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A History of 

Cleveland and Its Environs 

The Heart of New Connecticut 









Ever since my coming, in the sumiuer of 1871, to what is now the 
City of Cleveland, I have been, from force of early habit, accumulating 
matter relating to the history of Cleveland and its environs. These 
accumulations include books, pamphlets, magazines, newspaper clip- 
pings, etc. ; among these are histories, atlases, etc., of the city, the 
county, and the Reserve, the Annah of the Early Settlers' Associa- 
tion, the Tracts of the Western Reserve Historical Society, city direc- 
tories, blue books, and annual summaries of municipal doings. All 
of these, together with my personal recollections and the contribu- 
tions that I solicited from many per.sons, I have combined as well as 
I could in this historical volume of Cleveland and Its Environs. 

As a matter of fairness to myself, I cheerfully state that I have 
made free use of the labors of others who, in advance of me, have 
trodden the path of Western Reserve historj'. In the preparation of 
the early chapters of this volume, I had Colonel Whittlesey's Early 
History of Clevela)id and Mr. Kennedy's History of Cleveland almost 
constantly at my elbow, with Mr. Orth's History of Cleveland, the 
Annals and the Tracts previously mentioned within easy reach, and 
with the files of the Magazine of Western History easily accessible. 
I have found Mr. Kennedy's work especially helpful and, if at any 
point I have failed to make acknowledgment of matter quoted there- 
from, I hope that this may be held as adequate atonement. It is 
proper, however, to suggest that as Mr. Kennedy and I were continu- 
ally dipping our buckets into the same wells of information, identity 
of matter is not conclusive proof of plagiarism. In a few cases, I have 
corrected errors in works that I have utilized ; to these corrections, I 
possibly added errors of my own. I hope that such errors of mine 
have not exceeded the percentage permissible to everybody in every 
walk of life. 

For the sake of the reader, I have made very sparing use of foot- 
notes,* and, for my own sake, I respectfully call attention to the fact 

* Such notes are necessary in some writings (like law text books), but they 
are frequently more confusing than helpful to readers of volumes like this. They 
cannot conscientiously ignore the foot-notes but, if they stop to read them, the 
continuity of the story is interrupted. Even this foot-note is suggestive of the 
injunction of the school master to his pupils, to never split an infinitve or use 
a preposition to end a sentence with. 




that the initial paragraph of this preface did not begin with the 
"perpendicular pronoun." Having accomplished so much in defer- 
ence to the dicta of a certain class of critics, I am inclined to insist 
upon my right to say " I " instead of " we " whenever I desire to do so. 

It is, also, only fair to myseK to say that, in many cases, unifonnity 
in tj-pographical style, and certain rhetorical desiderata (such as "the 
unity of the paragraph") have been subordinated to the conservation 
of space and matter demanded by war conditions. 

To the manj- who have lent a helping hand (they are too numerous 
for individual mention), I hereby tender my assurances of grateful 
appreciation. I must, however, make specific mention of the assist- 
ance given by Mr. H. G. Cutler, the general historian of the Lewis 
Publishing Company. To enable me to complete the work on schedule 
time, he came from Chicago to Cleveland and, for several weeks, was 
my genial and able a.ssistant. Some of the later chapters of this vol- 
ume were written by him. 

Cleveland, November 1, 1918. 




Early Events ix Southern New England — Royal Land 
Grants — Connecticut Cedes Most op Her Western Lands 
— Sale of Western Reserve to Connecticut Land Company 
— Persontstel of the Connecticut Land Company 1 



Cleaveland Buys Indian Land Clmms — At the Port of Inde- 
pendence — "Stow Castle" — ExplorjVTIons of the New 
Land — The Founding of Clevelaito — The Township op 
Euclid — Exit General Cleaveland — Seth Pease, Principal 
Surveyor — Arrival op Judge Kingsbury 12 



Lorenzo Carter Arrives — Cleveland a General Hospital — 
Industrial Birth — Cleveland and Ohio in 1800 36 



Historic Conservatism — Pioneer Education and Religion — 
The Coming of Samuel Huntington — Major Spafford's 
Resurvey 53 




First Justices of the Pkvce — Le.\ding Business Men — The 
hocAL. Militia — Clouded Titles to Indian Lands — Early 
Mails and Postmasters — Beginning of Cleveland's Second 
Decade — Nathan Perry Comes 62 



Nathan Perry, Jr. — Cleveland and Huron Highway — Amos 
Spafford and Stanley Griswold — Levi Johnson — Creation 
OF Cuyahoga County — First Tanneries — Pioneer Legal 
Matters — Dr. David Long — Clevelanders of 1811-12 — Kel- 
ley 's Island 75 



The War of 1812 at Cleveland — The First Murder and Execu- 
tion — Capt. Stanton Sholes at Cleveland — Cleveland 
Village Incorporated 91 



First Village Legislation — Notable Arrivals of 1816 — First 
Church Finally Organized — Kelley's L.vrge Stone House 
— Cleveland's First Bank and Bankers — First School- 
house Built in Clevel.\nd — Reuben Wood — " Walk-in-tiie- 
Water" Makes Cleveland — Cleveland Herald Founded. . 100 



First Presbyterian Church — Old Stone Chuiich — A Pioneer 
Bridge Subscription — John W. Willey — The Cleveland 
Academy — Rufus P. Spalding — The Second Courthouse — 
George Worthington" — Various Impro\t5ments and Hap- 
penings — The (Cleveland Advertiser Appears 126 




The Fugitive Slave Law— Local Anti-Slavery Sentiment— 
FiKST Baptist Church— Black Hawk and John Stair — 
FiRK AND Water— Thomas Bolton— First Western Loco- 
motive Works 1"*" 



William Bingham— William A. Otis— Moses Kelley— The 
C/isAi^ Era — "Boom" Following the Building op the 




Improvements in Cleveland and Ohio City— The Bridge War 

Ohio City's First Election— Mayors op the Two Cities — 

In the City of Cleveland — City Council First Meets- 
First Board of School Managers l^l 



Council Approved City Directory — Churches in 1837 — Court- 
house Described — Associations and Institutions of 1837 — 
Financlvl Institutions — Newspapers — Industries and Rail- 
roads — Cleveland Harbor — Leading Cleveland Hotels — 
Stage Lines — Judges op the Court op Common Pleas — Gov- 
ernment Officials — Arrival and Departure op the Mails — 
Rates of Postage — An Ordinance to Provide for the Es- 


of 1837 — Ohio Railroad Put to Rest. 184 




Dr. Jared p. Kirtlaxd — Municipal, Officials op 1839-40 — City 
Record of 1840-45 — Young IMen's Literary Association Or- 
ganized — Municipal IVL\tters, 1846-48 — Railway Construc- 
tion — Water Works Suggested — Plymouth Congrega- 
tional Church — The C. C. & C. Enters Cleveland — Cleve- 
land & ilAHONiNG Railroad Completed 205 



Municipal Water Supply — The Cleveland of 1853 — Ohio City 
OF 1853 — Destructive Fires — The Canal Bank Closes Its 
Doors — Young Men's Christian Association Organized. . . . 220 



The Mayors of Cleveland — Municipal Improvements— The 
Courthouse op 1885— Oberlin-Wellington Rescue Cases — 
The Hanging of John Brown — Journeys op the Perry 
Monument — Capture and Return of the Slave Lucy — 
Lincoln Visits Cleveland 233 



Cleveland's Trade — Commerce and Manufactures, 1865 — 
Leading Shipbuilding Port — New Passenger Depot — Edu- 
cational and Charitable — Founding of Cuyahoga County 
Agricultural Society — A Projected City Hall — Cleve- 
land Work House and House of Correction — East Cleve- 
land Annexed — Organization of Cuyahoga County Medi- 
cal Society — Origin of the Cleveland Humane Society — 
Legal Matters op Moment — Newburo ViijLage Annexed — 
The Panic of 1873 — Improvement of Water Supply — 
Women's Christian Temperance Union — Harbor of Refuge 
Constructed — Hotels and Amusement Halls — The Old 
City Hall 247 




The First High Level Bridge — The Early Settlers' Associa- 
tion — Leonard Case, Jr. — Cleveland Music Hall — James 
A. Garfield — Fi/)od and Firk — The "Blinkey" Morgan 
Affair — Second High Level Bridge — Largest Shipbltildixo 
Center in the Country (1890) — Municipal-Federal Plan 
Adopted — Regulating the Price op Gas — Cleveland 
Wealth of 1891 — Revolutionary Descendants — Historical 
Society and Chamber of Commerce — The Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Monument — Convention of Christian Endeavorers 
■ — The Cleveland Postoffice — Cleveland's Centennial 
Anniversary 268 



Celebration of Cleveland's Centennial — To the Women of 
1996— To Women Unborn 289 



War Emergency Committees, D. A. K. — Clevelanders Off for 
Cuba — Mayors McKisson and Farley — Re.\l Queen City op 
THE Lowt;r Lakes — The Mayor Johnson Era — Struggle 
FOR 3-Cent Street R.ulway Fare — The Tayler FuiVNCHisE , 
— Natural Gas, Street Names, Etc. — Belt Line Railway 
Not Electrified — Moses Cleaveland's Burial Place 310 



County Centennial Celebration — Home Rule Charter 
Framed — Centennial Celebration op Perry's Victory — 
Niagara Day — Perry Day — Children's and Women's Day 


— Conclusion of the Celebration — Mayor Baker Enters 
THE Wilson Cabinet — First City in American Spirit — 
Cleveland as a Twentieth Century Pioneer — Increases 
OF Ten YE.VRS 332 



Under the Board op School Managers — Colored Children — 
First Plea for High School — The Schools in 1845 — 
Cleveland's First High School— Greater Interest in the 
Public Schools — Under the Board op Education — The 
Mayflower School — West High School — First Elected 
Board op Education — The Public Schools, 1859-62 — An- 
drew J. RicKOPP — Public School Record for 1867-72 — East 
Cleveland Schools Annexed — Much of Newburg Town- 
ship Annexed — Tax Levy for Building Schools Incre.\sed 
— Superintendent Hinsd.vle's Administration — Manual 
Training School Opened — Government of Schools Reor- 
ganized — Columbus Day Observed — The Schools Under 
Superintendent Draper — Expansion of School System — 
First Woman Elected to Public Office in Ohio — Many 
School Buildings Erected — Conclusion of Superintendent 
Jones' Term — William H. Elson's Record — The Educa- 
tional Commission — Superintendent Frank E. Spaulding 
— Present School Organization — High Schools — Junior 
High Schools — Elementary Schools — Special Schools.. 341 



Western Reserve University — Case School of Applied Science 
— The University School — St. Ignatius College — Catholic 
Schools — The Western Reserve Histohicai, Society — The 
Cleveland I'tdlic Library— The Early Settlers' Associa- 
tion 395 




A City ok the Skcond Class — Water Supply and Protection 
Against Fire — Trials of the Public Markets — Growth op 
Fire and Police Departments During the Civil War — 
The First Waterworks — The Tunnel and Works of 1870- 
74 — General Municipal Code op 1870 — Home Rule op the 
Police Department — ^Iunicipal Government by Boards — 
Trial of the Federal Form — Decadal Expansion of Police, 
Fire and Water Departments — The Great Tunnel and 
iloDERN Water System of Today — Series of Casualties — 
The W^aterworks as Completed — The Filtration Plant 
and Other Works — The Baldwin Reservoir — Miles -and 
Valuation of Water Works — Zones and Are.v op Supply — 
Progress of the Fire Department — Adoption of the Fed- 
eral Form op Government — Charters Unconstitutional 
— Home Rule Agitation — The Fire Department Up to Date 
— Methods Are Changed — Motor Tractors Bought — Pres- ' 
ent Fire and Police Divisions — Department op Public 
Service — Department op Parks and Public Property — De- 
partment OF Public Welfare — Department op Public 
Safety — Department of Finance — Department of Public 
Utilities •. 429 



The Streets of Old Cleveland — Expansion in All Directions 
— The Bridges and Viaducts — Getting the East and the 
West Sides Together — First Permanent Bridge Across 
the Cuyahoga — Other Bridges at the Strategic Point — 
Direct Communication with Ohio City — A Bridge Story of 
Mystery — Other Cleveland Bridges — Walworth Run Via- 
duct — High-Level Bridge Demanded — Building of Old Su- 
perior Street Viaduct — Formal Dedication op First High- 
Level Bridge — Greater Viaduct for Greater Cleveland — 
Centr.vl Viaduct — Kingsbury Run Improvements — Brook- 
lyn-Brighton Connection with the Southwest — Other 


Bridges and Vl\ducts — Proposed Lorain-Huron Bridge — 
Street Car and Interurban Service — The Advent op 
Electricity — Grand Consolidation and Expansion — The 
Connections Outside of Cleveland — The Public Square 
AND the Grand Group Plan — Origin op the Group Plan 
of Public Buildings — Group Plan Commission Appointed 
AND Plan Accepted — Building Sites Purchased — The Fed- 


Municipal Hall — The City Planning Commission 449 



Recreation Parks — Old Clinton Park — Changes in Park 
AL^nagement — ^Franklin Circle — Early Attempts to 
Pound East Cleveland Parks — Three City Parks Pro- 
posed — Miles Park, Newburg — The Old South Side Park — 
• Lake View Park — Gordon Park — Wade Park — Fairview 
Park — The Cleveland Park Plan Adopted — Edgewater 
Park — Brookside Park — Garfield Park — Ambler Parkway 
Connection — Shaker Heights Park — The Rockefeller 
Parks — Other Connecting Boulevards — "Washington Park 
— -Parks in the Making — The Parks Truly Popularized — 
The Parks Statistically Considered — The City Market 
Houses 474 



Justices of the Peace — James Kingsbury — Lorenzo Carter 
Breaches tjie Peace — Samuel Huntington — When Justice 
Was Young — Dr. Samuel Underihll — George Hoadley, the 
Elder — John Bare and Other Leading Early Justices — 
The Court of Common Pleas — First Court, a Strong Body 
— First Cases Before Court — Daniel in the Lion's Den — 
Alfred Kelley First Appears as Prosecutor — First Civil 
Jury Trial — First Session op Supreme Court in Cleve- 
land — Alfred Kelley, the First Active Lawyer — Court 


Business During First Four Ye^vrs — Leonard Case, Sr. — 
Various Presiding Judges op the Court — Harvey Rice — 
Brilliant, Eloquent and Versatile Sherlock J. Andrews 
— John W. Allen — Mayor John W. Willey — Henry B. 
Payne — Samuel Cowles — Samuel Starkweather and 
Horace Foote — During the Civil War Period — Relief from 
Over-Crowded Docket— Samuel B. Prentiss — Robert F. 
Paine — President Garfield's Significant Compliment — 
Superior Court Established — Court Aboijshed as Insuf- 
ficient — Seneca 0. Griswold — William E. Sherwood — ■ 
Now Twelve Common Ple^vs Judges — The Probate Court 
and Judge Tilden — Henry Clay White — The Circuit 
Court — Charles C. Baldwin — John C. Hale — The Munici- 
pal, OR Police Court — Col. 0. J. Hodge — Bankruptcy 
Courts and Registers — The Insolvency and Juvenile 
Court — Clevelanders as Judges op the Higher Courts — 
Chief Justice and Governor Wood — Rupus P. Ranney — 
Franklin J. Dickman — John H. Clarke— United States 
Court for the Northern Ohio District — Hiram V. Will- 
son — President Gabpield and His Sons — John Hay, Diplo- 
mat, Statesman and Scholar — Nevstton Diehl Baker — 
Called to the United States Senate — Judge and Governor 
Huntington — Myron T. Herrick — Governors Loosely Iden- 
tified WITH Cleveland — Lawyer Congressmen from Cleve- 
land — Rupus P. Spalding — Richard C. Parsons — The 
Cleveland Bar Association — Law Library Association — 
The Cbowell Law School — The Cleveland Law College 
— The Franklin T. Backus Law School — The Cleveland 
Law School — Some op the Early Practitioners 494 



First Physician in Cleveland — First Physician of Cleveland 
— Ple.\sing Tales — Other Pioneer Physicians op Cleveland 
— Nineteenth Medical District Society — First Prominent 
Homeopathic Physician — Organization op Cleveland 
Mewcvl College — College op Physicians and Surgeons — 
Academy op Medicine — The Medical Library — Cleveland 
School op Pharmacy — The Pioneer Homeopaths — The 
Homeopathic Institutions— Cleveland Hospitals — A Few 
Representative Physicians 539 



Social Work and Writings — Academy of Natural Science and 
Its Founders — Dr. John S. Newberry — Dr. Theodore D. 
Garlick — Dr. Elisha Sterling — Pioneer in Lake Superior 
Mineral Regions — Professors Morley and Michelson — Dr. 
Cady Staley — Professors Charles S. Howe and John N.- 
Stockwell — Worcester R. Warner and Ambrose Swasey — 
Charles F. Brush 553 



Music and Musicians — Cleveland Vocal Society and School 
of Music — Bringing Music to the Masses — Composers of 
Music — The Old Bohemians op Cleveland — Cleveland 
School op Art — The Art Museum — Early Cleveland 
Painters — Sculptors Matzen and Niehaus — Clara Morris 
as a Cleveland Girl 561 



First Literary Societies and Lyceums — Dickens Hits Cleve- 
land Jingoism — The Ark and the Arkites — The Western 
Reserve Historical Society — The LmiiARiF^s— Contriuutors 
to General Literature — Benjamin P. Tayu)r — Constance 
Fenimore Woolson- — Sarah K. Bolton — Edmund Vance 
Cooke — Cleveland Lawyers as Authors — Educational and 
Historical — Colonel Wiu-itlesby and Judge Baldwin — 
Identified with the Western Reserve University — Harvey 
Rice — Samuel P. Orth — James H. Kennedy — Leading Edu- 
cators as Writers 568 




First Newspaper Not a Sitccess — ('leveland Herald and Eben 
D. Howe— JosiAH A. Harris— A. W. Fairbanks— Division of 
the Herald — Founding ok the Plain Dealer — Quaint, 
Lov.ujle "Artemus Ward" — Benjamin F. Taylor— The 
West Side Produces Newspai-ers — Young Edwin Cowles 
Introduced — Joseph Medill and Edwin Cowles Associated 
—Becomes the Leader Under Cowles — Edwin Cowles, 
Premier Clevei^and Journalist — Evening News Founded — 
John C. Covert — The Present Cleveland News — Cleve- 
land Press and the Scripps-McRae League — Cleveland 
Newspaper Field, as a Whole 582 



Distinctive Religious Bodies — Trinity Episcopal Church op 
Cle\'eland — The Presbyterians — The Congregational 
Churches — Methodist Organizations — A Summary op 
Methodism — Baptist Activities — Disciples op Christ, or 
Christians — United Presbyterians — Lutheran Churches 
• — Evangelical Organizations — German Baptists and Meth- 
odists — The Unitarian and Christian Scientists — Catholi- 
cism IN Cleveland — The Diocese op Cleveland — First 
Bishop op Cleveland — Homes and Convents — Bishop Gil- 
mour's Administr.\tion — Last Administrative Acts — Ap- 
pointment OF Rev. Ignatius Horstmann — Apostolic 
Mission Organized — Golden Jubilee Observed — Death of 
Bishop Horstmann — Bishop Horstmann 's Successor and 
Associates — German Catholic Churches of East and West 
Sides — Irish Catholics — Other Catholic Churches in 
Cleveland — Jew^ish Congregations — Making Christian 
American Citizens — Institutional or Community Churches 
— Cleveland's Foreign Groups in Figures — The Work of 
the Federated Churches — Growth Shown in Figures — 
Charit.vble and Benevolent Institutions — Cleveland As- 
sociated Charities — The Children's Fresh Air Camp — 
Other Institutions — The Homes for the De.\d — Social 
Development in Cleveland — The Cleveland Young Men's 
Christian Association — The Great War — The Last Year's 
Record — The Young Women 's Christian Association .... 595 




Capts. Lorenzo Carter and Nathaniel Doan — Cleveland in 
THE War of 1812 — Mexican War Organizations — Cleve- 
land Grays and Cleveland Light Artillery — First Ohio 
Light Artillery — Company D, First Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry (Cleveland Grays) — Other Commands in Which 
Cleveland Men Served — Toll of Death and Maimed — 
Women's Relief Work — Originality of Civil War Cam- 
paigns — From the Civil War to the War with Spain — The 
Spanish-American War — Military Organization When the 
World War Opened — Training School for Civilians — 
Reckless Americanism — Pen Picture of Cleveland's Mili- 
tary Service — Prominent War Civilians — Big Work in 
Gener.yl — Individual Home Woricers — First Army Unit to 
go Abroad — Lakeside Base Hospital — First University 
War Unit — Consolidation of War Funds — The Y. M. C. A. 
War Work — Facts About the Victory Chest Campaign — 
Speclvl Contributions from the Foreign Sections — In- 
vestments in Government Securities — Municipal War 
Work — A Hint of the Women's War Work 654 



The Ante-Canal Period — The Decade 1827-37 — The Worth- 
INGTON Interests — Industrial and Ornamental — Origin of 
Two Great Iron Industries — Three Good Banks — Stabiliz- 
ing Cleveland's Finances — Other Early Banks op Sta- 
bility — Panic of 1857 "Gets" but One Cleveland Bank — 
Cleveland Industries op 1840 and 1860— Iron and Steel 
Industries Up to the Civil War — Mining and Handling 
Iron Ore — Marcus A. Hanna in Business — Cleveland 
Clearing House Association — The Cleveland Federal Re- 
serve Bank — Coal Mining and Trade — Oils and Paints 
— The Carbon Industry — Manufacture of Auto Acces- 
sories — Increase in Manufactured Products, 1904-14 — Fi- 
nances and Commerce Since 1876 — Comparative Summary, 
1907-17 — The Chamber of Commerce — Official Roster, 
1848-1918 — The Chamber op Industry — The Standard Oil 
Company — The Canal Period in Clevet.and's History.... 688 


Abbey, Henry G., I, 371, 400, 571 
Abbev, Seth A., I., 139, 244, 518 
Abbott & Jenkins, III, 14 
Abbott, David, I. 64 
Abbott. II. P. A.. I. 5!)0 
Abbott, Russell B.. Ill, 14 
Abbott, Williird. Ill, 160 
Aborn, Frank H., I, :U>3. 364, 375 
Atademy Building (illustration), I, 131 
Academy of Medicine, I, 258, 544 
Academy of Music, I, 265; (illustra- 
tion) 264 
Academy of Natural Science, I, 555 
Ackerman, .loseph N., II, 450 
Acklev. Horace A., I, 543 
AckleV. H. C, I, 230 
Acklev, .lolin A.. I, 98 
Acme Machinery Company, II, 433 
Adams, Asacl, I, 74. 341 
Adams, Asael, Jr., Ill, 185 
Adams Bag Company. 111,191 
Adams. Charles E.. "l, 677, 680, 709; 

II. 24 

Adams. George D., Ill, 185 

Adams. Jarvis M.. I, 533 

Adams. K. K. \V.. I. 545 

Addams. George S.. I, 521 

Addison. Hiram M. (Father), (por- 
trait, I, 269; 287. 291, 426, 427», 624 

Addison .hinior high school, I, 365, 386 

Adelbcrt College of Western Reserve 
University. 271, 398; College Cam- 
pus (illustration). 397; Main Build- 
ing (illustration). 396 

Admire. E. K.. I. 711; III, 392 

Admire. .Tames K., III. 394 

Admire. Philomene E.. Ill, 393 

Agnew. William. III. 27 

Aiken, Samuel C, I, 129, 231; (por- 
trait). 600 

Ajax Manufacturing Company, II, 71 

Akers, John M.. HI, 458 

Akers. William .J.. I. 287, 346, 581; 

III. 456 

Akron, Bedford & Cleveland road. I. 

Albl, Edward J.. II, 261 
Albl, Michael, II. 260 

Alburn, Cary R., Ill, 257 

Alburn, John A., I, 723; II, 406 

Alden, Charles E., II. 33 

Alden. Knapp & Magee, II, 33 

Aldricli. C. .1., I, 544 

Alexander, Isabelle, I, 315 

Alexander. W. D. B., II, 503 

Allen. Albert M., Ill, 179 

Allen. Dndlev P.. I, 544; II, 124 

Allen, John R.. II, 40 

Allen, John W., I, 100, 107, 136, 143, 

179. 202, 209, 212, 426, 506, 529*, 

568, 585 
Allen. Luther. I, 709 
Allen. Xehemiah. I, 149, 202 
Allen. William F., Jr., I, 708, 710 
Allison, Robert, I, 702 
All-steel boats, II, 470 
AUyne, E. E., I, 710 
Almira school. I, 388 
Along the Canal (illustration), I, 480 
Alpers, William C, III, 514 
"Ambitious" educational attempt, I, 74 
Ambler, Martha B., I, 487 
Ambler Parkway, I, 487, 490 
Ambler, William E., II, 316 
Ambler- Woodland Hills Boulevard, I, 

American Civic Reform Union, The, II, 

American Foundry and Equipment 

Company, II, 557 
American Multigraph Company, II, 

303; III, 106 
"American Notes" (Dickens), I, 569 
American Pharmaceutical Association, 

III, 514 
American Protective League, I, 681 
American Shipbuilding Company, III, 

American Steel and Wire Company, I, 

691, 694 
Ames, C. E., I. 657 
Amnion, John H., II, 113 
Amnion, Mary J., TI, 113 
Anderson, A."D.. Ill, 416 
Anderson, Newton M., I, 403 
Anderson, P., I, 710 

* Whenever a * appears after a numeral in this index, it indicates that a 
biography of the subject will be found on that page, in Vol. I. 




Anderson, Valerius D., Ill, 414 

Anderson, V. D. Company, III, 415 

Andrews, Benjamin, I, 205, 583 

Andrews, Earl J.. II, 363 

Andrews, Frank T., HI, 236 

Andrews, L. F. W.. I, 542 

Andrews, Samuel, I, 700 

Andrews. Sherlock J., I, 107: (portrait) 
135; 136*. ISl, 250. 368, 506, 509, 529, 
532, 555, 568 

Angier House, I, 118 

"Annals" (of the Early Settlers' As- 
sociation), I, 58, 87, 114, 119, 132, 
133, 141, 145, 154, 220, 428, 452 

Annexations to the original village, 
1829-1917 (map), I, 256; 257 

Annunciation (French) church, I, 614 

Anshe Chesed congregation, I, 615 

Anti-slavery sentiment (local), I, 149 

Anti-Tuberculosis League, I, 624 

Apex Electrical Manufacturing Com- 
pany, in, 305 

Applegarth. H. C. I, 55. 153 

Apthorp, Henry, II, 154 

Architectural League of America, I, 

Archwood church, I, 601 

Archwood Congregational Cliurch, I, 

Arc light. III, 258 

Ark (The), 555, 570 

Arkites (illustration), I, 570; 571 

Arms, C. C, I, 544 

Armstrong, George E., I, 258 

Armstrong, William W., I, 275, 586 

Arndt. Charles F.. I, 446 

Arnold, Caroline T., II, 479 

Arnold, Ceorge, I, 500 

Arnold, (ieorge J., Ill, 224 

Arrivals of 1816, I, 102 

Artemus Ward (see Charles F. Browne) 

Arter, Frank A., II, 66 

Arter, Sherman, I. 438; II, 448 

Arter, Theodore, II, 447 

Art gallery ojiened, 1, 337 

Art (ilass "Company, 111. 342 

Art iluseum, \V!id'e I'ark, I, 482 

Artists, 1, 5(i:i 

Arthur, Alfred, i, 561 

Associated Charities of Cleveland. I, 
250, 630, 632; III, 229 

Astronomy, II, 551 

Astrup, W. C, 1, 713 

Asylum for the Insane, I, 547 

Atlas Bolt & Screw Company, II. 431 

Atwatcr, Amzi, I. 26, 27, 36 

Atwatcr (Amzi) .Journal, I, 36, 39 

Alwater, Caleb, I, 7 

Austin, Eliphalct, I, 51, 202 

Auto aeccsHoriea, I, 702 

"Autobiography of n Pioneer Printer" 
(Howe). I. 121 

AiMoiMoliile center, 1, 338 

Automobile club, I, 702 
Automobile industry, III, 474 
Auxiliary No. 40, National Red Cross 

Society. I, 313 
Avery, Elrov M., I, 139, 278, 279, 282, 

283, 328, 329, 365, 368, 380, 382, 417, 

578, 624; IH. 565 
Averv, Mrs. Elroy M., I, 290, 296, 306. 
' 310, 314, 328, 364, 365, 376, 425; lU, 


Babcock, Brenton D., I, 233 
Babcock, Mrs. P. H., I, 282 
Babcock, P. H., I, 412 
Babies' Dispensary and Hospital Asso- 
ciation, I, 634 
Bacher. Otto, I, 563 
Backowski, Josejjh S., II, 254 
Backus, Franklin T. (portrait), I. 162; 

163, 337, 230, 337, 413, 533, 534*, 535 
Backus, William, I, 658 
Backus, William V, 11, 162 
Bacon, Helen, I, 685 
Bacon, Ralph, I, 26 
Badger, Joseph, I, 56. 61, 604 
Badin, Stephen, I, 607 
Baer, George P., I, 447 
Baehr, Herman C, I, 233, 332, 711, 713; 

111. 194 
Bailey Company, II, 190; department 

store. III, 77 
Bailev, Eugene R., Ill, 330 
Bailey. Henry T.. I. 565; II, 398 
Baker, A. R.. I, 544 
Baker, Edward M., Ill, 553 
Baker, Elbert H., I, 283, 587; II, 150 
liaker. Newton D., I, 233, 333, 335, 337, 

3S0; portrait, 441; 442, 472, 480, 

536*, 671 
Baldwin. Arthur 1)., 11, 166 
Baldwin. Charles C, I, 411, 414, 514*; 

portrait. 515; 573, 678 
Baldwin. Dudley, I, 283 
Ualdwin, D. C.."l, 414 
Baldwin. ICdwanl. I, ISO, 184, 198, 207, 

Baldwin. Oliver P., I, 184 
Baldwin, Xorman A., I, 658 
Italdwin. Norman C., I, 139, 177, 178, 

305, 308 
Baldwin reservoir, I, 438 
Baldwin, S, Prentiss, I, 417 
Baldwin, Samuel S., I, 81 
Ualdwin, William, I. 542 
Hull, Webb C., II, 117 
Ball. Wi'bb C. Company. The. II, 117, 

Ballard (John) & Company, 1, 693 
liancroft, (ieorge. I, 114. 342 
Bands. 1, 563 
Bangs. F. C. I. 378, 484 
Bank Note (illustration). 1. Ill 
liaid< of Cli'velaiid. 1, lilO. 691 



Bank of Cleveland Note (reproduction 

of), I, 191 
Bank of Commerce, I. 692 
Hank street. 1868 (illustration), I, 264 
Hanker, Newton S., II, 542 
Hankrnptey courts, I, 519 
lianks and bankers, first, I, 109; in 

1837, 190; in 1848, 211; Canal Rank 

closes its doors (18541, 229; (nu)d- 

ern) II, 475; tirst of Cleveland, 111, 

Baptist Home of Northern Ohio, 11. 393 
Baptists, I, 604 
Barber, Gershoni JI., I. 200. 510, 532, 

Barber, .Tosiah, I, 107, 149, 159, 173, 

177, 179. 197, 205 
Barkwill seliool, I, 388 
Barnes, Louis, II, 239 
Barnett, C. A., I, 384 
Barnett, James, I, 136, 250, 275, 287, 

317, 624, 630; portrait, 631; 657, 

Barnett, Melancthon. I, 136, 205, 211 
Barnum, P. T., 1. 265 
Barr. F. H., I, 546 
Barr. .John. 1. 224, 351, 412, 499, 517, 

518. 568. 572 
Barris, Mrs. W. H., I, 310 
Barron, Amos N., I, 710 
Barstow, D„ I, 205 
Barstow, H. N.. I, 178 
Bartlett. C. 0., & Snow Company, III, 

326, 391 
Bartlett. .Joseph. T, 658 
Bartlett, .losepli B., I, 198, 227 
Bartlett, Samuel C. I, 395 
Bartley, Mordecai, I, 151 
Baskiii, Frank S., II, 204 
Baskin. Roland A., II, 175 
Bastille Day, I. 684 
Bates. Albert H.. II. 240 
Bates. Theodore M., I, 278, 280 
Bathriek, Harry A., I, 394 
Battell, Philip, "l, 200, 344 
Battey, h. M. H.. I. 635 
Bauder. Walter S.. I, 662 
Baxter, Edwin, II, 71 
Beach. Clifton B.. I. 531 
Beardslev. A. C, I, 220 
Beardsley, David H., I, 128, 138, 412 
Beardslev, Joseph C. I, 662 
Beattle, H. W., 11, 68 
Beattie. William D., I, 353, 355, 555 
Beck. .Iiihann H., I, 563 
Beck. Robert 1... II. 59 
Beekerman. Henry A.. II, 373 
Beckwith. David "H.. I. 546 
Beckwith, Mrs. D. H., I, 311 
Beckwith, S. R., I, 546 
Beehe, \Vm. B., I, 447 
Beeman. E. E., I, 278 
Begges, A. J., I, 709, 710 

Bclilen, Clifford, I, 210 
r.clden, Ceorge W., I, 238 
lii-lden, Silas, I, 345 
ISell, Alexander G., II, 353 
11.11. Augustus W., II. 290 
li.llaniv. George A., I, 632 
Hellows. Charles C, II. 273 
licit Line Railway, I, 328; II, 237 
KcMian, Anson \\'., II. 64 
It. man, Lamar T., I, 44fi; II, 64 
Bench and Bar. I. 449-538; early law 
suits (1808), 80; court of common 
pleas organized, 80; pioneer legal 
matters, 82; Rufus P. Spalding's 
recollections (1823), 132; Thomas 
Bolton, 157; Moses KcUey. 166; the 
.-..uvtliouse of 1885. 234; Oberlin- 
Wellington rescue cases, 236; case 
and trial .)f the slave Lucy, 243; 
Cleveland Bar Association, 260; su- 
perior court created, 260; "Blinkey" 
Morgan tragedy and trial, 275 
"Bench and Bar of Cleveland" (Kenne- 
dy), I, 494 
"Bench and Bar of Cleveland" (Wal- 
lace), I, 80 
Benedict, George A., I, 208, 210, 221 
Benham, Charles K., I, 713; III. 454 
Benjamin Rose Institute, The, III, 11, C. J., II, 280 
I'ennett. .lohn A., I, 444. 544, 658 
Bentlev. ( harles S., II. 416 
Benton", Elbert J., I. 414. 417 
Benton, Horace, I, 355, 357, 635 
Benton, J. J., I, 247 
Benton, L. A., I, 244 
Benton, L. W., I, 178 
Bi'nton, Stephen, I, 26 
B.nton, William, I, 177 
B.rea, II, 298 
Bergcr, Julia A., I, 366 
Bernet, John J.. Ill, 552 
Bernsteen, Abraham E.. II, 223 
Bcrnstecn. M. L.. II, 238 
Bernstein. Ale.x.. I. 446. 447 
Bernstein, Joseph M., 11, 358 
Bernstein, Maurice, II, 144 
Best Foundry Company, II, 495 
Bethel Associated Charities, I, 624, 630 
Bethel Union, I, 250 
Hcthl. hi'in Congregational church, I, 601 
Bctz, F. H.. I. 446 
Beverlin. John, I, 179, 213 
Bicknell, Warren, II, 188 
Biiyclc Parade, Cleveland Centennial 

('illustration), I, 297 
Bierce, Sarah E., I, 289, 306 
Biggar, H. F., I. 546, 551* 
Biggs, Charles L., IT, 417 
Big Son, I, 65 

Bingham, C. W.. I. 402. 417 
Bingham, Flavel W„ I, 179, 211, 213, 
214. 513 



Bingham, William, (portrait), I, 163; 

164*, 251. 258, 414 
Binyon. E. A., I, 532 
Birinvi, Louis K., Ill, 272 
Bisho'p. Jesse P., I, 508, 532 
Bishop, Robert H., Jr., I. 682 
Bissell. Clarence R.. II, 180 
Black Hawk. I. 154 
Black. Herman, III, 190 
Black, Louis, I, 278; II, 190 
Black, Jlorris A., I, 472, 709; III, 190 
Blackett, Howard, II, 67 
Blair, Elizabeth, I, 290, 306 
Blair, George H., I, 546 
Blair, Henry, I, 205 
Blair, John, I, 124 
Blakeslee, Frank, III, 34, 35 
Blakeslee, Frank R., Ill, 35 
Blakeslee, John Robert, II, 77 
Blakeslee, John RoUin, II, 71 
Blakeslee, Raymond F., II, 469 
Blandin, E. J., I, 511 
Blann, Josephine, II, 114 
Blatt, J. M., I, 711 
Blee, Robert, I, 233. 484 
Bliss, Stoughton, I, 571 
Bloch, Joseph C, II. 48 
Bloomfield. Sol, III, 440 
Blue, Ralph, II, 264 
Blvth, L. W., I, 669 
Blythe, Walter, I, 254 
Board of Education created, I, 353; 

elected, 357 
Board of Elections authorized, I, 275 
Board of Fire Commissioners, I, 433 
Board of Fire Underwriters, I, 213 
Board of Health, first, I, 101 
Board of Park Commissioners created, 

I, 477 
Board of School Managers appointed, I, 

Board of Trade, I, 247, 283, 708 
Bciardman, Elijah, I, 7 

Boardman, W. J., I, 532 

BolT, F. M., I, 614 

Bohemians in Cleveland, I, 630 

Bohm, Max, I, 563, 565 

Bole, F. J., I, 280 

Bole, J. K., I, 278 

Bolles, Henry, I, 141, 585 

Bolles, James A., I, 598 

B(dt, Ridiard A., II, 272 

Bolton, (liester C, I, 669 

Bolton, C. E., I, 637 

Bolton. Sarah K. (portrait), I, 574* 

Bolton school, I, 365, 388 

Bolton. TlioniaB, I, 157*; portrait, 158; 
210. .108 

Boltz, Frederick W., Ill, 63 

Bomberger, J. H., I, 623 

Bond, 8cth M., HI, 462 

Bonds, City, II, 444 

Bone, J. If. A., I, 412, 585 

Book store, first, I, 116 

Boughton, Frank M., Ill, 199 

Beughton, J. B., I, 586 

Boulevard school, I, 388 

Bourke, John T., Ill, 252 

Bourne, Edward G., I, 395, 579 

Bourne, Henrv E.. I. 579 

Bowditch. E. W., I, 484 

Bower. Edward, III, 42 

Boyd, William H., II, 40 

Bovden, Ebenezer, I, 597 

Boyle, John J., I, 448; II, 330 

Boyle, P. C, I. 714 

Boys' school. I, 388 

Brace, Jonathan, I, 8 

Bradburn. Charles. I, 346, 347, 350, 353, 

354, 355, 357, 366 
Bradburn, George, I, 589 
Bradford, Mary S.. I. 289, 306 
Bradley, Alva, I, 400. 710; II, 426 
Bradley, Dan F., I, 336, 662, 711 
Bradley, Morris A., II, 428 
Bradstreet, S. J., I, 129 

Brady, Francis A., Ill, 235 

Brady, Francis M., Ill, 494 

Brady, Harry S., Ill, 236 

Brainard, Asa, I, 173 

Brainard, Enos, I, 173 

Brainard, John, I, 545 

Brainard, Mrs. H., I, 189 

Brainard, Ozias, 1, 173 

Brainard, Scth, I, 603 

Brainard, Silas, I, 265 

Brainard, Stephen, I, 173 

Brainard, \^■arren, I, 173 

Brainard. William. I, 603 

Brainard's Hall, 1. 265 

Brainard's Opera House, I, 265 

Brainerd, Charles W., Ill, 152 

Brainerd, Jesse K., Ill, 151 

Brainerd, Mrs. Charles \V., Ill, 152 

Bramley, Matthew F., I, 713; III, 463 

Blanch high schools organized, 1, 369 

Brand, Carl W.. III. 374 

Brand. Fred P.. II, 457 

Branson, Charles F., Ill, 139 

Braund. Tiuney H., I, 446 

Bravton, II. F., I, 151, 259 

Breck, Charles A., I, 598 

Brcitenstein, Joseph C, III, 399 

Brenner, Charles, II, 172 

Brethren Congregation, I, 606 

Brett, William II.. 1, 423, (portrait) 
424; 425*; II. 241 

Brewer, A. T., I. 417 

Brewer, Clara T.. I. 376, 384 

Brickcr, Robert 11., II. 157 

Bridges. I, 268, 276; second high level 
bridge, 276; and viaducts, 451-61 

Bridge War (1833), I, 174 

Hrier Ilill mines, I, 698 

Briggs, .lames A.. I. 317, 351, 355 

Briggs, Lansing, I, 545 



Hri{;t;s, Sam, I. 251, 414 

Brigliam. Louise, I, 554 

Brinsmade, Allen T., I. 268 

Britton Iron & Steel Company, I. 694 

Broadway market, I, 491 
Broiidwav Methodist Kpiscopal ehurcli, 
I, .618' 

Broadway Play Ground, I, 490 

Broadway soluiol, I, 388 

Broekott." Blutord W., IT, 53 

Brookway. A. \V., I. 231 
■Brodie, Warren .T., II, 124 

Bronson, Edward, I, 178, 205 

Brooklyn. I, 75, 98, 17,'), 174, 285 

BrooklynBriffhton bridge, I, 460 

Buioklyn Heights Cemetery Associa- 
tion," III, 262 

Biooklyn lee Company, The. II, 518 

Brooklyn Memorial Methodist Episco- 
pal church, I, 603 

Brooklyn schools annexed, I. 376 

Brooklyn Street Railway, I, 461 

Brooklyn township organized, I, 173 

Brooks". Stratton D., I, 378 

Brookside Park, I, 486, 490 

Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen, III, 

Brown, A. C, I, 404 

Brown, Alexander E., Ill, 533 

Brown Auto Carriage Co., Ill, 300 

Brown, Charles F., I, 573 

Brown, Ephraim, II, 413 

Bro\vn, Ethan A., I. 503 

Brown, Fayette, II, 416 

Brown, Harvey H., II, 414 

Brown Hoisting Machinery Company, 
III, 533 

Brown, .John, I, 241 

Brown. John W., I, 105, 598 

Browne. Charles F.. I, 573, 586, 588 

Bro\vnell. Ahner C. I. 179. 220, 224 

Brownell junior high school, I, 386 

Brownell school, I, 388 

Biownell Street school, I, 353 

Brudno, Ezra S., I, 576 

Brunner, Arnold W.. I, 467, 470 

Brunner, .John. I, 453 

Brush, Charles F.. I. 267, 435, 559», 
56.5. 701. 709; 11. 19; III, 258 

Brush electric arc light, II, 19 

Brush Electric Company, I, 267; II, 20 

Brush, Irene, HI, 11 

Brusstar. Benjamin F., II. 464 

Bryant. David T, 43, 47, 65 

Bryant. Oilman, I. 38 

Bryant. Whitman. I. 43. 47 

Bryant's distillery. I. 65 

Bryce. Catherine T., I. 384 

Buck. Ilorenco. I, 607 

Bucket shop law in Ohio, HI, 48 

Buckeye House (illustration), I, 38; 11, 

Buckeye Tavern. I, 39 

Bucklen, H. E., Ill, 543 

Buckler, Ernest C, HI, 380 

Buckle"y. Hugh. Jr., HI, 452 

Buel, J. C, I, 412, 414 

lUillalo Company, I, 174 

Builalo road, I, 449 

Buhrer school, I, 388 

Buhrer, Stephen, I, 233, 253, 268 

Huick Automobile Company, II, 441 

liulklf'v Boulevard, I, 490 

Bulkley, Cliarles H., I, 484 

Bulkley, Robert J., I, 404, 671; m, 

Bull, James, I, 8 

Bunts, Frank E., I, 312, 544, 662; III, 

Burdiek, James, I, 658 

Burdick, Russell E., I, 662 

Bureau of Ideas, Complaints and Sug- 
gestions, HI, 525 

Burgess, Howard H.. I. 279; II, 234 

Burgess, Oliver, II, 233 

Burgess, Solon, I, 287 

Burk, Sylvanus, I, 70 

Burke, E. S., Jr.. I. 417, 710 

Burke, Mrs. E. S., I, 687 

Burke, Stevenson, I, 532, 535, 565, 699; 
HI, 417 

Burke Ten Per Cent Bill, TI, 258 

Burke, Vernon H., II, 257 

Burnham. Daniel H., I, 467 

Burnham, Thomas. I, 151. 179, 214,215 

Burr. Timothy. I. 7 

Burrell. Edward P., Ill, 515 

Burridge, Carlyle L.. I, 662 

Burritt, Alfred H., I, 545 

Burrows. Francis A., I, 177, 178, 179, 

Burrows. George H., H, 41 

Burton, Elijah. I, 542 

Burton. Erasmus D., I, 258, 544 

Burton Law, II, 26 

Burton, Theodore E., I, 527*; II, 24 

Burton, William, I. 178, 205 

Bury, Richard, I, 597 

Bushnell, Asa S., J, 289, 291, 292 

Bnshnell. Simeon. I. 238 

Bushnell, Thomas H., I. 521 

Bvisiness men of Cleveland (1802), 1,65 

Bustard. William W., IH. 69 

Butts, Bolivar, I. 287, 291 

Cadwallader, Starr, T, 685; II, 156 
Cadwell, Darius, I, 511 
CagAvin. Thomas P., IH, 366 
Cain. Frank C. II. 54 
Caine. Frank C, HL 60 
Caldwell. Hugh .J., I, 514, 517 
Caldwell, John, I, 7, 8 
Caldwell, Perry D.. HI, 246 
Calhoun, Patrick, I, 488 
Callaghan, Thomas E., I, 520, 521 
Calvary cemetery, I, 611 



Calvary Evangelical church, I, 619 

Calvert, Henry il.. Ill, 57 

Calvert, Robert, III, 55 

Campbell. Alexander, I, 65 

Campbell. O. B., I, 544 

Camp ilo-ses Cleaveland, I, 291 

Camp Perry-Payne, Cleveland Centen- 
nial (illustration) I, 300 

Canal Bank, I, 692 

Canal Bank of Cleveland, I, 229 

Canal "boom,'' I, 169 

Canal period in Cleveland's history, I, 

Candv business. Ill, 167 

Canfield, Horace, I, 180, 184, 200 

Canfield. Lee, I, 157 

Cantield. Martha A., IH, 47 

Canniff. William H., Ill, 117 

Canterbury Pilgrimage, I, 328 

Capture and return of the slave Lucy, 
I, 243 

Carbon industry, I, 700 

Card, George W., I, 542 

Carlisle, Robert H., Ill, 101 

Carnegie, Andrew, I, 419 

Caron, John J., I, 532 

Carpenter. Alfred G., II, 471 

carpenter, Robert F., II, 472 

Carran. Kdward F., Ill, 182 

Carran, Lewis C, II, 365 

Carran, Robert, II, 364 

Carrere, John M.. I, 467 

Car Rider's Car, The, II, 107, 108 

t arson, OUie G., I, 384 

Carter, Alonzo, I, 98, 171, 173 

Carter, Lorenzo, I, 36; (portrait), 37; 
52. 54, 61, 67, 68, 69, 75, 77, 98, 171, 
495, 496, 655, 689 

Carter's log house in ISOl, III, 90 

Cartter, David K., I, 537 

Cartwright, A. A., HI, 248 

Case Avenue Independent Lutheran 
church, I, 605 

Case Block, I, 266 

Case, Eckstein, I, 400 

Case, Frank C, I, 711 

Case, Leonard, Jr., 1, 100, 103, 109, (por- 
trait) 112; 113. 114, 116, 157, 205, 
271, 398, 414, 568, 571, 615; III, 477 

Case, Leonard, Sr., I, 398, 504*; III, 

Case Library, II, 219; III, 478 

Case school, I, 388 

Case School of Applied Science, 1, 271, 
398; Main Building (illustration), 
399; 488; III, 280. 477, 478 

Case, William, I, 179, 313, 214. 315, 
216, 350, 555, 570*, 571 

Case (Woodland) school, I, 388 

CuHS, Lewis, I, 93 

C'asHcls, John L., I, 555, 556 

CasHclH, J. ]>ang, I, 543, 695 

CasHidv, Janu-s T.. I, 416; II, 293 

Castle, William B., I, 179, 226, 227, 
233; (portrait) 234; 414, 415, 417 

Caswell, J. H., I, 380 

Cathan. Oirson, I, 100 

Cathcart, Wallace H., I, 414; II, 564 

Catholic cemeteries, I, 628 

Catholic Church of Cleveland, The, II, 

Catholic schools, I, 410 

"Catholic Universe," I, 594, 611; III, 

Catholics, L 607; II, 89 

Caunter, Aaron, I, 446 

Cecil Savings and Loan Association, 
in, 335 

Cemeteries, I, 636 

Centaur Lake and Museum of Art (il- 
lustration), I, 482 

Centaur Pond, I, 483 

Centennial Anniversary celebration, I, 
287, 289-309 

Centennial Arch (illustration), I, 295 

Centennial Commission of Cleveland, 
II, 43 

Centennial floral exposition, I, 300 

Centennial Log Cabin (illustration), I, 

Centennial Year, I, 389 

Center Street Bridge, I, 455 

Central Armory, I, 663; (illustration), 

Central High school. I, 357, 366, 367 

Central Highway, III, 91 

Central Institut'e, III. 291 

Central junior high school. I, 387, 365 

Central Manual 'Iraining school, I, 386 

Central market, I, 334. 491 

Central school. I, 365, 386, 388 

Central Senior high school, I, 365 

Central viaduct. I. 459 

Central viaduct casualty (1895), I, 287 

( luulwick. Cassic. II, 337 

thamljerlain, Philo. I, 350. 709 

Cliamberlin. Charles D., IT. 131 

Cl]aml)er of Commerce. I, 383, 634 

Champ. Jose|)]i H., Ill, 307 

Cliauipion. Henry 3d. I, 7, 8 

( hampion, Roiben. I, 107 

Champion Machine & Forging Com- 
pany, III, 349 

Chamn.iey. Mrs. William P.. I, 653 

Cluindler." F. C, III, 470 

Chandler, Geo. H., II, 264 

Clian<ller Jlotor Company, The. 111. 470 

Chapek. .1. \'.. I, 711 

(hapin. Ilernuui M.. 1. 333. 350. 413 

( liapman, (ieorgc L.. I, 105, 178 

Cliapmiin. George T.. 1, 533 

Chapman. Nathan. J, 18. 36 

Charitable and benevolent institutions, 
I. 623-53 

Charities (see (liinitable and lirnevo- 

lelll InstilMtioMs) 



C'liarities Clearing House. I, fi:iO 
Charity Hospital Modical College, I, 

Charity Hospital (St. Vincent's), I, 547 
Chase,' Charles W'., I. 289 
Chase. Jlrs. Cliarles W.. I, 290, 306 
Chase. T. R., I, 412, 414 
Chase, William \V., II. 535 
Chesnutt. Charles W., I, 577; II, IGG 
Chesterfield school. I, 388 
Children's Aid Societj'. I. 623 
Children's and Women's Day, Perry 

Centennial Celebration, I, 336 
Children's Fresh Air Camp, I, 634, 633 
Childs. Herriok, I, 305 
Childs. Oscar A., I. 255 
Chisholm, Alvah .S., I, 414, 417, 710 
Chisholm, Bruce, III, 157 
Chisholm, Henry, I, 267, 691, 694*; II, 

Chisholm Jones & Co.. I. 691 
Chisholm. Jlrs. Henry A., I, 554 
Chisholm, Stewart H.. II. 503 
Chisholm. Wilson B., Ill, 156 
Cholera (epidemic of 1832), I, 143 
Christ Evangelical Lutheran church, I, 

Christ Methodist Episcopal <liiircli, I, 

Christian, Charles H., til, 406 
Christian Endeavorers' Convention 

(18941, I, 285 
Cliristianizing American citizens, I, 616 
Christians (see Disciples of Christ) 
Christian Scientists. I, 606, 607 
Church Home, I. 598 
Church, J. A., HI, 323 
Ch irch, ,1. A., Box Company, III. 323 
Church of Christ. Scientist (see Chris- 
tian Scientists) 
Church of the Immaculate Conception, 

I. 614 - 
Church of the Unity (Unitarian). I, 

Church of Women's War Committee 

(Federated Churches), I. 622 
Churches, first. T, 103; of 1837. 180; 
Trinity E|)iscopHl('hurch of Cleveland, 
595:thc Presbyterians. 599; the Con- 
gregational churches, 601 ; Methodist 
organizations. 601; Baptist activi- 
ties. 604 ; Christian churches. 605 ; 
United Presbyterians, 605; Lutheran 
churches. 605; Evangelical organiza- 
tions, 606; German Baptists and 
Methodists. 606; Unitarians and 
Christian Scientists, 606: Catholi- 
cism in Cleveland. 607; Diocese of 
Cleveland. 607; first bishop of Cleve- 
land. 608; homes and convents, 609; 
Bishop fiilmour's administration. 
610; appointment of Rev. Ignatius F. 
Horstniann, 612; Apostolic Mission 

or^'anized, 612; German Catholic 
cliurchcs, 614; Irish Catholics, 614; 
■lewish congregations, 615; making 
Christian American citizens, 616; In- 
stitutioiuil or Connnunity churches, 
617; work of the Federated Churches, 
631; growth shown in figures, 033 

( luircliill, Mrs. S. P., I, 389, 316 

t liurchill. S. P., I, 635 

Circuit court, 1. 514 

Cin'uit Rider, II, 234, :i70 

Citizens Savings and Trust Company, 
The, III, 30 

City Bank, I. 693 

City Bank of Cleveland, I, 693 

City cemetery. I, 636 

City directories, I, 175, 184; (1837- 
1918), 186 

City dii-ectory (1837) (illustration), I, 

City (iuards, I, 656 

City halls, 1, 354, 266, 337; perspective 
of City Hall that was not built, 254; 
projected (1870), 353; 1875 (illustra- 
tion). 365; Of Today (illustration), 

City Hall Bill, II, 258 

City Hos]iital, 1, 546, 547, 548, 549 

City Hospital Association. I, 546 

City market. I, 308 

City markets (1837), I. 300 

City Planning Commission, I, 472 

"City Planning Progress," I, 473 

Civii jury trial, first, I, 503 

Civil war organizations, I. 657 

(lark & Rockefeller. I, 699 

Clark, Aaron. I, 197 

(lark, Ansel A., I, 375 

Clark Avenue Savings Bank Company, 
in. 384 

Clark Avenue viaduct. I, 461 

Clark, Bela B., I, 542 

Clark, David, I, 47, 65, 71 

t lark. Edmund, I, 157, 193, 210 

Clark, Eugene, I, 659 

Clark, Harold, I, 684 

Clark. Harold T.. I. 666, 687 

(lark, J. H.. L 710 

Clark. James S.. I. 107, 151, 452, 568 

Clark. Mervin, I, 660 

Clark school, I, 388 

Clark, Thomas, I, 660 

Clark. William J., II, 456 

Clark, W. J., I, 336 

Clarke, James S., I, 157 

Clarke, .John H.. I. 336, 523* 

Clarke. .1. F.. I. 638 

Clarke, J. W., I, 637 

Clarke. Norris J., Ill, 75 

Classen. Edward. I, 545 

Cleaveland or Cleveland. I, 30 

{ leaveland. Camden, I, 51 



"Cleaveland Gazette and Commercial 
Register." I, 116; reproduction of 
first number, 117; 120 

Cleaveland graves at Canterbury, I, 339 

'•Cleaveland Herald," reproduction of 
first number, I, 123 

Cleaveland, Moses, I, 8; (portrait) 9; 
10*, 15, IT, 39, 30, 31 

Cleaveland (Jloses) Journal, I, 16 

Cleaveland (Moses) Memorial at Can- 
terbury (illustration). J, 330 

Cleaveland (Moses) Statue (illustra- 
tion), I, 370, 427 

Cleaveland Pier Company, I, 104 

Cleaveland Surveying Party (1796), I, 

Cleaveland Township elections (1803), 
I, 63 

Cleaveland's (Moses) Commission, I, 13 

Clegg, Robert I., I, 384 

Clerk, F. E., I, 384 

Cleveland, founded, I, 32; second sea- 
son, 41 ; village and "suburbs" 
(1797), 41; in 1797-98, 43; (1800), 
45; clouded land titles, 50; taverns 
licensed (1802), 61; postal receipts 
(1806, 1918), 70; Griswold letter, 
1809, 78; first active lawyer, 85; 
becomes a village, 91; in 1813 (Capt. 
Stanton Sholes), 96; in 1814 (map), 
97, 98; village incorporated, 98; in 
1816, 102; first bank and bankers, 
109; schools (1821-22), 130; in 1833 
(illustration), 152; 3 55; in 1835, 159; 
mayors of city, 179; new charter, 
179; first annual election, 180; first 
council meeting, 180; first common 
free school, 182; commerce in 1836- 
37, 195: hotels in 1837, 197; munici- 
pal oflficials of 1839-40, 207; election 
of 1840, 208; officials, 1841-45, 309; 
municipal matters (1846-48), 212; 
water works suggested (1849), 214; 
municipal officers (1850), 215; mu- 
nicipal officers (1851), 216; Fourth 
Ward added (1851). 216; municiiial 
officers (1853), 220; early water sup- 
ply. 220; development of water 
works, 231; in 1853, 232; (map) 
223; First board of water works 
commissioners, 224; 1853 (illustra- 
tion), 235; West Side water works, 
226; consolidated with Ohio City, 
237; mayors, 1855-1916, 233; early 
municipal halls, 233; water works 
(1856), 234; trade, commerce and 
manufactures (1865), 347; Hoard of 
Police Commissioners created, 250; 
annexations to the original village, 
1829-1917 (map). 256; as shijibuild- 
ing center (1890), 276; municijial- 
federal plan adopted, 277; municipal 
ofTlcialH (1890), 278; wealth in 1891, 

281; postoffice, 286; Cleveland in epi- 
tome, 337 ; as Twentieth century 
pioneer, 339; story of the corpora- 
tion's development, 429-48; park sys- 
tem (map), 475; foreign groups, I, 
630; military organizations of the 
present, 667; war fluids, 675; indus- 
tries of 1840 and 1860, 693 ; chartered 
as a village, II, 11; iron manufactur- 
ing center. III, 2; first malleable iron 
foundry, 7; federal reserve banks, 
25; Iron City, 40; waterworks de- 
partment. Ill; first bank, 330; first 
charter for natiomal bank, 383 
Clevelanders of 1811-12, I, 87 
L leveland Academy, I, 130, 341 
Cleveland Academy of Medicine, I, 258 
Cleveland Academy of Natural Science, 

I, 207 
"Cleveland Advertiser" (reproduction of 

first number), I, 140; 585 
Cleveland and Environs in 1835 (map), 

I. 160 
Cleveland and Huron Highway, I, 76 
Cleveland and Marquette Iron Com- 
pany, I, 226 
Cleveland Anti-slavery Society, I, 151, 

Cleveland Apostolate, I, 613 
Cleveland Architectiual Club, I, 466 
Cleveland Armature Works, HI, 67 
Cleveland Associated Charities. 1, 624 
Cleveland Athletic Club, II. 33 
Cleveland Automobile School Company, 

The, II, 467 
Cleveland Bar Association, I, 360, 531 
Cleveland Baseball Companj'. II. 349 
Cleveland Brass and Copper Mill, II, 

Cleveland Centennial : Wheelmen's Day, 
I, 396; Women's Day, 296; Early 
Settlers' Day, 298; Western Reserve 
Day, 398; Perry's Victory Day, 303; 
To" the Women of 1996, 306 
Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, I, 

383. 706 
Cleveland Chamber of Industry, I, 710- 

Cleveland City Hosiiital, I, 351 
Cleveland City Lodge, Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons, I, 310 
Cleveland City Railway Company. I, 

Cleveland City Temperance Society, I, 

Cleveliuul Clearing House Association, 

I, 697 
Cleveland-ClifTs Iron Comjiany. I, 696 
Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Rail- 
road Comiinnv, chartered, I, 182, 194; 
enters Cleveland (1851). 217 
( levcliuid Company, I, 592 



Cleveland Congregational City Mission- 
ary Society, I, 601 
Cleveland Conservatory of Music. T, 5G2 
Cleveland Council of \\'(>uuii, II, 541 
Clevolniid Kast liij;li school, I, 304 
Cleveland IMoctiic Illuminating Com- 
pany. The, III, 258 
Cleveland Klectric Railway Company, 

I, 320. 321. 463 
"Cleveland Evening News." III. 45 
Cleveland Federal Reserve Bank. I. 698 
Cleveland Federation for C'Juuity and 

riiilantlu'opy, I. 638 
Cleveland Federation of I.alxir. 111. 5():'> 
Cleveland Female Orphan Asylum. I, 

Cleveland Female Seminary. I. 190 
Cleveland First Troup, I, 268 
Cleveland Foundation, II, 214 
CIe\t'land free school, I, 188 
Cleveland from Courthouse, 1834 (illus- 
tration), I, 156 
Cleveland's First School-liouse (illus- 
tration), I, 115 
Cleveland Galvanizing Works Company, 

III, 137 
Cleveland Cas Light and Coke Com- 
pany, I, 213 
Cleveland Catling Gun Battery, I, 268 
Cleveland Gravs, I, 656, 657, 658, 667, 

Cleveland, Grover, I, 294 
Cleveland harlwr. first improvements, 
1825. I, 135; second appropriation, 
138; "in 1837. 194; harbor of refuge 
constructed. 262 
Cleveland Heights, II. 54 
"Cleveland Herald" founded. I. 131, 583 
Cleveland High School of Commerce, 

m, 539 
Cleveland Hippodrome, III, 202 
Cleveland Home of the Oil King (illus- 
tration). I. 715 
Cleveland Hotel. I, 265 
Cleveland Humane Society, I. 259 
Cleveland in 1800 (illustration), I. 46 
"Cleveland in 1824" (Rice), I, 133 
Cleveland Insurance Company, I, 190 
Cleveland Iron Company, I, 690, 696; 

ni, 41 
Cleveland Iron Mining Company. T. 691. 

696; III. 2 
Cleveland, James D., I. 159, 351, 400. 

413. 500. 519, .533, 586 
Cleveland Law College. I. 533 
Cleveland Law Library. I. 251; III, 105 
Cleveland Law Library Association, I, 

Cleveland Law School, I, 534 
"Cleveland Leader." I, 589-93 
Cleveland I^eader Company, I, 591 
Cleveland Library Association, I. 211, 
411, 570 

Cleveland Light Artillery, I. 656. 657 

Cleveland Lyceum, I. 568 

Cleveland Macaroni Company, The, III, 

261, 404 
Cleveland Maternal Association. I. 189 
Cleveland Medical Association 1. 544 
Cleveland Medical College. I. 543. 546 
Cleveland Jledical Library Association, 

I. 545 

Cleveland Medical School. I. 398 
Cleveland Milling Company. Ill, 211 
"Cleveland Morning Leader." Ill, 45 
Cleveland Mozart Society, I. 189 
Cleveland Music Hall. I, 271 
Cleveland Museum of Art in Wade 

Park (illustration), I. 564 
Cleveland National Bank. II, 39 
"Cleveland News." I. 592; II, 31 
Cleveland. Painesville &, Ashtabula 

Railroad. I, 214 
Cleveland. Painesville & Kastern Rail- 
way. I, 464 
Cleve"land Park Plan, I. 483 
"Cleveland Plain Dealer." I. 584-89 
Cleveland Preparatory School, II, 198 
"Cleveland Press," 1.592; II. 224 
Cleveland Protestant Orphanage, I, 633 
Cleveland Provision Company. III. 403 
Cleveland Public Library, I, 250. 417; 

H. 241; IIL 197 
Cleveland Railway Company. I. 323, 

Cleveland Railway Supply Company, 

II. 307 

Cleveland Reading Room Association, 

I, 188 
Cleveland Real Estate Board, II, 104 
Cleveland Rolling Mill Company. I. 694 
Cleveland School of Art, I. 563; (illus- 
tration). 564 
Cleveland School of Music, I, 563 
Cleveland School of Pharmacy. I. 545 
Cleveland Seating Company. II. 204 
Cleveland Society for tlie Prevention 

of Cruelty to Animals, I. 259 
Cleveland Sorosis. II, 313 
Cleveland State Hospital. I. 547 ' 
"Cleveland .Sunday Leader." Ill, 45 
Cleveland Symj)hony Orchestra. I, 562 
Cleveland Tanning Company. III. 277 
Cleveland Telegraph Supply Company, 

I, 267 
Cleveland Telephone Company, The, II, 

Cleveland Township of Trumbull 

County, I. 53 
Cleveland Trolley Supply Company, II, 

Cleveland Trust Company. Ill, 97 
Cleveland Vocal Society, I, 561 
Cleveland War Council, I, 678 



Cleveland, Warren & Pittsburgl] liail- 
road Company, chartered, I, 183, 19^, 

Cleveland Water Company, incorpo- 
rated, I, 153, 221 

Cleveland Welfare Federation, I, 630 

'•Cleveland Whig," I, 583 

•'Cleveland Women," I, 594 

Cleveland \\'orkhouse and House of 
Correction (1871), I, 254 

Cleveland Worm and Gear Company, 
II, 529 

Cleveland & Bedford Railroad Com- 
pany, I, 194 

Cleveland & Buffalo Transit Company, 
II, 425 

Cleveland & Eastern Railway Com- 
pany, I, 464 

Cleveland & Mahoning Railroad Com- 
])an}' completed, I, 218 

Cleveland & Newburg Railroad Com- 
Danv, I, 194, 461 

Cleveland & Pittsburgh Railroad, I, 218 

Cleveland & Southwestern Traction 
Company, I, 464 

Cleveland & Toledo Railroad, I, 213 

Cliffs and bridges at Brookside (illus- 
tration), I, 486 

Clinton, DeWitt, I, 168, 169 

Clinton Park, I, 255, 471, 490 

Clouded Land Titles, I, 50 

Clouded titles to Indian lands, I, 68 

Clum, Alfred, I, 446; III, 44 

Coal, first put on Cleveland market, I, 

Coates, W. R., I, 713 

Cobb. Ahira, III, 52 

Cobb, G. W., I, 638 

Cobb, Lester A., Ill, 53 

Codv, Darwin D., II, 388 

Cody, Henry B., Ill, 46 

Cody, Lindus. HI, 48 

Coe," aiarles W., I, 708, 710 

Coe, Eben S., I, 660 

Coe, S. S., I, 708, 710 

Cdfrm, I. Vincent, I. 292, 293 

Collinbcrry, .James M., I, 236, 456, 508 

Coit. Daniel L., I, 7 

Colahan, Thomas. I. 184, 205 

Cole. W. B.. I. 446 

College for Women. Western Reserve 
University, I, 398 

College of Physicians and Surgeons, I, 

(■(■ll.'t. .loshiia. T, 507 

(ollinwood ((Bienville Annex) school, I, 

(■(illinwood .lunior high school, I, 387 
(■(.lliiiwond school, T, 388 
Colonnade Company, The. Ill, 449 
('oluml)ia Savings and Loan Company, 

nr, 316 
(■(ihimbia school, I, 388 

Columbus Day in the public schools, I, 

Columbus Street (1833), I, 174; 451 
Columbus Street bridge. I, 175, 452, 

453; (illustration), 176 
Colwell. Joseph, I, 710 
Commerce and manufactures (1865), I, 

Commercial arc lighting. I. 701 
Commercial Bank Check (illustration), 

I, 111 
Commercial Bank of Lake Erie, I, 109, 

190, 689, 692 
Commercial electricity. I. 701 
Commercial National" Bank. II, 28, 29 
Comnu'rcial National Bank of Cleve- 
land, II. 383 
Common pleas court, I, 503, 504, 507, 

508, 510, 511, 512 
Common schools (1836) created by 

ordinance. I. 341 
Common School System of Ohio, 

father of, II, 558 
Community churches, I, 617 
Comparative summary, 1907-17, I, 706- 

Conger, James L., 1, 568 
Conger, James W., II, 123 
Congregational churches, I, 601 
Congregationalists, I. 599 
Conklin, Edward, I. 177, 178 
Connecticut, I, 1-11 
Connecticut Land Company, I, 6, 7, 8, 

30. 31, 42, 44, 171 
Connecticut Western Reserve, I, 6 
Connecticut Western Reserve (1796) 

(Map), I, 27 
Council, Thomas F., I, 447 
Convention hall, largest in the United 

States, III, 460 
Convents, I, 609 
Cook, E. P.. I, 635 
Cook, Otis R., HI. 68 
Cook, Samuel, I, 156, 184 
Cooke, Edmund V., I, 575* 
Cooking school department opened 

(1887). I. 372 
Cooley, Harris R.. I. 255, 633 
Cooley. Lathrop, I, 291 
Coon. John, I, 571 
Cooper, Silas H. L., II, 474 
Cooi)er S])ring Company, II, 300 
Copeland, Mark A., H, 366 
Corlett. Alvah R.. T, 446; II, 210 
Corlett, Harriet E., I, 384 
Corlett. John F., II. 410 
Corlett school, I, 388 
Corlett, Spencer D., II, 231 
Corlett, William T., I, 544, 550* 
Corner, Horace B., I, 414 
Corning. Henry W., I, 663; III, 465 
Corning, Warren IL, III, 463 



Corporal punishment in sdiools abol- 
ished (1886), I, 3G'J 

"Corporate Birth and Growth of Cleve- 
land" (Griswold), I, 23 

Corrigan, James, I, 699 

Couch, J. S., I, 505 

Coulton. Geo. A., I, 710 

Counts. A. Frank. Ill, 249 

County Huiklin-. 1, 470 

County centennial celebration, I, 333 

County Courthouse, present (illustra- 
tion), I, 495 

Comity Inlirmary at Warrensville (il- 
lustration) I. 548 

Court-house addition of 1875, I, 235 

Court-house of 1885, I, 234; (illustra- 
tion) 235 

Court of Common Pleas, I, organized, 
80; in 1837, 197; 500 

Court of insolvency, I, 520 

Courts (See Bench and Bar) 

Covert, .John C, 1. 287, 591 

Cowan, William. I, 224 

Cowins. Hattie J. A., II. 116 

Cowles, Edwin, I, 589; (portrait), 590* 

Cowles, Kdwin M., I, 542, 545 

Cowles. J. G. W., I, 290, 391, 290, 380, 
488, 709 

Cowles, Samuel, I, 128, 149, 189, 300, 
344, 507 

Cowles, Solomon, T, 7 

Cox, J. D.. Sr., Ill, 535 

Cox, Jacob D., Sr., Ill, 535 

Cox, John H., I. 713 

Cox, Kenvon, III. 536 

Coy. Walter A., II, 270 

Cozad. Homer D.. Ill, 463 

Crackel. M. U., I. 644 

Cragin. Raymond T., II, 155 

CraifT, Georpe L.. II. 62 

Cramer. Charles F., I, 662 

Craw, James A., I, 444 

Craw. William V., I. 180 

Crawford, John. I, 602 

Crawford, J. M.. I. 446 

Crawford, Willard. I, 210 

Creij;hton. William R., I, 659 

Crehore. .John D., I, 413 

Crile, George W., 549*, 672, 673; III. 

Critehfield. Lvman R., I, 260, 532 

Crittenden, S. W., I. 188, 189, 570 

Croatians in Cleveland. I. 620 

Crobau<,'h, Frank L., 11. 208 

Crobaugh. S. Chester, II, 208 

Cross, D. W.. I, 414, 571 

Crosser, Robert, I, 531 

Crotty, Arthur B., II, 181 

Crouse. J. Robert, I, 671 

Crowell, Benedict. I, 670 

Crowell, .John. I. 533 

Crowell Law School, I, 533 

Crura, Phelps, III, 557 

Crum, Mrs. X. X., I, 310, 312 
Crura, X. X., I, 710 
Cukr, h. C, I, 447 
Cull. Ihmiel B., I, 447; III, 59 
Cummer Products Company, II, 483 
Cuniminfis, Herbert C., II, 209 
Cummins, Clyde R., II, 179 
"Cumulative Index to Periodicals," !, 

Cunningham, E. W., I, 447 
C\irren, Robert G., Ill, 550 
Curtis, A. H., I, 205 
Curtis, .lames A., II, 56 
Curtis, Laura M., I, 366 
Curtis. Mat toon M., I, 336, 553* 
Curtis, Monroe, III, 558 
Ciirtiss, Ansel B., II, 58 
Curtiss. .]. M.. I, 484, 711 
( urtiss, Lee C, II, 65 
Curtiss, S. H., I, 414 
Citshing. Erastus, I, 543 
Gushing. H. K., I, 544 
Cushing. William E., I, 402; III, 552 
Cutler, H. G., I, 429, 654 
Cutter, Orlando. I, 118, 689 
Cuyahoga Agricultural Society, I, 315 
Cuyahoga and Muskingum Navigation 

Lottery, I, 75 
Cuyahoga Antislavery Society, I, 189 
Cuyahoga County Agricultural Society, 

L 251 
Cuyahoga County Antislavery Society, 

I, 151 
Cuyahoga County Colonization Society, 

I, 149 
Cuyahoga County created, I, 80 
Cuyahoga County .Juvenile Court, I, 

Cuvahoga County Homeopathic Society, 

i, 546 
Cuvahoga County Medical Society, I, 

258, 544 
Cuvahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' 

Monument, I, 383 
Cuvahoga River Scene (illustration), I, 

Cuyahoga Savings & I,oan Company, 

III. 156 
Cuyahoga Spring Company, HI, 159 
Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company, I, 

i59, 691 

'■Daily Forest City," I, 589 
Dangler, D. Edward, HI, 549 
Daoust, Edward C, II, 137 
Daughters of the American Revolution, 

Western Reserve Chapter, I, 282 
Davenport. John, I, 3* 
David, Edward, II, 320 
David. Joseph. II, 218 
Davidson. Charles A., L 278, 279, 280, 

Davies, Arthur S., H, 189 



Davies, Daniel R., II, 433 

Davies, George C, I, 189 

Davies, I. R., II, 213 

Davies, Sydney A., II, 341 

Davis, Emma C, I, 375 

Davis. George C, I, 570 

Davis; Harry L., I, 333, 337, 445, 680, 
684; n, 316 

Davis, Llewellyn R., I, 660 

Davis, Seth. I, 597 

Davis, William E., I, 447; III, 145 

Dawning school, I, 388 

Day, Frank S., II, 374 

Day, Lewis W., I, 362, 363, 371 

Day, Luther, II, 97 

Day, William, I, 348 

Day, William L., II, 120 

Day, William R., I, 534; II, 96 

Day. Wilson M., I, 287, 388, 289, 436, 

Daylight saving. III, 211 

Dayton. Bloomfield H., Ill, 338 

Dean. William, I, 68 

DeCumbe, J. William. Ill, 355 

Deibel, Harry L.. 11, 436 

Delamater. John I. 543 

Dellenbaugh, Frank E., II, 47 

Dempsey, James H., Ill, 549 

Denison, Amos, I, 533 

Denison sc}iool, I, 388 

Dennis, R. B., I, 355, 357, 589 

Dental School, Western Reserve Uni- 
versity, I, 398 

Dentist, first. I, 163 

Destructive fires, I, 228 

Detention Hospital, I, 549 

Detroit Avenue .Savings and Banking 
Company, III, 223 

Detroit Junior high school, I, 387 

Detroit Road, I, 77 

Detroit school, I, 388 

Detroit street, I, 451 

Detroit surrender, news of, at Cleve- 
land, I, 91 

Dcutach, Ignatz W., II, 246 

Deutseh, Louis A., I, 447 

Deutscli. Sigmund J., II, 346 

Devercaux, J. F., I. 669 

Devereau.v, S. H., I, 660 

Devcreux. J. H., I, 400 

Devney. Richard K., II, 261 

Devitt, .lames ()., III. 70 

Do Witt. Elijah. L 542 

DeWoIf. B. A., I. 709 

DeWolf, Homer B., I, 532 

Dexter, .lohn H., I, 677 

Dibble, Lewis. I, 114 

Dick Belt, III, 272 

I^ick a)mpany. Ill, 272 

Dick, R. & J.; Ltd., III. 372 

Dickens, Cliarles, I, 569 

Dickenson, John, III, 523 

Dickenson, John Sr., Ill, 533 

Dickinson, James W.. I. 435. 442. 444 
Dickman. Franklin J., I, 531. 532* 
Dietz, William G., I, 417; III, 234 
Dike school, I, 389 
Dille, Asa, I, 81 
Dille, Charles W., II, 337 
Dille, Lewis, I, 93 
Hille, Lewis R., I, 149 
Dillon, John, I, 608: II. 89 
Oilworth. Charles M., Ill, 379 
Diocese of Cleveland, II, 91 
Directories 183"7 and 1918, L 186 
Directory, first of Cleveland (1837), I, 

Directory of Cleveland and Ohio City, 

(reproduction of title page), I, 185 
Disciples of Christ. I, 604 
Dissette, Edward W., II, 355 
Dissette, Mrs. T. K., I, 390, 306 
Dissette. Thomas K.. I, 511; II, 43, 355 
Di Teulada. Orazio S., III. 288 
Division of parks and public grounds. 

I, 477 
Doan Brook. Gordon Park (illustra- 
tion), I, 480 
Doan Famil}', III, 90 
Doan. John, I, 54. 58 
Doan, Nathaniel, I, 43, 60, 63, 67, 70, 

77, 81, 655 
Doan, Sarah, I, 47. 74. 341 
Doan school, I, 365, 389 
Doan, Seth. I, 109 
Dean, Timothy. I, 58, 60, 63, 64, 75, 80, 

105, 496. 500 
Doan. William H., I, 371, 373, 634 
Doan's Corners, I. 43; III, 90 
Doan's Corners Congregational church 

(illustration), I, 137 
Dockstader, C. J., I, 637 
Dockstader, Nicholas, 1, 138*, 179, 180, 

184. 194. 305. 308 
Doctors (see physicians) 
Dodge, Charles R., Ill, 36 
Dodge Family. Ill, 90 
Dodge, Fred B., I, 663 
Dodge, George C, I, 205. 436; III, 91 
Dodge, Henry IL, I, 198 
Dodge, Henry W., I. 345 
Dodge, Lewis, I, 545 
Dodge. Sanuiel, I, 71 ; III, 00 
Dodge. Samuel D., HI. 91 
Dodge. W. H., 1, 593: III. 531 
Dodge, Wilson S., I, 287 
Docrller, Samuel, I, 448 
Dolman, John. I, 660 
Donulu'v, .lames H.. I, 565 
Donalu-y, .lohn H., I, ,589 
DoMahcV. Mary D., I. 5S0 
Donnelly, John J., II, 363 
Donnelly. William E.. II, 303 
Dorcas Society, 11. 114 
Doty, Oiarles' K., Ill, 471 
Doty, Edward W., I, 317, 710 




Doulileilny, Cluiilos. I. 059 
Dovir Fill' Brick ('om|iiiiiy, II, 399 
Uuwliii^', (■('orgc T., I, 554 
Draper, Andrew S., I, 373, 375 
DullVy. Hernnrd T., II, 350 
l)u.\li"pulin, Frmik, I, 599. 023 
Dunlin m sihool, I, 305, 389 
Dunmore, Walter T.. 111. 55-1 
Diitton. Bettie A., 111. 129 
Diitton, C. F., I, 303, 544 

Eagle school, I, 389 

'Early History of t'leveland" (W'liiUle- 

sey"), I, 32, 34, 148 
'"Early History of the Cleveland I'lib 

lie Schools" (Spanjiler) , I, 115 
Early law suits (1808), I, 80 
Early mails, I, 71 
Early parks, I. 355 
Early physicians, II, 381 
Early postmasters, I, 70 
Early Settlers' Association, I. 430 
Early Settlers' Association of Cuya- 
hoga County. I, 209; 11. 558 
Early Settlers at the Log Cabin. Cen- 
tennial Celebration (illustration), I, 
Early Settlers' Dav, Cleveland Centen- 
nial, I, 298 
East Boulevard school, I, 389 
East Clark (Collin wood) school, I, 389 
East Cleveland annexed, I, 258 
East Cleveland and Kinsman lines, I, 

East Cleveland Central school (illus- 
tration). I. 303 
East Cleveland Hospital, III. 299 
East Cleveland Railway Comjianv, I, 

East Cleveland schools (1872), I, 363; 

(1918), I, 305 
East Cleveland Street Railroad Com- 
pany, I, 463 
East Denison school, I, 389 
East End Community House, I, 619 
East High school, I, 357 
East High school (old), I, 365 
East junior high school, I, 387; (new) 

East lladison school, I, 365, 389 
East Ohio Gas Company's Building 

(illustration), I, 327 
East school, I, 386 

East (new) Senior High School. I, 365 
East Technical High School (illustra- 
tion), I, 385, 386 
East Thirty-fifth street viaduct, I, 460 
East 37th and East 38th Play (Jround, 

I, 490 
East 39th Play Ground, I, 490 
Easterbrook Coal Company, III, 312 
Easterbrook. George. III. 311 
Eastman, Linda A., I, 425; III, 197 

Eaton, Charles A., 11, 446 

Eaton, Cyrus S., II, 447 

Eaton, .Joseph 0., Ill, 168 

Ebcrliard Manufacturing Coni|)any, II, 

Eberling, Charles M., 111. 8 

Fberling, Ruth M., HI, 8 

I'Aonomy Building & Loan Company, 
II. 346 

Kddy Koad IIos])ital. I, 549 

Edgcrton. \V. P.. 1. 533 

IMgewatcr Park. I, 484, 490 

l-.dgewater Park Entrance (illustra- 
tion i. I, 485 

i:(li.-.cin. Thomas A., Ill, 358 

liiliiicindson, (ieorge II.. Ill, 468 

Education. II, 193 

Educational Conference, Cleveland Cen- 
tennial, I, 303 

Edwanls. Albert, I, 658 

Kilwanls, Clarence R., I, 668* 

Edwards, .John S., I, 504 

ICdwards, Pierpoint, I. 8 

Edwards. Ralph W.. I, 447, 533 

Edwards. Hodolphus, I, 38, 60, 70, 80, 
98. 495, 497 

Edwards, Ruth A., I, 629 

Edwards William, I, 253, 709 

ICells, Dan P., I, 414, 635 

Eclls Family, III, :i00 

Eells. Howard P., Ill, 301 

Eells, Mrs. Dan P.. I, 653 

lOlirbar. Alois L., III. 222 

Ehrkc, Charles W., III. 405 

Eicliliorn, Charles H.. IH, 88 

I'Milcn. .John A.. II, 120 

i:idredge. A. C, I. 384 

Eldridge, David, I, 36, 50 

Kldridge, Moses A., I, 305 

Electricity, introduction into cities, 11, 

Electric Railway Improvement C\)in- 
pany. III, 374 

Electrocution, first in Cuyahoga 
county. III, 48 

Eliza .Jennings Home, I, 049 

Elliott, Charles R., Ill, 391 

Elliott, Harvey E., II, 138 

Ellison, Henry C, I, 317, 710; III, 83 

Ellsler. .lohn A., I, 205 

Ellsworth, David V., Ill, 111 

I'llson. William H.. I. 378 

Elwell, J. J., 1, 393, 533, 600 

lOly, (Jcorgc H., I, 696 

Ely. Heman. I. 53, 202 

]',mergency Hospital, I, 549 

Emerson. Frank A., I, 389 

lOmerson, Henry I., 11, 106 

Emerson, Hcnrj' .J., I, 531 

lunerson, Oliver F., I, 578* 

Emerson. Sam W., III. 443 

Empire junior high school. I, 387 

Kmpire school (illustration), I, 387 



Enamel Products Company, III. 303 

Kngeln Electric Company, HI, 103 

Engeln. Henry P.. Ill, 103 

Engeln Self "Contained Tankless Air 
and Vacuum Pump, III. 103 

Englander, Arthur L., Ill, 112 

English Evangelical Lutheran Emman- 
uel church, I, 605 

Episcopal City Mission. I. 621 

Epworth Jlemorial church, I, 602 

Erie and Ohio Canal, I. 166-170 

Erie Canal, I, 168; II, 27 

Erlanger, III, 544 

Erlanger, A. L., Ill, 544 

Erlanger. Mitchell L.. Ill, 545 

Ernst & Ernst, II, 400 

Ernst, A. C„ II, 399 

Ernst, Theodore C, II, 509 

Erwin, John, I, 350 

lOrwin, William, I, 69 

Eshelman, Oriel D., II, 203 

Estep, Charles J., I, 512; III, 109 

Estep, E. .J., I, 533 

Estv, Louis J., II, 155 

Euclid avenue, I, 44U, 451 ; II, 104 

Euclid Avenue Baptist Church. II, 446; 
III, 69 

Euclid avenue Business Section look- 
ing West (illustration), I, 463 

Euclid Avenue Church of Christ, I, 605 

Euclid Avenue Congregational Church, 
I, 126, 601 

Euclid Avenue Opera House, I, 265 

Euclid Beach, I, 476 

Euclid Beach Park, II, 167 

Euclid ( C o 1 1 a m e r ) Presbyterian 
Church. I, 126; (illustration), 137 

Euclid Heights Residences (illustra- 
tion), L 451 

Euclid Park school. I, 389 

liuclid Road, I, 449 

Euclid township, I, 28 

Evangelical Association, I. (JOG; II, 36!) 

Evangelical churches, I, 606 

Evangelical l^utheran Trinity, I, 605 

I'.vangelical ilagazine, II, 371 

Evans, livron 11.. Ill, 476 

Evans. Peter P.. Ill, 313 

"Evening Leader," I, 591 

'•Evening News," I, 591; HE 45 

Everett, Azariah, 1, 351, 255, 484 

Everett, Ilenrv A„ II, 508 

Everett, Sylvester T.. Ill, 174 

Ewers, .Tames E., II, 276 

Ewing, Frank H., II, 81 

Kwing, Roseoe M,, 11, 168 

Exline Company, HI. 378 

Exline, D. V., ill, 377 

Fackler, .Tohn D.. I, 531 
Factory Building Company, II, 236 
FnirlmnkH. A. W'.. I, 584 
Fairchild, Egbert N., Ill, 210 
Fairchild, .lames II., 1, 337 

Fairchild. J. C, I, 194 

Fairmount Junior High school, I, 365, 

Fairvievv Park and Play Ground, I, 490 
Fairview (Reservoir) Park, I, 483 
Fancher, Elvadore R., Ill, 549 
fanning, M. A., I, 669 
Farinacci, Antonio T., Ill, 400 
Farley, Ira C, III, 9 
Farley, John H., I, 233. 316 
Farmer, Lydia H., I. 398 
Farntield. John C, I, 378 
Farnsworth, F. M., I, 713 
Farnsworth. George B., I, 603 
Farnsworth, H. M.. I, 473, 710, 713 
Farrell. Thomas S.. I, 447; II. 401 
Farrelly, John P., I, 614; II. 90 
Fast Stage Line (reproduction of ad- 
vertisement), I, 196 
Faulhaber, Frank J.. Ill, 492 
Faulhaber, F. \'., I, 711 
Faulhaber, George, III, 225 
Fav, William IL, L 713: III, 114 
Fay, W, H. Company, The. Ill, 115 
Feazel, Ernest A., Ill, 105 
Federal (postoffice) building, I, 470; 

completed, 333; (illustration), 468 
lederal Food Administration Bureau, 

I, 682 
Federal form of city government, I, 

434, 439 
Federal Plan, II, 312 
I'ederal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, 

in, 549 
Federal Reserve Banks, III, 25 
Federal school plan introduced (1892), 

I, 372 
I'ederal street, I, 450 
Federated Churches of Cleveland, I, 

616, 621 
Fciss, Paul L., I, fiSO, 710 
I'cis, Mrs. G. Leonard, I, 635 
l''eneslra i)atcnts. III, 308 
I'enian raid. Ill, 56 
Fenn, Serano P., I, 637, 643; ([lortrait) 

643; III, 104 
Fenner, Charles W., III. 110 
I'Viining. Karl. 11, 343 
I'rrencik, John A,, 11, 338 
Kcrencik, .lohn P,. II, 339 
l''ergus(>n, Archie N., HI, 16 
I'erguson, Charles II., III. 446 
Ferguson, C. 11. Company, 111. 447 
I'erguson. Richard, 111, 305 
Ferris Shoe (\)mpany, 11. 449 
j.'crry (up and Screw' Company, III, 213 
I'erry, Thomas, III. 213 
I'ert'ig. Frank J.. III. 58 
l''evcr and ague (1798). 1, 43 
l''i(ht, Fred W„ HI, 267 
Field, Hurry IL, III, 483 
I'ifteenlh Regiment, Ohio National 

(Juard, I, 268 



Fiftli Oliio Infantry in tlie Stadium at 
El I'aso. Texas (ilhistratioii), 1, 6tj3 

riltratioii ))laiit, I, 437 

I'iiianee di'iiartmeiit, 1, 447 

Kiiumcial pro;,'r('ss, 1S87-1917, I, 70C 

KiiicIli'V. WaltiT T.. ni, 2,S4 

Fiiilcv", William F.. II, 453 

I in III' V, .lames U.. I. 198, 208 

Kinury. J. R. I, 347 

Fire and jiolioe divisions, I, 445 

Fire boat, first, I, 435 

Fire department organized, I, 155; 
(paid) organized. 247; 431, 433, 435, 
439, 443-5 

Fire Lands, I, 6, 69 

Fire Lands (see SutVercrs' Lands) 

Fire of 18S3, 1, 374 

Fires, L 228; destructive, 435 

Fires always waitinf; for the Lumber 
District "(illustration), L 443 

First City in American Spirit, L 337 

First Things and Events — Maps, I, 23; 
Cleveland cemetery, 36; Cleveland 
wedding, 37; mill, 43; distillery 
(1800), 47; election in the Reserve, 
52; lawyer (Samuel Huntington), 
57; town meeting for Cleveland. 60; 
Cleveland school, 61; frame houses, 
61; .Justices of the Peace, 64; mur- 
der, 65; postmaster, 70; tanneries, 
81; Courthouse (illustration), 93; 
courthouse and jail, 94; murder and 
execution, 94: village legislation, 
100; board of health, 101; fire 
engine, 101; church organized, 105; 
banks and bankers, 109; school- 
house in Cleveland. 115; frame ware- 
house, 116; printing press, 116; 
book-store, 116 ; Methodist church, 
118; Presbyterian church, 126; Con- 
gregational church, 126; directory of 
Cleveland (1837), 137, 175, 184; 
Baptist church (illustration), 153; 
Western locomotive works, 159; 
manufacturing corporation, 159; 
dentist, 163; city directory (1837), 
137, 175. 184; Catholic Church (illus- 
tration), 187; telegram received, 
213: municipal water works, 224; 
iron ore received (water works), 226; 
report of Cleveland Board of Trade, 
347; iron ship, 250; Board of Park 
Commissioners, 255 : high level 
bridge (IS7S). 268; woman lawyer, 
275; woman elected to public office 
in Ohio, 376; fire boat, 435; high 
level bridge dedicated, 4.57; electric 
street car. 462; civil jury trial, 303; 
I'niversity war unit, 674; locomotive 
manufactured in the West, 691; coal 
put on Cleveland market, 698; 
American-built gasoline automobile, 
702; village election. II, 11; resident 

attorney, 11; bank in Cleveland, 13; 
carriage, 12; train on the Cleveland, 
Columbus & t:ineinnati, 13; electric 
motor street car, 20; permanent 
Catholic (lunch, 89; steam brick 
plant. 123; fnime building, 146; ship 
launched at Cleveland. 146; court 
liouse and jail, 147; steamer, "Knter- 
prise,'' 148; telephone office, 352; 
electrocution in Cuyahoga county, 
III, 48; frame barn, 91; town meet- 
ing, 91 ; charter for a Cleveland na- 
tional bank, 383 
]''irst Congregational church, I, 601 

First Methodist Kjiiscoiial churches, 1, 

First Ohio Light Artillery, I, 657 
First National Bank, I, 690 
First Presbyterian church, I, 600 

Fischley, Alfred P., HI. 393 

Fish, C'harles L., 11, 83 

Fish, Ebenezer, I, 173. 603 

Fish, F. Stillman, III, 159 

I'ish, ,Iohn. II, 282 

Fish, .Julia A., II. 84 

Fish, Moses, I, 173, 603 

Fisher Brothers Company, III, 407 

Fisher, Charles C, III, 179 

F'isher, (ieorge E., Ill, 499 

Fisher, John F., I, 602 

Fisher, Manning F., I, 713; III, 407 

Fitch. Jabez W., I, 259, 524 

Fitch, Sarah. I, 653 

Fitzgerald, .John R., I. 500 

I'itzGerald, William S., I, 445, 447; IT, 

Fitzpatrick. Clarence J., Ill, 300 

I'itzpatrick, David, II, 529 

Fitzsimons, Thomas G., Ill, 401 

Five Points, II, 177 

"Flag, The," II, 129 

Flag Presentation to Volunteers for 
Cuba (illustration), I, 316 

Flag raising. Cleveland Day, II, 366 

Flagler. Henry M., I, 247, 714 

Fleharty, .John L., Ill, 384 

Fleming. Mrs. .J. N., I, 687 

Fliedner. Helen M.. I, 384 

Flint, Edward S., I, 233, 657 

Flood of 1883, I, 274 

h'loyd, Raymond G., Ill, 547 

Focrstner, .John A.. Ill, 470 

Fogg. William P., I. 250, 357, 412, 414 

T'olsom, Ezekiel, I, 177, 178 

Ft Isom. Oilman. I. 216 

Folsom, Samuel W., Ill, 79 

Foote, Asa. I, 178 

Foote. A. Ward. II. 396 

I'oote-Burt Company. II, 396 

Foote, Herschel, I, 116 

Foote, Horace, T, 508 

Foote, .John A., L 151, 208, 317, 345 

Foraker, .James B., I. 466 



Foran. JIartin A., I. 336, 512*, 537, 
554; II, 270 

Forbes. Alexander. I, 362. 366, 368 

Force, Clayton H.. HI, 279 

Force. C. (J., I. 456 

Ford, H. Clark, I, 601 

Ford. J. M., I, 691 

Ford, Lewis W.. 1, 532 

Ford, Simpson S.. I, 511; II. 343 

Forest City House, I, 265 (1876, illus- 
tration), 266 

P'orest City Lyceum, I. 569 

Forest City Oyster Company. II, 373 

Forest City Park, I, 489 

Forest CMty Railway Company, I, 320 

Forest City Savings and Trust Com- 
pany, III, 314 

Foiest economist. Ill, 541 

Forest Hill Parkway, I. 490 

Forman, Jonathan C., Ill, 563 

Forsch, Lawrence H., IH. 495 

Forster, C. A., II. 451 

Fortnightly Musical Club. I. 563 

Forty-sixth street market. I, 491 

Foster, Allen M., Ill, 490 

Foster. Arthur B.. Ill, 89 

Foster Bolt and Nut Company, III. 490 

Foster, C. H., Ill, 303 

Foster, Hanna, I, 296 

Foster, James H.. Ill, 371 

Foster. William L., Ill, 86 

Four Minute Men, I, 683 

Fourth of July (1800), I, 48 

Fourth of July (1802), I, 60 

Fowler school." I. 389 

Fox, Mrs. E. A., I, 364 

Francics, William E., III. 429 

Francis, John 11., III. 388 

Franklin Circle, I, 451, 477. 490 

Iranklin Circle Church of Christ, 1, 604 

I'ranklin House, I, 212 (1825 illustra- 
tion) I, 103 

I'raiiklii) Thomas Backus Law School, 
Western Reserve University, 1, 398, 

"Frankfort Street Handl)ill." I, 5U3 

ITantz, Clarence G., Ill, 304 

Traser, Archibald R., 111. 398 

I'raser, Mrs. (;. O., 1, 311 

Frayer, Roland F„ II, 538 

Frazec, Henry, I, 662 

Frederick, J. M. H., I, 379 

Freenuin, J., I, 178 

Fieeman, J. F., I, 710 

Vr nan, Silas C, I, 107. 597 

lice School, I, 344 

Frccsp, Andrew, I, 115, 349, 359; 
(portrait) 354 

Kreiberger, Isadore F., HI, 97 

Freight movement, 1894. 1904, 1917, I, 

French, Henry S.. II, 355 

French. Jolin'l!., 1, 414 

Friebolin. Carl D., I, 520; II, 235 

Fritzsche, Alfred L., II, 228 

Fritzsche, Henry E., Ill, 196 

Fruit land school, I, 389 

Fry. James A., II, 394 

Fugitive slave law, I, 149 

Fuller. Benjamin D., III. 219 

Fuller. Clifford W.. I. 062; II. 220 

Fuller, Horace A., 111. 108 

Fuller. Hubert B., I, 329, 577; III, 471 

Fuller, Jeptha L.. Ill, 110 

Fuller, Joel H.. Ill, 133 

Fuller. Ralph L., I, 709 

Fuller, Samuel A., Ill, 39 

Fuller. Simeon, I, 197 

Fuller, William, III, 133 

Fullerton school, I, 389 

Fulton Foundry & Machine Company, 

U, 398 
Fulton. John C. I, 662 
Furst. Edward \V., III. 520 
Futch, William E., II. 441 

Gabriel Manufacturing Company, HI, 

Gage, Benjamin A., II. 211 
Gahn. H. C, I, 447 
Gallagher. Michael. I, 234. 518 
Gallup Farm. II, 215 
Gammel. Karl. Ill, 361 
Gammel, R. E., I, 380 
Gammeter. Harry C. III. 106 
Gandola, Attilio D., II, 563 
Gandola Brothers M o n u m e n t and 

Architectural Works, II, 563 
Ganson, George H., II. 398 
Garber. Aaron. 11, 285 
(.'ardner, Burt M., II, 445 
(ianlner. George W., I, 233, 709; II, 


Gardner, S. S., I, 710 

(Jarlield. Harry A., I, 288. 329, 414, 

535. 709 
Garfield, James A., I, 55, 372*, 509, 

524, 604; III. 14S 
Garfield. James R., I, 417, 525 
Carlicld Memorial (illustration), 1, 373 
(Garfield Jlemorial Fund. III. 13 
Garfield Monunu'ut Interior (ilustra- 

tion), I, 273 
Garfield Park, I. 487, 490 
Garfield Savings Bank, If, 409, 533; 

III. 463 
Garfield, 'J'homaa, I. 004 
(.arfield's signilicnni compliment, I, 509 
(iarlick, Ahel R., I, 689 
Garlick. Theodore D., I, 556* 
(iarretson. (Jeorge A.. I. 315; CMi*, 710 
liurrelt, George M., 11. 402 
(■arry. Thomas II., II. 56 
(;ary. Marco B.. II. 375 
(Jury, Marco W.. II. 376 
(■'as ordinance, I. 379 



fJas, reduction in cost. II, 310 

(;as works built (1849), I. 215 

(iasoline Automobile, first AmiTican- 
built, r, 702 

(Jates, Alvin S.. Til, 367 

(iates. Clark S., I, 657 

(.Hwne. V. v.. I. 436 

(.awiie, Tluiinas L., II. 429 

(iawne. William J., III. 339 

iJaylord. Allen. I, 72. 568 

liaylord. Mrs. L. C., I. 189 

(iaylord. William. I. 116 

"tiazette and (.'ommcrcial Register,"' I, 

(iear. CTiarles, I, 105 

(Jefline. Krnest L.. II. 532 

(iegenheimer. Albert. III. 411 

tjeiselman. William E.. III. 376 

(Jeneral I^ducation Board. II. 8 

Cent Vending Machine Company, II, 

Gent, William. II. 308 

Centsch, Charles. I. 380 

■c;eographv of Cleveland"' (Gregory), I, 

Oeometrie Stamping Company. HI, 282 

(ierman-American Savings Bank Com- 
pany. III. 209 

German Baptists, I. 606 

German Catholics, I, 614 

(German Hospital, I, 548 

German Methodists, I, 606 

I German schools (1870), I, 362 

German Society of ("leveland, I, 189 

Getzien. Gustave. III. 495 

(iibbons. John W.. I. 278 

Gibbs, Harley B.. HI, 105 

Gibson. Charles D.. II, 461 

Gibson-Homans Company. Ill, 253 

Giddings. .Joshua R.. I. 53 

Giddings school. I. 365, 389 

(iilbert, Augustus. I. 80. 500 

Gilbert, H. Ellsworth, III, 358 

Gilbert. Levi. I. 302 

Gilbert school. I, 389 

I ilbert. Stephen, I, 39, 52 

Gilchrist. H. L.. I. 673 

Gill. John. I, 216, 352; III, 81 

(iill. John T., Ill, 81 

Gill. Kermode F.. IR. 371 

Gillen. Mark J.. Ill, 491 

Gillett. Harry. Ill, 72 

(Jilmour. Richard, T, 405, 610, 612; II, 

Girl. Christian. I. 671; II. 199 

Gladstone Klementary School, I, 394 

Glasier. .Jessie C, I, 589 

Gleason. William J.. I, 275, 285 

i;lenville Hospital, I. 549 

Glenville racing track. I, 252 

Glenville school. T. 386 

Glick. Harry F.. IT. 220 

<;lidden Company, The, II, 494 

(Jlobe Iron Works, III, 251 

(ilobe Theater. I. 265 

(iloyd. .lames R., HI. 78 

God'dard. Calvin. I. 660 

Goddard. George S., I, 329 

(iodiiian. Charles A., 11. 483 

(Jodman. John X.. II. 483 

Goff. Frederick H.. I, 671. 680, 710; 
HI. 427 

Gold. Benjamin, I, 67 

(Joldeii jubilee of Catholic diocese, TT 

Goldhamer. A. K.. II. 202 

Goldsword. .Tames. III. 468 

(ioUiiiar, Fred G.. II. 469 

Goodman. Alfred T.. I. 412. 414, 572 

(ioodiiian. .Max P.. II, 288 

Goodrich .Social Settlement, II, 157 

Goodspeed. W. F., I, 268 

(iordon Park. I. 479, 490 

(iordon school, I, 389 

Gordon, William, I. 336, 531; Til, 467 

Gordon. William J.. I. 414. 474. 479, 
612. 691 

Gormsen. .Tames, II, 374 

(ioshorn. William S.. I, 244 

Gott, Frank B.. I, 512; III, 73 

Gottdiener. Henry. Ill, 321 

Gottwald. F. C. I. 563, 565 

Goulder. Harvey D., I, 329, 335, 336, 
709; II. 44 

Goulder. Robert F., Sr., II, 465 

Government odicials in 1837, I. 198 

Government pier. II, 148 

Grabien. Fred, II. 43 

Grace Episcopal Church, II, 326 

Ciraduate School. Western Reserve Uni- 
versity, I, 398 

firain trade, 1894. 1904. 1917. I. 704 

Grand Armj' of the Republic (National 
Encampment 1901). I, 317 

"Grand old lady of the public schools," 
HI, 129 

Granger. Gideon. Jr.. I. 7 

• Granger's Hill. I. 171 

(irannis. John C. I. 260. 532 

(Irannis. -loseph S.. II, 193 

Grant, .Tohn, III, 295 

Grant. John C, 296 

Grant-Lees Gear Company. HI, 305 

(;rant. Roderick D., Ill, 556 

Grasselli. Caesar A.. I, 414, 417, 529 

Grasselli CTiemical Company, II, 105; 
HI, 499 

Grasselli. Thomas S.. H. 104 

Graves. Forrest A.. Ill, 315 

(iraves. Noah, I, 143 

Grav, Admiral N., I, 585 

Gray. J. W., I, 585. 586 

Grays Armory, T, 663 

Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Com- 
pany. TIL 428 

Grebe" Henrv. IIT. 86 



Green, David E., II, 382 
Green, John P., I, 500 
Green, Virginia D., I, 3"6, 384 
Greene, Edward B., Ill, 358 
Greene, Thomas E., H, 40d 
Greene, William B., HI. 1^6 
Greenlund, W. A., I, j380 
Greenough, M. S., I, TOO 
Gree", Albert S., 11, 463 
Gre?S, Frank M., I, 623; III, 403 
Grelory, W. M., I, 21 
Gribben. William, I, 635 
Grief, William, I, 710 
(.ries, Moses J., I, 291, 302, 336 
(iriese, Clarence E., H, 439 
Griese, David C, III, 410 
Griese, George G., II, 438 
Griess, Justin, HI, 483 
Grieve. Edmond, III. 191 
Griffin, Mrs. H. A., I, 290, 306 
Griffith, David, I, 1T9, 213, 227 

Griffith, J. Fremont. Ill, 421 

Griffiths. Edwin S., II. 338 

Grinnell Automatic Sjjnnkler, 11, ~-» 

Griswold, A. M., I, 586 

Griswold, .Seneca O.. I. 23, 130, lo., 
238, 260, 510*, 532 

Griswold, Solomon, I, 7 

Griswold. Stanley, I. 77*, 526 

Griswold, Sylvanus. I, 8 

Grittner. John H.. Ill, 342 

Groff, Henry R., I, 709 

Groll, George C, H, 399 

Grombacher, H., I, 711 

Groot. George A., II, 406 

Gross, Emma E., II, 284 

Grossenbacher. Otto, III, 312 

(irossman. George, I, 563 

Group Plan Commission. I. 467 

Croup Plan of public buildings, I, 465- 

72- II, 480; HI, 158, 241, 507 
Group Plan of public buildings (dia- 
gram). I, 469 
(iuarantco Title & Trust Comi)any, III, 

Guardian Savings & Trust Company, 

IT, 17 
Guenther, Felix, II, 465 , , . 

Guide Motor Lamp Manufacturing 

Comjjany, H, 305 
Guilbert, W. D.. I, 289 
Guilford, Miss L. T., I, 302 
Gun, Anna, I, IB, 42 
Gun. Elijah, I, 18, 33, 34. 74. 452 
(;undry, John M., HI, 319 

Haag, Henry C, IH, 54 

llaber, David C, HI, 213 

Ilackenberg. Harvey E., I, 713; lll,lo4 

Hacket. .lames, I, 26 

Hadden, Alexander. T. 438. 448, 514; 

HI, 125 
Ifaeflinger, Henry A., HI, 315 

Hafemeister. Fred C, HI, 250 
Hafley, George C, H, 419 
Hahn", Aaron, I, 531 
Hahn, Emil P., Ill, 80 
Hahn Manufacturing Company, HI, 80 
Hale, Cleveland C. HI. 451 
Hale, E. B., I, 400; HI. 451 
Hale, E. V., I, 414 
Hale, .John C, I, 517*; IH, 504 
Hale, Willis B., HI, 376 
Hall. Alfred, I, 184, 205 
Hall. Francis W.. II, 131 
Hall. Lvman W., I, 589 
Hall. William B., I, 26 
Halle Brothers Company, HI, 234 
Halle, Carl, HI, 299 
Halle, Samuel H.. HI. 233 
Halle school. I. 389 
Haller. Jacob, HI, 343 
Hallock, Henry, HI, 94 
Hamann. Carl A.. I, 544; HI. 52, 
Hamilton, E. T., I, 511. 533 
Hamilton. Harry L., HI. 490 
Hamilton. James. I. 26 
Hamrael. ilonte C. HI. 224 
Hammil. Susannah. I, 74 
Hampton. Harry H.. HI. 469 ^ 

Ilanderson, Henry E., I. 544, 550 
Handrick, Franklin A., II, 423 
Handrick, Gertrude M., II. 423 
Ilandv, Truman P. (portrait). I, HO; 
114, 143. 189. 317, 298, 347, 348, 
353^ 400, 689*, 692 
Hanging of John Brown, I, 241 
Hanna, D. R., I, 593 
Hanna, Gustave H., HI, 395 
Hanna. Howard M.. Jr.. HI, 506 
Hanna. Leonard C. II, 53 
Hanna Leonard C. Jr.. IH. 500 
Hanna. JIarcus A., I, 265, 697*; II, 53, 

408; HI, 195 
Hanna, Mrs, M. A., T, 290 
Hanna (M. A-) & Company, I, 69.; 

Ill, 500, 506 
Hanrattv, Edward .L, I. 448 ; 11,294 
Hansen,' Fred E., IH, 94 
Hansen, George C, H, 145 
Hansen Manufacturing Company, HI, 

Harbaugh, Aaron G., II. 381 
Harbaugh. George E., H, 382 
Harbor of Cleveland (1837) (map of 

|)lans), I, 172 
Iliirbor of refuge constructed, I, 26~ 
Hiirdic. William M., UK ^>>~ 
Harding, J. H.. I, 151 
Hare, William A., IH, 405 
Harkness, S. V., T. 714 
Harmon, Frank S., IH, 87 
Harmon school, 1, 389 
Harper. P.. I. 302 
Harper, William, H. 374 
Huriinglou. Benjamin. I, 205, 210 



Harrington Electrical Company, III, 


Harrington, William t'., Ill, 317 

Harris C'alorilic Company, 11, 302 

Harris, Charles L., Ill, 2iH 

Harris. John, I, 542; II, 302 

Harris, John K., Ill, 116 

Harris, Josiah A., 1, 179, 208, 213, 349, 

383, 584 
Harris, \V. H., I, 268 
Harrison, Ceorgc L., Ill, 279 
Harrison, Henry T., II, 349 
Harrison, •!. Frank, II, 431 
Harron, .liilia S., 1. 417 
Hart, Albert B., I, 579* 
Hart, George F., I, 713; IT, 2G0 
Hart, George V., HI. 3.-)0 
Hart, J. Wayne. Ill, 503 
Hart, Seth, I, 32, 37 
Hart, William I, 7 
Hartness, William, I. 213 
llarty, William M., II. 300 
Ilart/ell, -lonas, 1. 604 
Harvard (irove cemetery, I, 628 
Harvard school, I, 389 
Harvey, H., I, 710 
Harvey, Mervin C, II, 441 
Harvev Kice Monnment, I. 134 
Haseail. (ieorge C, III, 99 
Hasial! Paint Company, III, 116 
Has<Todt. E. I!., I, 448" 
Haserodt, I'anl M., Ill, 397 
Haserot, Francis H., Ill, 362 
Haserot, S. F., I, 288 
Hasse, Otto A.. II, 301 
Hatcher, Samuel, I, 447 
Hatfield, Frank, I, 380 
Hathaway. Asahel, I, 7 
Hauseman, ICarl F., Ill, 308 
Hausheer, I.oiiis, 111, 165 
Havens, .\Iunson, 1. 329. 671. 680, 710 
Havlicek. .John, 1. 279 
Hawken .'iciiool. II, 422 
Hawkins. Richard R.. II. 359 
Hawley, David R., Ill, 289 
Hawley, Davis, III, 156 
Hawley, Ezekiel, I, 37 
Hawley, Joseph R., I, 293 
Hay, John, I, 523* 
Haydcn. Anson. I, 182, 344 
Haydcn, Chester. I, 533 
Hayden. Warren G., I, 680 
Hayden, Warren S.. I, 414, 709 
Hayden. William, I. 604 
Havdn. Hiram C, I, 600* 
Haves, Lester, I, 357; II, 539 
Haves, Philip C. I, 659 
Haves, Rutherford B.. I, 414, 659 
Haves, Webb C. I, 288, 417, 662 
Hayne, C. C. F., I, 412 
Haynes, George R., II, 417 
Hays, Eugene K., Ill, 122 
Hays, Joseph, III, 119 

Hays, Louis H., Ill, 123 

ihnward, George L., I, 660 

Havward, .Nelson, I, 179, 210 

Hayward, W. H., I, 657 

Hazeldell school, 1, 389, (illustration) 

Hazen, William B., I, 659 
lleald, .lohn C. 11, 333 
Healy. John I, 604 
ll.'anl. Charles W., I, 555 
Ilealli. Charles E., II, 563 
llclircw cemeteries, I, 628 
llihrew llilief Association, I, 616 
Heckler Karl, 111, 347 
lleckman, Ijouis, I, 658 
Hecne, .lohn E., I, 603 
lleideloir, William L., II, 524 
Ilcil. K. C. I, 713 
Heina, Edwin, II, 536 
Heinsohn, Edwin I., Ill, 490 
Heisley, .lohn W., I, 2.''>8, 260, 511, 531, 

5,32 ■ 
Helm, Edwin JI., Ill, 98 
Helper. Moses, II, 224 
Hemler, Frank J., III. 355 
Henderson, John M,, I, 532, 536, 542; 

II, 141 
Hender.son, Seth S., I. 198 
Henn. Albert W.. Ill, 107 
Henn. Edwin C. I. 710; 111, 394 
Henry. Frederick A.. I. 517, 622 
HenrV, Peter J., I, 448 
Henry, William R., I, 193 
Hepburn, Morris, I, 180 
"Herald and Gazette," I, 584 
Herkonier, Herman, I, 563 
Herkomer, John, I, 563 
Herr. Donald D., II, 448 
Herr. Milton J.. III. 527 
Ilerrick. O. E., I. 532 
Herrick, H. J., I, 544, 638 
Herrick, John F., I, 531, 535*, 659 
Ilerrick, Jlyron T., I. 457. 528*, 677, 

680, 684," 709, 710; U, 25; III, 560 
Ilerrick. Parmley W., I, 671 
Herrick, R. R., T, 233, 278 
Uerron. .Tames H., Ill, 43 
Hertel, Henry, III, 169 
Hessenmueller, Edward, I, 500, 519 
Hessenmueller, E. L., I, 711 
Heward. Thomas A., III. 165 
Hewitt. Isaac L.. I, 355 
Heydler, William, I, 562 
Hickok, Laurens P., I, 395 
Hickox, C. V. J., I, 583 
Hickox. Carlos I., I, 596 
Hickox, Charles, I. 699, 709; II, 99 
Hickox, Charles G.. 11, 100 
Hickox, Irene P., I, 125 
Hickox. Milo H.. I. 139 
Hickox. "Uncle"' Abrani (portrait), I, 

76; 689 
Hickox, Wilson B.. Ill, 510 



Hicks school, I. 390 
Higbee Companv. Ill, 85 
Higbee, Edwin C., II, 94 
High-level bridges. I, 45G-59; first ded- 
icated), 457; new (illustration), 
High pressure water system, I, 442 
High School building "(1851), I, 353 
High School, suggested (1844), I, 347; 

opposed, I. 350; first, I, 349-51 
High School of Commerce, I, 386; East 

branch, I, 386 
Higlev. Warren, I, 366 
Hill, "diaries K., III. 534 
Hill, thristopher E.. I. 177. 178, 205, 

210. 211, 213, 216, 220, 226, 227 
Hill. Hosea E.. Ill, 277 
Hill, Harry N., Ill, 277 
Hill, James, I, 444 
Hill. Louis E., Ill, 344 
Hill. William H.. T, 205 
Killer. Frank B., Ill, 337 
Hilliard. Richard I. 100, 131", 157, 180, 

207, 212. 224 
Hills. .James S.. I, 656 
Himes, I. X.. I, 544 
Hinchliffe. .James R.. Ill, 77 
Hinckley, Isaac, I, 173 
Hinds, Calvin J., II, 269 
Hinkcl. Mathias .J.. Ill, 97 
Hinman. Wilbur F., 1, 660 
Hinsdale, Burke A.. I, 55, 302, 360; 

(portrait) 370; 579 
Hipp, .John C III, 160 
Hiram House, I, 632 
Hird. Urbane W., Ill, 79 
Hirker, Charles, I, 350 
Hirt, John M., I, 711 
"History of Cleveland"' (Kennedy), 1, 

22, 34, 57, 92, 340 
-History of Cleveland" (Orth), 1, 159. 

175, 246, 380, 382 
"History of Cievelimd Schools in the 
Xinctecnth Century" (Aki'rsI, 1. 346 
"llistorv of Cuyahoga County" (.Iiihn- 

son|,"l, 31, 41. 173 
"History of the United States and Its 

IVopfe" (Avery). I, 98, 119, 146 
'•History of the Western Reserve" (Up- 
ton)."!. 14 
Hitchcock. Mrs. P. M.. I. 290 
Hitchcock. Peter, 1. 94. 504. 506 
(litclicock. Hcuhcn, I. 400 
lloadlcy. f;eorge. I, 139, 179, 212, 348, 

497, "498* 
Hoadliy, George, Jr., I, 529 
Hoag. ileorpe B., II, 442 
Hoak. Harry O., Ill, .'jSl 
Hoard, Ilarrv H., III. 8 
Ilobbie, JanicH (J.. Ill, 290 
Mot>bH. Caleb S., IT. 86 
Hobbs. Marv E.. II. 86 
HobbH, IVrry 1.., II, 84 

Hodell, Fred C. III. 137 

Hodell. Henry H., III. 137 

Hodell. Howard H.. Ill, 137 

Hodge bill, I, 434 

Hodge. Mrs. 0. J., I. 290, 306, 310 

Hodge, Orlando J., I, 224, 259, 414, 427, 

434. 518, 519 
Hodge school. I, 390 
Hoehn. Henry. I, 275 
Hoffman Bronze & Aluminum Casting 

Company. III. 92 
Hoffman. "Earl M., II, 496 
Hoffman Ice Cream &. Dairy Company, 

The. II. 496 
Hoffman, R. L., IT, 496 
Hoffman, Robert. I. 446 
Hoffman. Robert S.. III. 92 
Hogen. Frank tJ., I. 384; III, 70 
Hogsett. Thomas H., II, 1S9 
Holbrook, Daniel I, 7, 31 
Holden. E. B.. I, 637 
Holden Liberty E.. I. 283, 289, 291, 293, 
:;39, 364, 412. 414, 436. 584, 586, 587, 
Holden, Jlrs. Liberty E., I, 483 
Hole, Warren W., I, 602 
Holland. Henry. II, 395 
Hollaway. J. F., I. 456 
Hollev. John M., I, 17, 27 

Holl.'y. Jlilton. I, 26 

Hollev's (John M.) Journal, I. 14, 15, 
26 " 

Holmes, Uriel, .Jr.. I, 7 

Holy Name church I, 614 

Hoiiians, Albert H., Ill, 253 

Home for Aged Protestant Women, I, 

Home for Aged Women. T. 649 

Home Rule charter framed. I. 333 

Home Rule government. I. 440 

lloMU'opathic College for Women. 1,546 

llomcopatliic Hospital College, T, 546 

lliinicopiitliic institutions, I, 545 

lloTiicopalhic jihysicians, T, 551 

llomeo]iaths. I. 545 

Hook. Arthur ('.. III. 100 

Hopkins. Benjamin F.. II. 343 

Hopkins. David H.. II. 198 

Hopkins, Evan H.. II, 168 

Hopkins, W. R.. I. 336 

llopkinson. A. G. (portrait), I, 356 

llopkinson. Alan .S.. II. 390 

Hii]ikiii>on. .lohn. I, 604 

Hopp. L. v.. I. 545 

llopwiiod. Erie C, I, 588; II, 440 

ll.irn. Joseph. III. 135 

Horn. ().scar J., II, 372 

Horn, William. I, 606: II. 369 

Ilorsburgh Forge Co., III. 420 

llorsburgli. Robert, HI. 420 

H.irstMiann. Ignatius F., 1, 612, 613; II, 

llorvath, Mi<hael H., Ill, 269 



Hosford. Harry W., II, 429 

HosmtT, F. ],.". 1, 006, 607 

Hosmcr. (k-or^f W.. I, 606 

Hospitals. T. 546. 6:t,') 

Hotel (.'levolaiid. H. 22 

Hotpl ytatler of Clpvcland. Tlit>. III. 

