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EXPEDITION : 1779 :: : 


1899. :::::: 




Read before the Maine Historical Society, October 27, 1S9S. 

The expedition organized by the Americans in June, 
1779, to dislodge the British who had occupied the 
point where is now the town of Castine, Maine, as a 
base of suppUes and a naval station, has been known in 
history as the Bagaduce expedition, but at that time 
was called " The Expedition to the Penobscot." The 
arm of the sea now called Bagaduce River was in former 
times called Matchebiguatus, an Indian name meaning 
at a place where there is no safe harbor. At the time 
of the Revolution it. was known as Maja-Bagaduce, 
which was contracted into Bagaduce and hence the 
name of the expedition. 

The fact that the campaign was a disastrous fail- 
ure has probably deterred historians from the prep- 
aration of a full history of the affair ; but as it was one 
of the most prominent events in Maine's Revolutionary 
history, it seems proper that the service, with the com- 
pany rolls of the men who composed the regiments, 
should be recorded. The men were in no wise respon- 
sible for the results, and no doubt acted as well as they 
could under the circumstances in which they found 
themselves placed. 


It is not the intention to give a complete history 
of the expedition, but it will be necessary to give 
some facts to show the magnitude of the undertaking 
which the government of Massachusetts did not then 

June 24, 1779, Gen. Charles Gushing, of Pownalbo- 
rough, sent a letter to the Massachusetts General Court 
advising an immediate expedition to dislodge the 
British before they had time to entrench themselves. 
They had already given consideration to the subject, 
and June 26 gave the Board of War directions to 
engage all state or national armed vessels that could be 
prepared to sail in six days. They were also directed 
to charter or impress all private armed vessels avail- 
able, with a promise to the owners of a fair compensa- 
tion for all losses and damages they might sustain, and 
the wages of the men were to be the same as paid 
in the Continental service. The Board was also to pro- 
cure the necessary outfit and supplies, and the follow- 
ing were said to have been furnished : — Nine tons of 
flour and bread, ten tons of salt beef, ten tons of rice, 
six hundred gallons of rum, six hundred gallons of 
molasses, five hundred stands of arms, fifty thousand 
rounds of musket cartridges with balls, two eighteen- 
pounders with two hundred rounds of ammunition, three 
nine-pounders with three hundred rounds of ammu- 
nition, four field-pieces, six barrels of gun powder, with 
a sufficient quantity of axes, spades, tents and utensils 
of all kinds. 

The fleet when ready consisted of nineteen armed 
vessels and twenty-four transports, all carrying three 


hundred and forty-four guns. The flag-ship was the 
Warren, a new thirty-two gun Continental frigate. The 
fleet was under the command of Dudley Saltonstall 
of New Haven, Connecticut, whose obstinacy out- 
weighed his ability as a commander of a fleet. On 
board, beside the sailors, were between three and four 
hundred marines, also about one hundred Massachu- 
setts artillery-men under the command of Lieut. Col. 
Paul Revere of Boston. 

Gen. Cushing of Lincoln County, and Gen. Samuel 
Thompson of Cumberland, were each ordered to detach 
six hundred men from the militia for two regiments, 
and Gen. John Frost was to detail three hundred of the 
York county militia to complete a sufficient number of 
men for the service to be performed. This would have 
made a total of fifteen hundred men, but in reality 
there were furnished less than one thousand or about 
the number of the enemy.^ 

The resolve provided that such men as had been 
previously ordered to be raised in the above named 
counties, as a part of the state's quota of the Conti- 
nental army, should be considered part of the said 
detachment and in case the expedition was carried 
into effect, the counties were to be exempted for nine 
months from raising men for the Continental service. 

It was a Massachusetts undertaking, and a draft was 
made on the state treasury for £50,000, to defray the 
expenses. The merchants of Newburyport and Salem 
supplied six of the fleet with provisions for two 

^ There are indications that more men joined the expedition from Lincoln 
County after the arrival of the fleet iu the Penobscot. 


The commander of the land forces was Solomon 
Lovell/ of Weymouth, a brigadier general of the 
Suffolk County militia. He was a man of courage, 
but with no experience in actual warfare. The next 
in command w^as General Peleg Wadsworth, of Dux- 
bury, who had seen service at the seige of Boston and 
in Rhode Island. After the war he settled in Portland, 
where he was a most useful and honored citizen. He, 
without doubt, was the best officer of the expedition. 
At that time he was thirty-one years of age. He 
was the grandfather of the poet, Henry W.Longfellow. 

The militia for the expedition was collected with 
considerable difficulty. The reason given was that 
there was a misunderstanding of the meaning of the 
orders among the officers. Parson Smith, of Falmouth, 
records under date of June 30, 1779 : " People every 
where in this state spiritedly appearing in the present 
intended expedition to Penobscot, in pursuit of the 
British fleet and army there." Adjt. Gen. Jeremiah 
Hill testified at the investigation that " the troops 
were collected with the greatest reluctance so that I 
recommended martial law. Some were taken and 
brought by force, some were frightened and joined 
voluntarily, and some 'skulked and kept themselves 
concealed. So upon the whole I collected by 
return four hundred and thirty-three rank 
and file." Adjt. Gen. Hill reported to Gen. 
Thompson the situation in Cumberland County and 
in reply, he said, " If they will not go I will make the 
county too hot for them." Brigade Major William 

^For the journal of General Solomon Lovell, with a sketch of his life, see 
Weymouth Hist. Soc. Coll, Vol. I, page 14-116. 


Todd said that he marched to Casco Bay, July 14, 
with one hundred and thirty York County men, " sev- 
eral of which were brought with force of arms." He 
arrived at Falmouth the seventeenth, and found the 
transports waiting, and he testified at the investiga- 
tion that there were " too many boys and aged " 
among the soldiers. 

Col. Jonathan Mitchell's regiment was Cumberland 
County's contribution to the Penobscot Expedition. 
The rolls of the companies and the history of their 
service in that campaign are of interest to our state, 
especially to the people of that county where they 
lived and to the descendants of those who were engaged 
in the expedition. 

Col. Mitchell entered the service July 1, when he 
proceeded to collect and organize the men of his regi- 
ment. Their first parade together was July 8, and 
July 11, Parson Deane records that he "preached to 
the troops." Three days after Gen. Thompson wrote 
the following letter, probably to the Board of War : — 

Falmouth, July 14, 1779. 
Agreeably to your orders of the 26th of June last, I have 
detached out of my brigade 600 men, formed them into a regi- 
ment and appointed proper officers to command, viz : Col. Jona. 
Mitchell, Lt. Col. Nathan Joi'dan, Jacob Jordan first, and Nathan- 
iel Larrabee second major. On the 6th inst. received orders from 
Genl Lovell to cause said troops to repair to Falmouth to be received 
by Major Hill who informed me he should be there the 8th, and on 
the 9th they would arrive at Falmouth and the greater part have 
been waiting ever since, except those who living near by had leave 
to return home for want of provisions. 

Sam Thompson, Brig. 


General Samuel Thompson then lived in Brunswick, 
and was the brigadier-general in command of the Cum- 
berland County militia. He was a resolute, energetic 
and sincere patriot of the Revolution, who for his early 
devotion to the cause of our independence, and his 
faithful public services, should be revered by the county 
of which he was then a citizen. 

The following is the roster of the field and staff 
officers of the army, also that of Colonel Jonathan 
Mitchell's Cumberland County regiment : — 

The Field and Staff-officers of the Land Forces. 

Commander-in-chief — Brigadier-General Solomon Lovell of Wey- 
mouth, Mass. 

Second in Authority — Brigadier-General Peleg Wadsworth of 
Duxbury, Massachusetts. 

Surgeon General — Eliphalet Downer. 

Brigade Majors — Capt. Gowan Brown of Boston, and Capt. 
William Todd. 

Adjutant-General — Capt. Jeremiah Hill of Biddeford, Maine. 

Secretary — John Marston, Jr., of Methuen, Massachusetts. 
Quarter Master General — Col. John Tyler. 

Commissary of Ordinance — G. W. Speakman. 

Deputy Quarter Master — Benjamin Furnass. 

Dept. Com. of Ordnance — J. Robbins. 

Commander of Train of Artillery — Col. Paul Revere of Boston, 

Commissary of Supplies — Joseph McLellan of Falmouth, Maine. 

Joseph McLellan, the commissary, was a Falmouth 
Neck man. He was the son of Brice and Jane 
McLellan and was born in Falmouth, in 1732. He 


married in September, 1756, Mary McLellan a daugh- 
ter of Hugh McLeUan of Gorham, Maine, and died July 
6, 1820, aged eighty-eight years. He was one of the 
committee to prevent the landing of the rigging for 
Coulson's ship, at Falmouth, March 2, 1775, commit- 
tee of inspection, commissary of the Bagaduce Expe- 
dition, when he was appointed a captain of a company 
of carpenters. He was a lieutenant in Capt. Joseph 
Pride's company in Colonel Joseph Prime's regiment 
at Falmouth, in 1780, and commanded a company from 
December 6, 1780, until May 1, 1781. 

Capt. McLellan was first a mariner then a merchant. 
He was a selectman ; county treasurer twenty-seven 
years, 1777-1803, and was a committee to build the 
court-house in 1787. He was a prominent and respected 
citizen of Portland. His two sons, Hugh and Stephen 
McLellan were Revolutionary soldiers and became prom- 
inent merchants of Portland. 


Field and 
Jonathan Mitchell, 
Nathaniel Jordan, 
Jacob Bi'own, 
Nathaniel Larrabee, 
Rev. Thomas Lancaster, 
Dr. Nathaniel Jones, 
Benjamin Jones Porter, 
Gideon Meserve, 
Enoch Frost, 
Nathaniel Hinkley, 
Ezekiel Loring, 

Staff Officers— 1779. 
Lieut. Colonel, 
First Major, 
Second Major, 
Chaplain , 
Surgeon Mate, 
Sergt. Major, 
Quarter Master, 
Q. M. Sergt., 

North Yarmouth 

Cape Elizabeth 

North Yarmouth 



Cape Elizabeth 





North Yarmouth 

Total, 11 men. 


Capt. Peter Warreii's Company. 
Peter Warren, Captain, 

Daniel Mussey, 1st Lieut., 

Peter Babb, 2d Lieut., 

Capt. Joshua Jordan's Company. 
Joshua Jordan, Captain, 

Dominicus Mitchell, 1st Lieut., 

Lemuel Dyer, 2d Lieut., 

Capt. Neliemiali Curtis' Company. 
Nehemiah Curtis, Captain, 

Isaac Hall, 1st Lieut., 

Ebenezer Stan wood, 2d Lieut., 

Capt. Nathan Merrill's Company. 
Nathan Merrill, Captain, 

Edward Anderson, 1st Lieut., 

Peter Graffum, 2d Lieut., 



Total, 57 men. 
Cape Elizabeth 

Total, 53 men. 


Total, 73 men. 



New Gloucester 

Total, 58 men. 

Capt. Benjamin Larrahee's Company. 
Benjamin Larrabee, Captain, 

Josiah Libby, 1st Lieut., 

Lemuel Milliken, 2d Lieut., 

Capt. William Cohh's Company. 
William Cobb, Captain, 

Moses Merrill, 1st Lieut., 

/Joshua Stevens, 2d Lieut., 

Capt. Alexander McLellan' s Company. 
Alexander McLellan, Captain, 

Ebenezer Murch 1st Lieut., 

Joseph Knight, 2d Lieut., 


Total, 64 men. 


Total, 70 men. 


Total, 67 men. 



John Gray's Company. 

John Gray, 


North Yarmouth 

John Soule, 

Ist Lieut., 


Ozias Blanchard, 

2d Lieut., 

Total, 66 men. 

Commissioned Officers, 


Noncommissioned Officer 

s and Privates, 


519 men 

July 16, Col. Mitchell's men were embarking on 
the transports awaiting at Falmouth Neck, now Port- 
land, and by the nineteenth were ready for departure, 
when Capt. Abner Lowell fired from the battery, a 
gun as a signal for the fleet to set sail for its destina- 
tion. The transport on which Capt. Peter Warren's 
Falmouth company was quartered was the sloop Cen- 
turion, eighty and one-third tons, Capt. William McLel- 
lan of Falmouth Neck. She carried three men for a 
crew beside the captain. Among the stores sent on 
board for the use of the crew were seven gallons of rum. 
This sloop was destroyed with the others, and was 
appraised at twenty-nine hundred pounds for the settle- 
ment with her owners. 

