(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
See other formats

Full text of "History of the Connecticut Valley in Massachusetts, with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers"

























U of Mass/ Amherst Library 


















|(llnstraliou^ auri |(|iogra|iliical ^Itetdie^ 


\/ VOL. II. 











I, — Civil Organization, Courts, C^iuntj' Com- 
missioners, County Biiildings, etc 5G5 

n.— Civil List 668 

III.— Franklin District Medical Societj- 669 

Town Histories. 

Greenfield 577 

Deerfleld 592 

Montague 622 

Orange 633 

Shelburne 644 

Northfleld 656 

New Salem _ 665 

Conway 672 

Sunderland 680 

Bernardston 687 

Buckland 698 

Hawley 704 

Charlemont.- 708 

Whately 721 

Leverett 733 

Ashfield 737 

Coleraine 746 

Leyden 754 

Sliutesbnry 757 

Gill 764 

Erving 768 

Rowe 771 

War«nck 776 

Wendell 782 

Heath 786 

Monroe 792 



Peleg Adams 691 

Eev. John F. Moors 591 

Geo. W.Jones between 600, 601 

Charles Jones facing 601 

Charles Hager " 608 

Zeri Smith between 608, 609 

Josiah Fogg " 608, 609 

Elisha Wells facing 612 

Hiram Boot " 613 

Charles E. Wilbams " 614 

Mra. Esther H. Dickinson " 615 

James Childs " 618 

George A. Williams " 619 

Hon. Cephas Clapp 621 

Hon. George Sheldon 622 

Richard N. Oakman 631 

E. N. Oakman, Jr 632 

Joseph F. Bartlett between 632, 633 

George E. Marshall 633 

James H. Waite between 638, 639 

Rodney Hunt 641 

Hon. Andrew J. Clark 641 

John W. Wheeler 642 

Hiram Orcutt 643 

Levi Kilburn 643 

Charles M. Duncan, M.D facing 644 

Stephen Fellows " 645 

Oscar Bardwell " 646 

Col. David Wells " 647 

Nathan O. Newhall " 648 

Daniel K. Bardwell " 649 

Solomon Smead 651 

Ebenezer Nims 652 

Joseph W. Gardner 653 

Or^amus 0. Bardwell 654 

Elijah E. Belding facing 661 

Charles Chandler " 666 

Horace Hunt " 667 


Beriah W. Fay facing 668 

Rev. Alpheus Harding " 669 

EdwinCooley " 672 

Charles B. Merritt between 672, 673 

Carlos Batchelder ' " 672,673 

Chelsea Cook facing 673 

Richard M. Tucker _.. "■ 674 

Charles Parsons, Jr " 675 

Franklin Pease " 676 

J.ibez C. Newhall " 677 

Clark W. Bardwell 679 

Richard Tucker 679 

Daniel D. WHiitmore facing 680 

N.Austin Smith " 681 

Albert Montague " 683 

Luther 0. Chittenden " 684 

Dr. Nathaniel G. Trow " 685 

Nahum S. Cutler " 690 

Imla K. Brown " 691 

Hon. Ebenezer S. Hulbert 695 

Col. Aretas Ferry 695 

- Hon. John H. Sanderson 696 

Hon. Henry W^ Cushman 697 

Josiah Trow, M.D facing 702 

Roger H. Leavitt ". 708 

John A. Winslow " 709 

Orlando B. Potter " 712 

Samuel Potter " 713 

Phinehas Field, Jr 720 

Deacon John W'hite facing 727 

Hon. Josiah Allis 732 

Dennis Dickinson 733 

William A. Hatch facing 735 

Calvin W. Shattuck " 751 

Oliver Chapin .". " 754 

Samuel F.Dudley 763 

Lorenzo P. Munn facing 764 

Leonard Barton " 766 

Ezekiel L. Bascom " 767 


The Connecticut Valley, looking south from 

the " Poet's Seat" (frontispiece). ...facing title. 



The Mansion-House facing 677 

Portrait of Eev. John F. Moors (steel).. " 588 

" PelegAdams 591 


Fac-similc of Indian Deed 593 

Record of Meeting held Nov. 7, 1673 596 

Residence of Henry W. Wood facing 60O 

" and Portrait of G. W. Jones..bet. 600, 601 

Portrait of Charles Jones facing 601 

Old Indian Hou.se and Door 605 

Fac-simile of John Sheldon's Letter, 1705 606 

Residence and Portrait of Chas. Hager..facing 608 
" " " Zeri Smith...bet. 608, 609 

" of H. C. Haskell " 608,609 

" and Portrait of Josiah Fogg.. " 008, 609 

" of McClallcu Brothers facing 009 

Portrait of Elisha Wells " 612 

" HiramRoot. " 613 


Portrait and Res. of Chas. E. Williams.faciQg 614 

" of Esther Dickinson " 615 

Deerfield Academy and Dickinson High 

School " 615 

Portrait of George Sheldon (steel) " 616 

" James Childs " 618 

" George .\. W^illiams " 619 

" Cephas Clapp 621 


Montague Paper-Mills facing 626 

View of Turner's Falls (double page)..between 

626, 627 

Russell Cutlery-Works facing 627 

Portrait of Richard N. Oakman (steel).. " 631 

" R. N. Oaltman, Jr. (steel).... " 632 

" Joseph F. Bartlett between 632, 633 

" George E. Mal-shall (steel). ..facing 633 


Residence of J. S. Dewing facing 638 

" Stephen French " 638 


Gold Medal Sewing-Machine Works-.between 

638, 639 

Portrait of James H. Waite between 038, 639 

" Levi Kilburn facing 639 

Chair-Manufactorj' of L. Kilburn & Co. " 639 

Portrait of Rodney Hunt (steel) " 640 

" Hon. AndrewJ. Clark (steel). " 641 

" John W. Wheeler (steel) " 642 

" Hiram Orcutt 643 


Portrait of Dr. Charles M. Duncan facing 644 

" Stephen Fellows " 645 

" Oscar Bardwell " 646 

" David Wells " 647 

" and Eesii-lence of N.O. Newhall. " 648 

" of Daniel E. Bardwell " 649 

" Solomon Smead (steel) " 651 

" Joseph W. Gardner (steel)... " 653 

" Ebenezer Nims 653 

" Orsamus 0. Bardwell 6.54 


Portrait of Elijah E. Belding facing 661 





I'l.rtrait of Charles I'liaudlev facing 666 

" Homce Hunt " 667 

" Beriah W. Fay " 668 

" Rev, .\lpheus Harding '* 669 

New Salem Academy 670 


Portrait of Edwin Cooley facing 072 

" Charles B. Merritt between 672, 673 

Carlos Batchelder " 672, 673 

" Chelsea Cook fating 673 

" Richard M. Tucker " 074 

Residence and Portrait of Charles Parsons, 

Jr facing 675 

Residence and Portrait of Franklin Pease, 

facing 676 
Residence and Portrait of Jabez C. Newhall, 

facing 677 

Portrait of R. M. Tucker " 678 

Views of R. Tucker & Co.'s Mills...between 678,679 

Portrait of Richard Tucker (steel) facing 679 

" Clark W. Bardwell 679 

Residence and Portrait of D. D. Wliitmore, 

facing 680 
Residence and Portrait of N. Austin Smith, 

facing 681 

Residence and Poitiait of Albert Montagne, 

facing 6S3 
Residence and Portrait of Luther 0. Chitten- 
den facing 684 

Portrait of Dr. N. G. Trow " 685 


Portrait of Nahunl .S. Cutler facing 690 

" Imla K, Brown " 691 

" Hon. Ebenezer S. Hulbert (steel), 

between 694, 695 

Col. Aretas Ferry (steel) bet. 694, 695 

" Hon. John Sanderson (steel) facing 696 
" Hon. Henry W. Cnshman (steel), 

facing 697 

Portrait of Dr. Josiah Trow facing 702 

Residence of G. K. Ward " 703 


Residence of W. 0. Bassett facing 703 


Portraits of Roger H. Lea\itt ■ facing 708 

John A. Winslow " ■ 709 

" Orlando B. Porter .... " 712 

" Samuel Potter " 713 

" Phinehas Field 720 



Re.sidence of Rufus Dickinson facing 726 

'■ J. "W. Dickinson '' 726 

Portrait of Deacon John White " 727 

Residence of E. B. McClellan " 731 

Portrait of Hon. Josiah Allis (steel) " 732 

" Dennis Dickinson . " " 733 


Residence of W. B. Stetson facing 734 

Portrait of Wm. A. Hatch.. 



Portrait of Calvin W. Shattuck facing 751 

Portrait and Residence of Oliver Chapin.. facing 754 

I Portrait of Samuel F. Dudley 763 


Portrait of Lorenzo P, Munn facing 764 

" Leonard Burton " 766 

" Ezekiel L, Bascom *' 767 


Miller's Falls Co.'s Works facing 768 




I, — Civil Organization, Courts, C^junty 

Buildings, etc 794 

II,— Hampden Civil List 800 

III, — Benevolent Religious Associations 802 

IV,— The Medical Profession 803 

Town Histories. 

Springfield 814 

West Springfield 896 

Holyoko 915 

Westfleld 938 

Chicopee 960 

Palmer 984 

Brimfield 994 

Wilbraham 1005 

Monson 1015 

Ludlow 1031 

Longmeadow 1039 

Agawam 1047 

Chester 1054 

Wales 1065 

Blandford 1074 

Granville 1082 

Southwick 1087 

Montgomery 1093 

Russell 1096 

Holland HOO 

Tolland 1106 

Hampden 1108 


Dr. James M.Smith 805 

Elijah Blake facing 834 

James E. Russell " 842 

Philip and Pliilo F. Wilcox between 842, 843 

Hon. Warner C. Sturtevant facing 843 

David and John Ames " 844 


John Mulligan facing 845 

John Goodrich " 846 

Horace Jacobs, M.D " 847 

Samuel Bowles 860 

Dr. J, G. Holland 863 

Hon, Henry Morris, LL,D 885 

Hon, Chester W. Chapin 886 

Hon. James M. Thompson S87 

Hon. Willis Phelps 888 

James D. Brewer 888 

Lewis J. Powers 888 

Rev, William Bice, D,D 889 

Orrick H, Greenleaf, 890 

Daniel B, Wesson 890 

Daniel D, Warren 893 

George R, Dickinson 891 

Alexander Birnie 892 

Warren H, Wilkinson 892 

Dr Henry A, Collins 892 

Daniel Hitchcock 893 

Milton A. Clyde 893 

John B .Adams 893 

Hon, Wells Southworth 894 

Hon, Edward Southworth 895 

John H, Southworth 895 

Cotton Ely facing 906 

.\aron Ashley between 906, 907 

James P, Ely " 906,907 

Homer Ely facing 907 

Henry A, Phelon " 913 

Norman Day 914 

Henian Day 914 

Col. Edward Parsons 914 

Col. .\aron Bagg 915 

Samuel B. Allyn facing 930 

Hon. William Wliiting 934 

George H. Smith, M.D 935 

James H. Newton 935 

Moses Newton 935 

John C, Newton 936 


Joseph C, Pai-sous 937 

Edward C, Taft 937 

Dr. James I, O'Connor 937 

John Delaney 938 

Hon. Wm. G. Bates 956 

Col. David Moseley 958 

Milton B. Wliitney 968 

Henry J, Bush 959 

George D, Tucker, M,D 959 

Jerome M'ells 980 

Samuel -Mvord, M,D 980 

Samuel Blaisdell, Jr 981 

Emerson Gaylord 982 

Ezekiel Blake 982 

George D, Robinson 983 

George S, Taylor 983 

Seth Bush between 950, 951 

Hiram Harrison facing 954 

Orange (['hapin between 980, 981 

Charles McClallan (deceased) " 980, 981 

Alonzo V, Blanchard facing 992 

John H, Woolrich " 993 

Hon, John M, Merrick " 1011 

Charles H, Merrick.,. , 1026 

Rufus F. Fay 1028 

Joseph L. Reynolds 1029 

Dwight W.Ellis 1029 

William N. Flynt 1030 

Cyrus Bell, M.D facing 1048 

Lewis L, Whitman " 1049 

L. W. Fisk " 1060 

Thaddeus K. De Wolf, M.D ,(./,,(" 1063 

Heman S. Lucas, M.D 1064 

Watsun E. Boise facing 1076 

Thomas and Henry K. Herrick " 1077 

John Boyle " 1088 

Sardis Gillett " 1089 

Roland Parks " 1096 

William V. Sessions " 1109 

Sumner Sessions " 1108 




First (.'(mrt-House, Imilt in 1722 795 

Second " " 1821 797 

Hanipilen Cuunty (. 'a u it-House, erected in 

1S74 798 


Portrait of Dr. James 31. Smith (etcel).. facing 805 

View of Springfield " 814 

City Library Building and Court-House " 814 

Fac-simile of Indian Deed, 1636 816 

OJd Pynchon Mansion 817 

Blap of Springfield, 177G 823 

Springfield in 1827 facing 824 

Maesasoit House (steel) " 825 

Hampden Coffee-Houee 825 

Residence of Col. J. M. Tliompson facing 826 

" Ricliard F. Hawkins " s27 

'* J. H. Southworth " 828 

Portraits of T. W. Wason, Geo. C. Fisk, H. S. 

Hyde (steel) facing 831 

The Wason Railway-Car Works (steel).. " 831 

Portiait of D. B. Wesson (steel) '• 832 

Elijah Blake " 834 

Residence of 0. H. Groenleaf. " 835 

" the late M. A. Clyde " 836 

" George R. Dickinson " 837 

Portrait of Rev. Wm. Rice, D.D (steel).. " 838 

Residence of John B. Adams " 840 

" the late Daniel Hitchcock " 841 

Portrait of James E. Russell " 842 

Portraits of Philip and Philo F. Wilcox, 

between 842, 843 
Portrait of Hon, Warner C. Sturte van t.. facing 843 

Portrait of David Ames " 844 

Portiait of Jolin jMulligan " 845 

" John Goodrich " 846 

" Horace Jacobs, M.D '• 847 

Samuel Bowles (steel) " 860 

'* Di-. Josiah G. Holland (steel) " 863 

Springfield Union Building 864 

Portrait of Hon. HeTiry Morris (steel). ..fiu-ing 885 
" Hon. (.'hester W*. Chapin (steel), 

facing 886 
" Hon. James M. Thompson (steel), 

facing 887 
" Hon. Willis Phelps (steel)... " 888 

James D. Brewer (steel) bet. 888, 889 

" Lewis J. Powers " facing S89 

" Orrick H. Greenleaf (steel).. " 890 

" Daniel D. W'arren (steel) facing 891 

" George R. Dickinson (steel) bet. 8iK), 891 

" Alexander Birnie " facing 892 

" Warren H. Wilkinson " bet. 892, 893 

" Heniy A. Collins, M.D. (steel), 

bet. 892, 893 
" Daniel Hitchcock (steel).... " 892,893 

" John B. Adams " .... " 892, 893 

" Milton A. Clyde '' facing 893 

" Hon. Wells Southworth (steel), 

facing 894 
" Hon. Edward Snuthwortli (steel), 

between 894, 895 
" John H. Southworth (steel) facing 805 

Residence of AVells Southworth, New Haven, 

Conn facing 896 

Residence of Joseph Merrick 



Portrait of Cotton Ely " 906 

Portrait of .\aron Ashley between 906, 907 

" James P. Ely " 906, 907 

'' Homer Ely facing 007 

The Fii-st Meeting-Honse 908 

Big Elm-Tree 911 

Ancient Sehool-Honse 911 

Edson Clark Carriage-Manufactory facing 912 

Portrait of Henry A. Phelon " 913 

" Norman Day 914 

" Heman Day 914 

" Col. Edw'd Pareons (steel). ..facing 914 
Cul. Aaron Bagg (steel) " 915 


City Hall Tfacing 916 

Windsor Hotel '. 917 

Holyoke House 917 

Opera-House T. 917 

Map of Holyoke in 1827 facing 918 

Parsons Paper Company Mills 919 

" " Finishing-Mills 919 

Valley Paper Ctunpany Mills 919 

Minting PaperCompany Mills Nos. 1 and 2... 020 

Holyoke Paper Ctmiiwiny Mills 920 

Excelsior Paper-Mills 021 

Newton Paper Company Mills 922 

Albion Pai)er Company 3Iills 922 

Wauregan Pai)er-Mills 923 

Merrick Thread-Mille 024 

Holyoke Machine Company Works facing 924 

Residence of R. P. Crafts " 025 

Prentif's Wire-Mills 026 

Springfield Blanket Company Mills 927 

Rewdence of J. F. Allyn facing 928 

Portrait and Residence of S. B. Allyn... 

Country-Seat of Timothy Merrick 

Connecticut River, looking south from Holy- 
oke facing 

Portrait of Hon. William Whiting (steel), 

" George H. Smith, M.D. (steel), 

l.tetween 934, 935 

" James H. Newton (steel) facing 935 

" Moses Newton 936 

" John C. Newton (steel) facing 936 

" J. I. O'Connor, M.D. (steel)..bet. 936, 937 

" Edward C. Taft (steel)..between 936, 937 

'• Joseph C. Parsons (steel) fticing 937 

" John Delaney (steel) " 938 


Residence of Henry J. Bush facing 940 

" the late Col. David 5Ioseley " 942 

Normal Hall " 950 

State Normal School. " 9.50 

Residence of Henry Pease between 950, 951 

Portrait and Residence of Seth Bush.. " 950, 951 

American Vilnp Co.'s Manufactory facing 951 

Crane Brothei-s' Paper-Mills 952 

Portrait of Hiram Harrison facing 954 

Residence of L. F. Thayer " 955 

Portrait of Hon. William G. Bates 056 

" Col. David Moseley (steel). ..facinR 958 




Portrait of Milton B. Whitney (steel)..bet. 958, 959 

G. G. Tucker, M.D. (steel)... " 958, 959 

" Henry J. Bush (steel) fiicing 059 


Resitlence of Emerson Gaylord facing OGO 

" JoIiJi Andei-ton " 961 

The Gaylord Manufacturing Company.. '* 974 

Residence of Samuel Blaisdell, Jr " 975 

Portrait of Jerome Wells (steel) " 976 

" Robert E. Bemis " " 977 

" A. C. Woodwortii (stoel) " 978 

" Saml. Alvord, M.D. (eteel)... " 980 

" Orange Chapin between 980, 981 

" Chas. McClallan, dec'd. " 980, 981 

" Saml. Blaisdell, Jr. (steel)... facing 981 

" Emei-son Gaylord (eteel) " 982 

'* Ezekiel Blake (8teel)...between 982, 983 

" George S. Taylor " ... *' 982, 983 

" George D. Robinson (steel). ..facing 983 


Portrait of Alonzo V. Blanchard facing 992 

" John H. Woolrich " 993 

Ridge's Patent-Food Factoiy " 993 


Wesleyau Academy and Board! ng-Honse, 

facing 1010 
Portrait and Res. of John M. Merrick " 1011 


Portrait of Charles H. Blenick (steel). .facing 1020 

KufusF. Fay (steel) " 1028 

J. L. Reynolds (steel) bet. 1028, 1020 

Portrait of Dwiglit W. Ellis (steel) facing 1029 

" William N. Flynt (steel) " 1030 

Residence of F. T. Cordis facing 1043 


Portrait and Residence ofDr, Cyrus Bell. .facing 1048 

Portrait of Lewis L. Whitman " 1049 

Portrait and Residence of L. W. Fisk... '* 1050 
Worthy Paper * 'ompany's Mills, Mitteneagne, 

facing 1052 
Residence of S. R. Johnson, Feeding Hills " 1053 


Hampden Emery Company's AVorke facing 1062 

Portrait of Dr. Thaddeus K. De W"olf... '* 1063 
" Dr. Heman S. Lucas (steel) " 1064 


Portrait of Watson E. Boise facing 1076 

Portraits of Thos. and Henry K. HeiTick " 1077 


Portrait and Residence of John Boyle-.-faciug 1088 
Portrait of SardisGillett " 1089 


Portrait of Ridand Parks facing 1096 


Portrait and Res. of Sumner Sessions... .facing 1108 
Poiti-ait of William V. Sessions " 1109 






The act erecting the county of Franklin was approved 
June 24, 1811, and toolv effect from and after Dec. 2, 1811. 

The petitioners for the new county were Joshua Green, 
Roger Leavitt, William Taylor, Jonathan McGee, Robert L. 
McClellen, William Bull, Hezekiah Newcomb, Stephen Web- 
ster, Gilbert Stacey, Solomon Smead, Elijah Alvord (2d), 
Epaphras Hoyt, Medad Alexander, Justus Russell, Joseph 
Mctcalf, Clark Stone, Asaph White, Somes Root, Samuel 
Bardwell, Samuel Rice, Varney Pearce, and Isaac Taylor, 
who, according to the statement set forth in the petition, were 
inhabitants of Buckland, Charlemont, Heath, Rowe, Cole- 
raine, Shelburne, Leyden, Bernardston, Gill, Greenfield, 
Deerfield, Northfield, Warwick, Orange, Wendell, ]Mon- 
tague. New Salem, and the plantation of Erving's Grant. 

The reasons set forth for the division of Hampshire County 
were its great size, the distances from the extremes of the old 
county to the county-seat, and the consequent expense; the 
multiplicity of actions and delaj-s of trials. The petition was 
presented to the General Court on the 28th day of January, 

Remonstrances, adopted in town-meetings, against the di- 
vision of Hampshire and the organization of Franklin Coun- 
ties, were sent in by the towns of Northampton, Conway, 
Hawley, Whately, Leverett, Easthampton, Worthington, 
Chester, Southampton, Westhampton, Goshen, Williams- 
burg, Plainfield, Cummington, and Norwich. 

A communication from Westfield, favoring the division of 
Hampshire into three counties, was also sent to the Legisla- 

The report of the legislative committee in favor of the di- 
vision was made on the 18th of June, 1811, and on the 19th 
the Senate and House concurred. 

The act establishing the county made Greenfield the country- 
seat, but it was not allowed to carry off the honor without a 
long and bitter controversy. The most prominent contestants 
were the towns of Greenfield and Deerfield. The principal 
movers in the contest were Richard E. Newcomb, Elijah Al- 
vord, and George Grinnell on the part of Greenfield, and 
Epaphras Hoyt, Rufus Saxton, and Pliny Arms on behalf of 
Deerfield ; but the entire county was stirred up, and took an 
active part in the various movements for one or the other of 
the principal towns. 

In November, 1811, a mass convention was held in Green- 
field for the purpose of taking action to procure a change in 
the organic act and have the county-seat removed to Cheap- 
side (Deerfield) before any public buildings were erected at 

* Prepared by Saml. W. Diirant. 

Greenfield. With the exception of two, every town in the 
county was represented in that convention, and there was a 
great amount of excitement. 

The first movement was to draw up and procure signatures 
to a petition for the annexation of the northern tier of towns 
in Hampshire County to Franklin County, but while the in- 
strument was lying on the table awaiting the signatures of 
delegates — a very few having signed it — it suddenly and mys- 
teriously disappeared, and was never afterward seen or heard 
of. But the record of this alleged fraudulent abstraction, to- 
gether with all other reasons urged for removal to Cheapside, 
were presented to the Legislature. 

A summary of the claims of the rival towns is here pre- 
sented : For Cheapside, it was claimed that it was the geo- 
graphical and traveling centre of the county; that the towns 
east of the Connecticut and south of the Deerfield Rivers could 
save toll by leaving their horses and carriages at the bridges 
and paying toll only as foot-passengers ; that the water at 
Cheapside was excellent, while that at Greenfield was unfit 
to use; that its proximity to the villages of Deerfield and 
Greenfield would always prevent exorbitant demands by 
landlords and boarding-houses ; that all kinds of common 
labor and material were much cheaper ; that it was in the 
midst of excellent pasturage-lands, surrounded by abundant 
forests for fuel, and contiguous to the best hay-fields in the 
county, from which Greenfield received its principal supply ; 
that it was the head of boat-navigation for this part of the 
country, and portions of Vermont ; that it was growing in 
commercial importance, and was the great outlet for the pro- 
duce of the farmer, and the place of deposit from which the 
greater part of the importations of the country were received ; 
that it was pleasantly situated on the margin of the Deerfield 
River, overlooking the adjoining meadows ; that the people 
of the south and east portions of the county would be obliged 
to pass through it to get to Greenfield; that two responsible 
gentlemen stood ready to build two taverns the following 
season, and that every desirable accommodation for courts 
would soon be furnished, and at a much cheaper rate than in 
Greenfield, the price of land being as only one to ten; that 
Cheapside subscriptions in cash, land, and materials exceed 
those of Greenfield ; that a large majority of the towns, the 
people, and the valuation of the county favored the change ; 
that it was in the vicinity of a quarry of excellent stone for 
building purposes, a running brook, and excellent materials 
for the manufacture of brick; that it was nearer Erving's 
Gore.t from which most of the necessary lumber must come 
for the new buildings ; that wood was sixty-seven cents per 
cord and team-work twenty-five per cent, cheaper than at 
Greenfield, and board for laborers fifty cents per week cheaper; 
and, finally, that a gentleman of undoubted responsibility had 
offered, in writing, for nineteen hundred dollars of the Cheap- 
side subscription, to build a court-house as large as the one at 

t Erected into the town of Erving, .\pril 17, 1838. 




NorthaMipton,and n tiro-proof clerk's office, and turn over tlie 
remainder of the subscription to help build the jail. 

On behalf of Greenlield it was claimed: First, to be the 
territorial centre. Second, the traveling centre of the county. 
Tliird, that there were few inhabitants at Cheapsidc, — being 
onlv seven houses, and five of those very small, and the other 
two unsuitable for tlie accommodation of boarders. Fourth, 
very desirable accommodations at Greenfield, — twenty well- 
built, commodious dwellings, and the most considerable place 
of trade in the county. Fifth, that the town had expended 
large sums in the construction of roads, bridges, and turn- 
pikes for the accommodation of the public ; that Greenfield 
had built most of the Deerfield Kiver bridge at Cheapside, 
one-half of the Connecticut Kiver bridge at Montague, and 
one-eighth of the great turnpike to Leominster, which was 
|)rojccted in Greenfield, and cost sixty thousand dollars. 

But after all the excitement and the great pressure brought 
to bear upon the Legislature, the petitions for the removal 
from Greenfield wore rejected, and the place became firmly 
fixed as the county-seat ; though the battle between Green- 
field and Deerfield was continued in one form or another for 
sixty years or more. Repeated attempts have been made to 
procure the annexation of that portion of Deerfield lying 
north of the Deerfield and east of Green Kiver to the town of 
Greenfield ; but, notwithstanding the many and cogent rea- 
sons given for the necessitj' of such a step, Cheapside still re- 
mains a territorial part of the old town of Deerfield, though 
really a suburb of the county-seat. 

But the growth of business and population has been wholly 
with Greenfield, and it now constitutes one of the busiest, as 
it is one of the most beautiful and wealthy, interior villages of 
New England, and the grand centre of an assemblage of the 
finest variety of scenery — rook, hill, mountain, vale, and 
waterfall — to be found on the continent. A ride of fifteen 
minutes from the court-house places the tourist in the " Poet's 
Seat,'' on the summit of the curious trap ridge which here 
skirts the "broad Connecticut," and four hundred feet above 
its sparkling waters, where he may enjoy a scene nowhere 
surpassed for beauty and variety. 

At his feet, hidden away under its great elms, nestles the 
picturesque and wealthy village of Greenfield ; over his left 
shoulder lies the growing village of Turner's Falls, the coming 
great city of the valley, enfolded in the grand curves of the 
Connecticut, with its thundering waterfall and its Indian 
traditions ; on the east and west rise the majestic mountains ; 
to the southwest and southeast spread the broad valleys of the 
Pocomtuclt and the Connecticut, with the quaint old village of 
Deerfield, of historic memories, beneath its wide, umbrageous 
trees ; the lofty sand rock ridge of Deerfield, and the over- 
topping heights of Mettawampe in the centre of the picture, 
and the dim, undulating line of hills and mountains bounding 
the far horizon. It is a culmination of scenic beauties rarely 
equaled, and perhaps nowhere surpassed, in America. 

Between the date of the incorporation of Franklin County 
and the building of the court-house, courts were accommodated 
in the hall of the old Willard tavern, which stood on the north- 
west corner of Main and Federal Streets, on ground now occu- 
pied by Hovey's block and the Franklin County National 
Bank. This tavern was erected by Beriah Willard, and was 
long a rival of the old Munn tavern, which stood on the oppo- 
site corner, on ground now occupied by the Mansion House. 

The first session of the old Common Pleas Court was held 
on the 9th day of March, 1812, with Jonathan Leavitt, asso- 
ciate justice, presiding. Edward Bangs was the chief-justice. 
Andrew Adams, of Greenfield, father of Peleg Adams, was 
foreman of the traverse jury, and Eli.sha Alexander, of North- 
iicld, was foreman of the grand jury. The first action entered 
in this court and placed on the record was that of Jerome 
Uipley, of Greenfield, against Kansom Hinman, of Lee ; an ac- 
tion on th(' case. Richard English Newcomh, Esq., appeared 

for the plaintiff. Defendant was defaulted, and judgment 
rendered for $29.11 damages and §7.71 costs. 

At the date of the erection of Franklin County all county 
business was transacted by the old Court of Sessions. The 
fir.st meeting of this court was held at Greenfield, March 3, 
1812, with Job Goodale, Esq., chief-justice, and Medad Alex- 
ander, Ebenezer Arms, Joshua Green, and Caleb Hubbard, 
Esquires, associate justices. 

The first record of business transacted shows that the court 
ordered that, in consideration of the payment of five hundred 
dollars, the inhabitants of Greenfield should forever have the 
privilege of holding town-meetings in the court-house about 
to be built.* 

The ne.xt business was to divide the county into jury dis- 
tricts, which was done as follows : 

Firsi Diaii-icf. — Deerfield, Whately, Conwaj', Shelburne, 
Sunderland, and Leverett. 

Second District. — Northfield, Gill, Greenfield, Bcrnardston, 
Coleraine, and Leyden. 

Third District. — Montague, Wendell, Shutesbury, New 
Salem, Orange, and Warwick. 

Fourth District. — Ashfield, Hawley, Charlemont, Buckland, 
Heath, and Kowe. 

A committee, consistingof Eliel Gilbert, of Greenfield; John 
Arms, of Conway; Ezekiel Webster, of Northfield; Charles 
E. Robertson, of New Salem; John White, of Whately; 
Hezekiah Newcomb, of Leyden ; and Roger Leavitt, of Heath, 
was appointed to procure plans for the public buildings. 

At the April meeting, in 1812, Eliel Gilbert, Esq., Capt. 
Ambrose Ames, and Mr. David Ripley were appointed a 
committee to superintend the erection of the public buildings. 
The first licenses to innholders and retailers of liquors were 
granted at this session, the number of applicants amounting, 
in the county, to about one hundred and twelve. The jail 
limits were also established at this term. 

At the March term of 1813, Elijah Alvord (2d) was ap- 
pointed commissioner to meet the commissioners of Hamp- 
shire and Hampden Counties for the purpose of adjusting 
unsettled matters between them. 


Appropriations for county buildings were made as follows: 
1813, 12000; 1814, $2100; 1815, $1900; 1816, $2160; total, 
$8160. These amounts probably cover the cost of both court- 
house and jail, which were probably erected in 1813. 

The first court-house building for the use of Franklin 
County is now occupied by the post-office and the Gar-cttc nnd 
Courier office. The probable expense of this building was 
about $6,500. 

In 1822 the offices of clerk of the courts and Probate were 
removed from the court-house and located in the building 
occupied by the Franklin County Bank. 


The town of Monroe was erected Feb. 21, 1822, and the 
town of Erving, from Erving's grant, April 17, 1838. 

On the 2d of April, 18.38, the unincorporated district of Zoar 
was divided, and a part set off to Charlemont and Rowe in 
Franklin County, and a part to Florida, Berkshire Co. 

In 1836 the commissioners' books show an expenditure of 
$800 for repairs on public buildings, and in 1848 an appropri- 
ation of $2000 was made for like purposes, though the record 
is somewhat indefinite as to the particular building repaired. 
The amount expended in 1836 was probably upon the court- 

In the years 1848 and 1849 a new court-house was erected 
on the west side of the park, and on ground now covered by 

* In 1814 the Protestant Episcopal Society of Greenfield was permitted Iiy the 
court to occupy llic court-ronjn for u few inuntlis pcinlini; the rrccti >n of a Imusc 
of worship. 



the new building erected in 1872 and 1873, and of which it 
forms a part. 

The money raised for the erection of the new buikling was 
as follows: in 1848, $3000; in 1849, $i300; in 1850, §3000; 
in 1851, S1150; in 18-32, |1100; in 18.33, .$1,300; in 18-34, 
$5700; in 1855, §5700; total, .524,150. The two large sums 
of 1854-55 most likely included appropriations for a new jail, 
which was erected in 1856. The total county tax for 1848 was 

In examining the books and records, it is ne.vt to impos- 
sible to determine the e.\act amount of money expended 
on the court-house of 1848-49, but it was probably under 

Isaac Damon was the contractor. The county commis- 
sioners of that year were Thomas Nims, Joseph Stevens, and 
Ebenezer Maynard. 

The amounts expended for a series of years on the public 
buildings were, according to the record, as follows : 1805, 
?300; 1807, §-300; 1869, ?4.30; 1870, §-300; 1871, $-300; 1873, 
$•500. The sum for 1873 was probably wholly ex])ended on the 
jail and house of correction. 

In 1872 and 1873 the old court-house, which had served for 
a period of about twenty-three years, was remodeled, enlarged, 
and substantially rebuilt. The lot belonging to the county 
was considerably enlarged, and the space around the building 
made more roomy and convenient. The county commissioners 
in office during the time of its construction were Nelson Bur- 
rows, Richard N. Oakman, and George D. Crittenden. The 
architect was Joseph R. Richards, of Boston; the contrac- 
tors, Timothy E. Stuart, mason, Asa Lewis, carpenter, both 
also from Boston. The total cost of this new and substantial 
building has been approximately fifty thousand dollars. Its 
extreme dimensions, including projections and portico, are 
about one hundred and fifteen by seventy-five feet. The base- 
ment is of stone, the superstructure of brick. It is two stories 
in height, with tower and slate roof. It is a spacious, ele- 
gant, and well-arranged building, convenient, and well-lighted 
and ventilated. The acoustic properties of the main court- 
room appear to be excellent. It is heated throughout by 
steam, lighted by gas, and supplied with abundance of the 
pure " Leyden Glen water," which is furnished to-the village 
from the hills of Leyden, several miles away. Altogether, the 
Franklin County court-house, considering its convenience and 
adaptation, its architectural appearance and reasonable cost, 
is one of the best and most satisfactory to the people of the 
county of an3' in the commonwealth, reflecting credit alike 
on its projectors and builders. 


The first jail for Franklin County was erected probably in 
the same year with the original court-house, 1813. It was 
constructed of wood, and stood a little south of where the 
Union Hotel now stands. The cost of the building cannot be 
precisely determined from the records, as the appropriations 
named and expenditures stated include both court-house and 
jail, but it was probably from one thousand to fifteen hundred 
dollars. This building was occupied until 1831, when a new 
one was erected. 

The second jail was constructed of stone from the quarries 
in Northfield, the amount used being about three hundred and 
fifty tons, equivalent to about four thousand cubic feet, or 
thirty-one and one-quarter cords of one hundred and twenty- 
eight feet each. An appropriation of one thousand dollars 
was made for the erection of the buikling in December, 1830, 
and it was completed during the following year, at a total cost, 
according to the commissioners' account, of ■S4746.65, of which 
$770.23 was paid for hauling the stone from the quarries.* 

* The county commissioners at that "late were Horace W. Taft, Tliomas Long- 
ley, John .\rm6. 

The building was thirty-eight feet square, and contained 
eleven rooms. During the period of its construction the 
prisoners were transferred to the Hampshire County jail, at 
Northampton, for safe-keeping. This structure was in use 
until the comjiletion of a third one, in 1850. It now forms a 
part of the Union Hotel. 

In 1855 the necessity for a new and enlarged county prison 
and a more healthy location having become apparent, steps 
were taken toward the necessary changes and improvements, 
and the land on the hill now occupied was purchased at a 
cost of three thousand dollars. 

The present county jail and house of correction was built in 
185G, and the total cost, as near as can be readily ascertained, 
was about thirty thousand dollars, including land. 

The basement is of stone and the superstructure of brick, 
with stone trimmings. The building is in the form of a Latin 
cross, with additions on the north, south, and east. The total 
length of the structure is about ninety-three feet, and the ex- 
treme width, not including additions, about fifty-six feet. The 
size of the jail or prison proper is thirty-eight feet four inches 
by fifty-three feet. The front building is two stories and an 
attic, and the prison portion two stories. There are two tiers 
of cells, and thirty-five cells in all, including three recently 
constructed in the basement for the confinement of desperate 
criminals and drunkards. The upper story of the prison is 
occupied as a workshop, where the prisoners are at present 
employed in bottoming cane-seat chairs. The front building is 
occupied on the first floor by the office, parlor, sitting-room, and 
kitchen, and on the second floor by corresponding chambers 
and the chapel, which is over the kitchen. The sherift^s family 
resides in the building. The cells lock independently, and 
also in sections. There is in the centre of the structure a 
large circular tower, ten feet in diameter, rising above the 
roof, used for ventilating purposes and for chimney-flues. The 
premises are well ventilated, and connected with the gas- and 
the water-works of the town. The drainage and sewage 
are good. The roof is covered with slate. The entire estab- 
lishment is in thorough order in every respect, and well con- 

In man}' respects it greatly resembles the ordinary State 
penitentiaries, more particularly in the arrangement of the 
cells, in the custom of employing prisoners at some kind of 
profitable labor, and in the length of terms of imprisonment, 
which vary according to the discretion of the court. At 
the present time there is one woman serving a term of seven 

When a prisoner is received he or she is measured, and a 
minute description entered on the records of the institution. 
There is perhaps only one unsatisfactory feature about the 
establishment, and that is the lack of some provision whereby 
persons charged with crime and awaiting trial shall not be 
compelled to mingle with criminals serving terms of imprison- 
ment. The location is very fine and healthful one, and cer- 
tainly as unobjectionable as could be expected in one of its 
class. A chaplain and physician are provided for the benefit 
of the inmates at the expense of the county. 


The increase in taxation for county purposes has probably 
more than kept pace with the increase in population since the 
formation of the county. The first account of the treasurer 
in 1812 showed receipts of §817.12. The first county tax levied 
in 1812 was §2.500. The following figures show the amounts 
raised at various periods for county ]iurposes : 1812, §2500 ; 
1833, §8000; 1844, §6000; 1850, §10,000; 1855, §18,000; 1860, 
§20,000; 1870, §25,000; 1873, §35,000; 1878, §28,000. The 
tax for 1879 is something less than for the previous year. 
With good and substantial public buildings completed, it is 
probable that for many years the county tax will steadily 





chief-justices' COITRT OF SESSIONS. 

Jon GooDAi.B, 1811 to 1818, inclusive; John Hooker, 1819 
to 1821, inclusive; Elijah Pjiino, 18L>2 to 1827, inclusive. 


The act abolishing Courts of Sessions and establishing in 
their stead county commissioners was approved Feb. 26, 1828. 
The commissioners were at first appointed by the Governor 
and council for three years. The office was made elective in 

John Nevers, Thomas Longley, John Arms, Horace W. 
Taft, Noah Wells, Isaac Newton, Jonathan Blake, Rufus 
Saxton, Charles Thompson, Joseph Stevens, Thomas Nims, 
Kbenezer Maynard, Austin Rice, Josiah Goddard, Lucius 
Nims, Asia Severance, Hart Leavitt, Samuel D. Bardwell, 
Alfred R. Field, Horace Hunt, Ansel L. Tyler, Richard C. 
Arms, Davis Goddard, Alvan Hall, Nelson Burrows, George 
D. Crittenden, R. N. Oakman, John M. Smith, Carlos Batch- 
elder, Lyman G. Barton. 


The following is a nearly complete list of those who have 
served as special commissioners:- Thaddeus Coleman, Rufus 
Saxton, Richard Colton, Amos Russell, Thomas Nims, John 
Porter, David Wells, Samuel Giles, Elijah Ingham, Jonathan 
Budington, R. B. Hubbard, Gardiner Dickinson, Albert R. 
Albee, H. K. Hoyt, William W. Russell, Nelson Burrows, 
John M. Smith, Albert Montague, William C. Carpenter, and 
David L. Smith. 

Tile names of both commis.sioners and special commission- 
ers are only given once ; many of them have served several 
terms each. 


1811. — Solomon Smead, of Greenfield. 
1814. — Jonathan Leavitt, of Greenfield. 
1821.— Richard E. Newcomb, of Greenfield. 
1849. — George Grinnell,f of Greenfield. 
1853.— Horatio G. Parker,t of Greenfield. 
1854.— Franklin Ripley, of Greenfield. 
1858.— Charles Mattoon, of Greenfield. 
1870.— Chester C. Conant, of Greenfield. 


1811. — Isaac B. Barber, of Coleraine. 
1812.— Elijah Alvord (2d), of Greenfield. 
1841. — George Grinnell, Jr., of Greenfield. 
1849.— Wendell T. Davis, of Greenfield. 
1851.— Samuel O. Lamb, of Greenfield. 
1858.- Charles Mattoon, of Greenfield. 
1856.— Charles Mattoon,J of Greenfield. 
1858.— Charles J. Ingersoll,J of Greenfield. 
1863.— Chester C. Conant,t of Greenfield. 
1870.— Francis M. Thompson,! "f Greenfield. 


1811. — Elihu Lyman, Jr., Greenfield, county attorney. 

1811. — John Nevers, Northfield, county attorney. 

1812. — Samuel C. Allen, New Salem, county attorney. 

1821.— George Grinnell, Jr., Greenfield, county attorney. 

1829. — Richard E. Newcomb, Greenfield, county attorney. 

1837^2.- Daniel Wells, Greenfield, attorney for Western 
Di.strict five years. 

1844.— Wm. Porter, Jr., Lee, vice Wells, appointed chief- 
justice Common Pleas Court. 

1849.— Wm. Porter, Jr., Lee. 

* For explanations and preliminary remarks, see Chapter II., History of 
Hampden County, in this work. 

t Resigned. j Elected, 

1851.- — Increase Sumner, Great Harrington. 

1853.— Wm. G. Bates, Westfield, vice Sumner. 

1854. — Henry L. Dawes, Adams, vice Bates. 

1855. — Ithaniiir F. Conkey, Amherst, Northwestern Dis- 

1850. — EIrctnl, Daniel W. Alvord, Greenfield, Northwest- 
ern District. 

18.59.— The same. 

1862-66-08.— Samuel T. Spaulding, Northampton. 

1871.— William S. B. Hopkins, Greenfield. 

1874.— Samuel T. Field, Shelburne Falls. 

1877.— Daniel W. Bond, Northampton. § 


1811.— John Nevers, Northfield. 

1811. — Elihu Lyman, Jr., Greenfield. 

1814. — Epaphras Hoyt, Deerfield. 

1831-40. — John Nevers, Northfield, sixteen years. 

1847. — Samuel H. Reed, Rowe, five years. 

1851. — James S. Whitney, Conway. 

1853.— Samuel H. Reed, Greenfield. 

1855. — Charles Pomeroy, Northfield. 

1856-68.— Samuel H. Reed, Greenfield. 

1868-77.— Solomon C. Wells, Greenfield. 

1877. — George A. Kimball, Greenfield. 


1811. — Rodolpbus Dickinson, of Deerfield. 
1820.— Elijah Alvord, of Greenfield. 
1840. — Henry Chapman, of Greenfield. 
1852. — George Grinnell, of Greenfield. 
1866.— Edward E. Lyman, of Greenfield. 

1811.— Elijah Alvord (2d), of Greenfield. 
1812.— Epaphras Hoyt, of Deerfield. 
1815. — Hooker Leavitt, of Greenfield. 
1842. — Almon Brainard, of Greenfield. 
1850. — Lewis Merriam, of Greenfield. 
1802.— Daniel H. Newton, of Greenfield. 
1865. — Bela Kellogg, of Greenfield. 
1876.— C. M. Moody, of Greenfield. 


1811.— Epaphras Hoyt, of Deerfield. 

1815. — Hooker Leavitt, of Greenfield. 
1842. — Almon Brainard, of Greenfield. 
1856. — Humphrey Stevens, of Greenfield. 
1872.— Edward Benton, of Greenfield. 


Lucius Dickinson, John Pinks, Thomas Rockwood, Dexter 
Marsh, Jonathan M. Mann, Charles Prink, Maj. H. Taylor, 
George S. Eddy, Rufus A. Lilly, of Greenfield. 


The present justices of the county are as follows : Gorham 
D. Williams, Greenfield; Hiram Woodward, Orange ; Samuel 
D. Bardwell, Shelburne Falls; Joseph Root and Wm. S. 
Dana, Montague ; Albert Montague, Sunderland ; Henry W. 
Billings, Conway ; Silas Blake, Ashtiekl ; Charles Pomeroy, 


Apportionment under the revised constitution of 1857 : ra- 
tio of votes to each representative, eight hundred and fifty. 
— Eight representatives. 

District No. i. — Bernardston, Coleraine, Greenfield, Gill, 
Leyden, Shelburne. — Two repre.sentatives. 

§ The district now includes Hampshire and Franklin Counties. 

II For explanations, see Chapter II., History of Hampden County, iu this work. 



ViitrUf. No. 2. — Buckland, Charleraont, Heath, Monroe, 
Kowe. — One representative. 

Dhtrir.t No. 3. — Ashfield, Conway, Hawley. — One represen- 

Dintrict Nil. 4. — DcertielJ, Wliately. — One representative. 

District No. 5. — Leverett, Shutesbury, Sunderland, Wen- 
dell. — One representative. 

District No. 6. — Erving, Montague, Northficld. — One re]v 

District No. 7. — New Salem, Orange, Warwick. — One rep- 

Under the apportionment of 18G0 the eount\' was allowed 
seven representatives, and the ratio of voters to each was fi.\ed 
at ten hundred and thirty and five-sevenths. 

Diitfict No. 1. — Warwick, Orange, New Salem. — One rep- 

District No. 2. — Montague, Sunderland, Leverett, Shutes- 
bury, Wendell. — One representative. 

District No. 3. — Greenfield, Coleraine, Leyden, Bernards- 
ton, Gill, Northficld, Erving. — Two representatives. 

District No. 4. — Decrficid, Shelburnc, Whately, Conway, 
Ashfield, Hawley. — Two representatives. 

District No. 5. — Buckland, Charlemont, Heath, Rowe, 
Monroe. — One representative. 

Under the apportionment of 1876 the county was allowed 
six representatives, and the ratio to each was fixed at fourteen 
hundred and nineteen. 

District No. 1. — Warwick, Erving, Orange, New Salem. 
— One representative. 

District No. 2. — Montague, Sunderland, Leverett, Wendell, 
Shutesbury.— One representative. 

District No. 3. — Gill, Greenfield, Shelburne. — One repre- 

District No. i. — Deerfield, Conway, Whately. — One repre- 

District No. 5. — Northficld, Bernardston, Leyden, Cole- 
raine, Heath. — One representative. 

jJistrici No. 0. — Ashfield, Buckland, Charlemont, Hawluy, 
Kowe, Monroe. — One representative. 

For lists of representatives, see town histories. 

In addition to county officers, the county of Franklin has 
furnished the following State and national ofiicers since its 
organization : 

Governor. — William B. Washburn, of Greenfield, from 1872 
to 1874. 

Licidcnant-Gorernor. — Henry W. Cushman, of Bernards- 
ton, from 18-51 to 1853. 

United States Senator. — William B. Washburn, 1874-75.* 

Attorney-Oeneral. — Charles Allen, from 1867 to 1872. 



This society was organized at Greenfield, in Januar}-, 1851, 
and the following officers were elected : President, Stephen W. 
Williams, Deerfield; Secretary and Treasurer, James Deane, 
Greenfield ; Librarian, Alpheus F. Stone, Greenfield ; Coun- 
selors, Alpheus F. Stone, G. W. Hamilton, Stephen W. Wil- 
liams ; Censors, James Deane, E. W. Carpenter, C. M. Dun- 
can. The society was legally sanctioned and authorized by 
the State Medical Society on the 3d of June following. 

The following is a list of those who have been members of 
the society. Those marked with a star are deceased. Many 
others have removed, and a few who are not marked may 
have deceased : 

* Gov. Washbura was also a member of the 38th, 3!)th, 40th, 4l8t, and 42d 


Orange.^ — Edward Barton, Robert Andrews,* J. H. God- 

/)c<-;-/7>M.— Stephen W. Williams,* K. N. Porter, John Q. 
Adams McAllister, Charles A. Packard, D. M. Elliott, Geo. 
M. Read. The three last mentioned at South Deerfield vil- 

Greenfield. — James Deane,* Daniel Hovey,* L. D. Seymour, 
Charles H. Spring, Joseph Draper, Noah Wells, Jonathan 
W. Osgood, A. C. Walker, C. L. Fisk, Jr., Thomas Wom- 

Sliellmrne Fn/l.'s. — Chenery Puffer,* Milo Wilson,* Stephen 
J. W. Tabor,! J- W. Bement,* A. H. Taylor, Charles E. 
Severance, F. J. Canedy, C. M. Wilson. 

Shelburne. — Charles M. Duncan. 

Ashfield. — Charles L. Knowlton, James R. Fairbanks. 

Charlemont. — Stephen Bates.* 

Buchlond. — Josiah Trow. 

Coleraine. — A. C. Deane, Charles T. Lyons, Charles Warren 
Green, E. S. W^eston, O. H. Lamb. 

Rone. — Humphrey Gould.* 

Montague. — David Bradford,* E. A. Deane. 

Montague City. — Charles A. Wilson, E. C. Coy. 

Leverett. — Fayette Clapp,* David Rice.* 

Northfiehl.—^\\\^\\ Stratton,* Marshall S. Mead, A. B. 
Rice, R. C. Ward. 

Warwick. — Gardner C. Hill, Charles Barber.* 

Heath. — Cj'rus Temple. 

New Salem. — A. E. Kemp, Wni. H. Hills. 

Bernard.iton. — Noyes Barstow, William Dwigbt, Charles 
Bowker, O. A. Wheeler. 

Conway. — E. D. Hamilton, Martin L. Mead. 

Sunderland. — N. G. Trow. 

Gill.—E. P. Burton. 

Turner's Falls.— S. Walter Scott, C. E. Hall, E. R. Camp- 

Miller's Falls. — Doremus D. Jacobs, Charles W. Stock- 

Present Officers. — President, A. C. Walker; Vice-President, 
C. L. Fisk, Jr. ; Secretary, Treasurer, and Librarian, Charles 
Bowker; Censors, C. M. Duncan, Edward Barton, C. E. Sev- 
erance, A. C. Deane, E. C. Coy ; Counselors, J. W. Osgood, 
E. A. Deane, F. J. Canedy ; Commissioner on Trials, K. C. 
Ward; Counselor for Nominating Committee, F. J. Canedy; 
Reporter, G. M. Keed. 

Dr. Alpheus Fletcher Stone? was born in Rutland, 
Worcester Co., Mass., May 7, 1778. In his younger days he 
taught school in Connecticut, and probably had a good com- 
mon education for those days. 

About 1798 or 1799 he came to Greenfield, where he entered 
the office of his elder brother, Dr. John Stone, who subse- 
quently removed to Springfield, Mass., where he died.|| He 
continued his medical studies for about two years, and com- 
menced practice at Greenfield on Christmas-day, 1801. Here 
he continued in active business for fifty 3'ears, and bat'ame one 
of the most noted and successful practitioners in this region. 
He was famous as an obstetrician, and probably had a larger 
practice in that line than almost any other physician in the 
Connecticut Valley. He had a great reputation in the treat- 
ment of women and children, and was a man of most urbane 
and gentlemanly deportment, and was very popular among 
all classes. He was exceedingly systematic, and always punc- 
tual to appointments. During the last twenty-five years of his 
life his consulting practice was very extensive. 

t The names of towns indicate their place of residence at the time of uniting 
with the society. 

I Df. Tabor is now Fourth Auditor of the Treasury Department at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

g Compiled from a biographical sketch by Stephen W. Williams, M.D., written 
in lyol, and puhli.slied in the Boston Meilicitt itml Surgical Journal. 

1! For notice of Dr. John Stone, see Mo.lioal Chapter of Hampden County 



He became a fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Associa- 
tion in 1814, and was one of its counselors for twenty-five 
}-ears. He took an active part in the formation of the 
Franklin District Medical Society, founded in 1851, was one 
of its counselors, and served for some time as librarian. In 
1813 lie was elected an honorary member of the American 
Esculajiian Society of New York. In 18"2;j he received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Medicine from Williams Col- 
lege ; in 1849 was appointed by the Massachusetts Medical 
Association a delegate to the American Medical Association ; 
and in January, 1851 , was elected first president of the Frank- 
lin District Medical Society. Dr. Stone died Sept. 5, 1851, 
aged seventy-three years and four months. 

He was three times married. His first wife was a daughter 
of Beriah Willard, Esq., of Greenfield; his second was Har- 
riett lUissell, of Itutland, Mass.; and his third, Mrs. Fanny 
C'u.shing Arms, widow of George Arms, Esq., of Deerfield, 
whom he married about 1820. 

His son, Charles Stone, was a graduate of "West Point, and 
served during the Mexican war with distinction, rising to the 
rank of captain in the regular army. Subsequently he visited 
Europe to perfect his military studies. At the opening of the 
great Rebellion in 1861 he took an active and prominent part, 
and received the commission of brigadier-general of volun- 
teers. He commanded at the disastrous battle of Ball's Bluii', 
which reverse to the Union arms was more the result of 
errors on the part of the War Department than of any fault 
in the commander. He soon after retired from the service, 
and subsequently visited Europe and Egypt, where he entered 
the army of the khedive, and has, by his thorough military 
knowledge and soldierly qualities, won the high distinction 
of virtual commander-in-chief of the Egyptian army. 

Dr. Samuel Stearns, son of Charles Stearns, was born in 
Leyden, Franklin Co., Mass., June 29, 1792. He studied 
medicine with Dr. Samuel Norris, of Homer, Cortland Co., 
Jf. Y., for two 3'ears, and afterward with Dr. George Wins- 
low, of Coleraine, Franklin Co., Mass. Sept. 22, 181G, ho 
married Luseba, daughter of Capt. Edward Adams, of Cole- 
raine. He practiced medicine in Brookfleld, Madison Co., 
N. Y., and New Haven, Vt., previous to the year 1821, at 
which date he returned to Coleraine, where he remained until 
1835, when he removed to Greenfield, Franklin Co., JIass., 
where he continued the practice of his profession until about 
the year 1800, when he l-.ecame incapacitated, by reason of 
spinal disease, from active business. This ditiiculty was super- 
induced by a fall from a load of hay. His death occurred on 
the 16th of June, 1867, at the age of seventy-five years. 

Christopher Deane, M.D., was a native of Stonington, 
Conn., where he was born on the 12th of August, 1783. At 
an early age he removed with his father to Coleraine, Frank- 
lin Co., Mass., where the family settled on a farm. His edu- 
cation was obtained at the common district school and at the 
Deerfield Academy. Succeeding his school-days he taught a 
district school during the winter months for several years, 
and studied medicine with Dr. Samuel Ross, the fir.st settled 
pliysician of the town of Coleraine. He commenced practice 
about the year 1807, and continued uninterruptedly until his 
death, July 25, 1854, a period of almost half a century. His 
practice grew to extensive proportions, though the remunera- 
tion was somewhat disproportioned to the amount of labor 
performed. He possessed an excellent library for those days, 
and kept himself fully abreast of the progress of the age, 
and, probably, somewhift in advance of his contemporaries in 
country practice. He was a man of unassuming manners, 
quiet and gentlemanly in his bearing toward all. 

He married Sarah, daughter of Dr. Samuel Ross, by whom 
he had thirteen children, — six sons and seven daughters. His 
sons were all business or profeseional men, only two of whom 
are now living, — Dr. A. C. Deane, of Greenfield, Mass., and 
one in California. 

Dr. James Deane. — This eminent physician was descended 
from James Deane, one of the earliest settlers of Stonington, 
Conn. Christopher and Prudence Deane, his father and 
nuither, removed from Stonington early in their married life 
til Coleraine, Franklin Co., Mass., where the subject of this 
notice was born, on the 24th of February, 1801, being the 
eighth child of the family.* The home of his cliildliood, 
which was a very humble one, was situated near the summit 
of one of the picturesque hills of Western 3Ia.s.sachusetts, 
within full view of the Grand Monadnock and the lesser up- 
lift of gray Wachusett, while the whole vast horizon was 
bounded by a magnificent line of undulating hills and moun- 
tains, with the intervening space filled up with quiet vales and 
beautiful pastoral scenery. He was from his early years a 
close student of Nature, watching the growth of the forest- 
trees, pondering the multitudinous forms in which she arrayed 
herself, and adapting himself but indift'erently to the busy 
duties of farm-life. His education was such as the district 
schools of the time aft'orded, supplemented by one term at the 
then somewhat noted Deerfield Academy. He also, as bis 
tastes developed, was allowed the privilege of taking lessons 
in the Latin language, under the instruction of Isaac B. 
Barber, Esq., an attorney of his native tovvn.f This last re- 
quired a daily journey of three miles on foot through the 
woods. The entire family were studiously inclined, as is illu.s- 
trated by the fact that each of the sons became in turn teacher 
in the district school, while three of them studied medicine. 

When James was nineteen years of age his father finally 
gave up the idea of making a farmer of him, and consented 
that he might seek a more congenial occupation. He accord- 
ingly made his way to that goal of a Yankee's boy's ambition , 
the wonderful city of Boston, scarcely comprehending what 
he wanted or why he went. He was disappointed in finding 
employment, and after a few daj's' absence returned to his 
father's house. About all the remark he made of the trip 
was, that "he had met with some lonesome places." 

But he could not content himself upon the farm, and upon 
arriving at his majority he bade adieu to his home, and, coming 
to Greenfield, offered his services to Elijah Alvord, Esq., then 
clerk of the courts and register of Probate. Here he remained 
during the four succeeding years, which were among the 
happiest of his life. 

While in the employ of Mr. Alvord, he began the study of 
medicine as a pupil of Dr. Brigham, an eminent practitioner 
of Greenfield, spending a few hours of each day in this pur- 
suit. In 1829-30 he attended his first course of medical lec- 
tures, given by Professors' Delafleld, Stevens, Smith, Beck, 
and others, of New York. He received the degree of M.D. 
in March, 1831, and immediately afterward commenced prac- 
tice in Greenfield, where he soon established an excellent rep- 
utation as a physician and surgeon, and eventually built up a 
large practice. A number of respectable medical gentlemen, 
at various periods, located in the place, but retired from com- 
petition with him after brief experience. His success was 
steady and sure, and he soon took the first rank as a surgeon 
in this vicinity. 

His services in the department of surgery, and in rare and 
difficult cases of disease, were in demand over a region cover- 
ing a radius of thirty miles around Greenfield. He felt the 
need of additional knowledge, and in 1849 spent several weeks 
in New York, studying the latest and most approved works, 
and bringing himself fully up with the advance thoughts of 
the time. This was subsequently of immense advantage to 

His experience as a contributor to the press began in 1837, 
with a communication to the Boston Medical nnd Surr/ieal 
Joiirnul, and continued until January, 18-55, during which 

* He was half-brother of Dr. Christopher Deane, previously mentioned. 

f L.itt-r in lifo he stndii'd the French l.-inguage. 



period his correspondence with that publication was' extensive 
and highly appreciated. 

Asa member of the Franklin District Medical Society, and 
the Massachusetts Medical Society (of the latter of which he 
was vice-president for two years), he prepared and contributed 
several interesting and valuable papers and addresses, among 
which may be properly mentioned a communication in May, 
1855, to the last-named society, upon "The Hygienic Con- 
dition of the Survivors of Ovariotomy," a paper evincing re- 
markable research and ability. 

But Dr. Deane's extensive reputation did not wholly rest 
upon his thorough knowledge of, and his masterly skill in the 
practice of, medicine and surgery. 

Great as were his attainments in his legitimate profession, 
he added new laurels by his investigations in the fields of 
geology and ichnology, for the study of which the regions of 
the Connecticut Valley and of Western Massachusetts, gen- 
erally, ofler most excellent opportunities. 

As early as the beginning of 1835, Dr. D., in common with 
others, had noticed the remarkable impressions found in the 
shaly strata of the red sand-rock formation of the Connecticut 
Valley, slabs of which had been quarried and used as flagging 
in the sidewalks of Greenfield. People often noticed them, 
and jokingly spoke of them as "bird tracks" or "turkey 
tracks," without giving them any further thought. 

But Dr. Deane was not satisfied with a cursory glance. To 
his investigating mind here was a leaf from Nature's book 
opening for the student, which promised new and wonderful 
discoveries. He at once began a careful investigation by vis- 
iting the quarries whence they were procured, and on the 7th 
of March, 1835, wrote to the elder Prof. Hitchcock, stating j 
his belief that the impressions were made by the feet of birds. 
To this proposition Prof. H. replied on the loth of the month, 
declaring that " they could not be the result of organization*" 
But the doctor reiterated his belief, and continued his re- 
searches. He prepared casts and sent them, with a written 
communication, not only to Prof. Hitchcock, but likewise to 
Prof. Silliman, editor of the American Journal of Science. 
This was in April, 1835, and the communications met with a 
very cordial reception from Prof. Silliman, and caused Prof. 
Hitchcock to make a visit to the locality where the specimens 
were obtained. At the request of the latter gentleman Dr. 
Deane's communication was not published in the journal, he 
promising to make an investigation and furnish a " more full 
and satisfactory paper." 

Dr. Deane continued his studies, and during subsequent 
years published many interesting papers, some of thena ac- i 
companied by most elaborate drawings. In 1845 he published 
a paper giving a description of what he denominated "a ba- 
trachian reptile," and in 1847 and 1848 gave to the world ac- 
counts of different species of quadrupeds. 

As early as 1842 he forwarded specimens, accompanied by 
a letter, to Dr. Mantell, of London, England, who laid them 
before the Geological Society of London. Mr. Murchison 
subsequently acknowledged Dr. Deane as the " first observer" 
of the tracks, and the thanks of the society were unanimously 
tendered him. 

In 1849 he sent a verj' elaborate memoir, accompanied with 
many plates, to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
which was published by the society. Similar papers were 
published in 1850 and 1856 by the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences at Philadelphia, in one of which he first describes the 
minute tracks of insects. 

During all these years he was busy preparing descriptions 
and drawings of new fossil specimens, with a view to future 
publication. A large amount of this work was presented to 
the Smithsonian Institution a short time before his death. 

Justice has not been fully meted out to Dr. Deane by the 
scientific world in relation to his connections and investiga- 
tions in this matter; but there is little doubt, among those 

who are best qualified to understand the whole subject, that 
he is justly entitled to the honor of being the first to investi- 
gate the fo.ssil foot-prints of the valley, and to give scientific 
descriptions and conclusions for the benefit of the world. 

Dr. Deane married, in 1836, Miss Mary Clapp Russell, of 
Greenfield, by whom he had three children, — daughters,— 
who all survived him. His death occurred in the very zenith 
of his powers, on the 8th of June, 1858, when he was fifty- 
.seven years of age. His funeral obsequies were attended by 
a great gathering of friends and acquaintances from all the 
surrounding region. 

Dr. Deane is described as a man of lofty stature "and a 
well-knit and compact frame," producing a most commanding 
and powerful presence. He is remembered as a " most tender 
husband and loving parent," who ever found in the circle of 
home his greatest enjoyment. His political and religious 
opinions were based upon the broadest views of humanity, and 
he was wont to remark that " he believed no profession com- 
pared with a life of goodness." In all the relations of life he 
bore an unblemished reputation, and was often spoken of by 
his professional brethren as "the beloved physician." His 
death was an irreparable loss to his family, to the profession, 
and to the community. 

Dr. Adam.s C. Dkane, the son of Dr. Christopher Deane, 
was born in Coleraine, Franklin Co., Mass., Sept. 23, 1823. He 
studied medicine with his father, and received his collegiate 
education at the L^niversity of New York, where he graduated 
in 1849. He began the practice of his profession in his native 
town, in connection with his father, and continued until 1858, 
when he removed to Greenfield, where he has since resided, 
and has built up an extensive practice and an honorable repu- 
tation as a professional man and prominent citizen. 

He is a member of the Massachusetts Medical Association, 
and has been a member of the Franklin District Medical So- 
ciety since its first organization, in 1851. Early in the war of 
the Rebellion he was appointed by Gov. Andrew examining 
surgeon for volunteers, which position he held through the 
war. He was also medical examiner for pensions, from the 
organization of the bureau until 1877, having been the first 
appointed in this region. In 1856 he was elected to the civil 
position of representative to the General Court from his dis- 
trict. Dr. Deane married, on the 1st of June, 1855, Maria 
Louise, daughter of Joseph Griswold, of Coleraine. 

Dr. Jonathan W. D. Osgood was born at Gardner, Mass., 
in 1802. His father was Rev. Jonathan Osgood, a native of 
Andover, Mass., and a graduate of Yale College. He was 
also a practitioner of medicine for thirty years, and a member 
of the Massachusetts Medical Association. He died in 1822. 

Dr. Osgood entered the academical department of Dart- 
mouth College in 1823, from which he graduated in 1826, un- 
der the tutelage of Dr. Muzzy. He also attended and gradu- 
ated at the Pennsylvania University in 1826-27. He subse- 
quently attended medical lectures at the last-named institution, 
and visited the hospitals of Philadelphia for eight months. 
His regular jiraclice began in 1827, at Templeton, Mass., 
where he remained for a period of thirty years. In 1858 he 
removed to Greenfield, where he has since continued in the 
practice of medicine. He became a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Association in 1828, and was its vice-presi- 
dent in 1876. He was for a long time connected with the 
medical society of Worcester County, and is a member of the 
Franklin District Society. 

When the war of the Rebellion broke out he was too old to 
enter the service, but visited New Orleans during the contest, 
where he had a son sick in the service. Dr. Osgood has been 
in continuous practice for fifty-two years, and since 1847 has 
been disabled from attending to his business only two days. 
At the age of seventy-seven years he is remarkably well pre- 
served, both physically and mentally, and although his hair 
is white with the frosts of almost fourscore years he is com- 



pui-fttivcly liiile and hearty, and attends regularly to tlie duties 
of his calling. 

Dr. Osgood has been twice married. His first wife was 
Eliza, daughter of Lewis Barnard, a prominent farmer of 
Worcester Co., Mass., whom he married June 2, 1834, and 
who died April 13, 1885, leaving one son — Walter B., born 
April (5, 183.5; died March 10, 1872. For his second wife he 
married, June 26, 1888, M. Florella, daughter of Dr. James 
Stone, of Phillipstown, Worcester Co. She died A\ig. 8, 
1808, leaving three children, — two daughters and one son, — 
all now living. 

Dr. Auuustu.s C. Walker was born in Barnstead, N. H., 
June 9, 1833. He is the son of Joseph A. Walker, a farmer 
of that, town, whose ancestors were among the earliest settlers 
about Portsmouth, N. H. He studied medicine with Dr. L. J. 
Hill, of Dover, and Dr. A. B. Crosby, of Hanover, N. H.,and 
graduated at the medical department of Harvard University 
in 18(1(3. During the war he was a.ssistant surgeon of the 133d 
New York Infantrj- Volunteers, and surgeon of the 18th New 
York Cavalry. He commenced the practice of medicine in 
Kew York City in April, 1806, but only remained until 
August of the same year, when he removed to Greenfield, 
Mass., where he has since been in practice. He became a 
member of the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1806, and at 
present holds the position of president of the Franklin Dis- 
trict Medical Society. He has been surgeon of a Massachu- 
setts militia regiment, and also surgeon for examining dis- 
abled soldiers applying for State aid. From 1809 to 1879 he 
was physician for the county jail and house of correction. 
Dr. A. C. Deane succeeded him in 1879. Dr. Walker mar- 
ried, Sept. 8, 1802, Maria Churchill Grant, daughter of Sidney 
S. Grant, of Lyme, N. H. They have three children, all sons. 

The Williams family, of Deerfield, has produced a number 
of eminent physicians. Notices of several of them may be 
found in the history of the town of Deerfield, furnished to 
this volume by Hon. George Sheldon. The following notice 
of Dr. William Stoddard Williams is compiled from a biog- 
raphy by his son, Dr. Stejihen W. Williams, published in his 
"American Medical Biography" in 184-5. 

Dr. William Stoddard Williams, the son of Dr. Thos. 
Williams, the first physician who settled in Deerfield, was 
born in that historic town Oct. 11, 1762. His father died 
while he was very young, but this untoward event did not 
prevent him from devoting his time to study. About 1780 he 
entered Yale College, where he continued a year or two, but 
never graduated. 

About 1782-83 he commenced the study of medicine with 
Dr. Sargeant, of Stockhridge, Mass., a very eminent physician, 
and for many years a worthy member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. Here he continued two years, at that period 
the usual time of professional study. About 178-5 he began to 
practice his profession at Kichmond, in Berkshire Count}', 
where he remained something less than a year. Soon after, 
he settled permanently in Deerfield, where, in spite of numer- 
ous embarrassments and discouragements, he finally established 
an extensive and honorable business, which continued to the 
day of his death. In the year 1800 he was elected a Fellow 
of the Massachusetts Medical Society, which connection was 
maintained until 1819, when he resigned the position on ac- 
count of the ditficulties in the way of attending the society 
meetings, which were held in the eastern part of the State. 
In 1794 he was appointed by the Governor surgeon of the 2d 
Kegiment, 2d Brigade, and 4th Division of Massachusetts 
Militia, which position he held with honor for sixteen years. 
He received from Williams College, in 1823, the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Medicine. In the year 1800 he was com- 
missioned a justice of the peace for his native town ; and such 
was his standing among the jieople and with the civil author- 
ties that he ever afterward held the office. 

He was one of the trustees of the Deerfield Academy from 

its incorporation, in 1797, and from 1803 was secretary and 
treasurer of the instiution. He was town clerk for nineteen 
years, and filled se.veral other important town offices for many 
years. He was also for a long period clerk of the First Con- 
gregational Society in Deerfield. 

He was a great and attentive reader, and possessed one of 
the best medical libraries in the country, sending regularly 
to Europe for standard works not obtainable (at that time) in 
this country. 

His practice was extensive, and his services as a counselor 
were in greater demand than those of any physician in the 
county. He was often called to visit places in the States of 
Vermont and New Hampshire, and the various towns of 
Franklin, Bei'kshire, Hampden, and Worcester Counties, in 

He was verv attentive to his patients, and his presence in 
the sick-room was perhaps of cqinil avail with his prescrip- 
tions. He was wont to spend hours, and sometimes days, at 
the bedside, watching with the utmost attention the varying 
]ihases of disease. 

In the department of obstetrics his practice was very exten- 
sive and successful, as was also his knowledge and treatment 
of children's diseases. 

He was theoretically well acquainted with surgery, and had 
considerable practice, but in his later years did not perform 
many capital operations. In dressing and treating wounds 
and amputations he held a foremost place in the profession. 

Dr. Williams educated a large number of students in the 
profession, all of whom, so far as known, became good phj-si- 
cians, and many rose to eminence. 

So solid was his reputation among his professional brethren 
that his son mentions it as a well-known fact that he was em- 
ployed, first and last, in the family of nearly every physician 
in this region. He was very kind to the poor, and as evidence 
of this it is stated by his biographer that more than one-third 
of his book accounts were never collected, and could not have 
been. He was temperate and abstemious in his living, and 
rarel}' tasted liquors of any kind. 

He died, after a severe though brief illness, Jan. 8, 1828. 
His funeral was attended, on the 11th, by a vast concourse of 
friends and citizens, including no less than eighteen of his 
medical brethren from Deerfield and the adjoining towns. 
His biographer closes an excellent notice of him in these 
words : 

" As a ieIiy;ioils and moral man. as a teii'ler hnsljand and an afrecti()nate parent, 
as an hotioialde man and an eminent plijBivian, his family, his townsmen, ami 
the cammunity bewail his loss as one of no ordinary magnitude." 

Dr. Ebenezer Barnard was born at Deerfield, Mass., in 
1745. His father was Joseph Barnard, whose ancestors settled 
on the shores of Massachusetts Bay about the year 1630. A 
branch of the family came to Deerfield soon after the first set- 
tlement of the place, in 1672. Joseph Barnard, grandfather 
of Dr. Ebenezer, was killed by the savages in Deerfield South 
Meadows in 1095. 

Dr. Barnard belonged to a comparative!}' wealthy family, 
and received an excellent education, graduating at Harvard 
University in 1765, when twenty years of age. He subse- 
quently studied medicine two years with Dr. Lemuel Barnard, 
a relative, of Shetfield, Mass. About 1767-68 he established 
himself in practice at Deerfield, and remained until his death, 
which occurred in 1790, when he was only forty-five years of 
age. He stood high in his profession, and was one of the most 
noted surgeons of his time in Western Massachusetts. He 
possessed a very fine library, and his business was extensive. 

Dr. Henry Wells. — Among the eminent physicians who 
have been citizens of Franklin County may, with great pro- 
priety, be mentioned the name of Dr. Henry Wells, who was 
born in the city of New York in 1742. At the remarkably 
early age often years he entered Princeton College, New Jer- 
sey, from which he graduated at tlie age of fourteen. Subse- 



quentlj' he studied medicine for four years with Dr. Hull, of 
Connecticut, and afterward studied for three years in New 
York City. It is also .stated by some of his biographers that 
he studied divinity for a short time. 

His fatlier was an adherent of the roynl cause during the 
Bevohition, and as a consequence had his property confiscated. 

Dr. Wells, about the time of the war, removed to Brattle- 
boro', Vt., where he practiced for several j'ears. The duties 
of a physician in such a rough country were very severe, and 
he accordingly removed to Montague, in Franklin Co , ilass., 
where he supposed his labors would be somewhat easier. 
Here his practice assumed important proportions, and he 
often visited Albany, N. Y., Hanover, N. H., and many parts 
of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. He possessed 
in a marked degree the confidence of his professional brethren, 
and was much extolled by Dr. Nathan Smith, Dr. Twitchell, 
and other eminent medical men. He became a me]nber of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1785, and continued his 
fellowship until his death, in 1814. During a considerable 
portion of the time he occupied the position of counselor. In 
1800 he received the honorary degree of Doctor of Medicine 
from Dartmouth College. 

Dr. Wells belonged to the old school of gentlemen, and was 
wont to be called, by those who knew him intiinalely, one of 
" Nature's noblemen." His dress usually consisted of velvet 
or buckskin breeches, long jacket, or waistcoat, with flapped 
pockets, and a broad-brimmed, low-crowned hat, giving him 
much the appearance of a Quaker. He was a heavy, broad- 
chested man, inclined to corpulency, and is said to have greatly 
resembled Dr. Franklin, and also the Eev. Dr. Smith, of 
Princeton, N. J. He was urbane, cheerful, and gentlemanly 
in the presence of his patients, many of whom almost wor- 
shiped him. 

A most remarkable and deplorable accident many years after 
his death deprived the world of the results of his experience. 
All his manuscripts and account-books were in the possession 
of his son. Dr. llichard Wells, of Canandaigua, N. Y. A 
crazy man entered his oflSce one morning, when presumably no 
one was in, where he stripped himself and burned his own cloth- 
ing, and proceeded to commit to the flames the wearing apparel 
of Dr. Wells' hired man, the ofhcc furniture, books, manu- 
script, etc., including Dr. Henry Wells' daj'-books and ledgers 
from 1824 to 1832, destroj'ing completely nearly all the doc- 
tor's writings. 

Dr. Wells' death occurred on the 24th of August, 1814, at 
the age of seventy-two years. 

Dr. Samuel Church was born in Amherst, Mass., in 1756. 
He was a graduate of Harvard University in 1778, and studied 
medicine with Dr. Coleman, of Amherst, who was a man of 
some celebrity. He commenced the practice of his profession 
in Sunderland, where he continued until his death, which oc- 
curred in 1826, when he was seventy years of age. From 1816 
to 1823 he was a member of the Massachusetts Medical Asso- 
ciation. He was for many years a justice of the peace in Sun- 
derland, and during his later years transacted more legal than 
medical business. Dr. Williams, in his medical biography, 
says of him : 

"Dr. Cliiirch was always a judicious, but ratlier a timid, practitioner of medi- 
cine. His judgment in relation to diseases was disci iminatiug and verj' correct, 
but he never administered liis remedies with so lx)ld and unsparing a hand as 
many of his professional brethren. In his manners he was affable and polite, 
but modest and retiring. He never sought business, but was ready to attend to 
calls whenever they were made." 

He was plain in his dress and manners, and was considered 
a good and correct writer, though he published very few of the 
productions of his brain. A voliune of his medical notes was 
lost with his son and the steamer "Lexington," on Long 
Island Sound, in January, 1840. He was a poetical writer of 
more than ordinary ability, and Dr. Williams states that he 
left three manuscript volumes of poems of more than average 
merit. lie had a great vein of humor and a most read}' wit, 

as the following anecdote, related by his biographer, fully 
verifies ; 

"Dr. Hunt, of Northampton, who kept a dnig-store, and of whom Dr. Church 
procured bis mcflicine, wa^ also a man of unbounded humor. He once called 
upon Dr. Church for the settlement of a bill in the following words: 

" ' Dr. Church ; Dear Sir, — I am in want of a fat hog ; please send it, or 

" 'Ebenezee Hum.' 
" Dr. Church replied as follows : 

" ' Dr. Hunt: Dear Sir, — I have no fat hog; and if I Imd 

"'SA.MUEI, Chi-roh.' " 

Dr. Samuel Prentiss. — A prominent physician and sur- 
geon, who resided for a number of years in Franklin County, 
was Dr. Samuel Prentiss, the lather of Hon. Samuel Prentiss, 
United States Senator from Vermont. Dr. Prentiss was born 
in Stonington, New London Co., Conn., in 1759. His father 
was Col. Samuel Prentiss, who was a soldier, and rose to the 
rank of colonel, in the Kevolutionary army. Dr. Prentiss re- 
ceived a good academical education, and studied medicine with 
Dr. Philip Turner, of Norwich, Conn., one of the most eminent 
American surgeons of his day. The young man entered the 
army, and acted for some time as military waiter for his 
father ; subsequently, after studying his profession, he entered 
the service as assistant surgeon, and acquired a great amount 
of practical knowledge of his profession. 

After the war be married a daughter of Capt. Holmes, of 
Stonington, Conn., and soon after removed to Worcester, 
Mass., where he resided several years. 

About 178lj he removed to Northfield, Mass., and during 
the continiuince of the notorious Shaj's rebellion was a zeal- 
ous and active supporter of the State government. His prac- 
tice as a surgeon while living at Northfield was very exten- 
sive, and his ride extended into all the western counties of 
Ma.ssaehusetts and the adjacent parts of New Hampshire and 
Vermont. This was largely due to the fact that he was almost 
the only operating surgeon then in this region. 

Dr. Prentiss was admitted a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society in 1810, at which time he was a resident of 
Bernardston. This membership continued until the time of 
his death, which occurred at Northfield, in the year 1818, 
when he was fifty-nine years of age. Four sons survived him, 
three of whom rose to eminence at the Bar in the States of 
Vermont and New York and in the then Territorj' of Wis- 

Dr. Pardon Haynes. — This gentleman was born in New 
London, Conn., Feb. 2, 1762. When he was fifteen years old 
his father removed to Hoosac. During the Revolutionary war 
he served a short enlistment in the American army. 

He studied medicine with an elder brother, and commenced 
practice in Hebron, W^ashington Co., N. Y. ; but, not feeling 
satisfied with his situation, he soon removed to the town of 
Rowe, Franklin Co., Mass. In that town he lived and prac- 
ticed for a period of forty-five years, building up a most 
excellent reputation and accumulating a competence. He 
possessed a robust constitution, and had that quality of de- 
termination which invariably wins in the business of life. 

The region around Rowe was at the time he settled rough 
and wild, and his experience was in keeping with the condi- 
tion of the country. His traveling was mostly on horseback, 
and his perils and escapes by night and by day were something 
wonderful to men of the present daj-. Sometimes, when the 
snows covered the earth to a great depth, he was compelled to 
make his visits on the Indian "raquette," or snow-shoe, and 
the regular recompense was one New England shilling per 

In those days bridges were scarce over the larger streams, 
and the doctor was often obliged to ford the Deerfield River on 
horseback at the imminent peril of his life and that of his 

He was more particularlj" distinguished as a practitioner of 
midwifery, in which department he was probably unexcelled 
in the region. He was regular in his habits and always punc- 



tual to his appointments. He was prominent in other direc- 
tions as well as in the practice of medicine. Under commis- 
sions issued by Governors John Hancock and Samuel Adams 
he commanded a military company in Kowe when the position 
was a most honorable one, and won the then proud distinction 
from Gen. Mattoon of having the best-disciplined company in 
his regiment. Dr. Haynes died on the 29th of December, 
1833, at the age of .seventy-one years. He was a member of 
the Unitarian Church. 

Dr. Jo.seph Allkn was born on Long Island in 1764. His 
])arents removed to llardwick, Mass., when he was two years 
of age, where they remained until their son grew to manhood. 
He studied medicine with Dr. Wm. Kittredge, of Conway, in 
this county, who was considered in his day a very eminent sur- 
geon. Dr. Allen commenced practice in the town of Coleraine, 
and continued for about one year, when he removed to Buck- 
land, where he remained in practice until his death, in 1823, 
at the age of fifty-nine years. He built up a very e.vtensive 
business and accumulated a respectable propertj'. He was in 
feeble health for many years previous to his death, being 
troubled with dyspeptic complaints ; but by a rigid .system of 
dieting and a careful husbanding of his resources he bore up 
under his difficulties, and performed a great amount of pro- 
fessional labor in a rough and hilly country. He was a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Medical Association from 1812 to 
1818, and was greatly esteemed by the profession. 

Dr. John Lee. — This accomplished gentleman, who died 
too early for the good of his profession, was born in the classic 
town of Amherst, Hampshire Co., Mass., about the year 1786. 
Of his early years very little is now known, except the fact 
that until his twentieth year he devoted himself almost wholly 
to the pursuit of agriculture, for which he had an especial 
fondness. While engaged in that labor he was attacked by 
hemorrhage of the lungs, which threatened to terminate in 
pulmonary consumption, to which he was hereditarily dis- 
posed. His phj'sicians advised a removal to the sea-board, 
where he rapidly recovered his health, and soon returned to 
Hampshire County. Not long after, he entered the office of 
Dr. William Stoddard Williams, at Deerfield, Franklin Co., 
along with Drs. Saxton and Stephen W. Williams, where he 
gave himself wholly to the study of his chosen profession, and 
after due course established himself in practice in the town of 
Ashfield, Franklin Co. His business increased, and he had 
every prospect before him of a most useful career ; but in the 
midst of his duties, while actively engaged in trying to stay 
the ravages of a dreaded disease which had broken out in this 
region, he was himself taken down, and died within a few 
days, in the month of April, 1813, when only twenty-seven 
years of age. He was greatly respected by his professional 
brethren and the conmiunity generally, and had he lived 
would no doubt have been an honor to his profession, which 
he pursued with an ardor which nothing but the conquering 
hand of death could daunt. 

Amos Taylor. — Among the eminent medical men who 
have adorned and honored the profession in the Connecticut 
Valley was Dr. Amos Taylor, who was born in the town of 
Chester, Hampden Co., Mass., Oct. 21, 1785. He studied 
medicine and surgery with Dr. Elihu Dwight, of South Had- 
ley, and attended the medical department of Yale College in 
1813 and 1814. He married, in 1815, Polly Day, of South 
Hadley, and soon after settled in the town of Northfield, 
Franklin Co., where he practiced about one year, when 
he removed to Warwick, in the same county, where he soon 
established a reputation and an extensive and successful, 
though not very remunerative, practice. 

In 1820 he was commissioned surgeon of the 3d Infantry 
Regiment, in the 2d Brigade and 4th Division of Massachu- 
setts Militia, which position beheld with distinguished ability 
until 1830, when, at his own request, ho was honorably dis- 
charged from military service. He was for many years a rejiu- 

table and active member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, 
and held the civil office of town clerk in Warwick for a long 
period. He was also a prominent member of the school com- 
mittee, and always took an active part in the interests of edu- 

His standing among his professional brethren was excellent, 
and among all classes he maintained the reputation of a 
thorough and able physician, and an upright and valuable 

Dr. John Long came from Worcester County to Shcl- 
burne Centre about 1776. He had served as a surgeon in the 
American army for a short time previous to his settlement in 
Western Massachusetts. He practiced his profession from 
that time until his death, which occurred about 1807, and 
bore a good reputation, both as a physician and citizen. 

Dr. Silas Long, son of the foregoing, studied with his 
father, and practiced at the centre for a number of years. 
He also practiced for a considerable time in Greenfield. His 
whole term of practice in Franklin County probably extended 
over a period of forty years. About 1840 he removed to 
Illinois, where he recently died at the advanced age of about 
ninety years. 

Dr. Robert Burns Severance was a student with Dr. 
John Long, whose daughter he married ; and he also prac- 
ticed at Shelburne Centre for a considerable time. He died 
about the year 1831. 

Dr. Ebenezer Childs was another resident physician at 
the centre, in Shelburne, where he practiced for a number of 
years previous to his death, which occurred about 1813. 

Dr. Ehenezer Childs, Jr., son of the last mentioned, 
studied with his father, and practiced in Shelburne from about 
1813 to 1834. He subsequently removed to Western New 
York, where he resided for several years, when he went to 
North Carolina and lived with a son until his death, a num- 
ber of years ago. 

Dr. Georoe Bull was born at the centre, in Shelburne, 
about 1796. He was educated at Williams College, studied 
medicine with Dr. Robert B. Severance, and practiced for 
many years at the centre, and a number of years at Shelburne 
Falls. He is now (April, 1879) living in the eastern part of 
Shelburne, at the age of eighty-three years. 

For notice of Dr. Charles M. Duncan, see biography iii 
another connection. 

Dr. Charles Earl Severance was born in the town of 
Leyden, Franklin Co., Mass., in 1833. In 1854 he entered 
Yale College for the purpose of taking the regular course of 
instruction ; but, his eyesight becoming seriouslj- impaired, he 
was obliged to discontinue his studies, and subsequently trav- 
eled extensively in the Southern States of the Union for the 
improvement of his general health, continuing there for a 
period of nearly two years. 

In consequence of the troubles in Kansas and the great po- 
litical .excitement of the time, in many portions of the South 
a stranger was looked upon as an intruder, and, very possibly, 
an emissary sent by some fanatical idea of human rights to 
stir up the blacks against the superior race ; and he came very 
near experiencing the vengeance of a mob of two hundred en- 
raged people who had gathered at Tuscaloosa, Ala., with tar, 
feathers, and other materials to teach him a lesson in political 
jurisprudence. His departure from the locality saved them 
the trouble. 

Returning, he entered upon the study of medicine, and grad- 
uated, in 1857-58, from the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, and the New York Medical College, in New York City. 
Soon after his graduation he visited Europe, spending a 
year in London and Paris. On his return, in 1859, he was 
appointed house physician at the Demilt Disjiensary, 23d 
Street, New York City, and visiting surgeon at the Eastern 
Dispensary. In 1860 he was elected to the position of house 
physician and surgeon at the Seaman's Retreat Hospital, 



New York, where he remained until 1862, with the exception 

of three mmiths spent in the army as surgeon of the 73d New 
York Volunteers. 

The atmosphere and the arduous duties of his position prov- 
ing very unfavorable to h^s health, he removed, in 1862, to the 
more healthful location of Shclburne Falls, Mass., where ho 
has since remained, and where he has a good country practice 
and an excellent reputation. 

Dr. Severance was united in marriage, in 1802, with Mary 
Ellen, daughter of Dr. Jlilo "Wil.son, of Shelburne Falls, who 
died in 1872. In 187.5 he married for his second wife Evelyn 
M., daughter of Franklin Sawyer, of Brattleboro', Vt., a 
prominent and successful merchant of that thriving town. 

He has had two children, — a son and daughter. The son. 
Earl Clarendon, an exceedingly promising boy, was drowned 
in tlie Deeriield Kiver when thirteen years of age, an event 
which has cast a deep gloom over the family. His daughter, 
Martha Helen, is now ten years of age. 

Dr. Severance has been a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society since 1871, and is a member of the Franklin 
District Medical Society. He was also, while residing in New 
York, a member of the Richmond County Medical Society. 
The doctor is something of a scientific investigator, particu- 
larly in the department of mineralogy, and has a beautiful 
and well-chosen cabinet, mostly gathered in the vicinity of 
Shelburne Falls, which locality is peculiarly rich in minerals. 

Dr. Francls J. Canedv is a native of Halifax, Windham 
Co., Vt., where he was born on the 9th of Juh', 1846. He 
studied medicine with Dr. Severance, of Greenfield, Mass., 
and graduated at the medical department of the Michigan 
University, at Ann Arbor, in 1870. He commenced the 
practice of his profession in "Whitingham, Vt., where he re- 
mained nearly two years, when he removed to Greenfield, 
Ma.s.s., to take the place of Dr. Severance, who had removed 
to Rochester, N. Y. ; but the return of Dr. Severance to 
Greenfield made a change necessary, and he settled in his 
present location, Shelburne Falls, where he has a very respect- 
able and increasing practice and a good reputation. He is a 
member of the Franklin District Medical Society. Dr. Canedy 
married, in 1871, Emma, daughter of Jacob Chase, a farmer 
of Whitingham, Vt. His practice includes both medicine 
and surgery, and he enjoys the confidence of his older pro- 
fessional brethren. 

Dr. Parley Barton was born in Oxford, Mass., March 6, 
1770. He studied medicine with Dr. Greene, of Oxford, and 
also at Rutland, Vt. He commenced the practice of medicine 
and surgery at North Orange village about 1802, and contin- 
ued in the same place until about 184-5, when he withdrew 
from active business. His practice was extensive, and he bore 
an excellent reputation. He was a member of the Massachu- 
setts Medical Society. His death occurred July 12, 18-52. 

Dr. Barton was twice married. His first wife was Lucy 
Sibley, of Ward (now Auburn), Worcester Co., Mass., who 
died about 1802, leaving one son. Parley Barton, Jr., who 
studied for a physician, but eventually gave his attention 
through life to the profession of teaching. He was a distin- 
guished mathematician. Dr. Barton's second wife was the 
widow of John Goddard, of Killingly, Conn., whom he mar- 
ried about 1803, and by whom he had eight children, — five 
sons and three daughters. The sons were Edward, John G., 
Wm. Henry Harrison, Nap61eon B., and James Madison, the 
latter of whom died in infancy. 

Dr. Edward Barton was born Feb. -5, 1806 ; studied med- 
icine with his father, and graduated at the Vermont Medical 
College, Woodstock, in 1831. He had previously attended 
and graduated at the Berkshire Medical Institution. He began 
practice at Sullivan, N. H., in June, 1831, and continued 
there three years, when he removed to North Orange village, 
Mass., where he resided and followed his profession until 1838, 
when he removed to vSouth Orange (now Orange), where he has 

since resided. His practice extends to both medicine and sur- 
gery, though in the latter there is, of course, not an exten- 
sive practice in country towns. He has been a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society since 1840. 

Dr. Barton married, in 1833, Harriet N. Wilson, of Sulli- 
van, N. H., by whom he has had three daughters, — Josephine 
Hortense, born July 29, 183.5, married Rev. William D. Her- 
rick, now of Gardner, Mass. ; another, who was born in Feb- 
ruary, 1841, and died in infancy ; and Frances Harriet, born 
Jan. 10, 18-53, died June 3, 1877". 

Dr. Joun G. Barton, brother of Edward, was born in 
1812. He studied with his older brother, and graduated at 
the Vermont Medical College in 1850. He practiced in Wen- 
dell and Erving, Franklin Co., and died at the latter place in 
September, 18-52. He married Martha White, of Erving. 

Dr. Napoleon B. Barton was born in 1820. He also 
studied with his brother Edward, and graduated at the Ver- 
mont Medical College at the same time as his brother John 
G. He commenced practice at West Swanzey, N. H., but 
lived only a short time, his death occurring in December, 
18-51. He married Miranda S. Briggs, and left no children. 

Dr. William Brooks practiced for some years previous 
to 1837 in Orange, but we have not been able to learn any- 
thing of his place or date of birth, or what part of the country 
he probably came from to Orange, though an aged lady, Mrs. 
Trim, thinks he nuirried in Conway. He boarded for some 
time with Capt. Putnam, father of the present proprietor of 
the Putnam House at Orange, who also kept a public-house. 
He had the reputation of a very good physician and surgeon, 
and is believed to have attended regular medical lectures pre- 
vious to commencing practice, and may have been a graduate. 
He died suddenlj' of canker rash, about 1837, when at the 
probable age of fifty years. He left one son and two daugh- 
ters. Those who recollect him describe him as a man of social 
habits and fond of jokes and frolics. 

Dr. Robert Andrews was a native of Sangerfield, Oneida 
Co., N. Y., where he was born in. June, 1802. His father, 
Robert S. Andrews, was an early settler of that region, to 
which he emigrated from New Salem, Franklin Co., Mass. 
His mother died when he was five years old, and he lived for 
three years succeeding that event with his maternal grand- 
parents. At the age of eight years he was sent to live with 
his grandparents on his father's side, at New Salem, Mass. 
Strange as it may seem, his rehitives treated him with great 
severity during the six years in which he remained with them. 
At the age of fourteen j-ears he had a guardian appointed, — an 
uncle, — and with him he for the first time saw the inside of a 
school-house and church. Here he remained only one year. 
At the age of eighteen he had acquired sufficient knowledge 
of books to teach a district school. 

He studied medicine with Dr. William Brooks, and grad- 
uated at Dartmouth Medical College in 1831, with the degree 
of M.D. His medical practice commenced in 1831, at New 
Salem, in connection with Dr. Brooks, with whom he con- 
tinued until his deatli, about 1837. He removed to Orange 
about 1849, and remained about one year, returning to New 
Salem, where he continued until 1859, when he once more 
located in Orange and continued until his death, which took 
place April 13, 18G9, in his sixty-seventh year. 

He was a reputable practitioner of both medicine and sur- 
gery, and had an extensive practice. He was a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society for manj' years, and also filled 
prominent civil positions. Was a member of the House of 
Representatives in the State Legislature for two or three 
terms, and a member of the Constitutional Convention of 

Dr. Andrews was twice married. His first wife was Orra 
Merriam, of New Salem; his second was Mary Angelia, a 
sister of his first; both daughters of Benjamin Merriam, a 
prominent farmer of New Salem. He left three children, all 



sons,— E. Darwin ; Robert Poster, now in practice as a physi- 
cian at Gardner; and Warren Urooks, now in the drug busi- 
ness at Orange. Dr. Andrews was of a jovial, social teniper- 
ainent, noted for good-nature and love of fun and frolic. 

Dr. Jcsiah H. Godhabd was born in Orange, Franklin 
Co., Mass., in 1830. His father, who bore the same name, 
was a farmer of that town.- Dr. Goddard studied under Pro- 
fessors Albert Smith, of Peterboro', N. H., and WilUird 
Parker, of New York City. He graduated at Amherst Col- 
lege in 18.50. In 18.57-.58 he was engaged in teaching in the 
State of Illinois, from which he subsequently returned and 
entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons, of New York 
City, where he graduated in March, 1861. He began the 
practice of medicine at Huntington, Hampshire Co., Mass., 
in July, 1861, and continued for about fifteen years, estab- 
lishing an excellent reputation, though the arduous labor 
of a country physician among the hills was a severe strain 
upon his constitution. In the autumn of 1875 he removed to 
Orano-e, where he has since continued, and where bis practice 
is largely confined to the thriving manufacturing village 
which has grown up at that point. Dr. Goddard is a member 
of the Massachusetts Medical Society. He married, in 18.57, 
E Jennie Corey, daughter of Charles Corey, of Dublin, 
N. H. His practice includes both medicine and surgery. 

Dr. Lucius Cook commenced practice in Wendell, Frank- 
lin Co., about 1840. He is believed to have been from Am- 
herst, Hampshire Co., and was considered eminent both as a 
physician and surgeon. Some years after his settlement at 
Wendell he removed to Miller's Falls, where he continued to 
reside until his death, about 18.58, at the probable age of fifty- 
five to sixty years. He left no children. He is remembered 
as a stoutly-built and very corpulent man. He was something 
of a pettifogger in the law, and held the office of justice of the 
peace for several years. 

Dr. William Hamilton was the son of Capt. Robert 
Hamilton, an officer of the American arm}' in the Revolution. 
He was born in Conway, Franklin Co., Ma.ss., in 1772. It is 
said that in consequence of lameness in early life he devoted 
his time to books. He read medicine in the office of Dr. Cut- 
ler, of Amherst, a fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society, 
and later with Dr. William Kittredge, who then resided in 
Conway. He commenced practice in his native town, and con- 
tinued there until his death, which occurred in 1810, when he 
was thirty-eight years of age. He was a popular physician 
and citizen, fond of study, and a man of careful reflection. 
He educated several students, most of whom became respect- 
able and successful practitioners. In the aflairs of civil lite he 
was very popular among his fellow-townsmen, and commanded 
their confidence through life. On one occasion, during the 
excitement upon the President's embargo in 1808, he prevented 
by his influence a serious and probably bloody riot among the 
people. His memory is held in afl'ectionate remembrance. 

Dr. Eli S. Wing was born in the town of Harwich, Barn- 
stable Co., Mass., in 1758. Tradition says that he was a great 
lover of books in his young days, and had a great aversion to 
manual labor, and, in consequence of what would probably in 
those days been deemed his worthlessness, his father, who was 
in comfortable circumstances, left him no portion of his estate. 
But, notwithstanding his father's unjust treatment, he man- 
aged, by his own industry, to obtain a good education, and 
was for many years engaged in teaching school. It was not 
until the unusual age of thirty years that he began the study 
of medicine with Dr. Samuel M'are, of Conwaj', Franklin 
Co., Mass. He was an industrious and ambitious scholar, and 
carried his love of reading through his whole life. In his 
later years he accumulated a very respectable library, mostly 
of medical works. He also studied the French language late 
ill life. His reputation among the profession was good. He 
was admitted to the Medical Society of Massachusetts in 1816, 
and continued until his death, in 1823, at the age of sixty-flve 

years. Dr. Wing practiced for many years, in the town of 
Lcyden probably, as Dr. S. W. Williams, in his medical 
biography, speaks of him as belonging to that town. 

Dr. Charles Bowker was born in Savoy, Berkshire Co., 
Mass., Sept. 10, 1824. He studied_ medicine with Dr. A. M. 
Bowker, of that town, since dead, and graduated at the Berk- 
shire Medical College, Pittsfield, Mass., in November, 1854. 
His medical practice has been one year in Plainfield, Mass., 
four years in Savoy, four in Wilbraham, and fourteen in 
Bernardston. He was also engaged for one year in the mili- 
tary hospital at Alexandria, Va. Dr. Bowker is at present 
secretary of the Franklin District Medical Society. His repu- 
tation as a medical man and citizen is excellent, and he has a 
very comfortable practice in and around Bernardston. 

Among the names of worthy, prominent, and successful 
physicians who have been citizens of Franklin County, men- 
tioned by Dr. Stephen W. Williams in his medical biog- 
raphies, are Dr. Mattoon, of Northfield; Dr. Pomeroy, of 
Warwick; Dr. Ebenezer Barnard and Dr. Elihu Ashley, of 
Deerfield ; Dr. Ebenezer Childs, of Shelburne ; Dr. Stephen 
Bates, of Charlemont ; Dr. Porter, of Wendell ; Dr. Moses 
Hayden and Dr. Samuel Ware, of Conway ; Dr. Ross, of 
Coleraine ; Dr. Harwood, of Whately ; and Dr. Brooks, of 

Of a few of these we have been able to procure sufficient 
information for brief notices, and regret that we cannot speak 
understandingly of all. 

Dr. Roswell Field. — In connection with the wonderful 
fossil foot-prints of the Connecticut Valley, the name of Ros- 
well Field deserves honorable mention. 

He comes of the Northfield stock, and was born in that 
historic town in 1804. For the past forty-five years his res- 
idence has been in the vicinity of Turner's Falls ; and for 
thirty-six years he has lived on the place now owned by him, 
a little over a mile from the Falls, in the town of Gill, and 
not far from the place where fossil foot-marks were first dis- 
covered about 1835, in the shaly strata of the sand-rock forma- 
tion underlying the valley from near the north line of Massa- 
chusetts to Long Island Sound. By common consent Mr. 
Field has received the honorary title of doctor, though he 
never studied medicine, and makes no profession of anything 
beyond what belongs to every respectable citizen. He believes 
that the first investigations and description of the foot-prints 
of the valley were by Dr. James Deane, an eminent physician 
of Greenfield, now deceased, though this honor is accredited 
to others. Dr. Field's investigations began about 1842, and 
his practical and continuous connection with this interesting 
subject has been carried into extreme old age, with an in- 
terest that has never diminished, and a zeal and intelligence 
rarely surpassed. He claims (very modestly, however) — and 
no doubt justly — to have been the first to advance the theory 
that the foot-prints were those of quadrupeds or reptiles. Up 
to the year 1845 it was generally supposed that they were 
mostly those of various species of bipeds now extinct, and 
the elder Professor Hitchcock classified and described many 

The first printed paper taking the ground that they were the 
tracks of quadrupeds or reptiles was written by Dr. Field, and 
read at a meeting of the "American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science," held in Springfield, Mass., in August, 
1859, and published in the record of its proceedings. 

This theory, though at first received with almost univer- 
sal unbelief, has at length come to be generally accepted. 
The late Professor Louis Agassiz was among the first to accept 
the theory and reasoning of Dr. Field ; and it is interesting to 
watch the quiet twinkle in the eye of the veteran arch;eolo- 
gist as he relates his first interview with that eminent scientist. 

Many distinguished men have been visitors at the Field 
farm, where several quarries have been opened ; among whom 
may be mentioned the names of Professors Hitchcock, father 



and son, Agassiz, Marsh, Redfield, Dana, Huxley, "Warren, 
and many otliers, "names known to fame," who have come 
from near and far to examine one of the most noted localities 
for geological study to be found in the world. 

Dr. Field relates how Professor Huxley, when first shown 

the foot-prints, called for a piece of chalk, and rapidly sketched 
the saurian who might have made them. Dr. Field is an 
honorary member of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, and corresponding member of various 
other scientific bodies. 




Gkkenfield, the shire-town of Franklin County, is situ- 
ated west of the Connecticut Kiver. It is bounded on the 
north by Bernardston and Leyden, on the west by Shelburne, 
on the south by Deerfield, and on the east by the Connecticut 
Kiver and Gill. It contains about 17J square miles and 11,325 


The Green River, a branch of the Deerfield, flows through 
the west part, from north to south. The broad interval on 
each side of the river is the most fertile portion of the town, 
and is well adap'ted to agricultural purposes. A little stream 
called Fall River flows through the northeast part of the town 
into the Connecticut River, opposite Turner's Falls. These 
streams receive several brooks that flow into them, so that the 
town is well watered. The surface is moderately level except 
along the eastern border, where a ridge of trap-rock extends 
parallel to the Connecticut River, and from a few rods to a 
mile distant from it, rising quite abruptly at some points to a 
height of 200 feet above the plain on the west side, sloping ofl" 
more gradually to the river on the east. This ridge is called 
" Rocky Mountain." The highest point, about a mile north- 
east of the village, is known as " Poet's Seat," and commands 
a beautiful view in all directions. Looking toward the west, 
the visitor sees the village of Greenfield lying quite near, em- 
bowered in trees, the valley of the Green River, with its fer- 
tile fields, and beyond them the picturesque Shelburne Hills ; 
to the north, the Leyden and Bernardston Hills ; to the south 
he sees the famous broad Deerfield meadows, with the crooked 
stream of the Deerfield River gliding in and out among the 
hills and trees ; farther along, the quiet village of old Deer- 
field, with its classic spire peering above the forest of elms and 
maples for which the town is justly celebrated. Turning now 
to the east, one sees near at hand, though several hundred feet 
below him, the broad stream of the Connecticut dashing over 
the rocks and forming beautiful cascades. Beyond the river 
is the little village of Montague City, a monument of dis- 
appointed hopes and ambitions. Farther to the north is the 
new and thriving village of Turner's Falls. Over the roofs of 
its factories is had a distant view of "Mount Grace," and 
farther on Monadnock rears its hoary head. To the south- 
east is the village of Montague, and beyond it Mount Toby 
or Mettawampe looms up proudly, and the course of the 
Connecticut is traced to Mount Tom and the Holyoke range. 
There is no view in the region, on the whole, so commanding 
and beautiful and so easy of access as the one from " Poet's 
Seat." A carriage-road is opened to it, and it is the daily 


* By Eev.jl. F. Moore. 

resort in summer of young and old, seeking exercise and 

The soil, especially near the streams, is quite fertile, but in 
the northern part of the town it is light and gravelly. It con- 
tains 344 acres of unimprovable land, chiefly on Rocky Moun- 
tains, while 5389 acres are unimproved, — that is, lying idle or 
in pasturing. There are 1981 acres of woodland and 3-529 
acres under crops. The people are largely engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits. It appears from the census of 1875 that the 
yearly product of butter for sale was 48,739 pounds ; for home 
use, 10,386 pounds ; total, 59,119 pounds. The yearly product 
of milk is 62,618 gallons ; of tobacco, 98,047 pounds, of the 
value of §19,000.1 

Manufacturing is carried on only to a limited extent. There 
are forty-six manufacturing establishments in town, represent- 
ing a capital of §354,800, producing goods to the value yearly 
of §308,634. The leading manufactures are of carpenters' 
planes and plow-irons, with a capital of §77,800; value of 
goods made yearly, .925,000. Children's carriages, with a capi- 
tal of §16,000, and an annual value of goods made of §28,000. 
Hardware trimmings for children's carriages, capital §62, .500; 
goods made yearly, §47,145. 

The history of Greenfield up to 1753 is identified with that 
of the mother-town of Deerfield, whose troublesome and way- 
ward child she was. In 1673 a new grant of land was made 
to Deerfield by the General Court, so that the original 8000 
acres should make a township seven miles square. In 1665, 
Maj. Pynchon, of Springfield, had been employed to survey 
the land and fix the boundaries, and in 1672 the present 
boundary-line was established between Deerfield and the 
Green River district, as it was then called. The condition 
of this additional grant then was, "provided that an able 
orthodox minister be settled among them within three years, 
and that a farm of 250 acres be laid out for the country's use." 
This grant includes the towns of Greenfield, Gill, and a part 
of Shelburne. The act of 1673 provides that William Allis 
and others be appointed " to lay out the farm, admit inhabi- 
tants, grant land, and order the prudential affairs till they 
shall be in a capacity of meet persons among themselves to 
manage their own afl'airs. " 

The first record of any land granted to any person within 
the present limits of Greenfield is in 1686, — of a "tract of 20 
acres to Mr. Nathaniel Brooks, at Green Kiver." He was 
probably the first settler. Tradition fixes his dwelling on the 
west side of the road to Cheapeside, north of Turn Hall. The 

t See General Chapter XXIII. 



well now existing there is supposed to be the first one dug in 
this town. In the siinic your — 1086 — grants wore made of 20 
acres eadi to John and Edward Allyn, and to Joseph and 
Robert Goddard, on condition of their paying taxes. It is 
not known that these grants were ever taken. 

In 1087 the land on the west end of Main Street was taken 
up. Beginning on the south side, the first lot was taken by 
Ebonezer Wells. The house now standing on that lot, and 
known as the Coombs house, is the oldest dwelling-house 
in tJie village, and is still often called by the name of its 
builder and former owner, — the "Wells house." The lot re- 
mained for several generations in the family of the original 
proprietor. The second lot east was taken by David Hoyt, of 
Deerfield, who did not become a resident; the third and 
fourth lots by William Brooks, of whom I can learn nothing; 
the fifth by Edward Allyn. His lot came up to "Arms' Cor- 
ner." His house probably stood where Mr. Hollister now 
lives. He died December, 1756, aged sixty-nine, and was 
buried in the old cemetery near Mr. Osterhout's house. The 
stone that marks his grave is the oldest I find in this, the 
oldest burial-place in town. 

On the north side of Main Street, the first lot — that on 
which Maj. Keith now lives — was taken by Samuel Smead. 
The next is called on the old records the " Mill lot." Why so 
called is not known. Then come Josiah and Robert Goddard's 
lots. They did not become residents. Then John Severance, 
whose descendants have held the place till quite recently. 
Then the lots of Jeremiah Hall and John Allen. The eastern 
boundary of the.se lots I do not know. 

In May, 1723, at a meeting of the proprietors in Deerfield, 
it was voted " to lay out to the proprietors a tract of land 
lying upon 'Green River,' bounded north upon the 'Country 
Farms,' west by the ridge of hills west of Green River, 
the first lot to begin at the north end of said plat." The 
jiroprietors drew lots for their land, and Judah Wright, of 
Deerfield, drew the first lot. 

It is a mystery what became of the farm of 250 acres that 
was set apart for the country's use. It was diverted from this 
purpose at an early period, and nothing but the name has been 

It would take too long to tell how the land on both sides of 
Green River was distributed, but it can all be found in the 
county register's office, copied from the proprietors' book by 
the hand of Dr. Charles Williams, lately deceased, of Deer- 

In 174.3 a petition was presented, by those living in what was 
known as the " Green River district," to be set off as a sepa- 
rate town, and it was voted in town-meeting in Deerfield, 
November 15th, to grant the request. But for some reason' 
nothing was done about it till ten years later, when a com- 
mittee of three disinterested persons was appointed to deter- 
mine where the dividing line should be, where the meeting- 
house should be placed, and various other matters. This 
committee reported April 18, 1753, and the following warrant 
was issued : 
" Hampshire, 88,; 

" To Eii8. Ebeueezer Smead, of the district of G'f'd, in the comity of Hamp- 
shire, greeting: You are hereby required in his Majesty's name to warn all the 
freeliolders and other inhabitants of said district qualified by law to vote the 
choice of district offloere to meet together att the house of James Corse, in said 
district, on Tuesday, the 3d day of July next, att one of the clock in the after- 
noon, then and there, after a moderator is chosen, to choose all such offlcere as 
by law are to be chose for the managing the affair of said district, also to doo 
what shall be thoat necessary to be done in order to provide preaching in said 
district. Hereof fail not, and make return of this warrant att the time and place 

" Given under my hand and seal att B'f'd, this 20tli day of .Tune, 1753. Ei,ij.ui 
Williams, who am by law authorized to grant this warrant." 

Under this order the first town-meeting was held July 3, 
1753. The busine.ss tran.sacted reveals the men and public 
measures of that day. Benjamin Hastings was chosen mod- 

" Voted that Benj. Hastings should l>e Town Clark ; that EbenozerSmcad, Sam'l 
Hinsdale, and Daniel Nash bo Selectmen and Assessors ; that Ebenezeer Arms 
should be town treasurer ; that Benjamin Hastings should be Constable ; that Nji- 
thaniel Brooks and Shubael Atherton should be tithingmen ; th.it .lames Corse, 
Johnathan Smead, and Elcazer Wells be fence-viewers ; that Amos Allen and Ebe- 
nezer Wells be eui-veyors of the Highways ; that Aaron Denio should bo dear-reaf ; 
that James Coree and Amos Allen should be hog-reafs ; that Joshua Wells should 
be sealer of weights and meawures ; that Beiyamin Hastings should be sealer of 
leather; that Thomaj^ Nims and Gad Corse should be field-drivers; that Daniel 
Graves, Daniel Nash, and Aaron Denio be a committee to supply us with preach- 
ing for the present year." 

Happy town-meeting ! Not a word about taxes, nor roads, 
nor schools, which so vex the spirit of the modern citizen ; 
and offices enough, apparently, to go round, giving each citi- 
zen at least one. It is not easy to see the need of a treasurer ; 
but if there was no treasury, there were no debts. The meet- 
ing was held, as were subsequent meetings, at the house of 
James Corse, which stood where the Leavitt House now 
stands, east of the Mansion House. 

The town records were kept for many years in the clear, 
strong handwriting of Benjamin Hastings, who may well be 
considered one of the fathers of the town. But the records 
are very meagre and formal. They tell us with great scru- 
pulousness who were chosen hog-reeves, fence-viewers, and 
the like, but tell us very little of what we would like to know 
of the people and their way of life. 

The committee appointed to fix the conditions of separation 
were not citizens of either town, and doubtless they tried to 
be fair and impartial, but their report furnished an ever- 
fruitful source of controversy between the two towns for more 
than a century. Happily, to all appearance, the controversy 
is ended ; and certainly we, who have inherited none of the 
bad blood created by either party, can speak dispassionately 
of the subject in dispute. 

The committee reported that the dividing Tine between the 
two towns should be what is known as the 8000-acre line, 
which is the line to this day between these towns, and that 
said district shall have the improvement of one-half of the 
sequestered lands of Deerfield lying north of Deerfield River. 

The report also fixed the place for the meeting-house at a 
place called Trap Plafn, on a spot in the public highway op- 
posite the house now occupied by Lemuel A. Long. This 
report, as I have said, gave rise to great controversy, espe- 
cially that portion of it relating to the sequestered land, — i.e., 
some land set apart for the use of the ministry, and lying just 
west of Green River and south of the lowest Green River 
bridge, in Cheapside. 

This report was accepted by the town of Deerfield in De- 
cember, 1753, and in that year the town of Greenfield was in- 
corporated, but the wording of the act of incorporation was 
evidently not so carefully watched by the Greenfield people 
as by those of Deerfield. It does not appear on the town rec- 
ords till ten years later, and then it appears that the act of 
incorporation does not agree with the conditions recommended 
in the report of the committee. The committee had reported 
that Greenfield should have the improvement of one-half of 
the sequestered lands. In the act of incorporation it reads, 
that "Greenfield shall have the improvement of one-half of 
the sequestered lands tmtil there shall be another district or 
parish made out of the town of Deerfield." The Greenfield 
peojile — innocent souls 1 — thought that if a third district or 
parish were to be made out of Deerfield, each one would have 
a third part of the income of the sequestered land. 

In 1767, Conway was set off, and then, instead of dividing 
the income of this land into three parts, Deerfield claimed 
the whole. What must have been the astonishment of our 
wise and virtuous fathers when they saw their good mother, 
whom they were expected to revere, appropriating what 
they honestly thought was a part of their patrimony 1 Who 
should have the crop from that 30 acres of meadow-land? 
became the occasion of heated and prolonged controversy. 

Greenfield sued for it in the courts, but was always defeated 



at the trial. The war was not always with words only ; but 
tradition relates that when one party had mowed the grass, 
the other party attempted to carry it off, and rakes and pitch- 
forks were freely used by zealous combatants on both sides. 
The crop, when secured, was to go to support the minister. 

This controversy continued till 1771, when a final settle- 
• ment was made of all the suits then pending, by the town of 
Greenfield pajing to Deerfield £40 for all trespasses committed 
on the town land by any of the inhabitants of Greenfield, 
from the beginning of the year 1768 till the 4th day of De- 
cember, 1770 ; but this not to afl'ect the title to said land. 

The controversy did not end with the lawsuit of 1770. We 
find frequent notices in the town records of committees chosen 
to examine and prosecute the claims of Greenfield to that land. 
In 1782 it was voted "to make a trial for a certain piece of 
land the town of Deerfield has taken, in manner as followeth: 
that David Smead, Esq., is chosen to act discretionally for the 
town, to bring on a trial before the General Court, and make 
a report of his proceedings, and likewise to keep an account 
of his expenses." But nothing came of it. The old quarrel 
went on. People now living recall the fact that they received 
it almost as a dying legacy from their fathers not to give up 
that claim. Fortunately, the rivalries and animosities of 
those days have passed away. The people of these towns are 
pretty good friends now, though if a Greenfield man should 
speak the fatal word " Cheapside" in old Deerfield Street, he 
would possibly find that the old fires only smouldered, and 
had not gone entirely out. As for that land, the water has 
opened a gully in the bank near by, and the clay has washed 
down and covered the soil, so that the land is not worth much. 
The Deerfield people can have it. The grapes the fox couldn't 
get he pronounced sour. 

In 1836 an eftbrt was made in the Legislature by persons in 
the interest of Greenfield to have all that part of Deerfield 
north of Deerfield River, called Cheapside, annexed to Green- 
field. The efl'ort was pushed with energy and resisted with 
equal power. The attempt failed, with no result but to renew 
the old bitterness of feeling between the two towns. It was 
renewed in 1850 with like vigor, and with the same result. 
The old 8000-acre line still remains the boundary between the 
mother-town and her restless and rebellious child. 

Our town had its birth and childhood in a period of colonial 
darkness and danger. It was at the time of the long, bloody 
Prench-and-Indian war. England and France were engaged 
in a death-struggle to secure supremacy on this continent. It 
was just at the time that the name of Washington begins to 
figure in history. 

Braddoek's defeat occurred in July, 1755, and two years 
earlier, in 1753,* the year in which our town was incorpo- 
rated, at the suggestion of Franklin, a Provincial Congress 
was held at Albany, — a remarkable gathering of the leading 
men of that day, — and the first s<eps were taken for a confed- 
eration of the colonies. 

Our fathers lived and had their being in scenes of war and 
bloodshed. They endured all the hardships of frontier-life, 
knowing that a savage foe, inspired by a rival nation, hostile 
in race, language, and religion, was lurking in the forests 
about them. 


Our town has not a great deal of exciting history of Indian 
warfare. In 1676, during King Philip's war, the soldiers 
under Capt. Turner, who assaulted the Indians at the Falls, 
came up on the west side of the Green River and crossed near 
what is now known as Nash's Mill, then turned to the east, 
through the forest, following an Indian trail upon the north 
edge of the swamp till they reached the level ground north- 
west of Factory village. Dismounting here, and leaving 

* This convention was held at Albany, in July, 1T54 (see History of Penn- 
sylvania, Ijy Wm. H. Eglc, page 79). The resolutions were adopted on the 4th 
of the month. — Ed. 

their horses in charge of a small guard, they hastened noise- 
lessly down into the hollow, forded Fall River just above the 
upper bridge, scaled the abrupt bank on the opposite side, and 
then reached the summit north of where Mr. Stoughton's 
house now stands, just as the day was dawning. 

The white soldiers were completely successful in destroying 
the Indian camp. They returned to the place where they had 
left their horses to commence a triumphant march homeward. 
.Just then an unaccountable panic seized upon the men, and 
the victory of the morning became a stampede for personal 
safety. The tradition is that a party of the soldiers were lost 
in the woods and swamps, were taken prisoners, and were 
burned to death. 

Capt. William Turner, who commanded the English force, 
was a Boston man, "a tailor by trade, but one that for his 
valor has left behind him an honorable memory." He had 
been prominent in the controversy respecting Baptism which 
had agitated the Massachusetts colony a few years before. He 
came from Dartmouth, England, "having been a regular 
walker in the Baptist order before he came to this country." 
The magistrates, with the mistaken idea that they cotild anni- 
hilate obnoxious opinions by severe measures against the 
holders of those opinions, proceeded in October, 1665, to 
disfranchise five persons who held the obnoxious doctrine of 
baptism by immersion ; of these, Wm. Turner was one. 
Shortly after, we find him in prison for his heretical opinions. 
How long he remained in prison I am unable to learn ; 
but he seems to have been active in maintaining worship after 
the Baptist form in the spring of 1668. A public dispute was 
held in the meeting-house of the First Church, in Boston, be- 
tween six of the ministers of that region and a company of 
Baptists. The dispute lasted two days, and, strange to say, 
came to nothing. The Baptists would not be converted to the 
doctrines of their opponents, who, being the stronger party, 
proceeded to sentence them to banishment from the colony, and 
declared them liable to imprisonment if they returned. The 
sentence of banishment is a curiosit}'. I give only the sub- 
stance : " Whereas, the council did appoint a meeting of divers 
elders, and whereas, Thomas Gould, William Turner (and 
others), obstinate and turbulent Ana-Baptists, did assert their 
former practice before these elders, to the great grief and 
offense of the godly Orthodox, — to the disturbance and de- 
struction of the churches, — this council do judge it neces- 
sary that they be removed to some other part of this country, 
and do accordingly order said Gould, Turner, etc., to remove 
themselves out of this jurisdiction." Among those on whom 
this sentence was passed was Wm. Turner. But so strong 
was the remonstrance against such oppressive proceedings 
that the sentence was never carried into execution. This was 
the end of the controversy with the Baptists. 

The persecuted tailor of 1668 appears again as Capt. Turner 
in the spring of 1G76, leading 89 foot-soldiers from Marlboro' 
to Northampton, and is soon in command of the troops at 
Hadley. Bachus, in his "History of the Baptists of New 
England," from which I get this information, relates that " in 
the beginning of the war this William Turner gathered a 
company of volunteers, but was denied a commission and 
discouraged because the chief of the company were Ana- 
baptists. Afterward, when the war grew more general and 
destructive, and the country in very great distress, he was 
desired to accept a commission." Under date of April -25, 
1G76, he wrote to the council of Massachusetts as follows: 
" The soldiers here are in great distress for want of clothing, 
both woolen and linen. Some has been brought from Quabaug 
(Brookfield), but not an eighth of what we want. I beseech 
your Honors that my wife may have my wages due, to supply 
the wants of my family. I should be glad if some better 
person might be found for this employment, for my weakness 
of body and often infirmities will hardly sufi'er me to do my 
duty as I ought, and it would grieve me to neglect anything 



that might be for the good of the country in this day of their 
distress." Tliis lias the ring of true patriotism, in spite of liis 
imprisonments and persecutions. In ICC7 the Baptists found 
themselves compelled to make a defense against the charge of 
" disobedience to the government." In that defense they say, 
" Uoth our persons and estates are alwaj's ready at command 
to be serviceable in the defense of the country, — yea, and have 
voluntarily offered on the high places of the iield in the time 
of the country's greatest extremity ; among whom was Wil- 
liam Turner, whom they pleased to make captain, who had 
been one of the greatest sulferers among us for the profession 
of religion. He was a very worthy man for soldiery ; and 
after that by him who was then commander-in-chief — an in- 
strument in the hands of the Lord — was the greatest blow 
struck to the Indians of any they had received; for after this 
they were broken and scattered, so that they were overcome 
and subdued with ease." His wife, in a petition to the coun- 
cil, says her husband voluntarily and freely offered himself, 
and was then in the service of the country with his son and 
servants. The council granted her £7. When the expedition 
started for the Falls, Capt. Turner commanded. He seems to 
have been a man of skill and courage, hut, enfeebled by sick- 
ness, he had not bodily strength to act with energy. In the 
retreat he was shot by the Indians through the thigh and 
back as he was passing Green River (near Nash's mills). His 
body was afterward found not far away. 

It is thought that Mrs. John Williams, the wife of the 
minister of Deertield, who was taken captive with her family 
at the destruction of the town in 1704, was killed at the foot 
of the Leyden Hills, a mile or so north of the Ballou farm, in 
quite the north limit of the town. Sick and faint, she was 
unable to keep up with the party, and the Indians, to free 
themselves of the incumbrance, killed her. Her body was 
recovered, and buried at Deertield. 

