of Centre, Clearfield, and 
Cambria counties, and was largely instrumental in the construction of the 
Clearfield and Tyrone branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad. In March, 1865, 
he resumed the practice of his profession, but was suddenly taken sick and 
died in the early part of April of that year. 

James Burnside, the next judge upon the bench in this district, was born 
at Bellefonte, February 22, 1807. Of the children of Hon. Thomas Burnside, 
formerly judge, he was the eldest. He studied law in his father's office and 
was admitted to practice in November, 1830. In 1844 he was chosen to rep- 
resent his assembly district in the State Legislature, and was re-elected for a 
second term. Upon the erection of the Twenty-fifth Judicial District Gov- 
ernor Bigler appointed James Burnside as president judge April 20, 1853, and 
in the month of Octpber following, at the general election (the office having 
become elective instead of appointive), he was elected without opposition. 
Judge James Burnside was instantly killed by being thrown from a buggy July 
I, 1859. 

Next in the succession of presidents came Judge James Gamble. Judge 
Gamble is remembered on the bench as a dignified, strict, and careful presiding 
officer. He made no pretension to extensive social qualities, but as a judge 



240 History of Clearfield County. 

was universally respected. As a jurist he ranked high and his opinions were 
frequently quoted. 

Samuel Linn next came upon the bench. He was born in February, 1820, 
and at the age of twenty-four years commenced to prepare himself for the legal 
profession, to which he was duly admitted. In 1847 he formed a partnership 
with James T., afterward Judge Hale, which continued until 185 1. He then 
practiced with W. P. Wilson, and so continued up to 1859, when he was elected 
president judge of the district comprising Centre, Clearfield, and Clinton coun- 
ties. In^ 1868 he resigned his position and resumed the practice as an at- 
torney. 

Joseph Benson McEnally, who succeeded Judge Linn by appointment from 
the governor, was the first person residing in Clearfield to be honored by 
elevation to the bench of the district. Mr. McEnally was born in Lycoming 
county, January 25, 1825. At the time of entering an ofiice for the purpose 
of fitting himself for the profession, he was well prepared, having taken a pre- 
paratory and regular course at Dickinson College at Carlisle, Pa., from which 
he graduated in June, 1845. After a course of study in the office of Alex- 
ander, afterward Judge Jordon, he was admitted to the bar in 1849. ^^ 
practiced a short time in Schuylkill county, and from there came to Clearfield, 
where he has since resided. In 1868 he was appointed president judge to 
succeed Judge Samuel Linn, in the district comprising Clearfield, Centre, and 
Clinton counties. Judge McEnally presided over the courts of the district for 
several months, and at the next general election a successor was chosen. At 
that time he was the nominee of his party (the Republican), but as the district 
was largely Democratic he was defeated. In 1872 Judge McEnally formed a 
law partnership with Daniel W. McCurdy, which relation has ever since con- 
tinued. 

Charles A. Mayer, the successful candidate for the office of president judge 
of this district, over Judge McEnally, -was born in York county, Pa., Decem- 
ber 15, 1830. At the age of twenty-one years he entered the office of White 
& Quiggle, at Lock Haven, as a student at law, and after two years' course of 
study was admitted to the bar in 1854. He was elected to the office of 
attorney for Clinton county and served in that capacity two terms. In 1868 
he became a candidate for the president judgship of the Twenty-fifth District, 
and was elected. In 1878 he was re-nominated and elected for a second term 
and is now engaged in the discharge of his official duties, but does not now 
preside over the courts of Clearfield county, it having been made a separate 
judicial district. In fact Judge Mayer held but few courts here after the 
creation of the office of " addition law judge," that duty having fallen to his 
associate. Judge John H. Orvis. 

John Holden Orvis was born in Sullivan township, Tioga county, Pa., 
February 24, 1835. At nineteen years of age he commenced the study of the 



Bench and Bar. 241 



law under the direction of N. L. Atwood, esq., of Lock Haven. Mr. Orvis 
spent a greater portion of his time in a printing office, and read law in connec- 
tion with his labors as a printer, not being sufficiently possessed of money to 
prosecute his legal studies unassisted. In February, 1856, he was admitted to 
practice, a few weeks prior to having attained his majority ; but as the ques- 
tion of age was not asked on his examination he was admitted ; had he been 
questioned as to his age he would have been disqualified. In December, 1862, 
Mr. Orvis went to Bellefonte, where he has since resided. Upon the petition of 
the attorneys in all parts of his district he was appointed by Governor Hart- 
ranft to the office of additional law judge of the Twenty-fifth District, to assist 
President Judge, Charles A. Mayer. His appointment was made April 10, 
1874. At the general election in November following, he was elected to the 
same office for a full term of ten years, which he held until November, 1883, 
when he resigned and resumed practice as an attorney. 

David Luther Krebs, the present president judge of the courts of Clearfield 
county, was born in Ferguson township, Centre county, on the 5th day of 
October, 1846. David was brought up on a farm, and in his younger days 
received only a common school education, under what was formerly known as 
the " old academy " system. He was engaged in preparing himself for a col- 
legiate course when the war broke out, which event entirely changed his plans. 
In the fall of 1864 Mr. Krebs came to Clearfield county and engaged in teach- 
ing school, and at the same time studied law with Hon. William A. Wallace. 
At the time of the last draft ordered by the general government, two older 
brothers of David were drafted into the service ; one of them was rejected on 
account of physical disabilities, and the other having the care of a family on 
his hands disliked to enter the service. David L., the subject of this sketch, 
offered to, and did take his brother's place, and was assigned to military duty 
in the Ninety-eighth Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteers, where he served until 
mustered out by general orders in 1865. After returning from the service 
Mr. Krebs spent a year in the oil regions of Venango county, and afterward 
taught school at Limestoneville, Montour county. 

In 1867 he returned to Centre county and read law under the instruction 
of Adam Hoy, esq., and at the same time performed clerical duties in the 
office of the prothonotary of the county. He was examined in open court in 
May, 1869, and admitted to the bar, and on June i, following, came to Clear- 
field, where he has since resided. In the year 1870, Mr. Krebs, in company 
with John P. Irvin, succeeded to the business of H. B. Swoope, esq , then 
recently appointed United States District Attorney for the Western District of 
Pennsylvania. This firm relation continued about two years, when Mr. Krebs 
purchased the entire business and practiced alone until late in the fall of 1873. 
A law partnership was then formed with Hon. William A. Wallace, which 
continued up to the time of Mr. Krebs's election to the office of president judge 



242 History of Clearfield County. 

of Clearfield county in the year 1883. The county, by act of the Legislature 
in 1883, was made a separate judicial district. 

It is eminently fitting and proper that in the succession of events and lives 
of those who have presided over the courts of the judicial district in which 
Clearfield county is situate, there should be mentioned one person, who, al- 
though he was never on the bench in the district, but occasionally presided at 
the courts thereof by invitation, yet has been a life long resident of the county, 
and has ever been identified with its substantial growth and prosperity. 

George Rodden Barrett was born in Curwensville on the 31st day of 
March, in the year 181 5. In the year 1831 he was apprenticed to Governor 
John Bigler, to learn the printer's trade. In 1833 he became editor of the 
Brookz'ille Jejfersonian, published at Brookville, Jefferson county, which he 
continued for two years. He moved to Lewisburg in 1835 ^^^^ edited the 
Lewisbiirg Democrat. While there he read law with James F. Linn, and was 
admitted to practice in 1836, and, in the same year came to Clearfield. The 
next year, 1837, he was made deputy attorney-general for Clearfield and Jef- 
ferson counties. Mr. Barrett was elected to the State Legislature in 1840, and 
re-elected the succeeding year. He served as a member of the judiciary com- 
mittee when the law abolishing imprisonment for debt was passed. In 1852 
he was chosen as one of the presidential electors. On account of his recog- 
nized legal ability he was selected by President Pierce for the purpose of 
codifying the revenue laws. He was appointed president judge of the Twenty- 
second Judicial District, comprising the counties of Wayne, Pike, Monroe, and 
Carbon, in the year 1853. At the general election in the district in 1855, he 
was elected to the same position and re-elected in 1865. He resigned in 1869, 
but was appointed to the same office by Governor Geary, and served one year. 
In 1872 Judge Barrett returned to Clearfield and resumed the practice of the 
law, which practice he continued up to 1884, at which time he retired from the 
active duties of the profession, content to rest upon the well earned honors of 
nearly a half century. During his long years of practice Mr. Barrett never lost 
a case in the Supreme Court, and during his sixteen years of duty on the 
bench, his decisions were reversed but thirteen times. 

The Clearfield Bar. 

Of the practitioners at the bar of Clearfield county, past and present, many 
have attained distinction, and some eminence. Among the leading legal minds 
of the Commonwealth, this county has furnished her full quota. On the bench 
ard at the bar of her courts, have been found lawyers of rare ability and strict 
integrity — men of worth, men of character, men whose social and mental qual- 
ities have made them famous, men whose marked attainments have made for 
them a high standard in the legislative halls of the Commonwealth, and of the 
nation ; men whose influence has been so pervading and salutary that the whole 




£ yf. /^<::^^p^.cJC 



Bench and Bar. 243 



bar seems to have caught something of their spirit, and maintained a freedom 
from all unworthy methods that can be found in very few communities. 

The pioneer of the bar of Clearfield county was Josiah W. Smith. Mr. 
Smith was a native of Philadelphia, and came when quite young to this county, 
in company with his brother, Lewis Smith. They occupied a farm tract in the 
south part of Lawrence township, known in later years as the Benjamin Spack- 
man farm, and is situate about four miles up the West Branch. Josiah, not 
being accustomed to farm life and its consequent labors, conceived the idea of 
studying law, and in pursuance of it commenced a course of study in the office 
of Judge Thomas Burnside, of Centre county. In the year 1826 he was exam- 
ined and admitted to practice, and in the month of December of the same year 
was appointed deputy attorney- general for the county of Clearfield, an office 
equal to that now known as District Attorney. No accurate information is at 
hand as to how long Mr. Smith held this office. He continued practice, how- 
ever, up to 1856, when he retired and moved to his native city of Philadelphia. 
There he resided until 1862, and then returned to Clearfield, where he lived at 
the tim.e of his death, March 22, 1882, in the eighty-first year of his age. 

After returning from Philadelphia Mr. Smith never engaged in active prac- 
tice, but was always ready to assist any who were in trouble. As an evidence 
of the high regard and esteem in which he was universally held by his associ- 
ates at the bar, the following action of the court and bar of the county as 
entered upon the records of the Common Pleas will fully attest: 

" At a meeting of the bar, held in open court, convened for that purpose 
by Hon. George R. Barrett, the following resolutions were offered by Hon. 
William A. Wallace, and seconded by Hon. J. B. McEnally and Thomas H. 
Murray, esq. 

'' Resolved, That in the death of Josiah W. Smith, esq., the senior member 
of the bar of this county, his family has lost a loving and affectionate husband 
and father, the community at large an upright, pure and respected citizen ; 
these courts a link of the past history more than half a century old, and the 
bar has lost a member whose legal knowledge was unexcelled, whose experi- 
ence and skill is attested by the records of the court from 1825 to the date of 
his retirement from active practice, and whose personal character remains to 
us pure and spotless." 

Lewis Smith, brother of Josiah W. Smith, was also a native of Pennsylva- 
nia, and the circumstances of his coming to this county are the same as those 
related in the foregoing sketch of Josiah W. Lewis Smith read law with his 
brother, and was regularly admitted to practice at the courts of the county. 
Lewis was more of an advocate at the bar, and more successful in practice 
relating to contested cases, while Josiah W. was a counselor and mediator, fre- 
quently endeavoring to compromise causes that most lawyers would desire to 
litigate. Lewis Smith died in the year 1847. 



244 History of Clearfield County. 

Joseph M. Martin came from the interior of the State about the year 1830; 
he practiced up to about 1835, when he died. Mr. Martin is remembered as 
a lawyer of abiUty, and established a fair business in his profession. He was a 
bachelor. 

William Christie came to practice at the courts of the county about the 
time that Josiah W. Smith was admitted. He located at Curwensville. He 
was a strong lawyer and a man of good understanding, but possessed some 
faults, and indulged in excesses which hastened his death. He had no family, 
but boarded with " Aunt " Ann Reed, a prominent figure in the schools of 
Curwensville at an early day. 

James B. Marr, another old-time lawyer and a man of excellent family 
connections, became a member of the Clearfield bar about the year 1839. His 
brother, Phineas, is remembered as a prominent Presbyterian clergyman at 
Lewisburg, Pa. James B. Marr read law in the office of James F. Linn, esq., 
of Lewisburg, and was admitted to practice at that place. He came to Clear- 
field with a letter of introduction, written by Mr. Linn and addressed to George 
R., afterward Judge Barrett, recommending the bearer as a competent person 
as a lawyer, and suggesting the formation of a partnership if agreeable to Mr. 
Barrett. The partnership was never formed, as business was not sufficiently 
lucrative to bear a division. Mr. Marr practiced here several years with mod- 
erate success. He died here, leaving no family. He was the fifth resident 
lawyer in the county. 

Daniel G. Fenton came, a single man, from New Jersey, and was admitted 
to practice at the courts of the county. He came here about 1830, and left 
somewhat hurriedly in 1836. The circumstances of his leaving were about as 
follows : He had became considerably involved with debts variously contracted, 
and, in order to escape from his creditors, sold his law books to John R. Bloom, 
a merchant of the town, and in the night time decamped, using the proceeds 
of the sale of his library to take him away. He went to Iowa, where he after- 
ward died. Mr. Fenton was a weak lawyer, but very popular in the town. 

Elmer S. Dundy read law in Clearfield, and was admitted here, but never 
practiced at the courts of the county. He migrated westward and settled at 
Falls City, Neb., where he was appointed justice of the United States Supreme 
Court. 

Lewis J. Krans first started in business as a merchant at Curwensville, but 
became involved and failed. His failure embarrassed his brother of Philadel- 
phia, who had made advances to him, and he also failed. After that, Lewis 
read law in the ^office of Joseph S. Frantz, of Clearfield, and was admitted 
to practice. He remained here six or seven years and then went to Philadel- 
phia. He stayed there a short time and moved to Concordia, Kan. 

Isaac G. Gordon was a native of Union county. He read law in the office 
of James F. Linn, of Lewisburg, Pa., and was admitted to the bar in 1843. 



Bench and Bar. 245 



From there he came to Clearfield, armed with a letter of introduction to Mr. 
Barrett, with a request that he be taken as a partner. Mr. Barrett at that 
time did not see fit to take a partner. Mr. Gordon remained in Clearfield 
until the next spring, when, at the suggestion of Mr. Barrett, he went to 
Erie with a view of locating there, but remained there only four weeks 
and then returned to Clearfield county and established an office at Curwens- 
ville. In February of the next year he came to the county seat to attend a 
term of court. Here he again met Mr. Barrett and informed him that he 
(Gordon) had made just three dollars as the result of his winter's practice at 
Curwensville. A partnership was then formed and Mr. Gordon again located 
at Clearfield. Their association continued for about three years. Mr. Gordon 
could prepare a case ably, but as a trial lawyer he was not a success ; he, in 
fact, disliked to try causes, and avoided that part of the practice as much as 
possible. In the mean time Mr. Barrett had an extensive and growing practice 
in Jefferson county, and at last suggested that Mr. Gordon should locate there 
and take charge of that branch of the business in an equal partnership. This 
Mr. Gordon assented to, and moved to Brookville. After a short time Mr. 
Heath (afterward Judge Heath) was taken into the firm, under the name and 
style of Barrett, Heath & Gordon. Upon the advancement of Mr. Barrett to 
the bench, he surrendered his interest to his partners. Mr. Gordon is an up- 
right, conscientious, modest gentleman ; a lawyer of ability and sound learn- 
ing. He is now on the bench of the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth. 

James Harvey Larrimer was born in Centre county ; he read law in the 
office of Judge James Burnside, and was admitted to practice at the bar of 
Centre county. In the spring of 1854 he came to Clearfield and took up his 
residence. He practiced until 1858, when he became associated with R. F. 
Ward, jr., as editors and publishers of the Clearfield Republican, and so con- 
tinued until the spring of i860, when he retired from its management and re- 
sumed the practice of law. At the outbreak of the Rebellion he was appointed 
first lieutenant of a company under Captain Loraine, of the Fifth Pennsylvania 
Reserves. Before arriving at the front he was elected captain of a company 
in the same regiment. Subsequently he was promoted to the office of major, 
and transferred to the staff" of General Samuel W. Crawford. Major Larrimer 
was killed by guerrillas near Collett's Station, Va., February 14, 1863. His 
remains were brought home and buried in the Clearfield Cemetery. Larrimer 
Post, G. A. R., was so named in honor of Major James Harvey Larrimer. 

Joseph S. Frantz came to Clearfield from Kittanning, Armstrong county, 
about the year 1850. He practiced law here about three or four years and 
then went west. 

J. Biddle Gordon, son of Judge Gordon, of Reading, Pa., located in Clear- 
field as a lawyer about the year 1853. Mr. Gordon was a highly educated 
man and possessed great abihty as a lawyer, but his inclinations and habits led 



246 History of Clearfield County. 

him sadly astray. He was wild, reckless, and dissipated. In one of his ad- 
ventures he spent a large sum of money that he had collected for a client, and 
when a demand for it was made of him he promised to settle the next day. 
The same evening, however, he poisoned himself and died in a few hours. J. 
Biddle Gordon was not, in any manner, related to either Isaac G. Gordon or 
Cyrus Gordon, of the Clearfield bar. 

Israel Test was born in Philipsburg, Centre county, Pa., September 28, 
1 83 1. At the age of sixteen he commenced teaching school, and by economy 
and industry accumulated sufficient means to enable him to attend Dickinson 
Seminary at Williamsport. In 1854 he entered the law office of J. M. Carlisle, 
esq., at Chambersburg. Franklin county, and in June, 1856, he was admitted 
to the bar. Mr. Test came to Clearfield in 1858, and resided and practiced 
here until the time of his death, August 12, 1886. Israel Test was a peculiar 
and eccentric person. During his many years of practice in the courts of the 
'County, he was always known as the "wag of the bar." This pecuhar faculty 
often stood him well, as many a case he has laughed out of court and suc- 
ceeded in gaining when his side possessed doubtful merit. In later years his 
associates, and especially the younger persons, named him " Father " Test. 
Mr. Test, notwithstanding his eccentricities, was a good lawyer and advocate ; 
a man of ability and thorough knowledge of the law, and more than that, a 
mian universally respected by his fellow men. 

Thomas J. McCuUough was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., on the loth day of 
July, 1828. In the year 1840, became with the family of his father, an itiner- 
ant preacher of the Methodist Protestant Church, to Clearfield county and 
located at New Washington, in Burnside township. Here Thomas received 
such elementary education as the schools of the vicinity afforded. About the 
year 185 1, he came to Clearfield and entered the office of Hon. George R. 
Barrett, where he read law until his admission to the bar some few years later. 
In 1868-9 he represented the county in the State Legislature. After his term 
of office expired Mr. McCullough went into the oil fields of Pennsylvania and 
operated for a time with indifferent success. He returned to the county after 
about ten years in the oil regions and established an office for the practice of 
his profession at Philipsburg, Centre county, still making his home with his 
family at Clearfield. Thomas J. McCullough died at Philipsburg, December 
27, 1885. 

John H. Fulford was born in Bedford, Bedford county, February ii, 1838. 
While residing in Bedford he read law in the office of Frank Gordon, esq., 
but left there before completing his studies and came to Clearfield, where he 
entered the office of Joseph B. McEnally, esq. During his course of study 
with Mr. McEnally, Mr. Fulford was chosen principal of the school at Clear- 
field, held in the old town hall, an office that he filled very acceptably for some 
time. After completing his law course, Mr. Fulford was admitted to practice, 



Bench and Bar. 247 



about the year i860. As a lawyer, he was honorable, conscientious, and 
thorough ; as a politician, he was a staunch, shrewd and uncompromising 
Republican. John H. Fulford died June 27, 1877. He was a prominent 
member of the Masonic order, the lodge, and the bar as well, attending the 
funeral in a body. 

William Miller McCullough, a brother of Thomas J. McCullough herein- 
before mentioned, was a native of Beaver county, Pa., born on the ist day of 
October, 1837, and came to this county with his father's family. William 
received but little education prior to the time of commencing the study of law- 
He entered the office of H. B. Swoope, esq., who instructed him in the elemen- 
tary school branches as well as those branches appertaining to legal practice. 
He was admitted to practice prior to 1856, and subsequently became one of 
the brightest and ablest lawyers of the county. He was twice chosen District 
Attorney of the county. In later years failing health forced him to retire from 
active practice and he went to the Southern States and died at Thomasville, 
Georgia, on the 26th day of January, 1884. 

Robert Wallace was born in Barony Omagh, county Tyrone, Ireland, on 
the 13th day of March, 1792. He came to America and settled in Mifflin 
county, Pa., in the year 18 19, where he taught school. He read law with 
Ephraim Banks, esq., at Lewiston, and was admitted to the bar in 1824. Mr. 
Wallace soon after his admission moved to Huntingdon, where he practiced 
law about a year, when he came to Clearfield in the year 1825. After staying 
here about a year he returned to Huntingdon and resumed practice, still re- 
taining his practice at Clearfield. In the year 1826, Mr. Wallace married and 
resided in Huntingdon until the year 1836. He held the office of Deputy 
Attorney-general of Huntingdon county for three years. During the year 1836 
Mr. W. with his family moved to Clearfield and engaged in active practice up 
to the year 1847, when he moved to Holidaysburg, Blair county, where he 
lived until 1854. He then returned to Clearfield to live, but did not engage 
actively in practice. Robert Wallace died at Wallaceton, Clearfield county, 
January 2, 1875. 

Henry Bucher Swoope was born in Huntingdon, Huntingdon county. Pa., 
in the year 183 1. He was the son of William Swoope, M. D. of that town. 
He was educated at the academy at Academia, Pa., and read law in the office 
of John Scott, esq., of Huntingdon, and was admitted to the bar of Huntingdon 
county in 1852. After residing and practicing there about a year, Mr. Swoope 
came to Clearfield, where he lived and practiced until 1869, when he was ap- 
pointed, by President Grant, to the office of United States district attorney 
for the western district of Pennsylvania. Mr. Swoope then located at 
Pittsburgh and fulfilled the duties of the office until the time of his death in 
1874. H. Bucher Swoope was one of the best criminal lawyers in this section 
of the State ; as an orator, he was eloquent and brilliant and one of the most 
successful political speakers in the Middle States. 



248 History of Clearfield County. 

James Hepburn came to Clearfield from Philadelphia, and was admitted to 
the bar of the county in 1822. No accurate information is obtainable concern- 
ing Mr. Hepburn, but he continued to practice here until his death, many 
years ago. 

James Peterkin also appears as one of the old practitioners at the bar in 
early days. 

Frederick O'Leary Buck, an Englishman by birth, practiced in Clearfield. 
At one time he was associated in business with William McCullough. 

Alfred A. Graham was born in Clearfield, February 3, 1845. He read law 
by himself and was admitted to the bar. He practiced for a time in partner- 
ship with William McCullough. Mr.- Graham also read with William A. 
Wallace. At the time of his death, February 23, 1880, he resided at Du Bois. 

Robert J. Wallace, another member of the old bar of the county, was born 
in Clearfield. He was a brother of William A. Wallace and read law in his 
office. Robert was admitted to practice and was at one time district attorney 
of the county. He died many years ago. 

Samuel M. Green came to Clearfield from Centre county on the occasion 
of the organization of the courts in October, 1822. He was admitted to the 
bar of the county on that memorable occasion and was appointed Deputy 
Attorney-general for Clearfield county at that term. He stayed in the county 
several years. 

An organization was formed about twelve years ago known as the Clear- 
field Bar Association. Officers were elected and meetings occasionally held. 
At one time J. B. McEnally was president. The association, however, came 
to grief through the sudden departure of the treasurer with the records and 
funds, and no trace of his whereabouts was ever discovered. Sinbe that time 
the association have rarely held meetings, but it is believed that Mr. McEnally 
is still president. Of late an effort has been made to revive the organization, 
but as yet without success. 

The Present Clearfield Bar. 
William A. Wallace was born in Huntingdon, November 27, 1827. Dur- 
ing his youth he was educated liberally and with a desire to train his mind to 
that branch of education that would tend to fit him for the legal profession. 
He studied law in his father's office and was admitted to the bar in September, 
1847, in Clearfield county, where he had lived since 1836, having come here 
at that time with his father's family. In 1862 Mr. Wallace was elected to the 
State Senate representing the counties of Clearfield, Cambria and Blair. He 
was re-elected in 1865, '68, '71 and '74, serving fifteen consecutive years therein. 
In 1 87 1 he was elected speaker of the Senate. He was chosen chairman of 
the Democratic State Committee in 1865, ^nd held the position during 1866- 
7-8, and again in 187 1. In 1875 he was the successful candidate in the 



Bench and Bar. 249 



Legislature for the office of United States Senator, and succeeded Hon. John 
Scott. During later years Mr. Wallace has retired from active professional 
and political life and devotes his time to business pursuits. He has extensive 
coal interests in the county and large mining interests in the Western States 
which demand constant attention. 

Joseph Benson McEnally, born January 25, 1825, admitted to the bar in 
1849. (See sketch in preceding portion of this chapter). 

John F. Weaver was admitted to the bar in 1844, after a course of study in 
the office of James Burnside, of Centre county. Mr. Weaver came to Clear- 
field in 1845 ; was made deputy attorney-general of Clearfield county in 1848 
and served three years, after which he retired from practice and engaged 
mainly in the lumber business. 

Walter Barrett was born in Clearfield, August 2, 1839; attended the com- 
mon schools at Clearfield, and entered the University of Pennsylvania, at Phil- 
adelphia. He remained at the university but a short time, and in the fall of 
1853, received an appointment as midshipman in -the navy and stationed at 
Annapolis, Md. In the spring of 1855 he attended the Moravian boarding- 
school at Nazareth, Northampton county, and remained nearly two years, after 
which he again entered the university at Philadelphia. He spent one year as 
civil engineer on the Philadelphia Railroad, after which he returned home and 
resumed the study of law, having previously studied during vacation time with 
his father, Hon. George R. Barrett. In 1859, Walter was admitted to the bar 
and commenced practice. At the breaking out of the war Walter Barrett was 
the first man that left Clearfield county to enter the service. He was appointed 
major of the Eighty-fourth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Colonel William G. 
Murray, regimental commander, was killed at Winchester, and the command 
devolved upon Major Barrett, and so continued until the battle at Fort Re- 
public, when he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel. After the battle at 
Cloud's Mills Colonel Barrett was injured by the falling of a bridge, his horse 
falling on him in the accident, and he was compelled to leave the service and 
return home in the early part of 1862. Colonel Barrett, although an active 
participant in legal and political life, never held any office. He was a candi- 
date for judicial honors against Judge Krebs, but was defeated by the latter in 
the nominating convention. 

Joseph W. Parker has been a practitioner in the courts of the State for 
about thirty years, but is not an old member of the Clearfield bar, having 
located here within the last five years. Mr. Parker was born in Mifflin county, 
Pa., read law and was admitted to the bar there. He lived in Virginia five 
years, practicing law and engaging in politics. During his residence there he 
served in the State Legislature three years. On his return to Pennsylvania he 
was elected to the Legislature and served one term. 

Frank Fielding was born at Slippery Rock, Butler county. Pa. He was 



250 History of Clearfield County. 

educated at Saint Francis College, at Loretta, Pa., and at Saint Vincent's, at 
Latrobe, Pa., but was not a graduate from either. He received further in- 
struction from Rev. W. T. Hamihon, of Mobile, Ala., while the reverend pro- 
fessor was in the Northern States. Mr. Fielding studied law with Hon. Wm. 
P. Hill, at Marshall, Texas ; continued his course with John N. Thompson, of 
Butler, Pa., and finished in the office of Hon. James Bredin, of Butler, now of 
Pittsburgh, Pa. In 1864, Mr. Fielding came to Clearfield to practice. He 
became a member of the law firm of Wallace, Bigler & Fielding. The firm 
was afterward changed to Wallace & Fielding, and still later to Fielding, Big- 
ler & Wilson. Of late years, however, Mr. Fielding has practiced wathout a 
partner. He was elected to the office of District Attorney and served one 
term. 

William Dock Bigler is a native of Clearfield, and was born September 17,. 
1 841. He received a preparatory course of study at the West Jersey Acad- 
emy at Bridgton, N. J., remaining there about two years. In 1859 he 
entered Princeton College and left in 1861. Mr. Bigler read law with William 
A. Wallace from 1862 to 1866, but did not give his exclusive attention to law 
studies during that time. He was admitted to the bar in 1866. The law firm 
of Wallace, Bigler & Fielding was soon formed and Mr. Bigler became a mem- 
ber of it. Their firm relations continued about three years. Since 1870 Mr. 
Bigler has given his attention mainly to business interests outside the profes- 
sion. He is now engaged in lumbering and the manufacture of fire brick, and 
is also a member of the firm of Bigler, Reed & Co. 

Thomas Holt Murray was born in Girard township, Clearfield county, on 
the 5th day of April, 1845. His early education was somewhat limited, being 
confined to such branches as were taught at the " country schools." In 1862 
he entered Dickinson Seminary at Williamsport, but was soon afterward com- 
pelled to leave on account of a severe illness. From this time until 1864 he 
remained at home, teaching school and working on the farm, when he returned 
to the seminary. During his course of study at the college Mr. Murray read 
law under the direction of Robert Fleming, esq. He graduated in 1867. 
In the month of May, 1868, he entered the office of H. B. Swoope, esq., at 
Clearfield, where he completed his legal course, and was admitted to the bar 
in May, 1869. The firm of Murray & Gordon, of which Thomas H. Murray 
is a member, was formed in September, 1874. 

David S. Herron was born in Center township, Indiana county, Pa., April, 
24, 1844. He received an academic education, and afterward entered the 
Ohio University, at Athens, O., from which he graduated with the class of 
1866; read law with Hugh W. Weir, esq., at Indiana, for two years, and was 
admitted to practice at the Indiana county bar in June, 1868. He then lo- 
cated in Clarion county and practiced until 1876, at which time he embarked 
in the mercantile and oil business. In 1883 he came to Du Bois, Clearfield 




^"fbuEG.mjhams SiSrcTJ r. 



^o^J-j Xid 



W cl e 



Bench and Bar. 251 



county, and resumed the practice of his profession. In 1874 Mr. Herron was 
admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and in the year 
following was admited to practice in the District and Circuit Courts of the 
United States. Since 1874 Mr. Herron has held the office of United States 
Commissioner for the Western District of Pennsylvania. 

David Luther Krebs, born October 5, 1846. (See ante. Bench of the 
county). 

Hurxthal W. Smith was born in Clearfield county and was a son of Josiah 
W. Smith, one of the pioneer lawyers of the county. H. W. Smith read law 
in the office of Hon. William A. Wallace, and was admitted to the bar in 1869. 

Alonzo A. Adams was born in Boggs township, Clearfield county, Decem- 
ber 3, 1847. Hs rs^d law in the office of H. Bucher Swoope, esq., and after 
a four years' course of study was admitted to the bar at the June term of court, 
1869. 

From the alumni record of the Pennsylvania State College the following 
record is taken relating to Cyrus Gordon, B. S., LL. B. Born December i, 
1846, near Hecla Furnace, Centre county, Pa ; 1864, entered sophomore class, 
Agricultural College ; 1866, graduated and returned to college as tutor and 
post-graduate; 1867-9, studied law at Michigan University; 1869, admitted 
to the bar of Centre county. Pa.; 1870, removed to Clearfield and began the 
practice of law; 1876, elected alumni trustee, State College, for one year; 
1877, re-elected for full term of three years ; 1880, re-elected alumni trustee. 
In explanation of the foregoing record it may be well to state that Mr. Gor- 
don read law with Judge Samuel Linn, in Centre county, and that upon com- 
ing to Clearfield he was in the office of McEnally & McCurdy about one year 
prior to his partnership with T. H. Murray, esq. 

Daniel W. McCurdy was born in Charleston township, Chester county, 
August 30, 1 841. He received a preparatory education at Freeland Seminary, 
Montgomery county, and entered Dickinson College in 1858. After a full 
collegiate course Mr. McCurdy graduated with the class of 1862. He then 
taught school in Luzerne county about two years, and then came to Clear- 
field where he continued teaching until the early part of the year 1865. He 
then entered the office of Joseph B. McEnally and studied law until 1868, 
when he was admitted to the bar of the county. In 1872 the law firm of 
McEnally & McCurdy was formed. 

Aaron G. Kramer was born in Centre county, August 10, 1844. He came 
to Clearfield in the spring of 1866, and entered the office of Israel Test, esq., 
as a student at law ; was admitted to the bar of Clearfield county in Septem- 
ber, 1 87 1, and has since practiced in the county. In the fall of 1886, Mr. 
Kramer was elected member of Assembly to represent Clearfield county. 

John Lever Cuttle was born in Lancashire, England, June 22, 1809, and 
came to this country in the year 1823, and to Clearfield county in 1839. He 



252 History of Clearfield County. 

was entered as a student at law with George R. Barrett, and read in connec- 
tion with his labors as a machinist until 1853, when he was admitted to prac- 
tice. In 1845 he was elected justice of the peace and served one term; in 
1852 county surveyor, and served two terms; in 1859 prothonotary, and 
served one term; in 1882 became associate judge and served one term. 

Harry Frank Wallace was born August 8, 1852, in Clearfield borough. 
He was educated at Lawrenceville, N. J., entering school there in 1867 and 
graduated in 1869 ; entered Princeton College in 1869 and graduated with the 
class of '73. He then returned home and read law in the office of Wallace & 
Kr^bs until 1875 ; then entered Harvard Law School and attended lectures 
one year; was admitted to the Clearfield bar in 1876. Mr. Wallace then be- 
came a member of the firm of Wallace & Krebs, and so continued until the 
election of Mr. Krebs to the office of president judge. The firm then became 
Wallace Bros., Harry F. and William E. Wallace constituting the firm. 

WiUiam E. Wallace was born in Clearfield, February 24, 1855. After 
attending the common schools at Clearfield he entered Lawrenceville High 
School, from which he graduated in 1873 ; attended Harvard Law School two 
years ; read law with Wallace & Krebs three years, and was admitted to the 
bar in June, 1876. Mr. Wallace is now one of the members of the law firm 
of Wallace Bros., successors to Wallace & Krebs. 

Oscar Mitchell was a native of Lawrence township, born February 28, 1849. 
He was educated at the State Normal School at Millersville, Lancaster county, 
Pa., but did not graduate from there. In 1874 he commenced the study of 
law with Frank Fielding, esq., and was admitted to the Clearfield bar in June, 
1876. 

Smith Van Valzah Wilson was born in Clearfield, November 21, 1853. 
He attended the Clearfield school and afterwards took a two years' preparatory 
course at Lawrenceville High School. From there he returned home and read 
law with Hon. William A. Wallace nearly a year, when he concluded to attend 
college. In the fall of 1871 he entered Lehigh University for the regular class- 
ical course, and graduated in 1874. Mr. Wilson then resumed his law studies 
with Senator Wallace, and was admitted to the bar in March, 1877. Smith V. 
Wilson was elected district attorney in November, 1885. 

Joseph Francis McKenrick was born in Franklin township, Adams county, 
Pa., May 9, 1845. He received a common school education and entered East- 
man's Business College, at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in 1869, where he finished the 
college course. In 1865 he came to Clearfield and worked at the carpenter's 
trade during the summer and taught school in the winter. Mr. McKenrick 
was a teacher in the Leonard Graded School at Clearfield from 1874 to 1877. 
In the latter year he commenced the study of law with Hon. William A. Wal- 
lace, and was admitted to the bar June 24, 1878. In 1879 he was elected 
district attorney of the county and re-elected in 1882. 



Bench and Bar. 



253 



Frank Graham Harris was born in Karthaus township, this county, Novem- 
ber 6, 1845. Ij^ the month of September, 1876, he commenced the study of 
law in the office of Murray & Gordon, esqs., and continued until 1879, when 
on June 14th of that year he was admitted to the Clearfield bar. In connec- 
tion with his law practice Mr. Harris does a fire and life insurance business. 

William Carlisle Arnold was born in Luthersburg, Clearfield county, July 
15, 185 1. He read law in the office of J. B. McEnally, esq., and was admitted 
to the bar in June, 1875. Mr. Arnold resides and has an office at Curwens- 
ville. 

William H. Patterson was born near Warrior's Mark, Huntingdon county. 
Pa., November 14, 185 i, read law with H. M. Aldridge, esq., of Holidaysburg, 
Blair county, and was admitted to the bar in April, 1878. Mr. Patterson came 
to Houtzdale, Clearfield county, in May, 1878, and has since practiced law at 
that place. 

Roland D. Swoope, son of H. Bucher Swoope, was born in Clearfield, Pa., 
in the year 1856. He was educated at the Hill School, Pottstown, Pa., Phil- 
lips Academy, at Andover, Mass., and at the Western University, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., read law in the office of Murray & Gordon, esqs., at Clearfield, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1878. Since admission Mr. Swoope has practiced at 
Curwensville. 

William A. Chase, born in Knox township, Clearfield county, July 24, 
1847; was educated at the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, and grad- 
uated with the class of 1877, and admitted to practice in the Supreme Court 
of Michigan in March, 1877. Mr. Chase was admitted to the bar of Clearfield 
county in 1879, and commenced practice at Houtzdale, where he remained till 
1886. He then moved to Jeffi-ies, this county, but has not practiced since 
April, 1886. 

John Franklin Snyder was born in Clearfield borough, June 23, 1855. He 
was educated at the common schools and at the Leonard Graded School of 
Clearfield, but when not at school worked with his father, Henry E. Snyder, in 
a blacksmith shop. In 1876 he graduated from school and then resumed his 
place in the shop. He entered the law office of Hon. Augustus Landis, at 
Holidaysburg, Blair county, and studied law until 1878, when he was admitted 
to the bar. Mr. Snyder practiced alone until January i, 1884, when he asso- 
ciated with Hon. John H. Orvis, and established an office at Clearfield under 
the firm name and style of Orvis & Snyder. In the celebrated Curtin-Yocum 
contest, Mr. Snyder acted as associate counsel with D. L. Krebs, esq. 

William Alexander Hagerty was born in Glen Hope, this county, January 
22, 1857. He attended the Free School at Lumber City, the academy and 
Leonard Graded School at Clearfield, and the Pennsylvania College at Gettys- 
burg, Pa. He read law in the office of McEnally & McCurdy, and, after a 
course of study for three years was admitted to the bar in 1879. 



254 History of Clearfield County. 



George D. Hamer was born in Freeport, Armstrong county, June 21, 
1855. He graduated from Mount Union College in 1873; read law with 
Coulter & Martin, esqs., of Parker City, Pa., until 1875, when he moved to 
Butler and completed his studies with L. Z. Mitchell, esq., and was admitted 
to the bar June 6, 1876. Mr. Hamer practiced law in Butler county until 
1880, when he came to Du Bois and was admitted to the bar of Clearfield 
county in March of that year. In addition to his law practice, Mr. Hamer has 
engaged extensively in lumbering and building. 

Truman Ames was born in the town of Antioch, Lake county. 111., June 
25, 185 1. In 1872 he attended the State Normal School at Mansfield, Tioga 
county, Pa., and continued there about eighteen weeks. He again, in 1873, 
entered the school and graduated therefrom in June, 1874. In the fall of 1876 
he commenced the study of law with Hall & Ames, St. Mary's, Elk county, 
but was obliged to leave in the following spring on account of poor health. 
In 1878 Mr. Ames resumed study in the office of H. T. Ames, esq., Williams- 
port, and was admitted to the Lycoming bar in May, 1880. Truman Ames 
came to Du Bois in February, 1881. 

William Irvin Shaw, born at Clearfield March 20, i860, attended lectures 
at Yale Law School, and read law with Murray & Gordon, esqs., and was 
admitted to the bar in June, 1882. Mr. Shaw is now practicing at Houtzdale, 
Clearfield county, Pa. 

Arthur Le Roy Cole, born in Potter county. Pa., December 24, 1857, read 
law with Olmsted & Larraber, esqs., at Coudersport, Potter county, and was 
admitted to the bar in June, 1881. Mr. Cole located at Du Bois in October, 
1881. 

Allison O. Smith, born October 23, 1857, in Montour county. Pa.; at- 
tended University of Pennsylvania two years, read law with Redding, Jones & 
Carson, esqs., and also with Oscar Foust, of Northumberland county, and was 
admitted to the bar at Philadelphia in June, 1882, and came to Clearfield in 
September, 1882. 

W. Clarence Pentz, born in Brady township, Clearfield county. May 9, 
1858; read law with Frank Fielding, esq., of Clearfield, and was admitted to 
the bar in September, 1882. Mr. Pentz began practice at Du Bois, August 
15, 1883. 

Martin Luther McQuown was born in Indiana county, January 18, 1852 ; 
read law in the office of Murray & Gordon, esqs., of Clearfield, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in June, 1883. Mr. McQuown was elected county superin- 
tendent in 1878, and re-elected in 1881. He was chosen chairman of the 
Republican County Committee in 1886, and reappointed for the year 1887. 

George Washington Easton, born in Clinton county May 16, i860; read 
law with Wallace & Krebs, and was admitted to the Clearfield bar in June, 
1883. 



Bench and Bar. 



James Horton Kelley was born in Bell township, Clearfield county, October 
4, 1852. He attended the Dayton Union Academy in Armstrong county, 
and the Tuscarora Academy in Juniata county ; read law in the office of Wal- 
lace & Fielding, and afterward with Frank Fielding, esq., and was admitted to 
the bar in January, 1884. 

Alonzo Potter MacLeod, born in Clearfield May 29, 1861 ; attended Lehigh 
University at Bethlehem, Pa., and Columbia Law School at New York city. 
He read law under the instruction of Colonel Walter Barrett, and was admitted 
to the bar in May, 1884. Mr. MacLeod commenced practice at Coalport, 
Clearfield county, in February, 1885. 

Singleton Bell, a grandson of the first white male child born in the county, 
was born in Ferguson township, February 12, 1862 ; read law in the office of 
Wallace & Krebs, and was admitted to the bar in January, 1884. 

Americus Hodge Woodward, born in Luzerne county, Pa., May i, 1859; 
graduated from the State Normal School at Millersburg in July, 1878 ; entered 
the University of Michigan in 1881, and graduated in 1882; read law in 1882 
in the office of McEnally & McCurdy, and was admitted to the bar in June, 
1883. 

George W. Zeigler, born at Marklesburg, Huntingdon county, Pa., August 
23, 1861; read law with George B. Orlady, esq., and B. G. Zeigler, esq., and 
was admitted to the bar of Huntingdon county April, 1883. In 1884 he was 
admitted to the Clearfield bar. After three months at Clearfield he removed 
to Houtzdale, where he has since practiced. 

George M. Bilger was born at Curwensville, Clearfield county, September 
15, 1 861 ; was entered as a law student with William C. Arnold, esq., of Cur- 
wensville, in 1883, while attending the Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., and 
was admitted to the bar of the county March 22, 1886. Since October, 1886, 
Mr. Bilger has been located at Coalport. 

William L Swoope was born in Clearfield in 1862; educated at Phillips 
Academy, Andover, Mass., and at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. He 
read law in the office of Roland D. Swoope, at Curwensville, and was admitted 
to the bar at Clearfield in December, 1886. 

Alexander Patterson was born in Airdire, Scotland, December 19, 1857; 
came to this country in 1874; entered the office of McEnally & McCurdy in 
1884, and was admitted to practice in 1887. 



256 History of Clearfield County. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 
BY PRESTON WILSON, M. D. 

WHO was the doctor that came first to Clearfield county ? This question 
naturally arises before all others, and the answer is found in what infor- 
mation can now be gained concerning Dr. Samuel Colman. For his history — 
which is interesting — the writer is mostly indebted to the Raftsman s Joitrnal 
of May 25, 1859. It says : "Dr. Samuel Colman was a man of abihty. 
Though eccentric in his habits, which, as he was taciturn and indisposed to 
take any one into his confidence, were known to but few, he had a warm heart. 
Of his early history nothing is known. He was supposed to have been the 
son of an English nobleman, who, for some reason, did not acknowledge his 
paternity, but who provided the means to insure him a superior education and 
maintenance. Colman was never known to speak of his birth place or parent- 
age. He would sometimes remark, " at the place where I was raised, was 
done," and " the woman who raised me, did " so and so. He practiced medi- 
cine for some years at Williamsport, where he acquired considerable reputation. 
As he was known by some of the early settlers, to whom he had formed an 
attachment, he would occasionally, when his services were needed, come up to 
administer to their wants. Not liking the practice of medicine, he removed 
here, and settled near the residence of his friend Joseph Boone, where he 
cleared out the farm now in possession of Thomas Dougherty in Penn town- 
ship. He called his farm Grampian Hills, because of the resemblance which 
his neighborhood bore to those celebrated hills of Scotland ; and this has since 
given rise to the name of one of the most thriving and productive agricultural 
settlements in the county. Here he labored with his hands, gaining his bread 
" in the sweat of his face," and only visiting the sick bed when his services 
were deemed indispensable. In the earlier part of his career, he was never 
known to use profane language and invariably reproved the use of it by others. 
He led a single life, and died at the early age of forty years, on his farm, where 
it was his request to be buried " in the middle of a large field, — habited in his 
best suit of clothes, including hat, boots, and spurs, — without a stone to mark 
his resting place, and where the plow might ever after move over his remains." 
He came to Clearfield county in 1808, and died in 18 19. 