365; formal opeiiin<;. III. 366 
Houck. G. F., I, 554 
Hough, U. W., I, 664 
Hough School. I. 365. 390 
House, Allan C, HI, 51 
House. J. Arthur. I. 710; II, 277 
House of the (iood Shepherd, I, 623 
Housum, B. W., I. 671 
Houtz, Olia A.. I. 364 
Hovev. Miss Frank C I, 364 
Howard. John .T., II, 394 
••How Did Vou Die?" (Cooke), I, 576 
Howe, Charles S.. I, 380, 400, 558», 709; 

III, 280 
Howe, Eben D., I, 131, 583 
Howe, Frederick C, I, 553* 
Howland, .loseph, I, 7 
Howland, Paul I. 531, 662, 710 
Hoynesite, III, 527 
Hoynes Safety Powder Company, III, 

Hovnes, \V. J., IH. 528 
Hovt, Charles, I, 159 
Hovt, Colgate. II. 516 
Hovt, Daniel ()., I. 545 
Hovt, Elton. II, 516 
Hoyt. Ceorge. I. 586 
Hovt, .lames H., I, 293; H, 515 
Hovt, .lames M., I, 630; II, 514 . 
Hub. .John C, ,Tr.. Ill, 101 
Hubbard. Addison T.. MI, 312 
Hubbard. Nehemiah. .Jr., I, 7 
Hubbeil. Oliver S., Ill, 265 
Hubbv. Leander M., I. 212, 220 
Hubef, William E.. HI, 274 
Hubert V, (Jeorge. Ill, 139 
Hubert'v, Peter, HI, 139 
Huck School, I, 390 
Hudson, Arthur J., H, 206 
Hudson, David, I, 47 
Hudson, W. N., I, 412 
Huggins, Blanche. I. 364 
Hughes. Arthur. I, 710 
Hughes, Ernest. Ill, 227 
Hughes Provision Companv, III, 228 
Hughes, Sam T.. HI. 358 " 
Hughes. William. I. 713 
Hulett Car Dumper Machine, III, 131 
Hulett George H., HI, 130 
Hulett. Ralph M., II, 267 
Hull, .lohn B.. H. 419 
Hulligan, William H., I, 275 
Humphrev. Dudlev S.. Ill, 331 
Humphrey. Van R., I, 197 
Hungarian Bene Jeshurum, I, 616 
Hungarians in Cleveland, I, 620 
Hungerford, Florence A., I, 384 

Hunt, Chester W., Ill, 303 
Hunt. Edward P.. HI, 177 
Hunt, Marv R., HI, 178 
jhuit. Xatl'ian. I. 453 
Hunt. William H., II, 456 
lluntiufiton, (ieorge C, I, 205 
Huntington, .John, I, 258, 505; II, 8 
Huntington, Mrs. John. I, 290 
Huntington. Sanuiel. I, 47, 48, 57, 61, 

03, 68, 72, 74, 75, 496, 503, 521, 527", 

Huntington (Samuel) diary, I, 48 
llurd. .lov .S.. Ill, 247 
llurlbut. 11. B., I, 565 
Hurllmt. John E., I, 258 
Huron Road Hospital, I, 549 
Hussev, Richard, I. 568 
Huston, Arthur J., Ill, 441 
llutchings. Samuel, I, 129 
Hutcliins. John ('., I, 511, 519; II, 57 
Hutchinson. Hubbard C, II, 383 
Hutson Coal Company, III, 87 
Hvatt, Harrv C, I. 446 
Hvde, Arthur G., II, 247 
Hvde, Elisha, I, 7 
Hyde. Wilbur H.. Ill, 297 
llvdraulic Pressed .Steel Company, HI, 

Hvre, Alonzo E., I, 713 
Hyre, Sarah E., I, 376, 384 

Ice Plant Ordinance, III, 460 

Ideal Tire and Rubber Company, The, 
II, 189, 212 

Illustrations (see also Maps and Por- 
traits) : Moses Cleaveland's Com- 
mission, I, 13; The Buckeye House, 
38; Cleveland in 1800, 46; Judge 
Kingsbury's House. 71; First Court- 
house. 93; Franklin House, 1825, 
103; Old Trinity Church. 1828-29; 
106; .St. .John's Clmrch, 1828-29, 107; 
Alfred Kelley's Home. 109; Commer- 
cial Bank C^heck. Ill; Bank Note, 
111; Shinplasters, 113; Cleveland's 
First Schoolhouse, 115; First Num- 
ber of the "Cleaveland Gazette 
and Commercial Register." 117; 
Walk-in-the-Watcr. 120; A Present 
Day JIamnioth of the Lake, 121; 
First Number of the "Cleaveland 
Herald," 122; Old Weddell House, 
124; Euclid (Collamer) Presbyterian 
Church, 127; Doan's Corners Congre- 
gational Church, 127; Old Stone 
Church. 128; The Academy Building, 
131; Harvev Rice Monument. 134; 
The Second Courthouse, 1828-1858, 
137; First Number of the "Cleveland 

Advertiser." 140: Runaway Slave Ad- 
vertisement, 150; Cleveland in 1833, 
152: First Baptist Church, 153; 
Cleveland from Court House in 



1834, 156; Columbus Street Bridge, 
176; Directory of Cleveland and 
Ohio City. 185; First Catholic 
Church, 187; Western Reserve Real 
Estate Association Notes, 191; Bank 
of Cleveland Xote, 191; 'The Cleve- 
land Liberalist," 192; Ohio Canal 
Packets and Fast Stage Line, 196; 
First Number of the "Cleaveland Ga- 
zette and Commercial Register." 117; 
Ohio Railroad Company Notes, 203; 
Home of Doctor Kirtland, 207; 
Stoekley's Pier. 215; Cleveland in 
1853, 225; New England House, 238; 
Northrop and Spangler Block. 231; 
Strickland Block, 232; The Court- 
house in 1885. 235; The Perry Monu- 
ment. 243; Superior Street in 1865, 
248; Northern Ohio Fair Grounds, 
252; A City Hall that Was Not 
Built, 254; The Old Workhouse. 255; 
The 'Old Union Clubhouse. 259; On 
the Lake Front. 263 ; Bank Street, 
1868. 264; Academy of Music, 264; 
Forest City Hall, 1875, 265; City 
House, 1876, 266; Moses Cleaveland 
Statue, 370; Garfield Memorial, 272; 
Interior of Garfield Monument. 273; 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, 
284; Old Postoffice, 286; Centennial 
Log Cabin, 292; Centennial Arcli, 
295; Bicycle Parade, 297; Wheel- 
men's Day Crowd, 397; Early Set- 
tlers at the Log Cabin, 398; Camp 
Perry-Payne, 300; Pioneer Parade, 
301; Put-in-Bay Memorial, 303; 
Perry Day Parade, 304; Flag Pres- 
entation to Volunteers for Cuba, 
316; Tom Johnson Statue in the 
Public Square, 319; East Ohio Gas 
Company's Building, 327; Moses 
Cleaveland's Memorial at Canter- 
bury, 330; The Day Before the 
Launching, 335; Tlie Niagara Enter- 
ing Cleveland Harbor, 336; Prospect 
School, 345; West High School, 359; 
East Cleveland Central School. 363; 
New Central High School, 307; East 
Technical High .School, 385; West 
Technical Higli School. 3S5; Empire 
School. 387; llazcldell School, 390; 
The Main Building, Adelbert College, 
390; Adelbert College Campus. 397; 
Main Building of the Case School 
of Applied .Science, 399; The Uni- 
versity .School Building. 403; St. 
Ignatius College Building. 406; 
Western Reserve HiHtorical Society's 
Building on the T'ublic .'8<|uare. 4 111; 
Historical Society Building of To- 
day, 416; Library liuilding of 1879. 
41 H; Elevation of the Coming Pub- 
lic Library Building, 420; I'ublic 

Branch Libraries, 423; The City Hall 
of Today. 430; Fires Always Wait- 
ing for the Lumber District, 443; 
Public Square, Showing Superior and 
Euclid Avenues, 450; Residences on 
Euclid Heights. 451; The New High 
Level Bridge, 458; Superior Avenue, 
Looking East from the Square. 463; 
Euclid Avenue Business Section 
Looking West, 463 ; Rocky River 
Bridge and Its Concrete Span. 464; 
The Federal Building. 468; Doan 
Brook, Gordon Park, 480; Along the 
Canal, 480; Centaur Lake and Mu- 
seum of Art, 482; Entrance to Edge- 
water Park, 485; Municipal Bath 
House. 485: Cliffs and Bridges at 
Brookside, 486; West Side Municipal 
Market House. 492; Present County 
Courthouse. 495; St. Alexis Hospital. 
547; County Infirmary at Warrens- 
ville. 548; " Saengerfest Hall. 563; 
Cleveland Museum of Art in Wade 
Park. 564; The Cleveland School of 
Art. 564: The Arkites. 570; Trinity 
Cathedral. 599: In Lake View Cem"- 
etery. Showing the Garfield Memorial, 
627; Perkins Block, 637; Northwest 
Corner of Superior Avenue and Sen- 
eca Street, 638 ; Y. M. C. A. Building 
(1875), 639; Y. M. C. A. Building on 
Euclid Avenue and East Fourth 
Street, 640; Y. M. C. A. Building 
(1891), 641; Y. M. C. A. Building 
(19J8), 645; Naval Recruits in Y. M. 
C. A. Building, 646: Y. W. C. A. 
Building (1918). 650; Dining Room 
of the Y. W. C. A.. 651; Slimmer 
Camji of the Y. W. C. A., f.52: Fifth 
Ohio Infantry in the .Stadium at El 
Paso. Texas. 663; Central Armory, 
664; Lakeside Hospital (War Unit 
No. 4), 673; Iron Ore Docks of the 
Present, 695; The Union Club House, 
703; Cuyahoga River Scene. 705; 
(Cleveland Home of the Oil King. 715; 
The Koikcfcller and Andrews Build- 
ing, 717; .Standard Oil Works in 
Cleveland. I. 721. 
Iiulcpendent Monteliore Shelter Home, 

1. 616 
Independent Protestant Evangelical 

Church. I. 005 
Indian land claims. I. 15, 69, 171 
"Indian Trails" (Whittlesey). I, 171 
Indian Treaty. I. 69 
Industrial Welfare tympany, III. 182 
Inihistries (see also Manufactures): In 
1837. 1. 193; of Cuyahoga county in 
1840. 209: of 1840 and 1860. 693." 
Ingersoll. Alvan V.. I. 530; II. 337 
Ingersoll. .lonathan E.. II, 336 
Ingham. Mary B.. I, 383, 389, 296, 306 



Tiisiahnm, Timothy, I, 208 
Iiiitintivc ami ri'lcrcnduiii. III, 271 
Insolvi'iicy ami juvenile court, I, 520 
liiter-dcnoniiiiational exchange of pas- 
tors. I, 633 
Interstate Foundry Co., III. 290 
Interurban .service (see Street Cars) 
Investment Securities Company. II, 385 
Investors Mortgage Conipanv, The, 11, 

Ireland, Joseph, I, 413 
Ireland. Mrs. Robert L.. I, 625; HI, 384 
Irelanil. Robert L.. Ill, 384 
Irish Catholics, I, 614 
Iron, in, 40; first shipment. III. 41 
Iron and steel industries (1890), I, 377 
Iron city of the country. III. 40 
Iron ind'ustries (1865). "l, 348 
Iron manufacturing center. Ill, 2 
Iron Ore Docks of the Present (illus- 
tration), I, 695 
Iron ore, first received, I, 226; trade 
(1865), 247; traffic, 376; commerce, 
338; movements (1876, 1896, 1917), 
Iron ship, first, I, 250 
Iron steamer. III, 38 
"Iron Trade Review," I, 693 
Irving .Street Society, I, 601 
Irwin. Robert B.. I. 384, 394 
Irwin. William W., I, 503 
Italian Hall, I, 265 
Italians in Cleveland, I, 630 

Jackson, B. W., I, 378, 380 

Jackson Iron Company, II. 415 

Jackson. James F.. I." 633; III. 328 

Jacobi, Stella Ml. Haves. II, 540 

JafTa, Eva L., Ill, 353 

Jaglinski, Joseph P., HI, 45 

James, David R.. HI, 412 

James. Henrv .M.. 1. 362. 363 

Jamieson, Frank T.. Ill, 291 

Janes, Edwin H., HI, 399 

Janes, Julius F., II. 131 

Jared, I^uis W., IH, 453 

Jasienski, John F., II, 411 

Jeavons, Albert N., 11, 435 

Jeavons, William R., Ill, 489 

Jefferson avenue bridge, I, 455 

Jefferson Park, 490 

Jenkins, J. Verne. Ill, 14 

Jenkins. W. 0.. I. 544 

Jennings Avenue Evangelical church, I, 

.Tennings, David .T., HI. 17 

Jennings, John G., I, 710, 711; III, 33 

Jennings Sanitary Milk Bottle Com- 
pany, The. IH, 'l7 

Jerka." Joseph P.. HI. 155 

Jerome. Frank J.. Ill, 38 

Jewett, Cyrus A., III. 93 

Jewett, John H., Ill, 272 

.lewish congregations. I, 615 

.Icwish Orphan Asvluni. 1, 616, 633 

■Mcwish World," 11, 386 

.lohns, S. CD., Ill, 361 

.Johnson, Crisfield, I, 31 

.lohnson, Frank D., IH, 51 

Johnson, George C, HI, 301 

Johnson, H. H., I, 709 

.lohnson, Henrv J., II, 482 

.lolmson, John'F.. IH, 440 

.Iohns(m. Levi. I. 78», (portrait) 79; 94, 

98. 120, 504; II, 146 
.lohnson, Levi A., H, 149 
.lohnson, L. D.. I. 208 
Johnson. M. B.. I, 677 
J(.hnson, Mayor, era. I, 317-31 
.Johnson, Philander L.. II, 149 
.lohnson. Robert C, I, 7 
.lohnson, Russell V.. 1, 447 
.lohnson, Samuel W., I, 8 
.Johnson, Tom L., I, 333, 317, 318, 339, 

380. 440. 442. 489; II, 479; III, 461 
•lohnston. .lames. I, 7 
J(,nes. Asa W., I. 289 
.lones Avenue Congregational church, I, 

Jones, Dave R., HI. 333 
Jones, G. J.. I. 546 
Jones, George W.. Ill, 383 
.Jones, Howard G., Ill, 98 
Jones, J. D., I, 544 
Jones, J. Horace HI. 310 
Jones, J. Powell, I. 384 
Jones, James M.. I, 260, 510, 511, 532 
Jones, John, I. 333 
.Jones, Louis H.. I, 303. 376, 378 
Jones. Norton T., HI, 377 
.Jones, Paul D., H, 357 
.Jones. R. G.. I. 384 
.Jones, Ralph J.. HI, 344 
Jones, Robert F., I, 378 
Jones, .Samuel, I. 70, 94 
.Jones. Thomas. .Jr.. I. 258 
Joseph. Emil, I, 425 
Joseph, Isaac, II, 322 
Joseph, Moritz. II. 321 
.Joyce. Adrian D.. II. 494 
Judd. Bernard A., IIL 317 
Judd. J. Frank, .Jr., HI, 197 
.Judd, William, I, 7 
.Judges (see Bench and Bar) 
Juncker. H. D., I, 608 
.Junction Railroad, I, 313 
Junior high schools, I, 383 
Justh, Louis G., II, 438 
.lustices of the Peace, I, 494 
Juvenile court, I, 520, 536 

Kaiser, Peter H., I. 532, 536' 
Kalina, Procop V., HI, 335 
Kalish, Abram A.. Ill, 129 
Kalsch, .John, Jr., Ill, 446 
Karaerer, Edwin A., II, 526 



Kane. \V. A., I, 410 

■Kant Krack" products, III, 43 

Kassiilker, Paul G., II. 161 

Kaufman, Albert H.. III. 321 

Kavanagh. Francis B.. Ill, 480 

Kayler. George W., II, 563 

Kaynee Company, The, III, 134 

Kean, .Jeflerson R.. I, 673 

Kearns, ilichael F.. III. 419 

Keating. Michael C. III. 413 

Kedslie, F. T., I, 713 

Keeler, Harriet L., I, 344, 363, 379, 581" 

Keenan, Joseph B., 11, 377 

Keep. John, I, 139 

.Keese. Philip H., Ill, 378 

Keffer, John, III, 296 

Keiser, Forrest E., Ill, 283 

Keith, Myron R., I, 520 

Keller, Henrv G., I, 565 

Kellev. Alfred I. 81, 85*, (portrait) 86; 

91.' 92, 94, 98, 100, 108, 109, 110, 157, 

168, 212, 314, 317, 501, 502. 503, 504, 

692: II. 11 
Kellev art galleries. I. 565 
KelleV, Daniel. I, 100; II. 10 
Kellev. Uatus. I. 89*. 149 
"Kelley Family History." I. 108 
Kelley". Hermo'n A., I. 90; II, 9 
Kelley, Horace, II. 8 
Kellev, Irad. I, 568 
Kelley, Madison, I, 141, 346, 348. 585 
Kellev, Moses, I, 157, 163, 166*, (por- 

tra'it) 167; 208 
Kelley-Perkins Play Ground, I, 491 
Kellev, Samuel W.! I, 550* ; III, 389 
KelleV. Thomas, I, 157, 565 
Kelley, Thomas M., I, 568 
Kellev's (Alfred) Home (illustration). 

I. 109 
Kelley's Island. I. 89; TI. 9 
Kellev's large stone house, I, 108 
Kellman. John. Ill, 337 
Kellogg, David, I, 74 
Kellv. Daniel, I, 55 
Kelly. Frank A, II, 340 
Kellv, Frank H., I, 519 
Kelly. John T.. II. 213 
Kelly Springfield Tiro Company, III, 60 
Kcls'cv. Lorenzo A.. I, 179, 213 
Kendill Mrs. F. A.. I, 372, 290, 310 
Kendrick. 0. C, I, 364 
Keniian. ('. I.,., 311 
Kennard House, I. 341 ; II, 154 
Kennard's school, I, 390 
Kennedy, diaries K.. I. 425, 587, 592 
Kennedy, James, I, 592 
Kennedy, James H., I, 580* 
Kennedy, Thomas M., I. 511, 512; III. 

Kenney. William A.. I. 446 
Kentucky reservoir abandoned, I. 435 
Kentucky school, I, 390; III. 129 
Kentucky Street school. I. 356 
Kerns, Theodore I.. II. ."i.'ll 

Kerr. Clarence V., III. 137 

Kerr. Levi. I. 400 

Kerruish, Sheldon Q., II, 161 

Kerruish, William S., I, 428; H, 160 

Keyes. M. J., I, 336 

Kiefer, Henry, I, 711 

Kilbourne, George, I. 74 

Kilbv. Daniel J., Ill, 389 

Kilby, .Joseph F., Ill, 388 

Kilbv JIanufacturing Conipanv. 111,388 

Kimball. Anna W.. 111. 365 " 

Kimball. Jlrs. S. H., I, 563 

Kimberly. Robert L., I, 659 

Kimniel," Daniel D.. III. 115 

King, Albert E., Ill, 176 

King. David, I, 7 

King, Ebenezer, Jr., I, 7 

King Iron Bridge Company, I, 459 

King. John A., II, 556 

King, Ralph. I, 415. 417 

Kingsbury. James. I. 33. 43, 51. 60, 63, 

(portra'it) 64: 67, 74, 75, 98, 495 
Kingsbury Run Park, I, 489, 491 
Kingsbury Run viaduct, I, 460 
Kingsbury's House (illustration), I, 71 
Kingsland, ,T. S.. I, 412 
Kingsley, Charles W., Ill, 237 
Kingsley, George T., I, 188 
Kingsley, Henry C, I, 555 
Kingsley. Herbert B.. III. 64 
Kingsley. Hiram F.. III. 64 
Kinney." Frank A., Ill, 430 
Kinney, (ieorge W., I, 288, 709. 710 
Kinsman school, I. 390 
Kinsman street. I. 450 
Kinsnutn Street Railway Company, I, 

Kirby, Ephraim. I. 7. 8 
Kirk", (ieorge. I. 180, 184. 305 
Kirkpatrick. John H.. 11. 501 
Kirtland. Jared P. (portrait), I, 306*; 

504. 543. 555 
Kirtland (.Tared P.) Home (illustra- 
tion). I. 207 
Kirtland Society of Natural Science, I, 

Kirtland. Turhand. I, 44. 51. 75 
Kirtland (Turliaiul) letters, I, 44 
Kiser. Samuel K.. I. 593 
Kissani. Wilmot H., Ill, 385 
Kitchen, Mrs. H. W., I. 311 
Kittredge. Lewis IT., HI, 30 
Klaus. Fred R.. ITT. 404 
Klaw & Krlanger, HI, 545 
Kleinman, S. TI.. Ill, 268 
Klemm. Louis R.. I. 362 
Kline, Mrs. Virgil I'., I, 310 
Kline. Virgil P.. I, 260, 532, 533, 536*; 

II. 13 
Kling. John A., 1, 671 
Kling. Louis A., TIT. 44.'> 
KloBsen. Harry J.. ITT, 19S 
Klumph, Arcli, T, 684, 685, 710; 11, 




Kimpp, TIarry B., II, 530 

Knight, Thomas A., Ill, 81 

Knights of Columbus, I, 625 

Knirk. Curl F., HI. 295 

Knowlton, \V. A., I, 544 

Koch & BacrwaUlc Mauufiicturiiig 

Company. HI. 318 
Koch, Frocl C. Ill, 218 
Koch, George H., I, 710 
Koch, George D., II, 54fi 
Koch, George D. & Son Company, 11. 

Koebler. William. HI. 180 
Koelliker. Goijrge 1'.. II, 35" 
Kohn, Joseph, III, 460 
Kohn, iSolomon. HI, 459 
Kolbe, George .\.. I. 500 
Komlos, Emerv H., HI. 529 
Kortan, K.hvanl .1.. Ill, .440 
Kramer, Samuel K.. I, 448 
Kraus, Alexander S., II. 351 
Kraus. J. R.. I, 710 
Krause, Frank S., Ill, 524 
Krause, Lester L.. III. 170 
Krauss, Herman D.. Ill, 348 
Kreps, John E., Ill, 324 
Kroehle, Albert K.. III. 487 
Kroehle. Paul E., IH. 135, 
KroU, Herman K.. HI, 424 
Krug, Joseph, I, 375 
Knise, Alfred C, III, 336 
Kuhlman, G. C. Car Company, III, 445 
Kujaw ski. Leon A.. II, 245 
Kundt/., Theodor. III. 406 
Kundtz, Theodor. Company, III, 407 
Kysela, Frank, HI, 181 
Kyscla, Joseph A.. HI. 181 
K. & M. Brass and Aluminum Castings 

Company, III, 441 

Lafayette, coach, II. 356 

Laganke. Charles F., Ill, 74 

Lake Erie Builders Supply Company, 

in, 155 
Lake Erie Telegraph Company, I, 213 
Lake Front (illustration), I. 263 
Lake Front litisation. II. 83 
Lake Front Park. I, 491 
Lake Shore Banking & Trust Company, 

III, 320 
Lake Shore Moving and Storage Com- 
pany. Ill, 343 
Lakeside Base Hospital Unit. I, 672 
Lakeside Hospital, I, 471, 548 
Lakeside Hospital Unit, III, 536 
Lakeside Hospital (War Unit No. 4) 

(illustration), I, 073 
I^ke (Watterson Relief) school, I, 390 
Lake Superior ore, first cargo of, IH, 2 
Lake View Cemetery (showing Garfield 
Memorial) (illustration), I. 627, 628 
Lake View Park. I. 255. 479, 491 
Lakewood Engineering Company, III, 
375, 555 

Lakewood Hospital, I, 549 

Lamb. Daniel H.. I, 179, 211, 212 .\oreaux, Fred M., HI, 430 

Lamson, Alfred W., I, 511 

Lamson. Isaac P.. I. 710 

Land. Alfred D.. Ill, 423 

Land speculation in 183:!-35. I, 157 

Lander. Frank K., I, 458 

l.andon. Charles N.. H, 498 

LandoM, Joseph, I. 20, 28, 32, 39 

Lanilon school, I, 390 

l.,ane. Edwin G., I, 662 

Lang. Charles F.. Ill, 375 

Lang. Lawrence H., HI, 303 

Langston, Charles. I. 238 

Lanza. Louis R., 11. 356 

Lapp. Charles W., I. 713 

Laronge. Joseph, IH, 351 

Laronge, Joseph, Real Estate Company, 
HI. 351 

Latinu'r. Howard. III. 475 

Latimer. Jay E.. III. 553 

Laub. Jacob, HI. 369 

Lanb. .lacob. Baking Company, III, 369 

Law Department, I. 445 

Law Library Association, I, 532 

Lawn school, I, 390 

Lawrence, A. G., I, 519 

Lawrence, F. D., I. 713 

Lawrence, James, II, 82 

Lawrence, James H., Ill, 65 

Lawrence. Keith, 11. 83 

Lawyers (see Bench and Bar) 

Lazarus. Myron E.. Ill, 63 

Leader Brass Foundry & Manufactur- 
ing Company, III, 267 

Leader Printing Company (The). I, 591 

Leading shipbuilding port, I, 249 

LeBel, John D.. Ill, 522 

LeBlond, C. H., II, 519 

Lee, Mrs. H. J., I, 282, 311 

Leech. William P.. I. 592 

Lefkowitz. Isador. IH, 427 

Leggett. Mortimer D.. I, 535* 

Lehr, Adam. I. 563 

Leibel. Jonas. HI. 437 

I.einard. H. 0.. II, 483 

Leland, C. P.. I, 258 

Lemen. Tom. I, -205 

Lemperly. Charles M., Ill, 363 

Leonard. Bishop. I. 402 

Leonard, William A., I, 290, 554, 596, 

Leopold, A. F., I, 710 

Lester, S. F., I. 709 

Leutner. Winfred G.. Ill, 556 

Leuty. Demaline, I. 710 

Levi." Max. IH, 209 

Levine. Manuel, I, 512 

Levison. Emanuel, III, 416 

Lewis, Alfred H.. II, 133 

Lewis. Claude C, III, 287 

Lewis, E. H., I, 217 



Lewis Family, 11, 132 

Lewis, George W., L 709 

Lewis, Irving J., II, 134 

Lewis Jewelry Company. Ill, 2S8 

Lewis. Milford, III. 425 

Lewis, Robert E., I, 642, 643, 677 

Lewis, Sanford ,J., I. 213, 220, 226, 227 

Lewis, Tracy H., 11, 135 

Lewis, William E., II, 132, 135 

Liberty loans. I, 679 

Liberty Trucks, II, 205 

Libraries. I. 572 

Library Building of 1879 (illustration), 

I, 4i8 
Library Park, I, 489, 491 
Library school. Western Reserve Uni- 
versity. I, 398 
Liebich, Arthur K. A., I, 663 
Lieghlev. Per Lee A., I, 532; III, 47 
Liggett", Clarence V., II, 842 
Light Horse Troops, I, 656 
Light house built, I, 138 
Lighthouse street bridge, I, 454 
Lincoln Fire Pioof Storage Company, 

III, 475 
Lincoln high school building, I, 377 
Lincoln junior high school, I, 387 
Lincoln school, I, 386, 391 
Lincoln Square, I, 478, 491 
Lincoln visits Cleveland, I, 345 
Lind, James L.. I, 446 
Linden. Hugo, I, 545 
Lindcrman, J. C. W., I, 605 
Lindsay, Hamilton L., III. 481 
Lingenfelter. Horace D., HI, 113 
l.ippincott. Gideon W„ HI, 497 
Lister, Walter S., II, 301 
Litluumians in Cleveland, I, 631 
Little, Bascom, I. 669, 709 
Little. Mrs. George W., I. 382 
Little Sisters of the Poor (Homo for 

the Aged), I, 610 
Live stock trade (1865), I, 248 
Loan sharks. II, 159 
Local militia. I. 66 
Locher, Milton L.. II, 200 
Locke. David R., I. 586 
Locomotive Engineers' Mutual Life and 

Accident Ins\irance Association. II, 

Locomotive, first maiiut'aclurcil in the 

West. I, 691 
Locomotive works, first western, I, 159 
Loeb, Louis, I, 563 
Loftus. Donald A., HI, 408 
Logan, Andrew, I, 116 
Logue, Joseph T., I, 511 
Long. Clement, I, 395 
Long, David, J, 83* ; portrait 84; 90, 

urn, 109, 136. 151, 251, 539, 542; II, 

U)iiK, Mrs. Dr., T, 656 
Long. Theodore T.. HI. 103 

Longwood High School of Commerce, I, 

Longwood school, I, 391 
Loomis, Elias, I, 395 
Loomis, Henry T., II, 476 
Loomis, Leroy H., II, 477 
Loomis, Luther, I, 7 
Loomis, Walter H.. HI. 398 
Lorain & Cleveland Railway, I, 465 
Loran-Huron bridge proposed, I, 461 
Lord. Richard. I, 159, 173, 177, 178, 

179. 210, 311 
Lord. Samuel P., I. 8, 75, 171, 173 
Lorenz, Carl, I, 435 
Lougee. William S., II, 30 
Love, William. I. 7 
Lower, William E., Ill, 509 
Lowry, Hugh F., Ill, 513 
Loyola high school, I, 409 
Luce. Frank W., I. 602; HI, 300 
Ludlow, Arthur C, I, 378 
Luetkemeyer Company, The, III, 505 
Luetkemeyer, Edmund H., HI, 505 
Lxietkemever, Gustave W., HI, 333 
Luhr. John H., I, 614 
Lukens, Mrs. O. A., I, 364 
Luna Park, I, 476 
Lutherans, I. • 605 
Lyceum Theatre, II, 560 
Lyke, Fred J., HI. 370 
Lyman. William, I, 7 
Lynch, Charles P., HI. 496 
Lynch. Clara E., I, 394 
Lynch, Frank. I, 660 
Lynch. John S.. II. 387 
Lynch, \'ictor C, II, 387 
Lyon, Richard T., I, 348, 708, 709, 710 
Lyons. .loseph H., HI, 345 
Lyster, William N., I, 597 
Lyttle, George II., HI, 270 

Al. & M. Cninpany. 111. 301 

:\lacCabe. Julius 'P. B., 1, 300 

Madi. Henry L.. II, 455 

:Macourek, Frank S., H, 514 

Mahcr, Thomas K.. Ill, 138 

Slail coaches. H. 414 

-Mails lu 1S37, r, 198 

Main Building, Adelbert College (illus- 
tration). 1, 396 

^lain street .bridge, I. 455 

Malleable iron foundry, first in Cleve- 
land. 111. 7 

.Mallorv. Itonnie L., TIL 339 

Malloy. M. C. 1. 379, 280 

Malm' Rudolf A., HI, 410 

Malone. Mrs. M. J., I, 310 

Mammoth of the Lake (illustration), 1, 

Alanak, Frank C, III, 349 

Alanehester, C, E., T. 305 

:\Ianchester. Daniel W., f, 383, 414 

:\lanheim, Samuel W., Ill, 307 



Mmislield, J. C, I, 446 

.MiiiitiT. X. H., I, 542 

Miuiual training school opened (188G), 
I. 372 

Mamifiu'tnres, 1904-14. ]. 70;i 

.Mamitiuturiii^ I'oiporation, lirst in 
I'levelanil, I, 159 

:Many, Frank B., III. I(i4 

iiaps: iSoutlu'in New Kiij;lan(l, 1, 2; 
The Location of New Conneotieut, 4; 
SpaH'ord's Clevehind (17U0). 24;iSeth 
Pease Clevehind (1796), 24; Connec- 
ticut Western Keserve (1796), 27; 
Windham I Conn.) County hy Town- 
ships, 29; Oliio Counties in ISOO, 49; 
Trumbull. County of, 1800, 51 ; 
Spafford's Cleveland (1801), 59; 
Cleaveland in 1814, 97; Cleveland 
and Environs in ISaS. IflO; The Sec- 
ond Plans for Cleveland Harbor 
(1837), 172; Cleveland in 1853, 223; 
Annexations to the Original Village, 
1S29-1917, 25fi; Diagram of Grou]) 
Plan of Public Buildings, 469; The 
Cleveland Park Svstem, 475 

Marble. Henry D.. III. 87 

Marine tonnage (1892), I, 283 

Marion Play Grouiul, I, 491 

Marion school, 1, 391 

-Markets, I, 430. 491 

Marquette Iron Company, 1, 696 

Marshall, George F., I, 287 

Marshall. George JI., I, 586 

ilarshall, George T., I, 217 

.Marshall. Isaac H.. JI, 87 

ilarshall. J. D.. I, 446 

Martin, Daniel. I, 709 

ilartin. Earl E., I, 593; III, 531 

Martin, Franklin, I. 686. 687 

Martin, George F., Ill, 498 

Martin. .John T.. I. 447; HI, 111 

Martin Luther National Slovak 
church. I. 619 

Martin. Thomas, I, 607 

Marty, Albert H.. III. 281 

Marvin, Charles A., II, 140 

Marvin. Francis R., II, 140 

Marvin, Ulysses L., II, 139 

Maska. A. E.. I. 446 

Maskell, R. T., III. 189 

Mason. James. I. 260. 533 

Mason. Owen M., III. 510 

Massillon coal district. I, 699 

Masten, Blanche C. II, 379 

Masten. Frank S., II, 378 

.Masters. Irvine U.. I. 233 

Maternitv Hospital, I. 549 

Mather, Flora S., I, 624 

Mather, Mrs. Samuel. 1. 313, 314 

Mather, Samuel, I. 402, 436, 677, 710; 
UI, 1 

Mather, Samuel H., I, 353, 354, 357, 635 

Mather, Samuel, Jr., I, 7, 8 

Mather, .^^amnel L., I, 598, 691 
Mather. Samuel L., HI, 543 
Jlatlicr. Samuel W., Ill, 275 
.Mather. Thos., I, 12 
Mather, Wm. (J., I, 417, 472 
Matthew Smith Tea, Coll'ec & Grocery 

Company, HI. 428 
Mathews. James A., II, 229 
Matzen, Herman N., I, 566 
Mauldin, James L., Ill, 66 
Maxa. Lewis, HI, 431 
May. I). Todd. HI, 135 
Mayflower School, I, 354, 391 
Maynard. AUeyne, I, 357, 571 
Mayor's Advisory War Committee, I, 

Mayor Johnson era, I, 317-31 
Mayor's War Advisory Board, I, 676 
ilciiane. Alexander, I, 384 
:\IcBride. Herbert, III, 519 
McBride, John H., I, 402; III, 518 
McBride, Leander, IH, 546 
McBride, Malcolm L., I, 402, 671 
McCashen, James F., HI, 326 
McCausland. Benjamin W., HI, 172 
McClure, Joseph C, III, 334 
McClure, Samuel G., I. 289 
McClure. Walter, II. 106 
McConnell, George T., I, 662 
McConnell. William. I, 506 
McCormack, Frank W., HI, 214 
McCormick, C. W., 1, 380 
McCornack, Walter R., I, 384 
McCowatt. Walter R., I, 599 
McCrea, James B., Ill, 188 
McDole. Nathan K., I. 220. 226, 227 
McDonald. Roy A., HI, 62 
McElroy. James, I, 597 
McFadden. James A., II, 500 
:McFadden. Wayne S., Ill, 133 
.Mc(iattin. Alexander, I, 623 
McGannon. William H., I, 447, 519; III, 

McGee, John B., I, 552 
McGeorge. Ernest. II, 520 
McGcorge. John. II, 520 
McGlu'ei Edward W.. II, 142 
McGorray, J. V., I, 711 
McGowai'i. F. S., I, 648 
McGrath. John. H, 484 
McHenry, James, I, 380 
Mcllratli, Benson, HI, 537 
Mcllvaine, Cliarles P., I, 597 
Mcintosh, Alexander, II, 16 
Mclntosli. Donald. I, 541, 542 
Mcintosh. George T., I, 709; II, 17 
Mclntosli. Henry P., H, 17 
Mcintosh. Henry P., Jr., II, 18 
Mclntvre. Seward B., HI, 409 
Mclsaac, Frederick H.. Ill, 220 
McKay. Edward C, 11, 348 
McKay. George A., II, 346 
McKav. George R., II, 384 



JIcKay, Robert H., 11, 178 
McKearnev, William A., 1, 60, ; HI. 206 
McKee. Henry H., II, o33 
McKenney, Patrick J.. I, 2.8, 280 
MeKinlev, William, I, 293, 294, 466, 

659: II, 25 
McKinneV. Henry, I, 511 
McKinney. Price, I, 417 
McKisson, Robert E., 1, 233, 263, 288, 

•>89 291, 292, 303, 316, 435 
McLaren, William EI, 586, 598 
McLaiichlan, Mrs. William, I, 313, 314 
McLaughlin, Peter, I, 608 
AIcLean, David, I, 711 
McLean, John C, IH, 300 
McLean. John, I, 505 
McLean. William, I. 129, 131 
McMahon, Walter, I, 447 
McManus, Thomas J., I. 428 
McMaster, Harry W., HI, 266 
McMath, J. H., I, 511 
McMichael, Stanley L., II,. 79 
McMorris, William H., II, 334 
McNairy, Amos B., I, 709 
McNamara, Andrew J., Hi. -^o^ 
McNamara, William J., Ill, 67 
McNaughton, William E., II, 239 
McNultv Bros. Co., Ill, 237 
McQuigg, John R., I, 662. 669'; III, 515 
Meacham, Roland T.. II, 48 
Meade, Franklin B.. I, 467; III, 507 
Meat curing by electricity, 111-67 
Mechanical Rubber Company, The, HI, 

Meckes. John, I, 710 
Medill, Joseph. 1, 589 
Meier, Louis. I, 713 
Melaragno. Olindo G., HI, 318 
Mellen, Lucius F., I, 128, 302, 624, 635 
Melodeon Hall. I, 265 
"Memorial Record of Cuyahoga Coun- 
ty." I. 10 
Memorial school. T, 391 
'Memphis schoiil, 1, 391 
Mendclson, Albert, 111, 134 
Memielssohn Singing Society, 1, 501 
Menning, Joseph, I, 448; III, 36b 
Menompsy, I, 65 

Mercantile National Bank, I, 689 
Merchant, Ahaz. I, 118. 194, 450, 452 
Merchant's Bank, I, C93 
Merchants' Bank of Cleveland, I, 692 
Merchant, Silas, I, 118, 353 _ 
Merrell. George B., Ill, 346 
Merriam, C. J., I, 657 
Merriam, Joseph B.. I, 635. 639 
Merrick. Frank J., HI. 171 
Mersum, Mrs. George B., I, 220 
Merville, Ernest E., II, 477 
Merwin, David, I, 104 
Merwin, George B., 1, 116. 181, 184 
Merwin, Mrs. Noble H., I. 55 
Merwin, Noble H., I, 103, 104 

Metal Shop Manufacturing Company, 

HI. 353 
Metcalf, C. S., I. 447 
Methodist Centenary, I, 603 
Methodist church, first, I, 118 
Methodist organizations, I, 601 
Metropolitan police system organized, 

I. 250 
Mexican war, I, 656 
Meyer, Edward S., I. 278 
MeVer school, I, 391 
Meyer, William, I, 247 
Meyer, William L., I, 713 
Michael, A. J.. I, 484 
Michell, Frank A., HI. 555 
Michell. Samuel B., II, 496 _ 
Michelson, Albert A., I, 557" • 
Milan State Road, I, 77 
Miles and valuation of water works, 1, 

Miles, Erastus, I, 109 
Miles Park, I, 491 
Miles Park Methodist Episcopal church, 

I, 602 
]Miles Park, Newburg, I. 478 
Miles Park Presbyterian church, 1, 600 
Miles Park school, I, 391 
Miles school, I, 391 
Miles, Theodore, I, 568 
Milford school, 1, 391 
Milford, William, I, 194. 208, 707, 708 
Military organizations effected (1877), 

I. 268 
Milk bottle, sanitary, III. 17 
Mill school. I, 391 
Millar, J. Hamilton, II, 524 
Miller. Albin J., II, 543 
Miller, Asher, I, 7 
Miller, Bernard, I, 713 
Miller. Burt A.. II, 200 
Miller, t'harles H., I, 711 
Miller. Charles R., I, 337; HI, 18 
:Miller, Cloyd W., Ill, 136 
Miller, George II., HI, 173 
Miller. Hervey E., II, 297 
Miller, Josejih K., I, 184 
Miller. Otto, 1. 680 
Miller, Pliny, II, 537 
Miller. Sampson II.. H, 319 
Miller, T. Clarke. I, 544 
MillerWells Lumber Company. The, 

III, 130 
Milligan, John R,, HI. 23 
Mills. Bert F.. HI, 519 
Alills. Charles A., I, 601 
Jlills, David W., HI, 1K4 
iAIills. Joshua A.. I. 179, ISO, 181, 181, 

2(>.-). 207, 210, 543, 543 
Alinderliout, Christ, II, 530 
Miner. Daniel. I, 502 
Miner. George G., I. 660 
Miskell. James T., I, 713 
Mitchell, William R.. III. 465 



Mizor. Conrad, I, 562 

Mizpah ooiigregatioii. I. 018 

Mock. Ralph D.. III. 372 

Madt'in J^lcthods Si'liool L'oiinianv, II. 

Modoc Park (Franklin Circle). I. 477 

Mohrnian. Edwin JI.. III. 338 

Holder, Henry M.. II. 493 

Moldovan. Dion. Ill, 439 

Monks. Thomas E., II. 39 

Monks. Zerah C, II, 38 

Monroe, James, III, LW 

Monroe, William M.. III. 153 

Monson. Hugh J.. It. 203 

Monumental Park. I. 491 

Mocmey. M. P.. 1. 680 

Moore, Edward W.. III. 159 

Moore. Edward Y., Ill, 214 

Moran. Francis T., I, 336, 711 

Moran, George F., I. 592 

Moran. Joseph W., III. 361 

Morgan. Charles. I, 276 

Morgan, (^ifford J.. III. 3S0 

.Morgan. Elias. I. 7 

Morgan. Cilbcrt E.. II, 299 

Morgan. Isham A.. I. 88. 92 

Morgan. Robert D.. II. 175 

Morgan. Robert M.. I. 513 

Morgan. Victor. I. 593: II. 224 

Morgan, Y. L., I. 87, 604 

Morgan, Y'elverton P.. I, 598 

Morganthaler. H. ^V., I, 662 

Morison, David, I. 278; III, 201 

Moritz, Albert. T, 446 

Morley, Charles 11.. HI. 272 

Morlev. Jlrs. Edward \V.. 1. 563 

Morley. William E.. I. 557 

"Morning Leader." Cleveland, III, 45 

Morrill, Cordon N., Ill, 536 

Morris, Clara. I. 566* 

Morris Coal Company. TI, 274 

Mofrow. James B., T. 592 

Morrow. Thomas D., Ill, 211 

Morse. Aaron P., I. 331 

Morse. Frank H., I. 709; 111. 511 

Morton. W. A.. I. 224 

Mosel, Joseph H.. III. 269 

Moses, Augustus L.. II, 186 

Moses, Charles W., II, 186 

Moses Cleaveland .Statue (illustration), 
I. 370: 427. 466 

Moses Cleaveland's Memorial at Can- 
terbury (illustration). 1.330 

Moses. Louis A.. II. 187 

Moses. Nelson. II. 185 

Mosher. C. F.. I, 593 

Motor-drawn fire apparatus. I. 444 

Moulton. Edwin F.. I. 375. 378 

Moulton school. I. 391 

Mound school, I, 391 

Blount Sinai Hospital. I. 616 

Mowe. .John V., III. 75 

Mower, Samuel. I, 603 

.Moylan. David. I. 447 

Mt." Pleasant school, I. 391 

Mmkley.' Henry C, I. 375 

.Mueller. Ernst W., II, 546 

Miieller. William C. II. 429 

.Muhlhauser, Frank. Ill, 421 

■Muhlhauser, Frederick. III. 420 

.Miilholland. Harry H., II. 490 

.MuUigraph, III, 106 

Municijial hath house, Edgewater Park 

I. 485; (illustration) 486 
Municipal Code of 1870, I, 432 
Municipal c(nirt. I, 517 

Muiiirlpal government by boards. I. 433 
.M\inici|ml halls. I. 333. 470 
.Municipal markets. 111. 460 
Municipal ollicials of 1839-40, I, 207 
Municipal Traction Company, I, 320, 

Municipal war work. 1. 680 
Municipal water works, first. I. 234 
Munson. Titus V.. I. 26 
Murdock. Marion. I. 306. 607 
Murphv. Edmund A.. I. 713; III, 381 
Murphy. John G.. Ill, 402 
JIurray. Ebenezer. I. 77 
Murray. Harvey, I. 92 
Murray Hill school. 1. 391 
Murray. John E.. III. 231 
Murray. William P.. Ill, 35 
Museum of Art, IT, 8 
Music. I. 561 
Musical composers, I. 503 
.Musicians, I, 561 
Mussun. William (i.. III. 532 
Mustcrole Company, III. 173 
Muth. W. F., Ill, 193 
Myers. Walter C. III. 438 
Myers. Walter E.. II. 143 
Mygatt. George, I, 412 

"Xasby" (see David R. Locke) 

Xash. Atigustus. I. 643 

Xash. William F., 111. 401 

National Acme Comi)anj% III. 107, 4(>5 

National .Armv. first death in. II. 227 

Nat onal Bank Act of 1863. 11. 12 

National Rronze & Aluminum Foundry 

Company. Ill, 193 
National Carbon Company. Ill, 154 
N^ational City Bank, II, 137 
National Commercial Bank, The, II, 

National Conservation Commission, lit, 

National ^ilalleable Castings Company, 

II, 59. 292 

National Railroad Men's Christian As- 
sociation, I, 638 

National Red Cross Society, Auxiliary 
No. 40. I, 313 

National Tool Company. II, 195 

Native trees. II, 146 



Natural gas, I, 326 

Nau, Carl H., Ill, 264 

Naval Recruits in Y. M. C. A. Building 
(illustration). I. 646 

Neal, Arthur W., Ill, 132 

Jfeal, Clarence J., I, 447, 713 

Xeal Fireproof Storage Company, III, 

Xeal Institute. Ill, 283 

Needs. Samuel H.. II, 368 

Netr. Clifford A., II, 80 

Neff. Edward W. S.. II. 79 

Neff. Elizabeth H., I, 554; III, 146 

Neff', Frank H.. III. 131 

Neff, Horace. II, 247 

Netr, Mrs. W. B.. I, 200, 306, 554 

Neff, William A., I, 258 

Neff', William B., I. 511, 512; III, 146 

Xelan, Charles, I, 593 

Nelson, Andrew E., Ill, 238 

Nesper, Arthur E., Ill, 161 

Nettleship, George M.. Ill, 292 

Neuberger, Jno.. I. 713 

Nevin. Edwin H.. I. 601 

New-, Harry. III. 54 

Newark-Trent Play Ground. I. 491 

Newberry, Henry, I, 693, 698 

Newberry, John S., I, 231, 555'*, 636; 
II, 295 

Newberry. Roger. I, 8 

Newberry. Spencer B.. II, 296 

Newburg. I, 69, 98; in 1806, 72; vil- 
lage annexed, 260 

Nowburg Literary Society, I, 568 

New Central High school building 
(1878), I. 367. (illustration) 367 

New City Hall. II. 20 

New Connecticut (map). I, 4, 36-52 

Newell, Charles E., II, 381 

Newell. Clarence L.. II, 396 

New-ell, Harry F.. II, 396 

Newell. Lyman 0., I, 446; III. 486 

New England House (illustration), I, 

Ncwhall, Walter S., Ill, 20 

New High Level Bridge (illustration), 
I, 458 

Newman. Arthur R.. II. 291 

Newman, Charles IL, II, 379 

Newman, Edward E., II, 432 

Newman. Samuel, I, 477; III, 263 

Newman, Thomas F., II. 425 

New passenger depot, I, 249 

"News and Herald." I. 591 

Newsboys' and Bootblacks' Home, I, 

Newspapers. I. 116. 498, 583; "Cleavc- 
land (fazettc and Commercial Regis- 
ter." 116. 120; "Cleveland Herald" 
founded. 121; "Cleveland Advertiser" 
appears, 141: in 1837,190; firsl news- 
paper not a Buccess, 582; "Cleveland 

Herald" and Eben D. Howe, 583; 
'Cleveland Plain Dealer," 584-89; The 
west side produces newspaper, 589; 
Young Edwin Cowles introduced, 
589: Edwin Cowles. premier Cleve- 
land journalist. 590; the present 
"Cleveland News," 592; "Cleveland 
Press" and Seripps-McRae League, 
592; Cleveland newspaper tield as a 
whole, 594 

Newton. Thomas G.. HI. 26 

Newton. William H., I, 212, 213. 214, 

Niagara Day. Perry Centennial cele- 
bration. I. "334 

Niagara Entering Cleveland Harbor 
(illustration). I. 336 

Niagara. The Da.y Before the Launch- 
ing (illustration). I, 335 

Nichols. William M., II, 380 

Nicholson. Ezra, HI, 512 

Nicholson. E. Louis. Ill, 512 

Nicholson Ship Log Manufacturing 
Company, III. 512 

Niedzwiedzki, Henry DuL., II, 231 

Niehaus. Carl. I. 566 

Nierath. John C, III. 58 

Nierman. Robert G., III. 538 

Nineteenth Medical District Society, I, 

Noble. Henry L.. I, 107, 180. 184 

Noble. Louis E.. II. 439 

Nock. Charles H., II, 432 

Noll. Edward A.. I. 662; II, 195 

Norbcrg, Rudolph C, II, 445 

Nord. Herman J.. II. 316 

Normal High school. I, 365 

Normal school. I. 366. 384 

Norrington. Ralph M.. II. 375 

Norris, Harry M.. II. 380 

Norris. W. W., I, 446 

North. Clare C, II, 207 

North Congregational church. I. 618 

Xorth Doan school. I, 391 

North Electric Company, II, 560 

North Highway (St. Clair street), I, 

North Presbyterian church. I, 619 

North Royal'ton. III. 193 

Northern Ohio Fair Association. T. 251 

Northern Ohio Fair Grounds (illustra- 
tion), I, 252 

Northern Ohio Traction system, I, 464 

Northrop & Spangler Hlock (illustra- 
tion). 1. 231 

Norton. David Z.. I. 402. 417; III, 20 

Norton, Elisha. T. 65, 70 

Norton, (leorgic L.. I. 565 

Norton, .Minor G.. I. 289 

Nottingham school, I, 391 

Xoville. lli^nry. II, 373 

Nunn, Isidor C, III, 233 



Nunn, John I., I; 278, 280 

Nunn, John I., Company, III, 234 

Nutt, Willard L., Ill, 217 

Oatman, W. G., 1, 189, 570 

OberlinWt'llington rescue cases, I, 236- 

O'Brien, Charles C. Ill, 84 

O'Brien Hoisting & Contractin;; Com- 
pany, 111. 84 

O'Brien, .lolm, II, 2f..5 

O'Brien. John E., Ill, 84 

O'Brien, 1». C, I. 378, 280 

Observation school, I, 365 

Observation (Normal Training) school, 
I, 391 

O'Connor, James P. A., Ill, 366 

O'Dwyer, Patrick, I, 608 

Ograiii. Edward N., I, 662 

"Ohio American," I, 589 

Ohio and Cleveland cities incorporated, 
I, 170 

Ohio Association of Remedial Loan 
Men, II, 346 

Ohio becomes a state, T, 63 

Ohio Building and Loan Company, III, 

Ohio Business College, III, 394 

Ohio Canal. IL 11, 13; III, 40 

Ohio Canal T'ackets (reproduction of 
advertisement I, I, 196 

Ohio City, I, 174. 205; first election 
(1836), 177: mayors of, 179; elec- 
tion of 1839, 208; election of 1840. 
208: officials, 1841-45. 310; Munici- 
pal matters (1846-48), 212; Munici- 
pal officers (1851), 215; municipal 
officers (1851), 316: municipal offi- 
cers 1852, 320: in 1853. 236; annexed-, 
227; school-houses (1854), 355 

■'Ohio City Argus," I, 589 

nliio Counties in 1800 (map), I, 49 

Ohio Mutual Savings & Loan Com- 
pany, III, 84 

Ohio National Guard, I. 368 

Ohio National Guard Jlilitary Train- 
ing .School for Civilians, I. 664 

Ohio Provision Company. Ill, 188 

Ohio Railroad Company Notes (repro- 
duction of), I. 303 

Ohio Kailroad put to rest, I, 202 

Ohio Rubber Company, III, 94 

Ohio .State Bar Association, first presi- 
dent, II, 554 

Oils and paints, I, 699 

Oil refining, I, 700 

Old Bohemians. I. 563 

Old Postoffice (illustration). I. 286 

Old Stone church. I, 126: burned. I. 
236: (illustration) 128, 600; U, 561; 
III. 104 

Old Trinity Church, 1828-29 (illustra- 
tion), I, 106 

Old I'nion Clubhouse (illustration), I, 

Old Weddell House (illustration), I, 

Old workhouse (illustration), I, 355 
olds. Charles H., Ill, 4 
Oliver. Raymond B., II, 403 
Oliustcad. Frederick L., I, 467 
Olmsted. Aaron, I, 8 
Olnev. Charles, I, 565 
OIncy. Charles F., I. 383, 467 
Olstyii. Stanley J., II. 450 
O'.Mic murder trial, I, 94 
O'Mic sequel. I, 541 
One Hundred Fifth street market, I, 

Ong, Walter C, II. 60 
Oppenheim, Leo, II, 320 
Oram, John S., II. 305 
Oram. Oscar T., II, 306 
Orange Avciuie Play Ground, I, 491 
Orchard school, I, 393 
Ordinance to establish common schools, 

I, 300 

Ore, fiist cargo of Lake Superior, III, 

O'Reilly, Thomas C, II, 91 

O'Rourke Engineering Company, I, 458 

Orphan Asylums, U, 262 

Orth, Samuel P., I, 383, 580" 

Osborn, Prank C, III, 554 

Osborn, Henry C, II, 303 

Osborn, Mrs. H. W., I, 311 

Osborne, Archibald L., II, 435 

Osmun, George. L 211, 312, 216, 217 

Otis & Company, II, 31 

Otis, Charles A.. I, 233, 592, 671, 680, 
694, 709; II, 31 

Otis, Charles A., Sr., H, 29 

Otis Steel Company, I, 691; II, 29 

Otis, William A.. 'l. 163, 164*; (por- 
trait) 165; 237, 691, 693; II, 27 

Otis, W. F., I, 709 

Oul Building and Loan Association, HI, 

"Our Young Men," I, 641 

Outhwaite school, I, 393 

Overbeke, Edward A.. Ill, 210 

Overseership of the poor not wanted, I, 

Oviatt, Luther M„ I, 359 

Owen Tire & Rubber Company, III, 107 

Owen, William C, III, 106 

Pach, Oscar, III, 32 

Pack. Charles L., I. 329, 709; III, 541 

Packard-Cleveland Motor Company, II, 

Packard, J. W., Ill, 474 
Paddock. Martin L., I. 658 
Paddock, Thomas S.. I. 657, 658 
Paid fire department organized, I, 247 
Paine, Charles A., I, 710; II, 137 



Paine, Charles C, I, 202 

Paine, Charles W., II, 1G4 

Paine, Edward. I, 29, 52, 62, 688 

Paine, Jewett, I, 583 

Paine, Robert F., I, 53, 509. 593 

Painter, Mrs. Kenvon V.. I, 313, 314 

Painter, W. 11.. I," 603 ' 

Painters, I, 565 

Paints, I, 699 

Palmer, C. W.. I, 244, 456 

Palmer, J. D., I. 247 

Palmer, William P.. I. 246. 414, 415. 

417; III. 5 
Palmers-DeMooy Foundry Company, 

III. 187 
Panic of 1837. I. 201; 11, 11, 12; III, 

39: of 1857. I. 236; of 1873. I. 261 
Pankhurst. John F.. I. 484; UI. 251 
Pardee, James T.. I. 453 
Park Commissioners, first board of, I. 

Parker. Charles. I. 26 
Parkman. Robert B., I. 504 
Parks, I, 474-91; popularized, 489; sta- 
tistically considered, 490 
Parks and public property department, 

I, 446 
Parks, Horace F., II, 228 
Parks, Leonard B., II, 227 
Parks. Sheldon. II. 227 
Parkwood school. I. 392 
Parmely, Benjamin, I. 447 
Parsons, Ernest P.. III. 42 
Parsons, Fred W., III. 23 
Parsons. Richard C, I. 227. 262. 287, 

427. 530', 584 
Passenger depot. I. 249 
Paton. .James L.. III. 316 
I'aton. Robert W.. II. 434 
Paton. Willis U., HI, 78 
Patterson, Charles A.. II. 298 
Patterson. William D., I. 255 
Paul. Hosea. I, 448; II, 92 
Payne avenue, I. 450 
Payne, Henry B., I. 141*; (portrait) 

142; 181, 212, 217, 224, 258, 350, 400, 

507, 527, 531 
Paviie, Nathan !>., I. 233, 357 
Payne, Oliver 11.. 1, 659 
Pearl school, I, 392 
Pearson, A. J.. I, 512 
Pearson, Eleanor McK. R., III. 447 
Pease, Calvin, I, 504, 505 
Pease Map of Cleveland (1796), I, 24 
Pease, Setli. I. 12, 17, 32, 26, 28, 31. 

Pease (Setlil Journal. I. 32, 40 
Pease (Seth) Survey of 1797, I, 31-33 
Pease, Sheldon, I. 157 
Peck EnKraving Company. HI. 413 
Peck, Eugene C, II, 425" 
Peck, Frank A.. II. 307 
Peck, John A., Ill, 412 

Peck. Joseph H., I. 643 

Peckham, George G. G., II, 440 

Peek, Allen B., Ill, 343 

Peerless Motor Car Company, HI, '31 

Peet, David, I, 143 

Peet. Lewis, I, 568 

Pelton, Frederick W., I, 233 

Pelton Park. I. 479 

Pelton. Thirsa, I. 479 

Penfield. Rose. HI. 448 

Penfield. Suela. HI. 448 

Pennewell. C. E.. I, 533 

Pennock, Alvin C III, 558 

Pennsylvania Rubber & Supply Com- 
pany, III. 160 

Percy. Frank E., HI. 322 

Perfection Spring Company, II, 199 

Perkins Block (illustration). I, 637 

Perkins, Douglas. I, 414, 417 

Perkins. Emma. I, 376 

Perkins. Emma M.. HI, 195 

Perkins. Edwin R.. I, 412; HI. 15 

Perkins, Edwin R,, Jr., III. 16 

Perkins. I^noch. I. 8 

Perkins. Harry B., HI. 359 

Perkins. Henry B.. I. 414. 624 

Perkins. .Jacob B.. I. 291. 414. 417 

Perkins. Joseph 1, 400, 412, 572 

Perkins, Simon. I, 93 

Permanent Products Company, HI, 227 

Perrin. John W.. II, 219 

Perrine, William E.. II. 283 

Perry Centennial celebration. I, 334 

Perry Centennial parade. 1, 337 

Perry. Commodore, II, 147 

Perry Day, Centennial celebration, I, 

Perry Day Parade, Cleveland Centen- 
nial (illustration). I. 304 

Perry, Horace, 1. 98. 100 

Perry, Louis A.. II, 142 

Perry Monument, I, 242, 465; (illus- 
tration), 243 

Perry, Nathan, I, 18, 72; (portrait) 73; 
SO. 103. 129. 478, 500. 501, 089 

Perry. Nathan. Jr.. I, 75* 

Perry, Oliver. I. 317 

Perry statue, I. 481 

Perry Victory Centennial Commission, 
Hi, 554 

Perry's Corners. I. 689 

Perry's Victory Day, Cleveland Cen- 
tennial. I. 302 

Peters. Frederick W.. III. 6 

Peters, Harry A., I. 402; 11. 430 

Peterson. Er'win A.. I. 384 

IVttee. Ceorge 1).. 1. 403 

I'ettee. Harold F.. Ill, 58 

Pettibone. Arthur D., HI. 339 

Phare. William G.. II, 222 

I'lielps. .Icsse. 1. 73 

I'lielps. Oliver. I. 7, 8 

I'lielps. Samuel W., I, 504 

Phillips, Frank C. 1, 448 



riiillips, Oorpe L.. I, 511, 512 

I'liilliiis. Kegiimid G. A.. 111. 74 

Phyllis Wlicatlfv Home 11, 393 

Phvsiiians. 1. 5:i9-4;i 

I'iiitt. .Joliii H., 1, 293 

I'Kkiimls. lU'iirv S., I. 402; III, 215 

riikaiuls, J. D." I. 710 

I'iikaiuls, .Tames, III, 216 

I'iikaiuls, .lav M., III. 216 

Pierce, Robert B., Ill, 77 

Pierce, Stephen L., I, 710; II, 449 

Pike road, II, 116 

Pilgrim Congregational ihurcli, I, 601, 

Pinkerton. F.. I. 591 

Pinkett, William .!„ II, 307 

Pinnev, Edwin J., II. 376 

Pintner, Charles, III. 349 

Pioneer education and religion, I, 55 

Pioneer legal matters. I, 82 

"Pioneer Medicine on the Reserve" 
(Dudley Allen I. I. 83 

Pioneer ministers of the Western Re- 
serve. I. 56 

Pioneer Parade, Cleveland Centennial 
(illustration), I, 301 

Pioneers, II, 55U; III, 505 

"Pioneers of the Western Reserve" 
(Rice), I, 20, 44 

Pioneers of the Western Reserve, I, 53 

Pirc, Louis J., Ill, 531 

Pitkin, Stephen H., II, 300 

Pitts, William E., Ill, 564 

Plain Dealer, II, 440 

Plain Dealer Publishing Company, II, 

Plav Grounds for children, I, 490; III, 

Pleines. Henry T.. III. 486 

Plymouth church, I. 126 

PIvmouth Congregational church, I, 216 

Poe, Adam W., II, 531 

Polak. John, III, 548 

Poles in Cleveland, I, 621 

Police (see Municipal court) 

Police department, I, 431, 432 

Police pension fund, I, 435 

Pollock, Wilfred S., m. 386 

Pomerene, H., I, 709 

Pond, Daniel H., I, 662; U, 345 

Pope, Alfred A.. II. 391 

Pope, Charles E.. II, 315 

Pope, E. C, I, 637 

Pope, Henrv F., II, 293 

Population. 1825-37. I. 199; of Cleve- 
land (1840), 209; (1851-52), 218 
(1850-60), 243; (1860-70), 252 
(1870), 371; (1890-1900). 317 
(1890. 1900. 1910). 332; (1860-70) 
431: (1890), 435 

Port of Independence. I. 16 

Porter. Augustus. I, 17. 18. 32. 26 

Portraits: Moses Cleaveland, I, 9 

Seth Pease. 32; Lorenzo Carter, 37; 
James Kingsbury, 64; Nathan Perry, 
73; "Uncle" Abram Hickox, 76; I^'vi 
Johnson, 79; Samuel Williamson, 82; 
David Long, 84; Alfred Kelley, 86; 
A. W, Walworth, 101; T. P, llandy, 
110; Leonard Case, 113; Reuben 
Wood, 118; Joel Scranton, 123; 
Rufus P. Spalding, 132; Sherlock J. 
Andrews. 135; George Worthington, 
i:!9: Henry B, Payne, 142; Colonel 
Charles Whittlesey, 147; Thomas 
Bolton. 158; Franklin T. Backus, 
162: William Bingham, 163: William 
A, Otis, 165: Moses Kellev, 167; 
Mavor Jolm W. Willcv, 18]'; .lared 
P. kirtland, 206; William B. Castle, 
234; Hiram M. (Father) Addison, 
369; Andrew Freese, 354; A. (i. Hop- 
kinson, 356: Andrew J, Rickoff, 361; 
Burke A, Hinsdale, 370; Rev, Wil- 
liam B. iSommerhauser, S. J., 408; 
William H, Brett, 424; Newton D. 
Baker, 441; Charles C, Baldwin, 515; 
Sarah J. Bolton, 574; I'Mwin Cowles. 
59(1 : Rev. S. C, Aiken. 600; General 
.James Barnett. 631; Robert K. 
Lewis, 642; Serano P. Fenn, 642; 
Ambrose Swasev, 647 

Post, Charles A., I, 710 

Post, .Tames R,. HI, 7 

Post, Nathan, III, 7 

Postage rates in 1837, I, 199 

PostofTicc (old) (illustration), I, 386 

I'dstoflice (see Federal building) 

Potts, J. F., T, 446 

Poulson. Francis W.. 11. 158 

Powell. Albert, I. 336, 327 ; 

Powell. Homer G.. 513. 544 

Powell. William, I, 379, 380 

Pratt, Charles W., Ill, 157 

Pratt, Clvde H,. IL 468 

Pratt, F.B., I, 314, 357 

Pratt. George W., I, 189 

Prentice. Mrs. N. B., I, 390, 311 

Prentiss, Francis F„ I, 329, 380, 415, 
417, 425, 472, 709 

Prentiss, Loren, I, 231, 635 

Prentiss, -Mrs. Francis F., I, 653 

Prentiss, Samuel B., 1, 508*, 511 

Presbvterians, I, 599 

Preseott, Charles H.. HI, 18 

Prescott school, I, 393 

Preseott, W. H., I, 677 

Present County Courthouse (illustra- 
tion), I, 495" 

Present War Activities: Y, M, C. A. 
work. T. 645 

Presley. Mrs. George. Jr., I, 389 

Press (see Newspapers) 

Price. John, I, 237 

Price, .Tohn H.. TI, 130 

Prices for land, I, 45 



Primary schools establislied, I, 352 
Pringle Barge Line Co., The, lU, 336 
Pringle, John C, III, 336 
Printing press, first, I, 116 
Printz, Alexander, III, 502 
Printz-Biederman Company, III, 503 
Printz. Michael, ni, 99 
Prison Reform, II, 115 
Probate court, I, 513 
Probeck, Philip J., III. 203 
Progressive Building, Savings and Loan 

Company, III, 349 
Prospect School (illustration), I, 345 
Prospect street, I, 450 
Prospect Street School, I, 347 
Proudfoot, George, I, 26 
Pruclia. John, I, 446 
Ptak, Joseph J., I, 279, 289; II, 387 
Public Branch Libraries (illustrated), I, 

Public institutions (1837), I, 187 
Public Library, I, 368; branches, 419; 

elevation of the Coming Building, 

420; building (projected), 471, 572; 

Open shelf policy, II, 242; Cumula- 
tive Index, 242 " 
Public safety department, I, 446 
Public School Library (see Cleveland 

Public Library) 
Public schools, I, 341-94; 1859-62, I, 

Public service department, I, 446 
Public Square, showing Superior and 

Euclid avenues (illustration), I, 450 
Public utilities department, I, 447 
Public welfare department, I, 446 
PuUen, Jennie D., I, 384 
Pumphrey, Henry B., II, 391 
Purdy, Nelson, L 250 
Puritas Springs line, I, 465 
Pursglove, Joseph, III, 117 
Put-inBav Memorial (illustration), I, 


Quarrie, Bertram I)., I, 384 
Quayle, John H., II, 550 
Queisser, Robert L., II, 353 
Quick, Ivan T., II, 368 
Quincy school, I, 365, 392 
Quif;ley. Peter D., II, 388 
Quimbv, I'-jihraim, I, 64 
Quiiin," Arthur II., I, 710 
Quintrell, Mary C, II, 242 

Race track gambling, III, 563 

Railroad Rolling Mill, I, 694 

Railroad standard watches, II, 117, 120 

Ruilroads: Cleveland, Columbus & 
Cincinnati Railroad Company char- 
tered, T, 183, 194; Cleveland, Warren 
& PittHburgli Railroad Company char- 
tered. 182, 193. an.l, 212; Ch'velanil 
& Newburg Railroad Company, 194; 

Cleveland & Bedford Railroad Com- 
pany, 194; Ohio Railroad put to rest, 
202; beginning of the railway era, 
305: Junction Railroad, 213; Cleve- 
land & Toledo Railroad, 213; Cleve- 
land, Painesville & Ashtabula Rail- 
road, 214; Cleveland Columbus & 
Cincinnati enters Cleveland (1851), 
217; Cleveland & Mahoning Railroad 
completed. 318; Cleveland & Pitts- 
burgh Railroad, 318 

Railroads abolishing grade crossings, 
II, 289 

Railway strike (1877), I. 268; II, 309 

Ramsey, F. W., I, 710 

Ranney, Henry C, I, 309, 414, 532 

Rannev. Rufus P., I, 400, 521, 522*, 
533:" II, 553 

Ransom, Albert G., I, 658 

Ranson, Walter C, 11, 169 

Rappe. Amadeus, I, 608; II, 90 

Rapprich, William F.. III. 314 

Rattle, William J., III. 493 

Rauch, Charles, I, 710 

Rawlings school, I, 393 

Rawson. Levi, 710 

Rawson, L. Q., I, 713 

Rawson, Mrs. M. E., I. 313, 314 

Ray, Joseph R., I, 446 

Reasner, James C, II, 137 

Recreation parks, I, 476 

Redick, D., I, 504 

Redick, H. F., Ill, 337 

Redington, J. A., I, 214, 316 

Redmond, William T., II, 181 

Reese, diaries S., I, 357 

Reflex Ignition Company, III, 110 

Kegisters of bankruptcy, I, 530 

Religious (see Churches) 

lU'inington, Harold, I, 530 

Reveler. Ellen G., I, 375 

Reynolds Child Labor Law, II, 110 

Revnolds. James A., II, 109 

Rhodes. C. S., 1, 337 

Rhodes, Daniel P., I, 357 

Rhodes. James F., I, 579 

Rhodes, Mrs. Robert R., I, 313, 314 

Rhodes. R. R., I, 625 

Rice, Charles W., I, 384 

Rice. Harvey, I, 10, 18. 30, 197, 207, 
343. 370, 345, 3.'>0, 413, 436, 437, 506, 
507. 580; II, 557; IlL 178 

Rice Heights Subdivision, II, 315 

Rice, L. L. I, 151, 583 

Rice, Olnev, I, 26 

Rice, Percival W., II, 558 

Rice, Walter P., I, 453; II, 559 

Rice. Walter P., Engineering Company, 
II, 559 

lilchard, Francois, HI, 304 
liichanls. F. B., I, 669 
IJichanlson. Clarence 1''-., II. 197 

Richard.-^on, Wesley C, 11, 196 


Kiilimoiul, Tlioinas, I, 347 

KiilniioiHl. Warren W., II, 265 

Kitkoy. U. N., I, :>'Xi 

RirkofV. Andrew J.. I. 'AdO, 3G3, 368, 
581; (portrait), 361 

Kieks, A. J., 1, 534 

Kidille. Albert G., I, 237. 244, 529, 577 

Kiddle, .lolin. 1, 99 

Kieli'V. Charles F., IT, 460 

Kielev, Frank, II, 459 

Hieley. Oliver R., II, 461 

Hiley", Miehael, I, 279, 280 

Rise" selniol. 1, 392 

Kisley, Luke, I, 159, 177, 17S 

Kitehie, .lames, II, 421 

Kiteliie. Kyerson, I, 709, 710 

Hiver iniproveiucnts, I, 75 

Kivirside eenietery. I, 628 

Koads (early), 1, 76; in Western Re- 
serve, 44 

Roberts. Kdward A., I, 289, 295 

Roberts, William V... I, 375, 384, 394 

Robertson, .lames. Ill, 342 

Robertson I'aint & Varnish Company, 
The. III. 343 

Robertson. Thomas A., I. 593; III, 45 

Robinette. Roy B., Ill, 158 

Robinson. Harry C, II, 69 

Robinson, ,J. P., I. 258 

Roby. K. W.. I. 231 

Rockefeller. Alice M., HI, 96 

Rockefeller & Andrews, I, 700, 714 

Rockefeller & Andrews Building (illus- 
tration), I. 717 

Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler, I, 714 

Rockefeller Boulevard, I, 488 

Rockefeller Foundation. II, 8 

Rockefeller. Frank, III. 95 

Rockefeller, Helen R., Ill, 96 

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Re- 
search. II, 8 

Rockefeller. John D.. I, 247, 355, 414, 
417. 419, 474, 488, 604, 624, 625, 699, 
714. 718, 719; II. 1 

Rockefeller Park North. I, 491 

Rockefeller Park South, I, 491 

Rockefeller Parks, I, 488 

Rockefeller. William, I, 714; III, 476 

Rockefeller. William A. & Co., I, 700 

Rocker. Henry A.. II, 344 

Rocker, .Samuel, II, 386 

Rockwell. Samuel. II. 361 

Rockwell school, I, 392 

Rockwell. William, II, 281 

Rockwell, William, II, 362 

Rockwood. II. L.. I, 446 

Rocky River Bridge and Its Concrete 
Span (illustration), I, 464 

Rodgers, Albert S., II. 537 

Rogers. Arthur C. I. 662 

Rogers, Ethan, I, 159 

Rogers. .Tames II., I, 563 

"Roinaniil," HI, 439 

Root & McBride Company, II, 33; III, 
518, 546 

Root, A. 1'., I, 363, 364 

Root, Kphraim, I, 7 

Root, Frederic P., 11, 33 

Root, Paul I'., Ill, 234 

Knot. Ralph H., II. 32 

Rose. Benjamin, HI, 11, 12 

Rose Benjamin Institute, HI, 11 

Rose. Mrs. W. 0., I, 390, 306; II, 311 

Rose, William G., I, 233. 268, 440, 458, 
472. 588; II, 308 

Rose, William R., I, 317, 588 

Rose. W. Louis, II, 176 

Rosedah' school, I. 365, 392 

Rosenblatt, Charles, ITT, 5 

Rosenburg, Felix, I, 337 

Rossiter, William T., II, 244 

Rothenberg, William, II, 359 

Riithkopf, David R., If, 340 

RothschiUl, Klias, II, 251 

Rothschild, Isidore .1., II. 251 

Rothschild, Julius, II, 252 

Roueche, R. C, I. 685 

Roumanians in Cleveland, I. 621 

Roupp. N., I, 614 

Rouse, Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin, I, 634 

Rowland, \'ernon C, II, 542 

Royal land grants, I, 5 

Royce, Abner, Company, III, 184, 297 

Rudd. Frank H.. 11, 498 

Rudd, William C, II, 497 

Ruetenik, Herman J., I, 291, 606 

Itufus Ranney Law School, II, 478 

Ruggles, Benjamin, I, 80, 500, 501 

Run-away Slave Advertisement (re- 
production of), I, 150 

Rusk, Stephen G., IT, 239 

Russel, C. L., I, 177, 178, 316 

Russell, Geo. S., J, 710 

Russell, Mrs. L. A., I, 290, 306 

Russian .Tews in Cleveland. I, 620 

Rust, .Tohn P., Sr., IT, 259 

Rust, J. Howard. II, 499 

Rutherford, George A., Ill, 241 

Ryan, Malachi, I. 279, 280 

Ryan, William R., .Ir., II, 167 

Ryan, William R., Sr., II, 167 

Sabin, Julia S., I, 364 

Saekett school, I, 392 

Sackrider, C. W., I, 412 

Saeger, Wilford C, I, 671 

.Saengerfest, I, 561 

Saengerfest Hall, I, 285, (illustration) 

SafTold, S. S., n, 143 
SafTord, Mrs. William JI., 11, 88 
Sage, .T. C. I. 710 
Saginaw Bay Company, III, 19 
Salem church, T, 606 
Salisbury, J. H., I, 414 
Salvation Army, I, 625 
Salzcr, Cliarles L., I, 447 



Samaritau Home, II, 116 
Samman, George P., I, 446 
Sanborn, Ralph W., 11, 290 
Sanders, Fielder, I. 447; II, 137 
Sanders, William B., I, 511; II, 335 
Sanderson, Frederick M., Ill, 501 
Sanderson, Julius C, III, 502 
Sanderson, Thomas W., I, 659 
Sandusky Cement Company, II, 296 
Sanford, A, S., I, 657 
San ford, Mrs. Henry L., I, 685, 687 
Sanford, Peleg, I, 7 
Sanitary milk bottle, III, 17 
Sanymetal doors, II, 472 
Sargeant, Levi, I, 107, 118 
.Sargent, Edwin T., Ill, 311 
Saigent, H. Q., I, 289, 373 
Sargent, John H., I, 119, 217, 255, 412, 

414, 586 
Saum, O. C, II, 318 
•Save the Babies" campaign, I, 683 
Sawicki, Joseph F., II, 98 
Sawyer, J. P., I, 544 
Sawyer. Jlrs. P, H,, I, 310, 311 
Sawyer, P. H,, I, 544 
Saxton. Jehiel C„ II, 115 
Savles, S. W., I, 178, 205, 210, 311, 312 
Schade. Otto M., I, 662 
Schaefer, Carl W., II, 430 
Schaefer, Gustav, Wagon Company, III, 

Schaefer, Henry G., I, 713; III, 323 
Schauffler, Fred, II, 235, 237 
Sehauffler Realty Company, The, II, 

Schellentrager, E. A., I, 371, 545 
Sehmi<lt, Thomas P.. I. 710, 713 
Schmitt, Jacob W.. Ill, 254 
Schneider, A. B., I, 551 
Schneider, Albert E. R., Ill, 450 
Schneider, Arthur, I, 563 
Schneider, Geo., I, 684, 685 
Schneider, George A., I, 671 
Schneider, J. H., I, 275 
School census (1849). I, 3.52, (1881- 

82), 368; (1900), 377; (1917, 1918), 

School for Colored Chililren, 1. 346 
School for Cripjiled ('hildrcn, I, 39.'! 
School for the Deaf, I, 393 
School of .\pplied Social Sciences, 

Western Reserve University, 1, 3&8, 

School of Education, Western Reserve 

University, I, 398 
School of Pharmacy, Western Reserve 

University, I, 398 
Schools. I, 341-394; first Boar.l of 

School Aliinagers, 182; second Hoard 

of .School Managers, 300; ordinance 

to cstabllKli common schools, 200; 

in 1845, 347 
Schoolcy, Listen G., II, 332 

Schram-Forsch Company, III, 495 

Scripps, E. W., III. 530' 

Schryver, George H., II, 418 

Schubert, O. V., I, 563 

Schuh. David, I, 605 

Schultz, Carlton F., Ill, 10 

Schultz, Malvern E., II, 319 

Schwab, Mrs. M. B.. I, 390, 306 

Scofield, Elizabeth C, U, 393 

Scotield, Levi T., II, 391 

Scoileld, ilrs. Levi T., I, 653 

Scofield, Sherman W., ll, 392 

Scotield, Shermer & Teagle, III, 90 

Scofield, William C, III. 96 

Scofield, William M., I, 663 

Scott, Frank A.. I. 710; II. 491 

Scott, M. B,, I, 413, 414, 710 

Scott, W. J. 1, 544 

Scott, Xenophon C, II, 460 

Scovill, Charles W., I, 658 

Scovill, Edward A., I, 571, 657 

Scovill, Mrs. Pliilo, I, 114 

Scovill, Philo, I, 103*, 478 

Scovil, Samuel, I, 071 

Scranton, Joel, (portrait) I, 123; 124 

Scranton school, I, 393 

Scribner, Charles H,, II, 417 

Scripps, James E., I, 593* 

Scripps, James G., I, 593 

Scripps-McRae League of Newspapers, 

I, 593, 593; III, 530 
Scripps Publishing Company, I, 593 
Scullen, William A., I, 677; 11, 91 
Sculptors, I, 566 
Seabrook, Eva T., I. 384 
Seaman. John, I, 154 
Searle, Roger, I, 595 
Scarles, F. M., I, 603 
Second Courthouse (1828-58), I, 136; 

(illustration) 137 
Second high level bridge, I, 276 
Second National Bank of Cleveland, I, 

Second Presbvterian church, 1, (iOO 
Seibig. Arthur H., Ill, 450 
Sclzer, Iharles L., Ill, 143 
Sclzer, Jacob U, HI. 143 
Selzer. Robert J., Ill, 144 
Semoii, .John, I, 563 
Seneca street bridge, 1, 454 
Senter, (icorge B„ 1, 333 
Sergeant & Company, III, 498 
Service Flag, II, 253 
Sessions, John, I, 129 
Scth Pease Journal, I, 13, 16 
Severance. .lohn L., I, 417: II, 326 
Severance, Louis H„ H, 324 
Severance. Mary H,, I, 351 ; II, 322 
Severance, Solon L., I, 151, 635; II, 

.Scveram-e. 'P. ('., I, 189 
Sewall, May W,. I, 298 
Sexton, Henry, I, 345 



Sexton. John J., II. 354 
.Seymour, Alexaiuler, I, 189, 215 
Seyniour. Belden, I. 456; II, 458 
iSeynunir. Liioien. II, 367 
Seymour, Xatliun !>., I, 395 
Seymour, Thomas 1).. I. 395 
.Slmker llei^'hts, II. 157; III, 508 
SImker Heights Park. 1. 487. 491 
Shaker Heights viUago. I. 488; IT, 21 
Shaker settlement. I, 488 
Shannon. Karl 'B.. II. 194 
Sharp Spark I'lug Comi>aiiv, III, 51, 

Shattuck. Edward. I. 447 
ShaufHer, H. A., 1, 601 
Shaw, (Jeorjie \V.. II. 151 
Shaw. Samuel B.. I. 231. 635 
Shaw, William J., II, 151 
Shcair. I.anf;. I, 638 
Shellield. Henry E.. I. 677 
Sheldon. Henjiimin. I. 179, 212, 213, 

220, 355 
Shepard. Tlieodore, I, 17, 32. 539 
She|ilienl, I'hiiu>as, I, 105, 107, 595, 596, 
Shepherd, Warctiam, I, 26 
SherilV street market, I, 491 
Sherman, t'harles, I, 524 
Sherman, C. T., I, 412 
Sherman, H. S., I. 402. 404 
Sherman, .John. I. 293. 294 
Sherry. Clillord E„ III, 529 
Sherwin, Belle, I, 687 
Sherwood, Kate B., I, 298 
Sherwood. William E., I, 511 
Shields. Joseph C. I, 658 
Shier. John. I. 181 
Shinplasters (illustrations). I. 113 
Shipbuilding. I. 276; in 1865. 249 
IShiverirk. Asa, III, 85 
Wholes. Stanton. I. 95. 541, 546, 655 
Sholl. William H., I. 224 
Short Creek Coal Company, The, III, 

Short. Everett J.. IT. 266 
Shupe, Henry P., I, 669. 684, 685; II, 

Shurmer. Edward D.. I, 662 
ShurtlcfT, Glen K,, I, 520, 643 
Siber, Edward, I. 659 
Sibley school. I. 392 
.Sickness general (1797). I, 40 
Siddall. George B.. II. 37 
Sigler, Gilbert L.. Ill, 119 
Sigler. Lucius M.. HI. 118 
Silbert, Samuel H., I. 447; HI, 71 
Silver, Abba H.. I. 677 
Simmons. Theo., I. 710 
Simon. I^ouis, I, 447 
Simons, Jlinot 0., I, 710 
Simplex Machine Tool Company, H, 

Sincere, Victor W.. II, 213 
Sinram, Frederick W., Ill, 163 

Sir Moses Montefiore Kosher Home for 
Aged and Inlirm Israelites, I, 616 

Skinner. Orville B.. I, 568 

Skvrm. .John. 1. 279, 280 

Sla'de. Albert, I. 518 

Slaght. Edgar, I. 177, 211 

Sleeper. D. L., I, 289 

Slovaks in Cleveland, I, 620 

Slovaninns in Cleveland, I, 620 

Smart. John II.. Ill, 170 

Smart, .Samuel W.. Ill, 169 

Smead. T. H.. I, 589 

Smies, Jacob H., I, 412 

Smith, Albert W., II, 544 

Smith, Allard, II, 354 

Smith, Archibald M. C, I, 180 

Smith, A. J., I, 694 

Smith, Erastus, I, 156 

Smith, Frank W.. I, 445. 446; HI, 256 

Smith. Hamilton H.. I, 545, 555 

Smith. Harry G., Ill, 161 

Smitli, Henry A., I, 412, 572 

Smith, Jeremiah, I, 303 

Smith, .lohn A., II. 165 

Smith, John H., Ill, 38 

Smith, John H., Sr., Ill, 37 

Smith, Matthew, III, 428 

Smith, Samuel L., HI, 423 

Smith, Stiles C, HI, 423 

Smith, W. Arthur, I, 603 

Smith, William T., I, 154 

Smith, Wilson G., I, 563 

Smyth, William. I, 351 

Smythe. Alfred B., II, 152 

Smythe, Anson, I, 360 

Snake meat, I, 40 

Snedden. Ricliard. HI. 327 

Snider. Martin, II, 500 

Snow, Frank K., HI, 391 

Snow, Jane E., I. 576; HI, 147 

Snow. Karl F.. HI, 335 

.Snow, Kandolph, I, 149 

Snyder, Harvey R., H, 112 

Snyder, John R., II, 111 

Social Betterment Committee, I, 622 

Society for Organized Charities, I, 624 

Society for Organizing Charity, I, 250, 

Society for Savings, I, 692; II, 485 

Society of the Medical Sciences of 
Cleveland. I. 544 

Solders, George B., I, 511. 519 

Soldiers' and .Sailors' Mf>nMment (illus- 
tration). I. 284; II, 391. 409 

Somers, Charles W^., II, 249 

Somers, J. H., II, 248 

Sommerliauser, William B., I, 405, 409; 
(portrait), 408 

Sons of the American Revolution, 
Western Reserve Chapter, I, 282 

Soper, Albert L., II, 226 

South Case school, I, 392 

South junior high school, I, 387 



South Presbyterian church, I, 143 

South school, I. 3S6. 392 

South Side Park (Lincoln Square), I, 

South Side Railroad, I. 461 
Southern New England, I, 1; map 2 
Southwick, Ernest B., III. 33 
Southworth, W. P., I, 352 
Sowinski school, I, 392 
Spafford, Amos, I, 17, 23, 31, 32, 47, 

60, 61, 63, 64, 75, 77, 104, 504 
Spatford, Anna, I, 75, 341 
Spafford's Map of Cleveland (1796), I, 

Spafford's Cleveland (1801) (map), I, 

Spafford's resurvey, I, 60 
Spafford's Tavern, I, 104 
Spalding, Rufus P. (portrait), I, 132, 

133*, 237, 239, 244. 530, 532 
Spangler, B. L., I, 224 
Spangler, Michael, I, 104, 125 
Spangler, Miller M., I, 115, 230 
Spanish-American war, I, 661; Cleve- 

landers off for Cuba, 315; War 

emergency committees, D. A. R., 310; 

War Emergency Relief Board, 313 
Spargo, Mary P.,' I, 275, 537 
Sparks. Stanley W., II, 505 
Spaulding, Frank E., I, 383, 384, 670; 

II, 191 
Spaulding, Z. S., I, 660 
Special park policemen, I, 490 
Spelman, Laura C. I. 355 
Spencer, A. K., I, 413, 414 
Spencer, Timothy P., I, 143 
Spenoerian school, II, 476; III, 171 
Spii-akus, Stanley, I, 447 
"Spirit of '76," I, 471, 566; III, 353 
Sprecher, Samuel P., I, 294 
Sprosty, A. B., I, 446, 447 
Sproui Herbert R., IL 256 
Sproul, Rufus C„ II, 256 
Squire, Andrew, I, 680; II, 294 
Squire, Eleanor S. S., I, 311 
Squire, Mrs. Andrew, I, 312, 313, 314 
St. Ale.xis Hospital (illustration), I, 

St. Ann's Asylum, I, 549 
St. Alexis Hospital, I, 548, 611 
St. Augustine's church, I, 614 
St. Bridget's church. ], 014 
St. Clair hospital, I, 548 
St. Clair market, I, 493 
St. Clair school, T, 392 
St. Clair street. I, 450 
St. Francis' Orphan Asylum and Home 

for the Aged. I. 610 
St. Ignatius (Jollege, I, 405, (illustra- 
tion) 406; fill 
St. Ignatius high school, I, 409 
St. John. .lohn R., I, 180, 583 

St. .John. Oran, I, 542 

St. John, Samuel, I, 395, 543, 555 

St. .John's Church, 1828-29 (illustra- 
tion), I, 107 

St. John's Hospital, I, 548, 612 

St. John's parish, I, 107 

St. Joseph's Asylum, I, 610 

St. Luke's Evangelical Lutheran church 
I, 605 

St. Luke's Hospital. I. 549 

St. JIalachy's church, I, 614 

St. Mary's church, I, 60S 

St, Mary's Church on the Flats, I, 614 

St. Mary's of the Assumption, I, 614 

St. Mary's Orplian Asylum. I. 609 

St. Slarv's Theological Seminary, II, 

St, Matthew's Evangelical Lutheran 
chiu-ch, I, 605 

St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran church, 
I, 605 

St. Peter's Catholic church, I, 614 

St. Peter's Evangelical Lutheran 
church, I, 605 

St. Stanislaus parish, I, 614 

St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum, I, 609 

St. Wencelas (Bohemian) church, I, 

Stadler, John L., I, 711 

Stafford, 0. M.. I, 288 

Stafford. Theodore, I, 604 

Stage lines in 1837, I. 197 

Stager, Anson, I, 660 

Stager, Henry W., I, 638 

Stahl. Howard A., lU, 231 

Stair, John, I, 154 

Stalev, Cadv, I, 400, 557 

Standard Oi'l Company, I, 247, 699, 714- 
2;i; H, 5, 6 

Standard Oil Works in Cleveland (illus- 
tration), I, 721 

Standard Parts Company, II, 200 . 

Standard school, I, 392 

Standard Steel Castings Company, II, 

. 131; HI, 399 

Standard Top and Equipment Com- 
pany, HI, 294 

Standart, Henry N., HI. 76 

Standart. Needham M., I, 179, 205, 208, 

210, 227 

Stanford, Vernon L,. II, 136 
Stanley, George A., I, 414. 571, 640 
Stanley, John J., II, 101 
Stanley, William H,, I, 357 
Stannard, B. A., T, 571 
Slansbury. Clement W., II, 382 
Stanton, "Elizabeth, I, 290 
Stanton, I'rank W'.. II, 45 
Sliuiton, Frederick P., I, 236 
Starkey, Thonnis A.. I, 598 
Starkweather, Samiud, 1, 179, 184, 198, 

211, 233, 348, 353, 412, 507 



Starr. Kpliraim, I, 8 

Slato Umiking & Trust Conipanv, III, 

30, 206 
State Bank of Ohio. I, G92 
State Hospital, II, 248 
■Stearns, Arthur A., I, 425; II, 178 
Stedman. Uuekley, I, 353, 355 
Steel makiniL,' by electricity. III, 43 
Stetlen. 1<". William, I, 384; U, 521 
Slephan, Kate E., I, 363, 366 
Stephens, Mrs. J. A., I, 311 
Sterl, Oscar W., I, 659 
Sterling & Welch t'onipany. III, 396 
Sterling, Elisha, 1, 414, 556, 571 
Sterling, Frederick A., Ill, 396 
Sterling, ,Tohn JL, I, 188 
Sterling Play Ground, I, 491 
Sterling school, I, 392 
Stetson, fharles, I, 346 
Steuer, Alfred L.. II. 289 
Stevens, Francis L., II, 171 
Stevens, Frank E., I, 513; III, 66 
Stevens. Garrett. II. 378 
Stevens, J. H., I, 546 
Stevenson, R. D., Ill, 237 
Stewart, James W., I, 428 
Stewart, N. Coe. I, 363. 375 
Stewart, William H., Ill, 154 
Stiles, .Job, r, 18, 36, 28 
Stiles, Tabilha, I, 18, 43 
Stillman Witt Home, I, 649 
Stilson, S. H., I, 637 
Stinchcomb, W. A., I, 44S, 452, 458 
Stoeker, Charles L., II, 253 
Stocking. Joseb, I, 8 
Stockly, John G.. I, 315 
Stockly's pier, I. 104; (illustration), 215 
Stockwell, John X.. Jr., II, 553 
Stockwell. John X., Sr., I. 558; n, 551 
Stoddard. ,Iohn, I, 7 
Stoddard, Kichard M., I, 17. 36, 32 
Stoer. Hcnrv W.. Ill, 330 
Stone, Adelbert. I, 398 
Stone, Amasa, I, 251, 271, 398, 624. 

Stone, Carlos H.. I, 511. 
Stone, Cliisholm & Jones, I, 694 
Stone, Ella A.. J I. 52 
Stone, Flora, I. 624 
Stone, Norman ().. II. 52 
Stone, Randolph. I, 138, 139 
Stone, Ruth F.. I. 687 
Storer. .James, I. 658 
Storrs, Charles B., I, 395 
"Stow Castle," I, 18 
Stow, Joshua. I, 8, 17, 40, 504 
Straus, Albert. I, 278, 280 
Streator, Worthy S., I, 251, 400 
Street cars, T, 461; H, 108 
Street illumination, II, 19 
Street lights, first, HI, 259 
Street names, I, 326 

Street Railways, I, 241, 462; three- 
cent fare, 319 

Street, Titus, I, 8 

Streets, I, 449, 450 

.Strickland, Aaron T., 1, ISO 

Sfrickland. Benjamin, I, 163 

Strickland Block (illustration), I, 232 

Strimple, Theodore L., I, 511; II, 160 

.Strong, Carlisle & Hammond Company, 
III. 101. 386 

Strong. Charles H., I. 456 

Strong. Edgar E., HI. 386 

Strong. John H., I, 109, 211, 313 

Stmirt, William R., II, 192 

Stucky, Albert G., H, 383 

Sturgess, .Stephen B., I, 657 

Suffrage for Ohio women, II, 109 

.Sufferers' Lands (see Fire Lands) 

Sul/mann, ,Iohn M., Ill, 460 

Sullivan. Jeremiah J., I. 709; III, 24 

Summer Camp. Young Women's Chris- 
tian Association ( illustralion), I, 653 

Summer school for nurses, 1, 683 

Summers, David 0., II, 349 

.Sunday Leader, III, 45 

Superintendent of markets, I, 434 

Superior avenue and Seneca street 
(Northwest Corner), (illustration), I, 

Superior avenue. Looking East from 
the Square (illustration), I, 463 

Superior court, I, 501, 509; created, 

Superior-Luther Play Ground, I, 491 

Superior street, I, 450; in 1865 (illus- 
tration), 348 

Superior Street Evangelical church, I, 

Superior street viaduct, I, 369, 456 

Siiiireme court in Cleveland, I, 503 

Sutton. Clarence W., I, 384 

Swartzel. Charles W.. II, 182 

Swasey, Ambrose, I, 329, 417, 559, 647, 
648, 709; II, 16 

Sweeney, .John S., I, 593 

Sweeney, Martin L., II, 163 

Tabor. Frank B.. Ill, 26 
Tabor Ice Cream Company, The, III, 36 
Tadloo, Alfred, III, 417 
Taggart, Richmond. I, 153 
Taintor. J. F.. I, 208 
Talcott. Albert L.. II, 34 
Talcott, .John C, II, 36 
Talcott. William E.. II, 37 
Taplin, Charles G., Ill, 426 
Tappan. Abraham. I, 69 
Tappan, Benjamin, I. 64 
Tavern Club'. The, III. 268 
Taxicab Company. II. 375 
Tax levy for building schools (1874), 
I, 366 



lax School, II, 108 

Tax title sales, abolition of, II, 331 

Tayler Franchise, I, 322-26, 462 

Tayler, Robert W., I, 323 

Tavlor & Boggis Foundry Company, 

III, 380 
Tavlor, Alexander S., II, 217 
Taylor, Benjamin F., I, 573*. 588 
Taylor Brothers Companj^, III, 357 
Taylor, Charles, I, 107 
Tavlor. Daniel R., II, 103 
Tavlor, Elisha. I. 126, 600 
Tavlor. Isaac, I, 208 
'lavlor, -John E., Ill, 356 
Tavlor. Mrs. Benjamin F.. I, 296, 376 
Tavlor, Philo. I, 109 
Tavlor, Robert W., I, 524 
Tavlor, Royal, II, 101 
Tavlor, Samuel G., Ill, 263 
Tavlor, S. M., I, 289 
Tavlor, Vincent A., I, 531 
Tavlor, Virgil C, I. 364; II, 46 
Tavlor, W. D., I, 690 
Taylor. William W., III. 189 
Teachers' pension fund, I, 383 
Teachout, Abraham, III, 193 
Teachout, Albert R.. Ill, 193, 194 
Teachout, David W.. III. 194 
Teagle, Mrs. John, III, 11 
Teare. Elmer E., Ill, 187 
Telegram, first received, I, 213 
Telephone. 11, 352: growth of, 353 
Telc]ihone Company exchange, II, 353 
Telling-Belle Vernon Company, The, III, 

Telling, William E., Ill, 29 
Temperance hotel, II, 115 
Temperance question. III, 562 
Templar Motors Company, The, III, 

Tenirler, William T.. HI, 352 
Terrill. CUirence E.. Ill, 250 
Thalheimer. H. S.. I. 592 
Thatcher, Peter. I. 412 
"The Ice Age" (Wright), I, 22 
"The Cleveland Liberalist" (reproduc- 
tion of), I, 192 
"The Spirit of '76," I, 471, 566; III, 

Theatrical business. Ill, 544 
Tliomas. Kdgar B.. Ill, 138 
Tliomas, Fred \V.. I. 445, 447 
Thomas, Raymond C, 111, 442 
Thomas, William K., HI, 192 
Thompson, Albert IC, III, 443 
Thompson, Carmi A., Ill, 554 
Thompson, William A., Ill, 244 
Tliomsen, Mark L., I. 383, 384 
ThomKon-IIouHton Company, III, 259 
Thomson. Tliomas. II, 544 
Thome, .1. A., I. 357 
Thorp. W. C, III, 208 
Thorpe, Thomas 1',, I, 291, 302, Oil 

Three-cent street railway fare, I, 319; 

II, 4S0; franchise, II, 400 
Thumm, ,T. Martin, III, 125 
Thurber, Frank L., Ill, 340 
Thurman, Ed, III, 198 
Thurston, Edwin L., II, 211 

Thwing, Charles F., I, 302, 375, 380, 

395, 417; II, 412 
Tibbetts, George B.. I. 500 
Tifereth Israel congregation, I, 616 
Tiffin. Edward. I. 62. 63 
Tilden, Daniel, I. 426 
Tilden, Daniel R., I, 239, 241, 244, 513* 
Tjllotson & Wolcott Company, II, 62 
Tillotson, Edwin G., II. 62 
Tillotson, George H., I, 658 
Tinker, Joseph, I, 26 
Tinnerman, G. A., I, 711 
Tippv, Worth M., I, 622 
Tod. David I, 193. 528 
Tod. George. I, 61, 504 
Tod scliool, I. 393 
Tom .Johnson Statue in the Public 

Square (illustration). I, 319 
Tomlinson, Alfred E., Ill, 370 
Tonilinson Steam Specialty Company, 

III. 371 

Tomson. John G.. I. 446; III, 357 
Torbenscn Axle Company, The, II, 453 
Torbensen, Viggo V., II, 453 
Toth, Alexander, III, 444 
To the Women of 1996, Cleveland Cen- 
tennial, I. 306 
Town. Israel, I, 542 
Towner, J. W., I, 519 
Townsend, Amos, I, 251, 458, 484, 657 
Tozier. Kathleen B.. Ill, 433 
Tozier, Mrs. Charles B., Ill, 432 
Traeey, Criah. I, 7 
Tracy, James J., I, 400, 571 
Train Aveiuic Play Ground, I, 491 
Training school for nurses, I, 549 
Treadway, Lyman H.. I, 709 
Tremont scliool, 1, 393 
Trinity Bajitist cluirch, I, 619 
Trinity Cathedral. 1. 107; (illustration), 

Trinity Episcopal church, I, 595 
Trinity Parish, T, 105 
Tro)ii("al Paint & Oil Company, III, 100 
"True Democrat," I, 589 
Truman, (icorgc ,1., Ill, 488 
Trumbull County Court of General 
' (.Miarter Sessions (1800), I, 51 
Trumbull C<mnty of 1800 (map), I, 51 
Trundle. George" T. .Ir.. III. 287 
Tuberculosis Hospital. 1. 549 
Tucker. Charles H.. HI. 484 
Tungsten lamps, 111, 259 
Tuiuicl construction casualties, I, 436 
Turner, A. P., I. 214, 355 
linnev, .Mrs. Joseph, I, 289 
Turner, William 11.. HI. 422 



Tuttlc, George R., I, 412 
Tuttlp. il. 15., I, 412, 710 
Twinsbiiifj. II, 202 
Tylec, Charlos H., Ill, 341 
Tyl.T. H. !•'., I, 177 

Ll.I, Carl F. Jr., 11. 513 

UiuierliiU. Siinuipl, I, 497 

Uniform Rank. K. of P., Cleveland Cen- 
tennial. I, :iOO 

I'nion tlub. 1. 238 

I'nion Club House (illustration). I, 703 

Union passenger station (proposed), I, 

Union Rolling Mills. I. 694 

Union school, I. 393 

Unitarians. I. 606 

United Hanking & Savings Company, 
II, ■)4i); III. 450 

United Knit Goods Company, III, 212 

United Presbyterian church, I, 605 

United States Court for the Northern 
Oliio District, I, 523 

United States llarine Hospital. I, 211, 
471, 546 

Universal Military Training, II. 106 

University Heights Union Sabbath 
school." I, 601 

Universitv of Chicago founded by Mr. 
Rockefeller, II, 7 

University school, I, 402; II, 431 

Universitv School Building (illustra- 
tion), I, 403 

Universitv war unit (first), I. 674 

Upton. Harriet T., I, 298 

Vail. Harrv L., H, 174 

Van Aken, William .J., Ill, 508 

Van Camp, (ieorge W., II, 523 

Xandercook. .Inhn, I. 593 

\'an Densen, Francis F., II. 409 

Van Dorn & Dutton Conipanv. The. 

in. 163 
Van Kpps, John S., 11. 338 
\an Kpps. Leslie 1., II, 340 
Van Swcringcn, M. J.. II, 21 
Van Swcringcn. O. P.. IT. 21 
Van Umm. .John X., HI. 159 
\'aughan, Thomas S.. HI. 520 
Vcela Building and Loan Association, 

III, 181 
Venning. Frank J., Ill, 479 
Visiting Xurses' Association. I. 624 
Vlchek. Frank J.. Til. 201 
"Voce Del Popolo Italiano," III, 319 
Vocke. (icorge \V.. IT, 153 
Volmar. Hiirvcy K.. II. 525 
Volunteers of America, I. 625 
Vortex Manufacturing Company. 111. 


Wade, Edward. I, 151, 529 
Wade, Frank, III. 563 













.Teptlia, III, 175 

Jeptha H., I. 251, 398, 400, 415, 

474, 481, 484, 488, 565, 624; II, 


H., II, 513 

,1. H., Sr., 510 

J. W., II, 510 

Park, I, 481, 491; II, 364, 511; 


Park school, I, 365, 393 
Randall P.. II, 512 

school, I, 393 
adsworfh. T'^lijah, I, 66, 67, 93, 655 
adsworth, Howard L., II, 557 
adsworth. Joe L., Ill, 206 
adsworth, Mrs. .John, I, 656 
agiier, F. J., Ill, 364 
ahl. John F.. III. 479 
aibcl. Henry, I, 713 
ain, Lewis H., II, 215 
aite. Floyd E., I, 446, 447 
aite. Morrison R., I, 520 
akutt, William, I, 242 
alforth. William, I, 658 
alker, Frank R.. Ill, 241 
alker. Mary I.. III. 541 
alk-inthe-Water. I, 119; (illustra- 
tion), 120 

allace, Frederick T., I, 494 
a 1 lace, (icorge, I, 99, 109 
allace, George A., I, 247, 444, 447 
allace House, I, 104 
allace, James C, III, 61 
allace, James L., Ill, 62 
allace, John H., Ill, 557 
'allace, Mrs. George, I, 656 
allace. Robert. I, 643; 11, 470 
allace, Robert B., II, 471 
'aller, C. C, I, 208 
"alsh, Thomas R., Ill, 414 
'alter, Raymond L., II, 518 
alton, J. W., I, 637 
'alton scliool. I, 393 
alton. Thomas, I, 709 
altz, Allen S., Ill, 240 
altz. A. L., I, 540 

alwnrth, Ashbel W'.. I, 149, 157: 
(portrait), 101 
alworth, .Tuhn. I. 70*, 73, 75, 81, 501, 


alworth Run viaduct, I, 455 

ai Council of Cleveland, I, 675 

ar emergency committees, D. A. R . 

Spanish-American war, I, 310 

ar of 1S12 at Cleveland, I, 92, 655 

ar Iniuistries Board, II, 492 

ar nurses. I, 686 

ar Relief Committee (Federated 

Churches), I, 622 

ard, Artemus (see Cliarles F. Brown) 

ard. H. X., T, 177, 178. 205. 210, 211 

arehouse, first frame. I. 116 

aring Play Ground, I. 491 



Waring school, I, 393 

Warner, Clavton H., II, 306 

Warner, Franz C, III, 345 

Warner school, I, 393 

Warner, Worcester R., I, 339, 559*, 

709; 11, 15 
^^'arner & Swasey Company, The, IT, 

Warren, Charles A., II, 528 
Warren, Moses, I, 17, 28, 32 
Warren, Moses, Jr.. I, 31 
Warren school. I. 393 
Warrensville Farms, I, 633 
Warwick, .James W., Ill, 503 
Warwick, Nathan E., II, 473 
Washington Park, I, 489, 491 
Wiisliinpton Park school. 1, 393 
Wasmcr, Chas. L., I, 713 
Watch inspection service on railway, 

II, 118 
Waterman, Eleaznr, I, 100 
Water supply, zones and area, I, 438 
\\ater tunnels, 1874-1890, I, 262, 432 
Water works, I. 221. 334. 338, 334, 361, 

430, 431. 432. 435. 436, 437, 438, 439; 

miles and valuation. I, 438 
Waterworks department. III, 111 
Watson's Hall, I, 265 
Watson, .T. W.. I, 265 
Watson, W. W.. Ill, 437 
Watterson, Henry. I, 334 
Watterson, Horace A., II, 547 
Watterson, Moses G., I, 414 
Watterson school, I, 393 
Watterson, William W., II, 545 
Waverly school, I, 393 
Weaker, Theodore A., Ill, 16 
Wealth in 1891, I, 281 
Weatherly, Joseph L., I, 213, 707, 708, 

Weaver, William E., Ill, 345 
Webb, Ella S., I. 289, 306 
Webb, Thomas P.. I, 501. 504 
Weber. Oustavc C. E.. I, 544 
A\'eber. Herman, I, 275 
Webster, Mrs. J. H., I, 310, 313, 314, 

Weddell. Margaret C, T, 649 
\A'eddell. Peter M., T, 125, 128, 202 
Weed. Mrs. Charles H., I, 290 
Wehrsrhmidt, Daniel, 1, 563 
Wehrschmidt, Emil. I, 563 
Wcideiiian. Henry W., IT, 510 
MCitlciithal, Maiirice. H. 550 
^\■(■iIll(■r, Solumoii, III, 539 
A\eiiitraul), (Jerson Z., 111. 126 
Weitz. T,eonhardt V... Hi, 217 
Weldon, Henry (',., I, 197 
Weldon. S. J.," T, 542 
Welker, Martin. T. 524 
Wells, Frank, 1, 544 
Welsbaeh, Alier V., III. 259 
Weiinenian. .Tos(|ili [I., II, 170 

West Boulevard, I. 491 

West Cleveland. I, 385, 451 

West Cleveland schools annexed, I, 376 

West High school, I, 356, 360, 366 (il- 
lustration), 359 

West junior high school, I, 387 

West Manual Training school, I, 372 

^V'est Park, II, 266 

West school, I, 386 

West Side market, I, 491 

West Side Mimicipal Market House 
(illustration), I, 492 

West Side Railway Company, I, 241 

West Side Savings and Loan Associa- 
tion, III, 243 

West Side Street Railway Company, I, 

West, Sylvester S., Ill, 183 

\\est Technical school, I, 386 

West technical high school, I, 383; (il- 
lustration) 385 

West Technical junior high school, I, 

West Thirty-eighth Play Ground, I, 

Westenhaver, David C, I, 524; II, 22 

Western College of Homeopathy, I, 545 

Western Reserve Almanac for 1853, II, 

Western Reserve Centennial. II, 315 

M'estern Reserve Day, Cleveland Cen- 
tennial, I, 298 

Western Reserve Historical Society, I, 
109, 129, 350, 283. 411. 573; II, 564 

Western Reserve Historical Society's 
Building on the Public Square (illus- 
tration). I, 413 

Western Reserve Historical Society 
Building of Today (illustration), I, 

Western Reserve Historical Society's 
Collections. I, 415 

Western Reserve Real Estate Associa- 
tion Notes (reproductions of), T, 191 

Western Reserve University, I, 271, 
395, 3!)S. 578; II, 413 

iWestern Reserve I'niversity war unit, 
I, 674 

Western Reserve Varnish Comjiany, 
ni, 341 

Western Seamnii's Friend Society, I, 
189, 623, 630 

Western Union Tclegrajih Company, 
IT. 511 

Westinghouse Electric & Jlanufactur- 
ing Ciiinpany, HI. 219 

\\CtlierclI, iMlwin C. T, 545 

Wlialing, G. E, &. Son Company, III, 

Whaling. George E., Til. 538 

Whaling. Ralph A.. HI, 539 

WheelcT, .\nron. I. 73 

Wheeler, .lohn, I, 545 










Iieelnien's Dav. Cleveland Ceiitiniiiiil, 
I, 296 

heeliiu'ii's Day Crowd, Cleveland Cen- 
tennial (illustialiun I, I, 297 
lielpley. Thomas, 1. 178 
hi|)|)le". Edward I)., HI. 333 
hite, An<lrew, I. 210 
hitc, liuslinell, I, 224, 518, 524, 571 
hite Conipaiiv, The, JII, 309 
hite, Fred R.", II, 491 
hite, Henry C. I, 129, 513, 532 
hite, John"G., I, 425, 536* 
hite, John P., II. 445 
hite, Jloses, I, 55 
hite ]\Iotor Companv. III. 501 
hite. X. n.. I, 213 
hite, Pierre A., II, 279 
hite, Roland AV., Ill, 448 
hite Sewinj; Machine Company, II, 
534: III, 501 
hite, Thomas H., I, 565 
hite, AA"ilcnian, I, 130 
hite, AA'. J., I, 565 
hite, AV. S., I, 446 
hitloek, K. H., I, 425 
hitloek, Fred B., Ill, 290 
hitman. F. P.. I, 402 
hitney. Lyman, I, 213 
hittaker. '.May C. I, 376 
hittemore. Edward L., II, 59 
hittlesev. Charles. I, 146*; portrait, 
147; 189, 193, 412, 555, 570, 572, 577, 
583, 659; II, 85 
hittlesev. Elisha. I, 504 
iek Block. II. 560 
ick, Dudlev B., II, 559 
iek, Dudley B., .Jr.. 1 1. 561 
ick, Henry, II. 560 
iek. Warren C, II, 562 
iek, William. I. 56 
ickhani. Certrude A'. R., I, 282, 290, 

idlar Company, III, 374 
idlar, Francis. III. 373 
iebenson. E., I, 711 
ieland. Gustavus A., Ill, 492 
iener. A.. I, 710 
iese, A. D.. II. 194 
ightman. David L., I, 604 
ilcox, John M., I, 434 
ilhelra, John. I. 279, 280 

Hard. Archibald II., I, 471, 565; 
III, 353 

illard. Byron AV., HI, 355 
illard. Daniel, I, 669 
illard school, I, 393 
illard Storage Battery Company, II, 
illard. Theodore A., II, 466 

lies, L., I. 583 

illett avenue bridge. I, 460 
illey, Georpe, I, 346, 348, 350, 351, 
353, 355, 357, 412, 456 

W illev. John AV., I, 130, 179, IHO, 182, 
184, 193, 194, 341, 344, 452, 506; 
(portrait), 181 

Uillevville, I, 174 

Williams, A. J., I, 287, 289 

Williams, Charles D., I, 545, 599 

Williams, Cyrus, I, 178, 205 

Williams, C, I, 177 

Williams, C. C, I, 669 

Williams, E. il., I, 384, 625 

Williams, E. P., I, 402 

Williams, Jonathan, I, 184 

Williams, Joseph, I, 7 

Williams mill, I, 43 

Williams, Mrs. A. J., I, 290, 306 

Williams Park, I, 478 

Williams, Robert F., HI, 526 

Williams, Samuel G., I, 366, 368 

W illiams, William W., I, 60, 69, 72, 74, 

Williams, AA'hecler AV., I, 42 

W illiamson, J, D., I, 428 

Williamson, James D., H, 489 

AVilliamson. Samuel, I, 81*; (portrait) 
82; 99, 109, 129, 198, 200, 205, 208, 
344, 351, 400, 402. 412, 414; H, 485 

AA'illiamson. Samuel E., I, 511, 533, 
533; II, 488 

AVilliamson Tannery, I, 65 

Willis, Genevieve E., II, 182 

\\illis, George W., II, 183 

AVillis. Harriet J., II, 183 

A\'illoughby, III, 169 

AA'illson Avenue Baptist church, I, 618 

Willson, H. A'., I, 237, 532 

Willson, Hiram A^, I, 523, 524 

Willson. S. A'., T, 412 

Willson school. I, 365 

Willson School for Cripples. I, 365 

Willson Street Hospital, I, 547 

Willson (Training) school, I, 393 

AVilmot, James C, III, 242 

Wilshire Building, I, 265 

Wilson, J. J., I, 637 

Wilson, J. AV.. II, 522 

AVilson, Sidney S., I, 417; II, 507 

AA'ilson, Sidney V., II, 507 

AVilson, Thos.'H., I, 710 

AVilson, T. P., I, 546 

AVinch, L. H., I, 517 

AA'indham County, Connecticut (map), 
I. 29 

Windsor. Lloyd, I. 597 

Wing, F. J.. "l, 534 

AVing, Francis J., I, 534; II, 51 

Wing, George C, TI, 50 

AVing, Joseph K., II. 49 

AVing. Marie R., II, 51 

Winslow. Charles, I, 205, 211, 212, 213, 
214. 220 

Winslow. Richard, I, 139; why he re- 
mained, 141 

AA'insIow, Rufus K., I, 555, 571 


VVinthrop, John Jr., I, 3* 

Winton, Alexander, I, 702; III. 472 

Winton Company, The, III, 473 

Wiseman. John J., 1, 660 

Wiswall, William T., I, 283 

Witt. Peter, I. 320: 11, 107 

Witt, Stillman. I, 649 

Wolfe. Herman, in, 263 

Wolfville books. II, 133 

Woltman. William, II, 493 

Woman, first elected to public office in 

Ohio. I, 376 
Woman lawyer, first, I, 275 
Woman Suffrage, II, 109, 424 
Woman's Club of Cleveland, II. 43 
Women's Christian Temperance Union, 

I, 262 
Women's Dav, Cleveland Centennial, I, 

Women's war committee. I, 681 
Women's war work, I, 685 
Wood, David L., I, 658 
Wood. Henry W. S.. I. 456; II. 548 
Wood. Herbert C, HI, 226 
Wood, James C, I, 551 
Wood, Reuben, I, 100, 118'; (portrait) 

118: 505, 507, 521", 528 
Woodland avenue (Kinsman street), I, 

Woodland Avenue Presbyterian church, 

1, 618 
Woodland cemetery, I, 219, 626 
Woodland HillOarfield Boulevard. I, 

\\'oodland Hills Park. I. 476. 491 
Woodland Hills school. 1, 393 
Woodland school, I, 393 
Woods, David L., I, 518 
Wooldridoe school, I, 393 
Woolsev, I, 157 
Woolsey, John M., I, 212 
Woolson, Constance F., I, 573* 
Wooltex coats and suits, III, 196 
Worbs, Andrew V.. Ill, 484 
Worcester, Xoah, I, 543 
WorkiuKmcn's Loan Association, I, 024 
WorI<l war activities, I, 663-87 
Worlev, Daniel, I, 180, 182, 184, 198, 

Worthinpton Company, I, 690; III, 383 
Worthinjjton, Kdward I-., II, 327 
Wortliinfrton, Kdward W., II. 326 
\\'(jrlliinf;lon, (Jeorge, I, 138; (portrait) 

139; 690* 
Worthington, Oeorge, Jr., Ill, 382 
\\ orthington, (ieorge II., Ill, 554 

AVortliington, Thomas, I, 62 
Wright, A. S., I, 398 
Wright, Darwin E.. I. 289 
^\'right, Edward R., I, 623, 677 
Wright, Howell, III, 306 
Wright. .Jabez, I, 81 
"\\'right, Martin L., Ill, 208 
Wright, Mrs. R. H.. I, 298 
Wright, Nat C, I, 592 
\\right'3 Hospital, III, 365 
Wyatt, Major. I, 42 
Wyles, John, I, 8 
U'yman, George, II, 527 

X-rays, II, 561 

Yoder, Harvey O.. Ill, 82 

York, B. H., I, 709 

York, George W., II, 420 

York, Harrison B., I. 658 

Young, Arthur F., II, 318 

Young, Charles A., I, 395 

Young, E. F.. I, 635 

Young, Elijah, I, 173 

'i'oung Furniture Company, HI, 286 

Young, John, I, 51 

Young, John L., IH, 285 

Young Men's Christian Association, I, 
231, 623, 625, 635-649; Association 
Building, 1875 (illustration), 639; 
Association Building on Euclid ave- 
nue and East Fourth street (illus- 
tration), 640; Association Building, 
1891 (illustration). 641; Association 
Building. 1918 (illustration), 645; 
Association branch buildings, 643, 
644; war work, 677 

Young Men's Literary Association, I, 
188, 211, 570 

Young. P. F.. I. 519 

Young. Thos O.. I. 129 

Young People's Council of (he Fed- 
erated Churches, 1, 622 

Young Women's Christian Association, 
I, 250, 623, 625, 649-53: II, 393; 
-Vssociation Bviilding (illustration), 
I. 650; dining room (illustration), 

Younglove, Moses C, I, 586; III, 166 

Zangerle, John A., I, 448 
Zimerman, Charles X.. I, 662, 609 
/ion church. I, 605 

Zones and area of water supply, I, 438 
"Zoo." Bro(iksi<Ie Park. I, 487 " 
Zoul, William J., II, 378 

Cleveland and Its Environs 



In Ifi.'il, au Indian sajxamore went to Boston with the storj^ of a 
delightful country in the valley of what is now known as the Con- 
necticut River. For various reasons, some of the people of Massa- 
chusetts Bay soon began to think that their province was too crowded 
and to express a desire to emigrate westward. About that time the 
earl of Warwick assigned to Lord Say and Scale, Lord Brooke, and 
others his dubious title to the territory between the Narragansetl and 
the Pacific, the bounds of which were stated with exasperating indefi- 
niteness. The grantees planned the planting of a colony, but the 
New Xetlu'i-land Dutch penetrated the Connecticut River valley, 
bouglit lands from the Indians as was tlieir honest custom, built Fort 
Good Hope on the site of Hartford, aiul claimed the whole valley as 
their own. In T63.1, the Pilgrims at New Plymouth sent a vessel to 
carry William Holmes and others thither, and the Dutch commander of 
Fort Good Hope threatened to fire if Holmes attempted to sail by. 
But Holmes iniderstood English better than he did Dutch, obeyed his 
New Plymouth orders, .sailed by the quiescent fort, and, si.x miles 
further up the river, began a settlement on the site of Windsor. 
Connecticut had been begun. 