The year following the incorporation of the town, — i.e., 1754, 
— at a town-meeting it was voted that they picket three houses 
in this district forthwith. That Joshua Wells', James Cor.se's, 
and Shubael Atherton's be the hou.ses that are to be picketed. 
James Coi'se's house stood where the Leavitt House now stands, 
nexteast of the Mansion House; Shubael Atherton's, at what is 
known as Stocking Fort, or Stockaded Fort, opposite Snow's 
green-bouse ; and Jo.shua Wells', where G. D. Williams, 
Esq., had lived. The well-authenticated tradition is that a 
subterranean passage led from the cellar of this house to the 
brow of the hill north. These picketed houses were sur- 
rounded by a strong fence of timber, set in the ground quite 
close together, each one sharpened at the top, eight or nine 
feet high above the ground. No Indian could get through, 
nor over, these fences without aid. To these houses the peo- 
ple could fly in seasons of danger, and take refuge when they 
feared a midnight attack from a merciless foe. Around these 
houses, or in their immediate neighborhood, the inhabitants 
gathered. Their existence tells a pathetic tale of danger and 
anxiety on the part of the people. 

In 1756 the people improved their land as fiir north as 
Country Farms, but lived in the village for safety. Five men 
— Benjamin Hastings, John Graves, Daniel Graves, Shubael 
Atherton, and Nathaniel Brooks — were at work on the farm 
where J. A. Picket now lives. They placed their guns against 
a stack of flax, and were busy in another part of the field. 
A party of Indians concealed near by slipped in between them 
and their guns, and fired upon them. Deprived of their 
weapons, they sought safety in flight, and proved themselves 
good runners at least. 

Hastings and John Graves fled across the river, and brought 
up at the Arms farm, where Mr. John Thayer now lives. 
Hastings said the ferns in the field over which he passed grew 
as high as his waist, but that he ran over the tops of them. 
A good story for the deacon to tell I We will at least give 
him credit for a good use of his legs. 

John Graves, a young man then, who escaped with him, 
was grandfather of our respected fellow-citizen. Deacon J. J. 
Graves. Atherton concealed himself near the river in some 
brushwood, but was discovered and shot. Daniel Graves, the 
father of John, and Brooks were taken captive. Graves was 
old and infirm, and unable to travel ; he was killed soon after 
they left the spot, near the Glen Brook, just below the gorge. 
Brooks never returned, and nothing is known of his fate. He 
bears the same name that tradition assigns to the first settler 
of the town. From that time there is no record of any 
trouble with the Indians. 

When settlements were flrst begun here, as in other places ; 
the people gathered together in villages for the purpose of 
mutual protection from the Indians. Here the first settle- 
ments were on or'near Main Street. Here were the picketed j 
houses. It is an interesting question when families ventured 
out of the village to live on the outlying farms. I can find 
no record of any house built beyond the region of the village 
before 1760, which may be regarded as closing the long and 
terrible tragedy of the French-and-Indian war. For a period 
of one hundred and twenty-four years, says Dr. Holland, from 
the first settlement at Springfield, in 16.36, the inhabitants of 
old Hampshire County had been exposed to the dangers, fears, 
toils, and trials of Indian wars and border depredations. 
Children had been born, had grown up to manhood and de- 
scended to old age, knowing little or nothing of peace and 
tranquillity. Hundreds had been killed, and large numbers 
carried into captivity. 

Men, women, and children had been butchered by scores. 
There is hardly a square acre — certainly not a square mile — in 
the Connecticut Valley that has not been tracked by the 
flying feet of fear, resounded with the groans of the dying, or 
served as the scene of toils made doubly toilsome by an ap- 
prehension of danger which never slept. Among such scenes 
and trials the settlements of Western Massachusetts were 

The end of these dangers came when peace was proclaimed, 
in 1763.* Did any of the people of Greenfield move away 
from their defenses before 1763? Who knows ? If they were 
all concentrated in the village, it may seem strange that the 
committee, in 1753, should have fixed the place for erecting a 
meeting-house at "Trap Plain," a mile north of the village 
and away from all roads, and strange that in 1760 the people 
should have ratified that choice and laid out roads east and 
west to the spot. The present road north from the village, 
called Federal Street, was not opened till 1788. Before that 
time people reached the church by going up the Gill road 
to the burying-ground, or the Country Farms road to Nash's 

The road known as Silver Street was laid out in 1760, 
the very year the town voted to build the meeting-house. 
The explanation of locating the church so far away from 
the settlement is found in the fact that it was the custom 
to put the meeting-bouse as near as possible in the territorial 
centre of the town. "Trap Plain" met the requirement in 
this particular, seeing that the territory of Gill had to be con- 
sidered. On account of the swamp, it could not have been 
placed farther north. When it was decided to build, the neces- 
sary roads were opened to it. 


The earliest road in this town of which we have any knowl- 
edge was one from Deerfield, passing just east of " Pine Hill," 
and crossing the Deerfield River by a ford near the north end of 
Pine Hill, and on the east side of Green River to the place 
where the grist-mill now stands. Of course the early roads 
were but bridle-paths, cleared of trees and brush, and but little 
worked. Reference is made in the proprietors' records to the 

* Treaty of peace signed Feb. 10, 17(i;i. 



road to Northfield in 1723. Something in the way of a road 
must have existed in this village at the time the first grants 
were made, in 1G87. But Main Street, in its present sliape, was 
laid out in 1749. 

The proprietors voted to lay out a road from the west end 
of Main Street to Country Farms in 1736. But an original 
plan of this road is before me, bearing the date of 17G3. 
Which date is correct? Probably both. In 1760 the town 
voted to lay out a road from the meeting-house spot to the 
best place to meet the proprietors' road. It is what we know 
as Silver Street. The Country Farms road was laid out in 
1736 as the Projji-ietors' road. In 1763 it was laid out as a 
town road. So both dates are correct. Up to 1760 the only 
roads in town were the one from Deerfield to Main Street ; 
one from the east end of Main Street to Northfield ; a bridle- 
path ; one from the west end of Main Street to Country Farms ; 
and one from the same ]ioint to Coleraine. When the church 
was built at Trap Plain, the road was built from the burying- 
ground on the Gill road, west, to intersect with the Coleraine 
road, so that people from the east and the west end of the 
village could reach the church. 

In 1763 the road from the meeting-house north to the 
Bernardston line was laid out, and in the same year, as I 
have said, the Proprietors' road to Country Farms was ac- 
cepted bj' the town, and ten days' work laid out on it. 

In 1769 the road from Mrs. Thomas Nims' hou.se to the 
Ballou place was laid out. And in 1775 a road to Shelburue 
was laid out, leaving the Coleraine road near the burying- 
ground, past where Mr. John Thayer now lives, in a north- 
westerly direction over the mountain, crossing the present 
Shelburne road just east of Col. David Wells' house. After 
this date the laying out of roads was of very frequent occur- 
rence, and occupied a large share of attention in town-meet- 
ings. Federal Street was laid out in 1788, and was a great 


It is to be regretted that the records of the part Greenfield 
took in the war of the Revolution are so scanty. Enough are 
preserved to show that our town responded to the frequent 
calls of the provincial Congress for men and means to prose- 
cute the war with the mother-country. We cannot say 
unanimously responded, for many prominent men here, as 
elsewhere, did not heartily approve of the war. A few were 
open in their opposition. They looked forward to the time 
when the colonies would be free from the control of the king, 
but felt that the time had not yet come to enter upon a strug- 
gle to force a separation. They distrusted the ability of the 
colonies — weak, poor, and scattered as they were — to cope 
with the mother-country, — a powerful and united military 
nation. As we look back upon the actual condition of things 
at that time, we cannot but have a degree of sympathy with 
the Tories. ^It was a rash undertaking in which our fathers 
engaged. They hardly counted the cost. Had they foreseen 
— as fortunately they did not — the eight years of struggle that 
were before them, with all the attendant losses and hardships 
of war, possibly more of them would have hesitated before 
they embarked upon the perilous enterprise. But the battle 
at Concord aroused a spirit of patriotism which left no alter- 
native but war. 

At a town-meeting in September, 1774, a committee were 
chosen ; some one or more of them to meet with the provincial 
Congress. In October of that year it was voted that Daniel 
Nash be a delegate to represent us at the provincial Congress 
to be held at Concord upon the 11th. That Congress met at 
Salem on the 7th of October, and adjourned to meet at Con- 
cord on the 11th. Finding the court-house too small for their 
purpose, they adjourned to the meeting-house, chose John 
Hancock president, and Benjamin Lincoln clerk. It was a 
time of great excitement. The eyes of the whole country were 
t\u-ned upon Boston, which was the fountain-head of the Kev- 

olutionary struggle. The cause in which it suffered was re- 
garded as the common cause of the country. A hostile fleet 
lay in its harbor, hostile troops paraded its streets. The tents 
of an army dotted its Common. Cannon were planted in com- 
manding positions. Its fort was closed, its wharves deserted, 
its commerce paralyzed, and many were reduced from afflu- 
ence to poverty. 

No one had more at stake than John Hancock, for he was 
the richest man in the colony. The Congress over which he 
presided was memorable in our annals. The constables and 
collectors throughout the province having public moneys in 
their hands were advised not to pay them to the authorities 
of the Crown, but to retain them, subject to the advice of the 
constitutional assembly. 

Arrangements were made for increasing the quantity of 
warlike stores. In comjdiance with this advice, the town of 
Greenfield voted that tlie selectmen purchase for the town 
one hundred-weight of powder and one hundred-weight of 
lead over and above what is in the town stock, and that the 
sum of £12 be assessed to purchase this ammunition. 

In the April following the war opened in the memorable 
battle at Concord, where " was fired the shot heard round the 
world." The news of that battle was borne by express to all 
parts of the province. The white horse bearing the messen- 
ger, bloody with spurring and dripping with sweat, reached 
Worcester and fell exhausted by the church. The bells were 
rung in all the towns, and the people were called together. 
Willard, in his history, has given us a graphic description of 
the reception of the news in Greenfield. 

According to his account, "Thomas Loveland, a drummer, 
took his station on the horse-block under an elm at the south 
end of the common, and beat the long roll for volunteers, 
and with the desired result, — very many enlisted on the spot. 
Of the military company then existing, of which Ebenezer 
Wells was captain, Allen lieutenant, and Severance ensign, 
most were ready to hurry into the service of the colony ; but 
the officers stood aloof, dissuading from the movement as 
savoring of treason and rebellion. Lieutenant — or, as he then 
was. Sergeant — Benjamin Hastings, the son of the Benjamin 
Hastings who had been prominent in the history of the town, 
and who had died the year before, was the first to enlist, and, 
as the old otficers refused to serve, Hastings was chosen cap- 
tain by acclamation. Captain Wells said, ' Sergt. Hastings, 
you will have your neck stretched for this.' We should be 
glad to know his reply. He declined the office of captain in 
favor of Timothy Childs, who had been captain in a militia 
company, and who resided on the farm now occupied by T. M. 
Stoughton. Hastings became lieutenant, and Aaron Denio 
ensign, or, as we should say, second lieutenant. At daybreak 
on the following morning they were on their march to join 
the army at Cambridge." 

This is a very pretty story, and I am sorry to spoil it, but I 
am afraid there is very little truth in it. It is a home-made 
story which authentic documents do not support. Let us hold 
on to Loveland's long roll under the tree opposite the post- 
oifice. We won't stop to inquire if that tree is more than one 
hundred years old. The story of Lieut. Hastings and Capt. 
Childs must go overboard. 

In rummaging among the musty archives in the State-House 
I find these documents, which throw much light on the occur- 
rences of that day. The first is as follows : 

Capt. Agrippa Wells' muster-roll in Col. Sam Williams' regiment of Minute- 
Men who marched from Greenfield on the alarm April 19, 1775. Fii-st on the 
roll is Capt. Agrippa Wells, enlisted April "JOth, — the very day, you observe, after 
the Concord fight ; term of service ten days ; i.e., to May 1. Then follow tbo 
names of Ezekiel Foster, of Bernardston, lieutenant ; Oliver Atherton, Elijah 
Kingsley, Dan Corse, sergeants; .\saph Allen, John Wells, Eiieu Scott, corpo- 
rals ; Samuel Turner, Samuel Shattuck, John Connabel, Timothy Bascom, Eze- 
kiel Foster, Jr., John Coats, Ezni Ilennell, Simeon Nash, Oliver Hastings, Nehe- 
niiah Andrews, Frederic Denio, John Burt, Keuhen Shattuck, Daniel Chapiti, 
Thomas Hunt, David Davis, Eliphaz Child, Samuel Nichols, Samuel Deane, John 
Duwey.Joseph Slate, Joel Chapin, Ariel Hinsdell, Caleb Chapiu, William Kings? 



land, Samuel HiwtingB, ElUnh Mitcliell, Hf/.eldali Cliapin, Jonntlian Atliortoii, 
Amns Sniead, Tnliul Nasli, raniel riiki'l, IIc>l>lini Rider, Daiiiid Wcdls, Firman 
Wond, Michael Frizzle, Jolin Sovercnee, Moses Arms. Jan. 2, 1776, made outh 
that the alxive lit,t was true. 

This company of MimUc-Mcii was oanecl into the field iinilcr 
tlve impulse of a sudtlon alarm. At tlie end of ten days — i.e., 
May 1st — we find a portion of the same company enrolled in 
the Continental army. 

In the archives at the State-House is the muster-roll of the 
company under the command of Capt. Agrippa Wells, in Col. 
Asa Whitcomb's Kegiment. The first name on the roll is 
Capt. A. Wells; time of enlistment, May 1, 1775. Traveled 
one hundred and five miles, mileage a penny a mile. Term of 
service three months and eight days. 

Jacob Pole, of Shelburne, first lieutenant ; Ezekiel Foster, 
of Bernardston, second lieutenant ; Oliver Atherton, of Green- 
field, sergeant; Samuel Nichols, of Greenfield, drummer; 
and a long list of privates from Greenfield, Shelburne, and 
Bernardston, containing such familiar names as John Wells, 
Frederic Denio, Timothy Bascom, Oliver Hastings, Tubal 
Nash, James Corse. 

The term of service of this company expired Aug. 8, 1775. 
A large proportion of the officers and men re-enlisted for 
eight months' service, — the autumn and winter of the siege 
of Boston. The heroes of Mr. Willard's narrative do not ap- 
pear on the rolls at the State-Hou.se as men in service at this 

In April of 1770 we find that Massachusetts is taking de- 
cided ground in favor of national independence. The Gen- 
eral Court passed a resolve in April to alter the style of writs 
and other legal processes, substituting " the people and gov- 
ernment of Massachusetts" for George III., and in May 
passed an order by which the people in the several towns were 
advised to give instructions to their representatives on the sub- 
ject of independence. In Greenfield it was " voted to adopt 
the measures and instructions to our representative as is set 
forth in the newspapers to Boston representatives." 

On the 26th of September, 1776, it was voted " that the present 
House of Kepresentatives, with the council, jointly acting by 
equal vote, be directed to proceed to form a constitution and 
form of government for this State, and that said court be di- 
rected to publish said form of government for the inspection 
and perusal of the public before its ratification." When the 
General Court convened a committee was appointed to draft 
a constitution, consisting of four members of the founcil and 
eight members of the House. But little is known of the pro- 
ceedings of this committee. But as the result of their delib- 
erations a constitution was drafted, debated at length, and ap- 
proved by the Legislature, submitted to the people, and by 
them rejected. In Greenfield, in April, 1778, jive voted for 
the constitution, and eig/ity against it. 

The year 1777 opened very darkly for the patriotic cause. 
The town was required to furnish shirts, stockings, and other 
clothing for the army, in the proportion of one set for every 
seven males in town over sixteen years of age. The town 
hired men to serve for six months. 

In the State-House is preserved the pay-roll of Capt. 
Agrippa Wells' company in Col. Samuel Bower's regiment, 
which served at Ticonderoga for three months in 1776. There 
are 72 names on the list. 

One of the great difficulties grew out of the depreciation of 
the Continental money. This trouble was increased by the 
ease with which this money was counterfeited. The committee 
of safety and correspondence had intimations that counterfeit- 
ing was carried on at a little hut in the woods at the right of 
the Gill road, on the hill just beyond the bridge at Factory 
village. The remains of that hut are now distinctly seen. 

The committee found there all the implements necessary for 
counterfeiting, and arrested the proprietor, one Harrington by 
name. They took him to Northampton, but the judge told 

them that he could not be imprisoned in the jail ; that it was 
so full of Tories it would hold no more. 

He directed them to take their man to the woods, this side 
of the village of Northampton, and administer as many blows 
as they thought best. Report says that Childs, Hastings, and 
Denio, members of the committee, gave light blows, while 
Nash jiUt on heavily and brought blood at every stroke. They 
then made him promise to leave this part of the country and 
let him go. 

In this year the town passed this significant vote: "Voted 
that the town will support the constable in collecting the 

The summer and autumn of 1777 were as important and 
interesting as any in the history of the war. Burgoyne 
started from Canada with his splendid army with the avowed 
inirpose of sweeping through New York and separating New 
England from the rest of the colonies. Washington addressed 
circulars to the brigadier-generals of militia in Western Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut, informing them of the danger 
from Burgoyne, and adds: "To the militia we must look for 
support in this hour of trial. I trust you will immediately 
march with the militia under your command and rendezvous 
at Saratoga." This call was heartily responded to, and a large 
army was speedily gathered, made up largely of raw recruits, 
chiefly farmers, enlisted for two and three months, and com- 
manded by Gen. Gates.* Bancroft says they were well armed, 
except that but three soldiers in ten had bayonets, but con- 
scious of superior strength. Eager for action, they kindled 
with anger and scorn at the barbarities Burgoj'ne threatened ; 
above all, were enthusiasts for the freedom of their country, 
now to be secured by their deeds. 

The success of that campaign against Burgoyne was secured 
by the bravery and heroism of particular regiments, and 
almost in spite of the weakness and inefficiency of the gen- 
erals in command. 

During all that year this region was kept in a con.stant state 
of alarm, and the militia were frequently called out. I have 
before me the pay-roll of Capt. Timothy Childs' company in 
Col. David Leonard's regiment, raised Feb. 4, 1777, to serve 
one month and seventeen days : Timothy Childs, Captain ; 
Ezekiel Foster, Bernardston, Lieutenant; Isaac Newton, Sim- 
eon Nash, John Newton, Hull Nimms, Benjamin Hastings, 
Aaron Denio, Ariel Hinsdale, James Lowe, and others. 

Another roll of Capt. Timothy Childs' men in Col. David 
Wicks' regiment, raised May 10, 1777, for Ticonderoga, dis- 
charged July 8, 1777 ; time allowed to go home, making two 
months and eight days. The commander of this regiment, 
Col. David Wicks, of Shelburne, was the grandfather of the 
present bearer of the same name and title. The names of the 
42 men on this roll are not names that are familiar as Green- 
field names. The fortieth name is that of Preserved Smith, 
then a young man, who afterward became the minister at 
Kowe, and married the daughter of his commanding officer. 

Another pay-roll of the militia of Greenfield, when the alarm 
was at Bennington, August, 1777, under the command of Capt. 
Timothy Childs, in the regiment of which Col. David Field 
was commander: Timothy Childs, Captain; Samuel Allen, 
First Lieutenant ; David Allen, Second Lieutenant, and 55 
men. The time of the service was four days, the pay of the 
privates 5s. 4rf. each. The fact is they started for Bennington, 
but were too late, and were recalled. 

In 1779 it was voted to go into some other method to raise 
our quota of men now to be raised. Up to this time volun- 
teers had come forward ; now they must be hired. It was 
voted to raise the money to hire the men by a tax on polls and 
estates. I have before me an order to Samuel Wells, treas- 
urer, to pay certain persons the sums affixed to their names 
for hiring the six and nine months' men. 

* Schuyler was in command until the 19th of August. 



In 1780 the town voted that the committee who hired the 
nine months' men act discretionally ahout paying them ; and 
a committee was chosen to hire men for six months, and to 
pay for clothing and blankets when called for ; and at another 
meeting, held in July, it was voted to give the men that serve 
in the Continental army 20s. a month in addition to their 
wages, and JIOOO in paper money, tliey having paid these 
sums for hiring the men. The list is a long one, and begins 
with Samuel Wells, £272 15s. id. and amounting in all to 
£1288 18s. id. A large sum for those days, but paid in a de- 
preciated paper currency. Signed by us, committee, Timothy 
Childs, Ebenezer Graves, Benj. Hastings, Samuel Stoughton, 
David Risley, Samuel Wells. On the back of this agreement 
are the receipts for the rye.* 

I have before me similar contracts made at the same time 
with David Gibbs, Isaac Gibbs, Daniel HoUoway, John 
Moody, Matthew Clark. 

It appears that the General Court issued an order for six 
months' men June 5, 1780. Greenfield chose a committee to 
hire these men. The contracts made with them are still in 
the town clerk's office. I copy one of them : 

" Greenfield, June 25, 1780. 
" We, the subscriber>(, agree to pay to William Kiug, on his two sons euliating 
in the Continental Service and passing muster, viz., Ezra King and Cusliing 
King, for the term of six months from the 1st of July, without sooner discfiarged, 
they bringing a certitieate from their commander that they have served that 
time. We, the Committee of Greenfield, levied ourselves in the behalf of the 
town to pay to said M'illiam King or his order one hundred and si.xty bushels of 
rye, by the 10th of January next, delivered at the house of Capt. Agrippa Wells, 
in Greenfield." 

In December of that year, 1780, the selectmen gave an order 
to the treasurer, Samuel Wells, to pay certain men the quantity 
of wheat or r3'e set against their names, it being due them for 
money paid by them toward the hire of the six months' men. 
Then follows a long list, headed by Ebenezer Graves with 
thirty bushels of wheat. 

I have seen the pay-roll of Capt. Isaac Newton's company 
in Col. Murray's regiment of Massachusetts militia, recruited 
for three months, to reinforce the Continental army. Their 
term of service began July 4, 1780. The company was dis- 
charged Oct. 10, 1870. Isaac Newton, captain, was paid £12 ; 
Robert Biddle, first lieutenant, £8 ; Thomas Dickinson, second 
lieutenant, £8; Moses Newton, Joseph Hastings, Joseph Sev- 
erance, sergeants, £3 each ; Seth Nimms and 101 other privates 
were paid £2. 

In 1781 the sum of £300 was raised to buy beef for the 
army. In July of the same year it was voted to raise a suffi- 
cient sum of money to pay for a number of horses that were 
bought of individuals and sent into the Continental service 
last year ; but voted not to buy another quota of beef de- 
manded by the court. It is quite a disappointment that we 
cannot learn what was the population of the town at this time, . 
and what was the quota of men required. It was evidently 
hard to procure the men. The means of the country were 

The expedients of drafts and bounties, with which we are so 
painfully familiar, were resorted to. Three months' men were 
called for. I find the agreement entered into with Benjamin 
Kneeland, Samson Horsley, Thomas Horsley, and Eli Hamil- 
ton to serve three months. The matter of furnishing beef 
for the army proved to be a serious affair No less than ten 
town-meetings were held in this year, 1781. These meetings 
were held at various places, — sometimes at the school-house, 
probably even in this village, which stood on the spot where 
Mr. Oren Wiley's shop now stands, and which was burned 
early in the century. 

We have here a list of all the officers who commanded 
companies in the war of the Revolution from this town, viz. : 
Agrippa Wells, Timothy Childs, Isaac Newton. 

* Probably referring to the grain in which the amounts were paid. 


I think I have become more interested in Capt. Agrippa 
Wells — familiarly known in his day as Capt. " Grip" — than in 
any other man in our history. 

My interest is increased by the vague, traditionary, and 
contradictory accounts of him which I have received, and by 
the unwearied but unsuccessful pains I have taken, case-knife 
in hand, to scrape the moss from old tombstones, in the hope 
to find some authentic intelligence of his birth and death. 

My story of him is partly authentic and partly traditional. 
I have good reason for supposing that he was horn about 
1735; was a farmer on the Shelburne hills, and sold his farm 
to David Wells, grandfather of Col. David Wells, in 1770. 

The story has been often told that when a young man he 
served in the old French war, and was taken prisoner and 
carried to Canada, where he was compelled to run the gauntlet, 
as it was called, — i.e., he was compelled to run between two 
files of Indians, each one of whom was to give him a blow with 
his fist if he could. 

As an additional insult, they compelled him to strip off his 
own clothes and put on the chemise of a squaw. He used to 
tell the story that he got through the gauntlet with little per- 
sonal injury. When near the end of the line an old squaw 
dealt him a severe blow, which he resented by giving her a 
sturdy kick, at which the Indians laughed, as a sign of appro- 
bation of his spirit. 

We find that in 1773 he was appointed by the church to 
" tune the Psalms." We know beyond question that he has- 
tened to the assistance of the colony at the head of his com- 
pany, at the alarm raised after the battle of Concord, and 
commanded a company of Continentals at the siege of Boston. 
Returning home on a furlough, the minister, Mr. Newton, 
whose zeal in the cause of his country was quite lukewarm, 
asked the doughty captain, " What they were going to do 
with the Tories?" " Do with them?" he replied. "Damn 
them ! we are going to hang the devils !" 

The captain was evidently an impulsive, impetuous man. 
True to his country's cause in the war of the Revolution, in 
the troublesome times that followed he was seduced from his 
allegiance to the government he had fought to establish, and 
joined in the Shays rebellion. He commanded a company in 
the winter demonstration upon the arsenal at Springfield, in 
January, 1787. The rebels received a hotter reception than 
they anticipated. Four men were killed, all from this neigh- 
borhood, viz., Ezekiel Root; Ariel Webster, from Gill, then a 
part of Greenfield ; Jabez Spicer, from Leyden ; and John 
Hunter, from Shelburne. I do not know whether they be- 
longed to Captain "Grip's" company or not. As soon as it 
was seen that Gen. Shephard, the commander of the govern- 
ment troops, was in earnest, the rebels broke up in a sudden 
and cowardly retreat. Capt. "Grip" was left almost alone. 
He waved his sword and, in a voice of thunder, called to his 
terrified men to stop; but in vain. In emphatic terms he re- 
proached them for their cowardice. But he had lost all con- 
trol of them. It is said that Shays rode at Springfield on 
that occasion a fine white horse, the property of a Greenfield 
man, and afterward, when an officer of the government came 
here to administer the oath of allegiance, he rode the same 
horse in the service of the government. 

Capt. Wells is remembered at the beginning of this century 
as a blacksmith, living opposite the burying-ground in the 
South Meadows, near where Charles Smead now lives. He 
is remembered, about 1810, as a poor old man. He probably 
died not long after this, at the age of seventy-five or so. I 
have searched in vain for his grave or any record of his death. 

At the various town-meetings no name appears more promi- 
nently than that of ('apt. Timothy Childs. He was moderator 
of many meetings, — the last, I believe, in 1781. Now, who 
was Captain Timothy Childs? Who knows ? Willardsays 
he resided near the Falls. Mr. Stoughton thinks he owned a 



farm there, but did not live on it. According to Willard, he 
led the compiiny tlmt hastened to Cambridge after the Concord 
tight; which, as I have shown, is not true. But he did com- 
mand a militia company, which was out for brief periods three 
times in the year 1777. 

I have sought in vain for any record of him beyond these 
scanty hints. Who knows anything of Capt. Childs? One 
of the . foremost men in this town one hundred years ago, 
where did he live? Where did he die? Where was he 
buried ? It is with a feeling of sadness that I speak of one so 
well known and so soon forgotten. 

About 1772, John Newton, Jr., came from Durham, Conn., 
a young man, and settled on the farm just north of the old 
meeting-house, where his son, Deacon Curtis Newton, lived 
after him. It is reported that he bought the farm, which was 
a hemlock-swamp, for 78. 6d. an acre. The house he built has 
been recently removed. Of him I can only add that he served 
long enough in the Revolutionary war to secure a pension. 
A brother, Isaac, came with him, and settled on a farm in the 
north part of the town near the Bernardston line, and built a 
house on the spot where Mr. K. C. Osgood now lives. The 
next year a younger brother of these two, named Samuel, 
came with his father, and lived on what is now Silver Street. 

Of these brothers, Isaac seems to have been the most promi- 
nent. He was doubtless a clear-headed, wise, benevolent man, 
full of energy and push. He was called to all sorts of offices. 
For twenty-three years he was assessor, selectman, overseer of 
the poor, and for many years a member of the Legislature. 
It is related of him that he cared not at all for public office 
and never sought it, but his fellow-townsmen, confiding in his 
integrity and ability, insisted upon his filling these places of 
trust. He was in the army several times for short periods. 
He was at West Point at the time of Arnold's treachery, and 
when, in 1777, Burgoyne attempted to cut off New England 
by possessing the country from Canada to New York City, 
and the General Court had ordered out the militia of Massa- 
chusetts to resist his advance, Capt. Isaac Newton, then at 
home, rallied a company of young men and hastened to the 
scene of action. It is related that, not having a suit of clothes 
becoming his rank, the women of his household hurried to 
card and spin the wool and weave the cloth, and cut and make 
the garments, so that when the company was ready to start, in 
a very few days the captain was rigged in a full-dress of white 
woolen, the product of home industry and skill, and it was 
his boast that he was the best-dressed officer on the field. It 
would be very interesting if we could trace the historj' of 
Capt. Newton and his command in that eventful campaign. 
I found no record but the otficial pay-roll. 

It was after the peace and as he reached his maturity that he 
became prominent in civil affairs. In the old burying-ground, 
on the Gill road, his grave is still seen. He died Sept. 23, 
1826, aged seventy-eight years. It appears that he lost two 
young wives, both under twenty-five years of age, — one in 
1775, and one in 1781. A third died in 1824, aged seventy-five 
years. It would appear from Willard's history that the father 
of John, Isaac, and Samuel Newton was a brother of Dr. 
Roger Newton. The present generation say that the relation- 
ship was not so near. 

Benjamin Hastings was one of the leading citizens of the 
town from its incorporation till his death in 1774. He came 
from Hatfield, and lived in a house that he probably built, 
and which is now utterly gone. It stood a few rods soutli- 
west of where Snow's green-house now stands. He owned a 
large tract of land extending through the town to the north 
line. He was moderator of most of the town-meetings for 
the first fifteen years. He was town clerk from 1753 to 17()!l. 
He held the offices of selectman, highway surveyor, field- 
driver, hog-reeve, and constable. He was the first and only 
deacon of the church for many years ; was often sent with 
petitions to the General Court for protection and relief, and 

served on various town committees. He died Aug. 16, 1774, 
in the seventy-sixth year of his age, and is buried in the old 
cemetery on the Gill road. 

His son, Lieut. Benjumin Hastings, was hardly less prom- 
inent in town affairs than his father. He was elected to some 
office every year. He was out with the militia for a short 
time in 1777. He died Jan. 21, 1806, and was buried by the 
side of his father. In previous histories of the town it has 
been reported that Benjamin Hastings was the first man to 
enlist in the Revolutionary struggle, and that he commanded 
the first company of volunteers. But this is not correct. The 
senior Hastings died before the war began, and his son was in 
the war but a short time with the militia in 1777. 

Aaron Denio was a famous man in his day. He was a 
Frenchman and came from Canada, and was the tavern- 
keeper of the town for many years. He lived where Rich- 
ardson's block now is. The country tavern in those days was 
a place of great interest, — the centre of life for the whole 
neighborhood. This, of Aaron Denio was no exception. 
More good stories are told of the landlord than of any other 
man of his time. He was evidently of a very quick temper, 
which often got the mastery of him, and which furnished 
much fun for all with whom he had to do. On one occasion 
he took his grist to the mill and looked on with astonishment 
while the miller, Mr. Wells, took toll oftener than he thought 
was just, till at length he burst out, "I do sw^ee — r, Mr. 
Wells, if you will take the grist and let me have the toll, I 
will much thank you." Seeing a load of his grandchildren 
drive up to his house for a visit, he exclaimed, " You have 
come to visit us, have you ? Well, perhaps your grandmother 
will be glad to see you." His wife was the possessor of a 
calico gown, — a rare treasure in those days. One day some 
cattle got into his yard. "My dear," he called, "come and 
help me." Mrs. Denio, arrayed in the calico dress, tried to 
assist in driving them out, but only frightened them into 
jumping into the garden. Whereupon the irate husband ex- 
claimed, "Get back into the house, you calico devil!" 

On one occasion his daughter had a beau, and a fire was 
kindled in the best parlor. In the course of the evening the 
old man intruded, ostensibly to see that the fire was burning 
well. He remarked, "A very good fire." Getting no re- 
sponse from those who preferred his room to his company, he 
left, but returned after a while and again remarked, "A very 
good fire," which was received with provoking silence. The 
old man retired, and soon came back with a pail of water, 
which he dashed upon the fire, exclaiming, " I do sweer there 
is no fire at all !" 

Coming into the kitchen one day, the pot was boiling over 
the fire. Addressing his wife, he asked, " My dear, what are 
we going to have for dinner to-day ?" " Victuals," was the 
brief reply. His anger was at once aroused, and, seizing the 
pot, he cried out, " I do sweer I will know what is in the 
pot !" and, carrying it to the door, he threw it down into the 
ravine, the contents scattering along the way. He found 
what was in the pot, but lost his dinner. Where and when 
he died is unknown. His descendants are living witih us to 
this day. 

In May, 1781, it was voted, " It is the mind of the town to 
have a justice of the peace in town," and David Smead was 
appointed. He lived at the time at the east end of the street, 
in a house which he sold about 1790 to George Grinnell, 
father of the late Judge Grinnell, and moved into the 
meadow, and lived on what we have known as the Solomon 
Smead house, near the house of his son. Judge Solomon 
Smead. The esquire was an important man in those days, — 
his son Solomon, still more important. He held conspicuous 
positions, — was in both branches of the Legislature, a member 
of the council and judge of Probate, and a zealous Demo- 

The Bascoms were a prominent family in the early days of 



Greenfield. The first one of whom there is any knowledge 
was Deacon Moses Bascom, who lived for a time in a house 
where the .John Russell house now stands ; afterward in the 
northeast part (jf the town, where the widow of Ezekiel Bas- 
com lives. The only thing I can stop to relate concerning 
Deacon Bascom 's family is its fruitfulness. He had nineteen 
children in all. Seven daughters lived to grow up and have 
families. Eunice had eleven, Kebecca had ton, Martha had 
only seven, Marj' had onl}' seven, Chloe had eleven, Mercy 
had eleven, Experience had eight ; total, sixty-five. 

James Corse was a man of note in the early history of this 
town. He lived where the Leavitt house now stands. His 
house was used for public worship and for town purposes till 
the meeting-house was built, and was one of the houses pick- 
eted for defense. Corse was a noted trapper and hunter. 
Many stories of his prowess have been preserved. He died 
Sept. 27, 1783, aged ninety years. 

In Hall's " History of Eastern Vermont'' there is a record of 
a journey made by one James Corse, from Fort Dummer to 
Lake Champlain. It is conjectured that he is the James Corse 
of this narrative. He had several children. Gad lived near 
the Ewers tavern. Dun on the Albert Smead place, Ashur 
where Eber Larabee lives, at Country Farms. Mrs. H. C. 
Newton and Mrs. 'William Smead are children of Ashur 

Gen. Charles P. Stone, son of Dr. Alphcus F. Stone, was 
born in Greenfield in 1826. He gx-aduated at West Point in 
1845, and at once entered the army as lieutenant, lie served 
in the war in Mexico, and was made captain for gallantry at 
Molino del Rey and Chapultepeo. In 18-51 he was ordered to 
California, and performed the duties of chief of ordnance on 
the Pacific coast. Resigning his position in the arni}* in 18.'J6, 
he engaged in banking in San Francisco. Returning East in 
1861, he re-entered the army, and was appointed colonel of the 
14th Regiment United States Infantry and brigadier-general 
of volunteers. In August, 1861, he had command of the 
"corps of observation" guarding the upper Potomac. In 
February, 1862, he was placed in confinement in Fort La- 
fayette, New York Harbor, without any charge preferred 
against him or any explanation of the cause of his arrest. 
He was held till August, 1862, and then released, with no 
trial, explanation, or apology, and ordered to dutj' under Gen. 
Banks in the department of the Gulf. Gen. Banks made him 
chief of statf. He was afterward assigned to the command 
of a brigade in the Army of the Potomac, but in September, 
1864, he resigned his commission in the regular army. In 
1870 he entered the military service of the khedive of Egypt.* 

George Ripley, LL.D., was bornjn Greenfield, Oct. 3, 1802, 
the son of Jerome Riplej'. He graduated at Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1823, and from the Cambridge Theological School 
in 1826. Was pastor of a Unitarian Church in Boston from 
1828-31. Published " Discourses on the Philosophy of Re- 
ligion" in 1839, " Letters to Andrew Norton on the Latest 
Form of Infidelity" in 1840. He was associate editor of the 
Dial in 1840-41 ; was the chief promoter of the famous 
socialistic experiment at Brook Farm, Roxbury, in 1844-46 ; 
became literary editor of the Sfcw Vork Tribune in 1849, and, 
with Charles A. Dana, edited Appletons' "New American 
Cyclopaedia," 16 volumes, a new edition of which appeared 
in 1873-76. Mr. Ripley received the degree of LL.D. from 
Lawrence University in 1874. 

Dexter Marsh deserves honorable mention among the promi- 
nent men of Greenfield. He was born in Montague in 1806. 
Without education, and by occupation a day-laborer, his at- 
tention was attracted in 1835 to foot-prints which lie observed 
in some flagging-stones. He became very much interested in 
geological studies and in gathering specimens, in which he 
was very successful. His collection was visited by scientific 

* See Chapter III., General History of Franklin Ctjnuty. 


men from all parts of the world, and, though he supplied many 
cabinets, his own, at the time of his death, was the choicest 
collection of fossil foot-prints and fishes then in existence. 
It was sold after his death for §2700. Many circumstances in 
his career have led to a comparison with that of Hugh Miller, 
the noted Scotch geologist. He died April 2, 18.j3, at the age 
of forty-seven. 

Few men have been more intimately identified with the 
interests of Greenfield than Henry W. Clapp. He was born 
in Springfield in 1798. His early life was passed in New 
York, and his success was such as to enable him to retire from 
active business at an early age. In 1835 he came to reside in 
Greenfield, and for many years his name and reputation have 
given assistance and strength to almost every important en- 
terprise in this region. He has been called to fill various 
positions of honor and trust. He was president of the Green- 
field Bank, of the Franklin Savings Institution, the Connec- 
ticut Railroad Co., the Franklin Agricultural Society, the 
Greenfield Gas Co, the Cemetery Associatiim, and the Library 
Association. He was one of the original members of the co- 
partnership for the manufacture of cutlery, which has added 
so much to the prosperity of this region. 

The infiuence he e.xerted was not acquired by ettorts to be 
popular, but resulted from native force and sagacity, persist- 
ent will, and recognized integrity. He died on the 17th of 
March, 1869. 

Hon. William Burritt Washburn was born in Winchendon, 
Mass., Jan. 31, 1820. He graduated at Yale College in 1844, 
and soon after engaged in manufacturing at Greenfield, Mass., 
where he has since resided. He has been for many years con- 
nected with the Bank of Greenfield, and in October, 1858, 
W!is chosen president, which position he has occupied contin- 
uously to the present time. In 1864 the bank organized under 
the national banking law, and became the First National 
Bank of Greenfield. 

He was elected to the State Senate in 18-30, and to the House 
of Representatives in 1854. In 1862 he had (probably) the 
unprecedented honor of being unanimously elected to Con- 
gross, and was successively re-elected to the 39th, 40th, 41st, 
and 42d Congresses. In 1870 he was elected Governor of 
Massachusetts, in consequence of which he resigned his seat 
in the 42d Congress on the 1st of January, 1871. He was 
again elected Governor in 1872 and 1873, but resigned the 
oflice to take his place in the United States Senate, t(j which 
he had been elected in the place of Hon. Charles Suniner, 
deceased. His term expired March 3, 1875. 

Among the many offices filled by him have been those of 
trustee of Yale College, of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College at Amherst, and of Smith College at Northampton. 
He is also a member of the Board of Overseers of Amherst 
College. The degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by 
Harvard University in 1872. 

Governor Washburn is prominently connected with the 
Congregational Church in Greenfield, and was a liberal con- 
tributor to the new and beautiful edifice erected by the society 
to which he belongs. He has recently erected and presented 
to the Greenfield Library A,ssoeiation a fine building on Main 
Street for the exclusive uses of the society. He is extensively 
engaged in manufacturing at Orange and Erving, in Franklin 
County ; is one of the prosperous men of Western Massachu. 
setts, and held in high respect by the people. His home in 
Greenfield is one of the finest and most commodious in the 
beautiful valley of the Connecticut. 


Our fathers took advanced ground with regard to public 
schools, and adopted the early policy of the Massncliusetts 
colony to have all tho children educated at the public pxr 

As early as 1744, Deerfield made uii appropriiitjou for a 



school at Green River, and in 1749 the sum of 30s. (old tenor) 
a week was granted to the school-dame at Green Eiver for her 
services. Do the wages seem great? They are qualified by 
the phrase old tenor, which implies that they were paid in the 
depreciated paper currency which had been issued to defray 
the expenses of the disastrous expedition against Quebec in 
1()90, under Sir William Phipps, and which had depreciated 
to about one-tenth of its nominal value. 

In 1756 it was voted to hire a schoolmaster from the 1st of 
January to the last of March. In 1757 it was voted to hire 
a school-dame from the 1st of April to the lust of August. 

In 1758, that the selectmen provide a school-dame and a 
house to keep school in. In 1759 it was voted to have a 
schoolmaster three months. In 1763 a vote was passed to 
have a school the year round. In 1767 it was voted, or so re- 
corded, that " those people that han't had their proportion of 
schooling these three years past shall have it this year if their 
be money in the treasury;" and it was voted that there be 
seven districts for schooling, — to wit, one in the Street, three 
in the meadows, one by Noah Allen's, one in the northeast 
corner, and one at Ens. Childs', at the falls. 

But one master, and he to move to each district according 
to the proportion ; and to have a school-dame the other six 
months, and she to keep school in the several districts accord- 
ing to their proportion. Voted to raise £20 for schooling. 
In 1774 it was voted to divide the district into sqaadrens for 
the best advantage for the public schools. 

I have not been able to fix definitely the population of the 
town previous to 1790. Mr. Willard, in his history of Green- 
field, puts the population in 1763 at 368. I do not know on 
what authority. At the first census, taken by the government 
in 1790, Greenfield returned a population of 1498, — a large 
growth for twenty-seven years. The return of scholars may 
throw some light on the matter. 

I have before me a return made to Solomon Smead, treasurer 
of the selectmen in 1790, of the school children in town, as 
follows: South School (Street), 60; Meeting-House (Four 
Corners), 45; Mill Brook (Nash's), 43 ; Ariel Hinsdale (North 
Meadow), 40; Country Farms, 23; Log Plain, 69; Fall 
Brook (Factory), 12; Northeast (Gill), 173; total, 465,— the 
money for each scholar, 4s. id., making £100. 

It is difficult from these figures to get at a fair estimate of 
the population, for the number of children in a family was 
much larger than now, — at least twice as large. It is clear 
that in 1790 the population was well scattered over the town. 
Log Plain returned more scholars than the Street. It would 
be a pleasure if one could look in upon those schools of the 
last century. It would be sure to cure one of a foolish dispo- 
sition to complain that the former days were so much better 
than these. I am told, by one whose memory goes back to 
the last century, that in those schools there was no arrange- 
ment of pupils into classes. One by one the older scholars 
would rise in their seats and say, " Please, sir, may I read ?" 
and if the teacher could attend to him, he read such a piece 
as he had selected from any book he chose. Another would 
say, "Please, sir, show me how to do this sum;" another, 
"Please, sir, set me a copy." When the teacher could find 
time he called the little ones to him one by one and initiated 
them into the profound mysteries of A, B, C. No blackboard, 
no apparatus, very few text-books, but no lack of ferule and 

The school-house of those days was a rude, unpainted 
building, very often of logs, containing a single room, at 
one end a huge fireplace, on which the great sticks of green 
wood dug out of the snow burned freely and fiercely when 
once fairly kindled, which was often not accomplished till the 
school-day was wellnigh over. In the mean time the urchins 
and big boys and girls sat shivering on benches made of slabs, 
with sticks stuck in for legs. 

At the close of the last century the school-house in the 

Street stood on Franklin Street, where the shop of Ezra Wiley 
now stands. This house was burned in 1825. 

From the first, Greenfield has taken great interest in her 
public schools, and has been liberal in appropriations for their 
support. Under the district system great difficulty was found 
in dividing the school money among the various districts. 
Different plans prevailed from year to year. 

In 1844 this method was adopted : " Two-twelfths of the 
money are placed in the hands of the selectmen and school 
committee, to be distributed according to the wants of the dis- 
trict. Ten-twelfths are divided, — one-half according to ihe 
number of scholars, one-half according to taxes paid. Lowest 
sum in any district, §67.78." When the district system was 
abolished, in 1869, all the money was placed in the hands of the 
school committee. 


In 1853 a high school was established, and was kept one- 
half the year in the village, and one-half in the north parish. 
The first teacher was Luther B. Lincoln, A.M. (Harvard 
University, 1822). The high-school house was built on Chap- 
man Street in 1857, and in 1872 a new and more commodious 
one was erected on Pleasant Street. 

In 1876 the State of Massachusetts attempted to show at the 
" Centennial Exhibition" what it was doing for public educa- 
tion and the results attained, not only in cities, but in a country 
town which was too remote from any city to be influenced by 
it, and G reenfield was selected to make an exhibit, and did so by 
sending sixteen volumes of work done by pupils of all grades in 
all her schools, with photographs of all the school-houses. For 
this exhibit a bronze medal was awarded to the town. 


The Fellenberg Academy was incorporated in 1832, as a 
manual-labor school. It was very popular for a while under 
the charge of James H. Coffin, an excellent teacher, but in a 
few years it proved unsuccessful, and was given up. 

The brick building erected for this school on Main Street 
served for the public schools for many years. A private 
school for young ladies was opened in 1828, in the Coleman 
house, now occupied by J. H. Hollister, Esq. It was kept 
for a while by Rev. Henry Jones, and afterward by Rev. L. 
L. Langstroth. It was given up in 1845. 

A school for young ladies was kept by the Misses Stone in 
their house, on Federal Street, for several years. 

In 1868 the estate of D. N. Carpenter was purchased by 
some gentlemen, who were incorporated under the title of 
"Prospect Hill School for Young Ladies." The first 
principal was Miss Lois R. Wright, who, in 1872, was suc- 
ceeded by her sister. Miss Sabra Wright. 

Miss Ruth Russell opened a private school for young ladies 
in her house in 1853, which continued successfully till failing 
health compelled her to give it up in 1866. 


Before the incorporation of the town, Deerfleld had made 
an appropriation to procure preaching at Green Brier for three 
months each year. Immediately after the first town-meeting 
measures were taken to form a separate church, and Aug. 16, 
1753, was set apart as a daj' of prayer and fasting. 

Rev. Mr. Ashley, of Deerfield, Rev. Mr. Ashley, of Sun- 
derland, and Rev. Mr. Abercrombie, of Pelham, were in- 
vited to assist in the work of the day, and to give their advice 
for some meet person to settle in the work of the ministry. 

1. In the following month a call was extended to Rev. Ed- 
ward Billing or Billings. (He wrote it Billing. It is more 
commonly written Billings.) 

A church was organized in March, 1764, and Mr. Billings 
installed as pastor. He had been previously ordained at Bel- 
chertown. Twelve men became members of the "First Church 
of Christ," viz. : John Allen, Edward Allen, Joshua Wells, 
Daniel Graves, Benjamin Hastings, Jonathan Sniead, Aaron 



Denio, Samuel Munn, John Cochrane, Thomas Nims, Daniel 
Nash, William Mitchell. 

The town voted a settlement of £000, old tenor, with a salary 
of JE300 and his firewood. This custom of furnishing the 
minister firewood has come down almost to our own times, 
and was a source of constant annoyance. 

To this Mr. Billings was no exception, as we may judge by 
a vote, passed in 1758, that a committee provide Mr. Billings 
with wood this year, or hire him to git his own wood. His 
ministry was brief, and apparently not altogether a happy one. 

It was a time of theological strife not without bitterness. 
The power of Jonathan Edwards, one of the greatest intel- 
lects America has produced, was felt in all the region, and the 
little gathering of stalwart men and women on Sunday, in 
James Corse's best room, were deeply versed in the mysteries 
of free-will, foreordination, and the like. 

A controversy was carried on respecting these matters 
between Mr. Billings and Parson Ashley, of Deerfleld, which 
was printed, — interesting, as showing what were the "open 
questions," in those days, but the reading of it now would be 
severe penance. 

Mr. Billings drops out of the record about 1760, but the 
precise time of his death is not known. He was buried in the 
old yard on the brow of the hill, near Mr. Osterhout's house, 
but no stone marks the spot. He lived at a place called Stock- 
ing Fort, on the Turner's Falls road, nearly opposite Snow's 
green-house. A part of the old house has been recentlj' torn 
down. He had several children, and some of his grandchil- 
dren are still living among us. 

Did Joseph Severence march up and down Main Street 
Sunday morning beating his drum? or did he stand in front 
of James Corse's house? Who knows? Should we not like 
to get a glimpse at tho.se sober, sedate, earnest men and women 
gathering together on Sunday morning for religious worship, 
the men carrying their trusty muskets to defend themselves 
against the savages, who might assail them at any moment? 
There were no fair-weather Christians in that little assembly. 
What sort of a house did James Corse offer for the assembled 
worshipers? Was it a log house ? Without much question, 
it was. Nothing can be learned about the house. But the 
story of the famous old apple-tree that stood in the northeast 
corner of the garden must be told. 

It is something more than twenty years since the venerable 
tree yielded to the infirmities of age. It was believed that at 
the time of its death it was about one hundred years old. It 
started about the time the town was incorporated. At a foot 
above the ground it measured eighteen feet in circumference. 
At five or six feet from the surface the stem divided into tTiree 
branches, one of which was nine feet in circumference and 
sixty feet high. One year it bore 140 bushels of apples. 

This story is told on the authority of Deacon C. J. J. In- 
gersoll, who lived in the Leavitt house. 

About the time of Mr. Billings' death or dismissal the work 
of building a meeting-house was entered upon. It was voted 
in 1760 "to build a meeting-house this year, forty-five feet 
long and thirty-five feet wide, upon the spot where the 
General Court had prefixed it, and to shingle, ruff-board, and 
glaze it, and lay the under floor, and to make the doors." 

By subsequent vote, the same year, the building was made 
fifty feet long by forty wide. It was evidently a great under- 
taking, and dragged heavily. I cannot learn when it was 
first occupied, but in 1769 it was voted to provide materials to 
finish the meeting-house. It had doubtless been used before 
this, but without pews or seats other than rude benches. 

In 1775 it was voted "to seat the meeting-house by age and 
estate, each man to model his estate as he sees fit ; in his own 
family the first three shall have their first choice in the pews." 

Voted "that one year's age shall be equal to £3 of estate, 
and that no minor shall be seated for any estate." 

A p>lan of the meeting-house and of the seats occupied is an 

interesting document, and quite illustrative of the early days. 
The old church was a very plain, barn-like structure, facing 
the south, with the pulpit on the north side. It contained 29 
pews, all large and high-walled. As many as eight or ten 
families occupied one pew. In one larger than the others, at 
the right of the pulpit, reserved for the old people, eighteen 
heads of families were seated ; in the pew on the opposite side 
of the pulpit nine families were accommodated, or, rather, the 
heads of families, for the younger members were turned into 
the galleries, where two venerable tithingmen sat, each with 
a long pole, to keep the youngsters in order. 

All the affairs of the parish were regulated in town-meeting. 
At one town-meeting it was voted that the intermission should 
be half an hour. 

2. In August, 1761, it was voted in town-meeting to give Mr. 
Roger Newton a call to settle in the ministry. It was also 
voted to give him £130 6s. 8rf. as a settlement, and £66 13s. 
■id. as salary, and to increase it £1 6s. 8(/. a year till it amounts 
to £80. Voted that Mr. Newton shall have fifty loads of wood 
yearly. In Mr. Newton's letter of acceptance of the call he 
says, " Depending upon your catholic sentiments in regard to 
them who ditt'er from you about terms of communion, that 
there be no contention, provided no scandalously ignorant or 
immoral persons are admitted to your communion, and that 
all persons of competent knowledge and sober lives be allowed 
to come who think it their duty to come to the ordinance of 
the Lord's table, it is upon this proposal I accept your 
invitation." He was ordained Nov. 18, 1761. Mr. Newton 
was born in Durham, Conn., May 23, 1737, graduated at Yale 
in 1758, and remained in office here till his death, Dec. 10, 
1816, — a period of fifty-five years. 

Mr. Newton lived in a house now standing in Newton 
Court, and which in his day stood on the site of the court- 
house. For fifty-two years he was the sole pastor of the town, 
when its population was at least half what it now is. For 
these degenerate days it takes eight ministers to look after the 
morals of the town. It may be a question if they are looked 
after any better than in the good days of Dr. Newton. 

Mr. David Willard, in his history of Greenfield, writing of 
Dr. Newton, in 1838, says, " His moderation of manner, con- 
ciseness and perspicuity of style, the sound sense of his ser- 
mons, and tlieir particular brevity in cold weather, as well as 
the dignified and venerable form of the good man, are still 
fresh in the memory of many. 

" Consummate prudence, caution, and shrewdness were dis- 
tinguishing traits of his character. His prayers in public 
worship had much of sameness and formality. They were 
seldom varied, except on particular occasions." 

Mr. Newton was not an enthusiastic patriot through the 
Revolutionary war. It is thought that he was too much in- 
fluenced by his neighbor. Parson Ashley, of Deertield, to have 
great zeal in the cause of the colonies. Patriotism with him 
was not easily dissevered from loyalty to the king and govern- 
ment of the mother-country. 

Mr. Newton did not find his path one of roses in all those 
fifty-five years. The matter of the wood gave him trouble, as 
it did his predecessor. In 1783 the town voted "that three- 
fourths of a cord is a middling load of wood, agreeable to a 
vote of the town, with Mr. Newton." So his fifty loads 
became thirty-seven and a half cords. That was all Mr. New- 
ton could burn in a year at the town's expense. In this 
matter of the wood a good story is told of Dr. Newton. One 
day a farmer drove up with one of those middling loads of 
wood, sled length, — that is, eight feet long. Mr. Newton saw 
at a glance that it was loaded very loosely, with large spaces 
between the sticks. He wanted to give the farmer a hint that 
the load was not as large as it seemed. So, going behind the 
sled and peering through the load, he quietly remarked, "An 
excellent pair of cattle you have there, sir." He had a good 
look at them. 



His salary sufterod much from the depreciation of the cur- 
rency, lie was tried by painful domestic afflictions. His 
diary is rather a sad recital of personal grievances. The tone 
of the diary gives one the impression that the people were not 
all saints in his day, and that the minister, even in those good 
old times, did not always live in clover, though in some cases 
they consulted his case. In 1773 the town "voted to return 
thanks to Mr. David Wells for the gift of a cushion for Mr. 
Newton to lean on." Rev. Dr. Chandler gave a temperance 
address about ISSO, in which he read from an account kept by 
Jerome Kipley with his minister fifty years before. On one 
page of the account are 39 entries, of which 21 were for liquors ; 
on another page, 11, and another, 13, for the same articles. 
"This account," says Dr. Chandler, "is that of a venerable 
clergyman, a man of staid, sober character, of exemplary 
piety, and particularly temperate in his habits, — yes, I say 
particularly temperate ; and probably the bills of nearly every 
minister of that day, if they could be obtained, would show 
like entries. It is a curious illustration of the times. The 
liquor was bought in small quantities, not for the doctor's use 
alone, but to meet the demands of an ever-pressing hospitality." 
He was buried in the old yard south of Mr. Osterhout's house. 
A handsome marble stone marks the spot, — the sole represen- 
tative of the old-fashioned minister, serving the whole town, 
settled for life, identified with all the joys and sorrows of the 
town for more than half a century. He had eight children. 
His son, Roger Newton, Jr., graduated at Yale, and was a 
tutor there at the time of his death, at the age of twenty-seven 

He was a young man of brilliant promise. Very tender and 
jiathetic are the references of the father in his diary to the 
death of this favorite son. 

3. Rev. Gamaliel S. Olds, a native of Marlboro', Vt., a 
graduate of Williams College, where he was a professor for a 
while, was ordained as colleague with Dr. Newton, in 1813. 
The first council that was called for his ordination dissolved 
without accomplishing its purpose. Some of the members 
refused to sit with Rev. Samuel Willard, of Deerfield, who 
was regarded as unsound in faith. Mr. Willard declined to 
leave the council, and so it was dissolved. Another council 
of orthodox sentiments was convened, and he was ordained. 
His pastorate closed just before Dr. Newton's death, in 1816. 
Mr. Olds died at Circleville, Ohio, June 13, 1848, in the 
seventy-first year of his age. 

4. Rev. Sylvester Woodbridge was the fourth pastor, settled 
April 23, 1817 ; a graduate of Williams in 1813 ; dismissed 
in April, 1823. The church was without a pastor for nine 

5. Rev. Amariah Chandler, D.D., was installed in 1832. 
He continued in the service of the church till his death, Oct. 
20, 18(;4. Dr. Chandler was one of the noted characters of the 
town. He was respected and esteemed by the whole commu- 
nity. In 1853 he was a delegate to the State convention for 
the revision of the constitution. His ministry was thirty-two 

6. Rev. D. H. Rogan was installed associate pastor March 
31, 1863; dismissed Sept. 27, 1865. 

7. Rev. E. S. Potter was acting pastor from Dec. 1, 1865, to 
March 31, 1868. 

8. Rev. A. G. Loomis, acting pastor from April 1, 1868, to 
April 1, 1869. 

9. Rev. Elijah Cutler, from June 1, 1869, to April 1, 1871. 

10. Rev. W. S. Kimball was installed pastor March 7, 1872, 
and dismissed Oct. 4, 1875. 

11. Rev. Mr. Belden was acting pastor for 1876. 

12. Rev. W. Newell, .acting pastor, April 1, 1877. 

As the population increased on the south border of the town, 
in what had always been the main street, the people found it 
a hardship to go to church at the old territorial centre, where the 
First Church had been built. As this edifice had become inad- 

equate to the wants of tlie town, the question of rebuilding 
began to be agitated, and with it the question of location, 
which gave rise to bitter controversy, resulting in the forma- 
tion of the Second Congregational Church in January, 1817. 
The first meeting-house of this church was built of brick in 
1819, remodeled in 1843, and again in 1851 ; torn down in 
1870, and a commodious, attractive stone building erected in 
its place. Its pastors have been, 

1. Rev. Charles Jenkins (Williams, 1813), ordained May 
19, 1820 ; dismissed in July, 1824. 

2. Rev. William Fowler (Yale, 1816), settled in 1825; dis- 
missed in 1827. 

3. Rev. Caleb S. Henry, D.D. (Dartmouth, 1825), or- 
dained Jiinuary, 1829 ; dismissed 1831. 

4. Rev. Thomas Bellows (Dartmouth, 1827), ordained 
March 12, 1833 ; dismissed Sept. 2, 1834. 

5. Rev. Samuel Washburn ; educated for the Bar, but early 
turned his attention to the ministry; ordained Aug. 2, 1837 ; 
dismissed Nov. 23, 1841. 

6. Rev. L. L. Langstroth (Yale, 1831), installed Dec. 20, 
1843 ; dismissed Feb. 15, 1848. 

7. Rev. Geo. C. Partridge (Amherst, 1833), installed May 
18, 1848 ; dismissed in May, 18-54. 

8. Rev. P. C. Headley, March, 1857; dismissed March, 

9. Rev. Artemas Deane, September, 1861 ; dismissed Jan- 
uary, 1866. 

10. Rev. S. H. Lee, March, 1867; dismissed March, 1872. 

11. Rev. F. A. Warfield, May, 1873; dismissed January, 

12. Rev. W. A. McGinley, January, 1878. 


was organized in 1812. The first church edifice was erected 
in 1816, and the second, a substantial building of stone, was 
consecrated May 10, 1849. 

1. Rev. Tflus Strong, D.D., became rector in 1815, and 
died June 11, 1855, after a faithful ministry of more than 
forty-one years. 

2. Rev. William Flint, D.D.,was rector from July 11, 1855, 
till his death, April 12, 1859. 

3. Rev. S. Russell Jones was rector from Dec. 12, 1859, till 

4. Rev. Peter V. Finch filled the rectorship very faithfully 
from 1864 till October, 1871. 

5. Rev. Julius H. Waterbury was rector from 1872 to 1874. 

6. Rev. Samuel Hollingsworth, D.D., became rector in 


was organized in 1825. The first pastor was Rev. Winthrop 
Bailey, who was installed in October, 1825, and died March 
16, 1835. Rev. John Parkman (Harvard, 1832) was ordained 
Oct. 11, 1837; dismissed 1839. From this time the pulpit was 
supplied at irregular intervals by Rev. Frederick W. Holland, 
Rev. C. Nightingale, Rev. Mellish T. Motte, Key. D. H. 
Eanney, and others, till 1855, when services were suspended, 
and the organization was lost. 

In 18.58, Rev. J. F. Moors (Harvard, 1842), then pastor at 
Deerfield, began to hold services in the church, and in 1860 
the society was reorganized. In April of that year Mr. 
Moors was installed pastor. 

A small church edifice was built in 1837. It was enlarged 
in 1861, and again in 1867. 


was organized Feb. 4, 18-52. The house of worship was built 
in 1855-56. The first pastor was Rev. J. H. Seaver. He was 
succeeded by Rev. W. F. Nelson, Rev. W. W. Ames, Rev. 
Geo. Colesworthy, Rev. 0. Tracy, Rev. S. Remington, Rev. 





D. M. Crane, Rev. C. M. Smith, Eev. A. H. Bull, Rev. A. J. 
Lyon, and Rev. J. Shepardson. 


was organized in 1835, with 75 members. A small building 
was put up for public worship in the east part of Main Street, 
which was afterward sold and removed, and is now known as 
" Davis' Block." The society bought in 1849, and have since 
occupied, tlie building formerlj- used by the Episcopal Society. 
Their preachers have been Revs. Paul Townsend, R. Ransom, 
L. C. Collins, C. Barnes, T. B. Bigelow, T. Marcy, J. Mudge, 
K. Kellen, S. Marcy, J. Nichols, D. Ames, J. Paulson, L. 
Fish, and others. 


have a large and flourishing congregation. A church edifice 
was erected on Main Street for the use of this society in 1868. 
The pastors have been Fathers Robinson, McManus, and 
Hennebury. The German population have had preaching in 
their own language during most of the time for several years. 


In 1792 a newspaper was started in Greenfield by Thomas 
Dickman, called The Impartial Intelligencer. The name was 
soon changed to Greenfield Gazette. In 1798 the name was 
again changed by adding A Register of Genuine Federalism. 
In 1802 the paper passed into the hands of John Denio, who 
dropped the party suffix, and it was again the Greenfield Ga- 
zette. Mr. Denio sold out to Ansel Phelps in 1811, who 
changed the name to The Traveller. On the establishment of 
Franklin County* the paper appeared as the Franklin Herald. 
In 1823, Jonathan A. Saxton was associated with Mr. Phelps. 
Gen. Alanson Clark was also associated with Mr. Phelps for 
several years. 

In 1823 another paper was started under the title of Green- 
field Gazette, which was united with the Franklin Herald in 

In 1833, Geo. T. Davis started the Franklin Mercury, and 
carried it on with abilitj' till 1837, when it was united with 
the Gazette and Herald ; Charles J. J. Ingersoll becoming a 
partner with Mr. Phelps. 

A new competitor for public favor appeared in 1838, under 
the title of the Greenfield Courier, established by J. C. Knee- 
land, who soon sold out to S. S. Eastman. In 1841 this paper 
was united with its older rival under the name of Gazette and 
Courier. Mr. Geo. T. Davis, D. W. Alvord, Henry L. Dawes, 
and others, aided in the editorship for a few years. Phelps and 
Ingersoll were joint owners and editors till the nomination of 
Gen. Taylor to the Presidency, whom Mr. Phelps sustained 
and Mr. Ingersoll did not. Mr. Ingersoll left the firm and 
started a Free-Soil paper under the title of the American Re- 
public, which he sustained for several years. In 1849, Mr. 
Phelps entered into partner-ship with Mr. Eastman in the pub- 
lication of the Gazette and Courier, which continued till Col. 
Phelps' death, in 1868. In 1869, Mr. Eastman entered into 
partnership with E. A. Hall, which continued till Mr. East- 
man's death, in 1876. Mr. Hall is now publishing the eighty- 
seventh volume of the Gazette, and the forty-second of the 

The Franklin Democrat was established in 1840, and was 
edited for short periods by Whiting Griswold, E. R. Taylor, 
S. O. Lamb, Joseph H. Sprague, Charles A. Merrick, and 
others. It was discontinued in 1863. Several other news- 
papers have started here, but have been short-lived and un- 



This bank was incorporated in 1822 as the Franklin Bank, 
with a capital of ^100,000, and commenced business in May 

* June 24,1811. 

of that year with fifty per cent, of the capital paid in ; the re- 
maining fiftj' per cent, was paid in the December following. 
In March, 1831, the name was changed to the Greenfield 
Bank. In March, 1833, the capital was increased to §150,000, 
and in April, 1849, again increased $50,000, making it §200- 
000. In June, 1864, the bank was reorganized under the 
national bank act as The First National Bank of Greenfield. 
In March, 1865, the capital was increased to §300,000, at 
which amount it remained until March, 1879, when it was 
reduced to §200,000. 

The following is a list of the presidents and cashiers, with 
their terms of service: Jonathan Leavitt, president from 
March, 1822, to November, 1830; William Pomeroy, Novem- 
ber, 1830, to October, 1838; Henry W. Clapp, October, 1838, 
to October, 1855 ; Franklin Ripley, October, 1855, to October, 
1858; Wm. B. Washburn, October, 1858, to the present time. 
Franklin Ripley, cashier, March, 1822, to October, 1855; Geo. 
Ripley, October, 1855, to June, 1857; E. W. Russell, June, 
1857, to July, 1867 ; Geo. W. Ballon, July, 1867, to May, 
1870; W. I. Jenkins, May, 1870, to October, 1874; J. W. 
Stevens, October, 1874, to the present time. 


was organized as a State bank, with §100,000 capital, April 24, 
1849. The original directors were Henry W. Cushman, John 
B. Ward, Ebenezer Maynard, Henry Chapman, Almon Brai- 
nard, Quintus Allen, Ira Abercrombie, Joel Fay, Wendell T. 
Davis, Asa Howland, Wm. B. Washburn, William Keith ; 
President, Henry W. Cushman ; Cashier, Andrew G. Ham- 
mond. The capital was increased to §150,000, July 1, 1850; 
to §200,000, July 1, 1852. It was reorganized as a national 
bank March 13, 1865. 

Pre-udents. — Henry W. Cushman, Ira Abercrombie, Wil- 
liam Keith (in office). 

Cashiers. — Andrew G. Hammond, Edwin Maynard, Charles 
I. Fuller, Rufus A. Packard, Henry K. Simons (in office). 

May 1, 1879, the capital was §200,000 ; surplus and profits, 
§100,000; individual deposits, §265,000; United States de- 
posits, $763,000. It pays semi-annual dividends at the rate 
of six per cent, per annum. 


was organized in 1875, with a capital stock of §100,000. The 
officers are : President, N. F. Henry ; Cashier, R. A. Packard , 
Directors, N. F. Henry, A. C. Deane, George A. Kimball, 
Almon Newcomb, Jacob Stever, R. A. Packard. 


was incorporated April 2, 1834. The first officers were : Presi- 
dent, Elijah Alvord ; Secretary, Thomas O. Sparbawk ; Treas- 
urer, Franklin Ripley. Mr. Ripley continued to be treasurer 
till his^ death, in 1860, and was succeeded by W. H. Allen, 
the present treasurer. The officers now are: President, S. O. 
Lamb; Secretary, F. K. Allen; Treasurer, W. H. Allen. 
The deposits amount to about §2,800,000. 


was incorporated March 19, 1869. The original corporators 
were John Sanderson, William Keith, Chester C. Conant. 

President. — John Sanderson (in olBce). 

Treasurers.— K\xiafi A. Packard, Henry K. Simons (in 


May 1, 1879, the deposits were §840,000. Officers : Presi- 
dent, John Sanderson ; Vice-President, William Keith ; 
Treasurer, Henry K. Simons ; Secretary, Chester C. Conant ; 
Trustees, William Keith, Quintus Allen, Dennis Dickinson, 
George H. Hovey, Virgil M. Howard, George A. Arms, 
Elijah E. Belding, Leonard Barton, Eben A. Hall, Lyman G. 
Barton, Levi J. Gunn, Francis M. Thompson, Charles R. 
Lowell, Charles Keith, Henry K. Simons. 




Republican Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons was organ- 
ized Jan. 28, 1795. The institution languished in 1821, and 
the charter was given up, or rather removed to the town of 
Gill for a while, and then surrendered. In December, 1851, 
after the anti-Masonic excitement had passed, the lodge came 
forth anew. The old charter was restored, and John A. Gam- 
ber chosen Master. Since that time the lodge has had a 
flourishing career. Its present officers are James E. Long, 
W. M. ; John M. Wells, S. W. ; Charles L. Smith, J. W. ; 
Charles P. Forbes, Treas. ; Luther L. Pratt, Sec. 

The Franklin Royul Arch Chapter was organized Jan. 11, 
1818. George Wilby was M. E. H. P. 

Titus Sti-ong Council was organized Dec. 9, 1856. George 
Wilby was T. I. M. 

Connecticut Valley Commandcry was organized Oct. 30, 
1867. Charles H. McLellan was E. C. 

Knights of the Red Cross. — William S. Severance, Sover- 

Connecticut Valley Masonic Relief Association. — B. S. 
Parker, President ; E. H. Hall, Vice-President ; C. P. Forbes, 
Treas. ; L. C. Pratt, Sec. 


Poco7nptuck Lodge, No. 97, /. 0. 0. F., was instituted in 
Greenfield, May 6, 1845. Charter surrendered August, 1855. 
Reinstituted Nov. 28, 1870. Admissions since that time, 160. 
Present membership, 120. Income for 1878, $952. Dis- 
bursed to the sick in 1878, .?112. The present officers are 
Manly McClure, N. G. ; Warren M. King, V. G. ; Hopkins 
Woods, Sec. ; Charles Simonds, Treas. 



Ebenezer Smead, 1753; Samuel Hinsdalo, 1753-54, 1771-72; Daniel Nasb, 
1753, '69, '62, '66, '70, 72 ; Ebenezer "WoUs, 1754, '55, '56, '58, '60, '61, '63, '64, '67, 
'68, '69, '70, '71, '73, '75 ; Daniel Dcnio, 1754; Benjamin Hastings, 1755 ; Timotliy 
Childu, 1755, '61, '63 ; Jonathan Smead, 1766 ; Ebenezer -Yrms, 1756, '57, '58, '60, 
'66, '72, '74, '78, '79; David Wells, 1757; Thomaa Nims, 1757, '68, '77; Amos 
Allen, 1758, '60 ; Jonathan Severance, 1750, '62, '63, '64, '66, '67, '68, '69, '71 ; 
Samuel Wells, 1759, '64, '74, '75 ; Ebenezer Graves, 1761, '75, '78, '79, '80, '84 ; 
David Smeiid, 1762, '67, '72, '76, '78, '79; Moses Bascom, 1769, '82, '89, '91, '92; 
Benjamin Hastings, Jr., 1770, '72; David Ripley, 1773; Samuel Field, 1774; 
Samuel Stougliton, 1774, '77, '78, '83, '86 ; Joseph Wells, 1776 ; Isaac Foster, 1776 ; 
Agrippa Wells, 1777 ; Lemuel Smead, 1777, '81, '83, '86, '86, '87 ; Isaac Newton, 
1777, '80, '81, '82, '84, '85, '87, '88, '89, '90, '92, '94, '95, '96, '97, '98, '99, 1800, '1 '2, 
'3, '8, '9 ; Andrew Putnam, 1781 ; Moses Arms, 1782, '83, '86, '88, '90, '91, 1804, '5 ; 
John Wells, 1784 ; Ezckiel Bascom, 1786 ; Philip Ballard, 1787, '88, "90; Daniel 
Smead, 1789 ; William More, 1790, '92 ; Abnor Wells, 1790-91 ; Solomon Smead, 
1793-98, '80; William Smalley, 1793; Hull Ninis, 1793, '99; Jerome Eipley, 
1794-96; Caleb Alvord, 1797; Caleb CLapp, 1798-1800 ; Quintus Allen, 1801-3; 
John Kuesell, 1801-3; Eliel Gilbert, 1804-7; William Wait, 1807-10; Thomas 
Smead, 1809-18 ; Eli Graves, 1810-13 ; Diivid Ripley, lsll-13 ; Oliver Wilkinson, 
1814 ; Uriah Martindale, 1814 ; Sanmcl Picket, 1815-10, '22, '26 ; Samuel Wells, 
1815-16 ; Nathan Draper, 1817-19 ; Thaddeus Coleman, 1819-20, '37, '38 ; Isaac 
Newton, Jr., 1820-21, '29, '30, '33, '34 ; John Masou, 1820; Hart Leavitt, 1821-24; 
Julian Smead, 1821-24; Ebenezer Nash, 1823-24, '26, '27, '28, '33, '34, '35, '36; 
Charles Williams, 1825-28 ; Franklin Ripley, 1828-29, '35, '36, '37 ; Asaph Smead, 
1829-30; John Russell, 1830-31 ; David Allen, 1831-32; Russell Hoitings, 1831 ; 
Thomas 0. Sparhawk, 1832 ; J. J. Graves, 1832 ; Ambrose Ames, 1834 ; George 
Adams, 1835-40; David Long (2d), 1838^0; Quintus Allen, 1839-40 ; Horatio G. 
Newcomb, 1841-42; Thomas Nims, 1841-42, '44; Lemuel H. Long, 1841-43; 
J. J. Pierce, 1843-46, '48 ; Orin Smith, 1843 ; David Aiken, 1844 ; Hervey C. 
Newton, 1844-46, '49, '55, '61, '62, '63, '65, '66 ; Justin Root, 1845-46 ; Priestly 
Newton, 1847-48 ; Albert Nims, 1847 ; Thomas Wait, 1847-18 ; David S. Jones, 
1848; George Grinnell, 1850; Barnard A. Nowell, 1850; Peleg Adams, 1850-51, 
'54 ; Wendell T. Davis, 1851-52, '58, '69, '60 ; George W. Potter, 1851-52, '68, '60, 
'70, '71, '72; Isa«c Barton, 1852; A. G. Hammond, 1853; Alfred Wells, 1853; 
Ebenezer Thayer, 1853 ; Horatio G. Parker, 1854 ; Lucius Nims, 1854-55, '68, '59, 
'60; P. P. Severance, 1855; Samuel H. Reed, 1856-57; Albert Smead, 1856-57; 
Roswell W. Cook, 1856-57 ; Alfred R. Field, 1861-62 ; Anson K. Warner, 1861- 
63, '65, '66, '67 ; Humphrey Stevens, 1863-67 ; Henry L. Pratt, 1864 ; Frederic G. 
Smith, 1864, '67, '68, '69 ; Charles Mattoon, 1868-69 ; Chauncey Bry,ant, 1868 ; Joel 
S. Sanderson, 1869 ; William Keith, 1870-77 ; Lyman G. Barton, 1870-75 ; Edwin 
J. Jones, 1873 ; Charles R. Field, 1874-76 ; George A. Kimball, 1876; Seorim B. 
Slate, 1877-79 ; Levi J. Gunn, 1877-78 ; Manly McClure, 1878-79 ; Chailes Keith, 


Benjamin Hastings, 1763-69; Ebenezer Wells, 1770-72, 1781-82; .John Sever- 
ance, 1773-74; Samuel Wells, 1775-80 ; Ebenezer Graves, 1783 ; Edward Billings, 
1784 ; Mosos Bojicom, 1785-86 ; Solomon Smead, 1787-91 ; Daniel Wells, 1792-1808 ; 
John Russell, 1809-10; Hooker Leavitt, 1811-16, 1829^2 ; David Willarii, 1817- 
28, 1845-65; Lewis C. Munn, 1843-44; Noah S. Wells, 1856-74; Franklin A. 
Poud, 1875-76 ; Francis M. Thompson, 1877. 


Ebenezer Arms, 1753-68 ; Ebenezer Wells, 1769-71, 1781 ; Jonathan Severance, 
1772-73 ; Samuel Hinsdale, 1774-75 ; Sanmel Wells, 1776-80 ; Ebenezer Graves, 
1782-83 ; Moses Bascom, 1784-87 ; Solomon Smead, 1788-91 ; Daniel Wells, 1792-' 
1808; John Russell, 1809-10; Hooker Leavitt, 1811-16, 1820-12; D.avid Willard, 
1817-28; Lewis C. Munn, 1843-44; Lewis Merriam, 1846-16, 1848^9; Charles 
K. Grinnell, 1847 ; Rufus Howland, 1850-54, 1856-62 ; Edward Maynard, 1865 ; 
Bela Kellogg, 1863-64; Noah S. Wells, 1865-74; Franklin A. Pond, 1875-76; 
Francis M. Thompson, 1877. 



Our town shared heartily in the patriotic enthusiasm which 
marked the uprising of the nation to defend the flag when 
assailed on the 11th of April, 1861. Peaceful citizens left 
their usual avocations, and at once assumed the duties and 
responsibilities of soldiers. The sound of the drum and fife 
was heard daily in our streets. Armed men paraded every 
day. All was excitement of hope and fear. The fact of war 
was brought home to us most distinctly in a bright summer 
morning in June, 1861. The first company — E, of the 10th 
Regiment, under command of Capt. Day — started to join the~ 
army in the field. The company was paraded in the street, 
and, in the presence of a crowd of neighbors and friends, the 
venerable Dr. Chandler commended them in fervent prayer 
to the care and guidance of the infinite God, and in a feeling 
address regretted that the infirmities of age would not allow 
him to go with them, and exhorted them not to be shot in the 
back. The company then, with measured step, at beat of 
drum, hastened to the station. It was an occasion to be re- 
membered. It brought the war more directly before us. 

Greenfield sent into the service of the country about 500 
men. Of these, something like 100 were not residents of the 
town, but were secured by recruiting officer wherever they 
could be found. About 400 were residents here at the time 
of their enlistment. 

The following is a list, so far as is known, of the 43 Green- 
field men who lost their lives in the war : 

Horace M. Allen, Edward Avery, Lieut. William F. Barrett, John A. Bascom, 
Geo. A. Burnham, Sergt. Fernando B. Bennett, Henry Bowers, Henry J. 
Bowers, William J. Bowers, Amasa B. Clifford, Capt. Edwin E, Day, Lu- 
cius J. Eddy, Henry E. Eddy, Wm. R. Elder, Jacob Eppler, Al|ihonso K. 
Graves, Charles Groestick, James M. Hall, Q.M. Clerk, Seth Haughton, 
Lieut. Silas Hannum, Sergt. Frederic W. Hayden, Augustus M. Howard, 
Geo. M. Lander, Corp. Christopher Megrath, James Moran, Corp. James 
D. Murray, Sergt. Geo. Nims, Christopher Newton, Lieut. George G. Nut- 
ting, Horace C. Packard, William Partenheimer, Geo. W. Perigo, James 
G. Potter, Charles W. Potter, Jacob Bice, James E. Robbins, Henry A.. 
Rylher, Wm. E. Ryther, Edward Shehan, Lewis H. Stiles, Maj. William 
Augustus Walker, Brev. Brig.-Gen. Geo. D. Wells, Byram C. Wright. 

All these men deserve a lasting record in the history of the 
town. But lack of space forbids here mention of any except 
those who held high positions. 

Capt. Edwin E. Day was born Sept. 3, 1825, in Gill. He 
married and lived at Factory village, in Greenfield, and was 
captain of a militia company when the war of the Rebellion 
began. He was the first man to enlist from this town, and 
was mustered into service June 21, 1861, as captain of Com- 
pany G, 10th Regiment. In the campaign on the Peninsula, 
at the first battle in which the regiment was engaged, on the 
last day of May, 1862, Capt. Day was killed at the head of 
his company. He received three bullet wounds. The second 
was fatal. The third was received after he had been laid upon 
a stretcher to be taken from the field. In November, 1865, 
his remains were brought here and buried. He was a wise 
and faithful officer, and a brave soldier. He died with his 



armor on, amid the din and roar of battle. The fatal bullet 
pierced him as he stood facing the foe. 

Maj. "William Augustus Walker was born in Portsmouth 
in 1827. He resided there till be was twenty years of age. 
After a few years' residence in Boston he came to this town 
in 1853. He was a young man of cultivated and refined 
tastes, generous and public-spirited to a fault. He cheerfully 
responded to the call of his country. He enlisted Oct. 16, 
1861, and raised a company for the 27th Regiment, and re- 
ceived a captain's commission. He accompanied Burnside in 
his expedition to North Carolina, and was appointed provost- 
marshal at Washington, N. C. In May, 1803, he was pro- 
moted to major, and commanded the regiment in a charge 
on the rebel works at Gaines' Mills, Va., June 3, 1863. He 
had reached the rifle-pits, when he was pierced through the 
neck by a rifle-ball, and fell dead. The universal testimony 
was that he was a faithful and brave otficer, securing the re- 
spect and confidence of the men under his command. 

W^ith the name of George Duncan Wells is associated 
a record of a brief but noble life of which our town may 
well be proud. The son of Judge Daniel Wells, — a name of 
historic interest among us, — he was born Aug. 21, 1826. He 
graduated at Williams College, and at the Dane Law School 
in Harvard University. He studied law with his father, and 
practiced for a while in this town with his cousin, Daniel 
Wells Alvord. Removing to Boston, he was appointed judge 
of the police court. 

When the war broke out Judge Wells was among the very 
first to offer his services to the government. He was mustered 
May 22, 1861. I find on the list of Massachusetts Volunteers 
no name of earlier date than this. He was appointed lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the 1st Regiment, which position he filled with 
great honor and acceptance till July 11, 1862, when he was 
appointed colonel of the 34th, which office he held till his 
death, which resulted from wounds received "in battle on the 
13th of October, 1864, near Sterling Farm, in West Virginia. 
His remains were brought to Greenfield, and buried among 
the scenes familiar to his childhood. No man entered the 
service with nobler sentiments of duty and patriotism, or with 
a clearer perception of the issue at stake, than Col. Wells. 
Colonel we must continue to call him, though he was breveted 
brigadier-general on the day of his fatal wound. Few men 
had more to give their country in this great crisis ; no one gave 
his all more freely, more heartily, than Col. Wells. 

After the war was closed the town voted to erect a monu- 
ment to tlie memory of those who lost their lives in the service 
of the country. Accordingl}', a handsome and highly-polished 
shaft of Scotch granite was erected on the Common, surmounted 
by a bronze eagle cast in Munich. The pedestal bears this in- 
scription : " Greenfield erects this monument in grateful honor 
to her patriotic sons who oft'ered their lives in suppressing the 
great Rebellion, and for the preservation of the National 
Union, 1861-65." 

A substantial iron fence was put about the Common at the 
same time. The whole cost was $10,000. 


was born in Northbridge, Worcester Co., Mass., on the 29th 
of December, 1799. He is a son of Andrew and Betsey Chapin 
Adams, and the youngest of a family of four children, con- 
sisting of three sons and one daughter. His brothers are botli 
dead ; his sister is living, and now resides in Ohio. His father 
was a native of Northbridge, and was there engaged in mer- 
cantile business, in which he lost his entire property, but 
through no fault of his own. In 1803 he removed to Green- 

field, Mass., where he spent the remainder of his life. He 
engaged in agriculture, accumulated quite a property, and 
died in Greenfield at the age of sixty-two. 

The subject of this notice received a common-school and 
a thoroughly-practical education. His minority was mostly 
spent in working upon his father's farm. When twenty-three 
years of age he commenced working out by the month at farm 
labor, in which employment he continued during the greater 



part of six years. In 1831 he purchased in the town of Green- 
field the form he now owns, and also built the house in which 
he still resides. For twenty-five years he was engaged quite 
successfully in the business of a drover, and also in the culti- 
vation of his farm. Mr. Adams also purchased, a few years 
ago, the Mansion House, in the village of Greenfield, which 
he has thoroughly repaired, and indeed is still constantly im- 
proving, thereby greatly adding to its value and attractiveness. 

He has served the public in the capacity of selectman and 
assessor, has always maintained a reputation for honor and 
strict integrity, and enjoys the respect and confidence of all 
who know him. 

Though not a member of any church, he has been closely 
connected with the Universalist Society of Bernardston, to 
the support of which he has largely contributed. 

Mr. Adams was married on the 15th of February, 1831, to 
Lucinda Hancock, of Longmeadow ; she died at the age of 
thirty years. By this union there were four children. His 
second wife died on the 17th of May, 1868, aged fifty-three 
years. His present wife, Jane W. Bascora, was born on the 
21st of July, 1813. 

was born in Groton, Mass., Dec. 10, 1819. He was brought 
up on a farm, and was educated at the public schools and at 
the academy in that place till 1838, when he entered Harvard 
College, where he graduated in 1842. He passed at once into 
the Cambridge Divinity School, where he graduated in 1845. 
The following week he entered on professional service in Deer- 
field, where he was ordained over the First Congregational 
(Unitarian) Society, Jan. 28, 1846. He was dismissed in 
April, 1860, and on the 22d of that month was installed over 
the Third Congregational (Unitarian) Society in Greenfield. 



In October, 1862, he was commissioned chaplain of the 52d 
Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers by Gov. Andrew, and 
served with the regiment under Gen. Banks till it was mus- 
tered out, in August, 1863. In 1874 he served in the lower 
branch of the State Legislature, and in 1877 in the upper 

Mr. Moors was for many years a member of the school com- 
mittee in Deerfield, and afterward in Greenfield. He was for 
several years president of the board of trustees of Deerfield 
Academy, and the first president of the new board of the con- 
solidated corporation of " Deerfield Academy and Dicliinson 
High School." 



The Pocomptuck of two centuries ago lay upon the west 
bank of " ye Grate River Quinneticot," its shore-line being 
about twenty miles long. Its south line was the north bound 
of the Quonquot purchase by Hatfield, running from the place 
where the Pocomptuck path crossed the Thee-ki-o-an-mick (or 
Sugar-Loaf Brook), seven miles westward. The north and 
west bounds were each about thirteen miles long, abutting 
against the unclaimed wilderness. This territory of about one 
hundred and thirty square miles has been shorn of its fair 
proportions from time to time by cutting off the towns of 
Greenfield, Gill, Conway, Shelburne, and a part of Whately, 
until it now contains but about thirty-six square miles. Its 
old boundary was territory now occupied by the towns of 
Coleraine, Lej'den, Bernardston, and Northfleld, on the north ; 
by Montague, Whately, and Williamsburg, on the south ; 
east, it was separated by the Connecticut River from North- 
field, Erving, Montague, and Sunderland ; on the west lie 
Goshen, Ashfiekl, Buckland, and Charlemont. The present 
bounds of the town are Greenfield, north; Whately and Con- 
way, south ; Montague and Sunderland, east; Shelburne and 
Conwa}', west. 


The topography of Pocomptuck is peculiar. Along the hank 
of the Connecticut lies a fertile meadow, about a hundred rods 
wide, extending nearly the whole length of the town ; from 
this, to the west, rises a range of hills from one to two miles 
in width, running from Wequamps (Sugar-Loaf) on the south 
to the Greenfield line, rising about midway, at Pocomptuck 
Rock, to a height of seven hundred and fifty feet. From the 
foot of this range a plain or valley spreads westward, from 
one to two miles in width. Here the " Dedham Grant" was 
laid out, and here are located the " Old Street," the principal 
villages, and the famous " Deerfield meadows," a rich alluvial 
deposit of late geological formation. 

Still to the westward, the surface rises in swelling hills, one 
above the other, to its western bounds, reaching, at " Arthur's 
Seat," an elevation of one thousand feet. These were the 
" Sunsick Hills" of the Indians, the "West Mountains" of 
to-day, and may be considered the foot-hills of the Hoosack 
Mountains. These hills are nearlj' bare of forest, aflbrding 
the best of grazing land, while a few good farms are scattered 
in the valleys. The town is well watered. The Connecticut is 
described elsewhere. The Pocomptuck (Deerfield), rising on 
the east slope of the Green Mountains in Vermont, coming into 
this town from the northwest, has channeled for itself a deep 
rocky bed through the Sunsick Hills, and debouches upon the 
central valley at Stillwater; then, turning to the northeast, 
continues a serpentine course across the meadows and through 
a remarkable gorge at Cheapside, reaching the Connecticut 
about eight miles from Stillwater. Among the numerous 
smaller streams the historic Bloody Brook stands first; a few 
other brooks, which have afforded mill-sites, are Bijah's, 

* Prepared by Hon. George Sheldon. 

Roaring, Parsons', Taylor's, Carter's Land, Sheldon's, Field's 
Hill, Hoyt's Mill, and Turkey-Bin. Some of the ponds are 
Broughton's, Beaman's, Pine Hill, Round, and Old River. 


To Christianize the natives, which was a prime object with 
the pious settlers, the apostle Eliot was employed to teach them 
the doctrines of the Bible. He soon found this impossible with- 
out an accompanying civilization, which involved their giving 
up their roving habits of life. To this end Eliot asked grants 
of land, on which he could gather them permanently and 
teach them the arts of "civility." In answer, the General 
Court, in 1651, authorized him to lay out a tract of two thou- 
sand acres at Natick and there found a settlement of Indians. 
This tract fell within the bounds of Dedham, and a long con- 
troversy in the general and civil courts followed in regard to 
a compensation for that town. At length, on the 2d of June, 
1663, the Genetal Court ordered that "for a finall issue of the 
case between Dedham and Naticke, the Court judgeth meete 
to graunt Dedham eight thousand acres of land in any con- 
venient place or places, not exceeding two, where it can be 
found free from graunts, provided Dedham except this ofier." 
The terms being satisfactory to Dedham, the General Court, 
at the session in October, 1663, appointed Ens. John Everard 
and Jonathan Danforth a committee to lay out the grant. 

After several months' searching for a satisfactory location, on 
the 9th of November, 1664, the selectmen of Dedham report 
that thej' had heard of an available tract "about twelve or 
fourteen miles above Hadly," and recommend that the grant 
be laid out there. A committee of eight men, four of whom 
could act, was appointed to carry out the recommendation. 
Some trouble arising .about the matter, at a meeting March 20, 
1665, it was finally arranged that Lieut. Joshua Fi-sher, Ed- 
ward Richards, Anthony Fisher, Jr., and Timothy Dwite 
should lay out the grant, and should depart on that mission 
" the day after Election, or the second day of the week follow- 
ing at the fartherest." This committee came to Pocomptuck, 
located and surveyed the land, returning a detailed plan, 
giving courses and distances, to the General Court at their 
session in May, 1665. "The Court allows and approoves of 
this returne, provided they make a towne of it, to majntejne 
the orddnances of Christ there once within five years, and that 
it interfere not with Maj'r-Genll Dennison and Hadly grant." 

The unusually-accurate Hoyt, Holland, and others have 
constantly asserted that the date of this grant was in 1669, in- 
stead of 1663 ; but the records are clear, fully according with 
dates given above. Conveyance of land by the natives was void 
by law without concurrent action by the colonial authorities, 
and Dedham would hardly have paid " £96 10s." and been at 
the expense of the survej' on such a venture. 

Having laid out the grant according to the direction of the 
court, Dedham proceeded to perfect its title, according to tlie 



policy of the colony, bj' buying the land of the native claim- 
ants. June 4, lUfit), two men were appointed by the town " to 
employ the Worshipful Col. Pynchon to buy the Indian title 
in the SOW acres." It appears that on the 6th of June, UiH7,- 
he had expended £-10 in this service. Previous to this date he 
had procured two deeds, — one from Wat-tam-o-lunck-si.n, of 
an unknown date, the other dated Feb. 24, 1066-07, from 
■' Chank, Sachem of Pncumiur];,'' " for himself and his Brother 
Wnji-n-lio-ale.'' This is given below. 

fact that, so closely did the footsteps of advancing civilization 
follow upon the heels of retiring barbarism, on the very day 
that the sachem of Pocotnjitiick set his mark to the deed con- 
veying all his Poconiptuck lands to the English forever, the 
people of Dedham, in town-meeting as.sembled, imposed a tax 
upon these very lands for the support of a Christian ministry 
there. The vote ran, " That each proprietor's land there shall 
pay annually toward the maintenance of an orthodox minis- 
ter there two shillings for every cow-common that he shall 

June 13, 1667, another deed was signed by Mn-se-a-mot, alia.s 
Mil-kc-na-wa]i, conveying all his rights save the liberty of 
fishing. On the 22d of July, 1667, an unreserved sale of all his 
land at Poconiptuck was made by A-him-uti-qiidi, his brother 
frrin-innc/i-c/iwc receiving from the pay "20 fadam, and ap- 
proved of the sale of the land." These three deeds were pro- 
cured by John Pynchon, and were made running to "Maj. 
Eleaser Lusher and Daniel Fisher, of Dedham, their Associates, 
and theire heires and assigns for ever." The consideration 
paid Col. Pynchon for these purchases was £96 lO.s. 

On the Gth of August, 1672, Col. Pynchon obtained from 
Masshalisk, mother to Wuttawohincksin, the deed of a large 
lot of land lying on the Connecticut, in payment of her son's 
debts to Pynchon, he being at this time dead. Pynchon does 
not appear to have ever laid claim to this land under this deed, 
and there is reason to think that it covered the same tract pre- 
viously sold by Wuttawohincksin to Dedham. The price paid 
the Indians for the Pocoraptuck lands seems trifling ; if the 
deeds covered the whole grant, the price was about three pence 
per acre. The land was of no use to the Indians at that time ; 
they could not occupy it as a residence for fear of the Mo/mwks, 
and they reserved all that was of real value to them, — the right 
of hunting, fishing, and gathering nuts. Not a very high 
value was put upon this land by the new owners. They paid 
nearly one-tenth of the whole grant for locating and survey-' 
ing it ; and soon after (he purchase a huge tract, covering 
some of the choicest meadow-land, was otfered for eight pence 
per acre. In view of all the facts, it appears that a fair price 
was paid the Pommptucks for their lands. 

Having taken these measures to secure its title, Dedham set 
about plans for a settlement on the grant. It is an interesting 


keep in his own hand, whether he shall be living there or at 
Dedham.' Whether on account of this tax, or for other 
reason, many cow-commons (or rights) at Poconiptuck were 
put upon the market about this time. 

Gov. Leverett bought 312 acres, which he sold to Col. Pyn- 
chon, Oct. 31, 1607, for "6 pounds current money of New 
England, and for several barrels of tar in hand paid." Before 
the settlement more than 2000 acres had pa.ssed from the Ded- 
ham owners. 

The 8000-acre grant was made to the " proprietors of Ded- 
ham," and their individual right in the grant was the same 
as that by which they held shares in the common land in 
Dedham. This latter was held in o23 shares, called "cow- 
commons," and the same rule applied to the newly-acquired 

May 23, 1670, the proprietors, who were now a body distinct 
from the town, met and agreed to draw lots for the location 
of their respective rights. Through transfers of ownership 
the whole number of owners at this time was but thirty-one, 
holding from three to sixty cow-commons each. At this meet- 
ing it was voted " that an Artist be procured on as Moderate 
terms as may be that [shall] lay out the lots at pa-comp-tuck 
to each proprietor, according to their lawful interest in each 
sort of land which is to be divided, and to draw and return to 
the town a true [plan] of what he do there." This work was 
put in charge of a committee " empowered to order the situa- 
tion of the town for the most convenicncy as in their discres- 
sion shall appeare best," "appointing the highways and lay- 
ing out, and a place for the Meeting-house, Church officers' 
lot or lots," and "to proportion each several sorts of land 
there according to the qualitie therof, that equitie might be 



attended to each proprietor, according to their proportiiin in 
every sort of land divisable." 

The committee attended to their duties in tlie summer of 
lf)70, and reported, May 16, 1071, the result: "For the Sit- 
uation of tlie Town plat," they say, " it shall be on that tract 
of land begining att the southerly side of it att a little brook 
called Kagle Brook, and so to extend Northerly to the banke 
or falling ridge of land at Samson Frary's celer, and so to 
run from the banke or ridg of land front,ihg on the Meadow- 
Land westerlie to the Mountain easterlie. " A "highway for 
the common street" was laid out six rods wide thi-ough this 
tract from south to north. From each end and from the mid- 
dle of this street a three-rod highway was laid, west to the 
meadow and east to the mountain. " That as to more higher 
sort of Land, called Intervale or plow-land," they ordered 
" two divisions made of the same out of both, which all the 
proprietors shall receive their proportions." The first division 
covered the North Meadows east of Pine Hill, and the South 
Meadows to Second Division Brook. The second division ex- 
tended across the river westerly from this point and south to 
Long Hill. Highways two rods wide were laid out through 
these divisions, " so that every man may come to his land." 

The committee found Samuel Hinsdale, a squatter, on the 
tract, and recommend he be not disturbed, as he is occupying 
but "3 or i acres, and he abating as much in the 2d of his 
division of plow-land." The lots were all to run east and 
west, and no more than twenty cow-commons to be laid in 
one lot. These lines, and the highways laid out by this com- 
mittee in 1670, are essentially those of to-day. In drawing 
lots for location, the first lot was always on the north end of 
each division, and the last at the south, varying so far on the 
town-plat that the lots on the east side of the street were num- 
bered from south to north. The amount of land assigned to 
each cow-common varied with the size of the division ; on the 
street it was 56J rods, giving the owners house-lots of from 
1 acre 9J rods to 7 acres 10 rods, the last being the amount for 
twenty cow-commons. The whole number of house-lots was 
thirty-nine, including the " church lot." Few, if any, of these 
lots are idejitical with those we now occupy, and when they 
are named it is to be considered but an apijroximation. 

The settlement had scarcely commenced before Hatfield 
complained that the grant encroached on her territory, and 
an appeal was made to the General Court for redress. May 
10, 1672, a hearing was had, and a committee of three ap- 
pointed "to regulate and settle this affair," This committee 
reported, September 20th, in favor of Hatfield, and directed the 
grant to be extended northerly. The report was accepted Oct. 
y, 1U72, and the present north line of the town was then estab- 
lished as the north line of the 8000-acre " Dedham Grant." 

Thus far the affairs of the colony had been under the direct 
control of the mother-town, and all its officers appointed 
there. Finding serious inconvenience in this arrangement, 
Samuel Hinsdale was sent, with a statement of these facts, to 
Dedham. Upon a consideration of this communication, a 
committee, consisting of Samuel Hinsdale and Richard Miller, 
of Pocomptuck ; Peter Tilton and Samuel Smith, of Hadley ; 
and Lieut. William AUis, of Hatfield, were appointed to have 
a general oversight of their affairs. A code of rules for their 
guidance was prepared. One item was, " This Committee and 
the inhabitants there, with the advice of the elders of the two 
neighboring churches, shall have liberty to procure an ortho- 
dox Minister to dispense the word of God amongst them," and 
for this purpose " to assess two shillings on each common right 
at Petumtuck." 

This action of Dedham was not .satisfactory to the adven- 
turers, and they resolved to make a bold stroke for ecclesias- 
tical and territorial elbow-room and power. Hinsdale was 
again sent down the Bay Path, this time to invoke a higher 
power. The success of his mission may be read in the following 
order passed by the General Court, May, 1673 : 

" In aiis' to the petition uf tlie inhabitants of Paucomptuclte. Samuel Hinsdale 
Samson Fraiy, Ac, tlie (\jurt jndKeth it mecte to allow the jn-ti'i mei-s the liherty 
of a township, and doe therefore grant them such an addition of land to the eight 
thousand acres formerly granted to Dedham, as that the whole to lie to the con- 
■ tent of seven miles scpiare, provided an able ami orthodox minister witliin tliree 
years be settled among them, and that a farme of two hundred and fifty acres bo 
layd out for the country's use," 

A committee of six, Hinsdale being one, was named, who 
should have power "to order all their prudential! affairs till 
they shall be in a capacity, by meete persons from among 
themselves, to manage their owne aflfiiirs." This committee 
was only to be adviseil with about settling a minister, leaving 
these sturdy independents free from interference by the 
churches at Hadley, Hatfield, or Northampton. 

This "liberty of a township," in default of any subsequent 
action to that end, must be taken as the act of incorporation 
for the town. The territory of Pocomptuck as laid out under 
this grant is almost identical with that now occupied by the 
towns of Deerfield, Greenfield, and Gill. 

The grovirth of this little hamlet was steady; Samuel Hins- 
dale, the pioneer, breaking ground in 1608, and building a 
house in 1009. Sampson Frary, the second settler, followed 
the next year. In 1073 there were at least twenty families on 
the ground. Their houses, doubtless of logs, and covered with 
thatch, stood along the plateau where stands the " Old Street" 
to-day. This is about one mile long and half a mile wide, 
lying at the west foot of Pocomptuck Mountain. On three 
sides lay the meadows, spreading two miles north and south 
and about one mile to the west. Beyond this narrow circuit, 
the unbroken forest stretched away to Canada on the north, to 
the Hud.son on the west, and to Lancaster on the east ; while 
on the south the nearest settlement was Hatfield, fourteen 
miles distant, through which was the only communication 
with the civilized world. 

This hardy yeomanry, some of them born in England and 
well on in years, all seeking a permanent home for wife and 
children in the New World, appear to have lived here in quiet 
contentment. Peace and plenty smiled upon them. The rich 
alluvial meadow was easy of cultivation. The virgin soil 
yielded abundant harvests of wheat, peas, rye, Indian corn, 
beans, and flax. The men became skilled in woodcraft, and 
the forests afforded an abundance of game, while the waters 
teemed with fish. Highways were built, the common field 
inclosed with a substantial fence, to protect their crops from 
their flocks and herds, which roamed in the surrounding 
woods. A minister of their own choice was going out and in 
before them, and the young colony seemed firmly established 
on an enduring foundation of prosperity. The dark cloud 
looming in the distance was unobserved or unnoticed. The 
settlers had lived on the most friendly terms with the few 
Indians with whom thej' came in contact, and had no doubt 
of their fidelity. The news of the outbreak in far-off Ply- 
mouth brought no fears to them. None dreamed of the de- 
vastation and war which were so soon to descend upon their 


That events to be described may be more easily understood, 
a brief notice of minor localities is necessary. The "Street" 
or "Old Street," about one mile long, was laid out in 1671. 
The plateau on which it is located is inclosed by meadows on 
three sides, with the Pocomptuck range on the east. Two 
miles to the north, beyond Pocomptuck River, lies " Cheap- 
side," the northern part, along the 8000-acre line, being now 
called " Green River." The " Green River" of this narrative 
is the present Greenfield. " Bloody Brook" (South Deerfield) 
lies three and a half miles from the street, extending two miles 
south to the Whately line. West to the Conway line lies 
" Mill River," and on the east is " Wequamps," called by the 
white folks "Sugar-Loaf," which gives a name to the district 
east to the Connecticut River. Midway between the street 
and Bloody Brook is " Wapping," with " Turnip Yard" to the 



southeast of it, and " Mill" and " Bars" west; and still west- 
ward " Stebbins' Meadow," " Still-Water," and "Hoosiok," 
reaching to Conway line. From the street, orer the Pocomp- 
tuck west, lies " Wisdom," and over the Pocomptuck Moun- 
tains northeast is " Great River," and southeast " Pine Nook." 
North of the Street lies " North Meadows," and south of it 
"South Meadows." 

To answer frequent inquiry as to the origin of these names, 
some information may be given. " Cheapside," because land 
lying beyond the Pocomptuck, and less easy of access, had a 
lower valuation. " Bloody Brook," from the massacre of 
Lothrop and the " Flower of F,ssex." " Mill Run," from the 
first occupied mill-site on the stream by which the district is 
traversed. "Sugar-Loaf," from the shape of Wequamps as 
seen from the south. " Wapping" (first Plum-tree Plain), 
supposed from a suburb of London. " Mill," from the loca- 
tion of the famous grist-mill of the Stebbins Brothers. 
"Bars," where the common field-fence crossed the road to 
Hatfield ; in this fence was a set of slip-bars, for the accom- 
modation of travelers. In the early days of our history cattle 
were fenced o^lt instead of in. "Turnip Yard;" the lands 
about Wequamps and east to the Connecticut were held in 
common for a sheep-range by the proprietors of Pocomptuck. 
A field was doubtless inclosed here, where the shepherd could 
cultivate turnips for fall feed to his charge. "Hoosick," 
probably a corruption of the Pocomptuck " Sunsick." "Wis- 
dom;" says tradition, from an early settler named Wise, 
whose character hardly kept up the reputation of his name. 
" Great River" lies three miles along the Connecticut River. 
"Pine Nook" was an Indian "Coassit," where the settlers 
made tar and turpentine for a xffarket down t"6 river. 

"Pine llili', " an eminencH ni oo acres in the centre of 
North Meadows. " Petty's Plain," a terrace to the north of 
Pine Hill, across the Pocomptuck, at the south side of which 
comes down "Sheldon's Brook" to the river. " Hearthstone 
Brook" enters the river 100 rods below Cheapside bridge. 
"Sheldon's Rocks" project half-way across the Connecticut, 
40 rods below the mouth of the Pocomptuck. "Fort Hill," 
east of the street, was the last stronghold of the Pocomptucks 
north of Hatfield. 


John Allen, son of Samuel, of Windsor, an emigrant 
from England. He married, Dec. 8, 16G9, Mary Hannum, 
of Northampton; was killed with Capt. Lothrop and the 
" Flower of Essex" at Bloody Brook, Sept. 18, 1675. His two 
sons, John and Samuel, settled at Enfield, Conn. Their de- 
scendants are numerous. 

Francis Barnard, born in England 1617. An early settler 
of Hartford, Conn., whence he removed with those who 
founded Hadley in 1659. He seenis to have been a genuine 
frontiersman, and pushed on to Pocomptuck about 1672. He 
returned to Hadley when the settlement wa.s broken up, where 
he died Feb. 3, 1698. He was the father of the Barnard 
family of the Connecticut Valley. John Barnard, son of 
Francis, a young unmarried man, was killed with Lotlu-op. 

Philip Barsham was of Hatfield, 1672. He was killed with 
Lothrop, leaving a widow — Sarah — and ch^dren. 

William Bartholomew, a carpenter fiom Roxbury, married, 
in 1663, Mary Johnson. He survived Philip's war, and re- 
turned at the second settlement. In 1685 he sold to Daniel 
Belding the home-lot he had bought of Peter Woodward, the 
Dedham proprietor. It is now known as the James Stebbins 

Joshua Carter, son of Joshua, of Dorchester and Windsor, 
born 1638. He was of Northampton, 16G0 ; came here 1672; 
constable 1674. He married, Oct. 22, 1663, Mary Field ; was 
killed with Lothrop, leaving a widow and several children. 

Moses Crafts, son of Griffin, of Roxbury, bom 1641; 

licensed to keep an ordinary here in 1674. He married, 
1667, Rebecca Gardner. After the war he lived in Hatfield 
and Branford, Conn. In 1683 he settled at Wethersficld, 
Conn., where he was living in 1702. 

Samuel Daniels, an original Dedham proprietor. He drew 
house-lot No. 26, which was owned by John Catlin in 1704, 
and is now called the Orlando Ware lot. His ancestry is not 
identified, and nothing is known of his subsequent career. 

John Farrington, of Dedham, settled on lot No. 18. On the 
breaking up of the settlement he returned to Dedham, where 
he died in 1676. In 1693, Eleazer Farrington sold Isaac 
Sheldon "eighteen cow-commons and two sheep-commons." 
As this was the amount owned by John, Eleazer was doubt- 
less his son. C. A. Stebbins now owns the home-lot. 

Zecheriah Field, son of Zecheriah, of England ; Dorchester, 
Hartford, and Hatfield; horn 1645. He married, 1674, Sarah 
Webb, of Northampton. He died 1674. His descendants 
removed to Connecticut, and later to Northfield. 

Frary Samson, son of John, of Medficld. He married Mary 
Daniels; was of Hatfield, 1668. As he had a " celer" here. May, 
1670, he probably raised crops here in 1669, and may be con- 
sidered the second settler. The house now standing on his 
old home-lot was built before 1698. He had bought eleven 
cow- and three sheep-commons of Dedham parties, and drew 
house-lot No. 11, which was not the lot on which the old 
house stands. Frary was killed at the sacking of the town, 
Feb. 29, 1704. 

. Joseph Gillett, son of Jonathan, of Dorchester and Windsor; 
born 1650. He married, 1664, Elizabeth Hawks. He settled 
on house-lot No. 32, which his heii-s, in 1694, sold to Samuel 
Carter; now the Dr. Willard place. He fell with Lothrop, 
leaving seven children, who settled about AVindsor and Sims- 
bury, and left property. 

Samuel Herrenton (Harrington) settled in 1673. Ante- 
cedents unknown. In the attack on the town, Sept. 12, 1675, 
he was wounded in the neck. He married, 1677, Hannah, 
widow of Nathaniel Sutliett', of Hatfield, 1679. Not traced 

Hinsdale Roberts, probably born in England about 1617. A 
member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, 
1645. He was one of the eight founders of the church at 
Dedham in 1638, and one of the founders of the church in 
Medficld in 1650. He removed to Hadley in 1672, and was 
here the next year with five stalwart sons and one married 
daughter. He married a second wife about 1672, — Elizabeth, 
widow of John Hawks, of Hadley, — who outlived him. He, 
with three of his sons, fell at Bloody Brook with Lothrop. 

Samuel Hinsdale, the son of Robert, removed to Hadley 
as early as 1666. He early acquired a large interest in the 
8000-acre grant, and owned. May 23, 1670, one-twelfth of the 
entire property. He was the first settler at Pocomptuck, hav- 
ing "made improvements" there before May 18, 1669, and 
built a house before May, 1670. He was one of the committee 
appointed by the General Court, in 1673, to regulate the affairs 
of the plantation, and was the leading man of the settlers. 
He married, in 1660, Mehitable Johnson ; their son Mehuman 
was the first white man born at Pocomptuck. He was killed at 
Bloody Brook, leaving six or seven children. From Mehu- 
man are descended most of the name in the Connecticut Valley. 
He drew three house-lots, but probably occupied No. 14, now 
the William Russell lot. 

Barnabas Hinsdale, son of Robert, born 1639. He had a 
farm in Hatfield, where he married, in 1666, Sarah Taylor. 
He probably located on house-lot No. 9, which was drawn 
by his brother Samuel, and owned by Barnabas, Jr., in 1686. 
This is the Ralph Williams lot. He was killed with Lothrop, 
leaving two sons and three daughters. 

Experience Hinsdale, son of Robert, born 1646. He mar- 
ried, at Hatfield, 1672, Mary Hawks, and at once brought his 
bride here. He was a guide for Capt. Turner in his march to 







o{/vfiV« /H^^ ^1 


I -tm'i 


W . .1 ... 

JLdvs^Avvsju^ (yf^'^t^ Tq\sxr^ ' ■ ■ 









Ihc Falls fi,<;ht, May 18, 1076, and was lost in that expedition, 
leaving a widow and two daughters. 

John Hinsdale, son of Robert, born 16-18; was here 1673. 
He was killed at Bloody Brook, leaving a family, of which 
nothing has been discovered. 

Ephraiin Hinsdale, son of Robert, horn 16-50 ; was here 1673. 
He survived Philip's war, and retired to Hattield, where he 
married Mehitable, daughter of John Plympton, in 1678, and 
where he died, in 1681. 

John Plympton, sergeant, of Dedham, 1642; came here 
from Medfield, safely escaping the dangers of Philip's war. 
He had come back to rebuild his house, when he was taken 
captive, Sept. 19, 1677, by a party of Indians from Canada, 
and hy them barbarously tortured and burned to death at 
the stake. He was called "Old Sergt. Plympton," and he 
was doubtless born in England. He married Jane Dummer, 
by whom he had thirteen children. His son John was a 
soldier under Capt. Mosely, in 167.5. 

Peter Plym|iton, son of John, born 16-52; was a soldier 
under Capt. Jlosely, in 167-5; came back after the war, and 
lived on the lot owned by his father, which he sold, in 170-5, to 
John Wells. It was subsequently owned by the Catlins, and 
is the lot occupied by the heirs of Joel Wells. He removed 
to Marlboro' about 170-5, where he died in 1717. 

Jonathan Plympton, son of John, born 1057 ; was the vic- 
tim of this family offered up at Bloody Brook with Lothrop. 

Quintus Stockwell was of Dedham, 1664, but not a propri- 
etor in the grant- He probably settled on No. .31, drawn by 
Robert Hinsdale, as he sold that lot to Thomas French when 
he left the town, in 1694. It is the lot now occupied by the 
orthodo.\ parsonage. Stockwell, like Sergt. Plympton, con- 
fident that the Indian troubles were over, had come back, in 
1677, to rebuild his home, and with him shared an Indian 
captivity, but not his horrible death. He returned from cap- 
tivity, and published an interesting account of his suft'erings 
and experiences. He removed to Branford, Conn., and later 
to Suttield, where he died, in 1715. 

Nathaniel Sutlieff, of Medfield, 1668-71. He bought of 
Joshua Fisher, of Dedham, six cow- and one sheep-commons, 
in February, 1672, and doubtless located on that right. The 
lot is now known as the Col. Asa Stebbins place. He married, 
in 1665, Hannah, a daughter of Sergt. John Plympton. He 
was lost with Capt. Turner, in 1670, leaving children who 
.settled in Durham, Conn. 

William Smead, son of Widow .Judith, of Dorchester; was 
of Northampton, 1600. In 1674 he bought the house-lot No. 
25 of the Dedham proprietor, Thomas Fuller, on which he 
was settled after and probably before Philip's war, where he 
died before 1704. He married, 1658, Elizabeth Lawrence, 
who was killed Feb. 29, 1704. He left a large family, and 
all of the name early in the country were his descendants. 

William Smead, Jr., born 1660 ; was killed with Lothrop. 

James Tuffts, son of Peter, of Charlestown. He owned lot 
No. 37, drawn by Mrs. Bunker; this was bought of his heirs, 
in 1087, by Simon Beaman. Here was the site of the first 
known school-house. It is now owned by Mrs. Catherine E. 
B. Allen. 

Daniel Weld, of Medfield, 1672, brother of "Mr. Thomas 
Weld, of Roxbury." He married, 1064, Mary, daughter of. 
Robert Hinsdale. His location was about where the Barnard 
house now stands. He returned at the permanent .settlement, 
and died here in 1099. 

Richard Weller, of Windsor, 1640; was of Farrington be- 
fore 1659 ; of Northampton, 1662 ; and here, 1672. After 
the war he came back, and died 1690. He married, in 1640, 
Anna Wilson ; and in 1662 married Elizabeth Abel, at North- 

John Weller, son of Richard, born 1645 ; came with his 
father to Pocomptuck ; escaped the dangers of Philip's war, 
and returned at the new settlement, and died 1685 or 1686. 

His wife was Mary Alvord, of Northampton, who bore him 
seven children, the youngest five years old at his death. 

Thomas Weller, son of Richard, born 1653; was probably 
killed with Lothrop. 

Rev. Samuel Mather, who was here before Philip's war, 
will be noticed elsewhere. 

nilLII-'S WAR. 

As we have said, the news of the outbreak at Swansea 
caused no alarm here. The I'ocotnptur.ks, scattered over the 
valley as far as the Connecticut line, were on friendly terms 
with the English. Their intercourse was intimate and kindly, 
although they never mingled as equals or had sympathies in 
common. The inferior race were fully aware of this fact, but 
realized that contact with the whites had been of great ad- 
vantage to them by imparting some of the arts of civiliza- 
tion. The iron age had succeeded the long age of stone, and 
increased their industrial power tenfold. Firearms had en- 
abled them to procure food and furs for trailic with greater 
ease, and this traffic aflkjrded them comforts before unknown. 
This tribe looked to the English for protection against the 
fierce Mohawks, and crowded about the settlements to that end. 

It is true that the laws of the colony were irksome to the 
lords of the forest. It was galling to these sons of freedom to 
be hedged about by forms or bonds to which they could not 
give an understanding assent. The unscrupulous pioneer- 
trader sold them fire-water, and cheated them when under its 
influence. The white man's cattle trampled down their corn, 
and reparation was tardy. The.se things, rankling in their 
bosoms, came uppermost when artful emis-saries of Philip ap- 
peared with presents of wampum and goods pillaged from the 
English, exciting their natural love of revenge and their 
cupidity. It is not surprising that these children of nature 
joined that wily chieftain to gratify these feelings. 

On the appearance of Philip in the Nipnmck country, and 
the burning of Brookfield, Aug. 2, 1675, the alarm became 
general in tlie Connecticut Valley, but no suspicion was felt 
of the fidelity of the river Indians, and they were even em- 
ployed as soldiers against the hostile Xipmucks. Here, how- 
ever, their treachery was exposed by the Mohicans in the 
same service, and became so apparent that an attempt was 
made to disarm a motley collection gathered in a fort at Nono- 
tuck. These, taking the alarm, fled northward, pursued by 
Capts. Beers and Lothrop, with 100 soldiers. Still intending 
a parley with the fugitives, the troops marched with little or 
no precaution, and when they had reached a point about 
eighty rods south of Wequamps wore suddenly tired upon by 
the savages from an ambush in the swamp on their right. 
The English, covering themselves with trees, Indian fashion, 
fought for three hours, when the enemy retreated. Seven 
whites were killed, — one shot in the back by his fellows, — and 
two were mortally wounded. The Indians reported a loss of 
twenty-six. This aflair was on the 26th of August, and the 
first conflict in arms between the English and Indians in the 
Connecticut Valley. 

The settlers at Pocomptuck became fully alive to the fact that 
the horrors of an Indian war were now upon them. Active 
preparations were made for defense. Troops from Connecti- 
cut were sent here, and three of the strongest houses were 
garrisoned- The locations of these garrisons can only be 
guessed, but it will be safe to conclude that one of them was 
on Meeting-house Hill, at the house- of Quintus Stockwell, 
where the young minister, Mr. Mather, boarded, and the 
others north and south of this. 

These precautions were taken none too soon. Nothing had 
been heard of the Indians after the Wequamps fight, until 
September 1st, when they made an attack on Pocomptuck. A 
surprise was intended, but the lurking foe was discovered by 
James Eggleston, a Connecticut soldier, who was looking 
after his horse in the woods. He was shot down and the 



nliirm given. The inhabitsints rushed to tlie nearest forts, 
and, although with some narrow esiapes, all reached their 
shelter. Here they were safe, the assailants, after two of 
tlieir men were struck, being careful to keep out of gunshot. 
The garrisons not being strong enough to sally out and drive 
them away, the settlers had the mortification of seeing the 
enemy burn and destroy all they could with safety. This was 
the first attack by the red man on any English town in the 
Connecticut Valley, and it caused great consternation. News 
of the atlair reached lladley while the inhabitants were a.ssem- 
bled in the meeting-house observing a fast. Mather says they 
were driven from the sanctuary "by a sudden and violent 
alarm, which routed them the whole day after." This brief 
remark of the historian is the slender foundation on which 
was built the famous story of the attack on Hadley, Septem- 
ber 1st, when Gen. Gofle appeared as the guardian angel of 
the town. 

The Indians wlio made this attack were PocumpiucJm, with 
|)Ossibly a few emi-ssaries from the hostile tribes east of the 
Connecticut. September 2d, Northfield was attacked; on the 
4th, Capt. Beers ambushed and slain ; and on the 6th the re- 
nuiining inhabitants were brought otf by Maj. Treat, of Con- 

Pocomptuck was now tlie frontier, and Capt. Appleton was 
sent to reinforce the garrison. From its peculiar location it 
was much exposed to depredation. The keen eyes of Indian 
spies could see, from the hills to the east and west, every move- 
ment in the valley. Not a messenger could come or go, not a 
party enter the meadow to sec\ire the crops, not a movement 
between the forts, but the lurking enemy were fully apprised of. 

Observing on the morning of Sunday, September 12th, that 
the soldiers collected in the Stockwell fort for public worship, 
a plan was laid to take advantage of the afternoon service, 
and a party was posted in a swamp just north of Stockwell's 
to waylay the north garrison. Accordingly, as twenty-two 
men from the north fort were passing, they were tired upon 
from the swamp. All reached the fort, however, in safety, 
except Samuel Harrington, who was shot in the neck. Turn- 
ing toward the north fort, the enemy captured Nathaniel Corn- 
bury, who had been left as a sentinel, and was trying to reach 
his companions. He was never heard from afterward. As 
soon as Capt. Appleton could rally his forces he drove oil' the 
assailants, but not until the north fort had been plundered and 
set on fire, and much stock killed or stolen. Still hanging 
round the village, they burned two more houses, and carried 
horse-loads of meat to their rendezvous at Pine Hill. Capt. 
Appleton was not strong enough to guard the village at all 
points and march also into the meadows. On Jlonday volun- 
teer citizens and soldiers from Northamjiton and Hadley came 
up to relieve the beleaguered settlement. This reinforcement 
was doubtless reported by the spies ; for when the united force 
marched to Pine Hill, Tuesday morning, the 14th, the Indians 
had fled. 

Capt. Mosely, with a company of Bay forces, arrived at 
Hadley the same day, and marched to Pocomptuck the 15th or 
Kith, As yet we find no signs of an intenticui to desert the 
plantation. Maj. Treat, with a considerable Connecticut force, 
coming at this time to the headquarters at Hadley, the stock 
of provisions there was found inadequate to the demand. At 
Pocomptuck a large quantity of wheat — Hubbard says 3000 
bushels — was standing in stack, which had so far escaped de- 
struction, and Capt. Lothrop determined to secure a part of it 
for supplying the troops at Hadley, and ordered it to be 
threshed out, and on the 16th or 17th marched with his own 
company to escort the train to headquarters, Pocomptuck 
teams being employed for transportation. 


Early in the morning, on the 18th of September, 167.5, — a day 
memorable in our annals, — Capt. Lothrop with his "choice 

company of young men, the very flower of the county of Es- 
sex," followed by a slow train of ox-carts, moved out of the 
south end of the town street, two miles across South Meadows, 
through the bars and up Long Hill, to the wooded plain 
stretching away to Hatfield meadows. The carts were loaded 
with bags of wheat, and upon some were feather-beds and 
other light household stuff. These may have been taken by 
Joshua Carter for his widowed sister, Sarah Field, planning 
an asylum for herself and helpless children in her father's 
house in Northampton. Onward across the plain marched the 
proud escort, confident that their numbers saved them from all 
danger of attack. Capt. Lothrop took no precaution against a 
surprise, not even throwing out vanguard or flankers. Not a 
movement of the English troops for the last three days had 
escaped the observation of the enemy, and this very company 
had been marked for a prize. Philip with his WampanongK, 
and the Nipinuck bands under Sagamore Sam, Mantaup, One- 
Eyed John, Matoonas, Panquahow, and other minor sachems, 
had crossed the Connecticut to cut it oft' on the return to Had- 
ley. Keen eyes had seen the preparations for the march at 
Pocomptuck ; swift feet had carried the news to the chieftains 
below, who at this moment were issuing their last orders to 
their warriors lying in the fatal ambuscade at Bloody Brook, 
into which Lothrop was marching in hapless security. From 
the top of Long Hill the track lay through a dense forest for 
a mile and a half, when it approached a narrow, swampy 
thicket on the left flank, trending southward, through which, 
sluggishly crept a nameless brook. Skirting this swamp 
another mile, a point was reached where it narrowed and 
turned to the right. Here the road crossed it diagonally, 
leaving the marsh on the right. The soldiers had passed the 
brook, and halted while the teams should drag their heavy 
loads through the mire. Meanwhile, the silent morass on 
either flank was covered with the bodies of grim warriors, lying 
prone upon the ground, their scarlet plumes and crimson paint 
undistinguishable from the Frost-king's tints on leaf and vine. 
Breathless and still, they waited the signal. The critical 
moment arrived. The wild war-whoop rang in the ears of 
the astonished English ; every bush and every tuft of grass in 
the peaceful-looking morass became a living flame. The flower 
of Essex withered before it, and the nameless stream was bap- 
tized with blood. 