Col. Mitchell's regiment arrived at Townsend Har- 
bor now Boothbay Harbor, the rendezvous of the expe- 
dition, in the evening of July 19, having sailed from 
Casco Bay in the morning. Gen. Lovell made his 
headquarters at Rev. Mr. Murray's house, where the 
returns of the regiments were examined by him on the 
twenty-first. The next day the troops were reviewed 
by the commander-in-chief, which must have been un- 
satisfactory to him as the men had had no opportunity 


to learn discipline, and but few had any knowledge of 
the manual of arms. The twenty-third there was an 
unfavorable wind and the expedition remained in the 
harbor, waiting for a favorable opportunity to sail. 

July 24, the whole expedition set sail for Penobscot 
Bay. The fleet made an imposing appearance as it 
sailed out of Boothbay Harbor along the coast into the 
Penobscot. The men on board were in high hopes of 
success. The fleet came to anchor under upper Fox 
Island that night. Here they were joined by a party 
of Penobscot Indians, who reported that Gen. McLean, 
the British commander, had tried to tamper with them, 
but to their honor it can be said that they remained 
true to their promise made in 1775. Our commanders 
soon learned that the British were entrenched at Bag- 
aduce, and had three sloops of war in command of 
Capt. Henry Mowat, so well remembered in the history 
of Portland. 

The next day, July 25, found the Americans in range 
of the guns of the enemy, who commenced firing from 
the shore, whereupon our armed vessels fired several 
broadsides at their forts. The British, however, pre- 
vented the landing of our boats that night, but the next 
day, July 26, the vessels warped in, and about noon an 
attempt was made to land. This was also unsuccessful. 
About six o'clock that afternoon, while putting off from 
Nautilus Island where the Americans had made a land- 
ing, a boat was struck and Major Daniel Littlefield of 
the York detachment and two men were drowned. 

July 28, about two hundred of the militia and a lit- 
tle over that number of marines were ordered to land 



From Wheeler's " Castine Past and Present. 


under the guns of the fleet, and the movement was 
begun about half an hour before sunrise, when the 
British in ambush opened a galling fire upon the Amer- 
icans, killing several, among whom was Major Welch 
of the marines. Our troops replied with effect. A 
landing was made on the shore under the steep bluff 
now called " Trask's Rock," at Castine, on the western 
side of the point. This bluff is one hundred and fifty 
to two hundred feet high or more at some points. 
Castine Past and Present says : — " Where the 
marines made their ascent was quite precipitous for 
some thirty or forty feet and after that the ground is 
still rising for some distance and was covered with 
boulders." The marines and militia divided themselves 
into three parties, when a most gallaut assault, without 
order or discipline, each man dependent on his personal 
courage, was made on the enemy above, against a most 
destructive fire, which they were in no position to return. 
In twenty minutes our troops w^ere at the top occu- 
pying the British ground. The first company to reach 
that point was Capt. Peter Warren's Falmouth com- 
pany. During this time our fleet was bombarding the 
enemy's forces. Gen. Lovell wrote in his journal : — 

When I returned to the shore it struck me with admiration to see 
what a precipice Ave had ascended, not being able to take so scruti- 
nous a view of it in time of battle ; it is at least where we landed 
three hundred feet high and almost perpendicular & the men were 
obliged to pull themselves [up] by twigs and trees. I don't think 
such a landing has been made since Wolfe. 

Our loss in this assault is variously stated, Gen. 
Lovell gives fourteen killed and twenty wounded, while 


Gen. Wadsworth says it was about one hundred, 
which is repeated in most of our histories. The 
marines suffered the most. It has been truly said 
that this was the bright spot in the expedition and 
" that no more brilliant exploit than this was accom- 
plished by our forces during the whole war." It was 
a trying ordeal to the undisciplined and untried militia 
and marines, but they exhibited the resolute courage 
of the American soldier. If the whole expedition had 
been successful, our histories would have resounded 
the praises of Gen. Lovell and his men. 

Soon after the Americans reached the top of the 
bluff, they threw up entrenchments so that they 
might be able to hold the ground they had so hero- 
ically gained. 

Immediately after this engagement a council of war 
of the American land and naval forces was held. The 
of3Bcers of the army were in favor of demanding an 
immediate surrender, but Commodore Saltonstall and 
some of his officers were opposed to it. Then the 
army was for storming Fort George, but because the 
marines had suffered so much in the assault, the com- 
modore refused to land any more and even threatened 
to recall those already on shore. Then it was that it 
was decided to send to Boston for reenforcements, 
which resulted in the starting of Col. Henry Jackson's 
Continental regiment for their relief. 

July 29, the enemy shelled the Americans who 
maintained their position. In the early morning of 
the thirty-first a party of soldiers under Gen. Wads- 
worth captured a redoubt with but a small loss, taking 


several prisoners. It was here that Major Samuel 
Sawyer, sometimes written Sayer, was mortally 
wounded. He was "a brave and worthy officer," and 
belonged in Wells, Maine. 

August 2, Rev. John Murray, of Boothbay, then Town- 
send, who had been induced to join the expedition as 
the chaplain of Col. McCobb's regiment, volunteered 
to carry despatches from the general to the govern- 
ment at Boston. August 6, Major David Bradish, of 
Falmouth Neck, also started for Boston with despatches. 
He was on a visit to the army at the time and not 
connected with it. The next day, two men of Col. 
McCobb's regiment were punished for desertion by 
riding a wooden horse twenty minutes, with a musket 
attached to each foot. 

There was more or less fighting along the line until 
the seventh, but no general assault was made. On 
that day a detachment of Americans advanced against 
the enemy's position to draw them out, but without 
success. August 9, an attempt was made by our sol- 
diers to land on Hyannis Point, but with no success. 
August 13, an effort was made to bring on an engage- 
ment with the British, which was also unsuccessful. 
Then it was that our troops actually took the rear of 
Fort George, but did not get possession. The delay 
gave the British every advantage. 

The next day came the startling news that a British 
fleet was at the mouth of Penobscot Bay with reen- 
lorcements. Upon the approach of the fleet, Commo- 
dore Saltonstall formed his vessels across the bay 
in the form of a crescent, to check their advance 


sufficiently to allow the land forces time to make their 
escape. The British commander, Sir George Collier, 
feeling such entire confidence in the superiority of his 
fleet, advanced without hesitation and poured a broad- 
side into our vessels, whereupon they crowded on all 
sail in an attempt at an indiscriminate flight. The 
Hunter and Hampden were taken and the balance of 
the fleet was burned or blown up by their crews 
Gen. Lovell in his journal said : — 

The Transports then again weigh'd Anchor, and to our Great 
Mortification were soon follow'd by our fleet of Men of War persued 
by only four of the Enemy's Ships, the Ships of "War passed the 
Transports many of which got a Ground & the British Ships coming 
up the Soldiers were obliged to take to the Shore & set fire to their 
Vessells, to attempt to give a description of this terrible Day is out of 
my Power it would be a fit Subject for some masterly hand to describe 
it in its true colours, to see four Ships persuing seventeen Sail of 
Armed Vessells nine of which were stout Ships, Transports on fire, 
Men of War blowing up, Provision of all kinds & every kind of 
Stores on Shore (at least in small Quantities) throwing about, and 
as much confusion as can possibly be conceived. 

The destruction of the vessels engaged in this expe- 
dition was the end of Massachusett's separate naval 
force and reduced the national navy of the United 
States to the very lowest terms. 

Our commodore had stubbornly refused to cooperate 
with the land forces at the proper time and the result 
was a terrible disaster to the Americans. The army, 
with the men of the fleet, retreated up the river with 
little order. Each one looked out for himself and his 
own safety. They fled to the woods and carried scanty 
provisions which lasted but a few days, when the men 


were obliged to subsist on whatever they could find on 
the way, until they reached their homes. Some fell by 
the wayside and perished from starvation and exposure, 
and many who returned home tilled premature graves 
as the result of the hardships they were obliged to 
endure. Many of the men said little about their sad 
experience in this retreat, because it revived unpleas- 
ant memories of a service which was a great disap- 
pointment to them and for which they were in no way 
to blame. ^ 

The following returns of the army at Bagaduce have 
been preserved: — 

July 20, 873 men fit for duty. 

" 31, 847 " " " 
Aug. 4, 762 " " " 

" 7, 715 " " " 

Another return was made with no date which gave 
nine hundred and twenty-three men fit for duty, but at 
least two more companies had joined the army and 
probably more. 

Williamson says of the retreat : — 

Guided by Indians they proceeded in detached parties suffering 
every privation. For, not being aware of the journey and fatigue 
they had to encounter, they had taken with them provisions altogether 
insufficient, and some who were infirm or feeble actually perished in 

1 standing on this battlefield a few years since, alter making the ascent 
of the bluff where the brilliant assault was made, and while looking out over the 
surrounding country and bay, I was carried back in my mind to the summer of 1779 
when the events that made that ground historic occurred. Not one was then living 
to tell the tale. An aged uncle had told me that when a little boy his grandfather 
had said to him that he was a soldier in that expedition. I was now at the place 
where my gi'andmother's father, Stephen Tukey, had fought to drive the 
British from our state of Maine. There were hundreds of grandfathers there and 
injustice to tlieir pati'iotism and loyalty to their country, this history is writteh 
that their names may not be torgotten, but be preserved to receive the reverence of 
their descendants and a grateful people. 


the woods. A moose, or other animal, was occasionally killed which 
being roasted upon coals was the most precious, if not the only mor- 
sel, many of them tasted during the latter half of their travels. 

The Bagaduce expedition was such a subject of 
obloquy and remark that the General Court appointed 
a committee of investigation into the cause of its fail- 
ure. Gen. Artemus Ward was the president of that 
committee. Col. Jonathan Mitchell of this regiment 
stated before them that it was not in the jDOwer of 
Gen. Lovell at any time, with his army, to have 
reduced the enemy while they were on the ground. 
He also said that if the British shipping had been 
destroyed and the land forces had been aided by men 
from the fleet, armed with muskets, they could have 
destroyed the enemy. He thought that the British 
fleet could have been crushed any day before they 
were reenforced. 

In regard to the retreat Col. Mitchell said : — 

About one o'clock in the morning of the 14th, I went to Gen. 
Lovell's marquee. He ordered me to get my regimental baggage 
and camp equipage to the shore and have my men ready for march- 
ing. I did so and at break of day was ordered to march, and at 
about sunrise embarked them on board transports and proceeded up 
river above the old forts. There received orders from Brig. Wads- 
worth through the adjt gen. to repair to a certain height, 
there to receive and retain as many of the army as came that way. 
I repaired to the spot myself but I found no men there but the 
matrossis and Capt. Gushing with them, from the time of our retreat 
to this time. I had not issued any orders to my regiment not to dis- 
perse or to repair to any particular place but only to go up river. I 
tarried till about sunset and no men came that way, then I went 
into the woods to look up my regiment. On the sixteenth about 
nine in the morning I set off for home, but without leave from any 
superior officer. The eighteenth I arrived at the Kennebec River ; 


on the twentietli, at night I reached home ; and on the twenty- first, 
went to Fort TVeston (Augusta) witliout any men. 

Adjt. Gen'l Hill said of the soldiers of the expedi- 
tion : " If they belonged to the train band or alarm 
list they were soldiers, whether they could carry a 
gun, walk a mile without crutches or only compos 
mentis sufficient to keep themselves out of fire and 
water." The " soldiers were very poorly equipped, 
the chief of them had arms but many of them were 
out of repair and very little or no ammunition. Most 
of the officers, as well as the men were quite unac- 
quainted with any military maneuvers and even the 
manual exercises." 

The night before the assault of July 28, the soldiers 
had no sleep. Adjt. Hill said that " Col. Mitchell's 
officers were so terrified at the idea of storming that 
they found fault with the colonel's nominations and 
absolutely drew lots on the parade who should go to 
take command of the men and included those then on 
guard, and relieve them if it fell to any of their turns." 
He also stated that " the troops behaved with spirit 
as far as came to my knowledge, but without any 
order or regularity and it was with great difficulty 
that we got them into any order or form of defense 
after we got to the heights." 