E.VRLY Events in Southern New England 

The water route to the beautiful valley having been thus opened 
by Holmes, the overland route through Massachusetts was explored 
by John Oldham, whose "appetizing accounts of the upper Connecti- 
cut valley . . . seem to have suggested a way out of a serious 
difficulty which had come to a head in Massachu.setts Bay." Five of 
the eight Massachusetts towns had limited suffrage and office-holding 



[Chap. I 

to church members. For this and perhaps other reasons, the three 
more democratic towns fell into opposition. In 1636, came a mem- 
orable migration, led by such men as Thomas Hooker and William 
Pynchon, and urged on by the restless pioneer spirit characteristic 
of our fathers, the desire for more fertile lands than those of eastern 
ilassachusetts, a longing for less of political and ecclesiastical restric- 
tion than that imposed by the Puritan hierarchy, and, in some cases, 
no doubt, by a weariness of the overshadowing influence of Wilson, 
Cotton, Endicott, Dudley and the elder Winthrop. In March of that 
year (1636), the ilassaehusetts general court issued a commission 

A T J. A 

y T I C 

Southern New England 

to eight persons "to govern the people at Coiinoctirut " for the ensu- 
ing year, but before the Massachusetts commission expiicil, Connecti- 
cut liad a W('ll-cstal)lished govornincut of i1s own. hi Ili37. Sj.ring- 
field withdrew from the association, but in .hmuary, 163S-3!!, the other 
towns on the river, Hartford, Wethcrsticld ami Windsor, took iij) tlic 
powers of self-government, a somewhat iieliidous comnioiiwcalth with 
its authority derived chiefly from the democratic principles of its 
citizens; its constitution, known a.s "The Fundamental Orders of 
Connecticut," niiide no mention of king or pai-liamcnt. Thei'c soon 
came a voluminous correspondence lietwccn Tiiomas Hookei- and Gov- 
ernor Winthrop concerning the boundaries of the cnninionwcalths 


and general prineiples of government. This corres)iondcnce shows 
clearly the nneonipromising denioeracy of the Hartford pastor who 
urged tliat "the foundation of antliority is laid in the free consent of 
the people." On the other hand. Governor Winthrop insisted that 
"the best part is always the least, and of that best part the wiser part 
is always the lesser." This disposition of the Connecticut freemen 
to make their democracy the chief cornerstone of commonwealth still 
pemsts in their descendants in New Connecticut. 

In June, 1637, a band of English Calvinists landed at Boston. 
Their leader was their pastor, John Davenport, after whom their 
leading man was Theophilus Eaton, a merchant. In proportion to 
their numbers, they formed the richest colony in America, and they 
were free from entangling alliances. Unwilling to subordinate them- 
selves to others when they could constitute a commonwealth of their 
own, and without any patent from king or concessionaire, they sailed 
from Boston in March, 1638, and began a settlement at what is now 
New Haven. At first, as was the case at Plymouth, the town and the 
colony were identical, but, one after another, neighboring towns were 
planted and, in 1643, the deputies from several of these towns met 
as a general court and adopted a constitution for the commonwealth 
of New Haven. 

In 1645, John Winthrop, Jr., son of the Jlassachu-setts governor, 
began a plantation at the mouth of the Pequot River; the plantation 
became New London and the river became tiie Thames. In 1646, 
Winthrop received a commis.sion from the Ma-ssachu.setts general 
court, but, in tlie following year, the commissioners of the United 
Colonics concluded that "the jurisdiction of that plantation doth 
and ought to belong to Connecticut." Settlements were soon made 
at Stonington and elsewhere in ea.stern Connecticut. In 1658, the 
commissioners of the United Colonies awarded the territory west of 
the Mystic River to Connecticut and the country between the Mystic 
and the Pawcatuck to Massachusetts. In 1662, the long-sought Con- 
necticut charter fixed the eastern boundary of the colony at the Paw- 
catuck River. Ma.s,sachusetts acquiesced, and, in June of that year, 
Thomas ^Fincr of Stonington wrote in his famous diary tliat "mr 
plaisted [and] ould Cheesbrough was going to norig [Norwich] To 
surrender the Towne to Coneticut." 

In 1657, the yf)unger Winthrop was elected governor of Connecti- 
cut, for a year. In 1659. lie was again elected and held the office until 
1676. Connecticut was tardy, but less tardy tlian the other members 
of the New England confederacy, in her acknowledgment of Charles 
II. as king of England. In 1661, her general court voted an address 


1 Chap. I 

to the king "declaring and professing themselves, all the inhabitants 
of the colony, to be his Highness 's lawful and faithful subjects." 
Governor "Winthrop was sent to England with the address and instruc- 
tions to seek a royal charter with provisions "not inferior or short 
of what was granted to the Ma.ssaehusetts. " In England, he had the 
influential support of Lord Say and Scale and of the earl of Man- 
chester. AVinthrop's mi.ssion was successful, and, in April, 1662, the 
monarch who has been fittingly described as "indolent, unamliitious, 
and depraved in morals" granted a charter of extraordinary liberality. 

The Loc.\tion of New Connecticut 

The charter thus granted to Connecticut conveyed a licit of land 
reaching from the Massachusetts line to Long Island Sound and ex- 
tending vvestwai'd from Narragansett Bay "to the South Sea [Pacific 
Ocean] on the west part with the islands thereunto adjoining." It 
consolidated the Connecticut and the New Haven plantations, jumped 
half the claim of Rhode Island and the lately estaMislicd claim of 
Massachusetts, and ignored the existence of llie Dutch. New Haven 
liked it not and, under the lead of Davciijiort, resisted annexation 
until 1665, when she submitted. For yeai's befni'e and after this, the 
policy of Connecticut was what, in inodcrn political parlance, is cidlcd 
a still hunt; or, in the words of I'rofessor Johnston, "to say as little 
as possililc, yield as little as possible, and evade as nuich as possible 


when open resistaiiec was evident folly." Her statesmen never forgot 
their laek of a eliarter. and the importance of securing an increase 
of territory. Their success in cairyiiiir <iut this policy remarkable. 

KiivAL L.vND Grants 

But it was not in good form for kings in those days to be accurate 
in the matter of the title deeds they gave. In fact, their disregard 
of geography and equity was phenomenal. The grants overlapped 
alarmingly and bred conflicts that gave no end of trouble to American 
colonists and of exas])erati()n to American historians. Subsequent 
grants to the duke of York and to AVilliam Peun cut sorry gashes in the 
domain granted by this charter of 1662. The northern boundary of 
Connecticut is the parallel of 42° 2' ; the westei-n boundary happens to 
fall at the seashore on the forty-first parallel of north latitude. At 
the close of the war of independence. Connecticut still upheld her 
claim to the western territory lying between the parallels of 41° and 
of 42°. 2' and extending from Pennsylvania to the Mississippi. By a 
resolution of her legislature in 1783, she affirmed "the undoubted 
and exclusive right of .iurisdiction and preemi^tion to all the lands 
lying of the western limits of the state of Pennsylvania, and 
east of the Mississippi River, and extending throughout, from the 
latitude of the forty-first degree to the latitude of the forty-second 
degree and two minutes, north ; by virtue of the charter granted by 
King Chai'les IT, to the late colony and luiw state of Connecticut, 
and being dated April 23, 1662, which claim and title to make 
known for the information of all, that they may conform themselves . 
thereto : 

Resolved, that his excellency, the governor, be desired to issue 
his j)roclamation. declaiming and asserting the right of this state to 
all the lands within the limits aforesaid, and strictly forbidding all 
persons to enter or settle thereon, without special license and authority 
first obtained from the cfcneral assembly of this state. 


A few yeai's later, tiie cKiiinaiit states of the old confedei'ation cCdcd 
their western lands to the general government. On the fourteenth 
of September, 1786, by deed of cession, Connecticut released to the 
United States all right, title, .iurisdiction, and claim that she had 
north of the forty-first panillcl and west of a meridian to be run 
one hundred and twenty miles west of the west line of Pennsylvania. 
The deed made no disposition of the territory between this meridian 


and the Pennsylvania line and north of the forty-fii'st parallel; in 
other words, the territory in the northeastern part of the Ohio of to- 
day, bounded on the north by the international line, on the east 
by Pennsylvania, on the south by the forty-first parallel, and on the 
west by a line pai*allel to the western boundary of Pennsylvania 
and a hundred and twenty miles from it was excluded from the re- 
lease. Connecticut was said "to reserve" this territory, and the 
popular expression, "The Connecticut Western Reserve" soon worked 
its way into legal and historical documents. In October, 1786, the 
general assembly of Connecticut authorized the sale of the eastern 
part of her reservation. The resolution provided for the survey of 
six ranges of townships lying west of the Pennsylvania line. The 
townships were to be six miles square and numbered from Lake 
Erie southward ; a plan of survey that was subsequently modified. 
The price per acre was limited to three shillings currency (half a 
dollar). In each township, 500 acres were to be resei-ved for the 
support of the gospel ministry, and 500 more for the stipport of 
schools. The first minister who settled in a township was to be 
given 240 acres. Until local civil government could be established, 
the preservation of peace and good order was to devolve iipon the 
general assembly. In the following year, congress enacted the 
famous Ordinance of 1787, thus establishing national authority over 
the Western Reserve. Although no attempt was made to execute 
the surveys authorized in 1786 by the general assembly, 24,000 
acres, described by ranges and townships as though the lines had 
been run and marked upon the ground, and afterwards known as 
the "Salt Spring Tract" in Trumbull County, was sold in February. 
1788, to Gen. Samuel H. Parsons of IMiddletown, Connecticut. 

Salb op Western Reserve to Connecticut Land Company 

In May, 1792, the general assembly set apart 500,000 acres lying 
across the western end of the Reserve for the benefit of her citi- 
zens who had suffered losses by British incursions in the Revolu- 
tion. In Connecticut history, these lands are known as "The Suf- 
ferer's Lands;" in Ohio history, as "The Fire Lands." In May, 
1795, the general assembly ofTered for sale the remaining part of 
its western lands, flic i)roceeds thereof to constitute a perpetual 
fund, the interest of which sliould lie approju-iated for th(> siip- 
jiort of schools. The Connecticut school fund, wliich now amounts 
to more than !)^2, 000,000, consists wholly of |)roco(>ds of the sale of 
these western lands and of the capitalized intei'cst thereon. The 


time was propitious, for the triumphal march of Gen. Anthony 
Wayne through the Indian country from the Ohio River to Lake 
Erie in 179-4 had added new zest to the speculation in western lands. 
In the followinsT ^^cptenlber (1795), a legislative committee sold 
these lauds to the Connecticut Land Company which was organized 
for the purpose of the purchase. This company was not incor- 
porated; it was simply a "syndicate" of land speculators. The 
price agreed upon was .$1, 200,000; the sale was made on credit, the 
purchasers giving their bonds with personal security, and subse- 
quently supplementing them by mortgages on the lands. The Re- 
serve was sold without survey or measurement. The committee made 
as many deeds as there were purchasers and each deed granted all 
riglit, title and interest, jui'idical and territorial, to as many twelvc- 
hundred-thousanilths of the land as the number of dollars that the 
purchasers had agreed to pay. "These deeds were quitclaims only, 
the State guaranteeing nothing as against such Indian titles as still 
remained unextinguished." Each purchaser was a tenant in common 
of the whole territory. The names of the purchasers and the amount 
of each one 's subscription are as follows : 

Joseph Howland and Daniel L. Coit .$ 30.461 

Elias :\Iorgan 51,402 

Caleb Atwater 22,846 

Daniel Ilolbrook 8,750 

Joseph Williams 15,231 

AVilliam Love 10,500 

William Judd 16,256 

Elisha Hyde and Uriah Tracey 57,400 

James Johnston 30,000 

Samuel :Mather, Jr .' . . . 18,461 

Ephraim Kirbv, Elijah Boardman and Uriel Holmes, Jr. . . 60,000 

Solomon Griswold 10,000 

Oliver Plielps and Gideon Granger, Jr 80,000 

William Hart 30,462 

Henry Champion, 2d 85.675 

Asher Miller 34.000 

Robert C. Johnson 60,000 

Ephraim Root 42,000 

Nehemiah Hubl)ard, Jr 19,039 

Solomon Cowles 10,000 

Oliver Phelps 168,185 

Asahel Hathawav 12,000 

John Caldwell and Peleg Sanford 15,000 

Timothy Burr 15,231 

Luther Loomis and Ebenezer King, Jr 44,318 

William Lyman, John Stoddard and David King 24,730 


Moses Cleaveland 32,600 

Samuel P. Lord 14,092 

Roger Newberry, Eiiocli Perkins and Jonathan Brace .... 38,000 

Ephraim Starr 17,415 

Sylvanns Griswold 1,683 

Joseb Stocking and Joshua Stow 11,423 

Titus Street 22,846 

James Bull. Aaron Olmsted and John "Wyles 30,000 

Pierpoint Edwards " 60,000 


The deeds and subsequent drafts by which the lands were dis- 
tributed were recorded in the office of the secretary of state at Hart- 
ford and subsequently transferred to the recorder's office at War- 
ren. For convenience in the transaction of business, the holders of 
these deeds conveyed (September 5, 1795) their respective interests 
to three trustees, John Caldwell, John Morgan, and Jonathan Brace. 
The original of this deed of tiiist is in the archives of the AYestern 
Reserve Historical Society. Such was the largest sale of Ohio lands 
ever made. The deeds given by these trustees constitute the source 
of all land titles in the "Western Reserve. The somewhat elaboi-ate 
articles of association provided that annual meetings should be held 
at Hartford in October and that the proprietors were to draM' by 
townships, receive their deeds, and make their own subdivisions. As 
a speculation, the purchase proved unfortunate; the survey showed 
that instead of buying 4,000,000 acres as was supposed, the share- 
holders had bought not more than 3,000,000; instead of paying 
thirty cents per acre, they had paid more than forty. The expenses 
of the survey were heavier than had been anticipated and a jurisdic- 
tional question caused much vexation iuul peeuniai-y loss. "For 
a state to alienate the jurisdiction of half its territory to a company 
of land speculators that never rose to the dignity of a body corporate 
and politic was certainly a remarkable proceeding." 

Personnel op the Connecticut L.\nd Comp.\ny 

The directors of the company were Oliver Phelps of Sufficld ; 
Henry Champion, 2d, of Colchester; Moses Cleaveland of Canter- 
bury; Samuel AV. Johnson, Ejihraim Kii-by and Samuel Mather, Jr., 
of Lynn ; and Roger Newberry of West Windsor. The articles of 
association authorized the directors "to procure an extinguishment 
of the Lidian tifle to said Reserve" and "to survey the whole of 
said Reserve, and to lay tlie same out into tnwiisliips cuntaiiiing 

General Moses Cleaveland 

Pirst reproduction from a portrait, by the courtesy of The Western 

Reserve Historical Society. 


16,000 acres each; to fix on a township in which the first settle- 
ment shall be made, to survey that township into small lots in such 
manner as they shall think proper, and to sell and dispose of said 
lots to actual settlers only; to erect in said township a saw-mill and 
grist-mill at the expense of said company, to lay out and sell live 
other townships of 16,000 acres each to actual settlers only." In 
the spring of 1796, the directors sent out a surveying party (fifty 
pei*sons, all told) under the command of Gen. ]Moses Cleaveland, 
a man of few words and prompt action, a man of true courage and 
as shrewd in his tactics as he was courageous. This ]Moses Cleave- 
land was born at Canterbury in Windham County, Connecticut, on 
the twenty-ninth of January, 1754, the second son of Aaron and 
Thankful (Paine) Cleaveland. In the Memorial Record of Cuya- 
hoga County published in 1894, it is recorded, on the authority of 
"an eminent antiquarian," (Harvey Rice) that the name Cleave- 
land or Cleveland appears to be "of Saxon origin and was given 
to a distinguished family in Yorkshire, England, prior to the Nor- 
man conquest. The family occupied a large landed estate w-hich was 
peculiarly marked by open fissures in its rocky soil, styled 'cleft' 
or 'eleves' by the Saxons, and by reason of the peculiarity of the 
estate its occupants were called ' Clefflauds, ' which name was ac- 
cepted by the family." It may be well, however, to remember that, 
while the art of patronymic derivation is interesting, some of its 
results are amazingly ingenious. On the same authority it is said 
that a William Cleaveland removed from York to Ilincklej' in 
Leicestershire, England, where he died in 1630. This William had a 
son, Thomas, who became vicar of Hinckley, and another son, Samuel. 
This Samuel Cleaveland had a son, Moses, who migrated to America 
in 16;?.5 and became the ancestor of all the Cleavelands and Cleve- 
lands who are of New England origin. After living several veal's at 
Boston, he became one of the founders of Woburn, Massachusetts, 
where he died in 1701. By way of Chelmsford, some of his descend- 
ants moved to the town of Canterbury where Aaron Cleaveland, the 
fifth son and (ruth (tliild of Josiali Cleaveland, was born in 1727. 
In 1748, this Aaron Clcvelaiul married Thankful Paine, and their 
second .son was the Moses Cleaveland with whom we are the most 
directly coneenied. .Vai'oii and Thankfid were persons of educa- 
tion and refinement and decided that their son should have a col- 
lege education. After the usual preparation, he was sent to Yale 
where he was graduated in 1777. He then studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the l)ar, and began the i)ractice of his profession in his 
native town. In 1779, he became captain of a company of sajjpers 


and miners in the scrvii'c of the United States, served as such for 
several years, and then returned to the practice of the law. He 
became a prominent member of the Masonic order and served several 
terms in the state legislature. In 1794, he mari-ied Esther, the 
daughter of Henry Champion; she is spoken of as "a young lady of 
rare accomplishments;" by her, he had two sons and two daughters. 
In 1796, he was commissioned as brigadier-general of the Connecticut 
militia and, in the same year, was chosen to lead the pioneers of 
the Connecticut Land Company to the Western Reserve. It is said 
that in his bearing he was manly and dignified. "He wore such a 
sedate look that strangei-s often took him for a clergyman. He had 
a somewhat swarthy complexion, which induced the Indians to be- 
lieve him akin to their own race. He had black hair, quick and 
penetrating eyes. He was of medium height, erect, thick-set, and 
portly, and was of muscular limbs and his step was of a military air." 



He whose name our city bears was commissioned to superintend 
"the agents and men sent to survey and make locations on said 
land, and to enter into friendly negotiations with the natives who 
are on said land or contiguous thereto and may liave any pretended 
claim to the same," and was "fully authorized to act and transact 
the above business in as full a manner as we oui-selves could do." 
The journey from Connecticut to the Reserve was toilsome and 
tedious, but there were some variations from the i-outine. For in- 
stance, the journal of Seth Pease contains the following: "I began 
my journey, Monday, May 9, 1796. Fare from Suffield to Hartford, 
six sliillings : expenses, four shillings, six pence. ... At break- 
fast, expense two shillings. Fare on my chest from Hartford to 
Middletown, one shilling, six pence." The trip to New York cost 
for "Passage and liquor, 4 dollars and three quarters." His 
recorded expenses for "seeing" the metropolis were "Ticket for 
play, 75c; Liquor, 14e ; Show of elephants, 50e; shaving and comb- 
ing, 13e." On the nineteenth of May, General Cleaveland wrote 
from Albany to Oliver Phelps as follows: "I have in rain 
and bad roads arrived at this place. I\Ir. Porter loft Schenectady 
on last Sunday, one man was drowned. I find it inconvenient and 
at present imi)ossible to ol)tain a loan of money witliout sacrifice, 
•as our credit as a comiiany is not yet sufficiently known. It must 
then rest on drafts on Thos. Matlier & Company, dependent on 
their early being supplied with money from Hartford. . . . Sir. 
Porter has proceeded, as I ol)t;iiii information, with all the dispatch 
and attention possible, but we shall all fall short, tho' our exer- 
tions arc ever so great, without pecuniary aid. I have concluded, 
without adequate sujiiily, to proceed, and as my presence is miu'h 
wanted to risque consequences, shall nuike drafts on Thos. Mather 
and Company, resting assured that you will immediately, if at the 
expense of a person on ]inr|)(iM' send on the money imniecliately that 
can be procured, to Messrs. .Mather, who will attend to all orders 
and dircM-tions you may please to give. A credit once establislied, 


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Moses Cleaveland's Co^imtsston 


the business eau with great ease and less expense be transacted, but 
if we shall be obliged to draw orders, and once protested, I am ap- 
prehensive that consequences will be fatal, at least to the persons 
employed." The party was at Schenectady early in June. The 
horses and cattle were driven thence to BuflPalo, while most of the 
men went in open boats, up the Mohawk River, across the "Great 
Carrj'ing Place" near Fort Stanwix (Rome, New York), down the 
narrow, crooked "Wood Creek, through Oneida Lake, down the Os- 
wego River into Lake Ontario, and around Niagara to Buffalo, a 
journey of several heavy portages and througli an unexplored wil- 
derness. The boats were the batteaux common for the navigation of 
rivers and lakes in those daj-s; each was supplied with oars and 
paddles and a movable mast and sail. As recorded by Mrs. Har- 
riet Taylor Upton in her History of the Western Reserve, the "bat- 
teaux filled with provisions, baggage, and men were heavy and most 
of the men were unused to river boating. One of them records that 
]nilling up the ^Mohawk was as hard work as he ever did in his life. 
It was a relief when they began going down the Oswego." Fort 
Oswego and Fort Niagara were then held by the British, but were 
to be delivered to the LTnited States in accordance w\i\\ the provi- 
sions of the Jay treaty. Unfortunatel.y, the old orders to the officers 
at Fort Oswego allowed no Americans to pass and the new orders 
had not yet arrived from Fort Niagara. But Commissaiy Stow was 
in a hurry and when, in disobedience of his instructions, he passed 
the fort with only one of his four boats, the British officers thought 
that he was simply going to Fort Niagara to get the needed per- 
mission for the party to go on. The other three boats passed the 
fort under cover of the night and the party reached Lake Ontario 
in safety. Then came a violent storm with attendant losses. In his 
journal, John ^Milton Holley, one of the surveyors, wrote that "on 
Saturday morning there sprang up in the northwest a storm, and 
blew most violently on tlie .shore of the lake. This proved fatal to 
one of the boats, and damaged another very much, though we went 
a little forward to a safe harbor, and built several fires on the bank 
of the lake, as a beacon to those coming on. After the disaster had 
hapijcned, the boat that was safe went on to the Gerundicut [Iron- 
dequoit] with a load, and left the other three, including the one 
that was stove, at Little Sodus, encamped near the lake. Among the 
passengers were two families, one of the women with a little child. 
. . . All of these misfortunes happened in consequence of not 
having liberty to pass the fort at Oswego. Such are the effects of 
allowing the British (jovernment to exist on the continent of Ameriea." 


The party finally arrived at Iroiulotiuoit, the port for Rochester, and 
thcuee moved on to Canaiulaigua and were at Buflt'alo on the seven- 
teenth of .hine. On Sunday (June 19), Mr. IloUey "left Buffalo 
in Winney's boat, for Chipi)e\va, had a fair wind down, and arrived 
about 1 o'clock at Chippewa, dined at Fanning's, found our goods 
were not at the Gore, in Chippewa, and was obliged to go to Queens- 
town after them, and as T could not get a horse was obliged to walk. 
I got to QuccnstowH before night, and lodged at Caleb Ingersoll's; 
next morning set out for Buffalo. On the way I stopped to look at 
Niagara Falls. That river a little above Fort Slusher, is two and 
a half miles wide. Soon after this the water is very rapid, and con- 
tinuing on, is hurried witli amazing impetuosity down the most 
stupendous precipice perhaps in nature. There is a fog continually 
arising, occasioned by the tumbling of the water, which, in a clear 
morning, is seen from Lake Erie, at the distance of thirty or forty 
miles, as is the noise also hoard. As the hands were very dilatory 
in leaving Chippewa, we were obliged to encamp on the great island 
in the river. We struck a fire and cooked some squirrels and pigeons, 
and a young partridge. I slept very sound all night, between a 
large log and the bank of the river. The next day arrived at Buffalo." 

Cleaveland Buys Indian Land Claims 

At Buffalo, General Cleaveland bought the Indian claim to the 
lands east of the Cuyahoga River (June 23d) for 500 pounds 
(New York currency in trade), two beef cattle, and a hundred gal- 
lons of whiskey. The Connecticut pilgrims had been "confronted 
by representatives of the Mohawk and Seneca Indians, headed by the 
famous Red Jacket, and Joseph Brant otherwise known to fame by 
his Indian name of Thayendanega, who were determined to use force 
if necessarv, to oppose the further progress of the expedition toward 
the West. In the skill and address with which he met this danger 
and averted it, the General showed himself a diplomat as well as 
a soldier." In his journal, Surve.yor Holley wrote: "At two o'clock 
this afternoon, the council fire with the Six Nations was uncovered, 
and at evening was again covered until morning, when it was opened 
again, and after some considerable delay. Captain Brant gave Gen- 
eral Cleaveland a speech in writing. The chiefs, after this, were 
determined to get drank. No more business was done this day. In 
the evening the Indians had one of their old ceremonial dances, 
where one gets up and walks up and down between them, singing 
something, and those who sit around keep tune by grunting. Next 


morniiior, which was tlie 23rd, after several speeclies back' and fortli, 
from Red Jacket to General Cleaveland, Captain Chapin, Brant, etc.. 
General Cleaveland answered Brant's speech. In short, the business 
was concluded in this waj'. General Cleaveland offered Brant one 
thousand dollars as a present. Brant, in answer, told General Cleave- 
land that their minds were easily satisfied, but that they thought his 
offer was not enough, and added this to it, that if he would use his 
influence with the United States to procure an annuity of five hun- 
dred dollars par, and if this should fail that the Connecticut Land 
Company should, in a reasonable time, make an additional present 
of one thousand five hundred dollars, which was agreed to. The 
Mohawks are to give one hundred dollars to the Seneeas^ and Cleave- 
land gave two beef cattle and whiskey to make a feast for them." 
In consideration of payments and promises, the chiefs guaranteed 
that the settlers upon the Western Reserve should not be molested 
by their people, an agreement that was faithfully carried out. On 
the twenty-seventh of June, General Cleaveland and his party left 
Buffalo Creek in two divisions, one by land and one by lake. On 
Monday, the Fourth of July, they arrived at the place where the 
dividing line between Pennsylvania and their "Reserve"' struck 
Lake Erie. Seth Pease WTote in his journal: '"We that came by 
land arrived at the confines of New Connecticut and gave three 
cheers precisely at 5 o'clock, p. m. We then proceeded to Conneaut 
[Creek] at five hours, thirty uiiuutes; our boats got on an hour 
after; we pitched our tents on the east side." That evening, the 
I^ioneers celebrated the twentieth anniversary of American indepen- 
dence at the mouth of Conneaut C'rcek and christened the place the 
Port of lnile|)eiHl('iu'e. In liis Jnnnial, (lenrriil Cleaveland wrote: 

At the Port of Independence 

On this croek ("Conucaught") in New Connecticut land, Jul.v 
4th, ]?!)(), under General Moses Cleaveland, the .surveyors, and men 
sent by the Connecticut Land Company to survey and settle the 
Connecticut Reserve, and were the first English people who took 
possession of it. Tlie day, memorable as tho birthday of Ameriean 
Independence, and freedom from Bi'itish tyranny, and commemorated 
by all good fTCcborn sons of America, and memorable as the day on 
which the settlement of this new country was commenced, and in time 
may raise hor head amongst tlie most eidightened and improved States. 
And after many difficidtics perplexities aiul hardships were s\ir- 
inouiited, and we were on the good and promised land, felt that a .inst 
tribute of respect 1o the day ouglil to lie paid. Tliere were in all. 
inc'liiding men, women and children, fil'ly in number. The men, undei' 

1796] AT CONNEAUT 17 

Captain Tinker ranged flicnisolvcs on the beach, and fired a Federal 
salute of fifteen rounds, and then the sixteenth in honor of New Con- 
iieetient. We p-ave three eheers and christened the place Port liide- 
pendenee. Drank several toasts, viz.: 

1st. Tlie I'l-esident of tlie United States. 

2d. Tlie State of Xew (^mneefieut. 

;Jd. The Conneetieut Land Companj'. 

4th. ;May the Port of Independence and the fifty sons and 
daughters who have entered it this day he successful and prosperous. 

5th. May these sons and danijhters multiply in sixteen years 
sixteen times fifty. 

tith. Jlay every person havo his bowsprit trimmed and ready to 
enter every jxii-t that opens. 

Closed with three eheei-s. Hi'ank several pails of grog, supped and 
retired in remarkable good ordei-. 

One of these toasts, thus drunk in "several pails of grog," "May 
these sons and daughters multiply in sixteen years sixteen times 
fifty," expressed a hope that was more than made good. Another 
toast, "The State of New Connecticut," hinted at a notion on the 
part of the proprietors that they might organize a state as William 
Penn had done, and govern it from Hartford as the Council of 
Plymouth had governed New England from old England. If such 
notions actually existed, the plans all went awry; the United States 
objected to that way of setting up a state, and, by the famous Ordi- 
nance of 1787, had included the Western Reserve in the Northwest 
Territory, an imperial domain bounded on the north by the Great 
Lakes, on the east by Pennsylvania and Virginia, on the south by 
the Ohio River, and on the west by the Mississippi. 

The surveying party that had thus reached the Promised Land 
was made up as follows : 

General Moses Cleaveland, Si(prri7itendent. 

Augustus Porter, Principal Surveyor and Deputy Superintendent. 
Seth Pease. Aftfronomcr and Surveyor. 

Amos Spafford, John Milton Ilolley, Richard M. Stoddard, and 
Moses Warren, Surveyors. 
Joshua Stow, Commisaary. 
Theodore Shepard, Physician. 

Employees of the Company 

Joseph Tinker, Boatman. Joseph ^M'lntyre, 

George Proudfoot, Francis Gray, 

Samuel Forbes, Amos Sawtel, 

Stephen Benton, Amos Barber, 

Samiu'l TTungerford, William B. Hall. 

Samuel Davenport, Asa Mason, 


Amzi Atwater, Jliehael Coffin, 

Elisha Ayres, Thomas Harris, 

Norman Wilcox, Timothy Dunham, 

George Gooding, Shadraeh Benham, 

Samuel Agnew, Wareham Shepard, 

David Beard, John Briant, 

Titus V. Munson, Joseph Landon, 

Charles Parker, Ezekiel jMorly, 

Nathaniel Doan, Luke Ilanchet, 

James Halket, James Hamilton, 

Olney F. Rice, John Look, 

Samuel Barnes, Stephen Burhank. 
Daniel Shulay, 

As several of the old manuscripts state that there were fifty 
in the party, it seems necessary to add the names of Elijah Gun, 
who was to have charge of the stores at Conneaut; Job Stiles, who 
was to have a similar position at Cleveland; Nathan Chapman and 
Nathan Perry, who were to furnish fresh meat and to trade with 
the Indians. In some of the old records, the names of the men are 
followed by the words, "and two females." The two women thus 
referred to, the first who made real homes on the Westeni Reserve, 
were Mrs. Anna Gun, later of Conneaut, and Mrs. Tabitha Stiles, 
later of Cleveland. The party had thirteen horses and some cattle. 
It is said that the organization of the surveyors and employees, "was 
of the military order, and they were enlisted the same as in the 
army, for two years, providing it took so long." This Augustus 
Porter, "principal surveyor and deputy superintendent," had been 
surveyor of the great "Holland Purchase" in western New York. 

"Stow Castle" 

On the fifth of July, laborers began the building of a log cabin, 
later known as "Stow Ca,st]e," on the cast side of Conneaut Creek; 
Harvey Rice tells us that its "style of architecture w-as entirely 
unique, and its uncouth aitpearancc such as to provoke the laughter 
of the builders and the ridicule of the Indians." A second house 
was later built for the shelter of the surveyors. It was tlien supposed 
that Conneaut would be the hea(l(|uarters of the jiarty. On the same 
day, Captain Tiid^cr was sent with two boats back to Fort Erie for 
supplies lliiit liiid been left there and General Cleaveland "received 
a message from the Paqua chief of the Massasagoes residing in 
Conneaut that they wished a council held that day. I pre]>are(l 
to meet them and, after they were all seated, tciok niv seat in tlie 


micUllo." Tlio tuu'asy natives naturally wanted to know the plans 
of tlie white strangoi-s and how tlioy would he affected tlierehy. The 
wise superintendent gave them "a chain of wampum, silver trinkets, 
and other presents, and whiskey, to the amount of about twenty- 
five dollars," tofjether with assurances of kind treatment and with 
gootl advice that "not only closed the business but cheeked their 
begging for more whiskey." 

Explorations of the New Land 

On the seventh of July, the surveyors set out to find the inter- 
section of the forty-first i)arallel and the Pennsylvania line and 
thence to run a base line 120 miles westward. From this base line, 
they were to draw lines, five miles apart, due north to Lake Erie, 
thus creating twentj'-four ranges that were to be numbered, covinting 
from the Pennsylvania line. These meridian lines were to be crossed 
by east and west lines, five miles apart, thus dividing each range 
into survey townships five miles square to be numbered northward 
from the base line. Thus Cleveland, before it had a name as a town- 
sliip, was known at town No. 7 in range 12, it being seven town- 
ships north of the forty-first parallel and twelve townships west of 
the Pennsylvania line. The eastern end of the base line was fixed 
on the twenty-third of July and marked by a chestnut post. 

About this time. General Cleaveland and a few of his party rowed 
and sailed westward in an open boat along the shore of Lake Erie 
until they came to a stream that they thought to be the Cuyahoga. 
After going as far up this stream as the sand-bars and fallen timber 
would permit, they found that they had made the mistake of entering 
a stream not shown on their map and had to retrace their way to 
the lake. There is a doubtful story to the effect that in his disap- 
pointment General Cleaveland called the stream the Chagrin River, 
the name by which it is known today. Still coasting westward, the 
party entered at the mouth of the Cii3'ahoga on the morning of 
the twenty-second of July, 1796, a date to be remembered by every 
.student of the history of what now is the metropolis of Ohio. On an 
old map, printed in 1760, it is recorded that "Cayahoga, a creek 
that leads to Lake Erie, which is muddy and not very swift, and 
nowhere obstructed with falls or rifts, is the best portage between 
the Ohio and Lake Erie. The mouth is wide, and deep enough 
to receive large sloops from the lake, and will hereafter be of great 
importance." At the time of General Cleaveland 's coming, the river 
flowed into the lake west of its present artificial mouth while, still 


further west, a stagnant pool marked the location of a still earlier 
bed. Across the mouth of the river ran a sand-bar that, "in the 
spring and fall, was torn open by the floods, but in summer rose so 
high that even the small schooners of the day had difficulty in 
passing in and out. Once inside, a fairly good harborage was found." 
As already' recorded, the Indian claims to the lands east of the river 
had been bought by General Cleaveland at Buffalo in June, but their 
claims to the lands west of the river had not yet been extinguished. 

In his Pioneers of tlve ^¥cster■n Reserve, Harvey Rice tells us that 
after reaching the veritable Cuyahoga and advancing a little way 
up its channel, the party "attempted to land, but in their efforts 
to do so ran their boat into the marshy growth of wild vegetation 
which skirted the easterly bank of the river, and stranded her. Here 
'Moses,' like his ancient name's sake, found himself cradled in the 
bullrushes. This occurred near the foot of Union Lane (see map on 
Page 24), which was at that time the termination of an Indian trail. 
The party soon succeeded in effecting a safe landing. They thou 
ascended the precipitous bluff", which overlooked the valley of the river, 
and were astonished to find a broad and beautiful plain of woodland 
stretching far away to the east, west and south of them, and lying at an 
elevation of some eighty feet above the dark blue waters of Lake Erie. 
The entire party became enamored of the scene." 

In the party were Commissary Stow and probably Mr. and Mrs. 
Stiles. They were not the first white persons to visit that region; 
travelers, missionaries, soldiers, and traders had lieon there long 
before, but they' were "transients," not settlers. The story of the 
men, Europeans and autoclitiiones, who lived in what we have 
called New Connecticut or who had visited it before the coming 
of Moses Cleaveland and his comiiaiiions, or of its prehistoric changes 
in geology and occupation, althougli intensely intei-esting, need not 
long detain us here; a few words will answer pi'rsent uoimIs. AVliile 
the great ice sheet was i-eceding northward as it slowly melted at 
its southern margin at the close of the ice age (in'obalily ton thousand 
years or so ago), and the passage of northward flowing sfi'oams wa.s 
still blocked so that water from the melting glacier tiiat hail covered 
the greater part of Ohio could not escape by way of the closed 
St. Lawrence River, it gathered as a groat lake, known to glacial 
geologists as I/akc Iroquois. The site of Niagara was beneath the 
ice or the waters of the lake that bordered the ice; there was no 
river there. When the glacier withdrew far encnigli f(ir those accu- 
mulated wafers to flow- out by way of the valley of the Jlohawk, Lake 
Iroquois was largely drained and cut in twain; the contracted see- 

1796] AT CLKVKLAXD 21 

tions ai'C now known as Lake Krie and Lake Ontario. Then Niagara 
was Ixirn and began the Mork of cutting its famous gorge. When 
Lake Erie was thus expanded and stood far above its present level, 
it covered a large part of the site of Cleveland.* In gradually falling 
to its pi-esent limits, the lake stood, at several successive levels still 
plainly marked by former beach lines or ridges. As the Cuyahoga 
flowed from the south into the lake, it built up a delta by carrying 
down sand and silt and depositing it near the border of the water. 
This delta is roughly outlined as a triangle with a base extending 
from the present Gordon Park on the east to Edgwater Park on 
the west and t-aporing to an apex in the valley of the Cuyalioga 
River. The surface of this delta is practically a smooth plain slightly 
sloping toward the lake but at a considerable elevation above it. 
The streams that cross what Professor Gregory has called this area 
of unconsolidated sand and clay have cut their channels down to the 
present level of the lake ; thus the Cuyahoga River now divides Cleve- 
land into " Side" and "AVest Side." while :\lill Creek, Big 
Creek, ilorgan Run and Kingsbury Run form tlistinct physical 
boundaries that have had great influence in determining the location 
and direction of streets and the development of their sections of 
the city. Some of these gullies and their side ravines have long 
constituted dumping grounds and are now being i-iii)idly filled. "On 
the smooth, sandy delta and lake plain witli its ridges, excepting the 
gully regions of Big Creek and Newburg, there is every natural 
advantage offered for the development and growth of a modern city. 
The sandy soil offers a splendid natural drainage," and lessens the 
labor and cost of sewers, conduits, etc. "The floodplains or the flats 
along the Cuyahoga river are the oidy lowlands in the city. They 
have an elevation of from ten to fifteen feet above the level of 
Lake Erie. These flats are the bottom lands in the narrow and steep 
sided Cuyahoga valley, which was formed by the rapid cutting of 
the loose delta material by the river. The unusual erosive action of 
the river was due to the lake level falling, allowing the stream a 
steep slope upon which to erode the unconsolidated material of the 
lake plain. "When the bed of the river was lowered to the lake level, 
the stream could no longer erode vertically, and then it began to 
meander or wind from side to side back and forth across the valley, 
forming the great loops in the river in which the cutting is on the 
outer curve of the bends. This is the present condition of that part 

* I desire gratefully to acknowledge m_v indebtedness to an able article on the 
Geooraphfi nf Cleveland, by Professor W. M. Gregory, and printed in S. P. Orth 's 
history of the city. 


of the river which lies withiu the city limits. The material carried 
by the river is deposited along the inner bank of these great bends 
and forms the river plain, wliich is the rich&st land of this region, 
and was the tirst cultivated by the early settlers. The Cuyahoga 
flats lie eighty feet below the general level of the old delta." The 
reader who is eager for fuller information concerning these matters 
will find them ably discussed in Whittlesey's Early History of 
Cleveland (pages 9-164), in Kennedy's History of Cleveland, 1796- 
1896 (pages 1-20), and in Pi-ofessor George Frederick Wright's 
great work, The Ice Age. I yield, however, to the temptation to 
make a brief and solitary exception to this general elimination. After 
the ruthless massacre (March, 17S2) at Gnadenhutten, the peaceful 
and prosperous village established in the Tuscarawas Valley in Ohio 
by Indians who had been Christianized by the Moravians, a new Mora- 
vian mission, called New Gnadenhutten, was begun in Michigan. But 
the new mission was ill placed and unprosperous. On the twentieth of 
April, 1786, the congregation met for the last time in their chapel at 
New Gnadenhutten, made their way through swamps and forests to 
Detroit, crossed Lake Erie in a vessel called the "Mackinaw," and, 
on the eighth of June, arrived at the mouth of the Cuyahoga. They 
went about ten miles up the river and settled in an abandoned village 
of the Ottawa tribe, within the present limits of Independence Town- 
ship, and called their refuge "Pilgrim's Rest." They did not linger 
long and soon removed from tlie lianks of the Cuyahoga River to those 
of the Huron River in what is now Erie County. The coming of the 
agent of the Connecticut Land Comjiany inaugurated a new order; 
since that July day thei'e have been white men on the site of the city 
which, with a more compact orthography, bears tlii> name of the 
Puritan Moses who had the faith, the courage and thi' wisdom to lead 
Ihe colony into the Western Resej've and there to lay the founda- 
tions of this mighty, ever-growing monument to his niemoi'v. 

The Pounding of Cleveland 

General Cleaveland was hack at Coiuieant by the fifth of August 
and thence sent his first formal report to the eonijiany. After his 
return to the Cuyahoga, lie made up his miiid tliiit that was the 
most desirable "])]aee for the ciiiiital." The site of the city was 
chosen after due delilx-ration, and a survey, a mile square, was 
then made (if tlw pliitcau at tlic juiictidn nl' the river and the lake. 
The survey was begun on the sixteenth of Seiitember by Scth Pease 
and Amos Spaliford under the superintendence of Augustus Porter. 

1796] THE FIKST I\IAPS 23 

On tlie twenty-second of September, Spafford was detailed for work 
on the survey of Cleveland Township, but he seems to have made 
the fii"st map of the eity. This map was drawu on sheets of foolscap 
paper pasted together and was endorsed in Spaflford's handwriting 
as "Original Plan of the Town and Village of Cleveland, Ohio, Octo- 
ber 1, 1796." The map is preserved in the archives of the Western 
Reserve Historical Society. The official report of the survey was 
compiled by Scth Pease and to accompany the report he made a 
map that he endorsed, "A Plan of the City of Cleaveland." The 
original of this map was long treasured by the Western Reserve 
Historical Society, but it cannot now (1918) be found. Both maps 
show the names of fourteen streets, the numbers of the 220 two-acre 
lots, and indicate the reservation of the Public Square by a blank 
space, like an enlargement of Superior and Ontario streets at their 
intersection. Spaft'ord's map shows the changes in some of the 
street names, and indicates the location of the lots selected by half 
a dozen persons and later enumerated by Colonel Whittlesey as fol- 
lows: "Stoddard, lot 49, northeast corner of Water [West Ninth | 
and Superior streets ; Stiles, lot 53, northeast corner of Bank [West 
Sixth] and Superior streets; Landon, lot 77, directly opposite, on 
the south side of Superior street ; Baum, lot 65, sixteen rods east 
of the Public Square; Shepherd, lot 69, and Chapman, lot 72, all 
on the north side of the same street. 'Pease's Hotel,' as they styled 
the surveyor's cabin, is placed on the line between lots 202 and 203, 
between Union street and the river. Northwest of it, about ten rods, 
on lot 201, their store house is laid down. Vineyard, Union and 
^Mandrake streets were laid out to secure access to the upper and 
lower landings on the river. Bath street provided a way of reaching 
the lake shore and the mimth of the river." One of the maps spells 
the name of the proposed city "Cleveland" and the other spells it 
"Cleaveland" and 's map was drawn up-side-down, i. e., the 
top of the map is south instead of north. Streets were laid out 
through the forest, certain of the two-acre lots were reserved for 
public use, and the rest were put up for sale at $50 each, with a 
condition of immediate settlement. 

As these maps and minutes are historically very important and 
are of determinative legal effect in numerous possible eases, it seems 
worth W'hile to make the following f|uotation from a monograph on 
The Corporate Birth and Growth of Cleveland, prepared by Judge 
Seneca 0. Griswold as the fifth annual address (July 22, 1884) before 
the Early Settlers' Association, and printed in the Annals of that 
organization : 



If I /lie is^ iSfsy m 

Ovxo S-r/am 

yxJisjRAj. 'St. 

'*7 ft 





Seth Pease Map of 1796 

1796J THE F1K.ST ilAPS 25 

III the (lid tit'ld map. tlic iiainc of Superior street was first wi-itteii 
"Broad"", Ontario "•('(iiii't", and iliaiui "Deer", but these words 
were crossed with ink, and tiie same names written as given in Pease's 
map and minutes. In Spafl'ord's map, "^laiden Lane," which led 
from Ontario Street along the side of the hill to Vineyard Lane, was 
omitted, and the same was never worked or used. Spafford also laid 
out Superior Lane, Avliieh was not on the Pease map, which has since 
heen widened, and become that portion of Superior street from Water 
down the hill to tiic river. " Hatii street " is not described in the Pease 
minutes, liut is laid out on the inaji, and is referred to in the minutes, 
and the bountlaries <'ind extent appear on the map. The Stpiarc also 
is not ilescribetl in the Pease minutes, but is referred to in the descrip- 
tion of Ontario and Superior streets, and is marked and laid out on 
the map. In Spatford's minutes the Square is thus described: "The 
Square is laid out at the intersection of Superior street and Ontario 
street, and contains ten acres. The center of the junction of the two 
roads is the exact center of the Square." These surveys, the laying 
out of the lots bounding on the Square, their adoption by the Land 
Company, the subsequent sale by said Company of the surrounding 
lots abutting u])on it, make the "Square" as much land devoted to 
public ilse as the streets themselves, and forever forbids the same 
being given up to private uses. The easterly line of the eity was the 
east line of one tier of lots, beyond Erie street, coinciding with the 
]n-esent line of Canfield (East Fourteenth] street. The east line 
liegan at the lake, and extended southerly one tier of lots south of 
Ohio street [Central Avenue]. The line then ran to the river, down 
the river skipping the lower bend of the river to Vineyard Lane, 
thence along Vineyard Lane to the junction of Water with Superior 
street, thence to the river, thence dowii the river to its mouth. 
Superior .street, as the survey shows, was 132 feet in width, the other 
streets 99 feet. It is hardly possible to fully appreciate the sagac- 
ity and foresight of this leader of the surveying party. With full 
consciousness of what would arise in its future growth, he knew the city 
would have a suburban jiopulation, and he directed the immediate 
outlying land to be laid off in ten acre lots, and the rest of the town- 
ship into 100 acre lots, instead of the larger tracts into which the other 
townships were divided. The next year, the ten acre lots were sur- 
veyed and laid out. They extended on the east to the line of what is 
now Wilson avenue [ Fifty-fifth Street], and on the south to 
the top of the brow of the ravine formed by Kingsbury Run, and 
extended westwardly to the river bank. Owing to the peculiar topog- 
raphy of the place, some of the two acre lots had more and others 
less than the named quantity of land, and the same occurred in the 
survey and laying out of the ten acre lots. The flats were not sur- 
veyed off into lots, and there was an unsurveyed strip between the 
west line of the ten acre lots and the river, above and below the 
mouth of the Kingsbury Run, running south to a point west of hun- 
dred acre lot 278. Three streets were laid out through the ten acre 
lots, each 99 feet in width to correspond with the city streets 
called the South, Middle and North Highway. The southerly one 


becoming Kinsman street, the Middle, Euclid street at its intersec- 
tion with Huron ; the southerly one received its name from the fact 
that Kinsman, the east township of the seventh line of townships, was 
at a very early period distinguished for its wealth and population. 
The ^Middle was called Euclid, because that was the name of the 
next township east. The North Highway was a continuation of Fed- 
eral street, but changed to St. Clair, after the name of the territorial 
governor, whose name, in the minds of his admirers, was a synonym 
of Federal. 

In the summer, a cabin for Stiles was built, -probably on the lot 
that he had selected, number 53. Other houses were also built, 
one for the surveyors, "Pease's Hotel," and another for the stores, 
on lots 202 and 203, near the river as appears on record on 
Spatford's map. We have only scant record of the laboi's of these 
pioneers that season, but we may be sure that theii-s were not lives 
of ease and pleasure. Colonel "Whittlesey tells us that the surveyors 
"were not always sure of supper at night, nor of their drink of 
New England rum, which constituted an important part of their 
rations ; their well provided clothing began to show rents, from so 
much clambering over logs and through thickets; their shoes gave 
out rapidly, as they were incessantly on foot, and were where no 
cobblers could be found to repair them ; every da^y wa.s one of toil, 
and frequently of discomfort. The woods, and particularly the 
swamps, were filled with ravenous mosquitoes, which were never idle, 
day or night: in rainy weather the bushes were wet, and in clear 
weather the heat was oppressive."' This first survey of Cleveland 
was finished in a month, for on the seventeenth of October Hilton 
Hollejf wrote in his journal: "Finished surveying in New Connecti- 
cut, weather raining.'' On the following day he wrote: "We left 
Cuyahoga at 3 o'clock, seventeen minutes, for hoinr. We left at 
Cuyahoga, Job Stiles and wife, and Joseph Landon, with provisions 
for the winter. William B. Hall, Titus V. IVIunson and Olney Eice, 
engaged to take all the pack horses to Oeneva. Day pleasant and 
fair winds; about southeast; rowed about seven and a half miles, and 
encamped for the night on the beach. Tiiere were fourteen men 
on board the boat, and never, T ])resumc, were fourteen men more 
anxious to pursue an object than we wot to go forward. Names 
of men in the boat. Augustus Porter, Scth {'ease, Richard Stoddard, 
Joseph Tinker, Charles Parker, Wareham Shepherd, Amzi Atwater, 
James Ilaeket [Ilalket?], Stephen Benton, George Proudfoot, James 
Hamilton, Nathan Ciiapman, Ralph Bacon, Milton Holley." The 
returning pilgrims hoisted sail at three o'clock on tlie following morn- 
ing (Octo])ei' 1!)) and, continues bni- industrious journalist, "Just 




iH'fdiv sunrise wo jiMssed tho first scttlenuMit (excci)t those maile by 
ourselves) tliat is ou the sliore of tlie hilvo in New Coniiei'tieut. Tliis is 
done by the Canandaigua Association Co., under tlic direction of 
IMayor Wells and Mr. AVildair." Because of a high wind, they went 
into cauip about, a mile east of the Chagrin Kiver. They arrived 
at Conneaut about noon of the twenty-first and "took inventory of 
the articles left there, and about four o'clock in the morning, that 

Map op the Connecticut Western Reserve, 1796 

First reproduction from the original printed map of the Connecticut Western Reserve en- 
graved by Amos Doolittle from the drawing of Seth Pease, by the courtesy of The Western 
Reserve Historical Society. 

is. on Saturday the 22d, we hoisted sail for Presque Isle," (i. e., 
Erie, Pennsylvania). They were at Buffalo Creek on the twenty- 
third and at Canandaigua on the twenty-ninth. We here bid fare- 
. well to our faithful chronicler, John Milton IloUey. In his sketches 
of his associates, Amzi Atwater says that Holley "was then a very 
young man, only alwut eighteen years of age, though he appeared 
to be older; tall, stout, and handsomely built, with a fair and smiling 
face, and general good appearance." :Mr. Holley settled at Salisbury, 
Connecticut, of which state his son, Alexander, became governor, 


The Township op Euc-lid 

In July, at Conneaut, most of the survcj'ors and other employes 
had asked for compensation greater than that previously agreed 
upon, and the superintendent, acting for the company, made an "in- 
formal agreement" with them. The township next east of Cleveland, 
No. 8, Range 11, was named Euclid in honor of the patron saint 
of all surveyors, and this township was to be divided among what 
one of them called "the mutineers." On the thirtieth of Septem- 
ber, a contract was made "at Cleaveland between JMoses Cleaveland, 
agent of the Connecticut Land Company, and the employees of 
the Company, in reference to the sale and settlement of the town- 
ship of Euclid." General Cleaveland signed for the company and 
forty-one of the men for themselves. Each of the forty-one was to have 
an equal share in the township at one dollar per acre and pledged 
himself to remain in the service of the company until the end of 
the year. These new proprietors of the to\niship also agreed "to 
settle, in the year 1797, eleven families, build eleven houses, and 
sow two acres of wheat around each house — to be on different lots. 
In the year 1798 to settle eighteen more families, build eighteen 
more houses on different lots, and to clear and sow five acres of 
M-heat on each. There must be also fifty acres in grass in the 
township. In the year 1799, there must be twelve more families 
occupying twelve more lots, (in all forty-one,) with eight acres in 
wheat. On all the other lots three acres additional in wheat for 
this year, and in all seventy acres to be in grass. There must be, 
in the year 1800, forty-one families resident in the township. In 
case of failure to perform any of the conditions, whatever had been 
done or paid was to be forfeited to the company. But the failure 
of other parties not to affect those who perform. If salt springs 
are discovered on a lot it is to be excepted from the agreement 
and other lands given instead." On the same day, the forty-one 
proprietors held a meeting, Seth Pease acting as chairman and Moses 
Warren as clerk. At this meeting, it was "determined b,y a lottery 
wliich of the said i)ro])riet()rs shall do the first, second, and third 
years the settling duties as required by our i)atent this day exe- 
cuted." Thus, for example, it was determiTicd that Seth Pease and 
ten others were "to do said settling duties in 1797," Moses Warren 
and seventeen others in 1798, and Amos Spafford and eleven others 
in 1799. About the middle of October, as already stated, tlie sur- 
veyors set out for their homes in the East, leaving in the embryo 
Cleveland but three white persons, Mr. and Mrs. Stiles and Joseph 




Laiulon. Landon soon (lisappoarod and his place seems to have 

been taken by Edward Paine who began to trade with the Indians 

(Chippewas, Ottawas, etc.) "who made their winter eamps upon 

the west side of the river and trapped and hunted upon both sides." 

This Edward Paine subsequently became the founder of Paines- 

ville, Ohio, and is generally spoken of as "General" Paine. In 

camp, at the foot of the bhiff that winter were some Seneca Indians, 



Towxsmi' Mm- ok Windham County. Connecticut 

whose chief, "Old Seneca," was friendly to the whites. These 
Indians supplied their white neighbors in the cabin on the hill with 
game, and showed their friendship in various wa^-s. 

Exit Gener.u, Cleaveland 

It is not known that General Cleaveland ever revisited tiie Re- 
serve, but he wrote: "While I was in New Connecticut I laid out 
a town on the bank of Lake Erie, which was called by my name.* 

* General Cleavelaml generally (bnt not always) spelled his name witli an "a" 
in the first syllable, and for more than thirty years the name of the town that he 


and I believe the child is now bom tliat may live to see that place 
as large as Old Windham." This AVindham is the southwest town 
of "Windham County, the northeast county of Connecticut. The next 
town eastward is Scotland which separates it from Canterlmry. 
Windham Town was incorporated in 1692, and by 1796 was some- 
times " aifectionately called" Old Windham. At that time, the town 
had a population of about fifteen hundred. There were in the town 
four villages, Windham, North Windham, South Windham, and Wil- 
limantie. Years ago, the business of the town was transacted at 
Windham Village (Windham Green or Center) which had several 
stores, two churches, a hotel, and a court-house. Three of the vil- 
lages are still villages, but Willimantic is an incorporated city with- 
in the territorial limits of Windham Town. In 1910, Windham 
Town, including the city, had a population of 12,604; Willimantic 
had 11,230; Cleveland's population was 560,663. In 1918, Willi- 
mantic claimed a population of 14,000, and Cleveland one of 720,000. 
After his return to Connecticut, General Cleaveland lived at Can- 
terbuiy where he died in 1806. A century later, his burial place 
was appropriately marked as will be told in a later chapter. In 
]y96. the first centennial of the town that General Moses Cleaveland 
thus laid out in New Connecticut and on the bank of Lake Erie waf5 
celebrated with much pomp and circumstance. 

As we have seen, the articles of association of the Connecticut 
Land Company authorized the directors "to fix on a township in 
which the first settlement shall be made, to survey that township 
into small lots in such manner as they may think proper, and to 
sell and dispose said lots to actual settlers only ; ... to lay out 
and sell five other towaiships of sixteen thousand acres each to 
actual settlers only." These six townships were to be sold for the 
benefit of the land company and not divided among the stockholders. 
The plan was to sell, at first, only a iiuartcr of oacji township, and 

founded was generally (Imt not always) spelleil in the same way in the local 
records. As if following the path of least resistance, outsiders in increasing 
numbers, geographies, gazetteers, sketches of tours and travels, etc., adojited the 
shorter s]ielling now in universal use. The village charter granted by the state 
legislature in 1814, and most of the legislative acts relating to the place used the 
shorter form but the townships and village records and the newspaper headings 
spelled it "Cleaveland" until about 1832. See facsimile reproduction of news- 
paper headings in Chapter XXXII. There are many varied statements as to when 
and why the local newspapers dropped the letter, but the important fact that they 
did 80 and that the rest of the world quickly followed suit is beyond question. 
For the sake of uniformity, the later usage will lie followed in this volume except 
in quoted passages in which the longer form was used. 


Cliief-snrvcyor Porter's jn-opositidii for the method of carrying out 
that phm, as deseribed in ("ristield Johnson's History of (.'utjuhoya 
County, was: 

In tlie tii'st i)liU'(', city lots Nunilier r)S to 63 inclusive, and 81 to 87 
inclusive, coiiiiirisin": all the lots borilcring on the Public Square, and 
one more, wci'e to be reserved for public purposes, as were also "the 
point of land west of the town" (which we take to be the low penin- 
sula southwest of the viaduct), and some other portions of the tiats 
if thought advisable. Then ]\Ir. Porter proposed to begin with lot 
number one, and otfer for sale every fourth number in succession 
throughout the towns, on these terms. P]ach person who would engage 
to become an actual settler in 1797 might purchase one town lot, one 
ten or twenty-acre lot. and one hundred-acre lot, or as nuich less as 
he might choose: settlement, however, to be imperative in every case. 
The price of town lots was to be fifty dollars ; that of ten-acre lots 
three dollars per acre; that of twenty-acre lots two dollars per acre; 
and that of hundred-acre lots a dollar and a half per acre. The town 
lots were to be paid for in ready cash ; for the larger tracts twenty 
per cent, was to be paid down, and the rest in three annual install- 
ments with annual interest. 

At this time, the eastern part of the present Cuyahoga County 
belonged to "Washington County of the Northwest Territory ; the part 
west of the Cuyahoga River belonged to' Wayne County the seat 
of which was Detroit ; and it was a mooted question whether the 
legal jurisdiction belonged to the territory or the Connecticut com- 
pany. Cleveland was still only a survey township ; the civil town- 
ship was not created until the year 1800. 

Seth Pease, Principal Surveyor 

At a meeting of the Connecticut Land Company held in January, 
1797, "Moses Cleaveland's contract with Joseph Brant, Esq., in 
behalf of the Mohawks of Grand River, Canada," was ratified and 
a committee was appointed to investigate the causes of the "very 
great expense of the company during the first year; the causes 
which have prevented the completion of the survey ; and why the 
surveyors and agents have not made their report." An assessment 
of five dollars per share of the company stock was ordered and Seth 
Pease, Amos Spafford, Daniel Ilolbrook, and Moses "Warren, Jr., were 
constituted a committee on partition. Another committee was ap- 
pointed to make inquiry into the conduct of the directors; in February, 
this committee made a i-eport exonerating the directors in all respects. 
The oflBcial record does not show why General Cleaveland was not 


again appointed as superintendent, Init reading between the lines 
of these pi-occedings, it seems to be clear that the stocliholders were 
in no amiable mood and far from being satisfied with what had 
been done. In the spring, the surveyors returned to the Reserve. 
The Rev. Seth Hart was now the superintendent and Seth Pease 
the principal surveyor. With them were several who had gone out 
the year before, among them Amos Spafford, Richard ^I. Stoddard, 
Moses Warren, Tlieodore Shepard, Joseph Tinker, and Joseph Lan- 
don. The party assembled at Schenectady, with ]Mr. Pease in charge 

of the funds and details of outfitting, and assisted by Thomas 
Mather of Albany. Under date of the fourteentli of April, 1797, 
Pease wrote in his journal: "Spent the week thus far in getting 
necessary supplies. The want of I'cady casli subjects me to con- 
siderable inconvenience, ^ir. ^Mather ))urchascs the greater part 
on his own cretlit; and takes my order on ]\Ir. Ephraim Root, treas- 
urer." On tlie twentieth of April, six boats moved np tlie Mohawk. 
They were similar to those used the year before. In -Vugust, 1850. 
Amzi Atwater, wlio had joined the party at Schenectady, made a 
statement relating to the surveys of 1797, in wliicli lie says: 

We ascended llie Mobawk rivci- tbi'ougb the old locks at Little 
Falls, up to the carrying place at Rome. The canal there was in 
progress, but not completed. The boats and stores were got across 
into Wood creek. Down that narrow, crooked stream, we got along 
somewhat easier than up the Moliawk river, which I may say was 
a .sore job for i-aw ami inexperienced liaiids like myself. In passing 


down this stream which had hmg boon known by boatmen, we passed, 
in a small inlot stream, two large, formidable looking boats, or small 
vessels, which renunded us of a seaport harbor. We were told that 
they were the season before oonveyed from the Hudson river, partly 
by water and finally on wheels, and to be conveyed to Lake Ontario ; 
that they w-ero built of tho lightest materials, and intended for no other 
use than to have it i>ublishod in Europe that vessels of those dimen- 
sions had passed those waters, to aid huid speculation. We passed 
down ami across the Oneida lake, and past the Oswego Palls into lake 
Ontario. At Oswego Falls tho boats were unloaded, and were run 
down a slide into a natural basin, and a pilot employed to steer them 
to the lower landing. The stream looked dreadful (in my eye) to run 
a boat. But 1 considered that as we had a pilot who followed the 
business at fifty cents a trip, 1 would risk myself for once. I belonged 
to the first boat, and took my station in the bow strictly attending to 
the pilot's orders. We went quick and safe, and I was cured of all 
my former fears. 1 went back to attend my own luggage. 1 met the 
pilot on his return ivom his second trip, who requested me to go down 
with the other boats, and 1 accordingly did. We passed down to the 
lake and stayed some time for fair weather, then went on as far as 
Gerundigut [Irondequoit] bay and up to the landing, where the boats 
took in provisions. This was a slow and tedious w'ay of conveyance, 
but it was the way whicli some of the early settlers of this country 
moved here for want of a better. I was sent with a party of those men 
who could be best spared from tho boats, to Canandaigua and its 
vicinity to collect cattle and pack horses for the use of tho company. 
In a few days I was ordered with those men to drive to Buffalo, and 
take care of them until Maj. Shepard of the exploring and equalizing 
committee came on. We drove there and across the creek for safe 
and convenient keeping. In a few days the Indian chiefs came and 
demanded of me throe dollars for pasturing the cattle and hoi'ses. I 
thought it unreasonable as the land all lay open to the common aa I 
considered it, but I went with them up to Capt. Johnson, the Inter- 
preter, and plead my case as well as I could, but I was no match for 
them in pleas and arguments. I concluded to pay their demand with 
their consent that we might stay as long as we pleased. 

Arrfval of Judge Kingsbury 

A month after the beginning of their voyage, the boats were at 
Buffalo where they waited until the twenty-fifth of IMay for the 
party that had come by land. On the night of the twenty-sixth 
of May, they were at Port Independence where "we found fhat Mr. 
Gun's family had removed to Cuyahoga. Mr. Kingsbury, his vrife 
and one child were in a low state of health, to whom we adminis- 
tered what relief we could." Elijah Gun and his wife had left Con- 
neaut in May, the second family to make a home in Cleveland. 
Colonel Whittlesey calls Mr. Kingsbury "the first adventurer on 


his own account who arrived on the company's purchase." With 
his wife and three children, one of them an infant, he had come 
from New Hampshire to Conneaut soon after the arrival of the 
surveyors in 1796. After the return of the surveyors in the fall, he 
made a journey back to his old New England home, going on horse- 
back and expecting to complete his journey in a few weeks. He 
made the trip eastward without accident or special delay, but at 
his old home he was attacked by fever. What next happened may 
well be told in the words of Mr. Kennedy : 

As soon as he dared mount a hoi'se he set out for home, filled with 
anxiety for those w'ho were awaiting his return. He reached Buffalo 
in a state of exhaustion, on December 3rd, and on the following day 
pushed forward into the snowy wilderness. He was accompanied by 
an Indian p;uard. For three weeks the snow fell without intermission, 
until at places it was up to tlie chin. Weak in body, and full of 
trouble for his loved ones, he pushed on and on, although it was 
December 2-4th before his cabin was reached. His horse had died from 
exhaustion, and he was not in a much better condition. Meanwhile 
the wife and children subsisted as best they could. The Indians 
supplied her with meat until the real weather of winter came on. She 
had for company a nephew of her husband's, a boy of thirteen, whose 
especial cliarge was a yoke of oxen and a cow. Day after day went 
by, and still her husband did not come; and as if cold and loneliness 
were not enough, the supreme pain of motherhood was added, and 
the first white native son of the Reserve became a member of the 
household. She had regained sufficient strength to move about the 
house, and had about decided to remove to Erie, Avheu towards even- 
ing she looked up, and her husband was at the door. Mrs. Kingsbury 
was then taken with fever; tlie food left by the surveyors was about 
exhausted: and tlie snow prevent<'d calls upon tlieir Indian friends. 
Before his strcngtli had fully returned. .Mr. Kingsbury was forced 
to make a journey to Erie, to procure food. He could not take the 
oxen, because of the lack of a path through the snow, and so he set 
forth hauling a hand sled. He reached Eric, obtained a bushel of 
wheat, and hauled it back to Coimeaut, where it was cracked and 
boiled and eaten. 'I'bc cow died from the effects of eating the browse 
of oak trees, and with it gone, the chances of life for the little one 
were meagre indeed. In a montli it died. l\lr. Kingsbury and the 
boy made a rude coffin from a pine box wliich the surveyors luul left. 

The rest of the stoiy is quoted from that indispensable repository 
of useful knowledge, Colonel Whittlesey's Early History of Cleve- 

As they carried the remains from the liouse, the sick mother raised 
herself in bed, following with her eyes the lonely party to a rise of 
ground wliere they bad dug a grave. She fell backward and for two 


wi'i'ks was scarcely cmiscious of what was passing or of what had 
passed. Late in February or early in .March, Mr. Kingsbury, who 
was still feeble, made an cH'ort to obtain something which his wife 
could eat, for it was evident that nutriment was her principal neces- 
sity. The severest rigors of winter began to relax. Instead of fierce 
northern blasts sweeping over the frozen surface of the lake, there 
were southern breezes which softened the snow and moderated the 
atmosphere. Scai'cely able to walk, he loaded an old "Queen's Arm" 
which his uncle had carried in the war of the revolution and which 
is still in tiie keeiiing of the family. He succeeded in reaching the 
woods and sat down upon a log. A solitary pigeon came, and perched 
upon the highest branches of a tree. It was not only high, but distant. 
The chances of hitting the bird w'ere few indeed, but a human life 
seemed to depend upon those chances. A single shot found its way to 
the mark, and the bird fell. It was well cooked and the broth given 
to his wife, who was immediately revived. For the first time in two 
weeks she spoke in a natural and rational way, saying, "James, where 
did you get this .' " 

When the surveying party of 1797 moved on from Conneaut to 
Cleveland, the King.sbury family accompanied them. They found a 
temporary shelter in a dilapidated log house on the west side of the 
river, said to have been left by some of the early traders with the 
Indians. There stands today (1918) on Vermont Avenue and Hanover 
Court a house that is said to be the oldest one in Cleveland and that 
is claimed to be the one in which, for a time, the King.sbury family 
dwelt. "Tradition states that it was built by agents of the North- 
western Fur Company, at the head of the old river bed, for a trading 
house, manj' years before the arrival of Moses Cleaveland ; that it was 
moved from place to place, and finally found a resting-place in its 
present location. It was originally covered with hewn timbers, but 
as it stands today it has a modern planed covering. It is further 
claimed that between 178.3 and 1800 it was used as a blockhouse. It 
was once owned by Joel Scranton, but was purchased, near 1844, by 
Robert Sanderson, who moved it to its present location." 



Some of the boats from Comieaut arrived at Cleveland on the 
first of June. The land party and the other boats arrived a few 
days later. On the way, David Eldi'idge was drowned in trjdng 
to cross Grand River. The body was brought to Cleveland and 
buried in its first cemetery on the east side of Ontario Street just 
north of Prospect Avenue, i. e., on the north parts of lots 97 and 98. 
(See the Seth Pease map on page 24.) In Pease's journal, under 
date of Sunday, June 4, it is written: "Attended the funeral 
of the deceased with as much decency and solemnity as could pos- 
sibly be expected. Mr. Hart read [the Episcopal] chui'ch service."' 
In his "statement," from which I have already quoted, Amzi Atwater 
says : 

I' was ordered with a party of men to take the horses and cattle 
to Cleveland. We got along very well until we got to Grand river; 
we had no boat or other means of conveyance across, except we found 
an old Indian bark canoe which was very leaky — we had one horse 
which I knew was a good swimmer. T mounted him and directed the 
men to drive the others after me. I had got i)erhaps half way when 
I heard the men on .shore scream — I looked back and saw two men, 
with horses in the water but had parted from them — one of them got 
ashore, and the other, David Eldridge made poor progress. T turned 
my as quick as I could and guided liim up within reach of him, 
when 1 very inconsiderately took hold of liis luind, as soon as I could. 
This turned the h(jrsc over, and we were liotli under tlie water an 
instant; lint we separated and T again mounted tlic horse, and looked 
back and saw him just raise his head al)ove the water, but he sunk 
to rise no more — this was June 3d. We built a raft of flood-wood, 
lashed together with barks, and placing on it three men who were 
good swimmers, they with hooks drew up tlie body, but this took some 
time — perhaps two liours. We took some pains to restore the body to 
life, ])ut in vain. Two of our boats came up soon after with a large 
portion of tlie men. They took the body to Cleveland and buried it 
in tlie then newly laid o)it linrying-ground. 

Lorenzo Carter Arrives 

Lorenzo Carter, "quite a Nimrod," a native of Vermont who had 
spent the preceding winter in Canada, had come in ]May and soon 



iiiade liimself a cunspicuous figure in the pioneer community. About 
the same time came Ezekiel Ilawley, his brother-in-law. On lot 
199, near the river (See the S<^'th Pease map on page 2-1) he built a log 
cabin "more pretentious than the rude affairs constructed by the sur- 
veyors, having two ajiartments on the gi'ound floor and a spacious 
garret."' He soon liuilt a boat, establislicd a ferry at the foot of 
Superior Street, and kejit a small stock of goods for trade with 
the Indians. Ilis cabin served as a hotel for strangers and general 
headquarters for the early Clevelanders, and wa.s the scene of many 
of their social festivities. The first Cleveland wedding was held 

Lorenzo Carter 

there on the Fourth of July, 1797, with Superintendent Seth Hart as 
the officiating clergyman ; the high contracting parties were Miss Chloe 
Inches, who was in Carter's employ, and a Canadian by the name 
of Clement. In 1804, as we shall soon see, Lorenzo Carter was 
elected to office in the state militia and, after that, was generally 
referred to as JIa,ior Carter or ''the Major." He is described as 
being six feet tall, of swarthy complexion, with long black hair, 
and the muscular power of a giant. "He was brave to the edge 
of daring, but amiable in temper and spirit; and while he never 
picked a quarrel, he saw the end of any upon which he entered." It 
was a common saying that Ma.jor Carter was all the law Cleveland 
had and he had unbounded influence with the Indians who came 
to believe that he was a favorite of the Great Spirit and could 



uot be killed. The records of early Cleveland have man.y stories of 
his dealing's with white men and red men, and the following pages 
will record many of his doings. 

Another recruit of that year was Rodolphus Edwards. There is 
a tradition among his descendants that he was one of the surveyors 
of the Connecticut Land Company and that the land that he soon 
recei^'cd was wholly or in part in payment for services rendered. His 
surveyor's compass is preserved in the collections of the Western 



The Buckkye House 

Reserve Historical Society. But I have found no definite or circum- 
stantial account of when, how, or why he came. In a letter to whicli 
further reference will be made, Gilman IJryant says that "in the fall 
of 1797, I found Mr. Rodoljihus Edwards in a cabin under the hill, at 
the west end of Su])ci'i()r Street." He soon secured a tract of ;500 
acres of land on Buttcrinit Ridge, later known as Woodbind Hills, 
and built a cabin just east of the "fever and ague line,"' on what is 
now Steinway Avenue and about four hundred feet west of Wooilhill 


Road, lie soon built, at what is now tlio intersection of Woodliill and 
Buckeye roads, a niueh lai'gcr and more elaborate house, the timbers 
of whieh were liewcd and the boards of whieh were sawed b^' hand, 
the long-famous Buckeye Tavern (later called the Pioneer) and favor- 
ite resort for the dances of two generations of Cleveland society. Here, 
keej)ing public inn and managing his farm, "Dolph" Kdwards, rough, 
ready, aud popular, lived until his death in 1836. In 1873, the old 
inn gave way for public improvements. Kingsbury and his family 
soon moved to a new cabin near the Public Square, and, in December, 
settled on a tract of 500 acres on the ridge a short distance south of 
Edwards and near what is Woodland Hills Pai-k. Elijah Gun went 
to the same section. Joseph Landon, who had come back, aud Stephen 
Gilbert "cleared a piece of ground which they sowed to wheat, while 
a couple of acres giveu to corn on Water street [now West Ninth] 
showed the agricultural activity of Lorenzo Carter." 

In the latter part of this season (1797), there was much sickness 
in the little community, two of the men died of dysentery, and boat- 
loads of the sick were sent off early in the fall. In relating the experi- 
ences of that year, Amzi Atwater says: 

I was taken sick with the ague and fever. Sickness prevailed the 
latter part of the season to an alarming degree, and but a few escaped 
entirel.v. William Andrews, one of our men, and Peleg Washburn, 
an apprentice to llr. Nathaniel Doan, died of dysentery at Cleveland, 
in August or September. All those that died that season were of my 
party who came on with me, with the cattle and horses, in the spring, 
and were much endeared to me as companions, except Tinker, our 
principal boatman, who was drowned on his return in the fall. At 
Cleveland I was confined for several weeks, with several others much 
in the same situation as myself, with little or no help, except what we 
could do for oui-selves. The inhabitants there were not much better 
off than we were, and all our men were required in the woods. My 
fits came on generally every night, and long nights they appeared to 
me; in day-time. I made out to get to the spring and get some water, 
but it was a hard task to get back again. My fits became lighter and 
not so frequent, until the boats went down the lake as far as the 
township of Perry, which they were then lotting out. The cold night 
winds and fatigue to which I was exposed brought on the fits faster 
and harder. T considered that I had a long journey before me to get 
home, and no means but my exertions, a large portion of the way. 
T procured a portion of Peruvian bark and took it. it broke up my fits 
and gave me an extra appetite, but very fortunately for me we were 
short of provisions and on short allowance. My strength gained, and 
I did not spoil my appetite by over-eating, as people are in danger of 
in such case.s. I soon began to recover my health, but soon after Maj. 
Spafford started with a boat down the lake, with a sufficient number 
of well hands, and a load of us invalids to the number of fourteen in 


all. We passed on tolerable well down beyond Erie, opposite the rocky 
shore; there arose a dreadful looking cloud with a threatening, windy 
appearance ; the wind was rather high, but some in our favor. Maj. 
Spafford was a good hand to steer and manage a boat, they double 
manned the oars on the land side to keep off shore, and we went fast 
till we got past the rocky shore ; few or no words spoken, but imme- 
diately the wind came very heavy so that no boat could have stood it. 
There we staid thre^ days without being able to get away. We got out 
in the evening, went below Cataraugus where we were driven ashore 
again, where we la.y about two days, still on short allowance of provi- 
sion. The next time we had a tolerable calm lake and safely arrived 
at Buffalo. By that time I had so recovered as to feel tolerably com- 
fortable, and pursued my journey home on foot to Connecticut. 

Cleveland a General Hospital 

The headquarters at Cleveland took on the character of a general 
hospital and the well-written journal of Seth Pease for this period 
(, 1797), is an almost continuous record of sickness. 
But there were snakes as well as "shakes"; in 1883, Colonel Whittle- 
sey told the members of the Early Settlers' Association that, "in its 
forest condition this region was very prolific in snakes. The notes 
of the survey contain frequent mention of them, particularly tlie great 
yellow rattlesnake. In times of drouth they seek streams and moist 
places, and were frequently seen with their brilliant black and orange 
spots crossing the lake beach to find water. Joshua Stow, the com- 
missary of the survey, had a positive liking for snake meat. Holly 
could endure it when provisions were short. General Cleveland was 
disgusted with snakes, living or cooked, and with those who cooked 
them. They were more numerous because the Indians had an affec- 
tion or a superstitious reverence for tliem, and did not kill them." 
In the summer and fall, "the equalizing committee was veiy busy 
exploring and surveying, comparing notes and arranging the parcels 
for a draft; fully determined that the work should be closed that 
season. Clevclaiul was the central point of all operations, and par- 
ticularly as a general hospital." The survey of the Reserve east of 
the Cuyahoga having been completed. Captain Tinker, the principal 
boatman, was discharged. In going down the lake, his boat was cap- 
sized near tlie mouth of Chautauqua Creek, and Tinker and two of 
the other men were drowned (October 3). On the twelfth of October, 
Surveyor Pease left Cleveland by boat; he was at Conneaut on the 
twenty -second. On the twenty-third he had a fit of ague and fever ; on 
the twenty-fourth he "sold the roan mare and saddle to Nathaniel 
Doan and took his note for thirty-two dollars." The Pease journal 


for the twenty-fifth reeords that: "We are short of pork, not having 
more tliaii three-quarters of a barrel, and receiving none by Mr. Hart's 
boat, must send one boat over to Chippewa. Accordingly fitted out 
one under Major Spafford. She took on board all the men, sick and 
well, except Mr. Ilart, Wm. P>arker and myself. They were Colonel 
Ezra Wait, Arazi Atwater, Doctor Shepard, George Giddings, Samuel 
Spafford, David Clark, Eli Kellogg, Alexander and Chester Allen, H. 
V. Linsley, James Berry and Asa Mason. Major Spafford to wait at 
Queenstown for the other boat. Ma.jor Shepard started by land, for 
Buffalo creek, with Warham Shepard and Thomas Tuppcr. Parker 
agreed with. Mr. Kart to take the Stow lioi-se to Buffalo creek." The 
journal for the thirty-first says: "jMr. Hart and myself started from 
Conneaut. after sunset. Our hands were Landon, Goodsel, Smith, 
Kenney (Keeny), Forbes, Chapman and James and Richard Stoddard, 
with a land breeze and our oars, got within two miles of Presque Isle." 
On the afternoon of the third of November they arrived at Buffalo 
Creek, where they found JIajor Spafford, who had gotten there the day 
before : the rear guard came on tlie sixth. Mr. Pease, the surveyors, 
and the committeemen seem to have lingered at Canandaigua "to finish 
the partition and make up their reports; a work which the stockholders 
expected would have been concluded a year sooner." 

Recognizing the needs of the coming suburban population, Gen- 
eral Cleaveland had directed that the land immediately outlying the 
surveyed tract should be laid off in 10-acre lots and the rest of the 
township in 100-acre lots instead of the larger tracts into which the 
other towniships were to be divided. While the price of the 2-acre 
town lots was to be $50 each, that of the 10-acre lots was fixed at $3 
per acre, and that of the 100-acre lots at .$1.50 per acre. According 
to Crisfield Johnson's Uistory of Cuijahoga Count]], "the town lots 
were to be paid for in ready cash ; for the larger tracts, twenty per 
cent wa.s to be paid down, and the rest in three annual installments 
with annual interest. It will be seen that even at that time the pro- 
jectors of Cleveland had a pretty good opinion of its future ; valuing 
the almost unbroken forest which constituted the city at twenty-five 
dollars per acre in cash, while equally good land outside its limifs 
was to be sold for from throe dollars down to a dollar and a half per 
acre, with three years' credit." The 10-acre lots were now surveyed; 
they extended eastward to the line of East Fifty-fifth Street (for- 
merly called Willson Avenue), and southward "to the top of the brow 
of the ravine formed by Kingsbury Run and extended westwardly tvi 
the river bank." By August, three streets had been laid out through 
the 10-acre lots, the South, Middle (or Central) and North highways. 


South Street became Kiusmau Street, the part of the present Wood- 
laud Aveuue that lies west of East Fifty-fifth Street. Middle Street 
became Euclid Avenue; in 1816, it was- extended from its junction 
with Huron at what is now East Ninth Street westward to the Public 
Square, as is indicated on Spafford's maj). North Street was a con- 
tinuation of Federal Street and is now known as St. Clair Avenue. 

In the minutes of the Connecticut Land Compan.y it is recorded 
that: "Whereas,- The Directors have given to Tabitha Cumi Stiles, 
wife of Job P. Stiles, one city lot, one ten-acre lot, and one oue- 
hundred-aere lot; to Anna Gun, wife of Elijah Guu, one one-hundred- 
acre lot ; to James Kiugsltury and wife, one one-huudred-acre lot ; to 
Nathaniel Doan, one city lot, he being obliged to reside thereon as a 
blacksmith, and all in the city and town of Cleaveland. Voted, that 
these grants be approved." Nathaniel Doan was one of the original 
surveying party and one of the proprietors of Euclid township. In- 
duced probably by this gift of a city lot, he brought his family to 
Cleveland in 1798, and built a cabin in the woods near the river. 
"The fire of his forge was soon seen arising from a little shop on 
Superior Street near the corner of Bank [now West Sixth Street] 
and the ring of his anvil was heard as he sliarpencd the tools and 
shod the horses of the little community." In January of 1799, he 
moved eastward to the vicinit.v of Eiiclid Avenue and East One Hun- 
dred and Seventh Street, a locality long known as Doan's Corners. 
Here he lived "both beloved and respected until his decease in 1815." 

In 1798, the fever and ague scourge, common to new western lands, 
came with viralence. "At one time nearly every memlier of the 
settlement became a victim to its power and the burden of providing 
food and the necessaries of life fell upon the few who were equal to 
it. A mainstay in. many close places was tli'e redoubtalile Carter, whose 
gun and dogs enabled him to ()l)tain wild game wlien nothing else 
was to be had." The nine memlicrs of Nathaniel Doan's family were 
sick at the same time, Avhich fact liad not a little to do witli his removal 
to Doan's Corners, as already recorded. Tlie numerous removals east- 
ward reduced the population of Cleveland "to two families, those of 
Carter and SpafTord. The major and the ex-surveyor kei:)t tavern, 
dickered with the Indians, and cultivated the soil of their city lots." 
In this year, Turhaud Kirtland made his fii-st visit to the Reserve, 
apparently as agent of the Connecticut Land Company. 

Industrial Birth 

In 1799, Wheeler W. Williams and Major Wyatt, two newcomei"s, 
built at the falls of Mill Creek the first grist mill in that neighbor- 

1798-99] THE FIRST MILL 43 

hood and probalily the third on tlic Kosei'vc. The niillstoiios were 
made by Da\id l?ryant and his son Wliitniaii. In IS')?, tliis Wliitiuan 
Brj'aiit wrote a letter I'roni which I freely (|uote, because of its 
description of this mill and tiie light tiiat it throws on other matters 
relating: to the history of those days on the Reserve: 

]My father, David Hi-yanI, and myself, landeil at ("leveland in 
June, 1797. There was but one fanuly there at that time, viz.: 
Lorenzo Carter, who lived in a log eabin, under the high sand bank, 
near the Cuyahoga river, aud al)out thirty rods below the bend of the 
river, at the west end of Sui)erior street. I went up the hill to view 
the town. I found one log cabin creeted by the surveyors, on the 
south side of SnjjeiMor street, near the place whei'e the old Mansion 
liouse formei-ly stood. There was no cleared land, only where the 
logs were cut to erect the cabin, and for tire-wood. I saw the stakes 
at the corners of the lots, among the logs and large oak and chestnut 
trees. We were on our way to a grindstone quarry, near Vermillion 
river. We made two trips that summer, and stopped at Mr. Carter's 
each time. In the fall of 1797. I found Mr. Rodolphus Edwards in a 
cabin under the hill, at the west end of Superior street. We made 
two trips in the sununer of 1798. 1 found ]\Iajor Spatford in the old 
surveyors' cabin. The same fall ^Ir. David Clark erected a cabin on 
the other sido of the street, and about five rods northwest of Spafford's. 
We made two trips in the summer of 1799, and in the fall, father and 
myself returned to Cleveland, to make a pair of millstones for Mr. 
Williams, about five miles east of Clevelaiid. near the trail to Hudson. 
We made the millstones on the right hand side of the stream as you 
go up, fifteen or twenty feet from the stream, and about half a mile 
from the mill, which was under a high bank, and near a fall in said 
stream of forty or fifty feet. . . . The water was conveyed to the 
mill in a dugout trough, to an under-shot wlieel about twelve feet over, 
with one set of arms, and buckets fifteen inches long, to run inside of 
the trough, which went down the hank at an angle of forty-five degrees, 
perhaps. The dam was about four rods above the fall ; the millstones 
were three and a half feet in diameter, of gray rock. On my way from 
the town to Mr. Williams' mill, I found the cabin of ]\lr. li. Edwards, 
who had left the town, about three miles out ; the next cabin was Judge 
Kingsburv's, and the next old Mr. Gunn, thence half a mile to Mr. 
Williams' ndll. 

The completion of the mill was celebrated with joy and festivity 
by the ten or more families on the ridge aud, "during the following 
winter, our citizens enjoyed the luxury of bolted flour, made in their 
own mills, from wheat raised by themselves." The rivalry between 
Newburg and Cleveland had been fairly begun. By virtue of her 
situation on the shore of the lake. Cleveland had an importance that 
could not be denied, but the town on the higher land farther east 
took the lead in population. It was not long before Cleveland was 


described as "a small village on the shoi-e of Lake Erie, six miles from 
Newburg. ' ' 

' In those days, it took courage of several kinds to make the west- 
ward venture. In itself, the jouniey was a veiy serious thing. The 
springless wagon or the sled, drawn by horses or oxeu and loaded with 
household goods, farming implements, M'eapons of defense, and food, 
with wife and children stowed in corners, were the chief vehicles of 
transportation ; the road was a mere path through the woods or a trail 
along which room for passage must be cut through the trees. Of 
course, there were no bridges, and streams had to be crossed by ford- 
ing if the water was not too deep, or on the ice or on rafts, etc., if it 
was. The way to the promised land was long and tedious, and sick- 
ness and suffering were common experiences. In his Pioneers of the 
Western Reserve, Harvey Rice tells us that the only highways in this 
part of the country at that time were narrow paths, "which had 
existed from time immemorial, leading from one distant point of the 
country to another. One led from Buffalo along the lake shore to 
Detroit. Another from the Ohio River by way of the portage, as it 
was called, to the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. They concentrated 
at Cleveland, where the river was crossed by a feri-y established by 
the Indians. In this way the principal trading posts erected by the 
French and English wei'e made accessible, and furnished the early 
pioneers with the facilities of securing an important commercial inter- 
course with those distant points of trade." Goods and needed pro- 
visions were transported by boat or on pack horses. In February, 
1797, the Connecticut Land Company appointed a committee to "en- 
quire into the expediency of laying and cutting out roads on the 
Reserve. ' ' In the following January, they recommended the building 
of a road from Pennsylvania to the Cuyahoga. The road was cut out 
and the timber girdled according to the recommendation of the com- 
mittee and at the expense of the company. 

Cleveianp .\nd Ohio in 1800 

At this time, the territory that had lieen marked out as tlie City 
of Cleveland had a population numbering a score or so, including, of 
course, the families of the pei-sistent Carter and Spafford, "while 
some sixty or seventy made up the population of the immediate neigh- 
liorhood. Affairs were not progressing, in a material sense, with the 
successful push which the managers of the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany had probably looked for."' Turhand Kirtland made his tliird 
annual visit to the Reserve. In a letter dated "Cleaveland, Ohio, 17lli 


July, 1800," and superscribed "Gen. JI. Cleavcland, Canterbury 
Conn., to be left at Norwich, Post Oflice, " he said: 

Dear Sir: — On my arrival at this place, I found Ma.jor Spaft'ord, 
Mr. Lorenzo Carter and j\lr. David Chirk, who arc the only inhabitants 
residing in the city, have been an.xiously waiting with expectations of 
purchasing a number of lots, Init wlien 1 produceil my instructions, 
they were greatly disappointed, both as to price and terms. They 
assured me, that they had encouragement last year, from Col. Thomas 
Sheldon ; that thcj- would have lands at ten dollars per acre, and from 
Major Austin at twelve dollars at most ; which they think would be a 
generous price, for such a quantity as they wish to purchase. You 
will please excuse me. for giving my opinion, but it really seems to me 
good policy to sell the city lots, at a less price than twenty-five dollars, 
(two acres ^ or I siiall never expect to sec it settled. Mr. ('artcr was 
an early adventurer, has been of essential advantage to the inhabitants 
here, in helping them to provisions in times of danger and scarcity, has 
never experienced any gratuity from the company, but complains of 
being hardly dealt by, in sundry instances. He has money to pay for 
about thirty acres, which lie expected to have taken, if the price had 
met his expectation ; but he- now declares that he will leave the pur- 
chase, and never own an acre in New Connecticut. Ma.i'or Spafford 
has stated his wishes to the company, in his letter of January last, 
and I am not authorized to add. any thing. He says he has no idea 
of giving the present price, for sixteen or eighteen lots. He con- 
templated building a Ikuisc, and making large improvements this sea- 
son, which he thinks would indemnify the company fully, in case he 
should fail to fulfill his contract; and he is determined to remove to 
some other part of the purchase immediately, unless he can obtain 
better terms than I am authorized to give. Mr. Clark is to be included 
in the same contract, with Jla,ior Spafford, but his circumstances will 
not admit of his making any advances. I have reciuested the .settlers 
not to leave the place, until I can obtain further information from the 
Board, and request you to consult General Champion, to whom I have 
written, and favor me with despatches by first mail. ... I have 
given a sketch of these circumstances, in order that you may under- 
stand my embarra-ssments, and expect you will give me particular 
directions how to proceed, and also, whether I shall make new eon- 
tracts with the settlers, whose old ones are forfeited. They seem 
unwilling to rely on the generosity of the company, and want new 
writings. . . " I have the pleasure of your brother's company at 
this time. He held his first talk with the Smooth Nation, at Mr. Car- 
ter's this morning. Appearances are very jjromising. I flatter myself 
he will do no discredit to his elder brother, in his negotiations with 
the aborigines. 

T am dear, sir, with much esteem, yours, &c., ' 


Before long, "city lots which had been held for fifty dollars with 
down payment were offered for twenty-five dollars with time given. 


The trcasurj' was replenished hy assessments upon the stockholders 
instead of from proceeds of sales." In fact, the prospects of the 
venture were rather gloomy. Colonel Whittlesey tells us that by 
individual exertion, some of the "private ownci's under the previous 
drafts had disposed of limited amounts of lands, on terms which did 
not create verj* brilliant expectations of the speculation. In truth, 
the most fortunate of the adventurers realized a very meagre profit, 
and more of them were losers than gainers. Those who were able 
to make their payments and keep the property for their children, 
made a fair and safe investment. It was not until the next genera- 
tion came to maturity, that lands on the Reserve began to command 
good prices. Taxes, trouble and interest, had been long accumulating. 
Such of the proprietors as became settlers secured an excellent home 
at a cheap rate, and left as a legacy to their heirs a cheerful future." 
Early in the spring of 1800, "David Hudson passed here in com- 
pany with Thaddeus Laey and David Kellog and their. families to 
settle in Hudson." It is pleasant to note the fact that "a school- 
house was built this season, jiear Kingsbury's, on the ridge road, and 
Miss Sarah Doan, daughter of Nathaniel Doan, was the teacher." In 
spite of their dissatisfaction with the terms offered by Turhand Kirt- 
land, as recorded in his letter of July, Amos Spafford and David 
Clark seem to have brought their wives and children to Cleveland 
before the end of the year. In the fall, David Bryant and his son, 
who, iu the previous year, had played an important part in building 
the grist-mill at Newburg, came to Cleveland with the purpose of 
making it their permanent home. In a letter from which I have 
already quoted, the son. Oilman, tells us that his father brought a 
still that had seen service in Virginia "and built a still-house under 
the sand bank, about twenty rods above L. Carter's and fifteen feet 
from the river. The house was made of hewed logs, twenty by twenty- 
six, one and a half stories high. We took the water in a trough, out 
of some small springs which came out of the bank, into the second 
story of the house, and made the whiskey out of wheat. My father 
purchased ten acres of land about one-fourth of a mile from the town 
plat, on the bank of the river, east of the town. In the winter of 
1800 and spring of 1801, I helped my father to clear five acres on 
said lot, which was planted with corn in the spring. Said ten acres 
was sold by my father in the spring of 1802, at the rate of two dol- 
lars and fifty cents per acre. Mr. Samuel Huntington came to Cleve- 
land in the spring of 1801, and built a hewed log house near the bank 
of the Cuyahoga river, about fifteen rods south-east of the old sur- 
veyor's cabin, occupied by Mr. Spafford." By way of illustration 


of customs aud costumes of that day, and at the risk of being thought 
somewhat flippant, I quote, from the same letter, Gilmau Bryant's 
account of the Fourth of July ball : 

I waited on Miss Doan, who liad just arrived at the Corners, four 
miles east of town. I was then about seventeen years of age, and Miss 
Doan about fourteen. 1 was dressed in the then st\-le — a gingham 
suit — ray hair queued with one and a half yards of black ribbon, about 
as long and as thick as a corncob, with a little tuft at the lower end ; 
and for the want of pomatum, 1 had a piece of candle rubbed on my 
hair, and then as much flour sprinkled on as could stay without fall- 
ing off. I had a good wool hat, and a pair of brogans that would help 
to play "Fisher's Hornpipe," or "High Bettie Martin," when I 
danced: When I went for Miss Doan I took an old horse; when she 
was ready I rode up to a stump near the cabin, she mounted the stump 
and spread her under petticoat on "Old Tib" behind me, secured her 
calico dress to keep it clean, and then mounted on behind me. I had 
a fine time ! 

In this same summer of 1800, i\Ir. Samuel Huntington, of Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, visited the Reserve. In July, he was at Youngs- 
town (the whole of which township liad previously been bouglit by 
John Young), and, in October, left David Abbott's mill at Willougliby 
and came to Cleveland and "stayed at Carter's at night. Day pleas- 
ant and cool." For the next few days, his diarj' records the following: 
"Friday, 3d. — Explored the city and town; land high and flat, cov- 
ered with white oak. On the west side of the river is a long, deep 
stagnant pond of water, which produces fever and ague, among those 
who settle near 'the river. There are only three families near the 
point, and they have the fever. Saturday, 4tli. — Sailed out of the 
Cuyahoga, along the coast, to explore the land west of the river. 
Chainiel at the mouth about five feet deep. On the west side is a 
prairie, where one hundred tons of hay might be cut each year. A little 
way back is a ridge, from which the land descends to the lake, affording 
a prospect indescribably beautiful. In the afternoon went to Wil- 
liams' and saw mill (New burg,) which are nearly completed. 
Sunday, 5th — Stayed at Williams'. Monday, 6th. — Went through 
Towns 7, 6 and 5, of Range 11, to Hudson." He returned to Con- 
necticut in the fall and, early in the summer of the following year, 
moved with his family to Youngstowii and, soon after that, moved 
to Cleveland, a notable addition to the little community. We shall 
hear of him again. 

Ohio was not yet a state. Marietta had been settled on the Ohio 
Company's purchase in 1787; Losantiville (later rechristened Cinci?i- 
nati) and one or two other colonies had been planted in the Symmes 




purchase in 1788; and in 1796, the year of General Cleavcland's 
expedition to the Cuyahoga, General Nathaniel Massie and Duncan 5Ic- 
Arthur founded Chillicothc on the Scioto Kivcr in the Virginia mili- 
tary lands ; it was to become the first capital of the state that was to 
be. By 1800, Ohio had a population of a little more than 45,000 and 
there were twenty or thirty settlements on the Reserve with a total 
population of about 1,300. But there was no government ; there were 
no laws or records ; no magistrates or police. The people were orderly 
and fully competent to govern themselves and yet, in those three or 

"v.omio counties 

*-» 1789. 

Map of Ohio Counties in 1800 

four years, the need of civil institutions began to be severely felt. In 
1788, General Arthur St. Clair, the somewhat arbitrary governor of the 
Northwest Territory, by proclamation, had established Washington 
County, including all of the present state east of a meridian line 
drawn from the mouth of tlie Cu.yahoga to the Ohio Tliver ; the county 
seat was Marietta. In 1796, he included the part of the Reserve that 
lies west of the Cuyahoga in Wayne County, the seat of which was 
Detroit. In 1797, he included the eastern part of the Reserve in Jef- 
ferson County, with Steubenville as the county seat. It is not certain 
whether the relation of the Western Reserve to the Northwest Terri- 


toiy was considered at the time of enacting the immortal Ordinance 
of 1787, which made no distinction between ceded and unceded lauds, 
but St. Clair's attempt to exercise jurisdiction emphasized the doubt 
as to the sufficiency of the original Connecticut claim and, conse- 
quently, to the validity of the title deeds to the soil itself. The lands 
ceded and the lands reserved by Connecticut had been claimed by 
New York and Virginia, and the clouded title was understood at the 
time of the purchase by the Connecticut Land Companj'. Connecticut 
had held the soil by the same title that she had held jurisdiction, and 
both had been quit-claimed by the state to the syndicate. If the juris- 
diction was in the L^nited States, the ownership of the soil was there 
too. St. Clair's claim to jurisdiction was a menace to the title by 
which the settlers held their lands. Therefore, they, with great una- 
nimity, denied the territorial jurisdiction and simply laughed when 
the Jefferson County authorities sent an agent to inquire into the 
matter of taxation. The agent "returned to Steubenville, no richer 
and no wiser than he came. ' ' 

Naturally enough, men desiring western lands hesitated about 
bu3'ing in a district where there was no government and where the 
titles to the lands were clouded, and the men who owned the lands 
hesitated to sell when payments could not be enforced. Connecticut 
was indifferent to the controversy and even refused to assert her 
jurisdiction when the land company importuned her to do so. The 
settlers and the shareholders called for help both from the state 
assembly and from congress. In Febniar^y, 1800, the national house 
of representatives appointed a committee, with John Marshall as 
chairman, to take into consideration the acceptance of jurisdiction. 
The report of the committee stated the dilemma of the company in a 
single sentence: "As the pui'chasers of the land commonly called the 
Connecticut Reserve hold their title under the state of Connecticut, 
they cannot submit to the government established by the United States 
in the Northwest Territory without endangering their titles, and the 
jurisdiction of Connecticut could not be extended over Ihcm without 
much inconvenience." The report was accompanied by a bill for tlie 
purpose of vesting jurisdiction in the LTnited States and establishing 
the validity of the Connecticut title to the soil. This hill passed 
both houses of congress and, on the twenty-eighth of April, 1800, 
President Adams gave it his approval. The Connecticut general as- 
sembly promptly complied with the provisions of the quieting act. In 
July of the same year. Governor St. Clair issued a proclamation con- 
stituting Trumbull County, which was to include the Western Resen'e. 
At that time, the govcnior of Connecticut was Jonathan Trumbull, a 




son of the original "'Brotlior Jonathaji." The first court sat at 
Warren, ■■between two eorn-i-rilis" we are told, on the last Monday of 
August, 1800, at wliieh time the county was organized. In the short 
Ilistort/ of Cleveland that constitutes the opening chapter of the first 
city directory (published in 1837), the reader is told that: "To that 
place [Warren] the good citizens of the then city of Cleveland (for 
it was even then called a city) had to repair to see that justice was 
administered according to law, previous to which time, but few of them 
were aware that they were subject to any other law than the law of 
God and a good conscience, which, if not in all cases effectual, there 
were a less number of complaints then, than now, of grievances un- 



Trumbull County of 1800 

From a synopsis of the record, I quote the following: "Court of 
General Quarter-Sessions of the Peace, begun and holden at Warren, 
within and for said county of Trumbull, on the fourth Monday of 
August, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred, and of the inde- 
pendence of the United States, the twenty-fifth. Present. Jolui Young, 
Turhand Kirtland, Camden Cleaveland [a brother of Moses Cleave- 
land], James Kingsbury, and Eliphalet Austin. Esquires, justices of 
the quorum, and others, their associates, justices of the peace, holding 
said court." Among the a-ssociate justices was Amos Spaiford. In 
the hands of the members of this court rested the entire civil jurisdic- 
tion of the county. Anumg the things done at this five-days' session, 
the court appointed Amos Spaiford, David Hudson. Simon Perkins, 
John ;Miuor, Aaron Wheeler, Edward Paine, and Benjamin Davidson 
a committee "to divide the county of Trumbull into townships, to 
describe the limits and boundaries of each township, and to make 


report to the court thereof." This committee divided the couuty iuto 
eight townships — Cleveland, Warren, Youngstown, Hudson, Vernon, 
Richfield, iliddlefield and Painesville — and the court confirmed the 
action of the committee. The Cleveland township of Trumbull County 
thus created included all of the present couuty of Cuyahoga east of 
the Cuyahoga River, all of the Indian country from the Cuyahoga 
River to the ivest line of the Reserve, and three of the townships of 
what is now Geauga County. Constables for each of the eight town- 
ships were appointed, Lorenzo Carter and Stephen Gilbert being thus 
named for Cleveland township. In September, Governor St. Clair 
issued a proclamation in accoi'dance with which David Abbott, the 
sheriff, caused an election to be held on the second Tuesday of October 
"for the purpose of electing one person to represent the county in 
the territorial legislature. ' ' Under the laws then existing, all elections 
in the territory were to be held at the county seats, and so this first 
election in the Reserve was held at Warren. Colonel Whittlese.y gives 
us this description of it : " The manner of conducting the election 
was after the English mode. That is, the sheriff of the county assem- 
bled the electors by proclamation, he presided at the election, and 
received the votes of the electors orally or viva voce. It will readily 
be conceded, that in a county, embracing as Trumbull then did, a 
large Territory, only a portion of the electors would attend. The 
number convened at that election was forty-two. Out of this number 
General Edward Paine received 38 votes, and was the member elect. 
General Paine took his seat in the Territorial Legislature in 180L" 
Thus, on the threshold of a new century, the organization of Trumbull 
County was completed and civil government was established in the 
Western Reserve. 



The diffiexilties of the journey from the East have been passed over 
very liglitly in tliis narrative for the reason that they have been 
described so often that they probably are familiar to most of the 
readers of this volume. After the weariness of the way came the 
building of the inevitable log cabin with its improvised equipment, 
with windows of gi-eased paper, and floor of split logs ; sometimes there 
was a door made of split boards and with wooden hinges and some- 
times the door had to wait, as in the case of him who wrote: "We 
hung up a quilt and that, with a big bull-dog, constituted the door." 
Bedsteads, seats, tables, etc., were pi'ovided as time and the skill of 
the pioneers made them possible. Mr. Kennedy tells us that "the 
first bed on which Heman Ely, the founder of Elyria, slept on his 
arrival in this section was made of the cloth covering of the wagon 
in which he came, and filled with straw brought, with the greatest dif- 
ficulty, from a barn located miles away''; bedsteads made of smooth, 
round poles and corded witli elm bark were more common. Judge 
Robert F. Paine says that in liis boyhood in Portage County "we ate 
on what we called trenchers, a wooden affair in shape something like a 
plate. Our neighbors were in the same condition as we, using wooden 
plates, wooden bowls, wooden everything, and it was years before we 
could secure dishes harder than wood, and when we did they were made 
of yellow claj'. " But these things have been often described and need 
not detain us long. The omissions of the menu were numerous and 
many of the makeshifts were ingenious. The famous and heroic 
Joshua R. Giddiugs once said: "The first mince-pie I ever ate on 
the Reserve was composed of pumpkin instead of apple, vinegar in 
place of wine or cider, and bear's meat instead of beef. The whole 
was sweetened with wild honey instead of sugar, and seasoned with 
domestic pepper pulverized instead of cloves, cinnamon and allspice, 
and never did I taste pastiy with a better relish." Appetite is a good 
sauce. Salt tiat came from Onondaga, via Buffalo, or from Pittsburgh, 
sold in Trumbull County for twenty dollars a barrel and many of 
the pioneers carried kettles to the "Salt Spring Tract," mentioned in 



the previous chapter, and there made their own supply by boiling 
down the saline waters. Cane sugar was expensive, but maple sugar 
soon became a convenient and delicious substitute. Corn bread was 
a staple article of diet, the appetizing and satisfying qualities of 
which were rediscovered by many under the pressure of a Mr. Hoover 
and his potent food administration, to the end that wheat might be 
sent to "our boys" and our allies "over there." As Lorenzo Carter 
was not the only one who kept a gun and knew how to use it, an 
occasional wild turkey or piece of venison graced the rough table and 
amplified the menu. Prior to the building of a few grist-mills, grain 
was prepared for kitchen use by pounding — the mortar and pestle 
process; the mortar was made by hollowing out the top of an oak 
stump; the pestle was a rude stone dependent from a spring-pole. 
Soon came the little hand-mills. "There were two stones about two 
and a half feet in diameter, one above the other, the upper one being 
turned with a pole. The corn was poured in through a hole in the 
upper stone." It is a matter of veritable history that young John 
Doan "had two attacks of fever and ague daily. He walked to the 
house of a neighbor five miles distant, with a peck of corn, ground 
it in a hand-mill, and then carried it home. He adjusted his labors 
and his shakings to a system. In the morning, on the ending of his 
first attack, he would start on his journey, grind his grist, wait until 
his second spell was over, and then set out on his return." 

But above the forty-first parallel clothing is necessary as well as 
is food. Eastern textile fabrics were beyond the reach of the pioneers 
of the Reserve, for they had little money and practically no market 
for their produce. But the hide of the occasional deer was readily 
available for buckskin garments and before long the cultivation of 
flax was introduced, looms were set up, and then the industi-y of wife 
and mother completed the solution of the problem. "Leather was 
expensive and difficult to ol)tain ; therefore the men went barefoot 
when they could, while the women carried their shoes to church, 
sitting down on a log near the raceting-house to slip them on." But, 
notwithstanding these and countless other hardshijjs and incon- 
veniences, hospitality was in every home and the stranger seldom 
found a door wilh flu; latch-string pulled in. 

Historic Conservatism 

Much has been written and spoken to einplinsize the fact that the 
civilized life of tlie Western Reserve has rui'ihmic l>lood in its veins. 
We often have been told that flic early settlers .nbsorlied and nssimi- 


lated the grand elements of Puritan civilization, land, law, and lib- 
erty, characteristics well worthy of our admiration and counnemora- 
tion. Thus, General James A. Garfield has told us that 'these pioneers 
knew well that the three great forces which constitute the strength 
and glory of a free government are the Family, the School and the 
Church. These three they planted here, and they nourished and 
cherished them with an energy and devotion scarcely equaled in any 
other quarter of the world. On this height were planted in the wilder- 
ness the symbols of this trinity of powers ; and here let us hope may 
be maintained forever the ancient faith of our fathers in the sanctity 
of the Home, the intelligence of the School, and the faithfulness of 
the Church." Still, it is no less true, as stated by another, that "it 
is not our office, in the light of historic truth, to exalt to the stature 
of heroes all who carried the compass or chain, or plied the settler's 
axe in the forests of New Connecticut. . . . They did not leave 
their homes because they were there the victims of intolerance, and 
could not there follow the dictates of a tender and enlightened con- 
science. They came here to improve their material condition — to 
better their worldly fortunes. Like the rest of us, they had an eye 
to the main chance in life ; but they richly earned and paid a hundred- 
fold for all they received." Still more to the point, we have the 
statement of Burke A. Hinsdale, once superintendent of the public 
schools of Cleveland and editor of the Works of James Ahram Gar- 
field, to the effect that the first settlers of the Reserve were not as 
religious and service-loving as we have always supposed them to have 
been. Dr. H. C. Applegarth assures that "prior to the year 1800, 
the Western Reserve was a land where might gave right, and where 
every man was a law unto himself. The tone of public sentiment and 
morals was veiy low. Even in lSl6, when the population was about 
one hundred and fifty, there were only two professing Christians in 
the place, namely. Judge Daniel Kelly and Mrs. Noble H. IMerwin. 
Moses Wliite, who afterward became a useful citizen, and who died 
in Cleveland at an advanced age, in September, 1881, long hesitated 
about settling here because the place was so godless. The religious 
destitution was so great that he called it a heathen land." The 
records left by some of the early missionaries agi'ee with these state- 

Pioneer Education and Religion 

As already noted, a schoolhouse was built in 1800 "near Kings- 
bury's on the ridge road." In fact, we have been assured, almost 
times without number, to the effect that "it was a characteristic fea- 


tiire of this transplanted New England life and thought that in the 
pursuit of material things the church and schoolhouse were not for- 
gotten. As a general thing, as soon as the things absolutely essential 
to physical life were provided, steps were taken for the support of 
the gospel and the instruction of the young. ' ' The superintendent of 
the surveying party of 1797 was a clergyman, but we have no record 
of any exercise of clerical offices by him except at the funeral of 
David Eldridge and at Cleveland's first wedding. Probably the first 
sermon heard on the Reserve was delivered by the Rev. William Wick 
at Youngstowii in September, 1799, but in 1800 the Rev. Joseph 
Badger, a soldier of the Revolution, an orthodox Presbyterian, and 
the best known of the early preachers, was sent by the Connecticut 
Missionary Society as a missionary to the Western Reserve. On horse- 
back he crossed the mountains of Western Pennsylvania in a snow- 
storm and was at Pittsburgh on the fourteenth of December. After a 
few days' rest, he pushed on through the woods to Youngstown, where 
he preached his first sermon on the Reserve. He was at Cleveland 
on the eighteenth of August, 1801, and lodged at Lorenzo Carter's. As 
recorded by him on the sixth of September: "We swam our horses 
across the Cuyahoga by means of a canoe and took an Indian path 
up the lake ; came to Rocky River, the banks of which were very high, 
on the west side almost perpendicular. While cutting the brush to 
open a way for our horses, we were saluted by the song of a large 
yellow rattlesnake, which we removed out of our way." In this way, 
says Harvey Rice, he "visited, in the course of the year 1801, every 
settlement and nearly every family thi'oughout the Western Reserve. 
In doing this, he often rode from five to twenty-five or thirty miles a 
day, carrying with him in saddle-bags a scanty supply of clothing 
and eatables, and often traversing pathless woodlands amid storms and 
tempests, swimming unbi-idged rivers, and suffering from cold and 
hunger, and at the same time, here and there, visiting lone families, 
giving them and their children religious instruction and wholesome 
advice, and preaching at points wherever a few could be gathered 
together, sometimes in a log-cabin or m a barn, and sometimes in the 
open field or in a woodland, beneath the shadows of the trees." In 
the fall, he visited Detroit and found no one that he could call a 
Christian "except a black man who appeared pious." A little later, 
he visited Hudson and there oi-ganized a church with a membership 
of ten men and six women — the first church organized on the Reserve. 
Ill October, he returned to New England and made arrangements to 
take his family to New Connecticut in the following year and there 
to labor at a salary of seven dollars per week. 


The Coming of Samuel Huntington 

As we were told in Gilnian Bnaut's letter, quoted in the preceding 
chapter, Samuel Huntington came to Clevehmd in this year "and 
built a hewed log house near the Cuyahoga River." Colonel Whit- 
tlesey tells us, more definitely, that he "contracted with Amos Spatford 
to superintend the erection of a well-built block house of considerable 
pretensions near the blutl" south of Superior Street, in rear of the 
site of the American House. Huntington was then about thirty- 
five years of age." He was the adopted son of his uncle, Samuel 
Huntington, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and gov- 
ernor of Connecticut. The nephew wa.s graduated at Yale in 1785 
and admitted to the bar at Norwich in 1793. Thus Mr. Huntington 
and Mr. Badger became our "first bodily exponents of the law and 
the gospel." In illustration of the fact that life and travel in the 
early days were not without bodily danger, Mr. Kennedy has rehearsed 
a "reputed experience" of each and, with like purpose, I transcribe 
them here : 

It is told of .Mr. Huntington that, while a resident of Cleveland, 
he came near being devoured by wolves, as he rode in from Paines- 
ville, on the Euclid I'oad. He was on horseback, alone, in the dark, 
and floundered through the swamp near the present corner of Willson 
[East Fifty-fifth Street] and Euclid avenues. A pack of hungry 
wolves fell upon his traiK and made a combined attack upon horse and 
man. The former, in desperate fright, made the' best possible use of 
his heels, while the latter laid about him with the only weapon at com- 
mand — an umbrella. Between speed and defense, both were saved, 
and brought up in safety at the log-house down near Superior Street. 
The experience of Mr. Badger was of a similar character. He was 
urging his faithful horse through the woods of tlie Grand River bot- 
toms, while the rain was pouring down in torrents, and a place of 
shelter was one of the vuicertain i)ossibi]ities of the future. There 
came to him after a time the knowledge that some wild animal Avas 
on his trail and, raising his voice, he sent up a shout that would have 
frightened many of the smaller denizens of the forast. But it had no 
such effect on the big bear that was on his trail. On the contrary, 
the brute was aroused to immediate action, and made a rush for the 
missionary, with hair on end and eyes of fire. The only weapon Mr. 
Badger had about him. if such it might be called, was a large horse- 
shoe, which he threw at the bear's nose, and missed. Then he rode 
imder a beech tree, tied his horsC to a branch, deserted the saddle 
with eelerit.v, and climbed upward. He kept on for a long distance, 
found a convenient seat, tied himself to the tree with a large bandanna, 
and awaited results. The bear was meanwhile nosing about the horse, 
as though preparing for an attack. The wind came up, the thunder 
rolled, and the rain fell in torrents. The occasional flashes of light- 


nmg showed that the horse was still safe, with the bear on guard. 
And there the poor missionary clung all night, cold, wet through, tired 
and sleepy ; and there the bear waited for him to come down. But at 
daybreak he made for his lair, while Mr. Badger worked his way down 
as "well as he could, and rode for the nearest settlement. 

The stories seem to be rather "large," but Mr. Badger's cloth 
raises a presumption in his favor, while Mr. Huntington, although a 
lawyer, probably would not take undue liberties with the truth. 

In the sirring of 1801, Timothy Doan, a brother of Nathaniel Doan, 
being "seized with the western fever," set out from Herkimer County 
in New York for the Reserve, accompanied by his wife and six chil- 
dren. The youngest of these children was John Doan, then three 
years old; to the sketch of The Doan Family written by this son, 
John, and preserved in the Aimals of the Early Settlers' Association, 
w'e are indebted for much interesting and valuable information. They 
traveled with ox teams and two horses; besides their furniture and 
household goods, they brought a box of live geese, said to be "the 
first domesticated birds of the kind ever brought into Ohio." From 
Buffalo, Timothy and one of his sons pushed on ahead carrying some 
of their goods on the backs of the horses and oxen; the road from 
the Pennsylvania line to the Cuyahoga had been surveyed, "but no 
bridge had been built over the intervening streams. Thej^ pushed 
through to Uncle Nathaniel's house in East Cleveland and were soon 
enjoying their first attack of ague." From' Buffalo, the mother and 
the other children made the trip to the Cuyahoga in a rowboat, 
assisted by an Indian and several white men engaged for that pur- 
pose. At the mouth of Gralid River, the boat was capsized and the 
mother, children, goods, and geese were thrown into the water. But the 
water was shallow and there were no serious losses. Here the pilgrims 
were met by Nathaniel and Timothy. Thence the boat was taken on 
to Cleveland without further adventure, while two horses bore "Uncle 
Nathaniel," Mrs. Doan, and three of the children overland by way of 
Willoughby, where 'Squire Abbott had built a mill in 1798, perhaps 
the first mill in the vicinity of Cleveland. Says John Doan: "We 
arrived at Uncle Nathaniel Doan's log cabin in April, 1801." For 
a little more than a dollar an acre, Timothy Doan bought ;i20 acres 
in Euclid, and there, on the south side of Euclid Road and about six; 
miles of the Public Squai-c, he l)uilt a log house into which the 
family moved in November. In this year also came Sanuu-l Hainillon 
and family; they settled in Newbnrg. 

Clevelanders enjoyed unusually good hcnllli lliat season and, 
Colonel "Wliittlospv tells us, the vear "became uotoi'ious, on account of 


a Fourth of July celebration and ball. It was held in one end of 
Major Carter's double log house, on the hill iiear the corner of Union 
and Superior lanes. John Wood, Ben Wood and R. H. Blinn were 
managers. Major Samuel Jones was chief musician and master of 
ceremonies. About a dozen ladies and twenty gentlemen constituted 
the company. Notwithstanding the floors were rough puncheons, and 
their best beverage was made of maple sugar, hot water and whiskej^, 
probably no celebration of American independence in this city was 
ever more joyous than this." 

Major Sp afford 's Eesurvet 

In November, Major Spafford made a resurvey of the streets and 
lanes of the city and "planted fifty-four posts of oak, about one foot 
square, at. the principal corners, for M'hich he charged fifty cents 
each, and fifty cents for grubbing out a tree at the north-east comer 
of the Square. ' ' 

In February, 1802, the Trumbull County Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions ordered that, the first town meeting for Cleveland should be 
held at the h(mse of James Kingsbury. Of that meeting, we have the 
following official report : 

Agreeably to order of the Court of General Quarter Sessions, 
the inhabitants of the town of Cleaveland met at the house of James 
Kingsbury, Esq., the 5th day of April, A. D. 1802, for town meeting, 
and chose 

('hairm(i)i, Toivn Clerk, 

Rodolphus Edwards. Nathaniel Doan. 


Amos Spafford, Esq., Timothy Doan, Wm. W. Williams. 

Appraisers of Ilouses, 

Samuel Hamilton, Elijah Oun. 


Ebenezer Ayrs. 

Supervisors of Tlighivays, 

Sam'l Huntington, Esq., Nat'l Doan, Sam'l Hamilton. 

Overseers of tlie Poor, 

William W. Williams, Samuel Huntington, Esq. 

Fence Vimvers, 

Lorenzo Carter, Nathan Chapman. 


Ezekiel Hawley, Ricluird Craw. 

A true copy of the proceedings of the inhabitants of Cleaveland 

at their town meeting, examined per me, 

Nathaniel Doan, Town Clerk. 


The officers named were chosen viva voce; the election of justices 
of the peace and militia oftioers had not yet been authorized. In this 
year, the governor appointed Samuel Huntington one of the justices 
of the qnorum : he had previously commissioned him as lieutenant- 
colonel of the Trumbull County militia. 

At the next term of the Court of General Quarter Sessions (Au- 
gust, 1802), Lorenzo Carter and Amos Spafford were each licensed to 
keep a tavern at Cleveland, the fee for each license being fixed at four 
dollars. At the same session of the court, George Tod of Youngstovvn 
was appointed ajipraiser of taxal)le i)roi)erty. About this time, Carter 
and Spafford built, near the western end of Superior Street, the first 
frame houses in Cleveland, and Anna Spafford opened, in Major 
Carter's well-known "front room," a school for children — the first 
in "the city," but antedated by Sarah Doan's school on "the ridge" 
by two years. Earlier in the .year, the Rev. Mr. Badger loaded his 
family and household goods in a wagon drawn by four horses and, in 
sixty da.ys, made the journey back to the Reserve, where he bought a 
piece of land and put up a log cabin at Aiistinburg, in what now is Ash- 
tabula County. He soon resumed his missionary labors, and organized 
many churches and schools, although the raissionarj- society reduced 
his pay to six dollars a week. That year, he again came to Cleve- 
land, where, he says, he "visited the only two families there, and went 
on to Newburg, where I preached on the Sabbath. There were five 
families here, but no apparent piety. They seemed to glory in their 
infidelity." Mr. Badger was later in the employ of the Massachusetts 
Missionary Society and went to work among the Indians at Sandusky, 
but in 1808 he returned to Austinburg, and subsequently was pastor 
of churches of several towns of the Reserve. In his old age he was 
very poor, as appears from the following letter written to Joshua 
R. Giddings under date of October 4, 1844: 

"I hope the Ashtabula County Historical Society will not forget 
the fifteen dollars remaining due to me. I am in want of it to a.ssist 
in procuring means of daily support. I am an old, worn-out man, not 
able to do an.vthing to help myself. I hope the society will not wrong 
me out of this sum. ... I am sure if they could see my helpless 
condition, unable to get out of my chair without help, they would not 
withhold that little sum. It's honestly my due." Mr. Badger died 
at Perrysburg, Ohio, in 1846. 



