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Full text of "A history of the College of Engineering of the University of Illinois 1868-1945"

2^,/^ 





L I E. RAFIY 

OF THE 

UN IVERSITY 

or ILLINOIS 



G 

IZeSEba 
v.l. 
cop. 8 



iLi. ( MOia iii A 'i u i u ' iun 'i' O ' 



A HISTORY OF 
THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
1868-1945 

Parti 



BY 

IRA O. BAKER, C.E/74 

Late Professor of Civil Engineering, Emeritus 

AND 

EVERETT E. KING 

Professor of Railway Civil Engineering, Emeritus 



URBANA, ILLINOIS 



a CONTMTS ^^ 

FOREWORD V . / 

CHAPTER I. - THE BBGIMINGS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 1 

Th-e Morrill Land-Grant College Act - The Founding of the University - 
The G^erS B^dy^e Board of trustees - Duties of the Board of IVustees - 
SucSlonS^bJectives and Policies of the Pioneer Board of Trustees - 
Proposed Departments and Courses of Study. 
CHAPTER II.- THE REGEUTS AND THEIR ADMINISTRATIONS 12 

t^mmmEm- 

gory's Later Life - President Draper's Eulogy. 

following his Death in 1903' 

I^omas Johnathan Burrill, Acting Regent, l891--l89U "^arly Training 

Sjositfon ■ inauguration of the Tvo-Year Preparatory School Doctor 
Burrill' s Subsequent Life . 

CHAPTER III.- THE PRESIDENTS AND THEIR ADMINISTRATIONS 35 

Andrew Sloan Draper, President, l89^-190ii - ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^J^^^ 

Ir«.u«uratlon of the Se^ star Plan - "nlve-lty Finance Student^^roll 

ment - University Faculty - Improvement of the Physical ^^^^ ^ 
To? septate Administration of the Physical ^^^K'. ^^^^f^^^^^S:, 
leaes - New Buildings - Other Advancements - Creation of the University 
Sen'e - Creation 'S the Office of Dean of ^e- -^^^^^ °^/°^f ^^.^f ^^ 
Attention to Military Affairs - Tribute to Doctor Draper hy the Board of 
Trustees in 1904 - Sutaequent Life of President Draper. 

Mmund Janes Jamas, President, 1901.-1920 -Early Training ^^^JJ; 
ience - President James' Administration - Formal ^f ^^^^^^°S ^^oS . Jew 



iii 

The Academy Discontinued - Inauguration of the University of Illinois Press - 
Later Biography - President Kinley's Eulogy. 

David Kinley, President, I92O-I93O - Preparation and Previous Experience - 
Outstanding Trends and Events of President Kinley's Administration - University 
Finances - Educational Policies - Organization of the School of Journalism - 
The University Faculty - Events of President Kinley' s Later Life - President 
Willard's Eulogy. 

Harry Woodhum Chase, President, 1930-1933 - Early Training and Exper- 
ience - The Administration of President Chase - President Chase's Educational 
Policies ajid Objectives - Revision of the University Statutes - The Founding 
of the College of Fine and Applied Arts - The Founding of the School of Physi- 
cal Education - Total University Income - Number of University Faculty Mem- 
ters - Sutsequent Experience. 

Arthur Hill Daniels, Acting President, 1933-193^ - Early Training and 
Previous Work - Educational Policies and Philosophies of Doctor Daniels' 
Administration - Organization of the Division of University Extension - Estab- 
lishment of the Bureau of Institutional Research - The Federal Emergency 
Relief Administration and the National Youth Administration - Total University 
Income - Number on The University Faculty - Subsequent Life. 

Arthur Cutts Willard, President 193^ to Date - Early Life and Prepara- 
tion - President Willard's Administration - Problems Anent Increased Student 
Enrollment - University Finances - Number of Persons on the University Facul- 
ty - Educational Policies and Objectives of President Willerd's Administration - 
Educational Expediencies - Affiliations and Relations of the Chicago Colleges 
with other Chicago Institutions - Changes in the Administrative Organization 
at Urbana - Building Program - Student -Faculty -Alumni Social Centers - The 
University of Illinois Foundation - Division of Special Services for War Veterans 

CHAPTER rV.- GENERAL GEROWTH AND ACTIVITIES OF THE COLLEGE OF MGINEEEING 83 

The Status of Engineering and Engineering Instruction in I87O - Chron- 
ology of the Departments - Educational Stajidards and Practices - Requirements 
for Admission to the College of Engineering - Early Methods of Instruction - 
Changes in Methods of Instruction - Instruction for Engineering Students Pro- 
vided by a number of Colleges vithin the University - The College of Engineer- 
ing Faculty - College Policies and Objectives - Authority for College Policy - 
The Development and Determination of College Policy - Professional Engineering 
and Science Courses vs. the Humanities in the Curricula - Language and Rhet- 
orici^Requirements - Non-Technical Electives - The Four- and Five-Year Curri- 
cula - Graduate Study in Engineering - Engineering Research - Dual Curricula - 
Study of Educational Reports - Study of the Mann Report - Study of the Wicken- 
den Report - Faculty Contacts with Industry - Visits of Engineering Societies - 
Student Contacts with Industry - The Engineers' Counci]. for Professional 
Development - Organization and Purpose - Basis adopted by the E. C. P. D. for 
Accrediting Engineering Colleges - Investigation of Engineering Curricula at 
Illinois by the E. C. P. D. - College Finance, 1868-1913 " College of Engi- 
neering Expenditures, 1913-194i4- - Faculty Meeting Rooms - Museums and Collec- 
tions - Museum of Engineering and Architecture - General College Activities - 
Illinois -Indiana Section of SPEE - All -Engineering College Lectures - The 
Engineering Experiment Station. 



iv 
CHAPTER v.- COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ADJtENISTRATION AND ADMINISTRATORS II3 

Provision for College Administration - Duties of the Early Deans of the 
College of Engineering - Duties of the Later Deans of the College of Engineer- 
ing - Appointment of Deans - Biographical Sketches of Deans - Stillman Williams 
Rotinson - Nathein Clifford Ricker - James McLaren White - William Freeman 
Myrick Goss - Charles Russ Richards - Milo Smith Ketchum - Arthur Cutts Willard - 
Melvin Lorenius Enger - Office Accommodations - Assistant Deans - Biographical 
sketches of Assistant Deans - Floyd Rove Watson - Fred Duane Crawshaw - William 
Thomas Bawden - Harry Willard Miller - Harvey Herbert Jordan - Office Accommo- 
dations - Other Assistants - Marie Huber - Summary. 

CHAPTER VI . - BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS DEVOTED TO ENGINEERING PURPOSES I3O 

Land Acquired in I867 - Land Acquired from I867 to I893 - Land Acquired 
between 1893 and 1916 -Land Acquired after 1916 - Buildings Occupied in Common 
with other Colleges - University Building - University Hall - Old Chemistry 
Building - Old Armory or Gymnasium Annex - Buildings Assigned Primarily to the 
College of Engineering - First Mechanical Engineering Shop Building - Mechanical 
Building and Drill Hall - Engineering Hall - Machine Tool Laboratory - Elec- 
trical Engineering Building - Electrical Engineering Annex - Wood-Shop and 
Foimdry Building - Laboratory of Applied Mechanics - Civil Engineering Sur- 
veying Building - Mechanical Engineering Laboratory - Physics Building - 
Transportation Building - Locomotive Testing Laboratory - Ceramics Building - 
Mining and Metallurgical Building - Ceramics Laboratory - Building for Archi- 
tecture and Kindred Subjects - Arthur Newell Talbot Laboratory - Nuclear 
Radiations Laboratory - Sanitary Engineering Laboratory - Summary. 

CHAPTER VII.- THE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING I62 

Organization - Objectives and Methods of Instruction - Objectives - Early 
Methods of Instruction - Room Assignments for Office, Recitation, and Drafting 
Purposes - Early Classroom and Drawlng-Room Equipment - Development of Mechan- 
ical Engineering Facilities - Power Laboratory - Mechanical Laboratory Facili- 
ties, 1867-1893 - Mechanical Laboratory Facilities, 1893-1905 - Mechanical 
Laboratory Facilities, I905-I917 - Steam Prime Movers, 1917-19^5 - Internal- 
Combustion Engines, 1917-19^5 - PuD^s, 1917-19^5 - Air-Compressors, 1917-19^5 - 
Miscellaneous Equipment in Use in 19^5 - Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Condi - 
tloning - Heating Boilers - Warm-Air Furnace Testing Plant - Fan-Testing Plant - 
Warm-Wall Test Booth - Constant Temperature Room - Air -Condi tloning Plant - 
Warm-Air Heating Research Residence - I"B=R Research Home - Mechanical Refrig- 
eration - Thermodynamics - Railway Track and Rolling Stock - Dynamometer Car, 
or Railway Test Car, No. 609 - Dynamometer Car, or Railway Test Car, No. 17 - 
Development of Shop Laboratory Facilities - First Mechanical Engineering Shops - 
The First Shops of the New Mechanical Building, I872 - Mechanical Engineering 
Shops, 1890-1895 - Machine Shop or Machine Tool Laboratory, 1895-19^5 - Wood 
Shop - Foundry - Forge Shop - Heat -Treatment Laboratory - Cutting and Welding 
Laboratory - Museim Materials and Collections - Robinson Engine - Chicago 
Edison Company's Triple Expansion Engine and Generator - Other Materials - 
Faciilty Personnel - Heads of the Department - Other Professors - Associate 
Professors - Assistant Professors - Associates - Instructor and Research Assis- 
tants - Summary. 



CHAPTER VTII.- THE DEPARTMENT OF CIVTL ENGINEERING 2^1 

Organization - Objectives and Methods of Instruction - Objectives - 
Methods of Instruction - Room Assignments for Office, Recitation, and Drafting 
Purposes - Development of Civil Engineering Laboratory Facilities - Early 
Surveying Apparatus - Early Surveying Areas and Field Problems - Surveying 
after l89'<- - Summer Surveying Camp, Camp Rabideau - The Cement and Masonry 
Laboratory, I868-1923 - The Cement and Masonry Laboratory, 1923-19^5 - The 
Road Materials Laboratory, 1906-1923 - The Bituminous Laboratory, 1923-19^5 - 
The Non-Bituminous Laboratory, 1923-1945 - The Structural Research Laboratory - 
The Soils and Other Granular Materials Laboratory - The Sanitary Engineering 
Laboratory, 1926- 19U5 - Museum Materials and Collections - Apparatus for the 
Lecture Room - Photographic Enlargements - Model of Continuous Arch - Mis- 
cellaneous - Departmental Meetings - State Board of Structural Engineers - 
Special State Assignment on Concrete Pavement Joints - Kaskaskia Valley Report - 
Faculty Personnel - Heads of the Department - Other Professors - Associate 
Professors - Assistant Professors - Associates - Lecturers - Instructors and 
Research Assistants - Summary. 

CHAPTER IX.- THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE 290 ' 

Organization - Objectives and Methods of Instruction - Objectives - 
Departmental Divisions - The Competitive System in Architectural Design - 
Buildings and Room Accommodations - Room Assignments for Class and Drawing- 
room Work - Development of Departmental Facilities and Eq,uipment - Collection 
of Casts - Ricker Library of Architecture - Lantern Slides, Mounted Photo- 
graphs, and Working Drawings - Wood Shop - Architectural Shop Equipment - 
Miscellaneous - Student Enrollment in Architecture - The Department Becomes 
a Member of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture - Relations 
with the Illinois Chapters of the American Institute of Architects - Contri- 
butions to State Development - Museum Materials and Collections - Art Gallery - 
Museum Materials - The Department Joins the College of Fine and Applied Arts - 
Faculty Personnel - Heads of the Department - Other Professors - Associate 
Professors - Assistant Professors - Associates - Instructors. 

CHAPTER X.- THE DEPARTMENT OF MINING AND METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING 323 

Organization - Objectives and Methods of Instruction - Temporary Pro- 
vision for Instiniction in Mining - Apparatus for the Lecture Room - Early 
Laboratory Equipment - The Department Discontinued and Re-established - The 
Department of Mining Engineering Discontinued - The Department of Mining 
Engineering Re-established by Legislative Action - Office, Classroom, and 
Drafting Room Accommodations - Development of Laboratory Facilities in Mining 
and Metallurgical Engineering - Mine Surveying - Sampling and Grinding Labora- 
tory - Fuels Laboratory - Coal-Preparation and Ore-Dressing Laboratory - Mine 
Ventilation and Safety-Lamp Laboratory - Drilling and Blasting Laboratory - 
Heat-Treatment Laboratory - Assay Laboratory - Electrometallurgical Laboratory - 
Welding Laboratory - Melting Laboratory - Metallographic Laboratory - Museum 
Materials and Collections - Affiliated and Cooperative Agencies - Mine Rescue 
Station at Urbana - Mine Rescue Station Commission - Illinois Mining Investi- 
gation Commission - Illinois Miners' and Mechanics' Institutes - Cooperative 
Investigations of Illinois Coal Problems - Illinois Mining Institute and 
Mining Scholarships - Faciilty Personnel - Heads of the Department - Other Pro- 
fessors - Associate Professors - Assistant Professors - Associates - Instructors 
and Research Assistants - General Summary. 



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vi 

CHAPTER XI. - THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS 355 

Organization of the Department - Early Instruction in Physics - Eoom 
and Building Accommodations, 189^-19^5 - Tho Development of Laboratory Facxli- 
tiee in Physics - Developments from 1868 to 1909 - l^ly Laboratory Facilities 
in Physics, 1868-189O - Pioneer Lahoratoi^ Facilities in Electrical Engineering, 
1890-1898 - Later Development of Physical Laboratory Facilities, I898-1909 - 
Developments from 1909 to 19^5 - General Physics Laboratories - Electrical and 
Magnetic -Measurements Laboratories - Acoustics Laboratories - Optical Labora- 
tories - Spectroscopic Laboratory - High-Tension Laboratory - Mass Spectroscopy 
Laboratory - Nuclear Physics Laboratory - Photograph Laboratory - Physics 
Seminars - Physics Colloquium - Other Seminars - Total Enrolluisnt in Physics^ 
1907-19^^ - Faculty Personnel - Heads of the Departmant - Other Professors - 
Associate Professors - Assistant Professors - Associates - Instructors - Summary. 

CHAPTER XII.- THE DEPARTMENT OF MUKICIPAL AKD SANITAEY ENGINEERING 38? 

Organization of the Department - Conduct of Instruction - Room Accommoda- 
tions - Laboratory Facilities - Sanitary Engineering Laboratory, 191^-1926 - 
Faculty Personnel - Head of the Department - Other Professors - Associates - 
Instructors - Department Discontinued. 

CHAPTER XIII . - THE DEPARTMENT OF THEORETICAL pm) APPLIED MBCH.'\NICS 39^+ 

Organization of the Department - Instruction - Undergraduate Registration 
in T. & A. M. Courses, 1911-19'+^ - Building and Room Accommodations - Develop- 
ment of Laboratory Facilities in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics - Materials 
Testing Laboratory, 1868-1902 - Materials Testing Laboratories, 190^-1929 - 
Materials Testing Laboratories, 1929-19^5 - Concrete Research Laboratories, 
1929-19^5 - Engineering Materials Laboratory, 1929-19^5 - Fatigue-of -Metals 
Laboratories - Creep-in-Lead Laboratories - Rails- Investigation laboratory - 
Brake-Shoe Laboratory - Photoelastic Laboratory - Plastics Labora.tory - Vibra- 
tions Laboratory - Hydraulics Laboratory - Summary - Mscellaneous - Calibration 
Room - Machine-Shop Facilities - Departmental Meetings - Collections of Photo- 
graphs, Drawings, and Museum Materials - Photographs - Faculty Personnel - 
Heads of the Departmesit - Other Professors - Associate Professors - Assistant 
Professors - Associates - Instructors and Research Assistants. 

CHAPTER XrV.- THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING UI+3 

Organization of the Department - Objectives of the Department - Building 
and Room Accommodations - Development of Electrical Engineering Laboratory 
Facilities - The Power Laboratory - Storage -Battery Laboratory - Calibration 
or Standardization Laboratory - Wire-Communication Laboratory - Electronics 
Laboratory - Radio-Communications Laboratory - Radio-Transmission Laboratory - 
High-Potential Laboratory - Illumination and Photometry Laboratory - Meter and 
Relay Laboratory - Electric Railway Laboratory - The Electric Railway Test Car - 
University Light and Power Plant - Miscellaneous - Damage Due to Flood - Movie- 
tone Projector - Joint Meetings of the Student Branches of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers of Purdue, Rose, and Illinois - Conference of Student 
Branches of the Great Lakes District of the A.I.E.E. - Faculty Personnel - 
Heads of the Department - Other Professors - Associate Professors - Assistant 
Professors - Associates - Instructors and Research Assistants - Summary. 



vii 

CHAPTER XV.- THE D-EPAETMEM" OF RAHWAY ENGINEERING U8l 

Organization for Railway Instruction - Railway Engineering - Railway 
Engineering and Administration - Office-Classroom, and Drawing-Room Accommoda- 
tions - Foreign Student Enrollment - Relations with Local Railways - Development 
of Laboratory Facilities in Railway Engineering - Locomotive Testing Plant - 
Locomotive k^l - Brake-Shoe Testing Machine - Electric Railway Laboratory - 
Dynamometer Car or Railway Car No. 17, 22, and 30 - Electric Railway Test Car - 
Drop-Test Machine - Air-Brake Equipment - Signal Equipment - Museum Materials 
and Collections - Drawings - Photographs - Model Valve Gears - The Chicago 
and North Western Railway Locomotive Testing Plant - Richmond Locomotive - 
Collection of Steel Rr ils - Faculty Personnel - Heads of the Department - Other 
Professors - Associate Professors - Assistant Professors - Associates - Instruct- 
ors and Research Assistants - Discontinuation of the Department. 

CHAPTER XVI.- THE DEPARTMENT OF CERAMIC ENGINEERING 505 

Organization of the Department - Aims and Objectives - The Development 
of Office, Classroom, and Laboratory Accommodations - The Development of 
Laboratory Facilities - Ceramic Materials Laboratory - Pottery Laboratory - 
Enamel Laboratory - Kiln Laboratory - Structural Clay-Products Laboratory - 
Drying Laboratory - Microscopic Laboratory - Glass Technology Laboratory - 
Research Laboratories - Collections and Museum Materials - Faculty Personnel - 
Heads of the Department - Other Professors - Associate Professors - Assistant 
Professors - Associates - Instructors and Research Assistants - Miscellaneous - 
State Scholarships in Ceramics - Summary. 

CHAPTER XVII.- THE DEPARIMENT OF GENERAL ENGINEERING DRAWING 529 

Organization - A Service Organization - Objective© of the Department - 
Office-Classroom, and Drawing-Room Quarters - Enrollment in General Engineering 
Drawing Courses - Drawing-Room Facilities - Faculty Personnel - Heads of the 
Department - Other Professors - Associate Professors - Assistant Professors - 
Associates - Instructors. 

CHAPTER XTIII.- THE DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING 5^7 

Activities in Aeronautics Begun here before 19^4 - Civilian Pilot Training 
School - Aeronautical Option in Civil Engineering - Aircraft Structures Testing - 
Organization of the Department of Aeronautical Engineering - Aeronauji^ics Ad- 
visory Board ~ Objectives - Office, Classroom, and Laboratory Accommodations - 
The Development of Laboratory Facilities - Aerodynamics Laboratory - The Air- 
creift Power Plants Laboratory - The Aircraft Laboratory - Faculty Personnel - 
Head of the Department - Assistant Professors. 

CHAPTER XIX.- THE DIVISION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 555 

Development of Laboratory Facilities - Coal Experimental Laboratories - 
Low- Pressure Laboratories - Chemical Engineering Unit Operations -Ice-Production 
Laboratory - Gas- Absorption Laboratories - Fractional Distillation Laboratories - 
Catalytic-Processes Laboratory - Electro- organic Chemical Laboratories - 
Faculty Personnel - Heads of the Division - Other Professors - Assistant 
Professors - Associates - Special Research Assistants. 



viii 

CHAPTER XX.- MISCELLANEOUS UTILITIES OF ENGINEERING lETIRiST DEVOTED TO 

UNIVH^SITY SERVICE 5^5 

University Heating, Lighting, and Power Plants - University Hall Central 
Heating, Lighting, and Power Plant - The Boneyard Central Heating, Lighting, 
and Power Plant - The Mathews Avenue Heating, Lighting, and Power Plant - 
William Lamont Abtott Power Plant - Water Supply Stations - University Water 
Works Plant - University Radio Broadcasting Stations - Radio Station W-R-M - 
Radio Station W-I-L-L - University Airport - Student Center and Union Building - 
The mini Student Center - The Illini Union Building - Men' s Residence Halls - 
Twin-City Transportation Facilities through the Campus - Urbana and Champaign 
Horse Railroad Service - Urbana and Champaign Street Railway Service - Cham- 
paign-Urbaim City Lines, Inc. 

CHAPTffi XXI.- LIBRARIES AND LIBRARY MATIiI^IALS 588 

Central, Main, or General University Library - Ikrly Library Facilities - 
General Library Facilities Extended - Engineering Libraries - Engineering 
Library Personnel - Departmental Libraries and Seminaries - /jrchitectural 
Library - Railway and Mining Engineering Library - Physics Library - Electrical 
Ehgineering Library - Ceramic Engineering Library - Textbooks - Early-Day 
Blueprint Textbooks - List of Textbooks Written by Members of the Engineering 
Faculty - Architecture - Ceramic Engineering - Civil Engineering - Electrical 
-Engineering - Gteneral Engineering Drawing - Mechanical Engineering - Mining 
and Metallvirgical Engineering - Physics - Railway Engineering - Theoretical 
and Applied Mechanics. 

CHAPTER XXII.- EVOLUTION OF ENGINEERING COURSES AND CURRICULA. 613 

Courses and Curricula from I868 to 1900 - First Curricula in the Four 
Original Departments - Courses and Curricula at the Opening of the University - 
The General ^ijrrangement of the Curricula - Thesis - The Early Changes in 
Curricula - Subsequent Changes in Early Engineering Curricula - New Curricula - 
The First Curriculum in Electrical Engineering - The First Curriculum in 
Architectural Engineering - The First Curriculiim in Mimicipal and Sanitary 
Engineering - Builder's Course - Mechanical Engineering Shop Practice - 
Architectural Shop Practice - Description of Courses in Architectural Shop 
Practice - Shop Practice Reorganized - Early Summer Session in Shop Practice 
Held in Chicago - The Semester Plan - The Curriculum in Mechanical Engineering 
as Arranged when the Semester Plan went into Effect in 1898-99 - Railway Option 
in Mechanical Engineering - The Curriculum in Civil Engineering when first 
Placed on the Semester Plan in 189&-99 - The Curriculum in Architecture when 
first Placed on the Semester Plan in I898-99 - The Curriculum in Electrical 
Engineering as Arranged when the Semester Plan went into Effect in I898-99 - 
The flurriculum in Mvmicipal and Sanitary Engineering after the Semester Plan 
went into Effect in I898-99 - Courses and Curricula from 1900 to 1922 - Courses 
and Curricula from I9OO to 1910 - The First Curricula in Ceramics and Ceramic 
Engineering - Electives in Mechanical Engineering - Curricula in Railway Engin- 
eering in 1907-08 - The First Curriculum in Mining Engineering after the Depart- 
ment was Re-established in I909 - Summer Reading - Faculty Studies of Engin- 
eering Curricula, 1910- 15 - Changes Made in the Curricula Following the 
Recommendations of the Committee - Undergraduate Thesis - Other Changes - Added 
Qi5)hasi8 on Rhetoric for Engineering Students - Additional Changes in Shop 
Practice Instruction - Safety in Shop Laboratories - Special Engineering 
Covirses - Engineering Inspection Trip - Freshmen Engineering Lecture - Covtrses 
and Curricula from 1915 to 192c; - New Curricula and Curricular Changes - 



OUIJfiaK' 



ix 

Options in the Civil Engineering Curriculum, 1915-1916 - The Curriculum in 
Ceramic Engineering, I915-I6 - The Curriculum in Ceramics - The Curriculum 
in Engineering Physics - Courses and Curricula from 1922 to 19^5 - Curricula, 
1922 to 19^1 - Changes in Language Requirements and in Hours for Non- Technical 
Electives - The Curriculum in Gas Engineering - General Engineering - The First 
Curriculum in General Engineering - Curriculum in Municipal and Sanitary Engin- 
eering, 1925-26 - Civil Engineering Curricula "between 1926 and 1931 " Curriculum 
in Architecture, 1929-3O - Curriculum in Architectural Engineering 1929-3O - 
Engineering Physics - Civil Engineering Courses Renumtered in 1930-31 - Theore- 
tical and Applied Mechanics Courses Renumbered in 1930-31 - Curriculum in 
Electrical Engineering - Curriculum in Mechanical Engineering, 1932-33 - 
Curriculum in Mining Engineering, 1932-33 - Curriculum in Agricultural Engin- 
eering - First Curriculum in Agricultural Engineering - Courses Given hy the ■ 
Department of General Engineering Drawing, 1933-3^ - Metallurgical Engineering - 
First Curriculum in Metallurgical Engineering - Administrative Option in 
Ceramic Engineering - New Courses in Electrical Engineering - Petroleum Engin- 
eering - Engineering Courses - Eng. 39, Industrial Relations - Eng. 10, Engin- 
eering Economics - Eng. 92, Engineering Law - Eng. 20, History of Engineering - 
Eng. kO, Transportation Development - Eng. kl, Transportation Problems - Eng. 29, 
Primary Civilian Pilot Ground Course - Eng. 30, Secondary Civilian Pilot Ground 
Course - Railway Curricula Abandoned - Curriculum in Railway Civil Engineering, 
I939-I1O - Curriculum in Railway Electrical Engineering, 1939-^0 - Curriculum 
in Railway Mechanical Engineering, 1939-^+0 - Engineering College Courses and 
Curricula in 1941-1+2 - Common Program for Freshmen - Agricultural Engineerixig - 
Ceramic Engineering - Ceramics - Civil Engineering - Option in Aeronautical 
Engineering - Public-Health Engineering Curriculum in Civil Engineering - 
SyntpoBlum on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering - Electrical Engineering - 
General Engineering - Mechanical Engineering - Mining and Metallurgical Engin- 
eering - Engineering Physics - New Curricula and Curricular Reviaions for 19^4 - 
Curriculum in Mining Engineering Revised - Aeronautical Engineering - First 
Curriculum in Aeronautical Engineering. 

CHAPTa^ XXIII.- WARTIME TRAINING IN .ENGINEERING 719 

World War I - Intercollegiate Intelligence Bureau - School of Military 
Aeronautics - Students' Army Training Corps - War-Service Records - World War II- 
Accelerated Schedule of Instruction - Engineering Instructors on Leave for War 
Service - Civilian Training - CA.A. War Training Service - Reserve Officers' 
Training Corps - Army Specialized Training Program - ASTP Curricula - ASTP 
Enrollments - Navy Training Programs - School for Navy Signalmen - School for 
Diesel-Engine Operators - School for Diesel- Engine Officers - V-l, V-5, and 
V-7 College Programs - Training Program V-12 - V-12 Curricula - V-12 Enroll- 
ments - War-Time Extension Service in Engineering Education. 

CHAPTER XXIV.- UNIVERSITY EXTENSION IN ENGINEERING 7^3 

Engineering Conferences and Short Courses - Highway Short Course - Con- 
ference on Highway Engineering - Illinois Traffic Engineering Conference - 
Surveying Conference - Drainage Conference - Short Coiurse for Firemen - 
Illinois Miners' and Mechanics' Institutes - Congress on Labor Problems- Short 
Course on Coal Utilization - Electric Metermen' s Short Course - Electric 
Metermen' s Conference - Short Course in Plumbing, Heating, and Hydraulics - 
Sewage Treatment Works Operators' Short Course - V/ater Treatment Plant Operators' 
Short Course - Ceramics Short Course - Clay-Product Plant- Operators' Conference - 



Conference on Glass Problems - The Midwest Enamelers Symposium ajid the Porcelain 
Enamel Institute Forum - Conference on Air-Conditioning - Diesel Engine Short 
Course - Short Course on the Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures - Corres- 
pondence or Home Study Courses - Mechanical Engineering - Physics - Theoretical 
and Applied Mechanics - Electrical Engineering - General Engineering Drawing - 
Railway Qigineering - Mining Engineering - Civil Engineering - Miscellaneous 
Courses - Extramural Courses - Civil Engineering - General Engineering Drawing - 
Engineering Extension - National Defense Program - Engineering, Science, and 
Management War Training - School for Diesel- ihgine Officers. 

CHAPTER XXV.- THE ENGINEERING EXPERIMMT STATION 76? 

Development - Purposes that could be served by an Engineering Experiment 
Station at the University of Illinois - Founding of the Station - Administration 
of Station Affairs - Equipment and Facilities - Experiment Station Quarters - 
Levels Established for Station Performance - Collaboration between the University 
and other State Departments - Finances - Cooperative Investigations - Form of 
Contract for Cooperative Investigations - Personnel - Director - Assistant 
Director - Assistants to the Director - Draftsman - Research Staff - Research 
Graduate Assistantships - Number of Persons on the Station Staff - Publications - 
The Ceramic Industries - Porcelains - Clay Bodies - Refractory Materials - 
Glass - Vitreous Enamels - Glazes - Gypsum Plasters - The Chemical- Engineering 
Industries - Coking of Coal - Weathering and Storage of Coal - Other Studies 
in the Chemistry of Coal - Alloys - The Chemistry of Ice Production - Einbritlle- 
ment of Boiler Plate - Boiler-Water Treatment - Fractional Distillation - the 
Catalytic Oxidation of Ethyl Alcohol - Unit Operations - Flue-Gas Treatment - 
Hydroxylation of Double Bonds - ELectro-Organic Chemistry - Concrete and Rein- 
forced Concrete - Fundamentals of Concrete and Reinf orced-Concrete Construction - 
Haydite Concrete - Reinforced-Concrete Building Construction - Reinforced- 
Concrete Slabs and Bridges - Reinforced Concrete Arches - Other Engineering 
Materials and Ehgineering Structures - Steel and Steel Shapes - Steel Structures • 
Foundations - Timber Beams - Culvert Pipe - Miscellaneous - Fatigue of Metals - 
Definition - General Investigations on the Fatigue of Metals - Fatigue in Rail- 
way Car Axles - Creep in Lead and Load Alloys - Lead Sheathing - Land Drainage 
and Flood Control - Stream Flow - Flood Flow - Principles of Hydraulics - Flow 
and Measurement of Water - The Hydraulic Ram - Engineering Sanitation - Hydraul- 
ics and Pneumatics of House Plumbing - Sewage Disposal - The Electrical Indus- 
tries - Iron and Iron Alloys Melted in a Vacuum - Electronics - Sound in Motion 
Pictures - Radio Communication - Telephone Communication - Meter Performance - 
Illumination - High-Potential Circuits - The Electron Theory of Magnetism - 
Analysis of Flow in Networks of Conductors or Conduits - The Coal-Mining Industry 

- Coal-Mine Operation - Mine Ventilation - Mechanical Engineering Industries - 
Prime Movers - Steam and Steam Power - Gas and Automotive Power - Thermodynamics 

- Properties of Steam- Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning - Warm-Air 
Furnaces and Heating Systems - Direct Steam and Hot-Water Heating Systems - 
Summer Cooling of Residences - Flow of Air through Orifices in Circular Plates - 
Hand-Firing of Bituminous Coal - Ventilation Research on the Holland Vehicular 
Tunnel - Mechanical Refrigeration - Ammonia Vapor - Ammonia Condensers - Flow 
of Brine in Pipes - Shop Production and Management - Molding Samd - Core Oils - 
Twist Drills - Spur Gears - Metallurgical Industries - Electric Welding of 
Structural Steel - Heat-Treatment of Steel - The Hardenability of Steel - Micro- 
scopic Structure of Steel - Acoustics of Buildings and Building Materials - 
Acoustics of Auditoriums - Acoustics of Building Materials - Highway Engineering 

- Railway Track and Rolling Stock - Stresses in Railroad Track - Transverse 
Fissures in Steel Rails - Continuous Welded Rails - Shelly Spots in Steel Rails - 
Fatigue Failure in Rail Joint Bars - Locomotive Operation - Locomotive Front 
Ends - Railway Train Resistance - Railway Car-Wheel and Brake-Shoe Performance - 



xi 

Summary - List of PuTsllcations Putlished by the Engineering Experiment Station - 
Bulletins - Circulars - Reprints. 

CHAPTBR XXVT. - THE STUDENT BODY 83U 

The All-University Student Body and Its Affairs - Early Working, Living, 
and Social Conditions - The University' s Early System of Student- Labor - 
Student and Student-Faculty Relationships - Daily Chapel Exercises - Student- 
Government Systems - Early Government Plan - The University of Illinois Union - 
Student Council - Student Senate - Student Housing - Student Publications - 
The Student - The Illini and the Daily Illini - Other Student Publications - 
Military Training - Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps - Organized Athletics 

- The Interscholastic Track Meet - The State Basketball Tournament - Student 
Organizations and Associations - The Illinois Industrial University Telegraphic 
Association - Literary Societies - The Star Course - Intercollegiate Debating - 
Intramural Debating - The Men's and Women's Leagues - The Interfraternity and 
the Pan-Hellenic Councils - Men's Independent Ward Association - Women's Group 
System - Young Men' s Christian Association - Young Women' s Christian Association 

- Social Fraternities - Social Sororities - Student Social Events - All-Univer- 
sity Class Dances - Military Hops - The Military Ball - Other Social Events - 
Student Engineering and Scientific Clubs including Student Chapters of National 
Qigineering Societies - All- Engineering Societies - Student Branch of the 
American Association of Engineers - Departmental Technical Societies - Civil 
Engineering - The Civil Bagineers' Club - Student Chapter of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers - Mechanical Engineering - The Mechanical Ehgineering 
Society - The Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Society - The Mechanical 
Engineering Society again - Student Branch of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers - Architecture - Architects' Club or Architectural Club - Electrical 
Engineering - Electrical Engineering Society - Student Branch of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers - Ceramic Engineering - The Ceramics Club - 
Student Branch of the American Ceramic Society - Mining and Metallurgical 
Engineering - Mining Society - Mineral IMustries Society Affiliated with the 
American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Ehglneers - Railway Engineering - 
Railway Club - General Qigineering - Illinois Society of General Engineers - 
Physics - Engineering Physics Society - Agricultural Engineering - Student 
Branch of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers - Aeronautical Engin- 
eering - Student Branch of the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences - Student 
Membership in Engineering Societies - Honor Scholastic Societies and Frater- 
nities - All-University Organizations - Phi Kappa Phi - Sigma Xi - Phi Eta 
Sigma - All- Engineering Honor Fraternities - Tau Beta Pi - Sigma Tau - Depart- 
mental Honor Fraternities - Eta Kappa Nu - Keramos - Pi Tau Sigma - Gargoyle - 
Delta Mu Epsilon - Chi Epsllon - Sigma Epsllon - Phi Alpha Lamba - Phi Sigma 
Phi - Alpha Sigma Mu - Professional Societies and Fraternities - All-University 
Organizations - Synton - All-Ehgineering Organizations - Triangle - Theta Tau - 
Tau Pi - Sigma Phi Delta - Departmental Organizations - Scarab - Alpha Rho Chi - 
Mu San - Alpha Alpha Gamma - Student Administrative Organizations - The Associa- 
tion of Engineering Societies of the University of Illinois - Engineering 
Societies of the University of Illinois - Bogineerlng Council - Illini Engineers 

- Cooperative Supply Store - Engineering Cooperative Society - Engineering 
Student Publications - The Illinois Technograph - The Architectural Year Book - 
The Illinois Ceramist - Engineers' Day Activities - Illinois Engineers' Day - 
Engineering Student Exhibitions - Physics Open House - Mechanical Engineering 
Open House - Electrical Engineering Show - Engineering Open House or Illinois 
Student Engineering Exhibit - Student Amateur Radio Stations - Radio Station 
9BCS - Radio Station W9Z0L - Engineering Student Honors - Biglneering Prizes 

and Awards Limited to the University - All-Engineering - The Schaefer Essay Prize 



li)il^ 



xii 

Sigma Tau Prize - The Technograph Prizes - Departmental - Architectvire - The 
Plym Fellowship in Architecture - The Plym Foreign Scholarship in Architectural 
Engineering - The Northwestern Terra Cotta Company Prize - The Llewellyn Prize - 
The Ricker Prize in Architectural History - The Van Dort Prizes - The Plym 
Prizes for Architectural Engineers - The Plym Prize for Summer Sketches - The 
Plym Prize for Sketch Prohlems - The Allerton American Travelling Scholarships - 
The Lake Forest Foundation for Architecture and Landscape Architecture - The 
Gross Prize - American Institute of Architects School Medal - Scarah Medals - 
Gargoyle Certificate - Civil Engineering - Ira 0. Bdker Prizes - Awards of the 
Central Illinois Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers - Awards 
of the Illinois Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers - Awards of 
the Student Chapter of the American Society of Civil Engineers - Mechajiical 
Bigineering - American Society of Mechanical Engineers' Prizes - Central Illinoit 
Section of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers' Prizes - Pi Tau Sigma 
Prize - Electrical Engineering - Eta Kappa Nu Prize - Ceramic Qigineering - 
KeramoB Prize - Prizes and Awards not Limited to the University - American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers' Prize - Highway Prize - John Smeaton Award - 
Tau Beta Pi Fellowship - American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engin- 
eers' Prize - Engineering Student Dehating Contests - Engineering Student Social 
Events - All-College Affairs - Engineering Dances - St. Patrick's Ball - All- 
Engineering Smokers - Departmental - Class Dinners and Smokers - The Archltec- 
tviral Fete aiA Fine Arts Ball. 

CHAPTIR XXVII.- ENGINEERING EUROLLMEKT, DEGREES, AND GRADUATES 917 

Enrollment - Undergraduate Student Enrollment - Graduate Student Enroll- 
ment - Engineering Degrees - Baccalaureate Degrees - Certificates and Degrees - 
Baccalaureate Degrees Conferred - Advanced Degrees - Academic Degrees - All- 
University Graduate School Fellowships - Engineering Research Fellowships - 
Masters' Degrees Conferred - Professional Degrees - Professional Degrees Con- 
ferred - Doctorate Degrees - Ph. D. Degrees Conferred - Honorary Degrees - 
Alumni Records - Professional Records - Geographical Dlstrihution of Graduates - 
Vocational or Occupational Distribution of Graduates. 

CHAPTER XXVIII.- A SUMMARY OF THREE- QUAHTiES OF A CMTURY OF PROGRESS 955 

Changes in External Factors that have Influenced the Growth of the College - 
The Development of the Local Community - Development within the State - Develop- 
ments in the Qiglneering Profession - Developments in the Nation' s Industry in 
General - Changes within the University Itself that Represent Progress - Growth 
on the Urhana Campus - Growth on the Chicago Campus - General Educational 
Achievements - Changes within the College of Engineering - Growth of the Engin- 
eering Physical Plant - Growth of the Engineering Faculty - Membership of the 
Engineering Faculty in Technical Societies - Faculty Participation in Qigin- 
eering Society Activities - Faculty Contributions to the Technical Press - 
Changes in the Engineering Student Body - Relative Position in the University - 
Changes in Alumni-Status - Achievements of the College of Engineering - Accom- 
plishments in Engineering Research - Accomplishments in Engineering Training - 
The Future. 



xlii 
TABLES 

Tatle Page 

I - University Income, I867-I88O 23 

II - Number of Persons in the University Faculty, 1867-188O 2k 

III - Numter of Persons on the University Faculty, 188O-1891 29 

IV - University Income, I88O-1891 30 

V - Number of Persons on the University Faculty, 1891-I89U 36 

VT - University Income, 189^- 190^^ h3 

VII - Number of Persons on the University Faculty, 1894-1904 k3 

VIII - University Income, 1904-1920 55 

IX - Number of Persons on the University Faculty, 1904-1920 59 

X - University Income, 1920-1930 64 

XI - Numher of Persons on the University Faculty, 1920- 193O 66 

XII - University Income, 1930-1933 70 

XIII - Number of Persons on the University Faculty, 1930-1933 71 

XIV - University Income, 1934-1944 77 

XV - Number of Persons on the University Faculty, 1934-1944 78 

XVI - Number of Persons on the Teaching and Experimental Staff 

of the College of Engineering, I87O-1940 90 

XVII - College of Engineering Operating Expenditures, 1913-1944 IO8 

XVIII - Registration in Physics Courses, 1907-1944 367 
XIX - Undergraduate Registration in Courses in Theoretical and 

Applied Mechanics 397 
XX - Registration in General Engineering Drawing Courses, 1904 to 

1944 532 
XXI - Numher of Volumes in the University Library, 1868-1944 589 

XXII - Semester Hours Required for Graduation in Engineering 654 
XXIII - Proportion of Time Allotted to the Different Groups of 

Subjects in the Curricula 654 

XXIV - Number of University Men Enlisted in World War I 724 

XXV - Registration in ASTP Curricvaa, Engineering, World War II 733 

XXVI - Registration in V-12 Curricula, Engineering, World War II 74l 

XXVII - Departmental Authorship of Engineering Experiment Station 

Publications 78O 
XXVIII - Registration of Undergraduate Students by Years and Depart- 
ments in the College of Engineering and Total Registration 

in the University, 1867 to 1945 919 
XXIX - Undergraduate Enrollment by Classes in Engineering, 1904 to 

1945 923 
XXX - Enrollment of Graduate Students in Baglneerlng, 1902-1945 926 

XXXI - Summciry of Baccalaureate Degrees Conferred by the College 

of aigineering, 187O to 1945 931 
XXXII - Summary of Masters' Degrees Conferred by the Graduate School 
on Students in Bigineering and Engineering Majors, I906 

to 1945 939 
XXXIII - Summary of Professional Degrees in Engineering Conferred by 

the Graduate School, I891 to 1945 944 
XXXTV - Summary of Ph.D. Degrees in Engineering Conferred by the 
Graduate School with Majors in Departments Indicated, 

1910 to 1945 948 

XXXV - Summary of Honorary Degrees in Engineering 951 

XXXVI - Recipients of Honorary Degrees 952 
XXXVII - Membership of the Engineering Faculty in the Leading 

Technical and Scientific Societies 964 









- iiXX 

- IIIXX. 



. ;£]& to (fj. . 

BoY 'id" 8 + 



II'OTDC 



xiv 

FOREWORD 

This publication, "A History of the College of Engineering of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, 1868- 19*^5", is an attempt to bring up to date a work that 
was begun by Professor Ira 0. Baker many years ago and which was partly put 
into manuscript form by him in 1920. Its purpose is to serve as a record 
or as a reference book for the members of our own staff and such others connect- 
ed with the University as have an interest in the College, its organization 
and its policies, its objectives and its achievements. 

The files of many of the University offices have been made available for 
use in the preparation of the text, and, in addition, much material has been 
drawn from the records of the Bureau of Institutional Research and the Univer- 
sity Historian, from the annual reports of the Heads of the Departments in 
the College of ihgineerlng and the Dean of the Graduate School, and from the 
semester reports of the Associate Dean of the College. Much material has 
been taJcen, also, from such publications as the Annual Register, the reports 
of the University Trustees and the University Comptroller, from The Illinois 
Technograph, from the regular and special periodicals published by the office 
of the Alumni Association, from publications issued by the Bigineering Exper- 
iment Station, and from special bulletins and other articles sent out by the 
College office and by the several College departments. I have drawn very 
heavily, furthermore, on President James' "Sixteen Years at the University 
of Illinois" . 

The members of the departmental staffs have been very generous in their 
assistance in providing materials and in reading the text. Miss Huber has 
read portions of the manuscript and has offered many suggestions that have 
led to its inqprovement. Her staff has assisted very materially by mimeo- 
graphing the notes. Mr. C. V. Paape also read portions of the text and 
offered many valuable suggestions for its ingirovement . 

June, 19i^7 ^' ^- ^'^« 



j'sseeea X.'. 



CHAPT3R I 
TES Br^GIiriJINGS OF THS JUIVERSITY CF ILLINOIS 
The Morrill Land- G rant Collgge Act - At an early date in the history of 
Illinois, the citizens of this State 'becaEie extraordinarily active in securing 
federal aid for the support of higher education. Among other things, the General 
Assembly memorialized the Congress of the Nation, j.ra^'ing the Federal Government 
"To appropriate to each Gtate in the Union, an amount of public land, not less 
in value than five-hundred thousand dollars, for the liberal endo'-jment of a system 
of Industrial Universities, one in each State in the Union, for the more liberal 
and practical education of our industrial classes, in their various j-ursuits, for 
the production of knov;ledge and literature needful in those pursuits, and develop- 
ing, to the fullest and most perfect extent, the resources of our soil and our arts, 

the virtue and intelligence of our people, and the true glory of our common 

1 
country." 

Particular emphasis was laid on industrial education, and much personal as 
well as collective v/ork was dene in the effort to secure federal Subsidies in sup- 
port of this particular type cf instructional training. In the light of historical 
events, it seems perfectly safe to say that to the peojle of the State of Illinois 
more than to those of any other stf^te, ^7as due the passage of a bill by Congress, 
approved by President Lincoln on July 2, 1862, knovm as the Morrill Land-Grant 
Act, - a bill that provided for a miore technical form of education than had been 
possible under previous conditions and one that ^^as destined to have a far-reach- 
ing influence on American educational policies and institutions. Under the terms 
of this Act, public land scrip equal to 30,000 acres for each senator and repre- 
sentative in Congress "for the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one 
college whose leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and 
classical studies, and including military tadtics, to teach such branches of learning 
as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts — in order to promote the 



,1. "Makers of the University" by Henry M. Beardsley, '79, in Alxunni Quarterly, 
1910, page 2, 



2. 

liberal and cln.sGical education of the industrial classes in the 5ever?il pursuits 

and professions of life". 

This grant thus 1^000110 the foundation for a ncsr typo of industrial education 
to "bo supported jointl^^ by f'lderal and state or territorial j-i-overnment s . The 
terms of this act, hcfover, had to be accepted and apr.liod by the states and terri- 
tories to their speoific objectives before July, lco7, to become effcotivc, -a 
proposition that served as a L-.cans for stimulating f^enerally the organization of 
land-grant schools in the United States, for manj;- of the present outstanding 
state educational institutions -vGro established "'ithin a fe"' years after that 
legislp.tion vas enacted. 

The observations 01 President Sdnund J. Jar.es regarding this natter '"ere es-^^ 

pecially appropriate vhen he stated: 

"The like of this a«t on the educational foundation has never been seen in the 
history of the vorld before. 'iThon ^"ou consider thf.t a largo proportion of these 
funds has been devoted to dcvcloning education in .•■=:ri culture and ncohanic arts 
pure and sinnle, you -'ill ro'ilize ho"' great an adrtition 'ms nado to the sux'i total 
of educational facilities by this Act of 1S62. 



"The Bill bears the nf^ne of Justin S. Horrill, 't.o "^as senator from Vermont 



"But great as is the honor due to lir. I'orrill, the real credit for originating 
the plan incorporated in the Lani?- Grant Aot , belon.r-- to an Illinois faiiier and 
professor, Johnathan 3. Turner. 

"Wen had talked about the desirability of rjraotical education for the farmer and 
the business nan. Efforts had boon made to get individual states to nal:e a,Ppropri- 
ations for this purpose. Efforts had been made to get the Federal Congress to 
make institutions '-'hich should serve these ends. They had all failed. Efforts 
had been nnde to got the Federal Congress to appropriate public lands lying 'vithin 
the various states, to t}iese states for the purpose of advancing the cause. This 
had boon donr in sone instances, but it had not accoip-^lished the results at nil 
commensurate '.vith ideas underlying this novnm.cnt. It was Johnathrui B, Turner "^'ho 
first propos'-^d that the Fpder'il C-ovcrnmnnt shoulri Mr>ko a grant of nublic I'-nds in 
supTiort of practical education in higher institutions of learning to each st-^tc in 
the Union." " 



1 Johnathpn B. Turner served from I833 to loUS as a professor in Illinois College 
at Jacksonville. "From 12:^0 to I867 ho vigorously advocated 'A Fian for a 
State University for the Industrial Classes', and as thf bronze tablet in the 
''Old' Agriculture.! Building states: 'To his persistent efforts as a cour.ngoous 
advocate of scientific I'ducation, the^ nation o'"'er the legislation -fhich Ipid the 
foundation of this University and of all our land-grant colleges' ".-Fi-'ora "U. of 
I, Seventy-fifth.. Anniversary, IS60-IQU3, Convocntion, llarch 2, 19^3''. 

3 Conmencornent Address on June IP, 191C\ as recorded in the Alunni Q,u'^rterly, 
1912, page 185. ' 



3 
On n,nothor occnsion, President J.ijnos spc-^^king r^.gain of the Lnjid-Grnnt Act 

SD.id: 

"I do not kno"7 of r.ny better illustration of the 'bcnefic cnt influence of sub- 
sidizing education by the largest potential unit, viz., the nation, than vas af- 
forded by the history of this L-^.nd-Grant Act of 1862. I r^m quite confident nyself 
that the State of Illinois '.7ould not have established nji agricultural college or 
an engineering school or any of the other departments of a state \inivnrsity for a 
full generation to come, if it had not been that the Federal Government offered 
this magnificent estate of half a million acres of land to the State for the es- 
tablishment of a college of agriculture and mechanic arts, on condition that the 
State ',70uld organize the institution." ■^ 

The Founding of the University - Pursuant to this action of the Ecderal 
Government under v/hich Illinois would receive U20, 000 acres of Irjid valued at 
*bOO,000, the General Assembly of the State of Illinois took, almost immediately, 
the requisite steps necessary to secure the advantages of this proposed contribu- 
tion by passing the follov'ing bill, signed by the Governor on February ik, I863: 

All ACT pccf-iiting the donation of nublic lands from Congress, ajjproved July 
2, I862. . ' 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, represented 
in the General Assembly, That the act passed by the Congress of the United States, 
donating public lands to the several states and territories which may provide 
colleges for the benefit of agriculture ojid the mechanic arts, approved July 2, 
I862, be and the provisions therein contained, accepted by this State. 

Section 2. Be it further enacted. That the Secretary of th« State inform 
the Secretary of the Interior, at 'Vashington, that the State of Illinois through 
their Legislature, has accepted the donation in said act. 

Approved February 1^, I363 . 

Thus, ithin a little over tight months after the passage of the Fpdoral Land- 
Grant Act of I862, under "'hich most of the states later established -agricultural 
and mechanical colleges, the State of Illinois accepted the benefits of that Act 
under the conditions imposed, and \vas one of the first of the Nation to consider 
the founding of an institution of higher learning under the terms prescribed. It 
took four years, ho./cver, to decide on the location of the state institution, dur- 
ing which time several counties of the State entered into competition to secure 
the location of the University by offering to donate specific sums of money, or 
their onuivalrnt, for the use of the school. 

There '-'ere several very determined efforts on the part of certain citizens 
of Chicago to h-ivc the mechanical division of the proposed institution located 
there. 



1 Alumni (quarterly, October, I91U, page 2U7 



4 
The first one cnj.io in Jul^^ 1S6U, v/hcn Colonel Eol)crt E-i.stm.T.n of ChicAf:;o proposed 

to Govnrnor Y"t> k th-it onc-hilf of the funds virovirtrd hy the L'^nd-Gr.'^.nt Act for 
the cstpblislmcnt of ^n cducn.tionnl institution in Illinois, should he used for 
tho dcvnlopncnt of -^.n ,i.f^ricultur.'\l college centrally locnted ^^nd the other h^.lf to 
found a nechnnicrl college: in Chicn.go . In resDonso to this request, the Governor 
'appointed r. connission to consider the proposition. This comnission issued r; crll 
for all cor-munities interested in securing the location of the educational insti- 
tution to ii-'J-rc application for a portion of tho funds allotted. 

A^'^ain, carl;-' in J nu-^.r;', lSb|;, the Chica.go ,rj;roup brought ■bcforr the Illinois 
General Asscnbly a petition .nsking for a division of the funds to establish a 
laechanical school in Chicago. Furthori.iore, Rejjrcsentativc Cooh of Cook County 
even presmtcd in Fcbrur.r,', ICij^j, a bill locatint-; the a.j^ri cultural school in 
Chaxipaign County, but establishing the technical college in Chicago. This bill 
was defeated -.Then the legislature adjourned -.'ithout giving it consideration. 

The final atteupt of Chicago interests to secure the Liecha,nical or pol,""tcchnic 
portion of the nc\i institution came in IS67. l.i J; nur'r:" of that yca.r, Colonel 
Eastnaji introduced a bill into the; Illinois Legislature requesting th:\t a portion 
of the L-^nd-Grant fund be set aside for the polytechnic division of the school to 
be loc-'ted in Chicago. The bill -vas referred to the coimiitte. on State. Institutions 
but after due considi-ration ■•c^.s tabled indefinitely. 

The Grigg<: bill, - "an Act in relation to the location of the Illinois In- 
dustrial University", as it was then callt'd,- finally passed by the Gener"! 
Asseiabl:-- on February 2'i, IZof , and signed b:-' Governor Oglcsby on February 26, 
fcllo'.ving, establish! d a single educational institution furnishing; instruction in 
both agriculture and the iiechnnic arts, located ia Urbana.. This act, providing 
for the incoi-jioration, organization, --.jid naintonancc of the University, gave 
authority to the Board of Trustees to procrcd and to foruul-ite pl-ins for the de- 
velovraent of the acM University, provided certaan conditions or sti ^ulations could 
be met by Ch^japaign County. These conditions "crc duly Liet, for in addition to 



1 "The E.-rly History of the College of Unginecring of the University of Illinois", 
by Fred K. Turner, The Tcclinograiih, October, 1033i p-igcs J-Z 



5 

the ispecial cndovmient by Congressional grpjit of USO.OOO r-cros of scrip land, 

there was a donation hy Champaign County of $U00,000 including $100,00 in County 

bonds, one thousand acres of land, and a splendid university building practically 

ready for use that had been constructed for seminary purposes, kno'.'.'n as the Urbana 

and Champaign Institute. In addition, Mr. M. L. Dunlap delivered to the Board 

$2,000 v/orth of sha.de and ornamental trees and shrubbery according to his contract, 

and the Illinois Central Railroad pledged the svun of $50,000 in freight over its 

1 
lines. 

The Governing Body - The Board of Trustees . - The original state law creating 
the University in I867, placed the institution under the supreue control of a 
Board of Trustees consisting of the Governor, the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion, and the President of the State Board of Agriculture, '.7ho \7ere members cx- 
officio , and twenty-eight citizens to be appointed by the Governor, - five from 
each of the grnjid Judicial districts of the State, and one from each of the 
thirteen congressional districts. On account of the size, the body '^as found to 
be unwicldly , and in I873. the number of members '.'/as reduced to elevin,- the 
Governor and the President of the State Board of Agriculture, ex-off icio , and 
nine others who were still appointed by the Governor, three from ea,ch of the grand 
Judicial divisions of the State. In 1837, ^ If^w -ins passed mailing membership in 
the Board of Trustees r:lcctivc at a general state election and restoring the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction as a member ex-off icio . There were at that 
time, therefore, three ex-officio and nine elective members. In I917, the General 
Assembly passed a la'.' reorganizing the adtiinistrat ion of the Stat'e government. 
Under this law, the office of the President of the State Board of Agriculture was 
abolished on J.i^.nuary 1, 1919t •'^^d- since that time the Bo.ard of Trust(Mjs has been 
composed of two ex-officio and nine elective members. The nine members arc elec- 
ted at large by the voters of the State at the time of the gen^?ral elections, for 
.a term of six years, -the terms of three exjoiring every second year. 



1 First Annu.al Report of the Board of Trustees, 1868, page 



6 
IXitics of the 3or..rd. of Trustees . - B-' In'.'f, the Board of Ti-ustot^s is coninittcd 

to siilcct the chief cx<-:cutive officer of the Univornity, to appoint arid promote 
members of the faculty upon his rcconncndation, to provide as far as possible the 
revenues required to nect the financial needs of the institution, .^xid to dctcrnine 
the conditions of their expenditure. It nust sanction all general rules and regu- 
lations for the conduct of the University and all najor cducationnj. policies fornu- 
latcd by the University faculty; but at no tine docs the Board itself operate as 
-an executive body. 

Stated Liorc specifically as provided by the la'7 enacted for the organization 
and maintenance of the Illinois Industrial University, "The trustees shall have 
po'.7er to provide the requisite buildings, apparatus, and conveniences; to fix the 
rates for tuition; to appoint such professors and insti-uctors, and establish and 
provide for the nanagencnt of such model farms, model art, and other departments 
and professorships, as may be required, in the most thorough manner, such branches 
of learning as are related to agriculture and the meclia.nic arts, and military 
tactics, r/ithout excluding other scientific and classical studies." 

Since 1S73. the President of the Board has been chosen by the members of that 
body from among its ovn group for a term of one year. The Board is further or- 
g-^nized by the appointment of an executive committee ^nd of several standing com- 
mittees that give special consider.ation to matters cf general University policy 
and to student, a.lunni , rxA other needs. The Board meets once a month and at 
such other times as arc necessary for the transaction of business requiring 
special attention. Its proceedings arc published in biennial reports addressed 
to the Governor and the Gcnor-il Assembly. 

Educational Cbjoctives and Policies of the Pioneer Board of Trustees .- Section 
h of the Land-G-rnj-it Act of Congress in lSb2 provided that the le-iding objective 
of the University shall be " .ithout excluding other scientific and classical 
studies -nd including military tactics, to te^ch such branches of learning as arc 
related to agriculture nnd the mechanic n,rts, in such manner as the legislatures 
of the State may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and 



7 

practical education of the industrial classes in their pursuits and professions 

of life". 

1 
The University Catalogue and Circular of I867 stated :"The hope of the 

Trustees and Faculty is that the Institution will produce scholars of sound learn- 
ing, but also of practical sense and skill - men abreast V7ith the tines - men of 
Christian culture, trained to affairs, and able and v/illing to lend r\. helping hand 
in all great practical enterprises of this most practical age; fitted to be lenders, 
if need be, in those mighty industrial interests on v/hich the social v>'ell-being 
and civilization of our country so much depend. It is also their aim and hope that 
the University shall contribute to the increase and diffusion of knowledge of real 
science, and especially of that science ryhich bears upon and promotes the useful 
art s . " 

In accordance with the Federal Land-G-rant and the State acts previously men- 
tioned, "and under vrhich the University is organized, it holds as its principal 
aim to offer freely the most thorough instruction which its means ;'ill provide, in 
all the branches of learning useful in the industrial arts, or necessary to 'the 
liberal and practical education of the industrial classes, in the several pursuits 

and professions of life'. It includes this all useful learning - scientific and 

2 
classical - all that belongs tc sound and thorough scholarship". 

The report of the Committee appointed by the Board of Trustees to consider 

"Courses of Study and Faculty" for the Illinois Industrial University contained 

k 
among others the follo'/ing statements: 



1 Page U 

2 University Catalogue and Circular, I875-76, page 23. 

3 At its first meeting, which was held in Springfield on liarch 12, I867, the Board 
of Trustees appointed John Milton G-regory as Regent , -Doctor Gregory accepting the 
appointment and entering upon the duties of his office on April 1 following, as 
described later. At that same meeting, the Board appointed a Committee consist- 
ing of the E.egent-ele-ct'.and four truytees.to formulate an outline of the general 
aims of the University, and a plan of "Courses of Study and Faculty" for the 
Illinois Industrial University. At its second meeting, which '/as held on May ], 
1267, in the Chapel of the Urbana and Champaign Institute, -the stiricture that was 
soon to be taken over for University purposes, -the Board adopted the masterly re- 
port of the Regent and his Committee. So much preliminary work was necessary to 
place the University in lino with this report, however, that the formal opening 
of the institution was postponed until the following year. 

U.F^rgi ^QHual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois Industrial University 



g 

"A clearer insight into the roal intention of the Congressional grant may be 
gained if ve call to mind that the colleges, existing at the time of the passage 
of the act mnJcing this great grant, '•'ere adapted only to fit men for the so-called 
'learned professions', and that the influence of these colleges tended to with- 
dravj their students from the pursuits of industry. Congress therefore proposed to 
create a new class of colleges, iivhich should train men for industrial pursuits, and 
help to turn some portion of the great currents of educated life into the channel? 
of industry. They aimed to link learning more closely to later, and to bring the 
light of science more fully to the aid of the productive arts.. Any other inter- 
]jretation of the design of Congress than this t'ould involve an absurdity. 

"The Industrial College v/as not an expression of Congressional condemnation of 
the ordinary college, or opposition to it. A grant of a township of land in each 
ne'.v State had already provided for State Universities of the common sort. And be- 
sides these, rich and po'verful seats of learning were cvur^/v^here fitting men for 
the great public fields of Law, Medicine ajid Theolog;^'. Congress only sought to 
extend still wider the benefits of science and liberal culture. They wished to 
establish other seats of learning, equally great and equally po'-'crful, -.vhich 
should send scholars of high scientific attainments and broad and liberal culture, 
to the farms and workshops of the country. 



"The Comnitteo profoundly appreciate and commend the far-reaching wisdom and 
• beneficence of these aims of the congrc^ssional grant, .-^id would seek to carry 
them out to the very letter. They have discussed thus fully the intent of the 
Congressional enactment, in order to' brush aside the false impressions which may 
have gained currency, and to bring out into clearer relief this grand idea of the 
Industrial University, as it lies involved in both State and National statutes- a 
true University, organized in the interest of industrial, rather tllan of the pro- 
fessional pursuits, and differing from other Universitii,s in that its departments 
arc technological rather than professional- schools of Agriculture and Art, rather 
than schools of Medicine pnd Law. Its central educational courses, while equally 
broad p.nd liberal arc to be selected to fit men for the study and mastery of the 
groat br.'xnches of industry, rather than to serve as introductions to the study of 
law, medicine, or theologj''. 

"The broad idea of the Industrial University proceeds upon two fundnmental as- 
sumptions: First, that the agricultural and mechanical arts are the peers of any 
others in their dignity, imjiortance and scientific scope: ".nd, Socond, that the 
thorough mastery of these arts, and of the sciences ppplicable to th^^m, requires 
T'n education different in kind, but as systematic pnd complete as that required 
for the comprchrnsion of the learn.d professions. It thus avoids the folly of 
offering as leaders of progress in the splendid industries of the nineteenth 
century, men of meager rttr.inmcnts and stinted culture, '-nd steers clear also of 
that other and absurder folly of supposing that mere common school boys, -'ithout 
any thorough discijiline, can successfully master and -^pply the complic-'tcd sciences 
■■•■hich enter into and explain tht; manifold processes of agriculture and mechanic 
art. 

. "i\'or is it to bo forgotten that man is something more th.",n an artis-m, and that 
manhood has duties nnd interests higher -md gmjider th^.n those of the './orkshop 
and the farm. Sducation must fit for society and citizenship, -,s well as for 
science and industry. The educated agriculturist .".nd mech.-nic will not infrequent- 
ly be called to serve in Senate Ch-^mbers .and gab ern.ato rial chairs, and will need 
■an education broader and better th.an the simple knowled,:;e of his art. 



"The State h-is need cvor;;r-^hcre, but cspccinlly in the center nnd ^t the head 
of the groat industries, on -.'hich, as corner stones, rest dovm her Lia.tcrial 
prepress ^nd pov/er, of broad- 'breasted, -./isc-heartcd, clear- thinking ncn of rich, 
deep culture, and sound education. 

"And besides all this, it should be reflected that half of the public value of 
educated and scientific a(_;riculturists and ncchanici.-uis -.vill be lost, if they lack 
the litcrar:" culture '7hich --'ill enable then to coimunica.tc throuf;h the press, or 
by public speech, their kno-.;lcdec and discoveries; or if they a,rc ••'antinr in that 
thorough discipline -.vhich '.-fill ur^jzc theu active and conprtent invest igators and 
inventors, lon{^ after their school days are over. 

"******** Let the State opo -'ide, then this Picri.-'ii fountain of 
learning. Let her bid freely all her sons to the full and unfailing;: flo:?: those 
■vhosn thirst or -.vhosc needs are little, to -'hat they rcouire; those whose thirst 
and "'hose cajj-'Cities arc large, to r^rinlt their fill. Let the University bo nadc 
v'orthy of the ^-^reat State -'hoso nano it bears; '.vorthy of the j-rand r.jid stlcndid 
industries it see'rs to pro.ioto; and -'orthy of the great century in -/hich '7e live". 



"The Industrial University such as -'e arc planning is, in '-. large part, '.'ith- 
out precedent or oxaxiple. The field of its labors is as 2'ct untrackcd in its 
■'idcst stretches. The very classes for -'hon its benefits arc designed arc as yet 
not half persuaded of the importance r.nd real value of those bcmfits. The farners 
and mechanics, accustomed to regard higher cduca.tion as needful and desinble only 
for profcssion/il men, and almost '.Tholly incredulous as to the utility of science 
in its applications to their -'ork, 'vill look "dth slo-'-coning faith upon a Uni- 
versity '.-'hich proposes to m-iro faming scientific ermloj/Tncnt , and to lift the 
mechanics into a learned profession. They have, in ma.ny cases, yotk to be con- 
vinced that a, highly cultured mind may be linked to a. brav.'ny hand, and that -i, 
classical scliolar may feci a,t home in r. '.;orkshop; "ye J -nd find use for m,11 his 
scholarship and taste in the successful practice of his •'^rt. 

"But the age is propitiou:^. The '.'orking masses of mankind arc •..'•^king to their 
needs, and calling for light. The thunder of the machinery- by the side of 'jhich 
they toil, and the ma^gic po-..'er of the nc'v processes of arts ••'hich they daily cm- 
ploy, have roused the long sliinbcring povcr of thought. 3i\ains arc coning into 
use "Xid honor in -^ll the fields of human labor, and brains v/ill speedily demand 
light ■ nd kno" 'ledge. In an age of leai'ning, the fa.n;.cr ajid the mechanic -'ill soon 
cone to covet the rich hi.ritagos of science for their sons. Alrc'd;'' t)ie children 
of the l-^boring cla.snos are cro'Tding the -public high schools. They -'ill not stop 
thiu-e. The University lies the next step beyond. Thoy ■'111 cro'-d to its doors; 
and soon ''ill begin to issue from its halls that long column, '.'ith its yc-U'ly 
-additions, of gradJ-atcs "ith broad brcs, and science-lighted brains, bca.ring 
back to tlie faiTis and "'oi-ksh-ops -^n ir.tclligent skill -nd po'.'cr, to invoke new and 
un-'ontcd fruitfulness fro:.; the soil ">id from the nrc]ianic art". 

These statements of the founders of the University point very definitely to 
the conclusion that these i;ionei rs hoped to raise the status of t]ie mech-^nic arts 
to tl^e level of -r learurd profession a.nd to nirovide i-yste- vatic training in the 
field of r'p-allcd scieTiCe that 'Tould improve '-ad incron.sr the, ^irocosscs of produc- 
tion rnd evolve a gre.-^t era of industri-l enterprise. As "O rrcord the events of 
( iisuing years, '/e ri:alizc it is little iiore tJian •\ truism to s-y that the pl".ns 



10 

the:^ laid for the doveloi^inent of a ^rreat educational plant v.'ere axriply Justified 

and tile hopes the;-- held have oeen signally realized no dou'bt, far beyond their 
fondest dreans. 

Proposed Depart uents and Courses of Stud;"- The report of the Recent and the 
four Trustees nade in 12o7 and discussed at some length in previous paragraphs 

contained the follo',7in,r outline of propo;;,ed departments and courses of study for 

1 
the ne- institution: 

I A,-ricultural departnent 

1. A-ri culture 

2. Horticulture 

3. Lanf'-Gcaj-ie gardening 

II Folyts-:chnic de-oa3'tr.ient 

1. Mechanical science and art 

2. Civil engineerin.'^ 

3. liininc and metallurgy 

U. Architecture and fine :;.rts 

III Military depart rient 

i. Hiif-ineering ^ 

2. Tnctics 

IV Cho^.iistry mid na,tural r.ciimce 

V Trade and coniierce 

VI General science nnd liternturc 

1. Mathematics 

2. I'atural history, chenistry, etc. 

3. Sn-^lish language and literature 
K. Modern languages and literature 
3. Ancient languages and literature 

6. History and social science 

7. .Philosoi;hy (intellectual and noral) 

There y;as little oncouragenent to "bo found anong educators of those times in 

support of efforts to "build u,.i a school teaching the fundamentals of the iicchanic 

arts, for practically all of the institutions of higher learning were interested 

only in trio r^im Ir,, clf.-.sical, or liberal rrt<3 courr.cs; --md the proponents of that 

type of ;:chool loohi'd v/ith gruat derision a.nd scorn upon my attempts to formulate 

oolicico that had a;; their aim the teaching of the mechanic arts. Because of this 

sta.tc of affairs, thert; nas little precedent to follo'^' in modeling the nolytcchnic 
1 Ibid., page 50 



11 

or engineering division of this ne-.7 school, for engint;cring education iDeing a 
conparatively ne^v field, ^^as offered in only a fe'7 institutions at that time. 
Hcnnscloar Polytechnic Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Cornell 
University had been started only two or three ye- rs previously. The University of 
Michigan had been giving some courses in engineering for several years, and a few 
other schools taught a fer/ engineering subjects. In the main, however, there was 
little for a v;cstern school to follow; such an institution had to pioneer its own 
coui'sc of detcrnination. 

After this brief account of the various legislative acts creating the Universi- 
ty, the rosuine of the ains of those who founded it and soiic mention of the general 
plan of adiainistrative control, it scens appropriate to review the steps tnircn in 
opening the University, to present brief biographical sketches of each of its execu- 
tive heads, known at first as regents, but later as presidents, and to record the 
outstanding events of their several adninistrationG. 



12 

CHAPTER II 

Till] ESGEIJTS Ai;D TiaiR ADIIIillSTaATIONS 

General - From the time of the opening of the University until 1S9^, the 
chief executive officer of the University was called Regent, 'vho vras appointed 
by the Board of Trustees. Until 1S73. he v/as made ex-off icio a member of the 
Board of Trustees and presiding officer of both the Board and the faculty, but 
after 1873» the president of the Board v/as chosen by the Board itself from among 
those of its own gi-oup. 

The regent '.7as res]ionsible for the preparation of the budgets and for the ad- 
ministration of the general policies defined by the Board of Ti'ustees for the con- 
duct of University affairs. 

TThile it v/as in existence from lSb7 to I89U, the office of regent was held by 
three persons: viz., by John Hilton Gregory from IS67 to 1S3C; by Selim Eobart 
Peabody from 18S0 to 1'<SS1; and by Johnathan Thomas Burrill (Acting Regent) from 
1891 to I09U. Some discussion of their adiainist rat ions follows in the next few 
pages. 

A. John Hilton Gregory, Regent J-So7-12SO 

Background of Preparation and Experience - John Milton Gregory, the first 
Regent, was born on July 6, lo22, at Sand L;iko, Hev York. During his student days 
he applied himself to lav/ and theology and was later ordained in the Baptist Minis- 
try. Ke served as State Superintendent of Public Instruction for Michigan from 
IS58 to 1263 and as President of Kalamazoo College from IS63 to I867, receiving the 
honorar:/- degree of LL. D, from the University of Michigan in 1S66. Ec was elected 
Regent of the Illinois Industrial University at the first meeting of the Board of 
Trustees, March 12, I067. He assumed the duties of his office on the first day of 
April following, as previously stated, and was officially installed at the formal 
opening of the University on March 11, 12d8, 

Opening of the University and the Installation of Regent Gregory - The Uni- 
versity was opened for students on March 2, loGZ, and was formally dedicated on 
March 11, 1868, as previously stated. The event was made the occasion for the for- 



13^ 

nal inau{:uration or installntion of Doctor Gregory as Ror^ont . At this function, 

Hon. S. W. Houlton -ircsidcd over tlic ccrenonics, '.vhich 'vcrc held, in the chapel of 

the ncn University Buildin^-^ in the presence of nunerous visitors from all sections 

of the State. I'usic vas provided under the direction of George F. Root, a v/ell- 

known nusician of Chicaeo, the dedication hynn hrvin^: been -.jrittcn by Doctor 

Gregory himself. Letters v/crc read from Governor Oelesby, Senator Yates, and 

General Logan. A portion of the message fron Senator Yates, v/ho was Governor of 

Illinois during the Ciyil 17,ar days, "bore the following statements: 

"I'y great hope is that this institution shall prove the cro-.''ning achievement 
of this age among all the grand './orks in behalf of popular education, -.Thich illus- 
trates the splendid history of our state and that to the latest generation our 
young men shall have cause to bless the -dse forc-thouglit of the racn of this age, 
■7ho have,, amidst gigantic war, not only vindicated the free institutions and 
ideas of self-govcrnr.icnt , but also founded this splendid nursery of free men and 
enlightened patriotism. An educated man may bocone unpatriotic, a patriot may be- 
come pervorted through it^iorance, but wisdom and patriotism hand in hand arc in- 
vincible" . 

The principal addres-.;cs of the occasion ".Tore given by the Honorable ilevton 

Batoman, State Superintendent of Public Inst naction, and by Doctor Gregory. A 

fr',7 cxccrTjts taken from the rcmarl:c of Regent Gregory are here repeated: 

"Slowly a great v/nJit has struggled into definite shape in the hearts of nan- 
kind. The demand has arisen for deliverance from the evils of ignorance and for 
a more fit and practical education for the industrial classes. It is labor lift- 
ing its Ajax cry for litgiit to guide its toil, -vnd illuminate its life. 

"To us it is committed, here in Illinois, to realise these hopes. Rarely has 
a grander duty, nor, pcrh-.ps .-■, more difficult oncj fallen to the lot of any body 
of men, '7e arc the servitors of the a,ge itself, "J 

Tlic exercises were followed b;-' a bajiquet in the dining liall of the University 
Building. T-^o days later, the first f-xculty meeting was held and the University 



1 First Annual Report of the 3o'\rd of Trustees, rages 151-2, and the Semi-centenni- 
al Kistor;,- of the University of Illinois V/ Burt E. Powell. 

Volume I, page Zll 

2 Historical Sketches and Annals, the Alumni Record, iqiG, images XI a.nd ECILIII- 
XXXIV. 

3 i'akcrs of the University, John Hilton Gregor;-, by Henry II. Bcardsloy '79, in. 
Alumni i^uarterly, If.ilO, page 5. 



1 
vr.s considered p. going institution. 

Doctor G-rogory's Ef f o rt s in Orienting the University's Educational Trend - Such 
n.n institution as this \7n.s in largo part v/ithout precedent or example, and the 
difficulties involved in the development of the infant institution wore greatly in- 
creased, as v/cas afterwards sho'.Jn, "by the resolute and far-sighted dot onni nation of 
Doctor Gregory and his colleagues in insisting, in the face of bitter opposition, 
on the most comprehensive and literal interpretation of the Land-Grpjit Act and the 
State legislative enactment in establishing an institution of the broadest outlook, 
-one -/hich should give instruction in the branches of learning relative to agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts, but -.vhich should not exclude other scientific and 
classicpl studies. 

Regent Gregory' had r.j\ exceedingly difficult task in presenting and explaining 
to the people of the State the ideals and proposed policies of the ne'7 institution: 
first, because collegiate education for the industrial classes •.vas largely an inno- 
vation and many vantod to limit materially the field of vhat has become the College 
of Liberal Arts and Sciences, uhilc others '.Tcre in opposition because the College 
of Agriculture did not run before it could '.valk; second, because of sharp differ- 
ences of opinion in and outside of the Board of Trustees as to 'jhat should, and 
rrhat should not be included in the -'ork of the institution-; for the numerous pamph- 
lets, conventions, and other appeals by the people of Illinois to the University 
and the Legislature establishing the University, represented widely-different ideas 
and ideals in the State at large; third, because of intense antagonism developed 
in other parts of the State on account of the competition for the location of the 
institution; fourth, because there vcrc almost no local organizations, such as the 
modern Chambers of Commerce, Rotary and Ki '.van is Clubs, Vifomen's Literary and SocipJ. 



1 '.Triting her impressions of the old seminary building, which served as dormitory 
as well as recitation hall, Mrs. Francos Adolia Potter Reynolds, '74, ajid one of 
the first alumnae, said: "it v/as a large, pla,in, red brick, five-story building 
sot do'.vn in the flat Illinois mud, '7ith not a tree or a shrub, a spear of grass 
or a fence. It vas as desolate a place a,s possible to iciaginc. But there were 
great chnjiges in the next few months. Fences were built. Trees and shinibs v/erc 
set out, Grass v.-as sovm, a,nd refreshing green took the place of the mud. Gravel 
walks were laid out and made it possible to stop without sinking shoe-deep in the 
mud". - Historical Sketches, Alumni Record, I9IS, page XI. 



15 

Science Clubs, lT,bor unions, etc., 'bcfoi-c v/hom ho could npponr to discuss the ains 
r-.,nd nothods of the -oro];Osnd institution; n,nd Ir'.stl;;, the people of that dn..7 -,'cre 
not rcccntive,- nc- ideals bein^^ vicned "ith scepticism. 

These conditions demanded of the Rci^ent of the cnbiyonic state University no 
little t.".ct and resourcefulness, and nuch hoart-broaI:ins labor. During the year 
bet'-rccn his election ",nd the beginning' of instruction, he utilized every opjoortuni- 
ty to explain the princii;les of the nc77 foinn of education and of the nc-.v institu- 
tion, often spe'diini'-,: in churches at nectinf-^s called for th;>,t purpos^.^, -xt teachers' 
institutes, and ivny tiuos at county -'.tp-'i cultural fairs talking: frou a farmer's 
lunber ■.r-xf;on to such rvadionces as he could di'av fron the side sho-.Ts, the stock ex- 
hibits, ,-'nd the horse race:;. As far as other duties vould allo'.v, he kept up this 
propafjanda for several ycrirs after the institution opened its doors to students. 
Kc '.'as a pleasine'T spenjcer, clear, forceful, eloquent; -md he ably set the needs 
and ideals of the University' before the people of the State; but the OTjposition he 
had to combat -^xionc groups in the different sections of the State, f^roups perhaps 
all equally in earnest to ..rouotc the nost useful forn of education, seriously re- 
tarded for a nunbor of years the nornal gro-'th of the University. 

Organization of the University into Schools nxtd Colleges -The first mention of 
dividing the University intr colleges '.7as in the lo7('i-71 issue of the University 
Catalogue and Circular. The Catalo^;:ue ^Jid Circular of lofJ-jZ states the case a 
little more clcai'ly, hc'evcr, in the follo'"'ing preser.tation; "The Institution is a 
true University in the best Ai.ierican sense, though differing designedly in char- 
acter of sonc of its Colleges fi'oii the older institutions of this country. It is 
divided into four Colleges, and these arc ag-dn subdivided into Schools.. . AuSohool 
is understood to enbrace the course of instruction needful for sone one profession 
or vocation. Schools that .-u'e cogn.".tc in character and studies, are grouped under 
the s.njie College". The arr.angcuent v.m.s as follows: 



1 In 19'43, the college is still the nain adninistrativc and educational unit, con- 
prising departments or other r:rinary divisions that ,-irc grouped around conr.ion 
interests. Ihc School is an adninistrptivo and cduc;\tion'\l unit './hose st.atus is 
that bet-vcen a college and a dcT)artnent. 



16 

I . THE C^LLEaE OF AGRICULTURE 

School of Agriculture School of Horticulture 

II. COLLEGE OE EilGINEERING 

School of Mcchwiicil Engineering School of Civil Engineering 
School of Mining Engineering School of Architecture 

III. COLLEGE OF NATURAL SCIENCE 

School of Chemistry School of Naturn,l History 

School of Domestic Science 

IV. THE COLLEGE OF LITSRATUPJ] AITO SCIENCE 

School of English nnd Modern Lr'.ngu-^.gcs School of Ancient Languages 

V. ADDITIONAL SCHOOLS 

School of Miilitary Science School of Commorce 
School of Art and Design 

" Vocal and Instrumont.-^l Music, Telegraphing and Photography arc also taught, 
but not as parts of the regular courses." 

The chief advantage of the College as a unit in university organization is 
that such an arrangement i)rovides for "better coordination in the administration of 
the affairs of the several departments related by a common interest and for great- 
er efficiency in the conduct of the instructional and research programs. This is 
not meant to imply, of course, that the colleges and schools are educationally 
separated here. They are interdependent, and cooperate fully in the conduct of 
the several instinictional programs. 

Requirements for admission in the Early Days of the University - At f i rst , aA« 
mission to the University was solely by prescribed examination, and the require- 
ments in all colleges were very low. At that, scarcely more than half of the stu- 
dents could meet the conditions. In the first catalogue, the requirements for ad- 
mission to the regular course in science, literature, and art was natural philoso- 
phy (physics), physiology, algebra, geometry, latin grammar, Caesar, Cicero, Vir- 
gil's Georgics, and Aeneid. In addition, it was recommended that each student 
should be at least eighteen years of age, although the minimum was fixed by law at 
fifteen, As listed in the 1868-69 issue of the University Circular and Catalogue, 
the requirements for admission were detailed as follows: 



17 

1. "Each studont is required by la"; to be at least fifteen years of age, but 
it is believrd that fev; rdll be found nature enough at this aiiC to enter -nth the 
hi,:hcst profit upon the studies of the University, and it is rcconj;-,cndcd as a gen- 
eral rule, that students shoi-.ld be at least cii^hte^'n years old before entering. 

2. "Che lav also proscribes that 'no student shall be adnitted to instructioi 
in any of the dcpartncnts of the University, who shall not previously undorf-^o a 
satisfactory o:rn::.iination in each of the branches orr'.inarily taught in the comiaon 
schools of the State'. In addition to those, candidates for any particular de- 
partment iTill bo c:canincd in such studies a.s nay be necessary to fit then to viursuc 
successfully the course in that dcpartnent. 

"The chief ain of fill nxfiainations for adnission to the University is to ascrr 
tain the student's preparation to pursue successfully the studies of the course. 
Hence, thorous^hnoss, .'Uid a general kno'7lod£;o of the subji^ct, -.vill be .accounted as 
of acre inportajicc than the ajiount studied. A student of ca,rncst ourposo and a 
vrrll-disciplinc^d nind nill often pursue a nc"f stud;' moro successfully than one of 
nuch more extensive preparation, but of less discipline and dilif^cnce. liuch more 
solicitude is felt about the progress of the student after he enters, tl:ian about 
the preparation lAade before he enters the University. Frequent r>Jid searching ex- 
aminations '■•ill be held to test the progress in study, nnd to dctorninc each stu- 
dent's fitness to renain in the classes. The University cannot be held responsible 
for the lack of thoroUf~hncss in the connon-school -.jtudics, but v.'ill insist upon 
thorou/^hnn-s in its O'rn propt.r studios". 

The Circular and Cat'do;7uo of looQ-yfJ"^ .stated: 

"In addition, cn,ndida,tcs for advanced standin{^ nust pass an cxarunation in each 
of the branches --Irculy pursued by the class, or an cquiv.-dont therefore. Those 
desirinr ancient lanf^,'i,<:,'0G nust })a.ss in the ordinai-y prc.yiaratory studies in such 
l.'vn/^a.jcs, • 

"There are cei-tain clcnrntary studios not yot reckoned rjiong the 'branches ordi- 
narily taught in the connon schools', such as Eleaentar;- Algebra, l^'atural Bhiloso- 
phy and English Conposition, -'hich it is strongly rcconmcnded that students shall 
pursue before coning to the University. They necessarily iii'ccodc the University 
courses. The advance of the class conpcls the discontinuance of instiaiction in 
tlicsc studies, and students should, if practicable, cone prepared to pass cxauii- 
nations in then", 

A t^qiical sot of c::aiii nation questions listed on pa-^es 30-33 of the 15o9-70 
issue of this Circul'-.r pnd CatalocTuo, included the subjects of Ortho^^raphy, Head- 
ing, G-rrxanar, Aritiiiaetic, Geography, Algebra, Natur-I Philosophy, and L/inj-uagcs. 

The first statencnt published concerning the conditions for actaission to the 
Cnlloge of Engineering v.'as in the catalogue for lS71-7"-i in which the rcauiroaent s 
for 1872 '.7ere the "four con;."ion- school studies" ;vnd -ilso algebra to equations of the 
second degree, and rJ.ani- r;conctry; --.nd noticr v/as given that Vac rcquircncnts for 
1273 v.'ould include "Igebra through quadratic;; and natur-^1 i)hilosophy ( clenentai'y 
physics), and for 1C7M-, all of gooraotiv and also botan^' 'md phy:;iology. In lo7o, 
1 Page 23 



is 

the rcquircincnts were incrcri.sod by adding bookkoc^Tiin^; and tv/o terms of English. • ■ 
At thnt tine the rcquircncnts for the classica course substituted r. year each of 
Greek -ind Latin for the English and the sciences required for the other courses of 
the University. 

Provision for the Preparatory School and Academy - The entrance requirements 
of the University -jcrc gradually raised through the years ajad the best high schools 
of the State r/cro able to keep a.broast of these requirements. The system of ac- 
crediting high schools, begun about I876, permitted students rrho vcrc gra,duates of 
such schools to enter the University without exrjninations. Ho^/ever, there were 
nan;/ prospective students for '.7hon no such accredited schools existed, and for these 
the Board of Trustees in Karch, IS/b, made a special provision by establishing a 
preparatory department at the University, to be opened the follov/ing September, 
th-^t sc^voral years later developed into the Academy. Tlic Catalogue a,nd Circular of 
ISJ^-JS carried this statement in this connection: 

"The University has steadily refused till now to open any preparatory school. 
Tho preparatory -70 rk is '.toII done in the many excellent High Schools of the State, 
a,nd the funds of the University ought not to bo diverted from their proper uses, 
to provide instruction in merely Preparatory Studies. A needful adwance in the 
standards for admission to the College courses and the necessity of providing 
tcuriorarily at least for those -/ho will come from places '-'here no good High Schools 
exist, no--- induce the Trustees to provide for preparatory classes in the studies 
lyinig bet'jccn the comuon school studies and the College courses . " ^ 

Candidates in the preparatory class h,ad to be fifteen years of age arid had to 
be '^blc to pass sa^tisf n.ctory examinations in arithmetic, geography, English grammar, 
and United States history. 

Educational Policies of Doctor Gregor;^ and his Administration - In his in- 

au.^ral address on March 11, iSfaS, Doctor Gregory stated: 

"It is no ordinary -'ork 'jhich -.re are set out to do, and it comes to us under no 
ordinary conditions. We n,rc not here to reproduce, in this ne'.7 locality, some old 
and '.7cll-kno'.7n style of college or university.. Nor arc '.ve permitted to sit do.Tn in 
quiet to invent, at our leisure, some now scheme of education, which, when settled 
to our own tastes, we may offer for public pa.tronagc, as a majiufacturer offers a 
nc'.v-fashioncd piano or plough. No such easy task of leisure hours is a.llowed us. 



1 Tho requirements for cntrajicc to the College of Engineering were not chaJigod from 
IS76 until IS92-93, except that from IS73-7U to I09O-9I, a one-year Builder's 
Course was offered in the Department of Architecture for which the requirements 
for admission were only tho four common-school branches. 

2 Page 2U. 



19 
Hosts of cp.rncst men .n,ro invo-tiontly --'natinij to sec ho'.'? xrc './ill meet the grc^t 
dut;^ ••.'hich the country iin.s entrusted 'to us," 

1 
The Cn,t,'dogu': and Circul-^.r of 1373. contnined the follo-'infj statement further il- 
lustrating the crrl;; educ-tional policies of the University": 

"The University'" bcinij dosi^uied not for children, but for young iicn and vromon v/ho 
n.%'- claim to Irnov/ somcthinf-; of their cm "ants, pov/crs pjid tastes, entire freedom 
in choice of studies is allo-'od to each student, subject only to such necessary 
Gonditions as the iirogi'css of the classes, or the convenience in teaching rc;i.uircs. 
It is not thought useful or right to urge every student, vithout regard to his 
Capacity, taste or practical vants, to trkc entire some lengthened curriculum, or 
course of studies. Liberty cvery'hcrc has its ris'.'s and responsibilities as ■'/ell 
■IS its benefits, in schools as ",'cll as in society; but it is yet to be proved that 
ccmulsor;'- scholarship is necessarily better, riper and more certain than that 
••'hich is free and self-inspired. Each student is expected to v/cigh carefully his 
o'.vn r;0'."'crE and needs, to counsel freely './ith his teachers, to chose v/ith serious 
and independent consider.-\t ion, the branches he ma;,' need -'ith earnestness ,and porsc- 
ver.ance, '--ithout faltering or fickleness, 

"It is necessarily required; 1st, That students shall bo thoroughly prepared to 
enter and keep pace ••ith the classes in studies c'.'.oson; -nc! 2nd, Th'-.t they shall 
tike these studies "hen they are being t.-'Ught. 

"It is expected that o.-'.ch student shall have three distinct studies, affording 
three class exercisos each dr,y, But on special ronucst to the Facult2S J-"^'^ ^"Q,'' "be 
allo'.'/ed less or norc, to meet the exigencies of his course. 

"lie changes in studies c-i^i be made after the beginning of a term, -dthout per- 
mission of the Faculty. ^ 

"It is recognized that students -'ill need advice in the selection of studies and 
in thi^ arra.ngcment of a proper course. To meet this need, the Fn.culty have care- 
fully arranged several courses of studies --hich are ex])ected to be follo--'ed by 
tJiosc '-'ho h'l.ve no special reasons for divergence from thc;.i, 

"Due care -'ill be t-iken to prevent as far as possible all abuse of the liberty of 
cnoice. Students failing to pass satisfactory examinations in their chosen studio;.; 
•■/ill not be allo'/ed to remain ■•'iid take other studies -ithout a vote of the Faculty. 

Experiments in thc ^ Use of Associate Examiners - In 1377 the Faculty adopted 
the plan of ap-;iointing anoth.er member of the staff to -assist tlie regular instructor 
in the subject in conducting the final ex-mi n-^t ion. Tlie -TguEients for this i-rocedure 
•.7erc that it •./ould acquaint t^io various members of the faculty •'ith the scope and 
methods of different subjects, and v'ould -ilso secure gro'iter uniformity in the 
method of conducting the ex'>minations ijul in gradint^ studcnits. 

Under this plan most, if not -^11, of the ex-amin-i.tions "cre oral. The examiners 
'/ere reluctnait to acceyit this mcth.od, since it "ould rcq.'airc many of them to 

1 Page 21 



20 
pr.rticipntc in the cx.-^.ninntion of r/ork 'vith -Thich they were not fnmiliar; nnd the 
students './cro nervous for fen.r they v/ould be examined upon phn.scs of the sutject 
not fully considered in the cln,ss» As far as the functions of the special ex."jnincr 
•7crc concerned, they v.'Gre in a large degree perfunctorj'. After a trial of three 
years, the plan vias abandoned under the belief tha,t nothing good liad nor could come 
of it. 

University Finances - The ea.rly years of the University's life 'vere filled 
•jith perplexities due to fina.ncial stringency, v.'hich caused some clouds to gather 
on the administrative horizon. First, in Ma.rch, I87O, the Regent reported to the 
Trustees that the expenses the preceding year had been $3U,600, 'jhilc the income 
v;as only $32,100f a,nd reconmendcd that the deficit be met by the s''.lc of bonds re- 
ceived as a bonus for the location of the University, but urged that every effort 
be made to keep the expenses -jithin the income* 

Second, in IS7I, the Legisl-iture made an appropriation of $75iOOO toward the 
erection of a building cstim-ted to cost $150,000, -.vith the understanding tha.t at 
the IS72 session nn equal amount would be appropriated to finish tUe structure; 
but in the meantime a gigantic conflagra.tion had destroyed the business section of 
Chicago, and the Legislature decided to appropria.te its ava.ilablc funds for re- 
lieving the situation there rather than for finishing the building here.. Conse- 
quently, it really bccrune necessary for the Board of Trustees to sell enough endov/- 
mont bonds to conploto the building. Sarnest efforts -verc made later to persuade 
the Legislature to reimburse the endo'OTiont fund, but to no a,vail. 

Third, the University had expanded more r-\pidly th^ii its income -■arranted. 
The attendance of students increased rapidly, and the necessary expense for appar— 
ratus, library, and instruction increased still more rapidly; but there -as no in- 
crease in the endov.'ucnt nor in the income. 

Fourth, the endo-.-mcnt, $3lU,000, -'as invested in Illinois county and city bonds 
most of nhich paid 8 or 10 per cent interest; but the mnj-rcrs of the bonds had the 
02)tion of paying them or of reducing the rate of interest. The outcome vas that 
'/ithin a fev7 years all of the bonds vTere I'efunded at a lower rate. By this rcductio 



21 

of the rate; of interest, the incono of the Univcraity ■bct'.'cen 1377 ^^'^ 1S33 shrunk 

onc-hnli . 

Durint'; the l.'^.st four ycp.rs of his n.toinistrr'.tion, i.e., lG75-gO, Re,'cnt 
Gregory in ;^evcral of -i.is rc-^orts to the Bo.-^a'd of Trustees discussed the need of 
nore fuiids, rind sur:;..:cstcd four t/p^s of securing a greater inconc. These '''crc, to 
raise tuition fees, to soouro possession of ccrt.-i.in college -and senin.ary funds held 
in trust Ijy the State of Illinois, to secure a fraction of a nill tax for the sup- 
port of the University, and to obtain a Ict^islativc appropriation for current ex- 
penses. The Trustees seen to have given careful consideration to the need of funds, 
and concluded that thr first throe methods of increasinf;: the income 'vcrc unv/isc or 
impracticable; but sccr.. not to h^wc left on record any definite opinion about the 
fourth not hod. 

In (Juno, IS70, the Trustees t-^a.vc notice that salaries vould probably be re- 
duced 10 per cent bcv~inning Sivptcubcr, IS77. In-lferch, IG77, in reicrrin,:; to this 
natter, the RQ^^ent in his ro^oilar ro-'iort to the Tinir.ters said: "If tlic s-i.la.rics ca.n 
not s;'.foly bo reduced to sue]-; extent as to brin~ then ''ithdn the djjainished income 
of the University, v/ill it not bo the duty of the 3oard to lay this fact before tho 
Lct;isla.turr of tho state that tho representative:- of tho v)eo ilr; na;^ havr^ the ori-')or- 
tunity to save the institution fron hai-^.i, if in their "isdon it is necessary, as 
Kichi._-;an and '.Visconsin h-rvo done in sinil-^r cases? T/ill the ^.eoyilo hold us jjuilt- 
loss if ''c .-illo"' the fair naiac and the bri:;l\t prospects of an institution -hich be- 
longs to then and not to us, to be sullied or blight id vithout any appeal to their 
rcTa-c-entativos for aid?" Evidently the 3oard t^iought s ilaries could be reduced 
safely, for t-icy did ro'^jicc the larger ones 'oy 10 percent. In addition, they also 
a.bolishcd sone positions. 

Apparently tlio Trustees lac'-ed f'>ith or courage to appeal to the Legislature 
for additional funds for current oxpenscs. Eo'.'cvcr, "in'-.n i;inediato effort to in- 
crc'isc receipts," thoy did authori'.';e "tho prej^aration and circul.-ition, throughout 
ever;, post office of the state, of circulars, posters, or ;;uch other r.dvertiscmcnts 
of the institution as uay bo thought best fitted to call the attention of our peopLc 



22 

to the University and its r>.(ivnjitn,gcs. " This method liad little, or no effect, upon 
the finances; and at host could not have had, since the University was spending 
soncthing like $150 por annum per student, '.7hile the student '.7as paying only $15, 
Of course, a fev more students would not have proportionally increased the total 
expense; Mt any considerable nunhor would have incre.-'.sed the size of the larger 
classes so as to have required additional teachers, and hence would have added 
ndarly proportional expense. In IS79, the 2rustees recommended that <an organized 
effort be made to secure a fraction of a mill tax for current expenses; but this 
result was not accomplished until I9II — thirty-tv/o years aJtonvards. 

A record of the total University income for the various bicnniums is given in 

1 
the follov/ing table: 

TABLE I -UNIVERSITY INCOME, IS67-IS8O 

Year Amount 

1867-62 $7^\75^ 

IS69-7O 133,279 

1871-72 173.102 

1373-7^ 123.^59 

1375-76 ■ 133,370 

1877-78 171,000 

1879-80 133.039 

These figures include amounts appropriated for new buildings mentioned in the 
nc:ct section. 

New Buildings - Three major buildings were erected during Doctor Gregory's ad- 
ministration: Mechanical Building and Drill Hall in I87I, University Hall in I873, 
and Chemistry (now Harker Hall) in I878, all of v/hich are described more fully in 
Chapter VI of this publication. All of the funds for the first and last of the 
three and about half for the second one came from legislative appropriations. 

University Faculty - The Report of the Committee, consisting of the Regent and 

four Trustees, appointed to consider "Courses of Study and Faculty", contained the 

follo-'dng statement regarding selection of the Faculty: 

" In the entire work of organizing the institution, there is no 

more difficult or important part than this. On the character and ability of its 
faculty, will the character and success of the University depend, more than upon 



1 The Alumni Record, I918, page XXXI 



nil other circiii.ist-'incos taken together. Buildings, cabinets, libraries, and rich 
endomients v/ill be all in vain, if the livin.'^ agents - the professors - bo not Hcn 
of I'ipe attaini.iGnts, fine culture and eminent teaching powers. 

" Sclf-noniuated candidates will always be abundant, but the ncn v;e 

■vant './ill need to be sought for as v;ith lighted candles. The incurabent of a pro- 
fessor's chair should be no ordinary nan. In this, its chief seat of learning, in 
v/hich it proposes to provide for the hij^hcst education of its sons, and fron v/hich, 
as a great center of science, it seeks to diffuse light to all the great fields of 
its industries, the State needs men of the highest type, as scholars and as men. 
The qualifications of every candidate for ,a professorship must be rigidly scruti- 
nized -.vithout fear or favor; njid none but men of tried and proven ability must be 
admitted to a place. Older and ordinary colleges nay do with second rate men; this 
University can only succeed vdth the best men, 

"A good college professor should hpve the three- fold qualification of emi- 
nent and extensive scholarship, at least in his department; tjio roughly-tested abil- 
ity to teach; and high-toned, ;,-cntlcm,anly character and culture. The first two are 
indispensable q_ualif ications; the third v;ill never be overlooked by those -jho have 
narked ho'-v inevitably r-Xid inefiaccably the teacher impresses his manners nnd ha"bits 
upon his pupils. If culture is the better part of education, hi -^h-toned character 
and genuine courtesy of n.-'.nncr and feeling are the better part of culture. 

" The coriTs of in-struction mx-- properly embrace four classes of 

teachers: 1st. Professors , or principnl instructors in" each department of study. 
2nd. Assistant Professors - younger, or less accomplished teachers, employed in 
sub-departments, or to aid in dcparti.icnts in which the v.'orh can not be fully done 
by one nan. 3^cL> Lecturers , or non-resident Prof cssors-mon eminent in some special- 
ty of art or science, ',/ho m.Ty be employed to visit the University at specified 
seasons, and give cajw/a^s of lectures. Uth. Tutors , or young men, employed tempo- 
rarily to give insti*uction in the nore elementary studies. "■'• 

^ 2 
During the first tnrri, 'vjiich extended from liai-c'i 2, iSoo, to June I3, ISoo, 

and which iLad ;in enrollment of fifty men students, tl^c faculty ciinsisted of the 
Regent, who -'as also Professor of PhilosopIVi ■'^-^-^ three additional members, two of 
whom started at the ber;i:uiing and one began later in the tcrj.i. At the tine of the 
opening of the fall ter;.i of the next school year, ho'-'cvor, five additional persons 
had joined the faculty, so that besides the Regent there was a Professor of English 
Language and Literature, who was also instructor in Natural Philosoi^hy; a Professor 
of History and Social Science, vrho was also Insti\ictor in Latin; a Professor of 
Katur."! History paid Geolo.^/-; a Professor of Agriculture, wlio was also Instructor 
in French; a Professor of Theoretical and A]:plied Chonistry; an Assistant Professor 
of Natur'il Science; nnd .-ui Assistant Professor of Mathematics, -ho ''as also In- 
structor in Military Tactics. 



1 Jirot Annual Report of the Board of Ti-ustees, 126S, page 61. 

2 Report of the University of Illinois, iSoS, pages 37 and gU. 

3 Wonen 'j/erc admitted in IS/O. 



The follovxintT; table gives the number of persons on the University faculty 

during the administration of Doctor Gregory: 

TABLE II- NUilBSR 0? FEHSOilS OK THE UNIVEESITY FACULTY, I867-IS8O 

Year Number of Members 

1857-68 5" 

136S-69 11 

1869-70 19 

IS7O-7I 20 

1871-72 2k 

1872-73 25 

1873-7^ 25 

lS7'+-75 30 

IS75-76 27 

I876-77 25 

1877-7S 29 

•1S7S-79 33 

1279-80 29 

Events of Doctor Gregory's Later Life - Doctor Gregory continued to serve as 
Hegent until September 1, 1880, v/hen his resignation became effective, For a 
time after that, he v/as a member of the Commission of Education at Washington, D.C, 
during '.vhich period he held the title of Professor Emeritus of Political Economy 
at the University of Illinois. From IS95, to I897, he was Acting President of 
Pennsylvania State College. 

Doctor Gregory passed away in Washington, D. C.,- on October I9, I898. His 
body was brought to the University of Illinois and placed in state in the rotunda 
of the Library Building (Altgeld Hall). On the following Monday, October 23, a 
memorial convocation was held in University Hall Chapel, following which his body 
was placed temporarily in a vault in Mt . Hope Cemetry. Within a short time there- 
after, the Board of Trustees voted that the body of Doctor Gregory be buried, in 
accordance with his wish, on the University Campus. This was during the following 
November. The site chosen was immediately west of University Hall, or as it now 
is, directly between the Administration and Mathenatics Buildings, a site marked 
by a clump of low-growing evergreens surrounding a bronze tablet mounted on a 
boulder removed from the ground during the construction of Lincoln Hall. 

President ' Draper's Eulogy - The remarks of President Draper in opening the 
memorial convocation assembled to pay last tribute to Doctor Gregory seem very 



1 "Sixteen Years at the University of Illinois",, page 129 , 



appropriate to close the histor;' of the first rcgcnc-/-. 

"John Hilton Grcgorv came hero in the spring of I867 to nakc plans for this 
University'", to lay the very bottoia stones of its foundations, ajad, a year later, 
to stand in its doorway/ and receive its first students. Ho'.7 singularly qualified 
and ad;ir,ted he was for such a '.Tork, for years has been upon the lips of many, hut 
Can never he told too often. 

"He was then at the ai,-o of forty-five. He v.'as a sound English and classi- 
cal scholar. Ec had even norc than the ordinary versatility of thoi-ough scholar- 
ship, and he had already had nuch experience in educational administration. Cn 
occasions he v/rotc poetry of no mean order; silvery chines rang melodies in the 
teraplo of his soul. Our art gallery vill al'.vays bear 'fitness that he had the eye 
and the feeling of an artist. Kg '7as a clerg^.T-ian. Hot only v/as his heart keyed 
to the riusic of the huiianitics and concccratcd to the servic-e of the Master, but 
his nind had been disciplined by the coldly intcllecturil and logical philosophy of 
Calvin. He had studied the La'-v. Ho kncj the stor^'' of its dcvclopnent and vcncr^ 
ated it for what it had cost. Kc had the battles of mankind for freedom and for 
progress engraved upon his hcai't, and v/as thoroughly familiar ^ith the growth of 
institutions. He Ivad many of the oloments of a statesman. In a v/ord, he know 
histor^/-, and guided by its lights, could look clearly into the future. He vjas a 
forceful v/riter and an orator 'vho could comm.and a hearing. Ho had courage. He 
had Puritnii blood in his veins, and it settled the -va;' in vhich he '70uld maintain 
a, conviction. Ho could -'ithstand an assault or he could lead an advance; he could 
rise to an occasion or he could wait "Tith patience and bide his timci Perhaps more 
than all else he was a teacher. Ho had been an apt pupil, an ardent admirer and a 
strong friend of Sliphalot ITott of Union College, th.-tn whom no man in America had 
inspired and molded more lives. He acquired the spirit and ways of his own great 
college president. H.,- could put his heart against the hearts of others and warm 
them, ;ind he could linl; his mind into the minds of otxiers to draw them out and in- 
vigorate then. Again a:id again former students have testified to «ic, and in tcle- 
gr.aia and letter are hourly testifying nov/, of the u^olifting and lasting influence 
of Dr. Grcgorj^ upon their lives. 

"Ihcse different qualities, blended together, mcllo'-'cd nnd. refined by ex- 
perience, produced ,an altogether unusual m,aii, one '.vho could manage men --aid lead 
movcnonts as well; one v/ho could deal with the cvciv-day questions of educational 
detail bettor than most men could do it, but who could not be content with doing 
that alone; one vho could both fire souls and build institutions, and v.'hose frail 
body was charged -jith a spirit v-jiich would permit ]'dm to do nothing less. 

"Even more, and '.-hat is more import'\nt to us, there '..'ere not a hnlf a do::en 
other men in the world thirty years ago -'ho sa'.v, as he did, the necessity of the 
nc:ct groat step '.rhich "as imperative to the complete and enduring development of 
popular education. His knowledge of history, his stud;- of economics, his frequent 
conta,ct v/ith questions of st.ato, and his love for the common brothei-hood of m.an led 
him to sec that the old system of education ".as not equal to the support of demo- 
cratic institutions. This particular kno-'lcdge was the consiuiing fire in his soul. 
The enlargement of the educ-i.tion.-a plriji so that it should carry the opportunity for 
a. collegiate education to over;-,- hone, and so th.at the influence of liberal learning 
should bear directly upon the vocations of the industrial masses, '7as the matter to 
'.7hich he was impelled lij an irrestiblc imioulse of his heart to give the great powei's 
of his mind. 

"Shis is the particul.ar 'vork ho undertook for the jieoplo of the prairies 
and the ne'.T to'jns of this then pioneer common'..'ealth. His plans '.vere adequate. He 
kncv; that in cssentia_s they v/ero imperative. He did not bo'.-7 his head to the de- 
mand '-.'hich the thoughtless multitude made for merely practical training, for he 
kne'-" that '.7hat '7as denrijided '.70uld be neither scientific nor practical, nnd that 



i.'0 

it must be both if it '.7oul(i endure; he ".7ould have been falso if he had wnvered, 
and he could not be false. He '.7ould never lower the plan of education: he would 
uplift the coEimon life. The croTrd '.vas disposed to ridicule his theories and over- 
throv; his plans, but he '.7ould not allon it, and as he '.vas right there \7as no need 
to allo\7 it. In all this he but brought his personality to the surface of affairs. 
If he had permitted himself to be controlled by the crowd he v/ould have disappeared 
in the crovfd, and the University of Illinois would have been insufficient for its 
constituency and un"./ortlv the great State for \7hich it stands. 

"His humanity, his learning and his courage laid the foundations not of a 
merely technical school, but of a University ready to supply instruction in any 
branch of advanced learning to anyone prepared to receive it. This distinguished 
him from among his fcllov/s: it won him the enduring gratitude of Illinois and of 
the friends of progress throughout the world, in his own and in all generations. 
His students v;ill cherish his memory for what he did to shape their lives, and 
well they may: but the University that is now, and the still greater University 
that is to be, will hold him in tender recollection for what he did for it. In- 
deed, his work is respected and his memory has become already a sacred influence 
in our life, but their value and their beauty will be more manifest to the Uni- 
versity, the State and the Comitry, with each of the coming years which is yet un- 
wound from the great reel of infinite time. 

"Wo mny take such formal steps as we can to honor his memory no'.7; but what 
we do v;ill seem feeble indeed; the University is his monument. He received from 
the State v/hose citizen and benefactor he became at middle life many marks of es- 
teem; he was sent abroad upon important missions and called to high public service 
by the General G-overnmcnt more than once: but the honors which will be most sub- 
stantial and last the longest will be the minds he quickened and the soulS he in- 
spired through personal contact, and yet more througli the form which he was able 
to give and the spirit which ho was able to breath into the University. These 
will be reproduced and multiplied infinitely". 

B, S3LIM HOBAHT PEA30DY, REGEMT 1380-1891 
Barly Training and Experience - Selim Hobart Peabody was born in Rockingham, 
Vermont, on August 20, I829, was grad\iated from the University of Vermont in I852, 
and received his Fh. D. degree there in IS77. On March 11, 1S68, University In- 
auguration Day in Urbana, he was selected as the first professor in the University 
and was offered the chair of Mechanical Science and Engineering; but after consider- 
ing the matter for a year, declined. Ho did accept an invitation later, however, 
to join the University, for on October 10, I878, more than ton years after his 
first appointment, he became Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, 
Near the close of March, I88O, he resigned to accept an attractive position in 
New York City as editor-in-chief of what later became the International Encyclo- 
pedia. On July 27, of that srune year he was called back to the University as 
Professor of Meclianical Engineering and Physics and as Regent pro t empo re , for 



1 John Milton Gregory, LL. D, , Memorial Convocation, pages 5-8. 



27 

Regent G-rcgor;;.'- hnd nnnouncod his ovm resignation at the Councnceiacnt exercises on 

June S, 1S80. Dr. Pcal)od,v assuned his ne'j duties on Au(r;ust 15, follor/ing, p,nd on 
March 9, 1881, the next regular tine for appointing regents according to statutory 
provision, he v;as forr.ipJ.ly nade Regent. He 'vas in the same year honored v/ith the 
degree of LL.D. by the University of lo'Ja. 

Doctor Feabod^-'s Work as Teacher - For the first year after his election as 
Regent, Doctor Peabody taught all of the technic-^J. subjects in the mechanical- 
engineering course of stud;''. Kc served as Professor of llcchanical Engineering and 
Physics until the fall of lo35i teaching rcsistnncc of natcrials and hydraulics to 
all senior engineers and pliysics to all juniors. In addition, he taught all seniors 
mental science, or psychology as it is no'./ known, logic, and political economy, - 
subjects forr.icrly taught by Regent G-regor;-. He continued to be Professor of 
Mechanical Engineering until the fall of 1827, after uhich tine the title of regent 
stood as a position by itself. 

Do c 1 r Pcabody ' s I7or': as Regent - In addition to the '..'or]: of instructor, Doc- 
tor Peabod;;- '.Tas untiring in his attention to his duties .as Regent., Due to the oon- 
citions resulting fron the lack of finances, he had alnost no clerical help and 
practically no office equi-o.icnt. As there was no registrar then, he vrith his own 
hnjids, made out all clasis cards at the bcgiiining of each ten.i and entered all grades 
at the close of the tern. He conducted long-liand all the correspondence of the 
Regent's office, for he had no stenographer, and throughout his adnini strati on, the 
University did not ovni a single typewriting machine. 

ilot'./ithstanding the great anount of detailed labor reouired of hin, he served 
the University v/ith great fidelity and 7.c.p1. During the eleven years of his ad- 
nini stration as Regent, riainly throujgli his personal labors, the business and edu- 
cational nethods of the UnivciT.ity v/ere n.'iterially inprovcd; and the systen of 
accredited schools v/as e;ctcnded and the relations of these institutions vita the 
University '.vcrc greatly stren:gthened. Sonc of the outstanding events of Regent 
Peabod;"'c regii.ie are described in the follcving sections. 



2S: 

Name of tho Institution Changed fron Illinois Industirial University to the 
University of Illinois- The chief argiinont leading to the establishment of land- 
grant colleges '.7as the need of industrial classes for technical education, pjid in 
the early history of this institution .all connected with it '.vore proud of its title; 
but as tiue \;cnt on, penjil or reforr.iatorj'' and nanunl-labor institutions, canc to be 
called industrial schools, and the term industrial took on a meaning entirely differ- 
ent from -Jhat it had v/hen the title of the institution was adopted. In I87S, Regent 
Pcabody reported to the Trustees that the narae of the University was "a misnomer 
which has already caused much confusion and the loss of many desirable students." 
As an example of the misapprehension caused by the nanc, a nan './rote: "My wife has 
recently died leaving six children from 2 to 11 years old. Cn \;h,at terms will you 
take those children?" Misunderstanding the nature of tho institution sometimes 
cast aspersion upon the students and graduates of the University. Students were 
sometimes asked: "Wlaat were you sent up for?" After the main difficulties were 
overcome — and there were many of them, for the propos.al to m.oke the change was 
contested bitterly even in the General Assembly .and especially in J;hc Senate — the 
name was changed by the legislature, and tho now nana was approved by tho Gevernor 
on July ig, IS35. This legislative act marked the culnination of years of patient 
effort on the part of Segcnt Peabody, in support of a movement started by the 
Alumni Association years before, and was considered one of the outstanding events 
of his adninistration. 

The University faculty - When Regent Peabody was appointed in ISSO, there 
were in addition to himself, fourteen full professors, two assistant professors, 
one instructor, and four assistants on the faculty — twenty-one in all. During the 
year I89O-9I1 there were twenty-three full professors, two assistant professors, 
six instructors and assistantsr-thirty-nine in all. This represents an increase 
of eighty-six per cent dui'ing his adr,-iinist ration. 

In addition to this substantial grcrth in the number of the staff there was 

a distinct improvement in tho quality of the work offered .and in tho standing 

which the institiitinn hnri n.ttninnrl thrniighmit the Stntn. IhouohJicUitO. r Peabody 's 

1 "Selim Hobart Pcabod;^" by Il.athcrine Peabody G-irling, page ly^-. 



influence '/ns directed noi-c to orcn.nizinc-^, systen^.tizinf^, mid cxp.madint-]; the cur- 
riculun tlir\n to scholarly cudcri,vor, the prOfi^rossivc alertness to TiOdern education- 
al ains and ricthods 0:1 the part of the faculty that ;iad characterized the earlier 
years continued and bct-jan to he nore \7idcly knovrn and appreciated. 

T'^,'blc III :~ivcs the n\inbcr of persons connected 'vith the University faculty 

2 
durin," the years 1330-lCqi. 

TABLE III - NUMBER OF PERSONS ON THE UNIVERSITY FACULTY, 1880-1891 

Year ITui.iher 

13S0-S1 28 

1881-32 26 

1882-83 2k 

1S3V3U 25 

183^-85 ■ 27 

1885-86 29 

IC86-37 29 

1837-38 29 

l8o3-3q 30 

iGu9-q6 32 

1 890-91 39 

University Finances - '^nc of the CJ-'catost contributions nadc by Ro.:jont Pea- 
body to the dcvolopnent of the University '^as his inprovonnnt in the finajicial re- 
sources of the institution. Procndin,: the tine of his adriinist ration, the State 
Lcf'^islature had been strongly opposed to appropriations for anythin.^ connected with 
the University be2"ond --'hat nas loi-a.lly necessary; and all of the connitnents had 
been clca.rly for specified objectives, such as for buildinf-;s and shops, for nuseuin 
and librar;/- purposes, and for spocinnn cabinets and cases, ajid did not include 
salarir^s for instruction.- Accordint':;ly, the salaries of all the leading; professors 
had been reduced due to lack of funds for the purpose; as sone positions had be- 
cone tii^.cant they -'ere left so, the duties bein;-; distributed to other persons; cer- 
tain departncnts, as those of conriercc, ninin.^, a,nd ronostic science, had been 
discontinued; the ^-'at'ccs of janitors and other onploynes had been reduced; the fees 
to be paid by students ha,d been increa.scd; and the no st ri(;;id econony '7as observed 
cvcr:a^rhere. 



1 Historical Slretch, the Alw.ini Record, I9IS, pa^cs XIII-XIV 

2 "Sir.tccn Years at the University of Illinois", pa..-:;e 129 

3 I^y the texns of the Fcdcrnl-Land G-rant Act, no part of the federal funds could be 
used for the purchase, erection, or repair of buildinf-rs; and hence from the bo- 
(fiinnin,-;, the Le^'^islature had nade ratlier substantial appropriations for this 
pur-no s e . 