August 10, Gen. Lovell called for six hundred vol- 
unteers, to test the temper of the troops. Col. 
Mitchell's regiment was the only one that filled its 
quota, which was two hundred. Adjt. Hill said that 
" Col. Mitchell got his 200 with great difficulty, 
including boys, old men and invalids." The men got 


the impression that these volunteers were for a general 
assault on the British works, the principal of which 
was Fort George. The other regiments had even 
more difficulty. At the same time, Col. McCobb could 
get but one hundred and forty-six volunteers from his 
Lincoln County Regiment, and Major Cousins had 
twenty men desert from his York County battalion, 
and it took so many men to pursue them that he 
could not furnish his quota. Of a muster of six hun- 
dred ordered, only four hundred were secured, which 
was all the officers said they could find fit for duty. 
One half of these were from Mitchell's regiment. 

The committee after hearing the testimony of the 
general and regimental officers, and the commanders 
of the armed vessels, pronounced as their opinion, that 
" the principal reason of the failure was the want of 
proper spirit on the part of the commodore." He was 
blamed for not " exerting himself at all in the time of the 
retreat by opposing the enemy's foremost ships in pur- 
suit." They also stated "that Gen. Lovell throughout 
the expedition and retreat acted with proper courage 
and spirit, and had he been furnished with all the men 
ordered for the service or been properly supported by 
the commodore he would have probably reduced the 
enemy." Also " that the naval commanders each and 
every one of them behaved like brave experienced 
officers during the whole time." Then they said that 
^' Brigadier Wadsworth, the second in command 
throughout the expedition, in the retreat and after, 
till ordered to return to Boston, conducted with great 
activity, courage, coolness and prudence." 


After hearing the whole report, from which the 
above are but quotations, the General Court adjudged 
" that Commodore Saltonstall be incompetent ever 
after, to hold a commission in the service of the state 
and that Generals Lovell and Wadsworth be honorably 

Gen. Wadsworth in a letter to William D. William- 
son, dated January 1, 1828, said of the Penobscot 
Expedition of 1779 : — 

In the first place the want of a sufficient land force was a prob- 
able cause of the failure. We had less than 1000 men, where 
1500 were ordered by the State authority ; whose fault this 
was I know not ; but so it was. This was just about the Number 
of the Enemy ; but they were disciplined Troops & fortified with a 
simple redoubt, which was good however against a simple assault. 
Our Troops were entirely undisciplined, having never been paraded 
but once, on their passage down, being put in to a harbour by head 
Wind ; I think at Townsend, nor had these Men ever had the chance 
for discipline that our western Militia had ; however they were 
generally brave & spirited Men. Each in his own opinion willing 
to encounter two of the Enemy, could he have met them in the bush ; 
and would our numbers have justified an Attack, I have no doubt 
but that they would have given the Enemy a brave Assault. Al- 
though our numbers were small our Fleet had an imposing 
appearance, I think the Enemy must have reconed upon at least 
3,000 men from the appearance of our Transports. 

The same Morning of our Landing a Council was called of officers, 
both land & naval. Some of the land officers were for summon- 
ing the fort, giving them honorable Terms, whilst others disuaded 
from the Measure alledging that in case of a non complyance We 
should be in in a bad predicament ; the Commodore and the naval 
Officers were generally against the Measure ; as his officers were 
chiefly commanders of Privateers bound on a Cruize as soon as the 
seige was over. The Commodore also refused to lend any more of 
his Marines in case of Assault and was about to recall the 200 


marines which he had lent on our first landing. They had 
suffered great Loss in the landing. This seemed to put the Ques- 
tion of Storming the Fort out of the Question. The next Question 
was, what then shall be done? & it was concluded to send off two 
"Whale Boats to the Gov'r & Council with the intelligence of our 
situation and request a reinforcement while we kept our possession 
in the face of the Enemy & trust to the event of a reinforcement to 
the Enemy & of ourselves. In the meantime we reduced our out 
Posts & Batteries, destroyed a considerable Quantity of Guns, 
spiked their cannon in all their out works & gave them fair oppor- 
tunity of Sallying if they chose it. 

In the meantime we were employed daily, or rather Nightly in 
advancing upon their Fort by Zigzag intrenchments till within a 
fair gunshot of their Fort so that a man seldom shew his Head 
above their Works. Whilst thus lying upon our Arms It was urged 
upon Genl Lovell to erect some Place of resort up the River at the 
Narrows, in Case of Retreat so that the Troops might have a place 
of resort in case of necessity & also to have some place of Opposi- 
tion to the Enemy should He push us thus far — ^but the Genl would 
hear nothing of the kind ; alledging that it would dishearten our 
Army & shew them that we did not expect to succeed — & forget- 
ting the good old Maxim " to keep open a good Retreat." 

Had the Genl and Commodore kept upon a good vinder standing 
with each other & had they co-operated with each other they would 
have probably stormed and carried the Enemy's Post ; & been off 
before there was any danger of the arrival of the Enemy's reinforce- 
ments. Here we may see the policy of securing a place of Retreat. 
The Fleet might have been saved, the Army kept together and 
marched in a body wherever wanted, instead of scattering, 
starving, &c. 

Here we had been laying upon our Arms almost inactive 14 days 
when our Spy Vessels bro't tlie news of a Large Fleet approach- 
ing, which might be expected the next day, if the South wind should 
prevail. Genl. Lovell was now on board the Warren, Commodore's 
Frigate and sent his Orders to me to retreat with all possible dis- 
patch, which was effected without leaving a canon or a pick axe 
behind, the Enemy's Fleet in full view standing up with full sail & 


much superior to ours in Appearance. As soon as the Troops, the 
Cannon and all our implements of "War, with the Hospital, were on 
board, the Transports stood up the River — O, then how we wished 
for a place of rendezvous, the Transports might have been saved. 
Our Fleet soon persued the Course of the transports, but soon went 
theirs, forcing their way through the Narrows against a strong tide 
with Oars & Studen sails all sett, whilst part of our Transports had 
run on Shore just at the foot of the Narrows. The troops landed, 
the flames bursting forth from the midst of them, set by their own 
Crews. The Emeny persuing to within Cannon Shot, but unable to 
persue farther against a strong tide, left those that would be persuaded 
to enter the Transports & rescue a small Quantity of provisions for 
the retreat & to collect and embody themselves for their own safety. 
Three or four Companies were thus kept together with which I 
marched the next morning for Camden, where they arrived the sec- 
ond day & made a stand. The rest of the Troops went up the River 
in the Vessels of War & Transports landing as they saw fit & then 
Genl Lovell under the guidance & Assistance of the Indians made 
his way from the head of the Tide in the Penobscot over to the Ken- 
nebec ; & in about a fortnite arrived at Townsend when was the first 
that I had seen or heard from him since Ordering the Retreat. That 
part of the Fleet that got up the River ahead of the Enemy were 
either burnt or destroyed by their own crews making their way thro 
the woods for the Kennebec in a starving condition. Had Genl 
Lovell been furnished with the Number of Militia which was at first 
proposed, or had He been appointed to sole command of both Army 
& I^avy, I think it highly probable that he would have reduced the 
Enemy for He was a Man of Courage & proper Spirit, a true Roman 
Character, who never would flinch from Danger ; but He had not 
been accustomed to the Command of an Expedition in actual service. 
The Commodore did not feel himself so much engaged in the Cause. 
Not that he was, in my opinion, a Coward, but willful & unaccom- 
modating, having an unyeilding will of his own. — Genl Lovell was 
a very personable Man, I should judge about 50, of good repute in 
the Militia as well as Senate, a Farmer by profession & I believe 
lived in Weymouth. Commodore Saltonstall about the same age, of 
New Haven, Ct. Report said that he fought a very good battle 


afterward in a large Privateer which shew him to be a Man of 
Courage. The command of a Fleet did not set easy upon his 
shoulders tho he could fight a very good Battle in a single Ship. 

Here it may be not improper to mention that the Action at our 
landing on Bagaduce might have been called brilliant, had the event 
of the Enterprise been fortunate. But let military Men not talk of 
glory who lack success. It was on the dawning of the third day after 
our arrival (the second was prevented by the surf occasioned by a 
brisk south wind) . The morning was quite still but somewhat Fogy. 
The Vessels of War were drawn up in a Line just out of reach of 
Musket Shot & 400 Men (viz. 200 of Militia & 200 Marines) were 
in Boats along side ready to push for the Shore on Signals. The 
highest Clift was prefei'ed by the commander of the Party, knowing 
that his men would make the best shift in rough ground. The fire 
of the Enemy opened upon us from the top of the Bank or Clift, just 
as the boats reached the Shore. We step'd out & the boats immedi- 
ately sent back. There was now a stream of fire over our heads from 
the Fleet & a shower of Musketry in our faces from the Top of the 
Cliff. We soon found the Clift unsurmountable even without Oppo- 
nents. The party therefore, was divided into three parts, one sent 
to the right, another to the left till they should find the Clift practi- 
cable & the Center keeping up their fire to amuse the Enemy. Both 
parties succeeded & gained the Height, but closing in upon the 
Enemy in the Rear rather too soon gave them opportunity to escape, 
which they did, leaving 30 kill'd, wounded & prisoners. The con- 
flict was short, but sharp, for we left 100, out of 400, on the 
shore & bank. The marines suffer'd most, by forcing their way up 
a foot Path leading up the Clift. This Action lasted but 20 Minutes 
& Avould have been highly spoken of, had success finally crowned 
our Enterprise. 

The valuable letter, from which the above is quoted, 
was written to Mr. Williamson while he was preparing 
his history of Maine, which was published in 1832. 
Gen. Wadsworth was then nearly eighty years of age, 
and the events happened over forty-eight years before. 


The letter was contributed by Dr. John S. H. Fogg 
and pubUshed in the Maine Historical Society Collec- 
ions, Vol. II, Series II, Fol. 153. 

Gen. Peleg Wadsworth was a member of Congress 
fourteen years, 1792-1806, and retired at his own 
request. He built the first brick house in Portland, 
in 1785 and 1786, then of but two stories, now known 
as " Longfellow's Home." He removed to Hiram, 
Maine, in 1806, where he died in 1829, aged eighty- 
one years. His sons, Henry and Alexander Scammell 
Wadsworth, were gallant officers of the American navy. 

In justice to the Penobscot Indians who served in 
the expedition, it should be stated that they acted 
with fidelity and friendship towards the Americans. 
Some of the tribe lost their lives. Lieut. Andrew 
Gilman commanded a company of forty-one Indians in 
the campaign. 

The total cost of the expedition is said to have been 
£1,739,174 :11s. 4d., and it came at a time when the 
finances of the colonies were at a very low ebb, and 
there was very little prospect of the independence of 
the country. 

The occupation of Penobscot Bay by the British 
caused great uneasiness at Falmouth, and as early as 
June 20, 1779, Parson Smith records in his journal: 
"We are in a sad toss : people are moving out. Never 
did I feel more anxiety." August 17, came the first 
news of the American defeat, which was confirmed the 
next day. 

Col. Enoch Freeman sent the following letter to the 
Council at Boston, August 18. For the first five years 


of the Revolutionary war Massachusetts was governed 
by a committee of the Council. 

Falmouth, Aug. 18, 1779. 

Sir : — The invasion of the Penobscot under a very considerable 
force of the enemy, their progress tliere and the ravages committed 
by them in other places at the Eastern part of this State make us 
apprehensive that they have a design to cut it off from the other 
part of the State and either annex it to the Province of Nova Scotia, 
or form it into a separate government under the British Admin- 
istration . 

Under such apprehensions, a number of gentlemen from most of 
the towns in this County, this day assembled in Convention in this 
town, to consult what is proper to be done for our safety and 

We think that the Harbor here would be of such importance to 
the enemy, in the execution of what we judge to be their grand 
design, that they will not much longer neglect to attempt to possess 
themselves of it, and make it a place of Rendezvous for their troops 
and ships of Force. — And we are sorry to inform your Honors that 
such is the state of our fortifications and such the weakness of our 
Force, that unless some measures are immediately entered into for 
our protection and defence, we fear we shall fall a prey to their rage 
and malice. We therefore humbly pray that your Honors would 
take our case into your serious consideration and order that such 
steps may be taken as will put us in a good position of defence. 

We have recommended to the several towns in this County to 
raise immediately their respective proportions of one hundred men, 
to repair the forts here and build others in such places as a Com- 
mittee (whom we have appointed for the purpose) shall best judge, 
and we trust the General Court will make provisions for paying 
them for their services. 