When Edward Paine took his seat in the territorial legislature 
in ISOl, he found that body discussing the question of a state govern- 
ment for Ohio. The opponents of the somewhat arbitrary goveraor, 
General St. Clair, succeeded in sending Thomas Worthington to con- 
gress and, largely through his efforts, that body authorized a conven- 
tion to form a state constitution if the people of Ohio so desired. 
This enabling act, approved on the thirtieth of April, 1802, 
provided "that the inhabitants of the eastern division of 
the territory northwest of the river Oliio be, and they are 
hereby, authorized to form for themselves a constitution and 
State government, and to assume such name as they shall deem 
proper, and the said State, when formed, shall be admitted 
into the Union upon the same footing with the original States in all 
respects whatever.'' Tbe act fixed the number of representatives 
from each count}', elections were to be held "on the second Tuesday 
of October next," and the delegates then elected were "authorized 
to meet at Chillicothe on the first ]\Ionday in November next." Sam- 
uel Huntington was elected as one of Trumbull County's two dele- 
gates; for nearly half the session he was the only representative that 
Trumbull County had in that body. The convention met as prescribed 
on the first day of November, chose as its president Edward Tiffin of 
Chillicothe, a local preacher and physician and a brother-in-law of 
Thomas Worthington, and completed its labors on the twenty-ninth. 
The constitution then and thus framed clipped the veto from the func- 
tions of the governor — a direct effect of wliat was felt to be an abuse 
of that power by the territorial governor. The famous Ordinance of 
1787 for the government of the territory of the United States north- 
west of the Ohio River provided that "if Congress .shall hereafter find 
it expedient, they .shall have authority to form one or two States in 
that part of the said territory whicli lies north of an east and west 
line drawn through the southerly lieiid or'iiic of Lake Michigan," 
and the enabling act of 1802 designated such a line as the northern 
l>oundarv of the proposed state. But the convention modified this 
boundary line by ackling the following: "Provided (diraijs, and it is 



hereby fully uiidcrsfood and declared by this convention, That if tlie 
southerly beiul «r cxtivme of Lake Micliigan should extend so far 
south that a line drawn due east from it should not intersect Lake Eric, 
or if it should intersect the said Lake Erie east of the mouth of the 
Miami River of tlie Lake, thi'u, and in that case, with the assent 
of the Congress of the United States, the northern boundary of this 
State shall be established by, and extending to, a direct line running 
from tlie southern extremity of Lake Michigan to the most northerly 
cape of the Miami Bay, after intersecting the due-north line from 
the moutli of the Great Miami Kivcr as aforesaid; thence northeast 
to tlie territorial, and by the said territorial line to the Pennsylvania 
line." This important proviso was destined to breed trouble with 
Michigan and, in fact, three decades later led to an armed invasion 
of northwest Ohio and the serio-comic incident known in history as 
"The Toledo War." But, on the whole, the Ohio constitution of 1802 
was a workable, sensilile, and satisfactory creation and remained as 
the organic law of the Buckeye State until the second constitution was 
framed in 1851. Adopted formally by the body that built it, it was 
not submitted to the people for ratification. It has never been defi- 
nitely dctc-rmincd just when Ohio was admitted to the Union, but a 
congressional act of February, 1803, recognized the fact of her 
admission in these words: "whereby the said State has become one of 
the United States of America." 

A constitution having been adopted and Ohio having taken her 
place as the seventeenth state in the Union, her first legislature met 
at Chillicothe on the first of March, 1803. Courts were created and 
election laws were passed ; new counties were organized and state offi- 
cers were chosen. Edward Tiffin became the first governor of the 
new commonwealth, and Samuel Huntington took his seat as one of 
the first judges of the Ohio supreme court. In the same spring, "the 
inhabitants of the Town of Cleaveland met at the house of James 
Kingsbury, Esq., for a township meeting, and proceed and chose, 

Amos Spafford, Esq., Chairman. 

Xathl. Doan. Town Clerk. 

Amos Spafiford, Esq., James Kingsbury, Esq., and Timothy Doan, 

James Kingsbury, Es(i., and James Hamilton, Ocerseers of the 

Rodolphus Edwards and Ezekiel Hawley and Amos Spafford, Esq., 
Fence Vieuers. 

Elijah Gun and Samuel Huntington, Esq., Appraisers of Houses. 

James Kingsbury, Esq., Lister. 



[Chap. V 

Wm. Elivin. James Kingsbury, Esq., and Tiraothj- Doan, Supervi- 
sors of Highways. 

Rodolphus Edwards. Constable." 

First Justices of the Peace 

In June, the electors again met at the same place and chose Amos 
Si>afford and Timothy Doan as justices of the peace. On the eleventh 
of October, the voters of the township of Cleveland met at the house 
of James Kingsbury. "When met, proceeded and appointed James 
Kingsbury, Esq., Timothy Doan, Esq., and Nath. Doan judges, and 
Rodolphus Edwards and Stephen Gilbert, clerks of the election." 

Judge James Kingsbury 

They were "sworn in by Timothy Doan, Jiustice of the Peace." Ben- 
jamin Tappan was elected senator; David Abbott and Ephraim Quim- 
by were elected representatives in the general a.ssembly. This Ben- 
jamin Tappan had come to the Reserve in 1799 and settled where 
Ravenna now is. According to the mami.script of the Rev. Thomas 
Barr, as quoted by Colonel Whittlesey, this was "a healthy year, 
marked by increased emigration." Under date of this year, Harris' 
Journal of a 'four mentions Cleveland as "a pleasant little town, 
favorably situated on the borders of Lake Erie, at the mouth of 
Cuvahoga River." 


LejVding Business Men 

At this time, the leading business naen of Cleveland, other than 
Major Amos Spafford, who kept the tavern, were David Bryant, David 
Clark, Elisha Norton and Alexander Canipboll. The Iniildiug of 
Bryant's distillery has already been noted; the other three "kejit 
store" for the settlers and traded with the Indians. Campbell, a 
Scotchman, "saw that here was a good place to traffic with the stoic 
of the woods. He biiilt a rude store a little further up the hill, near 
the spring, but more towards the junction of Union and Mandrake 
lanes [see Spafford 's map, page 59]. . . . The same spring 
afterwards supplied the tannery of Samuel and Matthew William- 
son's establishment, on lot 202, the vats of which were directl.y across 
River Street." In this little cluster of cabins around the distillery 
under the hill the principal traffic of Cleveland was carried on. "Here 
the red man became supremely happy over a very small quantity of 
raw whisk.v, for which he paid the proceeds of many a hunt. If any- 
thing remained of his stock of skins after paying for his whisky, the 
beads, ribbons and trinkets of Mr. Campbell's store absorbed the entire 
stock. Here the squaws bartered and coquetted with the trader, who 
in their eyes was the .most important personage in the country. Here 
the wild hunter, in his dirty blanket, made the woods ring with his 
savage liowls, when exhilarated with drink." "Whatever one may think 
of David Bryant's business and commodity, one must judge him and 
them by the accepted standards of his day and not by those of today. 
"We have no reason to think that these New England pioneers were 
dissipated men, and even the Indians, "upon the whole, seem to have 
been moderately well behaved." Still it is on record that the first 
murder committed wdthin the limits of this city was caused by over- 
indulgence in strong drink. The traditional story is to the effect that 
one Menompsy, a medicine-man of the Chippewa or of the Ottawa 
tribe, had prescribed professionally for the wife of a certain Big Son 
of the Seneca tribe, and that the patient had died. In the dusk of 
an evening in 1802 or 1803 (the exact date is uncertain), Big Son 
and Menompsy, "somewhat elevated by the fire-water of Bryant's 
still," had an altercation. Big Son claimed that his wife had been 
killed and threatened to kill the medicine-man, but the latter claimed 
that he bore a charmed life and could not be hurt. "Me no 'fraid, " 
said Menompsy "as they walked out of the store [Campbell's] and 
took the trail that wound up the bluff, along Union Lane. "The 
Senecas were encamped on the east side of the river below Carter's 
and the Chippewas and Ottawas on the west side, partly up the hill. 

Vol. 1—5 


As they went along the path, Big Son put out his hand as though he 
intended a friendly shake, after the manner of white men. At the 
same time he drew a knife and stabbed Menompsy in the side. The 
blood spurted from his body, which Carter tried to stop with his hand, 
as the Indian fell. 'Nobsy broke now, yes, Nobsy broke,' were his 
last words. In a few minutes he was dead. The Chippewas took up 
the corpse and carried it to their camp on the west side. Major Carter 
knew full well what would happen unless the friends of Menompsy 
were appeased. During the night, the valley of the Cuyahoga echoed 
with their savage voices, infuriated by liquor and revenge. The 
Chippewas and Ottawas were more numerous than the Senecas. In 
the morning, the warriors of the first named nation were seen with 
their faces painted black, a certain symbol of war . . . The 
murder of Menompsy was compromised for a gallon of whisky, which 
Bryant was to make that day, being the next after the killing. One 
of the stipulations was that the body should be taken to Rocky River 
before it was 'covered,' or mourned for, with the help of the whisky. 
Bryant was busy and did not make the promised gallon of spirits. 
The Chippewas waited all day, and went over the river decidedly 
out of humor. They were followed and promised two gallons on the 
coming day, Avhieh reduced their camp halloo to the tone of a mere 
sullen murmur. But Carter and his party well knew that in this sup- 
pressed anger tliere was as much vengeance as iu the bowlings of 
the previous night. They fulfilled their promise and, upon receiving 
two gallons, the Chippewas and Ottawas took up the corpse, according 
to agreement, went to Rocky River and held their pow wow there. 
Carter did not sleep for two nights, and few of the residents enjoyed 
their beds very much until the funeral procession was out of sight." 

The Local MiIjItia 

Early in 1804, Captain Elijah "VVadswortli of Canfield was made 
major-general of the fourth division of the Ohio militia, which divi- 
sion embraced the northeastern part of the state. In April, General 
"Wadsworth divided his district into two brigade districts, the second 
of which embraced Ti-umbuU County. This brigade district was sub- 
divided into two regimental districts, which, in turn, were divided into 
company districts, the foui'th of which consisted of the townsliip of 
Cleveland. The several companies were ordered to choose their own 
officers. That the election of tlie fourth company was not in the nature 
of a love-feast appears from the report and the consequent remon- 
strance. The report, with its remarkable orthography, is as follows: 


To Elijah Wadswoitli Mnj. Gcnl. ith Division: 

Agreeable to General orders, the (.Qualified Electors of the fourth 
Company district, in the second Brij^aile, of the fourth Division of the 
Ohio -Militia: met at the house of James Kingrsbery, Esc]., at eleven 
o'clock forenoon, and maid choice of three Jiidges and a clerk, and 
when duely sworn preceded and made choice of Loranzo Carter Cap- 
tain, and Nathaniel Doan Lieutenant, and Samuel Jones Ensign for 
sd Company given under our hands and seals at Cleveland Trunible 
county ; this seventh day of ^lay one thousand eight hundred and four. 

James Kingsbery, 
Nathaniel Doan, 
Benjamin Gold, 

of the 


The remonstrance is as follows: 

To Elijah Wadsworth, Major General of the 3d Division of Militia 
of the State of Ohio: 

Sir: — AYe, the undersigned, hereby beg leave to represent that the 
proceedings of the company of IMilitia, on Monday, the 7th day of 
instant I\Iay, in choosing ofificers. in our opinion, illegal and improper. 
Firstly. By admitting persons under the age of eighteen years to vote, 
and SeconcJh/. By admitting persons not liable to do military duty to 
vote. Thirdly. In admitting men to vote who did not belong to the 
town. Fourthly. By not comparing the votes with the poll book at the 
close of the election. "We also consider the man who is returned as 
chosen Captain inelagiblc to the office. Firstly. By giving spiritous 
liquors to the voters previous to the election. Secondly. On account 
of having fref|uently threatened to set the savages ag^ainst the inhabi- 
tants. All which charges we consider proveable and able to be sub- 
staneiated by good and sufficient witnesses. We therefore beg leave to 
request that the appointment of officers in the township of Cleaveland 
may be set aside, and the said company led to a new choice. 

Thadeus Lacey, William W. Williams, 

Rodolfus Edwards, Amos Spafford, 

Joel Thorp, Robert Carr, 

James Hamilton, Abner Cochran." 

The fact that Judge Kingsbury's name was misspelled suggests 
that someone else WTote the report and its signatures, while the 
fact that the remonstrance ascribed General Wadsworth to the third 
division of the state militia instead of the fourth, and the general 
tone of the document seem to indicate an intensity of bitterness that 
the successors of these early settlers of New Connecticut must regret. 
There is nothing to show that General Wadsworth made any inves- 


tigation of the charges. Captain Carter held the office to which he 
had been elected until the following August when he was made a 
major of militia. All in all, IMr. Kennedy's comments on this un- 
fortunate incident undoubtedly contain the essential truth. He 
says: "Viewing the charges against him [Carter] in the calm light 
of this later day, and from what is known of the man, we must set 
down the second charge as the hasty and ill-considered action of 
disappointed men. That Major Carter may have been a little free 
among the electors with the pi'oducts of the still across the way — 
he was an ambitious man, and those were convivial days — ^we do 
not doubt; if the objectors had drank and voted upon the same 
side that day, we should have heard nothing upon that point. But 
that Lorenzo Carter ever, for a moment, held an idea of acting the 
part of Simon Girty — of inciting the red man to deeds of violence 
against the white, we cannot for a moment believe." 

Clouded Titles to Indl\n Lands 

It will be remembered that Moses Cleaveland, while on his way 
to the Reserve in 1796, bought the Indian claims to the lands east 
of the Cuyahoga River, but the titles to lands west of the river, the 
holdings of the Connecticut Land Company and the Fire Lands 
alike were still clouded. Negotiations looking to the quieting of the 
Indian claims to these lands led to an agreement to hold a council 
at Cleveland in 1805. The council was to be held under the auspices 
of the United States government. The New York Indians sent an 
interpreter with' twenty-five or thirty delegates. In June, they were 
here a.s were also representatives of the general government, the 
Connecticut Laud Company, and tlie Fii-e Lands Company, but the 
western Indians, influenced it is said by certain parties in Detroit, 
failed to appear. After waiting a few days, the commissioners who 
were in attendance, "being well assured that the Indians would not 
meet them in treaty there," put their dignity in their pockets and 
journeyed westward. A formal council was finally held somewhere, 
perhaps at the Ogontz Place near Sandusky, perhaps at Fort In- 
dustry on the Maumce, seven or eight tribes being rein'cscnted. On 
the Fourth of July, a treaty was signed, b,y the terms of wliich the 
Indians surrendered all claims to all the lands of the Reserve. On the 
way back from the council, "William Dean wrote a letter that was 
addressed to "The Hon'l Sam'l Huntington, at the mills near Cleave- 
land." Judge Huntington had recently "abandoned his hewed log 


house, the most aristocratic rosideiice in f'leavolaml city and re- 
moved to the mills he had purchased at the falls of Mill creek." As 
compared with Cleveland City, Newburg was then much the larger 
settlement. Mr. Dean's letter was dated "On board the sloop Con- 
tractor, near Black river, July 7, 1805." It announced the making 
of the treaty "for the unextinguished part of the Connecticut Re- 
serve, and on account of the United States; for all the lands south 
of it, to the west line. Mv. Phelps and myself to pay about $7,000 
in cash, and about $12,000 in six yearly payments of $2,000 each. 
The government pays $13,760, that is the annual interest, to the 
"Wyandots, Delawares, Munsecs, and to those Seneeas on the land 
forever. The expense of the treaty will be about $5,000, including 
rum, tobacco, bread, meat, presents, expenses of the seraglio, the 
commissioners, agents and conti-actors. " Mr. Dean intimated "some 
intention of making a purchase of considerable tracts of land, in 
different parts of the Reserve, amounting to about 30,000 acres; I 
beg of you to inform me what I should allow per acre, payments 
equal to cash; and address me at Easton, Pa. From thence, if I 
make a contract, I expect, with all speed, to send fifteen or twenty 
families of prancing Dutchmen." According to a statement by 
Abraham Tappan, the Indians, in making sale of their lands, "did 
so with much reluctance and, after the treaty was signed, many 
of them wept. On the day that the treaty was brought to a close, 
the specie in payment of the purchase money arrived on the treaty 
ground. The specie came from Pittsburgh, and was conveyed by 
the way of Warren, Cleaveland, and the lake shore to the place 
where wanted." It was in charge of an escort of half a dozen, in- 
cluding Lorenzo Carter, "all resolute men and well armed. The 
money and other property as presents to the Indians was distributed 
to them the next day after the signing of the treaty. The evening 
of the last day of the treaty, a barrel of whiskey was dealt out to 
the Indians. The consequent results of such a proceeding were all 
experienced at that time." In the following month, Abraham Tap- 
pan and a Mr. A. Sessions (Amos, Anson or Aaron) made an offer 
to measure off for the Fire Lands Company the half million acres 
at the western end of the Reserve and to survey and lay off into 
townships the lands between the Fire Lands and the Cuyahoga. The 
offer was accepted and, at the middle of May of 1806, the work was 
begun; it was vigorou.sly pushed forward to completion. 

The annual military election was held in May with Lorenzo Car- 
ter, William W. Williams, and William Erwin acting as .judges, and 


Rodolphus Edwards as clerk. Thirty votes were cast ; Nathaniel Doan 
was elected as captain, Samuel Jones as "leuf tenant," and Sylvamis 
Burk as ensign. The captain and the lieutenant received twenty- 
nine votes each and the ensign twent.y-four ; we have no record of 
any remonstrance. 

Early Mails and Postmasters 

For two yeai's after 1801, a fortnightly mail came via Youngs- 
town to Warren, the county seat and western terminus of the mail 
route. Subsequently the route was extended, via Ravenna and Hud- 
son, to Cleveland and thence along the old Indian trail via San- 
dusky and Toledo to Detroit. From Cleveland, the route ran via 
Painesville and Jelferson back to Warren. But in June, 1805, Gideon 
Granger, the postmaster-general, who was interested in lands on the 
west side of the river, visited Cleveland and made his famous pro- 
phecy that "within fifty yeai's an extensive city will occupy these 
grounds, and vessels will sail directly from this port into the At- 
lantic ocean." Soon after this, Elisha Norton became the first post- 
master of the future queen city of the lower lakes and the metropolis 
of Ohio. In the same year, John Walworth of Painesville, a native 
of Groton, Connecticut, became collector of the newly established 
district for the south shore of the lake — the district of Erie it was 
called. When Postmaster Norton gave up his office and moved into 
another county, as he soon did, JMr. Walworth was appointed his 
successor (October 22, 1805), sold his farm on the Grand River, and 
bought 300 acres in what is now the heart of the city, the region be- 
tween Huron and Erie (East Ninth) streets and the river. In April, 
1806, he brought his family to Cleveland. Colonel Whittlesey tells 
us that Mr. Walworth "at fii"st occupied the uj)per part of a frame 
building on the north side of Superior street near Water [West 
Ninth I .street." In 1809, his family moved from this building to 
their home on the Walworth farm, Pittsburg street, and a small 
frame office was erected south of Superior street, where the American 
House now .stands (Nos. 639-649 Superior Avenue, West), "and 
was regarded as a novelty with metropolitan suggestions." For the 
fii-st quarter of 1806, the receipts of the Cleveland aggre- 
gated two dollars and eighty-three cents. For the corresponding 
quarter of 1918, the receipts of the Cleveland i)Ostoffice amounted to 
$1,314,893.48. The postmaster and collector was soon appointed by 
President Jefferson as inspector of revenue for the port of Cuyahoga 
and, in 1806, Governor Tiffin made him. associate .iudge of the court 




of coniinnii picas for a term of seven years "if he shall so long be- 
have well." Thus Judge Walworth's little office housed the local 
authority of the city, the county, and the nation ; it soon accommodated 
also the solitary attorney and the only physician in tlie place. 

In this last year of C'levehind's first decade, Samuel Dodge, who 
had married a daughter of Timothy Doan, Iniilt his log cabin on 
Euclid Road and was named by the town.ship trustees as a .juryman. 
Judge Kingsbury put up the frame of a house that was finished in 
the following year, the luml)er being sawed in a mill newly built 
for him and the brick for the chimney being made on his own land ; 
"part of the upper story was finished off in a large room in which 
dances were held, and also Masonic communications, the Judge being 
a zealous member of the mystic order." In the same year, David 

Judge KiNGSBURi's House 

Clark died, the eleven-year-old son of ^lajor Carter was drowned at 
the mouth of the river, and the schooner "Washington" cleared at 
the port and sailed into the lake, the last that was ever heard of 
ship, cargo or crew. By this time, the unorganized settlement at 
the mouth of the Cuyahoga, although numericallj- smaller than New- 
burg, "was becoming a place large enough to be recognized by the 
world at large." Its further growth being assured, it will not be 
necessarj' to follow it with the minuteness of detail that has been 
given to the first germinations of the seed planted by General Cleave- 
land ten years before. 

Beginning of Cleveland 's Second Decade 

A letter written in 1860 by John Harmon of Ravenna gives some 
interesting glimpses of Cleveland at the beginning of its second dec- 
ade. ■ He says: "I first visited Cleaveland, that part now called 


Newburg, in August, 1806, a boy sixteen and a half years, and spent 
some ten days, perhaps more, in the family of W. W. Williams. Dur- 
ing my stay there, I formed some acquaintance with those of the 
neighborhood, especially with those young men or youths of my age, 
among whom were the Williams,' the Hamiltons, the Plumbs and 
Kingsburys, the Burks and the Guns. The Miles' had not then ar- 
rived. We attended meetings in a log barn at Doan's Corners once 
or twice, to hear the announcement of a new sect, by one Daniel 
Parker, who preached what he called Halcyonism — since, I believe, 
it has become extinct. We bathed together under the fall of Mill 
Creek, gathered cranberries in the marshes westward of the Edward's 
place, and danced to the music of Major Samuel Jones' violin at 
his house, afterwards the residejice of my old friend. Captain Allen 
Gaylord. Judge Huntington, afterwards Governor, lived then, I 
believe, at the place afterwards occupied by Dexter or Brastus Miles. 
Newburg street was opened previously, from the mill north to Doan 's 
Cornel's, and was then lined with cultivated fields on both sides, 
nearly the whole distance from Judge Kingsbury's to the mill. But 
much dead timber remained on the fields. There were some orchards 
of apple trees on .some of the farms, and Judge Kingsbury's orchard 
bore a few apples that season, which was probably the first season 
of bearing. The Judge had a small nursery of apple trees, and there 
was a larger nursery of smaller trees on Mr. Williams' place." In 
the "latter part of the same letter, Mr. Harmon reminds us that, even 
then, Newburg 's rival was known as "Cleave! and City." As indi- 
cated in this letter, Samuel Huntington was then li\'ing in Newburg. 
His hewn timber mansion on the rear of the lot on lower Superior 
Street was too near the malarial "stagiumt pool" and so he bought 
the Williams' grist and saw mill at Newburg and moved to that 
vicinity. In the following year, he moved to his large estate near 
Painesville. In 1808, he resigned as a member of the Ohio supreme 
court and was elected as governor of the state. 

Nathan Perry Comes 

One of the most important arrivals of Ihis year was that of Nathan 
Peny, Sr., and his family. He had come to Ohio in 1796, and had 
bought, at fifty cents per acre, a thousand acres of land in what is 
now Lake County. He also secured five acres in "down-town" Cleve- 
land, the section bounded by the present Superior and St. Clair 
avenues and West Sixth (Bank) and West Ninth (Water) streets, 
and a larger tract, later known as the Horace Perry Farm, near 


the iiitcrecction of Broadway with what was long called Perry Street, 
the East Twenty-second Strjct of today. He made a further invest- 
ment at Black River, twenty-five or thirty miles west of the Cuya- 
hoga. In this year, Geauga County was set off from Trumbull County 
and included the greater part of what is now Cuyahoga County. The 
legislative act was dated on tlic thirty-first of December, 1805, and 
was to take effect on the first day of .Marcii. lcS06. The new county 
was organized as a civil body by establishing a court of common 
pleas and a board of county commissioners. The court held its 
first meeting on the first Tuesday of March, the .judges present being 

Nathan Perky 

Aaron "Wheeler, John Walworth, and Jesse Phelps. The first meet- 
ing of the board of commissioners was held on the sixth day of the 
following June. 

Although the Ordinance of 1787 establishing the territory north- 
west of the Ohio River required that schools and the means of educa- 
tion should be encouraged, and the Ohio constitution of 1802 reiter- 
ated the requirement and further declared that "no law shall be 
passed to prevent the poor in the several counties and townships 
within this State, from an equal participation in the schools, acade- 
mies, colleges, and universities within this State, which are endowed, 
in whole or in part, from the revenues arising from the donations 
made by the United States for the support of schools and colleges; 
and the doors of the said schools, academies, and universities shall 
be open for the reception of scholars, students, and teachers of every 
grade, without any distinction or preference whatever, contrary to 


the intent for which the said donations were made," nothing had yet 
been done for the support of schools by local or general taxation; in 
other words, the Ohio common-school law had not been enacted and 
such schools as existed were provided by private means. The schools 
kept by Miss Sarah Doan and Miss Anna Sijaffoi-d have been men- 
tioned; now came a more "ambitious endeavor" to teach the young 
idea how to shoot. Asael Adams, aged twenty, a native of Canter- 
bury', Connecticut, came to Cleveland and, in October, 1806, entered 
into contract as follows : 

Articles of agreement made and entered into between Asael Adams 
on the one part and the undersigned on the other, witnes.seth, that we, 
the undersigned, do agree to hire the said Adams for the sum of Ten 
Dollars ($10.00) a month, to be paid in money or wheat at the market 
price, whenever such time may be that the school doth end, and to make 
said house comfortable for the school to be taught in, and to furnish 
benches and fire-wood sufficient. And I, the said Adams, do agree to 
keep six hours in each day, and to keep good order in said school. 

Mr. Kennedy, from whose work I have quoted this contract, tells 
us that this log school house stood near the foot of Superior Street 
and that, among its patrons were Samuel Huntington, James Kings- 
buiy, W. W. Williams, George Kilbourne, Susannah Hammil, Elijah 
Gun, and David Kellogg. One of the school houses of that period 
has been thus described: "A log-cabin with a I'ough stone chimney; 
a foot or two cut here and there to admit the light, with greased 
paper over the openings: a large fire-i)lace: puncheon floor; a few 
benches made of split logs with the flat side up, and a well developed 
birch rod over the master's seat." 



The year 1807 was well marked by the last division of the Re- 
serve lands, the drawing for which was made at Hartford, Connecti- 
cut; Samuel P. Lord and others drew the township later known aa 
Brooklyn which then extended along the west baidi of the Cuya- 
hoga River to its mouth. The Brooklyn lots were soon surveyed 
and put upon the market. In the same year, a grand scheme for an 
improvement of the route that the Indians from time immemorial 
had followed from Lake Erie to the Ohio River made its appearance. 
The Cuyahoga and the Tuscarawas rivers were to be cleared of ob- 
struction and deepened where needed and the intervening portage 
path was to be made passable for wagons. It was thought that the 
improvement could be made for about twelve thousand dollars and an 
appeal was made to the Ohio legislature which authorized "The Cuya- 
hoga and Muskingum Navigation Lottery" for "improving the navi- 
gation between Lake Erie and the river Ohio through the Cuyahoga 
and JIuskingum, " — an easy way, it was thought, for raising the needed 
funds. At that time, such lotteries were in good repute and very 
much in fashion. The list of commissioners who were to manage 
the lottery included the names of such prominent Clevelanders as 
Lorenzo Carter, Timothy Doan, Samuel Huntington, James Kings- 
bury, Turhaiid Kirtland. Amos Spafford, and John Walworth. The 
scheme formulated by the commissioners provided for the sale of 
12,800 tickets at five dollars each. The resultant $64,000 was to be dis- 
tributed in 3,568 prizes varying in value from ten dollars to five thou- 
sand dollars each, all prizes subject to a deduction of one-eighth. But 
the public did not buy more than a cjuarter of the tickets offered, the 
money that had been paid in was returned, the drawing was declared 
"off," and the scheme was abandoned. 

Nathan Peery, Jr. 

When Nathan Perry came to Ohio, his son, Nathan, was placed 
in the camp of Red Jacket, the famous and eloquent chief of the 




Wolf Tribe of the Seueca Indians. Here the boy beeauie familiar 
with the langruage and peculiarities of the red men. In 1804, Nathan 
Perry, Jr., opened a trading station at Black River for the purchase 
of fui"s, etc., fi'om the Indians; in 1808, he moved to Cleveland and 
built a store and dwelling at what is now the northeast corner of 
Superior Avenue and West Ninth (Water) Street. He became one 
of the leading merchants of the city; his daughter married Henry 
B. Payne, later a member of the United States senate — whence the 
names of the Periy-Payne building on lower Superior Avenue, and 
what was, in the seventies, known as "Payne's Pastures," and through 
which Payne Avenue now runs. In the same year, came "Uncle" 
Abram Hickox as successor to Nathaniel Doan who had moved "into 
the country" out Euclid way. The new village blacksmith established 

'Uncle" Abram Hickox 

himself on the north side of Superior Avenue, where the Jolmson 
House later stood, just west of the Rockefeller Building of today, 
and "soon become a local celebrity in his way." He afterwards 
built a small shop at tlie corner of Euclid Aveinie and Hickox (now 
East Third) Street which was named for him. In 1808, Major 
Carter built the "Zephyr of thirty tons burthen" for the lake trade, 
the beginning of the shi])-building industry of Cleveland. In April 
of the same year, a batteau that was carrying a jiarty on a fishing 
trip to Black River was upset by a sudden si|uail lialf a mile off 
the shore near Dover Point and four jxtsohs were drowned. 

Cleveland and Huron Highway 

in 1809, tlie Ohio legislalure apjiropriated mori(\v for Iho build- 
ing of a road from Cleveland to the uioulii of the Huron River and 


the work was done under the supervision of Lorenzo Carter and 
Nathaniel Doan of Cleveland and Ebcnezer Murray of Mentor. This 
Cleveland and Huron higliway followed the ridge near the bank 
of the lake, was later called the Milan State Road, and still later 
the Detroit Road; its initial stretch is now known as Detroit Avenue. 
The mail between Cleveland and Detroit weighed from five to seven 
pounds and was carried in a satchel by a man who went on foot and 
traveled about thirty miles a day. After the beginning of the "War 
of 1S12, the United States mail between Cleveland and Detroit was 
carried on horseback until about 1820 wlien the stage-coach sup- 
planted the pony express. At this time, the eastern mail between 
Cleveland and "Warren was carried alternately by the two sons of 
Joseph Burke of Euclid, "on horseback in summer when the roads 
permitted and on foot the rest of the time." Going, their route 
ran through Hudson and Ravenna; coming back, it ran via Jef- 
ferson, Austinburg and Painesville. According to the formal re- 
port of Collector "Walworth, the value of the goods sent from the 
port of Cuyahoga to Canada from April to October, 1809, was 
about fifty dollars; the day of direct exportation from Cleveland to 
Europe had not yet arrived. 

Amos Stafford and Stanx,ey Griswold 

In this year (1809), Amos Spafford was elected as a representa- 
tive from Cleveland, Geauga County, to the state legislature. He 
was soon appointed collector of a new port of entry in the spring 
of 1810, and removed to Perrysburg, a few miles up the Maumee 
River from Toledo. He held his office until 1818 when he died. 
Among the additions of the year was Stanley Griswold, a native 
of Connecticut, a graduate of Yale, a school teacher, and an eloquent 
popular preacher. He was an ardent admirer of Thomas Jefferson 
who was then regarded by most of the New England clergy as little 
less than an atheist and, in 1797, on account of alleged heterodoxy, 
was excluded from the association of ministers of which he was a 
member. He soon abandoned the pulpit and became editor of a 
Democratic newspaper in New Hampshire. In 1805, President Jef- 
ferson made him secretary of the territory of Michigan under Gov- 
ernor "William Hull and collector of the port of Detroit; he had 
some trouble with the governor, removed to Cleveland and took up 
his residence at Doan 's Corners. "Without loss of time, his familiarity 
with practical politics led him into public service. "We find him 
acting as clerk of the township of Cleveland in place of the accus- 


tomed Nathaniel Doan, and when one of Ohio's senators unexpectedly 
resigned his seat in the national legislature, Governor Samuel Hunt- 
ington appointed his friend, Stanley Griswold, to fill out the unex- 
pired term. On the twenty-eighth of ^lay, 1S09, Mr. Griswold wrote 
from Somerset, Pennsylvania, to James Witherell, a letter showing 
that although he had lived here hardly long enough to be called 
an Ohio man, he had learned something of the possibilities of Cleve- 
land and the expectations of its leading citizens — expectations that 
were built on the faith in the future that' has made Cleveland what 
it is. For such reasons, I here insert the letter as printed by Colonel 
Whittlesey : 

Dear Sir: — Passing in the stage to the Federal City, I improve 
a little leisure to acknowledge j-our letter from Jefferson, Ohio, of the 
16th instant. In reference to your inquiry (for a place for Doctor 
Elijah Coleman,) I have consulted the pi-incipal characters, particu- 
larly Judge Walworth, who concurs with me, that Cleveland would 
be an excellent place for a young physician, and cannot long i-emain 
unoccupied. This is based more on what the place is expected to be, 
than what it is. Even now a physician of eminence would command 
great practice, from being called to ride over a large country, say fifty 
miles each way. There is now none of eminent or ordinary character 
in that extent. But settlements are scattered, and roads new and bad, 
whicli would make it a painful practice. Within a few weeks Cleveland 
has been fixed upon by a committee of the Legislature as the seat of 
justice for Cuyahoga county. Several respectable characters will 
remove to that town. The country around bids fair to increase rapidly 
in population. A A'oung physician of tlie qualifications described by 
you, will be certain to succeed, but for a short time, if without means, 
must keep school, for which there is a good chance in winter, till a 
piece of ground, bring on a few goods, (for which it is a good stand,) 
or do something else in connection with his practice. I should be 
happy to see your friend. I am on my way to the Federal City, to 
take a seat in tlio Senate in place of I\Ir. Tiffin, who has recently 
resigned. Very truly your obedient servant, 

Stanley Griswoht. 

After the expiration of his senatorial term in 1810, Mr. Griswold 
became United States judge for the Northwest Territory and held 
that office tintil his death at Shawnectown, Illinois, in 1815. 

Levi Johnson 

Another important and a moi'e permanent addition 1o tlic popu- 
lation of Cleveland was Levi Jolnison. who soon became the master 
builder of the time and place. lie built for himself a log cabin 




on the Euclid Road near the Public Square, and for others the 
old court-house and jail on the northwest section of the Square. Ac- 
cording to an ac'fount published by the Early Settlers' Association, 
"he built the first frame house in Cleaveland, for Judge John Wal- 
worth, where the American ITouse now stands." About 1811, lie 
finished for Rodolphus Edwards, the long famous "Buckeye House" 
that stood at what is now the intersection of Woodhill and Buckeye 
roads. This old landmark had been building for several years, most 

Levi Johnson 

of the boards being sawed by hand from logs that were supported 
so that one of the two men who worked the saw stood on top of 
the log while the other stood under it. The house was torn down 
in 1872. "In 1813 or 1814, he built the schooner 'Ladies' Master,' 
near his residence, which was hauled to the foot of Superior street 
by ox-teams of the country people, where she was launched. In 
1817, he built the schooner 'Neptune,' on the river, near the foot of 
Eagle street, which was altogether in the woods. In 1824, he built 
the first steamboat constructed in Cleveland, the 'Enterprise,' just 
below the foot of St. Clair street." He died in 1871. 


Ckeation op Cuyahoga County 

By a legislative act of February, 1807, the counties of Portage, 
Ashtabula and Cuyahoga were authorized; under this act, Cuyahoga 
was to "embrace so much of the county of Geauga as lay west of 
the ninth range of townships." The boundaries were fixed as fol- 
lows: "On the east side of Cuyahoga River, all north of town five 
and west of range nine; on the west side of the river, all north of 
town four and east of range fifteen." The boundaiy lines of the 
county have been .several times subsequently changed; it did not 
acquire its present limits until 1843. As appeai-s from Stanley Gris- 
wold's letter, already quoted, Cleveland had been fixed upon by a 
committee of the legislature as the county seat. One of these com- 
missioners sent to Abraham Tappau, a bill for his pay for services 
rendered in this matter. As preserved for us by Colonel Whittlesey, 
this communication reads as follows: 

Columbiana County, Oliio,) 
October, 1809. J 

Deir Sir : — I have called on Mr. Peaies for my Pay for fixing the 
Seat of Justis in the County of Cuyahoga and he informt me that he 
did not Chit it. Sir, I should take it as a favour of you would send 
it with Mister Peaies at your Nixt Cort and In so doing will oblige 
Your humble Sarvent R. B**r. 

Abraham Tappin Esq. 

A Leven Days Two Dollars per day. Twenty two 


The judicial existence of Cuyahoga County dates from May, 1810, 
when the coiu-t of common pleas was organized with Benjamin 
Ruggles as presiding judge and Nathan Perry, Sr., Augustus Gil- 
bert and Timothy Doan as associate judges. The first session of the 
court was held in June, in a new frame building that Elias and Har- 
vey Murray had recently built for a store on the south side of 
Superior Street between the Public Square and Seneca (now West 
Third) Street. The store had not then been opened, but it soon 
"became one of the local mercantile features" of Cleveland. In 
The Bench and Bar of Cleveland, Mr. F. T. Wallace tells us 
(1889) that at the June session of the court "Alfred Kelley appears 
in the second case on the docket, on belialf of Ralph M. Pomeroy vs. 
James Leach. Suit on a note of hand dated October 27, 1808, 'at 
Black Rock, to-wit, at Cleveland,' for .+80, and in another sum of $150. 
This case was continued one term, and then discontinued by settle- 
ment. And now, in the third case, tlic famous old pioneer, Rodolphus 


Edwanls, was chosen defendant in tlie suit of one John S. Recde. It 
was an appealed case from Justiee Erastus ^liles' conrt, by the plain- 
tiff, the justiec having deeiiled that the plaintiff had no case against 
Edwards. The plaintiff failed to prosecute his appeal, and the old 
pioneer was decreed to 'go' with judgment for his costs, $8.54. R. B. 
Parkman was defendant's attorney." The judges appointed John 
Walworth as county clerk and "Peter Hitchcock of Geauga" as 
prosecuting attorney. The prosecuting attorney I'eceived fifteen dol- 
lars for the term's work ; his successor was soon appointed. A Iwai'd of 
county commissioners, to which were transferred the fiscal and ad- 
ministrative duties that liad previously been performed by the court 
of quarter sessions, a slicriff and other pffieers were elected for a 
two years' term as provided for by the constitution and the laws 
of the state. The county commissioners were Jabez Wright and 
Nathaniel Doan ; the sheriff and surveyor was Samuel S. Baldwin ; 
the treasurer was Asa Dille. Under the judicial system then in opera- 
tion, the Ohio supreme court held annual sessions in the several 
counties; the first session for Cuyahoga County was held in August, 
1810. John Walworth was given still another office, clerk of the 
court, and Alfred Kelley w-as admitted to practice in the said court. 
At the November term of the court of common pleas, the said 
Alfred Kelley was, on motion of Peter Hitchcock of Geauga, chosen 
as prosecuting attorney. The centennial of the organization of Cuya- 
hoga Comity wa,s the occa.sion of an elaborate six-days' celebration 
at Cleveland in October, 1910. 

FmsT Tanneries 

In 1810, Cleveland had a population of only fifty -seven persons, 
while Cuyahoga County had about fifteen hundred. About this time. 
Major Carter built a warehouse on Union Lane (see Spafford map, 
page .59) "showing that business was gi'owing down in that section of 
the village; and Elias Cozad built out at Doan's Corners the first 
tannery operated in Cleveland, and this was followed by a like 
structure erected by [the brothers] Samuel and Matthew William- 
son, either toward the end of this year or the opening of 1811." 
This Samuel Williamson was born in Cumberland County, Pennsyl- 
vania, came to Cleveland in 1810, and carried on the tanning business 
until his death in 1834. Having served as an associate judge of 
the court of common pleas, he was, in later life, called "Judge" 
Williamson. The oldest of his seven children also bore the name 
Samuel and was two years old when the family came to Cleveland. 



The son was graduated from college iu 1829, studied law in the 
office of S. J. Andrews (of whom we shall soon hear more), and was 
admitted to the bar in 1832. He retired from general practice in 
1872 to accept the presidency of the Cleveland Society for Savings. 
He served as a member of the city council, the board of education, 

S.\MUEL Williamson 

and the state senate and occupied nian,\- other positions of trust. 
He lived to be the oldest resident of the eitv and ilicd in 1884.* 

Pioneer Legal Matters 

At the November lenu of the cuiirt, (uie Daniel Miner was 
prosecuted for "not having obtained sucli license or peraiit as the 
law directs to keep a tavern, or to sell, liaiMcr or deliver, for money 

* See Biograjiliical Sketch. 


or other article of value, any wine, rum, brandy, whisky, spirits 
or strong: drink by less quantity than one quart, did, with intent 
to defraud the revenue of the county, ou the 25th of October last 
past, sell, barter and deliver at Cleveland aforesaid, wine, vwm, 
brandy, whisky and spirits by less qnantity than one quart, to-wit, 
one gill of whisky for the sum of six cents in money, contrary to 
the statute, etc. " The defendant pleaded guilty and was fined twenty- 
five cents. In further illumination of public sentiment oh the liquor 
question and the irritating iterations of legal phraseology, we are 
told by Mr. Kennedy that, in its first few years of existence, the 
court "saw Ambrose Hecox charged with selling 'one-half yard of 
cotton cambric, six yards of Indian cotton cloth, one-half pound 
Hyson skin tea, without license, contrary to the statute law regulating 
ferries, taverns, stores, etc;' Erastus ililes prosecuted for selling 
liquor to the Indians; Thomas ]McIlrath for trading one quart of 
whisky for three raccoon skins ; and John S. Reede and Banks Finch 
for engaging in a 'fight and box at fisticuffs.' The indictment de- 
clared in solemn form that 'John S. Reede, of Black River, and 
Banks Finch, of Huron township, in said county, on the 1st day 
of February, 1812, with force and arms, in the peace of God and 
the State, then and there being, did, then and there with each other 
agree, and in and upon each other did then and there assault and 
with each other did then and there wilfully fight and box at fisticuffs, 
and each other did then and there strike, kick, cuff, bite, bruise, 
wound and ill-treat, against the statute and the peace and dignity 
of the State of Ohio.' " 

Dr. D.wid Loxg 

The year 1810 was further made memorable in Cleveland annals 
by the arrival of several pereons wlio were destined to play import- 
ant parts in the development of Cleveland and Ohio; among them 
were a doctor and a lawyer. As indicated in the letter written by 
Senator-elect Griswold, already quoted, "Cleavelaud would be an 
excellent place for a young physician and cannot long remain un- 
occupied." The vacancy did not long endure for now Dr. David 
Long, who had been graduated in New York City, arrived in June, 
1810. There was then no practicing physician nearer than Hudson 
or Painesville. He "hung out his shingle" on the little frame office 
that had been built for ^Ir. Walworth and soon secured an exten- 
sive practice. In an interesting magazine article on Pioneer Medi- 
cine on the Reserve, Dr. Dudley Allen tells lis that "Dr. Long 



was a public-spirited man aud interested in whatever concerned the 
welfare of the eommunity. He was a successful candidate for the 
office of county commissioner at a time [1826] when the location 
of the court-house greatly excited the interest of tlu^ eoiuity. One 
commissioner favored Newburg and another Cleveland, aud the elec- 
tion of Dr. Long determined its location in Cleveland. He was en- 
gaged in various business enterprises, but a contract for building 

Dr. D.wid Long 

a section of the canal pi'oved to be an unfortunate business ven- 
ture, though it was of great importance to the commercial interests 
of Cleveland. In 1836, Dr. Long removed from Superior Street to 
a farm on what is now Woodland Avenue, but M'as then called 
Kinsman Street. Here he built the first stone house occupied by 
the late Erastus Gaylord, and afterward the house still standing 
[1886] on the corner of Woodland and Longwood avenues, in which 
house he lived till the lime of his death, September 1. 1851." In 


1811, Doctor Long married Jiiliauiia, tlic daughter of Jolin Walworth. 
In 1833, their only daughter, JMary Helen, married Solomon Lewis 
Severance. She was the mother of Solon L. and Louis H. Severance, 
two of the most prominent and successful men of later Cleveland. In 
the year of his marriage. Doctor Long became the first president 
of au anti-slavery society, the secretary of which was S. L. Severance. 
It is easy to imagine that in the long evenings of the preceding 
winter, Mr. Severance and Doctor Long discussed the wrongs and 
sorrows of the southern slaves until it was time for the doctor to 
go to bed and leave the young folks to talk over other matters. 

Although Samuel Huntington was a lawyer, he did not practice 
his profession in his brief stay here; Cleveland's first active lawyer 
was Alfred Kellej', magnum nomcn. Alfred, the second son of 
Daniel Kelley, was born at Middlefield, Connecticut, on the seventh 
of November, 1789 ; his mother was Jemima, a sister of Joshua Stow, 
one of the thirty-five original members of the Connecticut Land 
Company and commissaiy of the surveying party that Moses Cleave- 
land led to the Reserve in 1796. In 1798, the family had moved 
from Middlefield to Lowville "in the wilds of New York" (then 
Oneida, now Lewis County) and thei-e their worldly affairs had pros- 
pered; in the words of the family historian, "Judge Kelley 's circum- 
stances came to be what would in those days be called comparatively 
easy." He was generally called Judge Kelley. This Daniel and 
Jemima had six sons, the oldest of whom was Datus. "It is not a 
matter of surprise," says the historian just mentioned, "that the 
prominent connection of their uncle with the purchase of a vast 
territory in the far west should engage the j'oung men's attention 
in the strongest manner. Datus caught the western fever first and, 
in 1810, made the journey on foot to Cleveland, Ohio, or New Con- 
necticut as the Western Reserve was then popularly called. He 
returned to Lowville that year, however, without having decided 
upon a location. In 1810, Alfred removed to Cleveland. In 1811, 
he was followed by Datus ; in 1812, by Irad, and early in 1814 
by Reynolds," the younger brothers. The parents appear to have 
given to each of their sons a thousand dollars with which to seek their 
fortunes in the West and gradually to have disposed of their 
property in Lowville preparatory to their owti removal to Ohio 
and the long cherished reunion of the family there. Alfred Kelley 
had entered the law office of one of the judges of the supreme 
court of New York in 1807 and there remained until the spring of 
1810, M'hen he came to Cleveland on horseback and in company 
with his uncle, Joshua Stow, and Dr. Jared P. Kirtland, of whom 



we shall hear more. At the November term of the newly constituted 
court of the newly organized county of Cuyahoga, Alfred Kelley 
was, on the twent.y-first anniversary of his birth and, on the mo- 
tion of Peter Hitchcock, as alreadj' recorded, made public prose- 
cutor, an office that he held by successive appointments until 1822, 
when he resigned to become canal commissioner of Ohio. As we 
have seen, the promising young man had appeared as counsel at 

Alfred Kelley 

the June session of the court; we shall probably hoar of him again. 
In September, 1814, the father, Judge Daniel Kelley, and his wife, 
left Lowville and, by land and water, made their way to Cleveland, 
leaving their son, Thomas, at school in the East. In October, the 
judge wrote to Tliomas and, referring to "our arrival at Bufl'alow, " 
added: "We were obliged to stay in lliat uncomfortable place on 
account of head winds until Tuesday afternoon, the 4tli inst., when 
we all embarked on board of a schooner and set oil", with a gentle 


breeze, for Cleaveland." But the gentle breeze gave way for storm 
and sickness so that the family landed at- Erie and made the rest 
of the journey by land. Near the end of the year, he further re- 
ported to Thomas that "we have been keeping house by ourselves 
about 12 days, are pretty comfortable as to house room, etc. 
Irad returned from Buft'alow yesterday with some goods. 
Their store and house is nearly finished. They move into 
it this week." Thomas was at Cleveland by June, 1815, but his 
mother died in the following September, four days after the death 
of her son, Daniel. After her death. Judge Kelley and his sons, 
Alfred, Irad, and Thomas made their home with one of the younger 
brothers, Joseph Reynolds Kelley, until 1817, when Alfred married 
and his father went to live with him. lie died in 1831.* 

Clevelandebs op 1811-12 

Before passing to the story of more stirring events, it seems 
worth while to reproduce what Mr. Kennedy calls "a combined 
verbal map and a census" of Cleveland and Its Environs at this 
period. In one of the Annals of the Early Settlers' Association, Mr. 
T. L. Morgan says : 

The following, to the best of my recollection, are the names of men 
who lived in what was then Cleveland, in the fall of 1811 and spring of 
1812. Possibly a few names may be missing. I will begin north of the 
Kingsbury creek, on Broadway : The first was Maj. Samuel Jones, on 
the hill near the turn of the road; farther down came Judge John 
Walworth, then postmaster, and his oldest son, A. W. Walworth, apd 
son-in-law. Dr. David Long. Then, on the corner where the Forest City 
House now stands, was a Mr. Morey. The next was near the now 
American House, where the little post-ofSce then stood, occupied by 
Mr. Hanchet, who had just started a little store. Close by was a tav- 
ern, kept by Mr. George Wallace. On the top of the hill, north of Main 
street. Lorenzo Carter and son, Lorenzo, Jr., who kept tavern also. 
The only house below on Water street was owned by Judge Samuel 
Williamson, with his familv and his brother Matthew, who had a tan- 
nery on the side hill below. On the corner of Water and Superior 
stre'ets was Nathan Perry's store, and his brother, Horace Perry, lived 
near by. Levi Johnson began in Cleveland about that time, likewise 
two brothers of his, who came on soon after; Benjamin, a one-legged 
man ; and T think the other's name was John. The first and last were 
lake captains for a time. Abraham Hiekox, the old blacksmith ; Alfred 
Kelley. Esq., who boarded with 'Squire Walworth at that time ; then 
a Mr. Bailey, also Elias and Harvey Murray, and perhaps a very few 

* See Biographical Sketch. 


others in town not named. On what is now Euclid avenue, from Monu- 
mental Square through the woods to East Cleveland, was but one man, 
Nathan Chapman, who lived in a small shanty, with a small clearing 
around him, and near the present Euclid Station. [East Fifty-fifth 
Street.] He died soon after. Then at what was called Doan's Cor- 
nel's lived two families only, Nathaniel, the older, and I\Iaj. Scth Doan. 
Then on the south, now Woodland Hills avenvie, first came Richard 
Blin, Rodolphus Edwards, and Mr. Stephens, a school teacher; Mr. 
Honey, James Kingsbury, David Burras, Eben Hosmer, John Wight- 
man, William W. Williams, and three sons, Frederick, William W., Jr., 
and Joseph. Next, on the Carter place, Philomen Baldwin, and four 
sons, Philomen. Jr., Amos, Caleb and Rnna. Next, James Hamilton ; 
then Samuel Hamilton (who was drowned in the lake), his widow, 
and three sons, Chester, Justice and Samuel, Jr., in what was called 
Newburg and now Cleveland. Six by the name of Miles — Erastus, 
Theodore, Charles, Samuel, Thompson, and Daniel. Widow White 
with five sons, John, William, Solomon, Samuel, and Lyman. A Mr. 
Barnes, Henry Edwards, Allen Gaylord, and father and mother. In 
the spring of 1812, came Noble Bates, Ephraim and Jedediah Hubbel, 
with their aged father and mother (the latter soon after died) : in 
each family were several sons: Stephen Gilbert, Sylvester [Sylva- 
nus?] Burk, wdth six sons. B. B. Burk, Gains, Erectus, etc.; Abner 
Cochran, on what is now called Aetna street. Samuel S. Baldwin, Esq., 
was sheriif and county surveyor, and hung the noted Indian, John 
O'Mic, in 1812. Next,"Y. L. Morgan, with three sons, Y. L., Jr., Caleb, 
and Isham A. The next, on the present Broadway, Dyer Sherman, 
Christopher Gunn, Elijah, Charles and Elijah Gunn, Jr. ; Robert Ful- 
ton, Robert Carr, Samuel Dille, Ira Ensign, Ezekiel Holly, and two 
sons, Lorin and Alphonso, Widow Clark and four sons, Mason, Martin, 
Jarvis, and Rufus. 

In another of the ann-als, Isham A. ]\Torgan, one of the three 
sons above mentioned, helps to fill out the description. He says-. 

A few houses of the primitive order located along Superior street 
between the river and the Public Scpiare, with here and there a tem- 
porary dwelling in Ihe bushy vicinity, gave but a slight indication that 
it was the beginning of a future large city. I remember when there 
was no court house in Cleveland, nor a church building in Cuyahoga 
County, nor a bridge across the river fi'om the outlet to Cuyahoga 
Falls. The outlet of the river, at that time, was some 120 yards west 
of where it is now (1881). and was sometimes completely barred across 
with sand by storms, so that men liaving on low shoes have walked 
across without wetting their feet. A ferry at the foot of Superior street, 
consisting of one flat-boat and a skiff, answered the purpose to convey 
over the river all who desired, for (|uite a numlier of years. . . . 
The first water supply for extinguishing fires in Cleveland was a 
public well eight feet "across, with a wheel and two buckets, situated 
on Bank street near Superior. In those days nearly every family had 
a well at their back door, of good water for every purpose except wash- 

1811-12] DATUS KELLEY 89 

iiig. To supply water for washing, when rain water failed, Benhu John- 
son, a soldier of the war of 18112-14 (who lost a leg in the eampaign and 
siihstituted a wooden one), with his pony and wagon, supplied as many 
as needed, from the lake al twenty-live eents a load of two han'els ; and 
Jahez Kellev furnished the soap at a shilling a gallon, made at his log 
soap and caiidk' faetory, located on Superior street, near the river. . . . 
AVliere Prospeet street is now, next to Ontario, was the old cemetery, 
surrounded by hushes and blaekberry briars. Outside of the cemetery, 
west, south and east, the forest stood in its native grandeur. On 
Ontario street, a little south of the old ccmetei-y, was a large mound, 
supposed to be the work of the IMound Builders of x)rehistoric times. 
It stood several years after we eanie, before it was made level with 
the surrounding earth." 

Kelley's Island 

In 1810, Datus Kelley, the elder brother of Alfred Kelley, had 
visited Cleveland and returned to his home at Lowvillc, New York ; 
in 1811, he came out again, returned to Lowville, and, in August, 
married Sai-ah Dean. Soon after this he removed to Ohio with his 
wife and accompanied by one of his brothers and by a brother and 
a sister of his wife, '"rjike manj^ modern bridal couples, they visited 
Niagara Falls on their wedding journey, which was made by team 
to Sackett's Harbor, boat to Fort Erie, team to Chippewa and 'the 
schooner Zephyr, 45 tons burthen' from Black Rock to Cleveland, 
where they arrived about the middle of October. Datus and his 
bride kept house in a new warehouse at the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
River during the first week or two after their arrival and pending 
the selection of their farm." The farm that he finally bought cost 
him .$.3.18 per acre; it lay about a mile west of Rocky River and 
extended from the North Ridge road to the lake. Here his nine 
children were born. In 1833, he and his brother, Irad, bought the 
western half of Cunningham's (now known as Kelley's) Island in 
Lake Erie at a dollar and a half per acre. Other purchases followed 
lintil they owned the whole island, about three thousand acres. At that 
time, the island was covered with valuable forests of cedar. Hither 
Datus Kelley removed with his family in 1836, and spent the rest 
of his life in developing the material resources of the island and the 
social, moral, and civic activities of its inhabitants. He cleared the 
land of its cedar forests, introduced the cultivation of the grape and 
peach, opened limestone quarries, and became the patriarch of the 
community. He died in 1866 and was buried on the island to which 
he had given his name and the best part of his life work. He merited 
the obituary eulogy that said : ' ' Few men have been so loved by 


a whole commuuitj'. A fitting monument has been erected in the 
hearts not only of kindred, but of many who for years have looked 
to him as to a father. The island today mourns the founder of its 
prosperity; it mourns its Pati-iarch who has gone to sleep bj- the 
side of his beloved wife; it mourns the benevolent patron of liberal 
institutions; it mourns the father and friend from whose lips have 
fallen so many words of wisdom and kindness." At the present time 
(1918), "The Patriarch" is worthily represented in Cleveland by 
his grandson, Hermon Alfred Kelley, one of the most prominent 
attorneys of the city, to whom I am much indebted for information 
relating to Alfred and Datus Kelley. In later years, the island was 
much sought by scientifie visitors who were interested in the glacial 
striae grooved in the surface of the limestone rock — a storehouse of 
"specimens" that were x'emoved by eager collectors. Today it is the 
chief source of supply of the Kelley Island Lime and Transport 
Companj% and famous for its vinous product of which Mark Twain 
once said: "You can't fool me with Kelley Island wine; I can tell 
it from vinegar every time — by the label on the bottle." At one 
time, the vats of the Kelley Island Wine Company had a capacity 
of half a million gallons. 



In 1812, came the seeoiid and last war with England. "Although 
actual hostilities never touched the city and no force of the enemy 
appeared at its gates, the center of the war upon the lakes and in 
the west was near enough to keep it in hourly fear, and to make 
the port of Cuyahoga an important base for supplies, and a point 
for the gathering and moving of troops." Of course, "no one could 
tell at what moment a British warship might anchor off the harbor 
and knock the little town to pieces, or a baud of Indians creep in 
by night and give the settlement to fire and death," and so there 
was no lack of apprehension and turmoil. A small stockade, named 
Fort Huntington in honor of the recent governor of Ohio, was 
built on the shore of the lake near the foot of West Third Street 
and sei'ved nobly "as a guard-house for soldiers who were under ar- 
rest." Congress declared war in June and, in August, came news 
of General Hull's disgraceful surrender of Detroit (August 16, 1812). 
At any moment, the victorious British and their Indian allies might 
come sweeping along the southern shore of Lake Erie with Hun-like 
devastation and massacre such as soon fell to the lot of settlers at 
Frenchtown (now Monroe) on the River Raisin in Michigan. At 
Cleveland, the excitement rose to fever heat and calls for aid were 
sent in all directions with the warnings. Concerning the panic 
caused by the news of the surrender of Detroit, a letter written by 
Alfred Kelley says : ' ' Information was received at Cleveland, through 
a scout from Huron, that a large number of British troops and 
Indians were seen from the shore, in boats, proceeding down the 
lake, and that they would probably reach Cleveland in the course 
of the ensuing night. This information spread rapidly through the 
surrounding settlements. A large proportion of the families in 
Cleveland, Newburg (then part of Cleveland), and Euclid, imme- 
diately on the receipt of this news, took such necessary articles of 
food, clothing and utensils as they could eaiTy, and started for the 
more populous and less exposed parts of the interior. About thirty 
men only remained, determined to meet the enemy if they should 



come, and, if possible, prevent their landing. They determined at 
least to do all in their power to allay the panic, and prevent the 
depopulation of the country." In an ai-tiele printed in the Annals 
of the Early Settlers' Association, Isham A. ]Morgan says: "One 
day the people at the mouth of Huron River discovered parties com- 
ing in boats; they were a good deal alarmed, as they supposed them 
to be British and Indians to be let loose on the almost defenseless 
settlers. A courier was immediately sent to Cleveland to give the 
alarm there. Major Samuel Jones, of Cleveland, got on his horee 
and scoured the country round, telling the people to go to Doan's 
Cornel's, and there would be a guai-d to protect them as best they 
could. My brother yoked and hitched the oxen to the wagon, as 
we then had but one horse. After piitting a few necessary ai-ticles 
into the wagon and burying a few others, all went to Doan's Cor- 
ners — East Cleveland, where most of the people in Cleveland and 
vicinity assembled, ily father had been ill with a fever, and was 
scarcely able to be about; he took the gim which had beeu brought 
along, and handed it to my brother, Y. L. Morgan, who was a good 
shot, and said to him, 'If the Indians come, you see that there is 
one less to go away!' That night was spent in expectation not the 
pleasantest. A few men had stayed in Cleveland, to .watch develop- 
ments there. In the morning. Captain Allen Gaylord was seen 
approaching the encampment, waving his sword, and saying, 'To 
your tents, oh Israel! General Hull has surrendered to the British 
general, and our men, instead of Indians, were seen off Huron. They 
are returning to their homes.' Thankful were all that it turned out 
with them to be nothing than the inconvenience of fleeing 
from their homes on short notice under unpleasant circumstances." 
By reason of their dread of the British and their red allies, many 
families abandoned their homes and returned to the older states 
more remote from the international line. They who remained be- 
came accustomed to the din of war-like preparation. 

The War op 1812 at Cleveland 

At this time, there were two companies of militia near at hand, 
one in Cleveland and one in Ncwburg. The Cleveland company had 
about fifty men ; Harvey Murray M'as captain, Lewis Dillc was lieu- 
tenant, and Alfred Kclley was ensign. The full company roster is 
printed in Kennedy's History of Cleveland. "While the refugees were 
gathering at Doan's Comers as above described, preparations were 
being made for defense if the enemy made an attack. General Wads- 




worth called all of the militia of his division into the field and arrived 
at Cleveland on the twenty-fourth of August, accompanied by a 
mounted escort. Colonel Lewis Cass, then on parole, arrived at Cleve- 
land that day on his way to Washington to make his indignant re- 
port of the surrender of -Detroit. On his way to the national capital, 
Colonel Cass was accompanied by Samuel Huntington, once a resi- 
dent of Cleveland but now of Painesville. ^Ir. Huntington bore a 
letter from General Wadsworth to the war department, stating 
that he had called out three thousand uu>n and was in need of arms, am- 
munition, equipment and rations. Later in the month, General Simon 
Perkins of Warren arrived with additional troops. Most of the 

First Courthouse 

troops were soon sent further west to build block-houses and to pro- 
tect the people leaving only a small guard on duty at Cleveland dur- 
ing the somewhat quiet winter that followed. The first city directory 
of Cleveland (published in 1837) says that "During the years of 
the war there wa^ much bluster, coming, going and parading, ups and 
downs, anxiety and carelessness in Cleveland. But when the war 
was over, the city was found not much the better or worse. Jlany, 
however, became acquainted with its pleasant location and its ad- 
vantageous situation, which otherwise probably would have remained 
ignorant of them. ' ' 

Cuyahoga was now a county and Cleveland won in its struggle 
with Newburg for the prestige that generally goes with the seat 
of justice. Therefore, in this year of alarms, the county commis- 


sioners made a contract with Levi Johnson, the master builder of 
that day, for the buikling of a combined court-house and jail on 
the northwest corner of the Public Square. Tlic building was two 
stories high, with a jail and a living-room for the sherifif on the ground 
floor and a court-room above. According to another account, "at 
the west end, lower story, was the jail, with debtors' and criminals' 
grated windows in front; east end, upper storj', the court-room. At 
the landing of the inside staircase a fireplace, sizzling green oak 
wood, feebly struggled to warm the institution." The building was 
not completed until 1813; in it. after that date, "justice, according 
to the high Cuyahoga standard, was administered for some fifteen 
years. ' ' The court-i'oom also became the scene of many social gather- 
ings, and to it the annual town meetings for election and other pur- 
poses were transferred from the residences of citizens in which they 
had been held — generally "the house of James Kingsbury, Esq." 

The First Murder and Execution 

In this j'ear also came Cuyahoga's first trial, conviction, and 
execution for murder, an incident on which much good ink has been 
spilled. In brief, there was an Indian whose name is variously given 
as O'Mic, O'Mick, Omie, and Poecon the son of old O'Mic. What- 
ever his name, he was implicated with two other Indians in the 
murder of two trappers near Sandusky, Huron County being 
then attached to Cuyahoga for judicial purposes. One of the three 
Indians committed suicide "and another was let go because of his 
youth." The murder was committed in April aiul, with charming 
disregard of the law's vexatious delays, the trial was held before 
the end of the month. The court sat in the open air under the pro- 
tecting shade of a tree at the corner of Superior and West Ninth 
streets, with Alfred Kelle.y as prosecuting attorney and Peter Hitch- 
eoek as counsel for the defendant. The trial was short, the verdict 
was "guilty," and the sentence was death by hanging on the twenty- 
sixth of the following June. The gallows M^as built "by Levi Johnson 
on the northwest section of the Public Square; the grave and coffin 
were beneath it. Mrs. Dr. Long says that "all the people from the 
Western Reserve seemed to be there, particularly the doctors," — 
and the doctors got the body. "After the religious services were 
over," wrote Elisha Whittlesey who was there, "Maj. Samuel Jones 
endeavored to form a hollow square so the prisoner could be guarded 
on all sides. He rode backwards and forwards with drawn sword, 
and epaulets flying, but ho did not know what order to give." He 


finally acted upon the suggestion of someone wlio told him to ride 
to the head of the line and double it around until tlie front and rear 
met. Perhaps the major had lingered too long at Lorenzo Carter's 
tavern. The details of the cxceution were dramatic, O'lMic made 
%-igorous resistance, "seized the cap with his left hand which he 
could reach by bending his head in that direction, stepped to one of 
the posts and put his arm around it. The sheriff approached him 
to loosen his hold and for a moment it was doubtful whether O'Mic 
would not throw him to the ground;" Major Carter had to ascend 
the platform to give his diplomatic aid to Sheriff Baldwin. We 
have the assurance of Wr. Whittlesey that "finally O'Mic made a 
proposition that if Mr. Carter would give him half a pint of whiskey 
he would consent to die. . . . Mr. Carter, rcpresentmg the 
people of Ohio and the dignity of the laws, thought that the terms 
were reasonable and the whiskey was forthcoming in short order," 
w-real old Jlonongahela, we are told. When 0']\lie had finished 
the beverage, the order was given to go ahead. But the Indian again 
grabbed the post and demanded more whiskey. This was brought and, 
as he drank it, the trap was sprung. After the platform had been 
dropped, it was "doubtful whether the neck had been broken, and 
to accomplish so necessary a part of a hanging, the rope was drawn 
down wnth the design of raising the body, so that, by a sudden 
relaxing of the ropes, the body woidd fall several feet and thereby 
dislocate the neck beyond any doubt; but when the body fell, the 
rope broke. . . . The body was picked up, put into the coffin, 
and the coffin immediately put into the grave." A terrific storm then 
came up with great rapidity "and all scampered but O'Mic." The 
sequel of the story was recorded by the wife of Doctor Long as 
follows: "The Public Square was only partly cleared then, and 
had man}' stumps and bushes on it. At night the doctors went for 
the body, with the tacit consent of the Sheriff. O'Mic was about 
twenty-one years of age, and was very fat and heavy. Dr. Long 
did not think one man could carry him, but Dr. Allen, who was 
very stout, thought he could. He was put upon Dr. Allen's back, 
who soon fell over a stump and 'Mie on the top of him. The doctors 
dare not laugh aloud, for fear they might be discovered, but some 
of them were obliged to lie down on the groiind and roll around 
there, before they came to the relief of Dr. Allen." 

C^U'TAiN Stajn'Ton Sholes at Cleveland 

Major Jessup, U. S. A., arrived in the spring of 1813 and took 
command of military affairs at Cleveland ; in May, came Captain Stan- 


ton Sholes and his company of regular troops. Probably I cannot do 
better than to let Captain Sholes tell his story in his own way. In 
1858, he wrote to the secretary of the Cuyahoga County Historical 
Society, saying : 

Sir: — With a trembling hand I will state to the Society, that 
about the 3d of May, 1813, I received orders from the War Depart- 
ment, to march my company (then at Beavertown, Pennsylvania) 
to Cleveland, Ohio, to aid in the defence of this frontier and "to estab- 
lish a militaiy post. On the 10th, I, with my company, arrived at 
Cleveland, and found IMajor Jessup and two or three companies of 
militia, called out some months before. I halted my company between 
Major Carter's and Wallace's. I was here met by Governor Meigs, 
who gave me a most cordial welcome, as did all the citizens. The 
Governor took me to a place, where my company could pitch their 
tents. I found no place of defense, no hospital, and a forest of large 
timber, (mostly chestnut) between the lake, and the lake road. There 
was a road that turned off between Mr. Perry's and Major Carter's 
that went to the point, whicli was the only place that the lake could 
be seen from the buildings. This little cluster of buildings was all of 
wood, I think none painted. There were a few houses further l)ack 
from the lake road. The widow Walworth kept the post office, or 
Ashbel, her son. Mr. L. Johnson, Judge Kingsbury, Major Carter, 
N. Perry, Geo. Wallace, and a few others were there. At my arrival 
I found a number of sick and wounded who were of Hull's surrender, 
sent here from Detroit, and more coming. These were crowded into 
a log cabin, and no one to care for them. I sent one or two of my 
soldiers to take care of them, as they liad no friends. I had two or 
three good carpenters in my company, and set them to work to build 
a hospital. I very soon got up a good one, thirty by twenty feet, 
smoothly and tightly covered, and floored with chestnut bark, with 
two tier of bunks around the walls, with doors and windows, and not 
a nail, a screw, or iron latch or hinge about the liuildiiig. Its cost 
to the Government was a few extra rations. In a short time I had all 
the bunks well st rawed, and tlie sick and wounded good and clean, to 
their great joy and comfort, but some had fallen asleep. I next went 
to work and built a small fort, about fifty yards from tlie bank of the 
lake, in the forest. This fort finished, I set the men to felling the tim- 
ber along and near the bank of the lake, rolling the logs and brush 
near the brink of tlie bank, to serve as a breastwork. On the 19th 
of June, a part of the British fleet appeared off our harbor, with the 
apparent design to land. When they got within one and a half miles 
of onr harbor it became a perfect calm, and they lay there till after 
noon, when a most terrible fliunder storm came up, and drove them 
from onr coast. We saw them no more as enemies. 

Captain Sholes further tells ns that, in July, General Harrison 
vi.sited the station accompanied by "Col. Samuel Huntington, Pay- 
master of tlie army and cx-Govcrnor of this state," and other mem- 


bers of his staff: that after a thi'ee days' inspection, "the General and 
suite left Cleveland as he found it, to return to the army, then lying 
at the mouth of the Maumee River. After General Harrison left 
there was nothing worthy of note." When, in September, Oliver 
Hazard Perry was winning his famous battle of Lake Erie, the sound 
of the guns was heard in Cleveland and soon came the cheerful tidings 
that "We have met the enemy and they are ours." But the battle 
Avas fought outside the limits of Cleveland and Us Environs and its 
story is familiar to all Americans. But if the reader of this volume 
desires full and accurate information as to the details and results of 
Perry's victory, he can find what he wants in the ninth chapter of the 
eighth volume of Avery's History of the United States and Its People. 

Cleveland Village Incorporated 

In 1814, Levi Johnson built the schooner "Pilot," in the woods 
near the site of the opera house (Euclid Avenue and East Fourth 
Street). With rollers under the boat and twenty-eight yoke of oxen 
on the tow line, the "Pilot" was pulled to the foot of Superior Street 
and was successfully launched in the not yet oil-smeared water of the 
Cuyahoga River. In October, Newburg was made into a separate town- 
ship and thus James Kingsbury, Rodolphus Edwards and other impor- 
tant persons were taken out of Cleveland. On the twenty-third of De- 
cember, the Ohio general assembly passed "An Act to Incorporate the 
Village of Cleveland in the County of Cuyahoga." The new village 
thus created included "so much of the city plat of Cleveland, in the 
town.ship of Cleveland and County of Cuyahoga as lies northwardly of 
Huron street, so called, and westwardly of Erie street, so called in 
.said city plat as originally laid out by the Cotuiecticut Land Com])any, 
according to the minutes and survey and map thereof in the office of 
the recorder of said County of Cuyahoga." At this time, it is said 
that "the town had thirty-four buildings, one being constructed of 
brick, and thirty families, including one hundred and fifty persons," 
and that Brooklyn has six families and a total population of forty. In 
February of this year. Major Lorenzo Carter died and was buried in 
the Erie (East Ninth) Street Cemetery. 

On the first Monday of June, 1815, twelve of the male inhabitants 
of the village met and, liy unanimous votes, chose officers as follows: 

President, Alfred Kellcy. 
Recorder, Horace Perry. 
TridsKrrr, Aloii/.o Carter. 
Marslial, John A. Ackley. 


Asucxsors, Ooorp;o AValliU'c aiul Jdliii TJidtllc. 

'rnintcts, Siiimu'I Williamson, David Long and Nathan Perry, Jr. 

The village trustees met in October and, ou petition of a baker's 
dozen, laid out a number of streets, " to be distinguished, known and 
failed" St. Clair Street, Bank Street, Seneea Street, Wood Street, 
Bond Street, Euclid Street and Diamond Street. The last named 
street ran around the four sides of the Public Square; the others 
on the list retained for many yeai-s the names thus assigned. St. Clair 
and Euclid are now called avenues. Bank is West Sixth, Seneea is 
West Third, Wood is East Third, and Bond is East Sixth. Huron 
Street is now Huron Road, and Erie Street is now East Ninth Street. 



Having secured an official organization for tlie little village that 
was to become a mertropolis, we may with propriety quicken our pace 
as we move on from the then to the now. As stated in the preceding 
chapter, the first president of the village was Alfred Kclley ; in less 
than a j'ear he resigned and was succeeded by his father, Daniel 
Kelley, who held the office, by unanimous elections, until 1819. In 
1820, Horace Perry was elected and, in 1821, Reuben Wood ; then 
came Leonard Case who served until 1825, when he failed to qualify 
on his election and Eleazur Waterman, the recorder, became presi- 
dent ex officio. Here the I'ecord becomes defective ; it is probable that 
Mr. Waterman continued to serve as president and recorder until 
1828, when he resigned on account of poor health. In May of that 
year, Oirson Cathan (a son-in-law of Lorenzo Cai'ter) was elected. 
Dr. David Long was elected in 1829; Richard Hilliard in 1830 and 
1831 ; John W. Allen served from 1832 to 1835. In 1836, came a city 
charter with a mayor as its chief administrative officer. In 1815, 
Alfred Kelley received twelve votes ; in 1835, Mr. Allen received 106 — 
a fair index of the growth of the village. 

FiHST ViLi.AGE Legislation 

The following resume of village legislation, chiefly a condensation 
of the record written by Mr. Kennedy, will probably be sufficient for 
tiie purpose of this volume: In January, 1816, Ashbel W. Walworth, 
a son of John and the corporation clerk, was officially ordered not to 
"issue any amount of bills gi-eater tlian double the amount of the 
funds in his bands." In 1817, it was ordered that "the several sums 
of money which were by individuals subscribed for the building of a 
school-house, in said village, to be refunded to the subscribers." In 
1818, the first recorded ordinance provided that "if any person shall 
shoot or discharge any gun or pistol witliin said village, sueli person 
so offending shall, upon conviction, lie fined in any sum not exceeding 
five dollars, nnr nndci- fifty cents. I'nr tlie use of tlie said vil]ag(>." In 


1815] \ll.l;A(iE AND TOWN 101 

1820, ordinances were passed furhiddinji; the running of swine at 
large, or butchering within the limits of the village except under cer- 
tain regulation ; prescribing permits for the giving of shows and pen- 
alties for allowing geese to run at large; forbidding horse racing and 
fast driving, etc. In 1823, the i)lanting of shade trees in the streets 
was regulated by ordinance. In 1825, a tax of one-fourth of one per 
cent was laid on all the property in the village, and Canal Street, 
Michigan Street, Champlain Street, and a part of Seneca (now West 
Third) Street were laid out. In 1828, a tax of two mills per dollar 
was ordered and, when the village trustees appropriated $200 to put 
the village in proper order, it was earnestly asked "what on earth the 

A. W. Wat. WORTH 

trustees could find in the village to spend two hundred dollars on?" 
In 1829, the first fire engine was bought for $285, a market was 
established and regulated by ordinance, and the delinquent tax list 
was rather robust. In 1830, a village seal and a tax of half a mill 
on the dollar were ordered. In 1831, Prospect Street from Ontario to 
Erie ( Ninth) Street was laid out. In 1832, a tax of two mills 
on the dollar was ordered; Dr. David Long and Orville B. Skinner 
were made a committee to buy a village hearse, harness and bier; 
and, in fear of the coming of the cholera, the first board of health 
was appointed as is set forth in the following record: "At a meet- 
ing of the board of trustees of the village of Cleaveland, on the 24th 
of June, 1832. present J. W. Allen, D. Long, P. May, and S. Pease, 
convened for the appointment of a board of health, in pursuance of a 
resolution of a meeting of the citizens of the village on the 23rd in- 


staiit, the following gentlemen were appointed: Dr. [E. W.] Cowles, 
Dr. [Joshua] Mills, Dr. [Oran] St. John, S. Belden, Charles Deni- 
son." Subsequently, Dr. J. S. Weldon and Daniel Worley w-ere added 
to the board. The preparations made in fear of the approaching 
plague were quickly justified bj^ events, as will appear in the account 
of the "cholera scares" described in Chapter IX. In 1833, 
River Street, Meadow Street (West Eleventh Place), and Spring 
Street were laid out in the section between Water (West Ninth) 
Street and the river. ^Many new streets were laid out in 1834. While 
these things were being done, the township of Cleveland, of which 
the village was a part, was doing well. As was common then, even 
in the older parts of the country, many persons were notified to leave 
lest they become a charge upon the public. The trouble of an inade- 
quate revenue seems to have been chronic, and relief was sought 
in 1817 by taxing every horse half a dollar and every head of horned 
cattle twent.y-five cents per year, with the result that by 1821 the 
township tax had been increased to $86.02. The desire for holding 
office was not universal; about 1821, Peter ^I. Weddell refused to 
serve as an overseer of the poor and was fined two dollars for his un- 
willingness; several j'ears later we find this entry in the records: "Be 
it remembered that Leonard Case and Samuel Cowles, declining to 
serve as overeecrs of the poor, after being duly elected for the town- 
ship of Cleaveland for 1827, paid their fines according to the requisi- 
tion of the statutes." John S. Clark, John Blair, and Reuben Cham- 
pion in turn declined the proffered honor and paid their fines. The 
records also show that the indenturing of apprentices was not in- 
frequent and throw light upon the details of transactions now little 
understood. Thus, in one it was provided that "he will cause the 
said minor to be taught to read and write, and so much of arithmetic 
as to include the single rule of three, and at the expiration of said 
time of service, to furnish the said minor with a new r>ible. and at 
least two suits of common wearing apiiarel." 

Notable Arkivals op 181G 

Having thus briclly (lis])oscil of the chief legislative events of the 
village era, we turn to a short aci-dunt of other matters not less im- 
portant. In 1816, the as.sessed valuation of the real estate of "The 
City of Cleveland" as surveyed in 17!)6 (see Seth Pease map, ])age 
24), was $21,065. A visitor to the village that year declared 
that "Cleaveland never would amount to anything because the soil 
was too poor," and spent the night at the Newburg tavern "because 




it was the most ik'sirablc place for man and beast." Among the. 
arrivals of that year were Leonard Case, Philo Seovill, and Noble H. 
Jferwiii, "iiotal>le additions to the popnlation." ]\Ir. Case had come 
to Ohio with his father, who settled on a farm near Warren in 1800. 
In the following: year, when the son was about fifteen years of age, a 
severe illness left him a cripple. Seeing that he could not be a farmer, 
the lad determined to be a surveyor; in 1806, he became connected 
with the office of the laud commissioner at Warren and thus gained 
much knowledge concerning the Western Reserve and the Connecticut 
Land Company. During the war with England, he was engaged in 
the collection of taxes from non-residents of the Reserve and thus 
added to his knowledge of land values, etc. In addition to his regu- 

X IB 9 ^ IS S S. 

■ It AN K I. IN HoTsK 

1 SB J ,!!' E ^ 



f. SI IIV II. I.. 

vi.v;v?.AX?iii'. »\uv. 

Franklin House, 1825 

lar work, he studied law and was admitted to the bar. Why he came , 
to Cleveland in 1816 will soon appear. Philo Scnvill was the son of 
Timothy Seoville and came to Cleveland from Buffalo, then the fam- 
ily residence. The father was a millwright and his son was familiar 
with the use of tools, in fact, a carpenter and joiner. But in Cleve- 
land he soon established himself in the drug and grocery business, 
which proved to be distasteful and unprofitable. Then, in company 
with Thomas 0. Young, he built a sawmill on Big Creek, a little 
stream that empties into the Cuyahoga River near the southern limits 
of the city. After the mill was in successful operation, he branched 
out as a building contractor, the first competitor of Levi Johnson. 
Cleveland was growing in population, and ilr. Seovill was busy 
building stores and dwellings — and prosperous. In 1820, Nathan 


Perry sold to Timothy Scoville fifty feet fi'out of lot No. 50 (see 
the Spafford map, page 97) on the north side of Superior Street 
for $300. Here Philo Scovill, in 1825, built the Franklin House, the 
largest tavern that Cleveland had yet seen, a three-story, frame • 
building, "very- spacious and furnished in a style not surpassed in 
this part of the state." In addition to managing his hotel, Mr. Sco- 
vill continued his business as builder and invested his savings in 
land. One of these purchases consisted of one hundred and ten acres 
extending along the north side of what is now Woodland Avenue from 
East Ninth Street to East Twenty-eighth Street. In this year (1816), 
Noble H. Merwin brought his family from Connecticut. It is said that 
he had visited Cleveland and built a log warehouse at the comer of 
Superior and Merwin streets in 1815. For years, Amos Spafford, 
the surveyor, had kept a small inn on lot 73 (see Spafford map, page 
97) at the southeast corner of Superior Street and Vineyard Lane 
(later called South Water Street and now Columbus Road). In 1815, 
the lot was sold to George Wallace, and "Spaft'ord's Tavern" became 
the "Wallace House." Since 1812, W^allace had kept a tavern on the 
south side of Superior Street west of Seneca (West Third) Street. 
When he bought Spafford 's tavern, his former place passed to ilichael 
Spangler who there kept Spangler's Inn until 1824 or later. In 
1817, Wallace .sold the "Wallace House" to David :\Ierwin of Pal- 
myra, Portage County; in 1822, the buyer sold it to Noble H. ]\Ier- 
win. The Merwins built a new, two-story tavern, the "Mansion 
House." For more than twenty years "it was Cleveland's favorite 
hotel and its owner, a popular and progressive man, was a leader in 
business and civic affairs." In 1822, ilr. ^Merwin hniiu-hed. at the 
foot of Superior Street, the "Minerva," a schooner of forty-four tons, 
built l>y him at the corner of Superior and Jlerwiii streets. In this 
year (1816), the "Cleavcland Pier Company" was iucoriKiratcd "for 
the purpose of erecting a pier at or near the village of Cleaveland 
for the accommodation of vessels navigating Lake Eric." The in- 
corporators were Alonzo Carter, A. W. AVahvorth, David Long, 
Alfred Kellcy, Datus Kelley, Eben llosincr, l^aniel Kelley, George 
Wallace, Darius E. Henderson, Samuel Willianisoii, Sr., Irad Kellcy, 
James Kingsbury, Horace Perry and Levi Joliiison. But storms and 
quicksand quickly wrecked what tlicy built and the i)rojeet was a 
failure. No other pier was built into the lake for doekage until the 
famous Stockly's pier was built at the foot of Hank (West Si.xth) 
Street, a thii-d of a eeiiturv later. 


First Church Organized. 

The lament of the Rev. .Mr. Badger over the apparent lack of 
piety in Clevehuul in l.sdl' has hcon already noted in these pages. 
Whatever the canse. the Clevehuul villagers refrained from doing 
mueh in the way of organized religious eti'ort for inoi'e than a dozen 
veal's longer, hut, on the ninth of November, 1816, there was a meet- 
ing at the house of Phineas Shepherd "for the purpose of nominating 
ofBeers for a Protestant Kpiseopal Chureh." Timothy Doan was 
chosen moderator; Charles Gear, clerk; Phineas Shepherd and Abra- 
ham Seott. wardens ; Timothy Doan, Abraham ITickox, and Jonathan 
Pelton, vestrymen; Dennis Cooper, reading clerk. The little com- 
pany then adjourned "till Easter Jlonday next." This Phineas 
Shepherd (or Shephard) had come from Connecticut in 1815, and 
soon took up his residence on the west side of the river. His log 
house, in which this first church organization in Cuyahoga County 
was tlnis inaugiii-ated was located on Pearl Street, Brooklyn, now 
called West Twenty-fifth Street, within a few hundred feet of the 
present St. John's Church, which stands at the corner of Church 
Avenue and West Twenty-sixth Street. On the second of the fol- 
lowing March (3817), at a vestry meeting held at the court-house, 
attended by the church officers chosen at the meeting held at Phineas 
Shepherd's house in November, and by John Wilcox, Alfred Kelley, 
Irad Kelley, Thomas i\l. Kelley, Noble H. Jlerwin, David Long, D. C. 
Henderson, Philo Seovill. the Rev. Roger Seaii of Plymouth, Con- 
necticut, and others, it was resolved that the persons present were 
attached to the Protestant P^piscoj^al Church of the United States 
and that they did unite themselves into a congregation by the name 
of "Trinity Parish of Cleaveland, Ohio, for the worship and services 
of Almighty God according to the forms and regulations of said 
church." A second election was. held a few days later at which offi- 
cers were chosen for "Trinity Parish of Cleaveland," but the village 
was small and the church had no house in which to hold its meetings. 
There was no settled minister, but the services of lay readers were 
secured, and ^Ir. Searl. who for nine years looked after the struggling 
parishes in northern Ohio, made occasional visits. In 1818, says Dr. 
John Wesley Brown, a former rector of Trinity Parish, Cleveland, 
^Ir. Seai-1 "organized the Episcopal Chnrcli called Trinity, Brook- 
lyn," and on that day. Philander Chase, tiie first Episcopal bishop 
of Ohio, "confirmed a class of ten candidates in Trinity, Brooklyn, 
among whom was the Hon. George L. Chapman." Then, for a time, 
there was a Trinitv Parish, Cleveland, and a Trinity Parish, Brook- 



lyn, but, in May, 1820, a meeting of the Cleveland vestiy declared 
"that it is expedient in future to have the clerical and other public 
services of the Episcopal Church in Trinity Parish, heretofore located 
in Cleveland, held in Brooklyn ordinarily, and occasionally in Cleve- 
land and Euclid, as circumstances may seem to require." At the 
next annual convention of the diocese, Mr. Searl reported that ' ' most 
of the efficient members of Trinity Church, Cleveland, being residents 
in the township and very flourishing village of Brooklyn, on the west 
side of the Cuyahoga River, and directly opposite the village of 
Cleveland, the Parish was induced at the last regular Easter meet- 

^Old Trinity" Church, 1828-29 

ing, to vote its permanent Incation and public services in Brooklyn. 
In consequence of this resolution, the word 'Cleveland" will in future 
be omitted in the records of that Parish. Their number is small, but 
the members are res]K'ctal)Ie and they now have the services of the 
Church regularly performed every Sunday." In 1.S23 and 1825, 
Bishop Chase "preached in Cleaveland but went over to Brooklyn 
for confinnation." In 1825, "the (luestion of building a Church 
edifice having been raised, it was decided to have it located in 
Cleaveland and hold services on tlie east side of the river from thence- 
fortli. Conseqnently, at the Ninth Annual Convention of the diocese 
held June 7, 1826, Trinity Parish was designated as being in Cleave- 




laud." In that year, tlie liev. Silas C. Freeiuaii beeaaie rector of Trin- 
ity Parish ou a salary of $500 per annum, with the understanding 
that the eliureh of the .same denomination at Norwalk should employ 
him one-third or one-half of the time, paying their proportion of the 
five hundred dollars. Under this arrangement, Trinity Parish reerossed 
the river and services were held in the court-house. In 1827, Mr. Free- 
man succeeded in raising funds for a church. A lot was secured at the 
corner of St. Clair and Seneca (West Third) streets, and a frame 
church building, "distinctly Gothic as to its details," was put up 
thereon "at a cost of $3,000.00 which was consecrated the 12th of 
August, 1829, and was the first house devoted to the worship of God 
in the present City of Cleveland." In 1828 (August 12), Trinity 
Parish of Cleveland was incorporated by special act of the general 

St. John's Ciiuecm, 1828-29 

assembly, with Josiah Barber, Phineas Shepherd, Charles Taylor, 
Henry L. Xoble, Eeuben Champion, James S. Clark, Sherlock J. 
Andrews, Levi Sargeant, and John W. Allen as vestiymen and war- 
dens. The first named three of these had taken part in the meeting 
held at Phineas Shepherd's house in Brooklyn in November, 1816, 
and later, after Trinity was taken away from Brooklyn, were among 
the organizers of the still existing St. John's parish. In December, 
1835, the Rev. Seth Davis became the first rector of St. John's and, 
in 1836, a stone church was built at the corner of Church an*! Wall 
streets, now known a.s Church Avenue and West Twenty-sixth 
Street. The old church is still occupied as a church by St. John's 
parish. In 1855, Trinity parish consecrated a large stone church 
on Superior Street near Bond (East Sixth) Street which became the 
cathedral and, in its turn, gave way to the present Trinity Cathedral 


at the corner of Euclid Avenue and East Twenty-second Street. 
Whether Trinity Cathedral .or St. John's Chui'ch is the oldest church 
organization in Cuyahoga County is still a mooted question, but the 
matter was prettily stated in the congratulations sent by the church 
to the cathedral on the occasion of their respective centennials, 
(November 9, 1916) : "Trinity Cathedral, Cleveland — our twin 
brother, born in the same log cabin, on the same day and hour, under 
the protecting roof of the Pioneer of Brooklyn, Phineas Shepherd. 
We have long since forgiven Ti-inity for leaving our bed and board 
and changing its name from Trinity, Brooklyn, to Trinity, Cleveland, 
as it was obliged to do w-hen it set up housekeeping for itself 
because its members ou that side of the river became weary 
or afraid of crossing over to Brooklyn on Sundays on a floating 
bridge which sometimes floated out into the lake." 

Kelley's Large Stone House 

Alfred Kelley owned a piece of land extending from Water (West 
Ninth) Street to the river and overlooking the lake at the north. 
Here, near the corner of Water and Lake streets (West Ninth Street 
and Lakeside Avenue), he built a ".somewhat pretentious" house, 
intending it for his parents, but before it wa.s finished his mother died 
and the house became his home, for he soon went back to Lowville 
whence he had come and took thence a bride. Most of the accounts 
speak of this as Cleveland's second brick house and say that it was 
built in 1816, but the Kelley Famili/ History says: "In 1814, he 
began the construction of a stone house on the bluff overlooking Lake 
Erie, a short distance easterly from the old lighthouse." In the 
summer of 1817, Mr. Kelley married and brought his bride to his 
still unfinished house in Cleveland. Some of the incidents of the 
home-coming are thus recorded by Mr. Kennedy: "He had pur- 
eha.sed a carriage in Albany, and after the wedding the young couple 
set out in that vehicle for the new home he had found in the west. 
They drove to Buffalo, and as the roads had become quite difficult 
to travel, they decided to come the remainder of the distance on a 
schooner that was then lying in the harbor. As she was not yet 
ready to sail, they drove to Niagara Falls, and on the return found 
that the vessel had taken advantage of a favoring breeze, and 
gone on without them. They thereupon concluded to continue in 
their vehicle. Seven days were occupied in Ihe trip, as the roads 
were in a fearful condition, and for portions of the distance both 
W'ere compelled to walk. Upon reaching Cleveland they discovered 




that tlie scliooner had not yet arrived in port. Their earriage was 
the first one seen in Cleveland, and was for a long time in demand 
upon spceial occasions. It was used by the senior L(M)nard Case, when 
he, also, went forth to bring home a bride." The house was occupied 
by Mv. Kelley and his wife until 1827 ; in it the fii-st five of their chil- 
dren were born. Tiie oldri- of these ehiitlren used to play on the 

Jt<2H..'^".'~ -■■■ : ^ ■ 

Alfred Kelley 's Home 

beach of the lake where the so-called "Union Depot'' now (1918) 
stands. The house was torn uowu about 1850. 

Cleveland's First Bank and Bankers 

In this year of Cleveland's first church organization, also came 
its first bank. A new general banking law, enacted by the general 
assembly for the improvement of the banking interests of Ohio, in- 
corporated half a dozen banks, including the Commercial Bank 
of Lake Erie, and extended the charters of several more. The incor- 
porators of this pioneer bank of Cleveland were John H. Strong, 
Samuel "^'illiamson, Philo Taylor, George Wallace, David Long, 
Erastus Miles, Seth Doan, and Alfred Kelley. The bank was opened 
for business in a building that stood at the corner of Superior and 
Bank (West Sixth) streets. The rest of the short stoi-y of its life 
is told by an entrj' on a fly leaf of the largest of four record books 
still preserved by the 'Western Reserve Historical Society. The rec- 
ord runs thus : 



This ledger, with the two journals and letter-book, are the tirst 
books used for lianking in Cleveland. They were made by Peter 
Burtsell, in New York, for the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie, which 
commenced business in August, 1816, — Alfred Kelley president, and 
Leonard Case, cashier. The bank failed in 1820. On the second day 
of April, 1832, it was reorganized and resumed business, after paying 
off its existing liabilities, consisting of less than ten thousand dollars 
due the treasurer of the United States. Leonard Case was chosen 


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T. P. II.\NDY 

president, and Truman V. Handy, cashier. The following gentle- 
men constituted its directory: Leonard Case, Samuel AViJIiamson, 
Edward Clark, Peter ^M. Weddell, llenian Oviatt, Charles M. Gid- 
dings, John Blair, Alfred Kelley, David King, James Duncan, Kos- 
well Kent, T. P. Handy, John W. Allen. Its charter expired in 1842. 
The legislature of Ohio refusing to extend the charter of existing 
banks, its affairs were placed, by the courts, in the hands of T. P. 
Handy, Henry B. Payne, and Dudley Baldwin, as special commis- 




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Commercial Ba>jiv Check 


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Bank Note 



sioners, who proceeded to pay off its lialiilities and wind up its affairs. 
Thej- paid over to its stockhohlors the balance of its assets in land 
and money, in June, 1844. T. P. Handy was then appointed trustee 
of the stockholders, who, under their orders, distributed to them tlie 
remaining assets in June, 1845. Its capital was five hundred thousand 
dollars. The books were, prior to 1832, kept by Leonard Case, cashier. 
[Presented to the Historical Society of Cleveland by T. P. Handy, 
January. 1877.] 

ilr. Case was called from Warren to serve as the first cashier 
of the bank, on the recommendation of Judge James Kingsbury, 


"because he \vi'(}tc a frdml liaiid and was a good accountant." The 
village was small and Ihe business nf the hank did not keep the i-ash- 
iei- busy. Although he had l)e('n admitted to the bar. "he nr\cr was 
a trial lawyei-, but he used his knowledge in ad.iusting business differ- 
ences, particularly as to land, was frugal and bought land, so that 
at his death he was one nl' llic rich nu>n nf Clcvt'land." lie died 




ill 18(J4, li'uviiig Ills property to his sou, the second Leonard Case 
who, by his generous contributions to philanthropic work in Cleve- 
land, and by his ondownn'iit of the Case Library and the Case School 
of Applied Science, has forever linked the name of Case with that of 
Cleveland. As Alfred Kelley and Leonard Case were men of integ- 
rity and of the highest order of financial ability, we may safely 
assume that the early failure of Cleveland's pioneer bank was due to 





(>i|i i THE CORl'OR.\TJ«)N OF tI-V;AVKl-\N^\ 

I'l^iiscs to pay the Ikaici 



(■If ■/ 


existing conditions and not to any fault of theirs. The local money 
market was then so cramped that, about 1817, the village trustees, 
to relieve the needs of the people, issued corporation scrip, popu- 
larly known as '"shinplasters," ranging in value from six and a quar- 
ter cents to fifty cents, and "a silver dollar was divided into nine 
pieces, each pa.ssing for a shilling," i. e., twelve and a half cents. 
According to 'My. Orth, "the reorganization of this bank, in 1832, 


. was due to the distinguished historian, George Bancroft, who was 
then in Washington where he heard that its charter was good for 
several years and that the prospects for a bank in Cleveland were 
of the best. He provided, with others, capital of $200,000, and sent 
Truman P. Handy, one of Cleveland's ablest and wisest bankers, to 
be its cashier. Cleveland has thus become a double debtor to this 
national historian." As we shall see, Mr. Handy served Cleveland in 
various capacities, and always faithfully and well. 

At this time, the assessed "value of the real estate within the 
city, including the entire plat suiweyed in 1796, was $21,065." To 
this information, add several descriptions that have been preserved 
for us and we get a pretty clear idea of what the village and its envi- 
rons then were. In a persojial statement by Captain Lewis Dibble, 
printed in the Annuls of the Early Settlers Association, we are told 
that (going west), "on leaving Doan's Corners, one would come in a 
little time to a cleared farm. Then down about where A. P. Wins- 
low now lives [Euclid Avenue and East Seventy-first Street] a 
man named Curtis had a tannery. There was only a small clearing, 
large enough for the tannery and a residence. There was nothing 
else but woods until Willson avenue [East Fiftj'-fifth Street] was 
reached, and there a man named Bartlett had a small clearing, on 
which there was a frame house, the boards running up and down. 
Following down the line of what is now Euclid avenue, the next 
sign of civilization was found at what is now Erie [East Ninth 
Street], where a little patch of three or four acres had been cleared, 
surrounded by a rail fence. Where the First Methodist Church [the 
Cleveland Trust Company's building] now stands, a man named 
Smith lived, in a log-house. I don't remember any building between 
that and the Square, which was already laid out, l)ut covered with 
bushes and stumps." 

Mrs. Philo Scovill tells us that "many stumps and uncut bushes 
disfigured the Public Sipiare, its only decoration being the log jail. 
Tlie land south from Superior Street to the river was used as a cow 
pasture and was thought to lie of little value." Wo also have the 
statement of Leonard Case that "the only streets fairly cleared were 
Superior west of the S(|nare; Euclid road was made passable for 
teams, as was also part of Ontario street. Water street was a wind- 
ing path in the bushes; and TTnion and \'ineyard lanes mere jiiitlis 
to tile river. -Mandrake laiu' and Seneca and Rank streets were prac- 
tically all woods; while Ontario street noi-lli of the Square, Superior of it, Erie, P.ond and Wood, were in a stale of nature. ,\ pass- 




able roail van out by (.)iitario street aud the modern Broadway, to 
Newburg. The Kinsman road (Woodland avenue) was then alto- 
gether out of town." 

First Scuoul-House Built in Clevel^\nd 

In a small grove of oak trees on St. Clair Street near Bank (West 
Sixth) Street, on the east side of the lot now occupied by the Ken- 
iiard House, a little school-house had been built by private subscrip- 
tion, the donors being John A. Ackley, Walter Bradrock, Alonzo 
Carter, John Dixon, Stephen S. Dudley, J. Heather, D. C. Hender- 
son, Levi Johnson, Daniel Kelley, T. & I. Kelley, David Long, Edward 

Cleveland's First School-house 

MeCarney, T. & D. Mills, Plinney Mowrey, Joel Nason, N. H. Mer- 
win, Geo. Pease, Horace Perry, J. Riddle, James Root, William Trim- 
ball, Geo. Wallace. A. W. Walworth, Jacob Wilkerson, and Samuel 
W'illiamson, the several amounts ranging from two and a half to 
twenty dollars. In January, 1817, the village trustees voted that the 
sums given for this purpose by these public spirited citizens should be 
refunded to them from "the treasury of the corporation at the end of 
three years from and after the 13th of June, 1817," and that "the cor- 
poration shall be the sole proprietors of the said school-house." In 
later years. Miller 'SI. Spangler, who learned to read at one of the 
schools kept in this building, made a sketch of it which is herewith re- 
produced. In his Enrhj Ilistorij of the CleveUtnd PiMlc Sclwols, pub- 
lished by the boaixl of education in 1876, Mr. Andrew Freese, Cleve- 


land's first superintendent of schools, says: "No description of this 
building is needed further than to say that it resembled a country dis- 
trict schoolhouse, being modeled upon that well-known and j^eeuliarly 
constructed edifice, w'hicli has suffered no change in a century — one 
stor^-, the size about 24x30, chimney at one end, door at the corner 
near the chimney, the six windows of twelve lights each placed high ; 
it being an old notion that children should not look out to see any- 
thing. As a school-house of the olden time, some interest attaches 
to its history, but perhaps more from the fact that it was the first 
school property ever owned by Cleveland as a corporation. But the 
schools kept in it were not free, except to a few who' were too poor 
to pay tuition. The town gave the rent of the house to such teach- 
ers as were deemed qualified, subjecting them to very few conditions. 
They were left to manage the school in all respects just as they 
pleased. It was, in short, a private and not a public school." Ac- 
cording to the Recollections of George B. Merwin, the school was 
opened with twenty-four pupils, and "the young men in the town 
were assessed to paj* the master for the amount of his wages for the 
children of those parents who were unable to do so. . . . Reli- 
gious services were regularly held here. Judge Kelley offering prayer, 
a young man read the sermon, and my mother led the singing ; sing- 
ing school was also kept here, taught by Herschel Foote, who came 
from Utica, N. Y., and established the firet book-store in town." 
In addition to these improvements in educational matters, there wei'e, 
in 1817, several improvements in commercial circles, "suggestive 
of an upward trend in business affairs. . . . Captain "William 
Gaylord and Leonard Case put up the first frame warehouse down 
by the river, those in existence previously being of logs. Not long 
afterwards, Dr. David Long and Levi Johnson constructed another, 
of like character, near the same locality, and still another was built 
by John Blair." 

The first printing press set up in Cleveland was brnught from 
Beaver, Pennsylvania, by its owner, Andrew Logan ; with it he 
brought such type and outfit as he had. Ujion this hand press was 
printed a little four-page sheet with four columns to the page. Ac- 
cording to Logan's prospectus, his paper, Thf Cleaveland Gazette 
and Commercial Register, was to be issued weekly, a promise that he 
was not able to make good, although he tried to keep faith with his 
few subscribers. The first issue of this first Cleveland newspaper 
bears date of July 31, 1818. Logan's type was so worn ("down to 
the third nick") that some of the matter printed was illcgilile, and 
a lack of paper soirietimes delayed the days of publication Miid some- 




times foivcd tlie issue oi hali" sheets. Oii the eightli of December, 
Logan told his patrons that they need not expect any more issues 
of the Gazette and Register until he got hack from a pi'oposed trip 

mie Cteareland Ga&ei , 

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The Cleaveland Gazette a.nd Cummercial Register. 

July 31, 1818 

First reproduction from the original copy, by the courtesy of 

The Western Reserve Historical Society. 

to the nearest paper supply establishment, and the trij) took two 
weeks. On the twenty-tirst of March, 1820, the publication of the 
paper was discontinued ; probably the result of the competition of 
a better equipped rival that appeared in 1819. 


In this year (1818), the first Methodist chureli in what is now 
Cleveland was organized in what was then Brooklyn. The Centenary 
of ^Methodism in Cleveland was celebrated (Sunday, September 15. 
1918) with a parade of many thousands and two large memorial 
meetings, one at the Euclid Avenue Opera House and the other at 
the Hippodrome. 

Reuben "Wood 

In 1818, came to Cleveland from Vermont a lawyer, Reuben "Wood. 
He soon acquired an extensive legal practice, became a member of 
the state senate, eliief-justice of the supreme court, and in 1849 and 
1850 was elected governor of Ohio ; he died at Rockport in Cuyahoga 


Keupen Wood 

County in 1864. In the same year came Ahaz Merchant, a surveyor 
who did a great deal of engineering for the city and county prior 
to the emi)loymcnt of a city cngincci-, laid out the most important 
allotments in Ohio City, a ])art of tlic original Brooklyn township 
on the west side of the river, and, in the early railway building era, 
built the "Angler House," now long known as "The Kcnnard." He 
was the father of Silas Mcrcliaiit, a famous business man and liii-:d 
politician of a later generation. The A\\i\/. Merchant map of Cleve- 
land in 1SI55 ai)pcars on a later i)agc of this vohunc In the same 
year also came Oi'lando ( 'niter who began business iiere witli a stock 
of goods valued at .t20.0()(J — a big store for Cleveland in that day. 
That year also brought by schooner Levi Sargent and his I'amily. His 


soil, John II. Sargent, became a fanious civil engineer, early railway 
builder, and an active member of the Early Settlers Association, in 
the Annah of which he has put on record that "Orlando Cutter dealt 
out groceries and provisions at the top of Superior lane, looking up 
Superior street to the woods in and beyond the Public Square, and 
1 still remember the sweets from his mococks of Indian sugar. Nathan 
Perry sold dry goods, Walworth made hats, and Tewell repaired old 
watches on Superior street. Dr. Long dealt out ague cures from a 
little frame house nearly opposite Bank street at first, but not long 
after from a stone house, that stood a little back from Superior 
street. The 'Ox Bow, Cleveland centre,' was then a densely wooded 
swamp. Alonzo Carter lived on the west side of the river, opposite 
the foot of Superior lane. He was a great hunter." In April, 1817, 
Ara Sprague arrived. In the indispensable Annals, he says: "I 
arrived a few weeks after the first census had been taken. Its popu- 
lation was, at that time, but one hundred and seventy-two souls; all 
poor, and struggling hard to keep soul and body together. Small 
change was very scarce. They used what were called 'corporation 
shinplasters' as a substitute. The inhabitants were mostly New Eng- 
land people, and seemed to be living in a wilderness of scrub oaks. 
Only thirty or forty acres had been cleared. Most of the occupied 
town lots were fenced with rails. There were three warehouses on 
the river; however, very little commercial business was done, as there 
was no harbor at that time. All freight and passengers were landed 
on the beach by lighter and smaller boats. To get freight to the 
warehouses, which were a quarter of a mile from the beach, we had 
to roll it over the sand, and load it into canal boats. The price of 
freight from Buffalo to Cleveland was $1 a barrel; the price of pas- 
sage on vessels $10, and on steamboats $20." 

"W^vlk-ix-the-Wateb" Makes Cleveland 

The last item in ilr. Sprague 's schedule of prices, just quoted, 
suggests that there was a .steamboat on Lake Erie at that time — and 
there was. For nearly a hundred years after the disappearance of 
"Le Griffon," the short-lived vessel that LaSalle had built, in 1679, 
on the Niagara River, five miles above the falls,* there were no sail- 
boats on the great lakes. In 1763, two or three schooners were 
engaged in carrying the troops, supplies and furs between the Niagara 
and Detroit. In 1769, the "Enterprise" was built at Detroit, the 

* See Avery's History of the United States and Its People, vol. ;i, page* 



beginning of a great industry there. As we have seen, shipbuilding 
was begun at Cleveland early in the nineteenth century. The build- 
ing of the "Zephyr" by Major Carter and of the "Pilot" by Levi 
Johnson have been i-ecorded in earlier pages of this volume. Prior 
to ISIS, the "Ohio" of sixty tons had been built by Murray and 
Bixby; the "Lady of the Lake," thirty tons, by Mr. Gaylord, brother 
of the wife of Leonard Case ; and the ' ' Neptune, ' ' sixty -five tons, by 
Levi Johnson, and several other of less burthen. But now, on the 

' ■ W.\LK-1N-T1IE-W.\TKR 

twenty-fifth of August, in this year. 1818, the inhabitants of the vil- 
lage of Cleveland got their first glimpse of a now era in tlic naviga- 
tion of the Great Lakes. On that day, tlic ]»iclur('s(|uc slranilinat. 
"Walk-in-the-Water," named al'tei' a chief of tlie Wyandot trilie, 
stopped at Cleveland on her way from l^ulTalo to Dftrnit. 'I'lic inci- 
dent was thus recorded in Die Gazette and Kegistir i>f \hr first of 
September; "Tlie elegant sfeaml)oat, ' Walk-in-the-\Vater.' Cai)tain 
Fish, from P.ufl'alo, arrived in this place on Tuesday last on her 
way to Detroit. On lier ai'rival she was greeted witli a salute (if sev- 
eral rounds of artillery from the i>oint. She was visited liy a num- 
ber of gentlemen and ladies fi-om tlie village, who were treated witli 
the greatest attention and politeness liy tlie ofifieers and crew. She 
is caliMilatcil to I'arrv tlii'ee Imndri'd Inns and t<i accdnimiulate alnint 




one hundred passengers in iln' cabin exelusive of steerage and fore- 
castle, for the aceomniodation of families. After remaining ofif the 
mouth of the river for a sliort time sh3 proceeded on her way to 
Detroit. Tiie 'Walk in the Water' will run, propelled by steam alone, 
from eight to ten miles an iiour. She is schooner rigged and in 
a gale will possibly work as well as any vessel on the lake." The run 
from Cleveland to Detroit was made in forty-four hours and ten 
minutes. This first steamboat on Lake Erie was wrecked at the mouth 
of Buffalo Creek in 1S21. The second steamboat on the lake was the 


A Present D.\y Mammoth of the Lake 

By way of contrast to the " Walkin-the- Water, " a picture of one of her suc- 
cessors on the Cleveland and Buffalo line is herewith given. 

"Superior," which was launched at Buffalo in April of the follow- 
ing year. 

Cleveland Herald Founded 

In 1819, came a second and more successful venture in the pub- 
lication of a Cleveland newspaper. In his Autobiography of a Pio- 
neer Printer, Mr. Eber D. Howe says: "I commenced looking about 
for material aid to bring about my plan for putting in operation the 
'Cleaveland Herald.' With this view, I went to Erie, and conferred 
with my old friend Willes, who had the year before started the 'Erie 
Gazette.' After due consultation and deliberation, he agreed to re- 
move his press and type to Cleveland after the expiration of the first 
year in that place. So, on the 19th of October, 1819, without a sin- 


gle subscriber, the first number of the 'Cleaveland Herald' was issued. 
Some of the difficulties and perplexities now to be encountered may 
here be mentioned, as matters of curiosity to the present generation. 

\ ' -^.A4 .*-afWK «y.rf^i-if >-?-.* >*^ '*n-^ y 

r\.V^\Mi.ljt\"U, OUIO-H KBllAX, 

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Cle.vveland Herald, October 19, 1819 

First rp]iroiluetion from the original copy, by the courtesy of 

Tlie Western Reserve Historical Society. 

Our mails wei'c then ;ill ciiiM'ird on li(irsc-l>ack. We had one mail a 
week from IJulTalo, Pittsburfj, Columbus, and Sandusky. The paper, 
on which we printed, was transported in wagons from Pittsburg, and 
at some seasons the roatls were in such condition that it was impossi- 




ble to procure it in time for publication days. Advance payments 
for newspapers at that time were never thought of. In a few weeks 
our subscription list amounted to about 300, at which point it stood 
for alx)ut two years, with no very great variation. These were scat- 
tered all over tiie Western Reserve, except in the County of Trumbull. 
In order to extend our circulation to its greatest capacity, we were 

Joel Scranton 

obliged to resort to measures and expedients which would appear 
rather ludicrous at the present day. For instance, each and every 
week, after the paper had been struck off, I mounted a horse with a 
valise, filled with copies of the 'Herald,' and distributed them at 
the doors of all subscribers between Cleveland and Painesville, a 
distance of thirty miles, leaving a package at the latter place ; and 
on returning diverged two miles to what is knowni as Kirtland Flats, 
where another package was left for distribution, which occupied fully 



two days. I frequently carried a tin horn to notify tlie yeomanry 
of the arrival of the latest news, which was generally forty days 
from Europe and ten days from New York. This service was per- 
formed through the fall, winter, and spring, and tlirough rain, snow> 
aud mud, with only one additional charge of fifty cents on the sub- 
scription price; and as the number of papers thus carried averaged 
about sixty the profits ma.v be readily calculated." The Herald was, 
at first, "printed and published weekly by Z. Willcs & Company, di- 
rectly opposite the Commercial Coffee House, Superior Street." In 
tlie following year, it was issued from "a building opposite Mowr3''s 

Old Weddeli. House 

Tavern and a few rods from the Court House." In 1823, it moved 
to a new building on Superior Street, "a few steps east of Spangler's 
Coffee House." In 1821, Mr. Howe sold his interest in the Herald 
and moved to Painesville where he became editor of the Telegraph. 
For several years the Herald had no local competitor. 

In this year (1819), came John Blair and the "picturesque" 
Joel Scranton. Blair came from Maryland with three dollars in his 
pocket; a lucky speculation soon increa.sed his capital and he opened a 
produce and commission store on the river. Scranton was born in 
Bctchcrtown, ^Massachusetts, in 1793. He brought with him to Cleve- 
land a schooner load of leather, the basis of his trading and his for- 
timo. He became one of the pi'ominent merchants of the village and 
bought the "Scranton Flats" on the west side of the river where 

1819-20] BUY LAND 125 

Sorauton Road still pcrpcluatus his name, lie liad a rieh and plen- 
tiful fund of humor, but his opinions were convictions. "He was 
cool, even calculating and shrewd, yet his heart was kindly and his 
deeds generous. He was a keen reader of men, and possessed great 
mercantile abilities. lie judged of the future of the village and 
judged wisely. He knew how, when and where to buy, when to sell 
and when to hold. With the growing place he became a substantial 
man, and as the j-ears went on became a wealthy man." In 1828, 
he married ^liss Irene P. Ilickox. "P"'ive children were born to them 
all but one of whom, together with their mother, preceded him to the 
tomb. Mrs. 'Slavy S. Bradford, of Cleveland, is the only surviving 
child of Joel Scranton. To her his wealth descended, and through 
her it has cheered hundreds of hearts, alleviated sui?ering, lightened 
burdens, and aided many worthy institutions." 

In 1820, came Peter JI. Weddell and Michael Spangler. "Weddell 
"soon made himself one of the leading commercial factors of the 
village" and, a quarter of a century later, built the long-time famous 
"Weddell House" at the northwest corner of Superior and Bank 
(West Sixth) streets, where the Rockefeller Building now stands; 
Spangler 's "Commercial House" was, for some j-ears, one of the 
landmarks of the village. In this year, a line of stages to Columbus 
was put in operation, and another line to Norwalk. "In 1821, these 
efforts were followed by others, and two additional wagons were 
started, one for Pittsburgh, and another for Buffalo." 



111 an interesting paragraph. ]\Ir. Orth says that the Congrega- 
tionalists and the Presbyterians, acting under a certain "plan of 
union, cooperated to establish churches and missions thi-oughout 
the Western Reserve. The oldest Congregational church in the limits 
of the city is the Archwood church in the Brooklyn District, organ- 
ized in 1819 as a Presbyterian church, while the oldest Presbyterian 
church in the vicinity is that at the village of Euclid, organized by 
the Connecticut Congregational Jlissionarj' society, in 1807. I'nder 
this plan of union, churches organized in this district by Congrega- 
tional missionary societies were united in a presbytery and were, 
therefore, counted as Presbyterians. Thus the Euclid Presbyterian 
church was a member of the Hartford Presbytery, and the Doan's 
Corners church, which for years occupied the corner of One 
Hundred and Fifth Street and Euclid Avenue, now the Euclid Ave- 
nue Congi'egational Church, was Presbyterian until 1862. The pres- 
ent First Congregational church on Franklin Avenue and the Ply- 
mouth church were organized as Pi-esbyterian churches, while the 
Old Stone church, organized in 1820, for so many years the mother 
of Presbyterian churches, was composed chiefly of Congregational- 
ists, and organized by Congregational ministers. These facts explain 
the liberal character of Cleveland Presbyterians as deriving their 
forms of faith, as well as their leading laymen and clergymen from 
the Congregational centers of New England. At all events, the 
early hi.story of these two great bodies of churches is inextricably 

FiitsT Presbyterian Ciiitrcii 

On the nineteenth of September, 1820, and as the outgrowth of 
a union Sunday school of which Elisha Taylor was su])ci-iutendent, 
fifteen j)ersons, namely, Elisha Taylor and Ann, his wife, T. .1. liaiii- 
liii, P. H. Andrews, Sophia L. Perry, Hcrtiia Jcihiison, Sophia "Wal- 
worth, Mabel How. Henry l'>aird and Ann. Ills wife, Rebecca Carter, 


Euclid (or Coli.amer) I'resbyterian Church 

i)i ..;;,'.- ( lUiXERS Congregational Church 



Juliana Long, Isabella Williamson, Harriet How, and ]\Iinerva Mer- 
wiu, gathered in the old log court-house and organized a Presbyterian 
church, the second church society in Cleveland, and chose the Rev. 
Randolph Stone as minister. For a time, the meetings were held in 
the court-house and later in the Academy building on St. Clair 
Street. The society was incorporated as the "First Presbyterian So- 
ciety of Cleveland" in 1827; Samuel Cowles was chosen president; 

Old Stone Cihrcu 

D. II. Beardsley, secretary; and Peter .M. Weddell, treasurer. In 
1828, says Mr. L. F. Mellen of blessed memory, "they worshiped in 
a hall on Superior street, where now stands the American House. 
It was rented for five yeai-s to be used on Sunday, but during the 
Aveek was a dancing hall." Tlie society liaving been incorporated in 
1827, plans were adopted, aiul a building begun in 1882. On the 
twenty-sixth day of February, 1834, the fii-st Presbyterian church 

1820-21] CHURCH SUPPLY 129 

ill Cleveland was dedicated ; it stood at the northwest corner of the 
Public Square and Ontario Street, the site of its second successor, 
the present "Old Stone Church" as it is commonly called. At that 
time, the number of connnunieants was ninety-four. Hitherto, there 
had been no settled minister and the supplies had been transient 
rather than stated. The ministers who supplied were as follows: 
The Rev. Randolph Stone, 1820-1821; the Rev. William McLean, 
1822; the Rev. S. J. Bradstreet, 1823-1830; the Rev. John Sessions, 
1831 (a part) ; the Rev. Samuel Hutchings, 1832-1833; and the Rev. 
John Keep, 1833-1835. The first settled pastor was the Rev. Samuel 
C. Aiken, who was called from Utica, New York, and came in 1835. 

A PiONTSER Bridge Subscription 

That there wa.s a bridge across the Cuyahoga River built or con- 
templated as earl.y as 1821, is witnessed by a document recently 
received by The Western Reserve Historical Society. The document 
is "No. 5" of what probably was a series of such subscriptions. It 
reads as follows : 

We the Subscribers promise to pay Samuel Williamson, Nathan 
Perry, David Long, and Thos 0. Young or order each one severally 
for hisself and tlioirselvos, the suni by us severally subscribed and 
which is annexed fo our respective name for the purpose of erecting 
a free Bridge across the Cuyahoga River ; at the line between the lands 
of Leonard Case & Noble it. Mei'win. All Cash Subscriptions shall be 
payable on demand after Said Bridge is finished all work & material 
Subscription. The work shall be doiK! at any time upon demand after 
said Bridge is commenced. And all materials shall be furnished after 
a contract is made for building the Said Bridge on demand & reason- 
able notice allowing sufficient time to procure the Same. And when 
the material is not named in the Subscription, the person subscribing 
shall furnish siich materials as he shall be requested to procure. If 
any Grain be snbsci-ibed it shall lie delivered at N. H. Merwins Ware 
House in Cleaveland; or in Brooklyn, at the Ware House of A. Car- 
ters unless otherwise agreed upon by the holders of the Su])scription. 
All materials to be delivered on the ground where the Said Bridge is 
to be erected at the usual Cash jirice where no price is affixed. 

Cleav Land, Nov. 16th 1821. 