At the ler;islativc session of ICCl, his first year as Eef:ent, the Trustees, 
spurred on by Doctor Peabof^^ resolved, to ask, in addition to the usual suns for 
shops, laboratories, library facilities, and repairs, for an appropriation of 
$10,000 per year for the current Gxiicnscs of salaries and wafies. The Legislature 
grajited about half that ax.iount — $11,^00 for the tvTO-year period for this purpose 
and for coverin{^ sonc of the loss suffered by the University because of the re- 
duction in the interest on its investments. Hor/evcr, this contribution fron the 
State Treasury in support of .-general instruction \ins the first real ackno\vled(7nent 
by the General Assenbly that this '^as indeed the State University; and fron this 
bOi'^inninf:, the instructional fund was i^radually increased throUfiiout the years, 
bcin;-: $lU,000 for the t-ro years lCCJ,-3k, $2U,000 for lGS5-o6, $32,000 for IS07-88, 
and $UO,000 for lSSg-90. These v;cro lar.-to suns in conparison 77ith the salary bud- 
rtete of the prccodinf-r a^jiinist ration, but vrorc altogether inadequate for the v/ork 
the University was attempt inc to do. 

Eercnt Peabody -./as very active in the passage of the afiiri cultural bill by the 
national Con/^rcss establishinr* the Af^riculturnl Expcrincnt Station in loo7, njid of 
the second Morrill bill in iSgo, both measures yielding the University the sun of 
$Uo,000 annually. 

The total University Income for the several years of Regent Peaborly's in- 

2 

cunbcncy are r;ivcn by bienniuns in the followin.-' table: 

TA3L3 IV - UNIVSRSITY IlICCME^- ISol-lggO 

Year Ar-:ount 

lo3l-22 $129,621 

lb'S3-8U 1^1,033 

ISS5-06 lU9,67S 

ISG7-S6 180,960 

1^39-90 237,17s 

Further discussion of finances, this tine ns it relates to nev buildinfrs, is 

presented in the next topic. 



1 Historical Sketch, The Alunni Record, I9I0, paf^o XIII, and "Selin Hobart Peabody" 
by Catherine Feabor'^.- Girlin,-, pages 173-17^. 

2 The Alunni Record, I913, pa.-e XXXI 

3 Includes appropriations for constructing: the Mechanical Building; and Drill Kail 
Anne::, the Did An.iory, and the first unit of Natural History Buildinj-^. 



No\7 Buildlnf;s - During; tho atoinistration of Recent Peabody, a snail ono- 

story annex ';7as added to the Mechanical Building nnd Drill Hall for a 'blacksnith 

shop. Doctor Pcabody'r. efforts in securing appropriations for other 'buildincs is 

expressed vcrj^ aptly in the Resolutions adopted hy the University Senate in I903, 

at the tine of the passinr: of the fomcr Rodent. They read in part: 

"When in iGSy application was nade to tho State Lci~islature for a Military 
Hall, there 'Tas little "basis for hope of success, and it was a real triunph v/hon 
an appropriation of $10,000 was secured for this purpose. This, snail as the a- 
noimt was, proved to "be the 'be.'^iinnin;'; of a chrJirc in policy on the part of the 
people of the State as represented in the General Assenhly towards the University. 
During the next session in I809, $70,000 was appropriated for the Natural History 
Buildinf'^. In this case it was Ref:;cnt Peabody who secured tho passage of the 
lOf^islativc enact nent."l 

The Adninistration takes st eps to Advertise the University - During; the refine 
of Doctor Pcabori^, the University undertook a caiipaif^n to infom the people of the 
state and even the nation rcnardin,-^ the facilities and possibilities of the Uni- 
versity throuj-^h its alvuini and its students, through the efforts of its officers 
and faculty in visiting and addressing assemblies of the people, and by neans of 
exhibits illustrating the character of its instruction and acconplislinents. It 
was cstinatcd that durin,-; tho year 1238, the University faculty attended over 100 
asscnblies and delivered no re than 200 addresses. The nost notable of the techni- 
cal exliibits were displayed at state fairs ajid at the rreat educationnl oxlaibitions 
at Madison, Wisconsin, and at ChicatTO, Illinois. In addition, they were shown for 
six nonths at the State House in Sprinnficld, and for sixteen nonths at the Expo- 
sition at New Orleans,'^ 

Other Si ,-,713 of Inprovcncnt durin,- Re/Tent Peabody 's Adninistration - In the 
closinn years of tho Rercncy of Doctor Peabody, the University shov/cd increased 
sii^^s of ('growth and prosperity, partly due to the chanf^o in the nane of tho in- 
stitution, and partly to the election of the Trustees by the voters of the State — 
two facts that tended to convince the people that this v,'as indeed the State Uni- 
versity — and partly to the advertising-!; Cfij.ipaifTn previously nentioncd. The nost 
con crete evi dence of th e chan.-^c in tho public sentincnt that followed as a result 

l"Selin Hobart Peabody" by Katherinc Peabody Girling, pa^c I73-I7U. 
2 Report of the University of Illinois, iSSo, pa,Te 211. 



52 

of those activities './as the incroasc in the legislative appropriation for the 
"Drill Hfai", or, as it later 13000x10 known, tho Amory, and the first unit of the 
Natural History Biiildinf:;, the first ne'.7 buildin-^s in a decade. 

Doctor Foabody's Later Life- Rof;cnt Pcaborly presented his rcsif:nation on 
June 10, IG91, to taize effect on Septenber 1, in order that he nirfit 'becone Chief 
of the Department of Liberal Arts in the World's Colunbian E:qoosition at Chica,?). 
Later, he bcc.aMc its Actin." Director General. He v;as connected "ith other sinilar 
undo rtaki nits in after years, and passed a'.7ay in St. Louis, on May 26, 1903» '"'here 
he vras cni-^ancd in planninf^ for the St. Louis Exposition, 

The University Scnat c ' s Tribute to Doctor Pcabody follo?ri.n," his dcat h in 1903- 

Thc follo'vin,": tribute concornini-: the "vork of Doctor Foabody '7as expressed by the 

University Senate follorrin.- his death in I903: 

"Rcfjont Pcabody was everywhere recognized as a nan of hirh scholarship, as 
an attractive writer of sin;-;ularly tense and well-v;ordcd English prose, as a force- 
ful and efficient public speaker, and as an educator in the broader sense of the 
tcnn of .Teat ability and influence. In any educational convention he attended he 
he V7as; always, without .any sulf-peekinf^, one of the leaders of when nuch was ex- 
pected. He possessed very clear ideas upon a wide ranre of subjects and expressed 
then easily and vdth notable precision. He was Ions'- proninent in*thc Councils of 
the National Educational Association; and anon-; the representatives of the so-call- 
ed land-Tant collc:Tes no one had .":roater influence in the annual asscublics." 

C. THOMAS JOHITATHAIJ BUKRIIL, ACTING REGENT ^ IS9I-IS9U 

Early Trainin^-; ^ and Experience - Thonas Johjnathan Burrill, Actin.-^ Rerient fron 

1891 to I09U, was born at Fittsfield, Massachusetts, on April 25, 1939, and was 

Craduatcd fron the Illinois State Nomal University in 1065. He received the 

honorary A.M. dc,';rcc at Northwestern University in IS76, and the honorary LL. D. 

dc^roe there in 1393. In addition, he received the Ph. D. dcf^reo at tho University 

of Chica':o in IGSI. Professor Burrill Joined the faculty here on April 20, i860, 

only two nonths after the University opened as Instructor in Alf^ebra, but v/as soon 

appointed Assistant Professor of Natural History. Ho bccanc Professor of Botany 

and Horticulture in iSyO, aiid was sorvinr™ in that capacity in 1378, '"hen he was 

asked to assiinc, in addition, the duties of the Dean of the College of Science. In 

1879, he took over on top of his other assi^nncnts, the duties of Vice-Regent. He 

1 "Selin Hobart Peabody" by Katherino Pcabody Girling, page 173 . 



33 

carried, the triple 'burdon until ISSU, '.vhen ho vjas rolievcrl of tho position of Dean. 
While he '.?as servinn as Vice-Rcr^ent and as Head of his DepArtnont in IC9I, ho '.7as 
requested to take on additional duties ai^ain, this tine as Actin/r Ecf^cnt. During 
the throe years ho served as the chief executive officer of the University, ho 
continued to adiiinistcr the affaiis of his cvn departnont. 

Tho Edacational Policies of Acting; Regent Burr ill - Mthouif^h his appointnent 
as Actin,'^ Ref;cnt was a kind of ad interim appointnent, his atoinistration was note- 
worthy in nany respects, as a result of which the University seoned to taJcc on new 
life. The nost outstanding: dcvolopnents in his rCi^inc for which ho V7as chiefly re- 
sponsible were as follows: the change in tho tenure of professors fron one year to 
an unlinitcd period, -this boinf alnost the first act of his adninistration, renov- 
inf'^ a cause of unrest and dissatisfaction on tho part of the nenbors of the faculty; 
the appointnent of nuncrous standin/^ connittocs fron tho faculty, each vrith cer- 
tain adninistrativo duties which had heretofore been perforned by the Recent, if 
at all, which nadc available in a direct and sinple nanner the experiences and 
services of all the leading?; ncnbers of the teachin^ staff; the auttiorization of a 
plan for a sabbatical year on half pay for professors, although it was recOf'!;nized 
that there was then no noncy v.'ith which to carry out the plan; the ostablishnent 
of now dcpartnonts and the appointnent of first-class nen to direct then; the de- 
vclopncnt of a freer student life; the creation of the office of registrar; the in- 
au^ration of the Gi'aduato School, and its support by convincin.-; l0t:;ic and inspir- 
ing eloquence; the oponin;^ of the first session of the Sunner School; and greatly 
inprovcd financial conditions \7hich allowed increases in salaries of the instructiona- 
al staff ?ind the construction of nev,' buildinf^s. The last four itons are expanded 
in sonc detail in the followinf^ paraf^raphs. 

Student and Adninistration Relationships - Tho bitter fcclin.i^s that developed 
in the previous a,djiinistrat ion over student eovornnent and student discipline and 
the abolition of fraternities, were very nuch inprovod durin^^ Doctor Burrill's 
three-year tenure, and f ra.tcrnitios- wore allowed to re-establish thonselves in the 
canpus area. There were nany difficulties to be ironed out, of course, but the 



3^ .- 

problcns seem to hn,ve been lipjidlcd to the (•'general satisfaction of all rroups in- 
volved. Evory-rhcre a better spirit c^e^7 up. Students wore allov/ed f:reatcr liber- 
ty of action and they responded vith f;reater sanity in conduct. The student or- 
fjanizations becaiie enthusiastic in their support of the institution, and the re- 
lations bet'.vecn students and faculty becane norc agroenblc than thoy had been for 
several years. 

Or^rani2od Instruction in the^ G-raduat e School - IThilc facilities for advanced 
study and for research in various lines had been offered and carried on by the 
University as early as iSyS, and the faculty had announced courses Icadinsi to the 
master's dofiree as authorized by the Board of Tr<ustcos on Ma;,' 11, 1277, organized 
instruction under the naxie of the Graduate School '-a-s first undertaken during: 
Doctor Burrill's adiuinistration in lo92, although there was no provision nadc for 
a separate faculty. In this connection, Doctor Burrill wrote to the Board of 

Trustees on March o, lo92, the followinr:: " it secns to no very desirable 

that further opportunities should be provided for post- .■graduate '..'ork. Alnost no 
attention has been f:iven to this, thou.-ih even a conparativoly snail nunber of such 
students would natorially aid in f-^ainin- outsido, hi^h repute for the University, 
and in fivin;-; tone njid quality to the underr^raduat e \iork. Good cx^nple is an ex- 
cellent stimulus ..... .Jiivjnr other thin,Ts, wc should thus help to stiraula.tc in 

all dcpa.rtncnts the idea and habits of research, an essential to every live teacher 

2 

and the only substantial basis to scholarship and to public rcco.^nition." 

On March 2, iSgU, the Board took another step forward v/hen they voted to es- 
tablish courses leading to the dCi-^rees of Ph. D. and Sc.D, 

It seeus o:ily logical now that these steps should have been taken durinr"; 
Doctor Burrill's tenure as chief executive of the University, for he himself, in 
spite of his heavy artoinistrativc duties, v;aG always active in experimentation, 
and contributed many scientific discoveries of prime inportancc . 



1 "Pacts for Presluian concernin,-; the University of Illinois", IS'H, V^F.o 10 

2 Ta':cn from "U.of I. Seventy-fifty Anniversary, IS6J-I9U3, Convocation Fro.^ran, 
March 2, I9U3". 

3 The Sc.D. flepre«^ \:'r^. not offerfif! pfter 189^-99. 



35- 

Ssta"blishncnt of tho Suronor S chool - The Surincr School was instituted in I09U, 
■jhcn the first session lastin.'^ four weeks was opened on June lo, of that year, the 
Board of Trustees havini^ appropriated $1,200 on March 3. to carry on this work. 

As stated in the I09U-95 issue of tho University CatalO|--ue: "In its auimcr 
session the University ains to offer work of university ;':rade v/hich shall in its 
character lie especially adapted to the needs both of university students and of 
teachers in the public schools. Students v/ho arc back in their studies, or who 
'.'ish to anticipate studies, njid tep.chcrs who -.vish to broaden their knov/lcdrie and 
strenf-tthen thcnselves in the natter of attainnont, will find in the suniier school 
of the University abundant ojjportunity to acconplish these purposes. The facili- 
ties for stud;,^ in the branchcr^ offered, .and the character of instruction, are of 

2 
the best the University ni'fords." 

Of the thirty-ei/iht attondin,-: the suiinor session in I09U, twenty-six were 
teachers fron schools throUi"^hout the State. Kenbers of the ro;,XLlar facxilty ^ave 
the instruction, and the full resources of the University plant \/cre nadc availabla-. 
The courses offered were those ordinarily ,";iven nov; in liberal arts and science arr". 
educational departi.ients. 

University Finances - Cne of the outstanflin{; feature of the adiiini strati on was 
the increased financial support throur^ appropriations rr-anted by the General 
Assonbly. Rcrcnt Burrill naintained the philosophy tha.t the University should ask 
for whatever funds it noodcd, infon; the General Asscnbly accordingly, and leave 
the rosijonsibility v/ith that body for ^-^rantinr or denyin;-^ the requests. Fron 
appeals nado in IG93, by various .-roups in support of this policy, the Legislature 
appropi'iatod $120,000 for instruction njirl $5+31,500 for new buildings, includinr 
$160,000 for Ennineerinn Hall. The total incone of the University was $359, lUU 



1 In the suianors of I096-90 courses of study were conducted only at the Universitys 
Biolorical Experinent Station on the Illinois Hiver. In lGg9, when the re;?alar 
Sunncr Session wa,s re-established at Urbana, it bocane a pemanent institution, 
extendin,-: at first for six v/oeks and later for eic-^t weeks. In I9U2, the sessions 
v/ere lenc-'thonod to tv/clve weeks pjiA in 19^3> to sixteen v/eoks. 

2 Pa-e 173. 



3o^ 

for the bienniun lo91-g2, mvl $1491,9^1 for tho bienniuri I093-9U. 

New Buildiiifs - In IS92, durinf^ Hc'ont Burrill's torn in office, the first 
Tinit or north portion of the Nn,tural Eistory Builrlin.i was constructed. Also dur- 
ing- this period — in lG93--constru.ction of Snt-^incorinn Enll v/as be;-:un and alnost 
conpletcd. Thus, by the cnr',. of his refine, there v/ere five lar,-^c buildin.^s in- 
cluding Mechanical Buildin,-; and Drill Hall, University Hall, ol'""- Chcnistry Build- 
inr:, old Amory, and the first unit of Natural History Buildin.-;, available for 
instructional purposes, and another one, Enrineerin^; Hall, v/as '.veil on tho v;ay to 
conplction, to say nothin/; of farn, service, and other structures of that type. 

The University Faculty - The nunbcr of University faculty ncnbcrs durinr- the 

tenure of Doctor Burrill, as indicated in the follov/in^-; table, increased alnost 

fifty per cent in the three-year period as follows: 

2 
SABLE V 1IU1.IBSR OF FERSOHS Oil THE UlIIVERSITY FACULTY, IS9I-9U 

Year N ui^ber 

lS91-q2 U3 

IG92-93 ^3 * 

1393-9^ 67 

Of the sixty-seven in lG93-9^> twenty were connected with the faculty in enfji- 
necrin,-;, of v/hich five held the title of full professor. 

Exliibit at the Vo rl d ' s Coluiibian E:cposition - In IS93. the University prcsenii 
ted at the ITorld's Coluiibian E:q:)Osition in Chica.^o, a very extensive exliibit of 
its work, -"by far the nost extensive and nost representative shown by any insti- 
tution." die University was conpai'atively sanll at that tine cand not widely known 
even f-oaonf the residents 01 our own State; and this occasion afforded a splendid 
opportunity to inpross the citizenry -'ith the objectives, dovelopnents, and ac- 
conplishi.icnts of their educational plant. This exhibit was displayed in tho 
Illinois Buildin^^, a lar.^e and strikinf": stinicture occupyin;-; n conspicious position 
which attracted r;reat nunbors of the people of the State; and the publicity thus 
gained by tho University was a considerable f.actor in the subsequent rapid f-^rowth 

in the nunbcr of students a nd also in the f:reatly increased lef^islative 

1 Tho Alunni Hocord. I9I8, parieUXXXI 

2 "Sisteen Years at tho University of Illinois", pcaf;e I29. 



37 

appropriations the University received in the next few years. 

That portion of the exlii'bit relatin."; to the CollC(^e of Eni^iincorinn presented 
in nuch detail the v;orh of the several departnents, and attracted a .^reat deal of 
attention anonn teachers of eni-^ineerinn throu.-^hout the country. It received nany 
favorable coiinondations for its cxliibits and for the ncthods of instruction en- 
ployed at the University and the character and quality of the work done. 

Inau,--:uration of the xVfo-Yoar Preparatory School -In March, I09U, the Board 
of Tinistcos cstahlishcd a tv/o-years' course in the Prcpai'atory School. Prepara- 
tory classes had been tau.™ht alnost fron the bCf'^innin^ of the institutions hut vrith 
the njiticipation that the tine 'vould soon cone vh.cn such instruction ni-^lat he left 
to the hi-}i schools. If it had scencd possihlc, the University vroxild cla.c^ly have 
abandoned the preparatory work and have offered tr,",inin;" only above the hi.-h- 
school level; but if, as it appoar^^d, it nust continue 'vith such instruction be- 
cause nany hi'-h schools were not fully prepared to meet the educational dcnpjids, 
it had to raise the standards in order to provide for the school a norc creditable 
place in the University's instructional ■pTOfXrj.i. Consequently, a principal '"^'as 
appointed, teachers vferc onploycd, and a course of instruction v/as laid out. The 
attendance in the Preparatory School durinr; 1393-9^^ ''"^s l6b. 

Doctor Burrill's Subsequen t Life - Acting He^ent Burrill relinquished his 
duties as the chief o:a;cutive officer of the University on Septenber 1, 189^, but 
his throo-ycar tenure had an innstinable effect in start inir:; the University on the 
hirhivny tov;ards fTcater success and lar/:;er service. Doctor Burrill continued to 
servo as Professor of Botany and Horticulture until I903, and as Professor of 
Botfuiy fr-.n I903 until VjlP.. In addition, he was Denji of the Genuml Faculty dur- 
in- I09U-I9OI, Dean of the Graduate School durinr; IS9U-I905, Vice-President during 
I09U-I912, and Actin.- EoHcnt a-^ain during a portion of 190!+. 

On June 12, I912, at Corr.icnccnGnt exercises, 'lurin,- President HrLnund J. Jar.ics ' 



1 On Dcccnber Z, 1903, the nru.ic of the Preparatory- Departnont v/as changed to "The 
Acadeny of the University of Illinois." 



3S 

atoinist ration, the University of Illinois conforrod the honorary dc.^rcc of IjL. D. 
upon Professor Burrill in rccor-^nition of his lonf ai.d useful period of services to 
the University and the State. He retired on Septor'bcr 1, I912, as Professor 
Sneritus of Botany with a sustaining allovance fro: the Carncftie Foundation for 
the Advancc;.ient of Tcachiu':. On October 12, I912, at a specinl University con- 
vocation, the University Senate prosentod to Doctor Burrill a "old :neda.l in rccof;- 
nition of his outstandin.-; service as teacher, investif-;ator, and aflninistrator. 
Professor Burrill continued to reside in Urhana, .ind passed ri-ipQ- here on April lU, 
1916, "he avenue, 'borderod with elns rhich he planted '.ath his CTn h^^nds, and 
naned after hin by the Board of Trustees at the sUtifTCstion of President Draper, 
bears fittinj'^ tribute to the r.ian \7ho so unstintin^ly devoted his entire workinf: 
life of alnost fifty years to the interest of the University, its cororiunity, and 
the State. 



39 

CHAPTER III 
TH3 PH3SIDENTS AND THSIH AIMINISTHATICNS 

General - In iSgU, the title of the chief adninistrative officer of the 
University was changed as described later, from regent to president. The presi- 
dents, as the regents v/ere before them, are elected by the Board of Tinstees. 
The duty of the president is to administer the general policies laid down by the 
Board for the operation of the University as defined by the rules and regulations 
prescribed for the conduct of the institution. He makes recommendations for ap- 
X^ointment of persons to jjositions of responsibility on the adninistrative, in- 
structional, exp'erimental staffs and supervises the operations of those indi- 
viduals in so far as they apjily to the performance of University processes. He 
has general resi-onsibility for the enforcement of the University regulations, and, 
v/ith the advice of the administrative assistants, preparorj the annual and bi- 
ennial budgets for ])rcsontat.ion to the Board of Tmisteos. 

Since ISnU, the office, of the executive head of the University has been held 
by six persons: viz., Andrcv Sloan Draper, President from Ib'gU to I90U; Edmund 
Janes James, President from igo'J- to I92O; David I'inlcy, Acting President from 
1919 to 1920, and President from 1920 to I93O; Harry '.Toodburn Chase, President 
from 1930 to 1933; Arthur Hill Daniels, Acting President from I933 to 193^; and 
Arthur Cutts V/illard, Provident from 193^ to date. Some discussion of the events 
in the lives of these men and their ariminist rat ions follows. 
A. AilDZC;? SLOAl^I DRAPBH, PHESIDEIIS,. ip-qlutaoH 

Early Training and Experience - Andrew Sloan Drapur, the fourth to assume 
the duties of the office of chief executive of the University, was born at V/est- 
ford. How York, on J-'ono 21, IgUS, and was graduated from the Albany Law School of 
Union College in ISyi* He practiced his profession for a number of years, and 
served as a member of the Hew York State Legislature in 1S81, He v/as Judge of the 
U. S. Court of Alabama Claims from 188U to 1326, State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction in Now York^ from 1386 to IS92, and Superintendent of the Cleveland 
public schools from 1892 to 189^,. 



Change in Title from Regent to Fresidont - Doctor Draper, tendered the ap- 
pointncnt as Regent on April 13, I89U, accepted the position on May 10, following. 
One of his first acts was to request the title of president instead of regent as 
provided in the University charter; for the title of regent as applied to the ex- 
ecutive head of an educational institution was found to "be confusing, since the 
term was generally used for a member of the board of control or a trustee. On 
the day he came to the University, August 1, the Board of Trustees gave authority 
for the change in title, and ho assumed his formal duties as President on Sep- 
tember lU. This event in itself served as a harbinger to announce the signal de- 
velopments that were on their way for the University, and to forecast a new day 
for this seat cf learning. The institution, ospecirdly the College of Engineering 
was entering a new era of expansion scarcely drenjjed of in earlier days. 

President Draper's^ Administration - The spirit and purpose that animated his 

administration is shovm as follows in a portion of his lotter accepting the ap- 

1 
pointmcnt: "To enable the University to advance to a leading position, it must 

have financial aid to an extent which would have surprised the last feneration, 

for the field of University operations hfis broadened as the activities of the 

people have multiplied pjid become more intense. It must have adequate a.ccommo- 

dations ;ind liberal equipment. Its departments must be ^ble to supply life-givirg; 

instruction to all branches of liberal learning. Its work must attract a.ttention. 

It must be authoritative and command respect. It must shov; anxiety and ability 

to stimulate the common life of the people, and bring rcnovm to the good name of 

the State." 

2 

President Draper liodernizes University Processes • iJo doubt, one of the 

greatest contributions of President Draper towards the development of the Univcx'- 
sity was his work in modernizing the University's processes of handling the fi- 
npjices and the physical plant — the direct outgrowth of his genius for organi- 
zation and of his outstanding a.bility for administration, 

1 Report of the Board of Trustees, I89U, page 264. 

2 Much of the material in this section is taken from "The Life -uid Work of Andrew 
Sloan Draper" by Harland Hojrt Horner, published by the University of Illinois. 



hi 

In his first rcrort to the Board of Trasteos in Scptombcr. Iggll. Dr. Draper 
trn^smittcd a letter from the University Librari.-m prccntins in some detail the 
urgent needs of the University Library and suggestions for their accomplishments.. 
The 26.000 books then in the Library had not been properly catalogued, for the 
Dewey Decimal System, alreadj. established in most of the well-rogulatod libraries 
in the country, had not been introduced here, llo regular appropriation for libra 
ry expenditures had been made. The request for funds met an early response, and 
conditions in the Genor.a Library '^ere presently improved. 

In December, 183k, the President directed his attention towards the improve- 
ment of the status of the University's investments and the general administration 
of its business processes.' A oommittee consisting of the Governor, the President 
of the University and the Chairman of the Tin^ance Committee of the Board of 
Tnistees was appointed to present recommendations to the General Assembly for 
legislation that would safeguard the endowment funds held by the University by 
prescribing more definitely the methods of handling the funds and the kinds of 
securities which might be used for investments. During the next yea». another 
committee was appointed by the Board of Trustees consisting of the President of 
the University and two members of the Board to investigate the business operations 
of the University and to formulate a report on measures that would serve to pro- 
mote "greater efficiency, economy, and safety in the K^unagement of the Material 
Interests of the University." After some s.^udy the Con^aitteo made its report in 
March. 1896. presenting its recommendations as "Rules governing the Transaction 
of Business, the Keeping of Accounts, and the Custody, of Funds of the University 
of Illinois." These mles promptly adopted, outlined in some detail the duties 
and business methods that should be followed by the Treasurer, the Business Manag- 
er, the Secretary, and others, in such manner .md clarity that they are still 
tasic in the formulated instinictions prepared for the operation of the business 
offices of the University. 



1 Eighteenth Heport of the Board of Trustees, page U5. 



Rules for the Government of the University - In I895, President Draper pre- 
pared a set of rules oXicl regulations for the conduct of the University in general 
^hich were approved "by the Board of Trustees. These articles or "by-la'.7s" pro- 
vided for a Council of Administration, consisting of the President, the Vico- 
Prosidcnt, the Dean of the General Faculty, and the deans of the separate schools 
and colleges — a bodj- that v/as intended to i^ive attention both to administrative 
matters and educational policies. In I9OI, the ■b2''-la'.7s \7crc ajacnded or revised 
to establish a gcncml jolan of organization and administration vrhich has served 
as a basis for guidance in formulating administrative policies during rll the 
succeeding years, These by-la'.7s and amcndj-ient s , vrhich after I9OI, '.7crc designated 
as "University of Illinois Statutes", defined the duties of the Council of Ad- 
ministration, the Son<atc created in I9OI, and the General Faculty. 

University Admission Rer^uircnents - In regard to the general University ad- 
mission rcnuiremcnts during Dr. Draper's incumbency, and oven before then, Samuel 
A. Bullard offered the follo'.,lng observation: 

"There has been made for many years a gia.dual advnjiccment inj;hc require- 
ments for admission to the University, As early as I89O1 the Trustees passed a 
resolution to dispense v;ith the preparatory department 'as soon a,s adequate pro- 
vision for doing its voi'k is made by some public or private institution located 
in the vicinity of the University'. It \7ould have boon done outright had Eot 
appeals from different parts of the State shovn that a rcul hardship v/ould operata 
against many boys and girls should the provision for preparatory^' be removed from 
the University. Hovcvor, the advance in requirements '.7as n;\tural because of the 
higlier grade of offerings constantly being added to the curriculum. The whole 
University influence during the decade of President Draper's incumbency v;as to- 
'7ard the elevation and higher grading of high schools of the State, and the stim- 
ulation of interest in and the increased attendance upon the high school. The 
articulation of the v/ork of the high schools with the 'jork of the University was 
mutually beneficial to both schools .and University. The familiarity of the 
President -./ith the rrork of the public schools throughout his native state and 
others made this work more easily accomplished." 

Inauguration of the Semester Plan - In Jrxnup.ry, 1899. the University radopted 
the semester plan, that is, the University divided the college year of thirty-six 
•7ecks into tv/o equal periods. Before this, the 2^ear had been divided into throe 
terns of ik, 12, and 10 \/coks respectively. Under the latter arrangement, practi- 
cally sll subjects \7ere presented five tines a week during one or more terms; but 



'The M.nJcers of the, University, Andrew Sloan Draper", by Sar:iuol A. Bullard, in 
Aliimni Q,uarterly, April IQIO.page 98. f • -j 



under the nc\i plnn, aubjcctt; v/orc recited one, tv/o, throe, four, or five tines a 
\7cck during one or norc scnestors. The new plan intended to bring the University 
in line -.vith action tfiJ-:en "by neighboring institutions, required 13O sencster-houiB 
for graduation instead of the Uo credits required under the old plan. It called 
for a violent recasting of the arrajigoucnt of the curricular subjects and the in- 
structional prograii, much norc than v/as nominally appai-cnt in the announcement. 
This matter is discussed further in a later chapter dealing v/ith cui'ricular 
changes. 

University Finances - During the decade of President Draper's administration 
"there '.7as a very groat increase in the rxiount of apjjropriations made by the State 
for the support of the University. This fact in large measure accounts for the 
many general advances made in all departments culminating in an enlargement of 
the v.'holc University. Por the bionnium commencing July 1, IS95. the appropriation 
for the general expenses was $130,000 and for the follovang two-year periods re- 
spectively $220,000; $270,000; $350,000; njid $500,000; n,al-ing a total in ten years 
of $1,520,000. The increase in attendance and enl,-\rged facilities for instruc- 
tion and investigation justified the askings of the trustees .and made necessary 
expenditure of this vast amount of money. The appropriations for buildings and 
grounds ''ere correspondingly larger, amounting in the ten-year regime to the sum 
of $235,000." The total income of the University during the years of President 
Draper's administration is shown. in the follo'./ing table: 

TABL3 VI - UNIVERSITY INCOME, iggU-iqoU 

Biennium Amount 

lS95-9b 52594 93s 

1297-9S 607 632 

1899-00 9U7 US7 

1901-02 1 363 716 

1903-OU 1 814 S6U 

Thus we sec that the financial resources during these years were more than 

trebled — a trend that lent great encouragement to the instruct ionpj. staff. 



1 "The Makers of the University, Andrew Sloan Draper", by Samuel A. Bullard in 

Alumni Q,uarterly, April, I9IO, page 99. 

2 The Alumni Record, I918, page XXXI. 



student Enrollncnt - IXiring the ten yenrs of President Draper's tenure, the 
increase in student resist rat ion ',7as unusual. "The addition of new courses, the 
increase in the instructional force, the enlargeunnt of the libraries and labora- 
tories, the better neans of apJcing and registering investigations and experinents 
the increase in the nxiribor of highly-qualified fxnd rcnov;ncd teachers, the beauti- 
fying of the surroundings, the im.irovenent of student environncnt , all aided in 
increasing the attcnd-mce. The professional achools and colleges whose connec- 
tion v/ith the University stinulatod their individual attendance united to incrcas. 
the total by a large per cent. The annual increase at the scat of leai'ning of 
the University during the ten years fron 189^ to I90U, v.-as soncthing near four- 
teen per cent over the preceding year even though several years of the period 
were years of fin.'incial stringency of considerable severity. The attendance at 
Urbana increased fron 750 in 1S93-94, to 3,100, in I903, and there v/cre during the 
latter year about 9OO in the Chicago dcpartncnts. This narvclour. increase was 
not shared by the University of Illinois alono, but all the colleges and univer- 
sities of the country enjoyed very unusunl prosperity. So the increase appeared 
to be fron a conbination of circunst;\ndos .ar.iong which v.%as a great revival of 
higher education in the state and land. But it should be narked that no other 
State University nade such a. per cent of increase during the period as that nadc 
at Illinois." 

Univers ity F aculty -"A gradual and rapid increase in the nunbcr of capable 
and efficient nen in the instructional force was nade necessary by the expansion 
of all departnonts; ojid no less inportant and gratifying v/as the advanconent nade 
by those ncnbers of the faculty y/ho had been for years in the enploy of the Uni- 
versity, in ability to plan, perfect, and nnlco practical the enlargeucnt of their 
several departnents." 



1 "The Makers of the University, Andrc.j Sloan Draper," by S.anucl A. Bullard in 
Alunni (Quarterly, April, I9IO, pages 98-99. 

?. Ibid. , pp^(? 97 



lS9i+-95 


80 


IS95-96 


Ek 


lS9'S-97 


170 


1897-92 


184 


IS9S-99 


I9U 


1899-00 


229 



1^5 

Tho nuri'bcr of nonbcrs on the faculty durinc this rcGinc is indicated in the 

follovan,'; tatlc: 

1 

TiLBLE VII - I.UiBSR OF PERSONS Oi- THE UiaVERSITY FACUITY- 189^-1904 

Year Kuribcr Year IIui.t"ber 

1900-01 2U2 

1901-02 279 

1902-03 316 

1903-04 351 



By olDsorvine the Table, it beconcs apparent at once that another one of the 
outstandint^ services rendered by Doctor Draper '.7as the increase in the size of the 
faculty. It v;as not iicrely an inprovenont in nunbors, ho-..'cvcr, for nany in the 
group asscnblcd v;erc di3tinij,uiGhcd and proninant leaders in their particular lines, 
ropresentinc a Qi'cnt diversity of interests, for this v/as an a-jc of specialization. 

Inprovenont of the Physical Plant - Due to the efforts of President Draper, 
the University created a new heating, lij^htint", and po'.ver pl-mt, rnd a '7at er- supply 
systen. A fire station v/as established to bo oiirratcd by a trained corps of Jani- 
tors. Tho University r;roundn v.'crc lii^hted and c,ani)us policcnon were assigned to 
duty for both day and nir^t service,. Wp^lks TTcro built on the cpxipus and the prin- 
cipal streets throu^^ and around tho canpus '.verc inprovcd. The athletic play- 
£;round, later known as Illinois Field, was extended, inproved, and enclosed by an 
iron fence. A systen of clocks and bells operated by electric power v/as provided 
to narl- tho tine for assenbly and disnissnl of classes. 

These events, thout^h sone of then snail in theusclves, were clear indications 
of the internal i^^^rowth that v/as ^oinf; on during the period of tra,nsition fron a 
snail to a ;^reat center of learning. They represented sorio of the outward nani- 
fcstations of the coninf; of a new era for the University. 

Provision for Separate iiAiiinistration of the Physical Plant - Due to his de- 
sire that the design, const iruct ion, and naintcnance of new buildings and other 
elenents of the physicnl plant should follow sone orderly pljui and receive con- 

_s_ist^ent attention, President Draper requested in 1895,_that the Board of Trustees 
1 "Sixteen Years at the University of Illinois", page 129. 



he 

OGtatlish the office of Supcrintondont of Buildin,,s .-md Grounds. This was done; 
. but as the duties of the office nultlplicd. it seoncd advisable to increase the 
=uze of the staff of the Physical Pl,a:.t. Accordin,,ly. in I90I, the Board of 
Trustees provided for a Superintendent of Buildings -.ho should have char.-^e also of 
the central heatin,,. li.:ht. and po-er plant ar.d of the .Tater-supply systen, and 
n. Superintendent of Grounds, -vho should be responsible for the naintenance of the 
r;rounds vdthin the c^.pus area. (At that tine. thou,:h. the buildin.:3 on the cai.- 
pus vrerc still boin., desi,^ed by the Head of the Dcpartr.ont of Architecture or by 
.-^-n outside architect died in for sonc particular assirnnent) . This nc'.T oper^ 
ntin^ arran^-renent was the product of specialization in industry allo.in., one ^rcup 
o.ttachod to the University to devote its entire attention to the ad-.unistrat ion 
of the physical plant proper, rund the other, a nuch larger ,^roup, likev/ise en- 
ployed by the University, to concentrate on problens of odncation and research, 
the nain objective assir.-nod to the institution. 

^ Schools and Colleges - "President Draper early ,-ave approval to the con- 
tention of nany friends of the University that .rhile the University -.as regarded 
prinarily to educate those persons preparing thensclves for industrial vocations, 
it -.as not doin- its v;hole duty so Ion,: as it confined its endeavors -ithin those 
Units. To extend instruction into the old professions v;ould .^ive to the Univer- 
sity increased honor and influence and benefit classes of people v/ho were as de- 
scrvin,, of the State's beneficence as others. To these ends conferences uere 
e.rly held with the trv^ste.s and faculty as to the best r.eans of be.-:innin^ dep-,.rt- 
nents of la'.v, nodicino, and teachin.'^. "''" 

The results of thes. studies nateri.alized v.ithin the next fev. years into the 
ostablishr^ent in IS95. of the School of Ilusic out of the Departnent of Music v;ith 
n separate faculty and a..unistrat ion; the acquirin,^ in 18q6, of the Chica^.o CoILo.o 
of Phamacy, which had boen^ founded as a proprietary institution in IS59. and or- 
rani.in,-^ it into the School^f Pharnacy of the University of Illinois; the or,,an- 
Ifation of the School of La w in 1897, v;hich in I900. bcc.ie the College of La.r; 

I "/J5^unli'^&?y^-A??ir^^^ Draper", by S.^mel A.Bullard in the 

^ It bocano the Collei-o oi" Pharmacy in I932. 



^7 
the talcing over by affiliation in 1897. and aft-Gr',7ards by purchase of the College 

of Phj'-sicians and Surt:;eons of Chicago, incorporated in 1881, as a privately-owned 

1 
institution, which in I9OO, became the College of Medicine; the absorption in lS97i 

of the School of Library Economy at the Armour Institute of Technology and making 

it the Library School; and the taking over by affiliation in 1901,of a dental unit 

in Chicago formed in I892, as the Columbia Dental College and designated in I89S, 

2 
as the Illinois School of Dentistry. In addition, the General Assembly made a 

special appropriation in I9OI, to establish courses in business training. The 

University initiated the courses in Business Administration as a Department in the 

in the College of Literature and Arts, trj^nsf erring them later, (1915), to the 

newly-crented College of Commerce and Business Administration. 

Thus, the broadening of the University by the establishment of the many new 
schools and colleges, v;as probably the most prominent feature of President Draper's 
administration, ovon though some of the preliminary prcparp.tion had been made dur- 
ing the previous regime. Truly, the University was tal-:ing on the proportions of 
great educational centers. 

New Buildings - In addition to the new power plant and 'Jatcr-supply system, 
a numter of other buildings were completed during the tcn-yoar administration of 
President Draper. Among these were Engineering Hall, I89U; Machinery Hall (now 
Machine Tool Laboratory), 1895; Mechanical and Electrical Laboratory (now part of 
the Electrical Engineering Building), IS98; Wood Shop, 1902; and Laboratory of 
Applied Mechanics (now part of the Electrical Engineering Building), I902, in the 
Engineering group — the latter two to replace the Mechanical Building and Drill 
Hall destroyed by fire in I9OO. In addition, several other main buildings erected 
during this period, included the Library (now Altgold Hall), the original Agri- 
cultural building, the first unit of the Chemistry Building, the Astronomioal 
Laboratory, and the Men's Gymnasium, for other groups. Thus we see that this was 
truly a period of remarkable building expansion, although the campus proper was 
still confined to a comparatively small area. 

1 Its property was transferred to the University of Illinois in 1913- 

2 Its name v/as changed to College of Dentistry; in 1905. 



other Advancomcnts - During the ndministration of Doctor Draper, thorc Tjoro 
m.iny other enlargements and expansions in the Univcrsitj'' s program. "Courses of 
study \7crc added covering mnriy new activities and all the old ones ncro strength- 
ened. The Agricultural College was reorganized. ******** *>.■* So with the 
Engineering College; it T/as enlarged in every line and strengthened by many ac- 
cessions to its teaching force, and by an ample supply of apparatus and other 
facilities for inst inaction. The Engineering Experiment Station was established 
^uid provided with equipment and capable men. The sciences and languages advanced 
no less, though the lp,ck of extensive manifestation made the work and increase 
less noticeable." 

Creation of the University Senate - As previously stated, the University Sen- 
ate was created on Suptember ik, I9OI, to rei^lace the Genei'al Faculty as the 
legislative body of the teaching and scientific staff. It v/r^s composed of the 
President, the Vice-President (l,atcr the Provost), the de.-uis ijid directors of the 
various sohools and colleges, Dean of undergraduates (later the Denji of Men), the 
Dean of Women, all other j)crsons of full professorial r/u'ik, and such others as 
were in charge of independent departments of instruction or ri.dministrp.tion. The 

list of cduca-tional and administrative positions expanded considerably after I9OI, 

2 

but the general statement as given above is sufficiently broad to cover them all. 

Creation of the Cfficcs of Dcpji of Men and Dean of ffomen - The office of Dean 
of Undergraduates and Assistant to the President '.ms created on June 11, I9OI, — 
another adventure in educational pioneerings In I9O] the title was changed to 
Dean of Men, the first office of its kind in an educational institution in this 
country. The Demi of Ken acts as advisor and counselor to undergraduate men; his 
duties include personnel work, vocational guidance in problems involving intel- 
lectual, emotional a.nd social adjustments. The office maintains records of class 



1 "The Mnkers of the University, Andrew Sloan Draper", by Samuel A. Bullard, in 

the Alumni Quarterly, April, I9IO, page 97.. 

2 The Senate acts no\i as it did in its bcginjiing, as a legislative bodj'' formula- 
ting general rules and regulations governing and promoting the educational in- 
terests of the University, It defines the general policies regarding admission 
to the University and to its several schools and colleges, the character of the 
various curricula, the schedules for the sessions ajid meetings, and the require- 
ments for degrees. 



1^9 

nttendance, class standing, health and living conditions, and social activities 
of fraternities, clubs, and other student groups. The office of Dean of Women, 
established in March, 1897» as the first of its kind in this country, serves to 
safeguard the physical and moral welfare of the women students in the University 
and to advise then in matters relating to general personal and scholastic problems 
in practically the eaxne capacity as the office of Dean of Men. As so many of the 
old grads testify when reminiscing and recalling events of their college days 
both offices have served individuals and groups of the student body long and well. 

Special Attention to Military Af f ai r s - Early in his administration, Presi- 
dent Draper set out to give milit.'i.ry affairs a much more prominent place in Uni- 
versity life than they had previously occupie.l. For ex,'unple, at his inauguration 
ho arranged that ncmb.rs of the regiment should be prominent in several ways, one 
of which was the guarding of Dngineoring Hall during the reception to the incoming 
president. This goncrnl attitude on the part of President Draper had a very hclj)- 
ful effect in stimulating interest in militar;/ natters. Ag the size of the stu- 
dent bod;,' grow, the military org.-mization c::cpandcd in even greater proportion and 
bccpjQc an oven greater factor in University life. 

Tribute to Doctor Draper by the Board of Trustees in 190U - Doctor Draper 

left the University in 190^4 to become Commissioner of Education of the state of 

Ne^-' York. His resignation v/as announced in March, I90U, to become effective after 

a two-month leave of absence. Upon his resignation a special committee of the 

Board of Trustees reported on June 7. 190^> 't^'^o following tribute to Doctor Drapen 

"Andrew Sloan Draper became President of the University and entered upon the 
active duties of that office August 1, I89U. He was not experienced in college or 
university administration. He came from the superintendency of schools of the Citj 
of Cleveland, Ohio, which he liad filled for two years, and to that office he came 
from the office of State Supci'intcndent of Public Instruction of the State of New 
York. His experience in public-school matters -ind his acquaintance with school 
administration and mc-dntenance, united with eminent abilities to organize men and 
things into an iinited force for the accomplishment of definite ends, were at once 
loy-illy applied by him to the end that the University of Illinois might fully ac- 
complish the ^vork proscribed for it by its founders njnd by the State. He fully 
believed in the -.vork -'hich the University 7,'as created to do. He fully believed 
that the University could be so organized as to do it ttcII, He fully believed that 
the State of Illinois would worthily support the University v/hcn shown that it v/as 
faithfully performing that work. He did not believe, and he so expressed himself 
in his letter of acceptance, that he v/as fully qualified to takr. the lead in the 



50 

gi-ent work the University vjns to do, But he inncdiatel:' nanifostod n clep.r men- 
tal grasp of the situation. He rightly comprehended the University's material 
conditions, the power of its Board of Trustees, the supreme importance of the 
'vork of its faculty, o.nd the source and posability of its financial support. This 
a.ccuratc vic'.v of the University was a sure basis for success. 

"President Draper has "been ^ith us for practically ton years. He goes fro:o 
us to take up a largo work in the educational field in his native state. It is 
with a profound sense of vhat has been accomplished in, for, and by the Universi- 
ty of Illinois during his administration that this Board received his resignation. 

"During the past ton years, under the guidance of President Draper, the 
University has largely advanced in the following lines: 

"The University has been more closely and vitally articulated with the 
public schools of the State. 

"Its matcriril embodiment has been regularly ,and systematically promoted; 
there has been increased support obtained from the State for the instructional 
force; there has been a large expansion in the courses of study presented for stu- 
dents; and the affili-ition or the founding of the Colleges vof Pharmacy, Medicine, 
Dentistry, and La"/ '.vas accomplished, 

"There lia.s been unexcelled advance in sound scholarship. 

"There has been -an improved organization of the administration forces. 

"There has been a phenomenal increase in the numbtu' of students attending 
on the instruction of the University, 

" These are some of the things which have been actively promoted during Pres- 
ident Draper's administra.tion, which arc largely due to his initia.tive and per- 
se voranco. 

" It is the belief of the members of the Board that an equally great advance 
in the work of the University was promised for the next decade as the past one 
presents, had the President chosen to stay. 

"In his parting from us we commend his work done here, congratulate the 
University upon the advance made during his adtiinistration, and express our con- 
fidence that he will be eminently successful in his labors in another great 
commonwealth. "- 

Subsequent Life of Doctor Draper - Doctor Di-aper maintained the sane high- 
grade standards and efficiency in this ncvr office that he had insisted upon as 
head of the University of Illinois, and was very successful in his new assigiiment. 
Already awarded the LL, D. degree by Colgate University in 1889 and by Columbia 
University in I903, he w.as further honored with the snjne degree by the University 
of Illinois in 1905i r'.nd by Icstern Reserve University in I9IO, Doctor Draper 
passed av/a;" in Albfiny, New York, on April 2J, I9I3 . 



1 Twenty-second Report of the Board of Trustees, I90U, pages 312-313. 



B. EDMUKD JMES JAMES, PRESIDENT 1904-1920 51 

Early Training and Experience - Edmund Janes James was born at Jacksonville, 

Illinois, on May 21, I855. Following his early education at the Illinois State 
Normal University, he attended Northwestern University in I873 and Harvard Uni- 
versity in I87U. In 1875,, he entered the University of Halle in Germany, and 
received the Ph. D. degree there in I877. Doctor James served as Professor of 
Latin and Greek, and Principal of the High School Department at the Illinois 
State Normal University dviring I879-82. In I883, he became Professor of Public 
Finance and Administration at the University of Pennsylvania. While at Pennsyl- 
vania, Professor James organized and for twelve years directed, the Wharton School 
of Finance and Economics. In I896, he went to the University of Chicago as Pro- 
fessor of Public Administration and Director of the Division of University Ex- 
tension, He remained there until 1902, when he was elected President of North- 
western University. He resigned that position in 190^, to become President of 
the University of Illinois. 

President James was awarded the honorary degree of LL. D. by Cornell College 
(Iowa) in 1902, by Illinois Wesleyan College in I903, by Oueen's College in I903, 
by Harvard in I909, and by the University of Michigan and by Northwestern Uni- 
versity in I91I+. 



gust 23, I90I+, but did not take up his duties on the campus until November 5, 
following. He was formally installed on October I6, 1905,--the installation be- 
ing a very brilliant and colorful affair. His administration was particularly 
noted for his skill and energy in persuading the General Assembly to a more gen- 
erous support of the University, in instituting now departments and securing out- 
standing men to take charge of them, and in stimulating research work. The re- 
quirements for admission were advanced for all departments; and the number and 
variety of curricula were materially increased. The number of volumes in the Uni 
versity Library increased from 66,000 to 420,000, --a very good criterion for 



1 Much of the material that relates to President James' administration, was 
taken from his publication "Sixteen years at the University of Illino 



VERSITY Of 
lUINOIS LIBRARY 



52 

gaging scholastic gror/th and strength. Other signs of advancement are presented 
in the next few pages. 

Formal Organization of the Graduat e School - Following its formal inception 
in 1892, the Gradiiato School through subsequent years gradually expanded its fa'^ 
cilities to meet the ever-increasing demands of its students, drawing its financial 
support from the general University fund. In I906, however, during the early 
years of Doctor James' tenure as president, the School "began to assume a more im- 
portant role in the training program. It was organized with a separate faculty 
under a dean in order to promote a greater development of interest in independent 
work and in the conduct of academic and experimental research. By action of the 
Board of Trustees, the teaching faculty of the Graduate School was made to in- 
clude all members of the University faculty who gave instruction in graduate 
courses. The 'vork was substantially increased and broadened through a legisla- 
tive appropriation in I906-O7 of $[30,000 a year — the first for such work in 
this country — and it has continued to receive a proportionate cojasi deration in 
the formulating of all budgets since that time. The School was formally opened 
on February U and 5i 19^^^, the occasion being marked with much publicity. One of 
the addresses v/as by Robert W. Hunt, the famous engineer, who spoke on "The Value 
of Engineering Research." Another one of interest to engineers was by W, A. 
Smith of the Sngineci-ing Reviov/ on the subject "The Need of Graduate Courses in 
EnginecringP 

Even in the early days, the Graduate School inspired many persons to carry 
on advanced study in preparation for teaching positions in the colleges and pub- 
lic schools of the State.- In research it served the arts and sciences in doing 
for them the same kind and grade of work that the Engineering and Agricultural 
Experiment Stations were doing in their special fields in discovering now facts 

and thereby adding to the general store of human knowledge along those particular 

1 „ 
lines. In 1915i Bean Kinloy, later president of the University, stated: In its 

character and aim, graduate school work is really j^rofessional, for a graduate 



1 Illio, page 79. 



-..fiir.m^'^fi.T'h'': 



53' 

school is a school where work, coming after the general education of the college 
course, furnishes that deeper insight into knowledge and that thorough and earnest 
training which mark the student who is working with a purpose." Further atten- 
tion to the Graduate School as it pertains to engineering is given in a later 
chapter in this publication. 

The Mi 11- Tax Law - Thile the "biennial appropriations by the Illinois General 
Assembly seemed to be generous in many ways, the amounts were not sufficient to 
meet the needs of a growing state like Illinois and to place its chief education- 
al institution on an even footing with similar schools in neighboring states. Ac- 
cordingly, in order to raise the appropriations to a level consistent with Illi- 
nois conditions, President James undertook a state-'vide campaign more elaborate 
than those carried on in previous years, to bring to the people of the State in 
general and to the members of the General Assembly in particular, some realiza- 
tion of the advantages that would accrue if the facilities and opportunities of 
the University could be expanded. As the plan worked out in practice, influential 
farmers and officers of agricultural associations expressed their appreciation of 
the instruction and investigations by the College of Agriculture, and also their 
opinion that the largest development of agricultux'al interests of the University 
and of the State demanded a liberal support for the entire institution. The 
State Banl<:nrs' Association urged the establishment of a College of Commerce and 
Business Administration. The Illinois Society of Engineers, the State Manu- 
facturers' Association, and the Western Society of Engineers recommended generous 
support for the College of Engineering and the Engineering Exfjeriment Station. 
The Clay Workers' Association asked for a building and equipment for Ceramics. 
Associations of railway officials urged appropriations for railviay engineering. 
The teachers of the State asked for n College of Education. The Governor, Charles 
S. Deneen, took a keen interest in the University; and in his annual message to 
the legislature in I9II. presented a more complete revie-? of the needs of the Uni- 
versity than he had in n.ny former message, and called attention to other functions 
that the University might perform for the advancement of the industrial and 



5U 
educational interests of the State. PresidBnt Janes presented at Springfield, 

and published through the State, figures which contrasted in terms of vrealth and 

population the support Illinois had given its State University, with that which 

neighboring states were giving to their chief educational institutions and showed 

that in proportion to both population and wealth, the State of Illinois was much 

behind in its suppoi't of higher education. It was a dull legislator who did not 

appreciate the demands of the people for a liberal support of the State University 

and consequently on June 13, I9II, the mill-tax law was passed without serious 

opposition. The measure gave the University a tax of one mill on each dollar of 

the assessed value of the taxable property of the State. 

After the mill-tax law became operative, the University received $U, 500,000 
as a biennial approp:-iation in 1513- -his epoch-making law in its first two years 
not only gave the University over a million dollars more than the proceeding bi- 
enniura legislative appropriation, but also gave a more stable income and thus en- 
abled the authorities to plan more intelligently for the future development of the 
institution. This law gave the University an income the equal of any educational 
institution in the world, and one that woiild increase with the growth of the State 
in wealth. It was generally believed that "this law made the University's finan- 
cial future forever reasonably sure." 

The mill-tax law directed that the tax should be paid into the state treasury'- 
and remain there until appropriated to the use of the University. It v/as still 
necessary for the University to present a biennial budget; but there was no longer 
the necessity for a strenuous campaign before the legislature, no longer any need 
to enlist outside influences, no longer any serious uncertainty as to the future 
of the University. 



1 The Biennial State Appropriations for the past decade had been as follows: 

1901 $30U 330 

1903 $1 152 Uoo 

1905 1 ^1^ 535 

1907 2 222 790 

1909 2 313 500 

1911 3 ^29 300 



55- 

Some approhcnsion was felt for the nill tax, V7hcn in 1912, a change in 
state politics 'brought a democrat to the governor's seat, since a change in poli- 
tical parties often brings a change in policy; but Governor Dunne shovzed himself 
a firm friend of the University. In I913, weak attempts were made to repeal the 
mill-tax law or to reduce the rate, and also to impose on the mill-tax fund the 
support of the State Water Survey, the Geological Survey, the State Entomologist'-. 
office, and the State Laboratory of Natural History, all of which had been sup- 
ported by independent appropriations, although located at the University; 'out all 
such attempts proved abortive. 

Prom 1913 to 1919, the proceeds of the nill ta;: increased $U00,000, and kept 
pace with the more urgent needs of the University; and during this period, the 
institution had no other state support than the mill tax, But in I919, owing to 
economic disturbances arising from ^i^orld T7ar I and the consequent rise in prices 
of labor and supplies, particularly coal and wages of care takers, it was neces- 
sary to increase the legislative askings; and the approjiriation from the general 

reserve for that year was $U3S,000 more than the proceeds of the mill tax. Such 

1 
appropriations in later years exceeded the mill tax in oven greater ratio. 

Total University Income 190U- 20 - The total University income from all sour- 
ces from I90U to 1920 was as follows: 

TABLE VIII - UinVSHSITY INCOME I90U-I920 

Year Amount 

190^-05 $ S5S 69s 

1905-06 1 159 363 

1906-07 1 007 009 

1907-02 1 Uos 762 

190S-09 1 693 999 

1909-10 1 639 792 

1910-11 1 560 oUo 

1911-12 2 292 651 

1912-13 1 970 073 

1913-lU 2 770 ISU 



1 In 1921, when a state law changed the assessed value from one-third to one-half^ 
the tax for the University was changed from one mill to two-thirds of a mill foi 
each dollar of valuation, 

2 From "Sixteen Years at the University of Illinois", page 30, and Reports of the 
Comptroller. 



56 

Year Amount 

igi^-iS 2 SOS 352 

1915-16 3 023 375 

1916-17 3 2U0 32s 

1917-iS 3 081 055 

1918-19 3 312 3U9 

1919-20 3 916 2U9 

The total income for the year 1919-20, for example, was supplied as follows: 

From U. S. Government 8.0^ $313,527 

State Appropriations 73.3/« 2 87I 50O 

Student Fees 9.05^ 353 GSk 

DcpartncntnLsales,gifts,9.7^ j77 538 

etc. Total $3 9l6 2% 

Nev/ Colleges - In I905, the Board of Trustees organised the courses in Edu- 
cation previously- given in the College of Literature and Arts and established a 
School of Education, which in I9I8, became the College of Education. In I913, 
the College of Literature and Arts and the College of Science were combined to 
form the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, In I915. the courses of instruc- 
tion in business practice previously given in the College of Literature and Arts 
and later in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, were organized fo form the 
College of Commerce and Business Administration, as previously mentioned. 

Now Buildings - Many important buildings were erected during President James' 
administration, including the following: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory; Woman's 
Building; Auditorium; Physics Laboratory; Matthews Avenue Power Plant; first unit 
of Lincoln Hall; Commerce Building; Locomotive Testing Laboratory and Reservoir; 
Transportation Building; Mining and Ceramics Laboratory; Floriculture-f Plant Breed- 
ingf and Vegetable Gardening Group; Stock Judging Pavilion; Hew Armory; Adminis- 
tration Building; Chemistrj' Addition; Ceramics Building; Vivariumi and Women's 
Residence Hall. Besides these large structures, sever?)! minor buildings were c- 
rccted and a number of additions were annexed to units already existing. Further- 
more new Medical, Dental, and Pharmacy buildings were erected in Chicago. The to- 
tal cost of the improvements in buildings during this administration was $3,2U6,'421. 



1 The Bureau of Educational Research, the experimental agency of the College of Ed- 
ucation, was also established in I9I8. 



57 
Thus, the building profjran that began to accolerato during the previous ad- 
ministration continued to go forward at a rapid pace during this regime, giving 
the campus area the appearance of a groat educational establishment. The equip>- 
mcnt that wont into these twenty or more structures required an endless azaount of 
time for design and preparation and a huge outlay of money for purchase and in- 
stallation. There was no other recourse available, however, for the hordes of 
students that began to throng the campus made the investmisnts imperative.' 

The Urbana Campus Plan - In I907, the Board of Trustees created the office 
of Supervising Architect which should have charge of all building constmction and 
maintenance on the Urbana campus.. About that tine there -'as begun a systematic 
study of campus plans by architectural find planning experts looking towards a 
long-range program of physical-plant development that would provide for the con- 
sistent and orderly growth of the educational and experimental requirements of the 
University in the years to come. Out of the master plans outlined then or short- 
ly thereafter and revised from time to time as occasion has required, was evolved 
the prcsent-dai' arrangement of grounds and buildings vdthin the campus area. 

^^^^^^, Educational Policies of President James ' Administration - In his in- 
stallation address given on October 17, 1905, President James made the following 
statement: "It (a state university) should be as universal as the American democisr- 
cy, as broad, as liberal, as sympathetic, as comprohcnsive — - ready to take up in- 
to itself all the educational forces of the state, giving recognition for good 
^7ork wherever done, and unifying, tying together all the multiform strands of edu- 
cational activity into one great cable whose future strength no man ma;,- measure." 

President James, himself a great scholar and educational statesman, was a 
profound believer in the philosophy that the destinies of a university were de- 
termined largely by the creative scholarship and by the extent and character of 
the experimental and research prograj.is of its instructional and experimental staff. 
It was under the influence of his inspirational leadership in this direction that 
the University was enabled to attain and maintain a high-ranking position among 
the great educational institutions of the country. 



&n March 11, 1915t ^^ sl^ address to the students on the occasion of the 
forty-eighth anniversary of the opening of the University, President James stated: 
"The distinctive purpose of a University is to train young men and r/omen for the 
highest kind of service in all of the vocations of life for which a scientific 
training may be valuable, and to inspire them at the saJne time with the very 
highest ethical and moral ideals, and fire their hearts with an ambition to do 
great and real social service. And its equally important function is to add to 
the sum total of human knowledge and our power over the forces of nature, an 'ac- 
tivity which is sometimes characterijjed as research or investigation, promoted 
by the spirit of productive scholarship on the part of every member of the staff. 
If the University fails in either respect 'it fails of beiig a university in the 
highest sense of the term. And in working toward this ideal the University of 
Illinois has as great an opportunity to advance in the next fifty years as it has 
during the last fifty. "''■ 

At a later date, President James wrote the following message to the Alumni 

of the University on the occasion of the publication of the 1913 issue of She 

Alumni Record: 

"Wc are entering upon a new era of hiiman historj'. The demands to be made 
upon the University will be many, some of them of an entirely new character. To 
meet them properly will call for a new type of professor and trustee and al-umnus, 
men and v/omcn not merely of good training and with the culture of the past, but 
above all, men and women of vision and outlook. Our children and' our children's 
children v/ill not rest content with having stretched over them the dead hand of 
the past . 

"The University must load in all the paths of progress if it is to win and 
maintain that position of influence in our future development which we university 
people think should belong to it. At the same time, it is doubly necessary in 
this era of changing standards that all that is good and beautiful in the past 
should bo preserved and made the permanent heritage of our successors. In this 
work of conservation the University is by its very nature peculiarly fitted to 
play a permanent and even a decisive part.' 

The University Faculty - That President James was meticulous in the selection 

of the faculty members is indicated by the following observation: 

1 Alumni Q,uartGrly, April, I915, page 95.' 

2 Preface, The Alumni Record, University of Illinois, I9I8, page V. 

3 "Sixteen years at the University of Illinois", page lU6» 



59 

"No other feature of n university will so largely determine its strength 
as will the men who are charged with the direct conduct of its various activities. 
Ahiindance of land, numerous and spacious "buildings, '-'ell- equipped laTsoratories ani 
libraries and large revenues will not singly or all combined insure for a univer- 
sity either strength or progress. In the final analysis it is the personnel of 
the faculty that will chiefly determine the value of the university to the common- 
wealth and its rank among its sister institutions of learning, 

"The increase in the number of the instructional and administrative staff 
of the University during the past twelve years has been a matter of necessity, in 
response to a steadily-increasing enrollment of students. An increase in the 
actual strength of the faculty, from the standpoint of scholarship and teaching 
ability, could, however, come only as a result of the exercise of the greatest 
care in the selection of individual instructors. Throughout the sixteen years 
from I90U to 1920, whether a candidate was to occupy an important or a minor 
position, thorough consideration has been .-ivcn to his scholarship, his ability 
to impart infox'mation and to inspire active efforts on the part of his students, 
his personal character and his cm activity as a thinker and a producer of that 
which would add to the world's store of knowledge. One college of the University 
after another has been thus strengthened, until at the present time there is 
probably no department in which the work done is not of a distinctly high grade 
and no department in which a student may not cone under the instruction of one or 
more of the country's leading scholars in that field of study." 

The number of University faculty members of all grades increased from 35I to 

9^3 during the administration, as shown by the following table: 

TABLE i:: ilUIlSSR OF MSIBSRS OF TES UinVJHSITY FACULTY 190U-20''' 
Ye ar Niimbcr 

I90U-05 351 

1905-06 U08 

1906-07 khz 

1907-OS kj2 

1903-09 U97 

1909-10 53s 

1910-11 555 

1911-12 5S3 

1912-13 5S7 

1913-iU 76^ 

191^-15 777 

1915-16 821 

1916-17 S6S 

' 1917-18 8U3 

I9IS-I9 800 

1919-20 9^3 

o 

Revision of the University Statutes - In 1908^ the University Statutes a- 

doptcd in I9OI and I902, v;crc extensively modified and amended to meet current 
conditions, although they followed the pattern of the previous issue. The changes 

1 "Sixteen Years at the University of Illinois," page 129. . 

2 Approved by the Board of Trustees on DciCembcr 2S, I902. 



and developments within the University during that period of rapid growth made 
necessary a number of revisions in order to define more specifically the duties 
and powers of certain administrative bodies and offices. 

Change in the Class- Intermission Period - Early in the history of the Uni- 
versity, the intermission period between classes was fixed at five minutes. As 
the number of buildings was few and the distances between the buildings was rather 
short, this gave sufficient time for the students to meet their several class a- 
ppointraents within the campus area. As the number of buildings increased and 
distances increased corrcs-oondingly, howovor, the intcnnission time allotted be- 
came relatively short. On January k, I9IO, it was changed from five to ton 
minutes, the classes being called to order on the hour and dismissed after a 
session of fifty minutes. This interval seemed sufficient in the days following 
the change to allow the students to pass between classes in an orderly and un- 
confusiid fashion, but as the distances increased to somewhat greater proportions, 
the coming and going sometimes seemed a littlo strained. The length of the period, 
however, remained unchanged. 

The Academy Discontinued - The Preparatory School, which was begin in 1262, 
and which on December C, 1903f was designated as "The Academy of the University 
of Illinois", was di;:.continued in June, I9II, upon rccomLiondation of the Univer- 
sity Senate, for it v.'as felt at that time that the high schools of the State were 
adequately prepared to moot the University entraricc requirements. It was the in- 
tention of the Senate that in place of the Academy, there should be established a 
model training, experimental, and observational school of the secondary grade, 
"'hich would serve as a. laboratory for the School of Education under the control 
and direction of th-it School. The attendance of students registered in the 
Academy '^-as 309 in igiO-11. 

Inauguration of the University of Illinois Press - IThilo a continuous progiam 

of publications had been maintained by the University since I90C, when a general 

1 The secondary-grade school wa.s established in I9I9 i" ^ separate building, as 
a model high school under the direction of the College of Education. 



scrios of "University Studios" was "begun, there '.7as no central agency for coor- 
dinating and carrying on this "vork until I918, \7hcn the University of Illinois 
Press '.7as established as an institution for editing, printing, and distributing 
the publications of the University itself. The list of publications no'j issued 
by this agency includes scholarly serials and monographs issued under the auspices 
of the Graduate School, and such other serials as the Annual Register, announce- 
ments of courses, announcements of schools njid colleges and extension services, 
publications of the Engineering Experiment Station, and corresponding publications 
from the other schools and colleges on the cajnpus, and the Bureau of Institutional 
E.dsearch. 

The advantages of such a central plant on the campus area are obvious, of 
course, for itp establishment under local University control conserves much time 
and expense, poimits a better and greater output of product, and coordinates all 
effort tovTards a common objective. 

Later Biography - President Jpjnes was taken seriously ill in the spring of 
1919 nnd vTas given a leave of a.bsence until September 1, 1920» He did not re- 
cover sufficiently, however, to resume his duties -i,s President, and resigned to 
become President of the University of Illinois, Emeritus, He spent the last five 
or six years of his life in California, and passed away there at the home of his 
sister in Cavina on June I7, 1925« 

President Kinlcy's Eulogy - The follov/ing excrpts from the address by Presi- 
dent Kinloy at the Memorial Services held in the University Auditorium on Juno 22, 
1925, seem verj' appropriately to summarize the administration of President James: 

"Ho set new standards of scholarship, inspired new enthusiasm for the higher 
scholarship, gave nov; dignity to the scholarly life, and new enthusiasm to student^ 
ambition. He raised the standard of work of our professional schools and put the 
University in its place among the scholarly institutions of the land, so that it 
was recognized by its associates which had developed the higher grade of Univer- 
sity work, as deserving a place in their rpjiks.- Hp. reorganized the work offered 
for higher degrees, particularly the doctor's degree, reconstructed the Graduate 
School, majcing it a separate group, and giving its work an impetus that led the 
University of Illinois into recognition as one of the great graduate institutions 
of the countrj'-. He threw the weight of his groat influence to the strengthening 
of the spirit and ideals of culture as well as of scholarship; of learning as well 
as of research; of the perfection of the scholarly life as well as of the rugged 
strength of the pioneer research after truth. 



62 

"In nil his s^-^horcs of activity; in every one of Ms varied lines of ser- 
vice, he stood conspicious for his gift of leadership, his high standard of v/ork 
and achievement, his vision and his ideals of social service."-^ 

C. DAVID KIxlLEY, PRSSID31TO, iq20-1930 

Preparation and Previous Experience - David Kinley, Acting President from 
1919 to 1920, and President from I920 to 1930, was born in Dundee, Scotland, on 
August 2, I86I. He received the A. 3. degree from Yale University in ISSU, and 
from Johns Hopkins in IS92. He received the Ph. D. degree from the University of 
TTisconsin in IS93, and the honorary degree of LL. D. from that institution in 
1918. Ke served as teacher in Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore Woman's College 
and the University of T7isconsin during 129I-.IS93. Ke came to the University of 
Illinois in I8Q3 as Assistant Professor of Economics. He was Professor of Eco- 
nomics and Dean of the College of Literature and Arts from I89U to I906. He was 
Director of the School of Commerce from I902 to 1915. i^ean of the Graduate School 
from 1906 to I91U, and Vice-President of the University from I91U to I919. 

During these years. Professor Kinley was active in the American Economic 
Association and kindred organizations, writing several hooks and reports and con- 
tributing numerous articles to society proceedings and periodicals. Ho was a 
delegate to the Second and also the Fourth Pan-American Congress and was Minister 
Plenipotentiary and Envoy on a special Mission to Chile in I9IO. 

The most significant work at the University of Illinois of Doctor Kinley be- 
fore he became Pi-csidcnt was tho reorganization of the Graduate School, and the 
securing for it, in I907, of an appro'oriation of $50,000, tho first special appro- 
priation for such purpose in the State, and probably the first in the country. 
Two years later, largely through his efforts, legislative appropriation of 
$100,000 was received for tho Graduate Scliool and liberal appropriations subse- 
quently followed. Cf only slightly less importance, though, was his contribution 
towards the development of the College of Commerce and Business Administration, 
for he was largely responsible for the growth and expansion of this College to its 
present position. 



1 "Memorial Service for Edmund Janes James", pages l8-ig, 



63 
Outstanding Trends and Events of President IZinley's Administration - Wlaen 

President James was taken seriously ill in the Spring of I919, he offered his 
resignation; but instead of accepting it outright, the Board of Trustees in June 
of that year appointed Doctor Kinley as Acting President. After a year's leave 
of absence from active duties, President James again submitted his resignation, 
which was accepted to become effective on August 3I. 1920. Doctor Kinley then be- 
came President, his formal installation on December 1 and 2, I92I, being made a 
ceremonial occasion, A few of the outstanding events of his administration arc 
discussed briefly in the follo'^ing sections. 

University Finances - Probably the most significant feature of Doctor Kinleys 
incumbency as President of the University was his ability to instill into the 
minds of the officials and people of the State greater confidence in the potenti- 
alities and greater vision of the purposes and possibilities of the University 
and to secure correspondingly greater appropriations to consummate his purpose of 
developing a great institution. 

In 1921, owing to the constantly-increasing number of students and to the 
consequent need for now buildings, and also to the necessity of increasing sala- 
ries of instructional and research staffs to meet the increased cost of living 
due to World War I, President Kinley asked the Icgislatliirc for $10,500,000, and 
claimed that an adequate and coriiprchcnsivc development of the University would re- 
quire that amount for each of the next five biennituns. He stated that at the be- 
ginning of this decennial period a considerable part of the appropriation was 
needed for the past-due buildings, and that as the dcccnnium progressed a less 
proportion would be required for a building program and more for maintenance, in- 
struction, and research. The legislature voted, without a dissenting voice in any 
committee or in cither house, the sum asked for, thus virtually approving the 
President's program for the decennium; but the Governor vetoed $1,600,000 for 
buildings. 

In 1923, President Kinley presented the same plan and the same program as two 
years before, and again asked for $10,500,000; and the legislature once more voted 



64 
all that was asked, and this time the Governor promptly signed the hill as passed. 

It is interesting to note, that the appropriation of 1921 as received hy the Uni- 
versity rras $3, '+00, 000 more than the proceeds of the mill tax; and in I923 the 
appropriation was about double the ianoiint . from. [thp.,.-t5». . That the repre- 
sentatives of the people should vote such magnificent suns to an educational in- 
stitution is indisputable proof that the people of the State have implicit con- 
fidence in the \7ork of the University, in what it is doing, and in the possibili- 
ties of the future advaiiccnent through it of the various industrial and social 
interests of the great conmonv/ealth. 

The total operating income from all sources for the University from 1920 to 

1930 was as follo-..'s: 

1 
TABL3 X UillVSRSITY IITOOUS, I92O-I93O 



Year 


Amount 


1920-21 


$3 771 o46 


1921-22 


5 283 S3 8 


1922-23 


6 310 896 


1923-24 


5 657 S70 


1924-25 


7 795 067 


1925-26 


6 137 593 


1926-27 


7 825 7qo 
7 730 843 


I927-2S 


192s- 29 


6 926 602 


iq29-3o 


7 115 S64 



The rapid strides of the University are further reflected by the fact tlxat 
the total income v/as practically' doubled during this ten-year regime. These 
figures apply only to the operating income and do not include any special appro- 
priations made for new buildings or major additions. 

Educational Policies - Fi'csident Kinley continued to uphold the established 
traditions and the high educational standards of the University, to emphasize the 
value of graduate v/ork, aj;d to stress the importance of scientific research — the 
Bureau of Economic and Business Research, the experimental agency of the College 
of Economics and Business Adninist ration, having been established in I921. In the 
University of Illinois Bulletin, Volume XVIII, Wo. 10, ITovcnbcr 8, 1920, Doctor 
Kinley stated: "The first and most importrijit v/ork of the University is to train 

1 Annual reports of the Comptroller. 



65 

young men and women to develop character, to make them future servants of the 
people in leading the way in cultural ideals and the economic and social practices 
that go to make up progress. 

"But leaders must give out truth. The second great work of the University, 
therefore, is to discover new truth. It is the people's agency of research. As 
has been remarked "before, if the University did no teaching work, it would justify 
the appropriations made to it by the results of its research." 

In his inaugural address on December 2, I92I, President Kinley made these 
observations regarding the relations between the University and the State: "It is 
one of the glories of the State of Illinois that it has made its University free. 
Its Trustees arc the direct representatives of the people and are free to go back 
to the people at any time for instruction and support. The representatives of the' 
people in the legislature loyally support their institution. One of the wonders 
of our history is that the State Legislature has always been so generous and so 
ready, ^e are held to strict accountability, of course, and v/e arc glad to be so 
held. But in the discharge of the duties entrusted to us, no institution could 
be freer from political control." 

President Kinley took the necessary steps to increase the operating budget, 
to strengthen the teaching and research staffs, and to provide new buildings and 
equipment for a rap idly- expanding student enrollment. One of these buildings was 
the first unit of the new Librai-y» The buildings that offered the greatest re- 
lief to the College of Engineering were Architecture and Kindred Arts and the new 
Materials Testing Laboratory, later renamed the Arthur Newell Talbot Laboratory. 
The list of new structures included two that were especially designed to serve 
the general student body for recreational purposes — the Memorial Stadium and the 
Men's Gymnasium, later designated the George Huff Gymnasium, used not only for 
physical-training programs, but also for social gatherings and general University 
functions and assemblies. Other new buildings of general University interest were 
the McKinloy Hospital and the Radio Station W-I-L-L. 

Orgf^jiization of the School of Journalism - In I927, the instructional work in 



66 

Journalism, which was begun in I902 as a part of the courses in Rhetoric, and 
which after 1916 was administered as tda« division of English in the College of 
Liberal Arts and Sciences, was reorganized and expanded to form a separate unit — 
the School of Journalisr.i — under the supervision of a Director. The School offerj' 
three curricula which consist of two years of professional training after two yean 
of college work as prerequisite. The editorial curricultmi prepares students for 
positions as editors and reporters, the advertising curriculum, for positions in 
the advertising in radio and commercial vrork, and the publishing curriculum, for 
positions in the administrative phases of Journa3.isn, 

The University Faculty - The number of University facility members during the 
administration of President Xinlcy is shown by the following table: 

TABLE XI - iraiBUR OF PSHSOIIS Oil THE UNIVERSITY FACULTY, I920-I930 



Year 


number 


1920-21 


973 


1921-22 


1 loU 


1922-23 


1 161 


1923-2U 


1 192 


I92U-25 


1 260 


1923-25 


1 313 


1926-27 


1 426 


1927-23 


1 332 


1928-29 


1 h^h 


1929-30 


1 U9g 



The rapid growth and development of the University is further reflected in 
the figures here given, the increase in hiojiibcrs being over 50 per cent in the ten- 
year period. President Kinloy continued the policy of maintaining the highest 
grade of staff possible v/ith the resources available for the purpose. He brought 
in man^'' men of eminence to fill new positions in adninist i-ativc and professorial 
ranks and soloctc3d young men of unusual promise for positions demanding good train- 
ing but less educational experience. Kc was unrelenting in his search for the best 
he could got . 

Event s of President I.inlcy's Later Life - In I93O, President Kinlcy reached thi 
age limit fixed by Univorsity regulations and was retired 7/ith the title of Presi- 
dent and Professor of Economics, Siiioritu s. Until his death on December 3. 19^'^> 
he continued to live in Urbana, making his homo in the property he occupied while 



67 

serving as President. Almost to the end he kept up his interest in community, 

University, and State affairs, for in I93I he served as special delegate to the 

Orient for the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago and during 1932-^0, as 

Chairman of the Board of Directors of the First National Bank in Champaign. 

President ITillard's Sulogy - The following tribute ty President Willard as 

recorded in the Urbana Evening Courier of December U, 19'+^, presents an excellent 

summary of Doctor Kinley's life work: 

"Few men in educational administration have had the opportiinities to serve 
in so many capacities. All of his services were performed unselfishly and with a 
devotion to ideals rarely equalled and never excelled. His memory deserves the 
highest acclaim and gratitude. 

"Doctor Kinley was a man of many abilities in all of v/hich he achieved dis- 
tinction. As an economist he had an international reputr.tion. He was an edu- 
cational statesman of the highest order. He rjll long be remembered for his ac- 
complishments as a scholar and university administrator, but most of all for his 
fine character. His rugged honesty, unquestioned integrity, indomitable will, and 
abiding faith in the University of Illinois and its future impressed his colleague; 
and inspired many generations of students. 

"Doctor Kinley brought to the presidency of the University a background of 
of training and exf<erience v/hich vvas greatly needed at that time. He served as 
Professor of Economics, as Dean of the former College of Literature and Arts, as 
director of the courses in commerce which developed into the College of Commerce 
and Business Administration, as Dean of the Graduate School, and as Vi co-President 
of the University. He served the University faithfully and ably for thirty-seven 
years. An intense devotion to his v/ork characterized all of these services. 

"His administration as President of the University of Illinois from I920 
to 1930 was a period of great development and exp^ansion. During that time the 
University made a phenomenal recovery from the serious setback which all insti- 
tutions of higher education suffered during World War I, and the University made 
rapid progress in many directions, 

"Doctor Kinley enjoyed the confidence of his entire constituency — facultj, 
colleagues, students, alumni, state and federal officials, and private citizens 
all over the country." 

D. HAREY WOODBUEII CHASE, PRESIDENT, 1930-33- 
Early Training and Experience - Harry Woodburn Chase was born at G-roveland, 
Massachusetts, on April 11, I883. He received the B.S. degree at Darbnouth College 
in 190^ and the A, M. there in I90S. Clark University granted him the Ph. D, de- 
gree in 1910. Doctor Chase has been favored with many honorary degrees. He re- 
aeivcd the LL.D. degree from Lc^noir College and Wake Forest University in I92O, 
from the University of Georgia in I923. and from Dartmouth in 1925» He was grant- 
ed the degree of Dr, of Hiunanities by Rollins College in I93I and the Litt. D. 



degree "by Col\imbia University in 193^' Doctor Chase served as Professor of 
Psychology at the University of North Oarolina during I9IO-IU, as Acting Dean of 
the College of Liberal Arts there during I9I8-I9, and as Chairman of the Faculty 
from January to June, 1919- ^e hecame President of the University of North 
Carolina in I9I9 ^^^ maintained that position until 1930. when he came to the 
University of Illinois as President. 

The Administration of President Chase - Doctor Chase assumed the duties of 
the office of President on July 1, 1930. A few of the ideals and events of his 
administration are treated in the following paragraphs. 

President Chase 's Educational Policies and Objectives - In his installation 
address made on May 1, 1931i President Chase stated. "The very complexity of the 
functions and problems of a state university like our own constitutes a challenge 
to the wisdom and the vision of us all. There i s no fixed formula for the solu- 
tion of such a problem. This is not the time for the prciiouncement of rigid 
formulas in education. In this rapidly-changing civilization of ours, formulas 
are outworn almost as soon as they are stated. We have less need for formulas 
than for open and courageous minds, and for creative spirits. Institutions like 
the University of Illinois are pioneering in a nev world. There arc no maps to 
guide them." 

In a brief statement printed in the 193^ issue of the Illio, President Chase 

expressed his ideas regarding the purposes and aims of student training as follows: 

"I think that the great thing we can do for you as students is to help you 
to grow up. I do not believe in things which tend to prolong unduly in univer- 
sities the period of immaturity. The university is a place vihere people grow up 
mentally, morally, and emotionally, It is, it seems to me, the concern of a uni- 
versity like ours to train people to bear their due part in the affairs of adult 
life. 

"I am in favor of encouraging students to assume responsibility. American 
life needs and requires people who have habits of individual initiative and who 
are able to take and bear responsibility. 

"I hope it may be my good fortune to contribute to an environment which 
will foster liberally-educated people. Conformity to a pattern and mediocrity are 
the greatest foes within our gates to liberalization of the mind. The development 
of individtiality and a well-xounded,. liberal open-minded personality are the 
things that count enduringly." 

1 Page 19. 



69 

Revision of the University Statutes - Cnc of the early acts of Doctor Chase, 
y/as to recomaend that the University Senate make a comprehensive examination of 
the educational processes maintained ty the University with the intent of revis- 
ing the statutes, particularly as they related to the educational and adminis- 
trative organization of the institution. At its meeting on December 1, 1930, the 
Senate initiated this investigation by appointing a Qommittee of Nine to under- 
take the study and present a report of its finding for consideration. The com- 
mittee promptly appointed fifteen sub-committees to inquire into different phases 
of the assignment. As the main committee and its sub-cominittecs completed the 
various portions of their v.'ork and presented their rocor.mondations for approval, 
the Senate deliberated on the proposals, substituted such changes as seemed ad- 
visable, and finally approved the amended provisions and referred them to the 
Board of Trustees, which adopted them during the latter part of I93I and the ear^-' 
part of 1932. 

Thus as finally revised, the statutes were modified to return to the Univer- 
sity Senate some of the powers it originally h.jld, but 'vhich had been gradually 
absorbed by the Council of Administration — an advisory body organized to assist 
the President in matters pertaining to administrative duties — and making each 
college somevjhat more autonomous in its operations. By the terms of the statutes,, 
each college was given authority to designate an executive committee to direct 
its affairs, such committee being composed of the dean and two or more members 
elected from and by the staffs of the respective colleges. 

The Founding of the College of Fine and Applied Arts - For several years, 
there had existed in the minds of many persons the idea of a College of Fine Arts. 
This dream became a realization in 193^1 during the regime of Doctor Chase when 
the 2epartment of Architecture from the College of 3ngineering, the Division of 
of Landscape Architecture from the College of Agriculture, the School of Music, 
and the Department of Art and Design from the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences 
were combined to form a separate unit known as the College of Fine and Applied 



70 



Arts. The dissociation of the Department of Architecture from the College of 



Sneineering left a wide gap in Engineering enrollment and reduced in proportion 
the size of the College faculty. The change was not unexpected, however, for 
plans had been under way for some years in leading and influential quarters to 
bring it about. Under the new arrangement, nevertheless, the revised curricula 
in Architecture continued to include many basic courses offered by the staff in 
the College of Engineering. 

The Founding of the School of Physical Education - The School of Physical 
Education, as an independent unit, was established in 1932, under the supervision 
of a director, by combining the Departments of Physical Education for men and for 
woman and the Department of Health Service. The purpose of the School is to ac- 
quaint all students with the benefits that can be obtained from physical recrea- 
tion and to teach them the fundaJiientals of hygiene and sanitation. Special but 
separate curricula for men and women lending to baccalaureate degrees, are de- 
signed to prepare students for professional duty in recreational and health -setvici 
activities. 

Total University Income - The total operating income of the University from 

all sources from I93O tc 1933 was as follows: 

TABLE XII - UWIVSSSITY INCOME, I930 - 1933 

Year Amount 

1930-31 $6 7S2 39s 

1931-32 6 U75 211 

1932-33 5 670 021 

As these figures indicate, the operating income had to take a sharp reduction 
during the severest part of the depression period. This decline was accompanied 
by some reduction in staff and by a decrease in compensation for all those em- 
ployed in University positions. At times, during those years, the State funds 
that '.7ere ordinarily available for salary expenditures, became exhausted and had 
to be replenished from special sales and other taxes. There were some delays in 
meeting the obligations, but nothing like the seriousness that prevailed among 

__some seco ndary sc hools. 
1 The Bureau of Community Planning, the research organization of the College, was 



2stablished 



I oommu: 
in 1934 



71 
Number of University Faculty Members - The total number of University faculty 

members of all grades during the years of President Chase's administration is 

given as follows: 

TABLE XIII - NUIIBER OF PERSONS ON THE UIHVERSITY FACULTY, I93O-I933 

Year Number 
1930-31 IU90 

1931-32 1651 

1932-33 1565 

The decline in numbers was brought about by the decrease in the budget during 
the depression years, as previously stated; but the reduction was mainly in the 
lower brackets, and was nothing like the cut made in most industries and com- 
mercial establishments. 

Subsequent Experience - Doctor Chase resigned in 1933 to become Chancellor 
of New York University and has remained in that position to date. Aside from his 
duties as head of a I'^^reat educational institution, Chancellor Chase has found 
time to serve on many committees and commissions delegated to undertake unusual 
and responsible Services for the community and the Nation. 

E. ASSHUH HILL DANIELS, ACTING PRESIDDIW, I933-3U 

Early Training aiid Previous Work - Arthur Kill Daniels, Acting President dur- 
ing 1933-3^1 was born October I9, 1365, at East liedway, Massachusetts. He re- 
ceived the A.B. degree from Olivet College in IS87, the 3.D, degree from Yale in 
in IS90, and the Ph. D. degree from Clark University in 1893. He v/as instructor 
of Philosophy at the University of Illinois during 1393-95, Assistant Professor 
during 1395-99, and Professor of Philosophy after I899. He was Acting Dean of 
the College of Literature and Arts during I9II-I3. Acting Dean of the Graduate 
School during I9IS-2I, and Dean during 1921-33 • ^or a number of years between 
1925 and 1933. i'^G server] as Acting Dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, 
He was Actin,v; President of the University during the one-year interim of 1933-3^+. 
Some of the policies and events of his administration arc discussed briefly in 
the the following paragraphs. 

Educational Policies p,nd Philosophies of Doctor Daniels ' Administration - In 



72 

;\ radio address made on March 2, I93U, Doctor Daniels stated: 

"With the gro'.7th of the University, there has been an increase of edu- 
cational advantages traditionally associated with jirivate institutions. Although 
intcllectural training is fundamental to all purposes of a college or a univer- 
sity, the citizens of this State may rest assured that Illinois is upholdinj^ the 
standards of conduct as well as those of thinking and scholarship.-"^ 

"During the Commencement address given in June, 193'^t President Daniels 
expressed the following educational philosophy: "You yovmg men and y/omcn have in- 
herited one of the noblest benefits of mankind For what you 

have achieved toda;- you may thank our system of education, which is one of our 
country's finest traditions. Like other traditions, it springs from one of the 
noblest principles of political government — the doctrine of equal opportunity 
for alii That vrc ma;'' not have fully realized this ideal does not detract in the 
least from its value in our social life, for ideals arc seldom achieved, but they 
serve as goals towards which wc strive. "■'- 

Organization of the Division of University Ibctonsion - The Division of Uni- 
versity Extension, organized to provide instruction in certain courses by corre- 
spondence methods, '.7,-\s established in 1933 ^^ ^'^'^ outcome of a report submitted 
to the Board of Trustees, in January, 1933i relatin,;; to a study that had been 
carried on for some time in regard to extension 'vorl: and correspondence courses. 
This service has gradually exfianded to include such other work as Visual Aids 
Service established in 193^. Speech Aids Service in operation since 1935i extrar- 
mural courses offering instruction in undergraduate and graduate subjects since 
1936, Science Aids Service since 193S'i ^^^ Engineering Hxtcnsion since I9U1. The 
inauguration of this division of University activities has made valuable contri- 
butions to the citizens of the State in providing instruction in undergraduate 
subjects on the college level for mature students of all ages removed from the 
campus area, mc-iking it possible for many to carry on or continue their educational 
programs under conditions v/here no other means have been available, and in supply- 
ing materials and personnel to supplement the instructional schedules of the 
secondary- school systems of the State. 

Establishment of the Bureau of Institutional Ho search - The Bure.'-.u of In- 
stitutional Sesearch was established in the fall of 1933 ,\s a fact-finding or 
efficiency agency for collc;ctin/- and f^nalyzing data with reference to various 
phases of University adiiinistration. Under guidance of its p.dvisorjr committee, 
Qf which 



1 Illinois Alunni News, July, 193 4, page 364. 



73 

the Provost is chairman, the Bureau skives attention to the teaching, rf;search, 
budgetarv, and other aspects of University operation in their relatioos to one 
another", to educational policies and objectives, and to the social needs of the 
State, and fornulates its interpretations and appraisals in special reports to 
the President of the University. In general, the agency is concerned -ith the 
development of data, 'vhich nay look to the systonatic and economic coordination of 
all efforts directed tov.'ards accomplishing the purposes for ',7hich the University 
was established. 

The F ederal Emergency Relief Administration and the National Youth Admin- 

1 
istration - Beginning with the second semester of 1933-3^-> the Federal 3rncrgency 

Hcliof Administration, or F.H.K.A., as it was generally called, inaugurated a 
national program for the financial relief of need;/- students in the publically- sup- 
ported colleges and universities throughout the countiy. This action was taken 
in view of the hardships that wore being imposed upon youth by the depression 
period, depriving them of the normal opportunities for obtaining employment to aid 
in defraying their college expenses.. Federal funds thus allotted to educational 
institutions, were assigned under the provision that they should bo devoted to 
special work or projects that the schools could not do at that time with their own 
funds and that v;ould .afford omployraent for worthy young men and "'omen who would 
not othcrv-risc be able to got an education, A number of students, not to exceed 
10 per cent of the total registration, could be selected by each institution to 
participate in the fund if that number v;as in need and could not continue v/ithout 
assistance. 

Nearly 1,000 students at the University of Illinois benefited by this program. ■ 
The ma:cimuii which any student was permitted to cam v/as $20 a month and the mini-r 

mum was $10. . The average for all students participating was not to exceed $15 a 

1 The nsune of the relief project was chang.jd in 1935 to National Youth Administra- ■ 
tion, or N.Y.A. as it v/as commonly kno'-'n, but the system remained about the same. 
Under this plan, as under the other one, the departments wore able to got many 
jobs done they could not have hoped to do under other conditions, and nanj'' stu- 
dents rc^mainod in school who would hravc dropped out if they had not had the help. 
The N.Y.A. was discontinued, however, in 19^3 f*^^ lack of Federal appropriation 
by Congress. At that time the civili.^m students remaining in the University seem- 
ed to be more self-supporting thnn formerly; besides, the money was more urgently 
needed to carry on the war effort. 



7U 

month. The rates of pay vrere those usually paid by university authorities for 
work of corresponding grade. The students worked on useful projects proposed ty 
members of the staff in the different departments. 

This plan proved to be extremely worth while. It rendered much-needed as-» 
sistanco to students and kept many of them in college who otherwise would have 
had to leave. 

Total University Income - The total operating income of the University from 
all sources during 1933-3^^ •''as ^'j , Gf c, ,hkj . This amount is only slightly above 
that for the preceding bionnium, a,nd indicates that the State was still having 
difficulties in meeting its financial obligations. Salaries of the staff were 
still down to the level to which they were cut during the previous two years. The 
lack of funds for library and equipment expenditures called for serious thought 
in placing the incouo where it could servo to best advgmtagc. 

Ilumber on tho_ University rac\ilty - The total number of persons of all grades 
on the University faculty during 1933-3^ including full-tine and prfrt-time staff, 
was 1,522. This figure is even lower than that for the preceding bicnnium and in- 
dicates the financial predicament in which the University found itself at that 

time in trying to hold together its staff of trained personnel. 

Ptat\itory 

Subsequent Life - Having reached the/age limit, Doctor Daniels was retired 

in I93U with the title of Acting President and Professor of Philosophy, Hmcritus . 
He continued to reside in Urbana, taking an active part in University aiid com- 
munity affairs until he passed away on Ajiril 2, 19'+0. 

F. ABTHUH CUTTS MILLAKD, PISSID3KT, I93U-DATE 
Early Life and Preparation - Arthur Cutts ^Tillard was born in Washington, D.C. 
on August 12, 137s, and was granted the 3,S. degree in Chemical Engineering at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Tochnology in I90U. He was a teacher of industrial 
chemistry in the Califoi'nia School of F.ochanic Arts, San Prancisco, during 190U- 
1906. He then scr-ved as Associate Professor of Mochanical Engineering at George 
Washington University in cliargo of the department from 190b to I909 ; as Assistant 



75 

Sanitary and Heating Bngineer, Q,uarter Master's Corps, U. S. Army, from I909 to 
1911 ; and as Sanitary and Heating Engineer in charge of preparation of plans and 
specifications for heating and ventilating equipraent at all U. S. Army Posts, in- 
cluding awards of contracts and acceptance tests, from I9II to 1913. During that 
time ho served also as consultant on the mechanical equipment of huildings. Pro- 
fessor '^Tillard came to the University of Illinois in I913 as Assistant Professor, 
and in I917 he became Professor of Heating and Ventilation — a title he held un- 
til 193^. He assumed charge of the Hecha.nical Engineering Laboratory during the 
years 1917-20, and served as Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering 
from 1920 to I93U. During the period fi'om July 1, I933, to July 1, I93U, he 
served as Acting Dean of the College of Engineering and Acting Director of the 
Engineering Experiment Station, On July 1, 193^. ^g became President of the Uni- 
versity. 

Presiden t V'illard' s Administration - Shortly after coning into the office as 
President in 193^, he '.vas honored \'rith the degree of LL. D, by Northwestern and 
George T7ashington Universities, and with the degree of D. Eng. by Case School of 
Applied Science. In I936, President Willard was the recipient of the F. Paul An- 
derson Gold Hedal of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers. 

Some of the outstanding problems and events occurting in President Willard's 
administration arc discussed in the next few pages. 

Problems Anent Increased Student Enrollment - "During the period beginning 
with the year 193'+i *^c enrollnent of the University of Illinois increased at a 
rate that reached beyond anything experienced in the entire previous history of 
the institution. The magnitude of this growth can best be appreciated by citing 
some enrollment figures. For the twenty-nine years (from the founding of the 
institution to 1895-9S) enrollment remained under 1,000 students. The year 1896 
to 1897 saw the beginning of a twenty-year period during which the figures mount- 
ed steadily, with the exception of the years I912-I3 and I917-I8, to 7,000. In 



1 Other portions of President Willard's biogravjhical sketch appoa.r in later 
chapters^ 



76 

the session I919-20, a steeper climb began v/hich reached a climax of almost 
15.000 in I93O-3I, or more than 100 per cent increase in thirteen years. In the 
three succeeding sessions (during the depression) losses of 1,000 students a year 
occurred. Beginning with 193^-35. however, there was an average yearly gain of 
1,000 students; the climax was reached in 1932-39 with almost 18,000 students. A 
highly significant fact is that of the enormous increase in students on all 
campuses of the University of Illinois, almost 80 per cent was in undergraduate 
divisions of the Urbana campus. 

"Increases such as those occurring since 193^^ are likely to cause certain 
problems to arise in educational institutions. The first of these relates to the 
maintenance of standards of administration under the pressure of great numbers of 
additional students. The second grows out of a greater diversity of interests 
and abilities appearing among these new students. These differences in turn re- 
quire that the institution give consideration to their recognition and classi- 
fication, and to the modification of the educational program to mQ^t the new ed- 
ucational requirements. The third is concerned with the modification and expan- 
sion of the physical facilities and the administrative organization of the Univer- 
sity to care for the greatly-increased enrollment. The necessity for providing 
for so many more students than during any previous period brings enormous stresses 
and strains upon the physical facilities of the institution on the one hand, and 
on the other upon the mechanism of educational organization and administration." 

Some of those problems, especially those relating to the budget and the 
building program are discussed briefly in the next t'7o sections. 

University finances - The strain on the facilities brought about by the e- 
normous increase in the enrollment of the student bod;/ demanded a corresponding 
increase in the budget for buildings, eouipment, and teaching personnel. The to- 
tal University budget increased from about $11,595,000 for the biennium 1933-35 
to about $19,3'40,000 in I9UI-U3, and the total araount spent for buildings and 
equipment from July 1, 1933, to June 30, I9U2, v/hich include President Daniels' 



1 Thc^Uni vpy 3 ity. of -Illinois Survoy Report by a Connission of the American Council 



S^3S2^I?f o^^?^l§$3' J^.Co°^l '"""'^^ ^'"^ 



77 
administration, wan a"bout $7,959>000. These allowances during the early years 
of the recovery period follo'.ving the depression left some funds available for in- 
crease in salaries of the regular staff, hut not to restore them to their origi- 
nal values. Some of the later budgets did serve, however, to make up some of the 
deficiencies, especially among those in the lo'.ver-pay brackets. 

The total operating income at the University from all sources from I93U to 
I9UU was as follows:"^ 

TABLE ZIV - UNIVERSITY INCOME, I93U-I9UU 

Year Amount 

I9F-35 $5 787 702 

1^35-36 6 Gkk 060 

1936-37 6 929 335 

1937-3S 7 910 256 

1938-39 S 179 6U8 

1939-^0 g 577 556 

I9U0-U1 9 220 021 

ic)hi-k2 11 U13 kkU- 

19^2-U3 12 3oq 286 

19^3-^^ 15 703 273 

The income for the fiscal year ending June 30. 19^3. for example was pro- 

vided as follows: 

Erom the U. S. Government 21. 35^ $2 356 1U9 

State Appropriations 59.6 6 5/3 795 

Student fees 11. U 1 258 7IO 

Private gifts and 

endowments ^.5 277 oU2 

Earnings of educational 
departments & miscellaneous 

5.2 569 696 

?ii ouo 392 

Gross income from residence halls. 
Union Building, hospital and tenant 
properties. 5 1 I7I kkk 

Gifts find endowment income from scholar- 
ships, prizes and sJinuities 92 050 



$12 309 826 
Number of Persons on the University Faculty - The total number of persons on 
the University faculty during the first ten years of President Willard's adminis- 
tration including full-time and part-time staff "'as as follows: 



1 Erom Annual Reports of the Comptroller. 

2 From Financial Summary of Report of Comptroller, page 5» 



7S 
TABLE XV - lOIBSH OF PERSONS ON THS UinVEHSITY FACULTY, 193l|_i9UU 



Year 


Number 


I93U-35 


1653 


1935-36 


1752 


1936-37 


1920 


1937-38 


2091 


1938-39 


21U5 


1939-Uo 
19UC-U1 


2219 


22U7 


19U1-U2 


2511. 


i':)}i2-kj, 


236UI 
23^7^ 


igU3-UU 



The demands made for research and for instruction by an ever-growing student 
body increased the size of the staff by practically 50 per cent during the ten- 
year period of this administration. No doubt, the next few years will see even 
greater additions when students return from milit.-i.ry service, for the Government 
is planning to subsidize those v/ho were deprived of their undergraduate training 
when they were inducted into the armed forces. 

Educational Policies and Objectives of President -Tillard's Administration - 

The general educational ideals and policies of President V/illard are clearly re- 

2 

fleeted in the following statements expressed by him in the 1936 Illio: 

"Unless our educated classes, whether they have specialized in the arts, 
literature, or sciences, have also an interest in, and an intelligent appreci- 
ation of, the social, political, and economic problems of the society in which 
they must live their lives, they may have received an education which they may 
not use effectively. The approach to these problems through the development of 
interest and appreciation therein depends on a sense of personal responsibility 
to the community and the state. In other words, we must develop a sense of 
citizenship if there is to be a well-balanced society in which to live and enjoy 
a richer life. 

"Briefly stated, we have developed during the past decade or so, as a re- 
sult of our amazingly-rapid advances in technological and other fields, a highly- 
specialized attitude towards education on the part of the students and faculty in 
many of our universities, liany are thinking only in terms of education for in- 
dividual competence, with the result that breadth of learning, background sub- 
jects, and even cultural ideals are being sacrificed in the rush for utilitarian 
knowledge which is so much in demand, especially in the professional fields and 
in the professional schools. The fact that social and economic trends might 
seriously impair the usefulness of such highly- special! zed knowledge has received 
scant consideration. Economic stability and social harmony have been taken for 
granted -- government v;ould solve all such problems as might arise, relieving the 
individual of any responsibility save to himself and his own career. 

"It is a proper function, therefore, for our state universities today to 



1 Includes those on leave for "Tar Service. 

2 Pago 21. 



79 

readjust the balance 'betucen education for individual competence alone, and edu- 
cation for breadth, for background, for cultural dovolopmcnt, for cit izenship, in 
order to j. remote the best interests of the community in which we live. The Uni- 
versity of Illinois expects to meet this situation V7ith frankness and deal with it 
without sacrificing any of those fundamental values which our educational experi- 
ence has taught us apply equally well in any situation — including the present. 
It is, in my opinion, equally mandatory on the University to produce men and women, 
who, when face to face with life in a world that is far from perfect, in a world 
that measures success too often by material success regardless of the means em- 
ployed, will use their knowledge for the common welfare of their fellow men." 

Educational Expediencies - While the educational and research policies of 
President Willard's administration have been, in the main, a continuation of those 
of his ^ireccdcssors, several innovations have been adopted to keep pace with 
changing and advancing conditions. In I9U0 there 'vas created the Division of 
General Studies in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences with the idea of pro- 
moting "anovT the ideal of the 'well-rounded maji.'' The curriculum is designed for 
several types of students who enter the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. It 
offers a well-balanced program in the sciences and humanities to the student who 
desires a general introduction to learning and culture before he enters upon 
specialized trainin^% To the student with conflicting inclinations toward several 
professions it offers an opportunity to exi.ilore the main areas of knowledge and to 

test his owi interests and abilities before he decides upon his life work.' 

Student 
Another addition was the establishment of the/ Personnel Bureau as an agency 

to provide student counsel and advice. Its greatest usefulness is to freshmen^ 
but it is equipped to offer advice to all students on matters of vocational apti- 
tude and guidance and in the choice of fields of stud;/. Furthermore, there was 
initiated a state-wide Kigh-School Testing Program that supplies an important ser- 
vice to the colleges and high schools of the State in classifying student per- 
formance and in developing essential information for the Personnel Bureau. 

Another activity inaugurated during his administration was th.- establishment 
of a state-wide Engineering, Science, and llanagement War Training Program by the 
U. S. Department of Education through our Division of University Extension to 



1 Division of General Studies of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences of the 
University of Illinois!' August, I9U3, page 1. 



80 
serve the various war industries in Illinois. Ihile the agency was set up to 

meet an emergency condition, it will no doubt continue to function in modified 

form. This agency is discussed at some length in a later chapter. 

During this period, too, the Chicago departments were greatly strengthened hy 
the appointment of an Executive Dean to coordinate the educational and research 
programs of the professional colleges of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy a*4 by 
an extensive building program to accommodate their expanding departmental needs, 
and by effecting affiliations and cooperative working arrangements with other 
Chicago institutions and other state health and clinical agencies located in the 
Chicago area. Some of these arrangements and agencies are mentioned in the follow- 
ing paragraph. 

Affiliations and Relations of the Chicago Colleges with other Chicago Insti- 
tutions - Rush Medical College and Presbyterian Hospital in Chicago became affili- 
ated with the College of Medicine of the University of Illinois in I9UI, By an 
act of the G-eneral Assembly in 19^1, the Research and Educational Hospital and the 
Illinois Surgical Institute for Children were transferred to the University from 
the State Department of Public T7clfarc, and the Division of Services for Crippled 
Children, formerly in that department, was placed under jurisdiction of the Uni- 
versity. The Illinois Kcuropsychiatric Institute, the Illinois Eye and Ear In- 
firmary, and the Institute for Juvenile Research, located on the Chicago campus, 
operate under an agreement between the University and the Dcpartm.ent of Public 
Welfare.^ 

The affiliations of these institutions offering infinite opportunities for 
instruction and research to those connected with the College of Medicine, has 
served to strengthen the University and move it still further into the topmost 
rank of American Universities. The numerous clinics, dispensaries, and hospitals; 
the extensive library and mpj.so\im coll actions; and the enlarged instructional and 
experimental staff combine facilities for study and investigation rarely equalled 
in this or other lands. 



1 The Annual Register, I9U2-U3, page 66. 



21 
Changes in the Administrative Organization at Urbana - 3ffoctivc on September 

1, I9U3, a number of changes in administrative organization at Urbana Tcre ap- 
proved by the Board of Trustees. One of these involved the creation of tho nevr 
office of Dean of Students directly responsible to the President, to direct and 
coordinate the work of a number of offices, committees, and functions that relate 
to student life and welfare, especially those of a non-curricular nature. 

Under this nev/ arrangement, tho Dean of Students supervises the activities of 
the Dean of Men, Dean of V/omcn, Student Employiftont Bureau, University Health- 
Service Station, McKinley Hospital and the hospital and medical services, the 
division of student housing, all boards administering extra-curricular affairs ex- 
cept those relating to athletics and the alumni association, and all cultural, 
educational, and social progr;ans of the Illinois Union and the residence halls. 
He is responsible, also, for the committee on Guidance Conferences for High-school 
students. 

Under this new plan, too, there is to be an office of Business Manager, im- 
mediately responsible to the president, to direct and correlate the business a- 
ffairs 01 the University except those assigned to the office of comptroller. The 
responsibilities of this ne'.7 post will include purchasing and non-academic employ- 
ment, and the construction, maintenance, and operation of the physical plant, the 
residence halls and tho Illini Union Building and Illini Hall. 

Building Program - The several nev; buildings erected during the administra- 
tion of President Willard arc located both on the Urbana ;'nd Chicago campuses. 
Thos in Urbana include: The Metallurgical Laboratory, I936; The Natural Resources 
Building housing the State Geological and Natural History Surveys, I9UO; The 
Geologic^a Survey Laboratory, 19UO; The William Lnxiont Abbott Power Plant, 1940; 

Gregory Hnll, I9U0: Men's Residence Hall, I9UI; wMb the Illini Union Building, 
the Sanitary Engineering Laboratory, I3U3; and the Airport Hangar, iPU;;. 

19^1y In addition there have been made major extensions to existing buildings on 

the Urbana Cnjnpus, the largest of which was the University Library. 

Those nev/ buildings located in Chicago include: Dentistry, Medical and Phar- 
macy building, 1937* Iii addition, there were some changes made to existing 



S2 

buildings, the chief of which --vas for the ncr Chicaeo Illini Union Building, for- 
merly housing a part of the College of Pharmacy. 

Student-Faculty- Alumni Social Centers - The administration arranged to take 
over the old Y.M.C.A. building at Wright and John streets in Champaign ,?ind to con- 
vert it into a student center, which served temporarily to provide a nucleus of 
activities for the student bod^^ Later, there was constructed the new Illini 
Union Building, which has served so efficiently as a social and service center 
for activities on the Urbana campus proper. There was established, in addition, 
a student -faculty- alumni center on the Chicago campus, in what has been called 
the Chicago Illini Union Building, to serve somewhat the same purposes as the 
studcnt-faculty-alumni centers have done at Urbana. These Urbana centers are 
described more fully in later chapters.. 

The University of Illinois Foundation - The University of Illinois Foundation 
a non-profit corporation organized in 1935. under the la-./s of the State of Illi- 
nois, grew out of the Al\:unni Fund which had been started about ten'years previous- 
ly. Its objectives are s-amnarizcd in the igU2-U3 issue of the Annual Hogister-'- 
as follows: 

"l, to assist in developing the facilities of the University by encouraging 
gifts of money, property, v.-orks of art, etc., and by such other means as may seem 
advisable; 2, to receive, hold, and administer such gifts v/ith the primaiT object 
of serving purposes other than those for which the State of Illinois ordinarily 
malcos sufficient appropriations; 3, to act as the business agent of the Board of 
Trustees of the University in the performing of other services specified by them; 
and h, to undert.nko such other enterprises as tend to promote the interests and 
welfare of the University* 

"The Foundation consists of twenty-eight members. Three of these arc the 
President of the University, the President of the Board of Trustees of the Univer- 
sity, and the President of the Alumni Association, who are ex-officio members dur- 
ing their terms of office. Three other members are elected from the Board of 
Trustees of the University. The remaining members are elected, for terms of three 
years, by the existing membership. At the annual meeting of the Foundation, nine 
of the members, including the three cx-officio members, are elected to serve as 
Directors of the Foundation." 



1 Page U20 



82a 
Divis i on of Special Services for War Veterans - The Division of Special Ser- 
vices for War Veterans was created in 19kk to serve as an agency for receiving and 
counselling those veterans of World War II who are interested in continuing their 
University training and for supplying in so far as possible their scholastic needs. 
The Division operates under supervision of a director experienced in war-time 
veterans' service, who reports directly to the President. 

Small Homes Counc il - "The Small Homes Council was established in ISJ+l^ for the pur- 
pose of informing the general public on matters pertaining to home design, constnic- 
tion, maintenance, and ownership, by means of publications and approved forms of 
demonstration. The activities of the Council are under the direction of an execu- 
tive comniittee and the Coordinator. Its program includes the development and 
coordination of research and experiment in new fields of design, construction, 
materials, and human use of the home. The Council acts as an agency to coordinate 
the research and teaching facilities of all departments and colleges in the Uni- 
versity whose work touches on the problems pertaixiing to tlie home, both urban and 
rural. It also acts as a cooperating agency with elements of the building industry 
which are interested in the same fields of endeavor. The work of the Council ia 
done by a staff and by committees whose members are drawn from the faculty of 
cooperating departments and colleges." 1 

New College of Veterinary Medicine - In 19'+5, there was established on the Urbana 

campus the College of Veterinary Medicine. Previous to that time, the work in 

this particular field had been administered by the Department of Animal Pathology 

and Hygiene in the College of Agriculture. 

Department of Naval Science and Tactics - The Department of Naval Science and 

Tactics was established in 19^5 as an agency to- continue the Navy training program 

set up during World War II and to adMnister the courses provided for the Naval 

Reserve Officers' Training Corps. 

Institute of Aeronautics - The Institute of Aeronautics was established in I9U5 

as an agency to foster and correlate all of the University's educational and 

experimental activitea related to aviation. It is administered by a Director 

who is chairman of an Executive Committee appointed by the President of the 

' University from departments having a part in the program of education and research 

in the field of aviation. 

1 Annual Register, 19^5-^6, page ksk. 



.. "^ qA^ at f»'-^: '■■■■■'■■ ^- •;• 



aacteA 



^f,% r.* 



'7r[Xi> 



:.jUj j.^^1^.:- ::::'i^ :. 



S3 
CHAPT3H IV 

GEIIERAI GED'.YTH AID ACTIVITI3S 07 THE COLLEGE OF EIJGIIOIESIITG 
The Status of Engineering and Engineering Instruction in I87O - TThen defi- 
nite instructional vjork in Engineering was launched in I87O, practice in that 
field was largely an art, and as a consequence, the curricula of the early techni- 
cal departments came to contain many courses that were essentially manual in na- 
ture, such as shop 'vork, mechanical drawing, and surveying. For a number of 
years, these courses together with mathematics and the liberal-training subjects, 
made up the bulk of the curricula. Like everything else, however, instruction 
had to begin where it found itself, and make it;; o'to experience from that elementa- 
ry beginning. 

Chronology of the Department s - In IS70, provision was made for instruction 
in"courses in Kechmiical Science and Art, Civil Engineering, Mining Engineering 
and Metallurgy, and Architecture and Fine Arts." Instinction in some courses in 
Physics Has given as early as I870, but Physics did not become a separate depart- 
ment until ISS9 — a date marking the beginning of a period of great expansion of 
the Collc'go. . The Departments of Municipal and Sanitary Engineering and of Theo- 
retical and Applied Mechanics were established in I89O. Electrical Engineering 
became a division of Physics in I89I, but it was not made an entirely separate 
department until 1898. Hailv/ay Engineering was made a separate department in 
1906, with three distinct curricula: Railway Civil Engineering, Railwaj*^ Electrical 
and Railway Mechanical Engineering. In 1915. the Department of Ceramics v;as trans- 
ferred from what was then the College of Science to the College of Engineering 
and became the Department of Ceramic Engineering. Some instruction in courses in 
drawing and descriptive geometry was offered when the four pioneer departments 
were organized in IS70, although a separate department of General Engineering 
Drawing was not established until I92I, The Department of General Engineering 
was also set up in I921, while the Department of Agricultural Engineering vras 
provided in I931 and the Department of Aeronautical Engineering in igUU. 



The Department of Municipal and Sanitary Engineering was discontinued in 
1926, and the Department of Railway Engineering, in I9U0.. 

The facilities of these several departments including the personnel, and 
their courses and curricula are described in later chapters. 
A. EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS AND PRACTICES 

Requirements for Admission to the College of Engineering - Before I899. the 
requirements for admission to the College of Engineering were rather indefinite; 
after that, however, they were rather rigidly prescribed. From September, IS99, 
to September, I903. the requirements for admission -.vere 12 units of high-school 
work, and from September, I903, to September, 1905i the number was thirteen and 
one-half units. During I905-O0, the number was increased to fourteen, and since 
1908, it has been fifteen units. Of these fifteen units now required, three must 
be in English, one and one-half in Algebra, one in plane Geometry, one-half in 
solid Geometrj', and nine from fields of general and special elect ivos, those most 
favored and rocommendud being foreign language, science, social studies, and in- 
dustrial arts. 

Early I.ethods of Instruction - In regard to instruction methods, the 1891-92 

1 
number of the University Catalogue stated: 

"^enevcr suitable textbool:s can be found, they are employed, because sav- 
ing much time in acquiring facts and data, and because such books become doubly 
valuable for later reference when enriched by notes and additions. But to arouse 
and awaken the enthusiasm of the student, occasional or stated lectures are neces- 
sary, and these are fully illustrated by sketches, diagrams, drawings, and photo- 
graphs of executed -.vorks. They are frequently used in the advanced classes partly 
because of the deficiency of textbooks was there most apparent. Additional 
courses of extended reading are marked out by reference to the University Library, 
so that each student may enjoy the greatest possible benefit from the course of 
instruction. In all courses of study offered by this College, drawing, in its 
manifold forms and uses, is made a special feature, both in its application and 
its modes of execution." 

"Thcr>^vcr possible the classroom instruction was supplemented oy the use of 

plates and models, while the drav/ing-room work was in a way coordinated with shop 

practice in that machines designed in the drafting room wore actually built in the 

shop by the students themselves. 



1 Pages Uo-Ul 



: ■iv*^i4A'4 fS'jjV 



S5 

During the lecture periods, the students took notes '.vhich they preserved in 
orderly fom for reference and stud;'' in preparation for the quizzes and exami- 
nations that followed during subsequent periods. In addition, many instructors' - 
were able to illustrate their theory by problems which the students were required 
to work on their ovm time and to turn in for the grader's records. As soon as 
suitable apparatus became available, laboratory insti'iiction was provided to 
supplement the classroom training, 3y means of these exercises which paralled the 
classroom assignments in so far as practicable, the students were able to verify 
the principles and laws of science and to apply them to specific casps. The ex- 
periments were designed to teach the use of the instruments ordinarily employed 
in Engineering practice, and to demand a high standard of performance, far above 
the level of a mere storotyped and routine process of reading and recording data. 
After the investigations were completed, the students were required to formulate 
constructive and analytical reports summarizing the results, making their own in- 
terpretations, and deriving their own conclusions. Thus, this pant of the in- 
structional schedule v/as planned to provide much more than a passing knowledge of 
the methods in practice. It was designed to develop for the individual that quali- 
ty of initiative and independence of thouglit necessary to turn out resourceful and 
successful engineers. 