Dr. J. P. Hoyt, a native of Troy, N. Y., came to Curwensville in 18 19. He 
died March i, 1885. He took a prominent part as a physician in the great 
epidemic of 1824, of which mention is made below. 

Dr. Alexander McLeod, while living in Phillipsburg, began to practice 
medicine in Clearfield in 1824, during the epidemic of dysentery then at this 



The Medical Profession. 257 

place, which destroyed entire families. A certain writer has this to say con- 
cerning it: "1824 was a memorable year in Clearfield county. Mounds 
covering the remains of the young, the middle-aged and the old in every place 
of sepulture in the county are sad monuments of that period. Along the val- 
ley of the West Branch, and on the highlands, an epidemic dysentery raged 
like the pestilence. Whole families were prostrated, and scarce a family es- 
caped without losing one or more of its members. Anxiety and alarm sat on 
every countenance. He alone who was without friends and kindred mourned 
not broken ties. Dr. John P. Hoyt and Dr. McLeod, who came out and made 
his headquarters at Job Packer's tavern, were untiring in their exertions in al- 
laying the consternation which had spread through the community, and 
ministering to the relief of the afflicted. During the prevalence of the epidemic, 
these physicians were on the go day and night in the saddle. For four weeks, 
Dr. McLeod could not return home. Often worn out by fatigue, he slept in 
his saddle, and at times tying his horse out of sight, he caught a short repose 
in a barn or by the roadside. For a whole month he was a Nazarite by com- 
pulsion as he could not find time to shave." Dr. McLeod resigned the pro- 
fession of medicine in 1843 ^"^ entered the ministry of the Protestant 
Episcopal church. He died in 1877 at Meadville, Pa. 

In 1826, Dr. A. T. Schryver came to Clearfield, but did not begin the 
practice of medicine till 1830. In 1854, he was elected superintendent of com- 
mon schools for this county at the first election held for that position. In the 
early part of his professional career, he practiced for a while at Glen Hope. 

Dr. Henry Lorain located as a physician in Phillipsburg in 1825, but he 
practiced a great deal in this county, driving over frequently. He removed to 
Clearfield in 1835, where he died March 3, 1859. A tribute to his memory 
thus speaks of him : " Professional eminence crowned the life and labors of 
Dr. Lorain. Enjoying at the outset as a student of medicine distinguished ad- 
vantages, he laid the foundation of what proved afterwards to be a long, useful 
and honorable career. Thirty-five years of professional toil and devotion se- 
cured him a name and a place high up in the roll of medical men. As the 
brother-in-law and pupil of the late Prof Dewees, of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, he sat at the feet of a great medical Gamaliel. Most men in most 
vocations have individuality. Dr. Lorain was distinguished by marked traits, 
admirable in his profession. To be sent for, to be called in, was for him to go 
at once. Nothing delayed or prevented him. Dispatch was not only the 
word, but the act. Quick to decide, and generally prompt to execute, he 
would go, prescribe, and possibly be half way back before many a tardy prac- 
titioner would be well on the way. He accomplished a great deal in a short 
time. Delay or inattention were never laid to his charge. The summons to 
the bedside of the poor was obeyed with as much alacrity as that to the more 
favored of fortune — and their grateful tears bedew his memory. Though his 



258 History of Clearfield County. 

field of labor was wide and rough, he never hesitated. His habit was energy, 
and so it continued to be until his bodily infirmities began to bear upon him." 

Dr. Lewis Iddings located at Curwensville in 1827, where he remained sev- 
eral years, and then moved away. He was always regarded as a successful 
physician. 

Dr. Perdue came to Clearfield in 1834; he moved away after a few years. 

Dr. Henry Houtz, a brother of Dr. Daniel Houtz, who was the founder of 
Houtzdale, practiced a short time in Curwensville and Clearfield some where in 
the decade between 1837 and 1847. 

Dr. Matthew Woods, a native of Penn's Valley, Center county, located at 
Curwensville in 1844. In 1856 he removed to Clearfield where he remained in 
active practice for ten years. Then he went to Mercer, Pa., where he resided 
until his death on December 16, 1868. 

Dr. William P. Hills, a native of Prattsburg, N. Y., located in Clearfield in 
the spring of 1846, and practiced about six years, then went West where he 
died June, 1885. 

Dr. John C. Richards practiced medicine in Curwensville from the fall of 
1846 to the spring of 185 i. Then he moved to Bloomington where he prac- 
ticed two years. He practiced after this near Glen Hope until 1859, and now 
resides in Philipsburg, Centre county, Pa. 

Dr. James Irwin, a native of Centre county, now residing in W3^oming 
Territory, practiced medicine during the years 1847 ^^^ 1848 at Curwensville. 

Dr. R. V. Wilson, a native of Centre county located in Curwensville in 
1850. He soon after moved to Clearfield where he passed the rest of his life. 
He was widely and favorably known, and enjoyed a very large practice. A 
distinguished gentleman, who was a warm friend of his, gave this tribute : " Dr. 
Wilson ranked with the first men in this section of the State as a man of talent, 
intelligence, and polite accomplishments. In his profession he had attained 
to marked eminence, and was held in the highest esteem by the medical pro- 
fession, not only in this locality, but in many parts of the State, and especially 
by such eminent men as Drs. Gross and Pancoast, of Philadelphia. This high 
appreciation was manifested mainly by the frequent calls that were made upon 
him for his opinion and advice in cases of rare difficulty in the line of his pro- 
fession." He died February 13, 1878. 

Dr. Thomas R. Blandy, a native of Delaware, began the practice of medi- 
cine about the year 185 1, at Osceola, and practiced in that region and at 
Houtzdale till 1881, when he removed to Huntingdon, Pa., where he died April 
21, 1885. He was a good physician, and held in the highest esteem. 

Dr. Hardman Thompson, a native of Clearfield, came to Curwensville to 
practice medicine in 185 1. He studied medicine under Dr. Loraine, and bore 
the reputation of being a remarbably diligent student, which he sustained all 
his life. He had an abundant practice, and was highly esteemed both as a 
physician and as a citizen and a friend. He died September 19, 1866. 



The Medical Profession. 259 

Dr. G. W. Caldwell, a native of Union county, Pa., established himself as 
a physician in 185 i at Beccaria Mills, from which place he shortly afterwards 
moved to Glen Hope, where he lived till his death, October 5, 1885. He was 
regarded as a man possessing a high order of intellect. His practice was 
large and lucrative, extending over an area sixty miles in diameter. Many of 
the older residents of Cambria and Clearfield counties will recall his timely 
visits made by day and night during the years gone by. 

Dr. Thomas J. Boyer, a native of Bernville, Berks county, Pa., located at 
Luthersburg in 1853, where he practiced medicine until 1868, when he re- 
moved to Clearfield. He was well known throughout the county in political 
and professional circles. He represented this district both in the House of 
Representatives, and in the State Senate. He died October 23, 1882. 

Dr. D. O. Crouch, a native of Washington county, Pa., first practiced 
medicine at Luthersburg in 1855. The following year he moved to Cur- 
wensville, where he resided until his death, December 26, 1880. The writer 
of his obituary has these words to say concerning liim : " By the country 
people I am told he labored without respect to persons, and the poor were 
never neglected because they were poor, and when we add that in his case the 
safety of his own health was neglected, and even the burial of his brother, not 
far away was denied himself, lest he should desert his post in the midst of this 
unconquerable disease (diphtheria) which has swept so many joys from so 
many of our homes. We owe a peculiar debt of gratitude to one who has 
fallen among us in the forefront of the battle, and in a nobler cause than which 
a soul never gave out its life so nobly. He did not die of diphtheria, but 
diphtheria killed him. His own sympathetic heart was bound up in his little 
ones, and death on every hand giving him no rest, death at last gave him 
eternal rest." 

Dr. D. A. Fetzer, a native of Clarion county. Pa., began the practice of 
medicine in Lumber City in December, 1855, where he still resides. 

The Clearfield County Medical Society was organized in 1864, in connec- 
tion with the State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. 
According to its constitution, " The objects of this society shall be the advance- 
ment of medical knowledge, the elevation of professional character, the protec- 
tion of the professional interests of its members, the extension of the bounds of 
medical science, and the promotion of all measures adapted to the relief of 
suffering, the improvement of the health, and the protection of the lives of the 
community. This society recognizes as binding upon its members the code of 
medical ethics as estabHshed by the American Medical Association." 

Below is given, in alphabetical order a list with data of those physicians 
who have came into the county since 1855. It has been obtained with but 
few exceptions from the list of registered physicians which is contained in the 
" Medical Register. This book is kept in the prothonotary's office in the 



26o History of Clearfield County. 

court-house, and, according to the law passed in i88r, physicians are now 
required to register therein their name, the place of their nativity, places of 
practice, place of residence, time of continuous practice, and if a graduate when 
and where they graduated. There are now practicing in this county about 
ninety-four registered physicians who are resident. 

Ackley, B. F., a native of Juniata county, Pa. ; places of practice, Lancas- 
ter City and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; attended lectures at Penn- 
sylvania College 1859-60, and Jefferson Medical College, 1862-63. 

BaUiet, L. D., a native of Milton, Pa. ; place of residence, Du Bois ; degree 
of M. D. conferred by Hahneman Medical College, March 10, 1880. 

Baird, J. A., a native of Houtzdale, Pa. ; places of practice, Saxton, Bed- 
ford county. Pa., and Houtzdale; place of residence, Houtzdale, Pa.; degree 
of M. D. conferred by College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, Md., 
March 6, 1878. 

Bailey, S. D., a native of Clearfield county. Pa. ; place of residence, Clear- 
field, Pa ; degree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College of Philadel- 
phia, March 27, 1884. 

Barnfield, J. H., a native of Jersey Shore, Pa. ; place of residence, Irvona ; 
degree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, April 2, 1886. 

Bennett, Ash. D., a native of Linden, Lycoming county, Pa. ; place of res- 
idence, New Washington ; degree of M. D. conferred by Pennsylvania Medical 
College of Philadelphia, March 20, i860. 

Belcher, E. C, a native of Newark Valley, N. Y. ; places of practice, New- 
ark Valley, N. Y., English Center, Pa., Kylertown, Peale, and Morrisdale 
Mines; place of residence, Morrisdale Mines; degree of M. D. conferred by 
the Cincinnati College of Medicine, February 26, 1877. 

Bell, J. Finley, a native of Aaronsburg, Centre county. Pa. ; places of prac- 
tice, Glen Hope and Osceola ; place of residence, Osceola ; degree of M. D. 
conferred by the Medical Department of the University of the City of New 
York, March 13, 1873. 

Bollinger, William E., a native of Huntingdon county. Pa. ; places of prac- 
tice, Cawker, Kansas, Mount Union, Pa., and Coalport ; place of residence, 
Coalport ; degree of M. D. conferred by Bellevue Hospital Medical College, 
March, 1878. 

Boyer, T. J., jr., a native of Brady township, Clearfield county. Pa. ; place 
of residence, Madera ; degree of M. D. conferred by the Baltimore Medical 
College, March 8, 1886. 

Boyles, Robert M., a native of Clarion county, Pa. ; places of practice, 
Reynoldsville and Du Bois; place of residence, Du Bois ; degree of M. D. con- 
ferred by Cleveland Medical College, February 4, 1869, and Western Reserve 
College, March 15, 1882. 

Bullock, J. O., a native of Columbia, Bradford county. Pa. ; places of prac- 



THE Medical Profession. 261 

tice, Canton, Mclntyre, and Peale ; place of residence, Peale ; degree of M. D. 
conferred by University of City of New York, March, 1872, 

Burchfield, James P., a native of Pennsylvania Furnace, Huntingdon county, 
Pa. ; places of practice, Philipsburg, U. S. Army, and Clearfield, Pa. ; place 
of residence, Clearfield, Pa. ; degree of M. D. conferred by University of Mich- 
igan, March 26, 1862. 

Burchfield, Samuel E., a native of Allegheny county. Pa. ; places of prac- 
tice, Latrobe, Pa. and Houtzdale ; degree of M. D. conferred by Homceopathic 
Medical Department of University of Michigan, June 30, 1881. 

Bunn, J. McGirk, a native of Shippensburg, Cumberland county, Pa ; place 
of residence. New Washington ; attended lectures at Jefferson Medical College, 
session of 1846-7. 

Burkhart, S. P., a native of Blair county. Pa. ; places of practice, Altoona, 
Philipsburg, and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; degree of M. D. con- 
ferred by Eclectic Medical College of Philadelphia in 1859, and the University 
of Pennsylvania, 1872. 

Brockbank, John I., a native of Elk county. Pa. ; place of residence, Luthers- 
burg ; degree of M. D. conferred by Baltimore University School of Medicine, 
March 4, 1886. 

Calhoun, Grier O., a native of Armstrong county; place of residence, 
Madera ; degree of M. D. conferred by Baltimore Medical College. 

Cherry, Emel T., a native of Altoona, Pa. ; places of practice, Indianapolis, 
Ind., Ansonville, and Madera; place of residence, Madera; degree of M. D. 
conferred by medical college of Indiana, February 28, 1884. 

Cresswell, A. E., a native of Missouri ; places of practice. Cherry Tree, 
Fair View, and Ansonville ; place of residence, near Ansonville ; attended 
lectures in 1871 and 1872 at the Medical College of Ohio, at Cincinnati, and 
in 1872 at the medical department of University of Michigan. 

Coltman, Robert J., a native of Washington, D. C. ; place of residence, 
Houtzdale, Pa. ; degree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, 
March 12, 1881. 

Corey, Horace M., a native of Tioga county, N. Y. ; places of practice, 
Sayre, Pa., Waverly, N. Y., Pine Cit}'', N. Y., and Peale ; place of residence, 
Peale; degree of M. D. conferred by University of Michigan, March 27, 1878. 

Currier, J., a native of Port Deposit, Md. ; places of practice, TroutvilFe 
and Pennville ; place of residence, Pennville ; degree of M. D. conferred by 
Kentucky School of Medicine at Louisville, Ky., June 28, 1881. 

Davis, Thomas E., a native of Cambria county, Pa. ; place of residence, 
Burnside ; degree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 20, 
1867. 

Dyson, William W., a native of Greensburg, Pa. ; places of practice, Cham- 
bersburg and Osceola Mills; place of residence, Osceola Mills; degree of M 
D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 30, 1882. 34 



262 History of Clearfield County. 

Elliott, C. B., a native of Mount Savage, Md. ; places of practice, Osceola, 
Altoona, and Utahville ; place of residence, Utahville ; degree of M. D. con- 
ferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 14, 1873. 

Edwards, William H,, a native of Industry, Me. ; place of residence, Janes- 
ville ; degree of M. D. conferred by Bowdoin Medical College of Maine, June 
8, 1868. 

Emigh, George W., a native of Morris township, Clearfield county. Pa. ; 
place of residence. Woodland ; degree of M. D. conferred by University Med- 
ical College of New York, March 11, 1884. 

Feltwell, John, a native of Chest township, Clearfield county, Pa. ; places 
of practice, Little Marsh, Tioga county, Pa., and Houtzdale ; place of residence, 
Houtzdale ; degree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 
12, 1879. 

Gallagher, John A., a native of Osceola Mills, Clearfield county. Pa. ; places 
of practice, Madera, Loraine, and Houtzdale ; place of residence, Houtzdale ; 
■degree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, April 2, 1886. 

Gifford, Willis B., a native of Lee, Mass. ; places of practice, Attica, Buf- 
falo, N. Y., and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; degree of M. D. con- 
ferred by University of Buffalo, February 23, 1876. 

Gilliland, William S., a native of Centreville, Centre county. Pa. ; places of 
practice, Central Point, and Congress Hill, Clearfield county, Pa. ; place of 
residence, Central Point ; attended lectures at the Jefferson Medical College in 
the winter of 1865-66. 

Good, D. R., retired, a native of Franklin county. Pa. ; places of practice, 
Altoona and Osceola Mills ; place of residence, Osceola Mills ; degree of M. 
D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, 1858. 

Griffith, Matthew M., a native of York, Pa. ; places of practice, Parsons, Pa., 
Irwin, N. Y., Bradford and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; degree of 
M. D. conferred by University of Pennsylvania, March 14, 1867. 

Gregory, John A., a native of Alexandria, Huntingdon county. Pa. ; places 
of practice, Luthersburg and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; degree of 
M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, April 2, 1883. 

Haines, Jeremiah, a native of New Cumberland, Cumberland county. Pa. ; 
place of residence. Woodward township ; time of continuous practice, twelve 
years. 

Hartswick, John G., a native of Boalsburg, Centre county. Pa. ; places of 
practice, Hublersburg, Pa., and Clearfield, Pa. ; degree of M. D. conferred by 
University of Pennsylvania, April i, 1854. 

Hartwick, T. H., a native of Clearfield, Pa.; place of residence, Clear- 
field; degree of M. D. conferred by University of Pennsylvania, May 2, 1887. 

Henderson, James L., a native of Lewistown, Pa. ; places of practice, Pen- 
dleton, O., and Karthaus; place of residence, Karthaus; degree of M. D. con- 
ferred by Ohio Medical College, March i, 1882. 



The Medical Profession. 263 

Hindman, Charles C, a native of Jefferson county, Pa. ; places of practice, 
Clarion county, Jefferson county, and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; 
deree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 11, 1876. 

Hogue, Davis A., a native of Watsontown, Pa. ; places of practice, Glen 
Hope, Madera, and Houtzdale, Pa. ; place of residence, Houtzdale ; degree of 
M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 11, 1875. 

Hogue, Herbert J., a native of Watsontown, Pa. ; places of practice, Du 
Bois and Coalport ; place of residence, Coalport ; degree of M. D. conferred 
by College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, Md., March i, 1885 

Hotchkin, Gurdon B., a native of Clinton, Oneida county, N. Y. ; place of 
residence, Morrisdale Mines ; degree of M. D. conferred by University of 
Pennsylvania, March 31, 1855. 

Hurd, Michael E., a native of Clearfield county, Pa. ; place of residence, 
Newburg ; degree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, April 2, 
1883. 

Jenkins, George C, a native of Curvvensville, Pa. ; place of residence, Cur- 
wensville ; degree of M. D, conferred by University of Pennsylvania, June 14* 
1878. 

Kline, John H., a native of Centre county. Pa. ; place of residence. Pen- 
field ; degree of M. D. conferred by Eclectic Medical College of Philadelphia, 
January 24, 1867. 

Lewis, Edward C, a native of Northumberland, Pa. ; place of residence, 
Penfield, Clearfield county. Pa. ; degree of M. D. conferred by Bellevue Hos- 
pital Medical College, March 10, 1881. 

Litz, Jefferson, a native of Clearfield, Pa. ; places of practice, Johnstown, 
Woodland, and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; degree of M. D. con- 
ferred by Jefferson Medical College, March, 1862. 

Maloy, John D., a native of Ireland ; places of practice, Bradford, Empo- 
rium, and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; degree of M. D. conferred by 
medical department University of Buffalo, N. Y. 

Lydic, Joseph M., a native of East Mahoning, Indiana county, Pa, ; places 
of practice, Smithport, Pa., and Troutville ; place of residence, Troutville ; at- 
tended medical lectures at the University of Ann Arbor during the sessions of 
1868-69, and 1869-70. 

Mangon, John M., a native of Ireland; places of practice, Kansas and 
Houtzdale ; place of residence, Houtzdale ; degree of M. D. conferred by Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, 1857. 

Mott, William S., a native of Clearfield county. Pa. ; place of residence, 
Wallaceton ; degree of M. D. conferred by Eclectic Medical Institute of Cin- 
cinnati, O., June 2, 1885. 

Maxwell, J. A. ; place of residence, Curwensville ; degree of M. D. con- 
ferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 10, 1866. 



264 History of Clearfield County. 

Means, William A., a native of Punxsutawney ; places of practice, Luthers- 
burg and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; degree of M. D. conferred by 
Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, February 3, 1865. 

Miller, S. J., a native of Clearfield county; place of residence, Ansonville ; 
degree of M. D. conferred by University of City of New York in 1886. 

Mortimer, James I., a native of Clarion county. Pa. ; places of practice, 
East Brady, Pa., Warren, O., McKean county, Allegheny City and Du Bois i 
place of residence, Du Bois ; time of continuous practice, 14 years. 

Murray, John A., a native of Hudson, Jefferson county. Pa. ; places of prac- 
tice, Ansonville and Mahaffey; place of residence, Mahaffey; degree of M. D. 
conferred by University of Maryland, March, 1885. 

Myers, J. G. L., a native of Huntingdon county, Pa. ; places of practice, 
Burlington, Ind., Hill Valley, Huntingdon county. Pa., Port Matilda, Pa., and 
Osceola Mills ; place of residence, Osceola Mills ; attended one course of lect- 
ures at Ann Arbor University of Michigan, 1887-8. 

Nevling, F. S., a native of Brownsville, Ind. ; places of practice, St. Law- 
rence, Cambria county, Pa., Glen Hope and Frenchville ; place of residence, 
Frenchville ; degree of M. D. conferred by Eclectic Medical College of Penn- 
sylvania, January i, 1870. 

Park, William C, a native of Whitesburg, Pa. ; places of practice, Cochran 
Mills, Armstrong county. Pa., and New Millport; place of residence, New 
Millport ; degree of M. D. conferred by Western Reserve University of Cleve- 
land, O.. March 12, 1882. 

Park, Milo E.. a native of Armstrong county, Pa. ; place of residence, 
Utahville ; degree of M. D. conferred by Medical department of Western Re- 
serve University, March 27, 1884. 

Pettigrew, S. H., a native of Kittaning, Pa.; places of practice, Karns 
City, Butler county, Pa., and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; degree of 
M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College. 

Potter, J. W., retired ; a native of Clarion county. Pa. ; practiced at Mul- 
sonburg from i860 to 1868 ; resides now at Keewaydin, Clearfield county. Pa. ; 
attended lectures at the National Medical College of Washington, D. C. 

Prowell, George F., a native of Lewisburg, York county. Pa. ; places of 
practice, Carlisle, Pa., and Burnside ; place of residence, Burnside ; degree of 
M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 15, 1871. 

Read, Frederick B., a native of Clearfield, Pa. ; places of practice, Wood- 
land and Osceola Mills ; place of residence, Osceola Mills ; degree of M. D. 
conferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 10, 1867. 

Reese, Oliver P., a native of Centre county, Pa. ; place of residence, Kyler- 
town ; degree of M. D. conferred by University of Michigan, March 9, 1865. 

Rhoads, John W., a native of Harrisburg, Va. ; places of practice, Danville, 
Pa., Tunkhannock, Pa., Northumberland, Pa. and Houtzdale ; place of resi- 



The Medical Profession. 265 



dence, Houtzdale ; degree of M. D. conferred by University of Pennsylvania, 
March, 1854. 

Ross, J. Miller, a native of Morgantown, W. Va. ; place of residence, Lum- 
ber City ; degree of M. D. conferred by Eclectic Medical College of Pennsyl- 
vania, May 5, 1857. 

Scheffer, Julius, a native of Germany ; places of practice, Allegheny county. 
Pa., Butler county. Pa., McKean county, Pa., Warren county. Pa., Jefferson 
county. Pa., and Troutville ; place of residence, Troutville ; degree of M. D. 
conferred by Medical College of Herford, Prussia, May, 1865 ; attended lect- 
ures at the University of Pennsylvania, 1867-68. 

Scheurer, E, M., a native of Hanover, York county, Pa. ; places of practice, 
Bellefonte and Clearfield ; place of residence, Clearfield ; degree of M. D. con- 
ferred by Hahneman Medical College, March, 1871. 

Schneider, Charles, a native of Tyrone, Pa. ; places of practice. Winter- 
burn, Driftwood, Cameron county, Pa., and Karthaus ; degree of M. D. con- 
ferred by College of Physicians and Surgeons, March i, 1881. 

Smith, Joseph W., a native of York, Pa. ; places of practice, New Oxford, 
Pa., University Hospital, Philadelphia, and Osceola Mills; place of residence, 
Osceola Mills ; degree of M. D. conferred by Bellevue Hospital Medical Col- 
lege, March i, 1870. 

Smith, Reuben, a native of Tioga county. Pa. ; places of practice, Elk 
county, Pa., and Penfield ; place of residence, Penfield ; degree of M. D. con- 
ferred by American Eclectic College, February 18, 1886. 

Smathers, W. J., a native of Jefferson county, Pa. ; place of residence, Du 
Bois ; degree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 12, 1873. 

Smead, J. J., a native of Clearfield, Pa. ; places of practice. Chest township 
and New Washington ; place of residence. New Washington ; time of continu- 
ous practice, twenty-three years. 

Stewart, S. C, a native of Bradford township, Clearfield county, Pa. ; places 
of practice. Woodland and Clearfield ; place of residence, Clearfield ; degree of 
M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, March 12, 1881. 

Strowbridge, H. P., places of practice, Oil City and Rouseville, Venango 
county, and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; time of continuous practice, 
twenty-three years. 

Spackman, R. V., a native of Bellefonte, Centre county, Pa. ; place of res- 
idence, Luthersburg, Pa. ; degree of M. D, conferred by Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, March, 1870. 

Sweeny, Daniel H., a native of Peru Village, Clinton county, N. Y. ; places 
of practice, New Bloomfield, Perry county. Pa., and Clearfield ; place of resi- 
dence, Clearfield ; time of continuous practice, forty-four years. 

Sweeny, Barnabas, a native of Allegheny county, Pa. ; places of practice, 
Brookville, Pa. and Du Bois ; place of residence, Du Bois ; time of practice, 
thirty-seven years. 



266 History of Clearfield County. 

Sweeny, G. B., a native of Latrobe, Pa. ; place of residence, Du Bois; de- 
gree of M. D. conferred by Baltimore College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
March 15, 1886. 

Thorn A. I., a native of Clearfield, Pa.; place of residence, Kylertown ; 
degree of M. D. conferred by University of Pennsylvania, March 12, 1872. 

Thorn, Paul, a native of Clearfield, Pa. ; place of residence, Kylertown ; 
degree of M. D. conferred by Baltimore University School of Medicine, March 
16, 1867. 

Todd, Fernandez, a native of Summitville, Cambria county, Pa. ; place of 
residence, Houtzdale ; degree of M. D. conferred by University of Pennsylva- 
nia, March 12, 1875. 

Taylor, J. Richard, a native of Philadelphia ; places of practice, Philadel- 
phia, Breck, Colorado, and Morrisdale Mines; place of residence, Morrisdale 
Mines; degree of M. D. conferred by University of Pennsylvania, 1875. 

Vaughn, John E., a native of Madison, Me. ; place of residence, Houtzdale ; 
degree of M. D. conferred by University of Pennsylvania, March 15, 1880. 

Van Fleet, Walter, a native of Piermont, N. Y. ; places of practice, Watson- 
town and Du Bois; place of residence, Du Bois ; degree of M. D. conferred by 
Hahneman Medical College, March 10, 1880. 

Van Valzah, H. B., a native of Millheim, Centre county, Pa. ; place of res- 
idence, Clearfield, Pa. ; degree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, 
March 12, 1873. 

Wagoner, Edward F., a native of York, Pa. ; places of practice, York, Pa., 
Manchester, Pa., and Osceola Mills ; place of residence, Osceola Mills ; degree 
of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 29, 1884. 

Walters, J. L., a native of Loretto, Cambria county, Pa. ; place of residence, 
Houtzdale; degree of M. D. conferred by College of Physicians and Surgeons,^ 
Baltimore, Md., March i, 1881. 

Wesner, Michael A., a native of Bald Eagle, Blair county, Pa. ; places of 
practice, Loretto, Pa., Carlton, Pa., and Houtzdale ; place of residence, Houtz- 
dale; degree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 11, 1876. 

Whittier, G. M., a native of Maine ; place of residence, Houtzdale; degree 
of M. D. conferred by Bellevue Hospital Medical College of New York, March 
I, 1875. 

Wilson, Preston, a native of Clearfield, Pa. ; place of residence, Clearfield ; 
degree of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, April 2, 1886. 

Wilson, George, a native of Washington, Indiana county. Pa. ; places of 
practice. Big Run, Pa., Pennville, Pa., and Luthersburg ; place of residence, 
Luthersburg ; time of continuous practice, thirty-six years. 

Wilson, A. J., a native of Juniata county, Pa. ; places of practice, Osceola 
Mills and Glen Hope ; place of residence. Glen Hope ; degree of M. D. con- 
ferred by University of Pennsylvania, May 10, 1876. 



The Press of Clearfield County. 267 

Winslow, Byron, a native of Elk county, Pa. ; places of practice, Philadel- 
phia, Clearfield, and Curvvensville ; place of residence, Curwensville ; degree 
of M. D. conferred by Jefferson Medical College, March 12, 1879. 

Wood, Charles D., a native of Elmira, N. Y. ; place of residence, Coalport ; 
degree of M. D. conferred by College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, 
Md.. 1880. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE PRESS OF CLEARFIELD COUNTY. 

AS no history of Clearfield county that fails to furnish a full and accurate 
account of its newspapers — their planting and growth — can be com- 
plete, the author of this chapter has made special effort to be, not only per- 
fectly accurate as to dates and names, but full and complete as to material facts. 

The press in Clearfield county had a beginning quite as humble as that of 
any other of its institutions, (and whether or not it has kept even pace with 
them in this age of human progress the reader must judge. It will not be 
questioned that, in very many respects, as a community, the people of Clear- 
field county have kept even step with the spirit of advancement in human pro- 
gress that has so signally distinguished the past and present generations. Our 
churches and our schools will compare favorably with those of any other of 
the several counties of the State ; and as for the general characteristics of her 
people, whether as to enterprise, industry, morality, or intelligence, it is 
claimed — and with much show of reason — -that she occupies an advanced 
position among the counties similarly situated. This may not be the case at 
this time. We speak rather of the situation forty and fifty years ago. Since 
the introduction of railroads and mammoth coal-mining corporations, an en- 
tirely new element of population and industry has been introduced. Years 
ago when our annual shipment of the products of the forest, in the shape of 
square timber, spars, sawed lumber, etc., would reach two millions of dollars, 
the profits were well distributed among the people ; very rich men were few 
and far between in those days ; but the indigent poor were much farther apart. 
And as for the general intelligence of the people there exists many indubitable 
proofs that their standard in this respect was much above that of their neigh- 
bors. 

The late eminent jurists, George W. Woodward and JohnJC. Knox, who 
both filled the office of president judge of the district of ?which Clearfield 
county formed part, and both of whom afterwards filled seats^on the Supreme 



268 History of Clearfield County. 



Bench of the State — the latter as chief justice — and who had thus had the best 
opportunities to judge of the facts, were frequently heard to remark that there 
were fewer really ignorant men in Clearfield county in proportion to the pop- 
ulation than in any other part of the State of which they had any knowledge. 
Similar remarks were frequently made by other strangers having intercourse 
with the masses of our people. This was not because schools and educational 
opportunities were convenient. By no means. School-houses were far apart 
in those days, and only open for two or three of the winter months. But at 
that time there were few able-bodied men or boys in any part of the county 
who failed to make at least one or two trips down the river every season — 
mostly to Marietta, but frequently to tide-water — no one of whom was known to 
return home without having learned something he didn't know before. They 
were a hardy, healthy, wide-awake race of people, and if there was anything 
to be heard or seen on such expeditions they were sure to be treasured up. 

But there was still another reason for the more than average general 
information and good common sense of the people, and which, to the credit 
of the press, must not be omitted. At that time there were very few families 
in the county that were without one or the other of the county papers. They 
may not have been all subscribers, but like the school-master of ancient days, 
the newspaper " boarded around " from house to house until it was literally 
read through and through. And here, as an illustration of the result of news- 
paper reading at that time, we cannot resist the temptation to repeat the ob- 
servation frequently made some forty years ago by a worthy old citizen long 
since gathered to his fathers. There was a family of six or seven sons born 
and raised in the vicinity of the mouth of Trout Run, or what is now known as 
the village of Shawsville, of the name of Bomgardner. William Leonard, one 
of three brothers, who were among the first settlers of the county, then resided 
on his farm about a mile distant, now occupied by a Mr. Wood, in Goshen 
township. The Bomgardner boys were industrious, hard-working citizens, 
mostly employed in the woods, and on the river, and by no means void of 
intelligence, although neither of them, according to Mr. Leonard, had ever been 
inside of school-house, and yet, when in a convivial spirit, Mr. Leonard would 
say, they could argue politics, preach Democracy, and blackguard us Whigs 
equal to any congressman, and the only opportunity they ever had of learn- 
ing anything was furnished them by Billy Moore's Banner. 

But this was not the only family of which quite as much might be said ; 
there were many similar instances. Now- a- days the newspaper is simply 
looked into to see who is married and who has died, and what, if any, local 
events have occurred within the week that is past. Then all that the columns 
of the weekly papers contained was not only read but carefully pondered over 
and not infrequently made the subject of the family discussion for the ensuing 
week. 



The Press of Clearfield County. 269 

These were, of course, the primitive days of newspaper history in Clear- 
field county. Up to 1854, with but two brief intervals, there was but one 
newspaper in the county, and that for most part of the time, less than half the 
size of several of the journals now published. Now there are ten regular pub- 
lications within the county, each of them having, with perhaps three or four 
exceptions, as large a circulation and general patronage as the single one 
could boast of at that day. Is there any other business or industry, private or 
public, having a beginning at that time, that can show anything like a similar 
degree of advancement ? 

We shall now proceed to give chronologically as to dates, the history of 
each newspaper that now exists, or ever did exist within the limits of Clearfield 
county, together with the names of the founders and those connected with 
them either as editors, proprietors or publishers, with such additional facts as 
may seem to be of public interest. 

TJie Pennsylvania Banner. — This paper first made its appearance during 
the latter part of the year 1827. Christopher Kratzer and George S. Irvin 
were its founders. Mr. Kratzer still lives in the enjoyment of good health for 
a man of some eighty-five or eighty-six winters, and is one of the most honored 
and respected citizens of Clearfield. Mr. Irvin died a few years ago in the 
western part of the State. That the Banner was not specially attractive, in 
fact was not much of an improvement on John Guttenberg's first venture of 
the kind in Germany, some four hundred years previously, is readily conceded. 
Irvin was a practical printer — Kratzer an ingenious worker in wood as a cabi- 
net-maker, both then living in Philipsburg. Kratzer proposed to his partner, 
that if he would find the type he would build the press, and proceeded to 
Huntingdon, where he took the dimensions of a Ramage press then in the 
Journal office of that place, returned to Philipsburg where a screw of the 
proper dimensions was procured, and in a few days a press was completed that 
did the press-work in the Banner office until 1844, when it was replaced by an 
iron press of the Washington style. Mr. Irvin was on time with his type, and 
the first newspaper in Clearfield county soon made its appearance. This was 
before the era of composition rollers for inking the type. That indispensable 
process was then, and for several years thereafter, performed by two large 
" balls " say ten inches in diameter — two sacks of leather (sheepskin generally) 
stuffed with wool and nailed to handles. Mr. Kratzer's career as a publisher 
was of short duration, and he sold his interest to his partner. How long Mr. 
Irvin continued the paper by himself is not clearly ascertained. It is certain 
that either in 1829 or 1830, it was in the possession of Samuel Townsend 
Shugart and Thomas Moore. Mr. Moore was a school teacher from Half 
Moon, Centre county. Mr. Shugart was also from Centre county, a mere boy, 
but a practical printer, and with another boy of about the same age, did all the 
work. Mr. Shugart is still living, after spending many years in the newspaper 
35 



270 History of Clearfield County. 

business in Bellefonte as editor of the old Centre Democrat, and also many- 
years at Washington as chief clerk of the patent office, and frequently as acting 
commissioner of patents, and latterly as State senator, and is now enjoying the 
comforts of a well-spent life at his home in Bellefonte. Mr. Moore soon tired 
of the business, and sold his interest to Joseph M. Martin, an attorney-at-law, 
and the paper was conducted under the firm name of Shugart & Martin until 
some time in the year 1831, when Shugart sold his interest to his partner. It 
is well verified that it was in that year (1831) that WilHam C. Moore came to 
Clearfield from Bellefonte as a practical printer to conduct the paper in the pay 
of Mr. Martin, the then proprietor. Mr. Martin is represented as being an 
able lawyer, and as a citizen held in the highest esteem. He died a few years 
after the period of which we speak. Up to this time it is not known that the 
Banner had any poHtical bias ; but Martin was a Whig, and under him the 
paper was recognized as a whig organ. It is not certain that Martin & Moore 
had a joint interest in the paper as partners, but it is certain that in 1833, it 
was the property of Matthew Brown and William L. Moore as the successors 
of Martin. Brown was engaged in the mercantile business at the time and an 
active Whig, while Moore was quite as strenuous a Democrat, and each had his 
separate portion of the paper to advocate and defend his party. As might be 
expected this double-barrelled enterprise did not prosper, and in 1834 Mr. 
Brown sold his interest to Levi L. Tate, a graduate of the Banner office, and 
for about two years it was conducted by Moore & Tate and changed to the 
name of Pioneer and Banner. About the beginning of 1836, Mr. Tate sold his 
interest to his partner; and soon afterwards established a paper at Berwick, Pa., 
and after spending more than [half a century in the newspaper business re- 
cently died as the proprietor of the Snn and Banner at Williamsport, Pa. The 
name was then (1836), changed to Clearfield Banner, and, in January, 1838, 
W. L. Moore sold half the establishment to his brother D. W. Moore, and in 
January, 1839, the latter purchased the other half — W. L. Moore retiring to 
engage in the mercantile and lumbering business, and has now been dead some 
twenty odd years. The name of the paper was then, (1839), changed to Dem- 
ocratic Banner under which title it was known until June 21, 1849, when 
Banner was dropped not again to be restored, and for the years 1849 and 1850 
— or from June 21, 1849, to February 15, 185 i, it was called The Coventry 
Dollar, dropping its partisan character. Up to this time, from the retirement 
of Matthew Brown in 1834, the Banner had always been recognized as an ad- 
vocate of democratic principles. On the 15th February, 185 1, its political 
character as an exponent of democratic principles was restored under the name 
of Clearfield Republican, which name it still retains. During this long period 
of more than twenty-seven years — from January, 1838 to July, 1865 — D. W. 
Moore was either sole or part owner. His first partner was the late Dr. Hard- 
man P. Thompson, of Curwensville, who was a graduate of the office. His 



The Press of Clearfield County. 271 

partnership commenced November, , 1845, and expired^November, 1847. 

His next partner was A. J. Hemphill, another native of the place and practical 
printer, and extended from November, 1847, to sometime in the fall'of 1849. 
Clark Wilson, present proprietor of the McKean Dcjiwcrat, became^part owner 
in the spring of 1852, continuing for a little more than two years, when his 
partner (Moore) became sole owner for the fourth time. In the fall of 1856 
the establishment was leased to Major J. Harvey Larrimer and R. F. Ward, 
the former an attorney-at-law from Bellefonte, who was killed in thepate war, 
and over whose remains a handsome monument now adorns the cemetery at 
Clearfield ; while the latter (Mr. Ward) was a graduate of the office, and re- 
cently died, in New York. As showing what the newspaper business was in 
Clearfield county at that time as a financial investment, the terms of the lease 
to Larrimer & Ward secured to the lessor one-third of the net profits. Mr. 
Moore now says he has the documents to show that, without ever having re- 
ceived a single dollar on the lease, he paid out for stock, material, etc., during the 
three years, nearly one thousand dollars. In the spring of 1 860, Moore sold half 
the establishment to George B. Goodlander, which firm continued until July, 
1864, when Goodlander re-sold his interest to Moore, who thus became sole 
owner for the fifth time, and after running it for another year, until the close 
of the war, in July, 1865 — which he claims was the only year it ever fuUypaid 
expenses during his connection with it — he sold the whole establishment to his 
late partner, Mr. Goodlander, who has continued either sole or part owner ever 
since, having in the mean time as partners, at least nominally, first, George W. 
Snyder, a practical printer from Bedford county, and now a respected citizen 
of West Clearfield ; and second, George Hagerty, a graduate of the office, a 
young man of much promise, whose health failing, sought relief in Colorado, 
but there died. We thus find that in all the Republican has had seventeen 
owners or part owners, including two lessees, as follows : Christopher Kratzer, 
George S. Irvin, Thomas Moore, S. Townsend Shugart, Joseph M. Martin, 
WilHam L. Moore, Matthew Brown, Levi L. Tate, D. W. Moore, H. P.Thomp- 
son, A. J. Hemphill, Clark Wilson, J, Harvey Larrimer, R. F. Ward, Geo. W. 
Snyder, George Hagerty and George B. Goodlander. Of these twelve were 
practical printers, to wit : Irvin, Shugart, the three Moores, Tate, Thompson, 
Hemphill, Wilson, Ward, Snyder and Hagerty, and of the whole seventeen 
only six are now living, to wit : Kratzer, Shugart, D. W. Moore, Wilson, 
Goodlander and Snyder. The Republican, being the oldest paper in the county, 
and recognized as democratic in its political sentiment — the county being 
largely democratic — has always been a leading, well patronized and influential 
journal in the county, and is now one of the best equipped, both as to presses 
and type, among country newspaper establishments. 

The Clearfield Democrat. — The second newspaper that appeared in the 
county was established in 1834, by ex-Governor Bigler, now deceased. Mr. 



272 History of Clearfield County. 



Bigler was a practical printer, having learned the art with his brother, John, in 
Bellefonte. It was, as its name indicated, democratic in its political bias, and 
ably edited. After some two years or more its proprietor, entering into the 
more lucrative business of lumbering, soon to become the famous " raftsman of 
the West Branch," — and afterwards State senator, then governor, and lastly 
United States senator — allowed his paper to die a natural death, and most of 
the material was sold to William L. Moore. 

The Clearfield Whig. — The third newspaper venture in Clearfield made its 
first appearance about the time the Democrat ceased to exist. John R. Edie, 
at that time in charge of the Clearfield Academy, and still living, a distin- 
guished member of the bar in Somerset, was its founder. He was followed by 
Samuel H. Tyson, an attorney at law, now deceased, and brother of the then 
distinguished Job R. Tyson, of Philadelphia. Tyson was succeeded by Samuel 
T. Williams, a practical printer of Bellefonte, who had charge of the paper for 
a few months. As indicated by the name, it was an organ of the Whig party, 
and soon after the election of Governor Porter, in 1838, it suspended, and 
most of the material was transferred to W. L. and D. W. Moore, Mr. Williams, 
some years afterwards, migrating to California, where he died. The Whig 
was a fairly well equipped office for the time, was well printed, and its general 
appearance much superior to its neighbor, the Banner. 

The Raftsman's Journal. — The Journal ^x^t appeared on the 15th of June, 
1854, with the late Hon. H. Bucher Swoope, a young and talented lawyer, 
then recently from Huntingdon, as editor and proprietor. The paper made a 
good appearance, was well printed and ably edited, making a reputation that 
has well been sustained ever since. The Joitrnal commenced its career just 
at the period of the dissolution of the old Whig party, and the organization of 
the American, or Know-Nothing party, and from its first appearance until Mr. 
Swoope retired from its control, it was edited with marked ability and gained 
a high rank as a party organ. But Mr. Swoope was nothing if not radical in 
whatever position he filled ; so that, with all his energy and talents and untiring 
industry, he failed to make any strong impression on the public mind, for the 
people of Clearfield — after the Know-Nothing craze of 1854 — continued to 
vote as they had been doing in former years. Mr. Swoope was succeeded 
January 2, 1856, by S. B. Row, esq., a practical printer, and latterly proprietor 
of the Lloyd House in Philipsburg. This being about the period of the 
organization of the Republican party, the Journal became at once one of its 
most active advocates, as it has been ever since. Mr. Row was a complete 
printer himself, and by giving his personal attention to his business, he pub- 
lished one of the most creditable of the country newspapers in the State. In- 
deed the Journal, so far as concerns its mechanical execution, always did, and 
does now, surpass any of its competitors in the county. On the 27th of March, 
1861, S. B. Row, having been appointed special agent of the post-office de- 



The Press of Clearfield County. 273 

partment as successor to D. W. Moore, sold the establishment to his brother, 
S. J. Row, also a practical printer, who still resides in Clearfield. He con- 
ducted the establishment until February 17, 1875, when he sold a half-interest 
to his son, A. M. Row, a graduate of the office, and from that time until the 
present it has been the property, and under the management of S. J. Row & 
Son. As a printing-office, the Journal is very complete, both as to presses 
and type, the latter having been selected with much judgment and taste, and 
capable of turning out a superior style of job and fancy work. 

As far as regards the journals of Clearfield heretofore noticed, all of them 
printed their editions on clean white paper — that is, neither of them practiced 
the modern style of procuring their supply of paper already printed on one 
side, but did their own selection and composition of matter to fill their col- 
umns. Recently, however, we believe they have adopted a system of procur- 
ing stereotyped matter on blocks at so much per foot, or yard. 