Mosely, who had remained with the inhabitants, had heard 
the firing, and, hastening to the rescue, found the savages strip- 
ping the slain and plundering the carts. Exulting in their 
success, confiding in their numbers, the Indians dared him to 
the combat, shouting " Come on, Mosely, come on I You seek 
Indians, you want Indians; here's Indians enough for you!" 
Although eight or ten to one, the gallant captain at once 
rushed on. Keeping his men in a compact body, he charged 
back and forth through the swarming legions, cutting f'own all 
within range of his fire, and fought them in this manner four 
or five hours, defying all attempts to surround him, but with- 
out being able to drive the enemy from the ground. Ex- 
hausted by his ett'orts and encumbered by his wounded, Capt. 
Mosely was about to retire ffom the field, when, "just in the 
nick of time," Maj. Treat, with 100 Connecticut men and 
50 Mohicans, under their young chief Attawamhood, arrived 
.on the ground, and the combat was soon ended. Mosely lost 
three killed and several wounded. The united force marched 
to Pocomptuck for the night, carrying their wounded and leav- 
ing the dead as they fell. Mather says, " This was a black and 
fatal day, wherein there was eight persons made widows and 
si.K-and-twenty children made orphans, all in one little plan- 
tation." This was the heavy news which these worn soldiers 
brought to the stricken inhabitants. The next day, Sunday, 
Treat and Mosely returned and buried the dead, "about CO," 
says Mather, "in one dreadful grave;" "64 in all," says a 
letter from the Massachusetts council, three days after the 
event. Rev. John Russell, of Hadley, fixes the nuiiiber of 



Tcilled at 71. The following list, copied from Mr. Kussell's 
MS. letter in the State archives, contains the names of all 
that are known to have fallen. I have arranged the list 
alphabetically, and added the residence whenever able to ascer- 
tain it: 

Capt. TholiKUS Lothrop, Beverly. 
Sergt. Thomas Smith, Newhury. 
Sergt Sammjl Sti^veus, Newhui-y. 
Aliixaiider, Thomae, Salem. 
Alh'ii, John, DeerfifM. 
Alley, Solumuii, Lynn. 
Biilch, Jo.sepli, Beverly. 
Barnard, John, DeerfieUl. 
Bartham, Philip, Decrflelil. 
Bayl«v, Thomas, New London. 
Bennet, John, Manchester. 
Bnckley, Thomas. Salem. 
Bntton, Daniel, Haverhill. 
Ciirter, Joshua, Deerfield. 
Clarke, Adam, Salem. 
Cole, George, Lynn. 
Dodge, Josiah, Beverly. 
Dny, Wm., Salem. 
Crnmpton, Samuel, Salem. 
Farah, Ephraim, Salem. 
Farwell, Benjamin. Lynn. 
Friende, Fmneis, Salem. 
Giilet, Joseph, Deerfield. 
Harriman, John, Kowley. 
Hinsdale, BarnaLias, Deerfield. 
Hinsdale, John, Deerfield. 
Hinsdale, Robert, Deerfield. 
Hinsdale, Samuel, Deerfield. 
Hobbs, John, Ipswich. 
Hobbs, Thomas, Ipswich. 

Homes, Robert, Newbury. 
Hudson, Samuel, Marlboro'. 
Kilbourne, Jacob, Rowley. 
Kimball, Caleb, Ipswich. 
King, Joseph, Salem. 
Lambert, Richard, Salem. 
Litheate, John, Haverhill. 
Slaning, Thomas, Ipswich, 
^laishall, Eliakim, Boston. 
Blentor-, ThonULS, Ipswich. 
Meriick, John, Manchester. 
Mudge, James, Blalden. 
Osyer, Abel, Salem. 
Plundi, John, Salem. 
Plimpton, John, Deei-field. 
Itoper, Benjamin, Dorchester. 
Ropes, George, Salem. 
Sawier, Ezekiel, Salem. 
Smeade, William, Deerfield. 
Stevens, Samuel, Ipswich. 
Trask, Edwanl, Beverly. 
TuBTts, James, Deerfield. 
Waiascott, Jacob, Ipswich. 
Weller, Thoniiis, Deerfield. 
AV'ellnian, Stephen, Lynn. 
Whiteridge, Samuel, Ipswich. 
Williams, Zebediah, Deerfield. 
Wilson, Robert, Salem. 
Woodbury, Peter, Beverly (oD). 

Peter Barron, .John Gates, and one other of Mosely's men 
were killed, and John Stevens, of Newbury, and several others 
wounded. Of Lothrop's company, Henry Bodwell, of New- 
bury ; Robert Dutch, of Ipswich ; Richard Uuss, of Wej-- 
mouth ; John Tappan, of Newbury, were wounded. John 
Stebbins, of Muddy River, is the only one of this company 
known to have escaped unharmed. 

While Treat and Mosely were rendering the Itst offices to 
their dead comrades at Bloody Brook, a body of Indians ap- 
peared here, threatening the small garrison of 22 men with an 
assault. The officer in command made a deceptive show of 
force, and sounded his trumpet as if to call more troops. 
Their spies having relaxed their vigilance, the enemy were 
ignorant of the condition of affairs, and so the people were 
saved from an otherwise certain destruction. About Septem- 
ber 21st the troops had orders to abandon the town and bring 
off the inhabitants. These were scattered in the towns below, 
and the Pocomptuck valley was restored to the wilderne'ss. 

Here Philip established his headquarters, and, sending out 
small parties, harassed the towns below. Two men were killed 
at Northampton, September 28th ; Springfield was nearly de- 
stroyed, October 5tb, and on the 19tli he beset Hatfield, but 
was beaten oft' after burning a few buildings and killing 7 or 
8 men; October 27th there were 7 killed at Westtield, and 3 at 
Northampton a day or two after. With these depredations 
the campaign for the season closed. 

Early in the winter, Philip and his immediate followers, 
with the Piicompfacks, visited the Mohicans, and intrigued in 
vnin with the Molinwks to engage in the war. In the spring 
tlie baffied diplomat met the Nipmucks at Squakheag, and on 
the 14th of March sent a large force to attack Northampton, 
with the expectation of finding it an easy prey. 

Capt. Turner at Peskcompskut. — The plan of the confederate 
chieftains was to destroy all the English towns in the valley, 
that they might plant and fish in safety, and their wives and 
children here find shelter while the war was pushed at the 
east. With their partial success, only Pocomptuck and Squak- 
heag could be so occupied. In these meadows large areas 
were planted with corn and beans ; a great number of the 
natives were engaged in taking .shad and salmon at Peskcomp- 

.skut (Turner's Falls )Jfor the summer supply, and the savages 
were now rioting in plenty and fancied security. Escaped 
prisoners revealing this sUite of ati'airs, the English determined 
to attack them before the close of the fishing season, when it 
was supposed they would scatter and begin their murderous 
campaign for the summer. Accordingly, by the decision of a 
council of war at Hadley, a force was assembled at Hatfield 
for that purpose, consisting of about 75garrison soldiers, under 
Lieut. Josiah Fay, of Bo.ston, with about 80 men of the neigh- 
boring towns, under Capt. Samuel Holyoke, of Springfield, 
Lieut. John Lyman, of Northampton, and Sergts. John Dick- 
inson and Joseph Kellogg, of Hadley, with Rev. Hope Ather- 
ton as chaplain; the whole under Capt. William Turner, of 
Boston. This force, about 1.50 mounted men and a few foot^ 
men, with Benjamin Wait and Experience Hinsdale as guides, 
on the 17th of May, at dusk, began a memorable march. Up 
the Pocomptuck path to Wequanips; through the woods to 
Bloody Brook, jiassing in pitchy darkness, with bated breath 
and clinched musket, the grave of Capt. Lothrop and bis men; 
guided by Hinsdale through the mire which the blood of his 
father and their brothers had softened eight months before; 
up the narrow road down which Lathrop had marched to the 
fatal snare; through the desolate street of Pocomptuck, with 
ranks closed, that the horses might not stumble into the dark 
cellars of the burned houses, seen fitfully b}' the lightning's 
flash; across the North Meadows, where the heroic life of the 
other guide was soon to lie fitly rounded out; fording the Po- 
comptuck just below the mouth of Sheldon's Brook; up the 
steep hill to Petty 's Plain ; along the Indian path under Shel- 
burne Mountain for two miles; thence easterly across Green 
River, at the mouth of Ash Swamp Brook; skirting the great 
swamp, — the company reached the vicinity of the falls before 
the break of daj'. Dismounting his wet and tired men, CUpt. 
Turner led them across Fall River, over an abrupt ridge, and 
just at dawn was ready to fall upon the sleeping camp at the 
head of the falls. 

It had been a night of festivity with the Indians. They 
had " made themselves merry with new milk and roast beef," 
the product of a late raid on Hatfield. A party had been en- 
gaged on a fishing frolic, spearing salmon in the river by 
torchlight. Driven in by a heavy shower, they, with the 
others, were now in a profound slumber, with no watch set. 
From this stupid security they were aroused by the roar of 
Capt. Turner's muskets, many of which were fired into the 
very wigwams. The survivors rushed out crying, " Muhnwks! 
Mohawks!" thinking their old enemy was upon them, and fled 
in a panic toward the river. Many were cut down upon the 
bank. Many, jumping into their canoes, pushed oft" into the 
swift water without paddles ; in other canoes the paddlers were 
shot, so that nearly the whole fleet was swept over the cataract 
to sure destruction. A few of the most stalwart escaped by 
swimming to the opposite bank. Wenaquahin, a Narraijauscft 
chief, was of this number. A slight defense only was made, and 
but one of the assailants wounded ; another, being n\istaken 
for an Indian as he was coming out of a wigwam in a dim 
light, was shot by his friends. The end, however, was not 
yet. After burning the wigwams, destroying two forges, and 
throwing "pigs of lead" into the river, Capt. Turner began 
to collect his command for a return. 

Meanwhile, the alarm had spread among the Indians, and 
from over the river, from an island below the falls, from 
camps up the stream, the infuriated hordes swarmed in a dark 
fringe on flanks and rear. A report spread that Philip, with 
1000 warriors, was coming from Squakheag, and a panic 
ensued among the exhausted men. The officers lost the 
command, and the retreat became a rout. Small parties sepa- 
rating from the main body were cut off; Holyoke, bravely 
defending the rear, narrowly escaped the clutches of the pur- 
suers, his horse being shot under him. Turner was less for- 
tunate: in crossing Green River he was shot, and fell alive 



into the hands of the Indians. The flying troops were followed 
across the Pocomptuik and as far as the Bars. The loss on 
reatliini^ Hatfield was found to be 2 men mortally wounded 
and 45 missing; (i stragglers subsequently ranie in. The total 
loss was the commander and 40 men. The interesting experi- 
ences of the chaplain and the boy-hero, Jonathan Wells, two 
of those who came in alone, must be looked for in a more ex- 
tended work. 

The following is the list of killed as far as ascertained : 

Capt. William Turner, Boston; William Allis, Jr., Hat- 
field; James Bennct, Northampton ; George Buckley, James 
Burton, John Church, Hatfield; Jabez Dunkin, Worcester ; 
John Foster, Joseph Fowler, Peter Gerring, Samuel Gillet, 
Hatfield; Isaac Harrison, Hadley ; Experience Hinsdale, 
Deerfleld ; William Howard, John Langbury, Northampton; 
Thomas Lyon, Fairfield, Conn. ; John iMiller, Northampton; 
Samuel Eainsford, Th(jmas Roberts, Northampton ; Nathaniel 
Sutlietf, Decrfiekl ; John Walker, John Whitteridge. Capt. 
Holyoke and John Munn each died "of a surfeit got at the 
Falls fight," some time after. " 

No intelligent estimate can be made of the number of In- 
dians in this affair, and no certainty exists as to the loss ; per- 
haps 300, including women and children, is a near estimate. 
Here Philip lost many of his best warriors, Wampanoags and 
Nitrrar/ansctfs, and here the power of the Pocomjitiickx was 
broken. As a tribe they never again appear in history. The 
remnant found refuge with the Mohicans or in Canada. 

The plans of Philip and the Nipmuck sachems, of holding 
this as a place of refuge for non-combatants and depot of sup- 
plies, having failed, after an abortive attack on Hadley, May 
30th, open dissensions arose among the confederates, and the 
discordant mass made its way in detached parties aimlessly to 
the eastward, — the Nipmacks to their strongholds about Wa- 
chuset, and Philip, with l^uinapin and Wcetemo, who con- 
tinued faithful, moving toward Plymouth County. Hostilities 
in the valley were at an end. With the death of Philip, 
August 12, 1676, and the capture soon after of Anawan, his 
great chief, "Philip's war" ended. 


John Allen, brother of Edward, was born in 1060. He 
married, Feb. 22, 1682, Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Pritchard, of Ipswich. He lived in the Street with Edward, 
and with him bought of Maj. Pynchon, in 1689, 62 acres at 
the Bars, on which they settled. This property remained in 
the family until the death of Asahel, in 1854. He held the 
office of selectman and other places of honor. He was killed 
by Indians at his home. May 11, 1704. His wife was captured 
at the same time, and killed soon after, according to tradition, 
one or two miles from the place. As her death is not recorded 
with that of her husband, it is probable her fate was not 
known until some time after. 

Edward Allen, son of Edward, of Ipswich, was born in 
1663. He married, November, 1683, Mercy Painter. In 
August, 1685, he had a grant of a home-lot at the south end 
of the street, but before 1704 he had removed to the Bars. 
He was a selectman six years, town clerk nine years, clerk of 
the market a long time, and often filled other places of trust. 
He was an ancestor of the Greenfield branch of the Allen 
family. He died Feb. 10, 1740. 

William Arms was born in 1654, and first known as a sol- 
dier in the Falls fight, May 18, 1676. He remained at Hat- 
field, where he married, Nov. 21, 1677, Joanna, daughter of 
John Hawks. He had a large landed estate in Hatfield, which 
he sold in 1702. In 1701 he bought of Hannah Porter the 
16 cow-commons and home-lot drawn by Kev. John Allen, of 
Dedham, which he sold in 1708 to John Sheldon. This is the 
lot now owned by George Sheldon. He settled at the south 
end of the street, on the lot granted to John and Edward 
Allen. The property is now owned by a descendant, Geo. A. 

Arms, of Greenfield. He was a member of the school commit- 
tee, a tithingman, etc. While in Hatfield he was prosecuted 
for "driving his cart into town half an hour after sunset on 
■ Saturday." "Having been hindered witli his cart, and aji- 
pearing concerned," he was let ofl" with a reprimand and 
2s. (id. cash. He died Aug. 25, 1731. 
Joseph Barnard, son of Francis, of Hadley, was liorn in 

1641. He was a surveyor, tailor, and farmer. He married, 
in 1675, Sarah Strong, of Northampton. He was the first 
town clerk, — in 1687, — and held the office until his death, in 
1695. He was mortally wounded at Indian Bridge, August 
18th, by a party of Indians in ambush, and died Sept. 6, 1695. 
He was an ancestor of the Deerfield Barnards. 

Hannah Beaman, sister of Joseph Barnard, was born in 
1046. She married, in 1607, Dr. John Westcarr, of Hadley, 
and, in 1680, Simon Beaman. She lived on the lot No. 37, 
drawn by Mrs. Bunker, and now occupied by Mrs. C. E. B. 
Allen. She was the first known school-dame, and, with her 
little flock, had a narrow escape when Castrine beset the town, 
in 1094. She and her husband were taken captive in 1704, 
and carried to Canada; both returned. She died in 1739, 
a widow, leaving a hirge landed property to the town for a 
school fund. The First Church holds a piece of silver-plate 
which was her gift, and bears her name. 

Daniel Belding, son of William, of Wethersfield and Nor- 
walk. Conn. He married, in 1670, Elizabeth Foote, of Weth- 
ersfield, and came here, with his wife and eight children, and 
settled on lot No. 9, drawn by Samuel Hinsdale, and known 
as the Kalph Williams lot. On the 6th of September, 1696, 
his place was assaulted by Indians, his wife and three children 
killed and two wounded, and himself, with two children, cap- 
tured and carried to Canada. He returned in 1698, and in 
1699 married Hepzibah, widow of Lieut. Wells. She was 
captured in 1704, and killed on the march to Canada. Mr. 
Belding again married, Sarah, widow of Philip Mattoon, and 
died in 1734. 

John Catlin, son of John, of Wethersfield, was born about 

1642, and tnarried.in 1662, Mary, daughter of Joseph Bald- 
win. He was with the colony which went from Branford, 
Conn., to Newark, N. J., about 1607, where he was pnmi- 
inent in town att'airs. He returned about 1683, and settled 
here the next year on lot No. 30, drawn by Isaac Bullard, 
now the Chapin lot. He bore the title of "Mr.," and was 
called to many places of trust and honor. In 1704 his house 
was burned, he and two sons were killed, and four children 
captured, — two of them killed on the march. His grandson, 
John, born in 1704, was a noted partisan officer in the border 
wars, serving through Father Basic's war and both the 
French-and-Indian wars. He died at Burk's Fort, Ber- 
nardston, in 1758. 

Thomas French, son of John, of Northampton, was bm-n 
in 1651. He married, 1683, Mary, daughter of John Catlin, 
and settled on lot No. 31, drawn by Kobert Hinsdale, now the 
Orthodox parsonage lot. He was a blacksmith ; his shop stood 
in the Street, in front of his house, the remains of which are 
still to be seen. He was town clerk eleven years, and treas- 
urer many years after. With wife and six children lie was 
captured in 1704. One child and the mother were killed on 
the march. Mr. French with one son was redeemed ; the rest 
never came back. In 1709 he married Hannah, widow of Be- 
noni Stebbins, and died in 1733. 

John Hawks, brother of Eleazer, was born 1643. He mar- 
ried, 1667, Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph Baldwin, of Hadley. 
He settled in Hadley, and was active as a soldier in Philip's 
war; was in the Falls fight, and one of the twenty-five who 
crossed the Connecticut to succor Hatfield when attacked, May 
30, 1676, and wounded in the meadow. Removed here, and was 
living in the lane south of the Dickinson Academy, Feb. 29, 
1704. He had married a second wife, Alice, widow of Samuel 
Allis, in 1090, and his family consisted of wife, a daughter. 

Res.of HENRY W.WOOD, Deerfield.Mass 

George W. Jones was born in Deerfield, Franklin Co., 
Mass., on the 31st of December, 1824. He is a son of 
John N. Jones, and grandson of Jehiel Jones, Jr., who was 
a son of Jehiel Jones. 

Jehiel Jones was a native of Colchester, Conn., and was 
one of a family of fifteen children. He married Lucretia 
Hamilton in 1765, and, with sis of his brothers, removed 
to Shelburne, Mass., about the year 1781. He served in 
the Revolutionary war, and died on the 5th of January, 
1835, at the advanced age of ninety-four. His wife lived 
to the age of eighty, and died on the 7th ot May, 1821. 
They had a family of eleven children. Jehiel, Jr., the 
eldest, was born on the 8th of December, 1765. The other 
children were Lorhama, Lovinah, Lucretia, Sallie, Russel, 
Jabez, Amos, James, Israel, and Amasa. James and Amasa 
died in childhood, but the others lived to a very old age. 

Jehiel, Jr., was a very prominent man in his day ; held 
the office of deacon in the church ; was a thorough busi- 
ness man, and a leader in civil and religious affiiirs. He 
died on the 20th of September, 1840. His wife was Martha 
L. Wise, who died Sept. 3, 1849, aged eighty-three. To 
them were born nine children, viz. : James, Cynthia, Nancy, 
Guerdon, Cephas, John N., Lucinda, Minerva, and Martha 
L., all of whom lived to a good old age. 

John N. Jones was born on the 20th of May, 1800, and 
died on the 3d of June, 1862. He was married, on the 
6th of December, 1821, to Betsey Wolcott, by whom he 
had twelve children. Of this family seven are now living. 
The eldest is George W., the subject of this sketch. The 
others were Henry G., Edwin J., Elizabeth A., Mary H., 
Lucy, Almira, Emeline C, Anna M., Elmira, Frank, and 

The subject of this notice has always resided in Deerfield, 
and was educated in the common schools of that town. 
He is by occupation a farmer, and has been identified with 
the best agricultural interests of the town and county, and 
is a member of the Franklin County and Franklin and 
Hampshire Agricultural Societies. His residence is situ- 
ated in West Deerfield, and is considered one of the finest 
in that vicinity. 

Mr. Jones takes an active interest in the civil and edu- 
cational interests of the town and county, and has held 
numerous offices of trust. From 1863 to 1874 he served 
as one of the selectmen of the town. In 1873 he was 
elected to the Legislature, and re-elected the following year. 
He was elected a member of the general school committee 
in 1877, re-elected in 1878 for one year, and in 1879 
for three years. He has also for a number of years held 
the office of justice of the peace. The duties of these 
various positions have been discharged with fidelity and 
thoroughness. Under the Dickinson will he was appointed 
trustee of the Free High-School of Deerfield, and upon the 
expiration of the term was elected to serve a second time 
in that capacity. 

Mr. Jones was formerly a Republican, but his election 
to the Legislature was on the independent ticket. In the 
autumn of 1878 he was the candidate of the independent 
party for the State Senate, and was defeated by a very 
small majority. 

He was married, on the 25th of December, 1849, to 
Ellen B. Jones. 

Their children are Frank, who died when three years 
of age ; Charley ; Clarence ; Stella A. ; Frank ; Allen P. ; 
and John G. 

Photo, by r<'piiiii8 


Charles Jones was born in DeerfielJ, Franklin 
Co., Mass., July 27, 1820. His grandfather, Jehiel 
Jones, moved to West Deerfield from Connecticnt, 
and was one of the early settlers of that town. 
Israel Jones, his father, was born in Deerfield, March 
6, 1791. He was a carpenter by trade, a member of 
the Baptist Church of West Deerfield, and, as a man, 
was respected by all who knew him. He married for 
his first wife, Eleanor, daughter of John Broderick, 
of Conway, by whom he had six children, tlie 
youngest of whom is the subject of this notice. His 
second marriage was to Cynthia Atwood, relict of 
Silas Atwood. By this union he had one child, 
Ellen, wife of G. W. Jones, of West Deerfield. 

Charles Jones attended the common schools and 
academy of his native town during a part of each year 
until he was eighteen years of age. He was early 
thrown upon his own resources, and whatever success 
he has achieved is due to his own unaided efforts. 

When eighteen years old he was employed by the 

month to work on a farm, and in this he continued 
four years. At the expiration of that time he com- 
menced farming upon his own account, renting land 
and working it on shares, and in 1857 he jmrchased 
the farm upon which he now resides. He has en- 
larged and improved the original property; lias been 
engaged in general farming and stock-raising, and, 
financially speaking, has been moderately successful. 
He is a Democrat in politics, devoted to the princi- 
ples of his party, and actively interested in its local 
and general movements. 

He has been a member of the board of selectmen 
twelve years, and during eight years of that time 
chairman of the same, the duties of which ofiice he 
has ably discharged. 

In connection with the schools, churches, and 
other public interests of the town, Mr. Jones has 
been active, and has done what he could to advance 
these interests. He was married, Dec. 15, 1857, to 
Margaret, daughter of Robert Toombs, of Deerfield. 



Elizabeth, a son, John, with his wife and four children. Of 
this family, John, Sr., only escaped. The rest were "smoth- 
ered in the cellar" of the burning house. In his old age he 
removed to Connecticut to live with a married daughter, his 
only surviving child, where he died in 1744. 

Eleazer Hawks, son of John, of Hadley, was born in 1G5.5. 
He married, 1689, Judith, daughter of William Smead, and 
settled on lot No. 18, drawn by John Farrington, where C. A. 
Stebbins now lives. He was under Turner in the Falls fight, 
and with all his family escaped harm in 1704. He was useful 
in town affairs ; sixteen years selectman, and a long time clerk 
of the market. He was the ancestor of the Hawks families of 
Franklin Co. He died in 1729. 

David Hoyt, son of Nicholas, of Windsor, was born in lO-jl. 
He married, 1673, Mary, sister of Lieut. Thomas Wells ; (2d) 
1678, Sarah AVilson; (3d) 1697, Abigail, widow of Joshua 
Pomeroy, deacon and lieutenant in King William's war, and 
often in town office. He settled on lot No. 7, drawn by Tim- 
othy Dwight, now occupied by John H. Stebbins. In 1704 his 
oldest son was killed, and the rest of the family taken captive. 
He was starved to death before reaching Canada, and one 
child was killed on the march and one remained in Canada. 
Mrs. Hoyt and two children were redeemed. David was an- 
cestor of all the Ho3-ts hereabouts. 

Godfrey Nims was first known as a lad at Northampton. 
He married, 1G77, Widow Mary Williams ; (2d) 1692, Widow 
Mehitable Hull ; the lot on which he settled, covering No. 
27, drawn by John Chickering, and No. 28, by John Haward, 
is the one now owned by a descendant, on the corner of the 
" Street" and Memorial Lane. His house was burned in 
1693, when a son of his second wife perished in the flames. 
He was the fii-st constable of Deerfield, then an office of im- 
portance ; was a selectman, and held other offices. He was a 
brave man, and through his coolness Joseph Barnard escaped 
the scalping-knife when wounded at Indian Bridge. His son 
John was taken captive in 1703. In 1704 four children were 
killed, his house burned, and his wife and two children cap- 
tured. Mrs. Nims was killed on the march. One child never 
returned from Canada. He died within a year after this dis- 
aster. He was probably the ancestor of all of the name in the 

John Severance, son of John, of Boston, was born in 1647. 
Of Suffield, Conn., 1679, he came thence to Deerfield before 
1687, and settled on lot No. 30, drawn by Samuel Hinsdale, and 
occupied by Joshua Carter, now owned by William Sheldon. 

He married Mary . His son Daniel was killed when 

Castrine made his attack, in 1694. He soon after removed to 
Bedford, N. Y., where he was living in 1716. His father was 
ancestor of all bearing the name in the country. 

John Sheldon, son of Isaac, of Northampton, was born in 
1658. He married, in 1679, Hannah, daughter of John Steb- 
bins, fifteen and a half years old. She was killed in the Old 
Indian House, Feb. 29, 1704. He was married again, in 1708, 
to Mrs. Elizabeth Pratt, of Hartford, Conn. He settled on 
lot No. 12, drawn by John Pynchon. On this lot he set up, 
about 1698, the historic building now known far and wide as 
the " OW Indian House." Active and influential from the 
first, he was constantly in office ; was on the first board of se- 
lectmen and assessors, deacon at the organization of the church, 
and ensign in the first military company, appointed 1707. In 
1704 his wife and one child were killed, and four children car- 
ried into captivity. To recover his children and friends from 
the enemy, Ensign Sheldon made a journey the next winter, 
on snow-shoes, through the trackless wilderness to Canada, 
returning in the spring with one daughter, a daughter of his 
minister, and several others. A second journey was made in 
the winter of 1706. August 1st of this year he arrived at 
Boston by sea with forty-four captives. Twice more he was 
sent on the same errand, the last time accompanied by his son 
John, in 1714. Died in Hartford, 1734. 

John Stebbins, son of John, of Northampton, was born in 
1047. He married, about 1684, Dorothy Alexander. He set- 
tled on lot No. 3.5, drawn by Samuel Hinsdale, now occupied 
bj' David Sheldon. In 1704 his entire family was captured. 
Only himself, his wife, and son John were redeemed. The 
other five children never came back. The three sons were 
alive in Canada in 1723 ; the two daughters had families then. 
His son, John, who returned from captivity, was the ancestor 
of all the Deerfield tribe of Stebbinses. Mr. Stebbins died in 
1724, providing by will for his son, John, and grandson, Aaron 
Denio, with bequests to the other children, provided they 
return to the English colonies. Aaron Denio, ancestor of all 
of the name in New England, was a son of his daughter 
Abigail, who married James Denio here twenty-six days 
before the attack. 

Jonathan Wells, son of Thomas, of Hadley, was born in 
1059. He married, in 1682, Hepzibah Colton, of Springfield, 
and again, in 1698, Sarah, widow of Joseph Barnard. Set- 
tled on lot No. 10, drawn by Peter Woodward ; now owned 
by Josiah Fogg and Mrs. Higginson. At the age of sixteen 
he was a soldier under Capt. Turner, and the boy-hero of the 
Falls fight, where he was wounded and left behind. Two 
days and nights of solitary wandering brought him home in 
a pitiable condition. In 1704 his house was fortified and suc- 
cessfully defended. He had succeeded to his brother as lieu- 
tenant, and had command of the garrison at this time, and 
the fatal pursuit in the meadows was in defiance of his orders. 
He was a prominent figure in military and civil aflTairs for 
more than fifty years. He was the first justice of the peace, 
and in his later years was known as "Justice Wells," a 
title higher than that of captain. He was representative in 
1092-98. He died 1737. No representatives of this family 
have been here for nearly a century. 

Thomas Wells, brother of Jonathan, was born in 16.52. He 
married, in 1073, Hepzibah Buel, of Windsor, Conn. As 
lieutenant he commanded the first military company organized 
here; his commission, signed by Andross in 1688, is in the 
archives of the Pocomptuck Valley Memorial Association. 
He settled on lot No. 2, drawn by Eleazer Luther, and now 
owned by Jonathan Ashley, where a terrible tragedy was 
enacted June 0, 1094, his widow and three children being 
tomahawked by a party of Indians. His son, John, was with 
Ensign Sheldon on his first journey to Canada, and was killed 
while on a scout up the river in 1709. Lieut. Wells died in 
1691. His son, Thomas, a captain and ranger in Easle's war, 
died in 1750, the last male descendant. 


Upon the return of peace the scattered inhabitants began 
to look with longing eyes toward Pocomptuck, and some of the 
most adventurous returned and began to rebuild their ruined 
homes. On the 17th of September, 1677, as Sergt. John 
Plympton, Quintus Stockwell, Benoni Stebbins, John Root, 
and Samuel Russell were so engaged, they were surprised by 
a party of Pocomptuck and Nipmuck Indians under Asphelon, 
who fired upon them and then rushed up with knife and toma- 
hawk. Root was killed and the others captured. Earlier in 
the day this same party had made a destructive assault upon 
Hatfield, where they killed 12, wounded 4, and took captive 
17 of its inhabitants (all but one of the latter women and 
children). The Pocomptuck captives were soon joined with 
these, when the whole party began the fearful march to Canada, 
the first party of whites ever carried there from New England. 
It was near dark when they moved, and toward morning they 
camped in a deep hollow near the mouth of Hearthstone 
Brook. The next morning the party crossed the Connecticut 
at Sheldon's Rocks, and again at Peskcompskut, reaching 
Northfield Meadows the next night. Here they intended 
stopping to hunt, but, a party of English going in pursuit, 
thcv crossed the river and scattered. Benoni Stebbins made 



his escape soon after. Upon reaching Canada, Scrgt. Plymp- 
ton was tortured to death hy fire at a celehration of their suc- 
cess. The rest of the captives, save two who sank on the 
march, were redeemed through the heroic valor of Benjamin 
Wait and Stephen Jennings. A full account of their adven- 
turous journey may be looked for in another part of this 

This attempt of Stockwell and others to re-settle Pocomptuck 
was not an unconsidered ali'air, but fully in accord with public 
sentiment and the policy of the government. In October, 
T677, the General Court issued an order that the inhabitants 
of Pocomptuck should repair to that place and prepare to settle 
in the spring, and build in a compact manner ; that stuff 
should be got out, ready to put up a fortification as soon as 
spring opened, and a garrison of 20 soldiers be posted there, 
who are to help the inhabitants in this work. A committee 
was appointed to arrange the business, and make due compen- 
sation to any whose land is occupied in carrying out the order : 
"Maj. John Pynchon, Lieut. John Mosely, Ens. Samuel 
Loomis, Lieut. William Clarke, Mr. Peter Tylton, and Lieut. 
William Allis, or any three of them, Maj. Pynchon being 
one," were empowered to act in the matter. Nothing appears 
to have been done under this order. Probably the committee 
did not consider it prudent. Oct. 5, 1678, "the .small rem- 
nant that is left" of Pocomptuck's "poor inhabitants" made 
a piteous appeal to the General Court for help, representing 
that nearly half of the best land in the centre of the town 
belonged to those who are "never likely to come to a settle- 
ment among" them, "neither are like to put such tenants 
upon it as shall be likely to advance the good of the place, 
in civil or sacred respects;" that they are anxious to settle 
at once, but it cannot be done to advantage if these " proprie- 
tors may not be begged, or will not be bought (on very easy 
terms), out of their rights." A prominent reason given for 
"haste is that "our reverend and esteemed minister, Mr. 
Mather, hath been invited from us, and great danger there is 
from losing him," but " have had it from" him " that if the 
place were free from that incumberment, he could find a suf- 
ficient number of men, pious and discreet, that would enter 
into the plantation with him, and so build up a church in the 
place." They " count it as rich a tract of land as any upon 
the river, and judge it sufficient to entertain and maintain as 
great number of inhabitants as most of the upland towns." 
The court refer them to " the proprietors for the attaining of 
their interest in the lands." An appeal was made to the pro- 
prietors, and individuals among them gave up every tenth 
acre into a common stock. The settlement, however, was still 
delayed. In the spring of 1680, Mr. Mather being about to 
leave them, the inhabitants made an appeal to the County 
Court. That body, under a law passed the year previous, 
appointed a new committee for this plantation. This commit- 
tee made grants to encourage new settlers, but little else was 
accomplished, and Mr. Mather left them for Branford, Conn. 
In 1681 the power of this committee was confirmed by the 
General Court. It was made up of Lieut. William Clarke, 
Peter Tilton, Lieut. Philip Smith, Medad Pumry, and John 

In 1682, Richard Weller and others made petition again to 
the General Court, respecting the land of non-residents. In 
reply the court answer, " they may not give away other pro- 
prietjes without their consent," and advise giving up every 
tenth acre as a good way to further the settlement. " And as 
for the orphants," the county court was authorized to appoint 
guardians for such as are too young to choose, and said guar- 
dians are authorized to act in the premises for the best inter- 
ests of the " orphants." 

For a year or two land was freely granted to new-comers by 
the committee. The exact date of re-occupation is unknown, — 
probably in the winter and spring of 1683-84. For some two 
years the prudential affairs of the colony were managed by 

the committee, and for a short time there was a mixed au- 

Dec. 17, 1686, a town organization was effected by the 
choice of William Smcad, Joshua Pumry, John Sheldon, 
Benoni Stcbbins, Benjamin Hastings, and Thomas French, 
Selectmen; Edward Allen, Thomas Broughton, and Thomas 
Allison, Surveyors; Philip Mattoon, Jonathan Church, and 
Robert Alexander, Haywards. Jonathan Wells and the 
selectmen were made commissioners of rates. Joseph Bar- 
nurd doubtless acted as clerk. 

About the middle of June, 1086, the inhabitants had invited 
Mr. John Williams to be their minister, offering him land and 
to build him a house (see notice of Mr. Williams, farther on). 
At the December meeting more land was granted Mr. Wil- 
liams. Jan. 5, 1686-87, all these grants were ratified by the 
committee, on condition Mr. Williams settle here in the min- 
istry. The last act of the committee was Dec. 20, 1687, con- 
firming the appointment of Joseph Barnard as "clerk and 
recorder." So the leading-strings were loosed and the town 
left to its own devices. After preaching about twenty-eight 
months, Mr. Williams was ordained and a church gathered 
Oct. 17, 1688. 

Down to this time the new settlement had prospered greatly. 
The planters had turned their furrows and sowed their seed 
in peace. The labors of the husbandmen received rich re- 
turns. Their flocks and herds had increased in safety. The 
streams were stocked with choice fish, the forest abounded in 
game, and no fear of lurking foes prevented full enjoyment 
of both. The plantation seemed grounded on a basis of en- 
dui'ing prosperity. No formal treaty of peace had been made 
with the river Indians, but friendly relations had gradually 
grown up between their hunters and our people, and it was no 
occasion of surprise or fear when, on the night of July 26, 
1688, a party of fifteen came to lodge at the house of Lieut. 
Thomas Wells. It turned out that part of these were spies ; 
those who were friendly warned Lieut. Wells against their 
treachery. Probably this notice saved the town from attack. 

Three weeks later, these, with others, fell upon Northfield 
and killed six people. This raid was instigated by De Non- 
ville. Governor of Canada, who offered a bounty for every 
scalp, and this after the treaty of peace between France 
and England, made December, 1687, was known in Canada. 
These facts had been revealed by the friendly Indians, and the 
alarm here was serious and general. The woods were filled 
with scouts, but no Indians were discovered. Deerfield was 
the frontier town, with little provision for defense. The 
policy of Gov. Andross increased the distress, for it almost 
invited invasion. From this source of unquiet, however, 
relief was at hand. News that William of Orange had landed 
in England was received at Boston, April 12, 1689, and on the 
18th Andross was imprisoned by the people, and a council of 
safety, assuming the government of the colony, issued a call 
for representatives to meet at Boston on the 22d of May. 

There is no record of a town-meeting, but John Sheldon, 
Benjamin Hastings, Benoni Stebbins, and Thomas French — a 
majority of the selectmen — took the responsibility, appointed 
Lieut. Thomas Wells, and sent him, with credentials over 
their own hands, to join the revolutionary party. This was 
a bold step. No news had been received of the success of Wil- 
liam and of the flight of James to France, and this act was 
treason, and they subject to the penalty of treason in case of 
a failure of the revolution, — a penalty sure to fall upon Lieut. 
Wells, for he held his commission from Andross himself. 
Capt. John Bull, so well known in Connecticut history, was 
here with his company at the same time, and joined in the re- 
volt. June 26th, the military was reorganized, the old ofli- 
cers being chosen anew. The town was free from Indian 
raids this year, but watching and warding were constant, and 
all labor in the fields was carried on under apprehension of 
immediate danger. 



Schenectady was burned by the enemy in Febniai-}', 1690- 
91. On the '26th, the news having reached here, a town- 
meeting was held, and a vote passed to fortify Meeting-house 
Hill by stockading, to be finished in ten daj's ! To carry out 
this order, 202 rods of trench three or four feet deep was to 
be dug in the frozen ground, 4000 or 5000 sticks of timber to 
be cut, hauled, hewed on two sides, and set together in the 
trench, and the whole available force not over 50 men. This 
year, Lieut. Wells died, — " a sad frown of God in this junc- 
ture of aflairs," — and his brother Jonathan succeeded him in 
otflce. In December 'great excitement was created by the 
arrival of 150 Indians, with passes from the mayor of Albany, 
who located on the plateau east of Josiah A. Allen's ; the 
men engaged in hunting, the women and children remaining 
in camp. Some were thought to be old enemies, and trouble 
was anticipated. A minute company was organized, under 
Capt. Jona. Wells, Lieut. David Hoyt, and Ens. John Shel- 
don. Scouts were kept constantly out, and a message of inquiry 
was sent to Albany. A company of soldiers from the towns 
below marched up, to make a show of strength. Col. Pyn- 
chon issued a proclamation, fi.xing rules for their guidance, 
warning them to leave in the spring. No serious difficulty 
occurred. At one time " nine or ten of them were insolent 
toward a lad of Deerfield, and took some of his father's corn and 
puniking without leave." Early in the spring a messenger 
from Albany came to call them home, bringing news tliat 
a large army of French and Indians were on the march, 
and would fall upon this town about the middle of May, 
1692. Capt. Whiting, with 50 men from Connecticut, came 
up about the 1st of February, and assisted in putting the 
fortification in good condition, and the people were deter- 
mined to defend it. Further news carae that the French 
army of 400 men miglit be expected Sunday, May lOtli. The 
inhabitants all gathered within the stockade; the soldiers 
were ready for instant action. The invading army, however, 
came to surprise rather than fight. One of their vanguard 
having been taken by a party of scouts, and a surprise here 
being impossible, the commander, turning toward the east, 
succeeded in surprising Wells, Me., on the 10th of June. 

The spring of 1692 found the people suffering from the want 
of the necessaries of life. For obvious reasons, their crops had 
been growing less and less, and in 1692 the corn crop — their 
chief reliance — had been cut ofl' by worms, while consumption 
had been largely increased b\- garrison-soldiers and scouting- 
parties. Feb. 8, 1093, the General Court was asked to furnish 
them ammunition and abate their taxes for 1692, and until " we 
recover ourselves from the low estate we are now in." In re- 
sponse, the court directed the fortifications to be put in repair 
and ammunition furnished at the expense of the province. 

Another descent from Canada was expected, and on the 8th 
of March, 1693, Connecticut held loOmen in readiness to march 
here on notice. It does not appear that they came. In May 
of this year a party of Hudson River Indians were encamped 
at Carter's Land, for the purpose of bartering the furs col- 
lected in their winter's hunt for such supplies as the white 
settlers could furnish. Capt. Wells became suspicious that 
mischief was brewing there, and employed Cotasnoh to find 
out what was going on. He failed to discover anything, and 
no precautions were taken. On the night of June 6tli a 
party of Indians, probably from this camp, made an attack 
upon the families of Thomas Broughton and Widow Hepzibah 
Wells, who lived where Messrs. Amidon and Ashley now 
live, at the north end of the street. They had no design to 
take prisoners ; were only bent on wanton murder. One 
Holmes, who was in the chamber at Broughton's, heard "the 
people plead for their lives : the man pleaded that if his own 
life might not be spared, his children's might ; but they an- 
.swered in Indian, 'We don't care for the children, and will 
kill you all.' " Accordingly, Broughton, his wife, and three 
children were tomahawked and scalped. Widow Wells had 

gone to watch with a sick child near by, leaving four children 
at home, — Mary, Sarah, Daniel, and Hepzibah, — and Nathan- 
iel Kellogg, who slept in the chamber with Daniel. The girls 
were all tomahawked and scalped ; Kellogg, jumping from the 
window, escaped. Daniel, a boy of ten years, slept soundly 
through the whole horrid affair in the chamber. When the 
alarm reached Mrs. Wells, the heroic, true mother, without 
waiting one moment for aid, ran to the rescue of her children. 
She was too late for assistance, but not too late to share their 
fate. Mary lived a day or two. Mrs. Wells and Hepzibah, 
after years of suflering, finally recovered. Young Hepzibah, 
then seven years old, married, about 1717, John Dickinson, 
and was grandmother of " Uncle Sid." 

The next morning after this assault two Indians were ar- 
rested at Carter's Land, and confronted with the mangled 
victims. Mary Wells recognized one, and Broughton, who 
was still living, the other. The chief, Ashpelon, defended 
them, insisting that the wounded persons were not in a condi- 
tion to testify. The prisoners were sent to Springfield and 
confined. There was great commotion among both whites 
and Indians about Albany when the news of these events 
reached them. Gov. Fletcher went up from New York. 
Messengers were sent here and to Boston, and much corre- 
spondence was had between the governors of Massachusetts 
and New York. The question of the arrest was debated at 
the grand council of the Mohawks, under whose protection 
the prisoners lived. A Dutchman recognized the war-clubs 
found with the murdered people as belonging to Canada In- 
dians. Meanwhile, the Indians escaped from prison and fied, 
the controversy thus coming to an end, and the feared rupture 
with the Mohawks was averted. The truth appears to he that 
Canada Indians were the murderers, and that some young 
Indian bloods from Carter's Land came over to witness the 

July 27th, Brookfield was attacked, and, on the alarm reach- 
ing here, Capt. Wells with 30 men made an extended scout 
through the eastern and northern woods, but failed to en- 
counter the marauders. There was no safety outside the 
stockade, but the crops must be looked after, or starvation 
stared them in the face; so the settlers ventured, at the peril 
of their lives. While thus employed at Wapping on the 13th 
of October, Martin Smith was captured and taken to Canada 
Mr. Williams, as it afterward appeared, had a narrow escape 
at Broughton's Hill the day before. 

November 6, 1693, the town again petitioned the General 
Court for aid, without which they say they " must of necessity 
forsake their habitations and draw oft' to some neighboring 
towns." They were relieved of taxation, £40 allowed toward 
fortification, and a company of soldiers stationed here for 
the winter. The spring and summer of 1694 passed without 
molestation from the enemy. During this period the allied 
enemy had been engaged on a successful foray to the eastward. 
On their return, flushed with victory and loaded with spoil, an 
expedition was suddenly determined upon against this town. 
No notice of this movement reached this frontier. Eluding the 
scouts that were ranging the woods, Castrine, the commander, 
reached the vicinity of the town undiscovered September loth. 
Coming down from the East Mountain to make his attack at 
the north gate, he was discovered at the rear of William 
Sheldon's home-lot by Daniel Severance, who was shot, and 
the alarm given. Mrs. Hannah Beaman, the school-dame, 
from the lot next north of Sheldon's, at once started with her 
flock for the fort. It was a race for life or death, — the school 
in the road, the Indians up the swamp to intercept them. All 
escaped, but the bullets of the pursuers whistled about their 
ears as they crossed the causeway in front of the present Grange 

Meanwhile, within the palisades all was activity, but not 
confusion. Capt. Wells had been for years training the people 
for just such an emergency. Each yeoman snatched his loaded 



nuiskot from its hooks on 'he summer-tree, his powder-horn 
iind bullet-pouch from the mantel-tree, and in an instant was 
ready to meet the invader. Castrine had led his army three 
hundred miles through the wilderness to surprise this little 
plantation, butcher its inhabitants, and carry their scalps in 
triumph to Canada. Failing of a surprise, he was bravely 
met and driven ignominiously back into the northern forest. 
Our loss was John Beaman and Richard Lyman, wounded. It 
was a narrow escape. 

No large parties were sent against New England in lti9.5. 
Small bands, however, lurked about the frontiers, waylaying 
roads and fields. As Jo.seph Barnard, Godfrey Nims, Philip 
Mattoon, Henry White, and one other were going on horse- 
back to mill, August 18th, they fell into an ambush at Indian 
Bridge. Eight guns were fired at them, — Joseph Barnard shot 
oft' his horse, and one man thrown by his horse starting. One 
called, as if more were behind, which kept the Indians in check 
while Barnard was mounted, and all turned for home. A 
second volley was fired at this moment, and Barnard's horse 
killed. Once more Barnard was mounted, with one to hold him 
on, and the party started for the garrison. One of the Indians 
ran out, and, picking up Barnard's gun, fired, and its owner 
was again struck. All reached the fortification, where Bar- 
nard died, September' 6th. A force at once turned out in 
pursuit. Tracks were followed eight or nine miles up the 
Pocomptuck River, but the enemy were not discovered. They 
were very skillful in hiding in swamps and thickets. Their 
canoes were found and broken. At this time the garrison was 
but 24 men. Lieut. Hollister came up from Connecticut with 
38 men for three weeks. He left 12 men to remain until the 
Indian corn was harvested. The woods were full of Indians 
watching a chance for booty, and a large part of the garrison 
was constantly under arms. Indians appeared on the west 
side of the Pocomptuck, as if to draw our people into an 
ambush. This was repeated, but Capt. Wells suspected that 
the tactics of the enemy were to weaken the garrison by draw- 
ing out the soldiers, then fall upon it from another direction, 
and take it. 

About this time a Maqua reported that an army of GOO 
French and Indians were on the march to assault Albany, and 
were to take Deerfield in the way. On the 25th of September, 
Capt. Clapp, of Northampton, came up with his company for 
a few days, and shortly after the garrison was increased to .52 
men. This activity and vigilance saved the town. 

Sept. 16, 1696. — A small party surprised John Smead and 
John Gillet upon Green Kiver, and captured the latter; push- 
ing on to the town, they found most of the inhabitants collected 
in the fort attending a lecture. Daniel Belding, having just 
come in with his team, was belated, and his family were wait- 
ing for him. The Indians fell upon this party, and in less 
than fifteen minutes they had taken Belding and two children, 
killed his wife and three children, and wounded two others. 
All this was within gunshot of the palisades, and one Indian 
was wounded before he got oft'. A return shot wounded Zebe- 
diah Williams as he was rushing out of the gate. The assail- 
ants were pursued, but nothing eft'ected. The Beldings re- 
turned by the way of Albany in June, 1698; Gillet by the 
way of France and England a short time before. 

June 12, 1698. — Notice was received of a party on the route 
to this place. Not finding the desired opportunity, they passed 
on to Hatfield, where, on the 15th of July, they killed two and 
captured two more. Notice of this reaching this town, a 
party of fourteen started and made a night march to what is 
now Vernon, Vt., where, just at dawn, the party of Indians 
was discovered coming up the river in canoes. Several Indians 
were shot, the two prisoners rescued, but Nathaniel Pumeroy 
of our town was killed. " Pomeroy's Island'' marks the place 
of his death. He was the last man killed in that war. 

The close of King William's war left the inhabitants in an 
impoverished and destitute condition. Their cultivated fields 

had been neglected and were overgrown, the fences broken 
down, their cattle and sheep reduced in numbers, their pro- 
visions exhausted by quartering soldiers and fitting out scouts. 
Domestic industry had fared little better ; were the settlers able 
to raise flax and wool, the overburdened women, crowded into 
the few houses within the stockades, could neither card, spin, 
nor weave to any advantage. Their clothing was nearly worn 
out, and their children almost naked. The taxes were un|)aid, 
the minister's salary largely in arrears. With a nominal 
peace no one felt safe from Indian incursions; "for," writes 
Gov. Stoughton, "these barberous salvages are not to be trusted 
on their most solemn protestations of fidelity ;" and the mili- 
tary service was still burdensome. Mr. Williams, with seven 
children, the oldest but ten, must have shared all the hardships 
of his people, and conjecture is at a loss as to how he lived and 
attended his official duties; still, on the 2d of March, 1702, 
before the death of William III. could be known and Queen 
Anne's war anticipated, he gave up several years' salary, and 
caused an acquittance to be recorded on the town book, "to 
prevent any future trouble;" "although," he says, "they 
never asked it of me." 


At the opening of this war the town was in a low condition, 
still destitute of clothing, deeply in debt, the palisades de- 
cayed and falling down, having been constructed of poor 
material, doubtless, in the haste of erection. June 22, 1702, 
the town voted "to right up" the fort, — every man his pro- 
portion as last laid out to him, — to be done by Wednesday 
night, under a penalty of 'is. per rod, and Is. per rod for each 
day's delay. June 29th a petition was sent to the General 
Court, setting forth the condition of the defenses, the presence 
of an unusual number of Indians, and their fears of some evil 
design. In response. Col. Pynchon was directed to send his 
lieutenant-colonel to Deerfield to stay and see that the fortifi- 
cations were put in order, and "cover them with a scout of 
ten men while about the work." 

The most memorable event in the history of our town was 
the attack by French and Indians, Feb. 24, 1703-4. The..4Aen- 
akis of Maine had complained to the French governor of 
English aggression, and asked redress. The fidelity of this 
tribe had been doubtful, and De Vaudreuil at once organized 
an expedition of 200 men to this valley. When the place 
was taken it was given over to the Indians for fire and 
slaughter, without let or hindrance. So the Abenakis were 
revenged, and their friendship secured to the French interests. 

The pali-sades at this time inclosed about 15 acres on Meet- 
ing-house Hill, the north line being at the brick meeting- 
house, the south at the Wilson place. The population was 
about 250, with 20 garrison soldiers quartered among the fam- 
ilies. The snow, which lay three feet deep, was drifted against 
the stockades and covered with a hard crust. 

Hertell de Bouville, the commander of the French forces, 
arrived at Petty's Plain at night on the 28th of February, 
where his men deposited their packs and made ready for the 
attack. An hour before day the next morning, Tuesday, the 
29th, the whole army stole silently across the meadows, and 
on the drifted snow over the stockades, and scattered among 
the houses. When they were discovered by the watch, he dis- 
charged his musket and cried, "Arm! arm!" This was the sig- 
nal for the assault. Doors and windows were broken down ; 
men, women, and children dragged from their beds, murdered 
in cold blood, or bound as captives. The main body of the 
French stood to their arms, firing upon the houses and killing 
all who resisted, shooting the cattle and sheep, while detached 
parties were securing "provisions, drink, and clcathing," 
which were packed up and carried to their rendezvous, others 
collecting and guarding the prisoners and leading them to the 
same place. After overrunning the fort, the picketed house 
of Capt. Wells, who lived on the Fogg lot, was fiercely as- 



saulted, but successfully defended ; and little progress was 
made at the south end of the street by the enemy. The house 
of Ens. John Sheldon, more strongly built than most, re- 
sisted the first onset. With their hatchets the assailants 
soon cut a hole through the front door. Firing at random 
through this, Mrs. Sheldon was killed. Entrance was finally 
effected at the back door, which a frightened lad left unfast- 
ened. Into this house the captives were temporarily col- 
lected. It was here that the wife of John Catlin performed 
an act of Christian charity which secured her release. A 
French officer, severely wounded, was brought in and laid 
upon the floor in their midst ; in great distress, he called for 
water. Mrs. Catlin tenderly supplied his wants. When re- 
monstrated with by her friends, she repeated, " ' If thine enemy 
hunger feed him ; if he thirst give him water to drink.' 
This house, which stood until 1848, was known far and wide 
as the Old Indian House. 

It was now nearly eight o'clock, and those not engaged in 
caring for the prisoners, and securing or wasting the contents 
of the houses, had maintained a determined resolution to cap- 
ture the Stebbins house, and hotly continued the assault. At 
this time, however, they were suddenly attacked by a party 
from the towns below, led on by Sergt. Benjamin Wait. The 
enemy were soon driven from the fort, setting fire to the 
Sheldon house as they left it. This was soon extinguished. 
Thomas Seldeu and Joseph IngersoU were killed in this affair. 
The siege being raised, the brave garrison, with men from 
Capt. Wells, joining their rescuers, to the number of .57 men 
in all, at once pursued the retreating enemy across the mea- 
dows. Here, their small numbers being seen, De Rouville 
halted his front and formed an ambuscade. Into this the ex- 
cited and exasperated men, led on by Sergt. Wait, fell, in spite 
of a command to retreat by the cautious Capt. Wells. In 
this trap and on the retreat nine men were lost. The enemy 

ILD I>"DI.V.N IIoL.sK. 1:111,1 UV E-N>It,X .JUH.N 

The stout old door, hacked and scarred by the blows of the 
savages, is carefullj' preserved by the Pocomptuck Valley 
^Memorial Association as a precious relic of that awful night. 

The house of Benoni Stebbins, about eight rods southwest 
from Sheldon's, was occupied by seven men, with some women 
and children. They had a moment's notice, and the first at- 
tack was repelled, they killing several of the enemy and 
wounding the French officer before spoken of. Having failed 
in the surprise, the house was surrounded, and bullets showered 
upon it like hail. The walls were lined with brick, and so pro- 
tected the inmates. In an attempt to set the house on fire 
three or four Indians were killed. As the light of day in- 
creased the keen marksmen, from the loop-holes, singled out 
and shot down the besiegers until they took shelter in the Old 
Indian House, the meeting-house, and the house of Mr. Wil- 
liams. From this shelter the attack was renewed. Mr. Steb- 
bins was killed, and one man and one woman wounded ; but 
the brave survivors had no thought of accepting terms of capit- 
ulation, which were repeatedly tendered them. The women 
were busy in casting the bullets with which the men plied the 

The touching account given by Mr. Williams in the " Re- 
deemed Captive" of the capture and sufferings of his family, 
so often published, need not be repeated, and nothing can be 
added to it. 


in turn pursued the English until tliey wei-e within the stock- 
ades, and then withdrew to Petty's Plain. The Stebbins house, 
which had been so nobly defended for nearly four hours, took 
fire while the men were engaged in the me;\dows and was 
burned, the women and children having left it and gone to 
W'ells' fort. The loss of the enemy was three Frenchmen 
and about thirty savages. De Rouville retreated the first 
night, by the Indian path, to the upper part of Greenfield 
Meadows. The next morning Mrs. Williams was murdered 
near the foot of Leyden Glen, and fresh horrors accompanied 
each day's doleful march. 

By midnight, February 29th, 80 men had collected in the 
town; a pursuit and night-surprise of the enemy were con- 
sidered, but, partly from want of snow-shoes, — for it had begun 
to thaw, — and partly from fear of endangering the captives, it 
was not attempted. By two o'clock, March 1st, some 250 
soldiers were on the ground. Then the question of a pursuit 
was again taken up, but the same reasons which before pre- 
vailed prevented its adoption. March 2d the dead, with the 
exception of Mrs. Williams, were buried in one common 
grave in the burying-ground at the foot of Hitchcock Lane, 
— .54 in all. 

The captives numbered 112; of these, 2 escaped the same 
day, about 8 were murdered before leaving the valley, and 
about 12 more jierished before Canada was reached. 



The following is ii list of tliosti who lost, their lives at tlie 
attack or on the march to Canada : 

David Aloxauiler, Mary Alexander, Samuel AUis, Hepzibali Belding, Robert 
Boltwood, Samuel Boltwuod, Mary Brooks, Hauiiah Carter, Mary Carter, Thom.ia 
Cai-ter, John Catlin, Jonathan CatUn, Joseph Catlin, Eiizahetli Corse, Sarah 
Held, Mary Trary, Samson Frary, Samuel Foot, John Freneh, Mary French, 
Mary French, Jr., Alice Hawks, Elizabeth Hawks, John Hawks, John Hawks, 
Jr., Martha Hawks, Thankful Hawks, Samuel Hinsdale, Jacob Hip, AWgail 
HoyI, David Huyt, David Hoyt, Jr., Benoni Hui-st, Joseph IngeraoU, Jonathan 
Ingrain, Jonathan Kellogg, Pliilip Mattoon, Rebecca Mattoon (their infant 
child), Henry Nims, Mary Nims, Mehitable Nims, Mehitable Nims, Jr., Mercy 
Nims, Esther Pomeroy, Sanih Price, Mary Koot, Thomas Selden, Hannah Shel- 
don, Mercy Sheldon, Elizabeth Snicad, Mary Sniead, Sarah Smead, William 
Smead, Martin Smith, Benoni Stebbins, Andrew Stevens (an Indian), Benjamin 
Wait. Nathaniel \Vai-ner, Waitstill Warner, Mary Wells, Eunice Williams, 
Jernsha Williams, John Williams, Frank (a negro), Parthena (bis wife), ser- 
vants of Mr. Williams. 

Wounded.— John Bridgman, Ben,iannn Church, .Samuel Church, Mary Iloyt. 

Mr. Sheldon returned in May, having obtained five cap- 
tives. Jan. 25, 1706, with two attendants and two French 
prisoners of war, he again started on foot for Canada. Having 
collected what captives he could, on the 30th of May he em- 
barked at Quebec, and landed in Boston, August 1st, with 
40-odd of these exiles, among them Deacon Thomas French. 
The brigaiitine "Hope" was at once despatched for the rest 
that had been secvired, which returned November 1st with 
Mr. Williams and 55 others. 

Many still remaining in captivity. Governor Dudley recom- 
mended the council " having a Person Letjei- at Quebec," and 
that " Mr. John Sheldon, with a suitable retinue, be em- 
ployed on that service." This was agreed to, and in April, 
1707, a third journey by land was made to Canada. With an 
e.scort of six French soldiers and seven more captives, he re- 

Of the captives the following are known to have married 
and had families in Canada: John Carter, Mary Carter, Mary 
Harris, French; Joan Kellogg, Thankful Stebbins, Eliza- 
beth Stevens, Eunice Williams. Fifty-eight were ultimately 
redeemed, and came back to their old homes. Their redemp- 
tion was largely effected by Ensign John Sheldon, who made 
four journeys to that end. The first was in December, 1704, 
by the way of Albany and .Lake Champlain, on snow-shoes, 
with provision at back, with John Wells for a companion and 
Capt. Livingstone, of Albany, for a guide. A letter which he 
wrote at Quebec, April 1, 1705, to a daughter in captivity, is 
given above. 

turned in August, by canoes, up Lake Champlain to Albany. 
Of his fourth expedition very little is known.* 

After the .sacking of the town, February 29th, the remain- 
ing inhabitants were ready to desert the place, but Col. Par- 
tridge iinpressed the men for soldiers, and ordered them to 
remain in Wells' fort. They received soldiers' pay until, July, 
1705, arrangements were made that two-fifths of the time they 
could attend to their husbandry. Little could be done, for 
the enemy were lurking constantly in the woods watching for 

* The number of captives redeemed and returned, as stated by Mr. Sheldon, 
probably included many others in addition to those taken on this occnsiou. — 




prey. May 14, 1704, John Allen was killed at the Bars ; his 
wife was captured and killed soon after. A short time after, 
Sergt. John Hawks was wounded. Thomas Eussell, a soldier, 
was killed while on a scout. July 19th the enemy were pur- 
sued and fired upon by Ens. Sheldon, hut all got off. 

While the men were in garrison Kev. Benj. Choate was sent 
as chaplain, and he remained here until Mr. Williams re- 
turned ; and the General Court continued for years to give 
je40 a year toward the support of Mr. Williams. In 1707, 
" the people being in a broken condition, most of them having 
houses to build upon the former ruins," £30 was allowed to- 
ward the fortifications, to be applied for the benefit of the 
poor " and such as are returned from captivity." 

During the continuation of this war, drafts were constantly 
being made upon the people for the militarj' service. John 
Sheldon, Jr., was constable of the town, and among his papers 
are found orders from Col. Partridge which give a good idea 
of frontier life at that time. Some of these orders were : June 
21, 1706, to "impress such and so many Deerfield men as are 
well acqtiainted with the woods up the river to pilate the 
scouts." July 11th, to "impress three men, with six pounds of 
pork apiece for their present scouting." July 20th, to "impress 
one good able horse, bridle, and saddle." August 27th, to 
" impress two squa lines for two Frenchmen going to Can- 
ada." September 25th, " pork and other provisions, also men 
and horses, so much as Capt. Stoddard shall require." Jan. 
10, 1707, "two good buckskins," ".shoes or moquisons." In 
all these things he was to " fayle not at your Utmost Per- 

In one of these scouts up the river Martin Kellogg was 
captured, August, 1708, and taken a second time to Canada, 
having been taken 1704 and escaped in 170.5. October 26th, 
Ebenezer Field was killed near Bloody Brook. April 11, 
1709, Mehuman Hinsdale was carried to Canada, from whence 
he had returned in 1706. He now came back again by the 
way of France and England, in 1712. In May, 1709, Lieut. 
John Wells and John Burt were killed while on a scout on 
Lake Champlain. June 12th, Joseph Clesson and John Arms 
fell i nto an ambush near the town and were taken. John Arms 
came back on parole, in 1710, and two French prisoners were 
sent back in exchange. Clesson returned with Mr. Hinsdale. 
June 13th, Jonathan Williams and Matthew Clesson were 
fatally shot, and Isaac Mattoon and Thomas Taylor wounded. 
Items like these, better than any narrative, show the condi- 
tion of Deerfield people until the close of this war, in 1713, by 
the treaty of Utrecht. 


After a respite of nine years, during which the town had in 
a considerable degree revived from its low estate, war was de- 
clared between France and England in 1722. Our situation, 
however, was much improved, and we were a less isolated 
people. Northfield and Sunderland had been settled. In the 
winter of 1 723-24 a stockaded fort was built on the Connecticut 
Kiver, about thirty miles northward, called Fort Dummer. 
With all this added security, the town suffered great hard- 
ship and much loss. Our people took an active and prominent 
part in the war. In 1722, Capt. Samuel Barnard took the 
field, with Joseph Kellogg as lieutenant, and Joseph Clesson 
as sergeant. The names of 92 men are on his rolls for 1722 
and 1723. During the time of their service no enemy was 
seen in this region. In the winter of 1723-24 the garrison 
was reduced to 10 men. These were constantly on duty, 
watching and warding. February 18th, 10 more men were 
added. April 6th, news came that Grey-Lock had left his fort 
and was tampering with the Skaffkooks. These Indians were 
intimately acquainted with this part of the country and the 
situation of the inhabitants. Considerable alarm was felt, 
and the garrison increased. It was expected the establish- 
ment of Fort Dummer, from which ranging-parties scoured 

the woods to the north and west, would give security to the 
settlements below. These expectations were not realized. 
June 27, 1724, Ebenezer Sheldon, Thomas Colton, and Jere- 
miah English were killed near Kocky Mountain, in Green- 
field. Soon after. Col. Stoddard writes, " several houses were 
rifled in Deerfield village." July 10th, Lieut. Timothy Childs 
and Samuel Allen were wounded by the lurking foe near 
Pine Hill. After this it was not considered safe for men to 
go on the meadows to work in less numbers than 30 or 40 
together, and well armed. 

In July, Capt. Goodrich, with 75 men, and Capt. Walter 
Butler, with 30 English and 42 Indians, came up from Con- 
necticut to the rescue. With this force the woods were soon 
clear of the enemy. The Indians were Moliegans and Pequots. 
The latter, the people thought, " could not compare" with the 
former in activity and woodcraft. The Mohegans were well 
pleased in turn, and promised to come up again. Maj. Ben 
Uncas was now sachem of this tribe, and cherished the friend- 
ship which his illustrious father had formed with the whites 
eighty years before. 

Lieut. Kellogg became a captain in 1724, with headquarters 
at Northfi^ld. When the Connecticut troops went home, his 
lieutenant, Timoth}' Childs, was stationed at Greenfield with 
part of his company, and with the garrison of Sunderland 
also under his charge. 

The last week of March, 1725, Capt. Thomas Wells, with a 
party of 20 men, left here for a scout up the river toward the 
Canada frontiers. He was gone about a month, but no jour- 
nal of his march has been found. On the return, a canoe with 
6 men was overset on the river at the "French King," and 
Simeon Pomroy, Thomas Alexander, and Noah Allen were 
drowned. "There are 8 men at Deerfield, several of whom 
are men of estate, and have been prisoner with the Indians, 
and know their waj's," writes Col. Stoddard, February 3d, 
" who are ready to go out." They were doubtless of Wells' 
party. About September 9th, " Capt. -Wells, being in his 
great pasture, heard a crackling of sticks, and saw the bushes 
move within eight rods of him, and, being apprehensive of the 
enemy, he ran home and took sundrj' men to the place, where 
they found the tracks of two Indians, which they followed 
across two fields of corn." These were supposed by Justice 
Wells to be "spying out our circumstances." The garrison 
not being strong enough to send out- a large scout, Capt. 
Benjamin Wright, of Northfield, the noted ranger, came 
down with his company to search the woods. None of the 
enemy were found. 

August 2oth, as Samuel Field, Samuel Childs, Joseph Sev- 
erance, Joshua Wells, and Thomas Bardwell were going up 
to Green River farms, they were fired upon from an ambus- 
cade while on the spot where the Greenfield depot stands ; no 
one was hurt except Childs, who was slightly wounded. This 
was the last irruption of the enemy during the war. Peace 
was proclaimed Sept. 17, 1725. 

The following Deerfield men are known to have served in 
this war : 

Capt. Samuel Bainard, Capt. Timothy Childs, Capt. Thomas Wells, Sergt. 
■Toseph Clesson, John Allen, Joseph Allen, Samuel Allen, Joseph Ather- 
ton, John Beaman, Daniel Belding, John Brooks, Nathaniel Bmoks, John 
Catiin, John Combs, James Coree, Samuel Dickinson, Aaron Denio, Edwin 
Fogg, Nathaniel Hawks, Michael Mitchel, Daniel Severance, Asahel 
Stebbins, George Swan, Joshua Wells. 

With release from harassing military service, our hardy 
yeomanry returned to the tillage of their farms. To men 
accustomed to the hardships of scouting, bearing heavy bur- 
dens for weeks, and hundreds of miles through the forests, 
often in mid-winter and on snow-shoes, it was mere pastime 
to handle the axe, the hoe, the scythe, and sickle. Agricul- 
ture prospered under their willing and industrious hands, and 
plenty once more smiled in the land. The common land was 
laid out in several divisions, and settler^ began to scatter. 



In 1727 a settlement was made of the lands now Greenfield 
Meadows, and the town voted to build a bridge at Cheapside. 
In 173G the east part of Greenfield and Gill was lotted out to 
the proprietors. Eight acres were allowed to each cow-com- 
mon, but no one could locate more than ten commons in one 
body. Lots were cast for choice, and each man had one day 
in which to locate his " pitch," to be laid out by a committee. 
The law of irregularity was strictly followed in this matter, 
and the selected lots left remnants of every possible variety 
of size and shape, — a success in this direction never before 
achieved. The "gerrymander" of later years was a feeble 
failure of an attempt at imitation. 

Aug. 25, 173.5, Gov. Belcher, with a committee of the coun- 
cil and house, met here several tribes of Indians, and held a 
conference for a week, arranging and reviewing treaties of 
peace. Col. Ontawsovgoe was spokesman for the Cac/na- 
wagas. The Houaatanics doubtless had one of the Kelloggs 
for interpreter. At the close of the conferences, on Sunday 
the 31st, John vSergeant was ordained as missionary to the 
Stockbridge Indians, under the patronage of the " Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," Gov. 
Belcher being the chairman of the commissioners of the 
society in New England. Dr. Appleton, of Cambridge, 
preached the sermon, the charge being given by Stephen 
Williams, of Longmeadow. 

In 1736, Ashfield was granted to Capt. Samuel Hunt and 
others. The line between " Huntstown" and Deerfleld soon 
became a subject of controversy. May 25, 1737, Thomas 
Wells was chosen a committee to get a plat of the town, as 
granted in 1712, laid before the General Court and confirmed. 
This was done, but the question of the actual boundar^y was 
not settled for many years. In a memorial to the General 
Court, in 1742, the Ashfield agent says they are clearing lands 
on the easterly bounds to set the meeting-house, so as to be 
near the neighboring towns, and the people of Deerfield, by 
way of banter, tell ua to clear away as fast as we can, and that 
they shall soon come and take possession, " whereby many are 
discouraged and drawing off." He also complains that the 
Deerfield people would not show them their west line when 
they came to lay out their grant, hoping we should "leave 
a gore which they could swallow up." 

In 1738 a plan was agitated for building a new court-house 
at Northampton for the benefit of the northern towns of Old 
Hampshire. One-half of the cost was to be paid b}' the county, 
the rest by the eight towns most accommodated. Deerfield op- 
posed the measure, and it was given up. 


March 15, 1744, France declared war against England, and 
the colonies in America became once more the theatre of a 
bloody struggle. Deerfield had increased in size and impor- 
tance, and became the centre of military operations on the north 
and west frontiers, and was comparatively safe from hostile in- 
cursions. Besides Fort Dummer at the north were Forts Hins- 
dale, in Hinsdale; Pelham, at Kowe; Shirley, in Heath; with 
the stockaded houses of Sheldon, in Bernardston, Morrissey's 
and South Fort, in Coleraine. These defenses, constantly con- 
nected by scouting-parties, formed a barrier difficult to pene- 
trate undiscovered. At first Fort Dummer was deserted. Being 
cut ott' from Massachusetts by the new line in 1741, Gov. Bel- 
cher could not well hold military possession of New Hampshire 
territory, and the latter State refused to furnish a garrison. 
A statement by Gov. Shirley was laid before the king and 
council, Sept. 6, 1744. At this meeting New Hampshire was 
ordered to protect the settlements on Connecticut Kiver, or 
hand the territory over to Massachusetts. Before this question 
was settled there was much alarm here, and active measures 
were taken to repel assault. 

May 15, 1744, the town voted to build " mounts ' at four 
houses, — Mr. Ashley's, Capt. Thomas Wells', Capt. Elijah 

Williams', and one at the south end ; John Arms' was finally 
selected. Also one at Green River, and two at Wapping. 
Samuel Allen and the other inhabitants at the Bars were al- 
lowed a rebate of their proportion of the cost of these works 
if "they would build mounts and fortify themselves." This 
they did not do, but sought the defenses in the town for safety. 
In June of this year Indians were discovered lurking about 
the town, but no damage was done. November 23d the town 
petitions the General Court for a guard "to defend us from 
the enemy, who may reasonably be expected before spring, 
we being so near Crown Point." It also asked reimbursement 
for expenses in fortifying. 

Feb. 5, 1745, the military committee were directed to inclose 
the houses where mounts had been built, with boards ; and in 
March, not to "line the forts" until further orders. Green 
River was considered more exposed, and March 18th the com- 
mittee for building the mounts there were instructed " to line 
the fort on the east side, and so far on the north side of it as 
til the house will defend it, and so at each side of the south 
gate, and also at each side of the well." April 10th, " voted 
to give Mr. Ashley liberty to use what timber can be found 
among his wood that will answer the end for fortifying, &c., 
and pickiting his fort." 

After a brave defense by Sergt. John Hawks, Fort Massa- 
chusetts fell into the hands of the enemy, Aug. 20, 1746. 
About fifty of the assailants at once came over the mountain 
and down the Pocomptuok in search of scalps and plunder. 
On Sunday, the 24th, they arrived in this vicinity; and recon- 
noitred to lay an ambush. Seeing some new-mown hay in 
Stebbins' meadow, they rightly judged the haymakers would 
come to take care of it the next day, so placed themselves in 
the woods near by. As they were stealing down the hill, in- 
tending to get between their victims and their arms, surround 
and capture the whole party, they met Eleazer Hawks, who 
was out hunting with his gun. Supposing they were discov- 
ered and about to be attacked, they shot him, and the alarm 
was given. Quickly discovering their mistake, the Indians 
rushed out after the flying settlers. Simeon Amsden was the 
first victim. Adonijah Gillet and John Sadler made a stand 
under the river-bank near the mill. Gillet fell, and Sadler es- 
caped across the stream. Samuel Allen, bidding his three 
children fly for life, turned upon the pursuers, killed the fore- 
most, and checked the rest. It was but for a moment, how- 
ever, and the heroic father fell riddled with bullets and gashed 
with knives. Of his children, Caleb escaped, Samuel was 
taken, and Eunice was tomahawked and left for dead. She 
revived and lived to old age, but never fully recovered. Oliver 
Amsden was overtaken and seized. He made a gallant de- 
fense, but was cut to pieces. The guns being heard in town, 
the guard, under Capt. Hopkins, the Minute-Men, under 
Capt. Clesson and Lieut. Hoyt, hurried to the scene of blood. 
The enemy had fled up the river. Capt. Clesson followed their 
trail toward Gharlemont, but could not overtake them. 

Along the cordon of forts the irruptions of the enemy had 
been frequent, and the loss of the English very serious. Fre- 
quent " 'larrums" reached the town, upon which our men 
marched to the threatened point. Lieut. Jona. Hoyt led a 
party to Shattuck's Fort, March 31, 1747. May, 1748, Sergt. 
John Hawks led a party over to Hosack. Capt. John Catlin 
had command at Fort Shirley ; Capt. Samuel Childs, at Fort 
Pelham; Lieut. Daniel Severance, at Coleraine ; Elijah Wil- 
liams was captain of the snow-shoe men, and commissary on 
the death of Col. Stoddard. Sergt. John Hawks and Elisha 
Nims were wounded near Fort Massachusetts. 

The following were some of the soldiers serving in this war : 

Kdward Allen, John Allen, Zebediah Allis, Daniel Arms, Thomaa Arms, Ado- 
nijali Atherttm, Sluibel Atherton, Oliver Avery, Gideon Bardwell, Juliii 
Barnar^I, .TosepL Uaniard, Samuel Bernard, Benj. Barrett, John Be.iman, 
Samuel Belding, Josiah Burnham, Jona. Burt, Reuben Carry, Ceazer, Asa 
Childe, David Childs, Samuel Childs, Joseph Clesson, Mathew Clcs.<i>n, 
Charles Coats, James Coi-so, Aaron Denio, Richard Ellis, David Field, Eze- 

Martin Haqkr, father of 
the subject of this notice, was 
born in Maiden, Mass., De- 
cember, 1778, and died Sept. 
21, 1855. He was a member 
of the Legislature, and also 
selectman three years. He 
was married, in 1806, to Han- 
nah Fairbanks. She was 
born in Sudbury, Mass., 
Nov. 13, 1783, and died in 
October, 1848. They were 
blessed with a family of six 
children, of whom Charles 
Hager, the subject of this 
sketch, was the second. 

He was born in Wendell, 
Franklin Co., Mass., Oct. 9, 
1809. His educational ad- 
vantages were limited to 
an attendance of the com- 
mon school for ten or twelve 
weeks during the winter. 
When he reached his ma- 
jority he took charge of his 
father's farm until 1855, when 
they removed to South Deer- 
field. In 1857 he purchased 


the Felton farm where he 
now resides. He has since 
added to it one hundred acres, 
and expended $12,000 in 
improvements. He has en- 
gaged in dairying, raising 
tobacco, corn, etc., and is a 
successful farmer. Mr. Ha- 
ger has been trustee of Smith 
Charities one year, and also 
selectman the same length of 

He was married, June 6, 
1838, to Myra H. Felton. 
She was born in New Salem, 
Mass., Oct. 15, 1811. They 
have a family of two daugh- 
ters and three sons.- The 
eldest daughter died in 1866. 
The youngest daughter is 
married to L. L. Eaton, of 
Whately. The three sons, 
Dexter F., Otis, and Martin, 
are married, and live upon 
their father's farm. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hager are 
members of the Unitarian 
Church of Deerfield. 


Alt. Sugai^Loaf. 

RcsiDtNCE OF H. C. HASKELL. Great River, Deerfield, Mass. 

Photo, by PopkinSf Greenfield. 

Zeri Smith was born in the town of Deerfield, 
Franklin Co., Mass., June 17, 1814. His father 
was born in the same town, Aug. 11, 1786, and died 
March 13, 1835. His mother, Hannah Wriglit 
Smith, was born in Montague, Nov. 17, 1785, and 
died in Northampton, July 13, 1871, at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty- five years. 

Mr, Smith's educational advantages were limited, 
being such only as were afforded by the district 
schools. He remained at home assisting his father 
until he was twenty years old, and was then em- 
ployed by the month in the manufacture of brooms, 
in which he continued three years. In 1837 lie 
purchased the farm upon which he still resides, and 
commenced farming and also the manufacture of 
brooms. He continued in that business until 1843, 
when he abandoned the broom manufacture and 
engaged in lumbering, and furnished the lumber 
for the first aqueduct built in the city of Springfield 
for supplying the public with water. In 1852 he 
commenced raising tobacco, and was among the first 
in the town to introduce its cultivation. In 1860 
he commenced buying tobacco for New York parties, 
whom he still serves. 

In his earlier business attempts he met with 
reverses, but by industry and perseverance he has 
ill later yeai's achieved the success he deserves. For 
the past three years he has been assessor of Deer- 
field, and has also been a member of the school board 
one term. 

In politics he was formerly a Whig, but is now a 
Republican, and takes an active interest in all the 
questions of the day. 

Although not a member of any church, he is 
cliaritable, public-spirited, a good citizen, and is 
respected l)y all who know him. 

He was married, Jan. 13, 1841, to Lavinia Rice, 
who was born in Conway, Jan. 24, 1815. By this 
union he iiad three children, two of whom are 
living. Mrs. Smith died Nov. 29, 1858. He 
married his present wife, Clarissa A. Jeffords, June 
21, 1860. Siie was born in Hinsdale, N. H., Sept. 
10, 1825. His children are Henrietta L., born 
Sept. 11, 1843, and died Jan. 9, 1844; Edgar M., 
born Aug. 12, 1845; and Clarence E., born Jan. 
5, 1851. The elder son is married, and lives on 
an adjoining farm. The younger resides with his 

JosiAH Fogg, son of Josiah and Hannah Fogg, was born 
in Raymond, N. H., March 25, 1811. His father was a 
house-carpenter, and lived to the advanced age of eighty- 
seven, and died in Deerfield, in 1866. His mother died in 
Exeter, N. H., in 1862. Mr. Fogg is the eldest of a fiiniily 
of eight children, two of whom died in infancy. The 
brothers and sisters living at present are as follows : James 
P. Fogg, resident of Chicago, engaged in the seed business ; 
Lucy Jane, wife of A. H. Dunlap, Nashua, N. H. ; 
Martha N. Fogg, living in Greenfield ; W. P. Fogg, editor 
and proprietor of the Cleveland Herald, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Fogg lived with his father until he was eighteen 
years of age, during which time he attended the common 
school, and for one year Phillips' Exeter Academy. He 
also worked with his father at the carpenter trade, which 
he completed under the Washburue Bros., of Boston, 
builders of the Masonic Temple in that city, in 1832, re- 
maining with them two years. In the fall of 1834 he went 
to Florida, where he built the first frame house in Jackson- 
ville, on the St. John's River, and resided there two years. 
Upon the breaking out of the Seminole war he was ap- 
pointed sutler in the army, and followed that business 
during the war, at the close of which, in 1839, he left 
Florida and went to Richmond, Va., where he engaged in 
the crockery business in connection with his brother, James 
P. At the end of a year he disposed of his interest to 
his brotlier, and removed to Charleston, S. C, where he 
established a similar business, and continued it prosperously 
for about eight years. On account of the failure of his 

health, caused by the climate, he sold out and moved to 
Deerfield, where for three years he lived upon a farm. 
Having meanwhile recovered his health, he went to Cleve- 
land, Ohio, and again engaged in the crockery business, in 
company with his brother, W. P. Fogg. Here he remained 
three years, when disposing of his interest to his brother, 
he returned to Deerfield and purchased the farm upon 
which he has since resided. He then commenced farming 
in earnest, and is now one of the most prominent farmers 
and stock-raisers in New England. His barn, when built, 
was considered one of the finest in the State. In stock- 
raising he now makes a specialty of short-horns. 

Although Mr. Fogg has been engaged in various kinds 
of business, he considers that his greatest success has been 
as an agriculturist, and that it requires fully as much talent 
and judgment to achieve success as a farmer as it does in 
any other business he has ever followed. In 1855 and 
1856 he was president of the Franklin County Agricul- 
tural Society, and for thirty years he has been identified 
with the agricultural interests of this section. 

Mr. Fogg was united in marriag», Sept. 24, 1842, to 
Mary, daughter of Orlando Ware. Mrs. Fogg was born 
in Deerfield, March 30, 1815. Her father was one of 
the leading men of Deerfield, and settled here in 1802. 
Mr. and Mrs. Fogg are, and have been for many years, 
members of the Unitarian Church of Deerfield. 

They have no children. In politics Mr. Fogg is a Re- 
publican, but takes no active part in this direction, never 
having been an aspirant for oflSce. 



kiel Foster, Jacob Foster, John Foster, Joseph Gillet, Daniel Graves, Benj. 
Hasting, Jolin Hawks, Joshua Hawks, Ebenezer Hinsdale, Pavitl Hoyt, 
Jonathan Hoyt, Ehenezer Meachani, John Mnnn, Daniel Nash, Phineaa 
Nash, Azaiiah Niuis, Thomas Kims, Abraham Parker, Abijali Prince, 
John Sadler, Jona. Sevoiunce, Ebenezer Smead, William Smead, Samuel 
Stcbbins, Othniel Tajlor, Samuel Taylor, Jona. Wells, Joshua Wells, Elijah 
Williams, Thomas Williams, Asaliel Wright. 

This war closed by a treaty at Aix-la-Chapellc, Oct. 7, 1748. 


In 17-13 the inhabitants of Green River began to move for a 
division of the town, that they may be set off into a separate 
municipality, by the name of Cheapside, and in November 
asked bj- petition to the town that the dividing line be Deer- 
field River, from its mouth to Sheldon".? Brook ; thence up that 
brook west to the .seven-mile line. The town refused. After 
the peace of 1748 the question again came up. The old town 
was willing to divide, the boundary to be the north line of the 
' old Dedham 8000-acre graut. Greenfield insisted on the river 
and brook, as before. This matter was linally, in 1753, left to 
a committee of three from towns below, who reported on the 
10th of April that the south boundary should be the 8000-acre 
line, the west to include one tier of lots beyond the seven-mile 
line. More trouble grew out of the disposition of the seques- 
tered ministerial lands in Cheapside, with contests at home, in 
the Legislature, and civil courts, which were not settled until 
1772. Greenfield, still coveting Cheapside, has made several 
severe legislative struggles for its annexation, but the mother- 
town has always successfully defended the integrity of the 
ancient boundary. 

In 1759 a controversy arose with Hatfield about the boun- 
dary' between the towns, which was unsettled and caused con- 
siderable trouble uutil 17015, when it was fixed to start fi'om 
the place where the Pocomptuck path cro.ssed the Weekioan- 
nuck Brook, and run westward jiarallel to the south line of 

It was not until the conquest of Canada that men began to 
locate in " Deerfield Southwest,'' but the district filled up very 
rapidly, and in 1767 Conway was set off as a town. '■ Deer- 
field Pasture'' or " Deerfield Northwest" was inhabited before 
the last French war, but no permanent settlement was made 
there until about 17G2. A thriving colony soon grew up on 
her fertile hills, and Shelburne became independent of the 
mother-town in 1700. Gill, set ofl' from Greenfield in 1703, 
is the youngest daughter of old Pocomptuck; perhaps Gill 
might be more properly called a grandchild. Minor changes 
have been made in the lines between Whately, Conway, and 
• this town, which cannot be noted here, or the several attempts 
of Blood}' Brook to be set oft' as a town. 


The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was of short duration. French 
encroachments in the West led to reprisals, which brought on 
■ a general war in 1755. This brought to Deerfield the old tra- 
ditionary fears and precautions, if not danger. Oct. 15, 175G, 
the town voted to build four garrisons in the town and one at 
Wapping, with two mounts at each. These defenses were not 
tested ; the last Indian inroad had been made. Deerfield was 
made the depot for military supplies for Northern Ham]ishire. 
Capt. Elijah Williams was sub-commissary, with rank of 
major. He had also charge of fitting out numerous scouting- 
parties to cover the frontier. Our townsmen were active and 
vigilant in keeping the enemj' at a distance. Much space 
would be occupied by giving details of the part taken in this 
war by Deerfield people ; their services were prominent and 

A partial list of men who served in the last French war is 
as follows : 

Cols. Ebenezer Ilinsd.ale, William Will :anis, Lieut. -Col. Thomas Williams, Blajs. 
Selali Bannini, John Hawks, Capls. .John Catlin, Samuel Chilils, Timothy 
Childs, Samuel Wells, I.ieuts. Seth Catlin, Mathew riessun,Serj;ts. Saml. 
Barnard, Zadoek Hawks, Benjamin flinnn, John Wells, John Tavlor,Ca- 


leb Allen, Samuel Allen, Asahel Amsdon, 0)nsider Arms, David Arms, 
Eliakini .\rms, Elijah Arms, Julin .\rnis, Jonathan .\rnis, Pliineas .\rms, 
Ebenezer Barnard, Samuel Beldiufr, Asahel Eirge, John P. Bull, Jona- 
than Buriiliam, Smieon Burt, Siiarp Caleb, (Ashley) Cato, Bicliard Cary, 
Jonathan Catlin, Joseph Catlin, (Ashley )Ca?sar, (Hinsdale) Ca'sar, (Hoy t) 
Ca.'Sar, Moses Chandler, Amzi Childs, Lebeus Childs, Barnul)as Davidson, 
Abel Dinsinore, David Dickinson, Nathaniel Dickinson, Thomas Dick- 
inson, Zebediali Giaves, A.sa Hawks, John Hawks, Jr., Joshua Hawks, 
Moses Hawks, Paul Hawks, Seth Haw ks, Elislia Hinsdale, John Hins- 
dale, Joseph Holmes, David Hoyt, Ebenezer 3Ieacha?n, Alvin Blitchel, 
Elijah Mitcliel, Pliineas IHunn, John Newton, Daniel Nims, llenbcn 

Ninis, Nathaniel Parker, Oliver Pease, Peter, Abijah Prince, Solomon 

Rngg, John Knsscll, John Sadler, Martin Seveiance, Malliew Severance, 
Samuel Sliattnck, John Sheldon, Jonathan Smead, John Stebbins, Moses 
Stebbins, Samuel Stebbins, (Ashley) Titus, Ebenezer Toliuun, Amos Tute, 
James Tnte, Zeb.'diah Williams, Daniel Wittiin, .\ni;nstus Wells. 


The opening of the Revolution found the town divided in 
sentiment. Many of the leading men were loyal to the king 
and opposed to the change of government. They had held 
military and civil commissions in his Majesty's name and 
were intimate with the royal governors. The town, however, 
never failed in its duty in filling its quota of men and sup- 
plies. Oct. 7, 1774, Samuel Barnard was chosen delegate to 
the Provincial Congress at Salem. 

Jan. 28, 1775, Col. David Field and Maj. David Wells were 
chosen delegates to the Congress at Cambridge, which was to 
meet February 1st, and money voted to buy a stock of powder 
and lead. May 5th the collectors were forbidden to pay out any 
public money without an order from the town, and soon after 
were directed to pay it to Henry Gardner, of Stowe. A com- 
mittee was chosen to "see that the resolves of the Continental 
Congress were strictly adhered to." This was called the com- 
mittee of correspondence, inspection, and safety, and chosen 
annuall}' during the war. It was invested with large judicial 
and executive powers. David Field was chairman for several 
years, and kept a regular record of its proceedings. 

On the Lexington alarm a company of Minute-Men under 
Capt. Lock, Lieut. Bardwell, and Ens. Stebbins marched at 
once to Cambridge. Lock soon enlisted in the commissary de- 
partment, Bardwell returned, and Stebbins was made captain, 
and began enlisting a company April 27th, with which he was 
at Bunker Hill. April 20th, to encourage the Minute-Men at 
home, pay was allowed for time spent in drilling. May 23, 
1776, the selectmen wei'e directed to procure a supply of in- 

June 26th should be our "Independence day." On that 
day the town voted to "solemnly engage with our lives and 
fortunes" to support Congress should it " declare these colonies 
free and independent of Great Britain." The clerk was di- 
rected to forward a copy of the vote to be laid before the 
Legislature. October 7th voted to consent that the council 
and House should enact a form of government, provided it be 
made public. 

March 3, 1777, it was voted that the town will not dispose 
of the two pieces of cannon. April 20th a bounty of £20 was 
voted to each volunteer. April 22, 1778, the new constitution 
was read " paragrajih by paragraph," and, in order that it 
be considered, the meeting adjourned twelve days. May 20th, 
£210 borrowed to pay bounties. August 12th, Col. David 
Field chosen delegate to the Constitutional Convention at 
Cambridge. Sept. 1, 1780, the new constitution was read 
" with pauses between paragraphs," and a committee of nine 
chosen to examine it and report what changes ought to be 
made. June 5th voted not to accept the third article in the 
Bill of Rights, " and that in the qualification for governor, he 
should declare himself to be of the Protestant religion instead 
of the Christian." This change was made in the constitution. 
June 19th voted a bounty of §30, hard money, for three 
years' men. July 23, 1781, voted £125, hard money, to buy 
beef for the army, and £82 to pay for horses. September 6th, 
any persons furni.shing articles of clothing called for from the 



town to have the price aHowoil in their next tax. These votes 
ilhistrate the position and action of the town during this eriti- 
eal period. 

The following is the roll of the eonipany which resjiondcd 
to the call on the Lexington alarm : 

Capt. JunjiB Liick, Lieut. Thonms Burihvrll, Ens. .Toseph Stebbins, Sei-t^t**. Abel 
Piirkei-, .loel Miiiin, Ariel Nitiih, Kiiwaril lluse, Corps. Tliouuis Kiiiiiey, 
lefuie Smith, Abner SlieMun, Isaue r;»rker, Drummer James Warren, Filer 
Justin Ilitelicock, Trivatcs John Taylor, EHplialet Uiekinson, Daniel Fish, 
Silas Wright, Jona. Wells, John lliiisdale, Thomas A. Gates, Eheiie/er Fish, 
Jolm Wells, Philip lliek, Oliver Smeail, Elias Stone, John Taylor, Jr., 
Libeoua Jennings, Eben .Tones, Reuben C'hikls, Neversin Warren, Eber 
Allis, Jona. Spaflbrd, Isaac Lewis, Paul Tliayer, CeiLser (Uiekinson), Timo- 
thy Catlin, Jeremiah Newton, John Newton, Israel Ninis, Amasa Smith, 
Samuel Smeail, Timothy Fi-ary, Oliver Shattiiek, James Gibson, Remem- 
brance Grnndy, Nathaniel Parker, John Lock, Adouijah Taylor, John 
Henry, Henry Allen, Jesse Corliss, Elisha Nims. 

The roll of Capt. Joseph Stebbins' company from September 
23 to Oct. 18, 1777, in the Burgoyne campaign, is as follows : 

Capt. Joseph Stebtins, Lieut. John Bardwell, Sergts. Geo. Heibeit, Abel Parker, 
Daniel Slate, Samuel Turner, Coqis. David Hoyt, Ziba Phillips, Samuel 
Gladding, Ja^on Parnienter, Drummer James Warren, Fifer .tustin Ilitrh- 
cock, Pi'ivates John Gault, David Gray, Cephus Sheldon, Josej'h Allen, 
Amasa Sheldon, Robert Gray, Lemuel Childs, Eliphalet Dickinson, Timothy 
Catlin, Levi Newton, Eliiis Stone, Tilston Miller, Ithamar Buit, Tbomjis 
Wells, William Joiner, Stejdien Webster, William Orvis, John Conna'de, 
John Taylor, Nicholas Andrews, Jeremiah Newton, Phillip Maxwell, 
Thomas Faxon, Thomas Billings, Samuel Wheat, .Tohn Beaman, Daniel 
Bliss, Nathan Frary, Abel Harding, Samuel Bai-ker, Eliphalet Taylor, 
Edward Joiner, Moses Tate, Simeon Burt, Joseph Sanderstui. 

Other men who .served in the army are : 

Aaron Allis, John Allis, Samuel Bardwell, Reulten Bardwell, Frederick Barney, 
Elisha Barnard, Sanniel Barnard, Jesse Billings, John Boyden, William 
Bull, Simeon Carey, Sylvanus Cobb, William Daiby, Barnabiis Davidson, 
Sihas Dewey, Consider Dickinson, David Dickinson, Tliomas W. Dickinson, 
Sanuiel Donelly, Joseph Fethergill, Eleaser Fraiy, Nathan Frary, 'Ir., Abel 
Gale, Abner Goodenough, ALijah Harding, Samuel Hart, James Hogan, 
John Johnson, Leonard Laufair, Roswell Lanfair, Wm. Lovcridge, Thomas 
Mighells, Francis Munn, Moses Newton, Wm. Negus, Daniel Nims, Eben- 
ezer Nims, Isaac Nims, Seth Nims, Samuel Pratt, Moses Bobbins, Daniel 
Robbinson, Stephen Rolph, David Saxtan, Amjisa Smith, Elijah Smith, Joel 
Smith, Wm. Starr, Joseph Sweet, Joshua Sweet, Stephen Taylor, John 
Victory, Joseph Wells, Reuben Wells, Chailes Warren. 

'Deerfield people were loyal dviring the Shays rebellion. 
Joseph Stebbins, Samuel Childs, and Capt. [Daniel ?] Dickin- 
son commanded companies called out for its suppression. A 
company of 37 men were here a week, and on one occasion an 
army of 9.50 men were quartered among the inhabitants of the 
town one day. 


The first preaching at Pocomptuck of which we have any 
knowledge was by Kcv. Samuel Mather, in 1G73. He was a 
son of Timothy, of Dorchester, born in 1G51. He graduated 
at Harvard University in 1671, and was a classmate of Judge 
Sewall. On the breaking up of the settlement he retired to 
Hatfield, to his uncle, Kev. Hope Atherton, the minister 
there. Eleazer Mather, the Northampton pastor, was another 
uncle. With such surroundings, tlie young juinistcr was 
anxious to cast his lot again in his first field of labor, and ex- 
pected ofl'ers to go elsewhere, hoping to return and build up a 
church at Pocomptuck with the returning settlers. So many 
obstacles, however, intervened that in 1G80 he went to Bran- 
ford, Conn., and three or four years later settled at Windsor. 
He was a trustee of Yale College, 1700-24. He died in 1728. 

Feb. 21, 1684, Rev. Noadiah Kussel!, a Harvard graduate 
of 1681, was invited to preach here. The result of this invita- 
tion is not known. Eev. John' Williams came about the 
middle of June, 1086. 

"The Inhabitants of Deei field, to Encourage Mr. John Williams to settle 
amongst them to dispense the blessed word of Truth unto them, hiive mailo 
propositions unto liim as followeth : That they will give him Ki cow-commons 
of meadow-land, with a homc-lott that lieth on Meeting-hous hill; tliat they 
will build him a lions 42 fuot long, 20 foot wide, with a lentoo on the back side 
of the house, and finish sd bouse; to fence his home-lott, and within two years 
after this .agreement to build him a tarn, and to break up his plowing land. 
For a yearly sakary, to give him GO pounds a year for the first, and four or Ave 
years after this agreement to add to his salary, and make it 80 pounds." 

This ofler was accepted, and Mr. Williams commenced his 
eventful career in this valley Dec. 17, 1686. Another grant 
of land was voted Jan. 5, 1687. The committee for the planta- 
tion consented to the above grants, "on the condition Mr. 
Williams settle among them." After preaching about two 
years a church was formed, and Mr. Williams was ordained 
Oct. 17, 1688. He had married, the year before, Eunice, the 
daughter of Eleazer Mather, of Northampton, a second cousin 
of the first minister, Mr. Mather. 

John Williams was a son of Samuel, of Koxbury, born 
1064. He was a graduate of Harvard University in 1683, and 
came to this town at the age of twenty-two years. His cousin 
and classmate, William Williams, was settled minister at 
Hatfield about 1687. Mr. Williams shared the dangers and 
the responsibilities of the new town through the EevoUition 
of 1688 and the Indian hostilities which followed, taking 
an active part in its political aftairs. Oct. 21, 1703, having a 
hint of impending danger from Albany friends, Mr. Williams, 
writing to Gov. Dudlej', asking aid in their great distress and 
poverty, says : 

" I abated them of my salary for several years together, tho' they never asked 
it of me, and now their children must suffer for want of clothing, or the country 
consider them, and I abate them what they are to pay me. I never found tho 
people unwilling to do when they had the ability; yet they have often douo 
above their ability." 

This is a touching picture of the character and condition of 
pastor and people at this critical juncture. In the destruction 
of the town, four months later, his wife and two children were 
killed, and himself and five children taken captive and car- 
ried to Canada. In his " Kedeemcd Captive," published .soon 
after his return, may be found a detailed account of the terri- 
ble winter's march to Canada and his tedious captivity. On 
his return, November, 1706, the town sent a committee to in- 
vite him to re-settle with them, and in January, 1707, voted 
to build him a house " ivs big as Ens. John Sheldon's ; a back 
room as big as may be thought convenient." Sept. 10, 1707,- 
Mr. Williams married Mrs. Abigail BisselJ, a cousin of his 
first wife. By her he had five children, having had eleven 
b}- Eunice, his first wife. Mr. Williams died June 12, 1729. 
A contemporary speaks of his death as a " fall of one of the 
jnllars of the land;" of him, as "one who taught by example 
as well as by preaching ; an ardent lover of New England, 
its religious principles, its ecclesiastical and civil rights and 
liberties;" and says, "A grievous breach was made upon 
Deerfield." He was a man of fervor, piety, and zeal ; a firm 
believer in the supernatural, often taking note of events as oc- 
curring in direct answer to pr.aj'cr. He left a library of 520 
books and pamphlets, in English, Latin, and French. 

Rev. Benjamin Pierpont, of New Haven, graduated at Yale 
College in 1726 ; approbated to preach by the New Haven 
Association about 1728, and was preaching as a candidate as 
early as Aug. 11, 1729; and on the 20th was hired for three 
months. Meanwhile, Rev. Mr. Williams, of Hatfield, was 
using his influence against Pierpont as an immoral man. In 
spite of this, a call was given him to settle, by a vote of 36 to 
14, on the 2-3th of Januar}', 1730, and the candidate was to 
continue preaching until arrangements could be made for a 
settlement. Mr. Williams continued his charges against Mr. 
Pierpont, and more were estranged from him, and protested 
at the March meeting against the settlement. In October, 
with a vote of thanks, Pierpont left town, and is not afterward 
heard of. 

Rev. John Warren, who graduated at Harvard College in 
1725, after preaching a few months, received a unanimous call 
May 0, 1731. The people took his refusal much to heart, and 
in July earnest ett'orts were vainly made to induce him to re- 
consider his reply, and in August voted "to make further 
tryal for recovering" Mr. Warren, and " to alter the proposi- 
tions made last spring," which was sent August 26th, by 
Capt. Jona. Wells. 



James Chandler, who graduated at Harvard College in 
17li8, was the next candidate. Nov. 3, 1734, "chose the worthy 
Mr. James Chandler to be their pastor and teacher, by a great 
majority." He also declined. Discouraged with Harvard 
ministers, in December Deacon Samuel Childs was sent to 
Connecticut for a candidate. 

Kev. Jonathan Ashley, son of Jonathan, of Westfield, was 
born Nov. II, 1712. He graduated at Yale College in 1730. 
He married Dorothy, daughter of Eev. William Williams, 
of Hatfield. After preaching about three months 3Ir. Ash- 
ley received a call to settle, April 7, 1732, and was ordained 
Nov. 8, 17.32. His settlement was £300, 10 acres of land, the 
liberty of the commons, firewood, and the use of the town- 
lot, with an annual salary of £130; the settlement and the 
salary to be paid in bills of public credit at 18.s. the ounce. 
Almost from the iirst the question of salary was a troublesome 
one; the currency was tluctuating, and Boston brokers were 
often appealed to to determine its value, compared with silver. 
Controversy and contention grew up, finally causing much 
bitterness of feeling. Troubles also existed about the rent of 
the town-lot, and especially about his firewood. In April or 
May, 1780, a council of ministers was convened to settle these 
affairs. Benjamin Trumbull, the historian, was the advocate 
of the people. The scope of the council has not been deter- 
mined. Their labors inust have been prolonged and arduous, 
for they consumed "half a quire of paper and 9 quarts of 
rum." We are also in the dark about the result of this 
council. It appears, however, from the action of the town 
June 19, 1780, that the pastoral relation of Mr. Ashley to the 
town was dissolved. At that date the town chose a committee 
of three " to hire a minister of the gospel to preach in this 
town, with discretionary power to hire one for as long a time 
as they think proper." Jlr. Ashley did not long survive this 
action ; he died Aug. 28, 1780. 

Mr. Ashley was tall, of a commanding presence, with a 
strong intellect, and scholarly ; in theological and biblical 
knowledge surpassed by none in the valley, save Jonathan 
Edwards, of Northampton. The latter describes Ashley, who 
was his cousin, as " a young gentleman of liberal education 
and notable abilities ; a fluent speaker; a man of lax principles 
in religion, falling in, in some essential things, with the Ar- 
minians, and is very bold and open in it." He was "bold 
and open" in everything he did. He was opposed to Edwards 
in the great controversj' concerning church membership, and 
active in procuring his dismission from Northampton, and 
was largely instrumental in the dismissal of Rev. Edward 
Billings, an adherent of the Edwards party, from Belcher- 
town. It was a terrible blow to him when Mr. Billings, 
taking the bull by the horns, gathered a church and congre- 
gation from Mr. Ashley's own flock, in 1754. 

In the Revolution, Jlr. Ashley continued loyal to England. 
He had publicly prayed for the king weekly for forty years 
in good faith, and he could not logically or conscientiously turn 
against him. After the adoption of the State constitution he 
was called upon to read a proclamation with the usual ending, 
" God save the Commonwealth !" Drawing himself up to his 
full height, he added, " And the king too, or we are an undone 
people!" His Toryism was pi'onounced and ofl'ensive. He 
taught that a fearful doom awaited the rebels who fell at Bun- 
ker Hill, and the incensed hearers nailed up the pulpit-door. 

In the church the pastor was, in theory and practice, a strong 
supporter of priestly authority. He claimed the right to en- 
force the attendance of any church member when required to 
confer on church matters. One man being obstinate, the church 
voted, " that Oliver Hastings, when refusing to come when sent 
for by the Rev. Mr. Ashley, and also in his treatment of the 
Church when before them, has been guilty of contempt of the 
authority Christ has instituted in his Church, and that he ought 
Publiekl}' to Humble and take Shame to him.self therefor." 
This mandate not being obeyed, " on the Lord's day, Febru- 

ary 3d, I admonished him Publickly," says Mr. Ashley, " and, 
hearing he was going out of town, went to him and admon- 
ished him again." Mr. Ashley was sustained by the church 
in such matters. Thimias French having entered a complaint 
against the pastor " for some things said to him when admon- 
ishing him," it was voted " the complaint was not sustained, 
and if it was, we think the church have no right to act upon 
it, since it respects the pastor of this church." The pastor was 
evidently the " ruling elder" in this body. 

As Mr. Ashley's family increased and " became more charge- 
able," his salary was increased from time to time. In 1750 the 
increase was £260 (old tenor), in quarterly subscriptions. In 
1702 there was a new adjustment, on the basis of £80 per an- 
num. The town was delinquent in its contract with Mr. Ash- 
ley, giving him just cause of complaint. The ten acres of 
land given in settlement was not secured for more than ten 
years ; the income from the town-lot seems to have been 
withheld, and no provision made for flrewood in later years. 
In 1781 his heirs presented a claim for £787 17s. Orf., — per- 
haps by decree of the council, — which was paid by the town 
in 1782. 

Some of his published works are, "A Sermon on the Ordina- 
tion of John Norton," at Deerfield, 1741; "The Great Duty 
of Charity," 1742; "An Evening Lecture to the Negroes, to 
' Show that Christianity Allows the Relation of Master and 
Servant;'" two sermons preached at Northampton, Feb. 10, 
1751, to counteract the eft'ect of Mr. Edwards' evening lecture 
after he was dismissed ; and again, June 24, 1753, " to my own 
people," says the author, " on the occasion of a gentleman of 
Mr. Edwards' sentiments had been preaching to a part of 'my 
congregation ;" a part of a sermon preached before Mr. Bil- 
lings and theseceders about December, 1753. He officiated at 
221 marriages, 1009 bai)tisms, and 398 persons were admitted 
into the church during his ministry. 

Samuel Goodrich, of Yale College, 1783, was preaching 
here early in 178.5. July 18th he was invited to settle, but de- 
clined this year. " The town is desirous for persons to qualify 
themselves for singing in meeting, and leave the choice of 
tunes to the leaders." 

Rev. John Taylor, A.M., the thirteenth child of Eldad, 
who was the fourteenth child of Edward, the first minister of 
Wcstfleld, was born Dec. 23, 1702, just one hundred and 
twenty years after his grandfather. He was the third settled 
minister. He graduated from Yale College in 1784, and was 
ordained Feb. 14, 1787. His settlement was £250, with a 
salary of £100, and what firewood he wants, at §1 a cord. 
In his letter of acceptance, the old division and the happy re- 
union are emphasized by Mr. Taylor. He spoke discour- 
agingly of the political situation, and was filled "with the 
most alarming apprehensions," and could not predict the re- 
sult of the general confusion. Shays' rebellion was then at 
its height, but its power was broken before his ordination. 
Mr. Taylor was well acquianted with the political affairs of the 
country, and had a natural taste for the study of histor}'. In 
1793 he published a valuable " Appendix to the Redeemed 
Captive;" a "Thanksgiving Sermon," Nov. 29, 1798, a 
"Century Sermon," Feb. 29, 1804, and a "Farewell Ser- 
mon," Aug. 6, 180C, were also published. The ministry of 
Mr. Taylor had been harmonious, but on account of ill health 
he asked a dismission, which was effected Aug. 0, 1800, by a 
mutual council. On leaving, the town made him an extra 
grant of .S0G2. In 1802, Mr. Taylor made a three months' 
missionary tour to New York, visiting many settlements on 
the Mohawk and Black Rivers. He went on horseback, trav- 
eling nearly one thousand miles, speaking five or six times a 
week, organizing churches, ordaining deacons, visiting schools, 
the sick, and the dying. With all this, he found time to visit 
and describe natural curiosities and noted localities. Of some, 
drawings were made, notably the ruins of ancient forts or 
mounds on the Sandy Creek, near Lake Ontario. On leaving 



Deerfifild, Mr. Taylor engagod in farming in Enfield, Conn. 
Here lie was a loading man, often elected representative, and 
several times made .speaker of the llouse. In 1817 he re- 
moved to Mendon, N. Y., where ho was engaged in missinn- 
ary operations. In 1832 he settled as minister at Bruce, 
Mich., where he died, Dec. 20, 1840. He married, June 14, 
1788, Elizabeth Terry, of Enfield, Conn. 

Eev. Samuel Porter "Williams, A.M., of Wethersfiekl, 
Conn. He graduated from Yale College in 1790, preached 
as a candidate in the summer of 1800, and received an invita- 
tion to become pastor November 3d. This he had intended 
to accept, but, on the 15th, ho gave reasons why he felt it his 
duty to go to Mansfield, Conn. He settled there in 1807, and 
remained ten 3'ears. He died in 1826. 

Kev. Samuel Willard, D.P., eminent Unitarian divine and 
author, son of William, of Petersham, born April 18, 1776. 
He graduated from Harvard College in 1803 ; was tutor at 
Bowdoin College, 1804-5. May 18, 1807, by a vote of 22 to 
1, the church called him to "settle here in the work of the 
gospel ministry." This action was ratified June 4th, and a 
salary of $606.07 ottered him. Mr. Willard accepted, and 
August 12th was fixed as the day for ordination. The coun- 
cil met August 11th, and reported the next day that although 
they found " the pastor elect to be a gentleman of rich talents 
and aquirements in theological knowledge, of a most .■imiable 
temper and disposition, and of an exemplary frankness and 
sincerity in communicating his opinions," " they did not dis- 
cover in him that belief in the essential Dicinity of our Lord 
Jesus Christ" — the doctrines of total depravity, the super- 
natural influence of the Holy Spirit, the doctrine of election, 
and perseverance of the saints — which they consider necessary, 
and therefore they could not proceed to ordain him. August 
17th the church renewed the call, which was concurred in by 
the town, August 28th, by a vote of 114 to 84, the nays, 
with a single exception, being from Bloody Brook. Mr. Wil- 
lard's "confession of faith" was printed and sent out with the 
invitations to a new council, by which he was ordained, Sept. 
23, 1807. He married, May 30, 1808, Susan, daughter of Dr. 
Joshua Barker, of Hingham. Soon after the settlement of 
Mr. Willard most of the church members from the south part 
of the town withdrew, and afterward united in a church there. 
Mr. Willard became blind about 1820, but he continued his 
pastoral duty until Sept. 23, 1829, when he was dismissed at 
his request. He removed to Hingham, whence, after a few 
years spent in teaching, he returned to Docrfield in 1836, 
where he died, Oct. 8, 1859. 

The memory of Dr. Willard was wonderful. He learned 
the Bible by heart, and on hearing any random line of it could 
at once give the chapter and verse. He was equally familiar 
with the volume of hymns used in the Sunday service. Most 
of his literary work was done after he became blind. Some of 
his publications are " Deerfleld Collection of Sacred Music," 
1814; "Rudiments of Reading," 1815; "Original Hymns," 
1823; "Sacred Poetry and Music Reconciled," 1830; "Rhet- 
oric," 1831; "Introduction to the Latin Language," 1835; 
"Franklin Primer," "Improved Reader," "General Class 
Book," and " Popular Reader," — a series of school-books which 
went through many editions, — with sermons, pamphlets on 
various subjects, contributions to magazines, etc., etc. 

Dr. Willard was a strong anti-slavery man, an ardent 
worker for temperance, interested in science, and a fellow of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In person he 
was of marked figure and face, grave in deportment, kindly 
and atfable, a Christian gentleman, and an honest man. 

Eev. John Fessenden graduated at Harvard College in 
1818; Cambridge Theological School, 1821; tutor, 1825-27; 
was the fifth pastor of the First Church, and ordained May 
19, 1830. Mr. Fessenden was a man of scholarly attainments. 
His sermons were written rather for the learned than the com- 
mon people, and failed in interesting the young. He was sin- 

gularly gifted in public prayer, and was amiable, diffident, 
and lacking in personal magnetism. 

In 1835 he preached before a party of Indians from Canada 
who claimed to he descendants of the captive Eunice Wil- 
liams, and to be on a visit to the graves of her father and 
mother. This sermon was published. On his dismis.sal, May 
31, 1840, Mr. Fessenden removed to Dedham, where, to some 
extent, he engaged in teaching. 

Daniel B. Parkhurst, son of Dr. William, of Petersham, 
was born Feb. 20, 1818. He was two years at Amherst and 
two years at Yale, where he graduated in 1836. He studied 
at the Cambridge Divinity School, and was ordained July 21, 
1841. He was a man of rare promise, but preached only nine 
sermons, dying of consumption at Keene, N. H., Feb. 10, 1842. 

James Blodgett, A.M., graduated at Harvard College in 
1841 ; at Divinity School, Cambridge, in 1843. He was or- 
dained Jan. 17, 1844. His health failing, he was dismissed, 
June 16, 1845. He removed to Lexington, where he died 
July 11, 1845, aged thirty-three. He married, in 1844, Miss 
Wellington, of Lexington. She died Oct. 11, 1845. 

Rev. John F. Moors was born in Groton ; graduated at 
Harvard College in 1842; at Divinity School, Cambridge, in 
1845. He was ordained Jan. 28, 1846, eighth pastor of the 
First Church ; was dismissed April 9, 1800, and removed to 
Greenfield. He is further noticed in the history of that town. 

James K. Hosmer, son of Rev. Dr. George Hosmer, was 
born in Northfield, Jan. 29, 1834. He graduated at Harvard 
College in 1855; at Divinity School, Cambridge, in 1857. He 
was ordained Sept. 6, 1860. In September, 1862, he enlisted in 
Co. D, ■52d Regimentof Massachusetts Volunteers, which joined 
Gen. Banks' Louisiana Expedition. Declining a position in 
the military household of Gen. Banks, he was made corporal of 
the color-guard, and served through the campaign. He was 
in the actions of April 12th and 14th on the Teche ; under 
Gen. Grover, and with him through the Red River Expedi- 
tion, and at the siege and surrender of Port Hudson, July 8, 
1863. Mr. Hosmer was dismissed, Sept. 2, 1866, to take a pro- 
fessorship in Antioch College. He is now a professor of the 
State Univcrsitj' of Mi.ssouri, and author of "The Color- 
Guard," — one of the most entertaining books which the Rebel- 
lion has brought forth ; Boston, 1864, — " The Thinking Bay- 
onet," 1865; "A History of German Literature," 1879; and 
is a liberal contributor to papers and magazines. 

Edgar Buckingham, A.B., son of Joseph T., was born at 
Boston, Aug. 29, 1812. He graduated at Harvard College in 
1831, and was the principal of Northfield Academy, 1831-32; 
graduated at Cambridge Divinity School, 1835; settled min- 
ister at Dover, N. H., 1835 ; in Trenton, N. Y., 1840 ; in Troy, 
N Y., 1853 ; and Dcertield in 1868. He married, June 5, 1835, 
Sally Ann Hart. Mr. Buckingham has been a voluminous 
writer for newspapers and magazines. He was an early advo- 
cate of the abolition of slavery, especially in an oration deliv- 
ered July 4, 1842. This was printed, as have been several of 
his sermons. Of the Unitarian denomination, but maintains 
the view that "the religion of Jesus Christ consists in obedi- 
ence to God, unconnected with sectarian opinions." He has 
an active, ingenious mind and scholarly culture. 


Oct. 1, 1838, a portion of the First Congregational Society- 
organized a new body under the title of the " Orthodox Soci- 
ety." A church of the seceders had been formed June 2, 
1835. In 1838 a meeting-house was built on Memorial Lane. 
The first stated supply for the pulpit of this society was Rev. 
Pomeroy Bcldcn, 1837-42. 

Mr. Belden, son of Aaron, of Whately, was born in 1811 ; 
graduated at Amherst College in 1833 ; Andover Theological 
Seminary in 1836. He married, in 1836, Louisa Tenny ; (2d) 
1841, Miranda Smith, of Hadley. Ordained evangelist Aug. 8, 
1837; installed pastor at Amherst in 1842; died March 2, 1849. 

Plinto. l.y roiikins. 

Elisha WEiJJi was Ijoni in DeerKekl, Franklin 
Co., Mass., Ang. 25, 1821. His educational ad- 
vantage.s were very poor and limited to an attend- 
ance of the district school, in the old brick school- 
house on the common, summer and winter, until 
he was nine years old, and during the winter 
months from that time until seventeen years of 
age. The inheritance he received from his father 
was continuous hard labor and severe discipline, 
which would no doubt be a good gift if not too 
liberally bestowed, as was the case in this instance. 

He was hired out to work upon a farm when 
twelve years of age, his father receiving his wages 
until Elisha was twenty-one. After he reached 
his majority he found employment with a farmer, 
where he remained until his employer's decease, 
two years afterward. Upon the settlement of the 
estate he received twenty-five per cent, of his claim 
against it; and his dividends in later years on "ac- 
commodation" accounts, indorsed notes, and money 
loaned to supposed friends, have ranged from zero 
to forty per cent., and generally the lower figure. 

His religious belief — without belonging to any 
church — is to attend divine worship, and help sup- 

port the same ; to " do unto others as you would 
that they should do unto you ;" but never to bor- 
row the livery of Christ in which to serve the 
devil, as is instanced and illustrated in the many 
recent defalcations, forgeries, and premeditated bank- 
ruptcies committed by men holding high positions 
in the Church. 

In politics he is independent. Bound to no party, 
he casts his vote for the candidate whom he con- 
siders best (qualified to fill the office. He has never 
sought office, but has been honored by his towns- 
men with the positions of selectman, town clerk, 
and treasurer. One or more of these offices he has 
held each year for the past twenty -three years. 

Of his family history he knows very little. What- 
ever success he has gained in life is the result of 
his own efforts, and whether his ancestors came 
from England in the Mayflower, or from any 
other coast of the Old \Yorld, is a matter of indiffer- 
ence to him. 

Mr. Wells was married, Jan. 4, 1849, to Lois 
H., daughter of Elisha Hare, of Deerfield, by 
whom he has four children, — Charles A., Francis 
B., Theron B., and Mary W. 

Photo by Toiikirn. 

^^c,^-ur^1 M^^'f' 

Hiram Root was born Oct. 27, 1805, in Montague, 
Franklin Co., Mass. He was tlie son of Selah and 
Elizabeth Childs Root. His father, who was born 
in Montague, Sept. 8, 1766, was a man of sterling 
integrity, a devoted Christian, and deacon in the 
Congregational Ciuirch of Montague. He died in 
Burtonville, N. Y., Sept. 20, 1842. Elizabeth 
Childs, his mother, was born Feb. 17, 1769, and 
died April 19, 1835. The parents of Hiram Root 
were married Feb. 6, 1794. They were blessed with 
a family of ten children, of whom the subject of this 
memoir was the seventh. 

The earlier years of Hiram Root's life were spent 
upon his father's farm in Montague. His educa- 
tional advantages were few, and confined entirely to 
the common schools. When he reached his majority 
he engaged in the manufacture of hats and cloth, in 
which he continued until 1832, when he removed to 
Deerfield to reside with his uncle, Simeon Ciiilds. 
He was married April 30, 1829, to Caroline Hanson, 
who was born in East Deerfield, Oct. 28, 1809. 
They had a family of four children, all daughters, 
only one of whom survives, viz., Helen, wife of 
Albert Stebbins. 

Mr. Childs, at his decease, left his farm to his 
nephew, but Mr. Root, not having any particular 
taste for farming, leased the farm, and again engaged 
in manufacturing, first stoves, then lead pipe, and 

afterward straw-cutters. He was the first in the 
Connecticut Valley to cultivate and manufacture 
sorghum. He was very successful in business, and 
accumulated a comfortable fortune. In politics he 
was a Republican, but never sought public office. 

Mr. Root's mechanical and inventive powers were 
of a high order, and he was never so happy as 
wiien surrounded by machinery, with an o[)jiortunity 
for the study of its mechanism and possible improve- 
ment. He was a man of great liberality, of strictest 
integrity, and unblemished reputation. He was of a 
jiarticularly energetic disposition, never feeling that 
anything was too great for him to undertake, and he 
seldom failed in his endeavors. Indeed, so full of 
energy and activity was he, that it was laughingly 
said among his friends that " he never sto|)ped to 
walk until after he was sixty years old." He wa.s 
social and genial, delighting in jokes, and was es- 
pecially fond of children and pets of all kinds. 

His sudden death, Jan. 13, 1874, was a shock to 
the community, every member of which felt it as the 
loss of a personal friend. He died of heart disease, 
from which he had suffered for over two years. 
His sufferings were borne with great patience, and 
his energy never left him. Indeed, death claimed 
him in the midst of active business and usefulness. 
He still lives in the hearts of those who knew and 
loved him. 



Efv. Henr}- Seymour, son of Horace, of Hadley, was born 
in 1816 ; graduated at Amherst College in 1838 ; Union Tbe- 
ological Seminary, in New York, in 1842. He married, in 
1844, Laura I. Fish, of Shelburne; (2d) 1851, Sophia Wil- 
liams, of Ashticld. Settled pastor March 1, 1843; dismissed 
March 14, 1849 ; settled at Hawley Oct. 3, 1849, where he is 
still in charge. 

Rev. Alfred E. Ives was born in New Haven in 1809 ; 
graduated at Yale College in 1837 ; studied theology at New 
Haven; pastor of Colebrool< in 1838-48; settled here Sept. 5, 
1849; dismissed in 1855; removed to Castine, Me. 

Eev. Robert Crawford, D.D., was born in Paisley, Scotland, 
in 1804; came with his father to Canada in 1821. After a few 
years of frontier life in the woods, he became an operative in 
a cotton-mill at Hoosick Falls, N. Y., in 1826. After three 
j'cars there, and two or three more in a mill at Bennington, 
Yt., he entered "Williams College, graduating in 1836 ; was a 
year or two tutor there. He studied theology at Princeton, 
N. J., and at the Union Theological Seminary in New York, 
and was ordained pastor at North Adams, Aug. 20, 1840. He 
married, Sept. 30, 1840, Ellen M., daughter of President 
Griffin, of Williams College. Jan. 13, 1858, be was installed 
in Deerfield, where he still remains, an example to his fellows 
and an honor to the town. He received the honorary degree 
of D.D. from Jeft'ersou College in 1858; he was State Senator 
in 1863. 