And we would request that the Honorable Council would appoint 
and send as soon as possible, some experienced faithful engineer to 
take the oversight of the work. 

We would further pray that at least two hundred men might be 
ordered here from the County of York or some other County to the 


southward of us, to increase our strength, which is already much 

We also think it necessary that a number of cannon and a suit- 
able quantity of military storesmaould be procured and sent here to 
be placed iii such Forts as may be erected, and also field pieces, 
(two we think necessary) And as provisions are extremely scarce 
here and it would be almost impossible to collect on an emergency 
as much as might be wanted, we think it absolutely necessary that a 
Magazine thereof should be provided and placed in a proper part of 
the town, to be used when an alarm should require it. 

I am, in the name and behalf of the Committee, Your Honor's 
most obedient and humble serv't 

Enoch Freeman. 

We have this minute received advice (by the bearer who hands 
you this and who will communicate to you personally) of the unhap- 
py loss of our fleet at Penobscot. 

To the above the Council sent the following reply : — 

Council Chamber (Boston), 26th Aug. 1779. 
Sir : — Your letter of the 18th inst was received and the Council 
have so far complied with your request as to order Col. Jackson's 
regiment to be stationed at Falmouth for the present and have 
ordered the necessary stores to be forwarded for their use without 
loss of time. 

J. Powell President. 
Col. Freeman. 

Hon. Jeremiah PowelP lived at North Yarmouth, 
Maine. He was born June 3, 1720, married Sarah 
Bromfield, September 15, 1768, and died September 
17, 1784, aged sixty-four years. They were buried 
in the Powell tomb, now unmarked, in the cemetery 
"under the ledge," at what is now Yarmouth. This 
tomb is back of Deacon Jacob Mitchell's tomb. 

1 For the Powell familj- and their history, see Maine Historical Society Collec- 
tion, First Series, Vol. VII, Page 233 and Old Times in North Yarmouth, Page 1163. 


Col. Powell was lieutenant colonel in Col. Samuel 
Waldo, Jr.'s, regiment in 1762, eleven years in the 
General Court, twelve years in the Provincial Council, 
first president of the Massachusetts senate under the 
Constitution, and nineteen years judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas, from 1763 to 1781. He was a 
zealous patriot of the Revolution and lived only to see 
his country start on the basis of liberty. His grave 
should be marked by some memorial calling attention 
to him, his virtues, and his distinguished services to 
his country. 

The Rev. John Murray, the chaplain,^ wrote from 
Brunswick to Jeremiah Powell. Esq., under date of 
August 21, 1779:— 

Our case is very bad. Hundred of families are now starving in 
the w^oods, their all left behind them, all will despair and the 
majority will quit the country and the rest will revolt if something 
vigorous be not done to protect them from the insolence of the tri- 
umping foe who are carrying fire and desolation wherever they come. 
A large reinforcement of men, intrenching tools, cannon, ammuni- 
tion and provisions is absolutely necessary to save us. Not a 
moment is to be lost. A very little delay will put us beyond 
remedy, but if we are immediately relieved this little disaster need 
not discourage us. It will, if we act with proper spirit, issue in 
our good. 

In the latter part of August, Col. Mitchell's regiment 
had reached Falmouth Neck, but arrived there in a 
disorganized and demoralized condition. Three com- 
panies were retained for a garrison and twenty men 
of Capt. Curtis company were stationed at Harps well. 
All others were discharged. 

'The original letter is in the Massachusetts Archives, Vol. CXLV, Page 140. 


Col. Henry Jackson's Continental regiment, which 
had been ordered from Rhode Island to reenforce the 
expedition, learned of the disaster off Kittery while on 
their way. They went into camp at that place. It 
was then thought that the British, elated at their suc- 
cess, would proceed to Casco Bay and attempt the cap- 
ture of Falmouth Neck. This of course caused much 
alarm at that settlement. Col. Jackson's regiment was 
ordered to march to Falmouth, from Kittery, and 
arrived there the twenty-seventh, and went into camp 
on Munjoy Hill, above the Eastern Cemetery, much to 
the relief of the inhabitants. This regiment had four 
hundred well uniformed and equipped men and had 
then participated in the battles of Monmouth and 
Quaker Hill. This was probably the only fully 
uniformed and equipped regiment the people of Fal- 
mouth saw during the war. 

Col. Jackson wrote the next day after his arrival : — 

I find this town and harbor is by no means in a state of defence 
as but a few of the cannons are fit for any long service. To make 
this post defencible it will be necessary to have a number of heavy 
cannon immediately sent here : the militia are exceedingly destitute 
of arms, ammunition and accoutrements as I find by enquiry that 
not more than one-half are armed or accoutred. 

The committee of safety of Falmouth addressed the 
following letter to the Council : — 

Falmouth, 30 August, 1779. 
Sir : The Committee of Safety &c for Falmouth would inform 
the Honorable Board of their embarresments and beg their direction. 
The return of the seamen from Penobscot in the greatest distress 
imaginable has obliged us to act as commissary, quartermaster, &c, 
&c. To furnish them with necessary provisions and to relieve their 


distresses we have been obliged to issue some impress warrants : 
some provisions we have purchased and some we have borrowed. 
"We have observed the strictest economy and order that necessary 
confusion would admit of; the men returned without officers, without 

We shall transmit an account of our doings as soon as the men 
have been done returning. 

Col. Jackson applies to us for some assistance where he has not 
proper officers to supply them. This however gives us but little 
trouble : but the militia who have returned from Penobscot are 
ordered to this place : they are not properly attended with their offi- 
cers and those who do attend them have not proper directions what 
to do with their men : they apply to the Committee. The Commit- 
tee know of no business they have with them ; here we are much 
embarrased. "We have also frequent applications from expresses for 
assistance, or sometimes are obliged to send off expresses ourselves 
New appplications of various kinds are daily made to us and new 
difficulties arise. In short, affairs here are in the wildest confusion. 
"We wish for the direction and assistance of the Hon. Board. 
"We are &c 

The Committee of Safety &c for Falmouth, 
Stephen Hall, Chairman. 

Hon. Jer. Powell, 
Pres. of Council. 

Col. Jackson's regiment started on their march to 
Boston, September 7, as all danger of an attack seemed 
to be over; but a portion of Col. Mitchell's still 

The selectmen and the committee of the town sent 
the following letter to the Council : — 

Falmouth, Sept. 13, 1779. 
To the Honorable Council of 

State of Massachusetts Bay. 
The Selectmen and Committee of Safety at Falmouth beg leave 
to inform the Honorable Board of the receipt of their letter of the 


3rd inst. The enclosed directed to Brig'r Thompson was immedi- 
ately forwarded. It is now seven days since, but we have not 
heard of his taking any measures towards raising the three hundred 
men to be stationed at Falmouth. 

The letter from the Hon. Council to Col. Jackson in his absence 
we took the liberty to open : in answer to which we would inform 
jour Honors that the Regt. from Penobscot was ordered by Gen'l 
Lovell to Falmouth to guard from this place to Harpswell and to be 
under the direction of the Committee of Safety at Falmouth. 

As a greater part of these were destitute of arms and accoutre- 
ments, the Committee thought proper to discharge five of the com- 
panies except 20 of the company commanded by Capt. Curtis of 
Harpswell, who are kept guard at that post. The remaining three 
companies which were best armed and accouted are now stationed 
at this place and at Cape Elizabeth. 

We esteem it a duty incumbrent on us to inform your Honors that 
the militia in this County are at present in a situation incapable of 
defending us in the case of an attack, principally owing to their igno- 
rance and neglect of some of the principal officers of the Brigade. 

A convention of this County is to be held next Friday when pro- 
per representation of the state of the militia will be made to the 
Hon'ble Court. We are with sentiments of respect 
Your Honors most obed't serv't. 

By order in behalf of the Selectmen, 

Benjamin Titcomb. 

And Committee of Safety 

Stephen Hall Chairman. 

P. S. A number of small arms and cartridges has lately been 
received, also a quantity of ordinance goods, adressed to Col. Jack- 
son by the Board of War a particular return of which shall be made 
by the first opportunity. 

In Council, Sept. 22, 1779. Read and sent down. 

John Avery D. Secr'y. 

William Moody of Falmouth, kept a journal during 
his service in Col. Mitchell's regiment, recording each 
day the events that came under his observation. It is 


worthy of preservation. Mr. Moody was the drummer 
of Capt. Peter Warren's company. He had served in 
Col. Edmund Phinney's 31st regiment of foot at 
Cambridge in 1775, in Capt. Abner Lowell's Matross 
company at Falmouth Neck in 1776, 1777 and 1778, 
and in Capt. Joseph Pride's company in Col. Joseph 
Prime's regiment at the same place in 1780. He was 
in the service in the early part of 1781, and went on 
a cruise in the privateer Fox, in April of that year. 

Mr. Moody was the son of Enoch and Ann (Weeks) 
Moody of Falmouth, and was born February 16, 1756. 
He married Mary Young, in 1783, and had children, 
Enoch, William and Nancy. He married for his sec- 
ond wife, Rachel Riggs in 1804, and had a son, 
Edward. He died February 16, 1821, aged sixty-five 
years. His father, Enoch Moody, was the chairman 
of the committee at Falmouth in the Revolution, and 
his four brothers, Enoch, Jr., Benjamin, Nathaniel and 
Lemuel, were Revolutionary soldiers. 

William Moody was a thoughtful and observing 
man to whom we should feel grateful for chronicling 
his experiences for our instruction. 

WILLIAM Moody's journal. 

July 2. A detachment of 40 men to go to Major Bag a Duce. 
3. Turned out as a Volunteer to go to Penobscot with Capt. 
Peter Warren. 

9. Turned out in the morning for Exercise. 

10. Our Regt. paraded and ai-ranged Capt. Warren's the first 

14. The transports with 2 brigs & a sloop, a prize with 10 guns, 
arrived here to carry the Troops. Drew one day's allowance. 


15. Drew 4 clays' allowance. 

16. Our Company embarked on board the sloop [Centurion] 
and hauled off, Capt. [William] McLellan master. [He was a son 
of Brice McLellan of Falmouth Neck.] 

17. On shore to draw allowance and took it. Stayed all 

19. I went on board of the Sloop Centurion [80|- tons] at sun- 
rise. Embarked for Majibigwaduce. Weighed anchor at 8 oclock. 
Capt. [Abner] Lowell fired an 18 pounder for all hands on board. 
Arrived at Townsend [Boothbay] at 6 oclock. 

20. Last night a soldier fired a gun and bio wed his hand off, 
died. The Hampden a 20 gun ship arrived. 

21. Went ashore to prayers. Parson [Thomas] Lancaster 
prayed and we sang. Between 30 & 40 sail of armed ships & 
Transports at Townsend. 

22. Regt. paraded ashore and Gen. [Solomon] Lovell reviewed 

24. Admiral [Dudley Saltonstall] fired a gun about 4 oclock, 
the whole fleet under sail. Came to anchor at 9 o'clock at night 
under the Upper Fox Island. 

25. Made sail for Bagaduce at 8 oclock. Came to anchor in 
I Penobscot. The enemy fired from the shore with muskets. The 

ships ran in by the Forts and fired many broadsides. Seven of our 
' boats that went to land got almost ashore. The enemy lay in 

I ambush and fired upon us and killed an Indian. 

/ 26. Our vessels warped in. We embarked our boats at 12 

; oclock. Kept off and on till sunset. [It is stated that the time 
was about 6 o'clock.] Come under the Admii-al's [Frigate War- 
ren] stern, then put off for an island [Nautilus] within point blank 

' shot of the enemy's fort. As our boats were going across, the 
enemy sunk one boat by a (chain) shot and Major Daniel Littlefield 
[of Wells] and two others were drowned. 

28. At day-break had orders to land under cover of our guns on 
board the shipping. Commenced landing half an hour before sun- 

I rise. The enemy lay in ambush and firing upon us killed 1 capt. 

I [probably Major Welch] of marines belonging to the Admiral and 
several others. We took 3 prisoners and killed 7. Have possession 


of the ground and soon hope to have all their woi*ks, ^ 2 men 
wounded, one lost his leg and the other his arm. Went over to 
the Island after [Samuel] Knight. He was sick there. 

29. The enemy throw shells. Loss and wounded in the attack 
[of 28th] about 30. Lost 1 man this afternoon. 

30. Hauled up on the hill [over the high bluff where they 
landed] 2 eighteen pounders. A deserter came in from the enemy 
last night ; he says the British force does not exceed 350. [This 
was not one half of the number of their men.] 