The Clearfield Citizen (now) Democrat. — This paper was established in 
1878, by John Ray Bixler, now on the editorial staff of the Su7i and Banner, at 
Williamsport, Pa. It vigorously advocated the doctrine of the Greenback 
party. Within the next year or two the editor, seeing his party growing 
" small by degrees and beautifully less," and with the hope of finding better 
pasture in the Democratic camp, severed his connection with the Greenbackers, 
and ever since the paper has been recognized as an advocate of democratic 
principles. Mr. Bixler was an excellent practical printer, and a capable editor, 
though not a success on questions affecting partisan politics. In 1884, J. F. 
McKenrick, then district attorney, and still practicing law at the Clearfield bar, 
purchased a half- interest in the estabhshment. His career as an editor was 
brief, and he retired. In 1885, the name was changed to that of Z?^;«^^r«^, 
which it still retains, and Allison O. Smith, an attorney at law, secured an in- 
terest therein. The partnership existed until March, 1886, when the estab- 
lishment was purchased by John F. and W. A. Short, and published under the 
firm name of Short Brothers. In the following June W. A. Short retired, 
selling his interest to his brother, who, about the 1st of February of the pres- 
ent year (1887), in turn, sold it to his brother, W. A. Short, who is now the 
owner. The Democrat is an eight-page paper, with patent inside, and is well 
patronized. 

The Multum in Parvo. — The last venture in the newspaper business at the 
county seat was that of the eccentric Dr. Sweeney, with his little patent-sided 
Multum in Parvo. Its first appearance was some time in 1883, but it did not 
live very long, long enough, however, to become quite distinguished, and to 
get its worthy founder into the Quarter Sessions on the charge of libel, con- 
vincing him that it was really permnltttm in parvo, and soon thereafter it ceased 
to appear. 

This completes the history of the newspapers in the county so far as the 



274 History of Clearfield County. 

county seat is concerned. Those published elsewhere in the county are of 
comparatively recent origin. Curwensville, however, being the next oldest 
village in the county, very appropriately had the honor of leading the way 
with the third newspaper then in the county with 

The Clearfield County Times. — During the summer of 1872, a stock com- 
pany was formed in the borough of Curwensville consisting of W. and Z. Mc- 
Naul, E. A. Irvin, Samuel Arnold, A. H. Irvin, W. C. Arnold, Faust & Good- 
win, John P. Irvin, John Patton, T. W. Flemming, N. E. Arnold, J. R. Jenkins, 
Edward Livingston, J. F. Irwin, John Irvin, and L. B. V. Soper, for the pur- 
pose of establishing a weekly newspaper and doing job work. The paper was 
named the Clearfield County Times, a seven-column folio, all home work, and 
published by Tolbert J. Robinson. The editorial committee consisted of 
Daniel Faust, W. C. Arnold, J, P. Irvin, John Patton, jr., and Edward Liv- 
ingston. The outfit was entirely new, and the first number of the paper ap- 
peared the loth of September, 1872, and during the memorable Grant-Greely 
campaign of that year the Times vigorously supported the Republican Na- 
tional and State tickets. On July 15, 1873, R. W. Brainard became editor, 
proprietor, and publisher, and in December, 1875, adopted a patent side, 
John H. Patton and L. J. Laporte, employees under Brainard, assisting him 
part of this time as publishers and local editors. On June 10, 1882, W. F. 
Whittaker and John R. Fee, under the name of Whittaker & Fee, became 
publishers, and as Mr. Fee was a Democrat, and Mr. Whittaker a Republican, 
the Times became an independent, or rather a neutral paper. They don't 
appear to have tried to follow the example of Brown & Moore with the old 
Banner, at Clearfield, some fifty years previously, and try to sustain both 
parties in a single paper. A few months later R. R. Stevenson became the 
purchaser, and soon after G. M. Bilger became associated with him. In a few 
weeks thereafter Mr. Bilger dropped out, and Stevenson again became the sole 
publisher. During this period, that is to say, from June, 1882, the Times kept 
up its claim to independence, or neutrality, and saving its patent outsides, kept 
up its high standing among the country newspapers of the State. On, or 
about January i, 1885, John P. Bard purchased the paper, added considerable 
to the stock, made it an all home-work, enlarged it to an eight-column folio, 
and christened it The Curwensville Herald. Mr. Bard, as editor and pro- 
prietor, issued a handsomely printed, wide-a-wake Republican paper; the 
circulation rapidly increased, and the Herald seemed to be firmly established, 
and on the high road to prosperity, when on January 12, 1886, Mr. Bard re- 
tired, and R. R. Stevenson took charge as lessee. On March 4, following, the 
Herald stopped — like grandfather's clock, never to go again. The material 
was all sold and removed from the county. 

When the Times was started, Edward Livingston and T. J. Robinson were 
the only practical printers. Brainard, John H. Patton, Laporte, Whittaker, and 



The Press of Clearfield County. 275 

Stevenson were also practical printers. All of these gentlemen are still resid- 
ing in Curwensville, except Mr. Patton and Mr. Whittaker. Mr. Patton is 
now residing in Iowa, and Mr. Whittaker resides somewhere in the eastern 
part of the State. 

The County Reviezv. — During the year 1881, Professor C. C. McDonald, a 
teacher of music, established a neat little six-column folio, called The Ancillia, 
at Curwenswille, devoted principally to the science of music. In January, 
1882, however, he changed it to a sixteen page monthly, and the name to 
The County Review. It was independent in politics, and devoted to industrial 
interests, historical and biographical sketches of prominent families, societies 
and orders. It was handsomely printed, and a very creditable production. 
In November, 1883, it was changed to a quarto and issued weekly, and in 
January, 4, 1884, R. H. Brainard succeeded Mr. McDonald as editor and 
publisher, and in whose hands it has continued without any change up to this 
time, other than the adoption of a patent side. Although not a practical printer, 
McDonald was an experienced newspaper man, and is now understood to be 
connected with the Associated Press, and resides in Buffalo, N. Y. 

The next newspaper started in the county was in the next year following 
the establishment of the Times at Curwensville, at the flourishing town of 
Osceola. 

The Osceola Reveille. — This paper was established January i, 1873, by 
George M. Brisbin and his two brothers, the former of whom is still living and 
in active life at Osceola. The Reveille was a very complete printing office of 
its class, the presses and type all new and selected with excellent taste, and the 
proprietors being practical printers and complete masters of the art, enabled 
them to present to the public one of the cleanest and neatest newspapers then 
in the county — a reputation it has well sustained through all its vicissitudes up 
to this date. The Reveille claimed to be strictly independent in politics, and 
was really, or as nearly so as could be reasonably expected under three ram- 
pant democratic editors in an era of hot political warfare. On January i, 
1876, at the end of three years from the establishment of the paper, the Bris- 
bins retired, and the Reveille was supplanted by the Independent World, under 
the management of O. E. M'Fadden, and in nine months thereafter it was 
changed to Campaign World, and after three issues preceding the November 
election of 1876, under this title, its original name of Reveille was restored by 
J. B. M'Fadden, J. W. Scott, editor, and published for five years, or until the 
beginning of 1882, when, Mr. Scott retiring, it was continued by Mr. M'Fad- 
den for three years, say January i, 1885, when R. A, Kinsloe, a good, practi- 
cal printer, came into possession, and still continues it as an independent 
democratic journal, " giving special attention to the coal interests of the Clear- 
field region." 

The Houtzdale Squib. — This paper was started in August, 1878, by L. A. 



2/6 History of Clearfield County. 

Frazer, on a sheet nine by twelve inches. In November of the same year it 
was enlarged to a four column quarto sheet with patent inside, and called the 
Hoiitzdale News, W. R. and L. A. Frazer publishers, continuing until January 
13, 1880, when it expired. 

The Houtzdale Observer first made its appearance December 15, 188 1, as a 
five-column quarto, by the " Observer Publishing Company," and published 
until April, 1882, when W. R. Frazer took charge, enlarging it to a six-column 
quarto, running it until December, 1882, when L. A. Frazer again stepped in 
and pubHshed it until March, 1883, then transferring it to B. W. Hess. At 
the end of two weeks he was succeeded by B. F. Difibough, who shortly after- 
wards turned it over to White Nixon, who is now its publisher and part owner. 
The Observer has always been a well conducted and well printed sheet, with 
patent outside. 

The Houtzdale Mining Record was comr^ienced in April, 1886, by Kinsloe 
& Kinsloe, as publishers, and D. St. George Frazier, a mining engineer, as 
editor. The Record is a six-column folio, all " home work," and specially 
devoted to the mining interests of the Houtzdale region. It started and was 
published for about three months as a weekly paper, when it was changed to a 
semi-weekly, and still continues as such. 

TJie Dii Bois Courier. — This paper made its first appearance January 15, 
1879, Butler & Horton editors and proprietors. The paper, a seven-column 
folio, with patent side, was well printed on good type, and independent in 
political sentiment. In June, 1882, J. A. Johnston succeeded Butler & Hor- 
ton, and the following spring dispensed with its patent attachment, and in one 
year thereafter enlarged it to an eight-column quarto, thus placing it among 
the foremost papers of the county. In October, 1884, E. W. Gray purchased 
a half interest of Mr. Johnston, and under the firm of Johnston & Gray the 
Courier was published for about two years, or until October, 1 886, when it was 
sold to R. L. Earle, who changed it to a full-fledged and radical Republican 
organ, and it is now recognized and valued as such. 

TJie Du Bois Express. — The Express was established October 12, 1883, as 
an independent paper, by H. C. Wilson, B. S. Hoag, and Frank M'Michael, a 
four page, eight- column folio, on good clean type, and with patent outside. 
The Express, like the Cojtrier, seems to have been well patronized locally, and 
has always presented a creditable appearance. Mr. Hoag retired January 14 
of the present year, transferring his interest to the present firm of John P. 
Wilson, C. A. Read, H. C. Wilson, and Frank M'Michael, and to be known as 
the " Express Publishing Company." All the members of this firm are active, 
intelligent, and enterprising practical printers, and promise to give the Express 
a prominent place among the country newspapers of Pennsylvania, and with 
this hope in view have recently put in new presses and material preparatory 
to enlarging it to a six-column quarto, and to make it all home work, or at 



The Press of Clearfield County. 277 

least to dispense with their patent outside ; and as all the members of the firm 
are Democrats, and the Courier has been recognized as a Republican paper, 
and the population of that section of the county pretty equally divided be- 
tween the two great political parties, the preponderance being slightly in favor 
of the Democrats, the proprietors of the Express seriously contemplate the 
propriety of dropping its neutral or independent character, and making it an 
advocate of democratic principles, not an " organ," but a free and independent 
democratic newspaper. Judging by their columns, the Du Bois papers are the 
best patronized of any in the county, and where advertising is extensively fol- 
lowed, job work will flourish also. 

The Enterprise though scarcely entitled to be ranked among newspapers, 
as understood at this day, it would be unfair to fail to notice the publication of 
the Enterprise, a monthly sheet of four columns to the page, printed at Du 
Bois by P. S. Weber, editor and proprietor. It claimed to issue 2,000 copies, 
which will surprise no one when it is told that its subscription price was, "The 
only compensation asked is — read it carefully." Its columns were crowded 
with advertisements, and in fact its character was more that of an advertising ex- 
periment than a newspaper ; and after appearing consecutively for four months, 
June, July, August, and September, 1876, the proprietor issued proposals to 
enlarge and change it to a weekly journal, and give it all the characteristics of 
a first class country newspaper, and had made many of the necessary arrange- 
ments to do so when he was tempted to embark in the mercantile business, 
and his Enterprise was abandoned. 

The Coalport Standard. — This paper was originally started in the spring 
of 1885, by G. P. Pennebacker, on a small sheet, under the name of Coalport 
Siftings, as an experiment, or test, and at the the end of three months the 
proprietor felt so much encouraged that he opened up in good syle, and the 
Coalport Standard, as a seven-column folio, made its appearance, and is still 
published. It is well printed, with a patent side, and well patronized. Coal- 
port is a village of recent growth and full of enterprise, and in a section that is 
well supphed with railroad facilities, and the population rapidly increasing, all 
of which should give the Standard a good chance to make its mark in the 
world. 

This, we believe, embraces all the newspapers now published within the 
limits of Clearfield county, including those that lived for a time and then 
passed away, with the single exception of a weekly journal that was published 
at Ansonville for a short time in the summer of 1886, by a Mr. Dillon. It 
will thus be seen that there are now published within the county ten weekly 
newspapers, including one semi-weekly, as against only two of fifteen years 
ago, and thus verifying what was said at the commencement of this chapter, 
that the progress of the newspaper interests has been fully equal to that of any 
other enterprise outside of railroad and coal-mining operations. 



2/8 History of Clearfield County. 

In compiling this history of the origin and progress of the press in Clear- 
field county, it has been our chief aim to embrace the names of all the gentle- 
men at any time connected with any of the journals, either as editors, 
proprietors, or publishers, rather than to be scrupulously exact as to the dates 
or length of time of such connection. Possibly there may be omissions, but 
we think not. There were preserved tolerably complete files of the old Ban- 
ner from its origin in 1827, up to 1839, which were sent to W. O. Hickok, at 
Harrisburg, about 1840, to be bound, but a few days after their receipt the 
bindery with its contents was totally destroyed by fire, hence it is impossible 
to be perfectly accurate as to the dates of the several changes in that paper 
that took place during this period. 

We have taken no account of the terms or price of subscription at which 
the several journals were published, or their cost to the publisher. The Ban- 
ner, in 1839, was published at "$2 per year, or $1.75 if paid in advance." 
By the annexed statement of the terms of the several pg,pers now published in 
the county it will be seen that the price ^^has varied but little. It is true that 
the sheets are larger now than they were then, and that where patent sides 
are used more reading matter is furnished ; and it should also be considered 
that dollars were not so plenty then as they are now, that millionaires were 
very scarce, perhaps not a half a dozen in the State, whereas now there is 
scarcely a county in the State that cannot furnish one or more, while Phila- 
delphia and Pittsburgh can each furnish scores of them ; and further, that the 
price of the white paper now, which is from five to seven cents per pound, as 
compared with ten and twelve cents then, goes far towards accounting for the 
apparent cheapness of the country newspaper of to-day as compared with 
what they were forty and fifty years ago. 

Ayers & Sons' " Newspaper Register" for 1886, furnishes the following list 
of newspapers in Clearfield county, with the number of copies issued by each, 
to which we have added their terms of subscription as found in their latest 
issues: 

Clearfield Republican, 1,^48 copies, $2.00 per year. 

Raftsman's Journal (at Clearfield) i,ioo " 1. 50 '* " 

Clearfield Democrat, 1,200 " I.50 " " 

County Review, at Curwensville, 1,496 " 5 cents per copy. 

Osceola Revjelle, 600 " not given. 

Dn Bois Express, 960 " 1.50 per year. 

Du Bois Courier, 1,100 " 1.50 " " 

Houtzdale Observer, 575 " 1.50 " " 

Mining Record at Houtzdale, not given, 1. 00 " " 

Coalport Standard, not given, 1. 50 " " 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 279 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

DEVOTED TO A REVIEW OF THE ORIGIN, GROWTH, AND DEVELOPxMENT 
OF THE EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS AND INSTITUTIONS OF CLEARFIELD 

COUNTY.' 

" 'T^HE circumstances which have most influence on the happiness of man- 
J_ kind, the changes of manners and morals, the transition of communities 
from poverty to wealth, from ignorance to knowledge — these are, for the most 
part, noiseless revolutions. Their progress is rarely indicated by what historians 
are pleased to call important events. They are not achieved by armies or en- 
acted by senates. They are sanctioned by no treaties, are recorded in no 
archives. They are carried on in every school, in every church, behind ten 
thousand counters, at ten thousand firesides." In the study of the important 
events in the world's history, the places where these events have culminated, 
or in which valorous deeds have been accomplished, are second in interest only 
to those events or deeds; they " remain hallowed to all time." There is no 
event in the play of man's life more important than that when he completes 
the first act and ends the first age. 

" And then " — becomes — " the whining school-boy, with his satchel and 
shining morning face, creeping, like snail, unwillingly to school." 

And of like importance is the character of the place into which he crept, 
and in which he played the second act in life's drama, and ended the second 
and most important age of his existence. 

In the schools of Clearfield county there has been in progress for upwards 
of eighty years a noiseless, progressive revolution, in which ignorance and 
superstition have been supplanted by knowledge. It is the purpose in this 
chapter to give a general review of these places, as well as a more particular 
history of the schools of Clearfield town. In the account of the schools of the 
county at large, this article must necessarily be brief, because the time 
in which it was prepared was so limited that reliable information of all the 
schools could not be obtained, and it was not desired to have this sketch come 
under South's definition of " most of the histories," which he defines as " Lies 
immortalized, and consigned over as a perpetual abuse and flaw upon pros- 
perity." The facts recorded here are stated upon the authority of the State 
and county records, or where, because of the careless manner in which many 
of these were kept, or from the nature of the fact stated, nothing could be 
found here, the most authoritative, attainable information has been sought, 
tradition not being relied upon to any considerable extent. 

' By J. Frank Snyder, of the Clearfield Bar. 



28o History of Clearfield County 



Law. 

Penn, in his frame of government, dated 25th of April, 1682, gave the 
governors and provincial council instructions to " erect and order all publick 
schools." Almost a century later, in the same city, and in the same year (1776) 
in which there dawned an era signalized as the most remarkable of any that 
had occurred in the world's history, the convention established to prepare a 
constitution for Pennsylvania took what has proven to be the initiatory step in 
the establishment of our system of public education. In the " Plan or Frame 
of Government," Chapter II, Section 44, it was provided, "A school or schools 
shall be established in each county by the Legislature, for the convenient in- 
struction of youth, with such salaries to the masters, paid by the public, as 
may enable them to instruct youth at low prices ; and all useful learning shall 
be duly encouraged and promoted in one or more institutions." This provi- 
sion seems to have had for its prime object the placing of the means of educa- 
tion within the reach and at the command of the masses. The public mind 
was thoroughly convinced that, with an educated populace, a " government of 
the people, for the people, and by the people," was possible. Then came 
the constitution of 1790, and by it important changes on the subject of educa- 
tion. 

Of Public Schools. 

Article VII, Section i. — "The Legislature shall, as soon as conven- 
iently may be, provide by law, for the establishment of schools throughout the 
State, in such manner that \k\Q poor may be taught gratis.'" 

This provision was incorporated into the constitution of 1838, and remained 
intact until the adoption of the constitution of 1874. 

The first important legislative enactment was the act of 1809. It reads as 
follows : 

"Section i. It shall be the duty of the commissioners of the several 
counties within this Commonwealth, at the time of issuing their precepts to 
the assessors, annually to direct and require the assessors of each and every 
township, ward and district, to receive from the parents the names of all chil- 
dren between the ages of five and twelve years, who reside therein, and those 
whose parents are unable to pay for their schooling ; and the commissioners, 
when they hold appeals, shall hear all persons who may apply for additions or 
alterations of names in said list, and make all such alterations as to them shall 
appear just and reasonable, and agreeably to the true intent and meaning of 
this act ; and after adjustment they shall transmit a correct copy thereof to 
the respective assessor, requiring him to inform the parents of the children 
therein contained, that they are at liberty to send them to the most conven- 
ient school, free of expense ; and the said assessor, for any neglect of the above 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 281 



duty, shall forfeit and pay the sum of five dollars, to be sued for by any per- 
son, and recovered as debts of that amount are now recoverable, and to be 
paid into the county treasury for county purposes : Provided always, that the 
names of no children, whose education is otherwise provided for, shall be re- 
ceived by the assessor of any township or district. 

" Section II. That the said assessor shall send a list of the names of the 
children aforesaid, to the teachers of the schools within his township, ward, or 
district, whose duty it shall be to teach all such children as may come to their 
schools, in the same manner as other children are taught ; and each teacher 
shall keep a day-book, in which he shall enter the number of days each child 
entitled to the provisions of this act, shall be taught ; and he shall also enter in 
said book the amount of all stationery furnished for the use of said child, from 
which book he shall make out his account against the county, on oath or 
affirmation, agreeably to the usual rates of charging for tuition in said school, 
subject to the examination and revision of the school trustees, where there are 
any, but where there are no trustees, to three reputable subscribers to the 
schools, which account, after being so examined or revised, he shall present to 
the county commissioners, who, if they approve thereof, shall draw their order 
on the county treasurer for the amount, which he is hereby authorized and 
directed to pay out of any moneys in the treasury." 

It has been frequently told us that but one family residing in this county 
applied for and received the benefits of this act ; that but one parent was will- 
ing to say that he was unable to pay for the schooling of his children. Now 
poverty was a great inconvenience to many of the early settlers of our county, 
but not a disgrace, and there were parents who were willing and did say that 
they were poor and unable to pay for the schooling of their children. There 
is no lack of authoritative evidence to support this statement. The records of 
the county commissioner's office furnish many items upon this subject. The 
earliest entries are the following minutes, to wit : 

Thomas McClure, as assessor for Pike township, returned the names of 
two children, in 181 5, whose parents were poor and unable to pay for their 
schooling. 

"August 19th, 1822, Order to Samuel Waring for teaching three chil- 
dren in Bradford township, as returned to us by the assessor of said township 
for the year 1822, agreeable to the act of Assembly for the teaching of the 
poor gratis (including stationery,) $4.54- 

"June 9th, 1823, One order in favor of John McCord in full for the 
tuition of , in the year 1821, (including justice's fees,) $0.52-5-. 

" June loth, 1823, order 176. Samuel Waring, for tuition of poor children 
in Bradford township, $9.11. 

"March 22d, 1825, One order in favor of John McCord for educating 
poor children of , $5.75. 



History of Clearfield County. 



"June 5th, 1826, One order in favor of James Reed for the education of 
poor children, $8.75." 

The next is a minute of the only payment for which a corresponding bill 
has been found, and, as a matter of interest and information, the heading of the 
account and the affidavit are given, to wit : 

" Clearfield county 

" To Daniel Spackman, schoolmaster in Lawrence township. 

Dr. 

" 1826 $23.22. 

" Clearfield county, ss : 

" Daniel Spackman, the subscriber, a schoolmaster m Lawrence township, in 
said county, on his solemn affirmation doth say that the above bill of schooling 
is according to his usual rates of charging in his schools, and the time and 
number of days are correctly charged to each child to the best of his knowl- 
edge and belief, and further deponent saith not. 

" Sworn and subscribed DANIEL SPACKMAN. 

Dec. 28th, 1826, before 
Geo. Wilson, 

Commissioner." 

Other payments were made as follows : 

" 1827, May 2d, to James A. Reed, Lawrence township, $3.72; 1828, 
May 20th, to Geo. O. Keys, Lawrence township, $14.37 5 1830, November 8th, 
to A. Thorp Schryver, Lawrence township, $2.94; 1832, February i, to James 
A. Reed, $15.56-5-; 1832, August nth, to J. H. Laverty, $15.00; July 5th^ 
1834, J. H. Laverty, ; October 17th, 1835, J- H. Laverty, $5.00; De- 
cember I, 1834, to J. H. Laverty, $16.58." 

^, Governors Mifflin, McKean, Snyder, Findley, Heister, and Shultze, serving 
from December 21, 1790, to December 15, 1829, each directed the legislative 
mind to the constitution of 1790, and its provision upon the subject of educa- 
tion. Mifflin urged the establishment of pubHc schools, McKean followed in 
his footsteps. The defects of the act of 1809 were pointedly criticised by 
Simon Snyder, and Findley joined him in his criticisms. Heister commended 
a system of education. Shultze wanted schools that would be within the reach 
of all. In 1824 the act of 1809 was repealed, and this act met the same fate 
in 1826 — never having been enforced — thus reviving the act of 1809. 

James Buchanan, in a speech delivered at West Chester, previous to the 
election of Governor Wolf, said : 

" If ever the passion of envy could be excused a man ambitious of true 
glory, he might almost be justified in envying the fame of that favored indi- 
vidual, whoever he may be, whom Providence intends to make the instrument 
in establishing common schools throughout this Commonwealth. His task will 
be arduous. He will have many difficulties to encounter, and many preju- 
dices to overcome, but his fame will exceed even that of the great Clinton, in 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 283 

the same proportion that mind is superior to matter. Whilst the one has 
erected a frail memorial, which, like everything human, must decay and perish, 
the other will raise a monument which shall flourish in immortal youth, and 
endure whilst the human soul shall continue to exist. ' Ages unborn and 
nations yet behind ' shall bless his memory." 

To George Wolf that honor was accorded, and over his signature, on the 
1st day of April, 1834, the " general system of education by common schools" 
was adopted. The act is long, and only the preamble and a few of the more 
important sections will be given here. 

Preamble, " Whereas, it is enjoined by the constitution, as a solemn duty, 
which cannot be neglected without a disregard of the moral and political safety 
of the people ; and, whereas, the fund for common school purposes, under the 
act of the second of April, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, will, on 
the fourth of April next, amount to the sum of five hundred and forty-six 
thousand, five hundred and sixty-three dollars and seventy-two cents, and will 
soon reach the sum of two millions of dollars, when it will produce, at five per 
cent., an interest of one hundred thousand dollars, which, by said act, is to be 
paid for the support of common schools ; and whereas, provisions should be 
made by law for the distribution of the benefits of this fund to the people of 
the respective counties of the Commonwealth ; therefore, 

"Section i. Be it enacted, etc. That the city and county of Philadelphia, 
and every other county in this Commonwealth, shall each form a school 
division, and that every ward, township and borough within the several school 
divisions shall each form a school district. Provided, That any borough which 
is or may be connected with a township in the assessment and collection of 
county rates and levies, shall, with the said township, so long as it remains so 
connected form a district ; and each of said districts shall contain a competent 
number of common schools for the education of every child within the limits 
thereof who shall apply, either in person, or by his or her parents, guardians, 
or next friend, for admission and instruction." 

The act inter alia provided for the election of directors, the appointment of 
inspectors, and created the secretary of the Commonwealth superintendent of 
all the public schools established. The directors were empowered to elect 
delegates whose duty it was to meet with the commissioners of the county, and 
with them decide whether or not a tax for the expenditure of each district be 
laid. This act was amended by an act approved the 15th of April, 1835, 
relating principally to the tax and providing that the township or district vot- 
ing in the negative should not be compelled to accept, and abolished the office 
of inspector. 

The record showing the districts that accepted or rejected the act has not 
been preserved, or if preserved it has been misplaced, and not now to be 
found. James Findly, superintendent of common schools, in his report of 



284 History of Clearfield County. 

1835-6, dated December 5, 1835, says: " All the appropriation of 1836 ($75,- 
000) may therefore be drawn from the State treasury during the coming year, 
except the quotas of Columbia and Clearfield, from which no reports of the 
proceedings of the delegate meetings have ever been received, and of Leb- 
anon, every district of which rejected this system." 

Mr. Wickersham in his " History of Education in Pennsylvania," informs 
us that there were seventeen districts in the county, eight of which accepted 
and nine refused to accept the system. Ferguson township is reported to have 
been the only district not accepting in 1845. 

The act of 1854 " expressly provided for graded schools and the study of 
the higher branches." By it the office of county superintendent was created, 
etc. This act became a law over the signature of our illustrious townsman, ex- 
Governor William Bigler, whose efforts in behalf of education are well known. 

In concluding this subject a brief extract from the report of the superinten- 
dent of common schools for 1858 is given: 

" No changes in the school laws are proposed. What the system most 
needs is to be let alone until it can have time to develop, for it is peculiarly a 
thing of popular growth as well as legislative creation. Constant changes in 
the school laws embarrass and dishearten the plain men — not lawyers — who 
are charged with their administration in the respective districts. Public 
opinion will remain unsettled so long as there is expectation, or fear of con- 
tinued change; but if it is discovered that the system is reasonably permanent 
they will the more readily and cheerfully adapt themselves to it. Pennsyl- 
vania is empathically the land of steady habits, and unsuited to the legislative 
fluctuations that have been so damaging to the school system of a neighboring 
State. Stability and habit are cardinal virtues in this connection and not to 
be lightly valued." 

Early Schools. 

The pioneer settlers have all gone to their final rest, and their departure 
deprives us of the best evidence as to the location and character of the earliest 
schools of the county. Many sources of information have been sought and 
as many different opinions obtained. These opinions and statements have 
been relied upon only where there is satisfactory proof of their correctness. 

Tradition has it, and it is now universally conceded, that the first school in 
Clearfield county was taught in 1804 in a log cabin near Thomas McClure's, 
in Pike township, being about two miles south of the present site of Curwens- 
ville. But little is known concerning this school, excepting that the first 
teacher was a Mr. Kelly, and that he was succeeded by Messrs. Fleming, Al- 
exander, and Bailey. Dr. A. T. Schryver, who first taught in the county in 
1826, in speaking of this school says : *' There was a log cabin at McClure's, 
but I don't recollect anything about it. It was not there when I came. It 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 285 

was near a grave-yard. A church was built there after I came ; it was a 
Presbyterian Church." 

Various authorities have stated that the second school-house " was built 
one mile northeast of wh«re Clearfield town is now situated." Evidence has 
been sought to corroborate this statement, but without success. The first 
school- house, one mile northeast of Clearfield, of which any reliable evidence 
can be found, was a deserted log cabin situate on the west side of the ravine 
west of the " Archie Shaw " grist-mill. 

It is stated by a former writer in commenting upon this school-house, that 
*' the first school was taught by Samuel Fulton, a surveyor." We understand 
that it is claimed that Mr. Fulton taught here in 1806. If this conclusion is 
right the writer is compelled to say that it is not at all probable that the 
statement is correct. An article published in 1859 upon no less authority 
than Mr. Fulton himself, is to the effect that he was here on surveying trips 
only in 1 802-3-4-5 and 6, and that " in 1807 Fulton came to this county with 
his wife, having married in the beginning of the year 1806." 

It is possible that Samuel Fulton taught here prior to 18 16. Josiah Evans 
was the teacher in 18 16- 1 7, Robert Wrigley in 18 17- 1 8- 19, William Hoyt 
about 1819-20, and George Catelow 1820-21. Dr. Schryver, in speaking of 
the house referred to as being built in 1806, says: "I can't tell anything posi- 
tive about it." 

The first school in Curwensville was taught in 181 2, "in a one room 
dwelling house, a division being put in the room, thus forming two rooms, 
one of which served as a bachelor's hall for the master." Josiah Evans claims 
to have been the first teacher, but it has been repeatedly stated that Jesse 
Cookson was the first teacher, and Mr. Evans the second. 

In 18 1 3, or 1 8 14, " the people of Curwensville and vicinity collected to- 
gether, and by their united and voluntary effort put up a log house for school 
purposes." The " old log school-house," as it was called, was located on what 
is now Filbert street. The building was constructed of logs, its dimensions 
were fourteen by sixteen feet. The roof was covered with clap-boards, held 
in place by poles extending from one end of the roof to the other, which were 
held down by heavy stones. The door was of rough boards. On one side a 
log was left out for light, the space was covered with greased paper, and 
served as the only window in the house. The seats were slabs, in which 
wooden pins were put for legs. Holes were bored into the wall on one side 
of the room, into which long wooden pins were driven, and upon these a slab 
— smooth side up — was secured for a writing desk. Jesse Cookson, J. Miles 
Hoover, Whitson Cooper, Mr. Burrett, John A. Dale, afterwards sheriff of 
Franklin county, and associate judge of Forest, and Dr. A. T. Schryver, all 
taught here. 

It is stated that shortly after the building of the last mentioned school- 
house others were erected, viz.: ^^ 



286 History of Clearfield County. 

One on the Grampian Hills. Dr. Stark taught here, as did Dr. A. T- 
Schryver. 

One near Daniel Spackman's, in Lawrence township, in 1822, in which 
Peter Hoover and Daniel Spackman taught prior to December 28, 1826, at 
which date he (Daniel Spackman) presented his bill to the commissioners for 
" schooling" a number of children of poor parents. This house has been con- 
fused by writers with the Amos Reed school-house, which was built about 
1830 near where the Pine Grove school-house was afterwards built — 1860 — 
and now stands. 

It is told us that the first school-house in Brady township was opened near 
Luthersburg in 18 17, another authority fixes the date in 1820. A careful ex- 
amination has failed to produce any satisfactory proofs sustaining either of 
these dates. John Carlile, of Troutville, Brady township, who has recently 
died at the advanced age of eighty-four years, says : The first school taught 
in Brady township was held in Libius Luther's bar-room in Luthersburg, in the 
winter of 1827, by Whitson Cooper, and in 1828 Peter Hoover taught in the 
same place. In 1829-30, school "was kept" in a log cabin along the pike, 
on Mr. Luther's farm. This cabin was built by the men who were working 
on the pike. In 1831 Libius Luther and Fred Ziegler each gave a strip of 
land, and the citizens appointed a day, and then turned out and put up a good 
sized hewed log house, in which private schools were held until the common 
school superseded them. John B. Heisey and Miss Brockway taught here. 

It is also stated that the first school in Brady township was opened near 
Luthersburg in 18 17. Upon careful examination this is found to be an error; 
the correct date is 1827-8. 

Samuel Waring kept school in Bradford township prior to August 19, 
1822, on which day he received pay for schooHng three children of poor 
parents. It would also appear that he taught in 1823. 

Philip Antis donated a piece of ground near where the Wright nursery is 
now located, a short distance below the Logan njill on the public road from 
Clearfield to Curwensville, on which a school-house was built about 1824. John 
Patton, sr., father of Congressman Patton, was the master here in 1826. It 
was here, in this house, under the tutorship of his father, that Hon. John Patton 
attended school for the first time. 

James Read was a school-master in Lawrence township in 1826, and 
according to the best attainable evidence it would appear that he then taught 
in the grand jury room of the court-house. If this conclusion be correct, it 
was the first school taught in Clearfield town. 

Samuel Fulton appears to have taught about this time in the creek school- 
house, which stood on the left bank of the river almost opposite the mouth of 
Clearfield Creek. Miss Brockway, Samuel Fulton, Miss Eliza Jane Jacobs, 
and Miss Eliza Mapes are beheved to have taught in this house in the order 
named. The place was abandoned about 1827-30. 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 287 

Upon the abandonment of the creek school-house James A. Reed then 
kept school in his house, which stood near where Mr. Matt. Reed recently 
lived in Lawrence township, which, we think, was prior to May 2, 1827. John 
Hall succeeded Mr. Reed as teacher at the same place. 

George O'Keys built a log cabin in " Paradise " — near where the road 
leading to the Jacob Irvin homestead leaves the Penfield road — some time 
about 1827, and kept a school there. 

The Price school-house, which accommodated the upper end of Pike town- 
ship, was located at the cross roads near the William Price farm, and was 
erected about 1828, as in that year religious services were held in it. 

Dr. A. T. Schryver taught in grand jury room of court-house in Clearfield 
town, in winter of 1829-30. From here he moved his school to a log 
cabin used by Martin Nichols as a temporary residence while building a more 
commodious house. This cabin stood just across the river opposite where the 
jail now stands. 

The Clearfield Academy, completed in 1830, and the Curwensville Acade- 
my, completed in 183 1-2, are also among the earliest schools of the county. 
These early houses, excepting the two last named, were as a rule of the same 
dimensions and style of architecture as the " old log school-house " of Curwens- 
ville, already described. Many of the schools, however, were not taught in 
buildings erected for that purpose, some were kept in the house of the master, 
others in abandoned log cabins. In fact, it appears that when a cabin was un- 
fit for use as a habitation, it was just the place for a school. Judging from the 
reports of an early authority, at least one-half of the places in which the early 
schools were taught were unfit for any purpose except it might have been for 
"pig pens or chicken coops." The limited means of the first settlers had much, 
yes, all to do with the character of these houses, as they were all erected by 
voluntary aid. It did not require any great length of time to erect one of 
these houses, as the following account, related by an eye witness, will show. 
He says : " I was present one morning when the spot selected for the proposed 
house was cleared ; that same evening I found there a full grown school house 
ready for occupancy, and on the following morning the sessions of school com- 
menced." 

These schools were all supported by private contributions or subscriptions. 
The masters were not bound to receive all who might apply, but it is safe to 
say none were rejected, unless it was on account of the poverty of the parents, 
and not on this account after the passage of the Act of 1809, where the pa- 
rents were willing to say that they were unable to pay for the schooling of 
their children. 

It has been written of the early teachers that, " while many were strictly 
moral and well qualified for teaching in that day, yet many lacked all the es- 
sential elements of the teacher — they were profane, illiterate and tyrannical. 



288 History of Clearfield County. 

The bottle, in some instances, was kept concealed about the school room. 
Many on account of being old or crippled, were supposed to be fit for nothing 
else, and hence were recommended to teach school. The qualities most pleas- 
ing to the patrons were a good ability for flogging unruly boys and a good 
knowledge of spelling and writing. It was a very rare occurrence to find one 
of those teachers who could not write well." The teacher boarded 'round. 

The course of study was spelling, reading and writing; these branches were 
successfully taught. In speaking of the Amos Reed school-house — referred to 
hereafter — Dr. A. T. Schryver tells us, that, "it was a kind of a resort for all 
youngsters to go to spell ; they were better spellers three times over then than 
now. They met there every Saturday and Saturday night, and would have 
spelHng school and singing school combined. They spelled out of a diction- 
ary and some of them could not be downed." 

There was no regular system of text books. One teacher reports that 
there were twelve different kinds of reading books in use in his school. The 
Testament, biographies of Washington, Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress and Web- 
ster's Speller were the principal early text books. Pike's Arithmetic came into 
use and was taught to the "single rule of three." These books with a few 
sheets of unruled foolscap paper, a bottle of ink and a goose quill, constituted 
the scholar's outfit. The teacher made and mended pens and set copies for 
all the scholars. 

The manner of imparting instruction was very different from the system 
now in use, there being no uniformity in text books ; there were no classes, 
and individual instruction was given. The Johnsonian theory of teaching was 
frequently used, the teacher contending that the memory could be strength- 
ened and the lesson permanently impressed upon the mind by stating the idea 
sought to be taught and then administering a good flogging — a sort of im- 
provement of the memory by association. 

The scholars of these early days were very much as they now are. Boys 
are boys the world over. They never wanted for amusement, never waited for 
something to turn up, but oftentimes turned things upside down to suit them- 
selves. This was especially the case about Christmas time and the other holi- 
days. Dr. Schryver says that at these times the scholars run the schools to 
suit themselves. They would sometimes lock the teacher out and keep him 
out for a whole week. The obnoxious system of treating was in existence 
then as now. If the teacher did not treat when demanded, " the girls would 
urge the boys to * declare a lock-out ' and bar the door." "The pupils," he 
says, " once levied on me for a treat and handed this paper up to me," to wit : 

" Master, we want a treat ; please furnish 

"Candy 2 lbs, 

".Raisins 2 lbs. 

"Ginger Cakes 3 dozens. 

"Apples 2 bushels. 

" Whiskey 2 quarts. 

" Please sign your name." 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 2S9 

He says " that several times three or four boys would get around me to 
carry me out, but were afraid to take hold of me." 

It is stated on good authority that whilst Daniel Spackman was the master 
at the school house near his home, that there was a lock-out of some duration. 
Getting tired of the protracted rest given the master, Mr. William Reed con- 
ceived the idea of smoking the boys and girls out, but knowledge of his plan 
in some way got to the scholars, and they prepared themselves for the emer- 
gency by taking a pole into the school-house with them. The master and Mr. 
Reed came and sought admission in vain. Mr. Reed thereupon climbed upon 
the roof, placed a board over the chimney and seated himself upon it. As 
soon as the smoke began to inconvenience the scholars, they put the pole, 
which they had taken the caution to provide, up the chimney, and using it as 
a battering-ram against the board, knocked Mr. Reed and his board off the 
chimney and to the ground, causing him severe injury. 

The early settlers in the county were not an educated people, but, as a 
rule, they were desirous of having their children properly educated, although 
some entertained strange views upon this subject. One honest and upright 
man refused to educate his children because he " was afraid it would make 
fools and rascals of them, and he was desirous that they should live honest and 
upright lives." 

After 1830 school-houses began to increase in numbers throughout the 
country. There was a general desire for better laws upon the subject of edu- 
cation. This sentiment grew stronger and stronger, and in 1831 "petitions 
asking for the establishment of a better system of public education " were pre- 
sented to the two Houses of the State Legislature. 

In the immediate vicinity surrounding Clearfield, a number of schools were 
held and school-houses erected by the people, just upon the eve of the passage 
of the act of 1834, and immediately thereafter. Prominent among them are 
the following, to wit : 

A house was built about 1834, by private subscriptions, at the point where 
the T. and C. Railroad bridge crosses Clearfield Creek, about two miles east of 
Clearfield town. The present school-house, located some distance from this 
site, is known as " Waterford," or vulgarly as "Hell's Half Acre." Robert 
Wrigley was one of the earliest teachers here. 

In 1837 Frank Dunlap taught school in Lawrence township, near where 
Benjamin Dale now lives. Whether this was a private school or a free school, 
the writer cannot state. 

In 1838 a school-house was erected by public expense, by John Shaw, sr., 
at a point on the Penfield road just opposite where Mr. EH Carrick now resides. 
This school was widely and familiarly known as the "Tom Hainey school." 
The first teacher was Miss Julian Holly, who taught in the summer of 1838. 
Frank Dunlap taught the common schools here in the winter of 1838-9. A. J. 



290 History of Clearfield County. 

Hemphill, Samuel Worrell, J. Kay Wrigley, Miss Elizabeth Livergood, per- 
haps Miss Mary Scoville and Miss Mary Ann Hofifman, all taught in this house. 
The last named teacher taught her scholars to spell and read backwards, hav- 
ing her spinning-wheel in school and running it while the scholars recited. It 
is told us that upon one occasion a huge rattlesnake took his place in the door- 
way here, thereby terrifying teacher and scholars, who all crowded into one cor- 
ner of the room. Finally one of the girls said she was not afraid of it, and to 
prove her statement ran and jumped over it, and then threw a stick into the 
school-house for the teacher, with which they then killed the snake. This 
school-1 ouse was a noted place for spelUng and singing schools. 

A log cabin used to stand on the river bank in Reedsville — now Clearfield 
borough — just across the street from where Mr. A. W. Lee lately resided. It 
was old and abandoned, but in 1859 common schools were held in it for Law- 
rence township. The logs were rotten and alive with bed bugs. When the 
room was thoroughly warmed these would come forth arid feast upon the schol- 
ars and greatly annoying them. From this circumstance the place was called 
"Bed Bug Seminary." The first school was taught here in 1858-9 by Dr. 
Schryver. Daniel Connelly, esq., was the next teacher, in 1859-60. In 1862 
it was replaced by a new building some distance from the river, which was 
abandoned many years ago, and is now used for a dwelling house. 

School was held every day during the week in the early schools, and 
latterly every second Saturday was a holiday. 

Academies. 

Mr. Wickersham, in his excellent book, " A History of Education in 
Pennsylvania," says, " Franklin and his coadjutors, in founding the academy 
and charitable school of the Province of Pennsylvania, in 1749, modeled it in 
most respects after the school Penn had chartered half a century before. 
They, too, contemplated a central school or an academy, open to all and 
free to the children of the poor." The public mind, in the early days of 
the Commonwealth, seems to have been educated -to the belief that the lan- 
guage of the constitution of 1790, enjoining "the establishment of schools 
throughout the State in such manner that the poor may be taught gratis" 
meant that central schools or academies should be established, open to all and 
free to the children of the poor. So widely prevalent was this idea, that in 
the organization of new counties, and in the selection of " seats of justice " for 
the same, ground for an academy was as much a necessity as ground for the 
public buildings. The history of the academies of this county, therefore, very 
properly begins with the selection of a location for "the seat of justice." In 
1805 Governor McKean appointed Roland Curtin, John Fleming, and James 
Smith, commissioners, to select a location for the seat of justice of Clearfield 
county. They selected a site and laid out a town upon the lands of Abraham 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 291 

Witmer, near the mouth of the creek Chincleclamouche. Upon the plot or 
plan of the town as returned by them to the office of the Secretary of State, 
three lots are marked as "Academy lots." On November 5, 1805, Abraham 
Witmer gave his bond to these commissioners in the penal sum of ten thou- 
sand dollars, conditioned, inter alia, as follows : "And the said Abraham Wit- 
mer further agrees and engages to give his bond, or other security as may be 
required, to such person as may be authorized to receive the same, for the pay- 
ment of three thousand dollars on the first day of May, which will be in the 
year of our Lord, 181 2, one-half thereof to be applied for the use of an acad- 
emy ox picblic school in said town." 

The next step in this matter was the making, execution and delivery of a 
deed, bearing date March 6, 18 13, recorded in the office of the recorder of 
deeds in and for Clearfield county, on 27th April, 18 13, in deed book " D," 
page 320, Abraham Witmer and Mary Witmer, his wife, to Robert Maxwell, 
Hugh Jordon, and Samuel Fulton, commissioners of Clearfield county, convey- 
ing, inter alia, " and also three other lots of ground in the said town, for the 
use and benefit of an academy, fronting on Walnut street and adjoining each 
other, bounded in front by Walnut street, on the north by an alley, on the 
east by Fourth street, and on the west by lot number one hundred and sixty- 
one, each lot extending to the aforesaid alley one hundred and seventy-two 
feet." These lots are numbers 162, 177 and 178, in the present plan of Clear- 
field borough. 