Meeting-TIouses. — Previous to Philip's war the settlers wor- 
shiped in the garrisoned houses, and made no attempt, so 
far as we learn, to build a meeting-house. The first one 
erected was about 1G84 ; this was doubtless of logs, the walls 
daubed with clay, and the roof thatched. Oct. 30, 1694, the 
town voted "to build a new meeting-house" on Meeting-house 
Hill " the bigness of Hatfield meeting-house, only the height 
to be left to ye judgment and determination of ye committee." 
The location was also left to the same body. It stood a few 
rods west of north from the soldiers' monument, a frame 
building about tliirty feet square, two stories high, with 
Lipped roof, on the centre of which rose a steeple with spire 
and vane. Three doors led to the interior, which was fur- 
nished with eight long seats on each side of a narrow aisle, 
running from the front door to the pulpit, which was perched 
against the wall opposite ; a gallery occupying the other three 
Bides, the front one containing four rows of seats, and those 
on the side three each. This building was covered with 
shingles and clapboarded. Two years after the vote to build 
it was so far finished that a committee was chosen "to be 
seaters, to seat, y' is to say, to determine where every person 
to be seated shall sit in y'' new meeting-house. Y'= Rules for 
Seating to be Age, State, and Dignity." 

The galleries were not completed until about 1701, when a 
new classification of the sittings was required. At a town- 
meeting, Oct. 2, 1701, "As to estimation of seats, y" town 
agreed and voted that y° fore seat in y' front Gallery shall be 
equall in dignity with the 2d seat in the body of the Meeting- 
House ; that y" fore seat in y" side Gallery shall be equall in 
dignity with the 4th seat in the body of the Meeting-House ; 
that y" 2d seat in the front Gallery, and y'' hind seat in the 
front Gallery, shall be equall in dignity to y" 5th seat in y" 
Bodj-;" and so on, gravely settling the grade of each seat 
in the house. A more difficult job, it would seem, — that of 
"dignifying" and grading the congregation, — was left to a 
committee of Capt. Wells, Lieut. Hoyt, Ens. Sheldon, Sergt. 
Hawks, and Deacon French, to be done by " age, estate, place, 
and qualifications." 

In 1803 the trustees of Deerfield Academy had leave of the 
town to " build pews for students in the back parts of the 
North and South Galleries." The boys were seated in the 
former, the girls in the latter. In this building Mr. Williams 
began and ended his ministry. Here, in 1709, he had leave 
" to build a pew for his wife and family to sit in, in one of 

the places left for a guard-seat." At the same time, Samuel 
Williams, Jonathan Wells, and Samuel Barnard had leave to 
"build a sete or pue in ye (Sther gard-seat place." In 1713 
the dignity of the front gallery seat was lowered one peg, and 
made equal only " to the 3d seat in the Body."' 

Third Meeting-House.— 1\\(t town voted, Oct. 25, 1728, to 
build a new meeting-house, to be covered in 1729. The next 
April the selectmen were instructed to "procure a suitable 
quantity of Drink and Cake to be spent at y' Raising of y" 
Meeting-house." This house was forty by fifty feet, and 
covered the spot on which stands the soldiers' monument, the 
front on the west line of Ihe street, the south end ranging a 
few feet south of the Dickinson Academy, two stories high, 
roof two-sided, with a steeple rising from the centre, sur- 
mounted by a brass ball and cock, the same cock doing duty 
since 1824 on the spire of the brick meeting-house. By this 
arrangement of the steeple, the bell-rope came down to the 
centre aisle, in front of the pulpit. Like the old house, there 
were three doors of entrance and galleries on three sides, the 
pulpit on the west side, opposite the front door, with deacons' 
seat in front, facing the same way. Pews were gradually 
erected in place of long seats, but not until 1787 was the whole 
lower floor occupied by them. In 1768 the steeple was taken 
down, and a new one built from the ground at the north end ; 
this was square at the bottom, and afforded a porch for the 
north door, and stairs to the north gallery. An elaborate porch 
was built over the south door, with stairs to the south gallery ; 
the old inside stairs at the northeast and southeast corners 
were removed. A larger bell was procured, a clock bought by- 
subscription, the cock new gilded, and set sentinel over all. 
The main building was furni.shed with new windows, newly 
clapboarded, and painted stone-color, the doors being choco- 

In 1818 the town was divided into two parishes. The north 
part, the "First Congregational Parish in Deerfield," retained 
the old meeting-house. 

Fourth Meeting-House. — December, 1823, steps were taken in 
this parish to build a new meeting-house, and the corner- 
stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies, Jan. 1, 1824. 
The building, of brick, was dedicated Dec. 22, 1824. The 
cost of the structure was about §6000; the site, paid for by a 
subscription, §530. The old cock, with feathers new bur- 
ni.shed, was restored to his perch, where he has seen the genera- 
tions of men come and go, and faced the storms of one hundred 
and fifty years. 

The Orthodox Society, at the old street, built a meeting- 
house on Memorial Lane in 1838. 

The Second Congregational Society, at Bloody Brook, built 
a meeting-house in 1821 ; this was removed to a new site in 
1848 ; large additions and repairs were made in 1865. 

A meeting-house was built for the Monument Society in 
1848. In 1871 it was sold to the Catholics, by whom it is still 

The Methodist meeting-house at Bloody Brook was built in 

The meeting-house for the Baptists at Wisdom was built in 


was organized at Bloody Brook, June 30, 1818. As early as 
1767 money was occasionally voted to hire preaching in the 
south part of the town during the bad travel.ing, and for sev- 
eral years before 1783, President Timothy Dwight, of Yale 
College, then a young man, was employed to preach there. 
Rev. Benjamin Rice, the first pastor, was born in Sturbridge 
in 1784; graduated at Brown University in 1808, at Andover 
Theological Seminary in 1811 ; pastor at Skaneateles, 1813- 
17; installed here Feb. 10, 1819; dismissed 1827; pastor at 
Gloucester, Me., 1828-35; at Buxton, Me., 183;5-42 ; preached 
at Winchendon, Mass., 1843-46. Mr. Rice married Harriet 



Barrett, of Sharon, Conn. ; (2d) Almira Whipple, of Charl- 
ton ; (3d) Lncy Whitney, of Winchendon. He died July 12, 

Tertius S. Clarke was born in Westhampton in 1799 ; grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1824 (D.D. Hamilton College, 
1856); studied theology at Auburn; ordained Oct. 3, 1827; 
dismissed April 1, 1833; pastor at Haddam, Conn., 1835-37; 
at Stockbridgc, 1837-50; at Penn Yan, N. Y., 1850-53; at 
i>anklin, N. Y., 1853. 

Kev. William M. Richards, A.M., was born at Hartford, 
Conn., in 1805; graduated at Williams College in 1832; 
.studied theology at Auburn; ordained Nov. 25, 1835; dis- 
missed Sept. 6, 1843; pastor at Norwich, N. Y., 1844-45; at 
Oxford, N. Y., 184G ; at Hamilton, N. Y., 1847-50; at Mor- 
risville, N. Y., 1850-52; removed to Waukegan, Ills., 1852. 

Eev. Abraham Jackson was born in Carver in 1793; grad- 
uated at Bangor Theological Seminary ; ordained pastor at 
Maehias, Me., 1821; dismissed 1834; pastor at Kingston, 
1834 ; at Walpole, N. H., 1838-45 ; installed at Bloody Brook, 
Oct. 22, 1845; dismissed 1847; preached a year or two at 
Maehias, and until 1852 at Quechee, Vt., and after that at 
Windsor, Vt. He became a Unitarian after leaving here, 
and was at Waverly, Iowa, in 1872, without a charge. 

Rev. Moses K. Cross was born in Danvers in 1812; grad- 
uated at Amherst College in 1838, and at the Theological 
School of Andover; ordained pastor at Palmer in 1842; dis- 
missed 1849; installed pastor here, Sept. 4, 1850; dismissed. 

Eev. P. K. Clark graduated at Yale College in 1838, where 
he was tutor; installed June 29, 1859; dismi-ssed Sept. 26, 

Eev. Edward 0. Bartlett, chaplain in the war of the Rebel- 
lion ; installed Jan. 17, 1867 ; dismissed , 1868 ; settled in 

Providence, and was successor of Dr. Todd at Pittsfield ; now 
pastor at Lynnfield. 

Eev. Simeon Miller came from the First Church in Holyoke; 
installed April 13, 1870 ; dismissed 1872. 

Rev. Charles S. Brooks graduated at Amherst College in 
1863; installed Jan. 14, 1873; dismissed April 17, 1877; 
settled pastor in Putnam, Conn. 

Rev. Spencer E. Brownell graduated at Amherst College 
in 1872; teacher in Japan several years; ordained tenth 
pastor of this church, July 2, 1878. 


A serious difficulty arising in the community at Bloody 
Brook, a party seceded from the Second Church, and organ- 
ized the "Monument Church," Jan. 25, 1849. 

Eev. David A. Strong was born at Haddam, Conn., in 1820; 
graduated at William.s College in 1845; at the Theological 
Institute of Windsor, Conn., in 1843 ; was ordained first pastor 
March 21, 1849. This church reunited wifii the Second 
Church, Sept. 26, 1865, and Mr. Strong was dismissed. He 
wa.s a representative to the General Court from District No. 
4 in 1806. 

The Methodist Society at Bloody Brook was organized in 


was organized Feb. 26, 1787. Deacon Daniel Long was called 
to the pastoral office, Aug. 27, 1791, and was ordained at his 
own house in Shelburne, Sept. 19, 1 792. He was a faithful min- 
ister of this church until his death, May 31, 1831. In 1794 
the question of building a nieeling-house began to be agitated. 
Before 1806 one had been partly built, and perhaps finished. 
In 1809 it was agreed to build a meeting-house between Elder 
Long's and Aaron Hawks'. The same year the Deerlield 
part of the society agreed to build a meeting-house in Wis- 
dom. This was finished in 1810. On the death of Elder 
Long the Shelburne people withdrew, and the cliurch was re- 
organized in Wisdom, under the title of the "First Baptist 
Society in Deerfield." Some trouble ari ing, a party seceded 

and formed the " Second Baptist Society in Deerfield." This 
branch, Nov. 25, 1833, took the name of the " Long Ba|)tist 
Society of Deerfield." Feb. 20, 1834, the "First Baptist 
Church in Deerfield" was dissolved by a majority of one vote, 
and, the minority applying to the church at Sunderland to be 
organized as a branch of that church, a council met, June, 
1834, and decided that the church was not dissolved, and 
could not be by a simple vote. The trouble continuing, a 
second council, August 27th, advised aggrieved members to 
ask for letters of dismission. 

Arra Martin, who was the first minister of the First Chnr<h, 
was succeeded in 1837 by W. II. Dalrymple. Edward Hale 
was the minister about 1841-45, when George B. Bills was 
settled. Milo Frary and W. A. Pease have supplied at times 
since. Of late there has been no regular preaching. 

The "Long Baptist Society" was supplied by Tristram 
Aldrich for about seven or eight years, when the two societies 
were reunited. 


The Eoman Catholic Church at Bloody Brook was organ- 
ized in 1871. The society occupies the meeting-house built 
b}' the ^Monument Society. 

The " Old Burying-Ground" is doubtless the spot where the 
first settlers deposited their dead. It is located at the lower 
end of Hitchcock Lane, and was the west end of the " town- 
lot" set apart for the use of the ministry. For more than a 
century this was the only " God's acre" in the town. There 
rest the fathers and mothers of the settlement. In one awful 
grave, undistinguished save by a faint tradition, lie the 
ghastly slain of Feb. 29, 1704. There the murdered Mrs. 
Williams lies beside her husband, our first minister. Few of 
the earlier graves are marked by monuments ; that to Joseph 
Barnard, killed b}' Indians, 1094, bears the oldest date to be 
found. There rest many other victims of the Indian wars, — 
John Allen and wife, slain at the Bars, May 11, 1704; their 
gallant grandson, Samuel Allen, who fell defending his chil- 
dren, 1740; Eleazer Hawks, Adonijah Gillet, Oliver and 
Simeon Amsden, who fell at the same time ; Ebenczer Shel- 
don, killed in 1746. Many unmarked graves contain the 
ashes of the Broughtons, Wellses, Beldings, 'and other vic- 
tims of inhuman war. Here repose at least nine soldiers who 
followed Turner through the turmoil and din of the battle 
which cost him his life and named the scene of the conflict, — 
William Arms, Eleazer Hawks, Philip Mattoon, Godfrey 
Nims, Robert Price, William Smead, Benjamin Wait, Jona- 
than Wells, the yo\ing hero of the occasion, and his brother, 
Thomas Wells. 

The first recorded notice of this ground was made in 1703. It 
was used by the larger part of the town until 1800, when a new 
lot was opened on Fort Hill, east of the town street, which has 
since been the princii)al receptacle for our dead. The South 
Wisdom ground was used for burial purposes about a hundred 
years ago. This does not appear to have been town property. 
It lies in a pasture, and has long been unused; the gravestones 
are in a ruinous conditidn. About the same time the burying- 
ground in North Wisdom, called the " Robber's Yard," began 
to be occupied. In 1804 the town voted not to take a deed of 
this land. In 1803 the old grave-yard at Bloody Brook, con- 
taining three-quarters of an acre, was bought by the town of 
Zebediah Graves. Probably it had been occupied some years 
before. The new ground of four acres, near the Whately 
line, was bought of the same man in 1848. In a pasture at 
Pine Nook, on the old Brigham farm, lies a deserted grave- 
yard of unknown origin, unused for fifty or sixty years. A 
new one was opened in that district about 1812. In 1816 the 
town voted §25 to fence it, on condition the owner give a deed 
to the town. No deed has been found. In 1811, E. H. Wil- 
liams sold to the town half an acre north of the Baptist meet- 

Charles E. Williams was 
born in Deerfield, Franklin Co., 
Mass., Feb. 29, 1824. He is 
the youngest son of Horace 
and Mary Williams. 

Horace Williams, his father, 
was born in Deerfield, July 25, 
1784. Mary Nims, his mother, 
was born in the same town. 
May 9, 1786. They were 
married May .31, 1811. Their 
son, Charles E., received the 
rudiments of his education in 
the common schools, and com- 
pleted it in the Deerfield Acad- 
emy. He is a farmer, and has 
always lived upon the farm 
which he inherited from his 
father. The property was 
heavily encumbered when it 
came into his possession, but 

he has satisfied all claims and 
materially improved it. The 
farm at present contains two 
hundred and ten acres. 

In politics, Mr. Williams is 
a Democrat, and a stauncli sup- 
porter of his party. He has 
served in the capacity of select- 
man for three years. 

He was married, Nov. 27, 
1856, to Helen L. Field. She 
was born in Conway, March 2, 
1837. They have five children, 
all living. They are: Henry 
F., born July 30, 1858; Mary 
N., born Dec. 14, 1860; 
Charles W., born Nov. 8, 
1864; Nellie R., born March 
1, 1867, and Alice Maud, 
born March 26, 1871. 

Plioto. by PopkiDs, Greenfield. 


laigfllBlKl©!! ©[? ©Hia^ILlg E. WBiy^B 


Mrs, Esther (Harding) 
Dickinson was born in Whate- 
ly, Mass., Feb. 13, 1790. She 
was the daughter of Capt. Abi- 
jali Harding, and a descendant 
of Abraham Harding, who came 
to this country from England 
in 1023. She married Consider 
Dickinson, a successful farmer 
in Deerfield, Jan. 7, 1840, when 
he was seventy-nine years old 
and she was fifty. They lived 
together peacefully and happily 
until his death, Dec. 16, 1854, 
at the age of ninety-three years 
and ten months. 

He left his property, the accu- 
mulated earnings and savings of 
many years, to his wife. She 
lived in a simple, unostentatious 
way, a thoroughly good woman, 
honest and upright in all her 
dealings. She survived her 
husband twenty-one years, and 
died, June 15, 1875, at the age 
of eighty-five. By her will she 
bequeathed the bulk of her 
property — to the amount of 



$60,000 — to trustees for the 
establishment and maintenance 
of a high school, library, and 
reading-room, to be located on 
her " home lot" in Deerfield. 
The trustees also received from 
the Deerfield Academy, when 
the property was merged into 
that received from Mrs. Dickin- 
son, about $18,000, and in 1878 
they proceeded to eiect a build- 
ing for the use of the school 
and library. This building, 
with a valuable apparatus, etc., 
cost about $24,000. It was 
dedicated Dec. 31, 1878, and 
the school opened under the 
charge of J. Y. Bergen, Jr., 

It is the expectation of the 
trustees that this will be a first- 
class institution, where pupils 
can be fitted for college, for 
scientific schools, and for busi- 
ness, while at the same time it 
furnishes to the inhabitants of 
Deerfield a high school without 
cost to them. 




ing-house for a buryiiig-ground. This is now in use for that 
part of the town. In 1808 the town voted to buy a burial- 
place at Great Kiver, near Jona. Cobbs', which had been pre- 
viously occupied. No deed of this is found. At Mill River 

a burial-yard was established about . In 1826 the town 

voted to fence this ground, provided Mr. JIawks will give it 
a deed of the land. In 18-59 the lot w^as enlarged by land 
bought of Messrs. Timothy and Charles Phelps. There are 
also several private burial-places, — Stebbins', at Sugar-Loaf ; 
De Wolf and Hawks', in South "SVi.sdom, and two belonging 
to the Catholics, in North Wisdom, near the Greenfield line; 
and a part of the new " Greenfield Cemetery'' lies within our 

In 1694, Mrs. Hannah Beaman was keeping school on her 
own home-lot when the town was assaulted. This is the first 
notice of a school. In her will, dated 172.3, Mrs. Beaman left 
her lands to the town for a school fund. In 1698, a scliool- 
house was built, 21 by 18 feet, — seven-foot posts. Each head 
of a family was to pay for the support of schools, whether their 
children attended or not. In 1700, the first school committee 
was John Catlin, John Hawks, and John Stebbins. In 1703, 
Mr. John Kichards was chosen to keep school a year for £25, 
to be paid one-third in barley, two-thirds in wheat, corn, or 
rye, — no oats receivable. In 1717, the school-house was sold 
to Joseph Alexander for £.5. In 1722, a master was hired to 
teach reading, writing, and ciphering. In 1737, a school- 
house was built. Ill 1732, a school-dame was employed for 
Green Kiver, and a schoolmaster in 1740. In 1744, £60 were 
allowed Green River for schools and preaching. In 1748, 
Betty Childs was emplojed as teacher. In 1749, evening 
school was established. In 1750, a master the year round. 
In 1752, Eleazer May was master. In 1758, Nicholas Street 
was master. In 1754, Levi Dickinson. In 1755, James Tay- 
lor was master. In 1760, a school-house was built south of 
Meeting-house Hill, — Seth Phelps teacher. In 1767-70, Rufus 
"Wells was employed. In 1767, a school-house was built at 
Bloody Brook, where a master to teach reading and writing 
was allowed iu 1770. In 1767-68, Rebecca Childs was school- 
dame. Before the close of the Revolution the principal 
teachers were David Dickinson, Daniel Cooley, Samuel Bar- 
nard, Daniel Fish, Elihu Ashley. In 1779, a school-house 
was built at Wapping. In 1782, a master was hired to keep a 
grammar school. In 1787, the town was divided into six dis- 
tricts, — No. 1, Town Street and Cheapside; 2, Bloody Brook; 
3, Wisdom ; 4, Wapping and Bars ; 5, Mill River ; 6, Great 
Kiver. The number of districts has been changed from time 
to time as the original districts have been subdivided and re- 
united. The district system was continued until abolished by- 
law. In 1790 a school-house burned, and a new one was built 
in 1791. Schools have been kept in many of the present houses 
in town, cither private or public. Gradually houses for schools 
were built in each district. All these are now owned by the 
town. In 1787, fifteen citizens of the town, feeling the need 
of instruction of a higher grade, organized a company, and 
built a school-house on the spot where Philo Munn's shop 
stands. Each share representing two scholarships, the school 
could not exceed 30 scholars. Freegrace Reynolds, a graduate 
of Yale, was employed as teacher. 


An act establishing this institution was approved by Gov. 
Adams, March 21, 1797. The same year §2700 were raised by 
subscription, in sums from $20 to $100, for the building and for 
a fund. The school building was put up — 60 by 28, of brick, 
two stories — in 1798, and dedicated Jan. 1, 1799. 

This academy at once took rank among the best in the land. 
The attendance of scholars the first year was 292, from forty- 
one ditferent towns. Many who have held high stations in 
the community were graduates or teachers in this school. 

In 1859, the academy was merged in the town high school. 
In 1878, its funds were transferred to the trustees of the Deer- 
field Academy and Dickinson High School, to be used in con- 
nection with the bequest of Mrs. Esther Dickin.son. An ac- 
count of this school will be found elsewhere. 

The brick school-house that stood on the common was built 
in 18 — , and burned in 1840. 

A high school was established in 1860 at Bloody Brook. 


Agriculture has always been the leading industry of our 
population. The first settlers cultivated successfully wheat, 
Indian corn, barley, rye, and oats. Flax was a crop essential 
to a livelihood, contributing largely to clothing and household 
stuff. Sheep-husbandry was equally necessary for the same 
ends. Both continued indispensable so long as cloth-making 
was a home industry. For more than a century barlej'-malt 
was an article of traffic, and home-brewed beer a daily bev- 
erage. Tobacco was raised as early as 1694, and as a field 
crop about 1790. For about twenty-five years this weed has 
been the staple crop. In 1869 our town produced nearly 400 

Previous to the reign of tobacco, beef was king for several 
generations in the valley of the Connecticut. A man of stand- 
ing was largely estimated by. the number, and especially by 
the quality, of his fat oxen. I'nder this dynasty Deertield 
held many "lords of the valley" and a few princes of the 
realm. These were well known to the epicures of New York 
and Boston. 

In the early days every man's house was a factory, and the 
family all operatives ; the men made their plows, yokes, carts, 
drags, shovels, scythe-snaths, rakes, forks, flails, mortars, 
bowls, plates, household furniture, fiax-brakes, corn-fans, 
and sometimes spinning-wheels ; the women carded, spun, 
wove, and made up their garments of linen, tow, linsey- 
woolsey, flannel, and fulled cloth. "Arbs" furnished tea, 
and the maple their sugar. The people lived oil' the land ; 
the blacksmith made the plowshares, cart-irons, chains, axes, 
hoes, and scythes ; the tanner furnished the leather ; and the 
shoemaker made shoes, slippers, moccasins, and horse-tackling. 
A few articles of prime necessity, like rum, iron, steel, brass, 
and pewter utensils, were imported. A division of labor ob- 
tained after a while, and a century ago we had handicraft-men 
in abundance, which increase with our growth, — bakers, bar- 
bers, button-makers, blacksmiths, bookbinders, brick-makers, 
cabinet-makers, carpenters, distillers, gunsmiths, gravestone- 
cutters, hatters, jewelers, joiners, saddlers, shoemakers, tailors, 
tanners, wagon-makers, weavers, wig-makers. 

Lumber was at first sawed in ■■ saw-pits," corn pounded in 
mortars, or taken horseback to Hatfield mill. In 1690 mills 
were established here. From time to time mills have been 
built in differeut parts of the town to supply its needs. 
Little lumber or grain had been manufactured for exporta- 
tion. Fifty years ago a large number of brooms were made 
from broom-corn, with wliich our meadows were wellnigh 
covered ; the brooms were sold about the country by ped- 
dlers, and later sent to New York and Boston for a market. 

Considerable business was done, 171.5-95, by Joseph Steb- 
bins and Zadock Hawks, who owned tanneries on adjoining 
lots. Much of their stock was worked up by them into shoes, 
tump-lines,* and soldiers' accoutrements. The Hawks estab- 
lishment was carried on by Zenas Hawks a generation longer. 
At Bloody Brook, Samuel D. Billings carried on the business 
of tanning until his works were burned, about 1873. 

Pocket-books of every variety have been manufactured for 
forty vears at this village. In 1869, Charles Arms employed 
75 hands, and produced a value of §92,000 ; Pease & Rudduck, 
24 hands, with a product of §22,000 ; L. L. Eaton turned out 

* A. strip or lyie to put across the f .>reliea«l, t > cn.ibl j oue tj i-arry a pa..-li. 



?4000; North & Mishow, 51000; Hamilton & Co., with 2G 
hiinds, produced a value of 940,000. In lumber and grain, 
D. L. Goddard produced $3.5,000. In two shops carriages to 
the amount of §8000 were manufactured the same year. 

At the Mill village R. N. Porter produced $35,000 manu- 
facturing lumber, grain, and husks, and W. W. Porter about 
$.')000 in grain. Robert Child.s, in lumber and grain, on Port 
Hill, handled a value of l?2.!J,000. John J. Greenough, in the 
same locality, made cider and vinegar, with sales of $1500. 
He has since manufactured pickles. From the lumber-mills 
of C. C. Bates and Smith & Phelps $7000 worth was turned 
out. Wm. P. Allen made shingles to the amount of $3000. 

The John Kus.sell Cutlery Works, the pioneer in America, 
established about forty years ago, had, in 1869, a capital of 
$520,000. It produced in that year knives to the value of 
$721,000, employing 500 men and consuming $85,000 worth 
of stock.* 

Before the advent of railroads, Cheapside, being at the head 
of " fall boat"' navigation on the Pocomptuck, was a place of 
considerable trade. Goods were hauled by teams from here to 
Greenfield and the towns to the north and west. A cooper- 
shop, an establishment for barreling beef, and a cabinet-shop 
were located here, and other industries. 


The Pocomptuck Valley Memorial Association, with head- 
quarters at DeertieUl, was incorporated by an act of the Legis- 
lature in 1870. The then " Trustees of the Old Indian House 
Door" — George Sheldon, Robert Crawford, Nathaniel Hitch- 
cook, Luke Wright, and Samuel F. Wells — were named as cor- 
porators. The meeting for organization was held May 20, 
1870. The officers chosen were George Sheldon, President; 
Josiah D. Canning, of Gill, and James M. Crafts, of Whately, 
Vice-Presidents ; Recording Secretary and Treasurer, Na- 
thaniel Hitchcock ; Coi-rcsponding Secretary, Rev. Robert 
Crawford, D. D. ; Councillors, Rev. P. N. Finch, of Green- 
field ; I). O. Fish, of Shelburne ; Jonathan Johnson, of Mon- 
tague ; Moses Stebbins, of Bloody Brook ; Rev. Edgar Buck- 
ingham, L. W. Rice, of Greenfield. The date of the annual 
meeting was fixed for the last Tuesday in February. The 
president, secretaries, and treasurer have been annually re- 
elected. The objects of the association are collecting and pre- 
serving memorials, books, papers, ancient furniture, relics, 
implomeiits, etc., which may tend to illustrate the history of 
bygone generations, both Indian and English. 

The association has had 130 members, scattered through the 
Northern States. It now owns the Deerfield Academy build- 
ing, which will soon be fitted u]) to receive the collections, and 
be the Memorial Hall. 

No stranger comes to Deerfield but has heard of the tragic 
events of Feb. 29, 1704, and has a curiosity to see the " Old 
Indian House Door," with its rough carvings by Indian 
hatchets. This relic— "old, and brave, and scarred" — is now 
in the hands of the Pocomptuck Valley Memorial Association, 
and will soon be placed in Memorial Hall. 

Around the spot occupied by the monument at Bloody 
Brook, where Ca])t. Lothrop and the flower of Essex 

" their lifli currents gave, 
.\nil froni that stain, tliat spread its awful hue 

O'er streamlet and o'er sod, 
Wliat stainless spiiits wolio their way and lli-d, 

Triumpliing-, to their God !" 

The matchless oration of Edward Everett wheu laying the 
corner-stone in 1835, and a poem by his gifted son at the bi- 
centennial celebration of the massacre, which is one of the 
finest lyrics in the language, will always be associated with 
the fate of Lothrop and his men. 

Wequamps,! an eminence of 500feet, overlooking the spot, is 

*No\v at Turner's Falls. 

f Sugar liOaf. 

much visited for the beautiful prospect it gives. Pocomptuck 
Rock, towering 750 feet above the Old Street, is a locality un- 
surpassed in the quiet beauty of the landscape it presents, 
— "not excepting the Bay of Naples," says a distinguished 

The scene of the Bars fight is a point of historic interest, 
and, near by, the romantic Stillwater, where the wearied Po- 
comptuck sleeps in a cradle wliicli it has quarried hundreds of 
feet dee]i fnnn the solid rock. 

The grand old trees which sentinel the Old Street and shade 
its quiet walks are rarely excelled, while the Cliampney elm, 
queen of them all in size, grace, and majestic beauty, has 
scarce its fellow in all New England. 


Before the close of the last century there was an agricul- 
tural library here, and another devoted to military science. 
Soon after, there appears a " Union Library,'' which, perhaps, 
absorbed the others. The Union was finally dissolved and 
scattered, and upon its ruins was founded the "Social Li- 
brary," which contained about 4000 volumes in 1830. This 
being broken and getting behind the times, a more radical 
club was started in 1840. This now exists as the " Deerfield 
Reading Association," with about 2000 volumes. Its main 
features have been periodical literature and history. It has met 
every Thursday night since its organization. Its librarians 
have been Charles Williams, E. H. Ames, Geo. Sheldon, C. 
M. Crittenden, Alanson Thayer, C. S. Williams, James C. 
Hitchcock, Nathaniel Hitchcock, Eliza D. Williams, and 
Martha G. Pratt, who is now serving her eighteenth year. 

A juvenile library was founded some sixty years ago, which 
was probably the foundation of the first Congregational Sun- 
day-school library. A library was established at Bloody 
Brook a few j'ears ago, which is increasing in strength and 
usefulness. The new town library of the Dickinson bequest 
will be spoken of elsewhere. 


Maj. Salah Barnard, son of Ebenezer, was born in 1725, and 
was a soldier, merchant, tavern-keeper, and farmer. He mar- 
ried, in 1765, Elizabeth, daughter of Jeremiah Nims. He was 
in the old French war, and served under Capts. Thomas Ste- 
vens, John Hawks, and other partisan otficers. He was in the 
Canada expeditions in the last French war, in 1757, as lieu- 
tenant in Capt. Burk's Rangers; in 1758, as lieutenant under 
Capt. John Catlin,and on the death of the latter he was made 
captain. With this company he served in Col. Ruggles' regi- 
ment, and was with the army of conquest in Canada with the 
commission of a major. At the fall of Fort William Henry 
he narrowly escaped the perfidious butchery that followed the 
surrender. He lived on the old Frary lot, and about a century 
ago he enlarged his house to its present dimensions and set up 
tavern- and store-keeping. He died in 1795. 

Maj. Setli Catlin, son of Capt. John Catlin, was born in 
1743. He married, July 1, 1762, Abigail Deniu. In the last 
French war he was a drummer in his father's company, — in 
1757-58. On the death of the latter he was appointed second 
lieutenant, and served under Amherst in the campaign of 
1759. He was a lieutenant in the army of conquest, and came 
home with the title of quartermaster in Col. Ruggles' regi- 
ment. Maj. Catlin was a notable man in many respects. A 
contemporary says of him, " He was a man of strict integrity, 
of very strong feelings, — could never pass a scene of distress 
on the other side." These traits are proved by many anec- 
dotes. Another wrote, "From sincere and honest motives he 
was opposed to the war of the Revolution, but he often re- 
fused important offices in that war from the British govern- 
ment, as also from his own country." He was a gentleman 
from intuition, and his society was sought by men of all sta- 
tions. He was selectman nine years, and a representative in 

"^ -5 - QY kjSQX.t^i'^l^^ ' 





1793. He was a lover of fine horses. In 1798 he was crushed 
in a stall bj- a high-spirited barb, of which injury he .soon died. 

Capt. Timothy Childs was born in 1680, and married, in 
1719, Hannah (Chapin), widow of John Sheldon. He was 
an active scout in Queen Anne's war, serving under the noted 
Capt. Benjamin Wright. He was fired upon and slightly 
wounded, July 10, 1724, while in the meadow at work, near 
Pine Hill. September, 1724, he was a lieutenant under Capt. 
Kellogg, in command of the forces at Deerfield and Sunder- 
land. He died in 1766. His son Timothy settled in Gill, was 
a captain in the Revolutionary war, and died Dec. 12, 1781, 
leaving a son, Timothy, who was a celebrated doctor in Pitts- 

Bev. Eodolphus Dickinson, son of Thomas W., was born in 
17.86, graduated from Yale College in 1805, studied law, was 
admitted to the Bar of old Hampshire County in 1808, and 
married, Nov. 9, 1809, Nancy, daughter of David Hoyt. 
He was the first clerk of the courts in Franklin County, 1811- 
19. He was ordained an Epi.scopal minister about this time, 
settled in Pendleton, S. C, about 1822, and supplied the Epis- 
copal Society in Montague several years after his return from 
the South. In 1813 he established a printing-oifice in Green- 
field, which he removed to this town in 1816. In this office 
many of his own works were printed. He was the author of 
a "Digest of the Powers and Duties of Sheriffs, Coroners, and 
Constables," 1810, 8vo; "Elements of Geography," 8vo, pp. 
360, 1813; "Compendium of the Bible," 1814, 18mo, pp. 2.50, 
which reached, in 1817, six enlarged editions; a "Digest of 
Common Law," etc.; the "Power and Duties of Justices of 
the Peace," 8vo, pp. 521; "Deerfield, — John Wilson," 1818; 
" The Columbian Reader," 1818; "The Christian and Miscel- 
laneous Portfolio," 1823 ; "A New and Corrected Version of 
the New Testament," 8vo, pp. 500, Boston, 1831, with a por- 
trait of the author, and a list of subscribers headed by John 
C. Calhoun. Among his smaller works are "Law Tracts," 
1812; " View of Massachusetts Proper," 1813 ; "Description 
of Deerfield," 1818. He died in 1863. 

Col. David Field, son of Samuel, was born in 1712, and 
married, about 1740, Thankful, daughter of Thomas Taylor. 
He was a soldier in the French-and-Indian wars. In the 
Revolution he was an ardent Whig ; was chairman of the 
committee of correspondence and safety, 1776-78; was a 
representative in 1770; was a delegate to the Massachusetts 
Provincial Congress in May, 1775, and on the committee of 
safety for the colony appointed by that body. This commit- 
tee of thirteen, with Gen. Joseph Warren as its chairman, had 
the control of the civil and military power of the province, 
and were on intimate relations with Washington. Col. Field 
was a delegate to the constitutional convention of 1779, and 
was a selectman for twenty-five years. In the Revolutionary 
army he was active and useful as a commissary, and was un- 
der Gen. Stark at Bennington in 1777. He is said to have 
commanded a regiment toward the close of the war. He died 
in 1792. 

Samuel Field, Esq., son of David, was born in 1743, grad- 
uated from Yale College in 1762, and married, in 1769, Sarah, 
daughter of Samuel Childs. He studied divinity with his 
pastor, Mr. Ashley ; later, he read law with Daniel Jones, at 
Hinsdale, N. H., and engaged in law-practice and trade in 
Deerfield and Greenfield. He was a delegate to the Constitu- 
tional Convention in 1788 for the ratification of the United 
States Constitution, and a representative to the General Court 
in 1773-74. In 1794 he removed to Conway, where he prac- 
ticed law and preached to a society of Sandemanians.* He 
was a political writer and poet. A volume of his miscellane- 
ous writings was edited and published by Rodolphus Dickin- 
son in 1818, with a sketch of the author and creed of the 
Sandemanians. Mr. Field died Sept. 17, 1800. 


* A Scotdsh religious sect. 

Col. John Hawks, son of Eleazer, was born in 1707 ; he 
married, in 1730, Elizabeth, daughter of John Nims, an orig- 
inal proprietor of Keene, N. H., in 1734. If he settled then, 
he returned before 1740. He entered the military service on 
the opening of the old French war, and was stationed at Fort 
Massachusetts, near which he was wounded by Indians, May 
9, 1746. In August of that year he was sergeant in command 
of the garrison, when the fort was attacked by De Vaudreuil 
with 800 French and Indians. After a spirited defense of 
thirty-six hours, in which his ammunition was nearl}' ex- 
hausted, one man killed, and two wounded, the brave sergeant 
was obliged to surrender, the odds against him being a hun- 
dred to one ; for, of a garrison of 22 men, but 8 were able to 
do duty, 11 being sick with "bloody flux." Three women 
and five children in the fort shared the captivity. All were 
taken to Canada. Sergt. Hawks was redeemed in about a 
year. In 1748 he was sent to Canada with John Taylor and 
Mathevv Cle.sson as escort to Sieur Raimbault, a French otficer, 
to negotiate an exchange ; returned in April with Nathan 
Blake, of Keene, and Samuel Allen, of Deerfield. In May 
he led a scout of 13 men as far as the Dutch settlements, on 
an alarm of invasion. In the last French war Hawks took 
an active part ; he was lieutenant in command of the Coleraine 
fort in 1754, which was his headquarters for three or four 
years ; in 1756 his command included Northfield ; he was 
under Abercrombie at the attack on Ticonderoga in 1758, and 
was a captain under Amherst in 1759. After the fall of " Old 
Ti," Amherst sent him to cut a military road from Lake 
Charaplain to Charlestown, N. H.f In 1760 be was a major 
and lieutenant-colonel in the army of conquest. He re- 
moved from the Street in 1753 to Wisdom, where he built a 
house. At the close of the war he returned there, where he 
died in 1784. 

Richard Hildreth, historian, statesman, and editor, son of 
Hosea, was born June 28, 1807. He graduated at Harvard 
College in 1826, and was a Fellow of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. He married, in 1844, Caroline Negus, of 
Petersham. He studied law in Newburyport, and practiced 
in Boston. He was editor of the Boston Atlas in 1832-40, 
and was the author of "Archy Moore, the White Slave," 
"Theory of Legislation," 1840; "A History of Banks," 
"Despotism in America," 1840; "Theory of Morals," 1844; 
"Theory of Politics," 1853; "Japan as it Was and Is," 
1855. He contributed largelj' to newspapers and magazines, 
and for several years was an editor of the New ITork Tribune. 
His greatest work was a "History of the United States," 6 
vols., 1849-56. He was United States consul at Trieste in 
1861, and died at Florence, Italy, July 11, 1865. 

Col. Ebenezer Hinsdale, son of Samuel, was born in 1707. 
He graduated at Harvard College in 1727. He married, about 
1730, Abigail, daughter of Rev. John Williams. He was 
ordained, at Boston, missionary to the Indians, Dec. 11, 1732, 
under the auspices of the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts. Gov. Belcher, the American agent, 
stationed him at Fort Dummer, and made him chaplain of the 
post. In 1742 or '43 he built a fort on the east side of the 
Connecticut, at a place called " The Cellars." This was the 
foundation of the town of Hinsdale, N. H. Here he kept up 
a military establishment through the Indian wars. He also 
had a residence here, and kept a store on the Ebenezer Hins- 
dale Williams lot, originally Lot No. 41, drawn by Ens. 
Daniel Fisher. He rose to the rank of colonel during the 
wars, and did valuable service. He died at Hin.sdale, Jan. 6, 

President Edward Hitchcock, son of Justin, wius born in 
1793. He was a graduate of Deerfield Academy; A.M. of 
Yale, 1818; LL.D. of Harvard, 1840; D.D. of Middletown, 
1846. He married, in 1821, Orra White, of Amherst. He was 

t Then called " Number Four." 



principal of Deorfield Academy, 1813-19; pastorof achiirch in 
Conwaj', 1821-25, leaving there to accept the professorship of 
chemistry and natural history at Amherst College. In 1845 
he was made president, and held this office and the professor- 
ship of natural theology and geology until 1854. President 
Hitchcock's entire school education was obtained in six winter 
terms of the Deerfield Academy, working on the farm the 
rest of the year. He was an ardent student, developing that 
love of the science of nature which marked his future career. 
Astronomy was a favorite study, in which he was encouraged 
and directed by'his uncle. Gen. Hoyt ; he devised and made 
astronomical apparatus when that of the academy failed to 
meet his wants. He published an almanac, 1813-17, in which 
he corrected, by his own observations, calculations made by 
European astronomers, thereby entering on a contest with the 
magnates of that science in the Old World, and coming oif 
conqueror. But for a partial failure of eyesight, our young 
astronomer would, doubtless, have earned for himself a place 
by the side of the first men of the world in his favorite field. 
Other work, however, had been waiting for him for untold 
ages, — that of interpreting the marks on the sandstone of his 
native valley. In 1823 he published "The Geology of the 
Connecticut Valley." He was State geologist of Massachu- 
setts in 18.30, and made reports in 1833, '35, '38, and '41 on 
the geology of the State. He also published the following : 
" Keport on the Geology of Vermont," 1860, under the direc- 
tion of that State ; " Surface Geology," 1857*; " Elementary 
Geology," 1840, which had passed through .30 editions in 
1856; "Religion of Geology and its Connected Sciences," 
1851 ; " Wreath for the Tomb ;" " Memoir of Mary Lyon ;" 
and many other volumes. He was also a large contributor to 
scientific and religious journals. His great work, and the 
one by which his fame will be the most enduringly established, 
was the scientific exposition of the fossil foot-prints in the 
sandstone of the Connecticut Valley. " The Ichnology of 
New England," 1858, published by the State, fully illus- 
trates the labors of twenty years on this subject. His views 
were accepted by the scientists only after a prolonged contest, 
which gave him a world-wide notoriety. He died Feb. 27, 

Hon. Elihu Hoyt, son of David, was born in 1771. He was 
a colonel of Massachusetts militia, surveyor, and farmer. He 
married, in 1794, Hannah, daughter of Rev. James Taylor; 
was born, lived, and died in the "Old Indian House," which 
his father received with his wife from the Sheldon family in 
1743. Col. Hoyt was a prominent figure in town and county 
affairs for many years. He represented the town in the Gen- 
eral Court twenty-two years, was Senator twelve years, and 
died in 1833. 

Maj.-Gen. Epaphras Hoyt, brother of Elihu, was born in 
1765. He was surveyor, student, antiquary, historian. He 
married, 1792, Experience Harvey. Was first register of deeds 
for Franklin County, 1811-14; high-sheriff, 1814-31; was 
deeply interested in military science; was offered an appoint- 
ment in the United States army by Washington, which he 
declined. Publi.shed in 1798 a " Treatise on the Military 
Art," for the use of cavalry. In 1816 a new edition was 
issued, with instructions in the movement of regiments and 
armies in actual service, and the higher branches of the art of 
war. In 1813 he wrote an elaborate article on astronomy, of 
one hundred pages, as an introduction to Dickinson's " Geog- 
raphy;" was a C(mtributor to Silliman's Journal, and other 
publications. In 1824 he issued his best-known work, " An- 
tiquarian Researches." He left an unpublished work on Bur- 
goyne's campaign, and made copious notes on the Freneh-and- 
Indian wars, — of which he made an especial study, — which 
still exist in manuscript, if haply thej' have escaped the acci- 
dents of time. He died Feb. 7, 1850. 

Capt. Joseph Kellogg, son of Martin, born 1791. Feb. 29, 
1704, one brother was killed ; his father and four children — of 

whom he was one — were taken prisoners to Canada. After 
one year with the Indians, Joseph spent ten years traveling 
among them with French traders, and learned the language 
of all the tribes as well as the French. His brother Martin, 
who had escaped from captivity, accompanied Capt. Stod- 
dard and Mr. Williams to Canada in 1714, and persuaded 
Joseph to return to New England with the promise of em- 
ployment by the government. He was soon engaged as inter- 
preter. In 1723 he was lieutenant under Capt. Samuel Bar- 
nard, and stationed at Northfield. At the close of this war the 
authorities of New York made him liberal offers to enter their 
service. He was put in charge of Fort Dummer, as truck- 
master, with a salary of £100. This post was left for a wider 
field of usefulness as general interpreter to the Indian tribes 
in 1740, continuing in this service until his death, at Schenec- 
tady, in 1756. 

Capt. Martin Kellogg, brother of Joseph, born in 1686 ; es- 
caped from Canada, May, 1705, with three others, reaching 
home in June in a starving condition. He was taken again 
in August, 1708, while on a scout up the lakes; carried to 
Canada, where he remained several years, and became well 
acquainted with the French and Indian languages. He acted 
as interpreter on Capt. Stoddard's journey in 1714, and con- 
tinued in public service in that capacity. He married Doro- 
thy Chester, and settled in Newington, Conn. There he took 
charge of 12 Indian boys of the Hollis School, giving them 
instruction for about three years. He died in 17.53. 

Rebecca Kellogg, sister of Martin, captured in 1704, prob- 
ably returned with her brothers in 1714. Their sister, Joanna, 
married an Indian chief at Cagnawaga, and never came back. 
Rebecca married Capt. Benjamin Ashley, of Westfield, and 
both were employed in the Indian school at Stookbridge, — she 
as interpreter. She was also employed in this capacity else- 
where, and died while on a mission to the Susquehanna River 
with Rev. Gideon Hawley, in 1757. 

Hon. David Saxton was born in Somers, Conn., in 1734. 
He married, in 1759, Rebecca Barnard. He kept a tavern 
where Robert Childs lives. He was prominent in town affairs 
for a generation ; an active and influential Whig, and repre- 
sentative of the town during nearly the whole period of the 
Revolution. He was State Senator for thirteen years, during 
the formation-period of the government. He died in 1800. 
Gen. Rufus Saxton of the United States army is a great-grand- 

Hon. James Whitney, son of Stephen, was born in 1811. 
He removed to Conway, where he was in trade, and organized 
the Conway Mutual Fire Insurance Company. He was early 
interested in the militia, and was brigadier-general in 1863. 
He was sheriff of Franklin County in 1853-.54; representative 
1851, '54; delegate to the Constitutional Convention, 1853; 
superintendent of the United States armory at Springfield for 
five years ; collector for the port of Boston, 1860-61 ; State 
Senator, 1872 ; president of Boston Water-Power Company ; 
Presidential elector, 18.52, '56, '60. He has been many years 
a leading politician in the Democratic party. He died in 
Boston, Oct. 24, 1878. 

Maj. Elijah Williams, son of Rev. John, was born in 1712. 
He graduated at Harvard College in 1732 ; A.M., 1758. He 
married, in 1736, Lydia Dwight, of Hatfield ; (2d) 1750, Mar- 
garet Pynchon, of Springfield. He was a man of decided 
ability and activity; was a civil engineer; town clerk twenty- 
five years ; selectman twenty-five years ; representative seven- 
teen years. He lived on his father's homestead, and went into 
trade in a building on the southwest corner of it, in 1742. This 
building, with additions, was known to this generation as the 
Ware store. It was removed in 1877, to make way for the 
Dickinson Academy. Maj. Williams took a prominent part 
in the French-and-Indian-wars ; was captain of snow-shoe men 
in 1743, and controlled the military operations in this region 
through the war. He was four or five years in trade in En- 




James Chilus was born in Waiiping, Deerfiuld, 
Mass., July 31, 1813. His parents, Erastns and 
Mercy (Hawks) Cliilds, were both natives of that 
town. Tlie former was born- Oct. 31, 1783, and 
died in 1868. Tiie latter was born in June, 1794, 
and died in 1854. 

James Childs, the subject of this biography, was 
the second of a family of seven children. He 
spent his minority upon his father's farm. During 
this time he attended the common school, and also 
for a number of terms the Deerfield Academy. 
At the age of twenty-one he went to Wilmington, 
Vt., and engaged as a clerk in a store, where he 
remained but a few months. Returning to Deer- 
field, he entered a store in the same capacity, and 
remained four yeais. He then went to Hatfield, 
and engaged in the mercantile business upon his 
own account. At tiie expiratiora of a year he dis- 
posed of his interest aud returned to Wapping, 

Deerfield, where he has since resided. He has 
been assessor of Deerfield eleven years, and is a 
deacon iu the Congregational Church, of which he 
has been a member a number of years. In politics 
he is a Republican, but chooses rather to be a 
worker for the success of others than a seeker of 
office for himself. As a man he is well and favor- 
ably known in the town in which he has spent 
the greater part of his life, and he is respected 
and esteemed by all his associates. 

He was united iu marriage, May 22, 1844, to 
Maronette Pease, who was born in Ashfield, Nov. 
20, 1813. They have one child, a son, George H. 
Childs (residing with his father), who, although very 
young, enlisted in the Union army in 1863, and re- 
mained until the close of the war. In 1864 he was 
severely wounded ; but his life, which was so precious 
to those at home, was spared, and at the close of 
the war he returned honorably discharged. 

^^^^^^^^^^ ^^i^ 

George A. Williams was born Jan. 6, 1810, at 
Williams' Landing, Taunton, Mass. His ancestor Kichard 
Williams, and Frances Dighton, bis wife, settled at that 
place in 1038, and the estate always has been and is still 
in the possession of the Williams family, with the excep- 
tion of the part recently devoted to the Taunton Water- 

Francis Williams, father of the subject of tliis biog- 
raphy, was born in Raynham, Mass., Nov. 12, 17 iD. He 
married Louisa Gilmore, of Raynham, who was born in 
1782. He settled upon the family estate, where he reared 
a family of ten children, — .seven sons and three daughters. 
Of these, George A. is the fourtli son and child. Theirs 
was a busy household, for his father recognized no eight or 
ten hours as a day's work, but worked with a steady hand 
from earliest morn until dark. 

The district scliools of that day were vastly inferior to 
those of the present, and in the district in which he lived 
the term consisted of from eight to twelve weeks during the 
year. TJiese were the only advantages he received until he 
attained his .seventeenth year. At that time, as his capacity 
for manual labor was somewhat impaired by illness, he was 
set to studying Greek and Latin, and prepared for college. 

Equal rights and strict justice were strong points in his 
father's character, and while George was pursuing his studies 
and preparing to enter the ministry he deemed it but just 
to the other sons to charge him with what he might have 
earned by his labor until he became of age. At the age of 
twenty-five, therefore, lack of wages and charges for board, 
tuition, and other expenses stood against him. Dividends 
were made by the paternal hand to other members of the 
family at various times, and an equal amount was accredited 
to him, so that the accounts were at length licpiidated, and 
a fragment remained to him at the settlement of the paternal 
estate. As the period drew near when he was to make a 

choice of occupation, the Congregationalists were strongly 
excited upon points of doctrine, and, as religious matters 
had attracted his attention, he directed his reading that way. 
His road to school led him past the house of an ardent 
Calvinist who often sought to discuss religious matters, 
and although they might agree on Biblical authority, they 
differed widely on Biblical interpretation, and their tilts 
ended as such contests usually do, — in both claiming the 

In the discu.ssion which sent the body of the Congrega- 
tional Church into the Trinitarian and Unitarian sects, he 
stood upon the Unitarian side, and on the 3d of March, 
183G, he was ordained over the second parish in Saco, Me., 
where he preached three years. At the expiration of that 
time an extended call was made, but his eyesight was so 
impaired that he was obliged to decline its acceptance. His 
profession then came nominally to an end, although he sub- 
sequently preached for a short period in Chelmsford, East 
Bridgewater, and Mayland. The " barrel of sermons" had 
been left unfilled, the barrel-head was now replaced, and the 
remaining parchments consigned to the garret. Other 
means of procuring a livelihood must then be found, and a 
favorable opportunity presenting, he enteied the manufac- 
ture of chemicals in Cambridge, Mass., in which he remained 
about five years. In May, 1855, he removed to Deerfield, 
where he has since resided, devoting a part of his time to 
farming. He has won the respect and confidence of all 
with whom he has been associated. 

He was married, Oct. 27, 1839, to Sarah, second daughter 
of Dr. Pjzra Dean, of Biddeford, Me. By this union he 
had two children : Gorham D., born June 10, 1842, at- 
torney-at-law, living in Greenfield ; and Lucia Greene, 
born Oct. 2U, 184(j! 

Sept. 2, 1800, he married his second wife, Jane Dickin- 
son, daughter of Rev. Rodolphus Dickinson, of Deerfield. 



field, Conn. In the last French war he was commissary, with 
the rank of major, and did excellent service. He was a justice, 
and did considerable business as a magistrate. He died in 

Hon. Ephraira Williams, son of Dr. Thomas, was born in 
1760. He received the honorary degree of A.M. from Wil- 
liams College in 179.5. He married Emily Woodbridge. He 
studied law with Judge Sedgwick, of Stockbridge, and prac- 
ticed in partnership with him at the Berkshire Bar. When 
unjustly reproved by the judge one day in court, and ordered 
to take his seat, he replied: "I will not sit down, but I will 
leave the Bar forever," and was as good as his word. He came 
back, and spent his daj's here. He was eminent in his profes- 
sion ; was first reporter for the Supreme Court ; representative 
in 1806-7 ; Senator in 1816. He died Dec. 27, 183-3. Bishop 
John Williams, of Connecticut, is his only son. 

John Williams, Esq., son of Maj. Elijah, was born in 17-51. 
He graduated at Harvard College in 1769, and began to prac- 
tice law in Salem in 1772. He married, in 177-4, Elizabeth 
Orne, of Salem, and returned to the old homestead and his 
father's store. Here he continued in trade many years, mean- 
while doing a large outside business, domestic and foreign. 
He was a loyalist in the Revolution, and indicted for sedition 
in 1783 ; chosen representative in 1783 ; was refused a seat on 
account of his Toryism at the May session. Re-elected for the 
next session, he was again rejected. In 1784 he was arraigned 
on the indictment, but, pleading the sixth article of the treaty 
of peace with Great Britain, he was discharged ; representative 
1785-86; register of deeds for Northern Hampshire 1787; 
Presidential elector 1792 ; as a magistrate his business was 
enormous ; was prominent in founding Deerfleld Academy, 
and left it the bulk of his estate at his death. He was fellow 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society. He died July 27, 
1816, the last of his father's family, leaving no descendants. 

Dr. Stephen W. Williams, son of Dr. William S., was born 
in 1790. He received the degree of A.M. at Williams College 
in 1824 ; honorary member of the New York Historical So- 
ciety and the Connecticut Medical Society. He married, in 
1818, Harriet T., daughter of Dr. Joseph Goodhue ; was pro- 
fessor and medical lecturer in Berkshire Medical Institute, 
Dartmouth College, and several other institutions. Author 
of "American Medical Biography," 8vo, 1845; "Memoirs 
of Rev. John Williams," 1837 ; " Genealogy of the Williams 
Family," 1847; " Indigenous Medical Botany of Massachu- 
setts," 8vo ; "Catechism of Medical Jurisprudence," 1835; 
" Medical History of Franklin County." In 1853 he published 
a new edition of the "Redeemed Captive," with an "appendix 
and notes," containing an article on the claims of Eleazer 
Williams to be the "dauphin of France." Dr. Williams 
was a graduate of Berkshire Medical Institute, and had an 
extensive practice in his native town and county ; was a volu- 
minous contributor to the medical and scientific journals. He 
removed to Laona, 111., in 1853, where he died July 5, 18-55. 

Dr. Thomas Williams, son of Col. Ephraim, from Newton 
and Stockbridge, was born in 1718. He received the degree 
of A.M. from Yale College, in 1738. He married, in 1740, 
Anna, daughter of Timothy Childs, and was again married, 
in 1749, to Esther, daughter of Rev. William Williams, of 
Weston. He settled here in the practice of his profession in 
1739, where he was the first male physician. He had a large 
practice ; was a surgeon in the expedition toward Canada in 
1743, and of the chain of forts on our northern frontier. He 
left Fort Massachusetts only two days before its surrender, in 
■1746. In the last French war he was surgeon under Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson. He was at the battle of Lake George, Sept. 8, 
1755, and dressed the wounds of Baron Dieskau, the unfor- 
tunate commander of the French army. Col. Ephraim Wil- 
liams, his brother, the founder of Williams College, was 
killed the same day. In the campaign of 1756 he was lieu- 
tenant-colonel. He was judge of the court of Common Pleas, 

judge of Probate, representative seventeen years, town-clerk, 
and useful in all local affairs. He died Sept. 28, 1775. 

Notes on many others worthy of notice are omitted for lack 
of space in this brief abstract of our history. 



Paviil Saxton, 17SG-91, 179JH800, thirteen yeare; Ephraim Williams, 1816 ; 
Elihu Hoj-t, 1817-19, 1821-23, 1827-.')2, twelve years; Robert Crawford, 1863; 
Christopher A. Stebbius, 1867 ; George Sheldon, 1872. 


Rufus Saxton, Richard C. Arms. 


1688-89, Lieut. Thomas Wells ; 1692-98, Capt. Jonathan Wells; 1716, John 
"Wells; 1717-19, Thomas Wells ; 1720-21, Samnel Barnard; 1724-26,1734, Capt 
Thomas Wells ; 1737-38, Thomas Wells ; 1740, Ebenezcr Hinsdale ; 1741^5, Eli- 
jah Williams ; 1746, Thomas Wells ; 1747, David Field ; 1749-50, Ebenezer Hins- 
dale ; 17.'j2-55, Elijah Williams ; 1756, Joseph Itarnard ; 1757-58, Elijah Williams ; 
1759, Thomas Williams; 1760-61, Elijah Williams; 1762-63, Jonathan Ashley, 
Jr. ; 1764, Elijah Williams ; 1765, Jonathan Ashley, Jr. ; 1760-67, Elijah Williams ; 
1768, .lonathan Ashley, Jr. ; 1769, Elijah Williams ; 1770, David Field; 1771-72, 
Samuel Hinsdale (Greenfield) ; 1773-74, Samnel Field ; 1775, Samuel Hinsdale ; 
1776-78, David Saxton. 

Down to this period the territory covered by the original Deeriield was a single 
tUstrict, with but one representative. 


1781, David Saxton ; 1783-86, John Williams; 1787, Jonathan Hoyt; 1788-89, 
John Bardwell; 1790, Seth Catlin ; 1791, Samuel Field; 1792-93, Jona. Hoyt; 
1794, David Saxton; 1795-96, Seth Catlin ; 1797, David Saxton; 1798, John Wil- 
liams; 1799-1800, David Saxton; 1801, Jona. Hoyt; 1802-;!, John Williams; 
lSIM-5, Elihu Hoyt; 1800-7, Ephraim Williams; 1808, Ebenezer H. Williams; 
1809-14, Elihu Hoyt ; 1810-19, Asa Stebbins ; 1S15, .\ugustus Lyman ; 1810, Elihu 
Hoyt; 1817, Ebenezer Newcomb; 1819, Orlando Ware ; 1820, Elihu Hoyt; 1821, 
Rufus Saxton; 1822-27, Elihu Hoyt; 1830, Rufus Saxton, Elihu Hoyt; 1831, 
Rufus Saxton, Stephen Whitney; 1832-36, Rufus Saxton, Elihu Hoyt; 1837, 
Rufus Saxton, Amos Russell; 1838, Rufus Saxton; 1839, Amos Russell, Asa 
StebbiMS ; 1840, George Dickinson ; 1841, Orlando Ware ; 1842, Howland Cowing; 
1843, Ira Abercrombie; 1844, Zebediah Graves; 1845^0, Rufus Saxton; 1847, 
Sumner Dunlap ; 1848, Rufus Saxton ; 1850, Ira Abercrombie ; 1851, Cephas Clapp ; 
1852-63, .\sa Stebbins ; 1855, Luther B. Lincoln ; 1856, Edward W. Stebbins ; 1857, 
Moses Stebbins; 1858, Horatio Hawks; 1861, Ira Abercrombie; 1863, Cyrus A. 
Stowell; 1864, C. A. Stebbius; 1860, David A. Strong; 1867, George Sheldon; 
1870, H. A. Warrinerj 1871, Martin Severance; 1873, G. W. Bardwell; 1876, G, 
W. Jones; 1877, P. D. Bridges; 1878-79, C. P. Aldrich. 


In addition to those usually chosen, we have, as occasion 
demanded, deer-reeves, wardens, cullers of brick, sealers of 
leather, packers, cullers of timber, surveyors of wheat and 
I flour, surveyors of clapboards and shingles, measurer, clerk of 
the market, deer-inspectors, surveyor of hemp and flax, tith- 
ingmen, men-seaters. 

Joseph Barnard, appointed by the committee, Dec. 20, 1687, with the consent 
of the town; he held the office until he was killed by Indians, 1696; Thomas 
French, 1696-1703, when he was captured by Indians and carried to Canada; 
Edward Allen, 17(rt-12; Samuel Williams, 1713; John Catlin, 1715-16; Thomas 
French, 1717-19 ; Thomas French, Jr., 1720-32 ; Elijah Williams, 1733-47 ; Thos. 
Williams, 1748-51 ; Elijah Williams, 1752-61 ; Thomas Williams 1762-74 ; David 
Dickinson, 1775-78; Justin Hitchcock, 1779-81, 1804,1813-21; John Williams, 
1782; Samnel Barnard, Jr., 1783-87; John WilUams, 1788-90; Samuel Field_ 
1791 i John WilUams, 1792; Wm. S. Williams, 1793-1803, 1805-12; Augustus Ly- 
man, 1822-27; Charles Williams, 1828-31; Edwin Nims, 1832-34; Charles 
Williams, 1836-7tf ; Elisha Wells, 1871-79. 

1686.— William Smead, Joshua Pumry, John Sheldon, Bcnoni Stebbins, Benjamin 

Hastings, Thomas French,— to hold office until others are chosen. 
1089, May 30.— Thomas Wells, John Catlin, Jona. Wells, Samuel Northam, Joseph 

1089, Dec. 23.— Thomas Wells, John Catlin, John Allyn, Joseph Barnard. 
1690.^ohn Sheldon, David Hoyt, Jona. Wells, Thos. Freneh, Daniel Belding. 
1691.— John Sheldon, Edward Allyn, Samson Frary, Godfrey Nims, Henry White. 
1692.— John Sheldon, David Hoyt, Benoni Stebbins, Tliomas French, Simon 

1693.— Thomas French, John Porter, Jonathan Wells. 
1694.— John Catlin, John Allyn, Edward Allyn. 
1695-90, March 2.-^ona. Wells, Daniel Belding, Godfrey Nims. 

* Who were generally assessors also until 1779; called "townmien" for many 



1697. — John Catliu, William Smead, John Hawks. 

1698.— Jona. Wells, John SlieMou, Thomas French. 

Ifi99.— Jona. Wells, David Iloyt, Eloazer Hawks. 

1700. — John Catlin, John Sheldon, Thomas French. 

1701. — David Hoyt, Eleazer Hawks, Beiioni Stehbins. 

1702.~Johu Sheldon, Nathaniel Sutlicff, Thomas French, John Richanls. 

1703-4.— Jona. Wells, Eleazer Hawks, Samuel Carter. 

1705.— Eleazer Hawks. Daniel Belding, Edward Allen. 

1706.— Eleazer Hawks, Daniel Belding, Jona. Wells. 

1707. — Jona. Wells, Thomas Wells, Ebenezer Smead. 

1708.- Eleazer Hawks. Thomas Wells, Edward Allen. 

1709. — Jona. Wells, Thomju French, Thomas Wells, Elienezer Smead, Ebenezer 

1710. — Eleazer Hawks, Thos. French, Edward Allen, Ebenezer Smead, Ebenezer 

1711. — Eleazer Hawks, Jona. Wells, Thomas Wells, John Smead, Jos. Barnard. 
171*2. — Thos. French, Ebenezer Smead, Judah Wright, John Arms, Benj. Mnnn. 
1713.— Thos. French, Eleazer Hawks, Thos. Wells, Sam'l Field, Edward Allen. 
1714. — Eleazer Hawks, Ebenezer Smead, Sajimel Cliilds. 
1715. — Jonathan Wells, Joseph Athertun. 
1716. — Ebenezer Smead, Edward Allen, Eleazer Hawks. 
1717. — Thomas Wells, Ebenezer Brooks, Sanniel Barnard. 
1718.— Samuel Field, John Arms, John Catlin. 
1719.— Ebenezer Smead, Samuel Childs, Junu. Wells (2d). 
1720.— Eleazer Hawks, Thomas Wells, Ebenezer Wells. 
1S21. — Samuel Field, John Catlin, Thoma-s French, Jr. 
1722. — Thomas Wells, John Arms, Joseph Severence. 
172.3. — Eleazer Hawks, John Catlin, Benjamin Muun. 
1724. — Samuel Childs, Samuel Taylor, Ebenezer Wells. 
1725. — Jona. Wells, Moses Nash, Thomas Wells. 
1726. — Eleazer Hawks, Benj. Munn, John Catlin. 
1727. — John Arms, Jona. Hoyt, Ebenezer Wells. 
1728. — Thuniiis Wells, Ebenraer Sheldon, John Beuman. 
1729.— Thomas French, Ebenezer Wells, John Nims. 
1730. — Jona. Hoyt, Thomas Wells, Daniel Arms. 
1731.— Ebenezer Wells, Jolin Arms, John Catliu (2d), 
1732.— Thomas Wells, Sanmel Taylor, Ele:izer Hawks. 
1733.— John Catliu, Thomas French, Benj. Hastings. 
1734.— Jona. Hoyt, William Arms, Ebenezer Wells. 
1735.— Elijah Williams, Jona. Hoyt, Ebenezer Wells. 
1736. — Thomas Fi'ench, Elijah Williams, Ebenezer Wells. 
1737.— Eli.iah Williams, Tlumuis French, Eleazer Hawks. 
1738.— Elijah Williams, ThonuiS French, John Catlin. 
1739. — Jona. Hoyt, Elienezer Wells, Nathaniel Hawka. 
1740.— Ebenezer Wells, Elijah Williams, John Hawks. 
1741. — Ebenezer Wells, Elijah Williams, John Catlin (2d). 
1742.— Elijah Williams, Ebenezer Wells, David Field, John Catlin (2d), Thomas 

1743.— Elijah Williams, Ebenezer Wells, John Catlin (2d), Samuel Childs, Thos. 

1744.— Elijah Williams, Ebenezer Wells, John Catlin (2d), David Field, John 

1745.— Elijah Williams, Ebenezer Wells, John Catlin (2d), David Field, Mathew 

1746.— Thomas French, Thomas Williams, Elijah Williams. 
1747. — Thomas French, Ebenezer Wells, Mathew Clesson, Samuel Cliilds, John 

Sheldon, Jr. 
1748.— John Catlin, Thos. Williams, Sam'l Hinsdale, David Field, Edward Allen. 
1749. — John Hawks, William Williams, Mathew Clesson, David Field, Benjamin 

1750. — Ebenezer Hinsdale, John Hawks, Johti Catlin, Mathew Clisson, Benjamin 

1751. — Ebenezer Hinsdale, William Williams, Jona. Hoyt, David Field, Ebenezer 

1752. — Ebenezer Hinsdale, Elijah Williams, Jolin Hawks, John Arms, Jr., Daniel 

Arms, Jr. 
1753. — Joseph Barnard, Elijah Williams, John Hawks, David Field, Timothy 

1754. — John Catlin, Elijah Williams, Jos. Barnard, David Field, Mathew Clesson. 
1755. — Mathew Clesson, Joseph Barnard, Daniel Arms. 
1756. — Mathew Clesson, Joseph Barujird, Daniel Arms, Elijah Williams. 
1757.— Elijah Williams, Samuel Childs, John Catliu. 

1758. — David Field, Daniel Arms, Joseph Barnard, John Arms, Josepli Stebbins. 
1759. — David Field, Daniel Arms, Elijah Williams, Samuel Wells, Jos. Barnard. 
1760. — David Field, Daniel Arms, Elijaii Williams, John Arms, David Hoyt. 
1701. — Elijah Williams, Joseph Barnard, Sam'l Wells, John Arms, Sam'l Childs. 
1702. — Elijali Williams, Daniel Arms, Jona. Hoyt, Jr., Asahel Wright, Jeremiah 

1763. — Elijah Williams, David Field, Jos. Barnard, Samuel Childs, John Hawks. 
1764. — Elijah Williams, David Field, Jos. Barnard, Salah Barnard, David Hoyt. 
1705. — Elijah Williams, John Hawks, Jona. Ashley, Salah Barnard, David Hoyt. 
1760.— David Field, Daniel Arms, Jona. Hoyt, Jr., Samuel Childs, Asahel Wright. 
1707. — Elijah Williams, David Field, Jos. Stel>bins, John Hawks, Jeremiah Nims. 
1768. — Elijali Williams, David Field, Jos. Barnard, Nathan Frary, Salah Barnard. 
1709. — David Field, John Hawks, Jona. Ashley, Jona. Arms, Jona. Hoyt, Jr. 
1770. — David Field, Jos. Barnard, Salah Barnard, Jeremiah Nims, Asahel Wright. 
1771. — David Field, Jona. Ashley, Jona. Hoyt, Jr. 
1772. — David Field, Jona. Ashley, Joseph Barnard. 

1773. — David Field, Joseph Barnard, Salah Barnard. 

1774. — Danii'l Arms, Jona. Hoyt, Jr., Jona. Arms. 

1775.— David Field, Salah Barnard, John Russell. 

1770-77.— David Field, Salah Barnard, John Bardwell. 

1778. — .Tos. Barnard, David Field, Salah Barnard, John Bardwell, Jeremiah Nims. 

1779,_Jolin Sheldon, Samud McCall, David Saxton, Asahel Wright, Elihu Field, 

Ebenezer Wells, Isaac Parker. 
1780.— Ehlad Bardwell, Thomas Bardwell, Eliphalet Dickinson. 
1781. — Samuel Harding, Amzi Childs, Joseph Barnard, David Saxton, Thomaa 

W. Dickinson, Levi Newton. 
1782.— Jos. Stehbins, Sam'l Barnard, Jeremiah Nims, Anizi C!liilds, Elihu Field. 
1783.— David Hoyt, Sam'l Barnard, Jr., Sam'l Field, Seth Catlin, Elihu Ashley. 
1784.— David Huyt, Sam'l Barnard, Jr., Paul Hawks, Seth Catlin, Elihu Ashley. 
17S.5-86. — David Hoyt, Samuel Barnard, Jr., David Saxton, Seth Catlin, Thomas 

W. Dickinson. 
17S7.— David Hoyt, Samuel Barnard, Jr., David Saxton, Seth Catlin, Jonii. Arms. 
17SS. — David Saxton, Zur Hawks, Aaron Arms, Abner Ckjoloy, Samuel Childs. 
1789. — Jona. Arms, Jos. Stehbins, Jr., Elihu Ashley, Jos. Barnard, Amzi Childs. 
1790.— Joseph Stehbins, David Hoyt, Elihu Ashley. 
1791. — Sanmel Field, Eliphalet Dickinson, Abner Cooley, Amzi Childs, Moses 

1792. — Jona. Arms, Amzi Childs, Joseph Barnard, Seth Nims, Asahel Wright, Jr. 
1793.— Seth Catlin, Samuel Childs, Elijah Arms, Seth Nims. David Hoyt, Jr. 
1794. — Josepli Barnard, David Saxton, Jr., Eliakim Arms, Asa Stehbins, Asahel 

Wright, Jr. 
1795.— David Saxton, Zur Hawks, Jos. Stehbins, William Tiyon, Eliakim Anns. 
1796. — Joseph Barnard, Joseph Stehbins, Thomas W. Dickinson. 
1797. — Joseph Barnard. Zur Hawks, John Williams, Amzi Childs, Elijah Arms. 
1798.— Seth Catlin, Thomas W. Dickinson, Seth Nims. 

1799.— John Williams, Jos. Stehbins, Amzi Childs, Solo. Williams, Abner Cooley. 
1800.— John Williams, David Hoyt, Elijah Arms, Solo. Williams, Asahel Wright. 
1801. — Joseph Stehbins, Thomas W. Dickinson, Seth Nims. 

1802.— Jos. Stehbins, W. S. Williams, Asahel Wright, Seth Nims, Eliakim Arms. 
1803.— David Hoyt, Augustus Lyman, Abner Cooley, Seth Nims, E. H. Williams. 
1804. — Seth Nims, Asa Stehbins, Hez. W. Strong, Elihu Hoyt, William Tr>'on. 
1805. — Seth Nims, Asa Stehbins, Elijah Arms, Sam'l Wells, Jr., Augustus Lyman. 
1806. — Seth Nims, Asa Stehbins, Augustus Lyman, Abner Cooley, Jr., Ebenezer 

H. Williams. 
1807. — Seth Nims, Asa Stehbins, T. W. Dickinson, Zur Hawks, Eliakim Arms. 
1808. — Seth Nims, Asa Stehbins, E. H. Williams, Eli.jah Arms, Elihu Ht>yt. 
1809. — Seth Nims, Asa Stehbins, Augustus Lyman, Elijah Arms, EHel Allen. 
1810. — Seth Nims, Asa Stehbins, Augustus Lyman, Eb'r Newcomh, Jr., Eli Cooley. 
1811. — Seth Nims, Asa Stehbins, Augustus Lyman, Ebenezer Newcomh, Jr., Eli- 
jah Arms, Jr. 
1812.— Seth Nims, Elihu Hoyt, Sam'l Wells, Eb'r Newcomh, Jr., Elijah Anns, Jr. 
1813.— Seth Nims, E. H. Williams, Augustus Lyman, Eb'r Newcomb, Jr., Elijah 

Arms, Jr. 
1814.— Seth Nims, Sam'l Wells, Elijah Arms, Eb'r Newcomb, Jr., Asa Stehbins. 
1815.— Seth Nims, Elihu Hoyt, Elijah Arms, Eb'r Newcomb, Jr., Augustus Ly- 
1810.— Seth Nims, Elihu Hoyt, Eli.jah Arms, John Nelson, Augustus Lyman. 
1817. — Asa Stehbins, Ebenezer H. Williams, George Arms, Orlando Ware. 
1818.— Asa Stehbins, Eb'r H. Williams, Geo. Arms, Orlando Ware, Eliakim Arms. 
1819. — Seth Nims, Elijah Arms, Stephen Whitney, Cha.s. Hitchcock, Elihu Hoyt. 
1820. — Orlando Ware, Elijah Arms, Stephen Whitney, Charles Hitchcock, John 

1821.— Orlando Ware, Augustus Lyman, Amos Russell. 
1822-23,— Oriando Ware, Stephen Wliitney, Charles Hitchcock. 
1824. — Orlando Ware, Dennis Stehbins, Zehediah Graves. 
1825.— Elihu Hoyt, Dennis Stehbins, Stephen Wliitney. 
1826-27. — Rufus Saxton, Dennis Stehbins, Amos Russell. 
1828. — Orlamlo Ware, Dennis Stehbins, Amos Russell. 
1829.- Orlando Ware, Elihu Hoyt, Amos Russell. 
1830.— Amos Russell, Denni-s Stehbins, Seth Sheldon. 
1831. — Stephen Whitney, Asa Stehbins, Jr., Baxter Stehbins. 
1832. — Orlando Ware, Asa Stehbins, Zebina Stehbins. 
1833.— Stephen Whitney, Asa Stehbins, Orlando Ware. 
1834-35. — Dennis Stehbins, Alvah Hawks, Allen Mansfield. 
1830. — Dennis Stehbins, Alvah Hawks, Allen Mansfield, George Wright, Ira 

1837.— Dennis Stehbins, Eli Cooley, Jr., Epbiaim MMUiams. 
1838.— Asa Stehbins, Jr., Eli Cooley, Jr., Ephraim Williams. 
1839. — Ephraim Williams, Cephas Clapp, Ira Abercrombie. 
1840. — Ephniim Williams, Cephas Clapp, Amos Russell. 
1841^4:.— Ephraim Williams, Cephas Clapp, Ira Abercrombie. 
1845. — Ira Abercrombie, Ceplias Clapp, Eli Wright. 
1840. — Ira Abercrombie, Cephas Clapp, Chaide^ Williams. 
1847. — Ira Abercrombie, Cepluis Clapp, Asa Stehbins. 
1848.- Ira Abercrombie, Daniel Tilton, H. K. Hoyt. 
1849-51.— Ephraim Williams, Allen Mansfield. Ralph Clapp. 
1852.— Ephraim Williams, William Sheldon, Sumner Duulap. 
1853-54.— Wilham Sheldon, Almon De Wolf, Allen Mansfield. 
1855.— William Sheldon, Ralph Clapp, Almon Bryant. 
1850.— William Sheldon, Ralph Clapp, Allen Mansfield. 
1857-58.— Horatio Hawks, Elisha Wells, James C. Arms. 
1859-00.— Elisha Wells, Allen Mansfield, Dexter Childs. 
1861-02.- Elisha Wells, Allen Mansfield, Philo Temple. 
1863-06.— Dexter Childs, Geo. W. Jones. Charles Aims. 



1867-69. — Josiah Brown, Geo. W. Jones, Cliarles Jones. 
1870.— Pexter CIuIiIb, S. D. Billings, Charles Jones. 
1871. — Dexter Cliilds, Charles Jones, Charles Arms. 
1872.— Charles Jones, Geo. W. Jones, Charles Hager. 
iy73._Charles Jones, Geo. W. Jones, Geo. W. Smith. 
1874-75.— Chai-les Jones, Charles E. Williams, AD^ert Stebbins. 
1876.— Charles Jones, Charles E. Williams, Joel De Wolf. 
1877.— Charles Jonee, Joel De Wolf, Charles P. Aldrich. 
1878.— Cliarles Jones, Lester L. Laey, Charles P. Aldrich. 
iMT'J. — Charles P, Aldrich, Jonathan Ashley, Kobert Abercrombie. 

WAR OF 1812-15. 

No military organization from this town served in the war 
of 1812. A few were drafted, and a few volunteered. A list is 
given of such as are known : 

Col. John W' ilson, Maj. John C. Hoyt, Stephen W. Williams, Israel Boydeu, Wm. 
Palmer, Stephen Smith, Robert L. Lanfair, Ephraim Lanfair, lehabod 
Nelson, Moses Hawks, Lorenzo S. Hatch, Wni. Loveiidge, Zur Sweet, 
Robert Foot, Abner Goodenough, James Hayden, Samuel Frink. 

A cavalry company here had for officers, Captain, Thomas 
AV. Ashley; Lieutenant, Charles Hitchcock; Ensign, Josiah 
L. Arms. A company of infantry, Zebina Ru.ssell, Captain; 
Zebediah Graves, Lieutenant ; David Wright, Ensign. 


In the great Kebellion, Deertield was not found wanting in 
patriotic endeavor, and furnished her full share of men and 
money to put down the wicked ambition of the South. A tit- 
ting monument, erected on the common of the Old Street, attests 
our gratitude to the defenders of our country, and proclaims 
our loss, it bearing the names of those who perished in the 
service. The following is a list of the soldiers from Deertield : 

Robert L. Adair, George N. Allen, James M. Allen, Liif:iyette Anderson, James 
Armsiruiig, Charles S. Babcock, Henry Baker, Arthur W. Ball, Chailes 
M. Ball, Francis W. Ball, Dwight W. Bardwe)!, George W. Bardwfl!, 
John Barnard, Oliver Banash, Leonard B. Barns, Albert W. Bates, 
Michael Behan, Patrick Behan, Charles A. Belden, .James Beldm, Henry 
E. Bolton, Lois Boobly, John M. Brazer, Lorenzo Bnizer, Fraiicia W. 
Briggs, Henry E. Briggs, Daniel Bnllard, Casper Burghardt, James Butler, 
John M. Campbell, George B. Canimll, Al.nzo Childs, George H. Childs, 
AltVed D. Clai)p, Calvin S. Cbipp, Cliiirles f'larU, George N Clark, Henry 
Clark, Henry G. ('lark, SaniU'd E. Cbirk, Chiistian Class, Henry S. 
Chnrth, Frederick Colly, B. O. Conn. 11, Allt-n doley, Richard Co^teb.w, 
Andrew I'ay, Fnincis Deane, Henry Deering, William Bernsmore, Abel 
E. Be Wolf, Charles L. Delland. Ah.nzo T. Podge, Clinton H. Bodge, 
Henderson N. Dodge, James Dououghue, Daniel Dotiovun, Peter Dono- 
von, Blathevv Douley, Joseph DuTining, Orrin J. Katnn, .luhri Eherlen, 
Edward Ely, Joseph Failander, D;iniel Finn,Jtdin Finn, Micliail Finn, 
Edwin T. Fuwler, Suninei Fiinli, Frank B. Fuller, John Kiillei, Thomas 
Ferguson, Alonzo Gay, Michael Glasset, Edward D. Guland, Alfred B. 
Goodenough, James Grady, Albert H, Graves, Dickin-^on E. Giaves, 
Henry W, Greenough, Dexter F. Hager, Charles E. Hastings, George A. 
Hastings, Henry A. Hastings. Lorenzo T. Hastings, George Hawks, Ed- 
ward Hays, Andrew Herman, .lames Hitchcock, Gottlieb Halle, Edward 
Hosmer, Jr., James K. Ilosiner, Edward Hoyt, George G. Hoyt, Alexis R, 
Hubbard, Frederick A. Hubbard, William N. Hubbard, George Hunter, 
John W.Jackson, Frank L. Jenks, Alvord A. Jewett, Gilbert Jewett, John 
Johnson, Alfred G. Jones, Frank W. Junes, Orrey Jones, Dexter Kemp, 
Michael Kenedy, Joel Keyes, Frank Labell, Seth P. Lanfair, Charles 
Leonard, Warren Leonard, William Leonard, Henry C. Lewey, Henry 
Lyman, John Manhati, Bathus Markle, William Martin, Alphunsu H. 
Melenda, Harland W. Miller, Otis Moore, Martin Moran, Edward E, 
Morton, William Muiller, Richaid O'Hary, Edwin B. Ockington. John B. 
Palmer, W. R. Parker, Simeon Peck, Charles 0. Phillips, Dwight C. Pe- 
liere, Horace Pehere, Russell Pehere, William Prevo, Pliilip Reuth, 
David L. Rice, George Rice, Is;iac D. Rice, Luther Rice, Charles Rich- 
ards, Washington Boss, Joseph Rowland, Lucius H. Sanimis, Edward 
Savage, Mirand W. Saxton, Orrin B. Saxton, Tlionias ?axton, William P. 
Saxton, Philip A. Sears, Maurice Shelian, James Shehay, John Shehee, 
Robert Shehee, James H. Sheldon, Wm. A. Simms, George Slate, Charles 
Smith, David A. Smith, Edwin A. Smith, Edwin B. Smith, Enistua C. 
Smith, George W. Smith, Henry D. Smith, Albian Stebbins, James T. 
Stebbins, Wellington M. Stel>bins. William H. H. Stebbins, B. Washing- 
ton Stebbins, Dana W. Sprout, Edgar P. Squires, Hiram B. Stearns, James 
Stewart, Charles Stockwell, Cliarles Stowell, Cyrus A. Stowell, Slyran A. 
Stowell, Cornelius Sullivan, Josepli Sullivan, Patrick Sullivan, Henry W. 
Temple, William C. Thayer, James B. Tilley, Charles G Tilton, Asa E. 
Todd, David E. Tudd, Sieplien C. Todd, William H. Todd, Almon Van 
Wanger, George Vizzard, Arthur Wait, Eiastus T. Wait, John Ware, 
Cliarles Warner, Jr., George M. Wells, Ebenezer E. Wliitney, Henry W' il- 
der, Jr., Charles L. Williams, Epliraim Williams, John Williams, Martin 
V. Williams, Charles WiUon, Lyman Wise, Justus Wrisley, John Zim- 


It has been said that "a truthful representation of a 
worthy life is a legacy to humanity;" and as such we pre- 
sent a brief outline of the life and character of Cephas Clapp. 
Ho was the son of Erastus and Katie (Ross) Clapp, who were 
natives of Deerfield. His father was born July 30, 1771 ; 
his mother. May 14, 1773. The former died Sept. 12, 1851, 
and the latter June 17, 1853. They were married in Deer- 
field, May 15, 1794, and had nine children, of whom the sub- 
ject of this memoir was the second. Cephas Clapp was born 


L^^^^/iX^ ^^^%^ 

in Pine Nook, Deerfield, Jan. 1, 1797. When he was twelve 
years of age his father removed to Mill River, where he bought 
a farm. Although an industrious and worthy man, he was 
, in straitened circumstances, and could give his son but few 
educational advantages. Mr. Clapp's education for this reason 
was confined to an attendance at the common school during 
the winter. He exhibited, however, at an early age a deter- 
mined and enterprising spirit. When twenty-one years old 
he purchased his father's farm, and successfully engaged in 
farming and stock-raising. By the energy and integrity which 
he displayed in all his pursuits he won the confidence of his 
townsmen, and in 18.50 represented Deerfield in the Legisla- 
ture. He served also nine consecutive years as selectman, and 
was elected the tenth, but he declined serving. He was for two 
years a trustee of Smith Charities, and by the sound judgment 
which he displayed in discharging the duties pertaining to 
that oiBce he gained the respect and esteem of all officers of 
that institution. The Smith Charities and the savings-bank 
often called into requisition his superior judgment to make 
appraisals of property on which loans were to be made, and 
it is remarkable that in no instance was loss incurred when 
his advice was strictly followed. He acted as referee in nu- 
merous cases, to the satisfaction of all parties concerned. He 
was quick to see the right, and when once convinced no 
amount of argument could induce him to change his de- 
cision. In politics he was a Whig of the staunchest kind. 

Mr. Clapp was united in marriage, April 17, 1828, to Emily 
Boyden, of Deerfield. They had seven children, of whom 



three died in infancy. Those living are Cephas Gerry, Fran- 
cis, Emilj' B., wife of J. C. Melendy, and Charlotte M., wife 
of A. A. Cooley. Francis is living upon the old homestead, 
and contributes this memoir and the portrait of his father to 
this work. 

Mrs. Clapp died in 1872, and her husband mourned her loss 
so deeply as to materially affect his health and spirits. He 
survived her three years, when after an illness of but six days 
he died, March 7, 1875. The following, from the Franklin 
Coimfy Times of April 9, 1875, is a just tribute to a good man : 
"The death of Mr. Cephas Clapp, of South Deerfield, an old 
and respected citizen, was sudden and unexpected, and is a 
loss to the community which will be long and deeply felt. He 
was not only loved and honored by his own family, but by all 
who came in contact with him in social or business relations. 
In all his intercourse and dealings he was frank, open-hearted, 
honest in the strictest sense of the word, always ready and 
willing to do what he thought right in the face of all opposi- 
tion, and without reference to any injury to self which might 
he caused by so doing. He was one of the staunch men of 
the past generation, deep in thought, high-minded, pure in 
heart, and a liberal supporter of the Congregational Church, 
of ivhich he was a member. He was also liberal in his aid to 
the missionary cause and other fields of labor. . . . We can 
all exclaim, and truly, that we have lost a great and good 
man, one of the noblest of the ' noble works of God,' a beacon- 
light whose rays will never grow dim till those who have 
known and loved him pass too over that river to the shore 


The Sheldon family have been among the distinguished in- 
habitants of the Connecticut Valley. The first of the name 
who settled in Deerfield was Ensign John Sheldon, in 1684.* 
About 1C98 he built the dwelling afterward famous as the 
" Old Indian House," which was removed about 1848. 

The original Sheldon homestead passed into the hands of 
the Hoyt family in 1743, a daughter of Ebenezer, who was a 
son of Ensign Sheldon, having married one of the family. 
Ebenezer was a boy of thirteen years when his father's house 
was so furiously assaulted by the French and Indians in 1704, 
and he was taken prisoner and carried to Canada at that time. 

George Sheldon is of the sixth generation from Ensign 

Sheldon, and was born on the homestead, which has been in 
the family since 1708, on the SOth of November, 1818. His 
father, Seth Sheldon, was a farmer, and the young man worked 
on the farm until he was twenty-one years of age, when an 
accident disabled him from manual labor for some ten years 
of his life. His early education was obtained at the common 
district school and at the Deerfield Academy, which he attended 
during several winter terms. 

From 1853 to 1858 he was employed in the Dwight Cotton- 
Mills, at Chioopee ; but in the latter year an injury received in 
a railway collision compelled him to return to his father's, 
where he subsequently took charge of the homestead for a 
number of years, until about 1868, when he relinquished it to 
his son-in-law. 

From the lAst-mentioned date to the present Mr. Sheldon 
has been engaged a large portion of his time in literary and 
antiquarian pursuits, and has contributed m;iny interesting 
and valuable chapters and papers from time to time on the 
history and archaeology of the Connecticut Valley, in which 
connection he occupies the foremost rank as a collator and 

He was actively instrumental in founding and organizing 
the " PocoMPTUCK Vallby Memorial Association," which 
assumed tangible form in 1870, and has been president of it 
since its organization. f Mr. Sheldon has also held important 
civil positions. Has been justice of the peace in his native 
town for fifteen or twenty years ; was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts House of Representatives in 18137, and of the State 
Senate in 1872. He married, June 11, 1844, Susan Stewart, 
daughter of John F. Stearns, Esq., of Dummerston, Vt. He 
has two children, — a son and daughter. The son is in busi- 
ness in Greenfield, and the daughter and her family live on 
the homestead with her father. 

Few places in the Union can compare with the quaint and 
quiet old town of Deerfield in the richness of its historical 
memories. For many years succeeding 1690 it was the grand 
objective-point in Western New England against which the 
northern enemy directed his mingled white and dusky bat- 
talions, and the stories of its burnings and massacres are 
among the most thrilling and interesting in our annals. 

In this rich field Mr. Sheldon has ample scope for the full 
employment of his powers ; and if his life and health continue, 
the results of his labors will no doubt be highly appreciated 
by the coming generations. 



Montague, one of the eastern towns of Franklin, lies on 
the east and south banks of the Connecticut River, and is 
bounded on the north by the Connecticut, on the south by 
Sunderland and Leverett, on the east by Erving and Wendell, 
and on the west by the Connecticut River. Of the 16,520 tax- 
able acres which the town contains, about one-half consists of 
improved lands. The New London Northern Railroad crosses 
from the Sunderland line on the south to the village of Miller's 
Falls in the northeast; the Vermont and Massachusetts branch 
of the Fitchburg Railroad passes east and west through the 
centre of the town ; and in the northwest corner the Greenfield 
and Turner's Falls branch of the Fitchburg Railroad connects 
those two villages. 

* See history of Deerfield. 


The surface of the town is generally level, save in the east 
and south, where high hills cover the face of that region lying 
east of the New London Northern Railroad. The only eleva- 
tion of consequence in the north is Wells' Hill. Other emi- 
nences are Dry, Chestnut, Pine, and Country hills, but none 
of these rise to the dignity of mountains. 

The Connecticut River bounds the town on the north and 
west, and Miller's River, on the northeast, is a rapid stream 
of considerable size, which furnishes the manufactories at 
Miller's Falls and other points with valuable water-power. 
Reference to this, as well as to the greater water-power of the 
Connecticut at Turner's Falls, will be found in detail farther 

t For an account of this association see history of Deerfield. 



Trom the bills on the castand south, richly picturesque views 
of the windinc; Connecticut, its charming valley, and the far- 
reaching and diversified landscape are obtained. During the 
past few years the timber-land of the town has been industri- 
ously cleared. Chestnut is now the principal growth found on 
the woodlands. Besides the Connecticut and Miller's Kiver, 
there is also Saw-mill River, which flows through Southwest 
Montague and empties into the Connecticut. 

The most important of the natural features of the town is 
Lake Pleasant, a lovely sheet of water covering about 100 
acres, and situated in the midst of a pine grove, about a mile 
and a half east of Montague Centre, on the line of the Fitch- 
burg Railroad. In 1872 the railroad company, recognizing 
the natural charms of the spot, built upon the banks of the 
lake (then called Great Pond), at a cost of ?15,000, bath- 
houses, boat-houses, neat cottages, restaurants, and many 
other conveniences for public entertainment, supplied the 
lake with boats, beautified the surrounding grounds, and 
after, in short, creating a delightful retreat, the company 
opened it to the public as a free resort, and since that time the 
lake has been visited yearly every summer by thousands of 
pleasure-seeking people, many of whom take up their abode 
there for the season in the pretty cottages on the borders of 
the lake. Camp-meetings are regularly held there every sum- 
mer, and, according to the popular estimate, the average daily 
population at Lake Pleasant during the season reaches full}' 
1200. The waters of the lake, which are very clear and said 
to be unfathomable, are plentifully stocked with black bass, 
and furnish the angler with capital sport. Picnic-parties 
journey to the spot from far and near, and altogether it is a 
famous resort, of which the town is justly proud. 

Two important waterfalls border the town, — Turner's Falls, 
on the Connecticut, at the north, with a fall of 2.5 feet, and 
Miller's Falls, on Miller's River, at the east, with a fall of 12 
feet. In the eastern part of the town is a granite quarry, 
which furnishes considerable valuable stone. 

Extensive geological researches in the northern part of the 
town have unearthed a multitude of early fossil imprints in 
the red sandstone, and of these numerous collections are now 
in the possession of private individuals as well as public 

- One of the most important and valuable of these collections 
was made by Dexter Marsh, a native of Montague, who died 
in Greenfield in 1853. Red sandstone abounds in the south- 
western part of the town, and it was in the strata of this rock 
that the fossil imprints referred to were found, and where 
they are occasionally found to this day. Ancient relics, such 
as stone axes, arrow-points, etc, are often found at the present 
day imbedded in the lands along the river-bottoms. 


The earliest grant of land in what is now Montague of 
which the records make mention is under date of March 23, 
1716, wherein Samuel Partridge and John Pynchon, "the 
committee of Swampiield" (the original name of Sunderland), 
granted to Benjamin Munn, Edward Ailing, Jr., Daniel Bea- 
mon, Edward Ailing, find Nathaniel Frary the privileges of a 
stream in Swampfield, called Saw-mill Brook, upon which a 
saw-mill was erected. They were to have free privileges of 
timber in Swampfield, on the north side of Saw-mill Brook, 
for the use of said saw-mill, conditioned, however, that the 
said grant should not impede the erection of a corn-mill on 
said brook. They were to sell " bords" to " the inhabitants of 
Swampfield" at a price not exceeding twenty shillings per 
thousand, and their grant was to continue only as long as they 
continued the mill. As an encouragement to build said mill, 
they were further granted 30 acres of land in some con- 
venient place in Swampfield. This place alluded to was a 
tract on Saw-mill Brook, now in the village of Montague 

Centre, and from the foregoing it would appear that there were 
at that time " inhabitants" in that neighborhood. 

Jan. 16, 1709, two divisions of land were made on the west 
side of Hunting Hills, lying on the Connecticut River. In the 
first division each lot contained three acres and a half, and 
grants therein were made to the following persons : Thomas 
Hovey, Benjamin Graves, Wm. Arms, Samuel Billings, 
Samuel Harvey, Isaac Graves, Benjamin Barrett, Samuel 
Smith, Capt. Field, Ebenezer Billings, Jr., Nathaniel Dick- 
inson, Joseph Root, Luke Smith, Stephen Crowfoot, Samuel 
Taylor, Samuel Billings Smith, Daniel "Warner, Ebenezer 
Marsh, Daniel Smith, Nathaniel Smith, Samuel Graves, Jos. 
Field, Jr., Joseph Dickinson, Mr. Willard, Simon Cooley, 
Daniel Russell, James Bridgman, Wm. Scott, Joseph Clary, 
Jonathan Graves, Nathaniel Gunn, Ebenezer Kellogg, Isaac 
Hubbard, Deacon Hubbard, Manoah Bodman, Lieut. Eben- 
ezer Billings, Richard Scott, Eleazer Warner, Joseph Smith, 
Wm. Allis, Samuel Gunn, and Samuel Montague. Grants 
were made to the same persons in the second division, in which 
each lot contained ten acres. In each division a ministry or 
town-lot was reserved. The tract embraced in the two divi- 
sions was in the north part of the town of Sunderland, where 
now stands the village of Montague Centre, and the first set- 
tlement of what is now the town of Montague appears, there- 
fore, to have been made in 1719. The majority of the settlers 
named above were also among the early settlers of Sunder- 

There was a tract of State land lying north of the Sunder- 
land line and extending to the Connecticut, and upon this 
tract two young men, Enoch and Gideon Bardwell, of Deer- 
field, settled at a very early date. They were persevering and 
heroic lads, and, although forced at one time to flee to Deer- 
field by troublesome Indians, they returned after a brief ab- 
sence, and, reoccupying their lands, remained, and became 
subsequently the progenitors of a numerous race of Bardwells, 
some of whom still reside in Montague. 

Further grants of lands near Hunting Hills were made be- 
tween 1730 and 1740, the section being known as part of the 
second precinct of Sunderland. The name of Hunting Hills 
was given to it by reason of a range of hills on the eastern 
border, where game was found in abundance. 

On the r2th of July, 1751, William Williams, justice of 
the peace for the county of Hampshire, issued to Jonathan 
Root, of Sunderland (husbandman), an order, saying that, an 
application having been made to him by Simeon King, David 
Ballard, Eliphalet Allis, Samuel Smead, and Jonathan Root, 
desiring a meeting of the freeholders and other inhabitants 
of the second parish of Sunderland entitled to vote in town 
affairs, the said Jonathan Root was therefore required, in his 
Majesty's name, to notify the freeholders, etc., of said parish 
to meet at the house of Joseph Root, on Monday, July 29, 
1751, for the following purposes: " To choose a moderator; 
to choose a clerk ; a committee to call meetings for the future ; 
to determine whether they will have preaching in the parish ; 
to grant such sum as will defray present and future charges ; 
and to choose assessors and collectors." 

At this meeting, which was held as provided. Deacon Mat- 
toon was chosen Moderator ; Joseph Root was chosen Clerk ; 
and Deacon Mattoon, Eliphalet Allis, Samuel Bardwell, David 
Ballard, and Simeon King were chosen to give out warrants 
for calling future meetings. It was further resolved to raise 
£200, old tenor, to defray the charges that " have arisen or 
that may arise, that the sura be paid in the middle of October 
next, and that Josiah Alvord, Eliphalet Allis, and Samuel 
Smead be cho.sen to assess the same." 

Upon the records, under date of 1745, there appears the 
copy of a division of land on Miller's Plain, surveyed by 
Nathaniel Kellogg. There were 80 lots in this tract, divided 
into two ranges, — north and south. The grantees of these lots 
were Samuel Harvey, Jr., Nathaniel Cowdry, Jonathan Root, 



Joseph Dickinson, Ephraim Sawyer, Absalom Soott, Aaron 
Leonard, Israel Kioliardson, Jonathan Graves, Richard Scott, 
Thomas Keet, Samuel Taylor, Isaac Graves, John Giinn, Isaac 
Barrett, John Scott, Stephen Smith, Isaac Hubbard, Jr., 
Nathan Tuttle, Nathaniel Gunn, Daniel Hubbard, Daniel 
Smith, Joseph Wells, Noah Graves, Ensign Cooley, Daniel 
Harvey, Fellows Billings, John Billings, John Marsh, Zebe- 
diah Smith, Charles Chancy, John Bridgman, Benjamin Bar- 
ret, Samuel Downer, Ebenezer Graves, Ebenezer Billings, Jr., 
Samuel Graves, Samuel Billings Smith, Samuel Harvey, Joseph 
Boot, Josiah Alvord, Ezekiel Smith, Capt. Billings, Jed Saw- 
yer, Ebenezer Marsh, Jr., Eliphalet Allis, Moses Dickinson, 
Judah Wright, Samuel Smith, Wm. Scott, Jr., Samuel Bil- 
lings (2d), William Allis, Widow Harvey, Jonathan Bridg- 
man, Samuel Gunn, Jonathan Billings, Manoah Bodman, 
Eleazer Warner, Joseph Mitchel, Jonathan Barrett, Jonathan 
Kussell, Jonathan Field, Samuel Clary, Benjamin Graves, 
Wm. Scott, Lieut. Clary, Joseph Field, Samuel Scott, Jona- 
than Scott, Edward Elmer, Ebenezer Mar.sh, Widow Gunn, 
Luke Smith, Nathaniel Smith, Zebediah Allis, W^m. Band, 
Deacon Montague, Joshua Douglass, Deacon Hubbard, Abner 

Comparatively few of the descendants of Montague's early 
settlers are now living in the town, many having removed 
westward early in life. Among those now in Montague de- 
scended from the pioneers may be noted Warren and Elijah 
Bardwell, J. W. Root, Harrison Root, Solomon Root, Zebina, 
Henry H., and Wm. F. Taylor, Elizur Soott, Rodney, Eras- 
tus, and Elijah Gunn, Joshua and Elijah Marsh, and Liberty 
and George Wright. 


April (i, 1773, the inhabitants held a meeting to discuss a 
pamphlet received from the town of Boston, touching the 
rights and grievances of the colonies. It was decided to 
choose a committee of correspondence, composed of Moses 
Gunn, Elisha Allis, Stephen Tuttle, Peter Bishop, Judah 
Wright, Nathaniel Gunn, Jr., and Moses Harvey, and at an 
adjourned meeting in April the committee presented the draft 
of a letter to the committee of correspondence at Boston, and 
in this letter it was set forth in substance that the committee 
considered the infringement upon the rights of the colonies, as 
set forth in the pamphlet, as being what in reason and justice 
ought to give great concern to every friend of his country, and 
excite his endeavors in all lawful methods to obtain suitable 

In July, 1774, the people in town-meeting adopted a non- 
consumption covenant, whereby they pledged themselves to 
suspend commercial intercourse with Great Britain until the 
repeal of the act closing the port of Boston and the restoration 
of chartered rights. They further pledged themselves not to 
knowingly purchase any goods arriving from Great Britain 
after the last day of the ensuing August. In view of the dis- 
tressing condition of affairs throughout the country, it was 
voted to set apart the 14th day of July as a day of humiliation 
and pra}'er. 

In September, 1774, it was voted to procure fifty pounds of 
powder, one hundred and twelve pounds of lead, and a suffi- 
cient number of flints, " as a town stock for the present." In 
January, 1775, it was voted to raise six pounds to encourage 
the Minute-Men "shortly to be raised in Montague." At 
the same meeting it was voted to send Moses Gunn to repre- 
sent the district in the Provincial Congress. Out of the sum 
above appropriated, it was voted to allow the Minute-Men six- 
pence apiece each half-day the}' attended military exercise. 
At a meeting in April, 177.5, it was voted to send a wagon 
with provisions for the use of the army. To transport this 
wagon-load of provisions to the army at Cambridge, the dis- 
trict paid Elijah Smith seven pounds, ten shillings, and nine 

Tn 1778 it was voted to abide by the Articles of Confeder- 
ation proposed by the Continental Congress, except the article 
empowering Congress to declare peace or war. This power 
the town considered should be left to the people, and not en- 
trusted to any body of men. 

In the same year it was voted to provide twenty-three pairs 
of stockings, twenty-three pairs of shoes, and twenty-three 
shirts for the use of the Continental soldiers. It was agreed 
to give twenty shillings a pair for stockings, thirty-six shil- 
lings a pair for .shoes, and eight shillings per yard for yard- 
wide shirting. 

In May, 1778, the town voted to raise £1.50 to pay the 
bounties for the five soldiers ordered by the General Court 
for the army. 

In December, 1778, it was voted to pay seven dollars apiece 
for eight shirts, and eleven dollars a pair for shoes, provided 
for the soldiers.* In June, 1779, it was agreed to raise £574 
for bounties and mileage to the soldiers ordered to be raised 
by the General Court. For this money six soldiers were 
raised. In the following September the town refused to adopt 
the scale of prices fj-xed for various commodities by the 
Northampton convention. 

In October, 1779, the town borrowed £360 to pay bounties 
for soldiers ordered by the General Court. Of this sum, the 
town paid £40 each to eight soldiers, as follows: Noah Barnes, 
Joel Benjamin, Asa Fuller, .lames Winslow, Ephraim Whit- 
ney, Sim King, John Clapp, and .Jonathan Marsh. 

In June, 1780, it was voted to give each man who should 
turn out as a volunteer for six months a bounty of £'206. No 
one offering to volunteer, the bounty was raised to £300 and 
£3 per month, and the 11 men required were obtained. 

In July of the same year 11 additional men were called 
for, and a bounty of £150 and £3 per month promised as 
an encouragement. In October, 3600 pounds of beef were 
bought for the army under an order from the General Court. 

In January, 1781, 7 more soldiers were raised by boun- 
ties, and shortly thereafter it was voted to give as a bounty to 
each soldier 20 yearling heifers or steers, in case said soldier 
should continue in the war one year ; 20 two-year-old neat 
cattle in case he should serve two years ; and 20 three-year- 
old neat cattle in case he should serve three years. In the 
following July a bounty of £3 40s. per month was offered 
for three months' men. 

In September, 1781, 20.s. bounty and £30 per month were 
offered for soldiers to serve in the defense of the State of Con- 
necticut. In December, 1783, the town treasurer was author- 
ized to exchange Continental money for silver at the rate of 
$120 /or one dollar ! 

In July, 1812, the town in public meeting recorded its dis- 
approbation of the war declared against Great Britain, and 
voted to send a memorial to the President and Congress, 
praying that war might cease, and that the blessings of peace 
might be restored to the land. Beyond that the records are 
silent touching the action of the town as concerned that war. 
It is, however, certain that the town furnished 16 men for 
the service. Fifteen of these were drafted and one volun- 
teered, the volunteer's name being Chester Taylor. 

Montague sent Henry Wells as a delegate to the Northamp- 
ton convention, called by the three river-counties to memo- 
rialize the President of the United States, and to demand a 
speedy conclusion of peace. 

Joseph Root was probably the first innkeeper known in the 
early settlement of Montague, for the records of 1770 allude to 
a sale of lands to be held "at the house of Joseph Root, inn- 
holder." It may also be noted that the first meeting of the 
inhabitants of the second parish of Sunderland, in 1751, was 

* These enormous prices illustrate the relative value of Continental bills. 



held at his house. Martin Root, his son, kept the inn after 
him. Tlie old tavern building yet stands on the eastern edge 
of the village of Montague Centre, and is still used as a 

Dec. 1, 1755, the district voted to allow jiay for the building 
of a bridge across Saw-mill River, on the road crossing the 
Mill Swamp, from Ensign King's to Moses Taylor's. The 
pay allowed was " 15 cents per summer day, and 12 cents for 
Micklemas day, old tenor." 

Brief allusion is made in a record of date 1755 to certain 
persons " enlisted in the services of the war," meaning, doubt- 
less, the French war. 

March 8, 1756, it was resolved to discontinue and alter the 
road " lying on the west side of the low swamp, in the Hunt- 
ing Hills field, beginning at Jonathan Root's lot, and bearing 
mure to the ea.st than the old road was laid, and then crossing 
the low swamp in Judah Wright's land, and coming into the 
path on the line between Judah Wright's land and Enos 
Marsh's, on the east side of the low swamp." 

One of the earliest roads laid out in the district is sup- 
posed to have been the one beginning at the west side of Mount 
Toby, thence extending east, and then north to Northfield, 
passing about half a mile east of what is now Montague vil- 

In March, 1757, it was determined to build a bridge across 
Saw-mill River, cast branch, between Ensign King's and 
Moses Taylor's. In December, 1757, a highway was ordered 
to be laid out, to begin at the common road at the west end of 
Isaac Barret's horne-lot, to road bounds north on Benjamin 
Barret's land, and then east to the little hill. 

The first turnpike in the town was the one known as the 
road of the Fifth Massachusetts Turnpike Corporation, passing 
from Greenfield to Athol, by way of Montague. This turn- 
pike was built in 1799. 

The first pound was probably the one ordered December, 
1766, to be built on Asahel Gunn's lot, " at the west end of 
the horse-house, and near the meeting-house." In 1771 it was 
voted to lay out a road up the river-bank, near Brooks' Ferry, 
south of the old road. In 1773 a petition was presented to the 
General Court, praying that Eliphalet Allis should be licensed 
to retail spirituous liquors " without-doors" in the district of 

In 1775 the presence of a band of counterfeiters was sus- 
pected, and a committee was ai)])()inted to inquire into the 
conduct of certain persons suspected of making money, and to 
summon said persons to appear before them and deal with 
them "as prudence shall direct." In 1777 it was voted that 
Joseph Root should continue to keep the tavern, and it was 
further voted that the Governor should not allow town-dwel- 
lers to remain drinking in their houses after nine o'clock with- 
out some special business. 

At a meeting in 1759, Daniel Baker was chosen a " pit- 
man," to dig graves. In March, 17G1, a highway was laid out 
through Zebediah Allis' home-lot, running thence toward 
the Saw-mill River, to a maple-bush splashed, on the east side 
of the Proprietors' road, crossing the river, and then on the 
east side of the same to a pine-tree, thence on the old road 
crossing the brook, and through Samuel Brooks' and Zebediah 
Smith's land. In 1762 a road was laid out around Harvey's 
Hill to Gunn's Brook. Twenty-five pounds were raised in 
1761 for repairs to highways in that year. 

In 1765 it was voted to provide wands for the wardens and 
staves for the tithingmen. Mention is made, in a record 
dated March 2, 1766, of the appointment of a committee to 
look out for a convenient passage down the bank near " David 
Ballard's ferry place." When David Ballard established his 
ferry is not stated. 

During the prevalence in Montague of small-pox in 1777, 
inoculation was much opposed, and by a vote the selectmen 
were instructed to write to the selectmen of neighboring towns, 

showing the mind of the town of Montague, and advising 
them to use their influence to put a .stop to the practice of 

In 1790 thirty-three persons who attempted to take up resi- 
dence in the town without having obtained the town's consent 
were warned to depart. This warning of people to leave the 
town was a frequent occurrence in those days.* 

Elisha Root, born in 1739, in what is now Montague, was 
probably the first child born in the early settlement. 

Moses Root was probably the first blacksmith of the town. 
Mention is made in the town records, under date 1765, of his 
bill " for smith-work." 

In 1812 the right to vote at a general election was limited 
to such persons as could show the possession of estate valued 
at §200, or an income of §10 annually. 

There' were tax delinquents even in those days, for it is 
learned that lands of Richard Montague, Moses Harvey, 
Daniel Baker, Ezra Smead, John Clapp, Jr., Daniel Clajip, 
Daniel Baker, and Benjamin Alvord were sold to pay taxes 
for 1777 and 1778. 

It appears from the records that Israel Gunn and Solomon 
Clapp, selectmen, issued, Oct. 1, 1794, an order to either of 
the constables of the town of Montague, directing him to 
warn and give notice to David Arms and Sarah, his wife, that, 
" having lately come into the town for the purpose of abiding 
there without the town's consent, they must, within fifteen 
days, depart the limits of the town, with their children and 
all others under their care." 

By a vote taken in town-meeting, December, 1813, all per- 
sons were allowed to wear their hats during the meeting, 
owing, perhaps, to the severity of the weather. 

The first storekeeper in the town was a Mr. Easterbrook, 
the first physician, William Wells, and the first lawyer, Jona- 
than Hartwell. The first postmaster was Martin Gunn ; the 
second, Jonathan Hartwell; Elisha Wright, Jr., the third; 
Washington Keycs, the fourth ; and Isaac Chenery, the pres- 
ent incumbent, the fifth. Jonathan Hartwell, who held the 
otfice thirty-six years, from 1818, and resigned at last, served 
also, meanwhile, for nearly the entire period, either as town 
clerk or treasurer, representative at the General Court, or mem- 
ber of the executive council. 

Montague was somewhat prominent on behalf of the in- 
surgents during the Shays rebellion. Thomas Grover, one 
of Montague's citizens, who was one of the insurgent leaders 
in that conflict, issued an address from Worcester, in which 
he set forth that " it had fallen to his lot to bo employed in a 
more conspicuous manner than some of his fellow-citizens in 
stepping forth in the defense of the rights and privileges of 
the people, more especially of the county of Hampshire." 
He referred to a list of grievances already made public, and 
added a list of proposed reforms, " which," he said, " the peo- 
ple are determined to contend for." These reforms to which 
he pointed were such as the revision of the constitution, the 
total abolition of the courts of Common Pleas and General 
Sessions of the Peace, the removal of the General Court from 
Boston, and the abolition of the oflice of deputy sheritf, as 
well as that of certain oflSces connected with the financial 
management of the State. Among those of the rebels sen- 
tenced to punishment upon the termination of the rebellion 
was Moses Harvey, of Montague, who was fined £-50 and con- 
demned " to sit upon the gallows one hour with a rope about 
his neck." Harvey was the only one of the convicted rebels 
who actually suifered the execution of his sentence. 

On the petition of the inhabitants of the northerly part of 
Sunderland, and sundry others, it was ordered in the House 

* This waa a formal notice ia cases where persons were in danger of becoming 
town cliarges. Tbe warning relieverl the town of expense in case of paupcrit^m, 
but the families were not driven out. 



of Kepresentativf!S, June 17, 1751, that the northerly part of 
the town of Sunderhmd he erected into a separate and distinct 
precinct. It wns also ordered that that part of the precinct 
not then appropriated should he sold to the highest hidders, 
who should he obliged to settle on the tract 10 families, to 
huild 10 houses 18 feet square and 7 feet stud, and to bring* tit 
for tillage 5 acres of land for each family within three years 
of the time of said sale. This was concurred in by the council 
on the same day. 

Dec. 22, 1753, the General Court passed an act authorizing 
the erection of the north parish of Sunderland into a separate 
district, by the name of Montague. The name is said to have 
been chosen in honor of Capt. William Montague, who com- 
manded "The Mermaid" at the taking of Cape Breton. 

The bounds of the district were established as follows : Be- 
ginning at the Connecticut Kiver 20 rods north of the mouth 
of Slatestone Brook, thence east to the east side of the town 
bounds, thence on the line of the said town to the northeast 
corner of the town bounds, thence north to Miller's Kiver, 
thence westwardly by Miller's lliver to its mouth, where it 
enters the Connecticut River, and thence by the Connecticut 
Kiver to the first-mentioned bound. 

The district was authorized to enjoy the privileges, etc., of 
towns, that of sending a representative to the General Court 
alone excepted. The inhabitants were, however, entitled to 
join with Sunderland in sending a representative. 

This tract, set apart as the district of Montague, included 
the second precinct of the town of Sunderland (set apart in 
1751, as above noted) and a tract of land lying north thereof, 
between it and the Connecticut Eiver, and belonging to the 
State. This tract, with the exception of a small strip about 
u mile wide, set apart to Wendell in 1803, is the tract now 
occupied by the town of Montague. 


Although the district of Montague was incorporated in 1753, 
the earliest town-meeting of which the preserved records make 
mention is of date 1756. The list of selectmen from that date 
to the present is as follows : 
1756. — Joseph Root, Sumuel BarcUvL-lI, Ensigu King, Josiah Alvord, Saimiol 

1757. — Joi-iah Alvord, Joseph R:)ot, Ensign King, Samuel Smeed, EUcnozer 

1738. — Samuel Biird\vt.'U, Joseph Alvord, Reuben Scott, Ensigu King, Joseph 

1750. — Clark Alvord, Lieut. Carver, Reuben Scott, Samuel Snioad, Jueepli lUtot. 
1760. — Lieut. Clnpp, Clark Alvord, Joseph Root. 
1761. — Joseph Root, Josiah Alvord, Moses Guon. 
170*2. — Capt. Root, Deacon Guiin, Moses Gunn. 
1763-64.— Cajit. Root, Scrgt. Smead, Neheniiah Chur-jh. 
1705. — Josiah Alvord, Reuben Scott, Moses Ounn. 
1706. — JoBeph Root, John Giuin, Samuel Suiead, Neheniiah CHuircIi, Reuben 

1707. — Capt. Root, Moses Gunn, Moses Severance. 
17GS.— Capt. Root, Clark Alviud, Nathan Smith. 
1709. — Clark Josijis Alvord. Nathan Smith, Moses Gunn. 
1770. — Capt. Root, Reuben Scott, Muses Severance. 
1771. — Joseph Root, Moses Gunn, Asahel Keet. 

1772. — Capt. Root, Reuben Scott, Asahel Keet, Ebenezer Billings, Elijah Smith. 
1773. — Joseph Root, Moses Severance, Sergt. Scott. 
1774-75.— Dr. Gunn, Stephen Tuttle, Samuel Bardwoll. 
1776. — Siunuel liardwell, Asahel Gunn, Nathan Smith, Asahel Keet, Moses 

1777. — Deacon Gunn, Asahel Gunn, Nathan Smith, Samuel Bardwell, Dr. Gunn. 
1778. — Moses Gunn, Nathaniel Gunn, Samuel Bardwell, Nathan Smith, Israel 

1779. — Nathaniel Gunn, Moses Gunn, Gideon Bardwell, Benjamin Alvord; Philip 

17S0. — Caleb Kinsley, John Gunn, Jonathan Loveland. 
1781. — Pliilip Ballard, Natlianiel Gunn, Benjamin Alvord. 
1782. — Moses Gunn, Israel Gunn, Caleb Kinsley. 
1783. — Moses Severance, Reuben SL-'Ott, Elisha Root. 

1784. — Capt. Alvord, Moses Root, Elisha Root, Dr. Gunn, Moses Sevei-ance. 
1785, — Israel Gunn, Capt. Alvord, Jotham Death. 
1786. — Deacon Gunn, Capt. Kinsley, Elisha Root. 
1787.— Elisha Root, Deacon Gunn, Moses Root. 
1788. — Lieut. Scutt, Ensign Severance, Asahel Keet. 
1789, — Moses Root, Deacon Gunn, Cajit. Kinsley, 

1790. — Deacon Gunn, Moses Root, Ensign Sevoranco. 
1701. — Deacon Gunn, Moses Riot, Asahel Gunn. 
1702.— Mcdad Jlontague, Most's Root, Deacon Gunn. 
1703. — Deaetui Gunn, Moses Root, Solomon Clnpp. 
1794.— Deacon Gunn, Lyman Taft, Sidonmn Cl.ipp. 
1795, — Deacon Gunn, Moses Root, Medad Blontugue, 
■ 1706. — Solomon Clapp, Moses Severance, Jonathan Root- 
1707. — Deacon Gunn, Sulomon Chipp, Medad Montague, 
1708. — Deacon Gunn, Moses Root, MeJad Sloutague. 
1709-1801.— Deacon Gunn, Capt. Clapp, Jonathan Root. 
1802. — Moses Severance, Ezra Anderson, JLirtin Root. 
1803. — Martin Root, Capt. Severance, Samuel Ritsley. 
1804. — Martin Root, Moses Severance, Ezra Amlei-son, 
1805, — Martin Root, Salmon Gunn, Ezra Anderson. 
1806. — Jonathan Rtjot, Nathaniel Gunn, Ezra Anderson. 
1807-8. — Medad 3Iontague, Salmon Gunn, Nathan Chenery. 
l^OiJ-lO. — Jledad Montague, Salmon Gunn, Moses Severance- 
ISll. — Medud Montague, Moses Severance, Samuel Wiisley. 
1812. — Me<lad Montague, Martin Root, Salmon Gunn. 
1S13. — Mai tin Root, Sjilmon Gunn, Sledad Montague. 
1814, — Salmon Gunn, Rodolphus Biirdwell, Medad Montague, 
1815. — Boiiolphiis Bardwell, Spencer Root, Benjamin Wells. 
1816-17. — Mwlad Montague, Salmon Gunn, Rodolphus Bardwell. 
1S18. — Benjamin Wells, Spencer Root, Silas Hosmer, 
1810. — Salmon Gunn, AVpel Bancroft, Jcromiah Pratt, 
1820. — Medad Montague, Jonathan Munsell, Jeremiah Pratt. 
1821. — Jeremiah Pratt, Jonathan Munsell, Moses Severance. 
1822.— Moses Severance, Jeremiah l*ratt, Eliiiu Root, 
1823.— Jeremiah Pratt, Rodolidnis Bsirdwell, Abel Bancroft. 
1824. — Rodolphus Bardwell, Jeremiah Pratt, Joseph Gunn. 
1^%'x — Jeremiah Pratt, Nathan Chenery, Spencer Root. 
1826. — Jeremiali Pratt, Benjamin 8. Wells, ApoUoa Gunn. 
1827. — Jeremiah Pratt, Benjamin S. Wells, Martin H. Clapp. 
1S2S.— Jeremiah Pratt, Benjamin S. Wells, Cliarles Timrston. 
1829. — Benjamin S. Wells, Charles Thurston, Salmon Root. 
1830.— Benjamin S. Wells, Salmon Root, Rodolphus Bardwell. 
1831-32. — M. H. Clapp, John Davis, Noadiah Montague. 
lt>33.— ]>!. H. tUapp, Rodolphus Bardwell, ApolloB Gunn, - 
1834. — Rodolphus Bardwell, Apollos Gunn, Samuel Leland. 
1835. — Rodolphus Bardwell, Abel Bancroft, Epliraim Stearns. 
1836.— Rodolphus Bardwell, Arza Biirdwell, Benjamin S, Wells, 
1837.— Benjamin ?. Wells, Martin Grout, Eliliu P. Tliayer. 
1838-39.- Elihu P. Thayer, JIartin Grout, E. L. Delano. 
1S40.— Elihu P. Tliayer, Enistus Root, Eliphaz Clapp. 
1841.— Elihu P. Thayer, Mai tin II. Clapp, E. W. Cheuery. 
1842.— Elihu P. Thayer, Martin H. Clapp, Martin Grout. 
1843-44.— :3rai tin H. Chipp, Abel Bancroft, Nathan llosmer. 
1845-46. — Nathan llosmer, Elipba/, Chqip, Arza Bardwell. 
1847.— Samuel D. Bardwell, Nathan Husmer, William W. Thayer. 
1S4S,— Nathan llosmer, Bela Kellogjr, W, W. Tliayer. 
1849.— Abel B;incroft, M. H. Clapp, Bela Kellogg. 
lh'50.— Abuer Chandler, W. W. Thayer, R. N. Oakmau. 
1851-52, — R. N. Oakman, Alpheus Moore, Lucien H. Stone. 
1853. — L. 11. Stone, S, C, Wells, Jesse Andrews. 
1854.— S, C. Wells, Jesse Andrews, A. L. Taft. 
1855.— S. C. Wells, E. F. Gunn, Warren IJardwclI. 
1856, — R. N. Oakman, Amos Adams, Warren Bardwell. 
1K57:_R. N. Oaliiuan, B. F. Pond, L. H. Stone. 
1858.— R. N. Oakman, L. II. Stone, N. E. Babbitt. 
1859.— R. N. Oakman, L. H. Stone, S. S. Holtim. 
1800.— R. N. Oakman, Sandtord Guddard, Richard Clapp. 
1861.— R. N. Oakman, Richard Clapp, Rodolphus Ball. 
1862-63.— R. N. Oakman, Richard Clapp, E. F. Gunn, 
1S64.— W. W. Thayer, Seymour Rockwell, Rii.-hard Clapp. 
1805,— Benjamin Fay, R. N. Oakman, Richard Clapp. 
1806. — R. N, Oakman, Amos Adams, J, II. Root. 
1807.— R. N. Oakman, J. H. Root, Zeliina Taylor. 
IHOS.- W. A. Bancroft, J. 11. Root, R. N. Oakman, 
1869-71,— R. N. Oakman, J. II. Root, Amos Adams. 
1S72. — R, N. Oakman, George Hance, Edwin Demond. 
1873-74.— B. N. Oakman, D. P. Abercrombie, Edwin Demond. 
1875.— J. F. Bartlett, R. N. Oakman, Edwin Demond. 
1870-78.— Gurdon EJgerton, J. F. Bai'tlctt, Edwin Demond. 


Joseph Root, 1756-01; Jloses Gunn, 1701-70; Elisha Root, 1770; Moses Gunn 
1771-81; Caleb Kiugsley, 1781; Moses Gunn, 1782; Joseph Root, 1783-1805 ; 
MoscB Severance, 1805-9 ; Elisha Root, Jr., 1809-11 ; Salmon Gunn, 1811 ; Elislia 
Root, Jr., 1812; Selah Root, 1813-18; Cephas Root, 1818-20; Isaac Chenery, 
1820; Salmon Root, 1821; Solomon Root, 1822 ; Helaz Alvord, 182:i-27; Jona- 
than Ilartwell, 1827-35; Lathrop Delano, 1835-37; E, W. Chenery, 18;i7-42; 
Jonathan Hartwell, 1842-52 ; J. C. Bangs, 1852-02 ; C. P. Wright, 1862-07 ; J.H. 
Root, 1807-79. 