31. Two seamen wounded with a shell who belongs to the 
Active. One of the marines belonging to the [frigate] Warren 
deserted to the enemy. Last night went out with a detachment of 
88 men. Marched on to the parade at sunset and kept under arms 
till 2 o'clock [A.M.]. We then attacked one of the enemy's 
redoubts which we carried with the loss of a few men. We killed 
several of the enemy and took 18 prisoners. Capt. [Nathan] Mer- 
rill of our Regt. took one prisoner, a corporal of the enemy. 

Sunday, Aug. 1. Major [Samuel] Sawyer of the York 
[county] forces mortally wounded. He died this day. 

2. Mr. Wheeler Riggs [of Falmouth Neck] was killed this 
afternoon. One of the train badly wounded. Buried Mr. Riggs 
very decently. [He was stooping over fixing a gun carriage when 
a cannon ball hit a tree near, glanced and struck him on the back of 
his neck. He was the only Falmouth soldier killed in the expedi- 

3. Gen. Lovell sent a flag to the lines to enquire after a Lieut, 
of Marines belonging to the Vengence who was missing after the 
battle of Sunday last [Aug. 1]. The answer returned was that the 
Lieut, was wounded in battle and died yesterday. 

Wed. 4. Three of Capt. [Nehemiah] Curtis' men deserted. 

William Harper had a musket ball shot through his coat by the 

enemy while on picket guard. 

1 The above was the gallant assault made by the four hundred marines and 
militia over the precipitous bank at " Trask's Rock," and which was over in 
twenty minutes. The large granite boulder on tlie shore, now called " Trask's 
Rock," was named for a ttfer-boy named Israel Trask, who took shelter behind it, 
playing his flfe while his comrades made the ascent. It was said that he did not 
lose a note of the tune he was playing during the whole time. Capt. John 
Hinkley of Georgetown, of Col. McCobb's regiment, was killed while standing 
on this rock urging on the men. 


5. An indian killed by the enemy, one taken prisoner. Capt. 
[David] Bradish from Falmouth to see us. 

6. Capt. Bradish and his crew left us. [He was sent to 

7. Smart cannonading. Marched down towards the fort of the 
enemy about three o'clock. A party of about 100 sallied out. 
Gen. Lovell ordered a retreat to draw them out, but they imme- 
diately ran back to their entrenchment. One man belonging to Col. 
[Samuel] McCobb's Regt. wounded. 

Monday, 9. Attempted to land on Hyannis Point, opposite the 
enemy, but were prevented by the annoyance of the enemy in 

11. Last night [10th] 20 of Major (Nathaniel) Cousins' Regt. 
deserted. One of the enemy deserted. 

12. Major Cousins' men brought back last night. 

13. Made another demonstration upon the lines of the enemy, 
but could not bring on an engagement. Capt. Woodman slightly 
wounded. [It is not known who he was. Perhaps the writer 
made a error in the name.] 

14. News that the fleet of the enemy are at the mouth of the 
the [Penobscot] Bay. We began our retreat about one o'clock. 
Ran with our Ships and Transports to Fort Penobscot and called on 
the Commissary for provisions. The enemy in sight and under 
cloud of sail. Some of our Ships are taken and some are run 
ashore. I took the boats and went on board the Centurion for 
provisions and then put ashore, landed it and then took off the men. 
Our people set fire to the shipping and then took to the woods. Our 
company [Capt. Peter Warren's] encamped in the woods. Took 
what provisions we could carry. Had 4 prisoners to guard. 

Sunday, 15. Took up our line of march at daybreak, lost our 
way and came across about 200 of our Regt. and sailors and 
marines. Went across a large meadow ; struck a road in the woods 
and kept on till 7 o'clock ; took breakfast and proceeded on to 
Belfast Avhere we ai-rived at 12 o'clock. Exceedingly warm. 
Came to a river and crossed in canoes. Capt. Warren purchased 
2 sheep and paid 18 dollars for them. Took dinner. Arrived 
at a fine plantation and had a good dish of tea. Gen. [Peleg] 


Wadsworth and Capt. [Ebenezer] l^uck supped with us. Had a 
fine barn to sleep in and rested comfortably. 

16. Marched early through marshes, beaches and thick woods, 
over mountains and valleys to Ducktrap [Northport] where we 
arrived, the sun an hour high. P. M. One of our prisoners 
deserted this morning. 

17. Set ofF early and traveled by the shore. Halted by Gen. 
Wadsworth's orders. Arrived at the westerly part of Camden at 1 
o'clock. The place called Clam Cove. [Went to] Headquarters 
and drew an allowance of fresh beef. Turned out a Sergeant's 
Guard and took possession of a large barn fur our bai'racks. 

18. Heai'd that Gen. Lovell and Admiral Saltonstall were taken 
by the enemy. [A rumor only.] Capt. [William] Cobb and his 
company arrived here at 12 o'clock. [Daniel] Mussey started for 

19. Mr. [Somers] Shattuck and Stephen Tukey arrived this 
morning, says Woodbury Storer was taken on board the Hampden. 
Mr. Shattuck *aud Houchin Tukey started for home. Order for 
Capt. AVarren to march to West Shore South West Gigg. [Stephen 
Tukey was the son of John and Abigail (Sweetser) Tukey of 
Falmouth Neck, and was born July 6, 1754, married, in 1780, 
Hanuuli Cushiug, and died July 8, 1826. He was the writer's 
great grandfather. Houchin Tukey was his brother.] 

20. Marched to Col. [Mason] AVheaton's, 6 miles. Set a cor- 
poral's guard. Here is a double saw mill and grist mill. 

Sunday, 22. Lieut. [Peter] Babb set off for home or Falmouth 
with some four men because we had no provisions. [Zach.] Baker, 
[John] Clough, Thomas Harper, [Benjamin] Mussey and myself 
[William Moody] started for St. George between 11 and 12 

24. Arrived at New Meadows and put up at one Capt. Curtis' 
where we were hospitably entertained. 

26. Capt. Warren arrived home, [and probably the whole 
company] . 

Among the curious facts concerniug the Bagaduce 
Expedition worthy of attention, are the bills of 




Thaddeus Broad and Joanna Frost, two famous Fal- 
mouth tavern keepers of the time, " for victualling" 
the retreating soldiers and sailors. Broad's account 
amounted to eighty-nine pounds, fourteen shillings, 
and Mrs. Frost's was for one hundred and eighty-six 
meals at twelve shillings each, amounting to one 
hundred eleven pounds, twelve shillings. 

Sir John Moore, who was killed at Corunna, Spain, 
in 1806, made famous by his funeral ode, was a 
lieutenant in the Eighty-second regiment of the 
British Army, and was on the British picket line 
when the attack was made. 

It was from under one of the Bagaduce batteries 
that Commodore Edward Preble, then a young lieuten- 
ant on the Winthrop, later in the war made that 
brilliant capture of the British brig. 

Fort George, at Castine, is now one of the best pre- 
served forts of the Revolutionary period, from the 
fact that it was restored for use in the war of 1812. 
There were seven additional batteries erected by the 
British on Bagaduce Point during the Revolutionary 
war. It was from Fort George that Gen. Wadsworth 
made his celebrated and remarkable escape in June, 
1781, which is fully recorded in President Dwight's 
Travels in New England, the facts no doubt coming 
from the General himself 

Probably the remarkable success of the militia in 
the Louisburg Expedition, in 1745, had much to do 
with the assurance of the people in embarking in the 
hastily formed Bagaduce Expedition, in 1779. Many 
of the veterans of the siege of Louisburg were then 


living, and their sons thought themselves no less 
gallant than their fathers. In fact, the success at 
Louisburg had much to do with the assurance of the 
colonists that tliej could gain their independence 
from England and no doubt stimulated them, espec- 
ially in New England, to make the attempt. 

The next year after the Bagaduce expedition, Gen. 
Wads worth was placed in command of the Depart- 
ment of Maine, and with Col. Joseph Prime's regiment 
of our state guarded our coast and Penobscot Bay. 
No further attempt was made to dislodge the British 
at Castine, and there they remained until December, 
1783, when they evacuated the place, as peace had 
been declared and the war was over. 

The following are copies of the original pay-rolls 
that are now on file in the State House at Boston. 

Officers of the Army. 

"A Pay Abstract of the Genl and Staff Officers of the Penobscot 

Expedition for the Con'l pay, 1779 




Wages per Month. 

Solomon Lovell, Brig. Genl, 



£37 lOsh. 

P. Wads\torth, do. 



£37 10 " 

Eliphalet Downer, Surg. Genl., 



£22 10 " 

Gowen Brown, Brigade Major, 



£22 4 " 

William Todd, do. 



£22 4 " 

Jeremiah Hill, Adjt. Genl. 




John Marston, Secy. 

1 1 



John Tyler, Q. M. Genl. 



£22 10 " 

G. W. Speakman, Comy of Ord., 




Benja. Fiirness, D. Q. M., 




J. Bobbins, D. C of Ord., 




And 3 servants as privates 


The originals of the above pay-roll are in the Massa- 
chusetts Archives, Vol. XXXVII, Pages 93 and 131. 

colonel jonathan mitchell's regiment. 37 

Col. Jonathan Mitchell's Kegiment. 

" A Pay Roll for Field and Staff officers in a Regiment of militia 
Raised in the County of Cumberland, commanded by Jona. Mitchell 
Esq., in the service of the United States against the enemy at 
Penobscot in 1779, for Continental Pay." 

Entered service. Discharged. Wages. 
Jonathan Mitchell, Colo., July 1 Sept. 2.5 £45 

Nathaniel Jordan, Lieut. Cok)., "6 "25 £40 

Jacob Brown, 1st Major, "6 "25 £35 

Nathaniel Larrabee, 2d Major, " 6 " 25 £35 

Thomas Lancaster, Chaplain, " 6 Aug. 10, at Penobscot, £40 \ 

Nathaniel Jones, Surgeon, " 6 died. Sept, 4 £40 

Benja Porter, Sr., Surgeon's Mate, " 6 Sept. 4 £30 

Gideon Meserve, Adjutant, "6 "25 £30 

Enoch Frost, Sergt. Major, " 6 " 25 £30 

Nathaniel Hinkley, Qr. Master, " 6 " 25 £25 

North Yarmouth, Dec. 10, 1779. 

JoNA. Mitchell, Colo. 

The wages are as given on the last roll, evidently a 
corrected one. The original rolls are in the Massachu- 
setts Archives, Volume XXXVII, pages 103 and 137. 


Col. Mitchell was from North Yarmouth, and had 
served in the French and Indian War. He was an 
ensign in Col. Samuel Waldo, Jr.'s, regiment in 1762, 
and later a lieutenant. At Falmouth Neck he was 
prominent in the Revolution, and March 29, 1776, 
was chosen colonel to succeed Gen. Joseph Frye in 
command there. He was also colonel of the Second 
Cumberland County militia regiment, besides com- 
manding this one at Bagaduce. 

Jonathan Mitchell was the son of Deacon Jacob and 
Mary (Howland) Mitchell and was born in 1724. He 
was a blacksmith, carae from Kingston about 1743, 
and married Sarah Loring. They had several children. 



Lieut. Col. Jordan was a son of Maj. Dominicus and 
Joanna (Bray) Jordan, and was born at Spurwink, 
December 24, 1718; married, August 2, 1740, Hannah 
Woodbury of Beverly, and had nine children. 

He served in the French and Indian War, serving as 
ensign in Capt. Dominicus Jordan's Snowshoe com- 
pany in 1744, in the same captain's Training Company 
in 1757, and was first major and lieutenant colonel of 
the 1st. Cumberland County militia regiment in 
1776, and later, and served in this regiment in 1779, 
also commanded the militia at Falmouth Neck after 
the discharge of this regiment. 

1st major JACOB BROWN. 

Major Brown was from North Yarmouth and mar- 
ried, July 13, 1743, Lydia Weare, daughter of Capt. 
Peter and Sarah (Felt) Weare. 

He was a lieutenant in Col. Samuel Waldo, Jr.'s 
regiment in 1764, enlisted, April 24, 1775, as major 
in Col. Edmund Phinney's 31st Regiment of Foot, in 
the 18th Continental regiment in 1776, and in this 
regiment in 1779. 