By an act entitled, "An act establishing an academy in the town, of Clear- 
field," approved 12th February, 1827, it was enacted as follows : 

" Section i. — That there shall be and hereby is established in the town of 
Clearfield, in the county of Clearfield, an academy for the education of youth 
in the useful arts, sciences and literature, by the name and style of ' The Clear- 
field Academy.' 

" Section 2. — That until the first day of April, eighteen hundred and 
twenty-eight, the trustees of the Clearfield Academy shall consist of the fol- 
lowing persons, to wit: Alexander Reid [Reed], Moses Boggs, Reuben Wins- 
low, John Kylor, Martin Nichols, John P. Hoyt, James Ferguson, Elisha Fen- 
ton, and WilHam McNall [McNaul], which said trustees, and their successors to 
be elected as hereinafter directed, shall be and hereby are declared to be one 
body corporate and politic, by the name, style and title of ' The Trustees of 
the Clearfield Academy,' etc. 

" Section 3. — That the said trustees of said^'academy, and their successors, 
shall have full power and authority to use one common seal, and the same to 
alter at their pleasure." 

The fourth, fifth and sixth sections relate to the meeting of the trustees, 
by-laws, and elections. 

" Section 7. — That the sum of two thousand dollars be and the same is 



292 History of Clearfield County. 

hereby granted to be paid by warrant to be drawn by the Governor on the 
State Treasurer to the Trustees of the Clearfield Academy, or a majority of 
them, one thousand dollars thereof, to enable them to erect suitable buildings 
for said academy, or to be otherwise applied under their direction, in such 
manner as they shall believe to be most advantageous for promoting the object 
of said institution, and the remaining one thousand dollars shall placed in some 
safe productive fund or funds, and the income thereof shall be forever applied 
in aid of other revenues, to compensate a teacher or teachers in said academy ; 
provided, that the money hereby granted shall not be paid until the sum of 
one thousand dollars shall have been raised by private subscription for the 
benefit of said institution, and there shall be admitted into said academy any 
number of poor children who may, at any time, be offered in order to be taught 
gratis ; provided, also, the number so admitted and taught shall, at no time, 
be greater than five, and that none of said children shall continue to be taught 
gratis in said academy longer than two years." ^ 

At this point — in view of the articles previously written upon this subject — 
the question is suggested. Was the academy built upon the lots donated by 
Abraham Witmer ? 

In his report to the superintendent of public instruction for the year ending 
June I, 1877, Dr. J. A. Gregory, then county superintendent, in speaking of 
the Clearfield Academy, says: "The lots on which it is situated and $i,000 
in money were donated by Abraham Whitmer [Witmer], of Lancaster county," 
— see "Pennsylvania Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1877," 
page 176. Mr. Wickersham, in his " History of Education in Pennsylvania," 
Chapter XXII, on secondary education, page 459, says, in speaking of the 
Clearfield Academy : " The lots on which it was located . . . were the 
gifts of Abram Witmer, of Lancaster county." These gentlemen have fallen 
into error upon this question of location, as will be seen in continuing the his- 
tory of the lots donated by Abraham Witmer. 

In the minute book of the county commisioners of Clearfield county there 
appears the following entry: "June 15, 1830. — At the request of the trustees 
of the Clearfield Academy, a conveyance, made to them of lots in Clearfield 
town, Nos. 162, 177, 178, by the commissioners, being the same lots which 
were conveyed to the commissioners of Clearfield county, for the use of an 
academy in Clearfield town." Then follows naturally the deed, " Alexander 
Caldwell, J. F. W. Schnarrs, and Robert Ross, of Clearfield county, commis- 
sioners of said county," to " Thos. Hempbill, Joseph M. Martin, Robert Ross, 
jr., A. B. Reed, G. P. Gulich, trustees of the Clearfield Academy." Dated 
June 15, 1830. Recorded in the office of the recorder of deeds, in and for 
Clearfield county, 12th July, 1830, in deed book " D," page 138, for lots "Nos. 
162, 177, 178, situate in the town of Clearfield." 

IThe sum received by this institution under act of 1838, Chapter 8386, up to ist February, 1843, 
was $2,075. — Republication of Pamph. Laws, Vol. IX., page 266. 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 293 

We next find that among the minutes and proceedings of the Board of 
Trustees of the Clearfield Academy, inter alia, it is thus recorded. " And now 
to wit": May 8, 1830, On motion Martin Hoover, esq., was appointed Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of the Clearfield Academy, for the ensuing year, 
and Joseph M. Martin was appointed Secretary." "And now to wit : Satur- 
day, May 22, 1830, Messrs. Ross, Hartshorn, Hoover, Hempbill and Martin 
being present on motion. 

''Resolved, That the lots belonging to the said Academy, Nos. 162, 177, 
178, be advertised for sale on the second Tuesday of June next, at the Court 
House in Clearfield town. That the same be advertised in the Clearfield Bait' 
ner and offered for sale on said day at public outcry, sale adjourned to 14th 
June inst. And now to wit: June 14, 1830, Academy lots sold to Jacob Ir- 
vin for forty dollars, twelve and one-half cents." 

''Resolved, That the deed be made to Jacob Irvin for the above lots, pro- 
vided he pays the cash when made, or that he gives a judgment note for the 
same with security, he to pay all expenses and costs arrising." 

''Resolved, That Joseph M. Martin attend to taking the judgment note 
from Jacob Irvin, and to have it entered in the Court of Common Pleas of 
Clearfield county." 

"And now to wit: June 23, 1830. Resolved, That the president and sec- 
retary of the Board of Trustees for and in behalf of the whole Board make, 
execute and acknowledge an assignment of the deed for the Academy lots Nos. 
162, 177, 178 to Jacob Irvin, sold to him on the 14th inst, which deed is exe- 
cuted to the said trustees by the Commissioners of Clearfield county." 

We then find assignment, Martin Hoover, President of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the Clearfield Academy, and Joseph M. Martin, Secretary, to Jacob 
Irvin, dated 26th June, 1830, recorded deed book "D" 320, 12th July, 1830, 
of lots Nos. 162, 177, 178. Consideration, $40.12 1-2. These lotsweresub- 
sequently used by William Jones as a brick yard, and still later by M. Shirk as 
an annex to his tannery, an old bark shed still standing on same. 

The lots upon which the Clearfield Academy was erected were acquired 
under the following conveyance : John Bumbarger and Anna Maria, his wife, 
by their attorney in fact, Alex. B. Reed, to Moses Boggs, Garry Bishop, Reu- 
ben Winslow, Martin Nicholls, George Wilson, James Ferguson, Doctor J. P. 
Hoyt, trustees of the Clearfield Academy, dated 7th February, 1829, recorded 
2ist May, 1829, in deed book "D" 128. Consideration, $120. For "all 
those two certain lots of ground situate in the town and county of Clearfield, 
one of the said lots known in the plan of said town by No. 31, containing in 
front by Front street 60 feet, and extending in depth 200 feet to an alley 
bounded in front by Front street, on the east by said alley, on the south by lot 
No. 32, and on the north by lot No. 30. The other lot situate in the town 
aforesaid known in the plan thereof by No. 32, containing in front on Front 



294 History of Clearfield County. 

street 60 feet, and extending in depth 200 feet to an alley bounded in front by- 
Front street, on the south by lot No. 33, on the north by lot No. 31, and on 
the east by an alley." These proceedings and conveyances in the mind of the 
writer, answer the question suggested in the negative. The Clearfield Acade- 
my was not built on the lots donated by Mr. Witmer, the reason whereof does 
not appear, unless it is that the lots donated by Mr. Witmer were swampy and 
unfit for the purpose for which they were donated. 

Frequent inquiry has been made as to the date when the academy build- 
ing was erected. We are told by Mr. J. A. Gregory, in his report as county 
superintendent, published in the Report of the Superintendent of Public In- 
struction for 1877, at page 176, that "in the year 1824 the first academy in 
Clearfield was completed." In this the writer cannot agree with the learned 
superintendent, who evidently must have relied upon information received 
from persons, honest in their statements, but who depended largely upon their 
memories for the data, as the date given is six years earlier than the true date. 
The academy was completed in 1830, which conclusion is based upon the fol- 
lowing facts : Beyond all question the " Clearfield Academy " was incorporated 
by the Act approved February 12, 1827, supra. The title to the lots on 
which it stands was secured by the conveyance of February 7, 1829, and the 
books of the treasurer of the Board of Trustees of the Clearfield Academy fur- 
nish the following corroborative minutes, to wit : Order No. 4, " November 
1828, order in favor of Isaac Southard and Samuel Merrell as the first pay- 
ment for building the Clearfield Academy, $500." 

In the report of Richard Shaw and Samuel Fulton, the auditors " for the 
year 1829, up to 22d May, 1830, as follows: 

" It appears that, that when the academy is finished according to contract, 
by Southard and Merrell, and their payments are all due, then taking into 
their settlement the different sums loaned them, there will be [due] 

•' Amount due from Abraham Witmer, being balance of his subscription, 
about $900.00." 

Mr. James Wrigley, who was born in 18 12, and who worked on this build- 
ing — and was afterwards the treasurer — is positive that it was not completed, 
and that no school was held in it until the winter of 1830-31. 

The Clearfield Academy, then, was completed in 1830. The building is 
situate on Front street, in the town of Clearfield, and faces Witmer Park, which 
extends to the eastern bank of the West Branch of Susquehanna River, and 
also almost directly opposite the landing known to lumbermen as the " Lick." 
The structure is of red brick, having a front of about sixty feet on Front street, 
and extending back about thirty feet, two stories high, with a cylindrical, octa- 
gon tower built from the center of the building. The building is now used as 
a dwelling house, with one room reserved and occupied by one department of 
the primary schools of the borough. 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 295 

Did the academy trustees ever receive the fifteen hundred dollars donated 
by Mr. Abraham Witmer ? This question has been frequently asked, and the 
writer has never seen a published answer to the inquiry. The inquiry must 
be answered in the affirmative. On October 3, 1838, the treasurer, Richard 
Shaw, is charged in his account as follows : "To draught on the Treasurer of 
Clearfield Co. received from Commissioners of the county on account of debt 
due by Abraham Witmer dec'd, in part of his subscription to the Academy, 
$600." 

Subsequently, suit was brought in the Court of Common Pleas of Dauphin 
county, against John Graff, administrator of Abraham Witmer, deceased, and 
judgment obtained on 28th August, 1835, for $1,270.12. Mr. Graff assigned 
to the Clearfield Academy, in part payment of this judgment, a bond against 
Alexander Irvin, amounting to $1,070.52, which was afterwards canceled by 
Richard Shaw, giving his bond for the payment of the same on April i, 1838, 
which was subsequently paid. The small balance, after deducting attorney 
charges, was arranged. 

Again it has been asked, what became of the $2,000 appropriated to this 
school and mentioned in the act of 12th February, 1827? It was also paid, 
as is shown by the account referred to, in which are these charges against the 
treasurer : " To cash received from the Commonwealth, available funds, 
$1,000; to cash received from 'Do,' to be placed in some safe productive 
fund, $1,000." 

The moneys received from Mr. Witmer's estate, and also from the Com- 
monwealth, were mingled and a portion invested, and finally was transferred 
to the school district of Clearfield borough, under act of 17th April, 1871. 

The first school held in the academy was in the year 1830-31, and was 
taught by Dr. A. T. Schryver, now living. The writer is well aware that it is 
stated in various articles heretofore published, that the first school was taught 
here in 1828 by Dr. Schryver, but from what has been written such could not 
have been the case. From a statement made by Dr. Schryver recently, it 
would appear that he taught in Curwensville in 1826-27 ; on Grampian Hill 
in 1827-28 and 1828-29, and in 1829-30 in the grand jury room in Clearfield, 
and in the log cabin across the river — opposite the jail — which was built by 
Martin Nicholls, and in which he lived while building a new house. We have, 
in support of this position, the statement of Mr. James Wrigley — corroborated 
by a collateral event — that he attended the first school in the academy, and 
that Dr. Schryver was the teacher, and that it was in the late fall of 1830. We 
have it from Dr. Schryver himself that he received pay for the schooling of 
two poor children of Lawrence township ; that they attended his school at the 
academy in Clearfield ; that he received his pay from the county during his 
term in the academy ; and that he only taught in the academy one winter. 
The records of Clearfield county show that Dr. Schryver received two dollars 



296 History of Clearfield County. 

and ninety-four cents for educating poor children of Lawrence township, on 
November 8, 1830, which minute has been shown him, and he informs us 
that our conclusion fixing the date of the first school in the Clearfield Acad- 
emy in the fall of 1830 is correct. 

The second teacher was James H. Laverty, who began in the fall of 183 1 
and continued as teacher until Decembr 20, 1834; salary, $300 per year. On 
28th March, 1834, at a minority meeting of the trustees, the academy was 
leased to Mr. Laverty for a term of two years after April i, 1834. Subse- 
quently, on April ii, 1834, this contract was annulled, and Mr. Laverty noti- 
fied to quit the premises, which he did, on December 20, 1834. 

On May 5, 1834, twenty-two by-laws were adopted by the trustees, and a 
lengthy report was made, stating, inter alia, " that there are no available funds 
that can be made use of for general purposes." 

In December, 1834, Judge Moses Boggs was employed as teacher from 
December 20, 1834, to May i, 1835, upon the following terms: "He is to 
receive all he can make by the teaching of scholars that are sent to his school ; 
the board of trustees agree to pay him the sum of fifty-five dollars, 
provided he is to teach the five [poor] children as is directed by the act of 
Assembly." 

September 2, 1835, Mr. John Heisey was appointed teacher for one quar- 
ter, " he to take the academy and to look only to the subscribers to him for 
his pay." 

In 1836-37 the free schools for Lawrence township were held in the acad- 
emy, as is shown by the following report of the superintendent of common 
schools, 1836-37: " Trustees kept no school-teachers employed by common 
schools." The academy trustees subsequently had sessions of school before 
the common schools began and after they closed, contributing, however, to 
the support of the teacher of the common schools. Common schools were 
held here each year until 1840 by Lawrence township, and then by Clear- 
field borough until 1852. 

The following is believed to be a correct list of the additional teachers who 
taught in the academy from time to time, with the dates of their respective 
elections, it being impossible to learn the length of time each taught, viz. : 

Hugh Caldwell, April 3, 1837 ; salary, thirty dollars per quarter; Thomas 
Lever, elected September 8, 1837; Adam C. Shaw, March 8, 1839; James 
H. Rankin. May 6, 1839; W. H. Butler, October 7, 1839; W. L. Martin, 
April 23, 1840; Lewis Huxthal, June 20, 1840; Jno. L. Cutle, April 24, 
1 841 ; Matt. Taylor, January 26, 1842 ; Frederick G. Betts, January 24, 1844 ; 
W. C. Welch, January 24, 1844 ; Wm. Porter, March 25, 1844; J. G. Gordon, 
July, 1844; Jno. L. Cutle, February i, 1845 ; J^o. F. Weaver, May 8, 1845 ; 
Mrs. C. Betts, May 8, 1845 i Thos. Fulton, January, 1846; Wm. A. Wallace, 
November 10, 1846; Wm. Hotchkiss, December i, 1846; Miss Mary D. 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 297 

Hotchkiss, August 19, 1847; Cornelia McGee, December 30, 1848 ; Rev. Mr. 
Merwin, April 26, 1850; Mrs. Wrigley, July 13, 1850; Mr. and Mrs. Catlin, 
September 28, 1850; W. A. Campbell, July 26, 1854; Joseph Buchannan, 

, 1857; Rev. J. M. Galloway, January 15, 1858; C. B. Sanford, March 

30, 1858; Miss Smith, March 30, 1858; J. M. Galloway, January 31, 1859; 
Miss H. S. Swan, May 16, 1863; Dan'l W. McCurdy, November 28, 1863 ; 
J. P. Worrell, November 28, 1863 ; Rev. P. L. Harrison, September 23, 1865. 

The following persons assisted Mr. Harrison, viz : Miss H. S. Swan, Mrs. 
Harrison, Miss Byer, Miss Broom, Miss Clark, Miss Smith, Miss Mitchell, Miss 
Cray, Miss M. McAlpine. 

Mr. Harrison quit the academy in 1873, after which Miss H. S. Swan oc- 
cupied two rooms with a girls' school ; R. M. McEnally one room as boys' 
school, and also for a night school ; I. P. Schaefifer, German school ; Miss M. 
McAlpine occupied one room in which she gave private instruction in instru- 
mental music. 

Clearfield Academy — Miscellaneous. 

Phonography. — In 1 830-1 Dr. A. T. Schryver kept a night school in the 
academy, at which he taught phonography. 

At an early day the services of the Catholic church were held here. 
September 7, 1837. Terms of Thomas Lever, (teacher) : 
" The use of the academy for a residence, the interest of the $2,000 appro- 
priated, and to teach 

Spelling and reading for $1.50 

The above with arithmetic and writing 2.50 

The preceding with geography and grammar 3. 00 

And with French or Latin 4.00." 

This is perhaps the first teacher who taught French and Latin in the county. 
1 84 1, January 23. Permission given Rev. Mr. Wilcox to occupy one room 
for prayer-meeting. 

1843, January 21. "Contract for making desks and seats let to James 
Wrigley, for the price specified in his proposal, $48." 

Union Sunday-school directed to occupy lower room. 

1844, October 21. I. G. Gordon employed as teacher of Latin, Greek and 
mathematics. 

1846, March 16. Female teacher directed "to cause her pupils to write 
compositions." 

1846-7. Female school taught in connection with common school. 

185 I, August 21. Bidwell's hemispherical maps introduced. 

185 1. Kitchen built by J. C. Whitehill. 

i860, February 6. Rev. J. M. Galloway "stated that the academy tuition 
failed to meet expenses, under his contract, and asked to be released from the 
remaining two years under his contract." 



298 History of Clearfield County. 

1865, September 23. Rev. Harrison introduced "Holbrook's Geared Tel- 
lurean," which his scholars will remember with a peculiar pleasure. 

1869-70. The Republican's Friend, a school paper edited by R. D 
Swoope, esq., was read each week. This was followed by the Democrat' s 
Frie7id, edited by P. B. Wacthel. Then, as now, these two elements could not 
get along very well, and were suppressed by the Rev. Mr. H., and a compro- 
mise and combination effected giving birth to the School Echo, edited by R. D. 
Swoope and P. B. Wacthel, the Hon and the Iamb having lain down together. 
It was concluded that competition was the life of the school, as well as of 
trade, and a new journal was started — The Independent — edited by J. F. Sny- 
der, assisted by W. A. Hagerty, esq. These papers thrived for a considerable 
time. 

Ex-Governor William Bigler and Hon. William A. Wallace were elected 
school directors by the board of trustees under the act of April 17, 1871. Mr. 
Wallace resigned in 1875 and Governor Bigler subsequently died, thus leaving 
a vacancy which has never been filled. 

J. F. Weaver, G. L. Reed, Rich. Mossop, Jas. B. Graham, Joseph Shaw, 
James Alexander, and J. B. McEnally, acting trustees, by their deed dated 
August 25, 1876, recorded in deed book No. 12, page 273, conveyed the 
academy property to the school district of Clearfield "for the use of the graded 
schools." 

This conveyance practically ends the history of an institution which has 
done much to advance the cause of education, and though its walls may 
crumble and decay, we will look upon the place where it stood with reverence, 
for it will recall the fact that in years past there stood a building on that spot, 
within the halls of which we sat and received instruction and discipline so 
valuable to us in the struggle for success; and then too we will not forget that 
the first "free schools " of the township of Lawrence and of the borough of 
Clearfield were opened, thereby giving the advantages of education to the poor 
as well as to the rich of this community. The teachers of this institution were 
men and women well qualified for the work which they undertook. Many of 
them to-day occupy prominent and responsible positions. Some have been 
highly honored by their fellows, prominent among whom is Hon. William A. 
Wallace, ex-United States Senator. 

Ciirwensville Academy. — John Irvin, by his deed, dated November 4, 1831, 
recorded in deed book E, 351, conveyed to Job England, Jno. P. Hoyt, Isaac 
Bloom, and Jno. Irwin, jr., trustees of the Curwensville Academy, a piece of 
ground situate in Curwensville, " being sixty feet square, and the same lot on 
which the school-house is now being built." This academy only existed as 
such for a few years, after which the common schools occupied it, under which 
head it will be treated more fully. 

Female Seminaries. — The superintendent of common schools in his report 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 299 

for 1 841, page 397, in speaking of this subject with reference to Clearfield 
county says: "There are no female seminaries." But Mr. Thomas H. Bur- 
rows in his '* State Book of Pennsylvania " (2d edition, page 234), in speaking 
of Clearfield says : " The literary institutions are an academy, a female sem- 
inary, and seventy-six common schools." 

By referring to the head " Academy Miscellaneous," it will be seen that 
there was a female school taught here in connection with the common schools, 
and this we presume is what Mr. Burrows terms " a female seminary," as it is 
possible that such school was in existence when the first edition of his book 
was published in 1843. 

Miss Swans School, — In 1868 Miss H. S. Swan established a school for 
girls, in Clearfield, in the Keystone building, on Second street, between Cherry 
and Walnut streets. This school was very successful and was continued at 
the same place until 1873, when it was transferred to the academy, and upon 
the organization of the Leonard graded schools in 1874 was abandoned. Miss 
Swan was an excellent teacher — she is now dead. She was assisted by Miss 
S. Germond, Miss E. Cooper, and Miss Fannie D. James. 

Common Schools. — When, or where the first free school was held in the 
county cannot be definitely determined, but it is very probable that it was 
either in the Clearfield or Curwensville academies. The system was then in 
its infancy. Nine of the seventeen districts of the county, we are told, rejected 
it. We have searched in vain for the record showing what districts these 
were. From the records found it might be stated with reasonable certainty 
that Bradford, Burnside, Covington, Chest, Lawrence, Pike, and Penn town- 
ships all accepted the system in November, 1834, and that Bell, Brady, Deca- 
tur, Fox, Girard, Jordon, and Jay did so in 1835, Beccaria, Gibson, and Morris 
doing so in 1836; but this statement is not claimed to be without considerable 
doubt. The only reliable data found being the report of Thomas H. Burrows, 
then superintendent of the common schools, who, in his report for 1836-7, says 
that on November 4, 1834, the whole number of districts in the county was 
seventeen — accepting, districts eight, not accepting, districts nine. The same 
authority tells us in his report of 1836-7 that " Williston, Brady and Coving- 
ton townships received appropriations ; that there were four schools in the 
Williston district with three male and two female teachers ; Brady district, 
four schools and five male teachers ; Covington two schools and two male 
teachers ; that reading, writing, arithmetic, and geography were taught, and 
the ' character of the teachers respectable and competent ;' good character 
well qualified." 

It is a lamentable fact that the record of these struggles was not more 
carefully kept, as they would of themselves form an interesting chapter in the 
educational history of the county. The records in the commissioner's office 
contain practically all that can be found. There is evidence of the meeting 



300 History of Clearfield County. 

of the school delegates on May 2, 1836, which meeting is evidenced by the 
following minutes : 

" Received of the commissioners two dollars for attendance as school del- 
egate. 

" May 3, 1836. James McNiel." 

Payments were made on the same date and on the same account as fol- 
lows : 

James Elder, $3.00; Jesse Kyler, $4.00; James Thompson, $4.00; E. 
Fenton, $2.00; Abram Leonard (December 6, 1836), $2.00. 

Among the interesting things recorded are the following, which will give 
some idea of the interest taken at that early day in some of the townships : 

Fox Tozvnship. — "Ehzabeth M. Hyatt's school near John Green's ; the 
number of scholars taught is 22 males, 34 females; total 56; been taught 15 
weeks. 

" Hannah M. Brockway's school has been taught ten weeks ; number of 
scholars, 8 males and 17 females; total 25. 

" Minerva Horton's school has been taught ten weeks ; number of scholars is 
3 males and 12 females; total 15. 

"Three schools not opened." 

Brady township at this time (1835-6) was divided into six districts, with 
contracts for building five school-houses, three already raised, others making 
preparations. 

The most interesting of these reports comes from Chest, and is as follows : 

The school directors from " old Chest, now Chest, Bell and Burnside — " 

" Do report that we have put into operation three schools, first, taught by 
Sarah Snyder three months at $8 per month, in all twenty-four dollars. 

2. " By Simon Thompson three months, at fourteen dollars per month. 

3. "James Campbell three months, at $16 per month. Rent of school 
house and stove had for school purposes from John Smith. 

" Character of teachers good, as known to tts, and kept good rules in scholl. 
Branches taught, reading and writing and arithmetic. First school, as above 

stated, had twenty scholars 20 

Second school about thirty 30 

Third school about forty 40 

" We certify that the above is a true statement of the schools established in 
'old Chest now Bell Chest and Burnside townships.' " 

As a matter of local interest to Beccaria township, the following minute is 
given. 

" The following is a description of the house in which the citizens of Bec- 
caria township have proceeded in the school section. On Frj/day the i8th 
day of March [1836] At the township election they elected six directors 
which was — 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 301 

" Anthony Wright, Joseph Turner, Samuel M. Smith, Wm. Cree, Jacob 
Leonard, M. C. Robertson, and they met on the next Friday, and elected M. 
C. Robertson for delegate who met in Clearfield town at the delegate meeting 
and voted for a school, and then within the space of twenty days met again 
and organized by appointing Anthony Wright president, Samuel M. Smith 
treasurer, M. C. Robertson secretary. Then we proceeded to divide the town- 
ship into five schools it being as few as we could put the township off with. 
Each school will have t\venty-five scholars above four years old, and then we 
ordered an election to see if the people would have an additional day and they 
said not." 

This report was made in 1836. 

It cannot be definitely settled at what date the first common school was 
held in Brady township, but it is very probable that it was in 1836 or 1837. 
John Carlisle was employed to teach it. In speaking of this school he says : 
^' There were no primaries ; all Brady was the district ; all came who wanted 
to or could come. I soon found I was overwhelmed. I had a Bible and Testa- 
ment class, after that all kinds. Whatever the parents had they would send 
their children with, old torn spelling books and primers of all varieties. The 
house was crowded ; some came a long way." Westly Horn was employed 
to assist Mr. Carlisle, each taking one end of the room. Mr. C. also says : 
" We soon had eighty scholars on our list, and over sixty of an average." 
Cobb's was the first regular series of books introduced. He also says, " then 
came a new set of teachers, the Seylers, the Arnolds, John Reams, Westly 
Horn, and others." 

It is not the province of this article to give a detailed account of the county, 
and these few incidents have been cited merely to show that there was some 
activity upon this question. Leaving these matters for local historians we will 
now turn to the 

Common Schools of Clearfield Town and Borough. — The first common 
schools held in the town of Clearfield were held under the management of the 
school directors of Lawrence township in 1834-5 O"" 1835-6, in the Clearfield 
Academy. The academy trustees usually had two months school before and 
after the three months of common schools. The same teachers were employed 
by both and were jointly supported, the trustees paying from $2 to $6 per 
month on account of the salaries. The schools continued to be taught in this 
way until 1840, when the town of Clearfield became a borough. 

From 1840, the date of the incorporation of Clearfield borough, until the 
fall of 1852, the common schools for the borough were held in the academy 
under the same arrangement with reference to payment of teachers, as that had 
by school directors of Lawrence township. 

In 185 1 George Thorn, as contractor, erected the "Town Hall" which, 
by the way, was the first common school building erected in the borough. The 



302 History of Clearfield County. 

first school was opened in this building in the fall of 1852. The "Town Hall" 
was located on Pine street on lot No. 90, and immediately east of the Presby- 
terian Church. It was a two story brick structure about 30 by 50, with two 
rooms down stairs and one large room or hall on the second floor. Besides 
being used for school purposes, it served as a place of amusement. Ventrilo- 
quists, magicians and magic lanterns met and amused the populace here. 
Singing schools and spelling schools also found place. " Lockouts " were not 
strangers here, one being recalled which lasted several days. All efforts to 
obtain a correct and chronological Hst of teachers have resulted in failure. 
Upon the best information we find that the following persons were among the 
teachers: H. B. Smith, first teacher, 1852-3, A. P. Moore, T. J. McCullough 

and Eliza Livergood, (first female teacher) Mr. Ferguson, Permit, W. S. 

Bradley, William M. McCullough, Charles B. Sandford and John G. Hall 
(1857-8), John H. Fulford, Mr. Bingham, J. McGaughey, C. B. Sanford, Mr. 
Prideaux, Mr. Smith, Mrs. Liddle nee Swan, Miss H. S. Swan, Miss Hannah 
Spackman, Mrs. W. J. Hoffer nee Walters, Mrs. Mary Cooper nee Sackett, 
George W. Snyder, Mr. Innis. Private schools were taught in summer seasons 
by many of the then young ladies of the town, in this building. The build- 
ing continued to accommodate the common schools of the town until 1872. 
In the fall of the previous year the school directors, by deed dated the 4th of 
November, 1871, recorded in deed book vol. 5, 367, in consideration of $1,800, 
purchased the old Methodist Church property on Cherry street and fitted it 
up for school purposes, using it in conjunction with the " Town Hall," it being 
occupied by J. F. McKenrick, A. W. Mulholland, Mrs. Hoffer nee Walters, and 
part of the time by Miss Mary Riley, Mrs. Ella Morgan, Miss Ella Doyle, the 
" Town Hall " school being taught at this time by Mr. I. P. Schaefer. 

In 1 87 1, April 17, the Legislature of Pennsylvania passed an act entitled 
"An Act to establish graded schools in Clearfield." 

The preamble reading as follows: 

" Whereas, Legislation is necessary for the purpose of establishing, in the 
borough of Clearfield, a system of graded schools in which the rudiments and 
lower English branches shall be taught free, and the higher English branches 
and languages and classics shall be taught at moderate prices, and in order to 
secure to the children of all citizens thereof an academical education, if they 
desire it, and to insure the keeping open of the schools the longest period pos- 
sible, in each year, consistent with the resources of the taxpayers therein ; and 

" Whereas, It is believed that these objects can be obtained by uniting the 
resources and management of the common schools in said borough, under an 
arrangement, made by authority of law; therefore," etc. 

The Act consists of five sections, the first of which gives " The trustees of 
the Clearfield Academy power to sell and convey into the school district of 
the borough of Clearfield the academy lots, subject to the express condition 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 303 

that the same shall be used for the purpose of a public or graded school, in 
which all the English branches, mathematics and the classics shall be taught." 

Section two authorized the directors to sell the lots on which the town hall 
and the newly acquired houses stood. 

Section three fixes the number of directors at eight — six of whom are to 
be elected by the people and two every two year by the trustees of the Clear- 
field Academy. Authority is given to erect building, borrow money, and issue 
bonds. 

Section four regulates the supervision of the schools, and directs that lower 
branches shall be taught free. 

Section five authorizes the trustees of the academy to appropriate money 
towards the erection of building. A supplement to this act was passed April 
9, 1872, authorizing the erection of the school-house upon any other ground 
that might be purchased for that purpose. 

On May 2, 1873, James T. Leonard, et al., by their deed recorded in Deed 
Book, Vol. 4, p. 153, in consideration of the sum of " one dollar and a desire 
upon the part of the said James T. Leonard to advance the cause of education 
in the borough of Clearfield," conveyed to the school district of Clearfield bor- 
ough the lots " known as the David Litz foundary property," upon which the 
Leonard Graded School building now stands. 

The school district, by their deed dated October 17, 1874, recorded in 
Deed Book, Vol. 7, p. 242, conveyed the town hall and Methodist Church 
properties to James B. Graham for $3,445. 

The trustees of the academy conveying the academy property, as herein- 
before stated by deed of August 25, 1876. 

Leonard Graded School. 

The building, a fine brick, stands on an elevated spot overlooking the town 
from the east. It is divided into ten apartments, one of which is occupied by 
the Leonard Library Association's library. 

The first school was opened in this building in September 28, 1874, 
under the most promising circumstances. Great interest was manifested by 
the whole public, which was given voice by an opening, or dedication exercise, 
in the Opera House on Friday, October 9, 1874, at which the following exer- 
cises were held : 

I. Prayer, Rev. A. D. Yocum ; music, Clearfield orchestra. 2. Hon. W. 
A. Wallace, on behalf of the board, presented the building to the citizens. 
3. Dr. R. V. Wilson accepted building on behalf of the citizens. 4. Dedica- 
tory prayer. Rev. H. S. Butler. 5. Address, " Graded Schools," J. P. Wick- 
ersham, State superintendent of common schools. 6. Address, Ex-Governor 
WilHam Bigler. 7. Address, Rev. H. S. Butler. 8. Benediction, Rev. H. S. 
Butler. 



304 History of Clearfield County. 

The task of properly grading the schools fell upon the principal, Prof. G. 
W. Fortney, and I. P. Schaeffer, assistant, who proved themselves equal to the 
emergency. He found everything in confusion, but soon systematized and 
graded the schools so effectually that B. C. Youngman, succeeding Mr. Fortney 
as principal, adopted their arrangement, which, with such improvements as 
time made necessary, is still in force. 

The following is a complete list of all the teachers employed in this institu- 
tion up to this date, viz. : 

1874-5.— G. W. Fortney, I. P. Scha;fer, Miss H. S. Swan, J. F. McKen- 
rick, A. R. Reed, Miss Fannie D. James. 

1875-6.— B. C. Youngman, I. P. Schaefer, Miss H. S. Swan, J. F. McKen- 
rick, Miss Mattie Morrison, Miss Fannie D. James, Miss E. A. P. Rynder. 

1876-7.— B. C. Youngman, F. G. Harris, Miss H. S. Swan, J. F. McKen- 
rick. Miss E. A. P. Rynder, Miss Mary W. Moore. 

1877-8.— B. C. Youngman, Frank G. Harris, Miss H. S. Swan, J. F. Mc- 
Kenrick, Miss E. A. Rynder, Miss Mary W. Moore. 

1878-9.— B. C. Youngman, Frank G. Harris, Miss Ada Ale, J. F. McKen- 
rick. Miss Hattie Moore, Mrs. Mary W. Shaw. 

1879-80. — B. C. Youngman, Frank G. Harris, Miss Ada M. Ale, Matt. 
Savage, Miss Hattie R. Moore, Miss Mabel McGeorge, Miss Carrie M. Flegal. 
1 880-1. —B. C. Youngman, F. G. Harris, Matt. Savage, L. E. Weber, W. 
E. Tate, Miss Kate M. Mitchell, Miss Carrie Flegal. 

1 88 1-2. — B. C. Youngman, Matt. Savage, L. E. Weber, J. M. Davidson, 
Miss Kate M. Mitchell, Miss Carrie Flegal, Mary Powell. 

1882-3. — B. C. Youngman, Matt. Savage, Miss Lois McGaughey, J. H. 
Mead, Miss Kate M. Mitchell, Miss Sophie Whitehill, Miss Mary Powell. 

1883-4. — B. C. Youngman, Matt. Savage, Miss Kate M. Mitchell, Jno. C. 
Barclay, Mrs. Alice Heisey, Sophie Whitehill, Annie Savage. 

1884-5. — ^- C. Youngman, Miss Madge Forcey, Miss Saddie Gallaher,, 
Jno. C. Barclay, Miss Alice Heisey, Miss Sophie Whitehill, Annie Savage. 

1885-6.— B. C. Youngman, Frank Hutton, Saddie Gallaher, Jno. C. Bar- 
clay. Alice Heisey, Sophie Whitehill, Annie Savage. 

1886-7. — B. C. Youngman, Saddie Gallaher, Mary F. Heckendorn, Jno. C. 
Barclay, Alice Heisey, Sophie Whitehill, Jennie M. Read, Annie Hall, Annie 
Savage. 

The first class was graduated in 1876. No commencement was held until 
1877, when the 1876 and 1877 classes joined, and held commencement exer- 
cises in the opera house on April 4, 1877. 

The school has done a great work in the cause of education. Its classes 
have not been large, but the success in life of its graduates indicate the training 
received. 

Of those who, from time to time, have graduated from the Leonard graded 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 305 

school, J. F. Snyder and W. A. Hagerty (class of 1876), A. ^P. MacLeod and 
W. Irvin Shaw (class of 1879), have entered the legal profession; Huston 
Hartswick (1878) and Preston Wilson (1879) the medical profession; J. F. 
Short, journalism ; Benjamin F. Boggs and Joseph H. Hammond have become 
stenographers; Ida M. Gearhart and C. H. Bickel (1877), Lois McGaughey 
(1878), Mary Powell, Sophia Whitehill, and Frank Marshall (1879), Will 
Owens (1880), Alice Worrell, Kate Bickel, Carrie Carrick, and Larry Mc- 
Donald (1884), have become teachers in the common schools. 

The course of study pursued is such as is prescribed by the act of Assem- 
bly creating the school. Its present principal, Professor B. C. Youngman, 
who has now been in charge for eleven years, being an able and effective 
teacher, by whom the classics and higher branches have been most successfully 
taught. But few of the graduates of this institution have entered college. 
Miss Blanch Flegal entered Pittsburgh Female College; Huston Hartswick 
entered West Point ; Preston Wilson, Amherst ; W. Irvin Shaw, Lafayette ; 
Harvey Liddle, Princeton ; — all of whom received their preparatory training 
at the hands of Professor Youngman. 

The name given the school, viz., " Leonard Graded Schools," was so ap- 
plied in honor of Hon. James T. Leonard, who took a deep interest in the 
success of the schools. Although almost four score years old he daily visited 
the halls during 1874-5 and 1875-6. It is not the purpose here to eulogize 
any one, but in view of the present indifferent feeling toward Judge Leonard, 
attention is here directed to some of the marks of respect shown him by the 
pupils and by the people. The first event was the presentation to him, on 
December 22, 1874, of an ebony cane, surmounted by a solid gold head beau- 
tifully engraved, and having the following inscription: "Christmas, 1874. 
Presented to James T. Leonard by \S\& pupils of the Leonard Graded School." 
Some might be inclined to say — Oh ! this is simply what the children did ; 
well enough, that is true. Let us see what " the people " did. Under the 
title of " Leonard Graded Schools, Liberality of Hon. James T. Leonard," 
published in the town papers about August 30, 1876, after giving a detailed 
financial statement of the school district, this minute appears : " And on the 
26th August, [1876,] at a full meeting of the board, and upon settlement being 
made as aforesaid, it was ascertained that the district owed to Hon. James T. 
Leonard, on the original investment, for building, furniture, apparatus, etc., 
$14,302.53, together with $1,074.61 of interest, for which he held no security; 
and, on motion, it was resolved to issue bonds to the amount of $1,000, bear- 
ing interest from date, and an order on the treasurer for $74.61 ; and upon 
delivery of the same to Judge Leonard, he made the following donation to the 
Clearfield borough school district : " 

" ' And now, 26th August, 1876, I hereby donate to the school district of 
Clearfield the sum of fourteen thousand three hundred and two dollars and 



3o6 History of Clearfield County. 

fifty-three cents (14,302.53), being the balance due me for money advanced 
for the erection, furniture, and apparatus of the Leonard Graded School build- 
ing, upon settlement this day made. Jas. T. LEONARD.' 

" All of which appears upon the minutes of said school board, and is hereby 
respectfully submitted to the tax-payers of the district. 

" (Attest.) By Order of the Board. 

" A. C. Tate, Secy. James T. Leonard, Pres't." 

Also, under the head of " Complimentary Supper to Hon. James T. Leon- 
ard," is the following : 

" Clearfield, August 30, 1876. 
" Ho7i. James T. Leonard : 

" Dear Sir : In the statement published this day, by the school board of 
Clearfield, the citizens of your borough are informed of your munificent gift 
to the Leonard Graded School. As a slight evidence of their appreciation of 
that gift, and of your other persistent labors in the cause of education in our 
midst, they would respectfully tender you a complimentary supper, to take 
place at the Leonard House, on Friday evening, September i, 1876. 

"W. H. Dill, 
" A. C. Tate, 

" E. A. BiGLER, 

" Committee." 
Reply : 

"Clearfield, August 31, 1876. 
"Rev.W. H. Dill, A. C. Tate, and E. A. Bigler, Committee on behalf of Cit- 
izens : 

" Gentlemen : Your letter of 30th inst., inviting me to a complimentary 
'supper,' is before me. I accept, with pleasure, your kind invitation, and 
would express to you and through you to the citizens of Clearfield my thanks 
for their appreciation of my efforts in behalf of education. 

" Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"James T. Leonard." 

The supper took place at the time appointed, Hon. G. R. Barrett sitting 
at the head of the table. In the language of Father Test, a great amount of 
good things were " deposited beneath this vest;" numerous toasts were offered 
and responded to in neat addresses by Hon. William A. Wallace, Hon. G. R. 
Barrett, Hon. J. B. McEnally, Rev. W. H. Dill, T. H. Murray and Israel Test, 
esqrs. 

"The Leonard Literary Association" was an out- growth of and an auxiliary 
to the Leonard Graded School. It; was organized in November, 1874, by the 
teachers and older scholars of the schools, and became an efficient educator. 
The meetings of the society were held on Friday evenings, and were very in- 
teresting and largely attended by the citizens, regardless of age. As a liter- 
ary and debating society it has never been excelled in the county. After the 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 307 

close of the schools, in 1876, the interest in this direction seemed to calm 
down, and since 1878 no meeting has been held. 

The literary society had, as one of its objects, the establishment of a public 
library. Through dramatical entertainments, the first of which was given June 
8, 1875, another on December 23, 1875, and lecture courses, a considerable 
sum of money was raised, which, with donations from the citizens, was used 
in the foundation of a public library, the care of which was assumed by the 
Leonard Literary Association. The library, consisting of about 500 volumes, 
was opened to the public on September i, 1876. Oscar Mitchell, esq., and 
W. A. Hagerty, esq., are the present librarians. 

Through the efforts of Mr. B. C. Youngman, the present principal, a school 
library has been established in connection with the High School department 
of the Leonard Graded Schools. Some donations have been made, and with 
the purchases this library is worth about two hundred and fifty dollars. 

CURWENSVILTE. 

In the Curwensville Academy the first common school for Pike township 
was held about 1835 by John Patton, sr., at eighteen dollars per month. Hugh 
Caldwell, Peter Hoover, Reuben Hunter, et al., taught here. This building 
was used until 1852, when a school-house was built on Walnut street. The 
board bought the old Methodist Church and held school in it until 1869, when 
it was sold. Their district at that time owned one lot on Walnut street. 
General Patton bought and presented it with two other lots adjoining, on 
which additional buildings were erected. These lots were finally sold for 
$3,400, and the lots on which the Patton Graded Public School building 
stands were purchased. General Patton again purchased another lot on the 
corner and presented it to the district. The Patton Graded Public School 
building was completed in 1885. It is of stone, and is the finest school build- 
ing in the county. General Patton donated towards its erection $16,500 and 
the corner lot valued at $3,500. The first school in this building commenced 
October 5, 1885, with the following teachers: 

Mr. G. W. Weaver, principal ; Mrs. G. W. Weaver, grammar school ; Miss 
Lou Farewell, intermediate school; Miss Mamie Irvin, second primary; Miss 
Lizzie Crouch, first primary school. 

The first commencement was held in 1886 with the following graduates: 

Harriet Crouch, Katie Krise, Blanche Sloss, May Kratzer, Mollie Hoover, 
S. P. Arnold, Walter Buoy, G. F. Kittleberger, Orvis Kerns. 

During the year 1886 a library association was formed. A new book case 
costing $120, and 400 volumes have been placed in the library room, 

William Irvin erected in Curwensville a brick school- house in about 1854, 
which was rented by the borough and used for many years as a "High 
School." 



3o8 History of Clearfield County. 

Race in the Schools. 

But little of interest can be learned concerning the attendance of colored 
children at the early schools ; whether there were any such in the county is not 
known to the writer. The first authentic reference to provisions made for this 
class of scholars is a minute of January 17, 1844, when George Leech was 
authorized to rent benches in the upper school room of the Clearfield Academy 
for the use of colored pupils going to school. 

Dr. Schryver informs us that in 1855 there were colored scholars attend- 
ing the common schools of the county ; that they were children of Samuel 
Cochran, and attended the Grampian Hills school ; that there was no distinc- 
tion made because of their color. 

Two colored boys attended the "Town Hall" schools about 1866 and 
occupied a platform in one corner of the room. W. Banks Holmes was the 
last colored scholar who attended the " Town Hall " schools. 

There are but few colored scholars in the county, and so far as the writer 
can learn no distinction is made because of their color 

County Superintendents. 

Until after the passage of the act of 1854 the secretary of the Common- 
wealth was ex-officio superintendent of all the common schools of the State. 
That act directed that there should be chosen an officer for each county, to be 
called the county superintendent, whose duty it should be to visit, as often as 
practicable, the several schools of his county, and to note the course and 
method of instruction and branches taught ; to examine all candidates for the 
profession of teacher, etc. This act has done much in advancing and improv- 
ing the grade and character of the schools of the county. Knowing the char- 
acter of the schools and efficiency of the teachers of to-day you need but con- 
trast them with the schools and teachers of 1854 to appreciate the improve- 
ment. The county superintendent in his report made November 14, 1854, 
says : " Nine-tenths of the schools are of a very low grade, reading, writing and 
arithmetic only being required by the directors and citizens. Orthography is 
not understood by one-tenth of the former teachers, and arithmetic but im- 
perfectly to the single rule of three ;" also, " I have examined about fifty 
applicants, to eight of whom I gave certificates by authority of law, and four 
of these were natives of New York [so was the superintendent]. Twenty got 
second class certificates, four for reading, orthography and the elements of 
arithmetic, the balance were know-nothings." 