From 1774 to 1857 (when Montague became apait of the Sixth Representative 
District) the town was represented by the following: Moses Gunn, Joseph Root, 
Moses Harvey, Caleb Kinsley, Henry Wells, Martin Root, Nathan t'henery, 




Medad Montague, Helaz Alvord, Jonathan Hartwell, Martin H. Clapp, Elisha 
Lfffiu'g^vcll, Eliliu P. Thavfr, Xatliali Hornier, Josi-ph Ciapp, AlpIiL-ns Sloore, 
Erastus Andiews, R. N. Oakniaa, Zenith <'lapp, George Clapp, <_';Uvin Kiisacll. 

Montague lias within its limits fovir villages, called Turner's 
Falls, Montague Centre, Miller's Falls, and Montague City. 

turner's falls, 
the most important, most populous, and most prosperous vil- 
lage in the town, although of recent growth, having been 
founded in 18(i7, has made rapid strides toward commercial 
greatness, and promises to become, at no far-distant day, one 
of the most important manufacturing points in America. The 
magical rise and rapid progress of this village were results 
wrought by the sagacious energy and enterprise of Col. Alva 
Crocker, of Fitchburg, Mass., who died at Fitchburg, Decem- 
ber, 1874, while a member of Congress. Col. Crocker was 
distinguished through the length and breadth of the common- 
wealth as a man whose great wealth served the u.seful and val- 
uable purpose of promoting public enterprise, and it was while 
per.sonally engaged in searching for a more direct railway route 
between Miller's Falls and Greenfield than the one pursued by 
the Vermont and Massachusetts Railroad that he was called 
to observe the magnificent water-power possessed bj- the Con- 
necticut River at Turner's Falls, and, rightly concluding that 
Nature had thus furnished the means at hand for the founda- 
tion of a great manufacturing city, he entered at once, with 
his characteristic promptness and vigor, upon the prosecution 
of the scheme which, to the exclusion of almost every other 
interest, took possession of his mind. In company with other 
capitalists whom he invited to join him, he organized the 
Turner's- Falls Company (the history of which will be nar- 
rated hereafter) for the purpose of controlling and utilizing 
the water-power at that point, expended largely of his wealth 
in creating manufactories, purchased large tracts of land for 
a village-site, and, in brief, from the date of the incorporation 
of the Turner's Falls Company, in 18ii0, to the date of his 
death, in 1874, he never relaxed his efforts to push the in- 
terests of the village briskly forward. It was the pet ambi- 
tion of his life, the proud hope of his busy career, this plan 
for the promotion of the prosperitj' of Turner's Falls until it 
should not only rival Lowell, Holyoke, and other great man- 
ufacturing centres, but pass beyond and above them as the 
greatest of all. "What he would have accomplished for the 
place had he been spared to test his energies to the full, no 
man can say ; but, estimating the probable results of the future 
from the great achievements he had effected in the few years 
he was permitted to devote to the task, it cannot be denied 
that he would have left Turner's Falls as a splendid monu- 
ment to his greatness. In the midst of his hopes and his am- 
bitions, while he was still planning and devising with all his 
might for the advancement of his favored work, he was sud- 
denly cut down, and the village of Turner's Falls suffered 
a severe public calamity. Only a few daj-s previous to his 
death Col. Crocker determined to expend §10,000 upon the 
erection of a public library' building at the village, and had, 
indeed, set on foot measures looking to an early beginning of 
the work, but the execution of the design was unfortunately 
prevented by death. 

As before observed, Turner's Falls village was not founded 
until 1867. In that year the Turner's Falls Lumber Com- 
pany located on the Gill side of the river, and initiated the 
manufacturing business at that point. The removal, in 18U8, 
of the John Russell Cutlery Company from Greenfield to 
Turner's Falls marked a new and important era, and from that 
time forward the progress of the village was rapid. 

The growth of Turner's Falls, though retarded bj- the death 
of its founder, must continue to be healthful and prosperous. 
Circumstances calculated to develop the manufacturing in- 
terests ef the country beyond a common degree will naturally 

quiclvcn its material prosperity, and rapidly advance it toward 
that elevated plane which its projectors hoped for it in the 

The village contains now (187!)) a population of 2000, two 
large paper-mills, employing together 500 persons, the John 
Russell Cutlery Company's Avorks (the largest of the kind in 
this countrj'), employing GOO people, but having a capacitj- 
for 1200, a manufactory for the production of water-wheels, 
saws, rotary-pumps, etc., a leatherette manufactory, a cotton- 
mill of the capacity of a thousand looms, a fine hotel, two 
banks, four church edifices, two handsome and costly school 
buildings, a steam fire-engine company of 18 members, a 
weekly newspaper publication, several handsome brick busi- 
ness blocks, numerous stores, a public library, and many ele- 
gant private residences. 

The village is one of the termini of the Fitchburg Railroad 
Branch, connecting Greenfield and Turner's Falls, and at this 
point, too, the Connecticut is spanned by two fine suspension- 
bridges. One, placed below the falls, connects Montague with 
Greenfield, and was built in 1873, at a cost of $30,000. A 
second one, located above the falls, and connecting Montague 
with Gill, cost §42,000, and was completed in December, 1878. 


the oldest village in the town, and the site of the town's ear- 
liest settlement, is a station on the Fitchburg Railroad and 
on the New London Northern Railroad. It was at one time 
a thriving manufacturing village, but its interests in that di- 
rection are now limited to a pocket-book faetorj' and a rake- 
factory. It is attractive in its surroundings, and appears to 
have been laid out and embellished with an eye to good taste 
as well as to picturesque effect. Its community is chiefly com- 
posed of agriculturists, many of whom are wealthy and reside 
in homes of substantial but not ostentatious elegance. 

The village contains a fine brick town-hall, two churches, 
a public library, several stores, a saw-mill, grist-mill, and 
various minor industries. 


a station on the Greenfield and Turner's Falls Railroad, was 
settled in 1794 by a colony of Germans, who were attracted 
thither by the promise that the completion of the canal pass- 
ing around Turner's Falls, and through the tract now occu- 
pied by Montague Citj-, would build up and prosper that 
region amazingly. So sanguine were its projectors of a bright 
future for the place that they anticipated greatness in the 
bestowal of the high-sounding name it now bears. Greatness 
never greeted it, however, although it is now, and always has 
been, a bright and cheerful-looking riu'al village. 

For upward of twenty years previous to 187-5, Messrs. R. 
L. & D. W. Goss carried on important and extensive enter- 
prises at Montague City in the manufacture of lumber, piano- 
cases, etc., in which they employed 75 men. The only 
manufacturing industry at that point now is the extensive 
brick-yard of Messrs. Adams & Son, who employ a force 
of 50 persons. The village contains a post-office, a graded 
school, store, and a small collection of substantial dwellings, of 
which a few possess fair pretensions to elegance. The in- 
habitants are equally divided between agriculturists and em- 
ployes at the Turner's Falls mills and Adams & Sons' 


the fourth village, on Miller's River, is a station at the junc- 
tion of the Fitchburg and New London and Northern Railroads. 
L^p to 1868 it was known as Grout's Corners ; but in that year, 
when there was established in Erving, on the opposite shore 
of the river, the works of the Miller's Falls Company, the name 
of the village was changed to Miller's Falls. Its inhabitants 
are chiefly employes at the works of the Miller's Falh Com- 
1 an .', and number about 200. 



It contains a Iiandsome si'hixil Ijiiildins;, four stores, n public 
hall, liotol, and is withal a jilacc possessing mucli energetic 

The earliest mention touching the matter of preaching 
occurs in the record of a meeting in 1751 of the freeholder.^ 
of the second parish of Sunderland, when it was resolved to 
have preaching, and Deacon Mattoon was apjiointed " to get 
a man to preach with us." 

Between that date and Dec. 1, IT-jS, the records are silent 
as concerns either preacher or meeting-house. It is, however, 
known that Rev. Judah Nash, of Longmeadow, and a grad- 
uate of Yale in 1748, was ordained as pastor of the church in 
1752. The first meeting-house is supposed to have been erected 
in 1753. At the meeting above noted (1755) it was resolved 
" to have six windows on the back-side of tlie meeting-house, 
two of which should be on the back-side of the pulpit." It 
was further resolved "to plum the Bords to Cover the Back- 
side of the meeting-house." At the same meeting liberty 
was given to any number of men to build pews for themselves 
in the meeting-house, it appearing that at that time the dis- 
trict felt too poor to seat the meeting-house. Further, it was 
resolved to hire a shell blown at Lieut. Clapp's for a signal on 
the Sabbath-day.* 

In 1759 the district purchased this shell of Lieut. Clapp for 
£1 10s., and agreed to pay Joseph Root 206-. for blowing it one 
year. In 175-5 it was agreed to procure wood for Rev. Judah 
Kash, and the inhabitants were notified by a committee to 
"bring it in." The price of this wood was fixed at lorf. per 

As a vague indication of the location of the first meeting- 
house, the records, under date. March, 1757, speak of a bridge 
over Saw-mill River " near the meeting-house." 

Oct. 3, 1757, it was resolved to finish the body of the meet- 
ing-house with pews, " except two or three short seats in the 
body near against the end doors." 

In the following November it was agreed to choose nine 
"suitable and meet persons" to seat the meeting-house. In 
December of that year the selectmen were directed to buy a 
cushion for the desk of the pulpit. In May, 1758, Stephen 
Corbin was fined £1 "for his neglect of attending public wor- 
ship on the Lord's Day." The money was disposed of for the 
benefit of the poor of the district. 

In 1759 the salary of the Rev. Judah Nash was increased 
from £44 16s. to £-53 6s., at which latter the rate was to con- 
tinue during his ministry. In 1703 it was voted to give Asa- 
hel Gunn 2s. for turning the key of the meeting-house during 
the year ensuing. In 1704 five young men — Israel Gunn, 
Ezra Smead, Daniel Clapp, and two others — were given per- 
mission to erect a pew in the meeting-house at their own ex- 
pense. The Rev. Judah Nash was provided each year regu- 
larly, until 1705, with about 60 cords of wood; and one day 
was usually designated as the day on which it should be 
hauled into the village by the inhabitants. 

In 1707 the district renewed its agreement to furnish Rev. 
Judah Nash firewood annually, and agreed, moreover, to 
allow him yearly £1 4s., to be laid out in "candle- wood." 
Then, also, a contract was made with Asahel Gunn, who was 
to receive 2s. provided "he talces care that the meeting-house 
doors be opened and shut properly during the ensuing year." 

In 1770, at a town-meeting, it was voted that no child un- 
der ten years of age should be allowed to "go up Galary," 
and that "the tithingmen bring down Such Bois out of the 
Galary as are Disorderly, and set tliem Before the Deacon - 

It appears from the records that the members of a Baptist 
society in Montague, worshiping in Leverett, declined to con- 
tribute toward the support of Rev. Mr. Nash, and the town 

* Meaning a couch shell. 

therefore commenced legal proceedings against them. la 1770 
the proceedings were ]irobably abandoned, for, at a town- 
meeting that year, it was ordered that " the present assessors 
be enabled to raise such a sum of money as those people was 
rated (that call themselves Baptists) in the minister's rate the 
last year, in order to enable the constables to discharge their 
last year's rates without distraining on the said Baptists for 
the present, and that said constables shall wait on said Bap- 
tists until they .shall have orders to collect the same." At 
the same meeting it was voted " the tythingmen to take 
their turns to set in the Gallery this year." 

June, 1772, Moses Harvey and Nathaniel Gunn, Jr., on 
behalf of themselves and other Baptists, entered their dissent 
against converting the money arising from the sale of common- 
lands toward the repair of the meeting-house in Montague. 
In 1772 it was voted to "sect" the meeting-house gallery. In 
1793 it was voted to " pant the meeting-Hous," and to " Cullor 
the meeting-Hous the same of Sunderland." About the year 
1800 the custom of blowing a shell as a signal on Sabbath- 
daj'S gave place to that of ringing a bell from the belfry, — a 
boll having been obtained from Cabotville.f 

The old Congregational Church was undoubtedly located 
on the site of the present post-office, in Montague Centre, and 
the church which was torn down in 1834 — the year of the 
erection of the present Congregational Church in Montague 
Centre — was probably the one built in Montague in 17-53, of 
which Rev. Judah Nash was the first pastor. The church 
now used — above alluded to as having been built in 1834 — is 
a commodious and substantial structure, and is the most con- 
spicuous edifice in the village. The present pastor. Rev. J. W. 
Kingsbury, was installed in 1877. Rev. Judah Nash was the 
pastor from 1752 to 1805, — the year of his death. Following 
him, to 1877, the pastors were Aaron Gates, Moses Bradford, 
Benjamin Holmes, James H. Merrill, Brown Emerson, F. B. ■ 
Perkins, Edward Norton, and Chas. II. Daniels. The church 
has now a membership of 180. 

A Baptist society was organized in Montague as earl}- as 
1707, near the line of the town of Leverett, in which town 
the worship was conducted. The church was, in 1791, called 
the Baptist Church of Leverett, and, later, the Baptist Church 
of Leverett and Montague- Its history will be more fully set 
forth in the history of Leverett. 

An Episcopal society was organized in 1815. It never had 
a house of worship, contained but few members at its best, and 
became extinct shortly after 1850. 

The Unitarian Church was organized in 1828, but had no 
church building until 1834. In that year fix; Congregational 
Church members were divided on the question of locating the 
proposed new Congregational Church building, and as a result 
of that division a number of Episcopalian and Unitarian 
attendants at the church joined together and erected the 
present Unitarian Church in Montague Centre- Among the 
pastors who have preached for the society were Revs. Timothy 
Rogers, Joseph Field, Rodolphus Dickinson, Luther Wilson, 
John A. Williams, Wm. H. Bradley, N, 0. Chaffee, Davis 
Smith, Claudius Bradford, Orange Clark, and A. D. Fuller. 
J. Q. Cunimings is the present pastor, and the number of 
members is about 75. 

There are at Turner's Falls four church buildings and six 
church societies. The English Methodist Church, organized 
in 1869, has a church building and a membership of 32. The 
present pastor is Rev. C. R. Sherman. The German Meth- 
odist Society, organized in 1871, has a church building and a 
meniber.ship of 2.5. Rev. A. Flammann, pastor of the Ger- 
man Methodist Church in Greenfield, supplies the pulpit. 

The Roman Catholic Church was organized about 1870. 
The attendants upon public worship number about 000. 
Rev. P. L. Quaille is the pastor in charge. The Baptist 

t Now Cbicopeo. 



Cliuroli Iniikling is owned by the State Convention. Kev. 
John Sliepardson, pastor of the Baptist Church in Grcenticld, 
supplies the preaching. The society includes about 30 mem- 
bers. There are also at this place a German Lutheran society 
and an English Congregational society, neither having, how- 
ever, a church edifice. Kev. A. Mueller, pastor of the Ger- 
man Lutheran Church at Greenfield, preaches for the former, 
and Rev. L. S. Parker, of Miller^s Falls, for the latter. There 
is a Congregational society at Miller's Falls, in charge of Rev. 
L. S. Parker. It was organized about 1870, and has about 40 
members, who worship in LTnion Hall. "Union'' religious 
services are held at Montague Citj' each Sabbath in Goss Hall, 
at which members of all denominations worship in common. 
Rev. E. A. Wyman, formerly pastor of the Baptist Church 
at Turner's Falls, supplied the preaching in 1879. 


The first mention made in the records of school matters was 
at a meeting held Dec. 1, 17-5.5, when it was resolved "that 
we will hire a school four months this winter, and that we 
give those people a liberty to keep .school (that live on Prov- 
ince lands) on the District charge so long .as their portion of 
said money will allow, according to what they pay in the 
town-rate." Under the same date it was agreed to allow 
Asahel Gunn " what was due for his wife's keeping school, 
which money was expected to be paid by the town." At the 
same time it was voted to allow Joseph Root £30 2.9. for 
"keeping school'' and for work as assessor and treasurer. 

In March, 1757, it was determined to build a school-house, 

16 feet wide and 18 feet long, with hewed or sawed logs, and 
"to set it south of the road, near Ensign King's barn, and 
near the mill swamp." 

In December, 1757, it was resolved "to hire a school four 
months this winter, to be kept in Joseph Root's corn-house." 
Later in the same month the school was ordered to be kept at 
the house of the Widow Smith. In March, 1759, a committee 
was appointed to buy John Scott's house (in which Widow 
Preston lived) for a school-house. If they couldn't buj' it, 
they were to procure "stuf" for a school-house. Scott's 
house was probably purchased, for in 1701 a committee was 
appointed to repair the school-house and make it comfortable 
for the winter. 

In 1762 it was agreed to give Moses Gunn 40s. per month 
to teach school four months. In 17G4, Deacon Gunn was 
allowed 5s. 4d. to kindle the fire in the school-house four 
months. In 1765 it was agreed to hire a "school-dame" for 
the summer, and that school should be kept in three different 
parts of the district, si.\ weeks in each part, — at Scrgt. Har- 
vey's, Moses Taylor's, and Dr. Gunn's. 

In 1765 the inhabitants of the north part of the district were 
allowed S'Zs. to be emploj-ed in schooling. In 1766 it was 
voted to build a school-house " of wood," 18 feet in length and 

17 in width. It was decided to locate this school-house ad- 
joining to Deacon Gunn's fence, about 11 rods southeasterly 
of the meeting-house. In 1767 it was voted to hire a school 
"dame," and to have school taught that summer in four dif- 
ferent parts of the district. 

In 1771, Oliver Root was hired to keep the school four 
months, at 36s. per month. In 1773, Aaron Easterbrook was 
hired to teach school ten months. Oliver Root was again 
hired to teach school in 1776. About this time there were 
probably schools in the northwestern, the northern, and the 
northeastern portions of the district, for those sections were 
voted their proportion of the school money. 

There are now in the town eighteen public schools, of which 
one is a high school, located at Montague Centre. This schotd 
was created in 1870, and now occupies a handsome brick build- 
ing, which was erected in 1873, at a cost of §14,000. The 
building contains, besides the high school, a primary and a 
grammar school. A graded school at Turner's Falls occupies 

a brick building that cost $15,000, and there is at that place 
also another school building, whose construction cost §2.500. 
The graded school at the Falls, known as a useful and val- 
uable institution of learning, is called the Oakman School, 
in honor of R. N. Oakman, Esq., of Montague, who con- 
tributed liberally toward the erection of the edifice. There 
is a §6000 brick structure at Montague City, used as a graded 
school, and in the eastern district, at Miller's Falls, there is 
a .$2500 school-house. The town appropriated, in 1878, .?7000 
for school purposes, and in that year the average daily attend- 
ance of pupils reached 600. 


Montague Centre has a public library, which contains about 
1700 volumes. It occupies an apartment in the town-hall ' 
building, and is held in deserved popular favor. About ten 
years ago a young lady school-teacher of the town, Miss 
Bailey, conceived the idea of founding a public library, and 
by her individual exertions succeeded in collecting quite a 
number of books. Her efforts stimulated others, and as a 
result a fair was projected for the benefit of the enterprise. 
By this fair upward of |1000 was obtained, and with that 
fund the library was successfully established. It is supported 
by town contributions and receipts from members. 

Turner's Falls has a library association, which was organized 
in January, 1876, and provided with' funds by private sub- 
scription. Its library-rooms are in the Colla block, and in its 
library are now about 1000 volumes. Support is derived in 
part from the town and in part from membership fees. 


There are eight public burial-grounds in the town, — two at 
Montague Centre, two at Turner's Falls, one at Montague 
City, one at Miller's Falls, one on Dry Hill, and one on Chest- 
nut Hill. The first burying-ground laid out in the town, and 
the only one containing head-stones of a remote date, is found 
about a mile south of Montague Centre. Appended is a list 
of a few of the oldest inscriptions now to be observed there : 
Elijah Root, 1759; Elisha Root, Jr., 1770; Lucy Root, 1776; 
Bildad Billings, 1783; Holester Baker, 1774; Elknab Baker, 
1773; Terzah Sprague, 1777; Eunice Sprague, 1774; Rev. 
Judah Nash, 1805; Mary Nash, his relict, 1824, aged ninety- 
seven ; Zenas Nash, 1777; Mar_v Kingsley, 1777 ; Elijah Bard- 
well, 1786; Experience Bardwell, 1783; Enoch Bardwell, 1817, 
aged ninety-five ; Martha, his wife, 1813, aged eighty-nine ; 
Moses Severance, 1799; Abner, son of Jonathan Root, 1780; 
Rodolphus Root, 1777 ; Moses Gunn, 1783 ; Eunice Clapp, 1795 ; 
Hannah, wife of Nathaniel Gunn, 1783; Nathaniel Gunn, 
1779; John Clapp, 1791 ; Samuel Wrisley, 1796, aged ninety- 

Upon the tombstone of Elijah Bardwell, above noted, ap- 
pears the following inscription : 

"In memory of Elijali B.irdwell, who died Januarj- 2(1, 178G, in ye ■27th year 
of his age, liaviog but a few days sunived ye fatal night when he was flung from 
his horse and drawn by ye .sturrni) 2r» rods along ye patli, as appeared b.v ye place 
where his hat was found, and hero he had spent ye whole of ye following severe 
cold night, treading down the snow in a small circle." 

The societies or orders in the town are five in number, with 
an aggregate membership of 295. Bay State Lodge, F. and 
A. M., was organized in 1872, and has now a membership of 
80. The other four orders are located at Turner's Falls, and 
are Branch No. 1, .4. 0. H. (Ancient Order Hibernians), a 
benevolent society, organized in 1871, and now composed of 
40 members ; a benevolent society known as the D. 0. H. 
(Dutch Order Harugari), which was organized in 1872, and 
has now 50 members ; a benevolent society known as the 
Independent Foresters, organized in 1878, whose membership 
is 75; and Mechanics' Lodge, F. and A. -1/., numbering 50 



Tlic industrinl centre of the town is at Tui-ner's Falls, where 
tlie maniifafturing interests are extensive and important. 
Chief among them is the John Russell Miinufaciuriny Com- 
pany, engaged in the production of tahle and pocket cutlery 
and plated spoon ware, the latter feature of the manufacture 
having been added in the winter of 1878. The origin of this 
company dates back to 1828, when John Russell began the 
manufacture of cutlery in a small way at Greenfield, Mass. 
In 1834, Mr. Kussell's new venture had assumed such propor- 
tions that he organized a stock company for the further de- 
velopment of the enterprise, and in that year the company 
built the Green Kiver Works, on the Green lliver, at Green- 
field, and entered largely upon the manufacture of cutlery. 
The business was conducted at this point until 1870, when it 
was transferred to the company's present location at Turner's 
Falls, where the erection of new works was begun in 1868, 
and upon their completion in 1870 the change of location was 
effected, as noted. In ISfJS, Mr. Kussell retired from the 
active management of the enterprise, which continued, how- 
ever, to bear Ihe impress of his name by assuming the desig- 
nation of The John Ku.ssell Manufacturing Company, with a 
capital of l?500,000, and as such is now known. This estab- 
lishment is not <mly the oldest one of the kind in this country, 
but is also the largest. The works have a frontage ou the 
Connecticut River of 610 feet, and are capable of employing 
a force of 1200 persons. But one-half that number (or OOOj 
was employed in 1878, and in that year the value of manu- 
factures reached S4.j0,000. 

Next in importance is the Montague Paper Company, which 
was projected in 1870 b}' Col. Alva Crocker, of Fitchburg, 
Mass., and Edwin Bulkley, of New York, and organized in 
May, 1871, Col. Crocker becoming president, and Mr. 
Bulkley a member of the board of directors. The original 
capital stock was§125,000, and upon this, in 1871, a three-story 
brick mill, 128 by 55 feet, was erected just west of the Kussell 
Company's works, and the work of manufacturing news- 
printing paper begun. In 1872 the manufacture of book- 
paper was inaugurated, and to the production of these two 
kinds of paper the mill is still devoted. In 1874 the works 
were enlarged by the addition of a wing three stories in 
height, and measuring 100 by 55 feet, and in 1875 the company 
purchased the works of the Turner's Falls Pulp Company, 
directly east, and consisting of a two-story brick edifice, 
measuring 200 by 55 feet. The latter was soon afterward en- 
larged, so that now, in 1879, the company has a front on the 
river of 500 feet. The nominal capital is §290,000, but4he 
actual investment in mills, etc., reaches upward of $500,000. 
Two hundred and fifty people are employed, and the daily 
product is 10 tons of printing-paper and 6 tons of refined 
wood-pulp, aggregating an annual value of §800,000. 

The Keith Paper Company commenced operations in 1874, 
with a capital of §750,000 invested in buildings and stock. 
They employ 250 people, and produce 5 tons of fine paper 

The Clark .f" Chapman Machine Company manufactures 
rotary pumps, turbine water-whcels, circular-saw mills, etc., 
and emjiloys 30 hands. 

The Shawmut Maniifaeturing Company is the only company 
in this country engaged in the manufacture of leatherette, 
— made of paper to imitate leather, and used for bookbinding, 
fancy boxes, picture-frame covers, pocket-books, fans, wall- 
paper, etc. The company, composed of Boston capitalists, 
began operations at Turner's Falls in 1877, and employs a, force 
of 12 men. 

Mr. Joseph Griswold, a wealthy mill-owner of Coleraine, 
Mass., has completed at Turner's Falls the erection of a brick 
cotton-mill, four stories in height, measuring 240 by 72 feet, 
with an L three stories in height, and measuring 70 by 50 feet. 
The mill has a capacity of 20,000 spindles, and was expected, 

in the spring of 1879, to be in full operation by mid-summer. 
In connection with the mill, Mr. Griswold has erected brick 
tenements, which will give homes to 200 or jnuro of liis 

The other noticeable manufacturing interests in the town 
are the pocket-book and wallet manufactory of Emil Weiss- 
brod, at Montague Centre, employing 15 hands ; the hay- 
rake-factory, at the same point, of Amos Rugg, who employs 
about men ; and the extensive brick-yards of Adams & 
Son, at Montague City, where about .50 men are employed. 

Montague cannot be called a great agricultural town, for 
bej'ond the production of tobacco on the river-lands the yield 
of the soil is limited. It is, however, a good fruit country, 
and there is also plenty of valuable pasturage, while the 
manufixcture of butter, the raising of stock, and the growing 
of Indian corn are carried on to some extent. There are 132 
farms in the town, and in 1875 the value of agricultural prod- 
ucts was $175, 186; that of manufactures, §1,478,446. The 
value of real estate in 1878 was §1,094,096, and of personal 
estate, §460,030, or a total of §2,154,126, upon which the total 
State, county, and town tax was §23,493.20, or at the rate of 
about 1 per cent. The debt of the town is §24,000, of which 
§12,000 are for school buildings and §8000 for bridges. As 
an indication of the advancement in valuation since 1854, it 
may be observed that in that year the total tax was but §3380. 
The Tamer's Falls Company, through which all the great 
mills at the village are supplied with water-power, was called 
into existence in 1866, through the forceful energy of Col. 
Alva Crocker, of Fitchburg, Mass., who, as has already been 
seen, conceived, in 1865, the idea of making the great water- 
power of Turner's Falls the foundation upon which the wil- 
derness then lying adjacent to it upon either side the Connec- 
ticut should rise and blossom as a rose. 

Accordingly, in that year. Col. Crocker, with a few other 
capitalists, purchased the rights and franchises of an old cor- 
poration known as " The Proprietors of the Upper Locks and 
Canals on the Connecticut Kiver, in the Count}' of Hamp- 
shire," which was organized in 1794 as a separate corporation, 
when the corporation known as " The Proprietors of the Locks 
and Canals on the Connecticut River" resolved itself into two 
parts. The last-named company was created for the purpose 
of constructing canals around the falls at Hadley and Mon- 
tague, on the Connecticut River, for the passage of boats and 
rafts. The first attempt to construct a dam at Montague was 
made in 1792, at Smead's Island, opposite what is now Mon- 
tague City, but the attempt, owing to the depth of the water, 
was abandoned after several months of unsuccessful eft'ort. 
In the following year a dam was built at Turner's Falls, and 
in 1794 work on the canal was begun. In 1798 the canal was 
opened to traffic, and from that time until about 1845 the 
company pursued a profitable business, but with the increase 
of railway facilities the canal traffic rapidly diminished, and 
the enterprise was shortly afterward aliandoned. The track 
of the old canal is still clearly marked, although in many 
places the bed has been filled up. 

As before observed. Col. Crocker and others purchased the 
stock of this corpoi'ation in 1805, .and in 1866 obtained the 
passage of an act of the Legislature, by which the name of the 
corporation was changed to that of " The Turner's Falls Com- 
pany." In that year the company purchased largely of lands 
in Montague Ij'ing on tlie river-front and adjacent thereto 
near the falls, and built a bulkhead at a cost of §24,000, and 
on March 20, 1807, the present dam, costing §105,000, was 
completed. The width from shore to shore is upward of 500 
feet, but about midway between the banks, and dividing the 
falls, is Great Island, a rocky and picturesque elevation, which, 
bedecked with foliage, is, in the bright seasons of the year, a 
wildly romantic-looking spot, which seems appropriately set 
in the midst of the turbulent and mighty rush of the majestic 
torrent. The fall over the dam is about thirty feet, and the 

- '■**»» 4y S^mu^ SarO" 

(:;^.tyh. (Q^t- 




full power equal to tlie strength of 30,000 hoi'ses. The entire 
fall controlled by the company is about eighty feet. The com- 
pany's canal, occupying a portion of the bed of the old canal, 
had cost, up to 31aroh, 1879, about $173,000. The company's 
capital, originally §200,000, was 5:300,000 in 1879, in which 
3'car its assets included, besides the dam and canal, upward 
of 1300 acres of land, covering a long stretch of mill-sites on 
the river-front, and building-sites and other real estate in the 
village, as well as the water-right at Factory village, in Green- 
field, on Fall River, just above Turner's Falls. 

There are at Turner's Falls two banks, both of which were 
founded by Col. Alva Crocker, and now bear his name. The 
Crocker National Bank was organized in 1872, has a capital 

of ?300,000, and a deposit of account of §55,000. The Crocker 
Institution for Savings was organized in 1873, and has on 
deposit $105,000. 

A, weekly newspaper called The Turner's Falls Reporter is 
published at Turner's Falls village by C. T. Bagnall, a hu- 
morous paragrapher of some note. The paper was started in 
July, 1872, by A. D. Welch, who relinquished it, in the fall of 
1874, into the hands of tlie present publisher. 


Appended will be found a list of soldiers sent by Montague 
into the war of the Kebellion : 

E. S. Dewey, lotli Mass. 
Henry Dewey, loib Mass. 
0. E. Caswen, :!2d Mass. 
Guy BarJwell, llllli Mass. 

D. A. BosM-ell, Will Mass. 
Patrick Biitt, lOlli Mass. 

S. S. Waterman, :!4th Milss. 
Philip Alwooil, Idlh Mass. 

0. II. Liltlejolin. llltli Mass. 
J. W. roller, U)lli JIa.<B. 
David Burnliani, lillh Mass. 
Walter Pierce, a4th Mass. 
Albert Smith, lOlh Ma.s3. 

C. K. Burnham, Iiitli Mass. 
Alfred Pierce, "jTlh Mass. 
Cyrus Marsh, :;4tli Mass. 
Brigharn Kililey, avtli Mass, 
J. W. Ili.rtoii, 37tii Mass. 
.1. M. Mathews, 1st Miiss. 
L. H. Slone, 5_M Mass. 
C. W. Stone, S2J Mass. 
H. W. Payne, 52d Muss. 
Geo. D. Pa^ln*, 52d Mass. 
A. M. Webster, 52d Mass. 

1. P. Gonld, 52a Ma<8. 
Henry Taylor, 52d RIass. 
Chas. B. Wait, 62d Mass. 
Geo. F. Wait, 52d Mass. 
John P. Sawin, o2d Mass. 
Truman Bowman, 52d BJass. 
Chas. A. Murdock, .'J2d Mass. 
G. N. Watson, 52d Mass. 
Chas. P. Peeler, .52d Mass. 

S. S. Shaw, S2d Mass. 
J.D. liontwell, 62d Mass. 
Cliristoi>her Arnold, 52d Mass. 
Ileniy J. Day, 52.1 Mass. 
A. U. Sawm, .">2<1 Mass. 
J. S. P.erce, 52d Mass. 
Geo. F. Adams, 52d Mass. 
J. h. Andrews, 52d Mass. 

E. N. Marsh, 62d Mass. 
John A. Bascoln, 52d Mass. 
Erastus Burnbani, 52d Mass. 

Geo. S. Pond, 52J Mass. 
Parly H. Smith, 52d Mass. 
Frederick Panderson, 52d Mass. 

Henry W. Saudford, . — . 

P. H. Goddard,2Ctli Mass. 
E. L. Goddard, 20th JIass. 
Otis Spencer, 27tb j>Iass. 
Julius Clapp, 27th Blass. 
Truman Ward, 27th Mass. 
Fred. A. Spanlding, 2Gth Mass. 
Stephen Spanlding, 2Gth Mass. 
Joseph Burns, 2*2<l Mass, 
Ch.as. D. Gunn, 2jtli Mass. 
Wm H. Adams, Kith Mass. 
E. F. Hartwell, lUlh JIass. 
Dwight Armstrong, lulli Mass. 
Geo. Reyuolds, loth Mass. 
David Pratt, lotli Muss. 
Frank Kipley, 10th Mass. 
John Brizzee, 34tli Sliisa. 
Dwight Stewart, 27ili Muss. 
A, E. Stevens, 27th Ma3.s. 
Meander Patrick, 261 li Mass. 
Edwal-d Mawley, 10th Mass, 
Marcus Newton, .'J4tli Mass, 
Tyler Williams, loth Mass, 
Elhalj A, Taft, :i7tb Mass, 
Mantou E. Tuft, 271h Mass. 
Levi Brizzee, 27 ih Mass. 
E. D, Burnham, lotli Mass, 
0, A, Cla|ip, loth Blass, 

0, E, Caswell, . 

L, A. Dury, 27th Mass. 
Henry Dickinson, loth Mass. 
Geo, P, HoldHU, 27tl. Mass. 

D. D. Uoliien, 27lh Mass. 
H, W. Lovcland, 27lli Mass, 
Frederick Loveland, 27th Mass. 
L. D. Phillips, 32d M.%sa. 

E. R, Eockwood, loth Mass. 
Manley Stoweli, 52d Ma-ss, 
Wui. U. Spear, 2l6t Slass. 
T. 0. Amsden, 27th Muss, 
Jos. F. Webster, 10th Mass. 

Chas. P. White, 27tb Mass. 
Chas. C, Brewer, 52d JIass. 
Chas, B, Gunn, o2d Mass, 
A. L. Cooley, 27th Mass. 
E. N. Stevens, 27th Muss. 

D. A. Stevens, 27tli Mass. 
Oscar Britt, 27lh Mass. 

Jjis. K, Knowlton, , 

Moses C, French, lOtli 3IaS3, 
Geo, C. Kanlliack, 10th Mass. 
John P, Mealy, ;ilst Mass, 
Munroo Wright, loth Mass, 
Gains T, Wright, 10th Mass, 

E. W, Whitney, 34tb JIass, 
Geo, A. Wright, loth .Mass. 
Otis E, Munsell, 22d Mass. 

E. 1'. Gunn, , 

W, E, Bardwell, 2d H. Art. 
M. H. Bardwell, 2d H. Art. 

F, E, Wright, 2d U. Art. 
Jas. S. Day, 2d H, Ait, 
Truman Newton, 34th Mass, 
Emerson Newton, 34th Mass, 
Wm, G. Bontwell, 3d Bat, 
Henry B, Graves, 3d L, Art, 
W, J, Potter. 34th Mass, 
Edward L, Loveland, 1st H, Art, 

D, L, Warner, 12tli Mass, 

Charles Welster, . 

C. N, Law.son,27th Mass. 

E. N. Clapp. .52d Mass. 
Lauriston Barnes, . 

Of the foregoing, the following lost their lives iu 
the service: Guy Bardwell, D. A. Boswell, 0, 
II, Littlejohn, Cyrus Marsh, Brighani Kipley, 
J, M, Mathews, S. S, Shaw, Chr;stopher Ar- 
nold, John A, Biiscom, P, M, Goddard, F, A. 
Spanlding, Dwight Armstrong, Frank Ripley, 
A. E, Stevens, Tyler William--, E. A, Tall, M. 
E. Taft, T. O. Amsden, D. A. Stevens, Gains T. 
Wright, E. P.Gunn.Win.G. Bontwell, Warren 
J, Potter, Levi Brizzee. 


The subject of the following sketch was born in Wendell, 
Mass., Jan. 20, 1818. His great-grandfather, who was prob- 
ably the progenitor of the comptiratively few Oakman fami- 
lies in this country, came from Norfolk, Eng., about a.d. 
1750 ; was a shoemaker by trade, and settled in Lynn, Mass., 
where he left two sons — Joseph and Eben — trained iu his trade 
or occupation. Joseph eventually migrated from Lynn, mar- 
ried into the Wheeler fiimily, of Phillipston, Mass., and sub- 
sequently lived in Wallingford,Vt., where he died, leaving one 
son only, Joseph Lathe, who married JLiry Nickerson, from 
Provincetown, Mass., a.d. 181(5, and settled in Wendell, sub- 
sequently living in Wallingford and Phillipston, and finally 
returning to Wendell, where he did, Feb. 21, 1842, leaving 

four sons, of whom three are now living, who, together with 
t/icir four sons, constitute all the male descendants of Joseph 
Oakman, formerly of Lynn, now bearing his name. 

Mary, widow of Joseph L., married Charles Holway, of 
Provincetown, and is now living, at an advanced age. 

Richard, eldest son of Joseph L, and Mary Oakman, re- 
ceived his early education in the public schools of Wendell, 
then in a flourishing condition,— so much so, that before he 
was seventeen years of age he was approbated by the consti- 
tuted authorities as competent to teach in the common schools 
of Massachusetts, and taught his first school in Erving, in the 
'winter of 1834-35. His common-school advantages were sup- 
plemented by two or three years in the aggregate at the 
Franklin Academv at Sbelburne Falls, when he went to 



Provincetown and engaged as principal of the Union Acad- 
emy at that phice, wliere he was employed for six years. 

Aug. 10, 1841, Mr. Oakman married Julia P. Hawkcs, of 
Hawley, Mass., who has been a faithful helpmeet and aftec- 
tionate and devoted wife and mother. In the spring of 1840 
they removed to Montague, purchased a farm, and engaged 
in the arduous labors of their new calling. An inventory of 
their resources at the time of their purchase might be written 
as follows, viz. : good health, great expectations, some energy, 
and seven hundred dollars in cash ; and it is said that they 
are among the class of those who have acquired a reasonable 
competence by legitimate farming. Mr. Oakman at this 
period possessed unusual power of physical endurance, and, 
in addition to the labors of his farm, continued for several 
years to teach in the district schools for the winter season, 
until he was able to number twenty-three ^ears, during a 
part or the whole of which he had been engaged in teaching 
in the schools of Massachusetts. 

In 1850, Mr. Oakman was first elected to the several town 
offices of selectman, assessor, overseer of the poor, and school 
committee, which offices he continued to hold for many years, 
to the satisfaction of his fellow-citizens, as will appear bj- the 
following resolution, passed unanimously at the annual March 
meeting, 1876 : 

*' Wliereas, R. N. Oakman, haviug been elected to the office of selectman of the 
town of Montague for the twenty-seventh time, and having declined longer to 
serve the town in that capacity, 

" Be it remlved, That, as citizens of the town, we regret to lose the services of 
R. N. Oakman as chairman of our Board of Selectmen, in which position he has 
so long, so ably, and so successfully served the town, both as its counselor and 
financier, — in a word, for the town as for himself; and that this expression of our 
appreciation of his services be entered on the records of the town." 

In 1857, the pauper expenses of the town of Montague 
having become a grievous burden to the tax-payers, the town 
determined to try the experiment of an almshouse establish- 
ment, and for that purpose purchased a farm with outfits. 
Mr. Oakman and wife were induced to dispose of their own 
homestead and take the superintendence of this establishment 
for the town, — himself as manager of the farm, and Mrs. Oak- 
man as housekeeper and matron. Hon. F. B. Sanborn, secre- 
tary of the Board of State Charities, in his first report to the 
Legislature, speaks of their success as follows : " Mr. Oakman, 
for six years the able superintendent of the town farm in 
Montague, has secured a financial success, which makes the 
experience of that town valuable to the whole State. It ap- 
pears by the printed reports annually made to the town of 
Montague that during the six years that Mr. Oakman and 
wife have had charge of the almshouse the cost of supporting 
the inmates gradually diminished, until, in 1862-63, it became 
less than nothing. That is to say, the products of the farm 
paid all the expenses, including interest on the purchase- 
money, salaries, and support of all the paupers, and there 
remained a small balance of profit. The explanation of it is 
found in the peculiar ability of the gentleman and lady re- 
ferred to, and in application of principles which ought every- 
where to prevail. In September, 1864, I visited Montague 
for the purpose of seeing the place of this happy experiment, 
and the persons who carried it on. I found Mr. Oakman 
still chairman of the selectmen, as he has been for fourteen 
years past, but that he had ceased to manage the almshouse 
farm for the town. That had been sold to Mr. Oakman for 
ten thousand dollars, being in better condition than when he 
had taken it in hand, and the town had bought a cheaper 
farm not far oft". I have dwelt at such length on the interest- 
ing history of the Montague almshouse because it shows 
what may be, and what has been, done to lighten the burdens 
of pauperism in our towns, and introduce method and good 
order into this brairch of town business by the selection of a 
good farm and a good farmer." Mr. Oakman is still the 
owner of this farm, which, however, for the past two years, 
has been under the management of liis youngest son, while 

he has purchased for himself and wife a fine homestead about 
a mile away, at Montague City. 

Mr. Oakman has represented his town in the Legislature, 
served his county one term as commissiimer and one term as 
special commissioner, held other positions of responsibility 
and trust, and is now president of the Crocker National Bank, 
and one of the directors of the Turner's Falls Company, each 
with a capital of three hundred thousand dollars, and both 
located at Turner's Falls, a manufacturing village in Mon- 

Mr. and Mrs. Oakman are greatly blessed in their family, — 
two sons and two daughtei's, — Richard N., Jr., Julia Kate, 
Nellie Pauline, and Frank Hawkes, who have been well edu- 
cated, and each and all faithful, obedient, and attectionate 
children, ever bringing joy and sunshine to their parents' 
hearts and home. 

Mr. Oakman is a man of somewhat positive opinions of his 
own, with a sufficient command of the blunt old Saxon 
tongue to make himself understood in defending them, and, 
consequently, has usually been blessed with a few active and 
industrious opponents and enemies. He has always been 
counted on the side of radical reform ; an anti-slavery man 
of the old school ; by practice and precept an advocate of total 
abstinence from all intoxicating liquors ; and always interested 
in the intellectual, moral, and religious education and welfare 
of the young. 

R. N. OAKMAN, Jr., 
is the eldest son of Richard N. and Julia P. (Hawkes) Oak- 
man, and was born in the town of Hawley, Franklin Co., 
Mass., Sept. 23, 1843. A biographical notice of his father, 
Richard N. Oakman, appears also in this work. The family 
moved from Provincetown, Mass., and settled on a farm in 
the town of Montague, near Lake Pleasant, where they re- 
mained till the year 1857, at which time they settled upon 
what is known as the Bardwell farm, in the same town. 
Until the age of fifteen, young Oakman worked upon the 
farm, and attended the district schools at Miller's Falls and 
at Montague Centre. In 1858 he entered Powers' Institute, 
at Bernardston, where he remained for three years, fit- 
ting for college. In 1861, in a competitive examination at 
Boston, he won the State schohirsliip-at-large. The same 
year he entered Williams College, where he remained about 
two years, talcing the highest position in his class. During 
the period of his preparation for college he taught three terms 
of district schools, — a term each at Cambridgeport, Vt., Mon- 
tague, and Belchertown, Mass. 

For a portion of the year 1864 he was overseer of the State 
Reform School at Westboro'. In December of the same year 
he went to Kenosha, Wis., and occupied the jiosition of teller, 
temporarily (in the absence of the regular officer), in the First 
National Bank of that place, remaining there till April, 1865. 
For one month he was overseer of Dr. AUport's fruit farm in 
Michigan ; wages, $25 per month. In Maj-, 1865, he was 
book-keeper for the Kenosha Coal Companj', in La Salle, 111. 
About July of the same year he again filled the position of 
teller in the bank at Kenosha, remaining there till September. 
He then went to New York City, and was connected for tno 
years with the house of Clement, Hawkes & Maynard, cutlery 
manufacturers, the first year as book-keeper and cashier, the 
last year as traveling salesman. In October, 1867, he went to 
Selma, Ala., and filled the position of treasurer of the Cahiiwba 
Coal Companj'. In August, 1869, he received the appoint- 
ment of deputy collector of customs at Charleston, S. C. In 
September, 1872, he came to Turner's Falls, and assisted in 
the organization of the Crocker National Bank, and was 
cashier and treasurer of the Crocker Savings Institution, in 
that place, up to Nov. 1, 1874. For one year of the same 
time he was treasurer of the Montague Paper Company. 

'^'"'■i i, Samuel .r,-rf«» '"*" 


Joseph Freei.and Bartlett was born in Wnro, 
Mass., July 25, 1843, the sixtli child of Marsiiall J. 
and Abigail J. Bartlett. Saul Bartlett, liis great- 
grandfather, nioved from Rhode Island and settled 
in Entield, Mass., where Gideon P. Bartlett, his grand- 
father, was born. His father was also born there. 
His father, after marriage, settled in Ware, where he 
followed the trade of a harness-maker. He died, 
while on a visit at Amherst, Oet. 10, 1876. 

His mother was a daughter of Isaiah Warren, 
a descendant of Gen. Joseph Warren. She died 
at the residence of her daughter, Mrs. Charles Aid- 
rich, in Greenfield, Sept. 10, 1876. For eight years 
previous to their death his parents made their home 
with their son, J. F. Bartlett, at Turner's Falls. 

Mr. Bartlett received his education in the common 
schools' of Belchertown and Wilbraham. At the 
age of seventeen he enlisted as private in the 10th 
Massachusetts Infantry, and served for three years 
as private and non-commissioned officer in that regi- 
ment. He then received the commission of second 
lieutenant, and was transferred to the 37th Massa- 
chusetts, with which he remained until June, 18G5, 
when he was transferred to the 20th Massachusetts, 
a regiment made up of what was left of the old 
20th and remnants of other regiments, with the 
purpose of engaging in service on the plains. At 
this time he received the commission of first lieu- 
tenant. He was in McClellan's Peninsular cam- 
paign, in the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg, 

Gettysburg, the Wilderness, and in many engage- 
ments in Gen. Grant's inarch upon Richmond. He 
was also with Gen. Sheridan in his campaign of the 
Shenandoah Valley. He received a number of 
slight wounds, and was wounded severely at the 
battle of the Wilderness, having his thigh-bone 
shattered. He was mustered out at Washington, 
Aug. 28, 1865. 

For four years after leaving the army lie was su- 
perintendent of the jilating department of Hayden, 
Geer & Co.'s Brass-Factory, at Haydenville, Mass. 
In 1878 he moved to Turner's Falls, and opened a 
trade in glass, paints, and wall paper, in which busi- 
ness he is still engaged. 

Mr. Bartlett has taken an active interest in all mat- 
ters looking to the prosperity and growth of Turner's 
Falls. For four years past he has served as select- 
man, overseer of the ])oor, and assessor of the town 
of Montague. He was elected a member of the 
General Court in 1878, and served on the committee 
of military affairs. He is vice-president, and mem- 
ber of the finance committee, of the Crocker Institu- 
tion for Savings. 

Mr. Bartlett is emphatically a self-made man, and 
in the conduct of ids own and the public business 
has shown rare tact and good judgment. 

He was married, June 8, 1868, to Orinda Aldrich, 
daughter of Nathaniel and Nancy Aldrich, of Bel- 
chertown, Mass. Mrs. l^artlett was born there, Oct. 
1, 1843. They have one child,— Ida. 

^^ Sa^u-/ S-"'^'^" 



-^^ ^ 



Since that time he has occupied the position of treasurer and 
general manager of the John Hussell Cutlery Company, 
making his headquarters during the years I8T0 and 187U in 
New York City. Since then, and at the pi-esent time, at Tur- 
ner's Falls. 

Mr. Oakman was married, March 17, 1808, to Sarah E. 
Clark, daughter of William H. and Sarah (Hilton) Clark, of 
Exeter, N. H. They have one child, Anna C, horn in Selma, 
Ala., Jan. 4, 18G9. Mrs. Oakman was born in Exeter, N. H., 
March 28, 1840. She was educated in the schools of Exeter. 

■was born in Lunenburg, Worcester Co., Ma.ss., Noy. 16, 1832, 
the eldest child of Zachariah and Caroline Marshall. His an- 
cestors came from England and settled in Newburyport, Mass. 
His grandfather, Samuel Marshall, was born there, and was 
the first of the family who settled in Lunenburg. His father 
was born in the latter place in 1808. He moved with his 
family to Kansas, and was among the first settlers of that State. 
The family remained there about twenty years. At the present 
time he makes his home with his son, George E., at Turner's 
Falls. His wife's maiden name was Putnam, a daughter of 
Samuel and Hannah Putnam, a branch of the Putnam family 
of Reyolutionary fame. She died at Groton, Mass., in 1852. 
George E. Marshall receiyed his education at the Lawrence 
Academy, of Groton, to which place his father removed when 
he was ten years of age. Rev. James Means was principal of 
the academy at that time. His father being a paper manu- 
facturer, George E. became early interested in that branch of 
industry, and at the age of twentj' had acquired a thorough 
knowledge of the business as carried on at that day. At 
that time, in company with S. E. Crocker, a son of Emmons 
Crocker, of Fitchburg, and a brother of the late Alva Crocker 
of the same place, he went to Nashville, Tenn., where for 
eight months he was employed in the paper-mill of W. S. 
"Whiteman. Returning East, he engaged as foreman in a new 
paper-mill at Lawrence, Mass., owned by Crocker, Briggs & 
Co., where he remained about four years. He was next em- 
ployed as manager of the paper-mills of C. P. Markle & Sons, 
situated on the Youghiogheny River, in West Newton, Pa., 

about thirty miles from Pittsburg. He was there three years. 
He then went to Louisville, Ky., where lie superintended the 
fitting up of Bremaker, Moore & Co.'s paper-mills of that 
city. These mills were the pioneer works in the West for the 
manufacture of super-calender book-papers. Though manu- 
facturing a superior qvuility of paper, they were at first obliged 
to seek an Eastern market. After the Western buyers made 
th« discovery that they were purchasing in New Y'ork City 
goods manufactured near at home, upon which they were pay- 
ing two unnecessary freights, it changed the " order of things," 
and thereafter the firm found ready market for their products 
in the West. 

Mr. Marshall superintended the construction for the same 
parties, in the town of Laurel, Ind., on the Whitewater River, 
a mill for the manufacture of chemical wood and straw pulp, 
which was also the first of its class built in the West. He re- 
mained with Bremaker, Moore «& Co. eight j-ears. In 1871, 
through the solicitation of Col. Alva Crocker, founder of 
Turner's Falls, and president of the Montague Paper Com- 
pany in that place, Mr. Marshall was induced to take charge 
of the erection and fitting up of their mill, and has been its 
manager ever since. He was elected treasurer of the company 
January, 1875. 

During his long experience as a paper-manufacturer Mr. 
Marshall has added many improvements, and has taken out 
quite a number of patents covering processes for producing 
chemical and mechanically-prepared pulps for paper, and 
improvements in paper-machinery. A gentleman who has 
known Mr. Marshall for years, and is well posted as to his 
ability as a paper-manufacturer, said to the writer, " Mr 
Marshall will make more and better paper out of a given 
amount of stock than anj' man living." It will surely be not 
overstating it to say that he enjoys a reputation in his specialty 
second to none in the countrj'. Since he has been a resident 
of Turner's Falls he has taken an active interest in all mat- 
ters which affected its prosperity and growth, and has con- 
tributed liberally of his means toward the building up and 
sustaining its public institutions. 

He was united in marriage, Oct. 4, 1858, to Lydia Farwell, 
daughter of John H. and Catharine Farwell, of Ischua, Cat- 
taraugus Co., N. Y*. They have no cliildren living. 

O E A ISr G E. 


Orange, the fourth in population of the towns of Franklin, 
lies on the eastern border of the county, and is bounded on 
the north by the town of Warwick and the county of Worces- 
ter, on the south by the town of New Salem, on the east by 
Worcester County, and on the west by Warwick, Wendell, 
and Erving. 

The taxable area of the town comprises 20,297 acres, and it 
measures in length about fifteen miles from northeast to 
southwest, varying in width from three to ten miles. 

The Fitchburg Railroad, following the course of Miller's 
River, enters the town on the west, and crosses it in a south- 
east direction. 


Besides Miller's River, which crosses the town at Orange 
Centre and divides that village, there are other streams, such 
as Tully River and Cheney Brook in the east, Orcott and 
Moss Brooks in the west, and Gulf, Shingle Swamp, and Red 
Brooks in the south, all of which furnish good water-power. 
In the east there is a large pond at Furnace village, and 

Packard Pond at Fryville, both of which have outlets into 
Tully River. North Pond, in the south, has an area of 78 
acres, and is the head-spring of Swift River. 

The most important elevation in the town is Big Tully 
Mountain, in the northeast. There are also numerous other 
eminences, as Pitt's Hill, Fall Hill, Beach Hill, and Chestnut 
Hill. The surface of the town is generally mountainous, ex- 
cept in the southeast corner, although there is comparatively 
little woodland. In the rocky regions, gnei.ss and granite 
are found in abundance. 


The history of the early settlement of the tract now em- 
braced within the limits of Orange properly forms a part of 
the history of the early settlements in the towns of Athol, 
Royalston, and Warwick, since Orange was constructed mainly 
from portions of those towns. 

Settlements upon the tract before 1750 were made to a very 
limited extent, and not freely until after 1762. In the latter- 
named year, Jacob Hutchins located on the eastern part of a 



grant of land includins; 325 acres, and lying on the west line 
of Alliol (then I'liqiKuic). This grant was issued by the Gen- 
eral Conrt to Kev. Benjamin Ruggles, of Middleboro', in 1752, 
and, becoming in March, 17(!2, a jiortion of Athol, was, in 
1783, incUided in the district of Orange. 

Ezekiel Wallingford is said to have located as early as 1747, 
and was not long afterward killed by Indians. 

Ichabod Dexter, of Rochester, Mass., bought the right to 
Wallingford 's land, and lived upon it many years, but event- 
ually sold it and removed to Warwick. 

His brother Benjamin settled in 1769, upon what is now 
known as the Jesse Worrick farm. Subsequently he changed 
his location to the east end of the Kuggles grant, upon what 
is now known as the Dexter and Davis farms, which are still 
held in part by his grandchildren, Amasa Dexter and Syl- 
vester Davis. It is related that upon Benjamin Dexter's set- 
tlement, there was no house between his and the Connecticut 
Kiver. Dexter was a large farmer, an extensive dealer in land, 
and one of the earliest selectmen of the district. He married 
Hannah Stone, of Kuthuid, in 1709, and of their nine children, 
four settled in Orange and became parents of large families. 

Nearhim settled Samuel Ruggles in 1780, and Lemuel Kug- 
gles in 178(5. 

In 1770, Joseph Metcalf, of Milford, purchased of John 
Erving a tract of five hundred acres lying east of Fall Hill. 
That tiact includes now the farms of Willard Foskett, Shu- 
bael Briggs, Abraham Putnam, Harvey Goddard, Francis 
Field, and portions of the farms of Albert Foskett, Aaron 
Trim, the Widow Johnson, E. P. Foster, and Wilson Whee- 
ler. He probably settled in 1770, and built a house upon the 
place now occupied by Shubael Briggs. Mr. Metcalf was a 
prominent man in these parts for forty years or more ; was a 
leading farmer, a justice of the peace, a land surveyor much 
in demand, and a member of the court of Sessions for Hamp- 
shire County. He was John Erving's land-agent as well as 
land-agent for Erving's heirs, and made in 1788 a detailed 
survey and plan of the Erving grant. In his latter years he 
met with business reverses, and died poor. 

Seth Ellis settled about 1784, on the west side of the Tully 
Meadows in the northeast, on the place still known as the 
" Ellis farm." 

Ebenezer Foskett settled in 1777, on the farm now called 
the Loren Shaw place in the northeast. 

The " Goodell place,'' in the northeast part of the town, 
was occupied by Zina Goodell in 1787, and is now owned by 
one of his great-grandchildren. 

Nathan Goddard, of Shrewsbury, bought a large tract of 
land in the northeast, at the head of Tully Meadows, where 
he carried on a thriving business with a public-house, a tan- 
nery, and a saw-mill. Nearly all the Goddards now in Orange 
are his descendants. 

The Cheneys now living in Orange are descendants of 
Ebenezer and Nathaniel Cheney of Milford. They settled 
about 1780. Ebenezer was the father of twenty children, and 
died in 1828. Nathaniel removed, in 1802, to Wardsboro', Vt. 

David and William Legg were from Milford about 1780, 
and located near the centre of the tract, at what has since 
been known as the Legg Meadow. 

Thomas Lord (a son of Dr. Joseph Lord, the first proprie- 
tor's clerk of Athol) took up a farm, in 1781, near the school- 
house in school-district No. 6. He died there in 1810. 

Elisha Johnson located in the extreme north in 1776; Jona- 
than Jones on West Brook, near the centre, in 178.5; and near 
North Orange, previous to that time, there were other settlers, 
including Savel Metcalf, Joseph French, with his sons Jo- 
seph and Jacob, Job Maeomber, Elisha White, Daniel Thayer, 
Jonathan Jones, Jr., Samuel and Asa Aldrich, Samuel Briggs, 
and Solomon Johnson. They called the place of their first 
settlement Goshen. 

The earliest settlement near what is now (Jrange Centre was 

probably that of Lewis Barker, who took <ip a farm in 1791, 
on the cast part of Hastings grant, east of what is now Orange 

In 1791 the actual settlers, as shown by the records, were 
Abner Morton, Asa Aldrich, Asa Lord, Benj. Dexter, Daniel 
Thayer, Daniel Davidson, Levi Chapin, Ebenezer Petty, 
Elisha White, Joseph Lord, Jo-seph French, Jonathan Jones, 
Jonathan Jones, Jr., Samuel Kuggles, Solomon Johnson, 
Samuel Knowles, Zephaniah Smith, Thomas Stow, David 
Legg, David Cheney, Joseph Metcalf, Job Maeomber, Jacob 
French, Joshua Hill, Joel Thayer, Michael Malone, Nathan 
Cheney, Perez Richmond, Savel Metcalf, Silas Metcalf, 
Samuel Briggs, Samuel Pitts, William Legg, W. Mills, W. 
Tolly, Zadock Haywood, Job Maeomber, Jr., Alex. Whee- 
lock, Ebenezer Atwood, Ebenezer Cheney, Ebenezer Foskett, 
Widow Demon, Elijah Ball, Elisha Johnson, Edward Ward, 
Hananiah Temple, Hezekiah Coller, John Hill, David Hill, 
Jacob Briggs, John Forister, Asa Heminway, John Battle, 
James Mills, Levi Chene}', Moses and Nathaniel Cheney, Na- 
than Goddard, Jr., Samuel Coller, Timothy Wheelock, Uriah 
Coller, Uriah Coller, Jr., Wm. Stearns, Wm. Gould, Zina 
Goodell, John Beals, Abiel Sadler, Benjamin Mayo, Ben- 
jamin Wood, David Bullock, Ellis Whitney, Jonathan God- 
dard, Hezekiah Goddard, Jonathan Ward, John Cutting, 
Justin Cady, Jonah Ford, Joseph Dean, Jason Harrington, 
Jonathan Houghton, James Foster, Jeduthan Holden, Ma- 
son Goddard, Nchemiah Ward, Shadrach Baker, Silas Mar- 
ble, Timothy Peters, Wm. Lord, Wm. Lord, Jr., Preston 
Lord, Solomon Gates, Jonathan Woodward, Oliver Chapin, 
M. Higgins, Samuel Heminway, Jabez Whitnej', Nathaniel 
Stearns, John Emerson, Eben and Asa Goddard, Martin Ste- 
vens, Oliver Esty, Seth Thompson, Asa Albee, John Stow, 
Nathan Goddard, Phineas Hammond, Seth Woodward, Amos 
Woodward. John and Nathan Ellis, Sylvanus Ward, Witt 
Fuller, Daniel Harrington, Moses and Seth Ellis, Nathaniel 

Of the descendants of the early settlers now residing in 
Orange, mention may be made of the Goddards, Forresters, 
Woodwards, Dextcrs, Mortons, Frenchs, Joneses, Briggses, 
Lords, Johnsons, Smiths, Cheneys, Atwoods, Fosketts, 
Wards, Temples, Battles, Mayos, Harringtons, Albees, Davises, 
and Eddys. 


In December, 1783, the district raised £30 to defray neces- 
sary charges. At the same time arrangements were made to 
obtain a training-field. In 1784, £-50 were raised for the pur- 
pose of reopening the highways, and the rates for labor fixed 
at 3.S. per day for men, \s. 6rf. for oxen, 9rf. for a cart, and Is. 
for a plow. The first pound was the yard of Benjamin Mayo, 
which was in 1784 improved for the purpose. The mills first 
mentioned in the district records were Metcalf's, Goddard's, 
and Woodward's mills. 

In 1795, Mr. Forister agreed in open town-meeting "to 
erect bars, and to let people pass through his pasture in the 
winter season." At that time the selectmen were instructed 
to purchase a burying-cloth for the district, and that the cloth 
should be kept at Lieut. Atwood's. It was also ordered that 
" the assessor do abate ' the Friends' ' proportion of taxes for 
said cloth." In April, 1795, the assessors were instructed to 
nuike the taxes agreeable to a late act of the General Court for 
introducing the dollar and its parts for the money of account. 
In the following May the district discussed the subject of 
procuring a hearse for public use, but, as far as the records 
indicate, the hearse was not purchased until 1810. The dis- 
trict refused in 1806 to raise any nionej' for the support of the 
poor that year. 

Katy, daughter of Amos Woodward, born February, 1784, 
was probably the first person born in the district ; and the first 
couple married were William Crosbeeand Mary Higgins, who 
were united in wedlock May, 1784. 



The first dam across Miller's River, at Orange, was prob- 
ably constructed by James Holmes, of New Salem, in 1790. 
In that year he erected a saw- and grist-mill on the Orange 
side, and, after operating the establishment until 1800, sold 
out to Ahaz and Timothy Thayer, who in turn disposed of the 
mills to JIaj. Joseph Putnam. Charles Sears, of Greenwich, 
.set up a clothiers'-works in Orange in 1798, and in this enter- 
prise he was succeeded by Ezra Heminway, Otis Butterworth, 
David Young, and others. Levi Thurston, who began the 
manufacture of scythes in 1803, was the first to introduce 
the tilt-hammer in Orange. Simeon Boyden, of Northfield, 
.startcxl a carding-machine in 1804; Abner and Jacob Whitney 
began the manufacture of palm-leaf hats in 180.3 ; and in 1811, 
Benjamin Stow opened a wagon-factory. 

It niaj- be remarked as a singular circumstance, in view of 
the fact that Western Massachusetts towns were generally 
indifferent as to tendering voluntary service in the war of 
1812, that in November of that year Orange otl'ered a bounty 
of S12 per man for volunteers. 

There are now living in the town three survivors of that 
war, — Philip Martin, Enter Clark, and Ebenezer Barker, — 
but neither of them entered the service from Orange. 

Nathan Goddard and Benjamin Mayo vvere probably the 
first storekeepers at North Orange, one Foster the first black- 
smith, and Paddock and Barton among the early doctors. 
David Goddard, Humphrey Mellen, and Benjamin Mayo are 
said to have been the earliest hotel-keepers. • They kept, so it 
is related, taverns at what is now North Orange, and all at 
the same time, so that the region must have been in those 
early days a popular one for taverns. The buildings in which 
these taverns were kept are still standing at North Orange. 
The hotel at Orange Centre, called the Putnam Hotel, was 
built in 1801, by Ahaz Thayer. 

In 1837 a large tract of land south of Miller's River, and 
embracing the northern portion of New Salem, as well as the 
eastern portion of Erving's grant, was annexed to Orange. 
This was done for the purpose of bringing South Orange 
nearer the centre of the town ; for it was in that year that, 
owing to the important growth of South Orange, the seat of 
town government was removed to that village from Orange 
(now North ()range), and a town-ball built there. Before 
the annexation referred to. Miller's River was the southern 
boundary of the town. In 184.5 the name of Orange vil- 
lage, the place of early settlement, was changed to North 
Orange, and that of South Orange to Orange Centre. 

By the side of the highway, south of North Orange and 
near the old burying-ground, a stone has been erected to mark 
the spot where Mrs. Wheelock, an aged resident of Orange, 
was killed in 1820 by being thrown from her carriage. 


Roads were accepted, March, 1784, as follows : one from 
Warwick line, near the top of Fall Hill, to the road near 
Metcalf's mills ; one from Miller's River northeasterly, on 
the lands of John Erving, to the road near Ruggles' house ; 
one beginning on the north side of the road, through the 
farms of Abner Morton and Benjamin Dexter, and then 
through the lands of Samuel Aldrich and Thomas Lord 
to the saw-mill dam, and so on to the county road ; one 
from Ebenezer Goddard's dwelling-house to Woodward's 
mills. » 

In 178.J the roads accepted were : one from Justin Cady's 
house, south and west to the county road ; one beginning at 
Jason Herrington's house, and running to the old road near 
Cady's land ; one from Ebenezer Demond's house to the 
Warwick line, on Samuel Pitt's land. In 178.J the district 
joined with New Salem in building a bridge over Miller's 
River. The highway of the Fifth Massachusetts Turnpike 
Corporation, established in 1799, passed from Northfield, 
through Warwick and Orange, to Athol. 


The first post-ofiice was established at what is now North 
Orange in 1816. Lyman Harrington was the first postmaster, 
and he was succeeded by Pynson Blake, Josiah Wheelock, 
Parly Barton, Davis Goddard, Ilillel Baker, and N. L. John- 
son, the present incumbent. A post-office was established at 
Miller's Bridge — afterward South Orange, now Orange Cen- 
tre — in 1823, when Thomas Cobb was appointed postmaster. 
His successors have been John R. Whipple, Otis Brooks, 
Davis Goddard, and Geo. A. Whipple. Mr. Goddard, the 
present postmaster, has held the office since 1861. Of Mr. 
Cobb, the first postmaster at Orange Centre, — Miller's Bridge, 
— it may be observed that the otfice receipts the first quar- 
ter were thirtj'-one cents, and his commissions eight cents. 


Oct. 15, 1783, the southeasterly part of the town of War- 
wick, and a tract of land called Ervingshire, lying on the 
north side of Miller's River, in the county of Hampshire, 
the northwesterly part of the town of Athol, and the south- 
westerly part of the town of Royalston, in the county of 
Worcester, were joined b}' act of the Legislature, and erected 
into a separate district by the name of Orange. The act was 
passed on the petition of the inhabitants of the tracts above 
referred to, who represented to the court the difficulties they 
labored under " in their present situation," and apprehended 
themselves, moreover, to be of sufficient numbers and ability 
to deserve the granting of their petition. 

The boundaries designated for the new district were as fol- 
lows : Beginning on the west line of the town of Athol, at 
Miller's River ; thence on the said line to the road that leads 
from Ruggles' farms to West Hill, so called ; thence bounding 
on the said road, including the same, to the county road lead- 
ing from Athol to Warwick ; thence easterly on the said road 
to the south line of Sherebiah Baker's land ; thence on the said 
south line, and to extend the same course, to Tully River; 
thence northerly on the east branch of the said Tullj' River 
to Royalston line; thence east on the said Royalston line to 
the southeast corner of lot No. 23 ; thence no'-therly on the 
east line of the same lot and lot 22, dividing lot No. 26 ; 
thence westerly on the south end of lot 20; thence northerly 
on the east line of lot No. 6 ; thence westerly on the north 
line of the same lot ; thence northerly on the west side of lot 
No. 9 ; thence westerly on the south line of lot No. 11 to the 
west line of the said town of Royalston ; thence northerly on 
the said town-line to the northeast corner of lot No. 45, in the 
second division in Warwick ; then westerly on the north line of 
the same lot to the northwest corner thereof; thence southerly 
to the northeast corner of lot 41 ; thence westerly to the north- 
west corner of the same lot; thence southerly to the northeast 
corner of lot -34, to the northwest corner of the same ; thence 
southeast to the northeast corner of lot 24 ; thence south to 
the northeast corner of lot 15; thence south, including lot 13, 
to Warwick south line ; thence south, ten degrees west, across 
the land of John Erving, Esq., to Miller's River; thence east- 
erly on Miller's River to the bounds first mentioned. 

The district was named in honor of William, prince of 
Orange, and its first public meeting was held Nov. 24, 1783, 
the warrant therefor being served by Nathan Goddard. Feb. 
21, 1810, the district was incorporated as a town, and the 
first town-meeting was held April 2, 1810. From 1783 to the 
present time the selectmen and clerks who have served the 
district and town have been as follows : 


1T83,— Savel Metcalf, Nathan Godciard, Elijah Ball. 
1784. — Savel Metcalf, llaDiiauiah Temple, Nathan Goddard. 
1785. — Jutiii Davis, Benjamin Mayo, Savel Metcalf. 
1786-87.— Savel Metoalf, .Jonathan Ward, John Davis. 
1788.— Edward Ward, Levi Cheney, John Ellis. 
1789. — Save! Metcalf, Levi Cheney, Amos Woodard. 



1700. — Iievi Clieney, Samiml Briggs, Ebcnczer Foskctt, 

171)1, — Samuel ISriggB, Ebfu«;zt;r Fuskftt, Itcnjiiriiiii Dtxten 

1702. — Eheiie/.er JVskrtt, nciijitmin Dexter, .luMeph Mctcalf, 

170;i. — Benjamin Dexter, Jo8eJ)li Metcalf, Junatliai) Gitddan], 

1794. — Joseph Bletailf. Joiiatliiiii Ootlilanl, Ni-heniiah Ward, 

1793. — Jonathan GmUhird, Neheniiah M'jH'il, Nathaniel Clieney, 

179G. — Nelienn'ali Ward, Nathaniel Cheney, Oliver Chnpiu. 

17!t7, — Nathaniel Cheney, Oliver (*liai>in, Et)enezer Atwood, 

179s. — Oliver Cliapin, Ebenezer Atwood, Siinniel Bi i^gs, 

1709. — Ebenezer Atwood, Samuel Briggs, Amos Woo^lanl, 

1800. — Samuel Briggs, Aliws Wot»«lard, Moets C'hcney, 

It^OI. — Aiiios Woodard, Moses Cheney, Samuel Kugglee, 

1802. — Moses Cheney, Samuel Kuggles, Oliver Ertey. 

1803-4, — Levi Cheney, Oliver Cbnpili, Zina Ooodale, 

1805. — Josijih Cobb, Levi Cheney, Zina floodale, 

1806.— Oliver Clmliin, Joseph Mctcalf, Seth Elli;;. 

1807, — Josiah Cobb, Jtweph Lord, Nathan Cliene,y, 

1808, — JosJah CoLb, Amos Wt'C'dard, Bf-iijaniin Dexter, 

1809.— Josiah CVibb, Amos WotKlard, Pearly Barton, 

1810-11.- Amos Woodard, Pearly Bai Ion, TlioiiiiB Cobb. 

1812. — Amos Woodaril, Pearly Baitou, David Cleaveland, 

1813. — Josiah Cobb, Ebenezer Goddard, David Cheney. 

ISli-lo. — David Clieney, Ebenezer God.lard, Nathan Ward, 

1816.- Ebenezer Goddard, Nathan Ward, Peter Sibley. 

1617-18.— Amos Wooilard, Seth Ellis, Jr., Lymau Harrington. 

1810. — Amos Woodard, Calvin May, John Davis. 

1820. — Nathan W^ard, John Davis, Muses Johnson, 

IS21, — Jolin Davis, Sloses Johnson, Allen HarringttTO. 

1822. — Moses Johnson, Allen Harrington, Tliomas Cobb, 

1823-24. — George Whcclock, Moses Smith, Nathaniel Jencrson, 

1825, — George Wheelock, Moses Smith, Allen Ilariington- 

182G, — Allen Han ington, Stephen Bliss, Natluin Ward, 

1827.— SteiAen Bliss, Nathan Ward, J. K. Vliipple. 

1828,— J, B, Whipple, Na!han Ward, Setli Ellis, Jr, 

1829.— J. B. Whipple, Zina Gooilale, Daniel Moore. 

1830. — Zina Guodale, Russell Barns, Moses Johnson. 

1831. — Moses Johnson, Sherman Bacon, Hiram Woodward, 

3832, — Hiram Woodward, Sherman Bacon, Moses Jlortou, 

18:33. — Hir.im Woodward, Moses Morton, Josiah GfKldard, 

1834, — Hiram WtKxlward, Moses Morton, Otis Brooke. 

1835. — Hiram Woodward, Otis Brooks, Salmon Howard, 

1830, — Hiram Wootlward, Benjamin Mayo, Willard Ward, 

1837. — Salmon Howard, Otis Bnxtks, Percival Blodgett, Benjamin Meriam, Ansel 

1838, — Salmon Howard, Percival Blodgett, Benjamin Meriam. 
1839, — Percival Blodgett, Benjamin Meriam, Dexter Davis. 
1840, — Benjamin Meriam, Salmon Howard, Josiah Goddard. 
1841. — Josiah Gixidard, Salmon Howard, James M, Hills, 
1842.— Salmon Howard, James M. Hills, llillel Baker. 
1843-45. — Salmon Howard, Hillel Baker, Joseph King. 
1846, — Salmon Howard, Josiah Goddard, Betijamin G, Putnam, 
1847,- Josiah Goddard, Jonathan Kendall, Asa A. Ward. 
1848. — Salmon Howard, Daniel Sabin, Helen llolbrook. 
1849. — Josiah Gotldard, Peter Moore, Jonathan Kendall. 
1850. — Josiah Goddard, Salmon Howard, Snmner Curtis, 
1851.— Eodncy Hunt, John D. Flagg, Hillol Baker. 
1852-53, — Daniel 3Iayo, Enoch Washburn, William Bollard, 
1854.— Philbrook Woniik, Thomas Eildy, Leonard Ward. 
1855,— Thomas Eddy, John D. Flagg, Boyal Phinney. 
1856. — John D. Flagg, Royal Phinney, Edwin Stow, 
1857. — Philbrook Worrie.k, Thomas A, Tenney, Darwin Merriani, 
1858-59. — A. A. Ward, Darwin Meniani, N. S. Howard. 
18G0. — A. A. Ward, Danvin Meriiam, James H. Clark. 
1861-64. — A. A. Ward, Darwin 3Ieniani, Davis Goddard. 
1864. — Davis Go<ldard, Darwin Meriiam, H. N. Moore. 
1865.— A. J. Clark, John D. Flagg, Thomas E. Bridge 
1866.— John D. Flagg, Thomas E. Biidge, John W. Wheeler. 
1867. — John D. Flagg, Hiram Woodward, Henry W. Knights. 
1868.— John D. Flagg, Hiram Woodward, Leonard Ward. 
1869.— John D. Flagg, James N. Clark, James M. Hills. 
1870.- John D. Flagg, Davis Goddard, John C. Felt. 
1871. — Davis Goddard, Philbrook Worrick, James 3L Emory. 
1872. — Philbrook Worrick, Enoch Washburn, Hiram Orcutt, 
1873.— Philbrook Woniik, James H. Waite, Ira Wakefield. 
1874.— John D. Flagg, Noah W. Packard, Beiijamin M. Sawin. 
1875.— John D. Flagg, A. T. Eddy, Dari\in Merriam. 
1876. — Darwin Merriam, Hii-am Orcutt, Philbrook Worrick, 
1877.— Darwin Merriam, Charles A. Towne, M. D. Hen-ick. 
1878. — Charles A. Ttiwne, Philbrook Worrick, F. L. Waters. 


Savel Metcalf, 1783 ; John Davis, 1784 ; Savel Metcalf, 1785-88 ; Ebenezer Fos- 
kett, 1788-90; Nathaniel Cheney, 1700-1802; Amos Woodard, 1802-13; Levi 
Cheney, Jr., 1S13-27; George Blodgett, 1827-:!4 ; Peter Cheney, 1834-45 ; James 
M. Hills, 1845-47 ; Davis Cnjddard, 1847 ; James M. Hills, 1848-51 ; Davis God- 
dard, 1851-56; Henry D. Goddard, 1866-60; Hiram Woodard, 1850-61 ; John W. 
Wheeler, 1861-67 ; R. D, Chase, 1867-70. 


Following is a list of those who represented Orange from 
1810 to 18.J8, when the town became a part of the Seventh 
Kepresentative District : 

.Tosiall Cobb, Amos Woodard, P.arley Barton, Thomas Cobb, Hiram Woodard, 
Jeaee Worrick, Josiah Goddard, James C. Alvord, Salmon Howard, Benjamin 
Mayo, Joel Davis, Rodney Hunt, William B. Washburn, Stephen Emery, Solo- 
mon A. Howe, Admiral A. Ward. 

The villages proper in the town are but two, — Orange 
Centre and North Orange, — althmigh there are several small 
settlements to which names have been given. 


the largest village, is a station on the Fitchburg Kailroad, and 
is also located on both sides of Miller's Eiver, from which it 
gains the fine water-power which makes it an important iiiami- 
facturing point. It is charmingly situated upon gentle de- 
clivities, and its well-kept and bountifully-shaded avenues 
make it a place well calculated to attract the attention and 
admiration of the lover of the picturesque. It has a popuhi- 
tion of nearly 2000, of which a large part is made up of em- 
ployes of the manufactories. 

It contains, besides many fine residences, the town-house, 
built in 1868, at a cost of §52.5,000; a high-school building, 
erected in 1877, at an expense of 1^15,000; Putnam Block 
(containing stores and a public hall), which cost $20,000; 
Whipple Block, built in 1848, and remodeled in 1875 at a cost 
of §6000; three churches, eight large factories, two hotels, a 
railway depot, a post-office, a graded school (with building 
costing SGOOO), a public library, a steam tire-engine and two 
hiind-engine comjianies, water-works, and a numerous collec- 
tion of stores of various descriptions. 


is a pretty mountain village, and is the spot where the early 
settlers of Orange first concentrated. It has two churches, — 
one of which is supplied with a tower and clock, — one store, 
a post-office, and a collection of neat-looking dwellings, one 
of which, at least, may be noted as elegant and costly. 

About a mile east is Furnace village, whose inhabitants are 
employes in Stowell's Furniture-Factory and Holden's Chair- 
Works, located at that point. 

A mile south is Fryville, where Kufus Frost has a shoddy- 
mill. About a mile west of Orange Centre is West Orange, 
once a place of some trade ; and south, near the Athol line, 
is a settlement called Eagleville, the location of the Eagle 
Mill Company's shoddy-factory. In the north is a settle- 
ment called Tullyville, where some time ago two furniture- 
factories flourished. 


At a meeting in November, 1789, the district, by a vote, 
agreed to treat with the proprietors of the meeting-house for 
the purchase of the same. In 1790 it was voted to petition the 
General Court to discontinue the fund raised by the religious 
society in Orange for the support of a minister. In 1792 the 
committee appointed to purchase the meeting-liouse reported 
it unadvisable to make the purchase. Shortly thereafter the 
district concluded to purchase it, and did so. 

In 1796 it was voted that Samuel Pitts might bring into the 
meeting-house, two days in a year, such a minister as the com- 
mittee should approve. In the same year, §150 were raised 
to hire preaching, and for this all the inhtibitants, except 
" the denominations of peaple called Friends and Baptists," 
were assessed. In 1798 it was voted to present Kev. Mr. East- 
erbrook, of Athol, with J25 for his kindness in visiting the 
people of Orange in times of distress. 

In 1799 the district ordered §180 to be raised for preaching, 
to be divided between the Congregational, Universalist, and 
Methodist deiiomiiutfions. In 1804 the committee on minis- 



terial matters reported that, having maturely considered the 
matter, tliey recommended that a committee be chosen, to con- 
sist of two Congregationalists, two Universalists, and one 
Methodist, to lay out the nione_y raised for preaching, and that 
it be the duty of the committee to confer together and en- 
deavor to procure a teacher or teachers who would be likely to 
unite all of said societies into one, said teacher to he a person 
of good education, steadiness, and sobriety, the time for each 
society to occupy the meeting-house to be assigned by said 
committee. This report was accepted, and a committee ap- 

In 1805 it was resolved to raise no money for preaching that 
year, and in 1808 a similar resolve was recorded. In 1810 it 
was decided to hire no preaching except for Thanksgiving 
and the succeeding or preceding Sunday. 


Among the earliest entries upon the records of the First 
Congregational Church of Orange occurs the following : 

" Wc, thfi subscribers, inliabitauts of the attjacent corners of Athol, Warwick, 
and Royalston, being deeply sensible of the great disadvantages we labor under, 
by reason of the great distance from the meeting-bouses of the several towns 
to which we belong, and expecting special advantages will accrue to each of us, 
to build a meeting-house within the bounds of Warwick, on the southeast corner 
of Benjamin ^layo's land, near Nathan Godilard's west barn, therefore we whose 
names are under-written do covenant, promise, and agree to pay to and for the 
purpose of building a meeting-house in said place the sums nfli.\ed to each of our 
names in this instrument, said sums to be paid in merchantable rye, at four shil- 
lings per bushel, or Indian corn, at 2;*. Sd. per bushel, or cash equal thereto, in 
timber, nails, etc., to the acceptance of the committee that wc hereby appoint to 
accept the same." 

The instrument provided further that the house should be 
for a Congregational Church or Society, and that when the 
territory should be incorporated in any manner, the house 
might also be used for corporation-meetings. The agreement 
was made and signed in January, 1781, by Nathan Goddard 
and thirty-three others, who pledged for the erection of the 
meeting-house an aggregate of £110. The house was to stand 
between the houses of Nathan Goddard and I'enjamin Mayo, 
each of whom was to receive £10 for land used for the purpose, 
and the dimensions agreed upon for the structure were 46 feet 
in length and 30 feet in width. 

Provision was made that it should be completed by Novem- 
ber, 1781, but it was not finished until March, 1782. The 
site chosen was the one upon which the Universalist Church 
at North Orange now stands ; and this latter edifice, it may 
be added, is the old building remodeled and much improved. 
Directly after the completion of the church edifice, the in- 
habitants voted " to choose a committee to hire a minister to 
preach in or near the new meeting-house in Warwick, said 
committee to agree with and settle with said minister." 

In November, 1782, the Congregational Society in South 
Warwick voted to concur with the church in extending a call 
to Kov. Emerson Foster, and, as an inducement, he was to 
have a settlement of £100, 2.5 cords of firewood, and a salary 
of £60 a year for the first two years, the third year £05, the 
fourth year £70, and at that to stand thereafter. 

He accepted the call, and was installed the following De- 
cember. He was dismissed in 1790, and for a period of thirty- 
two years thereafter, or until 1822, the church was without a 
settled pastor. 

In 1822, the Unitarian element predominating. Rev. Joshua 
Chandler, a Unitarian minister, was installed, and preached 
until his disinissal, in 1827. From that time forward the 
church was controlled by the Universalists until 1844, when 
they united with the Unitarians, and continued to use the 
house jointly with them until 1858, when the church was re- 
organized as 


and as such has continued to this day. The church was 
remodeled and beautified in 18.32, and in 1875 was supplied 

with a clock for its tower. Rev. William Jewell is the present 
pastor. The attendants average from 75 to 100. 

Meanwhile, the Congregationalists at North Orange held 
occasional public worship in dwelling-houses, and were sup- 
plied by Revs. Mr. Beckwith, of Athol, Mr. Tracy, of Peters- 
ham, and Mr. Lincoln, of Gardner. They met with some 
opposition from evil-minded persons, and this opposition went 
so far sometimes as to break up their meetings. 


In 1834 they fitted up a dwelling as a chapel, and in 1843 
organized the Third Congregational Church. Revs. Josiah 
Tucker, Charles Boyter, Samuel D. Darling, Willard Jones, 
and Benjamin F. Clarke preached for them until shortly after 
18.50, when worship was discontinued. The church was reor- 
ganized in 1858, and since that time has been moderately 
prosperous. Rev. John H. Garmon was the pastor in 1879, 
when the church had an attendance of from 50 to 75. 


was formed in Orange in 1795, with Savel Metcalf as leader, 
and 12 others in the class. In 1822 the society began the erec- 
tion of a meeting-house, but did not complete it, the structure 
being eventually torn down in 1852. A second Methodist 
Church was organized, at what is now West Orange, in 18-53. 
Both organizations passed out of existence several years ago. 

A Methodist Society was organized in Orange Centre in 
1875, and has now 40 members, who worship in the town- 
hall. The pastors have been Revs. L. B. Frost, Wm. E. 
Dwight, and H. S. Ward, the latter being the pastor in 1879. 


was organized at Irvingsville (afterward West Orange) in 
1837, with 21 members. The members built a meeting-house 
in 1836, about a year before they effected an organization. 
Prior to 1842 preaching Avas supplied by Revs. Salmon Ben- 
nett, Dyer Ball, Abel Patten, Warren Allen, and Whitman 
Peck. Rev. Josiah Tucker was ordained as pastor in 1842, 
and preached also to the Congregational Church in Erving. 
After his dismission, in 1844, the pulpit was supplied by Revs. 
Erastus Curtis and Hiram Chamberlain until 1847. The 
church struggled through a precarious existence until 1860, 
when it was dissolved, and the church structure removed to 
Orange Centre and converted into a shop. 


was organized in 1834, with 29 members, and worshiped in the 
house of the Second Congregational Society at West Orange 
and the Union meeting-house at Orange Centre until 1860, 
when it was dissolved. The present Baptist Church at Orange 
Centre was organized in 1870, and built the present church- 
edifice in 1872-73, at a cost, including organ, of .$10,. 500. 
The pastors, since 1870, have been Revs. J. H. Tilton, T. B. 
Holland, D. C. Eaton, and George W. Davis,— the latter the 
pastor now in charge. The church has now a membership 
of 70. 

In 1833 a union meeting-house was built at South Orange 
(now Orange Centre), and for several years it was used in 
common by various denominations. The building, remodeled 
and materially improved in 1856, is now the edifice occupied 
by the 


which was organized in 1858. The church society was organ- 
ized in 1851, and was supplied by Revs. O. W. Bacon, C. W. 
Mcllen, Lemuel Willis, J. Hemphill, and others. Since the 
church organization the pastors have been Revs. Asa Country- 
man, J. P. Atkinson, Lucius Holmes, E. W. Coffin, and C. 
L. Wait, the latter the pastor in 1879, when the membership 
was about 75. The church has a fund of iil2,000 (bequeathed 
by Phineas Battle) and owns the church building and par- 




was organized there in 1840, with 15 members, and until 1851 
was known as the " VilUige Church." Previous to 1840, Rev. 
Chas. Boyter, who was sent out by the. Home Missionary So- 
cietj', preached two years, and continued his services two 
j-ears after the church organization. Kev. Marshall B. An- 
gier succeeded Mr. Boyter, and remained until 1852, when 
Eev. David Peck was ordained as the first settled pastor. In 
1852 the present church edifice was erected. It cost, inclusive 
of land, clock, and organ, $)24,000. Mr. Peck's successors in 
the pastorate were Kevs. Edwin Dimmock, N. A. Prince, 
Daniel Phillips, A. B. Foster, Kobert C. Bell, Marcus Ames, 
and A. P. Marsh, the latter being the pastor in 1879, when 
the membership was 184. 
A recently-organized society, known as 


numbering about 100 members, worship in Putnam Ilall, 
Orange Centre. 

The town records relate that about 1790 a society of 
"Friends" or Quakers existed in the south part of the dis- 
trict. They were a community by themselves, had a school, 
and held public worship, but how long they contiiuied as a 
society is not known. 


£30 were raised in 1784 for schools, and in the year follow- 
ing j£50 were rai.sed for a like purpose. March, 1780, a com- 
mittee reported as their opinion " that each school ward build 
them a school-house at their own cost." The report was ac- 
cepted and committees appointed to see to the building of the 
school-houses, which were completed in March, 1787, at a cost, 
for five school-houses, of £11S. In 1799 the district raised 
$1000 for building and repairing school-houses. 

In 1791 the town was divided into five school districts, or 
wards, the first being in the south, and comprising 18 inhab- 
itants; the second in the north, and numbering 19 inhabitants ; 
the third having 29 members ; the fourth in the oast, having 
32 ; and the fifth in the north, having 19. In 1800 the amount 
raised for schools was $250. In 1878 the sum raised was §4100, 
$1100 thereof being for the support of the high school. 

There were in the town in 1878 a high school, grammar 
school, intermediate school, first and second primary schools, 
and eleven district schools. The average number of scholars 
in attendance at all the schools is 356. The average attendance 
at the high school is about 30. 


The town has a free public library, founded in 1868 by town 
aid and |)rivate subscriptions, and supported since then by the 
same means. It is absolutely free to every inhabitant of the 
town, contains about 3000 volumes, and occupies a portion of 
the town-house. 


Among the graduates in American colleges may be noted 
the following from Orange: Jonathan Woodward, Grendell 
Ellis, J. H. Goddard, Alpheus Baker (who was a classmate 
with Daniel Webster at Hanover), Samuel Temple, Elijah 

Ball, Ilyder Ali Ball, John Cheney, Harrison Lord, 

Moore, Cvrus Chapin, Theodore Briggs, and George W. 


There are five public cemeteries in the town, — one at Orange 
Centre, one at North Orange, one at Furnaceville, one at West 
Orange, and one in the eastern part. Of these, the hand- 
somest is the one at Orange Centre. It occupies a command- 
ing elevation overlooking the village, is wellnigh embowered 
within the shade of niunerous pines, and contains, besides the 
soldiers' monument, many handsome tombstones, as well as 
smooth gravel-walks and gracefully-embellished burial-lots. 

The burial-ground at North Orange is the oldest one in the 

town, and contains the graves of many of the early set- 
tlers. Among the oldest inscriptions to be found therein may 
be mentioned the following: Cbloe Ellis, 1780; Mary Ellis, 
1780; Mary Ward, 1777; Mary Lord, 1783 ; Elizabeth Cheney, 
1789; Zina Goodell, 1789; Ebenezer Deming, 1790; Sarah 
Ward, 1790; Dolly Mayo, 1793; Jonathan Chapin, 1793; 
Stephen Nelson, 1793; Jonathan Ward, 1797; Melatiah 
Thayer, 1795; Priscilla Harrington, 1793; Eli.sha Johnson, 
1800; Ebenezer Goddard, 1803; Wales Cheney, 1800; Oronia 
Goddard, 1801. 


The manufactures of Orange are extensive and valuable, 
and form the basis of the town's present prosperity. The 
foremost representative of this interest is the Gold Medal 
Sewlng-Machine Company, located on Miller's River, at Orange 
Centre. In 1863, Hon. Andrew J. Clark, the president of the 
company, began with Wm. P. Barker the manufacture of the 
New England single-thread hand-machine upon the site of 
the present works. They employed but two men at first, and 
their productions were small in quantity, but the business 
steadily grew, and when, in 1865, Mr. Clark purchased Mr. 
Barker's interest, the employes numbered forty, and the 
aggregate number of machines made was from 300 to 400 ])er 
week. Mr. Clark continued the business alone until 1807, 
when he organized the firm of Johnson, Clark & Co., ma- 
terially enlarged the works, and began the manufacture of 
the Gold Medal sewing-machine, in connection with the New 
England machine. In 1869 the firm became a corporation, 
under the name of the Gold Medal Sewing-Machine Com- 
pany, with Andrew J. Clark as president, and in 1870 re- 
placed the Gold Medal machine with the manufacture of the 
Home machine, which in turn was succeeded in 1877 by the 
New Home machine, which is now the chief product. The 
manufacture of the New England machine was discontinued 
in 1877, and now, besides the New Home, the company makes 
also the Home shuttle-machine. The production in 1878 was 
39,000 machines, the second largest number returned by Ameri- 
can manufacturers to the Seifhiff-Machine Journal in that year, 
and for 1879 the estimate is .30,000. The main works, on the 
north side of the river, cover three-quarters of an acre. On 
the south side of the river the company has a manufactory of 
sewing-machine cases and machine wood-work, and has also 
a half-interest in the Orange Iron-Foundry Company, where 
their castings are made. The total number of persons em- 
ployed in the interests of the company at Orange number 
about 450.* 

T/ic Jiodnry Hunt Machine Cowprtnii, on the south side of 
the river, is the outgrowth of a manufacturing business started 
by Mr. Rodney Hunt, in 1840, at Orange Centre. The works 
of the company are extensive, and the manufacture is largely 
of woolen-mill machinery, turbine water-wheels, and general 
mill-work. The company's capital represents an investment 
of upward of $75,000, and they employ from 75 to 100 men. 
This company, with the Gold Medal Sewing-Machine Com- 
pany, controls also the Orange Iron-Foundry Company, lo- 
cated on the south side of the river, and engaged in the man- 
ufacture of turbine water-wheels, sewing-machine castings, 
and general mill-work. The company has a capital of $50,000, 
and employs a force of from 60 to 70 men. 

L. K'dburn <J- Co., on the north side of the river, do a thriv- 
ing business in the manufacture of cane- and wood-seat chairs. 
The firm was organized in 1862, and now occupies a factory, 
of which the main building is three stories and a half in 
height and measures 80 by 45 feet, the wing being two sto- 
ries and a half high and 52 feet in length by 24 feet in 
width. In 1878 the firm manufactured fifty thousand chairs, 

*An extensive conflagration at the village of Qniiige, in March, 1879, deBtroyed 
tlie buildings of the Orange Blanufaeturing Company, operated hy tlie Gold 
Medal Sewing-JIachine Company for the production of sewing-machine calinet 
work. The total loss reached about 850,000. 

Residence: of Stephen French, orange. franklin Co., mass. 

I'liuto, Ijj- C. II. Wtlls, Uiaugo. 

James H. Waite is a native of Rhode Island, and 
was horn in Providence, July 1, 1832. He is of 
English ancestry, and belongs to the family of the 
eminent Chief Justice Waite. His fathei", John 
Waite, was born in Whately, Franklin Co., Mass., 
May 14, 1799, and is a descendant of the Waites 
who were among the first settlers in that town, who, 
it is believed, located there as early as 1750. In the 
history of Whately, John and Simeon Waite are 
mentioned as two of the first selectmen of that town, 
having been chosen to that office in 1772. 

His mother, Lucinda Dickinson Waite, was born 
in Hatfield, Hampshire Co., Mai'ch 8, 1799. James 
H. is the third of a family of six children. When 
he was two years of age his parents removed to 
Leicester, Mass., where they remained until he had 
attained his twelfth year. While in that place he 
attended the common school, the Leicester Academy, 
and subsequently the Winchendon School. They 
then removed to Athol, where they resided five years, 
and during that time James worked on the farm, and 
also attended school at Shelburne Falls. 

From Athol he came to Orange, where he now re- 
sides. There he first worked at the carpenter trade 
a few years, but in 1855 he commenced millwright- 
ing in the employ of Rodney Hunt, and was associ- 
ated with him seventeen years. ]\Ir. Waite, as an 
employe, discharged the duties devolving upon him 
with thoroughness and fixlelity, winning not only the 
approbation of his employers and a reputation as a 
business-man, but better financial fortune as well. 

In 1873 he established a private bank, under the 

firm-name of Cheney & Waite, which in 1875 was 
merged into the Orange National Bank, of which 
Mr. Waite is cashier. He is also treasurer of the 
Orange Savings-Bank. In politics he is a Repub- 
lican, and in 1874 was a member of the board of 
selectmen, holding that office one year. For eighteen 
years he has been a member of the Congregational 
society, and is a consistent and faithful Christian. 
He is also a member of the Masonic order, and an 
earnest and progressive worker in that cause. He 
enjoys the fullest confidence of the members of the 
organization to which he belongs, and has been 
elected to nearly every office in the chapter and com- 
mandery, with that of high-priest and eminent com- 
mander. At present (1879) he is eminent com- 
mander of the Athol Commandery. 

Mr. Waite is eminently a self-made man, and has 
gained his present position by improving, to the best 
of his ability, the opportunities offered him. He is 
progressive and enterprising in business and public 
relations, and as a man is honored and respected by 
all with whom he has been associated. 

He was married, in June, 1854, to Amelia Brooks, 
of Orange, who died on the 10th of April, 1864, 
aged thirty years. By this union he had one child, 
— Lizzie Amelia, born on the 15th of January, 1864. 

For his second wife he married Katie P., daughter 
of Horace Gleason, of Chelsea, Mass. She was born 
on the 8th of August, 1839. To them have been 
born two children, viz. : Milton James, born Dec. 
31, 1871, and died Aug. 11, 1872; and Loren Glea- 
son, born April 12, 1873. 

Llvi Kilburn. 




and estimated its product for 1879 at double that number. 
Twoiity-tive hands are employed in the factory, and about 2o0 
men, women, and children are employed at their homes as 
seaters. ICilburn & Co. have also an interest in the Chase 
Turbine Manufacturing Company, and own a saw-mill in 
New Salem, whence they obtain material for their manu- 

The Chase Turbine Manufaciiiring Company, adjacent to the 
works of the Gold Medal Sewing-Machine Company, was or- 
ganized in 1874, as the outgrowth of the Turbine Water- 
Wheel Manufacturing Company, which, upon the same site, 
began operations in 1865. Turbine water-wheels, circular- 
saws, and general mill-machinery are among the manufactures 
of this corporation, whose capital is §30,000, and whose em- 
ployes number from 12 to 30. 

A Co-operative Furniture Conyjo^j^, containing the interests 
of from 15 to 20 people, has recently been set in motion in 
the establishment originally occupied by J. S. Dewing & Co. 
for a similar industrj'. 

Besides the manufacturing interests here named, which are 
located on Miller's River, at Orange Centre, there is in the 
same village a brick structure, formerly used as a steam fur- 
niture manufactory, which was erected by H. H. Whitney, at 
a cost of about §20,000. Mr. Whitney failed in 1870, and 
since that date the establishment has been idle. 

G. A. Whipple, at Orange Centre, employs many people in 
various parts of the town in the manufacture of palm-leaf 
hats, of which commodity he produces §10,000 worth annu- 

The Ear/le Mill Company, in Eagleville, near the Athol 
line, was organized in 1867 with a capital of §20,000, and has 
been engaged since that time in the manufacture of shoddy 
cloth, of which 1-50,000 yards are produced yearly. The com- 
pany's mill is 140 by 32 feet, and the average number of hands 
emplojed is 27. 

At Fryville there is a small shoddy-mill, under the man- 
agement of Rufus Frost. At Furnaceville, H. R. Stowell 
employs 20 persons in the production of furniture, and F. G. 
Holden 6 men in the manufacture of chair-stufl', match-woods, 

There are many excellent and profitable farms in the north 
part of the town, where agriculture is the chief interest. The 
soil is sandy and loamy, and yields a fair return for the labors 
of the luLsbandman. In 1878 the town raised §7500 to defray 
town charges, §2500 for highways, §2600 for interest on the 
town debt, and §4100 for schools. 

The town has at Orange Centre 


which was organized in 1873, by Cheney & Waite, as a private 
bank ; re-organized as a national bank in 1875, with a capital 
of §100,000. Its deposit account averages about §40,000. 


which was organized in 1871, has now on deposit upward of 
§107,000, and is one of the few savings-banks of the country 
that have latterly shown an increase in deposits. 

The Journal of Industry was established by B. F. Stevens 
in 1871, and is still issued weekly by him at Orange Centre. 

was organized November, 1860, and has now a membership 
of 170. The officers for 1879 are A. L. Shattuck, W. M. ; 
Geo. A. Drake, S. W. ; Jos. A. Titus, J. W. ; C. P. Putney, 
Sec. ; Geo. H. Brooks, Treas. ; Rev. C. L. Waite, Chaplain ; 
R. W. Ranel, Marshal ; W. C. Doane, S. D. ; C. L. Hubbard, 

J. D. ; Chas. Sawyer, S. S. ; A. L. Barrett, J. S. ; C. H. 
Wells, Inside Sentinel ; L. A. Chamberlain, Tiler. 


organized in 1878, has officers as follows : F. L. Waters, Pres. ; 
Geo. A. Drake, Sec. ; John Dunbar, Treas. ; A. L. Shattuck, 
W. L. Thatcher, R. W. Ranel, and O. S. Wheeler, Directors. 

LODGE 182, I. O. O. F., 

organized October, 1878, has 50 members and the 'following 
officers : Jas. H. Wheeler, N. G. ; Wm. H. Graves, V. G. ; 
Eugene L. Eddy, Sec. ; John Dunbar, Treas. ; A. H. Smith, 
Warden ; H. H. Goss, Outside Guardian ; A. H. Goddard, 
Inside Guardian: A. D. Horr, R. S. N. G. ; E. C. Burrell, 
L. S. N. G. ; Wm. A. Cobb, R. S. V. G. ; Jos. L. King, L. S. 
V. G. ; A. P. Elliott, Conductor ; Marble Blodgett, R. S. S. ; 
Wm. Wardell, L. S. S. ; Andrew Mack, Chaplain ; R. D. 
Chase, P. G. 

miller's RIVEK lodge of good TEMPLARS, 
now numbering 50 members, was organized in 1866. The 
present officers are James E. Walker, W. C. T. ; Miss Jen- 
nie Gilmore, W. V. T. ; Mrs. Dan. Adams, W. S. ; Frank 
Foster, W. F. S. ; Mrs. P. A. Whipple, W. T. ; Wm. A. 
Cobb, W. C. ; Miss Josephine Mitchell, W. I. G. ; Eddie 
King, W. O. G. ; Mary Davis, W. A. S. ; W. A. Loomis, P. 
W. C. T. ; Miss Lillian Clark, L. 11. S. The lodge has in 
good standing 51 members. 


was organized in 1805, and has 75 members. 

Clara Barton Post, Matrons of the Republic, is com- 
posed of the widows and sisters of soldiers who served in the 
late war. 

The Temple of Honor, organized in 1873, has 50 members, 
and the Knights of Honor, organized in 1877, has a member- 
ship of 50. 

the sovereigns of industry, 

with 125 members at present, was organized in 1874, and has 
also a branch at North Orange, whore there is al.;o a lodge of 
Good Templars. 

A Mutual Benefit Association at Orange Centre was 
organized April, 1878, and has a membership of 200. 

franklin LODGE, NO. 516, K. OF H., 

was instituted March 14, 1877, and has the following officers : 
S. B. French, P. D. ; Wm. H. Lee, D. ; S. O. Wheeler, V. D. ; 
Chas. A. Miles, Asst. D. ; W. C. Doane, Rep. ; A. J. John- 
son, F. R. ; A. W. Ballou, Treas. ; C. E. Mack, Guide; W. 
Wendell, Chaplain ; G. Lunt, Guardian ; C. E. Richards, 
Sentinel. The lodge has 40 members, and is in a flourishing 


fire department. 

The first fire-engine used in Orange was made in Proctor- 
ville, Yt., in 1833, and cost §200. It is alluded to by an old 
resident who once worked upon its brakes as " a tub-like ar- 
rangement operated by cranks." Voluntary subscriptions 
purchased the machine, and directly upon its arrival in the 
village of Orange a volunteer company was organized, and 
James M. Hill, but just then arrived in town, chosen fore- 

The manner of extinguishing fires was rather primitive. A 
line of men passing buckets of water from a well to the en- 
gine, and another line passing the empty buckets back, was 
the force required, in addition to the men who manned the 

This machine and a volunteer company without special or- 
ganization did duty at fires up to 1850, when, more complete 
appointments being deemed necessary, further subscriptions 
were secured, and a hand-engine was purchased from one Joslin, 
but it failed to meet requirements, and was eventually dis- 



carded. In 18C3 the town pureliasod an engine of the Hun- 
neman pattern, and Jan. 23, 18G4, a number of citizens met 
at the town-liall for tlie purpose of organizing a fire company. 
Previously the citizens generally considered themselves a 
company, and turned out en masse on the occasion of a fire. 

The meeting was called to order by Kodney Hunt, Esq., 
and Luther P. Eamsey was chosen Chairman; Thos. E. 
Bridge, See. H. H. Whitney, Levi Kilburn, and J. C. Felt 
were appointed a committee to secure names of persons that 
would join. Hiram Woodward, Davis Goddard, and Hol- 
brook Ward were chosen a committee to draft a constitution. 
At the next meeting, on the 27th, it was voted to accept the 
report of the committee and adopt the bjf-laws as presented. 
Fifty-eight names were secured to make up the company, 
which was called the " Orange Fire-Engine Company." The 
members held their first meeting Jan. 27, 1864, and elected 
Rodney Hunt, Chief Engineer ; Levi Kilburn, First Assist- 
ant ; Ira Wakefield, Second Assistant ; E. R. Parker, Fore- 
man ; First Assistant, Wm. H. Lamb ; Second Assistant, Geo. 
W. Kilburn ; Clerk, John W. Wheeler ; Treasurer, H. H. 
Whitney ; Steward, John L. Williams ; Standing Committee, 
Thomas H. White, Thos. E. Bridge, and J. C. Felt. 

The first regular monthly meeting was held Feb. 2, 1804. 
This company has since maintained its regular organization, 
and has at present the following officers : Foreman, H. H. 
Goss ; First Assistant Foreman, J. S. "Bryant; Second Assist- 
ant Foreman, Charles Sawyer ; Clerk, F. L. Waters ; Trea- 
surer, 11. C. French ; Steward, George W. Kilburn ; Assistant 
Steward, Geo. H. Carleton. 

Orange Steam Fire Cuiiijmiii/ was organized Aug. 26, 1871, 

with the following officers: Foreman, Denison Chase; First 
Assistant Foreman, E. A. Goddard ; Second Assistant, C. W. 
Barber; Clerk and Treasurer, A. W. Kilburn. About two 
months after the company's organization, Mr. Cha.se was ap- 
pointed to be first engineer, and John L. Williams was chosen 
foreman. The present officers are John Dunbar, Foreman ; 
C. W. Barber, First Assistant; C. L. Hubbard, Second As- 
sistant ; A. Kilburn, Clerk and Treasurer ; John L. Williams, 
Steward. The company's steamer is an " Amoskeag." 



Of the soldiers sent by Orange into the war of the Rebellion, 
38 lost their lives ; but the town has remembered their devo- 
tion and sacrifice by the erection, in the beautiful cemetery at 
Orange Centre, of a handsome soldiers' monument, which was 
dedicated in 1870. It is a massive shaft of Maine granite, 
rising to the height of 40 feet, and bearing upon the four faces 
of the base the legend " Orange remembers her soldiers," and 
the names of those in whose honor it was erected. These names 
are as follows : 

E. B. Cobb, II. C. Woodward, W. A. Woo.hvard, L. Furbush, W. L. IIowo, P. 
Stciinis, H. L. Teniiilo, L. Bowkcr, E. 0. Orcutt, I. L. Sljear, C. C. Harris, W. H. 
Goddard, J. U. Osmaiid, C. II. Stafford, B. E. Hastings, M. H. Ward, N. W. Ward, 
J. Turner, E. Gerrish, A. H. Terry, J. Short, 0. J. Howard, W. N. Sniitli, J. H. 
Picrct, J. L. Foster, J. H. Boydcn, J. SI. Adams, E. Stevens, H. Fosliett, \V. W. 
Brifc'gs, A. Bliss, D. D. Mellon, J. A. Prescott, J. Pierce, E. S. War.l, A. Baker, 
H. U. Mayo, D. Barnes. 


Appended is a list of the names of soldiers sent by Orange 
into the war of the Rebellion : 

Samuel Adams, 21st Masg. 
Joseph J[. Adams, 5th N. H. 
A. B. Atlwrton, Htjtll Miisg. 
Wm. H. Blodgett, 21st Mass. 
J. D. Cumniings, 21st Mass. 
T. D. De.\ter, loth M;iss. 
Itaii. Bosworth, 27th Mass. 
Dwiglit Barnes, 25th Slass. 
W. W. Briggs, 3Ctli Mass. 
Henry Boyden, 3Gth Mass. 
E. B. Cobb, 52d Mass. 
Ebenezer Cheney, 52d Mass. 
E. W. Eddy, Cth Bat. 
A. T. Eddy, 5:id Mass. 
Heniy Foskett, 17lh Mass. 
I'rescott Furbush, 31st Mass. 
A. A. Ballon, 52d Mass. 
Albert Foskett, 3Cth Mass. 
J. U. Foskett, .V2a Mass. 
A. E. Bliss, 3(ith Mass. 
Wm. H. Goddard, 30th Mass. 

A. W. Goddaid, 30th Mass. 
Wm. P. Ilnntoon, 3Ctb Mass. 
Jas. E. Hills, 3Cth Mass. 
Wm. L. IIowo, 3Ctli Mass. 
Caleb C. Harris, 30tli Mass. 
Jas. L. Foster, 52d Mass. 
Luke Furbush, 52d Mass. 
Dennis Goddard, 62d Mass. 
Samuel Greenhalgh, 52d Mass. 
Gamaliel Goddard, 52d Mass. 
D. J. Gilmore, 52d Mass. 

M. M. Howard, 3Clli Mass. 
II. J. Barber, Navy. 
H. H. Hunt,52d Mass. 
K. H. Huntuou, 52d Mass. 

B. F. Hastings, 3ath Mass. 
Alvin King, 27tli Mass. 

C. H. King, 52d Mass. 
Samuel L. Lasure, 21st Mass. 
JI. A. Lothrop, 20th Mass. 
Wm. II. Mellen, 21st Mass. 
Fiank B. Martin, 31st Mass. 
Geo. A. Maynard, 10th Rlass. 
Chas. Morton, 2oth Mass. 

J. U. Osmond, 52d Mass. 
Jerome Pierce, 30th Mass. 
Job. H. Pierce, 3Clh Mass. 
W. S. Phillips, 52d Mass. 

B. W. Mayo, 25lh Mass. 
Daniel Mahanna, 24th Mass, 
Henry H. Mayo, 3(lth Mass. 
J. W. Mellon, 3Gth M;iss. 
Sumner Moore, 30tli RIass. 
Chas Maynard, 52d Mass. 
David D. Mellon, 52d Mass. 
Converse Mayo, 21st Mass. 
Henry L. Rawson, 27th Mass. 
Osgood Ricli, 3Gth M;iss. 
Geo. W. Reynolds, 52d Mass. 

B. W. Reynolds, 52d Mass. 
T. A. Reynolds, 52d Mass. 

S. L. Underwood, 3eth Mass. 
Edwin L. Spear, 12th Mass. 
Chas. T. S.iwin, 9th Mass. 
Wm. N. Smith, 30th Mass. 
Edwin Stevens, 30th Mass. 
Henry R. Stowell, 52d Slis'. 
Samuel N. Slale, 62d Mass. 
Austin B. Swan, 52d Mass. 
Daniel Stearns, 52d Mass. 
F. W. Shaw, 52d Mass. 
John Turner, I3th JIass. 
Aug. Temple, 25th .Mass. 
Chas. Tildon,31»t Miss. 
.\lvin Truax, 24th Mass. 
Aaron F. Trim, o2d M.i^s, 
Albert L. Barrett, 3d Cav. 

C. J. Daily, 57th Ma<s. 
Franklin Hill, . 

R. H. Huntoon, 271h Miiss. 

Joseph Young, . 

John Short, 57th Mass. 
Aaron Terry, 27tli M.iss. 

Peter Larraby, , 

Luke F. Boorkor, 27th M.iss. 

Chas. L. Flint, . 

H. L. Temple, 3d Cav. 
Dvvight S. Felton, 1st Bat. 
N. H. Rand, 1st B.it. 
R. W. Baud, 1st Bat. 
N. A. Cheney, 1st Bat, 

F. L. Spears, Ist Bat. 

G. W. Mor.mville, 1st Bat. 
J. H. Titus, 1st Bat. 

H. J. Barber, 1st Bat. 
E. M. Leighton, Ist B.lt, 

J. F. Harlson, 1st Bat. 
Geo. li. Tenney, 1st Bat. 
Marcus H. Ward, 25th Mass. 
Nathan W. Ward, 301h Mass. 
E. S. Ward, 30lli Mass. 
II. C. Woodward, 30th Mass. 
P. G. Woodward, 3eth Mass. 
W. C. Woodward, 30th Mass. 
W. A. Woodward, 27th Mass. 
Otis Washburn, 3d Cav. 
W. H. Wliitney, 52d Mass. 
R. B. P. Wheeler, 52d Mas-a. 
Salmon Wakefield, 52.1 Mass. 
Geo. H. Wilson, Otli Mass. 
Geo. P. Ward, 27th Mass. 
T. F. Williams, 10th Mass. 
Moses C. French, lOtli Mass. 
Geo. W. Barber, Oth Mass. 
0. J. Howard, Navy. 
Orange S. Oakes, 10th Sliiss. 
Edwin C. Reed, 2l8t Mass. 
Peter S. Ward, 14tli Mass. 
G. A. Stafford, 15th Miss. 
Erastus Orcutt, 34th Mass. 
True L. Rice, 34th Mass. 

E. S. Rnssell, 4th Cav. 
S. W. Clark, 4th Cav. 

Geo. W. Pratt, 7th Mass. Bat. 
A. II. Dudley, 4th Cav. 
Henry H. Turner, 7tli Mass. Bit. 
Ch:is. Blackburn, 7th Mass. Bat. 
Jas. II. Piper, Ist Bat. 

F. M. Jennison, Ut Bat. 
Geo. H. Carleton, 1st Bat. 
Frank S. Field, 1st Bat. 
Fred. Sherman, 1st Bat. 
Ward S. Harris, 1st Bat. 
Geo. W. Taylor, 1st Bat. 

Walter M. Crombie, H. Art.; unattached. 

Edward W. Jlorse, 4th Cav. 

J. D. Ward, 21st Mass. 

Joram A. Trescott, 21st Mass. 

J. H. Richardson, 27th Mass. 

A. W. Merriam, 2sth Mass. 

L. L. Huntoon, 12th U. S. 

Russell Ward, 120th 111. 

A. Baker, . 

A. D. Foskett, Navy. 

^U--c/^j^^/ ^^/u^^ f 

^^-— y 7^1^--^ 





was born in Ashbnrnham, Mass., Jul}' 10, 1810. He remained 
at home upon the farm until seventeen years of age, and at- 
tended the district school five or six weeks during each winter. 
In 1827 he went to West Boyleston to work for Ezra Beaman, 
and remained with him three years. The first year he received 
ten dollars per month, the second year eleven, and the third 
year twelve. At the expiration of the three years he gave to his 
father three hundred dollars, the amount of his savings during 
that time. He then went to Berlin, Mass., to learn the mill- 
wright's trade, where he continued three years. In 1833 
his mother died, and he returned to Ashburnham, to reside 
with his father. The following year he married Miss Mar- 
garet Parker, of Holden, Mass. About this time he also made 
a profession of religion, and became connected with the Open- 
Communion Baptist Society, of which he is still a member. 
He remained in the paternal home until his father's decease, 
in 1834, and in 1835 removed to Wilton, N. H., and com- 
menced the manufacture of chairs, in partnership with John 
Adams. The firm were forced to suspend, and compromised 
with their creditors, during the crisis of 1837. Mr. Hunt 
lost his property, and, as an instance of his desire for honor- 
able dealing, he subsequently paid the full amount of their 
liabilities. In 1838 he removed to A.shby, Mass., his family 
then consisting of his wife, one child, and his grandmother, 
very aged and feeble, all dependent upon his efforts for sup- 
port. He found employment in the mills at Ashby, where 
he remained until 1840, when he went to what was then called 
South Orange, and entered the employ of Keuben Harris, and 
afterward worked at millwrighting for diflerent persons, until, 
in 1843, he bought some mill property in Harwick, for which he 
paid §1431, and went in debt for the whole amount. He, how- 
ever, improved the property, and in 1844 sold it for $3000. He 
says it was a proud and happy da}' for himself and his family 
when4hey were once more out of debt and not altogether penni- 
less. He then returned to Orange and purchased a farm, and 
besides farming did general millwrighting in diflerent cotton-, 
woolen-, saw-, and grist-mills. In 1858 he began to build finish- 
ing machinery for woolen-mills, and employed a few workmen, 
and in 1859 he purchased a shop on the south side of the river, 
made some additions to it, and established a machine-shop and 
foundry for doing all kinds of mill-work. In 1862 he formed 
a copartnership with Jas. H. Waite, and, in 1865, D. B. Flint 
also became a member of the firm, whicli from the beginning 
has been very prosperous. It has greatly increased its facilities, 
and from year to year the business has constantly been taking 
a wider range. In 1873 there was formed the Rodney Hunt 
Machine Company, a stock company with a capital of §100,000, 
with Rodney Hunt as President ; D. B. Flint, Treasurer ; and 
Jas. H. Waite, Secretary. This company also owns one-half 
the stock of the Foundry Company, of which Mr. Hunt is also 
President, with A. J. Clark, Treasurer, and John Wheeler, 
Secretary. Both of these companies are doing a prosperous 
business, and there has always been the most hearty co-opera- 
tion among the members of the same. Besides other improve- 
ments, Mr. Hunt has built eight dwelling-houses in the vil- 
lage of Orange. He is particularly conscientious and honor- 
able in all his dealing, and has won the confidence and affection 
of his associates. He has filled many offices of trust with 
credit to himself and to those whom he represented. In 1850, 
18-51, and 1852 he was a member of the Legislature. For 
twelve years he has been president of the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association; since 1865 a director of the Miller's River 
National Bank, and trustee of the savings-bank since its or- 
ganization. Mr. Hunt's wife died in 1865. 

He married, for his second wife, in 1867, Mrs. Eliza P. Stote, 

a sister of his first wife. By his first marriage he had two 
sons and one daughter, all of whom are living, married, and 
in prosperous circumstances. 

president of the Gold Medal Sewing-Machine Company, of 
Orange, and owner of the largest interest therein, was born 
in Rutland, Mass., Oct. 9, 1835. He traces his family geneal- 
ogy back to Hugh Clark, who emigrated, about 1630, from 
England to America, and settled in Watertown, Mass. 

From this, the early ancestor of the Clarks, hereinafter to 
be mentioned, descended in a lateral line Hon. Hannibal 
Hamlin, United States Senator from Maine, and in 1861-65 
Vice-President of the United States. His mother was a 
Livermore, whose mother was a direct descendant of Hugh 

Andrew J. Clark's grandfather, Luther, was born in Hub- 
bardston, Mass., and his father, Ira, in Leominster, Mass., in 
1799. Ira removed to Rutland, and in 1835, as already ob- 
served, his son, Andrew J., was born upon his father's farm 
in Rutland, just over the Hubbardston line. 

His mother was a daughter of Nathaniel Woods, of Hard- 
wick, Mass., who migrated to Rochester, N. Y., in 1810, 
whence she, with her sister, returned to Hardwick in 1813, 
and in 1827 married Ira Clark. After his death, in 1845, she 
married Ethan Hemingway, of Hubbardston, and lives now, 
a widow, in East Templeton, Mass. 

Besides Andrew J. there were four children, daughters, of 
whom Lois, the widow of Simeon G. Pomeroy, lives in East 
Templeton, Ma.ss. ; Rebecca married A. M. Graves, of West- 
minster, and died in Dana ; Calista is the widow of Brooks E. 
Bixhy, and resides in Templeton ; Abbie married Lafayette 
Williams, and died in Petersham. 

In 1842, at the early age of seven, Andrew entered upon 
an active business life, which, from that period to the present, 
for a space of thirty-eight years, has been uninterruptedly 
pursued. His parents being in straitened circumstances, he 
boldly undertook to lift the burden of his own support from 
their shoulders, and in 1842, having in 1841 removed with 
his father's family to Ware, Mass., he entered the cotton- 
mill of the Otis Company, of the latter place, and remained 
until 1845, when the mill was destroyed by fire. In the spring 
of 1845 he removed to New England village, in the town 
of Grafton, Mass., and in July of that year his father died. 
Just previous to that event, at the age of ten years, Andrew 
became an employe in the cotton-mill of Smith & Pratt, at 
New England village, and, after serving them until 1849, 
again struck his tent, and with his mother and sisters took up 
a residence in Bramanville, town of Milbury, Mass., where he 
once more renewed his experience as a cotton-mill operative, 

this time in the employ of Golding. In 1852, his mother 

having meanwhile, in 1851, married Ethan Hemingway, of 
Hubbardston, and removed thither, young Clark again 
changed his habitation to Hubbardston, where he was em- 
ployed in the chair-factory of George Williams, and, remain- 
ing with him until 18.53, accepted an offer from Weller & Co., 
chair-manufacturers, of East Templeton, Mass., and while in 
their employ, in November, 1855, married Abbie B., daughter 
of Capt. Cummings Lesure, of Warwick. About that time 
he transferred his services to Parker & Sawyer, chair-manufac- 
turers, of East Templeton, and, continuing with them until 
January, 1857, removed to Orange, Mass., where, upon the 
south sideof ililler's River, he began the manufacture of chil- 
dren's carriages on his own account. In 1858 he associated Mr. 
Jotham Lord with him in the business, which the firm con- 
tinued successfully until 1860, when Mr. Clark disposed of his 
interest and opened a store in Carpenter's block, where until 
18G3 he carried on a trade in flour and grain, which he then 
disposed of, to commence, with William P. Barker, the manu- 



facture of sewing-machines. The firm leased a small building, 
now occupied by the Chase Turbine Water-Wheel Company, 
and began making a low-priced single-thread hand sewing- 
machine, known as the New England single-thread sewing- 
machine, in the production of which they employed at first 
but two men. 

The business steadily expanded, and in 1865, when Mr. 
Clark purchased Mr. Barker's interest, the employes num- 
bered about forty, and the production of machines had risen 
to between three and four hundred per week. From 1865 to 
1867, Sir. Clai-k conducted the business upon hi.s individual 
account, and in the latter year the firm of Johnson, Clark 
& Co. was organized. This firm, purchasing from A. F. 
Johnson sewing-machine patents, etc., including a patent on 
a machine which took the first prize at the Mechanics' Fair, 
in Boston, in 1860, materially enlarged the manufactory build- 
ings, and began to manufacture the Gold Medal sewing-ma- 
chine and the Home shuttle-machine, in connection with the 
New England single-thread machine. 

In 1869, Johnson, Clark & Co., without making any 
change, save in the name of the company, were incorporated 
as the Gold Medal Sewing-Machine Company, with Mr. An- 
drew J. Clark as president, which position he has held to the 
present time. 

In that year the company effected a compromise with what 
was known as the " Sewing-Machine Combination," claiming 
certain patents over which there had been protracted and ex- 
pensive litigation, and under the licen.se received from the 
"Combination" the company operated until 1877, when all 
patents expired by limitation. 

In 1870 the manufacture of the Gold Medal machine was 
succeeded by the manufacture of the Home sewing-machine, 
and this in turn, in 1877, by the New Home sewing-machine, 
in which year also the manufacture of the New England sin- 
gle-thread machine was discontinued. 

The total number of people employed in the comjiany's in- 
terests aggregate upward of 450, and for 1879 the estimated 
yield of machines is 50,000. 