Major Larrabee was the son of Capt. Benjamin and 
Mary (Eilthorpe) Larrabee of Brunswick, and was born 
in Fort George, December 23, 1729, married, in 1758, 
Elizabeth Harding, and was town clerk and selectman 
of his town for many years. He commanded a com- 
pany on the seacoastat Falmouth in 1775, was a major 
in the 2d. Cumberland County militia regiment in 


1776 and served in this in 1779. The following 
is a copy of his appointment in Col. Mitchell's 

Major Larrabee : — 

Sir : I have orders to rase a Regement out of my Brigade to go 
to penobscot in order to Dislodge the Enemy there, I do therefore 
appoint you Second major of Said Regement and expect you will 
hold yourself In Readyness to march at the shortest notice. 

Samuel Thompson Brigdr. 

To Major Nathl. Larrabee. 


Chaplain Lancaster was a native of Rowley, Massa- 
chusetts, and was the son of Capt. Thomas and Dorothy 
(Northend) Lancaster, having been born, January 
24, 1743. He graduated at Harvard College, in 1764, 
settled at Scarborough as minister of the First church, 
November 8, 1775, where he was pastor for fifty -five 
years. His first marriage was to Lydia Jones, a daugh- 
ter of Dr. Benjamin and Mary (Woodbury) Jones of 
Beverly, Massachusetts, and she was a sister to Sur- 
geon Nathaniel Jones of this regiment. His second 
marriage was to Esther (Libby) Libby, the widow of 
Mathias. He had Sally, Sewall, Thomas, Jr., Mary, 
Dorothy, who died when a young lady, and several 
children who died in infancy. He died, January 12, 
1831, aged eighty-seven years. 


Surgeon Jones went from Cape Elizabeth. He was 
born February 8, 1743, and was the son of Dr. Benja- 
min and Mary (Woodbury) Jones of Beverly, Massa- 
chusett. He married, in 1766, Sarah Dodge of Ipswich 


and had seven children. Removed to Cape Elizabeth 
in 1765, and lived there near the ferry landing, be- 
coming one of the leading patriots of the town. He 
was a committee of correspondence and delegate to 
the Cumberland County Congress. He died from ex- 
posure in the retreat with his regiment from 
Bagaduce, September 4, 1779, aged thirty-six years. 

surgeon's mate benjamin JONES PORTER. 

Surgeon's Mate Porter went from Topsham. He 
was the son of Capt. "Billy" Porter of the 11th Mas- 
sachusetts regiment from Beverly, Massachusetts. He 
married Elizabeth L. King, daughter of Richard King, 
and practised medicine in Scarborough, Westbrook and 
Portland. He was " a man of rare conversational 
j)owers and great suavity of manners," was a member 
of the governor's council and senator from Lincoln 
County. He removed to Camden in 1829 and died 
August 18, 1847, aged eighty-four years. 


Adj. Meserve went from Scarborough, and was the 
son of Deacon Daniel and Mehitable (Bragdon) Me- 
serve. He was born June 31, 1749 ; married, about 
1775, Elizabeth Fogg, and had eleven children. 


Sergt. Major Frost went from Gorham. He was a 
retailer there and married, April 24, 1780, Alice 
Davis, and had Rufus, who died in infancy, Cyrus, 
Rebecca, Polly, Mason, Coleman, Nathaniel Bowman, 
Patty and Cyrus for children. 



He went from Brunswick, and was, perhaps, son of 
Samuel and Sarah (Miller) Hinkley. 

He served in Capt. Richard Mayberry's Company in 
Col. Ebenezer Francis' Regiment at Dorchester in 
1776 and also in this regiment in 1779. 

Capt. Peter Warren's Company. 

This company was raised at Falmouth Neck, now 

Capt. Warren came from Somersworth, New Hamp- 
shire, and was a cordwainer. He married first, April 
16, 1775, Thankful Briggs of Falmouth, and had a 
daughter who married Capt. Jonathan Tucker. Mrs. 
Warren died February 27, 1777, aged twenty-five 
years. He married second, December 30, 1778, Anne 
Proctor, daughter of Benjamin, and lived on Fore 
Street between Market and Silver Streets, called now 
the Market Lot. He had by this marriage seven 
children, and she died November 9, 1811, aged fifty- 
six years. He married third, Eunice Libby and moved 
to Waterford, where he died in 1825, aged seventy- 
four years. He was a prominent man at Portland and 
was selectman for four years. He was sergeant in 
Capt. Joseph Noyes' company at Falmouth six months 
in 1775, captain of this company in 1779, and also in 
Capt. Sam'l McCobb's regiment in 1781. 

First Lieut. Daniel Mussey was the oldest son of 
Benjamin and Abigail (Weeks) Mussey. His father 
was a prominent patriot at Falmouth Neck, in the 
commencement of the troubles with England. Daniel 



Mussey married April 25, 1782, Betsey Baker, who 
died November 25, 1835, aged seventy-seven years. 
He died August 31, 1828, aged seventy-three years. 
Both are buried in the Eastern Cemetery. They lived 
in a story and a half house on the east corner of 
Brown and Congress Streets, Portland, and the prop- 
erty is still [1898] owned by his descendants. Mr. 
Mussey served as third corporal in Capt. David Brad- 
ish's company, in Col. Phinney's 31st regiment of 
foot in 1775, at Cambridge. 

Second Lieut. Peter Babb married, January 24, 
1760, Ann Haskell. He was a private in Capt. John 
Brackett's company in the Lexington alarm, second 
lieutenant in Capt. Joseph Pride's company in Col. 
Reuben Fogg's Cumberland County militia regiment, 
chosen December 9, 1776 ; also in Capt. John Star- 
bird's company in 1st Cumberland County regiment, 
commissioned February 1, 1777 ; also in this regiment 
at Bagaduce in 1779. 

"A Pay Roll of Capt. Peter Warren's Compy in the Battallion of 
Malitia Commanded by Jona Mitchell, Esq. on an expedition against 

Falmouth, Sept. 2-5, 1779. 

Date of Enlistment. 

Peter Warren, Captain, July 1, 1779 

Daniel Mussey, First Lieut., do. 

Peter Babb, Second Lieut., do. 

John Dole, Sergt., do. 

Stephen Tukey, Sergt., do. 

Isaac Mirick, Sergt., do. 

Micah Sampson, Sergt., do. 

Hugh McLellan, Corp., do. 

John Clough, Corp., do. 

Josiah Bayley, Corp., do. 



Samuel Knight, Corp., 

July 1, 1799 

William Moody, Drummer, 


William Harper, Fifer, 



Benjamin Mussey, 

July 1, 1779. 

Daniel Cobb, 


David Warren, 


Daniel Gi-een, 


Ebenr Owen, 


Elijah Ward, 


Ebenr Gustin, 


Eleazer Whitney, 


Houchin Tukey, 


Isaac Randall, 


Isaac Larrabee, 


John Fogg, 


Joseph Morse, 


John Hans, 


John Masury, 


Jonathan Sawyer, 


James Hans, 


John D. Smith, 


Joseph Stanford, 


Josiah Shaw, 


Joseph Thomas, 


Jeremiah Brackett, 


John Small, 


Josiah Walker, 


John Roe, 


James Rand, 


Joseph Johnson, 


Henry Waite, 


Lemuel Cox, 


Moses Brazier, 


Nathl Moody, 


Nathl Libby, 


Peter Kelley, 


Paul Dyer, 


Richard Codman, 


Richard Fassett, 


Robert Poage, 


Somers Shattuck, 


Not joined after the retreat. 

Not joined after the retreat. 

Not joined after the retreat. 



Samuel Larrabee, 
Thomas Gustin, 
Woodbury Storer, 

Wheeler Kiggs, do. 

William Maxwell, do. 

Zach Baker, do. 

Total, 57 men 
The wages and terms of service were as follows: 

July 1, 1799 Not joined after the retreat. 

do. do. 

do. (Appointed clerk to the 

Adjt. Gen.) Aug. 1. 

Killed ye 7th August, 1779. 

$40.00 per month, 

$26 1 " 

2 mos.. 




2 " 


2 " 


2 " 


2 " 


2 " 



First Lieut., 

Second Lieut., $26f 

Sergeants, $10.00 

Corporals ) ^^^ 

and Musicians \ ^ 

Privates, $6f 

Cumberland, Ss., Dec. 3, 1779, Captain Peter Warren and Daniel 

Mussey made oath to the Truth of the foregoing Pay Roll for their 

Company in the Expedition against Penobscot under the command of 

Jonathan Mitchell, Esq., and that the several Persons borne on Said 

Roll served the Time thereon mentioned. 

CoKAM Enoch FreemAjST, Justo Pads. 

The original of this roll is in the Massachusetts 
Archives, Vol. XXXVII, Page 102. 

Capt. Joshua Jordan's Company. 

This company went from the town of Cape 

Capt. Joshua Jordan was the son of Nathaniel and 
Dorothy Jordan, and was born at Spurwink, in 1736. 
He married March 24, 1763, Catherine Jordan, a 
daughter of Richard and Katherine (Hanscom) Jordan. 
They had eight children, and he died at Richmond 
Island. Capt. Jordan was a training soldier in Capt. 
Dominicus Jordan's company, in 1757, captain in Col. 
Peter Noyes' militia regiment, November 20, 1778, 
and served in this regiment. 



First Lieut. Dominicus Mitchell had a wife, Anne, 
and they acknowledged the covenant in the First 
Parish church, Falmouth, September 7, 1766. He 
served as lieutenant in Samuel Whitmore's company, 
in Col. Reuben Fogg's regiment, and is said to have 
gone to Peekskill, New York. 

Second Lieut. Lemuel Dyer married Sarah Jones, 
in 1782. He was licensed a retailer in 1783, and may 
have had other service than that in this regiment. 

"A Pay Role For the commissioned and non-commissioned officers and 
soldiers in Capt. Joshua Jordan's Company in Col. Jonathan Mitchell's 
Regt. in an Expedition against Penobscot From the 7th of July to 
the 25th of Sept. 1779— in the Continenal service." 

Joshua Jordan, 


Dominicus Mitchell, 1st. Lieut. 

Lemuel Dyer, 

2d Lieut. 

Tristum Jordan, 


Peter Sanborn, 


John Thorndick, 


Soloman Jordan, 


Abner Fickett, 


Josiah Black, 


Dan'l Roberson, 


Ebenezer Sawyer, 


Abraham Jordan, 

Drummer. " 

Robert Thorndike 

!, Fifer. 


Moses Hanson 

Thos. Cummins 

Zachariah Leach 

Ebenezer Shaw 

Lemuel Dyer, Jr. 

John Hall 

Thomas Jordan 

David Sanborn 

Joseph Maxwell 

Benjamin Swett 

Samuel Jordan 

Joseph Chace 

James Jordan 

Jacob York 

John Maxwell 

Robert Row 

William Maxwell 

Saml Batchlor 

James Miller 

Richard Pierce 


Zebulon Ficket John Strout 

David Parker Wm. Freeman 

G-eorge Strout Mark Dyer 

Nath'l Cash Jacob Sawyer 

Eichard Wescott Ezekiel Sawyer 

Enoch Strout James Mitchell 

Samuel Crockett Patrick Irish 

Elkeny Dyer John Fickett 

John Orion Batholemo Jaxson 

Eli Jaxson Isaac Dyer 

Total, 53 men. 

The original pay-rolls of this company are in the 
Massachusetts Archives, Volume XXXVII, pages 
85 and 126. 

Capt. Nehemiah Cuktis' Company. 

This company was raised in the town of Harpswell. 

Capt. Nehemiah Curtis was the son of David and 
Bethia Curtis, and was born in Hanover, Massachusetts, 
in 1733. He was a prominent man at Harpswell, 
and served the town as selectman several years, and 
durhig the Revolutionary War was a committee of 
safety. He lived near Center Harpswell. His death 
occurred December 26, 1816, at the age of eighty- 
three years. In the old graveyard, near where he 
lived, he was buried, and from his gravestone I copied 
this epitaph. 

A true Patriot, commanded the Militia before and during the 
revolutionary war, discharged with honor & ildelity the several 
offices he held & hath left an imitable pattern. 

First Lieut. Isaac Hall was probably the son of 
Isaac and Abigail Hall of Harpswell. His wife's name 
was Joanna and he was probably the ferryman at 
Sebascodegan Island. 