Changes in r.ethods of Instruction - During the last seventy-five years there 
has been a very decided advancement in the overall methods of Engineering in« . 
struction made possible by the outstanding progress in the development and ex- 
pansion of the Engineering profession and the Engineering industries and, by im- 
provements in facilities available for educational jjurooses, although the general 
objectives in training remain the same. The production of modern textbooks has 
made it possible to replace a considerable amount of lecture and notebook work by 
the more tJfficient home- study and recitation method, and has bot,n a great aid to 
both teacher and student. Such texts have helped also to standardize the content 
of courses and probably to raise the standp.rd of quality of work done. 

3, I'a: 
page 



1 Bulletin I925, l'o.5, Land-Grant College Education, loiO-1920,Part IV, Engineering 
a.nd Mechanic Arts, pages 14—15. 



36 
The constant increase in the scope of angineering science and knov/ledge and 

in the extent and character of the applications of this ocience and knov/ledge, hac 
made necessary the inclusion of many new specialties and much new material in the 
curriculum, as well as the revision of courses to include new applications, some- 
times with a relocation of emphasis on matter already included. 

While the following quotations refer specifically to Mechanical Engineering, 
others similar in scope and tone typifying the progress in all other departments 
could be recorded with equal propriety. 

"The development and general utilization of the internal combustion engine 
the steam turbine, and the uniflow steam engine; the great increase in the con- 
sumption of mechanical and electrical power; and the development of great central 
power stations have made it necessary to modify the courses in pov/er engineering 
and to enlarge their scope. The introduction of improved tool steel and of high- 
power machine tools, and the demand for greater shop production and for the elimi- 
nation of waste in industry have called for additional attention to these matters 
in courses dealing with shop work." 

Changes in course-content of the curriculum in liechanical Engineering 

for example, ato illustrated by the following comparison between the years I87O 

and 1940 :. 

Year Language Mathematics Drawing 

Humanities Pure Science Engineering Subjects 

1870 25fo 33?fl U2fi 

I9I+O 12> 30'^ 58f» 

"The great increase in the number of engineering Students in recent years 
has made feasible a greater degree of specialization by teachers and by students 
than formerly. Special courses in industrial history, English, Physics, and the 
like have to a considerable extent replaced the more general courses formerly 
given to all college students.. Similarly, the larger number of Mechanical Segi,*-- 
neering students has made possible the introduction of more options in the senior 
year, without reducing the n\mber of students in each section to too small a num- 
ber for economical instruction. Curricula in industrial engineering, heating and 
ventilating, pov;or engineering,, railway mechanical engineering, and the like have 
also been introduced in a nvimber of colleges. The larger niimber of liechanical 
Engineering teachers required for the larger number of students has made possible 
the specialization of the teachers in those subjects they are best qualified to 
handle, and has doubtless improved the quality of instruction. "3 

A striking contrast between the instructional methods in Engineering during 

the first twenty-five years of the University's history with those of later 

l.Ibid. page 12 
2. Ibid, page 12 
3. Ibid, pages I3-IU 



87 
periods is in the use of laboratory equipment. Before 1893 i there was comparative- 
ly little apparatus available for laboratory purposes, but through the years since 
then, great strides have been made in providing facilities for instructional use. 

Throughout all this time, though, the dominating idea in formulating the 
instructional materials and the educational programs, has been to provide the 
best combinations of systematically-considered lectures, text assignments, col- 
lateral readings, discussion sessions, quizzes, problems, drawing-room and labo- 
ratory exercises, reports, and inspection trips that enable the students to master 
their chosen subjects to best advantage under the limitations imposed by Univer- 
sity and other social conditions. 

Instruction for Engineering Students Provided by a N umber of_ Colleges VTithin. 
the University - The instruction in technical engineering subjects has always 
been given to students registered in the College of Engineering by members of this 
College staff. That in such subjects as mathematics, language, economics, chemis- 
try, etc., however, has been provided by other colleges here on the University 
campus. Studies have been made at one time or another looking towards making the 
College of Engineering an autonomous or independent unit by supplying its own 
staff to give instruction in non-technical courses; but no appreciable change in 
this direction has even been effected. 

The College of Engineering faculty - The College was exceedingly fortunate 
in the personnel of its departments in the early stages of its development. Still- 
man V/illiams Robinson, the first teacher in the new College, was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Mechanical Engineering in December, l8o9, and served eight and one-half 
years in that capacity, iknong other things, he established the first strictly edu- 
cational shops in the United States. His clear-cut ideas of the aims of engi- 
neering education in this country dominated the early development of the College 
and determined a philosoph.y of education still considered sound in present-day 
programs. Mathematical theory and scientific research i-rerr admirably blended 
with discussions of engineering practice in Professor Robinson's classroom and 



and laboratory. 

Professor Robinson was associated 'jith and followed "by a group of pioneers 
in this alnost-new type of education — men who had a keen vision of the possi- 
bilities of the engineering profession^ Among them may be mentioned Professor 
Selim K. Peabody in Mechanical Engineering, and later Regent of the University; 
J. Burkitt webb and Ira Osborn Baker in Civil Engineering; Nathan Clifford Ricker 
in Architecture; Arthur Tannant Woods and Lester P.Breckenridge in Mechanical 
Engineering; Arthur Newell Talbot in Municipal and Sanitary Ungineering and Theo- 
retical and Applied Mechanics; Theodore Constock in Minin;]; Engineering; and 
S;imuel TT.Stratton in Physics. This small group of -.Tcll-t rained and enthusiastic 
educators, motivated by serious purposes to provide the best instruction possible, 
gave earnest consideration to the balancing of the curricular subjects in the in- 
structional program, as \icll as the requirements for aiiraission and graduation, to 
the organization and presentation of instructional materials, to the proper de- 
velopment and use of laboratory' facilities, and to the standards of student per- 
formance in their classroom and extra-curticular activities including their engi- 
neering-society programs. The impress of these early educational leaders upon 
engineering education in this country clearly persists to this day in many insti- 
tutions and in professional service and went a long v/aj^' in establishing the repu- 
tation vdiich the College has made for itself to ra,nk it among the foremost techni- 
cal institutions in the land. 

As the years went on, the size of the College faculty was increased to keep 
pace with the growth in industry and in numbers of the student bO(^, "and with 
this increase a greater variety of talent was obtained. No longer Y?as the vdsdom 
and knowledge and authority on a v.ddc range of subjects confined to one or two or 
three individuals in a department. V.'ith this increase in strength through de- 
velopment naturally camo a grovrth in the recognized standing of this College in 
the various fields. Likewise the number of individuals well-trained in special 
lines incrcaser'. Insofar as an institution's work may be judged by the strength 
of its faculty, the achievcmi nts of the College may be c;qiLCted to become more 



valuable, more outstanding with the improvement of its personnel, especially as 
the quality and attitude of the student "body may be expected to keep up to high 
grade. Something of the advances in the make-up of the institution may be judged 
by the development of the men having to do v/ith instruction,," 

In line with this educational policy, university administrators have long 
recognized that the most important part of a college plant is its teaching and 
scientific staffs — that of little value indeed would be buildings and equipment 
without competent and highly-trained men to utilize them for the most constructive 
purpose.. Such a staff, too,, is the most liquid part of the educational plant as 
many an executive including our own> has learned to his 'sorrow when other insti- 
tutions have lured a'.7ay some of his top-ranking men by offers of increase in pay 
or other recognized advantage. 

The type of men the University has sought to carry on its instruction and 

scientific work is clearly portrayed in the following comments by President James:. 

"With the increase of the student body it becomes necessary to enlarge the 
instructing corps, and with this increasing number of instructors, «4t becomes 
possible to secure a wider range of ability and preparation. This makes the Uni- 
versity a more interesting place to work, and yo\ing men who are looking forward to 
a scientific career arc more willing to come into it and remain a part of the staff 
for a longer time than would othor'-dse be the case. As our equipment is increased 
and as our libraries increase,, the University becomes to an increasing extent a 
center of scientific research and investigation; and life in the University is in- 
creasingly attractive to the best type of aspiring, progressive, highly-trained 
scientists.," 



"No institution can lay claim to the title 'University' unless it is a 
center of scientific activity which is spontaneous in the members of its instruct- 
ing corps — activity prompted by a divine thirst for increasing our knowledge. 

"I have urged upon the faculties and upon the trustees with all the earnest- 
ness of which I am capable tliat in the selection of young men for the position of 
instructor, that is, the lowest grade of our faculty positions,, only those young 
men should be selecti d who have it in them to be good teachers, capable instructoiB 
and at the s;imc time who have had the proper training and have within themselves 
the ambition to become invest ign.tors, research men, productive scholars, in the 
various lint:s in which they are-, at work. 

"There is no doubt that if this plan is adhered to closely, systematically, 
continuously, for a generation, the University of Illinois., if the State equips 
it properly with libraries and apparatus., v/ill become one of the great centers of 
learning in the world, a credit to the people of the commonwealth, a source of 

1 The Technograph, February, 193^. page U. 



"r so:.:f.:-cf ..-1 



■:.^--{^^>-i^i!^ii^^ 



~&^ ;> •■Uli'-i,'-;-^*.. 






90 

untold advaatnge to the culture and industry of this great state." 

The period follo'ffing I920 brought aliout an increase in the faculty of the 
College of Engineering in both the instructional and experimental fields, for 
there was at that time a substantial increase in student enrollment and interest 
in systematic research. In particular there v/as a noticeable improvement in the 
standards of prejiaration of the younger members of the staff that has continued 
to the present day — an improvement that was due in large measure to the pro- 
visions made for graduate work. 

The College has continued to follow the policy, established so long ago, of 
choosing expert:; for particular fields v/ith years of experience as a background, 
who are enabled thereby to present to their students not only the theoretical 
point of view of the subjects under consideration but also the professional appli- 
cations of the materials in the light of their practice in the industrial world. 
Many of these men have attained a national reputation for the work they have done 
and have become highly respected by the members of learned groups for their out- 
standing technical ability and accomplishment Sr The presence of a fev/ such top- 
ranking men is a wonderful asset to an institution of learning, and in this ex- 
perience the College of Engineering has been unusually fortunate* 

The number of persons of various grades or ranks serving on the College 
Faculty from I87O to ig'+O, is given in the following table: 

TABLE XVI NUMBER OF FERSOIIS Oil THE TEACHING AITD EXPERIMENTAL STAFF 
8F THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, I87O-I9U0 

2 ^ 

Year Prof . Assoc , Asstw' Associate Instr. Asst. Total 

Prof. 



IS7O-7I 1 1 

187^-75 2 1 238 

1879-80 2 1 36 

18SU-85 U 

1889-90 3 1 3 3 10 

lg9M5 5 3 S 9 25 

I899-00 6 2 8 6 U 26 

1904-05 8 9 23 3 U3 



1909-10 10 3 



Asstw' 

Prof. 


Associate 


Instr. 
and Res. 
Asst. 


Asst? 


1 
1 
2 




2 

3 

2 


3 


1 
3 

8 




3 

S 

6 


3 

I 


9 

19 


9 


23 
3S 


3 

19 



1 "Sixteen Years at the University of Illinois", page 15O. 

2 The grade of Associate '.'as created by the Board of Trustees in 1907- 

3 Includes Research Graduate Assistants. 



^\lr.:.. .v. ■I...'-- 

















91 


Year 


Prof. 


ASSOQ. 


Asst.. 


..Associate 


Instr. 


Asst. 


Total 






Prof. 


Prof. 




and Res. 
A£st_. 






I91U-I5 


19 


1 


19 


15 


H 


30 


131 


1919-20 
I92U-25 


22 


k 


22 


12 


26 


32 


130 


30 


g 


35 


12 


S 


25 


169 


1929-30 
193^-35 
1939-^0 


39 


11 


22 


27 


57 


200 


ho 


12 


25 


29 


16 


35 


157 


U5 


17 


33 


2k 


kk 


U9 


212 



Contrasted with a faculty of one man in IS70, eight in 1225. and 26 in I9CO, 
the faculty of the College of Engineering in 19^0 numbered 212 persons of all 
ranks including 95 n^en of professorial rank, 62 associates and instructors, and 
U9 assistants. 

B. COLLEGE POLICIES AlJD OBJECTIVES 

General - The College educational program was instituted or oriented on a 
high-level basis in the pattern formulated by Professor Robinson when he took over 
responsible direction of much of the work of the College in 127O and the years im- 
mediately following as previously stated. Furthermore, as mentioned earlier, 
Professor Robinson was soon to become associated with and assisto(f by other in- 
structors who were also impcllod by lofty ideals for the building up of a great 
educational institution founded upon principles of nuporior performance. Thraggh 
the years since then, those same high purposes have continued to guide and to 
motivate the directing powers in formulating any plfuis or pi-oposgls for instruction^ 
al or experimental work the College might undertal-ie. 

This general objective of the College of Engineering is stated in the IS9I-92 

issue of the Catalogue as follows; 

"The purpose of the College of Engineering is thoroughly to educate and 
prepare engineers and architects for their future professional courses. Its aim is 
therefore tv/ofold — general and technical.. A considerable portion of the courses 
of study must be devoted to general and literary work, since a graduate is now 
expected to arrange his ideas in clear ox'der, and to write and speak effectively 
whenever it becomes necessary. Professional success frequently depends upon this 
power far more than is commonly supposed. Moreover there is an ever-increasing 
fund of general and scientific knowledge with which any educated man is expected 
to be conversant, if he desires to retain the esteem of his associates and clients. 
A large and most valuable portion of the knowledge is still locked up in foreign 
languages, and these must be acquired by patient stud^'' and practice. Scarcely 
a single science is not at some time useful to the professional man, and some of 
them, like mathematics or physics, are so intimately interv/ovon with the different 

1 Page Uc 



i ■:':, ■■^'A.l 



■ .,M- : ) 



92 
branches of technical knowledge, as to be practically indispensable, and so re- 
quire a more thorough mastery than is necessary to the literary man. It might 
appear that this general training would alone be sufficient to absorb the entire 
attention of the student during his whole course, but not loss than one-half of 
his time must be given to purely technical training, and the acquiring of a pro- 
fessional capital, or stock of information and knov/ledge of details, which is al- 
most limitless in its denand and possibilities. The methods employed for embody- 
ing new ideas in drawings, intelligible to other professional men and to mechanics 
must likewise be acquired." 

"A knowledge of the latest results of scientific experiments is likewise 
essential, requiring; wide reading by some one, either student or professor. Engi- 
neering knowledge must be fresh, to be valuable, since ideas and methods are 
quickly supplanted by improved ones, and become useless except as mile-stones of 
progress. Consequently, the most valuable i:art of this professional knowledge can 
never be crystallized in textbooks, but must be drawn from the mental stores of 
the teacher." 

The University Catalogue of 190'4-05, the first to appear after the establish- 
ment of the Engineering Experiment Station in I903, stated anew in more detail 
the general alms of the College as follows: 

"The purpose of the College is a threefold one: 

1 To train and prepare men for the efficient practice of the different pro- 
fessions of engineering and that of archittjcturo.; as v/ell as to become 
managers of great business and industrial entei^pri ses. Both profession- 
al and cultural studies are prescribed, since a successfiil engineer must 
possess broad viev/s and be able to write and speak correct and rigorous 
English in order to present his views clearly and effectively. Training 
in proper methods for solving engineering problems is of much greater inv- 
portance than the collection of stores and data, however valuable. But 
the graduate must be an efficient worker at the beginning of his career 
in some specialty of his chosen profession. 

2 To provide instruction for graduates and to supervise thei/ studies in 
selected fields, thus meeting a demand for highly-specialized instruction 
and research. 

3 To make original investig''tions qjid experiments in thosB lines of research 
which are of greatest interest and promise to the engineering and in- 
dustrial enterprises of the citizens of this State." 

The I908-O9 issue of the Annual Register contained the following statement 

outlining still further the purposes of the College: 

"The -Durposn of the College is to train young men for the profession of 
engineering. In arranging its courses of study and practice, cultural subjects 
have not been ne'-lected, but are interwoven ^ath the strongly theoretical subjects 
which underlie and reinforce the more practical development of the several depart- 
ments. The instruction in the classroom and the practice offered by the library, 
the drafting room, and the laboratory proceed hand in hand. Throughout his course 
the student works upon problems, and proceeds by methods which are similar to 
those which enter into the experience of the practicing engineer." 



1 rage 93 

2 In I9O8 the statement -'as add.^d:"and to distribute the knowledge gained from 
such research," 

3 Pn.ge 96. 



93 

Exfolicitly Aofinod in more modern terms, the general aims of the in- 
structional progranis of the College are designed go to train men for true citizer>- 
ship and for such leadership and service that they nay bo able to utilize sound 
reasoning processes in visun.lizing, designing, constructing, and operating or ad- 
ministering any engineering project that they may be called upon to attend accori- 
ing to the following specifications prescribed by the Sngineors' Council for Pro- 
fessional Development in a pamphlet entitled "Enginuering as a Careeri' 

"The engineer first studies his problem to determine its nature and scope; 
then he breaks his problem dov7n into its nximcrous small component parts, estabHabr- 
cs the relationship between these parts, and determines the known and the unj-rnov/n 
elements; he then acquaints himself with all available pertinent facts that have 
been established by experience, research, or exiieriment ; then he solves the small 
component parts separately, and progressively fits them together to compose the 
answer to his original general problem. In reaching his conclusions, the engineer 
starts with known facts and established principles, and by logical reasoning and 
resourcefulness proceeds in an orderly step-by-step manner, avoiding the pitfalls 
of wishful thinking and the snares of purely personal or political considerations'.' 

Authority for Golloge Policy - Of course, the general educational policies 
of the College of Engineering have been synchronized with and governed in the maii\ 
by those instituted for the conduct of the University in general; and in so far 
as College action deals with general policies, such action must be approved by 
the University Senate or other University governing agency or body before it can 
become effective. In working out details of progrru.is, schedules, or curricula, 
the College has, however, a certain amount of autonomy. 

The Development and Determination of College Policy - The College faculty, 
the governing authority for the Engineering group, together with the Dean and 
Assistant or Associate Dean, and such committees as have been authorized by Uni- 
versity or College regulations, have from time to time given much time to consider- 
ation, examination, and appraisal of such matters as curricula, courses, and other 
topics relating to the educational policy and mr-.torial development of the College. 
Of the great number of subjects that have been considered along this line by the 
different groups, a few, but only a fe'.v, t^'pical cases arc discussed in the 
following pages » 

1 Page 9. 



Professional Engineering and Science Courses vs . the Humanities in the ^ 
Curricula - 'iThile the general and specific objectives of the College have been 
pretty well defined throughout the years, the instructional program has been 
varied from time to time to correspond vjith changing conditions in industry. In 
the early days, engineering was largely an art, a craft, or a trade carried on 
generally by rule-of-thiomb practice. There were comparatively fe^v technological 
fields sufficiently developed to furnish instiructional materials for the curricu- 
lar programs. Sufficient time, then, could be allotted to the languages, humani- 
ties, and other liberal-arts subjects in addition to mathematics to form sound 
and well-balanced classroom schedules. Later, however, as the science of tech- 
nology began to develop, its evolution came at such a pace and so varied in scope, 
and pattern as to outstrip even the advances made by the older political, social, 
and economic institutions, affording unlimited possibilities of achievement for 
the engineer as he oame to assume more and more of the responsibilities of pro- 
duction . As the pressure to inject more of the teclinical subjects into the cur- 
ricula increased, the tendencies were to substitute them for the so-called cultur- 
al or classical courses* This matter of the relative values and relationships 
of curricular studies has at times seemed almost bewildering and is discussed 
briefly in the next few paragraphs. 

Language and Rhetoric Requi rement s - In the early days, much of the literatuiD 
relating to the field of engineering was written in a foreign language, especially 
G-erman and French, as previously mentioned, and training in these subjects became 
a part of the standard curricula. As time went on, hov/nvor, thn output of techni- 
cal literature in Ancrica began to increase, and as production improved, the litei^- 
ary materials turned out in this country became more valuable to us than those 
abroad. They became so voluminous, too, that the avcra.'c man in practice could 
scarcely hope to review all the publications in a particular field. Under press\3to 
of a,sscssine valuations of -potential materials for the curricula, various committees 
undertook at several times, studies of the matter of foreign language as require- 
ments for graduation, with the final result that language requirements were 



95 

eliminated from most of the curricula. All groups reviev/ing the curricular con- 
tent have been consistent in their opinion, ho'.7ever, that rhetoric should remain 
as a required subject; and in all curricula it is scheduled as a three-hour sub- 
ject through out a one-year period. 

Non-Technical IJlectives - Various committees and other groups have also 
studied the matter of non-technical electives — those non-technical subjects 
that are sympathetic ^'ith the basic instructional program, but '.vhich are not in- 
cluded in the prescribed schedule, and which are available for election by the 
student at hi'j cm volition. The space allotted to such topics has sometimes in- 
creased under the attempt to liberalize the curricula, '*^'^-'-^rrV i' FJSftiih.- 'A.ftp-V jrnar^--!^- 
,Ae*-^tiiB-~ait4.afii^*^tX3 iibeTalig©" ti%e-cu-rrioula and har. again declined under the im- 
pelling demanr's for greater attention to technological training to serve in new 
and developing fields. "Vithin the last fev.' years, it has even disappeared entire- 
ly from some schedules and has decreased to six or eight hours at the most in 
others. A number of '7ays to solve the dilemma of conflicting interests have been 
proposed, one or two of v/hich are treated briefly in the following pages. 

The J'our-and Fivo-Year Curricula - About I915, there began the realization 
among engineering college administrators that the four-year curricula then current 
did not provide sufficient opportunity for the departments to include all the sub- 
jects — technical, scientific, economic, literary, and historical — tliat proper- 
ly belonged in a well-balanced instructional prograia designed to turn out gradu- 
ates as specialists equipped to cope v/ith complex conditions. After some years 
of serious deliberation, the several schools especially interested, folloi7ed 
generally one of t-^o major policies as a way out of the difficulty. One of these 
was the five-year plan for undergraduate study either on the basis of a straight 
five-year curriculum or on sin arrangement of two years of -.preliminary study in 
liberal arts as a prerequisite for registration in a threes-year curriculum in 
engineering — on. or t'.fo schools even roquirin.^ such preliminary stud^^ as pre- 
requisite for their four-ynar curriculum in engineering. The other policy was to 
adopt a four-year curriculum for undergraduate study follov/od l)y at least one 



96 

additional year of graduate study. The University of Illinois chose in general 
the second method and has maintained it to date. 

The College has defended this action on the ground that even a five-year cur- 
riculum is too long for the rank and file of students — that many of them v7ould 
drop out long before the day of graduation. It has felt tliat it would serve the 
purpose better to have the majority go four years and then graduate and go into 
practice, and let those who r/erc qualified and so inclined, sj)end one or more 
years of intensive graduate study in rather highl"- specialized fields in prepa- 
ration for such positions as involve research, design, or scientific analysis. 

Graduat o Study in Engineering - Because the demand from both students and 
industry for extensive trainin.^ in an tivei'-.incroasing number of teclonical subjects 
as well as for a more intensive ])reparation in the fundamental science courses, 
mathematics, and the hujnanities th^xt are so essential to any well-organized pro- 
gram, increased the number of desirable courses beyond the range of riossibilit ies 
of the four-year curriculum, as previously stated, and because the growing em- 
phasis placed upon engineering and scientific research served to focus greater 
attention on graduate study, the departments "'orc led to offer graduate work of 
one or more years stud;^ as a means for meeting the situation. Many students have 
taken advantage of the opportunities thus presented on the post-graduate level 
for attaining greater proficiency in some professional field, continuing in pro- 
grams of advanced study in their chosen lines of specialization beyond the senior 
year to earn the master's degree and to a relatively increasing extent, the 
doctor's degree. The academic atmosrihcrc offers in the doiiains of both pure and 
applied science a freedom for investigational effort that is in large measure un- 
fettered and unbiased by considerations of economic rewards or of utilitarianism 
and necessity that to a certain extent influence the motives in many an industrial 
enterprise in exploring the fundamentals underlying science and industry. Gradu- 
ate study is carried on a higher level of perfoniance than that maintained by the 
average undergraduate, and demands higher scholastic attainments, greater m'ental 
initiative, more independent thought and investig^'tion, and more concentration 



97 

than that displayed by youngor students. 

Bngincoring Research - Engineering Research is a systoraatic or organized 
effort to observe or establish ne:? principles and la.v/s of tinith and the relation- 
ships that exist between thera, to study meticulously find scientifically the be- 
havior or porfornance of engineering materi,-uLs and products, and to finalyze and 
exm.iinc precisely'' and intelligently the processes of production and operation in 
order to broaden or extend the foundational basis upon which our industi-y stands. 
The Collogc of Engineering has generally felt that research should go hruid in 
hand with engineering instruction, not only that certain material advantages woiid 
thereby accrue to industrjr, but also that such a policy, properly followed, v7ould 
serve to enlarge the basis of education and improve the instruction, benefiting 
the instructor himself as '.7ell as his students enrolled in both undergraduate and 
graduate courses. The experimental v/ork thus carried on here in correlation 'jith 
the instructional program is both pure and applied, the pure or academic efforts 
being devoted largely to the development of new facts or kncTrlege and relation- 
ships, and api'lied or industrial research to the utilization of such information 
to the development of ne-r industries or to the improvement of those alres.dy es- 
tablished. This subject, a topic of frequent discussion by College committees, is 
considered further in connection with the na.terials in Chal)ter XXV describing the 
Sngineoring Sxi^criment Station. 

I3ual Curricula - Beginning in ig3S-39, the College of Engineering adopted 
the principles of the dual curricula whereby undergraduate students of superior 
ability were fallowed to make deviations from the standard curricula and engage in 
special-work programs suiting the individual needs ?md tastes. A special schedule 
of subjects was made for each particular student to suit his peculiar case — only 
a comparatively few being granted this privilege, of cours(!, on account of the 
difficulties involved in administration. These special programs included, all the 
the fundamental subjects of the regular curricula of the respective departments, 
the variations being made only in the applied courses looking to particular train- 
ing in specialised fields.. This innovation was practically discontinued during the 



war poriod due to the rigidity of the schedules of the enlisted men and of the 
limited registration of other men, "but it did serve the useful purpose of stimu- 
lating registrants to greater effort, for students regarded it a signal honor to 
be accorded such consideration. 

C. STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL REPORTS 
Study of the Mann Report - The extensive report on the status and objectives 
of cneincering education in the United States prepared by Dr, Charles R. Mann, a 
professor of Physics in the University of Chicago, and published by him in 1918 
as a representative of the iarnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 
was made a topic of special study by the College of Engineering during the ad- 
ministration of Dean Charles Russ Richards. 



1 The initial steps in this original investigation '7ero taken in I907 when the 
Society for th^ Promotion of Engineering Bduca.tion invited the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers, and the American Chemical Society to unite ^ith it 
in appointing delegates to a "Joint Committee on Engineering Education to examine 
into all branches of engineering education includin^^ engineering research, gradu- 
ate professional courses, undergraduate (mgineering instruction, and the proper 
relations of engineering schools to secondary industrial schools, or foremen's 
schools, and to formulate a report or reports upon the appropriate* scope of engi- 
neering education and the degree of coopf ratior and unity that may be advantageous- 
ly arranged between the various engineering schools*" - The Mann Report, page IX 

Wiile Dr. Mann carried on the investigation and formulated the report, tho Committee 
duly appointed by the several national organizations cooperating, frequently con- 
ferred \7ith him during the progress of his studies to satisfy themselves regarding 
the course of the investigation and the plans adopted to carry on the undertaking. 

The point of viev? from '.-.'hich the study vyas undertaken was the following:Fif ty years 
ago, when the engineering schools of the United States were inaugurated, they be- 
gan their work upon a definite teaching plan and one that had pedagogic consistencj^ 
The cours(5 was four years. The first two were spent in the fundamental sciencos— 
chemistry, physics, mathematics, and mochanics; the last two mainly in the appli- 
cations of these sciences to theoretical and practical problems. 

"In the half century that has passed, this course of study has been overlaid 
'"ith a groat number of special studies intended to enable the student to deal with 
the constantly-growing applications of science to the industries. ■ IThile the origi- 
nal teaching plan remains as the basis of the four-year engineering curriculum, the 
courses given in most schools have been greatly modified in the effort to teach 
special subjects. As a result, the load upon the studi-nt has become continually 
heavier and bears unequally in different placis and in different parts of the 
course. In addition, there is a wide-spread feeling that under this pressure the 
great body of students fail to gain, on the one hand, a satisfactory grounding in 
the fundamental sciences; and on tho other hand, do not fulfill the expectations 
of engineers and manufacturers in dealing with the practical problems with which 
thoy are confronted on leaving tho engineering schools. 

"It is out of this situation that tho Committee of the Engineering Societies be- 
gan its study, whose purpose is not so much to record the details of engineering 
teaching in the various schools as to examine the fundamental questions of the 



99 
Dean Richards believed, and many of the faculty concurred in the opinion, 

that such a revie',7 of educational practices v7ould serve the double purpose of in- 
forming the group on matters relating to technical training and of affording an 
opioortunity of reexamining and analyzing our ovm educational processes with the 
idea of naking improvements and of stimulating greater efforts in classroom per- 
formance. 

The local studies 'jere carried on largely by committee reports, each one 
representing some phase of the original presentation; and by emphasizing the im- 
portance of keeping abroast of the times ajid the necessity of meeting the peculiar 
demands made by an ever-cxivanding and growing industry, the study did serve the 
purpose of causing the faculty to re-assess the entire structure and objective of 
engineering education and to approach the problem of improving their teaching and 
laboratory processes. 

Study of t he Wickenden Report - During the administration of Dean Kilo S. 
Ketchum a aeries of reports on the status of engineering education in the United 
States and 3uropc, published during 1923-29 by the Board of Investigation and 
Coordination of the Society for Promotion of Snginoering Sducation, '.Yilliam E. 
Wickenden, ncv President of Case School of Applied Science, being the Director of 
Investigation, was made the basis for a lengthy study of educational practices. 
This rrport, often referred to as the Wickonden Report, was issued in final form 
in 1930 — the culmination of a comprehensive study begun in 1923 that looked to 

the improvement of engineering education, and tliat ntis sunmarized briefly in the 

1 
following statement: 



right methods of teaching and of the preparation of young men for the engineer- 
ing profession:" in other '-'ords, to question ane'v the pedagogic solution of fifty 
years ago, to examine the curriculum of today and the methods of teaching now em- 
ployed, and to suggest in the light of fifty years of experience the pedagogic 
basis of the course of study intended to prcparn young men for the work demanded 
of the engineer of today." - Preface to Ibid, by Henry S.Pritchett, pages V and 
VI. 

1 Report of the Investigation of Engineering Education, I923-29, Foreword, page III. 



IOC 
"The assemblage of facts and data pertaining to the field of engineering 
education affords a definite idea of v/hat is now being done. It presents to 
those '.vho are familiar only with the particular institutions or fields of vrark 
in '.vhich they are engaged a general view; the present study integrates the whole 
field in a vray to afford insight into needed developments as ^-rell as appraisal of 
the present situation. It presents the condition within the schools and much in- 
formation regarding the engineering student, the alumnus, the attitude of practi~- 
sing engineers, teachers and industrial managers. It presents a basis for con* 
sideration of problems within the engineering school, both undergraduate and 
graduate, and it shows in illuminating perspective its relation to other fields - 
the preparatory school, the training courses for graduates in industry, the techni- 
cal institute, the engineering profession, and the economic phases of modern life' 

The meticulous review of this lengthy report served, like the previously- 
mentioned one, to cause the faculty to look critically into its curricular out- 
lines, to inquire analytically into its methods of tea.ching, and to impress upon 
the members the seriousness of the responsibilities placed upon then of turning 
out men competent to carry on the high standards of ]-.erfornance maintained by the 
engineering profession. 

D. FRCF3SSI0NAL COWTAGTS i7ITH IimUSTHY 

Faculty Pont acts v.'ith Industry - The administrative heads of the College of 
Engineering have always recognized the value of the experience to pe gained by 
associations with engineering industrj'-. This is evidenced by the fact that mem- 
bers of the teaching staff, especially the younger oner,, are urged to secure in- 
dustrial employment during the summer months as a means of providing a better 
foundation for their classroom instrur-t ion. This is shown, also, by the pro- 
visions of sabbatical or other leave which enables faculty members to absent thent- 
selves from their University duties for relatively short periods of time in order 
to study or to engage in engineering practice along their particular lines of 
internst. As another means of contact with industry, the members of certain 
staffs or departments have on frequent occasions, been hosts to engineering con- 
ventions, committee nectinc^s, short courses and conferences, or other groups as- 
sembled from industrial nntorpriscs. The value of contacts made through cooper- 
ative research and through active connection '-^ith professional and scientific 
societies is discussed at some length under other headings in this publication. 

Visits of Engineering Societies - Cnc of the evimts of great interest was the 



•f r _. r: 






101 
visit to the University on ITovenlDor 11, I898, of I6U nornbers of the Western 

Society of Engineers, among whom "rere many of the more prominent engineers of the 
Middle 'Ti'est, They arrived on a special train at one o'clock and -."ere given a 
luncheon in the Phj'sics Laboratory by the "vives of the engineering faculty. After 
that they inspected the University buildings and grounds, and finally attended an 
assembly of the students and faculty of the College at v/hich several of the visi- 
tors made addresses. They expressed themselves greatly surprised at the extent 
and variety of the buildings and onuipmont of the College; and their presence^ and 
speeches enthused and inspired the students, and greatly cheered the instruction- 
al staff. The effects of the visit were distinctly felt when students attempted 
to find positions during summer vacations or after gradus^tion; and the University, 
and particularly the College, materially profited through this visit more than 
once in its campaign before the Legislature for appropriations. On May 11, 1907i 
the same Society paid a second visit to the College of Engineering with similar 
results. 

On May 12, iSqq, about 200 members of the Railway Club of St, Louis spent the 
best part of the day visiting the College of Bngincering. The Club devoted 39 
pages of its Proceedings to an account of the visit. 

Due to the many professional-society pnd enginccring-commitbao .nectlngs th^it 
came to be held and are still being held on the campus, to the many personal and 
professional visits made by individuals from time to time, and to the long list of 
publications tliat have gone forth describing the University, its work in progress 
and its accomplishments, such mass inspections gradually declined and no'7 no lon>epr 
seem necessary as a part of the program of keeping those especially interested, 
abreast of our College development. Such groups "/ould always be welcome, of 
course, but the many points of contact that have been established betvfeen the 
College and industry and professional service have provided even stronger and 
more lasting relationships than the earlier method could supply. 

Student Contacts with Industry - "iThile the College of Engineering has never 
advocated that a period of apprenticeship corresponding to that of internship in 



102 

medicine should te established as prerequisite for independent practice, the 
staff has always felt very strongly that a certain anount of contact ^7ith industrj^ 
would be beneficial to the student \7hile pursuins^ his college courses in giving 
him a better realization of the aviplications of his classroom v/ork to methods in 
practice and in aiding him in securing placement after graduation. It .was felt, 
hoAvever, that in the main, a sufficient amount of such experience could bo gained 
by employment during the sxiinmer months with some responsible engineering or in- 
dustrial organization to meet the ordinary needs. To assist in securing such ex- 
perience, the College has for a number of years maintained a committee devoted in 
part, at least, to placing students in summer positions. This service has the 
additional advantage of providing a closer re] ation-.hip between the University 
and industrial firms. 

The College has never given serious attention, however, to the establisliment 
of cooperative training hero such as the Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, and other plans 
provide in which students spend part time in classroom study on the College campus 
and part-time in work in industry — a system designed to allow students to apply 
day by d--.y in practice what they learn in theory and thereby to give them a better 
grasp of the purposes and applications of educational training while learning the 
methods of industrial and commercial practice. The advantages of such arrangement 
are obvious where schools are located near large industrial centers where students 
can commute without serious dislocation to normal life. Here, hov/ever, where the 
University is so remotely sit\iated from urban centers, the College has not scrioua- 
ly considered this type of educational instruction. 

E. THE EilGIlTEEHS' COUNCIL FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

Organization and Furpo s e - In order to provide a single accrediting agency as 
a substitute for the uncoordinated groups that had attempted to influence the trend 
of engineering education in the past, the Engineers' Council for Professional De- 
velopment was authorized in October, 1932, by the joint action of the following 
seven national engineering societies: The American Society of Civil Engineers, the 
American Institute of Ilining and Metallurgical Engineers, the American Society of 



T -.n-i' 



103 

Mechanical Engineers, the Ai.ierican Institute of 31ectrical 2ngineers, the Ameri- 
can Institute of Chemical Engineers, the Society for the Pronotion of Engineering 
Education, and the iJational Council of State Boards of Engineering Examiners. The 
organization., consisting of throe representatives from each of the seven partici- 
pating iDodios, had for its purpose "the enhancement of the status of the engineer. 
To this end, it aims to coordinate and promote efforts and aspirations directed 
towards the higher professional standards of education and practice, greater 
solidarity of the profession, and greater effectiveness in dealing with technical, 
social, and economic problems. Its immediate object is the development of a 
system whereby the progress of the young engineer toward professional standing can 
be recognized by the public, b;- the nrofossion, and by the man himself through 
the developncn-c of technical and other qualifications which will enable him to 
meet minimum professional standards." 

One of thj first studios undertal-:en by this t^roup, the E.G. P. p., as it is 
generally known, was to formulate a plan for rating or acc^rediting an-j or all of 
the engineering schools and colleges in the Un:ted States that desired to have 
their educational programs reviewed. Host of the engineering institutions of the 
country v/cre anxious to accept the services of this bodj" — the first one ever 
authorized and organized by the profession itself and one thoroughly competent 
to undertake such an assignment. 

"E.G.P.D. is merely authorized by its constituent organizations to publish 
a list of accredited colleges for use by those agencies which require such a list. 
It has no authority to imi)0sc any restrictions or standardizations upon engineer- 
ing colleges, nor does it desire to do so. On the contraiy, it aims to preserve 
the independence of action of individual institutions ajid to promote the general 
adv,ancomcnt of engineering education thereby." 

Basis Adopted by the . E.G. P.P . for A .c crediting Bngincoring Colleges - The 

following statements fon.mlated by the E.C.P.D. and approved by the seven major 

societies represent the basis for accrediting the individual curricula that were 

presented for cxaLiination: 



1 First Ann\aal Report of the E.G.P.D., October, I933, page.l, 

2 Fourth Annual Heport of .E.G. P. D., October, I936, page 15. 



I. Purpose of accrediting shall be to identify those institutions which 
offer professional curricula in Engineering worthy of recognition as suchi 

II. Accrediting shall apply only to those curricula vjhich lead to degrees. 

III. Both undergraduate and graduate curricula shall be accredited. 

IV. Curricula in each institution shall be accredited individually. ?or 
this purpose, the S.C.P.D. will recognize the six major curricula: Chemical, Civil, 
Electrical, Mechanical, Metallurgical, and Mining Engineering — represented in 
its own organization, and such other curricula as are warranted by the education- 
al and industrial conditions pertaining to them. 

V. Curricula shall be accredited on the basis of both qualitative and 
quantitative criteria. 

VI. (Qualitative criteria shall be evaluated through visits of inspection 

by a committee or committees of qualified individuals representing the E.G.P.D. 

The visits of inspection either as to entire institutions or as to specific cur- 
ricula may be waived at the discretion of the Council. 

VII. Quantitative criteria shall be evaluated through data secured from 
catalogs and other imblications, and from qucstionnairer,. 

VIII. Qualitative criteria shall include the following: 

(1) Qualifications, ext^ericnce, intellectual interests, attain- 
ments, and professional productivity of members of the faculty. 

(2) Standards and quality of instruction: 

(a) In the Engineering Departments 

(b) In the Scientific and other cooperating departments 
in which Engineering students receive instruction. 

(3) Scholastic work of students. 

(U) Records of graduates both in graduate study and in practice. 

(5) Attitude and policy of administration toward its engineering 
division and toward teaching, research, and scholarly pro- 
duction. 

IX. Quantitative criteria shall include the following: 

(1) Auspices, control, and organization of the institution and of 
the engineering division. 

(2) Curricula, offered and degrees conferred. 

(3) Age of the institution and of the individual curriciila. 
{k) Basis of and requirements for admission of students. 
i'j) N\iraber enrolled 

(a) in the engineering collei',-f; or division as a whole. 

(b) in the individ,ual wurricula 



105 

(6) Graduation requirements, 

(7) Teaching staff and teaching loads. 

(8) Physical facilities. The cducationfd plant devoted to 
engineering education. 

(9) Finances; investcients, expenditures, sources of income-. 
Investigations of Engineering Curricula at Illinois b^ the E.G. P.P . - At the 

invitation of the University of Illinois, rejiresentatives of tlic S.C.P.D.vi sited 
the College of Engineering here on April 6, 1937f for the purj^oso of investigat- 
ing the different curricula in the College with thr idea of approving or disap- 
proving them.. In preparation for the inspection, each department had arranged in 
advance a collection of textbooks, notes, instructions, sar.iples of students' worl<„ 
assignments, etc., for ever;' course offered, so at; to eiqiclite the examination. 
Kr. Emerson P.Postc, Consulting Commie Engineer of Chattanooga, Tennessee, vas 
examiner for Ceramic IJnginet ring; Professor Ralph B. V/ilty, Head of the School of 
Civil Engineering nt Purdue University, for Civil and R;iilv/a2' Civil Engineering; 
Professor A. D. Moore of the University of llichlgan, for Electrical and Railway 
Electrical Engineering and Physics; Doctor Donald B. Fruntice, President of Rose 
Polytechnic Institute, for I'cchanical and Railway heciianical Engineering; Pro- 
fessor D. J. Domorest of Ohio State University, for Mining Engineering and Metal- 
lurgical Engineering; and Dean P. H. Daggett of Rutgers University for General 
Engineering. 

In addition to examinations of classroom facilities, the inspectors spent 
some time visiting the laboratories looking over the equipment used for in- 
structional purposes. As a result of the investigation, the curricula in Archi- 
tectural Engineering, Cerar.uc Engineering (technical option), Chemical Engineer- 
ing, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, General Engineering, Mechanical 
Engineering, liining and Metallurgical Engineering, and Railway' Engineering were 
approved during 1537-3^. The curriculum in Engineering Physics was not accredited, 
following the general decision that no curricula in Engineering Physics were to 
be accrrcdited. 



10b 

F. COLLEGE FlilllJCE 

College of Engineering Finance . 1868-1913 - One of the things that the College 
of Engineering learned in its early history was that instruction in engineering 
especially in its laboratory classes, was more expensive than that in literature 
and arts courses because of the relatively high first cost of equipment and the 
heavy expense involved in maintenance and operation in proportion to the number 
of students trained.. This fact was sorely emphasized during the administration 
of President Draper, when on the night of June 9i 1900i the building containing 
the 'TOod shop, the materials and hydraulic laboratories and the gynnasivoi v/as 
conplctely 'destroyed by fire; and for the next acadcnic year it was necessary to 
omit a considerable pa.rt of the instruction in the "/ood shop and the laboratories. 
The loss was fixed at $76,000, and the Legislature at the ensuing session made an 
appropriation to cover the loss, but gave only $10,000 for maintenance and exten- 
sion of engineering equipment. The fire seriously handicapped the work of the 
College, as the money spent to repair the firf loss could have been employed to 
improve the other facilities; and therefore tho fire postponed for a bicnnium 
much-needed improvements and onlargoments in equipment and buildings. 

The University authorities were not lacking in interest in the College of 
Engineering, however, and on June 30, 1902, the Board of Trustees appointed a 
committee of its members to investigate and report upon the needs of the College. 
This committee reported on December 9i 1902, as follows: "Your committee after a 
Careful study of the methods of instruction and the equipment of the leading 
technical schools in this country is of the opinion that the Coll(;ge of Engineer- 
ing ought to have additional buildings, a large increase in equipment, some in- 
crease in the instructional force, and some changes in courses of study and 
methods of instruction." The coranittee presented a list of four needed buildings 
to cost $233,000, and also six items of equipment to cost $298,250. However, in 
preparing the budget of askings to be presented to the Legislature in I903, the 
Board voted to ask for $637,720 per annum, but included only $10,000 for engineer- 
ing equipment — that is, other University interests wore given precedence over 



107 

Engineering. At the same session, nevertheless, the Board voted that $300,000 
■be asked in a separate bill for the enlargement of the College of Engineering. 
The President of the University requested that he be not charged with the presen- 
tation of this bill, but tliat the nenbers of the engineering faculty be allowed 
to advocate its passage. The faculty organized for the campaign by appointing 
Professor L. P. Breckenridge to present the matter to the manufacturing and min- 
ing interests of the State, Professor A. W. Talbot to the alumni, and Professor 
I.e. Baker to the students. These and other members of the engineering faculty 
entered upon an active campaign of publicity, wrote letters, made addresses, se- 
cured articles in the nc.vspapers, and appeared before legislative committees; and 
in the end the Legislature voted $150,000 for the College of Engineering. Presi- 
dent Draper in a '.7ritton rejjort to the Board of Trustees said: "The appropriation 
was secured not by the efforts of the general authorities of the University alone, 
but by the very vigorous work of the engineering faculty and the student^ and the 
alxirani of the College, suppleraontod also by the vcr^- cordial cooperation of the 
organizations and business men engaged in the building and constructive business 
of the State." 

This appropriation narked a new epoch in the history of the College of Engi- 
neering. This sum not only mot some of the pressing needs, but set a new standaid 
for legislative askings and appropriations. In I905 the Trustees asked for and 
received $1|50,000 as a special appropriation for maintenance and extension of 
engineering equipment; a like appropriation v/as received in I907; and in I909 , 
the sum of $l60,000 was obtained for the purpose. The total expenditures of the 
College and Station for I9OS-O9 wore $200,000; for I909-IO, $235,000; for I9IO-II, 
$279,850; and for I9II-I2, $231,000. After I912, the total disbursements by the 
College and Station are given in the published annual reports of the Comptroller 
of the University. Eigures taken from these reports are included in the next 
section. 

College of Engineering Expenditures , 1913-19*^^ - The operating expenditures 

of the College of Engineering for each year for the thirty-two-year period from 
1 Report of the Board of Trustees, December 8, I903 , page 256.) ^''^ 



108 

1912-13 to I9U3-UU are given in the folloiving table. These figures, of course, do 

not include the amounts appropriated for new "buildings, '.vhich vers given in a 
previous ch-iptor. 



DA5LE XVII - C0LLEG3 OF SIIGINEEHIITG OFERATIilG EXTENDI TUEHS, I913-I9UU 



Year 



1912-13 
1913-1^ 
I91U-I5 
IQI5-I6 
1916-17 
1917-12 
iqi3-19 
1919-20 
1920-21 
1921-22 
1922-23 
I923-2U 
I92U-25 
1925-26 
1926-27 
1927-28 
1928-29 

iq2q-30 
1936-31 
1931-32 
1932-33 
1933-3^ 
1934-35 
1935-36 
1936-37 
193 7-3 S 
1938-39 
1939-^0 
19U0-U1 
19U1-U2 
19I+2-U3 

igl|3-UU 



College 



$202 S58 


250 716 


253 9S9 


273 525 


301 651 


2Gk 202 


2 SI 800 


309 q62 


288 68b 


U86 576 


505 hyt 


512 557 


530 761 


522 081 


552 016 


5U8 258 


561 256 


57 4 SOI 


586 927 


518 6U7 


471 917 


k2k 622 


U26 kik 


1+7 6 UU9 


478 000 


52U U86 


550 613 


569 UiU 


567 573 


5U1 970 


553 7U9 


5!+9 3^3 



station 



35 606 
■43 800 
37 S55 
39 673 
^3 171 

36 272 
U7 560 
46 50U 
26 676 
70 977 
72 706 
21 739 
96 128 
36 732 
88 779 
87 79^ 
92 503 

108 U82 
235 995 
22U 385 
159 13s 
lUi 266 
170 -jsh 
162 580 
17U 501 
209 327 
22U 075 
2U9 625 
2U5 533 
2U3 059 
220 U51 
227 066 



Coal Mines Miners ' and 
Investigations Mechanics ' 
Institute 



$2 897 
k U57 

5 277 
U Uii 

5 1^9 
2 200 
H 938 

6 185 
2 050 
5 323 
5 S73 
U 7U5 
U 929 

610 



ol U28 



Cadet 

Aviation 

School 



51 Obi 



Total 



80 6 
272 
637 
035 
7S7 
806 
910 
033 



238 kGh 


29U 516 


291 2hk 


317 523 


350 3'+o 


305 751 


333 771 


361 615 


317 562 


5UU U91 


5SU 330 
596 3'+6 


632 212 


61^ 686 


6U5 5U0 


6U0 981 


658 369 


688 089 

S27 19U 


7^8 669 


635 090 


569 675 


601 ooU 


6U2 939 
656 53^ 


733 S13 


77^ 688 


819 039 


S13 106 


785 029 


774 200 


776 hik 



G. FACULTY MEETING ROOMJ 



General - Vfhen the College of Engineering moved into Engineering Hall in 
in I89U, the faculty meetings vere held in Room 302 of that building, designated 
as the Faculty Parlors. After Dean Goss took over this room for his office in 
1907, the faculty held its .'issenhlies in 22] Engineering Hall — the Physics 
Lecture room. After this room was remodeled in I93I fo^ ''-'•se as the second floor 



1 Figures are taken from the published reports of the Comptroller of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, The totals do not include appropriations for new buildings. 



109 

of the Engineering Library, the faculty meetings vfere held for a year or so in 

319 Engineering Hall and after that in Roon 100 - the lai'ge assembly and lecture 

room — in the Physics Building. 

E. IIUSSUllS AlID COLLSCTIOIIS 

Museum of Engineering and Architecture - The following statement appeared on 

page 2b of the Catalogue and Circular of 1885-86: 

"A large room in University Hall v/as devoted to the gathering of a museum 
of practical art, the materials for which are constantly accumulating in the 
various schools of science. It contains full lines of illustrations of the work 
of the shop: models made at the University or purchased abroad; drawings in all 
departments; patent-office models, etc.; samples of building materials, natural 
and artificial; with whatever nay be secured that will teach or illustrate in the 
most important phase of University work; the elegant exhibit made by the Univer- 
sity at the Centennial and Gotten Exposition at New Orleans found a permanent a- 
bodc in this apartment. 

"A notable feature of this collection is the gift of Henry Gay, Architect 
of Chicago. It consists of a model in plaster, and a complete set of drawings of 
a competitive design for a monument to be erected in Rome, commemorative of Victor 
Emmanual, first King of Italy. The monument was to be of white marble, an ela- 
borate gothic structure, beautifully ornamented, and throe hundred feet high. Its 
estimated cost was to have been seven ajid a quarter million of francs. The design 
was placed by the art commission second on the list of 2S9 competitors; but both 
the first and second were sot aside for political reasons. Mr. Gay's generous 
gift occupies the place of honor in the Museum of Engineering and Architecture." 

Efforts were made at one time or another in later years, to bring together 
into one common place and preserve all of the museum materials of the College in 
a continuation of this early custom. The dominating difficulty in every instance 
was, of course, the lack of available and suitable space; for ever since the be- 
ginning, the College has boon perplexed to find sufficient room for its class and 
laboratory requirements. As a result, each department has sought to maintain such 
limited amounts of musoum materials as its restricted assignment of space has pep- 
mitted. 

I. GENERAL COLLEGE ACTIVITIES 

Illinois-Indiana Section of SPE5 - On'April 6, 1935, the newly-founded Illi- 
nois-Indiana Section of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education 
held n, meeting at Purdue University — the faculties of Illinois, Purdue, Ai'nour, 
Rose Polytechnic Institute, Northwestern, Lewis Institute being represented. The 



1 On top floor of the west V7ing. 



110 
next neeting was held on April IS, 1936, in the La'.7son Y.l'^C.A. Building in 
Chicago — the !3choolr. in Chicago "being hosts. The third neeting was held in 
Urbana on April 3> 1937 — Professor Hoelscher of the Departnent of General Engi- 
neering Drawing at the University of Illinois heing President that year. Similar 
meetings during later years were held at Rose Polytechnic Institute and Notre 
Dane. The Illinois nenbers of the Section have been active in these meetings in 
the presentation of papers, reports, and discussion,, on natters relating to prob- 
lems dealing with engineering education. 

All Engineering College Lectures - In a letter addressed to the Board of 
Trustees under date of December S, I89I,. Dean N. C. Rickor nado the following re- 
q.u'est : 

"The faculty of the College of Engineering respectfully request that the 
Board of Trustees appropriate the sum of $500 to be expended in obtaining techni- 
cal lectures fron eminent specialists in engineering and architecture, on topics 
related to the course of study in the College, but in addition to the regular in- 
struction imparted by the professor in charge. It appears probable that the cost 
of a sing3.e lecture and oxi)cnscs of lecturer -'ould average about $50 each, unless 
several lectures fron each person are delivered during his stay at. the University. 
The effect of these lectures will be excellent; they will further enable advanced 
students to nakc valuable professional acquaincances, and we believe that no 
better means of advertising the University in technical and professional circles 
can be found. "■'• 

The request was granted, and these early lectures were held in the Chapel in 
University Hall. The first of the scries was given in March,. 1392, by W. L. B.. 
Jenny of Chicago, on the subject "Tall Buildings on Compressible Soils." The 
second was given in the sane month by David L. Barnes, consulting mechanical engi- 
neer of Chicago, on the subject "Locomotive Construction." The third speaker was 
J. A. L. 'Taddell, consulting engineer of Kansas City who on April 7, 1292, gave 
two lectures on the subject of bridges, the afternoon talk being on the "Design 

of Construction of Bridges and Roofs^"and th" evening talk on "Details of Con- 
rtniction of Brid^pp p.n^ P.oof Tm sses". 

Thus there was begun here a custom that has continued to the present time, of 

inviting noted men to the caiapus to lecture in their particulr'ir fields of engi- 
neering practice as a moans of bringing students and faculty into contact with men 
engaged in professional service, thereby inspiring and refreshing both groups and 



1 Report of the University of Illinois, I892, page I7I. . 



nici;; 



Ill 

supplying specific information on topics relating to engineering practice, as 
well as educating the visitors regarding the University's attaiiiments and possi- 
bilities. 

Among the list of lecturers coming later r7as Charles P.. Gteinmetz, Chief 
ConsTolting Engineer of the General Electric Company and Lecturer in Union College, 
'7ho made several visits to the campus for the purpose of addressing the College. 
One of his lectures was given in the afternoon of November 27, I907, on the sub- 
ject of "Alternating Current Railway Kotors." Others were given during I9II-I3; 
one of the subjects being "Unex7)lorod Fields of Engineering" and still another 
(on Harch 7, I9II) "Electrical Ener^^'." Dr. Hobert A. Ilillikan of California In- 
stitute of Technology, gavo three lectures in the U?iiversity Auditorium during 
December, 19^7- Ci"'C of these, on December 2, was entitled "Evolution and Religion, 

Karl Von Tcrzaghi, noted professor of Vienna's Technischc Hoch Schulc, and 
later of Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology' and the 
^"orld's foremost authority on soil mechanics, presented a scries of thi-ec lectures 
on March 30 and 3I. and April 1, 1931^ — the first being concerned with "Theory 
and Practice in Soils Mechanics"; the second with "Mohr's Diagrma and the Stress 
Conditions for Failure of Saturated, Porous Materials"; and the third, with "Arch- 
ing in Soils - a Neglected Aspect of Earth Pressure Phenomena." 

On. May 13. 1^. Jind I5, 1937. under the auspices of the Department of Ceramic 
Engineering and the University Lecture Committee of the College, Dr. IToldemar 
7cyl, Head of the Glass Division of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute fur Silikat- 
forschung, Berlin, Germany, gave four Incturos. The first wa,s entitled "The 
Constitution of Glass", the second, "The Absorption Spoctra of Solutions ai^d 
Glasses; a Tool for Invest igjiting Intermolocular Forces and Constitution Problems", 
the third, "Colored Glasses", and the fourth, "The Interaction between Gases and 
Molten Silicatp.s." 

Four University' lectures were given in 215 Electrical Engineering Laboratory 
by Dr. Arthur Casagrande of the Harvard Graduate School on April 6, f , and S, 193^* 
on the subject of soil mechanics. The first of thos*" was entitled "The Principles 



112 

of Soil llcchanics", the second, "The Kc.t G-oman Hiehways", the third, "Recent De- 
velopments in Settlement Analysis", and the fourth, "Rocont Developments in Earth 
Dam Design." 

A fev of the other lectures v/ere Sugene Grace of the American Telegraph and 
Telephone Company, Samuel Insull of the Connon'rrealth Edison Company, and Ed'.vard 
J. Mohren, Vicc-prosidcnt of the licGraw Hill Fublishin;:; Conpany — oil aside from 
and in addition to the Ion.-;; lists of speakers that have been drawn to the campus 
by student scientific and other societies connected with the College of Engineer- 
ing. 

J. THE ENGIllEERIIJG EXPBRU'EIIT STATION 

General - The Engineering Experiment Station established in I903, has per- 
formed such an inportant service in connection '.vith the College of Engineering 
that fvn entire chapter has been devoted to a presentation of materials relating 
to its organization, operation, and acoomplishment s. It may be stated here, 

thou.'ch, as President James has put it in his "Sixteen Years at the University of 

2 
Illinois", that "probably none of the activities of the College of Engineering is 

of greater importance or has received more favorable and wide-spread attention 
than the Engineering Experiment Station." The achievements of its distinguished 
scientists and scholars have not only served to stimulate engineering education, 
but also to develop a vast bocTy of original information relatirig to engineering 
principles, engineering problems, a.nd engineering practice. It raay be further 
stated, therefore, '-dthout reservation that the ^':'ork of the Station and its ac- 
conplishracnts in the fields of science and technolOi^y, have been the means of ex- 
tending the circle of influence of the College and the University to practically 
every part of the industrial vrorld, thereby contributing a substar.tial share to- 
wards establishing the high place and prestige that these organizations now enjoy 
among the great institutions of higher learning in this land. 



1 XCV 

2 Page 20s 



113 

CHAPTER V 
COLLEGE 0? miGIKEERING AmillllSTRATION AND AJXIIKISTRATOHS 
Provisions for College Administration - The first mention of dividing the 
University into the four colleges, Agriculture, Engineering, Literature and 
Science, and Natural Science was, as previously stated, in the 1370-71 issue of 

the Catalogue and Circular, as it was then called. The faculties of the four 

1 
colleges were not organized, however, until IS78, ten years after the University 

opened, although the v/ork of the College of Engineering may be said to date from 

Januf^ry, I87O, when Stillman Williams Ebbinson became Professor of Mechanical 

Engineering. 

2 

The University statutes as adopted in December, 1903, provided that: 

"The faculty of each college or school nay exercise legislative functions 
touching any matter -ippertaining exclusively to the internal "^ork of that College 
and the progrers of students therein. It shfdl not, however, have authority to 
take away from any student any University privilege, nor shall it do anything 
trenching upon the executive duties of the dean. It must be understood that the 
college organization is only for convenience within University circles, ?ind that 
no college shall ta-ke action not well supported by rule or usago.for which the 
general officers of the University may be called upon to nnswnr. All matters of 
general policy, or matters involving the interests of outside parties, must be 
determined by general University authority." 

These stifiulations or similar ones have continued to bo the guiding elements 

in the determination of college policy and direction to the present day, although 

some modifications h-^vc been made in the details of administration from time to 

time as conditions have changed. For example, the statutes adopted in March, I936, 

made provisions for some modifications according to the following statements: 

"The college shall bo govorncd in its internal adninistration by its facul- 
ty. The faculty shall consist of the President, the dean and assistant dean of 
the college, and all professors, associate professors, assistant professors, as- 
sociates, and instructors within tho group it comprises, together with a repre- 
sentative of each such other department or group as maj' be entitled to represen- 
tation by virtue of participation in the progrfun of instruction in the college, 
and finally such othor officers of the University as the President may assign 
thereto , 



1 On February 15, IS7S, the gonei'al University faculty recommended that the mem- 
bers of that body be divided into college groups and that Professor Stillman 

IVilliams Sobinson sorvc as Dean of the .Engineering group. 

2 "Revision of University Statutes", December 2S, I90S, in Hoport of the Board of 

Trustees. 



"Tho collocc shfill have Jurisdiction in all educational matters, not in- 
volving questions of ftencral university policy and not involving its relation to 
other colleges or schools, f.alling within the scope of its program, including the 
determination of its curricula, except that proposals -Thich involve "budgetary 
chfingcs shall "be submitted to the President acting vdth the advico of the Council. 
Tho college shall have the fullest measure of autonomy consistent 'Jith the main- 
tenance of general university oducationfd policy and correct academic and adminis- 
trative relations uith other divisions of the Univn-sity. 



"There shall "be an exocutivf: committee of tv/o or more members, composed of 
or selected from the professors and associate professors in tho college, elected 
annually by the faculty, to advise the dean in the administration of the college 
and to transact such business as may be delegated to it by the faculty. The dean 
shall be ex-off icio a member and chainna.n of this committee. "•'■ 

As the College of Engineering has operated under the present rules during the 
last several years, the selective membership of the executive committee as nomi- 
nated and elected by the College faculty at tho beginning,^ of each school year has, 
for matters of convenience, consisted of the heads of the several departments vdth- 
in the College. 

Bach year, a niimbcr of standing committees have been appointed by the execu- 
tive committee to carry on studies of policy and to administer the more or less 
routine matters of interest to the College group. Among these h,^ve been included 
thos'-; on college policy and development, dual curricula, employment and alumni 
records, gra.duatc "oi'k, inspection trip, libi'ary, petitions, program, and rovicTr ' 
of student records. As occasion has required, q, number of special committees have 
been chosen, in addition, to consider topics requiring exceptional or unusual 
attention. 

As the chief administrative officers directing nil-college affairs in ongi- 
necring have been tho dcnn and the assistant or associate dean, tho roraainder of 
this chapter is given to a discussion of tho duties of these officers and to brief 
biographical sketches of the personnel that have served sinco those offices were 
established, 

A. DEAKS 

IXities of the Early Deans of tho College of_ Engineering - At tho time the 



1 University of tllinois Statutes, March 10, I936, page 3. 



115 

office of Dean of the College of Enginocrinf: 'hrs created the solo function of the 
'i^ean V7as to preside at the meetings of the College faculty — and about the only- 
business he brought up for consideration concerned chanj^os in the courses of stud^', 
requests of students for substitutions, and recommendations of students for gradu- 
ation; he had little to do vrith other student affairs. In September, 1S9^, howevci; 
at the beginning of President Draper's administration, thed'ean became a member of 
the executive Committee of the General Faculty, which became in I9OI, the Council 
of Administration, and his adininistrative duties v/ere thereby greatly increased. 

Duties of the Lat or Deans of the College of Bnginecring - While the dean 
continued to be the chief executive officer of the College, the duties of his 
office were littlo more than nominal and not well defined even as late as IS9U. 
After Enginet>ring Hall was comnlcted in 189^, however, in addition to presiding at 
the mc' tings of the engineering faculty, ?md carryin'; a heavy teaching load, 
the dean began to look after affairs pertaining to the students of the College. 
This work included the supervising of enrollment, the keeping of student records, 

and the receiijt of student petitions. For this pury,oso he had for a considerable 

1 
period only the part-time services of a single clerk, for that nerson also served 

2 
as stenographer to the several departments. After a tine, the dean ajid the heads 

of the departments came to act as a body in making the budgets, in distributing 
funds, and in making recommendations to the president concerning financial policies 
for the College. 

It vw.G not until 1907' that the administrative duties of the dean had become 
well prescribed. The functions of his office became so involved by tliat time tliat 
the dean did no teaching, but gave all his attention to matters requiring executive 
consideration. In I909, the dean became also the director of the Engineering Ex- 
periment Station, and has served in the dual capacity since that time. 



1 The Board ordered a tyn-^owriting machine and authorized a stenographer for the 
CollGgo to begin January 1, I895. 

2 During Dean kite's administration, I905-O7, the executive committee of the heads 
of the departments came into being, and h^.s continued to date as a permanent 
factor in the College organization. 

3 During Denn Goss' administration. 



116 

Preparation of the "b-udcet and budfretinf; relations '^ith the vario\is College 

departments, frequent repreisentation of the College in University affairs and in 

public natters, increases in the number of students registered in the College of 

frowth 
Engineering, and in the number and size of the departnonts, of the Engineering 

A 

Experiment Station, and numerous other problems have combined from tine to time to 
multiply the duties anrl resi.onsibilities of the dean and director. Because final 
responsibility for the welfare of the entire College rests ^rith him, the dean 
must be a man possessed 'vith courage and decision and outstanding leadership and 
vision, one v'ho can bring together and formulate into an integrated whole the 
considered opinions .-md recommendations of the College committees and of the 
several departments in the ]-.rcparation of plans and policies so that they can 
operate to the greatest advantage of the College and the University organization. 

Appointment of Scfips - IThcn the faculties of the four original colleges, 
Agriculture, Engineering, Literature and Science, anrl Natural Science \7ere organ- 
ized early in iSyg, a doan of each was elected, as previously stated, by the 
general University faculty. Since iSn^, however, the deans have been appointed by 
the President with the approval of the Board of Trustees. This v/as one of the 
innovations under President Dranor's administration anrl almost his first act. 
3. 3I0SRAFHICAL SKETCHES OF TIS DEAIIS 

Gen oral - Stillman TTillipjns Robinson was the first to act as Dean of the 
College of Engineering. Eollovdng his resignation. Professor Nathan Clifford 
Ricker was elected dean in September, IS7S, and held the office continuously for 
twenty-seven years — that is, until Juno 2, I905, when his resignation was ac- 
cented. J,arar-s !!cLrren TTliitn served as Acting Dean during Igo^-Ob and as Dean dur- 
ing 1906-07. TTillifiin Freeman Kyrick Goss followed in I907 and was Dean until 
1913 1 "'hen he took a leave of absence to engage in service for the City of Chicago 
and from 1915. when he returned to the University, to I9I7. Charles Russ Richards 
was Acting Dean from 1913 to I915 and Dean from I917 to 1922. Hilo Smith Ketchum 
followed Dean Richards and served a.s Dean until 1933* Dean Ketchum was succeeded 
by Arthur Cutts Wiiiard during 1933-3^, v;ho in turn was followed by Melvin 



117 

Lorcnius Engot', nho has continued to date. Short bio graphical shctchos of the 

lives and affairs of those men follo'^r. 

S tillnan 'Till Jams Robinson , -'ho had been elected Dean of the College of 
Ene:ineering by the G-eneral Facility of the University on February 15, ISJS, pre- 
sided at the first meeting of the faculty of the College on February 19 of that 
sane year. Ke continued to serve as Deaji until September I878 when he resigned to 
take a position at Ohio State University, Part of Professor Hobinson's biography 
is given under Chapter VII and the remainder under Chajiter XI. 

iTathan Clifford Picker , in September, IS7S, '."as asked to become Dean of the 
College of Engineering and to assume the duties of that office in addition to his 
regular '.vork as Head of the Department of Architecture. He carried both positions 
for t '.vent y- seven years, but relinquished the deanahip in I905 to give more time 
to the claims imposed by the greying needs of his department . The major portion 
of Professor Ricker's biogra.hy, even much that i.ertains to his '-'ork as dean, is 
given in Chapter IX, the Department of Architecture. 

James McLaren White 'ffas born in Chicago on October I6, I867, and r/as gradu- 
ated in IS90 from the University of Illinois v/ith the degree of B.S. in Archi- 
tecture. In September, ISHO, he joined the staff of the University as Assistant 
in Architecture. During 1893-06, he was Assistant Professor of Architecture, and 
after spending a year in study abroad, he was made Associate Professor. Ke became 
Professor of Architectural Engineering in 190I. 

In 190^, Professor TiJ'hite was appointed Acting Dean of the College of Engineer- 
ing and served in this capacity for one yea.r. The next year, 1906-O7, he became 
Dean, n'-'.^.n^'hilc carrying some teaching in the Department of Architecture. He 
made an excellent executive and was over alert to promote the interests of the 
College; he made many contributions towards the improvement of rela.tions between 
students and faculty in the College, Most noteworthy of his undertakings was an 
investigation to determine the relative weights to bo assigned to an hour's work 
of instruction in lecture, quiz, recitation, drafting, laboratory, and surveying 



1 , 118 

In l^OJ, Proferssor tThitn rRsi^^e'^ to acce-nt the ne'Tly-created position of 
Ru-n"rviP!in/r Architect of nil University 'buil'^in^ orterations, still retaining his 
title of Profpssor of Architectural 3n,^ineerinf;. As Supnrvising Architect he ren- 
flerert invalunhle Bervice in charge of the Physical Plant, and particularly in 
•nlanninr a connrphensive -nrogram of cam-pus develonnent , In IHPO, under President 
Kinley, he hecane also Sup<=rvisor of Business Oneration and occunied an inrortant 
position in thp ariministmtion of University affairs. Tliile still on active duty 
in this co-pficity, Professor ^hite -nassed a-^ay on February 6, 1933* H® '^^^ co- 
author of one billetin issued hy the Sni^iineering Experiment Station, 

^illinm Prepnpn Hyrick Cross , who was ari-nointed Dean when Professor White was 
made Supervisinr Architect, was horn in Barnstahle, Hassrichusetts, in 1850. He 
"^as f^rariunterl fron Hasc^achusett s Institute of '^echnoloe^ in 1379. wfis granted the 
F.S. ^erree "by "Vahash College in iSoSI, r>nd the honorary degree of D.Eng. by the 
University of Illinois in IHOU. Jrom Igyn to 1907, he was a nemher of the faculty 
of ■^ur'^ue T^niversity, "being successively Instructor in Mechanic Arts, Professor of 
Practical I'echanics, P-rofessor of TSjmerinental Engineering and Director of the 
"^ginpprin,tr Lr."boratoriPs, nnri "Oenn of the Schools of Engineering. He was a nioneer 
in locomotive testing, anri riesigned anH installed the locomotive testing plant nt 
Purilue, the first of its i^inf^ in the worlH; nnd -"ith this equirinent he conducted 
numorous tests "^hich materially added to the kno\fleA/»« of locomotive performance. 

'Thilp at Purine, Professor Goss was the author of three text-hooks entitlerl 
"■^pnch ^or''- in'^nod", ^»#»* "Loconotive Sparks", and "Locomotive Performance" and 
of four vqluahlo reports upon rps^arches upon locomotive performance. He was a 
memhpr of the Jury of Awards of the Columbian 'Torld Exposition (Chicago), of the 
Ai^visor;^ BoarH of the TT, S. Geological Survey on Fuels, and of the Advisory 
Conmittoo of tho Ponnsylvpnin Railroa^f of Testing Locomotives at the Louisiana 
Purchasp Exposition (St. Louis). 

Althoiigh Donn Goss assumed the duties of his office on October 31, 1907, he 

1 Sop Pro. of Soc. for Promo. of Eng. Ed., Vol. XV, page 12U ff. 



119 
wan not formnlly installed until February 5, igog, '7ith exorcises in the Universily 
Auditorium -^ith Professor Jamos M. White, ex-I5can of the College, presiding. At 
the convocation, Professor Ira 0. Saic-r gave a short address on "Some Significant 
liiVnnts in the Dovelo-nment of the College of Engineering", President TT. L. Ahbott 
of the Board of Trustees sno'ce on "The St,anding of the Technical Graduate in the 
T^gineering Profe<5sion", and "Dean Goss eave his installation address on the suh- 
ject "The State College of Engineering." 

When Professor Breci-enridge resigned in 1909, Dean Goss took over the duties 
of the ■nirector of the Engineering Experiment Station. In carrying on the work of 
his office as Bean and Director, Doctor Goss was a most effective administrator. 
He '"as a good organizer, a nan of vision anH of great executive ability, and yet 
one who carefully attended to details. He had a pleasing personality and a wide 
acnupintance. He nroveH to he a very valuable addition to the engineering staff, 
and contributed greatly in making the College of Engineering of greater prominence 
fl.nd usefulness than ever before. His chief services as Dean of the College were 
in finding new Bembers of the tea.chinf staff, Pi.nfl in discovering and promoting 
■nossible advances in equinment, methods, and buildings; and as Director of the 
Engineerin^r Exneriment Station in considering the investigations to be undertaJcen, 
in finr^infr research workers, and in supervising the nublicat ions of the results. 
He, himself, contributed two bulletins to the list of Station nublications. 

On December 18, 1P12, a s-necial engineering convocation was held to permit 
the general faculty anrf students in the College of Engineering to express their 
appreciation of the honor r^aid to Dean Goss in his election as President of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Brief addresses were made by President 
EHmund J, James pnd Professor A. K, Talbot, after which Professor Ira 0. Baker 
■nresented to the Dean a beautifully engrossed testimonial signed by representatives 
of the faculty anri the various engineering organizations. The inscription read 
a.s follows; 

"Dr. William Freeman Myrick Goss, Dean of the College of Engineering of the 



120 

Univerrsity of Illinois, having recently been installed as President of the Ameri- 
can Society of liechnnical Engineers, 've, his co-laborers in the College of Engi- 
neering, the fello'7 members of that Society at the University of Illinois, and the 
students of the College of Engineering, offer this testimonial of appreciation of 
the honor that ha,s been conferred upon him, an honor richly deserved because of 
his long and eminent service in the field of engineering education, his researches 
and contributions to the advancement of engineering science, and his high quali- 
ties as a man and friend. "■'• 

Doctor Goss served as D(,vm and Director -until March, 1^*17, except during the 
calendar years 1913 '"^nd 1^1^ "'hen he was on leave as Chief Znginoor of the Chicago 
Association on Smoke Abatement .and Electrification of Rnilw.iy Terminals, in vrhich 
position, he published his voluminouB report of the investigation. He returned to 
the University on August 31. IS'l?. '^^^ served a,s Dean and Director until March 1, 
1917i when he resigned to become President of the Ilail'.7ay Car Manufacturer's 
Association, Hew York City. He retired from t}iis ]-osition in I925, and passed 
away on March ?3, 19 2^. 

Charles Russ Richards v.'as born in Clarks Hill, Indiana, on March 23, IS7I, 
He received the 3. S. degree in Mechanical Snginrtiring at Purdue University in 
IS90 and the M.E. degree there in 18Q1. He was awarded the M. M.S. -degree fi'om 
Cornell University in IS93. After serving as Instnictor in Mechanical Engineering 
in Colorado Agricultural College during IS9I-92, he went to the University of 
Ncbrasl^a, vhere, between 1292 and I9II, he bec-ime successively Adjunct Professor 
of Manual Training, Profesr.or of Practical Mechanics, Professor of Mechanical Engi- 
neering, Associate Dean of the Industrial College in charge of Engineering, and 
still later after the reorganization of the Colleges of the University, Dean of 
the College of Engineering. 

Wiilo at llobraskn,, Professor Richards introduced the curriculum in Mechanical 
Engineering and later designed the liecha.nical Engineering building. On this build- 
ing he made all the drav/ings '^dth his own hands, personally wrote the snecif ications 
and supervised the constimction, all without the help of evrn a clerk or draftsman 
and in addition to his regijlar work, to the end that all of the money might go into 
the building, which was generally conceded to be one of the finest of its kind in 
the country. This -'ns fin expznple of the dt^votion which an earnest and interested 
1 The Tnchnograph, page IO3, reb.1913, lJo.2. Volume TCVII 



121 
teacher gave to his v7ork. Ee was consulting engineer for the City of Lincoln in 
the erection of the municipal lighting plant and the improvement of the city 
water-'7orks. He exerted a powerful influence in building up a strong Department 
of Mechanical Engineering in a non-manufacturing state. 

Professor Richards c;ine to the University of Illinois on September 1, I9II, 
as Professor of Mechfinical Engineering and Head of the Department. One of his 
outstanding achievements after coming to the University of Illinois was to design 
and supervise the radical reconstruction of the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory 
building. He also directed the reorganization of the shop ^70^k, rfhich is describo?- 
in a later chapter. During his administration marked progress '.vas made in in- 
stinictional methods. In the selection of members of his staff, Professor Richards 
Judgment and foresight '.7Grc of special value. He served as Acting Dean and Di- 
rector from July 1, 1913,to August 3I, I915. during the absence of Dean (Joss and 
was Dec'Ui and Director from March 1, I917, to July 3I, 19?2. 

It 'jas one of Derm Riclvards' outstanding cho.ractori sties to be systematic in 
his office '7ork and prompt in his official duties. He \7as alv/ays cordial and 
courtnous, and \7as readily accessible to those having occasion to see him. His 
genial smile made friends of evniyone he mot. His frankness, kindliness, and 
honesty in his dealings rdth the staff were responsible for the earnestness and 
loyalty of all the faculty. He was a most agreeable friend and an excellent 
officer, courageous .and efficient in presenting the needs and in defending the 
interests of the College of Engineering before University authorities. Ho em- 
braced every opportunity to present the '.Tork of the College and the Station before 
engineers and manufacturers. Er \7as much interested in research ;ind was ever 
ready to do nil in his povrer to help along such work and to stimulate instructors 
to nngagc in it. Hr '7as author of one 'Bulletin and one rtirculnr wnd co-author of 
of two l>ulletins of the Engineering Experiment Station. 

Dean Richards served as Director of the Aiaerican Society of liechanical Engi- 
neers during 19lS-c?0. He was av/arded the honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering 
by the University of Nebraska in I920. Ko resigned from the University of Illinor 



122 

September 1, 1922, to become President of Lehigh University. All connected with 

the University were exceedin^^ly sorry nhen he resigned, nnd as a measure of its 

esteen, the College of Engineering at a fare^^ell dinner given in his honor, on 

June 6, 1922, presented to him the following testinonial to which every member of 

the staff in the College had affixed his signature: 

To Charles Huss Richards: 

"As you leave the University of Illinois, we wish to expresr. the pleasure 
we hnvc had in our au-sociation with you and our regret that it must now be in- 
ternaptod. 

"In our dealings vith you as Dean of the College of Engineering wo h^ive 
prized csioecially the sjTnpathctic cooperation, the frajikness, the impartiality up- 
on which we have all cone to rely. T7e have felt ourselves, as a faculty, safely 
and adequately and vigorously represented both within and without the University. 
We shall alwa,ys remomb'ir the cordiality and sincerity that have marked our person- 
al as well as our official relations. 

"'<lo assure you of our appreciation of the important contribution you have 
made to the progress of the College of Engineering through the sound judgment and 
vision with which you have administered its affairs. 

"Our regret in having you go from us is tempered by our pride in your c- 
lection to the presidency of Lehigh University. T?c heartily wish you the highest 
measure of success in that position, and the fullest opportunities "for service and 
accomplishment in the years to come." 

Urbana, Illinois 
June, 1922 

In 1923, Doctor Richards was honored with the degree of LL. D. by Lafayette 
College. He continued in his position as President of Lehigh until 1935, when he 
retired because of ill health. Hp passed away at the home of his daughter in 
Minnoanolis, Minnesota, on Ajiril I7, 19^1. 

Milo Smith Ketchum was born at Burns, Illinois, on January 26, IS72. He was 
graduated from the curriculum in Civil Engineering at the University of Illinois 
in IS95 f.nd served as Instructor in Civil Engineering and Mathematics from IS95 
to 1897 and as Assistant Professor from IS99 to I903. He received the profession- 
al degree of Civil Engineer from the University in I9OO. He was engaged as brid^ 
and structural engineer for the Gillcttc-Hersog Manufacturing Company from I897 
to 1299 and as Contracting Manager for the American Bridge Company at Kansas City 
in 1903-oU. In 190U,he became Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of 



123 
Colorado, n,nd next year Dean of the College of Engineering, Except in I909-IO, 
'.vhen he V7as on leave of absence to 'becomG associated r/ith H, S, Crocker, Past- 
Fresidcnt of the American Society of Civil Engineers, in the firm of Crocker and 
Ketchum as Consulting Engineer at Denver, he remained '--ith the University of 
Colorado until I9I8, when he was made Assistnjit Director of the U. S. Government 
Explosive Plants, in charge of the construction of the mammoth smokeless powder 
plant at Nitro, 17est Virginia.- He remained in that position until 1919 '.-.'hen he 
went to the University of Pennsylvania .as Professor and Head of the Department of 
Civil Engineering, and rem.-dncd there until September 1, I922, when he returned 
to the University of Illinois as Dean of the College of Engineering and Director 
of the Engineering Experiment Station. 

The Dean was formally inducted at an all-engineering convocation in the Uni- 
versity Auditorium on I'arch J, 192.3 . On that occasion, the Engineering students 
and faculty assembled in front of En/?;ineering Hall and marched to the Auditoriiim 
led by a. band composed of engineers. President Kinley presided at the meeting, 
\7hile E. J. Mohren, '06, Editor of Engineering Ncvs-Hecord and Vice-President of 
the McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, was the principal speaker, the subject of his 
address being "The Importance of Research to the Progress of Industry." Dc.an 
Kntch\ira's response '.7as "En-^ineoring Education and Research." Speeches of 7.'elGomo 
to the new Dean were made by IVilliam Lajnont Abbott, President of the Board of 
Trustees, and by Arthur Newell Talbot, Professor of MunicipoJ. and Sanitary Engi- 
neering in char/'e of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. 

Dean Ketchum 's tenure included a trend of expansion and improvement in build- 
ings, laborator;/- equipment, and instructional and research staff, as well as a 
further enhancement in the standing and reputation vAich the College of Engineer- 
ing enjoyed among the schools of the United States. 

As a token of their appreciation of the service during the first ten years of 
the administration, the members of the College and their wives and guests tendered 
Dean nud Mrs. Ketchun a formal "Ten-Years-of-Progress" dinner cat the Champaign 
Country Club on the evening of May 25, I932. Professor Talbot presided and gave 



12U 
the opening address on the subject "The College of Engineering and Its Developmental 

Dean Jordan then followed with an address on "Ton Years of Progress in the College 

of Engineering." 

Professor Ketchum '-'as joint author v/ith Ppofessor Pence of a popular manual 
for field practice in surveying entitled "Surveying Manual." He was author of 
five important and well-known books on structured engineering entitled "Design of 
Highway'- Bridges of Steel, Timber, and Concrete", "The Design of Mine StiTactures" , 
"Design of Steel Mill Buildings", "Design of VJalls, Bins, and Grain Elevators", 
and "Structural Engineer's Handbook!' He was co-author of one bulletin of the 
Engineering Experiment Station, and contributed many articles to the technical 
press. He served as Director of the American Society of Civil Engineers from I9I8 
to 1920 and as Vice-president during I925-26. He was President of the Society for 
the Promotion of Engineering Education in I9I7-IS. He received the honorary de- 
gree of Doctor of Science from the Colorado School of Ilines in I926 and from the 
University of Colorado in I927. 

Duo to declining health Dean Ketchum retired from his duties as Dean on July 
1, 1933- Because he was not eligible for retirement under the 'regular -Univorsity 
plaJi, he was made Research Pirofessor of Civil Engineering. He maintained an 
office at 108 Engineering Hall, and directed research work on stresses in bins 
and similar structures under granular loading. He was made Dean Emeritus, however; 
in 193^. and died in Urbana on December 19iOf that year. 

The following tribute scorns to be appropriate as a fitting resume of the work 

of the man v;ho for eleven years served the College of Engineering as its chief 

executive officer: 

"Dean Kntchiim had the personal qualities which commajid the respect and in- 
spire the admiration and confidence of students. H(; understood and made allow- 
ances for the unconventional impulses of youth. He v.'as stern, yot Gi-TQpathetic ; 
his discipline v/as swift and positive, but just; and his understanding of student 
problems, social, economic, and educational, was born out of his own wide ex- 
perience. He know how to stimulate students to greater effort, and the success 
of the means by which he accomplished it was due largely to the example he set in 
doing his own -/ork.''^ 



1 The Tcchnograph, Volume XLIX, February, 1935, No. 3, page 3. 



125 
Arthur Cutts Wiiiard ,-/ho during tho administration of Doan Kctchum was Head 

of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, followed the Dean in office after his 
resignation in 1933 • Unwilling to accept the appointment permanently, Professor 
Willard became Acting Dean on July 1, 1933. and held that position until July 1, 
193^+, when he bec-une President of the University. The greater part of Professor 
Willard's biograTihical sketch is given in Chapter III under Presidents. The re- 
mainder appears in Chapter VII under Mechanical Engineering. 

Melvin Lorenius Snger v/as born on May 5. ISSI, at Decorah, leva. He received 
the B.S. degree from the University of Illinois in 1906, the C.Zl. degree in I9II, 
and the II. S. degren in I916. After spending two years in railway service v/ith 
the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Hail'.vay, he came to the University in I907 as 
Instructor in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. He was made Associate in I909, 
Assistant Professor in I9II, fmd Associate Professor in I917. In I919, he was 
appointed Professor of Liechanics and Hydraulics, and in I926 v/as made Head of the 
Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. Ho continued in that position 
until 193^. when he -.vas made Dean of the College of Engineering and Director of 
the Engineering Dxperiment Station, which positions he has held to date (I9U5). 

He was an excellent teacher, a helpful adtiinistrator, and a generous con- 
tributor to educational and technical literature. Ho is joint author of two 
l*j.lletins of the Engineering Experiment Station. He is an active member of a 
number of engineering societies and was Director of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers during I932-3U. There is no doubt that under Dean Engor's counsel, 
leadership and direction, the College of Engineering will continue to grow and 
expand to a position of oven greater pri,-cminence ation|^ the technical institutions 
of higher learning in the United States. 

C. OFFICE ACCOMI-IODATIONS 

G-cneral - Wlien Professor Robinson served as Dean in I878, his office as Pro- 
fessor of Mechanical Engineering V7as located in University Hall, but he had no 
special office as Dean. Liko'.;ise Professor Hickcr who followed him had no special 
q,uartors to carry on his duties as Dean. TThen Engineering Hall v/as opened in 



126 
ISqU, however, Room ;^00, -^ small room on the third floor of that 'bailding, 'vas 
^.sniemed to thA office of the Denn of the Collefl;e. Both Dean Ricker and Dean 
■^itp had th<= usn of this limited space. 'H^^en Dean Goss came in I907, he took 
ovpr the larger roon n/i,iacent on the we<^t, J)C)^, -^hich had been used previously as 
•na.rlors for faculty meetings anri later as an office by Professor L. P. 3recken- 
rirlp-o, Fead of the Dnpartnent of Mechanical I]n!?;ineorin^ ind Director of the Engi- 
nnevinp- ^^xnerinent Station. Kp used Room 30? for his o'-rn private office and a,s- 
sifTi'^'^ !Room 3'^'^ to the Coll ea;p secreto.ry. Later Room 30U ^vao added to the suite 
fnr tho Df%nn's steno^ra-nhors. The office of Dean remained there until 1930,rlurinf 
tlie ar^ministra.tion of Dean Ketchum, '^'hen it ^ns moved to Rooms I03 and I05 on the 
first -flonr of li!n/'inoori n,^ Hall. In 1^J)3, ho'^ovrr, tho office "vas moved to a suite 
of rooms, lO'i, 10^, nnH 10", in the south'TOst corner of Snginecrin,? Hall rhorc it 
■^oul-i bo more a.ccossiblr to tho Quarters of tho :^n,°:inccring IDxperiment Station, 
and Vhere it has rf^mninr-ri to date (10U15). 

D. ASSISTANT D3AITS 
General - At the be,o-inninf!; of his administration, Dean G-oss made arrangements 
for r>n assistant dean to a^ivise students regarding their University problems and 
to riirect the ke"-pin.j^ of student scholastic ami personal records, and to maintain 
discipline wherever necessary. The appointment of such an assistant not only re- 
lieverl the riean of much routine responsibility in connection "^ith the iPirowin,:: 
registration, thereby enablin.^ him to e^iv^ his undivided attention to the larger 
problems renuirin/^ consi'^eration, but also s'^'rved a very useful purpose in the 
nrlmini strati on of student affairs. The duties of the office have multiplied 
stea/iily throuf^h the years "fith tho increase in student enrollment and the number 
of cu-"ricular ■^n'^ elective courses offered by the various departments. 
^:. BIOGRAPHICAL SK:?]TCHES OP ASSIS"Air D:3A1IS 
General - In IQOy-OS, Professor Ployd Ro'^'e 'Tptson of the Department of Physics 
devotof^ three half days a 'veeh bo the office of Assistant Dean. During the years 
lOOS-lo, Assistant Professor Pred Duane Cra'-sha"' took over the office being in 
charge of General Engineering Dra"'ing also during that same time. During I9IO-I2, 



127 

Assir>tfint Prefossor ^illiaxi Thomas Bawdcn served as Assistant Doan, '."hile from ■ 

1.912 to 1917i Enrry Tillard I^iller, who '"as Associate in General Engineering 
Vivn^inp-, took on the duties of the office. Professor Harvey Herbert Jordan then 
follo"7er1 ?5s Assistant Denn and continue'l under that title until I93U, uhen he be- 
came Associate Bean '"ith the same Huties ho previously performed. Biograr^hical 
sketches of these men follow. 

?loyd Rcve Tat son - Since Professor T7p.tson'r; "biogranhical sketch is given 
unr^nr Phypi OS, it is not roneaterl here. 

Pred Duane Craw5ha.w received the 3.S. degree from Torcester Polytechnic Insti- 
tute in ISOG nnfl the H./<]. degree there in IPOS. Before coming to Illinois he had 
hari exnerience in -nuhlic- school '•'ork anrl as Instructor at Bradley Polytechnic 
Institute. ' Fe servef^ as Assistant Dean of the College of Engineering ,and in chaige 
of General Engineering "OraMn^ at Illinois from IQO?! to IPIO, after which he re- 
simeri to become Professor of Manual Arts in the University of Wisconsin. During 
IQI7-IS he se^vnH as President of the Academic Board of the U. S. School of Mili- 
tary Aeronautics at the Univer-'-ity of Illinois, and during igi8-in _he "ras Professor 
of Industrial Education and Assista.nt to the Director of the Engineering Experi- 
ment Station at the University. He resigned this fiosition to engage in commercial 
""ork. He '"as the author of several textbooks on manual training and of one text 
on mechanical dra^'ing for secondary schools. 

Gillian Thomas Balden received the A, 3. degree from Dr>nnison University in 
1?,QG, the B.S. degree from Columbia University in I903, and the Ph. D. degree 
thf^rp in IQlU. Before coming to Illinois ho had hnd teaching experience in public 
schools and from IQn?' to IQIO had served as Director of the De-nartmcnt of Manual 
Trpiininr at the Illinois State ITormnl University at Normal. He Tvas Assistant 
Doan of the College of Engineering at Illinois during I9IO-I2, after 'vhich he re- 
signed to acce-nt a position -irith the U. S. Bureau of Education at Washington, D. C. 

Farry "^illar^ liillnr , Assistant Professor of General Engineering Dra'^ing, 
continui-'d to givr^ something more than half his time to the duties of Assistant 
Donn of the College of Engineering from 1P1<?,,. until IPI7, 'vhen he resigned to en- 
ter military service. One of the things inaugurated by Assistant Dean Miller in 



12S 
iqi^-l'^ .-^nd '.7hich has ticnn continued to this day vas the photographing of each 

frosliman early in the year, before a laixTor in such manner as to she.? both the 
front and the side vio'." of the face; and taking similar photograr.hs of the seniors 
late in the year before gra-^uation. These -nho t o graphs are of interest in showing 
the change in fpaturer^ during the four years; and are of great value in identify- 
ing students, narticularly when making recommendations of students for positions 
in industry. Ariditional materials relating to Professor Miller's biogra-ohical 
sketch ari-nears under Chapter VUl , General l<3ngineering Drawing. 

Harvey Herbert Jordan , Assistant Professor of General Engineering Dra":'ing, 
"'as marie Assistant Dean in Seiitember^ 1^117 . Like Assistant Dean Killer, Assistant 
Dean Jordan '"as -narticularly ef-*^icient, being resourceful a.nd energetic, orderly 
a.nd systematic in keepin.r reco-"ds, tactful b\it -nrudcnt, firm but sympathetic in 
dealing "dth students, an^i being able to carry many details accurately in mind. 
He bocarie Associate ""lean of the College in I03U. The remainder of Dean Jordan's 
biographical s^-etch is p-ivon under Chanter ICVII, General Engineering Drawing. 
^. OPPICE ACCOr"'ODATIOITS 
General - In lOOg the assistant Hean of the College of Engineering took over 
Poom ;^01 Enrineerinf H-^11 for use as his private office. In iq2l. Room ^03, the 
room previously occupied by Professor 0. A. Leutwilcr as an office i^as annexed 
for stenographic mirnoses. By the time the (lean's office was moved from the third 
floor to the first floor of Engineering Hall in 1^30, the "jork of the assistant 
(^ean harl become so heavy that he took over the large room, 302, formerly occupied 
by the rlean. This gave the nssistaiit dean a suite of four offices in which to 
carry on the administration of his College duties. 

G. O^'HER ASSISTAI'TS 
a. In the College and the Station 

Marie Huber , (A.5.,lQ2q, in L.A.ft S. at the University of Illinois), who 
servefi for a number of years as Secretary to Dean Richards, Dean Ketchum and Dean 
Engor, "^as appointed Assistant to the Dean and Director of the Engineering Experi- 
ment Station in 193'^' ^'iss Hubor has served most efficiently in the discharge of 
fi^e -^utie^ of her nffico, theroby relievinp- the Dean and Director of such 



129 
resmonsi'bility, and ena^bling him to devote his time to the general prohlems of 
administration. 

h. In the station 
G-eneral - !Bri ef s^-etchen of -nersnnnel assizer! to the Station are considered 
under the chanter dealin/^ '"ith the Station activities, and are not included here 
on account of lac^ of space. 

H. SU1P!ABY 
(General - ''^he seventy-six years of i°;ro"'th of the Collef^e of Engineering have 
sppn t>^e administrative office exriand from '"hat ".'as little more than a name in the 
iSy^^'s with duties that '7ere extremely simple, to a complex and complicated organi- 
zation in the iqUo ' s that renuires a sizeable staff '"ith corresponding office and 
eoui-nment accommodations to carry on the vast rirogram of administering the affairs 
of a do?;pn depa.rtment s having a combined staff of over 200 persons offering in- 
struction to almost 2000 students registered in the College to say nothing of the 
hundreds coming for training from other colleges within the campus area. To main- 
t-'in discinline and <^.tudent records for such a grou-n of registrants requires the 
full-time f^prvices of a substantial and well-trained staff. Then the problems re- 
latinf' to ernerimentation and extension teaching command a considerable amount of 
attention. Then to this list are ad/^od the duties involved in rjublic relations 
an'' an endless number not so ri-adily classified, it becomes evident that the task 
of administration of the College of 1^1nginecring horn demands an inestimable amount 
of oxac+ing effort rcnuiring skill and tact, resourcefulness and ingenuity, sympa- 
thetic understanding'^ a.nd courage, vision a.nd technical ability. 



130 

CHAPT3H VI 
:GrTTT,niTTGS Ai^T) GROUiros -nSVOTED TO jiIMCJIirESRING PU?J>OSSS 

A. aRHuiros 
1 

Lanf^, Acquired in lS<oJ - The lanH (donated to the University by Chanmaign 
County in iSoY inclurlerl a tmct of 7 f acres that ^w.s intended to serve as a cnm- 
■nurs for the Urbann, and Charinai?7i Institute. As the County pledged ten acres to 
hp inclurlp''' in the ,=;rounf1r., it narle un the difference by conveying ten lots which 
it o''TOerl arljacent to the campus. About the srone time, a tier of lots along the 
west side of the Institute grounds '"fs -purchased by the University, moving Wright 
Street r<bout 66 feet "^er't from its original locr.tion. The ■'est lU feet of this 
strin, ho'-'ever, '-^as ndded to T7right Street, nnkinr it SO feet wide.. The other 
^? feet of the original street bec-^me n part of the campus. 

During the yen- 1267, t"enty-ttvo lots lying bct'won the Institute grounds 
and Springfielr! Avenue ^^ere purchased, and at the same time, nearly all of a UO- 
acre tract Uo -ror^s "'i^le from east to "rest extending l60 rods south from Spring- 
field Avenue to a tract of land nlrnad,v owned by the University. Those portions 
of TJhite ^nr\ Stoughton Streets that crossed the cajnpus were then vacated by the 
City of Urbana, pjt^, the cit^^ vacated the alleys running thrgugh blocks 52 and 53 
in nccor(1fl,ncR '^ith t'lo special Act of the G-oneral Assembly. The City of Urbana 
"fas permitted, ho'^evor, to extend Careen Street across the campus, it and Spring- 
field Avenue being the only thoroughfares extending cast and west through the 
engineering grounds. 

At the nnd of 1367, then, the cnmpus -nroper adjacent to the central building, 

lay north of Snrinfrfiold Avenue and inclur^od all of what is no"' Illinois Field — 

a tract about U6r) feet Mde find 126o feet long, making in all about thirteen acres 

consisting of ornnmcntal and militar^^-riarado grounds. The total area occupied by 

2 

tho University at that timn in addition to the cwmpus space was 1,005 acres, made 
UT) mostly of orchard, stoc^r, and farm land. 

Land Acquired from 1867 to Igg^ - In 18 36, se veral lots constituting a total 

1 Much of the material for this description '^as t-^hen from "Sixteen Years at the 

University of Illinois" by President James. 
? Tour hvmdred acr^s of this, th"-^ Griggs farm, was afterwards sold. 



131 
of U-^ n.crof^ lyim in a tinr of 19? feet '^idc from cast to vjcst along the cast line 
of tho camnus, "as arlAorl from S-pringficld Avenue south. Several lots near the 
rif<?:ht of nay of the railroad line that "^ere not included in the UO-acre tract pur- 
chased in IS67, '"ere also taken over after I269, 

Ia.nd Ac Qui red Bet'-^oen l'^93 and 1^1 6 - T'-'o lots on the "^cst side of Mathcvs 
Avenue and north of Green Street '"ere purchased "by the University in 1905. and 
threp lots on the south'-'^st corner of Mathe'-'s Avenue and Springfield '7erc purchase' 
in 1916. These t-'o -purchases completed the o'-'nership by the University of the en- 
tire TdIocIS: of ground bounded by Hathe-'s, Springfield, and Burrill Avenues, and 
Grr^n Street. 

■"^ight lots bet"'eon Hathews and Good"'in Avenues and betvreen the Boneyard and 
the rall"'ay tra.c^-s Tero acnulrod one by one during 1911 and I912 — the houses be- 
ing sold and moved a^ay. This block, a.bout 3OO feet by UOO f^et, containing ap- 
■nroximately three acres, "fas all utili^-^d for University buildings "rithin the next 
five ypars. 

■^rinp- IQI3-IU, the University purchased thirteen lots lying cast of G^odviin 
Avemio bet-'eon the Boneyea.rd and thn railway tracks.- This tract also comprised 
about throo ,ncreR. Three additional lots .adjoining these ^rnre purchased in 1915* 
Part of this space tbas acnuired east of Good'-ln Avfmue, vras used for coa,l storage 
nart for store nnd s'^rvice buildings maintained by the Physical Plant Department, 
nnrl paxt for the erection of small exTierlmental buildings for the use of the 
College of Engineering. 

Lnnd Acquired after 19l6 - T^^o lots immediately south of the Boneyard on the 
'"est side of GoodMn Avenue '"ere Acquired about 1^3^ or I93I for the use of the 
State (Jeologleal Survey. The northernmost of these '^as occur)ied by the Survey 
laborator?'- pn'^ garage, '^hich later "'as taken over by the Department of Physics as 
the T^iclear Rarliations Laboratory'- to house the ne'" c7'-clotron. During the latter 
■part of IQU3, the University obtained title to about 762 acres of land lying 
south'"est of Savoy for an air-oo-rt. This is included as narts of Sections 2,3,10, 
p,nd 11, Tolono Tcmshi-n, and is rlescribe^^ in some detail under University Airport, 



132 

B. BTjij.-^iv.^c; occupi]^ n: coMrar tith ctht;h coLL"^rr^s 

Q-eneral - '^rine; the earl:' d^iys, s, nimTDcr of Univnrsity 'buildinf^s -^ere used 
in connon "rith other colleges and de-nartments for en/i;ineering office, classroom 
nuseun, anri la.'borator:' -pur-norses. In order to mahe the record norR complete, ;;ome 
of thesp are riescrioed "hriefly in the follo^'in^ pafte? of this chapter. 

University Building - The first huildinr used by the University was Old Uni- 
versity f''.all, which stoc^ ahout midway 'bet'-'een Wright and Romine Streets in Urban^ 
npar the north anr" of '^ha.t la,ter came to be Illinois Field — the north side of 
the buil'^inf' being about on line with the north side of Clar]- Street. The buildiv 
orected in ISfil-^? for the use of a local co-"'^ucational boarding; school to be 
kno'Ti as the ''1?rt&Tiri' iadaChattttltftWn Institute", '"as 'donated to the State for Uni- 
versity -ntimociAr; shortly after its comriletion, as a. part of tho original pledge or 
endowment by Chamnaign County, It was roTTiatcf^ to have cost $17^5,000 and to have 
been one of thf^ most substantial educational buil'-Ungs in the State, second only 
to the one at TTnmal . It "'as a fivo-story brich structure '^ith the main entrance 
on the north facing University Avenue and a side entrance on Wright Street. The 
buil'^in/'- nea.sure'^ 12'i feet east and -^est and had a width of Uo feet. It had a 
UU_foot by 70-fOot central "'in^ on the back, or south ^ide, four stories high. 
"Tie front of the buil'^in^ "^a.s used for mcitation and dormitory nurposes, 
""hile the wing contained more recita.tion rooms, a. chemical laboratory; fitted up 
in the summer of 1^'^'^, a kitchen, anri a dining room. The building wa,s originally 
constructari vrith sixty living rooms that "'ere used as private study and living 
oua.-^ters for nbout I'^iO stu^lents. Its cla.ssrooms ■^oulr' accommodate over UOO stu- 
f^ents. Tine chapel was located in the fourth story of the wing, and, provision '"as 
mada in the building for the University Library, 

• All recitations '"er*-' hel'"' in this building from the opening of the University 
in T'arch, iBf^f', until "Decembor, IS73 — the time of the comrilotion of University 
^all.- After that it became kno'"n as thi-i "Olrl lormitory", for many living rooms 
'"ere a.rlded to the sixt"' alraady ovailablo ^■'hnn sevornl of its classrooms wore con- 
verted into study and living rooms for student usc^. The only part used for 



133 
inntruction.-^l purrioses .^.fter 1S73 ^^^^ two rooms that '-'ere occupied by the chemical 

laboratory until the ne" Chemistry Building (novf Hfirker Hall) was completed in 

1372. 

The ^er,t ^"ing, of thp structure -vas partially destroyed and rendered untenalie 
"by a violent '"ind r,tom in the spring of 18S0; and in June, the building '"as oitleTi- 
ed to be t^ken do'^n, because there was no money available for its reconstruction 
or renair. The builriin/^ was rasped bet'^een June a.nd Se-ntember, 1881. 

University Hall - In Knrch, I87I, the site for the new main building '^as 
locnted and n Vr, Vnji Os^lel of Chicago was chosen as architect. The Legislature 
airnro-nriateH the first ^75,000 for the structure to cost $150,000. The corner- 
stone of this Fe"' "Builr^ing, "Old !^ain Building", or University Hall, as it was 

designaterl at f^ifferent times, "'as laid on September 13, I87I, The Legislature 

2 

in IS7?. however, arrnropriated only !^'Ul,5PiO for completing and equiping the build- 
in^ because of energnncy annroir^iations follo"T.ng the Chicago fire. In order to 
finish tbe structure, the University had to use some of the Chamiiaign County en- 
dowment bonds tha.t it still held; and because it '"as nocnssary to rnduce the cost, 
the builf^ing '"as not erected exactly pccording to the original design. The build- 
inc wf,s comnletod, ncvertholos'^, in accordance '"ith revised -plans in time for the 
ononin,? of tho school year IS73-7U, at a cost of !^lUS,000 exclusive of furniture 
r.nri honting aD-nn-r'atus, and -"as forna3.1y dedicated on TDccenbcr 10, IS73. The 
structuro, '^recto'^ in tho fom of a U '"ith the front facing north, '"as five 
stories, or 1U5 feet high, nn'-'' nensurcd 2lU feet along its north front and I2h 
feet along its '"ings, 

Unon its conriletion, the building, containing sixty rooms arranged for class- 
room, lecturo, drafting-roon, laboratory, library and reading-room, museum, and 
literary-society r^uimo^rr, '"as indoad the "Main Building" in fact as '"oil as in 
nnmn, for it '"ns used jointly by substantially nil departments of the University 
'"hen all closs -'ork '"as moved from the Old University Building, or "Old Dormitory" 
exco-nt drill and field courses, and chemistry, -"hich remained there until its o'vn 



1 Report, University of Illinois, 1870-71, pages 15-l6 

2 Honort, University of Illinois, 1^72-73, -nago lUS. 



13U 
Inhovntovy -"as corrnlotGrl. in IS/S, Thus, from Decombnr, ISJJ,, until January, 1895 

'-'hnn thn no'v l^/^innorin;^ Builrlinfi; war, occupied, all enginnfiring worh, except shop 
■nrpcticp in nrchanicf^l onrinonrinfr and architocturp, '"as carrind on in this "build- 
ing. 

As used in its oarlior dfiys, tho nast or chapel \'^ing, contained the chapel 
nu^Htoriun itself that occu-nied a room r-hich measured 6l "by 77 feet located on 
the second floor nnd '7hich i^ould seat ahout 7'^'^ persons. .The physics lecture rootr> 
mensurinr "^1 "by 6l f^^et '7as locpted directly ahove the chapel and had an apparatus 
and laboratory room ndjoinin.^ it on the north. Other rooms in this wing i^'erc 
used by the schools of p.rchitecture fijid art and design. 

The library or -"est 'ving "'as fireproof. One room measuring 6l by 77 feet 
locnted on the gro^jind floor contained the !?useum of Fatuml History. Another 
room f^irectly nbove it on the third floor, pud of the snme size, '.uas used for the 
University library and reading room. Other rooms in this -'ing contained the Art 
Prillery, nnd the Museum of "Engineering and Architecture, later designated the 
"iis-^um of Industrial Art. 

The main part of the building had thirty classrooms of good size, and a num- 
ber of o-Pficor,, one of 'rrhich, located on the third floor almost directly above the 
front entmnce, '-ras occunied by th^ Horrent. In addition there '^as a store room 
in-^ thf^re •"eri- cloal^ an'' rest-room accomnodations for both men and 'Tomen. After 
1007 several la-ge rooms located on the um-ner floor --'ere remodelled and were 
.^ivon over solely to the use of the student literary societies. 

For a number of years, the building '^as heated by stenn from boilers located 
in the e^st '"ing of the basement. Later, ho'-'ever, steam was provided from central 
nlnnts. 

o 

A.S usod in its later dnys nra.ctically the entire building excerit those 

1 In the ea^ly-cat"logup references to this building, the :'Tround floor '7aG called 
the basem-^nt, the main floor the first floor, and so on. In this nublication, 
ho'^ever, the ground floor is called the first floor, the main floor the second, 
and the tor, floor the fifth. 

2 It is notpof interest to mention that on Se-ntember 10, l^tOO, the University 
o-nened p dining room on the .TTound floor of the building under the chapel and 
operated it there until June, 1903. 



135 
nortions of thn ton floor thnt continupd to house the literary societies, '7as used 

for cl-i.ri^-roonr, and offices by the Colle^^e of Liberal Arts anfl Sciences. 

In tine, in snite of fill ordinary efforts to maintain the structure in good 

rc-nnir, it he^an to sho"' sii^ns of failure, ■"hereunon unusual steps '"ere taken to 

•nre'^erve it, one of '^hich '^ns to reinforce it by nenns of a substantial steel post 

that extended fron the basement to the roof line of the east to^^er and served to 

nrolon^ its -oprioH of usefulness for a number of years. Finally, ho-^ever, in 

IQ38, the builrfin/^ hari to be razed, for it had been declared unsafe for further 

occunancy. 

This builrlinfT -^ns closer to the hearts of the aliimni than any other structure 
or -part of the Univorsity camnus; ?<nd any time that nroposals were made to raze it, 
viperous -nrotosts c.nne in from every direction. The traditions handed down from 
onn generation to another hf>'l become nlmost sacred, and the sentiments that pre- 
vailed nmon^; faculty, students, nnd pl-unni alike as the msult of its lonfx associ- 
?>tion '"ith camnus life, '"err almost r>^ strong r>s those due to family ties. Because 
of these feelings and reactions every reasonable effort '"as made to retain the 
builrllng and its ■noriod of sorviccability.but the tine had finally come, when it 
had to come dcin, for it '"as entirely unsafe for further use. 

01 ri Chomistr;"" i^ilriing "- T^ocause portions of the old Chemistry Building •■vhidi 
'"as erectpfi betv/^on July, 1S77, ^^nd Anril, IS??, at a cost of $!40,000, '-'ere used 
at rliff ei-i^nt tines for laboratory anrl society rooms by some of the departments in 
the College of ""ilngineoring, this structure is included in the list of buildings 
describe''. 

This structure, 7U feet by 126 feet, four stories high, no"j kncm as Harker 
Hall, '"as at the tinp of its comnletion, one of the largest and best chemical 
laboratories in the country. The main entrance, a^ some'"hat pretentious affair, was 
located on thp north side and led rlirectly to the second or main floor. The roof 
was of the mansard t^.'^e like the one on University Hall. 



1 Ori/^innl building designed by Professor Hicker. It '.7as dedicated during the 
Commencement exercises in ISJS* 



136 

In August, IS96, the 'buildinp still occupied largely by chemictry and its 
stock of laboratory sunylies, was struck by lightning — the resulting I'ire de- 
stroying the roof and practically all of the interior so that nothing of value re- 
mained except the four external brick walls. The loss was estimated to be $Uo,CXXl 
The roof was restored in good order at once although on very different lines, but 
the interior was replaced in a very hasty and inconplcte fashion because of lack 
of time PjQd money, -ho interior was later refinished, vrith more substantial 
materials; and in March, 1902, the building was turned over to the College of Law. 
In 1909, the northern cntmncc was remodelled, when the outside stone stops were 
removed and replaced by an inside stairway. 

The building continued to be used by the College of Law until 1925. after 
which it was occupied for a time by a number of departments. In I927, however, a 
portion of it v/as definitely assigned to the Department of Entomology and has 
been used by it to date, while in 1930, the second floor was rearranged to some 
extent an'' assigned to the Department of Botany. It is the oldest ^aajor building 
now standing on the Urbana campus. 

Old i rmo ry or SxTnnas ium Annex - The Military- Building, or what is now the 
Old Armory or G;,n-Ana,5iur.i Annex, completed in May, IS90, measures 100 feet by I50 
feet and is one story high. -It v^a3 considered at the tine of its erection to be 
a grand and si^acious hall, giving ample room for company and battalion maneuvers. 
For a number of years it was used for commencement exercises, having been formallj^ 
dedicated '-hen commencement v/as first held there on Juno 11, IS90. Other large 
gatherings like class and military dances 'Tcre also assembled there upon special 
occasions. 

In Septembrr, IS97. the building v/as taken over for gymnasium purposes, for 
there v/as no military drill then on account of the fact that all of the military 
officers had gone av;ay to duty in the Spanish-American \la.Y, On March 5, iSgS, 
however, the gyimasium was moved to the top floor of the Old Mechanical Building 
and Drill Hall or Wood Shop and Testing Laboratory as it was then known, when 



1 Designed by Professor U. C, Rickcr 



137 
military drill '.vas resumed, "but v/as movod "back into the old Armory again in 

September, I9OO, after the Wood Shop and Testing Laboratory had been destroyed by 

fire in June of that year. 

The name of the building v/as chpjiged to Gymnasium Annex in 19l5i "vhen the 
structure '7as adapted to physical-training use after the nev? Armory V7as completed 
on the south cnjnpus area. 

In 1912 a 50-foot addition^ knoun as the Engine Annex, '.7as constiructcd along 
the oast side for the use of the U. S. School of Military Aeronautics in giving 
instruction on airplane engines during TJorld "^ar I. In the summer of 19^2, anotiHi' 
addition nas provided along the north side to afford greater housing facilities 
for the Navy Training School stationed at the University during World War II. 
C. BUILDINGS ASSIGlffiD PRIMARILY TO THE COLLEGE OF ENGINSERIIIG 

General - All of the buildings except the first tvro, erected primarily for 

the use of the College of Engineering, still stand and arc in constant use. Those, 

forming a compact group located on the north campus, constitute a vrorking center 

for all concerned ivith instruction in engineering. Tlic close daily contact of 

students of all four classes in the College, from the freshman through the senior 

year, serves to unite them in r, common purpose, thereby developing a spirit of 

college unity and professional morale. Their interests are broadened, at the 

s-'jno time, through contact -rith students in other colleges of the University, in 

classrooms on other parts of the campus — the most common points of such assembly 

being for instruction in matenatics and those other subjects given by the College 

of Liberal Arts nnd Science that constitute rja important part of the first t",70 

years' vrork in onginooHng.- 

The development of the College in a physical sense is illustrated by its 

1 
gro'-'th from a single shop building in IS70 to a '.7ell- integrated campus of fourteen 

spacious buildings in I9U5, containing about 50 classrooms, 25 drafting rooms, 70 

laboratories, and a corresponding number of offices, a number of supply, storage, 

instrument, and other auxilliary rooms. These buildings including the t"'o that 



1 One. additional — the Civil Engineering Surveying Building — is located on the 
South camT3Us»., ^ « - 



138 

have been removed, arc described briefly in the follo'.-'inf; pages. 

First Mochajiical Engineering Shop Building - The first building dr^votcd pri- 
marily to engineering instruction \7as originally a one-story 2U by 36 foot 'Toodon 
structure '-'hich had previously been used as a farm tool-house pjid mule stable, 
flnd '-'hich stood at the southeast corner of Wright Street and Springfield Avenue. 
In January-, I87O, pfter a second story ha.d been added to t>i»e house^ the University 
carpenter shop, the lover floor '.7as set apart for the use of a shop for the De- 
partment of Mechanic nl Sngincering. Later, the building became a students' dormi- 
tory, .^nd "as ultimately moved to the south-est corner of Wright and Clark Streets 

in Ch^^mpaign and becnnc part of a dwelling house. 

1 
Mechanical Building and Drill Eall - In IS7I, a t'.vo-story brick and stone 

building, 88 feet by 126 feet, costing $25,000, v;as erected near what is no'.7 the 
southeast corner of Springfield and Burrill Avenues, and vas opened on September 
13 » of that year — the same d"te ps the laying of the coi'ncr stone of University 
Hall. It '.'.'as occupied jointly by the Departments of Mechanical Engineering, Archi- 
tecture, and Milit.ary Science — Mechanical Engineering and Architecture using the 
first floor for shop purposes, and Military Science the second, for a drill hall. 

The first floor contained a boiler, forge njid tanlc room; a machine shop fur- 
nished for practical use V7ith a stc'm engine, lathes r\xid other machinery; a pattern 
and finishing shop; carpenter and cabinet-working shops furnished '•'ith vrood-v.'ork- 
ing m.achinery; -njid paint, printing, and drafting rooms. 

The Drill E1II '.7as 80 by 120 feet in size. One of the to'vers contained -in 
armorer's shop and military model room, an artillery room, and a. bnnd room. The 

other to"-cr contained a printing office and editor's room. A gallery holding 

2 
about 300 persons -'as -bovc the second floor. 

In 1835, '^- one-story .addition 32 by 36 feet '^'as constructed at the south'TCst 

corner for ^\ blacksmith shop. This was equipped 'Tith sixteen forges and with 

1 C.illod Mechanical Building and Drill Hall from I87I to 188/; Mech.anical Building 
from I8S7 to IS9I; Machinery Hall from IS9I to I895; ^Engineering Laborator^.^ from 
IS95 to 1897; Wood Shops -rnd Testing Laboratory from I897 to I9OO; --.nd Old Armoiy 
generally. 