The same superintendent says that he examined one appHcant, to whom 
he refused to give a certificate. The applicant returned afterwards and wanted 
to know why he did not receive a certificate. He was informed it was because 
" he did not know anything." Whereupon he insisted upon his having a cer- 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 309 

tificate to that effect, which was given him, and upon which he afterwards 

obtained a school. 

The schools of to-day, as well as the teachers, are, as a rule, of a high 

grade, in fact equal to those of any county in the State, very much of which 

is due to the efficiency of our county superintendents and their care in the 

examination of candidates for the profession of teacher, and in the granting of 

certificates. 

The following gentlemen have served as county superintendents, viz.: 

Dr. A. T. Schryver, 1854-7; L. L. Still, 1857-60; Jesse Broomall, 1860-3; 

Chas. B. Sanford, 1863-6; George W. Snyder, 1866-72; Jno. A. Gregory; 

1872-8; M. L. McQuown, 1878-84; Matt. Savage, 1884-7, and re-elected 

for the term from 1887-90. 

County Institutes. 

An attempt was made to hold an institute in 1854, but it was a complete 
failure. In 1855 a second attempt was made, which is described as follows by 
Dr. Schryver, the superintendent : " The first of the kind was held in the Town 
Hall, in Clearfield borough, by myself, assisted by J. L. Evans. On the first 
day but eight teachers were in attendance with three school directors and ten 
citizens. On the second day the attendance was better and Miss S. S. Swan 
[now Mrs. Liddle], teacher in the Town Hall, brought in a large number of 
pupils. On the third day an organization was effected, and officers appointed 
for the year, after which the meeting adjourned to meet in December." At 
the last county institute 255 teachers were in daily attendance. 

In 1859-60 institutes were held in Curwensville. 

In 1 86 1 the county superintendent reports: " No institute this year ; po- 
litical excitement in the fall and war excitement in the spring seemed to for- 
bid or excuse them." 

In 1864 an institute was held in the borough of Clearfield, commencing on 
23d August and continuing five days. About fifty teachers in attendance. 

In 1869 an institute was held in Curwensville ; no teachers present; six 
days' session. 

After this the institutes were as a rule held in Clearfield. 

In 1878 M. L. McOuown established a permanent lecture course in con- 
nection with the institute and introduced many prominent lecturers. This 
course was continued by his successor, Mr. Savage, and is now a prominent 
feature of the institute. 

In 1879 an educational exposition of scholars' and teachers' work was 
held in connection with the institute. Premiums or diplomas were awarded 
the successful competitors. 

iO 



310 History of Clearfield County. 

Normal Schools. 

The first normal school in the county was taught in Curwensville by Mr. 
Still, in the first year of his term, and was a failure. He taught only about 
two weeks. The next year he was more successful, teaching eight weeks. No 
normals appear to have been held after this until Mr. Snyder's term, during 
which he held nineteen months. Mr. Gregory and Mr. McQuown continued 
them and Superintendent Savage abandoned them. 

Miscellaneous. 

The first attempts made in the county to grade the common schools was 
in 1858, in Clearfield and Curwensville. 

In 1856 public sentiment with regard to education and the school system 
was favorable. 

Mr. Broomall reports in 1861 : "Public sentiment is mostly favorable to the 
•school system ; it is taken to be a fixed fact, though occasionally I heard it de- 
cried." 

In 1864 Mr. Sanford reports that, "Owing to the war, which deprived us 
■of the services of some of our best teachers, we were obliged in some instances 
to grant certificates to those whose qualifications were considerably below the 
standard." 

In the summer of 1875 Professor J. W. Dale taught a successful elocution 
school in the Leonard graded school building. 

The last pioneer log school house stood in the " Wood's District " of 
Ferguson township. It was removed in 1886 to give place to a more modern 
structure. 

In 1887, Miss Julia A. Orom, of Philadelphia, opened a summer school of 
elocution in the Leonard Graded School building in Clearfield. Miss Orom is 
a teacher of the Lemuel G. White method. 

Miss Matilda H. Ross, of Philadelphia, held a summer school of methods 
in Clearfield in June, 1887. 

The State Teachers' Association of Pennsylvania held its annual session at 
Clearfield, July 5, 6 and 7, 1887. Over five hundred members were enrolled. 

A school was opened about 1875, in Frenchville, under the auspices of the 
Catholic Church. Recently a new building was erected in which it is proposed 
to have a school under the charge of the sisters of charity. A school under 
the auspices of the same church was opened in Houtzdale in 1886. 

This article gives but a brief reference to the schools of the county. Noth- 
ing more was promised ; nothing more was attempted. The history of the schools 
of Clearfield town and borough have been treated more fully, and after much 
research and careful examination of such records as could be found, it is be- 
lieved that the history of these schools here given is authentic. 



Educational Interests and Institutions. 311 



Conclusion. 

From the first settlement until 1804, Clearfield county has no educational 
history. The first period of interest is from 1804 to 1830, the date of the 
opening of the Clearfield Academy. From 1830 to 1834 there was great ad- 
vancement, and from 1834, the date of the inauguration of the common 
schools, until the present, there has been remarkable progress, as will be seen 
by a glance at the statistical table below. Instead of the " old log cabin " in 
which the scholars were practically taught nothing but reading, we have our 
elegant brick and stone buildings in which the classics and all the higher 
branches are taught. And yet, as Carlyle has fitly said, " If we think of it, 
all that our final highest school can do for us, is still but what the first school 
began doing — teach us to read. We learn to read, in various languages, in 
various sciences ; we learn the alphabet and letters of all manner of books. But 
the place where we are to get knowledge, even theoretic knowledge, is the 
books themselves ! It depends on what we read, after all manner of professors 
have done their best for us. The true university of these days is a collection 
of books." 



312 



History of Clearfield County. 



The subjoined table will serve to show the comparative growth in educa- 
tional institutions within the county since the year 1835 ; the number of schools, 
teachers, salaries paid, and number of pupils attending school annually : 





SCHOOLS. 


TEACHERS. 


SALARIES. 


SCHOLARS. 


c£ 






Q p 


2 ° 








pa 






< ^ 


< ^ 








S tA 






0, X 


P- K 






< 


'2 

w ^ 2 


a 


< 


si. 
in 

" a < 




-1 


w 
< 


W 


s 


< 


w 


> £ S 


> S fe 


<; 


s 


> 


^ 


s 


fe 


<: 


<; 


S 


fe 


1835-6 


6 


7 




$ 


$ 


119 


lOI 


1836-7 


10 


10 


2 






200 


207 


1837-8 


53 


35i 


14 


16. 1 1 


6.911 


784 


676 


1838-9 


30 


43 


17 


16.737 


5-34, 




620 


1840 


5ii 


46 


II 


i7-37f 


8.43i 


880 


725 


1841* 
















1842 


'64^ 


54 


"6 


'iG.'sk 


6 00 


'S78 


740 


1843 


83- 


59 


21 


16.54 


8.54 


i>324 


1,126 


1844 


80 


71 


II 


i6.3ii 


8-33 


1,327 


1,125 


1845 


76 


51 


13 


i6.98i 


8.i3i 


1,112 


914 


1846 


82 


50 


15 


16.89 


6.63i 


1,058 


883 


1847 


75 


59 


18 


17.49 


10.65 
11.08 


1,341 


1,138 


1848 


77 


55 


18 


18.33 


1,518 


1,243 


1849 


91 


67 


13 


17.29 


9.16 


1,484 


1,223 


1850 


83 


65 


10 


18.00 


11-33 


1,549 


1,252 


1851 


96 


77 


19 


15-85 


9-95 


1,856 


1,479 


1852 


100 


78 


18 


19-13 


10.72 


1,911 


1,542 


1853 


85 


61 


18 


19.85 


11.84 


2,506 


1,757 


1854 


85 


61 


18 


19-85 


11.84 


2,506 


1,757 


1855 


100 


70 


32 


24.61 


1. 214 


2,534 


2,017 


1856 


114 


83 


34 


24-38 


20.00 


2,370 


1,823 


1857 


119 


73 


37 


26.56 


18.90 


2,697 


2,288 


1858 




80 


34 


24.62 


19.62 


2,828 


2,202 


1859 


126 


85 


47 


23.89 


20.33 


2,957 


2,555 


i860 


127 


84 


54 


24.69 


19.89 




2,450 


1861 
1862* 


. 134 


87 


60 


25-03 


20.32 


2^983 


2,503 


1863 


131 


"e'l 


'84 




23.20 


19-53 


3,065 


2,827 


1864 


140 


47 


95 


27.02 


21.95 


3,097 


2,939 


1865 


137 


38 


103 


35-11 


27,31 


3,133 


2,950 


1866 


140 


44 


103 


35.60 


28.19 


3,169 


2,961 


1867 


i43i 


44 


IT4 


40.15 


29.99 


2,178 


3,090 


1868 


153 


69 


§^ 


37-15 


30-27 


3,558 


2,973 


1869 


154 


72 


83 


39-72 


31-97 


3,377 


2,825 


1870 


157 


79 


79 


40.30 


33-82 


3,557 


2,871 


1871 


158 


80 




40.16 


35-45 


3,638 


3,139 


1872 


167 


94 


82 


41-13 


37-09 


3,040 


3,210 


1873 


171 


104 


72 


42.23 


38.23 


4,028 


3,576 


1874 


179 


106 


88 


43.62 


38.53 


3,908 


3,331 


^Vl 


193 


"5 


f 


40.73i 


35-43 


4,199 


3,638 


1876 


199 


120 


83 


39-i2i 


33 o6i 


4,499 


3,910 


1877 


208 


126 




34-83 


30.03 


4,387 


3,918 


1878 


212 


130 


98 


32-84 


28.73 


4,662 


4,327 


1879 


211 


118 


107 


32.16 


26.94 


4,698 


4,512 


1880 


226 


126 


105 


32.49 


26,74 


4,867 


4.716 


I88I 


242 


128 


137 


34-33 


28.33 


5,048 


4,711 


1882 


250 


106 


149 


4082 


29-56 


5,174 


4,919 


1883 


251 


93 


166 


38.47 


30.46 


5,630 


5,686 


'11^^ 


263 


102 


169 


42.52 


31-52 


6,095 


5,836 


1885 


275 


126 


162 


39-36 


32.25 


6,842 


6,454 


1886 


289 


130 


171 


37-47 


31-87 


6,807 


6,432 



No report. 



Political History of Clearfield County. 313 

CHAPTER XIX. 

POLITICAL HISTORY OF CLEARFIELD COUNTY. 

THE political history of Clearfield county is singular in this respect : While 
the first third of the century passed without the county assuming a posi- 
tion of any importance in the politics of the State, in the latter part of the 
century she has exercised a commanding influence in at least one of the great 
political parties of the State. 

The first election that tradition gives us was held in the year 1804, when 
Thomas Jefferson was elected president of the United States. The ofiicers of 
that election were John Bloom, Matthew Ogden and one other whose name has 
been lost. The issue in the election appeared to be confined to the prejudice 
that then existed between the tory element and the patriots of the Revolution. 
A riot occurred at the poll, there being but one election district in the county 
at the time. As the story of the election was told by one of the officers, the 
participants in the riot on the one side were Bloom and Ogden, assisted by 
their compatriots. The leaders on the other side were Caleb Bailey, Benjamin 
Hartshorn and others. 

From that time down to 1832, there appeared to be no party division or 
party organization. Candidates for office were compelled to stand on their 
own merits, and if elected, it was done without the aid of party organization. 

In the year 1832, William L. Moore, having become proprietor of the news- 
paper, attempted to effect the organization of the Democratic party, which was 
numerically in the ascendency in the county, but with indifferent success, and 
without succeeding in obtaining any recognition from the mass of the people. 
In 1834 an open rupture between the contending factions, one led by Moore 
and the other by Thomas Hemphill, took place, creating a division among the 
masses of the party which has never been entirely healed to the present time, 
but manifests itself whenever local issues of any importance arise. The old 
custom of springing independent candidates, after attempts at party nomina- 
tions, was regularly followed. 

In the year 1840 the first convention of regularly elected delegates of the 
Democratic party was held in Clearfield town, at which George R. Barrett was 
nominated for the Legislature. Immediately succeeding that nomination a 
mass-meeting was called, at which the late Governor William Bigler presided, 
and James H. Lafterty was put in nomination by that meeting for the same 
office. Lafferty was at the time the sitting member from this legislative dis- 
trict. The malcontents succeeded in obtaining recognition from the district 
convention which was composed of delegates from Clearfield, Clinton and Ly- 
coming counties. After receiving the nomination in the district convention 



314 History of Clearfield County. 

his election was easily accomplished, but before the time of the meeting of the 
Legislature arrived, there developed the fact that he had engaged in fraudulent 
and corrupt practices while in the Legislature the year before, one of which 
was receiving certain town lots in Lock Haven as a compensation for his vote 
upon certain measures. Political excitement at the time ran high. Lafiferty 
took fright and fled the State, and as a consequence, the district had no repre- 
sentation in the Legislature that year. 

The disastrous ending of the Lafiferty bolt had such an efifect upon the 
minds of the members of the Democratic party as to make a more perfect 
party organization not only feasible but desirous upon the part of all factions. 
The succeeding year Barrett, Lafiferty's opponent of the preceding year, was 
nominated and elected, and the regular party nominations were elected by the 
people until 1844. Up to this time there existed no other party organiza- 
tion in the county. Alexander Irvin, that year, ran as a Whig, but without 
party nomination, for the ofifice of prothonotary, and was elected over Con- 
stance C. Hemphill. In 1842, Dr. Henry Loraine, a practicing physician of 
the town of Clearfield, received the instructions of Clearfield county for Con- 
gress. The convention of the district was held at Clearfield, where he was 
nominated by the convention of the district. The Democratic party had a 
fair working majority in the district at the time, but on account of the personal 
unpopularity of the candidate he was defeated at the polls. 

The political history of the county was uneventful from that time until 1848, 
when political feeling was again aroused to a high pitch of excitement in the 
dominant party by the candidature of William Bigler for the office of governor. 
All factional differences gave way before his personal popularity, and the gen- 
eral desire on the part of the people that Clearfield county should furnish an 
executive to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He was defeated, however, 
for the nomination. 

In the year 1847 Alexander Irvin succeeded in effecting a partial organi- 
zation of the Whig party and received the nomination of that party for Con- 
gress, he being the first member of the House of Congress ever elected from 
Clearfield county. Notwithstanding it was the year of the presidential election, 
his personal popularity was so great that he succeeded in evading the Demo- 
cratic party sufificiently to overcome the existing majority. 

As is usual after such revolutions in party politics, the waters became placid 
again, and nothing of note or event occurred to disturb the harmony of party 
relations until 185 i, when William Bigler became again a candidate for gov- 
ernor, the efifect of which was to break down party lines in the enthusiasm of 
the people in his support. He was placed in nomination by the State conven- 
tion and elected. 

The next year a contest arose over the nomination for the office of sheriff 
Isaac L. Barrett, brother of Judge George R. Barrett, became a candidate for 




£n^hyE.G.Williams HBri 



HT 




Political History of Clearfield County. 315 

the place. When the convention assembled it was found that delegates enough 
had been instructed for him to nominate on the first ballot. This apparently- 
aroused again the old factional fight of the Lafferty campaign of twelve years 
before. The Whigs placed in nomination William Powell, of the borough of 
Clearfield, who was supported also by the Lafferty Democrats. This, perhaps, 
was the most bitter, acrimonious contest ever known in the politics of the 
county, it being the year of a presidential election. The charge of treason to 
the organization was made freely on the one side. The bolters from the nomi- 
nation defended themselves on the ground that it was the result of bossism and 
personal dictation. 

Powell at that time was the business partner of Governor Bigler, who had 
evinced great popularity the year before. He was also supported by Wil- 
liam A. Wallace, then a young lawyer just entering politics. The result was 
in the defeat of Barrett and the election of Powell. From this time nothing 
occurred to disturb the political harmony of the county until 1854, when the 
advent of Know-Nothingism caused the complete disintegration of the Whig 
party, and drew largely from the Democratic organization. Governor Bigler 
having been nominated again by the State convention, it was thought by party 
managers that he would have power to preserve the integrity of the party or- 
ganization and hold the members to their allegiance ; but even his popularity 
failed to a certain extent, and he received less than half the majority of the 
votes that had been given three years before. 

The county convention this year instructed their congressional delegates to 
support George R. Barrett for Congress. The conference met in Brookville, 
Jefferson county. There were twenty-four delegates. Barrett received twelve 
votes for fifty-seven ballots, when finally David Barkely, of Jefferson county, 
was placed in nomination ; he having also received secretly the nomination of 
the Know Nothings, he was elected without difficulty. 

The Know-Nothing party, like all organizations of the kind, exhibited its 
greatest strength at the first election held after its organization became com- 
plete, and, although it had in that campaign a leader of recognized ability and 
eloquence in the person of H. Bucher Swoope, who had but recently become 
a resident of the county, yet the Democratic party resumed its old majority in 
the succeeding year. During and pending the Know-Nothing contest, the op- 
position party to the Democratic party, for the first time, had the benefit of a 
newspaper organ, edited by the brilliant but erratic H. Bucher Swoope. 

This year George R. Barrett, having been elected judge of a district in the 
eastern part of the State, withdrew from politics, which left one of the con- 
tending factions without a leader in whom they had confidence, and practically 
solidified the Democratic party under the leadership of Governor Bigler. The 
succeeding year, 1856, was perhaps the most memorable one in the history of 
the political parties in Clearfield county up to that time. Mr. Buchanan then 



3i6 History of Clearfield County. 



being the presidential candidate of the united Democrat party, left nothing to 
disturb the serenity of its councils. 

Mr. Swoope had disposed of the Raftsman's Journal to S. B. Row, who, in 
its columns, advocated the election of John C. Fremont, and commenced the 
labor of building up the Republican organization in the county. Swoope 
espoused the cause of Millard Fillmore, and rallied to his support the frag- 
ments of the old Know-Nothing party organization that still remained in 
existence. In the eager and exciting contest that followed in the early part of 
that campaign, the Democratic party appeared to be lost sight of by them. 
So fierce did it become that personal encounters between leaders frequently 
occurred. However, early in the campaign the State organizations of the two 
contending factions succeeded in concentrating upon one State ticket, the 
effect of which was to renew the fight between the united factions of the oppo- 
sition and the Democratic party. In this same year a memorable joint discus- 
sion of the poHtical issues was held at Cherry Tree, in Indiana county, the 
meeting being composed of voters of Clearfield, Indiana and Cambria counties. 
George R. Barrett and William A. Wallace represented the Democratic party, 
and General Harry White, of Indiana, and the late Cyrus Jeffries, of Clearfield 
county, representing the other side. 

The year 1857 was noted for a bolt on the part of Clearfield county Dem- 
ocrats from the district nomination for the Legislature. The nominee of the 
convention was Judge Wilcox, the counties of Elk and McKean overruling the 
county of Clearfield. The Democrats of Clearfield rebelled at this, and put in 
nomination James T. Leonard. The contest that followed was on account of the 
fact that the people of Clearfield county had recently had introduced, by lum- 
bermen from Maine, the system of floating loose logs in the river and its trib- 
utaries to Lock Haven and Williamsport for manufacture into lumber. Prior 
to that time the only manner of transporting lumber to markets had been by 
rafts. Indictments had been preferred against these innovators, charging them 
with committing a nuisance, on the ground that the river, being a public high- 
way, these logs by lodging on rocks and islands, so obstructed the channel as 
to make the passage dangerous. Failing under the rulings of the court to 
maintain their position, they demanded legislation on the subject, and upon 
this issue supported James T. Leonard as an independent candidate. The 
result, however, was the election of Wilcox, Leonard carrying Clearfield county 
by a small majority. 

While the succeeding years of 1858-9 were marked in the county by great 
political excitement, growing out of the Kansas and Nebraska trouble, and the 
rupture between Stephen A. Douglas and James Buchanan, yet in local affairs 
there were no events of any practical importance. While it was evident that 
the supporters of Mr. Douglass were largely in the ascendency, yet neither 
faction became organized as against the other until the year i860. In this year 



Political History of Clearfield County. 317 



the Democratic party assumed the position in this county that the opposition 
party occupied in 1856. Immediately after the rupture at the Charleston con- 
vention, meetings were held throughout the county, and members of the party 
arranged themselves on their respective sides. The regular organization was 
controlled by the Breckenridge Democrats. The chairman of their county 
committee was D. F. Etzweiler. The chairman of the Douglas wing of the 
party was Walter Barrett. The Breckenridge organization was sustained and 
supported by Governor William Bigler and William A. Wallace. The Doug- 
las organization was actively sustained by L. Jackson Krans, with the passive 
but effective support of Judge George R. Barrett. 

While it could not but be evident to the party leaders on both sides that 
defeat was inevitable, yet the whole campaign appeared to be waged with the 
object of securing control of the regular party organization, which contest cul- 
minated at the regular annual meeting held in September following. The 
Douglas men had imported Richard Baux, of Philadelphia, who was an elector 
at large, to represent them. Under the existing party rules, the chairman of 
the annual meeting appointed the chairman of the county committee. The 
result of the contest was that James T. Leonard, a Douglas Democratic elector, 
was made president of the meeting, and L. Jackson Krans was appointed chair- 
man of the county committee. Perhaps never in the history of Clearfield 
county was there exhibited a deeper feeling than in this bitter contest. Mr. 
Baux was speaking from the steps of Judge Leonard's residence on Second 
street, and Governor Bigler was at the same time addressing an audience from 
his own residence on the same street. 

The Republican party had, by this time, so far progressed in its organiza- 
tion as to absorb nearly all of the old American or Fillmore party, with the 
exception of Mr. Swoope, its leader, and a few devoted followers, who still sup- 
ported the Bell and Everett American ticket. 

The Douglas Democracy obtained the instructions of the regular party 
organization of the county for James T. Leonard for Congress. The Republi- 
cans instructed for General John Patton. The result in the respective district 
conventions was the defeat of Leonard, and the nomination of James K. Kerr, 
of Venango county. The Republicans, more fortunate, however, secured the 
nomination of General Patton. The district, at that time, was known as the 
" Wild Cat " district, extending from the West Branch of the river to Lake 
Erie. Generally it had been a Democratic district, although during the pre- 
vious term in Congress it was represented by Chapin Hall, a Republican, 
through the dissensions in the Democratic party. General Patton was elected 
through the same cause, carrying Clearfield county by a majority of sixty. 

In the year 1861 there appeared to be, on account of the war, a disintegra- 
tion of parties, followed by an active, complete, and thorough organization in 
the year 1862. This year was marked by the advent into politics of William 



3i8 History of Clearfield County. 



A. Wallace, who afterward became a prominent central figure in Pennsylvania 
politics, and who was elected to the State Senate from the district composed of 
Clearfield, Cambria and Blair counties, over Lewis W. Hall, then the sitting 
member. Excepting the rancorous feeling engendered by the war, which was 
in progress at this time, nothing occurred out of the usual course of partisan 
politics. 

In 1864, the anti-war feeling, fear and distrust that pervaded the people, 
engendered partly by the bitter antagonisms brought about by the war, and 
the discussions of its causes, in part induced by a rigid enforcement of the 
draft, and in a measure, by demagogical appeals to the feelings and passions of 
the people on both sides, Clearfield county achieved an unenviable position 
and reputation during the war. This excitement culminated in an immense 
mass-meeting assembUng in the rear of the court-house on the 13th of August, 
to protest against the course of Mr. Lincoln's administration in the conduct of 
the war. 

In the same year, 1864, Governor William Bigler was pressed by Clear- 
field county for the nomination for Congress, which he obtained from the dis- 
trict convention. Although defeated at the general election, he received the 
largest majority that had ever been given to a candidate in Clearfield county 
before, notwithstanding it was the year of a presidential election in which 
party organizations were strictly maintained and party lines closely drawn. 
From this time, the war having closed, people appeared to be too much en- 
grossed in adjusting themselves and their business to feel much interest in 
politics, notwithstanding it was the period in which Andrew Johnson, then 
president of the United States, was waging his conflict with Congress. While 
people watched it with great interest and made it the uppermost subject of 
discussion at their usual evening resorts, yet nothing of interest occurred to 
affect local politics. The harmony of party relations appeared to be preserved 
on both sides. 

In the year 1868, Judge Linn, then president judge of the judicial district 
in which Clearfield county was included, having resigned his commission, and 
Joseph B. McEnally appointed, ad interim, it became necessary to elect a 
judge to fill the vacancy. The people, without distinction of party, were 
desirous of electing a Clearfield county man. Clinton county presented the 
name of Charles A. Mayer ; Centre county that of John H. Orvis, and Clear- 
field county the name of,'- George R. Barrett, who was then president judge of 
the Twenty-second judicial district, but who had always maintained a domicile 
in Clearfield county. A long and protracted contest followed, the convention 
sitting in every county of the district, and finally resulted in the withdrawal of 
the Clearfield county delegates from the convention. A request was presented 
to Judge Barrett, signed by nearly a thousand Democrats, asking him to be an 
independent candidate. " The Republican party at a mass meeting held in 




Enfi'ME-CmiKams &S'-f . M^. 



./^^^r^-^.^^^^ 



Political History of Clearfield County. 319 

Clearfield, also endorsed him as their candidate. After holding the matter 
some days under advisement, he declined to allow the use of his name, for the 
reason that it would lead him into a contest not befitting his present position. 
The result was the nomination by Centre and Clinton counties of Charles A. 
Mayer, who was subsequently elected over Joseph B. McEnally, the nominee 
of the Republican district convention, and the appointee of Governor Geary. 

In the year 1869 the new methods throughout the State, and the nation as 
well, being bred, perhaps, by the disorders arising from the reconstruction of 
the Southern States, and known throughout the country as practical politics^ 
appeared to be receiving attention, close study, and aptitude in practice by 
those in official power, which resulted in the formation at this time of what has 
been known in local politics as the "Court-house Ring." Mythical and intangi- 
ble in its nature, invisible to the eye, but always felt in practical effect. It 
soon became apparent to all aspirants for political and local honors, that the 
pilgrimage to Clearfield borough, the conciliation of certain influences, and the 
approval of certain parties were a condition precedent to a realization of their 
hopes. At this time the people felt that the public offices were filled by men 
of fair character and competency, yet from year to year they were becoming 
less potent in the selection of their public servants. The absence of scandal, 
charges or suspicion of those in office, turned the attention of the people to the 
methods by which the officials were selected. Complaints and ominous threats 
were heard loud and deep, and finally culminated in an explosion in 1873. In 
that year feeling ran high in the Democratic primaries. James Savage and W. 
R. McPherson were candidates for sherifT ; Dr. T. J. Boyer and Dr. J. W. Pot- 
ter were candidates for the Legislature ; W. W. Worrell and David W. Wise 
were candidates for treasurer; Frank Fielding and Aaron G. Kramer were 
candidates for district attorney. McPherson was nominated for sheriff, Boyer 
for the Legislature, Worrell for treasurer, and Fielding for district attorney. 
The announcement of this ticket met with open defiance, and charges were 
made that some of the nominees had been counted in by manipulators at the 
primaries. John M. Gumming, of New Washington, the friend and neighbor 
of Savage, whom he believed to have been wrongfully deprived of his nomina- 
tion, appeared to be the prominent leader of the revolt. Protests and calls for 
another convention were freely circulated among the people, and the result 
was another convention within a month and the placing in nomination of the 
defeated ticket, with minor exceptions. This was followed by a heated and 
angry contest, the Republicans making no nominations. The result at the 
polls showed the election of McPherson by a small majority. Potter and Wise 
defeated Boyer and Worrel, and Fielding was elected district attorney, there 
being no charges against the fairness of his nomination. 

The Democrats engaged in this revolt, and all who had supported the 
independent ticket, were subjected to severe censure and abuse by the friends 



320 History of Clearfield County. 

and supporters of the regular nominees. The newspaper organ of the regular 
Democratic organization gave them the name of Modocs. 

They made a regular organization, appointing Henry Kerns, of Curwen:;- 
ville, chairman of the county committee. At a meeting held subsequently it 
was resolved to continue the party for the present in full organization. A 
mass-meeting was held by the people of the south part of the county, at An- 
sonville, addressed by Colonel Walter Barrett, at which it was resolved to 
maintain the organization and make it effective whenever improper nomina- 
tions were made. The regular organization, becoming alarmed, called a meet- 
ing of the county committee, upon the assembling of which David L. Krebs, 
the chairman, resigned, and William M. McCuUough was elected to his stead, 
to conciliate independent Democrats. A convention was called and the rules 
changed, the Crawford system abolished, and in its place a limited delegate 
system adopted. 

In the year 1874 an exceptionally strong ticket was nominated and elected 
with the usual majority. Emboldened by this, the old manipulators, by the 
same methods, as it was charged, effected the nomination of J. Blake Walters 
for county treasurer. 

In the meantime a new factor in county politics had developed itself in the 
shape of a secret organization, styling themselves " the Junior Sons of '76." 
This organization joined with the independent Democrats and the stronger 
and more influential element of the Republican party, and placed in nomina- 
tion Captain David McGaughey. The result at the polls showed the defeat 
Walters and the election of McGaughey. 

The effect of this movement was most salutary, not only upon the parties, 
but upon the people and the confidence that it inspired in the abihty of the 
Democratic party to purify itself when necessary, was shown by the fact that in 
the succeeding year Samuel J. Tilden received the unprecedented majority of 
nineteen hundred and one, an achievement never before or since accomplished. 
Calmness appeared to follow this storm until 1878, when Clearfield county 
instructed for Israel Test for Congress, but failed to secure his nomination, he 
being defeated by ex-Governor Andrew G. Curtin, of Centre county. 

This year the Greenback party, a new organization, had received large 
accessions from the Democratic ranks, joined with the Republicans and nom- 
inated Seth H. Yocum, of Bellefonte. The result was the defeat in the district 
of Governor Curtin by less than one hundred majority. This was followed 
by a contest, and to the great credit of Clearfield county it can be said that 
while hundreds of witnesses were examined, and months consumed in taking 
testimony, no act of moral turpitude was proven or discovered. The basis of 
the contest was the irregularity of votes, such as for non-payment of taxes, 
voters moving in and out of districts within the time prescribed by the consti- 
tution and other like reasons. 



Political History of Clearfield County. 321 

Two years following Clearfield county instructed for Governor Curtin for 
Congress, who was elected by a fair majority in the district, the Greenback 
party having dissolved. 

In 1884 commenced one of the most memorable contests known in the 
history of congressional nominations in Pennsylvania. Clearfield county 
again pronounced in favor of ex-Governor Curtin and appointed Walter Bar- 
rett, Thomas Brocbank and George W. Dickey, conferees ; Centre county, his 
own home, also instructed for him and appointed William H. Blair, L. Mun- 
son, and Dr. J. O. Loraine, conferees. The first session of the conference was 
held at Lock Haven. Adjourning from there, it sat in every county in the 
district except Clearfield While sitting in Bellefonte, Walter Barrett, on behalf 
of Clearfield county, and General Blair on behalf of Centre county, withdrew 
from the conference and placed Governor Curtin in nomination for the office. 
The Republican district conference was sitting in Bellefonte at the time. Four 
weeks had been exhausted in a fruitless attempt at a nomination. The mov- 
ing cause of the withdrawal of Clearfield and Centre counties from the confer- 
ence was the appearance before them of a committee from the Republican 
conference, led by Colonel D. H. Hastings, pledging to Clearfield and Centre 
that if they would nominate Governor Curtin, they, the Republicans, would 
adjourn without making a nomination, and that they would have no candidate, 
but their party support Governor Curtin. Relying upon this pledge Clear- 
field took the action indicated, the remaining four counties nominating James 
K. P. Hall. After the conferees separated and returned to their homes, the 
Republicans re-assembled their conference, substituting delegates in place of 
those who maintained their pledge and adhered to their support of Governor 
Curtin, and nominated General John Patton, of Clearfield county. After this 
had been done some Democrats, fearing the result, through the intercession of 
mutual friends, induced Governor Curtin and Mr. Hall each to submit the 
question of his candidacy to the Democratic State Central Committee. They 
decided in favor of Governor Curtin the Saturday night before the election. 
The election resulted in favor of Governor Curtin and the defeat of General 
Patton. 

In 1885, the only exciting contest that was made was for the office of 
sheriff. The two principal competitors for the nomination on the Democratic 
side were Hiram Woodward and George Woodin, The latter received the 
nomination after a long and heated canvass, but by imprudence and indiscre- 
tion made himself unpopular with many voters of his party. The Republicans, 
not slow to see the opportunity presented them, placed in nomination Jesse E. 
Dale, then postmaster at Du Bois, a man of sterling character, pleasing man- 
ners, of large and strong family connection, all of which combined to make his 
election easy. The defeat of Mr. Woodin can hardly be called a defeat of the 
Democratic party, nor could the election of Mr. Dale be claimed as a Repub- 



322 History of Clearfield County. 

lican victory ; it was more of a personal contest between the two candidates 
and their political adherents. 

In the year 1886 the political waters of Clearfield county began to boil 
early. William A. Wallace, having for a long time been spoken of as a can- 
didate for governor at the coming election, became in July an active aggres- 
sive candidate, a fact which interested his friends, companions, and neighbors 
in politics in Clearfield county. He was defeated, however, in the convention 
by Chauncey F. Black. 

Dr. T. W. Potter had been announced as a candidate for Congress, but 
immediately withdrew, and the friends of Mr. Wallace made him a candidate 
for the ofifice. He was supported in the convention by Clearfield and Centre 
counties. He failed to receive the nomination however, and James K. P. Hall 
was nominated by the convention. 

The Republicans, as usual, on the alert for opportunities, nominated Gen- 
eral John Patton. Then followed the most irregular political contest that was 
ever seen in Clearfield county. Democrats who had never before wavered in 
their fidelity to their party, boldly avowed their intention of opposing Hall. 
Mr. Hall sent one of his brothers to Clearfield county to manage his canvass. 
Every effort was made to induce deserting Democrats to return to their alle- 
giance, but it was all in vain. General Patton was elected by a majority of 
eighty in the county, while Chauncey F. Black, the Democratic candidate for 
governor, had a majority of fifteen hundred and one. 

The result of this contest being yet fresh in the minds of the people is 
regarded and looked upon by all, as another of those periodical punishments 
inflicted by an independent people for the use of means and methods in 
American politics, that are subversive of good government and corrupting to 
good morals. General Patton had achieved a reputation in Clearfield county, 
and the whole district as well, for charity, benevolence, and public spiritedness, 
that made it an easy matter for the Republican party, using him as a weapon, 
to break down the existing Democratic majority ; a man of large wealth, intri- 
cate business interests ramifying through every section of the county, he was 
well and personally known to nearly all the voters. His connection with 
educational and church affairs was such as to bring him an active support from 
that quarter. 



Civil List and County Organizations. 323 

CHAPTER XX. 
CIVIL LIST AND COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS. 

GOVERNOR.— William Bigler, 1851-4. 
United States Senators. — William Bigler, 1856-61; William A. Wal- 
lace, 18 — . 

Representatives in Congress. — Alexander Irvin, 1846-8; John Patton, 
1861-3, 1887-8. 

State Senators. — William Bigler, 1842; Alexander Irvin, 1847; William 
A. Wallace, 1863-75 ; Thomas J. Boyer, 1876; William W. Betts, 1887. 

Representatives in State Legislature. — Martin Hoover, first (date unknown) ; 
Greenwood Bell, second ; John Irvin, third ; James Ferguson, 1837-8 ; James 
H. Lafferty, 1839-40; G. R. Barrett, 1841-2; Lewis W. Smith, 1844-5; 
Charles S. Worrell, 1846-7; George Walters, 1848-9; William J. Hemphill, 
1 850- 1 ; A. Caldwell, 1853-4; T. J. Boyer, 1858-62-3-4; Thomas J. Mc- 
Cullough, 1867-8; John Lawshe, 1872-3; Johnson W. Potter, 1874; W. R. 
Hartshorn, 1875-6 ; Aaron C. Tate, 1877-8 ; A. D. Bennett, 1879-80; James 
Flynn, 1881-2; J. P. Taylor, 1883-4; J- H. Norris, 1885-6; Aaron G. 
Kramer, 1887-8. 

President Judges. — Charles Huston, 1822-6; Thomas Burnside, 1826-41 ; 
George W. Woodward, 1841-51; R. G. White, 1851-2; John C. Knox, 
1852-3; James T. Hale, 1853; James Burnside, 1853-9; James Gamble, 
1859 ; Samuel Linn, 1859-68 ; Joseph B. McEnally, 1868 ; Charles A. Mayer, 
1868-75; John H. Orvis (addl. law judge), 1875; David L. Krebs, 1883. 

Associate Judges. — Francis W. Rawle, Moses Boggs, 1822-6; Moses 
Boggs, Hugh Jordon, 1826-40; Moses Boggs, James Ferguson, 1840-1 ; 
James Ferguson, John Patton, 1841-6; Abram K. Wright, James T. Leonard, 
1846-51 ; Richard Shaw, John P. Hoyt, 185 1-6; William L. Moore, Benja- 
min Bonsall, 1856-61; James Bloom, John D. Thompson, 1861-6; Samuel 
Cloyd, Jacob Wilhelm, 1866-71; William C. Foley, John J. Read, 187 1-6; 
Vincent Holt, Abram Ogden, 1876-81 ; John L. Cuttle, John Hauckenbury, 
1881-6. 

Depttty Attorneys- General a7id District Attorneys. — From the fact that it 
is impossible to furnish all the dates of incumbency of this office, it is deemed 
prudent to give only the succession of incumbents thereof; and in this a pos- 
sible error may occur : Samuel M. Green, Josiah W. Smith, Samuel H. Tyson, 
George R. Barrett, Lewis W. Smith, John F. Weaver, D. Rush Petrikin, 
George W. Hecker, J. B. McEnally, Joseph S. Frantz, Thomas J. McCullough, 
Robert J. Wallace, Israel Test, William M. McCullough, A. W. Walters, Frank 
Fielding, William M. McCullough, Joseph F. McKenrick, Smith' V. Wilson. 



324 History of Clearfield County. 

Sheriffs. — 1822, Greenwood Bell; 1823-6, Greenwood Bell; 1826-9, 
William Bloom ; 1829-32, Lebbeus Luther ; 1832-5, Robert Ross; 1835-8, 
James Ferguson ; 1838-41, Abram K. Wright ; 1841-4, George Leech ; 1844-7. 
Ellis Irwin; 1847-50, John Stites ; 1850-3, Alexander Caldwell; 1853-6, 
William Powell; 1856-9, Josiah R. Read; 1859-62, Frederick G. Miller; 
1862-5, Edwin Perks ; 1865-8, Jacob A. Faust; 1868-71, Cyrenius Howe; 
1871-4, Justin J. Pie; 1874-7, William R. McPherson ; 1877-80, Andrew 
Pentz, jr. ; 1880-3, James Mahaffey ; 1883-6, R. Newton Shaw; 1886, Jesse 
E. Dale. 

Register and Recorders. — This office became separated from that of pro- 
thonotary in 1856. Since that time the succession has been as follows : James 
Wrigley, 1856-62; Isaiah G. Barger, 1862-8; Asbury W. Lee; 1868-74; 
L. J. Morgan, January, 1875-81 ; George M. Ferguson, 188 1-7; D. R. Ful- 
lerton, 1887. 

Treasurers. — During the early years, when treasurers were appointed an- 
nually, it is impossible to ascertain the correct time the officer held the posi- 
tion ; it is therefore deemed expedient to furnish nothing more than the suc- 
cession in the order of their holding, respectively : Arthur Bell, Samuel Cole- 
man, Samuel Fulton, Alexander B. Reed, James Ferguson, Alexander Irvin, 
G. Philip Geulich, Martin Hoover, James T. Leonard, Christopher Kratzer, 
D. W. Moore, Robert Wallace, J. W. Wright, Isaac Bloom, Arthur Bell, John 
McPherson, Eli Bloom, John McPherson, George B. Goodlander, Joseph Shaw, 
Christopher Kratzer, D. W. Moore, William K. Wrigley, Lever Flegal, Samuel 
P. Wilson, David W. Wise, David McGaughey, Philip Dotts, John W. Wrig- 
ley, John M. Troxell. 

Prothonotaries. — Samuel Fulton, 1822 ; Reuben Winslow, 1825 ; Joseph 
Boone, 1827; Ellis Irwin, 1836; James T. Leonard, 1839; Alexander Irvin, 
1842 ; William C. Welch, 1846; Ellis Irwin (by appointment) ; William Por- 
ter, 185 1 ; George Walters, 1857 ; James T. Leonard (by appointment) ; John 
L. Cuttle, i860; D. F. Etzweiler, 1863; Aaron C. Tate, 1869; Eh Bloom, 
1875 ; James Kerr, 1881 ; Alfred M. Bloom, 1887. 

County Superintendents. — A. T, Schryver, 1854-7; L. L. Still, 1857-60; 
J. Broomall, 1 860-3; C. B. Sanford, 1863-6; G. W. Snyder, 1866-72; J. A. 
Gregory, 1872-8; M. L. McQuown, 1878-84; Matthew Savage, 1884-90. 

County Commissioners and Clerks. — 18 12-13, Hugh Jordon, Samuel Ful- 
ton, Robert Maxwell; clerk, Joseph Boone. 1814-15, Hugh Jordon, Wil- 
liam Tate, Robert Maxwell; clerk, Joseph Boone. 1816, WilHam Tate, Sam- 
uel Fulton, Thomas McClure ; clerk, Boone. 18 17-18, Thomas McClure, 
David Ferguson, Robert Ross; clerk, Boone. 18 19, David Ferguson, Robert 
Ross, William Ogden ; clerk, Boone. 1820, William Ogden, Greenwood Bell, 
Alexander Read, jr. ; clerk, Boone. 1821, Alexander Read, jr., Matthew Og- 
den, Greenwood Bell ; clerk, David Ferguson. 1822, Alexander Read, George 



Civil List and County Organizations. 325 

Welch, Abraham Leonard ; clerk, Ferguson. 1823, George Welch, Elisha 
Schofield, Martin Nichols; clerk, James Reed. 1824, Martin Nichols, Elisha 
Schofield, George Welch; clerk, James Reed, who held until 1829. 1825, 
Schofield, Nichols, Job England. 1826, England, Nichols, George Wilson. 
1827, England, Wilson, Joseph Hoover. 1828, Joseph Hoover, Robert Ross, 
George Wilson. 1829, Hoover, Ross, A. Caldwell; clerk, Lewis W. Smith. 
1830. Ross, Caldwell, J. Schnarrs; clerk, James T. Leonard, who so held until 
1834. 1 83 1, Caldwell, Schnarrs, George Leech. 1832, Schnarrs, Leech, Ig- 
natius Thompson. 1833, Leech, Thompson, I. H.Warwick. 1834, Warwick, 
Thompson, Matthew Ogden ; clerk, L. W. Smith, until 1838. 1835, War- 
wick, Ogden, Smith Mead. 1836, Ogden, Mead, William Dunlap. 1837, 
Mead, Dunlap, James B. Graham. 1838, Dunlap, Graham, Isaiah Goodfellow ; 
clerk, James Reed. 1839, Graham, Goodfellow, John Stites ; clerk, Reed. 
1840, Goodfellow, Stites, John McMurray ; clerk, G. R. Barrett, 1841, Mc- 
Murray, Stites, James B. Caldwell; clerk, H. B. Beissel, until 1846. 1842, 
McMurray, Caldwell, George C. Passmore. 1843, Caldwell, Passmore, John 
Carlisle. 1844, Passmore, Carlisle, Grier Bell. 1845, Carlisle, Bell, Samuel 
Johnson. 1846, Johnson, Bell, Abram Kyler; clerk, H. P. Thompson, until 
1849. i847» Johnson, Kyler, James A. Reed. 1848, Kyler, Reed, James 
Elder. 1849, Reed, Elder, Benjamin Bonsall ; clerk, W. A. Wallace. 1850, 
Elder, Bonsall, S. Way; clerk, H. B. Beissell. 185 i, Bonsall, Way, William 
Alexander; clerk, John F. Irwin. 1852, Way, Alexander, Philip Hevener; 
clerk, G. B. Goodlander, until 1855. 1853, Alexander, Hevener, Samuel 
Shoff. 1854, Hevener, Shoff, R. Mahafifey. 1855, Shoff, Mahaffey, David 
Ross; clerk, R. J. Wallace, until 1858. 1856, Mahafifey, Ross, J. Wilhelm. 
1857, Ross, Wilhelm, John Irvin. 1858, Wilhelm, Irvin, George Erhard. 
1859, Irvin, Erhard, William McCracken ; clerk, William Bradley, until 1869. 
i860, Erhard, McCracken, William Merrill. 1861, McCracken, Merrill, S. C. 
Thompson. 1862, Merrill, Thompson, Jacob Kuntz. 1863, Thompson, 
Kuntz, Thomas Dougherty. 1864, Kuntz, Dougherty, Amos Read. 1865, 
Dougherty, Read, Conrad Baker. 1866, Read, Baker, Charles S. Worrel. 
1867, Baker, Worrel, Henry Stone. 1868, Worrel, Stone, Othello Smead. 

1869, Stone, Smead, S. H. Shafifner ; clerk, G. B. Goodlander, until 1877. 