Second Lieut, Ebenezer Stanwood belonged i„ 
Brunswick and was a licensed innholder, 177^85 
and a retailer in 1 793. ' -l m i i / fe^, 

tion at Penobscot from the 7th day of r , . '"' *^' ^"P^"'" 
September inclusive, 1779." ^ ^"^^ *^ *^« 25th day of 

Nehemiah Curtis, 
Isaac Hal], 
Eben'r Stanwood, 
Marlboro Sylvester, 
Elnathan Hinkley, 
Kingsbury Eastman, 
Wm. Dunning, 

David Given, 

^m. Tarr, 

John Spear, 

Caleb Curtis, 

Ezekiel Brown, 

Daniel Webber, 

1st Lieut. 
2nd " 



Samuel Stanwood 

Robert Stanwood 

Isaac Chase 

Josiah Clark 

Daniel Booker 

Wm. Mallet 

John Blake 
James Barstow 
Isaiah Booker 
^ehemiah Ward 
Wm. Wilson 
Joseph Ewing 
Wm. McLellan 
James Koss 
David Doughty 
Nathl Ham 
John Andross 
Calvin Cowen 


Wm. Getchell 
Stephen Eideout 
Fields Coombs 
Wm. Curtis 
Hezekiah Coombs 
Phinehas Thomson 
Asa Coombs 
John Jordan 
James Chase 
Benj. Getchel 
Robert Purington 
Hudson Bishop 
John Linscot 
Benj. Sleeper 
Joseph Woodward 
David Dunning 
John Dunnino- 
Abraham Rideout 


Thos. Morgareidge Jedediah Allen 

Swanzy Wilson Wm. Woodside 

Nehemiah Ward, Jr. Wm. Starboard 

Joseph Webber Hugh Dunlap 

John Ferrin Silas Kemp 

Joseph Tompson James Bibber 

Lemuel Rament David Johnson 

Mathew Martin Joseph Ross 

Joseph Webber John Larrabee 

Peter Williams Saml Hunt 

John Crawford Asa Millar 

Thos. Ham Abner Purington 
Total, 73 men. 

Josiah Clark, Wm. Mallet, Isaiah Booker and David 
Johnson were allowed two months and eight days' 
service, Joseph Ross, two months and fifteen days, and 
all others, two months and eighteen days. The men 
were allowed seventy-six miles travel in marching 
home. Three of this company deserted, August 4, 
and the History of Harpswell says some of the men 
never received any pay. There are two original pay- 
rolls in the Massachusetts Archives, one in Volume 
XXXV, page 251, and another in Volume XL, 
page 120. 

Capt. Nathan Merrill's Company. 

This company was raised from the towns of New 
Gloucester, Windham, Gray, Poland and Turner. 
They were credited with two months and seventeen 
days service. 

Capt. Nathan Merrill belonged in Gray and, in 
1776, served as first lieutenant in Capt. Winthrop 
Baston's company at the seige of Boston, in Col. 
Jacob French's regiment. He was also a captain m 
Col. Mitchell's regiment in 1779, and took a British 


corporal prisoner at Bagaduce, July 31. He prob- 
ably went from Falmouth to Gray, and from there to 
New Gloucester. 

First Lieut. Edward Anderson went from Windham. 
He was the son of Abraham Anderson and was born 
May 10, 1753, married August 4, 1774, Mary May- 
berry, a daughter of Capt. Richard and Martha 
(Bolton) May berry ; she was born November 10, 1756, 
and died May 20, 1846. aged eighty-nine years. They 
had eleven sons and one daughter, and he died May 
17, 1804, aged fifty-one years. 

Lieut. Anderson settled at the foot of Windham 
Hill, where he built a house and saw mill. He was 
the first postmaster of the town, selectman and was 
a colonel in the militia. His service in the army w^as 
as lieutenant in Capt. Samuel Knight's company, July 
1, 1775, and served at Falmouth six months and six- 
teen days, also was second lieutenant in Capt. Thomas 
Trott's company of 4th Cumberland County militia 
commissioned in September, 1777, besides his service 
in Col. Mitchell's regiment at Bagaduce in 1779. 

Second Lieut. Peter Graffam was a son of Caleb 
and Lois (Bennett) Graffam, of Windham, and was 
born at Falmouth, April 3, 1742. He married, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1764, Mary Wilson, and settled in New 
Gloucester before 1770, where he had a sawmill. He 
was a housewright and died about 1784. We know of 
no other service in this army than that in Col. 
Mitchell's regiment in 1779. 

'* Muster Roll of Capt. ISTathan Merrill's Company of Militia Raised 
in the County of Cumberland for the expedition against the Penobscot,j 



For the Service of the United States and sei-ved in a Detachment Com- 
manded by Col. Jonathan Mitchell." 

Marched July 8, and were discharged Sept. 25, 1779. 

Nathan Merrill, 
Edward Anderson, 
Peter Graffum, 
John Elder, 
Richard Haden, 
Thos. Mabury, 
John Marshall. 
Asa Libby, 
John Hodge, 
Joseph Elder, 
Francis Bennit, 
Isaac Cummings, 
John McGuyer, 

1st Lieut. 
2d Lieut. 




James Mabury, 
Benj. Trott, 
Thomas Chute, 
ISTathl Chase, 
John Mugford, 
Samuel Lord, 
Samuel Toben, 
George Knight, 
Joseph Eoberts, 
Nemiah Allen, 
Samuel Todd, 
Samuel Bradbury, 
James Allan, 
Stephen Row, 
John Harris, 
Benj. Witham, 
David Paul, 
Joshua Clark, 
Joseph Collins, 
James Stevens, 
Samuel Tarbox, 
John Chandler, 

Total, 58 men. 

Saml Nevens, 
Edward Ryon, 
James Noyes, 
Isaac Eoly, 
Thomas Millett, 
Zeptha Benson, 
Joshua Strout. 
Aaron Davis, 
Job Denning, 
Saml Morgan, 
Wm. Cordwell, 
Jona Saunders, 
Wm. Libby, 
Job Young, 
Amos Hobbs, 
Nathan Noble, Jr. 
Daniel Knight, 
Benj. Jones, 
Mark Andros, 
Moses Merrill, 
Abner Phillips, 
Joshua Lain, 
Nathl Stevens. 


The original pay-roll is in the Massachusetts Ar- 
chives, Vol. XXXVII, Page 120. 

Capt. Benjamin Lakrabee's Company. 

This company was raised in the town of Scarborough. 

Capt. Benjamin Larrabee was the son of Benjamin 
and Sarah Larrabee of Scarborough, and was born 
.March 23, 1740. He married, June 28, 1778, Hannah 
(Hasty) Skillings, the widow of Capt. John Skillings 
of the 11th Massachusetts regiment, and died April 17, 
1829, aged eighty-nine years. Capt. Larrabee com- 
manded a company at Falmouth Neck in October and 
November 1775, served in Col. Reuben Fogg's militia 
regiment, and in 1779 in Col. Mitchell's regiment. 
After the war, he was a colonel in the militia and 
a representative to the General Court. 

First Lieut. Josiah Libby was the son of Josiah and 
Anna (Small) Libby of Scarborough, and was born 
February 16, 1746. He married first, in 1769, Eunice 
Libby; second, in 1776, Elizabeth (Parcher) Foss; and 
third, Mary (Chase) Jones. He died March 1, 1824, aged 
seventy-eight years. Lieut. Libby served in Capt. John 
Wentworth's company. Col. Aaron Willard's regiment 
in 1776 and in Col. Mitchell's regiment in 1779. 

Second Lieut. Lemuel Milliken was the son of 
Edward and Abigail (Normaii) Milliken, of Scarbo- 
rough, and married January 18, 1770, Phebe Lord. 
They had at least seven children, Abraham, Mary, 
Susan, Margaret, Samuel, Phebe and Jacob. 

Lieut. Milliken served as a sergeant in Capt. John 
Rice's company in Col. Phinney's 31st regiment of 
foot in 1775, and Col. Mitchell's regiment in 1779. 



"A Pay Roll of Benjamin Larrabee's Company belonging to Col. 
Mitchell's Regiment in ye Expedition against Penobscot." 
"All marched July 9th. Discharged Sept. 12th." 

Benjamin Larrabee, 
Josiah Libby, 
Lemuel Milliken, 
Robert Hasty, 
Seth Libby, 
Isaac Davis, 
Nathl Milliken, 
Joseph Hodsdon, 
Humphrey Hanscom, 
William McLellan, 
William Shule, 

1st Lieut, 
2nd Lieut. 



John Martin, 


Jeremiah Banks, 



Daniel Stone, 

Robert Edgscom, 

Chas Runnels, 

Ebenr Sevey, 

Martin Jose, 

John Andrews, 

Thos McKenney, 

George Newbegin, 

John McKenney, 

Thos. Berry, 

Mark Libby, 

Simeon Beal, 

William Mars, 

Samuel Libby, 

Joseph Brown, 

Eleazer Briant, 

John Bragdon, 

Joel Harmon, 

Wm Gilford, 

Elias Harmon, 

Samuel Plummer, 

Nathl Rice, 

Joseph Ring, 

John Meserve, 

Joshua Hutch ins. 

George Moses, 

Soloraan Larrabee, - 

Lemuel Jordan, 

Moses Libby, 

Jona. Harmon, 

William Mitchell, 

Joseph Waterhouse, 

Gibeon Plummer, 

Increse Graffum, 

James McKenney, 

David Burnam, 

Nathan Larrabee, 

Levi Morrill, 

Simeon Fitz, 

Nathan Kimball. 

Wm Fenderson, 

Ezekiel Foster, 

Roberd McKenney, 

Abnor Lunt, 

Ebenr. Boothby, 

John Watson, 

Thos. Thurston, 

Danl Libby, 

Thos. Tompson, 

Joseph Tyler, 




John Molton, David Hasty, 

Samuel Holms, Nathan Moses. 

Total, 64 men. 

The men of this company were allowed two months 
and three days service. The original pay-roll is in 
the Massachusetts Archives, Vol. XXXVII, Page 89. 

Capt. William Cobbs Company. 

This company was raised in Old Falmouth, on the 
Presumpscot River. On the retreat they arrived at 
Camden, August 18. 

Capt. William Cobb was the son of Samuel Cobb 
a shipbuilder, and prominent in the affixirs of Old 
Falmouth in his time. He married, March 2, 1778, Eu- 
nice Quimby, a daughter of Joseph and Mary Quimby. 
He became a colonel in the militia and built the. large 
brick house in Market Square in Portland, which was 
altered into the American House and burned in 1852. 
Capt. Cobb served as first lieutenant in Capt. Jesse 
Partridge's company in Col. John Greaton's 3d Mas- 
sachusetts regiment, eight months in the army on the 
Hudson River in 1778, and as captain in Col. Mitchell's 
regiment at Bagaduce in 1779. 

First Lieut. Moses Merrill belonged in Old Falmouth 
and married, in 1777, Jane Hutchinson. He was a 
private in Capt. Samuel Noyes' company in Col. 
Phinney's regiment, in 1775, and first lieutenant in 
Col. Mitchell's regiment in 1779. He was alive in 
1835, aged ninety years. 

Second Lieut. Joshua Stevens married February 
5, 1767, Susannah Sawyer. He was a sergeant in 
Capt. John Brackett's company in Col. Phinney's 31st 



regiment of foot in 1775, and second lieutenant in 
this company in Col. Mitchell's regiment in 1779. 

Ensign Nathaniel Tompson lived in Falmouth. He 
was the son of Joseph Tompson and had brothers, 
Edward and Joseph. 

Muster Roll of Capt. William Cobb's Company of Militia Raised in 
the County of Cumberland for an expedition against Penobscot. For 
the service of the United States and Served in a Detachment com- 
manded by Col Jona Mitchell." 

All marched July 8, and were discharged Sept. 25, 1779. 

William Cobb, 


Moses Merrill, 

1st. Lieut. 