This bears the names of thirteen subscribers, none of whom promise 
the payment of money; four promise three days' work each; two 
promise five bushels of wheat each; one promises four bushels; five 
promise three bushels each ; and one signs his name without specifying 
the payment to be made. This document is accompanied by a letter 
from the late Henry C. White, long the probate judge of Cuyahoga 


County, who says that his father, Wileman White, "was the builder of 
the bridge aud doubtless took this conti-act of subscription in part 
payment." Wileman White came from Berkshire County, Massa- 
chusetts, to Cleveland in 1815, entered upon business as contractor 
and builder, and died in 1841. I find no further evidence that the 
bridge was actually built. 

By this time, Cleveland had found itself and was certain of its 
further development. The increase in popidation soon became 
marked — the swift influx at hand sounds its warning that the per- 
sonal era of this municipal history must soon be brought to a close. 
But before the coming of that close, I crowd in a few more charac- 
ter who appeared upon the village stage — men who played their 
several parts so well that the story would be sadly marred by the 
omission of their names. 

John W. Willey 

In 1822, John W. Willey, a native of New Hampshire and then 
twenty-five years of age, began the practice of law in Cleveland. "He 
was thoroughly fitted to make his way in a new and growing country. 
Well learned in the law, of a keen and penetrating mind, a logician 
by nature, and endowed with great eloquence and wit, he soon became 
a marked figure at the Ohio bar." He became the first mayor of 
Cleveland in 1836 and was re-elected in 1837. In speaking of the 
first city charter. Judge Seneca 0. Griswold says: "It shows, on 
the part of its author, a clear understanding of municipal rights and 
duties. The language is clear and precise, and throughout its whole 
length it bears the impress of an ediicated, experienced legal mind. 
It was, undoubtedly, the work of the first mayor." Mr. Willey 
served half a dozen terms in the general assembly of the state, was a 
judge of the common pleas court of the county, and, at the time of 
his death in 1841, M'as president judge of tlie fourteenth judicial 

The Cleveland Academy 

The little sehoolhouse on St. Clair Street that, in 1817, became 
the property of the village of Cleveland had become inadequate to 
the demands of the citizens of the coming metropolis of Ohio, in con- 
sequence of which a new building, about forty-five by twenty-five feet 
in size, was begun in 1821, on the nortli side of St. Clair Street and 
about half way between Seneca (West Third) and Bank (West Sixth) 




streets. It was named the "Cleveland Academy" and, when it was 
finished in 1822, the Ckavchnid Herald called the attention of its read- 
ers to "the convenient academy of brick, with its handsome spire, and 
its spacious room in the second story for public purposes." Late in 
June, 1S22, the two rooms; on the first floor having been completed, 
the academy was opened with the Rev. AVilliam McLean as head- 
master. For readiiifr. writiiifx and spelling, the tuition was .$1.75 per 
term : geography and grammar might be added for another dollar, 
while the full curricuhun. including the higher mathematics, Latin, 

TuE Academy Building 

and Greek, was offered for $4.00 per term. Before long, as we shall 
soon seCj "the spacious room in the second story" was needed and 
used for a senior department of the school. 

In 1823, Richard Hilliard, a former New York school-teacher, 
engaged in the mercantile business where the old Atwater building 
used to stand, and soon built up a large dry-goods and grocery trade. 
He later built a brick block on Water Street (West Ninth) at the 
corner of Frankfort, "moved into it, and extended his operations still 
further. In company with Courtland Palmer, of New York, and 
Edwin Clark, of Cleveland, he purchased a large tract of land on 


the flats, and aided in opening that part of tlie city to manufacturing 
purposes. In his labor in connection with the creation of Cleveland's 
system of waterworks, as president of the incoi'poi'ated village, and 
as one of the promoters of the city's railroad system, he gave a serv- 
ice of great value." He died in December, 1856. 

RuFus P. Spalding 

In ilareh, 1823, Judge Rufus P. Spalding made his first visit to 
Cleveland. In the Annals of the Early Settlers' Association, he has 
given us a valuable picture of the village as it then was. He says : 

I came from Warren, in Ti-umbull County, where I then lived, in the 
company of Hon. George Tod, who was then president judge of the 

Rufus P. Spalding 

third judicial circuit, wliich embraced, if 1 mistake not, the wliolo 
Western Reserve. We made the journey on horseback, and were nearly 
two days in accomplishing it. I recollect the Judge, instead of an 
overcoat, wore an Lidian blanket drawn over his head by means of a 
hole cut in the center. Wo came to attend court, and ])ut up at the 
house of Mr. IMcrwin, where we met (|uite a number of lawyers from 
adjacent counties. At lliis time tlie village of Warren, where I lived, 
was considered as altogcUier ahead of Cleveland in im]K)rtance ; in- 
deed, there was very little of Clevelaiul, at that day, east and south- 
east of the Public Square. The population was estimated at four 
hundred souls. The earliest burying-ground was at the present inter 
.section of Prospect and Ontario streets. Some years afterwards 
in riding away from Clevelaiul, in the stage-eoach, I passed the Erie 
street cemeterj% just then laid out. T recollect it excited my surprise 

1823] A NOTABLE TWO 133 

that a site for a l)uryiiiy;-^-i'(nin(l .sIkhiIiI he scloi'tod so iar out of town. 
Tlie eoui-t tliat 1 attcmlcd on my lirst visit was held in the old eourl- 
house, that stood on the northwest quarter of the i'ublie Square. The 
presiding judge was the lion. George Tod, a well-read lawyer and a 
courteous gentleman, the father of our late patriotic governor, David 
Tod. The associate judges of the Common Pleas Court Avere Hon. 
Thomas Card and Hon. Samuel Williamson. Horace Perry was clerk, 
and Jas. S. Clarke, shcrilf. The lawyei's atteniling court were Alfred 
Kellej-, then acting prosecuting attorue.\- for the county ; Leonard Case, 
Samuel Cowles, Keubcn Wood and fjohii W. Willey, of Cleveland; 
Samuel W\ Phelps and Samuel Wheeler, of Geauga; Jonatlian Sloane, 
of Portage, Eli.slia Whittlesey, Thomas D. Webb, and R. P. Spalding, 
of Trumbull County. John Blair wa.s foreman of the grand jury. 

-Ml". Spalding was born in ]\Iassachusetts in 1798 and was gradu- 
ated from Yale in 1817. He lived at Wari'en from 1821 to about 
1837, when he moved to Ravenna from wliich place he was sent to 
the st<xte legislature. Later, he moved to Akron and was elected a 
judge of the supreme court, in which high office he served four years. 
He moved to Cleveland about 1852; his name first appears in the city 
directory in 1853. He took an honorable part in the professional, 
civic, and political activities of Cleveland and died in August, 1866. 

Now enters Harvej* Rice,* the father of the public schools of Ohio. 
When he came to Cleveland, Mr. Rice was twenty-four years of age 
and a graduate of Williams College in Massachusetts. After a three 
days' rough pa.ssage by schooner from Buffalo, he was off the mouth 
of the Cuyahoga on the tweutj'-fourtli of September, 1824. In 
the Antials of the Early Settlers, of which association he was the first 
president, Mr. Rice has told us that "a sand-bar prevented the 
schooner from entering the river. The jolly boat was let down, and 
two jolly fellows, myself and a young man from Baltimore, were 
transferred to the boat with our baggage, and rowed by a brawny 
sailor over the sand-bar into the placid waters of the river, and landed 
on the end of a row of planks that stood on stilts and bridged the 
marshy brink of the river, to the foot of Union lane. Here we were 
left .standing w^ith our trunks on the wharf-end of a plank at mid- 
night, strangers in a strange land. We hardly knew what to do, but 
soon concluded that we must make our way in the world, however 
dark the prospect. Thei'e was no time to be lost, so we commenced 
our career in Ohio as porters, by shouldering our trunks and grop- 
ing our way up Union lane to Superior street, where we espied a 
light at some distance up the street, to which we directed our foot- 

* All stand and give the Chautauqua salute. 



steps. ... In the morning:, I took a stroll to see the town, and 
in less than half an hour saw all there was of it. The town, even 
at that time, was proud of itself, and called itself the 'gem of the 
West.' In fact, the Public Square, so called, was begemmed with 
stumps, while near its center glowed its crowning jewel, a log court- 
house. The eastern liorder of the Scjuare was skirted by the native 
forest, which abounded in rabbits and squirrels, and afforded the 
villagers a 'happy hunting ground.' The entire population did not, 

Harvey Rice Monument 

at that time, exceed four hundred souls. Tlie dwellings were gen- 
erally small, but were interspersed here and there with a few pre- 
tentious mansions. ... 1 came armed with no other weapons than 
a letter of introduction to a leading citizen of the town, and a 
college diploma printed in Latin, which affi.xed to my name the vain- 
glorious title of A. B. With these instrumentalities I succeeded, on 
the secoiul day after my arrival, in sei-nring the position of classical 
teacher and principal of tli(> Clcvohind Academy." 

In 1825, ground was broken at Ijicking Summit for the Ohio 
Canal, the details of which will be given more fully in Chapter XI, 




and the national government made its tirst appropriation for the 
improvement of the Cleveland harbor. At that time the bar at the 
mouth of tJie river still impeded navigation and, in ]\Iarch, congress 
appropriated $5,000, all of which was spent in building a pier into 
the lake from tiie east shore of the river. As the channel still 
remained precarious or impassable, eongi-ess made a larger appro- 
priation and the government sent a member of the United States 

Sherlock J. Andrews 

_ engineer corps iinder whose direction a second pier was built parallel 
to the first and still further east. Then the channel was changed 
and the river made to flow between the pai'allel piere. The work 
proved successful and resulted in giving Cleveland a good har- 
bor. By 1828, there were at least ten feet of water in the channel. 
The canal and the harbor improvements gave the village a new impe- 
tus and, from that time, there was a marked growth ; the population 
increased ten-fold in a decade. 


From the list of arrivals in 1825, I take the name of Melancthon 
Barnett, who began life in the village as a clerk in the store of 
Thomas P. May ; subsequently the firm name became IMay and Barnett. 
Mr. Barnett served as a member of the Cleveland city council and 
was a vice president of the City Bank of Cleveland, which was incor- 
porated in 1845 as an independent bank and, in 1865, developed into 
the National Citj' Bank of Cleveland. But the chief claim of Melanc- 
thon Barnett upon the reverent remembrance of Cleveland and 
Clevelanders lies in the fact that he was the father of Gen. James 
Barnett. Another notable recruit of 1825 was Sherlock J. Andrews. 
He was a gi-aduate of Union College and, like IMr. Allen, Connecticut 
born and a lawyer. He was elected to congress in 1840, and was 
judge of the superior court of Cleveland in 1848. He was a member 
of the state constitutional conventions of 1850 and 1873. "A bril- 
liant advocate, a model judge, a cultured, high-minded gentleman." 
He died in 1880. In 1825, also came John W. Allen. He studied 
law with Judge Samuel Cowles and was five times elected village 
president, the last of that tribe. He served in the state senate and in 
congress, and, in 1841, was maj'or of the city. He was one of the 
moving .spirits in the building of our railways and, from 1870 
to 1875, was postmaster; in short, he was "conspicuously useful." 
He died in 1887. 

The Second Courthouse 

Bj^ 1826, it was generally agreed that the old court-house and jail 
in the northwest section of the Public Square had been outgrown, but 
when the matter of building a new one was brought i^p for discus- 
sion the dormant ambition of Newburg Avas aroused and her old 
claim was again put forward. In tlie opinion of the inhabitants of 
that town, "tlie decisive time had come when the question ought to 
be settled for all time and before any more money was expended in 
Cleveland. The battle was fought out to the end, and was the last 
one of whicli we sliall hear, in the liistory of these two pUicos that 
have now become one. There wore llirce county commissioners by 
whom the qui'stion must be decided. One of them was removed by 
dcatl), and it was found that the otlier two were equally divided, one 
favoring Ne\vl)urg, and the other Cleveland. An election was held in 
1826 to fill the vacancy. It was one of the hottest and most exciting 
that had as yet been seen in that section, all other issues being swal- 
lowed up in this great question. Dr. David Long, the Cleveland 
nominee, was elected by a sinjill majority, and Cleveland's last str>iggle 




with Newburg was won." It was tU-uidcd to locate the new eourt-house 
on the southwest section of the Public Square. Plans were adopted and 
work was begun that year. Tlie building was finished in 1828 and 
court was held tlierein on the twenty-eighth of October of that year. 
As described by ]Mr. Kennedy, "it was two stories high, of brick, sur- 
mounted by a wooden dome, faced the lake, and was entered by a 
half dozen steps, front and rear. The lower story was divided into 
offices for use of the county officials, while the upper lloor was used 
for court pui-jioses. Two or three years later a substantial stone jail 
was erected in the rear of the court-house and across the .street — a 
structure that, from its sombre appearance, was usually called 'the 

1828— The Second Couki house— 1858 

blue jug.' " A description of rare architectural merit will be given 
in the account of the contents of the directory of Cleveland and 
Ohio City (1837) a few pages further on. In this building the public, 
judicial and administrative business of the county was carried on for 
nearly thirty years. In this year, Philo Seovill completed the Franklin 
House and opened its doors for the accommodation of his probable 
patrons, and a new cemetery was dedicated. This burying ground was 
then called the City Cemetery and contained two acres. Its area 
was subsequently enlarged to ten acres and its name changed to the 
Erie Street Cemetery. For many years it was Cleveland's chief place 
of burial. 


David H. Beardslej- came to Cleveland iu 1826, from Connecticut 
via Lower Sandusky (now Fremont), Ohio, where he served as a judge 
and was elected to the state legislature. In 1827, he was appointed 
collector for the Ohio canal at its northern terminus, a position that 
he held for a score of years. ' ' Not an error, either large or small was 
ever detected in his accounts." In the same year came Nicholas 
Doekstader, bom at Albany iu 1802. He soon went into business and 
was the leading hat, cap, and fur dealer in the city until his retire- 
ment from active business in 1858. He rendered valuable service 
iu the city council after the incorporation of Cleveland in 1836 and 
was elected mayor iu 1840. He died in 1871. Of him, it is of record, 
"he was a business man who gave his time freely to the public when 
he could be of service, but who by no means made office-holding the 
purpose of his life." 

In 1827, congress made its second appropriation ($10,000) for the 
imi^rovemcnt of the Cleveland harbor ; in 1828, the new court-house on 
the Public Square was completed ; in 1829, the first fire engine was 
bought as already stated; and, in 1830, a light house was built "on the 
bluff at the end of Water Street, its lantern being one hundred and 
thirty-five feet above water level." In 1828, the first mineral "coal 
was brought to Cleveland and hawked about the streets. A few 
bushels wei'c purchased for experiment, but the housewives objected to 
it on account of its blackness, preferring wood, a much cleaner and, 
at that time, more abundant article of fuel." 

George "Worthington 

George Woithiugton was born at Cooperstown, New York, in 
1813. After a few years of service as clerk in a hardware store at 
Utica, he came to Cleveland in 1829 and began business as a hardware 
dealer on his own account. His first store was on the corner of 
Superior Street and Union Lane, but thi'oe yeare later he moved to 
the northeast corner of Water (West Ninth) and Superior sti'eets. 
A few years after that, James Baniett was admitted to partiuM'ship ; 
the enlarged finn entered the wholesale trade and soon had a l)usiness 
of a million dollars a year. The firm of George Worthington and 
Company is still one of the strong business institutions of the cit.y. 
Mr. Barnctt became the second president of the company, a major- 
general in the civil war, president of the First National Bank and 
of the Associated Charities, and wa,s officially connected with many 
similar philanthropic organizations. He was often called "Cleveland's 
Grand Old Man." In 1903, in presenting a certificate designating 


liiiii as ail lioiiorary life member of the Children's Fresh Air Camp, 
Dr. Elroy M. Avery, the president of the camp, said: "It is a matter 
of eonfrratnlation that it goes to one who, in all the varied walks of 
a long and honorable life, has played eveiy part well — in war and in 
peace, in business and philanthropy ; to one who has shown his friends 
how to grow old beautifully; to one who, by common consent, is ad- 

George Wortiiington 

mitted to be what I now formally pioclaim you to be. The First 
Citizen of Cleveland." 

Various Improvements and Happenings 

George Hoadley, Seth A. Abbey, Norman C. Baldwin, and Richard 
Winslow came in 1830, and Milo H. Hiekox in 1831. IMr. Hoadley 
had been a tutor at Yale College, a newspaper writer, and had served 
as mayor of New Haven, Connecticut. From 1832 to 1846, he was a 
justice of the peace. One of our city historians calls him "one of the 
marked men of his day" and another says that, as a justice of the 
peace, "he remains our model. He decided over twenty thousand cases, 
few were appealed, and none were reversed." lie was mayor of Cleve- 
land from 1846 to 1848. In 1849, the family moved to Cincinnati, where 
his son, born at New Haven in 1825 and graduated at "Western Reserve 
College in 1844, Iw'gan the practice of law. This son was elected gov- 
ernor of Ohio in 1883. ^\r. Abbey became city marshal and judge of 
the police court: Mr. Baldwin entered the produce commission busi- 
ness in partnership with Noble H. ilerwin. In later years, Mr. 
Baldwin was engaged in banking and real estate business. He became 

I^'(ei r^rT^u'|g- siijiiri 

en r>i-!i--sfl:!» 

'*\mx. "~-^'^ 


■jy.s,t,=KJaiifc . 


the owner of a large tract of land extending from East Ninety-third 
Street to the eastern limits of Luna Park and fi'om Quiney Avenue to 
Woodland Avenue. Mr. Winslow brought considerable capital and 
engaged in the wholesale grocery business. Mr. Ilickox had hard luck 
at the beginning as appears from a confidential letter that he wrote 
to a friend and later had the pluck to print in the Annals of the Early 
Settlere' Association. In this letter he said: 

Cleveland is about two-thirds as large as Rochester, east side of 
the river, and is the pleasantost sight that you ever saw. The streets 
are broad and cross each other at riglit angles. The court-house is 
better than the one in Kochcster; the rest of the buildings altogether 
are not worth more than four of the best in that place, and one room 
of a middling size rents for one dollar per month. Everything that 
we want to live upon connuands cash and a high price. Mechanics' 
wages are low. Journeymen get from •'JilO to $20 per month and 
board; I get nine shillings and six pence per day, and board myself. 
I have the best of work. Now for the morals. There are between 
fifteen and twenty grogshops, and they all live. There was one opened 
here last week by a man from Rochester. There is a temperance so- 
ciety, with ten or a dozen male members. The Presbyterian church 
has four male members, Baptist six, Methodist about the same, the 
Episcopal is small ; they have a house, the others have not. The 
court-house is used at this time for a theatrical company, and is well 
filled with people of all cla.sses. My health has not been good since 
we have been here. About four weeks since, we awoke in the morning 
and found ourselves all shaking with the ague. I had but one fit my- 
self. My wife had it about a week, every day, and my son three weeks, 
every day, and what made it worse, my wife and son both shook at 
the same time. I spent one day in search of a girl ; gave up the chase 
and engaged a passage for my wife to Buffalo, to be forwarded to 
Rochester. She was to leave the next morning. I w^as telling my 
troubles to an acquaintance, who told me that he would find a girl for 
me, or let me have his rather than have my family leave, so we eon- 
eluded to stay. 

The Cleveland Advertiser Appears 

In the early part of this year (January 6, 1831), the first number 
of the Cleveland. Advertiser, a weekly paper, was issued by Henry 
Bolles and Madison Kelley. Although the proprietors acknowledged 
no political affiliation, their paper was anti-Jaeksonian and anti- 
Masonic. The Advertiser became a daily paper in 1836. 

Henry B. Payne came to Cleveland in 1832 and, as already stated, 
married the daughter of Nathan Perry, Jr. He ably managed the 
landed estate that his wife inherited, took an active part in public 
affairs, serving as a member of the city council and the state senate, 
as a representative in congress and as a United States senator. He 



was a member of the first board of waterworks commissioners, one 
of the sinking fund commissioners, and one of the congressional 
commission that settled the dangerous Hayes-Tilden presidential 
controversy. He was actively identified with the railway interests 
of the community and did much toward the upbuilding of the city. 
He died in 1896. In any history of Cleveland the name of Henry 
B. Payne must be written large. 



Henkv B. Pavne 

When th(» Commercial Bank of Lake Erie was reorganized in 1832, 
as already recorded, the directors called from Butlalo a briglit young 
man to act as cashier. In response to the call, Truman P. Handy, then 
twenty-five years old, came with his young bride and entered upon his 
long and successful career as one of the great bankers of Cleveland.* 
He was a member of the board of education, a trustee of Adelbcrt 
(Western Reserve University) and Oliprlin colleges, and of the Lane 

See portrait on page 110. 

1832] THE CHOLERA 143 

Theological Seminary. For more than fourscore years, he was an 
elder of the Second Presbyterian church and actively interested iu 
its Sunday school work. He died in 1898. Another arrival of this 
year was Timothy P. Spencer, one of the founders of the Cleveland 
Advertiser and, in later years, the Cleveland postmaster. The year 
also saw the organization of a church in Newburg, "Congregational 
in form although attached to the Cleveland Presbytery. It came into 
existence at the residence of Noah Graves, under the direction of the 
Rev. David Peet, of Euclid, assisted by the Rev. Harvey Lyon. A 
temporary place of worship was fitted up in a carpenter's shop, and 
services were held occasionally under the leadership of the Rev. 
Simeon Woodruft", of Strongaville. This organization became known in 
later days as the South Presbyterian Church." 

But there was another arrival in 1832 — far less welcome but, 
fortunately, a transient. The preparations made at Cleveland on 
account of the expected Indian cholera, have already been men- 
tioned. At that time, medical science "had not robbed this east- 
ern plague of its terrors, so, when the alarm was sent through the 
west that death in its worst fonn of wholesale slaughter was approach- 
ing, the people of Cleveland, like their neighbors, were panic-stricken, 
and ready to resort to any measures for protection. Toward the 
end of May, an emigrant ship landed at Quebec with a load of pas- 
sengers, and the cholera aboard. It spread over that city with great 
virulence; moved up the St. Lawrence River; attacked Montreal, 
where its effects were fatal in most cases. A feeling of panic spread 
rapidly through all the lake region, as it was known that the march 
of the scourge, in that direction, would lie certain and rapid." In a 
commimication to the newly-created board of health (see page 101), 
the village president, John W. Allen, said: "At a public meeting 
of the citizens of this village yesterday to adopt measures in relation 
to the anticipated arrival of the Indian cholera within our limits, it 
was determined that a committee of five persons be appointed, whose 
duty should be to inspect any vessels arriving here from Lake Ontario, 
or any port on the lake where the cholera does or may exist; to 
examii>e all cases that may be suspicious in their character, either on 
the river or in the village; to examine into the existence of, and 
cause to be removed, all nuisances that may have a tendency to 
generate or propagate the disease. . . . And, also, that they erect 
or procure a suitable building for the reception of strangers, 
or others, who may be attacked, or who have not the proper accommo- 
dation of their own." The village trustees also passed an ordinance 
providing for the inspection of vessels and the placing of them in 


ciuarantine. The apprehension and dread of the viUagers consti- 
tuted a veritable ''scare," the story of which Mr. John W. Allen 
has put on record for us. The Black Hawk war was then raging 
in Illinois and Wisconsin and "the Indians were all on the war path. 
The garrison at what is now Chicago had been massacred, and every 
white man, woman, and child they could hunt out, murdered. With 
a horrible pestilence threatened in the east and at home, too, and 
a war of extermination in progress in the west, it may well be in- 
ferred the popular mind was in a high state of excitement. About 
June, General Scott was ordered to gather all the troops he could 
find in the eastern forts at Buffalo, and start them off in a steam- 
boat in all haste for Chicago. . . . Incipient indications of 
cholera soon appeared, and some died, and by the time the boat 
arrived at Fort Gratiot, at the foot of Lake Huron, it became appar- 
ent that the effort to reach Chicago by water would prove abortive. 
Genei-al Scott, therefore, landed his men, and prepared to make the 
march through the wilderness, three hundred miles or more to Chi- 
cago" and sent the boat, with a number of sick soldiers, back to 
Buffalo. Befoi-e the boat, the "Henry Clay," arrived at Cleveland, 
half a dozen men had died and their bodies had been thrown overboard, 
and others were sick. "Early in the morning of the tenth of June," 
continued Mr. Allen, "we found the 'Clay' lying fast to the west 
bank of the river, with a flag of distress flying, and we knew the hour 
of trial had come upon us, thus unheralded. The trustees met imme- 
diately, and it was determined at once that everything should be done 
to aid the suffei-ers, and protect our citizens so far as in us lay. I 
was deputed to visit Captain Norton and find what he most needed, 
and how it could be done. A short conversation was held with him 
across the river, and plans suggested for relieving them. The result 
was that the men were removed to comfortable barracks on the 
West Side and needed appliances and physicians were furnished. 
Captain Norton came ashore and went into retirement, with a friend, 
for a day or two, and the 'Clay' was thoroughly fumigated, and in 
three or four days, she left for BufTalo. Some of the men having 
died here, the.y were buried on a bluff point on the West Side. But, 
in the interim, the disease showed itself among our citizens in 
various localities, among those who had not been exposed at all 
from proximity to the boat, or to those of us who had been most 
connected with the work that had been done. The faces of men 
were blanched, and they .spoke with bated breath, and all got away 
from here who could. How many persons were attaeked is unknown 
now, but in tlie course of a fortnight llie disease became less virulent 


ami oiidod witliiu a mouth, about lifty having died. About the 
middle of October following, a cold rain storm occurred, and weeks, 
perhaps months, after the last case had ceased of the previous visi- 
tation, fourteen men were seized with cholera and all died within 
three days. No explanation could be given as to the origin, no 
others being affected, and that was the last appearance of it for 
two years. In 1834, we had another visitation, and some deaths 
occurred, but the people were not so much scared." In the personal 
statement printed in the Annals of the Early Settlers' Association, 
from which statement 1 liave already made quotation. Captain Lewis 
Dibble says : "I was here in the two cholera scares. We had heard a 
great deal of it, and some marvelous tales were told of men walking 
along the streets and falling dead, with others of the same character. 
It was in 1832. I was on the schooner 'America,' and Mr. May 
asked me whether I would lay up or go on to Buffalo, where the 
disease was then raging. I replied that I would probably have to 
face it one place or another, and that it might as well be Buffalo 
as here. We accordingly went down. We saw a great many hearses 
going to and fro, and I must confess that things did not look pleasant. 
When we came back (to Cleveland) we found a guard on the dock, 
as the people wore determined that no ships with cholera on board 
should stop here. . . . When the 'Henry Clay' came in here on 
her way back from carrying troops up to the Black Hawk war, she 
had a number of cases on board. There was great excitement, and 
many declared she should not remain, some wishing to go down 
and burn her. ... On one occasion water was wanted at the 
cholei-a hospital on Whisky Island, and no one could be got to 
take it there. My vessel was at the foot of Superior street. We took 
two casks to a spring near Supei'ior street, filled them, and then 
rowed them down the river to the point of destination. Word came 
in from Doan's Cnrnors that Job Doan, the father of W. H. Doan, 
was down with it and needed help. A man named Thomas Coolihan 
and I agreed to go out and see him. AVe got a huggy and went 
to the Franklin House, where we waited a long time before a 
couple of doctors whom we expected came in. They then mounted 
another buggy and we drove out, the hour being quite late. We 
all four went in. The doctors looked at him, shook their heads, 
and going out returned to the city. He was in great agony. When 
we, the other two, went up to the bed, he took our hands, and by his 
look showed that he was in great pain. Captain Stark and a man 
named Dave Little stood over him, rubbing him all the time. It 
was no use. We remained about an hour and then returned to the 
city. An hour after we left, he died." 

Vol. 1—10 



Charles Whittlesey, now better known as Colonel Whittlesey, 
was born at Southington, Connecticut, in 1808 ; his father settled in 
Tallmadge, Ohio, in 1815. In 1827, the son entered the United 
States Military Academy at West Point. He was g:raduated in 1831 
and became a brevet second lientenant in the Fifth United States 
Infantry and, in November, set out to join his regiment at Maeljinac. 
At the close of the Black Hawk war, he resigned from the army. 
About that time (1832) he opened a law ofBce in Cleveland and soon 
became part owner and co-editor of the Whig and Herald. In 1837, 
he was appointed assistant geologist of Ohio ; associated with him was 
Dr. J. P. Kirtland who was entrusted with the natural history work. 
At the end of two years, the survey was discontinued, but not until 
it had disclosed the rich coal and iron deposits of eastern Ohio; 
thus laying the foundations for the vast manufacturing industries 
that have made that part of the state populous and prospei'ous. 
In a resume of this work. Professor Newberiy has said that the 
benefits derived "conclusively demonstrate that the geological sur- 
vey was a producer and not a consumer, that it added far more than 
it took from the public treasury, and deserved special encourage- 
ment and support as a wealth producing agency in our darkest 
financial hour. ... It did much to arrest useless expenditure 
of money in the scarcli for coal outside of the coal fields. . . . 
It is scarcely less important to let our i)eople know what we liave 
not, than what we have, among our mineral resources." But that 
is an economic truth that often has proved diiifieult to pound into 
the understanding of an Ohio legislature. In 1839 and 1840, he made 
examination of many of the preliistoric works then known to in the state, including the extensive works at Newark and 
Marietta.* For several years, he was engaged in surveys of tlie 

"See Avery's History of the Uiiili-il .S'(<;fc,5 oitd Its People, vol. I, jip. 
44-49, .59-62. 


Colonel Charles Wjuttlesey 

Historian of Early Clevpland nnd one of the founders and first jiresidpnt of The 

Western Reserve Historical Society; reproduced from an oil painting 

by courtesy of The Western Reserve Historical Society. 


copper and iron-ore regions of iliehigan and Wisconsin, but at the 
outbreak of the civil war he turned from such employment and 
soon became colonel of the Twentieth Regiment of Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry. He planned and constructed the defences of Cincinnati 
and was in command of his regiment at the taking of Port Donelson. 
At Shiloh, he commanded a brigade, soon after which, because of 
long-continued ill health, he tendered his resignation and retired from 
the army. General Grant endorsed his resignation thus: "We cannot 
afford to lose so good an otiReer." 

Colonel Whittlesey soon turned his attention again to explora- 
tions in the Lake Superior and Upper Mississippi basins, researches 
that added to the mineral wealth of the country. But the work for 
which he is now best known was at liaud. The Western Reserve 
Historical Society was organized in May, 1867, upon the sugges- 
tion of Judge Chai'les Candee Baldwin who became its secretary, 
but Mr. Baldwin says that all looked to Colonel Whittlesey "to lead 
the movement and none other could iiave approached his efficiency 
or ability as president of the society." In a memorial notice be- 
fore the Civil Engineer's Club, Mr. J. P. Holloway said: 

Colonel Whittlesey will be best and longest remembered in Cleve- 
land and on the Reserve, for his untiring interests and labors in seeking 
to rescue from oblivion the pioneer history of this portion of the state 
and which culminated in the establishment of the present Western 
Reserve Historical Society, of which for many years he was the presid- 
ing officer. It will be remembered by many here, how for years there 
was little else of the Western Reserve Historical Societ}', except its 
active, hardworking president. 

For several years before liis death. Colonel Whittlesey was con- 
fined to his home by rheumatism and other disorders, but if he could 
no longer travel about the city he could write. His Early History 
of Cleveland was pul)lislied in 1867; the list of his books and pam- 
phlets, compiled by Judge Baldwin, enumerates one hundred and 
ninety-one. In his last few years, the relation of religion to science 
engaged much of his thought ; his last published work consists of a 
series of articles on Theism and Atheism in Science. On the morning 
of Sunday, the .seventeenlli of October, 1886, be was seized witli a 
chill; he died early in the moi'ning of llie following day.* 

* III the prpparatioii of thin skofcli, I liave made very full ami free use of a 
Mrmo-ruil of Colonel Cluirlm Whitllrscii. Idle Prrxirlrnt of Ihr Wculern Fcscrve 
HistoricM Soeirty, prepared liv .Tmly;r Balilwiii, and ]iriiitc'd in the Society's 
Tra<4, No. 68. " 

1832] OHIO'S BLACK LAWS 149 

The Fugitive Slave Law 

lu 1793, congress passed a fugitive slave law providiug that, ou 
the owner's giving proof of ownership before a magistrate of the 
locality where the slave was found, the magistrate should order the 
slave delivered up to him without trial by juiy. Hindering arrest 
or harboring a runaway slave was punishable by fine of five hundred 
dollars. The law was ojien to much abuse and was much abused ; many 
free negroes were kidnapped from the northern states. In 1804, the 
Ohio legislature decreed tliat "no black or mulatto person shall be 
permitted to settle or reside in this state unless he or she shall tirst pro- 
cure a fair certifieate from some court within the United States of his 
or her actual freedom and requiring every such person to have such 
certificate recorded in the clerk's office in the county in which he or she 
intended to reside." Anj- person who employed a negro or mulatto 
person not thus registered was subject to a fine. In the same year, the 
legislature made it a legal offense to harbor or secrete any black or 
mulatto person and levied a fine of one thousand dollars upon 
any one who aided the escape of any such person who was "the 
property of another." Three years later (1807), Ohio law required 
every such person to give a bond before settling in the state, such 
bond to be signed by two or more freehold sureties and "conditioned 
for the good behavior of such negro or mulatto and to pay for the 
support of such person in case he or she be found within any town- 
ship unable to support him or herself." For years, while there was 
little north and south traffic through the state, these statutes were 
practically dead letters, mere "scraps of paper;" but when the Erie- 
Ohio "canal was opened and colored people began to pass through 
Cleveland, then the rigor of the law, particularly of the national 
fiigitive slave law, aroused the slumbering animosities of the people." 

Local Anti-Slavery Sentiment 

The fact that there was an anti-slavery society in Cleveland as 
early as 1810, has already been noted. In 1827, was organized the 
short-lived Cuyahoga. County Colonization Society. This was a branch 
of a national organization that sought the removal of negi-oes from 
the United States to Africa, hoping thus to secure the voluntary 
emancipation of slaves by their masters and the gradual abolition 
of the peculiar institution. Its president was Samuel Cowles; its 
vice presidents were the Eev. Randolph Snow, Nehemiah Allen, Datus 
Kelley, Josiah Barber, and Lewis R. Dille. A. W. Walworth was 

la for the 

«c« of in-' 

,{$0 dol- 
iry, 24 J, - 
e for the 
: (be last 
doDan. — - 
; the leii 
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198 doll=. 
able, dur- 

71 ceots. 
Implied to 
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meet Ibe 
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it amount 
The re- 
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Clearelaod, Mar 9. 1820. 


500 Dollars Reward. 


FROM ibe subscribers, in Clarksburg, Vir- 
(inra, on ibe 6th of the present mootb, 
llie following negro men, viz. 


MAKTlN i« a tcry handsome negro, about 
5 feet 6 or 3 inches hiKh, compactly built, of 
a Iig1>t black complexion, bin teelh usually 
yellow from the cbewiogor tobacco, not lal!;* 
ative, «recl in his appearance, and about 20 
years of age. Had on when he absconded, a 
aew ftir hat, black cloth coatee, white vroulen 
pantaloons, Stc. 

SAM is very bhck. 5 feel 9 or 10 inches 
high, about 30 rears of age, sloop.s in walking, 
has large while eyes, {ree and easy to talk, 
aod white l-^lking, blows much, from n phibis- 
ical complaint, lauf^bs readily, look a quantity 
of cloathing with him, and wore a while fur 
hat, blue ami while round-about and panfa- 
loons. Tliey have made their \ray into the 
stale of Ohio, at the moulh of Fishing Creek, 
anri porlMps will be found in Ihp direction of 
Wooclvilje, Barnsrille. i^Iount Ple.nsant, St- 
ClairsvilJe, Freeport, Cadiz and Cleaveland; 
or they will lurn thrviugh Cainbrid;;e, by Co* 
^bocton. Mount Vernon. Upper Sandusky, bv 
{he way of Cn'^en«ville, lo Canada ; or from 
Sandusky to I'err^'svilie and Detroit, into 

The ahore reward of five hundred dollars 
will be paid lo any person, who will appre- 
hend and dfliver sai-^ qlave?> to u§, at Clarks- 
burg, or ibret: hundred dollars wdl be given 
if Ibey are secured in jail, eo that we may 
get thera again — or two hundred dollars will 
be given to any person who will pMticuIarty 
inforra ua, by letleror otherwise, where (hey 
are, so that we gel them again ; which infor- 
mation 6haJI by us he deemed conlidential. 

In (he event of but one of them beiiig re* 
covered, one half of the above reward, upon 
tbe lartDS above mentioned, will be given. 

A pril lOlb, I 8gO. 3o-3w 

Attorney 8c CouiuieUor at Law, 

the imporli 
Ibe AUx^en: 
All kind- 
livcred by- 
Eve ry at 
the subscril 
bic for acci 

and (o mc < 
po^e for sal 
ii.yy of Ma^ , 
o^cIock, A. I 
house of r 

2 Box< 
50 pairs, 
gon, 1 oi 
pairs Pic 
Glass, 2 I 
pounds, ; 



N the to- 
her fori 


wbich arc 
quality can 
orchard, jut | 
ty lo filly b 
i»es there i 
House, twi 
pan finisbei 
in e.icli, an' 
is a franieil 
with a smai 
of lire kite 
cellar, liS Tl 
ihp kilchcn 
irciler. i 

The com 
nip) can he 
John Rnple 
to IVlr. S.iini 


treasurer, and .lames S. Clark was secretary. Mordecai Hartley 
was chosen as delegate to the national society. The Clevelanders of 
that day who liad given any serious thought to the question of Ameri- 
can slavery seem to have been divided in opinion. The "Coloniza- 
tionists" looked to state compensation as a supplement to voluntary 
manumission; between them and the out-and-out "Abolitionists" 
there was often heated controversy. The abolitionists gained in num- 
bers and the Colonization Society soon died out. In 1833, the Cleve- 
land Antislaveiy Society was organized with Dr. David Long as its 
president and his son-in-law, Solomon L. Severance, as its sccjretary, 
as already recorded. J. H. Harding was vice-president and John A. 
Foote was treasurer. In 1835, Josiah Barber of the "Colonization- 
ists" presided at a public meeting at which the "Abolitionists" were 
hotly denounced. But the on-coming tide could not be turned back 
and, on the fourth of July, 1837, the Cuyahoga County Antislavery 
Society was formed at a meeting in the Old Stone Church, presided 
over by John A. Foote. A committee on constitution, consisting 
of J. M. Sterling, J. F. Hawks, and Solomon L. Severance, reported 
that "the object of this society shall be the entire abolition of slavery 
throughout the United States and the elevation of our colored breth- 
ren to their proper rank as men." Edward Wade was elected presi- 
dent ; Samuel Freeman of Pal-ma, Asa Cody of Euclid, J. A. Foote 
of Cleveland, J. L. Tomlinson of Rockport, and Samuel Williamson 
of Willoughby were vice-presidents; L. L. Rice was corresponding 
secretary ; II. F. Brayton was recording secretary ; and Solomon L. 
Severance was treasurer. 

Among the arrivals of 1833 was John A. Foote,- a son of Governor 
Samuel A. Foote of Connecticut, and a graduate of Yale. He en- 
tered into partnership with Sherlock J. Andrews. In addition to 
practising his profession, he took an active part in reformatory, 
educational, and philanthropic work and held many public offices. 
He died in 1891. Another notable accession of that year was Thomas 
Burnham who had been master of a freight boat running on the 
Champlaiu canal from Whitehall to Albany. He and his newly 
married wife came by team from Glens Falls to Saratoga where they 
took the cars for Scheneetadj-. The cars on that line at that time 
were fashioned like stage coaches, ran on strap rails, and were drawn 
by three horses driven tandem. From Schenectady to Buffalo they 
came by boat on the Erie canal and from Buffalo to Cleveland by the 
steamer "Pennsylvania" which stopped at all the way stations and 
took four days and nights to make the trip. Mr. Burnham soon took 
charge of a school on the west side of the river (in what was still 





T— 1 


























Brooklyn township), subsequently entered business, and became 
mayor of Ohio City after its incorporation in 1836. 

First Baptist Church 

The Fii-st Baptist Church of Cleveland was organized in Feb- 
ruary, 1833, with the Rev. Richmond Taggart as pastor; it became 
alTiliatcd with the Rocky River Baptist Association in the following 
September. Dr. II. C. Applcgarth tells us that, in 1833, Cleveland 
had a population of one thousand three hundred of whom only six or 
seven were Baptists, and that deplorable darkness pervaded the set- 
tlement. "The first meetings were held in either that universally 

First Baptist Church 

useful place of gatherings, the old Academy on St. Clair Street, or 
the Court-house, until the erection of their own place of worship on the 
comer of Seneca [West Third] and Champlain streets. This was a 
brick structure, the foundations of which were laid in 1834, the 
dedication occurring on February 25th, 1836. The church cost 
thirteen tliousand dollars, and was, at that time, considered one 
of the largest and most attractive in that section of the west." Dr. 
Applegarth further tells us that by 1834, the population of the 
town had increased to about five thousand, and that the faithful 
few "prepared a subscription paper and set about soliciting 
pledges for a building. The people gave liberally and cheer- 
fully. Many made great sacrifices in order to be able to help. 
Deacon Pelton, then living at Euclid, mortgaged his farm for 


two thousand dollars that he might contribute that amount to 
the project. His neighbors thought him to be demented, so com- 
pletely astounded were they at his action. But in the end the Lord 
blessed him and restored the money many fold. Nor was lie alone 
in his devotion to the work of the Lord. It was said of John Seaman 
that he gave more thought to the finances of the church than to his 
own business. One morning, coming into his store, he said to his 
partner, Mr. William T. Smith : ' Smith, you go to the meeting tonight 
and put me down for a thousand, and you put down a thousand, and 
go to Sylvester Ranney and tell him to put down a thousand.' The 
thousands were put down and paid. Soon a suitable location was 
found, on the corner of Seneca and Champlain streets, and there, 
finally, was finished the meeting house of the First Baptist church." 
The society gained steadily in strength and usefulness, and, in 
1855, purchased of the Plymouth Congregational Chui'ch a brick 
building, on the corner of Euclid Avenue and Erie (East Ninth) 
Street, where services were first held on the eighth of April. This 
building gave way for the Hickox building of today. The church 
now has a beautiful building on the corner of Prospect Avenue and 
East Forty-sixth Street. 

Black Hawk and John Stair 

Among the ' ' transients ' ' of that year were a famous Red man and 
an observant Englishman. Harvey Rice tells us that "at the close 
of the Black Hawk War in 1833, the chieftain. Black Hawk, and 
several of his band were taken, in the custody of a government offi- 
cer, to Washington as captives, to be dealt with as the authorities 
might decide. The captives, instead of being shot as they expected, 
were kindly received, and lionized by being taken about town, showh 
its wonders, and then sent througli several eastern cities, with a 
view to convince them of the invincible power of the white people. 
They were then returned, under escort, to their homes in the 'far 
west.' While on their return, the party stopi)ed over a day at Cleve- 
land, as requested by Black Hawk, in order to give him an oppor- 
tunity to visit the grave of his mother, who, as he said, was buried 
on the. banks of the Cuyahoga." From "Ncwburg, county of 
Cuyahoga, August 16, 1833," John Stair of England, then teach- 
ing a private .school in Newburg, wrote a letter that has been jire- 
.served in the Annals of the Early Settlers' A.ssociation. Some of 
Mr. Stair's impressions recorded in tliis letter were tliat Ckn'ehiiid 
was "an increasing place," and, "for ibc size of it, the protliest 


town I have seen in America." Tlie postage on a letter to England 
was twenty-five cents, but large turkeys could be bought for fifty 
cents each; fowls, a shilling; roasting pigs, twenty-five cents; mutton, 
beef, pork, veal, etc., from two to four cents a pound; butter, nine 
cents; and cheese, six cents. No wonder that he added: "This is 
a poor man's eountry. . . . Many raise all they eat, with few 
exceptions, such as tea, coffee, etc. They raise their own wool and 
flax which are spun and woven by the women for clothing, so that a 
farmer is the most independent person in the country." 

Chiefly because of its mention of a canal, the following supple- 
mentary quotations from a letter said to have been written in 1833, 
are here given : 

Few places in the western country are so 'advantageously situated 
for commerce or boast greater population and business. Here is the 
northern termination of Ihe Ohio Canal, 309 miles in length, by which 
this village will communicate with Columbus and Cinciiniati, with 
Pittsburg, St. Louis and New Orleans. . . . An inspection of 
the map will show that Cleveland has a position of extraoi'dinary 
advantage, and it only requires a moderate capital, and the usual 
enterprise of the American character, to advance its destiny to an 
equality with the most flourishing cities of the west. Two years ago, it 
had one thousand inhabitants; it has now two thousand, and is rap- 
idly increasing. The vicinity is a healthy, fertile country, as yet 
mostly new, but filling up. An artificial harbor, safe and commo- 
dious, constructed by tlie United States, often presents twenty to thirty 
sloops, schooners, and steamboats. 

Fire and Water 

The primitive water supply for fire protection at the beginning 
of the second decade of the century was described in the sixth 
chapter of this volume. By 1833, the villagers recognized the neces- 
sity for something more ample and efficient. In June of that year, 
the legislature incorporated the Cleveland "Water Company for fur- 
nishing water for the village — it seems that the company did not get 
much if anything beyond the charter era of development. But the 
year 1833 saw the beginning of Cleveland's volunteer fire depart- 
ment in the loosely organized company called "Live Oak, No. 1." In 
the following year, the "Live Oak" was reorganized as "Eagle, No. 
1." Captain MeCurdy was chosen foreman and a new engine was 
bought. "The organization of a regular department soon followed, 
and Neptune No. 2, Pha?nix No. 4. Forest City Hook and Ladder 
Company No. 1, and Hope Hose Company No. 1, were the component 
parts thereof; there was a No. 3, but it was composed of boys and had 


no official recognition. In April, 1836, Cataract No. 5 was added. 
The first chief of the department was Samuel Cook, with Sylvester 
Pease as first assistant, and Erastus Smith as second assistant." 
On the seventeenth of May, 1836, the newly constituted city council 
passed an ordinance providing that "the fire department of the 
city of Cleveland, shall consist of a chief engineer, two assistant 
engineers, two fire wardens, in addition to aldermen and council- 
men (who are ex officio firewardens), and such fire engine men, hose 
men, hook and axe men as are, or may be, from time to time, ap- 
pointed by the city council." The ordinance then determined the 
duties of each of these officers and prescribed penalties for injuring 
the property of the department or for obstimcting the firemen at 

Cleveland from Courthouse, 1834 

their woi'k. All members of the fire companies were exempted from 
the i^ayment of poll-tax — an institution now obsolete in this part of 
the country. A few days before this, the council had established the 
fire limits for tlie city as follows: "Following Die center of Cuyahoga 
River from the lake to the center of Huron Ivoad, thence easterly 
along the center of Huron Road to the center of Erie [East Ninth] 
Street, thence northerly in Erie Street to Lake Erie, tlience west- 
erly along the shore of Lake Erie to the Cuyalioga River." This 
virtually embraced the whole town. Tlie several companies were 
housed in buildings rented for the purpose ; No. 1 on what is now 
Superior Avenue just west of West Ninth Street; No. 2, where the 
Blackstonc building now is (No. 1426 West Third Street) ; No. 4 
and the Hook and Ladder Company, on St. Clair Avenue at the corner 


of West Fourth Street, wliero a steam engine company and a liook 
aud ladder company still stand semper parati. The growth of the 
department and the splendid record of those unpaid firemen until 
the reorganization of the department in 1863 will receive further 
attention in a later chapter. 

As will soon be told in fuller detail, a canal from Cleveland to 
the Ohio River had been opened and was doing not a little to ad- 
vertise the village at the mouth of the Cuj'ahoga, the inhabitants 
of which were dreaming of the dignity and getting i-eady for the 
responsibilities of an incorporated city. Young men and old were 
moving from the East into the already-opened but undeveloped sec- 
tions of the West. Earl_y in 1833, Alfred Kelley made an allotment 
of land west of Water Street and south of Bath Street (see map 
on page 160) and, later in the year, James S. Clarke, Edmund 
Clark, and Richard Ililliard allotted all the land in the first bend 
of the river, Cleveland Center it was called, laid out Columbus Street 
from the north line thereof to the river, and offered town lots at 
immoderately high prices. In 1834, Leonard Case laid out a 10-acre 
lot at the southeast corner of the old city plat and widened the New- 
burg Road (Pittsburgh Street) now called Broadway. In the same 
year, John M. Woolse.y allotted the 2-acre lots south of Superior Street 
and west of Erie (East Ninth) Street. In 1835, Lee Canfield, 
Sheldon Pease, and others allotted the 2-acre lots at the northeast 
corner of the old city plat and dedicated Clinton Park to the pub- 
lic. In January, 1836, Thomas Kelley and Ashbel W. Walworth laid 
out the 2-acre lots south of Ohio Street (Central Avenue) and an 
adjoining tract of land that extended to the river. In short, the 
fever of land speculation followed close upon the heels of the cholera. 

Thomas Bolton 

Thomas Bolton was born at Scipio, Cayuga County, New York, 
in 1809, and was graduated at Harvard in 1833. In September, 1834, 
he came to Cleveland where he studied law for a year in the office 
of James L. Conger. He was admitted to the bar in 1835 and went 
into partnership with his mentor. In 1836, he bought the interest 
of Mr. Conger in the firm and sent for his college classmate, Moses 
Kelley and, with him, formed the law firm of Bolton and Kelley. 
In 1851, Seneca 0. Griswold, who had been a student in their office 
and from whom I have already quoted, was admitted to the firm which 
then took the name of Bolton, Kelley and Griswold. Mr. Bolton was 
one of the committee appointed to draft the coming city charter of 



[Chap. X 

1836, was elected to the citj' council, and, in 1839, was elected pros- 
ecuting attorney of the county. In 1841, he declined a renomination 
on account of the inadequacy of the salary of the county prosecutor 
and renewed his connection with the city government as alderman. 
Dissatisfied with the Democratic national platform of 1848, he left 
that party and served as a delegate to the Buffalo convention of 

Thomas Bolton 

the Free Soil party. He was active in the organization of the Repub- 
lican party iVi 1856 and was a delegate to the convention that nom- 
inated Fremont and Dayton. In this year, 1856, he was elected 
judge of the court of common ])leas and retired from the law firm 
of Bolton, Kcliey and (iriswold. At the ciid'or his second term as 
judge in 1866, he retired from the bench and hai-. He died in Feb- 
ruary, 1871. 


First Western Locomotive Works 

As recorded by Mr. Orth in his History of Cleveland, the first 
niamifacturiiitr cdrporation organized in Cleveland under a state 
eharter was the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company (March 3, 1834), 
with an authorized capital of $100,000, a very large sum for those 
years. The incorporators were : Charles Iloyt, Luke Risley, Ricjiard 
Lord and Josiah Barber. The plant was located on tlie corner of 
Detroit and Center streets. It was prosperous from the beginning. 
It was the first furnace in this vicinity to utilize steam power instead 
of horse power for "blowing" the furnaces. It not only did a 
general foundry business, but early manufactured a patent horse- 
power device. In 1841, it made cannon for the government. In 
1842, Ethan Rogers entered its employ and developed the manufac- 
ture of construction machinery to be used in building railroads, 
and later, the manufacture of locomotives. At this plant was built 
the first locomotive west of the Alleghenies. Here were made the 
first locomotives used by the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati, 
and the Cleveland and Painesville railways. The first successful lake 
screw propeller was the "Emigrant," and its machinery was made in 
this establishment. Thus, Cleveland's first manufacturing corpora- 
tion abundantly kept pace with the rapid expansion of machine 

James D. Cleveland, "then a sturdy boy," came in 1835. In 
1896, he pictured for us "The City of Cleveland Sixty Years Ago." 
The judge tells us that : 

As the steamer came up the river, the boy read the signs on the 
warehouses — Richard Winslow, Blair & Smith. Foster & Dennison, 
W. V. Craw. Robert H. Backus, Gillett & Hickox, C. M. Giddings, N. M. 
Standart, :M. B. Scott. Griffith & Standart, Noble H. Mei-win— and 
passed scores of .steamers, schooners and canal boats, exchanging wheat 
and flour from interior Ohio for goods and salt to be carried to the 
canal towns all the way to the Ohio River. Walking up Superior 
lane, a steep. uni)aved road, you passed the stores of Denker & Borges; 
Deacon Whitaker's, full of stoves; George Worthington. hardware; 
at the corner of T'nion lane, where Captain ^IcCurdy had lately re- 
tired from the dry goods basiness; Strickland & Gaylnrd, drugs, etc.; 
Sanford & Lott, printing and book-store : and T. W. Morse, tailor. 
On reaching the top, Superior street, 132 feet wide, spread before 
you — the widest of unpaved streets, with not a foot of flagged side- 
walk except at the corner of Bank [West Sixth] street, in front of a 
bank. It was lined with a few brick, two and three-story buildings. 
A town puinj) stood at the corner of Bank street, near tlie old Com- 
mercial Bank of Lake Erie, on the corner, of which Leonard Case 
was president, and Truman P. Handy cashier. There were three or 

1835] AS IT WAS THEN 161 

four hotels. Pigs ran in tlio street, and many a cow browsed on all 
the approaches to it. Ur. Long had a fine two-story residence on the 
corner of Seneca [West Third] street. Mr. Case, C. M. Giddings, 
Elijah Bingham, AVilliani Ijcinon, .Toliii W. Allen, and a few others, 
had residences dotted around the l'ul)lie Square, upon wliieli the old 
Stone Church occnpicd its present site, and in the southwest corner 
stood the court-house. The post-office occupied a little ten by fifty 
feet store-room in Levi Johnson's building, below Bank street, and 
you received your letters from the hands of Postmaster Daniel Worley, 
and paid him the eigliteen pence, or twenty-five cents postage, to 
which it was subject, according to the distance it had traveled. The 
great majority of the best residences were on Water [West Ninth], 
St. Clair and Lake [Lakeside Avenue] streets. A few good houses 
had been built on Euclid avenue, but thd Virginia I'ail fence still 
lined it on the north side, from where Bond street now is to the 
Jones residence, near Erie street, where Judge Jones and the Senator 
(John P. Jones) lived in their boyhood. There were groves of fine 
black oaks and chestnuts on Erie street between Superior and Pros- 
l)ect streets, and a good many on the northeast part of the Public 
Square, and between St. Clair street and the lake. With its scat- 
tered houses, its numerous groves, its lofty outlook upon the lake, 
its clear atmosphei-e, as yet unpolluted by smoke, Cleveland was as 
beautiful a village as could be found west of New Haven. 

Tol. I— 11 



One of the histories of Cleveland tells us that "the population of 
the city had grown in 1835 to 5,080, having more than doubled in 
two years. There was at this time an immense rush of people to the 

P"'kanklin T. J5At.Ki;.s 

West. Steamers ran from Huft'ald lo Ddroit crowded with passengers 
at a fare of eiglit dollars, the number on board what would now be 
called small boats, sometimes reaching from five hundred to six hun- 





dred pei-sons. The line liired steamers and fined tliem one hundred 
dollars if the I'ound trip was not made in eight days. The slower 
boats, not being alile to mak- tliat time with any eertainty, frequently 
stopped at Clevelaiul, discharged their passengers, and put back to 
Buffalo. It sometimes chaneed that the shore accommodations were 
insufficient for tlie great crowd of emigrants stopping over at this 
port, and the steamers were hired to lie oft' the port all niglit, that the 
passengers might have sleeping accommodations. In that year fire 
destroyed a large part of the business portion of Cleveland." 

William Bingham 

The first dentist to open an office in Cleveland was Benjamin 
Strickland who came in 1835. In 1836, came Franklin T. Backus, 
"William Bingham, William A. Otis, and Moses Kelley. Mr. Backus 
was a lawyer and is remembered as one who won an enviable position 
among the leading lawyers of Ohio; he took an active part in the 
consolidation of Cleveland and Ohio Citv in 1854, and was one of 


the counsel for the defense in the Oberlin-Wellington Rescue case 
in 1859, probably the most famous trial in the history of Cleveland. 

William Bingh-IM 

Mr. Bingham, when twenty years of age, "bade adieu to the 
home and scenes of his youth [in Massachusetts] traveling west- 
ward over the old pioneer railroad from Albaii.y to Schenectady," 
thence by canal packet to Rochester, and then by stage and canal 
to Buffalo, where he became a passenger on the steamboat, "Robert 
Fulton," bound for Cleveland. Soon after his an'ival in this city, 
he secured a position as salesman in the hardware store of George 
"Worthington ; that his ability and enterprise wei*e soon recognized 
is indicated in the fact that after two years he was admitted to part- 
nership. He remained in that connection for another two years, 
after which he disposed of his interest in the firm and, in 1841, 
bought the hardware stock of Clark and Murphy, and organized the 
firm of William Bingham and Company. From the outset the busi- 
ness prospered and its trade constantly expanded with the growth 
and development of the city. Mr. Bingham was prominent in financial 
circles, serving for years as director of the Merchants National Bank 
and of its successor, the Mercantile National Bank, of the Society 
for Savings, etc. He was one of the earliest and most active of the 
promoters of our municipal waterworks system, a member of the 
city council and the state senate, and for many years a member 
of the city sinking fund commission. In short, he neglected no 
opportunity for the promotion of the city's welfare; "in commer- 
cial and political life his record alike remained unsullied." He 
died in 1904. 

William A. Otis 

Mr. Otis was a native of Massachusetts and the direct descendant 
of James Otis of Revolutionary fame.* About 1818, he traveled on 
foot to Pittsburgh where he was employed for two j^ears in an "iron 
establishment" which he made the depositary of his savings. When 

• This Williani Aujjiistiia Otis was lioin at Oummingtou, Massachusetts, in 
1701. ITis father's iianio William, and lie seems to have liked it very well, 
for he gave it to each of his six sons, William Augustus, William Oushiu};, 
William Harrison, William Shaw, William Francis, ami William Lucius. William 
Francis was the father of Waldcmar Otis. 


the t'omi)aiiy failed and liis wealth was tlms wiped out, Mr. Otis 
walked westward to Bloomfield, Triinihull County, Ohio, where ho 
cleared laud, kept a tavern, and established a primitive mercantile 
establishment, furnishing the settlers with groods in exchange for 
ashes, wheat and other produce. The ashes were used in the manu- 
facture of a crude potash "which was the only strict cash article in 
the country." But it was difficult to get wheat, flour, or potash to 

William A. Oti.s 

the eastern market. Mr. Oti.s, therefore, selected an oak tree and 
had it cut, sawed, and split into staves from which barrels were made. 
A few miles from Bloomfield was a custom grist mill. Mr. Otis 
bought wheat for twenty-five cents a bushel, had it ground into flour, 
teamed the barreled flour and tliirty-five miles to Ashtabula 
Creek whence it was carried by schooner to Buffalo and thence by 
canal and river to New York — the first sudi shipment of flour from 


the Western Reserve. He later added pork and wool to his ship- 
ments; his business prospered and he served two years in the state 
legislature. In 1836, he moved to Cleveland where "he was at once 
given rank with the foremost business men." He still dealt in flour, 
pork, and potash, but gradually concentrated his energies upon iron 
manufacture and thus became the pioneer iron-master of Cleveland. 
His increasing shipping interests naturally turned his attention to 
transportation facilities and he became an active advocate of rail- 
way building. He was also active in banking enterprises and served 
as president of the Commercial National Bank. He was a member 
of the State Board of Control, was one of the founders of the Cleve- 
land Society for Savings and acted as its president for thirteen years. 
He was one of the commissioners that negotiated the union of Cleve- 
land and Ohio City. He was one of the originators of the Board of 
Trade from which was evolved the present Cleveland Chamber of 
Commerce. He died in 1868. 

Moses Kelley 

Moses Kelley was born in what is now Livingston County, New 
York, in 1809. He was of Scotch-Irish descent in tlie patei'ual line and 
of German descent in the maternal line. He was graduated at Har- 
vard in the class of 1833 and, in 1836, was admitted to the bar at 
Rochestei'. As already recorded, he was then called to Cleveland by 
his college classmate and became a member of the law^ firm of Bolton 
and Kelley. He devoted himself somewhat closely to the practice of his 
profession, although he was city attorney in 1839, a member of the 
city council in 1841, and served as a member of the state senate in 
1844 and 1845. In 1849, the state legislature selected him as one of 
the commissioners to represent the interests of the city in the Cleve- 
land and Pittsburgh Railroad Company, of which corporation he 
was one of the directors for several years until the city disposed of 
the stock that it held. In 1850, he bought about thirty acres of the 
"Giddings Farm," fronting on Euclid Avenue of Willson Ave- 
nue ( Fifty-fifth Street) and there built the home in which he 
lived for many years. His professional earnings and the great in- 
crease in the market value of real estate made him a comparatively 
rich man. lie died in August, 1870. 

Ti'E Caxal Era 

One of our historians has told us that. |u-iiu- to 1800, the world 
had made little or no iini>niv(>incnt in tlic niciins of travel and trans- 




portation, but that the iiiiR'tocntli century brought changes that 
wrought nothing short of revolution in the cominereial and industrial 
domains and oiiangi'd the face of the civilized world. In the first 
half of that century, there were three marked stages of improvement ; 
the era of turnpike construction, then the era of canal digging, and 
then the era of railways and steam navigation. At an early day 
congress had provided that five per cent of the net proceeds of the 

Moses Kelley 

sale of public lands in Ohio should be devoted to "the laying out and 
making public roads leading from the navigable waters emptying 
into the Atlantic to the Ohio." In 1805, a senate committee reported 
in favor of a road from Cumberland, Maryland, to the mouth of Grave 
Creek, a little below "Wheeling on the Ohio River. In 1810, con- 
gress appropriated $60,000 for the work and, in 1818, mail coaches 
were running over the road from Cumberland to Wheeling. As the 
Cumberland road was the child of congress so it was the especial 


object of its care. The original object was to open a waj^ from the 
Potomac to the Ohio, but the road was extended through Ohio and 
Indiana bj' way of Zanesville, Columbus, and Indianapolis to Van- 
dalia in Illinois. The aggregate of appropriations for this road was 
nearly $7,000,000 and the number of congressional acts was about 
sixty: the last act was passed in 1838, about which time, and chiefly 
because of the advent of the I'ailway, the general government turned 
from turnpikes to the improvement of rivers and harbors — a policy 
that still persists as a perennial spring of scandal. When the Cum- 
berland road was abandoned by the national government, it was given 
over to the several states in which it lies. But the principle of gov- 
ernmental aid for internal improvements had been well established. 
The first canal in America was built around the falls of the Con- 
necticut River at South Hadley, Massachusetts, in 1793. Similar 
enterpi'ises followed in quick succession and, in a few decades, canal 
building became almost epidemic. By far, the most important of 
these early waterways was the Erie Canal, the great advocate and 
promoter of which was DeWitt Clinton. The first spadeful of earth 
was turned in 1817. The work was finished in 1825 and, on the 
twenty-sixth of October, the waters of Lake Erie were admitted to 
the ditch that linked Buffalo and Albany and gi'afted the Empire 
State upon the American metropolis. Costly as the canal was, it 
paid by greatly enhancing the value of land along its route and les- 
sening the price of everything else; freight rates dropped to a tenth 
of what they had been, and Rochester, Syracuse, aud Utica rapidly 
grew from small towns to prosperous cities, and New York City 
began the wonderful growtli that made it the second city in the world. 
The great success of the Erie Canal produced a sort of mania for 
canal building and other states followed in the way that New York 
had opened. Even prior to this, canal projects had become political 
issues in Ohio where the struggle for a canal to connect Lake Erie 
with the Ohio River had begun as early as 1819. In 1814, Alfred 
Kelley had been elected to the Ohio legislature — and, from that time 
to 1823, he was almost continuously a member of the house of repre- 
sentatives or of the senate. He was an enthusiastic believer in the 
practicability and the importance of canals and tlirew himself heart 
and soul into the proposition to construct a waterway that should do 
for Ohio what the Erie Canal has done for New York. He was ap- 
pointed one of the first canal commissionci-s of the state. After some 
study and much di.scussion, largely concerning the relative merits 
of rival routes, the legislature took decisive action and contracts for 
digging the Erie and Oliio Canal wore let. As lie had been the 

1825-32] THE DAWN OP A CITY 169 

foremost advocate of the work, so lu' was the Icadinj? member of the 
board of canal commissioners. "During the construction of the 
canal, eveiy part of the work was subjected to his supervision. Con- 
tractors soon learned that no fraud or artifice could escape his vigil- 
ance. He was inflexibly true to the interests of the state and sacri- 
ficed both his health and his private interests in his untiring devo- 
tion to the public." In short, the Ei"ie and Ohio Canal was a monu- 
ment to the enterprise, energy, integrity, and sagacity of Alfred 
Kelley.* "While the work was in progress, Mr. Kelley moved from 
Cleveland, first to Akron, and in 1830 to Columbus where he resided 
until his death in December, 1859. 

"Boom" Following the Building of the Can.\l 

On the Fourth of July, 1825, the year that saw the completion of 
the Erie Canal, tlic digging of the Erie and Ohio Canal, to extend 
from Cleveland to Portsmouth, was begun, the first spadeful of earth 
being lifted by DeWitt Clinton, the lion of the day, and the second 
by Governor Morrow, at Licking Summit, about three miles west of 
Newark. The Akron-Cleveland section was completed in two years 
and, on the Fourth of July, 1827, with much display, the first canal 
boat arrived at Cleveland, having traversed thirty-seven miles of 
waterway and having passed through forty-one locks. In July, 
1830, the first boat passed from Cleveland to Newark and, in 1832, 
the route wa.s open from Cleveland to Portsmouth. The village at 
the mouth of the Cuyahoga quickly felt the powerful influence of the 
new traffic, a veritable "boom" began, "and the impression sud- 
denly came into the minds of Clcvelanders that their village had been 
touched by the wand of destiny." Log houses still lingered, frame 
structures were common, and brick buildings had begun to break the 
•wooden monotony. Euclid Street had entered upon its career of 
splendor (now vanishing) and had one of these brick dwellings near 
the site subsequently occupied by the T'nion Club, west of East Ninth 
Street. But the magnificent succession of lawn and mansion on "the 
avenue" was still a dream; in the prosaic waking moments of even 
the most enthusiastic dreamer, it was still unbroken forest in which 
deer and bear were caught — as the.y are unto this day. Fuller details 
of the cause and of the effect of the boom will be given in a later 
chapter. Suffice it now to say that the village was ready to become a 
citj'. In the language of the first directory of Cleveland, "some 

See Biographical Sketch. 


6 to 8 thousauds of inhabitants had come together from the four 
winds — some wished to do more things, and some wished to-do things 
better ; and to effect all these objects, and a variety of others, no means 
seemed so proper as a City Charter in due form and style, which was 
petitioned for and obtained." On the third of March, 1836, the 
Ohio legislature passed a bill incorporating the City of Ohio, on 
the western side of the Cuyahoga and, two days later, passed another 
bill incorporating the more important "City of Cleveland." The 
limits of the city thus incorporated on the fifth of March, 1836, were 
thus described (See Ahaz Merchant map on page 160): "Begin- 
ning at low water mark on the shore of Lake Erie at the most north- 
eastwardly corner of Cleveland, ten-acre lot number one hundred and 
thirty-nine, and running thence on the dividing line between lots num- 
ber one hundred and thirty-nine and one hundred and forty, num- 
bers one hundred and seven and one hundred and eight, numbers 
eighty and eighty-one, numbers fifty-five and fifty-six, numbers 
thirty-one and thirty-two, and numbers six and seven of the ten- 
acre lots to the south line of the ten-acre lots, thence on the south 
line of the ten-acre lots to the Cuyahoga River, thence down the same 
to the extreme point of the west pier of the harbor, thence to the 
township line between Brooklyn and Cleveland, thence on that line 
northwardly to the county line, thence eastwardly with said line to 
a point due north of the place of beginning, thence south to the 
place of beginning." The trustees of the village held their final 
meeting on the twenty-first of March and ordered that the election 
for city officers under the charter should be held in the several wards 
(of which there were three) on the second Monday of the following 
April. It was also ordered that the election in the first ward should 
be held in the court-house; in the second ward, in the lower room of 
the Stone Church; and in the third ward, at the Academy. Mr. 
Kennedy notes that "the new-boni city started off well, holding its 
first election, as it were, within the visible portals of the law, the gos- 
pel, and education." 



As already reeortled, General Cleaveland, in 1796, bought the 
Indian claims to the lauds of the Reserve east of the Cuyahoga River 
and, on the Fourth of July, 1805, a treaty was signed by the terms of 
which the Indians surrendered all claims to all the lands of the Re- 
serve. The last division of the lands by the Connecticut Land Company 
was held in 1807 at which time Samuel P. Lord and others drew town- 
ship No. 7 in Range 13, i. c. Hrooklyn ; the lands were surveyed in 
1809. At that time, as Colonel Whittlesey tells us, "on the west side of 
the river, opposite St. Clair street, where the Indians had a ferry, a 
trail led out across the marshy ground, up the hill the old log 
trading house where there were springs of water, to an opening in the 
forest, near the crossing of Pearl and Detroit streets. In this pleasant 
space the savages practiced their games, held their pow-wows, and when 
whiskey could be procured, enjoyed themselves while it lasted. The 
trail continued thence westerly to Rocky River and Sandusky. An- 
other one, less fre(|uented, led off southerly up the river to the old 
French trading post, where JIagenis was found in 1786, near Brighton ; 
and thence, near the river bank, to Tinker's Creek, and probably to 
the old Portage path. A less frequented trail existed from the Indian 
villages of Tawas or Ottawas and Wingoes, at Tinker's Creek, by a 
shorter route, direct to the crossing of the Cuyahoga at the 'Standing 
Stone,' near Kent. The paekhorsemen, who transported goods and 
flour to the northwest from 1786 to 1795, followed this trail, crossing 
the Cuyahoga at Tinker's Creek." Soon after the survey of the west 
side lands, the irrepressible Ma.jor Lorenzo Carter, who now was "well 
to do," and his son, Alonzo, bought land over there near the mouth of 
the river; the son occupied the land and there kept the Red House 
tavern opposite Superior Lane. Most of the settlers on the west side 
lived near the lake in the vicinity of Main and Detroit avenues, but a 
"squatter" from Canada by the name of Granger had, prior to 1812, 
found a slope running up from the river near the present 
Riverside Cemetery. This slope was long known as "Granger's Hill ;" 
when the squatter came I can not tell because I do not know, but, in 


1812-18] EARLY WEST SIDERS 173 

1815, ho moved on to the Maumee country. In May, 1812, James 
Fish came from Groton, just across the Thames River from New 
London, Connecticut, the first pennanent settler of Brooklyn town- 
ship. According to the record made by Mr. Kennedy, he had purchased 
land from Mr. Lord and his partners, the owners of the township, and, 
in the summer of 1811, left the old Nutmeg State "with his family 
stored away in a wagon drawn by oxen. He was accompanied by 
quite a company of pioneers, and spent forty -seven days upon Ihe road. 
He passed the winter in Newburg; early in the spring of 1812, he 
crossed over to Brooklyn, erected a log-house at a cost of eighteen dol- 
lars, and in May took his family over and commenced house-keeping. 
In the same year came Moses and Ebenezcr Fish, the last named serv- 
ing as one of the militiamen guarding the Indian murderer, whose 
execution in 1812 has been elsewhere recorded. In 1813, came Ozias 
Brainard, of Connecticut, with his family; while in 1814, six families 
arrived as settlers within one week — those of Isaac Hinckley, Asa 
Brainard, Elijah Young, Stephen Brainard, Enos Brainard, and 
Wan-en Brainard, all of whom had Wen residents of Chatham, Middle- 
sex County, Connecticut. They had all exchanged their farm lands 
at home for those placed upon the market in this section of the New 
West." In his History of Cuyalwga County, Crisfield Johnson tells 
a story of their reception which, whether wholly authentic or not, is 
interesting. Thus we ire told that they set out from Chatham on the 
same day. "The train consisted of six wagons, drawn by ten horses 
and six oxen, and all journeyed together until Euclid was reached 
(forty days after leaving Chatham), where Isaac Hinckley and his 
family rested, leaving the others to push on to Brooklyn, whither he 
followed them within a week. It appears that the trustees of the 
township of Cleveland, to which the territory of Brooklyn then be- 
longed, became alarmed at the avalanche of emigrants just described, 
and concluding that they were a band of paupers, for whose support 
the township would be taxed, started a constable across the river to 
warn the invaders out of town. Alonzo Carter, a resident of Cleveland, 
heard of the move, and stopped it by endorsing the good standing of 
the new-comers, — adding that the alleged paupers were worth more 
than all the trustees of Cleveland combined." 

Improvements in Cleveland and Ohio Citt 

Samuel Lord, his son, Richard, and Josiah Barber removed to what 
is now the "West Side" of Cleveland as early as 1818 and, in June of 
that year, Brooklyn was organized as a tomiship separate from Cleve- 


]aud. In 1831, au orgauizatiou known as the Buffalo Company bought 
the Carter farm and the boom of Brooklyn was begun. There were 
expectations of a thriving city there with warehouses on the low lands 
and stores and residences covering the bluffs. In 1834-35, water lots 
ou the old river bed had a higher market value than they had three 
decades later. "In the flush times of 1836-37, land contracts on long 
lime, became a kind of circulating medium, on both sides of the river, 
daily passing from hand to hand, by indorsement; the speculation 
accruing to each successive holder, being realized in cash ; or in 
promises to pay. The company excavated a short ship canal from the 
Cuyahoga to the old river bed, at the east end, and the waters being 
high, a steamboat passed into the lake, through a natural channel 
at the west end." Early in March, 1836, the City of Ohio was incor- 
porated, two days ahead of the incorporation of the City of Cleveland, 
as recorded in the preceding chapter. From the beginning, the City 
of Ohio was commonly called Ohio City. A few years after its incor- 
poration, Ohio City made a canal from the Cuyahoga River opposite 
the end of the Ohio Canal, through the marsh, into the old river bed, 
above the ship channel. This canal was thus to be made the terminus 
of the Ohio Canal, and Ohio City was to have a harbor of its own en- 
tirely independent of Cleveland's and to tlie advantages of which that 
city could lay no claim. 

The Bridge War 

In 1833, James S. Clark and others had allotted the land in the 
first bend of the Cuyahoga, "the Ox Bow" alias "The Flats," and 
laid out Columbus Street through it to the bank of the river, as re- 
lated in an earlier chapter. In 1837, they laid out a large allotment 
in the Ohio City; "Willeyville," they called it, in honor of Mayor Wil- 
ley of Cleveland. Through this Willeyville they laid out an extension of 
Columbus Street to connect with the Wooster and Medina turnpike at 
the south line of the older and smaller city. The northern end of the 
Columbus Street in Ohio City was directly opposite the southern 
end of the Columbus Street in Cleveland. Mr. Clark and his partners 
spent considerable money in grading the hill to bring their new street 
down to the river and then spent fifteen thousand dollars more to build 
a bridge across tlie stream at that point, thus completing a short route 
to Cleveland for travel and traffic from the south and west with a 
comparatively easy grade up Michigan Street to Ontario Street. As 
far as such travel and traffic were conecrned, the bridge and the two 
sections of Columbus Street practically side-tracked Ohio City which 


lay uearer the mouth of the river, as laay be seen by refcreiiee to the 
map ou page 160. The first eity directory (of wliieh furtlier mention 
will be made) was printed in that year; as therein described, the 
bridge was ' ' supported bj' a stone abutment on either shore and piers 
of solid masonry erected in the center of the river. Between the piers, 
there is a draw sufficient to allow a vessel of forty-nine feet beam to 
pass through. The length is two hundred feet, the breadth, including 
the sidewalks, thirty-thrw feet, and the height of the piers, above the 
surface of the water, may be estimated at twenty-four feet. The whole, 
with the exception of the draw, is roofed and enclosed, presents an 
imposing appearance, and reflects much credit on the architect, Nathan 
Hunt. This splendid bridge was presented to the corporation of Cleve- 
land by the owners, with the express stipulation that it should forever 
remain free for the accommodation of the public, although the Legis- 
lature had previously chartered it as a toll bridge." The bridge soon 
bred trouble between cities that were sisters and almost twins. As re- 
ported by Colonel Whittlesey, "city rivalry ran so high, that a regular 
battle occurred ou this bridge in 1837, between the citizens and the 
city authorities on the west side, and those on the east. A field piece 
was posted on the low grouinl, on the Cleveland side, to rake the bridge, 
very much as the Austrians did at Lodi, and crowbars, clubs, stones, 
pistols, and guns were freely used on both sides. Men were wounded 
of both parties, three of them seriously. The draw was cut away, the 
middle pier and the western abutment partially blown down, and the 
field piece spiked, by the west siders. But the sheriff, and the city 
marshal of Cleveland, soon obtained possession of the dilapidated 
bridge, which had been donated to the city. Some of the actors were 
confined in the county jail. The bridge question thus got into court, 
and was finally settled by the civil tribunals." The story- of this more- 
or-less dramatic incident, famous in local histon' as "The Bridge 
War," is thus told by :Mr. Orth : "The people of Ohio City saw the 
traffic from Elyria, Brooklyn, and the intervening farming country 
avoid their town and pass over the new bridge to their rivals on the 
east side, ileanwhile, the Cleveland city council directed the removal 
of one half of the old float bridge at Main Street, one half of this 
bridge belonging to each town. The mandate of the council was 
obeyed at night, and when the people of Ohio City realized that they 
were the victims of strategy, they held an indignation meeting and 
declared the new bridge a public nuisance. Their marshal organized 
a posse of deputies and the bridge was damaged by a charge of pow- 
der, exploded under the Ohio City end. Two deep ditches were 
dug near the approaches, on either side, and the bridge virtually rend- 

1836-37] IN OHIO CITY 177 

ered useless. Then a mob of west siders with evil intent marched down 
on tlie bridge, led by C. L. Kussoll, one of tlieir leading attorneys. But 
they were met by tlie mayor of Cleveland, who was backed by some 
militiamen, a crowd of his constituents, and an old field piece that had 
been used in Fourth of July celebrations. There wa.s a niixup ; 
planks, stones and lists were freely used. But the old cannon remained 
silent because benevolent Deacon House, of the west side, had spiked 
it with an old file. The fight was stopped bj' tlic county sherifi' and the 
Cleveland marshal. The city council, October 29, 1837, ordered tlie 
marshal to keep an armed guard near the bridge. But the courts soon 
put a stop to the petty quarrel between tlie two villages. In ten years 
the old bridge had grown too small, and in 1846 agitation was begun 
to build a larger one. The towns could not agree an a plan, Ohio City 
iiiaintaining that Cleveland owned only to the middle of the river. 
The county promptly settled the dispute and built the bridge. In 
1870, Columbus street was still 'one of the leading thoroughfares,' and 
an iron bridge was built, which was replaced in 1898 by a new bridge 
at a cost of eighty thousand dollars." 

Ohio City's First Election 

The first election held in Ohio City took place in March, 1836, 
some time before the fii-st election was held in Cleveland, and Josiah 
Barber was elected mayor. From the old first book of records of the 
City of Ohio, now carefully preserved in the office of the city clerk of 
Cleveland, I copy the minutes of the first meeting of the first council 
of the newly incorporated city on the west side of the river: 

The Mayor and members elect of the City Council of the City of 
Ohio assembled at the office of E. Fol.som in said city on the evening of 
March thirtieth, 1836. 

The Hon. Josiah Barber, mavor. 

Messrs. E. Folsom, C. Williams, N. C. Baldwin and B. F. Tyler 
from the First ward; F. A. Burrows, C. E. Hill, L. Risley and E. 
Slaght from the Second ward ; R. Lord, William Beuton, H. N. Ward 
and E. Conklin from the Third ward were present. 

The oath of otfice having been duly administered, on motion F. A. 
Burrows was elected clerk of the Council pro tem. The members 
from the several wards produced their certificates setting forth that 
they had met in their several wards and determined by lot their 
respective periods of .service, viz. — in the First ward, Cyrus Williams 
and E. Folsom each drew the term of two years and B. F. Tyler and 
N. C. Baldwin each drew the term of one year. 

In the second ward, C. E. Hill and Luke Risley each drew the 
term of two years and F. A. Burrows and Edgar Slaght each drew 
the term of one year. 


In the Third wax-d, H. N. Ward and E. Coiiklin each drew the 
term of two years and Rich. Lord and L. W. Benton each drew the 
term of one year. 

On motion the Council proceeded to elect by ballot a president 
of the Council, City Recorder, City Treasurer, and City Marshal. 
On the first ballot for president, Richard Lord received a majority 
of all the votes and was duly elected president of the Council for 
one year. On the ballot for City Treasurer, Asa Foote received eleven 
votes and was duly elected Treasurer for one year. On the ballot 
for City Marshal, George L. Chapman received eleven votes and was 
duly elected Marshal. On the ballot for City Recorder, Thomas 
"Whelpley received twelve votes and was unanimously elected. 

On motion of N. C. Baldwin, Messrs. Benton, Folsom and Burrows 
were appointed a Committee on By Laws and Ordinances with instruc- 
tions to report at the next stated meeting such ordinances as in their 
opinion the interests of the city require. 

E. Folsom offered the Council a chamber in the Columbus Block 
for the use of the city at an annual rent of eighty dollars, whereupon 
the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved that the City Council accept the offer of E. Folsom of 
a room in the Columbus Block to be lased as a Council Chamber; 
Messrs. Benton, Burrows, Conklin, Hill, Lord, Risley, Slaght, Wil- 
liams, Tyler and Ward voting in the affirmative, and N. C. Baldwin, 
negative. On motion of L. Risley, N. C. Baldwin wa,s appointed a 
committee to procure the necessan- furniture and fixtures for the 
Council Chamber and provide stationery for the use of the Council. 

On motion of E. Folsom, the City Recorder was added to the 
Committee on By Laws and Ordinances. 

On motion the City Council then adjourned to the second Friday 
in April at six o'clock in the afternoon, to meet in the Council 

F. A. Buri'ows Clerk 
pro tem. of City Council 

At the next election, as recorded in the "Directory of the Cities 
of Cleveland and Oliio, for the Years 1837-38," the municipal govern- 
ment of Ohio City was vested in the following officers : 

Hon. Francis A. Burrows, Mayor. 


Ezokicl Folsom, H. N. Ward, 

S. W. Sayles, Norman C. Baldwin, 

H. N. Barstow, William Burton, 

Josiah Barber, Edward Conklin, 

Edward Broiisou, C. E. Hill, 

Cyrus Williams, Luke Risley. 

D. C. Van Tine, Timsurer. 
C. L. Rnsscll, h'rcordn: 
Geo. L. Chajuuaii. Marslial. 
J. Freeman, Inspector. 


Mayors op the Two Cities 

In 1855, the rival cities of Ohio and Cleveland were united under 
the name of the latter. From the beginning to the end, the list of 
mayors of Ohio City is as follows : 

1836 — Josiah Barber, 
1837 — Francis A. Burrows, 
1838-39— Norman C. Baldwin, 
1840-41— Neodham M. Standart, 
1842 — Francis A. Burrows, 
1843— Richard Lord, 
1844-45-46— Daniel II. Lamb, 
1847— David Griffith, 
1848— John Beverlin, 
1849— Thomas Burnham, 
1850-51-52— Benjamin Sheldon, 
1853-54— William B. Castle. 

From the incorporation of the City of Cleveland to the annexation 
of the City of Ohio, the list of Cleveland mayors is as follows: 

1836-37— John W. Willey, 
1838-39— Joshua Mills, 
1840 — Nicholas Doekstader, 
1841— John W. Allen, 
1842— Joshua Jlills, 
1843 — Nelson Hayward, 
1844-45 — Samuel Starkweather, 
1846— George Iloadley, 
1847 — Josiah A. Harris, 
1848' — Lorenzo A. Kelsey, 
1849— Flavel W. Bingham, 
1850-51 — William Case, 
1852-53-54— Abner C. Brownell. 

At the first election after the annexation, the choice fell, as by 
previous informal agreement, upon a "West Sider," and so William 
B. Castle, the last mayor of Ohio City, become the first mayor of the 
consolidated Cleveland. 

In the City of Cleveland 
The new charter of Cleveland ])rovi(led : 

Sec. 11. That the governnunt of said city, and the exercise of 
its coi^porate powers, and managemc7it of its fiscal, prudential and 
municipal concerns, shall be vested in a mayor and council, which 
council shall consist of three members from each ward, actually resid- 
ing therein, and as many aldermen as there may be wards, to be 


chosen from the city at large, no two of which shall reside in any 
cue ward, and shall be denominated the City Council; and also such 
other ofScers as are hereinafter mentioned and provided for. 

See. III. That the said city, until the city council see tit to in- 
crease, alter or change the same, be divided into three wards, in the 
manner following, to wit : The first ward shall comprise all the terri- 
tory l.ying easterly of the centre of the Cuyahoga river, and southerly 
of the centre of Superior lane, and Superior street to Ontario street, 
and of a line thence to the centre of Euclid street and of said last 
mentioned centre. The second ward shall comprise all the territory, 
not included in the first ward, lying easterly of the centre of Seneca 
street. The third wai'd shall include all the territory westerly of the 
centre of Seneca street, easterly of the westerly boundary of the citj% 
and northerly of the centre of Superior street and Superior lane. 

On the day fixed for that purpose by the village trustees at their 
last meeting, the first annual election of the City of Cleveland was held 
(April 11, 1836) in the several wards as ordered. The charter pro- 
vided that the election should ' ' be held on the first IMonday in March, ' ' 
but as the act of incoi-poration did not become a law until the fifth day 
of that month, the election had to be postponed until a practicable date. 
In succeeding years, the annual election was held in ]March. 

The clerks of the said first election were : 

First Ward: Judges, Richard Winslow, Scth A. Abbey, Edward 
Clark. Clerks, Thomas Bolton, Henry li. Dodge. 

Second Ward: Judges. Gurdon Pitch, Henry L. Noble, Benjamin 
Rouse. Clerks, Samuel Williamson, George C. Dodge. 

Third Ward: Judges, John Blair, Silas Belden, Daniel Worley. 
Clerks, John A. Vincent, Dudley Baldwin. 

The officers elected were: 

31 ay or, John W. Willcy. 

Aldermen, Richard Ililliard, Nicholas Dockstader, Joshua Mills. 

Marshall. George Kiik. 

Treasurer, Daniel Worley. 


First Ward, Jlorris TTepburn, Jolin R. St. John, William V. Craw. 

Second Ward, Sherlock J. Andrews, Henry L. Noble, Edward 

Third Ward, Aaron 'l\ Strieklaml. Archibald M. C. Smith, Horace 

City CouNCiii First Mkets 

The first meeting of thr city (Miinicil was h(>l(i on the lifteenth of 
April, ls:!(l. 'I'he rcrciilly I'lci-lcd oflicci's Iodic tlieir (ifllcial oatlis and 


George Hoadley was sworn in as "a justice of the peace for said 
county." By unanimous vote, Sherlock J. Andrews was elected presi- 
dent of the council and Henry B. Payne as city clerk and city attorney. 
In the following: Auirust, the president of the council ami the city 
clerk resigned and tiie vacancies were filled by the election of Dr. 
Joshua A. ]\lills vice Aiulrews and of George B. Mcrwin vice Payne. 
The gift of the now famous Columbus Street bridge to the city was 
accepted and a councilmanic committee was appointed to confer with 
the Philadelphia councils concerning "the nnitual advantages to he 
ilcrivcd from the building of the proposed Cleveland and Warren Kail- 

Mayor John W. Willey 

road to Pittsburgh." Steplien Woolverton and Samuel Brown were 
appointed wood inspectors. One public stand for the sale of wood was 
established at the intersection of Water (West Ninth) and Superior 
streets with Woolverton on duty there or near by, and another at the 
Public Square with Brown in office not far awaj- ; they were to enforce 
the just decree that "eaeh cord shall contain one hundred and twenty- 
eight cubic feet," as prescribed by one of the tables of weights and 
measures printed in the old arithmetics. Fire limits were fixed and an 
ordinance was passed establishing a fire department as recorded in an 
earlier chapter. The fee for a theater license was fixed at seventy-five 
dollars and the first one issued was granted to Messrs. Dean and Mc- 
Kinney. John Shier was appointed city surveyor and engineer, the 
street commissioner was authorized and instructed to procure a ferry- 
boat suitable for carrying persons and property across the river at such 
point as the council should direct, and tJie marshal was directed "to 


prosecute every person retailing ardent spirits coutrarj' to tlie provis- 
ions of tlie ordinance regulating licenses, after giving such person six 
daj-s' notice to procure a license, and also to prosecute every person 
who fails to take out a license within one week after the same has been 
granted by the council." In this year, chartere were issued to the 
Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati Railroad Company and to the 
Cleveland, AVarren, and Pittsburgh Railroad Company, but the quick 
coming of the panic of 1837 laid tliem on the shelf until a later decade, 
although, as we soon shall see, the city voted liberal aid to the latter 
in 1838. 

FmsT Board op School ]VL\nagers 

The record of a meeting of the council held in ilay says: "A com- 
munication was received from the Mayor in relation to common 
schools." Just what the mayor said on this subject does not appear 
but on the ninth of June, Mr. Craw introduced the following resolu- 
tion which was adopted : ' ' Resolved — That a committee be and is here- 
by appointed to employ a teacher and an assistant, to con- 
tinue the Free School to the end of the quarter, or until a 
school system for the city shall be organized, at the ex- 
pense of the city." The story of this "Free School," as told 
by Samuel H. Mather, is that "a Sunday School was organized in the 
old Bethel Church, probably in 1833 or 1834, a kind of mission or 
ragged school. The children, however, were found so ignorant that 
Sunday School teaching, as such, was out of the question. The time 
of the teacher was oljliged to be spent in teaching the children how 
to read. To remedy this difficulty and make the Sunday School avail- 
able, a day school was started. It was supported by voluntary con- 
tributions, and was a charity school, in fact, to which none sent but 
the very poorest people." As above stated, the management and 
expense of this previously "missionary enterprise" were assumed by 
the. city — the first public school of Cleveland. In June, Mr. Dock- 
stadcr presented an ordinance for the levy and collection of a school 
tax and, in September, Mr. R. L. Gazlay, the principal of the school, 
reported that 22!) children had received instruction during the last 
quarter and that the expense of maintaining the school had been 
$131.12. In the following month (October, 1836), the council ap- 
pointed the first board of school managers, the members of which were 
John W. Willey, Anson Hayden, and Daniel Worlcy. In November, 
IMr. Baldwin introduced a resolution ordering an enumeration of the 
vouth of the citv between the ages of four and twenty-one years. In 


the following March, 1837, the school managers reported that they 
had continued the "Common Free School" and that its cost for the 
quarter then ending had been $185.77, and urged a more liberal outlay 
for schools and school-houses. Then Mr. Noble introduced a resolution 
requesting the committee on schools ' ' to ascertain and report, as soon 
as convenient, what lots may be purchased, the price and tenns of 
payment, to be used for school purposes — two in the First Ward, one 
in the Second Ward and one in the Third Ward. " The council had not 
yet passed an ordinance for establishing a system of schools, but, in 
that month (March, 1837) about the end of the fiscal year, the mayor 
was allowed five hundred dollars for his services during the year while 
each member of the council was awarded one dollar for each session 
of the municipal legislature that he had attended, a "salary-grab" 
that seems to have been condoned by the public. 


The election of 1837 in Cleveland resulted as follows: 

Mayor, John W. Willey. 

Treasurer, Daniel Worley. 

Marshal, George Kirk. 

Aldermen, Joshiia A. Mills, Nicholas Doekstader, Jonathan Wil- 


First Ward, George B. Merwin, Alfred Hall, Horace Canfield. 

Second Ward, Henry L. Noble, Edward Baldwin, Samuel Cook. 

Third Ward, Samuel Starkweather, Joseph K. ililler, Thomas 

Council Approves City Directory 

On the twentieth of March, the second council of the City of Cleve- 
land was organized with Dr. Josliua A. Mills as president and Oliver P. 
Baldwin as city clerk. This council created a special committee "to 
inquire into the expediency of lighting Superior street from the 
river to the Public Square, and how many lamps will be necessary, and 
the expense of lamps, lamp-posts, oil, etc., and the best method of de- 
fraying the expense satisfactorily to the citizens." The council also 
gave its approval to the proposal to publish a city directoiy. Before 
the end of the year, Sauford & Lott, book and .job printers and book- 
binders, "17 Superior Street, three doors west of the Franklin House," 
is.sued a directory for Cleveland and Oliio City, a small book of 144 
pages, each full typepage of which measured about 3x514 inches. There 
were forty-two additional pages of advertisements, some of which have 
real historical value as will appear from the facsimiles of some of them 
given in this chapter. As this publication opens wide the front door 
of Cleveland's municipal life, it seems worth while to enter and to 
spend a while in taking account of the stock then on liand. This 
directory names and locates eighty-eight streets, lanes, and alleys in 
Cleveland and explains the system of numbering the houses thereon. 
It contains a brief history of Cleveland (eleven of the small pages) and 




Wm ilk® ¥"©®2g IL©D^=4)§o 







a copy of the charter of that city. It gives the uames and residences 
of 1,086 firms and persons, "heads of families, householders, etc., 
in the city of Cleveland, July, 1837," and of 290 in Ohio City in 
August, 1837, with addenda for both cities, a total of about 1,400. 
The Cleveland directory for 1918 is made up as follows : 

Alphabetical list of names 1984 pages 

Business Directory 328 pages 

Miscellaneous Directory 42 pages 

Street Directory 39 pages 

Total 2393 pages 

It is estimated that the alphabetical list contains about 300,000 
names. The directory of 1837, also contains, among other things, an 
account of each of the "eight congregations of Christians in the city 
of Cleveland, viz. : one Episcopal, two Presbyterians, one Baptist, one 
Catholic, one Episcopal Methodist, one Reformed Methodist, and 
one German Protestant." 

Churches of 1837 

The First Presbj^terian church (north side of Public Square at 
intersection of Ontario Street) held services at 10:30 o'clock a. m., 
and at 3 and 7 o'clock p. m., on Sundays. The minister was the 
Rev. Samuel C. Aikin ; the deacons were T. P. Handy, Stephen "Whit- 
aker, Henry Sexton ; and the elders were F. W. Bingham, A. -D. Cutter, 
Thos. Davis, William Williams and Jas. F. Clarke. The Second Pres- 
byterian church held services "until the completion of their new 
church which is now being erected," in the Commercial Building at 
the same hours on Sundays. The minister was the Rev. Joseph Whit- 
ing; the deacons were C. L. Lathrop, L. Ij. Rice; the elders were A. 
Penfield, H. Ford, J. A. Foote; and the trustees were A. Seymour, S. 
J. Andrews, F. Whittlesey, S. L. Severance and J. Day. Trinity 
Episcopal church (Seneca Street, corner of St. Clair) held services 
at the same hours on Sundays. The rector was the Rev. E. Boydcn ; 
the organist was H. J. IMould ; the chui'ch wardens were Simeon Ford, 
H. L. Noble; the vestrymen were the Hon. John W. Allen, Dr. Rol)ert 
Johnstone, James Kellogg, William Cleveland, William Sargeant, and 
T. M. Kellcy. The Baptist church (Seneca Street, corner of Cham- 
plain Street) had "preaching three times every Sabbath." The min- 
ister was the Rev. Levi Tucker; the deacons were Moses White, Alex- 
ander Sked, John Bcnncy; and the clerk was William Chard. The 
Catholic church (Shakspeare Hall on Superior Lane) is recorded thus: 




"Under tlie direction of the Bishop of Cincinnati. Minister— None 
stationed here at present." In this chapel, "the congregation of about 
one thousand souls," Irish, English, Scotch, American, German, and 
French, "worshipped God until the death of Jlr. Dillon, which took 
place sometime in September last. Since then, there has been no Cath- 
olic priest in Cleveland," but "the Rt. Rev. Di-. Purcell, Bishop of 
Cincinnati, is expected in this place in a few days to make arrange- 
ments for the erection of a sjjlendid church for his flock in Cleveland 
and Ohio City." The Methodist Episcopal church ("meetings at 
present held at the Court-IIouse") held services at 10:30 o'clock, 
a. m., and 6 o'clock, p. m., on Sundays. The minister was the Rev. 
Mr. Low. The Protestant Methodist church ("meetings held in 

First Catholic Church 

Read's School-House at present") held services at 10 o'clock, a. m., 
and 6 o'clock, p. m., on Sundays. Both of the Methodist congrega- 
tions "are now erecting large and substantial bi'ick churches which 
•they expect to finish this summer." The Bethel church (corner of 
Diamond Street) , an off-shoot of the First Presbyterian, held services 
twice every Sunday. The minister was the Rev. V. D. Taylor. The 
German church (Protestant) held services at the Academy on St. 
Clair Street at 10 o'clock, a. m., and 1 o'clock, p. m., on Sundays. 
The pastor was the Rev. William Stoinmeir; the church wardens were 
H. Heissel, E. Geneiner, C. Gentsch, II. Schuhmachei', and C. Scher. 

Courthouse Described 

Then come descriptions of the court-house on an eminence in the 
Public Square with its front ornamented with "pilasters of the Dorick 


order supporting a Dorick entablature ; tlie whole is crowned with an 
Ionic belfry and dome." The Cuyahoga County prison, a stone build- 
ing two stories high, was "situated on Champlain Street, convenient 
to the rear of the court house." The city hospital was "situated upon 
Clinton Street, in the easterly part of the city and upon the most 
elevated ground in it. The grounds connected with the hospital are 
about four acres and consist of part of the land purchased at the public 
expense and occupied as a public cemetery. . . . The expenses 
of the institution are paid from the revenue of the city, and for the 
J) resent year are estimated at from four to five thousand dollars." 
The Cleveland Free School was established in March, 1830, "for the 
education of male and female children of eveiy religious denomination 
and is supported by the city. ' ' Its sessions were held in the basement 
of the Bethel church. "The average number of pupils in attendance- 
may be stated at ninety males and forty -six females." Clinton Park, 
on the bank of Late Erie and half a mile from the courthouse, 
"altliough a wildei'ness of unsightly stumps and girdled trees two years 
ago, is already encircled with some suburban villas embosomed in 
gardens of the most picturesque beauty. . . . It is intended to be 
laid out in the landscape style of gardening, comprising lawns, shrub- 
bery, ornamental trees and flowers, which with the Mineral Spring 
adjacent, will be open to the public." At tbe park was the Spring Cot- 
tage and Bathing Establishment, "decidedly a summer retreat from 
the bustle and care of business, of no ordinary character, combining 
utility and gi'atification with pleasure." Clinton Park still holds its 
ground on Lakeside Avenue between East Sixteenth and East Eight- 
eenth streets, but is not living up to the magnificence, actual and 
prospective, as set forth in the glowing phrases of the eloquent Mr. 

Associations and Institutions op 1837 

Among the other associations and institutions mentioned are the 
following : 

The Cleveland Reading Room Association "was fornu-d by the vol- 
untary subscriptions of a number of gentlemen in the fall of 1835, 
. . . to furnish Reviews, Pamphlets, and Newspapers from dif- 
ferent parts of the country on all topics of general interest to the 
community. . . . The Reading Room is open daily, and is lighted 
and open in the evening until ten o'clock." Jolin M. Sterling was 
president; S. W. Crittenden, treasurer; George T. Kingsley, secretary. 

The Young Men's Literary As.sociation, organized in November, 


1836, already had a library of 800 volumes that might be drawn from 
the reading-room on Wednesday and Saturday evenings. Charles 
Whittlesey was president; George C. Davies, secretary; W. U. Oat- 
iiian, corresponiling secretary; and S. W. Crittenden, treasurer. 

The Cleveland City Temperance Society ("on the tetotal plan") 
was organized in March, 1836. Other temperance societies had been 
formed, "but this may now be said to be the only one that shows 
any considerable signs of life." Alexander Seymour was president; 
Samuel Cowles and David Long wei-e vice-presidents ; Dudley Baldwin 
was recording secretary ; Samuel Williamson was corresponding sec- 
retary ; C. G. Collins was treasurer ; and Philip Battel, William Day, 
B. Stedman, A. W. Walworth, J. A. Briggs, John Seaman, Ahaz Mei'- 
chant, S. W. Crittenden, H. F. Brayton, and J. A. Foote, were mana- 

The Cleveland Maternal Association, formed in January,^ 1835, 
was "composed of benevolent ladies, parents or guardians of children, 
. . . imited together for the purpose of providing for the reli- 
gious education of the children under their care." Mrs. L. C. Gay- 
lord and Jlrs. II. Brainard were directore; Mrs. Lathrop was secre- 
tary; and Airs. L. A. Penfield was treasurer. 

The Cleveland Jlozart Society was organized in April, 1837, for 
"the promotion of ]\Iusieal Science and the cultivation of a refined 
taste in its members." T. P. Handy was president; J. F. Hanks, 
vice-president; T. C. Severance, secretary; H. F. Brayton, treasurer; 
George W. Pratt, conductor; and William Alden, librarian. 

The German Society of Cleveland was organized in February, 1836, 
for "benevolence and the diffusion of useful knowledge [kultur?] 
among its members." G. Meyer was president; Th. Umbstattcr, sec- 
retary; and J. J. Meier, treasurer. 

The Cleveland Antislavery Society, organized in 1833, had about 
two hundred membei"s. Dr. David Long was president; S. J. Hard- 
ing, vice-president; Solomon L. Severance, secretary; and John A. 
Foote, treasurer. 

The Cuyahoga Antislavery Soeiet.v was organized on the Fourth 
of July, 1837, with officers as already recorded. 

Of the Western Seaman's Friend Society, Samuel Cowles was 
president; Alexander Seymour was vice-president; the Rev. V. D. 
Taylor was corresponding secretary; A. Penfield was recording sec- 
retan': Benjamin S. Lyman was treasurer; and the Rev. S. C. Aikin, 
J. A. Foote, Jarvis F. Hanks, the Rev. Levi Tucker, T. P. Handy, 
William Day, and the Rev. William Dighton were directors. 

On the third of April, 1837, the "Cleveland Female Orphan 


Asylum" and the ''Cleveland Female Seminaiy" were incorporated. 
The trustees of the former were ]Mrs. Laura Willey, Mi-s. Martha 
Kendall, Mrs. Jane Foster, Mrs. Sophia K. Ford, Mrs. Catherine Kel- 
logg, ill's. Hoplj- Noble, Mrs. Mary D. Johnstone, Sirs. Mary Boyden, 
Mrs. Jerusha Foster, jMrs. Helen Maria Woods, ilrs. Mai-y Davis, and 
Mrs. jNIargaret Sterling. The trustees of the latter were Henry Sexton, 
Benjamin Rouse, Henry H. Dodge, A. D. Smith, and A. Wheeler. 
There was also a Young Ladies Seminary at 75 St. Clair Street of 
which Mrs. Howison was principal. 

There was a Cleveland City Band with seventeen members; also a 
newly foi'med volunteer military company with sixty-four members — 
the City Guards. 

Financial Institutions 

The chief financial agencies of the city were two banks and an in- 
surance company : 

The Commercial Bank of Lake Erie, No. 53, Superior Street (cor- 
ner of Bank Street) had a capital of $500,000. Leonard Case was 
president; Truman P. Handy was cashier; James Rockwell was 
teller; J. L. Severance was assistant teller; and D. G. Saltonstall was 
book-keeper. The directors were Leonard Case, John W. Allen, Charles 
M. Giddings, Edmund Clark, T. M. Kelley, P. M. Weddell, Samuel 
Williamson, Truman P. Handy, Daniel Worley, S. J. Andrews, Richard 
Hilliard, John Blair, and David Long. 

The Bank of Cleveland, No. 7, Superior Street, had a capital of 
.$300,000. Norman C. Baldwin was president; Alexander Seymour 
was cashier; T. C. Severance was teller; James J. Tracy was assistant 
teller ; and H. F. Brayton was book-keeper. The directors were Samuel 
Cowles, Lyman Kendall. Frederick Wadsworth, John M. Woolsey, Joel 
Scranton, Charles Denison, Benjamin F. Tyler, D. C. Van Tine, N. 
C. Baldwin, A. Seymour, and Joseph Lyman. 

The Cleveland Insurance Company had a perpetual charter and a 
capital of $500,000. Edmund Clark was president, and Sctli W. Crit- 
tenden wa.s secretary. The directors were A. W. Walworth, Jas. S. 
Clai'k, Jolin W. Willey, Thomas M. Kelley, Robert H. Backus, and 
Edmund Clark. 


The directoi-y further informs us that "four papers arc pnblislied 
in this city. The oldest is the Daily Ilrrald and Gazette (originally 
styled tlie 'Herald'), issued by Messrs. F. Whittlesey & J. A. Harris, 



«r.-- . 

.A.I 1^ l.X .1 

iTreserve re^v-estate association. 

JL ^^-c'lL ij ry'^"S^. .\\ 

Western Ke^ekve Keal Estate Association Notes 




Bank op Cleveland Note 


editors and proprietors — James Hull, printer. The Avcekly Herald and 
Gazette is published at the same ofiSee, and are republications of the 
Daih". They are Whig in polities. The Cleveland Daily Advertiser 
is next in succession ; IMessrs. Canfield and Spencer, editors and pi'o- 
prietors. — A weekly made up from the Daily is published by the same 
gentlemen. Democratic in polities. These papcre are managed with 
admirable editorial tact, and have large subscription lists. The third, 
devoted to the promulgation of the Presbyterian creed, and is called 
the Cleveland Journal. It is published by ^Icssi's. John M. Sterling, 

Dr. Saml. irnderluU, Editor. 

DEVOTED TO FREE ENQUIRY, Opposed fo all monopolies— 

In favor of universal equal 
opportunities for knowledge 
in early life for every child ; 
discourager of all preten- 
sions to spiritual knowledge; 
teaches that virtue alone 
produces happiness ; that 
vice always produces mise- 
ry ; that Priests are a use- 
less order of men ; that 
school masters ought to be 
better quahfied, and then 
should have higher wages ; 

I ^ inr. ^ ' - - 1 ' V^i. - "^^t *^° producing classes 

arc'i-njustly fleeced"; that nobles by wealth are as offensive 
to sound democracy as nobles by birth— both are base 
coin ;— and it inacrt* the other sido or the question, when 
furnished in well written articles. 

Samuel C. Aiken aiul .\. Pcnticld, and edited by the Rev. 0. P. Hoji;— 
F. B. Penniman, printer. The fourth is the Cleveland Libcralist, pub- 
lished weekly by Messrs. Ll^nderhill & Son, and edited by Dr. Samuel 
Underhill." The last named publication was so startlingly "Pro- 
gressive" that its half-jjage adverti.senient in llic dirci-foi-y is herewith 
reprodnced in full-size facsimile. 

Industries and Railro.mis 

As to manufactories, the dii-eclory tells us that "There are four 
very e.\tensive Iron J-'ouiidries and Steam I'^nginc maiuifaclories in 


this cit.y ; also, tlirce suup aiul caiuUc uuuui factories, two breweries, 
one sash factory, two rope walks, one stoneware pottery, two cai'riage 
manufactories, ami two Frencli l?iirr millstone manufactories, all of 
whii'h are in full operation. The l''lourinj? Mill now being erected 
by 'Sir. Ford, will, when fini.shed, be the largest and most complete 
establishment of the kind in the state of Ohio."' It devotes five and a 
lialf pages to the "Cleveland, Warren and I'ittsburgli Railroad" which 
had been incorporated by the general assembly of Ohio with authority 
to construct a railroad from Cleveland in the direction of Pittsburgh 
to the Pennsylvania state line and to unite the same "with any other 
Road which the state of Pennsylvania may authorize from Pittsburgh, 
or any other point below the Ohio river, running in the direction of 
Cleveland, in order that a continuous route may be perfected from 
Cleveland to Pittsburgh, under the authoritj^ of both states." 

As a prospectus, the following sample paragraphs are admirable: 

Piv the rejxirt of the iMisiincer in the service of the com])any, it 
appears that the whole exi^ense of constructing the Road from Cleve- 
land to tiic Pennsylvania state line, about eighty miles, is less than 
$7,000 per mile. In no instance is the ascent or descent more than 
forty feet to the mile. In no event can statioiuiry power be required 
at any point. There are no natural obstructions to be encountered. 
Timlicr, stone, and every necessary material for the construction of 
the Road are abundant in the immediate vicinity of its location. It 
passes over a section of country not oidy jjoinilous, but in a high 
state of ajrricultui'al prosperity, and the interests of those inhabitants 
are intimately lilended with its completion. This road projioses to 
form a continuation of that branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail 
Road, which terminates in Pittsburgh, by extending that road to 
Lake Erie at Cleveland: making thereby a continued line of Rail 
Road from Baltimore to the great lakes. It pi-oposes the same bene- 
fits to the city of Philadelphia by being a continuation of the Penn- 
sylvania canals and rail roads which lead from Philadelphia to Pitts- 
burgh by prolontring them in effect to Lake Erie. It jn-oposes when 
completed, to give to Phibidelpliia aiul Baltimore the same advantages 
of the western trade which New-York now possesses, with the addi- 
tional advantage of having the distance diminished three hundred 
miles. It ]iroposcs to give the whole vast region of the western lakes 
an opportunity of marketing their products in, and receiving their 
foreign merchandise from, Philadelphia and Baltimore at least five 
weeks earlier in the season and at much less expense, than is now 
accomplished at Xcw-York. The management of the Company is in 
rlie hands of a board of seven Directors, elected by the Stockholders. 

In such elociuent style, the reader is led on for four more touching 
pages that very few possible investors would be able to resist. The 
oflScers of the company were John W. "Willey, president : Charles ^Vhit- 
tlesey, secretary; Edmund Clark, treasurer; David Tod, "William R. 


Heury. and John AV. "Willey, executive eommittee. The directors were 
David Tod, Elisha Garrett, "WiUiaui R. Hussey, Horace Caiifield, John 
W. Alien, Edmund Clark, and John W. WiUey. A. C. Morton was 
principal engineer. 

Three other railway projects were also in evolution, as appears from 
the following paragraphs : 

The Cleveland. Colujvibus & Cincinnati Railroad Company 
was chartered in 1S36, connecting Cleveland and Cincinnati by the 
way of Columbus, the seat of government for the state. The con- 
struction of this road is regarded generally as a work of great impor- 
tance, as it would connect the two great commercial emporiums of 
the state, Cleveland and Cincinnati, and traverse two hundred and 
sixty miles of the rich and populous portions of its soil. It com- 
prises the most direct route between Quebec, Montreal, the Canadas, 
Buffalo, and the Ohio and Mississippi valley, which is becoming a 
great thoroughfare. It is safe to conclude that this road will soon 
be made. 

The Cleveland and Newbubg Railroad Company, capital 
$50,000 was incorporated by the Legislature in 183.5, is now being 
put under contract, tlie greater part of the route being surveyed ; and 
it is expected that four miles of the road will be ready for cars the 
ensuing autumn. This Railroad passes through a section of country 
abounding with inexhaustible quarries of building and grindstone, 
and every description of timber necessaiy for ship and house build- 
ing. It must therefore be of incalculable advantage to the city of 

The Cleveland & Bedford Railroad Company was incorpo- 
rated in 1835. to connect Bedford, a thriving village twelve miles 
south of Cleveland, on the Pittsburgh road, with the Lake and Ohio 
canal at Cleveland. 

The officers of the Cleveland and Newburg road were AVilliani 
^lilford, president; J. C. Fairchild, secretary; Nicholas Dockstadcr, 
treasurer; William Milford, Benjamin HarringtoiL C. .M. (liddings, 
Nicholas Dockstadcr, Reuben Champion, Frederick Whittlesey, Aaron 
Barker, John W. Allen and Gurdon Fitch were directors. Ahaz 
Merchant was the principal engineer and the building of the road had 
been begun. It was a tramway of hewed timbers built from the 
quarries east of the city to its western termintis near tiic southwest 
section of the Public Square. The Cleveland, Columbus and Cincin- 
nati company and the Cleveland and I'l'dTord coinpiiiiy luul not yet 
chosen their officers. 

CleveIjAnd IIarhor 

On page 57 of the directory, we are told tiiat ''Tlie hai'bor of Cleve- 
land is formed by two piers extentling al)out four IniMdred and twenty- 


live yanls iuto Lake Erie, ami Wiug eleven feet in width. These piers 
are, at present, e()mj)osed of piles and eribbing tilled in with stone; 
but aiTaugements are making to remove the wood work above the water, 
and snbstitnte substantial stone blocks laid in mason work. The pas- 
sage into the harbor, between the piers, measures two hundred feet and 
the depth of water is about fourteen feet — while the Cuyahoga river 
itself is navigable for steamboats and vessels as far up as the rapids, 
wliieh, to follow the eonrse of the river, is not less than six miles from 
its mouth. In 181'.') the general government granted the sum of five 
thousand dollai-s a.s the first appropriation for the erection of a harbor 
at this place, since which tiuie various appropriations have been made 
by congress for the same purpose, amounting in all to seventy-seven 
thousand five hundred and fifty dollars and fifty-six cents. The dis- 
bui"sements were made by A. W. Walworth, Esq., as agent for the 
engineer department." 

The paragraphs on navigation and commerce are very instructive 
and ought to be interesting. "Owing to her peculiar and advantageous 
location at the tennination of the Ohio canal and at a point of Lake 
Erie the most commanding for commercial operations," the trade of 
Cleveland had considerably increased within the few years preceding 
1837. According to an official statement, in "the year 1836, property 
to the amount of one hundred and seventeen millions two hundred 
and seventy-seven thousand five hundred and eighty pounds, arrived 
by the way of the canal at this port, and was shipped hence for distant 
markets." The value of this property was estimated at $2,444,708.54. 
That fiftj'-four hundredths of a dollar forcefully testifies to the pains- 
taking care with which the estimate was made. The largest items in the 
detailed statement of the year's exports were 464,765 bushels of wheat 
valued at $534,469.40, and 167,539 barrels of flour valued at $1,005,- 
234.80. Then came 392,281 bushels of com worth $215,764, and 13,495 
barrels of pork worth $203,425.40, and 3,851 hogsheads of tobacco worth 
$192,550. The total shipments of mineral coal were valued at only 

During the year 1836, there entered the port of Cleveland, nine 
hundred and eleven vessels and nine hundred and ninety steamboats, 
with an aggregate tonnage of four hundred and one thousand eight 
hundred tons; of these, one hundred and eight vessels were foreign. 
Within the same period, nine hundred and eleven vessels and nine 
hundred and ninety steamboats cleared in this port, the aggregate 
tonnage of the vessels alone being ninety thousand. 


Bettrcen Cleveland & PorUiuoulb. 


at 9o'clocK A. M. 

OTIS & CURTIS. Ccn«-a/&ageO>-', <^" ^ .wcjit*. 

G J LEET. PomnKw/ft. ) 

NCH, MOOHE ♦ OO.'S 'l.« cr 8«.i to.»CW.,d U.M, r., C.k...»^ ,,. w^u, ..J H.u~- 

OTB » CURTIS' l;» .f sur. ■<•«' <:i"rf-J "»'» '•■' P''»>»»k "•»'°. """•" ""• «"'■'*• 



Le«v«« daily at 6 o*clf>ck A. M., via Ji^lfoni. HvdMm. Ka. 

Goiao, DfitT^ld, Salon and AVie LUbon, to Weltjvill*, 

where iticy wiD talco Iha 





TBuroogh In 30 honn from ClovelaMd* 

Being (ttp sfanrleat rculv bclwoon the two cttioa, nnij klTattl- 

iBg 4 p)ea*oj)t trip ihroiiKl) a llourjshinf; p.irt of Ohio, on ■ 

good road, and in b«llcT Coaches thui aoy lino njomn^ to 

•aid ploco. 

Thf" tbove lino i» connected \rith Iho 

Good Intent Fast Mail Stage^ 

Pioneer Packet A Rnil-Ronil Linen, 

For PhUadflphia. Nca-York, BaUimorr, and Wash'iRf^UiR 
City, in whi<h pait9CDf:i:r9 IrovcHinx id ibo aliovo Iido have 
Iho pn:r«rcncc. 
Orncain Mr. Kdlupg'i now ImiWinj;. oppowlc (he 
FDnklin.Ilnuai'. No. 30 ^iip«rior-«(m'<, uoilcr llio iVmcri- 
cut House. 

Clovelud,July, lf)37. 

CLMCIL t. tvinit) . 



l,KAi>i.\\; L' Hotels 

The pi'iiR-ipal luituls in Cleveland were thus recorded in tlie direc- 
tory : 

American Iloiisf. 1. Newton. 42 Superior street. 

Clcvrlaiid Iluiisr. A. Selover, Public Square. 

Cleveltnid V( nirv llousr, , Cleveland Centre Hloek. 

Cifij Hotd. Perry Allen. Seneea street. 

Clinton Ilonsr. AViUiani Ilarland, Union lane, corner St. Clair 

E(if;lr Tav( rn, Kichanl CiuiUe. Water street, coi'ucr St. Clair street. 

Franklin Honsc, H. Ilarrinf^ton, 25 Supqrior street. 

Farmers' and Mcchanirs' Hotel, George W. Sanford, Ontario 
street, eorner Miehigan street. 

(ilohr Tavern, Isaac Van Valkenbnrg. Merwin st. 

^Vashington House, William ^Martin. 31 Water' st. 

Stage Lines 
The list of stage lines were given thus : 

Buffalo via Erie. — A Stage leaves the office of Otis & Curtis, 23 
Superior street, every day at 2 a 'clock, P. ;\1. 

Pittshurf/h via Bedford, Hudson, Ravenna, Deerficld, Salem, etc. — 
A Stage leaves the Pioneer Stage Co's office, under the American 
House. 38 Superior st. every morning at 8 o'clock, A. M. J. R. Cun- 
ningham. Agent. 

Pittshurgh.—ThQ Mail Stage leaves at half past 10 o'clock, P. M. 
from Otis & Curtis' office. 23 Superior street. 

Pittshurgli. — The Pha-ni.x Line Stage leaves at 8 o'clock, A. M. 
every day. from Otis & Curtis' office, 23 Superior st. 

Detroit. — A Stage leaves daily at 5 o'clock, A. M. from Otis & 
Curtis" office, 23 Superior street. 

Columbus and Cincinnati. — A Stage leaves every other day, via 
"Wooster and ilount Vernon, frtmi Otis & Curtis' office, 23 Superior 

The of county officers was given thus: 

Judges of the Court of Common Pleas 

Hon. Van R. Humphrey. President Judge. 
Hon. AVatrous I'shei'l 
Hon. Simeon Fuller [-A.ssociate Judges. 
Hon. Josiah Barlier J 

The Courts of Common Pleas hold three sessions in the year : gen- 
erall.v in ^yfarch. June and October. The Supreme Court usually sits 
in August, and holds but one term. 

Harve.v Rice. Clerk of the Courts. ^ 

Aaron Clark / t-. * r-i i 

Henry G. WeldonJ deputy Clerks. 


Joseph B. Bartlett, County Recorder. 

Samuel Williamson, County Auditor. 

James B. Finney, Deputy. 

Edward Baldwin, County Treasurer. 

Seth S. Henderson, Sheriff. 

Theodorick Brooks] 

H. N. Wilbur 

E. A. Ward [-Dcputv Sheriffs. 

H. Beebe J 

Henry H. Dodge was the commissioner of the insolvent's office for 
the county. 

The list of state officers was given thus : 

Joseph Vance, Governor. 

Carter B. Harlan, Secretary. 

John A. Bryan. Auditor. 

Joseph Whitehill, Treasurer. 