2 Commencement exercises were hold in the Drill Hall until I89O 



139 

n,nvilG and tools, p,nd with n cupola for melting iron. 

In ISS9-9O, n separate building was erected for military purposes, and the 
upper floor of this Mechanical Building was devoted to a machine shop ajid the 
mechanical '//ood shop, tool room, and pattern and store room. The first floor in- 
cluding the addition continued to serve the forge shop, foundry, wash room, and 
architectural shop for carpentry and cabinet '.TOrk. One room on this floor served 
as a repair shop ajid was in charge of the Superintendent of Buildings cand grounds. 
As the laboratories of mechanical engineering and applied mechanics and hydraulics 
developed, they were given space on this first floor also. 

When the Kctnls Shop, or v/hp.t is now known as the Machine Tool Laboratory, 
v;as completed in 1895. the Department of Mechanical Engineering moved its metal- 
working machinery into it, leaving the first floor devoted to a wood shop, a 
materials-testing and hydraulic laboratory, and the mechanical- engineering labora- 
tory. In March, I898, near the beginning of the third quarter, a portion of the 
upper floor was tnj^en over for a University gymnasium for men. IThile it was not 
ideal in appearance, it was adequately furnished P.nd well-adapted to practical 
use. It was fitted '"ith a satisfactory'" supply of lockers and with reasonable 
toilot and bathing facilities. In I89S, too, vrhcn the Mechanical ajid Electrical 
Engineering Lpboratory v.vas completed, the equipment of the Mechanical Engineering 
Laboratory was transferred into it, leaving the first floor of the old building 
to bo occupied by the wood shops and the materials-testing rijid hydraulic labora- 
tories. 

1 

A day or so after Commencement in June, I9OO, the entire structure and -nil of 

its contents were destroyed by fire, with an estimated loss of $76,000 as previous- 
ly stated. During the next year, there was erected on the s'^ine site, as described 
later, a building devoted to instruction in -"ood-shop practice. 



l"At t-o o'clock Saturday morning, June 9, the oldest building on the campus, which 
accomraoda,ted our Wood Shops, Testing Laboratory, Kydrajilic Laboratory, Gymnasium 
etc, '-'as entirely destroyed by fire. The origin of the fir© is unknown. Befoic 
wo were aware tha.t the building was on fire at all, it was beyond all hope. In 
an hour nothing '-ifxs left but the outside v/alls. 
"This entailr. upon the University another very serious loss. While the building 
was an old one', it was substrntial, and it was exccodingly useful. The result- 
ing inconvenience will be greatl' -Renort of the University of Illinois,190Q|j^pg. 



This '^'r^.s in cvoi'j' -py i, subst r,.ntial r^nd rathnr protcntious looking 'building, 
■but 'bncn.uso it ''nr, dnsignod nftnr the pattern of the traditionaj. armory, it g.ivo 
the crimpus more of the ajrp onrnjico of a young militn.rj/- academy than of an cmliryo 
university. ITo doubt, during the almost twenty yc.'i,rs that it served in part as an 
ari^ory, it rlid add some interest to military training, but after it cnmc to be used 
only for laboratory purposes, its outlines must have seemed a little extraneous. 

Engineering Eall - One of the most momentous events in the early part of the 
career of the College -'as the erection in 1893-9^ o^ the Engineering Building or 
Engineering E^ll as it cnjne to be called. From the beginning of Acting Regent 
Surrill's administration, there '-'as much formal and infornnl discussion regarding 
the extent of the University's askings of the Legislature in 1393, particularly 
for buildings. Certain members of the University facvilty felt that there should 
be a ne'" natural-history museum, /i.nd submitted a strong memorial supporting that 
viev. Others charged that the chief need -'as a nc'.i library. The members of the 
engineering fp.culty urged, ho-'over, that much larger quarters vfere ijecdod by the 
College of Enginc'Ting to care suitably for its students and to extend properly 
its -'ork, arid called attention to the fact that for several years past considerably 
more thpn hnlf of the men students had been registered in the College of Engineer- 
ing, Neither the faculty nor the Board of Trustees '.vas •■'illing to decide as to 
t'^e relative merits of the demands for these three buildings, but asked the Legis- 
lature for all of then. An active csjnpaign ^^as carried on "by all three groups; 
but the ratio in the ntimber of students involved, the standing attained as an 
engineering school, the achievements of its graduates, and the great need for 
additional spaco for the proper development of the College as a v7hole, served to 
imnross tho Cron'^ral Assembly --s to the importance of a. separate building for 
on^inoprin." use. '^hn outconf^ '-'as that authority for the building '•'p.s granted — 
the aptsropriatAd sum being ftl(^n,n00 — rmd the rnnuests of the other groups '^cre 
deferred. 

After the annronriation -as allot ed, according to the 1893-9^ issue of the 
University Cat^lo^-nie, the Bosrr'' of Trustees asked for comnetitive plans from the 



Archltpctmrnl ^?i.r?u?i,tP5 of the University for the desi^ of the 'building. As a 
result of this coTrnntition, the Board ^'^arded the first prize to Georf^e Tf.Bullard, 
".i.conn., ^Tfir.hini^ton, of the class of 1882, 'vho ^ns made architect of the "building. 
His nlans calle-^ for a four-storj'" st^'ucture -^ith a central wing on the hack. The 
si^-e chosen for its location 'ti.s on the north side of Green Street, midwav between 
the north ^md south r.roMv of huildings, facing thp latter. Construction work 'was 
started late in lS<^3f ^^'^ the cornerstone tt^s laid during formal exercises, on 
"Oecpnhpr I3, 1813, "^r, Robert H» Thurston of Cornell University giving the prin- 
cinal ad'^ress. The structurp, comnlpted late in the fall of 189*+, ^as formally 
derllcate'^ -"ith a-n-nro-nriate cerpmonies on the I5th of Novenher of that year — the 
same day as the fomal inauguration of President Draper. The program of dedica- 
tion is inHicate'^ in the follomng outline: 

Overturn - """o^'l's Peace Jubilee", (Beyer) -University Military Band 

Introrluctory Remarks — Pr^sirlent Draper 

Music - "On Deci' Polka" (Thrall) -University Mandolin Club , 

A-^flress -President Chnrles Kendall Adams, LL.D. , University of Wis. 

I'usic - "Down by the Riverside" - University Glee Club 

Af^(1ress - G^nprnl "'illiam Sooy Smith, of Chicago 

Ovorture - ( Theo Jtozps) - University Orchestra 

Benertiction 

1 

Prpsirient's Reception, 9 tOO P. II, _ Engineering Hall 

The building, still standing and in constant use, '"ith the exterior practi- 
cally unchanged from thr date of its construction, has a frontage of 200 feet, a 
rle-Dth of jG fp.p.t on the '"ings »nd I3S feet on the center. The roar central wing 
is 72 ff^et '"ido» The first story is of drab limestone laid in t'^elve-inch courses 
having a tooth-chisnlnd finish nn'^ deeply-chambered joints, '■'hilc the three upper 
storios P"r of buff -nrpssed brick with terra-cotta trimmings to match. The in- 
terior is slo'^-buming mill construction. The coiling is -nanolcd Washington fir, 
and the rcmainrler of the interior finish is opJc and was originally fitted with 
1 Eighteenth Report of the Board of Trustees, page 36-37 



lU2 



"bT'onzr^ triraninrs. 



':^hn "51111(^111^ ^n.r, first occunlod at the ■beginning of the TTintor Tonn of iSgU-'fjT 
torrfn . In the sssi/^nnent of rooms, each de-nartment '^as provided '^ith an office, 
»*■ onp o'' more -nrivatp ?;tudies for instructorr;, a seminp.ry room, class and draft- 
in/^ roomp, rrnr^ p cabinet room. The offices '^ere equipned ^'rith curtain-top desks, 
Shnnnon filing ca"binets, letter presses, card indexes, anri other cabinets design- 
ed to meet the needs of each denartment. 

"^e 8ata,lo,f!n.e of lS<^'-i-_nf^ contained this statement: 

"The first storv of the '^est and central r^in^s contains the laboratories of 
t^''i « . npqt nnd r a nt i^l -' "infiB. .<3»it^,«rs- -t-he- lftb<>J>=>tQj?i-<»«-ef the department of electri- 
cal engineering, '"hile the east win^ is devoted to masonr;'- laboratories and in- 
strument rooms of the denprtment of civil pnsineeriniP'. The central '"inf: of the 
second story contains the lecture room rind the preparation rooms of the department 
o-f "^hysics, tho rem^in'^or of the floor is used by the departments of Civil Sngi- 
n-^-^rinp- an^' Municinal r>n<^ Sanitary ?5nglnef rin/?; for recitation and dramng rooms 
cabinets and studies. The middle "ling of the third floor contains the laborato- 
ries of the deriartment of Physics, and the side winf^s the drawing rooms, lecture 
rooms, cabinets, nnd studies of the Mechanical Snfineorin/r; department. The central 
portion contains the library, the office (business office of the dean) raid the 
faculty parlor. The fourth story is devoted entirely to the department of archi- 
tecture, and contains drawing and lecture rooms, cabinets, photo studio and blue 
Tirint laboratory." 

'^e effect of the ne"r commodious and 'TOll-furni shed building on the engineer- 
ing instructors and students -ras verir marked. For the first time the former had 
offices in vrhich they could work undisturbed; and the latter had well-lighted and 
uncro^ded drafting rooms .and laboratories, and comfortable and stable drafting 
desks.- 

After the T)epartment of Physics moved into its ncT building in 190^, the 
room<^ it formerly occunied on the first floor as advanced laboratories ^7erc taken 
over qs offices n.ni^ recitption rooms by other departments. In I916, the partitions 
beti^een these rooms in the cent^pl '"ing 'vere removed nnd the entire space in this 
"fin^ 'fas devoted to the Ihiginenrlng Library. 

The large room on second floor of the central -ring '^as used for an engineer- 
ing pssenbly nnd lecture room after the Denartnent of Physics vacated it in I909 . 
In 1Q"S1 it, tofeth^r "^ith t-^o small rooms on the 'Test, '-'as rrmodclled to become 

the un-ner floor of the Engineering Library. 
1 University Catalogue, £89^-95, page l6. 



1^3 

A-^ '^oor^. n". tho ■nhoto.^rr'ph «nH "bluo-nrint InborRtorv hnd "bonn transferred to 
the Physics B\iildin/? in IQlO-ll, thn rooms thus vf>,cn.ted on the fourth floor of 
Sn^innprinf- HpH -^erp rRnodelled to accomnodate the increased nunher of students 
in a.rchitpcture and to provi.-^e another office for tho facult;/. 

">ie construction of this huildin^;, narlred the first out'-fard signs of the ex- 
•nnnsion of the College of Engineering. The old denartnents had out^ro'Ti their 
oua^'tei^s in University Hall and thp ne"' departnents "'ere dpnanding a plnce in -"Mdh 
they coulf^ set up in husiness, for cniS^ineerinf as a. rirofession nas develo-ninf^ 
rapidly, and the student enrollment "^as incre^isin^ ^nd the size of the faculty 
prrowins: in -nronortion. The engineers ^ere the first to be honored nith a separate 
majo-'' "buildinf? for their 0"in class~>oom use; and '-rhile the recognition came none 
too soon, it .i:r1 sprv^ as a source of inspiration to facility and students alike to 
Carry on to greater achievement. For a numher of years, the huilding housed the 
Collese offices and most of the rooms occur)ied hy the several departnents. Gradu- 
ally, as the Collpge ^r-erj, ho'-^ever, most of the departments, one by-one, moved out 
into nuartpr'> of their o"ti '"ithin the enginepria/? groun, leaving the building 
occu-nied at the riresent time by the College ndnini strativp f>nd Engineering Experi- 
ment Station off-icr.s anr" by the Engineering Library and much of the Department of 
Civil Engineering. 

Mpchinp '^ool Laboratory - The building kno^n in lf)U5 as the Machine Tool Labo- 

? 
ratory, housin/r tho pr-sent machine sjiod an'-l hoat-tr'^atnent laboratory, -^as erected 

in tho fnii of iSo^ at a cost of about $23,000. It ir, a one-storx' brick stnjicture 

"SO feet by 250 feet., locaterl at the southeast corner of Burrill Avenue and Western 

Avenue, or '^ha.t "^as originally the railroa.d tra.cks. 

"he 13'^'^-Q'^ issue of the University Ca,ta.lo,gue gave substajitially the follow- 

in,c» desc^i-ntion: 



1 It is n point of interest to note that the mosaics — the one in Hopm 3*^'- mailing 
the na,me Eara.rly ond thp one in Hoon 301 making the name T7a,tt, '7ere designed and 
pxecuted by members of tho staff of the Eepa.rtment of Architecture under the 
direction of Professor Ne-"Tton A', WellSj in Hay, IPIO 

2 C'.llefl !!a.chinery Hr^ll from 1^95 to iSP?, Metal Shons from 1897 to I921, The 
■*'nchinp an-^ Fo-^-^e Laboratory from 1Q21 to I93I, The I'achine Laboratory from I93I 
to 103^^, anri the Machine Tool Laboratory since 193''^,. 



"ho nnino, HnrhinGr7r Hp.ll '-"in nrir'licd to the ■builrUrit'^ orectod during the fall of 
IgoR "rViich contpino'i n lecture room, t'^'o office roons, nnd the machine shop, forf^ 
pihoT), r>r\^ foundry of the ^'^echnnical "^n.^^ineerin^ Department. The irifchino shor,, 
still in UR'^, is h^ "by lUo feet ^'ith the roof sup-norted by steel trusr.cs spa.ced 
ten fppt nn centers. Po'-'or -^as hrou/rht to the shon "by a, 30-horsepower rope ririvc 
from a "^all en.^ine loc-^ted in the j3nf;ineerin/^ Laboratory, ori^rinally called the 
Mochnnical "^il-^in^ ind "^rill Hall, '"hi ch stood where the Wood Shon and Foundry 
IBuilf^inp; rro"' stanrls. This mothod of drive oxisted fron 1895. T?hen the building 
onened, to IS^^S, '"hen th'^ Boneyar'" Central Po'^or Plant '"as completed "/ith its 
added pc^er facilities. On one s^de of the machine shon '-as a jack shaft support- 
ed above the lo-'er ehorfl of the roof truss, and from this jack shaft, line shafts 
on aither side ^"ere ri-^iven by belts on tight and loose pulleys. The turned line 
shafts, ? '•• inches in (diameter and onerating at 125 r.p.m., "'ere supnorted by 
If^-inch sr-lf-oilin-^ rlron hangers fastenp^l 'Urectly to the lo'^'er chord of the 
tTTissas. '^he line sh"ft on the north side extended through the foTindry and forge 
r-ViQ-n, -"horo the truss<-'s ••'ere snaced twelve fei^t on conters. After 1392, a 20- 
horseno-'ai' nloctric motor •"as 'ased to drivo the shaft in the machine shop, 

A three-ton traveling crane of 12-foot sTian covered tho center of the floor 
for the entire length of the machine shoT and extendefl ovf^r the drive^-'ay 10 feet 
'"ide a.t the east rnfl of the shop, furnishing excellent facilities for loading or 
or unloafiing materials and machinery. The floor of the drive',7ay was paved and was 
thre.^ feet belo'-' the floor of the machine shop. 

The foundr;;' camo next to the machine shon, the floor being on the level of 
the '^T-ivn'Tay. A '"in^ l8 feet by 2U feet nxtendcri north from the center of the 
foundry that container' a large anf^ convonient core oven,- a rattler, and a cupola. 
Castinp-s ••'oighing a.s much as 2,000 pounds '"ere sometimes made here. 

'^he forge shoT -^rljoined the foundry, at the ea,stern end of the building. 

"Electrical Engineering Building - In IS'^J-^Z, a T-shaped, pressod-bric): build- 
ing, callerl the Fechn.nical and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, -'ith a three "" 
story front, 50 by 100 f'-ct, nnd a ono- story '"ing, 5^ by 90 feet on the roar, '?'as 



lU5 
erectfid at a cor.t of nhnut ^Uo.OOO for the '^epRrtnents of Ilpchanical nnd Electri- 
cal !3n/=rf.neerin/^ air^ -^Iso for the Univorsity electricnl rionor. -nlf^nt and the auto- 
rri'Mtic telpnhone pxchanre. The Der)firtnent of "^ipctricpl Engineering occuiiied the 
^Tipcp on the three floors of the front of the "buildin/^, and the mechanical lahora- 
tory nnrl tho University lie;htin,e; and no'ver nlant occupied the ^ing. The |2;allery 
.•^cros", the '^est en(^ of the ste^^n-en'^ine Inhorntory overloolted the electric plpnt. 

Thr> huildinrT "^as const met erl throu^):out of solid "brick '^alls upon brick 
footings lai'^ in cenont. The ^alls Tre fnced on the outside vdth a dark ■brown 
flash^H brick mado 'b;'- the Illinois Hyr^mulic Press Brick Conpnny at Collinsvillc, 
Illinois. The bloc'- brick fomin^r the dianer pattern in the frieze were made by 
the snno continny at "it . Louis. The doonvay anrl -"indoi trinnin,?; were terra cotta. 
The '"alls of the first or ground floor were lined with buff Roman brick Inid in 
'^hit'^ mortar. The entire f^rounr^ floor was cement. The floo re above "^-ere supported 
ur)0n steel ^pjirriers anri yellc^-nine bcpms anrl constructed of three-inch yellow 
T^ine tonfoiofl anrl /rrooved mill flooring nn.'^ seven-eighths inch finished flooring, 
'^he floors "^ere capable of carryin/? P^'^ nounds a square foot. The entire upper 
'^toT/ ind roof trusses "r.ro sutj-norteri by six steel trusses of the Fini: type, the 
floof p,nr^ p?>rtitions bein;^ suspended by t'^o steel rods attached to each truss, 
'^^p roof of the stenn laboratory and power nlpiit '^as su-mnorted upon eight exposor' 
steel ?ink trusses -'ith horizontal chords. Thoy carried a line shnft and a trp.ck 
•for P -four-ton tmvolling crpne. The cmne was arranged to run out at the east 
■•^n'^ of f.h.r' buildinr un^^'er the shod connecting the boiler house and laboratory, to 
ficilitnto tho hnndlinf" of he^v^'' ma.chiner^'. The opening left in the enst wall for 
the ■nr>ssnge of the cra.no "as closed by p count crbalajiced flap and t'-'o sliding 
floors." 

In 1905i ' thn De-nartment of Kechnnicnl ^Engineering moved into its ne'^ labora- 
tor?'' bullriing as mentioned else-fherp, and in IPIO, the electrical generating units 



1 The ^echnograrih, Volume IP, lgP7-^S. P^ge U1-U3. Article by S. J. Tera^le, Asst 
Professor of Architecture entitled "The Buildings of the 'Hllectrlcal and Mechani- 
cal Laboratory, anri Central Heating Plant." 



nnfl thr trlfi-nhono exchange '^oro moved into th<^ Univrrsity Po'-'nr Kousn, thus 
lopving this f^ntiro "builriin/^ for the uso of the De-partmcnt of Slcctrical Engi- 
nnprinp. 

The rp>movfil of thoso units fron tho onn-story '-"ing nade it possible to per- 
mit chnnpos in the huildiniT' a'^rpngemcnt . The old ponnr-plant room rras divided 
Into t"'o Inrge lf>cturo rooms, t-^o recitation rooms, p\n6- one large room to "be used 
as a high-tension laboratory in which -^ere installed the high-tension transformer 

i 

pnd other aTi-narptus connected ^ith this line of "ork. 

This removpil of the classiDom from the upner floor of the building permitted 
an increase in the nunbpr of offices and a consequent increase in the efficiency 
of those occunying them.. The old /51ectricpl "Engineering Society reading room was 
conve-'-ted into n stenographer's office. A small room adjoining this was used as 
n senin,ir or library. To the I'llectrical Sigineering Society '.^as given the large 
general office which they enuinped with furniture and -oictures and made into a 
vpr7'- pleasant lounging and na^a^ine readin--^ room. • 

At each end of the building large rooms were set aside as graduate studies, 
fitted with desks and other necessary furniture, ";hore the students in the gradu- 
ate school did a Inrge part of their work. The stairs wore moved into the center 
of the building le'^ving room for an office on the upper floor and a concrete floor 
space below on which werf' installed the ne^ mo tor- generator sets. The office 
formerly occupie'^ by f^e Superintendent of ^^ildings was converted into an instru- 
ment nnr^ reports room, and the room on the ground floor known as the calibration 
room, Wfis thus left entirely/ for research work. In one corner of this room a 
dark room wa.s built for the photographic work in connection with the oscillograph. 

In 1Q2C), this entire structure was rt^modeled and joined by a. corridor across 
the boneynrd to the building formerly occupied as laboratories by the Department 
of ''theoretical and Applied Mechanics, as also mentioned elsewhere, and the com- 
bined structure ha.s been occupied sine then by the Depa-rtment of Slectrical 



1 This paragraph and the t'wo following wRrn taken from an article entitled "Changss 
in the "Electrical 15ngineering Lab", by L. 7. James, Instructor in 5.3., The 
Techno PTaph, December 1911 , Pages 33-3'^ • 



1^7 
En^inpo-rinff for offino and Inborrtt.orjr. purposes, 

""ll metrical "^ginoorlng Annex - The building that since 1932 has been kno'TO as 
the "''li pctrical ''^nrineprin? Annex ^'r>s erected in 1S97 to house the boilers of the 
second central heatin,?, lir,ht, and no'^er plant which was located immediately 
north of the 5oney«''d and ■nrhich is described in this -oublication as the Boneyard 
Po-^er Plnnt, Thir,,'^5-foot by 120-foot brick structure, ir, described in some de- 
tail in Cha-oter XJ^ under the section entitled "The Boneyard Central Heating, 
li^htin;?;, -ind Po-^er Plant." This building was left vacant in I9IO when the power- 
house enui-nment -^as transferred to the ne'-' Mathe'vs Avenue Station. A portion of 
the vacated stracture "^as later taken for p University j^ara^re, nnd another nortion 
was rnfitted in inp"^-r?U by the Department of Civil Engineering for a Cement and 
Concr'^te Labo rp.t o r^"- . Still l.'-ter another portion was mmodeled and taken over by 
the ■Hepartment of ^bno-^oticpl ,inr' Anrill ed Mechanics for a Ffitigae-of Metals Laboi;^ 
torv. ''hen these t-^o deTr^rtnents trnnsfei'red their equi-nnent to the new Materials 
Testing Lnborotory (later the Arthur Nowell Talbot Laboratory), in iqSQ the De- 
•nnr-tnent of "^Ir-ctrical "^ngino'^ring adapted the space vacated by Civil Engineering 
to thn •ar,n of n high-t '^nsion Inborntory, A short time later, it remodelod the 
portion formerly used for fatigue-of-metals testing for an Illuninatipn Laboratoiy 
nnd it extended this laboratory'' still Inter when the garage was moved to other 
quarters. Thus in 1<^3?, the Department of Electrical Engineering occupied the en- 
tire structuro using it for high-tension and ill\imination labomtorios. The ap- 
■nro^lmate cost of this building to date is $22,700. 



%od-5hop and Poundr^-- Building - The brick building known as the Wood-Shop 
and Foundry located at the southeast corner of Springfield and Burrill Avenues, 

was constmcted in the form of a double H with the center portion two stories 

2 

high. The main portion "fas built for a wood-shon in 1901-02, on the site of the 

old building kno^n by various nnjnos as Mechanical Building and Drill Hall, and 



1 Called 'Tood-Shon from I90I to I90U, Wood-Shop and Foundry from igoU to I92I, The 
Pa.ttorn Laboratory and Foundry Laboratory from 1Q21 to 1931 » ''"-^cl Wood-Shop and 
Foundry since 1931 

2 Plans were nrovided by N.S.Spencer, Superintendent of Bldgs.& Grounds, I89S-I902 



finally the Wood-Shon n,nd Testing Laboratory, T7hich was burnerl, in June, I9OO, as 
■nreviously stated. It contained the "bench room, lathe room, machine room, lecture 
room, p-jchihition room, tool room, office, pat tern- storage room, and repair work- 
Toom. 'Oryinf' kilnn and storage rooms '^ere located in the basement. In I90U, a 
3^^ "by ?0-foot addition w^s constructed at the eastern end for foundry purposes 
■with a In.TKo molding: floor tmversed "by a fivp-ton traveling; crane, and with a 
InTfa "basement room for tho stora.p;e of materials. The overall dimensions of the 
"buil'^infc am about f?0 by 2^ feet. The total cost of the structure was approxi- 
mately SU3,00n — $31,000 for the wood-shon and $12,000 for the foundry. 

The follo'^in.'T dotailed rlescri-ntion unrier the title "The Hew Wood Shop" was 

1 
fum^ shorl by professor L. P. Bred'enridge in ^he Tpchnograph in IQGl-O?: 

"The ne'^ builfliniT was built of red brick, '-rith sandstone trimmings. The 
building fronted for 7*^ feet on Burrill Avenue. The denth of the building was 
1P2 feet. 

"Tho locture room had a seating capacity of 100. The wall at the end of 
the room "^as finir;hef^ smooth nnd white for lantern projections. All speed and 
■on.ttern/^makors' lathes were grouned in a room b^/ themselves. The machine room was 
at tho rear end of tho building. There wp.s sufficient head room under the entire 
shop 30 that all shafting and belting was placed below the main floor. Tho second- 
stor;"- nortion of the center was used for pattern storage, workshop for general 
TJnivnrrdty rerjair ""ork, as well as for storage of dry lumber. The equipment in 
the shons cost about $6oo. The benches were each provided with six drawers with 
combination locks, anf^ both side and tail quick-action vises. 



"■Donrnr w'as furnished by two electric induction motors — one of 20 horse 
PO'-'or nnd the other of 5 horso nower. A combination blower and heater, located 
in the sub-ba,s foment, furnished '^arm air for ?v small dry kiln. The building '^as 
lighted by electricity and heated by steam, mostly by direct radiation, both the 
light and heat being furnished from the central plant of the University. The shop^ 
coulri handle Uoo students. The first instruction in these shoTis was given by Mr. 
A, -R. Curtiss on February 2U, IPO?." 

2 
Laborator;,^ of A-p-nlied Mechanics - In 1902, a two-stoi'y building ^5 foot by 

^5 ffi<^t, facing ''est on Burrill Avenue immediately south of the Boneyard was e- 
rected ns r^ materials testing laboratory kno"m as the Laboratory of Applied 
Mechanics, and a two-story wing kG feet by 115 ff^ct was added to the rear, extend- 
ing almost to the "^ater "^orks Building, for an Hydraulics Laboratory. The entire 



1 Volume X^^I, Pages 23-90 

2 Plfins were dra"m by H. S, Snencer 



Iks 

Tralldine wa.s constructed at n. cost of $3"^. 000, tho outside walls "being of buff- 
colorori pressed "brick, nnd the foundation of the main portion, rod sandstone. 

The materials te<^tin.^ labor.-^tory was desif^ied to house the testing machines 
a.nd testing appliances, "but theve 'va.s nothing unusual about the form of con- 
struction. . 

In the hydraulic laboratory, the stand-pipe foundation rose to the level of 
the main floor. "Phe floor ODening in front of the stand-pipe gave light and com- 
mnnication bet'i^een the t'/^o floors. Other onenings in the floor allowed pipes to 
nass through. On the main or unner floor wore placed weir tanks, orifice tanks, 
measuring ta.nks, motors, meters, and other similar ap'oaratus. The line of pipe 
for detenninatinn of friction in ♦jI'dcs was rilaced along the north "rail and on a 
balcony of the '■'all. 

Tht' basement or ground floor contained seven measuring -nits, two weir chambrrr. 
turbine -nits, sunp, and curront-meter rating channel. These were built of concrete 
all connected '^ith the sump and each other by a system of pipes under the floor, 
anri also to ""aste "ni-neo. One measurinr-r nit -"as also arranged for work on a large 
gcnln Mth tho jot meter. One weir chamber had a three-foot '^eir rfith end con- 
tractions, and the oth'^r a three-foot '"eir rith sunnresned '-^nd contractions. The 
current meter m.ting con^luit -a.s lOn feet long, . 

Tho floors, both n'bov^ an'i belo-', -.vere made of concrete, slo-ned to drain to 
the floor sumps having unflerdrainago. Space ■•'as provided for experimental 'TOrk 
'•Jith -olumbing dnvices, tra.-ns, sirihonnge, etc. 

An office, corn-nut ing room, brick testing room, and "'ork-shon took up the re- 
mainder of the Ting. 

As -nreviously staterl, in 192n, "rhen the Department of Theoretical and Apnlied 
T'ftchanics moved into its no'-' Materials Testing Lp.boratory, or Arthur Ne-foll Labom- 
tory, ns it '•'as after-Jards called^, trhis Laboratory of Applied Mechanics 'ms re- 
modeled, joined to the i^ectrical Bnglneering Building, a.nd taken over by the 
Demartmont of Electric al ""Ingi nee ring for laboratory purposes. 

1 '^echnograph, lQOl-02, Volume l6. Pages 23-SU, from article "Laboratory of Appliol 
Mechanics"by A. 1',: Talbot. 



150 

Clv^l Engineering Survoylng Building - The Civil Engineering Surveying 

Builriing, a two-stor;'- "bricV: structure trimriod V7ith stone, erected in I90U-O5 as 
the Forticultural ^Building, "ras ta}:en over by the Department of Civil Sngineering 
»s a surveying "building in 19?3 f^nd opened in September, I92U. It contains the 
Instrunent locker rooms and drafting rooms for the surveying courses and offices 
for some of the instructors to-^ching classes in surveying practice. Its location 
on the south cnmnus ^rhere there is onen space availahlo for surveying purposes, 
offers many conveniences In the conduct of the surveying rrork. ITie cost of this 
structure to date is ahout $30,000. ' 

Mechanical %igineering Laboratory - The Hochanicnl Engineering Laboratory, a 
brick building, the first unit of which was erected in 1P05, originally had a 
frontage of SO feet and a totnl depth of 1S2 feet. The front section, two stories 
high, contained the offices, lecture rooms, comnuting rooms, and a largo instru- 
ment room. !^ack of this section "'ore t^o bays 'fith sa'''-booth roof construction, 
each bay being Uo feet by 13^ feet. The north bay '--as provided vith a concrete 
tost in;? floor and n in_ton, Ji-motor 
this construction -^as about J^P^.OOn. 

In 190^5, an addition Uo feet by 182 feet "^as constructed along the north side 
of the Ipboratory, similar in longitudina!!. section to thd original structure — the 
onft~story portion in the rear having been fitted with a 5"toi^ traveling crane. 
The eastern end of this portion was used by the Department of Civil Engineering 
for a cement and ro ad-mat eri.-^ Is laboratory, the middle '7as used by the Department 
of Electrical Engineering for storage snace for the electrical test car, and the 
west end was used by the De-nnrtment o-f" Theoretical and Applied Mechanics for a 
concrete testing laboratory/-. The cost of this addition v/as approximately $15,000. 

In time, the laboratory building as constructed during I905-O6 became suf- 
ficiently inadenuatf^ to so-nre the ner-ds of the Department as to v/arrant changes 
in the arrnngoment of the structure. Accordingly, follo^/ing the removal from the 
north room to other nuarters of the laboratory equipment belonging to the Depart- 

me nts of Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and Theoretical and Arrplicd 
1 Gnivnrslty Catalogue, I90U-O5, page U6. 



151 

Hochnnlcs, thn -ork of romorlolins tho 'bullr1in,p; "bognr. in tho sunnor of I9ID. The 
f^OFscri-ntion thit follo'-'R, taknn fTv^ni thp Thp Tnchno^raph, gives a ,»oorl idna of tho, 
arran^oment thnt was nrovidod thon and "^hich for tho nost part, exists today. 

Tho 'bricl' '"all sonaratin,^ thr north room from the Mechanical Snginooring lato- 
rator^r '"as rnnnveri fiYinf a cloar availatlo spaco of 120 liy lUo foot. Tho old 
concrete floor '"as ta^on out of the laboratory and a basenent four feet bole?/ the 
old floor level '".-.s excavated pnd concretofl. Six feet above tho old floor line, 
there '"as constructed a mezznnine floor, nade of reinforced concrete 10 inches 
thici', su-p-norted by columns IS inches square spaced at 15-foot intervals over the 
basement floor. This mezzanine floor 'vas surfaced '"ith f^renite chips giving it thj 
resemblance of a terrasjo floor. T'"o ro'-'s of light "'ells, each J }, by 10 feet 
plicofi l^i feet on centers 'admitted daylight to the bpsenent. No change was made 
in the three sa'r-tooth skylights '"hich rnn full length of the laboratory proper. 

The south bay -ris nrrangert for heating nnd vont il-rting oauipment, the north 

bny for ste^n enuinnent, anri the nidHle bny for gas-engine equipment. At the west 

end of the midrlle bay on the street level, ■provision '"as made for an automobile- 

testinr r^lant ^nd e small gas -nroducer. 

2 end 

In the basement '-'ere const ructerl t'"o l.irge flum^^s each U feet deep, k feet 

^ji^r running the full length "f the laboratoi^/' to receive tho ".Tator from conden- 
sers nnr\ coolinp ft^f.r^r from gns engines. 

One large room adjoining the Inboratorj'- on the east -^as fitted '^ith individial 
steel lockers, n^.fl -^ith amnle snnce for '"ash-room aurposos. The laboratory too], 
r'n-^ su-n-nly room -'r>n also located on the east end of the laboratory, ■•ith a check- 
ing system for handling tools nnd laboratory -an-naratus. 

Th.e wor> of reconstruction -"es comnleted in llarch,1917, although it took some 
time '>fter that to mo-ke ari,,iustmcnts in eouirment . The chnnge arldod virtually a 
no'T s^^or;" to the labom.tory, 'ind rjermitted a much more ndv.'-i.ntageous arrnjigement of 
t^ie aTfnaratus. The cost of miking the chnnge -"as approximately $Uo,000. 



1 "The TTp,, Ifpchanic-^l ^igineering Laboratory", by V.S. Day '17, >'ovember, I917 , 

Tiages kl-k^, 

2 The basement has a head room of bet'''eon eight and nine foot and contains nil of 
the conrlensers accommodating tho engines. 



152 

During lf4l'^-17, nl^o, nn nddition, ?0 foot by Uo feet, w^s orectcd at the 

•^outhoant cornnr of tho liuilrlinp; nr a continuation of tho ouarters originally 
occuniod "by tho T)opartmont of Coramic Sngincnring, This rxtension, nrovidinf; for 
four officos and t'^o resoarch la'boratorios, nas constructod at a cost of $5,000. 

In 1^)23, ^hen thn addition (rrectod in I910) on the nouthwost comer of tho 
laboratory '^as vacatorf, tho Donartnnnt of Mochanicnl Sn^inoorin^ took ovnr the 
s-nac^ for shon, laboratory, nn^ classroom \ise. This addition ha,(1 housed thn Dn- 
na-''tTnont of Cnrnnic "^nrinoorin,!^ from IQIO to IPlo, and tho connnt and highway 
labo'^ntorios of tho T)o-nartmont of Civil !^nginnnring from I916 to I923. The total 
cost of this building is no^^' listed at aboxit $cil,000. 

Physics Building: - After s<-'Voral -nroliminary studies had boon prepamd by 
nernbors of the Denartnent of Physics and a student architect, final plans for the 
construction ^f the 3^ysics Builiiinp were '^ra'vn by T. C. Sinnernan, an architect 
of Chicnro. The contract for the construction of tho buildin.r ''as lot in July, 
IvOS. ■ The stnictur'^ '.".as conriloted the next year at a cost including; fur- 

nis'^iin^s of $250,000, nnrl "as formally (dedicated on Tovomber 26 ajid 27, I909 — the 
An'^-^icnn Fhy^^icpl Society mnkinp- this dedication th^ occasion for holding, in the 
no'^ buil-^in."-, its Tlianl:s.''ivin.'r meeting of that year. Governor Charles S. Denoen 
""as Tiresrnt et the derlication ceremonies snd pccopted the building for the State 
nnfl -nresontorl it to tho University. President Jnmos delivered the charge to Pro- 
fessor A. P. Carman, Hpafl of tho Do-nnrtment of Physics. Dr. Honry S. Pritchett, 
President of the Carnegie Pounrlation for the Advancement of Teaching, delivered tiie 
main a'^i^'ror.s.. 

The builrling is a hanf^some four~story brick and fire-proof structure, trimmed 
"ith ■^erifor'^ limestone. It has a length of IJS feet and o depth over its '^ings of 
12R feet. The first floor is rectangular, the court space bet'veen the "ings being 
user! for the f'O larre lecture rooms, both of -^hich are lighted by skylights. The 
largest of these rooms has a seating capacity of 2G?-, and the other, 120; end bo- 
cnuse of the mimbers of students involved, it is import^ant to have these rooms on 
the first floor. A one-stor;; annex,, 22 feet by yS feet, contains tho ventilating 



153 

nnd heating fans snd the machine shon of tho department. The foundations of the 
annex pre independent of those of the main 'buildinie^. Practically all of the ro- 
ta.tinp power machinery is thus installed outside of the main 'building. 

The total availaWe sDace, exclusive of the "basement, is about 60,000 square 
f ent . The wost i^in,^ contains three laTiSre, well-lighted laboratories and eeven 
recitation rooms. The oast winis: is of henvy construction and contains twenty-one 
smaller laboratories for advanced experimental work. In addition, this wing con- 
tains the chemical rooms, a balance room, a special lecture room seating 50, 
T»hotogrnn>iic on-l -nhotometer rooms, even-t erareraturc rooms, and the usual cloak 
and rest rooms. 

The rlnvator cnnnectin^T the several floors from the unpackini^t room in the 
basoment to th*^ attic nnd also the apnamtus stacks, orif^inally ""as a, direct-lift 
■nlun^er. This t-^mr v.ps chosen because of Bfifoty and because it required no ro- 
tatin,<? HrivinfT machinery. The elevator well was ^ feet snuare. In the summer of 
1^3*^1 pfter this elr'vator was worn out, pn electric lift was installed in its 
st end .. 

The prmnratus stack extends throuf^h three stories and has mezzanine floors 
afti^r the plan of libra.r^'- stacks. The storaw ca.-nacity is thus practically double 
pind the cnses are accessible without tho use of ladders. In addition to the 
elevator, there is a stairrray in each stack. 

!'']a.ch laboratory is -nrovided "'ith one or more cabinets for apparatus for cur- 
r'^nt use. The battery room in the basement is well-lighted and has a special 
ventilating fan. 

During I93P-U1, at an expense of nbout $5,700, several minor changes were 
made in the building providing for some rearrangement of rooms for class and 
laboratory purposes and for som.e improvements in ventilating conditions. 

Liko all other buil(^ings assigned to the College, the Physics Building has 
become overcro'-'ded due to increased registration in courses, and the Department 



1 Tho rirtta for most of th(5 description of the Physics Building i-s taken from an 
a.rticlr. ontitlnd "Tho Lnboratory of Physics", by A. F, Carman, The Technograph 
Volimf- 27, IQOg-nq, pages U0-U6 



1% 

has had difficulty in securing space adequate to carry on its instructional and 
experimental activities. 

Transportation Building - The contract for the erection of the Transportation 
Building, a three-story structure, designed primarily for offices, classrooms and 
drafting rooms of the Department of Railway Engineering, was signed on May 17, 
1912, This fire-proof building, constructed of brick trimmed with Bedford lime- 
stone and erected at a cost of $86,000, was open for work at registration time 
on September 16-17, 1912,— the Department of Railway Engineering having been 
assigned to the whole of the first floor, the Department of Mining Engineering 
temporarily to the second floor, and the Department of General Engineering 
Drawing temporarily to the third floor. The structure was formally dedicated on 
May 8 and 9^ 1913, with addresses by Samuel Insul, President of the Common- 
wealth Edison Company of Chicago, and other prominent men in the railway and 
other utilities fields. A railway and mining show or open-house was held in 
connection with the dedication exercises. . 

This building, the first to be erected upon the land purchased between 
Mathews and Goodwin Avenues and lying between the Boneyard and the street car 
tracks, faces west on Mathews Avenue, At the time of the construction of the 
main portion of this building, the University had not obtained possession of 
all of the ground required for the completion of the north end. Consequently, 
the north 16 feet of the building was not finished until 1921. As finally 
constructed, the building is 65 feet by 193 feet, and represents a total cost 
of approximately $168,000, The first and second floors of the new part were 
occupied at once by the Department of Mechanical Engineering with recitation 
and drafting rooms, while the third floor was taken over by the Department of 
General Engineering Drawing for Drafting rooms. In the fall of 1928 the base- 
ment was occupied as an electrical shop by the Physical Plant Department. 

Locomotive Testing Laboratory - In 1912-13, there was constructed a one- 
story brick and fire-proof structure, U3 feet by 117 feet in plan and 22 feet i-n 
height under the roof trusses, at a cost of $2^,000, to house the locomotive test- 
ing plant, described elsewhere in this publi.:ation. A basement with a 6-ft. 9-in. 



h^•^mx^;l jI' i-rcf In f— +-rr-"- ..--^ .-r'-b 

'. '^iA• 'i-t'l :• • 

:,■..- ^. >:, ^flisn " ''■ '■ ^"+tijtif)Cl Sit* bnB . 
ibsb xS.letarto'i. -; • ta &i1T iioojCl . . 

•animoiq r -soirfO lo 

.E!f;.^ --■ . -.:- -.-■. ■" ■■ 
•dl noqi! bt^ias-ia ad od" <t" - 
v.aB biB\enoQ arid naawtfod aniyl bnis asua-?- 

u;.:; .., . -ton ejij lo noxJsXqQir' lu.. ■.mo.... 



fft'locfiGj :.: 



155 

clear depth extends through all except 22 feet of its entire length. The build- 
ing is well-lighted, the v7indo'7s extending almost full height of the walls and 
occupying almost tv7o-thirds of the wall area. All portions of the building except 
the space occupied by the coal room in the rear are served by a 10-ton traveling 
crane. 

The building faces east towards Goodwin Avenue and is adjacent to the street 
car and interurban tracks of the Illinois Traction System, later known as the 
Illinois Terminal Hailroad, on the north. It is set slightly on an angle to af- 
ford a better spur connection with these tracks in order to (jxjjodite locomotive 
movements. Originally conniicted v/ith this building by a transite smoke-duct, was 
a concrete cinder-soparator supporting a smoke-stack 81 feet high. In front of 
the building on the Good'.vin Avenue end is a concrete reservoir constructed in 
I91U for storing and cooling the water used in the operation of the testing plant. 
The total cost of the building and reservoir was about $3^,000. 

Ceramics Buildings - In I9IO, a two-story, 32-foot by 90-foot addition to the 
Mechanical Engineering Laboratorj^ v/as constructed for the Department of Ceramics 
at a cost of nearly $U2,00(). During 1915-I6, ho-'cvcr, there was erected primarily 
for the Department of Corarnic Engineering, after it became a part of the College 
of Engineering, a thrco-story (and basement) fire-proof structure 67 feet by IS9 
feet, of beautiful design of texture brick and polychrome terra cotta, at a total 
cost of $121,000. The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 2S,1915, 
and the building itself was formally dedicated on December 6-7, I916, 

The face of the building is towards Goodwin Avenue and is decorated with 
colorod-tilc panels, m;\king it one of the most ornate buildings on the campus. 
The roof is of Spanish tile and the floors of the halls and corridors of clay 
tile. The exterior and much of the interior finish is of terra cotta of various 
colors, demonstrating the adv.antagcs of the use of ceramic materials for structur- 
al and decorative purposes. 

The present Ceramics Building has house d not o nly the Dopfirtment of Ceramic 

1 After the building was discontinued for locomotive laboratory purposes in 18^3,n 
the„smoke-duct-,, cindcr-sopar''-tor, and pmokc-sta,c],: were tctl-ron do'/n during 19'+3-^ 
In Nqvcmber, W+M-, the building was assigned for instruct ion in aeronautical engt- 
noering and v/as renaracd the Aeronautical Engineering Laboratory. 



156 

Sngincoring, Isut also other departments as -.tcII. For a numtcr of years, the De- 
partment of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics used portions of the first- floor 
and the tasement for a concrete research laboratory, having a 300,000-pound beam- 
testing machine located there which it used extensively in research work on con- 
crete and on stresses in railroad track. This equipment vns later moved into the 
nev7 Materials Testing Laboratory as soon as it was completed in I929. For a num- 
ber of years, too, the State Geological Survey occupied the major portion of the 
third floor for office and v/orkroom space. The Survey moved into the Natural He- 
sources Building on the south campus when the building was completed in igUo, after 
'.vhich the Department of I'ining and Metallurgical Engineering moved its department- 
al and other offices from the Transportation Building to occupy the space thus va- 
cated in the Ceramics Building. 

Mining and Metallurgical Laboratory - The building designated as the Mining 
Laboratory and Ceramics Kiln House, an L-shaped, one-story brick structure located 
immediately east of the Transportation Building, was completed late in the fall of 
1912, at a total cost of $30|000, and was opened for instructional purposes at the 
beginning of the second semester of I912-I3. The north wing, kh feet by I05 foot, 
was used by the Department of Mining Engineering, now the Department of Mining 
and Metallurgical Engineering. The main room housed the coal-washing and orc- 
droasing laboratory and also the drills and explosives laboratory. Another room 
contained the chemical laboratory, and still another, the mine-rescue station. 
In 1913, a small machine shop was added for the use of a mechanician in the De- 
partment, and in April, 19^Hi the Board of Trustees made an apnropriat ion of about 
$6,000 for reconstructing the mineral-dressing laboratories. This remodeling was 
begun in February, 19^2, and was completed within about a year's time. The 
change permits an increased efficiency in administering the labomtory work in 
the mineral-dressing and mining courses. 

In 1935» "^ special appropriation of $50,000 '7as made by the General Assembly 
for the construction of an addition to the original Mining Laboratory. Ground 
was broken for the addition on May 6, 1936, "uad the structure Wfis ready for 



157 
occunnjicy at the ovnninr: of tho school year in September following. Class work 
wan "bofun tho firrst snnnstnr, 'but laTDorator;';- '^or'r dif^ not get under ray until the 
second sonofiter. The buildinifr is a'' t'70-gtor^'- brick and fire-proof structure, '42 
feet hy 100 feet, located at the east side of the Mining Laboratory, parallel to 
the Coranics Laboratory described in the next paragraph. It is devoted entirely 
to class and laboratory/ '"ork in notallurpical en/^i nee ring. 

Ceramics laboratory - Th^^ greater -nortion of the south 'Ting of the building 
originnlly de^ignat^d as the I^ining Laboratory and Commies Kiln House, was taken 
over b^' the "nenartnent of Cemmic ^Engineering for a dr;';-ing laboratory, for 
furnaces and kilns, and for grinding and molding machiner;/ — one snail portion of 
this '^inp- bein/' usnd by the "department of Mining Engineering for its Chemical 
laboratory. This "^inr, UU feet by l^U feet, '^as connecter" to the Cernmics Build- 
ing by a coTif^or to facilitate nneration. A ?iO-foot radial brick chimney '7as 
constructor! nen"^ the "'est end of the labor.itory to accommodate the kilns. 

"Building for Arch i toe turc .n.nd T^indro'-'' Sub j cc t s - Thr> Building for Archi- 
tecture nnd TTinr'rf^d Subjects, housing the Separtments of Architecture and Art, is 
locatr^r' on the south cem-ous immediately "est of the Commerce Builrling. The corner 
stone ■^as Ipid on Tovomber if', 1^?^, Profo^sor Loredo Taft making the main address, 
'^he building r^s dedicated on November g, lQ2g, President ICinley delivering the 
■nrincinal address on that occasion. The building '-ras occupied at the beginning 
of the secon-^ semociter of l'^PJ-28, although much finishing and other '"ork reraain- 
r^rl to be done during tha<- semester. 

The structuro 5 s T-Rha^ed facing south, '^ith the main- enance in the center 
of this front, and ^ith the long axis cast and Trest ^ and the stem extending north, 
'^he main -nortion of the building is 5^ feet by SfiO feet, ^-Jhile the north 'ving is 
50 feet by JO feet. The style of architecture is Georgian like the other build- 
ings in its neighborhood. The elevation is red brick "^ith Bedford limestone belt 
courses, trim, and cornices. 

The building, a fire-T^roof structure, comi^leted at a cost of about $US5,000, 



152 
ir> thrno stories high with a hascnont and attic in addition. The Tvost end of the 

basement is open throu^ the first floor level to provide space for the Hall of 

Casts. The east end of the basement is used bv the Architectural Club for its 

meetings ajid other purposes. The north wing or stem of* the basement contains a 

modeling room Uo feet by 50 feet and a room for filing blueprints of important 

buildings erected in this country/-. 

An exhibition room for paintings and dra'^ings is provided on the east end of 
the first or main floor, and a lecture room occupies the north side of the north 
wing. The middle portion of this floor is occupied by offices. The north wing 
on the second floor is occupied by the Hicker Library. At each end of the front 
part, on each side of the Library, are large dra"'i ng rooms. With this arrange- 
ment, books cnn be taken from the Library pxiA used at any point on this floor 
without being charged out according to the usual pi-ocess. A large dra'.^ing room 
occupies each end of the third floor with classrooms and offices bet'veen. The 
top floor is devoted to studios for students taking frcnhand drav/ipg, water-color, 
and other similar subjects. 

Arthur Ke\7ell Talbot Laboratory - Const ru.ct ion on the Arthur Newell Talbot 
Laboratory formerly called the Materials Testing Laboratory, a four-story brick 
and fire-proof building of modified Georgian design, was began in the fall of 
192s. The corner stone was laid on October 25, I92S, with appropriate ceremonies 
including addresses by Doa,n Milo Smith Kctchum and by Professor Arthur Newell 
Talbot. The building was completed in the summer of I929. at a cost of about 
$^37,000, and was formally dedicated on Ma^^ 2 and 3, I93O, when Robert Ernest 
Doherty, '09, President of Carnegie Institute of Technology, gave the principal 
address. 

The building is located between Wright Street and Burrill Avenue a short 
distance north of the Bonoyard. It has a stiructural steel frame, reinforced con- 
crete floors, and partition walls of Haydite concrete blocks. It is constructed 
in the form of an H with the two wings measuring 50 foot by 18J feet, and the 
stem, 92 feet by 110 feet, making the over-all dcmcnsions of the building I87 feet 



159 

"by 212 feet. The structure h/is a large central bay, Uo feet by 150 feet, ojjen 
from the ground floor to the roof, served by a 3-Eiotor, 10-ton traveling crane 
operated by electric power — the distance from the floor to the under side of the 
crane being 50 feet. The main or second floor extends ovnr the bay opening a 
short distance on the north side and the two ends to form a balcony. The second 
nm4. third nnd fourth floors are entirely shut off from the bay except for case- 
ment windows in the corridors of these floors. A section of the floor of this 
crane bay is a slab of reinforced concrete I6 inches thick, 120 feet long, and 
2U foot wide. In two directions at intervals of 6 feet on centers of the slab, 
80 anchors wore cast into the concrete, each anchor capable of resisting a pull 
of 50,000 pounds. 

Adjoinin:?- the largo cmjio bay on the south is a smaller bay 112 feet by 2I4 
foot, with a height of 2^} foot from the floor to tho bottom of the 6-ton traveling 
crpno — tho crnjio fornorl;- used in the concrctn laboratory.'- in the present Ce- 
ramics Building. In tho floor of this bay is nnothrr slab having anchorages 
along tho center capablo of resisting a pull of 10,000 pounds. These a,nchors arc 
placed at 3-foot intervals on rows U feet apart. 

The building is occupied by the offices, classrooms, and laboratories of the 
Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. It is used, also, for the ccmcnl; 
soils, bituminous, non-bituminous, and concrote-resoarch laboratories of the De- 
partment of Civil Engineering. 

At a special convocation hold in the University Auditorium on April 21,1932, 
the building was renamed by the Board of Trustees in honor of the outstanding 
work done by Professor Arthur Ilewell Talbot in the fiolds of civil enginrcring 
fjid mechanics, as tho "Arthur Newell TaJbot Laboratory." 

Nuclear Radiations Laborator^^^ - In 1931-32, fi ono-story brick building was 
erected immediately south of tho Bonryard on the west side of Goodwin Avenue as a 
laboratory and storage garage for tho State G-eological Survey. When the Survey 
vacated tho property in 10^0, the interior of the building was remodeled at an 
expense of about $5,300 and the building was taken over by the Department of 



i6o 

F^.ysicn for n !%cle^r Raflintions Laboratory to housn the new cyclotron. The 
total cont of this iDuildln^ as it now stan^^p is listed at about $37,000. 

Sanitary "Hingineerinf; Laboratory,'- - The Sanitary T^nf^iineering Laboratory, design- 
er^ to •provide for instructional and experimental work in sewage treatment, "vater 
■purification, an*^ sanitation, is a reH-brick building, with a three-story, 2S by 
Uo_foot central -portion, a one-stor:', 2f< by 53-foot wing on the south, and a one- 
story, 1^-foot '"in? on the north, that ths ecrectefl bet wnon March and Se-ntemb.-^r, I9U3, 
on the TTniversity ^roun^^s east of TTOodwin Avnnuo and between the 3oneyard and 
"Testern Avenuo, TTrbana, at a cost of about •'5Un,000. The central portion of the 
builf^inf- contains the tank room, "rhich extends through the first and second floor? , 
«n officp on the first floor, a student laboratory on the second floor, and a 
classroom on thp thir-^ floor. Below the .-n'ound floor of this section is a 
channel for hydraulic fTP^riments. The onr-story wing on the north is used for a 
rpRea-rch laboratory nn<^ for graduate- sturient -"ork, and that on the south, for a 
"^ork room. • 

This building constricted by special a.n-propriation in supnort of the war- 
training nroPTnm, of "^orlr^ Tar II, was utilized to capacity in training enlisted 
men assifnei^ to the University for sioecial instruction in the field of sanitary 
enffine^rinp-. The unusual facilities thereby ma'le available here enabled trainees 
to secure a "forking kno'^le^lge of sanitary' processes as applied to armed-service 
conditions that only a ver^r fe-" institutions in this country could supply. 

Summary'- - All of tho buildings north of Green Street that have ever been 
assignef^ to the Colloge of Engineering for instructional and experimental purposeE^ 
are still in use exco-nt the original ^^ochanical I!!nginoering Shop Building, which 
wfi.s finally movo'^ from the cajmpus and rpmodelod for residential use, and the 
^'echanicnl "^lilrling nn^^ "Orill Hall, "rhich was destroyed by firn in I9OO. Kany 
changes have b^en marlc in theso structures both inside and outside to meet the 
needs growing out of changing conditions, '^v^n ^-.hough one department was trans- 
fpr■^'e'^ from the College and t'^o othars '^ere discontinued, the buildings have come 
to bo cro-^rfef^ rlurin^ the acadnmic years on account of thn enormous increase in 



i6i 

<^t\if^Rnt pnroll"ipnt nnc\ in thp Pxtfinsive Rxpansion in research activities. Several 
of the "builriiniP;? Rrectfi-^ r^urinf: the lf?00'r. and the IQOO'f; have become seriously 
nutnorlf"^, -^ur- to chpn,f=i;es in industry r^nfl inrlustrial develonnent . There is urgent 
np"'^ for sovera]. no" hnilriinrs const ructerl- on nodnrn liner, to supply anplra space 
for instructional .•^nd rxi^nrinental Tiumoscs deriignnfl for -nres'^nt-day apparatus 
5>nd in accordance "-i th nod.cTn li,?;;htinf: and ''orkin^ conditions. In spite, though, 
of nny handicaps that nny hnvo hoon due to huildin;^ arr?>ji|C;nmonts, the College has 
heen 'wonderfully successful in its efforts throughout the years to carry on its 
educationnl-traininp nnd r^^soarch nrogrnns, ^nd to attain such achievcnonts as 
haV"^, no douht, far sumassod any visualized objoctivos foreem by those "fho v7ero 
resnonsible for nroviding the funds for building const inaction. 



Ib2 
CHAPTER VII 

THE DSFAHrUSKT OF MECHANICAL SiJGINSERING 
A. OHGAiilZATIOlI 
General - Although the report made "by the Regent and the four Trustees in 
1867, made provision for Mechanical Science and Art in the Polytechnic Sejiartmcnt , 
it took a little time to get the department organized. Under officers and in- 
structors and their titles as recorded in the 1368-69 issue of the University 
Catalogue nJid Circular, is listed the position of Professor of Mechanical Science. 
No one had been chosen to fill the position, evidently, for the name was left 
blank. The Department of Mechanical Engineering, or School of Mechanical Science, 
as it was originaJ-ly known, was definitely entablislied as a going concern, though, 
in January, I87O, with tho appointment of S. <V. Robinson as Professor of Mechani- 
cal Science and Engineering. Professor Robinson was the first man to be appointed 
to a chair in the College of Mechanics and Engineering; and it is interesting to 
note that ho had the status of a full professor, although ho had not quite attain- 
ed the ago of thirty-two. 

B, OBJECTIVES AND METHODS OP INSTRUCTION 

Objoctives - The Catalo^^e fUid Circular of tho Illinois Industrial University 
1 
issued for tho school ye;^x 1Z~(?-1J,, containod tho following statement regarding 

mechanical engineering: 

"This school is intended to prepare students for the profession of Mechani- 
cal Engineering. It is designed to supply a class of men long needed, not simply 
practical nor wholly theoretical, who, guided by correct principles, shall be 
fully competent to invent, design, const inict or m,'inage machinery, in the various 
industrial pursuits. The instruction, v/hilo scvcitxLy scientific, is thoroughly 
practical, aiming at a clear understanding and mastery of all mechanical princi- 
ples and devices. Practice in the Mechanical Laboratory is combined with theo- 
retical training and is counted as one of the studies of the course." 

The Technograph in l89^-9'3 carried the following coLunent : 

"The instruction was intended to give the student a thorough training in 
the fundamental principles underlying the science of machines and mechanisms, and 
thus enable him to become familiar v/ith some of tho numerous applications." 

A publication entitled "A Pictorial Description" issued by the College in 

1919, contained the following item regai'ding the field of instruction in mechanical 

1 Page 29 

2 Page 180 



163 

engineering: "Mechanical engineoi-ing deals ^ith pi'oblems connected with the 

generation and transmission of power, with the design, construction, operation 

and testing of machinery of all kinds, and with the application of power and 

machines to the varied requi remont j of modern industry," 

1 
Early Methods of Instruction - The Catalogue and Circular for the school year 

1872-73 bore the following paragraphs regarding instruction in mechanical 

engineering: 

"Instruction in the school is given in both Principles and Practice." 

"IN PHINCIPL3S the knowledge is imparted by lectures, combined with the use 
of plates and illustrative models, and recitations are made from textbooks. Numer- 
ous cxniiiplcs are a3.so givi;n, showing the application of the theories fuidprincipLeE 
taught. Experiments in the testing of machines find motors arc landertakcn by the 
student s . 

"IN PHACTICE the instruction consists mainly in the execution of Projects, 
in which the student is required to construct machines, or parts thereof, of his 
o'Am designing, and from his own working drawinf^s. The students, in class exercises 
under competent teachers, use the machinery and tools of the liachine and Pattern 
Shop Foundry, according to the most approved methods of nodorn practice. 

"The practical instruction is not intended oertjly to teach yiu trade, but 
is added as a necessary supiilomcnt to the theoretical training." 

2 

A publication issued in 137S contained the following statement regarding the 

instruction in Mechanical Snc^incering: "The instruction is intended to qualify 
young men for the designing, consti-uction and m/oiageraont of machinery. The in- 
struction is given by lectures in the absence of approved textbooks, enforced by 
n\imerous examples, illustrative plfins and models." 

During 1877-1881, the Professor of iiechfuiical Engineering taught all the 
subjects in Mechanical ^engineering find all of Physics and reisistancc of materials 
as well. 

C. HOOM ASSIGlCiSNTS FOH OFFICE, REOITATIOil, AI^'D DHAFTING PURPOSES 

General - V/lien the Department of Mechanical Engineering was created in 
January, I87O, its first professor had his headquarters in Old University Building 
and when University Hall v/as completed in 1373. he, with others was transferred to 
that building. The Department occupied office, recitation, and drafting-room 



1 Page 29 

2 Announcement of the Illinois Industrial University Mechanic Art School Summer 
Session. 



i6U 

space there until Engineering Kail v/as finished in IggU. The space 'vhich it occu- 
pied in Engineering Hall was located in the oast ;\nd west wings of the third floor, 
and consisted of an office, private studies for staff raem'bers, class'^rooms, draft- 
ing rooms, a cabinet roon, and a seminary room. The drafting room was fitted Trith 
desks designed especially for the purpose by the Head of the Department of Me- 
chanical Engineering. The desk contained drav;ers, dra'^ing boards, and places for 
T-squares for four students. Two students coulil work at one desk at the stime time. 

This type of desk was adopted by all of the other departments of the College ex- 

1 
cept Architecture. 

2 
In 1909, the department offices were moved to a suite of rooms on the first 

floor near the east entrance of the Mochanictil Ungineering Laboratory, and in 
1920^ they V7ere transferred to space on the second floor of the southeast corner 
of the building, where they hav.; remained to date. When the north end of the 
Transportation Buildia,-' was extended in I92I, the Department took over the first 
and second floors of the extension for offices, class'^rooms, and dwafting rooms. 
In the fall of 19^1. after the Department of Mining and lictallurgical Engineering 
had moved from the second floor of the Transportation Building, the Department of 
Mechanical Engineering utilized the space thus vacated for offices for some of its 
instructors. 

Thus in ±'^^3, the Department ust.-s all of the space in the Mechfinical Engi- 
neering Laboratory and a large portion of the first and second floors of the 
Transportation Building. 

D. SA3LY CLASCHOOK AlID DRAV;il,'G HOOi: EQ,UIH.IE1JT 

3 
General - The University Catalogue of IS9U-95 carried the following state- 
ment regarding equipment of the Department of Mechanical Engineering: 

"The equipment of the department is arranged for work under three heads - 
class and drawing roon v;ork, mi^chanical laboratory, and shop practice. Engineer- 
ing Hall now being cora])lcted, the facilities for class .and drawing work are un- 
excelled. The drawing rooms are equipped with modern desks, drawing boards, fil- 
ing cabinets, card indexes, reference books, catalogues, odontographs, gear charts 



1 The Technograph, I89U-95, page 180. 

2 Now numbered lo4 and 105 . 

3 Page 50 



i65 

taTsles, etc. Provision is made in the cabinet rooms for the exhibition of kine- 
matic models of Rculaux and Schrooder, machine models, specimens of defective 
boiler plate, and also sectioned steam specialties, many of them donated by the 
manufacturers . " 

B. DEVSL0R1E1^;T of KECHAinCAL M;GIKSERING LABOHATOZf FACILI^TIES 

A. POiVER LABOHATORY 

Mechanical Laboratory Facilities, 1867-1893 - In connection with his early 

laboratory work in steam engines, Stillman li7illiains Robinson, the first professor 

in Mechanical Engineering, and his students took indicator diagrams of the 35-horee 

power steam engine which was built by students in shop practice during I87O-7I to 

1 
furnish po\7er for the shops. The Catalogue and Circular of 1872-73 stated in this 

connection: "Experiments in the testing of Prime Movers and other machines, are 

2 
undertaken by the classes. They vnll take Indicator cards from the engine of the 

3 
Mechanical Laboratory and determine from them the po\7er developed v/ith different 

degrees of expansion." Steam was furnished to the engine by the 33"^orsepower 

Root patent boiler which had been installed in the boiler room of the building in 

the fall of IS7I 'iS soon as the structure was completed. This boiler was used, 

also, for conducting other exercises in laboratory practice. 

The work done by Professor Robinson, considering the appliances available, 
the number of students, the extent of his other duties, \7as very highly creditable* 
Little was done along this lino of laboratory v/ork, though, after he left the Uni- 
versity in 1878 until about IS^O. 3y that time the University had begun to ac- 
cumulate some equipment that offered opportunities for more elaborate practice for 
students interested in this particular field. 

By IS92, the University had acquired several boilers used for heating and 
power purposes. The 32 by 3S-foot boiler room of Machinery E-ill (originally called 



1 Page 30 

2 A lO-horsepowor stefun engine had already been built here in the first three 
months of IS70, but this statement, no doubt, refers to the second engine. 

3 In Mechanical Building and Drill Hall. 

U The origin.'d blacksmith shop annex, remodeled in the summer of I89O for a boiler 
room, one of the boilers being placed in October of that year, .and the other in 
March, I892. These boilers v/ere used to heat Machinery Hall and the Armory and 
to provide powor for the shops. 



i6b 
Mechanical Building and Drill Kail) contained tv/o ^33-liori3 6powoi' horizontal tubular 

boilers which could be used 'separately or toj^ether. It alno contained necessary 

pu::aps, tanks, "weighing apparatus, calorimeters, and other appliances for making 

complete tests of the economy and capacity of boilers. 

In regard to steaa engines, The Techncgraiih of 1&J1-<^J2 stated that the de- 
1 
partment had a 30-horsepo\7cr engine fitted with indicators, friction brakes, and 

transmission dynamometers suitable for carrying on a great variety of tests. 5?he 

Catalogue of 1891-9^ mentioned that there was a 'JO-horsepov/or high-sp(;cd engine, 

made in the machine shop by studnnts in Hechajiical Engineering, and that this 

2 
engine furnished i.iowcr for the machine shop, and was availo.ble for testing purposes 

In addition, there '7cro t',vo steaia engines and a gas engine belonging to the De- 
partment of Physics on the ground floor of University ilall that could be utilized 
for making tests. 

The Catalogue of IS93-9U stated that the University ha.d six boilers of 
different LirJ-:cs that v/ere us'.d for heating purposes and that could be used by the 
students of the department for obsei'vation and testing. 

Mechanical Laborator;^ Facilities, 1393-190^3 - Tnen Professor Lester Paige 
Brcckcnridgc came to the University in the fall of IS93 to become Head of the 
Department of Meclvmical l^nt'-inc'- ring, he put ncv zest into mechanical-laboratory 
work. He gathered fi'om the different buildings into tvTO rooms on the ground floor 
of the Chemistry Building (no-^ Hai'ker Hall) the two small engines made by Pro- 
fessor Hobinson, a pump, some tanks, scales, and a few small pieces of -ipparatus, 
and started mechanical-engineering jiractice with one senior mcchanicp.l-engineeiing 
student . 

The CatalOiguc of 189^-95 contained the following statement in this 



2 This was a 10-inch by 12-inch Ball engine. The Ball 3ngine Compr-ny furnished 
the castings and the students of the class of 1292 finished ^rnd assembled them 
during 1S89-91« The engine was rated in different descriptions from 25 to 50 
horsepower. The old Hobinson engine was retained and used for experimental woik 

1 This was, no doubt, the 3I3-hoi'S'2po''<2r engine built by Professor Hobinson and 
his students about IS7I. It was all made here cxcc])t the flyv/hecl. The 
original cost ¥/as $7^0, but later improvements mr.de within a year or so brought 
the total to $1,000. This is the second engine built here. 



167 
connection: 

"The laboratory in now situated in the basement of the Chemistry Laboratoi> 
It contains engines, boilers, puinj)S, surface condenser, and a large assortment of 
indicators, gauges, scales, thernometers, dynanoneters, calorimeters, reducing 
motions, planimeters, measuring tanks, and apparatus for the calibration of 
instruments. It is supplied with steam from the central boiler house through a 
5-inch main, and steam may be used from this source or from boilers in the labora- 
tory itself. The engines ma;^ be run cither with or without a condenser, with 
plain slide or expansion valves, or with automatic or throttle governors. 

"Vfetcr is brought to the laboratory through a 2-inch main, furnishing a 
supply for condensers and boiler feed. 

"The heating nnd po'rcr plant of the University contains eight boilers, two 
Hoot, one Sterling, throe horizontal tubular, and two Babcock & Wilcox, aggro- 
gating eight hundred horse power. Those furnish additional opportunity for ex- 
periment. Tests are also made in the power plants, pumping station, and factories 
of the tv/o cities." 

In the latter part of I895. the laboraton^ equipment v;as transferred from 
the Chemistry Building to the Ilcchanicfd Building and Drill Hall. 

The building known as the Meclianical and ZLcctrical Engineering Laboratory 
(now the northern portion of the Electrical Engineering Building) V7as completed 
in 1897-92 and during lu9S the mechanical-engineering equipment was moved to the 
east wing of this new structure, and some now apparatus was added. At that time, 
there were six experimental ste.-ii engines available for instructional purposes 
connected by two independent mains to the near-by boilor house. These included 
one lO-horsepov/er Hobinson engine, one 35-horsepov7er Robinson cjigino, o:ic. 35— 
horsepov;er Ball engine, one 3^-^OJ-'3cpo'.7er Keycr automatic engine, one 8-horsepowor 

Sturtovant engine, and one S-horscpower Nagle engine. There -.Tore, in addition, a 

2 
10-horscpower Otto gas engine, .-'. lO-horscpowor Atkinson-cycle gas engine, a 

2-horsopower Hider-Sricson hot-air Engine, tla;\t was used to illustrate the exteri- 
or-furnace type of motor, an Ingorsoll air compressor and air-storage tank, five 
steam pumps, one pulsoraeter, numerous storja .specialties, . njid a laJ'^o assortment of 
the usual instruiacnts arran^^ed for experimental testing. A four-ton traveling 
crane of 20- foot span covered the central floor space. 



1 This is the engine that stood in the old Mechanical Building and Drill Hall and 
that was used to supply power through the rope drive to operate the equipment in 
the machine shop. Its power was given at various times as from 25 to 50 
horsepower. 

2 This engine V7as originally installed in the University Hall lighting plant and 
was later given to the Huscvim of Science and Industry, Chicago. 



l6S 

During the same year, also, the University lighting and power plant was in- 
stalled in the same wing of this building immediately adjacent to the equipment 

1 
described above. These facilities included one GO-horsepower "Ideal" single- 
cylinder, high-speed engine, made by Ide and Son of Springfield, one 100- horsepower 
"Ideal" tandem compound engine, and one 50-horsepo'.ver Uestinghouse "Junior" 
engine. These engines were supplied with high-pressure steam through independent 
mains from the boiler house, and were available for testing purposes. 

Vifhen the boiler house of the University central heating system (Boneyard 
station) was completed at the end of 1897, a few of the old boilers and several 
new ones were installed for power and heating purposes then or shortly thereafter. 
These included one llO-horsepower horizontal tubular boiler, equipped with Bright- 
man mechanical stoker; one 250-horsepower National 'I'atcr Tube boiler, equipped 
with Murphy smokeless furnace and automatic stoker; and t'."o 220-horsepower Babcock 
& Wilcox boilers, equipped with Roney mechanical stokers. A short time later, 
there was added one 150-horsopower Babcock and V/ilcox special boiler carrj'^ing 275 
pounds steam pressure, provided with a hand-fired furnace, and one 150-horsepowGr 
standard Babcock and Wilcox boiler, furnished with a chain-grate stoker. All of 
these boilers were supyilicd with the usual auxilliary apparatus, and v/ere all 
available for laboratory testing purposes. 

In addition to the University engines and boilers described above that could 
be used for laboratory work, the public-utility pumping station and power plants 
of Champaign and Urbana and the shops of the Peoria and Eastern and Illinois 
Central Railroads furnished additional opportunities for experimental practice. 

Mechanical Laboratory Facilities, 190^-1^17 - In I905, the mechanical- engineer- 
ing laboratory was moved from the building occupied, since I89S, jointly by the 
mechanical and electrical engineering laboratory, into a new building, 80 by lU2 
feet, erected for that pui'pose; and at that time or shortly thereafter, the De- 
partment added greatly to its equipment, so that within a few years, the College 
had for the first time a reasonably-equipped mechanical engineering laboratory. 



1 Originally installed in the University Hall central lighting plant in I8g2. 



i69 

The laboratory was arranged for testing fuels and various types of steam 'boilers, 
steam engines, superheaters, economizers, furnaces, gSiS engines, air compressors, 
pumps, and other devices and machines employed by engineers in the generation and 
transmission of pov/er. It was provided with a large assortment of various types 
of indicators, gauges, scales, thermometers, pyrometers, calorimeters, measuring 
tanks, etc. with arrangements for calibrating and standardizing them. 

There were nine steam engines of various types and capacities, one of which 
was the Reliance Corliss engine obtained in I905. This was a single-cylinder 
machine 12 by 2^- inches, horizontal, non-condensing type, double eccentric side 
crank, manufactured by the Allis Chalmers Company. It v/as equipped v/ith a vari- 
able speed governor giving a range from 20 to I30 r.p.m. Its steam-supply pressure 
was 1^5 pounds a square inch, and its rating was 100 horsepower at 100 r.p.m. This 
engine was provided v/ith a brake and other suitable apparatus for student testing. 
Another was a 65-horsepower four-valve tandem compound engine, originally designed 
by two students, Zimmeman and Sayers, for a thesis, and erected ijj the University 
shops during 1905-Ob. Still another was a 10-inch by 10-inch, 60-hcrrsepower, 
Ideal high-speed engine originally i.'rovidod for the University Hall power plant, 
and used later in the Boneyard Pov/er Plaint. It had been rebuilt and a throttling 
governor added to the centrifugal shaft governor. The two were independent so that 
the engine could bo operated rrith each governor, thereby permitting tests showing 
the relative economy of the different methods of governing v/ith a wide range of 
loads. In addition, there were three types of gas engines, nine pumps, eight in- 
jectors, one pulsomcter, one hot-air engine, and one large-volume fan. The labora- 
tory contained, also, a compound air compressor described later, a liquid-air 
plant consisting of a Norv/alk four-stage compressor, compressing up to U,000 
pounds per square inch, and a Hampson liquifier with a capacity of about seven 
pints of liquid air per hour. 

Other equipment included a 210- horsepower Heine v/ater-tube boiler provided 
with a Green chain-grate stoker, a Sturtevant economizer, and a l^O-horsepower in- 
dependently-fired Foster superheater v/hich made possible the study of problems 



170 
relating to superheated steam. The arrangement of the plant was such tloat the 

flue gases could be dra'/7n, Y/hen desired through the Sturtevant economizer located 

Tieside the boiler, and the boiler setting was so constructed that the chain-grate 

stoker could be readily replaced by a hand-fired grate or another stoker. All 

varieties of Illinois coal could be burned efficiently without the production of 

smoke. 

The facilities included, also, a 15-horsepower De Laval steam turbine direct- 
ly connected to a compound centrifugal pump, v/hich could deliver lUo gallons of 
water per minute when operating against a head of 500 feet. The turbine wheel 
and small pump runner made 23,500 r.p.m., while the large pump runner made 2,350 
r.p.m. The turbine was provided with condensing and non-condensing nozzles. 

Other equipment included a six-stage, 60-horsepower PZerr steam turbine 
supplied with an absonition dynamometer and a 60-horsepower V/heeler surface con- 
denser, a Worthington surface condenser having 3^2 square feet of cooling surface, 
and independent steam-driven vacuiim and circulating pumps, ,all arranged for 
special investigations of condenser i)erformance. 

There was installed in 1905i in addition, a 60-horsepower suction gas pro- 
ducer built by the Otto Gas Engine '•Jorks, for supplying gas for internal- 
combustion engines and other purposes. The producer was adapted to burn anthra- 
cite pea coal, coke, or charcoal. 

For use in connection with this gas producer, there was provided a 23-horse- 
power Otto gas engine '.vhich had a 10-inch cylinder and a 19-inch stroke. It was 
equipped with a compressed-air starting device, sparking generator, speed in- 
dicators, and a complete outfit of instruments used by the mechanical engineer 
for testing purposes. 

Furthermore, a tv7o-stage tandem cross-compound steam-driven, air compressor 
manufactured by the Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Company, was installed in the labora- 
tory in 1905. The stefun cylinders were 12 and 22 inches in diameter with a 12- 
inch stroke, and the air cylinders '.'/ere 12 ^ .and IS z inches in diameter with a 
12-inch stroke. The machine had a capacity of 3OO cubic feet of free air per 



171 

minute at a speed of 120 r.p.m. The delivery pressure was 100 pounds a square 
inch and the steam- supply pressure 125 pounds a square inch. In the early days, 
a vertical receiver k2 inches in diameter and 8 feet in height was provided for 
use with the compressor. This v/as replaced later, however, by a different form 
of tank. 

In December, I907. the Board of Trustees accepted a Sargent gas engine pre- 
sented to the College of Engineering by Charles E. Sargent, M.E., '86. It was a 
10-inch by 20-inch tandem, double-acting 60-horsepower machine, with enclosed 
frame, and with self-oiling devices that operated without the crank or' discs • ' 
dipping into the oil. The side shaft was driven by a Rites governor. 

A 15-horsepower single-acting, U-cycle Bogart gas engine arranged to operate 
on city gas, producer gas, and gasoline, was obtained also about that same time. 
It was unique in that it had an adjustable piston rod Jind cross-head. The adjust- 
able piston rod provided different clearances of the engine and made possible 
comparisons of efficiency under the different operating conditions. 

In the spring of 1^12, there was added a steam engine equipped with a single 
cylinder, S by iS-inch horizontal t^fj^e and a single eccentric releasing Corliss 
slide cran]-: manufactured by the Murray Iron '.Torks. The steai.i- supply pressure was 
120 pounds a square inch. The rating at one-fourth cut-off was 29 horsepower at 
100 r.p.m. This machine was provided with Prony brai:e, condenser, and such appa- 
ratus as was necessary for student testing in laboratory exercises. 

Among the items of equipment procured in 1913 > '"'as a Fairbanks, Morse and 
Company direct -acting, tandem- compound, underwriters duplex pump. The steam 
cylinders wore 8 by 12 by 12 inches, and the punip was 7 by 12 inches. The intake 
suction pipe was 6 inches in diameter and the discharge pipe was 5 inches. The 
rated capacity of the pump was 750 gallons per hour at Yj single strokes per 
minute against a head of 300'fcct. The initial stcfim pressure was 120 pounds a 
square inch with atmos|ihorc exhaust. The pump was set to draw water from a cistern 
through a "Lea" water recorder of the self-contained pressure typo having a 
Capacity of 200,000 pounds of water per hour. The recorder registered 



172 
automatically the flow of water by means of a V-shaped weir and an automatic 

recording device. 

There was installed during 1912-13, a 7-inch by 10-inch left-hand and a 10- 
inch by 12-inch right-hand Chandler & Taylor balanced slide valve, throttling 
engine. The two engines were so arranged that either one could be operated as a 
simple engine or so that the tv;o shafts could be coupled and the t'^^o engines run 
as a cross-compound engine, one cylinder taking the partially-exjjanded steam from 
the other. The engines were fitted with approved reducing notions and a nev/ 
design of rope bral:e. The steftm supply was 1U5 pounds a square inch and the rat- 
ing, Uo horsepower at 210 r.p.m. 

There was T)rovided in 1913-1^. a 25-horsepower Erie City Iron 'Jorks economy 
steam boiler, which was connected to an old 15-horsepower Atlas engine to form a 
complete plant. A small open f end-water heater, and feed pump and an injector 
were included in this outfit so that students in undertaking a study of the steam 
engine and boiler could find it possible to trace out the several transmissions of 
energj^ from the coal pile to the delivered mechanical or electrical energy. 

A Peerless six-cylinder automobile engine rated at 70-brako horsepower, was 
obtained in 191^-15 for use in connection with the Engineering Experiment Station. 
It was connected to a Hichards Typo of hydraulic absorption dynamometer. 

A 75-horsepov/er Smith gas producer was receivijd and installed in I917 for 
use in experimental work to determine the adaptability of Illinois coal to use in 
gas producers. This was removed some time later, however, because of difficulties 
involved in operation. 

Steam Prime Movers , 1917-19^^ ~ -^fte^ 'the laboratory -vas reconstructed in 
1917. three steam engines including the two Corliss machines — one made by the 
Allis Chalncrs Company and the other by the i'urray Iron "Jorks — and the Chandler 
and Taylor machine, all of which were previously described and all of which are 
still in USD in 19^5. '^'crc installed on the upper floor for instructional purposes 

Another important item of equipment provided here consists of a seven-stage 
condensing steam turbine manufactured by the Terry Steam Turbine Company, that 



173 

was installed in the lalioratory in I923. It is provided with a constant-speed 
governor and a separate emergency trip t^overnor driving a lOO-kilowatt, 250-volt 
direct-current generator made by the Allis Chalmers Company, the drive being ac- 
complished through herring-bone reducing gears. The driving, transmission, and 
driven units are all mounted on a single cast-iron base plate. 

The turbine is rated at 100-kilowatt capacity (with six nozzles in use) at a 
speed of 3.565 r.p.m. at full load with steam pressure at lUo pounds a square 
inch. The rate of steam consumption varies from 33 "^ pounds per kilowatt-hour at 
half load to 26.3 pounds at full load. The turbine has an ovei'load capacity of 
125 per cent of full-load rating for a period of two hours. 

The generator delivers UOO amperes of current at 25O volts, at a speed of 
1,200 r.p.m. and at a normal temperature of Uo to U5 degrees C. The efficiency of 
the generator ranges from 87.0 per cent at one-iialf load to 90''5 per cent at full 
load. 

The turbine was torn dovm in I92U in order to fit pressure gages and thermo- 
couples to the different stages so that more accurate information could be ob- 
tained about the thermal properties and the behavior of the steam in the operation 
of this particular type of engine design. 

The list of equipment includes, also, a 25-horsepower steam turbine made by 
the Westinghouse Eloctric and llanufacturing Company. It has a steam- supply 
pressure of lUo pounds a square inch and operates from 3iOOO to 6,000 r.p.m. The 
turbine is connected to a 30-horsGpower, 230-volt, Mid-17cst Dynamic dynamometer 
supplied v,'ith a Toledo scale. The equipment v/as procured from the Mid-ViTcst Syna- 
momctcr and Engineering Company in igUo. 

In addition to individual braiies, all of the engines above mentioned arc 
equipped with surface condensers and weighing tanks for collecting the steam — con- 
densing and mc.suring it in order to determine the tsteam consumption during the 
period of the test. These condensers are all located on the lower floor immedi- 
ately under their respective engines. 

The exj:ioricncc which the students have gained from cx].:)criments carried on 



TUlth, this equipment in the conduct of efficiency and other tests has enabled them 
to realize the relationships that exist between theory and practice in this 
particular type of power-plant operation, and has afforded sone first-hand knowled^B 
of the practical problems they will have to face in the design, construction, and 
operation of industrial plants employing that type of power. 

Internal-Combustion Sngines 1917^19.^5 - Because of the many applications of 
the internal-combustion engine to industrial use, a wide range of representative 
equipment of this type iins been provided from time to time for instructional and 
and experimental purposes relating to engine design, fuels and fueling systems, 
cooling systems, lubricants, ignition, and economy. These are described in some 
detail in the follo'jing paragraphs. 

The Bogart single-acting, four cycle illuminating gas or gasoline engine 
previously described, was installed on the main floor after the laboratory was 
rearranged for use in insti'uctional and experimental service. The 70-horsepower 
Peerless six-cylinder automobile engine was also installed at that -time. Both 
machines were later removed to make way for newer models. 

An Hvid type of compression-ignition oil engine, manufactured by the Midwest 
Engine Company, was added to the laboratory equij^ment in 1^21. It is a 10 5/2' 
inch by IS-inch, horizontal, single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, having a rating 
of 35-i^orsepower at 250 r.p.m. It can use kerosene or any other type of liquid 
fuel. The engine is started by a compressed-air starter using air from a storage 
tank — the air being shut off xihcn the motor begins to run. The machine is 
supplied with suitable bra]:es and other appliances for laboratory testing. 

There v/as instjilled in 1923, a 12 by 21-inch, single-cylinder, four-cycle, 
single-acting, horizontal type of gas engine, manufactured by the Otto Gas Engine 
Works, designed to operate on either city or producer gas. Using city gas as fuel 
it can develop 50 horsepower at a rated speed of 230 r.p.m. The rating for the 
same speed when using producer gas is Uo horsepower, and when so operated, the 
engine is supplied from the 50-horsepowor gas producer provided in the laboratory. 
The machine is equipped with a compressed-air starter and all accessories for 



175 
ninning tests including friction "brakes. 

The laboratory also contains a two-cylinder solid-injection, four-stroke 
cycle, Diesel engine 10 3/U-inch by 13 3//'+-ii^ch, manufactured by the Chicago 
Pneumatic Tool Conpany and installed in 1930- '^^^6 nanuf acturer ' s rating is 30 
horsepo-'.''er at 327 I'.p.i^-- The machine is also started by ueans of compressed air, 
and is supplied v/ith brakes for testing purposes. 

A four-cycle, U 3/^-inch by 6 l/U-inch, marine Diesel engine complete with 
Bosch fuel ignition system, made by the Atlas- Imperial Diesel Engine Company and 
donated to the University by the manufacturer, was set up on the main floor of the 
laboratory in 19^2. The engine operates at 950 r.p.m. and develops 13 brake horse- 
power. It is supplied with appropriate brakes and other facilities for making 
laboratory tests. 

Among the Diesel engines, there is a four-cylinder, solid-injection, four- 
stroke, lo'.7-speed, Diesel-cycle engine of the tractor ty-^^e built by the Inter- 
national Harvester Comp^uiy and loaned to the Department in 1937- ?hc manufacturers 
rating is 62.3 horsepower at 1,250 r.p.m. Another installed in the same year is 
the six-cylinder, 3 'k 'oy ^ s-inch, solid-injection, four-stroke, high-speed, Diesel 
cycle automotive engine, made by the Hercules Hotor Corporation. The manufacturers 
rating is 77 horsepower at 2,600 r.p.n. This '.7as installed in 1937-3S. In ad- 
dition, there is a Chr^'sler Imperial, 193^ model, eight-c;;-linder, four-sti-okc,Otto 
cycle gasoline engine manufactured by the Chrysler Engineering Corporation. The 
manufacturer's i-ating is 120 horsepower at 31^^00 r.p.m. This was given to the 
Department by the manufacturer in 1935- T^io equipment also includes a 19^0 model, 
Hoyal 6 tyjic, six-cylinder, four-stroke, Otto-cyclo gasoline engine manufactured 
by the Chrysler Corporation and installed in 19^0. The manufticturer ' s rating is 
108 horsepower at 3.60() r.p.m. It includes, too, a 19^0 model, eight-cylinder, 
four-stroke, Otto-cycle gasoline engine manufactured by the Ford Motor Companyi 
The manufacturer'!;: rating is &[> horsepower at 3iS00 r.p.m. This was loaned by the 
Chicago Branch of the Ford Hotor Conpany in I939-U0. 

These five engines described above are arranged in the west end of the south 



176 

bay of the lalDoratorj' so that each machine can be attached to an absorption and 
transmission d^-'namometer of the electric generator type — the dynanoneter in use 
for this purpose in I9U5 being the 150-horsepo',7er, 250-volt, Sprague machine ob- 
tained by the Departiaent in I916. 

The internal-combustion engine using various grades and types of fuel, has 
probably made greater strides in development than any other form of prime-mover 
power. Because of such rapid advancements, the University has had a difficult 
problem in attempting to keep abreast of such progress because of the heavy first 
cost of such equipment and the lack of space for proper housing and demonstration. 
Such facilities as it has been able to pi'ovide, though, have served to furnish 
excellent instruction to long lists of students and to supply data for the many 
bulletins issued by the Engineering Experiment Station. 

Pumjis - igiy-igU^^ - The several steam and electrically-driven punps that have 
been installed at different times, have been devoted largely to instructional 
purposes. Among those installed since the laboratory was reconstriicted in I9I7, 
is the Fairbanks, Morse and Company machine described under a previous section. 
In the nev,' installation, however, the p\imp takes water from one flujno in the base- 
ment and returns it to another one through a V-shajoed weir, and the use of the 
storage cistern has been discontinued. Another was the Dq Laval steam turbine- 
propelled centrifugal pump procured in I905 and described in an earlier paragraph 
in this chapter. This, however, was tai;on out some time later. 

There was provided on the lower floor of the laboratory in 1922-23 an Ameri- 
can V/ell 'Torks, Inc., U-inch standard open impeller centrifugal pump, direct- 
connected to a Spraguc cradclcd type of dynamometer. This pumj), removed some time 
ago, had a speed of about 1,200 r.p.m. The water discharged was measured by ori- 
fices in the bottom of a tank, the discharge pressure having been controlled by a 
hand-operated valve. 

In 1927, the Department installed a 3-sta3G, single-suction, Caracron Gcn- 
trifugal, boiler feed pump made by the Ingorsoll-Hand Company. The rated capacity 
is 250 gallons per minute at 200 pounds per square inch gage pressure. The rated 



177 

speed is 2,000 r.p.n. Ihe suction intake pipe is I'our inches and the discharge 
pipe is three inches in diameter. The water is measured by a Venturi meter and a 
V-notched ',7eir in series. The pump is attached to a 230-volt, 75-horsepo'j7er, 
Sprague dynamometer procured from the General Slectric Company in the same year. 

Air Compressors 1917 - 1^^5 - After the laboratory was remodeled in I917, the 
Ingersoll-Sargeant air-conpresr.or, previously described, was installed in the middle 
bay of the main floor and is still in use there. 

Another piece of equipment added to the laboratory in I92U-25, is a single- 
stage T'forthington 8 -^--inch by 9"inch feathervalve air compressor made by the 
Worthington Piimp and Machinery Corporation. It is operated by a 'Jestinghouse 
UO-horsepower induction motor operating at G70 r.p.m. full load. The outfit is 
used to supply compressed air for starting the laboratory gas engines and for 
experimental puri:)0ses. 

In 193s, there was installed on the lo'.^or floor of the laboratory a two-stage 
tandem 6-inch by 2 3/^-inch by 7-inch air compressor complete with equipment made 
by the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company. The compressor, belt-driver., is operated 
by a Fairbanl's, Morse & Company 20-horsepowcr motor. The jdant has a capacity of 
56 cubic feet of free air per minute at 350 r.p.m. The delivery pressure is ^50 
pounds a square inch. 

Miscollanoous Scjuipmcnt in Use in igU^ - Anong the items of miscellaneous 
equipment v/hich the Department has been able to provide is a Hceves variable-speed 
transmission apparatus mounted on a heavy cast-iron base, which was procured in 
1925-26. In 192s, it installed a belt-testing sot consisting of one 50-horsepowcr 
cradeled electric motor for pov7cr input and one 50-horscpowcr generator for ab- 
sorbing the power transmitted by the belt. The equipment is used to study belt- 
tension and slippage and energy-transfer problems involved in the transmission of 
power by belt, rope, or chain drives. 

Another piece of apparatus consists of an automotive braice-tcsting device, 
constructed and erected by the Department in 1926-23, for study of the action and 
efficiency of automotive bralccs, the rate of docelcrationf and the amount of 



178 
energy consumed in retarding a vehicle. The uechanism is operated "bj applying 
the brakes to a rotating shaft loaded in such manner as to accumulate a noment\im 
equivalent to that of a moving car or truck. 

Miscellaneous small equijinent available for a variety of uses includes 
calorimeters, Orsatt apparatus, thermometers, pyrometers, gages, gas and steam- 
engine indicators, indicator springs, planimeters, tachometers, anemometers, 
Venturi meters, and so on, 

B. HEATING, VENTILATING, AITO AIR-CONDITIONING 

General - The science of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning is com- 
paratively ne'v. The problems that arise in this particular field involve the 
design, construction, installation, and operation of heating and heat-transfer 
systems and appliances, and cooling and air-conditioning apparatus used for do- 
mestic, commercial, and industrial purposes. The provisions that have been made 
here from time to time in supplying facilities for instructional and experimental 
uses arc indicated in the descriptions that follow. 

Keating Boilers - During 1907-09. the Depai-tment received tvro steam house- 
heating boilers — one an American Hadiator Company type and the other a Mercer. 
3ach was jjrovided with its o;'m stack, load regulator, and complete au::illiary 
equipment for testing purposes. 

In I917-I2, the ICcv/anoc Boiler Company donated to the Department one of its 
standard tubular up-draft stOc-im-hcating brick-sot boilers, and erected it in place 
in the south bay of the laborator^A. The gift included also a stack for the boiler. 
The University supplied the brick ■■'ork, but the company paid all of the other ex- 
penses. 

In 1935-36, the Link Belt Company supplied as a gift to the University a 
mechanical stoker, No. 52, for use in connection with this boiler. At that time, 
also, the Field Manufacturing Company supplied gratis a barometric draft control 
for use at the base of the boiler st^ck. The complete outfit is still in use in 
I9U5. 

A number of other smaller boilers located in the laboratory, arc available 



179 

for instructional and experimental '//ork in hand-fired and stoker-fired systems of 
household heating. 

Warm -Air Furnace Testing Plant - For research pumoses, a 17am- air furnace 
testing plant was erected in the niddle bay of the laboratory- in 1917. consisting 
of a tower-like structure provided with three floor levels, the fui'nace occupy- 
ing a space on the siain floor level with the first, second and third floors above 
this level. The usual wam-air stacks were i)rovided from the furnace jacket to 
each of the floor levels, permitting a study of the movements of air in these 
devices, thereby enabling the staff to determine with precision the conditions 
affecting the efficiency of hot-air systems. 

Fan-Testing Flant - One section of the lower floor of the llechanical Engineer- 
ing Laboratory is arranged as a fan-testing plant in "hich have been installed 
eight or ten large-size blowers or fans of different ty])Gs and mal-zns equipped for 
testing according to the provisions of the AiMcrican Society of Heating and Venti- 
lating Engineers' Standard Code. These fans, driven mostly by electric motors of 
the dynariomcter type, vary in capacity up to 5,000 cubic feet of air per minute. 
Air ducts or tunnels simulating those found in jiracticc, servo as outlets to the 
fans. The rate of air movement in these ducts or pipes is measured by means of 
orifices, Pitot tubes, and other anemometer devices commonly used for flow-moter 
purposes. 

"iTarm-Wal 1 Tost Booth - In 1931. ^ warm-v/all test booth was set up on the main 
floor of the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory with construction featured in 
accordance with the specifications given in the American Society of Heating and 
Ventilating Engineers' Standard Code for Testing and Rating Concealed Gravity Type 
Radiation (Standard Code). The room, 12 feet by I3 feet U inches in plan and 9 
feet in height, is supplied \7ith several types of radiators, convectors, and en- 
closures for experimental work in steam and hot-water systems of heating, and with 
such auxilliary appliances'" are necessary for reading and recording temperature, 

humidity, and heat losses. 

1 
Constant -Temperature Room - In 1927. there was constructe d in the south bay 
1 The" Tcchnograph, March, l^FTTpagc 140. 



ISO 
of the main floor of the laboratory, a constant-temperature room l6 by 2] by l6 

feet. Within this main room were built two small rooms 9 ^7 H ^7 3 feet each. 
Under and over each small room was located an air space of about 12 inches, which 
was also insulated from the larger room, thereby giving what resembled a small 
one- room house with basement and attic. These smaller rooms were used for con- 
ducting experiments, which required constant temperatures, for testing the heat- 
insulating properties of building materials. The floor of the larger room was 
laid on the concrete laboratory floor and was composed of two ])-inch layers of 
cork board and one 3-inch layer of concrete. The corkboard was made in blocks, 
3 inches thick by 12 inches square. The two layers of cork were separated by a 
thin layer of psplialt, and the concrete was poured over the cork. The walls and 
ceiling of this larger room were made of the same materials, using three 2-inch 
layers of cork, separated by one-half inch of concrete mortar. One-half inch 
layer of cement plaster v/as laid on each aide of the cork wall. This constriction 
prevented loss of heat through the walls. • 

Thirteen thermo-couples were equally spaced in a horizontal position through- 
out the depth of the cork and concrete floor, at two sections of the large room. 
In this way the temi-jcraturc gradient could be determined of the materials under 
test. Sy substituting these sections for sections of other materials, also 
equipped with thermocouples, conductivity of any tj^oe of building material can be 
determined. 

At first, constant temperature was maintained by a thermostatically-controll- 
ed, single-cylinder, motor-driven, "iVorthington k -|-inch by h -y--inch, enclosed 
ammonia compression machine of about eight tons capacity, using a horizontal tube 
condenser v/all radiation, with circulators much like the ordinary wall radiators, 
instead of the usual pipe circulators. In I929, this compressor was taken out and 

a double-cylinder, 5-inch by 5-inch, motor-driven, York ammonia compressor of 

twelve 
about >«^ tons capacity, was installed in its stead, and is still in use for this 

purpose. 

In 1932, the constant-temperature tost plant was remodeled to the extent of 



121 
providing a single room 15 feet wide, IS feet long, and 8 f eet , b inches high, in 
place of the two smaller rooms previously described — the outside enclosing room 
remaining unchanged.- 

Air- Conditioning Plant - In 1936-37. the old T^ebster air washer, added to 
the laboratory equipment in I91U-I5, and typical of the type used for purifying 
and humidifying air in hotels, theaters, factories, and other large buildings, and 
the Buffalo Forge hot-blast heater adjacent to it, v/ere removed from the upper 
floor of the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory and in the space thus made avail- 
able was erected the new all-year air-conditioning plant used for the study of 
air-conditioning in undergraduate and graduate courses and for experimentation in 
this particular field of engineering practice. The different units that comprise 
the plant are types of appliances used in actual constiniction of air-conditioning.. 
They arc so arranged tiiat all combinations of the various methods of treating air 
can be used. The overall length of this plant — 42 foot, 8 inches — is greater 
than in most commercial plants of its type and capacity because an attempt v/as 
made to incorporate into this assemblage as many different features as possible. 

The equipment included Venturi sections for measuring the discharged air, 
recirculated air, and ventilating air; dry air filters of the pocket type and an 
air washer for cleaning the air, the air washer being also supplied with an in- 
direct water heater; mf\nual dampers for controlling the relative aiiiounts of by- 
passed air, recirculated air, and ventilating air; extended surface steam temper- 
ing coil; humidifying mist nozzles; extended surface coils for cooling and de- 
hiimidifying with water; extended- surface direct-expansion Froon evaporator; direct 
expansion Freon water cooler; and a Frcon condensing unit. The Frick Company, Inc. 
very generously made the University a gift of the 5 3/'+-inch by U-inch, tv/in 
cylinder, Standard Frick Froon compressor, complete with V-bclts, grooved com- 
pressor wheels and motor pulley. This compressor when operating at a speed of 
^+50 r.p.m., 38 degrees F. suction temperature, and 110 pounds condensing pressure, 
has a duty of 13»1 tons of refrigeration, . and requires apj>roximatcly 12./ boiler 
horsepower. 



182 

The equipment has a caj^acity of 3.000 cubic feet per minute. The fan motor 
and oompressor motor operate by 220-volt direct current with variable- speed con- 
trol. The entire assembly ;7as covered riith a 2-inch thick corkboard insulation 
from the air filters to the throat of the Venturi section for measuring the dis- 
charged air. The contract for the equipment, including complete erection, testinj-;; 
etc., v/as ai7arded to the Kid'.7est Engineering and Equipment Compan;/ of Chicago, who 
completed the assembling in the spring of 1937- 

The operation of the equipment is fully automatic with Powers' controls with 
the exception of the manually-operated air daiipers. Air cooling and dehumidifi- 
cation can be obtained by use of the air washer using chilled spray water, by use 
of chilled water in extended surface coils, and by direct oxi^ansion of Freon in an 
extended surface coil. 

One of the most interesting of the features of the equipment is the method 

of determining the humidity of the air in the ducts. Throughout the unit, there 

are sets of wet-bulb and dry-bulb thermometers located at critical' points. These 

thermocouples are connected to the main control board, the difference in wet-bulb 

temperature and drj^'-bulb temperature being determined at any actual point in the 

1 
eystem. Prom this difference, the humidity of the air is easily determined. 

The apparatus is suitable for use in detailed studies of: 

1. Air defining by use of either filters or washers. 

2. Air humidif ication. 

3. Air cooling and dehumidif ication by three different pieces of apparatus. 

h. Hot -blast heating using either stefiri or hot water as a heating medium. 

5. Heat transfer of finned coils using either steam or hot water as a 
heating medium. 

b. Heat transfer of finned-tube cooling coils, using either chilled water 
or direct expansion of the refrigerant (Freon) with wet and dry surfaces. 

7. Problems involving the reheating of cooled and dehumidified air by use 
of either a steam reheating coil or by by-passing recirculated air. 

8. All-year air-conditioning of spaces in which typical load conditions 
nay be maintained either in summer or winter. 

9 » Centrifu g al fan perforL iance under different load conditions. 

1 The Technograph, December, 1937. page 9. 



123 

10. Precision measurements of both di'^'' and wet bulb air tenjieratures. 

11. Air distribution by means of nozzles, ^rrills, diffusers, etc. 

12. The measurement of air-flow and friction loGset; in ducts of varying 
section. and shape and different units such as filters and coils. 

Warm- Ai r Heating Research Hesidence - During a special convention held at 
the University on December U, I923, the National '^am Air Heating and Ventilating 
Association made available a fund of $2S,000 for the purchase of a lot and for the 
construction and equipment of a residence to be knov^n as the Warm Air Heating 
Research Residence, for experimental use by the University in warm-air heating, 
ventilating, and air-conditioning studies. The site chosen for the residence was 
at llOS ITest Stoughton Street, Urbaiia, about a block from the University campus. 
The house, a modei'n three-story fr?ir.ie structuie containing eight rooms, was com- 
pleted in the fall of I92U at a cost of $22,800, and was dedicated on Tuesday, 
December 2, following — the dedication services being held in the building itself. 
Title to the real estate is held in trust for the Association ^y three trustees, 
one of whom is a member of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the 
University. 

During constiniction and after, the building was elaborately equipped with 
both indicating and recording instruments for the measurement of temperatures, 
air quantities and velocities, humidity, wind movement and direction, fuel con- 
sumption and waste. The house was furnished with regular living facilities so 
that the conditions prevailing in actual residences v/ould be duplicated in so far 
as possible. 

I-3-R Research Home - In April 19^0, the Institute of Boiler and Radiator 
Manufacturers signed a contract with the University, effective as of January 2, 
19^0, providing the sum of $24,000 for erecting and equipping a Research Resi- 
dence and for conducting research on steam and hot-water systems of heating. A 
lot located at the southwest corner of Green and Busoy Streets in Urbana, was 
purchased with the funds, and plans and specifications wore drawn by J. E. Stewart, 
Associate in Architecture in the University. Construction was started in May, 



19^+0, the 'building being a typical two-stoiy, red-brick veneer on a frame 
structure v?ith an attached garage, and representing houses between the $6,000 and 
$7,000 class. All of the outside walls and the second floor ceiling arc insulated 
with full- thickness nineral wool bats. 

Daring the time of construction, all necessary thoniiocouples, noisturc- 
mcasuring stations, and other facilities for the study of the thcrn;d. and ph;,'sical 
properties of the house structure were built into the walls. The house was com- 
pleted and all furniture and instruraents were installed b^- the latter part of the 
year. All necessary cquipncnt for the study of the atnosphcric and environmental 
conditions within the rooms effecting human comfort as well as for the operating 
characteristics of the heating plant itself were installed. Experimental work 
was begun about the first of January, 19^1. 

C. MSCHAi'ICAL REFRIGSHATION 

General - In 190^, the Department installed in the now iicchanical Engineer- 
ing Laboratory a vertical, twin-cylinder, ammonifi compressor, with, single-acting, 
open-frame, horizontal Corliss type of steam engine, made by the York Manufactur- 
ing Compan^% This plant was completely overhauled in 1920-21, r/hen new cylinders 
were provided and the entire machine was taken down, inspected, and carefully ad- 
justed for jjroper operation. This equipment, still in use in 19^5. I'^as a re- 
frigerating capacity of about 10 tons at SU r.p.m. The intake pressure is 20 
pounds a square inch at the gage and delivery pressure is I65 pounds at the gage. 
The steam-supply pressure is 15O pounds a square inch. 

In 1920, the Department installed a 10-ton ammonia absorption refrigerating 
plant puTcliasod from the Henry Vogt Machine Company of Louisville, Kentucky, This 
plant Was dismantcled about 19^1. 2)r use in research work, the Automatic Car- 
bonic Machine Company of Peoria, loaned the Department a 10-ton carbon dioxide 
compressor, condenser,, and auxilliary apparatus, which v/as set up during 1922-24. 
This plant was also disiiantelcd a fc".7 years ago. 

For demonstration })uriJ0scs, the General Household Utilities Company, in 1935. 
provided the Department with a WilliaLi CGi-nnow household-type of refrigerator 



185 

unit complete, but without the enclosing case. The Freon refri {deration unit in- 
stalled in 1937i in connection with the special experinental air conditioning 
plant, is also available for studies in the field of refrigeration. 

The single-cylinder 'iTorthini-^ton ammonia conpressor that was formerly used in 
connection with the constant-temperature room, and the douhle-cylinder York 
machine that is nov7 used for that purpose, are both available for instructional 
and experimental v/ork in the field of mechanical refrigeration. 

It is apparent from the above descriptions, that throuchout the years, the 
Department has boon rather reasonably well supplied with facilities for conduct- 
ing classroom, laboratory, and experimental work with various t^rpes of refriger- 
ating systems used in space-coolin;;, cold-storage, and ice-production, as a means 
of demonstrating the economic and commercial ta])pli cations of refrigeration to 
domestic and industrial purjioscs. 

D. THSRIiODTilAillCS 

General - Since the opening of tho University, a limited number of engines 
and boilers of various tyi)os finil makes have been available for stud,y and demon- 
stration of the T^rinciplcs aiia la'"'s governing the behavior of liquids, gases, and 
vapors when subjected to applications of heat. In 1935-^0, however, there v/as 
begun the development of a new special or sc]iarate thcrmodyn.-uaics laboratory in 
which undergraduate students, graduate students, and members of the faculty could 
carry on research in the field of thermodynamics — a subject pertaining to the 
study of heat and the application of its meclaanical power to machines of productkji 
03:ieratod by stc;ui or by gas, oils, and other liquid fuels. Tho laboratory was 
first located in Hoom 112 of the Mechanical Laboratory Building, but in the 
summer of 19^0, it v;as transferred to Room 101 of the saiae building. The equip- 
ment consists of apparatus for mniiing accurate determinations of temperature and 
the I'atc and volume of flow of liquids, gases, and vapors used in heat engines; 
of investigations of heat transfer by conduction, radiation, and convection; and 
of calibration or stand<ardization of instruments used in thermodynamic experiments. 
The apparatus includes various makes and types of pyrometers and calorimeters; 



is6 

Venturi meters, Fitot tubes, orifices, and nozzles; and facilities for standardiz- 
ing insti'UKients used in investigational work in the field of thermodynamics. 

In addition to providing original instruction for students regarding the 
properties of heat and heat engines, the equipment has served to supply a vast 
amount of data that have been useful in the publication of several bulletins by 
the jJngineering Experiment Station and a n-umber of textbooks by members of the 
staff that have been considered to be valuable contributions to the literature in 
this particular field. G-oodenough's "Principles of Thermod^.mamics" and his 
"Propoi-tics of Steam and Ammonia", for example, have long been standard texts for 
the solution of problems in the domain of thermodynamics. 
S. RAILWAY TEACK AID ROLLING STOCP: 

Dynamometer Gar or Ra,i Iwa^- Test Car llo . bOg - In addition to the laboratory 
facilities of its own just described, the University hjid an interest in a con- 
siderable aiiount of apparatus dosignod for use in locomotive road tests. On June 
6, ISgS, the Department of lIccl-ianiCcTl Engineering received Joint o#ncrship ',7ith 
the Peoria and Eastern Division of the Big Foui Railway of the fully- equipped 
dynamometer car, No. 609, built in the Urbana shops of that lino and installed un- 
der the direction of members of the Department. The cquijmont in this car was de- 
signed and constructed for locomotive and other railway tests under actual service 

conditions, and was used for no other jmrposc. It had sleeping accomodations for 

1 
four men. Brief mention was made of this outfit in The Toclinograph of I39S-99 as 

follows: 

"It is designed v/ith special reference to the following service: 

1. To secure greater convenience in making locomotive road tests. 

2. To provide an automatic apparatus for recording pull at the dra'<7-bar of 
the tender. 

3. To permit the inspection of the track for gage, alignment, surface, 
joints, aiid elevation of curves. 

U. To determine train resistance. 

5. To tost the operation of air brakes in service.. 



1 Volume XIII, pages U0-U7 , by "iT. \h Webster, '99, and H. K. Ely, '99. 



187 

6. To test stationary plants. 

"For this purpose a caboose -.las. rebuilt, being mounted on four-wheeled 
passenger trucks, equipped with iI.C»3. couplers and Westinghouse air brakes. The 
car was 36 feet long and weighed about 3diOOO pounds. 

"The speed of the train during the tests was measured by a Boyer speed re- 
corder driven fron the car axle by a wire belt. 

"The following records v/orc made: boiler pressure, stean chest and air 
pressures, revolutions of the driving wheels, amount of water furnished to the 
boiler (by meter), position of the reversing lever, tine of passing mile posts, 
time of taking indicator cards, and a continuous record of the piull of the train." 

The car was sold about 1902-03, for the University was not able to justify 
the maintenance of t'.vo cars of this tyi)e, since it had only recently acquired the 
one desdribed in the follo-jing section. 

Dynamometer Car or Ra,ilway Test Car N0.I7 - To facilitate the work in railway 
mechanical engineering, the University and the Illinois Central Railroad in 190O 
jointly built, under the direction of members of the staff of the Department of 
Mechanical Engineering, a dynaLiometer car which was equipi^ed V7ith all the appa- 
ratus necessary for cari'ying on track inspection, train-resistance "experiment s, 
and tests of locomotive performance, In the six-year period from I9OO to I906, 
this car was operated by the students and instructors over the entire Illinois 
Central Railway System, as well as on portions of the liner, of the New Jersey 
Central, the Baltimore and Ohio, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis, 
and the New York Centr-d rail'vays, in the successful and satisfactory establish- 
ment of tonnage rating-j under different service situations. The car had also been 
used in determining train resistances under varying conditions to provide in- 
formation for the electrification of the New York Central Railway's New York City 
terminal, and in tests between steam locomotives and electric motor-cars at the 
works of the General 3lectric Company, at Schenectady, Ncvr York. 

When the Department of Railwoy Engineering was established in I906, the car 
was transferred to that department, where it remained, although mechanically 
changed and rcnumbered» until the Department was dissolved in 19^0. The car was 
then assigned to the Department of Electrical Engineering. 



1 Further description given in Chapter XV. 



igs 

F. DEVELOPMENT OF SHOP LA30HAT0:ilY FAGILITIZS 

First Mechanical Engineering Shops - The Catalogue and Circular of I869-7O, 

issued after the second story had been added to the first Mechanical Engineering 

Shop Building contained the following description of this shop; 

"A mechanical shop, occupying a two-story (wooden) iDuilding, is now es- 
tablished on the grounds of the University. In the upper story is the carpenter's 
shop. This shop is supplied with a circular-saw, Jig-saw, morticing machine, and 
a set of work benches and vises for students, with all the necessary carpenter's 
and cabinct-malccr' s tools. The lower story is devoted to the machine shop, which 
is furnished with a boiler and stc-ui engine of eight horsepower; a machinist's 
'engine lath©', and tv;o hand lathes, fitted with chucks, drills, etc.; a v/ood- 
tui-ning lathe; a pattorn-mrj-ccr 's bench, with its complement of tools; a black- 
snith shop; molding-sand, crucibles etc. for ranking brass nnd. other castings; 
several iron vices, and sundry other tools valuable in the machino-shop. The 
engine is of spoci!il design, being adapted to receive different sets of valve- 
goars, for the pui'jjoso of illustrating to the classes, ii- a "'orking model, the 
different varieties of steam engine. In the ni^chanical shop, models ajid appa- . 
ratus arc constantly boing made 1)1'' the students, v/ith the assintnjicc of the di- 
rector of the shops, njid '^ddcd to thn pr'^sciit set of valuable illustrative appn,- 
ratus of the class room. 

"N. B. - Ai^paratus, of good quality, can be furnisihed for high schools and 
colleges. Orders are solicited," 

The First ShopL; of the Ile-.T Mechanical Building , 1272 - The Cat^ogue of IS72 
and lS73i the first issue after the opening of the new Mechanical Building^ and 
Drill Hall, described the shop equiiment used by the Department of Mechanical 
Engineering somewhat as follows. 

The boiler and furnace room of the nev/ Mechanical Building contained 
a Root's Sectional Safety Boiler of 33 horsepower, which supplied steam 
for the engine and for warming the building. The forge and furnace were 
in this room and also a moulder's bench with sand aiid the appliances for 
n.atring brass, iron, and othor'castings. The room also contained the pumps, 
a StillY/ell heater and lime extractor for supplying the boiler with water. 

The machine shop contained the engine that was designed by Professor 
Robinson and made by students in the University. Its nominal capiacity was 
16 horsepower, but was capable of developing 30 or oven more. It v/as regu- 
lated by a voxiable cut-off of novel yet simple const inaction worked out by 
Professor Robinson. A Richard's indicator of the most apr^rovcd pattern was 

1 Pago 20. 



189 

fitted to the cylinderc. The main line of dri ve- shaft ing 77as cold- 

i-olled iron, 72 feet long, and furnished \7ith the best iron pulleys 

and hangers. The shop contained a Putnam engine lathe of 20-inch 

s'.7ing by 10-foot bed. It contained also an Ames lathe of 15-inch 

swing by 6-foot bed. It had, in addition, a Putnam planer for iron, 

planing 5 feet long. There were two hand lathes with swings about 10 

inches by U feet that were made by the students. There was a stretch 

of about 100 feet of heavy hard-v70od benches, fitted with vises, drawers, 

tool cases, etc. The steam-heating coils for the machine shop v/ere 

under these benches. There was, furthermore, a grindstone, and a No.l 

Sturtevant pressure blower for furnishing blast to the furnace and 

and forge. 

In the pattern shop wore four complete sets of tools, benches and 

vises, each sufficient for a pattern-wiakcr. There was also a small 

buzz-saw. • 

1 
Mechanical Engineering Sho_ns, 18^0- 18^3 - 'i^hcn the !:ilitary Department moved 

into its new Armory in I89O, the Department of Mochanical 3nginecring took over 
the space vacated on the second floor of the old Mechanical Building and Drill 
Hsdl, knoT/n at that time as Mechanical Building or l;achinoi-y Hall, and moved into 
it the machine shop, wood shop, pattern sliop, find store room formerly located on 
the first floor of that building. At that time, and probably earlier, each of 
the four units, the machine shop, wood shop, forge shop, and foundry, was in 
charge of a separate instructor. 

The machine shop occupied a room SO feet by I2U foot, and contained twelve 
engine lathes of different miikes, varying from 12 to 2U-inch swing, ten hand 
lathes, one planer, two shapers, thrci; drill presses, a small milling machine, a 
universal milling machine, a universal grinding machine, sixteen vises with corre- 
sponding benches, standard calipers, gauges, taps, dies, drills, renjners, etc. Be- 
tween 1890 and l895i there was added two more engine lathes, one of '.vhich had a 



1 The Tcchnograph, I89I-92, Front, 



igo 

27-inch swing, and one planer 30 inches by 30 inches by 8 feet. 

The one- story annex that v/as added to the "building for a blacksmith shop in 
I8S5, according to the I89I-92 issue of the University Catalogue, contained six- 
teen forges with power blast, and an equal number of anvils with accessory equip- 
ment. 

After the foregoing changes, the foundry located on the first floor of the 
building was able to exjiand somewhat. In I89I-92, according to the records, it 
contained a cupola for nulting iron, a moulding floor for sand, a number of flasks 
and necessary auxilliarj'- facilities to accommodate 16 persons. 

The University carpenter shop used for building repair and other general 
purposes and also for a wood-shop for the students m Arcliitocture, was also lo- 
cated on the first floor of this building. In I89I-92, it contained an endless 
bed surfacer, pony planer, moulding machine, tenoning machine, shaping machine, 
jointing and rabbeting mo.chinc, boring machine, morticing machine, scroll saw, 
six sets of carving tools, and forty-eight cases of cabinet maker's tools with 
suitable benches. In I89U-95, according to The Tochnograph, the wood shop had 
fourteen new work benches, a universal trimmer, a 3^-inch band sav;, a 20-inch 
wood planer, and a full lino of tools. 