Joshua Stevens, 

2nd " 

Nath'l Tompson, 









; Noyes, 


Wm. Brackett, 


James Merrill, 


Josiah Lock, 








Josiah Berrey, 


Joshua Whitney, 



Nath'l Wormvrell 

Ephrni. Lunt 

Joseph Wormwell 

Zachr. Merrill 

Josiah Clark 

James Noyes 

Joseph Davis 

Josiah Noyes 

Jona Knight 

Nathan Lunt 

Benja Moody 

Moses Adams 

Amos Knight 

Robert Morrison 

Moses Blanchard 

John Proctor 

Tobias Goold 

Joseph Pride 

Thos. Merrill 

Isaac Sawyer 

Israel Merrill 

John Sawyer 

James Merrill, 


Charles Walker 

Jona Sawyer 

Stephen Knight 

Nathl Tripp 

Joseph Merrill 


John Thurlo Mark Knight 

Nathl Patrick Thos. Knight 

Jos. Stapels Joshua Dunn 

James Roberts Jona Sawyer 

Stephen Dodd Amos Knight 

Wm. Titcomb John Merrill 

Benj. Pettengell Nathl Noyes 

David Underwood Joshua Brackett 

Wm. Dodd Nathl Gordon 

John Brackett Saml. Swett 

Thos. Doughty Peter Hammond 

Edmund Merrill Page Tobey 

Edmund Merrill, Jr. John Brown 

James Frank John Plummer 
Total, 70 men. 

There are two original pay-rolls of this company in 
the Massachusetts Archives, Volume XXXVII, pages 
117 and 135. 

Capt. Alexander McLellan's Company. 

This company was raised in Gorham, and it is said 
they suffered severely in their retreat of eighty or 
ninety miles through the wild and uncultivated 
country and that several perished on the way. 

Capt. Alexander McLellan \^s the son of Hugh and 
Elizabeth McLellan of Gorham, and was born about 
1741. He married, October 21, 1765, Margaret John- 
son, a daughter of James and Jane Johnson, of 
Stroudwater : she was born in 1739. Their children 
were Jenny, died young ; James, died young ; Isaac, 
William, Nelly, Alexander, James and Jenny. Capt. 
McLellan, from overexertion, anxiety, and exposure 
in the retreat from Bagaduce, was seized with a fever 
and died October 4, 1779, aged about thirty-eight 
years. His widow married for her second husband, 


April 15, 1781, John Miller of Gorham. Rev. Elijah 
Kellogg, a grandson of Capt. McLellan's sister Mary, 
wrote that he was one "who was a very devil for grit." 

First Lieut. Ebenezer March of Gorham, married in 
1763, Margaret Phillips of Pepperrellboro, now Saco, 
and had Joseph, Jeremiah, Isaac, John, Lydia, Moses, 
Aaron, Sally, Betty and Ebenezer, Jr. 

Second Lieut. Joseph Knight lived in Gorham near 
South Windham, where he purchased land in 1767. 
He erected a sawmill and carried on the lumbering 
business. He married January 10, 1760, Lydia Libby, 
a daughter of John and Mary (Miller) Libby ofScar- 
boro, who was born June 5, 1743. He was drowned 
while working about his mill September 9, 1797, aged 
sixty-two years. They had Lydia, Phebe, Nathaniel, 
Daniel, Joseph, Nabby, Joseph, Samuel, Morris, 
Winthrop and Benjamin. 

"A Pay EoU for Capt. Alexander McLellan's Company in Col. 
Jonathan Mitchell's Regt. in the Expedition against the Enemy at 
Penobscot it being for the pay from the Massachusetts State — 1779." 

All entered service July 7 and were discharged Sept. 25, 1779. 
Alexander Mcftellan, Capt. 

Ebenezer Murch, 

1st Lieut. 

Joseph Knight, 

2nd Lieut. 

Thomas Irish, 


George Strout, 


Stephen Whitney, 


John Emory, 


Daniel Whitney, 


Jeremiah Hodsdon, " 

Samuel File, 


Joseph McDonald, 


John Lakeman, 



Edmund Phinney, Jr. 

Charles McDonald 

Benjamin Haskell 

Joseph Irish 



Moses Hanscom 

William Meserve 

John Blancliard 

Uriel Whitney 

John Gammau 

Joseph Jones 

Joseph Gamman 

Seth Harding 

Samuel Murch 

Gershon Davis 

John Phinney 

Daniel Whitmore 

Nathl. Bacon 

Abner Jordan 

Wm. McLellan 

Moses Jordan 

Lazarus Eand 

John Elwell 

James Murch 

William Irish 

Ki chard Lombard 

James Stubbs 

Prince Hamblen 

John Davis 

John Parker 

Samuel Rounds 

Josiah Swett 

William File 

Peter White 

Josliua Davis 

Daniel Whitney 

William Wood 

Joseph Brackett 

Abel Whitney 

John Meserve 

Stephen Powell 

Wm. Murch 

Asa Thurlo 

Edward Wilson 

John Hermon 

Zachariah Weston 

James Huntress 

John Akers 

Samuel Whitney 

Benjamin Stevens 

Isaac Chase 

Ebenezer Whitney 

James Watson 

Eenjamin Roberts 

Stephen Sawyer 


ohn Smith 

Total, 67 men, 

The wages in 

this pay- 

■roll are given 


£30 per month 


£24 " 


£23 " 



£22 " 

Privates, £21 " 

The original pay-roll is in the Massachusetts 
Archives, Volume XXXVII, page 83, and there is 
another on page 128. 

Capt. John Gray's Company. 

This company was raised at North Yarmouth. 

Capt. John Gray was the son of Andrew and Phebe 
(Chandler) Gray and was born November 29, 1732. 


He married in November, 1755, Sarah Mitchell, a 
daughter of Deacon Jacob and Rachel (Lewis) (Ciish 
ing) Mitchell, who died May 27, 1796, aged sixty 
ye^rs. He died December 27, 1796, aged sixty-four 
years. They had five boys and seven girls. He was 
a shipmaster and farmer and lived at North Yarmouth. 

First Lieut. John Soule was the son of Barnabas 
and Jane (Bradbury) Soule and was born March 12, 
1740. He married first, November 30, 1763, Eliza- 
beth Mitchell, a daughter of Benjamin and Mehitable 
(Bragdon) Mitchell. She was born September 29, 
1747, and died December 26, 1794. He married sec- 
ond, October 10, 1795, Elizabeth Stanwood of Bruns- 
wick, who died April 26, 1800, and he married third, 
April 17, 1814, Chloe Josselyn, who died September 
26, 1831. His children were Mehitable, Dorcas, Cor- 
nelius, Benjamin, John, Elizabeth, Bradbury, Joanna, 
Rufus, Joseph and Barnabas. He was a sea captain. 

Lieut. Soule was a lieutenant in the militia at North 
Yarmouth in 1776, also in Col. Mitchell's regiment in 
1779, in the Bagaduce Expedition. 

Second Lieut. Ozias Blanchard was the son of 
Nathaniel and Hannah (Shaw) Blanchard, and was born 
in Weymouth, Massachusetts, July 31, 1742. He 
married in 1769, Merc3^ Soule, the daughter of Barn- 
abas and Jane (Bradbury) Soule, and, therefore, a sis- 
ter to Lieut. John Soule of this company. She was 
born November 27, 1749. They had Samuel, Jere- 
miah, David, Reuben, Daniel and Olive. 

Lieut. Blanchard was a sergeant in Captain George 
Roger's company of the 2d Cumberland County mill- 



tia regiment, and served six days fortifying Falmouth 
Neck in November, 1775. He was second lieutenant in 
Capt. John Worthley's company in Col. Reuben Fogg's 
militia regiment, December 9,1776, also commissioned 
January 14, 1777, in Capt. John Gray's company in 
the militia, and served in Col. Mitchell's regiment in 
1779, two months and six days at Bagaduce. He 
was a lieutenant colonel in the militia in 1792. 

" A Pay Rail for Capt. John Gray's Company in Col. Jonathan Mitch- 
ell's Regt. of Militia in the Service of the United States in the Expedi- 
tion at Penobscot fi-om the 7th of July to the 12th of Sept. inclusive, 



Capt. £12 

1st. Lieut. £8, 2 sh. 

2nd. " £8, 2 " 

Sergt. £2, 8 " 

" £2, 8 " 

" £2, 8 " 

" £2, 8 " 

Q. M. Sergt. discharged, Aug. 23. 

£2, 4 sh. 

Corp. died Sept. 25. 

" £2, 4 sh. 

" £2, 4 " 

£2, 4 " 

Drummer. £2, 4 " 

Fifer. £2, 4 " 

John Gray, 
John Soule, 
Ozias Blanchard, 
Joseph Ludden, 
James Pittee, 
Robt. Anderson, 
James Rogers, 
Ezekiel Loring, 

Samuel Talbot, 
James Crocker, 
Calvin Carver, 
John Winslow, 
Jacob Brown, Jr., 
Davis Woodvpard, Jr., 

Joe Sweetser 
Setli Blanchard 
Richard Stubbs, Jr. 
Jonathan True 
John Davis 
Benj. Winslow 
Saml. Lawrence 
Amos Harris, Jr. 
Wm. Buxton 
James Pomroy 
Wm. Ring 


Josh Lake 

Joseph Brewer 

Jas. Anderson, Jr. 

Edward Parker 

Geo. Bartol 

Danl. Carter 

Burrel Tuttle 

Nath. Weeks 

Abner Dennison, Jr. 

Tho. Sylvester 

Moses Roberts, discharged Aug 25 

IC 30 1903 



Wm. Bradbury Levi Marston 

Josiah Wyman josiah Reed 

^^™^ Soul j^-athan Aldridge 

Joseph Humphrey Jacob Merrill 

Danl. Worthley The. Burrows 

John Oakes john Drinkwater, Jr. 

Ephm. Brown Edmond Titcomb, Jr. 

Isaac Royal, discharged Aug. 23. Wm. Soul 

Amaziah Delano Benaiah Fogg 

Nathl. Mitchell, discharged Aug. 23.Zebulon Tuttle 

Danl. Mitchell, Jr. josiah Dill 

Peter Weare john Lee 

Comfort Videto -^n,^ True 

Thos. Pearson, Jr. . Joseph Davis, discharged Aug. 23 

Soloman Williams Ezekiel Hacket, " u .. 
Total, 66 men. 

The privates' wages were £2 per month, and the 
original pay-roll of this company is in the Massa- 
chusetts Archives, Yolume XXXVI, page 18. 

The people of America are appreciating more and 
more, each year, the value of the services of the suf- 
fering soldiers of the Eevolution. Their victories 
were few and their defeats many, but their resolute 
devotion to a cause which they believed just, and time 
has proved it so, commands the admiration and respect 
of all lovers of liberty. The regiments that suffered 
in defeat and disaster were a part of the noble army 
of men that gained for us our independence, and will 
always be honored for what they attempted to do 
towards that end. 

"The contest was long, bloody and affecting. 
Righteous heaven approved the solemn appeal, victo^v 
crowned their arms, and the peace, liberty and inde- 
pendence of the United States of America was their 
glorious reward." 

N^t^\a^ Gcoold. 


1899. :::::: 




From Wheeler's "Castine Past and Present. 



'"e'^'SlT'' 769 ''564 % .0 

Maine Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. 


Col. John M. Glidden, Newcastle. 

Past Pkesidents. 

Hon. Edward P. Burnham, Saco, Hon. George F. Talbot, Portland, 

Hon. Edward A. Butler, Rockland, Hon. James P. Baxter, Portland, 

Mr. Archie L. Talbot, Lewiston. 

Senior Vice President. 
Hon. Augustus F. Moulton, Portland. 

Vice Presidents. 
Mr. Ivory F. Frisbee, Lewiston, Mr. John W. Penney, Mechanic Falls, 
Mr. Richard F. Gardner, Caribou, Mr. Henry Deering, Portland, 
Mr. Everett B. Norton, Farmington, Mr. Charles C. Burrill, Ellsworth, 
Maj. Charles J. House, Augusta, Hon. Albert W. Butler, Rockland, 
Capt. James M. Tukey, Newcastle, Prof. Francis B. Denio, Bangor, 
Mr. Parker M. Reed, Bath, Hon. Joseph Williamson, Belfast, 

Dr. E. Howard Vose, Calais, Col. Horace H. Burbank, Saco. 

Maj. Henry S. Burrage, Portland. 

Mr. Eben Corey, Portland, 

Hon. Josiah H. Drummond, Portland. 

Mr. Hubbard W. Bryant, Portland. - 

Mr. Nathan Goold, Portland. 

Rev. George M. Howe, Lewiston. 

Hon. Warren H. Vinton, Gray, Hon. Marquis F. King, Portland, 

Maj. Charles H. Boyd, Portland, Mr. Philip F. Turner, Portland, 
Mr. Frederic Brunei, Portland.