N. Medbury, Superintendent of the Penitentiary. 

Judges of the Supreme Court 

Ebenezer Lane, Chief Justice. 
Reuben Wood ] 
Peter Hitchcock Associate Judges. 
Frederick GrimkeJ 

Government Officials 

As to officers of the national government, we are told that the 
custom house, at No. 39 Superior Street, was "open from 7 to 12 
o'clock, A. M., and from 2 to 6 P. M." The officers were: 

Samuel Starkweather, Collector. 
David W. Cross, Deputy Collector and Inspector. 
Clark Warren, Deputy Insjicctor. 
and Stephen Woolverton was the light-house keeper. 

The postoffice, at No. 37 Superior Street, was "o]ien on week days 
from l^U o'clock, A. M. till 9 P. M. On Sundays from S till 9, A. i\I. 
and from 6 till 71/.. P. M. 

Daniel Worlcy, Post Master. 
James Worley, Deputy Post Master. 
John Tnmlinson ) ^„ , 
SoK)mon .Sawt('M\ 

Arhiv.\i< .vnd Di:i'ai(I 1 I!k of thic Maii,s 

Nortlirrn Mail via Erie, arrives daily by 4 o'clock, A. M. and 
departs daily at 2 o'clock,. P. M. 


Eastern via Pittsburg, arrives dailv liv 6 o'clock, P. ^I. and departs 
daily at half past 1, P. M. 

Soiithcni via Coliiinhiis, arrives odd days by 1 o'clock, P. ]\I. and 
departs oven days at "> P. JI. 

^^'fst('r)l via Saxdiisk)/ and Detroit, arrives daily hy 1 o'clock, 
P. M. and departs daily at 5 o'clock, A. ]\I. 

Huron via Mouth of liUuk River, arrives^ every Wednesday by 6, 
P. M. and departs evei'j' ]\Ionday at 7, A. M. 

Xewburt) via ^YarrensviIle and Oranqc, arrives every Friday at 
6, P. M. and departs every Satnrday at 6, A. M. 

Erie and Pittshurgh Alail doses "daily at 1 o'clock, P. II. 

Detroit, Huron and Newbury ]\Iail closes daily at 9 o'clock, P. ]M. 

Rates of Postage 

On Letters. — 614 cents for any distance not exceeding 30 miles; 
10 cents, if over 30 and not exceeding 80 miles; 12Vi; cents, if over 
80 and not exceeding 150 nules; 18% cents, if over 150 and not 
exceeding 400 miles; 'J5 cents if over 400 miles. Double letters are 
charged double, treble letters, treble, and quadruple letters, quadruple 
these rates. Postage on heavier packages in proportion. 

On Xewspapers. — Not carried over 100 miles, or for any distance 
within the state where they are printed, one cent each. If carried 
over 100 miles, and out of the state where they are printed, one and 
a half cents each. 

Periodicals, Pamphlets and Magazines. — Carried not over 100 
miles, one cent a sheet : carried over 100 miles, two cents a sheet. 
Those not periodicals, 100 miles or less, 4 cents a sheet ; over 100 
miles, 6 cents a sheet. 

No deduction will be made on postage on letters charged double, 
treble, or quadruple, unless they are opened in the presence of the 
post master, his assistant, or some one belonging to the office. 

Some poetic souls are not much concerned with statistics of man- 
ufactures, commerce, etc., but there are few Clevelanders (or resi- 
dents in rival cities) who will not "sit up and take notice" of reports 
concerning the growth of population. If some of my readers have 
been wearied by some of the preceding paragraphs, I trust that they 
will find relief in the following final extract from Cleveland's fii*st 
directory : 

According to the census taken in the year of 1825, Cleveland con- 
tained only five hundred souls ; in 1831, the ]iopulati(ni was not more 
than one thousand one hundred ; in 1832, it amounted to one thousand 
five hundred: in 1833, to one thousand nine hundred; in Jauuan', 
1834, it was found to have increased to three thousand three hundred 
and twenty-three; in November, 1834, it was four thousand two 
hundred and fifty; and in August, 1835, it was five thousand and 
eighty. The number of inhabitants in the city of Cleveland at pres- 
ent exceeds nine thousand, and judging from the rapid increase of 


that number, and the flattering prospects of tliis infant city, we an- 
ticipate its being doubled in less than three years. 

As we now take leave of this really illuminating little volume, it 
is only fitting that we take off our hats and send back over the sea 
of more than fourscore years a grateful salute to that enthusiastic 
local historian and able editor and compiler, 3Ir. Julius P. Bolivar 
MacCabe. Nor may we fail to vote our thanks to the Guardian Sav- 
ings and Trust Companj' which, in 1908, had the public spirit that led 
them to reprint the work. 

In this memorable j'ear, 18.37, the Cleveland city council adopted 
a resolution submitted by Alfred Hall, and declaring that ''for the 
erection of a market or markets, the purchase of grounds whereon to 
build school-hoitses and the erection of school-houses, it is expedient 
for the city to borrow on the good faith and credit thereof, the sum 
of fifty thousand dollars, for a term of years, at six per cent annual 
interest, by creating that amount of stock, jn'ovided said stock shall 
not be sold under par." 

In April (1837), the Cleveland council appointed the second 
board of school managers, the members of which were Samuel Cowles, 
Samuel Williamson, and Pliilip Battell ; they continued the school 
authorized in 1836, which "was the only one that had any existence 
by authority; neither did the city own a school house or a foot of 
ground upon which to erect one.* Cleveland had then a population 
of about 5,000; and although no records are extant to show it, there 
must have been in attendance upon the schools, private and public, no 
less than eight hundred children. But the school maintained by the 
eity had an enrollment of less than three hundred, so that the Acad- 
emy and other private schools still furnished instruction to a very 
large majority of the youth of the city." But, in July, the council 
passed a school ordinance introduced by Horace Canfield. This step 
was of importance sufficient to justify the presentation of the docu- 
ment in full : 

An Ordinance to Provide for the Est.\blishment of Common 


Section 1. Be it ordained by the City Council of the City of 
Cleveland, Thfit the School Committee of the Council is hereby au- 

* The liUlf Kc-hdol lioiisc oil St. C'liiir Slreot,^rlil liy (lie villii^'c in 1817, 
must have ]iiish('(1 away or bocoinp unlit for \iso. Tlic moneys tliat the villape 
IrusteeB tlien ordered refimded lo inilividnalH amounted to only .$!".),'<. 70, and liad 
been sifbHcribed "f(»r tlie I)nildin;,r (tf a sdion] lunise;'* tliere was no meniion of 
the piirehuse of any land. 


thorized to in-dcui-c. hy lease, siiitalile luiiUliiigs or roimis I'or tlie use 
of tlie city, to he oeeupied as sehool rooms, as lieieinat'tei- ])i'oviileil, 
uiidei- the authoi'ity of tlie eity; i)rovided, that such huildliiffs or 
rooms shall he appi'opriated hy the Board of JMaiia^ers of Commou 
Sehools. The expense of tlie lease of the same shall not exceed oiie- 
lialf the amount which the City Coimeil is authorized to appropriate 
annually foi- tlie construction of huildings for school purposes. 

Sec, '2. The Sciiool Coinmittee of the Council is furthei- author- 
ized and instructed to provide, at the expense of the cit.v, the needful 
aj)i)aratus and furniture for the Iniildiufrs or rooms thus provided, 
and the added exi)ense of which shall not exceed the limits prescribed 
in tlu' tirst section of this act. 

Sec, ;!. It is further ordained that the 15oard of Managers of 
Common Sduiols in the city is hereby authorized to establish, imme- 
tliately. in the premises pi'ovided aforesaid, such schools of elementary 
education as to them shall seem necessary, and i)roeure instructors 
for the same. The term or session of such schools shall connuencc 
on the 24th of July, instant, and continue four months, to wit : till 
the 24th day of Novend)er next. 

See. 4. it lieinpr provided tluit sucli schools are to be supplied 
from the revenue of the city set aside for said jiurposes, so that the 
expense of tuition and fuel in said schools shall not be permitted to 
exceed said sjjecified revenue. 

Passed July 7th, 1837. 

The public school system of Cleveland was thus begun ; the story 
of its development into the great and beneficent institution that it 
is today is told in the article on the Public Sehools, given in Chapter 
XXII of this volume. 

Arrival of the Panic of 1837 

Among the important arrivals of 1837 was a great financial panic. 
President Jackson's famous specie circular, drafted by Senator Ben- 
ton, had been issued by the secretary of the treasury in July, 1836. 
It' directed that nothing but gold and silver should be received iii 
payment for public land.s — Jackson's last financial exploit. This 
sent a flood of almost worthless western paper to the eastern money 
centers and, in Jlay, 1837, the New York banks suspended specie pay- 
ment and a widespread panic followed. It is said that it "brought to 
ruin nearly every l) establishment in the Western Reserve" — 
doubtless something of an exaggeration, but it certainly hit hard the 
metropolis of that thriving region. "City lots owned by the land 
companies of Ohio City and Cleveland, which shortly before had been 
sold for prices enormously above their actual value, could no longer 


be disposed of ou any terms. It was a period of purging and of sober- 
ing from which the city emerged to enter upon a career of substantial 
prosperity. ' ' 

Ohio Railroad Put to Rest 

One of the fantastic schemes that received its quietus in that panic 
was the famous Ohio Railroad Company of uupropitious memory. In 
1S30, the United States had a railway trackage of twenty-three miles, 
but the fever for railway building soon set in and many wild forms of 
speculation caught unwise investors. At this time, when '"the 
sparsely settled southei'n shore of Lake Erie was platted into city 
lots at every indentation of the coast and one speculator (just a little 
wilder than the others) predicted a continuous city from the Niagara 
to the Cuyahoga," came the Ohio Raih'oad project. In April, 1836, 
R. Harper, Eliphalet Austin, Ileman Ely, John AV. Allen, P. M. 
Weddell, Charles C. Paine, and others organized the company at 
Painesville; Nehemiah Allen of Willoughby a member of the state 
legislature, secured for them a liberal charter that granted banking 
powers as well as the usrual rights to build a railroad. The banking 
privileges were used with enterprising freedom and the three or 
four hundred thousand dollars of currency that were issued could 
never truthfully say or sing, "I know that my redeemer liveth. " By 
an act of March, 1837, the mahKloi'ous "plunder law," the legisla- 
ture loaned its credit to tlie amount of one-third of the capital stock 
in railroads, turnpikes, and canals, when the other two-thirds luid 
been subscribed ; the state issued its bond in payment for stock in the 
company. The company ])lanncd to build a trans-Ohio road witli two 
great cities at its termini, Richmond on the Grand River and ^lan- 
hattan on tlie .Maumee. The I rack was ti> rest on a doui)le line of 
piles or posts, with ties and sti'ingcrs, ami a light strap-iron rail, a 
flimsy structure that was estimated to cost $16,000 per mile. "The 
\-isi()nary scheme fitted into the financial fantasies of tlie day, but it 
vanished b(>fore the hot breath of the panic of 1837;" the road was not 
built. In 1840, the "plunder law" was repealed and the collapse 
of tlie Oliici Railroad was quick jiiid cuniplcte. For many years after 
the collapse, remnants of th." ])iles were visible out Loi-ain Avenue and 
along the riilge toward Elyria. ]n 1843, the state auditor reported 
that "the original subscription.s to the stock of the company were 
one million, nine hundred and ninety-one thousand, seven hundred 
and sixly-si.x dollars. Of this sum only thirteen thousand, nine 
liiiiidrcil and eighty dollars bad l)een paid in cash; eight thousand 

Ohio Railkoad Company Notes 


or teu thousand dollai-s in labor or material ; and five hundred and 
thirt.v-three thousand, seven hundred and seventy-sis dollars in land 
and town lots. These have been reported as a basis for the credit of 
the state; also there has been added two hundred and ninety-three 
thousand, six hundred and sixtj- dollars in donations of lands for 
right of way, all of which of course are conditional to revert upon 
failure to complete the work. The lands received in payment for 
subscriptions were all taken at the most extravagant rates." The 
state had paid the company $249,000, and its return was ".some sixty- 
three miles of wooden superstructure laid on piles, a considerable 
portion of which is already rotten and tlie remainder going rap- 
idlv to decay." 


In 1838, Joshua A. .Mills was elected mayor of Cleveland. The 
aldei-mcii were Alfred Hall, Nicholas Doekstader, aud Benjamin 
Harrington. The conncilnicn were, three from each ward in order, 
George C. Dodge, Closes A. Eldridge, Herrick Childs, Leonard Case, 
Renjaniin Andrews, Henry Blair, Tliomas Colahan, Tom Tjcnien, and 
.Melanctlion Barnett. On the nineteenth of ^larcli, Mr. Doekstader 
was chosen as president of the eouncil. At a later meeting, A. H. 
Curtis was chosen as city clerk. Samuel Williamson was treasurer, 
and George Kirk was marshal. Across the piver, Norman C. Bald- 
win was elected mayor of Ohio City. The councilmeu were H. N. 
Ward, C. E. Hill, Cyrus Williams, Charles Winslow, Necdham M. 
Standart, William H. Hill, George C. Huntington, D. Barstow, E. 
Bronson, Josiah Barber, W. Burton, and S. W. Sayles. Jlr. Bronson 
was chosen president of the council. Horace Foote was recorder, D. 
C. Van Tine was treasurer, and G. L. Chapman was marshal. 

The state legislature having authorized such action, the Cleve- 
land council adopted the following resolution, introduced by ]\Ir. 
Doekstader : 

Resolved — That the hoard of commissioners designatwl to exe- 
cute the wishes and directions of the City Council and citizens of 
Cleveland in regard to the construction of the Cleveland, Warren & 
Pittsburgh Railroad, be respectfully requested to subscribe for and 
take up so mucji of the stock subscribed by our citizens, for the pur- 
pose of securing the charter of the railroad, as will amount to two 
hundred thousaiul dollars, and that, in conjunction with the direc- 
tors of said railroad, innnediately take measures to procure a suffi- 
cient amount of subscription to con.struct said road from Cleveland 
to the Pcinisylvawia line, and then to borrow the aforesaid two hun- 
dred thousand dollars on the credit of the cit.v. 

This progres.sive step, in aid of the tirst railway project that 
had taken on definite shape shows that the city '"had begun to emerge 
from the village influences that had hampered it in the first year of 
nnmicipal rule. " As to the cost of city maintenance at that time, a 




report of the finance comiuittee of the council states that the amount 
that would probably be required for general purposes for the year 
was $16,745, exclusive of what would be needed for the support of 
the poor; that the amount to be collected from licenses and debts 


due the city would be $4,500; thus Iciivin;,' tlic sum «)f $12,265 to be 
raised by the tax levy. 

Dr. J.\bed p. KuiTi.AND 

Dr. Jarcil P. Kirtland was born in Wallinpfford, Connecticut, in 
1795. in 1810, he visited the Reserve coiiiinpr in company with 
Alfred Kelley and Joshua Stow as already .stated; his father at that 





tinit' was agent ul' the Connecticut Land Company at I'olaml in 
Trumbull County. He studied medicine in Philadelphia and, after 
twenty yeare' praetiee in Trumbull County, lectured for a year at 
a medical eollewe in Cineimiati and, late in 1838, accepted a i)ro- 
fessorship in the newly orgranized medical college in Cleveland. His 
association with Colonel Whittlesey on the first geological survey of 
Ohio has already been notetl. Soon after his coming to Cleveland, 
he bought an estate at East Roekport, near Rocky River. Here he 
established an experimental farn\ and originated many new varieties 
of fruit. Thence he ilrove dailv to his classes in the city. He was 

Home op Doctor Kirtland 

the first president of the Cleveland Academy of Natural Science 
which was organized in 1845 at his suggestion. He was one of 
Cleveland's pioneers in scientific work and equally distinguished as 
naturalist, teacher and physician. He died on the tenth of December, 

Municipal Officials of 1839-40 

In 1839, Mr. Mills was reelected as mayor of Cleveland. The 
aldermen were Harvey Rii'e. Edward Baldwin, and Richard Hilliard. 
The councilmen were, three from each ward in order, George Menden- 
hall. Timothy P. Speoeer, Moses Ross, John A. Foote, Charles M. 
Giddings, Jefferson Thomas, Thomas Bolton, Tom Lemen, and John 


A. Vincent. John A. Foote was clio-sen president of the council. Mr. 
Williamson was reelected treasurer, Isaac Taylor succeeded George 
Kirk as marshal, James B. Finnej- became city clerk, and Moses Kelley 
was appointed city attornej'-. A city market house wa.s built on 
ilichigau Street (Prospect Avenue, N. W.), and L. D. Johnson was 
chosen as market clerk. Improved school accommodations received 
proper and encouraging attention and an effort in aid of temperance 
refoiTu led to a sharp parliamentary struggle over Mr. Barr 's jireamble 
and resolutions, a proposed "ordinance for the suppression of dram 
shops," another "ordinance for the suppression or the sale of ardent 
spirits in less ciuantity than one quart, ' ' together with futile attempts 
to amend the latter by striking out the words "one quart" and sub- 
stituting therefor "one pint," "fifteen gallons," and "a pound of 
bread." The whole matter was then sent back to committee and the 
"reform" made no further progress that year. In Ohio City, Mayor 
Baldwin was reelected. The councilmen were C. L. Russell, C. C. 
AValler, Francis A. Burrows, Samuel H. Fox, H. A. Hurlburt, Daniel 
Sanford, Needham M. Standart, H. N. Ward, Cliristopher E. Hill, 
W. H. Hill, Cyrus Williams, and Charles Winslow. Mr. Waller was 
chosen president of the council and Alessrs. Foote, Van Tine, and 
Chapman were reelected to their several offices of the previous year. 

In 1840, Nicholas Dockstader was elected mayor of Cleveland; 
Timothy Ingraham, treasurer ; and Isaac Taylor, marshal. The alder- 
men were William Milford, William Lemen, and Josiah A. Harris. 
The councilmen were, three from each ward in order, Ashbel W. Wal- 
worth, David Hersch, John Barr, David Allen, John A, Foote, Thomas 
M. Kelley, Stephen Clary, Charles Bradburn, and .John A. Vincent. 
William Jlilford was chosen president of the council; J. B. Finney, 
city clerk; (ieorge A. Benedict, city attorney; and Josiah A. Harris, 
city printer. In Ohio City, Needham M. Standart was elected mayor. 
Tlic ((Mincilmeu were C. L. Rus.sell, C. C. Waller, Francis A. Burrows, 
S. II. I''().\, II. A. Hurlburt, Daniel Sanford, S. W. Saylcs, Homer 
Strong, Andrew White, Ben.iamin Siieldoii, li. F. 'l\\ler, and Daniel 
IT, Lamb. Mr. Waller was chosen i)resident of the couiicjl. J. F. 
Taintor became recorder and Messrs. Van Tine and Cliapniau were 
again choscii to thcii- i-esjii'ct i\'e positions. 

CiTV RiCCOKI) OK 1^^40-4') 

In this year (1840-41), the four .sections of the Pulilic Square 
wci-i' se|iai'ately enclosed with fences and the street supervisor was 
insli-nctcil III ■■prrpai'c and seed the Ndnllici'ii iialf ol' the j'ublic 

1840-41] TlIK CENSUS REPORT 209 

Square in a .suitalilo aiul prapcr iiiaiiiier," to "procure some suitable 
person to sink the pul)lie wells, so that they will contain at least three 
and one-half feet of wate'-, proviilod the expense will not exceed 
thirty-five dollars." The temperance question came np again in 
May and, after much discussion, "an ordinance to regulate taverns 
and to prohibit the sale of ardent spirits or other intoxicating liquors 
by a less (juantity than one (|uart, " and providing further that no 
licensed tavern keeper should give or sell ardent spirits to any child, 
apprentice, or servant without the consent of parent, guardian, or 
employer, or to anj' intoxicated person, was passed. 15efore the 
end of the official year, annual salaries of some of the city's servants 
were fixed as follows: .Mayor, $100; marshal, $300; clerk, $400; 
street supervisor, .$4i)ti; treasurer, $200; clerk of the market, $100. 
At the end of his term as mayor, Mr. Dockstader retired fom official 

The federal census of this year (1840), in speaking of the manu- 
facturing enterprises of Cuyahoga County, says that there were two 
cast-iron furnaces, producing 200 tons, consuming 1,310 tons of fuel, 
employing 102 men and using a capital of $130,000. The annual 
value of the stone product was $18,822; twenty-eight men were em- 
ployed and $2,000 of eai)ital invested. Of pot or pearl ashes, 113 
tons were maile during the year. The value of machinery made was 
$43,600; the value of hardware and cutlery $25,000; and of metals 
refined $31,500. In the manufacture of brick and lime $12,500 was 
invested ; twenty -six men employed, and the value of the product 
$8,540. There were four woolen manufactories, with a capital of 
$12,400 and an aninud product of $14,400, and eighteen men em- 
ploj'cd. In the thirteen tanneries twenty-one men were employed ; 
capital, $6,800; 845 sides of sole leather and 3,680 sides of uppers 
were tanned. There were manufactured 113,000 pounds of soap and 
82,000 pounds of tallow candles, ten men employed and $4,000 of cap- 
ital. Two distilleries produced 80,000 gallons of w'hiskey, and one 
brewery 50,000 gallons of beer. There were six flour mills, fifteen 
grist mills, seventy sawmills, one oil mill, and all of these combined 
made $183,875 worth of product and employed 104 men. Athough 
the report is for the county, it is fair to a-ssnme that it is approxi- 
mately correct for the city. The census of this year credited Cleve- 
land with a population of 6,071. 

In 1841, John W. Allen was elected mayor of Cleveland. The 
aldermen were William iMilford, Thomas Bolton, and Xewton E. 
Crittenden. The councilmen were, three from each ward in order, 
Nelson Hayward, Herrick Childs, George B. Tibbets, Moses Kelley, 

Vol. I— 14 .i j«»JLI 


W. J. Warner, M. C. Younglove, Pliilo Scovill, Benjamin Harring- 
ton, and ^liller M. Spangler. Thomas Bolton was chosen as presi- 
dent of the eouncil. In Ohio City, Mr. Standart was reelected mayor. 
The couucilmeu were Daniel H. Lamb, Richard Lord, Albert Powell, 
C. A. Russell, C. L. Russell, Julius A. Sayles, S. W. Sayles, Benjamin 
Sheldon, Homer Strong, Benjamin F. Tyler, Andrew AVhite, and 
Ephraim Wilson. Mi*. Lord was chosen president of the council. 
Christopher E. Hill was recorder, H. N. Ward was treasurer, and 
Homer Strong was marshal. In this year, the Pennsylvania and Ohio 
Canal was completed, connecting the Ohio Canal at Akron with the 
Ohio River at Beaver and thus forming a water communication with 
Pittsburgh. On the twenty-first of September, a charter was granted 
for Cleveland City Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons, the oldest ]\Ia- 
sonic body in the city. Its first meeting was held a week later and 
officers were chosen as follows: Clifford Belden, worshipful master; 
Andrew White, senior warden; W^illai'd Crawford, junior warden; 
Edmund Clark, treasurer; and Erastus Smith, secretary. 

In 1812, Joshua A. Mills was again elected mayor of Cleveland. 
The aldermen were Nelson Hayward. William Smyth, and Benjamin 
Harrington. The councilmen were, three from each ward in order, 
William D. Nott, Robert Bailey, Henry Morgan, George Mendenhall, 
George Witherell, Jefferson Thomas. William T. Goodwin, George 
Kirk, and Levi Johnson. Benjamin Harrington was chosen president 
of the council. In Ohio City, Francis A. Burrows was chosen mayor. 
The councilmen were G. L. Chapman, David Griffith, Morris Ilepliuni, 
Richard Lord, Albert Powell, C. A. Russell, Julius A. Sayles, S. W. 
Sayles, Benjamin Sheldon, Horace G. Townsend, D. C. Van Tine, and 
Ephraim Wilson. Richard Lord was again chosen as president of 
the council. Christopher E. Hill, II. N. Ward, and Homer Strong 
became their own successors as recorder, treasurer, and marshal 

In 1843, Nelson Hayward \vu.s elected mayor of Cleveland. The 
aldermen were William D. Nott, Samuel Cook, and Samuel Stark- 
weather. The councilmen were, three from each ward in order, Rol)ert 
Bailey, John B. Wigman, James Church, Jr., Stcjihen Clai-y, Alanson 
H. Lacy, George A. Benedict, William T. Goodwin, John Wills, and 
Alexander S. Cramer. Mr. Benedict was chosen as i)resident of the 
council. In Ohio City, Richard Lord became mayor. The councilmen 
were Thomas Armstrong, Peter Barker, G. L. Chapman. L. L. Davis, 
David Griffith, ilorris Hepburn, Seth W. Johnson, Albert Powell, 
C. L. Russell, Julius A. Sayles, S. W. Sayles, and Benjamin Sheldon. 
S. W. Sayles was chosen president of the council, and Messrs. Hill, 

1844-45] CITY OFFICIALS 211 

Ward, and Stroiij,' atraiii ln'caine tlioir own successors as recorder, 
treasurer, and marshal respectively. George Osmuu became street 

In 1S44, Samuel Starkweather wa.s elected mayor of Cleveland. 
The aldermen were Leander .M. Hubby, Stephen Clary and William 
T. Goodwin. The councilnien, three from each ward in order, were 
Thomas .Mell, George F. .Marshall, E. St. John Bemis, Charles Stet- 
son, Jacob Lowman, John Outhwaite, W^illiam F. Allen, Melancthon 
Baruett, and John F. Warner. Jlr. Barnett was chosen as president 
of the council. The United States Marine Hospital, on the bank of 
the lake, was begun in this year, but it was not finished until 1852. 
In Ohio City, Daniel H. Lamb was chosen mayor. The conncilinen 
were Peter Barker, E. R. Benton. L. L. Davis, Enoch Hunt, Seth 
W. Johnson, G. W. Jones, Richard Lord, Albert Powell, C. L. Russell, 
Julius A. Sayles, Benjamin Sheldon, and E. T. Sterling. Mr. Lord 
was chosen president of the council. S. W. Sayles was chosen re- 
corder; Christopher E. Hill, treasurer; Homer Strong, marshal; and 
George Osmun, street supervisor. 

In 1845, Samuel Starkweather was again elected mayor of Cleve- 
land. The aldermen w'cre Charles W. Heard, George Withercll, and 
L. 0. Mathews. The couneilmen, three from each ward in order, were 
Flavel W. Bingham, Peter Caul, Samuel C. Ives, James Gardner, 
Ellery G. Williams, David L. Wood, Arthur Hughes, John A. 
Wheeler, and Orville Gurley. Mr. Bingham was chosen as president 
of the council. In Ohio City, Mayor Lamb was again elected. The 
couneilmen were Ambrose Anthony, E. R. Benton, L. L. Davis, Enoch 
Hunt, 6. W. Jones, Richard Lord, Joseph B. Palmer, Albert Powell, 
Daniel Sanford, Julius A. Sayles, Benjamin Sheldon, and E. T. 
Sterling. Mr. Lord was chosen as president of the coiincil. S. W. 
Sayles became recorder; Charles Winslow, treasurer; Edgar Slaght, 
marshal ; and George Osmun. street supervisor. 

Young Men 's Literary Association Organized 

In this year, the Young .Men's Literary Association was organized ; 
it was incorporated in 1848 as the Cleveland Library Association. 
From this organization was developed the Case Library of today. 
Three banks were also incorporated, the ''Commercial" with a cap- 
ital stock of $150,000; the "Merchants' " with a capital .stock of 
$100,000: and the "City Bank" with a capital stock of $150,000. In 
ilarch, the state renewed the charter of the Cleveland, Columbus, 
and Cincinnati Railroad Company. The new charter authorized the 


building of a road from Lake Erie to Columbus, where it might 
unite with any road that should afterwards be built leading from the 
capital to the southern boundary of the state. On the board of direc- 
tors, Cleveland was represented by John W. Allen, Richard Ililliard, 
John jr. Woolsey, and Henry B. Payne. The city voted its credit 
to the extent of $200,000, but there was difficulty in negotiating the 
city's bonds. In 1847, and after prolonged personal effort on the part 
of the directors, the amount of subscriptions were brought up to 
about $70,000 and the work of construction was immediately begun 
under the presidential supervision of Alfred Kellcy, now of Colum- 
bus. In the same month (March, 1845), the legislature passed an 
act reviving the charter of the Cleveland. Warren, and Pittsburgh 
Company to which, in 1838, the city had voted a subscription of 
$200,000. By the first of November, the line had been completed to 
Hanover, seventy-five miles from Cleveland. In this year, the Frank- 
lin House that Philo Scovill had built on the north side of Superior 
Street in 1825 was rebuilt and Dan P. Rhodes and David Tod 
opened the Briar Hill coal mine near Youngstowu. 

Municipal M.\tters, 1846-48 

In 1846, George Hoadlcy was elected mayor of Cleveland. The 
aldei-men were Leander M. Hubby. John II. Gorham, and Josiah 
A. Harris. The couneilmen, three from each ward in order, were 
E. St. John Bemis, John F. Chamberlain, John Gill, William Case, 
William Bingham, John A. Wheeler, William K. Adams, iMarshall 
Carsion, and Liakim L. Lyon. Mr. Hubby was chosen as president 
of the council. This William Case was a son of the Leonard Case 
who came from Warren to Cleveland to act as cashier of the first 
bank in the city. As we shall see, William Case played a iinniiinent 
part in the development of Cleveland and was twice elected as its 
mayor. In Ohio City, Daniel II. Lamb was for the third time elected 
as mayor. The couneilmen chosen wri'c Ambi'osc Anthony, John 
Beverlin, G. L. Chapman, L. L. Davis, Oilman Folsom, S. W. Johnson, 
Jo.seph B. Palmer, Albert Powell. Daniel Sanford, Julius A. Sayles, 
Benjamin Sheldon, and S. ^\'. 'I'm-ncr. Mr. Sheldon was elected as 
president of the coinicil and Messrs. S. W. Sayles and Winslow were 
continued in office a.s recorder and treasurer respectively. George 
Osinun became marshal, and William II. Xcwtmi, street supervisor. 

In March of this year, the state legislature incorporated the 
Junction Railroad. "This act, together with amendments subse- 
quently pa.ssed, provided for railway construction from Cleveland 

1846-48] CITY ()l''Ki('l.\l-S 213 

to the west line of the state, Ihe choice of i-oules ami other details, 
according to the liberal fashion o\' tliat time, being left to the discre- 
tion of the directors." Another charter was issued creating the 
Toledo, Norwalk, anU Cleveland road. In 1853, these companies were 
consolidated under the name of the Clevelaml and Toledo Railroad 
with a capital stock of -tri.OnO.OOO. In this year (1846), the Cleve- 
land Ga.s Light and Coke Company was incorporated ; it supplied 
gas for street illumination three yeare later. The board of Fire Un- 
derwriters of Cleveland was organized in JunC; J. L. Weatherly was 
its president; C. C. Carleton was vice president; H. F. Brayton was 
treasurer ; and George May was secretary. The activities of the board 
were suspended during the civil war, but a reorganization was 
effected in 1866. 

In 1847, Josiah A. Harris was elected mayor of Cleveland. The 
aldermen were Flavel W. Bingham, William Case, and Pierre A. 
^lathivet. The councilmen, three from each ward in order, were 
David Clark Doan, Henry Everett, John Gill, John Erwin, Charles 
Hiekox, Henry T?. Payne, Alexander Seymour, Alexander S. Cramer, 
and Orville Gurley. Flavel W. Bingham was chosen as president of 
the council. In the summer of this year, the Lake Erie Telegraph 
Company was authorized to extend its line through the city and the 
first telegram was received. In Ohio City, David Griffith was elected 
mayor. The councilmen were John Beverlin, G. L. Chapman, L. L. 
Davis, Gilman Folsom, S. W. Johnson, Irvine U. blasters, Philo Closes, 
C. L. Russell, R. L. Russell, Benjamin Sheldon, Homer Strong, and 
S. W. Turner. ^Ir. Sheldon was chosen as president of the council. 
Christojjher E. Hill was elected recorder; S. J. Lewis, treasurer; N. D. 
White, marshal ; and William Hartuess, street supervisor. 

In 1848, Lorenzo A. Kelsey was elected mayor of Cleveland. The 
aldermen were Flavel W. Bingham, William Case, and Alexander Sey- 
mour. The councilmen, three from each ward in order, were Richard 
Norton, John Gill, Charles ^I. Read, Henry B. Payne, Leander M. 
Hubby, Thomas C. Floyd, Samuel Starkweather, Robert Parks, and 
William J. Gordon. Mr. Bingham was again chosen as president of 
the council. In Ohio City, John Bevei'lin was elected mayor. The 
councilmen were H. X. Bissett, L. L. Davis, D. S. Degroate, James 
Kirby, William S. Levake, Thomas Lindsay, Irvine U. Masters, Philo 
Moses, F. B. Pratt, C. L. Russell, R. L. Ru.s.sell, and Homer Strong. 
Mr. Strong was chosen as president of the council. Christopher E. 
Hill was elected recorder; Charles Winslow, trea.surer; Lyman Whit- 
. ney, marshal ; and William H. Newton, street supervisor. 


Railway Coxsteuction 

By this time, railway lines had been built from Chicago to Toledo, 
from Toledo to Cleveland, and from Erie to Buffalo. The important 
connecting link of a through route, the Cleveland-Erie line, had not 
yet been forged, but in this year, under the push and enterprise of 
Alfred Kelley and William Case as prime movers, a charter was se- 
cured for the Cleveland. Painesville and Ashtabula Railroad. This 
corporation was to build a road eastward from Cleveland to the state 
line and the city pledged its credit for the loan of $100,000 in aid 
thereof. But the outlay that w^as necessary for construction was so 
great that "for some time hope of a successful outcome was aban- 
doned. In this emergency recourse was had to Mr. Alfred Kelley, who 
was accorded unlimited authority as general agent for the company. 
It is needless to add that ^Ir. Kelley 's marvelous executive ability, 
with the tradition of success which had come to be associated with 
his name, secured for the entei^prise a new prosperity." On the 
seventh of July, there was a large meeting of merchants at the Wcd- 
dell House, at which meeting- the Board of Trade was organized. 

In 1849, Plavel W. Bingham was elected mayor of Cleveland. The 
aldermen were William Case, Alexander Seymour, and John Gill. The 
counc'ilmen, three from each ward in order, were David W. Cross, 
Richard Norton, Henry Everett, Alexander Mcintosh, John G. Mack, 
James Calyer, Artliur Hughes, Abner C. Brownell, and Christopher 
Molleii. W^illiam Case was chosen as president of the council. In Ohio 
City, Thomas Bundiam was elected mayor, and J. Beanson, II. N. 
Bi.sett, S. C. Degroate, ilark Harrison, James Kirby. Thomas Lind- 
-say, A. W. Merrick, E. M. Peck, F. B. Pratt, Edgar Slaght, ^Martin 
Smith, and Uriah Taylor were elected couneilmen. Mr. Pratt was 
chosen president of the council. J. A. Redington was elected re- 
corder: Charles Winslow, treasurer: A. P. Turner, marshal; and 
William II. Newton, street .supervisor. 

Water Works Suggested 

In this year (1849), Mr. Ilugiies iiitrciiluccd in the Cleveland city 
council the rolliiwiiig rcsoliitinn. wliirh was addjilctl: 

li'caolvcd. That the committee on tii'e and water be and are licreby 
directed to ascertain the cost of bringing the water from the opposite 
side of the river, or from any othei" jioint, to some convenient place 
upon the summit in this city, where a general reservoir may be 
located; the cost of said reser\(iir, nnd the expense per ivhI i'di- ['rvA- 




iiig it. FurtluT. that the cliicf ciij^iiiocr of the tire dei)artment be 
associated with said (•(iiiiinittee, and that they may eall to tlieir 
assistaiiee a eoni])eteiit i)ors()ii to assist them, and report to the coun- 
cil as soon as possible. 

This action probably had its effect iu educating the voters up to the 
level necessary, but definite action for the establishing of municipal 
water works was not taken until 18o;3. In this year (1849), the Cuya- 
hoga Agricultural Society was formed. For several years, it held fairs 
on Kinsman Street (now Woodland Avenue). In later years, its fairs 
were held at Newburg and Chagrin Falls. Gas works w-ere built and 
the city first provided with illuminating gas iu this year. About this 
time, John G. Stockly built, at the foot of liank (West Sixth) Street, a 

pier that extended 924 feet into the lake and broke the monotony of 
"a continuous sand beach, strewn with driftwood" that had existed 
since the destruction of the fragile and short-lived structure built by 
the Cleveland Pier Company in 1816. 

In 185U, William Case was elected ma\or of Cleveland. The alder- 
men were Alexander Seymour, John Gill, and Leander ^I. Hubby. 
The councilmen, three from each ward in order, were William Given, 
George Whitelaw, Buckley Stedman, Alexander Mcintosh, William 
Bingham, Samuel Williamson, Arthur Hughes, Abner C. Brownell. 
and Levi Johufson. Alexander Seymour was chosen as president of 
the council. In Ohio City, Thomas Burnham was again elected mayor, 
and J. Beanson, E. C. Blish, :\I. L. Hooker, John Kirkpatrick, Thomas 
Lindsav. A. AV. Jlerrick, E. :\I. Peek, F. B. Pratt, C. L. Russell, Edgar 


Slaght. ilartin Smith, aud Uriah Taylor were elected eouncilmcii, Mr. 
Pratt was chosen as president of the council. J. A. Redington was 
elected recorder; Oilman Folsom, treasurer; George Osmun, marshal; 
and AVilliam H. Newton, street supervisor. 

Plymouth Congregational Church 

In March, the third Presbyterian church was organized with thirty 
members. Two years later, the church changed its policy aud became 
known as the "Plymouth Congregational Church of Cleveland." Be- 
fore the end of the official year, the council adopted (January, 1851) 
a resolution, introduced b.y William Bingham, constituting the mayor 
and three others to be appointed by him as a committee to make fur- 
ther investigation concerning a municipal water supply and author- 
ized them to employ an engineer. Mayor Case appointed William J. 
Warner, Dr. J. P. Kirtland, i;nd Colonel Charles Whittlesey as his as- 
sociates on said committee. At this time, Cleveland had a population of 
17,0.34 aud Ohio City one of 3,950. The enumeration "indicated a 
steady and healthful growth for the ten preceding years. It was 
a period of present prosperity, and of promise for the future. The 
lake fleet was at its summit of popularity, and of service as a means 
of passage, as the railroads had not yet begun to make the destructive 
inroads of a later day. The stage coaches were kept busy, carrying 
loads of travelers to and from Cleveland, mamifacturers were reach- 
ing out and extending, the municipality was in a progressive mood, 
and Cleveland had earned the right to be called a city in fact, as in 

In 1851, William Case was again elected mayor of Cleveland. The 
aldermen were John Gill, Leander M. Ilubby, Abner C. Brownell, and 
Buckner Stedman, four instead of three, as formerly. The cotuieil- 
men, two from each of four wards instead of three from each of tliree 
wards, as formerly, were Jabez W^. Fitch, George Whitelaw. Alexander 
Jlclntosh, Thomas C. Floyd, Stoughton HIiss, ;MiHcr I\r. Si)angler, 
iWarsliall S. Ciistle, and James B. Wilbur. As authorizi'd liy the third 
section of the city charter, already ((Udtcd, the coiincil had aildcil a 
fourth ward to Cleveland. Jolni (iill was chdNcii as iircsidcnt nl' the 
council. In Ohio City, Benjamin Sheldon was clcricd iiiaym-, and 
Ambrose Anthony, E. C. Blish, Tliomas llmadiam, William I!, (inylt^, 
]\I. h. Ilnoker, John Kirkpalriek, Thomas Lindsay. William II. New- 
ton, F. B. Pratt, Daniel P. Rhodes, C. L. Russell, and Daniel Sanford 
were elected councilmen. C. L. Russell was chosen jircsident df the 
conni'il. Cliristo])h('r ]']. ITill was cliosrn rccurdci' : Gilman {''nlsoni. 


treasurer; E. H. Lewis, nuiislial; and George Osimiii, street super- 

The C. C. & C. Enters Cleveland 

In 1845, Cleveland had voted $200,000 in aid of the Cleveland, Co- 
lumbus, and Cincinnati Railroad, and now (1851) a train, gaily 
deeked with flags and streamers, bore the executive and legislative 
otfieials of the state from Columbus to Cleveland. 

And the people did laugh to see 
Their rulers riding on a rail. 

In illustration of the difficulties that had been overcome and of the 
pluck and perseverance that had brought success, I quote a passage 
from A Sketcli of Early Times in Cleveland, written by Mr. 
George T. Marshall, a Cleveland pioneer whose pen and voice have 
given us many bright and humorous accounts of the early days : 

In order to save the charter, which had lain dormant for a time, 
it was thought best to make a sliow of work on the line already sur- 
veyed. One bright autumn forenoon about a dozen men got them- 
selves together near the ground now occupied by the A. & G. W. Rail- 
way depot with the noble purpose of inaugurating the work of build- 
ing the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad. Among the 
number was Alfred Kelley the President, T. P. Handy the Treasurer, 
J. H. Sargent the Engineer, James A. Briggs the Attorney, and II. B. 
Payne, Oliver Pen-y, John A. Foote and others besides your humble 
servant. On that memorable spot one could look upon those vast 
fields of bottom land and nothing could be seen but unbroken wide 
meadows ; the brick residence of Joel Seranton on the north, and the 
ruins of an old mill in the ravine of Walworth Run on the south, 
were the only show of buildings in all that region round about. These 
gentlemen had assembled to inaugurate the work on the railway, yet 
there was a sadness about them that could be felt, there was some- 
thing that told them that it would be difficult to make much of a 
railroad without monc.v and labor. Yet they came on pui-pose to 
make a show of a beginning. Alfred took a sliovel and with bis foot 
pressed it well into the soft and willing earth, placing a good chunk 
in the tran(|nil wheelbarrow close at hand, repeating the operation 
until a load was attained and dumping it a rod or so to the south. 
We all shouted a good sized shout that the road was really inaugurated. 
Then ^Ir. Handy did a little of the same work as well as Sargent and 
Briggs. while I sat on the nearest log re.joicing to see the work going 
on so lively and in such able hands. The fact was demonstrated that 
the earth was willing if man would only keep the shovel, the pick 
and the wheelbarrow moving lively according to this beginning. All 
that fall and winter one man was kept at work on the great enter- 
prise, simply to hold the charter with a hope that some thing would 
turn up to enable the directors to push things with a greater show 


for ultimate success. During the winter that followed any one pass- 
ing up Pittsburgh street [Broadway] near the bluff could see day 
by day the progress this one man power was making in his work. 
Foot by foot each day the brown earth could be seen gaining on the 
white snow on the line towards Columlnis, and hope remained lively 
in the breast of everyone tliat saw the progress, tliat if tlie physical 
powers of that solitary laborer held out long enough, he woidd some 
day be able to go to state's prison bj' rail. There was a serious hin- 
drance in the progress of the work, which came in this wise. The 
laborer who had so great a job on his hands took a look and a thought 
of what he had to do — it was one hlmdred and forty miles to Colum- 
bus and it was best to hurry up or the road would not be ready for 
use for quite a spell to come ; he set to work with renewed energy for 
a while, then threw himself (|uite out of breath on the ground for a 
brief rest when tlie rheumatism took hold of him and sciatica troubled 
his limbs so much that the great work was brought to a standstill : 
he struck for his altars and his fires at home, while the next fall of 
snow obliterated the line of his progress towards the south, and the 
directors got together to devise ways and means to keep the work 
moving onward. It was said that the best thing they could do under 
this stress of circumstances was to devise a method for drying and 
warming the ground so that a like calamity would not occur to their 
workman, wishing to encourage every freak he had to work a little 
faster, provided he would do so at the same wages. Soon after this 
calamity befell the laborer and the road, a meeting was called at 
Empire Hall and it was a jam. Alfred Kelley discoursed on the 
subject of the railwa.y and telling us that if we did not take hold of 
this opportunity to make an iron way to the center of the state 
Cleveland would only be known in the Gazeteers as a small town on 
Lake Erie about six miles from Newburgh where steamers sometimes 
stop to wood and water. By a sudden stroke of generalsliip the exit 
doors of the hall were locked and the audience were held until all 
were converted to the faith and pooled in enough to secure the road 
and add a few more men to the work, when, after a reasonabU^ time, 
the solons of our legislature came up here on the 22d of February 
and celebrated the completion of tlie Cleveland, Columbus and Cin- 
cinnati Railroad, and the l)irth(lay of Washington all at once. 

CleveIjAnd & .Maiion'ing Railroad Completed 

The Cleveland and .Malmniiig Ixailmad was diai'tered in lliis year 
(1851). It was comi)leted from Cleveland to Voungstown in ISf)?. 
This road was later known as the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad. 
The completion of these railways produced great i'i>joicings, for "dm-- 
ing till' prriiid of llii'ir construction the city had been almost daily 
ailding to tlie number of its inhaliitants, so that it liad nearly doubled 
in the last six years, its poinilation being now 21.140, and in the fol- 
liiwing year flS.")2) it added S7 ]icrs(iiis ])(>r week to its nnmliers. 

1851] WOODLAXD rE:\rETEKY 219 

being then 25,670." In August of tliis ycai-, (in motion of Mr. Bliss, 
detinite aetion was taken hy tlie council toward .securing a new cem- 
etery. Tlu> resolution dii-oetod the mayor to buy a certain sixty 
aeres of land and authorized him to '"issue in payment for said land 
bonds of the I'ity of Cleveland in sums of $1,000 . . . for the 
aggregate sum of .i<13,689.'' The cemetery thus secured was named 
"Woodland"": it is still used for the piii'[)oses for which it was bought. 



In 1852, Abner C. Brownell was elected mayor of Cleveland. The 
aldermen were John B. Wigman, Leander M. Hubby, Basil L. Spaug- 
ler, and Buckley Stedman. The eouncilmen, two from each ward in 
order, were Henrj' Morgan, Aaron Merchant, William H. ShoU, Rob- 
ert B. Bailey, Stoughton Bliss, John B. Smith, Admiral N. Gray, and 
Henry Howe. Mr. Hubby was chosen as president of the council. In 
Ohio City, Benjamin Sheldon was elected mayor, and Ambrose An- 
thony, E. C. Blish, Thomas Burnham, M. Crasper, William B. Guyles, 
James Kirby, William H. Newton, Daniel P. Rhodes, Daniel Sanford, 
Homer Strong, D. C. Taylor, and Charles Winslow were elected as 
eouncilmen. Mr. Winslow was chosen as president of the council. 
Christopher E. Hill was chosen recorder; Sanford J. Lewis, treas- 
urer; Nathan K. McDole, marshal ; and A. C. Beardsley, street super- 

Municipal Water Supply 

As town and village, Cleveland had three sources of water supply, 
springs, wells, and the lake. "There was a fine spring on the hill- 
side near Superior lane where Lorenzo Carter first built his cabin in 
IT!)?, and another near the foot of Maiden lane, where Biyaut's dis- 
tiller_v was built a few years later. It was easy to dig wells through 
the saudy loam into the gravel, and the town folks had no trouble in 
finding an abundance of water. A town pump was put up on the 
corner of Superior and Water streets and one on the Square, and deep 
cisterns were placed at numerous intervals for storing water to put 
out fires. A favorite drinking well w-as the spring near the barn of 
the ClevcJaiul House, on the northwest corner of the Square. On the 
corner of Pi-ospect street and Ontario, was a ])uiiip aiul a drinking 
tank or reservoir for horses." In the Annuls (if Ihe Early Settlers' 
Association, Mrs. George B. JFerwin has told us that "on the south 
side of Superior street, nearly opposite the City Hall, T should think, 
there was a spring of soft water, and near it a shelter was Imilt of 



boughs of trees in suninier, and here many of the women used to eou- 
gregate for washing:, hanging tlieir eUjthes on the surrounding 
bushes. The wells, what few there were, eontaining only hard water. 
The only water carrier for a long time was Beuhu Johnson, wlio with 
his sister, a JIi-s. White, lived on Euclid street, about where the 
Vienna Coft'oe House is now [1880]. Henhu with his wooden leg, 
little wagon and old hoi-se, was in great demand on Mondays, when he 
drew two barrels of water at a time, covered with blankets, up the 
long, steep hill from the river, now known as Vineyard street, to 
parties requiring the element. In fancy I see him now, with his un- 
painted vehicle, old white horse, himself stumbling along keeping time 
to the tune of 'Roving Sailor' which he was fond of singing, occa- 
sionally starting 'Old Whitey' with a kick from the always ready 
leg, especially if he had been imbibing freely." In 1838, Philo Scovill 
and others received a charter for the Cleveland Water Company, as 
already recorded, and, in 1850, an extension of the charter rights was 
secured and a little of the stock was sold, but nothing more had come 
of the scheme. But now, the unsanitary condition of the city and the 
frequent fire losses urged the city to action. Water works had be- 
come a necessity and public meetings were held to consider the matter ; 
of course "there was considerable doubt whether the city or private 
parties should build the water works." In 1850, George A. Benedict 
and others petitioned the city council to employ an expert to study 
the various sources of water supply and the probable cost of city 
water works. In January, 1851, an able committee was appointed by 
the council with authority to employ a hydraulic engineer. On the 
twenty-ninth of October, 1852, and after nearly two years of investi- 
gation, the special committee that was appointed in January, 1851, 
made a report to the council concerning a municipal water supply. 
The committee had investigated the Chagrin River, Tinker's Creek, 
Mill Creek, and Shaker Run, and thought that any one of these might 
be adequate for the purpose, but their conclusion was that "Lake 
Erie is the only source to which we can resort for an unfailing supply 
of pure soft water." * As to control, they agreed that ''all experience 
shows that such undertakings can be carried on more economically 
by individuals or companies than by municipal corporations and 
also better managed after construction," l)ut that, for want of .suffi- 
cient available capital, private construction of water works for Cleve- 
land was not practicable. To this, was added the following chunk of 
wisdom: "One thing is clear to us, the city should by no means 

* The pollution of the waters of the lake by the sewage of the cities on 
its borders was nut tlicii a]iprociabU'. 


allow the power to pass from them of keeping the control, or assum- 
ing it at such times as they might think proper, upon certain stipu- 
lated terms.'" As to methods of operation, they recommended the 
iise of powerful engines to pump the water from the lake, sufficient 
in quantity for the wants of .seventy-five thousand persons, and that 
the water be stared in a resei'voir at least a hundred and fifty feet 
above the lake for distribution over the city. They further recom- 
mended that the intake should be at least one mile east from the foot 
of Water (West Ninth) Street and that the suction pipe should extend 
"some one thousand feet into the lake to avoid the impurities of the 
shore." They estimated that the two Cornish engines contemplated, 
the adequate reservoir, distributing pipes, real estate and labor 
would cost $.353.335.9.5, urged the immediate employment of a compe- 
tent engineer, and warmly commended ilr. Theodore R. Scowden of 
the Cincinnati water works as "a gentleman whose science and ex- 
perience entitle him to great confidence in the planning and execu- 
tion of such works, and we feel no hesitancy in suggesting his name 
to the council." This important and interesting report was accom- 
panied by a not less interesting report of analyses of waters from 
various springs, wells, and other near-by sources. By way of illus- 
tration, it was stated that the water from a well between Superior 
and Center streets, the oldest part of the city, "is used for many pur- 
poses, but is not much used for drink. Its taste is unpleasant and 
color yellowish. The water is bad and contains much organic matter. 
. . . Water from the Cuyahoga River, taken at the time of low 
water, iu August, at a depth of ten feet at the railroad bridge so as to 
avoid the impurities of the surface and the slime of the bottom," 
was found to be "clear and soft and almost limpid and, by standing 
some days, became entirely limpid with a scarcely- perceptible, light, 
flocculent .sediment" [!], while water taken "in the calm, sultry eve- 
ning in .\ugust" from the lake, half a mile off shore and a mile east 
of the lighthouse, wa.s "limpid, cool, and pleasant to the taste." The 
report of the committee and that of tlie analyst were referred by the 
council to a special committee that they aiifhorized to employ com- 
petent engineers and instructed to "make the necessary survey and 
draw plans for the work to be suliinittcil In the rouiiril at an early 
date." Mr. Scowden got llic appiiintiiK'nt as rccnimiicndcd by the 

The Clevel.vno or 1853 

In accordaiu'c with the provisions of a new stale constilutidii. the 
state legislature pa.ssed a law rejiealing all the municipal chai'tiTs Ihrn 










in force and providing new regulations for the organization and gov- 
ernment of such corporations. In Cleveland, aldermen were dis- 
peu.sed with; a police court, the duties of which had previously been 
performed by the mayor, was established, and the number of elected 
officials wa.s increased. In 1853, Abner C. Brownell was again elected 
mayor of Cleveland, and two trustees from each of the four wards 
were elected, viz., John B. Wigman, George F. Marshall, William H. 
Sholl, James Gardner, William J. Gordon, Robert Reilley, Henry 
Everett, and Richard C. Parsons. Mr. Sholl was chosen as president 
of the council. John Barr was elected police judge; Orlando J. 
Hodge, clerk of the police court ; Bushnell White, prosecuting attor- 
ney; James Barnett, Onson Spencer, and Alexander W. Walter, di- 
' rectors of the infirmary; Alexander Mcintosh, J. ]\I. Hughes, and J. B. 
Wheeler, commissioners of streets ; Michael Gallagher, marshal ; J. B. 
Bartlet, auditor; William Hart, treasurer; James Fitch, solicitor; 
William Cowan, chief engineer of the fire department; C. Stillman, 
harbor master; James A. Craw, sexton; W. A. Morton, superin- 
tendent of markets ; .David Shut, sealer of weights and measures; A. 
Wheeler, weigher; J. W. Pillsbury, civil engineer; W. R. Simmons, 
John Odell, Barney Mooney, and James Hill, constables; James 
Whitaker, William Redhead, David Sehub, and James Proudfoot, 
assessors. In spite of the economic folly of such a scattering of ad- 
ministrative responsibility, serious mistakes in the choice of men seem 
to have been generally avoided. If any such mistakes were made, the 
account was evened up by the choice that the electors made for mem- 
bers of the city's firat board of water works commissioners or trustees, 
Henry B. Payne, B. L. Spangler, and Richard Hilliard. Upon this 
trio devolved the duty of building Cleveland's first municipal water 
works. Late in the preceding official year (February 28, 1853), Mr. 
Seowdeii, the water works engineer, submitted a preliminai-y report to 
tlu; city council. In the following April, the electors voted on a propo- 
sition to issue water works bonds, with the following result : 

For Against 

First ward 365 55 

Second ward 285 218 

Third ward 423 61 

FonHli ward l.')7 265 

Total 1,2.30 599 

'I'd ilir iirwiy elected board of watci- works trustees. Engineer Scow- 
don, in June, reported Ihrce jJans. The first ]>lan contcini)lat(>d a 




Vol. 1—15 


reservoir of 1.000,000 gallons capacity, at the corner of Sterling 
Avenue and Euclid Street, and a pumping station at the foot of Ster- 
ling Avenue, at an estimated cost of $431,335.60. The second plan 
included either the building of an embankment reservoir, with a 
5,000,000 gallon capacity, at Sterling Avenue and St. Clair Street, 
costing $544,807.04, or with the reservoir at Superior Street and 
Sterling Avenue, costing $670,419.84. The third plan placed the 
entire works on the west side of the river, a 5,000,000 gallon reser- 
voir on Kentucky (West Thirty-eighth) Street and Franklin Avenue, 
with an engine house or pumping station at the foot of Kentucky 
Street at an estimated cost of $436,698.40. The annexation of Ohio 
City seems to have been accepted as a foregone conclusion, for the 
third plan was chosen. In October, the coiuicil adopted a resolution 
that the water works should be built on the West Side and at once 
took measures to appropriate the necessary land. The city subse- 
quently i.ssued and delivered to the water works trustees bonds to the 
amount of $400,000 and the work was done without exceeding the 
amount of the appropriation — a rare and commendable perform- 
ance. Work on the pumping station was begun in August, 1854, and 
work on the reservoir in the following month, but before the contem- 
plated protection was afforded came a hot and fiery lesson on the 
wisdom of timely preparedness — as we shall soon see. In this year 
(1853), the Cleveland and JIarquette Iron Company landed here the 
first iron ore brought to the city — half a dozen barrels of it, it is said. 

Great oaks from little acorns grow. 

Ohio City op 1853 

In the spring of this year (1853), Ohio City had elected William 
B. Castle as mayor and Plimmon C. Bennett, Daniel 0. Hoyt, 
A. C. Messenger, Wells I'orter, Albert Powell, Charles L. Rhodes, 
and D. C. Taylor as trustees. Albert Powell was chosen as president 
of the council. Christopher E. Hill was elected recorder; Sanford J. 
Lewis, treasurer ; Nathan K. McDole, marshal and street supervisor. 

In November, 1853, the council of the City of Cleveland adopted 
a resolution that provided for the appointment of a committee to confer 
with a committee from the council of the City of Ohio with a view to 
"taking initiatory steps toward the annexation of said city to the City 
of Cleveland," a matter that had long been under serious considera- 
tion. This committee reported, on the of February, 18.54, their 
recommendation that the councils of the two cities pass oi'dinances 
submitting to the voters thereof the question of uniting the two mu- 

1854] ANNEXATION 227 

nieipalities. The ordinances consequently passed and the vote was 
taken on the third day of April, 1854, witli tiie following result: 

For Against 

In Cleveland 1.892 400 

In Ohio City 618 258 

Totals 2,510 658 

At this time the ninnieipal government of Ohio City was organized 
as follows: William 13. Castle, mayor; Plinnnon C. Bennett, Irvine 
U. blasters, A. C. Messenger, Charles W. Palmer, Wells Porter, 
Albert Powell, Edward Russell and Frederick Silberg, trustees; Mr. 
Powell, president of the council; Christopher E. Hill, recorder; 
Sauford J. Lewis, treasurer; Nathan K. McDole, marshal; and David 
Grififith, street supervisor. As Mayor Brovvnell had been elected for 
a term of two years, there was no canvass for mayor of Cleveland 
at this time, but there was an imderstanding that the next mayor 
should be taken from the west side of the river. The commissionei's 
appointed to draft the terms of imion were, on the part of Cleve- 
land, W. A. Otis, H. V. Willsou, and Franklin T. Backus ; those chosen 
by Ohio City were William B. Castle, Needham M. Standart, and 
C. S. Rhodes. The report of the commissioners was adopted on the 
fifth of June, and provided, among other things, "that the territoi-y 
now constituted the City of Ohio shall be annexed to, and constitute 
a part of, the city of Cleveland, and the First, Second, Third and 
Fourth wards of the former city as now established shall constitute 
the Eighth, Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh wards respectively of the last 
named city ; and the present trustees of said wards ... shall 
hold their ofiSces . . . for the terms for which they have been 
severally elected." In accordance with this provision, the local legis- 
lature was constituted as follows : Mayor, Abner C. Brownell. 
Trustees, two from each ward in order, John B. Wigman, Chai'les 
Bradburn, William H. Sholl, James Gardner, Christopher Mollen, 
Robert Reilley, Henry Everett, Richard C. Pai-sons, Chauucey Tiee, 
-Alathew S. Cotterell, Bolivar Butts, John A. Bishop, W. C. B. Rich- 
ardson, George W. ^lorrill, A. C. Messenger, Charles W. Palmer, 
Wells Porter. Albert Powell, Plimmon C. Bennett, Irvine U. Masters, 
Edward Russell and Frederick Silberg. At the first meeting of the 
council after the annexation (June 10, 1854), Richard C. Parsons 
was chosen as president, and "the venerable J. B. Bartlett" was, 
for the third or fourth time, elected as clerk and auditor. The Daily 
Express and the Waechter am Erie were made the official papers and, 



in Au^st, proceedings were begun to appropriate land for the "West 
Side reservoir. 

At this time, there was "not a square yard of stone paving on 
either side of the river, except on Superior street hUl from Water 
street to the public landing on the river. Soon followed, however, 
the paving of Union street, from River street, to its intersection with 
Superior street hill, while Superior .street from the public square 
to Water street was a slushing, twisted and rotten plank road, and 
every other street in the city was a mud road of almost unfathomable 
depth in the rainy season." Anything like a system of sewers was 
nonexistent and hardly contemplated : the records of the city show 
that when, as a sanitary measure to prevent the ravages of cholera, 

New England House 

an ordinance was passed prohibiting tlie throwing of dirty water into 
the streets and alleys, the citizens protested and urged that tempo- 
rary drains be cut to answer as sewers. 

Destructive Fires 

In this year (1854), Cleveland suffered serious losses by lire. In 
April, an incendiary fire on Seneca (West Third) Street near 
Superior, destroyed an engine house, a drug store, and two or three 
other hoases; the sparks set fire to a planing mill on Michigan Street, 
a paint shop, a cooper shop, a brewery and dwelling house ; the total was estimated at if^lS.OOO. On the seventh of October, a fire broke 
out at noon and destroyed more than a score of buildings, nearly all 


that there were on the soutli side of the sciuare; the ohl courthouse 
eaujrht fire but tlie flames were put out, and tlie old Baptist elmreh, 
at the corner of yeueea and Champlain streets, dedicated in 1836, 
narrowly escaped the flames. Twenty days later (October 27), a 
livery stahle was set on fire and the flames spread disastrouslj-. The 
New I]nglaud House, at the corner of Superior and ]\Ierwin streets, 
the Commercial Exchange, a three-story brick building, and the St. 
Charles Hotel, were burned. Nearly every building on Merwin Street 
and the entire block enclosed by Superior Lane, James Street, and the 
railroad were destroyed, and Oviatt's three-story brick block on the 
north side of Suj)crior Street was gutted. It was the greatest fire 
that Cleveland had ever experienced ; the lo.sses were estimated at $215,- 
000. In the following month, the Episcopal chiireh at the corner 
of Seneca and St. Clair streets, the oldest church building in the 
city, suffered. The experiences of the year empha.sized the need of 
better fire protection and especially a more ample water supply. 

The Canal Bank Closes Its Doors 

But the great fires were not the only disasters that had of late 
huddled on the back of the city. In 1845, the Canal Bank of Cleve- 
land had been organized as an independent bank. Early in Novem- 
ber, 1854, the Canal Bank closed its doors, "exploded into thin air" 
is the of Jlr. Kennedy, who tells us further that "those were 
exciting times to men who held the paper money then afloat, and 
who made haste to get rid of it in fear that it might turn to worth- 
less paper in their hands." During the day there was a crowd about 
the door of the bank where a foi'ce of police was stationed to prevent 
any disturbance. The Plmn Dealer of the ninth of November records 
the fact that "the billholders who got the gold for their notes 
were arrayed in smile.s, and contrasted most vigorou.sly with the 
grim-visaged depositors who got nothing." But not every depositor 
wa.s willing to let his loss go by with nothing more than sour looks 
and empty pockets. "On the day preceding the failure, a fresh- 
water captain named Gummage had deposited one thousand dollars, 
the result of the season's labor and danger on the great lakes. "When 
told that his was swallowed up, he became desperate, and pro- 
ceeded to a desperate remedy. Arming himself, he entered the 
bank and demanded his money. When it was refused, he said: 'It 
is all the money I ovni in the world, and I will have it or I will 
kill you ! ' He meant what he said and looked his meaning, and his was handed over without parley. No one ever proceeded against 


him, in law or othei'wise." Then, too, we have the story of Doctor 
Ackley's raid on the outer and the inner walls of the bank vault. 
"Dr. H. C. Ackley, who was as determined as he was eccentric, had 
a personal deposit in the Canal Bank, but laid no claim to it in 
preference over the other victims. He was, however, one of the 
trustees of the State Insane Asylum at Newburg, and had placed in 
the bank nine thousand dollars of the public funds. On the announce- 
ment of the suspension, he demanded this sum, which he did not 
get. He hurried to the sheriff's office and swore out a writ of attach- 
ment. Sheriff M. M. Spangler proceeded to the bank, which was locat- 
ed on Superior street, near the American House."' When the sher- 
iff's demand for the keys of the vault was refused, he proceeded to 
break open the vault. According to the Herald, "the excitement, both 
inside and outside the bank, wa.s intense while the work proceeded ; 
but, to the credit of our citizens, no signs of riot were displayed. 
Dr. Ackkn- has a heavy deposit of his own, but has procured an 
attachment only on behalf of the State, claiming that unless its money 
is procured, the asylum at Newburg cannot be opened for more than 
a year, and that during that time one hundred insane patients will 
be deprived of treatment." When Sheriff Spangler found that "brick 
walls and iron doors opposed the entrance of the law, he summoned 
several stalwart deputies, and. under the guardianship of Dr. Ackley, 
who is said bj' ancient rumor to have threatened to shoot the first 
man who interfered, laid down such lusty blows as had not been 
heard since Richard of the Lion Heart drove his battle-axe against 
the castle gates of Front-de-Boeuf. Sledge-hammers swung in the 
air, and came down on the brick work with a crash; clouds of lime 
and mortar filled the room. The population of Cleveland could almost 
have been enumerated from those who crowded on the scene. The 
officers and clerks of the hank looked on, helpless to prevent, and in 
no position to aid. F. T. Backus, a part owner of the building and 
the attorney of the bank, rushed in and ordered a halt, on the grounds 
of trespass. The sheriff replied that he had come for the money, and 
that it was a part of his official oath to get it. The blows still fell, 
and at one o'clock the outer wall of the vault was Ijroken, and meas- 
ures set on foot to break into the burglar-proof safe. Truces were 
held, from time to time, lawyers rushed here and there, witli mes- 
sages, advice, and papers; but the sheriff knew no law but that of his 
writ, and had but one purpose, which was to get at the cash. Finally, 
late at night, to .save the safe from damage, the assignees gave up the 
keys, and the hard-earned money was carried away by the sheriff. 
There were .$400 in gold and $1,460 in I)ills." The liabilities of the 


bank were $308,000 and its assets $282,000. In that day, such a 
failure was a iiKinientous tiiiaiicia! event. 

Young JLen's Christian Association Organized 

It is pleasant to turn for a moment from the consideration of 
tire losses and bank failures to that of an enterprise that has been 
productive of increasing good through all the years that have since 
passed. On the evening of ]Monday, the sixth of February, 1854, a 
meeting was held for the purpose of organizing a Young Men's 
Christian Association. The Rev. S. C. Aiken was chairman ; Samuel 
B. Shaw was secretary; and, "on motion, S. II. Matlier, Presbyterian; 
Loren Prentiss, Baptist; L. M. H. Battey, Congregational; E. W. 
Roby, Episcopal; and E. P. Young, Methodist," were appointed as 

Northrop and Spangler Block 

a committee to draft a plan of operations, a constitution, and by- 
laws, and to report at as early a date as possible. On the twenty- 
eighth of February, a second meeting was held in the lecture room of 
the Fii-st Baptist Church on Seneca (West Third) Street. Sixty 
names were included in a list of members, the constitution and by-laws 
were adopted, and officers were chosen: John S. Newberrj-, pi-esident; 

E. W. Rob}', vice-president; Samuel B. Shaw, recording secretary; 
Loren Prentiss, corresponding secretary ; A. W. Brockway, treasurer ; 
Dan P. Eells, R. F. Humiston, James M. Iloyt, J. J. Low, and H. 
Montgomery, directors; S. W. Adams, G. W. Whitney, F. T. Brown, 

F. B. Culver, E. F. Young. D. C. Hoffman, T. G. Cleveland, Henry 
Childs, L. M. II. Battey, :\I. C. Sturtevant, S. L. Severance, and S. 
P. Churchill, board of managers. The first rooms of the association 
were in the Northrup and Spangler Block, on the southeast corner of 
Superior and Seneca (West Third) streets. In 1858, the Associa- 



tion was housed iu the Strickland Block fronting on the Public 
Square. In 1871, it was in its own building (the gift of James F. 
Clark) on the north side of the Public Square. Ten years later, the 
five-story building on the southwest corner of Euclid Avenue and 
Sheriff (East Fourth) Street was bought. At the end of another 
decade (1891), more adequate accommodations were provided in 
the beautiful building erected especially for it on the southeast cor- 


ncr of Prospect Avenue ami East Ninth Street. But Cleveland aiul 
its Young Men's Christian Association would not stop gi-owing. Tn 
half of February, 19]0, the members of the Association i)usbed their 
campaign for half a million dollars and secured more tliau 17,000 
subscribers, and an oversubscription of more than forty thousand 
dollars. The building at the corner of ProspiH't and East Ninth was 
sold and the present building at No. 2200 Prosjiect Avenue was liuilt. 
A more extended account of the association will be given in a later 



When the City of Clevoliuul was incorporated, its offices were first 
established in the Commercial Building on lower Superior Street. 
For many years they had no fixed abode but w^ere moved "from 
pillar to post;" they were not housed in the same building and some- 
times not even in the same neighborhood. In 1855, John Jones built 
a three-story brick block on the south side of the Public Square and 
near the southwest corner thereof; the building is still there. The 
city leased the two upper stories of the building and established its 
various offices on the second floor; the third floor was used for the of the city council. The council first met in its new quarters 
on the fourteenth of November, 1855. Here the municipal govern- 
ment was housed for two decades. 

The M.\yobs op Cleveland 

As stated in the preceding chapter, there was an informal under- 
standing that the first mayor of Cleveland elected after the annexa- 
tion of Ohio City should be selected from the citizens of the West 
Side. This "gentleman's agreement" was made good by the election 
of AYilliam B. Castle. Thus the last mayor of the City of Ohio be- 
came the first mayor of the amplified City of Cleveland. The 
mayoralty lists of both cities complete to the date of the annexation 
has been given. The mayors of the City of Cleveland since that date 
are named in the following list: 

1855-57— William B. Castle 
1857-59 — Samuel Starkweather 
1859-61— George B. Senter 
1861-6.3— Edward S. Flint 
1863-65 — Irvine I'. Masters 
George B. Senter 
1865-67— Herman M. Chapin 
1867-71 — Stephen Buhrer 
1871-73— Frederick W. Pelton 
1873-7.5— Charles A. Otis 
1875-77— Nathan P. Pavne 
l877.7C)_AVi]liam G. Rose 
1879-8.3— R. R. TTen-ick 
1883-85— John H. Farlev 

1885-87— George W. Gardner 
1887-89— Brenton D. Babcock 
1889-91— George W. Gardner 
1891-93— William G. Rose 
1893-9.5— Robert Blec 
1895-99— Robert E. ]\lcKisson 
1899-01— John IT. Farley 
1901-10— Tom L. Johnson (Four 
terms, ending Janu- 
ary 1, 1910) 
1910-12— Herman C. Baehr 
1912-16- Newton D. Baker 
1916- — Harrv L. Davis. 



Municipal Improvements 

On the twenty-fourth of September, 1856, the Cornish engines in 
the municipal pumping station "down by the old river bed sent the 
welcome waters of the lake dancing more than a hundred feet into 
the air and filled the little lake on the Kentucky Sti-eet mound [i. e., 
the West Side reservoir] , and from thence bent on its mission of joy, 
health, comfort and luxury to the homes of the people. From hence- 
forth, the wells of hard and milky mineral waters were abandoned, 
pumps were no longer jerked, cisterns of black and stagnant rain 
water were closed, and even the pure little spring down in the bottom 

"^ ia^. 

William B. Castle 

of some far off deep ravine soon became forgotten even by children." 
At this time, much of the marketing was on the streets, principally 
on Ontario Street and along the south side of the Public Sciuare. In 
December, 1856, the commissioners j)reviously appointed by the city 
council reported in favor of the junction of Pittsburgh (now Broad- 
way) and Bolivar streets as the site for a public market and there the 
still standing Central Market was begun in the spring of 1857. 

The Court-house of 1885 

With tlie rapid growth of Clevcliuid augmented by tlic ainu'.xation 
of Ohio City, as deseril^cd in tlu' ju-eceding chapter, came a corre- 
sponding growth of Cuyahoga County and an of its exooUive, 
administrative, and legal business. The court-house built in 1828 




was inadequate for the necessities of tiic new era ami it was decided 
to build a new structure on a new site. One of the earlier histories 
of Cleveland states that about this time, the city council "instructed 
the city clerk to notify the county commissioners to remove tlie old 
court-house from the public square as soon as possible. It had been 
abandoned as a place for holding courts, and none of its former 
official tenants remained within its walls l)ut the county recorder. The 
new court-house on tlie north side of tlie square was not yet con- 

The Court-house in 1885 

structed, and the ancient Baptist church on the corner of Seneca and 
Champlaiu streets had been fitted up and was used for court purposes. 
The commissioners took uml)rage at the civil and courteous notifica- 
tion, and were not very diplomatic in thoir answer when they reminded 
the council that they had better confide their labors to their own 
legitimate business." Land on the north side of Rockwell Street, 
just across the narrow street at tlie northwest corner of the Public 
Square was secured, and a contract was let (November 10, 1857) for 
a three-story stone building thereon at a cost of $152,500. This build- 
ing (now called "the Old Court House") was supplemented in 1875, 


by an additional building extending from it westward to Seneca (West 
Third) Street. This somewhat stately addition housed the probate 
court and some other appendages of county government and cost 
$250,000. In 1884, the old building received two additional stories at 
a cost of $100,000. The accommodations thus provided gradually 
wei'e outgrown and, in 1902, the need for something better had become 
imperative, and the opportane campaign for "The Group Plan" for 
the civic structures of city and county (elsewhere described) deter- 
mined the site for the court-house of today. This fine building was 
completed in 1911, at a cost of $950,000 for land, and of $4,706,343.44 
for the biiilding. 

In 1857, came another panic with consequent refusal of many 
persons to make new investments and a general stagnation of business. 
But the Cleveland banks stood the strain without any failures and the 
storm went by without causing general wreckage like that of 1837. 
Another unhappy incident of that year (March 8) was the burning 
of the "Old Stone Church" on the Public Square. The fact that the 
"Western Reserve was earnestly antagonistic to the institution of negro 
slavery, one of "the hot-beds of abolitionism," is pretty well known; 
.Joshua R. Giddings and rare "Old Ben Wade" made "benighted 
Ashtabula" famous. As already recorded, Cleveland had an anti- 
slavery society as early as 1810 and, in the fourth decade of that cen- 
tury (1833-37), such organizations were noteworthily energized. 

Oberlin- Wellington Rescue Cases 

In 1858, events in Kansas aroused the North to feverish excitement 
and, on the twelfth of March, the anti-Lecompton Democrats of 
Cleveland held in Melodeon Hall a meeting that was addressed by 
Frederick P. Stanton, lately the secretary and acting-governor of 
"lilceding Kfiusas." ]\Ir. Stanton had resigned his office on account 
of the presidential policy, especially as it related to the fraudulent 
returns of the vote by which the notorious Leeompton state constitu- 
lion had been "adopted." James M. Coftinbcrrv was chairman of the 
meeting, and Dan P. Rhodes, Jabez W. Fitcli, and John H. Farley 
were among tlie vice-presidents. One of the resolutions adopted 
declared "That the Leeompton constitution, in view of its parentage 
and histor\% is unworthy of the consideration of the president and 
congress." It is not on record that President Buchanan enjoyed this 
practical repudiation by these honest Democrats who had lately voted 
for him. Tlie iniquities of the fugitive-slave law also piled their bur- 
den on the conscience of New Connecticut and paved the way for stir- 


ring events in Cleveland and its environs. In 1859, the trial of the 
Oberliu-Wellington rescue cases in the United States court in Cleveland 
created groat excitement in the city and elsewhere. At that time, 
Oberlin, Ohio, had a population of about three thousand, exclusive 
of the twelve hundred or more students at the college which drew 
no restrictions on the line of color, sex, or creed. The collegiate 
advantages thus offered brought to the town many free negroes, and 
the public sentiment thus announced made Oberlin a haven of refuge 
for enterprising runaway slaves, some of whom had the courage to 
remain. Here, in September, 1858, a slave-catcher found John Price 
who had escaped from slavery in Kentucky. John was decoyed from 
the town, seized, and taken to Wellington nine miles away and on the 
railway between Cleveland and Columbus. The slave-catcher was 
intending to take John before the United States commissioner at 
Columbus. News of the abduction floated into Oberlin, and "was all 
over town in a flash." From shops, stores, and offices, men rushed 
into the streets, took the first vehicles found, and drove rapidly 
toward Wellington. Some of the students started on foot and had 
a lively race to beat their professors who went by any transportation 
that could be obtained. The minute men increased in numbers on 
the way and were further reinforced at Wellington. The four kid- 
nappers with their victim were behind the closed door of an upper 
room of the village hotel, awaiting the arrival of the train to take 
them to Columbus. The excited crowd surrounded the hotel ; the 
train came and went. While the prudent were parleying and the 
calm were discussing plans, the door was forced, John was taken 
down to the street, and driven out into the country before many of 
the rescuers understood what was being done. The citizens of Ober- 
lin, having made good their boast that a slave should never be taken 
from their town, quietly returned to their homes. For several days, 
John was secreted in the house of James H. Fairchild, professor of 
moral philosophy and theology, and, subsequently, the president of 
the college. John was finally shipped in safety to the free land 
across Lake Erie. 

For participation in this rescue, twenty-four residents of Oberlin 
and thirteen of Wellington were indicted (December 7, 1858) under 
the provisions of an act of 1850, and arraigned before the United 
States district court at Cleveland. No more respectable prisoners 
than these ever pleaded "not guilty." They were dismissed upon their 
own recognizance to appear for trial in the following March. In 
Jlarch, the trial was deferred another month. Four eminent attor- 
neys, Rufus P. Spalding, Franklin T. Backus, Albert G. Riddle, and 


Seneca 0. Griswolcl, volunteered their services for the defense without 
fees. The district attorney, George W. Belden, was aided by an able 
associate and both sides put forth extraordinary efforts. The 
prosecution had the sympathy of the judge; the defense, that of the 
community. The first to be brought to trial (April 7, 1859) was 
Simeon Bushuell. The evidence was clear, the law was plain, and 
the verdict was "guilty." The prisoner was sentenced to pay a 
fine of six hundred dollars and costs and to be imprisoned in the 
county jail for sixty days. At the end of the Bushnell trial, the 
court made a ruling so unfair that the others who had been indicted 
refused to continue their words of honor to appear in court when 
wanted. The ruling was subsequently recalled and the prisoners 
notified that their recognizances would be accepted as before. De- 
clining to renew their recognizances or to give bail, the indicted men 
became real prisoners. From the middle of April to July, the Cleve- 
land jail was the center of an intense and wide-spread interest. 
"It was a self-imposed martyrdom; but the fact could not be ignored 
that these respectable people were in prison, and the preaching on 
Sunday of Professor Peek from the jail-yard produced a remarkable 

The second person to be tried was Charles Langston, a colored 
man. He was found guilty. Before receiving sentence, Langston 
took advantage of the opportunity generally given and made an 
eloquent speech, a pathetic description of the negro's disabilities, 
and a claim that he had not been tried by his peers. When he took 
his seat, the court-room rang with applause and the court fixed the 
sentence — a hundred dollars fine and twenty days imprisonment. At 
the clpse of Langston 's trial, and wlion the remaining cases were 
about to be continued from the middle of May to the July term, 
three of the Wellington prisoners entered a plea of nolo contendere 
and were sentenced each to pay a fine of twenty dollars and cost of 
prosecution and to remain in jail twenty-four houi's. When "Father 
Gillette," an old man from Wellington, was entreated thus to leave 
the jail he replied: "Not until I liavc shrunk small enough to slip 
through that keyhole." rontiimanee in jail had lieconie a point of 

Ill the recess of the United States court at Cleveland, Bushnell 
and Langston were taken, on a writ of habeas corpus, before the 
judges of the supreme court of Ohio. The case was ably argued for 
a week, the attorney-general of the state appearing as counsel for 
the prisoners. The court divided three against two, and the prisoners 
were remanded. The vote of one man had turned the scale; had it 


been turned the other way, Dliio might have been brought into 
armed conflict with the national government and in defense of state 
rights. "Had tiie party of freedom throughout the North then 
rallied, as seemed probable, the war might have come in 1859 instead 
of 1861, with a secession of the nortliei-n instead of the southern 
States." Dazzling speculation ! 

The interest excited by these trials was deep and wide-spread. 
Public meetings were held in all parts of the Western Reserve and an 
immense mass convention of the opponents of the fugitive-slave law 
was held (May 24, 1859) in Cleveland. Delegations came from many 
counties of northern Ohio; they came "by trainload and wagonload. 
Thei'e were multitudes of bands and banners. A vaSt parade formed 
and marched by the pi'ison yard cheering the martyrs." A large 
platform was built in the Public Scjuare so near to the high fence 
around the jail that speakers could address the crowd from one side 
of the fence or the other as occasion required. From the inside of 
the fence, speeches that were free from any attempt to move the 
passions of the crowd were made by Langston, Professor Peck, Super- 
intendent Fitch, and other prisoners. On the other side of the fence, 
there was more fire. Cassius M. Clay of Kentucky wrote: "Are you 
ready to fight? If you have got your sentiments up to that manly 
pitch, I am with you through to the end. But if not, I'll have none 
of your conventions." Joshua R. Giddings, the president of the con- 
vention, was radical, almost revolutionary. Governor Salmon P. Chase 
advised patience and dependence upon legal and constitutional 
agencies, affirming, however, that when his time came and his duty 
was plain, the governor of Ohio would meet it as a man. Speeches 
were also made by Daniel R. Tilden, Rufus P. Spalding, and others. 
The resolutions that were adopted had something of the tone of a 
state-rights convention, but the crowds that had assembled to denounce 
one law were not there to break another. 

Meantime, the men behind the walls of the Cuyahoga County jail 
were doing propaganda work, writing to the newspapers, issuing 
pamphlets, and advising the preachers of the North to make sermons 
on the ease. The fire they started extended throughout all the states 
in the North. The railways carried relatives and friends to Cleve- 
land at reduced rates and the prisoners were bountifully supplied 
with all the delicacies of the market by the sympathizing public. 
Sheriff "Wightman and the jailor treated the prisoners as guests and 
friends rather than as criminals. Prisoner Fitch's Oberlin Sunday- 
school decided to pay a visit to the Cuyahoga jail to see their super- 
intendent instead of having their usual picnic. "When hopes of a 


speedy release vanished, the prisoners secured the tools of their 
several callings, and soon the jail-yard was a busy hive of industry. 
The professors and students read Latin and Greek and metaphysics, 
keeping up with their class work at college, and sending to the outside 
world stirring antislavery epistles. A printing office was established 
and The Rescuer issued. Religious exercises formed a considerable 
part of the daily life of this remarkable penal colony. 

In the meantime, the grand jury of Lorain County, in which were 
Oberlin and "Wellington, indicted the four men who had abducted the 
negro in violation of the laws of Ohio against kidnappers. The pen- 
alty for this offense was imprisonment for three years in the peniten- 
tiary, ' ' and if there was any one fact in the matter more certain than 
another, it was that if the indicted men should fall into the clutches 
of the Lorain County court they would serve the last hour allowed 
by the law." When, at the end of the second trial, counsel for the 
defense moved to take up the third case, the United States district 
attorney indignantly explained that his four witnesses were in the 
custody of the Lorain County court and that he was obliged to ask 
for a continuance to the sixth of July. After a skilful and amusing 
display of thrust and parry between the officials of the United States 
district court and those of the Lorain County court, in which the 
latter scored the more points, it became evident that the kidnappers 
must stand trial with a certainty of conviction, or leave the state and 
thus abandon the cases against the untried rescuers. The outcome 
appears in the following paragraph from the Cleveland Leader (July 
7, 1859) : 

Considerable excitement was created in this city by the announce- 
ment that a proposition had been made by the Kentucky kidnappers 
to have mutual nollcs entered in their own case and the case of the 
Oberlin rescuers. The consequence was the most intense anxiety 
among men, both Black Republicans and Yellow Democrats, to learn 
the upshot of the whole matter. The negotiations between Judge 
Belden and the kidnappers on. the one side, and the authorities of 
Lorain (holding the kidnappers) on the other (the Oberlinites refus- 
ing to be parties), were consummated yesterday when Marshal John- 
son called at the jail and ainiounccd to the rescue prisoners that they 
were free. The news spread rai)idly that the government officials 
had caved. Huiulrods inunediately called on the rescniers to tender 
their congratulations at this signal triumph of the Higher Lawites. 
In tlie afternoon, about five o'clock, one hnndi-ed guns were firetl, and 
several hundreds of our citizens gathered at the jail to escort the 
rescuers to the depot. 

On the other side, the Cleveland Plain Dealer said: "So the gov- 
ernment has been beaten at last, with law, justice and facts all on its 


side; and Oborlin, witli its irl)ollioiis lii^hcr-law i-reod, is triomphant. " 
At Oberliii the whole ooimnuiiity iiiot tlic rescuers with music aud 
cheers and prayers. A few days hitor, Bnslinell, who had served out. 
Ids sentence, returned to Oherlin and was received as a conquering 

The H.\nging of Joirx Rrown 

Later in the year, Jolm Rrown was hanfied. He had lived in 
northern Ohio and his pieturestiue career was familiar to the people 
of that section, many of w-hom sympathized w ith his purposes, con- 
doned his illegal doings, and now were thoi-oughly aroused. On the 
twenty-nintli of Xoveml)er (1859), a meeting, presided over by Judge 
D. R. Tilden, was heUl to make preparation for a proper observance 
of the day of Brown "s exv''eution. It was recommended "that the 
bells of the churches in the city be tolled for half an hour from 
2 p. m., Tuesday, December 2 ; that a general meeting be held at 
Melodeon Hall at 7:00 o'clock p. m. on that day to give expression to 
public sentiment on the occasion of the sacrifice to the Moloch of 
■ Slavery by the killing of the body of Jolm Rrown by the common- 
wealth of Virginia." On the day of the execution, the Herald was 
printed with black bordei's, tiags were at half mast, and a white ban- 
ner bordered with black was stretched across Superior Street quoting 
the famous declaration of "the martyr": "I do not think I can 
better serve the cause I love so much than to die for it;" words that 
were made prophetic by the quick intensifying of antislavery senti- 
ment, one result of which was the election of Abraham Lincoln. 

In 1859, the East Cleveland Railway Company was organized and, 
in 1860, it was opened for business between Bank (West Sixth) Street 
and Willson Avenue (East Fifty-fifth Street). On the sixth of 
October, on that year (1860), ground was broken at the eastern ter- 
minus and the president of the company, Henry S. Stevens, "invited 
the stockholders and patrons present to meet at the other end of the 
route, near Water (West Ninth) Street, three weeks from that day 
to celebrate the completion of the first street railroad in Cleveland 
and in the state." The line was extended to Doan's Corners in 1863. 
In 1859, the Kinsman Street Railway Company was organized and 
part of the present Woodland Avenue line was built. In 1863, the 
West Side Railway Company was formed. These pioneer lines "had 
a great influence in developing Cleveland, and in placing her business 
and manufacturing districts in touch with the residence portions. To 
these lines more than to anything else, perhaps, is it the fact that 


Cleveland is a city of homes and that somewhere within reach of daily 
business or employment can be found a location for home-owning 
and home-building that is not beyond the financial means of the most 
humble laborer. A city in which the great majority are their own 
landlords is built upon a rock of stability that nothing can shake." 
The detailed story of the development of Cleveland's street railway 
system, including the coming and the doings of the unique Tom L. 
Johnson, deserves a chapter by itself. 

Journeys op the Perry Monument 

In 1860, came the erection and dedication of the Perry Monument, 
commemorative of the naval victory on Lake Erie in 1813. The idea 
of such a material tribute to him who wrote the laconic dispatch, 
"We have met the enemy and they are ours," seems to have originated 
in 18.57 with Hai-^'ey Rice, then a member of the city council. The 
council appointed a select committee of five, of which Harvey Rice 
was chairman, with authority to solicit contributions from the citizens 
to meet the expenses of the project. The committee entered into eon- 
tract for the work with T. Jones and Sons of Cleveland, the con- 
tractors taking on themselves the risk of obtaining the required amount. 
The five thousand dollars raised by public subscription was supple- 
mented by a little more than three thousand dollars appropriated by 
the city council to make up the deficiency. William Walcutt designed 
the statue, the marble wa,s brought from Italy, and the work was done 
in Cleveland. The pedestal was of granite from Rhode Island, Perry's 
native state. The city council ordered that the monument should be 
placed in the Public Square, at the intersection of the middle lines 
of Superior and Ontario streets, and there it was originally placed. 
On the forty-seventh anniversary of Perry's victory, witli elaborate 
formalities and in the presence of as.sembled thousands including the 
governors of Rhode Island and of Ohio, the monument was unveiled 
by the sculptor (September 10, 1860), presented in an address by 
Harvey Rice, and accepted on behalf of the city by Mayor Senter. A 
formal oration was delivered by the eminent historian. George Ban- 
croft, after which tlic nioiTument was dedicated according to the 
ritual of the Masonic fraternity. The monument was subsequently 
moved to the southeast section of the Square where the Soldiers' 
Monument now stands. It was taken thence years later to AVade 
Park where 'it stood between Euclid Avenue and Iho site of the Art 
Museum, proudly pointing to the waters of the mimic pond that were 
occasionally i)lowcd by the prows of skifTs and canoes and smootlied 




by the Hat bottoms of goiulolas manned by the maidens of the near-by 
Women's College of the Western Reserve University. Finally, the 
monument was given a more fitting site in Gordon Park on the bank 
of Lake Erie. 

In the last deeade. 1850-60, the population of Cleveland had in- 

The Pekky Monument 

creased from 17,034 (plus about 3,950 in Ohio City) to 43,838 and 
every loyal Clevelander "pointed with pride" to the United States 
census records. 

Capture and Return of The Slave Lucy 
A few months after the conclusion of the trials of the Oberlin- 
Wellington rescue cases and close on the heels of the election of 


Abraham Lincohi and in continuation of the barrage fire that went 
before the fatal "drive'" that the slaveocraey launched at Fort Sum- 
ter, came the capture in Clevehind of a runaway slave named Lucy and 
her return to her "■ owner"' at Wheeling in Virginia. Early in the 
morning of the nineteenth of January, 1861, a deputy United States 
marshal, Seth A. Abbey, supported by a posse of federal officials, 
forcibly entered the residence of L. A. Benton on Prospect Street and 
carried awaj- the young mulatto girl who was there employed as a 
servant. Lucy was at once contined in the county jail around which 
a great mob of angry and excited citizens quickly gathered with 
threats to burn the building and, by force, to set Lucy at liberty. 
Kufus P. Spalding, A. G. Riddle, and C. W. Palmer promptly offered 
to act as counsel for the prisoner and made application for a writ of 
habeas corpus. The application for the writ was acted upon (Jan- 
uary 21) by Judge D. R. Tilden who held that the sheriff, a county 
ofSeer, had no right to hold the prisoner and ordered her release. The 
girl was, however, innnediately taken into custody by the United 
States marshal and transferred from the court-house to the federal 
building for a hearing before United States Commissioner White. The 
r.xoitement of the populace was so great that but little would have 
been needed to precipitate a bloody riot, to prevent which the marshal 
employed a hundred and fifty special deputies to guard the unfor- 
timate prisoner in transitu. It was said that some of the special 
deputies were men "who have often honoi-ed the records of the police 
court." The hearing before Commissioner White was held on the 
twenty-third. But the law was plain, the identity and ownership 
of the property were beyond question, and, in a fervid plea. Judge 
Spalding surrendered the girl to the law, the tender mercies of which 
are cruelties. Recognizing llie return of the girl to her owner as 
inevitable, he said : 

I am constrained to say that, according to tlie law of slavery, the 
colored girl Lucy does owe service to William S. Goshorn, of Virginia. 
Nothing now remains that may impede the performance of your pain- 
ful duty. sir. unless I may be permitted to trespass a little further 
upon your indulgence, and say to this assemblage, we are this day 
offering to the ma.iesty of constitutional law, a homage that takes 
with it a virtual sun-ender of the finest feelings of our nature ; the van- 
(|uishing of many of our strictest resolutions; the mortification of a 
free man's pride, and. T almost said, the contraventions of a Chris- 
tian's duty to his God. While we do this, in the City of Cleveland, 
in the Connecticut Western Reserve, and permit this poor i)iece of 
humanity to be taken, peaceably, through our streets, and upon our 
railways" back to the land of bondage, will not the frantic South 


stay its parricidal luiiul.' Will luit our compromising Legislature 
cry : Hold, enough ! 

Although oft'cred double her market value for the freedom of the 
girl, Mr. Goshorn refused to sell. Lucy was eseorteil to the train by 
an armed guard and safely carried back to "Wheeling — the last slave 
ever returned to the South under the fugitive-slave law. liut war ■ 
soon drew with the sword its drop of blood for every drop that had 
been drawn with the lash, and the Great Emancipator's 
iron pen 
Freed a race of slaves to lie a race of men. 

After the war, Lucy went to Pittsburgh where she was married. 
Later, she came back to Cleveland and, in September, 1904, was intro- 
duced to the audience at a meeting of the Early Settlers' Association. 

Lincoln Visits Cleveland 

A few days after the enforced return of Lucy to bondage, Al)raham 
Lincoln, president-elect, visited Cleveland (February 15, 1861), on 
his way to Washington. On the fourth of March, he was inaugurated 
as president of the United States from which several of the states had 
seceded. On the twelfth of April, came the first fiery kiss of war at 
Fort Sumter, followed soon by the call to arms. How Cleveland 
promptly answered that and subsequent calls and faithfully served 
the cause of the Union to the end of the civil war is a story that may 
not be told in detail here. ^Mass meetings were held, troops were 
hastened toward the front, military and hospital camps and a soldiers' 
home were established, home guards were organized, and the city took 
on a truly martial air. The women were as patriotic and self-sacri- 
ficing then as they are today and the ministrations of the Soldiers' 
Aid Society and other agencies that they created and administered 
still awaken grateful memories in the souls of the still surviving 
"Boys who wore the Blue." New Connecticut did her full duty, 
Cuyahoga neither failed nor flinched in the day of trial and, in the 
days of piping peace that came after, testified to her reverent regard 
for those who came not back in a monument * in the Public Square, 
built with the proceeds of a county tax that was levied and collected 
without authority of law but was not resisted by any tax payer. 
Within the monument, cut in stone tablets, are the names of ten thou- 
sand Cuyahoga volunteers. Of course, there were alarms, and sorrows, 
and tears, but the war brought no disaster to the city and business 
was carried on as of old. The end of the war brought to Cleveland a 

* See picture on page 284. 


great joy aud a great sorrow, wild rejoieiug over the accomplished 
preservation of the Union quickly followed by deep sorrow for the 
tragic death of President Lincoln. When on its last journey, the body 
of the martyred president lay in state in Cleveland's Public Square, 
the city was draped in mourning and all classes united to do honor to 
his memorv. Of necessity, we now hasten on, leaving word for the 
searcher for further facts of Cleveland's war history to consult 
Col. J. F. Herriek's chapters in ;\Ir. Orth's Hisfory of Cleveland, or 
to examine the shelves of the Western Reserve Historical Society, where 
may be found the most extensive collection of material relating to the 
civil war that has been made — thanks to the zeal aud liberality of 
Mr. W. P. Palmer, the president of the society. 



About this time (1861), the discovery of petroleum in western 
Pennsylvania attracted attention and several oil refineries began 
operation in Cleveland. Among these enterprising adventurers were 
John D. Rockefeller and Henry M. Flagler who, in 1861, began the 
business that, in 1870, developed into the Standard Oil Company, 
the wonderful story of which is given in a later chapter of this 
volume. The old volunteer fire system of the city had been outgrown 
and, in January, 1863, the city council constituted J. D. Palmer, 
J. J. Benton, and William I\Ieyer as a committee on fire and water. 
In the April following, the council passed an ordinance creating a 
paid fire department with a force of fifty-three men. From this 
beginning, has been developed the extensive and efficient department 
as it exists today. In 1918, George A. "Wallace was chief of the 
municipal divisions of fire, with secretaries, assistant chiefs, battalion 
chiefs, etc., fire hj'drants, fire alarm telegraph, fire boats, high pressure 
pumping-stations and lines, three dozen engine companies, a "baker's 
dozen" of hook and ladder companies, a few additional hose com- 
panies, etc. The need of an increased force and additional equip- 
ment is, of course, perennial and always will be while the city con- 
tinues to grow, but the efficiency of what is above outlined has com- 
manded nation-wide commendation. 

Cleveland's Trade, Commerce and Manufactures, 1865 

In 1866, the Cleveland Board of Trade i.ssued its first "Annual 
Statement of the Trade, Commerce, and Manufactures of the City of 
Cleveland," the report covering the transactions of the year 1865. 
According to that report, the amount of coal shipped to Cleveland in 
the five preceding years varied from 400,000 to 900,000 tons, the total 
for 1865 being 465,550 tons. The iron-ore trade aggregated $1,179,200 ; 
pig-iron and scrap, !j)l,051,000. The aggregate sales of manufactured 
wrought iron, a large part of which wa-s manufactured in Cleveland, 




was more than $6,000,000. The blast furnaces, rolling mills, forges, 
foundries, etc., employed three thousand men and a capital of three 
million dollars, and turned out 20,510 tons of railroad iron ; 7,925 tons 
of merchant iron ; 2,250 tons of forgings ; 705 tons of boiler and tank 
iron ; and 4,627 tons of bolts, nuts, washers, rivets, nails, etc. The 
receipts of lumber were 84,038,160 feet; of shingles, 54,744,850; of 
lath, 14,153,000; and of cedar posts, 50,000. The hide and leather 
trade was about $1,500,000. There were thirty refineries of crude 

1 iS»f 


'm§mi"',*t---^riumii^:^ ^ 

SuPEBiOB Street in 1865 

petroleum with an aggregate capital of more than $1,500,000, and 
turning out products worth not less than $4,500,000. The boot and 
shoe sales were put down at $1,250,000; clothing at $2,500,000 or 
more; and dry-goods "in millions" not numerically stated; banking 
capital, $2,250,000; deposits, $3,700,000. Some of the other items 
were : 

Cattle head, 25,300 

Hogs liwxl, 18.850 

Copper refined tons, 1,500 

Stoves made l'"!."t'0 

Barrels made 200,000 

Shingles made 15,500,000 

White lead made tons, 000 

Lard oil made gallons, 50,000 

Stearine candles made pounds, 547,000 

Flour barrels, 212,000 

Gas produced f''''t. 4:!,0()(),()00 

Coke 1'hs1h-1s, 90,000 


Powder kogs, 20,000 

Bricks 7,0011,000 

^[altiiiy: and brewing $,s()(),(i()0 

^lacliiiK' shops, stock used $7(1(1,000 

Furniture ^(idO.ODO 

Cigars ^(iOO.OdO 

Bridges, iron and wood $")():"),( )00 

Railway ears luanufaetured $r)()0,()()0 

.Marble and stoue works $400,000 

^Voolens $:}r)0,000 

Paper .$215,0(10 

Carriages $200,000 

Lightning rods $1;!1,0(I0 

Musical instruments $100,000 

Burr mill stones $ 75,000 

Hats and caps $ 50.000 

Leading Shipbuilding Pcjrt 

As to ships and shipbuilding, tiie Herald said in September, 1865, 
that "Cleveland now stands confessedly at the head of all places on 
the chain of lakes, as a shipbuilding port. Her proximity to the 
forests of Jliehigan and Canada affords opportunity for the selection 
of the choicest timber, while the .superior material aud construction 
of the iron manufactures of the city give an advantage. Cleveland has 
the monopoly of propeller building, its steam tugs are the finest on 
the lakes, whilst Cleveland-built sailing vessels not only outnumber all 
other vessels on the chain of lakes, but are found on the Atlantic 
Coast, in English waters, up the Mediterranean, and in the Baltic." 
Such was our account of stock three score years and ten after the 
arrival of General Moses Cleaveland at the mouth of the Cuyahoga 

New Passenger Depot 

In the annual report of the president of the Cleveland, Columbus 
and Cincinnati Railway Company for 1866, that official said : 

The new pas.scnger depot at Cleveland, costing some $475,000, and 
in which this company has one-fourth interest, was so far eomi)leted 
as to be opened for use cm the 12th day of November, last. . . . 
Its erection was indispensable, as the old depot, being erected over 
the waters of the lake, upon piles, from general decay had become un- 
safe for the passage onto it of heavy locomotives and trains of cars 
loaded with passengers. 


The other railway companies that were co-partners in what was 
then considered one of the largest and best appointed in the country 
were the Cleveland and Pittsburgh, the Cleveland and Toledo, and 
the Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula. The opening of this stately 
structure of stone and iron, 603 feet long and 108 feet wide, on tlie 
lake front at the foot of Bank and Water (West Sixth and West 
Ninth) streets was fittingly celebrated by a banquet given by the 
four ineorpoi'ated owaiers. Although somewhat changed by design and 
decay, the venerable structure is still used for its original purpose by 
the legal heii-s of the original owners. The public is waiting (1918) 
for something better in tlie belated realization of oft repeated prom- 
ises. Another notable event of that year (1866) was the organization 
of a metropolitan police system which was something of a "fad" with 
the legislators of several states about that time. By a law that went 
into effect on the fii-st of May, the police powers of the mayor and 
marshal and city council were transferred to a board of police com- 
missioners consisting of the mayor of the city and four others who 
were appointed by the governor of the state. The first board con- 
sisted of Mayor H. M. Chapin and Citizens James Barnett, Philo 
Chamberlain, W. P. Fogg, and Nelson Purdy; in their hands all 
police matters rested. The law was so changed in 1872 that the mem- 
bers of the board were elected by the people. 

Educational and Charitable 

In 1867, came the organization of the Western Reserve Historical 
Societ}' and of the Cleveland Public Library. The detailed stories of 
these two beneficent institutions are told in later chapters of this 
volume. In the same year (1867), the Bctliel Union was incorporated 
for mission work and the maintenance of the boarding-house for 
sailors and others in need. In 1882, the Society for Organizing 
Charity was formed for tlie i)urp()sc of making investigations that 
would tend to i)revent imposition and decrease pauperism. In 18SG, 
this society and the Bethel Union were consolidated, forming what is 
now known as the Associated Cliaritics, the most imi)ortant of our 
local organizations existing for welfare work. In 1868, the fii-st iron 
ship built in Cleveland, the little steamer ' ' J. K. AVhite, ' ' w-as launched, 
and the Young Women's Christian Association was organized. In 
1869, Stilhnan Witt gave the association a "II(mie" nn Walnut Street 
whence the good work was carried on in an cnbii-gcd form. Historical 
and descriptive sketches of these several organizations ai-e given in 


later chapters of this volume. In 1809, the Cleveland City Hospital 
began its work in a small frame building ou Willsou Avenue (East 
Fifty-fifth Street), and the Cleveland Law Library was organized. 

Founding op Cuyahoga County Agricultub.vl Society 

In the third decade of the century, the Cuyahoga County Agri- 
cultural Society was organized and held its first fair in the then new 
court-house and the Public Square in October, 1829. The ladies' 
deitartment showed its patch-work quilts, carpeting, woolen fiannels, 
and other exhibits in the Old Stone Church and the cattle were ar- 
ranged along the fence that eudosed the four sections of the Square. The 
wife of Dr. David Ijong received a premium of five dollars for a pair 
of silk hose that she had "made from the mulberry the present season," 
Mrs. Mary L. Severance of Cleveland received a premium for "speci- 
mens of silk twist" and Mrs. Brainard of Brooklyn one for "eight 
different colors of sewing silk, the silk manufactured by her and 
colored with dyes derived from the products of the farm." Premiums 
were awarded "for a ba.sket of cocoons" and for "the best half-acre 
of mulberty trees. ' ' Evidently, silkworm culture was something of a 
fad in this community at that time. Of course, there were prizes for 
crops of wheat, oats, rutabagas, etc., and for cattle, sheep, swine, and 
brood mares and stallions. For years, the annual county fairs were 
affairs of importance and popularity. In 1854, the Ohio State Fair 
was held ou the new fair grounds on Kinsman Street, now Woodland 
Avenue, "20 acres of land about one mile from the Square," and then 
"the most complete fair grounds in the state;" there were thirty 
thousand paid admissions. But when the State Board of Agriculture 
refused Cleveland's request for the fair of 1870, the Northern Ohio 
Fair Association was incorporated (Februarj-, 1870) by Amasa Stone, 
Jeptha H. Wade, Dr. Worthy S. Streator, Azariah Everett, Amos 
Townsend, William Bingham, and others, for "the promotion of 
agriculture, horticulture, and the mechanic arts in the northern sec- 
tions of Ohio," and incidentally to encourage the development of the 
two-minute trotting horse and the enjoyment that was concomitant 
with such development. The capital stock of the association was 
$300,000. A large tract of ground near the lake shore east of the city 
and extending southward beyond St. Clair Street was bought. For 
several years, the fairs here held were interesting and made more 
picturesque and memorable by the omnipresent secretary and general 
manager, the genial Sam Briggs whom everybody knew and liked. 



But the fairs were uot financially successful and, in the winter of 
1880-81, the association went out of existence. The part of the fair 
grounds south of St. Clair Street was continued as the Glenville racing 
track, made famous by the record-breaking performances of ilaude S., 
Goldsmith Maid. Smuggler, Cresceus, and other horses that bore 
names that still are familiar in the racing world. Thanks largely to 
the dominating influouee of Colonel "William Edwards, one of Cleve- 
land's foremost business men, and the father of a major-general in 
the United States army, but better known at the track as "Billy" 
Edwards, the Glenville track was recognized by the fraternity as 
"a model turf, one of the cleanest and most sportsmanlike ovals in 
all the circuits." In 1909, the tracks were abandoned and the grounds 

NoRTiiEiiN Ojuo Fair Grounds 

allotted. The place- tliat tlic Glenville track so worthily licld was 
soon worthily filled by the present tracks at North Randall, the home 
of the amateur driving club and the scene of some of the most brilliant 
"society" events of each successive year. In the decade just closed, 
1860-70, and in spite of war and panic, the population of Cleveland 
had increased from 43,838 to 92,825 and, as they had done ten years 
before, all loyal Clevelanders again "pointed with pride" to the census 
tables. It is an open question as to which they were more vocal, the 
growth of the city or the magnificence of Euclid Avenue. 

A Projected City ITali, 

In this year (1870), a project foi- building a city hall in the 
southwest .section of the Public Scjuare came 1o an obscure and now 


uiiiiioiii-iicd ciiil. The iiu'('tiiiy:s of tlu" rity council were tlieii licld in the 
buililing that it liad leased in 1855 as stated at the beginning- of Chap- 
ter XVI; tlie biiildiiis: was then called the City Hall. On the twelfth 
of January. 18()9, ^Ia\(ir Stei)heii Hnhrer sent to the city council a 
communieation in wliich he said: 

1 deem it wise that this council should issue bonds runniuy; such 
time and eainiiig such rates of interest as may be deemed mcxst ad- 
vantagfeous to the city, for the purpose of defraying the cost and 
expense of erecting a new City Hall building, containing the city 
offices, a council and public hall, and such other rooms as might be 
thought necessary or expedient for the i)ublic welfare. 

The council took no action on the subject until a meeting which was 
held on the twenty-fifth of August of the same year. At that meet- 
ing. IMr. Rogers introduced a resolution which was as follows: 

Whereas, The city has gone to a large expense in getting up maps 
and records of the city, and has no safe place for the keei)ing of these 
maps and i-ecords, and as at the present they are kept in a jniblic busi- 
ness building which at any time is liable to take tire and burn all the 
public papers belonging to the city, therefore, 

Resolved, That the board of improvements be, and the same is 
hereby authorized to jirepare a plan for the erection of a city hall on 
the southwest corner of the Public Square, where the old court house 
formerly stood, where all the records, maps, and papers can be kept 
in safety. 

This resolution was referred to the board of improvements which 
recommended (October 5) the adoption of the resolution. At the 
same meeting, Mr. Silas Merchant offei-ed a resolution authorizing 
and requesting the board of improvements to advertise for plans, 
specifications, and estimates for a new city hall to be constructed in 
the southwest corner of the Public Square. His resolution also pro- 
vided that the council should pay IGOO for the best plan, .i<5nO for the 
second best, and $400 for the third best. 

On the first of March, 1870, the board of improvements reported 
that they had "advertised for plans for a city hall, the cost of which 
was not to exceed $300,000 unless a fourth story above the basement 
was added, in which case $50,000 more w-as to be added to the amount. 
We received in an.swer to our advertisement ten sets of plans, seven 
from Cleveland and three from abroad, the elevation plans of which 
are all exhibited to your honorable bodv. The estimated cost varies 



from $292,000 to $365,000. " Three plans were reported, all by Cleve- 
land architects, and the three prizes were paid, the first going to 
Walter Blythe, whose plan was adopted. It is said that no further 
record of the project can be found in the council proceedings, and no 
one seems to know just how the matter ended. Five years later, the 
Case Block was rented as a city hall as will be related a few pages 




A City Hall That Was Not Built 

further on. About 1894, the project for building a city hall in the 
Public Square was again agitated by Mayors Blee and McKisson, for 
the sake of saving the cost (.f needed land, but it met with so much 
opposition that the uniioly scheme was dropped into the limbo of 
things that should never be. 

Cleveland Wokk House and House of Correction 

In January, 1871, tlie "Cleveland Workhouse and House of Cor- 
rection" was completed at a cost of $250,000 — a large and well ap- 
pointed building that still stands (in mutilated form and otherwise 




used) on Woodlaiul Avi'imo at East Seventy-ninth Street; The first 
board of workhouse directors consisted of Harvey Kice, J. H. Wade, 
George H. Burt, S. C. Brooks, and William Edwards. Under the 
efiSeient and humane administration of Superintendent William D. 
Patterson, the Cleveland workhouse became famous. The institution 
was, years later, transferred to the "Cooley Farms" in Warrensville, 
a monument to the wisdom and large vision of the Rev. Harris R. 
Cooley who was Jlayor Tom L. Johnson's director of charities and 
correction. In this year (1871), the city council created its first board 
of park commissioners, the first serious attempt to give the city a park 
system. The first members of the board were Azariah Everett, Oscar 

The Old Workhouse 

A. Childs, and J. H. Sargent, who began their work by beautifying the 
Public Square. In 1874, Lake View Park, near the so-called Union 
Depot and overlooking the lake from which it was and is cut off by 
railway tracks, was begun. Soon after this, work was begun on "the 
old and long- forgotten Clinton Park" that had been dedicated to the 
public in 1835. A few years later came the gifts of Wade and Gordon 
parks, and the development of a park and boulevard system, pride in 
which is as characteristic of Clevelanders today as the adulation of 
Euclid Avenue was in the Seventies. The story of this evolution will 
be told in a later chapter. In this year (1871), also came the creation 
of the office of city auditor and the transfer to him of certain duties 
that had been previously performed by the clerk of the city council. 
The new department was intended to serve as "a cheek upon extrav- 
agance and a safeguard against the misappropriation of funds." The 

- ailt^AVM 



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MQ.TK OLMs'rm 


A. Orlsiiial vllIaKe of ('Icvoland. Iiicorporatect by 

legislative act of DocomlxT 23. 1811. 

B. AimexaUoii by net of DixvmtHT 31. IS29. 

C. Annexation by act of Fvbruary 18, 1834. 

D. Iiicnrporatwl with A, n ajul C as City of 

Cleveland, by act of March 5, 1830. 

E Remainder of Cleveland township annexed by 
act of March 22, 1850. 

F, city of Ohio annexed by art of June 5, 1854. 

Q. Annexation of part of Bmolcljrn township 
pasM>d by IcglAladvi* act of February 1 1>. 
IStM. and granted by county commlsBlonera, 
September 6. 18(1-1. 

HI I'nrtlPns of Hnniklyn nnd Newhtir« townships 
annexed by ai'.t of Pebruao' 28. 1867, and 
approval of county commissioners granted 
Autrust 0. 1867. 

K. Aiiiu-xiitltm of part of Xewburg town3hii» 
irranted by county commissioners August 6. 

L. Ordinance to annex East Cleveland vUIaea 
parsed October 24. 1872. 

MNO. Annexation of parts of Ilrooklyn. New- 
bnrg and Kiist Cii'veland tnwn.'«hlj-», granted 
by comity coramUsloners February 8, 1873. 

p. .\nni-vaii<n of portion of NVwhurg trwnship 
granted by county commissioners December 

8, 1873. 

R. Annexation of pan of Brooklyn village grantetl 
by county commissioners November 10. 1890. 

S. Annexation of iwrtlon of Kast Cleveland town- 
ship granted by county commissioners, Sep- 
tember 28, 1892. 

T. Annexation of ponlon of Nrwburg fwnshlp 
granted by county commissioners. Novem- 
ber 15. 1893. 

U. Annexation of' West Cleveland village granied 
by county commissioners. March 5. 1894. 

V. Date of annexation of BnK>kI>'n village fixed 
by passage of ordinance by its council, Junu 
15. 1894. 

W* Portion of village of GlenvlIIe annexed by 
grant of county commissioners. February 26, 

X . Annexation of portion of Glenvillo village 
granted by county commissioners. November 
8. 1902. 

Y. Annexation of portion of IJnndale village or- 
dered by county cmimilss loners, December 19, 

X. Ordlnnnco to atniex a portion of Brooklyn town- 
ship reJtH-twl, May 31. 1904. 

AA. Annexation of portion of Brooklyn township 
ordered by county commissioners, July 1 1 , 

BB. AniM'XHtion of norllon of Xewbunr HelRhts 
village ordered by county commissioners. Sep- 
temh.T 25. 1905. 

CC. Ordinance to annex Glenville city passed. 
June 19, 1905. 

DD. Ordinance to annex village of Stjuth Brook- 
lyn passe*!, December 11, 1905. 

EE. Secretary of state notified of passage of ordl- 
nanco to annex Corlett village. December 28, 

FF. Se<-retftr>- of state notified of passage of ordi- 
nance annexing the village of Coltlnwood. 
January 21, 1910. 

GG. Secretary of state notified of passage of ordi- 
nance annexing a portion of Shaker town- 
ship. Juno 2 2. 1912. 

HH. Secretary of state notified of passage of ordi- 
nance annexing the village of Nottlngliajn, 
January 14, 1913. 

II. Secretary of state notified of passage of ordi- 
mincf annevintr the city of Newlmrg, Feb- 
niary 10. 1913, 

KK. Secretarj' of state notified of passage of 
ordlnaJice annexing portion of Euclid vll- 
lane. AuyusL 27. 1914. 

LL. Seeretao' ''f state notified of passage of ordi- 
nance annexing portinn of Kastview village. 
December 1. 1914. 

MM. Secretary of state notified of passage of 
ortilnanr-e annexing portion of Shaker Heights 
village. February 12. 1915. 

NN. Sc<Tfiary of state notified of passage of 
ordinance annexing portion of Brooklyn town- 
ship, August 7, 1915. 

OO.^ Secretary of state notified of passage of 
PP.) ordinances annexing portions of Brooklyn 

township. vVugust 10. 1916. and April 12, 

1917. respectively. 

QQ. ) Secretary of state notified of passage of 
RR. y ordinances annexing portions of Kastview 

village and Warrenaville township. September 

15. 1917. 

NOTK— In all (aaes. the dnips of annexation given are those which are legally onsidere^l final. Up to 
G the annexations were i)erfecte<l bv ar-t of tlie state legislature. From G to EE the fljial stajup of 
annexation had to be placed by the county commissioners, and from EE to the end of the list, the 
secretary of state had to be formally notified before the annexation wds cotisldered binding. 


first auditor was Thomas Jones, Jr., and he soon took the stand that 
no warrant on the city treasury could be legally drawn unless the 
mouej- for the paj-ment thereof was already in the treasury and to 
the c-redit of the proper fund to \\hich it should be charged. 

East Cleveland Annexed 

The village of East Cleveland extending along both sides of Euclid 
Avenue eastward from Willson Avenue (East Fifty -fifth Street) was 
commercially and socially a part of the city of Cleveland, but legally 
it was a separate corporation. In April, 1872, the question of the 
annexation of the village to the city was submitted to the voters. 
There was little opposition in the city but, in the village, the proposed 
annexation was vigorously antagonized and won by a majority of 
only seventy votes. The commissioners on behalf of the city were 
Henry B. Payne, J. P. Robinson, and John Himtington ; those 
appointed for the village were John E. Hurlbut, John W. Heisley, and 
William A. Netf. The terms agreed upon by them were approved on 
the twenty-ninth of October, 1872, and the two became one. 

Organization op Cuyahoga County Medical Society 

On the second of April, 1872, the Cuyahoga ]Medical Society was 
organized by the amalgamation of the Cleveland Academy of ^Medicine 
(organized in 1867) and the Pathological Society (organized about 
1868). The objects of the new organization were "to cultivate the 
science of Medicine and all its collateral branches; to elevate and 
sustain medical character; to encourage a system of medical etiquette 
and to promote mental improvement, social intereourse. and good 
feeling among the members of tlie medical i)rofcssion."' Its first 
president was Erasmus Darwin r>urtoii. Tlie Cleveland Aledical 
Society was formed in F\^liruary, 1898; in .June, 1902, it and the 
Cuyahoga Medical Society were united to form the present Academy 
of Mediciiu' wiiich now (1918) has a total nieniliership of about 
700. In September (1872) the Union Cluh was organized "foi- phys- 
ical training and education" — at least the charter so sets forth its 
objects. Tlic (irst jn'csiilcnt ot lln' clnli was Willi^ini Uiiifiliani; Henry 
B. Payne was one of tlie vice-])rt'sid('nts ; C. 1'. Lchuul was secretary; 
and (leoi'ge E. .\rnistrong was treasurer. Tiic rlnli's (irst home was a 
comnidilions hnildin;;- (in i'lnclid A\rnuc just w<'st of ()ak rhire, now- 
East MiLrlitli !~itr('e). This prdpci'ty was Nnliscipu'ntly sold and the 



present cluliluuisi' nn tlir iKirtlu'iist corner of Eufliil Avenue and lOast 
Twelfth Street was Imilt ami occupied. 

Origin- ov tiik Ci.kvki.and Hi'mane Society 

In Jlan-li, 1873, Orlando J. Ilodoe introduced in the city 
council a i-esolution invitiner i)ersons interested in the t'oi'niation of a 
society for the iirotection of dunih animals to meet in the council 
chamber at a tiuio specified. On the evenins: named, about a dozen 
men responded and arrangements for a permanent organization were 
made. On the foui-th of April, the Cleveland Society for the Preven- 
tion of Crueltv to Aninnds was fully organized with Jabez W. Pitch 

Tiik Old Union Clubhouse 

as president and H. F. Rrayton as secretary. The scope of the society 
was subsequently widened to include helpless children and mothers 
and its name was changed to the Cleveland Humane Society. The 
beneficent work of this now great society has been continuous to the 
present time. As a reward of merit, if for no other reason, it is proper 
to record the fact that Colonel Hodge had previously introduced an 
ordinance to prevent and punish cruelty to dumb animals which 
ordinance was pas.sed by the city council in 1871 — "the first .step 
taken liy the Cleveland lawmakers in that direction." Subsequently, 
as a member of the Ohio legislature, he introduced three bills for the 
better protection of children and dumb animals; all of the bills became 
laws. At his call, prominent men from various parts of the state met 
at Columbus and organized a state society for similar purposes. 

Palmam qui meruit fcrat. 


Legal jMatters op IMoment 

In this same month (ilareli, 1873) the Clevehmd Bar Association 
was organized for the avowed purpose of maintaining "the honor and 
dignity of the profession of the hiw, to cultivate social intercourse and 
acquaintance among the members of the bar, to increase our usefulness 
iu aiding the administration of justice, and in promoting legal and 
judicial reform." The tirst president was Sherlock J. Andrews; the 
vice-presidents were James ]\Iason, John W. Ileisley, and John C. 
Grannis; the i-eeording secretary was Virgil P. Kline; the correspond- 
ing secretary was L. R. Critchficld ; and the treasurer was Gershom 
il. Barber. In spite of the almost universal and universally recognized 
tendency of laymen to "poke fun" at lawyers, it would not be fair to 
fail to say that the Cleveland Bar As^sociation has lived and labored 
in close proximity to the lines laid down in the beginning and described 
iu the quotation above made. 