In I89^9l3i the boiler room adjoining Machinery Hall, contained tv/o 35-horso- 

1 
pov/er horizontal, tubular boilers, that furnished power for a 25-horscpowcr Ball 

2 
automatic engine and for heating the building and the new Armory. 

Machine Shop or I lac hi no Tool Laboratory , 1 89 3-^9^5 - ^^<^ University Cata- 
logue of 1896-97 stated in regard to the machine shop then located in the new 
Mechanical Building later called Machine Tool Laboratory: 

"The machine shop contains one 27-inch by 12-foot bod F. 3. Reed & Company 
engine lathe; twclvo engine lathes of from 12 to 20-inch r-inge; two 10-inch speed 
lathes; one centering lathe; one 15-inch Gould & Eberhardt sha,per; one 15-inch 
Hc^ndcy shaper; one II0.3 Bro'.vn & Sharpe plain milling machine; ono Brainard uni- 
versal milling machine; ono 20 by 20-inch by five-foot Putnam planer; one J>0 by 
30-inch by 8-foot G. A. Gray & Company planer; one Ko. 2 improved Bro'.rn & Sharpe 



1 Sometimes rated as high as 50 horecpower. 

2 The Technograph, I89U-95, page 180. 

3 Page 69. 



191 

universal grinding machine; one Brovm & Sharpe cutter and reanier grinder; one 
2U-inch drill presa; one 20-inch drill press; one sensitive drill press; one 
Water emery tool grinder; one center grinding machine; one Stover power laack saw; 
one Worcester twist drill grinder, complete set of United States standard taps 
and dies; drills., arbors ; reamers, gear and milling cutters, calipers, caliper 
gauges, scales, and other small tools." 

Another reference stated that; 

"During the summer of 1913 ■ several ne'.v machines wore added to the shop. 
One was the horizontal drilling, boring, and milling machine manufactured by 
Lucas Machine Tool Company of Cleveland, Ohio. The spindle on this machine could 
be adjusted for height, thus doing away with the old method of adjusting the 
table to the spindle. Another machine was a tilted turret lathe manufactured by 
the Wood Turret Lathe Company of Brazil, Indiana. It was capable of taking v/ork 
up to an inch and a half in diaiicter. Still another was a lJo.2 Universal cutter 
and tool grinder made by the Ocsterlcin Machine Company of Cincinnati, Ohio. It 
was capable of grinding, nilling, and gear cutting, 

"A ncv line shaft in two units was installed. One unit ha.d roller bearings 
and was driven through a ilorris silent chain drive by a separate motor. The other 
was belt driven and had an old stylo babbit bearing. The arrangement provided 
more floor space. The cmnc sp.an was changed from 12 feet to 3 feet in order to 
make room for the nc\7 line shaft."-'- 

During the next several years, the shops wore provided with many nev/ machines 
including gear-cutting and milling machines, automatic and turret lathes, engine 
lathes, shapers, planers, drilling machines, boring mills, precision and tool- 
grinding machines, and so on, several of which were equipped with dyn.'tmomct ers by 
means of which it is possible to obtain essential records of power input and con- 
sumption, friction losses, torque, and thrust in drilling and other operations. 

In addition, facilities have been provided for ma>:ing tests of lubricating 
oils in the stud;/ of such properties as specific gravity, viscosity, flash, fire, 
and color. Furthormoru, there has been sup-plied a complete set of special tools, 
jigs, and fixtures for demonstrating the methods used in a jiodern mas s-]jro duct ion 
shop. 

In the almost half centui-y thfit the Machine Shop or I'iachinc Tool Laboratory 
has occupied its present fiu-.rters, the machines have become crowded because of 
limitations in sptice demonstrating the need cf providing greater floor area for 
this purpose. In spite of limitations, however, the facilities have served the 
pui-pose of supplying training to long lists of students enrolled in the College 
courses and of furnishing valuable materials published in several bulletins issued 



1 The Teclinograph, November, 1913. Volixme XXVIII, Ko.l 



192 

by the Engineering Experiment Stsition. 

1 
^■7ood Shop - The 1296-97 Catalo,3uc stated: 

"The V70od ahop occupies a part of the second floor of the Enginocring 
Laboratory (old Vfood Shop and Testing Lab. originally the Kcchanical Building and 
3rill Hall) aiid contains twenty-six inprovod v/ood-working benches, fourteen of 
which are fitted v.dth 'ihmrai & Gordon patent vises; one 3U-inch F. H. Clenent & Co. 
band sav/; one 36-inch Yorkes & Finan band sa'./; one 20-inch Clenent & Conpany wood 
planer; one J. A. Fay & Co. Jig saw; one J. A. Fny & Co. Jointer; eight 10-inch 
wood lathes; one 18-inch pattern Linker's lathe; one No. k E. Fox trinncr; together 
with a conplcte cquipncnt of snail tools." 

When the new "ood Shop 3uilding was completed in I902, it was provided vdth 
a lecture roon, an exhibition room, a tool room, an office, a pattern-storage 
room, and a repair woi'k room all in addition to a bench room, a lathe room and a 
machine room. Some of the equipment was transferred to these new quarters from 
the old shop building and laboratory mentioned in the preceding paragraph. Other 
portions of the equipment were new. 

After the shop instruction was completely reorganized about I926, students 
were no longer re-juired to execute manual exercises in wood 'work, such as bench 
practice and turning. They were, hov/ever, required to carr,- on with training in 
the pattern laboratory, which has continued to bo anply sup])lied vdth the nccessaiy 
machines and tools for the design and production of metal and wooden patterns on 
a mass-production basis. 

In 1937» thi3 Division of Industrial Education of the College of Education 
began to utilize the facilities in the bench and lathe rooms for conducting 
teacher-training laboratory courses in industrial arts including -Tood working and 
general shop practice, and has continued to do so to date. 

Foundry - The IS9U-95 University Catalogue stated: 

The foundry is equipped with a small cupola, the necessary sand, ladles, 
crane, and flasks for making castings." 

It was then located in the old Mechanical Building and Drill Eall. The next 

year it was moved into its new quarters called Machinery Hall (novf Ha,chino Tool 

Laboratory) and the I896-97 Catalogue stated: 



1 Page 65 

2 After the fire of I9OO, a wood shop was provided temporarily with new equipment 
in the basement of the llochanical and Electrical Engineering 3ailding. 



i-ngi 
-„„- ^1 
Page 



Pa.o ^1 



193 

"The foundry occupies a room US by Ug feet in Machinery Hall and is e- •• 
quipped with a 2U-inch "iThiting patent cupola, of two-tons capacity, a core oven, 
and the necessary sand, ladles and flasks for mailing castings. A No. 7 Buffalo 
steel pressure fan furnishes the "blast for the cupola". A small traveling crane 
had also been provided at that time. 

According to the records of I9IS, the foundry then had a brass furnace with 
a capacity of 5OO pounds of brass at one time, and it had also an electric gyra- 
tory riddle, and a Tabor shocklecs jarring roll-over moulding macMne. 

Several new machines were installed in 1923- A Jolt Stripper machine made by 
Osborn Manxifacturing Company was used in connection with the Tabor Stripper 
machine, the Jolt Stri])per being used to produce the cope or upper part of the 
flask, and the Tabor machine the drag, or the lower part of the flask. Both ma- 
chines automatically rairimcd the sand and drew the patterns. The two machines were 
used principally in the production of fly-wheel, cranii-case, and cylinder-block 
castings for the gas-engine parts tliat '.vere being turned out on a commercial scale 
in the shops as student exercises. 

An International molding machine of the roll-over pattern draw-type, manu- 
factured by the Standard Equipment Company, was also installed in 1923. and v/as 
used in "tumbling" the production castings of the gas engines manufactured by the 
students in the shops. • 

There was acquired in I92U-25 one radiation pyrometer, two Brown long- 
distance recording thermometers, one grinding machine, and one universal sand 
riddle. There was installed in 1927-28, a Booth electric furnace for experimental 
work in the foundry laboratory. It operates on 110 volts, 185 amperes, and is 
Capable of melting 60 pounds or iron or steel in about 30 minutes. The laboratory 
received also at that time, a Mcllvine moisture recorder for the determination of 
moisture content of molding sand. 

Other equijjment was provided from time to time so that in 19^5 the facilities 
include complete apparatus for testing, sifting, mixing, and grading foundry sands; 
various types of moulding machines, including stripper, squeezer, roll-over, and 



19^ 
jolt varieties; a cupola for the melting of gray iron; an electric and a gas 
furnace for melting of non-ferrous metals; a crucible pit; apparatus for making 
and baking cores, and for the study of core oils; and necessaiy machinery for 
cleaning castings. In addition to receiving instruction in foundry practice, manj' 
students have been able to carry out experiments of their own in connection with 
special problems that have arisen in their own practical experience. Besides all 
that, the staff has been able to utilize the facilities to provide data for a 
number of bulletins issued by the Engineering Experiment Station. 

Eo rge Shop - In I89U-95, according to the University Catalogue, the forge 
shop, then located in the Mechanical Building and Drill Hall, contained, as previ- 
ously stated, sixteen forges fitted with a blower or power blast, exhaust fan, 
and the necessary small tools. In 1895. the equipment was transferred to Machines 
Hall (no"^ the Machine Tool Laboratory); and the I896-97 issue of the Catalogue 
stated that the forge shop occupied a room 36 feet by U8 feet in the east end of 
this building, and contained ten of the latest improved Buffalo down-draft forges. 
Blast was furnished these forges by a No. 5 Sturtevant pressure blower, and all 
gases of combustion v/ere exhausted underground by means of a No, 9 Sturteveint ex- 
haust fan. The shop was also equipped with the usual supply of small tools. 

When the foundry was moved from the middle room in Machinery Hall to its 
present location in the east end of the ¥ood Shop Building in I90U, the forge 
shop was moved from the east room to the space thus vacated in the middle room. 

A new punching and shearing machine driven by a 5-horsepo'.7cr motor was in- 
stalled in the forge shop according to the March, 191c?. issue of the Tochnograph. 
The machine had a 2U-inch jaw and was fitted with complete attachments for punch- 
ing and shearing iron bars, steel plates, angle iron, and roxmd and s^tiare rods. 
During I912, a 350-pound Niles Boment steam hammer was added to the equipment in 
the forge shop, the old forges being taken out and sold. For experimental and 
instructional use in the forge laboratory, the Department const meted during 
I92I-22 a 100,000-pound hydraulic testing machine after plans prepared by Pro- 
fessor E. F, Koorc of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. 



195 

In many respects the machine is similar in design to its 25,000-pound prototype 
built in the SJiop Laboratories in 191^+, except that the earlier machine was e- 
quipped with a hani-operated hydraulic pump. 

The forge laborato'ry was entirely rearranged in I923, The east room of the 
laboratory was equipped for work in the heat-treatment of steel — all forging 
machines and apparatus being removed to the west room, which was continued as the 
metal-working laboratory. All instructional work in the forge shop was discon- 
tinued, however, in 1926, and the forges and forging equipment TTore reiaoved to 
provide additional space for the heat- treatment equipment, 

Heat-Treatment Laboratory - The work in the heat-treatment of steel began 
about I9IO-I2 in connection vith forge-shop practice. An oxy-acetylene welding 
and cutting outfit was set up in the forge laboratory in l^'l^; and a full re- 
vision was made of the equipment for the study of heat-treatment. Jive gas and 
electric furnaces with cyanide and oil baths that were provided v/ithin the next 
four years were placed under a ventilated steel housing. 

iiTheu the forge laboratory was rearranged in I923, the entire east room of tte 
Machine Tool Laboratory Building was set aside for the work in heat-treatment of 
metals, as previously mentioned. The furnaces were located in a group in this 
heat-treatment room. A physical laboratory was set up adjacent to the battery of 
furnaces so that the students could study heat-treated materials by means of the 
Brinnell and sclcroscope machines acquired at that time. A new microscope was 
also added then for use in the examination of heat-treated steels. Other equip- 
ment provided with the next year or so consisted of a gas heat-treatment furnace 
an electric furnace, a crucible heat-treating furnace, recording conti-'ollers, and 
additional microscopes. 

Vifhen the forge laboratory was discontinued as such in I926, the space was 
given over to additional heat -treatment furnaces and other heat-treatment facili- 
ties — the equipment in the east room being transferred to the space thus 
vacated. Additional apparatus supplied at that time or shortly thereafter in- 
cluded a Hockwcll hardness testing machine, an electric etching and demagnetizing 



196 

machine using 110-volt alternating current, gas and electric furnaces, recording 
scleroscopes, a tensile testing machine, polishing and etching machines, metal- 
lurgical microscopes, indicating and recording pyrometers, a micrograph cajnera, 

and miscroscopes all for the meticulous study of the annealing, hardening, 

tempering, fjjad carburizing processes involved in the production of carbon and 
alloy steels and of the heat-treatment of non-ferrous metals. 

Cut ting and Welding Laboratory - In the summer of I936, the Physical Plant 
Department of the University prepared space for a now welding laboratory in the 
Wood Shop by rcEioving the partitions between the old lathe room and the store 
room. This new space was provided with a concrete floor. In September, 1936, the 
Lindo Air Products Company installed the necessary piping and manifolds for fif- 
teen oxy-acotylcno torches. This company then made a peruanent loan to the De- 
partment of the fifteen torches, together with sufficient regulators and other 
equipment, so tliat all of the torches could be used simultaneously. ?rom time to 
time, other organizations, also, liavc loaned cquiimcnt including direct -current 
and alternating-current apjiliances, for use in connection with the welding course. 

In addition to the gas and cutting and welding apparatus, there has been 
added a variety of polishing and etching equipment, a number of microscopes, and 
an assortment of testing machines, for the scientific study of the usual types of 
electric-arc and oxy-acotylene v/clding processes employed in commercial and in- 
dustrial practice. 

G. FiUSSUli 1'LA.TSEIALS AND COLLECTIONS 

G-cneral - Due to lack of space suitable for assembling and exhibiting museum 
materials, the Department has not been able to accxxmulatc any more than the very 
few pieces of equipment mentioned below that have had some special significance 
in connection with University development or relationships. 

Robinson Engine - The original 35-h-orsepower stcajm engine made by Professor 
Robinson and his students within a year or so after the Department began in the 
early '70's, is mounted on the main floor of the Mechanical Engineering Laboratoi^ 
where it is being preserved as a tribute to the woi-k of this great pioneer in 



197 

engineering education. 

Chicago Edison Company ' s Triple Expansion Engine and G-enerator - The Depart- 
ment has installed on the main floor of the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory one 
of the original ten GOO-horsepower engines that v/ere built "by the Southwark 
ffbundiy and Machine Company of Philadelphia, and that V7ere operated for a number 
of years in the Harrison Street Station of the Commonwealth Edison Company, having 
been erected there in the v/inter of 1893-9'+ and placed in service on August 1, 
18914- — this particular one having been presented to the University on March 8, 
1916, by Samuel Insull for his corporation. 

Originally, there xiere connected to the engine, one on each side, two 200- 
kilowatt, direct-cur: ent generators, built by the General Electric Company. The 
Chicago Edison Company later replaced these generators v/ith the present double- 
current machines, one for alternating and the other for direct current, which 
were among the first of this type of generators constructed. 

During its dfjy, this plant was considered to bo among the most" outstanding 
of its kind in this country and attracted v/ide attention. The rapid progress 
made in the design of contral-station facilities, however, soon made this particu- 
lar equipment obsoloto. 

Other Materials - The Register of I915-I6 contained the following statement 

regarding musexim materials and collections: 

"This department includes in its equipment a set of Heuleaux models, models 
of valve gears; sections of steam pumps; injectors; valves, skeleton steam and 
water gauges; standard packings; steam-pipe coverings; and droj) forgings. There 
are also examples of castings; perforated metal, defective boiler plate, and a 
set of drills, with samples of oil, iron, and steel. A number of working draw- 
ings from leading firms form a valuable addition to the collection." 

E. FACULTY PBHSONl^H 

General - A complete list of faculty members who have been connected with the 

Department of Mechanical Engineering in any capacity \Tith the rank of instructor, 

research assistant, or higher grade, together with brief biographical sketches 

giving dates of connection with the University, promotions, titles, and other 

items of interest compiled from official sources, is presented in chronological 

1 Page 65. 



19« 
order according to rank in the follovdng pages. 

a. Heads of the Department 

General - Stillman Williams Robinson served as Head of the Department of 
Mechanical Engineering from 1870 until I878. Selim Hobart Peabody siicceded him 
with the title of Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Physics and continued 
until 1881, when he became Regent of the University. He was followed by his sen, 
Cecil Hobart Peabody, who remained Head of tht:: Department until 1883 . Arthur 
Tannant Woods succeeded him and continued until I89I, after which Charles Walter 
Scribner was Head until 1893- Lester Paige Breckenridge then became Head of the 
Department and continued until 1909, after which, George Alfred Goodenough, as 
Assistant Professor of Mecha/dcal Engineering, was Acting Head from 1909 to 1911. 
Charles Russ Richards succeeded him and was Head until 1920. Arthur Cutts 
Willard then follrwed, serving as Head from 1920 to 1933= Oscar Adolph Leutwiler 
became Head in 1933 and continued in that capacity until 19U$, when Alonzo 
Plumsted Kratz became Acting Head. Brief biographical sketches of these men 
follow. 

Stillman Williams Robinson was born on a farm near South Reading, Vermont, 
March 6, I838. He served four years, 1855-59, as an apprentice in a machine shop. 
This experience impressed him with a desire for a college education in mechanical 
engineering, but he could find no institution offering such a course. He decided 
that the best he could do was to take a course in civil engineering in the Univer- 
sity of Michigan. With only eight dollars in his pocket, he started on foot for 
that institution. It is not known hov;^ long it took him to cover the distance, 
more than 600 miles; but it is known that vrtien he arrived he had fifty-eignt 
dollars, which he had earned on the way working as a mechanic. On January 1, 
1861, he entered the University of Michigan as a sophomore in civil engineering^ 
and was graduated in June, 1863. He paid his way through college by graduating 
thermometer scales, at first doing his work by hand, and later making a machine 
for the purpose which enabled him to employ other students to help him in the 
business. From I863 to I868 he was an assistant in the U.S. Lake Survey; from 
September, I866, to January, 18? 0, he was a teacher in 



:..! ^^ticii ^1:.;. .JV3i: j:.U.;:- 2\lil Ji:.-!! 
x^m/ JneittJifiasiC: :>raffl6t orfir.- 

■;saoIA !'..:{t; .<;i' ' - :mJ:d'«po b^- 



ji; bnx'i bJJj 



•ri BA8X 



199 

the University of Michigan — for the last three years "being Assistant Professor 
of Mining Engineering and Geodesy. His graduating thesis was entitled "A ¥ev? Form 
of Suspension Bridge"; and within the next year after graduation he published in 
the Journal of the Franklin Institute two papers on that subject and a third upon 
a related subject. In the second year after graduation he published articles on 
magnetic circuit breakers, structural nechanics, and a classic on Stadia Survey- 
ing. The third year after graduation he put forth a paper sho^ring how to attain 
certain artistic effects with the jets of water of a fountain. In I867, then very 
early in the history of machine rock-drills, he took out a patent on a steam rock 
drill which he had tested in the Hoosac Tunnel, then a grave-yard for many rock- 
cutting devices. It is said that two men with Robinson's drill could do as much 
'.70 rk as sixteen with the machine boring next to his. 

It would have been difficult, if not imposr-iiblo at this time, to have found 
a man with a more promising education and better technical record for a pioneer 
professor of ncchanical engineering; and subsequent events show that he was equal- 
ly well equipped in other important respects. 

Although instruction in the University began March 2, 186S, the College of 
Engineering may be said to have started as a separate entity when Professor Robin- 
son entered upon his duties as Professor of Mechanical Science and Engineering. 
The appointment of Professor Robinson on December 13, IS69, and his entry upon 
his work January 1, IS70, inaugurated the third attempt in this country to give 
insti-uction in mechanical engineering — Massachusetts Institute of Toclinology 
having already preceded it in IS65, and Worcester Polytoclinic Institute, in 1S6S. 

Professor Robinson's work in his recitation room was a unique innovation and 
an inspiration to his students. The class room work in machine design v/as pro- 
fessedly instruction in invention; and while it violated some fundamental princi- 
ples in education, it vias eminently successful in arousing the enthusiasm of the 
students, and it is certain that the results justified the method. With small 
classes and a genius for a teacher, some of the more staid iniles of educational 
practice may be disregarded. The fact that Professor Robinson obtained about 



200 
forty successful and valuable patents, 1)631:163 being the inventor of several im- 
portant machines and mechanical devices that are not patented, is some evidence 
that the classroom work in machine design was neither aimless or useless, and that 
it conformed to good mechanical practice. All of Professor Hobinson's inventions 
were the results of stud;>r and investigation, and were not accidental discoveries. 
Of the machines designed in the classroom and made in the machine shop (described 
later in this chapter) by the students under the direction of Professor Robinson, 
Pi-ofessor Briker recalled the following: (l) first chronoloi^icp.lly, a steam engine 
which furnished the power for the University shop for tv/cnty-five years, and 
which had some features about it tliat were then new but are nov; regarded as 
standard practice; (2) a number of ingenious and novel mechanical movements for 
use in the recitation room; (3) numerous pieces of illustrative apparatus; (U) an 
automatically directed helioscope for the "United States lakes Survey"; (5) a 
lawn mower for the University; (6) a tool and guides for trimming photographs; 
(7) a machine for automatically graduating thorGomcter scales, v;hi(Jh seems to be 
the sole one in use in the world today; (8) a se'.iing machine with a new shuttle 
motion and a new type of treadle; and (9) last chronologically, our own tower 
clock, no'.7 in the Union Building, a clock of novel design which for about seventy 
years has continued to announce the time accurately. 

Professor ?obinson during the eight and one-half years he was connected with 
the University, in addition to his duties as Professor of Mechanical Engineering, 
personally taught all the classes in mining engineering and in physics, and for 
several years he gave lectures on geodesy to civil engineering seniors, even after 
a Professor of Civil Engineering had assumed his duties. 

As will be eirplainod later, Professor Hobinson's v/ork in physics, in scope 
and novelty, was second only to that in machine design. 

In still another field Professor Robinson ',"a.s more tiian a professor of 
mechanical engineering, for during his first two or three years of service at the 
University, he gave all the technical engineering instruction; and as long as he 
remained at the University, he taught some of the leading subjects taken by all 



201 
engineering students. His work in resistance of materials and in hydraulics was 

fully as stimulating and creditable as his work in machine design and in physics. 
In these subjects there was no apparatus, "but he so enthused his students that 
they were more than willing to work on Saturdays and in vacation constructing 
apparatus in order that they might make experiments and conduct research. Thus 
v/as implanted one of the highest forms of education. He proposed to his class in 
hydraulics a modified form of the Pitot tube for measuring the velocity of flow- 
ing water. The instrument was made by his students in the shop, and tested by 
them in the river at Danyillc, Illinois; and ten years later this improved form of 
Bitot's tube was the only jipparatus that could accurately measure the outflow of 
natural gas from wells in Ohio and Indiana. 

But incidentally, Frofesror PoDbinson performed a greater service to the Uni- 
versity and to the cause of engineering education than to devise instructive appa- 
ratus or to conduct interesting experiments, llany people believed that this in- 
stitution was founded as n protest against past educational practice; and many, 
if not most, of the students seeking preparation for the practice of engineering, 
misapprehended the purpose ajid method of what is not generally recognized as the 
most approved form of cnginooring education. Many of them thought that the sole 
purpose of the College was to give them engineering information in a prcdigcsted 
form. Fortunately, for the University of Illinois, Professor Robinson had clear- • 
and correct conceptions as to the better forms of engineering instruction, and 
his methods and ideals dominated in the early history of the College of Sngineer- 
ing. Almost contemporfuieously with the coming of Professor Sobinson to the Uni- 
versity, there was published in v/hat has since rightly become a noted engineering 
ha^fidbook, a statement boldly assorting that higher mathcmiitics was useless to an 
engineer. This statement greatly impressed the engineering students of that day, 
and strongly tended to alienate then from that mathematical ;^d scientific prepa- 
ration now universally recognized as necessary for any reasonable engineering 
education. Professor Robinson's versatility, ability, and enthusiasm in his work, 
and his constant and effective use of higher mathematics, however, were very 



202 
influential in leading students to adopt the tetter ideals of an engineering edu- 
cation. He did this "by force of his example, without argument or ostentation, 
Just as the liglit of the rising sun dispels the fog, gloori, and darkness of the 
night. 

In still another way Professor Robinson performed a service of inestimable 
value to the College of Engineering. For several years after this institution vas 
inaugurated, there was much skepticism among practicing engineers as to the possi- 
bilities of giving through college instruction any conception of the principles 
and practice of engineori"nti'. The early students of this institution found it un- 
".7ise to disclose the face that they had taken collegiate training in engineering; 
but Pyofessor Robinson's acquaintance with practicing engineers enabled him to 
help students to positions whore they were able to demonstrate the value of the 
engineering education given here, and thus aided in dispelling, in some quarters, 
at least, doubts as to the value of collegiate instruction in engineering. 

Finally, in a still more important v/ay, Professor Robinson's viork contributed 
materially to general University interests. The v/ork of the Engineering College 
was more easily exhibited .to the public and more easily understood than the work 
of most other departments, and hence it contributed a large share to the early 
reputation of the University — a reputation which the struggling institution 
greatly needed in thosceai'ly days. "The engine designed in the classroom and 
made in the shop by the students", as the phraseology always ran, v/as frequently 
pointed out with pride by president, faculty and students; and the personal 
accompli shLients of Professor Robinson were frequently referred to in public and 
in private, in discussing the success of the University. Under such circ\imstanccs 
it is not surprising that for at least the first twenty-five years there were 
more students in the College of Engineering than in any other College, and for 
many years the engineering students constituted from half to two thirds of the 
men students. Rightly, then, the history of the College of Engineering of the 
early days is in a large measure the history of the University; and without the 
insist, ability, and enthusiasm of the first professor of engineering that 



203 

history night have been very different. 

In addition to directing the work and teaching in mechanical engineering and 
physics, Professor Hobinson becaae Dean of the College of Engineering in Febru- 
arj^ IS7S. On September 1, of that year, ho'vever, he resigned both positions to 
accept an appointnent as Professor of liechanical Engineering and Physics at the 
Ohio State University. It was unfortunate for the University that the condition 
of its finances seemed to nal:o it necessary to permit Professor Robinson to leave 
for a paltry difference of $^50 in salary; but it vas fortunate indeed that his 
ideals and methods had so peracatcd the work of the College that after his de- 
parture, they continued to dominate. The University of Illinois, and particular- 
ly its College of Engineering, ov.-es to Professor Hobinson a debt, for his services 
in a critical period of its history that has never been adequately recognized. 

In a letter addressed to the Board of Trustees, Regent Gregory made the 
following communt when he announced the resignation of Professor Robinson: "It is 
with profound regret that I fi,nnounce to you the resignation, since your last meet- 
ing, of Professor S, W. Hobinson, who has so long gjid ably filled the important 
chair of mechanical engineering. It is due to those who liavc served faithfully 
and efficiently, that some recognition be made of the value of the services render- 
ed, and of an appreciation of their good qualities, as well as of their fidelity 
and success. Professor Hobinson, though still a young nan, has already made a 
reputation in his department on both sides of the Atlantic, and stands today 
among the recognized authorities in mechanical science. The untiring zeal and 
energy with which ho has worked for tho development of the school of mechanical 
engineering, are too well known to need new testimony. The position that this 
school occupies in our University is due chiefly to his ability and enthusiasm. 
It mitigates, if possible, my regret at his loss to know timt he will be organ- 
izing, elsewhere, another centre of education, so important to our country." 

Professor Hobinson served Ohio State University as Professor of Mechanical 

Engineering and Physics until ISSI, and then as Professor of liechanical Engineer- 

_ing unt il 189^> when ho resigned to dovotc his time to private practice. 
1 Report of Board of 'Trastocs, University of Illinois, I877-78, page IO5. 



20U 
In addition to his duties at the University of Illinois and later at Ohio 

State University, Professor Sobinson was consulting engineer for the Santa Fe and 
other railroads. He also acted as Inspector of Railways and Bridges for the 
Hailroad Cotomission of Ohio during ISSO-ISSU. In addition, he was consulting 
engineer for the Lick Telescope and Mountings Company in 1S27. In all, he 
patented about forty inventions, among these being the first machine to be pro- 
duced for graduating thermometers, as mentioned earlier. 

After leaving the University, Professor Hobinson became interested in the 
development of machinery for manufacturing shoes, and ;unassed a considerable 
fortune from the royalties on his nimorous patents and from fees as consulting 
mechanical engineer for several manufacturers. He was the author of many magazine 
articles and pamphlets. He; was a member of several engineering and other scien- 
tific societies, being a charter member of the Society for the Promotion of Engi- 
neering Education. He va.s awarded the honorary degree of D.Sc. by the Ohio State 
University in IS96. Ho v/as made Professor of Ilechanical Ungineerinig, Emeritus , 
at Ohio State in 189?, and died on October 3, I9IO. 

Of the two landmarks v;hich still serve to honor the memory of Professor 
Robinson here, one is the old clock which he designed and built for the Class of 
loJS and which was for^iorly in the v/cst tower of University Kail, but which is 
now in the Union Building, and the other is the steam engine, now set up as 
museum material in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, which was designed by 
him and built by his students in the old original shops, and which for a quarter 
of a century furnished power for University purposes. 

Selim Hob art Peabod^^ - Much of the biographical sketch of Selira Hobart Pea- 
body was given under Hcgcnts in Chapter II. There are, however, some points of 
particular engineering interest that should be mentioned here. 

Doctor Peabod^/- was a scholarly man of wide experience in teaching, but his 
work had been mostly in high-schools — his experience in teaching engineering 
subjects having boon limited to a brief period in each of two elementary collegi- 
ate institutions. As previously stated, he becajnc Professor of Mechanical Engi- 
neering and Physics on October 10, I87S. He followed Professor Hobinson 's 



205 

method in teaching machine design, but lacked the latter 's experience as a 

.hov.'Pver, 
machinist and as a designer. His work in physics \7as very interesting and in- 
vigorating, as he had rare facility in devising instructive and striking experi- 
ments and in dratring illustrations from a wide range. He virs popular y/ith his 
students for the nearly two years that he was Professor of Mechanical Engineering 
and Physics. Although Professor Peabody became Scgont in 18S0, he continued for 
several years to be the nominal head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, 
and to teach subjects in the mcclir-nical-enginccring curriculum. 

Cecil Hob art Peabody , son of Ecgent Selim Eobart Pcnbody, v;as born at Bur- 
lington, Vermont, on August 9, 1855. f^'iA '"ris graduated froi; Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology v;ith the degree of S.B. in ISJ], He had acquired considerable 
machine shop practice during his early years, and from IS79 to 1881 had been Pro- 
fessor of Engineering at the Imperial Agricultural College in JapaJi. In Septembei^ 
1881, he became Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineer. ing and virtiially Head 
of the Department at the University of Illinois. Toclinically, he was well pre- 
pared to undertake the duties of the office, and under ordinary circumstances he 
v7ould have succeeded; but because he was the son of the Hegent, he had his 
problems. Some claimed ho had obtained his position through favoritism. Further- 
more, the adjustment of some difficult University administrative problems had 
alienated the students from the Hegent, in consequence of which, the son suffered. 
In l8S3i he accepted a call to the faculty of his alma, mater, v/here he was an 
honored and successful engineering teacher for thirty-saven years, retiring in 
1920 as Professor of Haval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Emeritus. He 
died in I93U. 

Arthur Tannant "iVoods was born at Minneapolis, Minnesota, on January 9. I85O. 
Ho served as Cadet Engineer at the U. S. Naval Academy from IS76 to 1882, v/herc 
he was also employed in the Bureau of Naval Constmction. Ho received the M.M.S. 
degree at Cornell University in IS90. Mr, Vifoods served as Assistant Professor of 
Mechanical Engineering at the University of Illinois, virtually in charge of the 
Department, from 1883 to I8S7, and as Professor of Meclianical Engineering and Head 



20 b 
of the Department here from 13S7 to IS9I. He was a scholarly and forceful man 
who easily held the respect and confidence of his students. Under his adminis- 
tration the work of the Department advanced quietly and continually in both quali- 
ty and scope. On June 3. I89I1 greatly to the regret of all connected with the 
University, he resigned to become Professor of D^^namic Engineering at 'lYashington 
University, St, Louis. He remained there only a year, however, when he left to 
become Associate Editor of the Railroad Oazette and Consulting i3ngineer in Chicagc) 
where he died on February 7, IS93. 

Professor '.7oods was co-author with Albert '<?. Stahl of a textbook entitled 
"Elementary Mechanism", and was author of another textbook entitled "Compound 
Locomotives". He also contributed many articles to the technical press. 

Charles Walt er Scribner was born at Red Bank, Hew Jersey, on September 7. 
1857- He received the A. 3. degree at Princeton University in 18S0, the M.A, de- 
gree there in ISS^, and the ii.3, degree at Stevens Institute of Technology in 
1S22. He came to the University of Illinois, following administrative and teach- 
ing experience at Iowa State College and Cornell University. He served as Head 
of the Department of I'.echanical Engineering here at Illinois from Sept ember, I892, 
to September, 1893« ^n 1903i he was associated v/ith a fiiTi in New York City as 
consulting engineer, and in 190^, ho was in business for himself. For a n\imber 
of years past, he has made his home at 713 ''^atchung Avenue, Plainficld, Wow 
Jersey. 

Lester Paige Brcckonridge v/as born at Meriden, Connecticut, on May 17f IS58. 
He received the Ph. 3. degree at the Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University , 
in 1881, and the A.M. there in I909. He served as Instructor in Mechanical Engi- 
neering at Lehigh University from 1882 to I89I, and as Professor of Mechanical 
Engineering at Michigan Agricultural College from 129I to IS93, He then came to 
the University of Illinois as Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering. 
Having acquired in addition to his teaching work considerable experience as a 
workman in a machine shop tind as suj^ervising engineer for a large zinc, iron, 
and steel company at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, he v/as well prepared for his new 



207 
position; and with his coraing the Department of Mechanical Engineering made great 

strides. He had a pleasing personality, genial good natui'e, a broad kno\7ledgG of 
men and affairs, and a contagious enthusiasm; and he proved to be a valuable asset 
in University life. Ke was the first person at Illinois to be elected as an 
honorary member of Tau Beta Pi. 

Professor Breckonridge made maiiy notable contributions to the remarkable 
growth of the University of Illinois during his sixteen years of service here. He 
was placed in charge of the University heating system at a time when the boiler 
plant was somev/hat dilapidated and greatly over-taxed; but by keeping on hand 
large quantities of material needed for repairs, by carefully instructing the 
stokers, by frequent inspections, and by making repairs at night and on Sundays, 
he kept the plant going without interruption, a condition which -/as new in the 
history of the University. He gave large credit for success in this difficult 
task to ilr. Joseph Fiorrow, a young nan then just out of his teens, v/ho continued 
to render efficient service in supervision of the heating plant untjj^l his death 
in 19^0. Professor Brockcnridgc designed and installed the Boneyard Central 
Heating and Lighting Plant, and devised and constructed the tunnel system contain- 
ing distributing pipes for stetua, gas, compressed air, and v/ires for telephone 
and electric po'.ver and lights. He extended the equipment of the machine shop, 
moved it from the first floor of the old Mnchanical Building and Drill Hall to the 
second floor of that building, and later transferred it to Machinery Hall, now 
known as the Machine Tool Laboratory; and besides, enlarged the scope and improved 
the quality of the shop vrork. Then, too, he designed and installed a mechanical 
engineering laboratory setting it up first in the old Chemistry building, then 
later moved it to the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Laboratory. Building, 
and still later to the first units of the present Mechanical Engineering Labora- 
tory, expanding the equipment from time to time, and thereby improving the facili- 
ties for mechanical engineering laboratory '.7ork. Professor Brockenridgc also in- 
augurated a system of cooperative locomotive testing with the Illinois Central 
Hailx'oad and devised aiid supervised the construction of a dynamometer car for teats 



20 S 

of locomotive perfornan.ce and for deterrjination of train resistance. The car 
contained nuiierous self-recording instruments invented by him or under his di- 
rection. In addition, he rendered service of great value in esta^blishing cordial 
relations between the College of Engineering and the railv/a^% manufacturing, and 
nining interests of the State. Furtheri-iorc, he directed researches in the eco- 
nomic uses of fuel by the U. S. Geological Survey in connection '.7ith the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition at St. Louis in 1903-OU, and gave valuable service to public - 
utility plants in Illinois concerning the economic use of coal. Finally, he was 
first to propose the cstablisliiicnt of the Engineering Expcrinont Station, and was 
exceedingly active in pronoting the plan and securing in I9O3 the initial legis- 
lative appropriation for that purjDOse. Fittingly enough, he was the first Di- 
rector of the Station, serving from I905 to I909 as previously stated, filling 
the position '.vith distinguished ability. Ho "/as author of two bulletins and one 
circular and was co-author of three bulletins and one circular published by the 
Station. 

In addition to his many contributions towards the advanccnfmt of the Depart- 
ment of Mechanical Engineering and the College of Engineering, Professor Brcckcn- 
ridgc made many friends for the University; for his genial maniicr, tactful activi- 
ty, and his abundant enthusiasm and initiative made him a favorite with students, 
the faculty, and the public. On this account, it was with keen regret that the 
University was obliged to receive his resignation in the summer of I909. v/hcn he 
loft to Join the staff of his ali-ia mater as Professor of Ilcchanical Engineering 
and Head of that Department at Yalo University. As a token of its appreciation 
of his ability and of his services to the University and the State, the University 
in 1910, conferred upon hin the honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering. 

Professor Breckenridge remained at Yale until 19<-3. when he was retired with 
the title Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Emeritus . After that he made his 
home in North Freisburg, Verriont , until his death on August 22, 19*40. 

Charles Huss Hi char ds - 3iogra2)hica„l Sketch given under Dejuis in Chapter V. 

Arthur Gutts V<'illard - The main portion of the biographical sketch of Arthur 



209 
Cutts Willard, who :7as connected with the Department of Mechanical Bncineering 
here from I913 to 1933, being Head of the Department from I920 to 1933. '''as given 
in Chapters III and V. There are many other features of his work, however, that 
have a professional interest that are mentioned here. 

Professor Willard was joint author with Profestior L. A. Harding of a two- 
volume textbook entitled "Mechanical Equipment of Buildings" ,- Volume 1, "Heating 
and Ventilation", and Volume II, "Power Plants and Refrigeration". He was joint 
author also with Professor Harding of another textbook entitled "Heating, Venti- 
lating, and Air-Conditioning" . Professor Uillard served as President of the 
American Society of Heating and Ventilating 3ngineers for the year I928. 

During such time as he could spare from his ref.'ular teaching and adminis- 
trative duties. Professor Willard devoted himself to research -'ork in the Univer- 
sity, taking part in the actual conduct of exjiorimcnt s and directing many others 
in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning, undertaJ:en by members of the staff 
of the College and the Ilnginccring Exporiracnt Station. Ho "^as the ^thor of one 
and joint author of eighty bulletins issued b;- the Station. 

During his spare time, too, Professor V/illard acted as consulting engineer 
for various organizations of jiublic interest. In I920, ho was appointed as Con- 
sultant on Ventilation for the Hew York State Bridge and Tunnel Comraission and 
the New Jersey Interstate Bridge and Tunnel Commission. In I921, he was appointed 
Consulting Meciianicta Sngincer for the U. S. Bureau of iiincs. In the capacity as 
consultant for these Um organizations he directed an extensive investigation in- 
to the problems involved in the ventilation of the Holland Tunnel for automobile 
traffic under the Hudson Hivcr between Now York and Jersey City that received 
national recognition. In 1930, he was appointed consultant on ventilation of the 
proposed Chicago subway for the Bureau of Subways, and in I93I n.cted in p. con- 
sulting capacity on the ventilation for the proposed Midtown (30th Street) Hudson 
River Tunnel- 

Oscar Adolph Leutwilor Vns born at Highland, Illinois, on Pebmary 16, 1S77' 
He received the 3. S. degree in I'.cchanical Snginccring at the University of 



210 
Illinois in IS99, and the M.S. degree here in I90O. He served as Fellow in 
Mechanical Engineering at the University during IS99-I9OO, draftsman with a com- 
mercial fin-i in I9OI, Instructor in Lehigh University during I9OI-O3 , then joined 
the University of Illinois as Assistant Professor of Machine Design. He "became 

Professor of Machine Design in 1915 nxid Professor of Mechanical Ungineering De- 
sign In 1921 ; and held that letter title -until 19^5, harinp been, in addition. 
Head of the Department of MechrnirEl T=;n.*ineering since Juljr, IQjU. Reaching 
the University af^e limit in September, 191^5, h-* was retired with the title of 
Professor of Mechanical Engineering Design, Emerituc. 

Professor Leut'wiler is author of two textbooks, "Slenents of Machine Design", 
and "'Problems in Machine Design", and is co-author of one circular of the Engi- 
neering Experiiaent Station. He was a pioneer in rigorous Liathomatical anaJ-ysis 
of many important machine elements, such as bral-:cs, clutches, and ball and roller 
bearings. He is an engineer of ability and attainments, an excellent teacher, 
recognized authority in machine design, and his books are v/idely used in the 
classroom and in engineering practice. Ho has givun unstintingly of his time to 
students, and has maintained most intimp.te and helpful relations with them before 
and after graduation. 

b. Other Professors 

G-eorge Alfred Goodonough (3.S., 1391, Michigan Agricultural College; M.E., 
1900, University of Illinois), served as Instructor in Mochjinics at Michigan 
Agricultural College during 1S91-93. then was associated with the International 
Correspondence School of Scranton, Pennsylvania, from IS93 to lo95. where ho pre- 
pared texts in various branches of engineering. After Pi'ofijssor L. P. Brocken- 
ridgc came from the Michig;\n Agricultural College to the University of Illinois 
as Head of the Department of Mcciianical Engineering, ho invited ilr. Goodcnough to 
become Instructor in Mechanic;!! Engineering here. Young G-oodenough accepted the 
position and remained here for t'.-'o years, but returned to the International 
Correspondence School to an cditoriaJ. position which ho held for t',/o years more. 
During all of his connection vdth this School, Mr. Goodcnough was responsible 
for the prepjaration of a nujnbcr of textbooks used in their correspondence work. 
In IS99, he returned to the University of Illinois as Assistjint Professor of 



211 
Mechanical Engineering. Thus tegan the -TOi-k of a man who rendered to the Univer- 
sity valua.lDle service as a teacher and research worker. He was nade Associate 
Brofcssor of Mechanical Engineering here in 1906. In I9II1 his title became 
Professor of Thermodynaraics, and he came to "be recognized as a leading authority, 
if not the forcmo.4t one, in that line in this count ly. After Professor Brocken- 
ridge resigned in 1909i Professor Goodcnough served as Acting Head of the Depart- 
ment for two years. 

Professor Goodcnough was joint author of two "books on Calculus and was author 
of "Principles of Thurmodynariiics" , and "Properties of Steam and Ammonia", and, in 
addition, wrote the chapter on Thermodynamics in the American Civil Engineer's 
HandlDook, and a cliaptcr on Heat in the Mechanical Engineer's Hnjidbook. He v/as 
author of one "bulletin und co-author of five more published by the Engineering 
Exj^erimcnt Station. In serving on committees both College and University, in 
preparing reports, and in presenting addresses to students, Professor Goodcnough 
rendered a valuable service second to none. As an excellent tcacho*-, brillant 
analyst, author of importa:it textbooks, and as noted in the engineering vrorld for 
his exposition and resea.rches in thermodynamics, he added strength and fame to 
the College staff. Professor Goodcnough continued to be active in his University 
work until his sudden death on September 29, I929 • 

Louis Allen Harding (B.S., 1299, andM.E., I902, Pcnnsylv.onia State College) 
served as Instructor in Cornell University during 1902-03, as Professor of 
Mp.chine Design in Pennsylvania State College during I905-O6, and as Professor of 
Mechanical Engineering and Head of the Department at the sarae institution during 
I909-I2. During the remainder of the time from I899 to 1915. he was employed in 
engineering practice. He was engaged in independent consulting work in Kcw York 
City during 1912-I3, and joined the staff at the University of Illinois in I913 
as Professor of Experimental Engineering in charge of the Mechanical Engineering 
Laboratory. f]iile here he collaborated with Pi-ofessor A. C. l^illard in the pro- 
duction of a two-volume textbook entitled "Mechanical Equipment of Buildings","' 
Volume I, "Keating and Ventilation", and Vol-ume II, "Power Plants and 



212 
Refrigeration", and v;ith him, also, in another textbook entitled "Heating, Venti- 
lating and Air-Conditioning". Professor Harding resigned in February, I916, to 
engage in engineering contracting work. 

Bruce Tfi llet Benedict (B.S., I9OI, and U.S. , 1923, Universitj^ of Nebraska) 
having worked as a machinist with the Chicago, Burlington, & Q,uinc7 Hailroad for 
three years before going to college and for three summers v/hile enrolled at 
college, returned to that line after graduation; and for the six years he spent 
there he became successively inspector, foreman and general foreman. During I906 
to 1903, he was editor of Hailv/ay Master Mechanic, a monthly magazine published 
in Chicago. From I9O0 to I9II he was Supervisor of Shoii Production for the Santa 
Fe System, during which time that road was engaged in some pioneer experiments 
in shop organization based on v/hat has since been called scientific management, 
and in which some remarkable and well-;:nown results were obtained. 

He came to the University of Illinois on January 3, I9II, in charge of in- 
struction in the shops, and continued in charge of that vrork until his death on 
November 21, I927 — his last title having been Manager of Shop Laboratories, with 
the rail]-: of professor. 

Professor Benedict was co-author of a book entitled "Railwa,y Shop Up-to-Datc" 

and was editor of "Betterment Briefs". He was joint author of two bulletins 

published by the Engineering 3xperiment Station of the University of Illinois, and 

was a contributor of m;iny articles to the engineering press. 

Alonzo Plumsted Nratz -(3.S., I907, aiidli.S., I909, University of Illinois) 

served as Assistant in the Engineering Experiment Station here during I9O8-IO, 

Instructor in Mechanical Engineering during I9IO-I2, Research Assistant in the 

E:q)oriment Station during 1912-l':i, -^^esearch Associate during I915-I8, and Research 

Assistant Professor during igio-21. He became Research Profeasor of Mechanical 
EnglneerlniE; In 19"1 nc! has p-^^malned with the University to dat-^-, serving, in 
addition, as Acting He"d of the Depnrtment fron the time of the retlr-ment of 
Professor Leutvller until the eelection of hie succeepor. Prof es' or Kratz, 

ft, foremost authority in the field of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning, 

has produced experimental results that have given groat prestige to the University 
of Illinois. He is author of t™ bulletins, and is co-author of twenty-four 



iCTjiaa-1 i^i.tih-Xi. 



..0!ri:,.;^ 



213 
"bulletins, four circulars, and one reprint published ty the Engineering Sxperiment 
Station. 

Clarence Walter Han (B.M.I!., I905, University of I'entuc^cy; Jl.Z., I902, Cornell 
University) was Instructor in I'echanical Drawing and I-Iachine Shop 'York at the Uni- 
versity of Kentucky during I906-O7, He served as Instructor in Machine Design at 
Cornell University during I9OB-I3 and Assistant Professor during I91I4-I7. From 
1917 to 1921, he was engaged in engineering practice in Hew York State. He came 
to the University of Illinois in February, I92I, as Associate Professor of Machine 
Design, and since I926, has had the title of Professor of Machine Design. Pro- 
fessor Ham is co-author of a textbook entitled "Mechanics of Machinery", and of a 
section on "Pipes and Fittings" in Mark's Mechanical Engineering Handbool:. He is 
co-author of two bulletins published oy the Engineering Experiment Station. 

Ev erett Gilhain Yo\ing (3.S., I9I3, M.S., I916, andM.E., I923, University of 
Illinois), war, employed in engineering practice during I9I0-I9. He served as Pro- 
fessor of Hailway Mechanical Engineering in the Chinese Govornment Engineering 
Colleges from I9I9 to 1924, and as Assistant to the T..-!chnical Advisor of the 
Chinese Government Railways from I92U to 1927- He cane to the University of 
Illinois in February, I927, as Heseardh Professor of Hallway Mechanical Enginecrir^ 
in the Department of Railway Engineering. vYlnen this Department was discontinued 
in ig'+O, Professor Young was transferred to the Department of Mechanical Engineer- 
ing with the title Professor of Railway Mechanical Engineering, which position he 
has held to date. 

Wiile in China, Professor Y'oung was honored v/ith the Civil Merit Order of the 
Chinese Government. He is author of two bulletins and co-author of one, published 
by the Engineering Experiment Station at the University of Illinois — all studies 
involving the performance of steam locomotives. 

Jo se-fih A lbert Poison (3.S., I905, andM.E., I9II, Purdue University) , taught 
at Michigan State College from 1906 to I9I9, then v;as employed in industry from 
1919 to 1921. He joined the faculty at the University of Illinois in January, 
1921, as Associate Pi'ofessor of Steam Engineering. He became Professor of Steam 






i i ;-uu^o.vu.-,i;i 



21 U 

IM^lnepT-in;? in 19?7. and retained that position until 1^"^!? when he reached 
the University a^e limit and was retired with the title of Profepror of Steam 
Engineering, Smcitus. Professor Poison is author of a tertbook entitled 
"Internal Combustion Enf^ines" amd of two bulletins of the Engineering Irper- 
iment Station. 

Horace Janes Macintire (3.S., 1905, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
M.H.E., 1911, Harvard University) served as a teacher in mechanical engineering at 
Massachusetts Institute of Technolog,', Harvard University, and the University of 
'Washington, then becjiine Assistant Professor of Refrigerating Engineering at the 
University of Illinois in Seiitember, 1920. He was made Associate Professor of 
Refrigeration in 1921 and Professor of Refrigeration in 1931. and has continued 
v/ith the University to date. Professor Macintire is author of "Mechanical Re- 
frigeration", "Principles of Mechanical Refrigeration", "Handbook of Mechanical 
Refrigeration", and "Refrigerating Engineering" . In addition, he is co-author of 
four bulletins issued by the Engineering Experiment Station. 

Williaxii Harrison Severns , (3.S., l^l'^-, and M.S., 19!'?. University of Kansas) 
was Assistant at his alma mater during I91I4-I5, Instructor in Mechanical Engineer- 
ing at Purdue University during I915-I6, Assistant Professor of Micchanical Engi- 
neering at Hew Hampshire State College during igib-iy, after v/hich ho joined the 
staff at the University of Illinois in September, I917. as Instructor in Mechani- 
cal Engineering. He resigned in September, 1919 • to engage in engineering practice 
follo'.ving which he served as Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the 
University of Vifisconsin during 1920-21. He then returned to the University of 
Illinois in September, I92I, as Assistant Professor. He became Associate Professor 
in 1927 and Professor in I93I, and has remained here to date (19U5) 

Professor Severns is author of a textbook "Keating, Ventilating, and Air- 
conditioning Fundaiiientals" , and is co-author with Professor D. E. Degler of 
another text entitled "Stc;\ri, Air, and Gas Power", and is co-author with C. C. 
Hubbard of still another one entitled "Heating and Ventilating". 

Carl Herbert Cas b erg (3,S., I916, and M.E. , I92U, University of Wisconsin) 
succeeded Gustav H.Radabaugh as Superintendent of the Mechanical Shops in Septem- 
ber, 1923, with the title of Superintendent of the Machine Laboratory with the 



215 
rank of Assistant Professoi- of Machine Shop Practice, having heen previously en- 
gaged in engineei-ing practice since the date of graduation. Professor Cas"berg re- 
signed his University position in September, I926, to accept an appointment with 
the Vi'estern Electric Company in Chicago, as Engineer in the Development Division. 
In February, 1922, however, he returned to the University as Manager of the Shop 
Laboratories; and since 1931i ^e has been Professor of llechanical Engineering in • 
charge of all mechanical engineering shop laboratories and shojo practice. He i s 
co-author of four bulletins issued by the Engineering Exfieriment Station. 

John Alonzo Gofi (3.S., I92I, M.S., I92U, and Ph.D., I927, University of 
Illinois) became Assistant in Mechanical Engineering at the University in Septembo' , 
1921. He served as Instructor during 1923-2^ and Associate during 1925-27. He 
resigned in September, 1927i to engage in engineering practice, but returned to 
the University in September, l';t30, as Associate Professor of Thermodynamics. He 
became Professor of Thermo(l;;,'namics in 193^. '^'^^ resigned finally in September, 
1933 to accept a position as Dean of the Tovme Scientific School and Director of 
the Department of Mechanical Engineering and 'SThitney Professor of Dynamical Engi- 
neering, at the University of Fennsylvania.- 

William Kelson Espy (3,5., I916, Carnegie Institute of Technology; M.S.,1927, 
University of Illinois) was engaged tn engineering practice from 1916 to I922 
(September) when he came to the University as Assistant in Mechanical Engineering. 
He was made Instructor in I923, Associate in 192g, Assistant Professor in I93O, 
Associate Professor in 1937i a^ifl Professor of Mechanical Engineering in 1939i i^Wdi 
last position he has held to date. 

Erod Ernest Gieseche (M.E., ISQQ^ Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas j 
B.S. in Arch.l90H, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Ph.D., I92U, and C.E. 
19'+3i University of Illinois) was a teacher in Agricultural and Mechanical Colle^ 
of Texas fi-om 18S6 to I912, and was Professor of Architectural Engineering and 
Director of the Bureau of Engineering Research at the University of Texas from 
1912 to 19^7- He then returned to the Agricultural and Mechanical College of 
Texas to become Professor of Engineering Research and to act as College Architect 



2l6 
and in addition, to serve as Director of the Ungineering Experiment Station. In 
1939, Professor G-iesecke retired, 'becoming Professor B neritu s of Keating, Venti- 
lating, and Air Conditioning there, in September, I9U2, he came to the Univer- 
sity of Illinois as Special Hesearch Professor of Mechanical Engineering and re- 
mained here until December, 19^3 • 

Maurice Kendall Falinestock (3.S., 192^4-, and M.S. , I93O, University of 
Illinois) .vas connected -with pra,ctical engineering v/ork from the tine of gradu- 
ation until he caine to the University in April, I926, as Special Research As-^ 
sistant in liechanical Engineering to aid in experiments involving cooperative in- 
vestigations in steal.-! and hot-v/atcr heating. He was made Special Research Associ- 
ate in 1931, Special Research Assistant Professor in 193'+i Special Research As- 
sociate Professor in 1939 • ^^^ Research Professor in 19^3- '^^ addition, on 
September 1, 19^3, he became Assistant Director of the Engineering Experiment 
Station. Professor Fahnestock is author of one bulletin and one reprint and is 
joint author of six bulletins and one reprint of the Engineering Exj-eriment 
Station. 

David Gerald Ryan - (3.S., I923, andM.E., I933, Purdue University; ii.S., 
1931, University of Illinois) follo'.7.-d engineering practice after graduation until 
he joined the staff at the University of Illinois in September, I927, as Assistant 
i;n Mechanical Engineering. Ho became Insti'uctor in I929, Associate in 1933. -As- 
sistant Professor in 1935, Associate Professor in I939, and Professor in I9U3. He 
is co-author of one bulletin published by the Engineering Experiment Station. 

Scich i Konzo (3.S,, I927, University of V/ashington; U.S., I929, University of 
Illinois) was appointed Special Research iissistant in Mechanical Engineering at 
the University of Illinois in 1929, Special Research Associate in 1931. Special 
Research Assistant Professor in 1937. Special Research Associate Professor in 
19^1 and Research Profeijsor in I9U3 . Professor Konzo 's special field is in heat- 
ing, ventilating, and air-conditioning; and he is co-author of thirteen bulletins 
and throe circulars published by the Engineering Experiment Station. 



217 
Julian Robert Fellows (B.S., 192U, University of Michigan; M.S., 1933, 
University of Illinois) followed practical engineering work after graduation until 
he joined the staff at the University of Illinois in September, 1930, as Instructed 
in Mechanical Engineering. He v;as made Associate in 193h, Assistant Professor in 
1939, Associate Professor in 19li3, and Professor in 19U5. Professor Fellows 
developed a nev; type of down-draft smokeless furnace for household use that 
practically eliminates the smoke problem so disagreeable in domestic heating. He 
is co-author of one bulletin, one circular, and one reprint of the Engineering 
Experiment Station. 

Kenneth James Trigger (B.S., 1933, M.S., 1935, andM.E., 19U3, Michigan 
State College) was made Associate in Mechanical Engineering at the University of 
Illinois in September, 1938, Assistant Professor in 19U1, and Professor in 19U$, 
his special interest being concerned v/ith the heat-treatment of metals. 

c. Associate Professors 

Charles F. Perry (M.E., 190U, Cornell University) served as Associate Pro- 
fessor of Machine Construction here from 190U to 1906. 

Vinc ent Stephen Day (B.S., 1917, University of Illinois) became Assistant in 
Mechanical Engineering here in September, 1917, Research Assistant in 19l8, Specia] 
Research Associate in April, 1920, Special Research Assistant Professor in 1921, 
and Special Research Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering in 1926. He 
resigned in June, 1928, to engage in practical work. Professor Day's special 
interest vms in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning; and he is author of 
one bulletin and one circular, and co-author of four bulletins issued by the 
Engineering Experiment Station. 

Matthew R^ Riddell (B.A. Sc, 1906, University of Toronto) was Professor of 
Mechanical Engineering at the University of Toronto from 1906 to 1911, after 
vfhich he was engaged in commerical work until he came to the University of Illinois 
in February, 1920, as Assistant Professor of Aeronautical Engineering and as 
Assistant to the Director of the Engineering Experiment Station. In 1929, he be- 
came Associate Professor of Aeronautical Engineering while still retaining his 
title as 



-1 ili:;f? 



218 
Assistant to the Director. Professor Riddell reached the University age limit 

in September, 19U5, M was retired with the title of Associate Professor of Mech- 
anical Engineering, Emeritus . 

Paul Eugene Mohn (B.S., 1922, and M.E., 1931, Pennsylvania State College; 
M.S. 1930, University of Illinois) was Instructor at Renneselear Polytechnic 
Institute during 1922-25. He became Instructor in Mechanical Engineering at the 
University of Illinois in 192$, serving in that capacity until 1928, then as 
Associate from 1928 to 1931, as Assistant Professor from 1931 to 19Ul, and as 
Associate Professor from 19Ul to 19UU. In September, 19hh, he was promoted to 
the grade of professor but declined the appointment to accept a position as Head 
of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Buffalo. 

Albert Eby Hershey (B.S., 1922, Carnegie Institute of Technology; M.S., 
1926, and Ph,D, 19U2, University of Illinois) joined the staff at the University 
in September, 1926, as Research Assistant in Mechanical Engineering. He became 
Instructor in Mechanical Engineering in 1928, Research Associate jn 1932, Researd' 
Assistant Professor in 1937, and Research Associate Professor in 19U$. He is co- 
author of two bulletins published by the Engineering Experiment Station. He was 
given a leave of absence in January, 19ii2, to engage in war-production work with 
the Westinghouse Research Laboratories. 

Reinhold Fridtjof Larson (B.S., 1923, M.S., 1931, and Ph.D., 19UU, Univer- 
sity of Illinois) took up practical work after graduation and continued in it 
until he joined the staff of the University of Illinois in September, 1927, as 
Assistant in Mechanical Engineering. He became Instructor in 1929, Associate in 
193U, and Assistant Professor in 1937» Since 19U$, he has had the title of Assoc' 
ate professor of Mechanical Engineering, his special interest being in the field 
of petroleum-production engineering. 

Carl Edward Schubert (B.S. in Chem, Eng., 1921, University of Notre Dame) 
was engaged in engineering practice until he joined the staff of the University 
of Illinois in September, 1926 as Assistant Superintendent of the Foundry 
Laboratory. He 



a .M He 



.XC?X ,> 



Slit xd t 



-,i..K Y.3a 



..'^ninaanisnS 1-'. 



,*:..4''>' J-r-dduflaS biB5rf)5f- Iii*: 



2l8a 
became Instructor in Mechanical Engineering here in 1931» Associate in 1932, 

Assistant Professor in 1939> and Associate Professor in 19U5. He was given a 

leave of absence on September 1, 19UU, to take a position in war work and 

returned to the University on February 1, 19U5. Professor Schubert is author 

of a textbook entitled "Foundry Practice" and is co-author of three bulletins 

issued by the Engineering Experiment Station. 

d. Assistant Professors 

William H. Van Dervort (B.S., 1889, Michigan Agricultural College; M.E., 
1893, Cornell University) served as teacher in the Department of Mechanical 
Engineering at Michigan Agricultural College during 1889-1893, and as Assistant 
Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Illinois during 1893- 
1899. 

Gerdt Adolph Gerdtzen (B.S., 1893, and M.E., 189^', University of Wis.), 
after some years' experience in engineering practice, came to the University of 
Illinois in 1901 as Assistant Professor of Machine Design, but resigned at the 
end of the academic year. 

James Herbert Gill (B.K.E., 1892 and M.E., 189U, University of Minnesota) 
was engaged as a teacher of mechanical-engineering subjects in the University 
of Minnesota, Montana State College, and James Millikan University until he 
joined the staff at the University of Illinois in 1906 as Assistant Professor 
of Machine Construction in charge of the Mechanical Engineering Shops, He 
resigned in 1910 to accept a position as Director of the Columbus (Ohio) Training 
School. 

Dwight 1\ Randall (B.S., 1897 and M'E., 1905, University of Illinois) was 
employed in engineering practice until 1901 when he came to the University as In- 
structor in Mechanical Engineering. He resigned in 1902 to work for the Westing- 
house Church, Kerr & Company, but returned to the University in 190li as Assistant 

Professor, and remained here until 1906, when he withdrew to re-enter commerical 
practice. 

John Charles Thorpe (B.S., 1900, University of Illinois; M.E., 1903, Univer- 
sity of Michigan) was engaged in teaching work and practical work after graduation 
until he came to the University in 1906 as Assistant Professor of Steam Engineer- 
ing, He remained here until 1910, -vrtien he resigned to enter commercial service. 



rilootiBk b 



■f.;'1.ff) IliO .:fT.rf.ife.!! 



219 
Mr.Thorpt-i died on Jujie 17, 1937 • 

Kenneth aardner Smith (A. 3., 1896. University of Chicago; 3.S., 1905. and M.E. 

1916, University of Illinois) served in iiractice for a time, then came to the Uni- 
versity of Illinois in I9O8 as Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering in 
charge of Engineering Exj^ieriment Station Extension. He remained only one year, 
ho'.Tever, and left to hecome Assistant Professor in the Extension Division of the 
University of Wisconsin. 

Elisha Noe l Fales (A. 3., I90S, Harvard University; S.B., I9II, Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology) spent several years in practical work in airplane service 
then came to the University of Illinois in September, I916, as Assistant Professor 
of Aeronautics, and inaugurated instruction in the new science of aeronautical 
engineering. Vftien the U.S. School of Military Aei'onautics was organized at Illi- 
nois in 1917, Professor Fales ^ms transferred to this new work and was in charge 
of cross-country flying and the general theory of aeronautics. In August, I9I8, 
Professor Eales was requested to accept a position with the Aviation Section of 
the Signal Corps to engage in research work. In 19^3. ^^ was Aeronautical Engi- 
neer with the U. S. Air Corps at '.vright Field, Dayton, Ohio. 

Harry William 7/aterfall (5.S., I9II, Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 
spent the year following graduation in ijractice and cjime to the University of 
Illinois in September, 1913i as Instructor in Machine Design. He resigned in July ^ 

1917, to accept a position in engineering practice in India. lir. Waterfall re- 
tui'ned to the University in September, I9I9, as Assistant Professor of Mechanical 
Engineering, but withdrew in September, I920, to become Assistant Professor of 
Machine Design at Johns Hopkins University. 

Paul James Kiefor (A. 3., IQOo, V/ittenberg College: 3.S., 1911, and M.E. ,1930 , 
Case School of Applied Science) was Instructor in Mechanical Engineering at the 
University of Pennsylvryiia during 1913-15- ^^^ Cixne to the University of Illinois 
in 1919, after being discharged from the U.S. IJavy, as Assistant Professor of 
Steam Engineering. Professor ICiefcr resigned in the summer of I92O to become 
Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Post Graduate Department, U. S. 



220 
Naval Acadesiy, and since 1525> he hn,s been Professor there. 

Gustav H. Badebaugh became Assistant in Machine Shop at the University in 
1911 and Instructor in 1913' ^^ ^'as made Associate in Machine Shop Management 
and Practice and Acting Director of the Shop Laboratories in September, 1917 • "^^ 
January, I919 , upon the return of Director 3. W. Benedict from military service, 
Mr. Badabaugh vjao made Assistant Director of the Shop Laboratories, still keeping 
the title of Associate in Machine Shop Management and Practice. In September, I919 
his title was changed to Assistant Manager of the Shop Laboratories and Superin- 
tendent of the Machine Shop; and in I921, he was made Superintendent of the Machine 
Laboratory. Mr. Radabaugh resigned in February, 1923i to become Manager of the 
newly-created Ghampaign-Urbana Sanitary District, 'vhich ]iosition he hnld until 
his death on March 10, 1937- 

Huber Ogilvie Croft (B.S., I9I0, University of Colorado; M.S., I923, Univer- 
sity of Illinois) v/as engaged in engineering practice after graduation until he 
joined the staff at the University of Illinois in October, I92O, as* Instinictor in 
Mechanical Engineering. He bocane Associate in 19?U and Assistant Professor in 
1925. Professor Croft resigned in September, I927, to accejit an appointment as 
Associate Professor at Stanford University. After three years there, he became 
Professor and Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University 
of Iowa, 'here he hat; rumainud to date. Professor Croft is author of one bulletin 
published by the Engineering Exjieriment Station of the University of Illinois. 

Howard Edward Degler (M.E., I91U, Lehigh University; M.S., I927, University 
of Illinois) was employed during I91U-I5 in engineering practice and during 1915' '^ 
t«r±^i4 taught drawing, physics, and mechanical engineering subjects at Hampton 
Institute in Virginia. He wr.s connected with practical work again until September 
1922, when he joined the staff of the University of Illinois as Instructor on 
Mechanical Engineering. He became Associate in 19^5 and Assistant Professor in 
1928. Professor Degler resigned in September, I93O, to become Professor of 
Mechanical Engineering and Chairman of the Department at the University of Texas. 
Vi'hile at Illinois, Professor Degler was co-author with \1 . H. Severns of a text bock 



221 

entitled "Steam, Air, and Gas Power", .and has written a number of others since 

that time. 

Frederick Hayward Thomas (B.S. in Industrial Administration, 192U, and M.S. 
in M.E., 1931, University of Illinois) was employed in engineering practice after 
graduation \intil he joined the staff in the University here in November, 1926, ap 
Superintendent of the Machine Tool Laboratory, He was made Associate in Mechani- 
cal Engineering in 1931* and Assistant Professor in 1932. He resigned in October. 
19lil. 

Warren Skinner Harris (B.S. 1930, and M.S., 1933, University of Illinois) 
served as Special Research Assistant in Mechanical Engineering here during the 
year 1931-32. He then took a position in industry, but returned to the University 
in April, 19U0, as Special Research Associate in Mechanical Engineering, and 
became Special Research Assistant Professor in 19Ui|. He is co-author of two 
bulletins and one circular of the Engineering Experiment Station. 

John Clem Miles (B.S., 1931, Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy; M.S., 
19iiO, and M.E., 19U3, University of Illinois) was made Instructor in Mechanical 
Engineering at the University here in 1937, Associate in 19^1, and Assistant 
Professor in 19U5. He is joint author of one bulletin of the Engineering 
Experiment Station, 

Edward Louis Broghamer (B.S,, 193U, Kansas State College; M.S,, 19U0 and 
M.E., I9UI, University of Illinois) was made Instructor in Mechanical 
Engineering here at the University in 1937* Associate in 19Ul, and Assistant 
Professor in 19U5. He received a leave of absence in September, 19U2, to join 
the U.S. Armed Forces and returned to the University in November, 19U$. Prof- 
essor Broghamer is co-author of one bulletin of the Engineering Experiment 
Station. 



222 
Mario Joseph Goglia (M.E., 1937, and M.E., 19U0, Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology) became Instructor in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Illinois 
in September, 1936, Associate in 19Ul, and Assistant Professor in 19U5. 
Donald Heathfield Krans (B.S., 1938, Michigan College of Mines and 
Technology; M.S., 1939, University of V/isconsin) became Instructor in Mechanical 
Engineering at the University here in September, 1939, Associate in 19Ul, and 
Assistant Professor in 19U5. He was on leave of absence with the U.S. Armed 

Forces from 19Ul, until February, I9I46. 

e. Associates 

John James Harman (B.S. 1902, and M.E. 1906, University of Illinois) served 
as Instructor in Mechanical Engineering during 1903-06 and as Associate dxiring 
1906-07 . 

John Adlum Dent (M.E. 190S', Lehigh University) was employed in engineering 
practice after graduation until he came to the Univertjity of Illinois in Sept., 
1910, as Instructor in Mechanical Engineering, ^e was made Associate in 1913, 
and retained his position here until September, 1917, when he resigned to 
accept a commission in the U.S. Army. 

Harry Frederick Godek e (B.S., 1905, M.E., 1916, and M.S., 1918, University 
of Illinois) was Assistant in Mechanical Engineering at the University during 
1905-07, Instructor during 1906-17, and Associate in Steam Engineering during 
1917-18. He resigned late in September, 1918, to accept a position as Chief 
Engineer of the Federal Rubber Company at Cudahy, Wisconsin. 

Gustave Adolph Gross who had served as Instructor in Shop Practice at the 
University of Montaia during 1911-13, came to the University of Illinois in 1913 
as Instructor in Pattern Making, He became Associate in 1917, but resigned in 
Februarj^, 1918, to join the U.S. Ordnance Corps, 

Arthur C, Harper (B.S. 1906, and M.E,, 1907, Pennsylvania State College) 
for 



223^ 
three years after graduation was a teacher at his alua uatc.r. Then during igiU-io 

he 7/as Instructor in Drawini^^ at Ohio State University. He joined the University 

of Illinois in January, I916 , as Instructor in Mochanical 3ngineering and was made 

Associate in Machine Design in I917. He resigned in Soi^teraber . 1920, to take 

charge of di'awing and design work at Pratt Institute. In 1931i iie 'became President 

of Wyomissing Polytechnic Institute at WyoLiissing, Pennsylvania, and has retained 

in that position to date. 

Edgar ticITaughton (M.S., I9II, Cornell University) '.van Ar.sociate in Mechanical 
Sngineering at the University of Illinois during 1918-19 . 

'J7ard Sly Pratt (ll.I^., 191'+, Cornell University) bec?.u.io Special Research 
Associa,te in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Illinois in I9IS, .and re- 
mained here in that position until I92O. 

Siebert Luke SinLiering (3.S,, I9IO, andli.lJ., IQlb, University of Colorado; 
M.S., 1913. University of Illinois) was Research A^sociatn in Mechanical Engineer- 
ing here at the University of Illinois during the school year 191^-19 • 

Leroy Alonzo V»ilson (l:.E.1909, andM.M.E., 19l4, Cornell University) for five 
years after graduation served as Instructor in the Mechanical Laboratory, in Gas 
Engine Design, and in Engineering Research at Cornell. lie joined the University 
of Illinois in September, 191^, as Assistant in Mechanical Engineering. He be- 
caxae First Assistant in 191i; <'Uid Research Asrastant in I916, but resigned in 
September, I9I7. to become Instructor in the U.S. School of I'iilitary Aeronautics. 
Mr. iUilson then returned to the University of Illinois in December, I9I8, as Re- 
search Associate in Mechanical Engineering. Ee was transferred to the teaching 
staff in 1919 with the title of Associate in Exijorimental Engineering. He resign- 
ed, however, in September, I92O, to accept a position as Assistant Professor of 
Mechanical Engineering at the University of Cincinnati. Since 1938, he has been 
Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of '.'Wisconsin. Professor 
'.Yilson is joint author of one bulletin published oy the Engineering Experiment 
Station at the University of Illinois. 

Proctor Edwin Ilenwood (3.S., I9IO, Armour Institute of Technology; M.S. ,1933 
University of Illinois) served as teacher at the University of North Dakota for a 



22U 
time after which he was engaged in engineering practice until he came to the 

University of Illinois in September I92I, as Associate in Mechanical Engineering. 
He remained in this position until his death on Hay 29, I93S. lir. Henwood was co- 
author of one bulletin of the Sngineering E:q)eriment Station. 

Edward J,aaeson Crane {2.S. ,l[il^, and il.E.,1921, riutgers University) was em- 
ployed after graduation at the University of Forto 5.ico, and later spent some time 
in engineering practice. He came to the University of Illinois in September I92I, 
as Instructor in Mechanical Engineering and was iiade Associate in iiachine Design 
in 1923. Mr. Crane resigned in Fobniary , I925, to accept an appointment with the 
V/estern Electric Company. He mJia co-author 'vith C.'-'. Piu.i of a textbook entitled 
"Mechanics of Machinery". 

Crandall Zacariah Hosecrn.ns (3.S. lyi'i, II.S. I92I, and 11. E. 1929, University 
of Illinois) joined the University of Illinois staff in Soptember^l921, as Sesearcli 
Assistant in Mechanical Engineering and was made Research Asr.ociati; in 1924. He 
author of one and co-author of two more bulletins issued by the Engineering Exj^eri- 
ment Station. Mr. Rosecrans resigned in August^ 19^-6, to accept an appointment ^7ith 
the Leeds & IJorthrup Company at Philadelphia. Ho later became Mcchanicf-il Engineer 
and Director of Research of that organization, which position he hold until his 
death on January 7, 1937- 

Lew Wallace Thayer (3.S. in Chcm.Eng., 1922, University of Michigan) became 
Associate in Foundr;,^ Practice in September I'ii^S, after spending four ;,^ears with 
the Cadillac Motor Car Comp.an;-. He resigned his University position in July,192S. 

Richard Ernest Gould (B.3., I923, and M.S., I929, University of Illinois)was 
engaged for two years following graduation in engineering practice. Ke joined the 
staff of the University of Illinoifs in December I925, as Research Assistant in 
Mecha,nical Engineering. In 192;t. he became Rcs(jarch Associate, but resigned in 
September, I93O1 to return to ouginooring practice. Mr. Gould vias joint author of 
five bulletins published by the Engineering Experiment Station. 

Edgp.r Thomas Lanham became Instinctor in the Forge Sho-p at the University of 
Illinois in I905, and he retained that title until 1919i ''hen it was changed to 
Superintendent of the Forge Laboratory. He was made Associate in Mechanical 



225 
Engineering in 1931i sjkX was retired under the University age vu.le in September, 

1933. as Associate in Mechanical Engineering, Emeritus . He continued to reside 

in Urbana until his death on June 10, 19UU. 

Burrill Rupert Hall v/ho had spent several years r/ith the International Corre- 
spondence Schools at Scranton, Pennsylvania, in charge of the preparation of in- 
struction sheets and pamphlets in pattern-making for students carrying on corre- 
sj>ondence courses, came to the University of Illinois in February, I9I8, as In- 
structor in Pattern Shop Practice and Management. In I919. his title y/as changed 
to Superintendent of the Pattern Laboratory. Hr. Hall rcLiained in this position 
until Sept ember, 1931. ''.'hen he became Associate in Mechanical Engineering. He re- 
tired in September, I938, under the University i-ules for retirement with the title 
Associate in Mechanical Engineering, Emeritus. 

John Erank uoodell (a. 3., I92I;, Ohio St at o University; Mi.S., 19?6, Vanderbilt 
University) served as Suporintondent of the Foundry Laboratory at the University 
of Illinois from I929 to 1931, ;ind as Associate fror. 193I to I9U2. ^He was given 
a leave of absence in September, Vjh?-, to join the U.S. Armed Forces. 

John Clifford Hoe d (3.M.E. I92S, and M.E. I93U, Ohio State University; M.S. 
1931» University of Illinois) becpinc Assistant in Mechanical Engineering at the 
University of Illinois in Sc})tGmber ,1928, Instructor in I929. and Associate in 
1933. He remained Tjith the University until September ^ 193 8, when he resigned to 
become Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Colorado School of 
Mines. 

Edgar Elmer Ambrosius (B.S. I92S and M.S. 1931. University of Illinois) begtin 
as Instructor in Mechanical Engineering at the University in September 1930i ^^^-^ 
was made Associate in 1935 • He resigned in September, 193^1 to become Assistant 
Professor of ilechanicfil Engineering at the University of Oklahoma. 

Charles Josefih S tarr (3. S. 1933. University of Illinois) after spending 
several years in practice, joined the University staff in March, 1921, as Assistant 
Superintendent of the Machine Laboratory. He was made Instructor in Mechanical 
Engineering in 193^. ai^A Associate in 193^. and. has remained '^ith the University 
in that position to date. 



226 

Paul Ho'.vai-d Black (M.I!. I925, Rcnncsolcar Polytechnic Institute; U.S. I93I, 

University of Pittsburgh) sorvcd ps Instructor in I'cchrjucal Engineering at 
Eenncscloar during 1925-2S and was engaged in engineering practice during 1926-28. 
He came to the University of Illinois in September, I928, as Assist jint in Mechani- 
cal Snginocring. Ho was made Instructor here in I929 and Associate in Mechanical 
Engineering in 193^. Kr. Black resigned in September'^ 1937 • to become Assistant 
Professor of Machine Design at Cornell University and has remained there to the 
present time. He was author of one bulletin issued by the Engineering Experiment 
Station. 

Robert Downes Williams (A.B. I93U, Harvard University; S.M. 1937, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology-) was made Associate in Mechanical Engineering in 
1937 ''i.nd remained v/ith the University in that position until February, 19^2. 



227 

Francis Seyfarth (3.S. 1936, Princeton University; M.S. I9U2, University of 
Illinois) 'became Instructor in Mechanical Engineering here in SeptemlDer, 193^. and 
Associate in 19^2. He ',7as given a leave of absence in December, I9U2, to Join the 
U. S. Armed Forces^ '"-nd returned in March, lP''b. 

F. Leicester Cuthbert (B.A. I935, and K.A. I937, University of Buffalo; Ph.D. 
19^0, lo'.Ta State College; became Special Hesearch Associate in Petrography and 
Mechanical Engineering at the University of Illinois in September, I9U2, and re- 
mained with the University until March, I9UU 

Alfred Otto Schmidt (K.I!. 1933, Ingenieurschule, Ilnenau, G-ennany; M.S.E., 
19^^0, University of IIichi,<r'in) bec;uie Associate in Mechanical Engineering in Sep- 
tember, 19^2, but resigned in Juno, 19^3. to en,-^age in engineering practice. 

WilliaP Hubert Alla'vay (3.S. 1933, University of ITobraska; M.S. I939, Iowa 
State College) served as Special Hesearch Associate in Mechanical Engineering and 
Petrography at the University of Illinois from January to Septembeir, I9U3. 

John Adams Henry (3.S. I93O, Michigan State Collc-jge) Joined the staff at the 
University of Illinois in Fobruar;:/, 19^1. as Instructor in Mechanical Engineering 
and served in that cap-'.city until Sept ember ^19^, when he was promoted to 
Associate. 

David Herold Cole (3.S., I9U1, University of Illinois; M.S. I9U0, University 
of Michigan) served as Instructor in Mechanical Engineering here from September, 
19^1, to September, 19'+'4, at which time he was made Associate in Meciianical Engi- 
neering. 

Cyrus Dale Srcffe (B.S. I9U0, University of Illinois; v/as Instructor in Engi- 
neering Drawing at the University of Louisville from September 19^0, until Sep- 
tember 19^2, when he Joined the staff at the University of Illinois as Instructor 
in Mechanical Engineering. Ho whs made Associate in 19^^. 
f. Instructors and Hesearch Assistants 

Alexander Thompson (C.3. I867, University of Michigan) served as Foreman of 
the Machine Shop at the University of Illinois during the year I87O-7I, at the end 
of which time he resigned to accent a teaching position at the University of Iowa. 



228 

Blna AlphoiiO Eo"binson (3.S. 187(:), and Hon. II. E., I893, University of Illinois) 
vrho '.7as a brother of Professor S. '.V. Robinson, and v/ho had served a four-year 
apprenticeshij) as a machinist, hfxd worked seven years as a Journeyiaan, li^id been 
foreman for three years of a machine shop in Janesville, '.Visconsin, and had en- 
rolled in the University here in the mechanical-engineering curriculum in I87O, 
becjune Foreman of the Machine Shop in iSyi. He was skillful and energetic as a 
mechanic, ingenious and resourceful in devising v/ays and means of doing v/ork, and • 
tactful and successful in stimulating v/orkmen of their best endeavors. He remain- 
ed '/7ith the University as Foreman of the Shop until I877. '"'hen he resigned to en- 
gage in industrial and comraorcial work in Champaign. He died in Champaign on 
March 3I, I92I. 

jjd'.vard Alonzo Kimball served as Foreman of the Machine Shop here from IS77 to 
18S5, and as Instructor in Iron l^ork and Foreman from 1885 to I889. He died on 
November ik, 1898. 

Rufus Anderson (B.Ii.B. I873, and M.E. 1382, Cornell University) served as In- 
structor in Iron ITork and Foronan of the Foundry at the University of Illinois 
from 1S39 to 1893 . He resigned to enter engineering practice, and died on May 10, 

1917. 

John Victor Smmanuel Schaoffer (B.S. I088, and M.S. I905, University of 
Illinois) v/as Instructor in the Machine Shop hero during 1889-9'^. after which he 
was engaged in engineering practice. In I907, he organized the Schaoffer Manu- 
facturing Company, and still later became a member of the Roberts .and Schaeffer 
Company, Chicago. iTliile ho was a student, Mr. Schaeffer was a member of the 
Philomathaen Literary Society cind took an active interest in debating, represent- 
ing his Society in many inter-society oratorical contests. His interest in this 
connection led him to establish the Schaeffer prize fund here at the University 
.as a basis for awards to engineering students in essay contests, described later 
in this publication. 

3dward Spencer Kcenc (3.3. I890, and M.S. I912, University of Illinois) serv- 
ed as Instructor in Mechanical Engineering here from IS90 to I892, after which he 



229 
resigned to TDecome Professor of Mechanical Engineering at North Dakota Agricultur- 
al College. He was made Dean of Engineering there in I90U, raid retained that 
position until his death on August 12, I92S. 

Cyril 3. Clark served as Toreman in the ifechine Shop during IS92-I9OI. 

Eenry T« Jones became Instructor in the Forge Shop in 1^93 '"^-nd remained with 
the University until I905. 

Albert Hoot Curtis served as Instructor in the Wood Shop at Michigan Agri- 
cultural College from I89O to 1893, then held the sane jjosition at the University 
of Illinois from 1893 to 1906. 

Robert Alvin Wood {3.?j. I89U, and U.S. I895, University of Illinois) was In- 
stinictor in Mechanical Zngineering here at the University from 189^ to I896, when 
he resigned to take up service with the U.S. Bureau of llines. 

Joseph H. Wilson^ served as Instructor in the Foundry from I895 to I905. 

Yfilliam Hfirrison KavaJiaugh (M.I!« 169^, Lehigh University) spent the three 
years follov/ing graduation in engineering practice and commercial .work, then 
served as Instructor in I'iechanical Engineering at the University of Illinois dur- 
ing the school year I897-9S. 

Edd Charles Oliver (3.S, IC9S, Purdue University) became Instructor in Me- 
chajnical Engineering at the University of Illinois in I898 and remained here until 
1902, when he resigned to acce])t an appointment at the University of Minnesota. 

David Leonard Scroggin became Instructor in the Machine Shop at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois in I9OI, and held this position until I91U, when he resigned to 
engage in commercial work. 

David Carroll Veirs (3.S. I9OI, University of Illinois; M.S. I907, University 
of Nebraska) served as Instructor in Mechanical Engineering at the University here 
during I9OI-O3, then went into engineering practice. Later he served as Assistant 
professor of Machine Design during I906-O7 at the University of Nebraska. 

V/illiajn Alexander Gordon Eraser (3.S. I899, University of Illinois) was en- 
gaged in comaercifd practice until he came to the University in I9OI as Instructor 
in Mechanical Engineering. Ko retained his position with the University until 



230 
1903, vrhon he withdrew to ro-cnter enginccrin/; work. 

Edwin G-ardner Grccnnan (3.S, I902, and M.S. I907, University of Illinois) 
served ;?.s Instructor in 1-icchanical Sngincei-'ing here during 1902-03, after which 
he 7/ithdrcw to accept a position at the University of Cincinnati. 

Hol^ert Haydcn Kuss (B.S. I903, University of Illinois) v;as Instructor in 
Mochanical Engineering hero from I903 to I905, 'vhen he left to engage in engineer- 
ing practice. 

Claude M^illory G-arland (3.E. I903, Vandcrbilt University) followed engineer- 
ing practice after graduation until ho joined the staff at the University of 
Illinois in 190[) as Instinictor in Mechanical Engineering. Ho held this position 
until 1910, when he rosifTnod to re-enter engineering practice. lir. Garland is 
joint author of three bulletins of the Engineering Experiuont Station. 

William Van Dunkin (3.S. I903 and M.E. I909, University of Illinois) was en- 
gaged in engineering practice fron date of graduation until he canio to the Uni- 
versity in 1905; as Instructor in Machine Design. Ho continued in his position 
here vmtil July, I912, when he vdthdrcw to re-enter commercial practice. 

17illi,a n "Yatson served as Instructor in Eoundry at the University here during 
1905-06. 

Hobcrt C leyton Ilatthcws (see General Engineering Drawing) v/as Instructor in 
Mechanical Engineering here during 190|;-06. 

Frederick Ellis became Instructor in Pattern MnJcing in September I906, and 
retained that jjosition until August ,1913i when he resigned to aacept an instructor- 
shiji in a newly-orgtinizod trade school at Ednonton, Alberta. 

Alfred Hittschor 3(;nch (3.S, I906, University of Illinois) was Instructor in 
Mechanical Engineering here from 1906 to I9IO, when ho left to engage in engineer- 
ing practice. 

Shields Q,uitman Casper, after several years of nxpcrienco as a professional 
iron moulder, became Instructor in the Foundry at the University of Illinois in 
1906, where he remained until I9IO, when ho resigned to engage in the real-estate 
business in Champaign. 



231 

Frank Lyman Bubo/ (B.S. I895, and K.E. 1898, Univorsity of Illinois) was en- 
gaged in coEimcrcial work after graduation until he joined the staff at the Uni- 
versity here in I907 with the title of Research Assistant in Mechanical Engineor- 
in^;. He remained in this position uhtil I5II, ''7hen he rer.igned to re-enter in- 
dustrial work, which he followed \intil his death in 191^. 

Allen Burton Cooke (B.S. 1907i University of Illinois) came to the University 
of Illinois in I9O8 as Research Assistant in Mechanical Engineering. He resigned 
in 1909 to become a county agricultural agent in North Dakota. 

Henry Bernard Dirks (B.S. I90U, and M.E.19OL), University of Illinois) served 
as Assistant in Mechanical Engineering here during 1905-03 and as Instructor in 
Mechanical Engineering during I9O8-IO. He resigned in December, I9IO, to accept 
a position in practical woi'k. Later he became Professor of Mechanical Engineering 
at Michigan State College and still later Dean of Engineering there. While at 
Illinois, Mr. Dirks served as co-author of two bulletins issued by the Engineering 
Experiment Station. 

Jean Paul Clayton (B.S.I909, Tulane University; M.E. I9II, University of 
Illinois) served as Research Assistant in Mechanical Engineering at the Univorsity 
of Illinois during I909-II, and is the author of two bulletins issued by the Engi- 
neering Experiment Station. Kc resigned in I9II to take up engineering practice. 
He was Vice-President of the Central Illinois Public Service Company during I919 
and 1930, President during I932 and Chainn.-n of the Board during 1932-33. He was, 
also. Assistant to the President of the Super-Power Company of Illinois during 
1928-32, and Vice-President of the Middle T.'cst Utilities Company in I932. Since 
1932, Mr. Clayton has been Chief System Officer of the Conunonwoalth Edison 
Company, Public Service Company of Northern Illinois, ffcstorn United Gas and 
Electric Company, Illinois Northern Utilities Company, and of the Chicago District 
of the Electric Generating Corporation. 

Alwin Louis Schaller (B.S. I907, and M.E. I912, University of Illinois) serv- 
ed as Instructor in Mechanical Engineering during 1909-11* 

Paul Wright Gawne (B.S. I909, Purdue University) served as Assistant and 



232 

Instructor in Woodshop and Foundry at the University of Illinois in charge of the 
foundry during I909-I2. Ke resigned to become a teacher in uianual training in 
secondary/- school '.70 rh. 

Jame s Charles Lund (B.S. I909, University of Illinois) served as Instructor 
in Metal u'orking from October, I909, to July, I9IO. 

Feriy John Freeman (B.S.1907, and M. 3. 1916, University of Illinois) served 
for three years as Insti-uctor in Mechanical Engineering at the University of 
Pennsylvania, then cnme to the University of Illinois in September, I9IO, as In- 
structor in llachine Constru.ction and in charge of the iiechpnical Engineering Shops. 
Ke resigned in February, IHIP, to engage in practical work. 

Robert Ed'.vin Kennedy attended the University of Illinois during I909-IO, and 
became Instructor in Foundry Practice in I9IO, remaining until IPlTi '''hen he re- 
signed to enter military sorvicr . Ho returned to the University in September, 
1919, a;.; Superintendent of the Foundry Laboratory, but loft again in September, 
1921, to become Secretary of the Americnn Foundryman's Associatioft. He rejoined 
the staff at the University again in September, 1922, as Superintendent of the 
Foundry Laboratory, but left finally in September, I92U. 

John N.Vedder (A.B, I895, and A.M. 1897, Union College) was engaged for 
several years in engineering jpractice and joined the University staff here in 
September, I9IO, as Hesoarch Assistant in Hcchjuiical Engineering. He resigned in 
September, 1914, to become Assistant Professor of Thermodynamics at Union College 
Mr. Veddcr is joint author of one bulletin issued by the Engineering Experiment 
Station hori.. 

Archi e Stanton Buyers (B.S. I9O0, University of Illinois) became Instructor 
in Mechanical Engineering here in Soptombrr ,1911, but resigned in December, I912, 
to accept an appointment in the U.S. Coast Artillery. 

Herbert Scton E^mes (B.S. I9OS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology) served 
as Assistant in Physics at Miassachusetts Institute of Technology for a year after 
graduation, then boc-uiie Instructor in Mechanical Engineering at Rhode Island 
State College. After thrco years there, ho became Instructor in Mechanical 



233 

Engineering here at the University in September, 1912, remaining here until Sep- 
tember, I91U, when he resigned to accept the editorship with "Ice and Refrigera- 
tion" in Chicago. 

Bramerd Mitchell , Jr. (B.M.3.I907 and M.E.iqil, University of Arkansas) was 
for a niimber of years Instructor and later Associate Professor at his alma mater. 
He became Instructor in Machine Design at the University of Illinois in September 
1912, but withdrew in June,1913, to assume the position he formerly held at the 
University of Arkansas. 

Arthur Boguer Domonosice (3.S. I907, and U.S. I909, University of California) 
after serving for three years at his alma mater, was made Instructor in Machine 
Design at the University of Illinois in September, I913. He resigned in August, 
1915, to enter commercial work. Later, he becnme Head of the Department of 
Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University. 

Jo3e])h Culpeper Fencaeton \7as Assistant in the Foundry at the University dur- 
ing I912-I3, and Instructor during 1913-1^. Ho resigned in Septonfber, I91U, to 
enter comnrorcinl practice. 

Frederick Calkins Torrance (K.E. I9II, Comoll University) spent the first 
two years after graduation in engineering practice, then joined the University of 
Illinois as Instructor in Mechanical Engineering in September, 1913- He resigned 
in August 1915. to re-enter engineering practice. 

Horatio Spraigue HcDewell (S.B. I907, and M. M.S. I9O8, Harvard University) be- 
came Instructor in Mt^chanical Engineering at the University of Illinois in 191^1 
after having spent several years in practice. He resigned his position here in 
April, 1917, to accept an appointment as Engineer of Testa with the U.S. Navy. 

Edwin Diederich August Fran.': (B,S. I9OD, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nolog:,-) ijpont some years in practice and study at home and abroad ;ifter graduation 
then served as Instructor in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Illinois 
during I91U-I7, resigning in February, I917, to engage in practical engineering 
wo rk . 

James Harvey Hogue who had had several years of practical experience in 



23U 

foundry work, "became Instructor in ffoundi-y Practice at the University of Illinois 
in Se])tember, 191^. He renained in this position until the summer of 19I8, when 
he resitted to engage in commercial v/ork. 

Jereraian Amos De Turk (B.S. 19 12, Pennsylvania State College) joined the staff 
at the University of Illinois in Septemter, 1914-, as Instructor in ilachine Shop 
Practice. He resigned in J.-muary, I9I0. to join the military service. Ho is the 
autnor of a te::tbook entitled "A Manual of Machine Shop Practice nnd Management". 

Q-eo i-ge reujaain P.icc who nas graduated from the U.S. ifeval Academy in IS92 
and 77ho had spent scvei'al years in federal vfork, served as lecturer on mechanical 
equipment of buildinr-s and as mechpjiical engineer in the office of Supervising 
Architect at the Univt:rsity during I915-I6. He resi,;ned in May, I916, to accept a 
position 7/ith a large chemical manufacturing company at Buffalo, New York. 

Payiaond Elder Hohinson (3.S. 19(^S, and M.S. I909, University of Illinois) V7as 
engaged in en.q;lnQering practice .-li'ter graduation until February, igi6, when he 
joined the staff at the University here as Instructor in Meclianicn'l Engineering. 
Eu car.ie for the second semester only at the urgent rt^quevjt of the department head 
to fill an appointment temporarily until some one could be s<:cured to take it 
permanently. He returned to engineering work follo-ving his term at the University. 

Claude Lo'toII E-irrc 11 (B.S. I91U, Purdue University) became Instructor in 
Mechanical Engineering at the University of Illinois in October, I916, after spend- 
ing two years in practical ^7ork following graduation. He resigned in the summer 
of 1917 'to enter military service. 

Cloon E. Phelps (B.S. l''_'13i V/orcest er Polytechnic Institute) joined the staff 
at the University of Illinois in March, I917, as Assistant to the Director of the 
Shop Laboratories and Instructor in Shop Management. He resigned, however, in 
January, 1918, to enter military service. 

Fraiik Gu stave :7ahlcn (B.3.1917, Tufts College; M.S. I9I9, University of Illi- 
nois) served as Research Assistant in Heating pxid Ventilation at the University 
of Illinois during I9I7-I9. 

Prancis Ames Hobart vjan madi; Instructor in Machini^ Shop ManagoBient in 



235 

September, I9I8, but resigned at the nnd of the school j'-ear, 

Hussein Halouk Fikret (3.S.S. I916, University of Kichif;?in) served as In- 
structor in iiechanical Ilngineering at the University of Illinois frora September, 
igiS, until June, 1920, /hen he resigned to engage in engineering jiractice. 

Peter J . Rebnan became Assistant in the Forge Shop in igiO .and Assistant 
Superintendent of the Forge Shop in 1^19 • ^« I'esigned in February, I92O. 

John Grennan who had s])ent several years in practice in foundry work, was ap- 
pointed Insti-uctor in Foundry Practice and Managenent in February, igiS. His 
title 'vas changed to Assistant Superintendent of the Foundry/ Laboratory in Sep- 
tember, 19191 ^i^'t he v/ithdrew in the sunner of I920 to become Foundry Instimctor 
at CajJ]) Grant, Jioclcford, Illinois. 

Ro swell M. Hennio (j.S. 19l6, Massachusetts Institute of Technology) after 
several years' experience in jir-'ictice, Joined the staff of the University of 
Illinois in October, 1919, 'is Superintendent of the llachine Shop. He resigned, 
ho-.vever, at the end of the year to engage in comnercial vork. 

Oscar "Jilliam Schricker '.rho was ^Taduated from the P.an>:in School of liechanic 
Trades of St. Louis, was made Assistant Superintendent of the Kachinc Laboratory 
in October, 1919, and retained that position until September, 1^2b. 

Amos David "t^" right became Assistant Superintendent of the Pattern Shop at the 
University of Illinois in 1919- ^n 1931 1 his title was changed to Instructor in 
Mechanical Sngineoring, and has retained that position to date. 

Hoy './ilbur Schroeder wars Assistant Superintendent of the Foundry Laboratory 
from Sr.ptcmber, I92O, to September, 1926. 

Charles Nathan Arnold (3.S. in J.S., I9II, andil.S. inM.L., I92U, University 
of Illinois) became Instructor in Iiechanical Engineering at the University here in 
February, I921, after several years of practicnl experience in engineering work, 
and retained that position until Juno, 1925« 

Arthu r Hildoman Aagaard (3.S. 191^, University of Illinois) served several 
years as Instructor in Uochanical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin and 
P-icc Institute, after which ho was engaged in commercial v7ork. He came to the 



236 

University of Illinois in Fe'bruary, I92I, as Instructor in ilechnnical Engineering, 
but resigned at the end of the school year. 

&len N. Crosby after graduating in Manual Training at the Western State Nor- 
mal School, Kalamazoo, Michigan, came to the University of Illinois in lehruaxy, 
1921, as Assistant Superintendent of the Foundiv Laboratory, '.vhere he remained un- 
til his death on March 31, 1923. 

Oeorge Theodore Felbeck (3.S. 19IQ, and ii.S. I921, University of Illinois) 
Joined the staff of the University here in September, I92I, as Hesoarch Assistant 
in Mechanical Engineering, and r(;maincd here until September I9 23. He is joint 
author of two bulletins published by the Snginoering Sxperimcnt Station. 

Fran]:: "Tliitcher Martin (B.S. in M.IJ. I92O, George Washington University) was 
transferred from the Department of General Engineering Drawing at the University 
of Illinois to the Department of Mechanical Ungineering in September, I92I, with 
the title of Instructor in Mechanical Engineering, but resigned in June, 1922. 

John Dallas "■'isc (B.S. in E.E., I9I5. Mississippi A.& M. College) nas engaged 
for some time after graduation in engineering practice, then Joined the U.S. Army. 
Following his discharge, he entered engineering practice again, but left it to 
come to the University in Septomber^l921, as Superintendent of the Foundry Labora- 
tory. Ho remained here until September, I922. 

3.USSC11 James Engl ehart after some years' experience in engineering practice, 
came to the University of Illinois in September, I92I, as Assistant Superintendent 
of the Forge Laboratory, and remained in that position until October, I923 . 

Andrev/ John l.'icholas (M^E. I919, Lohigh University) s^n-vcd for a time as In- 
structor at Lehigh and for a, tine in engineering practice, after '-/hich he came to 
the University of Illinois in September, I92I, as Instructor in Mechanical Engi- 
neering. He V7ithdru'7 in Juno, I923. 

John Patrick liullon (B.Eng., I917, and S.Eng.Konr, . , I92O, Liverpool University) 
Was Bcsnarch Assistant in Refrigeration at the University of Illinois from October 
1921, to September, I925. 

John Babcock Bfiker (B.S. in Chemical Engineering, I921, and M.S. I92I+, 



237 

University of Illinois) v/as Research Assistant in Mechanical Engineering here 

from Sertem"ber, I923, to August, 1926. He is Joint author of one bulletin of the 
Engineering Experiment Station. 

Austin Sinclair Irvine (3.Ch.2.. I91U and M.S., I915, University of Michigan) 
was engaged in engineering practice from I9I5 to Fobruarj'-, I92U, when he joined 
the staff at the University of Illinois as Assistant Superintendent of the Forge 
Laboratory, which position ho hold until Septouber, I926. 

T endering C. Harnhill C Stoberi Te'.miker, 1917i Copenhagen Institute of ?ech- 
nolor/; F.ii. and 0., I923, V/entvorth Institute, Boston) had been employed in 
commercial foundry ''ork bofore coning to the University in October, I92U, as 
Assistniit Superintendent of the Foundry Laboratory. Ho remained here ur.til I929. 

Clarence H. Caughcy (3.S.,1921, nnd K.H. , I925, University of Colorado) served 
as Instructor in Mochanlcfil Unginoering at the University of Colorado after gradu- 
ation until ho bccrvmo Instinictor at the University of Illinois in September, I925. 
He remained horo, ho'vover, only u.itil July, I92S. 

H,n,rry . E--ught on ( Ph . 3 . , I919, Sheffield Scientific School, Ya.lo University) 
■.7as onft'agod in engineering practice after graduation until he Joinod the staff at 
the University of Illinois in September, I923, as Assistant SupeJ'intondcnt of the 
Foundi\v Laboratory. He was made Superintendent of the Laboratory in I925, but re- 
signed in September, I926. 

John Houston Parker (3.S. I922, University of Illinois) Assistant in Mechani- 
cal Engineering from I923 to I925, was promoted to Inst.-uctor in I'iechanical Sngi- 
ncering in Sf^ptember, I32I1. He remained hero until Juno, I927. 

oustaf Adolph Gafvort (3.S. I923, and M.S., I925, IForcester Polytechnic 
Institute) became Assistant in Mechanical Engineering at the University of 
Illinois in September, I925, and Instmctor in I926, but withdrcvf in Jiinc, I927. 

Milton O liver l.'ingard (3.1]., 19'-3. Johns Hopkins University) served as In- 
structor in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Illinois from January, 
1927, to September, 1928. 

Lucius Duke Golden (3.S., I926, University of Texas) Joined the staff as In- 
structor in I'.ochanicnl Engincorin^'^ at the University of Illinois in September, 



238 

1927, nfter teaching a yeai- at hi a alma mater. He left the University in I928. 

Joseph Gibson LoTther (3.S. I927, University of Texas; M.S. I93I, University 
of Illinois) '^as Research Assistant in llcchanical Ungineering at the University 
of Illinois from 1923 to 193?. Ho is co-author of tv.'o Bulletins of the Sn^'^ineer- 
ing Zxi^erimont Station. 

■■"illiaLi Henry Spencer (3.S., in Chen I]n{%1926, Vandei-" built University) served 
as Suri'irintcndent of the Foundry Laboratory at the University of Illinois from 
July, 192s, to September, I929. 

J ohn ?red >^,uereau (3.S., I926, University of Texas; ii.S., 1928, University of 
Illinois) "fas employed as Special Research Assistant in Mechanical 3ngineoring 
from SopcenDcr, 1922, to S.jptembur, I929. He is Joint author of one circular of 
the Znginocrin.'^: Experiment Station. ^ 

Jonn Rober t Connolly (3.S., I927, and M.S., I929, University of Illinois) 
served -is Special Research Assistarit in Mechanical Enfaneering from April to 
September, ].929. 

'.Ti l bur John -oodruff (M.S., I923, Massachus'-tts Institute of Technology) serv- 
ed as S-^ecial Research Assistant in Mechanical Sngineerin^; from April, I929, to 
April, 1930. 

:Sd'.'in Laurence 3roderick (3.S. I923, lo^a State College; M.S., 1933, Univer- 
sity of Illinois) "as Spe.cial M.,soa"-'ch Assistant in Mochojiical i^ngineering at the 
University of Illinois fron Seiitenber, I930. to M'ay, I9U1. H.' is Joint author of 
two bulletins of the Engineering IJxperinont Station. 

Jacl: Philip CoYan (3.M.2., I939, Ohio State Univ.rsity, IMS., I9U2, Univer- 
sity of Illinois) served a;; Insti^uctor in Mf:clianical Zngincering here from Sep- 
tember, 1937 1 'to June 19^3. "'"iT-'-n he resigned to engage in engineering practice. 

Charles Thoren ^race (3.S. 1936, University of Colorado; Mi.S. 19^1, Univer- 
sity of Illinois) served as Insti'uctor in Mechariical Engineering here from Sep- 
tember, 1937, to June, 19142 . 

Vfarren Eugene Compton (3.S. I933, and M.S. I93U, University of Illinois) was 
employed as Instiructor in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Illinois 



239 
from September, 1937, to November 19U0. 

Edwin Devere Luke (B.S. 1937, M.S. 1938, University of Illinois) was In- 
structor in Mechanical Engineering here from September, 1938, to September, 19Ul, 
when he was given a leave of absence to enter military service. He returned 
to his University duties in February, 19U6. 

Jay Arthur Bolt (B.S. 193h, Michigan State College; M.M.E., 1937, Chrysler 
Institute of 'England) was Instructor in Mechanical Engineering at the University 
of Illinois from September, 1938, to October, 19U0. 

Sam Sachs (B.S. 1939, and M.S. 19U2, University of Illinois) has served as 
Research Assistant from September, 1939, to date. He was graited a leave of 
absence on January 16, 19Uii, to join the U.S. Army. 

Ross J, Martin (B.S. 19U0, Michigan State College) became Special Research 
Assistant in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Illinois in July, 19iiO. 
Hb was on leave of absence for service with the U.S. Navy from September, 19U2, 
until January, 19U6. He is co-author of one bulletin of the Engineering 
Experiment Station. 

Richard Bott Engdahl (B.S. 1936, Bucknell University; M.S., 1938, University 
of Illinois) became Special Research Assistant in Mechanical Engineering at the 
University of Illinois in February, 1939. His title was changed to Instructor 
in Mechanical Engineering in October, 19U0; and he remained in that position 
until July, 19I4.I. He is co-author of one bulletin of the Engineering Experiment 
Station. 

Paul Stuart Collier (B.S. 1939, and M.S. 19^1, Purdue University) became 
Instructor in Mechanical Engineering in September, 19Ul, and remained with the 
University until September, 19UU. 

Vernon Morris Korty (A.B. 1937, Illinois College; A.M. 1939, University of 
Illinois) was special Research Assistant in Mechanical Engineering at the 
University of Illinois from September, 19iil, to June 191^2. 

Morse Beryl Singer - who had spent some time in practice with industrial 
firms and who had served for several years here as Assistant in Mechanical 
Engineering, was made Instructor in Mechanical Engineering in September, 19h^, 



jj yT&y'.-ii 



2U0 
Chester Edward Derrough , after several years' experience in practice and 
as Assistant in the Machine Laboratory here, became Instructor in Mechanical 
Engineering in September, 19l45. 

I. SUMI^IARY 
General - Mechanical Engineering was the first department to be established 
in what is now the College of Engineering, and it has continued to be one of 
the major units. It has always had a relatively large enrollment of students 
and therefore has had to maintain a large teaching staff and an elaborate 
assortment of equipment most of which has been expensive in its first cost and 
operation. While the Department has sought to keep its teaching program in line 
with advancements in practice in the several fields of its endeavor, it has 
limited its instructional work to a single curriculum with a liberal allowance 
of optional subjects, and has left specialization tc the graduate years. Its 
instructional objectives have at times seemed a little severe, but they have so 
operated to ground the students in the fundamental principles of engineering 
practice as to enable them to go into all branches cf industry and serve there 
as a credit to themselves and the University. 

Aside from its educational value to students enrolled in engineering 
courses, the laboratory equipment has served many useful purposes in the conduct 
of research. It has enabled the staff to provide materials for the publication 
of a long list of bulletins issued from time to time by the Engineering 
Experiment Station, that have gonefer in establishing principles that have re- 
sulted in the development of this branch of industry. Much of the experimental 
work has been done in cooperation with commercial firms or scientific associa- 
tions interested in these particular fields; and like all such cooperative 
effort, it has brought to the campus many persons of responsibility and in- 
fluence, and thereby enabled the University and industry to establish mutual 
relations that cannot be reckoned in money values for any of the parties 
interested. 



;^r : 7i;d .vTr'. . : su 



IX bMi.lciae r;.1;. 



si-teiMji 



iscJldf" '^ii.t " 



2kl 

C:iA?TER VIII 

TE3 DSPARTMa^T OF CIVIL SilGINESRING 
A. ORGANIZATION 
General - fJhile the report of the original coiamittee of the Begent and four 
Trustees in 1867 made proviaion for Civil Engineering in the Polytechnic Depart- 
ment, it took a little time to get the department organized. In the Catalogue 
and Circular of the University for I06S-69 under officers aJid instructors and 
their titles, is listed the position of Civil and Rural Engineering. No one had 
been apr.ointed, apparently, to fill this chair, ho'/^ever, for the name was left 
blank. In the 1869-70 issue, Saauol Vfelker Shat tuck's name appears as Professor 
of Civil Engineering find Instructor in Military Tactics. In the 1870-71 number, 
the faculty list under the College of iicchanics and Engineering contains the 

names of S. \1. Shattuck, Professor of liathenatics, and Alex. Thompson, Teacher of 

1 
Railroad Engineering. In the Report of the Board of Trustees for I87O-7I appears 

the following statement: "The deviartraent of Civil Engineering has also won some 
laurels under the efficient management of Professor Shattuck and his assistants. 
Classes have been trained in both theory and field practice, and the services of 
some of the students have already' been sought by outside parties, in engineering 
work". The organization of the Department or School as it was somstimes called, 
must have been somewhat nebular at that time, though, for the Catalogue contained 
a four-year course of studies "rccom.icnded" for the School to follow. Professor 
Robinson, Head of the Department or School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, 
directed instruction in civil engineering from March, I87O, '.7hen Professor Shattudc 
Was obliged to give his entire attention to other natters, until November, IS7I, 
when John Burkitt I7cbb, became Professor of Civil Engineering and Head of the 
Department. The a}j:iointment of Pi'ofessor "Jpbb to fill the chair of civil engineer- 
ing served very definitely to establish the department as a separate entity with a 
required course of stud;^"- for its instructional prograi.i. 

3. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS OP INSTRUCTION 
Objectives - The objectives of instruction in civil engineering were stated 
i Page 69 



2U2 
in various publications issued at different times by the University, as follows: 

"This school is designed to make good practical Engineers, thoroughly pre- 
pared for all branches of Engineering work, Railroad surveys, Toj.iograrihic and 
Geodetic Surveying, Bridge building. Government Surveying, etc. Several of the 
students, though not yet through their course, have already been honored with 
positions on the Coast Survey, and on important Railroadc", 

"The School is designed to furnish a course of theoretical instruction 
accompeinied and illustrated by a large amount of practice, whioiT^ll enable stu- 
dents to enter intelligently upon the various and important duties of the Engi- 
neer. Those who desire a preparation, at once broad and thorough, and who are 
willing to make persevering effort to obtain it, are cordially invited to connect 
themselves with this School". 

"While the instruction aiias to be practical by giving the student informa- 
tion and practice directly applicable to his future professional work, the prime 
object is the development of the mental faculties. The pov/or to acquire informa- 
tion and the ability to use it, is hold to be of far greater value than any amount 
of so-called practical acquirement s".^ 

"The curricaltm in civil engineering affords specialized training in the 
construction and maintenance of hi^ways, in irrigation, drainage, and the reclam- 
ation of land, and gives general consideration to hydro-economics. It emphasises 
structtiral engineering, including the theory, design, and construction of masonry, ^^ 
reinforced-concrete and steftl hridges, viaducts, btiildings, and other structxires". 

"The courses in the Department of Civil Engineering offer a systematic train- 
ing in the principles underlying the design and construction of bridges, "buildings, 
dams, retaining walls, and similar structures; of highways; of water-supply and 
sewage-rtlsposal systems; and of hydraulic engineering works; and in the principles 
of city and regional planning". - 

Methods of Instruction - "The method of instruction consists in coupling the 
development of intellectual power with the acquisition of information useful to 
the civil engineer in his profession". 

"The instruction is given by lectures textbooks and reading, to which are 
added numerous problems and practical exorcises, as v/ill servo best to exjjlain 
principles completely and fix them in the mind. Models and instruments arc con- 
tinually used, both in lectures and by the students themselves".© 

C. ROOM ASSIGmiBHTS FOR OFriCS, RECITATION, MD DRAFTING PURPOSES 

General - The first quarters occupied by the Department of Civil Engineering 

for office, class, and drafting purposes were in Old University Building. Then, 

the Department moved into University Hall '.vhen that building was finished in 

1273. '.Then Engineering Hall was completed in I89U, the Department took over a 

portion of the second floor for offices, recitation, and drafting purposes — the 

Department office being in Room 203 . '^he Department also had a museum in the 

1 Report of Board of Trustees, IS7O-7I, page Ul. 

2 University Catalogue and Circular of 1872-73, page 33. 

3 University Catalogue and Circular of I89O-9I, page 3^. 
U A Pictorial Description, 1919, page 9. 

5 University of Illinois Bulletin, Vol. XXXVITI, No. 10. 19^. 

6 University Catalogue and Circular of I89O-9I, page 3U. 



2^3 
west wing of the same floor, that contained a large numter of samples of merchant 
iron, a numlier of full-size Joints of iron bridges, and a large number of models 
of bridges and elevated railroads* The drafting rooms wore equipped with a type 
of double drawing desks that all other departments in the College, except Archi- 
tecture used. The filing cases contained drawings of many actual engineering 
works then in service. 

As the student enrollment grew and other departments moved into other build- 
ings, civil engineering took over much of the space in Engineering Hall for its 
offices, recitation rooms and drafting rooms. For example, after the Department 
of Architecturo moved out of Engineering Hall at the beginning of the second 
semester of 1927-28, most of the space vacated was taken over by the Department of 
Civil Engineering, and the Department readjusted its room assignments. Rooms 211, 
2lU, and 309 were used ass senior drawing rooms and Room 420 v/as used as a junior 
drawing room. Several of the other roomij on the fourth floor y/ere taken as office; 
for instructors. ^ 

In 19^51 the Department has at its disposal eight large drafting rooms for 
junior and senior students in design work. Each student is able thereby to have 
his own desk for work at any time much as he would in a commercial drafting office* 
D. DEVELOPMENT 0? CIVIL EI^GIIIESHING LABORATORY FACILITIES 

General - As a means of supplementing the classroom instruction, a number of 
laboratories have been developed during the past seventy-five years to provide 
practice in the use of instrumonts, to study and examine various types of materials 
of construction, and to investigate utility systems dedicated to public-health 
service. These facilities have served, also, to provide means for the conduct of 
many experiments in connection v/ith graduate study ;ind v;ith the programs sponsored 
by the Engineering E.-qjeriment Station. Brief descriptions of some of these de- 
velopments follow. 

Earlj Surveying Apparatus - The University Circulars of 1269-70 and I87O-7I 
stated that the school was provided with apparatus for surveying and engineering 
embracing all the field instruments necessary for making Government land surveys. 



2kk 
farm surveys, and for conducting railroad and topographical surveying and levelingi 

Such equipment included the transit theodolite, a level from Newton & Company's, 

London, tv>'o leveling rods — the ordihary and self-reading; a first class Vernier 

compass; tv7o brazed-link steel chains — Giinther's and engineer's; instruments for 

stadia surveying, adopted in the Government surveys. 

It had also a model truss bridge, t^"enty feet in length, with movable braces, 

and other ajjparatus for practical illustration. 

1 
The Catalogue of 18/2-73 stated: 

"This School is provided "srith both English and American instruments for the 
different branches of Sngincering Practice and for the Astronomical work of Higher 
Surveying. It has numerous models for illustration of its specialties and access 
to the Cabinets of the other Schools. 

"Some expensive and accurate instruLients are being added to the Cabinet, 
which arc being made by the Instrument Maker of the U.S. Surveys. These are the 
first of a complete sot of Geodetic and Astronomical Instruments which with a few 
stations, will make possible practical instruction in Geodesy. 

"An Astronomical Observatory for meridian observation and of suitable size 
for the Practical Exercises in Astronomy, has been erected and is in use. An 
equatorial telescope has been mounted for the use of the students. A set of 
Smithsonian Meteorological instruments has been procured and placed in position 
for making observations". 

The I89O-9I issue of the University Catalogue and Circular contained the 

following statement: 

"The school is provided with the instruments necessary for the different 
branches of engineering field practice, including chains, tapes, compasses, plane 
tables, stadias, traiisits, levels, barometers, base rods and comparing apparatus, 
sextants, eneine;'r's transits arranged for astronomical observation, and solar 
compass attachments for transit. 