In 1865, Mr. Clark was chairman of the Board of Selectmen 
of Orange. In 186-t and 1867 he was a member of the House 
of Representatives, and in 1870, 1871, and 1875 he repre- 
sented his district in the State Senate. In 1860 he became 
a member of the Masonic fraternity ; from 1863 to 1868 he 
was Worshipful Master of Orange Lodge, F. and A. M. ; and 
from 1868 to 1871 was District Deputy Grand Master for the 
eighth district. He is president of the Orange Savings-Bank, 
vice-president and director of the Orange National Bank, and 
a member of the committee of the town library, in whose 
success he has for years taken a lively interest. 


for many years secretary and treasurer of the Gold Medal 
Sewing-Machine Company of Orange, was the second of a 
family of nine children born in Orange to Wilson Wheeler 
and Catharine, his wife, a daughter of Mr. Samuel Warden, 
of Worcester. Wilson Wheeler was bj' trade a car]ienter and 
builder, and in connection with that business devoted con- 
siderable attention to the cultivation of his land, to which, 
later in his life, he gave his exclusive care. 

In his boyhood days John, whose birth occurred Nov. 20, 
1832, obtained the advantages of a common-school education, 
and until reaching the age of twenty-one — in November, 
1853 — divided his time and experience between studies at 
school and the more practical pursuits of business under the 
directing eye of his father, who designed to train him for the 
career of a mechanic. 

Being of age, John ventured to launch out upon his own 
responsibility, and in the winter of that year contracted to 
assist Mr. Royal Richardson in building a house at East Tem- 

pleton, Ma.ss. ; which service terminating in the spring of 1854, 
he made a trip to Fitchburg, Mass., and there engaged him- 
self for the season to a carpenter and builder, by name John 
Parkhurst. Business falling off, in the ensuing autumn he 
returned to Orange to spend the winter. 

His experience as a mechanic convinced him that the busi- 
ness was not, and never would be, to his liking, apart from 
the consideration that he felt satisfied of his lack of capacity 
to achieve anything more than moderate success, however long 
he might pursue his labors in that direction. He felt, in 
short, that he could scarcely hope to win success in life unless 
he turned his energies toward a calling for which he could feel 
a sympathy and earnest interest, and so, resolving boldly to 
turn his back forever upon the carpenter's bench, he set out 
in the spring of 1855, at the age of twenty-two, for Fitchburg, 
]Hirposing to seek an engagement as clerk in a store, — a pur- 
suit upon which he had determined to enter as the one which 
best suited his inclinations and judgment. 

Without much difficulty or delay he secured a clerkship in 
the employment of Joseph Baldwin, a dealer in groceries and 
provisions at Fitchburg, at a yearly salary of §125, and served 
his employer so faithfully and satisfactorily that at the close of 
the 3'ear he received the additional compensation of |!25 more 
than had been agreed upon. 

Receiving at this time an advantageous offer to enter the 
service of Mr. Daniel Pomeroy, an extensive dealer of Orange, 
he engaged with him in May, 1856, and in October of that year 
married Miss Almira E. Johnson, who was one of a family of 
seven daughters of Daniel and Almira Johnson, of Orange, 
born Dec. 8, 1835. 

Tlie wedded life was begun upon a limited stock of worldly 
goods, for Mr. Wheeler had been able to save but little out of 
his two years' services except his experience, but he and his 
wife, stout of heart and full of hope, doubted not that steady 
perseverance and untiring energy would bring in their own 
good time the prosperous future toward which they cheerfully 
looked. Mrs. Wheeler, who previous to her marriage had 
been occupied as a tailoress, continued to follow tliat employ- 
ment for some time after marriage, while her husband con- 
tinued in the service of Mr. Pomeroy. They began by thrift 
and economy to push their way in the world, and in 1857 were 
enabled to commence housekeeping. 

Mr. Wheeler remained in the emplo}' of Mr. Pomeroy three 
years, when the latter retired and arranged to have his clerk 
continue the business in his own name, and for three years, 
by the exercise of attentive care and strict business integrity, 
Mr. Wheeler managed it successfully, and retired with a well- 
won reputation for business enterprise and sagacity. 

Directly thereafter he engaged as a clerk for Mr. D. B. 
Cheney, then in the claim-agency business at Orange, and 
while in that service, July 20, 1863, was drafted into the 
military service. To obtain his release therefrom, he yielded 
up the entire savings (three hundred dollars) which, with his 
wife's aid, he had carefully and patiently garnered up since 
their marriage. 

Far from being discouraged, and freshly resolved upon de- 
termined efforts to retrieve his fortunes, Mr. Wheeler, having 
ended his engagement with Mr. Cheney, cast about liim for a 
new venture, and purchased the store of Mr. A. J. Clark (then 
doing business in Carpenter's block. Orange) with funds gen- 
erously loaned by D. B. Cheney and R. E. Carpenter. 

It is an eloquent evidence of the high standing occupied by 
Mr. Wheeler as a man of strict integrity that, although with- 
out funds, he was enabled to effect these loans upon no other 
security than his own pledge of repayment, and they were 
extended, too, readily and unhesitatingly. 

In this new venture Mr. Wheeler met with deserved pros- 
perity, and, leaving it in June, 1867, became interested, with 
Johnson, Clark & Co., in the manufacture of sewing-ma- 
chines at Orange ; and that firm becoming, in 1869, incorporated 






as the Gold Medal Sewing-Machine Company, Mr. Wheeler 
became the secretary and treasurer, and in that position has 
since continued, being also secretary of the Orange Iron Com- 
pany, to which position he was appointed upon the organiza- 
tion of the company, in 1870. 

When Mr. Wheeler entered, as a partner in the firm of 
Johnson, Clark & Co., into the manufacture of sewing-ma- 
chines, the tirm employed about forty hands, and their pro- 
ductions were small. Since that time the enterprise has surely 
and steadily grown in volume and strength, until now its 
employes number four hundred and fifty, and it manufactures 
fifty thousand machines annually. In this great establish- 
ment Mr. Wheeler is one of the largest owners and a directing 
power; and this place he has reached within a few years, 
simply and purely through his own unaided efforts, which 
have made him, in truth, a self-made man. 

Mr. Wheeler served as town clerk of Orange from 18C1- 
67 ; was commissioned by Gov. Andrew as justice of the 
peace in 18G4 ; in 1860 was chosen on the board of selectmen, 
and in 1876 was chosen to represent the First Franklin Dis- 
trict at the General Court, where he was a member of the 
committee on finance. He was one of the founders of Orange 
Lodge, F. and A. M., organized in 1859; was its first secre- 
tary, and afterward its treasurer. 

Mr. Wheeler's mother died in Orange, August, 1876 ; his 
father still resides in the town, at the age of seve'Yitj'-four. 

Three children have blessed Mr. and Mrs. Wheeler's union, 
of whom but one — Lizzie, a young lady of bright promise — 
is now living. 


was born in Warwick, Franklin Co., Mass., Nov. 14, 1800. 
He is the second of a family of twelve children. His father, 
Jonathan Orcutt, was a native of Warwick, and was born 

Oct. 13, 1700. His mother, Sallie Martin Orcutt, was born 
in New Salem, Franklin Co., Mass., April 13, 1787. In his 
earlier years his advantages for education were limited to an 
attendance at the district schools during four, or at most six, 
months in the year. When Hiram was ten years of age his 
father removed to Irvingsville, now West Orange. During 

his father's residence in that place he attended the New 
Salem Academy a number of terms. When he reached his 
majority he entered a store in Warwick as clerk, where he 
remained about six years. Afterward he went to New Salem 
and established a mercantile business, which he carried on 
very successfully for sixteen years. He then removed to 
West Orange, where he now resides, and engaged in the same 
business, in which he remained eleven years. Although very 
successful in all his attempts, he abandoned trade at the expi- 
ration of over twenty-seven years of active business, and en- 
gaged in farming. In 1872, '73, '75, and '76 he was selectman, 
and was also a member of the committee appointed in 1877 
to build the new school-house in Orange. In politics Mr. 
Orcutt was formerly a Whig, but is now a Democrat. As a 
man he is highly respected in all the walks of life. He was 
married, Oct. 25, 1836, to Mary King. By this union they had 
one child, — a son, — who resides in New Salem. He married, 
for his second wife, Oct. 24, 1861, Mary F. Bullard. They 
have no children. 


the present head of the firm of L. Kilburn & Co., of Orange, 
was born in Winchendon, Worcester Co., Mass., Jan. 29, 

His father, John Kilburn, was born in Sterling, Mass., in 
1784, and died in St. Louis, Mo., in 1867, aged eighty-three. 
He married Esther, daughter of Mr. Edmonds, of Winchendon, 
Nov. 29, 1810, and of this union the fruits were eight chil- 
dren, — six sons and two daughters. Levi, the first born, died 
when quite young; John, the second son, resides in Win- 
chendon; Levi, the third son, is the subject of this sketch ; 
Cheney and Arteraas reside in Philadelphia ; Edwin is dead. 
Of the daughters, Esther is dead ; Emily married Greenwood 
Partridge, and lives in Winchendon. 

Levi was employed in his boyhood, and until he reached the 
age of twenty-one, in the pursuit of education as it could be 
gained with the limited facilities at hand in his native town 
(school being taught but eight weeks in the year), and in the 
business of assisting his father in farming and in a saw-mill 
on Miller's River. 

The practical lessons of life he, with his elder brother, John, 
learned through this thorough experience, and when, in 1837, 
he looked upon his twenty-first year, he was keenly alive 
to the requirements of the business which his father had taught 
him ; and with the savings which his labors had gained, he, 
with his brother John, purchased the old homestead and mill, 
established the firm of J. & L. Kilburn, and entered upon 
the business of sawing lumber and the manufacture of chair- 

The old homestead still remains in the possession of the Kil- 
burn family, and is owned by the three sons, — Levi, Cheney, 
and Artemas. 

He continued a member of the firm until 1841, when he 
sold out his interest and removed to Gardner, Mass., having 
meanwhile married, in 1840, Isabel R., daughter of Obadiah 
Walker, of Winchendon. 

At Gardner he entered the employ of L. Hey wood, chair- 
manufacturer, and, continuing there a year and a half, took 
charge for that firm of a chair-manufactory in Templeton, 
Mass., where he remained until 1849. He resided in Orange 
in 1850, and entered upon an engagement with Davis & Kil- 
burn, chair- and furniture-manufiicturers, for whom he man- 
aged the business until 1852, when the factory was destroyed 
by fire. 

In that year he began — on the south side of the river, in a 
new building erected by Davis & Kilburn, and now occupied 
by the Orange Manufacturing Company — the manufacture of 
chairs for his own account, and in 1855 he sold out and joined 



with Hamilton Holt, of Worcester, in the lumber business 
(Mr. Kilburn continuing at Orange), which they pursued 
profitably until 1860. 

In 1860, Mr. Kilburn took the management of a chair-fac- 
tory — on the site of the present factory of Kilburn & Co. — for 
the benefit of the creJitors of White, French & Co., and in 
1862 organized the firm of L. Kilburn & Co., with Eichard 
French and George E. Poland as bis partners. Mr. Poland 
retired in 1808, and in May of that year Mr. L. E. Holmes 
was admitted as a partner. 

In 1869 the present manufactory buildings were completed, 
the main building being three stories and a half in height, and 
measuring 80 by 45 feet ; the wing being two stories and a 
half in height, and 52 feet in length by 24 in breadth. 

In 1865, L. Kilburn & Co. added to their busins-ss the man- 
ufacture of miscellaneous furniture in a building purchased 

of R. E. Carpenter. In this branch J. S. Dewing was a 
partner, and, in 1873, he, with others, purchased the interest 
of L. Kilburn & Co. therein. 

In 1807, Kilburn & Co. became interested in the Turbine 
Water- Wheel Manufacturing Company, now the Chase Tur- 
bine Manufacturing Company, in which they maintain the 
original interest. The firm operates also a saw-mill in New 
Salem for supplying their factory with raw material. 

They manufacture cane- and wood-seat chairs, and employ, 
besides a force of 25 factory-hands, about 250 persons in the 
village, — men, women, and children, — known as "seaters." 
They manufactured .50,000 chairs in 1878, which number they 
expect to double in 1879. Mr. Kilburn was one of the found- 
ers of the Orange Savings-Bank, and is one of its trustees ; was 
interested in the organization of the Orange National Bank, 
and is now a director in that institution. 


The town of Shelburne, with a taxable area of 13,882 acres, 
lies on the Deerfield Kiver, and has for its boundaries Cole- 
raine on the north, Conway on the south, Greenfield and Deer- 
field on the east, and Conway and Buckland on the west. 
The town has no railway-station within its limits, but finds 
I railway communication convenient of access at Shelburne 
Falls station, on the Troy and Greenfield Eailroad, which 
touches the village on the Buckland side of the river. 


The surface of the town is rugged and mountainous, and 
rises in several localities into conspicuous eminences, among 
the most prominent of which are Bald Mountain in the west, 
Greenfield Mountain in the east. Dragon Hill at the centre, 
East Hill north of that point, and Shingle and Brimstone 
Hills on the south. 

The Deerfield River, receiving at the northwest corner of 
the town the waters of North River, flows thence along Shel- 
burne's entire western and southwestern border. At the vil- 
lage of Shelburne Falls the stream makes an abrupt bend, and 
there, descending to the depth of forty feet over a wildly- 
rugged precipice, forms a romantically-beautiful cataract 
(called originally Salmon Falls), features of which have been 
widely heralded in the public prints and freely illustrated by 
the photographer's skill. 

Among the many smaller streams are Dragon, Shingle, and 
Sluice Brooks, flowing into the Deerfield River, and Allen's 
and Hinsdale Brooks, emptying into Green River. 

Shelburne is famed for its scenic attractions, and is a favored 
summer resort. 


The territory now occupied by Shelburne was included in a 
tract granted to Deerfield in 1712 (upon the petition of Rev. 
John Williams), which extended " nine miles west to the 
western woods." What is now Shelburne was called Deer- 
field Northwest or Deerfield Pasture, for the tract was not re- 
garded as worth much save as a pasture. At all events, it 
served no other purpose to the people of Deerfield for many 
years, and scarcely knew a human tread save that of the red 
I, man until some time between 1752 and 1750, when Jonathan 
Catlin and James Ryder, of Deerfield, made the first settle- 
ments at Shelburne Falls, upon what are now known as the 
Severance and Allis farms. 

Catlin and Ryder, with their families, bravely faced the 

difliculties aiid troublous fears which beset them, but, driven 
out at last by the persistent savages, they returned, in 1756, to 
Deerfield. No further attempt was made at settlement until 
1760, when, the Indian troubles being ended, Martin Sever- 
ance and Daniel Ryder, of Deerfield, took up the farms origi- 
nally occupied by Catlin and James Ryder. About that time 
also Robert Wilson, of Coleraine, settled in the northeast, on 
the place now occupied by Isaac T. Fisk ; Archibald Lawson, 
of Deerfield, in the north, on the place now occupied by Chas. 
Hardy ; and Samuel Wilson, north of Lawsou's location. 

In 1762, Daniel Nims located on the farm now occupied by 
Elisha Alvord, one of his descendants. John Taylor, of Deer- 
field, settled near the present place of John and George 
Taylor, his descendants ; and Ebenezer Fisk and Watson 
Freeman located in the northwest, not far from where Elisha 
Barnard now lives. 

In 1760 the families numbered five ; in 1761, fourteen. Other 
settlers about 1762 were Samuel Hunter, John Wells, Stephen 
Kellogg, John Thompson, Lawrence Kemp, Samuel Fisk, 
John Heaton, Thomas Wells, Asa Childs, James Taft, John 
Allen, Samuel Pool, Oreb Taylor, Samuel Murdock, David 
Boyd, Moses Hawks, John Boyd, Reuben Nims, Samuel Fel- 
lows, Jr., Jeremiah Foster, Newton Ransom, and Alexander 

The early settlers experienced some fearful apprehensions 
touching Indian depredations, but they suffered no serious in- 
juries. They fled frequentl}- to the Coleraine fort for safety, and 
two — Martin Severance and Daniel Ryder — abandoned their 
farms and returned to Deerfield, as stated above, but they 
were back again without much delay, and soon, in common 
with the other settlers, learned that there was nothing to be 
alarmed about, except, perhaps, wild beasts, which, truth to 
tell, annoyed the pioneers amazingly. 

Martin Severance, above alluded to, settled in 1760, and is 
said to have conveyed to his new home, on a horse's back, him- 
self, his family, and all his household goods. Severance fough-t 
in the French-and-Indian war, was taken a prisoner at Lake 
George, and escaped after a two years' captivitj'. He died in 
1810, at the age of ninety-two. 

Archibald Lawson, who served also in the Indian campaign, 
bought .50 acres of land in "Northwest," giving 50 yards of do- 
mestic linen cloth, for which his wife hatcheled the flax and 
spun the yarn, and which Lawson wove, being a weaver by 
trade. When he bargained for his land with the land-agent 
at Deerfield, the latter said he would not go out to the North- 

Photo, by Popkins. 

^^t^i^-^ ^f < M /^^^<-^^^'>^. ^ ^' 

Dr. C. M. Duncan was born in Dummerston, Vt., July 1, 1808. 
He was the only son of Dr. Abel Duncan, who was emphatically " the 
beloved" and successful physician of his day in Southern Vermont. 
He was left to the care and training of his mother in his early child- 
hood by the death of his father, who fell a victim to the "spotted 
fever" epidemic, in March, 1813. 

Happily for the boy the mother was equal to her sacred trust, 
being a woman largely endowed with the many virtues and capa- 
bilities of the superior women of her times. The mother often re- 
marked that her son inherited largely some of the distinguishing 
virtues of his father, conspicuously his strict integrity, good judg- 
ment, and large-heartedness ; which, perhaps, combined with the 
quick perceptions, and perseverance and faithful training from his j 
mother, was a rich legacy not available to every young man. His \ 
origin dated back to the old Puritan stock, his maternal great-grand- I 
father having emigrated from Massachusetts in the early days, and 
was aland agent, helping to do the first work in the settlement of 
towns in Southern Vermont and New Hampshire, on the Connecticut 
River; and planted himself, at length, where his descendants spread 
around him, like the mustard-tree of Scripture. Dr. Duncan's boy- 
hood was mostly spent on the farm with his mother, having the 
advantage of good common schools, with now and then a term at the 
academy. He was fond of his books, often taking them into the field 
with him, and would sit upon the plow and read while he rested his 
team; sometimes the team had a long rest. But farming was not 
congenial to him, and he early settled the question in his own mind 
that he should adopt the profession of his father. Probably it was 
an inspiration with him to be like his father, whom he ever heard 
spoken of as a man superior in every manly virtue; and, possessing 
his mother's "can do," with the "must do" of the times, no diffi- 
culty could obstruct his onward way. 

After suitably preparing himself, he began the preliminary studies 
of medicine with the resident physician in the near neighborhood. 
Then he attended medical lectures at Boston, and Brunswick, Me., 
and at length took his diploma at Brunswick. He taught district 
school some, which is or was so often the dernier rettort of the 
unfledged professional in New England, and traveled some before he 
was through with study. 

In 1833 he was married to the woman who has ever, in all the 
subsequent trial years no less than the prosperous ones, made com- 
fort and cheer in his home, — the mother of his two daughters who, to- 
day, enrich his heart and home with two grandsons. In 1834 he 
located in Phclburne, Mass.; a few solid friends held up his hands; 
he waited, as the young physician full often must wait. But time 
proved with him that patience and pluck were "stock in trade." 
He waited not in vain ; the feeble rootlets gathered strength, striking 
down and reaching out into the rich soil and affording a firm 
foundation to the fair superstructure that he, in patience ami alraust 
self-sacrificing labor, was day by day building. Friends gathered 
around him tried and true. It is one of the immutable laws that 
water will find its true level, and the patient worker in the un- 

mistakable path of humanity's needs at length ascends the mount. 
Who so naturally and so surely works into the hearts and homes of 
his people? We love and venerate our pastor; he looks after the 
welfare of our souls, and with the All Father we trust our souls there. 
Our bodies are more in our own keeping, and the moment there is a 
screw loose here we fly to our physician ; he heals and soothes us : he 
comes within our homes, we take him to our hearts, and how often 
the tender-hearted, sympathizing physician is the one to help lift the 
most serious and oppressive burdens of our lives. Thus, often, is a 
compact formed tenderer, stronger, and more enduring than any other 
in our human needs. How true has this been with the subject of this 
sketch, in his forty years and over of practice in the good town of 
Shelburne ! 

In that time he has seen generations pass off and on to the stage of 
active life; he has administered at the bedside of the fathers who 
stood by him in his day of weakness as they passed on over the 
river. The strength and sinew of to day are but the grown children 
he had laid upon their mothers' bosoms when babes. 

He grew among the people but few years before he took his place 
among the leading men of the town, and was ever identified with 
their interests in all the questions of the day. For more than twenty 
years he served as town clerk and treasurer, and in general was 
sought not more as a physician than as friend and counselor. Per- 
haps this running sketch cannot be better closed than in the fitting 
words of a valued friend of his, in a congratulatory letter to him on 
his seventieth birthday, which occurred July 1, 1S7S: 

"My Dear Friend, Dr. Dcscax: 

"How much time have you to-day? Will this letter find you sur- 
rounded by friends as your good wife fondly hoped a few weeks ago ? 
If so, do tell those friends with what afltectionate remembrance you 
are held by one who has known you since she was a child seven 
years old. 

" I suppose you will have to tell them she is now on the shady 
side of fifty; but that is nothing, since you, yourself, must own to- 
day to threescore years and ten ; and I congratulate you that you 
have a retrospect so fair to look upon, a lifetime of faithful, earnest, 
conscientious work, — work, the greatest blessing granted to mankind. 

"Let me congratulate you also on the remarkable vigor and 
youthful activity, to say nothing of looks, which mark this era of 
your life. One sees that those physical laws of health, the necessity 
of whose obedience you teach to others, have not been violated in 
your own case. 

•'Shelburne has. in you, been blessed these more than forty years 
with a good physician, a good citizen, and a good Democrat; now 
you know how very rare a combination that is. 

"My husband desires to join me in the congratulations suggested 
by this day, and to beg your acceptance of this, his last work, as a 
souvenir of the pleasant hours he has spent with you; and we both 
hope this anniversary may come around to you here just as long as 
you can greet it in health and happiness." 

Photo, by Popkins. 

Stephen Fellows is a native of Shelburne, Franklin Co., 
Mass. His grandfather, Samnel Fellows, who was one of the 
first settlers in that town, served under General Wolfe at the 
taking of Quebec ; was the chief engineer in erecting the 
fortifications, and the second man to enter the city after 
its surrender. He was a member of the Congregational 
Church, and the first who held the office of deacon in that 

John Fellows, father of the subject of this sketch, was 
born May 11, 1751, and died Oct. 29, 1831. He was a native 
of Harvard, Mass., and came to Slielburno with his father at 
an early date. He was a carpenter by trade, but also followed 
agricultural pursuits. He was a captain in the militia, served 
a number of years in tlie Kevolutionary war, commanded a 
company at the battle of Stillwater, and was present at the 
surrender of Burgoyne. He was a member of the Congrega- 
tional Church, and an earnest and consistent Christian. He 
married Mary Poole, widow of Lieut. J. Poole, Marcli 23, 
1778. She was a native of Connecticut, and was born June 
IG, 1754. They had a family of seven children, — Susan, born 
December, 1778; John, Jr., born April 12, 1780 ; Eunice, born 
March 12, 1782; Patty, born March 22,1784; Joel, born 
March 2, 1791 ; Igal, born July 13, 1792; and Stephen, born 
Dec. 30, 1797, and the only surviving member of the family. 
His advantages, educationally, were very poor and limited to 
an irregular attendance of the common schools of his native 
town, but at an early age he showed a dis))osition to make his 
way in the world, and manifested the courage and perse- 
verance which conquers all obstacles. When seventeen years 
old he went to Western New York, then a comparatively new 
country, traveling the entire distance, from Shelburne to 
Sodus, Ontario* Co., N. Y., on foot, carrying his clothing, etc., 
and having barely enough money to pay his necessary ex- 
penses. He remained in Ontario County a few months, 
and in August of the same year went by way of Niagara 
Falls to Queenstown, and thence to Long Point in Upper 

* Now Wttyoe. 

Canada, where he found employment and remained until the 
winter set in, when he returned to Shelburne, traveling, as 
before, afoot. He remained at home but a year, and then 
returned to Long Point, where for a year he worked at the 
carpenter trade. This second journey was made on horseback, 
— a rapid and easy mode of traveling compared with that of 
his first trip, but how difl^srent from the facilities of the 
present day ! Subsequently he went to Fort Maiden, Canada. 
The journey was made on Lake Erie in a log canoe, in which 
he also carried his chest of carpenter's tools, weighing five 
hundred pounds. There he remained a year, at the expiration 
of which he returned to Shelburne and lived with his parents 
until their decease. In 1832 he removed to his present resi- 
dence, purchasing the farm of one liundred and fifty acres ; 
since when he has steadily pursued the business of farming, 
taking a special interest in sheep-raising, and for fifty years 
has fed slieep for the markets. Mr. Fellows has been active 
in public service in the town, and has discharged the duties 
of the offices to which he has been called with integrity and 
fidelity. He has been a member of the board of selectmen 
a great many terms, assessor a number of years, and a mem- 
ber of the school committee. He has been connected with 
the Congregational Church forty-seven years, and is a true 
Christian. He also has been a member of the Masonic lodge 
fifty-five years, and actively interested therein. He held a 
commission of captaincy in the militia, and is still known 
among his friends and townsmen as Capt. Fellows. He has 
now passed his eighty-first birthday, but is in compara- 
tively good health, and retains a good deal of his youthful 

Mr. Fellows was married, in December, 1826, to Abigail, 
daughter of Amos Allen, of Shelburne, by whom he had five 
children, — Mary A., born March 21, 1828; John, born Aug. 
20, 1829; Miranda A., born July 11, 1831; Marcellus, born 
June 3, 1834; and Marion, born Aug. 22, 1838. 

Mrs. Fellows died May 6, 1863. He married for his second 
wife, in 1865, Mrs. Alvord, who died in 1871. 



west for all the land there, and told Lawson to take his 50 acres 
where he found a place to suit him. Subsequently, Lawson 
bought land enough, at the price of a yard of clothi for an 
acre of land, to make 200 acres, and the farm thus acquired is 
now known as the Hardy farm. 

Stories of the hardsliips of the early settlers, of their strange 
and hazardous experiences, of the stirring events, and of the 
difficulties which beset the mothers and fathers of Shelburne, 
would till volumes, but they would repeat simply the old 
story, which has often been told about first settlers in every 
new country. They faced with brave hearts the burdens, the 
trials, and the troubles of a frontier life, and steadily held 
their course, — not without, perhaps, many a gleam of comfort, 
and even pleasure, but mainly, it is probable, partaking of 
the unpalatable fruits of existence. 

In February, 1780, the settlers in Shelburne, north of the 
Deerfield River, were as follows : In the northwest, Joseph 
Whitney, Joseph Whitney, Jr., Ephraim Burrows, Samuel 
Fisk, Ebenezer Fisk, Levi Fisk, Ebenezer Fisk, Jr., Deacon 
Ghilds, Asa Childs, John Barnard, Daniel W. Wilder, Elijah 
Severance, John Wells, Elisha Hinsdale, Doctor Childs, Sam- 
uel Murdock, Samuel Hunter, Oliver Holland, William and 
Thomas Anderson, Arcliibald and John Lawson, Joseph 
Hosley, Stephen Long, James Heaton, David Hosley, and 
Samuel Wilson. In the west. Deacon and Ebenezer Allis, 
Jr., Martin and Martin Severance, Jr., Jonathan, Aaron, and 
Elisha Wood, James Shays, Widow Dodge, Ezekiel, Na- 
thaniel, Azariah, and Samuel Dodge, Jr., John Burdick, 
Joseph Tubbs, and Daniel Dodge. In the centre, Moses 
Smith, Jared Skinner, Daniel Nims, John, Benjamin, and 
Keuel Allen, Lawrence Kemp, Luke Taylor, John Ransom, 
John Long, John Boyd, Amasa Kemp, and John Anderson. 
In the northeast, John and Alexander Thompson, Robert and 
James Wilson, Sylvanus Allen, Alexander Clark, John Stuart, 
Sylvanus Nash, Hugh McGill, Theodore Barnard, Aaron 
Skinner, Daniel Worthington, Adonijah Atherton, Benjamin 
Miller, and John Battis. In the east, Capt. Wells, David 
Wells, Jr., Newton, Jabez, Eliphalet, Calvin, and Hazael 
Ransom, Samuel Boyd, Abner Nims, Ebenezer Neweomb, 
William Neweomb, Stephen Kellogg, David Long, William 
Boyd, John Taylor, Zeeb Taylor, John Taylor, Jr., Abraham 
Edwards, and Jason Cady. In the southeast, Moses Hawks, 
James, Eliphalet, and Haines Graves, Enoch, Ebenezer, Job, 
Gideon, and Reuben Bardwell, William Bibber, Mr. Pitch, 
Joshua and Samuel Knight, Benjamin Randall, and James 
Butler. Near Charlemont road. Deacon Samuel and Thomas 
Fellows, Richard Peck, David Boyd, Jeremiah Foster, Daniel 
and Thaddeus Merrill, Samuel Pool, John Fellows, Benjamin 
Nash, Parker Dole, Job Coleman, Josiah W. Severance, 
Thomas Drury, Reuben Nims, Caleb Thayer, Roger Haskell, 
Levi Kemp, John Heaton, James Taft, Simeon and Elijah 
Wells, Widow Bates, Hazael Jones, Abraham Blodgett. 


Among the earliest roads laid out was one from Greenfield 
bounds to the east road leading to Coleraine, in 1709 ; in the 
same year also one from Daniel Nims' farm to Coleraine 
bounds. In 1771 one from Charlemont road, on Dragon 
Hill, to the meeting-house, one from Ebenezer Bardwell's to 
the county road, and one from Charlemont road southwest to 
Daniel Belding's farm. In 1772 one from John Hawks' to 
the meeting-house, one from Josiah Severance's to the meet- 
ing-house, and one from the Bernardston line south. Other 
early roads were one from Conway line, by Lieut. Foster's 
house, across the Deerfield River to Charlemont road, "east 
of Lieut. Pool's saw-mill;" one from the log meeting-house 
to a road leading across Moses Smith's lot ; one from the 
Charlemont road to John Eaton's (or Heaton's) lot, and then 
to Deerfield River ; one from Charlemont road, on Dragon 
Hill, by Isaac Porster's and Dr. Long's, to the road leading 

from John Boyd's to the meeting-house; and one from the 
meeting-house by John Anderson's and Elijah Severance's to 
a road leading from Mr. Fisk's to the Charlemont road. 

In 1779 it was proposed to bridge tlie Deerfield River be- 
tween Shelburne and Conway, and the General Court was 
petitioned to grant a lottery, by which money for the bridge 
was to be raised. Newton Ransom and Thos. Drury were to 
be paid £200 for building two-thirds of the bridge, and tliey 
were to be paid in wheat, at 4s. a bushel. 

This plan for securing a bridge proved a failure, but in 
1789 it was tried again, and successfully, according to indica- 
tions in the town records. Long before this there was a foot- 
bridge at the falls, thrown across by Jonathan Wood, the 
builder of the first mill at that point, for the accommodation 
of his patrons. 


In 1773 the district appointed Messrs. Samuel Fellows, David 
Wells, Robert Wilson, Ebenezer Fisk, John Taylor, Stephen 
Kellogg, and Moses Hawks a committee to consult upon the 
resolves of the House of Representatives, and their report was 
subsequently transmitted to Boston. 

In 1774, Minute-Men were promised l.s. in lawful money 
for each half-day spent in training, two half-days each week 
for four weeks, and such as failed to report twice a week were 
to be fined 2.s. for each half-day tliey missed. 

In 1775 the committee of correspondence consisted of David 
Wells, Ebenezer Allis, John Wells, Robert Wilson, Stephen 
Kellogg, Aaron Skinner, and John Burdick. In that year 
Samuel Fellows was chosen to attend the Congress at Water- 
town. The General Court was also requested " to petition 
the Continental Congress to have them take some of the wages 
of the officers of our army." 

In 1776 it was voted that "this town will stand by the 
Honorable Continental Congre.ss with their lives and fortunes, 
if their Honors think it expedient to declare us independent of 
the kingdom of Great Britain, for the safety of our rights and 

Early in 1777 the district refused to raise any money to hire 
Continental soldiers, but shortly thereafter began to ofter a 
bounty of £18 each for three years' men, £6 to be paid upon 
the man's parsing muster, and £G annually afterward. Ste- 
phen Kellogg's negro man, Charles, was one of the recruits, 
and it was agreed that he should have as much as the others. 
A committee of five men was chosen " to prosecute all breaches 
of an act in addition to and for amending and more effectually 
carrying into efiect an act entitled an act to prevent monopoly 
and oppression, and of the act preventing monopoly and op- 

The last district meeting called in his Majesty's name was 
held in February, 1776. 

In 1779 the district resolved to take the oath of allegiance 
to the United States of America, and declared that all persons 
refusing to take it should be prosecuted according to law. 
The General Court was petitioned touching the district's de- 
linquency of Continental soldiers, and in 1780 renewed efforts 
to secure men were made by oftering £100 per man for three 
months' men, and £200 for six months' men. 

As an evidence of the district's determination to be perse- 
veringly patriotic, a vote in 1779 recorded that "this town 
will agree as a town in raising soldiers from the beginning to 
the end of the war." 

In 1783 it was voted, — 

" Wliereas, tliis town received a resolve of the town of Boston respecting the 
return of conspirators and absentees to the State, therefore be it voted that this 
town will at all times, as it has done to tiie utmost of their power, oppose every 
enemy to the just rights and liberties of mankind, and it is the opinion of tliis 
town that those conspirators and absentees ought never to be suffered to return, 
but to be excluded from having a lot or portion among us.'' 

Among the citizens of Shelburne who fought in the war of 
the Revolution were Martin Severance, Samuel Severance, 



David Anderson, James Anderson, Abner Peck, Col. David 
Wells, John Fellows, Lieut. Jacob Pool, Samuel Smead, 
Deacon William Long, Stephen Long, Reuben Bardwell, 
Benjamin Nash, Dr. John Long (ai'ni}' surgeon), Asa Nims, 
and Elisha Barnard (who was jiresent. at the execution of 
Maj. Andre, the spy)- 

In 1814 a draft was ordered for troops to march to Boston. 
Capt. Thaddeus Merrill conducted the draft, and fourteen 
men were drawn, as follows; Stebbins Allen, Daniel Ander- 
son, David Anderson (2d), Medad Bardwell, Ira Barnard, 
George Bull, George W. Carpenter, Thomas Goodnow, David 
Long, Alexander Fisk, William McCallister, Samuel Nims, 
William Phillips, Jesse Wil.son. 

The town voted, in July, 1812, that " under existing cir- 
cumstances we will not support a war and tight Great Britain, 
and that we will not form an ofl'cnsive alliance with France." 
William Wells was then chosen to attend the peace conven- 
tion at Northampton. 

At the same meeting the records relate, — 

"Counted pools on the subject of war, and there were ninety-seven; and 
Samuel Dodge, Amos Allen, Stephen Taylor, and Natlian Drui-y voted against 
the war measure." 


The first child born in "Northwest" (afterward Shelburne) 
was a daughter to Archibald Lawson, for many years previ- 
ous to her death known as the Widow Nancy Long. 

Shelburne has suffered many periods of general and fatal 
sickness among its inhabitants, notably during the years of 
1777, 1802, 1803, 1808, and 1814. In the former year no less 
than sixty-six persons died within a space of fifty-three days. 
The town is a remarkably healthful locality as a rule, and up 
to 1868 had recorded the deaths within its borders of twenty- 
six persons who had lived to be over ninety years of age. 

In 1788, Shelburne was visited with a violent hurricane, 
which cau.sed wide-spread destruction, and, leveling forests, 
fences, and dwellings, entailed a great loss of property, but 
exacted, happily, no sacrifice of human life. 

Concerning the times when slaveholding obtained in this 
country, it is told that a fugitive slave from New York 
took up his residence in Shelburne, whence he was, how- 
ever, kidnapped by those who were in search of him, and 
carried ofl' toward New York. Shelburne was aroused to re- 
sentment, and a party, starting in pursuit of captors and cap- 
tured, rescued the negro and restored him to Shelburne, where 
he was allowed to remain unmolested until his death. 

Until 1822 the people of Shelburne were obliged to go to 
Greenfield for their mail, but in that year a postal station of 
their own was established. 

When the town used to pay for the services of its repre- 
sentative at the General Court, there was frequently a dis- 
inclination to a re))resentative, but a fine imposed in 1788 
for a failure to choose one that year effected a permanent 
cure of that species of neglect. 

Shelburne has been the birthplace of many who have dis- 
tinguished themselves as missionaries in foreign lands, the 
most notable of these being Fidelia Fisk and Rev. Pliny Fisk, 
who died in Syria in 1825. It is worthy of mention, too, that 
Epaphroditus KaiLsom, once Governor of Michigan, was born 
in Shelburne. 

Shelburne took an active part in Shays' rebellion, and fur- 
nished much aid in the way of troops for the government serv- 
ice. One of Shelburne's citizens — John Hunter by name — 
was among those killed in the insurgent ranks on the occasion 
of Shays' attack upon Springfield, in 1787. Jacob Walker, 
of Whately, who was killed by Parmenter — a Shays rebel — 
while attempting the capture of the latter in Bernardston, 
was the man who completed the building of the second meet- 
ing-house in Shelburne, erected in Shelburne Centre. 

Shelburne boasted once a weekly newspaper publication, 
called the Shelburne Falls Stfmdanl, which was started at the 

village of Shelburne Falls in 1877 by Maj. Fleming. It 
struggled through a feeble existence, and finally expired about 
six months after the date of its first issue. 

June 21, 1808, one hundred years after the incorporation of 
Shelburne, the town celebrated its centennial anniversary 
with jiuhlic rejoicings, speeches, feasting, and nuisical exercises. 


Early in 1708 the inhabitants of "Deerfield Northwest" 
petitioned Deerfield to be set off as a separate district, but the 
petition was rejected. A second one, however, met with a 
better fate, and was granted May !)th of that year, and, on the 
21st of June following, the General Court incorporated the 
district of Shelburne, and in 1780 the district became a town, 
under the act of that year. The name was chosen in honor 
of William Fitz-Maurice, of England, second earl of Shel- 
burne, who, in return, sent a church-bell, which, however, 
never reached Shelburne. The tract incorporated included a 
section of land on the south side of Deerfield River, but this 
portion was, in 1780, set off to Conway. 

The first district-meeting was held at the house of Daniel 
Nims, Oct. 31, 1768, and the ofBcers elected were as follows: 
John Taylor, Moderator; John Wells, Clerk; Ebenezer Fi.<k, 
Constable; John Taylor, John Wells, and Robert Wilson, 
Selectmen; Stephen Kellogg, Treasurer; Stephen Kellogg and 
Samuel Fisk, Wardens ; Lawrence Kemp, Tithingman ; Sam'l 
Hunter and John Wells, Deer-Reeves ; Daniel Nims, Sealer 
of Weights and Mea.sures ; Robert Wilson, Sealer of Leather ; 
John Heaton, John Thompson, and Daniel Nims, Surveyors 
of Highways; Thomas Wells and Alex. Clark, Hog-Reeves; 
Ebenezer Fisk and .lohn Taylor, Howards. 

Appended hereto will be found the names of the persons 
who have served Shelburne as selectmen and town clerks 
from 1768 to 1879: 


1708-69.— John Taylor, John Wells, Robert Wilson. 

1770. — Moses Hawks, John Wells, Agiippa Wells. 

1771. — Moses Hixwks, John Taylor, Agrippa Wells. 

1772.— John Wells, Robert Wilson, Eben Fisk. 

1773.— David Wells, Hubert Wilson, Samuel Fellows. - 

1774. — John Wells, David Wells, Moses Hawks. 

1775. — Robert Wilson, David Wells, Aaron Skinner. 

1776.— Robert Wilson, John Wells, Sanniel Fellows. 

1777. — Robert Wilson, Aaron Skinner, Ebenezer Cliilds. 

1778. — John Long, John Wells, Aaron Skinner, John Taylor, Lawrence Kemp. 

1779. — Robert Wilson, Aaron Skinner, John Long. 

1780. — John Wells, Aaron Skinner, John Long. 

1781.— Robeit Wilam, Ebenezer AUis, John Taylor. 

1782. — Robeit Wilson, Aaron Skinner, John Wells. 

1783. — Benjamin Naah, Aaron Skinner, John Long. 

1784. — John Wells, Aaron Skinner, Robert Wilson. 

1785. — John Wells, John Long, Benjamin N.ash. 

1786. — Robert Wilson, John Long, Benjamin Nash. 

1787. — David Long, John Burdiek, Elieriezer Newcomb. 

1788. — John Burdiek, Ale.x. Thompson, Asa Childs. 

1789. — John Burdiek, Alex. Thonipsou, Robeit Wilson. 

1790.— Samuel Boyd, Ale.\. Thompson, John Wells. 

1791. — Samuel Boyd, Aaron Skinner, Benjamin Niush. 

1792. — Theodore Barnard, Aaron Skinner, Benjamin Nash. 

1793. — Adonijah Atlieiton, Aaron Skinner, Thomas Drury. 

1794. — Adonijah Atliei tun, Moses Hawks, Samuel Boyd. 

1795. — John Fellows, Moses Hawks, .Tared Skinner. 

179G. — Samuel Boyd, Moses Hawks, William Kemp. 

1797. — Martin Severance, Jr., Moses Hawks, Samuel Fisk. 

1798. — Jabez Ransom, Moses Hawks, Isaac Winter. 

1799. — Solomon Severance, Moses Hawks, Ebenezer Fisk, Jr. 

1800. — Samuel Boyd, Moses Hawks, Solomon Fellows. 

1801. — Col. Long, Moses Hawks, Reuben Nims. 

1802. — David Anderson, Moses Hawks, Aaron Long. 

1803. — William Wells, Moses Hawks, Asa Nims. 

1804. — Amos Allen, Moses Hawks, Eiiphalet Stratton. 

1805. — John Fellows, Moses Hawks, Julia Kellogg. 

1.S06. — Solomon Fellows, John Stewart, Capt. Allis. 

1807. — Solomon Fellows, John Stewart, Solomon Il.awks. 

1808. — Ebenezer Childs, James Dickinson, Solomon ILiwks. 

1809. — John Fellows, Solomon Severance, Solomon Hawks. 

1810. — Solomon Hawks, Constantino Hardy, Adonijah Atlierton. 

1811. — Solomon Hawks, Constantine HiU'dy, John Fdlows. 

1S12. — Ebenezer Cbih's, Mai tin Severance, Giles Lyman. 

U/^CA^ ^^^i^^-^^ 

Photo, by Popkius. 

Oscar Baedwell is a native of the State of 
New York, and is the fourth child of Wm. E. and 
Melinda Waite Bardwell. 

Wm. E. Bardwell was born in Shelburne, Frank- 
lin Co., Mass., Sept. 16, 1791. He was a farmer 
by occupation, and as a man was highly esteemed. 
He was married to Melinda Waite, of Gilmington, 
N. H., in 1813. She was born in August, 1791. 
They were blessed with a family of eight children. 
Oscar Bardwell was born in Ontario County, 
N. Y., June 3, 1821. Although not a native- of 
Shelburne he has been a resident of that town 
during the greater part of his life, and was edu- 
cated in the common schools and the Academy of 
Shelburne Falls. He resides upon the farm for- 
merly owned by his father, and is one of the most 

successful, thorougli, and enterprising farmers in 
that section. He is a member of the Congrega- 
tional Church of Shelburne, and an earnest sup- 
porter of the cause of religion, and particularly 
interested in the Sunday-school connected with the 
church, of which he has been superinteudent three 
years. In politics Mr. Bardwell is a Republican, 
and takes an intelligent interest in all the questions 
of the day, but has never been an office-seeker. 

He married his first wife, Hannah Peck, daughter 
of Peter Peck, of Shelburne, June 10, 1852. He 
married his present wife, Amanda Whiting Kellogg, 
relict of Captain Henry Kellogg, of Illinois, on 
the 10th of November, 1874. By this union he 
has one child, Ethel Hannah, born April 15, 

Pliuto. by Popkins. 


^^-^v 00^ 

Col. David Wells was born in Shelburne, Franklin Co., Mass., on 
the place where he now resides, Dec. 18, 1797. His grandfather (who 
was also a Col. David Wells) was a native of Connecticut, and was 
born in Colchester on the 20th of September, 1723. He removed with 
his family to Shelburne in 1772, and settled on the farm now owned 
by the subject of this sketch. He held the rank of colonel in the 
militia, and took an active part in the Revolutionary war, during 
which he displayed a character of great daring and bravery; he 
commanded a regiment at the battle of Ticonderoga, and also at 
Stillwater, and was present at the surrender of Burgoyne. He was a 
member of the Continental Congress, and in many ways rendered 
his country valuable service. We quote the following from an 
obituary notice in a Greenfield paper as a fitting tribute to his 
memory: "Died at Shelburne, on the 10th inst. (Jan., 1814), Col. 
David Wells, in the ninety-first year of his age. The life of Col. 
Wells was jirotracted to a length which is granted to but few of our 
countrymen, and was distinguished by an activity which is rarely to 
be met with among men of his station. He took an active part in 
the Revolutionary contest, and was one of those patriots who pledged 
their lives and fortunes in establishing our national independence; 
nor was his mind so engrossed by civil affairs as to be unoccupied by 
those of an ecclesiastical nature. He ofificiated as deacon in the church 
of Christ in that town for many years, and was as constant an 
attendant upon the ordinances of the gospel as the infirmities of 
extreme age would permit, enjoying the use of strong mental powers 
which were little if any impaired till a short time before his 
decease. He ever exhibited, both in precept and example, a life of 
integrity and piety, and when we reflect upon the virtues that adorned 
the life of this man, we think that his aged widow, his children, and 
a large circle of relatives must be led to yield a more cheerful 
acquiescence in this dispensation of a righteous Providence, trusting 
that what they deem to be their loss will prove his gain." 

Col. Wells was married in Colchester on the 19th of January, 1749, 
to Mary Taintor. She was born on the 17th of November, 1727, and 
died on the 10th of December, 1S15, aged eighty-nine years. Their 
son, William Wells (father of the subject of this notice), was born in 
Colchester on the 27th of July, 1767, and was but five years of ago 
when he came with his father to Shelburne. At an early age he was 

imbued with the principles of honor and integrity, and manifested 
those traits of character for which he was distinguished in later years. 
Physically he was a man of commanding presence, in manners 
social and urbane, and readily won the respect and esteem of his 
associates. He held a commission as captain in the militia and 
served about thirty sessions in the Legislature, besides rendering 
service to the town as chairman of the board of selectmen, in which 
capacity he acted sixteen years, and also in other minor local offices. In 
1812 he was a delegate to the Northampton convention appointed to 
divide Hampshire County. In public life pure, in private life above 
reproach, he will long be remembered as one t»f the most worthy and 
influential of the old residents of Franklin County. He died on the 
11th of July, 1848, He was married, on the Sth of December, 1794, 
to Prudence, daughter of Rev. Eleazer May, of Haddam, Conn. She 
was born on the 14th of September, 17fiS, and died in her ninety- 
fourth year (May 16, 1862). To them there were born nine children, 
of whom only four are living at the present time (March, 1879). 
Of this family, David is the second son and child ; he received his 
education in the common schools of his native town, and from boy- 
hood to the present time his occupation has been that of a farmer, 
but with agricultural pursuits he has combined active service in pro- 
moting all the best interests of the community in which he lives. 
He held the rank of colonel in the militia, for six years was special 
commissioner, has served as member and chairman of the board of 
selectmen for many years, and has also held other local offices of 
trust. In politics he is a Republican, as have been all the members 
of the family since the organization of that party. He is a member 
of the Unitarian society of Greenfield, and, although not as dis- 
tinguished in public service as were his father and grandfather, he 
exerts a strong influence in the social, educational, and religious 
interests of the community, and is respected and esteemed by all who 
know him. The family are remarkable for longevity, and although 
Mr. Wells has passed his eighty-first birthday, and but just recovered 
from a severe illness, he still possesses to a fair degree bodily vigor 
and mental powers. 

He was married on the 20th of July, 18.'^2, to Francis Helena, ^ 
daughter of Amariah Thwing, of Conway, by whom he has had five 
chihlreoj^four daughters and one son. 



1S13. — Ebenezer CliiliU, Sjlomin Fyllows, Giles Lyman . 
1S14.— Williivm Wells, Amos AUeu, John Fello \V3. 
ISlo.— WiUi.im Wells, Amos Allen, Robert Barilwell. 
IslG. — Solumou FcUnws, Amos Allen, Giles Lyman. 
1817. — William Wells, James Dickinson, Israel Childs. 
1818. — William Wells, Salah Severance, Isaac Dole. 
1819.— William Wells, Parker Dole, Israel Childs. 
1S20.— William Wells, Elihu Sniead, Ira Arms. 
1821.— William Wells, Rufus risk, Joel Nims. 
1822.— William Wells, Elihu Smead, Jos. Merrill . 
1823. — Daniel Fisk, Giles Lyman, Joel Bardwell. 
1824.— William Wells, Jos. Merrill, Davi.l Long, Jr. 
182,').— William Wells, Thatldeus Merrill, David Lon^', Jr. 
182G.— William Wells, Tiiaddeus Merrill, Joel Bardwell. 
1S27. — William Wells, Tiiaddeus Merrill, Oliver Smead. 
1S2S.— William Wells, Ira Arms, Joel Banlwell. 
1829-30. — William Long, .Ir., Ira Arms, Joel Bardwell. 
1831,- William Long, Jr., David Wells, Joel Bardwell. 
18.32. — William Long, Jr., Asa Severance, Joel Bardwell. 
1.8:i3-34.— William Wells, Wm. Long, Jr., Ajiollos Barnard. 
183.0. — Ira Arms, Gad Townsley, Gurdon Jones. 
18:iC.— Davi.l Wells, Abuer Peck, Jr., John H. Morse. 
1837.— David Wells, Asa Severance, William E. Bardwell. 
18:!8.— Darid Wells, David Fisk (2d), Joseph Anderson. 
18:19.— Davi.l Wells, David Fisk (2d), Abram Wilcox. 
1840. — Jacob P. Kellogg, James Bishop, Joseph Merrill, Jr. 
1S41. — J. P. Kellogg, James Anderson, J. Merrill, Jr. 
1842. — William Long, Jr., James Bishop, ApoUos Barnard. 
1843. — Joel Bardwell, James Bishop, Stephen Fellows . 
1844.^. B. Bardwell, Joseph Sweet, David Wells. 
l.^Jo. — Asa Severance, Reuben Xims, D. Wells. 
1846-47.— Asa Severance, John Hardy, D. Wells. 
184S.— Zera Hawks, J. B. Whitney, .Abner Peck. 
1849.— Ebenezer Bardwell, J. B. Whitney, Abner Pock. 
18.'»0. — Isa;ic J. Hawks, Zcra Hawks, Stephen Fellows. 
1851.- IsMC J. Hawks, S. L. Bardwell, Hem-y Wells. 
1852. — Stephen Fellows, .loseph Merrill, Ruel Severance. 
1853. — Joseph Merrill, Ira W. Barnard, Rodplphus White. 
1.8.04. — William Long, .Jr., Nathaniel Lamson, Joseph .Sweet. 
18.55. — Nathaniel Lamson, Joseph Sweet, 0. 0. Bardwell. 
1850.— Nathaniel Lamson, O. 0. Bardwell, S. M. Long. 
1857-59.—.!. B. Whitney, O. 0. Bardwell, Aimer Peck. 
186(1.- E. M. Whitney, Henry Wells, Am,asa Bardwell. 
ISGl.— E. M. Whitney, Pliny Fisk, I. W. Barnard. 
18(12-03.— Pliny Fisk, B. B. Bardwell, I. W. Biirnard. 
1804.- Pliny Fisk, R. B. Bardwell, J. A. Anderson. 
1805-00.- Pliny Fisk, R. B. B.ardwel!, Amasa Bardwell. 
1807-08.— Pliny Fisk, G. A. Bates, Amnsa Bardwell . 
1809.- Stephen M. Long, H. S. Swan, William H. Long. 
1870.— Amasa Bardwell, George A. Bates, H. S. Swan. 
1871.— Pliny Fisk, Ehenezer Maynard, George E. Tyler. 
1872. — Amasa Barilwell, George A. Bates, R. Streeter. 
1873-74. — Amasa Bardwell, Joel Thayer, George G. Merrill. 
1875.— Edwin Stratton, N. 0. Newhall, George E. Tyler. 
1870.- Am.asa Bardwell, R. Streeter, L. T. Covell. 
1877. — Am.asa Bardwell, R. S. Streeter, Ehenezer Nims. 
1878-79.- Amasa Bardwell, J. K. Patch, Ehenezer Nims. 


John Wells, 1768-73 ; Moses Hawks, 1773-75 ; Aaron Skinner, 1775-88 ; Jared 
Skinner, 1788-96 ; John Wells, Jr., 1790-1800 ; Robert L. McLallon, 1800 ; John 
Merrill, 1801-10; Joseph Severance, lSlO-27; Elam Kellogg, 1827-33; Solomon 
Smead, 1833-37; Elam Kellogg, 1837; Ira W. Barnard, 1.838^1; Charles M. 
Duncan, 1841-03 ; Jas. Andereon, 1803; CM. Duncan, 1804-60; E. P. Oonant, 
1866; A. K. Hawkes, 1807-70; George W. Mirick, 1870; A. K. Hawks, 1871-70 ; 
George W. Mirick, 1876-79. 


From 1776 to 18.57, when Shelburne became a part of the 
First Representative District, the town was represented by 
the following persons : 

David Wells, Robert Wilson, Dr. John Long, John Burdick, Benjamin Niish, 
John Wells, Jr., Aaron Skinner, J. A. Kellogg, William Wells, John Fellows, 
Theophilus Paokanl, Ira .\rms, Cyrus Alden, Jacob P. Kell.igg, John H. Morse, 
Asa Severance, Nathaniel Lamson, E. G. Lamson, J. B. Whitney, Milo Wilson, 
Samuel T. Field. 


Of the two villages in the town, Shelburne Falls and Shel- 
burne Centre, the latter is the oldest, and dates its existence 
with the erection of the first meeting-house in Shelburne, — 
■ 17G0. It is now but a small rural settlement, containing a 
score of houses, a chair-factory, a church, and a public hall, 
where town-meetings are held half of the time. It occupies a 
picturesque location and i.s acharming retreat, but in business 

it has given way to its more prosperous neighbor, Shelburne 

The latter — first settled by the Shakers in 17.S2 — is a thriving 
manufacturing village, numbering 1.500 inhabitants, located 
upon both sides of Deerfleld River, and connected by an iron 
bridge. The Shelburne side of the village contains about 1000 
people, and is the chief business portion of the place. Many 
handsome residences border its finely-shaded avenues, and 
upon its main business tlioroughfarc — Bridge Street — are 
several substantial and imposing brick blocks. The Shelburne 
Falls House, a stone structure, was at one time the finest and 
most costly hotel in Franklin County. 

There are also in this portion of the village the Shelburne 
Falls Academy, two banks, three churches, two public halls, 
numerous stores, Gardner's cutlery-works, a silk-twist manu- 
factory, a harmonica manufactory, a brace-bit factory, a tan- 
nery, and other minor industries. 

The Shelburne side of the village derives considerable 
business support and population from the employes of the 
Lamson & Goodnow Cutler3' Company, whose works are on 
the Buckland side of the river. 

Shelburne Falls possesses a naturally attractive location, 
and, resting upon the sinuous and swiftly-flowing Deerfield, 
within the shadows of gigantic hills which tower aloft upon 
the east and west, it presents to the eye of the passing traveler 
a picture upon which it may rest with more than ordinary 


Previous to the incorporation of Shelburne its inhabitants 
were compelled to go to Deerfield or adjoining towns to enjoy 
public religious worship. At the district's incorporation a 
committee was appointed to provide preaching, and £20 voted. 
Rev. Robert Abercrombie was doubtless the first preacher Shel- 
burne had. In March, 1769, John Taylor was chosen "to 
git us a minister to preach next summer," and it Wiis resolved 
to build " a round-lug meeting-house." Previous to this, ser- 
vices had been held at the house of Daniel Nims. This house 
was erected soon afterward, and stood on a hill about a half- 
mile north of the present church at Shelburne Centre. In 
1770 it needed repairs, but the people declined to mend it, 
although in that year they appropriated £60 for preaching. 
In this year a Congregational Church was organized, and 
Revs. John Marrett and John Wj'eth were the preachers. 
The refusal to repair the log meeting-house may have been 
based upon a desire for a new house of worship, about the 
building of which there was now some talk. The old one 
kept growing worse, however, and in 1771 it was resolved to 
plaster up the cracks with mortar, to make a door and three 
windows, and to build a pulpit. 

Shortly afterward efiForts were renewed, and toward the end 
of the year it was agreed to raise for the building of a meeting- 
house a sufficient sum; each man to furnish his proportion in 
wheat, rye, Indian corn, or fleece. In this year Rev. Jonathan 
Bird preached for the people. 

After reflection it was re.solved, in 1772, to do nothing about 
building a meeting-house, and the log cabin continued to do 
duty. In this year Rev. Caleb Hotchkiss occupied the pulpit, 
and was promised a settlement of £12.5, to be paid in three 
years, although, for some unknown reason, he was not settled. 

In 1772 it was voted " to call Mr. Hubbard back to preach, 
and to be in preparation to build a meeting-house." This was 
the Rev. Robert Hubbard who had been preaching for them 
before, and upon his return they concluded to give him a call 
to settle ; with an oft'er of £13.3 6s. 8rf. as a settlement, to be 
paid in two years, and a salary of £60 annually for the first 
two years, to be raised yearly 50.5. until it Teached £70, to- 
gether with an annual supply of firewood. Mr. Hubbard 
was not settled, however, until 1773, in which year the new 
frame meeting-house was built near where the log house 
stood, and was covered, so the records say, by "a gift." 



In 1779 the house needed a new floor, and, to provide nails 
for the work, £80 wore apjiropriatod (wellnigh a pound of 
money for a pound of nails) ; but, as Continental money rated 
at $72 for $1 in hard money, the X80 would not buy many 
nails. As another example, it was at this time voted that, in- 
stead of paying Mr. Hubbard a salary of £1000, old tenor, he 
should receive £70. 

In 1786 a conch-shell was provided as a means to call people 
to Sabbath worship, and this method served until 180.5, when 
the church-steeple was furnished with a bell. The first death 
for which the bell tolled was that of Lawrence Kemp. 

The meeting-house, although begun in 1773, was not entirely 
tini.shed until 1785. In 1813 its tower was supplied with a 

Mr. Hubbard remained the pastor until his death, in 1788, 
which occurred while visiting his old home at Middletown, 
Conn. He was buried at Middletown, although a monument 
erected to his memory by Shelburne stands in the latter town, 
at the centre. Upon it an inscription reads : 

*'Tliis niouuDicnt is erected by tlie town of Slielburue in memory of Rev. 
Robert Ilubbiird, liist pastor of tlie Cluireli of Clii ist in tliis place, who died at 
Middletown Nov. 2, 1788, aged forty-five, much lamented by his surviving friends 
and people of bis charge, who enjoyed in him a pattern of family juety and 
order, an aflable, courteons neigiibor, and in hnnian view a zealous, faithful 
minister, who was an example of faith, conversation, and doctrine. 'Go thou 
and do likewise.'" 

Eevs. Hendrick Dow and Sylvester Sage supplied until 
1792, when Rev. Jesse Townsend was ordained as the second 
pastor. Mr. Townsend was dismissed in 1797, and, after be- 
ing .supplied by Eevs. Micah Stone and Abraham Barfield, 
the church received, in 1799, as its third pastor. Rev. Theo- 
philus Packard, D.D. Dr. Packard retained his pastoral 
connection with the church until his death, although his ac- 
tive pastorate ceased in 1842, four years after which he 
removed to South Deerfield. His son, Theophilus, Jr., was 
ordained as his colleague in 1828, and occupied the pulpit un- 
til 1853, when he was dismissed at his own request. 

In 1832 a new meeting-house, built upon the site of the 
present church at Shelburne Centre, replaced the old one; and 
this new one, after enduring until 1845, was in March of that 
year destroyed by an accidental fire while the people were 
assembled for Sabbath worship. Its successor stands upon 
the same spot, and was built in 1845. A commodious vestry, 
used also for town-meetings and other public assemblages, 
was erected opposite the church building in 1847. 

Mr. Packard's successor (Rev. R. S. Billings) preached 
about fifteen years, and was succeeded by Revs. A. F. Marsh 
and George L. Clark, — the latter being pastor in 1879. The 
church is highly prosperous, and the congregation averages 


was organized at Shelburne Palls, March, 1850, with 44 mem- 
bers. They worshiped in a public hall until 1851, when they 
built a church edifice at the Falls, — the one now in use. Un- 
til 1851 Eevs. Marshal B. Angler and George P. Bronson 
supplied them. In that year Mr. Bronson was ordained as 
the first settled pastor, but retired after a brief pastorate of 
two years. The church was without a settled pastor until 
185G, when Eev. "Wilbur P. Loomis was installed. Mr. 
Loomis entered the armj' as chaplain, and died at Nashville 
in 1864. His successor, and the third pastor of the church, 
was Rev. Pliny S. Boyd, who was ordained in 1865. Other 
and subsequent pastors were Revs. E. E. Lamb and Cyrus B. 
Whitcomb, the latter, who was the latest settled pastor, hav- 
ing been dismissed in 1877. The church, having in 1879 a 
membership of 162, depends at present upon stated supplies. 

organized in 1792, with the Baptists of Deerfield, a church, 
which was called the Baptist Church of Deerfield and Shel- 
burne, and worshiped alternately in Deerfield and Shelburne. 

Elder David Long preached for them from 1792 until his 
death, in 1831. In 1832 it was voted to divide the church into 
two bodies, called the Deerfield Baptist Church and the Shel- 
burne Baptist Church. The latter organization worshiped 
in a meeting-bouse built in the south part of the town, about 
1812, until 1839, when the church was dissolved, and shortly 
afterward the church building was taken down. 

The Second Baptist Church at Shelburne Falls was organ- 
ized November, 1833, with 19 members, and in less than 
twenty years these 19 had grown to 240. Preachers have 
served the church since 1835 as follows : Revs. John Alden, 
William Heath, Cyrus Smith, Edgar H. Gray, William H. 
Parmlee, A. J. Sage, J. A. Goodhue, and P. S. Evans, since 
whose dismissal the church has had no settled pastor. The 
membership is 275. 

The first church edifice was erected at the Falls in 1836, and 
the second, now in use and which cost $9000, in 1852. It has 
in its tower a town clock, furnished by private subscriptions, 
and maintained by the church. 


was organized in 1828, and a church in 1841, with 17 mem- 
bers. Worship was held in halls and other convenient places 
during the existence of the church, which became extinct 
shortly after 1860. Among the preachers who have supplied 
them were Revs. Daniel Huntington, Winthrop Bailey, 
Henry Colman, Samuel Willard, Luther Wilson, Crawford 
Nightingale, and George P. Clark. 


was organized in October, 1842, with 12 members. Their house 
of worship stands in the Buckland portion of the village of Shel- 
burne Falls. The pastors of this church have included Eevs. 
G. W. Green, H. Clark, A. A. Cooke, W. Ward, Mr. Taylor, 
S. Cushman, A. G. Bowles, S. W. Johnson, William Butler, 
John Burke, and Mr. Hemenway. Eev. W. S. Jagger was 
the pastor in 1879. 


was organized at Shelburne Falls in February, 18-53, and this 
was followed, in 1864, by the organization of a church. A 
house of worship, costing $12,000, inclusive of furniture, 
organ, etc., was completed in 1870. The pastors of the church 
and society have been Eevs. J. H. Willis, Judson Fisher, 
George H. Deere, B. V. Stephenson, H. B. Howell, and S. G. 
Davis. The latter pastor was dismissed in 1879, since which 
event the church has depended upon supplies. The church 
has now a membership of 64. 


located in Shelburne at the Falls in 1782, and there built a 
house of worship. A Mr. Wood was a leading spirit among 
them, and for a brief period Ann Lee was with them. In 
1785 they removed to New Lebanon, N. Y. 


The first attempt to provide schools seems to have been 
made in 1770, when it was voted to divide the place into four 
parts, and to have school one month in each part. Watson 
Freeman taught school in Shelburne about this time, and he 
was probably the first school-teacher in these parts. 

In 1771, £15 were raised for schooling, and, five school dis- 
tricts being created, each district was permitted to draw £3 for 
school support, but, the district failing to keep school, was to 
forfeit all claim upon the £3. 

In 1777 the districts were still five, but the annual appro- 
priation amounted to £30. 

During bis ministry, Eev. Theophilus Packard, pastor of 
the First Congregational Church, prepared many pupils for 
college, and Ihirty-one for the ministry. Among the teachers 
of select schools were Augustus Pomeroy, Elizabeth Smith, 

Nathan 0. Newhall was born in 
Shelburne, Franklin Co., Mass., 
March 17, 1S15. He is the grand- 
son of Samuel Newhall, who re- 
moved from Leieester, Mass., about 
1765, and settled in Conway, lo- 
cating on the farm now owned by 
Joseph A. Newhall. His father, 
whose name was also Nathan, re- 
moved to Shelburno in 1809, and on 
the 31st of December, in that year, 
married Greaty, daughter of Chester 
Bardwell, who was the son of Enoch 
Bardwell, one of the first settlers in 
Shelburne. By this union he had 
eleven children, — niue sons and two 
daughters. Some of these died in 
infancy, and at the present time (Feb- 
ruary, 1S79) only five are living. 

Nathan 0., the subject of this 
notice, is (he third son. He re- 
mained at home working on the farm 
with his father, attending the dis- 
trict school a part of each year, and 
one term at Deacon Clary's select 
school in Conway, until he reached 
his eighteenth year. At this time, 
possessing considerable mechanical 
ability, and having an earnest desire 
to become a carpenter, he was ap- 
prenticed to Ira Barnard, of Shel- 
burne, to learn that trade. He 
received the munificent (?) sum of 
$30 per year, and when he reached 
his majority his entire capital, in 
money, consisted of $4. He com- 
menced working at bis trade in his 
native town, and, by close application 
to business and thorough execution, 
he soon I'eeamo acknowledged as the 
Ifeading carpenter and joiner in that 
locality, and during the forty years 
in which he thus labored he retjvined 
the confidence and patronage of his 
first employer?. By his suggestions 
and advice improvements were effected 
DOW being one of the best-built farniing- 

I'hoto.by Popkins, 


in the style 
towns in th 

of buildin 
e county 


spend the remainder of his days. 

When twenty-eight years of age 
he purchased what was known ns the 
Olin Bardwell place, and in the same 
year (May 4, 1843) was married to 
Dolly H.. daughter of John Andrews, 
formerly of North Conway. She was 
born in Shelburne, May 2, 1821. 
They have a family of five children 
(named al})habetically), Alfred A., 
Byron N., Carilla J., Dumont 0., 
and Ellen M. 

At various times he has added to 
his farm until it now contains one 
hundred and twenty-five acres. By 
industry, punctualit}-, and economy 
he has earned a competency, and 
by a life of integrity has won the 
confidence and respect of his asso- 

In politics he is a Republican, 
and a staunch supporter of the prin- 
ciples of that party. He has been 
a member of the board of selectmen, 
assessor, and surveyor, and is now 
justice of the peace. He was the 
prime mover in the organization 
of the Shelburne Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Company, nf which he has 
been presiilont from its organization 
to the present lime. In 1S76. his 
health being somewhat imjjaired by 
constant labor, he took a jiuirncy 
across the continent to San Francisco. 
From there he traveled over the 
mountains by stage to San Diego, 
journeyed up the Pacific coast by 
steaninr to San Francisco, and re- 
turned liome by the way of Washing- 
ton, Baltimore, and Philadelphia, 
traveling in all over nine thousand 
miles, and visiting twenty difi"erent 
States and Territories; seeing many 
beautiful place?, but finding no spot 
so pleasant to him as his own' New 
England home, where he hopes to 
-not in idleness, but in the leisure be 

has earned by years of incessant labor. 

KiiwffiiaiLiL, iKiiitiiyiaKiis, mh%%. 


Daniel R. Baedwet.l was born May 25, 1831, 
in the town of Shelburne, Franklin Co., Mass., 
on the })lace where he now resides. His father, 
Ebenezer Bardwell, was born on tlie same place, 
Jan. 16, 1799, and here also his grandfather, 
Zenas Bardwell, was horn, Jnne 30, 1777. His 
great-grandfather, E. Bardwell, was one of the 
early settlers of Shelbnrne. He was born Sept. 2, 

Clarinda D. Rice, mother of Daniel R. Bardwell, 
was born in Conway, March 12, 1805. His parents 
were married June 19, 1828, and had five children, 
— Baxter E., Daniel R., Zenas D., John K., and 
Mary N. His mother died Feb. 24, 1844. Eben- 
ezer Bardwell, his father, married, for his second 
wife, Mrs. Mercy Hammond. The subject of this 
biography received his education in the common 
schools, and at the age of eighteen began to teach 
school. He followed this occupation during the 
winter, and the remainder of the year worked upon 
his father's farm. This he continued five years, and 

after his father's death, Jan. 16, 1873, he purchased 
the estate by paying off the other heirs. He is en- 
gaged in farming and stock-raising, and has been 
moderately successful. 

Ill politics he is a Republican, but has never been 
an aspirant for office. He has been assessor for two 
years, and is a member of the Agricultural Societies 
of Franklin County and Deerfield Valley. 

Mr. Bardwell has been connected with the Con- 
gregational Church since 1858, and now holds the 
office of deacon. He is an earnest laborer in the 
Sunday-school, in which he has been a teacher for 
more than twenty years. He is ever ready to pro- 
mote the interests of his town so far as lies in his 
power, be they religious, charitable, or educational. 

He was married, June 1, 1854, to Sarah Ann New- 
hall, who was born in Shelburne, March 23, 1832. 

They have three children, — Mary A., wife of F. 
A. Alvord, of Greenfield, born Oct. 18, 1856 ; Addie 
C, born June 10, 1862 ; and Ormand N., born July 
23, 1864. 



Caroline Webster, Marion Packard, S. W. Kellogg, Pliny 
Fisk, and Rowland Howes. 

Of Stephen Taylor, who was a tavern-keeper and teamster 
as well as a school-teacher in the long-ago, it is told that he 
was very fond of his pipe, and used invariably to smoke it 
while listening to the recitations of his pupils. 

In 1793 the town proposed to found an academy, and agreed 
to raise £200 for the purpose, conditioned upon the Legisla- 
ture's extending some aid toward the project, but the Legis- 
lature declined to encourage the enterprise, and it was there- 
fore at that time abandoned; but in 1833 local public spirit 
proved equal to the emergency, and the academy was incorpo- 
rated in that year as the Franklin Academy, and re-chartered 
1 in 1847 as the iShelburne Falls Academj'. 

This institution of learning, known as the Shelburne Falls 
Academj', was founded upon a fund of $5000, raised by indi- 
vidual subscriptions, and of that fund $1,500 were devoted to 
the erection of the academy building, and upon the income of 
the $3500 residue, the academy has since been maintained. 
Tlie school took high rank from the outset, and was exceed- 
ingly prosperous until the introduction of high schools nar- 
rowed its sphere of usefulness. It is now a free school to all 
children in the town, and is still maintained by the original 
fund, which is somewhat shorn of its proportions, but promises 
speedily to be increased by the friends of the enterprise. 

The Arms Academy, for whose endowment Ira Arms be- 
queathed, upon his death, in 1859, a fund of |18,000, will be 
erected during the year 1879, upon a handsome piece of ground 
of about two acres in area, and located in the eastern portion 
of Shelburne Falls villager The Arms Academy fund had 
reached, in March, 1879, upward of §40,000, and of that sum 
it was proposed to invest .?10,000 in an academy building, and 
to apply .?10,000 to the furnishing of the school and the en- 
gagement of a corps of teachers. |I20,000 of the sum is to 
remain, under the conditions of the will, upon permanent in- 
vestment, the income of which is to be devoted to the support 
of the academy. 

Among the college graduates natives of Shelburne were 
Lewis Long, Robert Hubbard, Jr., Amariah Chandler, Ezra 
and Pliny Fisk, Samuel I. "Wells, William Wells, George 
Bull, Theopbilus Packard, Jr., Levi Pratt, Joseph Anderson, 
Ciiles Lyman, Alvan S. Anderson, Pliny Fisk (2d), Daniel T. 
Fisk, S. W. Kellogg, J. F. Severance, Samuel Fisk, W. W. 
Ladden, D. W. Wilcox, Asa S. Fi.sk, and Asa S. Hardy. 

The report of the school committee in 1878 stated that 
for the scholastic year of 1877 and 1878 there were eleven 
schools in the town, including primary, grammar, interme- 
diate, and high schools, for which the expenditures were |3700, 
and at which the average attendance was 207. 

The Arms Library, founded upon an endowment of |5000 
bequeathed in 1859 for its perpetual use, is free to the inhabi- 
tants of the town, and is a highly-valued privilege. A social 
library which had flourished for several years previous to 
1858 was, upon the creation of the Arms library, merged in 
the latter. The library rooms are conveniently located in 
Bank block, at Shelburne Falls village, and contained in 
March, 1879, upward of 4800 volumes, at which time the 
Arms fund amounted to §5400. 

Shelburne has good reason to remember Ira Arms, one of 
its most worthy citizens, who returned to the town, for its use 
and adornment, the greater part of the fortune which he ac- 
quired during his existence in Shelburne. During his life he 
donated to the First Congregational Church $300 and a silver 
communion service, and to the town the piece of land at the 
Falls known as the Arms Cemetery. By his will he left to 
each of the two Congregational Churches of the town $500 

for a ministerial library ; $500 to the Second Congregational 
Church as a permanent ministerial fund ; $1000 as a fund 
for the repair and improvement of the Arms Cemetery ; $5000 
as a fund for the support of the Arms library ; and $18,000 as an 
endowment for the Arras Academy. 

Mr. Arms was a native of Greenfield, but passed nearly the 
whole of his life in Shelburne, where he died in 18.59, and 
where, in the Arms Cemetery, a marble monument marks his 
last earthly resting-place. 


The first burying-ground was laid out at the Falls, in 1768, 
and the second, north of the centre; These two grounds are 
now unused. The oldest cemetery in use is the one near Shel- 
burne Centre. The first person buried there was the wife of 
Reuben Nims, in April, 1774. There are several burial-places 
in the town, but the most extensive is the Arms Cemetery, at 
the Falls, which was opened for public use in 1857. During 
his lifetime Ira Arms donated a piece of land on the Buckland 
side of Shelburne Falls for a Shelburne cemetery, and this 
land was, with his approval, e.xchanged for the ground now 
occupied by the Arms Cemetery. At his death Mr. Arms 
left a fund of $1000, the income of which is devoted to repairs 
and the improvement of the grounds. 

This beautiful city of the dead is an object of pride to Shel- 
burne's citizens, and deserves, too, such a tribute, since it is at 
once a spot of great natural beautj' and artistic adornment. 
Embowered within a pine grove and set upon a commanding 
bluff, it overlooks the gracefully-winding Deeriield River, and 
incloses neatly-kept lawns, smooth drives, and many imposing 


There are in Shelburne numerous societies, all of which are 
located at the Falls. They will be found named as follows : 


was organized in Rowe in 1806, transferred to Coleraine in 
1818, where, in 1840, It disappeared from the current of events, 
and was revived in 1856 at Shelburne Falls. The lodge num- 
bers now 70 members, and had as officers in 1879 the follow- 
ing : Edwin Baker, W. M. ; George R. Pierce, S. W. ; J. H. 
Warner, J. W. ; Herbert Newell, Treas. ; J. H. Wilder, Sec. ; 
J. K. Patch, Chap. ; F. W. Merriam, Mar. ; James Halligan, 
S. D. ; H. W. Merrill, J. D. ; F. G. Mitchell, S. S. ; A. N. 
Sprague, J. S. ; A. W. Ware, I. S. ; H. O. Smith, Organist ; 
L. T. Brown, Tiler. 


was organized in 1868, and has now a membership of 45. 
This society is a flourishing one, and owns a commodious hall 
at Shelburne Falls, built in 1874 at a cost of $2800. 


was organized December, 1874, and has now (1879) 74 mem- 
bers. The officers are F. W. Bannister, W. P. ; Miss M. E. 
Nims, W. A. ; T. A. Montague, R. S. ; Miss E. E. Eldridge, 
A. R. S. ; Charles E. Dewsnap, F. S. ; Mrs. S. E. Cummings, 
T. ; Miss Nellie Dewsnap, Inside Sentinel; Rev. 0. P. Emer- 
son, Chaplain ; W. S. Ball, Con. ; Miss Lizzie Sprague, A. 
Con. ; Albert Mann, Outside Sentinel ; Rev. S. G. Davis, P. 
W. P. 


was organized February, 1867, and had in 1879 a membership 
of 51, with officers as follows: Charles R. White, W. C. T. ; 
Mrs. S. Huntley, V. ; George Hinde, R. S. ; Mrs. E. F. Stocl, 
F. S. ; John Thompson, T. ; James Martin, M. ; Rev. N. F. 
Benson, Chaplain; Miss E. Shaw, I. G. ; George Lees, O. G. ; 
W. E. Cooney, A. S. ; Miss Agnes Turton, D. M. ; L. P. 
Allen, W. R. H. S. ; M. J. Tooley, L. H. S. ; M. O. Lamfair, 
P. W. C. T. ; John Thompson, Lodge Dep. 




a Gtrman organization, was organized in 1873, and has now 
33 members. 


organized in 1878, have 75 members. 

ALETHIAN LODGE, I. O. O. F., NO. 128, 

meets on the Buckland side of the Falls, but draws largely in 
membership from Shclburne. 


is a fine military command of 62 members, organized Septem- 
ber, 1872, and named in honor of Col. H. S. Greenleaf (now 
residing in Rochester, N. Y.), who went out from Shclburne 
into the war of the Kebellion in command of the 52d Mass. 
Regt. This company is handsomely uniformed in gray, and 
has a well-appointed armory at Shelburne Falls. The oiiicers 
are Frederick W. Merriam, Captain ; John A. Halligan, First 
Lieutenant ; Herbert W. Swan, Second Lieutenant ; George 
D. Eldridge, Orderly Sergeant. Previous to the last war, 
Shelburne Falls had a well-drilled military organization 
known as Co. H, 10th Mass. Eegt. 


was organized in 1869 and named after Ozro Miller, who 
went into the last war from Shelburne as captain of Co. H, 
10th Mass Regt. ; was shortly afterward promoted to be a 
major ; was wounded and captured in 1862, at Malvern Hill, 
and died that year in Libby Prison, Richmond, Va. The post 
numbers 42 members, and is commanded bj' George O. Wilder. 


is composed of the wives, widows, and sisters of soldiers who 
served in the last war. The post took its name from Jessie 
Rupert, who joined the 34th Mass. Regt. in the Shenandoah 
Valley during the last war, and was afterward known as the 
daughter of that regiment. 

Shelburne Falls has two musical organizations, known aS 
the Mechanics' Band and the Shelburne Falls Cornet 

the fire department, 

of which G. R. Pierce is chief engineer, is located at the Falls, 
and includes two hand-engine companies and one hook-and- 
ladder company. 

Hook-mid- Ladder No. 1 was organized in 1873, has now 25 
members, and occupies a house with Neptune Engine Com- 
pany, on the Shelburne side of the Falls. 

Neplunc Engine Comjmny was organized in 1863, runs a 
hand-engine, and has 110 members. Niagara Engine belongs 
to the department, but has its engine-house on the Buckland 
side of the Falls. Its organization dates from 1863, and its 
membership numbers now 75. The Fire District was organ- 
ized in 1854; the Fire Department in 1863. 


Shelburne is a town of agriculture and manufactures, and 
derives the elements of its substantial prosperity about equally 
from each industry. At Shelburne Falls village the extensive 
cutlery-works of J. W. Gardner furni.sh employment to 70 
persons, and manufacture one hundred and twenty dozens of 
pocket-knives daily. The works are exclusively devoted to 
the production of pocket-cutlery, — ^jack-knives mostly. Mr. 
Gardner was for nearly a quarter of a century previous to 
1876 interested with the Messrs. Lamson in their cutlery- 
works in Buckland, and in that year began the manufacture 
of cutlery at his present location. 

Streeter & Mayhew occupy a commodious mill of two and 
a half stories for the manufacture of silk-twist, of which their 
production is about 700 pounds monthly. The mill is op- 
erated by steam-power, and when running to its full capacity 
gives employment to 50 persons. The firm of Streeter & 

Mayhew was organized in 1870, and occupies the site whereon 
A. W. Streeter manufactured bit-braces previous to 1870. 

H. H. Mayhew & Co. have been engaged since 1866 as the 
successors of H. S. Shepard.son & Co. in the manufacture of 
bits, braces, gimlets, etc. They employ 25 men, and operate 
with water-power. Messrs. Mayhew & Co. numufacture the 
double-cut bit, patented by C. C. Tolman, of Shelburne, many 
years ago, and first made in this country in 1855 by Sargent 
& Foster, of Shelburne Falls. 

The German Harmonica Company, composed of Jacob 
Oefinger and H. M. Willis, was organized at Shelburne Falls 
by Jacob Oefinger in December, 1877. Mr. Oefinger began 
the manufacture of small tools, etc., at the Falls in 1874, and 
in 1876 removed to North Adams, Mass., where, with E. R. 
Tinker, he organized the American Harmonica Company for 
the manufacture of harmonicas. The company was dissolved 
in 1877, in which year Mr. Oefinger formed the present com- 
pany, which is said to be the only one of its kind in America, 
and the only one in the world that manufactures harmonicas 
by other than hand-power. The present daily production is 
from two to three gross of instruments, and the number of 
emplo3-es 10, but, according to expectations, these figures will 
soon be increased fivefold. 

In the north part of the town, on North River, are the 
Frankton Mills, operated by a corporation composed of Messrs. 
S. T. Field, W. H. Gould, and T. D. Purrington, and en- 
gaged in the manufacture of cotton prints. The company 
was organized in 1877, and began business in the present 
mills. These were built in 1870 by E. Wells & Co., and 
devoted by them until 1873 to the manufacture of printing- 
paper. From 1873, when the firm of E. Wells & Co. was 
dissolved, until 1877, the mills were idle. The capital stock 
of the Frankton Mills corporation is §30,000; sixty-four looms 
are operated and 40 people employed. 

Other manufacturing industries of the town are the tannery 
of Messrs. A. Bardwell & Son, at the Falls, and the chair- 
factory of Messrs. Alvord & Franklin, at Shelburne Centre. 

Agriculturally, Shelburne is somewhat noted for the pro- 
duction of fat cattle, butter, and maple-sugar. 

BANKS, Etc. 
At Shelburne Falls two banking institutions transact the 
financial business of the town. 


was organized as a State bank in 1855, and as such began 
business in 1856 with a capital of $50,000. In 1865 it was 
changed to a national bank. Its capital is now $200,000, and 
its deposit account $50,0(K). 


was organized in 1856, and in 1876 changed its name to the 
Shelburne Falls Savings-Bank. Its deposits in March, 1879, 
aggregated .?640,000. Both banks occupy quarters in Bank 
Block, Shelburne Falls. 


The Shelburne Mutual Fire Insurance Company was organ- 
ized June 18, 1877, with N. O. Newhall as President ; I. W. 
Barnard, Treasurer; William T. Peck as Secretary ; and direc- 
tors as follows : I. W. Barnard, S. M. Long, N. O. Newhall, 

0. 0. Bardwell, I. T. Fisk, G. E. Taylor, G. N. Smith, W. T. 
Peck, John Fellows, C. M. Long, and Ozias Long. The 
directors for 1879 are I. W. Barnard, N. O. Newhall, W. T. 
Peck, O. O. Bardwell, Albert Peck, G. E. Taylor, Z. D. Bard- 
well, C. M. Long, Ebenezer Nims, S. M. Long, G. N. Smith. 
N. O. Newhall is President; William T. Peck, Secretary ; and 

1. W. Barnard, Treasurer. 



In 1868 the town erected (at a cost of $2000) in the north 
part of Shelburne Falls village a handsome granite monu- 


o-f^o-yr CiJ ■'x^cAC?^ 



ment, and dedicated it to the memory of the citizens of Shel- 
burne who lost tlieir lives in the military service of the gov- 
ernment during the war of the Kebellion. Upon the four 
sides of the upper portion of the shaft are the inscriptions : 

" Fair Oakfi, Ulalvern Hill, Wilderness, Petersburg, Gettj'sburg, Port Hudson, 
Antietiuri, and Fredericksburg." 

Upon the three lower sides are the names of the slain 
patriots, as follows : 

" Tenth Kegt., Co. H, Maj. Ozro Miller, Lient. B. F. Lcland, II. C. Severance, A. 
C. Merrill, II. S. Putney, E. M. Briggs, Jacob Bringol, E. W. Fa.v, James M. Wil- 
liams, Sihis Ninis, II. C. Utley, Col. John Kellogg ; 31st Kegt., Co. B, Asa Tilden, 

George M. Lander; 34th Regt., H. W. Dodds; 52d Regt., Co. E, Nathaniel Her- 
rick, L. E. Severance, H. D. Culver; 10th Regt., Co. H, Ch.\rles B. Dole, Josiah 
S. Emerson, John B. Campbell ; Capt. Henry N. Kellogg, III. Vols. ; 27th Regt. 
Co. B, Chauncey L. Emmons, Patrick Sweeney, T. E. Caler, P. C. Collins." 

On the fourth side appears the following : 

" In honor of the fallen sohliei's of Shelburne. Killed or died of wounds, 14 ; 
died in rebel prisons, 5 ; total from all causes, 26." 

The following are the names of those furnished by Shel- 
bvirne for service in the army during the Rebellion of 1861-65: 

Ozro Miller, 10th Muss. 
Silas Ninis, lOtli Mass. 
Wm. Streeter, 10th Mass. 
W. W. Carpenter, 10th Mass. 
Henry Dantin, 10th Maas. 
J. S. Coleman, 10th Mass. 
L. M. Blackwell, 10th Mass. 
E. M. Briggs, lOtli JIass. 
Cha9. B. Dole, loth Mass. 
E. W. Fay, 10th Mass. 
Wm. H. Gragg, loth Mass. 
John Griebel, 10th Mass. 
Chas. D. Hotchkiss, loth Mass. 
David Henry, loth Mass. 
Jacob Haiges, loth Mass. 
N. S. Putney, 10th Mass. 
H. C. Severance, loth Mass. 
Andrew Sawer, loth Mass. 
Elbert Stevens, 10th Mass. 
H. C. Utley, 10th Mass. 
Jas. M. Williams, loth Mass. 
Geo. W. Wilson, 10th Mass. 
Jas. E. Wilson, loth Mass. 
Adolph Stempel, loth Miiss. 
Asa C. Merrill, loth Mass. 

Putney, lotli Mass. 

Birney Budiiigton, 10th Mass. 
Amariah Chandler, loth Mass, 
Pliny H. Briggs, 10th Mass. 
Wm. Levey, 10th Mass. 
Robert Sliehey, loth Mass. 
L. J. Smith, lOlh Mass. 
Charles Stone, 10th Mass. 
B. M. Powers, Jr., lOlh Mass. 

Charles W. Rupell, 10th Blass. 
John R. Campbell, 10th Mass. 
Albert Tolman, loth Mass. 
Josiah P. Day, 10th Mass. 
C. C. Packard, 10th JIass. 
Josiah S. Emerson, 10th Mass. 
James M. Warner, lOth Mass. 
Charles F. Powers, 10th Mass. 

E. P. Conant, 10th Mass. 

F. D. Bardwell, lOtli Mass. 
J. A. Franklin, 10th Mass. 
A. J. Foster, 12th Mass. 
James Deane, 18th Mass. 
Lewis G. Pratt, 21st Mass. 
Thos. Mclntyre, 27th Mass. 
Patrick Sweeney, 27th Mass. 
Alfred Bnrdick,27th Mass. 
Asa Tilden, 27th Mass. 
John Tonio, 27th Mass. 

P. C. Collins, 27th Mass. 

C. L. Emmons, 27th Mass. 
J. B. Slate, 27th Mass. 

G. M. Lander, 3Ist Mass. 
S. M. Ware, 31st Mass. 

E. C. W. Orcutt, 31st Mass. 
Addison Goodaow, 31st Mass, 
Chas. H. Clark, 31st Mass. 
H. T. Brown, 3l6t Mass. 
Moses Johnson, 31st Mass. 

D. D. Ware, 31st Mass. 

E. H. Hawks, 34th Mass. 
Frank Allen, 34lh Mass. 
Peter Ely, 34th Mass. 

H. S. Greenleaf, 52d Mass. 

E. II. Allen, 52d Mass. 
S. H. Blackwell, 62d Mass. 
H. D. Culver, 52d Mass. 
S. F. Daniels, 62d Mass. 
G. H. Fish, 52d Mass. 
Nathaniel Ilerrick, 52d Mass. 
George F. Hill, 52d Mass. 
Joseph C. Merrill, 52d Mass. 

C. A. Pratt, a2d Mass. 
M. W. Bice, 52d Mass. 
George F. Steele, 52d Mass. 
K E. Severance, 52d Mass. 
G. A. Smead, 52d 3Iass. 
George 0. Wilder, 52d Mass. 
William Wells, 52d Mass. 
H. C. Wright, 52d Mas.s. 
Charles F. Alden, 52d Mass. 
Wm. B. Bardwell, 52d Mass. 
S. M. Blackwell, 52d Mass. 
George B. Carter, 52d Mass. 
Stephen Ford, 52d Mass. 
William H. Foster, 52d Mass. 
Silas C, Hunter, 52d Mass. 
P. C. Mayuard, 52d Mass. 
Wm. A, Parmenter, 52d Mass. 
George B. Pratt, 52d Mass. 

D. W. Keed, 52d Mass. 
M. D. Shea, 52d Mass. 

J. F. Severance, 52d Mass. 
Morris Vincent, 52d Mass. 
C. E. White, 52d Mass. 
C. 0. Pellon, o2d Mass. 
J. A. Pittsinger, 52d Mass. 
James Burke, 34th Mass. 


during a long and a honorable life, was thoroughly identified 
with the business interests of Franklin County, and especially 
with Shelburne and the neighboring towns. He was born in 
Ashfield in 1792. He was the son of Elihu Smead and 
Mercy Bardwell Smead, who were born in Deerfield. She 
was a descendant of, and was named for, Mercy Sheldon, who 
was taken prisoner by the Indians, when that town was de- 
stroyed, in 1704. 

The parents of Solomon Smead began life in a very humble 
way, as frugality and industry were necessary to support and 
care for so large a family, fifteen children being born to them. 

In the early life of the subject of this sketch, the family 
removed to Shelburne. Upon arriving there the father com- 
menced the manufacture of leather and of boots and shoes on 
a small scale. But by indomitable energy and perseverance 
the capital was increased and business was extended to other 
branches of industry, bringing both patronage and money 
into his hands. He was a man of strong mind and conser- 
vative character. He expected his son and all connected with 
him to do their part in adding to the comfort and well-being 
of the family. The youthful life of the son was like that of 
most New England boj's of his time, — the pure, quiet, un- 
eventful life of a New England farm, surrounded by those 
healthful influences and good examples of patient industry 
which have molded many a sterling character upon the New 
England hills. His education was that of the common school. 

the church, and the family. Upon attaining his majority he 
was admitted as a partner with his father, which partnership 
continued during the life of the latter. By close attention to 
business conducted upon the strict principles of justice and 
integrity, this firm was more than usually prosperous, and at 
the time of the father's death, in 1840, a large property had 
been accumulated. 

Mr. Solomon Smead continued to carry on the same busi- 
ness, and, by the thoroughness and system which had been 
inculcated from his earliest years, he was enabled not only 
to carry it on successfully, but to add to it the manufacture 
of lumber. Meanwhile, he was gaining friends and increasing 
in influence and prosperity. 

In 1825 he married Miss Dorinda Dole, youngest daughter 
of Capt. Parker Dole and Anna Trowbridge Dole, and was 
peculiarly happy in his domestic life. Capt. Dole was an 
influential farmer of the town and a nephew of Dr. Dole, 
who was killed by the British in their attack upon Dorchester 

Mrs. Smead was one of the most dignified ladies in the vi- 
cinity, exercising a firm but quiet influence upon the society 
in which she moved. Their success in subsequent years was 
largely due to her cheerful helpfulness and self-denying exer- 
tions. This union was blessed with a sou and two daughters, 
who were given a good education. The son, Elihu Smead, was 
associated with his father in business in his later years. He 
married Miss E. G. Wright, a teacher in Boston, and daughter 



of Prescott Wright, Esq., of Westford. In 1872 he became 
a inerchimt in Newton, Mass., where the family have resided 
since that time. The elder daughter, A. Amelia Smead, 
graduated at Mount Holyoke Seminary, South Hadley, and 
was a teacher at Lake Erie Seminary, Painesville, Ohio, 
and afterward associate principal at the Michigan Female 
Seminary, Kalamazoo, Michigan. She is now (1879) at home 
with her mother. The younger daughter, Jennie W. Smead, 
graduated at Lake Erie Seminary, Painesville, Ohio, and was 
a teacher at the Michigan Female Seminary, Kalamazoo, 
Mich. She married Mr. L. L. Pierce, of Worcester. 

Mr. and Mrs. Smead recognized for their family the impor- 
tance of a thorough education ; both, in this and in their home- 
life, kept abreast with New England progress, thought, and 
culture. The home of the family in Shelburne was a model 
New England country home. The true spirit of unity and 
ati'ectionate co-operation for the common good pervaded it. 
The business, domestic, and social interests of each member 
of the family were known to all. With natural industry and 
economy for a foundation, supplemented by steady, persistent 
efiort and thrifty care of honest earnings, the sure reward of 
such industry followed, and Mr. Smead was able to enjoy, 
with his family, in his later years, — indeed, through most of 
his life, — conveniences and comforts in his home far beyond 
those enjoyed by the average New Englander in rural neigh- 
borhoods, and to leave to those he loved a comfortable fortune. 
He was interested in financial institutions in Shelburne Falls 
and Greenfield. Was active in the organization of the bank 
in former place, and a director until his death. 

He held many of the elective offices of the town, and was 
chosen on many committees to oversee its business, in all of 
which he honored the town and gained respect for himself. 

In business he was strictly just; thoroughly systematic him- 
self and punctual in keeping all his business engagements, he 
admired such qualities in others. He believed in doing busi- 
ness in a business way, and strictly in accordance with the 
best business rules. He was always ready to aid, both by 
means and influence, any who desired his assistance, either in 
establishing business or in obtaining an education, provided 
they showed a readiness to make the most of the means at 
command. He was never a speculator ; but, as he was able to 
accumulate property, he sought to invest it where the element 
of safety was most prominent, never being tempted to unwise 
risks by the promise of large income. The strictest integrity 
characterized all his dealings with his fellow-men, and he had 
no patience with dishonesty and deception in others. He ab- 
horred shams of every kind. Broad and charitable in his re- 
ligious views, thoroughly devotional in his life, he was never 
wedded to any narrowness of doctrine or creed. Keligion was 
with him an abiding principle, not the fitful vagary of an 
excited imagination. His was the religion of the Bible, and 
he acknowledged its claims, reverently bowed to its teachings, 
and was rewarded by its abundant consolations. 

Always quiet and dignified, Mr. Smead was never as demon- 
strative in the manifestation of his emotions and aftections as 
many men. But they were none the less strong, pure, and 
true. With extreme modesty, combined with courtesy to all, 
he lived more for others than for himself. His own pleasure 
was an incident rather than an end. He was ardent, yet careful 
in expressing disapprobation of anything which his principles 
of morality would not approve. 

Even before temperance societies existed he was a thorough 
temperance man in practice as well as in theory. His habits 
of life were extremely simple and unostentatious. Hence, at 
the advanced age of seventy-seven, he stood as erect and had 
as much vigor and strength as are usually found in persons 
much younger. 

In politics he was a member of the old Whig party, whose 
leader in Massachusetts was Daniel Webster, whom he, in 
common with others, held in that esteem which is akin to 

veneration. In his political views he was clear and reliable; 
without otl'ensively thrusting his opinions upon any one, 
he was yet no coward in the utterance of the sentiments he 
thought right. When the Whig party was merged into the 
llepublican in Massachusetts, he acted with the latter. 

He was opposed to slavery, and a consistent and zealous 
defender of the rights of man. At the outbreak of the Ke- 
bellion he took an active part in its repression, using his in- 
fluence and means to raise money and to lit men for the field. 

Mr. Smead was a fond and devoted husband and father and 
a genial companion, always delighting in the society of the 
young, enjoying heartily the comjianionship of friends, and 
taking a deep interest in everything that had for its motive 
the good of the community in which he lived. Possessing by 
nature a sanguine temperament and a healthy mind and body, 
he was fitted to be a good neighbor and citizen. Few who 
met him only in ordinary business life knew of the peculiar 
tenderness of his inner nature. Those who had the pleasure 
of knowing him intimately, who have known something of 
the life, of his home, and of his kindly interest in friends not 
of bis own blond whom he had come to confidently trust and 
love, remember with pleasure many manifestations of his deep 
and tender affection. He loved to deal with those he believed 
to be honest and true. Those who held such a place in his 
regard remember him as kind, accommodating, free to offer 
friendly counsel and aid. Many feel that a measure of their 
own success in life is due to the purity of his example, — to his 
wise counsel and bis timely aid when the only guarantee they 
could ofl'er him was evidence of industrious habits, integrity 
of character, and an honest purpose in life. 

Mr. Smead died April 26, 1809, at the age of seventy-seven, 
in the home in Shelburne where the whole of his business and 
domestic life had been spent. 


is of English ancestry. He is the son of Joel Nims, and the 
grandson of Reuben, who was the son of John, Jr., son of 
John, who was the son of Godfrey, who emigrated from Eng- 
land at an early date, and is supposed to have settled at Deer- 
field, Mass., between 1665 and 1667. 

Reuben Nims was born on the 14th of June, 1740, and 
settled in Shelburne on a large farm, and in connection with 
the business of farming kept a hotel. His house was quite an 
important point in those days, and was well known in the sur- 
rounding country as "Nims' Tavern." He married for his 
first wife (on the 1st of July, 1762) Sarah Burt, by whom he 
had five children, viz., Jonathan, Reuben, Joel, Abigail, and 
Sarah. His wife died on the 2d of April, 1774, and he mar- 
ried Deliverance Gould on the 25th of January, 1777. By 
this union he had four children, — Elizabeth, Samuel, Joel, 
and Mary. 

Joel, the youngest son of the second wife, was the father of 
the subject of this notice. He was born in Shelburne, Frank- 
lin Co., Mass., on the 29th of December, 1782. He was a 
farmer, and also kept the hotel after his father's decease. As 
a man he was highly respected, and was for many years a 
member of the Congregational Church of that town. He 
was married, on the 29th of November, 1806, to Betsey Nims, 
by whom he had three children, viz., Abner, Direxa, and 
Mary. His first wife died on the 7th of December, 1812, and 
he married for his second wife Lovena, daughter of Reuben 
Bardwell. By this union he had five children, all sons. They 
are Joel B., born Aug. 25, 1815; Reuben, boin Aug. 15, 
1817; Charles, born July 31, 1820; Ebenezer, born on the 
30th of September, 1822; and David W., born May 6, 1824. 

Ebenezer, as before related, was born in Shelburne, and 
attended the common schools of that town until ten years of 
age. He then went to Rowe to live with a cousin, and re- 




mained in that town twenty-nine years. At the expiration of 
that time he parchasecl a farm in the town of C'harlemont, where 
he resided live years, when he sold his property and removed 
to Shelburne, and purchased the phice where he now resides. 





He has been engaged in general farming, and has by his own 
unaided eflTorts acquired a competency. As a man he is highly 
esteemed in the community in which he lives. He is a Re- 
publican in politics, and has served in the capacity of select- 
man twenty-seven years. Mr. Nims and his family are 
members of the Baptist Church of Shelburne Falls. 

His wife was Sarah G. Brown, daughter of Alfred Brown, 
of Rowe, to whom he was married on the 28th of November, 
1844. They have six children, viz., Sarah L., wife of A. K. 
Sears, of Hawley, Francis E., Mary E., Henry D., Alfred J., 
Arthur B. 

They have also three grandchildren, viz., Frank H., son of 
Mr. and Mrs. Sears, born Nov. 9, 1867; and Francis W., 
born March 19, 1873, and Bessie, born Sept. IG, 1878, children 
of Dr. Francis E. Nims. 


was born in 1823, in the city of Birmingham, England. The 
Gardners were a Warwick.shire family, and, while most of 
them remained farmers, quite a number became distinguished 
as engineers, builders of heavy machinery, and in other 
branches of the mechanic arts. The family name on his 
mother's side was Philpott. They seem to have been of a 
more adventurous disposition, and several members of the 
family emigrated to this country. Among others, the grand- 
father and uncle of the subject of this article came over as 
early as 1830, going at once to Pittsburg, Pa. The younger, 
Mr. William Philpott, who had been largely engaged in coal 
and iron raining in Wales, at once commenced mining for 
coal, having brought quite a large force of Welsh miners 
with him. He afterward removed to Middleburg, Ohio, where 
he opened mines in both coal and iron, and soon amassed a 

Joseph W. Gardner was the only surviving son of a large 
family of children. After leaving school he was apprenticed 

to a tool-maker, where in due time he became proficient in 
every part of the business, having a great aptitude and liking 
for the mechanical arts. In 1843, having served his appren- 
ticeship and hearing glowing accounts of America, he came 
to this country. He landed in New York on the 4th of July, 
and his first inquiry was for work. Taking up a newspaper, 
he saw an advertisement for workmen from J. Russell & Co., 
manufacturers of table cutlery at Greenfield, Mass. He left 
for that place almost immediately, and found no difBculty in 
obtaining the employment he sought. He did not remain 
long, however, but yielded to the urgent invitations of his 
relatives in the West to visit them. 

There were but few railroads at that time, and the journey 
to Ohio was made partly by stage and partly by the Erie 
Canal and Lake Erie. Ohio was then a comparatively new 
country. There were few, if any, manufactures and very 
little money, and, though his uncle offered him an easy situa- 
tion, he found things so little to his taste that, after remaining 
six months, he turned his face eastward. Arriving in Pitts- 
burg, after a tedious journey by stage over what were called 
"corduroy" roads, he stopped there three months. After- 
ward he proceeded to Wheeling, Va., where he remained 
about the sanie length of time, and in rather less than a year 
after leaving Greenfield he was again there at work for 
J. Russell i& Co. Displaying more than common ability, he 
was soon placed as foreman of the hafting department, which 
situation he retained as long as he remained in their employ. 
It was during that period that he was married to Frances L. 
Denio, and in the village of Cheapside his only child, a 
daughter, was born. 

In 1848 he was threatened with pulmonary disease; and was 
pronounced by the doctors as incurable, but was advised to try 
a change of climate. He accordingly again visited his friends 
in the West, and after an absence of three months he returned, 
much improved in health and able to work, greatly to the 
astonishment of every one. Not caring to retain his position 
with the Russell Company any longer, he went at once to 
Shelburne Falls. Lamson, Goodnow & Co., who for some 
years had been engaged in the manufacture of scythe-snathes, 
had just commenced making butchers' knives and a few pat- 
terns of table cutlery. Mr. William G. Clement had at that 
time the management of the business, and employed about 
twenty men in making cutlery, most of whom were from 
Sheffield, England. Mr. Gardner suggested some important 
changes to him, and in a short time, convinced that he could 
not do better, Mr. Clement appointed Mr. Gardner to the 
superintendency of the cutlery department. In a year and 
a half they had increased the number of their workmen to 
one hundred and thirty. The work was at this time carried 
on in a few old wooden buildings on the Shelburne side of the 
Deerfield River, but in two years after Mr. Gardner's arrival 
they commenced building the fine brick shops which they now 
occupy in Buckland. About this time he introduced a new 
bolster for knives, known as the concave bolster, which has 
been very generally adopted both in this country and in 
England. During the building of the new factories, Mr. 
Gardner went to England to negotiate for the purchase of 
carver-forks and steels, and also to make arrangements for 
introducing into their own manufactories the making of cast- 
or run-steel forks ; and also to bring back with him a number 
of skillful workmen. From that time forward the business 
steadily increased for many years. Each year brought out 
some new invention in cutlery, or some machine for improv- 
ing and decreasing the cost of making it. Chief among the 
many patents are the "patent shell bolster" and "Gardner's 
patent guard" carver-fork. After the introduction of the 
latter they ceased to import carver-forks, and have since made 
their own. 

In 1859, Mr. William 6. Clement, a most worthy gentle- 
man, left Lamson & Goodnow, and commenced business for 



himself in Northampton. Mr. Gardner was at once installed 
in his place, and had the care of the entire business. During 
that year, and again in 1868, he was sent to England on 
business for the coni])any. Like all other manufacturers, they 
have had their losses by fires, floods, and commercial panics ; 
but any and every emergency found them ready, courageous, 
and hopeful. At last, in 1876, Mr. Gardner, weary with long 
service, and feeling that he had earned the right to take life 
easier, yet too young and too industrious to retire from busi- 
ness, and having invented a new and superior pocket-knife, 
he left the active management of the Lamson & Goodnow 
Com])any, and commenced manufacturing pocket-cutlery, in- 
tending at first to employ only a limited number of men, and 
also to make the best knives in the world. His first goods, 
stamped "Gardner, 1876," were in the market in the month 
of August of that year. Since then, notwithstanding the 
liard times, he has had a constantly increasing demand for 
them. In these days of competition it is no easy task to do 
the best work and to sell goods at the low prices required ; 
but this Mr. Gardner has always been able to do, and that 
without reducing the wages of his workmen to any great ex- 
tent. His motto has always been, " Good work and fair pay." 


was born in Shelburne, Franklin Co., Mass., on the 29th of 
March, 1812. His birthplace was on the farm which he now 
owns, and which was originally the estate of Gideon Bard- 
well, his grandfather, who settled in Shelburne at an early 
date. His father, Joel Bardwell, was born in Shelburne on 
the 8th of August, 1780. He married Lydia, daughter of 
Lieut. Jabez Newhall, by whom he had seven children, viz. : 
Betsey L., born April 2, 1810, and married Winslow Clark 
on the 3d of June, 1830; Orsamus 0., subject of this sketch ; 
Millicent, born Dec. 12, 1814, and married Alvah Hawks in 
November, 1838 (both are deceased) ; Lydia L., born July 17, 
1817, who married Ira W. Barnard, June 1, 1840; Joel L., 
born Oct. 27, 1819, and Joel L., born July 14, 1822, both of 
whom died in infancy ; and Keziah P., born March 20, 1824, 
and married Elijah Page on the 5th of November, 1849. 

Orsamus 0. received his education in the common schools 
of his native town, which he attended during a part of each 
year until he was seventeen years of age. When quite young 
he worked upon his father's farm, and continued to do so 
until he reached his majority. When twenty-four years of 
age he commenced farming upon his own account, and in 
that year (on the 2d of June, 1836) he married Tirzah Ann 
Jones. She was born on the 11th of July, 1815, and died on 
the 8th of June, 1845. By this union he had one child, Ellen 
Maria, born on the 23d of December, 1839, and died on the 
27th of September, 1851. After his father's decease, which 
occurred in March, 1849, Mr. Bardwell purchased the pater- 
nal estate by paying off the co-heirs. He has devoted himself 
to the improvement and cultivation of his farm, which he has 
considerably enlarged, and has also entered largely into local 

improvements. The ferry across the Deerfield River near 
his residence, and known as " Bardwell's Ferry," was first in 
charge of his grandfather, subsequently of his father, and in 
due time descended to him. He was the first to project, and 
afterward was mainly instrumental in procuring, the bridge 

across the river near this point, and the railroad station and 
post-oflBce, also known as Bardwell's. The position of post- 
master, which was oft'ered hini, was declined on account of the 
multiplicity of his other duties. 

In politics Mr. Bardwell is a Republican, but has never 
been a seeker of office. He hixs held various local positions of 
trust, having been a member of the board of selectmen five 
terras, and for a number of years a justice of the peace and 
assessor. He has been a member of the Baptist Church nearly 
twenty years, and is known as a man of strict integrity of 
character. He married for his second wife, on the 1st of 
February, 1848, Helen L., daughter of Rev. Daniel Packer. 
By this union he had a family of six children, — Orsamus J., 
born Nov. 3, 1848, and died Sept. 22, 1851 ; Daniel P., born 
Feb. 20, 1851 ; Arthur J., born July 7, 1853 ; Lucy S., born 
March 6, 1857; Havelock O., born Feb. 17, 1859; and Evelyn 
H., born July 19, 1861. 

Mrs. Helen P. Bardwell was born on the 16th of August, 
1823, and died March 10, 1875. She was universally beloved, 
and is deeply mourned by her family and a large circle of 



NoRTHFlELD, one of the largest and most populous towns 
in eastern Franklin, with a taxable area of 19,800 acres, 
borders upon the States of Vermont and New Hampshire, 
and has for its northern boundary parts of the southern lines 
of those States. On the south it has the town of Erving, on 
the east the town of Warwick, and on the west the towns of 
Bernardston and Gill. The New London Northern Railroad 
follows the course of the Connecticut until just beyond North- 
field village, and then, crossing the river, joins the Connecticut 
River Railroad at West Northfield, the latter railway travers- 
ing the northwestern corner of the town from Bernardston to 
the Vermont line. 

The Connecticut River divides the northern portion of 
Northfield as far south as the southeast corner of Bernardston, 
and from thence forms Northfield's western boundary. 


The surface of the town is hilly in the east and southeast, 
but on the west, along the river, there stretches a fertile plain, 
the soil of which is a deep alluvial. 

Besides the Connecticut, there are innumerable small streams, 
mostly mountain brooks. The hilly range which extends 
through the length of the town on the east contains many 
prominent eminences, such as South Mountain, Crag Moun- 
tain, and Beers Mountain (the latter so named by reason of 
Capt. Richard Beers having been killed there by the Indians 
in 1675 and buried near) on the south, and, passing farther 
north. Brush, Round, Hemlock, Notch, Stratton, Pine, and 
other mountains. 

Among the natural curiosities may be noticed the Ice- 
House and Rattlesnake Den, on Brush Mountain, and Cold 
Spring, near, where, in a mountain tissure, snow and ice are 
sometimes found as late as August. There are numerous 
rocks, tracts of plain and other spots, to which tradition has 
given names, and concerning which notable incidents were 
recorded in Northfield's early history. 

Clark's Island, in the Connecticut River, north of North- 
field Farms, was granted to the town by William Clarke, in 
1086, and was once supposed to be one of the many spots 
where the pirate Kidd had deposited untold treasures. It is 
sometimes called Field's Island and Stratton 's Island. About 
two miles east of Northfield village Jewell Basset owns a 
quarry, whence an excellent quality of granite is taken in 
considerable quantity. 

The territory now included within the limits of Northfield 
was occupied early in the seventeenth century by the Squak- 
Ac«</ Indians, and they were in possession as late as 1669, when, 
in consequence of the failure of their expedition against the 
Mohawks (in return for the depredations of the latter upon 
the country of the Sqiiakheags), the Sqiiakhcnr/s abandoned the 
tract, and in 1G09 a committee appointed by the General 
Court to lay out a plantation at what is now Worcester re- 
ported that among other places they had discovered a place 
called Suckquakege, ujion the Connecticut River, and sug- 
gested to the court that the places discovered should be re- 
served to make towns, the better to strengthen " those inland 
parts." The court approved the report, and ordered the lands 

mentioned to be thus reserved, and, in 1671, Joseph Parsons, 
Sr., Wm. Janes, George Alexander, Caleb Pomeroy, Micah 
Mudge, and others, of Northampton, purchased this place 
called Suckquakege from the native claimants for " a valuable 
consideration." In the deed, signed by Massemet, Panoot, 
Pammok, Nenepownam (his squaw), Wompely, and Nessa- 
coscom, the tract was described as lying on both sides of the 
Great River, and bounded thus : " The Northerly end at Coas- 
sock, the Southerly end on the east side of the Great River 
down to Quanotock, at the southerly end of the west side of 
the Great River, butting against Mas.sapetot's land, and so 
running six miles into the woods on both sides of the river." 

The tract herein conveyed covered 10,560 acres, and in 
1673 a second purchase of 3000 acres was made, from Asogoa 
(the daughter of Souanaett), Mashepetol, Kisquando, and 
Pampatekerao (Mashcpetol's daughter) for a consideration of 
200 fathoms of wampumek. The land described in the deed lay 
" at Squakheag, called by the Indians Nallahamcomgon, and 
is bounded with the Great River on the easterly side ; on the 
westerly side, a great ledge of hills six miles from the Great 
River; on the southerly, to a brook called by the Indians Nal- 
lahamcomgo, and so straight into the woods on the north to 
that land that was Masseraett's land." 

In May, 1672, the General Court authorized the laying out 
of a township upon the tract first purchased, conditioned that 
not less than twenty families should be settled within eighteen 
months from the date of the grant ; that the petitioners took 
good care to provide and maintain the preaching of the word 
and ordinances of God among them ; and that a farm of 300 
acres be reserved for the use of the country. The grant was 
issued in October, 1672, and provided that the tract should be 
equal to the contents of six miles square, and not be laid out 
above eight miles in length by the river. The committee ap- 
pointed to lay out the township attended to the matter in the 
autumn of 1672, and reported as follows : 

" We appointed and ordered a brook called Natanis, on the west side of the 
Great Kiver, to be the bounds at the Southerly end ; then we measured alwut 
eight miles up the river, to a little river that runs into the Great River, and ap- 
pointed it to run westerly three-quarters of a mile from the Great River ; on the 
east side of the River to come to the lower end of the Three Little meadows tliat 
are below the town's plot, and so to nin up the Kiver eight miles, and three 
miles and three-quarters easterly from the Great Kiver." 

Prom a publication made by Kev. John Hubbard, it appears 
that upon this tract, now known as Northfield, "settlers 
located in the spring of 1673, and built small huts surrounded 
by a stockade and fort. In the centre of their collection of 
huts they built one for public worship, and employed Elder 
William Janes as their preacher." The town-plot was laid 
out at the southerly end of what is now known as Northfield 
Street, and the settlers who located there in 1673, and shortly 
thereafter, were Ralph Hutchinson, Elder Wm. Janes, Robert 
Lyman, Cornelius Merry, John Hilyard, James Bennett, 
Joseph Dickinson, Micah Mudge, John Alexander, George 
Alexander, Samuel Wright, William Miller, Thomas Bascom, 
William Smeade, William Hurlbut, Jr., and Thomas Web- 

The new settlers pursued their lives in peaceful security 
until early in 1675, when the Indians began to grow trouble- 
some, and the news of the destruction of Brookfield, in August 
of this year, together with subsequent Indian depredations, 




alarmed the Northfield settlers to such a degree that they 
abandoned their settlements and fled to Hadley in the latter 
part of that year. 

After its destruction and desertion, Squakheag was a barren 
waste for seven years, until 1682, in the spring of which year 
the original proprietors of the tract addressed a petition to the 
General Court asking that the vacancies on the committee 
originally in charge of the plantation might be filled, two of 
the members thereof having died. The committee was accord- 
ingly completed, and agreed in the .spring of 1683 with the 
proprietors that 40 families should be settled upon the town- 
plot by May 10, 1686, and lots were accordingly granted to 
John Lyman, Joseph Parsons, Sr., Wm. Janes, Geo. Alex- 
ander, Samuel Wright's heirs, John Alexander, Robert 
Lyman, Wm. Miller, Jos. Dickinson's heirs, Ralph Hutchin- 
son, Micah Mudge, Cornelius Merry, John Hilyard, Thos. 
Webster, Wm. clarke, Samuel Davis, Nathaniel Alexander, 
John Clary, Jr., Samuel Boltwood, John Taylor, John Wood- 
ward, Benjamin Palmer, Richard Francis, Isaac Warner, 
Richard Lyman, Jos. Pumory, Eleazer Warner, John Hutch- 
inson, Thos. Hunt, Daniel Warner, Wm. Gurley, Zachary 
Lawrence, John Marsh, Benj. Wright, Ebenezer Wright. 

Of the first settlers, in 1673, Samuel Wright, Jos. Dickin- 
son, and James Bennett were killed by the Indians, while 
others had abandoned their rights, but the majority of them, 
as has been seen, participated in the second settlement of the 


By common consent very little was done toward eflective set- 
tlement until May, 1685, when John Woodward, Wm. Clarke, 
Jr., and Richard" Lyman were granted the privilege of build- 
ing a saw-mill, and 20 acres of land as an encouragement. 
In response to the petition of Wm. Clarke, " in behalfe of 
those that are preparing to resettle the village of Squakeage," 
the General Court extended the southerly bound of the east 
side of the river two and a half miles, to Four-mile Brook. 
About twenty families entered upon the settlement during 
this year (1685), and among them were those of Micah Mudge, 
Cornelius Merry, John Alexander, Wm. Miller, Samuel Davis, 
Benj. Palmer, John Clary, Jr., and Benj. Wright. 

A substantial fort was built, and about this time, too, John 
Clary, Jr., having received an offer of 20 acres of land for an 
encouragement, set up a grist-mill on Mill Brook. 

A piece of land was reserved on the meadow hill for a 
burying-place, and near the spot, it is related, Sergt. Samuel 
Wright was slain by the Indians in 1675. There he was 
buried, and that circumstance decided the location of the 
public grave-yard. 

Roads were laid out in 1685 through Great Meadow, north 
and south ; one between the minister's lot and Wm. Miller's 
lot; one through Bennett's meadow ; and numerous others. 

Early in 1686 a lot was laid out on Moose Plain for a high- 
way and a ferry, and a new fort was also built near John 
Clary's grist-mill. Renewed apprehensions of Indian troubles 
began to be felt in May, 1686, and all males between the ages 
of "sixteen and sixty were required to take turns in standing 
on watch at night, as well as to train during four days in the 
year. At this time there wei-e 29 actual settlers in Squakheag. 
In August, 1687, a third purchase of land was made from 
the Indians by the proprietors of Squakheag (at this time 
called Northfield), and this land, containing 65,000 acres, em- 
braced the larger portion of original Squakheag, and extin- 
guished the Indian title to that tract. 

The settlement prospered fairly, but was doomed to a brief 
existence, for, the signs of fresh Indian troubles becoming 
realities with the outbreak of King William's war in 168<J, 
Northtield was once more deserted, and her inhabitants, fleeing 
to a place of safety, found it again at Hadley. Queen.Anne's 
war following in 1702, and continuing until 1713, Northtield 
remained unsettled and desolate for a period of more than 
twenty-three years. 

Late in 1713 such of the surviving proprietors of Squakheag 
as had not located permanently elsewhere petitioned the Gen- 
eral Court for a revival of the former grant, and the court, 
in ordering the revival, ordered also that the town should be 
called Northfield, that 40 families should be settled within 
three years, and that a minister be settled within the same 


\ Twenty persons engaged to settle, but only eight settled 
during 1714, to wit: Benjamin Wright, Joseph Alexander, 
Nathaniel Alexander, Isaac Warner, Zechariah Field, Heze- 
kiah Stratton , Peter Evans, Thomas Taylor. Eleazer Mattoon 
was an addition to the settlement in the spring of 1715. In 
1716 the new settlers were Benoni Moore, Remembrance 
Wright, Jona. Patterson, Benjamin Janes, Jonathan Janes, 
and Daniel Wright. 

In June, 1716, the General Court directed that 10 men in 
the public pay should be allowed for the covering and en- 
couragement of the plantation of Northfield. To December, 
1716, the people carried their grists to Hadley, but at that date 

-■ pteven Belding, of Swampfield (Sunderland), built a grist-mill 
on the site of John Clary's old mill. Late in 1717, Jonathan 
Belding, of Hatfield, brother to Steven Belding above, put up 
a saw-mill near the grist-mill. In 1728, Jonathan bought out 
his brother's interest, and the mill privileges thus aoiuired 
remained with him and his descendants until 1812. A pound 
was built in 1718, and bricks were made from clay dug in the 


Ebenezer Field, of Deerfield, settled in Northfield in 1720, 
and set up the first blacksmith-shop there in that year, when 
also Stephen Crowfoot opened a carpenter-shop. At this time 
the town of Northfield included within its limits what are 
now portions of Vernon, Vt., and Hinsdale and Winchester, 
N. H., the north portion of Northfield, which assisted in 
making these towns, being cut off in 1740, when the new 
province line was run. The original grant, in 1672, made the 
town equal to six miles square, or eight miles long by four and 
one-half miles wide, and to this, in 1685, there was an addition 
of two and one-half miles to the south end, east of the river. 
Josiah King, stationed at Northfield previous to 1725, as 
one of the garrison, obtained a grant of a home-lot in that 
year, and set up in business as a shoemaker. 

The earliest practicing physician in Northfield was the wife 
of William Miller. She pursued the practice during both the 
first and second settlements of the town, viz., between the 
years 1673 and 1702. 

Father Rasle's war, enduring from 1723 to 1726, brought 
Northfield once more face to face with troublous experience ; 
but the settlers stood their ground this time, and, peace de- 
scending again in 1726, the pursuits of home-life were pushed 
forward with renewed vigor. 

The first paupers with which the town was burdened were 
Thomas Stoddard, his wife, and children, who are noticed in 
a record of date 1736. 

After an interval of eighteen years of peace, the old French- 
and-lndian war broke out in 1744, terminated nominally in 
1749, was renewed in 1754, and continued until 1763. Dur- 
ing this extended period the people of Northfield passed 
through harassing and distressing experiences, but they stood 
the brunt bravely, and, upon the return of peace, began with 
rapid strides to push the settlement toward an abiding pros- 

The first tavern of which mention is made was the one kept 
by Capt. Samuel Hunt in 1762, and previous thereto. Eben- 
zer Field kept one in 1771, as did Hezekiah Stratton about 
1763. Elias Bascom opened a clothier's shop in 1770 ; Hophni 
Kin- was the carpenter in 1763 ; and Dr. Medad Pomeroy 
was°a practicing physician here in 1768. A post-oflice was 
established in Northfield in 1797, and Solomon Vose appomted 
postmaster ; and in the same year Solomon Vose and others 
were incorporated "Proprietors of an Aqueduct in North- 



field," for the purpose of conveying water by subterranean 
pipes in the town. 

In 1799 the Fifth Massachusetts Turnpike Corporation, com- 
posed larE;ely of Northfield men, was organized, and author- 
ized to lay out a road from Northfield through Warwick, 
Orange, Athol, and other towns. The tirst pleasure-carriage 
seen in the town was a two-wheeled chair, owned by Jonathan 
Bclding, in 17U3, but carriages drawn by horses were not 
introduced until 1800, when Hezekiah Stratton owned a two- 
horse hack. 

In 1811 the Northfield Artillery Companj- was organized, 
and subsequently entered the service in 1812. 

John Barrett was the first lawyer, and practiced from 1784 
to 1815. The first birth in the town, as shown by records 
o.xtant, was that of Lydia, daughter of Eemembrance Wright, 
in 1713; the first marriage, between Daniel Sliattuck and 
Kebecca Boltwood ; and the first death, Sarah Meriam, 1719. 