1870, Smead, Shafifner, Samuel H. Hindman. 1871, Shafifner, Hindman, 
David Buck. 1872, Hindman, F. F. Conteret, Gilbert Tozer. 1873, Con- 
teret, John D. Thompson, Gilbert Tozer. 1874, same. 1875, Conrad W. 
Kyler, Thompson, Clark Brown. 1876-7-8, Brown, Thomas A. McGee 
Harris Hoover; clerk, John W. Howe. 1879-80-1, Conrad W. Kyler, Elah 
Johnson, John Norris ; clerk, Jacob A. Foss, 1882-3-4, C. K. McDonald, 
John T. Straw, John Picard ; clerk, R. A. Campbell. 1885-6-7, James Sav- 
age, C. K. McDonald, Clark Brown ; clerk, R. A. Campbell. 



326 History of Clearfield County. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 

Everybody knows, or ought to know, the meaning of the initial letters W. 
C. T. U. In mere words they mean Woman's Christian Temperance Union, — 
in sentiment and reality they mean all that is good, uplifting, ennobling and 
pure ; everything that is christianizing and enlightening. The one word, wo- 
man, should make it sacred ; the second should initiate all that is Christ-like ; 
the third suggests one of the graces of the spirit, and the last is full of friend- 
ship, peace and good will united, cemented ; an army equipped for work — 
standing if united, falling if divided. 

This organization, now so powerful as to be recognized as a national neces- 
sity, planted one of its numerous unions in Clearfield some time ago. The 
union was formed by Mrs. Annie Wittenmeyer, the excellent superintendent 
of legal work, than whom none have proved more efficient and gifted. On the 
13th day of March, in the year 1884, Miss Narcissa White, who had shortly 
before entered the work as a lecturer and organizer, formed a union of thirty- 
eight members, Mrs. John Reed was elected president, Mrs. Richard H. 
Shaw, general vice-president, and at the same time all the other offices were 
filled. At the same time Curwensville perfected a similar organization, and 
was an active union for something like a year or more. Miss White was ac- 
companied by that excellent woman and indefatigable worker, Mrs. John P, 
Harris, of Bellefonte, Centre county, Pennsylvania, who has been president of 
that county's union from its organization. Sometime after the seed was 
planted which was destined to grow up into a healthful temperance tree and 
spread its cooling branches over the whole county, and whose leaves are for 
the healing of the inhabitants thereof, Houtzdale and Winterburn organized. 

At the State convention held at Huntingdon, in the year 1885, Mrs. Rich- 
ard H. Shaw was elected county president for this county, and in the following 
February she assumed the care and responsibility of that office, appointing 
Mrs. Maggie F. Hogue, of Houtzdale, as corresponding secretary, pro tempore. 
A convention was called for September 17th, 1886, when the county was reg- 
ularly organized for work. Four unions were reported at this convention, viz : 
Clearfield, Burnside, Du Bois and Houtzdale. Mrs. Richard H. Shaw was 
elected president, and the other offices were filled as follows : Miss Mary Ann 
Irwin, of Lick Run Mills, vice-president at large ; Mrs. Dr. Balhet, of Du Bois, 
corresponding secretary ; Mrs. Rev. W. Gammill, of Beulah, recording secre- 
tary. The office of treasurer was subsequently filled by the executive com- 
mittee by the appointment of Miss Mary C. Snyder, of Clearfield. Since the 
organization of the county union, six of the forty-three departments of its work 
have been filled, viz: "Scientific Temperance Instruction," "Juvenile Work," 
"Evangelistic Work," "Work Among Miners," "Work Among Lumber- 
men," " Unfermented Wine at the Lord's Table." Each of these departments 



Civil List and County Organizations. 327 

has a superintendent who has sole management of its work. In some of the 
unions otner departments than those named have been filled with local officers, 
yet many of the more important departments have not been occupied, either 
by county or local officers, for the reason that suitable and willing workers 
have not been secured. The departments of literature, press and legal work 
are considered of the greatest importance. 

At the present time there are thirteen subordinate or auxiliary unions in 
the county with fair prospects of many more in the near future, the duty of 
each of which is fully set forth in the early part of this sketch. 

Of the juvenile organization called the " Band of Hope," there are four 
auxiliary bodies in the county, the largest being at Clearfield, numbering one 
hundred and sixteen members. A rising generation for temperance work. A 
society of boys pledged for temperance and called "Temperance Cadets," and 
under military discipline by Mr. Avery, has been organized in Du Bois. Mrs. 
L. D. Balliet assists Mr. Avery in his work. The society numbers one hun- 
dred strong, bright, interested, manly boys not afraid of a piece of blue ribbon- 
This society holds the honor of having established a new department of work 
as introduced in the State convention by Mrs. Balliet. Some other of the 
unions in the county are exceptionally strong and earnest. 

The department of scientific temperance instruction is filled by Mrs. Dr. 
Hogue, of Houtzdale, who is earnestly and zealously putting forth every effort 
for securing to the youth of the public schools education in this important 
branch. 

The W. C. T. U. aims at educating public sentiment, and by lectures, pub- 
lic meetings, social and regular meetings, distribution of temperance and other 
hterature and signing the pledge, and thus pave the way to the total annihila- 
tion of the liquor traffic. 

The different local unions have secured the services of such men as Mr. 
Cooper and A. C. Rankin, both earnest, enthusiastic temperance workers and 
evangelists ; also other men, ministers and laymen of the county; also women 
of education and influence, as Mrs. Annie Wittenmeyer, Mrs. Mary H. Hunt, 
Mrs. Ellen B. McLaughlin, Miss Narcissa E. White, now a national lecturer, 
and Mrs. Emmons. On the 29th of April, 1887, Mr. Rankin organized a 
Gospel Temperance Union, the out-growth of a series of meetings held in the 
court-house at Clearfield. Its executive board consists of six officers and six 
managers. A similar organization was formed in Houtzdale during the month 
of February, 1887, of more than one thousand members, through the instru- 
mentahty of Mr. Rankin. The object of these Gospel Temperance Unions is 
to effectually overthrow the liquor traffic by a prohibitory constitutional 
amendment, being secured at the ballot-box, and to influence and save men 
and boys who become unfortunately addicted to the wine-cup. On the 2d of 
May, 1887, Mr. Rankin organized, at Clearfield, a " Y" of forty-seven mem- 



328 History of Clearfield County. 

bers. This is a Young Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and has, for 
its object, the same end sought to be accomplished through the medium of the 
other organizations, and the more efficiently carrying out of the work of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and the establishment of the white rib- 
bon movement as a special feature of work. 

The Patrons of Husbandry — Grange. 

For an organization, the founding and estabHshment of which dates back 
but a single score of years, it is a subject of much doubt whether there can be 
found another throughout the length and breadth of the whole county that can 
show a record of increase and prosperity equal to that known as the Patrons 
of Husbandry, or as it is more commonly and popularly designated — the 
Grange. At the city of Washington, D. C, on the 4th day of December, in 
the year 1868, O. H. Kelley and William Sanders, both of whom were then 
connected with the national department of agriculture, took the initial steps 
and laid the foundation for this vast organization, and brought into existence 
the National Grange, According to the original conception, and subsequent 
to such organization, there were created, in each State, or at least in many 
States, societies, subordinate to the national order, and which were to be 
known as State Granges. Again, auxiliary to the State Grange, provision 
was made for the formation of County, and subject to that, Township and 
District Granges. 

As the name implies, the aim, object and purpose of the society is to, in 
every manner, improve the condition and advance the interests of all persons, 
and their families as well, who were, are, and hereafter may be engaged in 
agricultural pursuits ; not only to improve their condition through a free inter- 
change of opinions in social gatherings where subjects pertaining to agricul- 
ture may be discussed, but by thorough organization and honest, open, deter- 
mined effort to bring about such action on the part of the general government, 
and also that of each State, as will effectually and permanently overthrow all 
oppression from monopolists, unwise and unfair discrimination on the part of 
railroad corporations, and the exorbitant and needless charges of commission 
men in every department of trade. Whether the purpose of this organization 
has, during its years of existence, been fully accomplished, is, perhaps, a de- 
batable question, and not within the province of this chapter to discuss, yet it 
is an equally fair question and inference whether the recent needed reform, in 
the creation of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, was not, in a measure 
at least, brought about through the persistent effort of the grange organiza- 
tion, which, by its determined officers and the suffrages of its numerous 
members, have shown to the '* powers that be " that the agriculturists have 
rights worthy of respect and consideration. 

So rapid, indeed, has been the growth of membership of the grange 



Civil List and County Organizations. 329 

throughout the land that it now numbers among the milhons. In the year 
1875, the movement reached this county, and on the 13th day of April of that 
year, the enterprising farmers of Penn township met at the residence of Samuel 
Widemire, where, through the district deputy, O. S. Cary, of Punxsutawney, 
the first grange organization was perfected. Although in point of seniority, 
Penn Grange is, perhaps, entitled to first mention herein, it is but a district 
or township grange, and takes its place among the societies that occupy a 
similar position, yielding to Pomona Grange the first place, as that although 
of more recent organization, is a county institution, to which the others are 
subordinate. 

Pomona Grange, P. of H., No. 33, was organized January i, 1879, with 
the following charter members : J. R. Read, Mary W. Read, William L. Read, 
O. D. Kendall. E. M. Kendall, Catharine Davis, Elisha M. Davis, George 
Emerick, R. L. Reiter, Hettie Reiter, A. Rankin, M. C. Rankin, J. L. Mc- 
Pherson, Leander Denning, Eliza Denning, W. P. Read, James Spackman, 
Mary E. Spackman, W. P. Tate, Martha C. Tate. At the time of its organiza- 
tion the following officers were elected : Master, George Emerick ; overseer, 
EHsha M. Davis ; lecturer, Leander Denning ; steward, A. Rankin ; chaplain, 
W. P. Read ; treasurer, James Spackman ; secretary, W. P. Tate ; assistant 
steward, O. D. Kendall ; gate-keeper, R. L. Reiter ; ceres, Catharine Davis ; 
pomona. Sister Spackman ; flora, Sister Kendall ; lady assistant steward, Mrs. 
L. Denning. From the date of the formation of Pomona Grange until the 
present time the succession of masters has been as follows : George Emerick, 
Elisha M. Davis, M. J. Owens, James C. Bloom, J. Blair Read. The regular 
meetings are held on Thursdays, on or before the full moon in the months of 
January, April, August, and November. The present officers are as follows : 
Master, J. Blair Read ; overseer, W. B. Owens ; lecturer, Elisha M. Davis ; 
steward, Joseph Leigey ; assistant steward, A. B. Owens ; chaplain, Jackson 
Conklin ; .treasurer, John Sankey ; gate-keeper, Nathan Davis; secretary, J. 
C. Bloom ; pomona, Sister Spackman ; ceres, Sister Ella Read ; flora, Mrs. 
John Sankey. 

Pcmt Grange No. 534, P. of H. was organized April 13, 1875, by District 
Deputy O. S. Cary, with twenty-five charter members. The first master was 
Samuel Widemire ; secretary, Miles S. Spencer. Geographically, this grange 
is located near the center of Penn township. Their place of meeting is in the 
Grange Hall at Pennville borough. Since its organization the membership 
has increased to a total of ninety-seven. Present master, William E. Davis ; 
secretary, Alice W. Kester. 

Laivrence Grange No. 553, P. of H. was organized by Deputy O. S. Cary, 
on the 1 2th day of May, 1875, with twenty-one charter members. This 
grange is located in Lawrence township, from which its name is derived. The 
present membership numbers fifty-three. It is now under the mastership of 
W. R. Henderson. 



330 History of Clearfield County. 

Goshen Grange No. 623, P. of H. was organized November 18, 1875, with 
a charter membership of eighteen persons. Its first master and secretary were 
H. H. Morrow and J. A. Fukon, respectively. This grange is located in 
Goshen township, on the road leading from Shawsville to Clearfield. The 
present number of members is twenty-eight. Present master, W. M. Wilson ; 
secretary, Maggie J. Morrison. 

Troiitdale Grafige No. Gyj, P. of H. was organized by Deputy J. B. Shaw^ 
on the 15th day of March, 1876, with twenty-nine charter members. This is 
an organization of Belle township, and holds its meetings in the Troutdale 
school-house, three miles from the Bell's Gap, and Clearfield and Jefferson rail- 
road. Present master, Philip McGee ; secretary. Miss Belle Wetzel. 

Greemvood Grange, No. — , P. of H. was organized by Deputy J. B. Shaw 
May 1 2th, 1876, having a charter membership of twenty- three persons. First 
master, C. A. Thorp ; secretary, J. S. McQuown. It is located in Greenwood 
township and meets in Bower school-house, near the center of the township, 
on the west bank of the Susquehanna. Present membership, fifty-two. 
Ofiicers : Master, James T. Mitchell ; secretary, G. W. Campbell. 

Bloomington Grange No. ji^, P. of H. was organized by Deputy J. S. Reed 
on the 26th of June, 1876, with thirty-three charter members. First master, 
James R. Norris ; secretary, Mrs. Ella M. Bloom ; located at Bloomington, in 
Pike township. It has at present about fifty members in good standing. 

Sylvan Grove Grange No. 765, P. of H. organized by Deputy W. P. Reed, 
October 24, 1882. Number of charter members, twenty. First officers : Mas- 
ter, O. P. Reese ; secretary, B. F. Wilhelm ; location of grange, Kylertown,. 
Cooper township ; number of present members, forty- two. Present officers : 
Master, G. D. Hess ; secretary, Alexander Ralston. 

LatLrel Run Grange No. 'j6g, P. of H. was organized March 10, 1883, by 
Deputies Davis and Bloom, with a charter membership of fourteen. Adam 
Kephart was elected its first master, and Elijah Reese, jr., secretary. This 
grange is located in Decatur township. The present officers are : Master, 
Jacob Mock ; secretary, A. H. Warring. 

Fairview Grange No. 783, P. of H. was organized May 2, 1884, by Depu- 
ties Elisha M. Davis and James C. Bloom, with twenty-three charter members. 
The first officers were : Master, W. A. Smeal ; secretary, W. B. Barger. The 
grange is located on the Grahamton and Deer Creek road, two and one-half 
miles south of Deer Creek bridge ; number of present members, forty ; pres- 
ent master, W. B. Barger ; secretary, A. Z. Forcey. 

Girard Grange No. 788 P. of H. organized September 16, 1884, by Dep- 
uties Elisha M. Davis and James C. Bloom, with eighteen charter members. 
The first officers elected were : Isaac Smith, master, and Louisa Shope, secre- 
tary. Number of present members, thirty. Present master, Isaac Smith ; 
secretary, Louisa Shope. The Grange Hall stands about four miles north 
from the mouth of Surveyor's Run, Girard township. 



Borough of Clearfield. 331 

Mount Joy Grange No. 584, P. of H. was organized August 10, 1885, with 
twenty-five charter members. The first officers were : Master; J. B. Shaw ; 
overseer, Matthew Ogden ; secretary, J. B. Ogden. This organization is formed 
mainly of residents of the north part of Lawrence township, and has a present 
membership of ninety persons. Its present officers are : Master, R. J. Conk- 
Hn ; secretary, M. J. Owens. 

Narrozvs Creek Grange No. 796, P. of H. was organized by Deputy Ehsha 
M. Davis, January 2, 1886, with fourteen charter members. The first master 
elected was W. H. Liddle ; secretary, Isaac Hess; location of grange, four 
miles east of Du Bois and two miles west of Summit tunnel on A. V. Railroad ; 
number of present members, twenty-three. Present officers : Master, Amos 
Kline ; secretary, Maggie Osborne. 

Union Grange No. 802, P. of H. was organized by Deputy E. M. Davis 
June 3, 1886, with twenty-one charter members; first master, Henry Pentz ; 
secretary, William Welty ; location of grange, thirteen miles west of Clearfield, 
on the turnpike leading to Luthersburg, at the village of Rockton ; number of 
present members, twenty-two ; present master, Henry Pentz ; secretary, Will- 
iam Welty. 

Du Bois Grange No. — , P. of H. was organized October 20, 1886, by 
Deputy Davis, with a charter membership of sixteen persons. Its first master 
was S. C. Liddle ; secretary, William Woods. It is located in the south part 
of Sandy township, about two miles distant from Du Bois borough. 

There are in the county two other similar organizations of which no record 
is received ; they are the Oak Hill Grange, of Karthaus township, and the Jor- 
don Grange, of Jordon township. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

HISTORY OF THE BOROUGH OF CLEARFIELD, THE SEAT OF JUSTICE OF 
CLEARFIELD COUNTY. 

IT was not until the month of April, in the year 1840, the town of Clearfield 
became detached from Lawrence township, and was for all purposes erected 
into a municipality, independent of the surrounding territory of which it had 
hitherto formed a part, and became by the act erecting it, incorporated into a 
a borough. 

From the time the commissioners, Roland Curtin, John Fleming, and 
James Smith, appointed by Governor McKean, determined to and by their 
report did lay out the place for the seat of justice for the newly created county 



332 History of Clearfield County. 

on lands of Abraham Witmer, and the same became by law fixed, the lands 
embraced by it were entitled to the dignified name of a town, although at that 
time, and until the year 1813, it was still a part of the old township of Chincle- 
clamousche. In this year, under an order of the Court of Quarter Sessions of 
Centre county, the township of Lawrence was carved out of the old Chincle- 
clamousche, and by this order Clearfield town became a part of the new town- 
ship so formed, and so continued until 1840, when it was erected into a 
borough separate and distinct from the surrounding country, and entitled to 
administer its own affairs and elect its own officers. 

The natural inference would be, that with the donation of lands and money, 
the plotting of the town, and the further fact that the seat of justice had been 
fixed there, settlement would be rapid and population increase within the town 
limits, but the fact seems to have been different, the cause being attributed to 
the limited means of the then settlers along the river, who were sufficiently 
burdened with their own lands and in clearing them for farm purposes, without 
aspiring to the ownership of town lots or town residences. 

As the town was originally laid out, it embraced the lands within the fol- 
lowing boundaries : North by Pine street ; east by Fourth street ; south by 
Walnut street, and west by the Susquehanna River. 

At the same time in which the town was laid out, Mr. Witmer made a 
donation of several lots for the purposes specified in his bond executed at the 
time. The lot No. 75, situate on the corner of Second and Market streets, was 
donated for the purpose of erecting a court-house; lot No. 80, on Market 
street, cornering on an alley, to be used for erecting a market-house ; lot No. 
91, on the north side of Locust street, and cornering on an alley, to be used 
as a jail lot; lots Nos. 162, 177 and 178, fronting on Walnut street, at the cor- 
ner of Fourth street, were donated for the erection of an academy or pubHc 
school. There were also donated certain lands, triangular in shape, and bor- 
dering on the river, to the public use as parks. The latter were not confirmed 
by deed. 

In making the donations above referred to, Mr. Witmer entered into a 
bond in the penal sum of ten thousand dollars for the carrying out of the pro- 
visions of the same, as soon as the proper officers were chosen who were auth- 
orized to receive such deed as might be necessary ; also for the payment of 
the sum of three thousand dollars, one-half of which was to be used in the 
erection of an academy building, and the other half for the erection of county 
buildings. 

The deed was executed in conformity with the conditions of the bond, on 
the 6th day of March, 18 13, by Abraham Witmer and Mary, his wife, to Rob- 
ert Maxwell, Hugh Jordon and Samuel Fulton, commissioners of Clearfield 
county, or their successors in office. The Witmer lands, from which the town 
was laid out, had no occupants in possession, of right, until some years after the 



Borough of Clearfield. 333 

county seat was fixed. In the year 1807, Matthew Ogden, William Tate, and 
Robert Collins purchased town lots. The lands of Daniel Ogden lay to the 
south of the town, and were included within the borough limits by the exten- 
sion of said limits many years afterward. 

Mrs. Lewis, familiarly known as Granny Lathers, had a cabin in the north 
part, within the portion included by Bigler's addition, which also was taken 
into the borough many years after, and concerning which mention will be 
made further on in this chapter. 

Robert Collins built a log house on the site of the present Mansion House. 
It was built, as near as can be ascertained, about the year 1807, soon after 
Collins came to the place. Ebenezer McGee soon after built near Collins. 

The Shirley family were among the first and occupied a log house near the 
residence of the late Dr. Wilson, on the corner of Locust and Second streets. 

Andy Kaufman lived in a log house located where G. L. Reed's residence 
stands, on the southwest corner of First and Market streets. 

After the departure of Granny Lathers a family named Watson occupied 
the cabin. It was located near where A. F. Boynton's barn now stands. 
Watson, whose given name was John, had a wife, but no children. They were 
very fond of company and welcomed all visitors to their house, and were 
especially joyful if anything strong was to be had with which to entertain their 
guests. 

After the first commissioners were appointed the erection of the first court- 
house was commenced. Robert Collins was awarded the contract. It was 
built during the years 18 14-15, but the exact date cannot now be fixed. It 
cost about $3,000. The jail was built about the same time, but not on the 
Locust street lot. It stood on the site now occupied by Dr. Burchfield's resi- 
dence on Second street. This jail was built of logs one story in height, and 
served the required purpose until the stone jail was built in rear of the court- 
house on Market street, about 1841. 

In 1 8 10 the town had a population of about twenty inhabitants and re- 
ceived no considerable increase up to 1822. In the year 1836 the town had 
only about three hundred population. In an address delivered during the 
year 1876, Dr. Hoyt, referring to his early recollections of the town, said there 
were but three houses in Clearfield town in 18 19; one occupied by Robert 
Collins, another on the site of Shirk Brothers' tannery, and the third on the 
Kratzer place, occupied by one Perks. 

On the site now occupied by the residence of Judge McEnally stood an 
old tannery, said to have been built about 18 10, but not operated to any ex- 
tent until several years later. It must have been built prior to 18 13, as the 
tax hst made early in 18 14 shows Thomas Reynolds, the proprietor, assessed 
for a tanyard. 

Jacob Irwin built a tan house about 18 14 or 18 15 on the land in rear of 
the Boyer residence on Second street. *^ 



334 History of Clearfield County. 

These seem to have comprised the manufacturing industries of the town 
up to about 1825. 

After the completion of the court-house the jury room was used for some 
time as a school, and taught by Dr. A. T. Schryver. 

There were, in 1822, three taverns within the town limits of Clearfield. 
Robert Collins made an addition to his house, part frame and part brick, and 
there entertained the traveler at what was for many years known as Collins 
Hotel. From the best information obtainable Collins commenced keeping 
public house about the year 18 17, soon after the completion of the court- 
house. 

The next hotel was established by Thomas Hemphill about the year 18 19, 
on the site now occupied by, the fine brick residence of W. M. Shaw. This 
was torn down in 1866, and a new, the Shaw House, erected in its place by 
Richard Shaw, sr. The Shaw House was destroyed by fire in 1881. About 
the year 1820 the Western Hotel was built on the corner of Second and 
Market streets, by George D. Lenich. It was managed several years by 
George Lenich, and after his death by various persons. The old building still 
stands, but is now occupied for business purposes. The stable attached to the 
hotel on the east side fronting on Market street, has been remodeled and altered, 
and is now occupied by M. G. Rook as a clothing store. William Philips had 
charge of the Western Hotel in the year 1822. 

At the time the first court was held in Clearfield in October, 1822, three 
applications were made for hotel or tavern license, each of which was granted, 
the landlords being Robert Collins, Thomas Hemphill, and William Philips. 

Post- Office and Postmasters in Clearfield Town and Borongh. — After the 
town had acquired a population sufficiently great to warrant the establishment 
of a post-office, an application was made to the department to that end. It 
resulted in the appointment of Thomas Hemphill, proprietor of the hotel on 
Market street, as postmaster, and the office was removed from Reedsboro, on 
the ridge, to town. Hemphill held this position several years, and was suc- 
ceeded by William L. Moore. The latter moved the office to the storehouse 
on Second street, on the site of Colonel Walter Barrett's law office. 

William Radebaugh was the next appointee, and kept the office in Shaw's 
frame row on Market street. 

Radebaugh was succeeded by John H. Hillburn, who occupied a part of the 
old Western Hotel on Second street, near where the First National Bank 
stands. 

Next in order of succession was Charles D. Watson. He located the office 
on Second street, below Market, and adjoining the Mansion House. 

Michael A. Frank succeeded Watson and moved the post-office to Irvin's 
storehouse, next to Mossop's store on Market street. 

Peter A. Gaulin was next appointed and retained the storehouse location 




~^''i''ECmm,>ms&Bro Ne-^y' 





u 



Borough of Clearfield. 335 

for a time, but afterward moved the office to his building on Market street, 
between Second and Third streets. Captain GauHn held the position longer 
than any of the appointees either before or since, being about sixteen years in 
office. He was succeeded by Samuel J. Row, who changed the location to 
Second street, in the store building now occupied by him. 

Mr. Row was succeeded by A. B. Weaver, the present incumbent, who 
was appointed in 1886. The office is now located in Weaver's store on Second 
street. 

Old Families of the Town and Borough. — From the time the town was 
laid out down to the time the county organization was completed, in 1822, set- 
tlement in the town proper was very slow, but from that time until 1840, and 
even later, it was more rapid. The names of many can be recalled at this 
time, yet the exact date of their coming to the town cannot with accuracy be 
fixed. Among those mentioned there appears names of families who have 
since become prominent, and have taken a conspicuous part in the affairs of 
the town and subsequent borough, as well as in the county. William Alex- 
ander was the head of one of these families. From 18 16 to 18 19, he was 
sheriff of Centre county, and arrested the notorious Monks, murderer of Reuben 
Giles, after that offense was committed. Sheriff Alexander, during his resi- 
dence here, was elected justice of the peace. He resided on the old jail lot on 
Second street, and for a time was landlord of the Mansion House ; at another 
time he lived on the corner of Second and Market streets, on what is now the 
Graham property. Of his children, Ann, the eldest, married Judge Fleming, 
of Clinton county ; Emily married Abraham K. Wright ; Elizabeth married 
James B. Graham, and Jane became the wife of Joseph Hagerty. Colonel 
William Alexander, a son, went to Clarion and edited the Clarion Democrat 
many years. When Mr. Alexander first came to the county he lived for a 
time at Forest, on Clearfield Creek. 

Jonathan Boynton came to the countyjabout the year 1835, ^O'' the purpose 
of engaging in the lumber business. This he did, not extensively, however, as 
a producer, but largely as a dealer, buying and selling. He was one of the 
firm of Fitch & Boynton. He afterward located permanently at Clearfield, 
and has since become president of the First National Bank, having filled that 
office since the bank was incorporated, in 1864. Mr. Boynton married Mary 
NevUng, who bore him three children, viz.: Ai F., Edith, and Ira N, 

Frederick G. Betts came to the town about 1840, and officiated as pastor 
of the Presbyterian Church. He lived on the corner now owned by Judge 
Krebs. Of his sons, Lockwood was killed in the late war ; William W. be- 
came, and now is the partner of John F. Weaver, in the lumber business, and 
in 1886, was elected to the State Senate, representing this senatorial district. 
David, another son, lives at Charlestown, W. Va. 

John Beaumont was a blacksmith of the town, and had his shop where 



336 History of Clearfield County. 

William V. Wright's residence now stands, on the corner of Market and Third 
streets. 

William Bigler came to Clearfield town in 1833, and soon after started Lhe 
newspaper called the Clearfield Democrat. In 1836 he married Maria Jane, 
daughter of Alexander B. Reed, by whom he had five children, viz. : Reed, 
John W., William D., Edmund A., and Harry F. In 1842 Mr. Bigler was 
elected to the State Senate, and re-elected in 1844. In 1848 he was a candi- 
date for the nomination in the State convention for the office of governor, but 
was not successful. The succeeding term, 1851, he was again a candidate, 
and elected. He was again a candidate in 1854, but defeated. After his term 
of office expired he was made president of the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad 
Company, which position he held one year, when he was elected to the United 
States Senate and served until 1861. In connection with the Centennial Ex- 
hibition at Philadelphia, in 1876, he occupied a prominent position. From the 
time of his coming to the county until the time of his death, William Bigler 
was a prominent figure in social and political life. He engaged extensively in 
lumbering, and acquired considerable real estate. He died in September, 
1880. 

Among the early settlers there was one who, although he never attained 
any degree of distinction above his fellow men, will readily be called to mind 
as one of the characters of the town. This was A. T. Bradley. He came here 
from Philadelphia. For several years his son, WilHam T, Bradley, kept the 
hotels where the Leonard House and the Allegheny House are respectively 
located. Bradley's wife had no liking for town life, and induced her husband 
to move into the thickly wooded district about three miles from town. On 
all parade and review days, and during court time as well, Bradley was always 
on hand with his old covered wagon, drawn by an ox, selling ginger cakes and 
small beer to all whom it concerned, and especially to the indispensable small 
boys. 

George R. Barrett was a native of Curwensville, born March 31, 181 5,. 
where his boyhood days were spent. In 1831 he was apprenticed to John 
Bigler to learn the trade of a printer. In 1834 he went to Brookville, where 
\\& &^\\.edi ih^ Brookville Jeffersonian ViV\\\\ 1835, and at the same time read 
law. In the latter year he moved to Lewisburg, where he was admitted to 
the bar of Union county in 1836. He came to Clearfield in 1836, and, in the 
succeeding year, was made deputy attorney-general for Clearfield and Jeffer- 
son counties. During the long years of service in public office, Judge Barrett 
always made his home in Clearfield after 1836. So much has been said of 
him and his professional life elsewhere in this work that further reference is 
unnecessary at this place. In 1834 he married Sarah, daughter. of William 
Steedman, of Lewisburg, who bore him fifteen children, ten of whom grew to 
manhood and womanhood. They were Clarence L., Walter, Sophie, Fred, 



Borough of Clearfield. 337 

Frank, Alice, Charlie, Fanny, Annie, and George, all of whom, except Fanny 
and Annie, still live. Colonel Walter Barrett married Sophie, daughter of 
Rev. Alexander MacLeod. 

Henry B. Beisell, was a local tinsmith of the town, and had his shop at one 
time on Front street, near where James Alexander afterward lived. Beisell 
was captain of one of the old militia companies of the place, and prominently 
identified with musical organizations. He left the town many years ago, and 
died recently at Beaver Falls. 

Isaac Lewis Barrett, was one of the sons of Daniel Barrett, and brother of 
Judge George R. Barrett. He resided and made his home with his brother, 
and was interested in the store on Cherry street with George R. Barrett and 
Mr. Kratzer. He was at one time nominated for sheriff on the Democratic 
ticket, but owing to disaffection on the part of many Democrats, they joined 
with the Whigs in the support of William Powell, who was subsequently elected. 
Mr. Barrett subsequently went to Philadelphia and kept a hotel there, but is 
now a resident of Lock Haven. 

Henry S. Bamford will be remembered as a potter of the town at an early 
day. His shop was on Cherry street, east of Third street, now the property 
of James L. Leavy. 

Lewis C. Cardon came to the town about 1823. He was a Frenchman by 
birth and parentage, and emigrated to this country at an early day. He 
walked from Baltimore to Clearfield, where he lived and died. William Clement 
Cardon, son of Lewis, became owner of the Mansion House in 1876, and man- 
aged it about seven years, and still owns it, although now leased to his brothers, 
Frederick M. and Charles F. Cardon. 

John L. Cuttle, by birth an Englishman, came to Clearfield in 1839. From 
that time he has been prominently identified with the affairs of the town and 
county. He was a justice of the peace in 1845, and county surveyor in 1853, 
holding the latter ofifice two terms. In 1859 he was elected prothonotary, and 
in 1882, associate judge of the county. He formerly lived on Market street, 
adjoining Kratzer's store, on the place where Captain Gaulin's store now stands. 
His present residence is on Reed street, between Second and Third streets. 

Francis Dunlap, another of the early residents of the town, worked for 
many years at the " red mill." He lived in the old toll-house at the east end 
of the Market street bridge. Mr. Dunlap died about 1846, after which his 
widow moved to Nebraska. 

Joseph Gaylor was proprietor of a drug store that stood on the lot now 
occupied by Dr. A. P. Hill's residence. Gaylor was an unmarried man, and 
soon after 1 845 went west. 

John Flegal, son of the pioneer Valentine Flegal, and father of Lever Flegal, 
of Lawrence township, lived in town at an early day. He had several occu- 
pations — local preacher, hotel keeper, and blacksmith. About 1845 ^^ ^^^ 
the Mansion House and worked at the blacksmith trade at the same time. 



33^ History of Clearfield County. 

Michael Frank was a tailor, and had a shop on the front part of Dr. Hill's 
lot. He was appointed postmaster to succeed Charles A. Watson, and was, in 
turn, succeeded by Captain Peter A. Gaulin in 1866. After leaving the town, 
Frank went to Nebraska. 

Isaiah FuUerton was one of the early settlers, and Hved on the lot between 
the residences of William M. and Arnold B. Shaw, on Front street. Fullerton, 
with Hugh Leavy, built the Market street bridge. 

Thomas Hemphill was one of the worthies and political leaders of his time. 
In 1822 he kept the hotel on Market street, and was appointed postmaster the 
first in the town. His son, William J. Hemphill, became a member of the 
Legislature. Constance C. Hemphill, another son, succeeded to the hotel 
business after his father, and he, too, was a prominent figure in local politics. 
John, the third son, was a printer. 

Esther Haney moved into town and lived on Market street, east of Third. 
She was the widow of Frederick Haney, one of the earliest pioneers of the 
county, and the builder of the first ark run down the river, but which " stove " 
at Rocky Bend. The correct surname of the family was " Hanich," but by 
usage and common consent the name was changed to Haney. 

Frederick P. Hurxthal was one of the prominent men of the town. He 
kept store on the corner where George L. Reed now lives, for many years. 
He built Irvin's mill at Lick Run, founded the hamlet afterward called Wood- 
land, and otherwise contributed to the welfare of the county. Mr. Hurxthal 
now lives in West Virginia. 

On the corner of Front and Market streets Ellis Irwin built a store and 
dweUing, which he occupied for many years. The building was subsequently 
remodeled, and is now occupied by Joseph Shaw as a residence. Irwin became 
a popular man in the county. He succeeded to the office of prothonotary after 
Joseph Boone, and still later was sheriff of the county. This store building 
was erected prior to 1840, and was one of the best in the town. 

Alexander Irvin had a residence on Market street, just east of Ellis Irwin's 
storehouse. He is well remembered by all the older residents of the county. 
He was the first congressman ever elected from the county, and in this con- 
nection made a remarkable " run " as a candidate of the Whig party, which 
party he organized and was its acknowledged leader in the county. His 
election to Congress occurred in the year 1847. He held various offices of 
trust in the county. At one time he was elected State senator, and at another 
time was prothonotary of the county. 

Jacob Jackson (colored) was one of the early-day characters of the town. 
He lived with his family on Locust street, east of Third. Jacob never dis- 
played any great ambition for manual labor, and his wife, "Aunt Liddie," as 
she was commonly called, was the mainstay of the family, supporting them by 
" taking in " washing from such of the town's folk as could afford this extrava- 




Alexander Irvin. 



Borough of Clearfield. 339 

gance. The Jacksons were one of the earliest families in the county, having 
settled in the vicinity known as " Guinea Hill" soon after the year 1800. 

William Jones was a shoemaker and brick-maker, and lived on Market 
street, east of Third, where his shoe-shop was located. His brick-yard was 
south of the, Shirk tannery. Jones died in Clearfield a few years ago. His 
son, Joseph H. Jones, also carried on the business of shoemaking, and also 
lived on Market street. 

Christopher Kratzer came to the county soon after 1824. He was a cab- 
inet-maker by trade, and took up his residence at the corner of Front and 
Cherry streets, and still lives there. Mr. Kratzer, during his many years of 
life in the town, has been identified with much of its progress. He founded 
the first newspaper in the county, in 1827 ; has engaged extensively in lum- 
bering and other branches of trade ; was twice made county treasurer, and 
otherwise prominently before the people for over a half-century. His son 
Harry A. Kratzer, is now one of the leading merchants of the borough, having 
a place of business on Market street. 

George D. Lenich came from Virginia and settled in the town about the 
year 1820. He built the old Western Hotel on the corner of Second and 
Market streets, and managed it many years. He died about twenty years 
ago. 

John Lytle was one of the family of George Lytle, a pioneer of the " upper 
country" in the vicinity of Lumber City, and came to Clearfield town about 
1840. He lived on Cherry street, back of St. Andrew's Church. John G., 
WilHam J., and James H. Lytle were sons of John Lytle. The firm of Lytle 
Brothers is composed of John G. and James H. Lytle, doing a grocery busi- 
ness on Market street. 

James T. Leonard was a son of Abraham Leonard, and was born in the 
year 1800. His business life in town commenced in 1839, when he formed a 
partnership with William L. Moore, and carried on business on the site now 
occupied by Colonel Barrett's law office. He married Amanda Lenich. In 
political life Mr. Leonard was a conspicuous figure for many years. During 
his residence in Bradford township he was constable. He was county treas- 
urer, prothonotary, and associate judge at various intervals during his residence 
in town, and at the time of his death, in July, 1882, president of the County 
National Bank. In 1857, during. the strife between the rafters and floaters on 
the river, Mr. Leonard ran as an independent candidate for the Legislature, 
but was defeated. The Leonard Graded School was founded by him, and he 
contributed largely to its erection. It was so named in his honor. 

Andrew Leonard, brother of Judge Leonard, was another old and well 
known resident of the town. He was interested in the firm of Leonard & 
Moore. 

Dr. Henry Loraine was one of the leading physicians of the town in early 



340 History of Clearfield County. 

days. He came here from Philipsburg. In 1836 he lived on the site of G. L. 
Reed's residence, at the corner of Front and Market streets. Later he resided 
on the location of Eli Bloom's house on Market street, near Third. Concern- 
ing Dr. Loraine further reference will be found in the medical chapter of this 
work. 

David Leitz lived and had a small shop where Senator Betts's residence 
now stands, on the corner of Second and Locust streets. Leitz bought the 
foundry and machine shop property on the hill where the Leonard Graded 
School now stands, in 1849. Here he made stoves, plows, and did machine 
work and light castings for several years. The business proved unsuccessful, 
and was sold. Judge Leonard became the owner. Leitz moved out to Brad- 
ford township, where he died in 1886. 

Hugh Leavy came from New York about the time the Catholic Church was 
built. He was a bricklayer by trade, and was employed on the church edifice. 
He married Sarah Wrigley, by whom he had several children. Of these, 
James L. and Augustus B. Leavy only survive. James L. Leavy is an exten- 
sive lumberman, and one of the firm of Leavy, Mitchell & Co. He is propri- 
etor of a livery stable at Clearfield, and runs stage lines between Clearfield and 
Du Bois, and Curwensville and Du Bois. He has also a business as under- 
taker and funeral director. Augustus Leavy lives up the river, in the county. 

Charles Miller, the chairmaker of early days, had a shop and residence on 
Locust street. He left the town and moved to Clarion county. 

John Moore was a gunsmith living on Cherry street on the lot now occu- 
pied by C. Whitehill. His shop was at the same place. 

John McPherson was born in Centre county, and came to this county when 
a young man. He lived at Luthersburg, Brady township, working in a small 
tannery at that place. Soon after 1830 he came to the neighborhood of Clear- 
field town, and in 1835, or about that time, built a tannery on a piece of land 
south of the town, which has been included in the borough by the extension 
of its limits. He operated the business until his death in 1864, after which his 
sons Reuben and James L. succeeded. They managed it about a year, and 
then leased to Shirk Brothers, who ran it six or seven years in connection with 
their tannery at Clearfield borough. Some parts of the old building arq still 
standing, but have not been operated for many years. The children of John 
McPherson, by his marriage with Margaret Bloom, were : Louisa, who married 
Henry Snyder, Thomas, Benjamin B., who was killed in the army, James L., 
Reuben, now superintendent of Wallaceton Brick Works, William R., superin- 
tendent of the Clearfield tannery, and formerly sheriff of the county, John H., 
Miles, and Clark. After the death of his wife Margaret, John McPherson mar- 
ried Sarah Cary, who bore him one child. 

William Merrill came to the town soon after 1825. He was a carpenter by 
trade, but became proprietor of a hotel north of the Collins Hotel, on Second 



Borough of Clearfield. 341 

street, on the site now occupied by the Masonic building. The hotel was built 
by Collins. Merrill died in the borough about twenty-five years ago. 

William M. McCuUough first came to Clearfield county in 1840, and located 
near New Washington, as a minister of the Methodist Protestant Church. 
From there he lived in various places in the county, performing clerical 
work, and engaging somewhat in lumbering, and finally took up a permanent 
residence in Clearfield borough. He married, in Chester county, Jane Smith, 
by whom he had seven children, viz. : Mary Ann, Thomas, a lawyer, who 
died in 1885 ; Jane, Levis K., justice of the borough; Zara C, who died from 
wounds received in the army ; William K., one of the leading lawyers, and for- 
mer district attorney of the county, but now deceased, and James M., a justice 
of West Clearfield borough. 

John McGaughey was born near Dayton, Armstrong county, in the year 
1827. In 1844 he came to this county to work in McPherson's tannery. His 
coming induced others of the family to locate here some years later. John 
McGaugliey married Caroline Wrigley, daughter of James Wrigley. For twelve 
years he engaged in mercantile business at Clearfield. 

David McGaughey, brother of John, came to the county some few years 
later. He entered the army with the Fifth Pennsylvania Reserves ; was made 
captain and was severely wounded at Spottsylvania. On returning from the 
service he engaged in business as a photographer. In 1874 he was elected to 
the office of county treasurer over J. Blake Walters, the Democratic nominee. 
He subsequently engaged in lumbering operations, which he has since success- 
fully followed. Captain McGaughey was one of the firm of Lee, Ramey & Co., 
and Leavy, Mitchell & Co. At present he is one of the Clearfield Lumber 
Company. 

William McClellan, one of the old residents of the town, lived on the lower 
end of Senator Wallace's lot. He was a laborer, and was quite an old man 
when he came here. His descendants still live in the borough. 

James M. Marshall came to the county and worked on Reed's Mill in 1850. 
He came from Armstrong county. In 1876 he bought the brickyard property 
in the upper part of the borough, from M. B. Cowdrick, and has since manu- 
factured brick. His lands comprise about ten acres. Mr. Marshall married 
Elizabeth, daughter of George Welch, a pioneer of the county. 

Wihiam L. Moore, a native of Centre county, located in Clearfield about 
the year 1830, and became a leader of one of the political factions of the Dem- 
ocratic party, and for a time edited the Pioneer and Banner. He also engaged 
in mercantile business, in company with Mr. Leonard, under the firm style of 
Leonard & Moore. He married Hannah Leonard, daughter of Abraham 
Leonard, by whom he had seven children, viz. : Burnside, Agnes, who married 
Thomas J. McCullough ; Abraham L., James A., merchant at Clearfield, and 
county coroner; Martha C, who married J. S. Showers, of West Clearfield; 
44 



342 History of Clearfield County. 

Catharine F., and Mary W., who became the wife of Thaddeus H. Shaw. 
William L. Moore was elected to the office of associate judge of the county. 
He was the second postmaster of the town. 

John McLaughlin was born in the county Donegal, Ireland, and came to 
this country in 1825, and to the county in 1832, where he settled on the 
ridges south of the town. In his family were ten children. James Mc- 
Laughlin, son of the pioneer, became proprietor of the Smith House in 1872, 
but made extensive alterations and changed the name to the St. Charles. 
John McLaughlin came to reside in the borough in 1881. His age is eighty- 
seven, his wife eighty- five years. 

Thomas Mills first came to Clearfield in the year 1847. He had a wagon 
shop on the lot now occupied by Senator Wallace's residence, but in the next 
year moved to his present location on Third street. Mr. Mills married Lydia 
Shank, by whom he had four children. His wife died in 1856. William H. 
Mulhollan, son-in-law of Thomas Mills, has an interest in the firm of Bigler, 
Reed & Co. 

William Powell has been prominently before the people of the county for 
■many years. He is of Welsh descent, and a son of David Powell, of Lawrence 
township. For many years he was the partner of Governor Bigler in the lum- 
ber business. In 1852 he was a candidate for election to the office of sheriff 
against Isaac L. Barrett, and was elected, owing to a bolt from the Democratic 
ranks. Mr. Powell has engaged in mercantile trade extensively, but is now 
retired from active business life. 

John Radebaugh, a Dutchman from Lebanon county, came here at an 
early day. He was a laborer. After leaving the town he went to Penfield to 
reside. 

William Radebaugh lived at the corner of Third and Market streets. He 
was a tailor by occupation, and had a shop in Shaw's Row. His partner was 
Robert F. Ward. Radebaugh was postmaster of the town during Taylor's 
administration. 

Alexander B. Reed settled on the ridges in 18 ii. He moved into town in 
1825, and occupied lands purchased from Abraham Witmer, on the river east 
of Pine street. Mr. Reed married Rachel, daughter of Alexander Read, by 
whom he had six children, viz.: Maria Jane, who married William Bigler; 
Henrietta Ann, Read A., George Latimer, of Clearfield; William Milton, and 
Rebecca, who became the wife of John F. Weaver. Alexander B. Reed was a 
land agent, and by honesty, industry, and economy accumulated considerable 
property. He died in 1853. 

Andrew Shugart was a wagon-maker by trade, but devoted most of his 
time to general labor. He lived on Locust street, east of Third street. 