"A portable altitude and azimuth instrument of the latest and best form 
from the celebrated maicers, Troughton & Simms, of London, is used for instruction 
in geodesy and practical astronomy. It is read by micrometer microscope to single 
seconds, both of altitude and of azimuth. The astronomical observatory is pro- 
vided with an equatorial telescope, and astronomical transit, with attachment for 
zenith telescope work, a chronometer, and a set of meteorological instruments". 

Early Surveying Areas rUid Field Problems - Even as early as 1272, the Uni- 
versity had a specially-prepared area to facilitate the practice of topographic 
and land surveying in which the difficulties of plane surveying were presented to 
the beginner as soon as he was able to meet them, and v/here he 'ths taught practical 
methods of overcoming them. This was subdivided by a large number of lines whose 

1 ?a,ge 35. 



2U5 

positions 'vcrc accurately-' kncTn "by the instructors, "but not "by the students. The 
students '."ere thus rcmirod to dotcmino the x^ositions of the "corners" hy various 
methods and to calculate the enclosed areas. 'The nunher of divisions v-'as so large 
that no t'7o students had the same protlon and so accurately laid out that the 
correctness of the students' \7ork: could at once be determined. 

Other problens '^ere given in determining distances, passing obstacles, avoid- 
ing local attractions, etc., for '.7hich the ground was prepared. In the;;,e problems, 
too, all possible distances, directions, areas, arid elevations '.7ere accurately 
knovm; hence the instimctors knew beforehand the pri;cise results '.vhich the students 
should obtain. L;ot a single problem or exercise 'Jas given in v/hich there Was AVant- 
ing an absolute check upon the accuracy of the v/ork. This 'Jas an incentive to the 
students and enabled the teacher to sho',7 thom the dogroo of accuracy attained and 
also to iioint out the errors. 

Surveying after l&jh- V/hen Zlnt.'ineering Hall v/as couplcted in 1S94, the sur- 
veying equipment A7as kept in Room 10^' on the first floor of that ^uilding. The 
instrument room contained a large number of '7all lockers where the surveying in- 
stilunonts -JcTe kej't. It also contained the table;.; used in the computation and 
the dra'.7ings pertaining to field '/'ork. The surveying oqui]imont consisted of five 
cngincir's transits, t^70 solar transits, two mining transits, five compasses, five 
ordinary levels, tvro jjrccislon levels, throe, common juid tv/o fine planetables, 
stadia boards, level rods, flag poles, chains, tapes, and other necessary appara- 
tus. Each instrument '.vas placed in a separate locker and only the person using it 
had access to it. The work shop in ?.oom 103 adjoining that room was equipped with 
tools and supplies for repairing the instruments. 

In iSgU, when a-itronomy .'as a required subject in Civil Snginecring, the engi- 
neering observatory '.vas located in p. separate building. It had in it mounted on 
brick piors, an astronomical trmisit, ;in alt-azimuth insti-uraent reading to seconds, 
two polar carononotors, one sidcrial cnronouetor, t-'o sextants, and several baro- 
meters. 



1 The Tochnograph, IS94-95, Pages 177-/2. 



- 2U6 

As the nvanljer^of •en^ifteeri.ng -•''otAliilngs 'in*re»sed, aiid the si3ece;:«,vails'ble-?or 

surveying purposes dwindled on the north campus, it hecajTie necessary to go to the 
south campus to conduct the field exercises. Finally, the distances became so 
great and it took so mach time to come and go that it seemed advisable to obtain 
quarters near the surveying fields for the surveying equipnent. Accordingly, the 
old Horticultural gilding was taken over in "lS25t and adapted to surveying needr. 
The division of surveying, under the immediafre direction of Professor W,H, Hayner, 
moved into it then and still occupies it in 19'^5. The building contains the in— 
sti*ument locker rooms and drafting rooms for the surveying courses and offices 
for some of the teaching staff giving instruction in surveying subjects. 

Appropriate equipment of' newest designs has been gradually accumulated for 
different grades of service. Numerous engineers' and solar transits, ordinary 
and precise levels, plane tables, sextants, rods, tapes, and smaller instruments 
were made available for regular plane- surveying practice. Several instruments of 
high precision were also made available for advanced work in hydrographic and 
geodetic surveying. In 19'+5i there is a sufficient number of instruments with al" 
supplemental equipment for appro xim^'^tely 30 transit parties, 3O level parties, an' 
10 plane-table parties at the same time. The Department has, also, a representar- 
tive assortment of calculating machines to enaMe the students to acquire some 
proficiency in the use of such devices and t® make survey and_ other computations 
in connection with their classroom and laboratory assignments. 

Many civil engineering students begin their engineering practice either be- 
fore or after graduation in positions that involve some knowledpie of surveying. 
This is one connection they can make with industry whereby their University 
experience enables them to render immediate service to employers without under- 
going the usu^l period of apprenticeship so often required to attain professional 
status. 

Summer Surveying Camp,- Camp Rabideau - After much of the space conveniently 
located for surveying practice on the University campus had been taken for build- 
ing purposes, and after the student enrollment had increased to the point where 



2U6a 
the available areas vvere no longer adequate, serious consider?tion was given to 

the subject of a summer caop that -/ould provide facilities commensurate with the 
needs for instruction in surveying practice. As early as I9IO, en effort was 
made to locrte suitable grounds for a cpjnp site in a number of places in both 
the upper and lower peninsulas of Michigan, but no particular section seemed to 
meet all of the requirements of rn iderl site, a r6-'U-gh and rugf:ed, unsettled 
country, dotted with lakes ---nd traversed by water courses, v/herc stu'^ents would 
work under a variety of conditions somewhat simulating those generally found in 
actuol practice, L^ter, various places in Illinois, especially the regions near 
Danville and in a number of St'-te p^rks were consi'^cred, but none of these seemed 
entirely adequate. The search continue'', hoTcver, -"^nd the matter was 'definitely 
decided in the l-^tter part of 19^5» v;hen Camp Rpbi'^eau, a former CCC C-^rap locate'' 
about six miles from Blnckduck and about twenty-five miles northeast of Bemidji, 
in the million-acre tract of the Chippewa National Forest of No rthv/e stern Minne~ 
sota was chosen as the most desirable spot having all the opportunites requisite 
for wide rrnge of surve.ving experience. The tract w^s le-^sed form the U, S. 
Forest Service, approval having been given by the University Board of Trustees 
on December 11, It is a note of interest to mention that the camps of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota and of Iowa St"te College -re also located in this area. 

The Camp, consisting of seventeen frrme buildings lighted by electricity 
and well adapted to the University's use, provides dormitory facilities for ai- 
bout one-hundred and fifty persons with complementary mess hall, bath house 
with hot and cold showers and toilets, hcspital, and recreation hall, in addition 
to the necessary clf'ssrooms, drafting rooms, and library accommodations. The 
C^^mp has pn excellent deej>-well water supply system pnd a very satisfactory 
sewage disposal plant. The adjoining lakes offer unusual opportunities for hy- 
drographic surveying ^n'^ the ne»r-by stipms corresponding facilities for stream 
gaging pnd measurement. In aMition, the region offers exceptional opportunities 
for such recrertion?sl diversion as swimming, fishing, canoeing, and hiking. 

The C-mp, under the general direction of Professor W^ c, Huntington and in 



2^7 

inmedlate chr.rge of Professor W. H, Raynor, is in operation for P.n cipht-weeks' 

period during the months of July and Auj^st, pnd p11 students rer:istered with the 
Department of Civil Enrtineerint: nre expected to attend "betv/ecn their freshmnn nn-^ 
sophomore ye-rs. The v/ork, consistin,": of lectures, quizzes, nnd drpwinp;— room 
exercises supplemented by appropri-^te field practice, covers the theory p.nd prac- 
tice of plane, topographic, and route surveying:, an-^ is equivalent to th-'t former- 
ly offered in the t\7o three-hour courses of Plp.ne an'^ Topor;raphic Surveying and 
one YpxiT of Route Surveying, giving a total of seven hours of University credit 
for the period. For the eight- weeks' session, the University tvition fee is $20 
for residents of Illinois ajid $Uo for non-residents> "board is provided in addition 
at cost. Each stu'-''ent pays his o'm transportation expenses to and from the Cprnp, 
The ^rea is served by U, S. High'7ay 71 pnr*. the International Palls branch of the 
Northern Pacific Railway, 

The Cement and M- sonry Laboratory . 1868-192"^ - Laboratory v;ork in cement and 
masonry began in 1829 in the store room off the boiler room on the --ground floor 
of the University Hall, The University bou,~ht a fe-v briquette molds and a pair 
of grips which the stur'ents utilized in a home-made cement- testin." machine in 
conducting a series of tests on the adhesion of mortar to brick and on the strength 
of lime-cement mortar of various proportions. 

In 1892, the Department established on the around floor of the Chemistry 
Building (now Barker Hall) one of the first, if not the first, cement laboratory 
at an educ'tional institution. The equipment rras quite satisfactory, except that, 
for the numb'^r of students, the supply v;as too small. I^ con'-''ucting the experi- 
ments, the stu-^ents^ even at first, received definite printed instructions as to 
the methods of performing the rrork, and made formal vnritten reports thereon. 

Upon the completion of Engineering Hall in Janu-^ry, 1895, the cement and 
mr>sonry l^bor-tory w^-^s moved into Rooms 109 pnd 111 on the first floor of that 
building, .'>nd the equipment -•^n'^- the scope of the 'vork rrere consider'-^bly increased. 
The equipment consisted of a cement testing machine, several briquette moulding 
machines, a number of slate tables, briquette moulds, scales, sieves, a rattler 
and a stone grinder, the last two being driven by an electric motor. The 



2Ug 
laboratory was one of the "best in the country. 

During the years I90U-06, the laboratory was again located in one of the 
rooms on the ground floor of the Old Chemistry Building — at that time occupied 
by the Law School and called the Law Building, and now known as Harker Hall. In 
1906, the laboratory moved into the north bay of the Mechanical Laboratory, and 
remained in that location for a niimber of years. It was provided with apparatus 
for making the usual tests of hydraulic cement and sand. Facilities were also 
provided for testing the ingredients of concrete and for mixing and testing con- 
crete materials. The apparatus and the facilities installed in this laboratory 
continued to make it the best of its kind in the land. According to a circular 
issued in I9O8-O9, the laboratory contained all the materials and modern appliances 
necessary for the proper instruction of one hundred students in sections of twentjs- 
five each. Sach student had a desk and an individual locknr for his apparatus. 

In 1915, the laboratory was moved into the first or mezzanine floor of the 
quarters vacated by the Department of Ceramic Engineering in the old Ceramics 
Building, now the southwest corner of the Mechanical Engineering LaJhoratory, be- 
cause the space it occupied in the north bay was sorely needed by the Department 
of Mechanical Engineering for laboratory practice. This cement and masonry labo- 
ratory remained in this new location until I923, having been amply supplied with 
slate tables, testing machines, molding machines, sieves, and sample barrels of 
hydraulic cement, varieties of sand, and other nocessarj'' materials. 

The Cement ixnd Concrete Laboratory , I923-I9U5 - The materials of the cement 

and masonry laboratory, or the cement and concrete laboratory as it came to be 

caJ-led, were transferred to new laboratory quarters located in the old Boiler 

House immediately north of the Boncyard after that building was completely refitted 

in 1923-3U. These new quarters were provided with bins for the storage of cement 

standard sand, and ordinary and coarse aggregates. Ample spade was available for 

the student cement tables and for the molding of concrete specimens. There was a 

separate moist room for storage of these finished specimens. There v/as, too, a 

2 
briquctto storage tank and a moist clos et with an automatic temperature regulator. 

1 The Technograph, I89U-95, Page 177 . 

2 The Technograph, May, 192*+, page I98 



2^9 

Some new equipment made available there included a Ro-tap shieve shaker, a 
200,000-pound hydraulic compression testing machine, a motor-driven Jaeger mixer, 
and additional 2-inch "by U-inch and 6-inch hy 12-inch cylindrical molds. 

When the new Materials Testing Laboratory, now the Arthur Ilewell Talhot 
Laboratory, was completed in 1929, the cement and concrete laboratory was moved 
from the Old Boiler house into a large room on the ground floor of the northeast 
wing of that building where it has remained to date. Along the south side of the 
room are three moist rooms for the curing of concrete specimens. There are four 
large storage bins for materials located outside on the north side of the building 
with access through the north wall. 

The equipment in this room includes twenty student work tables for individual 
use, various types of cement testing machines, balances, sieve shakers, material 
bins, rocoi'ding thermometers, and concrete mixers. It also includes a steam bath^ 
moist closet, gyratory riddle, drying oven, 200,000-pound hydraulic compression 
testing machine, field concreto-beara testing machine, flow table; refrigeration 
unit, and miscellaneous apparatus and equipment. 

qi 

'^In a small sound-proof rcora adjoining this laboratory is installed the original 
Talbot-Jones rattler for testing the wearing q\ialitios of concrete, and also a 
standard A.S.T.M. brick rattler. 

This collection of oqui^jment enables the students to ap})ly all of the ordi- 
nary regulation and many special tests to cement and concrete according to 
specifications that ha,vc been stjindardized for such materials, and to gain some 
proficiency in the use of apparatus generally employed for such purposes. The 
arrangement of tables for individual work requires the students to carry on in- 
dependently thereby compelling then to that extent to rely upon their own initi- 
ative and resourcefulness to bring the experiments to successful conclusion. 

The Road Materials Laboratory , I906-I923 - The road materials laboratory was 
provided as a part of the Engineering 3xperimont Station in order to supply in- 
formation to the State Highway Conmission through tests of all kinds of road 
materials. More specifically, the ]-)urposo of the laboratory was to study the road 



250 
building materials of the State and to devise n&n methods of making tests that 

would represent more accurately the action which materials must undergo when 
actually in service on the highways. The equipment for testing stone, gravel, and 
brick was provided and was installed during Jfinuary, I906. The machines we^-e 
first set up on the ground floor of the Slectrical Engineering Laboratory, i-t- in- 
cluded a ball mill, a briquette uolding machine, and an impact testing apparatus 
for determining the cementing properties of macadam stone. The laboratory '.vas al- 
so supplied with a variety of rattlers and other appliances for testing paving 
brick and for determining the relative efficiencies of different joint fillers for 
brick pavements. 

In September, I906, the equipment was moved to the north bay of the Mechani- 
cal Engineering Laboratory and by the following December the road materials laborar 
tory was fully equipped for making complete mechanical tests of road-building 
materials. It was supplied v.'ith scales and balances, Dcval abrasion and Page im- 
pact machines, Dorrcy liardncss testing machine, stone cnashor, b^Ll mill, hydrau- 
lic press, core drill, polishing disc, sieves, a National Brick Manufacturers' 
Association standard brick rattler, and the Talbot-Jonns brick rattler mentioned 
under a j)revious heading. The poncr was supplied by one 2-horsepowcr and one 
lO-horsepov/er induction motor. At that time, the laboratory '.^as one of the most 
outstanding of its kind in the United States. 

In 1915, the laboratory -vas moved from the north bay of the Mechanical Engi- 
neering Laboratory to the room now occupied as a shop on the first floor of the 
old Ceramics Building, now a jjortion of the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. 
Considerable equipment had been accumulated by 191^ for testing asphalts and 
bituminous materials, and this was set up on the second floor of this same build- 
ing. By I923-2U, the work of the road materials laboratorjr had been sufficiently 
extended in the work of analysis of oils, tars, asphalts, and other similar 
materials that the descriptions thereafter were listed in the Annual Register un- 
der bituminous and non-bituminous laboratories. These are described further in 



1 'Hhe Hop.d Materials Testing Laboratory of the University of Illinois", by L.G-. 
Parker, The Technograph, 1906-07, pages 57-&+. 



251 
the following paragraphs. 

The Bituminous Laboratory . 1923-I9U5 - The room which formerly housed the 
cement laboratory on the first floor of the old Ceramics Building was completely 
equipped in 1923-2U for elementary bituminous work. Chemical facilities, gas, pn<^ 
electrical appliances were added for making all the standard analyses and many 
special tests of bitximinous materials such as asphalts, tars, and other products 
used in road and building const miction, and other engineering work. 

The old bituminous laboratory on the second floor was then turned over to 
use in advanced work in this field for tests which demanded special apparatus and 
the use of a gas hood. The room -vas provided with a six-stfill gas hood with slid- 
ing doors, transite partitions, bottom boards, and ventilating fan. Some of the 
additional equipment installed in the advanced laboratory and the elementary 
laboratory included a Kotarex extractor, a small electric oven, a Saybolt-Furol 
viscosimeter, and several types of extraction and distillation apparatus. A 
centrifuge having a m,'.iximum speed of 3,bOO r.p.m., was added in I92U-25 to be 
used in making tests of asphalts, oils, and other bituminous mixtures. 

i/hen the new Materials Testing Laboratory, now the Arthur Newell Talbot 
Laboratory, was completed in I929, the apparatus used in the elementary bitumi- 
nous laboratory was transferred from the Old Ceramics Building, now the south- 
west corner of the Mechanical Laboratory, to Room 201 on the third floor of the 
northeast wing of the new building. This room still used for this purpose, con- 
tains a largo work table with a ventilated hood, twelve hooded booths ventilated 
by a fan, a filtration table \7ith sixteen suction pumps, a centrifugal extraction 
machine for the examination of bituminous mixtures, a ductility machine, a rotary 
shelf oven, and several smaller ovens, a constfint-tenperature water bath, asphalt 
penetration machines, eight analytical balances, specific-gravity apparatus, 
Engler viscosimeters, etc. Small equipment is kept in 150 tv/alvc-inch cubical 
lockers. 

The advanced bituminous laboratory was at first locatc;d in Hoom 207 at the 
south end of the oast wing of the third floor of this same building, and was 
1 The Tcchnograph. May I92U, Page I98. 



2^2 
equij.ped with six ventilated compartments, constant high- temperature oven, 

centrifuge, centrifug-al extraction machine for the examination of tiituininous 

materials, chemical desk, and miscellaneous small equipment. In 1936-37. much 

of the apparatus in this laboratory was transferred to the elementary "bituminous 

laboratory to make room for a portion of the sub-grade soils laboratory, so that 

after that time, most of the bituminous work was done in the one room. 

The use of this collection of apparatus serves to give the students a good 
idea of the behavior of bituminous materials under service conditions and to 
indicate some of the problems that they must face in the desigia, construction, 
and maintenance of roads and pavements constructed with bitiominous products. 

The Non-3ituminous Laboratory , 1^2'^-lOik^ - The removal of the cement and 
concrete equipment from the Old Corjunics Building (noT7 a part of the Mechanical 
Engineering Laboratory) to its ne\7 quarters provided in the Old Boiler House in 
19^3-2^, left much-needed space for the expansion of the non-bituminous labora- 
tory and added greatly to the convenience and efficiency of that laboratory. 

When the new 1-latorials Testing Laboratory, now the Arthur Newell Talbot 
Laboratory, was completed in I929, the equipment was transferred from the non- 
bituminous Laboratory in the Old Ceramics Building mentioned above to the east 
wing of the third floor of that now laboratory — part of it to Room 201, the 
elementary bituminous laboratory, and part to Hooms 205 "'JicL 206. This equipment 
together with \7hat has since been accumulated, consists of two drill presses with 
diamond-sot core drills for drilling one-inch and two-inch cores, a high-speed 
abrasive cut-off sav7, a Weaver forcing press for preparing abrasive specimens, 
a ball mill, a briquette molding machine, a Pago impact machine for cementation, 
a Page impact machine for toughness, a Dcval abrasion machine, a Dorry machine 
for hardness, a Ro-tap sieve shaker, and a number of ovens, pan racks, balances, 
and miscellanoous small appliances. 

As previously mentioned, the brick rattlers for testing the quality of pav- 
ing brick are located in a small sound-proof room on the ground floor of the 
cast wing. In this room is located, also, the original T.-Jbot-Jones rattler used 



253 

for testing the v/earing qualities of concrete. 

This assemblage of equipment provided for the most part under the immediate 
supervision of Professor C.C.ti'iley, for conducting regulation tests according to 
stsindard specifications of various engineering organi2ations and societies, is 
well adapted to the study and classification of such materials as hrick, stone, 
gravel, sand, and other non-bituminous substances used in hard-road constinict ion 
in connection with either' instiTictional or oxperimental programs. 

The Stiructural Research Laboratory - A portion of the old Boneyard Boiler 
House was remodelled to some extent in 1923 for use as a structural research 
laboratory for work in reinforced concrete carried on by Professor "7. M. ".Tilson. 

Two new testing machines were i",6ta3.1ed there.— one a 300,000-pound Riehle machine 
purchftpei in I923, capable of taking a 20-foot bean, column, or tensile specimen, 
and the other a 30,Ono-poTaid, 3-screw. Rifthle machine, acquired in I92U, equipped 
with autographic attechment, 

Vfeen the new Materials Testing Laboratory, now the Arthur Kewcll Talbot 
Laboratory, was completed in 1929, the structural research progr«D was materially 
expanded, for not only was the old ap})aratus transferred to the new location, but 
also much new equipment '.vas added, occupying the west end of the south bay and 
the main portion of the north bay. The large fatigue machines located in the 
south bay, some of the largest of their type in existence, are designed to study 
the fatigue phenomena of large-size plates, electric v/elds, and riveted joints 
under repeated and reversed stresses. Operating continously in applying a load 
of 200,000 pounds at the rate of 185 times a minute, the e(iuipment accelerates 
conditions as they usually occur in practice to accomplish in a comparatively 
short time whfit it would ordinarily take years to do iinder service conditions. 

The laboratory in the main or north ba^-- is shared '7ith the Department of 
Theoretical and Applied I'lcchanics for the study of the behavior of large-size 
specimens of metal, wood, rcinforcod-concretc and other structures under the 
action of tensile, compressive, transverse, shearing, and torsional force. The 
room, Uo feet wide by lUy feet long, occupies the central portion of the building 
to its full height, and is served by a 10-ton traveling crane that operates 50 
feet above the floor line. Of the several large testing machines located in this 



25^4 

room used mainly in the conduct of research, the largest is the Emery- Tat nail 
machine of 3,000,000 i)ounds capacity, ^vhich is capable of handling a 38- foot 
tension or compression member. Another is a 600,000-pound Eiehle xiniversal 
machine designed to receive a 25-foot tension or compression specimen. Still 
others include a 230, 000- inch-pound Olsen torsion machine and a 200,000-pound 
Riehle universal machine. All of these machines are described more fully \inder 
Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. In addition, there v/as installed there, also, 
the 300, -000-pound and the 30,000-pound Hiehlo machines described above. 

The Soils and other Granular Materials Laboratory - In I936-37, most of the 
advanced bituminous laboratory apparatus and stone-testing equipment was trans- 
ferred to the elementaiy bituminous laboratory; and the rooms, 206 and 207, i^ 
the Talbot Laboratory thus vacated, were fitted up as a laboratory in soils 
mechanics. Hoom 208, -.vhich was devoted to soils h,HS been continued for that use 
in the conduct of special research projects. After the spnitary engineering 
laboratory was moved from Hoom II3 in this building in 19^3. the "tepacc thus va- 
cated was also taken over for soil-mechanics research purposes. 

The equipment, augmented from time to time, consists of appliances required 
to conduct routine and special tests for the classification of subgrade soils and 
to examine the physical cliaract eristic 5 of soils in foundations and embankments. 
It includes apparatus for the study of such topics as hydromechanics, freezing 
and tha',-7ing, consolidation and compaction, subsidence and displacement, and shear- 
ing and bearing of soils. The special devices include shear and compression 
machines, pressure cells, pen.ieaEieters, presses and consolidating instruments, 
and humid and freezing rooms. There are a number of model deep bins varying in 
size up to four feet in diameter for the stutty of bearing of grain against the 
bottom and sides of storage bins. 

The Sanitary Zngineoring Laboratory , I926-I945 - When the Department of 
of Municioal and Sanitary Engineering was discontinued in I926, the work in sani- 
tary engineering v/as trpjisf erred to the Department of Civil Engineering. The 
experimental work in sewage treatment continued to be carried on as before 



255 

1 

under the immediate direction of Professor H. S. Babtitt, in the small wooden 
structure located east of G-oodv/in Avenue on the north bail!: of the 3oneyard about 
on line with Harvey Street, until 19^3. v/hen a neT Sanitary Sncineering Labora- 
tory Building was erected. 

Vmen the Materials Testing Laboratory (The Arthur lle'vell Talbot Laboratory) 
was completed in 1929. h sanitary laboratory for student use was provided in a 
suite of rooms on the second floor of the east ving of that building. It was 
equipijed for making the standard mici-oscopic and chemical analyses of water, and 
for the study of sev/age. After the new Sanitary Engineering Laboratory Building 
was erected in 19^3. ?i-s mentioned above, the desks, chemicals, and other facili- 
ties were moved to this new location. A room on the ground floor was set aside 
for graduate and other research work, and one on the second floor, for under- 
graduate and other yoooagoh vwpk , — ftn <i r jn oa tt t -i w oo o onA - fl eer, for undergraduate 
classroom use. In addition, :iom<; now apparatus, including refrigeration equip- 
ment, ateara baths, and other appliances, was supplied. 

This new Sanitary Engineering Laboratory Building provides ;ilso, for a tank 
room that contains two l^-footf- pjid two 22-foot tanl:;3 all 10 feet in diameter, that 
arc intended for research '.vork in sewage disposjxl. The two tall ones are for 
settling:; purposes and the other t'/o for digesting sewage. They aro constructed 
of wood so that changes may bo made from time to time as occasion requires. 
Around the tanks are a number of 1 1/2-inch heating pipes that were salvaged from 
the old plant. Other equipment including pumps, filters, air and oxygen tanks, 
and auxilliary materials, was installed. 

This new building arrangement and its equipment -provide excellent facilities 
for training leading to positions of rcsuonsibility connected with the constructrn 
of sanitation plants or V7ith the arlministi'ation of such facilities employed in 
govcrnmcint service, for the woi'k of the s-mitary engineer h^is steadily grown more 
specialized throughout the years in response to the demands for greater safety, 
comfort, and convenience in public health-service installations. The Amy made 

1 See Municipal and Sanitary Engineering, Chapter III I. 



256 
special use of this plant immediately after its construction to secure training 

for its enlisted men assigned to sanitary-engineering services. 

S. MUS3U1-I 1.IAT3RIALS MID C0LL2CTI0NS 

Apparatus for the Lecture Room - The University Catalogue and Circular of 
I89O-9I stated : "The school has numerous models for illustrating its specialties 
including models of bridges, roofs, joints, and connections; a large collection 
of drawings, photographs, and photolithographs of "bridges, roofs, and engineering 
structures, numerous railway maps, profiles, etc.; maps of government surveys, 
and of plans and specifications. It has access to a complete set of lithographs 
of the lectures and drawings used in the government polytechnic school ofFrance. 
The industrial museum (Museum of Engineering and Architecture) contains a large 
collection of building materials, of wood, brick, stone, and iron. The testing 
machine has a capacity of ono-hundred thousand pounds for tension, compression, or 
bonding; also a cement testing machine. 

"The library is well supplied with the best and latest periodicals and books 
upon engineering subjects, to which the student has full access". 

The Annual P.egister of I9IO-II carried the following statement: "The depart- 
ment is also provided with a collection of structural shapes, including full- 
sized joints of an actual railroad bridge, sections of columns, eye-bars, etc. , 
and with lithographs, i^hotographs, and blue-prints of bridges and buildings". 

Photographic Enlargements - About 1930, a start was made to bring together 
for illustrative purjjoses, photographic enlargements of outstanding works in the 
field of civil engineering. This effort, continued to the present time, has re- 
sulted in accumulating a very comprehensive and instructive collection, represent- 
ing buildings, bridges, water-nowcr developments, highway layouts, and other 
construction projects. These enlargements assembled in the corridors of Engineer- 
ing Hall, are valuable for classroom as well as other instructional purposes. 

Mo del of Continuous Arch r A model of the three-span reinforced-concrote 
arch used in tests made by Professor W. H. Wilson for the Engineering Experiment 
Station series of outstanding tests described in Chapter XXV of this publication. 



257 
was displayed at the Century of Progress Bxposition 3xhibit at Chicago in 1933 . 
After the Exposition closed, the model was returned to the University and placed 
in the corridor of the main floor of Engineering Eall as an exhibit for the 
benefit of students and visitors on the University campus. The model, excellently 
reproduced, presents an unusually attractive appearance, -the '.TOrkmanship in- 
dicating the high level of thought, care, skill, and accuracy that were embodied 
in the design and construction of the original structure and in the conduct of 
the long scries of systematic tests. 

F. MISC3LLAIS0US 

Departmental Meetings - Throughout the school year, the Civil Bnginoering 
Staff holds dinner meetins onco a month in the University Club. At these meetings 
the various members of the Department staff describe some phase of work under way 
or discuss some new problems in engineering or any matters of departmental intcr_ 
est that require attention, llcnbers of other departments "'hose interest is in 
civil engineering, are invited to these raootings. Sometimes outside speakers are 
asked to adrlress the sessions. 

State Board of Structural Engineers - The Act of July o, 1915. to provide 
for licensing of structural engineers, required that onu of the members of the 
State Board should bo a professor of civil engineering at the University of 
Illinois. Tht) Board was discontinued on July 1, I917, but its duties were taken 
over by the Department of Registration and Education with five persons, one of 
vmom must be a professor of civil engineering at the University, to examine 
structural engineers. This position, v/hcn first created, was offered to Dr. Ira 
0. Baker, for many years Head of the Department of Civil Engineering hero, but he 
declined it, and it was then offered to D^.. F. H. Newoll, at that time Head of 
the Department. After Doctor ilewell resigned in I92O, W. M. ^Tilson, Professor 
of Structural Snginooring here, was appointed, and has held the position to date. 
The Board meetings arc generally hold in Chicago, because most of the practicing 
engineers seeking licenses arc located there. 

Special State Assignment on Concrute Pavement Joints - In l!ay 1937. Governor 



258 
Hornor asked that a commit teo of faculty men here Tdo appointed to study the 

question of exr[)ansion joints in concrete pavements and report to him. This pro- 
ject involved ;in investigation of various types of joints then in service and a 
series of laboratory tests. The committee appointed by President "ITillard con- 
sisted of the following members: 

J. S. Crandell 

F. E. Ri chart 

C. E. "Jiley 

\1. C . Hunt ingt on , Cliai rmf^in 

The siom of $U,000 was provdcd by the Governor for the use of the committee. 

The Committee served as a kind of referee in a controversy that had arisen 
between certain manufacturers of joints and the Illinois Division of Highwaj's, 
because the testing engineer of the Division of Highways liad refused to approve 
certain tynes of joints, while he did approve others. The joints under question 
wore of the copper-seal tyx^c; and the investigations of the Committee showed that 
all joints of this typo '.vhich had been in pavements as long as four years showed 
very extensive failures. The Comnitteo recommended that no more joints of this 
type be used in the highways until they could show by service in the highway for 
a period of five years that they could give promise of lasting as long as the 
pavement. In the meantime, the Committee recommended that joints of the pro- 
moulded or poured t;rpo be used. These have their advantages, for they arc able 
to accomplish as much as the copper-seal joint and arc much cheaper. 

Since the State of Illinois was spending over a million dollars a year on 
the copper-seal joints, the financial aspect of the investigation was very im- 
portant because companies which had been furnishing the joints suffered a very 
serious blow. The evidence v/hich the Committee secured was so convincing, however, 
that there were few objections from the manufacturers of the copper-seal joints. 

The Committee presented its report in December 1937, .-wd the Governor adopted 
it without change. 

Kaskaskia Valley Report - A publication entitled "A Report on Certain 
Physical, Economic, and Social Aspects of the Valley of the ilaskaskia River" was 
prepared during 1937-3S by members of the staff of the University, the State 



2-39 

Surveys, and certain other State departments, at the request of the Illinois 
Planning Commission under the general direction of Professor W. C. Huntington, 
Head of the Department of Civil Ungineering. The work of Professor Pickles of 
that Department was particularly outstanding in his summary of hydrology studies. 
The report, consisting of over 3OO pages of mimeographed materials, was distri- 
buted during 1937-38 and was very well received. It was put to a number of uses, 
the most important of which vere: to provide information on various phases of the 
Kaskaskia Va.lley itself; to r^ervo as a guide for other reports being prepared in 
many parts of the community; and to serve as source materials in courses in 
social science, political science, and other collegiate subjects given at the 
University. 

a. FACULTY P3RS01INEL 

General - A complete list of faculty members who have boon connected with 
the Department of Civil Engineering in any capacity v/ith the rank of instructor, 
research assistant, or higher, to,;.-ther with brief biographical sketches in- 
dicating promotions, titles, dates of connection with the University, and other 
items of interest com])ilod from official sources, is jjresented by rank in chrono- 
logical order in the following pages. 

a. Heads of the Department 

Goneral - Colonel Samuel Walker Shattuck was the first to direct the vrork of 
the Department of Civil Sngineering and served in that connection from I869 to 
I871. Stillman Williams Hobinson, Head of Mechanical Engineering, served also in 
charge of the Department of Civil Engineering during a portion of 1371. John 
Burkitt Webb was Head from IS7I until I87S. Ira Osborne Baker then became Head 
and remained in charge until I915. Frederick Haines Newell succeeded him and 
held the position until I920. Following his resignation. Professor Baker took 
over the v/ork again and continued as Head until 1922, when he was relieved by 
Clement Clarence Williajus, who guided the affairs of the Department until 1927 . 
T^hitney Clark Huntington succeeded him and has continued as Head to the present 
time. Biographical sketches of these men follow. 



26o 

Samuel Walker Shattuck was born in Groton, Massachusetts, on February 18, 
iSUl. In 1860, he was gradiaated with the degree of B.S. from Norwich University, 
then located at Norwich, Vermont. He received the A.M. degree there in 186S and 
the C. 3. degree in 13/1 . Immediately after graduation, young Shattuck volunteered 
in the Sixth Massachusetts regiment that became famous in Civil War Engagements. 
After the War, Colonel Shattuck returned to Norwich to teach mathematics and 
military tactics. In i860, howover, he came to the University of Illinois to be- 
come Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Instructor in Military Tactics. In 
March, I87O, he became Professor of Civil Engineering and Instructor in Mathe- 
matics here, but continued to teach all of the classes in Mathematics. It v/as 
evidently soon discovered, however, that the teaching of mathematics was suf- 
ficient to occupy all of his tine, for in March IS7I, he was made Professor of 
Mathematics, and Professor Hobinson was given charge of the Department of Civil 
Engineering. lYhile Profossor Shattuck was serving as Head of the Department of 
Mathematics, he was Acting Scgont for aix months in I873, Vice-Regent during 
I889-I894, and Business Agent and I'iaJiagcr during I873-I905. During I905-I912, he 
was Profossor of Mathematics and Comptroller. Kis honest and efficient methods 
in administering the University's financial affairs had a wholesome influence in 
promoting the steady growth of this institution. Frofes:;or Shattuck was given 
the honorary degree of LL.D. by the University during the Commencement exercises 
on June 12, I912, He was retired on September 1, I912, under an allov/ance from 
the Carnegie Foundation for tht; Advancement of Teaching, and on October 16, 
following, the University Senate in a special University convocation presented 
him with a gold modal as a mark of appreciation for the outstanding services he 
had rendered the University- njid the community. He continued to live in Urbana 
until his death on February I3, ini^. 

Jo hn Burkitt "Jcbb V7as born in Philadelphia on November 22, ISUl. He re- 
ceived the C.E. degree from the University of Michigan in I87I, and was serving as 
Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering at that institution at the time of his 
appointment to the faculty of the University of Illinois. He joined the staff 
here in November, I87I, as Professor of Civil Engineering and Head of the 



261 
Department. Professor Webb was a man of naturity when he entered the University 

of Michigan, and was there distinguished for his high scholarship. He was an 

unusually expert draftsman, a fine mathematician and a very skillful workman in 

both wood and metal, for he had acquired valuable experience in machine-shop 

practice during his pre-collogo days. 

In his dealings with students, Professor Webb was a severe task master, and 
was satisfied with only perfect Tvork even to the minutest detail. He abhorred 
slovenly work; and a misplaced letter in a written word was to him a gross, almost 
unpardonable, blunder. In mathematics his vision was so clear and his analysis 
so keen, tha.t he saw at once the solution of abstruse problems that seemed im- 
possible to his most brilliant students, and he could detect instantly the 
student^ error. He was rather sovoi'e in manner, and some'.vhat gruff in his criti- 
cisms of the work of his students. The students as a rule were but illy prepared 
and his exactions in language, analysis, and demonstration v/ere in a measure, if 
not entirely, beyond the student's ability; and because of the lack of a mutual 
underetjonding and sympathy, jaot infrequently alienated the student. 

His teaching of descriptive geometry and analytical mechanics was superb, and 
aroused the intense enthusiasm of the best students. He insisted upon a thorough 
analysis and complete demonstration, and ^ould not pennit the student any self- 
deception. In his teaching of drawing, he insisted that the student should per- 
form every operation with the utmost exactness and repeat it until he had ac- 
quired a high degree of expertness, v/hich irritated the less patient and loss 
earnest students. However, in later years many of his students freely admitted 
that they received more value and benefit from his instruction than they at the 
time believed. 

In the early days of the Illinois Industrial University, it was generally 
believed tliat the institution was founded to establish new educational methods 
and to secure hitherto unattained educational results; and hence ajaong the stu- 
dents, particularly those in engineering, there were not a few who looked upon 
any one who cultivated a new field or employed new methods, as a Moses leading 
the world out of slavery and darkness into the promised land flowing with 



262 

educational milk and honey. At that time the content and arrangement of college 
courses in civil engineering were already reasonably well established, and hence 
Professor Webb was not set to cultivate a virgin field as were his colleagues — 
Professors Robinson and Ricker. Apparently, Professor Webb was discredited in 
the minds of the students in comparison with Professor Robinson and. Professor 
Ricker because he was not an innovator. 

Professor Webb believed more strongly in the educational than in the voca- 
tional value of a college course. He put more emphasis on drawing, language, and 
mathematics than upon the so-called practical subjects; while many, perhaps a 
great majority, of the students -of that day came to the University for what they 
called a practical education, and seemed interested only in the acquisition of 
facts, formulas, and methods which they thought would be immediately applicable 
in practice after they left college halls. The difference between these two 
points of viev^ or rather the lack of an understandin;'^ of the relations of these 
two theories of technical education, caused friction and dissatisfaction between 
the professor and some of his students; but those who kindly and faithfully ac- 
cepted his instruction acknovrl edged themselves greatly benefited thereby. 

In June, I878, Professor Webb obtained a leave of absence to go abroad, but 
without returning to the University, resigned the following year. After spend- 
ing two years in European study, he became Professor of Applied Mathematics at 
Cornell University; and after holding that position until 18g5i ^^^i^t to Stevens 
Institute of Technolog%^ as Professor of Mathematics and Mechanics — a position 
he held until I9O7, when he retired on a Carnegie pension. He died on February 
37, 19^2, in New York City. 

Ira Osborn Baker was born in Linton, Indiroia, on September 23, I853, and was 
graduated from the Mattoon, Illinois, High School in 127O. He taught a country 
school in Indiana for six months, and then entered the University of Illinois in 
March, IS7I,. with nearly two years' advance standing. During his college course, 
he taught school in Indiana again —this time for one year — and was graduated 
from the civil-engineering curriculum at Illinois in Juno, iSjk. He was Assistant 



263 
in Civil Engineering and Physics here from September, I87U, to June, lS7^i re- 
ceiving the C.E. degree in 1877 . For the year I878-79, he was in temporary 
charge of the Department of Civil Engineering, In June 1870, he '.vas made As- 
sistant Professor in ciiarge, and in June 1880, Professor of Civil Engineering. 

The young professor, like many others then in the university, had often to 
undertaire a great variety of work; and in his earlier years of service was re- 
quired at one time or another to teach the following subjects: General engineer- 
ing drawing, surveying, railroad engineering, bridges, masonry construction, 
geodesy, descriptive and also practical astronomy, tunneling, contracts and 
specifications, roads and pavements, and analytical mechanics. His teaching of 
descriptive astronomy for several years and of physics for a comparatively brief 
period created delight and enthusiasm among general as well as the engineering 
students. 

In IS89, Professor Balcor undertook to ,improvisc and bring together equipment 
for the start of a cemont-tcstiug laboratory, which he set up in^ small space 
on the ground floor of University Hall. G-radually this project was expanded and 
given larger quarters, first in a room in the old Chemistry Building, now Harkcr 
Kail, and still later in ono or another of the buildings of the engineering groiq^ 
In a similar manner he set out to develop a road-mat or ials laboratory; and in due 
time he had assembled an assortment of apparatus that, like the coment-testing 
laboratory, was highly successful in serving for both instructional and experi- 
mental purposes. These two pioneer laboratories, for no doubt they were the 
first of their kind in this country, were typical of the nature of the advances 
made in laboratory practice in the early da;,'s of the University, and served as 
models for many other colleges and universities in building up this phase of 
their educational plant. Professor Baker himself made extensive use of the 
facilities he had provided, to carry on investigations in brick, stone, cement, 
and concrete^ and thereby made mna:iy notable contributions to our knowledge of 
the properties of these materials. 

Not only was great diversity of interest and adaptability required of the 
teacher of the early days, but also it was often necessary for him to prepare 



26U 
textbooks for his classes. In this connection, Professor Baker issued in blue- 
print edition a nvunber of textbooks written by him for his classes. The author 
v;rote out the many pages of these works long-hand on tracing paper, issuing them 
in blueprint form at a time when the process of blueprinting was a novel one. 
Anong the subjects treated in this fashion were geodesy, bridges, masonry, eco- 
nomic location of railroads, and the use of siirveying instruments. These first 
accompli aliments as an author in a somewhat limited way led to his development of 
certain of th-^ subjects into the standard treatises that have long been familar 
to engineeiE. 

The firat of these blueprint books issued in printed form was "Leveling -- 
Spirit, Barometric, and Trigonometric" in 13S6, which in I912 was republished in 
French. The next blaei)rint book to be issued in printed form was "The Use of 
Engineer's Surveying Instrunents" in 1883. In I892 a greatly enlarged edition 
of this book was issuod. But the book which attracted the attention of the whole 
engineering v/orld and made a national reputation for the author v*as his "Treatise 
on Masonry Construction", v;hich was first published in 1289. It was the first 
comprehensive text on foundation methods and principles involved in the use of 
cement and concrete published in the English Language. The reception of the book 
was instantaneous. It was highly praised by the technical press at home jind 
abroad, and was introduced into the principal engineering schools in this country. 
It was used, also, in the technic;il schools of Japan, China, Mexico, and other 
countries. The bock v/ent through several editions, and v/as long a standard 
treatise. lu IS9I, Professor Beker published a pamphlet entitled "Durability of 
Srick Fkvemonts", v/hich was the first record of tests of paving brick and un- 
questionably did much to introduce brick as a paving material. Another of his 
books, "^ Treatise on Roads and Pavements", published in I903, was like his 
"Mcisoni-y Conrtruction" , a pioneer and was universally recognized and widely 
adopted as a textbook in its field. This work also went through several editions 
and was used wherever modern roads and pavements were built. 

In addition to his textbooks. Professor Baker found ti.ie to write many 
articles that were published in engineering and educational journals and in the 



265 

proceedings of engineering societies. lie was author of one bulletin and one 
circiaar of the Engineering Experiment Station here. 

Doctor Baker was an excellent teacher and a wise student counseller, as the 
thousands of his students almost the world over gratefully testify. He gave un- 
stintingly of his time to the affairs of student organizations, especially of 
the Civil Engineers' Club, which later became the Student Section of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers. Probably the most notable characteristic of his 
teaching pi-actice, was his enduring persistence on the use of good English in 
both the written and spoken T/ord. He chose his cm phrases with meticulous care 
and expected his students to exercise similar diligence in expressing their way 
of life. 

The work of Professor Baker was not all done at the University, for he 
carried the name of the University into the engineering societies and to engineeis 
and business men engaged in professional and administrative practice. He be- 
came a member of the Western Society of Engineers in I88b, and wsfs twice elected 
to office. One of the societies in whose membership Professor Baker took special 
pride was the Illinois Society of Engineers, an organization which was conceived 
and founded by him in I88b, and which has had a very active and useful part in 
the development of engineering policies and principles throughout the State. 
Professor Baker became a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers in 
1893i and was twice elected to membership on its nominating committee. 

Another society is indebted to Professor Baker for its formation. When the 
Engineering Congress of the "World's Columbian Exposition was first considered. 
Professor Baker suggested and urged by forcible argument that a division of engi- 
neering education be included in it. He was made chairman of the committee which 
had chai-go of the division, and v/as instrumental in securing papers and speakers 
for a very promising program.- He organized the convention and presided at the 
meetings of the division, which was designated as the Engineering Education 
Section. The proceedings of those meetings v/ere printed as Vol.1 of the Pro- 
ceedings of 'che Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, and Professor 
Baker is properly called the founder of this influential society. He had a 



266 

considerable part in its further development, serving as its president again in 
IS99-I9OO. 

For three of four years he was one of a Board that devoted a great deal of 
time to the preparation of a "building law for the State of Illinois; but \m- 
fort-unately the law did not pass the legislature, largely because of the antago- 
nism of building interests in Chicago that would have been required to build 
more safely. 

For many years Professor Baker rendered valuable services in advising 
various public officials concerning drainage matters and particularly concerning 
highway bridges. That he saved Illinois counties many thousands of dollars was 
the formal written appreciation of the exp^ert services of Professor Baker by one 
such board of county supervisors. 

For his period of long and faithf\il service, Professor Baker was granted the 
honorary- degree of D.Eng. by the University in I903. In commemoration of his 
forty years of continuous teachin/^ and administrative activity aa a member of the 
faculty of the University, ho was further honored by a banquet given in Chicago 
by Alumni on Liarch I7, I91U. He continued as Head of the Department of Civil 
Engineering until May 1, I915, when he was relieved of his executive responsi- 
bilities by Frederick Eaines Newell, although he continued to carry a full teach- 
ing schedule. T7ht-;n Professor Howell resigned in I920, Professor Baker again be- 
came Head of the Department and continued in that capacity for two years — until 
he was relieved by Clement Clarence '.7illiams in I922. 

In all. Professor 3al:or taught in the University for forty-eight years, d\ir- 
ing thirty-nine of which he was in charge of his department. Under his 3tTe.c*- 
tien, it became one of the leading depiartmonts of civil engineering in this 
country sind trained a large proportion of the most distinguished graduates of the 
College of Engineering. 

Professor Baker was, through all of his many years of service, loyal to the 
interests of his alma mater, declining more than once, offers which were tempting 
from more than one point of view; and the University of Illinois owes him a debt 
of gratitude for the allegiance, which he, as an alumnus, gave. 



267 
Having reaohed the University age limit in 1922, Professor Baker retired 

with the title Professor of Civil Engineering, Emeritus. "In retiring after 

forty-eight years of loyal and constant service to the University, to the State, 

and to the engineering profession at large, Doctor BaJcer laid dovm his work with 

the comforting satisfaction that he had done a great Job well. He left behind 

him a monument to his enthusiasm, industry, and skill, not only in the strong 

school he had helped to build and the books he had written, but in the host of 

accomplished engineers who had lighted their brands from the torch he carried". 

Professor Baker continued to reside in Urbana until his death on November 8,1925. 

Frederick Haynes Newell who on May 1, 1915i succeeded Ira 0. Beiker, recently 
resigned as Head of the Department of Civil Engineering after spending thirty- 
six years of service in that capacity, was born at Bradford, Pennsylvania in 
IS62. Ho '.7as graduated from the . curriculum in mining engineering at Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology in lo85' Mr. llewell was Assistant Hydraulic Engineer, 
U.S.Geologicol Survey, during lb38-90, and was Hydrographer for tjje Survey during 
I89O-I902. To him was due the conception of the U.S.Heclamation Service of which 
he was Chief Engineer from 1902 to I907, and Director from 1907 to I915. These 
positions earned for him a national reputation among engineers and men in public 
life. Under his direction, immense areas of arid land wore redeemed by irri- 
gation through the construction of a number o*f gigantic dams and many miles of 
conduits and irrigation ditches. He v/as granted the honorary degree of D.Sng. 
by Case School of Applied Science in I912. 

Doctor Kewoll was author of numerous government reports and of several text- 
books. Among the books r.rc "Irrigation in the United States", "Irrigation Kana^- 
ment", nnd "l7ater Resources, Present and Future Uses". He was Joint author mth 
Daniel 7f. Murphy of a text entitled "Principles of Irrigation Engineering" and 
with Clarence E. Drayor of another entitled "Engineering as a Career". He was 
editor of a book "Planning and Building the City of Washington", published by the 
'.Tashington Society of Engineers. In addition, Professor Newell contributed oumer- 
ous articles to engineering Journals and society proceedings. 

Before coming to the University, Doctor Newell had had no pedagogical 



268 
experience; but he had an inquiring and open mind, and promptly and enthusiasti- 
cally proceeded to study the educational process from the general standpoint 
rather than from the attitude, equipment, and objective of the student. Doctor 
Kewell was a pleasing public speaker, and gave many interesting lectures on 
reclamation v/ork, and usually illustrated them by numerous beautiful pictures. 
Toward the end of his services. Professor Newell frankly said that he could not 
get interested in the educative process; and in October, I92O, he resigned, and 
returned to Washington, D.C., to engage in consulting engineering practice. He 
continued to live there until his death on July 5. 1932- 

Clemen t Clarence IrTillJams was born at Bryant, Illinois, on February 21,1822. 
He received the B.S. degree at Illinois in I907 and the C.E. degree from the Uni- 
versity of Colorado in I909 • He was successively Instructor, Assistant Professor, 
and Acting Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Colorado from 
1907 until I91U. Ho was then Professor of Railway Engineering at the University 
of Kansas from I91U to 19I8 and Professor of Civil Engineering anft Head of the 
Department there from 1918 to 1922. He came to the University of Illinois on 
September 1, I922, as Professor of Civil Engineering and Head of the Department 
and remained here until I927, when ho left to become Dean of the College of 
Applied Science at the Univer;5ity of Iowa. He resigned that position in 1935 to 
become President of Lehigh University. He remained at Lehigh until the fall of 
19^, when he resigned to establish a general practice as consiiltant in engineer- 
ing and industrial education at Madison, Wisconsin. 

He is the author of three textbooks in engineering, entitled "Design of Rail- 
way Location", "Design of Masonry Structures and Foundations", and "Building an 
Engineering Career". He is a member of numerous engineering and other societies, 
having served as President of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Edu- 
cation during 193^5 ajid as President of the Pennsylvania Society of College 
Presidents during 19^0-41. 

President Williams was the recipient of many honorary degrees during his 
term of office at Lehigh. Ho was granted the degree of LL.D. by Lafayette 
College in 1935. of Sng.D. by Northwestern University in I936. and by Bucknell 



269 
University in 1937, Sc.D. by Hannemann Medical College in 1938 and by Muhlenberg 

College in I9U0, and LL.D, by Rutgers University sjid also by Moravian College in 

19^+1. 

Y/hitney Clark Huntington v/aa born in Denver, Colorado, on September 29,1887* 
He received the 3.S. degree from the University of Colorado in I9IO, the C.E. 
degree there in I912, aind the M.S. degree in 1913* He was Instinictor in Civil 
Engineering and Mechanics at his alma mater during I9IO-IU, Assistant Professor, 
191U-12, and Professor and Acting Head of the Department, I9I9-26. In addition 
to his other duties there. Professor H-untington served as Head of the Construction 
Department in charge of preliminary planning, structural design, and construction 
of several buildings on the campus during the period from I9I7 to I926. 

In 1926, Professor Huntington came to the University of Illinois as Pro- 
fessor of Civil Engineering and Head of the Department, and has remained here to 
date. Ho is an excellent administrator and teacher, admired and respected by all 
those with whom he has been associated in University and professional circles. 
In 1933i he was made Chairman. of the Engineering Advisory Board of the Civil 
Works Administration for Illinois. He served also as Vice-chairman of the State 
Advisory Committee of the V/ork. and Rehabilitation Division of the Illinois 
Emergency Relief Commission during 193^-35* In 1935. he was Chairman of the 
Illinois Organization Committee of the American Engineering Council. He has 
served also on many important University committees, having been Chairman of the 
University Building Committee since 1937* 

Professor Huntington is author of a book entitled "Building Construction", 
that is widely used as a reference and text by practitioners and schools in this 
country. He had the honor of being awarded the Alumni Norlin Modal for dis- 
tinguished achievement, by the University of Colorado at its Commencement 
exercises in 1937* This medal ■ — the highest honor the University of Colorado 
Aliimni Association can confer — is awarded annually to that alumnus of the Uni- 
versity of Colorado that has attained outstanding omincnco in his chosen pro- 
fession.. 



270 

"b. Other Professors 

Charles Alton Sllis (A.B., 1900, V.'esleyan University; C.3., 1922, University 
of Illinois) v/as engaged in onginoering practice after graduation \mtil he joined 
the staff of the University of Michigan, v/here he remained as Assistant Professor 
of Civil Engineering during 190S-I912. After tr/o years in practice again, Pro- 
fcGsor Ellis came to the University of Illinois in September, I91U. During I91U 
and 191^1 he \7as Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, and during 1915-21, he 
served as Professor of Structural Engineering in charge of the courses in 
structures. In July, I92I, Professor Ellis resigned to accept a position as 
Vice-President of the Strauss Engineering Corporation, Chicago. Since 193^i he 
has been Professor of Structural Engineering at Purdue University. 

Everett Edgar King (3.S., I90I, C.B. I909, and M.S., I9IO, Hose Polytechnic 

Institute; A.B. I9IO, Indiana University; K.C.E., I9II, Cornell University) was 

engaged in railway practice from I9OI to I907, when he became Professor of Civil 

Engineering at Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College. He remained in that 

position until I9IO, at vihich time he accepted a fellowship at Cornell Universily. 

From 1911 to 191^5. i'r. King was Professor of Railway Engineering at Iowa State 

and in I9I8, ho was made Professor of Railway Civil Engineering in the Department 

of Railway Engineering at the University of Illinois. 'Then the Department \7as 

discontinued in I9U0, Professor King was transferred to the Department of Civil 

Erw^lne-rln.-, .here he rTOnl-o-^ until IQU5 .-h-tn h« was r-atired with th- tin«! of 
Profesror of H?.ilw.-y Civil Snplnee-ijv, ^ns^Uui. H*? 1«< author of n tsTthook 
entitled «^ftlwn7 Si?:ruain«- , jui'' of one bur at In of the i^n^lneft'la^ ^rje^-liBont 
Station. 

Wilbur M. Wilson (3.M.B., I9OO, and C.E., I91U, Io'7a State College; M.M.E., 
I90U, Cornell University) served during I903-OS successively as Assistant Pro- 
fessor and Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Iowa St.-itc College. 
Then after two years in stiniCtur,al-enginoering practice, he came to the Univer- 
sity of Illinois as Assistant Professor of Structural Engineering. Eo was made 
Associate Professor in 19I9 and Research Professor of StructurpJ. Engineering in 
1921, which latter title he has hold to date. 

Professor Wilson is author of ninu bulletins and three circulars and 



271 

co-author of twenty-one bulletins issued by the Engineering Experiment Station. 
He wrote a section of l60 pages on "Statically Indeterminate Stresses" in a text- 
book edited by Hool sind Kinne entitled "Stresses in Framed Structures". 

The T7estern Society of Engineers awarded Professor Vi'ilson with two Octave 
Chanute medals. The first award V7as in I91U for a paper entitled "The Analysis 
of Wind Stresses in the Frames of Office Buildings", and the second one was in 
1936-37 for a paper entitled "The Present Status of Structural Welding". Pro- 
fessor ".Vilson was awarded the J. James Croes medal of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers in I936 for .1 paper entitled "Laboratory Tests of Multiple-Span 
Reinforcod-Concrote Arch Bridges", and the Leonard C. 'Jason medal by the American 
Concrete Institute in 193" for a paper entitled "Tests of Higid-Framc Bridges". 
He was granted the honorary d^.greo of Dr.Sng. by Iowa State College in 19^2, and 
was elected a Director of the American Society of Civil Engineers for the period 
I9I14-U7. This is an extraordinary record of achievement and indicates the high 
esteem with which his work is regarded by his colleagues in the engineering 
profession. 

Hardy Cross ( 3. A. , I902, andB.S., 1903, Hampden- Sidney College; B.S,,1908, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology; andl'.C.E., I9II, Harvard University) was 
engaged in engineering practice during 1902-10 and taught structural engineering 
at Brown University for the seven years between I9II and 1913. He took up engi- 
neering practice again and continued in it until I921, when he camo to the Uni- 
versity of Illinois as Professor of Structural Engineering in charge of the 
courses in that division* He remained here until 1937, when ho became Professor 
of Civil Engineering at Yale University — an appointment he has held to date. 

Professor Cross is co-author with II. D. Morg.an of a textbook entitled 
"Continuous Francs of Hoinforced Concrete", ,and is author of three bulletins of 
the Engineering Experiment Station hero. He was awarded the Korman medal of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers in I934 for his paper on the "Analysis of 
Continuous Frames by Distributing Fixed-End Moments". He was awarded the Leonard 
C. Tifason med,al in I936 'oi' the American Concrete Institute. 



272 

Hampden- Sidney College conferred upon Professor Cross the honorary degree 

of Sc.D. in 193^, Lehigh University, the honorary degree of D.Eng. in 1937. and 
Yale, the honoraiT degree of A.M. in 1937- 

Professor Cross was an outstanding teacher as well as scholar, and he had 
the happy tut somewhat unusual faculty of arousing the intellectual curiosity of 
his students and of inspiring them to undertake the more difficult things of life 
with confidence of success. 

Harold Baton Babbitt (S.3., I9II, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; M.S 
1917, University of Illinois) '.7as employed in engineering practice during I9II-I3 
and served as Assistant Engineer of the Ohio State Soard of Health in 1913- He 
joined the University of Illinois in I913 as Instructor in Municipal and Sanitary 
Engineering. He became Associate in I9I8, Assistant Professor in I9I9. Associate 
Professor in 1922, and Professor of Sanitary Engineering in I925. 

TOicn the Department of Municipal and Sanitary Engineering was discontinued 
in 1926, Professor Babbitt was transferred to the Department of Civil Engineering 
and has remained in it to date. 

Professor Babbitt is the author of the textbooks "Sewerage and Sewage Treat- 
ment", "Plumbing", ""./ater Supply and Purification", and of Section X of the 
Civil Engineers' Handbook. He is co-author with J.J. Doland of "Water Supply 
Engineering", ajid is the author of three bulletins and co-author of four more 
on sewage and sewage disposal issued by the Engineering Experiment Station that 
have been widely read and have boon considered as valuable contributions to the 
fund of literature in the field of sanitary engineering. 

John Stanley Cntfidell (3.S., I90U, and C.S., I906, New York University) was 
employed in engineering practice during I90U-II and served as Assistant Professor 
of Civil Engineering at Pennsylvania State College during 19II-I5. For the next 
eleven years he was associated with the Barrett Company, and then he joined the 
faculty of the University of Illinois in September, I926, as Professor of High- 
way Engineering to fill a newly-created position of that title. 

Professor Crandcll is author of the section "Highway Engineering" in the 
American Civil Engineers' Handbook. 



273 

James Joseph Poland (B.S., I91U, and C.E., I927, University of Colorado; 
M.S., 1932, University of Illinois) spent several years after graduation in engi- 
neering practice including work with the Federal Bureau of Reclamation, then he 
Came to the University in September, I926, as Assistant Professor of Civil Engi- 
neering. He became Associate Professor in I93O and Professor of Civil Engineer- 
ing in I93U. He is co-author with H.E. Babbitt of a textbook entitled "Water Sup- 
ply Engineering", and is author of the Water-Supply Section of the General Engi- 
neering Handbook. Professor Doland v/as given a leave of absence from his de- 
partmental duties during the year 19^^ to super\'isc the construction of the Uni- 
versity airport. In June 19^^i he v/as granted the honorary degree of D.Sc. by 
St. Johns College, Collegovillc, liinnosota. 

George Wellington Pickcls (3.C.E., I90U, University of Kentucky; C.E., I9II, 
University of Illinois) was engaged in engineering practice during 190^4-07, then 
came to the University of Illinois as Instructor in Civil Engineering. Ho be- 
came Associate in Drainage Engineering in I917, Assistant Professtw of Civil 
Engineering in I919, Associate Professor of Drainage Engineering in I925, and Pro- 
fessor of Civil Engineering in 1931. and remainGd with the University until his 
death on December 2, l<^kk. Professor Pickcls -.vas author of a textbook entitled 
"Drainage and Flood-Control Engineering" and was co-author '7ith C.C.Wiley of two 
textbooks, "Railroad Surveying" ixad. "Route Surveying". Ho was author of two 
bulletins on drainage engineering published by the Engineering Experiment Statioa 

Thomas Clark Shedd (Sc.3. inM.E., I913, Brown University; C.E., I925, and 
M.S., 1933, University of Illinois) was Assist^uit and Instructor in Brown Uni- 
versity during I913-I5 and Instructor in Civil Engineering at Lehigh University 
during I917-I8. He was engaged in engineering practice during I915-I7 and ]91S-l"i-. 
thJ?eugh-i9^. He joined the University in September, 1922, as Associate in 
Civil Engineering, and became Assistant Professor in I925, Associate Professor 
in 1930, and Professor of Structural Engineering in I93U. Ho is the author of a 
textbook entitled "Structural Design in Steel" and co-author with J.Yawter of 
another one entitled "Theory of Simple Structures". 



2jk 

Carroll Carson Wiley (B.S., I90U, and C.E., I9IO, University of Illinois) 
after two years of engineering practice came to the University in September, 1906, 
as Instructor in Civil Engineering. He '.vas made Associate in I91U, Assistant 
Professor of Highway Engineering in 1919i Associate Professor in 1930i sxii Pro- 
fessor of Civil Engineering in 1937* 

Professor Wiley is co-author -.nth G. W. Pickles of two textbooks — "Railroad 
Surveying" and "Route Surveying". Ho is author of a textbook entitled "Princi- 
ples of Highway Engineering". He is also author of one bulletin and one circular 
published by the Engineering Experiment Station. No doubt, Professor Wiley's ^ost 
outstanding contributions to the success of the University's activities have been 
in connection with the Highway Short Courses and Conferences which he has direct- 
ed since their beginning in I91U. As a result of his efforts in that direction, 
the prestige of his department ajid of the College has been materially advanced in 
the minds of those engaged in the hi ghv/ay- engineering profession. 

Jamison Vnwtcr (3.S., I916, andC.E., I923, University of Kansas; M.S.,193U, 
University of Illinois) -.vas engaged in engineering practice during I916-20, then 
became Assistant Professor of Mechanics at the University of Kansas. Professor 
Vav/ter joined the staff at the University of Illinois in September, I922, as 
Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering. He become Associate Professor in I93I 
and Professor of Civil Engineering in 1937* 

Professor Vawter is co-author with T.C.Shcdd of a textbook entitled "Theory 
of Simple Structures". 

Nathan Mo rt imp re Ncv/mark (3.S., I93O, Rutgers University; M.S., I932, and 
Ph.D., I93U, University of Illinois) was Research Assistant at Illinois during 
1932-36, Research Associate during 193^-37 • Research Assistant Professor during 
1937-^3. n,nd became Research Professor in I9U3. He made an outstanding scholastic 
record while carrying on his graduate- student v/ork here. He is author of two 
bulletins, one circular, and one reprint ;md is co-author of four bulletins issued 
by the Engineering Experiment Station. Some of these publications have presented 
the results of experimental and some of annlytical determinations, but all of 



275 

them are unusually interesting and are outstanding in their treatment and pene- 
tration of discussion and analysis of problems relating to structural design. 
For a paper entitled "Numerical Procedure for Computing Deflections, Moments, 
and Buckling Loads", Professor Newmark was awarded in 19h5, the J. James R. 
Croes medal of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 

Robert Aaron Hechtman (B.S., 1938, and M.S., 1939, University of Washington) 
was employed for a time after graduation, in research work at Lehigh University. 
He was then engaged in industrial practice until he joined the staff here in 
January, 19U5, as Special Research Engineer on the special project involving 
the determination of the causes of cracks in welded ships. 



TS.^sJB 



275a 



c. Associate Professors 

ii7illiajn David Pence (B.S., 1836, andC.S., I89?, University of Illinois) 
spent six years in railway practice after graduation, and then joined the staff 
at his alma mater serving successively as Instructor, Assistant Professor and 
Associate Professor from I892 to I899, shovring marked ability as an instructor 
and administrator. Ke subsequently became successively Professor of Civil Engi- 
neering at Purdue University, Professor of Hailwuy Engineering at the University 
of Wisconsin and also jJlngincor of the 'ifisconsin Tax Commission, and Valuation 
Sngincer for the Interstate Commorcc Commission in charge of the Central District 
office in Chicago. After retiring from the Commission in I921, ho became con- 
sulting engineer in Chicago, whore he is still in active service. He is co- 
author with H.S. Kctchum of a textbook entitled "Surveying Manual" . Professor 
Pence was awarded the Octave Chanuto medal by the Western Society of Engineers in 
1901 for a paper on "Thermal Expansion of Concrete". Ho served as President of 
the Indiana Engineering Society during I903-O5. 

Jolin Pascal Brooks (3.S. 1885, ^'-.S. IS93, ,and Eon. Sc.D. , I915, Dartmouth 
College) spent his early experience in engineering practice after which he served 
as Instructor at Lehigh University from I89O to I897 and Professor of Civil Engi- 
neering at the University of Kentucky from 1897 to I906. From I906 to I9II, he 
was Associate Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Illinois, re- 
signing in 1911 to become President of Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, 
Now YorJ:. 

Thomas Douglas Mylrea (3.S., I909, and C.3., 1922, University of Illinois) 
was engaged in engineering practice in the Unitod States pnd Canada until Sep- 
tember, 1922, when he came to -Illinois as Assistant Professor of Structural Engi- 
neering. He v/as made Associate Professor in I926, but resigned in September 



276 

1927, to accept a position as Professor of Building Constiniction at the Carnegie 
Institute of Technology. He remained in that position until 193^» ^"'hen he be- 
came Professor of Civil Engineering and Head of the Division of Civil Engineering 
at the University of Delaware, ,.■ Professor Liylrea is author of many articles in 
the engineering prsBS. 

William Horace Rayner (B.S., I909, C.E., 1913, andii.S., I920, University of 
Illinois) spent two years after graduation in engineering practice and joined 
the University in September, I9II, as Instructor in Civil Engineering. He became 
Associate in I917, Assistant Professor in I920, and Associate Professor in I9U1. 
He is co-author -.vith H.S.Davis and S'.S.Foote of a textbook entitled "Surveying" 
,and of another entitled "Slcments of Surveying", and is sole author of one en- 
titled "Surveying" and of another, "Advanced Surveying". Professor RajTier is 
author, also, of one circular of the Engineering Experiment Station. 

William Albert Oliver (3.S., I922, University of Michigan; M.S. 1922, and 
C.S., 1932, University of Illinois) taught at Boloit College during I923-25 and • 
at Case School of Applied Science during 1928-29, having been engaged in engi- 
neering practice the rest of the time after graduation until he joined the Uni- 
versity of Illinois in I929 as Instructor in Civil Engineering. He became 
Associate in 1933, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering in I936, tind Associate 
Professor in 19U3. He is co-author of one bulletin issued by the Engineering 
Experiment Station. 

d. Assistant Professors 

Jerome Sondericker (3.S., 1880. andC.E., I8S3, University of Illinois) 
taught some of the subjects in civil engineering immediately after graduation 
at the University of Illinois, and in addition, gave instruction in projection 
geometry (elementary geometric drawing)^ descriptive geometry, and one or two 
classes in pure mathematics. Ec was just as excellent as a teacher as he had 
been as a student, and was held in high esteem by his students. After throe 
years of advanced study during which time he served as Instructor, he v/as granted 
the degree of C.E. in I883, and was made Assistant Professor of Engineering and 
Mathematics. He resigned from this position, however, in 18S5, to accept an 



277 

appointment as Instructor in Applied Mechanics at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, where for nineteen years, he was a distinguished member of the 
faculty of that institution. Ee was author of "Notes on Graphic Statics", and of 
many articles in the technical press, Ke died on July 22, I90U. 

Arthur Newell Talbot See Chapters on Municipal and Sanitary Engineering and 
Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. 

Milo Smith Ketchum See Deans, Chapter V. 

Fred Goodrich Frink (B.S., 1886, University of Michigan; M.S., I902, Uni- 
versity of Chicago) served in practical engineering work from 188b to I89O, then 
as teacher in secondary-school woric from I89O to I897. He was then Professor of 
Civil Engineering at the University of Idaho from 1897 to I9OO, and Instructor in 
Civil Engineering at the University of Michigan from I902 to I90U. He was then 
made Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Illinois, but 
withdrew in I906 to take up commercial work 

Prank Oliver ]Xfour (C.S., I896, Lehigh University) served as Instructor at 
Lehigh during I897-I902, as Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of 
Cincinnati during 1902-03, Acting Professor of Civil Engineering and in charge of 
Sanitary Engineering at the University of Wisconsin during I903-OU, Assistant 
Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Vernont during I90U-O5, and 
Assistant Professor of Structural Engineering at the University of Illinois dur- 
ing 1905-13. He resigned here in I913 to accept a position with the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. 

James Elmo S m ith (3.S. I902, University of '.7isconsin; C.E., I909, University 
of Illinois) spent several years in railroad practice, then came to the University 
of Illinois in I907, as Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering. In addition to 
his duties at the University, Professor Smith served as Mayor of Urbana from I9I9 
until he resigned from the University in June, 1922. He returned to the Univer- 
sity, however, in I935 to take a position with the Physical Plant Department and 
has retained it to date. 

Charles Wesley Malcolm (3.S., I902, and C.E., 1906, University of Illinois) 



27 S 

served as Instructor in Civil Engineei-ing here during I902-O6, as Associate dur- 
ing 1906-07, and as Assistant Professor during 1907-13- He resigned to Join the 
editorial staff of the Engineering Hecord. He is author of a textbook entitled 
"Graphic Statics". 

EVank Berry Sanborn. (3. S. , 1887, andC.E., I889, Dartmouth College; M.S., 
1393, Harvard University) was engaged in engineering practice for a number of 
years after graduation, then served as Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering 
at Tufts College during IS99-I9OI, .and as Professor after IQOl. It was during 
tho year I9OS-O9 v/hile Professor Ba>:er was awa^/' on leave, that Professor Sanborn 
acted as Head of the Department of Civil Engineering hero, serving with the title 
Assistant Professor. Professor Sanborn is author of a textbook entitled " Me- 
chanics Problems for Engineering Students" 

Allen Boyer McDaniel (3.S., I9OI, Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 
was employed in engineering ])i-acticG until I906, when he became Instructor in 
Civil Engineering at Case School of Applied Science. After a yeay there he be- 
came Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of South Dakota and re- 
mained with that school until I912. He then served as Assistant Professor of 
Civil Engineering at the University of Illinois during 1912-lb. He resigned to 
accept an appointment as Head of the Department of Civil Engineering at Union 
College. He is author of a textbook entitled "Excavating Machinery" , and of an- 
other "Earthwork, Parts I and 11". He is author also of one bulletin of the En^ 
nocring Experiment Station here. 

John Ira Parcel (3.S. I903, 'Jestfield College; B.S., I909, University of 
Illinois) was Assistant Professor of Structural Engineering at the University 
here during the year 1913-l^i having had several yea,rs ' experience before that 
in structural work and teaching. He left the University to n.ccept a position at 
the University of Minnesota. 

Clarence Stanley Gale (3.S., igOb, Purdue University) followed engineering 
practice until I913. '-^hen he served as editor on tho staff of Dean Goss for tho 
Chicago Association of Commerce Commission on Smoke Abatement and Electrification 
of Hailways, during I9I3-I6. He continued with the College as Instructor in 



279 

Civil Engineering during I915-I7 and as Assistant Professor during I917-I2. Dur- 
ing 1917-lg, also, he was Assistant to the Director of the Engineering Experiment 
Station here. He resigned to enter commercial work. 

Clyde Beethoven Pyle (B.S., I9II, and C.E., I9I7. University of Pennsylvania) 
taught mechanics of materials and structures at the University of Pennsylvania 
during 1911-13- He was engaged in structural-engineering practice from I913 to 
1921, and came to the University of Illinois in Septenber, 1921, as Assistant 
Professor of Structural Engineering. Ke left in August, 1922, to talce up work 
again in structural-engineering practice. 

Edward Ezra Bauer (B.S. 1919, C.S., I927, and M.S., I929, University of 
niinois) Joined the University staff in I919 as Assistant in Civil Engineering. 
He 'bocame Instructor in I920, Associate in I929, and Assistant Professor in 1931' 
He is author of tV7o textbooks entitled "--dghway Materials" and "Plain Concrete". 

Franl; Vfa i t worth Stubbs (B.S-. 1921. and C.E., I926, University of Colorado; 
i.^S., 1932, University of Illinois) served as Instructor at the Uaiversity of 
Colorado during I92I-23 and then was engaged in practice during 1923-26. He be- 
came Instructor in Civil Engineering at the University of Illinois in September, 
1926, Associate in I929, and Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering in I93I. 
He resigned in September, I936, to become Professor of Civil Engineering and Head 
of the Dc2)artmcnt at Hliode Island State College, and has remained in that position 
to date. Professor Stubbs is author of a textbook eiititlcd "Estimates and Cost 
of Construction". Although not published until I938, much of the manuscript was 
written while Professor Stubbs was at the University of Illinois. 

George Harper Dell (B.S. 1922, and C.E. 1926, Ponnsylv^xnia State College; 
M. S., 1931 and Ph.D., I9U3, University of Illinois) was employed in engineering 
practice until he came to the University in September, I927, as Instructor in 
Civil Engineering. He was made Associate in I933, and Assistant Professor in 
19^1. Professor Dell's instnactional field has been survoyiiig, although he 
taught some classes in Civil Pilot Ground courses after that work was instituted 
in I9U2. Professor Dell is author of one bulletin of the Engineering Experiment 



280 
Station. 

Ralph TYendel Kluge (3.S. 1922, and M.S., I93O, University of Illinois) be- 
C'line Instructor in Civil Engineering here in September, 1030, and Special Re- 
search Assistant in February,. 1931- He was made Instructor in Civil Engineering 
in February, 193^4, and Special Research Associate in September, 1935- ^e was 
transferred to the Department of Theoretical and Applied l':echanics in December, 
1936, with the title Special Research Associate in Theoretical and Applied Me- 
chanics. Ko was given the rank of Special Research Assistant Professor in that 
Department in 19*41, but resigned in October following. Professor Kluge is author 
of one bulletin and is co-author of six others published by the Engineering 
Experiment Station. 

Ralph Brazelton Peck (C.E., 193^4. andD.G.E., I937, Renssclear Polytechnic 
Institute) was engaged in practical engineering work involving the design of 
engineering structures and foundations until he became Lecturer on Soil Mechanics 
at the University in September, I9U2. He was made Research Assistant Professor 
in December, 19^2. For a paper entitled "Earth- Pros sure Measurements in Open 
Cuts of the Chicago Subway", Doctor Peck was honorc;d in 19^5 '^ith the Norman 
medal, the highest award conferred by the American Society of Civil Engineers, 

James Gordon Clark (3.S., I935, and M.S., I939, University of Illinois) 
served as Instructor in Civil Engineering at Oregon State College and was for a 
time engaged in engineering practice before coming to the University of Illinois 
as Instructor in Civil Engineering in September, I936. He was made Associate in 
I9U1, and Assistant Professor in I9U3 . He was given a leave of absence from 
November 1, l^hk, until March 1, 19^+5, to t,ake a position in structural design 
in the aircraft industry. 

o. Associates 

Lawrence Gilbert Parker (3.S. 1902, and C.E,, I907, University of Illinois) 
served as Instructor in the Department during 1902-0? and as Associate during 
1907-10.. He resigned to take up engineering practice. 

Neal Bryant Garver (3.C.E., 1905, andO.E., 1911, Iowa State College) was 



281 

employed in structural engineering from I905 to 1S)10, after which he came to the 
University of Illinois as Instructor in Civil Sngineering. He was made Associate 
in 1913, and remained with the University until October, I9I8, when he resigned 
to engage in practical work again. 

Raymond Earl Davis (3.S., 1911, and C.i:., 191^, University of Maine; M.S. 
1916, University of Illinois) served as Instinictor in Civil Engineering at the 
University of Illinois during I9II-I7 and Associate during I9I7-IS. He resigned 
in January, I9I8, to ontor military service; but later joined the faculty of the 
University of California, . and since I926 has been Professor of Civil Engineering 
and Director of the Engintioring Materials Laboratory there, lie was granted the 
honorary degree of Dr.Eng. by the University of Maine in I936. While at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, Mr. Davis waa co-author of a tcrctbook cmtitled "Manual of 
Surveying for Field and Office" and was author of onu bulletin issued by the 
Engineering Experiment Station. Sinco leaving the University, he became co-author 
of other texts in the field of surveying, 

Craig Potter Ha.zolet (3.3. igi'j, University of Washington; B.S., I9I8, 
Kassachusetts Institute of Tuclinology) was employed in engineering practice dur- 
ing 1915-17 and I9IS-20. Ho came to the University of Illinois in I92O as In- 
structor in Civil Engineering* Ho v/as made Associate in I921, but left the Uni- 
versity in October, 1922, to accept a position as Office Engineer of the Scherzer 
Rolling Lift Bridge Company of Chicago. Later, ho bcc-imc General I'ianager of this 
organization. 

Henry Prit chard Ev;ins , Jr . (3.S. 1932, Carnegie Institute of Technologj/; M.S. 
1933 1 University of lo^^a) spent three years in practical work after graduation, 
and then joined the staff at the University of Illinois in September, I936, as 
Associate in Civil Engineering. Ho w;.i.s given a leave of absence in July, 19^2, 
to join the U.S. Armed Forces. 

Alphonse Anthony Brielmaior (B.S., I926, and C.E,, I929, Case School of 
Applied Science; M.S., I93O, University of Illinois) was appointed Associate in 
Civil Engineering at the University of Illinois in Soptombor, 1937. and remained 
in the Department until ho resigned in June, I9U3, to join the U.S. Army 



282 
Engineer Corps, Mr. Brielmaier is author of one circular issued by the Engineer- 
ing Experiment Station. 

Thomas LeRoy Speer (B.S,, 1938, Armour Institute of Technology) was em- 
ployed in engineering practice before joining the staff at the University of 
Illinois in September, 19U3, as Special Research Associate in Soil Mechanics. 
He remained in the University until September, 19Uli. 

Vail Hall Moore (B.S. 1933, University of Illinois) after some years in 
teaching and practical experience, served as Associate in Sanitary Engineering 
here during the second semester of 19U3-UU. In September, 19l;U, he was trans- 
ferred to the Department of Physics. 

Ahmet Munci Qzelsel (B.S., 1939, Rober'-.s College; M.S., 19Ul, and Ph.D., 
19kh, University of Illinois) became Special Research Assistant in Civil Eng- 
ineering at the University of Illinois in September, 19U3, and Special Research 
Associate in September, 19U5. 

Thomas Hampton Thornburn , (B.S. in Chem., 1938, University of Illinois; 
Ph.D., 19hl, Michigan State College) after a year in research with the Michigan 
State Highway Department and three years' service in the U.S. Army Air Forces, 
joined the University here in the fall of 19U5, as Research Associate. 

f. Lecturers 

Albert Edward Cummings (B.S., 1921, and C.E., 1922, University of Wisconsin' 
became Lecturer in Foundation Engineering at the University in September, 19iil. 
He was not employed full time, but gave lectures vhenever they could be 
arranged. He still maintains his connection in 19U5. 

William Homer Wisely , (B.S., 1928, and C.E, 19U1, University of Illinois) 
while engaged as engineer in charge of administration and operation of the 
Urbana-Champaign Sanitary District, has served as Lecturer in Sanitary 
Engineering since the second semester of 19h3-UU. 



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282a 
Frank Alfred Randall , (B.S. 1905, and C.E., 1909, University of Illinois) 
Consulting Structural Engineer with offices in Chicago, was appointed Special 
Lecturer in Structural Engineering here in September, 19UU» Mr. Randall has for 
some time been making an exhaustive study of Chicago buildings, with emphasis on 
structural developments during the entire history of the city. 

Karl Terzaghi (Dr. Tech., 1911, Technische Hochschule, Graz, Austria) was 
employed in engineering practice in Europe during 1905-11 and in the United 
States during 1912-lU. He was professor of Civil Engineering at Roberts College 
from 1915 to 1925 and Professor of Foundation Enj:. ineoring at Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology from 192$ to 1929. He served as a professor in the 
Technische Hochschule in Vienna and as consulting engineer from 1929 to 1938. 
Since 1938, he has been Lecturer at Harvard University and since the fell of 
19U5, has in addition, been Lecturer at the University of Illinois. Doctor 
Terzaghi is author of "Morphologie und Hydrographie des Kroatischen Karstes", 
"Erdbaumechanik" , and "Theoretical Soil Mechanics", and is co-author of 
"Ingenieurieologie", "Theorie der Setzung von Tonschichten", and "Erdbaumechanik 
und Baupraxis". He is the leading world authority in the field of soil mechanic 
and in 1930, was awarded the Norman Medal of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers for his paper "The Science of Foundations - Its Present and Future", 
g. Instructors and Research Assistants 
Alfred Leonhardt Kuehn (B.S., 1900, University of Illinois) served as In- 
structor in the Department during 1900-02, after which he left to take a 
position in railway service, being Engineer Maintenance of Way for the C.C. & L. 
Railway from 1902 to 190U, Engineer of Maintenance of Way for the Big Four 
Railway from 190U to 1906, and Superintendent of Way of that line from 1906 
to 1909. Mr. Kuehn then joined the staff of the American Creosoting Company, 
in due time 






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283 

■becominfi; President of the organization with offices in Chicai-^o. 

Harlow Barton Kirkpatrick (3.S., I9OI, University of Illinois) was In- 
structor in Civil Sncineering here during the school year igoi-02, after which 
he took up engineering practice. 

Louis Liston Tallyn (B.S., I9OI, University of Illinois) served as Instructs 
in Civil Engineering here during I9OI-O2, after which he vdthdrew to enter rail- 
way service. 

Hoy Irving ]7ebber (S.S. , 1399, P^-irdue University; CH., I906, University of 
Illinois) spent the years 1899-02 in engineering practice, after which he served 
as Instructor in Civil Engineering at the University of Illinois during 1902-Ob. 
He withdrew to go to Pennsylvania State College as Assistant Professor of 
otructural Engineering. Later, he 'became Su])erint endent of Buildings and Grounds 
there, and retained that position until his death in May, I929. He was author 
of Bulletin No. 6 issued by the Engineering Experiment Station in I906. 

Leslie Abrain T?atorbury (3.S. inC.S,, I902, C.E.,1905, 3. S. , -in A.S. , 1915, 
and A.E., I91S, University of Illinois) served as Instmctor in Mathematics and 
Civil Engineering at Michigan Agricultural College during I902-O3, and as In- 
structor in Civil Engineering at the University of Illinois during I903-O7 . He 
resigned to take a position as Professor of Civil Engineering at the University 
of Arizona. Ho was author of a textbook entitled "A Vest Pocl:et Handbook of 
Mathematics", and of a:iothor "Ccncnt Laboratory litinual" and of still ;«iother, 
"Laboratoi-/ I'lanual for the Use of Students". Ho died on J\inc I5, I9IS, at Nitro, 
West Virginia. 

Banus Hut son Pr a ter (3.S., I903, University of Illinois) served as In- 
structor in the Department hero during 1903-0U. He then joined the staff of the 
Isthmian Canal Commisr.ioi.. In 1906, llr. Prater bec;amc connected with the 
Oregon Short Line iiailroad, v/hich later was ta-ken over by the Union Pacific 
System. He was advanced in position on that lino until in I925, he became Chief 
Engineer. He served in that capacity until I932, when he was made District 
Engineer of the three western districts of the Union Pacific System. Since 1937, 



2gU 
he has been Chief Engineer of these lines. 

Guy Henry Rump (3.S., I90U, ;ind C.S., I912, University of Illinois) was In- 
stnictor in Civil Engineering here for the academic year 190U-0[3, a-fter which he 
took up engineering practice. 

John Jefferson Richey (3,S., I903, and C.E., I910, University of Illinois) 
served as Instructor in the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics dur- 
ing I903-O5. Ee then wont into engineering practice, hut returned to the Univer- 
sity in 1907 to "become Instructor in Civil Engineering. He resigned in September 
1912, to accept an appointment as Associate Professor of Civil Engineering at the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. 

Ralph Bethuel Slippy (B.S., I903, andC.E., I905, Cornell College, Iowa) 
served as Instructor in Civil Engineering at the University during I906-IO. 

Charles Clinton Albright (3.S., I903 and C.E., I90S, Purdue University) 
spent several years in engineering practice after graduation, then served as In- 
st inictor in Civil Engineering at the University during I9O8-O9 . Ho resigned to 
accept a position at Purdue. 

Archie Rood Alger (S.E., I90U, and C.3., I9II, Michigan Agricultural Collcg^ 
served as Instructor in Civil Engineering in Michigan Agricultural College dur- 
ing I90U-O7 and in Case School of Applied Science during I907-O8. He was engaged 
in engineering practice during the next year, and came to the University of 
Illinois as Instructor in Civil Engineering in I909. He remained here until 
1913> '^hcn he v/ithdrev/ to re-enter practical ^7ork. 

Charles Elliott Henderson (3.S., 1906, University of Illinois) was employed 
in railv/ay service until he joined the staff here in September, I909, as In- 
structor in Civil Engiiieoring. He withdrew at the end of that school year to re- 
turn to engineering practice. 

Jei-ome Goodspeed Van Zandt_ (3.S., I90U, Purdue University; C.E,, I907, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin) was engaged in engineering practice during I90U-O6, and as 
a teacher of civil engineering in the University of 7/isconsin and University of 
Southern California during I906-IO. Ho then joined the staff at the University 



2S5 
of Illinois in SeptembGr, I9IO, as Instructor in Civil Engineering, but resigned 

at the end of the school year to re-enter engineering practice. 

George Inncs Gay (3.S,, I909, and C,3., I912, University of Colorado) served 
as Instructor in Civil Engineering at the University of Colorado during I909-IO, 
then cane to the University with the same title. He withdrew; at the end of the 
school year, however, to accept a position at the University of California. 

Lockv/ood Janes Townc (Fh.3., I905, Depauw University; B.S., I909, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology) followed engineering practice during I909-IO 
and served as Adjunct Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of 
Nebraska during I9IO-II. He then Joined the staff here as Instructor in Civil 
Engineering, but at the end of the school year I9II-I2, bocane Superintendent of 
Construction in the Office of Supervising Architect. He left to take up practice 
again. 

Frank Morris Okey (B.C.E. , I90U, Iowa State College) y/as employed in engi- 
neering practice until ho Joined the University staff here in I91I as Instructor 
ir. Civil Engineering. After a year here, he accepted a position as Professor of 
Civil Engineering at Colorado College. 

Guy G. Mills (B.S., I912, University of Illinois) '7as engaged in practical 
work for a year after graduation, then Joined the College staff here as In- 
structor in Civil Engineering. He served from December, I913, to June, I91U, and 
from February to June, I915. Hq withdrew finally to return to practice. 

Camillo Weiss (C.E. , I9IO, Vienna Trjchnischle Hochschule; M.S., I9I7, Uni- 
versity of Illinois) was employed from 1910 to I9I7 as stnictural engineer with 
various firms in the United States, after which he served during the academic 
year I917-IS as Instructor in Structural Engineering at the University of 
Illinois. He withdrew to return to practice. 

Earl '.Yesley Carrier (E.S., I9IS, University of Illinois) served as 
Instructor in Civil Engineering here from September, I9IS, to June, I920, after 
which he became associated with the Illinois Terminal Railroad. 

Clyde KqIso Mathews (B.3., I9I9, University of Kansas) was Instructor in 



286 

Surveying here from Scptcmlicr, 1921 to September, I92U. 

Walter Thompson Morro'.? (3.S., I9I8, University of Colorado) became In- 
structor in Stmctural Engineering at the University of Illinois in September, 
1921, and remained here until September, 192"+. 

Chauncey Brockway Sclimeltger (3.S., I919, and M.S., 1920, University of 
Illinois) became Assistfint in Surveying in I920 a-nd Instructor in September, I92I, 
Ke retained this position until September, 1926, when he '.Tithdrew to engage in 
engineering practice. 

Harry Clow Boardman (3.S., I9IO, and C.3., I926, University of Illinois) was 
employed for several years in practical work, then joined the College staff here 
in September, 192^, as Instructor in Civil Engineering. He remained until Sep- 
tember, 1926, when he accepted a position with the Chicago Bridge and Iron '.Torks. 

Holand Horton (E.S., 1921, University of Oklaiaoma) served as Instructor in 
Civil Engineering at the University here from September, I92U, to September^ 
^-92S. 

Harold Theodore Lars en (B.3., I923, and C.S., I92S, University of Illinois) 
v/as Instructor in Civil Engineering hero from September, I926, to September, I927, 
when he resigned to join the editorial staff of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers. 

Harold Everett Wessman (3.S.. I92U, M.S., 192|;, C.E., I929, and Ph.D. I936, 
University of Illinois) joined the University staff here as Instructor in Civil 
Engineering in September, I927. after two years of experience in practice. He 
resigned in September, I929, to accept a position in China. Since 1937, Doctor 
Wessman has boon Chairman of the Department of Civil Engineering and Professor 
of Structural Engineering at Hew York University. 

Oeorge Everottc Spencer (3.S., 1927, Purdue University) -.vas Instructor in 
Civil Engineering at the University of Maine during 1927-28, then joined the 
staff at the University of Illinois in September, I92S, as Instructor in Civil 
Engineering. Ho resisted at the end of the academic year to accept an appoint- 
ment at Purdue. 



287 

Elmer Michael Loebs (S.S., I92S, Purdue Univei'sity) taught a year at Pur- 
due, then came to the University of Illinois in September, I929, as Instructor 
in Civil Engineering. He resigned at the end of the school year, to engage in 
engineering practice. 

Harry Bdv/ard Schlenz (3^S. I927, M.S., 1929, and C.E.. I933, University of 
Illinois) was Instinictor in Civil Engineering during I929-3O. He is co-author 
of one bulletin issued by the Engineering Experiment Station, 

'.Vilf red Main Honour (3.S., I929, Georgia Institute of Technology; M.S. ,1932, 
University of Illinois) served as Special Research Assistant in Civil Engineering 
from ScptombGr, I929, to February, 1932. 

Kenneth CIgl-i Tippy (3.S,, I927, andti.S., 1931, University of Illinois) be- 
came Instructor in Civil Engineering here in Soptomber, 1930' ^o resigned in 
April, 193^. to accept a position with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. 

Marvel Prod Lindenan (3.S., I928, .andM.S., 193(1, University of Illinois)wa3 
Xnstnactor in Civil Engineering from February to June, 1931- 

Bonn Joseph Loland (3.S. 193^, and M.S. 1936, University of Illinois) served 
as Hcsearch Assistant in Civil Engineering from March to Juno, 193^i sind as 
Special Hcsearch Graduate Assistant in Civil Engineering during 193^-36. He is 
co-author of one bulletin of the Engineering Experiment Station, 

Max Sut£r (Dipl.Ing. , 1913i Podcral Polytechnic School, Zurich, Switzerland; 
M.S., 1933, and Ph.D., 1935. University of Illinois) served as Special Research 
Assistant in Civil Engineering from January to Juno 193^. 

Franlc Peter Thomas (3.S.,1929, Carnegie Institute of Technology; M.S. I93I. 
University of Illinois) was Special Research Assistant in Civil Engineering from 
February, I936, to March, 1937 • He is co-author of two bulletins of the Engi- 
neering Experiment Station. 

John Van Veghten Coombe (B.S., I93O, and M.S., 1933, University of Illinois) 
was appointed Special Reseai'ch Assistant in Civil Engineering here effective in 
Fcbru;\ry, I937 but resigned in December, I9U0, to accept an appointment with the 
U.S. Navy. Mr. Coombe is joint author of three bulletins of the Engineering 



288 

Experiment Station. 

Gordon Lutz Jeppesen (B.S., 1936, and M.S., 1938, University of Illinois) 
was made Instructor in Civil Engineering here in September, 1938, but resigned 
in September, 1939. 

Charles Udell Kring (B.S., 1932, and M.S., 1939, University of Illinois) 
became Instructor in Civil Engineering in April, 1939, and resigned in June, 
1939. 

Thomas Hunter McCrackin, Jr . (B.S., 19U0, University of Illinois) served as 
Special Research Assistant in Civil Engineering from September, 19iiO to April 
1, 19U2, when he resigned to enlist in the U.S. Armed Forces. He is co-author 
of two bulletins of the Engineering Experiment Station. 

David Hume Caldwell (B.S., 1938, University of California: M.S., 19hO, and 
Ph. D., 19U3, University of Illinois) joined the staff at the University in I9I4I 
as Instructor in Civil Engineering. He resigned in 19U3 to become Director of 
the Research Laboratory for the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering, California State 
Department of Health. Doctor Caldwell is co-author of two bulletins of the 
Engineering Experiment Station. 

Walter Edmund Hanson (B.S., 1939, Kansas State College) became Instructor 
in Civil Engineering in February, 19li2, for the remainder of that college year, 
but returned to the same position in February, 19U6. 

Mehmet Nejat Tokay , (See Theoretical and Applied Mechanics). 

William Herman Munse , (B.S., 19U2, and M.S., 19UU, University of Illinois) 
was engaged in engineering practice until he joined the staff at the University 
here in September, 19U3, to give one-third of his time as Instructor in Civil 
Engineering and two-thirds as Special Research Assistant in Civil Engineering. 
He withdrew from the University in September, 19hh» 

Clinton Paul Atkins , (B.S., 19U2, University of Illinois) was employed in 
structural designing in industry until he accepted an appointmeftt in September, 
19U$, as Special Research Assistant. 



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289 
H. Summary- 
General - While Civil Engineering was one of the original four departments 
in engineering as it was organized shortly after the opening of the University, 
it has continued all through the years to be one of the major units of the 
College, The rapid advancements made in its installations of laboratory equip- 
ment and the numerous changes effected in its curricular programs are only 
reflections of progress as it has occurred in engineering practice in this 
particular field. While it is true that emphasis on special subjects has 
changed from time to time following developments in practice, the fact remains 
that the fundamental principles of training towards certain objectives have not 
altered to any considerable extent, and that the main purpose is still to 
provide a grade of instruction that will supply a body of men so grounded as to 
permit them to meet any social as well as engineering and economic problems 
that they may be called upon to attend. 

The departmental staiff has been active in experimental work as well as 
teaching, as the list of Station publications indicates, and its accomplishments 
in this direction have had a substantial influence in shaping improvements in 
the design, construction, and operation of engineering materials and 
engineering projects, in both public and private enterprise. 



m^'.fi 



■-■/..■'xq 



290 

CHAPTER IX 

THS DEPAHTliBlIT OF ABCIiIT3CTUH3 

A. OS&AKIZATIOII 

General - Although Architecture v/as one of the divisions in the Polytechnic 
Department recommended in the report made by the Hegent and the four Trustees in 
lSb7, it took some time to get the vrork established. Ko mention is made of any 
staff assigned to this Department until IS7O-7I, \7hen the University Catalogue 
and Circular listed James Bellangco, U.S. \7ith the title of Teacher of Archi- 
tecture and Jlcclianical Drawing, lir. Bcllangce had spent a brief period as a 
draftsman in a Chicago office. That same issue of the Catalogue and Circular al- 
so contained an njinounccnent of the School of Architocturo as it v/as then called, 
with mention of a definite cours> of studies arraiigod for the instructional pro- 
gram, ^.vhich was patterned very closely after Civil Snginc-ring. In I87I, the work 
Y/as taken over 'oy Mr. Hansen who had spent tv7o years at the Bau-'Academie in 
Berlin. Mr. Hansen taught architectural dra'.7ing, and for one term,' taught also a 
course in architectural design fUid rendering. In June, 187^, he went to Chicago 
to work for the suromer, the fire there having occasioned the need for many men 
trained in architecture,. On account of illness, however, he did not return in 
the fall, and a senior student named Nathan Clifford Hicker took charge of the 
work at the University, -/here he was graduated from his o-m department in the 
following llarch> 

It is of interest to note that the IS7O-7I issue of the Catalogue and 
Circular carried the statement that "This Department is for the present appended 
to the College of Engineering. Its studies embrace many of those belonging to 
the course in Civil Engineering. They include, also. Architectural Drawing, the 
principles and styles of Architecture, the history of Architecture, aiid plans and 
specifications for buildings of all kinds". ".Thile the School or Department con- 
tinued as a nominnl unit of the Colleg. , it ,lid not bucoLie a well-established 
organization until October, I873, when young Hicker returned to the University to 
t,ake charge of the School with the title of Instructor in Architecture. 



291 

Throughout the years, the Department developed very rapidly, and in 1390, 

there was added the Division of Architectural Engineering, the first of its kind 

in this country, to provide training in the engineering features of "building 

design and construction. 

B. OBJECTIVES MD METHODS OE INSTHUCTIOil 

1 
Objectives - As stated in the 1872-73 issue of the University Catalogue and 

Circular: 

"This school is designed for those '-/ho desire to fit themselves for the 
profession of Architect or Builder. The specialties of the Course arc taught 
upon the same general plan as in the European Art Schools, by a gentleman of much 
practical experience, who is no'.7 studying in Berlin, but is expected to return 
this yepr. The Eistory of Architecture is taught by Lectures during the second 
and third years, and it is arranged to give Cprpentcrs, Builders and Masons, not 
able to take a full Architectural Course, the opportunity of getting the whole 
history of Architecture in one year, besides instruction in Architectural Drawing. 
The principles of the different styles of Architecture arc taught partly by 
lectures, but chiefly by drawing exercises". 

A publication issued in 1S99-1900-? outlined the objectives of the Department 

as follo'vs: 

1. To prepare younf^ architects thoroughly for the actual conditions and 
requirements of American Practice. 

2. To give a thorough training in construction. 

3. To gnther from history of past architecture, ideas that arc suggestive 
and useful now. 

U. To develop and cultivate power in design as fully as possible. 

k 
As stated also in a still later publication: "The priaary aim of the course 

in architecture is to fit the student to conceive and design buildings which 

shall be at once thoughtful and beautiful. The aim of the course in Architectuial 

Engineering is to train the student thoroughly in the scientific determination 

and verification of structural methods. The subjects studied must bo largely the 

same, but emphasis and method of treatment are and should be different". 

Department al Divisions - As the professional field expanded and as the 



1 Page 36 

2 Young Nathan C. Sicker 

3 "Circular of the Department of Architecture, I099-I9OO", page 6. 

U. "University of Illinois, The Department of Architecture; Development , Conditioi 
Ideals", by Sidney F..:imball, I913 . 



292 
enrollment in architecture grew in response to the demand for men trained in 
this particular line, the v;ork in the department began to sh/ipe itself into di- 
visions so that in about ig2U, there existed the divisions of design, freehand 
drawing, architectural engineering, hi stor-/ of architecture, and construction, each 
under the direction of 9t*e member of the staff. Optional curricula were offered 
in architecture and architectural engineering until 1930-31. -^hen three options 
were announced: namol7, design, construction, and general architecture, each with 
a number of divisions of study. This was later reduced to t\7o: anmely, general 
option for students seeking a degree in architecture, and construction option for 
students sookiag t» Aogroo ' in np e hi t eetun a, -^anji-i io nct yu n t i on O' j ^ * i-ett-^oir-fftn-dent s 
working for a degree in architectural engineering. 

The Competitive System in Architectural Design - For a number of years now, 
the work in Architectural Design has been conducted under an arrangement of 

competitive conditions. The following description taken from the Architectural 

\ 
Year Book of I9I6, explains the procedure as practiced at that time. 

"The work in (architectural) design of the last three years is not divided 
into courses of fixed duration, but into six stages of a fixed degree of diffi- 
culty, through which the students advance in varying lengths of time, depending 
on their ability and success. The first three grades are devoted primarily to 
the study of simple architectural units; the general elements of facades — bays, 
pavilions, loggias, and so on; the general elements of the plans — vestibules, 
porticoes, stairways, and other means of circulation. The three upper grades are 
devoted primarily to the study of composition, using these elements, in the de- 
sign of complete buildings of increasing extent and complexity. Problems are of 
two chief kinds; rendered problems lasting sov. ral weeks, in which mature study 
is given and somewhat elaborate drawings are made, representing the subject with 
essential completeness; sketch pi-oblcms of a week or less, in which an idea is 
presented in a more summary w;ij'» 

"All these problems arc competitive, based on a set of common requirements 
to which each man must conform. The drawings arc graded by a jury composed of 
all the instructors in design, avoiding any injustice through personal idio- 
syncrasy or favoritism. Immediately after the judgment, while the difficulties 
of the problems arc still fresh in mind, the drawings are hung in the exhibition 
hall of the department to enable the students to compare solutions and progress. 

"The av/ards given in the problems are 'Pass', which denotes an average 
standard of excellence, 'Mention', and "Mention Commended', which denote 
successive degrees of distinguished excellence. For very exceptional work a i 
still higher recompense, the 'Medal' is given". 

An acc-umulative point system for the design courses v/as developed for rat- 
ing the rendered exercises that confonnod to the University grading plan 
1 Page 10. 



293 

established for evaluating student performance, first accordine to the original 
numerical schedule and later according to the literal scheme v;hich became 
effective in I9I7 . 

In order to secure the benefits of decisions by an impartial jury having no 
local interest, the Department of Architecture here in I922, decided to accept 
the plan maintained by the Beaux Arts Institute of Design in Ilev? York City where- 
by its students could compete with those from other architectural schools in the 
United States in the submission of problems assi-^ied under that system. In pur- 
suance of this policy, the acc\inulative point system then in effect for grading 
the students' work as well as for the administrative records of the Department, 
was carefully revised to represent the schedule and awards of the Institute while 
conforming to the University regulations for reporting grades. 

In carrying out the plan, a semester's work is assumed to be of fifteen vecks 
duration regardless of the actual calendar time assigned to it. A certain number 
of weeks of credit is allotted to each 3.A.I.D. jirojet, which corresponds as 
closely as possible to the actual time spent in developing the problem, A valu-- 
ation representing a certain number of points a week is assigned to each award as 
given by the Institute. The number of points gained by a student on a projet is 
found by multiplying the allotted number of weeks on a pro jot by the number of 
points a. week assi^od to the award. The assi;i3amcnt of points to B.A.I.D. awards 
in class A, for example, are: 1st Ilodal, S points a week; 2nd Medal, 7 loints a 
week; 1st i'iontion, 6 points a wcrlr; find 2nd Mention, 5 points a week. A total of 
90 points or more for a semester's > Tade is equivalent to an A grade in the Uni- 
versity schedule; 30-39, 3; 70-79, C; 6O-69, D; and below 60, E. The ratings for 
Class B and other projcts arc figured on a similar basis. 

Under this system of com .(itition, rivalry between schools of the country in 
securing recognition for student production has become very keen. ?or obvious 
reasons, each department is anxious to have its students receive the highest 
awards; and no doubt, students arc inspired to do better work when they know their' 
product will be judged in a nation-wide contest, but th... scheme does place a 

^ tln^vcrsiTy^oi^'^fYTinSis^'*^ ^^ ^*^® office of the Department of Architecture at the 



29U 

heavy responsibility upon the instructors in charge of the assignments. 

C. BUILDING AlID ROOM ACCOMODATIONS 

Room Assignments for Class and Drawing-Room Vi'ork - The first classes in 

architecture met in the Olil University Building until University Kail was opened 

in December, 1373, when the Department was assigned to the northeast tower room 

on the fourth floor. Later, the next room became available, ".ftien the number of 

students had increased to 65, the Department was transferred to three rooms on 

the fifth or top floor of the east wing. It remained in these quarters until the 

1 
fall of 1S9^, '-.'hen it v/as installed on the fourth floor of the new Engineering 

Hall in quarters which it occupied during the most of the remainder of its stay 

in the College of Dngincorin". It utilized Dractically the entire space on this 

floor, which "-'as divided into class-rooms, drafting room, private studies, or 

offices for the teaching staff, a bluc'"print labomtoi-^-, a photo studio, a 

seminary room, a lecture room, a musour:, and a cabinet room. 

The photo studio .and the blueprint laboratory wcro in the so\i*hwest corner 
of the west wing, the Mhoto studio being equipped v/ith a number of cameras and 
a dark room, ;t,nd the blueprint laboratory consisting of an office, a sensitizing 
room, and a printing room. The printing room was supplied v/ith a printing frame, 
with developing sinks, and -\. drying fr,'imo. 

'The lecture room, lioom 4l2, was fitted with a stejrpod floor aiid had a seat- 
ing capacity of seventy-five. It was sup^died with an electric-arc lantern of 
the latest and most approved design. 

The cabinet room cont^.ined about 1,200 slides, all listed in a card index 
system for convenience. 

At the beginning of the second semester, V^2'J-2o, the doDartment moved into 
its new building on the south campus, vacating all but t-/o of its rooms formerly 
occupied in Snginecring Hnll. These new quarters provided additional space and 
much better working arrangements arid facilities than -.^hs possible to have in 
iingincering Hall. The new building for Aichitecture and llindred Subjects, is 
shared b y the De partment of Art, fomcrly known as Art and Design. 

1 Sec The Technograph, iZ'^k-^y^, Pages I7U-I75 

2 Professor Ricker occupied Room 402 for an office from iSqU to I912. 



295 

The first or ground floor is devoted to work in modeling, graduate design, 
and as quarters for the Architectural Club. The '7est end of the second or main 
floor houses the Kail of Casts, ^hich contains a fine collection of reproductions 
of sculpture, architoctumj. motifs, and casts from antiques. At the east end of 
this floor is the exhihition gallery -^hich at different times houses loan col- 
lections and student and faculty exhibits. The north side of the north wing is 
used as a lecture room, vaiile the middle portion of this floor is occupied by 
offices. The third floor has a large drawing room at each end. The Hickcr Libra- 
ry occuijies the north v/ing, and offices the middle portion. The fourth floor is 
also occup)icd by drawing rooms and offices, while the top floor is devoted to 
freehand drawing, water-color, and other studios. 

D. DSVELOPMENT OF DEPAHTl 3WT.\L rACILITi::S AlID IlQUIPIOiT 

Collection of Casts - The Univeri'.ity Catalogue and Circular of I87U-75 
stated: "The school possesses a fine collection of plaster casts, 15O in number, 
made by Christian Lchr, Berlin, mostly from architectural subjects^ for use in 
the drawing classes, besides those in the Art Gnllery". The Department continued 
to add to the collection from time to time although there was only limited space 
for storage. In 1923, hov/evor, vvhen it moved into its no.vi quarters, it v;as able 
to extend the collection very materially; and in I93I, when it Joined the College 
of Fine and Applied Arts, it Jaad assembled a fine assortment of models of 
structural ornament and design and casts of famous statuary and historic 
buildings. 

Rickcr Library of Architecture - A good library serves a double purpose in 
any department of architecture. It is to architectural students all that any 
library is to the general student — a source of the literary contributions of 
the best writers of all periods; and in addition, it is a depository of Illus- 
trations — printed, photographic, and plastic — of the architectural library 
master-pieces of the a&'s. An architectural library for architectural students 
is somewhat as surveying instruments and testing macliines are to civil engineer- 
ing students, and the shop and power laboratories to ncch.-inical engineering 
students. 



296 

After Professor Rickcr was appointed Head of the Department of Architecture 
in 1873, ^^ asked for and received $500 for the purchase of books; and each year 
thereafter, he used as much as he could out of his meager allo'.vances for the De- 
partment for the purchase of hooks. At first, he housed these hooks in his own 
office in University Hall, but later, when the Department moved to the top floor 
of tliat building, he transferred them to a room adjoining the combination reci- 
tation and drafting room located in one of the towers, where they were accessible 
to students at all irking hours of the daj--. There were about 700 volumes at 
that time. 

For many years, Profe'-.sor Ricker clipped engravings from architectural 
journals, mounted them upon cardboard, and indexed them all with his own hands. 
As maney v/as available, he bought unmounted photographs and mounted and indexed 
them, again by his ovm indefatigable personal efforts. 

".Then the Department moved to the top floor of 3nginccring Hall in I09U, it 
kept its books and plates in a portion of one small room, Hoom U03'. In I903, 
however, it took over for the use of the departmental library, Room UOO, the 
large room formei'ly occupied for drafting purposes, and assigned a trained 
librarian to part-time service in charge of the books, plates, jind the collection 
of lantern slides. 

In 1910, the Architectural Library was enlarged and removed into quarters 

that extended partially across the central wing at the north end of the north 

1 
corridor on the top floor of Engineering Hall, and a full-time librarian was em- 
ployed. "iVith new book shelves, a comiDlcte card filing index and plenty of light, 
the Library took on added importance to the Department. Wew and rare and old 
books were added from time to time as appropriations permitted. The library con- 
tinued to be to Architecture what the Sngineering Library and the laboratory 
equipment was to other departments in the College of Sngineering. Collections 
of mounted plates and photogra]ihs, lantern slides, and classified portfolios of 
illustrative materials were added whenever possible. The outstanding current 



1 "his space was made available by throwing the three north rooms, a classroom, 
studio, and office into one large room about 25 by 63 feet in plan. 



297 
poriodicals on architecture and i-elated sutject^ wore also available. 

A panphlet entitled "The Department of Architecture: Development, Condition, 
and Ideals", published in I913 by Sidney ?. Kimball, Instructor in Architecture, 
contains this statement re£!;arding the Architectural Library: "The really in- 
valuable resource of the school is its suiiox'b collection of architectural books. 
The solid range of folios, '.vhich must serve as a substitute for the surroundings 
of students in Paris or Home, arc probably suriiassed in but a single archi- 
tectural school of ALierica. The Avery Library of Columbia is thought to be the 
most complete of all special libraries of prchitecturc, and is undoubtedly the 
first in America for research in architectural hi'otor;,'. It maj'' bo doubted, how- 
ever, '.whether oven the Avery Librair is supei'ior to the Library at Illinois for 
serving the prime function of a school collection, the furnishing of precedent 
find inspiritation for design". 

In 1916, when the collection consisted of about 3i500 volm.:es, the whole of 
the top floor in this north 'ving was assigned to the use of the Library — a 
space about 70 feet square. 

In January, I917, by authority of the Board of Trustees, the Library was 
formally nfuncd the Packer Library of Architecture. Form,al dedication exercises 
were hold in the library on I'.c^j 23, following at a convocation held to commemo- 
rate the forty-third anniversar;- of the connection of Dr. C. N. Hicker with the 
Department. At this meeting, the staff of the Department of Architecture pre- 
sented to the Library a bronze tablet marking the dedic-^tion of the librar;." to 
the memory of Doctor Hicker. The tablet contained the following statement: 
HIGiZSR LIBRAHY 
OF AHCKITDCTUH51 

11; zxoG::iTioi: os' 

his FOHTY-THHSE 
Y3AHS 01 ACTIVD SZaVIC3] 
11; TIi3 DaPAHTiOI'JT 
or AHCHIT3CTUH3 
1 Page 5- 



298 

THIS LI3KAEY IS 

DSDI GATED TO 

NATHAN CLIFF03D 

HICIC3R 
M C M XVII 

At this convocation, Professor Newton A» '.7ells presented a mosaic portrait 

of Professor Hicker; and the Alpha Sho Chi, organization of architectural stu- 

later 
dents, presented a plaster bust of Professor Hicker, which v/as cast in bronze. 

In 1920, the Librar:/ contained about 8,000 bound voliiraes, 11,000 lantern 
slides, 15,000 mounted plates and photographs, 5iOOO samples of American woods, 
350 plaster casts of statues and architectural details, and n\imerous drawings 
and other materials useful in the teaching of architecture. So far as volumes 
were concernod, it r/as the second largest architectural library in this coimtry. 
It Was the only architectuml library in which a student could 7/ork upon drawing 
boards with the open books around him. The Avery Architectural Library of 
Columbia University, by some said to be the most complete of all tRe architectur- 
al libraries in the world, as iireviously stated, had more books than the Rickcr 
Library; but it was virtually only a reference or really a circulating library, 
and students v/erc not permitted to use drawing materials in it. In the Ricker 
Library the books were all p'laci.;d in open stacks and in unlocked cases, and were 
easily accessible; and a competent attendant was ever ready to heljD the students 
find what they wanted. It is doubtful whether even the Avery Library was su- 
perior to the Rickcr Library for serving the prime function of a college col- 
loction — the furnishing of precedent and inspiration in design. 

When the building for Al«chitccture and Iiindred Subjects was completed in 
1928, the Rickcr Library of Architecture was trf^insf erred to that new location; 
and up to 1931 • when the Department of Architecture became a part of the College 
of Fine ;-ind Ap])liod Art, the Hicker Library had accumulated about 12,000 volumes. 
These publications contained '7orks on biography, decoration, painting, theory, 
periods and styles, travel and description, city planning, and architectural 
competitions that had boon held the world over. 



299 

Lantern Slides Mount ed Photographs and Working Drawings - The Department 
gradually iDrought together im -unusual collection of lantern slides and mounted 
photographs for use in connection mth lectures illustrating the history of the 
architecture of all nations. The collection included views of government 
"buildings, schools, churches, theaters, business houses, apartments, and single 
residences, all classified and indexed for ready reference. In igOO, there were 
2600 slides; in I903, 6,000; in I9I3, 10,000; .ijid in I93I. 'vhon the Department 
v/as transferred to the College of Fine and Applied Arts, 11,500. The collection 
of classified jihotographs, .ihotogravurcs, engravings, plates, and drav/ings,many 
of v/hich were mounted by Professor Hickor himself, totaled about 15,000 in 1931.^ 
In addition, the Department has boon supplied vnth a long list of v/orking dravjirigs 
furnished by individuals and firms engaged in architectural practice for refer- 
ence use in connection \7ith drawing- room assignments. 

Wood Shop - Classes in arcliitectural shop practice 'vere held in the Me- 

1 
chanical Building and Drill Hall. -According to The Technograph, tSe shop 

occupied about lialf of the first floor of that building and was equipped \7ith 

thirty benches each provided with a full set of tools, ten power lathes with the 

necessary turning tools, a large planer, and a number of power saws. This 

separate woodshop for architects was discontinued after September, I895, when the 

architectural shop was merged with the mochanical-engineoring shop. 

Architectural Shop Squipmont - The I87U-75 Catalogue stated on page '}G: 

"The Carpenter shop is fitted up for the regular shop i^ractice of students 
in architecture. It contains a 'Thitney Planer, a moulding liachinc, a Tenoning 
Machine, a Jigsaw, Cutting off and Slitting saws, a Morticing liachine, a Yankee 
Wliitler, a Turning Lathe, a ?oot Lathe, with saws, drills, taps, dies, etc., and 
three power Grindstones. Ten work benches with six sots of bench tools, and six 
sets of tools for making models. Also a small dry kiln built on an improved plaiii 

The University Catalogue of 1892-93 sta.ted: "The architectural workshops in 

the same building with the mechanical laboratory arc fully equipped for bench and 

lathe work, and are supplied -vith all essential machine tools. Students become 

familiar with the tools and with the work of the carpenter and cabinet-maker, as 

well as Y/ith the draughting operations of the architect's office". 



1 I89I4-95, page 175- 



iftf .fr'i'IC' '.■'.-> J. 



300 

3. MISCSLLANEOUS 

Student SnrollaGnt in Architecture - In I902 the nunbcr enrolled in pro- 
fessional courses in the Department of Architecture, reached S3; in I907, ll^-O; 
and in the fall of I912, 332. Por a time, the Department had the largest enroll- 
ment of the departments in the College of Engineering, and for some time, too, 
it had the largest enrollment of all the architectural schools in America. The 
most interesting feature v/as the relatively large number of students from outside 
the State — the measure of the reputation the Department had attained. In I912, 
two-fifths of the students in the Department came from outside the State — the 
University's ratio being only h-df that proportion. 