In ^May, 1873, the Ohio legislature passed an act for the relief of 
the chronically overburdened court of common pleas of Cuyahoga 
County by establishing a "superior court" with jurisdiction limited to 
civil cases coming from the city of Cleveland. A special election was 
held in June and Gershom I\I. Barber, Seneca 0. Griswold, and James 
I\I. Jones were elected as judges of said superior court. But the ex- 
pected relief was not thereby secured ; in less than two years both of 
the courts were again overburdened and further relief became im- 
peratively necessary. In March, 1875, the legislature again came to 
the rescue and added four to tlie number of the judges of the court 
of common plea.s and abolished the superior court. In the regular 
state election in October, Judges Barber and Jones were elected as 
two of the additional four occupants of thi' bench of the court of 
coiniiKiii jilcas, ;ui(i -ludge Griswold, who was recognized as one of tlie 
ablest members of the Ch'vi'land bar, rcsnined tlie practice of his 

Newburg Village Annexed 

In August, 1873. the citizens of Newburg village formally resolved 
that the time had come for .umcxation to the cit.v and K. T. Hamilton, 
A. Topping, and Joseph Turney were eonstituti'd a coinnnttee to 
secure favorable action. The Cleveland council met the city's old 
ri\al hall'wa.v, and named, as its representatives in the matter, John 
lliiiitingtoM, II, II. Tlioi-pi'. and .\. T. \'an Tassel. The vote was 


favorable to tlie proposed r.iiiiexatioii and Xuwburg village became 
Cleveland's Ward Eighteen. 

Time at last makes all things even. 

Tin: Panic of 187:5 

The year 1S73 was made memorable by an extraordinary finaneial 
panie. The eonntry had been enjoying an unpreeedented prosperity 
that caused general speeidation, excessive inflation of business enter- 
jirises, the projection of railways that were not needed, and similar 
causes, all lit which combined with the falling of the high prices inci- 
dent to the civil wai- brought about a sudden and unexpected cheek. 
On the nineteenth of September, 1873, known in financial history as 
"Black Friday," the banking firm of Jay Cooke and Company of 
Philadelphia, the institution that had successfully negotiated the 
great war loans of the United States government and thereby acquired 
universal conlidcnce in its stability, suddenly "went to the wall" and 
ushered in the panic. In Cleveland tlicrc were failures of commercial 
and manufacturing establishments, and the savings banks allowed 
withdrawals of money only in limited amounts and after previous 
notice. Hut the banks weathered the stcnnn without disaster and thus 
saved the community from much of the loss and general wreckage 
that were sufl'ered in some other cities. The shock did however throw 
many out of employment, hit real-estate speculators w^ith a sort of 
selective severity, flooded the courts with oases and thus probably 
hastened the abolition of the superior court. The check thus given to 
the prosperity and importance of the city was recognizable for several 
years but recovery was gradually made. 

Improvement of \V.\ter Supply 

By this time, the Cuyahoga River had become a sort of intercepting 
sewer and the combination of river outflow and shore washing with 
other contaminating influences had led to loud complaints concerning 
the quality of the water pumped by the city from the lake and dis- 
tributed to the citizens. The remedy that promised most was to draw 
the water from a point out in the lake and well off the shore. Surveys 
for a tunnel were made in 1867. In 1869, a shaft was sunk on the 
sliore near the pumping station. From the bottom of the shaft, about 
sixty-seven feet below the lake level, a tunnel five feet in diameter 
was pushed under the lake I'lid outward from the shore. In August, 
1870, a crib about eighty-seven feet in diameter was towed to a point 


about 6,600 feet off shore and there sunk in thirty-six feet of water. 
Under the interior of this crib a shaft was sunk to the depth of ninety 
feet below the lake level. From the bottom of this shaft a tunnel was 
built toward the shore to meet the one coming from the .shore. After 
conquering quicksand and other difSculties, the work was successfully 
completed and, on the third of JIarch, 1874, water from the crib was 
admitted to the tunnel. The crib was outfitted as an intake for the 
water and with a lighthouse and a domicile for its keeper. The water 
supply of Cleveland was thus improved at a total cost of $320,351.72. 
In 1890, a second tunnel, seven' feet in diameter, was constructed from 
the crib in the lake to the pumping station on the shore. But the city 
kept on growing, and a larger and still better supply and a higher 
pressure soon were imperatively demanded. 

Women's Christian Temper.vnce Union 

In this year (1874) was the inauguration of the women's crusade 
against the liquor ti'affie. In response to a call from the Women's 
Christian Association, six hundred women of culture, social standing, 
and religious inspiration formed a temperance league of which 
^liss Sarah Fitch was president. Pledge books were procured and 
praying bauds went forth to visit the saloons, four hundred and fifty 
of which allowed the women to hold services therein. Soon there 
were five thousand membei-s of the league and many more thousands 
signed tlie pledge. I^rom this movement sprang a still vigorous agency 
for religious, sociological, and philanthropic labor, the Women's 
Christian Temperance Unioii. 

II.\RBOR OP Refuge Constuicted 

Owing to the nai'rowness of the entrance to the rix'cr and the ini- 
l)rotected condition ol" tlie harlxir, it was difficult for vessels to make 
tiie Cleveland port in lime oi' storm. The ti-ouble was made worse liy 
the continued inci'ease in tlie size of lake vessels, made necessary by 
the growing demands of trade. In 1870, tlie city council made an 
initial effort to secure tlie construction of a harbor of refuge. In 
1873, the board of trade and the city council Joincil in urging upon 
congress the importance of such a refuge. Largely through the efforts 
of the lion. Richard C. Parsons, the government mail(> another .survey, 
in llie spring of 1875, congress appropriated $50,000 I'or tlie begin- 
ning of the work and referred matters of detail to a corps of govern- 
ment engineers who reported in favor of a harbor of two hundred 




acres, the estimated cost of whicli wcmlil be $1,800,000. In the fall of 
tliat year (1875), work was hcfiiiii on tlie western arm of the break- 
water which was completed in 1883. It soon appeared that increased 
protection was needed and, in 1886, congress made an appropriation for 
the construction of an arm eastward from tlie river entrance. From 
time to time, plans were enlarged, additional appropriations were 
secured, and the good work went on, making available the long-recog- 
nized but long-neglected imjiortance of the lake front and relieving 
the congestion along the river. Among the important benelits already 
resultant from the builiiing of the breakwater are the city's reelama- 

I >. 

« i i>. 

• ■' 

(Jx TiiE Lakk Kroxt 

tion of a part of the usurped lake front and the making of new laud 
(credit for much of which goes to the Hon. Robert E. 3\IcKisson, for- 
mer mayor of Cleveland) and an increase of dockage facilities. The 
possible advantages along this latter line have been already illustrated 
by the construction of new wharves and buildings for the Detroit and 
Cleveland, and the Cleveland and Buffalo steamboat lines at the foot 
of East Ninth Street. 

Hotels and Amusement Halls 

The first theatrical performances by professional actors were given 
in 1820 in the ballroom of the Cleveland Hotel which stood at the 

Bank Street, 1868 


Academy ok Music 


i: A THUS, KTC. 


northeast cornci- of the southwest section of tlic I'ulilii- Sciuarc, where 
the Forest City House long stood and tiie Cleveland Hotel now is. 
The tii-st theater was built at the L-orner of Superior Street and Union 
Lane. Not long later came Italian Hall which occupied the upper 
tloor of a three-story lii'ick Ijuildinp; on the west siile of Water (West 
Ninth) Street, north of Superior. In 1840, J. W. Watson built Wat- 
sou's Hall on the north side of Superior Street, between Bank (West 
Sixth) Street and the Public S(|uare. In 1845, Silas Hrainard bought 
it and changed its name to ^lelodeon Hall. It was afterwards known 
as Brainard's Hall, Brainard's Ojiera House, and the Globe Theater. 

City Halt.. 1875 

It was torn down in 1880: the Wilshire Building now (1918) occupies 
its site. Early in the sixth decade of the century, the great showman, 
P. T. Barnum, opened a theater in the Kelley Block on Superior 
Street, opposite the southern end of Baidv Street. It was later operated 
on the "varieties" plan. In 1852, the Academy of Music was built on 
the east side of Bank Street and soon leased to .John A. Ellsler, who 
made it famous. It was burned in 1892. In 1875, 'Sir. Ellsler formed 
a stock company that built the Euclid Avenue Opera House which 
wrecked his fortune. In 1878, the Opera House was sold to M. A. 
Hanna. It was burned in 1884 but was promptly rebuilt on a grander 
scale and is today one of Cleveland's choicest homes of the "legitimate" 



The Old City Hall 

In February, 1875, the city leased the newly built Case Bloek on 
the northeast comer of Superior and Wood (East Third) streets for 
the period of twenty-five years and at an annual rental of $36,000. 
This block became the "City Hall" and, after the expiration of the 
lease, was rented from year to year until 1906 when it was bought by 
the city. The town that Moses Cleaveland planted in 1796 had to 
wait a hundred and ten years before it had a house that it could call 
its owTi. Late in 1875, an invitation for the public to attejul an 
informal midnight reception at the city hall, there to meet the national 
centennial year, was issued by the mayor and the city council. In 

FoEEST City House, 187G 

response, early in the evening of the thirty-first of December, the 
people began to throng into the streets. The sky was clear and the 
weather was unusually mild. I think that I can do no better tlian to 
let ilr. Kennedy tell the rest of the story of that hour: 

As eleven o'clock appi'Oiiched. a myriad of lights began to sliow 
around the Pulilic Square, and when the clock struck, all the lower 
])art of the city burst into a blaze of illumination. The signal was 
taken up in all directions, and street after street, clear out to the 
suburbs, added to the Ijrighlness and enthusiastic efl'cct of the sceiu'. 
On the stroke of twelve, the steam whistles all over the city broke into 
one vast chorus of echoing notes. A great cauldron of oil on I he l'ui)lie 
Square was set ablaze, and the deep boom of the guns was heard. Be- 
fore the echo died away, a perfect tornado of sound swept in from all 
(|uarters, aiul made the very foundations of the earth seem 1o shake. 
The alarm of the fire bells cleft the air vvitli sudden sound, and a 
dozen church towers gave answer, while the hoarse voices of the 

1875-76] . Tin: CENTENNIAL YEAR 267 

steam inonstcrs, tli.' Iiaii^-iiisj: nt' liruMrnis, the poppin^j; of fire-craekers, 
and tlio sliouts of tliousaiuls of excitcil people, were added to the 
cliorus, wliile every now and then the deep boom of the i-aunon came 
in as a heavy aeeomiianinient. 

At daybreak of the foUowing Fourth of July, the steel flag-stat? 
in the Public Sipiare. the gift of Henry Chisholm in behalf of the 
Cleveland Rolling Jlill ('omi)any, was formally accepted on behalf of 
the city by Mayor Nathan V. I'aj'ne. 

The banner that a hundred years 
Has waved above our good ship's keel. 
Upheld by oak or mast of pine, 
Now proudly floats from staff of steel. 

At this time, the Cleveland Telegraph Supply Company, Ceorge 
W. Stockley, president, was occupying rented rooms on the second 
floor of an old building on the south side of Superior Street, opposite 
Bank (West Sixth) Street, and was renting power from the company 
that published the Leader. The company made a business arrange- 
ment (1876) with Charles Francis Brush which i-esulted in the success- 
ful solution of a great electric lighting problem, the operation of arc 
lights in series. The Cleveland Telegraph Supply Company became 
the Brush Electric Company, the fame of the Brush light spread and 
brought orders from nearly every part of the world, and Mr. Stockley 
and :\Ir. Brush became millionaires. 



In 1877, the Fifteenth Regiment of the Ohio National Gnard, 
Allen T. Brinsmade, colonel ; the Cleveland Gatling Gun Battery, 
W. F. Goodspeed, captain ; and the Cleveland First Troop, W. H. Har- 
ris, captain, and Edward S. Meyer, first lieutenant, and George A. 
Garretson. second lieutenant, were organized. That was the year of 
a great railway strike tliat paralyzed travel and transportation. In 
('leveland, five hundred meji in the employ of the Lake Shore and 
^lichigan Southern Railway Company quit work. The local leaders 
of the strike strongly urged abstinence from violence, and the men 
remained quiet until the railways and their employes agreed upon 
terms, but there was great danger that a mob of the lawless class would 
take advantage of the strike to destroy property as one did at Pitts- 
burgh. The city government, under the lead of ^Mayor William G. 
Rose, undoubtedly, sympathized with the railroad men in some of 
their demands, and counselled peace and moderation, but they made 
preparation against possible trouble. "The authorities made no 
parade of their preparation; not a drum tap was heard, nor a body 
of troops seen in the streets. Yel, in jioliee stations, in armories and 
elsew-here, armed police, militia, independent companies, and volun- 
teer veterans of the war lay for days n]Min their arms, ready to cru.sli 
at one blow the first sign of violence. When the railroads and their 
men came to terms, all things moved on as before, and Cleveland 
had no reason for regi'ct, and no l>ill of danuiges to pay." 

The First llicii Lkvki. P.RmcE 

Ever since the first settlement at the inciutli of the Cnyahoga, they 
who crossed the river by ferry or by britlge had to meet the weariness 
of the descent and a.scent of stec]) hills and the fre(|uent delays caused 
by the jja.ssage of vessels up ov down the river. In 1870, Jlayor 
Stephen Buhrer had urged the construction of a high level bridge ; in 
1872, the city council apjiointed a special committee to take into con- 
sideration the construction of such a Inidge, and the committee re- 





ported ill favor of the Suin'i'ini- ami Pearl Street Vdiite. 'I'lien came 
lejiislatioii at C'oluiiilms iieeehsary I'or the istsiie of bonds, the api)roval 
of the voters, and an injunction that st()pi)ed progress until 1873. At 
a special election held in .May, 1S7(>. the voters approved a further 
issue of lionds and decreeil that the coming bridge shoiilil Ik <i toll 
bridge! But the legislature abi-ogated the latter decision and made it 
a free bridge. After four and a half years of building with an ex- 
penditure of $2.1 70,(100, the Superior ^'iaduct, as it lias been generally 
called, was turned over to the city on the twenty-seventh of December, 
1878. The following day was celebrateil as a holiday with an artillery 

TTiiiAM M. (Fathku) Addison 

salute at daybreak, a parade and imlilic meeting in the daytime, and 
a banquet in the evening. On the twcnty-nintli, the viaduct was 
opened for free public use and the West Sitie and the East Side drew 
themselves more closely together. A more detailed description of the 
bridge will be given in a later chapter. 

Thk E.\ki.y Settlers' Associ.\tiox 

The Early Settlers' Association of Cuyahoga County was organ- 
ized in Xovember, 1879 — the fruitful result of the jicrsisteiit efforts 
of Iliram JI. Addison, a iinii|ne pioiieci' philanthi'opist. known to 



almost everyone iu Cleveland as "Father"' Addison. Harvey Rice 
was eho.sen as the first president of the association and was continued 
in his office until his death. The organization is still in full vigor. 
The most important of its products is a series of annual publications 
called Annals which I have already characterized as "indispensable" 
— and so they are to everyone who tries to tell any considerable part 




Moses Cleaveland Statue 

of the story of how Cleveland came to be what it is. To the Early 
Settlers' Association, and the personal efforts of "Father" Addison, 
is also due tlie bronze statiu> of the fouiidcf of tlie city tliat stands iit 
the southwest section of th'^ Public S(|uarc. As the ninety-second 
anniversary of General Cleavclaiurs first ari-ival at the mouth of the 
Cuyahoga fell on Sunday, tlie unveiling of the statue took i)lace on 
Monday, the twenty tliini of .Inly, 1888. 


'Tis licre, when Nature reigned suprome, 
That General (Meaveland trod the wild: 
And saw an infant in his dream, 
And with his name haptized the eliild. 

— Ilarveij Rice. 

In 1870. ("levehuid's population was 92,825 and that of Buffalo 
was 117,714; in IS^SO. BulVahi's i)opnlation was 155,134, and that of 
Cleveland, 1(30,146. As Cincinnati had gained less than thirty-nine 
thousand while the younger eity on the lake had gained more than 
sixty-seven thousand, Cleveland ho.soins again swelled with more or less 
manly jiride and dreams of hecoming the metropolis of Ohio liegan 
to filter into the brains of the more audacious. 

Leonard Case, Jk. 

The younger Leonard Case, the sole heir of his father's large estate, 
suddenly died on the sixth of January, 1880. Five days later, his 
confidential agent and personal friend, Henry G. Abbey, filed in the 
county recorder's ofifice a deed that Mr. Case had executed in 1876. 
This deed conveyed property, then worth more than a million dollars, 
in trust for the establishment of an institution to be known as the 
Case School of Applied Science. The school was incorporated and 
organized in 1881. A sketch of this high-grade scientific institution 
will be found in a later chapter. In this same year, Stone, 
one of Cleveland's growing list of millionaires, offered to give lialf 
a million dollars to the Western Reserve College on condition that 
the old and famous institution should be moved from Hudson to 
Cleveland and that its name should be changed to Adelbert College 
of the Western Reserve University. The offer was accepted and, in 
the fall of 1882, Adelbert College began its career in new buildings 
tliat had been erected on land ad.joining the land of the Case School 
of Applied Science. By subsequent arrangement, these two schools 
became essentially sujiplemontary to each other. A brief sketch of 
the Western Reserve University, kindly prepared forme by the presi- 
dent of the university, will he found in a later chapter. 

Cleveland JIusic Hall 

In 1881. William Halsey Doan, a l)ig-hcarted citizen of Cleveland, 
took action that resulted in supplying one of the city's great needs, 
the Cleveland Music Hall. He gave for this purpose land on t'he 
north side of Vincent Street, between Bond (East Sixth) and Erie 


(East Ninth) streets ami to this gift added $10,000 for the construc- 
tion of a large hall for musieal, moral, and religious gatherings. 
The title of the property was vested in five trustees, three chosen by 
himself and two by the Cleveland Voeal Society. At a cost of more 
than )f;50,000, a hall capable of seating- 4.300 persons was built. The 
building was subsequently burned. In the same spirit. ;\lr. Doan 
had previously built the Tabernacle at the corner of St. Clair and 
Ontario streets where the building of the Brotherhood of the Loco- 
motive Engineers now stands. It was a large and rather plain brick 
building, had one gallery, and would seat nearly .3.000 persons. It 

U.\KFiEi,n .Mi:moui.\l 

was the home of lectures, concerts, and local festivals of high grade 
and small charge for admission, the latter being made possible b.v the 
large seating capacity of the auditorium and the unselHsh purpose 
of its generous builder. The Tal)crnacle ceasetl to be when the JIusie 
Hall was built. In the same spirit, Mr. Doan also built the Arnuiry 
that stood at the corner of ICuclid Avenue and Doan (East One 
Hundred and Fifth) Street. W. 11. Doan was tiu' snii i)f Job Doan. 
mentioned in a preceding cluipter. 


On the second of .July, 18S1, came news of tlie shouting of I'rcsideul 
Garticld at Washington; on the ninett'entli of S<'ptemlii'i-. came w(U'd 




that the president was dead. James A. Carfield was really a Cleve- 
lander. Born in Cuyahoga County, student and eollege president at 
Ilirani, and later livinf; at Mentor, ho was always in close touch with 
the Heart of the Western lieserve and now that great heart hied. 
"When he dii-d, the Cleveland hells tullecl the sad news and, at half- 
hour intervals, the artillery struck the deep diajjason of the grief- 
laden dirge. The body was brought home on the twenty-fourth of 
September and for two days lay in state in a |)aviliiin liuilt in the 

Interior of Garfield Monument 

Public Square while thousands passed by in procession. After solemn 
services on the twenty-sixth, with an escort of honor and a pro- 
cession five miles long, the body wa.s borne out Euclid Avenue to 
Lakeview Cemetery and placed in a vault, there to remain under 
constant military guard until a more stately tomb could be provided. 
In June, 1882, the Garfield National Monument Association was in- 
corporated. More than fifty designs for the memorial were sub- 
mitted and, in July, 188:}. that of George Keller of Hartford was 
accepted. On the highest ridge in tlie cemetery the beautiful 
memorial, largely a tower fifty feet in diameter, was built. On the 

Vol. 1—18 


thirtieth of May. 1890, it was formally dedicated in the presence of 
President Harrison, Vice-president ]Morton, General Sherman, sev- 
eral members of the president's cabinet, a host of other distinguished 
persons, and many thousands more than could see or hear what was 
beinjr done or said. Former President Hayes presided, and former 
Governor Jacob D. Cox delivered an eloquent address. After several 
other speeches, all of which were brief, the ceremonies were concluded 
by the Ohio Grand Commandery with the impressive services of the 
Knights Templars. The memorial is now daily visited by large numbers 
of persons from all parts of the civilized woi'ld. The accompanying 
illustration gives a good idea of the appearance of the exterior of 
the memorial, but I add the following brief description: "A roman- 
esque porch supports the tower. Below the porch railing, there is 
an external decoration, a frieze of historical character, showing in 
its five panels characteristic scenes from Garfield's life. The great 
doors of oak open into a vestibule vaulted in stone, and paved with 
mosaic. From this, spiral staircases ascend the tower, and descend 
to the crypt. In this crypt is the casket containing the coffin. Opening 
from this vestibule, is the chamber where the statue, by Alexander 
Doyle, of New York, stands. It shows Garfield in the House of Rep- 
resentatives. Over the statue, supported by granite columns, is a 
dome twenty-two feet in diameter, which is decorated with a marvel- 
ous frieze of Venetian glass, sliowing an allegorical funeral jn'oces- 
sion of the dead President. The tower has thirteen magnificent memo- 
rial windows, from the original thirteen States. ' ' 

Flood and Fire 

In February. 1883, came a. great flood and a great fire, the latter 
literally piled upon the former. Heavy rains raised the level of the 
Cuyahoga ten feet in less than a day and the rajiid rise of the waters 
caught many unawares. Three Iniuilred thousand dollars worth of 
lumber on the "Flats" was svvci)t into the lake; bridges and rail- 
way embankments were washed away. Then came the fire. A five 
thousand-gallon tank of oil in the Gri'at Western oil works blew up, the 
oil was set aflame and in turn set fire to the paral'fine works next below, 
and spread itself over the rushing watei-s. Some of the works of the 
Standard Oil Company were burned aiul the acres and acres of stills 
and tanks of that great plant narrowly escaped ilestruction. "It was 
a scene that will never be forgotten by the thousands who gazed upon 
it — the valley under water and the whole expanse lighted by the burn- 
ing of acres of oil spread nul upon the waters. The loss from flood 

1883-87] FLOOD, FIRE, AND CRIME 275 

ami tire irailicd nearly three ijuartiTs of a million dollars." Early 
in 1884, the Park Theater, on the north side of the Pulilie Square and 
separated from the eoiirt-hoiise only by a narrow lane, was sot on fire 
by an exi)losioM of jias and nothing luit the outside walls escaped 
eomplete destruetion. One Sunday evening in the following Sep- 
temher, disaster again fell )ipon the "Flats." A sujiposedly incendiary 
tire broke out in one of the great lumber yards and soon secnu'd to be 
beyond the eoutrol of the loeal fire department. Acres and acres of 
lumber iiiles and [ilaning mills wore abla/c; then tbc fiery fiend eros,sed 
the river, quickly devoured a lard refinery, and drove his way toward 
lower Superior Street as if determined to destroy that great business 
section. The local militia was ordered under arms and aid was sum- 
moned and sent from Akron, Youngstown, Toledo and other cities. 
In the early hours of Monday, the great tire was under control. The 
loss was more than $800,000. 

The "Blinkky" JIokg.vx 

In 1885, .Mary T. Spargo was admitted by the supreme court of 
Ohio to practise law — the first woman lawyer in Cleveland. In June, 

1886, a board of elections, authorized by the legislature in the previous 
month of 'May, was organized with General James Barnett, Editor 
William W. Armstrong, J. II. Schneider, and Herman Weber as its 
first members; and I\Iajor William J. Gleason as its secretary. In 

1887, came the greatest criminal tragedy in the history of Cuyahoga 
County. In January, burglars entered a Cleveland store and took 
away several thousand dollars worth of furs. The furs were never 
recovered but one of the burglars was arrested at Allegheny City in 
Pennsylvania. Capt. Henry Hoehn and Detective William II. Hulligan 
of the Cleveland police force were sent for the prisoner. On their 
return with their man tiiey were suddenly attacked by three armed 
men about three o'clock in the morning, while the train was standing 
at the station at Ravenna, Hoehn was shot in the leg and Ilulligan's 
skull was fractured with an iron coupling pin. While Hulligan was 
unconscious, he was dragged from the car, his keys were taken from 
his pocket, and the bracelet that bound him to the prisoner was un- 
locked. The four criminals then escaped in the darkness. Hoehn 
recovered but Hilligan died. In June, three men were arrested at 
Alpena, Michigan, after a desperate struggle in which the sheriff was 
shot : from his wound, the sheriff died. The trio was brought to Cleve- 
land and its members were recognized by Captain Hoehn as the ones 
who had made the rescue. Taken to Ravenna for trial, one of the three. 


Charles ^lorgan, but better known as "Blinky" ^Morgan, was con- 
victed and executed. The other two were also found guilty, but they 
secured a new trial and were finally set free. 

Second High Level Bridge 

In December, 1888, came the formal opening of a second high-level 
bridge, the two sections of wliich ai'e known as the Central and the 
Abbey Street viaducts, "the great new structure that hung so lightlj' 
and gracefully across the w'ide valley and so far above the Cuyahoga 
River," uniting the East Side with the South Side, as the East and 
West Sides had been united ten yeai's before. This additional bond 
will be described in a later chapter. In 1880, the population of Cleve- 
land was 160,146 ; in 1890, it was 261,353. Speaking in Cleveland in 
1892, the superintendent of the United States census of 1890 said of 
Cleveland's iron-ore traffic : 

An investment of $175,394,985 seems almost beyond the propor- 
tions of any one closely connected line of commerce, but such are the 
tigures representing the capital involved, on July 1, 1892, in min- 
ing and transporting, by lake and rail, the output of the Lake Supe- 
rior iron mining district. The sale and movement of every ton of 
ore from this district is conducted by sales agents in Cleveland who 
are also owners of the mines to a large extent. Here the docks at 
all Lake Erie ports, excepting Bulfalo and Erie, are controlled, and 
here is owned fully 80 per cent, of the vessel property engaged in 
this commerce, which forms the largest single item in the lake traffic. 
This country consumed, in 1890, 17,500,000 gross tons of iron ore. 
Of this amount, 1,246,830 tons were imported, and 16,253,170 tons 
were of home production. Lake Superior mines iiroduced, in the 
same year. 9,003,701 gross tuns, or more than one-half tlu^ raw ma- 
terial for a nation that leads the world in the output of pig iron, 
Bessemer steel and steel rails. This statement is in itself eno\igh to 
show the relation the city bears to the iron industry, whose ]>rosperity 
is most often used to serve as a measure of the general business pros- 
perity of the country. 


The census report for 1890 revealed the fact that Cleveland had 
become the largest shijibuilding factor in the United States, 'the lead- 
ing ti'io registering as I'ollows: 

Cleveland, in gi-oss tons 71,322 

Philadelphia, in gross tons 53,811 

Bath, Maine, in gross tons 49,830 


The iTport also showt'tl that ""in goniTul uuuiut'aeturing, heavy t'org- 
ings, wire nails, nuts and bolts, carriage and wagon hardware, vapor 
stoves, sewing machines, steel-tired car wheels, and heavy street railway 
machinery, Cleveland led all the cities of the country." The report 
of the Board of Trade said that "here are located the greatest 
shoddy mills in .\merica ; a plant for the manufacture of sewing 
machine woodwork that has no equal in the world ; a steel bridge 
works that is represented in massive structures spanning rivers and 
valleys over the entire continent, and an electric light carbon works 
having a capacity of ten million carbons annually with a market for 
its product extending to Jlexico, South America, China and Japan." 
The blast furnaces, and iron and steel mills had a capacity reported in 
net tons as follows : 

Pig-iron 275,000 

Bessemer and open-hearth bloom, billets, etc 545,000 

Rails 100,000 

Wire rods 288,000 

Jlerchant bars and shapes 108,500 

Plates, axles, t'orgings, etc 210,000 

The products turned out were valued at $47,364,764. 

Municipal-Federal Plan Adopted 

Events of importance now come in such rapid succession that not 
many of them may be even mentiojicd, such as the defalcation and 
flight of a city treasurer, the organization of the Epworth League; 
the creation of the John Huntington Benevolent Trust, and the several 
bequests that have resulted, after years of waiting, in our present, 
beautiful art gallery fittingly placed in Wade Park, another of tiie 
many benefactions of Cleveland's wealthy men. But a radical change 
in the foundations of the municipality may not be passed with such 
scant notice. Such a change came with the adoption of the so-called 
•'Federal Plan." At that time, Cleveland s government was somewhat 
closely analogous to an old house; built originally for a small family, 
and with wings, L's, and lean-to's added as wealth and children in- 
creased; the whole exhibiting a motley style of architecture not pleas- 
ing to the eye, convenient for daily use, or economical to maintain. 
Such was our patched and repatched charter for a town made to do 
duty for a great and growing city. After much local agitation, the 
state legislature was induced to enact a bill giving the city a new 
charter, which went into effect straightway after the election of the 
sixth of April, 1891. It made a clear cut distinction between executive 


and legislative functions. An elective mayor was the central figure 
of the executive branch. Appointed by him and confirmed by the 
municipal legislature, where the six members of his cabinet, each of 
whom was a director in charge of a department, thus: law, public 
works, police, fire, accounts, and charities and correction. Each direc- 
tor made appointments in his department absolutely "without the 
advice and consent of the council," but firemen and policemen were 
under the shelter of civil service reform. The municipal legislature 
consisted of twenty councilmen, two for each of the ten districts into 
which the forty wards were divided: Other than the selection of its 
own clerk, sergeant-at-arms. and page, "the council shall exercise no 
power of election or appointment to any office." The city treasurer, 
the police judge, the prosecuting attorney, and the clerk of the police 
court were elected by the people. The mayor was to receive a salary 
of $6,000 a year; the director of law, .$5,000; and each of the other 
directors, $4,000. Each member of the city council was to receive 
five dollars for each regular meeting (weekly) that he attended. The 
mayor and the directors liad seats in tlie council with the right to take 
part in its deliberations liut not to vote. A supplementary law pro- 
vided (April 10, 1891) that in case of the disability or absence of 
the mayor the duties of his office should devolve upon the directors 
in the order given above. At the first election under the new plan, 
William G. Rose was elected mayor: he had had a term in the office 
fourteen years before. By liis selection, his cabinet was constituted 
as follows : 

Director of law. Gen. P^dward S. Meyer. 

Director of public works, R. R. Ilerrick. 

Director of police. Colonel .lolm W. (;il)bons. 

Director of fire, Colonel Louis Black. 

Dii-ector of accounts, F. C. Bangs. 

Director of charities and cori-ection, David ^Morison. 

The mayor and directors constituted tlu> "Boai'd of Control;" 
the board met twice each week and constitiiti'il one of the most im- 
portant of the iiiunicii)al agencies. Mv. Bhick soon I'csigncil and his 
jjlace in the cabinet was liUed by the choice of George \V. (iardnci-, who 
like Mr. Rose and Dii'cctor llci-rick liad had experience as iiiaytn- of 
the city. The members of Mie Hi-st " Ketieral Plan Councir" wei-e E. 
E. Beeman. P.. W. .fackson. Patrick ■]. McKenncy, 1', C. O'llrien, 
.lolm (', Karnlielil, .1. K. Holi'. ('Iiai-lcs ,\. l)a\iilsoii, Robert I'', .lolies, 
Albert Straus, .lolm I. Xunn, Tlicmlofe .M. Pates. I'^lroy M. .\very. 


Jolin Sk.\ nil, John Havlicek, IMichael Riley, M. C. Malloy, John Wil- 
heliii, .Malaclii Ryan, Joseph J. I'tak, ami William Powell. jMr. David- 
son was ehosen jiri'sident of the eoinu'il and Howard II. Hurgess, city 

The first imjiortant legislation by the eonneil was the jtassage of the 
ordinanees estahlisiiing the several departments and defining their pow- 
ers and limitation.s. Its most spectacular jterformance was the reduc- 
tion of the jiriee of artificial (coal) gas. Tlie ofifieial record of the 
council for the fourth of May, 1891, under the head of Ordinances In- 
troduced, contains these brief entries: 

Regul.vting the Price of Gas 

By Mr. Xunn. 
No. 1819. To regulate the price which may be charged for gas to 
be hereafter furnished to the City of Cleveland and to the citizens 

Read tii"st time. 

The rules were suspended — Yeas 18, nays 2. 
R<?ad second and third times. Pas.sed — Yeas 18, nays 2. 

A motion to reconsider the vote of passage was not agreed to — 
Yeas 1, nays 19. 

In its report of this meeting of the council, the Leader of the following 
morning said : 

A few days after his inauguration, .Mayor Rose espied Council- 
man Elroy M. Avery at the City Hall and invited him into his pri- 
%'ate office. The Mayor called Doctor Avery's attention to the large 
amount of money spent annually for lighting the streets and public 
buildings. He thought that inasmuch as the lighting companies 
enjoye(i valuable grants without price that the city should not be 
put to such large expense for gas. Doctor Avery coincided in the 
views expressed by the Mayor, and was requested to take charge of 
the matter. In the interview which lasted an hour, it was agreed 
that Doctor Avery should undertake the task of securing the passage 
of an ordinance that would reduce the price of gas used by the city 
to 50 cents, or one-half the present price. Doctor Avery lost no time 
in beginning work, and on Saturday night, April 25, six councilmen 
met at the home of President Davidson, in Cedar avenue. They were 
all heartily in favor of the project which was unfolded to them, and 
after some discussion adjourned to meet in one week. Last Saturday 
night the number of councilmen in attendance at the meeting was 
twelve. The JIayor and Director Meyer were also present. (Jeneral 
Meyer was intrusted witii the task of ])reparing the ordinance. 
. . . It was unanimously agreed that Doctor Avery's plan of 
campaign so ably outlined should be carried out. There were enough 
councilmen present to pass the ordinance, but the desire was to pass 



it under a suspension of the ruk^s. That required fifteen votes. The 
Couneilmen were too wise to make public their plans, for they knew 
the opposition that would be brought to bear upon them. Doctor 
Avery generously surrendered the privilege of introducing the ordi- 
nance and ilr. Nunn was accorded that honor. Doctor Avery was to 
make the motions to suspend the rules and to reconsider the final 
vote. ilr. Strauss was named to speak in favor of the ordinance, and 
the Couneilmen present were asked to recpiest the support of such of 
their colleagues as could be trusted with the secret. ... At 
7:30 o'clock last night. Director ileyer handed the ordinance to Doc- 
tor Avery and a few moments later ilr. Nunn's name was upon it. 
The document was not sent to the clerk's table until 9 o'clock, when 
the calling of the wards was in progress. The clerk read the ordi- 
nance by title, but few outside of the secret paid any attention until 
Mr. Nunn requested that it be read in full. 

As appears in the official record above quoted, the rules were twice 
suspended and the ordinance was passed, eighteen to two. Jlessrs. 
Jones and Farnfield voted in the negative. For the carrying out of 
the plans of the conspirators, fifteen votes were needed. How the 
need was met and sixteen pledges were secured will be shown by the 
following document, hitherto unpublished : 

Cleveland, 0., May 2, 1891. 
We. the undersigned. Members of the City Council of Cleveland, 
Ohio, do hereby agree with each other to give hearty and unflinching 
support to a certain jn-oposed ordinance for the reduction of the pi-icc 
of gas furnished to and paid for liy the city and its citizens. The 
ordinance in question has been read to us. We hereby pledge our- 
selves without any reservation, not only to vote for the ordinance in 
the City Council but to use all proper means to bring about its speedy 


1891] :MUXIC11'A1, legislation 281 

Councilmcii HtH'inaii and Ilavlici'k were not present at the final 
secret meeting but tliey were prepared in advance of the introduc- 
tion of tiie ordinance and voted with the sixteen. All of the city 
papers gave extended reports of what had been done and the Plain 
Dealer's head lines said that the ordinance had been "engineered very 
cleverly" and that "all tlie newspapers in town have been effectively 
scooped." But the passing of tlie ordinance was only the launching; 
there were stormy waters ahead and througli them the ship must pass 
before she could anchor in a snug harbor. The two gas companies 
carried the into court and much litigation followed. The United 
States district court granted the companies an injunction against the 
city and finally the matter was adjusted by an agreement that gas 
should be sold for seventy-five cents per thousand feet and that live 
per cent of the gross receipts of the companies should be paid into the 
city treasuiy and placed to the credit of a cit}- hall fund. In the first 
ten years, the fund a.s thus credited with about half a million dollars 
derived from the sale of gas. As none of the stock of the gas com- 
panies was thrown upon the market it is verj- certain that the com- 
plaint that the action of the council "amounted to confiscation" was 
ill-founded. Mayor Rose had a freely expressed desire to make his 
second administration memorable and, with the aid of his able director 
of law and several of the councilmen, succeeded in doing so; in fact, 
it was a lively year in municipal afTPairs. Among the measures that 
awakened general interest in the community was the attempt to secure 
a "City Farm School "" for the reformation of bad boys. The ordi- 
nance for this purpose was passed by the council and vetoed by the 
mayor on the ground that the expense should be borne by the state 
and not by the city, action that was described not long later by the 
second president of the Ohio Conference of Charities and Correction 
as "standing a dollar on edge between a boy and a boy's salvation." 
In latei- years, such an institution was established by the city at 
Hudson. Then too there were the futile efforts to secure three-cent 
street railway fares "with universal transfers," the inauguration of 
the movement for the reclamation of the usurped lake front for the 
I'ity. and numerous other measures that were by no means soporific 
in nature or results. 

Cleveland Wealth in 1891 

In this year (1891), Cleveland's shipments of bituminous coal to 
the upper lake ports was 1,016.487 tons; the outward movement of 
freight by railway aggregated 5,535,332 net tons. The assessed value 


of Clevelaud real estate at this time was !|;89,512.700 ; of personal prop- 
erty only a little more than .$28,000,000! "The real valuation was 
$500,000,000." The real estate transfers and leases for the decade 
ending on the thirty-first of December, 1891, numbered 68,683, and the 
money consideration acknowledged was $258,244,403. The increase 
in values of real estate in the business sections of the city was very 
great and nnule millionaires of several speculators in downtown land. 
e. g., Waldemar Otis, et al. 

Revolutionary Descendants 

On the nineteenth of December, 1891, the Western Reserve Chap- 
ter of the Daughtei-s of the American Revolution was organized under 
the direct authority of the National Society, Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Revolution. The organization of the new chapter was the result 
of the efforts of ~Slrs. Elroy "SI. Avery, then a member of the District 
of Columbia Chapter. The tirst officers of the Western Reserve Chap- 
ter were : 

Regent, ^Irs. Elroy 'SI. Avei-y, 
Vice-regent, j\Irs. F. A. Kendall, 
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. W. A. Ingham, 
Kecording Secretarij, ]\li"s. H. J. Lee, 
Treasurer, Mrs. P. H. Babcoek, 
Registrar, Mrs. George W. Little, 
Historian, ^Irs. G. V. R Wickham. 

In later years, Mrs. Averj' was officially designated as "Founder and 
Honorary President." A little more than a year later (December 23, 
1892). the Western Reserve Society of the Sons of the American Revo- 
lution was organized under the authority of the following resolution 
ado])ted at Columbus on the fifth of Slay, 1892: 

Whereas, Elroy M. Avery and others of the City of Cleveland, State 
of Ohio, are desirous of forming a local organization subordinate to 
the Ohio Society of the Sons of the Anu'rican Revolution, to be known 
as the Western Reserve Society of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion ; and 

Whereas, They have duly made appiical ion to the Oliio Society for 
authority to organize; now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, hy the Executive Committee of the Ohio Society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution; that Elroy -M. Avery and others of 
the City of Cleveland, Ohio, be and they ai-e liei'cby authorized to 
organize a local society of the Sons of the American Revolution, to be 
known as the Westei-n Reserve Society of the Sons of the American 
IJcvolution: that said Western Reserve Society sluill have exclusive 
primary .jurisdiction with' i-espect to llic election and initiation of mein- 
iicr.s in the counties of Cuyahoga, Ashtabula, Lake, Geauga, Trumbull, 


Portagi'. Sunmiit, -Mt'iliiui, Lorain, Aslilaud, Huron, and Erit' in said 
State of Ohio. 

The iirst (ifficers of tlio Western Reserve Society were: 

I'rcsid-fnt, Elroy MeKendree Avery, 

Vke-presidcntx, Liberty Emery Holdeii and Dudley Baldwin, 

Secretary, William Tlioma.s Wiswall, 

Treasurer, VA\wvi Hall linker, 

liegistrar, Daniel Wilhert Manchester, 

Ilistoridu. Charles Fayette Olney. 

The two societies are still (1918) in vigorous existence, active in all 
patriotic work, and (in late years) very etlicicnt in the work of the 
Americanization of our foreign born population. 

Historical Society and Chamber of Commerce 

In 1892, the Western Reserve Historical Society which had been 
organized as a branch of the Cleveland Library Association, now- 
known as the Case Library, was reorganized, incorporated, and given 
a home of its own on the Public Square as will be more fully set 
forth in a later (■bai)ter. In this year, the Board of Trade of the City 
of Cleveland was legally reorganized, its functions enlarged, and its 
name changed to the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce. On the first of 
July, 1892, there were owned in Cleveland, forty steel vessels of which 
thirty-nine were steamers and thirty-five were built in what had be- 
come the Queen City of the Lower Lakes. These ships had a total 
net registered tonnage of 69,317 tons and an insurance valuation of 
!^7, 119,000. The total number of vessels owned in Cleveland was 289, 
and their estimated value was $17,000,000. The estimated aggregate 
of annual wholesale sales in mercantile lines was about .$49,000,000, and 
the paid-in capital of the banks of the city, exclusive of the Society for 
Savings, was more than $15,000,000. Owing to its peculiar organiza- 
tion, the Society for Savings, the largest of the city's financial institu- 
tions, has no capital stock; its deposits in 1892 were more tluin $21,- 
000,000. Cleveland had gotten into the habit of writing its monetary 
statistics in millions. 

The Soldiers' and Saiujrs' ^Ionument 

On the Fourth of July, 1894, the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and 
Sailors' ilonument that stands in the section of the Public 
Square was dedicated. The ninnumcnt was mentioned in an earlier 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument 


chapter; its full liistm-y lias Ihcii written hy Major William J. Gleason, 
the president of the monument commission. As, iu 1872, Clevehuid 
hail pushed her boundary line eastward, so now. the line was pushed 
very cousei-vatively westward. On the fifth of March, 1894, West 
Cleveland was annexed, and on the thirtieth of April, Brooklyn came 
into the fold, addini,' about thirty-two thousand acres to the area and 
about eleven thousand to the jxipulation of the city. 

Convention of Christi.\n Endeavorers 

On the twelfth of duly (1894). the thirteenth annual international 
convention of the Christian Endeavorers was held iu Cleveland. With 
all the preparation that had been made for the reception and enter- 
tainment of delegates, there was no anticipation of the immense crowds 
that came. The ()i)ening meeting had been scheduled for the huge 
Saengerfest Hall.* This hall was on the west side of Willson Avenue 
(East Fifty-fifth Street), and extended from Outhwaite Street (now 
Avenue) to Scovill Avenue; the site is now occupied by the East Tech- 
nical High School. The hall had a seating capacity for about twelve 
thousand, but on this occasion it held many moi'e. At none of the 
preceding conventions had the attendance at the meeting been 
large enough to till the hall in which the meeting was held, but long 
Ijefore the hour for the o[)cning of the first meeting in Cleveland, the 
Saengerfcst Hall was tilled and the throng extended far into the 
adjacent streets. Then the big tent at the corner of Willson and Cedar 
avenues was thrown open and quickly filled. A chairman and a musical 
director were proviiled and it was not long before the convention 
hymns were going up as though it had been originally intended that 
they should rise from that point. It was estimated that from twelve 
to fifteen thousand ]H'i-sons were within the tent, and thousands more 
outside. Then the near-by, new Epworth ^Memorial (Methodist Epis- 
copal) Church was opened, three thousand Endeavorers were therein 
gathered, and a third meeting was organized. Still there were En- 
deavorers out of doors and so a fourth meeting was organized in the 
Woodland Aveinie Presbyterian Church at Woodland Avenue and 
Kennard (East Forty-sixth) Street. A system of transfers was quickly 
developed and speakers were hurried from hall to tent and from tent 
to church. And so the morning went. It was estimated that the total 
attendance at that morning's meeting exceeded thirty thousand; it 
set the high-water mark for Christian Endeavor conventions. At the 
main meeting, the delegates were welcomed to Ohio by Governor 
William .McKinlev who delivered an earnest and characteristically 

See picture on I'age .")fi2. 



dignilied address, and the Rev. J. Z. Tyler extended the greetings of 
the Cleveland members. The regular proceedings of the convention 
do not pertain to a history- like this. 

The Cleveland Postofpice 

As stated in an earlier chapter of this vohnne, the receipts of 
the Cleveland post-ofiRce for the first quarter of 1806 were $2.83; just 
what the total for the entire vear was I do not know. For the year end- 


Old Postoffice 

ing on the thirtieth of June, 1890, the receipts were $-161,854.63; for 
the year ending on the thii'tieth of September, 1895, the receii)ts were 
$652,627.13. The large percentage of increase teslilics pretty clearly 
to the general growth of the city in that half decade. At that time, the 
government occujiicd tln' western part of its i)resent site, facing tlie 
i'lililii' S(|uare (at the left) as i-eprcscntcd in tlic accoiiipanyiiig illus- 
tration. In 1871, the l)uil(ling consisted of the middle section between 
tile two extensions that were added at a later date. At an early hour 


ill tlie evening of tlit» sixtooiitli of NoveiiiluT of this year (1895), eaine 
a tragic reminder of tiie danger incident to the use of viaducts with 
sections that must lie swung open for the passage of boats up and down 
the river. Up to this time, ("ievehmd had been practically free from 
fatal results following the constant menace, but, at the hour above 
mentioned, a street ear going to the South Side plunged through the 
open draw of the Central viaduct that had been built in 1888, and 
into the Cuyahoga River, a hundred feet below. Just as the car went 
over the brink the motormaii jumped. He and one passenger were 
all who cscajied death ; the conductor and sixteen passengers were 

Cleveland's Centenni.vl Anniversary 

At the annual meeting of the Early Settlers' Association, held on 
the twenty-second of July, 189:3, the Hon. John C. Covert offered the 
following : 

Resolved — That the president appoint a committee of nine per- 
sons, of which he shall be the chainnan, to confer with the City Coun- 
cil, Chamber of Commerce, and other local bodies, to provide for a 
lirojier celebration of the Centennial anniversary of the landing of 
Moses Cleaveland at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River on July 22, 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. The committee thus 
ordered, consisted of the Hon. Richard C. Parsons, chairman, John C. 
Covert, A. J. Williams, Bolivar Butts, Gen. James Barnett, Wilson S. 
Dodge, Solon Burgess, George F. Marshall, and "Father" H. M. 
Addison. At a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, held on the 
twenty-first of November of the same year, the following preamble aud 
resolutions were adopted : 

Whereas, The year 1896 will mark the one-hundredth anniversary 
of the founding of the City of Cleveland; and. 

Whereas. So important an event deserves commemoration in the 
degree to which Cleveland has made advancement during that period 
in pojnilation. wealth, commerce, education and arts; therefore, 

Hesolvfd. That a committee of five be appointed by the Chamber 
of Commerce, whose duty it shall be to begin at once timely and suit- 
able preparations for an appropriate celebration of the City's Cen- 
tennial, to the end that various important public improvements now 
in progress, in contemjilation, may, by unity and harmony of action, 
be brought to a culmination in that year, and the occasion he thus 
distinguished by tangible evidences of the city's growth and glory. 

The 'committee of five" thus ordered into existence consisted of 
seven members as follows-. Wilson ^I. Day, William J. Akcrs, Harry 


A. Garfield, S. F. Haserot, Webb C. Hayes, George "W. Kinney and 
0. M. Stafford. The report submitted by this committee was adopted 
by the chamber and the committee was continued. In May, 1895, 
Robert E. JIcKisson, mayor of Cleveland, Wilson M. Day, president 
of the Chamber of Commerce, representatives of the Early Settlers' 
Association, and others held a conference at which a full centennial 
commission was appointed. On the eleventh of July, 1895, it was de- 
cided that the celebration that was to usher in the second century of 
the City of Cleveland shoi;ld begin on the twenty-second of July, 1896, 
the one hundredth anniversary of Moses Cleaveland's arrival at the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga, and end on the tenth of the following Sep- 
tember, the annivei-sary of Perry's victory on Lake Erie. At the 
same meeting of the commission, Wilson M. Day was elected as direc- 
tor-general of the celebration. The commission opened head(iuarters 
in the city hall and at once began its labors. A brief account of the 
celebration will be given in the next chapter. 



As recorded in the preceding chapter, the second century of the 
life of the settlement at the mouth of the Cuyahoga was to be usliered 
in with an elaborate celebration and for that purpose a Centennial 
Commission was organized as follows: 

Ildnorarij president, Asa S. Bushnell, 

Honorary secretary, Samuel (i. JMcCliu'e, 

President, Robert E. McKissou, 

First u^i-cc-prcsident, h. E. Holdeu, 

Second vice-president, A. J. Williams, 

Secretary, Eldward A. Roberts, 

Treasurer, Charles W. Chase, 

Director-generaJ, Wilson II. Daj^ 

State Members: Asa S. Bushnell, governor; S. M. Tayloi', secre- 
tary of state ; W. D. Guilbert, auditor of state ; Asa W. Jones, presi- 
dent of the senate; 1). L. Sleeper, speaker of the house. 

Municipal Members: Robert E. McKisson, mayor; Minor G. Nor- 
ton, director of law ; Darwin E. Wright, director of public works ; 
Frank A. Emerson, president of the city council ; H. Q. Sargent, direc- 
tor of schools. 

Membcrs-at-large : William J. Akers, H. M. Addison, A. T. Ander- 
son, Bolivar Butts, Clarence E. Burke, Charles P. Brush, Charles W. 
Chase, George W. Cady, John C. Covert, Wilson M. Day, George Dem- 
ing, William Edwards, Martin A. Poran, Kaufman Hays, H. R. Hatch, 
Orlando J. Iliidge, L. E. Holdon, James H. Iloyt, M. A. Hanna, John 
C. ITutchins, George W. Kinney, John IMeckes, James B. Morrow, 
Daniel Myers, Samuel JIather, E. W. Oglebay, James M. Richardson, 
PI. A. Sherwin, A. J. Williams, A. L. Withington, Augustus Zehring. 

In addition to this organization of mere men there was a Women's 
Department, the officers and executive committee of which were as 
follows : 

President: Mrs. Mary B. Ingham, 

Vice-presidents: Mrs. Mary Seranton Bradford, Mrs. Sarah E. 
Bierce, Mrs. George Presley, Jr., Mrs. Joseph Turnery, 
Recording secretary, Mrs. Ella Sturtevant Webb, 
Corresponding secretary, Mrs. S. P. Churchill, 



Treasurer, Miss Elizabeth Blair, 

Assistant-treasurer, ;Miss Elizabeth Stanton, 

Historian, Mrs. Gertrude V. R. Wiekliam. 

Executive Committee: Mrs. Eh-oy M. Avery, chairman; Mrs. 
Charles W. Chase, Mrs. T. K. Dissette, Mrs. H. A. Griffin, Mrs. M. A. 
Hanna, Mrs. P. M. Hitchcock, Mi's. 0. J. Hodge, Mrs. John Huntington, 
Mrs. F. A. Kendall, Mrs. W. B. Neff, Mrs. N. B. Prentice, Mrs. W. G. 
Rose, Mrs. L. A. Russell, Mrs. M. B. Schwab, Mrs. Charles H. Weed, 
Mrs. A. J. Williams. 

Of course, there was a large number of very important committees, 
each composed of able and efficient members, appointed by both depart- 
ments of the commission. 

Celebration of Cleveland's Centennial 

The date fixed for the formal opening of the Cleveland Centennial 
celebration was the twenty-second of July, 1896, but the series of com- 
memorative events was begun on the preceding Sunday, the nineteenth 
of the mouth. At eight o'clock in the morning of that day, the chimes 
of Trinity cathedral rang out sacred and patriotic selections ; at half 
past ten, there wei'e centennial services in all the churches; at half 
past two, there was a mass-meeting of citizens in the Central Armory 
and another of the German Lutheran congregations at Music Hall; 
at half past seven in the evening, there were other centennial services 
in the churches and a mass-meeting of German Protestant congrega- 
tions at the Central Armory. At the afternoon meeting, the armory 
was elaborately decorated and completely filled with persons of all 
classes including many local organizations, military and fraternal. 
The presiding officer was the Rev. J. G. W. Cowles. The Cleveland 
Vocal Society sang the chorus from Elijah, "Thanks be to God," 
after w-hich the Right Rev. William A. Leonard, bishop of the Episco- 
pal, diocese, offered prayer, the great audience, with bowed heads, ac- 
companying him in the Lord's Prayer at its close. The introductory 
address of the chairman closed with these words: 

AVhat 1 have said is introductory, and suggestive oidy. It is for who follow to exhibit, in various colors and relations, the religious 
life and progress of this city. In the gi'cat world-order the Jew stands, the Catholic next, and the Protestant But in our local his- 
tory, the Protestant was the pioneer, followed, after thirty-nine years, 
by the Catholic, and, after forty-three years, by the Jewish church. 
The contributions of each one of these factors and faiths have been of 
incalculalilc value to 1his comiinuiity and to numkind. Let each one 
speak for his faith, from his spi)arate point of view, and speak well, 
for each faith deserves to be well spoken of. 


Responses to this invitation came in addresses by the Rev. Levi 
Gilbert, representing the Protestant churches; Mgr. T. P. Thorpe, 
representing the Catholic church, and Rabbi Moses J. Gries, repre- 
senting the Jewish church. After prayer by the Rev. Herman J. 
Rutenik, the exercises came to a close, the audience joining in the 
hymn, "Nearer, my God, to Thee." At the evening meeting in the 
armory, addresses were made bj' Mayor McKisson and Director- 
general Day, and others in German by several clergymen of the city. 
When I\rr. Day closed his address with the words: "In tlie name of 
the Centennial Commission, I greet you. God save the Fatherland ! 
God save America!" the great audience joined in patriotic applause 
and united in singing "America." "And the evening and the morn- 
ing were the first day." 

On the following day (Monday, July 20), the centennial exhibi- 
tion of the Cleveland School of Art, and the encampment of United 
States regular troops and of the Ohio National Guard were opened. 
This camp was located on the farm of Jacob B. Perkins, west of the 
city. At 3 p. m., Asa S. Bushnell, governor of Ohio, and his staff ; 
Robert E. McKisson, maj-or of Cleveland ; J. G. W. Cowles, president 
of the Chamber of Commerce, and thousands more met at the camp ; 
the troops formed a hollow square ; Liberty E. Holdeu, representing 
the Centennial Commission, introduced the mayor who spoke briefly 
and well and then introduced the govei'nor w^ho thus began : 

When Freedom from her mountain height 

Unfurled her banner to the air, 
She tore the azure robe of night 

And placed the stars of gloiy there ! 

At this moment the halyard on the flag staff "was pulled, and the 
Star Spangled Banner shook out in all its glory, under the now 
darkening skies, while the batterj' down below boomed its salute of 
twenty-one guns, in unison with the mightier artillery which the ele- 
ments had set rolling overhead." Then the governor accepted the 
camp for the state and christened it "Camp Moses Cleav eland." By 
this time, the rain was coming down handsomely and the exercises w-ere 
quickly closed. 

On the following day (July 21), the log-cabin that Bolivar Butts 
and "Father" Addison had succeeded in having built on the north- 
east section of the Public Square was dedicated and a reception was 
there held by the women of the Early Settlers' Association. At the 
dedication, prayer was offered by the Rev. Lathrop Cooley, "America" 



was sung by the Arion Quartet (the favorite four of Cleveland's male 
singers), and speeches wei*e made by ]\Iayor McKisson and others. 
In the course of his address, Geu. J. J. Ehvell said : 

From this cabin to the building of the Society for Savings [only a 
few yards away] is an object lesson of wliat has been done in Cleveland, 
more impressive and instructive than anytliing I can say. Look at 
them as they stand. The log cabin with no money — not a cent. The 
bank with twenty or thirty millions belonging to the citizens of Cleve- 
land and county. From i^overty to wealth is the story they tell. Our 
past has been glorious, but it will not compare with the glory of the 
future, if we follow the footsteps of righteousness that our forefathers 
set before us. 

That night, "when the minute-hand marked the hour of twelve, and 
Wednesday, July 22, 1896, stood upon the threshold of recorded time," 

Centennial Log Cabin 

the guns of the Cleveland Light Artillery (Battery A) boomed forth 
the centennial salute in token of the completion of the first hundred 
years of Cleveland's existence. The well filled program for Founder's 
Day thus ushered in included a national salute at 5 : 30 A. M. ; recep- 
tion of guests at 8 to 9 A. M. ; public exercises in the Central Armory 
at 9:30 A. M. ; grand parade of military and uniformed civic or- 
ganizations at 2:30 P. M. ; illumination of the centennial arch and 
an historical pageant, "The Passing of the Century," at 8 P. M. ; 
reception and ball at the armory of the Cleveland Grays at 10 P. M. ; 
carriages as ordered. The great event of the day was the morning 
meeting in the Central Armory. On the platform sat the governor 
of Ohio (Asa S. Bushnell) ; the governor of Old Connecticut (O. Vin- 
cent Coffin) ; the mayor of the "TTcart of New Connecticut" (Robert 


E. McKisson) ; senatoi-s Joseph K. Ilawley of CoiuiectU'ut, and John 
Sherman of Ohio; William Mc-Kinley, then a camlidatc for llie 
presidency of tlie I'liited States; and many other men more or less 
distinguished. As ehairman of the meeting', James II. Iloyt read a 
telegram of eoiigratulation from (irover Cleveland, president of the 
United States, by eleefion, but that day, by choice, the far-famed 
fisherman of 15uzzard"s Bay. Senator Ilawley was the princii)al 
orator of the day and John H. Piatt read the centennial ode — a song 
of praise : 

Praise to the sower of the seed, 

The planter of the tree — 
What though another for the harvest gold 

The ready sickle hold. 
Or breathe the lilossom. watch the fruit unfold? 

Enongb for him, indeed. 
That he sliould plant the tree, should sow the seed. 
And earn the reaper's guerdon, even if he 

Should not the reaper be. 

Governor Coffin then gave the gi-eetings of the parent common- 
wealth and atideil : 

In the early liays, it has been claimed Connecticut held by grant a 
wide section, extending westerly to the ocean. Portions of this section 
now form parts of at least thirteen different states. But Connecticut 
gave up nearly all this territory, reserving here in Ohio the large 
tract known as the W^ester/i Reserve. Here, where we are met, her 
people i)repared the ground for a great eity, which is now set as the 
.most beautiful of gems in the erown of your queenly commonwealth. 
Our pride in our own state mounts rapidly as we contemplate her 
splendid daughter, and remember what glory of motherhood is hers. 

As Governor Coffin took his seat, announcement of the gift of 
magnificent additions to Cleveland's park system l)y John D. Rocke- 
feller was made. The negotiations that had led to this gift had been 
conducted with such secrecy that no inklins of them had come to 
the people until this moment. When .Mr. L. E. Hnklen offered a 
resolution of thanks and acceptance coupled with a request that Mr. 
Rockefeller permit the new park to bear his name, "the people arose, 
as one, in adoption of the resolution." Then Governor Bushnell of 
Ohio assured Governor Coffin of Connecticut that "from old IMarietta, 
where an Ohio community was established by forty-eight Connecticut 
men, to Conneaut. where Closes Cleaveland first landed, the state is 
yours. In the name of all the people of Ohio, I extend you a most 


cordial welcome." Then AVilliam McKinley was introduced and 

To-day the present generation pays its homage to Cleveland's 
founders aiid offers a generous and unqualified testimonial to their 
wisdom and work. The statistics of the population of Cleveland, her 
growth, production, and wealth, do not, and cannot, tell the story of 
her greatness. We have been listening to the interesting and eloquent 
words of historian, poet, and orator, graphically describing lier rise 
from obscurity to prominence. They have woven into a perfect narra- 
tive the truthful, yet established, record of her advancement, from an 
unknown frontier settlement, in the western wilderness, to the proud 
rank of eleventh citj- iu the greatest couutrj- — America — the grandest 
country in the world. We have heard, with just pride, how marvelous 
has been her progress ; that among the greatest cities of the earth, but 
sixty-two now outrank Cleveland in population. Her life is as one 
century to twenty, with some of that number. Yet her civilization is as 
far advanced as the proudest metropolis in the world. In jjoint of 
government, education, morals, business thrift, and enterprise, Cleve- 
land may well claim recognition with the foremost, and is fairly en- 
titled to the wannest congratulations and highest eulogy on this her 
centenary day. Nor will any envy her people a season of self-congi-atu- 
lation and rejoicing. You inaugurate, to-day, a Centennial celebration 
in honor of your illustrious past, and its beginning is, with singular 
appropriateness, called Founder's Day. We have lieard, with interest, 
the enumeration of the commercial importance of this city, a port on 
a cliain of lakes, whose tonnage and commerce surpasses that on any 
other sea or ocean on the globe. We realize the excellence and su- 
periority of the great railroad systems which touch the center of this 
city. We marvel at the volume and variety of your numerous manu- 
factories, and see about us, on every hand, the pleasant evidences of 
your comfort and culture; not only in. the hospitable homes, but in 
your churches, schools, charities, factories, business houses; your 
various streets and viaducts, public parks, statues and monuments — 
indeed, in your conveniences, adonunents and improvements of every 
sort, we behold all llie advantages and blessings of the model modern 
city, wortliy to be both tlie jiride of a great city and a still greater 
nation ! 

After brief addresses by Senator Sherman, and the mayor of Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, the benediction was pronounced by the Rev. Samuel 
P. Sjireeher, and the audience was dismissed. The rest of the program 
for the i]iiy, as above recorded, was then successfully carried out. At 
a few minutes after eight in the evening, President Cleveland pressed 
an electric button in his smnmer liome at Buzzard's Bay, Massachu- 
setts, and the centennial arch "burst into a flame of light, amid the 
cheers of the watching thousands." Then came the beautiful his- 
torical pageant that had been arranged with great care, ami then 
the reception and ball, at the end of which or sooner, weary Cleve- 




landers gladly went to bed in preparation for anotlier day, perhaps 
not quite so strenuous. 

The full stoiy of the eentennial celebration, compiled by Edward 
A. Roberts, secretary and historian of the centennial commission, and 
published under an appropriation by the city coiuicil, makes a lx)ok of 
270 octavo pages; of course, I can give only a scant epitome of that 


Centennlul. Arch 

The twenty-third of July was New England Day. In the fore- 
noon, the Ohio editors were given steandjoat and street railway rides, 
but the chief event of the day was the New England dinner under 
tents on the campus of Adelbert College with speeches (of course) 
and a menu that, "from the bean porridge to the Vermont turkey," 
was supposed to represent New England fare in the early days. In 
the evening, the Euclid Avenue Opera House was filled for the first 
presentation of the centennial opera, "From Moses to McKisson," by 
the Gatling Gun Battery. 


The twentj'-seventh of July was Wheelmen's Day, the occasion of 
a great bicycle parade, the line of which was formed in nine divisions. 
Ou the following day, the Plain Dealer reported : 

Not since the centennial ceremonies began has there been such a 
turn-out of people as filled the eight miles of parade route in Cleve- 
land yesterdaj'. The military had their thousands, but the wheelmen 
luid their tens of thousands of admirers. . . . What a unique 
parade it was! No such kaleidoscope of color has filled Cleveland's 
streets in many a day. The nations of the earth were represented. 
Gaily decorated yachts, with colore flying from every mast and stay, 
glided down the open stream, their sails filling with gentle breezes, 
that set their flags fluttering. Butterflies of gaudy hue skimmed 
silently over the pavement. Frogs with goggle eyes, Indians in war 
paint, Arabs in scarlet fezes, white troops of sweet girl graduates, 
Romeos in doublets and trunks, Topsys and Sambos, almond-eyed Japs, 
Uncle Sams of all ages, and Goddesses of Liberty without number, 
flitted past, until the spectators gi-ew dizzy watching the constantly 
revolving wheels. 

The twenty-eighth of July was Women's Day. In the early morn- 
ing, the bronze statue of Moses Cleaveland in the Public Sipiare was 
wreathed with flowers. At 9 A. M., there were formal exercises in the 
Central Armory, with Mrs. Mary B. Ingham, president of the Women's 
Department of the Centennial Commission, presiding. There were 
several speeches by men and numerous papers on numerous topics by 
women. In the afternoon, the first hour was given up to "Women's 
Clubs." The official report of the celebration says: 

Mrs. Elroy M. Avery, president of the executive board and the 
first woman in Cleveland to be elected to the School Council, presided. 
In taking charge of the meeting, Mrs. Avery said: 

I am glad that the hour of my chairmanship is the civic hour. In 
our civic pride we recognize the fact that the building of such a city 
as this in a hundred years is conclusive evidence of activity and energy. 
This active and energetic city needs, and lias, an active and energetic 
head. Cleveland 's mayor is only a third as old as the city, the .youngest 
mayor of any great city in the land. When the enthusiasm of youth 
reinforces wisdom, the combination constitutes the index of succes-s. 
It gives me gi-eat pleasure to introduce to you our great city's honored 
chief. Mayor Robert E. McKisson. 

To this, the mayor responded in a hai)py speech of congratula- 
tion and commendation. After the address of the mayor, came one 
by J. G. W. Cowles, president of the Chamber of Commerce. Mrs. 
Benjamin F. Taylor read an able paper on "Women's Clubs," and 
the centennial ode bv Miss Ilanna Foster was read by its author. 




« -ft^,» 5 

iilC'VCLE 1'aKADE 

Wheelmen's Day Crowd 


This ode had been awarded e, prize iu a public competition; the first 
of its twenty -one stanzas follows : 

Rose, flourished long, grew old, then fell asleep, 

The hundred-gated city of the Nile ; 

But not of her, deep sepulchered, the while 

Forgotten centuries her records keep ; 

Nor Venice, smiling still with studied grace, 

Into the mirror that reflects her face ; 

Nor once imperial Rome, whose name and fame 

So ruled the world; old pomp, and powei', and pride — 

Not those to-day ! "With warmer, quicker tide 

Our pulses thrill ! On sacred altars flame 

Pure patriot fires of love and loyalty. 

While ready hands the Stai-s and Stripes outfling 

And "Cleveland," past and present, and to be. 

Aye, "Greater Cleveland," her proud sons and daughters sing! 

The rest of the afternoon was given to the subject of "Education," 
ilrs. Lydia Hoyt Parmer presiding. After the reading of papers 
and the delivery of addresses b.y Mrs. May Wright Sewall, Jlrs. Har- 
riet Taylor Upton, Mrs. R. IT. Wright, Mrs. Kate Brownlce Sherwood, 
and the venerable Truman P. Handy, and the recital of the Lord's 
Prayer by the audience, the exercises of the afternoon came to an 
end. A reception at Grays' Armory from 5:30 to 6:30 P. M. was 
followed at 7 : 00 by a banquet served in the drill room of the armorj' ; 
the menu wa.s supplemented by the usual and ample "feast of reason 
and flow of soul." 

The twenty-ninth of July was Early Settlers' Day, and mainly 
devoted to exercises conducted by the Early Settlers' Association, 
the annual meeting of which was held in the forenoon. In the after- 
noon, the members assembled at the Ing-cabin to give the photographer 
his customary opportunity, to enjoy a social hour, and to listen to 
the music that "Father" Addison evoked from his ancient violin. 

The thirtieth of July was Western Reserve Day, ushered in by 
a national salute at 5 : 30 A. M. In the af tex'noon, there was a mili- 
tary and pioneer parade. In the military part of the parade were 
United States regular troops, a regiment of infantry, a troop of 
cavalry, and a battery of artillery. There were also several regi- 
ments of the Ohio National Guard, some independent companies, and 
the veteran volunteer firemen. The primary object of the pioneer 
part of the parade especially "was to emphasize the development of 
the Reserve. In order to do this, contrasts were shown between the 



methods in vogue at the opening of the century and those in vogue 
at its close. It was a historical panorama intensely interesting, in- 
structive and impressive, having besides its military and civic fea- 
tures, special features suggestive of pioneer life — aborigines, ox-teams, 
prairie schooners, stage-coaches, hayseed bands and numerous other 
attractions. The evening shadows were gathering when the head of 
the column passed the reviewing stand in front of the City Hall." 
In the evening a large audience enjoyed a band concert in the Public 

A notable event of this commemorative jubilee was the yacht re- 
gatta held (August 10-13) under the auspices of the Centennial 
Commission and tlie Cleveland Yacht Club. There was a large num- 

Ca.MI- I'EltKV-l'.W.NK 

ber of entries with several interesting contests. On the eighteenth 
of August, the Centennial Ploral Exposition was opened in llie Cen- 
tral Armory under the joint auspices of the Centennial Commission, 
the Society of American Florists, and the Cleveland Florists' Club. 
Three days were devoted to the beautiful displays. Meantime, a 
tented village had been taking form in tlie fields known as "Payne's 
Pastures" on Payne Avenue east of Hazard (East 'I'wenty-second) 
Street. A little later (August 22-29), tiiis vilhige became the tempo- 
rai-y home of 8,000 members of the Uniform Rank, Knighls of Pythias, 
and was given the name, "Camp Perry-Payne," the East Side an- 
alogue of "Camp Moses Cleavcland" on the AVest Side. The event 
of greatest public interest in connection with this eiic;im|iinint was 






the parade on the afternoon of the twenty-fifth of Angust — one of 
the most brilliant displays of the summer, and one of the most im- 
posing in the history of the order. 

The seventh, eighth, and ninth of September were devoted to a 
series of historical conferences, treating separately the topics of 
Education, Religion, and Philanthropy. The first two days were 
devoted to Education. The section was presided over by Dr. Charles 
F. Thwing. president of the Western Reserve University. On the 
first day, the conference listened to Miss L. T. Guilford who read an 
entertaining paper on "Some Early Schools and Teachers of Cleve- 
land," and to L. H. Jones, superintendent of the Cleveland public 
schools, and to Prof. B. A. Hinsdale of the Universitj- of iliehigan 
and formerly president of Hiram College and superintendent of the 
Cleveland pitblic schools. On the second day (September 8), Mgr. 
T. P. Thorpe spoke in the forenoon on the work of the parochial 
schools and, in an eloquent, iinpromptu address, the Rev. Levi 
Gilbert, pastor of the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Cleve- 
land, dwelt upon the need of high moral character in the direction of 
the education of the young. In the afternoon. President Thwing 
delivered an address on "The Development of the Higher Educa- 
tion," and in the evening Dr. Jeremiah Smith of the Harvard Uni- 
versity Law School discussed the special reqviisites for the profession 
of law. The third day of the conference was given over to the sec- 
tions of Religion and of Philanthropy. In the forenoon, several 
clergymen and Mrs. Ingham spoke for their several denominations 
and, in the afternoon, L. F. ^lellen read a paper on ' ' The History of 
the Charities of Cleveland," Dr. C. F. Dutton spoke on "The Mutual 
Relations of Riches and Poverty," and Rabbi Moses J. Gries dis- 
cussed "Organized Philanthropy." The several papers read and the 
addresses given at the conference are printed, most of them in full, 
in the official report of the Centennial Commission. 

On the ninth of September, the following proclamation was issued: 

It is earnestly and respectfully urged that the citizens of Cleveland, 
as far as possible, turn aside from their usual vocations on Thursday, 
September 10th, and heartily engage in the festivities and ceremonies 
of Perry's Victory Daj'. This anniversary, recalling as it does the 
great pivotal battle for national supremacy on the lakes, is a signifi- 
cant and important event in the city's history, and its proper cele- 
bration mei'its enthusiastic co-operation on the part of all. Eighty- 
three yeai-s ago the announcement of that famous victory came to 
Cleveland, then a struggling village. To-day finds it a city in which 
370,000 persons rejoice in the benefits of fi-eedom and liberty for which 




the gallant Perry fmiglit. It is their privilege to light the city's pa- 
triotic tires to burn through the coining century. Cleveland is proud 
aiul happy to ojjcn wide her gates and give most cordial greeting to 
Governor Lippitt anil other distinguished representatives of CJoinino- 
dore Perry's native state. She is also honored with the presence of 
Governor Bushnell and thousands of visitors from Ohio and surround- 
ing states. To this multitude of guests from far and near the Forest 
City is dedicated for this holiday, and hails the coming host with 
"Welcome, thrice welcome, one and all." 

Robert E. McKisson, Mni/or. 

At daybreak on the tenth of September, came a national salute 
that brought a returning fire from the guns of the United States 
steamer Michigan wliich lav at anchor in the harbor. Thus notified 

Put-in-Bay Memorial 

that the final holiday of the centennial series had arrived, citizens 
and visitors responded with a patriotio enthusiasm that had not been 
weakened or wearied by the events that had gone before. There 
was a mass meeting at the Central Armory with Governor Bushnell 
presiding. The principal address was made by Charles Warren Lip- 
pitt, governor of Rhode Island — Perr\-'s native state. At its conclu- 
sion, a resolution was adopted asking congress and the Ohio legisla- 
ture to appropriate money for a suitable memorial at Put-iu-Bay. 
Such a memorial has been erected. Then Frederick Boyd Stevenson, 
the poet of the day, read a patriotic ode especially dedicated to the 




A mimber of the deseeiKlaiits of meu who took part in the great 
naval victory on the lake in 1813 were then introduced to the audience, 
and the Rev. C. E. Manchester, a relative of Commodore Perry, pro- 
nounced the benediction and thus closed the exercises. In the after- 
noon, came the gi-eat industrial and military parade, the last of the 
centennial celebration. ' ' Tlierc were many soldiers in the line ; the 
governors of Ohio and Rhode Island, with their staffs; the members 
of the Centennial Commission ; the officers of the United States steamer 
'Michigan,' and of the revenue cutter 'Fesscnden'; many fraternal and 
social organizations; and a long line of floats, illustrative of Cleve- 
land's varied industries, and the products of her factories and shops. 
It was a ci-owning object-lesson, showing what the city of Jloses 
Cleaveland could do, at this end of the nineteenth century." The pro- 
cession was viewed by a (juarter of a million persons; it was a 
"World's Fair crowd contracted and condensed. Street ear ti-affic 
was suspended for two hours. The shades of evening had fallen before 
the last float went by the reviewing stand and the electric lights were 
called in to slied their brightness upon tlie scene. At an early hour, 
thousands gathered on the lake front to see the Battle of Lake Brie 
reproduced in mimic fireworks. As stated in the official report, "be- 
fore tlie last trumpet-call of the afternoon parade had died away the 
crowd began to shift toward Lake View Park. A large reviewing 
stand had been erected for the use of guests and members of the 
Centennial Commission and committees, but passage to this was early 
impeded and finally rendered impossible, owing to the densitj- of the 
throng. Not only did the park fill up, but an overflow movement 
was soon in progress to the grounds of the Marine and Lakeside 
hospitals. Many persons also viewed the display from the tops of 
box cars on the railroad tracks. Every accessible point within range 
of the lake was occupied. Before 7 o'clock Summit Sti'eet was im- 
passable, and the side streets leading to it were blocked for a con- 
siderable distance. Several thousand persons on board steamers and 
other lake craft formed an important addition to this army of sight- 
seers. The harbor was filled with vessels. Here and there a row- 
boat moved quietly about, illuminated with lanterns or torches, bear- 
ing small parties of venturesome j'outh. Over 50,000 persons, ac- 
cording to careful estimate, turned out to see the fireworks. Not 
all of these were satisfied with the display. Indeed the majority 
■were greatly disappointed. The exhibition was in charge of managers 
from the East, whose watches registered Eastern time, a fact which 
resulted in the commencement of the progr-amme nearly an hour be- 
fore the time scheduled in the announcement. A great many people 



arrived after the display had ended, and many others who came early 
kept their places, thinking it had onlj' beg^in. " Later in the evening, 
the Centennial Commission gave a floral banquet at the Hollenden 
Hotel in honor of the guests of the day. There were the inevitable 
speeches closing with one by Maj'or McKisson who finally gave a 
sharp rap on the table with a gavel made of wood taken from the log 
cabin and officially declared that Cleveland's first centennial celebra- 
tion was at an end. 

To THE Women op 1996 

Although the centennial was thus officially declared closed, the 
women would not allow the mayor to have the last word. The mem- 
bers of the Women's Department decided to collate facts and collect 
articles to be hermetically sealed in an aluminum box that was to be 
deposited with the Western Reserve Historical Societj'. On the after- 
noon of Friday, the eighteenth of December, 1896, a large audience 
assembled in the assembly room of the Public Library. The program 
was opened with prayer by the Rev. Marion Murdock, one of the two 
female ministers of Unity Church. After a brief address by Mrs. 
W. A. Ingham, president of the Women's Department, Mrs. Elroy M. 
Avery, chairman of the executive board of the department, read the 
inscription, written by Mrs. T. K. Dissette and engraved on the lid 
of the box, as follows: 

1896 to 1996. Greeting. 1896 to 1996. 

This casket contains for you the records of the Women's Depart- 
ment of the Cleveland Centennial Commission. To be opened by a 
lineal daughter of a member of the executive board in 1996. 

'Mrs. W. A. Ingham, 
Mrs. aiiiry S. Bradford, 
Mrs. S. P. Churchill, 
Mrs. T. K. Dissette, 
Mrs. H. A. Griffin, 
Mrs. 0. J. Hodge, 
Mrs. L. A. Russell, 
Mrs. M. P.. Scliwab, 
Mrs. W. G. Rose, 

]\Trs. Elrov M. Avery, 
Mrs. Ella" S. Webb, 
Jliss Elizabeth Blair, 
Mrs. W. B. Neff, 
Mrs. G. V. R. Wickham, 
Mrs. Charles W. Chase, 
Mrs. A. J. Williams, 
Mrs. Sarah E. Bieree. 

Rise, too, ye shapes and shadows of the past. 

Rise Fi-om your long forgotten graves, 

At last let us beliold your faces. 

Let us bear Ihosc words you uHci-ed. 

The box was lined with asbestos paper, and each article waa 
wrapped in tissue paper and tied with red, white, and blue ribbon. 


The contents of tlie box, as listed in the program for the occasion, 
are as follows: 

RchitiiHj to the Woiiian's Depart ni cut of the Centennidl: Consti- 
tution, Treasurer's Report, JMcuiorial History of tlie Women of the 
Western Reserve, Copy of the Addresses made on Woman 's Day, Pro- 
grammes for Woman's Day and for the Department, Tiekets, Invita- 
tions, Badges, Letters, Membership Roll, and Certificates. 

Official I'l-ogramme, Official Gavel, Official Certification to Con- 
tents of Casket. 

Centeiniial Allium, Quarter-Century Lectui'cs on Cleveland. 

Reports: Young Women's Christian Association, AVonuui's Re- 
lief Corps, W^otnan's Christian Temperance Union, Day Nursery and 
Free Kindergarten Association, Kindergarten Committee of Public 
Schools, Bethany Home, Dorcas Society, Circle of Mercy, Jewish Coun- 
cil of Women, Ili-storics of the Charities of Cleveland ; History of 
Women of Cleveland and Their Work; the Official Certificate of the 
First Woman Chosen to an Elective Office in Cleveland, Mrs. Elroy 
M. Avery. 

Programmes: The Conversational, Art and History Club, 
Woman's Press Club, Sorosis, Literary Guild, Case Avenue Literary 

Bael{/es and Pins: W'oman's Press Club, Sorosis, Wonuui's Relief 
Corps, Daughtei-s of the American Revolution, Woman's Christian 
Temperance LTnion. 

Newspapers: Centennial edition of The Cleveland Leader; Leader, 
July 29; Woman's edition of Plain Dealer (on silk); Plain Dealer, 
July 28 and 29: Recorder: Press: World; Voice and Clcvelander; 
True Repnhlic : Journal and Bulletin : International Messenfjer. Hand- 
book of City of Cleveland. Map of Cleveland. Ohio Legislative Hand- 

United States Flaej. 

Messaeje from 1896 to 1996. 

Before it was placed in the box, the message to the women of 
1996, was read by the chairman of the executive committee. It is as 
follows : 

To Women Unborn 
1896 sends greeting to 1996. 

We of to-day reach forth our hands across the gulf of a hundred 
years to clasp your hands. 

We make you heirs to all we have and enjoin you 1o improve 
your heritage. 

We bequeath to you a city of a centurj-, prosperous and beautiful, 
and yet far from our ideal. 

Some of our streets are not well lighted ; some are unpaved ; many 
are unclean. 

Many of the people are poor, and some are vainly seeking work at 
living wages. 


Often they who have employment are forced to filch hours for work 
from the hours that should be given to rest, recreation and study. 

Some of our children are robbed of their childhood. 

Vice parades our streets and disease lurks in many places that 
men and women call their homes. 

It sometimes happens that wealth usurps the throne that worth 
alone should occupy. 

Sometimes some of the reins of government slip from the hands of 
the people and public honoi-s ill-tit some who wear them. 

We are obliged to confess than even now 

"Man's inhumanity to man 
Makes countless thousands mourn." 

How Are These Things with You? 

Yet the world-family is better and happier than it was a hundred 
years ago; this is especially true in this American Republic, and has 
come by wisdom working through law. 

We love our country and seek its prosperity and perpetuity ; we 
love our country's flag and pray for its greater glory: in this country 
our men have mai'ched to victory under its folds in three great wars. 

We are ready to defend it against all the world. 

Are You? 

This hundred years has given to the world the locomotive and the 
steamboat, the telegraph, telephone, photograph, electric light, electric 
motor and many other wise and beneficent cliscoveries. 

Have you invented a fiying machine or found the north pole ? 

Wh.vt Have You Done 1 

In this first centennial year of our city we have planned many 
important works for the "Greater Cleveland" of to-morrow, and have 
appropriated millions of money for the execution of the plans. Among 
these are the improvement of the harbor; the widening, straightening, 
and cleaning of our narrow, crooked and befouled river ; the sanitary 
disposal of garbage; a fitting home for the public library; the exten- 
sion and completion of an adequate park and boulevard system; the 
addition of kindergartens to our public schools. 

Wn.\T Are You Doing fob Cleveland ? 

Standing by this casket soon to be sealed, we of to-day try to fix 
our vision on you who, a century hence, shall stand by it as we iiow do. 
The vision can last but a moment, but before it ends and we fade into 
the i)ast, wo would send up our earnest prayer for our country, our 
state, oui' cit.v, and for you. 


On bcJialf of the Women's Department of Cleveland's first C'cnten- 
nial Commission. 

Mrs. Elrov M. Avery, 
Cliainnan of the Executive Committee. 


After the box had been paeked in the prescuec of the assembly, and 
the packing had been oUrtcially certitied by the mayor, the casket was 
sealed and delivered to ilr. Ileni-y C. Rannej-, the president of the 
Western Reserve Ilistorieal Society, to be carefully preserved for a 
hundred years. In accepting the trust, Mr. Ranney said : 

To lay away the remains of the Woman's Department of the first 
Centennial of Cleveland in this beautiful casket, to lie until another 
hundred years liave passed away, is an event of unusual importance. 
Not a citizen of Cleveland will be living then. Not in sadness do we 
thus fold and lay away our past in this little sepulchre of aluminum, 
but because we love hunumity and are deeply interested in the work 
and progress of the women wlio follow us. It has been told us over and 
over again that Cleveland is proud of the spirit and acliievements of 
its women; that no fairer, more cultured or diligent sisterhood graces 
any great center in the whole nation than this of our own Forest City. 

I accept the trust imposed, a long and continuing trust, and with 
all its conditions and suggestions this trust will be faithfully and re- 
ligiously kept. A mysteiy deep as that which clings about the tombs 
of Egj-pt will enshroud it 100 years from now. I thank you for this 
compliment to the Historical Society and for the confidence the trust 

Then the Temple Quartet sang "America" and Miss Murdock pro- 
nounced the benediction. 

The final meeting of the Centennial Commission was held on the 
seventh of January, 1897. The director-general and the treasurer 
presented their final reports, by resolution the treasurer received the 
thanks of the commission, and the meeting was adjourned sine die. 
Of the balance left in the treasury, $2,455.61 was given to the Asso- 
ciated Charities, and the other $350 to the Floating Bethel. 



On the fifteenth of February, 1898, the United States battleship 
the ' ' Maine ' ' was destroyed in the harbor of Havana. On the twenty- 
fifth of April, both houses of congress adopted a resolution declar- 
ing that a state of war with Sixain existed. On the twenty-sixth of 
April, the national board of management of the Daughtei-s of the 
American Revolution adopted a series of resolutions, the fii"st two of 
which were as follows: 

Resolved, That the Board of Management of the National Society, 
Daughters of the American Revolution, desire to express to the Presi- 
dent of the ITnited States their earnest wish to be of all possible service 
to the government, and to our soldiers and sailors in the prosecution 
of the present war against the kingdom of Spain. 

Resolved, That we recommend that the members of our society, in 
every portion of the Union, take immediate steps to the end that we 
be ready to serve our countrj- in this grave national crisis. 

On the twentj'-fifth of May, the following resolution was adopted 
at a special meeting of the Western Reserve Chapter of the D. A. R. : 

Resolved, That the Western Reserve Chapter, Daughters of the 
American Revolution, recognizing with pride that in this grave crisis 
our great organization can l)e nf immediate sei-vice to our lu-esident 
and our country, and rememliering the practical value of the Sani- 
tary Commission and relief a.ssociatious during the late war for the 
Union, does proceed at onee to form special committees to act with 
the board of management in any emergency, and to co-operate in every 
way possible with anj- committees appointed by the national board 
of management. 

War Emergency Committees, D. A. R. 

The regent of the chapter at once appointed a War Emergency 
Committee consisting of Mrs. Andrew Squire, regent; Mrs. J. H. 
Webster, vice-regent; Mrs. X. X. Crum, secretary; Mi's. Virgil P. 
Ivliuc, treasurer; Mrs. 0. J. Hodge, registrar; Mrs. P. H. Sawyer, 
historian; Mrs. M. J. Malone, chairman of committee of safety; Mrs. 
Elroy M. Avery, former regent and vice-]iresident-gcuoral of the 
National Society, D. A. R. ; Mrs. F. A. Kendall, former regent; Mrs. W. 
TI. Barriss, former regent, and l\Irs. S. Prentiss Baldwin, Mrs. Tlinmas 



Boltou, Mrs. Stevenson Burke, Mi-s. C. W. Burrows, Mrs. C. C. 
Burnett, Mi-s. Oscar Childs, Mrs. William Chisholm, Mrs. Charles 
I. Dangler, Mrs. Harvey D. Goulder, Miss Lucy S. Green, Mrs. 
W. A. Guenther, Mrs. M. A. Hanna, Miss Laura Ililliard, Mrs. 
P. M. Hitchcock, Mrs. John Martin, Mrs. Samuel Mather, Mrs. Lee 
McBridc, Mrs. Price McKinney, Mrs. C. A. Otis, Jr., Miss Marion 
Parsons, Mrs. E. C. Pechin, Mrs. S. M. Perkins, Mrs. Samuel Ray- 
mond, Mrs. M. E. Rawson, Mrs. W. D. Rees, Mrs. R. R. Rhodes, 
Mrs. E. H. Seymour, Mrs. Benj. F. Taylor, Mrs. "W. R. Warner, 
Mrs. Mars Wagar, Mi-s. ('harles Wason, Mi-s. W. H. White. 

The regent also appointed a committee on the recommendation of 
nurses consisting of wives of prominent phj'sicians as follows: Mrs. 
J. A. Stephens (chairman) ; Mrs. D. H. Beekwith, Mrs. G. 0. 
Fraser, Mrs. H. W. Kitchen, Mrs. H. J. Lee, Mrs. H. W. Osborn, 
Mrs. N. B. Prentice, Mrs. P. H. Sawyer. 

On the following day (May 26), lettere were sent to Col. C. L. 
Kennau of the fifth regiment of the Ohio infantrj', encamped at 
Tampa, Florida, and to Col. M. W. Day of the first regiment of 
Ohio cavalry, encamped at Chickamauga Park, Tennessee, as follows : 

The Western Reserve Chapter, Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, yesterday foniied two war emergency committees from its 

One is composed of the wives of prominent Cleveland physicians 
to whom all nurses must apply, wishing recommendations to be sent 
to the front by the Washington committee, Daughters of the American 
Revolution, to which committee Surgeon-general Sternberg, U. S. 
Army, and Surgeon-general Van Reypen, U. S. Navj^, turn over all 
such applications. The other is larger and contains such leading 
women of our chapter and of our city as are always active in matters 
of relief. 

We are ready in case our troops need such assistance as was fur- 
nished by the Sanitary Commission during the late war. . . . 
We wantyou to feel that there is an organized committee to whom you 
can appeal if necessary, by lelegraph: to whom your physicians may 
send if they are in need of supplies. 

We do not wish to act in any prematui-e manner, luit we desire 
to have you know that we are ready, and that our membership reaches 
to every part of the city. We should also like to know if any of your 
men left families unprovided for. 

Yours very sincerely, 
Eleanor Seymour Sea Squire, Regent. 

Immediately upon receipt of replies to these letters, headquar- 
ters were opened in a store kindly offered. On the following monl- 


iug (June 4), the Cleveland newspapers contained this announce- 

The War Eiiiergency Committee of the Western Reserve Chapter 
of the Daughters of the American Revolution have opened head- 
quarters in the Garfield Building, No. 394 Bond [East Sixth] Street. 
Ladies will be in attendance daily from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. The chapter 
is already in communication with the national headquarters at Wash- 
ington and with Colonel Kennau of the 5th 0. V. I., and with Colonel 
Day of the 1st 0. V. C. 

Major P. E. Bunts, surgeon of the 1st 0. V. C, asks for hospital 
supplies to be forwarded immediately. The surgeon general of the 
army asks for pillow slips, pajamas and night shirts. Every person 
who is willing to help our soldiei's and sailors is earnestly requested to 
send in 'contributions of money or supplies. Committees will pack and 
ship ever-ything to the various hospital camps, free of charge. 

Mrs. Andrew Squire, Regent. 

Mrs. X. X. Cbum, Secretary. 

That forenoon, a great canvas sign was stretched acrossi the front 
of the store bearing these words: 



At three o'clock in the afternoon, the room was full of food 
supplies, and, at nightfall, express w'agons bore away twenty-two 
barrels and of food, shipped to the two Ohio regiments above 
mentioned. The newspapers told the story on Sunday and, on Monday 
(June 6), other contributions came pouring in, the Chamber of 
Commerce sent promise of active, earnest co-operation, and the fol- 
lowing minute was recorded by the secretary of the chapter: 

Recognizing the desire of every loyal and patriotic woman in the 
chapter, and also in the city of Cleveland to do her share in this work 
of succor and relief for the brave men who have gone to tlie front in 
answer to their country's call, the war emergency committees of the 
Western Reserve Chapter recommend that the name of this fommittee 
be changed to the War Emergency liclicf Board of Clevchuul, organ- 
ized by the Westci'n Reserve CJiapfer, Daugliters of the American 
Revolution, and every woman in Cleveland willing to work in the 
noble cause be invited \t> becdme a member. 

On the following moniing (Juno 7), the changed sign across 
the front of headquarters read 


The War Kjikrc.ency Kei.iki' Boakd 
Orgmiizcd by the Daughters of the American Revolution. 

On the nintli of June, the War Emergency Relief Board 
appointed the following officers and chairmen of committees, they 
collectively to constitute an executive committee: 

President, ]Mrs. Antlrow S(|uire, 

Vice-presidents: .Mrs. M. E. Kawsoii, .Mrs. Saniucl Mather, Mrs. 
Elroy M. Avery, Mi-s. J. II. Welistcr, 

Corresponding secretorij, Mrs. Kenyon V. Painter, 

Becording secretary, ilrs. William jMcLauchlan, 

Treasurer, Mrs. Robert R. Rhodes, 

Assistant treasurer, Mrs. John T. Martin, 

Ilononin/ Viee-i>reside)its: Mrs. M. A. Ilanna, ^Irs. C T. Dangler, 
JIi-s. Virgil i'. Kline. :Mrs. W. A. Leonard, Mrs. W. K. Wanier, Mrs. E. 
II. Seymour, Jlrs. Win. Chisholni, I\Irs. S. A. Raymond, ]\Irs. L. E. 
Holden, .Mrs. W. 11. Karriss, Mrs, Loe McBride, aiid .Mrs. J, A. King, 

Cliairman in Charge of Collection, jMrs. Frank Billings, 

Chairman, in Charge of Distribution, Mrs. S. Baldwin, 

Chairman in Charge of Recommendation of Nurses, Mrs, J. A. 

Chairman in Charge of Headquarters, Mrs. 0. J. Hodge, 

Chairman in Cluirge of Transportation, ]\Irs. E. A. Handy, 

Chairman in Charge of Home Relief, l\Irs, H, D, Goulder. 

On the following day, the executive committee decided to hold a 
meeting on each Friday morning and ordered the appointment of 
a committee on disbursement (with the president as chairman) to 
decide all matters of expenditure. Mrs. Squire appointed as her 
assistants on the committee Mrs. Samuel Mather, Mrs. Elroy M. 
Avery, Mrs. Robert R. Rhodes, Mrs. Frank Billings, and Mrs, Wil- 
liam McLachlan, A committee on distribution, to determine whither 
supplies should be sent was constituted as follows : Mrs. Andrew 
Squire, Mrs. S. Prentiss Baldwin, Mrs. E. A. Handy, and Mrs. 
Kenyon V. Painter, Subsequently, these two committees were consoli- 
dated with ;Mrs. ]\Iather as chairman, and with the name changed to 
The Appropriation Committee. On the fifteenth of June, the headquar- 
ters were moved from Bond Street to the Lennox Building at the comer 
of Euclid Avenue and Erie (East Ninth) Street. At the middle of July, 
the War Emergency Relief Board became also Auxiliary No. 40 of the 
National Red Cross Society, and it was unanimously decided to drop 
from the name of the board the words "Organized by the Daughters 
of the American Revolution." 

As finally constituted, the organization of the "War Emergency 
Relief Board, Cleveland, Ohio" was as follows: 


President, Mrs. Andrew Squire, Regent, D. A. R. 

Vice-presidents: Mrs. M. E. Raw.sou, Vit-e-chairman Red Cross; 
Mrs. Elroy M. Avery, in charge of Auxiliary Orgauizations ; Mrs. 
Samuel blather, in charge of Appropriatious ; Mrs. J. H. Webster, 
Vice-regent, D. A. R. 

Corresponding secretary, Mrs. Kenyon V. Painter. 

Recording secretary, Mrs. Wm. McLauchlau. 

Treasurer, Mrs. R. R. Rhodes. 

Assistant treasurer, Mrs. J. T. Martin. 

Honorary Vice-presidents: Mrs. j\I. A. Hanna, Mrs. W. A. 
Leonard, IMrs. Win. Chisholm, ilrs. AV. II. Barriss, Mrs. C. I. Dangler, 
Mrs. W. R. Warner, Mrs. S. A. Raymond, :Mrs. Lee McBride, Mrs. 
A'irgil P. Kline, Mrs. E. H. Seymour, Mrs. L. E. Holdeu, Mrs. J. A. 
King, Miss Kate Mather, ilrs. M. B. Schwab, Mrs. Walter Woodford, 
Mrs. C. S. Van Wagoner. 

Advisory Cmnmittees: The members of the Sanitary Commission 
(1861-65), Mrs. Thomas Bolton, Chairman, Mrs. Proctor Thayer, Vice- 
chairman; and the ililitary Board of the Chamber of Commerce. 

Appropriation Committee: Mrs. Samuel IMather, Mrs. Andrew 
Squire, ilrs. Kenyon \. Painter, Mrs. William MeLauchlan, Mrs. 
Robert R. Rhodes, ".Mrs. Elroy il. Aveiy, Mrs. Frank Billings, Mrs. S. 
Prentiss Baldwin, Mrs. E. A. Handy. 

Heads of Departments: Department of Auxiliary Organizations, 
Mrs. Elroy M. Avery ; Department of Headciuarters, Mrs. 0. J. Hodge ; 
Department of Collection, Mrs. Frank Billings; Department of Dis- 
tribution, Mrs. S. Prentiss Baldwin ; Department of Transportation, 
Mrs. E. A. Handy ; Department of Recommendation of Nvirses, Mrs. 
J. A. Stephens; Department of Home Relief, 'Sirs. Harvey D. Goulder; 
Department of Train Relief, .Mrs. F. P. Smith. 

The rapid succession of American victories in two hemispheres 
induced the government of Spain to make formal overtures for 
peace on the twenty-second of July, 1898, the American and Spanish 
commissioners met in their first official conference in Paris on the 
first of October, and the treaty of peace was signed on the 
tenth of December. In the meantime, troops were returning from 
Cuba, etc., to "God's country;" the fighting had been finished. 
Soon the transports were landing their burdens of misei'y at the 
eastern end of Long l.sland and, on the fifth of September, a tele- 
gram was received asking that graduate nurses be sent to Montauk 
Point. Five were sent on the following day, and the last one was 
sent o'u the eleventh. 

In November, the several departments submitted their reports 
of their five months' arduous laboi-s. The treasurer reported receipts 
of $9,222.40; the net balance of $337.11 was divided pro rata among 
the hospitals to reimburse them in part for the cost of opening new 
wards upon request for the care of sick soldiers. The i-cport of the 


vice-president in charge ol' auxiliary organizations takes up twenty- 
five octavo, printed pages. The 188 auxiliary organizations, many 
of which were formed by this departm.eut for the emergency work, 
sent 194 boxes, 33 ban-els, and 101 packages of goods, all of which 
had to be unpacked, assorted, distributed, repacked, and shipped. 
The express companies manifested a patriotic helpfulness and liber- 
ality, and the railway companies cheerfully allowed many a soldier 
going to the front to cheek as baggage supplies that he later deliv- 
ered to the officer for whom it was intended, the consignee being 
notified by mail of the shipment and the agent who personallj' con- 
ducted it to its destination. The cash donations from the auxiliaries 
outside of Cleveland aggregated moi"e than a thousand dollars. These 
outside organizations were well scattered over Northern Ohio, and 
extended from Akron, Ashtabula and beyond to Sandusky and the 
River Styx. All honor and enduring gi-atitude for the noble women 
of Ohio who thus worked for God, countiy, and humanity!* 

Cm)velanders off for Cub.v 

In the meantime, General George A. Garretson, the Fifth 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry, the Ninth Battalion Ohio National Guard, 
the Tenth Oliio Volunteer Infantry, the first Battalion Ohio Vol- 
initeer Light Artillery, the First Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, were in 
the service of the United States, and the men at home were giving 
active, loyal support in full measure. "There was not the need for the 
frenzied onrush of recruits that made Cleveland's place in the history 
of the civil war such a prominent one, but, even at this, it contributed 
a far greater percentage of Ohio's quota than was its just due. The 
Cleveland Chamber of Commerce gave a fine stand of colors to 
every departing detachment." When the "Boys Came Marching 
Home Again," the women who had given so many hours of wearj^- 
ing toil to soothe their pains and to mitigate their discomforts met 
them with joyful acclamations and whole hearted welcome. Con- 
spicuous among the many were the "White Escort," organized by 
Mrs. Tsabelle Alexander. Todaj% every camp of Spanish War vet- 
erans has its Woman's Auxiliary. On each successive Decoration 
Day, the veterans of the Grand Army of the Republic are supported 
by the Sons of Veterans and the Spanish War Veterans, with the 

• Cleveland, Aiiprnst, 1918. I know a native-born "slacker." who, two years 
ago, vociferously proclaimed tliat women should not be allowed to vote because 
thev could not so to war and fight! — E. M. A. 



"Wliite Escort still doiiig duty in the comiuemorative exercises of 
that sacred anniversary. 

Mayors McKisson and Farley 

Mayor McKisson was given a second ofScial tenn and, with the 
support of the city council and the board of control, kept up th.e 
struggle for better sti'eet-car service, began the work of straighten- 
ing the channel of the river, and put forth heroic measures for the 

Flag Presentation to Volunteers for Cuba 

reclamation of the lake front; he actually opened to the water's 
edge a street that had long been closed and occupied by the railway 
companies, and between two days, placed thereon lamp-posts and 
other symbols of municipal control ; he built a bridge over the rail- 
way tracks, and began the making of land along the shore just west 
of East Ninth Street. In short, "Mayor McKisson wasn't afraid." 
In 1899, he was succeeded in office by John H. Farley, "Honest 
Jdlui" he was called by many with nobody to deny. Mr. Farley had 
been mavor in the early Eighties. 

Real Queen City of tite Lower Lakes 

The thirteenth census of the United States brought great comfort 
to the Heart of the Western Reserve. The following table of popu- 
lation gives adequate explanation: 

1900-01] GRAND AK.MV OF TllH HKPrBLIC 317 

1890 1900 

Detroit 20r),876 285,70-1 

Buft'alo 2.)r),()64 352,387 

Ciiu'iiiiiati 29(i,908 325,902 

Ck'Vi'laii.l 201,35:5 381,768 

In 1890, Ck'velaiul hail won the litU' of Queen City of the Lower 
Lakes; in 1900, Cleveland had become the Metropolis of Ohio. 

The Mayor Johnson Era 

In 1901, IMayor Farley was succeeded by the ever-to-be remem- 
bered Tom L. Johnson. Mr. Johnson, by successive elections, held 
the office for four terms and during those eight years there was 
something'- doin* all the time. In Septom])er, 1901, the thirty-fifth 
National Encampment of the Grand Ai-my of the Republic was 
held in Cleveland. A committee of one hundred representative citi- 
zens was formed and from it an executive committee of fifteen was 
chosen. The chairman of this committee was General James Barnett, 
by general consent "The First Citizen" of Cleveland; Colonel 
H. C. Ellison was the treasurer, and the Hon. Edward W. Doty was 
the efficient secretary. Of course, money would be needed ; of course, 
the money needed would be procured ; but the method of securing it 
"was different." It was evident from the first that Cleveland was 
unitedly and enthusia-stically in sympathj' with the movement, and so it 
was resolved to give the entire city an opportunity to contribute. ' ' No 
soliciting committee was foi'med ; not a single personal call was 
made. The newspapers told of the needs of the Executive Com- 
mittee — one hundred thousand dollars was the sum it thought de- 
sirable. A public appeal was followed by circular letters that were 
scattered broadcast over the city. No one was forgotten or neg- 
lected. The letter carrier in the 'Triangle' bore as heavy a burden 
as his fellow on the Euclid Avenue route. Evei-y citizen was invited ; 
but no one was coerced. He might give or not, just as he chose, and 
there was no one at his elbow to mollify." The executive committee 
had safely trxistcd the people and the people responded with patri- 
otic and grateful generosity. The amount of money sought was 
raised ; it was raised in an unprecedented time ; it was all done joy- 
ously. In the same spirit, Cleveland welcomed the thinned and rap- 
idly thinning ranks of the Boys in Blue, acknowledging her obliga- 
tion openly and showing her thankfulness gladly. One of the finest 
manifestations of the univer.sal feeling was the poem written for 
the occasion by William R. Rose: 



Out of the North, the loyal North, 

They came at the Chieftain's call; 

On fields of flame in Freedom's name 
They forced Rebellion's fall. 
Shoulder to shoulder they pressed along, 
Tlirilling the land with their marching song; 
Strident tlie drum with its pulsing beat, 
Rliythmic the fall of the tramping feet ; 
Sinews of manhood under the blue. 
Ready and eager, and fearless and true : 
Loyalty's tide, with resistless flow, 
Swept through the mists of the long ago. 


Slowly they come with throb of ilrum, 

The flag with its scars above; 
Li memory's name the loyal flame 

The.y feed from the cruse of love. 

Shoulder to shoulder they come in view, 

Side by side in the dear old blue ; 

Halting and bent, and with faltering feet, 

Onward they plod through the cheering street ; 

Burdens of age under blouses of blue — 

Many the dead, and the living so few ! 
Loyalty's army, remnant of yore. 
Drifts towards the mists of the silent shore. 

Tom Loftin Johnson was born at Georgetown in Kentucky on the 
eighteenth day of July, 1854. From 1869 to 1875, he was a clerk in 
a street railway office in Louisville. He invented several street railway 
devices, bought a street railway in Indianapolis, and became a man- 
ufacturer of iron. He later engaged in building street railways in 
Cleveland and served two terms (1891-95) in congress. He was an 
ardent advof-ate of the principles and single-tax theories of Henry 
George. Having accumulated wealth, he practically retired from 
active, money-making cfTorts and devoted himself chiefly to taxa- 
tion questions and official duties. He had a liking and a genius for 
sociological contention and once said to me: "Some men who can 
afford it take their recreation in gol f or buy steam yachts ; I find 
my best fun in politics." In 1901, he was elected mayor and soon 
thereafter publicly said: "If at the end of my life it shall be found 
that I have accomjilished any good thing for Cleveland, I want the 
credit therefor to bo given to Henry George." Tom Johnson certainly 
loved and sought j)ower and some of his methods were those common 




to political "bosses," but, I feel sure, he loved power and authority, 
not for the selfish and senseless enjoyment of mere possession, but 
rather for the additional ability it gave to do things in which he 
believed with all his heart. I was not a believer in the principles; 
that constituted his main motive power and, in several municipal 
campaigns, took an active part in opposition to liis candidacy. But 
after the passing of years and witji the advantage of a better per- 
spective, I feel, in duty bound, to say that Tom Johnson served 
Cleveland in an altruistic spirit and here developeda civic conscious- 

Tom Johnson St.\tue in the Public Square 

ness and energized a public conscience that today are recognized as 
characteristic of this, the field of his latest and best labors. 

Struggle for 3-Cent Street Railway Fare 

The center of Tom Johnson's cyclonic career as mayor of Cleve- 
land was the memorable struggle for 3-cent street railway fare. The 
general situation of street railway matters at that time is set forth 
clearly in a later chapter. It will be enough here to say that nearly 
all tlie lines in the city were owned and operated by the Cleveland 
Electric Railway Company. The company's franchise, granted by 
the city council, was about to exi)irc, and the council that could 
renew the franchise was dominated by Mayor Johnson. After two 
years of legal warfare, the city council granted (May, 1893) to the 
People's Street Railway Company, a second low-fare franchise. No 


intelligent Clevelancler of mature age needs to be told by whom or 
for what purpose that company was organized. On the twenty -third 
of September of that year, ground was broken for a 3-cent line on 
the "West Side and, on the following day, "West Siders said: "It 
really looks as if we miglit some day ride on a street ear for three 
cents." The details of the ensuing fight, for it was a fight, cannot be 
told here although dramatic incidents followed one another in rapid 
succession. For example, late in 1905, the annexation of the village 
of South Brooklyn to the city of Cleveland was still incomplete, 
when Mayor Johnson was informed that the village council was 
likely to grant an extended franchise to the Cleveland Electric Rail- 
way Company before the annexation proceedings were completed. 
Then Peter Witt, the city clerk and staunch lieutenant of the mayor, 
was sent with a policeman to South Brooklyn to sieze all village 
records and papers and to take the clerk of the village into the oity 
and hold him there as long as might be necessary. Then a force of 
the city police was sent to the village to guard the village hall and to 
prevent any meeting of the village council until the annexation was 
a thing accomplished. 

In the course of time, the People's Street Railway Company became 
the Forest City Railway Company, and a holding company known as 
the Municipal Traction Company was formed and leased the prop- 
erty. The Cleveland council gave this Municipal Traction Company 
a franchise to lay a duplicating line on the west side of Fulton Road, 
and, by resolution, ordered (June 11, 1906) the Cleveland Electric 
Railway Company to move its track from the middle of Fulton Road 
to make room for the proposed track and to do so within thirty days. 
Fulton Road was an important bit in the proposed advance of the 
low-fare lines toward the Public Square, but the order of the council 
was disregarded by the old company. Mayor Johnson laid his plans 
for a coup with care and secrecy. On the moniing of the twenty- 
fifth of July, the mayor, the president of the board of public service, 
the street superintendent, with other city officials, the president of 
the Traction Company, and worknien were at Pulton Road by five 
o'clock and promptly began the work of tearing up the trades that 
were still in the middle of the highway. When the officials of the 
Cleveland Electric Railway Company tardily heard of the mayor's 
move, they applied for an injunction which the compliant court 
promptly granted. The process server who was rushed to the scene 
did not find the really responsible party and, as no one else could 
call off the workmen, the injunction was ignored. For this palpable 
offense, the maj^or and the president of the board of public service 


were cited for contempt of court. The mayor was exonerated but 
his subordinate was fined a luindrcd dollars, "which, I am happj^ to 
say, he never jiaid," Mayor Joluison says in liis autobiography entitled 
"My Story." On the first of November, 1896, the West Siders deco- 
rated tlieir houses and made gala day as the first 3-cent car went 
by with JMayor Johnson acting as motorman. 

All that now stood between the 3-cent line (the Three-fer it was 
commonly called) and the coveted center of the city was the lower 
part of Superior Street from the eastern end of the viaduct to the 
l*ublic Square, then occupied by four tracks of the old company. 
For years this had been "free territory" but the court had tied it 
up with an injunction. In the night following the twenty-sixth of 
December, 1906, the board of public service held a meeting and 
authorized the action that quickly followed. Hundreds of men and 
scores of teams, and the needed material had been assembled in, 
secluded but convenient parts of the down-town district. At mid- 
night, the work in hand was begun and morning found a straggling, 
zig-zag track laid on top of the pavement from the viaduct to the 
Square. The trolley wire overhead hung loosely from scantling 
arms carried by trolley poles that were planted in cinder-filled bar- 
rels that were nailed to weighted wagons to keep them in place. And 
so the 3-cent fare cars got to the center of the city. The performance 
was audacious, picturesque, and characteristic. 

As the council would not renew the expiring franchises of the old 
company, the best that the Cleveland Electric Railway Company could 
do was to lease its lines to the Municipal Traction Company, and 
this they did, making contract provisions that included protection 
of their employes all of whom had been loyal to the corporation for 
which many of them had worked for years. The general manager 
of the Municipal Traction Company, now operating all the street 
car lines in the city on a 3-cent fare basis, was A. B. duPont, a 
kinsman of the mayor. One of the red-letter days of the long-drawn- 
out struggle was the twenty-eighth of April, 1908, on which day all 
the cars wei-e run free, 3-cent fare having taken eflfeet on all the 
lines of the cit}^ the day before. It was a day of triumph for Maj'or 
Johnson ; the crowded cars with their noisy burdens suggested to 
some an importation of a New Orleans mardi-gras, or "the swarm- 
ing of some ten thousand swarms of ten thousand moving bee-hives 
of brown and yellow," and to others the triumphal procession of a 
victorious Caesar coming back from the wars with captive kings 
and princes in his train, or the older story of Achilles dragging the 
body of the slain Hector three times around the walls of the ancient 

Vol. 1—21 


Troy. But today, the more fitting historical analogue is the return 
of the great discoverer from his first voyage to the New World, 
when Cohirabus and the chivalry of Spain rode through the crowded 
streets of Barcelona and into the presence of the waiting Ferdinand 
and Isabella. The glory and barbaric pomp were but for a day ; 
they never were repeated. 

And so from hour to hour, we ripe and ripe. 
And then from hour to hour, we rot aud rot, - 
And thereby liaiigs a tale. 

Before long, Mr. duPont began to reward the newly-fledged 
employes who had been in the service of the Traction Company by 
giving to them the choicest runs in the service, taking many of them 
from old employes of the Cleveland Electric Railway Company, in di- 
rect violation of the terms of the lease above mentioned. A street- 
railway motorman or conductor has little chance for promotion and, in 
general, the best for which he can hope is the securing of one of the 
best runs. F'or instance, a run that consisted of consecutive hours 
in the daytime was more to be desired than one that began at four 
o'clock in the morning, ran on for two or three or four hours, laid 
the man off in the middle of the day, called him back for two or three 
"rush" hours in the early evening, laid him off again, called him 
back in time to carry passengers home when the theaters closed, 
and sent him home at or after midnight. As chairman of a city coun- 
cil committee. I learned that such runs were not rare and that "swing" 
runs were worse ; that some of the men could not get four consecutive 
hours of sleep out of twenty-four, and seldom saw their children 
when the children were awake. The distribution of the desirable 
runs was made by the seniority rule ; i. e., the man who had 
been longest in service took his choice, the next oldest employe took 
his choice of what was left, and so on. Many of these "plums" were 
taken from motormen and conductors who had won them by long 
and faithful service and given, in direct violation of the terms of 
the lease, to comparatively new employes whose chief merit lay in 
their loyalty to the Municipal Traction Company in the antecedent 
era. In consequence of this flagrant wrong and some others of less 
importance to the men, eighteen hundred of Mr. duPont's employes 
"went on strike" (May 1, 1908) ; the question of wages was in no 
way involved. 

The Tayler Franchise 

or course, the I\Iunicii)al Traction Companj' needed large, sums 
of money and capitalists were careful as to security before they 

190S-10] THE STREET RAll-WAV l-'K'ANCHISE 323 

would iiuiUc tlie ncodiHl loans. Tliuii the city L-ouucil passed an ordi- 
nance tliat really placed the credit of the city back of the bonds of 
the ciiinpany. The law under which this was done provided that 
such an ordinance should be subjected to a referendum vote if peti- 
tioned for within a certain number of days by a certain number of 
voters. The number of jictitioners was larfre and the number of 
uuexpired days was small; it seemed impossible that the work 
could be done in the time. Tiien came the strike setting free eight- 
een hundred able-bodied and intelligent men who got behind the 
petitions and pushed their ball over the line just in time. Mayor 
Johnson had long been an active advocate of the initiative and ref- 
erendum, but he did lujt like the turn that things were taking. In 
spite of the mayor's opposition, the ordinance was put to vote (Octo- 
ber 22, 1908) and the referendum killed it by the small majority 
of about 600. The killing of the ordinance made it impossible for 
the Traction Company to secure the needed loans and, in the end, 
forced the transfer of all the lines back to the Cleveland Railway 
Company (^larch 1, 1910) under a new franchise drafted by Robert 
W. Tayler, United States judge for the Nortlicrn District of Ohio. 
This remarkable franchise begins with the following preamble: 

Whereas, The Cleveland Railway Company is the owner of a sys- 
tem of street railroads within the city of Cleveland ; and 

Whereas, The Forest City Railway Company, The Municipal 
Traction Company and The Cleveland Railway Company are parties 
to litigation affecting the ownerehip of various unexpired street-rail- 
road grants for lines, all of which lines are now operated by a receiver 
appointed by the Circuit Court of the United States for the Northern 
District of Ohio, Eastern Division ; and 

Whereas, It is the common desire of the city and The Cleveland 
Railway Company to have all the grant.s of street-railway I'ights in the 
city of Cleveland now outstanding surrendered and renewed upon 
terms hereinafter recited, to the end that the rate of fare may be re- 
duced, the transfer privileges made definite, and the right of the city 
as to regulation and possible acquisition made certain ; and 

Wliereas, It is agreed that a complete re-adjustment of the street- 
railroad situation sliould be made, upon tei-ms that will secure to the 
owners of the property invested in street railroads security as to their 
property, and a fair and fixed rate of return thereon, at the same time 
securing to the publji- the largest powers of regidation in the interest 
of public service, and the best street-railroad transportation at cost, 
consistent with the security of the property, and tlie certainty of a 
fixed return thereon, and no more; 

Now, therefore, be it oi-dained by the council of the city of Cleve- 
land, State of Ohio, etc. 


This ordinance, No. 16238A, passed December 18, 1909, approved 
by the mayor, December 18, 1909 ; accepted by the Cleveland Rail- 
way Companj', December 20, 1909 ; acceptance ratified by the stock- 
holders of the company, Januaiy 26, 1910; approved at referendum 
election, February 17, 1910; effective, February 19, 1910, and 
amended by Ordinance No. 20S90B, passed July 10, 1911 ; approved 
by the mayor, July 14, 1911; accepted by the Cleveland Railway 
Company, July 11, 1911 ; approved at referendum election, Novem- 
ber 7, 1911 ; effective, December 4, 1911, provides that the Cleveland 
Railway Company be given a renewed franchise for all the street 
railway lines in the city, from the nineteenth of Februarj', 1910, to 
the first of ]\Iay, 1934, in consideration of a surrender of all unex- 
pired franchise rights, and resei*ves to the city the right to grant 
to any other person or corporation the right jointly to use for street- 
railroad purposes the central district of the city "upon such rea- 
sonable terms and conditions as the council may prescribe." For 
the pui-pose of fixing a basis for the rate of fare, and the price at 
which the property of the company may be purchased, the capital 
value of the sj-stem was fixed at $24,091,600. 

In the matter of munieiiial regulation, the principal agent is a city 
street railroad commissioner, appointed by the mayor, confirmed 
by the council, and paid by the company with the expense of the nec- 
essary "assistants, accountants, engineers, clerks, and other employes 
to inspect and audit all receipts, disbursements, vouchers, prices, 
payrolls, time-cards, papers, books, documents and property of the 
company." The commissioner was made the technical advisor of the 
council and required to keep infoniied on every phase of the com- 
pany's business. Plans and estimates of all proposed extensions, 
etc., had to be filed with the commissioner for examination and 
appi'oval, the final ajipi'oval to be given by the city council. The 
com]iany was to pay the commissioner a salary not exceeding .$1,000 
a month', fixed from time to time by the council, and to furnish liim 
office room, furniture, stationery and supplies. 

The city reserved to itself the entire control of the service, includ- 
ing schedules, routes, and the character of the cai-s, provided thati 
the service demanded would, at the maximum rate of fare, produce 
enough money to meet the ordinance requirements concerning the 
interest fund. This interest fund was a gauge to determine the rate 
of fare. The ordinance fixed the amount of this fund at $500,000 
and iiicluded all earnings above operating, maintenance, and renewal 
allowances; interest dividends, and taxes were to be deducted from 


the fund. The preainhk> of the ordinance gave assurance of a "cer- 
tainty of a fixed return and uo more," and the ordinance itself 
lixcd suoli returns as follows: 

(«) 5% per aiuuuu on the total bonded indebtedness of the 

(b) 6% ])er annum on the floating indebtedness. 

(c) 6% per anniun on the stock, payable quarterly. 

As the balance in the interest fund weut up or down, the rate o^ 
fare was changed, according to a prescribed schedule, the maximum 
rate being 4-cent cash fare, seven ticket!? for twenty-five cents, one 
cent for a transfer and no rebate thereof. The minimum rate was 
2-eent cash fare, with one cent for a transfer, this cent to be rebated 
to the passengci- wlien the transfer ticket was taken up on the trans- 
fer line. As the balance in the interest fund weut up, the rate of 
fare automatically went down, and vice versa. The schedule pro- 
vided ten different rates of fare ; the first to go into effect was 3-cent 
cash fare, with one cent for transfer and no rebate; su1)sequently, 
the rate fell to 3-cent cash fare, with one cent for transfer and rebate. 
This sliding scale of fares might be changed on demand of the city 
or of the company; in case of disagreement, the question was to be 
settled by arbitration. When the unexpired term of tlie franchise 
became less than fifteen years (i. e., after May 1, 1919), the com- 
pany may elect to change the maximum rate of fare and to assume 
complete control of service (subject,' of course, to the city's police 
powers) on condition that whenever the amount credited to the 
interest fund (less the proportionate accrued pa.yments to be made 
therefrom) was $200,000 in excess of .$.500,000, such excess should 
be applied to the reduction of the capital value of the company, the 
benefit of such reduction to go as a reduction of the purchase price 
to the city or its licensee. If the city or its licensee should buy the 
property before the expiration of the grant, the purchase price was 
to be the capital value plus ten per cent. ; at the expiration of the 
grant, this possible ten per cent bonus fell off. If the city or its 
licensee, as purchaser, should assume the payment of the bonded in- 
debtedness of the company, the amount of .such indebtedness must be 
deducted from the capital value before determining the purchase price. 