• Northfield, being — as its name implies — one of the extreme 
northern settlements in Massachusetts Bay at the time of its 
English occupation, in 1673, was called upon to sustain severe 
trials and misfortunes during the Indian wars which raged 
between the opening of King Philip's war, in lU7o, and the 
final cessation of Indian hostilities, in 17(i3. Twice was the 
settlement abandoned in consequence of these wars, but the 
people undertook heroically to pursue their fortunes a third 
time, and remained, despite the fact tliat they were compelled 
to pass through the fire of three more wars before peace be- 
came permanent. 

The destruction of Brookfield in August, 1075, as one of 
the earliest notes in King Philip's war, awakened anxiety and 
fear at Northfield, and, about the middle of August, Joseph 
Dickinson went down to Hadley to obtain troops for the pro- 
tection of the settlement. Meanwhile, on the morning of 
September 2d, a considerable force of Indians appeared before 
the settlement, and the settlers, unconscious of impending 
danger, being engaged in their daily avocations, fell an easy 
prey to the savages. The Kev. John Hubbard relates that 
"some were killed in their houses, others as they were coming 
out of the meadows. The rest — men, women, and cliildren — 
tied to the fort. The savages kept around them, killed many 
of their cattle, destroyed their grain, burnt up the houses 
outside the stockade, and laid all waste." 

The whites killed in this assault were Samuel Wright, Eben- 
ezer Janes, Jonathan Janes, Kbenezcr Parsons, John Peck, 
Nathaniel Curtis, Thomas Scott, and Benjamin Dunwich. 

September 4th. — Capt. Richard Beers, in response to Dick- 
inson's appeal on behalf of Northfield, having been detailed 
from Hadley with a force of 3G mounted men to "fetch oft' 
the garrison and people of Squakheag," was nearing the vil- 
lage close to what is now known as Beers' Plain, when his 
command fell into an Indian ambuscade, at the crossing of 
what is now called Saw-mill Brook. The whites rallied and 
made a sharp stand at the south end of Beers' Plain, but the 
Indians were in overwhelming force, and slaughtered — ac- 
cording to Rev. John Hubbard's narrative — twenty of Capt. 
Beers' men, while the residue of those in the fight — thirteen — 
escaped to Hadley. The names of only thirteen of the killed 
are preserved, to wit: Capt. Richard Beers, John Getchell, 
Benjamin Crackbone, Ejihraim Child, George Lickens, John 
Wilson, Thomas Cornich, John Ginery, Jeremiah Morrell, 
Elisha Woodward, Wm. Markham, Jr., Joseph Dickinson, 
and Jas. Mullard. Capt. Beers fell fighting near a narrow 
ravine on the south side of Beers' Hill, and there he was 
buried. After the fight the Indians committed great bar- 
barities upon the persons of the dead, and from the bodies of 
many cut oft' the heads and stuck them upon poles, which 
they placed in ghastly array along the pathway. One of the 
dead was found hung to the limb of a tree bv a chain lioiikcd 


into his jaw ; and of three prisoners taken by the Indians, tra- 
dition relates that they were burnt at the stake, upon the 

Upon receipt at Hadley of the news of the disaster, Jlaj. 
Treat set out from that place on the 5th of September with 
a force of 100 men to the relief of the Squakheag settle- 
ment. Reaching there, he found the inhabitants safely lodged 
within the stockade, where they had been for five days, 
and, taking them under his protection, conveyed them safely 
to Hadley. After the departure of Maj. Treat, the Indians 
burnt the fort and remaining houses at Squakheag, and thus 
utterly destroyed the little village which had been created amid 
toil and hardships. 

Historical authorities give the number of Indians engaged 
in the attack upon Capt. Beers as "many hundreds;" the 
number of their killed in the engagement is more definitely 
given as 25. The leaders of the Indians are stated to have 
been Sagamore Sam and One-eyed John, the latter of whom 
was a noted Indian warrior, whose Indian name was Monoco. 

The Squakheags took up their winter-quarters at Coasset, 
then a piece of woods in Northfield, but now in Vernon, Vt., 
and there, in the following spring, the various tribes, with 
Philip at their head, gathered for consultation and to arrange 
plans for the ensuing campaign. 

After a seven years' Indian occupation, Squakheag reverted 
to the control of the English, who began to re-settle the tract 
in 1683. They were allowed to dwell in peace, however, for 
but a brief space. In July, 1688, rumors of fresh Indian out- 
bre.iks near Springfield reached Northfield. Late that month 
a party of strange Indians was seen near that village, to the 
great alarm of the inhabitants, and on the 16th of August, 
in that year, the savages fell upon Northfield and killed three 
men, two women, and a girl. 

This assault is supposed to have been made at night or early 
in the morning, and upon people residing near John Clary's 
mill. John Clary and his daughter wore probably two of the 
victims, but there is no record of the names of the killed, nor, 
indeed, were the dead given Christian burial, for this sudden 
and terrible onslaught so amazed and demoralized the inhabi- 
tants that one-half the families at once fled from the town and 
took refuge in Hadley. 

The day upon which the attack was made, Samuel Janes 
and Josias Marsh field were sent from Northfield to Springfield 
to apprise Col. Pynchon of the disaster. From Pynclitm' s 
Diary is taken the following extract bearing upon his action : 
"August 17th, I sent away Lieut. Thomas Colton with 16 
soldiers from Spring'' to Northfield to surprise and take ye 
Indians, and pursue y"', who were upon yo service six days, 
they returning back ye 23d of August. I also ordered Lieut. 
Taylor and his Troop of 34 men to move toward ye upper 
towns. I also sent to Hartford for 30 or 40 Indians to go to 
Northfield, but, only 2 coming up, I disbanded y'". 

" August 21st two men, viz., Eben'' Graves and John 
Petty, were sent from Spring'' to garrison Northfield, who 
staid there till the 4th of September." 

On the 29th of August, Col. Pynchon sent Sergt. Bigelow 
with 15 soldiers from Hartford to garrison Northfield, where 
they remained until October 9th. September 6th three men, 
with 25 pounds of powder and 49 pounds of bullets, were sent 
to the Northfield garrison, and on the 11th one man and four 
firelocks were forwarded thither. 

Early in November, a message reaching Col. Pynchon 
from Northfield with the news that the enemy was lurking 
about the latter place, he dispatched 40 men to the town; but 
these men, ranging the woods thereabouts and discovering 
nothing, soon returned to Springfield. 

Gov. Andros set out in October, 168S, from New York, 
purposing " to inquire into the condition of the Northfield 
plantation, and devise means for the safety and welfare of the 
distressed inhabitants of the frontiers." 



Oct. 30, 1088, the " Cominittoe for Nortlifield," composed of 
Wm. Clai'kp, Wm. Holton, Jolin KJni;, ami Pi'oservod Clnp]), 
sent from Northiiniptuii to Guv. Aiulros, ut Boston, tlie fol- 
lowing report : 

" May it iilense y' Exi^ellency to icnicnilior when y Honor wiis at Hatlloy, yon 
•was ijleasetl toscntl for ns, tlio committee inipowered for resettling of Nortlifield, 
to come before yonrself, to give yon an ncconnt of what power we liave jicted in 
order to the resettlement of that place. In ohedience to yonr (lesiie. we have 
drawn nit a hi ief account by what power we have acted, and what we have done 
in order thercnnto." 

(Here follow.s committee's report.) 

" HoN^ Sin, — We have had a great deal of care and tronMc in the resettling 
of this Plantation. Many have had grants and have forfeited them again, so 
that we have had many meetings abont it, which have not been w ithout great 
expense of time and some charges to us. Bnt we are willing to be at any pains 
BO that we conld settle the place. 

"While wc were writing of this we did receive a paper ftom Noithtield in- 
habitants, wherein they did desire tlie inhabitants wliicli are not there may be 
sent away (which have failed to occupy their grants or have deserted the place, 
may be declared forfeited of their rights), or else it will by hard for them to hold 
the place, because it doth discourage those that are there ; they fear the place 
will be deserted." 

In November, 1G88, Gov. Andros ordered a company of 60 
men to be sent to the Northfleld garrison, whither they were 
dispatched under command of Capt. Jonathan Bull. They 
remained there during the winter; and although they afforded 
ample protection to the 15 families left there, they ate up 
about all the subsistence the inhabitants could collect. 

In June, 1089, the following petition was sent to the General 
Court : 

" The teal's, fears, and groans of the broken remnant at Northfield presenting 
themselves before the Honored General Court at Boston, Shew ; ' That we are 
indeed obje:^ts of your pity and commiseration, more than we know how to ex- 
press or maintain a due sense of ; the state of our outward man is very afflictive, 
and for our souls we have need to cry aloud. Have pity on iis ! for the hand of 
God hath touched ns, and ye Almighty hath dealt bitterly with us ! A bitter cup 
of sorrow, blood, and slaughter was reached forth to ns in ye former Indian war. 
Our place burnt and laid desolate, our people slain and ye rest driven away ; ye 
town not only left waste, but bearing also ead marks of divine wrath in that 

" Since which we thought we saw ye Lord calling us to rebuild those wastes, 
went up under an expectation of having forty families speedily dwelling there. 
About 25 were come, and we in a hopeful way, when ye Divine hand smote ns 
again with an amazing stroke. Six persons slain in a moment by Indians last 
summer, which was astonishment to all ye rest. Since which half of our small 
number have deserted ns, yet keep the land which by covenant is not theirs till 
they have dwelt upon it four years. Hereby wo are reduced to twelve mean 
families. Our small number, in a place so remote, exposed ns to ye rage of ye 
lieathen, a-s it were, inviting them to prey upon ns. Our cst.ates are exhaust by 
maintaining garrison soldiers and being kept from our labor. Our burdens of 
watching, warding, fencing, and highways— we for ourselves and them that are 
absent — overbearing to us ; besides all other hardships unavoidable in a new 
place. Our wives and children (that we say not ourselves) ready to sink with 
fears. We have no soul food, nor see any likelihood of attaining any. ... If 
you see meet to order ns to throw up all and leave it wholly to the enemies and 
their insulting, Tho' it's hard (we feel it), we would submit. If we stay, we 
could humbly beg, if your Honors see meet, that those that have lots among us 
may be caused either to come and dwell on them, or quit them to others that 
would. And that such as come may be ordered to have the next lots to them 
that are now inhabited. And that we may have a Committee for our help, to 
order our public occasions, in this our weak beginning. And ever praying ye 
Lord's blessing on you, remain, 

" Y'' humble Servants, 

" Samuel Davis, 

" In ye lehalf of all y* are left at Northfield." 

The only relief afforded by the court was the sending up of 
a few men occasionally on garrison duty during the next few 
months. In November, 1089, the court resolved that the 
lands of those who had deserted Northfleld should be de- 
clared forfeited, unless the owners thereof returned thither 
within four months, or provided men to bear arms and do 
service in their stead, but the deserters declined to do either, 
and the feeble settlement, after struggling through the winter, 
constantly apprehensive of danger and despairing of better 
fortune, saw in the declaration of war between France and 
England, in 1689 (King William's war), the death of their 
last hopes, and they utterly abandoned the settlement, under 
an order of court issued June 2.5, 1690. 

For twenty-three years Northfleld was deserted, save as it 
knew the presence of the roaming savage, and not until 1714 did 
the earl^' proprietors and later grantees attempt re-settk-mcnt. 

After a peaceful interval of abovit ten years, the Indian 
troubles were renewed in June, 1722, iijioii the outbreak of 
what was known as Father Rasle's war. 

Upon the re-settlement of Northfleld, in 1714, a small garri- 
son was stationed there, and continued down to 1722. In view, 
however, of the threatened troubles in thi.s year, two stock- 
ades were built, and a body of 20 men, under command of 
Lieut. Joseph Kellogg, stationed in the town. 

The inhabitants now enjoyed a sense of sectirity, and began 
to think they would escape molestation ; but they were rudely 
awakened to a sense of danger, in August, 1723, when two of 
the town's best citizens — Thomas Holton and Theophilus Mer- 
riraan — were waylaid, near North'field, by Grey-Lock and four 
Indians, and scalped and killed. The consternation and terror 
following this event had scarcely subsided when, in the fol- 
lowing October, the Indians, descending upon a party of har- 
vesters at work in the flelds near Northfleld, killed Ebeuezer 
Severance, wounded Hezekiah Stratton and Enoch Hall, and 
carried oft' Samuel Dickinson a prisoner. This same Dickin- 
son hud been previously taken a prisoner by the Indians at 
Hatfleld, in 1098, when he was but eleven years old, although 
subsequently rescued from his captors. 

This last calamity aroused the public to the necessity of in- 
creased vigilance for the protection of the Northfleld settle- 
rnent. Additional troops were sent to the garrison at that 
point, and in December, 1723, the General Court authorized 
the construction of a block-house above Northfleld, and its 
garrisoning with a company of 40 able-bodied men. The 
fort was built on the west bank of the Connecticut, just 
within the southern limits of the present town of Brattle- 
boro', Yt., and was called Fort Dummer, in honor of the then 
acting governor of Massachusetts. 

The forts at Northfleld were rebuilt and strongly fashioned 
early in 1724 ; and there were at this time at Northfleld 4.5 
men under Capt. Kellogg, whose business it was to man the 
forts and to gtiard the settlers while at work in the fields. 
From that time to the proclamation of peace, in 1725, North- 
field was suft'ered to remain in comparative quiet, although 
many of her best citizens were actively employed in fighting 
the Indians at other points and in doing duty at Fort Dummer. 

Eighteen years of peaceful history saw the settlement ad- 
vanced in prosperity and numbers, when, in 1744, war was 
again declared between France and Great Britain, and then 
ensued what is known as the old French-and-Indian war. 

In May, 1744, the people of Northfield were informed of 
the declaration of war, and at once set about placing the town 
in a posture of defense, and soldiers were supplied as a gar- 
rison. Although the Indians renewed their depredations in the 
valley shortly after war was declared, and fighting was sharp 
and furious at many places in that region, Northfield escaped 
serious molestation until Aug. 11, 1746, when the Indians 
killed young Benjamin Wright, who had ventured out to the 
commons after his cows. On the loth four whites were shot 
at near Merry's meadow, but without harm. 

In April, 1747, the French and Indians, being repulsed after 
a three days' attack upon the fort at " No. 4" (Charlestuwn, 
N. H.), turned toward Northfield; and a number of their 
force, lying in ambush at the north part of the town, set upon 
and killed Nathaniel Dickinson and Asahel Burt, who were 
driving cows up from the meadows. The scene of this tragedy 
is no-w marked by a granite monimient, which stands near the 
highway-, about a mile north of the centre of Northfleld vil- 
lage. Upon one side of the stone is the inscription, " Nathan- 
iel Dickinson was killed and scalped by the Indians at this 
place, April 15, 1747, let. 48;" and upon another, "Asahel, 
son of Joseph Burt, companion of Dickinson and sharer of his 
fate, aged about 40." 



Upon the reception at Boston of the news of this sUiughter 
a company of sixty troopers were sent to Northfield, and other 
measures taken for additional protection to the settlement. 

Exciting events in the histurj- of the war continued to fol- 
low in rapid succession, and, culls from other points for men 
having left Northfield badly protected in July, 1748,a party of 
Indians appeared at the upper end of the village on the 23d 
of that month, and about sunrise, meeting Aaron Belding, 
who was on his way from Fort Alexander to Mill Brook, 
killed him. The place where he fell is now marked by an 
inscription cut in the face of a rock near by, — "Aaron Belding 
was killed hero July 23, 1748," — and this rock has since been 
known as Belding's Rock. 

A treaty of peace was signed in 1748, and the Northfield 
people congratulated themselves upon having seen the end of 
(rouble. They entered with a will upon a revival of the in- 
dustrial interests of the settlement, and early in 1753, con- 
cluding that the peace would be lasting, they took down their 
forts, because — in the language of an early record — " the town 
would have no further use for them." Their belief proved, 
however, to bo a short-lived delusion. 

Hostilities were renewed in 1754, and, once more alarmed, 
the settlers rebuilt their forts, which were completed early in 
175-'). A garrison was provided for the town, and, although 
nniny of the settlers enlisted in the militarj' service, the pro- 
motion of agricultural interests was not utterly neglected, 
albeit danger lurked upon every hand, and he who ventured 
beyond the forts was more than ordinarily rash. Zebediah 
Stebbins and Reuben Wright ventured out to work in their 
fields, Aug. 20, 1756, and upon their return homeward were 
attacked by four Indians lying in ambush. They made a 
good stand, however, and, putting the Indians to fiigjit after 
killing one of them, escaped unharmed. 

Among those of Northfield who went into the military 
service in 1756 were Benoni Wright, Uriah Morse, Gideon 
Shattuck, Simeon Knight, Zadock Wright, Elias Bascom, 
John Alexander, Miles Alexander, and Samuel Mattoon. In 
October, 17-56, orders were issued by the Massachusetts author- 
ities to impress men for the support of Gen. Winslow, and 
from Northfield were taken the following: Thomas Alexander, 
Moses Evans, Ebenezer Field, Samuel Field, Eliphaz Wright, 
Amzi Doolittle, Samuel Stratton, Philip Mattoon, Alexander 
Norton, Asahel Stebbins, Jona. Hunt, Samuel Orvis, Daniel 
Brooks, Amasa Wright, Benjamin Miller, Reuben Wright, 
Thomas Elgar. Upon the completion of the draft, Capt. Seth 
Field wrote to Col. Israel Williams as follows : 

" Sir, — The men impressed ai-e the strength and su]'ix)it of tlie town. Many 
of them with great families, and under the most difficult circumstances to leave, 
especially in the frontiers; but I am obliged to take such or none. Our people 
are in the utmost distress at the thought of having this town stripped of the best 
men in it, and there is a general backwardness amongst the men to go and leave 
their families in such situation and under their difficult circumstances, for as 
soon as they leave the town we sliall be able to nuike but a faint resistance 
against the enemy, and must lie at his mercy. We have indeed forts, and hut 
few feeble men to guard and defend them. Pity and compassion cries loud for 
an exemption from the double burden lying on the frontiers, and especially poor 
Northfield, who has been wasting away by the hand of the enemy these ten 
years past. Sir, begging Your favor for this distressed town, I am 

" yf humble serv', 

" Seth Field. 

"Northfield, Oct. o, 175G." 

Capt. John Burk mustered a company of rangers early in 
1757, and had in his command Northfield men as follows : Za- 
dock Wright, Zebediah Stebbins, Seth Rose, Jonathan Hunt, 
Simeon Knight, Azariah Wright, Amos Tute, Samuel Taylor, 
John Bement, Jr., Reuben Petty, Obed Severance, Ebenezer 
Stoddard, Thcophilus Chamberlain, Rufus Brown, Samilel 
Orvis, Jacob Elmer, Michael Frizzel. A portionof the above 
men were in Capt. Burk's company at the ca]iitulalion of Fort 
William Henry, in August, 1757. 

In March, 17.58, among the forces dispatched for the con- 
quest of Canada were the following from Northfield, in the 
company of Capt. Salah Barnard, of Deerfield : Thomas Alex- 

ander, Eleazar Patterson, Job Smith, John Alexander, Josiah 
Olds, Nathan Beach, Richard Chamberlain, Abial Chamber- 
lain, Jacob Elmer, Thomas Elgar, Michael Frizzel, Benjamin 
Miller, Samuel Orvis, Darius Wadkins, Amos Tute. 

March 6, 1758, the house of Capt. Fairbanks Moor, on 
West River, was attacked, the captain and his son killed, and 
the son's wife, with her four small children, taken captive. 
Aug. 27, 1758, Asahel Stebbins was killed in an attack on 
"No. 4," and his wife, with Isaac Parker, a garrison soldier, 
taken captive. 

Among the Nortlifield men in the service during 1759 were 
Samuel Taylor, Samuel Merriman, John Brown, Seth Lyman, 
John Alexander, Joel Alexander, Jonathan Burr, Benjamin 
Burt, Joel Holton, Joseph Dickinson, John Mun, Jr., Aaron 
Petty, Reuben Smith, Joseph Merchant, Reuben Alexander, 
Miles Alexander, Moses Bascom, Ezekiel Bascom, Joel Baker, 
Nehemiah How, Benjamin Mun, Solomon Sartwell, Job Smith, 
Amos Tute, John Moffat, Jonathan Hunt, Reuben Petty, 
Eldad Wright, Nathaniel Chamberlain, Samuel Frizzel, 
Aaron Field, John Severance, Elias Bascom. 

The following Northfield men were in Gen. Amherst's army 
at the capture of ^Montreal in 1760; Samuel Taylor, John 
Petty, Elias Alexander, Miles Alexander, Asa Alexander, 
Reuben Alexander, Benjamin Burt, Thomas Elgar, Benjamin 
Gardner, Eben Holton, Uriah Morse, Simeon Olmstead, Abncr 
Wright, Daniel Wright. 

The war was Tirtually closed in 1760, although the peace 
treaty was not signed until 1763 ; and thus, after a dire expe- 
rience of many years, Northfield found permanent release 
from her persistent savage persecutors. 


Northfield bore a noble part in the war of the Revolution, 
and in the early town records the frequent narration of how 
the town pursued vigorous measures on behalf of the country's 
common cause testifies eloquently to the patriotic spirit that 
animated its inhabitants. When the revenue act was passed, 
imposing onerous duties upon necessaries and luxuries, the 
Northfield people promptly resolved to forego the use of many 
of the articles upon which taxes were laid. 

In 1774, Phinehas Wright was chosen to represent the town 
at the General Court, convened by Gov. Gage, to meet at 
Salem, October 5th, and the following year Ebenezer Janes 
was chosen a delegate to the Provincial Congress to be held at 
Cambridge. Samuel Smith, Phinehas Wright, Samuel Root, 
Thomas Alexander, and Seth Field were that year chosen a 
committee of inspection, and it was also voted " that the select- 
men give orders that such of the Minute-Men belonging to this 
town that are not able to supply themselves with ammunition 
for any expedition that they may be called to, be supplied out 
of the town's stock whenever they shall be called forth." 

In the fall of 1774 a company of 51 Minute-Men — 26 be- 
longing to Northfield, and 25 from Warwick — were organized, 
and entered at once upon a course of training exercise, under 
Joseph Allen and Gad Corse. The company was commanded 
by Capt. Eldad Wright, and ugon the alarm from Lexington, 
in April, 1775, the long roll was beaten by Elihu Lyman. 
Capt. Wright assembled his command, and on the evening of 
the day after the battle of Lexington, Capt. Wright and his 
company were eii route from Northfield to Cambridge, in Col. 
Samuel Williams' regiment. The names of the Northfield 
men were: Captain, Eldad Wright; Sergeants, Eliphaz 
Wright, Hophni King ; Corporals, John Holton, Oliver 
Smith ; Fifer, Cotton Dickinson ; Drummer, Elihu Lyman ; 
and the following privates: Eldad Alexander, Cyrus Stebbins, 
Moses Root, Joseph Allen, Augustus Belding, Ebenezer Petty, 
Rufus Carver, Elisha Alexander, Luther Fairbanks, Thomas 
Stebbins, George Robbins, Joseph Fuller, Barzillai Wood, 
Elisha Stebbins, Benjamin Miller, Elisha Risley, Nathan Fisk, 
William Clemmens, David Gcodenough. 



In Marcli, 1770, a ooriipiuiy of 03 men, recruited at North- 
fieUl, Wiirwick, l!crn:irilstc>n, and vicinity, chose Thomas 
Alexander as captain, and marclicd, under orders, to join the 
expedition against Canada. The company proceeded to Ticon- 
deroga, and subsequently to Morristown, N. J., where, in 
December, 1776, they joined Washington's army. Of the 03 
originally included in the command, but 18 were left when 
Morristown was reached. 

Among the Nortlilield men who enlisted for the campaign 
of 1770 were also Oapt. Samuel Jlcrriman, Jloses Belding, 
Cephas Alexander, Kldad Alexander, John Farrar, Solomon 
Ilolton, Augustus Belding, Thomas Stebbins, Moses Smith, 
James Hunt, Cyrus Stebbins, Thomas Elgar, Dennis Stebbin.s, 
Alpheus Morgan, Second Lieut. Miles Alexander, Nathan 
Holton, Samuel Frizzel, Elihu Boot, Reuben Field, Nathan 
Field, Nathaniel Billings, Stephen Billings, Asa Stratt<m, 
Jonathan Janes, Edward L. Tiffimy, Elijah Stratton, Noah 
Morgan, Jona. Loveland, Levi Field, Ithamar Goodenough, 
Nathan Frindle, Titus Dickinson, David Smith, Joseph Kose, 
Moses Smith, Samuel Slarrow, Baldwin, Samuel Tem- 
ple, Ishmael Turner, John Stearns, Sikes, William 

King, Ezra King, Simeon King. 

Among those who enlisted in 1777 were Thomas Elgar, Jas. 
Lyman, Samuel Field, Thaddeus Brooks, Benjamin Dike, 
Nathaniel Billings, Benoni Dickinson, Moses Burt, Archibald 
Clandanel, Ebenezer Field, Asahel Stebbins, John Mun, J. 
Church, and Joseph Smead. 

Col. Phinchas Wright, of Northfield, was in command of a 
regiment in 1777, and Moses Dickinson Field, who was a 
lieutenant at the battle of Bennington, afterward maintained 
that it was a shot from his gun which laid low Col. Baum, 
the German commander. Capt. Samuel Merriman, of North- 
field, commanded a company of men in Col. Phinchas 
Wright's regiment, which went out in response to Gen. 
Gates' call in September, 1777. 

The Northfield men in Capt. Merriman's command were : 
Captain, Samuel Merriman; Lieutenant, Eldad AVright ; 
Sergeants, Seth Lyman, Oliver Watriss, and George Field; 
Corporals, Nathaniel Billings, Jas. Lyman, John Holton, and 
Eldad Alexander; and privates, Elias Bascom, Alpheus 
Brooks, Ebenezer Petty, Thaddeus Brooks, Simeon Alex- 
ander, Jonathan Janes, Elijah Taylor, John Evans, Nathan 
risk, Elisha Holton, Asa Slratton, Henry Allen, Noah Mor- 
gan, Elijah Stratton, and Eliphaz Wright. 

Capt. Merriman's company took part in the battles of Sara- 
toga, and was present at the surrender of Burgoyne, Oct. 17, 
1777. After Burgoyne's surrender several of his men settled 
in Northfield, among them John Woodard, rt<d)ert Timson, 
Dennis McCarty, and William Dorrel. The latter became 
subsequently a settler at Leyden, Mass., and the founder of a 
religious sect called the " Dorrelites." 

John Wotton, an Englishman, who settled in Northfield 
about the close of the war, embarked from England with Bur- 
goyne's army, but, the ship in which he sailed being captured 
by an American cruiser, he enlisted, upon his arrival, in the 
American army, and was present at Burgoyne's surrender. 

In May, 1778, the town raised £120 lawful money to pay 
for four men to serve eight months. £100 apiece were paid 
to George Bobbins, Solomon Alexander, Matthew Bansom, 
John Dennis, and Ebenezer Petty as a bounty for enlisting. 

In June the bounty was raised to £120 per man for the term 
of the war, and in July and October nine men were raised for 
six months' service at £30 per man as a bounty. Among 
those who entered the service this year (1778) were Eldad 
Wright, Jona. Belding, Darius Stebbins, Oliver Garey, Elihu 
Lyman, Moses Boot, Joseph Smead, Joshua Lyman, Eliph- 
alet Stratton, Sylvanus Watriss, Daniel Ransom, J. Church, 
Phinchas Field, Obadiah Janes, Levi Merriman, Alpheus 
Brooks, Samuel Merriman, Eliphaz Alexander, Thos. Alex- 
ander, Francis Burk, Levi Field, Asa Field, Elijah Field, 

Jonas Holton, Ebenezer Petty, John Dickinson, Franci.s 

In 1780 the £120 granted by the General Court were paid 
Jona. Belding's son for enlisting as a nine months' man, and 
£300; also granted by the General Court, were paid to three 
other nine months' men. 

Other men who entered the service this year (1780) were 
Moses Bobbins, Alpheus Brooks, Thaddeus Brooks, Daniel 
Warren, John Watriss, John Moffatt, Joseph Myriek, Seth 
Mun, Gideon Putnam, Alpheus Morgan, William Norce, 
Archibald Clandanel, James Lyman, Jona. Belding, Eldad 
Wright, Tertius Lyman, Jo,sh\ux Ijyman, Eliphalet Stratton, 
Phinchas Field, Seth Field, Eliphas Alexander, Barzillai 
Woods, Benjamin Doolittle, James Scott, Moses Dickinson. 

For ten men required in January, 1781, 1000 Spanish dol- 
lars were borrowed to pay the bounties, and after that, in the J 
same year (July), Tertius Lyman, Donaldus Wright, Moses 1 
Bobbins, Nathaniel CoUer, Beuben Whitcomb, William 
Larkin, Abraham Parker, Jona. Parker, Richard Kingsbury, 
Alexander Best, and William Brown, enlisted, and received — 
the eight first named — a bounty of £12 ea<'h. 

When the war of 1812 broke out Northfield was the head- 
quarters of the ].5th Division Massachusetts Militia, com- 
manded by Maj.-Gen. John Nevers, of Northfield. Shortly 
after the beginning of hostilities, Capt. Elisha Field opened 
a recruiting-office in Northfield and organized a company 
known as the "Sea Fencibles," afterward stationed at Fort 
Independence, in Boston Harbor. 

In September, 1814, Capt. Elijah Mattoon, Jr., set out from 
Northfield for Boston in command of an artillery company, 
. composed of the following men : Captain, Elijah Mattoon, 
Jr. ; Lieutenants, Charles Bowen and Isaac Gregory ; Ser- J 
geants, Calvin Stearns, King Harris, Samuel Alexander, Jas. 1 
Horsely, John Whiting; Corporals, Sharon Field, Elmer 
Wait, Nathan Simonds, Ansel Graves; and rank and file as , 
follows : Micajah Heminway, Elias Holton, John Holton, Jr., I 
Henry Wright, Erastus Field, Chapin Holden, Wm. Norton, 
Elijah Shcpardson, Arunah Shepardson, John Packard. Aaron 
Dike, Jr., Edward Nettleton, Reuben Lee, Adam Torrey, 
Miner Butler, Cyrus Butler, Ellsworth Hunt, Alanson Hunt, 
Apollos Morgan, Abner E. Whiting, Lucius Holton, Wm. 
Hancock, Thomas Lyman, Jabcz F. Bissell, Calvin Stratton, 
Clark Fowler, Obadiah Morgan, Bichard Colton, Wm. Hall, 
John Fowler, Thomas Eockwood. 

Others who served in the war from Northfield were Otis 
French, Adolphus Lyman, Ezekiel Woods, Thomas Kendall, 
Charles Reed, Moses Ellis, Jas. Mattoon, Artemas Moody, 
Apollos Beach, Oliver Kendrick, George Nettleton, Jos. Perry, 
Jona. Bobbins, Ebenezer Childs, Solomon Miller, Ebenezer 
Dodge, Eber Church, Isaac Beed, Aaron Davis, Jos. Bridge, 
Jos. Cook, Simeon Mallory, Isaac Kendall, Zadock Turner, 
Isaac Johnson, John Fairman, Samuel Presson, Jacob Miller. 
Northfield took no public action in opposition to the war of 
1812, but Eufus Stratton went as an irregular delegate to the 
anti-war convention held at Northampton, on the 14th of 
July, in that year. 

The incorporation of Northfield as a town dates from June 
15, 1723, and the first town-meeting for the election of officers 
was held July 22d, in that year. Previous to this date, 
beginning with the third settlement, in 1714, the town officers 
had been either appointed by the committee placed in charge 
of town afliiurs by the General Court, or their selection sub- 
mitted to the committee for approval. 

Under the act of incorporation, however, the town was per- 
mitted to regulate its own afi'airs. 

Mention has already been made of the elimination from the 
town of a hirge tract in the north in 1740, and Feb. 28, 179.5, 
a portion known as Grass Hill, and lying in the great bend 
of the Connecticut, on its western bank, was sot oif to the 



Osgood, Zebulon Allen, Simeon A. Field, Earl Wilde, M. S. Mead, Jonathan 
Lyman, S. S. IXoltoo, Elijah Stratton. 

The villages in Northfield are three, and they are called 
Northfield Village, West Northfield, and Northfield Farms. 


or Northfield Street, as it is sometimes designated (a station 
on the New London Northern Eailroad), is the most impor- 
tant uf the three, and is, moreover, the point where the early 
settlements of the town concentrated. The inhabitants reside 
chiefly upon one broad, handsome thoroughfare, known as the 
" Street," which extends nearly north and south, and which for 
the space of about a mile is shaded upon either side by noble 
elms and prettily embellished by numerous tasteful dwellings. 
The village is a place of popular resort in the summer, when, 
decked with leafy richness and blooming with bounteous nat- 
ural beauty, it is indeed an inviting spot. 

The Connecticut Kiver flows along the village front, and 
majestic hills, rearing their heads iu the near background and 
in the distance as far as the eye can reach, complete a picture 
such as Nature presents when .she is seen at her best. 

The population of the village is about 500, and there are 
also within its limits two churches, three stores, a town-hall, 
one hotel, a Masonic hall, a school, an agricultural-imple- 
ment manufactory, a post-office, and a public library. 

Here also is one of the oldest Masonic lodges in Massachu- 
setts, the Harmony Lodge, organized in 1796, with a present 
membership of 75. This is said to be about the only lodge 
that withstood the anti-Masonic wave which rolled over 
"Western Massachusetts in 1826-30. 

A grange flourished here some years ago, but has latterly 
shown symptoms of a serious decline. 

The village was visited by a disastrous fire ou the night of 
Dec. 18, 1878, wlien L. T. Webster's store and the post-office 
were completely destroyed, and a loss entailed to the amount 
of itiynOO. 


is a small settlement in the north, adjoining the Vermont 
State line, and west of the Connecticut River, which, at this 
point, divides the town. The Connecticut River Eailroad and 
New London Northern Eailroad connect at this point. 
There are in the village a store, school, and post-otBce, and a 
population devoted almost exclusively to agricultural pursuits. 

in the southwest, a station on the New London Northern 
Eailroad, is, as its name implies, peopled with agriculturists, 
and has but one store, in which the post-office is located. 


Tradition states that the earliest settlers in 1673 had a 
meeting-house, but where located or when erected cannot be 
said. Tradition further says that in the summer of 1673 
Elder William Janes used to preach to the people on Sabbatli 
under the Meeting Oak, which was one of a cluster of six yel- 
low oaks that stood in the lower end of what is now Northfield 
village. This Meeting Oak outlasted its fellows, and met 
death by accidental fire in 1869. 

During the second settlement, in February, 1688, it was 
resolved to build a meeting-house, for which, and a proposed 
bridge over Mill Brook, £40 5s. were to be raised, but 
whether the meeting-house was built, no record gives assur- 
ance. Late in 1688, Eev. Warham Mather was sent from 
Northampton to Northfield "to be their minister for half a 
year," and that he served is made manifest by a petition 
which he sent to the General Court in 1691, saying that the 
people of Northfield, supposing that Sir Edmund Andros 
(who had instructed Capt. Nicholson to send the petitioner to 
Northfield) would see him paid, had provided him only with 

provisions; and the £15 in money, which Capt. Nicholson had 
pledged him for his services, he begged the General Court to 
allow him. The court admitted the justness of the claim, but 
deferred its payment until 1700. 

After the permanent settlement of Northfield, it was re- 
solved, in October, 1716, to build a house 10 feet long and 
12 feet wide, for " the present accommodation of a minister," 
and an engagement was then made with James Whitmore, of 
Middletown, Conn., to preach half a year, for which he was 
to have £25 and subsistence for himself and horse. 

Previous to the year 1718, Sabbath services had been held 
in such houses as boasted the largest kitchens ; but early in 
that year the town agreed to build a meeting-house "of the 
dimensions of the Sunderland meeting-house, viz., 45 feet 
long, 30 feet wide, and 18 feet between joints." This house 
was erected in the middle of thg street, near the site of the 
present Unitarian Church in Northfield village, and, like the 
churches of those days, was fiTrnished with slab forms instead 
of pews. Pews were not introduced into the church until 
17.53, and then only as individuals desired to build them for 
their own use. 

Mr. Whitmore's successor was Mr. Benjamin Doolittle, of 
Wallingford, Conn., who was engaged, November, 1717, to 
preach during the winter, and who, at the conclusion of that 
engagement, was permanently settled as minister about Sep- 
tember, 1718, when, it is supposed, a church *as also organ- 
ized. Mr. Doolittle was to have for a settlement £100 in 
money, a dwelling-house, house-lot and pasture-lot, and a 
salary of £05 annually for the first six years, and £75 annu- 
ally thereafter, besides an annual supply of firewood. 

For many years after Mr. Doolittle's settlement people 
were called to public worship by the beat of a drum, or bj' 
the hanging out of a flag at the meeting-house. 

Mr. Doolittle was a physician as well as a minister, and as 
a physician enjoyed a lucrative practice. Fault began to be 
found with him in 1736 by some of his congregation, on the 
ground that the pursuit of his profession as a physician inter- 
fered with his ministerial duties, and directly other exceptions 
began to be taken to him as to his religious views, and in the 
controversy that ensued the town was divided, a majority, 
however, taking sides with Mr. Doolittle. The main points 
in the controversy were touching the charges against him 
that he told the town "he would not lay by doctoring and 
chirurgery under £400 a year ; that he refused to comply with 
the association's and the court's advice for a mutual council ; 
his practice of doctoring and chirurgery, and acting as pro- 
prietor's clerk for Winchester, contrary to the town's mind." 

Mr. Doolittle steadily refused to unite in calling an ecclesi- 
astical council to adjust the difficulty, and in his stand he was 
strongly supported by many inhabitants. The other side 
made many eft'orts to bring Mr. Doolittle into compliance with 
their wishes, but to no avail, and victory filially rested with 
the pastor, who, putting to vote after a Sunday service in 
February, 1741, the question as to whether he should be sus- 
tained, declared the vote in the affirmative, and that was an 
end of the controversy. Mr. Doolittle died suddenly, Jan. 9, 
1749, in the fifty-fourth year of his age, and thirtieth of his 

"A Short Narrative of the Mischief Done by the French- 
and-Indian Enemy on the Western Frontiers of Massachu- 
setts Bay from 1743 to 1748," published in 17-50, was written 
by Mr. Doolittle. But three copies of the pamphlet are known 
to be in existence, and of these one is in the library of Har- 
vard College. 

In the March following Mr. Doolittle's death, JNlr. Isaac 
Lyman, of Northamptim, was given a call to settle; but he 
declined, and Mr. John Hubbard, of Hatfield, was oft'ered a 
call, with a settlement of £133 6s. Sd. and a salary of £60 13s., 
with yearly firewood. Mr. Hubbard accepted the call, and 
was ordained May, 17.50. 



In August, 17G1, it was resolved to -build a new meeting- 
hnusp, and, some difl'erence of opinion arising touching its 
place of location, a disinterested committee was called in, and 
a site selected north of the old house. There was some dissat- 
isfiution with this location, and at a town-meeting called in 
May, 17(53, it was voted to set the house on the west side of the 
street (near where the present Unitarian Church stands). Two 
barrels of New England rum and four gallons of West India 
rum were used at the raising, and the church was provided 
with a steeple as well as a bell. The house was, however, not 
finished until 1767, and not painted until 1789. 

Previous to 1770 it was the custom in church for the deacon 
to "line the psalm" for the singers, but in January of that 
year the town voted "that hei'eafter the singers shall sing 
altogether, without the deacon's reading the psalm, line by 
line, except at the Lord's table." The training of singers for 
the church service began then to be a town concern, and, late 
in 1770, Seth Hastings was hired as a singing-master. 

The ministry of Mr. Hubbard was unmarked by any im- 
])ortant incident, save the controversy which arose between 
him and his people upon the breaking out of the Revolu- 
tionary war. Previous to that time, according to the general 
custom, Mr. Hubbard included in his pra3-ers a petition for 
the divine blessing upon the king of Great Britain ; and 
this he continued to invoke after the battle of Lexington, to 
the great indignation of many members of his congregation. 
He was publicly reproved at a Sabbath service by Deacon 
Samuel Smith, and forbidden to recite the obnoxious prayer. 
The pastor resented this dictation, and, declining to submit to 
it, raised a storm about his ears that resulted in the calling 
of a church council in 1779 to pass upon the merits of the 
controversy ; but while the council was deliberating, the 
trouble was adjusted by Mr. Hubbard and his people, upon 
the basis of his pledge to pray thereafter for the prosperity of 
the American arms. 

After a ministry of upward of fortj'-four j-ears, Mr. Hub- 
bard died November, 1794. His successor was Kev. Samuel C. 
Allen, who was ordained November, 179-3, and dismissed in 
January, 1798, after which he studied law and became quite 
successful at the Bar. 

The next settled minister was Rev. Thos. Mason, who was 
ordained November, 1799, and continued to be the pastor 
until February, 1830. In 1801 the church received the gift 
of an organ from Samuel Smith. From the date of Mr. 
Mason's settlement the church became Unitarian in doctrine, 
and has thus remained to the present day. Shortly before Mr. 
Mason's dismissal 56 members of his church withdrew and 
formed a second Unitarian Church, for which Rev. Samuel 
Presbury preached from February, 1828, to September, 1829. 
Upon the retirement of Mr. Mason, the members of the sec- 
ond church, relinquishing their organization, returned to the 
first church in 1830, and in that year Rev. Geo. W. Hosmer 
was installed, and preached until July, 1836. 

Meanwhile, in 1833, the old meeting-house was replaced, 
near the same site, by a new one, which was built bj' Wm. 
Pomeroy, and given to the town in exchange for the old 
house, on condition that the money received for the sale 
of pews (about S5000) should constitute a permanent fund, 
whose income should be devoted to parish expenses. This 
latter house was destroyed by fire in 1871, and was succeeded 
by the present imposing edifice, built in 1872, at a cost of 
$7000. In the latter year, Mr. "Williams Allen, of New 
York, presented the church with a bell, and the town sup- 
plied the church-tower with a fine clock. In 1836, Wm. Pome- 
roy deeded certain lands, mortgages, etc., to the church as a 
]iermanent fund, which amounts now to upward of .fi.jOOO. 

Mr. Hosnier's successors as pastors have been Kevs. O. C. 
Everett, Wm. C. Tenney, John Murray, Chas. Noyes, Jabez 
T. Sunderland, and S. B. Putnam, the latter the pastor in 
January, 1879. 


was organized November, 182-3, with 30 members, and after 
worshiping in Union Hall, Northfield village, until 1829, 
built the present church edifice, which was remodeled in 1849. 
The first pastor was Rev. Eli Moody, and succeeding him were 
Revs. Bancroft Fowler, Horatio J. Lombard, Nathaniel Rich- 
ardson, Luther Farnum, Willard Jones, Isaac Perry, and 
Theodore J. Clark, pastor in January, 1879. 


was organized in 1810, and enjoyed regular preaching supply 
until 1844, when it withdrew from the Conference. 

A branch of the Baptist Church of Leverett and Montague 
was organized at Northfield Farms in 1829, and dissolved in 

It maybe appropriate, in connection with this church chap- 
ter, to note that IMoody, the famous revivalist, was born in 


The earliest recorded notice of public attention being given 
to educational matters dates back to 1721, when the wife of 
Ebenezer Field, the blacksmith, taught a select school at her 
own house, and charged fourpence each week per scholar. 

In 1731 there was some talk by the town of building a 
school-house, but nothing came of it, and it would appear 
from the records that the town, being presented by the county 
in 1736 for failing to have a school, straightway voted to have 
a schoolmaster, and to build, buy, or hire a school-house. A 
school-house was built and set in the street " against Samuel 
Hunt's home-lot,'' and Seth Field employed as a teacher. In 
1748 a new school-house was erected near the meeting-house, 
and another one in 1764. Until 1781 the town had but one 
school-house and one school district. 

Between the years 173S and 1785, the teachers were Seth 
Field (who taught most of the time between 1736 and 177-5), 
Phinehas Wright, Lydia Warner, Daniel Babbit, and Abi- 
shai Colton. The first school known to the inhabitants on 
the west side of the river was taught in 177-5. 


was incorporated June, 1829, and opened in October in the 
building known as Hunt's Hotel, at Northfield village, which 
had been purchased and well furnished for school purposes. 
The academy passed, in 1835, into the hands of Phineas Allen, 
but was discontinued in 1843. Latterly, a select school has been 
taught in a part of the academy building, while the other 
portion has been devoted to the manufacture of agricultural 

There were, in 1878, thirteen district schools in the town, 
for support of which in 1877 the expenditures were §2641.27. 
College graduates, natives of Northfield, as follows : Seth 
Field, Thomas Bridgman, Ebenezer Mattoon, Caleb Alex- 
ander, Benjamin Burt, Frederick Hunt, Ebenezer Janes, Elihu 
Lyman, Isaac B. Barber, Joseph S. Lyman, John Barrett, Jr., 
Charles Barrett, Joseph Allen, Fred. H. Allen, Isaiah Moody, 
Samuel Prentice, Caleb C. Field, Thomas P. Field, Dwight 
H. Olrastead, Justin Field, Frederick Janes, James K. Hos- 
mer, Edgar P. Belding, Lucius Field, E. H. Allen. 

PUBLIC Lllill.4RY. 
Northfield has a free public library of 1600 volumes, which 
was founded by private enterprise as a social library in 1813, 
and as such continued until December, 1878, when it was do- 
nated to the town. The original projector of the enterprise was 
Thomas Power, of Boston, who settled in Northfield in 1812. 

There are public grave-yards at Northfield Centre, West 
Northfield, and Northfield Farms, of which the oldest is at 
Northfield Centre. This burying-ground is the one origin- 



ally laid out by the first settlers of the town, and is still used. 
Care luis been taken to preserve the surroundings of the 
ground. A neat fence incloses it, and the presence of numer- 
ous handsome monuments among the weather-stained and 
time-worn headstones erected a century and more ago, presents 
a striking picture of the mingling of modern and beautiful art 
with the musty and crumbling relics of the past. Some of the 
old headstones are so worn away that many inscriptions are 
illegible, but number.s of the oldest can yet be traced, and of 
these the following are transcribed : 

Mrs. Meriain Wright, 1720; Hannah Stralton, 1720; Richard Bemeut, 1732; 
Sft'plien Belilen, 17:56; Surah Stratton, 173G; Sarali Lyman, 1738 ; Zecliaiiah 
Fiekl, 1740; Mercy Fiold, 1740; Peter Evans, 1752; Anne Field, 1755; Medad 
rielil, 17.50; Eliezer Wright, 1753 ; ."^eth W.ight, 1740; Eunice Wright, 1740; 
.Tulm Taylor, 1757 ; Jemima .Janes, 1748; Tamar Stratton, 1759; Tamar Stratton, 
1702 (two dauglitera of Ehenezer Stratton) ; Martha Stratton, 1702 ; Ehenezer 
Janes, .Jr., 1700 ; Sarali Janes, 1700; Samuel Ilolton, 1707 ; Orea Harvey, 1705 ; 
Hepzihali Beldlng, 1701; Slartlia Alexander, 1701; Siirali Belding, 1762; Ahi- 
gail Bellows, 1750; Suhmit Field, 1702; Ehenezer Field, 1759; Keziah Field, 
1755; Amelia Field, 1708 ; Ehenezer Warner, 1708 ; Benoni Wright, 1707; Seth 
W] ight, 17:i4 ; Sarah Stratton, 1770 ; Hannah Janes, 1770; Sale Knap, 1770; 
Francis Field, 1770 ; Silas Field, 1773; Azuhah Field, 1774; Electa Hubhard, 
1773; Elsworth Iluhhard, 1772 ; Samuel Hunt, 1770; Esther Lyman, 1774; Es- 
ther (her daughter), 1774; Lucy Stratton. 1781 ; Samuel Stratton, 1770 ; Annie 
Wright, 1777; Azariah Wright, 1772 ; Eliz.aheth Wright, 1772; Rhoda Watriss, 
1775 ; Joshua Lyman, 1777 ; Jonathan Janes, 1776 ; Roswell Field, 1780 ; Sara 
Doolittle, 1773; Rev. Benjamin Doolittle, 1748; Samuel Ale.xaniler, 1781; Sarah 
Field, 1785; Susann,^h Field, 1787 ; Lydia Stratton, 1783; Eunice Alexander, 
17S5; Rohert Lyman, 1759 ; John Tirss, 1747; Mary Smith, 1730; Hezeldah 
Stratton, 1766; Lydia .Stoblins, 1701 ; Sara Snjith, 1707; MeiLaJ Pomeroy, 1700; 
Isajic Mattoon, 1767 ; Mehitahle Pomroy, 1770 ; Nathaniel Blattoon, 1770 ; Mary 
Lyman, 1777; TliankfuU Root, 1770; Sarah Smith, 1784 ; Sarah Janes, 1779; 
Paul Field, 1778. 

Among the most aged pco]ile buried here were Jona. Beld- 
ing, ninety-one; Simeon Alexander, ninety-two; Medad 
Field, ninety ; Sarah Woodward, ninety-five ; Deacon Sam- 
uel Smith, ninety-five; Sarah, wife of Oliver Smith, one 
hundred years and five months ; Anna Hunt, ninety ; Han- 
nah Mattoon, ninety-si.x ; Isaac Mattoon, ninety-one ; Mary 
Lyman, nrnety-one. 

Upon the tombstone of Lydia Harwood is the following : 

"Lydia Harwood; her fii-st hnshand, Asahel Stebhins, was killed and she 
taken prisoner by Indians, Aug. 27, 1757, at No. 4, and carried to Canada. Saved 
from torture at the stake by her heroism and faith, she returned from captivity, 
and in 1750 married Capt. Samuel Merrinuan. She died his widow, ISOS, aged 
seventy-six. To keep her memory green this stone is erected by her great- 
grandchildren, Clesson Merriman and Ella Mcrriman Barber, A.D. 1874." 

Upon the tombstone of Timothy Swan is inscribed: 

"Sacred to tlie memory of Timothy Swan, who died July 23,1842, aged eighty- 
four. He was the author of China, Poland, and other pieces of sacred music. 
' I was dnudi, because thou di 1st it.' " 

Upon that of Rev. John Hubbard, second minister of the 
town, who died 1704, appears this : 

" A ni,an he was to all his people dear ; 
And passing rich with eirjhti/ pounds a year. 
Remote from towns ho ran his godly race. 
Nor ever changed, or wished to change, his place. 
In duty faithful, prompt at every call. 
He watched and wept, he prayed and felt for all ; 
Ho try'd each art, reproved each dull delay. 
Allured to brighter worlds, and led the way." 

The stone over the grave of Eev. Benjamin Doolittle, first 
minister of Northfield, who died 1748, bears the following 
epitaph : 

"Blessed with good intellectual parts, 

Well skilled in two im]>oitant arts, 

Nobly he filled the double station. 

Both of a preacher and physician. 

To cure men's sicknesses and sins 

He took unwearied care and pains. 

And strove to make bis patients whole 

As well in body as in soul. 

He loved his God, loved to do good, 

To all his friends vast kindness showed ; 

Nor could his enemies e.xclaim 

And say be was not kind to them. 

His lalHirs met a sudden close ; 
Now he enjoys a sweet repose; 
And when the just to life shall rise. 
Among the first he'll mount the skies." 


at Northfield village, is one of the oldest lodges in AVestern 
Massachusetts. It was organized in 17'JG, and has retained its 
active organization uninterruptedly ever since. Its member- 
ship in March, 1879, was GO, and its officers as follows : 

H. J. Evans, W. M. ; George N. Richards, S. W. ; Sumner 
Titus, J. W. ; George F. Alexander, Sec. ; Cleston Merriman, 
Treas. ; E. L. Holton, S. D. ; H. G. Stockwell, J. D. ; E. W. 
Colton, Chaplain ; William Merriani, Marshal ; Walter Field, 
Tiler; E. J. Bacon, I. S. ; Clinton Ware and F. Holton, 


was organized at Northfield village in 1875, in connection 
with the Second Congregational Church. The society num- 
bers now (1879) 30 members. 

The village has also a musical organization known as the 
Stratton Brass Band, so named in honor of Albert S. Stratton, 
from whom it received early support. 


In addition to funds becpieatbed by Mr. Pomeroy and others 
to the Unitarian Church, otlier juiblic bequests were made as 
follows : 

In 1877, Elisha Alexander gave to the town §1000 as a per- 
manent fund, whose income should be devoted to the support 
of needy widows and other worthy poor. 

Elisha Stratton donated to the district school at Northfield 
Farms a fund of ?400, and Otis Everett gave §100 to the Uni- 
tarian society in 1840, to found a parish library. From that 
small beginning the library has risen to a wide field of use- 
fulness, and contains now 1500 volumes. 


Northfield is a rich agricultural town, and the energies of 
its people are devoted almost entirely to the cultivation of the 
soil. According to the State reports of 1875, the value of ag- 
ricultural and domestic products in the town for that year was 
|2G7,021, that of manufactures but S.59,8.j5, and the number 
of farms 2<JU. 

Ten years ago tobacco-growing upon tlic river bottom- 
lands, which extend north and south through the town, was 
pursued to a great extent, and previous to that time it was a 
highly profitable industry, but it has latterly much declined, 
and during 1878 but about 100 acres of tobacco were grown, or 
less than one-fourth of the amount planted in 18G8. 

Corn and broom-corn are extensively cultivated, while the 
yield of agricultural products generally is considerable, and the 
condition of the people accordingly a comfortable and pros- 
perous one. There is at Northfield village the manufactory 
of A. W. Ross, who makes horse-hoes and cultivators, and this 
is, except a few saw-mills, the only manufacturing interest in 
the town. Walker & Sanderson, at Northfield village, make 
extensive purchases of the tobacco-leaf in this and adjoining 
towns, and have prepared it for otlier markets. 

The total valuation of the town in 1878 was §667,085, of 
which §586,513 was on real estate. The total tax. State, town, 
and county, §8124.44, or at the rate of §1.22 per §100. The 
total indebtedness of the town in February, 1878, was §141.53. 



Northfield furnished soldiers for service in the war of llic 
the Rebellion, as fnllows : 



Fred. K. Field, 22d Mass. 

C. C. Holton, 52d Mass. 

Rich. Fitzgerald, 11th Mass. 

Silas W. Bailey, 22d Mass. 

J. M. Leonard, 52d Mass. 

John Lewis, nth Mass. 

Frank Brown. 22d Maa.s. 

E. S. Merriman, .52d Mass. 

Geo. H. Freeman, 11th Mass. 

A. 0. Carter, 22d Miws. 

Wm. E. Merriman, .'»2d Mass. 

Francis Labonte, llth Mass, 

C. S. Field, 22d Ma^s. 

Warren Mattoon, 52d Mass. 

Addison Cross, llth Mass. 

Geo. P. Ficlii, 2'2d Masn. 

A. N.Nash, 52.1 Mass. 

John Serrell, llth Mass. 

Chas. X. Janes, 22d Mass. 

Jos. B. Pierce, 62d Mass. 

Freeman White, llth Mass. 

Wm. B. Janes, 22d Blass. 

Chas. A. Stinipson, 52d Mass. 

Chas, Duchine, llth Mass. 

Wm. n. Johnson, 22d Mass. 

Lucius StimpiO[i, ."rid Mass. 

L. H. Mann, llth Mass. 

D. D. Kemp, 22d Mass. 

Asahel Sawyer, 52d Mass. 

E. H. Hawcs, llth Mass. 

Isaac Mattoou, 22d Mass. 

E. B. Stearns, 52d Mass. 

John Miller, llth Mass. 

L. B. Kumrill, 22d Mass. 

Oscar Wood, 52J Mass. 

Wni. Gifford, llth Mass. 

W. L. Smith, 22d Mass. 

Chas. C. Brewer, 52d Mass. 

Jas. Hoyt, llth Mass. 

W. B. Smith, 22d Mass. 

Chas. Dewey, 2d Cav. 

Chas. W. Libby, llth Mass. 

Aaron Stebbins, 22d Slass. 

Theo. Fisher, 36th Mass. 

H.C.Mitchell, llth Mass. 

L. Turner, 22d Mass. 

J. A. Fisher, Jr , 36th Mass. 

John GalTney, llth Mass. 

Jos. Young, 22d Mass. 

L. C. Hayden, 30th Mass. 

Michael Kiley, llth Mass. 

Geo. Mason, 1st Cav. 

Geo. Clark, 36th Mass. 

Wm. Spencer, llth Mass. 

S. W. Copan, 20th Mass. 

N. L. Cutting, 30th Mass. 

Geo, E. Sockling, llth Mass. 

C. B. Mattoon, 2nth Mass. 

S. D. Dutton, 36th Mass. 

Jos. Quigley, llth Mass. 

N. H. Simonds, 10th Mass. 

Geo. A. Fisher, 36th Mass. 

C. K. Kimpland, 1-lth Bat. 

M. A. Potter, 10th Mass. 

Jos. A. Harris, 30th Mass. 

Geo. II. Mason, 2lBt Mass. 

G. W. Field, 10th Mass. 

B. D. Holton, 36th Mass. 

Rich. Heath, 20tli Mass. 

C. W. Grout, 2Ist M;iss. 

E. D. Stone, 36th Mass. 

Archibald Watson, 58th Mass. 

F.W. Weeks, 21st Mass. 

J. D. Stone, 36th Miiss. 

Chas. Barr, 13th Bat. 

Gardner Coller, 27th Mass. 

F. H. Turner, 36th Mass. 

Geo. Ball, 4th Cav. 

Jos. Gates, 27th Mass. 

J. H. Blake, 36th Mass. 

Thos. Scanlan, 17th Mass. 

C. W. Harvey, 27th Mass. 

Henry JIurdock, 36th Mass. 

A. 0. Stimpsoii, 2d Cav. 

Jas. S. Jolinson, 27th Mass. 

Samuel Cutting, Jr., 30th Mass. 

John Whalley, 2d Cav. 

H. H. Johnson, 27th Mass. 

C. K. Spaulding, 30th Mass. 

John Timony, . 

C. H. Parmentcr, 27th Mass. 

Geo. Webster, 36th Mass. 

Jas. Canfield, . 

T. H. Page, 27th Mass. 

H. S. Caldwell, 31st Mass . 

EInahan Britt, 3l8t Mass. 

Elijah Carter, 27th Mass. 

Matt. Coughlin, 7th H. Art. 

DwightCook, 37th Mass. 

Frank LuTejoy, 27tli Mass. 

Henry E. Pierce, 32d Mass. 

Patrick Barry, . 

A. J. Andrews, 27th Mass. 

Joshua Maynard, 34th Mass. 

Lafayette Ross, , 

R. D. Battles, 30th Miiss. 

Den. Harrigan, 20th Mass. 

Cornelius Leary, Vet. B. C. 

Michael Kelliher, 2Sth Mass. 

Frank Beaver, 3d Cav. 

Jos, F. Shepard, Vet. B. C. 

M. S. Stearns, .52d Mass. 

Lewis Luck, 3d Cav. 

Edwin Jones, Vet, R, C. 

Hezekiah Hastings, 52d Mass. 

M. D. Thompson, 19th Mass. 

Andrew Bay, Vet, R. C. 

J. H. Robbins, 52d Mass. 

John Kenially, 28th Mass. 

Wm. E. Mortheud, Vet, R. C. 

E. C. Nash, 52d Mitss. 

N. S. Futchins, 11th Mass. 

Geo. A. Sawia, Vet. B. C. 


Henry Sarchfleld, lUh Mass. 

Martin Burke, Vet. R. C. 

E. W. Chamberlain, 52d Mass. 

Jos. Smith, 11th Mass. 

L. L. Fairchild, Vet. B. C. 

Ansel Field, 52d Mass. 

Thos. Haley, 11th M.ass. 

John S. Gilbert, Vet. E. C. 

F. S. Field, 52d Mass. 

Edward Foster, 11th .Mass. 

Jas. L. King, Vet. B. C. 

Geo. G. Felton, 52d Mass. 

John Bobertson, lltli Mass. 

A. W. Brookings, Vet. B. C. 


New Salem occupies a mountainous region, covering an 
area of 1.5,000 acres, and forming tlie extreme southeast corner 
of Franklin County. It has Orange on the north, Hampshire 
County on the south, "Worcester County on the east, and the 
towns of Shutesbury and Wendell on the west. Part of its 
eastern boundary-line describes a sharp angle, and across this 
angle passes the Athol and Springfield Railroad. The original 
tract of the town wtis increased some years ago by the addition 
of a portion of Shutesbury, but in 1820 was decreased by the 
elimination of a tract at the south end (which became a part 
of Prescott), and in 1837 suffered a further contraction by 
the setting off to Orange and Athol of a tract from the north 
end. The present territory equals about twenty-three square 


The surface of the town may be aptly characterized as wildly 
rugged, while the scenic displays which Nature has lavishly 
scattered here are beautifully impressive. The highest eleva- 
tion in the town is Packard's Mountain in the southwest, said 
to be 1273 feet above the sea-level. Other pi;ominent eminences 
are Fisk and Harris Hills in the north, and Rattlesnake and 
Pitman Hills in the centre. The streams are, — a branch of 

Miller's River in the west; the middle branch of Swift River, 
flowing through the centre ; Hop Brook, Moose-horn Brook, 
and other small streams. 

There are numerous ponds, — as the Reservoir in the north- 
east, covering 320 acres ; Spectacle Pond, of 90 acres, in the 
east ; Hacker's Pond, south of Spectacle Pond ; Thomson's 
Pond of 265 acres in the southeast ; and Hop-brook Pond. A 
soapstone-bed exists on Rattlesnake Hill, but it has never been 
worked. The climate of the town is remarkably salubrious 
and healthy. 


Dec. 31, 1734, the General Court Issued to 60 persons, resi- 
dent in the town of Salem (now the city of Salem, Essex Co., 
Mass.), a grant for a township equal to six miles square, and 
further issued an additional grant of 4000 acres. In August, 
173.5, the proprietors effected an organization and located the 
township upon the territory now occupied by the town of New 
Salem. The tract was laid out in an oblong form, and ex- 
tended north and south about ten miles. The additional grant 
above noted was annexed to the northern end of the new town, 
which thus became about thirteen miles in length. The 
town was subsequently widened by the addition to the west 
side of a portion of Shutesbury; in 1820 shortened at the 



south end by the setting off therefrom of a tract to Prescott ; 
and further shortened in 1837 at the north end, when a tract 
was taken off and apportioned to Athol and Orange. Each of 
the tracts thus set off was tliree miles in length, and the length 
of the town was reduced to about seven miles, and made of a 
size and shape more convenient than before, since the dis- 
tances from the original extremities to the centre entailed no 
little trouble to the remote residents when called to transact 
town business. 

Of the incidents attendant ujion the early settlement of 
New Salem there is scarcely any chronicle except as may be 
gathered from uncertain traditions, which, flowing through a 
lapse of ncarl}- one hundred and iifty years, become obscure. 
New Salem was founded in 1735, and received its first settler 
in 1737. Its history at that time and for some years after was 
somewhat meagre of eventful interest, save in such details as 
attached themselves to early settlements in general. 

Were the records of the first proprietors of New Salem ob- 
tainable, a clear and comprehensive history of the town's 
early settlement could be gleaned from their pages. 

But the records of the New Salem proprietors, as well as 
the town records, dating as late as 1855, were destroyed in a 
fire at New Salem Centre in 1856, and thus tbe only docu- 
mentary evidence of bow the settlement rose from obscurity, 
and of the names of those who were closely identified with its 
earliest history, has been utterly lost. 

Although the proprietors obtained their grant in 1734, and 
located it in 1735, they secured no settlement until the year 
1737. It was no easy matter to induce settlers to locate in a vast 
wilderness, where no man save the Indian had ever placed his 
foot, and where, too, the savages still held sway, and were likely 
to dispute in a fierce manner the entrance of the white man. 
The proprietors made many unsuccessful attempts to persuade 
settlers to locate upon the grant, but, as before noted, they 
waited two years before receiving any encouragement in that 
direction. They even offered a premium to the one who 
would make the first settlement, believing that if some stout 
heart could be led to make the advance, others would not be 
slow to follow. After a patient waiting until they began to 
despair, they eventually obtained the pledge of Jeremiah 
Meacham to make the first settlement, conditioned upon a 
present of £10 for so doing. Meacham led the way in 1737, 
and settled upon the farm now occupied by Ezra Hatstat, 
about one mile north of the centre. • He lost no time in en- 
tering upon the arduous task of clearing his land, having first 
hastily erected a rude log cabin, which, in view of the more 
pressing necessities of preparing the land for cultivation, long 
awaited more than such bare appointments as sufficed for 
actual shelter. 

This hardy pioneer was not without serious fears touching 
probable assaults from Indians, who, although at no time 
numerous in that region, were nevertheless to be dreaded, and 
especially so since the prospect of a settlement of the tract was 
likely to afford them the occasion for making that locality a 
more favored place for visitation than it had before been. 

Still, Meacham kept steadily to his purpose, always on the 
alert for approaching danger, and hopeful that other settlers 
would speedily follow in his train, and render mutual protec- 
tion against the foe that made the life of the pioneer one of 
constant watching and peril, as well as careful anxiety. 

In accordance with expectation, Meacham's settlement was 
quickly followed by others. Amos Foster settled upon the 
western part of the grant, and Benjamin Stacy, who came in 
about the same time, upon a place about two and a half miles 
south of the centre, where D. V. Putnam now lives. Samuel 
King took up a farm about three miles from the centre, near 
the present village of Cooleyville, and with him came Samuel 
Pierce, who settled in the north. Daniel Shaw located two 
miles south of the centre, and two miles southeast of the latter 
place a Sir. Cary made a settlement about the same time. 

Amos Putnam, James Cook, and Jeremiah Ballard were like- 
wise settlers contemporaneous with Meacham ; Ballard select- 
ing a home about a quarter of a mile north of the present 
village of New Salem Centre. 

Thereafter settlers multiplied rapidly, and the proprietors 
were rejoiced to see how prosperity appeared to attend a ven- 
ture which, long after its inception, seemed to promise any- 
thing but fortune. Here and there the wilderness began to 
show garden spots, where the toiling forefathers had, by the 
strength of right arms and the earnestness of heroic purpose, 
felled the giants of the forests, and caused the green earth to 
smile with glowing promises of bountiful harvests. 

Still, the fear of Indians and stories of their depredations 
near at hand caused much painful uneasiness and apprehen- 
sion that there was trouble in store. To provide against such 
emergencies, and to afford places of general protection, two 
forts wore built, and, in addition thereto, the meeting-house 
was so fortified that it could be used as an ark of temporal 
safety, while the cabins of many, if not all, of the settlers 
were provided in some way for repelling sudden savage at- 
tacks in case there was not time to reach the forts. 

Eternal vigilance was the watchword in the infant settle- 
ment ; and while the farmer tilled the soil or pursued kindred 
occupations, he watched continually for unseen danger, and 
was prepared to meet it manfully. Thus, when the people 
attended divine worship they went armed, for no man could 
tell when the foe would appear ; and so, amid watching and 
working, the community grew ai)ace and thrived. 

Fortunately, the precautions taken by the inhabitants 
against the savages, in resorting lo the forts at nightfall, or 
whenever reports of trouble filled the air, enabled them to 
pass through the trying ordeal of early experiences in back- 
woods life without being seriously endangered or coming to 
harm. Many of the settlers went from time to time into the 
government service against the Indians in other parts of the 
State and did valiant work, in which not a few were called 
upon to make severe sacrifices, but New Salem itself escaped 
the horrors of Indian warfare. 

The nearest approach to an Indian depredation occurred 
one night when nearly all the male inhabitants of the settle- 
ment were out on a scouting expedition. Before departing 
they saw that the women, children, and aged men were 
securely housed in one of the forts, and that the fort was care- 
fully guarded against attack. It seems, however, that a band 
of savages were hovering near, in hiding, and upon observing 
the departure of the men they emerged from their retreat 
shortly after, and approached the fort, thinking that, as 
it was guarded only by women, it would fall with them an 
ea.sy capture. The women were, however, not made of ordi- 
nary material, for they were pioneers' wives, who had learned 
important lessons in the school of self-preservation, and, 
knowing how desperate emergencies required desperate reme- 
dies, knew also full well how to apply the remedies. 

One brave Amazon, who undertook the leadership, so dis- 
guised her voice, and issued orders in a loiid tone to an imagin- 
ary band of men, that the savages, upon their approach to the 
fort, were mystified, and began to think that they must have 
been in error in believing the fort defenseless, since the orders 
they heard and the preparations evidentlj' going forward for de- 
fense seemed to betoken the presence in the fort of many stal- 
wart defenders. They were ready, in their cowardly, savage 
nature, to make war upon weak women, but armed men were 
foes whom they liked not; and while they were gravely dis- 
cussing the unforeseen turn in affairs, a few rapid gunshots 
from the fort in their direction decided them, without further 
argument, upon precipitate flight. The coolness and bravery 
exhibited by the women under such trying circumstances won 
them a bloodless victory, and the recital now serves a useful 
and interesting purpose in showing, not only <Vhat the women 
of those days had to contend with, but how they rose to the 

.' y. 

.-r \' 

Photo, by C. H. Wells. 

^.A^ecA./cS xS^A>^^^c/^A^. 

Charles Chandler, son of Aaron and Mary 
Chandler, was born in Sluitesbnry, Franklin Co., 
Mass., on the 17th of December, 1828. His father 
was born in Petersham, Mass., on the 28th of Janu- 
ary, 1797. He was a farmer by occupation, and took 
an active interest in the religious and educational 
interests of the community in which he lived. In 
the autumn of 1850 he removed to Wendell, and 
during his residence in that town held various public 
offices ; among others those of selectman and assessor. 
He died in New Salem, on the 15th of October, 
1867. His wife was a daughter of Luther Clark, 
of Leverett, Mass., born in that town on the 18th 
of March, 1795. 

She was married to Mr. Chandler on the 11th 
of February, 1823. To them were born five chil- 
dren, of whom only two are now living, viz. : 
Mary, the wife of Samuel H. Stowell, and Charles, 
the subject of this sketch. The latter remained in 
the paternal home, working during a part of each 
year for his father on the farm, until the latter re- 
moved to Wendell. 

Charles then united with him in farming, and 

also engaged in the lumbering business upon his own 
account, which he carried on successfully for several 
years. On the 27th of January, 1859, he married 
Abbie S., daughter of Luther Wyman, of Woburn, 
Mass. Li 1862, Mr; Chandler removed to New 
Salena and located on West Street, on what was 
known as the "old Porter farm." He remained 
there seven years, when, purchasing his present 
property, he removed to New Salem Hill, where he 
has since resided. He has taken a prominent part 
in local public, religious, and educational interests ; 
has held the offices of town-clerk and treasurer three 
years, and contributed largely to the building of the 
new chui'ch edifice and parsonage in Lock's village. 
As a citizen he is public-spirited and enterprising, 
and as a man he is respected by all for his many 
sterling qualities. His mother, Mrs. Mary Chand- 
ler, resides with him, at the advanced age of eighty- 
four years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Chandler have two children, both 
born in New Salem. They are Mary S., born Aug. 
24, 1865, and Abbie Belle, born on the 18th of 
February, 1867. 

Photo, by Moffitt. 

9^v— '- E^/y 

^(juia) p\!i)uArJD 

The Hunt family is of English origin, and has been repre- 
sented in this country for many years. William Hunt, ances- 
tor of Horace Hunt, was one of three brothers who early came 
to this country and settled, one at Concord, Mass., one at 
Northampton, Mass., and one at Brattleboro', Vt. 

William settled at Concord, and at one time was the owner 
of one-half of the territory now occupied by that town, which 
he purchased directly of the Indians. 

Samuel Hunt, his grandfather, lived at various places, and 
for twenty years of his life kept a public-house at Fitchburg, 
Mass., and served as a captain in the French-and-Indian war. 

David Hunt, the father of Horace, was born in Worcester, 
Mass , in 176G or 1767. In his youth he went to New Salem, 
Mass., of which be was one of the first settlers. He passed a 
long and active life in that town, and died in 1850, at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-three. He married Abigail, daughter 
of Shadrach Haskins, one of the earliest settlers of New Salem, 
and had a number of children, of whom but four reached 
maturity. Samuel H., the eldest of these, is now living at 
Athol, Mass., and is ninety years of age. Luther passed his 
life on the old farm in New Salem, and died in 1849, at the 
age of fifty-six. Lorana married Levi Davis, of New Salem, 
and now resides at Holly, New York, aged eighty-four. 

Horace Hunt was born in New Salem, Jan. 15, 1801. He 
passed his early life in hard work on the paternal farm, enjoy- 
ing limited educational advantages. At the age of seventeen 
he commenced school-teaching in New Salem, having prepared 
himself for that calling by close application, rigid self-disci- 
pline, and arduous labor. This occupation he followed in win- 
ter seasons at New Salem and Enfield, Mass., and Casenovia, 
N. Y., filling up the balance of the time at work on the 

In 1825, Mr. Hunt commenced keeping a general country 
store at Millington, a small village in the town of New Salem. 
He continued there about fourteen years, and then removed to 
North Prescott, Mass. ; established a store about a mile west of 

the village of North Prescott, which he kept for upward of 
thirty years. During that time Mr. Hunt had the North 
Prescott post-office established, and was the first postmaster 
there, — a statement that is equally true of the post-office at 
Millington. Mr. Hunt was postmaster at both places for a 
period, in all, of twenty years. 

In 1869, Mr. Hunt transferred his mercantile business to 
Enfield, Mass., where he engaged in store-keeping until May 
15, 1878, when he disposed of it, and is now living in retire- 
ment at Enfield, having attained the ripe age of seventy-eight. 
In the course of his life Mr. Hunt has filled various offices 
of trust and responsibility. In 1827 he was appointed a jus- 
tice of the peace, — an office that he has held continuously since. 
He has also filled most of the town offices of New Salem and 
Prescott, and was a commissioner of Franklin County from 
1863 to 1869, inclusive. 

In his church affiliations he is a Baptist, a member of the 
church of that denomination at Athol, Mass., and was for 
many years a member of the New Salem and Prescott Baptist 
Church. He has been married four times. His first wife, Su- 
sannah M. Fish, of New Salem, he married April 4, 1822, and 
she died Nov. 25, 1825. His second was Roxana Chamberlin, 
of New Salem, whom he married Aug. 27, 1829, and who died 
June 13, 1837. His third was Naomi Haskins, of Prescott, 
whom he married May 22, 1839, and who died Jan. 17, 1845. 
His present wife was Mrs. Sarah E. Freeman, widow of Dr. Na- 
thaniel Freeman, of New Salem, and daughter of James Hem- 
enway, of the same place. 

The fruits of these various unions have been nine children, — 
one by the first wife, two by the second, foui'by the third, and 
two by the fourth. Of these but four are living, — Howard 
Boardman and Nelson Haskins, wholesale dealers in musical 
instruments, at Boston ; Lorana Sophia, wife of Charles Rich- 
ards, Esq., of Enfield; and James Luther, dealer in musical 
instruments, at Athol, Mass., and also engaged in the insur- 
ance business at the same place. 



requirements of the hour, and revealecj themselves to bo 
worthy companions of tlio men who toolc upon themselves 
pioneer hardships. 

With the departure of the era of Indian troubles, and the 
resumption in the valle}" of the Connecticut of the prosperous 
progress of early settlements, New Salem, in common with 
other towns, began to feel the encouraging influences of peace, 
and moved onward in the scale of material advancement, reap- 
ing gratifying results at every stride. 

One of the earliest physicians of whom tradition tells was 
Dr. Joseph Goldthwaite, whose field of practice covered a wide 
extent of territory, and who was a man of considerable note 
abroad as well as at home. A Mr. Upham, who was an early 
settler, was something of a lawyer, but the scope for the exer- 
cise of his legal talents was exceedingly limited, and that he 
drove a very profitable trade is extremely problematical. 

Daniel Shaw, an early settler, to whom reference has already 
been made, was a man of considerable prominence in the com- 
munity, and, besides filling numerous places of public trust, 
served as town clerk for a period of thirty consecutive years, 
during the whole of which time, it is said, he used but one 
goose-quill to do his writing. 

Varney Pierce, another early comer, was the first justice of 
the peace, and dealt also in legal counsel to such of his neigh- 
bors as felt the need of a little law to comfort them. For 
thirty-three years Mr. Pierce occupied various public offices 
within the gift of the town, lived a long and useful life as an 
honorable citizen and faitliful public officer, and died in 1823 
at a ripe old age. 

Chapters might be written \ipon the early struggles of the 
New Salem pioneers, and they would be chapters of absorbing 
interest to those who are to-day linked in memory and sym- 
pathy to the history of tho.se times; but limited space in a 
volume intended to contain a history of the early da_ys of the 
Connecticut Valley in Massachusetts forbids extended refer- 
ence in detail to matters which would bear such reference 
without wearying the reader. Stout hearts and willing hands 
were the great dependences in those days when the conve- 
jiiences of refined civilization were few, and when the only 
path to success lay through the avenues of self-denial and a 
dogged determination to get along in life by the aid of but 
such surroundings and comforts as were absolutely necessarj', 
while the discouraging obstacles encountered upon every hand 
were well calculated to weaken hearts not borne up by a 
trusting faith and hope that brighter skies were to cheer the 

The first innbolder in town was James Cook. His tavern was 
located on the present place of D. V. Putnam, two miles' south 
of the centre. On this place, or farm, James Cuok erected 
the first grist-mill ever built in town. The original mill- 
stones can now be seen lying in the stream near the spot 
wliere the mill was built. Before this mill was built all the 
grain had to be carried on horseback to North Hadley, on the 
Connecticut -Biver, a distance of sixteen miles from New 
Salem, through a trackless wilderness, the course being 
known by means of trees marked at convenient distances. 
Their path led them to ford a small stream near where the 
New Salem Cheese-Factory now stands ; and, as a matter of 
, convenience to them.selves, they built a stone bridge over this 
stream and named it " Hadley Bridge," which it bears to this 
day, though few of the present generation know why the 
bridge is so called. 

"James Cooke" left two sons, Samuel and Henry. Henry 
■ivas a somnambulist and lost his life in consequence, at a public- 
house in Troy; N. Y. He arose in his sleep, went to an out- 
side door, which he opened, and fell from the third story to 
the sidewalk, where he was found dead next morning. His 
remains were conveyed to New Salem for interment. Samuel 
kept for a long period of years a store and public-house near 
the old homestead. His first wife was the daughter of the 

Bev. Samuel Kendall, the first ordained minister in New 
Salem. Samuel Cooke left two sons, Samuel and Robert. 
Samuel went to Houlton, Me. He was greatly esteemed, and 
made probate judge by the Governor of Massachusetts (Maine 
was then a part of Massachusetts). Robert always lived in 
New Salem, and by his industry and perseverance, combined 
with large natural talent, accumulated a competency, with 
which he was always ready to assist those deserving and 
meritorious. He filled the highest offices in town. His 
widow and seven children survive him. 

Dr. Cowles, a graduate of Dartmouth College, was one of 
the early physicians of New Salem. He built a large house 
in the centre, now occupied by William T. Freeman, and, leav- 
ing New Salem, nothing is known of his descendants. Tradi- 
tion tells the following story of the doctor and village black- 
smith. The doctor, being unmarried, as a matter of course 
looked here and there for a helpmeet, and fell in love with a 
Miss Paige, a beautiful and accomplished lady, but subse- 
quently became enamored of a Miss Putnam, to whom the 
blacksmith was paying attention. This is how the doctor 
cheated the blacksmith. It was announced that there would 
be a ball at the tavern in the centre. The doctor hit upon this 
plan. He said to the blacksmith, whose name was Hastings, 
" Come, let us swap ladies for the evening and see what ' gos- 
sips' say." To this the blacksmith consented. So the doctor 
went to the ball with the blacksmith's lady, and the black- 
smith with the doctor's. At the ball the doctor " popped the 
question" to the blacksmith's lady, was accepted, and soon 
married her. Hastings followed suit, married Miss Paige, 
and died in 1810. 

Stephen Filton was one of the earliest shoemakers in New 
Salem. He favored Shays' rebellion, in 1780. He married 
Sarah Doland, only fifteen years of age. As a girl she was 
brought up in the family of Rev. Samuel Kendall. They had 
a large family of children, whose lives were an honor alike to 
themselves and the community in which they lived. Two sons 
are now living. Rev. George D. Filton, of Granville, Mass., 
the youngest of the family, and Ebenezer, who lives in Enfield, 
Mass. Stephen Filton's grandchildren, now living, and 
prominent in the community, are Joseph Filton, of Greenfield, 
Dr. George Chamberlain, of Brimfield, Mass., Dr. Cj'rus N. 
Chamberlain, of Lawrence, Mass., and Dr. Myron L. Chamber- 
lain, of Boston. These last-named three doctors are brothers, 
and sons of Dr. Levi Chamberlain, of New Salem. Dr. Cyrus 
N. Chamberlain was medical director in the Army of the Po- 
tomac, and was the first surgeon detailed to take charge of the 
hospital at Gettysburg, remaining there till the government 
established home hospitals. He was then instructed by the 
government to establish Home Hospital, at Worcester, Mass. 
Stephen Filton, having business abroad during the first winter 
of his marriage, left his young wife to prepare a "boiled dish ;" 
and as she was solicited to join a coasting-party of young 
folks, she put everything into the dinner-pot at the same 
time, and left it over a rousing fire to care for itself, which 
did not add to the relish of the dinner. Moral : When a man 
marries a child for a wife, he must expect that she will act 
like a child; which is right and proper. 

" Governor" Curtis, as he was called, was one of the oldest 
or earliest carpenters in New Salem. He was framing a 
building for the Rev. Mr. Foster, the second minister in town, 
when the latter said to him, "Governor, you seem to be a 
man of rare genius. Could you make a devil?" " Certainly," 
said the governor to the minister ; "just place your feet on 
this block, that I may make you cloven-footed; only a 
minute's work and all the alteration necessary." This anec- 
dote is taken from J. G. Holland's "History of the Four 
Western Counties of Massachusetts." 

Daniel Ballard, Esq., a direct descendant and great-great- 
grandson of Jeremiah Ballard, one of the earliest settlers of 
the town, has in his possession the manuscript of several origi- ' 



nal documents which refer in an interesting way to the early 
h istory of New Salem. Copies of these documents are here- 
with appended, as follows : 


*'To n)l Cliii'ltnin Pcoiile to whom tliese presents shall come. Know ye that I, 
Thomas Parker, of Bracutt, in ye County of Middlesex, within his Majaestie's 
Province of the Massachusetts Bay, in New England, Clerk, for and in con- 
nideration of the sum of Sixty pounds to me in hand before the enseeling and 
delivery of these presents by Jeremiah Itallanl, of Andover, in ye County of 
Essex, IIuBbandman, have given grantiMl, bargained, sold, and by these 
presents do give, grant, bargain, sell unto the b<i Jeremiah Ballard, one negro 
man, named Jack, to have and to hold the s^ negro Jack ; and I, the b^ Thomas 
Parker, do promise to bind & oldige myself, my heii-s, executors, and ad- 
ministrators, by these presents, to warrant and Defend the said negro Jack unto 
the said Jeremiah Ballard against the lawful! claims or demands of any person 
or persons whatsoever, at any time or times hereafter. In witness whereof I, 
the s^ Thomas Parker, have hereunto set my hand & seal this fifteenth day of 
September, Anno Domini 1726, in tlie twelfth year of ye Reign of our Sovereign 

Lord George King. 

"Thomas Parkek. [seal.] 
"Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of 

" Jonathan Richardson. 

" John Dane." 

" Notice is Hereby Given to the Proprietors of New Salem (so called). Laying 
in the County of Hampshire, that they Assemble Themselves Together on 
Wednesday, the Sixth day of June Next, at Two o'clock afternoon, at the Town- 
lionse in Salem, To Choose a Committee to manage the affairs of the Propiiety 
and to Call Futtur meetings ; also a Clerk and Treasurer for the year ensuing. 
To Choose Surveyors of Highways ; also to consider and act upon the Petition 
of (!apt. Jeremiah Ballard and other of the Inhabitants for Finishing the Meet- 
ing-House & Settelinne the Lolls according to the Courte Grant, and Raising 
money for making &, Repairing Highways for the Inhabitants; to Consider the 
Petition of Jeremiah Ballard and Jeremiah Meacham for a Grant for Building 
a Saw-mill on a Streame in the undivided Land of s* Propiiety, and to see whether 
the Prop'ora will Grant it or Not; to Raise such Sums of Money as shall be 
thought Proper for the Paying the Revi Mr. Kindall's Salery, and other 
Charges arising in s^ Propriety. 
*' By order of the Committee. 

"Thomdik Procter, Jk.,^^ Chirk. 
"Salem, May 14, 1750." 

" To Ihe Smibl. Justices of the Sessions of tiie peace to be holdm at Norlliampton^ on 
the thirteenth instant ; 

"Whereas, Mr. James Cook, of New Salem, was appointed for an Innholder 
in B^ New Salem at ye Sessions in August last, he not being able of Body to 
attend thereon, and the Reason why he could not have Licence, he heard, was 
because he had not taken the oath relating to taking the Bills of the other Gov- 

" These may Certify to your Honours that the s"* James has taken s^ oath 
before Amos Foster, Dist. Clerk ; and if that will answer, as he is not able to 
come to the next Sessions, we pray your Honors to Grant him Licence. 

" Amos Foster, -^ 

" Jeremiah Ballard, > Selectmen. 
"Benja. Southwick,Jr.,-' 
"New Salem, Nov. ye 8, 1764." 


" Notice is hereby given to the Freeholders and other Inhabitants of New 
Salem, qualitied by law to vote in town affairs, that they assemble and meet to- 
gather att the Publick Meeting-House in New Salem, on Monday, the Fourth day 
of March next, at ten of the clock forenoon, to consider and acton the following 
articles, viz. : 

" Firet, To Chuse such officers as towns by Law are obliged to Chuse on the 
month of March. 

" 21y, To Raise money to Pay the Kev. Mr. Kendal's Salary. 

"Sly, To Grant money to pay for schooling. 

"41y. To Grant money to make and mend Highways. 

" Sly, To Know if Swine may Run att Large this year. 

"61y, To Know if the Districts will improve what money the town Stock 
Powder has been sold for to Purchase another Stock, or apply to it any other use. 

" 71y, To Know if the Districts will allow the Selectmen to lay out a Rode 
from Samuel Pierce's across Jona^i' Childe's and Darling Lot's to s'* Childe's, and 
Exchange the Rode att the Ejist end of s** Lots for the same. 

" Sly, To see if the District will open the Rode att the East end of BenJa. 
Southwick House Lot, which David Felton Hjis shut up. 

" 91y, To Bring in Town Debts and Grant money to pay the same. 

" Amos Foster, -» Selectmen 

" Benja. Sovthwick, Jr., V of 

"Jeremiah Ballard, ) New Salem. 
"New Salem, Feb. ye 11, 1765." 

" Whereas Benja. Southwick, Constable for ye District of New Salem for the 
year a.d. 175C, Complains to us, ye Subscribers, Assessors for s^ District, & 

eayth that Micah Rice, of s^ District (Blacksmith), was rated for his Pole in 
the Province Rate or List Committed to him the sum of Six Shillings and two 
pence, and that ho, ye s'^ Benj'^ Southwick, has given him, ye s-^ Micah Rice, 
Seasonable Notice and Warning to pay the same, yet he Refuses to Do it, and 
prays for a Warrant as ye Law Directs from us, the Subscribers, to Distreign the 
body of ye s** Micah Rice, he, ye s** Benj* Southwick, having made search, and 
cannot tind any Estate of ye s"* Micah Rice Whereon to make Distress. 

"This is therefore in his Majestie's Name to Impower and Require You, the 
above s^ Constable. Benj* Southwick, to Destreign the body of ye s** Micah 
Rice, and it Commit to his Majesties Goal, in Springfield, till he pay, or cause to 
be paid, the above s^ sum of Six Shillings & two pence, and Cost« of the s^ Com- 

"Joseph Houlton,) ,48sc«sor*ro/ 
" Amos Foster, -» New Salem. 
"New Salem, March 18, 1757." 


When the Lexington alarm reached New Salem the inhab- 
itants were called toi^etber, and upon the village green of New 
Salem Centre they assembled, guns in hand, ready to march 
at a moment's notice. There were at this time two militia 
companies in the town, and of one of these companies one 
Goodell was captain, and "William, son of Benjamin Stacy, 
who lived about a mile southwest of the present village of 
Millington, was the lieutenant. Capt. Goodell had previously 
been regarded as having leanings toward Toryism, and when 
his company being gathered at the time of the general rally 
above noted, he manifested a disinclination to raise his voice 
in behalf of patriotism, he was directly the object of derision, 
and promptly evaded responsibility by slinking away. At this. 
Lieutenant Stacy, doffing his hat, drew his commission from 
his pocket, and, tearing it to pieces, excitedly exclaimed while 
he did so, "Fellow-soldiers, I don't know exactly how it is 
with the rest of you, but as for me, I will no longer serve a 
king who murders my own countrymen.'' The effect of his 
example was to thrill the company with patriotic ardor, and 
they hurrahed and shouted their approval of the lieutenant's 
action. Capt. Goodell, who appeared at this instant, endeav- 
ored to quell the enthusiasm by an attempted exercise of 
authority, but the blood of his men was up to fever heat, and 
they waved him scornfully away. The company voted at once 
to march for the seat of war, reorganized by choosing the gal- 
lant Stacy as their captain, and before the next night he set 
out at their head for Cambridge. Captain Stacy served 
through the war, rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and 
received from General Washington the present of a gold snutl- 
box as a mark of esteem. Shortly after the war closed he re- 
moved to the far West, and was killed by the Indians near 
Marietta, Ohio. 

New Salem was opposed to the war of 1812, and sent Samuel 
C. Allen as a delegate to the Northampton anti-war conven- 
tion. In 1814 a draft for soldiers was held in the Baptist 
Church, when, among others, the following were impressed 
into the service: Wm. Smith, John Shaw, Samuel Shaw, 
Joseph Shaw, Asa Powers, John Powers, John Frye, and 
Andrew Newell. 

In 1814, Col. Williams' regiment, bound for Boston, halted 
in New Salem a few days, and was there joined by Rev. Al- 
pheus Harding, who had been chosen regimental chaplain. 


In 1753 the two grants issued to the original proprietors 
were incorporated as a district and called New Salem, for the 
reason that its proprietors belonged to old Salem. Under the 
act of 1786, the district became a town. Previous to the in- 
corporation, from 1735 to 1753, the meetings of the proprietors 
were held in old Salem. All of the town records, dating 
from 1753 to 1856, as well as the proprietors' records, were 
destroyed by fire at New Salem Centre in 1856, and the list 
of town officers can be given only from 1855 to 1879, as fol- 
lows : 

1855-5G. — Emerson Fay, Joseph F. Packard, Royal Whitaker. 
is'tT.— Emeison Fay, Royal Wbitaker, Alpheus Thomas. 

Photo, by C. H. Wells, Orange. 

Beriah W. Fay was born in Athol, Worcester 
Co., Mass., on tlie 2d of December, 1819. His 
father, Jonas Fay, was also a native of tliat town, 
a farmer by occupation, and a man of strict integrity 
and honor. 

He married Anna R., daugliter of Alpiieus 
Ward, of Athol, by whom he had six children, 
of whom the subject of this notice was the third. 
He attended the common schools during a part of 
each year until seventeen years of age. He was then 
employed in farm-labor for three years, after which 
he commenced teaciiing school during the winter 
months and continued to work on the flirm in the 
summer. He continued these avocations until 1850, 
and had in the mean time attended the spring and 
fall terms of the New Salem Academy about four 

He also taught a class in penmanship, and select 
schools in Athol and Orange. In 1850, his health 
having become impaired by teaching and close con- 
finement to study, he removed to New Salem, where 
he had previously purchased some property, and 
during the following year he bought the farm which 
he now owns, and where he has since resided. He 
subsequently turned his attention to surveying, which 
he has practiced for twenty years. 

Mr. Fay is eminently a self-made man, and what- 
ever he has attempted in life has been thoroughly 
and conscieiitiiiusly performed. He has always been 
interested in promoting the cause of education, in 
which he labored a number of years as a teacher, and 
since 1855 has been a member of the school com- 

In politics he is a Republican, and takes an active 
part in the ])olitics of the town and county, and is 
well informed in the general political movements of 
the State and nation. In a local capacity he has 
served as selectman, assessor, and overseer of the 
jioor. He has been special county commissioner for 
two terms of three years each. In 18(i5 he repre- 
sented his district in the Legislature, the duties of 
which office he discharged in an able manner. 

On the 1st of October, 1868, he was married to 
Hattie L., daughter of Daniel Ballard, of Wendell, 
Muss. They have one child, — Henry W., born on 
the 13th of June, 1877. 

Mr. Fay has been a member of the Congregational 
Society of New Salem since 1862. He is also an 
earnest and progressive worker in the Sabbath-school, 
of which he has for four years been sujierintendent. 
In social and public relations he has always com- 
manded the respect and esteem of his associates. 


Eev. Alpheus Harding, son of Abijah and 
Sybil Adams Harding, was born in Barre, Worces- 
ter Co., Mass., Jan. 19, 1780. His ftither was a 
farmer, and Alpheus worked on the farm nntil 
eighteen years of age. He then commenced liis 
studies pre()arat(3ry to entering college, first at Lei- 
cester Academy, and afterward at New Salem. Like 
many others of limited means, he resorted to sohool- 
teachina; diirino- the vacations in order to obtain the 
funds with which to prosecute his educa-tion. 

In 1801 lie entered Dartmouth College, and grad- 
uated with the degree of A.M. in 1805. After leav- 
ing college he taught tiie New Salem Academy two 
years, and at the same time studied divinity under 
the direction of the Rev. Joseph Lathrop, D.D., of 
West Springfield, Mass. He was ordained pastor 
of tlie Congregational Church in New Salem (whicli 
in those days meant a settlement for life), Dec. 2, 
1807. After remaining in that position forty years 
he resigned, thinking a younger man could better 
discharge the duties of the office. He was married, 
Oct. 8, 1808, to Sarah, daughter of Rev. Josiah and 
Irene M. Bridge, by whom he had seven children. 
Of this family only one survives him, — a son, also 
named Alpheus Harding, — to whom this memoir and 
the accompanying portrait are due. 

For more than fifty years he was a trustee, and 
during a greater part of that time also president, of 

the New Salem Academy, and to his persevering 
efforts and labors its success was largely due. Dur- 
ing the same length of time he had the almost entire 
charge of the public schools of the town, and main- 
tained an active interest in them to the day of his 

He twice represented the town of New Salem in 
the Legislature, and after retiring from the ministry 
was for many years justice of the peace and trial- 
justice; also doing much as executor and adminis- 
trator of estates, and as guardian for many children. 
His wife and six children died before him, and when 
about eighty years of age he married tiie widow of 
James Freeman, of New Salem, who was his con- 
stant companion during tlie remainder of his life, 
and who survived him a few years. He died in 
1869, having just entered his ninetieth year. Pos- 
sessed of indomitable courage and perseverance, he 
never shrank from the discharge of a duty, aud spent 
a long aud active life in doing good to others. He 
was a constant laborer in promoting the interests of 
education, temperance, morality, and industry, and 
always foremost in any cause which tended to in- 
crease the prosperity of the people to the service of 
whom he devoted so many years of his life. He 
was universally esteemed for his many rare qualities 
of mind and heart, aud sincerely mourned by all who 
knew him. 



1858. — Alpbeus Thomas, William F. Freeman, Joseph GalloDii. 
18S9-C0.— Elijah F. Porter, F. R. Haskell, William Whittemore. 
1861.— Elijah F. Portei', William Whittemore, V. V. Vaughn. 
1862. — Elijali F. Porter, Samuel Adams, V. V. Vaughn. 
1863.— Elijah F. Porter. Samuel Adams, Sylvanus Sibley. 
1864. — Elijah F. Porter, Samuel Adams, Daniel V. Putnam. 
1865.— Elijah F. Porter, William T. Freemao, Daniel V. Putnam. 
1866.- Elijah F. Porter, Eugene. Ballard, Daniel V. Putnam. 
1867.— Elijah F. Porter, J. H. Carey, Daniel V. Putnam. 
1868-70.— Eoyal Whitaker, Beriah W. Pay, Daniel V. Putnam. 
1871.— Royal Whitaker, E. D. Andrews, Daniel V. Putnam. 
1872.— Elijah F. Porter, Samuel H. Stowell, Daniel V. Putnam. 
1873.— Elijah F. Porter, Samuel H. Stowell, Lucien T. Briggs. 
1874-76. — Nelson Haskins, F. W. Newland, William L. Powers. 
1877.— H. A. Cogswell, F. W. N'ewland, William L. Powers. 
1878.- Daniel Ballard, F. W. Newland, Proctor Whitaker. 


Charles A. Harding, Jr., 1865-57 ; Charles M. Pierce, 1757-59 ; Royal Whitaker, 
1859-74; Charles K. Shumway, 1874; F. A. Haskell, 1875; Charles Cliandler, 


There are four villages in the town ; each is a post-office, and 
they are called New Salem Centre, North New Salem, Cooley- 
ville, and Millington. 


is the oldest of the four settlements, and is a brisk little vil- 
lage on the mountain-top, containing two churches, the tovvni- 
house, one store, the New Salem Academy, and the Academy 
boarding-house, — a handsome structure. A fire in 1856 de- 
stroyed the post-office and store, and in 187ti another fire 
destroyed the post-office, two stores, and a hotel. 


in the southwest, near the Shutesbury line, has latterly be- 
come a lively trading-point, and boasts three stores, which 
derive their main support from neighboring towns. 

North New Salem, near the Orange line, has a church 
and .store, and Millington, in the southeast, has a store and 
grist-mill. It is also the nearest point in the town to the 
New Salem station of the Athol and Springfield Railroad, 
being two miles distant therefrom. 


Before the settlement of the tract was fairly begun the pro- 
prietors set about providing a place for public worship, and 
in August, 1730, they voted to build a meeting-house forth- 
with, 4.5 feet long, 35 feet wide, and 20 feet stud. For some 
reason the house was not built until late in 1739, and each 
"right," it appears, was taxed £3 to defray the cost of the 
edifice. There must have been a gala time at the raising of 
the frame, for the bill for expenses noted that, among other 
things, "wheat, sugar, rum, molasses, pork, beef, butter, cheese, 
men, and horses from Hadley" were furnished at a total cost of 
£29 13s. 6rf. The foundations of this church may still be seen 
near the site of the Universalist Church in New Salem Centre. 

Eev. Samuel Kendall, of Woburn, a Harvard graduate, was 
the first settled minister, and was ordained December, 1742, 
at which time the church was probably organized. He served 
the church as its pastor until March, 1776, when he resigned 
his charge, but continued to reside in New Salem until his 
death, in 1792. Mr. Kendall's successor was Rev. Joel Foster, 
who was settled June, 1770, and preached twenty-three years, 
being dismissed in 1802. During his ministration, in 1788, a 
church .society was organized distinct from the town organiza- 
tion, and church affairs prospered after the new departure. In 
1794 a new church of considerable pretensions to architectural 
elegance was built, and considered one of the finest, if not 
the best, of all the churches in Hampshire County. 

Mr. Foster was a divine of some prominence, and it was 
said that the incorporation of the New Salem Academy was 
due chiefly to his efforts. His successor as pastor of the church 
was Rev. Warren Pierce, who was ordained in 1804. He re- 
signed in 1807, and in December of that year Rev. Alpheus 
Harding was ordained. Shortly previous to that time a church 

was erected in the north, about four miles from the centre, 
near where Beriah W. Fay lives, for the accommodation of 
the people in that section, and at this church Mr. Harding 
preached fifteen Sabbaths annually for about eighteen years. 
Meanwhile, for about that length of time, the church parish 
was somewhat divided on the question of the relative merits 
of the Trinitarian and Unitarian doctrines. Mr. Harding 
inclined to Unitarianism, and preached its faith to the First 
Church until January, 1845, when he resigned, after a min- 
istry of upward of thirty-seven years. Mr. Harding officiated 
in 1868 at the funeral in New Salem of Mrs. Daniel Shaw, at 
whose wedding he had likewise officiated in 1811. Rev. Clau- 
dius Bradford, ordained in 1851, was the next settled minister 
but he continued only two years, when he resigned. Kev. 

Trask, the last settled pastor, was dismissed in 1874, since 

which date the church, which is now Universalist, has de- 
pended upon periodical supplies. 

As has already been noted, Mr. Harding preached a portion 
of each year at a church in the north for eighteen years, — 
from 1807 to 1824. This church building was owned by the 
First Society, and when the people, in 1824, becoming dissat- 
isfied with the condition of things, formed a new and ortho- 
dox society, they purchased the church building and removed 
it to its present location, in north New Salem. Since 1842 
there has been no settled pastor, and latterly the building has 
been used in common by Congregationalists and Methodists. 
The first pastor was Levi French, who preached from 1825 to 
1829, and succeeding him was Rev. Erastus Brooks, who 
preached from 1834 to 1842. 

The Third Congregational Church was organized at 
New Salem Centre in August, 184.5. Services were held in 
the town-house until 1855, when the present church structure 
was erected. The pastors have been Revs. Wm. H. Hayward, 
Erastus Curtis, W. Kemp, David Eastman, and Samuel H. 
Amsdell, — the latter the pastor in charge January, 1879. 

In January, 1772, a Baptist Church was organized in the 
south part of the town, and in that year a meeting-house was 
built, a little south of what is now the Prescott line. In 
1800 the building was moved three miles north of its original 
location, and in 1822, when the town of Prescott was incorpo- 
rated, the church became known as the Baptist Church of 
New Salem and Prescott. The church building was taken 
down in 1835, and in that year a new structure was erected 
directly upon the line between Prescott and New Salem. 

The church began to decline a few years ago, and previous 
to 1878 became extinct. In that year the building was sold 
and removed into Prescott, where it is now used as a store. 
Among the early pastors of the church were Revs. Ebenezer 
Smith, Samuel Bigelow, Joel Butler, Josiah Orcutt, Paul 
Davis, Calvin Orcutt, Asa Niles, Stephen S. Nelson, Thos. 

Rand, Dwyer, George Doland, John Shepardson, A. B. 


There is a Methodist Church building within the borders 
of New Salem, near the Prescott line, but it belongs to the 
Methodist Society of North Prescott, with whom the Meth- 
odists of New Salem worship. 

The Universalists in the north part of the town organ- 
ized a society in 1800, and erected a meeting-house frame, but 
got no farther with the building. It stood thus uncovered for 
several years, when it was sold and removed to New Salem 
Centre, where it was converted into a tavern, and destroyed 
by fire in 1876. 

In January, 1879, measures were on foot at the village of 
Cooleyville for the organization of a Universalist society at 
that point, with a fair prospect of success. • 


The early records of the town having been destroyed, very 
little can be ascertained about the earlv historv of New Salem 



schools ; l)ut it is safe to assume that here, in common with 
the towns in Western Massacluisctts, tlie growth of the cause 
of education developed slowly in the days of the pioneers. 

Public concern touching the necessity and value of schools 
was awakened directly upon the settlement of the territory, 
and such provision as could be made with the limited advan- 
tages at command was attended to. 

In 1794 the subject of providing the town with a school 
possessed of superior advantages began to be actively discussed, 
and to such gooA end that a number of enterprising citizens 
erected a commodious school building at the Centre, and Feb. 
25, 1795, the Nkw S.vlkm Academy was incorporated under 

The State granted half a township of land in Maine in 1797 
for the benefit of the .school. This land was placed in market 
by the trustees, and was purchased to a large extent by citizens 
of New Salem, in order to assist, by every means in their 
power, the incipient institution. This course eventually in- 
volved them to such an extent that many were obliged to give 
up their homes in Massachusetts and remove to the wild lands 
of Maine. Among these was Capt. James Houlton, after 
whom the town of Houlton, in Maine, was named. 

By the running of a new boundary-line between the United 
States and the British dominions the institution lost about 
one-half the original grant. 


an act which set forth that the school was to be " for the pur- 
pose of promoting piety, religion, and morality, and for the 
instruction of the youth in such languages and in such of the 
liberal arts and sciences as the trustees shall direct."* The 
trustees then appointed were Rev. Joel Foster, Eev. Solomon 
Keed, Kev. Joseph Blodgett, Rev. Joseph Kilburn, David 
Smead, John Goldsbur.y, Jonathan Warner, David Sexton, 
Ebenezer Mattoon, Jr., Daniel Bigelow, Martin Kin.sley, 
Ezekiel Kellogg, Jr., Samuel Kendall, Varney Pearce, and 
Asa Meriam. 

Among the members who were active in procuring the 
charter were Rev. Joel Foster, Deacon Sanuiel Kendall, 
Ezekiel Kellogg, Jr., and Varney Pearce. The first record 
is in the handwriting of Rev. Joel Foster. The next secre- 
tary was Varney Pearce, Esq., who, with the exception of an 
interval of two years,— 1810-11,— attended every meeting of 
the board of trustees from the organization to the time of bis 
death, in 1823. 

* The following curious action appears of record under date of August 18, 
179C: "Voted that the trustees do reeummend to the young geutlemcu who 
stud}- at New Salem Academy, that they abstain from wearing gowns." At' the 
same date the following: " Voted that tliis hoard do now adjourn to 5 o'clock to- 
morrow morning." 

The school building, already mentioned, was donated to the 
academy, and at the first meeting of the trustees, which was 
held at the tavern of Samuel Kendall, in New Salem, measures 
were taken to set the institution upon an advanced plane, and 
thereby attract to its support pupils from all parts of the State. 

This liberal and comprehensive scheme bore immediate fruit, 
and the school entered at once upon a prosperous career, gath- 
ering within its walls many students from the State at large 
and from other States ; occupied an enlarged field of useful- 
ness, and took a prominent place among the institutions of 
learning of that day. 

In 1837 the academy building was destroyed by fire, but 
was promptly replaced by the present edifice, mainly erected 
from funds contributed by citizens of the town. In 1870 the 
academy received from the State a donation of $10,000, from 
the citizens of New Salem $5000, and from Ira Stratton, Esq., 
of Cambridgeport, a native of New Salem, iJlOOO. The valu- 
able scientific apparatus now in the possession of the school 
was the gift of Mr. Greenwood, of Boston, a former pupil. 
In the year named (1870) the trustees erected near the academy 
a handsome and spacious boarding-house, at a cost of lj!4000. 
This structure, as well as one of a similar character built many 
years before, provides homes for the academy students. 




The free introduction of high schools and the increase of 
educational advantages elsewhere have of late somewhat nar- 
rowed the tield of the academy's usefulness, but it still holds 
a high rank, and annually prepares many students for col- 

The value of the property belonging to the institution, in- 
cluding fund and buildings, is about ^16,000. The south 
building at the right and rear in the wood-cut is used as a 
boarding-house, and is in charge of a steward. The central 
building contains rooms for those who desire to board them- 
selves, and is in charge of the principal. 

The principals who have served the academy from its incor- 
poration, in 1795, to 1879, given in regular order, are thus 
named : Fowler Dickinson, Proctor Pierce, Joel Foster, Jo- 
seph Billings, Alvah Tobey, David Kendall, Warren Pierce, 
William Ritchie, Alpheus Harding, Oliver Greene, John 
Wallace, Joel Wright, Leonard Jewett, Phineas Johnson, 
Oliver Fletcher, Allen Gannett, Constant Field, Joseph An- 
derson, Charles Osgood, Alonzo Andrews, Luther Wilson, J. 
M. Macomber, Horace Blake, John Stacey, Gardner Rice, V. 
M. Howard, Charles Whittier, T. W. R. Marsh, Joseph A. 
Shaw, Andrew J. Lathrop, Henry M. Harrington, D. G. 
Thompson, E. A. Perry, F. F. Foster, Lorenzo White, F. E. 
Stratton, and William H. Smiley, the latter being the princi- 
pal in charge April 1, 1879. 

The trustees in 1879 were Lyman E. Moore, of New Salem ; 
T. D. Brooks, of At hoi ; Willard Putnam, William T. Free- 
man, and F. A. Haskell, of New Salem ; N. L. Johnson, of 
Dana ; J. B. Root, of Greenwich ; Thomas P. Root, of Barre ; 
Alpheus Harding, of Athol ; George A. Berry, of Shutesbury ; 
A. J. Clark, of Orange; Lucien D. Trow, of Hardwick ; and 
Edward F. Mayo, of Warwick. Among the prominent trus- 
■ tees not heretofore mentioned have been the following : Joshua 
Green, Hon. N. F. Bryant, Ebenezer Mattoon, Gen. James 
Humphreys, Hon. Richard E. Newcomb, Rev. Luther Wil- 
son, Rev. Oliver Everett, Rev. Alpheus Harding (who was 
connected with the school as teacher and trustee for more than 
sixty j-ears). Rev. John Goldsbury, Hon. Samuel Giles, Dea- 
con Asahel Paige, Rev. David Eastman, Jabez Sawyer, Esq. 
Among the alumni who have been prominent are the follow- 
ing : Ex-Governor Alexander H. Bullock, Judge P. Emory 
Aldrich, Hon. Frederick Allen, Hon. Alpheus Harding, Hon. 
Willard Richardson, formerly mayor of Galveston, Texas, and 
editor and proprietor of the Galveston News; Rev. Ozi W. 
Whittaker, Bishop of Nevada ; Rev. Francis E. Tower, Hon. 
N. L. Johnson, Hon. Edward A. Thomas. 

Besides the academy, there are in New Salem 7 district 
schools, at which the average attendance is 135 scholars, and 
for whose support, in 1877, the sum of ?1136.68 was expended. 

Among the students of New Salem Academy who became 
college graduates was Alpheus Harding, who graduated at 
Dartmouth, was afterward preceptor at the academy, and pas- 
tor of the First Ch\irch in New Salem, in which town he re- 
sided for seventy years. Of the natives of New Salem who 

received college diplomas, there were Warren Pierce, Proctor 
Pierce, Doctor Coles, Charles Pierce, Solomon Howe, Bi.shop 
Ozi W. Whittaker, and Willard Putnam. 

The rates of tuition seem to have changed considerably ; 
commencing in 1796 at from ^1.25 to 5!1.50 per term; after- 
ward declining to §1 and ?1.25 ; then gradually increasing to 
$5 and $7 per term. Formerly there were four terms annually, 
each of eleven weeks; now there are three terms, — two of 
thirteen weeks, and one of twelve weeks. 

The State gave the institution §10,000, ^ind the town of 
New Salem and sundry friends gave §5000 additional. The 
value of the original grant of lands by the State was probably 
about §5000. 


Accompanying are presented some of the oldest inscriptions 
found upon the headstones in the old grave-yard at New 
Salem Centre : 

John Townsend, 1700 ; Aaron Putnam, 1768 ; Jos. Hascal, 1771 ; Alct. Conkey, 
1773; Elizabeth Foster, 1774; Adam Weir, 1775; Elizabeth Trask, 1775; Jona- 
than Townsend, 1770; .\bigail Foster, 1777; Catharine Kendall, 1777; Cotton 
Foster, 1781 ; Lucy Kendall, 1784 ; Jonathan Hascal, 1784 ; Abigail .Shaw, 1785 ; 
Mary Foster, 1785 ; Elizabeth Foster, 1785 ; Amos Hajscal, 1780 ; Eunice Putnam, 
1786 ; Ehoda Strceter, 1780 ; John Heminway, 1786 ; Samuel Haical, 1786 ; Mary 
Townsend, 1788 ; Beujaniin Hascal, 1789 ; Jeremiah Strecter, 1790 ; Sarah Felton, 
1790; Anna Kendall, 1790; Rev. Samuel Kendall, 1792; Ann Stacy, 1792; David 
Felton, 1792; Molly Heminway, 1792; .Sally Putnam, 1793; Varney Putnam, 
1794; Israel Trask, 1794; Lydia Putnam, 1794; John Putnam, 1794; Melissa 
Putnam, 1795; Polly Smith, 1797; Ubadiah Townsend, 1798; Amos Putnam, 


According to the State census reports, issued in 1875, the 
value of the manufactured i)roducts of New Salem for that 
year was 15140,550, and that of agricultural and domestic prod- 
ucts, §89,516. The manufactures are those of lumber — there 
being nine saw-mills in the town — and palm-leaf hats. Bacon 
& Day started a pail-factory at Thompson's Pond in 1848, 
but the mill was soon after destroyed by fire, and was succeeded 
by Thompson's saw-mill, now operated by Kilburn & Co. 

There were tanneries in the town some years ago, and the 
manufacture of boots was also carried on to some extent, but 
these industries are now no more. New Salem used to be a 
great lumber region, and made annually heavy shipments of 
that material to other points, but this interest has also de- 

There are excellent farming-lands in the west, where the 
soil is black loam and gravel, and where the surface is undu- 
lating, while the centre is less fertile, and the eastern section 
fairly productive. The total assessed valuation of the town 
is $322,500, of which S257,800 is on real estate. The total tax 
(State, county, and town) is §6012.50, on a rate of about 
§18.50 per §1000. The debt of the town, March 20, 1878, was 


Soldiers were furnished by New Salem for service in the 
war of the Rebellion as follows : 

Austin A. Haskell, 42d Mass 

Henry Holley, . 

Jason Hanson, . 

r. M. Connei", . 

Charles Vanghau, 21st Mass. 
James Fleet, 2d Mass. 
James Golden, 2d Mass. 
Charles Scott, 2d Maas. 
Albert Fleishman, 2d Mass. 
Lewis Chombard, ISth Mass. 
Victor Dupon, 2d Mass. 
Francis Marshead, 2d Mass. 
Francis W. Neville, 26th Mass. 
David Hntcheson,2d Mass. 
Charles Axworthy, 2d Mass. 
Wilber H. Halo, 2d Mass, 
George H. Smith, 23d Mass. 

F. A. Blodgett, 31st Mass. 

Elbridge Smith, . 

Charles Bliss, . 

Bailey, . 

Winslow, . 

Wilson Upton, 31st Mass. 
Charles E. Tupper,* 3lBt Mass. 
A. A. Bliss,* 21st Majis. 
H. D. Bliss, 21st Mass. 
Wm. H. Sawyer, 21st Mass. 
Joseph W. Haydcn,* 2Ist Mass. 
F. S. Day, 27th Mass. 
D. W. Joslyn, 27th Mass. 
Adolphus Porter, 27lh Mass. 
A. P. Pierce, 27th Mass. 
Jesse Strong, 1st Mass. 
William Harvey, 21st Mass. 

Erastus Weeks, 21st Mass. 
Charles Davis, 27th Mass. 
Charles Griffln, 27th Mass. 
Orcein Goodwin, 27th Mass. 
Alvin Clark, 26th Mass. 
A. B. Clark, 26tli Mass. 
David BIi^^,* 15th Mass. 
Charles A. Stevens,* 31st Mass. 
A. M. Russell, 31st Mass. 
L3'man Holden,31st Mass. 
S. P. Williams, 3l8t Mass. 
Chauncey Upton, 31st Mass. 
H. C. Joslyn, 31st Mass. 
r. W. Newland, 31st Mass. 
Asa F. Richards, 31st Mjiss. 
Albronui Baldwin, 36th Ma-ss. 
H. S. Smith, 53d Mass. 

* Died in the service. 



Beiitien Gibson, 53d Moss. 

Jesse C. Haskius, 53d Mass. 

Forrester Hanson, 31st Mass. 

W. T. Pntnaiii,* 53d Mass. 

H. W. Amsdon, 63d Mass. 

J. G. Hayden, 31st Mass. 

A. E. Town,* o3d Mase. 

Charles P. Bliss, 53d Mass. 

William N. Dexter, 27th Mass. 

Jamoa L. Powers, 53(1 Mass. 

I. P. Sampson, 1st Mass. 

Dwight Freeman, 27th Mass. 

David Hamilton, Jr., 53d Mass. 

Arad Jolinson,* 34th Mass. 

A. Rawson, 36tli Mass. 

F. E. Stratton, 53d Mass. 

Geo. R. Hanson, 20th Moss. 

William Leighton, . 

George C. Warner, 53d Mass. 

James F. Smith, Ist Mass. 

F. H. Bliss, 53d Mass. 

Ciiarles Fisher, 53d Mass. 

Hugh D. Hasliell, . 

Jolin T. Bliss,* 27th Mass. 

V. V. Vaughan, S3d Mass. 

Samuel Iloyt, 31st Mass. 

William Bliss, 27lh Mass. 

F. C. Thompson, . 

Wm. H. Pierce, 27th Mass. 

Lafayette Smith,* . 

X* l.^ .-«.*«- LI n d-hir 4 . .n 

Charles Reynolds,* 27tli Mass. 
George W. Harding, 21st Mass. 

Henry Weeks, 27th Mass. 
A. W. King, 36th Mass. 

Lymaii C. Gilibs,* 21st Mass. 

D. E. Morrison, 31st Mass. 

Jesse Hayden, 2lBt Mass. 

Daniel Bosworth, 27th Mass. 

J. F. Freeman, 5.3d Mass. 

Merriam King, 2l3t Mass. 

K. G. Giles, 27th Mass. 

A. A. Washburn, 52d Mass. 

Reuben Woelts, 21st Mass. 

Louriu Ramsdell, 27tli Mass. 

L. D. Philips,* 32d Mass. 

\,t T /^l« .> wk 1« nnl n i *« 

James W. Hayden, 2l8t Mass. 

H. L. Freeman, 27th Mass. 

Asa P. Wheeler, 3l8t Mass. 

George Harding, 34th Mass. 

William Hemingway, . 

C O ]^ W A Y. 


Conway, onp of the largest towns in Franklin, with an area 
of about 23,000 acres, lies on the southern border of the county, 
and is bounded on the north by the town of Shelbiirne ; on the 
south by Hampshire County and the town of Whately in 
Franklin ; on the east by the town of Deerfield ; and on the 
west by the towns of Ashfield and Buckland. The Troy and 
Greenfield Railroad touches the northeastern border of the 
town, along which also flows the Deerfield Kiver. The nearest 
railway depot is Bardwell's, in Shelburne, a station on the 
Troy and Greenfield Railroad. Conway was in 1790 the third 
largest town, in point of population, in the county of Hamp- 
shire, — now embraced within the counties of Franklin, Hamp- 
shire, and Hampden. 

Conway is a country of hills, and occupies, accordingly, a 
region noted for its salubrious atmosphere. The most con- 
spicuous ele-vations are Dry, Pine, Cricket, and Poplar Hills, 
from whose summits fine scenic views may be obtained. The 
Deerfield River forms the northeastern boundary, and flowing 
through the town is a valuable mill-stream called the South 
River, which, rising in Ashfield, passes east to Conway Centre, 
and thence north and east, and empties into the Deerfield 
River. Bear River and Roaring Brook are the only other 
noticeable mill-streams. Native alum, fluor-spar, galena, mica 
slate, black limestone, and other minerals are sometimes found, 
but in no considerable quantities. 


The territory now occupied by Conway was originally a 
portion of Deerfield, and received, early in 1762, its first set- 
tler, Cyrus Bice, of Barre, who built his house in the east, 
upon the slope of a hill near the site of the old tavero-stand 
long afterward known as the " Hawley place." This territory 
was included in a grant made to Deerfield in 1712, when its 
domain — in answer to the petition of Rev. John Williams — 
was enlarged so as to extend "nine miles westward into the 
western vfoods." The southern portion of this grant came 
to be known as the "Southwest district," or "Southwest," 
and is now the town of Conway. 

There was some agitation in Deerfield in 1753 in favor of 
laying off the place called " Southwest" into lots, preparatory 
to its settlement, and late in that year the lots were laid out, 
containing 150 acres each, extending two hundred and forty 
rods in length from east to west, and one hundred rods in 
width. About that time the proprietors of "Southwest" made 

a grant to John Blackmore of 10 acres of land for a mill-spot, 
" at a place just before the crotch of South River," but there 
is no evidence to show that Blackmore entered upon occu- 
pation. There was a road through the tract in 17.54, from 
Deerfield to Huntstown (now Ashfield), and in 1763 Deerfield 
appropriated £4 toward building a bridge over South River, 
'and " making a county road adjacent to the same." 

The second settler was Josiah Boyden, of Grafton. Israel 
Gates, of Barre, followed, and after him John Wing, Elijah 
May, David Parker, James Dickinson, John Bond, Jonas- 
Rice, John Boyden, and Joseph Catlin (who were settlers 
upon the " Eastern district"), Robert Hamilton, Henry Arms, 
George Stearns, Caleb Rice, Silas Rawson, Joel Baker, and 
Adoniram Bartlett (settling north of the "Eastern district"), 
Jonathan Koot, Daniel Stow, John Thwing, Benjamin Pul- 
sifer, Timothy Thwing, Israel Rice, Timothy Rice, Theophilus 
Piige, Wm. Warren, John Batchelder, Nathaniel Goddard, 
John Broderick, Michael Turpej-, John Sherman, Samuel 
Newhall, David Harrington, Jason Harrington, Jonathan 
Smith, Caleb Allen, James Warren, Daniel Newhall, Prince 
Tobey, Jabez Newhall, David Whitney, Benjamin Wells, 
Abner Forbes, Thomas French, Tertius French, Nathaniel 
Field, Asa Merrit, Jonathan Whitney, Caleb Sharp, Aaron 
Howe, Jas. Davis, Joel and Elias Dickinson, Elijah Wells, 
H. B. Childs, Gershom Farnsworth, Alexander Oliver, Robert 
and James Oliver, James Look, Elisha Clark, Ebenezer Allis, 
Lucius Allis, Matthew and Simeon Graves, James Gilmore, 
Samuel Wells, Amos Allen, Abel Dinsniore, Wm. Gates, 
Gideon Cooley, Nathaniel Marble, John Avery, Malachi 
Maynard, Solomon Goodale, Samuel Crittenden, Isaac Nel- 
son, Richard Collins, Solomon Hartwell, Moses and Calvin 
Maynard, Ebenezer Tolman, Consider Arms, Isaac and Elisha 
Amsden, Solomon Field, and Sylvanus Cobb. 

The eastern half of the tract was first settled, and in 1767, 
when Conway was incorporated, embraced nearly all of the 
200 people then inhabiting the district. 

The first tavern-keeper was Thomas French, at whose inn 
— which stood where the Baptist Church, in Conway Centre, 
now stands — the first district meeting' was held, in 1767, and it 
is probable that he kept tavern there some time previous to 
that date. Landlord French was a great man in those days, 
and his house a great place of resort. It was at one time his 
boast that he owned so much land that he could make the 
journey to Deerfield without stepping oft' his own broad acres. 
Reverses overtook him later in life, and he died a pauper. 

The first blacksmith was Aaron Howe ; the first shoemaker, 
Maj. James Davis; and the first frame house in the district 

Photo, by Popkina. 


Edwin Cooley was born in Conway, Fi-anklin 
Co., Mass., March 24, 1819. His father, Gideon 
Cooley, was also a native of Conway, and was born 
April 17, 1781. He was married, in 1808, to Julia 
Waite, who was born in Hatfield, Mass., Nov. 14, 

The subject of this biography is one of a family 
of nine children. He acquired the elements of his 
education in the common schools of his native town, 
and was afterward classically instructed in the Con- 
way Select School and Amherst Academy. At the 
age of twenty-one he commenced teaching school 
during the winter months, and worked upon the 
farm in the summer. This he continued for ten 
years, and at the age of twenty-six assumed the entire 
charge of the farm until his father's decease, in 1854. 
He subsequently purchased the property by paying 
off the other heirs, and has always resided upon the 
old homestead. He has filled many offices of trust 
in such a manner as to gain public approbation. 