The Department becomes a Monbor of the Associatio n of Collegiate Schools of 
Architecture - The Department of Architecture bccjime a member of the Association 
of Collegiate Schools of Architecture in 1912-I3. Other members of the Associ- 
ation were the University of California, the University of Michigan, Washington 
University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Carnci-^ie Institute of 
Tcchnologj--, University of Pennsylvania, Col\imbia University, Cornell University, sr.d 
Harvard University. Syracuse University became a member in I91U-I5. The purpose 
of the organization was to develop a close association of all the leading schools 
of architecture in the country, offering an opportunity at its annual meetings 
to discuss the various problems confronting the departments. In order to be- 
come a member of the association, a school must have had an approved four-year 

curriculum in architecture for at least four years, with minimxim standard re- 
quirements as to the amount of time spent upon design, freehand work, con- 
struction, engineering and cultural courses. 

Relations v/ith the Illinois Chapter: of the Ame rican Institute of 
Architects - The Department has always had the undivided support of the Chicago 
and the Central Illinois Chapters of the American Institute of Architects. This 
relationship has been the means for bringing to the cajnpus ra;\ny men of dis- 
tinction to lecture before student bodies on subjects of interest to the pro- 
fession and for malcing such contacts as have enabled students to secure po- 
sitions in architectural practice. 



:,^j.zi s'^i 



301 

Contributions to_ State Jevelopinent - "It is difficult to estimate the in- 
fluence this department has exerted in creating a demand for the construction of 
safe, comfortable, convenient, and artistic buildings in the State, but it has 
undoubtedly been large, for the graduates of the department are widely scattered, 
and each of them has left his impress upon the community in which he lives, 

"The Department of Architecture has participated in many activities for the 

betterment of building conditions of the State. It was concerned with the 

passage of the law for the licensing of architects, and for more than twenty 

years it has had a representative on the Board of Examiners; it has advocated 

the construction of better buildings throughout the State; and it has cooperated 

in the solution of problems connected with civic improvements. In I917, when a 

portion of the City of Mattoon was destroyed by a tornado, this department pre- 

1 
pared drawings for the reconstruction of the devastated area". 

F. MUS3Ui; L'lATEHIALS iUIU COLLSCTIONS 
Art Gallei-y - Because portions of the Art Gallery were used extensively for 

instructional purposes by the Department of Architecture, The Gallery is de- 
scribed in some detail. The Catalogue and Circular of I8SU-85 stated the 

2 
follovving: 

"The University Art Gallery is one of the largest and finest in the ViTest* 
It wa^ the gift of citizens of Champaign and Urbana. It occupies a beautiful 
laall ol X 7y feet and the ln.rge display of art subjects has surprised and de- 
lighted all visitors. In sculpture it embraces thirteen full-size casts of 
celebrated statues, including the Laocoon group, the Venus of Milo, forty 
statues of reduced size, and a large number of busts, ancient and modern, bas 
reliefs, etc., malcing over four hundred pieces. It includes also hundreds of 
large autotypes, photographs, and fine engravings representing many of the great 
masterpieces of painting of nearly all of the modern schools. Also a gallery of 
of historical ]iortraits, mostly large French lithographs of peculiar finoness, 
copied from the groat national portrait galleries of Franco". 

Museum Materials - 'when the Department moved into the top floor of Engineer- 
ing Hall in December, 18gU, it took one of the large rooms in the north wing for 
a musctim. From various accounts, it is evident that this museum contained many 
v.aluable specimens of rav; and finished building materials, including a fine 

Qollgction of moulded and pressed bricks and of pa nels of mosaic construction, 

^•'fi,-^i^<^^?'5io^.°^'' i,h*2 Dpvelopmcnt and linods of the Coilcge of Engineering and the 
the Engineering Experiment Station"^, November 25, I9IS7 

2 Page 17. 



302 
which were contributed by the manufacturers. It also contained a good col- 
lection of fixtures, models^ and working drawings of finished buildings. 
G. THE DSPAHTM3KT JOIUS TH3 C0LL3G3 OF FIlOl AKD AFPLISD AHTS 

The Department of Architecture joins the College of Fine and Applied Art r. - 
On Llarch 12, I93I, the 3oard of Tnjstees authorized the formation of a College 
of Fine and Applied Arts with the Department of Architecture as one of the com- 
ponents — the others being the Department of Art and Design of the College of 
Liberal Arts and Sciences, the Division of Landscape Architecture of the College 
of Agriculture, and the School of Music. As a result, beginning on September 1, 
1931. the administration of the Department of Architecturo passed automatically 
to the College of Fine and Ajiplicd Arts. Thus, one of the largest departments 
in the College of Dnginecring withdrew after having been associated with it sinct 
the founding of the University in 1&S6, Up to that time, between one-fourth and 
one-fifth of the enrollment in the College had been made up of students in archi- 
tecture or architccturfil engineering. 

H. FACULTY PHRSOlfilSL 

^^"Q^Q^ - S^ic^ biographical sketches of faculty members above the grade of 
Assistant that were connected with the Department of Architecture at some period 
between the time of opening of the University and the year I931, when the Depart- 
ment joined the College of Fine and Applied Arts, are listed in the following 
pages in chronological order ,-i,ccording to rank. 

a. Hcf.ds of the Department 
1 
General - Nathan Clifford Hicker served as Kcad until I9IO. Frederick 

Maynard Mann followed and was Head until I913, when Loring Harvey Provine became 

Acting Head and later Head of the Department. Short biographical sketches of 

these men follow in the next few pages. 

Nathan Clifford Hicker , the founder of the Department of Architecture and 

Dean of the College of Engineering from iS/g to I905. was born on a fann near 



1 During the academic year I87I-72 the University employed an "Instructor in Archi- 
tecture and Free Hand Drawing", but the work consisted' only of elementary geo- 
metrical drawing and a little artistic picture making. The first real in- 
struction in architecture was in the fall of I873, when N. Clifford Bicker was 
placed in charge of the Department of Architecture. 



303 

Acton, iiainc, in l8kj> . He taught a country school in lS6l and again in 1262, 
For several years, he worked as a cariienter, wa^on raalcer, mill wright, and later 
as a maker of piano cases, when they '.vere made mostly by hand. Through all this 
time, young Bicker devoted his evenings and spare time to study. In I867, he 
migrated to Lr>. Harpe, Illinois, and for a year and a half engaged as a carpenter 
in building dv/ellings ?<nd barns in that vicinity. Later, he purchased a half 
interest in a '.vagon and blacksmith shop, and operated it for one and a half years. 
After meeting a student of the University who was home on Christmas vacation, he 
sent for a catalogue of the University; and liking the prospect, sold his shop, 
and set out with $750 of hard-earned money in his pocket to get an education in 
architecture. On January 2, IS70, young Ricker arrived at the University. Note 
the promptness of the actioni rle received considerable advance credit in Latin, 
French, and some of the sciences, which he had earned while studying alone. He 

Was one of a considerable number of men of mature age and more or less general 
education who came comparatively early to the University because of the new 
kind of education offered and because of the opportunity for rciruncrativc labor; 
but he is the most noted of such students. In the stimmer of IS70, he made the 
wood work for a light spring v/agon for the University — a second student doing 
the iron work, and a third the painting. During the year I87I, he was made fore- 
man of the University carpenter repair-shop. 

On account of his ability and integrity, student Sicker early secured the 
confidence and respect of both faculty and students. Although ho found that the 
University offered no technical training in architecture, ho was not in the 
least discouraged, but was most untiring of his private study of that subject. 
He arranged a four- year curriculum of instruction in architecture even while he 
was a student, for his future employment as head of the Department of Archi- 
tecture had boon agreed upon; and this curriculum was printed in the Catalogue 
of IS7I-72, along with the st;Vcral other curricula in engineering, agriculture, 
science, jmd languages — the first definite curricula published by the 



1 After fifty years of continuous use, the wagon was still in good condition, al- 
though eventually it had to be retired. 



^A'f^'f :-(■■ 



3oU 

University. The fundamcntiil idea of Professor Sicker' s curriculum was that the 
architect should be, first, a safe and economical builder; second, a man of 
business ability; and third, a designer. 

During the first six months of 1272, Mr, Hicker '/rorked in the office of J. 
W. Hoberts, architect in Chicago, but returned to the University in time for the 
opening of the fnll term of that year. The story was current among students that 
he selected his own subjects, taught himself, examined himself, and reported his 
own gra.des. At that time he read both French and G-erman fluently, and much of 
his' study was of literature in those languages. Although only a senior, he took 
temporary charge of the Department of Architecture in September, I872, and re- 
mained in charge for the next two irerms, receiving the 3.S. degree in Architecture 
in March, 1873 — the end of the second term — having completed the work in a 
little over three years time. Immediately after graduation, the Regent offered 
him a permanent instructorship with the understanding that he would go abroad 
for further study. At once ho started for Hurope and si.ont six months in travel 
and study there, visiting Paris, London, Berlin, and other cities for the purpose 
of studying their architectural monuments. Three months of the time were spent 
as a student at the Bau-Akademie in Berlin. Ke visited the International Expo- 
sition in Vienna, and was greatly impressed with the exhibit of shop work from 
the Imperial Toclinical School of kcscow. Russia; and upon his return to the Uni- 
versity in September, I873. as Instructor in Ai'chitecture. ho introduced this 
so-called Russian system of shop practice into the architectural shop of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. This was the first use of a system that ultimately became 
almost universal in this countiy. In June IS75. he became Assistant Professor of 
Architecture, and in June. I87S, Professor of Architecture. 

■ For many years. Professor Pucker was the sole instmctor in his Department, 
but in time he was able to secure the services of Mr. Joseph Corson Llewellyn, 1 
graduate in architecture here in 1377. as Assistant in Architecture and Foreman 
of the general carpenter Shop. In I877. the salary of the position was reduced, 

' t :^^^^:i U^^X^^l^''^^ --^^ ^^-i^^ inst^ction 
the first Of Which eSll^h^r: c^^^sH^ 186^^ Jhe^^larer°rn1^7i?"°^"^^' 



305 

however, and Mr, Llewellyn resigned during the next academic year. After that, 

■(. student, Ilr. Helson S. Spencer, who was Graduated from the architectural cur- 
riculum in 1322, Was appointed as part-time Foreman of the Carpenter Shop. In 
1277, Professor Hicker, in addition to his regular teaching duties, began his 
work as architect of the new chemical building, nov/ known as Harkcr Hall. For 
his services in connection with the design and construction of this building 
that cost $U0,000, ho roceivod an extra $120. In 1878, Professor Ricker receival 
the degree of Master of Architecture from the University. 

In 1882, Ilr. 3-eorgc V/. Parker, a skilled mechanic, was made Foreman of the 
Carpenter Shop; and from ISS3 to IS95, he v/as also Instructor in TTood-work. Pro- 
fessor Sicker h.-i,d no other help with the technical work of his department, ex- 
cept that during the year IS89 ho had one-third of an assistant's time, in spite 
of the fact that during those latter years he was engaged as architect and 
superintendent of the new drill hall, now known as the G;,-mnasium Annex. Secause 
the legislative appropriation was wholly inadequate to meet the needs, Professor 
Ricker designed and redesigned the building several times to get a'structure that 
could be built with the funds available. For his extra services in this con- 
nection he was allowed ^y/J. En '-;as also architect for the original or first 
unit of the Natural History Building completed in 1892; nnd with Professor J. M. 
White, who became a full-time assistant in IgcjO, he was architect for the libra- 
ry building, now Altgeld Hall. In partial recognition of all these and other 
services, the University conferred u],on Professor Ricker in I90O the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Architecture. 

Even though architecture was a new field for a college curriculur.i, the 
attendance in that department at the University of Illinois -./as a high commen- 
dation of the insight njid ability of Professor Ricker. Ever since the establish- 
ment of the Department the attendance had been .unong the largest in the countrj,; 
and in I910 when Doctor Ricker relinquished the administration of the Department 
there were 23O architectural students, more than in any one of the fifteen other 
institutions in this country then giving insti-uction in architecture. 

Doctor Ricker always -vorked persistently for his students and the 



30 6 

up-builfUng of the Departraent of Architecture. For years he had his desk in the 
drawing room v/ith his students, vias always accessible to every one, and was ever 
patient and persevering in helping students. He clipped engravings from techni- 
cal journals, pasted then upon cards, and filed them vdth his own hands, to in- 
crease the facilities offered to his students. Ho translated nineteen volumes 
from Gonnan and twenty-one fron French, typed them, and deposited them in the 
Library to increase the facilities of his department. Ho worked day and night in 
school time, and usually also in vacation; and if he did take a vacation, he 
often took v;ith him some y/ork to bo done — a book to bo translated or some 
tables to be comijuted. 

Professor Hickor prepared uany sets of lecturtjs for his students, had them 
copied oy tho blue..rint process and sold to the students. The first of such 
lectures was published in 1S<-;!) as a book entitled "Illemontary Graphical Statics 
and Construction of Trussed Hoofs", 'Thich consisted mainly of the application of 
graphical processes to finding tho stresses in roof trusses, it bejng one of the 
early publications on graphical nnalysis. This was tho first book published by 
any one while connected with the University, Hogents Grogoiy and Peabody having 
published one or more volumes before coming to tho University. In I912, he 
published a "Treatise on Design .nd Consti-uction of Roofs", and in I913, he pro- 
duced a volume. "Simplified Formulas and Tables for Floors. Joists and Seams; 
Hoofs, Eaftors. and Purlins". He was author, also, of three bulletins published 
by the Engineering Sxpcriment Station. 

From 1897 to I917. Professor Rickor was a member of tho Illinois Board of 
Examiners for Architects, serving as President of the Board from IS99 to I917. 
During 1911_12. in addition, ho was Chaii-man of the Commission to Codify the 
Building Laws of Illinois. 

At a meeting marking the forLial installation of Dean Goss on February 5. 
I9O8. tho Faculty presented to Doctor Hicker a magnificently-bound volume of the 
works of Williain Morris, President James m^ing the presentation address. On 
November U. 1913. a dinner was given to Professor Hicker by the department heads 
in the College of Engineering commemorating his forty years of service at the 



307 

University. On November 8, I913, Professor Hicker was honored by a special con- 
vocation in recognition of his long period of faithful and efficient services to 
the University. The significfmt devotion of the uan to his ^r»ork is illustrated 
by the fact that in vie',7 of the innense amount of work he had to do, he did not 
^ have time to attend the meeting, even V7hen it was held in his own honor. 

Although Professor iElickor had given up the active direction of his Depart- 
ment in June, I9IO, as previously stated, ho continued in the Department until he 
retired on September 1, I916, upon a Carnegie allowance, when he becane Professor 
of Architecture, Smeritus. Altogether he had taught in the Department for forty- 
three years, had directed the affairs of the Department for thirty-seven years, 
and had been Deaii of the College for twenty-seven years. Under his leadership, 
the Department had become one of the foremost in the country. The present 
Hicker Library is due largely to his unremitting zeal, for it was one of his 
main interests. Ho member of the faculty of the College ever gave to the Uni- 
versity his time and effort more unstintingly than Doctor Sicker, ^nd none was 
over a more untiring worker. The University is everlastingly indebted to this 
pioneer, for it was due to his patient and persistent efforts that there was de- 
veloped here a Department of Architecture that was second to none in the country. 
In March V), 1922. the University further honored Doctor Hicker by holding a 
Convocation under the auspices of the College of Engineering - the occasion 
marking his fifty years of service to the University. lather mention of this 
occurs in a later chapter describing Engineers' Day. 

Professor Hicker continued to live in Urbana until his death on Ilarch I9, 
I92U, which resulted from a fall on the preceding day. 

!££derick Haynard ^^ann was born on Kay 1. 1865. at irew York City. He 

received the B^C.H. in IgqP -.nri fi^o r -> ^ ■ ■, r. 

lojc, ,md the C.^. degree m ISqo at the University of 

in 18914 ,.^nd the K,S. in IS96 at the 



Minnesota, In addition, he received the S.3. 



M....C.U..U3 In,.Uut„ of .oc.„„l„,. K„ scvoa a. In.t^ctor .n A.cMtoctu.o 



at the Unlv„„it.. of P.nnsnvania durln, 1336-01, ... „.„„,,,„, ,,^ ^,„,^^^,„„ 
in PMl«.olpMa fro. Xms to 190.. Ho then wont to .„=M„,-t„„ Unlvor.lt., St. 
Louis, .:,horo ho served as Profossor of Architooturo fro=, 1902 to I910. It was In 



30S 

1910, that he became Professor of Architecture and Head of the Department at the 
University of Illinois. 

Until somewhere near the year that Professor Kann be^^an work at Illinois, 
there had been considerable variety in the objects and the methods of the various 
architectural schools of the country, since each reflected the character if the 
training, usually European, obtained by its directing head; but at about that 
time the leading practicing architects manifested great interest in architectural 
education and made through the American Institute of Architects certain i^ecom- 
mendations concerning the contents and the methods of the curricula of archi- 
tectural schools. An Association of Collegiate Architectural Schools was formed 
to study the subject, ;mA after deliboi'ation recommended the outline of an 
architectural curriculim, v/hich was adopted by most of the architectural schools 
as rapidly as local circumstances would permit. During his adminlatration at 
Illinois, Professor Mann introduced this unified course. Ho resigned in June, 
1913. to accept a similar position at his alma mater, the University of 
Minnesota. 

Loring H^^xrvoy Pro vine was born on August 18, 1880, at Q,uincy, Illinois. He 
received the B.S. degree in Architectural Engineering in I903 and the A.E. degree 
in 1909 at the University of Illinois. Following graduation, young Provino 
practiced as an architectural engineer in Chicago, St. Paul, Boston, Seattle, jjjid 
Los Angeles for ton years. He was Superintendent of Construction of the 
buildings of the Big Creek Hydroelectric Development of the Pacific Light and 
Power Corporation in Southern California; and was in charge of the design and 
estimates for the superstructure of the power house of the Mississippi River 
Power Development at Keokuk, Iowa. In June, I913. Mr. Provine became Professor 
of Architectural Engineering and Acting Head of the Department at the University 
of Illinois, and in 192O, bec-une Head of the Department. He has been active in 
the Collegiate Association of Architectural Schools, and has maintained high 
standards for the Department of Architecture. When the Department v/as trans- 
ferred to the College of Fine and Applied Arts in I93I, Professor Provine con- 
tinued as Head of his Department, and has continued as such to date (19^5) • 



309 

b. Other Professors 

Jpines McLaren IThite . See Defuis, Chapter V, page II7. 

Kev/ton Alonzo Wells (3.P.1877, Syracuse University) studied extensively 
sibroad after graduation, then served as a teacher in Union College, Syracuse 
University and in TJ'estern Reserve University. About the time the University 
Library Building (now Altgcld Hall) v?as comj)lotcd in 1897, a competition was 
held for decorative paintings^^ for the nev; buildin,^, and the award went to Mr. 
■Jells, then an artist and. teacher in Pari;.-.. After he had finished his assign- 
ment on the building, he bcct.'jnc Professor of the History and Practice of Painting; 
in the College of Literature and Arts in the University. In I903, he was made 
Professor of Architectural Decoration in the Colliige of Jingihcering. 

Ko was a man of unusual ability, his work outside the classroom being 
represented by oil paintings, v/atcr-color studies, and pastel drav/ings. Ho v/as 
recognized as one of the best etchers in this country because of his v/ork in 
dry-point tmd aquatint etchings, iie was a wood carver, and was ,alao skilled in 
metal working. Ihe last few years he became much interested in ancaustic 
mosaic as a material for general art 'vork; and left behind at the University 
work in this material reprcsonti-'d by mosaic portraits and In.ndscapes. His work 
in oil is ri^presented by sever;il portraits in the University Library, and by 
mural paintings in the old University of Illinois Library and the Auditorium, 
the Champaign (Illinois) Hir:;h School, the S.-.jig,amon County (Illinois) Court House 
the Colonial Theatre of Bor.ton, the 3nglowood High School of Chicago, and ten 
historical paintintjs in the C.ayoyo Hcitel, Memphis, Tenncscjee. He wrote n\xmcrous 
articles for the popular and for the i)rof essional press. He v.-as an authority on 
color, his best work being "Psychology of Color". He became Professor of Archi- 
tectural Dpcoration, Zmeritus ^in I9I5, and died in Algiers on January 16, I923. 

Hcxford Newcomb (3.S., I9II, c-Jid li.Arch. , I9IS, University of Illinois; Li.A. 

1915, University of Southern Cfdifornia) taught architecture in Long Beach, 

California, from 1912 to I917; in the University of Southern California during 

1 The mural in the Auditorium was later removed while remodeling the building in 
the effort to improve its acoustical properties. 



310 

1916-17; and in the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas during I917-I8. 
Ke ■became Assistant Professor of Architecture at the University of Illinois in 
I9I8, Assistant Professor of Architectural History in I919, and Professor of 
Architectural Historj'- here in I92I. In I93I, when the Department of Architecture 
was transferred from the College of Engineering to form one of the units in the 
neY^ly-created College of Fine and Applied Arts, Professor Ncvvcomb became Dean of 
that College, and has retained that position to date. 

Professor Newcomb is the author of several books relating to architecture, 
some of which are the following: "Francisc-m Mission Architecture of Alta 
California", "Old Mission Churches and Historic Houses of California", "The 
Spanish House for America", "Mediterranean Domestic Architecture in the United 
States", "In the Lincoln Country", and "Outlines of the History of Architecture". 
He is co-author with W. A. Poster of a book entitled "Ho.ie Architecture". Pro- 
fessor Newcomb is also author of one bulletin issued by the Engineering Experi- 
ment Station, and in addition, is author of several books which he wrote after 
he was transferred from the College of Engineering, but which arc not listed 
here. 

Professor Newcomb served as Architectural Editor of Western Architect, 
Chicago, during I923-30 and Editor-in-Chief during 193O-3I. 

His work in the field of his chosen profession has brought much credit to 
himself, his department, and the University.. 

Lemuel Cross Dillanbacl: - (A.B.. 1913. and M.A. I91I1, Carnegie Institute of 
Technology) became Instructor in Architecture in I915, Assistant Professor of 
Architectural Design in I92O, Associate Professor in I923, and Professor of 
Architectural Design in I927. He resigned in the summer of I930 to taice a 
position in Columbia University. Professor Dillanbach was a hard taslavaster. 
hut he was gratifyingly rewarded for his efforts; for his students fared re_ 
markably well at the h,ands of Judges appointed to appraise and award archi- 
tectural compositions in national and international competitive assignmentments. 

Czrus Edmund Palmer - (B.S., in A.3.. 1912. University of Illinois; M.S. , 
1916. Pennsylvania State College) becruac Instructor in Architectural Engineering 



311 

at the University of Illinois in I916, Associate in I9I8, Assistant Professor in 
1919. Associate Professor in I925. and Professor of Architectural Engineering in 
1929. When the Department of Architecture was transferred to the College of 
Fine and Applied Arts in I93I, Professor Palmer became Assistant Dean of the new 
College. Ke -.vas made Associate Dean in Ipl+l, and has remained with the Univer- 
sity to date (I9U5) . 

Arthur Francis Deam (B.Arch, , I921, Ohio Stat e Universi ty; 3. Arch., I923 
Columbia University) in addition to his t-o years of experience in teachin- at 
Armour Institute of Technology, gained wide training in practice before joining 
the University hero in Soptombcr, I930, as Professor of Architectural Design. 
He was transferred -ith the Department of Architecture to the College of Fine 
and Applied Arts in 1931, remaining in charge of the courses in Architectural 
Design, whore his students have been successful in winning more than a proportioin 
al share of honors in the national competitions. 

c. Associate Professors 
Nathaniel Cortlandl SHrtiil (HuB.. I90O, Unlvoraity of Berth Carolina; B.S., 
1901*. CotaMa Univorolty) served a. teacher froM I90!* te I9I7, l.ein£ Head of the 
School of Architecture at Tul.„o University during 1512-17. p.efes.or Curtis 
joined the staff ef the University of Illinois in 191, „s Associate Professor of 
Architectural Design. He resigned, l>„„ever, in Septc,,ber, 1920. 

CJUister .iortoi, ?ajisea (3.S., 139a, University of Illinois) was engaged in 
further study and in practice until he Joined the College staff in 190U. He 
withdre.,. hcever. in I905. He .as employed in architectural practice again e.r- 
in. the years following until he rejoined the University faculty in 1920 as 
Associate Professor ef Architectural Design. He ,ithdre, finally in August.1923. 

!!iiliam Macv Stanton (B. 5., 1913 „n,l M q im), n • 

■ ■ • ^'■^' ^"'^ ^■''^" 151^. University of Pennsylvania) 

came to the University of Illinois in igiU .,. A.H.f n. • a u- 

-L^xH, a. Assistant m Architecture. He was 

made Instructor in lqi5, but rcsi^neti in iqiv * 

resigned m I917 to return to his alma mater. Ho 

joined the College staff again in 1930, as Assistant Professor of Architecture. 

He .as .ado Associate Profcsser of Architectural Design in 19a. .ut resigned in 

1922, 



311a 
Newlln Dol'by;Morgar^ (^.S. in C,3. , I9IO, and C.S. , 1925, University of 

Colorado; H,S. , 1928, University of Illinois) was employed in enf;;ineerlng 

practice after graduation until 192U, when he Joined the Colleere staff here 

as Associate in Architectural SnFlneerinfr, He was made Assistant Trofessor in 

1925 and Associate Professor In 1929. He was transferred with the Department 

of Architecture to the Collecce of Fine and Applied Arts in 1931| and "became 

Professor of Architf'Ctural Sn^^lneerlng In 1935. Professor Korfran is co-author 

with Hardy Cross of a texfbook entitled "Continuous Frames of Reinforced 

Concrete", 



312 
Thomas Edward O'Donnell (3.S.. I913, M.S., 192U, and M. Arch., I925, Uni- 
versity of Illinois) was employed in architectural practice until I917, vfhen he 
joined the College faculty as Instructor in Architecture. He was made Associate 
in 1919, Assistant Professor in I923, and Associate Professor in I93O. When the 
Department was transferred to the College of Fine and Applied Arts in I93I. Pro- 
fessor C'Donnell became a member of the new college, and has continued there 
with the University to date (19^5)- 

d. Assistant Professors 
Cyrus Daniel HcLanc (3.S., IS92, University of Illinois) served as As- 
sistant in Mathematics here during IS9I-93 find as Instructor in General Engineer- 
ing Drawing during I893-9U. He was made Instructor in Architecture in I89U, and 
Assistant Professor of Architectural Construction in liiJ^G. He remained 'Tith the 
University until I90U, when he resigned to engage in the private practice of 
architecture. 

Seth Justin Tonplo (Ph. 3., IS92, Columbia University) spent several years 

in study and practice after graduation, and then in I096, joined the staff at 
the University of Illinois as Instructor in Architecture. Kc was made Assistant 
Proffsnor in IS97, and retained that position until I90U, when he iTithdrew to 
engage in independent practice of architecture. 

John Watros Case (3.S., 138S, Massachusetts Institute of Technology) studied 
abroad for a number of years, then v/as engaged in architectural practice until 
ho joined the sttiff at the University of Illinois in I905, as Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Architectural Design. Ho remained in that position until I9IO, when 
he resigned to trk e up indeijendont architectural practice in Detroit, Michigan. 

David. Varon , after studying for some time in Beaux Arts, Paris, spent the 
years I903-O7 in architcctursJ. practice in this country nnd abroad, I907-O5 as 
Professor of Architectural Design at Syracuse University, I909-IO in private 

teaching, and I9IO-I2 as Assistant Professor of Architectural Design at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. He resigned to engage in private practice. 

Percy Ash (B.S. in C.3., I006, and CIl., I086, University of Pennsylvania) 
became Assistant Professor of Architectural Design at the University of Illinois 



313 

in 1913, and rGnainod '.vith the University until Septeiriber I9IS, when he resigned. 
He died in Fryeburg, liaino, on Juno I9, 1933' 

Charles Richard Clark (3.S., I298, .-uid M.Arch. , I91U, University of Illinoi^ 
was engaged in secondary- school work and in architectural practice from I89S to 
190'-l-, after which he came to the University to become Instructor in Architectural 
Construction. He was made Associate in I906, and Assistant Professor in I915. 
He withdrew in I919 to tal:e up private practice in architecture. 

Hobert Taylor Jones (3.S., I912, University of Illinois) became Instructor 
in Architecture at the University here in September ^1912, Associate in I915. and 
Assistant Professor in I919. He resigned in I920. 

Donald Llaheny A llison (A.3., I9II, Carnegie Institute of TechnolosO had a 
teaching fellowship at Carnc,::;ie Institut.^ of Technolog:/ during I9IO-I2. He 
served as editor for iTublications at the International Correspondence Schools 
during I916-I7, after y/hich he became Associate in Architectural Design at the 
University of Illinois. He was made Assistmit Professor in I9I5, *ut resigned 
at the end of that school year. 

Joseph Edwin Z3urgcss (3. P., I91U; Syracuse University) became Instructor in 
Freehand Drawing at the University of Illinois in I9I6 after two years exi)erience 
in commercial work. He was made Associate in I919 and Assistant Professor in 
1921. He withdrew from the University in September, 1922. 

Norris Ingersoll Crandall (B.Arch., I91U, and li. Arch., 191|^, Cornell Uni- 
versity) joined the College staff in I921 as Assistant Professor of Architcctui-al 
Design, but resigned in August I922. 

Trill iam Caldwell Tit comb (A. 3., 19CA fxnd S.B., I907, Plarvard University) 
served as Assistant Professor of Architecture at the University of Illinois dur- 
ing I913-I7, after which he left to engage in reconstruction work in France. He 
rejoined the staff at Illinois in I921 as Assistant Professor of Architectural 
Design, but resigned in September, 192'3, to accept an appointment at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

La Force Bailey ( 3, S . , I915, ,-mdH.S., I916, University of Illinois; 3. P. 



3iU 
1920, University of Kansas) was a teacher in the University of Kansas from I916 
to 1922. He then joined the University staff here as Assistant Professor of 
Architectural Design. He remained with the Colleee until 1931 • when he was 
transferred with the Department of Architecture to the College of Fine and Ap- 
plied Arts, being made Associate Profeusor of Architecture in I93I and Pro- 
fessor of Art in 19U1. 

■Villiaai Arthur Foster (3.S. in Education, 19l4, 3. Arch., igi'^, andA.3., 
1923, Ohio State University) tau^-ht at Iowa State College and at Ohio State and 
for a time served as Head of the Department of Architectural Engineering at 
Georgia State College of Agriculture. He came to the University of Illinois in 
September, I92U, as Assistazit Professor of Architecture — a new position in- 
tended to render service to rural communition along architectural lines. In 
this connection, he gave one-half of his time to Architecture and the other half 
to Fann Mechanics. Ec v/as transferred to the College of Fine and Applied Arts 
in I93I1 -'ind was made Associate Professor of P.ural Architecture in I935. Pro- 
fessor Foster was author of n textbook entitled "Farm Buildings", and of another 
"liome Architecture", He remained with the University until his death on April 
12, I9U1, at Urbana. 

Frank Mills Lescher (3..S., I911, University of Illinois) was engaged in 
architectural practice after graduation until he joined the College staff in 
September, 1923, as Instructor in Architecture. Ho became Associate in 1928, 
and Assistant Professor in I93O. He was transferred in I93I with the Department 
of Architecture to the College of Fine and Applied Arts, and was made Associate 
Professor of Architecture in I937 and Profer>sor in I9U1 . 

Olaf Stavsing F^jeldc (3.S.. I92U, University of Minnesota: A.M., 1935. Uni- 
versity of Illinois) bec-me Associate in ..rchitecturo at the University of 
Illinois in 1928 and Assistant Professor in I93O. Profc.sor Fjelde was trans- 
ferred ^7ith the Department of .>rchitecturo to the College of Fine and Applied 
Arts in I93I. 

c. Associates 
Vfilliai i Mathews Hokking (3. P., 1903,. Syracuse University) studied abroad in 



315 
Beaux Arts and other schools, and in I915 Tsecame Associate in Freehand Drav/ing 
at the University of Illinois, He withdrew, however, at the end of the school 
year . 

Bhodes Hobertson (A. 3.. I9OC, and M. Arch., I9IO, Harvard University) was en- 
gaged in study and practice until he came to the University here in I916 as 
Associate in Architectural Desi^. He resigned in Septenher, I9IS1 to enter 
military service. 

Ralph Sta nlee Fanning (3. Arch., 191^, Cornell University; U.S., I9IS, and 
M.Arch., 1921, University of Illinois) served as Instinictor in Architectural 
Design during I91U-I8, then withdrew for -/ar work. He roturned to the University 
in Septemhor, I920, as Associate in Architectural Design, but withdrew finally at 
the end of thB,t academic year. 

Chauncey Ruthven IIcAnli s (3.S. in C.S., I9IO, and CH., I915. Pennsylvania 
State College) joined the staff at the University of Illinois in September, I919. 
as Instructor in Architectural Engineering. He was made Associate ,in 1921, and 
remained with the University until September, I92U. 

Ernest Langford (E.S., 1913i Agricultural], and Moclifinical College of Texas; 
M.S., 1924, University of Illinois) first camo to the University of Illinois in 
1919 as Instructor in G(3neral Engineering Drawing, but was transferred to the 
Department of Architecture in ig20 with the title of Instructor in Architectural 
Construction. He became Associate in Architectural Construction in I92I, but 
resigned in August, I925, to accept a position at the Agricultural and Mechani- 
cal College of Texas. 

Claude Allan Pattegson (3. A., I915, University of Iowa; A.Ii., I9I9, Harvard 
University) came to the University of Illinois in September, 1922, as Associate 
in Freehand Drawing. He remained here until September, I925. 

George Fred Keck (B.S., I920, University of Illinois) became Associate in 
Architecture here in September, I923, and remained with the College only during 
that academic year. 

Ott^ Marensius Olsen (^.3., I922, Carnegie Institute of Technology) served 
for a time in architectuna practice, then joined the staff at the University 



316 

here in September, I925, as Associate in Architecture. He withdrew at the end of 
that school year. 

Daniel Donald McGervey (A. 3., I923, Carnegie Institute of Technology) join- 
ed the College staff in I926, as Associate in Architecture, and retained the 
position only during that college year. 

John Anthony Hartell (B.Arch., I925, Cornell University) took graduate work 
in the Hoyal Academy of Fine Arts in Stockholm, and became Associate in Archi- 
tecture at the University of Illinois in September, I926. He remained with the 
Department until September, 1930. 

f. Instructors 

1 ,»'.•=;.. 

James BelaBgee was a teacher of Architecture and Mechanical Drawing in the 
A ^ 

University of Illinois from October, I869, to June, I871. 

Harold M. Hanson was Instructor in Architecture and Freehand Drawing at the 
University here from September, 18/1, to September, I872. Previous to coming 
here, Mr. Hanson had spent tv/o years in study at the 3au-Academie at Berlin. 

Joseph Corson Llewellyn (3.S., I877, and M.S., 1895, University of Illinois) 
became Instructor in Architecture here immediately after graduation. He re- 
mained until 1379, when he became engaged as Superintendent of Building Con- 
struction in St., Louis, continuing there until 1S81, He was then made Superin- 
tendent of the Lindell Railway Company, but withdrew from that organization in 
1836, and later began the practice of architecture in Chicago. In 1913, Mr. 
Llewellyn established the Llewellyn prize in architecture here, but discontinued 
it after four years of uncertainties of v/ar and industry. 

Nelson Strong Spencer (B.S., 1SS2, University of Illinois) served as In- 
structor in Architecture hei'c during 1880-81. He resigned to engage in archi- 
tectural practice, but returned to the University in I898 to become Superintendent 
of Buildings and Grounds. He left the University after four years of service in 
this connection to take up architectural practice again. 

George Washington Parker served as Foreman of the Carpenter Shop in 1882 
and as Instructor in Woodwork in the Department of Architecture from 1883 to 1^5. 

John Christopher Gustafaon (3.S. in A. 2., I905, aJidK.Arch.. I906, 



317 
University of Illinois) was Instructor in Architecture during 1906-O7, then re- 
signed to take up commercial work. 

John Terrill Yawter , Jr. (B.S., I90U, Univernity of Illinois) served lib In- 
structor at the University here during I907-O8, after which he resigned to en- 
gage in architectural practice. 

Charles Fabens Kelley (A. 3., igo6, Harvard University) -.vas Instructor in 
Art and Architecturn here during; 1903-09. 

5udolj)h Weaver after r.tudying architecture in Drexol Institute and Columbia 
University, was employed in Architectural practice durin,:; I907-O9. He then 
served as Instructor in Architectui'e at the University of Illinois during I909-II 
after v/hich he resigned to accept a position as Professor of Architecture tuid as 
Supervising Architect at the State College of Washington. 

Robert, Jaznos Love (B.S., 1908, University of Illinois) served as Instructor 
in Architecture at the University here from February to Juno, I9IO. 

Hoy Chi Ids . Jones, (3. S.. iqoS. ajid A.M.. 191U, University of Pennsylvania) 
spent two years in practice after gr;,duation before coning to the University 
here as Instructor in Architecture. He rcsi.gned in July, I913. to become con- 
nected with the University of lannesota. 

Angelo Benedetto Ma^ Washington University; S.Li. 1913. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology) joined the College staff here in I9II as 
Instmctor in Architecture aiid remained here until igifs -/hen ho withdrew to en- 
gage in architectural practice in St.Lo^jis. He remained in St.Louis until his 
death on September 9, 19^3. 

Roger imtonDidd^ (B.S. 1906, University of Pennsylvania) was employed 
in architectural practice from 1906 to 1911. He Joined the faculty here in I9II 
as Instructor in Architectural Design, but withdrew at the end of the academic 
year to return to architectural practice. 

Lee Wallace (3. P.. 1905, Syracuse University) served as Instructor at his 

alma mater during I9O7-II and as Instructor at the University of Illinois from 

September, I91I. until his death on September 16, I912. 

Samuel ChatwQod 3urton( A.C.T.O. , noU Bl-ioVhu-rr, f'.,n -1 •, 

' •^-'^^' -oiack burn Ool lege, England; A.M. ,1909 



31S 

Royal College of Art, London) spent several years in teaching and study in 
England and on the Continent. He Joined the staff at the University of Illinois 
in 1912 as Instructor in Architecture and remained here until I915, when he with- 
drew to accept an appointment at the Univertsity of Minnesota. 

Frederick Kitson Cowley after several years of study at the University of 
Michigan and the Art Institute of Chicago, came to the University of Illinois in 

1912, as Instructor in Jrooloand Drawing. Ho remained here until 191^t when he 
withdrew to take a position at the Univt3rsity of Minnesota. 

Joseph Mitchell Kellog (B.Arch.. I909 , and H. Arch., I912, Cornell University) 
■became Instructor in Architectural Design at the University of Illinois in I912, 
and remained with the Department until 191b, when he withdrew to enter inde- 
pendent practice. 

Sidney xi eke iZimball (A.B., I909, and K. Arch., I912, Harvard University; 
Ph.D., 1915, University of Michigan) served as Instmictor in Architecture at the 
University of Illinois during 1912- I3, after vdiich he accepted an appointment at 
the University of MichigH,n. 

Allen Holmes Hi mhall (3.S., I9IO, University of California; M.S., I912, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology) became Instructor in Architecturja Design 
at the University of Illinois in 1912, and remained here until 191U, when he 
withdrew to become Professor of Architectural Engineering and Head of the De- 
partment at Iowa State College. 

Jaaes. Hutchinson gors,£thc (3.S.. 19O8, University of Pennsylvania; M.Arch., 

1913. Harvard University) was engaged in practice during I9OS-O9 and served as 
Instinactor in Architecture at Washington University during 1909-10» He joined 
the staff at the University of Illinois in I913 as Instructor in Architecture and 
remained hero until the end of the school year, .hen he accepted a position at 
the University of Minnesota. 

HiinS£l Sidney Wolfe (B.S. inA.S.. 1913. and M.S.. I91U. University of 
Illinois) served as Instractor in Architectural Bnginccring here from 191U to 
I9I8. when he withdrew to accept a civilian position in war service. Ho later be- 
came engaged in architectural practice in Detroit, where he remained until his 



319 
death on February 17, I9UU. He was author of a text "book entitled "Graphical 

Analysis" . 

ffilliagi Dewey Foster (B.S., I9II, and M.S., I913, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology) was engaged for a short time in i:iractice following graduation, 
then joined the staff at the University of Illinois in I91U, as Instructor in 
Architectural Design. He withdrew, however, at the end of the academic year to 
talce up journalistic work. 

Carl Victor Burger (3. Arch., I512, Cornell University) served as Instructor 
in Freehand Drawing at tho University of Illinois from I515 to 1917i after which 
ho resigned to enter military service. 

Ralph Edv/ard Ku ehlman follovang several years of stud;/ in a number of 
schools including H,j,i-vard University, joined the College staff hero in February, 
191^+, as Assistant in Architectural Design. He was made Instructor in I916, but 
withdrew at the end of the school year to enter private practice, 

Owen James Trainer Southwell (3. Arch., l^l^, Carnegie Institute of Tech- 
nology) became Instructor in Architectural Design at the University of Illinois 
in 1916, but withdro'.v in April, I9I8, to enter military service. 

Arnold G-eorgo Schcole (A.B., I9IO, andA.K., I9II, Obcrlin College) 
after further study and some years in practice, became Instructor in Freehand 
Drawing at tho University of Illinois in 1917i i^t resigned at the end of the 
school year to go to liichigan Agricultural College. 

James Troy Peterkin (B.S., I91U, Colurabia University) spent some years as a 
teacher and then joined the faculty at the University of Illinois in 1917. as 
Instructor in Freehand Drawing. He remained here, however, only a year after 
which ho accepted an apjiointment at tho University of Minnesota. 

Vfilliam Franklin licCgughoy , Jr.(B.A. , I916, Carnegie Institute of Technology; 
M.S., 1931, University of Illinois) spent a year in practice, then joined the 
Department staff in December, I9I7. as Instructor in Architectural Design. He 
resigned in September, I92O. 

Wallace Brigh t Livesay (3.S., 1907, andC.J., I9IO, Virginia Polytechnic 
Institute; 3.S. in A. 13., 191^,, University of Illinois) roas employed in 



320 
engineering practice until I9I8, when he joined the staff at the University of 
Illinoic as Instructor in Architectural Engineei'-ing. He remained here only lontil 
the end of the school year, ho'.vever, when he withdrew to enter commercial work. 

Charles Leonard Morgan (B.S., in A.E., 13lU, University of Illinois) 
practiced as an architect in Chicago until I912, when he came to the University 
as Instinictor in Architectural Drawing. He remained here only during one school 
year; but, in addition to his teaching duties, Mr. Morgan painted an excellent 
bird's eye view of the College of Engineering campus * He withdrew to return to 
private practice. 

Louise Marie ffoodroofc (3..?., 1919» Syracuse University) came to the Uni- 
versity of Illinois in I919 as Instmctor in Freehand Drawing. She resigned in 
April, 1926, but joiiiod the staff again in September, I930, as Instructor in 
Architecture. She was transferred with the Department to the College of Fine 
and Applied Arts in 1931 • 

Stanley P otter Stewart (3. Arch., I92O, Carnegie Institute of Technology) be- 
came Instinictor in Architectural Design at the University of Illinois in September, 
1920. He resigned in Juno, 1922, to engage in architectural practice. 

Prentice Van Walbeck Ducll (A.B., I916, University of California; A.M.,1917, 
University of Arizona) bec-imo Instructor in Architectural History at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois in 192I. He remained hero, ho\7evor, only one school year. 

Edgar &roer Shelton (3.S., 192I, University of Texas) practiced a year, then 
Joined the College staff here in September, I922, as Instructor in Architecture. 
He withdrew, however, at the end of the academic year. ■ 

Ernest Pickering (3.S. iuA.E., 1919, University of Kansas; B.S. in Arch., 
1920, c-^nd M.Arch., 1926, University of Illinois) cazac to the University in 
October, 1922, as Instructor in Architectural Design. He v/ithdruw in September, 
1925. to accept a position at the University of Cincinnati. 

gla£ence Andrew j^i.ssingcr (B.S., 1923. University of Illinois) became In- 
structor in Architecture in September, I923, but remained only during the school 
year . 

Alberta Raffl( B.S. , I923, University of Illinois) bec^rac Instinictor in 



321 

Architectural Design in September, l^^h, but remained with the Department only 
during the one cchool year. 

J.-uaed Howard Chance (B.S., 19'^3» University of Illinoiij) becjime Instructor 
om Architecture here in September, I92U. He retained this position until June, 
1927, when he resigned to engage in architectural practice. 

Rodney Bugene Spangle r (3.S., I921, University of Illinois) became In- 
structor in Architecture in September, 1925i and remained in that position until 
1929. 

Gerald Vivia n Davis after several years of stud,7 in Switzerland and France, 
became Instiiictor in Freehand Drawing at the University of Illinois in January, 
1926. He resigned in Juno, I92S. 

John TifilliaLi llcnnedy (A. 3.., I925, Carnegie Institute of Technology) joined 
the staff at the University hero in September, I926, as Instructor in Freehand 
Drawing. He was transferred with the Department of Architecture to the College 
of Fine and Applied Arts in I93I, becoming Associate in 1932 and Assistant Pro- 
fessor in igi+O. 

Philmore Jacobson (B.S. I925, Armour Institute of Technology) served as 
Assistant in Architecture during 192^-26 and as Instructor during I926-27. 

Zlmor Isaac Love (3. A.. I926, Carnegie Institute of Technology) came to the 
University of Illinois in I927 as Instructor in Architecture, and Y/as traiisferred 
with the Department of Architecture to the College of Fine and Applied Arts in 
1931. at which time he becyjne Assistant Professor of Architecture. 

Ira Douglas Seals (3.S.. I927, and M. Arch. 1922. Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology) served as Instructor in Architecture at the University of Illinois 
during the academic year I9 28-29. 

Keith Graham Reeve (B.S. I925, and Ivi. Arch. , I92S, University of Illinois) bo- 
c;aiie Assistant in Architecture in September, I925, and Instructor in I92S. He 
withdrew in I929. 

James Denton I^_san( A. B., 1925, Carnegie Institute of Technology) studied 
for a time in Beaux Arts, then joined the College staff hero in February, I929, 



322 
as Instinictor in Architecture. He was transferred with the Department to the 
College of Fine and Applied Arts in 1931. becoinin,3 Associate in 193^ and As- 
sistant Professor in I9U0. 

Granville Spear Keith (3.S., 1927, and M.S., I93O, University of Illinois) 
becane Assistant in Architecture in I927 and Instinctor in 1929« He was trans- 
ferred with the Department to the College of Fine and Applied Arts in I93I. He 
was made Associate in 1931. ^^^ Assistant Irofessor in 19^1. 

V7illiaffi Hune Scheick (3. Arch., I928, Camcgic Institute of Technology) came 
to the University of Illinois in 1930 as Instructor in Architecture. Ho was 
transferred with the Department of Architecture to the College of Fine and 
Applied Arts in 1931. He was made Associate in I93I, Assistfint Professor in 
1932, and Associate Profossor in 194l. 

John a.uo Sweet (3,S.. I927, University of Illinois) hccamc Instructor in 
Architecture here in I93O, and was trfinsforred to the College of Fine and 
Applied Arts in I93I. He was made Associate in I935, and Assistant Professor in 
19^1. • 



323 

CHAPTSH X 
THE DBPARTi''IElJT OF MINING MID M3TA1LURGICAL ElIGIlffiERINa 
A. OHGANIZATIOH 
General - Like the other three divisions px-ovided for in the Polytechnic 
Department referred to in the report of the Hegent and the four Trustees, the 
Catalogue and Circular of 1S67-63 contained courses of study given in other 
educational institutions, but did not list any as arranged for the University 
here. V/hile the Catalogue of I87O-71 did not include any mention of an in- 
structional staff assigned to mining, it did state that "This Department embraces 
trro branches of studies: 1st. Engineering operations; including mine surveys, 
the oijening and working of mines, all mining constructioris, etc., taught at 
present in the College of Engineering. 2nd. The subjects of Ilineraloir^, Metal- 
lurgy, Assaying, treatment of ores, smelting, etc., as taught in the College of 

1 
Chemistry." Eai-thor on, the sane issue stated: "The course for Mining Engineers 

differs from that of the Civil Engineering, only in the substitution of Mine 

Surveys and Constructions, Metallurgy, and Assaying for Roads and Railroads, 

2 
Topographical and Goodctic Surveying, and stono cutting." For a number of years, 

the engineering subjects listed under the School of Mining Engineering wore 
taught by instructors from other departments X7ithin the College, and the Depart- 
ment did not become a well-established independent unit until 1885 when Theodore 
3. Comstock wa.s appointed Professor of Mining Engineering and Physics. 
B. OBJECTI^IIS AITO METHODS OP INSTRUCTIOII 

General - In general , it may bo said that instruction in mining engineering 
deals with problems involved in the excavation and extraction, and the analysis 
and preparation of minerals that lie beneath the surface of the earth, while 
that in metallurgy relates to the analytical study of metals and the processes 
involved in the production of iron, steel and other alloys. 

As stated specifically in the IS72-73 issue of the University Catalogue and 
Circular, the object of the School of Mining Engineering was sumn^rized as 
follov/s: 

1 Page 31 

2 Page k2 



32^ 

"This School is intendod to qualify the stuilent for undortfJcing mining 
operations of all kinds. Its instniction consists of a thorough training in 
the principles of theoretical and applied chemistry, of chemical and blovTpipe 
analysis, of assnying and metallurf^^ i-aul of the engineering opei'ations of 
mining".-^ 

The University Catalogue and Circular of lS2'4-g5 carried the following 
2 
statement: 

SCHOOL OF MIKING EKGIIffiSRING 
OBJECT 07 ITHE SCHOOL 

"This school has been established to meet the growing demand for a veiy 
important industrj' for thoroughly trained engineers, fitted to solve the numer- 
ous per75loxing problcus Tvhich arc con&tantly arising in ill mining '.vork. The 
subjects of the discovery, opening, economical v/orking and proper ventilation of 
mines, the prevention of accidents, transportation above and bclov? ground, treat- 
ment of products, :vith many others which fall within the scope of the mining 
engineer, can bo mastered only by a carei"ul study of facts and principles. This 
is the proper foundation for the practical v;ork of the profession, and it is the 
aim of this school to present this in the mor;t complete ivnd thorough manner. 

IKSTHJCTION 

"It is important that a broad basis be laid by way of general preparation, 
for the more technical studies hero included. V/hatovor of general culture the 
student may obtain before entering the University, will not come amiss, and, 
although the req.uiremont is not made, it is advised that all who fan do so, 
should acquire a reading knowledge of French or German before beginning this 
course. 

"This course comprises the greater part of the pure and applied mathe- 
matics of the courses in mechanical and civil engineering. Much time is devoted 
to chemistry and geology, with the addition of technical studies peculiar to 
mining engineering and metallurgy. 

"Students who are graduiites from this school are not supposed to be 
familiar with all the details of mining management from actual experience, but 
they y/ill have obtained such a knowledge of the principles underlying all 
successful practice, and such familiarity with the science of mining in all its 
branches that the art may be acquired with the minimum of practice. 

"Lectures are given where desirable, but these are to be regarded as 
supplementary to other modes of instruction, which are made to conform as close- 
ly as possible to the routine of the engineer in practice. In every detail the 
student is made to feel that he is dealing with the actual problems which he will 
meet in his professional work. 

"Plans, estimates, drawings, and calculations, based upon drta obtained 
in the student's oto experience, are constantly required, and no pains are 
spared to familiarize each member of the class with the duties and responsibili- 
ties of every grade, from miner to maiiager. 

COUHSE OF STUDIES 

• r- .^■^S *^° ^^^^* *"° ^"^"^^^ *^° ™^^ ^^ Gimilar to that required in the course 
m uivil i-ngineering, but more time is given to chemistry. In the third year, 

1. Page 32 

2. Paee kk 



325 

geology and mining engineering, with assaying nnd metallurgy, take the places of 
special technical studies in the other engineering courses. In the fourth year, 
with the exception of tv70 terms in Prime Movers taken with the students in 
mechanical engineering and some studies of general character, the work is strictly 
technical". 

Temporary Provision for Instruction in Mining - Professor Robinson, Head of 
Mechanical Engineering, continued to lecture on mining topics until his resig- 
nation in 1278. During lSg2-83, Regent Peabody lectured on mining subjects to 
the two or three students who were registered in the course. Some subjects were, 
of course, offered by the Department of Chemistry, but no other work was presented 

in this particular field until Professor Comstock took charge in IS85. 

2 
Apparatus for the Lecture Room - The catalo;;iic of 1878-/9 stated that 

lectures in mining on,';ineoring were "illustrated by n valuable series of models,' 
obtained from Froibur.^, at a cost of $2,000 illustrating sections of mines, 
machinery for elevatin,,?: and breaking ores, -.vith furnaces and machinery for metal- 
lurgical processes". 

Early Laboratory Equipment - In regard to the progress made in -providing 
laboratory equipment, the Catalogue and Circular of I887-SS contained the follow- 
ing statement: "An extensive mining and metallurgical laboratory is in process of 
arrangement. A considerable portion of the machinery is already in working 
condition" . 

The Catalogue and Circu3.ar of IS9O-9I described the equipment somewhat in detail 
as follows: 

"The department has a valuable collection of mining and metallurgical 
machinery. 

"The newly- equipped laboratory (located in the Chemistry Building) now con- 
tains a very complete line of illustKitivo machinery, designed for practical use, 
and covering a wide range of metallurgical processes, The machines are operated by 
steam power, and include apparatus for crushing, screening, washing, concentrating 
leaching, precipitating, and many other methods of ore treatment of the latest 
modern typos. 

"In the manipulation of these machines, jind the tests made on a '.vorking 
scale, the student is afforded opportunity for practice illustrative of the class- 
room work. The plant consists of a Dodge ore-crusher, a pair of Cornish rolls, 
elevator with deflecting spouts, autorajitic sampler, revolving screen, separators, 
rotating table, Jigs, etc.; chlorine generator, tariks, vats, and troughs, gas and 
blast furnace, with suitable appliances so arrfxngod that they may be used together 
or separately as occasion may require". 



i- ^hese subjects were given by the Department of Chomistx-y. 
4! Pages 4l-U2 



326 

C. THE DEPARKffl^T DISC0i^Tli«J3D AlO HE-3STA3LISH3D 
Tlie D epartment of Mining Sngineering Discontinued- As the curriculum in 
Mining Engineering was much less complete in those early days than the three 
other engineering curricula, and as there -.vas no one who took more than an in- 
cidental interest in the work, it did not attract much attention from the stu- 
dents. During the first ten years, there were usually one or two mining stu- 
dents registered in the course of study, but never more than six. 

The Department was not really organized until I8S5. At that time, there 
came a considorablo demand from among interests of the State for recognition in 
the curriculum of the University; and in response to this demand a professor was 
appointed and a Department of Mining Engineering, the equal of the other engi- 
neering department f.;, 7/as organized at considerable exi)onse. After a trial of 
four years without any considerable application of this course by students, the 
Department was allowed to lapse. 

After lying dormant for two years, it '.;ar. resuscitated and a course for the 
benefit of the coal miners was developed. Thii; effort met no bettfer response, 
however, and the Department was abolished in I8g3 v/ith no thou^t that it ever 
would be re-ostablished, for "the business agent and Professor Breckcnridgo wore 

given authority to dispose of the machinery, now in the basement of the Chemical 

1 
Laboratory, provided they could do so on terms deemed satisfactory". 

The Department of Mining Engineering Re-established by Legislative Action - 
In spite of the earlier c:qoeriencn abolishing the Department in 1293 because of 
an apparent lack of interest, a very substantial movement had gained consider- 
able headway by igog to re-establish the Department here. For one thing, the 
Braidwood disaster had. served as a vital stimulus in reviving mining education 
and in revising the lav/s pertaining to the inspection and regulation of mines. 
Other factors were having their influence too, so that by 1908 the mining 
interests of the State were sho';7ing a new spirit and \7cre urging the recstablish- 
ment of the work at the University. 

Dean Goss took a deep interest in the rcestablishLicnt of mining engineering 



Report of Trustees, 1^3^. page 213, giving an account of the meeting of the 
Board on Doc ember 13, 1893 • 



.inn.lT-.tSL 



327 

at the University after ho joined the staff here; and under date of Mny 26, I90S, 

in his first annual report as Dean of the College, made the following statement: 

"Illinois stands third arnong the states of the union in the value of its 
ninei'fj. products. Its iron and steel nills make up one of the great manufactui"- 
ing centers of the world. Smelters for lead, gold and silver are operated with- 
in its borders. Its coal mines alone employ 62,000 people; but there is no 
place in our educational system where the v/oiiccrs of this industry can go for 
guidance. There is no laboratory in the state, nor any corps of men who in a 
scientific way are studying the problems of the mine. Such fundamental matters 
as ventilation and as the use of pcvdor arc but imperfectly understood, and the 
problems of haulage, hoisting, screening and washing ai'c not being especially 
studied by those who later on are to be res]ionsible for the operation of the 
mines of the state. The College of Snginocring should as soon as practicable 

enter this field As the mining and. notallurgical activities 

of our state arc not the same as those of other localities, so a department of 
mining engineering for Illinois would not be the sfime an existing departments of 
schools of other states. There is an opportunity before the University to es- 
tablish along broadly scientific lines a department of raining engineering which 

will be unique among the institutions of our country I shall 

hope that the time i;s not far distant when a beginning can bo made in the es- 
tablishment of such a dep.v.rtment " . 

Shortly after this, the Dean sent out letters to prominent coal operators, 
mining engineers, dealers, and other persons of influence in the State, exjilain- 
ing the proposal mid asking for their opinions regarding it. In every case, the 
replies were heartily in favor of the pljin and some were decidedly enthusiastic. 
Accordingly, Dean Goss included in the budget for the two years beginning on 
July 1, 1909, an item of $25,000 as a provision for instruction and equipment in 
mining engincei-ing. 

On March 11-13, I909, the Illinois Pucl Conforoncc was hold at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois under the auspices of the College of Engineering, the Engineer- 
ing Experiment Station, and the U.S. Geological Survey. About that time, too, a 
movement that had been under waj' to establish a Mine Rescue Station (desci'ibed 
later in this chapter) at the University that would be a cooperative enterprise 
of the University and the Technologic Branch (later, the U.S.Bureau of Mines) 
of the U.S. Geological Survey, matcrialiaed so that the date sot for the opening 
was made to coincide vrith that of the Fuel Coiifercncc. During this joint meet- 
ing and conference there was developed a strong feeling favorable to the adoption 
of more scientific methods in the further development of the mining properties of 
the State. The need of trained men to plan and to supervise mining operations 



attolteiL 



iriMiUSX<Jil». aksO- 



&rii ^oh. 



32g 

and the need of a better underGtanding of the fundaxiental principles underlying 
the detailed operations of mines, wore emphasized throughout the program. One 
of the results of this joint session was the adoption of a series of resolutions 
favoring the establishment at the University of a department of mining engineer- 
ing. A committee appointed by the mooting, representing the mine operators, the 
United Mine Workers. State mine inspectors, and the Illinois Manufacturers' 
Association, was responsible later for tho introduction of a bill before the 
Qeneral Assembly then in session, "authorizing nxxd directing the establishment 
of a department of mining engineering in the College of Engineering at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, and providing for the nupport of the same". The bill 
passed the Assembly, mA on Juno 8, 1909. was signed by Governor Donoen. 

One provision of the Act establishing the Department states: "That in ad- 
dition to offering such courses of instruction as will best train young men for 
efficient work in tho various phases of minin, industries, the department shall 
concern itself with the development and dissemination of scientific facts that 
v--ill be of value to tho mining industry and will conserve life arul the resources 
of tho State". 

The Assembly of I911 made possible a decided improvement in the work of the 
Department of Minin, Engineorin. by increasing tho appropriation for operating 
expenses and by an allowance of S25.000 for equipment, also by authorizing a co- 
operative investigation of coal-mining conditions in Illinois by the Department 
of Mining Engineering, the State Geological Survey, and the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 
It was hoped that a separate mining building could be obtained, but instead of 
the $200,000 asked for the purpose. $25,000 for equipment was given. 

D. OFFICE. CLASSROOM. Al^D DRAFTING ROOM ACCOMODATIONS. 1909-I9U5 
C^eneral - Professor H. H. Stoek was appointed Head of the Department of 
Mxning Engineering on September. 1909. but he did not assume the duties of his 
Office until October I5. following, and did not start classes until the second 
semester of that academic year. A temporary office was established in the 
quarters of the Assistant De.. of the College of Engineering. As soon as the 
Physics Building was completed about December 1, 1909. the department office 



:OtoJ^s *J; 



329 

was moved to Room 10b, there, paid recitations; were held in Room lOU of that some 
building. Beginning with the first semester I9IO-II, recitations were held in 
Rooms lOU and 208 Pliysics Building. Room 102 Engineering Hall was also used for 
a recitation room that semester and one of the rooms in the nev/ Ceramics Build- 
ing, now a part of the Mechanical Laboratory, ■was used for a drafting room. Dur- 
ing the second semester of I9IO-II, a room on the second floor of the Mathews 
Avenue Po'^er Plant served as a combination recitation, drafting room, and office 
for one of the instructors. This room was used, too, for the beginning of a 
departmental library and as a meeting place for the Mining Society. 

During I91I-I2, the dep\rtment office remained in IO6 Physics Building, and 
three other rooms wore made available there for the use of the Department. Room 
202 of the Mathews /.venue Power Plant was used as an office, drsifting room, and 
recitation room during the first semester of 19II-I2. During the second se- 
mester. Rooms lOU and IO9 of Engineering Eall were used — the former as an 
office and drafting room and the latter as a combination recitation, drafting, 
and reading room. 

At the beginning of the school year I912-I3, the Transportation Building 
was completed, and the Department gave up the rooms it formerly had in other 
buildings and took over Rooms 20S and 209, i^^ t'his now structure for the depart- 
mental office. Room 2lU v;as taken for a general class-room and laboratory, Room 
205 for a mining museum, Room 2o6 was fitted with a storcoptican and a chemical 
table for classroom use, and Room 207 for a drafting room. In addition to desks. 
Room 207 was supplied with a complete set of manufacturers' catalogues of mining 
machinery along with an index of these catalogues for student use, and an assort- 
ment of mine maps and mine structures. The instruments used in underground sur- 
veying — mining transits, levels, etc., were also kept in this room in order 
that they could be used for class demonstra,tion. 

On iiovember 11, igiU, Room 202 was taken over for a librai-y and study room 
for the Railway and Mining Engineering students, most of the books having been 
brought over from the Main Library, These included textbooks, bound copies of 






.•'.oiu^oiri^v onioi lo Jmr 



330 

the leading railway and mining magazines, the Proceedings of the American Insti- 
tute of Mining Engineers, and a good collection of State Greological Survey re- 
ports. The room was given up as a library, however, in igiS ~ the railway- 
books and most of the mining books being sent to the Engineering Library. 

The Department of Mining EngineerJ-ng, which becajae the Department of Mining 
and Metalliirgical Engineering in l^^k, continued to occupy these quarters on the 
second floor of the Transportation Building until September, I9U1, when it moved 
into the part of the space on the third floor of the Ceramics Building vacated 
by the State Geological Survey after it had transferred to the new Natural 
Resources Building on the south campfus. 

When the Metallurgical Building was completed in 193^. ono class room, two 
offices, and several rather snail laboratories were availn.ble in it for the 
Division of Metallurgical Engineering. 

The Depai'tment has alvuxya lejbored under nomewhat of a handicap because 
its offices, clasorooras, and laboratories have never been housed in a single 
building devoted entirely to th'.n particular field. On acco\int of that fact, it 
has not been able to express itself and to display its facilities to advantage 
for public obsei'vation and attention as most of the other departments have been 
able to do — a condition that may have had some bearing on the size of the stu- 
dent enrollment. 

E. DSVELOH-iEira OF LABORATOHY FACILITIES U HINIilC- AND 
ME5'ALLimGICAL ENGINEURING 

General - After the Department of Mining Engineering was discontinued in 
18g3i J^o new equipment was provided for instruction in laboratory work until the 
Department was reestablished in 1909. Even then, no systematic effort was made 
to introduce laboratory work on any scale \intil the construction of the Mining 
Engineering Laboratory, because there was no appropriate space available for 
setting up such equipment. 

Although the contract for the erection of the Mining Laboratory called for 
the completion of the building on July 1, 1912, the structure was not finished 






Iff "«.nl*if»'vtN.fifr 









>CBi 93JJX)01tJli oJ 



331 

until late in the fall. Tho machinery could not be installed in time for the 
first semester, but was ready for use at the beginning of the second semester. 

The facilities provided for laboratory work after I909 are described briefly 
in the following pages. 

Mine Surveying - Shortly after the Department was located in the Transpor- 
tation Building, it procured a nvunber of instruments including mining transits , 
levels, and accessory apparatus for surveying both above ground and undergroiind, 
the underground surveying being carried on within the heating tunnels of the 
Campus system. The equipment was kept in one corner of Room 207 of the Trans- 
portation Building so that it could be used for demonstration purposes in con- 
nection with the classroom exorcises, until 1922-23, when it was transferred to 
an adjacent room, 2073, formed by partitioning off the south end of tho building 
corridor. 

Sampling and G rinding Laboratory - As soon as the Mining Laboratory was 
opened in 1912-I3, or shortly thereafter, complete field and laboratory equip- 
ment was provided for sampling and reducing safiplos of coal and ore. The grind- 
ing room was equipped v/ith coal and mineral grinders and pulverizers, pebble 
mills, testing sieves and sieve-testing apparatus, disc-type of pulverizing 
mills, a jaw crushor, a mochanically-drivcn at'^ate mortar, a sample mixer, and 
other similar apparatus. 

Puels Laboratory - When the Mining Laboratory was completed in 1912-I3, one 
room at the south end of tho building was set aside as a chemical and physical 
laboratory' and was equipped with facilitios for the analysis of coal, coke, oil, 
natural gas, and mine gases, and for carrying on assay work. At that time or 
within tho next few years, there was provided compete equipment for the proxi- 
mate and ultimate analysis of coal, for the determination of the coking proper- 
tics of coal, and for the studi.' of sulphur in coal, f usability of ash, and tho 
Calorific value of coal. Special apparatus includes gas furnaces, fuel calo- 
rimeters, drying ovens, sulphur turbidimeter, calorimotric pH comparator, com- 
bustion trains, and specific-gravity apparatus. The facilities have been im- 
proved from tine to time as nov devices and methods have been dovclopcd. A 



>t \jbii«7 



wii "Sialnla s^j 



-ii/ uiia 'lo bne i. 



ia liicKt a; 



,uj i...a'i'.*;u 



lo't hftcu erf fiXiJOO i 



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•.jfuai^ oixii. 



332 

well-eauipped balance room adjoins the laboratory. In I9U2-U3, additional space 
was taken for this work when Room I5I in the southwest corner of the building 
was developed into a calorimetry and gas testing laboratory. 

Coal-Freparat ion and Ore-Dressing Laboratory - Early in 19IO-II, as previ- 
ously stated, a portion of a small room on the first floor of the Mathews Avenue 
Power Plant was used for illustrating the operations of coal-waahing and ore- 
dressing equipment. During the second semester of tliat scliool year, Room 202, 
in that same building was used to house the equipment. iVhen the Mining Labora- 
tory was finished in 1912-I3, approximately half of the north end of the main 
room Was given over to equipment devoted to vrork in the preparation and testing 
of coal. The facilities installed at that tine or a fc-v years later included 
coal crusherr, and pulverizers, shaker and vibrating screens, wot concentration 
tables, air tables, jigs, sand-flotation and froth-flotation facilities, a 
centrifugal drier, nnd filters. A briquetting press was put in for making coal 
briquettes. 

The other half of the main room was occupied by machines that had a special 
application to oro-drossing and hydrometallurgical problems. Some of this in- 
stalled at the opening of the laboratory or a few years afterwards, included 
gyratory/ and other rock cmshcrs for the initial crushing of the ore; rolls; 
pebble, ball, and rod mills; lij'draulic <'ind mechanical classifiers; stamp mill 
with amalgamation plates; jigs; sand and slime leaching equipment for gold or 
other metallic ores; a magnetic separator; an electrostatic separator; and a 
large drying ovon. Special apparatus for carrying on oxporincntal work in a- 
malgamation, cyanidation, cdcctro-magnetic and electro-static testing, oil 
flotation, and other hydro-metallurgical commercial operations has been provided 
from time to time as the opportunity presented itself. 

Ml no- Vent i lat ion and Safety-L.gnp Labo rato ry - During the second semester of 
I9IO-II, a small room on the first floor of the Mathews Avenue Power Plant was 
equipped with aprpliances for the study of mine gases find safety lamps. During 
I9II-I2, Room 315 of the Physics Building was made into a safety-lamp laboratory 



333 

At the beginning of I912-I3, the Transportation Building waB completed and Room 
210 in that building was taken over for a ventilation or safety-lamp laboratory 
and a mine gas laboratory. This space was fitted '^ith equipment designed for 
ventilating coal and metal mines — with such applifrnces as safety and testing 
lamps, and ',7ith practically every makre of safety lamp represented, for the study 
of mine gases. Theru was installed apparatus, also, for detecting various in- 
flammable find explosive gases in mines. A dark room contained in the laboratory 
was equipped with an Oldham gas -testing machine. In the summer of I913, there 
was added a Hnilwood gas cap observation machine for safety lamps, an electric 
relighter for safety l.'imjjs, and other equipment. By I917, there had been ac- 
cumulated also facilities fcr the measurement of ventilation air currents, and 
the Fraser coal-dust testing apparatus as developed by the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 
This materiel was all traiisf erred to Hoom 101 of the Mining Laboratory in 1917 
and 1918, 

This equipment has been added to from time to time as it bec^e available 
in the market for instructional and experimental purposes, until in 19^5i the 
collection of various kinds of minors' lights, dating from the primitive fire 
wheel to the modern types of flame safety Ir-unps and appi'ovcd electric cap lamps, 
is one of the most complete in the United States. A photorauter, gas-analysis 
apparatus, juid laiiip-testing machines, as well as gas detectors, are available 
for research and instruction purjioses. In addition, mine ventilation models, fans^ 
and a duct system in which amall-scalc shaft and tirabnring conditions may be 
simulated and tested, comprise a very important part of the ventilation labora- 
tory. Miscellaneous equipment consists of anemometers, sling psychrometers, 
katathermoraeters, TWilen and Sllison gages, otc. 

Drilling and Blasting Laboratoiy - In I9II-I2, Room Uoi in the Physics 
Building was used to house materials illustrating exijlosion and blasting equip- 
ment. Room U07 in tloat smnc building was used to house coal and rock drills set 
up for exhibition purposes, but there was no poiver available there for operating 
them. IThen the Mining Laboratory was finished in I912-I3. the drilling and 
blasting apparatus was trar.sferred to the south end of tne main room of that 



33^ 

building -/heroa itick-<.lrillinij and coal-cuttinp table was provided. Foui' ad- 
ditional rock drill'3 were acquired in 19^4-2f;. A sullivan Rock-drill sharpener 
and shaper powered by compressed air, a gats forge for heating rock drills, and 
a comparascope for dotenaininc quenching points for drills, v/ere supplied in 
1925-26. 

Other apparatus has been added as funds have become available from time to 
time until I9U5 the collection of representative cutting and drilling machinery 
and accessories consists of coal cutters, hand and electric ruigurs, percussion 
rock drills of various types, a portable diamond drill, a gas-fired heating • 
furnace for drill stool, and a conpreascd-air drill i;har])ener. There has been 
provided, also, such tyr)ical devices as dumiiy cartridge;!, squibs, fuses, electric 
detonators, taupiUf?: tool:"., blasting machines, circuit testers, shot-firing equip- 
ment, and a demonstrating model for studying the charging of drill holes. 

Heat -Treatment Laborator^y- - V/ork on the development of the heat-treatment 
laboratory/, designed to stud^' the effects of heat-treatment on the physical 
properties of aotals and alloys, was begun as soon as the Metallurgical Building 
was completed in I93G. The equipment installed then or since that time includes 
a number of large, mediuin, and small gas /\nd electric furnaces — some vrith 
time clock and automatic control. The gas furnaces are capable of attaining a 
temperature of 2,8(.tO degrees F. ;ind are useful in carborizing and nitriding 
steels. An electric arc furnace built by the Department in 1937-33, is capable 
of producing a temperature of 3,000 degrees F, There has also been provided 
adequate pyrometric equipment consisting of base and noble metal thermocouples, 
potientiometers, millivoltneters, optical and radiation pyrometers, and other 
appropriate facilities. One side of the room is provided with a Riehlc uni- 
versal UO, 000-pound testing machine and a universal 220 foot-pound testing 
machine used to examine the physicfil pi-opcrties of hoat-trnated steels, and v/ith 
Brinell, Vickers, and Hoctavell testing machines for determining the hardness of 
these steels. A high-speed cutting machine, with a carborundum disc capable of 
rotatiiig at extremely high speeds, has been provided to cut the finest grades of 



rx i.xiiiiii- 



wpjr, iQ^iO 






fsvfkf Oil* . i ,"ibi;.tB ot boa:: 



,'r -n- -:rf7 



335 

tool steel. There has also been added a V/ilson dilatonetor to study the ex- 
pansion of metals during the heating processes. The laboratory is supplied, in 
addition, with apparatus for grcving single crystals of metals and alloys; with 
thenno-analysis devices having a speed of 0-3 000 degrees ?. in one second; with 
liquid and metallic heat-treating baths for studying isotheinal phase changes; 
with furnaces and facilities for investigations on the hardenability of steels; 
and with appliances for determination of the endurance limit of metals and alloys. 

Assa^- Laboratory - After the llining Laboratory was completed in I912-I3, 
the work in the assaying of ores was done in the departmental chemical laboratory 
along with such other v;ork as fuel and nine-gas analysis. The equipment pro- 
vided at that tine or shortly thereafter for assaying included analytical work- 
desks, hand jigs, clar-.aif icrs, gas muffle furnaces, gold pans, magnetic ore 
separators, and other auxilliary apparatus for making tests of ores and ore 
products. 

In 1936, when the Metallurgical Laboratory Building was completed, the 
facilities used for assaying purposes w;eietransf erred to it from the Mining 
Laboratory, 

The assay laboratory is now equipped with chemical desks, hoods, and the 
necess;iry apparatus to accoi.imodato t'.venty students jjcr section working on 
analysis of gold, silver, and other ores. A balance roori located adjacently is 
well supplied with facilities for insti*uctional and experimental '.wrk. 

Sleet rometallurgical Laboratory - For small-scale experimental work, there 
is located on the first floor of the lii;tallurgical Building a large electro- 
metallurgical laboratox'y that was equipped during 1937-3'' "''ith tables, hood, 
voltmeters, a:ameters, and accesoorj'' electrical equipment, and supplied with both 
direct and alternating current for carrj.'-ing on electroplating and other phases 
of elect rometallurgj--. 

Wei di ng Laboratory - Work was begun recently on the establishment of a 
welding laboratory. In a lai'ge I'oom set aside for this purjnose, have been pro- 
vided a Lincoln arc welder and an oxy-acetylene welder set up in specially- 



'©liifl on i : 



336 

prepared bootha with appropriate auxilliary apparatus. 

Melting Laboratory - The melting laboratory, recently opened, contains an 
Ajax-Northrup high-frequency induction furnace rated at 50 pounds capacity and 
auxilliary appliances for fusion in vacuum. There is also a ^O-jtound electric- 
arc furnace for direct and indirect types of melting. 

Metallographic Laboratory - The mot alio graphic laboratory designed for the 
study of the internal or micro-structure of motals and alloys and the relation 
of the structure to the physical properties of metals, is located in Room 209 
on the second floor of the Metallurgical Building and is one of the main 
features of the building. The laboratory lias accommodntions for twenty students 
per section and each man has his o'.7n equipment including a metallurgical micro- 
scope. One one side of this room is an enclosed grinding room for specimen 
grinding containi.ng belt and wheel type of grinders, v/ork benches, and equipment 
for the prepax'ation and deep etching of specimens. There are a number of in- 
dividual-drive polishing machines for the pro]iaration of specimens for micro- 
scopic examination. Supplemnntax-y to the metallographj'' laboratory is a room 
containing a number of cameras including both the micro t^-pe, or those for tak- 
ing photographs at high magnification, and the macro ty]:)C, or those for talcing 
pictures at low magnification, for use in the stud,y of the structure of metals 
in connection with either instructional or research programs. Adjacent to the 
camera room are a niuaber of dark rooms for developing and printing work. Recent- 
ly there Mas provided an /i-ra;^ diffradtion unit for the study of the atomic 
structure of materials'. 

F. IWSIWl^ MATIRIALS AilD COLLECTIONS 

General - The Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering has 
assembled museiim materials from tine to time, liaving In 19^5 s, collection of 
models showing the methods of working coal and ore mines. It has also a complete 
set of safety lamps and other mine-lighting devices. It has, in addition, a 
complete set of ex];)losive and blasting materials i^nd appliances, a number of 
devices used in mine ventilation, and an exhibit of helmets and other mine - 



1. The Tcchnograph, February, 1936, page J 



337 

rescue and first-aid demonstration aquipnent . There is available, too, a number 

of full-size sectionalized and working machines showing the operation of mining 
apparatus. Besides all of these facilities, the Department has a large col- 
lection of photographs and blueprints illustrative of mining and metallurgical 
practice and consti'uction, and of specimens of ores, coal, non-metallic minerals 
metallurgical products, and refractories. 

G. AFFILIATED AITO C00PERATIV3 AG3NCIES 

General - In addition to its wrk of instruction, the Department of Mining 
Engineering beciune closely associated with the various mining activities of the 
State and with the Technologic Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey (later the 
U.S.Bureau of Mines) and the State Geological Survey in establishing Mine 
Service Sta':ions and in the conduct of investigations on coal-mining problems, 
with the Mining Investigations Commission, and with the Illinois Miners' and 
Mechanics Institutes. The vrork of these various agencies is described briefly 
in the following paragraphs. 

Mine Re scue Station at Urbana - As previously stated, a Mine Rescue Station 
was established at the University on March 11, I909, by the Technologic Branch 
of the U.S. Geological &,irvcy( later the U.S.Bureau of Mines) to cooperate with 
the Illinois State Geological Survey and the Department of Mining Engineering 
of the University. IThile the main station at Pittsbur;3;h devoted most of its 
study to problems of mine uxplosions — analysis of coals and gases — the 
Urbana Station, the second of its kind in the United States, was intended to 
concentrate upon the rescue of men overcome in mine disasters. Specifically, 
its work was to demonstrate to mine operators, mine insi)ectors, and mine workci^ 
and others, the value of modem mine-rescue equipment, such as oxygen helmets, 
and resuscitation apjiaratus for use in connection with rescue work in mines, as 
an aid to fighting mine fires, and to open and examine nines which had been 
sealed in order to determine the cause and effects of explosions and fires. 

The equipment of the Station included recent inventions as follows: four 
Draeger Oxygen helmets and recharging apparatus; one Draoger resuscitating case; 



1 "The Mine Rescue Station at Urbana," by A.C.Yehling S.-^.'09, The Tochnograph 
1908-09, pages 122-125. 



33 S 
four Hubbel electric portable safety lamps; one portable Orsatt outfit for 
qualitative analyses of nine gases; and one "Einoke room". 

The oxygen helmets were made of metal, and resembled the helmets worn by 
deepsea divers, except that they were smaller. There was no need for their be- 
inc; heavy and strong because there wai? no pressure as in deep-sea diving. 

The liubbel portable safety lamps were made of aluminum to give as little 
weight as possible. The light was supplied from a small incandescent lamp 
lighted from current from a small storage cell. 

The Orsatt outfit '.vas a necessary apparatus for the hasty call to any mine 
for making analyses of mine gases. The analyses -were made before any heavy 
reconstruction or rescue work was attempted. 

The "smoke room" was a gas-tight stioicture 12 by ?.[-) feet by 12 feet located 
in the north bay of the Liechanical Engineering Laborator;/ Building. The interior 
was fitted with heavy beams and low passageways, similar to the construction of 
an actual mine. Sulphur could be burned in the room, producing conditions re- 
sembling those found after actual mine disasters. A dummy of a man offered an 
opportunity for practice at resuscitation of victims. 

The Station not only gave demonstrations, but also undertook to train men 
in the use of such apparatus, the service being given gratuitously, and as far 
as possible, to all interested within the limits of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, 
sifostern Kentucky, Iowa, tmd Missouri. Several mine operators and mine bosses 
took advantage of the services offered by the Urbana Station to obtain training 
in the use of the new apparatus. During the twelve-month period follovdng the 
establishment of the Station, the engineer in charge of the Station, Mr. Hobert 
Y. 'Jilliams, was called into the field on the occasion of two explosions, seven 
fires, four mine examinations with the aid of the helmets, and two conference 
demonstrations. 

The Department of Mining Engineering v/as especially fortunate in having 
the Rescue Station established at the University. It offei-ed the students in 
mining engineering an unusual oi)portunity to study roscuR "'ork and to come in 
contact with men in practice from all parts of Illinois and the neighboring 



.too snioii' 



riobau oaln in 



. o^^otv^f 



339 
states who came to tho Station for training in rescue operntion. 

Mine Rescue St action Commission - One rosult of the work of the Urbana Sta- 
tion, aside from any material assistance given in the rescue v/ork at the dis- 
asters visited, 'vas that on Februai-y 17. 1910, the Gcner.nJ Assembly enacted a 
law providing for a Mine Hescuo Station Commission authorized to establish, 
equip, and operate three rescue stations. An appropriation of $75,000 was se- 
cured for instituting these stations. The Head of the Dopai'tment of Mining 
Engineering at tho University was made a member of the Commission. Shortly 

after the Commission was organized, the Cherry Hill (Illinois) mine disaster 

1 
occurred, at which Mr. 3. Y. 'Jillirans, '.7ho was in charge of tho Urbana Station, 

as previously mentioned, and Professor Stock, dist .nguishcd themselves in work- 
ing v7ith the; :.'onmi8uion in affording aid to T;he victims of the explosion and 
fire, using the newly- invented oxygen helmets for the first time. 

The establishment of tho three stations following the one at the University 
made Illinois the first state in the country- to adopt the modern rescue appa- 
ratus and rescue methods to safeguard tho lives of its citizens engaged in the 
coal-mining industry. 

7ith the reorganization of the State C-overnment in I917-I8, the work of 
the Mine Heecue Commission '.vas transferred to the new Department of Mines and 
Minerals, and the University was relieved of ?.\ny further responsibility in 
connection with this Commission, 

Illinois Mining Investigation Commission - In I909 the General Assembly 
authorized the appointment of tho Illinois Mining Investigation Commission to 
formulate desirable legislation for the control of coal mines — Professor H. E. 
Stoek, Head of the Department of Mining Snginocring at the University, becoming 
a member of tho Commission on Docombor 3. Room 2lU Transportation Building, 
originally assigned to the Department of Mining Engineering and fitted for a 
laboratory, was made into an office for the Commission. The Commission gave much 
time to studying the existing mining conditions in this ,and other states, to 
fonnulating bills to correct the most outstanding evils then prevailing in the 
1 November I3, I909 



;!n-»rr»r 



3^0 

minin;:; industry in the Statn, and to hcnrinfis on the bills boforo the General 
Assciiibly. As a result of the fforts of the Commission, the nininr la'.7s of 
Illinois 7/cre v>-r:v substantiaJ.ly inpi'oved to tho advanta<!^r; of the uine o-.mers as 
v/ell as the nine v/orkors. 

./hen the State Govcrniacnt w^is I'eorganizod in I917-I3, the :TOrk of the llin- 
ing Investigation ComniBsion '-mo also assigned to the ncwly-creatcd Department 
of Minos ajid Minerals, and the University was relievod of ;iny further obligation 
in this direction. 

Illinois Miners' and iiochanics' Institutes - One of tho outcomes of the 
Cherry Hill mine disaster, prr^viously montionod, 'jas th;it the Illinois Miners' 
pjid Mechanics' Inr.titutco "/ere established by act of the General Assembly and 
approved on Kay 2f), I5II, :m appropriation of ^3('-'.'3'^JC) boin,'j provided by the 
Assonbly in igi3 to meet tho exj)enson of the next t;7o years. Tho i)urpose of 
the Institutes as stated in the n.ct creatinr then w.-u;. "to prevent accidents in 
mines and other industrial plants, and to conserve the resources of the State." 
Ihc immediate purrjose ^7as to assist men in preparing to pass the tests required 
by State la'vs for such positions as state nino inspectors, mine managers, mine 
examiners and hoisting engineers, and others in keeping abreast of the times. 

Such legislation seemed especially appropriate on several counts at that 
particular time. Many boys who were leaving the public schools at an early 
age to go into the mines and other industries, 'vore later in life handicapped 
throufrh lack of early training, in pi-eparing themselves to pass the educational 
tests required by the State or their employers before they could occupy positions 
of responsibility. Furthennorc, a large portion of the working class v/as made 
up of foreign eloaents from the agricultural districts of southern Surope who 
had cone into the State rith no previous knowledge of the technology or dangers 
of mining operations. As they frcciuently did not speak nor write the English 

language, some special means had to be tai:cn to teach then, both for their own 
protection and for the consiervation of the coal resources of the State. 

Tho administration of tho ;iffairs of the Institutes '-/as vested v/ith the 



Boprd of Tnistees of the University. On January 1, I'^lU, the Trustees 

1 
appointed as Director R. Y. Williatis and placed the Institutes under the general 

supervision of the Department of Mining Engineering of the University. Room 203 

Transportation Building, was converted from a recitation room to an office for 

the Institutes. 

T'TO bulletins were written to i-jovcrn the policy of direction; and on April 1, 
191'+, instruction was begun in Herrin and Harrisburg v/ith 13o and I36 students, 
respectively. These courses v/ere followed by similar ones in Belleville and 
Collinsville, and a series of short courses, in weekly units, was in progress on 
the campus. The Institutes v/orc abandoned on July 1, 1915» when Governor Dunne 
vetoed the item in the appropriation bill. At the time the Institutes were 
abandoned there were eighteen night schools being successfully carried on with an 
enrollment of over a thousand students. The plan war, an excellent one and served 
a much-needed service to the mintirnl industrien of Illinois. Similar plans have 
been made since that time, but they have nov-a- materialised, although they are 
very much needed. V/hon the new Department of Mines and Minerals was created in 
1917, there were no steps taken towai'ds continuing the activities of the Institute? 
and therefore the work came to oxl untimely end. 

Cooperative Investigations of Illinois Coal Problems - In July, I9II. a co- 
operative investigation authorized by the Forty-sevonth Betlcral Assembly, for two 
years, was begun by the Department of Mining Engineering at the University, the 
State Geological. Survey, and the Technologic Branch of the U. S. Geological Sui'- 
veyClater the U. S. Bureau of Mines) to determine the means for enabling the 
operators and minora in Illinois to produce coal more safely, more cheaply, and 
with less waste. In a S3'jecial laboratory established by this group in the quartere 
of the Department of Mining Engineering at the Univerrjity, samples of coal from 
more than a hundred mines were finalyzed and studied for conditions pertaining to 



1 Robert Young .Till iams (A. 3., I9OI, Princeton University; 3.M., 1904, Columbia 
University) was engaged in engin.-cring practice in coal -mining work in 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia until he was placed in charge of the Mine Rescue 
Station at Urbana, in I9IO. In I91U, Mr. Wiili,-3ms was made Director of the 
Illinois Miners' and Mechanics ' Institutes, but when these were discontinued in 
1915, he returned to pro,ctice in Pennsylvania. 



3^2 

friability, oxplosibility, ventilation, storagt;, y/ashability, chomistry, methods 
of mining, and go on. Tue authority '.7as rcnev/od from time to time; and although 
tho U. S. Bureau of Mines withdrew from the cooperative agreement on January 1, 
1926, when it left the University campus, the cooperative work: between the State 
Geological Survey and the Department of Mining Engineering was continued. Over 
50 bulletins were published giving thu results of the investigations, ;and theao 
have boon of great benefit to the raining interests of the State in matters relat- 
ing to the mining, preparation, storage, and utilization of coal. 

1 11 i no i s Mining Institute and Mining Scholarships - The history of the De- 
partment of Mining and ilctallurgical Sngincnring has bean closely associated with 
the history of the Illinois Mining Institute, the tv/o organizations having grov/n 
up with mutual interests, xv/o members of tho departLiental staff have been 
presidents of the Institute, Professor K. H. StoeJ-c, ig^il-22, and Professor A. C. 
Gallon, 1929-30. An expression of their interijst of the Institute in the De- 
partment of Mining and MetallurgicaJ. Engineering was symbolized in -the establish- 
ment of four ocholarshipG in mining engineering at the University in I9U1 , These 
scholarships are known as the Illinois Mining Institute Scholarships in Mining 
Engineering. In addition to the above scholarsliips, the Institute has been in- 
stiTimcntal in securing eight additional scholarships knovn as the Peabody Coal 
Company Scholarships in Mining Engineering. These scholarships became effective 
with the 19U2-U3 school year and are administered by the Illinois Institute 
Committee on Scholarships. 

H. FACULTY PERSOHHEL 
General - Brief biographical sketches of faculty members above the grade of 
assistant that have been connected with the Department of Mining and Metallurgical 
Engineering, are listed in the next few pages in chronological order according to 

rank. 

a. Heads of tho Department 

General - Stillman •Jillirjns Hobinson sei-ved as Instructor in Mining Engineer- 
ing from ISyi until IS78, teaching "Mining Operations". Hegent Peabody lectured 
on mining subjects during l«g2-83 to the two or three students vho were 



3^3 

registered in the curriculum. Theodore 3. ComBtock was in charge fron 1825 until 
I0S9. No one seemed to be in charge fron 1S39 to I89I, liut at that latter date, 
William John Baldwin became Head of the Department ;md served until 13g3, when 
the Department was discontinued in the belief that students v/ere not interested 
in these subjects, for in the tv/enty-three years of the life of the Department, 
the high tide of attendance was only seven students. The Department was re- 
established, however, in I909 with Harry Harknesa Stoek as Head. Professor Stock 
reraained in office until 1323, after which Alfred Copcland Callen became Head and 
served until 1939* Harold Loroy Walker followed as Head and has continued in 
that capacity to date. Bio^^raphical sketches of these men follow. 

Stillman "/illiais 5obinson - Professor Hobinsoji's biographical sketch was 
given under Mechanical Snginooring and is iiot repeated here. 

Theodore S. Comstock was born at Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, on July 2J , iSUg. He 
received the A. 3. 6.ef;rco fron Pennsylvania State Colloi-se ifi 1S63, the 3.3. degree 
from Cornell University in I87O, and the D.S. degree there in l3o6. He served as 
Professor of Geology in Comcll from IS75 to 1^79, and was cnga.'^od in engineering 
practice fx-om lS7y until he joined the faculty of the University of Illinois in 
September, 1835, as Professor of Mining Engineering and Physics. Because he had 
had a varied experience in teaching and practicing his profession as geologist 
and mining engineer, it was believed tliat ho y/ould rapidly develop the languishing 
curriculum in mining engineering. He offered a complete and well-planned four- 
year curriculum in Mining Sngincering; and considering its financial condition 
at that time, the University was liberal in supplying equipment. It seemed 
impossible, hov/evor, to develop finy interest on the part of the students; and 
Professor Comstock resigned in 1389 to engage in engineering practice again, and 
passed away on July 25, I915. at Los Angeles, California. 

Walt cr John Baldwin was born at ■.7est Bradford, Pennsylvania, on March 12, 
186U. He received the 3. S. degree from the University of Michigan in IS90 and the 
2.M. degree there in IS94. Professor Baldwin served as a teacher in the Michigan 
College of Minos before he joined the faculty of the University of Illinois in 



3UU 

iSyi as Professor of Mining ^n^ineerinj^. He tried to instill new life into the 
dormant department, but gave it up and rcjsignod in I893 to enter }jractice. He 
passed miay on April 8, I92U. 

Harry Harkness Stoek was born in V/ashington, B.C., on January Id, 1866. He 
received the 3.S. degree in Mining Engineering at Lehigh University in ISS7, aJid 
the E.M, degree there in 1S88. After having been engaged in mining practice dur- 
ing 1888-90, Mr. Stoek then served as Instructor at Lehigh University during 
1890-93, a:: Assistant Professor of liining and Metallurgy at Pennsylvania State 
College during I893-9S, and as Sditor of "llines and Minerals," at Scranton, 
Pennsylvania, during I898-O9. He then caiae to the University of Illinois on 
October 15, I909, as Professor of Mining Engineering in charge of the reestablished 
department. Because it wa;^ too late to offer any instructional work during the 
first semester of that year. Professor Stoek sptmt his first months in planning 
courses for the curriculmn in mining engineering, and in acquainting himself with 
the mining conditions througiiout the State by attending meetings of the Illinois 
Coal Operators' Association, the United i'lino Workers, the State Mining Board, and 
other similar organizations. Diaring the second semester of his first year, 
I909-IO, he gave instraction to three sophomorei^ students in mining, and to one 
in mechanical engineering and onu in civil engineering taking courses in his 
department. As the students cjiine along in after years, the whole curriculum went 
into effect under his direction. 

Shortly after coming to the University, Professor Stock 7/as appointed by the 
Governor to two statu conLiissions authorized by the General Assembly. The first 
of those, the Illinois llining Investigation Commission, revised the entire mining 
laws of the State. The second, the llino Hcscue Station Commission, had as its 
purpose the establisiiment of throe mine rescue stations find the expenditure of a 
fund of $75,000 for the equipment find operation of these stations. 

Profesijor Stoek was the author of "Sconomic History of Anthracite" and the 
"Pennsylvania Anthracite Coal Field". Ho was editor of "Coal ajad Metal Miner's 
Pocket-book," of Pulton's "Coke" and of L-.Jce ' s "Prospecting for Gold and Silver". 
He was author of one circular and co-author of three bulletins published by the 



3U5 
Engineering Experiment Station. 

He was granted the honorary degree of D.Sc. by the University of Pittsburgh 
in June, 1920, and by Lehigh University on October ik, ig2c-, on the occaoion of 
the installation of President Hicliards. Ke continued with the University until 
his death from heart trouble '.7hile on an errand in the business district of 
Champaign, on March 1, 1923- 

On Sunday afternoon. May 2, I926, in the Engineering Library, formal memorial 
exercises, as indicated below, '.Tore held in connection with the presentation of 
the Stook Memorial Tablet. The tablet V7as presented to the University by Fi-o- 
fessor A. C, Callen, Head of the De^artncnt of nininf; Engineering. It was received 
by Professor A. P. Garar\r., Head of the Departuent of Pliysics, as representative of 
President KinL;^y. T.\o speal':ers wore Professor Elmer Alloa Kolbrook, Dean of the 
School of liines aiid Ketallurg:' of Pennsylvania State Colloge, and Samuel Wilson 
Parr, Profesr.or of Applied Chemi;;try at Illinois. Pi'ofessor a. U. Talbot presided 
at the exercises. The tablet was made in bronze by Loredo Taft, under in- 
structions from a comnittoe re})r>;sunting his former students, colleagues, and 
friends to remind coming generations of students of the contributions of Professor 
Stock to mining education. 

PSOGHAl.i OF MEIIOHIAL SILERCISSS AlTD 

PSESLlITATIOii OF TABLET IN HOiiOH OF 

PROFESSOH liARPY HARiaCESS STOEK 

Arthur Ke'vell Talbot, Professor of Municipal and Sani- 
tary Engineering and in charge of Theoretical and 
Applied Mechanics, Presiding 

Professor Stoo]-: - Enginec;r, Editor, and Educator 
Slnor Allen Holbrook 
Dean of the School of Mining .-ind Metallurgy 
Pennsylvania State College 

Professor Stock - Friend 

S,-anuel '.Yilson Parr 
Professor of Applied Chemistry 

Presentation of the Stock Memorial Tablet 

Alfred Copoland Gallon 
Professor of Mining Engineering and ILvad of the Department 
of Mini n,^ Engineering 



1 The Technogratih, May, 102b, page 19 



3U6 

Acceptance of the ilociorial Tablet on 'behalf of the 
University of Illinois 

Albert Pruden Carman 
Professor of Physics and Head of 
the department of Physics 

Professor Harold Leroy ^olkcr, in his article entitled "History of the De- 
partment of Mining jind Metallurgical Engineering at the University of Illinois," 
published in the Proceedings of the Illinois Mining Institute, I9U2, pays the 
following tribute to the woi4: of Professor Stock: "Doctor Stock's vision, his 
enthusiasm, and technical ability were responsible for the development of the 
curriculum, the construction of the equipment of a fine mining laboratory, the 

30c\iring of a competent staff, and the maintenance of the highest standards of 

1 
technical instructioi". 

Doctor Stuck was as much adiaircd by his students as he was respected by his 
colleagues both within and outside of the University circles. He was closely 
associated \7ith several national scientific organisations and was a frequent 
contributor to their journals ;ind to other publications of the technical press. 

Alfred Copeland Gallon - war; born in Pan Arg;>-1, Pennsylvania, on July I7, 
ISSS. Ho was granted the D. w. degree from Lehigh University in I909 and the M.S. 
degree in I91I. He was Instructor in Physics at Lehigh in I909-IO and Instructor 
in Mining Sngineoring there in I9IO-II, after which he was engaged in engineering 
practice during l-^'ll-lM-. lie served as Instnictor in Mining Engineering at the 
University of Illinois during igi^i-lG and as Associate in Mining Engineering here 
during 1916-I7. He resigned in November, I916, to become Professor of Mining 
Engineering and Director of Mining Extension at the University of West Virginia, 
but returned to the University of Illinois in I92U as Professor of Mining Engi- 
neering and Head of the Department. He maintained that position until 1939i when 
he accepted a call to become Professor of Iiining Engineering and Head of the 
Department and De£in of the College of Engineering at Lehigh. 

During his tenure of office at the University of Illinois, Professor Gallon 
was instrumental in introducing the division of Metallurgical Engineering in 193'+. 

1 Page 'ih 



3^7 

since which tine the name of the Dep.artment has been ..iining and Metallurgical 
Engineering. Px'ofessor Callen acted as Editor of a magazine entitled "Co;3l1 Mine 
Management," Chicago, during 1922-29. He nerved as President of Kiwanis Inter- 
national in 1936-37. He is Joint author of five bulletins of the Engineering 
Experiment Station. 

Harold Leroy Walker was born at Benton, Illinois on June I9, 190!^. He was 
granted the 3.S. dogi'ee at Michigan College of Mines imA Technology in 1932, the 
M.S. degree in 1933, find the Met .3. degree in 1935. Ho was engaged in engineering 
practice during 1925-29, and was Instructor in Metallurgical Engineering at the 
Michigan College of Mines and Technolog;/' during I932-36. Kn then Tvent to the 
State College of ^'ashington, ivhcre he became Assistant Professor of Metallurgy and 
Metallography. Ho remained -/ith that position Tintil 1937 • '"'hen ho became Assistant 
Professor of Metallurgical Engineering at the University of Illinois. He was Act- 
ing Head of the Dopartriont of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering here from I939 
until I9U2, having been made Associate Profes-jor of Metallurgical Engineering in 
I9U1. Since 191+2, ho has been Professor of liotallurgical Engineering here and 
Head of the Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering. In 19^3. Pro- 
fessor T.'alker was awarded the Army-Havy "E" for his v/ork in developing a formula 
for the production of anaor-piercing shells. He is the author of one reprint of 
the Enginoerin.^ Experiment Station. 

b. Other Frofcsr.ors 

Elmer Allen Holbrook (S.3., I90U, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; B.K. 
1916, University of Illinois) was employed in mining practice from I90U to I9IO, 
and '.7as Professor of Mining and Mctallurg;,' at iiova Scotia Technical College at 
Halifax, from I910 to I9I3. Ho joined the staff at the University of Illinois in 
September, I913, as Assist jint Professor of Mining Engineering. He was Professor 
of Mineral Production hero from September, 1917. to October following, when he 
resigned to accept a position with the U.S.Bureau of Mines. Later, he bccane Dean 
of the Schools of Engineering and Mines at the University of Pittsburgh. Pro- 
fessor Holbrook is author of one bulletin and one circular of the Engineering 



3^S 

Experiment Station. 

c. Associate Professors 

Arthur Joseph Ho skin (3.S. inM.E., 1^90, and M.S., 1905. University of 
Wisconsin) spent several years in idning-^igineering practice, then served as 
Assistant Profefisor of Mining at Colorado School of Mines during 1905-OS, and as 
Professor during I9O8-II. Ho was engaged in independent practice in Denver and 
as editor of various mining publications from I9II to September, 19f'li when he 
came to the University of Illinois as Research Assistant Professor of Mining 
Engineering. On March 2, I923, Professor ifoskin was appointed Acting Head of the 
Department of Mining Engineering to take the place of Professor Stock, who died 
the day preceding. He served as Research Associate Professor of Mining Engineer- 
ing and Acting Head of the Department during 1923-2'+. Vifhen Professor Callen be- 
came Head of the Department in September, I92I+, Professor Hbskin still remained 
with the Department as Renoarch Associate Professor, but on February 1, I926, he 
was given a leave of absence on account of ill health, and he resigned at the end 
of that school year. He died on March I3, I935, at Boulder, Colorado. Professor 
Hoskin was author of a book entitled "The Business of Mining". Ho V7as author 
of one bulletin and was Joint author of two more published by the Engineering 
Experiment Station. 

David Ray Mitchell (3.S.. I92U, and M.S., 1927, Pennsylvania State College; 
S.k., 1931, University of Illinois) bocaue Instructor in Mining Engineering at 
the University of Illinois ia February, l«t27, after having been emploj^ed for some 
time in engineering practice. He was made Associate in Mining Engineering in 
1927, Assistant Professor in 1931, and Associate Professor in 1937- He resigned 
in September, I938, to becomo Head of the Department of Mining Engineering at 
Pennsylvania State College, whore he has remained to date. Professor Mitchell is 
author of one bulletin and is joint author of t'/o more published by the Engineer- 
ing Experiment Station. 

d. Assistant Professors 

Franci s Church Ijincoln ( 3. S . , iqoo, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 



. it ttb insii'. 



-■!:\i!Sei HflW 'it. 



3U9 

S.i:., I90U, New Mexico School of Mines; A.M., 1306, and Ph.D., I9II, Col\imbia Uni- 
versity) becaue Associate in Mining Sngineorinf-: nt the Univernity of Illinois in 
September, I9II, tond Assistant Professor in I912. He resigned in August, I9I3, 
to accept a position in mining-engineering practice. Later, he became Director 
of Mining Schools of Nevada. Professor Lincoln is author of one bulletin of the 
Engineering Experiment Station here. 

Stephen Osgood Andres (A. 3., I897, Bo'.vdoin College; 3.S., I902, andS.M., 
1903, Michi;^an Colloge of l!ines) gained to.nching experience in secondary schools 
and in the University of Pittsburgh, then becaiie Fitdd Assistant in the Co- 
operative Mines Investigation in Illinois in Itovembur, I9II. He became Associate 
at the University in I913, and Assistant Pi'ofo;;3or in 191n. Ke resigned in 
iTovember, I'jl^i, to enter engineering practice. In 1917-lg, he served as In- 
structor and Assistant Director of the School of Military Aeronautics at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. 

Clinton Maso n Young (3.S.. 1898. Hirm: College; 3.S., I90U, an^E.M., I909, 
Case School of Ap])licd Science) served as Assistant Professor of Mining Research 
from July I9I6, to August I9I9, when he resigned to accept a position as Head of 
the Department of Mining Engineering at the University of Kansas. Ho was author 
of two bulletins of the Engineering Experiment Station and a niambcr of articles 
in the technical press. 

John Burns Read (B.S. I906, and E.K.1909, South Dakota School of Mines) was 
Assistant Professor of Mining Engineering at the University of Illinois from 
September 1919, to September I92O, ".'hen he -Tithdre'.v to accept an appointment in 
industry. In I927, he became Professor of Mining at the Colorado School of Mines. 

Art Imr Eilert Druckor was graduated from the California School of Mechanical 
Arts, San Frnncisco in I897 and received the 3.3. degree from the University of 
California College of Mdnos in I902. He was engaged in engineering practice in 
the aining industry in this country ;ind abroad from I902 to 19^9 • after which he 
became Assistant Professor of Mining Engineering at the Wisconsin State School of 
Mines at Plattevillc. Ho then served as Assistant Professor of Mining Engineering 



350 

at the University of Illinois from February, I920, to October, 1926, '/7hen he re- 
signed to accept a position as Dean of the School of Mines and Geology and 
Director of the Mining Experiment Station, at Washington State College. 

Ra^^ W. Arms (3.S. 1912, Ohio State University; 3.M. , I919, University of 
Illinois) came to the University in November I917. as Instructor in Mining Engi- 
neering after spending some time in practice. He v/as made Associate in I920, and 
Assistant Professor in I92I, but resigned in November I922, to engage in employ- 
ment T/ith the Roberts and Schaefer Company of Chicago. He is author of one 
bulletin of the Engineering Experiment Station. 

Thomas Mel lor Baina, Jr., (E.M. I916, Columbia University) served as 
Assistant Professor of Mining Engineering at the University of Illinois from 
January I923, to September 192U, when he resigned to accept a position at Oregon 

State College. 

Thomas Fraser (3.S., I917 and E.H., I92I, University of Illinois) was 
connected with the U.S.Bureau of Mines Experiment Station at the UnAvorsity here 
from 19I8 to 1923 carrying on investigations in coal washing; and in September 
1923, was appointed Research Assistant Professor of Mining Engineering. He left 
the University in September I92U. to join the teaching staff of the University of 
We)st Virginia with the title of Assistsint Professor of Mining Engineering. He is 
joint author of two bulletins of the Engineering Experiment Station. 

Irvine Meredith Marshall (3.S. I920, Queen's University, Canada) was employed 
in engineering practice after graduation until he came to the University of 
Illinois in October, 192^, as Assistant Professor of Mining Engineering. Ho 
resigned in September I92S, to become Manager of the Central Manitoba Mining 
Company at Wadhopc, Manitoba, Canada. 

Cloyde Moffett Smith (3.S. I920, M.S. iq2S, 3.M., I93U, and Ph.D., I935, 
University of Illinois) w.vn employed in engineoring practice during 1920-21, and 
came to the University in September ,1921, as Assistant in Mining Engineering. In 
1923, he v/as made Instructor in Mining Saginccring, and in October I926, ho was 
transferred from the teaching to the research staff. He was made Research 



SSqi l^d: 



:i90Ai»flS 



.^taiovlnV 



351 

Assistant Professor in 1931. ^^^ rc:iaaine(i in that jiosition until October 1937» 
when he left to become editor of a new publication known as "Mechanization — the 
Magazine of Modern Coal". Professor Smith is author of seven bulletins and is 
co-author of five more of the Engineering Exporinont Station. 

Arthur B. Wilder (3.S.. I925, lit. Union College; M.A., 192S, Ohio State Uni- 
versity; and D.Sc, 1933. Harvard University) served as Instructor at Case Sohool 
of Applied Science for one year and as .-m assistant at Earvard for t-ro years. 
After 1933. 5ie was engaged for a time in engineering practice at Cleveland, Ohio. 
He cano to the University of Illinois in July I935, as Assistant Professor of 
Motallurgical Engineering, and remained in that position until August ,1939. when 
he resigned to return to engineering practice. Professor '.Tilder is joint author 
of one bulletin of the Engineering Experiment Station. 

Hugh Philo liicholson (3.S. 1923,and 3.11., I930, Iowa State College; M.S., 
1933, University of Illinois) was connected with mining practice after graduation 
until ho joined the staff at the University 01 Illinois in Septemljcr 1928, as 
Instructor in Mining Engineering. He was made Associate in 193'^. f^^ Assistant 
Professor in 1935. He withdrew from the University in September 19U2, to become 
President and General Manager of the Chestnut Hill Zinc Company. 

ffalter Herbert Bruckner (A. 5. I927, andCh.!)., I93O, Columbia University) 
joined the staff at the University of Illinois in Januarj' I93S, as Research 
Associate in liotallurgical Bnginocring. Ho became Hoscarch Assistant Professor 
in 1939, and has remained horc to date (I9U5). Professor Bruckner is author of 
one bulletin and is joint author of four more published by the Engineering Experi- 
ment Station. 

John Louis Gallus \7eysscr (3.S., I93I and E.M. , 1937, Lehigh University) 
joined the staff at the University of Illinois in ScpteT-ibcr 1939. as Assistant 
Professor of Mining Engineering. In ITovembor 19^1. ho v;as granted a leave of 
absence to join the staff of the War Production Board at Washington, D.C., but 
resigned in August 19U2, to continue his Govcrniiient work. 

Arthur C. Forsyth (3.S. I92U, M.S., I929, and Ph.D., I937, University of 



358 

Mlnneeota) Joined the staff at the University of Illinois In September 19^1, as 
Assistant Professor of )49tallurgical &glnaerin6 after having spent fourteen years 
as a msaiber of the faculty of the University of Minnesota. He has remained vith 
the staff to date (l9l*5). 

Herman Rath Bberle (B.S., 1922, S.M., 1922, and M.S., 1929, Michigan College 
of Mines and Technology) served as Assistant Professor of Mining Sngineering at 
the University of Illinois from Roveoher, 19^1, to August, 19^2. 

Janes Varren Stewart (B.S, I923, University of \foet Virginia; M.S., I927, 
University of Illinois) vas eiqplqyed en the mining staff at Pennsylvania State 
College and at Lafayette College for fifteen years, then eauB to the University of 
Illinois in September, 19*^2, as Assistant Professor of Mining Aiglneering, and ha» 
remained here to date (I9l»5) . 

Joseph Arthur Bottomley (B.S. 1930, and S.M., 19M», University of Illinois) 
served as Special Rasearch Assistant in Mining Etaglneering at the University of 
Illinois from January to June, 1936, vorklng under Professor Mitchell on the coal 
utilitatloQ project financed hy the Board of Trustees. He took up engineering 
practice then, but returned to the Iftilversity in September, 19^, as Assistant 
Professor of Mining ftigineerlng, vhera he remained until September, 19l»H. 

garl Joseph Bekel (B.S. I937, Michigan College of Mines and Technology) came 
to the University of Illinois in September, 1939, as Instructor in Metallurgical 
aiglneerlng. He vas appointed Associate in 19^3, and Assistant Professor in I9U5. 

Bernard Gordop Rletotts (B.S., 1937, and M.S. 1938, Washington State College) 
was ccnnected with the U.S. Geological Survey until he Joined the staff at the 
University as Instructor in Mstallurgioal Engineering. He was proooted to 
Associate in 19^3, and was granted a leccre of absence from November 15, 19W», until 
Agusut 31, 19^5, to work in the U. S. Bureau of Mines B«perlB»nt Station at 
Boulder City, Nevada. He became Assistant Professor in 19Jf5. 

e. Associates 

iSSS. ^iSSell Fleming (E.M. I9II, University of Pittsburgh) served as Junior 

Mining aiglneerlng with the U.S. Bureau of Mines and as Instructor in the U. S. 



q\>t ~iTtp'-y i-.nfiie j4iitv«d[ •ie^^t^-gtt'HW: 



'I ^^HUliifK OS ,X'4(?I ,iediBi5tro?r Aio*rt oionlj ' ej>f+ 



% ..■• V ■ . • ■. -,.!••; , : ••.-. .••:s yJf*...' 









•.' CAf^Ioarfo<j€' hif&- (^■4::n4'- r -'^i-eiloT} ws^i^iMV'' •■■^'i ■■*.* V" 



>;;;•',; .H ■^^^'^'■ 






353 
School of Mllltaiy Aarooautlca In 1918, and as Heeearch Aseoclate In Mining Engi- 
neering at the University from Septeniber, 1919, to August, 1921, when he reeigied 
to engage In connerclal work. He Is co-author of cue bullatln of the Engineering 
Ebiperlment Station. 

f . Instructors and Research Assistants 

Carl S. Stevenson (E.M. , I908, Ohio State University) was Assistant In Mining 
Engineering at Ohio State during I9O8-O9 and was engaged in engineering practice 
during 1909-10. He cam to the University of Illinois In September, I9IO as 
Instructor in Mining Engineering, but resigned In June, I9II, to re-enter engineer- 
ing practice. 

Herbert Houghton Lauer (E.M. , I906, Lehigh University) followed engineering 
practice after graduation until he Joined the faculty of the University of 
Illinois In January, 1912, as Instructor in Mining Engineering. He withdrew, how- 
ever. In July, 1913, to return to engineering practice. 

Lewis Emanuel Young (B.S. I9OO, Pennsylvania State College; E.M., I90U, Iowa 
State College; and Ph.D., 1915, University of Illinois) served as Instructor in 
Mining Engineering at the University of Illinois during the academic year from 
September, I913, to June, 1911*, and then Joined the College of Commerce here where 
he remained for some tln». He is co-author of one bulletin of the fliglneerlng 
Eiperlmsnt Station. 

Noah Arthur Tolch (B.S. 1921^, University of Illinois) was Research Assistant 
In Mining aiglneerlng from February to August, 1926, when he resigned to accept a 
position with the U.S. Bureau of Mines. 

Rodney Bruce Hoover (B.S., I925, and E.M., I925, Michigan College of Mines) 
served as fecial Research Assistant In Mining Engineering here fron December, 1928, 
to June, 1929. 

Jerome Ellis Machamor (B.S. 1922, University of Illinois) served as Special 
Research Assistant in Mining Engineering from December, I928, to June, I929. 

John Alden Snyder (B.S. 193T, University of Illinois) came to the University 
in September, 1939, as Instructor In Mstallurglcal Engineering. He resigned in 



^:tJBi urn to looriof 

aicmioV.'.-'. I; jBoeefl tea aiQiaihtonl .1 
aA Attr (^ ^s;^ olrfO' .80^1 ^.M;?) ii08flqy»»R .P 



■e »^.jr*:?3B; . h BloatLlI Jo xiUnnfrlaV ■ >&al%ta. gnhi^Ji 



jt^ o/i 1-: .t., '•■ »^.1:;J ■■::^o 'l-- 'io^ijul. 



•;i -.at.?) i 



35U 

February, igUl to .enter engineering practice. 

Harold Carl Beede(3.S. 1937, University of Washington) served as Special 
Research Assistant in Metallurgical Snginccring froi.; September I9U0 to January, 
I9U2 when he obtained a leave to enter service with the U.S. Armed Forces. 

Jup. Hlno (B,S. 191*1. and. M.S, 19^. University of Illinois) became Re- 
search Aseietant in Metallureical Brigineering in September, I9U1, and continued 
with the Department until September, 19^+3. when he left to go into engineering 
practice, 

I. GENERAL SmOIARY 
General - Although circumstances seemed to limit the registration of students 
in courses in mining, the results have justified the efforts. In varying ways a 
larger service has been given to the State and llation. A most im})ortant service 
has been the contributions of the members of the staff in the way of bulletins 
giving reports of investigations and researches of mining problems in connection 
with the Engincei'ing Exi^eriment Station, the Geological Survey, and the U.S. 
Bureau of Mines. Since the addition of metallurgical engineering, the enrollment- 
has increased very rapidly for the vast number and extent of metallurgical 
industries located in Illinois and neighboring states are calling for more and 
more men trained for this particular line of service; and no doubt the demands 
will become even greater as metallurgical engineers continue to demonstrate their 
value in metal-manufacturing establishments. On this account the Department is 
practically assured of a continuous and successful career as one of the major 
units forming the College of Engineering group. 