Such are the characteristic features of the ordinance which 
provides for a multiplicity of details, such as free transportation of 
policemen, fii-emen, and employes; operating and maintenance allow- 
ances: equipment; extensions, betterments, and permanent improve- 
ments; accounting system.s, etc. The most prominent of all the fea- 


tures of the Taj-ler gi-ant are the cominissioner and the interest fund. 
The ordinance was not amended until August, 1918, when, because 
of increased expenditures due largely to the war then going on, 
five additional rates of fare were authorized, the maximum being 
thus raised to 6-cent cash fare, nine tickets for fifty cents, with one 
cent for transfer without rebate. The first application of the new 
fare schedule, now in force (September, 1918) fixed the fare at 
5-cent cash fare, five tickets for twenty-five cents, with one cent for 
transfer and no rebate. 

Natural Gas, Street Names, Etc. 

While the long fight for 3-cent fare was largely attracting the 
attention of the public, the ordinary events incidental to municipal 
gi-owth were taking place. Thus, the East Ohio Gas Company was 
organized, secured control of the two companies that were making 
and selling coal gas, and, in February, 1903, began supplying Cleve- 
land with natural gas. Most of this supply is piped from "West 
Virginia fields. The company now (1918) has more than 200,000 
consumers with the demand exceeding the supply. After careful 
study and long continued deliberation, official and unofficial, the 
system of street nomenclature and house numbering was radically 
changed (January 23, 1905). Under the present system, the city is 
divided into four sections, Northeast, Southeast, Northwest, and 
Southwest. The dividing line bvtwcen east and west is Ontario Street 
from the lake to the river, and thence southward following the river. 
On tlie East Side, the dividing line between north and south is West 
Supei'ior Avenue and Euclid Avenue. On tlie West Side, the divid- 
ing line between north and south is Lorain Avenue. Highways that 
run api^roximately east and west are called avenues, and in general 
bear their old names ; thus St. Clair Street became St. Clair Avenue. 
Highways that run approximately north and south are numbered 
consecutively east and west from Ontario Street, the meridian ; thus 
Willson Avenue became East Fifty-fifth Street and Pearl Street 
becaiiie West Twenty-fifth Street. Dead-end liigliways (open at only 
one end) that run ai)pr()xinuitely north and south are called Places and 
are iiuinbciTd like streets: thus Ilodge Alley became East Thir- 
teciilli Place. Dead-end highways that run approximately east and 
west are called Courts and generally bear their old names like llio 
avenues. Highways that run along lines materially diffei-eiit from 
iioi'th and south, or east and west, are designated as Iloads, with names 
sometimes modified or changed as seemed desirable ; thus Woodland 
Tlills .\veinie lieciime Woodliill Road. The section of tli(> city is gener- 




ally iiulioated by aililing the initial letters, N. E., N. W., S. E., or S. W., 
to the name; thus there is an East Fifty-fifth Street, N. E., and an 
East Fifty-fifth Street, S. E., or, more briefly but just as definitely, 
Fifty-fifth Street, N. E., and Fifty-fifth Street, S. E. On the avenues, 
the houses are numbered one hundred to the block, with the even 
numbers on the right hand side as one goes east or west from Ontario 
Street (the mei-idian) ; thus the Laurel School, 10001 Euclid Avenue, 


I i B 

6 [imia ^ 

East Ohio Gas Company's Building 

is on the left-hand (north) side of the street, the first house beyond 
the line of One Hundredth Street. On the streets, the houses are 
numbered consecutively southward from the lake with the even num- 
bers on the right-hand (west) side of the street as one goes in that 
direction ; thus the Woodward Masonic Temple, 1949 East One 
Hundred and Fifth Street, is on the left-hand (east) side of a street 
a hundred and five blocks east of Ontario Street, which, as everyone 
knows or quickly learns, runs through the middle of the Public 


Square, from which all distances in the city are generally measured. 
After one has learned a few fixed facts, such as that Euclid Avenue 
divides the house numbers of the streets at 2000, one easily per- 
ceives that the Woodward Masonic Temple is on the east side of the 
street just a little north of Euclid Avenue. A brief stay in 
the city soon familiarizes one with these fixed facts and with the 
plan, and, after that, one will quickly realize the many advantages 
secured by the change made in January, 1905. For example, even an 
old resident of the city desiring to find a person who lived at a 
certain number on Logan Street, might have no idea where that 
person might be found, but when he is told that the desired person 
lives at 2035 East Ninety-sixth Street, the mind instantly and with- 
out inquiry locates him on the left-hand or east side of the ninety- 
sixth street east of the Public Square, and a few doors south of 
Euclid Avenue. He therefore takes a Euclid Avenue street car, 
gets off at the corner of Ninety -sixth Street, walks south a few 
steps, and without doubt or delay pushes the button and rings the 
bell at the front door of the right house. 

Belt Ijine Railw^at Not Electrified 

About this time, the Belt Line Railway scheme was on the anvil. 
The road was intended to lessen freight traffic through the central 
part of the city and was generally believed to be promoted by what 
were called the New York Central Railroad interests (a not very 
wild guess) . As part of the proposed line was to run through a fine 
residence section at the East End, there was a loud demand that 
the road be made an electric road, thus to lessen the noise incident 
to the passing trains, or, at least, that the locomotives be fed with 
hard coal or oil, thus to avoid an unnecessary addition to the already 
costly and offensive smoke nuisance that made Cleveland almost as 
dirty as Pittsburgh. But the council (i. e., Mayor Johnson) turned 
deaf ears to appeals and threats and granted the franchise (August 
7, 1905) asked for without imposing any such restrictions. This is 
the solitary act of Mayor Tom L. Johnson that has troubled me to ex- 
plain in accordance with the altruistic spii-it with which I have already 
credited him. 

Moses Cleaveland's Bi-kiai, Place 

In 1899, i\Ir. and Mrs. Elroy M. Avery made a new "Cantci'bury 
I'ilgrimagc. " Northward about half a mile from Canterbury 
Green * they found a small, neglected burying-ground aliont 

Sec map on page 29. 


an acre in area and surronnded by one of the rough fstone walls that, 
in New England, often serve as substitutes for fences. The wall 
was much broken and the ii'on gate was dilapidated and difficult to 
adjust. The acre was separated from the highwaj' by a narrow strip 
of land, the ripening corn on which concealed it from the view of 
passers-by. The little cemetery was overgrown with tall weeds through 
which two sheep led the way to the graves of General Moses Cleave- 
land and his nearest relatives. The graves were marked by four stone 
slabs, two standing nearly upright and two lying flat in their original 
positions. When the gathered moss was scraped away from the up- 
right slabs, one was found to bear this inscription : 

Moses Cleaveland 


Nov. 16, 1806 

Aged 52 

The other upright slab marked the grave of "Esther, Relict of Moses 
Cleaveland, Esq." She died January 17, 1840, aged 74. The flat 
slabs covered sandstone vaults in which rested the remains of the 
pai-ents of the founder of our city. These slabs had to be freed from 
filth and washed with water before the inscriptions could be read. 
The story of the quest was told in an illustrated, full-page article 
printed in the Plain Dealer (October 15, 1899) and the question 
raised, "What are you going to do about it?" The first satisfactory 
answer to this query came when, in the summer of 1906, the Cham- 
ber of Commerce appointed Elroy M. Avery, Tom L. Johnson, Harry 
A. Garfield, Charles Lathrop I'ack, Harvey D. Goulder, Worcester 
R. Warner, and Ambrose Swasey a committee to take action in the 
matter. The land between the buiying-ground and the highway was 
bought and given to the town, and a contract was let for a simple 
but sturdy memorial of Connecticut granite. On the centennial anni- 
versary of the death of General Cleaveland. F. F. Prentiss, president, 
IVIunsoii Havens, secretary, Ambrose Swasey, Hubert B. Fuller, and 
Elroy M. Avery of the Chamber of Commerce, and Liberty E. 
Holden, president of the Western Reserve Historical Society, at the 
old Canterbury burying-ground, met George S. Goddard of Hartford, 
the personal representative of the governor of Connecticut. Mr. 
Swase,y placed floral wreaths on the graves of Moses Cleaveland and 
his wife, but, owing to the inclemency of the weather, the other 


exercises were lield in tlie church at Canterbury Green. At this 
meeting in the church, Mr. Aaron P. Morse, of the local board of 
selectmen, accepted the deed of the land, saying: 

It is witii i)lcMsure we receive this decil in the interests of the 
citizens of the town of Canterbury, and I that they will always 
endeavor to keep the plot green in memory of the nolile man we have 
met to honor. 



On the first of January, 1910, Tom L. Johnson was succeeded as 
mayor of Cleveland by Herman C. Baehr M'ho held the office for two 
years that were weak and colorless as compared with the eight years 
that had gone before. The United States census of that year still 
further inflated the vanity of Clevelanders who measure greatness 
by population statistics. The comparative table, thus amplified was 
made to read: 


Cincinnati 296,908 

Detroit 205,876 

Buffalo 255,664 

Pittsburgh 343,904 

Baltimore 434,439 

Cleveland 261,353 

The greater part of the inflation above mentioned was caused by 
the fact that, in passing Baltimore, the " ^Metropolis of Ohio" had 
become "The Sixth City" of the United States. Prom that time to 
this, the honeyed words, "Sixth City," have been kept as standing 
matter in the composing room of every Cleveland newspaper and 
rnlilicd into almost every public or private mention of the city. 

One of the most nieinoralilc events of Mayor Baehr's administra- 
tion was his appointment of a city street railway commissioner at the 
maximum salai-y ($12,000 a year) aufhoi'izcd by tlio Taylor fran- 
chise. The young man appointed for this important position had lately 
come to Cleveland from a small Wisconsin town and consofiuontl}' was 
ill qualified to "act as the technical adviser of the council of the City 
of Cleveland in all matters" relating to Ihe operation and expenditures 
of such a liig business as was that of the Cleveland system of street 
railways. But Mr. Dahl di-ew bis comfortable salai-y for two yeai's 
and then packed his trunk and abandoned Cleveland. 















* Iiifhidos Allegheny City. 



County Centennial Celebration 

In tlic fall (October 10-15, 1910), came a six days' celebration of 
the centennial of Cuyahoga County. As in the centennial of the city, 
held fourteen years before, there were elaborate programs, processions, 
music, cannon salutes, and speeches galore. Perhaps the event that 
attracted the gi-eatest public interest and admiration was the parade of 
automobiles decorated in every conceivable manner, ranging from 
historieal and serious, through the magnificently beautiful, to tlie 
commonplace and comic. It was the fitting successor of the Wheel- 
man's Day of 1896. The present Federal building covering the sites 
of the old post-office, the block that contained Case Hall, and the 
intervening street, was completed and ready for occupancy on the 
first of January, 1911. The cost of land and building was approxi- 
mately it!4, 600,000. During the erection of the new building, the 
post-office was housed in the Wilshire building on the north side of 
Superior Avenue between West Fourth and West Sixth streets. 

IMayor Baehr was succeeded (January, 1912) by Newton D. 
Baker* who had been Mayor Johnson's chief political lieutenant and 
the law director of the city. Of the campaign that lifted Mayor Baehr 
and a Republican administration into the city hall, Mr. Baker was 
the sole Democratic survivor. When he came to the chair that his 
former chief had occupied for eight years, he was accompanied or 
quickly followed by the still familiar faces of former members of 
Maj'or Johnson's official familj'. In short, it wa.s the "Henry 
George Administration" rediviviis. Tom Loftin Jojmson liad been 
transferred from Time to Eternity, but for the next four years Mayor 
Baker successfully directed the municipal affairs and marshaled the 
local Democratic hosts, winning victories in the name of the dead 
commander much as victories were won in the name of the Cid of 
Spanish ballad and romance. 

Home Rule Charter Framed 

Under authority of a new state constitution that had been framed 
by a convention and approved by a vote of the people in 1912, the 
voters of Cleveland elected fifteen commissioners who framed the 
present "Home Rule" charter for the city. The charter was approved 
by the voters of the city in July, 1913, and, under its provisions, 
officers were elected in the following November. The characteristic 
features of this new city charter are set forth in a later chapter of 
this volume. 

' See portrait on page 441. 


Centennial Celebration of Perry's Victory 

In this summer, came the Centennial Celebration (September 
14-17, 1913) of Perry's victory on Lake Erie. Centennial celebra- 
tions had become somewhat common, but the people of the city were 
quite ready for another. In the official souvenir program, Mayor 
Baker, as chairman ex-officio of the "Cleveland Perry Centennial 
Celebration Commission," said: 

Cleveland during these days is turning aside from her accustomed 
commercial and industrial activities, and with the same vigor and 
earnestness that mark her success in them is showing the loj-alty of 
her people to the best traditions of the Republic. Our aspiration for 
a finer and higher city civilization in Cleveland will be stinndatod by 
tlie recollection that it rests upou foundations of so heroic and patri- 
otic a character. 

The purpose of the celebration as officially stated was as follows : 

A hundred years has wrought mighty changes in our country and 
we celebrate the Centennial of one of the greatest achievements of 
history. There is something sublime in the roll of centuries measui-ed 
by the flight of revolving years, but there is something more sublime 
in measuring the march of progress as it is directed by a wise Provi- 
dence and achieved by a heroic people to secure the perpetuation of a 
Republic and the liberties of a suffering people and to bring perpetual 
peace among nations that once were at war with each other. 

"We aim in this to show four things : 

First. The importance of the battles with their victories. 

Second. The great undertaking of transporting men and the 
munitions of war across an almost pathless forest for hundreds of miles 
and to establish naval stations in tlie si)arscly settled regions of tlie 
Great Lakes. 

Third. The high character of the fleet, the skill and genius of the 
men who built and manned it. 

Fourth. The splendid endowment of Commodore Perry, and the 
bravery of the men who fought with him and his noble purpose to 
serve and save his country. 

NiAOAR.\ Day 

Henry Watterson, the veteran editor of the Louisville Courier- 
Journal supplied the story of the battle, and there was an elaborate 
and lengthy list of committees and the members thereof. 

Sunday, the fourteenth of Septenil)er, was designated as "Niagara 
Day," with special services in all tlie churches and a reception on 
board the government ships in tlic harlior in the forenoon. In the 


afternoon, a naval pai-ado wont out into the lake to meet the "Ni- 
agara," Perry's tla^'sliij), rebuilt and refitted after the long sleep 
of the famous old briy at the bottom of ilisery Bay, Pres(iue Isle 
Harbor, Erie, Pennsylvania. At four o'clock in the afternoon, there 
was a reception of the "Niagara" at the East Ninth Street pier, 
with appropi-iate nuisie and addresses, after which came the "Pre- 
sentation of the "Niagara" by the lion. Harvey D. Goulder, chair- 
man of the reeei)tion committee" and its "Acceptance by the Hon. 
Newton D. Bakei-. maviir of the City of Cleveland." Meanwhile, 

The D.\y BEKonE the L.\unching 

there were commemorative exercises at Washington Park and water 
sports at Gordon Park. In the evening, there was an illuminated 
motor boat parade along the city front. 

Perry Day 

Monday, the fifteenth of September, was "Perry Day" with nnmer- 
ous exhibitions of relies of the war of 1812, old and new railway loco- 
motives and trains, fleet tactics bj- the naval militia ships, life-saving 
drill by the T'nited States Life Saving Crew, and naval target prac- 
tice, and aeroplane flights. In the evening, came a decorative automo- 
bile parade (with prizes), and a reception at the Hollenden Hotel by 
women's organizations, with Mayor and i\Irs. Baker at the head of 
the receiving line. United States troops were in camp at Edge- 



water Park aud carnival shows iu full bloom on the lake front at 
the foot of East Ninth Street. 

ChejDren 's and Women 's Day 

Tuesday, the sixteenth of September, was "Children's and 
Women's Day" with literary and musical exercises iu the forenoon 
at the Hollenden. In the afternoon, there were exercises at the Perry 
monument in Gordon Park, Harvey D. Goulder, chairman; music 
by the Perry orchestra and the Children's chorus, and an address 
by the Hon. John H. Clarke (now a member of the United States 
supreme court). In the evening, there were "Perry Patriotic Exer- 
cises," largely musical, at the Graj's' Armory, William Gordon, 
cliairnian, and Dr. Mattoon M. Curtis, speaker ; at Brookside Park, W. 

. ^al 

The NiAGAiiA Entkring CLEViiLANU Harbor 

J. Clark, chairman, and the Rev. Dr. Dan F. Bradley, speaker; at 
Edgewater I'ark, Mayor Baker, chairman, aud the Rev. Francis T. 
Moran, speaker; at Wade Park, the Hon. Martin A. Foran, chair- 
man, and Rabbi M. J. Grics, speaker; and at Miles Park, W. R. 
Hopkins, chairman, and the Rev. M. J. Keyes, speaker. The "Ni- 
agara" was kept open all day to the school children; eveiy child 
who visited the ship was given an American flag. The carnival shows 
were still doing business on the lake front. 

Conclusion op the Celebration 

On Wednesday, the seventeenth of September, there were motor 
boat races off Gordon Park and the annual Work Horse parade (with 


prizes) in the t'luviinoii, and in tlic al'kTiuion tlic j;Tan(l Perrj' Cen- 
tennial jiarade. .Major CliaiU's K. Miller, grand niai-sluil, and Lien- 
tenant-eolonel Felix Rosenburg, chief of staff. There were eight 
divisions, the eighth consisting of industrial and decorated floats. 
In the evening, there were fireworks in Edgewater, Gordon, and 
Lakeview parks, with the Ihiited States troops still in camp and 
the carnival shows still guarding the city's exposed lake front. 

Mayor Baker Enters the Wilson Cabinet 

At the end of his second term, Mayor Baker declined a rcnomina- 
tion and soon became a member of President Woodrovv Wilson's cabi- 
net as secretary of war. His successor was Harry L. Davis, who is 
now (1918) serving his second term. Among the events of this ad- 
ministration may be mentioned the completion and occupancy of the 
new city hall, the opening of the new art gallery in Wade Park (June 
6, 1916), the buihiing of the new high-level bridge, the beginning of 
a new auditorium building, and the national declaration of a state 
of war with Germany. These several events, and the noble response 
of Cleveland and Clevelanders to the calls of the government for 
men, money, and munitions will be considered in a later chapter. 

First City in American Hi'irit 

In 1917, a pamphlet entitled Cleveland was published with 
the statement that it was issued under the joint auspices of the 
Chamber of Commerce, the Chamber of Industry, the Young Men's 
Christian Association, the Builders' Exchange, the Real Estate Board, 
the Federated Churches, and twenty-five other organizations, the sec- 
retaries of which had prepared its editorial copy. From this authori- 
tative document, now a year old, I clip and condense the following. 
This act of mine is not piracy, pillaging, or plagiarism, but rather 
the commendable taking of useful information for the public good. 

Sixth in population, fifth in manufacturing, fourth in fiiuiiicial 
importance, and first in civic attaiiunent, is the proud record that 
Cleveland holds up to view. By its recent achievements Cleveland 
ha.s gained the title of "First City in American Sjiirit." It stands 
first in the country, in proportion to its pn])nlation, in donations to 
the Red Cross and in enlistments, while it oversubscribed its (piota of 
the [first] Liberty Loan by nearly 100 per cent. Cleveland is the largest 
city between New York and Chicago. It had in 1917 a population, 
within its corporate limits, e>timatcd at more than SOO.OOO, and witliin 
a five-cent car-zone more than 1,000.000. The Connecticut Land Com- 

Vol. 1—22 


pany acquired 3,000,000 acres of land known as the Western Reserve 
at forty cents an acre; one acre in Cleveland today is worth more than 
$2,000,000. Cleveland has doubled its population every twenty yeai-s. 
Sixty years ago, it was forty-third city in the United States. At that 
time every city that now leads it ranked in the first eight. Cleveland 
is literallj' the melting pot of the nation. 

With the discovery of iron ore in the Lake Superior districts in 
the forties, and the construction of railroads from the East and South 
in the fifties, Cleveland realized that it occupied a strategic position 
for bringing together coal from the Ohio and Pennsylvania districts 
and iron ore from the upper lake regions. A steady and consistent 
expansion of industrial and business activities took place, which, 
through all the years to the present day, has continued uninter- 
ruptetlly. Realizing that destiny pointed to Cleveland as the natural 
meeting place of iron ore and coal, hundreds of manufacturing plants 
have sprung up throughout the years until today the city is second 
only to New York in the diversity of its industries. Cleveland now 
leads all other communities in the manufacture of nuts, bolts, wire 
goods, gray-iron castings, paints, varnishes, electiue batteries, twist 
drills, steel forgings, plumbers' fixtures, vacuum sweepers, carriage 
hardware, job printers' presses, astronomical appliances, and stands 
second only to New York in the manufacture of women's ready-to- 
wear clothing. With the advent of the automobile two decades ago, 
Cleveland became an important center for the manufacture of motor 
vehicles. The city now ranks second in the world in the production 
of automobiles. Cleveland is the home of the largest paint and var- 
nish factories in the country. Cleveland oM'ns or controls two-thirds 
of all the shipping upon the great lakes, with 45 steamship lines con- 
necting with all the ports upon these inland seas. The city has eight 
])assenger boat lines, nine interui'ban lines, and is served by seven 
trunk lines, en.joying unexcelled transportation facilities. Pour of 
every five steamships carrying iron ore anil coal upon the great lakes 
are owned or controlled in Cleveland. More than 60 per cent of the 
50,000,000 tons of iron ore annually brought down the lakes from the 
Northwest is received in the Cleveland district. 

Cleveland is fifth in manufacturing importance in the United 
States. Owing to its being the most economical place for the pro- 
duction of iron and steel, a large percentage of these articles secure 
their basic supply at home. Out of every dollar invested in automo- 
l)iles in the United States. 30 cents comes to Cleveland factories or 
shops making parts. Cleveland is fourth city in financial importance 
in the country. It is the home of the foui'th Federal Reserve Bank, 
which has the third largest cajiital amonir the twelve Federal Reserve 
banks— $12,000,000, with deposits of $(;n,0()(),000, which are steadUy 
increasing. There are 750 banks included in the district of which 
Cleveland is headquai-ters, and which embraces six counties in West 
Virginia. Eastern Kentucky, Western Pennsylvania and all of Ohio. 
Among the largest cities in the distri •! arc Pittsburgh, Erie, Wheel- 
ing, Cincinnati, Columbus, Dayton and Toledo. 

1917-18] CLEVELAND 1\ EIMTOME 3;i'J 

Cleveland as a Twentieth Century Pioneer 

Ck'Vfliiiul was lirst to t;liiui)se tlic i'lilurc wiieii it embarked upon 
a plan to exiwnd ^.'UI.OOO.DOO for its uroup plan of public buildings. 
Cleveland cIuutIu's were the first to l>e controlled through a central 
federation. An un|)aralleled educational system has been built up 
in Cleveland, with its three tine univei-sities, 20 business colleges, 114 
public and 57 jiarochial schools. Cleveland, with all its busy com- 
merce and toiling industries, lias not forgotten aesthetics, for in its 
beautiful art museum on the border of a picturesque lake is nmch to 
inspire the soul and please the eye. Cleveland ha.s a renuirkable 
system of parks and playgrounds, liaving a total area of 2,176 acres. 
There are free baseball diamonds, children's ]ilaygrounds well 
equipped, football grounds, tennis courts, skating ponds, and a 
stadium in IJrookside Park where S(),(H)() have been seated at one time 
to witness a local amateur baseball game. Cleveland was the first 
large American city to accept the dayliglit saving jilan and set it in 
ojiei-ation. The Cleveland ^"'oundation, endowed with more than 
$40,000,000. is now studying Cleveland's needs with a view to revolu- 
tionizing city life and activities in years to come. Careful surveys 
of civic operations are made so that intelligent progress may follow. 

Increases ok Ten Years 

Automobiles, bodies and Electrical machinery and 

parts 4867o sui)plies '. 328% 

Bread and bakei-y products. 132% Foundry and machine prod- 
Cars and repairs 195% nets 112% 

Chemicals 130% Hosiery and knit goods 107% 

Clothing, men's 220% Paint and varnish 173% 

Clothing, women's 119% Printing and publishing. . .130% 

Confectionery 190% Slaughtering and meat pack- 
Copper, tin and sheet iron. 434% ing 133% 

Cutlery and tools 201% Stoves and furnaces 187% 

No. of m'f'g. establishments, from l.fiKito 2,340 45% employed $156,321,000 .$312,907,444 100% 

Salaries and wages 41 ,749,000 92,909,888 123% 

Value of products 171,924,000 3.52,531,109 105% 

Avei-age lunnber of factorj- em- 
ployes 70,917 121.100 71% 

A new Cleveland is springing into existence — a city in which it is 
good to live : a city the residents of which believe that "he profits most 
who serves best :" Cleveland, the city that co-operates: Cleveland, the 
eity that seeks perfected humanity: Cleveland, the city with a sublime 
faith in its future; Cleveland, the city of ideas and high ideals; Cleve- 
land, the city that really has a soul ! 


In beginuing the seventeenth chapter of his admirable History 
of Cleveland, published more than twenty years ago, ]Mr. Ken- 
nedy gives a paragraph that I think worthy of reproduction here: 

In a record of this character — a history of the creation and growth 
of a great city, — the individual of necessity disappears as the many 
appear, and incidents of a personal nature give place to events of 
sufficient importance to be of interest to all. Generalization, therefore, 
replaces specitications. Lorenzo Carter, in the Cleveland of 1800, was 
larger, relatively, than any one man could be in Cleveland to-day. 
James Kingsbury, sitting with gun in hand, on a log in the snowy 
silence of the Conneaut woods, waiting for some stray bird or beast, 
whose flesh could save the life of liis wife, was a picturesque figure, 
because he was a solitary speck upon a bleak and inhospitable pioneer 
landscape; — the picture, in all these cases, is striking, because of its 
setting, and also because of the time that has passed, and the things 
that have been done since it was drawn. The life of a pioneer village 
is told in these incidents ; that of a great city by its achievements, and 
the impress it has made upon the civilization of which it is a part. 

Although the material results of the first quarter of Cleveland's 
second century are incomparably greater than were those of the first 
quarter of her first century, and largely in consequence of that fact, 
the method of historical treatment necessarily changes; details give 
way for generalities, individuals become far less important than in- 
stitutions, and sociological conditions and tendencies dominate domes- 
tie affairs. In short, as the vision broadens, it takes on more of the 
characteristics of a bird's-eye view. The succeeding chapters of this 
volume constitute an attempt to comply with these demands of 
changed conditions. 



The early pages of this volume contain the story of the earliest 
schools in Cleveland. For instance, it will be remembered that, in 
1800, "a school house was built near Kin^bury's on the ridge road, 
and Miss Sarah Doan, daughter of Nathaniel Doan was teacher," 
and that, in 1802, Anna Spafford opened a school for cliiklren in 
Major Carter's well-known front room — the first in what was then 
called "the city." In 1806, came Asael Adams, aged twenty, and 
entered into contract "to keep six hours in each day and to keep 
good order in said school." In 1817, the village trustees voted to 
refund to certain public spirited citizens the several sums of money 
that they had paid toward biiilding a little school house amid the 
oak trees on the east side of the lot now occupied by the Kcnnard 
House (St. Clair Avenue and West Sixth Street). The resolution 
provided that the funds for this purpose should be taken from "the 
treasury' of the corporation at the end of three years from and after 
the thirteenth of June, 1817," and that "the corporation shall be the 
sole proprietors of the said school house," — the first school property 
ever owned by Cleveland. In 1822, came the Cleveland Academy 
"of brick with its handsome spire and its spacious room in the sec- 
ond story for public purposes," of which institution Harvey Rice 
soon became the head-master. In 1836, Cleveland became a city. Its 
charter contained the following provisions concerning schools, the 
credit for which probably belongs to John W. Willey, who became 
Cleveland's first mayor: 


Sec. XIX. That the city council be, and they are hereby authorized 
at the expense of said city, to provide for the support of common 
schools; and for that purpose each of the wards of said city sliall 
con.stitutc a school district, iintil such time as the city council may 
divide each ward into two or more school districts, which they are 
hereby authorized to do, in such manner as they may decin most con- 
venient, having due regard to present and future poi)ulation ; and they 
are hereby authorized to purchase in fee simple, or to receive as a 
donation for the use of the city, a suitable lot of ground in each 
school district, as a site for a school hou-se therein ; and they are hereby 



authorized to erect in each district a good aud substantial school 
house, of such dimensions as shall be convenient for the use of the 
common schools in said city, and to defray the necessary expenses of 
the building and constructing such school houses, and also to pay the 
purchase money for the lots of land on which the same shall be 
erected : it shall be lawful for the city council, annually, to levy, iu 
addition to the other taxes in said city, a tax, not exceeding one mill on 
the dollar, upon all property in the city subject to the payment of 
annual taxes by the provisions of this act, until a sufficient sum shall be 
raised and collected from such tax to meet all the expenses which shall 
be incurred, for the purchase of lots of land and the erection of the 
school houses aforesaid: Provided, It shall be lawful for said city to 
borrow such sum or sums of money as may be sufficient and necessary 
for purchasing or building as aforesaid, and to refund or pay the 
same as the tax aforesaid shall be collected ; and the said tax is hereby 
made a special fund to be appropriated to no other purpose. 

Sec. XX. That for the support of common schools in said city, 
and to secure the benefits of education to all the white children therein, 
it shall be the duty of the city council, annually, to levy and collect 
a tax not exceeding one mill on the dollar, upon all the property in 
said city subject to the payment of annual taxes by the provisions 
of this act, which shall be collected at the same time and in the same 
manner as is pi-ovided for the collection of the annual taxes : which 
tax, together with such as may be collected by the county treasurer 
for school purposes, within such part of the county of Cuyahoga as is 
within the limits of said city, shall be exclusively appropriated to 
defray the expenses of instructors and fuel for said schools, and for 
no other purpose whatsoever; which schools shall be accessible to all 
white children, not under four years of age, who may reside in said 
city, subject only to sucli regulations for their government and in- 
struction, as the board of managers, hereinafter mentioned, nuiy from 
time to time prescribe. 

Sec. XXI. That the city (totuicil shall, annually, select one judi- 
cious and competent person from each school district in the city as a 
manager of common schools in said city, which managers shall con- 
stitute and be denominated "The Board of Jlanagers of Common 
Schools in the city of Cleveland;"' who shall hold their office for one 
year, and until their successors are ajjpoiiited and i|iialilicd, and shall 
fill all vacancies which may occur in tlyir own body, during the time 
for which they shall be appointed. 

Sec. XXII. That the said board of managers shall have the gen- 
eral superintendence of all common schools in said city, and from time 
to time shall make such regulations for the government and instruction 
of the white children therein, as to them shall a|)pear i)i'o|)er and expe- 
dient, and shall examine and employ instructors foi- the sanic; and 
shall cause a school to be kept in each district for at least six months 
in each year, and shall cause an accurate census to be taken ainiually, 
in each district, of all the white children therein, between the ages of 
four and twenty-one years; and require of the several instructors 
thereof, to keep a record of the names and ages of all persons by them 


respectively instructed, and tlie time eacli sluill have attended said 
schools, and return a copy of such record to the board of managers, 
at the close of each and every current year; and said board shall 
certify to the city council the correctness of all accounts for expenses 
incurred in support of said schools, and give certilicates thereof, 
to the persons entitled to receive the same; they shall, at the close of 
every current year, report to the city council the state and condition 
of the several common schools in said city, as well the fiscal as the 
other concerns in relation thei'cto, and a particular account of their 
administration thereof; and they shall do and perform all otlier 
matters and things pertaining to the duties of their said office, which 
may be necessary and proper to he done, to promote the education and 
morals of the children instructed in said schools, or which may be 
I'equired of them by the ordinances of said city, not inconsistent with 
this act: Provided, That no person shall be employed as instructor 
in any of said schools who has not first been examined by the board 
of managers, and received a certificate of qualifications, as to his or 
her competency and moral character. 

Sec. XX in. That all moneys which shall belong to the village 
of Cleveland, or which said village shall be entitled to at the time said 
city shall be organized under this act, for the use of common schools 
therein, shall be paid over to and held by the city treasurer, and all 
moneys hereafter levied and collected within the limits of said city, 
for the support of common schools, and also all other moneys appropri- 
ated bj' law for the use of common schools therein, shall be paid into 
the city treasury as a separate and distinct fund, and shall not be 
applied, under any pretence whatever, to any other use than that 
for which it is levied and collected; and a separate aiul particular 
account of the receipts and expenditures thereof, shall be kept by the 
treasurer, in a book to be provided for that purpose; and the said 
treasurer shall not be entitled to receive any percentage, premium or 
compensation, for receiving or paying out said fund, or for keeping 
the accounts thereof. 

Sec. XXIV. That the city council shall fix by ordinance, the com- 
mencement and termination of the current year of said common 
schools, and determine the time and duration of all vacations thereof, 
which shall be the same throughout said city; and said city council 
may at their discretion, at any time previous to the erection of the 
school houses provided for in this act, lease on such terms and condi- 
tions as they may deem proper in the sevci-al school districts of saiil 
city, and for such times as they shall think necessary, convenient 
buildings for the use of common schools, therein, to be occupied only 
till such school houses shall l)e erected and prepared for the reception 
of such schools: Provided, That the property of black or mulatto per- 
sons shall be exempted from taxation for school purposes under this 

Under thk Bo.\rd of School Managers 

The first election under the charter was held on the eleventh of 
April, 1836, and in May of that year "a communication was received 


from the mayor in relation to common schools." In June, the city 
council appointed a committee ' ' to employ a teacher and an assistant 
to continne the Free School to the end of the quarter or until a school 
system for the city shall be organized at the expense of the city." 
This "P>ee School" had been organized in 1830 "for the educa- 
tion of male and female children of every religious denomination." 
Its sessions were held in the basement of the Bethel Church ; hitherto, 
it had been supported by voluntary contributions. In October, the 
council appointed the first board of school managers, consisting of 
Mayor John W. Willey, Anson Hayden, and Daniel Worley. In 
November, an enumeration of persons between the ages of four and 
twenty-one was ordered, and in March, 1837, the council committee on 
schools was requested "to ascertain and report, as soon as con- 
venient, what lots may be purchased, the price and terms of payment, 
to be used for school purposes — two in tlie first ward, one in the 
second ward, and one in the third ward." In the following July, 
the city council passed an ordinance introduced by Horace Canfield 
— An Ordinance to Provide for the Establisliment of PuhUc Sclwols. 
This memorable instrument is printed in full* in an earlier chapter 
of this volume ; it constituted the real beginning of the public school 
system of Cleveland. Tlie scliool managers immediately began the 
organization of the schools under the provisions of the ordinance. 

From the passing of this ordinance the history of tlie public 
schools of Cleveland is the record of the development of pulilic educa- 
tion adapted to the wants of a small town into that which strives to 
meet the needs of a great city. The following chronological record, 
some of which was kindly prepared for this volume by ]\liss Harriet 
L. Keeler, a former superintendent of tlie Cleveland public schools, 
marks the successive steps of that development. In the early days, 
individuals and .small events bulked much larger than tliey do today. 
In 1838, the school managers, Samuel Cowles, Samuel Williamson, 
and Philip Battell, reported that, during the preceding winter, eight 
schools had been sustained witli eiglit teachers, three male and five 
female, with an enrolment of 840 i>upils and an average attendance 
of 468. They also reported that "the schools have been wholly free 
and open to all within their districts legally admitted to their privi- 
leges. The boys and girls have been entirely separate, the former 
taught by male and the latter by female teachers. . . . The 
wages given have been, to female teachers $5 per week, and to male 
teachers $40 per calendar month." 

• .See page 200. 




In 1839, the school managers, Silas Bclden, Henry Sexton, and 
Henry W. Dotlgro, roiiorted an iiiiclianged salary schedule for teach- 
ers, an enrolment of 81215 pn|)ils, and an average attendance of 588, 
"makiiijr tlic iiivsmt iiuiiiIht atteudiiif; the schools quite too many 
[for the accoinmodations jn-ovidi'd], and being only about one-fourth 
of the number of youths in tlie city who are legally privileged to 
attend." At this time, the city was renting the school rooms 
that it occupied, and tlie agitation for enlarged accommodations had 
become ratlicr warm. In the spring of this year (1839), John A. 
Foote introduced in the city council a resolutinu declaring it expe- 


Prospect Street Schoolhouse, Erected in 1840 

dient for the city to buy land and build a schoolhouse in each of the four 
districts. The resolution was referred to a committee of which Harvey 
Eice was chairman. This committee reported in favor of buying two 
lots and erecting on each a building for the proper accommodation 
of two hundred pupils; the council adopted the report. Thereupon 
a lot on Prospect Street in the iirst ward, and another on Rockwell 
Street in the second ward were bought and contracts were let for two 
buildings to cost $3,500 each. Both buildings were completed in 
1840. The Academy and the two new buildings could seat abtnit 600 
pupils, but nearly 900 were crowded into the three, and some of the 
rooms previously rented were re-occupied.* The teachers at the 

* This overcrowdinjr of pupils seems to have been the chronic condition of 
the Cleveland schools to this day; the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak— a 
common result of rapid growth. 


Prospect Street School were Andrew Freese, Sophia Converse, Emma 
"Whitney, and Sarah M. Thayer. Those at the Rockwell Street School 
were N. A. Gray, Elizabeth Armstrong, Abby Fitch, and Louisa 
Kingsbui-y. Those at the Academy (West St. Clair Street School), 
were George W. Yates, Louisa Snow, Julia Butler. There were also 
the ungraded Bethel School, a school at the corner of Prospect and 
Ontario streets, and a school on Chestnut Street. The total number 
of pupils was 1,051. 

In March, 1841, the city council created the office of acting 
school manager and elected Charles Bradburn, George Willey, Charles 
Stetson, and Madison Kelley as school managers for the ensuing 
year; in 1842, the council reappointed them for another year. 
Charles Bradburn has been called "The Father of Cleveland 
Schools;" George Willey 's work was of inestimable value. In his 
History of Cleveland Schools in the Nineteenth Century, Mr. Wil- 
liam J. Akers saj'S: "The two men worked together. Bradburn 
looked after the business interests of the schools. He, more than auy- 
bodj" else, was responsible for the school buildings erected, and the 
wonderful progress the schools made in the twenty years he gave to 
them. George Willey had more to do with the educational end of the 
. schools. ' ' 

These were years of monetary depression, a new re-valuation of 
the state diminished the amount collected by tax for the schools, 
there was a deficit of $1,298.44 for the year 1841-42, and the opposi- 
tion to the schools became very bitter. The schools were becoming 
more and more crowded, a proposal to issue bonds for a new school 
was laid upon the table by the city council, and the wages of teach- 
ers were cut ; tlie pay of the four male teachers was reduced from $40 
a month to $32. .50 and that of the fourteen female teachers from $5 
to $4.40 a week; the school year was shortened from ten to nine 
months to save money for oi)cning two iidditional primary schools in 
the following year. 

Colored Children 

In April, 1843, some of the colored people of the city petitioned 
for a separate school for colored cliildren. The judiciary committee 
of the city council reported against tiie proposition and the council 
adopted the report. In administering the schools of Cleveland, no 
attention lias ever been paid to the legal disabilities imposed upon 
colored chihiren by the city charter of 18:!6 or by Ihe latci' legislation 
of the state. In the words of Mi-. Akers, "Clevihind has never had a 


colored school, and colored children have always been admitted to 
tlie schools." To tliis may be added the statement that, without any 
considerable manifestation of Negrophobia, colored teachers in Cleve- 
land public schools give instruction to white pupils. In other words, 
"the color line" is absolutelv ignored. 

First Ple.v for High School 

In the annual report of the board of school managers for 1844, 
Mr. Bradburn made his first plea for a high school, saying: "The 
j)resent classification of our free schools subjects them to the reproach 
that only the elements of an education are taught. We believe tiiat 
the best interests of our city require tiiat this objection should be 
obviated by the establishment of a school of instruction in the higher 
branches of knowledge." In April of that yi'ar, the school commit- 
tee of the city council brouglit in a resolution "authorizing the school 
committee to build three new school houses at a cost not exceeding 
$1,600 [each?] — one for a high school and two for primary schools," 
to which they added the statement that "the present classification of 
the schools is deficient, and that the establishment of a high school 
for boys, recommended by the Board of Managers, is very much 
needed." The council laid the resolution on the table. In the pre- 
ceding month (March 27, 1844), the council had elected Charles 
Bradburn, Truman' P. Hand}', Thomas Richmond, and J. B. Finury 
as school managers, designated Mr. Fiuury as acting (or business) 
manager, and voted to him an annual salary of $200. The next 
annual report of the board, in i-efereuce to the Prospect Street School, 
said that "the government of this school is strict and uniform, and 
through the indefatigable labors of its principal [Andrew Freese] is 
justly regarded as one of the best in the state." The report also 
set forth that "the senior male department of the Rockwell Street 
school is thought to have degenerated both in discipline and instruc- 
tion. . . . The Council, having directed the Board of Managers 
to adopt in this school, the system of instruction so successful in the 
Prospect Street School,* we are not without hopes that vigorous and 
well directed efforts will soon make it equal to any school in the city." 

The Schools in 1845 

In 1845, the pay of teachers was restored to its former level. In 
March of this year, the number of children in the city "between 

* A pleasing shadow cast before by coming events. 


the ages of four and eighteen was abont 2,500. About 1,300 of these 
attended the public schools, and 400 attended pi'ivate schools, leav- 
ing about 800 who were not attending any school." With a per- 
sistence worthy of Cato in re Carthage, Mr. Bradburn closed his 
annual report by again urging the establishment of a high school. In 
March, the council elected Charles Bradbum, Madison Kelley, George 
Willey and R. T. Lyon as school managers and designated Jlr. Kelley 
as acting school manager. In this year, the two senior sections of the 
Prospect Street School were united and, "for the first time in the 
history of the Cleveland schools, senior classes of both boys and girls 
were organized. The experiment was a success from the start and 
resulted in great improvement in the deportment of the scholars." 
Of course! In this school year (1845-46), thirteen schools were in 
operation with four male and thirteen female teachers. There was 
an enrolment of 1,500 pupils and an average daily attendance of 936, 
concerning which the annual report said: "Irregular attendance 
of scholars continues to be the great obstacle to improvement. The 
disarrangement of the classes necessarily attendant on this irregu- 
larity increases much the labor of the teachers and, in some schools, 
has almost paralyzed all their efforts. Some parents as well as chil- 
dren seem to think that what costs nothing is worth nothing, and so 
great has this evil become that it can be obviated only by the pas- 
sage of some measure that will exclude from the schools all scholars 
who will not attend with regularity and promptness." Herein the 
wise Mr. Bradburn put his finger on the sore spot and prescribed the 
specific remedy. 

Cleveland's First High School 

The school managers for the year 1846-47 were Charles Bradburn, 
Truman P. Handy. Samuel Starkweatlier, and William Day ; Mr. 
Bradburn was the acting managing director. Of course, Mr. Brad- 
burn did not relax his labors in I)ehalf of a liigh school. "The poor 
people of the city and the middle class stood with liim in his demand 
for tlie scliool, but the very rich, almost witliout exception, bitterly 
opposed the proposition." In his iniuigural address to the council 
in the spring of 1846, ]\Iayor George II(ia(lh\v said: 

I earnestly recommend to yoiir favorable consideration the I'ro- 
priety of establishing a school of a liigher grade — the Academic 
department — the schohirs to be taken from our common schools accord- 
ing to merit. This would present a powerful stimulus to study and 
good conduct. The poorest child, if possessed of talents and applica- 

1846-47] THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 349 

tion, might aspire to the highest station in the republic. P^rom siieh 
schools "we might h()])e to issue the riiliirc i^'ranklins of our lain!. 

On the twenty -seeond of April, 1846, Mr. J. A. Harris, chairman 
of the council school eonuuittee, introduced a resolution jiroviding 
that "a boj's' department of a high school be established; that the 
school committee hire a room for such school at an expense of not 
exceeding .^lOO per annum, aiul fit it up with desks at a cost of not 
more than .$1.50." The i-esolutit)n was adopted, rooms were rented 
in the basement of the I'niversalist Church on Prospect Street, a 
little west of Erie Street, later occupied by the TTouieopathic I\Tedical 
College, and Andrew Freese was made principal at a salary of .$500 
a year. On the thirteenth of July, 1846, Cleveland's first high school 
vas opened with thirty-four pupils; before the end of the year, the 
attendance was eighty-three. Jlr. Akers tells ns that "the rooms 
occupied were a miserable excuse for school rooms. They were damp, 
dark, and the health of the pupils and teacher suii'ered in conse(iuence. 
The main room was heated with a stove, the pipe of which ran the 
whole length of the basement. Wooden benches and seats were 
provided. The bottom of the seats were fastened to the backs with 
hinges, so that the scholars might easily reach their respective seats." 
In his annual rejiort. made in the spring of 1847, ^Ir. Bradburn said : 

The establishment of this school was a elierishi'd ol)ject with former 
IManagers. Expectation was high in regard to it, l)ut it is believed 
that the most sanguine anticiinitions of the Council, to whose lil)er- 
ality it owes its existence, have been thus far fully realized. It has 
enabled the Managers to make a more profitable classification of the 
scholars, has incited a healthy spirit of emulation, and elevated the 
standard of education in other schools. Its location is not, in all 
respects, the most desirable, but it is the best that could be found. 
The discipline of this si'liool has been strict and unyielding, and 
effected by an appeal to the minds and hearts of the scholars, rather 
than to their physical sensibilities. The moral tone of -the school has 
been highly gratifying to the -Managers. It is not within their knowl- 
edge that profane language is used by any of the scholars. Tiie 
instruction in this school is designed to be thorough and substantial. 
and to be confined to the solid and useful branches of education. No 
studies are pursued whose ]>ractical value is in any way questioned. 
The school has thus far had the capacity to meet the wants of all 
applicants. A female dci)artment in this school is required to extend 
to the girls the advantages now so profitably enjoyed by the boys. 
The undersigned would respectfully present to the Council that it is 
their firm conviction that this system is essential to the success of our 
public schools, and that it is the only way in which they can be made 
in truth, what they are in name, common schools; common to all, 


good cnoTigh for the ricli. cheap enough for the poor; siieh schools 
as tliese will meet the wants of all classes in the comnmnity. 

As some of the leading men of the city had opposed the creation 
of the high school, so they now began a "drive" to have it discon- 
tinued; among the most active were Henry B. Payne, Harvey Rice, 
and John Erwin. The field marshals on the other side were Mr. 
Bradburn, George Willey, and William Case. When the opponents 
of the school raised the ciy of illegality, Bradburn told the teachers 
to go ahead with the school, and added: "If it isn't legal to have 
such a school, we'll go to Columbus and get authority to establish a 
legal one." On the seventeenth of March, 1847, the city council 
called for information concerning the cost of the high school, and Mr. 
Payne introduced the following preamble and resolutions: 

Whereas, it appears from authentic returns tliat about 2,000 chil- 
dren in the city, over four years of age, are not attending the common 
schools, or deriving any benefit from said school fund, while at the 
same time the number of school houses and iustruetors is greatly 
inadequate for those who do attend (in some cases a single room 
containing 130 to 180 scholars) ; 

Therefore, Resolved: That provision ought to be made for the 
erection of new school houses, and the employment of additional 
teachers, until an opportunity for obtaining a thorough common 
school education is furnislied to every cliild in the city over four years 
of age. 

Resolved : That until the ob.ject of the foregoing resolution is 
carried out, it is inexpedient to sustain a select High school at the 
charge of the common school fund. 

Resolved : That a select committee of three be appointed to in- 
quire into and report upon the cxjiediency of providing for the 
permanent establishment of a Iligli school, by requiring a tuition fee 
not exceeding .$6 a year, and the appropriation of a sum equal thereto 
from tlie general fund of tlie city. 

The resolutions were referred to II. B. Payne, John Erwin, and 
Charles Ilirker as a select committee. On the third of April, this 
committee brought in ma.iority and minority reports. Messrs. 
Payne and Erwin contended that the liigh school was illegally estab- 
lished for the rea.son that the money raised for schools must be ex- 
pended in the several school districts in proportion to the number 
of .school children in the district, and tluit the school managers had 
no right to expend money on schools that were attended by pupils 
from all the districts in the city. They also insisted that it was not 
wise to continue the high school as a charge upon the common scliool 
fund until every child in the city was given an opportunity to attend 

1847-49] THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 351 

the common sciiools, and that tlu- cost of the higli scliool was very 
high per capita. They fnrtiicr said: "Everything claimed for the 
school on ai'connt of its snrpassing excellence and the distinguishing 
ability of its principal is cheerfully conceded, but, in the opinion 
of the committee, it is far more desirable that all the chilcjren of the 
city should receive an education than that a small class should be 
highly educated." 

On the other hand, Mr. Hirkcr was of the opinion tliat the power 
to classify pupils and to designate schools for them to attend was 
clearly given to the school managers by the city charter. Friends of 
the school ajipcalcd to the public, great interest in the matter was 
aroused, the action of the city council was closely watched, and a 
mass meeting in support of the school was held. At this meeting, 
some of the addresses were pretty warm, and Mr. J. A. Briggs 
exclaimed: ""The people are in the move and you can just get out of 
the way when they speak!" Members of the city council took due 
notice and governed themselves accordingly. In the following Jlay 
(1847), Sir. Payne introduced a resolution ordering that, until other- 
wise directed, girls should be admitted to the high school equally with 
boys, and the resolution was adopted. 

T^he legislature was to meet in the following winter and both sides 
girded up their loins for a fight at Columbus. The legislature finally 
pa.ssed a bill that required the city council to maintain a high school, 
and authorized it to levy a special tax for the purchase of land and 
the erection of .school buildings. The council had been levying a 
tax of three-fifths of a mill on the dollar for the support of schools 
and had authority to raise the levy to four-fifths of a mill, and an 
increase in the levy was necessary to provide for the maintenance 
of the high school. At the spring election in 1848, the high .schoo" 
cpiestion was the great, the burning issue. ^Ir. Bradburn became a 
candidate for mayor, but was- defeated by a small plurality. The 
high-sehool advocates were generally successful in the election of 
their candidates for the council, but prior to the election (February 
21, 1848), the old council "got even" with Mr. Bradburn by dropping 
him from the board of school managers. The council then elected 
James D. Cleveland, John Barr, Samuel ^\'iIliamson, and William 
Smyth, with George AVilley as acting school manager. The high school 
was out of danger as to its existence, but not beyond the reach of 
annoyance by councilmanic failure to appropriate money sufficient 
for its operating expenses. Until 1852, the total annual expense of 
maintaining the high school was less than .$900. 

Li the spring of 1849, the city bought a lot on Champlain Street 


and, in August, let to John Gill and W. P. Southworth a contract to 
build thereon a two-story brick schoolhouse. Late in the fall, the 
building was completed and the Vineyard Street School was moved to 
it. This, "the best arranged and largest school building in the city 
at that time," cost about .$3,000; the furniture cost about $600. In 
the .spring of 1850, a eonti'act was let for a three-slory building on 
the old Academy lot on St. Clair Street, the same to be completed by 
the first of August. In the meantime, tlie schools of the Academy 
were cared for in the lately vacated school rooms on Vineyard Street. 
In the school year, 1849-50, two new primary schools were estab- 
lished in the first ward and one in the third. The salaries of the 
principals of the senior schools were raised to $500 per year, and the 
salary of the principal of the high school to $575. The cost of the 
schools for the year was $6,736.18. A school census taken in October 
.showed that there were in Cleveland 4,773 persons between the ages 
of four and twenty-one: the number enrolled in the public schools in 
the last term of the year was 2,081 : the average daily attendance was 
1.440; and the number of teachers employed was twenty-five. 

Greater Interest in the Public Schools 

The beginning of the socoiul half of the century seems to 'have 
been a period of greater jiublic interest in the public schools and 
a consequent loosening of the purse strings by the city council. 
New buildings were erected, school libraries were begun, the schools 
were l>etter graded, additional teachei's were employed, and the num- 
ber of pupils increased. The teaching of American histoi-y was 
begun; "music, under the guidance of professional teachers, begins to 
be taught as a science; drawing passes from mere linear to perspec- 
tive," etc. Night schools were opened in the winter term; for two 
hours on each of five evenings of the week, they were in session for 
thirteen weeks. The salary of each of the four senior school princi- 
pals was increased from $500 to $550 aiul that of the high school 
principal from $575 to $650. The total cost of tho schools for the 
year was $8,868.08. The high school coui-se of study covered a i)eriod 
of three years; the coui'se for the third year was as follows: 

First Tei~m Second I'l rm Third Term 

Trigonometry & A])- Surveying Surveyiug 

plications Astronomy Hotany 

Astronomy Botany Elements nf Crit icism 

Mental Philosophy Elements of Criticism Logic 

Book Keeping Cciicral History 
General llistorv 

1850-53] THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 353 

For the libraries in tlie different school buildings the city gave 
$500; private contributions did the rest. 

In the fall and wiuter of 1851, a new school building was erected 
on Clinton (later Brownell) Street at the cost of $3,500. The school 
was opened in January, 1852; the attendance increased so rapidly 
that, in the spring, the board of managers recommended the provision 
of additional aceonunodations. That summer, another story was 
added to the building and the council authorized the purchase of an 
adjoining lot. The location of the building, still known as the 
Brownell School, is now given as "East Fourteenth Street, corner of 
Sumner, between Prospect and Central avenues." On the twenty- 
second of July, 1851, the city council bought a lot on Euclid Street 
near Erie (East Ninth) as a site for a building for the high school. 
On the nineteenth of September, the city council authorized its 
committee on schools to erect on this lot a frame building for the 
use of the high school, said building to cost not more than $1,200. The 
building was soon completed and housed the high school until it was 
replaced by a better one in 1856. For the land thus bought the city 
paid $5,000; it was subsequently sold for $310,000, and is now occu- 
pied by the fourteen-story building of the the Citizens and Savings 
Trust Company. In February, 1852, Mr. Willey resigned as acting 
school manager. In March, the council elected as school managers, 
Charles Bradburn, George Willey, James Fitch, Truman P. Handy, 
and W. D. Beattie, and designated Mr. Fitch as acting manager. 
The reappearance of the names of Bradburn and Willey in this list 
is significant of a better disposition on the part of the majority of 
the council. 

Under the Board op Education 

In June, 1853, the city council passed an ordinance that substi- 
tuted the board of education for the former board of school managers, 
conferred upon the secretary of the board powers formerly exercised 
by the acting school manager, and provided for a superintendent of 
.schools and a board of school visitors. The school year was to begin 
with the fall term and to end with the summer term. The new board 
of education consisted of Charles Bradburn, Samuel H. Mather, 
W. D. Beattie, and T. P. Handy, who were to serve two years ; and 
George Willey, Buckley Stedman, and Samuel Starkweather, who 
were to serve one year. This board elected Mr. Bradburn as its 
president and Jlr. Mather as its secretary. One of the first acts of 
the board was to elect Andrew Freese as the first superintendent of 


the Cleveland public schools. ]\Ir. Freese was to give part of his time 
to the work of supervision of all the schools and part to his still con- 
tinuing duties as principal of the high school. He was also to ex- 
amine applicants and to grant certificates to such as he found quali- 
fied to teach. As superintendent, he was to receive an annual salary 
of $300; as principal, one of $1,000. He at once entered upon the 
discharge of his new duties. A general increase in the pay of teach- 
ers soon followed. Heretofore, female teachers had been paid a stipu- 

Andrew Freese 

lated sum per week; now they were to be paid according to the grade 
of the certificate that each one held : for the first class, $300 a year ; 
for the second class, $275; for the third class, $250. 

The Mayki.owkk Sciiooi, 

In 1854, owing to the crowded condition of the little .school on 
Mayflower Street, a three-story brick building was completed; with 
fixtures and fiurniture, it cost about $1(),(K)(). In this year, Ohio 
City became part of Cleveland, adding 2,-l;i8 to the school po|)ulation, 
about 800 to the attendance ol' the public schools, and eleven to the 
corps of teachers. Under the new conditions tlic number of the 
board of education was increased from seven to eleven, and recon- 
.stituted by the council as follows: Charles Bradburn, Samuel II. 

1854-55] THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 355 

Mather, W. D. Boattic, T. 1'. Haiuly, George Willcy, Buckley Sted- 
maii, Beii.jaiiiiii Sliclddii. Iloiai'c Bciitoii, R. B. Dennis, A. P. Turner, 
and Isaae L. Hewitt. .Mi-. Bradlnirn deelined liis aijpointnient as a 
member of the board of education for the reason tliat he had been 
elected to the city council. Mr. Bradburn iiad been led to become a 
candidate for the council by his desire to assist in getting more money 
for the school buildings and in the luHher development of the school 
system. When the council coiinnittees were ajipointed f(n" that year, 
he was made chairman of the committee on schools. In his place, 
James A. Briggs was elected by the council to the board of education, 
which completed its organization by the election of Mr. Sheldon as 
president, and ^Ir. ^Mather as secretary. At the time of the con- 
solidation of the two municipalities, Ohio City had three school- 
houses, situated on Penn, Vermont, and Church streets; it also was 
building three large three-story brick sehoolhouses on Pearl, Hicks, 
and Kentucky streets, all of which were finished by the enlarged 
board of education of Cleveland at the cost of about $7,000 each. 

At the end of the spring term in 1855, the first class was grad- 
uated from the high school. Though the school had been established 
nine years, and while a few individuals had completed the prescribed 
course, no class had yet done so. The names of the graduates of 
1855 follow: 

George W. Durgin, Jr. Emcline W. Curtis 

Henry W. Hamlen Helen E. Farrand 

John'G. Prince Julia E. O'Brien 

Timothy H. Rearden Laura C. Spelman 

Albert H. Spencer Lucy M. Spelman 

In Septcnd)er, 1864, ]\Iiss Laura C. Spelman married Mr. John D. 
Rockefeller, the founder of the Standard Oil Company. At the time 
of the first high school commencement in Cleveland, the school was 
still housed in the temporary wooden building on the Euclid Street 
lot, but .Mr. Bradburn had been at work in and out of the council. 
On the fourteenth of February, the council committee on schools 
recommended "tiiat the school committee be authorized to advertise 
for proposals for the erection of a building on the high school lot 
in conformity with the plan which is presented herewith and recom- 
mended by the board of education," and Mr. Bradburn introduced a 
resolution instructing the committee to advertise for such proposals. 
On the twenty-eighth of ]\rarch, and on the motion of Mr. Bradl)urn, 
the committee was authorized to enter into contract for such a build- 
ing for the sum of $15,400, the amount of the lowest of the fourteen 



proposals that had been received. At the begiiiuiog of the fall term, 
the high school was removed to the Prospect Street building where it 
remained until the new building was dedicated on the first of April, 

West High School 

For several years an Ohio City senior school had been conducted 
in the building known as "The Seminary;" when the Kentucky Street 


school building was completed this school was transferred to the 
upper rooms thereof. When llie East Side got wliat I shall hereafter 
designate as the Central lligli Scliool, the West Siders, naturally 
enough, wanted a West High Sfliddl, I'.ut llie special legislation that 
Mr. Bradbui-n luul soenrcd at Colnmliiis provided for only one high 

*A picture of the building nuiy Ix' I'ouinl in a later cliaiitcr, "Tlio Pul)lio 

1856-59] THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 357 

school, and so a branch of the Central High School was established in 
the Kentueky Street huihiing;. This was known as the Branch High 
School, but other than in name, it was an independent school with 
a course of study identical with that of the Central High School. 
The first principal of this school was A. G. Ilopkinson; he held the 
position until 1S70. Cleveland now had two high schools, the "West 
and the Central. She did not get a third until 1872, when the annexa- 
tion of the village of Cleveland brought in the East High 
School. At the end of the seliool year in July, 1856, the city had 
twenty-three school buildings, good, bad and indifferent; the esti- 
mated value of land, buildings, and furniture was $150,000. 

In Jul.v, 1856, the city council appointed a new board of educa- 
tion : Charles Bradburn, George Willey, Horace Benton, R. B. 
Dennis, and Samuel H. Mather; the board was organized with Mr. 
Bradburn as president and Mr. Willey as secretary. An industrial 
school was established and Greek and Latin were introduced into the 
course of gtudy of the high schools. The number of pupibs enrolled 
was 5,750, and the average daily attendance was 3,410. Each of the 
high schools gi-aduated six pupils. The board of education appointed 
in April, 1857, consisted of Messrs. Bradburn, Willey, Dennis, T. S. 
Paddock, and C. W. Palmer. Mr. Bradburn was re-eleetfid president 
of the board and Mr. Willey as its secretary. The number of pupils 
enrolled was 6.250; of these, 1,477 were in the high and grammar 
schools with male teachers and female assistants ; the other 4,773 were 
in intermediate, secondary, and primar.y schools with female teach- 
ers. The average daily attendance was 3,714. The number of 
teachers employed was eighty ; sixty-eight women and twelve men. 
The total expenditure for the schools in the year 1857-58 was 

First Elected Board of Education 

Early in 1859, the legislature passed a law "to provide for the 
regulation and support of the common schools in the city of Cleve- 
land." This law took the election of the members of the board of 
education from the city council and put it in the hands of the voters. 
There was to be one member from each ward and the term of office 
was one year. On the fifth of April of that year (1859), the voters of 
Cleveland chose their first elected board of education, consisting 
of Charles Bradburn, Alle.vne Mayna»-d, Charles S. Reese, William 
H. Stanlt'v, Nathan P. Payne, W. P. Fogg, Lester Hayes, J. A. Thome, 
F. B. Pratt, Daniel P. Rhodes, and George R. Vaughan. The mem- 


bers of the board chose Mr. Bradburn as president and Mr. Maynard 
as secretary. Under the provisions of the new law, the board ap- 
pointed "three suitable persons of competent learning and ability 
who shall constitute a board of examinei-s, whose duty it shall be to 
meet at least once in everj- month to examine the qualifications, 
competency, and moral character of all persons desirous of becom- 
ing teachers in the public schools of Cleveland." The high school 
course of study was revised, its term extended from three to four 
years, the study of German introduced, and four different courses 
were provided. Owing to lack of adequate funds, no new buildings 
were erected, and some special studies (penmanship, music and 
drawing) were temporarily abandoned or restricted. 

The Public Schooi^, 1859-62 

At the end of the school year, 1859-60, the number of persons 

of school age was ^ 13,309 

There were : 

In the public .schools 6,100 

In private Catholic schools 2.000 

In private Protestant schools 200 

In private German schools 250 

In orphan asylum 50 

8,600 8,600 

Not attending any school 4,709 

The classification of the pupils in tlie |)iiblic schools was very unsatis- 
factory to Superintendent Freesc ; tlic buildings were too small; 
tlH> largest would accommodate fewer than 500 pni>ils and sonu' of 
the others only about 350 each ; the number of jjupils in eacli scliool 
was too small to enable a jiropcr clii.ssidcation. In the lower grades, 
boys and girls were taught separately even in the smaller buildings 
thus making necessary the main1<'nance of two classes doing the 
same work in a grade, work that conlil be done as well in one. In 
his annual report, the supei-inteiidenl said: '"I'o establisli. foi" <>xam- 
ple, two Intermediate schools is i)ractieally to divide classes that 
should recite together under the same teachei-, into Iwo sections, to 
recite the same lesson under separate teachers. If three schools of 
this grade be established, llien tlie same classt^s arc divided into 
three parts, and each has to recite to a different teaclier. it is even 




worse tliau 111 is in dik' or two of our distrii'ts, for we have four 
schools on an Intermediate grade, when there should be but one, 
and in no district are there less than two." He favored the redistriet- 
ing of the city for school purposes and the erection of buildings that 
would aecomniodate at least 800 pupils each. He further said: "I 
have no idea that the Hoard will deem it advisable to pull down and 
rebuild the school houses of the city, or make other radical changes 
to accomplish the objects which I have named. I think, however, 
while we are making alterations in oui' buildings from year to year, 

Old Wkst High School 

and erecting new ones, it would be well to look towards a more per- 
fect union school system, such as I have endeavored to give in 
outline." At his own request, Mr. Freese was relieved of the duties 
of superintendent and again took up the more congenial work of 
teaching. After teaching for a time in the Eagle Street School he 
again became principal of the Central High School. In 1868, be- 
cause of ill health, he retired from school work. Well done, good 
and faithful servant. 

At the beginning of the school year, 1861-62, Mr. Luther M. 
Oviatt began work as superintendent of schools, in succession to 
Mr. P'reese. He was a graihiate of the Western Reserve College and 
for years had been principal of the Eagle Street School. In that 
year. Dr. Die Lewis's famous system of gymnastics was introduced 


into the schools. In October, a new building at the corner of State 
(West Thirty-fifth) Street and Ann Court was completed and imme- 
diately occupied by the West High School. After two years of serv- 
ice as superintendent, Mr. Oviatt was succeeded, in the summer of 
1863, by the Rev. Dr. Anson Smythe who had served for four years 
as superintendent of the Toledo schools. He introduced a more rigid 
system of grading the schools that temporarily overcrowded the 
lower classes and led to much objection from the pupils therein, but 
it demonstrated the need of more primary schools and secured them. 
In the two j-ears ending August, 1865, ten new primary and second- 
ary schools were opened. At the close of the school year 1866-67, 
Superintendent Smythe retired from the schools. 

Andrew J. Rickoff 

Mr. Smythe 's successor was Andrew J. Rickoff who had been 
superintendent of the Cincinnati public schools and was later at the 
head of a private school in that city. The coming of Mr. Rickoff 
opened a new era in the history of the public schools of Cleveland, 
ilr. Rickoff" had a wonderful power of organization and a remarkable 
ability to secure the suppoit of his teachers and of members of the 
board of education. He was a strong, able man, and was fully con- 
scious of the fact. When he came to the city, Cleveland had two 
high schools and ten grammar schools. The gi*ammar schools occu- 
pied the third or upper stories of the larger buildings and most of 
them had tributary schools located in the smaller buildings. Mr. 
Rickoff soon made the principal of each grammar school the principal 
of all the schools from which pupils were received, whether the 
tributary .schools were in the same building or in some other. The 
schools were reclassified into three grand divisions, known as Pri- 
mary, Grammar, and High School. Each division contained four 
grades designated as A, B, C, and D. Separate divisions for girls 
and boys were abolished. By consolidation, the number of grammar 
schools was reduced from ten to seven. The A-Grammar classes 
were consolidated into four and these were placed in charge of 
women who were also made principals of the buildings in which 
they were. Heretofore, these positions had been held by men. The 
course of study was revised, a copy was given to every teacher, and 
each teacher was instructed how to do the work of her grade. Under 
the influence of Superintendent RickolT. ])ett(>r school buildings came 
into being. Mr. Rickoff had clear ideas on the subject of school con- 
struction and was al>le to scc\ire Die needed action. On the first nf 


September, 1868, and with appropriate fomialitics, the new school 
on Sterling Avoniie (East Tliirtieth Street) was opened — "the finest 
school building in the state of Ohio;" it cost about $45,000. Three 
similar school buildings were put under contract. The Orchard, 
Rockwell, and St. Clair school buildings were soon completed. The 
receipts of the board of education on account of the construction 
fund were $195,440.01, including $61,1)92.62 realized from the sale 
of bonds; the expenditures for buildings and equipment were $161,- 
005.48. The school census of 1869 showed that there were in the 
city 27,524 persons of school age, of whom only 11,151 registered 

Andrew J. Rickofp 

in the public schools. Male principals of A-Grammar schools were 
no longer appointed. Instead, the city was divided at first into 
four, then into three, and later into two districts, each in charge 
of a supervising principal whose duties were wholly those of general 

Public School Record for 1867-72 

In 1867, there were 118 teachers in the grade schools and ten 
teachers in the high schools. In April, 1868, the legislature passed 
an act "to provide for the support and regulation of the public 
schools of Cleveland." This act clipped the authority of the city 
council in school affairs and gave the board of education complete 
control of the schools, with power to levy taxes without restriction 
by the city council, except that the city hall still had a voice in the 
"purchase of proper sites and the erection of suitable schoolhouses 


thereou. "" In May, 1873, the legislature passed a general law that 
superseded all special enactments pertaining to the management of 
schools ill town, cities, etc. This left to the city council no voice in 
school affairs. 

In 1870, the supervising principals and the principals of grade 
schools, were : 

First District 

Supervising Principal, Henry ]\I. James. 
Rockwell, Annie E. Spencer; St. Clair, Etta M. Hays; Alabama, 
Eliza A. Beardsworth; Case, Eliza E. Corlett ; Eagle, H. E. Gillett. 

Second District 

Supervising Principal, Lewis W. Day. 
Brownell, Cornelia H. Saunders ; Sterling, Adda S. Bently ; May- 
flower, Ellen G. Reveley; Willson, Abbie E. Wood; Warren, Lucy 
A. Robinson. 

Third District 

Supervising Principal, Alexander Forbes. 
Kentucky, Bettie A. Dutton; Hicks, Lemira W. Hughes; Orchard, 
Emily L. Bis.sell; Washington, Abbie L. 0. Stone; Wade, Susie L. 
Plummer; University, Libbie H. Prior. 

In 1870, there were more than 2,000 children of German parentage 
attending private German schools. On the first of March, 1870, a 
committee of the board of education recommended that a German- 
English department of schools be organized in the fourth, sixth, 
and eleventh wards, these having the largest German population. 
This report was adopted. In January, Mr. Louis R. Klcmm was em- 
ployed to teach German in the high schools and to give his Fridays to 
supervision of the teaching of that language in the grammar and 
primary classes. Jlr. Klemm, who was Mr. Rickoff's brother-in-law, 
was very enthusiastic in his i)ropaganda, and, before long, the study 
of German was extended throughout the entire city. Mr. Klemm was 
superintendent of the German department, and parents and pupils 
were systematically solicited to enter the Gorman classes. In I his 
year, 1871, the board of education adoi)ti'(i tin- policy of building 
small frame houses that would accommodale about 240 pupils each. 
They were called "relief schools," and were intended for temporary 
use. The rea.son for their being was that some sections of the city 
were growing so rapidly in population that it was impossible to tell 
with certainty .just where pei-manent buildings should be erected. 
To this day, Cleveland schools need aiiij iilili/c sucli "relief."" 




The siiporvisiiifj statV in 1S71-72 was as follows: 

Supcriiitc'iuli'iit, Andrew .1. RickofT. 

Supervising I'rincipal of 1st District, Henry .M. James. 
Supervisiii": I'rincipal of 2nd District. Lewis W. Day. 
Special Superintendent of Primary, 1st Grade, Kate E. Stephan. 
Special Superintendent of Primary, 2nd and 3rd Grades, Harriet 
L. Keeler. 

Special Teacher and Supervisor of Music, N. Coe Stewart. 
Special Teacher and Su|)crvisor of I'emnanship, A. P. Root. 
Special Teacher and Supervisor of Drawing:, Frank H. Aborn. 

East Cun'ELAND Schools Annexed 

In October, 1872, the annexation of the village of East Cleveland 
to the city of Cleveland brought the village schools under the control 

,1 * 

m\^ /, -Ml 



East Cleveland Centb^vl School 

of the Cleveland board of education and the supervision of Super- 
intendent Rickoff. The western boundary of the village was Willson 
Avenue (now East Fifty-fifth Street) and its southern boundary was 
practically Quincy Avenue. The outlines of the annexed village 
appear in the map given on page 256. East Cleveland had a high 
school and the articles of annexation provided that "the high school 
now existing in the corporation of East Cleveland shall be continued 
and maintained as now- established, until modified or changed by a 
vote of three-fourths of the members of the board of education, with 
the concurrence of one-half of the members from the territory com- 
prised in tlie sixteenth aiul .seventeenth wards as described in tliis 


agi-eement. Thus the East Cleveland High School became the Cleve- 
land East High School. At the time of the annexation, the village 
school board consisted of Dr. 0. C. Kendrick, Liberty E. Holden, and 
V. C. Taylor. Mr. Taylor is still (1918) living. In the summer of 

1871, this board had employed as superintendent of their schools 
EIroy M. Avery who had just been graduated at the University of 
Michigan. The report for the year ending on the eighth of April, 

1872, shows the following organization of the teaching force : 

High School — Mrs. E. il. Avery, principal ; Frank H. Geer, Helen 

Grammar School — Miss Frank I. Mosher, Mi-s. J. W. Lusk. 

Central Intermediate School — Mary Ingersoll, Florence S. Censor, 
Dora House. 

The three schools aboA'c mentioned, occupied the Central (now the 
Bolton) School building, and were lander the immediate supervision 
of the superintendent. The other schools occupied separate build- 

Church Street School — ^Irs. 0. A. Lukens, principal ; Lucy East- 
man, Ebbie S. Knowles. 

Euclid Avenue School — Mrs. E. A. Fox, principal; Mary S. Holt. 

Jladison Avenue School — Blanche Huggins, principal; Nellie S. 
Burns, Nettie B. House. 

Garden Street School — Olia A. Houtz, principal ; Lucy Adams, 
Jennie Cairns. 

Crawford School — Miss Frank C. Hovey. 

Dunham Avenue School — Julia S. Sabin. 

Special Teacher of Penmanship — A. P. Root. 

Special Teacher of Drawing — Frank Aborn. 

In his report, the superintendent said : 

As a general thing, our school buildings are comfortable. Tlicir 
chief faults are an almost total lack of proper ventilation and respect- 
able scats. . . . We have hardly a scihool-room in the village 
that is not over-crowded — some of them two or three fold. While our 
school-rooms are so crowded and ill-veutilated, we need not go fur- 
ther to find the causes of the listlessncss and ill-nature, and other 
more active, tliough ])erhaps not moi-e dangerous forms of disease, 
wliicli are ever reaching out to take liold of school-children. . . 
In this connection it mny be jji-opcr to add tliat, at tlie Central i-?uild- 
ing the measures taken for a ]ierfcct ventilation were fully success- 
ful. In the matter of seats, most of our old schools arc in a deplorable 
condition. The rickety, stained, whittled and crowded desks, remnants 
of an unmourncd past, do little credit to this c\ilturcd and wcaltby 




In the first two terms of 1871, the number of pupils enrolled in 
the village schools was 583; in the fii'st two terms of 1872, the num- 
ber was 7C4; a gain of thirty-one per cent. In contrast with this 
showing of the village schools in April, 1872, I give the following 
statement of the condition of the schools in the territory then an- 
nexed to Cleveland. This statement bears date of the eighth of April, 
1918, and was kindly prepared for me by the Department of Refer- 
ence and Research of the Cleveland schools: 

Number of 
Scliool Teachers 


1. Bolton 31 

2. Central 39 

3. Doan 21 

4. Dunham 22 

5. Madison 27 

6. Giddings 23 

7. Hough 24 

8. Observation (in connection 
with Normal School.) 16 

9. Quincv 24 

10. Rosedale 26 

11. Wade Park 20 

12. Willson 20 

13. Willson School for Cripples 8 

Junior High Schools 

14. Addison 29 

15. Fairmount 33 

Senior High Schools 

16. Central Senior 43 

Junior 32 

17. East (new)— Senior 39 

Junior 16 

18. Normal 16 















Land and 











j 235,963.75 



After the annexation, Mr. Avery .supervised what had been the 
village schools until the end of the school year, June, 1873. Then 
he became principal of the High School (old) with his wife as 
his chief assistant, and during that vear acted with Messrs. James 

* Equipment only. 


and Day as supervising principal, having direct supervision of the 
East End schools. At this time. 1872, the principal of the Central 
High School was Samuel G. Williams and the principal of the West 
High School was Warren Higley. The courses of study and the 
monthly and annual examinations in the three schools were identical. 

Died, August 20, 1872, Charles Bradburn 

Much op Newbueg Township Annexed 

In 1874, much of Newburg township was annexed, thus adding 
four schools and 1,269 pupils to the city district. In the fall of 1874, 
the Normal School was established in the Eagle Street building with 
Alexander Forbes, a former supervising principal, as the principal 
thereof. The conditions prescribed for admission to the Normal 
Seliool were a Cleveland high school diploma or an equivalent prep- 
aration as shown by examination. As a matter of fact, there were 
no male pupils. Miss Kate E. Stephan and Miss Julia E. Berger 
were appointed training teachers for the four primary schools in 
the building. In these four schools, the "Normal School Girls" 
were given practical training in teaching with an expert teacher 
overlooking their work, giving help as needed and correcting errors 
as they developed. At the end of the year, twenty-six pupils were 
graduated. All of these graduates were given positions as teachers 
in the Cleveland public schools except one who was employed in the 
"Colored High School" at Washington City. The position as special 
superintendent of the first grade primary schools, vacated by the 
transfer of -Miss Stephan to the Normal School, was filled by the 
appointment of Miss Laura M. Curtis. 

Tax Levy for Building Schools Increased 

In this year, 1874, the board adopted a new jiolicy in the matter 
of providing the necessary school buildings, in tlu' three years, 
1868-70, the bonds issued for such purposes iiinountcd to .$420,000. 
The annual rc|)ort for 1875 said that the city had already paid 
ifiKiO.OOO interest on these bonds, jind that, before the bonds matured, 
$21.5,000 iuhlitidiial interest would lie required. This total of $:{7r),000 
interest from issuo to maturity wouhl have sufficed "to l)uild. furnish, 
and e(|uip ready for occupancy six such liuildings at the Outliwaite 
house — the best school ac(H)mnio(lations for seven thousand children — 




the entire increase in daily attendance at tlie pnblic schools for the 
past eight years." The board therefore increasetl the tax levy to raise 
sufBeient money for the permanent additions for the 1,500 addi- 
tional pupils that must be eared for each year. The new policy, 
wise at it was, has not always been followed but it had a good effect. 
In addition to the buildings made necessary by the rapid growth 
of the city, some of the old buildings burned and others fell into 
decay and desuetude and had to be replaced, the combination putting 
on the board of education a burden enough to press a royal merchant 
down. The new buildings needed were better than the old and 
were supplied as rapidly as possible. As most of them are still in 

New Central High School 

use, I shall not attempt to mention them in detail, but refer any 
possible seeker for information to the statistical tables given in the 
latter part of this article. But mention should be made of one im- 
portant change. The Central High School had become overcrowded, 
the advance of business had driven its patrons further eastward, 
its site had a high market value, the East High School was rapidly 
growing, and the per capita cost of the high schools was so great 
that it provoked unfavorable criticism. In 1876, the board of edu- 
cation bought land on Willson Avenue (East Fifty-fifth Street) and 
Cedar Avenue preparatory to building a new schoolhouse with ample 
accommodations for the pupils of the Central and of the East High 
schools. In 1878, the building was ready for occupancy and the two 
high schools were consolidated, the conditions of the East Cleveland 


annexation having been satisfied. The new school is still known 
as the Central High School and the old East High School was dis- 
continued. It was a good while before there was another East High 
School. Just then Alexander Forbes retired fi'om school work, thus 
opening the door for a satisfactory settlement of what had become 
a rather warmly contested issue; Dr. S. G. Williams was continued 
as principal of the Central High School, and Elroy M. Avery was 
made principal of the Normal School. "Previous to the transfer of 
the Central and East High schools into the new Willson Avenue 
building, these schools had been seated in common assembly rooms, 
from whence they repaired to recitation or lecture rooms at times 
fixed for the school program. When the two schools moved into the 
Central High school, they were housed in 14 session rooms, accom- 
modating from fifty to sixty pupils each. The students recited some 
of their studies in these session rooms, and repaired to other rooms 
for other recitations." The upper stories of the old Central High 
School building were fitted up for the use of the public library which 
had lately been committed to the charge of a library board of seven 
members chosen by the board of education. This first library board 
consisted of Sherlock J. Andrews who was made its president, the 
Rev. John Wesley Brown, W. F. Hinman, William Meyer, John Hay, 
W. J. Starkweather, and Dr. II. McQuiston. The lower story was 
fitted up for use as headquarters for the board of education. In 
the winter of 1877-78, the legislature reduced the maximum of the 
school levy from seven to four and a quarter mills ; it was subseciuently 
raised to four and a half mills and. in 1881, the levy w-as up to that 
maximum. Owing to the consequent decrease in receipts and the simul- 
taneous increase in the school attendance, the finances of the board 
were sorely pinched and the scliools were very crowded. In the school 
year 1881-82, the .scliool enumeration showed a total of 58,026 persons 
in the city between the ages of six and twenty-one years ; the number of 
pupils eni'olled in tlie ])ul)lic schools was 2(),f)f)fl ; the average daily at- 
tendance was 18,696; tlie number of pupils in (he high schools was 
1,005 : the number of teachers was 472, of wlioiii only twenty-nine were 
men; the receipts on account of the school fund were $458,858.50: and 
the expenditures were $462,768.65. At the nid of tliis year, and after 
a bitter campaign, Supcrintciidi'nt K'ickoH' rclircil fi-oin tlie (""leveland 
public schools. 

One of the most niiirkcd features of Mr. RiekofT's fifteen years 
of superintendence was the genei-al elimination of male ]>rinci])als 
and teaeliers and the substitution of women therefor. The argu- 
ment generally adv;ini'cil in favoi- <if tlic chiuige was that "\ tliou- 

1882-86] THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 369 

sanil-dollar-a-year woman is worth more to the schools than a 
tliousiuul-dolhir man," to whicli others acUlcd tlieir contention that 
tlie real reason for tlH> change was that, out of an equal number 
of teachers, male aiul female, the greater number of recalcitrants 
would come from the former class; in other words, that the teacher 
who had a vote was more likely to feel a "little independent" and to 
"kick" against what he looked upon as an arbitrary exercise of 
authority than was the teaclier who had no vote and but little or 
no political influence. Probably each side had something of right 
on its side. Although he was somewhat intolerant of a differing 
opinion, Mr. Kickotf was one of the greatest school superintendents 
that Ohio has produced ; he may have been imiierious, but he also 
was imperial. 

Superintendent Hinsdale's Administration 

The next superintendent of the schools was Burke A. Hinsdale, 
who was well-known as president of Hiram College and as a writer 
on educational and historical sub.iects. He and Mr. Rickoff had 
lately been engaged in a war of polemic pamphlets relating to the 
efficiency of the common schools as-eompared with those of earlier 
years, as manifested by the tests made at the United States Military 
Academy at West Point. Mr. Hinsdale was a more scholarly man 
than his predecessor and made good use of his four years in the super- 
intendency to better the class of teachers employed in the schools 
and to improve the instruction that they gave. The teachers were 
allowed a greater exercise of initiative and largely freed from the 
discouraging restraints and fear of "the office." By that time, 
the lack of school accommodations had become acute. On the sixteenth 
of October, 1882, the superintendent reported to the board that there 
were thirty schools in rented rooms, of which eleven were in churches, 
nine in saloon buildings, two in a refitted stable, five in dwelling 
houses, two in store rooms, and one in a society hall. The board 
immediately began an active campaign for more buildings. In 1884, 
branch high schools were organized. The night schools had reached 
such a place of importance that the board authorized the super- 
intendent to open such schools wherever he found that they were 
needed. In 1886, corporal punishment, which had for many years 
been discouraged, was by action of the board of education definitely 
abolished. In August, 1886, Superintendent Hinsdale retired from 
the Cleveland public schools and soon became a memlier of the faculty 
of the University of Michigan, a position that he held until his death. 

Vol. t— n 



In his last annual report as superintendent of the Cleveland schools, 
he said: 

As this is my last report, I deem it but a matter of justice to all 
parties, and particularly to myself, to put on record a fuller statement 
than I have hitherto published of tlie leading ideas that have guided 
my administration of the office of superintendent. My acceptance of 
the superintendency of the schools of Cleveland, in June, 1882, was 
by some people construed to mean that numerous and important 
changes would at once be made in the schools, both in their mechan- 
ical organization and in methods of instruction. Nor can it be 

B. A. Hinsdale 

denied that many citizens were j)repared eagerly to welcome such 
changes; the sooner they came th(> better, these citizens tlionght. 
These advocates of sudden and extreme measures made two great 
mistakes. First, they failed to see that even in case such changes were 
called for, no superintendent who came to the schools a stranger could 
at once or quickly tell what they were, or wisely order or recommend 
them ; also, that no educator who really had any reputation to lose, 
would risk it on such an experiment. But, secondly, they made a 
more serious mistake as to the real nature of a school and of a .system of 
schools. Such a school or system is not a frame work tliat can be 
torn down and i)ut together again according to another model, or 
even a machine that can be ])ullc(l to pieces and built over again; 
it is rather an organism that has been produced by gi'owth or evolu- 
tion, more or less alive, more or less fruitful, and that nnist be 
handled in liarmony with its own nattirc and laws. What Sir James 
^1,'ickiiitosli sn\s of constitutions is ti'U(> of si'lioo! systems: "Tliey 


are not uiadc, Init <;;ro\v." What the laws of school systems are, 
neeil not hei-i' lie nuulf tlie subjei't of imiiiiry ; one differs more or less 
from another: hut this is one law of tlie srliools of any eity that have 
existed long enough to eall for a liftieth annual report: AH changes, 
no matter how numerous, how important, or how radical, to be 
beneficent must be made opportunely and jirudently, and must con- 
sume time. In the grave words of Hacon, found in his essay on 
"Innovations," "It wei'c good, tiierefore, that men in tlicir innova- 
tions wouhl follow the example of Time itself, which indeed iiinovateth 
greatly, but (|uietly. and by ilegrees scarce to be perceived." Holding 
these views in 1S8'J as firmly as I hold them today, 1 came to Cleve- 
land with no revolutionary schemes Vccordingjy, every 

consideration of sound policy reconimendcd tiie course that 1 adopted 
from the first : — to visit the teachers and the schools as often as pos- 
sible ; to observe the organization, the discipline, and the instruction ; 
to analyze and comjiare the results; and then to direct such changes 
as seemed called for, remembering that time innovatetb greatly but 
quietly, and remembering, also, tiiat 1 must succeed in improving the 
schools, if at all, through the minds of the teachers, — their knowl- 
edge, views, ideals, and si)irit, and not by the use of mechanical 
methods. Proceeding in this way, I soon discovered that what the 
schools most needed was not revolution in external organization and 
sj"stem, but moi-e fruitful instruction, a more elastic regimen, and a 
freer spirit. This path ran wide of all sensationalism; it was quiet 
and unobtrusive; the man who should tread it could look for little 
in the way of noisy popular approval : ncvertlieless, it would lead to 
some of the best fruits of education. In this path, I have steadfastly 
sought to tread. 

Concerning Superintendent Hinsdale's work in Cleveland, Mr. E. 
A. Schellentrager, the president of the board of education, said in 
his annual report : 

I regard the period of his administration as one of the most 
beneficent in the history of our schools. (Qualified by thorough and 
comprehensive knowledge, and enthusiastically devoted to his calling 
as an educator, he succeeded in inspiring the faculty of teachers with 
enthusiasm for their difTficuit and responsible work and in inducing 
them to continue with avidity the development of their own attain- 
ments. Opposed to all sui)erficiallty of training, he strove indefati- 
gably against all mere mechanism in school instruction, and though 
many of his efforts were for the fii'st time apparently fruitless and 
unsuccessful, yet it is proper to attribute to him the merit of having 
sown seed which shall certainly spring up and bear beneficent fruit 
in the future. 

Manu.vl Training School Opened 

Mr. Hinsdale's successor as superintendent of the Cleveland 
public schools was Lewis W. Day who, as teacher or supervising 


principaL had been connected with the schools for many years. In 
the school year, 1886-87, the tax of cue-fifth of a mill, authorized 
by the legislature, was collected for the purpose of training pupils 
in manual and domestic work. In Februaiy, 1886, the Cleveland 
ilanual Ti'aining School Company opened a school on the north side 
of East Prospect Street (Carnegie Avenue) between Willson Avenue 
(East Fifty-fifth Street) and the Cleveland and Pittsburg branch 
of the Pennsylvania Railway. By arrangement between the manual 
training school company and the lioard of education, high school 
pupils were admitted to the school free ; other pupils paid a tuition 
fee; the difference between the tuition fees I'eeeived and the oper- 
ating expenses of the school was paid by the board of education. At 
the opening of the school year, 1887-88, a cooking school depart- 
ment was opened as a regular branch of the manual training school — 
one of the first cooking schools organized in the country. About this 
time, the first truant officer was appointed under the provisions of 
the state compulsory school law. In his report for the year, 1888-89, 
Superintendent Day spoke of his efforts to broaden the thought, to 
cultivate the attention, and to systematize the work of the pupils, and 
mentioned two serious hindrances to success along such lines. The 
first was the emploj-ment of teachers "who have had little or no 
experience or training and who, consequently, are narrow and 
bookish." The other hindrance was the employment of teachers 
"who, notwithstanding their experience, are equally narrow and 
bookish, whose chief aim seems to bo to 'drill' all the work into the 
little unfortunates committed to their care." Teachei-s of the first 
class should be "reduced by dismissal as rapidly as better teachers 
can be found to supply their places; the other class should not be 
employed." Wise Mr. Day! In September, 1890, the West JManual 
Training School was opened on the upjier floor of the old W^est High 
School. At the end of the year (1892), Mr. Day retired from the 
Cleveland schools. 

Government of Schools 

In March, 1892, Die Ifgislaturc |)assed an act that reorganized 
the government of the Cleveland schools, the Federal Plan it was 
called. It vested all legislative power in a school council of seven 
members elected at large, and all executive authority in a sdiool 
director who was elected directly by the people and whose powers 
were so great that many called him the school dictator. The council 
and the director constituted the board of education ; the duties of each 


di'i)ai-tnu'iit wcro cloarly doliiK'iL In Ai>ril. Mr. IT. Q. Sargent was 
eleeti'd as school diroctor, and tlio seven niend)ers of tlio t'ouni'il were 
chosen as provided hy the luw hiw. As successor to Superintendent 
Day, Director Sarjrcnt appointed Andrew S. Drai)er, a former seliool 
commissioner of the state of \ew York, an al)le educator, and a strong- 
man. ^Ir. Drapei- proiiijitly hegan many changes, prominent among 
wliich was an enhirgemcnt of the authority of the school principals. 
As an inheritance from tiie Kickotf reijime, he found (to (piote from 
his first annual report) tliat "all authority was exercised in the 
centra! office: none was delegated. The priiicii>als were such only 
in name. ,\side from transmitting the directions of the super- 
intendent and collecting and returning reports, they apparently had 
no higher or different function than had any other teacher. They 
were not charged with respt)nsibility, nor even with knowledge, con- 
cerning the management or the methods of tiic teachers in tlicir 
buildings. All details, no matter how rcmot*', were managed directly 
from the office. . . . The principals were therefore directed 
to exercise a general care over their buildings and a general over- 
sight of all the schools therein ; to keep tlicmselves informed as to 
all details; to see that all the regulations and the directions of superior 
officers were fully complied with ; to aid associate teachers with sug- 
gestions and advice where practicable; and to report to the super- 
intendent or a supervisor any unbecoming conduct or any inefficient 
work on the part of a teacher, or any other matter which they could 
not remedy themselves and to which, in the interests of the schools, 
the attention of the superintendent's office should be called." For 
what he considered a needed "energizing" of the teachers, Superin- 
tendent Draper organized "The Principals' Round Table" for the 
informal discussion of school work and school problems and framed 
a schedule of regular teachers meetings, four each year for the whole 
body of teachers and twice as many for teacliers of each separate 
grade. These meetings were led by the superintendent or a supervisor 
and many of them were addressed by eminent educators brought to 
Cleveland for that purpose. The names of the common school grades 
from the D-Primary up to the A-Grannnar were changed to first 
grade, second grade, etc., ni) to the eighth grade, thus avoiding some 
confusion. Examinations for promotion in these grades were abol- 
ished. At the beginning of June, each teacher was to prepare a list 
of the pupils who, in her opinion, were prepared for promotion. 
Subject to the approval of the principal, the pupils thus recom- 
mended were advanced to the next higher grade. In the case of a 
pupil not thus advanced, the parent might for a written exam- 


illation of the child and, if the required standard was attained, the 
pupil was thus promoted. Promotions from the eighth grade to the 
high school were determined by a combination of the teacher's recom- 
mendation with a written examination, "fifty-fifty.'" In this year, 
manual training was introduced into the elementary schools and land 
was bought for a manual training school building on Cedar Avenue 
near East Fifty-fifth Street. 

Columbus Day Observed 

The four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America 
(Columbus Day, October 21, 1892), was fittingly observed by the pupils 
of the Cleveland public schools. The celebration was described by 
Superintendent Draper in his annual report as follows: 

At nine o'clock in the morning the children were assembled in the 
yard at their several buildings and participated in unfurling the 
flag, and with uplifted hand all pledged loyalty and devotion to it. 
This was performed with a felicitous ritualistic ceremony and with 
the assistance of committees of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
Immediately after the flag raisings the several schools, in their sepa- 
rate rooms, held exercises apjiropriate to the occasion which were o!" 
deeper interest because of the study all the schools had given to the 
life and character of Colundjus and the history of his voyage and 
discovery during the previous weeks. The parents were invited to 
these exercises. At 12 o'clock, the students of the High schools and 
the children of the four ui)|)ei- grades of the Elementary schools 
assembled and either marched, or were lirought on the street railway 
lines, to the center of the city, where great meetings were held in .seven 
of the public halls and churches and addressed by prominent public 
speakers. At these meetings the children occupied the main part of 
the Iiuildings, prominent citizens occupied the ])latforins, and the 
music and addi'esses were of a (character calculated to enforce patriotic 
lessons suggested by tile day's celebration. At the close of these meet- 
ings there was a mammoth street ])arade by idl tlie boys of the High 
schools and the four upper grades of the Klementary schools. l']aih 
school was represented by a beautiful banner, and many wore unifoi'ms 
specially prepared for the occasion. All carried flags. Jlusic was 
plentiful and inspiring. The marching was so soldierly as to win the 
enthusiastic applause of siich a multitude as Cleveland never saw 
on her streets before, and parlicnlarly of the veterans of the Crand 
Ai'iny whose efficient aid in preiKiring for and supervising the notatile 
jjarade will be long and gi-atefuUy renu'mbered. At the close of 
the parade the column was reviewed in front of the (^ity Hall by 
Mayor William G. Rose, the grand marshal of the day. General M. H. 
Lcggett and liis staff, and by the school officials. 

1892-94] THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 375 

Tlio larjicst oi' these luectinjjs was at .Miisie Hall, on Vineent 
Street, wliere were assembled the teachers and pupils of the Normal 
School, the Central High School, the West High School and the pupils 
of the grammar grades from the following schools: Broadway, Miles 
Park, Outliwaite, Sibley, South Case, Sterling, and Woodland Hills. 
The program was as follows: 

Chairman, the Rev. Charles F. Thwing, D. D., President of West- 
em Reserve University. 

Prayer The Rev. Lewis Burton, D. D. 

Music " America. ' ' 

Address President Thwing. 

Music "Columbus! Columbia!" 

Address The Hon. George H. Ely. 

Music " Star Spangled Banner. ' ' 

Address Dr. Klroy M. Avery. 

((. "Red. White and Blue." 

h. "Battle Hymn of the Re])ublic." 

^lusical Director, Prof. N. Coe Stewart. 


The Schools Under Superintendent Draper 

An elaborate revision of the course of study was made, simple 
science was introduced into the lower grades, and a school for deaf 
mutes was opened in the Rockwell Street School. In 1899, this school 
was transferred to a leased building on East Fifty-fifth Street. In 
two years. Superintendent Draper retired nearly a hundred teachers 
for incompetency with the inevitable consequent criticism. In May, 
1894, the supervisory staff was constituted as follows: 

Superintendent, Andrew S. Draper. 

Supervisor of 1st District, Edwin F. Moulton. 

Supcn-isor of 2nd District, Henry C. iluckley. 

Special Supervisor, Ellen G. Reveley. 

Special Supervisor, Emma C. Davis. 

Supervisor of German, Joseph Krug. 

Supervisor of ^Manual Training, W. E. Roberts. 

Special Teacher and Supervisor of Music, N. Coe Stewart. 

Special Teacher and Supervisor of Drawing, Frank Aborn. 

Special Teacher and Supervisor of Penmanship, Ansel A. Clark. 

In that month (May 10, 1894), Suj)erintendent Draper tendered 
his resignation to take efifeet at the end of the school year; he ha<l 
decided to accept the proffered presidency of the state University 
of Illinois. 


Expansion of School System 

Director Sargent appointed as successor to Mr. Di'aper, ilr. Louis 
H. Jones, then superintendent of the public schools of Indianapolis. 
Mr. Jones assumed his duties as superintendent of the Cleveland 
schools in the summer of 1894 and soon announced his "determination 
not to make any_ radical changes." The villages of Brooklyn and 
West Cleveland were annexed (July, 1894), bringing four schools 
and 1,781 pupils into the city system. For yeai-s, the increase in the 
school population of Cleveland had outrun the increase of the rev- 
enues of the board of education. In the decade, 1882-92, school bonds 
had been issued to the amount of $1,021,200, the annual interest on 
which was sufficient to pay for a new 16-room school building. As 
the board of ediication was unwilling to issue more bonds and as 
more buildings must be provided, the legislature was led to authorize 
the levying of an additional tax of not more than one mill on the 
dollar for building purposes. In one year, thirty-three new school 
rooms were completed and occupied and the Normal School was trans- 
ferred from its cramped quarters on Eagle Street to the Marion 
School building which was improved for that purpose. 

First Woman Elected to Public Office in Ohio 

In the school year, 1896-97, free "kindergartens" were opened 
as a part of the public school system ; in the following year, eleven 
such .schools were in successful operation. In that year, and under 
the provisions of a new state law, a woman was elected as a member 
of the Cleveland school council. She who thus blazed a lu^w path 
was Catherine TI. T. Avery (Mrs. Elroy M. Avery) ; her certificate 
of election states that she was the first woman chosen to an elective 
office in Ohio. In tlio following yoai', there were two women in the 
school council, .Mrs. Avery and Mrs. Benjamin F. Taylor. Since that 
time there have always been one or two women members of the 
school council. Mrs. May C. Whittaker was installed in April, 1902, 
Mrs. Sarah E. Ilyre in January, 1905, and Mrs. Virginia D. Green 
in January, 1912. When -Mrs. Hyre resigned to become secretary of 
the board, Miss Emma Perkins was cho.sen to lill I he vacancy. Mrs. 
('lara Tagg Brewer took office in January, 1918; she and Mrs. Creeu 
are members at the present time (August, 1918). 

Many School Buildings Erected 

In 1899, the library building and its site on Euclid Avenue whore 
the Central High School liad stood was sold for .+lil(),()()0, the board of 

1899-1902] THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS -H? 

education re.serviii>i: the rij^lit to oceiipy the buikliiiy; until liiUl 
Contracts for two high school buildings (East and Lincoln) were 
let; the buildings were completed in the fall of 1900. In the jjreceding 
decade, many school buildings had been erected but the schools were 
still very crowded. In June, 1900, Superintendent Jones made a 
special report giving his best judgment as to the location of ten build- 
ings needed in the inunediate future. "The exact location will be 
made more definite by the indications that will come to us on the 
opening of schools next September." Attention was directed to chil- 
dren who had defective eyesight and it was recommended that "the 
department of physical education and school hygiene be put upon 
a firm foundation." The enumeration of children of school age 
iu 1900 showed a total of 106,453, with twenty-one more boys than 
there were girls. The number of pupils registered in the schools was 
58,105 and the average daily attendance was 45,700. The number 
of teachers was 1,250, of whom 164 were teachers of Gennan. The 
total value of school buildings was $4,61i),676, and the bonded in- 
debtedness of the board of education was $1,195,000. 

Conclusion op Superintendent Jones' Term 

An attempt to exclude from the Normal School several young 
ladies who had nearly completed the prescribed course, on the ground 
that they were not likely to make successful teachers, aroused great 
public interest. Some of these pupils had been given a few weeks' 
practice under training teachers and had been unfavorably reported 
upon by said training teachers, and were therefore dismissed from 
the school. There was no question as to the scholarship of any of 
them and, in at least one case, the brief practice had l>een taken under 
unfavorable physical conditions. When the present writer, by request 
of the girl's parents, brought this case to the attention of the super- 
intendent with the request that she be given another two weeks' trial 
in the training .school and with an assurance that, if she failed to 
.secure a favorable report from her training teacher, no further 
effort would be made in her behalf. Superintendent Jones curtly 
remarked that the dismis-sal must be accepted as "a closed incident." 
The caller departed with the remark that sometimes a closed incident 
was torn open. The cases were cartied into court and the court re- 
instated the pupil in the .school. In the next campaign, one of the 
.young ladies spoke in many of the meetings, aroused much sympathy, 
and contributed largely to the defeat of Mr. Sargent as school direc- 
tor and to file election of his competitor, a gloomy omen for Super- 


iiitendent Jones. Soon after this, one of the daily newspapers pub- 
lished (September, 1901), a series of six articles on "Frills and 
Feathers" in the public schools; these articles did much to intensify 
the opposition to the superintendent who was held to be largely re- 
sponsible for the conditions of which complaint was made. The 
authorship of the "Frills and Feathers" articles was an open secret, 
the paper that printed them kept pounding away with argument, 
ridicule and cartoon, and other papers followed more gently, until 
in 1902, Mr. Jones accepted the presidency of a ilichigan state 
normal school and left Cleveland. It is only fair to add the statement 
that Mr. Jones was recognized, even by those who longed for his 
leaving, as a very able man with a very satisfactory familiarity with 
up-to-date pedagogical methods, but it was felt that his disposition 
was unfortunate and that he had not the tact that is necessary in 
the position that he held. 

Since the departure of Mr. Jones in 1902, the changes in the super- 
intendency of the Cleveland public schools have been so frequent 
and accompanied by so many unpleasant differences and, in some 
cases, by such bitter feeling, all of which are so recent that not all 
of the soreness caused thereby has yet disappeared, that it will be well 
to pass over them with little more than mere mention. IMr. Jones 
was succeeded by Mr. Edwin F. Moulton wlio had been assistant 
superintendent. On the first of January, 1906, came Stratton D. 
Brooks from Boston ; on the tifteenth of March, Mr. Brooks went back 
to Boston, ostensibly and probably because he was luiwilling to 
endure for more than ten weeks the interference and attempted dic- 
tation of school board officials in mattere that he felt belonged to 
him. From ^larch to tlie middle of May, ]\lr. Moulton was again in the 
superintendent's office, and then lie gave way for Mr. William IT. 
Elson who had been called from the .superin tendency of the schools 
of Grand Rapids, Michigan. In .laiiuai-y. 1912, Mr. Elson retired. 

WiLMA.M 11. I']|,S()N 'S RK((M{|) 

Before going further down tlie line, I auticijiate events for tlie 
sake of doing partial justice to a very able educator who deserved a 
better fate than was allowed by the adherents of an insubordituiti' 
teacher and the weak-kneed and uiiappreciative members of the board 
of education. In the Cleveland I'IoIh /yraler (September 3, 1918") 
is printed a communication entitled " I'Mucational Prophets," signed 
by the Rev. Arthur C. Ludlow, a former member of the school iioaid. 
Ill tills article, Mr. Ludlow says: 

1902-12] THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 379 

Who can estimate tlio iHliu-ational losses due to repeated eruci- 
fixions of edueatioual propliets.' Forty years a<jo Superintoiident 
Rickort' substituted semi annual iiromotions of pui)ils for tlio aiilicpiated 
policy of annual advanconient, thus giving' backward children an 
opi)ortunity every tive, instead of ten, months tt) attain higher grades. 
From 187S to IS'JO semi-annual promotions contimied, when strange 
to say there was a return to annual promotions anil for twenty years 
that obsolete policy existed. In 11)10 Superintendent Elson, believing 
that ten weeks were sutifieient for the pupil failing to advance estab- 
lished his "quarterly |)romotions." Notwithstanding the sanity of this 
economy of time in the ti-aining of thousands of children, Mr. Prison's 
sueces.sor abolished (piarterly promotions and restored the liiekott' 
semi-annual polic\'. In a public document issued at that time the 
writer raised this (juestion, "If it has taken two decades for local 
educators to rediscover the vii'tue of the Rickoff semi-annual promo- 
tions, how many decades will elapse before someone will providentially 
be compelled to restore the Elson quarterly promotions?" Miruble 
dictu! In less than a decade the Elson policy of (juarterly promotions 
has been restored by the Spaulding administration. If Tom. L. John- 
son was a traction prophet, cei'lainly Sui)erintendent Elson, with his 
technical high schools, high schools of commerce and progi-essive 
policies, such as (puirterly i)romotions, was a pi'ophet in a liighcr 
realm. The latter, howevei-, was stoned out of his educational leader- 
ship, not only by subordinate educators, but also the powerful papers 
of Cleveland. 

At the urgent recjuest of the school board. Miss Harriet L. 
Keeler consented to meet the emergency by accepting the super- 
intendeney, ad interim; for the rest of the school year she held the 
fort with marked ability and with general satisfaction and approval. 
At the beginning of the next school year (September, 1912), Mr. J. 
il. H. Frederick, who had recently been superintendent of the public 
schools of one of Cleveland's suburbs, entered upon a five-years' 
term, probably worse marred by angry dissention than was the term 
of any of his predecessors. As if in response to the general demand 
that the Cleveland board of education and its employes .should set 
a better example to the pupils of the schools, a nation-wide .search for 
a man who had the ability and the "nerve" to command peace and 
to secure the highest possible degree of efficiency in every educa- 
tional branch of the public schools was begun and continued until 
the school authorities were convinced that the right man had been 

The Educational Commission 

In 1904. the Cleveland board of health ordered a medical inspec- 
tion of pupils in the public schools and the board of education or- 


gauized the division of medical iuspeetion. In 1905, Mr. Samuel P. 
Orth. the president of the board, appointed an " Educational Com- 
mission" to investiga.te all departments of the public schools and to 
report their findings and recommendations to the board of educa- 
tion. Mr. Orth, who as president of the board appointed this com- 
mission, subsequently wrote an extended history of Cleveland that 
was published in 1910. From this work I quote the following: 

The latest period of educational development may be said to date 
from the appointment of the Educational Commission. January- 1, 
1905, the president of the board of education, Samuel P. Orth. sug- 
gested that because of the great loss of pupils between the sixth grade 
and the high school ; because the stress of earning a livelihood drives 
most of these pupils from the schools; because of comparative over- 
weight of expense and the underweight of attendance in the 
high .schools, it might be wise to appoint a commission of 
citizens "to look carefully into the curricula of our grade and 
high schools and determine Avhether teacher and pupil are over- 
burdened with subsidiary work and to make such recommendations 
as their finding of facts would warrant." Also to look into the advis- 
ability of perfecting our courses in manual training and of establishing 
a manual training high school, "to which school could resort such 
of our youth who desire to choose as their calling some branch of the 
mechanical arts." In February, the board empowered the president to 
appoint such a commission and the following gentlemen were named : 
Elroy M. Avery, Ph. D., LL. D., author of a well known series of 
school texts on physical science, and author of "A History of the 
Ignited States and Its Peoi)le;" E. M. Baker, B. A., broker. Secretary 
of Federation of Jewish Charities; J. H. Caswell, assistant cashier, 
First National Bank ; J. G. W. Cowles, LL. D., real estate, former Pres- 
ident Chamber of Commerce; Charles Gentsch, ]M. T>.; Frank Hatfield, 
plate roller, Cleveland Steel Company ; Charles S. Howe, Ph. D., S. C. . 
D., President Case School of A])plied Science; Thomas L. Johnson, 
attornc.v ; C. W. MeCormick, assistant secretary Cleveland Stone Com- 
pany: James McIIenry, dry goods merchant; F. F. Prentiss, Presi- 
dent Cleveland Twist Drill Company, and President Chamber of 
Commerce; and Charles F. Tlnving, LL. D., President Western Re- 
serve Cniversit.v. 

On March 1st the Connnission organized by selecting ]\Ir. Cowles 
as ehairnuui. R. E. Gammcl, serrctary of tlie director of schools, 
acted as Secretary for the Commission. A comj)rchcnsive program 
was adoi)tcd, comjirising eight groups of inquiry, each assigned to a 
committee. The committees made a very thorougli study of their 
assigned sub.iects, and the commission held stated meetings at wiiich 
their findings were discussed in great detail. On Jul.y 24, 1906, the 
last meeting was held and tlieir report transmitted to the board of 
education. 'I'hus for a year and a half the problems of i)ublic educii- 
tioii in (;ieveland were carefully studied by an al)le aiul reiiresentative 
liotly of citizens, repi'esenting not alone the tax payer, but every phase 

1904-06] THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 381 

of business and professional life. Their report comprises a volume 
of one humli'ed aiul, twenty pages and outlines an edueational i)r(israiii 
based upon the faets observed that would make the ])ul)lie schools 
uot merely an edueatioiuil niaehine, hut a vitalizing force in our indus- 
trial civilization. The rejiort at once became a document of peda- 
gogical value and was sought for by all the larger cities in the country. 
Many cities have since followetl Cleveland's example and have had 
their schools studied by citizen conunissions. The recommendations 
for changes were numerous, too niuuerous to be even outlined here. 
Many of them were on minor matters, but some of them were of the 
greatest imi)ortance. Among them are the following: That high 
school functions be differentiated and sejiarate nuuiual training an'd 
commercial high schools lie established ; that the elementary course 
of study be entirely revised, eliminating nuuiy of the decorative 
appendages; that there be more ell'ective supervision in writing; a 
reorganization of the drawing depai'tment and better correlation of 
the physical culture work in the elementary schools; that the night 
school be reorganized and that the schools be utilized as neighborhood 
centers ; that a complete system of medical inspection be inaugurated 
under the supervision of a medical expert ; that radical changes be 
made in the [/romotion of teachers, not on the basis of length of serv- 
ice, but upon nu'rit aiul that the salaries be raised and th(> inefficient 
teachers be droi)ped ; that the nornuil school be reorganized, the course 
lengthened to three years, a new and ami)ly equipped building be 
erected and the faculty strengthened, but that it would be more ideal 
if Western Reserve University would establish a Teachers' College and 
the city send its pupils thither; that the superintendent be given full 
executive powers in educational matters; that the method of super- 
vision be changed and that the principals be given more supervisory 
authority; that German be discontinued in the lower grades; that 
textlKJoks be adopted only on the recommendation of the educational 
depai'tment; and that there should be an extension of cooking and 
manual training in the seventh aiul eighth grades. Increased effi- 
ciency and the readjustment of the schools to the problems of the 
breadwinners were the heart of the commission's findings. Many of 
the minor suggestions were immediately made effective by the board 
of education, ami the larger problems were promptly attacked. 

The committee on the elementary course of study consisted of 
Jlessrs. Avery, liaker, and Gentsch. When the appointment was 
made, Chairman Cowles addressed Dr. Avery saying: "'You have 
the butt end of the log" — and so it proved. The entire teaching force 
in the elementary schools was interrogated under assurance that their 
rei)lies would be held by the committee as confidential, and much 
valuable, first-hand information was thus secured. Written exam- 
inations in spelling, arithmetic and one or two other of the "essen- 
tials" ^vere conducted in the seventh and eighth grades and the 
results tabulated. The report of the committee was approved by 


the eomniission, printed in full in the Cleveland Plain DeaUr and 
several educational magazines, and in abstract by many others. The 
publishers of the Webster dictionaries ])rinted thousands of copies for 
gratuitous circulation at teachers' institutes and other educational 
meetings, and Mr. Orth wrote the following hitherto unpublished letter 
(probably one for each member of the commission) : 

Bo.\RD OF Education 

Cleveland, Ohio, August 8, 1906. 
Mr. Elrov :\I. Averv, 


Dear Mb. Avery : As President of the Board of Education, I 
appointed you last year a member of the Educational Commission, 
and inasmuch as that Commission has now completed its work I feel 
that I ought, personally, to thank you most sincerely for the earnest, 
faithful and efficient work which you have done as a member of the 
Commission. You have done a real service to the city. Your reward 
will be twofold ; the appreciation whicli the thoughtful people of the 
community bestow upon unselfish and efficient public service, and also 
the quickening of the life of our ])ublic schools by infusing into them 
new and vitalizing energy. 

As you know, already a number of the suggestions of the Com- 
mission have been carried into eft'ect, and the Board is giving their 
thoughtful consideration to all of the suggestions you have made, and 
we hope, before our term expires, to have pretty well covered the new 
work which the Commission has outlined. 

It is the sympathetic cooperation of men of high ideals that make 
public service worth while, and it has been a very great pleasure to 
me personally to be associated in some measure with the Commission 
in their investigation, and I beg of you hereby to accept my sincere 
thanks for your generous gift of time and thought to the work of our 
public schools. 

Very truly yours, 


Ill his History of Cleveland. 'Sir. Orth further says that "with 
chararteristic energv' and courage, the new superintendent fElson] 
set himself the task of solving the greater problems i)resented by the 
commission. Of tlu^ many results already achieved [1910], five 
may be taken as indicative of the new forward movement in educa- 
tion." These he enmnerates thus: 

1. Tlie estalilishment of tlie Tecliiiicaj llifili School. 

2. The estaliiisliment of the Commercial High School. 

3. The reorganization of the Noi-inal School along the lines sug- 
gested by the Educational Connnission. 

1906-17] THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 383 

4. An eiitiro rovisioii of the course ol' study in the eU'iueutary 

5. The establishment (If 10) of a vocatioiuil school foi- boys under 
the high-school age, the " Kleinentary Industrial Scliool." 

The teachers' pension fund was established in 1906, antl the first 
dispensary with nurses was opened at the Murray Hill School. Dental 
clinics were inaugurated in 1910, semi-annual promotions were, re- 
established and a second technical (West) high school was estab- 
lished in 1912. In 1915, "Junior High Schools" were provided for 
pupils in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades. In 1918, the teach- 
ing of German was abandoned, the teaeliing force was combed for 
disloyalty, and military training for all high school l)oys was pre- 

Superintendent Frank E. Spaulding 

In September, 1917, Mr. Frank E. Spaulding, lately superin- 
tendent of schools at ]\ninieapolis, became snpcrinteinlcnt of the 
public schools of Cleveland. Ilis election followed extensive inquiry 
of prominent educators in all parts of the country and numerous 
"junket trips" by committees of the board of education. Mr. 
Spaulding knew his worth and wants and so his salary was fixed at 
$12,000 a year (the largest salary paid to any school superintendent 
in the United States) and he was given full assurance that he 
should be superintendent in fact as well as in name — a very important 
compliance with one of the recommendations of the commission of 
190.")-06. At this, the close of his first year in Cleveland, it is only 
truth to say that Superintendent Spaulding treated the teachers 
and the public with courteous consideration and full fairness and 
that they, in return, gave their confidence and support. The long 
continued friction between the office force and the schoolroom force 
and the heat generated thereby disappeared, and the almost chronic 
wrangling in the board of education came to an end. The latter elim- 
ination had long been devoutly wished by all friends of the schools, 
and the credit for it be -shared with the president of the board, 
^Ir. ]\Iark L. Thomsen. At the end of the school year, there was a 
revivified era of good will and the superintendent might justifiably 
have written on the cerebral tablet assigned by phrenologists to 
"Self Esteem." the C\Tsarian legend, veni, vuli, vici. At all events, 
the verdict of the general public was that though he was high priced 
he was the right man in the right place and that he was worth what 
they had to pay for him. In the summer of 1918, Mr. Spaulding was 


given leave of absenee, he having been ehosen chairman of a com- 
mission of tliree to take charge of the education of American soldiers 
in France in preparation for their return to civic life after demobili- 
zation at the end of the great World war. 

Present School Organization 

In the fall of 1918, the members of the board of education were 
ilark L. Thomsen, president ; Mrs. Virginia D. Green, F. W. Steffen, 
Jlrs. Clara Tagg Brewer, E. M. "Williams, Robert I. Clegg, and Bertram 
D. Quarrie. Jlrs. Sarah E. Ilyre was clerk and treasurer of the 
board; Frank G. Hogen was director of schools (chief executive offi- 
cer) ; headquarters in the old school building on Rockwell Avenue at 
the corner of East Sixth Street. Here also were the offices of mem- 
bers of the educational department: 

F. E. Spaulding — Superintendent. 

R. G. Jones — Deputy and Acting Superintendent. 

A. C. Eldredge — Assistant Superintendent. 

F. E. Clerk — Assistant Superintendent. 

Catherine T. Bryee — Assistant Superintendent. 

Jennie D. Pullen — General Supervisor. 

Florence A. Hungerford — General Supervisor. 

Eva T. Seabrook — General Supeiwisor. 

Olive G. Cai-son — General Supervisor. 

Clarence W. Sutton — Director of Division of Reference and Re- 

William E. Roberts — Supervisor of Manual Training. 

Adelaitle Laura Van Duzer — Supervisor of Domestic Science. 

Helen ^1. Fliedner — Supervisor of Art. 

J. Powell tlones — Supervisor of Music. 

C. A. Barnett — Supervisor of Penmanshi]i. 

R. B. Irwin — Supervisor of the Blind. 

Alexander ^IcBanc — Truant Officer. 

F. E. Spaulding, llai'rict K. Corlctt, Chirenco W. Sutton, and 
Charles W. Rice — Board of School Examinci's. 

Dr. Ervin A. Petei'son — Assistant Supcrintciuliiit in Charge of 
Medical Inspection. 

Walter R. McCornack— Chief Architect. 

In the following list of schools, the enrolment given is that for 
June, 1918: 

Normal School — Stearns Road, S. E. and Boulevard. >\mbrose 
Tj. Suhrie, principal; 17 teachers. Eni-olmcnt, 263. (See Observa- 
tion School.) 

East Technical, High School 

West TECHNicAii High School 


High Schools 

Central— East Fifty-fifth Street, near Cedar Avenue. Edward L. 
Harris, principal; 45 teachers. Enrolment, 1,102. (See Central Junior 

East — East Eighty-second Street, cor. Decker Avenue. Daniel W. 
Lothman, principal ; 42 teachers. Enrolment, 1,041. (See East Junior 

Glenville — Parkwood Drive cor. Everton Avenue, N. E. H. H. 
Cully, principal ; 40 teachers. Enrolment, 1,065. 

Lincoln — Seranton Road, cor. Castle Avenue, S. W. James B. 
Smiley, principal; 27 teachers. Enrolment, 600. (See Lincoln 
Junior High.) 

South — Broadway opposite FuUerton Avenue, S. E. I. Franklin 
Patterson, principal; 25 teachers. Enrolment, 584. (See South 
Junior High.) 

"West — Franklin Avenue, cor. West Sixty-ninth Street. David 
P. Simpson, principal ; 28 teachers. Enrolment, 666. 

East Technical — East Fifty-fifth Street, cor. Scovill Avenue. 
Charles H. Lake, principal ; 102 teachers. Enrolment, 2,301. 

"West Technical — "West Ninety-third Street, cor. "Willard Avenue. 
E. "W. Boshart, principal; 52 teachers. Enrolment, 1,044. (See 
"West Technical Junior High.) 

High School of Commerce — Bridge Avenue, cor. Randall Road, 
N. "W. Solomon Weimer, principal; 41 teachers. Enrolment, 1,071. 

High School of Commerce (East Branch) — East One Hundred 
and Twentieth Street, cor. Moulton Avenue. Solomon "Weimer, prin- 
cipal ; 11 teachers. Enrolment, 244. 

Collinwood (Glenville Annex) — St. Clair Avenue and