Henry Stone will be remembered as the " Yankee from Massachusetts," 
who drove stage on the Erie " pike," and possessed every one of the charac- 



Borough of Clearfield. 343 

teristics of " Down-easters." He came to town about the year 1832, and was 
afterward "jailor." Prior to coming to Clearfield, Stone had driven stage on 
the pike between Philadelphia and Reading. 

Josiah W. Smith, the pioneer lawyer of Clearfield county, was a native of 
Philadelphia, and came to this county about 1822 with his brother. He be- 
came, in 1825, a member of the Clearfield county bar, and practiced for many 
years, making a specialty of land cases. In December, 1825, he was appointed 
deputy attorney-general for Clearfield county, which office he filled some years. 
In 1856 he retired from practice and moved to his native city, only to return 
again to this place after a few years. He died in March, 1882. 

Lewis W. Smith, brother of Josiah, has a history much like that of his 
brother. He, too, entered the legal profession, but not until after Josiah, in 
whose office he read law. Lewis W. Smith died in the year 1847. Concern- 
ing Josiah and Lewis W. Smith, information will be found in the chapter on 
the bench and bar of Clearfield county. 

Isaac Southard, like Samuel Collins, came to the town to build the first 
court-house. Southard must have come here about 18 13. He was formerly 
a resident of Lycoming county. He married here to one of the Shirely family, 
and made Clearfield his home. 

David Sacketts came from Centre county about 1840. He was a cabinet- 
maker by trade, and built a shop near where George B. Goodlander now 
resides on Front street. He afterward lived on the old "jail lot" on Locust 
street, which is now occupied by his family. 

Isaac Schofield, son of Elisha Schofield, the pioneer, moved into town and 
occupied a house below and near Weaver's store, on Second street. Isaac 
was a general laborer. 

Mordecai Shirk came from Milesburg about the year 1835. He owned the 
tannery that was built on the academy lots by Orris Hoyt, and operated it 
until a few years ago. The business proved unsuccessful, and Mr. Shirk lost 
his property. Business misfortunes produced insanity, and he was placed in 
an asylum for insane persons, where he died about two years ago. 

John Shugart came from Centre county. He was a wagon-maker by oc- 
cupation, and lived at the corner of Third and Locust streets, now the resi- 
dence of Mr. Snyder, the jeweler. James Thompson Hved on Market street 
west of Fourth. He was a former resident of Philipsburg and came here about 
1824. He left a large family, among whom was Dr. H. P. Thompson. The 
elder Thompson and Dr. Loraine married sisters. 

James Wrigley was a son of Robert Wrigley, one of the early settlers of 
the county. James came to reside in the town many years ago and made his 
home on the place now occupied by him at the corner of Second and Cherry 
streets. He was a carpenter by trade. Mr. Wrigley is considered a standard 
authority on all events occurring within the last sixty years. 



344 History of Clearfield County. 

William C. Welch was another descendant from pioneer stock, a son of 
George Welch, of the " upper country " of the county. William C. was pro- 
thonotary in 1846, and died during the term of his office. He lived on Mar- 
ket street. 

Robert Wallace emigrated to this country from Ireland in 18 19, and came 
to Clearfield from Huntingdon county, in 1825. The next year he returned 
to Huntingdon, but frequently visited this town as a lawyer, until 1836, when 
he returned here with his family and became a permanent resident during his 
life, except a few years in Holidaysburg. He retired from active practice in 
1847. 

The Wallace family from the pioneer descended have taken a prominent 
part in the affairs of the county, and each generation has produced lawyers, 
William A. and 'Robert A. Wallace, sons of Robert, the senior, were lawyers. 
Harry F. and William E. sons of William A., and grandsons of Robert senior, 
are also lawyers. Robert Wallace died at Wallaceton, Clearfield county, Jan- 
uary 2, 1875. 

James B. Graham was a descendant of one of the pioneer families of the 
county, but did not locate in Clearfield until 1852. Here he acquired an en- 
viable position and reputation among his fellow townsmen and became identi- 
fied with the most substantial business interests of the place. He was chosen 
cashier of the Clearfield County Bank, and after five years' service in that posi- 
tion, was elected vice-president of the institution, which office he filled up to the 
time of his death. Mr. Graham married Elizabeth A., daughter of William 
Alexander, by whom he had five children. The Graham residence was located 
on the corner of Market and Second streets. 

Charles D. Watson came to the town from Northumberland county about 
the year 1840. He kept a drug store in what is now the Masonic building on 
Second street. Watson was appointed postmaster to succeed John H. Hill- 
burn, and was in turn succeeded by Michael A. Frank. He moved to Utah- 
ville, in the upper end of the county, where he died. 

Robert F. Ward was a tailor, in partnership with Radebaugh. He lived 
on Locust street, east of Second. Robert F. Ward, jr., son of Robert F. sen., 
was at one time connected with the Clearfield Republican, being associated 
with Maj. J. Harvey Larrimer. 

Richard Mossop came from Philadelphia about 1840. He was by trade a 
shoemaker. About the year 1850 he engaged in mercantile business and has 
been in trade ever since. His place of business was formerly on Second street, 
but now occupies more convenient quarters on Market street west of Second. 

William F. Irwin, son of John Irwin, who came from Milesburg. He was 
interested in business with his brother, Ellis Irwin, on Market street. William 
F. married Susan Antes, daughter of John Antes. 

Isaac G. Gordon, now justice of the Supreme Court of the State, came here 




c 



Borough of Clearfield. 345 

as a young man and became associated with Judge Barrett in a law partner- 
ship. He afterward went to Brookville, Jefferson county, where he now re- 
sides. 

Isaac Johnson was a plasterer by trade, and located in Clearfield about 
1840. He married Sarah Woolridge. He now lives at the corner of Cherry 
and Second streets and is engaged in the boot and shoe business. 

John F. Weaver, at the time of his coming to the county, about 1845, was 
assessed for one gold watch. He was admitted to the bar of the county and 
soon after appointed deputy attorney-general for the county. He left the pro- 
fession, however, to engage in lumbering, which he has ever since followed, 
having been associated with some of the leading lumbering firms of the county. 
At the present time he is a member of the firm of Weaver & Betts. Mr. 
Weaver married Rebecca, daughter of Alexander B. Reed. 

Dr. WilHam P. Hill located here soon after 1 840, and was for about ten 
years a practicing physician. He left for Illinois about 1850, and subsequently 
went to Montana, where he died a year or two ago. 

Ashley M. Hill, brother of Dr. Hill, came to town a short time after his 
brother, and carried on business as a dentist. He will be remembered as a 
teacher of geography by singing, which greatly amused as well as instructed 
the young people. Dr. Ashley Hill still resides in Clearfield at the corner of 
Market and Front streets. He married Jane Shaw, daughter of Richard Shaw. 

Eli Bloom was born in Pike township, May 7, 1828, and came to Clearfield 
in 1874, to assume the duties of the office of prothonotary of the county, to 
which he was elected in the fall of that year. He purchased from Judge Foley 
the residence on Market street west of Third street, where he has since re- 
sided. 

William Porter was born in County Tyrone. Ireland, April 3, 1807, and 
emigrated to America in 1829, and to Clearfield county in 1833, locating at 
Clearfield bridge, where he worked in a saw-mill. In 1844 he came to town 
and taught in the old academy, but did not make this his permanent residence 
until 1850. 

Richard Shaw, son of Archibald Shaw, a pioneer of the Mt. Joy ridges, 
moved to Bradford township in the year 18 15. He married Mary Irvin, 
daughter of Henry Irvin. Their children were, Joseph, of Clearfield ; Jane, 
who married Ashley P. Hill ; Mary E., who married Andrew Leonard, and 
after his death, John I. Patterson ; Moses and Aaron (twins who died during 
childhood); Archibald H., Margaret Ann, who became the wife of William A. 
Wallace; Arnold Bishop, William Milton and Elizabeth. In 1822 Richard 
Shaw moved to and occupied a tract of land lying on the west side of the river, 
opposite Clearfield town. He had considerable property in the town that 
with increasing population, became very valuable. The Mansion House was 
built by him, ^and Shaw's row of frame buildings, west of the Mansion House, 



346 History of Clearfield County. 

were also built by him, not at one time however, but as occasion required, 
Mr. Shaw died in the year 1876, aged eighty-five years. 

Peter A. GauHn, one of four children, sons and daughters of Francis Au- 
gustin Gaulin, was born in France, and came to this country in 1832, locating 
in Centre county. About the year 1848 the family moved to Karthaus town- 
ship, this county. Peter A. Gaulin enlisted in Co. G, 51st Pennsylvania Vol. 
Inf. as a private, but by several promotions for meritorious service, was 
raised to the rank of captain. He came to Clearfield borough in 1865. The 
succeeding year he was appointed postmaster and held the office sixteen years. 
In 1 87 1 he built the business block he now occupies. 

Richard H. Shaw, son of John Shaw, was born on a farm about two and 
one-half miles from town, in the year 1833. In 1861 he enlisted in the 84th 
Pennsylvania Vol. Inf and served three years with that regiment. Since re- 
turning from the service he engaged in mercantile business at Houtzdale and 
this place, and retired in 1886. Since the year 1867, he has made his resi- 
dence in Clearfield borough. Richard H. Shaw married Sarah J. Milligan, by 
whom he has one child. 

Matthew S. Ogden, son of Matthew Ogden, and grandson of Daniel Og- 
den, the pioneer, was born in Lawrence township. Of the children of Matthew 
he was the twelfth, there being five younger than Matthew S. He married 
Mary Jane, daughter of Isaac Graham, a pioneer of Bradford township. In 
1846, Mr. Ogden moved to the Ogden homestead farm which has been taken 
into the borough by an extension of its limits. 

John Mitchell, a native of Ireland, came to America in 18 19. He spent 
some years in various localities and located at Phihpsburg in 1824. In the 
year 1830 he moved to this county and settled about two and one half miles 
south of Clearfield town on the ridges. His children were William, John, 
James, Robert, Samuel, Allen and Jane. Of these only Robert and Allen are 
now living. The Mitchell families of Clearfield are descendants from John 
Mitchell, the pioneer. 

George W. Gearhart was born in Centre county and was the second of 
eight children born to Adam and Susanna Gearhart. Adam lived in Clear- 
field county from 183 1 to 1878. He was located during that time in Brad- 
ford township. George W. came to Clearfield borough in 1862, and started 
in the livery business three years later. In the year 1859, he married Ellen 
M., daughter of William Merrell. Mr. Gearheart has recently established a 
stage line between Clearfield and Du Bois. 

Clark Brown was born in Lancaster county, January 6, 1822. He came to 
Lawrence township with the family of his father, Andrew Brown, in 1839, and 
settled on the ridges, south of the county seat. Clark Brown was elected 
county auditor in 1868, and in the fall of 1873, he was elected county commis- 
sioner. He is now serving his third term of office, having been twice re-elected. 
He came to the borough in 1885. 



Borough of Clearfield. 347 

George Thorn was born at Clearfield Bridge in the year 1822, and was the 
second of five children of James I. Thorn. In 1840 George came to Clearfield 
town and engaged as a carpenter and subsequently as a contracting builder. 
In 1860-1 he built the court-house, and in 1 870-1-2 the county jail. He 
married, in 1845, Elizabeth Lawhead, daughter of Nathan Lawhead, who bore 
him ten children, seven boys and three girls. At present Mr. Thorn is super- 
intendent of the Clearfield Cemetery Company. 

Henry Boardman Smith was born in Susquehanna county, Pa., in 18 10. 
He married Laura M. Gibbs, of Springfield, Mass., by whom he had five chil- 
dren, viz.: Henrietta B., who married Richard Shaw, jr.; Nannie, who married 
John H. Fulford, a lawyer of Clearfield ; Carrie J., who married Dr. W. W. 
Shaw ; Laura, who married W. A. Christ, and Julia A., who became the wife 
of James Kerr. Mr. Smith moved to Clearfield in 1846. He was an active 
member of the Presbyterian Church, holding the office of elder and superin- 
tendent of the Sunday-school. He was a lumberman on Clearfield Creek. 

Henry Snyder, a native of Union, now Snyder county, came to Clearfield 
in 1850, and worked on Reed's mill. In 1855 he started in trade, carrying on 
carriage blacksmithing. He married Louisa, daughter of John McPherson, 
by whom he had five children — John F., an attorney of the borough being 
the eldest child. 

Of the other old residents of the town a mention may be made of the fol- 
lowing: Samuel Fleming was a carpenter by trade. David Johnson was 
landlord of the Mansion House for a time. William Morgan, a laborer, lived 
on the site now of A. B. Shaw's residence. James Mcintosh was a plasterer, 
and afterward went to Iowa. George Newson, the painter, lived where Pow- 
ell's hardware store now stands. Christian Pottarf, a cabinet-maker, lived 
where James Leavy's residence stands. He went West. Thomas Robbins 
was a cooper. He still lives in town on Read street. Robert Shirk was a 
shoemaker. He stayed here but a short time. Nicholas Shoenig, a shoe- 
maker, Hved on Front street, near where A. B. Shaw's residence now stands. 
Augustus Schnell was a tailor and Hved in the town but a short time. Mont- 
gomery WiUiams was a journeyman carpenter. He went to the army and was 
killed. David Allison was a millwright and stage driver. James Hollenbeck 
was a local blacksmith, but remained here only a short time. George Rich- 
ards was a tailor. James C. Williams kept a store a short time on what is now 
Dr. Hill's lot. He returned to Centre county. Emery C. Read, the present 
county surveyor, was born in Lawrence township. He is a son of Amos Read, 
and a grandson of Alexander Read, the pioneer, commonly known as " Red 
Alex." Emery C. Read moved to town in 1870. He was first elected sur- 
veyor for the county in 1883, and re-elected in 1886. 

Incorporation of the Borough and Subsequent Additions. — Clearfield bor- 
ough was incorporated under and by virtue of an act of the State Legislature, 



348 History of Clearfield County. 

passed and approved on the 2ist day of April, in the year 1840, under the 
name and title, " The Borough of Clearfield," the extent and boundaries of 
which were declared by the act as follows : Beginning at a point on the Sus- 
quehanna River about sixty feet south of Walnut street, thence by a line east 
until it strikes the west line of Hugh Leavy's out lot, so as to include the 
houses and lots now (1840) occupied by Dr. H. Loraine and Joan Powell; 
thence north along said lot of Hugh Leavy until it again strikes Walnut street ; 
thence east along the southern edge of Walnut street to Fourth street ; thence 
north along the eastern edge of Fourth street to Pine street; thence west 
along the northern edge of Pine street to the Susquehanna River, and along 
said river by its several courses to the place of beginning, to include the town 
of Clearfield as at first laid out, according to the plan thereof, and the two lots 
south of said town occupied by Dr. H. Loraine and Joan Powell, as above 
described. The same act made a further proposition that the qualified electors 
are authorized to elect one justice of the peace for the said borough, at the 
time and place of holding the general election for said borough. 

It appears that the Legislature made no provision for the first election of 
•ofificers for the borough other than mentioned last above, whereupon a petition 
was presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions at the November term of that 
year, asking the court to fix a day for such election. Upon this petition the 
first Monday of January, 1841, was designated by the court for the election 
of borough officers. 

The first extension of the limits of the borough was made by an act of the 
Legislature, passed and approved the 13th day of February, 1844, by which 
the original limits were greatly enlarged. The description of the boundary 
lines by the act, are as follows: Beginning at the southwest corner of the 
borough on the Susquehanna River, thence along said river to line of land of 
Matthew Ogden ; thence along the line of Ogden's land to the southeast 
corner, at lot number seven ; thence northwardly along the eastern line of 
out-lots numbers nine, ten, eleven, twelve, and thirteen, to the northeast 
corner of lot number fourteen ; thence along the line of land surveyed in the 
name of Charles Smith, to the river ; thence along the river to the southwest 
corner of the borough, be and the same is hereby erected into a separate 
election district ; and the qualified voters of said district shall hereafter hold 
their general and borough elections at the court-house in said borough. 

A further act passed and approved May 8, 1844, provides that the quali- 
fied electors shall elect a burgess and town council, and other borough officers, 
at the same time that township elections are held ; and further, that the quali- 
fied electors shall meet at the usual place on the last Friday of May, between 
the hours of two and six o'clock P. M., and elect one assessor and election 
officers for the year 1844. There seems to be in the act of February 13, 1844, 
an ambiguous^statement.E The act itself describes the boundaries of the 



Borough of Clearfield. 349 

borough, as extended, but does not, in any manner, declare it to be a part of 
the borough, or declare the borough Hmits to be extended to the hmits de- 
scribed, but declares the same to be a separate election district, although the 
evident intent of the act was to enlarge the borough limits, and this intent has 
always been acted upon, and the borough limits always considered as extended 
as by the act described. 

The next extension of the borough limits was made in the year 1868, by 
an ordinance of the council upon the petition of twenty-seven freeholders of 
that part of Lawrence township lying south of the borough. The petition was 
presented at a meeting held on the 9th of March, 1868, and an ordinance 
ordered to be prepared. The subject was made a special order of business 
after one postponement, and adopted at a meeting held April 7, 1868, the 
vote standing three for, and one against its adoption. The boundaries of this 
extension, which has always been known as " Reed's addition," were as fol- 
lows : Beginning at the southwest corner of the borough on the bank of the 
Susquehanna River, thence along the southern line of the old borough south 
forty-six degrees east, eighty-two perches along the line of land of Sarah Jane 
Ogden to corner of land of A. K. Wright ; thence along line between land of 
Sarah Jane Ogden and A. K. Wright, south fifty-one degrees west, one hun- 
dred and six perches to the Hne of land of G. L. Reed ; thence along line of 
land between G. L. Reed and A. K. Wright south thirty degrees east, one 
hundred and eighteen perches ; thence south eighty-nine degrees west, two 
hundred and twenty-one perches ; thence north seven degrees west, two hun- 
dred and fifteen perches to the eastern bank of the Susquehanna River ; thence 
down the eastern bank of the said river the several courses thereof, to line of 
old borough and place of beginning ; which said land is taken as a part of said 
borough of Clearfield. 

No further change or extension of the borough was made until the year 
1885, when a petition was presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions at a 
term thereof held in the month of February, that year, asking for the annexa- 
tion of certain lots adjoining the borough on the north. The matter was 
referred to the grand jury for examination and report, which was by them 
favorably considered and determined. On the 13th of February their report 
was confirmed and the addition duly made. This extension included the 
tannery property of about twenty acres, besides all lands intervening lying 
north of Bridge street. 

These several additions to the original town, as laid out and plotted by 
Abraham Witmer in the year 1804, embrace that which constitutes the borough 
of Clearfield at the present time. Its territory has by such several extensions, 
been increased several fold, and from a regularly formed, compact body of land 
it has assumed an almost indescribable form, reaching out irregularly to suit 
the convenience of the locaHties sought to be included by its Hmits, and as much 



350 History of Clearfield County. 

as possible to acquire a greater population without regard to symmetry to any 
noticeable extent. 

Up to i860 the affairs of the borough were administered by a burgess and 
five councilmen, but by an act of the Legislature, passed February 14, of that 
year, provision was made for the election of six menbers of the borough 
council, two to serve three years, two to serve two years, and two to serve one 
year, and annually thereafter it was provided that two should be elected to 
serve for a term of three years. 

The first election of borough officers was held at the prothonotary's office 
on Monday, January 4, 1841, at which the following officers were elected: 
Burgess, Dr. Henry Loraine ; town council, William Bigler, James Alexander, 
William Merrill, George R. Barrett, and Robert Wallace ; town constable, 
Joseph Schnell ; overseers of the poor, Thomas Hemphill and Alexander 
Irvin. 

The first meeting of the town council was held January 21, 1841, at Avhich 
the burgess and councilmen were " sworn into office," as required by law. 

After being organized a resolution was adopted as follows : Resolved, That 
Robert Wallace be appointed clerk for the current year, at a compensation of 
five dollars. 

The next meeting was held pursuant to adjournment, Friday, February 
5, at early candle light, at the office of Robert Wallace. The following offi- 
cers were elected by ballot: Street commissioners, John R. Bloom and William 
Irvin ; treasurer, Thomas Hemphill ; collector, Josiah W. Smith. 

Civil List of Clearfield Borough. — 1842. Burgess, Dr. Henry Lorain ; 
council, George B. Dale, James Thompson, William L. Moore, Lewis W. 
Smith, Robert Wallace ; clerk, Robert Wallace ; treasurer, James T. Leonard. 

1843. Burgess, Dr. Henry Lorain; council, William L. Moore, Robert 
Wallace, Josiah W. Smith, George B. Dale, Constance C. Hemphill ; clerk, 
Robert Wallace ; treasurer, Henry S. Bamford. 

1844. Burgess, Josiah W. Smith ; council, Robert Wallace, James T. Leon- 
ard, Ellis Irwin, Samuel Elliott, Christian Pottarf; clerk, Robert Wallace; 
treasurer, Hugh Leavy. 

1845. Burgess, William Merrill ; council, C. Kratzer, Robert Wallace, Isaac 
G. Gordon, Isaac Southard, Robert F. Ward ; clerk, Robert Wallace ; treas- 
urer, William Powell. 

1846. Burgess, Josiah W. Smith ; council, James Wrigley, David Litz, 
James Mcintosh, William Jones, Robert Wallace ; clerk, Robert Wallace ; 
treasurer, Ellis Irwin. 

1847. For the office of burgess James T. Leonard and Ellis Irwin had an 
equal number of votes, whereupon a new election was ordered (both former 
candidates having refused to serve), and Henry S. Bamford was elected. 
Council, Henry B. Beisall, George Newson, William Powell, Hugh Leavy, 
Josiah W. Smith ; clerk, Josiah W. Smith ; treasurer, William Welch. 



Borough of Clearfield. 351 

1848. Burgess, William C. Welch ; council, Isaac Southard, William Rade- 
baugh, Richard Mossop, Charles Miller, D. W. Moore ; clerk, D. W. Moore ; 
treasurer, H. P. Thompson. 

1849. Burgess, John L. Cuttle ; council, W. L. Moore, G. R. Barrett, David 
Sackett, John Boynton, James Alexander ; clerk, Jonathan Boynton ; treasurer, 
Charles D. Watson. 

1850. Burgess, James Wrigley ; council, William Merrill, J. W. Shugart, 
Thomas Mills, James HoUenbeck, W. A. Wallace ; clerk, W. A. Wallace ; 
treasurer, Charles D. Watson. 

1851. Burgess, William Powell; council, C. Kratzer, A. K. Wright, Rich- 
ard Mossop, Thomas Mills, W. A. Wallace ; clerk, W. A. Wallace. 

1852. Burgess, D. W. Moore; council, James Alexander, W. M. Dugan, 
George W. Orr, W. A. Wallace, Isaiah Fullerton ; clerk, W. A. Wallace ; 
treasurer, A. M. Hills. 

1853. Burgess, M. A. Frank; council, John F. Weaver, David Sackett, 
Isaac Johnston, William Porter, A. K. Wright ; clerk, William Porter ; treas- 
urer, James Wrigley. 

1854. Burgess, Christain Pottarf; council, J. F. Weaver, Isaac Johnson, 
J. W. Shugart, A. M. Hills, William Powell ; clerk, William Porter. 

1855. Burgess, William Irwin; council, A. M. Hills, George W. Rheam, 
C. Pottarf, H. B. Smith, W. M. Dugan ; clerk, William Porter ; treasurer, A. 
H. Shaw. 

1856. Burgess, George D. Lanich ; council, James Alexander, I. W. Baird, 
W. L Bradley, H. W. Park, W. A. Wallace ; clerk, W. A. Wallace. 

1857. Burgess, George D. Lanich; council, W. F. Irwin, John Troutman, 
O. B. Merrill, W. A. Wallace, D. F. Etzwiler ; clerk, W. A. Wallace ; treas- 
urer, William Porter. 

1858. Burgess, William Radebaugh ; council, W. L. Moore, W. H. Rob- 
ertson, R. V. Wilson, Joseph Goon, Thomas Mills ; clerk, L. J. Krans ; treas- 
urer, William Porter. 

1859. Burgess, Jonathan Boynton; council, Robert Mitchell, Richard 
Mossop, J. C. Whitehill, George W. Rheem, Robert Wrigley ; clerk, L. J. 
Krans ; treasurer, James Wrigley. 

i860. Burgess, H. B. Swoope ; council, James Wrigley, Richard Mossop, 
T. J. McCullough, O. B. Merrill, George W. Rheem ; clerk, L. J. Krans ; 
treasurer, Robert Mitchell. 

1861. Burgess, Henry Stone; council, James B. Graham, Wilham Porter, 
Francis Short, James L. Leavy, W. A. Wallace, James T. Leonard ; clerk, L. 
J. Krans; treasurer, Robert Mitchell. Six councilmen were chosen in 1861, 
after which two were elected annually under the provisions of the act of i860, 
the other four holding over. 

1862. Burgess, George Latimer Reed ; councilmen elected, J. C. White- 
hill, John McPherson ; clerk, John G. Hall. 



352 History of Clearfield County. 

1863. Burgess, George L. Reed; councilmen, Thomas J. McCullough, 
Henry Parks ; clerk, John G. Hall ; treasurer, Charles D. Watson. 

1864. Burgess, A. M. Hills; councilmen elected, W. W. Betts, Joseph 
Shaw ; clerks, J. G. Hall and W. D. Bigler. 

1865. Burgess, John W. Shugart; councilmen, William Porter, D. F. 
Etzwiler ; clerk, W. D. Bigler ; treasurer, James Wrigley. 

1866. Burgess, James Wrigley ; councilmen, C. D. Watson, A. S. Good- 
rich ; clerk, W. D. Bigler ; treasurer, William Porter. 

1867. Burgess, W. W. Betts ; councilmen, L. R. Merrell, J. G. Barger ; 
clerk, L. G. Morgan ; treasurer, William Porter. 

1868. Burgess, W. W. Betts ; councilmen, J. Blake Walters, A. K. Wright, 
W. W. Shaw , clerk, L. J. Morgan ; treasurer, J. Blake Walters. 

1869. Burgess, James B. Graham ; councilmen, H. W. Smith, James L. 
Leavy ; clerk, A. W. Lee. 

1870. Burgess, Jonathan Boynton ; councilmen, David Connelly, Reuben 
McPherson ; clerk and treasurer, A. W. Lee. 

1 87 1. Burgess, J. B. Walters; councilmen, W. C. Foley, J. P. Burchfield : 
clerk, A. W. Lee ; treasurer, H. W. Smith. 

1872. Burgess, G. L. Reed; councilmen, W. C. Foley, A. I. Shaw, L L. 
Reizenstein, John M. Adams, Walter Barrett, T. Dougherty ; secretary and 
treasurer, A. W. Lee. 

1873. Burgess, A. C. Tate; councilmen, W. M. McCullough, Jacob A. 
Faust, W. R. McPherson ; secretaries, A. W. Lee and Clayton C. Johnson. 

1874. Burgess, A. C. Tate; council, J. F. Weaver, C. D. Goodfellovv, L. 
R. Merrill, John McGaughey, J. G. Hartswick, George Thorn ; secretaries, 
John Howe and Cyrus Gordon. 

1875. Burgess, Israel Test; councilmen, J. G. Hartswick, James Kerr, M. 
G. Brown ; secretary, Cyrus Gordon. 

1876. Burgess, A. F. Boynton ; councilmen, J. F. Weaver, George W. 
Rheem ; secretary, Cyrus Gordon. 

1877. Burgess, J. L. Leavy; councilmen, Brown, Scheurer, Hartswick, 
Shaw ; secretary, Cyrus Gordon. 

1878. Burgess, James Wrigley; councilmen, James McLaughlin, G. W. 
Rheem, George Thorn ; secretary, Cyrus Gordon. 

1879. Burgess, A. B. Shaw; councilmen, Dr. T. J. Boyer, Dr. H. B. Van 
Valzah, Thomas Reilly ; clerk, J. F, Powell. 

1880. Burgess, William Powell; councilmen, Jonathan Boynton, W. M. 
Shaw, Frank B. Reed, S. B. Row ; clerk, J. F. Snyder. 

1 88 1. Burgess, Samuel L Snyder; councilmen, F. M. Cardon, E. W. 
Brown, Frank G. Harris ; clerk, J. F. Snyder. 

1882. Burgess, Eli Bloom ; councilmen, A. F. Boynton, H. T. King, 
George Weaver ; clerk, J. M. Bloom. 



Borough of Clearfield. 353 

1883. Burgess, E. A. Bigler; councilmen, Frederick Sackett, M. G. Rook, 
F. G. Harris ; clerk, Frank G. Harris. 

1884. Burgess, R. H. Shaw; councilmen, A. W. Lee, W. E. Wallace, P. 
A. Gaulin ; clerk, Frank G. Harris. 

1885. Burgess, H. F. Bigler; councilmen, Paul F. Weaver, Frank B. Reed, 
Frank G, Harris ; clerk, William V. Wright. 

1886. Burgess, H. F. Bigler; councilmen, Warren Thorn, A. W. Lee, E. 
M. Scheurer ; clerk. Singleton Bell. 

The present officers of the borough are as follows : Burgess, H. F. Bigler ; 
members of council, A. W. Lee, Frank G. Harris, Frank B. Reed, Paul F. 
Weaver, Warren Thorn, and E. M. Scheurer; clerk of council. Singleton Bell; 
justices of the peace, Levis K. McCuUough, Cyrenius Howe ; high constable, 
W. Dorvitt ; constable, John F. Kramer ; assessor, Joseph Shaw ; judge of 
election, Harry F. Wallace ; inspectors of election, J. M. Bloom, A. H. Wood- 
ward ; overseers of the poor, W. J. Hoeffer, H. W. Park ; auditors, J. F. 
Snyder, W. A. Hagerty, Ed. Kauffman ; collector, William Tucker ; school 
directors, Henry Bridge, James L. Leavy, Oscar Mitchell, Henry Snyder, 
George L. Reed, Arnold B. Shaw ; street commissioner, James Behan. 

Business Blocks, Mercantile Interests, Etc. 

There are but few, if any, of the recognized branches of mercantile trade 
and business that are not, in some manner, represented in Clearfield ; in fact, 
there are evidences apparent to an observer that in many respects the trade is 
decidedly over-represented. Some truthful writer has well said that *' compe- 
tition is the hfe of trade; " yet, if carried to an extreme it is an equally well 
established fact that competition may be the death of trade. There are but 
few well appointed business blocks in Clearfield, and this may, in a great 
measure, be accounted for by reason of the fact that where the business is so 
widely scattered that the prudent merchants cannot afford a considerable in- 
vestment of capital in store buildings ; nor can they afford to pay the increased 
rental values incident to the occupation of an expensive building. Notwith- 
standing this, there are some business blocks in the borough that would be a 
credit and an ornament to any place. A large majority of the buildings in the 
business center of the town are wooden structures that have been standing 
many years. Others are of more recent erection, and in keeping with the 
growth of the place, and a few are substantial brick blocks, calculated to stand 
good service for many years to come. Some of these it is proposed to men- 
tion. 

The Opera House Block is the most imposing business structure of the 
town. It is centrally located, on Market street, adjoining the court-house, and 
connected therewith by an iron bridge reaching from the second story across 
the alley. The block was built by Justin J. Pie about the year 1873-4. It 



354 History of Clearfield County. 

has a front of ninety-seven feet and a depth of one hundred feet. The upper 
floor is reached by a wide stairway leading from the street. The opera-house, 
from which the building derives its name, is on the second floor in the rear, 
and has a seating capacity of about seven hundred and fifty. The third floor 
is occupied as a printing-office of the Clearfield Republican and the lodge-room 
of the O. U. A. M. The ground floor is used entirely for business purposes. 
From Mr. Pie the ownership of the block passed to Messrs. A. W. Lee, James 
L. Leavy, E. A. Leavy, George M. Ferguson, John W. Wrigley, and Harry 
F. Wallace. Ferguson's interest was recently sold to the others. 

The Masonic Building is the property of W. A. Wallace and the estate of 
William Bigler. It derives its name from the occupancy of the third floor by 
the Masonic order of the borough. The building was erected in 1871. The 
first floor is used in part as a clothing store and the Clearfield County Bank. 

Kratzer's building was erected recently by Harry A. Kratzer, and is a two- 
story mansard-roofed structure, presenting an attractive appearance, on the 
south side of Market street. The lower floor is occupied by H. A. Kratzer 
& Co. as a dry goods, carpet, and boot and shoe store, in the east half, and by 
Lytle Brother, grocers, on the west. 

The store of P. A. Gaulin, the second east from Kratzer's, was built in 1871. 
It is a plain but substantial brick building, three stories in height, occupied by 
the owner as a stationery and musical instrument store. Hills block, so called 
for its owner. Dr. Ashley P. Hills, was built about a quarter of a century ago. 
It was built by James B. Graham, but passed through other owners before 
coming to Dr. Hills. The ground floor is occupied for mercantile purposes, 
the second as the Raftsinaji's Journal office, and the third by the Odd Fellows 
society. Mossop's building, a two- story, double brick store, was built by 
Richard Mossop in the year 1885, and is entirely occupied on the ground floor 
by the owner as a general store. Powell's brick building was erected in the 
year 1886, by William Powell, on Second street. The mercantile business of 
the place is well centered on two streets. Market between First and Third, and 
Second between Cherry and Locust, and may be classified with reference to 
the streets on which they are situate, rather than a classification of each special 
branch grouped together. Within these limits the chief business of the town 
is transacted by the merchants noted, whose business was established about the 
time indicated, some original, and others succeeding older houses. 

Market Street, South Side. — H. B. Fulford, successor to Clearfield Furni- 
ture Co., furniture; Watson & Kennard, (1884), druggists; Peter A. Gaulin, 
(1886), books, stationery and musical instruments ; Mrs. T. E. Watson, (1869), 
millinery; H. A. Kratzer & Co., successors to H. A. Kratzer, (1882), dry 
goods, carpets, boots and shoes; Lytle Bros. (1875), grocers; M. G. Rook 
(1876), clothing; J. P. Staver (1886), grocer; Fred. Johnson and Bro. (1883), 
general hardware and tinsmiths; Samuel I. Snyder (1870), jeweler ; Biddle & 



Borough of Clearfield. 355 

Helmbold, (1882), fire, life and accident insurance; John Schafer, (1882), cigar 
manufacturer and dealer, capacity 160,000 per annum; A. J. Hagerty, (1884,) 
dry goods, notions and millinery; W. R. Higgins, (1886), canned goods and 
confections; James N. Burchfield, (1886), jeweler; J. E. Hess, (1886), grocer; 
Richard Mossop, (1842), general merchandise. 

Market Street, North Side. — A. F. Martin, (1880), merchant tailor; Fred- 
erick G. Miller, (1884), restaurater ; Albert Thanhauser, (1880), clothing and 
merchant tailor ; W. J. Hoeffer, (1878), general store ; Shaw & Gaulin, tobacco 
and cigars, pool room ; Moore Bros. (1877), boots, shoes, hats, caps and fur- 
nishings ; Henry Bridge, (1864), merchant tailor; J. K. Johnston, (1885), va- 
riety store ; John A. Stock, cigar manufacturer and dealer ; Irwin & Lawhead, 
(1885), millinery; J. E. Toot, (1876), merchant tailor; Andrew Harwick, 
(1876), harness shop; Lenich & Cleaver, (1887), meat market; M. A. Faust, 
(1885), carpet weaver ; Hills & Heichhold, dentists, established by A. M. Hills 
in 1845, a-fid now conducted by Dr. Heichhold. 

Second Street, East Side. — J. M. Stewart, (1876), surgeon dentist; J. E. 
Harder, (1878), hardware, guns, &c. ; Isaac Johnson, (1843), boots and shoes ; 
James A. Moore, feed store. 

Second Street, West Side. — Powell Bros. & Powell, (1886), hardware; Syl- 
vester Evans, saloon; W. L. Mitchell, (1886), grocer; Mitchell & Martin, 
(1881), boots, shoes and furnishings; E. W. Graham, druggist, succeeding 
himself as general store merchant ; Adolph Guinzburg, (1873), clothing ; G. A. 
Veil, (1884), meat market; Frederick Sackett, (1871), hardware, tinsmith and 
plumber; S. J. Row, (1886), glass and queens- ware ; Hartswick & Irwin, 
(1865), successors to Hartswick & Huston, druggists; A. B. & P. F. Weaver, 
(1886), grocers, queens-ware and crockery, successors to George and P. F. 
Weaver; Cuetara & McGoey, (1886), cigar manufacturers and dealers; A. B. 
Alleman, (1873), cigars, tobacco and gunsmith; Walter Hoover & Bro. (1885), 
harness maker. 

Third Street. — J. H. Hagerty, bakery ; J. F. Finkbiner, baker ; R. R. 
Canfield, furniture. 

Hotels. 

Mansion House. — This well known hostelry was built by Richard Shaw in 
1 84 1, on the site formerly occupied by Collins Hotel on the corner of Market 
and Second streets. It subsequently became the property of W. M. Shaw, 
and was by him sold to W. C. Cardon, the present owner, in 1876. Mr. Car- 
don managedjthe house about seven years, after which it was leased to S. B. 
Row. He stayed about a year and a half when it went to F. M. Cardon and 
brother, lessees, the present proprietors. This is a substantial and well ar- 
ranged hotel, three stories high, and will accommodate eighty^people. 

Leonard House, built about fifteen years ago, and named in honor of James 



356 History of Clearfield County. 

T. Leonard, situate on Read street near the Tyrone and Clearfield depot. A 
substantial three- story frame building with modern conveniences and large 
enough to provide for sixty guests. R. Newton Shaw, proprietor. 

St. Charles Hotel. — This was built in 1870 and occupied by William S. 
Bradley. It is located at the corner of Reed and Third streets. In 1872 it 
was purchased by James McLaughlin, who refitted the same throughout and 
built an additional story, making now three. The name was changed to St. 
Charles by Mr. McLaughlin. This is a well kept house, convenient to the de- 
pot and not far from the business center. It has accommodations for sixty 
guests. 

Allegheny House. — This hotel was built about nineteen years ago by Cas- 
per Leipold, on Market street near Fourth, and by him was managed about 
ten years, after which it was leased to various parties. The present proprie- 
tors are sons of Casper Leipold, who are partners under the style of D. Leipold 
& Co. The building is a frame structure, two stories in height with an attic, 
and has a room capacity for fifty persons. 

Hotel Windsor. — The only brick hotel building in the borough of Clearfield 
is the Windsor, a substantial, complete and elegant house built by ex-Sheriff 
James Mahaffey during the summer of 1884. It is located on the southwest 
corner of Market and Third streets, near the business center, and has all the 
modern improvements found in first-class hotels. An excellent water supply, 
gas, and steam heat extend throughout the house. The Windsor is the largest 
of the hotels in the borough and would do honor to a place of much greater 
population. Accommodation can be found therein for one hundred and fifty 
persons. 

Banking Houses of Clearfield. 

The first banking house in Clearfield borough was established about the 
year 1857, under the name of Leonard, Finney & Co. They did business 
about seven or eight years and then went into liquidation. Their place of 
business was on Second street, near the site of the present Masonic building. 
Among the several persons interested in the firm were James T. Leonard, Asa- 
hel T. Finney and William A. Wallace. Judge Leonard was the leading man 
in the concern and transacted most of the business, and wound up its affairs 
when the firm ceased. 

The Clearfield County Bank was organized as a State bank under the free 
banking laws passed in i860. The first board of directors comprised the fol- 
lowing named persons : James T. Leonard, James B. Graham, Richard Shaw, 
William A. Wallace, William Porter, Abram K. Wright, Jonathan Boynton 
and George L. Reed. Richard Shaw was chosen president, and James B. 
Graham cashier, and John M. Adams, teller. The capital stock was fixed at 
$50,000, in shares of $50 each, but was not all paid ' uiing the first year. 





Tix^ 




Borough of Clearfield. 357 

Business was commenced November 26, i860. In the year 1865, the bank 
surrendered its charter on account of a ten per cent, tax on circulation, but 
was immediately reorganized as a private bank. Richard Shaw was made 
president, James B. Graham, vice-president and John M. Adams, cashier. 
During the panic in the money market in the year 1873, the capital stock was 
somewhat impaired but made good by the stockholders. The present officers 
are William A. Wallace, president ; John M. Adams, cashier. 

TJie First National Bank of Clearfield was incorporated on the 14th day of 
December, 1864, with an authorized capital stock of $100,000, in one thousand 
shares of $100 each. The first board of directors were Jonathan Boynton, 
Asahel C. Finney, Samuel Mitchell, J. B. McEnally, Richard Mossop, David 
G. Nevling and H. Bucher Swoope. Officers: Jonathan Boynton, president; 
A. C. Finney, cashier. In January, 1866, the board of directors was increased 
to nine, but reduced to seven in 1874. The annual meetings are held on the 
second Tuesday of January. The present directors are Richard Mossop, Rob- 
ert Mitchell, James Nevling, A. F. Boynton, William H. Dill, Jonathan Boyn- 
ton and Alexander Murray. Officers : Jonathan Boynton, president ; A. F. 
Boynton, vice-president ; William H. Dill, cashier, and J. Boynton Nevling, 
teller. The present surplus of the bank is $30,000. The banking house is on 
Second street south of Market street. 

The County National Bank of Clearfield was organized under the national 
banking laws on the fifth of February, 1865. Capital stock, $100,000, in one 
thousand shares of $100 each. First board of directors, James T. Leonard, 
William A. Wallace, Richard Shaw, George Latimer Reed, Abram K. Wright, 
James B. Graham and William Porter. Officers : James T. Leonard, president ; 
Thomas H. Forcey, vice-president; William V. Wright, cashier. Judge 
Leonard died in August, 1882, and Mr. Forcey became acting president and 
so continued until January, 1883, when he was elected president. In 1867 
Cashier Wright was succeeded by D. W. Moore, and he in turn was succeeded 
by William M. Shaw in January, 1871. The present board of directors are 
Thomas H. Forcey, president ; Arnold Bishop Shaw, vice-president; John F 
Weaver, William Porter, Harry A. Kratzer, John W. Potter, Grier Bell, jr. ; 
cashier, W. M. Shaw. In 1869 the bank safe was broken open and money to 
the amount of about $20,000 taken therefrom. That the bank is now in a 
healthful condition is evidenced by the fact that the present surplus is about 
$65,000. The banking house is on Market street west of Second. 

The Press. 

The chapter devoted to a review of the press of the county will be found so 
full, thorough and exhaustive, that there need be said under this heading but 
sufficient to furnish a record of the several publications of the present day, and 
to allot a space to the recognized medium of communication between occurring 
events and the reading people of the county. ^^ 



358 History of Clearfield County. 

The Clearfield Repjiblican, the descendant from the oldest newspaper of the 
county, became the property of George B. Goodlander by purchase from D. W. 
Moore, on the ist of July, 1865, and from that to the present day Mr. Good- 
lander has occupied the editorial chair, as well as the position of manager and 
publisher. When he assumed the position referred to, the paper was a four 
page, six column paper in size, and had a circulation of about eleven hundred. 
On three several occasions has its size been enlarged, one column being added 
each time, and its length proportionately increased. The most substantial 
evidence of Mr. Goodlander's success as a journahst, is shown by these addi- 
tions, and the further fact that the present circulation of the Republican reaches 
nineteen hundred. While the paper is the recognized organ of the Democratic 
party of Clearfield county, its editorial and local columns are devoted to every 
interest of benefit to the community at large. 

The Rafts7nans Journal was founded in the year 1854, by a party of well 
known residents of the county, and placed under the able management of that 
brilliant scholar, poHtician and editor, H. Bucher Swoope. In 1856, the office 
and paper were sold to S. B. Row, who occupied its editorial chair until 1861, 
when it was passed to S. J. Row. The latter conducted the paper personally 
up to about 1875, when his son, Albert M. Row, took an active interest in its 
management, Mr. Row, the senior, still occupying the editorial chair. In 1882 
Albert M. assumed its entire management, his father having retired to assume 
the ofiice of postmaster of the borough, to which he had recently been ap- 
pointed. His connection with the paper was not severed by this appointment, 
as he still owned it, and so continues to the present time, although Albert M. 
Row is its editor and manager. 

At the time the paper was started, lumbering was the chief industry of the 
whole county, and its columns were devoted largely to the lumbering interests. 
Mr. Swoope had used it as a political organ during the days of Know Noth- 
ingism, and under his management it was a powerful auxiliary in that cam- 
paign. Under the Messrs. Row it has been and is now the recognized organ 
of the Republican party, and has acquired a large circulation in the county, 
attesting its popularity and usefulness. It has been twice increased in size, 
first in 1868, and again in 1883, making now an eight column, four page paper, 
neat and attractive in its present dress. 

The Clearfield Democrat was established in 1878, under the name of the 
Clearfield Citizen, by John Ray Bixler, as the organ of the Greenback party 
in this vicinity, but like that party, it was not destined long to hve. In 1874 
J. F. McKenrick became a half owner with Mr. Bixler, but owing to differences 
in opinion between the proprietors, Mr. McKenrick sold his interest back to 
the former owner. In May, 1885, the name was changed to the Clearfield 
Democrat, and the paper and its editors became regular supporters of Demo- 
cratic doctrines, which cause it had previously espoused upon the decline of 





^l^o^is::C^-r-^ 



Borough of Clearfield. 359 

Greenbackism. At this time Allison O. Smith became a partner in its man- 
agement, and so continued until March, 1886, when the paper was sold to J. F. 
and W. A. Short. The latter sold his interest in June following, to his part- 
ner, who became sole editor and publisher. The Democrat is an eight page 
paper, with "patent inside," and has a circulation of about fourteen hundred* 

Local Improvement Companies. 