355 

CHAPTER XI 

THE) hepahtI'ISIit of physics 

A.OKGAiaZATION OP THS DZPARTMSInIT 
General - It v/as recognized at the beginning of instnaction here that a 
knowledge of the science of physics, or natural philosophy as it ^.vas originally 
kno'TO, "/as f vmdament al to the training of every engineer — that he should become 
familBr with the laws of mechanics, heat, lislit, sound, and electricity and 
magnetism. Accordingly, subjects in physics 'Jere taught to engineers from the 
time of the opening of the University; but in spite of that fact, Physics was not 
made a separate department until 1389, when S;anuel Wesley Stratton was placed in 
charge with the title of Assistant. Up to that time, responsibility for in- 
struction had been with the heads of the Departments of Mechanical and Mining 
Engineering, Professor Robinson having served from IS70 to ISJS, Doctor Peabody 
from IS7S to 13S5 and Professor Comstock fron 1385 to 1889 . While the Department 
has operated as a service organization offering courses to students' enrolled in 
all other departments in engineering and in other schools and colleges on the 
campus, it has, in addition, vithin the last few years scheduled its own curricu- 
lum of study -prepared especially for those undei-graduates v/ho desire to specialize 
in this particular field. 

3. EAPiY INSTRUCTIOil IIJ PHYSICS ^ 

1 
General - The 1872-73 issue of the Catalogue stated: 

"This subject has been amply provided for in the Kow Suilding(University 
Hall) by the appointment of a Physical Laboratory and Lecture Room, to which the 
Apparatus will be removed this summer, and rThore the expected additional in- 
strvuncnts naccsso,ry to fully illustrate the subject can bo accommodated. In 
connection vrith the lectures, Silliman's Physics is used as a textbook; as many 
of the topics are more thoroughly discussed in other classes, special attention 
is paid to the portions remaining. The following are the main heads: Matter, Force, 
Motion. Properties and Laws of Solids, Fluids, and Liquids. Acoustics and Optics, 
with mathematical discussion of the undulations and instruments, solar and stellar 
spectra, etc. Magnetism.. Electricity. Chemical Phj-^sics is given in a special 
course of locturcs". 

The Catalogue of 187^4-75 carried the further information that, 

"The department of physics is amply provided with illustrative apparatus, 
for use in the lecture room, and an cxtonsive iihj/-sicai laboratory has boon 

1 Page Us 

2 Page kS 



356 

instituted in the Now Building. The laboratory is adjacent to the Physics lectire 
room; connected by sliding doors r.o that the apparatus is convenient either for 
use in the lectures or for the laboratory work. Instruction in physics enbraces 
four kinds of work: 

1. Hecitation, four exercises a week in which a textbook is used as a guide. 

2. Physical experiments one day each week in which the student uses the in- 
struaents in testing the principles taught. 

3. Illustrative experiments one evening each week in which the more costly 
apparatus is used before the whole class in such experiments as are 
difficult to perform, and which are most effective when prepared for an 
audience. 

k. The higher physical experiments by advfinced classes, consisting either of 
research, or of reviews of careful and elaborate experiments previously 
worked up by others. 

1 
The Technograph of 1851-92 furtheraorc contained the follo-jing item: 

"The in.:traction in electricity begins with the third tern of physics in 
the sophomore year. The laboratory work in electricity includes simple problems 
in electrical measurements, which are designed to acquaint the student with terms 
and the use of olecti-ical apparatus. Later on the students in advanced classes 
take up testing of primary nnd secondar:,'' batteries for efficiency, cable testing, 
designing of electricn.1 machinery, installation of light and power plants, the 
trsinsmission of power by electricity, and lastly photometry." 

2 
An announcement in the 1S92-93 issue of the Catalogue appeared as follows: 

"The course is intended to give 2''oung men the best possible preparation 
for work in the practical application of electricity. Instruction is ,^von by 
lectures and laboratory practice. The student in encouraged to add to his gehoial 
intellectual culture by systematic reading of the best periodical literature in 
the theory and application of electricity. 3y keeping himself informed about the 
efforts of others in every department of his profession, it is hoped that he may 
be stimulated to independent and original investigation in his oiTn field. To this 
end a department reading room at all times accessible to students in this course 
has been recently established, whore the leading Journals of general physics and 
applied electricity arc kept on file. The instructors meet weekly to discuss the 
leading articles in these joui'nals. A critical discussion of one or more papers 
is required from each student". 

The Catalogue of I89U-95 set forth the case a little differently: 

"The courses in the department arc designed to furnish the student who in- 
tends to follow the profession of engineering, ecience teaching, or research in 
physical science, such a knowledge of the phenomena and laws of physics as may be 
of greatest use in the chosen callinr:. 

"The instruction is given by means of lectures and by practice in the 
laboratory. The work in the laboratory consists almost entirely of quantitative 
measurements made under the personal supervision of the instructors, with in- 
struments of- precision. An cffoi't is made to have each student determine for 

1 Front is piece 

2 Page 78 

3 Page ^j,k 



357 

himself the relation existing betvyeen the facts which he has observed, in order 
to stimulate him to the formation of habits of sound thinking". 

The '7ork in Physics presented to all studentri in the College of Engineering, 
was intended to give such a knowledge of the more important laws and phenomena of 
physical science as to enable each one to pursue profitably his subsequent techni- 
cal studies. Hore extender, courses for scientific research were also offered. 

Thu work in electrical engineering was given with special reference to the needs 

1 
of those 'vho were preparin,:; to undertake the practical applications of electricity. 

C. ROOM JUJD EUILDIKS ACCOiCIODATIOiTS, IS9U-I9U5 
General - The opening of Engineering- Hall in the fall of I89U, permitted the 
Department of Physics to mcvo into it from the limited quarters which it had 
occupied for so man-- years In the basement and east ^7ing of University Hall. 
Physics proper was ar.signed space on the second and third floors of the central 
or north -^ing. It had a department office, private studios, and a large lecture 
room arranged in the form of on amphitheater, furnished with about 200 opera 
chairs equipped -^ith tablet aiT.is. Piers at the lecture desk and in the center of 
the room made demonstration with the most delicate apparatus possible. A perma- 
nent scrcvjn and rolling blinds operated by a motor facilitated illustration by :. 
lantern. The four cabinet rooms and the preparation room adjoining the lecture 
room, were stocked with apparatus suitable for illustration and demonstration, and 
were provided v/ith conveniences for hjxndling apparatus for lectures. 

The general laboratory room 60 feet 3(iu;\ro occupied the third-floor central 
wing. It was a well-lighted, well-ventilated room, supplied with tables, shelves, 
and sink, and was arranged for genci'al experimental work. The cabinet rooms ad- 
joining this general laboratory contained a full line of apparatus suitable for 
elementary and quantitative laboratory work, and niso a line of high-grade appa- 
ratus intended for advanced experiment nl work. 3y mcfijis of a small freight ele- 
vator, this room was in diroat communication 7/ith the rooms on the second floor 
and the testing rooms on the first floor. The electrical division of the de- 
partment occupied the central and west wings of the first floor. This group 



1 The Technograph, lS9^-95, Page I78 

2 The Technograph, I89U-95, Page I76 



35S 

included a drafting room, recitation roon, office, and seminaiy room. In addition, 
there were six small testing laboratories abundantly supplied with masonry piers 
'.vail shelves, sinks, dark curtains, etc., and equipped with apparatus for electri- 
cal measurements. It included, also, a constant-temperature room which was in- 
sulated from the surrounding space by double masonry walls and double doors, and 
was arranged for such experiments as required low uniform temperatures. There wan 
a battery room and a number of private studies and laboratories for the storage of 
instruments and for the use of advanced students and instructors. In the advanced 
'.7ork, the apparatus for special investigations v/as set up permanently or kept in 
specially-provided cases. There was i\ workshop near the small laboratories 
equipped with machine tools for the mfinufacture and repajr of instruments and other 
apparatus. 

Because the classroom and laboratory facilities of the Department became in 
time very much overcrowded on account of the comparative large student enrollment 
and additional quarters seemed necessarj.', a movement ^7as started in 190^-'^5 to 
obtain a new and modern laboratory for the department. In I906 the General 
Assembly was asked to mal-:e an appropriation for the building, but other interests 
seemed more urgent. The request was renewed to the next Assembly, and at that 
time an appropriation was made for buying the grounds at the northv/cst corner of 
Mathews Avenue and &i-eon Street as a site for the new building. The General 
Assembly of I907 did make an appropriation of $250,000 for a new physics building. 

The building was completed for occupancy in the fall of I909. A suite of 
three rooms in the southeast corner of the second floor was ta!:cn over for de- 
partmental offices and a departmental sominai-y and librarj'-. This seminary and 
library room, still in use, is I9 by 2] feet in plan, and is equipped with fixed 
book cases, and with special finish and furnishings to make it an attractive room 
for reading and study purposes. It is supplied with a liberal allowance of 
reference books and sets of important physics journals and periodicals. , 

In I9U1 the Department took over the garage service building across the Bone- 
yard from the Ceramics Building and romodelud it for housing the large cyclotron 



1 Rooms 203 and 205 were taken for offices and Room 201 for the libi'ary. 



359 

plant Y/hich it constructed in it during tho next tv/o or three years. In I9U1, 

furthermore, two rooms on the first floor of the oarjt wing of Engineering Itill were 
taken over for the instructional \7ork in iih^/sics given in the survey courses ad- 
ministered by the General Division of the College of Liberal Arts and Science. 
D, ]?H2 DSVIZiOFIISilT 0? LASOHATORY FACILITIES IK FHISICS 

fieneral - From tho beginning, the instruction in the classrooiri worl: in 
physics has been supplemented by laboratory exercises as equipment could be pro- 
vided, in order to penait the students to demonstrate the underlying principles of 
the science to their ovvn satisfo-ction and to i^rovide some training in the use of 
precision instruments. Tho addition of such apparatus has served the nurpose, too, 
of allovring graduate students and the faculty to carry on research projects par- 
ticularly associated 'vith tho subject matter of their special interests. Progress 
made in the dovolopnent of some of these facilities is recorded in the following 
sections. 

a. Developments fror. 1362 to I909 

Early Laboratory Facilities in Physics - l86C-lb'90- The CatalOf^e and Circular 

of IS69-7O contained the follo.ving statement: 

" Physics and Natural Philosophy - This collection includes some of the 
latest and most important improvements in the apparatus of physics and natural 
philosophy. The air pump is of the best form in use. It was made by the cele- 
brated firm of 3. S. Hitchie & Sons, of Boston, and cost $275. It has a rotary 
movement, combined with 'Ritchie's patent action" of the piston and valves. This 
final step in the perfection of the air pump furnishes the means for the nearest 
approach to an absolute vacuum that it is possible to make by mechanical means. 
The electrical machine is Ritchie's Patent Iloltz Machine. This remarkable machine 
is of recent discovery, and for this reason is found in but few of the cabinets 
of older institutions of learning. It is distinguished for its wonderful power 
and great ease of action, rendering it suitable for performing many experiments 
which, 'vith the ordinary machine, were extremely difficult. The collection also 
includes a Grove's Battery of six cups, an induction coil, model telegraphic 
apriaratus, liagdebui-g hemisphere, vacuum tubes, receivers, magnets, and other 
accompanying apparatus!' 

2 
» The Catalogue and Circular of 1372-79 bore tho following description: 

"The Cabinets of tho Physical Laboratory contain a collection of apparatus 
from tho most celebrated European and American malcers, costing over ^5.000 and 
illustrating the subjects of Mcclianics, Pneumatics, Optics, Heat, and Electricity. 
Ample facilities arc afforded to the students for performing experiments of pre- 
cision by v/hich the theories of Physical Science may be tested and original work 
may be done". 

IPago 20 
2 Page 20 



36o 

The collection enbraced aiiparatus for the stud;; of acoustics fron R. Koenig 
of Paris, of heat and molecular physics from Solleron of Paris, tuid of light, 
optics, and electricity fron Stoehrer of Loipsic ;uid fron Browning and Newton of 

Lo ndo n . 

1 
According to the 1JS2-S3 Catalogue and Circular:' 

"A series of standard -ffeiglits and measures has "been received from the 
office of the Coast and Geodetic Survey of the U.S. Government and raay be consulted 
at the Physics Lahoratory". 

A 3-li5ht T7eston arc-lighting generator procured in Febniary iSSo, i7as set 

up in the machine shop, and was connected v/ith the physical and chemical labora- 
tories for exnerimental purposes. 

Pioneer Laboratory Facilities in Electrical E ngineering - 1890-1395 - In the 
fall of IS9I, the Head of the Department of Pl^sics, Professor S.Vi'.Stratton, 
started vrork in electrical engineering by setting up the nucleus of the first 
electrical engineering laboratory on the catipus. He used a room under the chapel 
in what was then called the New Bailding, but later. University Hall* According 
to the accounts in the University Catalogue nnd Circular and The Teclino graph, the 
division of electrical engineering lia-d, 'dthin a short time, developed for its 
quarters the entire ground floor of the east wing of this building, with each 
room especially adapted to its distinct purpose and equipped for instruction and 
experimental purposes. These rooms included a dynamo laboratory, an electrical- 
measurements laboratory, a battery room, a photometry room, and a tool room and 
shop. 

At first the dj''mii;ios were operated by a lO-horsepower "grass-hopper" Atkinson 

cycle gas engine, but a 60-horsepower "Ideal" high-speed steam engine was soon 

p 
installed." The dynamos were so connected to the main jack shaft and so -arranged 

that cither or both of the engines could bo used. The gas engine v/as soon dis- 
carded, however, because of operating difficulties, and the steam engine was used 
alone. '.Tithin a year or so a fairly rcprcocntat ivo collection of dircct-durront 
and alternating- current generators was assembled for instructional and experiment- 
al use. The direct- current machinery included a comrilcte Brush 10-light arc 



1 Page 2U 

2 The first -units of the University Hall Central Power Plant ,whichsee. 



361 

li^^iting plant, complete 'Thounon-Houston 3-li.'$it arc lighting plant, a complete 
Sdison 100-lif;ht incandescent plant, ojid a saall Jenny 500- volt po'ver plant. The 
alternating-current machinery conprir.ed a complete Thomson- Houston 300-ligkt 

generating plant, two single-ph«asc V/estinghouse machines, and a number of trans- 

1 

lonners. 

The electrical -meastiremonts laboratory had necessary piers for the more 

sensitive instrijunents, and numerous conveniences imlisviensable to rapid and 

accui-atc me/isurements. The lS9'--93 Catalogue stated in this connection: 

"The electrical engineering laboratory has been supplied with apparatus 
from the leading makers at home and abroad. There arc several forms of the Tfiioat- 
stonc bridge, resistance boxes, including an Anthony 100,000-olui box, a lladler 
Bros . subdivided riegolim box, an assortment of s^vitchcs, keys, condensers, and the 
loading forms of doadbeat .'md ballistic galvanometers, including a. Thompson high 
resistance, and an Udclma doadbeat gHlvanomctnr; also several D'Arsonv.al galvano- 
meters, and nnncrous others. Several reading telescopes are used in connection 
with the galvanometers. The laboratory is also supplied r/ith artificial standai^c 
of resistance, standard colls, Kelvin's current balance, .njnmctcrs, voltmeters, and 
TVatt-meters. Current is brought to the room from the d;;Ta;imo and battery rooms". 

The battciy room 'vas i^rovidcd with a large storage battery made by members 
of the Department, and a collection of the leading forms of primary cells. 

The photonctry room 'jas fitted with a >>aeon & Company's complete electric- 
light photmctcr, numerous types of direct -ind alternating- current incandescent airc 
Ipjnps, and convenience:; necessary for mailing complete tests. 

The work shop -./a.s oquip-jcd with a speed lathe, -.m -mgine lathe, and a grinder 
rind a lino of fine tools suited to the manufacture of speci?il apparatus. An 
electric motor furnished pov/cr for use in this room. 

The large Iccturrj room for physics find cloctri c.vl engineering located on the 
third floor of the east wing of the building directly above the chapel, was 
supplied y/ith current from the dynjimos and storage battery on the ground floor 
and was wired for both arc and incandescent lighting. 

Later Development of Physical Laboratory Facilities, iSgg-igog - Until IS92, 
the electrical '^rk was for the most part, in charge of the same man that was head 
of Physics, and for several years substantially all of the small appropriations 



1 The Technograph,lS91-92 front; lS9U-95,p.-',cc 129; and University CatalO(guc and 
Circular, IS9I-92, page 71; 1392-93, pages, 7S-79. 

2 Page 79 



362 
r.ade for these two fields were used in the purchase ruid installation of electrical 
apparatus, as ^as then -.iso. o./ing to the rapidly- .^ro.7ine importance of electrical 
science, and also owing to the fact that the other divisions of Physics had been 
taught for more tlmn twenty years -and presumably -.ere fairly well equipped. 

The complete separation of the adiainistration of the work in electrical engi- 
neering from the Department of Picnics in the fall of ISOS. however, gave better 
opportunity for the development of the work in physics. The equipment of the De- 
partment was within the next few years practically all rej.lacod by new and modern 
ai^paratus. The rapid increase in the nm^bor of engineering students taking re- 
quired courses in physics made it necessary not only to replace the old apparatus, 
but also to add very largoly to the equipment and also the immbcr of instructors 
in th. Department. This expansion absorbed the enor y of the Department for a 

n\ambcr of years. -, 

The 1901-02 Cat.ao,3ae of the University contained the following statement: 
"The laboratoxY contains a large collection ox standard oldctric and mag- 
netic measurement .^paratus from the best maJ:ers. together with various pieces 
a^d devices designed and constructed in the department, so that the facilities for 
all such work are equivalent to the very best. In optics there are spectrometers. 
Rowland diffraction gratings (piano and concave), a 5^resnal optical bench, a 
complete photometer bench in a woll-equip .ed dark room, a spectrum photometer, 
polarisation .^paratus. etc. The collection nlso includes apparatus for measure- 

■u -v, ir.ry-^r,^ Hi'-vv'-^ oiGine. CTthctomotor, chronograph, 

ment of precision, such as balances, di^/i-t, en^iu^, 

Kater's pendulum, thcrmo: .eters. etc. The .-orl.shop of the department is equipped 
-ith power lathe, milling nachin. and a good collection of tools. The services 
of a mechaniciaxx g*yc the department facilities for malting apparatus from original 
designs, both for instruction and investigation". 

b. Developments from 1909 to ig'+l? 
QnmrraL Physics Laboratories - Since the construction of the Physics Build- 
ing in 1905. three large ^-^ell-lighted laboratories have been available for ■■ 

1 Pages lOU-105 



363 

experimental exercises supplementing the class room theory taught in elementary- 
physics. These are provided vith the usual types of equipment necessary to 
demonstrate the most common problems in the various "branches of "beginning courses 
in physics, thereby enabling the students to check the fundament '.d principles they 
learned in their recitation assignments, and to attain some measure of proficiency 
in the use of facilities ordinarily employed in the conduct of physical research. 

Electrical and Magnetic -Measurements Laboratories - The Department of Physics 
has gradually brought together a complete roprosontativo assortment of precision 
Instruments for advanced instructional and experimental use in the field of 
electrical and magnetic measurements to deal with such subjects as electrostatics 
(mi magnetostatics, capacitance and inductance, f erromagnetism, and high-frequency 
circuits. Such equipment consists of current and ballistic galvanometers, po- 
tentiometers, ammeters, resistances, capacitrjicee, inductances, Vheatstone and 
other types of bridges, oscilloscopes, and cathode-ray and other oscillographs. 

Acoustics Laboratories - Sound, of course, has always been one "bf the major 
divisions of the field of physics. As new devices became available for use in 
this particular line, there was accumulated apparatus pr determination of pitch 
and quality and intensity of sound waves; for study of tr,ansmisslon, absorption, 
and reflection of sound waves; for correcting echoes and reverberations in 
buildings; and for reducing vibrations set up in machinery. The present apparatus 
Includes such typical appliances as resonators, oscillators and amplifiers, phono- 
graphic and other reproduction instruments, microphones, interferometers, oscil- 
loscopes, oscillographs, wave meters, wave filters, and equalizers. 

Optical Laboratory - The equipment provided for instructional and experi- 
mental work in optics includes different typos of filament and arc lamps, photo- 
meters, lenses of all kinds, crystals, prisms, filters, magnifiers, and other 
devices for the study of physical and geometrical optics. It includes also, 
apparatus for work in reflection, refraction, double refraction, dispersion, 
interference, polarization, and diffraction of light. There have been accumu- 
lated spectrometers for the exact determination of indices of refraction; ruled 



364 
gratings and interferometers for dctcnnination of y/ave lengths; polp.rjscopes for 
study of j'olarized light; and Gpcctrosco2-)os for study of dispersion. 

Spectroscopic Laboratory - A great deal of equipment has been provided for 
the study of spectroscopy, thcat branch of physics '^hich deals with the spectra 
and their analysis. A large Hilger quartz spectrosco]ie made in Europe vjas re- 
ceived in I927-2S. A nicrophotometer by Kipp and Zenon, Dclf, Holland, r/as ob- 
tained in I92S-29. The instinimcnt was located on the fourth floor of the Physics 
Building in the spec train- analysis laboratory, made possible after the removal of 
the University Blueprinting and Photographic Department from the building in I92U 
a:id 1925, and v/as used for ineasuriug the intensity of spectrum lines. Other aopa- 
ratus procured from time to tine includes other grating wtd quartz spoct x-oscopes, 
filters, prisms, lenses, mirrors, monochrometers, thermopiles, and radiometers for 
studying the visible, ultraviolet, and infra-red regions of the spectrum. Other 
accessories include .ndditional spectrophotometers, interferometers, microphoto- 
meters, and vacuum spectrographs, one of which is the largest grazing-incidence 
vacuum spectrograph in the 'world. 

Hi gli- Tension Laborator;;^ - V/lien the a.dded space on the fourth floor was made 
available after 192U-25 by the removal of the University blueprint and photo- 
graphic apparatus, there was installed in the east wing a 100,000-volt , 60-kilowatt 
transformer, with rectification by four kcnotrons. This new high-tension electri- 
cal equipment provided the Department v/ith exceptional facilities for investi- 
gational work along several lines, including X-rays, electrical corona discharge, 
spark spectra, and the testing of insulating materials and dialc^ctrics. 

Mas s Spectroscopy Laboratory - Hasft- spectroscopy is that branch of physics 
which treats of measurement of atomic masses and the determination of the relative 
abundances of isotonics. For use in the study of subjects in this particular 
field, a mass spectroscope was constructed at the University by Professor Edward 
Brent Jordan during the years I93S-U1 from funds supplied by the Graduate School. 
The equipment includes the most powerful mass spectrograph in existence, which is 
devoted to a determination of the masses of the light elements. The equipment 



365 
includes also a relative-abundance ayiectrometer, which is used for the study of 
ioni:^ation and dissociation of products produced by electron impact on molecules 
and for the determination of the abundance of these i roducts. The equipment in- 
cludes, furthermore, a beta-r.a^' spectrocrajih, used to study the hi^-speed e- 
lectrons given off by natural radioactive substances; that is, to measure their 
energi^ the relative number ot! having a given eneri,;y, .and to determine the energy 
of internal conversion gamiia ra^/'s. 

Hue 1 ear Physics Laboratories - A number of machines have been accmiulated for 
77oric in the comparatively new field of nuclear physics — that division of physics 
T7hich deals ^^rith the stud;/- of atomic nuclei; isotopes; cosmic rays; artificial 
radio-activity; excitation and transmutation of nuclei; nuclear bombardment 
properties of protons, deuti-ons, neutrons, ;\lpiia, beta, and gamna rays; electrons 
and positrons; and artificial disintegration. One of the high-tension electro- 
static machines is the Van de C-raff generator v/hich was built at the University 
here during 1937-39 from ftands supplied by the G-raduate School. This piece of 
apparatus con.iists of endless belts of bc-illoon fabric that travel in a vertical 
plane through an insulating column into a large metal sphere producing potentials 
around ^00,000 volts. In addition to use in nuclear disintegration experiments, 
this machine is also useful in connection 'vith high-})otentir-il vacuiom-tube work, 
and with corona fxnd electrical surge inver.ti gat ions. Another of the electrosta,tic 
machines is the linear accelerator, in the operation of which, jjrotons or dcutrons 
are accelerated from the bottom of the instrument; nnd as they move upv/ards under 
the force of electric fields, they produce particles whose energy is approximatel;-" 
500,000 electron volts. Another tiqic of machine in this field is the cyclotron. 
In 1935-36, there v/as constructed under the immediate supervision of Professor 
P. Gerald Kruger, a member of the Physics staff, a seven-ton electro-magnet in the 
Physics Building as ;:. cyclotron for the stud;,^ of nuclear physics. The instrument 
is capable of developing energj^ of 2,000,000 electron volts, which gives the 
particles a velocity of about 12,000 miles a second. The Department has another 
one of these machines — one of the largest in the United States. It was designed 



366 
and built in place during 19^-0-'43 under direction ol" Professor Iruger, fuid is 
housed in a separate building kno'-'n an the Nuclear lladiation;5 Laboratory/, which is 
devoted entirely to the use of this equipment . It is a, direct-current macMne, 
so constructed as to be able to produce ]irotons having an energy' of 30,000,000 
electron volts. Still ariother machine is the betatron, sonotimes knovni <as the 
"induction electron accelerator". It is f\n alternating-current mechmiism invented 
in 19^0 by Pi'ofessor Donald lilliara Kerst, a me;.iber of the Physics staff here, and 
developed by him during the years ininediately follov/in;r its discovery. A number 
of these Jiachineu have been constructed in the Phyoics Building for experimental, 
purposes, but the largest one so far developed here 'vas recently built in the 
basement of the lilliom Abbott Pov/er Plsnt . This one is capable of accelerating 
negatively- chai'ged electrons until they attain a speed almost comparable to that 
of light and equivalent to that produced by a potential of 20,000,000 electron- 
volts. This tyoo of machine vill acc'.dcrato ol'>cti-ons to higher energies than car; 
be obtained by .-^ny other laboratory equipment so far devised; and tfn this account 
it is oj^ening up an unlimited range of study in the field of nuclear phonomena, 
and no doubt, is the most outstfinding develo-ment of physics made '-.'ithin recent 
years . 

Photograph Labo rat ry - Work in the photograim laboratory was begun about 
I937-3S. The equipment has been gradually extended from time to time since then 
and includes apparatus and materials required to conduct experiments in color 
photography, color sensitivity, infra-red arul ultra-violet rays, cinematography, 
stereoscopic photography, photomicrogi"aphy, ;ind aorial photography. 
Z. PHYSIC.S S-illNAHS 

Physics Colloquim - The Physics Colloquium, started about I903 as a means for 
bringing together persons interested in the discussion of recent developments and 
current problems in physics and allied branches, especially of vnvlc being done at 
the University here, has continued to the j:)rosent time. Host of the discussions 
center around organized research being carried on oj members of the faculty and 
atlvnnccd students. The organization servos as a means for disseminating new facts 



367 
and rirovides a source of inspiration to others ".^ho are engaged in research or are 
interested in beconing research 'vorkers. The meetings arc held weekly during the 
academic year, and graduate students are e:cpected to attend. 

Other Seminars - Other seminars v;hich have held or are novi holding meetings 
regularly throughout the academic year for students enrolled in physics courses 
include Seminar in Theorotic^il rii;,'sics, Spectroscopic Seminar, Physics Journ;-a 
Club, Nuclear Seminar, and Applied Physics Club. The programs scheduled once a 
;7eek sometimes during the afternoon find soaetimos during the evening hours, have 
featured papers or discussions by members of the staff including student assistants 
and by students registered in graduate courses in this Department. 
F. TOTAL Sl^HDILlilLIT li: PIiTSICS 
Total Hegistrafcion in Ph:,^sics Courses , Ig07-1'34^ - The total registration in 
courses given by the Department of Physics for all students of both ixnder graduate 
and graduate grade in all departnontr, of the Uiiiversity during the school years 
1307-02 to I9U3-4U inclusive is given oy the following table: • 

TAS LI] XVIII - 2i:GIGT5.lTI01i lii; PHYSICS COURSES 1907-19^4^ 
Year 



1907,-0 S 

190L^-09 
09-10 
10-11 
11-12 
12-13 
13-1!+ 
14-15 
15-lS 
16-17 
17-18 
18-19 •'• 
19-20 

1920-21 

21-22 
22-23 
23-2U 
2U-25 
25-26 
26-27 
27-2S 
28-29 
29-30 
30-31 
31-32 

1 Q,uarter rilan 



Pirst 


oocond 


Ijiiini.-jnr 


Tntnl 


.v5nipa.t.ai: 


Semester 


School 




1035 


SbO 
1012 




lSpi+ 
2047 


930 


S3 2 




1762 


991 


8 65 




1856 


987 


836 




1S33 


316 


767 




1583 


982 


S?9 




1881 


1020 


9^6 




1966 


lOUl 


924 




1965 


loss 


921 




2009 


362 


652 


S7 


1601 


750 


b93('iuartcr) 532 


56 


2031 


i;362 

1%8 


1255 


75 


2392 


1366 


2?0 


3056 


139^^ 


1109 


27U3 
275^ 


lUib 


1151 


1S7 


I19U 


1011 


SU 


2289 


1231 


1011 


15s 


2U0O 


143^+ 


1221 


163 


2823 


1620 


1316 


15U 


3090 


i6so 


1335 
I29U 


202 


3267 


1736 


158 


3188 


1659 


1361 


181 


3201 


1905 


1592 


215 


3712 


1905 


1719 


275 


3899 



First Semester 


Second Semester 


Suiacier School 


Total 36s 


1607 


1373 


21+7 


3227 


l4Sb 


1232 


221 


2939 


lUUU 


1229 


202 


2875 


1U99 


1320 


172 


2991 


17S5 


1607 


166 


3588 


2089 


1756 


21U 


1+059 


2145 


1756 


199 


Uioo 


135I+ 


1526 


209 


3589 


1223 


1565 


191 


3579 


1925 


1659 


lOU 


3688 


1322 


1395 


i+88 


3705 


746 


51I4 


655 


1915 



Year 

32-33 

33-34 

34-35 

35-36 

36-37 

37-38 

38-39 

39-40 

4o-4i 

41-1+2^ 

42-43^^ 

43-44I 

G. FACULTY PSESONiJEL 

General - Brief 'biographical sketches of members of the staff above the grade 
of assistant that have been connected '.7ith the Department of Physics are listed in 
the next few pages in chronological order according to rank. 
a. Heads of the Department 

General - Stillman Williams Robinson served as Professor of Mechanical Engi- 
neering from I87O to I878 and V7as in charge of Physics during those years. Selim 
Hobart Peabody was made Professor of Mechanical IDngineering and Physics in I878; 
and although he became Acting Regent in 1880 and Regent in 1881, he continued to 
teach subjects in Physics. 

Theodore B.Comstock was Professor of Mining Engineering and Physics from 1S85 
until I889. From 1839 to I892 , Samuel Wesley Stratton was in charge of the Depart- 
ment of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Daniel W. Shea was Head of the De- 
partment of Physics from I892 to January, 1896, and Fred Anson Sagor and Bernard V. 
Swenson looked after the affairs of the Department during the remainder of the 
academic year 1895-96. Albert Fruden Gannon served from September lSg6, until 
September I929, and F. ^Vheelcr Loomis from I929 to date (I945). During the years 
'When Professor Loomis ■'.vas absent from the University for service in the Federal 
Government, P. Gerald IJrugcr served as Acting Head of the Department. The 
biographies of these men follow. 

Stillman Vfilliams Robinson was in charge of the work in Physics during IS70 
and through I878 while he was Professor of ilechanical Engineering, for although 
Physics was not made a separate department until 1389, subjects in that field wore 

1 Three- semester plan 



369 
listed in the University Catalogue and Circul/i.r -xlmost from the lioginning of the 

institution. The scope and novelty of the in:itruction given by Professor Robinson 

deserve special attention.' 

The recitation instruction was based upon a textbook, but the 'Jork v/as ciuch 
more inviiC:o rating and stimulating than nei-ely questions and ans'vers upon the text. 
The professor was fertile in showing the relations of the princijilos of the 
lessons to the phenomena in nature or to practice in the industries, in suggesting 
puzr.ling relations v/hich ho asked the student to ex]-)lain by applying the princi- 
ples of the text, and in proposing practical problems. For example, when thu 
class Was stud^dng mathematical optics, he proposed for a problem the design of a 
spectacle lens which should be free from the reflection that frequently jinnoys the 
auditors of a public speotcor. He steadily declined to offer any help to the few 
students who accepted the challenge and attempted to solve the problem; but when 
the students finally brought in an answer that he said was fairly satisfactory, 
he showed them another and better solution.' 

He employed no deaonstrating a,pparatU3 j.;i the daily recitation; but one 
night a week called his students together for an extra class exercise which was 
largely a demonstration lecture. Many of his comments c'md ex]jeriments were strik- 
ing and stimulating. A considerable number of students not members of the class 
attended these lectures. Again, one example must suffice. Before thn days when 
a professor of Physics had an unlimited oloctrical current at his command by 
simply turning a key on his lecture room desk, Professor Hobinson used two 
hundred platinum-acid porous-cup batteries to generate an elect li. c-^l current, and 
with poor lenses and jjrisms set up a table, projected the spectra of metals as 
large as the side of his lecture room, fmd discussed before his students the 
bearing of certain features of those upon the then cura:'cnt theories of the physi- 
cal constitution of the fitmosnhcre of the sun. 

But unfortunately, Professor Robinson 'jas not a ready or fluent speaker, al- 
though he ■7rotc fairly v/oll. Svcn before his own clasij, ho was timid and diffi- 
dent, and his enunciation was low and often indistinct; and before a larger group 

1 It is interesting to note that in 1911,pr'icticaHy Uo years after the above, and 
a year and a hair after his death, Prof cssor Robinson was allowed a pa,tcnt on a 
machine for grinding bifocal spectacle lenses. 



370 

it was often painful to see and hear hin, particiilarly if he was exjjlaining some- 
thing that •?7as original with him. nowyver, notwithstanding the defects of public 
speech, the lectures were well attended and the students were interested. 

Professor Robinson inaugurated laborator:^ practice in physics in January 
I875 — a time when there was little or no laboratory practice in colleges, and 
probably none in high schools. The only other laboratory v/ork of any kind at the 
University then was in cheraistri'' and botany; and the only other institutions then 
offering laboratory practice in physics were Stevens Institute of Technolog:\'- and 
Massachusetts Institute of Technologjs the first beginning such work in IS7I and 
the latter in 18/3 . Physics laboratory •7ork was taken by all Juniors during the 
feiecond and third terns. No list of the twenty or twonty-onc experiments can nov; 
be found; but at least twenty of the cxpcrinicnts then given arc no'.7 included in 
the one year laboratory work offered by anj^ institution noted for the excellence 
of its work in physics; and it is kno'.vn that Professor Robinson's list included 
two elaborate experiments not found in the nodorn list. The equipment was meager 
much of the apparatus being made in the shop or improvised in the laboratory. A 
long-hand manuscript description of each cxperinont was handed to each student 
when the problem was assigned the week before it was to be performed; and each 
student was required to submit a formjvl report — ■ for which no form was provided. 
The most of the students were intensely interested in the work; and although the 
laboratory period was tv/o hours a week, a majority of 'the class put in tv/o or 
three times the minimum requirement; and there was strong competition as to the 
appearance and completeness of the reports and the accuracy of the results. 

Selim Hobart Peabo d;^ - See Regents, Chapter II, and -lechanical Engineering 
Chapter VII. 

Theodore B.Constock - See iliniug and Metallurgical Engineering, Chapter X. 

Samuel Wesley Stratton was born at Litchfield, Illinois, on July 13, I861 . 
Ke was graduated from the iiechanical Sngineering curriculum at the University of 
Illinois in ISSU and served as an instructor in mathematics and physics in the 
Preparatory De'oartmeut during 1S85-37, and as Assistant in Architecture during 
I8S7-89. In September I889, he was made responsible for the '^ork in Pliysics, '--hich 



371 

from I87O to I8S5, had heen assigned to the Professor of Meclianical Engineering 
and from 1885 to I889 to the Professor of Mining Engineering. Ke began with the 
title of Assistant even though he was in charge of the new department, but in I89O 
he was given the title of Assistant Professor, and in IS91 that of Professor of 
Physics and Electrical Engineering, 

His work in Physics attracted the attention of the entire University and 
aroused the hi^est enthusiasm of his students, because of his ability in presen- 
tation, in devising experiments, and in making apparatus. Under his direction was 
established here in IS9I-92 the first instruction in electrical engineering and 
the nucleus of the first electrical engineering laboratory in the room under the 
chapel or east wing in what v/as then called the New Building, but later University 
Hall. 

Primarily on account of his low snlarj', he resigned in Juno I892 to accept a 
position in the Department of Physics of the ilew University of Chicago. There he 
served for nine years and became in succession, Assistant, Assistant Professor, 
and Professor. In I90I, he became the first Director of the National Bureau of 
Standards, then being organized from the old Bureau of Weights and Measures; and 
under his direction that Bureau became one of the most important of the many 
scientific organizations of the Federal Government. In I923 he was elected 
President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Professor Stratton was honored -vith the degree of D.Eng. by the University of 
Illinois in I903 ; the D.Sc. degree by Western University of Pennsylvania (now the 
University of Pittsburgh) in I903, by Cambridge in I909, and by Yale in I919 ; the 
LL.D. degree by Harvard in 1923; and the Ph.D. degree by Renneselaer in I92U. He 
died on October 18, I931 at the age of 70. 

Daniel William Shea was born at Portsmouth, Hew Hampshire on November 27, 
1859 , He received the A. 3. degree at Harvard University in 1886, t-hc-A^M^- degree 
a t Ho . rv . a xd- ^ivoa 'fi ity in 1 8 86 ., the A.M. degree there in 1888, and the Ph.D. degree 



1 This v/as an unusual case. The Professor of Mining Engineering and Physics had 
failed to return to the University in the fall after the long summer vacation, 
and Mr. Stratton was asked to take over the work under the emergency conditions. 



372 

at Froiderich Williclns Univorsitat in 1852. Ilr, Shea was Assistant in Physics at 
Harvard during 13SS and IS92, He cane to the University of Illinois in September 
1892, as Assistant Professor of Physics in charge of the Department and served as 
Professor of Physics during 18q4-95. Professor Shea moved the Department from 
its craaped quarters in University Hall to the commodious rooms in the new Engi- 
neering Building, or Engineering Hall as it is nov7 knovm. He very materially in- 
creased the equipment and extended the scope of the work, particularly in electri- 
cal engineering. In January 1896 he resigned to become the first Professor of 
Physics in the Catholic University of America at u'ashington.D.C. Later he became 
Dean of the Faculty of Science at that institution. 

Albert Pruden Carman v/as born at 'Toodbury, llev; Jersey, on July I5, I861. He 
received the A. 3. degree at Princeton University in IS83, the A.M. degree there 
in 1285, and the Sc.D. degree in lo36. He studied also in Berlin and Vienna dur- 
ing IS80-9O. Doctor CaiTian became Instructor in Physics and Mathematics at 
Princeton in ISSU and remained there in that c.-vuacity until 1888. Ke was made 
Professor of Physics ;ind Slectrical Engineering at Purdue University in I89O and 
Professor of Theoretical Physics at Stanford University in I893. He came to the 
University of Illinois in September, 1856, as Professor of Physics. During the 
time that Professor Carman was in charge of the Division of Electrical Engineering 
he Was in responsible charge of equipping the new lighting and power plaJit (the 
Boneyard Plrnt) of the University, which was installed in the rear jDortion of 
the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Laboratory Building in l8Qg. 

After electrical engineering became a separate department in IS9S, Professor 
Carman continued as Head of the Department of Physics. One of his duties was to 
supervise the production of plans for the construction of the Physics Building 
which was erected in I9OS-O9. In the new quarters Professor Carm<-in continually 
developed the equipment and instruction until the Department bocatie one of the 
leading organizations of its kind in this country, and for maiiy years now, it has 
continued to attract a considerable number of graduate students. Professor Car- 
man remained as Head of the Department until September 1, I929, when he reached 



375 
the age limit prescribed by statutory rogulationt: and was retired -.vith the title 

of Professor of Physics. Emeritus . After his retironeni, Doctor Carman continued 

1 
to live in Urbana* He is author of one bulletin and is co-author of t'.70 more of 

the En,-ineerinfi Experiment Station. He is also author of the section on Elec- 
tricity and Magnetism in Alexander "J. Dufi 's "Physics for Students of Science " 
and Engineering", 

Prances Wheeler Loomis -/as born at Parkersburg, West Virginia, on August k, 
1839. He received the A. 3. degree at Harvard University in igiO. the A. li. there 
in 1913. and the Ph.D. degree there in I9I7. He served as Instmctor at Harvard 
during 1913-15 and as Research Physicist viith the 'Jestin^house Lai^ip Company dur- 
ing 1920-22. He then served as Assistant Professor of Physics at Nct York Uni- 
versity from 1920 to 1922, .wl Associate Professor of Physics there from I922 to 
1929, at the end of -mich time he Joine.-L the faculty of the University of Illinois 
as Professor of Physics and Head of the Dopartnont. During World V/ar II, Pro- 
fessor Loonis was on leave from the University to carry on research Vtork for the 
Government in the Radiations Laboratory at liass-chusetts Institute of Technology. 
He is co-author of a publication entitled "liolecular Spectra in Gases" issued by 
the National Hesearch Council. 

b. Other jTrofossors 
Charles Tobias Knipp (A.3., IZqk and A.!:., IS96, Indiana University; Ph.D., 
1900, Cornell University) served as Instructor and Assistant Professor of Physics 
at Indiana University between IS93 and I903 . He became Assistant Professor of 
Physics at the University of Illinois in 1903, and was made Associate Professor 
in 1915 and Professor of Experimental Electricity in I9I7. Professor ICnipp is an 
outstanding experimentalist, and has designed many clectric^a devices used in 
radio and other branches of physics and electricity, and ha.s made many contri- 
butions to the body of kno;7ledge in matters relating to his particular field of 
interest. He is co-author of one bulletin issued by the Engineering Exi3crimcnt 
Station, and is author of the section "Conduction of Electricity through Gases" 
in Duff's "Physics for Students of Science and Engineering". He vras Vice-Prcsi- 

degt_ofJhc Jtatc Academy of Scienc e in 1920-21 a nd Pre sident in I9 21-22. He was 
1 Professor Carman died on February 10, 19U6. 



37^ 
a member of the Advisory Sub-coraLiittee on Pliysics foi' the Century of Progress 
Exposition in Chica/;o in 1933. In 1937, Professor ioiipp reached the University 
age limit, and was retired with the title Professor of Sxperinental Electricity, 
Emeritus. In the fall of IQ'+S, he accepted an invitation to taiVe active charge 
of the Department of Physics at Hollins College, Florida, and has xenained there 
to date (I9U5) . 

Floyd Howe Watson (3.3. 1299, University of California; Ph. J. I902, Cornell 
University) served as Assistant in Physics at the University of California during 
1897-99, after which he came to the University of Illinois and became in turn 
Instructor, Assistant Professor, !Uic\ Associate Professor of Physics during IS99 
and 1917. In 1907-Ob, Professor Watson served as first part-time Assistant Dean 
of the College of Ilngineering, giving attention to student records and matters of 
that kind. In I917, he became Professor of Experimental Physics, and later pro- 
duced three bulletins and 7/as joint author of one more in the field of acoustics 
for the Engineering Experiment Station. In I9U0, he reached the University age 
limits and was retired with the title Professor of Experimental Pliysics, Emeritus. 
Ho is author of a textbook entitled "The Acoustics of Buildings," and of one 
chaoter on Acoustics of Buildings in Kidder-Parker "Architects and Builders Hand- 
book". During World War II, Professor Watson was engaged in iiational Defense 
Work at Washington, D.C. 

Jakob Kunz (Ph.D. I902, Eidg.Folytnchnicuip, Zurich, S- /it zorlpjid) was engaged 
in enj^ineering practice during I902-OU, and serve A. as "Privat-Do?.ont" in mathe- 
matical physics at the Polytechnicum during I90U-O7. lie studied in Cambridge, 
England, during I907-OS and Y/as Instructor in Physics at the University of 
Michigan during 1903-09 . He Joined the College staff here in Scptonbcr, I909, as 
Assistant Professor of Hathenatical Physics. &: was made Associate Professor in 
1915 and Professor in I923. In I909 he developed the photoelectric cell and spent 
the next two years in perfecting it. This was such an extraordinary development 
that it served to revolutionize many processes in industrial practice; and on that 
account has come to be widely adopted in many phases of commercial enterprise. 



375 

Being an outstanding^ analyst, Professor Kunz fox' many years carried practically 
all of the responsibility for the instruction of graduate students in theoretical 
physics. He himself did a great deal of e3q:)erimental work in a variety of sub- 
jects, and was co-author of two bulletins published by the Engineering Experiment 
Station. Ke was author of "Induction der Drehfeldem I'otierenden Kugeln aus der 
Lammlung electrotechnischer Vortragc," "Teilbarkeit der Materie," and "Theorctische 
Fhysik auf iiechanischer Grundlage Eneke" . Pi'ofessor Kunz continued with the Uni- 
versity until his death on July 18, 193^. 

Peter G erald Kruger (A. 3. ig25, Carleton College; Ph.D. I929, Cornell Uni- 
versity) studied in this country and abroad and served as Instructor in Physics 
at Cornell during iqL'5-26 and I927-29. He joined the staff at the University of 
Illinois in 193^ ^-s Assistant Professor of Physics and became Pi'ofessor of Physics 
in 1930. Professor Kruger has given considerable attention to the development of 
the cyclotron for work in nuclear jihysics and supervised the construction of the 
cyclotron plant at the University — the lar^^est of its kind in existence. He 
served as Acting Head of the Department of Physics during the absence of Professor 
Loomis from I9U1 until the close of the war. 

Gerald Marks Almy (B.S. I92U ,and U.S. I926, University of Nebraska; Ph.D. 
1930i Harvard University) becarae InstxTictor in Pli;^rsics at the University of 
Illinois in September I93O, Associate in 1933. Assistant Professor in 1935 n^d 
Professor in 19^3. 

Donald ^Tilliap Kerst (3. A. 193^, and Ph.D. 1937. University of TTisconsin) 
served as a teacher at the University of Wisconsin and as a research worker with 
the General Electric Company, then in 193S boc^ime Instructor in Physics at the 
University of Illinois. He was xaado Assistant Professor in 19^0, Associate Pro- 
fessor in I9U2, and Professor in I9U3 . As previously stated. Professor Korst is 
the discoverer of the betatron, r.,n instrument that shows outstanding possibilities 
in the field of nuclear physicn. For his remarkable work in this connection, ho 
was awarded the Comstock Fri^'e of The Hationol Acadeny of Science at its fall 
meeting in V^h}. This award, made only once ovei-y five years, represents a very 



376 
unusual recognition and a nai* of great dlatlnctlon, going to that person vho 
made the most extraordinary contributions to the fields of electricity and 
magnetism or radiant energy durlx^g the period. He was given a leave of absence on 
November 1, 19^*3, for war service. 

Harold Meade Mott > 8mith (A.B. 1919, ComsU University; Ph.D. 1933, University 
of Illinois) becan» Assistant Professor here In 193** end Associate Professor In 
1939, On September 1, 19^1, he was given a leave of absence for war service, with 
the Bureau of Ordnance, U.S. Navy, aixd In September, 19l*U^was made Professor of 
Physics. 

Leland John Haworth (A.B. 1925, and A.M. I926, Indiana University; Ph.D. 
1931, University of Wisconsin) beoama Associate In Physics here In September, 1938, 
after having had several years teaching and research experience at the University 
of Wisconsin and at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was made Assistant 
Professor In 1939 and was given a leave of absence on October 1, 19^1, for war 
service in the Hadlationa Laboratory of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 
September, I9I1U, he was made Professor of Physics. 

Jangs Holley Bartlett . Jr. (B.C.E. 192I+, Northeastern University; A.M. I926, 
and Ph.D. 1930, Harvard University) became Assistant Professor of Physics at the 
University of Illinois in September, 1930, Associate Professor in 1937, eaoA Profes- 
sor in I9U5. 

Robert Berber (B.S. I93O, Lehigh University; Ph.D. 193U, University of Wiscon- 
sin) was made Assistant Professor of Physics at the University of Illinois in Sep- 
tember, 1938, Associate Professor in 19^1, and Professor in 19'*5. On September 1, 
I9U2, he was given a leave of absence for war service. 

Morita Goldhaber (Ph.D. 1926, Cambridge University, England) came to the Uni- 
versity from the Cavendish Laboratory in CaJnbrldge, ihgland, on September, 1938, as 
Assistant Professor of Physics. He was promoted to the title of Associate Pro- 
fessor in 191^3, and of Professor in I9U5. 



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377 
e. Aseoclatd Professors 

Wllllaa Fredorlck Schulz (B.S, I893 and Ph.D. I9O8, JcAn Hopkins University; 
E.E. 1900, University of Illinois) served as Instructor In Physics at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois from 190O to I906, as Assistant Professor from I908 to 1925, 
and as Associate Professor from 1925 to 19^0, when he was retired under Univer- 
sity regulations to become Associate Professor of Physics, Bneritus . Professor 
Schulz is author of a textbook entitled "Manual of Experiments in General Physics". 

Blmar Howard WllllaaB (A.B. I905 and A.M. I906, University of Wieoonsin; 
Ph.D., 1910, University of Illinois) served as Instructor in Physics here during 
1907-12, as Associate daring I912-I8, as Assistant Professor during 19l8«29, and 
as Associate Professor from I929 to date. Professor Williams is author of one 
bulletin published by the Ehglneerlng Experiment Station. 

Robert Frederick Paton (A.B. 1915, A.M. I916, and Ph.D. 1922, University of 
Michigan) was a teacher in the University of Michigan until I918. He then taught 
in Western Reserve University during 1919-20, and returned to the University of 
Michigan and taught there during 1920-22. He Joined the staff at the University 
of Illinois in September, 1922, as Associate in Physics. He was advanced in 
position until he became Associate Professor of Physics in 1929* He is Joint 
author of one bulletin issued by the aiglneerlng Eaqperiment Station. He is also 
co-author of a textbook entitled "Physics for Colleges" 

Ernest Mcintosh layman (B.A. 193 1, Pomona College; M.A. 1933, Dartmouth College 
and Ph.D. I938, University of California) Joined the staff at the University of 
minois In September, 1938. He was given a leave of absence on September 1, 1941, 
to engage in war work. He was made Assistant Professor in September, 1944, and 
Associate Professor in 1945. 

Sidney Michael Dane off (B.S. 1934, Carnegie Institute of Technology; Ph.D. 
1939, University of Pittsburgh) becan» Instructor in Physics In September, 1940, 
and Associate in February, 1942. He remained with the University until June, 1943, 
when he Joined the staff of the Metallurgical Laboratories at the University of 






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378 
Chicago. He returned to the Unlrerslty of Illinois in October, 19*^5, as Associate 

Professor. 

d. Assistant Professors 

Fred Ansoo Sager (B.S. 189U, University of Michigan) serred in turn as 
Assistant In Physics, Instructor, and Assistant P.ofeseor of Physics from l89^* to 
1903, irtien he withdrew to engage in engineering practice in Chicago. 

Oscar Qxxick (A.B. I895, and A.M. I896, Harvard University) served as Assistant 
in Physics at the University of Illinois during 1895-96, Instructor during I896-98, 
and Assistant Professor during 1898-I902. He withdrew to engage in commercial work, 
but later Joined the staff at the U.S. Patent Office. 

Barl Bmanuel Llbman . who had previously been a member of the faculties of the 
Department of Ceramic Bnglneering end Mathematics at the University of Illinois, 
Joined the staff in the Department of Physics In September, 192?, as Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Physios. He withdrew, however, in August, 1929, to accept an appointment 
with the General Electric Coiqpany. * 

John Reginald Richardson (B.A. 1933, University of California at Los Angeles j 
Ph.D. 1937, University of California at Berkeley) Joined the Physics staff here in 
September, 1938, as Assistant Professor of Physics. He was given a leave of 
absence in September, 19^2, for war service, but resigned at the end of the I9l*.4-U5 
academic year. 

John Henry Manley (B.S. I929, University of Illinois: Ph.D. 193^, University 
of Michigan) was engaged in practice during 1930-31, served as Instructor at the 
University of Michigan during 1931-33, and as Lecturer at Columbia University dur- 
ing 193l*-37. He becams Associate in Physics at the University of Illinois in 1937 
and Assistant Professor In I9U1. He was given a leave of absence on February 1, 
19*^2, to engage in war work, but resigned at the end of the school year 19Mf-45. 

Bdward Brent Jordan Jr. (A.B. I928, Colorado College; M.S. I93O, University of 
Washington; and Ph.D. I933, University of California) becane Instructor in Physics 
at the University of IlUnois in 1937, Associate in I938, and Assistant Professor 
in I9UI. He resigned in February, I9U3. 



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379 
Richard Henry Bolt (A.B. 1933, and M.A. 1937, University of California, and 

Ph.D. 1939, Univereity of California at Lob Angelas) bacania Associate in Physics 

in Septenbar, 19'*0, and Assistant Professor in 19^3. On Saptanbar 1, 19^1, he Vas 

given a leave of absence for war research abroad, 

Bnil J. Hellund (B.S. 1935, and Ph.D. 1939, University of Washington) was 
appointed Assistant Professor of Physics in Noveoibar, 19'*'*, and remained with the 
University until October, 19'*5. 

Herbert Arnold Kya (A.B. 1936, Allegheny College; A.M. 1938, and Ph.D. 19l*l, 
University of Illinois) became Instructor in Physics hare in September, 19'*1, 
Associate in I9UU, and Assistant Professor in 19'*5* 

Guenter Schwarx (Diploma Engineer, 1938, Technical High School, Berlin- 
Char lot tenburg; Ph.D. 19'»1, Johns Hopkins University) became Instructor in Physics 
in September, 19'*2, and Assistant Professor in 19'*5> 

Gail Dayton Adams . Jr. (B.S. 19l*0, Case School of Applied Science; M.S. I9U2, 
and Ph.D. 191*3, University of Illinois) was appointed Hesaarch Physicist here in 
September, 191*3, and Beeearch Assistant Professor (Betatron research) in 19'*5. 

Herman William Koch (B.S. 191*1, Queen's College; M.S. 19l*2 and Ph.D. 194U, 
University of Illinois) became Research Physicist in September, 19l*3, and Research 
Assistant Professor (Betatron research) in 19l*5» 

e. Associates 

William Howard Sanders (A.B. 1920, A.M. 1922, and Ph.D. I925, University of 
Illinois) became Assistant in Physics In 1920, Instructor in I926, and Associate 
in 1930. He resigned in August, 1931** 

Norman Foster Ramsey (B.A. 1935, and Ph.D. 19l*0, Columbia University; B.A. 
1937, and M.A. 191*1, Cambridge University, England) became Associate in Physics in 
September, 19l*0. He was on leave from November 7, 19l*0 to August 3I, 1941 on 
National Defense, but did not return to the University, 

Ijrla Winston Phillips (B.S. I932, North Dakota State CoUege; M.S. 1935, Uni- 
versity of Buffalo; and Ph.D. , 1939, University of Illinois) was made Instructor 



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In Physics at the TInlverslty hero In September, 19l»0. He Ijecane Associate In 19^2 
and remained vlth the Department until July, I9H, 

John Paul Qlrard (B.S. In E.E. I938, Purdue University) became Research 
Engineer In Physics In September, 19'*2, and remained here vmtll October, 1^^» 

John McSlhlnney (B.S. I9U2, Urslnus College; I.S. 19'»3, University of Illinois) 
vas made Special Research Associate of Physics In April, 19^^. 

Warren Harding Snlth (A.B. 19^2, Colgate University; M.S,, 19*^3, University 
of Illinois) became Research Physicist In Februaryj 19'»^, Special Research 
Physicist In M»y, 19^*^, and Special Research Associate In September^ 19^. He 
resigned In January, 19^6, 

Lloyd Smith (A.B. 19^2, and M.A., 19^*3, Unlvefslty of IlJ.lnole) was appointed 
Speclea Research Associate of Physics, effeotlye September 1, 19W*. He left the 
Department In September, 191^5. 

Qerhart Ksrl Groetzlnger (Ph.D. 193I, University of Vlemmi beCaa© Iiistructor 
In Physics In September, I9U2, and vas made Associate of Physics In September, 19hh, 
He left his position In June, I9U5, to accept *: ^Qppolntmeni at Ohio State Uni- 
versity. 

Yall Hall Moore , see Civil Engineering/ waa appointed Associate In Physics 
for the first semester of 19l;U-U5. During this period, as well as that with Civil 
Engineering, Mr. Moore vas on leave of absflnce frou the State Qeological Survey. 






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f . Instructors and Research Assistants 

Burton Evans Moore (A.B. 1888, Otterbeln University; A.M. I89O, Cornell Uni- 
versity; and Ph.D. 190t, University of Goettlngen) served as Instructor in Physics 
at Lehigh University during I89I-92, and at the University of Illinois during 
l89l»-95. He resigned to accept a position at the University of Nebraska. 

Hubert Vinton Carpenter (B.S. in E.E. I897, and R,S. In Mathematics and 
Physios, 1899, University of Illinois) served as Assistant and Instructor In Physics 
here from I897 to 19OI, and then became Assistant Professor of Physics and 
Electrical Efaglneerlng at, the State College of Washington. He vae Head of the 
Department of Mechanical and Electrical itogineerlng there from I903 until I917, 
^en he becama Dean of the College of Mechanic Arts and aiglneerlng. In 1919, In 
addition, he vas made Director of the Bfaglneerlng Experiment Station. He served 



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il bOA ii- htwrtaa (e 

• ^^ noil '.-^ii 



': : Ic naed aiaan 



3 so 

also as Consultant to the Natural Resourcer, Planning Board. Professor Carpenter 
Y/as honored by his College with the degree of LL.D. in 193S. He remained with the 
institution until his death on November 15, 19^1- 

Alfred Higgins Sluss (3.S. in }i.'.2. I9OI, University of Illinois) served as 
Instructor in Physics here from I902 to I907. He left the University to take up 
commercial work, but later joined the faculty of the University of Kansas. 

Claude Silvert Hudson (3.S. I9OI, and U.S. I902, Princeton University) 
continued in study at home and abroad after (■graduation and then served as teacher 
at Princeton. In I905, he cazae to the University of Illinois as Insti-iictor in 
Physics, but \7ithdre'.'7 in I907 to accept a position with the Federal Government. 

Fay Cluff Brown (A. 3. I90U, Indiana University; A.li. I906, University of 
Illinois) served as Instructor in Phj^sics at the University here during I906-O7. 
Later he became Director of the Industrial liuseum at Scarborough-on-Hudson,New 
York. 

Waldeman ilatthaeu s Stemple (A. 3. I905, Indiana University ; A-.II. I906, Uni- 
versity of Illinois) after further study at Cornell University, became Instructor 
ir. Physics at the University of Illinois in I907. He remained here until 1911, 
when he resigned to engage in engineering practice. 

Thomas Smith Taylor. Jr . (A. 3. I906, and Ph.D. I909, Yale University) became 
Instructor in Physics at the University of Illinois in I909, and remained here 
until 1912, vihen ho resigned to accept a position in Znglfind. 

William Warren Stiflcr (A. 3. I902, Shurtleff College; A.il. I90S, and Ph.D. 

1911, University of Illinois) taught four years at Swing College, then joined the 
College staff hero as Assistant in Ph^ysics. He served in that capacity during 
1907-09, and then as Instructor during I909-IO, after which he withdrew to accept 
an appointment at Columbia University. 

Lloyd Theodore Jones (A. 3. I909, and A.i'I. 1910, Lake Forest College; M.S. 

1912, and Ph.D. I915. University of Illinois) served as teacher of Physics at Lake 
Forest during I909-IO and as Assistant in Physics and as Instinictor in Physics at 
the University of Illinois during I9IO-I5. He resigned to accept a position at 



381 

the University of California. 

Jay Walter '.Toodro:? (A. 3. I907, Draicc University; A. 3. I910, Oxford, England) 
served as Instructor in Pl:iysics at the University here during I9IO-I2, after Yrhich 
he resigned to go to Yale University, uhcrc ho received the Ph.D. degree in I913. 

John :7eslcy KornbcaJc (B.S. I906, Illinois "Jesleyan College; A.ii. I909, and 
Ph.D., 1913, University of Illinois) became Instructor in Physics here in I9II, 
but ''•'ithdrcw in I913 to accept a position at Carleton College. 

Glenn Alfred Shook (A. 3. I907, University of ^7isconsin; Ph.D. I91U, University 
of Illinois) served as Insti-uctor in Physics at Purdue University during 1907-II, 
then joined the Physics staff at the University of Illinois in I9II as Instructor. 
He-.-i»©»ftinod here until I9II hb Instructor. Ho remained here until 191^. when he 
withdro'.v to accept -'n appointment at the University of Michigan. , 

Earlc Horace Earner (3.5. I912, University of Denver; A.M. 191^. and Ph.D. 
191s, University of Illinois) was Assistant in Physics during I9I3-I7 and In- 
structor here during I9I3-I2, after '.vhich time he withdrew to cnga'ge in engineer- 
ing practice. 

Sebastian Karrer (A. 3. IPll, and A.il. I913, University of 'Jashington; Ph.D. 
1918, University of Illinois) served successively as Assistant in Physics and as 
Instructor in Physics hero from I913 to 1919» 

Vailiam Henry Hyslop (A.B. 1908. Kno:; College; A.K. I9II, and Ph.D. I92O, Uni- 
versity of Illinois) served as Assistant in Physics during 19l'4-lS, and as In- 
structor during I9I8-21. 

Roy Andrew Uclson (3.3. I916, Knox College; M.S. I92O, and Ph.D. I923, Uni- 
versity of Illinois) was Assistant in Physics here during 1919-^^3 sind Instructor 
during ig23-25. Later, ho bocame Professor of Ph.ysics at Cornell College. 

Clifford Mathaji \7all (A. 3. I922, K.S. I923, ;ind Ph.D. I926, University of 
Illinois) served as Assistant in Physics here from September 1922, to September, 
1920, '.7hcn he became Insti-^ictor. He resigned in 1928. 

Keron Caldwell Ilorrical (3.S. I929, U.S. I933, and Ph.D. 193S, University of 
Illinois) served as Special Hesoarch Assistant in Physics during 1933-3^, and as 



3S2 
Assistant in Physics during 193^-36. 

John Joseph Gibbons (A. 3. I92S, M.S. I930, and Fh.D. I933, University of 
Illinois) served as Assistant in Physics during 1935-3^ aJ^ii as Instructor in 
Physics during the academic year 1936-37- 

Harold Q,. Fuller (A.E. I92S, Wabash College ; A.M. I93O, and Ph.D. 1932, Uni- 
versity of Illinois) after serving as Instructor in Physics at Illinois College 
during 1933-35 and as Assistant Professor there during 1935-37. became Instructor 
in Physics at the University of Illinois in September I937, but '.7ithdrev/ in Sep- 
tember I938, to become Head of the Department of Physics at Albion College. 

George Kenneth Green (3.S. 1933, H.S. I935, and Ph.D. 1937, University of 
Illinois) was appointed Instructor in Physics at the University for the academic 
year I937-3S only. In June ,193<^. he left to accept a National Research Fellow- 
ship at the University of California. 

William Barl Shoupp (A. 3. I931, iiiaiii University; A.i'i. 1933. and Ph.D. I937 
University of Illinois) served as Assistant in Physics from 1931 to 1937 and. as 
Instructor in Physics here on an appointment for the school year 1937-3^ only. At 
the end of that tiuo, he loft to engage in research at the Westinghouse Research 
Laboratory. 

M orton Henry banner (3.S. I936, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Ph.D. 
I9U0, Princeton University) bngjin as Instructor in Physics in September, 19^0, then 
received a leave of absence from November 7, I9U0 to August 31. 19^1 ^o serve in 
National Defense, but did not return to the University. 

Russell Dcffitt O'Neal (A. 3. I936, Depauw University: M.S. 1933, and Ph.D. 
igJ+l, University of Illinois) became Instructor in Physics at the University of 
Illinois in September I9UI and has remained '-'ith the Department to date (19*+ 5) • 

Norman David Cogge shall (A. 3. 1937. ^.S. I939. and Ha.D. 19^2, University of 
Illinois) Joined the Physics staff in Scptcmb.-.r . I9UI, and remained with it until 
Junc,19U3. 

Robert Douglas R^v.7Cliffo (3.A. I937, North Central College; M.S. 1939, and 
Ph.D. I9U1, University of Illinois) served as Assistant in Physics at the 



383 
University here from 1937 to 19l*l. He becajn© Instructor In 19l*l, tut resigned 
In February 19'*2. 

Jack Bruce Greene (A.B. 1937, Indiana University; M.S. I9U0, and Ph.D. 19^2, 
University of Pittsburgh) served as Instructor In Physics at the University of 
Illinois from September, 19^1, to October, 1^3, 

Philip Morrison (B.Sc, I936, Carnegie Institute of Technology: Ph.D. 19^*0, 
University of California) Joined the staff her© as Instructor in Physics In Sep- 
tember, I9UI, and remained here until February, 19'*3. 

Martin Bmnanuel Nelson (B.S. 1937, College of Pu^at Sound; M.S. 1939, Uni- 
versity of Hawaii; and Ph.D., I9U2, Ohio State University) came to the University 
In September, I9UI, as Instructor In Physics, and remained on the staff until 
September, 19'+'*. 

VI 111 am Elvood Ogle (A.B. 19^0, University of Nevada; A.M. 19^+2 and Ph.D. 19'*1*, 
University of Illinois) becaiw Instructor In Physios at the University here In June, 
19'*3. 

Theodore Allen Velton (B.S. 1939, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 
Ph.D. I9U3, University of Illinois) began as Instructor In Physics here In June, 
19*»3, and remained on the staff until September^ l9'j-'+. 

Martin Joseph Arvln (A.B. I926, Indiana State Teachers College; M.S. 1930, . 
and Ph.D. 193**, University of Illinois) was engaged In secondary-school work be- 
fore Joining the staff at the University of Illinois In September, 19^+3, as In- 
structor In Physics. He remained here tmtll October, 19^5. 

George Currldan Baldwin (A.B. 1939, Kalamazoo College; M.A. 19^*1, and Ph.D. 
191*3, University of Illinois) became Instructor In Physics here In September, 19'»3, 
but resigned In September, 19W*. 

Carl Oliver Muehlhause (B.S. I9U0, University of Virginia; M.S. 19^*1, and 
Ph.D. 1943, University of Illinois) Joined the staff at the University here In 
September, I9U3, as Instructor In Physics. He also reslcned In September, I9M1. 

William David Rice (A.B. I928, Asbury College; A.M. 1933, University of 



■ji beBlBia&7 to 






e^arf />«^' .nlsT^rifl «• 



38U 
minola) taught a nuniber of years In secondary schools before coming to the Uni- 
versity In September, 19^*3, as Instructor In Physics, He too withdrew in September, 

Albert Jerold Hatch (B.S. in E.E. 1939, University of Illinois) became 
Lecture -Demonstrations Instructor in Physics here in September, I9U3. 

George Stanley Klaiber (B.A. 1938 and M.A. 1939, University of Buffalo; A.M. 
191*1, and Ph.D. 191*3, University of Illinois) Joined the staff as Instructor in 
Physics in September, I9U3, and retained that position vmtll September, 19^*^. 

Scott Anderson (B.S. I935, Illinote Weeleyan University; M.S. I936, and Ph.D. 
1940, University of Illinois), after some year's experience in teaching and in 
Industry, served as Instructor in Physics here from November, 19^1*, until June, 
191*5. 

Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (A.B. 19l*l, Hunter College of the City of New York; 
M.S. I9I+2, and Ph.D. 19U5, University of Illinole) became Instructor in Physics 
in September, 1944. 

Joseph Clare (M. Eng., I905, University of Liveirool; B.D., I9II, University 
of London Hackney College) served as Instructor in Physics from January until 
October, 19^5. 

Barnard Herschel Cmsinberry (B.S., I932, Lewis Institute; M.S., 1942, 
Drake University) also served as Instructor in Physics from January until October, 
1945. 

Klaus Schocken . (Ph.D. , I928, University of Berlin) after some years 
experience in teaching in secondary schools in this country, becane Inatnxctor 
in Physics in October, 1945, in the ASTP Program. 

H. SUMMAEY 
General - WhlJ.e the major portion of the instructional effort of the Depart- 
ment of Physics has been devoted to service for other departments and other 
colleges on the caayue, the staff has been able to provide its own curricular 
program for undergraduate students and to offer training to a vezy substantial 



:/eflts*0n j&na yt^l 



:I '.ijB^oetf (8lO£tl.UJ. to \v 



Jifil 



385 
list of gradtiata students that have gone out Into academic and Industrial positions. 

In spite of the heavy demands Inposed upon the staff by the Instructional 
work, the ffl9ol>erB of the group have been able to carry on very substantial re- 
search pirojects that have produced far-reaching benefits towards the advancement 
of the field of physics. The Inventions of the photo-electric cell and the 
betatron to say nothing of other developments that have contributed materially 
towards Improvements in this science, have been among the most Inportant In their 
day and have brought much credit to the Department In general and to tlie 
University In particular. 






."•TBa^eJiTB \i8v itci.opfxiip «^ QX<to jQ^etf evflxf q;tiot8 nAi to Bid<fin€«t adi '\:<iov 



e>il* r-j hns I«-tcflea «* ;^fl«Ed^flq[' ' -'©to iotm 



3S7 

C?L-iPTHR XII , " 

THE DEPAHTIiElJT OF MUNICIPAL AND SAIHTAHY SITOINESRIIIG 
A. ORGANIZATION OF THE DSPARHiENT 

Ge neral - The Department of liunicipal and Sanitary Engineering was organize! 
in I89O — about the time the applications of water-supply and aanitary engineer- 
ing were receiving serious attention on the part of cities and to\7ns that were 
urging the construction of better sewer, sanitary, and drainage facilities. In- 
stmction in these subjects had been previously given by the Department of Civil 
Engineering, but it was believed that a formal curriculiim for training city engi- 
neers would serve a public need and attract many students. This was probably the 
first curriculum to be established in a lanrl-.":j.ant otllc^^'e in the United States 
offering orga-iized instruction in m\inicipal and aanitary 3ngineering. 

B. lilSTRUCTIOH 

Conduct of Insti^uctio n - The cur ri culut; in iiunicii^pj. and Sanitary Engineer- 
ing, a modification of the one in Civil Unginoering, was described in the I89U-95 
Catalogue as being "designed for students desiring to make a specialty of city 
engineering work. It prepares for the various duties of engineers of the depart- 
ments of public works of cities and includes instruction in methods of sanitation 
of cities. 

"Instruction is given by lectures, textbooks, nnd seminary work; by field 
laboratory, and drafting work. The methods of training are intended to develop 
pov/cr to take up and solve nev; problems connected aith municipal works, as well 
as to design and su, iOi-int end the ordinary const i-nct ions. Surveying, structural 
materials, and structural design arc taught as in the civil engineoring courses. 
The studj^ of chemistry, botany, and bacteriology necessary to a comprehension of 
the questions involved in nat or- supply onginocring and sewage disposal arc given, 
and the facilities for this instruction arc very good. The jirinciplcs of the 
generation and transmission of electrical energy arc given. Head engineering, 
Wrator-supply engineering, and se'verage received special attention. A collection 
of dra'''ing3, plans, photographs, utc, ha.s boon added to the other equipment". 
1 Page 53. 



3SS 

The curriculum is described in a later pu^blicatioi-i of the University issued 

in 1919 entitled "The College of Engineering and Engineering Experiment Station, 

1 
a Pictorial Description," as offering "training in the design, construction, and 

operation of municipal public works, and considers generally the needs of city 

and community development. 

"The Department is concerned with the solution of engineering problems 
affecting the public health and welfare, a» the supply and distribution of potable 
Y/aters, the construction of means for furnishing a water supply, including wells, 
impounding reservoirs, and lake intakes, and the building of water purification 
works, the disposal and treatment of the sewage of a city and the drainage of 
streets. Instraction is given in the desigii and construction of pavcxnents, walks, 
bridges, viadu(;ts, a: d the several means for provii;n,? f n- public safety and 
health" . 

C. ROOA ACCOM'iODATIONS 

General - The Department moved into qvuirters on the s.econd fleer of the west 

wing of Engineering Hall as soon as the buil>iiiig was completed in IS9U. Its 

2 
assignment included the departmental office, a drafting room, a thesis room, and a 

seminary and lecture room. There was also a recitation room, an office and a com- 

imting room adjacent or. the sjamo floor for the work in theoretical and applied 

mechanics. 

The Department had a large collection of plans, prints, specifications, re- 
ports, and photographs, covering municipal aiid sanitary-onginccring subjects. 
D. LABORATORY FACILITIES 

General - The 1921-22 issue of The Register contained the following state- 
ment: "The hydraulic laboratory is well equipped with apparatus illustrating the 
laws of hj'-draulics as apjjlicd in waterworks and sewerage practice, aiid it also 
contains a small rapid sand filter, a small slow aand filter, several arrangements 
of dosing siphons, a model of a water-purification plant and models illustrating 
the disposal of sewage by Imhoff tarJcs, sprinkling filters, and sand filters". 

1 Page 12 

2 Room 20U 

3 Page 131 



389 



Sanitary angineering Laljoratory 19l4-192h - The original exr^erinental onni- 
tary laboratory conntmctod in I91U-I5, was located in a small frarie building that 
stood on University property east of Goodwin Avenue near the Boneyard between the 
Boneyard ?ind the street railway tracks. In 1922, the plant was enlarged in 
accordaJice v/ith plans providing for a cooperativG research project between the Do- 
partncnt of liunicipal and onnitary Sngineerin/^, the Dopartaent of Faiin llechanics, 
■and the State V/ater Survey Division, to study mothods of sewage disiiosal. The 
frame structure housed an olovatcd distribution trui!:, scdJ.ricntation tanks, dosing 
tanks, air and ox^y-gcn tarJ-:s, snail septic tanlcs such as might bo suitable for in- 
dividual rcsi donees ,?jid r.m-u.l institutions, trickli'.:' fjl.ors, puiaps and other 
devices, and c^ieaicals nee led for sewage and water .uial^B.. s. Sewage was taken 
from the Champaign and Urbana outfall sewer aiid '.7.-\s returned to it after treatment. 

The State Water Survey was especially iiit. rested in biological aspects of the 
a,ctivatGd slu Ige pi'ocess ajul trickling filtcrr, and alno in the operation of the 
nidus tank. The Dopartracnt of Farm ilpchanics was interested in the small septic 
tanks, and the Department of liuniciixal and Sanitary Znginecring in the distribu- 
tion of sewage on and in trickling filters. 

In 1924-25, the Choriical Foundation gave ¥1,000 from its receipts that had 
been collected from the use of the C-crm^in patents on the Imhoff taiilc process, 
towards the study of sewa.ge treatment at Illinois. The investigation was under- 
taken as a cooperative project between the Department of Municipal and Sanitary 
Engineering, the State Wn-ter Survey Division, and the Division of Sanitary Chemis- 
try . The fund from the Chemical Foun.Lation v/as pla.cod under the control of the 
Division of Sanitary Chemistry. 

V.'hcn the Department of Municipal and Sanitary Snginecring ^7as discontinued in 
1926, the work of the Sanitary Engineering Laboratoi'y ';?as transferred to the De- 
partment of Civil Engineering. 

5. FACULTY PSriSOiJIiEL 
a. Huad of the Department 

General - Arthur Ucv;ell Talbot served as Head of the Department of Municipal 



390 
find Sanitary Sngineerin^? from its inception in IS90 to its close in 1926. A 
portion of Professor Talbot's biographical sketch appears below. 

Arthur Ne'.7ell Talbot was born at Cortland, Illinois, on October 21, 1857, 
and was graduated from the civil-engineering curriculum at the University of 
Illinois in 1881. As a student young Talbot was noted for thoroughness of 
scholarship, breadth of interests, steadiness of purpose, and maturity of judge- 
ment. The average grade of his undergraduate studies was 9^ — an achievement 
that remained the record for many years. 

The student Talbot did not devote all of his time and energy to study, how- 
ever, but was active in extra-curricular activities. As the literary society was 
the chief source of interest outside of the classroom program during the days 
when he was a student, he took a prominent part in the affairs of the Philomathcan 
organization. He must have been a guiding spirit in the institution, for ho be- 
came in turn Secretary, Vice-President, and President of that organization. Pie 
served as delegate to the Interstate Oratorical Association, as Class Essayist, 
and for a year as Associate Engineering Editor of the Illini. It cannot be 
doubted that his interest in student literary activities and the training he re- 
ceived in that connection, helped to develop the precision and clearness in 
speech and writing which became one of his outstanding characteristics. He 
served also as a leader in student govci'nmcnt and as a ranking officer in the 
Cadet Corps. In addition to these activities, he gave instruction in preparatory 
mathematics and in his senior year, was a student assistant in Physics. 

After graduation he was engaged for four years in railroad surveying, 
construction, and maintenance of way in the ucst; and in June, I8S5, for his 
practical experience and the px'cparation of a thesis, he was granted the degree 
of Civil Engineer. It was then that he became a member of the Department of 
of Civil Engincorins. Ho remained v/ith this Department until June I89O, when he 
bccaiic Professor of Municipal and Sanitary Engineering. At that time also, he tos , 
formally placed in charge of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 
although for several years he had practically directed that work, and had already 



391 
inaugurated laboratory practice in materials testing and hydraulics. During the 
1890's, although seriously hampered by lack of money and suitable space, he 
gradually developed his work to a high degree of efficiency; and this did much to 
advance the status of the entire College, since all engineering students took 
mechanics and most of them hydraulics. 

Before the turn of the century. Professor Talbot had made contributions to 
the engineering profession in a nixmber of fields v/hich brought distinction to him 
and the College of Engineering, Ono of these earliest was a formula for areas of 
waterways for bridges and culverts, which was first published in 1837-88 in 
"Selected Papers of the Civil 3ngincers' Club," — an organization that later be- 
came The Technograph. Another was a formula for rates of maximum rainfall. This 
was also published in an early issue of The Tcchnograph. Both formulas have been 
often quoted and widely used and boar his name today. A small treatise on a very 
flexible method for layin,^ out casement spirnlc. at the ends of circular curves 
(first described by him in Volume 5 of The Tcciinograph issued in IB9O-9I) was 
publiehcd in 1399 as "The Bailway Transition Spiral". It has gone through several 
editions and has been used by many railroads. His pioneer work in sewage treat- 
ment by means of septic tanks later made it possible for municipalities to contest 
certain patent claims on methods and principles of sewage disposal. During this 
period his investigations provided standard tests of paving brick for strength 
and abrasion. Before the age of forty ho had made important contributions in 
hydrology, railway engineering, sanitary engineering, and testing materials. 
After the era of expansion in engineering schools began, mechimics and engineering 
materials absorbed the attention of Professor Talbot oven more than sanitary engi- 
neering; and without a change in title, the emphasis of his work swung to the 
field of theoretical and applied mechanics. 

b. Other Professors 

Harold Eton Babbitt- See Civil Engineering, Ch^ipter VIII 
c. Associates 

__ Roy Harley Slocum (3.S. in ^.S. 1900, and C.3. I9IO, University of Illinois) 

1 The rcriaindcr of Professor Talbot's biography appears under Theoretical and 
Applied Mechanics. 



X 



392 
served as Assistant in the Department of Theoretical and Applied liechanics during 
I9OI-O2 and Instructor during 1902-05. He becane Instructor in M\inicipal and 
Sanitary Engineering in I905 and Associate in I906. He withdrc\7 in I907 to be- 
come Professor of Civil Engineering at North Dalcota Agricultural College — a 
position he has held to date. 

George Conrad Haberineycr (5.S. in C.S. I903, University of Illinois) was em- 
ployed in engineering practice for four years after gradiJation, then in Sopt ember 
1907, joined the College staff here as Instructor in Municipal and Sanitary Engi- 
neering. He became Associate in I909, and remained vith the Department until 
1913, when he resigned to rc-cntcr engineering practice. In I916, he became 
connected '.vith the State Water Sui-voy Division and continued with it until 1928, 
serving during I9I8-I9 as Acting Chief. 

Paul_ Hanse n (B.S. in Sanitary Engineering, I903, Hassachusctts Institute of 
Technology) v/ar. engaged in public-hnalth engineering for several years after gradu- 
ation. He beciune Chief Engineer for the Illinois State Water Survey and Associate 
in Municipal njid Sanitary Enginceriiag at the University here in 191I. He resigned 
this position in 1915 to bccono Chief Engineer of the Illinois State Department of 
Health at Springfield. From I920 until his death on February 6, I9UU, he was a 
member of the firm of Pearse, Greely, and Haiison (later Grocly and Hansen) Con- 
sulting Engineers. 

d. Instructors 

Hoy Victor Engstrom - See Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Chapter XII, 

Harvey Ellison Murdock (3.3. in M.E. 1906, i'i.E. I9O8, and C.E. I9II, Uni- 
versity of Colorado) served as Instructor in Muiiicipal and Sanitary Engineering 
here from 1906 to I909, and in Theoreticc-a and Applied Liechanics from 1909 to 
September 1912, after which he became interested in irrigation work in the West. 
Mr. Murdock was author of a textbook entitled "Strength of Materials". 
F.THE DSPAEiruSNT DISCOHTIIWED 

General - Due to one cause or aiiother, the curriculum in Municipal and Sani- 
tary Engineering never attracted any considerable number of students. The reason 



393 

for this is not clear. Certainly the content of the curricxilun and the instiixc- 
tion were not inferior to those of other more popular curricula in the College. 
Possibly the small registration was due in some measure to the usual uncertainty 
of tenure of office of city engineers. 

At the time Professor Talbot was retired from teaching and administrative 
duties, on September 1, I926, the Department was discontinued and the work was 
transferred to the D,:,partmnnt of Civil Sngineoring, which offered a nev? option 
in Sanitary Engineering to provide for instruction in water supply, sewage dis- 
posal, and hydraulic engineering. Thit; option io described in some detail in a 
later chapter. 



39^ 

CiiAPTSR XI 11 

TH3 D3FAHTME1IT OF THEORETICAL Al^'D AFPLIZD MSCEIinCS 

A. ORGAI'IIZATIOK OE THE IDSPAETIfflNT 

General - It was recognized nt an early date in the history of the Univer- 
sity that all students should have instruction in mechanics, the science that 
deals with the forces and deformations which must be considered in the design and 
construction of 'bridges, buildings, nachines, and other engineering structures, 
the materials of engineering, and the motions set up in machines. It was also 
recognized that there should also be instruction in hydraulics, which deals with 
the flow of water through pipes, canals, channels, and conduits, and the problems 
to be solved in the development of water po'7er. Accordingly, some work, although 
not designated by the -inae mechanics, was offered in the l870's; but about 1825, 
Professor Talbot, wlto for long years aftervards was Head of the Department, 
initiated some orgajiized instruction in engineering materials. 

The Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics was made a separate 
organization though in I89O, by combining instruction in mechanics for all engi- 
neering students into one service department. This plan, which has become common 
in most of the engineering schools, h ao bc e omo ooLimoft in aoat &j^"t-fatr-efigineering 
schools, has proved to an advantageous arrangement for it has created interest in 
the particular fields of its divisions, has fostered proficiency in instinictional 
methods, and has stimiilated effort in analytical aJ'id experimental research. 

3. INSTRUCT 1 01' 

1 
General - In the University Catalogue and Circular of 139^-95. when the De- 
partment of Theoretical and Applied liechanics was first mentioned as a separate 
department, this statement appeared: "The courses in theoretical and applied 
mecharics are designed to meet the ne'^d of students in the College of Engineering. 
Training is given in the principles of the subject and in the application and 
methods used in engineering design and construction. The textbook '7ork is 
supplemented by lectures and reading. Streasi is placed on the solution of engi- 
neering problems involving discrimination in the use of data and in the state- 

mont of conditionst Experimental v/ork and investigations in the laboratory of 
- Page 56. 



395 
applied mechanics is a part of the regular inBtruction. Opportunity is also gi^ien 
for advanced laboratory investigation for thesis and special 'vork" . 

"?hile the Department has no curriculun ajid does not grant baccaulaureate 
degrees as most of the other departments do, it does act as a service department 
to give instruction in analytical mechanics, mechanics of materials, and hy- 
draulics, not only to students of all the other departments of the College of 
Engineering, but also to students in the College of Liberal Arts jind Sciences and 
in the College of Commerce — all students in Chemicjil Engineering and Industrial 
Administration being required to register in some courses in this particular 
field of engineering. In addition, the Department has many students registered 
in advanced courses looking towards the U.S. rmd Ph.D. degrees. 

In a publication entitled "The Function of the Laboratory in Engineering 
Education," John Sanford Feck brought together a number of statements made by 
various instractors concerning the objectives to be attained by laboratory in- 
struction in mechanics, from which the folio iving have been selected: 

"Boomsliter, in 1930, published the most comprehensive stud;;- of the work 
of the materials testing laboratory that had been made up to that time. He listed 
seven objectives, with the comment that the emphasis on thorn varied widely in 
different schools. These objectives were: 

1. To give the student first-hand kno'vlcdge of the behavior of materials. 

2. To acquaint him './ith the various types of testing ajjparatus and their 
o]jeration. 

3. Drill in the standard tests of materials. 

h. To enable him to make intelligent selection of materials for various 
purposes. 

5. To show the effects of alloys and variations in quality on the various 
properties of materials. 

b. Drill in curve plotting and the interpretation of curves. 

7. Drill in report writing. 

"Boonslitcr also listed four additional objectives which he credited to H. 
?. Moore, Research Professor of Engineering Materials at the University of 
Illinois. They were: 

1. A study of the laws of mechanics of materials. 

2. A study of the basic properties of materials of construction. 

1 193 (S, pages 1^-15. 



396 

3. Training in the technique of handling testing apparatus. 

h. Secondary purposes: 

a. 'The presenting of contact bctweon college and industry. 

■5. Devolopcicnt in the student of an appreciation of the proper degree 

of accuracy and sensitivity in experimental vjork. 
c. Study of the mechanical substitutes for nathenatical analysis. 

"According to Boomsliter, lioorc held that some laboratories v>cro used entire- 
ly for the second puiT)Osc while others combinod one and two from his list. 

"The latest contribution was made by Draifin in 1932. Kc stressed these 
objectives : 

1. To teach the student to observe the behavior of a typical material, such 
as wood, or steel, under a given t:,'pe of loading. 

2. To relate the action under load with the mathematical analysis which he 
has studied in the classroom. 

3. To draw a conclusion from his work. 

'Df this la^t objective. Draff in has this to say: 

This last is one of the most important and educational parts of the exercise 
the student has done a piece of work and he is now asked to evaluate it. Perhaps 
the conclusions v;hich should be drawn are obvious, but it is surprising how many 
obvious things are unseen or not considered important until one is trained to 
look for them '" . 

Further mention regarding instruction in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 

is made as follows in a I9U0 publication of the College of Engineering: 

"Courses in theoretical and applied mechanics are required in all the engi- 
neering curricula. The purpose of the courses is to teach the student to analygc 
and solve engineering problems by applying the principles of mathematics and of 
physics to conditions as they arise in the design, construction, and operation of 
engineering structures and machines. In the well- equipped laboratories, the stu- 
dent tests many engineering materials, such as steel, brass, aliiminum, timber, and 
concrete, to dctorrainc the various properties that arc needed in the use of the 
materials in design and construction, and in the writing of specifications for 
the materials. In the hydraulics laboratory, he performs experiments on the flow 
of water in pipes and oiicn channels, and determines the operating characteristics 
of different kinds of pumps and turbines. A number of advanced courses in the 
analysis of stresses in materials, in testing of materials, and in hydraulics arc 
offered, which may be elected by junior and senior students. A large amount of 
research work is carried out in the laboratories, some of which involve tests of 
large members. Students are encouraged to follow the progress of this investi- 
gational work."-^ 

Undergraduat c Registration in T.c: A.ii. Course s, I9II-I9UU - The following 
figures in Table XIX give the total registration by years of undergraduate stu- 
dents in the various courses offered by the Department of Theoretical and Applied 



1 University of Illinois Bulletin, Vol.XIuvVIII, October 29, I9U0, No. 10, page I7, 



397 
Mechanics: 

TABLE XIX- UNDERGRADUATE REGISTRATION IN COURSES 
IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED IIECK/'J-ilCS, 1911-191+^ 

1911-12 1579 

1912-13 1759 

13 -iH 1750 

II4-15 1287 

15-16 1297 

16-17 1229 

17-lS 899 

18-19 767 

19-20 1370 

20-21 1352 

21-22 1379 

22-23 1197 

23- 2U 115s 

24-25 1081 

25-26 IIS3 

26-27 13^^ 

27-28 13 6U 

22-29 1-+0S 

29-30 . i4oo 

30-31 21S5 

31-32 23S2 

32-33 1902 

33-3^ 1595 

3M5 1613 « 

35-36 1682 

36-37 1^21 

37-3S 2I413 

38-39 26SO 

39-^0 2660 

Uo-4i 2553 

U1-U2 21+63 

U2-U3 2135 

k^-kk 2269 

Comparison of figures after I93O-3I 'vith thoseof preceding years is difficult 
iDecause of the renumbering of courses a^id the changes in course arrangement made 
at that time. The peak of enrollment for the thirty-three year period, no doubt, 
was reached in 1932-39 though when the registration totalled 2.680. 
C. BUILDING AIID ROOM ACCOliiODATIONS 

General - The laboratory of applied mechanics, first mentioned as such in the 
I893-9U issue of the University Catalogue and Circular, was located principally on 
the first floor of Machinery Hall (old Mechanical Building and Drill Kail). After 
this building and its contents wore almost entirely destroyed by firu in I9OO, a 
new structure called the Laboratory of Applied Mechanics, was erected in I902, that was 
1 Courses renumbered. 



39 S 
devoted entirely to mechanics and hydraulics. The two-story front of this build- 
ing was used for mechanics — the first floor being given over to laboratory work 
and the upper floor being used for offices and computing rooms. The one-story 
rear portion was fitted up for a hydraulic laboratory. The Department continued 
to use some class rooms and offices in Engineering Hall, and in addition, It tool: 
over in I906 the v^est end of the north bay added to the Mechanical Engineering 
Laboratory for experimental work in reinforced concrete. It transferred its 
equipment from this location to the northeast room of the basement and first 
floor of the Ceramics Building when that structure was completed in I916. Further- 
more, in 1919, the Department arranged the upper room at the north end of the old 
Boneyard heating plant for a fat igue-of -metals laboratory. However, all of these 
experimental laboratories were transferred to the Hew Materials Testing Labora- 
tory (later called the Arthur Newell Talbot Laboratory) when that building was 
completed in ig29 . 

D. DSVEL0Hi31W OF LABOHATORY FACILITIES III • 

THEORETICAL AlO APPLIED IIECiiAillCS 

Ma terials Testing Laboratory. iSog-igOS - The College of Engineering had been 
established twenty years before it offered any systematic engineering laboratory 
work, although in the early 1870 's Professor Robinson in giving instruction in 
Physics, so enthused his students in resistance of materials and hydraulics that 
they built apparatus v/ith their own hands that they might conduct experiments. 
For example, thoy made two pieces of apparatus for testing the flexure of wooden 
"beams" (sticks one to one and one-half inches square and twenty-four to thirty 
inches long), and another piece of apparatus for detei'mining the elongation of 
wires. 

Though compelled to pump the water from a well and carry it up a flight of 
stairs, students in the class in hydraulics made two tanks and conducted experi- 
ments in the flow of water through a variety of orifices. These two scries of 
experiments occupied many afternoons and Saturdays of most of the members of 
these classes. They showed commendable inventive ability and a surprising degree 
of accuracy, and gave valuable training in interpreting observed results and in 



399 
eliminating sources of error. All three sets of apparatus were aften/ards used 
for several years in the classes in pliysics laboratory practice. 

More extended instruction in applied meciaanics and hydraulics began about 
I877 under Professor Hobinson with such improvised equipment and apparatus as he 
could provide from his onn resources. When Professor Talbot began to teach He- 
si stance of Materials in 1385, he introduced the use of a small home-made bean- 
testing machine for showing the agreement between the conx'uted and observed de- 
flection of several forms of beams. In 1837, he received an extensoneter for use 
in class instruction. Some of the woric done by students with those two machines 
was exhibited at the 'World's Colmibian Exposition in Chicago in 1393. 

As illustrating one of the diff icultio;; of securing laboratory apparatus, 
the follo-.'dng may bo cited. One of the engincV:ring professors upon going to the 
Regent and urging the desirability of the University securing a materials testing 
machine, 'vas told rather sharply that it was "the function of a teacher to stand 
part '.7ay up the mount of hnowlcdgo and liand down inforr^iation to those below". 
However, late in the same year, 1S37, the Regent apparently without further urging 
or even request, bought a 100,000-pound Riohle materials testing machine which 
was installed early in 1883 and put to use in instruction and investigation. The 
first use of this machine was by Professor Balcer in investigations in connection 
with the first edition of his book on "Masonry Construction" then in preparation; 
and the first class instruction with this machine was by Professor Tolbot on 

February 25, 1888. 

2 
The I89I-92 Catalogue and Circular made mention of the Testing Laboratory as 

follows: "The testing laboratory has a Richie Testing machine of 100,000-pound 

capacity, a smaller apparatus for testing beams, a Richie cement testing machine, 

a stone grinder for preparing test pieces of stone, a rattler for abrasion tests 

of stone and brick, v;ith other apparatus for making all necessary measurements 

and observations, molds, standard sieves for cement, etc. The laboratory is 

fitted up as a working laboratory where students may acquire such practice in 

1 Price at factory $1100 

2 Page hi . 



4oo 

experimental work as engineers are called upon to perform, as well as for the 

purpose of illustrating principles as for use in original investigations. The 

ordinary work includes testing metal, wooden 'beams, cement briquettes, and stone 

and brick" . 

1 
The 1892-93 Catalogue and Circular stated "The testing laboratory located in 

Machinery Hall, gives opportunities to students of the College of Znginecring to 
maice various practical experiments and tests, and to prosecute original investi- 
gations in the linos of their specialties". 

In IS93, the legislative appropriations were sufficient to allow the Board 
of Trustees on July 6, 1393, at their first meeting after the passage of the bill 
to grant to Professor Talbot an amount of ;?1,700 for the materials testing 

laboratory, '.Vith this money, there was added in 189^ a Tinius Olscn testing 

2 
machine arranged for tension, compression, and cross-bending tests, with a 

capacity of 100,000 pounds for beam loading and 200,000 pounds for center loading, 
the machine taking beams up to 20 feet in length. By tiiat time, the laboratory 
was fairly well equipped, for it had already acquired a 100,000 pound Richie test 
ing machine, as previously stated, an Olscn cement testing machine, and a machine 
for testing small beans. There was added vithin the next two years or so a 
10,000-pound Hiehlc wir.-. testing mn.chinc}, a large collection of cxtcncomctcrs, 
dcf lectometers, scales, micrometers, calipers, and other measuring devices. A 
little later, there was added several smaller testing machines, and apparatus for 
testing wood in shear, and for determining the shearing strength of rivets and 
the strength of riveted joints. There were also devices for holding and testing 
cables and a variety of different forms of test pieces and test structures/ 3y 
1900, the equipment of the laboratory v;as brou,giit uj^ to bo, in variety and com- 
pleteness, as good cr better than that in any other, except perhaps two, of the 
engineering schools of the country. During this period the laboratory'" methods 
of instxniction were developed and perfected to be second to none. 

In this laboratory some excellent thesis work was done which gave new in- 
formation of value — tests of large size timber beams, tests of riveted joints, 

1 Page 25 

2 Cost at factory 31,550. 



UOI 

tests of shearing strength of rivets, impact tests of '.voodcn beans, etc. The 

most noted of these ^7as aJi investigation made in I896 on the method of testing 

brick by means of the rattler. This investigation proved to have a marked effect 

upon testing methods and engineering practices. The use of brick for paving vjas 

comparatively no'.7, and the testing of paving brick was in a very confused state. 

The National Brick Manufacturers' Association had recently completed an elaborate 

series of experiments and proposed a standard method of testing paving brick which 

had been 'jidely adopted. Mr. Henry J. Burt, G.I]. '96 as his graduating thesis 

under the direction of Professor Talbot, made a series of tests on paving brick 

and secured results '7hich afterwards enabled Professor Talbot to convince the 

parties interested of the need of making radical changes in the then standard 

method of testing paving brick. Thereafter, the method developed by Professor 

Talbot and Mr. Burt became the accepted standard. 

In June 1900, the building housing the Inboratory '7as burned and practically 

1 
all of the equipment \7as sevcrly damaged or destroyed. During tiuj year follo'7ing 

very little work could be offered in materials testing. 'Vliat little that was 
done along that line, \7as carried on in a room on the ground floor of the 



1 "The first large-sized testing machine bought by the laboratory was a Riehle 

100,000-pound machine operated by a liydraulic cylinder with the load measured 
by compound levers and a moving poise. In the Inventory Record this machine is 
marked 'Destroyed in the Fire of I9OO'. However, only the poise and the scale 
beam v/ere destroyed. The remainder of the machine was stored in the basement 
of the old TM A.M. building until about I9IO or I9II, V7hen I designed a 
pendulum v/eighing device, had it built in the old T.& A.ii. s!5:op, and put on the 
machine and calibrated. A small hydraulic pump was bought fcr the machine, and 
the machine itself v/as used for five or six years. The apparatus was eventually 
loaned to another department for some special tests, it was ovarloaded, and the 
main levers broken. The hydraulic cylinder of the machine is now stored under 
the Engineering Building. 

"The 200,000-pound Olsen machine now in the Talbot Laboratory was injured in 
the fire of I9OO. I do not know hov/ badly it was damaged, but in I902 it was 
repaired and used by Professor Talbot on his first series of tests of reinforced 
concrete beams. It has been in use ever since. It has not been calibrated for 
some years, but when last calibrated was found to have a good accuracy, but a 
rather low sensitivity on account of the blunted knife edges. 

"In the Inventory Record there is also a designation of the 10,000-pound 
wire testing machine which is marked as 'Destroyed by the Fire of 1900'. I 
liave never seen any 'remains' of that machine, so I tske it that that one was 
destroyed. 

"A large number of pieces of au;ciliary apparatus and some strain-measuring 
equipment were also destroyed in the fire ofigOO". - Letter from Professor H. 
F. I'ioorc dated November 6, 19^3 • 



Mechnjiical and Slectricf^il Sngineering LaTJoratory. 

Materials Testing Laboratories. 1902-1929 - The materials testing laboratoij/ 
of the Department of Theoretical and A-pplied liechanics occupied the new Labora- 
tory of Applied Meclianics completed in I902. Under the direction of Professor 
Talbot, the equipment '.vas extended as rapidly as possible, and there '7as soon 
assembled machines for class room and exijerimental use in testing specimens for 
tension, compression, fle:cure, torsion, and irrp'ict . The most notcvorthy pieces 
of apparatus included the 100,000-200,000-pound capacity Olsen machine obtained 
in I89U as previously mentioned; a 100,000-pound, 2-screw machine, obtained from 
the Philadelphia liachine Tool Company in 1902; a 230,000-inch-pound Olscn torsion 
machine obtained in 1902; a 10,000-pound long beam type of iiand-po'.7cr Riehle 
machine obtai; ed in I903; a 100,000-pound, 2-GCre\7, Hiehle testing machine with 
autographic recorder, received in I90U; and a vortical testing machine of a new 
type that had a capacity of 600,000 pounds. This last-nsimcd machine at the time 
of its const i-uct ion, \7as one of the largest in any laboratory devoted to edu- 
cational purposes, and is described in some detail in the follo'.7ing paragraphs. 

"During the first half of the year I905, there was installed in the 
Laboratory of Applied I'ocl-ianics a bOO, 000-pound testing machine of the vertical 
scre\7 type. It was the largest vertical scrov; machine that had been built up to 
that time and liad many novel features in the degi,';^. Coupled 'jith its large 
capacity ^7as an unusual distance between screws and a height which admitted of 
vciy long and bulky specimens. Among the novel features were guide columns to * 
take the thrust due to eccentric loads, rtxoil cylinders to lessen the blow on 
the knife edges when the lead was suddenly released by the breaking of the 
specimen, do ubl 0-7/ ebbed levers to distribute the load more evenly over the knife 
edges, and a new style of poise ai'rangement . 

"The machine was built by the Riohlc Bros. Testing Machine Company of 
Philadelphia in accordance with designs furnished by the Department. It was a 
universal testing machine and was designed for tests in tension, compression, and 
cross-bending. It was intended to tal^c columns, long tost pieces, beams, large 
irregular shapes, reinforced concrete, stone and brick construction, built-up 
metal trusses, and a great variety of other forms of test pieces. 

"The Vertical type was necessitated by the fact that with spt^cimens of any 
considerable length in a horizontal position it is impossible to determine with 
accuracy the increase in stress due to the weight of the specimen, itself, and 
this is especially'' ti'ue of such materials as concrete and reinforced concrete. 

"The machine rested on a bed of concrete four feet thick. The Irving 
gears and lovers wore below the floor level, which was .level with the tox) of the 



1 "The 600-OOO-pound Testing I'iachinc, " by P.A.Iiandall, in Tcchnogral^h,190U-05, No . 
19, page 103-108. 



i403 
v/cighing tatlc. 

"The dimensions of tho machine '.voi'c: 

Extreme height 30 feet 3 inches 

Extreme length, including motor 17 feet inches 

3xtremo widtli 10 feet S inches 

Distance bet'.veen scre'js 3 feet inches 

Height above floor 30 feet & inches 

height 130,000 pounds 

"The machine could take compression members 25 feet long. It could handle 
tension specimens 22 feet long with 20/i elongation in 20 feet. The grips could 
talce pieces 6 inches round or square to 3/^ inch round or square, and specimens 
12 inches by U inches or less. It could take transverse pieces 10 feet by 3 feet 
Y/ide. 3y means of an I-bear.i extension to the vrei^^hing table, the length of tho 
specimen in transverse test could be 25 feet. 

"The machine was built especially for the University in connection with 
the Engineering Exjieriment Station, but was also used for instructional purposes". 

During I905, there \.'as received also a 100,000-pound Olson, 3-scren universal 
testing machine, and in l^Oo, a 10,000-pounri capacity hand-po'.ver Olsen machine. 
There were obtained, in addition, during these years, a number of extensometers 
and auxiliary.- pieces of apparatus, many of "hich '.7erc designed by members of the 
Department. In I906, when the north bay of tho !-:>..chanical Engineering Laboratory 
was completed and o.dclitional space was provided at the west end of it for making, 
storing, and testing concrete test specimens, there V7as installed there a com- 
pression machino made up of four hydraulic jacks .-uid pumps havin,;; a total capacity 
of about 800,000 pounds for conducting o;cperimonts involving tho uso of external 
pressure on largo rings, such as US-inch by 100-inch culvert pipes, embedded in 
saiid. In 1907, there was installed in the main laboratory a lO.OOO-pouiid Olson 
hand-operated U-scrow, urdvcrsal machine; .-iind duri:;^" 1907-05, tliore were provided 
a l'>0, 000-pound, y-scrcw Kichlc machine, mid a Purdue tyj^o of impact machine made 
by the Licchanical Engineering Department of Purdue University. In I9IO, there 
were added a 100,000-pound, 2-screw Hichlo machine, and a 10,000 inch-pound HiclUe 
torsion machine; while in I912, there was procured a 50,000-pound, 2-screw Riehle 
machine with autographic recorder. 

Tncn the Ceramics Building was corajilcted in I916, a large double story room 
extending from the basement floor to tho coiling of the main floor in the north- 
east corner of the building was assigned to tho Department of Theoretical and 



Applied Mechanics for research v7ork in concrete and reinforced concrete. A new 
300,000-pound Olsen testing machine V7as installed there and remained there until 
the ne'.7 Materials Testing Laboratory '.vas completed in I929. 

A new Olsen testing machine of 100,000-pound capacity was added to the equip- 
ment of the Department during the summer of I920. The machine 'vas of three- screw 
type £ind was independently driven by a reversible electric motor through a system 
of spur reduction gears. Four speeds vrere provided for running the head in each 
direction. There '.vas installed, also at that tine, a 10, 000- inch- pound Pdehle 
torsion machine, a 10,000-pound Olson liand-pcver bean testing machine, and a 
10,000-pound Hiehle hand-po'-zer bean tostin;^ machine. A 50,000-pound Richie com- 
pression machine for testing mortar specimens and a Honr^/ L. Scott and Company 
machine of 1,000 pounds capacity for testin.;: -.'ire and flat netal specimens v/ere 
added in 1921-22. During I923-2U, a 250-pound Henry L. Scott and Company verti- 
cal machine; v;as installed for testing rubber, fabrics, and so on. 

A ncv/ 100,000-pound testing machine made by Amslor at Schaffhauson, Switzer- 
land, '.vas delivered in I925-26. It rc:prescntr.d the best European practice in 
testing machines and was regarded by Professor Talbot as in some ways the best 
testing machine built. It was especially adapted to rapid and accurate testing. 

Bcggs dofometors and a Rocln7ell hardn>:!ss tester were added in 192-1-25, and 
a new 200,000-pound Hiohlcj testing machine T7as installed in I927. In addition, 
during I927-2S, there was provided a 5i 000-pound Aiehle motor-drivon transverse 
testing machine equipped with an autographic attachment. Additional equipment 
acquired in I92S included an Olsen -ire testing mM.chino of 1,000 poiinds capacity 
and a 50,000-pound Rielilo, l-scrc"/, testing machin.;, fitted with a largo table 
aad high head. 

ilntorials Testing Laboratories I927-I9U5 - ".Vhon the ncv.' Materials Testing 
Laboratory Building, nor? the Arthur I'le-vell Talbot Labor,'-\tory, 7/aa completed in 
1929, the testing equipment used for instructional purjioses was luoved from the 
old Laboratory of Applied Mechanics into t'-'o large rooms on the third floor of 
the new building. Ilew machines were added as funds permitted, so that I9U5, the 



south room of the two contains the following equii)ment, mostly small-capacity 
machines'; ijractically all of which have been mentioned in previous sections; two 
hand-power Hiehle 10, 000 -inch-pound torsion machines, one procured in I9IO and 
one in 1920 ; two 5.000 inch-pound hand-power torsion testing machines designed by 
H. I. Moore and built by the J. '^. Hayes Com mny of Urbana in 1931; two Olsen hand- 
power beam-testing machines of 10,000 pounds capacity, one bought in I906 and one 
in 1920 ; two Henry L.Scott and Company tensile testing machines, one of 1,000 
pounds capacity purchased in 1922 and one of 250 poxinds capacity procured in 
I923-2U; two Hiehle hand-power bean testing machines of 10,000 pounds capacity, 
one obtained in I9O3 and one in I92O; one Olsen Izod haind-power impact machine of 
10 foot-pound capacity purchased in 1923; one Olsen, 3-screw testing machine with 
dial indicator and autograjiiiic recording devi:e, of 50,000-pound capacity, secured 
in 1938; one i and-oporated 10,000-pound Olsen testing machine made with four snail 
screws, obtained in I907 ; fUid one fatigue-of-motals machine and one testing 
machine built by the University. 

In I9U5, the north room of the Materials Testing Laboratory ^n the same floor 
contains the following equipment: One 100,000-pound 2-scre'7, testing machine se- 
cured from the Philadelphia Hachinc Tool Compfin.-,- in 1902; one 100,000-pound Riehle 
2-scrcv/ machine with autographic recorder purchased in I90U ; one 100, 000- pound, 
3-scrcw testing machine obtained in I905; one 100,000-pound 2-screw Richie machine 
purchased in I907 ; one 100,000-po-und 2-sciyiw Hiehle machine received in I9IO; 
one Hiehle 50 , 000-poixnd 2-serc^7 machine with autographic recorder obtained in 
1912; one 100, 000- pound 3-scrcw Olsen machine obtained in I92O; one 50,000-pound 
3-scrcw machine purchased in I92S; one 5»000-pound Hiehle beam machine with auto- 
graphic recorder, procured in I92S; and one 60, 000-pound, 2-screw, Southwark- 
Dmory hydraulic type obtained in 1932 and installed in the space formerly 
occupied by the L'OO , 000-pound Riehle machine -/hich was obtained in I927 and which 
had been transferred to the large crane bay on the first floor. 

The equipment in this room as well as that described in the proceding para- 
graph, is regularly devoted to instructional purposes and has been the means for 
enabling students to acquire some proficiency in the h?.indling of testing machines 
and in obtaining thereby a working knovdedge of thuir operating characteristics, 
and in the examination of the materials of construction ordinarily employed in 



koS 
engineering practice; when it is not so engaged, however, it is frequently used 
for experimental service. 

Concrete Research Laboratories 1929-19^5 - ^^len the new Materials Testing 
Laboratory, now the Arthur Newell Talbot Laboratoiy, was completed in I929, the 
apparatus used by the Departments of Theoretical and Applied liechanics and Civil 
Engineering for materials testing was transferred to this new building. The con- 
crete laboratory used for research purposes occupies the southeast rring of the 
ground floor of the building and the east end of the small crane bay, imdi is 
under the direction of Professor F.3. Hichart. This space provides storage for 
concrete materials and reinforcing steel, concrete mixers, a concrete saw, a core 
drill, and other tools and equipment used in fabricating and testing members built 
of plain and roinforcod concrete. There are large moisture rooms fitted with 
temperature control to euro test spccimcins ujidor sta,ndard conditions. The small 
bay is equipped with a 300,000-pound GlsorT vmiversal testing machine with a 
22-foot table, used for testing reinforced concrete beams and slabs, and with a 
6-ton overhead ti'aveling crane to facilitate the handling of test specimens. 

Engineering Materials Laboratory 1929-19^5 -The engineering materials re- 
search laboratory, shared with the Department of Civil Engineering as previously 
stated, occupies all of the large crane bay and is designed primarily to study 
the behavior of large specimens of \700d, metal, and reinforced concrete under 
various systems and conditions of loading. The large crane bay is equipped with 
a number of heavy testing machines for examining large structural members under 
something like service conditions. The largest of these is the 3.000,000-pound 
capacity machine described in some detail in the follov/ing statements summarized 

from an article in The Technograph by Professor ?aibur M.Wilson entitled "The 

2 
3,000,000-Found Testing Machine of the Materials Testing Laboratory". 

A new testing machine liaving a capacity of 3.000,000 pounds in either tension 

or com.prossion was installed in the Materials Testing Laboratory, now the Arthur 

Kcwell Talbot Laboratory, in 1929-3O. The machine was built and erected by the 

1 This is the machine which was installed in the Ceramics Building by Professor 
Talbot in 1916. 

2 May, I930, pages I53-I5U 



South"7ark Foundry and Machine Company of Philadelphia, under a license issued 
from the Emery-Tatnall Company, The operation of the mechanism is partly mechani- 
cal and partly hydraulic. The equipment ia uoed. jnintly by the DepartmeJ^-t-" ^^ 
Theoretical and Applied Mechjinics and Civil Engineering for.woi'F- in research in- 
volving heavy loadings. It is located on the ground floor of the lai'ge crane 
bay, and occupies the full height of the building, extending U9 feet 6 inches 
above the floor line and 15 feet belon that level. The maximum clear height from 
the bottom of the compression head to the top of the bed of the machine is 32 
feet 6 inches. The clear distance bet"een screws is 7 feet 6 inches. 

The main screws, v/hich are steel forgings, have a total length of 57 feet 
S inches, an outside diameter of 12 inches, nnd weigh 11 tons. Acting as tension 
members, the screws resist the full capacity of the machine, 3.0^.000 pounds. 
The screws do not turn when being loaded and therefore arc not subjected to com- 
bined tension and torque. These screws, operated by means of a 50-horsepower 
motor, move the pulling head at a rspecd of 2 foot a minute. Tho load delivered 
to the specimen under investigation is measured by means of the Emery Hydraulic 
support built into tho pulling head. This support consists essentially of a rein- 
forced diaphrni^m whose area subjected to oil pressure is definite and kno\7n. The 

resistance of the specimen produces a }irossurc in the oil, which is measured by 

of three Emery precision gages 

means of an electric autographic recording rarchanism and also by mcans.having 

capacities of 200,000, 1,000,000, and 3,000,000 pounds respectively — tho small 
gages being provided to give a greater sensitivity at small loads. The pressure 
of the oil in the cylinder when the machine is \7oiicing to full capacity is 
approximately 1,800 pounds a square inch. The pressure is developed by means of 
a Helc-Shaw pump directly connected to a 15-horscpowcr motor having a speed of 
1,500 r.p.m. By means of an automatic regulator, the load can be maintained 
constant for a period of several hours. 

The machine is used for testing full-size steel and concrete columns, 
masonry piers, steel cables, riveted and welded joints, cyc-bars, car couplers, 
chord members of bridges, cast iron and steel pipe, and other heavy structural 
materials. 



Uos 

This large crane bay also houses the previously-described 600,000-pound 
testing machine transferred from the laboratory of Applied Mechanics to the new 
location when the building was completed in 1929- It houses, in addition, the 
300,000-pound Hiehle universal testing machine purchased in I923, which is 
capable of handling a 20-foot beam, coliunn, or tension member, and which was 
formerly located in the old Boneyard Boiler House after a portion of it had been 
remodelled for a structural laboratory. Besides these, there is the 230,000-inch 
pound Olsen torsion machine obtained in 1902; the 200,000-pound Riehle testing 
machine which was transferred from the north room of the Materials Testing 
Laboratory in 1932; the Olsen testing machine having a capacity of 100,000 poxinds 
for beam loading and 200,000 pounds for center loading, which was obtained in 
I89U; a Riehle 30,000-pound, 3-r,crew machine 'vith autographic attachment, pui'- 
chased in I92U; a Riehle 3,000-k:ilogram Brinell hardness testing machine obtained 
in I92U; and the Purdue impact machine secured in 1907-OS. A].l of these machines 
except the Brinell instrument were mentioned in previous statements. 

The many tests that have been run with the machines in this laboratory have 
provided a groat mags of data used as basis for the publication of a long list of 
bulletins by the Engineering Experiment Station that have served to clear uj) 
many of the problems relating to the design and construction of machines, 
structures, and other fabrications made up of iron, stool, concrete and "reinforced 
concrete, timber, and other typos of ongineoring materials. 

Fat i gue-of -Metal s Laboratories - V/ork in the fatigue of metals, devoted to 
a study of the behavior of metals under action of repeated loadings, was started 
in 1919 by Professor H. F. Moore in a laboratory provided in the north end of 
the second floor of the old Boneyard Boiler liouse, which was later named the 
Electrical Engineering Annex. Various types of machines were set up in this 
room and were kept there until the new Materials Testing Laboratory was completed 
in 1929. Then, the equipment was transferred to the northwest room on the top 
floor of this now structure, and was composed of the following items: T'jenty-onc 
rotating-beain machines, three of them large size, aiid one capable of testing 
car-axle specimens 2 inches in diameter; three machines for testing metals under 



Uo9 

repeated twisting stress; three machines for testing metals under repeated 

tensile loading; t\70 machines for testing sheet metal under repeated bending, 

three of which were arranged to test the metal at elevated temperatures. Many of 

these machines were designed by the laboratory staff and were constructed in the 

laboratory shop. 

Ne'.T apparatus '7as added from time to time as funds rrere available. The 

1 
follo\7ing description in The Technograph gives some idea of the facilities on 

hand in 1935. 

"The fatigue of Metals Laboratory is one of the most completely equipped 
in any college in the country. There are over ko machines varying from small 
rotating beam machines which take a 3/^^ inch, specimen and run at 10,000 r.p.m. 
to rotating bc^m machines turning a 2-inch in diameter specimen at 1,000 r.p.m. 

"The most nximerous of the many types of machines i'l the laboratory arc the 
rotating-bcaiT' .lachines, the simple-beam machines VTith constant bending moments 
and the smaller, faster cantilever beam machines. There are special machines for 
repeated torsion and repeated tension-compression, as well as special machines 
for conducting tests at temperatures 1,200 degrees F. Some of the fatigue 
machines have attachments for investigations of the simulcaneous effects of 
corrosion and fatigue. 

"The fatigue specimens operate 24- hours a d.'iy every day in the year. 
Fatigue specimens usually have to run 10,000,000 cycles aiid often as much as 
100,000,000 cycles. Some specimens h<-ive been rvin continuously for over a year in 
the laboratory with as many as 1,000,000,000 cycles". 

Most of these machines are still in use in IS^b and still others ha.ve been 
added. Besides