In 1839 he was elected a member of the board of 
selectmen, and has filled that office, with a few inter- 
missions, up to the present time, a period of thirty 
years, and has also been chairman of the board a 
greater part of the time. During the same time he 

has been assessor, and also justice of the peace two 
terms. In politics he was formerly a Whig, as have 
been all the members of the family for a great many 
years, but he is now a Republican, and in 1845 was 
elected to the Legislature, and was the first Repub- 
lican representative from the town of Conway. He 
is a man of particularly keen perceptions and sound 
judgment, and in consideration of these qualities he 
has frequently been called upon to appraise property 
and to settle up estates. 

Mr. Cooley is a deacon in the Congregational 
Church of Conway, of which he has been a member 
thirty years. He is an earnest worker in the cause 
of religion. 

He is also a member of the agricultural society, 
and has been trustee in the same at different times. 

He married for his first wife, Gracie K. Vining, 
who was born in Hawley, Franklin Co., Mass., in 
January, 1824. She died May 14, 1854. 

His present wife, Caroline E. Taylor, is a native 
of Williamsburg, Mass., and was born March 25, 
1826. By this union he has had three children, — 
Edwin Homer, born Dec. 1, 1857; Lizzie Grace, 
born July 3, 1859; and Clara White, born Oct, 3, 

Photo, by Popkins. 


Ckas. B. Meeritt is a native of Conway, Frank- 
lin Co., Mass. He is of English ancestry, and the 
family to which he belongs is descended from two 
brothers who came to this country at the time of the 
Restoration, or shortly before, one of whom set- 
tled in Massachnsetts, and the other in New York. 
Of the former, Charles B. Merritt is a direct de- 
scendant. He is the great-grandson of Asa Merritt, 
grandson of Simeon Merritt, and son of Pliny Mer- 

Asa Merritt was one of the earliest settlers in Con- 
way, and removed to that place from Brimfieid, 
Mass., about the year 1768. He died Oct. 17, 1802, 
aged seventy-four years. 

Simeon Merritt was born in Brimfieid, Mass., in 
July, 17<)2, and when six years old came to Conway 
with his father. As a man he was noted for his 
courage and firmness. He served in the Revolution, 
and at the time of Shays' rebellion was one of the 
six who stood for the government. He was married 
at Conway, on the 14tli day of November, 1792, to 
Pamelia Baker. He died Jan. 29, 1829. 

Pliny Merritt was born in Conway, Jan. 19, 1794, 
and died Oct. 14, 18()3. He married Sophia, 
daughter of Josiah Boyden, on the 14th of October, 
1819. She was born July l(i, 1794, and died Feb. 
19, 1867. They had one child, Charles B., subject 
of this notice. 

Charles B. Merritt was born March 3, 1823. He 
obtained the rudiments of his education in tlie 

district school, and was afterward instructed in 
Deacon Clary's Select School. At the age of eight- 
een he commenced teaching school, and taught 
during the winter for eight years, the remainder of 
this time being occupied in working upon his father's 
farm. In 1844 he went to Michigan, and while 
there engaged in the lumbering business. He re- 
mained but a few months, and then returned to Con- 
way, and united with his father in managing the 
farm. At his father's decease he inherited the prop- 
erty, and by industry and good management he has 
since considerably increased the original estate. He 
is at present engaged in general farming. 

In politics Mr. Merritt's ancestors have been 
Democrats since that party was first organized, and 
some of them have been among its staunchest sup- 
porters. He is also a Democrat, but not a partisan, 
and caste his vote rather with reference to the prin- 
ciples of the man who is to fill the office than to the 
party to which lie belongs. 

Mr. Merritt has held the office of assessor for the 
past fifteen years, and in 1868 was also a member of 
the board of selectmen, and is a member and trustee 
of the Franklin County Agricultural Society. He 
is a man of integrity and honor, and by these qual- 
ities has won the respect of his townsmen. 

He was married, Nov. 26, 1857, to Mary A. 
Stearns, daughter of Joel Stearns. She was born 
in Conway, May 24, 1832. They have one child, 
Ella E., born Jan. 14, 1859. 

Photo, by Popkins, Greenfield, 

Kimball Batchelder, father of the subject of 
this notice, was born in Francestown, N. H., on the 8th 
of August, 1796. He removed to Conway, Mass., in 
March, 1825, and settled on the Farnum place. His 
occupation was that of a farmer, and he held various 
local offices. He was married, Nov. 9, 1825, to Ar- 
menia, daughter of George Stearns, of Conway, wlio 
was born May 4, 1803. They had a family of lour 
daughters and one son, as follows: Mary, wife of 
Geo. A. Waite, of Amherst ; Carlos and Caroline, 
twins ; Fanny A. (deceased) ; and Roxie, wife of 
Caleb E. Forbes, of Buckland. 

Carlos Batchelder was born in Conway, Jan. 
16, 1829. He received a good education, which he 
" finished," technically speaking, at the age of nine- 
teen. When twenty-two years old he united with 
his father in managing the farm, in which partner- 
ship he remained until his father's decease. In poli- 
tics he is a Republican, and takes an active interest 
not only in local, but also in the general political 
movements of the State and nation. 

In 1869 he was elected to the Legislature, and by 
his ability won credit for himself and for those whom 

he represented. He was selectman from 1861 to 
1870, and for thirty-five years has been a member 
and trustee of the Agricultural Society. He was 
also one of the commissioners appointed by the 
Legislature to superintend the building of Turner's 
Falls bridge. In 1874 he was elected to the office 
of county commissioner, and still serves in that ca- 
pacity. He has, besides, held the office of notary one 
year, and has been a director of the Conway National 
Bank for t^vo years. 

Mr. Batchelder is a deacon in the Congregational 
Church of Conway, of which he has been a member 
for thirty-three yeare. 

He is a man of great business enterprise, and has 
been uniformly successful in his undertakings. 

He was married, May 28, 1851, to Minerva A. 
Forbes, who was born in Buckland, Franklin Co., 
Mass., Aug. 25, 1830. They have had four chil- 
dren, only two of whom survive, — Wm. K., born 
Oct. 1, 1854, who is married and lives on the old 
homestead, and Frederick C, born Aug. 15, 1861. 
Those deceased are Minnie E., born Dec. 29, 1873, 
and Carrie, born Jan. 11, 1875. 

Stephen Cook, father of the subject of this 
notice, was born in Tolland, Conn., in 1784. He 
was a descendant of Aaron Coolc, one of the early 
settlers of Windsor, Conn., and mai'ried Elizabeth 
Tueker, of Tolland, by whom he had seven children, 
four sons and three daughters, viz. : James, MarceUus, 
Hiram, Chelsea, Sarah, Harriet, and Eliza. 

Chelsea Cook was born in Tolland, March 4, 
1828. His father removed to Manchester, Conn., 
in 1837, and engaged in manufacturing, and there 
the children received a common-school education 
and were instructed in their fuher's business. To 
Chelsea was given the superintendeucy of the Globe 
Cotton Mill, of South Manchester. 

He was married, Nov. 24, 1850, to Julia R., 
daughter of Eichard and Delia R. Tucker, of South 

He removed to Conway, Franklin Co., Mass., Sept. 
1, 1858, and there engaged in the manufacture of 
cotton warps in company with R. Tucker, his father- 
in-law, under the firm-names of R. Tucker & Co. 
and of Tucker & Cook. The business has always 
been in a flourishing condition, and from year to 
year has taken a wider range, and in the twenty 
years which liave elapsed their establishment has 
never been closed. Their succe:,s is due not only to 
good management and perseverance, but also to the 
excellent quality of the goods they manufacture. 

They have devoted their attention exclusively to the 
manufacture of cotton warps, yarns, and knitting 
cottons, of which the firm turns out one-half million 
pounds annually. 

In politics Mr. Cook is a Republican, but has 
never sought political preferment. In the social, 
religious, and educational enterprises of the town, 
however, he has always been actively interested. 

He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church of Conway, to the support of which he has 
been a liberal contributor. In the Sunday-school 
connected therewith, of which he is superintendent, 
he has been an earnest worker, and has given his 
example and influence to aid in the cause of Christi- 
anity and the well-being of society. 

Mr. Cook's first wife died in 1864, and he married, 
for his second wife, Helen M., daughter of Rev. 
Edwin Jennison, of Winchester, N. H. She was 
born April 23, 1844. 

Mr. Cook's children were Arthur M., bookkeeper 
and paymaster for R. Tucker & Co. and Tucker & 
Cook; Marcellus T., who died in 1864; Richard 
M., bookkeeper for R. M. Tucker; Charles L., 
engineer for Tucker & Cook ; Edward S., who died 
in 1864; and Ciiel.sea, Jr., by his first marriage. 

Of the present union there are Julia R., Edwin, 
Cyrus, Walden, and May Delia. They are all now 
living at home, February, 1879. 



was erected by Deacon Joel Baker, about a mile north of the 

Beulah, Jaughter of Cyrus Rice, the first settler, was the 
first child; and David, son of Josiah Bo3'den, was the first 
male child born here. Josiah Hoyden's daughter, Mary, was 
born in 1767, and died in 18B9, the widow of Medad Critten- 
den, aged one hundred and one years and six months. 

The first county road, laid out in 1754, has already been re- 
ferred to; the second county road, laid out in 1765, extended 
from the meeting-house in Pumpkin Hollow, over the hill, 
through what is now Burkeville, up the river, and so on to 
Ashtield Roads, to Broonishire, and south, was built in 1767; 
and to West Street, Cricket Hill, and Poland in 1769. 

Traces of the old stage-road which once passed from North- 
ampton to Ashfield are still to be seen on the farms of Na- 
thaniel Smith, Zelotus Bates, Charles Wrisley, and the old 
Crittenden place. 

The first chaise seen in the town was owned by Parson 
Emerson, and was of the kind known as a two-wheeled chair. 
Robert Hamilton built tlie first one-horse wagon about 1800, 
and thought it was the only one in America. 

The first grist-mill was built as early as 1707, and probably 
before, by Caleb Sharp, a half negro and half Indian, as he 
was called, but a wide-awake and industrious citizen. This 
mill occupied a site on South River, where John Sprague now 
has a grist-mill, just below Burkeville. The second grist-mill 
was built in 1770, on the South River, near tlie Thwing mill, 
now in the north part of the town. 

There are in the town twelve farms now occuj)ied bv de- 
scendants of the first occupants, the names of the first owners 
being Josiah Boyden, John "Wing, Consider Arms, Israel 
Rice, Theophilus Page, Timothy Thwing, Samuel Newhall, 
Jabez Newhall, Solomon Field, Richard Collins, Malachi 
Maynard, Lucius Allis. The names of the present occupants 
in the same order are Josiah Boyden, Lucius B. Wing, Elijah 
Arms, Austin Rice, Elijah Page, Amariah Thwing, Joseph 
Newhall, Rodolphus Newhall, Consider Field, Hiram Collins, 
Lucy Maynard, and John Allis. 


The first action taken by the town touching matters which 
led to the war of 70 was Aug. 5, 1774, when, the pamphlet 
from the Boston committee of correspondence being consid- 
ered, a committee, consisting of Captain French, Deacon 
Wells, Robert Oliver, Mathew Gould, and Consider Arms, 
was chosen and instructed to prepare a reply, which they did 
in the following : 

" Having roaJ anil cousiJereil the letters seut us from Boston, respecting tlie 
rights of the colonies, and the infringements of those rights, we fully agree 
with you that those riglits anil privileges are invaded, and of this province in 
particular. \Ve shall join with you iu all lawful and salutary measures for the 
recovery of those inestimable pnvileges wrested from us and firmly to secure 
those that remain, for we are sensible that should we renounce our liberties 
and piivileges we should renounce the ijuality of men and the rights of humanity. 
We fully pay our proportion of money desired by the General Court, in order to 
the Buppoit of the Hon. Committees of Congress, greatly relying and depending 
on their resolutions." 

In September, 1774, a committee, being appointed to " reg- 
ulate mobs for fourteen days," reported as follows : 

"1st. Hexutrtil, That the Connnitty have power tw Inspect, Judge, and Deter- 
mine with respect to ye conduct of any l>erson or persons that shall Do or speak 
anything that tends to Hender uniting of the people in opposing ye King's laws 
yt Infringes on our Eights Contrary to our Charter; that when any complaint 
shall be presented tu sd Connnitty against any person or persons, sd persons shall 
appear before said committy, and Ulwn Having good evidence, they shall have 
power to apiioint a certain competency of punishment to be inflicted on them, 
not e.vceeding the Punishmeut of contempt and neglect, sj punishment to be 
oi-dered by the sd couunitty. 

"2d. Uenalml, yt the sd Committy nor no other person shall not have liberty 
to go out of this town, e.\cept it be to ii*ii»( iimiib iu the Geneial liojd Cause, in 
prohipiting persons taking or holding commissions under the present constitu- 
tion, e.\cept it be for their own jiarticnlar business. 

"3d. llauhmt. With regard to the late acts of Parliament, we look upon them 
to be unconstitutional, tin annical, and oppressive, tending in their opperation to 
tlie Total Subvei-sion of our natural and Chartered Eights ; Do look ui.on it our 

duty, from a regard to the tnic interests of our Selves, our country, and posteiity, 
to oppose ye sd crtiil acts in every vertious manner to prevent their taking 
place, and we hereby manifest our Keadiness and Resolution, Reather than sub- 
mit to them, that we will resist them, even to the shedding of blood." 

Consider Arms, who was one of this committee, and one of 
the first committee of correspondence, was also selected, in 
1774, to attend the Provincial Congress. Later on, as will 
be seen, he became a rank Tory, and with others suffered some 

In December, 1774, a committee was chosen "to observe 
the conduct of all persons in this district touching the asso- 
ciation of the Continental Congress." 

In 1775, Daniel Dunham was chosen a delegate to the Con- 
gress at Concord, and it was agreed also "to allow Minute- 
Men the assistance of one barrel of powder, lead, and flints, 
on condition that they are called to march in defense of their 
country ; to provide them forty bayonets and forty cartridge- 
boxes, and to give them §40 when they march." 

May 24, 1776, the town made the declaration that "If the 
Honorable Continantial Congress Should think it Requisit for 
the Siifety of the North-american Coloneys on this Continent 
to Declare a State of Independency of Greatbriton, that we 
will abide By and Conform to their wisdom to the Expense of 
our lives and fortunes." 

Conway was nobly patriotic in furnishing men and means 
for the struggle, and at one time, in 1777, every able-bodied 
man within the town's limits was under arms. 

In the summer of 1775 the Toryism of some of the inhab- 
itants began to manifest itself, and in July of that year it was 

Voted " that the town will acquiesce with what the committee have done with 
respect to Consider Arms, viz., taking away his arms; also, voted they did right in 
clearing Messrs. Deacon Dickinson, Jona. Oaks, Sani'l and David Fiekis ; also, in 
what they did in disarming James Oliver; also, that they did right in wdiat they 
did Wm. Galloway, Elijah Wells, Joseph Catlin, and Ellas Dickinson, and that 
the resolves of the committee respecting Joseph Brunson and Simeon Hawks 
shall be put into execution, which is to commit them to goal." 

Consider Arms would not willingly relinquish his sword 
when commanded to do so, and hid it in a grain-bin, where it 
was, however, found and confiscated. Upon the close of the 
war it was restored to him, and is now in the possession of 
Elijah Arms, Esq., of Conway. 

August, 1777, it was resolved to proceed to some measure 
to secure "the inimical persons called Tories," it being first 
voted that those who were "dangerously inimical to the Amer- 
ican States" were Joseph Catlin, Elias Dickinson, Joseph 
Brunson, Elijah Wells, Elijah Billings, James Dickinson, 
William Billings, John Hamilton, Jonathan Oaks, Capt. 
Consider Arms, Ebenezer Redfield, and David Field. 

It was then voted "to draw a line between the Continent 
and Great Britain," and subsequently, 

" Voted tliat all those persons that stand on the line of the continent take up 
arms, and go on hand in hand with us in carrying on the war against our un- 
uatural enemies. Such we receive as friends, and all otliers treat as enemies. 
Voted the Broad ally be the line, and the South end of the meeting-house he 
the continent, and the North end the British side. Then moved for Tiial, and 
found six persons to stund on the British side, viz. : Elijah Billing, Jonathan 
Oaks, William Billing, Joseph Catling, Joel Dickinson, and Charles Dickinson. 
Voted to set a gard over those Enemical persons. Voted that the town clerk 
Emediately desire Judge Marther to issue out his warrants against those enem- 
ical persons i-eturned to him iu a list heretofore." 

As an evidence of the depreciation of currency during the 
war, it may be mentioned that in 1780 it was voted to give a 
bounty of §700 to men drafted into the militia service, and to 
raise £10,000 to pay bounties. 

Among the men of Conway who fought in the first Revolu- 
tion were Josiah and John Boyden, Lieut. Robert Hamilton, 
Jason Harrington, Daniel Newhall, Maj. James Davis, Lieut. 
Alexander Oliver, Lucius Allis, Amos Allen, Abel Dinsmore, 
Isaac Nelson, Moses Childs, William Marble, and WilliaLU 
Gates, the four latter being killed in the service. 

The declaration of war in 1812 did not meet Conway's ap- 
proval, and in that year Joshua Billings and John Bannister 
represented the town at the Northampton peace convention. 



Under the draft ordered in 1814, several Conway men went to 
Boston prepared for active service, but returned lucl<ily to 
their lionies sliortly afterward, without having been called 
upon to tulie part in bloody strife. 


Many interesting stories are still extant of the peculiar ex- 
periences that beset the early settlers of Conway, and the 
primitive conveniences with which they were compelled to 
malie existence endurable. Of one, William Warren, it is 
said that his entire stocl< of goods upon which to begin farm- 
ing consisted of a cow, an axe, hoe, chain, and one " bung- 
town copper." Oxen or horses were among the sighed-for 
but unattainable things, and carrying grist to mill upon his 
bacli was, if not a favorite performance by the settler of the 
period, a common one. 

Amos Allen is reported to have thus conveyed three busliels 
of rye from Hatfield, from which place, too, Malachi Maynard 
carried to Conway nineteen shad and two good-sized pigs, all 
lodged in the same bag. For a wager of £8, John Sherman 
ran, one hot daj' in 1785, eight miles on the highway in fifty- 
six and a half minutes, but there appears no evidence tliat 
this pedestrian fever spread throughout the town. 

In 1760, or thereabouts, there was one man at least wliose 
opinion of the value of the territory now occupied by Conway 
was graded very low. This was Eliphalet Williams, who, 
upon returning from a prospecting tour through "Southwest," 
declared he would not give the horse he rode upon for tlie 
entire tract. 

The experience which met Israel Kice and William Warren 
at tile outset was a damp and di.sagreeable one. They settled 
close together in I'ljtl, Kice ])reparing a frame for his house and 
Warren putting up a log cabin. Before either could get his 
roof on rain set in, and continued almost incessantly for 
twelve days. 

Gideon Cooley made his first appearance in the settlement 
on the back of a horse, upon which he carried also his wife 
and all the goods he owned in the world. Rev. Mr. Emerson, 
in an early record, wrote: 

"These men planted tlieniselves down on new and nniniproveil spots of land, 
and with small propel ty, bnt good residulion, comDienced the arduous but honest 
and respectable business of earning bread by the sweat of their brows." 

It was the custom in the early days for the young maiden 
to walk barefoot to meeting on Sunday, carrying her best 
shoes in her hand, which, just before reaching church, she 
would put on at some convenient place, and straightway march 
into the house of worship, conscious of the high respectability, 
at least, of her feet-coverings. Until a few years ago the curious 
might have beheld, at the foot of the Jonas Rice hill, a chest- 
nut-tree whose spreading boughs furnished full many a time 
and oft a covering for the favorite "dressing-place" of these 
young women. 

When Parson Emersim took up his residence in Conway, 
his wife sensationalized the community through the possession 
of a table-cloth and a silk umbrella, — articles which, because 
of their rarity, continued long to be objects of veneration 
and awe among the innocent pioneers. 

During the Revolutionary period the Conway fathers en- 
deavored to combat the evils of paper-money inflation by 
fixing upon a schedule of prices for labor and supplies, as the 
following examples will show: 

" Men's labor, three shillings per day in the summer season ; fresh Poark of 
the best quality, three pence per pound; good grass-fed beef, two pence one 
farthing; Best cheas, six pence ; good Spanish potatoes, in the fall of the year, 
one shilling; Yern Stockings of the best sort, Ei.x shillings a paie; good Sap 
beiials, three shillings, and all other cooper work in proportion ; good common 
meals of Victuals at Taverns, ExcluKive of Sidcr, nine pence, and other meals in 
proportion; Horsekceping a night, or twenty-four houis, ten pence; shoeing 
horses all round, Steal tow and heal, six shillings four pence; good yerd-wide 
toa cloth, two shillings three ponce ;" and so on. 

The plan mu.st have miscarried, for not long thereafter it 

was announced that $20 a day would be paid for labor on the 

Conway took a stand against the general government in 
the controversies which led to the Sha\'s rebellion, and in 
April, 1782, voted "that the Inferior Court, at its last sitting 
at Northampton, did go contrary to the orders of the General 
Court and the County Convention." A committee was at 
once chosen to go to Northampton "to attend upon the Supe- 
rior Court and to form a Convention." This committee con- 
sisted of the following persons: Samuel Wells, Samuel Ware, 
Thomas French, Elisha Amsden, Oliver Wetmore, Malachi 
Maynard, Prince Tobey, Elias Dickinson, Elijah Billings, 
Jesse Warner, Aaron Howe, James Gilmore, Daniel Dunham, 
Jonathan Dunham, Tertius French, Elijah Wells, Alexander 
Glover, Noah Tobey, Daniel Newhall, Samuel Shattuck, Jon- 
athan Whitney, Isaac Amsden, Joel Baker, Abner Sheldon, 
Samuel Wilder, Samuel Newhall, Robert Hamilton, John 
Wilcox, Samuel Crittenden, Ebenezer Maynard, Sherebiah 
Lee, Jonas Rice, Caleb Allen, Silas Rawson, George Stearns, 
Aaron Hayden, Abel Dinsmore, Wm. Gates, Gideon Cooley, 
David Parker, Mathew Graves, Elisha Clark, Simeon Graves, 
Elisha Smith, and Jabez Newhall. 

This committee did service at Northampton as an element 
in the mob raised by Samuel Ely to disturb the sessions of the 
courts there, and later, when Ely was in prison at Springfield 
for that oft'ense, Capt. Abel Dinsmore, of Conwaj', was arrested 
as one of the leaders of another mob, which sought to rescue 
him from durance vile. Still later, Capt. Dinsmore took a 
prominent and active part in raising men for Shays, and ob- 
tained not a few in Conway. 

Conway was the proud possessor, in 1798 and I'lOO, of a vil- 
lage newspaper, published weekly by Theodore Leonard. It 
was called The Frirmcra' Ilq/isier, was published at Pumpkin 
Hollow, and on its title-page proclaimed its fearless indepen- 
dence in the following couplet: 

" Here tnith unlicensed reigns, and dares accost 
Even kings themselves, or nilere of the free." 

Advertisements were few, and news generally mildewed 
with age when printed in The Regisinr, although it would 
sometimes get Washington news only three weeks old, and 
London items in about ninety days. Its local columns were 
one day illumined with a bold notice from Asahel Wood, a 
negro, to the etl'ect that he would " ring the bell but once a 
day, unless encouragement were given to him by subscription 
or otherwise." 

The struggles for the possession of the old Deerfield gun 
were notable events in Conway's history, and stirred up much 
bad blood between that town and Deerfield. 

The gun was a legacy which Deerfield received in the Indian 
wars, but the town, showing, after the commencement of the 
nineteenth century, strong leanings toward Federalism, it was 
deemed best by Conway — the child of Deerfield — that the pre- 
cious relic should be transferred to worthier custodians, to 
wit, the Republicans of Conway, and the latter accordingly 
carrying ofl" the gun one day to their native hills, aiwakened 
the echoes by its deep-toned thunder ; which Deerfield hearing, 
and directly learning of the spoliation, set out to recapture the 

The invaders, in large force, headed by Gen. Hoyt and 
Sherilf Saxton, appeared in Conway and demanded the re- 
turn of the gun, threatening in default thereof to take it 
by force of arms. Conway carried the apple of discord into 
the boarding-house of old Bill Redfield, who, determined to 
have a fight rather than yield, wrought his partisans up to 
fighting-pitch, and would no doubt have shortly brought 
on a bloody conflict had not law-abiding citizens interfered 
with counsels of submission. Happily, therefore, bloodshed 
was avoided, and Deerfield got her gun back, but found after- 
ward that it required much vigilance and alertness to keep it 
from the hands of the raiders from Conway and Greenfield. 

Photo, by C. L. Muore, Springfield. 

(71 ^. 

RuiiARD ]\I. Tucker, son of Riclmrd and Delia 
R. Tncker, was born in Bozrali, New London Co., 
Conn., Aug. 28, 1842. He was educated in tiie com- 
mon schools of his native town, and on the 1st of 
September, 1858, removed with his father to Con- 
way, Franklin Co., IMass. He soon after commenced 
working in a cotton-mill owned by his father. He 
acted in the capacity of overseer in the spinning-room 
eight years, and at the expiration of that time com- 
menced business upon his own account. He pur- 
chased the stock of merchandise belonging to Lucius 
Smith, and formed a copartnership with Tliomas A. 
Dickinson. Two years afterward he bought Mr. 
Dickinson's interest, and has since that time been 
sole proprietor. 

Although he purchased his goods when prices 
were high, and has had to combat with recent busi- 
ness depression, he has been uniformly successful, 
and from year to year has inerea.sed his capital, 
and, by strict attention to business, good judg- 
ment, and integrity, gained a large patronage and 
the confidence and support of the public. In poli- 
tics he is Rejjublican, and a staunch supporter of 

the men and measures of that party, but chooses 
rather to be a worker for the success of others than 
a seeker of office for himself. He has been assistant 
postmaster in Conway eight years, and still holds 
that position. 

Mr. Tucker is a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church of Conway, in which he is also steward 
and trustee. He aided in the erection of the new 
church edifice, both pecuniarily and in other ways. 
He is a teacher and an earnest worker in the Sunday- 

In the public enterj)rises of the town and com- 
munity he takes a prominent jwrt, and is a liberal 
contributor to all measures calculated to promote the 
general welfare. While these varied interests occupy 
his chief attention, he is not wholly absorbed by them, 
but enjoys with a keen zest the amenities of social 
life, and in his intercourse with friends is one of the 
most hospitable of men. He was married, on the 4th 
of November, 1859, to Julia A. Phillips. She is the 
daughter of Philip M. Phillips, formerly of Ashfield, 
but now a resident of Conway. They have had one 
child, — Willie M. (deceased), born Aug. 4, 18(52. 


Chiirlos ParBona, Jr., wiia born in Con- 
wity, Franklin Co., Mans., April 2, is:i9. 
Iln is of Engliali ilesciMit, anil traces his 
anrentr.v to Itttnjaiiiin I'antons, whom It Is 
Kiipposoil camp to this country in the 
Mayllower. Ho settled in SprinKficM, 
M118H., and bis nanio litHt appcaiR there in 
tlio rccorils in KiHfi, whon lie wiis cliuseii 
lieacon i>r a chnrr.h, and ho was alter ward 
known an Deacon Benjamin. lie liiul 
sevnn children, who were born bt-twccri 
lG:J6and 1G75. 

His oldest son, Samuel, Bottled in Enfield, 
Conn., and married Hannah Hitchcock, by 
whom he had five children ; and of these, 
Nathaniel, the yonn^eut, married Mary 
Pease, by whom he liad three suns, the 
youngest of whom wasChadwoll, who also 
liad three children, viz., Chadwoll, Joel, 
and Rnth. 

Jnel, the second son, wa.s the gmndfather 
of the subject of this notice, and was born 
iti Soniei-s, Conn.jon the 2Sth of Jan.,17W. 
He married Tiypbena Booth, on the 31st 
of July, 1775, and during the ssime year 
removed to Conway, Miuss., making the 
journey on horseback, carrying his wilt 
on the horse behind him, and, upon hi^ 
arrival in that i)lace, hail but tuenty-fi\ 
cents in money with which to commemi 
husinesa and housekeei)ing. He was i 
man off;reatcouragoand physical strength, 
and very frequently, alter working all da\ 
on the farm, would sj-ienil the greater pai t 
of the night in hard labor at his tmdt, 
wliiclt was that of a blacksmith. He w w 
also scrupnionsly honest iu all his deal 
ings, but he believed in being just to him 
H-df 118 well as to others, and reiiuircd 
prompt payment of what was due him 
Besides physical endurance, lie possesscil 
conshlerable financial ability, for, com 
mencing with nothing, he accumulatid 
what in those days was considered quite 
a fortune. 

His snn, Charles Parsons, was horn in 
Conway, on the r^d of June, 1798. Pos- 
sessing both enterprise and industry, ho 
turned his attention entirely to agricul- 
ture, and became one of the most thorough 
and progressive farmers in that locality. 
He hiifl also taken a pronnnent part in the 
various public interests of the town, as- 
sisted in organizing the Conway Nation- 
al Bank, the Coi.way Fire Insurance 
Company, and also the Mutual Fire In- 

'V (7 


suratice Company, of that town; has been 
a member of the Bi^aid of Selectmen, and 
assessor, and is liberal in his contributions 
to the support of churches and schools. 

He married Sylvia, daughter of Josiah 
Boyden, of Conway, on the 30th of Octo- 
ber, 1820, by whom he bad five children, 
viz.: Adeline, wife of J, C. Newhall, of 
Conway; Nancy (deceased), who married 
Guerdon Edgeiton ; Tryphena B. (de- 
ceased); Charles Lyman (deceased); and 
Charles, Jr., the youngest son and child, 
and the subject of this notice. 

He was horn and reared on the place 
where he now resides, and attended the 
common schools and tlie Conway Acade- 
my. When Iwenty-tliiee years of age lio 
united with his father in managing the 
farm, and remained in that partnership 
three years. At the expiration of that 
time he took thecntii'e charge of the farm, 
which he has continued to do to tlie i)re8- 
ent time. In 1SC7 he commenced breeding 
short-liorn, or Durham cattle, and is now 
one of the most successlul breeders in 
Massachusetts. His herd numbers sixty 
head, of whicli forty are thoi'oughbred, the 
remainder being graded stock. 

His barns are models of neatness and 
adaptation, being furnished with all the 
modern imj)rovements. Indeed, Mr. Par- 
sons is a model farmer, and is identified 
with all the best farming interests of that 

For the past twelve years lie has been 
a member of the Franklin Harvest Clnh, 
and is also a member of the Franktin 
County Agricultural Society, of which he 
has been vice-president and trustee a 
number of years. 

In politics he is a Republican, and 
actively interested in the meiisures of that 
party, but has never sought office for 

He is a member of the Congregational 
J^Jhurch of Conway, and for twenty yeai"S 
lias been connected with the choir, of 
which he is now the leader. 

Mr. Parsons is also a Knight Templar in 
tho Masonic order, of which ho has been 
a member since 1862. He has been Master 
of the Lodge at Conway^and was largely 
instrumental in its organization. 

Ho was married, on the 29th of October, 
ISGl, to Helen A., daughter of D. M. Wick- 
ham, of Albion, N. Y., by whom he has 
five children. They are Minnie A,, Charles 
Lyman, Lizzie, Lois, and Sylvia. 

iaEga©iE3©ig ©IF ©KiAifiiLisi if>aii3§ig)iKi§, 5PIK., (DiijJiiywii'i/, ififiaii^jKiLura ©(s)., mm>%. 



Conway has become famous as the home of aged people; 
two of its residents — the Widow Farnsworth and Widow 
Crittenden — each lived upward of one hundred years. A 
list, published in 18fi7, of the persons in Conway who, up 
to that time, had lived to be ninety and ov\;v, places the num- 
ber at 48. Uf these, three were ninety-nine, two were ninety- 
eight, one was ninety-seven, two were ninety-six, one was 
uinety-five, five were ninety-four, four were ninety-three, 
eleven were ninety-two, eight were ninety-one, ten were 
ninety, and one was one hundred. Thei-e are now in the 
town three persons each of whom is more than ninety years 
of age. 

Conway celebrated its centennial, June 1(1, 18iJ7, in Conway 
Centre with a gala gathering of citizens, many of whom 
owned the tfown as a birthplace, or as the birthplace of ances- 
tors. Merry-making, speech-making, and feasting tilled the 
measure of the day's enjoyment. 

In late years two disastrous floods have visited Conway. 
The one in 1869 worked serious damage to mill property, 
bridges, etc., and later, in December, 1878, the waters inun- 
dated Conway Centre to the depth of several feet, and, depop- 
ulating the village, put a .sudden stop to business and in- 
flicted upon that section and the surrounding country a serious 
calami tv. 


Early in 1767 the inhabitants of Southwest, having grown 
to be quite numerous, petitioned to Deerlield to be set oif, and 
Deerfield, agreeing to the petition, suggested tlic boundaries 
as follows : " East upon the seven-mile line, so called, until it 
comes to Deerfield River ; west upon Ashfield bounds, or the 
west line of Deerfield; south upon Hatfield bounds; north 
partly upon Deerfield line until it conies to the Northwest di- 
vision, so called'' (to the Shelburne line), " and thence by the 
said Northwest division until it comes to the west line of the 

The Northwest division was subsequently incorporated as 
the town of Shelburne, and its south line was a straight one 
crossing Deerfield River at the place now known as Bardwell's. 
In February, 1781, the territory in Shelburne south of the 
river was annexed to Conway. The northwest corner of that 
annexation was afterward set oft' to Buckland. 

June 17, 1707, Conway was, in accordance with the peti- 
\ tion, incorporated as a district, and was named in honor of 
Gen. Henry Conway, a member of the British ministry, 
who was popular in the colonies for the prominent part he 
assumed as the government leader in the House of Commons 
at the repeal of the Stamp Act. 
\; Under the act of 1786, Conway became a town. The war- 
rant calling for the first meeting of the district was issued 
Aug. 8, 1767, by Elijah Williams, a justice of the peace, 
and, on August 24th, the meeting was held at the house 
of Thomas French, "innholder." The officers chosen at 
that meeting were Consider Arms, Moderator and Town 
Clerk; Cyrus Rice, Constable; Thomas French, Consider 
Arms, and Samuel Wells, Selectmen and Assessors ; Consider 
Arms, Treasurer; Israel Gates, Thomas French, and Joel 
Baker, Surveyors of Highwaj's; David Parker, Tithingman; 
Elisha Amsden,AVarden; Thomas French and Simeon Graves, 
Fence-Viewers ; Silas Rawson, Sealer of Leather ; Ebenezer 
Allis, Sealer of Weights and Measures ; Jo.seph Catlin and 
Joel Baker, Hog-Reeves; Cyrus Rice, Deer-Reeve; James Gil- 
more and Josiah Boyden, Hay wards; David Parker and 
. Ebenezer Allis, Surveyors of Lumber. 

The names of the persons who have served as selectmen 
and town clerks from 1767 to 1879 will be found below: 


1"67. — TIkw. French, Cousider .\rnis, .Stinniel Wells. 

17G8.— Th09. French, Joel Baker. 

ITG'J.— Juel Baker, Jos. Catliu, Eliiis Dickinson, Nuthaniel Field, Simeon Graves. 

1770.— Tlios. French, Joel Dickinson, Cyrus Rice. 

1T71. — Thos. French, Samuel Wells, Jonathan Whitney, Joal Baker, Israel Itice. 

1772-73. — Jonas Rice, Daviil Parker, Daniel Newhall. 

1774. — Consider Arms, Israel Gate.^, Rjbert Oliver. 

177.5. — Elislia Anisden, Samuel Wells, Xoah Beldiiig. 

177G. — Isaac .\msJen, Jonas Rice, Sam'l Crittenden, Elisha Clark, Alex. Oliver. 

1777. — Cyrus Rice, Isaac Amsden, Israel Rice, Jonas Rice, Elisha Clark. 

177S.— Samuel Wells, Jonathaii Wliitney, Elisha Clark. 

1779. — Abel Dinsmore, Jouatlian Whitney, Israel Rice. 

17S0. — Elisha .\msdeu, Josiah Btytlen, Niithauiel Goddard! 

1781. — Ale.vander Oliver, Prince Tobey, Lucius .\llis. 

17S2. — Pl-ince Tobey, Alexander Oliver, Malachai Maynard. 

1783. — Israel Gates, Al>el Dinsmore, Malachai JUayn.ord. 

17&1. — Caleb Allen, .\bel Dinsmore, .Jesse Severance. 

178.'i.— Piince Tobey, Caleb Allen, George Starns, Elisha Clark, Josiah B .yden. 

1780.— Caleb Allen, Oliver Ro it, Timothy Timing. 

1787. — Lieut. Clary, William Wetmore, Oliver Root. 

1788-80.— Ethan Billing, Caleb Allen, Oliver Root. 

1790.— William Gates, Caleb Allen, Oliver Root. 

1791. — John Bani^tei-, Elisha Clark, Oliver Root 

1792-95. — John Banister, Caleb Allen, Oliver Root. 

1790.— .\hel Dinsmore, Jabez Newhall, Oliver Root. 

1797. — Malachai Maynard, Jabez Newhall, Oliver Root 

1798.— Malachai BlaynarU, Reuben Bardwell, Oliver R»jot. 

1799. — Malachai Slaynard, Jt»seph Rice (2d), Oliver Root 

1800. — Caleb Allen, Joel Parsons, Joel Adams. 

IfOl.— Caleb Allen, Joel Paisons, Oliver Root 

1802.— Prince Tobey, Isaiah Wing, Oliver Root. 

180:i-4. — Joel Parsons, Jabez Newhall, Jos. Rice (2d). 

1805. — Joel P.ai-sons, Reuben Bardwell, Jos. Rice (2d). 

1800. — John .\rnis, Samuel Wrisley, Jos. Rice (2d). 

^■'^07-8.— John .\rms, David Cliilils, Joa. Rice (2d). 

1809-10.— Isaivc Baker, David Childs, Isaiah Wing. 

1811. — Isaac Bakel*, David Childs, Nathaniel Baker. 

1812. — Isaac Baker, Joel Parsons, Isaiah Wing. 

1813-14. — Isaac Baker, Joel Pai-sons, Elijah Nash. 

1815. — Isaac Baker, Joel Parsons, Darius Stearns. 

ISIG. — Charles E. Billings, Joel Parsons, Darius Stearna. 

1817. — Samuel Warren, Joel Parsons, Darius Stearns. 

1818.— Elijah Nash, Charles E. Billings, D. Stearns. 

1819. — Elijah Nash, Joseph Rice, Isaac Baker. 

1820.— Charles E. Billings, William Stow, Noah Dickinson. 

1821. — C. E. Billings, Joseph Bice, Noah Dickinson. 

1822. — C. E. Billings, Darius Stearns, Noah Dickinson. 

1823. — C. E. Billings, Darius Stearns, John Arms. 

1824.— C. E. Billings, Elisha Clark, John Arms. 

1825. — C. E. Billings, Joseph Bice, .Tohn Arms. 

1826. — Jos. Avery, Levi Page, Ira Amsden. 

1827. — Jos. .Vvery, C. E. Billings, Darius Stearns. 

182^.- Austin Rice, C. E. Billings, Luther Bartlett 

1829. — .\ustin Rice, John Arms, J<js. .\very. 

1830.— Charles E. Billings, Darius Stearns, Luther Baltlett. 

1831. — Jos. .ivery, Darius Stearns, Phineas Bartlett. 

1832-35.— Charles E. Billings, William Stow, J^is. Phillips. 

1835. — C. E. Billings, Jos. Aveiy, Charles Parsons. 

1836. — George Stearns, Jos. Avei-y, Charles Parsons. 

1837.— C. E. Billings, Eber Lee, Jas. Phillips. 

183S.— Luther Bartlett, Eber Lee, Jas. Phillips. 

18:39. — Jos. .\very, Austin Rice, George Stearns. 

1840. — Kimball Batchelder, A. Rice, Chester Bement. 

1841.- Luther Bartlett, John Cotton, C. Bement 

1842. — Chester Bement, Josiah Dwight, Joseph Avery. 

1843. — Jas. Phillips, .\ustin Rice, John Allis. 

1844.— Jas. Phillips, .\islin Rice, Josiah Dwight 

1845. — Einerj' Sherman, A. Rice, Daniel Eldredge. 

1846. — Emery Sherman, John Clary, D. Eldredge. 

1847. — Emery Sheiinan, John Clary, Kimball Batchelder. 

1848. — Wra. .\. Howland, E. D. Hamilton, Alvin Dinsmore. 

1849. — Dennis Lee, E. D. Ilantiltun, Edwin Cooley. 

18.30. — \Vm. C. Campbell, Edwin Cooley, George Stearns. 

I8.')l. — Wni. C. Campbell, -\sa Howland, George Stearns. 

1852. — Chester Bement, Daniel Eldredge, M. Dickinson. 

1853. — John Bradford, L. L. Boyden, M. Dickinson. 

18^. — Isaac Farley, Joel G. Rice, M. Di.;kin8on. 

18.55. — Emery Shannon, Joel tx. Kice, Dennis Lee. 

18.56. — Wm. C. Campbell, C.<nisider Arms, Franklin Pease. 

1857. — W. C. Campbell, Levi Page, Joel G. Bice. 

1858.— Asa Howland, Levi Piige. 

1859. — Asa Howland, Wm. A. Howland, F. .\rms. 

ISGO. — Edwin Cooley, Paul Jenkins, Dennis Lee. 

1861. — Edwin Cooley, W. C. Campbell, t^arlos Batchelder. 

1802. — Edwin Cooley, Newton Pease, C. Batchelder. 

1863-65. — Wm. C. Campbell, Consider .\rms, C. Batchelder. 

18G6.— W. C. Campbell, Wm. Stearns, C. Batchelder. 

1807.— W. C. Campbell, L. F. Eldredge, C. Batchelder. 

1868.— Charles B. Meriitt, L. F. EldriJge, C. Batchelder. 

1809.- W. C. Campbell, Thomas L. Allis, C. Batclielder. 



1S70.— Levi Page, Fraukliu Tease, L. F. Elilredge. 
1871-72— Tlu.niiUi I,. Allis, Clielscii Cook, L. V. Kldiedgo. 
1873.— T. L. Allis, Echviii Couley, Carlos Batchcldcr. 
1874— T. L. Allis, Kilwiu Cooley, T. S. Ditkiiison. 
1875. — John B. Packard, Edwin Cooley, T. S. Dickinson. 
1876.- J. B. Packard, Edwin Cooley, Alfred Baitldt. 
1877-78.— T. S. Dickinson, Edwin Cooley, L. F. Eldredgo. 
1870.— J. B. Packard, Eilwin Cooley, C. P. llassoll. 


Consider Arms, 1767-76 ; Oliver Welmoro, 1776-S4 ; Oliver Root, 1784-1807 ; 
David Chilrls, 1807-27 ; Elislia Billings, 1827-37 ; Otis Childs, 1837-42 ; Otis Leach, 
1842; Jas. S. Whitney, 184,1^52; E. F. Ames, 1S.V2-55; Enrotas Wells, 1855; 
Frankliii Childs, 1806-62; H. W. Billings, 1862-79. 


From 1776 to 1857, when the town lost its exclusive repre- 
sentation, Conway was represented at the General Court by 
the following persons : 

Cyrus Rice, Jonathan Whitney, Oliver Wctniore, Lucius Allis, Piince Tohey, 
Robert Hamilton, Consider Arms, Wni. Billings, Oliver Root, Rlaiachai May- 
naid, Reuben Bardwell, Capt. Banister, John Williams, Isajic Baker, David 
Childs, Elisha Billings, Samuel Warren, Joel Pal-sons, John Arms, Im .\iusden, 
Joseph Avery, Charles E. Billings, Darius Stearns, Phiiieas Bartlett, Christopher, 
Arms, E. D. Hamilton, Otis Childs, N. P. Baker, John Clary, Jas. S. Whilucy, 
E. F. Ames, Edwin Cooley, and R. A. Cottin. 

The two villages in the town — ^Conway Centre and Burke- 
ville — adjoin each other, and are usually regarded as one. 

occupies a deep valley shut in by towering hills, and is, in the 
mild seasons of the year, an inviting spot. It contains nu- 
merous handsome dwellings, two stores, a banlc, hotel, public 
library, high school, three churches, and afire-engine company, 
called Protection, No. 1, organized in 1858, and now number- 
ing upward of 80 members. 

Just east of the village centre is the cotton-mill of Tucker 
& Co., and, beyond that, Burkeville, so called because Ed- 
mund Burke created the village in 1837, when he built a mill 
there. Here Delabarre & Hackstaff have a cloth-mill and a 
store, and their mill-operatives comprise the village population. 


half a mile east of Conway Centre, was the chief village for 
some years after the town's first settlement, which was made 
at that point. It now contains a store, school-house, and 
half a dozen dwellings. 

An ettort was once made to expunge the name of Pumpkin 
Hollow, which was then thought severely unpoetical, and at 
a christening-party held by residents of the place the village 
received the new designation of Church Green ; but modern 
innovation has been uneiiual to the task of beating down tra- 
dition, and thus the old name has continued to assert itself. 


As can be best ascertained, a Mr. Strong was the first 
preacher who ministered to the people of Conway, his minis- 
trations being conducted in 1707. In 1768 a Mr. Judson 
preached early in the year -at the house of Mr. Whitney, and 
in July of that year a Congregational Church was organized, 
with a membership composed of 16 men and 16 women. A 
meeting-house was built in 1769 at Pumpkin Hollow, on the 
site of the school-house now at that place. 

The matter of building a house of worship was attended 
with much controversy and much uncertainty, chiefly because 
of trouble in selecting a site satisfactory to all. At the town- 
meeting of September, 1767, it was decided to build at the 
centre of the town, and a committee was appointed to find 
the centre. Their report was rejected, .as was the report of a 
committee called from adjoining towns to settle the vexed 
question. It was afterward decided to build a small house 
"near Jonathan Whitney's," but this resolve was re-scinded, 
and early in 1769 it was settled that "ye Nole, about fifteen 

or twenty rods north of the southeast corner of ye Center lot, 
where is a large stump, with a stake Spoted, standing within 
ye s.ame, bo established for a spot to build the meeting-house 
- upon ;" and upon that spot the house was erected. 

Rev. John Emerson began to preach in April, 1709, and 
delivered his first sermon in Josiah Boyden's barn, " which," 
Mr. Emerson wrote, "was surrounded with thick-growing 
wood, except a small adjacent spot cleared, which admitted 
ye light of heaven, — a place different, indeed, from those 
costly and splendid edifices erected and dedicated to the wor- 
ship of }'e Most High since that day, and very dissimilar from 
that in ye ancient church in Brattle Street, Boston, where I 
had been called only ye Lord's day before to preach." 

The people were so well pleased with his preaching that he 
was given acall to settle, and in December, 1769, was ordained, 
with " an encouragement" of a salary of .£50 annually, to 
advance £3 yearly until it should reach £80, and £150 as a 

The meeting-house was not finished for several years after 
it was begun, and it is said that a carpenter's bencli did 
duty as a pulpit on the occasion of the preaching of the first 
.sermon. The house was not furnished with a stove until 1819, 
and in the winter season Mr. Emerson frequently preached 
arrayed in overcoat and mittens. 

Near the church was a small structure called the " Little 
House," or the "Sabbath House," where a roaring fire was 
kept on Sundays, and where the people gathered to get warm 
before attending service. 

Benches sufficed for pews up to 1772, but in that year a pro- 
longed agitation upon the subject of seating the church and 
]iroviding it with pews resulted in a determination to dispose 
of the privileges to the highest bidders, and Dec. 31, 1772, the 
pew-ground in the meeting-house was sold at public vendue 
to the following persons : Elias Dickinson, James Davis, Wni. 
Galloway, Isaac Amsden, Kobert Hamilton, George Stearns, 
Lucius Allis, Consider Arms, David Field, .Jabez Newhall, 
Samuel Newhall, Jonathan Whitney, Moses Hayden, Benja- 
min Pulsipher, Israel Rice, Timothy Rice, Ebenezer Hart, 
Noah Belding, Samuel Wells, Sannicl Crittenden, Cyrus 
Rice, Daniel Davidson, Samuel Wares, Daniel Newhall, Eph- 
raim Smith, John Boyden, Thomas French, Joseph Catlin, 
Elijah Wells, Adoniram Bartlet, Prince Freeman, Amos 
Wilcox, Roger Farnam, Ebenezer Redtield, Josiah Boyden, 
John Bond, Jason Harrington, Solomon Goodale, John Gil- 
more, Cornelius Parker, Abel Dinsmore, Gorham Farnsworth, 
Timothy Chadwick, James Gilmore, Joel Dickinson, Na- 
thaniel Field, Aaron Howe, James Oliver, Oliver Stephens, 
Alexander Oliver, Israel Gates, Jonas Rice, William Gates, 
David Whitney, Reuben Hendrake, John Sherman, Sherebiah 
Lee, Eber Lee, John Langdon, David Parker, James Dickin- 
son, Robert Oliver, Isaac Nelson, William Bancroft, Jr., 
Ebenezer Maynard, Nathan Gould, David Smith, John Good- 
ale, Samuel Gould, Joel Baker, Elisha Amsden, and Jonathan 

Mr. Emerson served the First Congregationsvl Church dur- 
ing the remarkably extended period of fifty-seven years, from 
1709 to 1826, in which latter year he died, while yet in the 
pastoral office. 

During his ministry he received 580 persons into church 
membership, wrote upward of 3500 sermons, attended the 
funerals of 1037 of his people, and in the first fifty years of his 
service baptized 1219. 

- The church building was enlarged in 1796, and supplied 
with porches, .steeple, and clock. In 1842, the structure having 
outlived its usefulness, the present edifice was erected, a short 
distance north of the old one, and the latter taken down. Six 
of the windows which were in the first church are now set in 
the front of the cabinet-shop of E. C. Foote, at Conway Cen- 
tre, and the works of the old steeple clock are to be found in 
Howland's carpenter-shop, at Pumpkin Hollow. 

Franklin Pease is the 
youngest son of Asher and Eliza- 
beth C. Pease. He was born in 
Conway, Franklin Co., Mass., 
June 27, 1828. 

Asher Pease, his father, was 
born in Enfield, Conn., Sept. 
21, 1781. Elizabeth Chaffee, 
his mother, was boru in the 
same town, in 1782. 

The earlier years of Mr. 
Pease's life were spent in work- 
ing upon his father's farm in 
Conway. His opportunities for 
acquiring an education were very 
meagre, but such as they were lie 
well improved. When eighteen 
years old he commenced teach- 
ing during the winters, and when 
he leached his majority was given 
an interest in his father's farm, 
and remained in this partnersliip 

until his father's decease, when 
he inherited the property. '-> 

He still resides upon the old 
homestead. His occupation has 
always been that of a farmer and 
stock-dealer, but he has filled 
various ofiSces in the town and 
county. In 1863 he was a mem 
ber of the Legislature, and for 
two years past has been select- 
man ; also assessor for three 
years. Is a member of the 
Methodist Epi.scopal Church, 
and an exemplary Christian. 
He is also an active member of 
the Agricultural Society. 

Mr. Pease was married, Nov. 5, 
1850, to Minerva Ninis, daugh- 
ter of Stoddard Nims, of Asli- 
field. Siie was born in Ash- 
field, Franklin Co., Mass., June 


iaii8[]©isj^rsi£ ©I? ipiaiiKiiiUKi iPigj^ise, ©^qshwah, mA&s. 

Jabkz C. Nkwiiall was 
born in Conway, Franklin 
Co., Mass., on the 12th of 
August, 1825. Col. Jabez 
Newhall, his father, was born 
in the same town, on the 29th 
of February, 1776. He was 
a farmer and holel-liceper, 
and was in llic la.st-namcd 
business forty-five years. He 
was colonel in the State mi- 
litia, and well known and 
highly respected in the com- 
munity in which he lived. 

He died on the 2d of April, 
1858. Eunice L. Tilton, his 
wife, was born in Conwaj-, 
Dec. 25, 1786. 

Jabez C. Newhall, subject 
of this notice, was one of a 
family of six children, all of 
whom lived to reach man- 
hood and womanhood. He 
received his education in the 
common school, and his 

time was mostly employed 
in working upon his father'g 
l';irni. After his father's de- 
cease he took charge of the 
farm, and has since been en- 
gaged in dairying and stock- 
raising, in which he has been 
generallysuccessful. In poli- 
tics he is Republican, and has 
been assessor of Conway for 
two years. 

Mr. Newhall was married, 
in 1854, to Adeline Parsons, 
daughter of Capt. Charles 
Parsons, of Conway. She 
was born Dec. 29, 1827. 
They have a family of four 
children, — Eunice L., born 
March 20, 1857; Kuth I., 
born Oct. 23, 1862; Anna 
B., born June 12, 1865, and 
Harry T., born Jan. 0, 1869. 
Mr. and Mrs. Newhall are 
members of the Congrega- 
tional Church of Conway. 

lFll§l!©glKI©[I ©IF tJ. ©. [FfliMKiaiLIL, 



Mr. Emerson's successor and colleague was Kev. Edward 
Hitchcock, D.D., LL.D., who was ordained in 1821 and 
preached until 1825, when he was dismissed. He became 
subsequently professor of chemistry and natural history in 
Amherst College, and in 1845 the president of that institution. 
Prof. Hitchcock achieved also a national distinction as an 
author, especially of works upon geological researches. Among 
his successors were Kevs. Daniel Crosby, Melancthon S. 
Wheeler, Samuel Harris, Geo. M. Adams, and Elijah Cutler. 
Kev. Arthur Shirley is the present pastor (1879). 

was organized in October, 1788, with 29 members, of whom 
18 were women. Two years afterward a meeting-house was 
built in what is now Burkeville, near the present residence of 
Elijah Arms. Rev. Amos Shevi was the fii-st to preach to 
the congregation, but the first pastor of the church was Rev. 
Calvin Keyes, who was ordained November, 1799, and con- 
tinued in the ministry until 1819. Two important revivals 
marked the term of his service, in one of which (1806) 55 
converts were added to the church membership, and in 1816 
a further addition of 40 members was made. 

In 1810 the meeting-house was removed to the site of the 
present church building at Conway Centre, which was erected 
in 1840. In March, 1819, the church was dissolved, but re- 
organized in June, 1820, and since then has continued to 
prosper. Among those who have preached for the church 
were Revs. Amos Shevi, John Leland, Asa Todd, Calvin 
Ke_ves, Adam Hamilton, Josiah Goddard, Mr. Himes, Mr. 
Grant, David Pease, Abbott Howe, Wm. H. Rice, David 
Wright, Henry H. Rouse, Joel Kenney, P. P. Sanderson, 
Richard Lentil, C. A. Buckbee, M. Byrne. The present 
pastor (1879) is Rev. Everett D. Stearns. 


was formed in Conway in May, 1852, and was reorganized in 
185o, with 17 members. The earliest supplies were Revs. 
W^m. F. Lacount and A. S. Flagg. The first quarterly con- 
ference of the Methodist Church in Conway was organized 
April 30, 1871, L. R. Thayer, D.D., presiding elder, and Rev. 
Wm. H. Cook pastor in charge, the membership at that time 
being 16. The present churcli building at Conway Centre 
was occupied December, 1871, and dedicated the following 
March. The structure, including furniture, cost $11,000. The 
church's pastors have been Revs. W. H. Cook, A. C. Munson, 
J. A. De Forest, E. R. Thorndyke, W. N. Richardson, and 
I. A. Mesler, — the latter being in charge in 1879, when the 
church membership was 92. 

in common with those of Western Massachusetts, made their 
way against some opposition; and warm controversies as well 
as legal prosecutions followed their refusals to contribute for 
the support of the Congregational minister. Passages in the 
town records dealing with these matters make reference to 
"those people calling themselves Baptists," and bitter per- 
sonal feeling was frequently exhibited. It is related that even 
Parson Emerson, attending Baptist preaching at the house of 
Israel Rice, was so oti'ensive in his expression of sentiments 
that the host unceremoniously compelled his withdrawal from 
the assembly. 

Shortly after the incorporation of the town, in September, 
1767, public attention was directed toward the subject of edu- 
cation by a vote which selected a committee for the purpose 
of hiring a " school-dame" to keep school five months. School 
was taught for some years in private dwellings, — a favorite 
place being thehouseof Jonathan Whitney, — until 1773, when 
the first school-house — 25 by 22 — was erected near the meeting- 
house in Pumpkin Hollow. A century elm was in 18G7 

planted upon the exact spot supposed to have been occupied 
by this primitive institution. 

The sum of £7 was appropriated in 1767 for .schooling, and 
in 1772 the amount was £12. In 1773 it was agreed that 
school should be kept six months that year, — two months at 
the centre, and four months at various places in the town. In 
1774 the sum of £30 was raised for schooling, which was to be 
one-third of the time at the school-house, one-third at Samuel 
Hooker's, and one-third at Deacon Allis'. In 1776, after a 
lapse of a year, during which no school was opened in the 
town, it was voted to have a public school, to divide the town 
into five equal parts or squadrons, and to raise £30. There 
was but one public school-house — the one at the centre — until 
1783, after which temples of learning began to multiply to 
meet the demands of a rapidly-increasing population. 

Reading, writing, spelling, and arithmetic were the subjects 
set before the scholars of those days, although about 1791 a 
town vote decided that Latin and Greek should be taught. 
The absurdity of this remarkable efi'ort to leap at a single 
bound from the rudiments of English into the classics pre- 
sented itself, however, without much delay, and the vote was 
hastily rescinded. 

Who was the first school-teacher is not known, but one of 
the early ones, known as Master Cole, is preserved in tra- 
dition as a singular pedagogue. It is told of him that when 
he came over from England he brought not only his mil- 
itary manners, — for he was a soldier there, — but his uniform 
and his sword, and these he used to wear each morning to 
school; where arriving, he would awe his scholars into trem- 
bling submission by his fierce dignity and militarj' discipline, 
and hold them throughout the day in constant fear lest in a 
moment of more than ordinary fierceness he might descend 
upon them with his sword and stretch them headless upon 
the school-room fioor. 

A noted select school was the one opened by Deacon John 
Clary in 1831. He kept it twelve years, and gave it such high 
rank that many pupils from towns other than Conway at- 
tended it. His dwelling was two miles and a half from the 
school, to and from which he went each day, and during the 
twelve years he traveled about nine thousand miles. 


was incorporated in 1853, and in that year a handsome school 
building was erected, by subscription, upon the lofty eminence 
overlooking Conway village on the south. The institution 
flourished apace, and extended its labors over a wide field of 
usefulness, but the destruction by fire, in 1863, of the school 
building temporarily suspended its ministrations, and although 
the structure was quickly restored in its present form, the 
palmy days of the academy had passed away, and in 1865 it 
was transferred to the town, and became a high school free to 
all children in Conway, and as such it still remains. 

Including the high school, Conway had, in 1879, 13 schools, 
with an average daily attendance of 188, and appropriated for 
educational jiurposes .?2000. 


In 1707 a small lot of ground "near the saw-mill" (known 
as Emerson's Yard because it adjoined Rev. Mr. Emerson's 
residence afterward) was laid out for a burial-place. The first 
person buried therein was the one-year-old son of Israel Rice, 
in December, 1767. The next interment there was that of 
John Thwing, in March, 17R9. This graveyard — of whose 
graves no trace can now be seen — was abandoned in 1772, 
when a new ground, purchased of Elias Dickin.son, was laid 
out at the rear of the meeting-house. This was in turn aban- 
doned many years ago. It adjoins the school-house at Pump- 
kin Hollow, and contains a score or more of headstones, of 
which the oldest bear inscriptions as follows : 

Siirah Denliam, 1777; Kiitli Dorchester, 1777; .Sulmiit Lee, 1777; Elizabeth 
Pulsiplier, 1770 ; Riichiiel Clary, 1782 ; Gershom Fanisworth, 1784 ; Slartlia Bil- 



lings, 1785 ; Hannah Lee, 1789 ; Jemima Leo, 1791 ; Elijah Wells, 1795 ; Deacon 
Klioiiczer Clark, 17it(i, 

In 184-5, Piiu! Grove Cemetery, a Imnclsomely-shacled spot, 
was laid out, about a mile north of Conway village, and is the 
ground now cliipfiy used. 

This burial-ground is one of which the people of Conway 
are proud, and to its eare and adornment much attention is 
given. Among its artistic features a sparkling fountain, cast- 
ing up its silvery waters, is noticeably attractive. 


Conway has been an important manufacturing town since 
1837, and it is in its manufacturing interests that the place 
finds the chief clement of its prosperity. South River, which 
rises in Ashfleld, and, flowing east to Conway village, passes 
north to Deerfield River, provides fine water-power for all the 
town's manufactories. 

About midway between the villages of Conway Centre and 
Burkeville, Richard Tucker & Co. are largely engaged in the 
manufacture of cotton warps and yarns, of which they pro- 
duce annually 250,000 pounds, and employ 50 people. Their 
mills have a river-front of about 200 feet, are three stories in 
height, and may be operated by steam as well as water, 
steam being used, however, only in time of drought. 

Richard Tucker, Esq., the present head of the firm, started 
the mills at this point in 1858, and in 18G0 was suc<?eeded by 
R. Tucker & Co. In that year, also, the firm of Tucker & 
Cook was organized, and, occupying the site of H. U. Whit- 
ton's mill (built by liowland & Moss in 1842), half a mile 
north of Conway Centre, began the manufacture of knitting- 
cotton, in which they employ 40 persons, and produce yearly 
2.50,000 pounds. Their mills have a front of about 200 feet, 
and have facilities for operating with steam as well as water- 

At Burkeville, east uf Conway Centre, Delabarre & Hack- 
staff occupy the mill built by the Conway Manufacturing 
Company in 1845. This latter company, founded by Edmund 
Burke in 1837, built their first mill in that year, a little west 
of the present mill, and, as noted, changed their location in 
1845.- The company suspended in 1857, and, in 18.58, Edmund 
Burke, reviving the business, continued until 1867, in the 
early part of which year the property was purchased by Ed- 
ward Delabarre, who, in 1871, was succeeded by the present 
firm, Delabarre & Hackstafl'. To the main building — which 
is four stories in height — they have made additions, so that 
they have a front of upward of 300 feet. They employ 115 
people, operate 32 looms-, and produce 350,000 yards of fancy 
kerseymeres and other cloths annually. The mills are lighted 
throughout with gas manufactured on the premises, and are 
operated with steam when water-power fails. 

T. J. Shepardson has completed the erection of a mill on 
South River, a mile from Bardwell's Ferry, where be expects 
to begin, in the summer of 1879, the manufacture of cotton 
yarns, for which his mill will have a capacity of 100,000 pounds 

Eli Thwing operates a saw-mill on South River, in the north 
part of the town, where he also manufactures hand-rakes to a 
limited extent. 

Conway occupies a fruitful agricultural region, but is noted 
especially as an excellent grazing town. Large quantities of 
butter are yearly manufactured, and stock-raising is also 
profitably pursued. Tobacco growing was once an important 
interest, but has latterl}' declined, as in other towns of AVest- 
ern Massachusetts. The raising of sheep was at one time a 
popular and profitable pursuit, but receives now only limited 



was organized Sept. 1, 1854, with a capital of 55100,000, and 
in 18G5 was reorganized as a national bank. It has now a 

capital of $1-50,000, with a deposit account of ls;25,O00, and 
occupies fine quarters at Conway Centre in a brick structure 
erected by the bank in 1878 at a cost of §3000. 

was organized in 1870, at Conway Centre, as a revival of a lodge 
bearing the same nuine, which passed out of existence at the 
same place in 1840. The membership-roll now numbers 60. 
The officers for 187'J were Arthur M. Cook, W. M. ; Alexander 
Sinclair, S. W. ; Charles H. Day, J. W. ; Chelsea Cook, 
Treas. ; Henry W. Billings, Sec. ; Edwin L. Munn, S. D. ; 
Roswell G. Rice, J. D. ; Carlos Batchelder, Chap. ; Charles 
P. Allis, Mar. ; Henry W. Hopkins, S. S. ; Arthur C. Arms, 
J. S. ; Murray J. Guildford, I. S. ; S. D. Porter, Organist ; 
Joel Rice, Tiler. 

A social library was organized at Conway Centre in 1821, 
and flourished until 1878, when fire destroyed its stock of 
books, numbering about 800 volumes. In that year the town 
organized the present free library, which contains now 700 vol- 
umes, and has quarters in the bank building. 


, Conway boasts a musical organization known as the Con- 
way Brass Band, whoso headquarters are at Conway Centre, 
and whose skillful performances are frequently enjoyed in 
many other towns. 

. The first manufacturing industry, other than a saw- or grist- 
mill, was opened by Aaron Hayden, who set up a " fulling" 
mill on the South River. Seventeen _years later Dr. Moses 
Hayden and R. Wells added to it an oil-mill. In 1810 its site ' 
was occupied by a broadcloth-manufactory, and later as a cot- 
ton-bag factory, operated by Gen. Dickinson; it was destroyed 
by fire in 1856. The mill stood within, the limits of Conway 
Centre. As before noted, Edmund Burke erected a woolen-mill 
in Burkeville in 1837, and in 1842, at the same place, Alonzo 
Parker began the manufacture of carpenter and joiner's tools, 
and, shortly afterward organizing the Conway Tool Company, 
the business was so expanded that upward of 80 men were 
employed. In the year 1851 the company transferred its op- 
erations to Greenfield, and there reorganized as the Greenfield 
Tool Company. 

T/ic South River Cutlery Comptmy erected extensive works 
in Burkeville in 1851, and employed at one time 135 men. 
The enterprise failed, however, and not long afterward passed 
out of existence. 

Whitney & Wells manufactured largely of seamless cotton 
bags, beginning in 1846, and were succeeded by L. B. Wright, 
whose works were destroyed by fire in 1856. The site is now 
occupied by the mills of R. Tucker & Co. 

The Conway Mutual Insurance Cuinpany was organized in 
1849, and in 18-54 changed to the Conwaj' Stock and Mutual 
Insurance Company ; in 1860 transferred its stock department 
to Boston, and in 1876 closed business. 

According to the State census reports of 1875, the value of 
manufactures in Conway for that year aggregated 5!333, 430 ; 
that of agricultural and domestic products, $235,296. In 1878 
the assessed valuation of the town was ^667,896, of which 
1494,043 were on real estate. The total tax — State, county, 
and town — was $9798, a rate of $1.46 per $100. 



Following are the names of those who went fr(mi Conway 
into the military service during the war of the Rebellion, 
1861 to 1865: 

Residence or R.M.TUCKER, Conway, Franklin Co., Mass. 

C(^Aa ^^ (2yuy^yh'^' 



J. D. Allis,* lOtli Mnss. 

C. G. Wells, 31st Mass. 

Horace Hosford. 52d Mass. 

A. H. Wiirren, lOtli Mass. 

S, H, Dyer, Slst Mass, 

0. P. Edgerlon, .Wd Mass, 

W. F. a.ue,* lOtli Was", 

Wni, C, Maynard, 31st Mass. 

Wm, Townsend, Jr,, .'j2d Mass, 

Wm. II. .\(lanis, 101 h Mass. 

L. Bnrnett, 31st Mass. 

E, W, Richardson, ,'i2d Mass, 

n. W.Graves, Kilh Ma.^s. 

Edward Melivier, 31st Mass. 

H. G, Scott,* 52d Ma.s8. 

E. G. Ha.ldon, 10th Mass. 

Jhs. Johnson, 31st Mass. 

A, 0, Sites,* ,i2d Mass, 

E. R. Gardner,* 10th Mass. 

John Island, 31st Mass. 

J. W. Bradford, 52d Mass. 

F. E. Hartwi'll, Kith Ma33. 

Patrick Hayes, 31st Mass. 

E W. Hamilton, 52d Mass, 

AIoiizo Bates, llltli Mass. 

r. D. Howland, 31st Mass. 

Blanley Guilford,* 52d Blass. 

W. R. Siiiilh,l»th Mass. 

S. K, Walker, 31st Mass, 

W. D, Sanderson, o2.1 JIass. 

Henry Ituwiiian, Suth Mas.s. 

Ja-s, F, Hunter, 31s( Mass, 

M.S. Jenkins, .'i2d Mass. 

Oei). K. .\riiis, 1st Cav. 

John White, 31st Mass. 

H. C. Qlunson, ,o2d Mass. 

H. (;. Allen, 1st Cav. 

Geo. W. Dinsinore,* 5th N. Y. Cay. 

PatricI; Manning, 52[1 Maes. 

H. A, Gra.v, 1st Cav, 

John Lanriigar,* oth N. V. Cav. 

C. E. Crittenden, 52d Mass. 

0. V. Reuiingtuli, 1st Cav. 

Fred Wiigley,' 2d N. Y. Inf. 

Clias. A. Holcunih, o2d Mass. 

G. W. FhiKg, 1st Cav. 

Cha.'*. Rieharilson, Conn. 

Wm. Watson, 62d Mass. 

Tyler Harding, 1st Cav. 

S. N. Peterson,* .38th Mass. 

Geo. F. Criltendeli, 62d Mass. 

H. . I. Wilder,* Isl Cav. 

I. N. Hitchcock, :4lh Mass. 

W. G. Field, 52.1 Mass. 

Clms. M. Sinilh, l.st Cav. 

Peter Hackett, 34tli Mass. 

Geo. Shepiiard, 52d Mass. 

Ba.vler IIard;ng, 1st Cav. 

IVIriik Oallivan, 34th Mass. 

A. J, Andrews, 52d Mass. 

E. L. Hall, l»tCav. 

Geo. II, Smith, ti7th Mass, 

F. B, Lee, .52d Mass. 

A. F. Ilulil.ard,* 1st Cav. 

J. W, Smith, 27111 Mass, 

C. G. Townsend, 52d Jlass. 

Geo. A. Al.eil, 1st Cav. 

Wm. H. Averill,* 37th Mass. 

Nath. Barlhtt,* 52d Mass. 

H. A, Stearns, 1st Cav. 

L. A. Bradford, 37lh Mass. 

Geo. D. Biaman, o2d Mass. 

J. W. Jaclcson, 1st Cav. 

Sam. Bigelow, 37lh Mass. 

Jas. S. .>itel.hins,* 52d Mass. 

E, F. Bradford, 1st Cav. 

L, W, Merrifield, 37th Mass. 

Henry Kye, 52d Ma.ss. 

E. A. Bnrnhaiii, 1st Cuv. 

F, E. Rowe, 37tli Mas.s, 

Wm D. Allis,*S2d Mass. 

Sain, Ware,* Ist Cav, 

0, F, Childs. 37th Mass, 

Wm. H. Clavp, 52d Mass. 

F, A, Clary,* 31st Mass. 

E, A, Blood,* 37tli Mass, 

Jlareus Howland,* 52d Mass. 

J. W. Goland,* 31st Mass. 

Geo. C, Johnson, 37th Mass, 

Oscar Riehaidson, 52d Mass. 

S, M. Ware, 31st Mass. 

Sunnier Warner,* 37lli Mass, 

H. F, Macomljer, 5Jd M.ass, 

A. Bailey, 31st M.ass. 

John Connelly, 57ih Mass. 

Mi'.lad Hill, ,52d Mass, 

P. F. Nims, 31st M^iss. 

Jas. H. Chipp, XM Mass. 

Clias. Maconiher, .V^d Jliiss, 

Chiw. F, Wi ighl, 31st Mass, 

Uorace Dill, 11. Art. 

F, M. Patrick, 52d Mass. 

G, II,.lohTison,31st Mass. 



was born in Shelburne, Franklin Co., Mass., on tlio 7tli of 
Febniary, 182.5. His paternal grandparents were Chester 

.r»«^. S- 

which he was engaged for manj' years. In 1840 he removed 
to Ashfield, where he remained until his decease, which oc- 
curred on the 2d of November, 1878. For some tiiue previous 
to his death he was occupied in farming. He married for his 
first wife (on the 19th of February, 1824) Dolly Hawks, who 
was born in Deerficld, Jlass., on the 22d of January, 1795, 
and died in Shelburne, on the 7th of June, 1832. By this 
union he had four children, the oldest of whom is the subject 
of this notice. He married his second wife, Mary Hardy, on 
the 1st of May, 18.34, by whom he had three children, — all 

Clark W. remained at home on the farm, and attending 
the district schools of his native town, until he reached his 
majority. He then united with bis father in managing the 
farm, and in 1840 removed with him to Ashfield, where he 
purchased landed interests. On the 26th of October, 1856, he 
married P. Parmelia Blake, who is a native of Ashfield, born 
on the 18th of August, 1830. To them have been born four 
children, — Aggie L., born Aug. 29, 1859; Chester 0., born 
Nov 7, 1860; Harlan B., born Oct. 7, 1862 (deceased); and 
Fred. H., born May 13, 1869. 

Mr. Bardwell has always been engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits, and has been universally successful. Commencing with 
very little, he has acquired a competency. In 1869 he pur- 
chased and removed to what was then known as the " Warren 
place," in Conway, where he has since resided. 

He is actively interested in all branches of agriculture, and 
is a member of the agricultural society of Franklin County. 


Bardwell, born Oct. C, 1772, and Mary (Hannum) Bardwell, 
born March 16, 1704. 

His father, Olin Bardwell, was born in Shelburne, on the 
24th of August, 17H('. His business was that of a clothier, in 


was born in Saybrook, Middlesex Co., Conn., Feb, 20, 1812. 
He is the son of John Tucker, the grandson of Richard 
Tucker, and great-grandson of John Tucker, who was one of 
three brothers who came from England to this country at a 
very early date, and settled in Connecticut, John Tucker, 
father of the subject of this biography, was born in Saybrook, 

* Died in Iho service, or in consequence of wounds received therein. 



Conn., March 20, 178-5. He was married, in 1810, to Eliza 
Beckwitli, daughter of Elisha Beckwith, of Lebanon, Conn. 
She was born June 1.5, 1797. They had ten children, and the 
eldest of this family is Kichard Tucker. He received a com- 
mon-school education and remained at home until he was 
nineteen years old, at which time he married, Nov. 11, 1831, 
Delia R. Walden, daughter of Deacon Silas Walden. She 
was born, July 25, 1812, in Lisbon, Conn. They had a fam- 
ily of three children, two of whom are still living. They are 
Julia R. (deceased), first wife of Chelsea Cook; David K., a 
merchant in Springfield, and Richard M., of Conway, also a 
merchant. Mr. Tucker commenced his business experience 
in a cotton-mill, when fifteen years of age, and remained in 
this employment until he reached his majority. Commencing 
in 1846, he spent ten years as a traveling merchant, selling 
his own goods. Sept. 1, 18.38, he removed to Conway, Frank- 
lin Co., Mass., where he began, upon a small scale, the manu- 
facture of cotton warps, with Chelsea Cook, his son-in-law, 
as partner. In 1861 they increased the business, and at that 
time employed thirty hands. In 1862 they bought the old 
Howland & Morse mill, refitted it with new machinerj', and 
employed in both mills about eighty hands. In September 
of 1876 thev commenced the manufacture of ball knitting- 

cotton, or what is now the well-known Tucker & Cook's 
knitting-cotton. They have established a branch of the busi- 
ness at Springfield, and employ in both places about one hun- 
dred hands. During the universal depression in business they 
have continued prosperous. Mr. Tucker is also a partner 
in the firm of Maynard, Damon «fc Tucker, of Northamjiton, 
manufacturers of tapes and stay bindings. This firm employs 
eighty hands. In Conway, Mr. Tucker has been postmaster 
eight years, and director in the national bank of that place 
ten years, besides filling various other offices in the town in 
such a manner as to meet popular approbation. Indeed, it 
can well be said that he represents more ditterent interests 
than any other man in the town. He has been a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church for twenty years, and con- 
tributed generously to the building of the church in Conway. 
In benevolent and charitable interests he is ever ready to lend 
a helping hand. In politics he is a Republican, and takes an 
active interest in all the questions of the day. With but 
little financial capital originally, he has, by the exerci.se of 
energy, industi-y, and strict business habits, built up a fortune 
and carved out a career to which he may point with pride. 
Mr. Tucker is a man of excellent judgment, great business 
enterprise, and strict integrity. 



Sunderland, one of the extreme southern towns in Frank- 
lin, is pleasantly located on the Connecticut River, which 
forms its entire western border. Its boundaries are Montague 
on the north, Hampshire County on the south, Leverett on 
the east, and Whately and Deerfield (separated from Sunder- 
land by the Connecticut River) on the west. The town cov- 
ers an area of fifteen square miles, measures six miles in length 
by two and a half in width, and contains 9600 acres. 

The New London Northern Railroad crosses the town at 
its northeastern extremity, but there is no station in the town. 


Sunderland is rich in natural beauty, in which mountain, 
plain, and stream present varied and attractive features. The 
noble Connecticut forms the western border of the town, shut 
in on the west by the towering hills of Whately and Deer- 
field. In the east are the fertile plains in Sunderland's val- 
ley, overshadowed on the distant east by a range of rugged 
mountains, among which Mount Toby* rears its majestic 
head 1000 feet above the lowland. This noted eminence is a 
favorite place of re-sort in the summer and autumn seasons; 
and upon its apex there has been erected for the convenience 
of visitors a tower (known as the Goss Tower) 70 feet in height 
and containing six floors, of which the uppermost is "the 
observatory," where a fine telescope is at the command of the 
student of nature. A well-kept highway, leading from the 
base to the summit of the mountain, gives ready access to the 

In tlie thick woods whjch envelop Mount Toby upon every 
side are found charming cascades and glens, and many in- 
viting spots, which have been improved by the hand of art, 
and which have given to the region thereabout the name of 
" Sunderland Park." 

In the north part of the town, not far from Mount Toby, 
there is a noted natural curiosity called Sunderland Cave. It 
is a cavern in the side of a hill, and said to be 56 feet in depth, 

* Also known by its Iiuliuu Ui'.me, Mettawanipe. 

and to extend about 150 feet into the interior of the hill. The 
sides of this cavern are formed of conglomerate rock, consist- 
ing of rounded stones of various colors, embedded in and rest- 
ing upon a basis of micaceous sandstone. The cave extends- 
east and west, and is covered at its bottom with huge fragments 
of rock. 

The smaller streams of the town are Long Plain, Mohawk, 
Dry, Great Drain, and Cranberry brooks. 

The origin of tlie town of Sunderland may be given from an 
early entry in the records now in the keeping of the town, and 
reading as follows: 

" At a General Court for election held at Boston, 7th May, 1073. In ans' to 
tlie petition of sundry inhabitants of Hadley, the Court judgeth it meet to grant 
the petidoners' request, — i.e., the quantity of si.xe luiles square in the place de- 
sired; i.e., lying nere to the noithward bounds of Hadley; i.e., provided that 
within seven years or sooner, if may be, there be a competent number of familys 
settled here, and provide themselves of an able and orthodox miinster,; and for 
their encouragement in so good a worke, this Coujt orders and impowers and 
appoints Meg. John Pynchon,! Left. Wni. Clarke, and Mr. Wm. Holton to be a 
committee to order in the meantime their prudential otficei-s, granting of lotts, 
and otherwise reserving in some convenient Jilace two hundred and fifty acres of 
land for a fiU'ui for the country's use and disposall." 

As a first step toward a settlement of the tract, the proprie- 
tors intrusted to Maj. Pynchon the task of securing an extin- 
guishment of the Indian title. Two Indian deeds, both of 
date April 10, 1674, conveyed this title to Maj. Pynchon on 
behalf of the purchasers. One of the deeds reads as follows : 

" Mishalisk, an old woman, the mother of Wattawchinksin, deceased, doth 
hereby Ijargaiu, sell, and alienate a Tract of Land to John Pynchon, of .Spi ing- 
tield, acting for and in behalf of Rjbelt Boltwood, Joseph Kellogg, John Hub- 
bird, and Thos. DicUiuson, of Hadley, and their associates, . . . which land 
begins at ye southerly end of it, at ye brook Nepeasonneag, . . . taking in all 
ye land on ye northeily tide of it. It runs up by Quinnetticott river to ye 
brook called Sawvvat.apskcchuwas and Mattamooash, where other Indians have 
sold . . . the whole tr.att of land from Ne|.casonncag on ye South, next Hadley 
boumls, to Sawwatapskechuwas on ye North, and beyond at Mattirmooa^h, anil 
from tjunnetticott out into ye woods Eastward six miles from the said river 

For this tiact the old woman Mishalisk received "a debtjor deed from her son 

t or Siiringficld. 

Daniel Dwkiiit Whitmorf. was torn in 
SuTiiidliitHl, Fninklin Co., HIjiss., on the 
20lhnf May, 1816. He is a son of Jesse 
Whiriiiore, and grandson of Daniel Whit- 
mure, who camo from Connecticut to 
Sunderland at an early date, and settled 
on tlie farm now owneil hy his grandson. 
He was a man of superior intelligence, a 
great reader, and took an active interest 
in educational suhjects. 

He was also distinguished in public 
eervii-e; held the lank of colonel in tlie 
militia, was an active psirticijiant in the 
Kevolutionary struggle, and was present 
at the surrender of Burgoyne. In later 
life he was a nieniher of the Legislature, 
and heUl various town offices, among 
others that of justice of the peace, in 
which capacity he served many years. He 
died in May, ISIG 

His son, Jesse Wbitmore, was born in 
Sunderland, March 3, 1776. He was a 
milter hy trade, and owned wliat is known 
as "AVliitmore's Mills," which was for- 
merly tlie property of his father. He held 
a commission as captain in the cavalry 
(militia ),and wasahvayscalledCapt. Whit- 
moro. He was a sincere Christian, and 
waa Olio of the founders of the Bai)tist 
Church of North Snnderland, of whicii he 
was a member for many yeai^. 

He also took a prominent part in pro- 
moting wnd improving schools, and, indeed, 
was connected in some manner with most 
of the best enterprises of the town and 
County. He died in his eightieth year, in 
January, 1856. 

His wife was Hannah Gunn, daughter 
of Nathaniel Gunn, of Montd^'ue. Tliey 
were married Oct. 26, 18u7. She died in 
April, 1860. To them were born nine 
children, of whom Daniel D. is the fifth. 
Only three members of this family are 
now living. 

The subject of this notice was employed 

in Working on the farm and assisting in 
the mills until seventeen years of age. 
In thy mean time ho had also pursued the 
usual studies in the public schools, in the 
Greenfield Academy, and at Shclburno 
Falls. He then entered the store uf Mr. 
Horatio Graves, of Sunderland, in the ca- 
pacity of clerk, and remained with him 
two years. Keturningliome,he remained 
there about the same longtli of time, 
during which he was engaged in the 
manufacture of sash, doors, and blinds. 
From that time until be reached hia 
twenty-second year he was in no settled 
business, but followed various occupa- 

Sept. 17, 1838, he was married to Jane, 
daughter of Phiueas and Prudence Kcet, 
of Sunderland. In the same year he re- 
moved to Walworth Co., Wis., where he 
remained until 1844, when he returned to 
Sunderland, and located on the old home- 
stead, where he has j'iuce been engaged 
in farming and milling. 

Mr. Whitmore has also been i)romi- 
nently identifiml with the town and lo- 
cality in which he lives. In I860 he 
represented his district in the Legisbi- 
ture, and in local oflUces has served in the 
capacity of selectman, assessor, justice itf 
the peace, etc. As a mendjerof the North 
Sunderland Baptist Society, since 1831, 
he has given his influence in the cause of 

By his first wife Mr. Whitmore had five 
children, none of whom are now li^ing. 
His wife died in January, 1854, and ho 
married Mrs. Dolly A. Gridley, widow of 
Henry Gridley, and daughter of Chester 
and Sarah Howland, of Montgomery, 
Mass. By this union he lias three 
children, viz.: Daniel D., Jr., born May 
23, 1857; Jano D., born Ajiril 17, ISGd; 
and Iiucretia A., born on the 2Uth of 
September, 1864. 

^ f/^J^T^-U^^ 

U\^^m£r:}0^ ^i? ID. ID. W'AVfMOSi'^, ^4iJj^iD£ai^jJLD, \i!AA'^^. 

N. Austin Smith, eldest son of Aus- 
tin and Sallie Smith, was born in 
Sunderland Franklin Co., Mass., 
Feb.i:i, 1S21. His grandfather. Elihu 
Smith, of Hadley, married Anna 
lii'Iden, of Whately, by whom he had 
three sons and one daughter, viz., 
Austin. Elihu. Horace, and Lucretia. 
Austin was born in Hadley in October, 
17U0, and removed to Sunderland, 
March 29, ]820. He was a fanner, 
and took a jirominent part in the 
interests of the town and eomniunity 
in which he lived; held a number of 
town offices, and was a member of the 
Congregational Church for many 
years. He married Sallie M., daugh- 
ter of John Montague, and adopted 
daughter of Nathaniel Smith, The 
members of her family were remark- 
able for longevity. She had three 
sisters who lived to be over eighty- 
five years of age, and one of them 
lived to be ninety. 

The suViject of this notice had two 
brothers and two sisters. His eldest 
brother, Elihu (born April 11, 1823), 
is now j>, banker in Worthington, 
Minn. ; John M., born July 6, 1826, 
resides in Sunderland; Thankful G., 
born April 16, 18;ill, married I>r. 
William M. Trow, now of Easthamp- 
ton, and died Oct. 1, 1809; Mary B., 
the youngest child, was born Jan. 
26, 183-1, and died Jan. 26, 1843. 

N, Austin remained at liouic on 
the farm until he reached his twenti- 
eth year, and in the mean time re- 
ceived a good education in tlie com- 
mon schools and Williston Seminary. 
He then commenced teaching school. 

narried (Nov. 26, 1846) to Clara i 
aughter of Stephen Gunn, of I 
eriand. To them has been born i 

I'huto. by Popkin 

^: (^u^Ai-v^ 

which he continued during the winter 
months for tive years, the remainder 
of that time being employed in farm 
labor. In his twenty-sixth year he 
wafl married (Nov. 26, 1846) to Clara 
J., dau 

one child, — William Austin, who died 
in infancy. Hehassinceadoptcd three 
children, — James Melville, who is 
now deceased, Austin D.,and Emma. 
After his marriage, Mr. Smith united 
with his brothers in farming their 
father's^ place, which he continued 
until 1855, when they made a di- 
vision of the projiert.y, which was 
afterward ratilied in their father'8 

Mr. Smith has always resided in 
Sunderland, and has, during the 
greater part of his life, been engaged 
in agricultural pursuits. He takes 
an active interest in harvest clubs, 
etc. ; is a member of the Franklin and 
Hampshire Agricultural Societies, 
anci was president of the latter for 
two years. 

For forty-one years he has been a 
member of the Congregational Soci- 
ety, and is also an ardent and untiring 
worker in the Sabbath-school, in 
which he has been a teacher during 
the greater part of forty years. 

In the civil as well as in the re- 
ligious and social interests of the 
town he takes an active part. He 
has been elected to the offices of 
selectman, assessor, member of school 
committee, collector, and treasurer, 
and is regarded as one of Sunder- 
land's most enterprising citizens. 




WattawoiiiiisUiu to Jnha Pyncbon, of Springrficld, as also for and in consMera- 
tiuii of one Large IinHau Coat, ami several uthcr small tliitigs." 

The second deed reads a:^ follows : 

" These presents testify that Hettawoini'e, alias Nattawassawet, yc Iiulian for 
himself, & in the bchiUf of other Indians, viz.; Wadauiunmiiu, Sqniskheag, & 
Sunkkauiainacliiil &. for & in consideration of eightj- fathom of wampum, & 
several other small things to him & them in hand paid, & fully secured, by John 
Pyncbon, of Springfichl, in ye behalf & upon the acct. uf Rubt. Bjltwuod, John 
Ifubbird, Joseph Kellogg, & Thos. Dickinson, of Hadley : Hath Bargained and 
sold, A Do by these presents Give, Grant, Barg:aine, & sell unto yo sd Uobt. Bolt- 
wuod, Jno. Ilubbird, Jos. Kellogg, & Thos. DlL-kinson, a cortmn Tiact of Land 
lying on ye Ejtst si'le of Quiinu-ttict>tt Kiver, al«:)ut 7 or 8 miles above Hadley, 
luijoining to a parccll of land the sd Bultwood & Company bought of Mishalisk, 
from tliat parcell of Land & Brook, Sawwatapskechuwas [Mohawk Brook], up 
by ye Grt. Kivcr Quinnettlcott, northerly to a little Brook called Tapacontuck- 
quiish A. O^mheaggan, lying over against ye month of Pacomptuck River, 3Ia!i- 
tfthelas. The sd Mettawompe, alias Nattawwassawet, Doth Give, Grant, Bargain, 
& eeli unto y« sd Robt. Boltwood, Juo. ilubbird, Jos. Kellogg, & Thos. Dickin- 
son, ifc their successors & Comiwny, & to their heire & assigns Forever, hereby 
resigning to them all the Right, Title, tt Interest in the forementioned Lands 
Called Mattiimpash, from Sawwatapskechuwas, Anque])inick, Sankrohokcun, 
Lemuckqnjish, & Papacontuckquash, Corroheaggan, & to Mantahelas, & so out 
into ye woods six miles Eastward from yc Great River Quinnettlcott. To Have 
and to Hold all j'e sd land to ye proper uses & behoof of ym ye sd Robt. Bolt- 
wood, John Hubbird, Jos. Kellogg, Thos. Dickinson &. Company, & their heire 
A Assigns forever, with all the Profits, Cunimodities, & advantages thereof & 
thereto belonging whatsoever & yt forever. And ye said Mettjiwompe, alias 
Xattawassawet, doth hereby covenant & promise that he will save harmlcas ye 
sd Robt. Boltwood, John Hubbird, Jos. Kellogg, Thos. Dickinson, A Company Jt 
their heira & assigns, nf and fnmi all manner of Claims, Rights, Titles & In- 
terest of any persun whomsoever, in A to the sd Lands, and from all incum- 
Iminees of Indian's Rights to all or any pait thereof, having full puwer & Lawful 
Right thus to Doe. And in Witness hereof affixes his hand & seal this 10th day 
April, 1G74. The mark of Mettawompe; X. 

"This don & delivered in presence of «s. 

" IsxAc Morgan. 

"He.vry Rogers. 

" ackla3ib0witt : 
" the mark of an Indian. 

" Mettawompe, alias Nattawassawett, acknowledged this Tnstmment to be his 

act & deed, Relinquishing & Resigning up all Right and Interest in the premises 
to the English within named 10th of April, 1674, before me, 

"Jous l^Yscnoy^ Assist. 

"This 17th of April, 1G74, Squiskhcag came and acknowledged the sale of ye 
Land mentioned on ye other side, sold by Mettawompe, & doth hereby confirm 
ye sale thereof, having rec'd part of ye pay, viz., Thirty Fathom ; whereupon 
Sqiiiskheag, for himself and his Bruthers Sunckkanianiuchue & AVadamummiu, 
sell, & by sale forever pass away all ye Land mentioned on ye other side, 
namely, ye Land on ye East side of Quinnettlcott River, from Sawwatapskc- 
chuwjis on the south, northerly t^i Right against the mouth of Pacomtuck 
Rivei', called Mantahelas, To have and to Hold all ye sd Land from ye Grt River 
six miles out into ye woods Eastward to Robt. Bultwood, John Hubbard, Jos. 
Kellogg, it Thos. Dickinson, to them, their heirs & assigns, forever, & in witness 
thereof subscribed his hand and seal this 17th April, 1U74. 

"The mark of Squiske.ig; X. [se.\.l.] 
" In presence of us, 

"John Pynchon. 

"Jos. I. T. TuoM.is, his X mark." 

Exactly when settlements were tir.-?t made cannot be stated, 
for the proprietors' records have been lost, but it seems a pretty 
well-established fact that there were settlements upon the tract 
previous to the opening of Kini;j Philip's war. in 1675. 

By reason of the presence of numerous swamps the place 
was known as "Swampfield," and this name was retained 
until the incorporation of Sunderland. 

There is now no clew to the names of the earliest settlers, 
but the fact that descendants of John Hubbard (one of the 
original grantees) are still living in Sunderland indicates 
that Hubbard was a pioneer. A local historian concludes that 
the first settlement was made in 1673, on the site now occupied 
by Sunderland village. If so, the settlement was broken up 
when Philip opened hostilities in 1675; the settlers fled to 
Hadley, and the place formerly known as Swampfield relapsed 
again into a wilderness, which it continued to be during all the 
succeeding years of Indian warfare, until — the close of Queen 
Anne's war reviving the peaceful era — steps were taken in 
1713 looking to a resettlement. A petition to the General 
Court by certain inhabitants of Hadley for this purpose re- 
sulted in the passage of the following : 


'* Anno Uffjni A»ntx licgiKfe Dtiodecimo. At a session of the Great and General 
Court of Assembly for her Miyesty's Province of Massachusetts Bay, held at Bos- 
ton npon Monday', Fch'y 10, 1713. 

*' In Coum:il. Upon reading the jjetition of John Kellogg, Isaac Huhbard, 
and othci-s, praying f»»r a resettlement of a village or plantation granted in May, 
1073, northerly of Hadley, formerly called Swaniptleld, 

" Ordered^ that forasmuch by reason of the interruption given to the settlement 
of the within-mentioned plantation, gi anted in Slay, 1G73, by the war and troubles 
with the Indians, and desire of ye original petitioners and grantees, and also the 
committee for directing the same, since dead. The said grant for a plantation 
land is hereby revived, and Sani'l Partridge, John Pynchon, and Samuel Poiter, 
Ksq., are apiRunted and impowered a committee to receive ye challenges of all 
persons to the property and right of land in yc said plantation, and to enter 
their names with such ollici-s as shall offer to join with them in settling of a 
township there. The names of all to be entered with the committee within the 
space of twelve months from this time, giving preference to ye descendants of ye 
original petitionee and grantees. And the said committee arc further impow- 
ered to note ye place of ye town upon small lots, so as it may be made defensiljle, 
grant land allotments, order their prudentials, and what else is necessary in es- 
tablishing, receiving, and settling for the two hundred and fifty acres of land in 
some convenient place, to be in ye disposition of the govei-nment. Provided al- 
wiues, That forty ftamilies be settled within three years next coming, and that 
they procure and encourage a learned orthodo.x minister to settle with them. 
The town to be called Swampfield." 

The proprietors to whom the renewed gr,ant was issued 
were 39 in number, and nearly all residents of Hadley and Hat- 
field; and in April, 1714, they signed an agreement making a 
division of the lands, providing for expenses, and agreeing 
further " that ye town platt be started from or near a brook 
above the place where the chimneys are, running southward 
in two Roes of Houses, with a street of eight rods wide be- 
twixt said two Eoes, and the Home Lots to be fourteen rod at 
front and Reer, and in length as the Platt will allow it ; and 
forty house Lotts to be cut and Layed, the minister's lot to 
be one." 

The actual resettlement of Swampfield did not take place 
until early in 1715, and by 1716 the larger part of the 39 pro- 
prietors of tbe tract had become actual settleis thereon. The 
names of the settlers who occu|)ied the lots in 1718 are given 
as follows : Samuel Graves, .Joiuilhan Graves, Eleazer Warner, 
Jr., Samuel Harvey, Luke Smith, Philip Pauton, William 
Scott, Isaac Hubbard, Benjamin Barrett, Joseph Root, Jo- 
seph Smith, Daniel Smith, Samuel Montague, Daniel Warner, 
Jr., Benjamin Graves, Thomas Harvey, Jr., Samuel Billings, 
William Arms, Simon Cooley, Ebenezer Kellogg, Stephen 
Crofoot, Isaac Graves, William Allis, Samuel Smith, Richard 
Scott, Nathaniel Dickinson, Nathaniel Gunn, Ebenezer 
Marsh, Nathaniel Smith, Ebenezer Billings, Joseph Field, 
Joseph Clarj-, Isaac Hubbard, Jr., Samuel Gunn, Ebenezer 
Billings, Jr., Manoah Bodman, Daniel Russell, James Bridg- 
man, Stephen Belden, Jr. 

Of these, Ebenezer Kellogg, Stephen Crofoot, Joseph Smith, 
Wra. Arms, Nathaniel Dickinson, Luke Smith, Daniel War- 
ner, and Samuel Billings removed from Sunderland or died 
previous to 1740, and, leaving no descendants there, passed 
out of the town's history. 

When the resettlement was made, there was no evidence of 
the first .settlement save here and there a ruined house. It is 
said that in the fireplace of one of these a basswood-tree had 
taken root and grown to a foot in diameter, and that an 
apple-tree — set out by one of the first settlers in 1673 — was 
found large and thrifty at the second settlement, and lived 
until 1850. 

In 17'29 an additional grant increased the town's area by a 
tract on the eastern border two miles wide and running the 
entire length of the town. This made the entire tract nine 
miles in length and six in width, embracing what is now Sun- 
derland, portions of the present towns of Montague and Wen- 
dell, and the whole of the present town of Leverett. 

The earliest settlei-s in that portion of Sunderland now 
within the limits of Montague located there in 1726. Their 
names were Samuel Taylor, Samuel Harvey, Richard Scott, 
Wra. Allis, Daniel Smith, Nathaniel Gunn, Ebenezer Marsh, 
Josiah Alvord, Samuel and Emile Bardwell, Samuel Smead, 
Judah Wright, David Balhtrd, Nathaniel Tuttle, Thomas 



Nowton, Simeon King, and the Kodt, Barrett, and Craves 

Among tlic iirst settlers in that ])orlion wliieli is now the 
town of Leverett were Josepli Hubbard, Josejili and Elisha 
Clary, Jonathan Field, Jonathan Field (2d), Moses Graves, 
51 OSes Smith, Kichard Montague, Absalom Scott, Stephen and 
Joseph Smith, Jeremiah Nordbury, Isaac Marshall, and Solo- 
mon Gould. 

The first important road through SundcM-land was the high- 
way from Northfleld toHadley, which was probably laid out 
as early as 1714. In 1721 there was a road to Hunting HilU, 
and in 172o one " out of the south field with the commons in 
some convenient place in tlie lower division, and to have it go 
out at the place commonly called the horse-path." There was 
also at this time a road from Dry Brook to Stony Hill. Of those 
■who were the pioneers in the second settlement, James Bridg- 
man, Benjamin Barrett, Thos. Hovey, and Joseph Koot died 
in 1728, Samuel Graves in 1731, Joseph Field in 1730, Daniel 
Kussell in 1737, Daniel Smith in 1740, Ebenezer Billings in 
1745, Simon Cooley in 1740, Kichard Scott in 1750, Joseph 
Field (2d) in 1754, Deacon Samuel Gunn in 1755, Benjamin 
Graves in 1750, Deacon Isaac Hubbard in 1700, Isaac Hub- 
hard, Jr., in 1703, Manoah Bodnnin in 1759, Deacon Samuel 
Montague in 1779, Deacon Nathaniel Smith in 1799, aged 


Capt. Israel Hubbard was sent a delegate to the Provincial 
Congress in 1774, and the town placed on record its approval 
of the " doings" of the Continental Congress held at Philadel- 
phia, Sept. 5, 1774. Daniel Montague was sent to the Con- 
gress at Cambridge in 1775, in which year also the town 
stocked up with powder, and agreed to allow Minute-Men l.s. 
Gd. per day for three days, to be spent " in learning the art of 
exercising the firelock," and the town agreed also to pay the 
same price per day for four days more, provided the Minute- 
Men applied themselves to the business, and if not they should 
have no pay. Further provision was made that if the men 
should, after spending their time in training, refuse to serve 
in the business for which they enlisted, they should receive no 
wages. A training-master was hired at an expense of £1 !js. 
for one day each week, and an appropriation was also made to 
pay for the services of a drummer. 

In 1775, Israel Hubbard was the delegate to the Congress at 
Watertown, and the town committee of correspondence con- 
sisted of Jedediah Clark, Daniel Montague, Deacon Field, 
Stephen Scott, and Daniel Hubbard. Dr. Moses Gunn, who 
was a representative in 1774, received for his services £3 14s. 
4d. In 1775 the Lexington alarm found Sunderland eager to 
spring to the rescue. Troops were sent forward, and directly 
thereafter the town voted "that we are willing to do some- 
thing for our soldiers who have gone forth to defend our 
rights and privileges, and that we send provisions to them." 

In 1777, Israel Hubbard was chosen representative, and in- 
structed as follows : 

" Sir, Taking into our consideration, in tliis important crisis, the critical situa- 
tion of our bleeding country, on the account of our Domestic Enemies, we do 
think it our duty to instruct you to move early in tliis session of tlie Great and 
General Court that they send out a proper test or oath of allegiance to the State, 
to discover our Enemies from our Friends, so explicit that we may discern them, 
and that sometliing be done to prevent the undervaluingof our Paper Currency; 
and as to setting up Government, that you take Common Sense for your Guide, 
more especially that paragraph cited from Draco, — i.e., Thttt he tihatl merit the tip- 
pUnme of wjes that icill contrive the (freatest deijree of imUt'iduol hapiiiuess with the leaH 
expense; and that we presume will not bo in having two houses, the one to 
negative the other." 

The representative chosen in 1778 was instructed as follows : 

" Voted that upon hearing the articles of Confederation, together with the 
advice of the General Assembly, we will give our Representatives instructions in 
that alTair, taking into consideration the expediency of a Confederation and 
union of the free States of Anu;rica; think that the necessity for sncli union 
was never greater or more evident than at this day. Doth not our Salvation 
depend upon ilV All the whole world wiUiout this cannot save us, but with it 
we may lie siUc without the assistance of any. We think it a matter of great 

importance that our country should he saved, and union is the means of safety. 
Compact the bond of union, and this may be the means of preventing any fartlier 
attack, and our greater security against them is made ; for to be in preparation 
for defence, is defence. Tliis will secure against falling to pieces, and it is the 
best guard against the seeds of discord anil corruption our enemies would sow 
among us; whereas to neglect the necessary means of otn- safety is to invito 
distraction and ci imitially expose ourselves to its ravages. We therefore instruct 
you, Sir, that you use your influence tlnit tlie Legislature of this State authorize 
tlieir Delegates in Congress of the United States to ratify the said thirteen 

In 1779 six soldiers were wanted for "Claverack," and 40.s. 
a month were offered each man, in wheat at 4s., Indian corn 
at 2s., and the soldiers were under this agreement to return 
their State's wages to the town. About this time a bounty of 
£00 was paid to Joseph Martehaul, Jr., John Tuttel, and 
Eben Whitney for enlisting. In 1780 nine six months' men 
were called for, and for them the town otfered per man £300 
bounty, and £3 in silver or gold per month, or wheat, rice, 
Indian corn, or neat cattle at silver-money price, the town to 
draw the men's wages. Eleven six months' men were paid 
£2100 bounty, and eight three months' men were paid a 
bounty of £1.50 per man, with £1 per month in addition to 
the ]iay from the State. 

In 1780 three horses were ordered by the General Court, and 
the town raised £4000 to buy Continental beef. Six men were 
raised early this year, and then the town resolved to inquire 
how other towns procured soldiers, and to see, also, if other 
towns in the county were willing to call a county convention. 

In 1781 the town consulted with six men who had enlisted, 
about their taking neat cattle as part of their wages. At this 
time the common rate of exchange was one dollar in silver for 
seventy-five Continental dollars. In 1782, 40s. per month 
($10) and a pair of shoes were offered per man for soldiers. 

Sunderland was opposed to the war of 1812, and, upon 
selecting Simeon Ballard as a delegate to the anti-war con- 
vention at Northampton, adopted the following: 

" That, consideling the present state of public affairs, the town sincerely dep- 
recates war with Great Britain, as it will necessarily bring us into an alliance 
with France, wliich wo wish to avoid as one of the greatest national calamities." 

Among those who were drafted into the service from Sun- 
derland in 1814 were Leslie Clark, Levi Boutwell, Lieut. 
Thomas Fields, Kansom Bice, Elijah Hubbard, and Asahel 
Eice. The last of the above to die was Levi Boutwell, whose 
death occurred in Leverett in 1878. 


Although Sunderland was not called upon to suffer seriously 
from Indian depredations during the wars that raged between 
the years 1722 and 1700, yet the proximity of the town to the 
scenes of warfare excited within the breasts of the inhabitants 
dire apprehensions, and called for the exerci.se of strict pre- 
cautionary and defensive measures. 

In July, 1722, it was resolved to divide the town into 
three parts, each of which was to make a fort for defense 
against the enemy. The people were also called upon to take 
turns in watching and warding, and many were also detailed 
to do scout duty. Besides these forts ordered by the town, 
many houses were "forted" by the individual owners thereof. 
Alarms were frequent, and, as inay be imagined, the constant 
dread and expectation of Indian attacks interrupted and sorely 
disorganized the home pursuits of the settlement. 

In 1724 an eti'ort was made to obtain a garrison to protect 
the town, but without success. A good many of Sunderland's 
citizens were engaged in the campaigns against the Indians, 
among them being Stephen Ashley, Stephen Scott, Matthew 
Scott, William Scott, Jonathan Field, Jonathan Warner, Jon- 
athan Bridgman, Huniphrej' Hobbs, Samuel Graves, Eli Scott, 
Samuel Gunn, and Nathaniel Montague, the latter being 
killed in battle at Lake George, Aug. 7, 1757. 

Swampfield's first blacksmith was Samuel Billings, who set- 
led in 1718, in response to an offer of a lot fourteen rods wide 
as an inducement. The first child born in SwanipficUl was 


The Montagues iirc of French ancestry, 
and arodRflcendod from Richard Montncue, 
who canio to this country almnt tho year 
\M0 and settled in WetherfifieUl, Conn. 
From thnt jilace hinme membei-s of the 
family removed to ITadley, Mass., and 
thence to Sunderland. There is a tnulitioii 
that the name of Montapne, or Jir"»/(c«T, 
oriEinated with a French cenornl who 
won a great battle on the plains of Monti- 
cnle, and thereafter received the name, 
which in course of time has been changed 
to its present form. 

Albert, eldest child of Tra and Tabitlia 
Montague, was burn in Sunderland, Frank- 
lin Oo„ Mass.. on the '2<l of October, 1822. 
Paniel Montague, his grandfather, was 
alBO a native of that town, and died there 
at the age of eighty-two. Ilia wife lived 
to the great age of ninety-three. 

Ira Montague was born on the 7th of 
Jatuiary, 1787, and died March 5, isn.^i. 
He was a man of sterling qnalities, and 
tool; an active part in prumotiTig the best 
interests of the town mid community. 

He 'married on the 18th of October, 
181f>, Tabitha, daughter of Pencon Eli- 
jah Hubbard, of Siindcrbmd. She was 
born on the '2Vith of September, 1791. and 
died Oct. \2, 1849. To them were born 
three children, of whom tlie only sun'ivor 
is the sul'ject of this sketch. 

He received an excellent common-school 
and academic education, and. during his 
minority, also spent a part of Ihe time in 
working upon liis fatlier's farm. When 
he reached his majority he commenced 
teaching school ; continued it three years, — 
teaching during the winter months, while 
the remainder of the year was employed 
in farm labor. 

At the age of twenty-fnur he took charge 
of the paternal estate, and received one- 
half of the proceeds therefrom, until the 

dJ^/^^^^y^^ •^^' 

decease of his father. He then, after pay- 
ing off the legacies, came into possession 
of the property. 

In 1865 he Bold the farm and removed 
to Philadelphia, Pa., where he entered the 
wholesale glassware trade. He remained 
in that city two years, and, at the expira- 
tion of that time, disposed of his intereet 
in the business and returned to Sunder* 
land, where he has since resided, employed 
in agricultural pursuits. 

Ho has been identified with the beet 
interests of the community; has held 
nearly every elective town office, and, in 
1874, represented his district in the LegiB- 
lature. He is now chairman of the board 
of selectmen, of which he has been a 
member for many years. For a period of 
twenty years he has been trial-justice and 
justice of the peace ; has held the position 
of special county commissioner one term, 
and other offices too numerous to mention. 
Mr. Montague takes an active interest in 
agricultiiral subjects, and is in fact one of 
the most enterprising and progressive men 
of the town. He is also a mend:)er of the 
Congregational Society, and has always 
I'een a firm supporter of the ordinances of 
tliat Church. 

He wMs married on the 8th of April, 
1847, to Lucinda, daughter of Levi Wil- 
der, of Wendell, and by this union had 
one son and two daughters. The latter 
only are living. They are Abide T. and 
Emma L. 

Mrs. Montague died on the Istof Octo- 
ber, 1805, 

Mr. Montague's second wife is Sarah P., 
daughter of Eleazer Warner, of Sunder- 
land, by whom he has had three children, 
viz.: Fannie (deceased), Ida V., and Albert 
I. Mr. ^lontagup was largely instrumen- 
tal in the building of the Sunderland 
bridge across the Connecticut River, nnd 
was for many years director and trustee of 
the bridge corporation. 

ifiiigJin)^ja'aLg ©i?" ihhu^ 



Ebenezer, son of Jonathiin Graves, who was born Sept. 10, 
1717, and died hi 1813, aged ninety-six. The first death is 
supposed to have been that of Pliilip Pauton, wlio was killed 
by the fall of ji tree in 171.5. 

There was probably a mill of some kind at Swampfield dur- 
ing; the first settlement, for, under date of 1690, Maj. Pynchon 
referred, in a letter, to the fact that Indian tracks had been 
discovered about "old Swampfield Mill." Where this mill 
stood cannot be stated. In 171-5, Daniel Beaman and others, 
of Decrlield, put up a saw-mill on Saw-ilill Brook (probably 
in what is now Montague). In 1721, Philip Smith, of Had- 
lej', built a grist-mill at the upper end of Little Meadow. 
Several mills were authorized in 1722 and 172.5. Manoah 
Bodman and others built a saw-mill on Slatestone Brook. 

There was a dog law in 17.30, which provided that " if any 
man can find a dog forty rods from his master and kills hira, 
the town will pay the damages and bear the man ovit in said 
act, if it can be recovered by law." 

The first physician in the town was Dr. Joseph Lord, who 
settled in 1728, and after him, previous to 1780, came Drs. 
Samuel Blodgett, Samuel Ware, and Benjamin Dickinson. 

The first tavern was kept in 17-32, by Simon Cooley. Capt. 
Fellows Billings kept tavern from 1737 to 1770, on the south 
side of Middle Lane. Richard Montague, Capt. Israel Hub- 
bard, David Hubbard, Samuel Blodgett, John Clary, and 
Moses Billings were innholders during the eighteenth cen- 
tury. "Capt." Billings must have fallen into disfavor in 
177G, for in that year the inhabitants voted that he should 
not hold the employment of innholder in the town any longer. 

In 17tjl, Benjamin Farrand was paid 16js. forgoing to "ye 
committee of war at Rhode Island to get money to pay the 
charges of a sick soldier who died here." In 1702, 4.s., lawful 
monej', was the price of "a middling load of wood." In 
1763 it was voted to give fathers and sons liberty " to put 
their heads and estates together and draw lots together on the 
plain east of the south field." A meeting in 1772 was ad- 
journed "to meet Miinday next, at Son one our high." In 
177-5 a committee was chosen to collect whatever specie the 
inhabitants might wish to give for the poor people of Boston. 
In 1777 it was voted that "no person shall take the infection 
of the small-pox by inoculation unless leave be obtained from 
the selectmen." 

A ferry across the Connecticut at Sunderland was estab- 
lished as early as 1719, but who managed it is not known. 
Simon Coolej- and Noadiah Leonard were authorized to keep 
a ferry in 1777, and directh' thereafter Sergt. Farrand, setting 
up an unauthorized opposition ferry, was w-arned by the town 
" to take his bote out of the river and to desist from ferring, 
and if he refused to do so, that he must abide the consequences." 

The first vote taken by the town for Governor — so the 
records seem to show — was in 1780. In 1784, upon the close 
of the Revolution, money must have been scarce, since the town 
voted to receive grain in payment for taxes. Jonathan Gard- 
ner was a pauper in 179.5, and, although his son took care of 
him, the town had to pay him for doing it. A vote taken in 
a town-meeting in 1797 notes the fact that it was resolved "to 
build a cage to keep Caleb Billings in," but of what Caleb had 
been guilty no mention is made. In 1800 it was an established 
town ordinance that "if any geese infliet any damage upon 
any man's property a committee shall be appointed to appraise 
the damage, and if the owner of said geese shall refuse to pay 
for said damage, the person suffering the damage shall take as 
many geese as shall satisfy him." 

An important event in the history of the town was the 
meeting in Sunderland village, Aug. 2.5, 1873, of the Paeomp- 
tuck ^'all(.y Memorial Association, on the occasion of the two 
hundredth anniversary of the first settlement of the territory 
now occupied by the town of Sunderland. The ceremonies of 
the day consisted of addresses, singing, social entertainments, 
and, at the end, a grand picnic and banquet. 

The oldest structure in the town is supposed to be the rear 
portion of the dwelling occupied at present (1879) by Mr. A. 
C. Delano, in Sunderland Street. This was a part of the 
dwelling erected in Sunderland, in 1717, for the first minister. 
Rev. Joseph Willard, and upon the site it now occupies, the 
lot being known from the earliest settlement as the Minister's 

A mail was established through Sunderland in 181.5, and 
William Delano appointed the first postmaster. John Mon- 
tague and HoracevW. Taft were noted men in Sunderland in 
their time. The fonnier represented the town in the General 
Court frequently, and served also as town clerk for thirty- 
three consecutive years, from 1782 to 1815. Mr. Taft was 
often chosen representative, and was also town clerk for fifty 
years, from 1815 to 18-52, and from 18-53 to 1866. 


At the Maj' session of the General Court, in 1718, the in- 
habitants of Swampfield presented a petition, claiming to have 
fulfilled the conditions of their grant, asked for more land, 
that the reservation of 2-50 acres might be given them to pro- 
mote a school, tln\t they might be exempted from tax for five 
years, and that they might be incorporated as a town. 

Nov. 12, 1718, the General Court ordered " that the prayer 
of this petition be so far granted that the inhabitants be in- 
vested with the same power, privileges, authorities to order, 
direct, and manage all the attairs of their township, that 
other towns are or ought to be invested with, and that the 
committee be dismissed from the care of them, with the 
thanks of the court for the good and faithful service, . . . 
and that the name of the town be henceforth called Sunder- 
land, and lies to the county of Hampshire." 

The name is supposed to have been selected as an honor to 
Charles Spencer, earl of Sunderland, then a member of the 
British cabinet, and in 1718 appointed to be first lord of the 

In 1774 a tract of land on the east was set off from Sunder- 
land and incorporated as the town of Leverett. Previous to 
that, in 17.53, a portion of the town's northern section was set 
off to the new district of Montague. Below will be found a 
list of persons who served the town as selectmen and town 
clerks from 1719 to 1879 : 


1719. — Deacon Hubbard, Deacon Gunn, Ens. Billings, Joseph Clary, Thomas 

1720. — Deacon Hubbanl, Deacon Gunn, Joseph Koot, Ricb'd Scott, Simon Cooley. 
1721. — Deacon Hubbard, .Samuel Guun, Sr., Joseph Root, Lieut. Billings, Simon 

1722. — Deacon Hubbard, Samuel Gunn, Sr., Capt. Field, Samuel Graves, Sr., 

Joseph Clary. 
1723. — De.icon Hubbard, Samuel Guun, Sr., Capt. Field, Simon Cooley, Joseph 

1724. — Deacon Hubbard, Samuel Graves, Sr., Capt. Billings, Samuel Harvey, 

Joseph Koot. 
1725. — Deacon Hubbard, E. Billings, .Jr., Samuel Gunn, Joseph Dickinson, Joseph 

Field, Jr. 
1726. — Joseph Clarj-, Capt. Billings, Samuel Gunn, Joseph Root, Nathaniel Gunn. 
1727. — Deacon Hubbard, Simon Cooley, Samuel Gnnn, Joseph Root, Daniel 

1728. — Deacon Hubbard, Simon Cooley, Ebeu Billings, Nathaniel Gunn, Joseph 

Field, Jr. 
1729. — Deacon Hubbard, Deacon Gunn, Daniel Warner, Daniel Russell, Ben 

1730. — Richard Scott, Joseph Dickinson, Samuel Mont<ague. 
1731. — Deacon Hubbard, Joseph Field, Jr., Samuel Smith. 
1732. — Deacon Gunn, Samuel Montague. Daniel Russell. 
1733. — Deacon Hubbard, Benjamin Graves, Nathaniel Smith. 
1734. — Richard Scott, Daniel Warner, Manoah Bodman, 
1735. — Deacon Hubbard, Ens. Cooiey, Lieut. Field. 
1736. — Samuel Jlonlague, Daniel Russell, Jonathan Field. 
1737. — Joseph Dickinson, Manoah Bodnnin, Sergt. Field. 
1738. — Samuel Gnnn, Richard Scott, Jonathan Field. 
1739. — Joseph Dickinson, Maiioah Bodman, Sanmel Montague. 
1740. — Ebenezer Billings, Manoah Bodman, William Allis. 
1741. — Joseph Dickinson, Nathaniel Smith, Deacon Montague. 
1712.— Richard Scott, Samuel Smith, Danird Hubbard. 



1743, — Deacon Montngiie, Nathanii-l Smith, Isaac HuMiarJ, Jr. 

1744.— .Fo-sepli Diokiiiwiii, Di-acnn Kirld, Isaac Hulilianl, Jr. 

1746. — Joseph Diikitisoij, Nathaniel Smith, Daniel Ilnbbard. 

174G. — Poactm I-'icM, Capt, aiontayue, iBiuac Iliibhant. 

1747. — Deajoii Rluntagiie, Natliauiel Smith, IV-Uuws CillingB. 

1748. — Samncl Smith, Eu.«. FieUl, John Giinn. 

1749. — Isiuic Iluhharil, Saunicl Blontague, KriB. Field, Joseph Root, .lolm Gunn. 

1750. — Daniel Hubbard, Samuel Hontagne, Nathaniel Smith, Simeon King, John 

1751. — Daniel Ilubbanl, Fellows Billinipj, Jonathan Field, John Clary, .losepli 


1752. — David nubbard, Capt. Uronlaglle, Simeon King, .John Clary, Joseijh Root. 
175:J, — Daniel Hubbard, lieaeon Smith, Simeiui King, Simon Cooley, Joseph 


1754. — Daniel Hubbard, Capt. Field, Deacon Jlontague. 

1755. — Daniel llubliard, Deaeou Smith, DeaiMUi Blontague. 

175G. — Panltd Hubbard, Deacon Smith, John tninn. 

1757. — hieut. Billings, Simon Cooley, .lohu tiunn. 

\~'>S. — ('apt. Field, Daniel Hubbard, Simon Cooley, John Clar;', John Gunn. 

1759. — Capt, Field, Daniel Hubbard, Moses Billings, J. Clary, John Gunn. 

1760. — Ijicut. Billings, Abner Cooley, Mosey Billings, J. Clary, Jonathan Rnffiell. 

1701. — Dtracon Smith, John Gunn, .loiin Clary. 

1702. — Daniel BIttntague, De:»?on Smith, Israel Hubbard, Mofli.?s Billings, John 

170;i. — ^Simon Cooley, Moses Billings, J, Clary. 
17l"4. — Simon Cooley, I. Hubbard, Daniel Montague, 
1765. — Simon Cooley, I. Hubbard, .Joseph Field. 
17GG. — Simiui Cooley, I. Hni>bar(l, .btscph Clary, 

1707. — Jedcdi.di Clark, Simon Cooley, I. Hnbbard, Moses Billings, John Clary. 
1708-69,— Jcdediah Clark, Simon Cooley, I. Hubbard. 

1770. — Abner Cooley, Simon Coolej', I. Hnbbani, Daniel Montague, John Clary. 
1771. — Joseph Field, Simon Cooley, I. Hubbard, Joseph Clsu-y, John Clary. 
1772. — Joseph Field, Simon Cooley, I. Hubbard, Closes Graves, John Clary. 
177:i. — Josc'lih Field, Simon Cooley, I. Hnbbard, Caleb Montiigue, John Clary. 
1774-75. — Simon Cooley, Phineas Gi-aves, Elish.a Smith. 
1776. — Simon Cooley, Capt. Hubbard, Lieut. Montague. 
1777. — Simon Cooley, Capt. Hubbard, Capt. Montague. 

1778.— Capt. Hubbard, Simon Ooolcy, Deacon Field, Klisha Smith, En.s. Strong. 
1779.— GUes Hubbard, Jedcdiah Clark, Phineas Graves, Noah Baker, Capt. 

1780.- C:apt. Hubbard, Jcilciliah Clark, Phineas Gjuvcs, Simon Cooley, Giles 

1781. — Caleb Jliuitague, Jede.liah Clark, Phineas Cbaves, Capt. Lejnard, Giles 

1782. — John Montague, Jeilediah Clark, Phineas Graves, Capt. Leonard, Giles 

1783. — John Montague, Jedcdiah Clark, Capt. Unbliard, Capt. Leoinird, CJiles 

1784-87. — John Jlontagne, Phineas Graves, Giles Hnbbard, 
1788, — John Montague, Ebenezer Barnaid, Giles Hulibard. 
1789-90, — John Blontague, Samuel Church, Giles Hnbbard, 
1791, — John Montagne, Capt, Field, Eleazer Warner. 
1702-93,— Giles Hnbbard, John Sloutague, Sclah Graves. 
1794, — Giles Hubb.ard, Lieut. Cooley, Eleazer Warner. 
1795-96, — Selah Graves, Lieut. Cooley, Eleazer Warner. 
1797-98.— Selah C;raves, Giles Hubbal-d, Ele.axer Wai-ner. 
1799-1803.— John Montague, Giles Hubbard, Eleazer Warner. 
1803. — Benjamin Gravea, Giles Hnbbard, Capt. Graves. 
1801-5. — John Montagne, Giles Hnbbard, Capt, Graves. 
1800,— Selah Graves, Giles Hubbanl, Doctor Church. 
1807.— Capt. Graves, Giles Hubbiud, Dr. Church. 
1808.— Capt. Graves, Capt. Ballard, Maj. Hnbbard. 
1809.— Capt. Graves, Ciipt. Ballard, Dr. Church. 
1810.— John MoEitague, Capt. Balliird, Dr. Church. 
1811.— Capt. Graves, Capt. Ballard, Elisha Hubbard. 
1812,— Col. Hunt, Capt. Ballard, Elisha Hubbard. 
1813.— Capt. Graves, Capt, B;ill,aril, Elisha Hubbard. 
1814.— Elisha Alexander, C-ipt. Ballard, Dr. Church. 
1815,- iilisha Alexander, Q>pt, Ballard, Ciileb Uubbarii. 
1816,- Elisha Hubbard, Capt. Billiard, CaWi Hubbard, 
1817.— Elisha Hubbard, Capt. Ballard, Daniel Montague. 
1818, — Elisha Hubbard, Daniel Montague, Nathaniel .Smith. 
1819-20.— Simeon B.allard, William Delano, N. Smith, 
1821-22,— Fjastus Graves, William Delano, JIartin llubliard. 
1823-24,— Ei-astus Graves, Elisha Rowe, Martin Hnbbard. 
1825. — Erastus Graves, Samuel Puffer, Elisha Hubbaid, 
1820-29, — Ei"astus Giaves, Elisha Rowc, Moses Montagne. 
1829, — Eiastus Graves, Elihu Rowe, Cephas Graves. 
1830. — Erastus Graves, Alpheus Rowe, Lewis Puffer. 
1831.— Horace W. Taft, Ashley Hnbbard, Cephas Graves. 
1832.T-Elihu Rowe, Ashley Gr,aves, Ira Montague.