The Clearfield Water Company was incorporated January 3, 1882. The 
purpose of this corporation was to supply the borough of Clearfield with pure 
and wholesome water. The capital stock was fixed at $40,000, in two thou- 
sand shares of $20 each. The first officers were : W. W. Betts, president ; E. 
A. Bigler, secretary and superintendent ; Jonathan Boynton, treasurer ; direct- 
ors, W. W. Betts, W. A. Wallace, Jonathan Boynton, Samuel I. Snyder, E. A. 
Bigler. The company obtained lands on both sides of Moose Creek, and built 
a dam to retain the water in a reservoir. For a distance of three miles on both 
sides, the company own an extensive wooded tract, from which the water 
supply is procured, and on this tract there is not one habitation. From the 
reservoir, which is about three miles from town, an abundant supply of pure, 
spring water is obtained. The company have about five and one-half miles of 
water main, about two miles being laid through the streets of the borough. 
At the present time there are about three hundred and fifty water takers. Fire 
hydrants are placed at convenient distances throughout the borough for pro- 
tection in case of fire. The present officers of the company are as follows : 
President, W. W. Betts ; secretary and treasurer, H. F. Bigler ; directors, W. 
W. Betts, W. A. Wallace, A. F. Boynton, S. I. Snyder, and H. F. Bigler. 

The Clearfield Gas Light Company became incorporated in the year 1859, 
but was not fully organized until 1873, when officers were elected and the 
object of the company completed. The authorized capital stock was $30,000, 
but the company did business with about half that amount. The buildings for 
the manufacture of gas and tanks were erected on lands north of the Tyrone 
and Clearfield depot. The first officers elected were : A. F. Boynton, presi- 
dent ; W. W. Betts, secretary and treasurer ; A. M. Fleck, superintendent of 
works. About 12,165 f'^^t of main are laid through the streets of the borough, 
and lamp-posts are placed at suitable points for street lights. There are about 
one hundred and fifty consumers in the borough. The present officers are : 
W. W. Betts, president ; W. D. Bigler, vice-president ; secretary and treas- 
urer, H. B. Powell ; directors, W. W. Betts, W. D. Bigler, H. B. Powell, A. F. 
Boynton, H. A. Kratzer ; superintendent of works, B. F. Bickle. Shares of 
stock outstanding, $21,200. 

Clearfield Steam Heating Company. This corporation was created in June, 
1883, for the purpose of supplying steam heat for the borough of Clearfield, 
with a capital stock of $30,000, in six hundred shares of $50 each. The first 



36o History of Clearfield County. 

officers elected were : A. B. Shaw, president ; T. W. Moore, secretary ; W. M. 
Shaw, treasurer ; Edward Everett, superintendent. The company has a large 
boiler house built on lands in rear of the Opera House block. About nine 
thousand feet of pipe, three, four, and five inches in diameter, is laid through 
the streets of the borough. There were about sixty heat consumers in the 
place the first year; at the present time the number is increased to one hun- 
dred and thirty. Four large boilers are sufficient to supply the necessary heat 
in the most severe weather, and about twenty- seven hundred tons of coal are 
consumed annually at the works. The company are now furnishing heat for 
about three and a half millions cubic feet of space. The officers first elected 
have been continued in office to the present time. The present board of 
directors consists of A. B. Shaw, William Powell, J. F. Weaver, F. B. Reed, 
and T. W. Moore. 

Industries of Clearfield. 

The earlier manufactories of this locality were nearly all removed years 
ago, but of the few that are still standing is that known as the Shirk Tannery. 
This industry was started at an early day by Orris Hoyt, and by him operated 
many years. The Shirk tannery was built on the same site, and managed by 
the brothers Shirk until a few years since. They were unsuccessful in business, 
and since their misfortune the buildings have not been used, although in fair 
condition. 

The Clearfield Machine Shops were founded and built in 1867 by A. F. 
Boynton and George S. Young, under the firm style of Boynton & Young. 
They operated it until the latter part of the year 1870, when Mr. Boynton sold 
his interest to G. L. Reed and William D. Bigler, after which the firm name 
became Bigler, Young & Co., and so continued until the year 1880. At this 
time William H. MulhoUan purchased Young's interest, and Frank B. Reed 
took one-half of G. L. Reed's interest, and the name of the firm was again 
changed to Bigler, Reed & Co. 

The works are located at the corner of Fourth and Pine streets. The 
buildings comprise a machine shop, foundry, boiler, and blacksmith shops. 
The special feature of the company's work is the manufacture of fire brick 
machinery, and mill machinery in general, as well as castings, boilers, and 
machine work. 

The Clearfield Fire Brick Company (limited), successor to the Clearfield 
Fire Brick Company, a defunct corporation, became the property of the pres- 
ent owners by purchase made by E. A. Bigler, at sheriff sale, representing the 
subsequent proprietors, they assuming the indebtedness of the old corporation. 
This new partnership was created about the year 1880. The owners are W. D. 
Bigler, E. A. Bigler, owning a half interest ; Weaver and Betts one-sixth ; G. 
L, Reed and J. G. Hartswick each owning one-sixth. • The company's works 




/^/^^ 



Borough of Clearfield. 361 

are on Reed street. The clay used in the manufacture is procured at 
Woodland and Blue Ball, where the company own and lease lands. The 
company have facilities for the manufacture of over three millions of fire brick 
annually. 

The Clearfield Tannery was built by Joseph B. Hoyt, of Connecticut, 
Daniel B. Fairweather, and H. S. La Due, of New York, in the year 1879, on 
lands then in Lawrence township, north of Clearfield, but included within the 
borough limits by the recent extension thereof The works comprise a beam- 
house, dry-house, house for drying hair and rendering grease, leech-house, 
bark-sheds, and twenty-two dwellings for employees. The lands occupied 
contain about twenty-one acres. The manufactured leather is known as Union 
Crop sole-leather, about five hundred sides being " turned out" daily. Num- 
ber of employees, about one hundred. In 1884 Mr. Hoyt withdrew from the 
firm, the remaining partners continuing the business. This tannery is under 
the superintendence of W, Ross McPherson, of Clearfield. 

The Spring Brewery, the property of Theodore Reis, was built for the 
manufacture of lager beer in the years 1873-4, by Charles Schafer. Not be- 
ing a successful business venture it was sold at forced sale, purchased by 
Judge Leonard and by him sold to Harmon Sheiffer. In 1882 it was pur- 
chased by the present owner. The brewery is situate north of the gas works, 
near a spring of pure water, from which the name is given the works, the 
" Spring Brewery." Its capacity is one thousand barrels annually. 

The Clearfield Lumber Company (limited) was organized in the month of 
January, 1880. The property formerly known as the Thorn planing-mill, on 
Fourth street, was purchased and is now used by the company. The capital 
stock of the firm is $32,500, in three hundred and twenty-five shares at $100 
each. The officers are W. W. Betts, chairman ; John W. Wrigley, secretary 
and treasurer ; David McGaughey, W. B. Townsend, and Asbury W. Lee, 
managers. The company manufacture doors, sash, blinds, flooring, and all 
other stock usual to a well appointed factory of the kind. They also own two 
saw and shingle mills, one at Porter Station and the other at Kermoor, where 
they are engaged in extensive lumber operations. 

The Clearfield Roller Flouring Mill, the property of George W. Smith, 
was built by him in the year 1885. The building is located in the north part 
of the borough. It is five stories in height including an attic for storage. 
Steam power is used, and the machinery of the best and latest patterns. The 
mill has a capacity of fifty barrels per day. 

Marshall's Brick Yard, now the property of James M. Marshall, was pur- 
chased from M. B. Cowdrick in the year 1876. This is the only industry of 
the kind in the borough. The quality of brick manufactured is very good, 
and the yard is sufficiently large to supply all local demand for building pur- 
poses. 



362 History of Clearfield County. 

Churches of Clearfield. 

Saint Andrew' s Protestant Episcopal CJmreh. — The Protestant Episcopal 
Church was planted in Clearfield as birds often plant seeds from a neighbor- 
hood, thus extending the growth until, in many instances, it becomes the 
ruling plant in the new country. 

In 1820, or thereabouts, Hardman Philips planted the seed of a Protestant 
Episcopal Church congregation in Philipsburg, Centre county, and from that 
weak and slender stalk sprang what there is of Episcopal growth and strength 
in Clearfield county. Its first manifestation was in the visit of Bishop Onder- 
donk to Clearfield town in 1832; there being no record or tradition of any 
other service of the church from that time until 1838, when he returned to 
Clearfield, and held service in the old court-house. No further service was 
held in Clearfield town or county until about 1843, when Rev. Tiffany Lord, 
who was rector in charge at Philipsburg, held occasional services in the court- 
house. After him the place was visited occasionally by the Rev. George W. 
Natt, of Bellefonte, who, under the direction of the bishop of the diocese, made 
periodical visits. 

About the year 1847, Bishop Alonzo Potter sent the Rev. WiUiam Clot- 
worthy, who remained about one year, during which time his services were 
divided between Philipsburg, Morrisdale, Clearfield, and Curwensville, and 
without any particular manifestation of growth of the church in either of these 
places, but with a marked decline in its strength in Phihpsburg. 

At this time the only communicating members of the church in Clearfield 
that were known to the visiting bishop and clergy were John L. Cuttle, Mary 
A. Cuttle, his sister, William Hotchkiss, who had removed to Clearfield from 
Meadville, and his daughter Mary. 

Before the advent of Mr. Clotworthy, and during the visits of Mr. Natt, to 
Clearfield, George R. Barrett had expressed his preference for, and an intention 
to connect himself with the Episcopal Church. In 1848 he opened a corres- 
pondence with Bishop Potter, the result of which was a visit of tl at prelate to 
Clearfield early in the summej". which visit brought about a union of the dis- 
tant, but interested persons in the cause of the church. There being at the 
time neither at Philipsburg, nor at any other point, a clergyman nearer than 
Bellefonte, it was deemed necessary to form an association sufficiently strong 
to support a clergyman in Clearfield county and Philipsburg. The friends of 
Dr. Alexander MacLeod believed that he had the personal influence among 
the people of all the localities to make this scheme successful ; they therefore 
invited and (with the influence of Bishop Potter), succeeded in gaining his 
consent to unite his labors with those of the church workers in the district 
named. In December, 1849, Dr. MacLeod came to Clearfield and preached 
his first sermon in the court-house, the result of which was the establishment 



Borough of Clearfield. 363 

of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Clearfield as an enduring institution, 
followed soon afterward by the building of a church edifice. 

On the 25th day of February, 1850, a meeting was held in Clearfield for 
the purpose of organizing an Episcopal association. James Allport was presi- 
dent, and G. R. Barrett, secretary. The missionary field included Clearfield, 
Curwensville, Morrisdale, and Philipsburg, and Dr. MacLeod was called to 
take charge of the same as missionary. At the meeting a resolution was 
adopted appointing John L. Cuttle, William Bigler, G. R. Barrett, and William 
Hotchkiss as a committee to fix a location and superintend the erection of a 
church edifice. Lands were purchased from Isaac Schofield at the corner of 
Cherry and Front streets, the deed, however, being made by Josiah W. Smith, 
who held the legal title. 

The contract for the building was given to Dugan & Ralston, and was com- 
pleted in the winter of 185 1, at a cost of $1,194. 

The first vestry was elected on the nth day of March, 185 i, John L. Cut- 
tle, G. R. Barrett, Joseph S. France, James Allport, and Isaac L. Barrett, be- 
ing chosen. G. R. Barrett was appointed senior, and John L. Cuttle junior 
warden. This was the first regular Episcopal organization formed in Clear- 
field county. 

The church was called St. Andrew's, after the church of that name in Phil- 
adelphia, whose society had contributed liberally toward the support of the 
new in the payment of the rector's salary. 

On the 26th day of October, 1852, the church was formally consecrated by 
Bishop Potter. At the organization of the church there were but two persons 
presented as communicants. 

In March, 1853, Dr. MacLeod severed his connection with the parish, 
which remained vacant until October following, when the Rev. A. I. Berger 
was called and remained one year. 

In January, 1856, Dr. MacLeod, returned to the parish and continued as 
rector until September, 1861 ; having, in the mean time, been appointed chap- 
lain in the army, he left the parish never to return. 

From this time until 1866 the church was without a rector, when Rev, J. 
Taylor Chambers was called, and remained about a year. After his departure 
occasional services were held by Rev, S. H. Meade until the fall of 1869, when 
Rev. George Hall commenced his ministrations and continued in charge of 
the parish until 1873, No regular service was held after the departure of Mr. 
Hall until the month of January, 1875, when Rev. George C. Rafter minis- 
tered under the direction of Bishop Kerfoot. He was succeeded by and after- 
ward alternated with the Rev. John S, Protheroe, which continued until 1881. 
Rev. S. H. Griffith was called to the rectorship in 1882, but, being a person of 
delicate health, could not endure the severity of the winter months, therefore 
was obliged to leave the parish. In July, 1883, Bishop Kerfoot sent Rev. 



364 History of Clearfield County. 

David L. Fleming, a deacon in orders, to take charge of the parishes of Clear- 
field and Houtzdale. He continued in charge until 1885, in the mean time 
being elevated to the priesthood. Next succeeding Mr. Fleming followed the 
Rev. G. B. Van Waters, who remained in charge until 1886, when he was 
called to a more important field of labor. 

The Rev. F. C. Cowper was sent to take charge of all the Episcopal 
Churches of Clearfield county, and commenced his labors here about Christ- 
mas time in the year 1886, and since then, in connection with Rev. A. S. R. 
Richards, deacon of Osceola, have held all the services of the church in Clear- 
field. 

Since the commencement of Episcopal education in Clearfield, the visiting 
bishops have been as follows : Henry Ustic Onderdonk, Alonzo Potter, Sam- 
uel Bowman, William Bacon Stevens, John Barrett Kerfoot and Cortlandt 
Whitehead. In 1865, a new diocese was formed and named "the Diocese of 
Pittsburgh," which included Clearfield county. This transferred the church of 
Clearfield from the jurisdiction of Bishop Stevens to that of Bishop Kerfoot, 
whose successor, Bishop Whitehead, is now in charge. 

The Presbyterian Church. — The early records of this church are meagre 
and imperfect. As early as the year 1803, by direction of the Presbytery of 
Huntingdon, there was Presbyterian preaching in Clearfield by Revs. William 
Stewart and Henry R. Wilson. Under similar direction subsequent services 
were occasionally held for several years. In 1806, the general assembly or- 
dered copies of the catechism distributed in this region. The date of the 
organization of the Presbyterian Church of Clearfield is not known. It was in 
existence in 18 19, with Hugh Jordon and Archibald Shaw as ruhng elders. It 
was incorporated March 31, 1837. Among the very early members were 
Hugh and Ann Jordon, Archibald, Mary, John and Sarah Shaw, John and 
Jane Stewart, David and Susan Wilson, William and Margaret Daniel, James 
B. and Phianna Caldwell, Alexander B., Rachel, Jane, Maria J., and Jemima 
Reed, Richard and Mary Shaw, Eleanor and Eliza Ardery, James and Jane 
Irvin, Jane Moore, John R., Mary, James and Amos Read, Mrs. Robert Wal- 
lace, John Mitchell and William Dunlap. The earliest known trustees were 
elected October 29, 1836. They were Hugh Jordon, Richard Shaw, John 
Mitchell, Thomas Reed, George Welch and Robert Wallace. The first pastor 
was Rev. Garry Bishop, installed in 1826. He divided his labors between the 
ministry and the practice of medicine. He remained until 1834. During the 
next six years the church was without a pastor, but was supplied by Revs. 
David McKinney, Samuel Wilson, J. B. Payne and Edward McKinney. Rev. 
Frederick G. Betts was installed in 1840, but was taken away by the hand of 
death in 1845. Senator W. W. Betts and Lockwood Betts, the latter of whom 
was killed during the war, were his sons. During the pastorate of Mr. Betts the 
frame church building was erected on the site of the present one. It had a seat- 



Borough of Clearfield. 365 

ing capacity for about three hundred persons. Previous to this time services 
were held in the court-house. The third pastor was Rev. Samuel N. Howell, 
who remained but two years. He was succeeded by Rev. Miles T. Merwin, who 
served until 1853. The fifth pastor was Rev. Samuel M. Cooper; sixth, Rev. 
John M. Galloway, who remained about seven years and died in the parson- 
age on First street. This property was purchased during his pastorate. Du- 
ring the pastorate of Mr. Galloway the church received large accessions in 
numbers and made good progress toward more perfect organization. The 
sixth pastor was Rev. J. G. Archer, installed June 20, 1865. Under him the 
church increased largely, forty members being received at a single communion. 
It was during his pastorate, too, that the beautiful stone church edifice was 
projected and nearly completed. Mr. Archer's life was suddenly terminated 
in a railroad accident January 12, 1869. The building, so nearly finished, re- 
mains a lasting monument of his time. It cost $45,000, and easily seats six 
hundred people. A lecture room in the rear seats two hundred persons. The 
architect was J. C. Hoxie, of Camden, N. J. ; contractor of the stone work, 
Thomas Liddell ; superintendent of other work, George Thorn. The building 
committee consisted of William Bigler, William A. Wallace, A. C. Finney, 
John F. Weaver, Samuel Mitchell and James B. Graham, The building is lo- 
cated on the corner of Pine and Second streets. The pastorate of Rev. Henry 
S. Butler, the seventh of the succession, began with the occupation of the new 
church edifice, June 23, 1869, and continued fifteen years. During this time 
the church membership was largely increased and the benevolent work of the 
society admirably systematized and more than doubled. 

In September, 1884, the present pastor. Rev. Russell A. McKinley, en- 
tered upon his pastoral duties. He is a graduate of Allegheny College. Mead- 
ville. Pa., and of the Western Theological Seminary at Allegheny City, Pa. 
During the short time Mr. McKinley has held the pastorate the church mem- 
bership has increased by thirteen. 

There is now a large country constituency connected with the church. 
The present elders are James Irvin, A. M. Hills, J. G. Hartswick, John F. 
Weaver, Henry W. Park, Miles Read and Thompson Read. At the time of 
their death, ex-Governor Bigler and James B. Graham were ruling elders. R. 
H. Shaw and Henry Mead are deacons. The present board of trustees con- 
sists of Harry F. Wallace, James Kerr, W. Ross McPherson, James Mitchell 
and Frank B. Reed ; treasurer, A. Bowman Weaver ; superintendent of the 
Sunday-school, Frank B. Reed. Both home and foreign missionary societies 
are sustained by the ladies of the congregation. An effort is now making to 
raise funds for a large pipe organ to be placed in the church. 

Before the time of Mr. Archer the pastoral duties were divided between 
Clearfield, Curwensville and Kylertown, or other points, making the work 
very laborious. Many of the early pastors received from Clearfield only about 
47 



366 History of Clearfield County. 



$300, and this not entirely paid in money ; the other points contributed but 
little for pastoral support. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church. — The precise date at which Methodism 
was first established in Clearfield town, we have not been able to fix. Isaac 
Southard joined the church in 1822, and there was then an organized class of 
several members. Orris Hoyt was the first class leader, and Rev. John Ham- 
mond the preacher in charge. The class consisted of only a few members and 
met in a small house on the river, only a short distance below the present bor- 
ough. The class was organized several years prior to this time, and when there 
were but five or six houses in the town. John Moore came a few years after this 
and at once identified himself with the interests of the church. Preaching 
was held for a long time in private houses, but as the town increased the 
academy and court-house were used as places of worship until a church was 
built. A building committee was selected on the 14th day of October, 1837, 
which consisted of the following persons : Isaiah Goodfellow, Isaac Southard, 
John Moore, H. B. Beisell and WiUiam Antes. The building, a frame struc- 
ture, was located on Cherry street about midway between Second and Third. 
It was completed, and on October 5, 1839, was dedicated. This building still 
stands and is occupied as a dwelling house. 

For many years, dating back from the present church edifice, the old 
building was inadequate to supply the wants of the growing congregation, and 
during the pastorate of Rev. D. S. Monroe, in 1865-6, plans were originated 
for building a new church. For this purpose Jonathan Boynton generously 
contributed two valuable lots on Second street, and in addition thereto, gave 
large cash contributions, which, with the other donations by members of the 
church and the citizens generally, enabled the society to erect the present sub- 
stantial brick edifice. It is two stories in height, 50 by 80 feet, in dimensions, 
and was built in the year 1868, during the pastorate of Rev. Asbury Guyer. 
On November 15, 1868, the basement was dedicated. Rev. William Harder 
officiating. The main audience room was completed soon after, the whole 
church costing about $30,000. It was dedicated January 8, 1871, Revs. Chap- 
lain C. C. McCabe and J. W. Langley preaching on that occasion. In the 
year 1884, under the pastorate of Rev. James Curns, the church was repaired 
and valuable improvements added at a cost of about $7,000. It was reopened 
March 8, 1885, Bishop C. D. Foss officiating. The lot adjoining the church 
has recently been purchased and presented to the church by A. F. Boynton, 
for the erection of a pastoral residence. 

Prominent among the members of the church in addition to those already 
mentioned, have been George W. Rheem, William Radebaugh, Hester Ann 
Radebaugh, and Mrs. Mary Boynton, whose devotion to the church has made 
her name worthy of special mention in these annals. 

Among the present members who hold official relation to the church are 



Borough of Clearfield. 367 

Rev. W. H. Dill, Rev. W. M. McCullough, Jonathan Boynton, A. F. Boynton, 
D. W. McCurdy, George W. Rheem, Thomas H. Murray, J. B. McEnally, A. 
B. Shaw, J. W. Shugart, J. M. Stewart, F. G. Harris and others. The present 
membership numbers two hundred and seventy-eight persons. 

Succession of pastors: 1822, John Thomas ; 1823-4, unknown ; 1825, John 
Bowen; 1826, W. P. McDowell; 1827, W. O. Lumsdon ; 1828, David Ken- 
nison ; 1829, OHver Ege and Allen Brittain ; 1830, James Sanks and Zacha- 
riah Jordon ; 1831, Peter McEnally; 1832, Allen Brittain; 1833, Stephen 
Smith; 1834, John McEnally; 1835, Eli Nicodemus and Isaac Stratton ; 
1836, John Anderson and S. V. Blake ; 1837, S. V. Blake and EHsha Butler ; 
1839, Josephs. Lee and J. A. Ross; 1840, Joseph S. Lee and Gideon H. 
Day; 1841, Hildebrand and Stephenson; 1842, Elisha Butler and T. F. Mc- 
Clure ; 1843, Robert Beers and Samuel Register; 1844, Robert Beers, Jacob 
Montgomery; 1845, Elias Welty, Thomas Barnhart ; 1846, EHas Welty, John 
Lloyd, Rev. Hoffman; 1847, John Steine, H. W. Bellman; 1848, Peter Mc- 
Enally, Albert Hartman ; 1849, McEnally, J. A. Melick ; 1850, George Berg- 
stresser; 1851, Bergstresser, Thaddeus Stauber ; 1852, George Guyer ; 1853- 
4, Adam Hockenberry^ 1855, A. M. Barnitz, W. W. Hicks; 1856, John 
Elliot; 1857-8, Thomas Barnhart; 1859-60, W. Lee Spottswood ; 1861-2, 
Thomas Gotwalt; 1863-4, L. M. Gardner; 1865-6, David S. Monroe ; 1867-8, 
Asbury Guyer; 1869, W. H. Dill; 1870-1, James H. McCord ; 1872-3-4, 
A. D. Yocum; 1875-6, B. F. Stevens; 1877-8-9, Jacob S. McMurray; 
1880-1-2, George Leidy; 1883-4-5, James Curns ; 1886-7, J. Harper Black. 

Saint Francis Roman Catholic Church. — The early services of this church 
in this vicinity, when this was only a missionary station, have not been re- 
corded, and of all services held prior to 1830, the information has been derived 
from persons who held it only in memory, and is, therefore, somewhat incom- 
plete. There was no regularly organized society of the church until 1830; 
but as early as 18 15, or 18 18, the town was visited by missionaries in the 
priesthood, who said masses, with an occasional sermon, for the benefit of the 
few Catholic families then residing here. Among the few there can be re- 
membered the names of Robert Collins, Joseph Boone, James Hamilton, and 
later, James and John Dougherty, John McLaughlin, Hugh Brady, and prob- 
ably others whose names cannot be recalled. Of the priests who traveled 
through this missionary field at that time, were the Rev. Fathers Hayden, 
Reilly, and Leavey. During the ministrations of the last named. Father 
Leavey, the old CathoHc Church was built. Prior to that time, 1830, such 
services as were had were held at the houses of the parishioners and in the old 
academy building on Front street. For the purpose of erecting a church edi- 
fice, Joseph Boone donated the land on Second street ; Father Leavey con- 
tributed for the work the sum of $1,600, which, with contributions from other 
sources, made the erection possible. Hugh Leavy was the superintendent of 



^6S History of Clearfield County. 

the work. The church was built of brick, and had a seating capacity of about 
three hundred. The first seats were placed in the church by John McLaugh- 
lin, Hugh Leavy, and John Dougherty. Although the building was sufficiently 
completed to have services held therein during the first year, yet it was not 
until about two or three years after that it was entirely finished. The Rev. 
Father Leavey was the first resident priest of the parish, and to him belongs 
the honor of having planted the church in the town. His pastoral relations 
continued about ten years, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Father Nugent, 
who remained only about two years. Father P. A. Prendergast came in 1842, 
He was followed by Rev. John Berbigier, who was then in charge at French- 
yille. Next came Rev. Joseph F. Dean, who remained some time, and after 
him, Rev. Joseph A. Gallagher and Rev. F. Ledwith in succession. Rev. 
Father John Dennis Coady took charge of the parish, commencing in 1857. 
During his pastorate the priest's residence was built, on the lot adjoining the 
church on the north. Father Coady remained here seven years, and left in 
July, 1863. In August following, the Rev. Thomas Tracey was sent to the 
parish and remained about five years. He was followed by Father O'Branigan 
in. 1 868, and he in turn was succeeded by Father Westfall, who remained but 
a short time. Father Thomas McManus came in 1871, and left in November, 
1872, when the present pastor. Rev. Father Peter Joseph Sheridan, was sent 
by the bishop to take charge of the parish. Father Sheridan's work has been 
as successful as it has been long. In 1884, the plans for a new church edifice 
were adopted, and Father Sheridan, ably assisted by members of his church, 
set about raising funds for this purpose. A building committee was chosen, 
consisting of the following persons : Rev. P. A. Sheridan, P. A. Gaulin, James 
McLaughlin, J. F. McKenrick, J. L. Leavy, L. J. Morgan, and Charles Mignot. 
The committee had intended to build a brick edifice, but subsequently changed 
their plans, and used stone instead. The building is so far progressed as to be 
under a roof, and will probably be completed during the coming building sea- 
son. In dimensions, it is fifty by one hundred feet, and will comfortably seat 
eight hundred persons. The entire cost of the building is estimated at about 
twenty thousand dollars. The corner stone was laid July 25, 1886. 

T/ie Evangelical Lutheran Church. — The prime mover in the organization 
of this church society in Clearfield, was G. Philip Geulich, the pioneer of Luth- 
eranism in the county. Through the efforts of Father Geulich the church 
edifice was built. The corner stone was laid, with appropriate services, Au- 
gust 31, 1850, and a few months later the church was dedicated. It was 
erected at the corner of Pine and Third streets, and was a frame structure 
thirty-six by fifty feet in dimensions. The first members were G. Philip Geu- 
lich and wife, Abram Ogden and wife, Abram High and wife, Henry E. Sny- 
der, Catharine Clemens, Esther Hoover, and J. B. Heisey and wife. At that 
time the church officers were : Elder, G. P. Geulich ; deacon, Abram Ogden. 



Borough of Clearfield. 369 

A full council was subsequently elected, and by them J. B. Heisey was chosen 
treasurer. Rev. Peter Lane was pastor during the organization of the society, 
and at the time the church edifice was built. Since the formation of the society 
the pastors in charge have been Revs. Diehl, Focht, Bratton, Height, Harrison, 
Nixdorf, Hartsock, Moser, Tomlinson, Fletcher, and A. J. Bean, the present 
incumbent. Under Rev. Hartsock the society was, in part, supported by the 
Home Mission Board, which also, during the last year, assisted with an appro- 
priation, the congregation still remaining a mission. In 1873-4, a parsonage 
was erected on the lot adjoining the church. From a fund created in part by 
the sale of the old church and certain lots owned by the society, together with 
contributions made to that end, a new brick church edifice is in course of erec- 
tion on the site formerly occupied by the old building. A single story in 
height, 54x73 feet in size, of Gothic architecture, the new church will meet 
the needs of the congregation for some years to come. This church society 
has never been numerically strong, the number of members not, at any time, 
exceeding one hundred persons. At present it is in a prosperous condition, 
having from eighty to ninety members, a Sabbath-school of one hundred and 
forty scholars, catechetical classes, and a ladies' aid society. The church is a 
member of the Allegheny Synod. 

The Baptist Church. — The early meetings of this society, like those of other 
denominations of Christian churches of the borough, were held in the court- 
house. As early as the year 1842, and possibly prior to that time, Rev. Sam- 
uel Miles conducted the meetings of the society. The organization was ef- 
fected about the year 1855, and three years later, a small church edifice was 
built on Second street, south of Pine. Among the earlier members were Mar- 
tin Nichols, sr., and his son ; Dr. A. T. Schryver, Thomas Robbins, Mrs. 
Burchfield, Edwin Cooper, and others. Of the clergymen who have labored 
in the interest of the church and its society. Elder Miles was the first, and Revs. 
Morris and Hunter came later. At the time the church edifice was erected, 
there were about forty members ; but during recent years there has been a 
gradual falling off in numbers, until there are at present only about six mem- 
bers. There has been no regular pastor for some years, and only occasional 
services are held. 

Societies and Orders. 

Clearfield Lodge No. 314, F. and A. M., was chartered January 11, 1858, 
with the following charter members : Thomas Barnhart, George R. Barrett, 
Henry Loraine, John McGaughey, Alexander MacLeod, John Patton, Samuel 
B. Row, A. T. Schryver, and Robert J. Wallace. The first meeting was held 
February 22, 1858, at which the following named officers were elected: Rev. 
Thomas Barnhart, W. M. ; S. B. Row, S. W. ; John McGaughey, J. W. ; John 
Patton. treasurer ; R. J. Wallace, secretary. Appointed officers : Daniel Faust, 
S. D. ; O. B. Merrill, J. D. ; A. T. Schryver, tyler. 



370 History of Clearfield County. 

Succession of worshipful masters: 1859, S. B. Row; i860, John McGaughey; 
1 86 1 , Daniel Faust ; 1862, Robert J. Wallace ; 1 863-4-5-6, George W. Rheem ; 
1867, S. J. Row; 1868, James R. Caldwell; 1869, Thomas Liddell ; 1870, 
Zara C. McCullough ; 1871, William M. McCullough ; 1872, William H. Dill; 
1873, John R. Cullingsworth ; 1874, William L. Parker; 1875, Levis K. Mc- 
Cullough; 1876, J. H. Fulford; 1877, William M. McCullough; 1878, J. P. 
Burchfield; 1879, Wash. I. Curley; 1880, William H. Dill; 1 881, William 
M. McCullough; 1882, Hiram T. King; 1883, Smith V. Wilson; 1884, J. 
Boynton Nevhng; 1885, Matthew Savage; 1886, M. L. McQuown. Officers 
for 1887: William H. Dill, W. M.; Allison O. Smith, S. W. ; Walter L. Mc- 
Junkin, J. D.; Daniel W. McCurdy, treas. ; Asbury W. Lee, sec'y ; John G. 
Schryver, S. D. ; Albert M. Row, J. D. ; Eli Bloom, sen. M. C. ; J. Boynton 
Nevling, jun. M. C. ; J. P. Burchfield, William C. Cardon, stewards ; L. K. 
McCullough, chaplain ; J. P. Burchfield, pursuivant ; Thomas Robbins, tyler. 
Present number of members, fifty-three ; regular meetings, first Monday on or 
before full moon, at Masonic Hall. 

Clearfield Chapter No. 225, H. R. A. M. — Date of charter. June 20, 1870. 
Charter officers : Zara C. McCullough, M. E. H. P.; William H. Dill, king; 
William M. McCullough, scribe ; Henry Bridge, treasurer ; Reuben McPher- 
son, secretary. Installed by grand officers of G. H. R. A. Chapter September 
23, 1 870. Succession of Most Eminent High Priests : 1 871-2, William H. Dill ; 
1873, William M. McCullough; 1874, John R. CuUinsworth ; 1875, Hiram T. 
King; 1876, Fred Sackett; 1877-8-9, Hiram T. King ; 1 880-1-2-3, William 
H. Dill; 1884, John G. Schryver; 1885, J. P. Burchfield; 1886, Alexander 
E. Patton. Officers for 1887: John R. Fee, M. E. H. P.; William C. Langs- 
ford, king ; Abram S. R. Richards, scribe ; Daniel W. McCurdy, treasurer ; 
Asbury W. Lee, secretary. Present number of members, fifty-five ; regular 
meetings, second Monday after full moon. 

Clearfield Lodge No. 198, /. 0. O. F., instituted October 17, 1846, with 
five charter members, viz. : John L. Cuttle, Daniel Livingston, Dr. Charles R. 
Foster, William T. Gilbert, and Ashley M. Hills. First officers : J. L. Cuttle, 
N. G. ; Charles R. Foster, V. G. ; A. M. Hills, secretary ; Daniel Livingston, 
assistant secretary ; William T. Gilbert, treasurer. The lodge has a present 
membership of one hundred. Meetings are held every Saturday evening at 
Odd Fellows Hall. The lodge has a fund of $7,000, well invested for the 
benefit of the order. The furnishings of the lodge-room and the regalia are 
complete and elegant. The present officers are : W. F. Chambers, N. G. ; G. 
A. Whorl, V. G. ; A. J. Bean, sec'y ; L. K. McCullough, treas. ; L. K. Mc- 
Cullough, Smith V. Wilson, R. H. Shaw, trustees. 

Clearfield Encampment of Patriarchs, I. 0. 0. F., No. 232, was instituted 
under warrant or dispensation on the 12th day of July, 1872, with sixteen 
charter members. The charter officers were: A. M. Hills, C. P.; S. J. Row, 



Borough of Clearfield. 371 

H. P.; Thomas Robbins, S. W.; N. B. Lee, J. W.; J. F. Nisley, scribe; C. 
D. Watson, treasurer. In point of progress the encampment has never accom- 
plished much. From sixteen charter members it has only increased to twenty- 
one. The present officers are : L. K. McCullough, C. P.; F. K. Smith, H. P.; 
A. L. Hess, sen. war.; W. F. Chambers, jun. war.; A. J. Bean, scribe; J. M. 
Stewart, treasurer. Meetings are held at Odd Fellows Hall the first and third 
Fridays of each month. 

Larimer Post, No. 179, G. A. R., was instituted July 2, 1880, with forty- 
two charter members. The first officers were : Commander, Peter A. Gaulin ; 
sen. vice com., E. M. Scheurer; jun. vice com., H. T. King; surgeon, Dr. J. P. 
Burchfield ; officer of the day, William A. Ogden ; officer of the guard, C. 
Owens ; Q. M., William R. Brown ; chaplain, J. D, Snoke. Appointed offi- 
cers : Q. M. S., Samuel H. Snoke ; adjutant, Frank A. Fleming ; sergt. maj., 
George D. Ronk ; ord. sergt, J. M. Hastings. Succession of commanders: 
P. A. Gaulin, H. T. King, Amos Row, Frank G. Charpenning, Samuel H. 
Snoke, R. H. Shaw, Cornelius Owens, J. D. Snoke. 

Present officers : Commander, J. D. Snoke ; sen. vice com., George S. 
Kyler ; jun. vice com., Thomas Powell; adj., John M. Hastings ; Q. M., P. A. 
Gaulin; surg., R. H. Shaw; chaplain, H. T. King; officer of the day, S. H. 

Snoke ; officer of the guard, J. W. Darey ; sergt. maj., Shunkweiler ; Q. 

M. S., W. W. Worrell. Regular meetings are held on the second and fourth 
Friday evenings of each month. 

The West Branch Royal Arcanum, No 797, was organized under a charter 
granted April 28, 1884, to the following charter members: J. L. Miller, John 
C. Barclay, Andrew Harwick, E. S. Read, Samuel C. Stewart, A. M. Bloom, 
A. F. Martin, Ezra Brown, Daniel Connelly, J. L. R. Heichhold, Harry Hemp- 
hill, John Scheifer, R. H. Thompson, Ashley Thorn, and Reuben McPherson. 
There has been an increase of only two members since the organization. The 
present officers are : Regent, Daniel Connelly ; vice regent, Andrew Harwick ; 
orator, A. F. Martin ; chaplain, Ashley Thorn ; treasurer, Ezra Brown ; col- 
lector, L. K. McCullough ; sec'y, J. C. Barclay ; guide, J. B. Larimer ; warden, 
John Scheifer. Regular meetings are held on the first and third Tuesday even- 
ings of each month. 

Knights of Pythias. — The charter for this order was granted on the 19th 
of July, 1 87 1, to the following members: William M. McCullough, jr., Noel B. 
Lee, Joseph Leman, J. K. Johnson, D. W. Flemmer, George D. Ronk, Robert 
McCorkle, Edward Mack, and Samuel H. Snoke. The order at present num- 
bers fifty-two members. Regular weekly meetings are held each Monday 
evening. The present officers are: Past chancellor, Frank Thorn; C. C, 
Thomas W. King ; V. C, George D. Ronk ; prelate, J. C. Smith ; M. A^ 
Ed. O. Berger; K. of R. and S., A. P. Moore; M. F., J. K. Johnson; M. Ex.^ 
A. M. Guinzburg; L G., John Murray; O. G., J. B. Larimer; trustees, J. C. 
Smith, G. D. Ronk, and Robert McCorkle. 



372 History of Clearfield County. 

Clearfield Council, Order of United American Mechanics, No. 281. Char- 
ter granted February 15, 1872, to the following persons : T. J. Hubbard, J. B, 
Hamilton, Ezra Ale, B. F. Cooper, M. S. Bottarf, Cornelius Owens, W. W. 
Cams, D. R. Newcomer, Adam McQuillan, W. S. Taylor, Andrew Harwick, 
J. B. Way, Theodore Stevenson, James Sutton, and A. T, Miller. The first 
officers were : C, Ezra Ale ; vice C, J. B. Hamilton ; R. S., B. F. Cooper ; A. 
R. S., A. Harwick; F. S., C. Owens; T., D. R. Newcomer; ind., A. T. Mil- 
ler; ex., T. Stevenson; I. P., W. W. Cams; O. P., A. McQuillan; jr. ex C, 
T. Hubbard ; sr. ex C, M. S. Bottorf ; trustees, Ezra Ale, T. Hubbard, J. B. 
Hamilton. Clearfield Council of the O. U. A. M. is one of the strongest 
organizations of its kind in the borough. They started the order with fifteen 
members in the year 1872, and the membership now numbers one hundred 
and two persons. Since the first officers were chosen, there have been twenty- 
eight councillors in succession, the term of office being six months ; the coun- 
cil have an appropriately furnished room in the Opera House building, where 
their meetings are held. The present officers are as follows : Councillor, James 
Cams ; vice con., J. F. Cleaver; R. S., R. J. Conkhn ; A. R. S., L. C. Lanich ; 
F. S., G. Y. Conkhn; T., C. Owens; ind., J. M. Hastings; ex., L. M. Coch- 
ler; I. P., C. Evans ; O. P., N. H. Nichols ; jr. ex. C, C. Carr ; sen. ex. C, W. 
A. Henchberger ; rep., S. Henchberger ; prox., M. A. Nichols ; trustees, R. E. 
Shaw, R. J. Conklin, James Miller: I. D. S. C, J. L. Conklin. 

Susquehanna Assembly of the Knights of Labor organization of Clear- 
field, was created by charter dated June il, 1886, to nineteen charter members. 
The officers chosen at their first meeting were : John Schafer, master workman ; 
George Whorl, worthy foreman ; Charles Bickle, cor. and rec secretary ; Wesley 
Leisure, treasurer. Having been in existence only a year, the order has ex- 
hibited a remarkable growth, increasing to sixty present members. Their 
meetings are held each Wednesday evening at the K. of P. Hall, Kratzer's 
Building. The officers for the present year are : George Cowdrick, M. W. ; 
Albert Dutra, W. F. ; William Short, sec'y; Henry Schafer, treas. 

The Good Templars, an order for the promotion of the cause of temperance, 
was chartered February 26, 1879, with thirty-four members. Their charter 
officers were as follows : Thomas F. Cooper, W. C. T. ; Melissa Burley, W. V. 
T. ; John E. Harder, W. sec. ; Jennie McPherson, W. A. sec. ; Charles H. 
Halford, W. F. sec. ; Kate V. Murray, W. treasurer. Regular meetings were 
held for some time, and the aim of the society was approved by nearly all per- 
sons, but of late there seems to be a decline, both in membership and interest. 
No regular meetings are now held. 

St. Francis Catholic Total Abstinence and Benevolent Society, is an organi- 
zation for the promotion of temperance among the members and congregation 
of St. Francis R. C. Church. It was formed through the efforts of Rev. Father 
Sheridan, pastor of that church, with the assistance of members of the congre- 
gation. The society has a membership of about thirty persons. 



Borough of Clearfield. 373 

The Clearfield Branch of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union was 
organized February 13, 1884. This branch is subordinate to the county organ- 
ization, the county to the State, and that in turn is auxiliary to the National 
Union created and established in the interest of temperance and good morals 
throughout the length and breadth of the land. At the time above referred to, 
many of the Christian women of this vicinity met for the purpose of a complete 
and thorough organization of a Branch Union, which resulted in the election of 
the following officers : President, Mrs. John Reed ; general vice president, Mrs. 
Richard H. Shaw; vice presidents, Miss Helen Powell, of the Presbyterian 
Society, and Mrs. Israel Test of the Methodist society. The rules of the 
society provide for the selection of a vice president from each church society 
but in the early days of this organization, full nominations from each were not 
made. Mrs. Thomas H. Murray succeeded Mrs. Reed as president, and was 
in turn succeeded by Miss Mary A. Irwin. The Clearfield Union now num- 
bers ninety members, officered as follows : President, Miss Mary A. Irwin ; 
gen. vice president, Mrs. Sarah Jane Shaw; cor. sec, Miss Carrie Test ; rec. 
sec, Mrs. S. J. Shaw ; treas.. Miss Helen Powell: sup't school work, Mrs. J. F. 
Irwin ; sup't jail work, Mrs. Ada Harwick ; sup't press work. Miss M. A. 
Irwin ; sup't on unfermented wine, Mrs. Dr. Hartswick. As assistants to the 
ladies there are eight gentlemen, who are made honorary members of the 
Union. Connected with the work of the Union, there has been organized the 
Children's Band of Hope, now numbering eighty members, under the superin- 
tendence of Miss Sadie Gallagher, assisted by Miss Mark Heckendorn. 

The Clearfield Agricultural Park Association, the only organization of its 
kind in this section of the county, and the outgrowth of an older society formed 
for the same object, was created in the year 1871, by Hon. George R. Barrett, 
James L. Leavy, Andrew Pentz., jr., Thomas H. Forcey, James McLaughHn, 
James Mahaffey, R. Newton Shaw, William Powell, W. C. Cardon, F. I. Thomp- 
son, John F. Weaver, John Smith, and Robert Wrigley. George R. Barrett 
was made president ; William Powell, treasurer, and Robert Wrigley, secre- 
tary. The capital stock of the association was divided in thirteen shares at 
$150 each. The object of the society is to promote a friendly competition 
among farmers in the display of agricultural products, as well as exhibitions of 
speed and quality in horses ; and further to improve the quality of all kinds of 
live stock. An annual premium is awarded the successful competitor of each 
class at the annual fall meeting of the association. The park is located in West 
Clearfield, and embraces about twenty-eight acres of land. A half mile track 
is laid out, upon which the exhibitions of speed are made. The present pres- 
ident of the association is R. Newton Shaw. The owners are : James L. 
Leavy, James McLaughlin, T. H. Forcey, R. Newton Shaw, and Ed. Good- 
fellow. 

48 



374 History of Clearfield County. 



Schools. 

In this place it is not deemed necessary to make any detailed or even 
general reference to the educational institutions of Clearfield borough. The 
subject of education, found in an earher chapter, is so fully, exhaustively and 
elaborately treated that special mention here would amount merely to a repe- 
tition of what has already been fully commented upon. The chapter referred 
to, aside from containing full statements and history of the early schools of the 
county, has as its foundation, a record of the several schools established from 
time to time in this town and subsequent borough. The chapter was pre- 
pared with the greatest care and research and will be found as interesting as it 
is reliable. 

Fire Department. 

Prior to 1882, there was no organized means of protection against fire in 
Clearfield. While the town had been remarkably fortunate in escaping any 
general conflagration, or serious fire losses, a number of disastrous fires had 
occurred, entailing heavy losses to individuals, and which were